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Motivational pluralism : a revision of pluralist thought Nicoll, Scott L. 1988

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MOTIVATIONAL PLURALISM: A REVISION OF PLURALIST THOUGHT by S c o t t L.  Nicoll  B.A.(Hon.) Queen's University  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in T H E FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o the required  standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH January, ©  COLUMBIA  1988  S c o t t L. N i c o l l ,  1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  University  available  copying  of  department publication  for  this or of  thesis  partial  of  British  reference  thesis by  this  in  for  his thesis  and  The 1956  or for  her  Main  Vancouver, V6T Date  np.fin/ftn  of  Mall Canada  1Y3  pjs>  o/a  British  study.  Columbia  I  of I  further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  of  University  Columbia,  scholarly  permission.  Department  fulfilment  be  It not  is  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  head  make  extensive of  copying my  it  my or  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s p a p e r i s p r e m i s e d u p o n the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t i s no l o n g e r a u s e f u l t o o l of e x p l a n a t i o n for c o n t e m p o r a r y  western societies.  i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m , a s e s p o u s e d by Arthur B e n t l e y a n d D a v i d T r u m a n , theory w a s a c c e p t e d as mainstream p o l i t i c a l thought,  theory  apparently  In  pluralist  c a p a b l e of  de-  m y s t i f y i n g the s t r u c t u r e a n d r e l a t i o n of p o w e r b l o c k s w i t h i n m o d e r n w e s t e r n democracies.  A s t i m e e l a p s e d , h o w e v e r , g r e a t e r n u m b e r s of c r i t i c s e m e r g e d  and  g l a r i n g i n a d e q u a c i e s b e g a n to s h o w t h r o u g h i t s o n c e f l a w l e s s f a c a d e . The g r o u p o f neo pluralist s a l v a g e ' o f the m o d e l .  w r i t e r s w e r e the f i r s t to attempt w h o l e s a l e  One of t h e i r f o r e m o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w a s the e x p u l s i o n of  the m y t h of p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n a m o n g s t g r o u p s .  This was replaced instead, with  w h a t w a s t h e n a n a l a r m i n g p r o p o s i t i o n : c o n t r a r y to t h e o r i g i n a l p l u r a l i s t c o n t e n t i o n , t h e r e e x i s t s a m a r k e d t e n d e n c y for p o w e r to c o n c e n t r a t e i n the of a n e l i t e policy  community.  The n e o p l u r a l i s t s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d i t w a s  i m p o r t a n t to u n d e r s t a n d the s t r u c t u r e a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n of a g r o u p i f a g r o u p t h e o r y of p o l i t i c s w a s to be d e v e l o p e d .  While  coherent  t h e y i l l u s t r a t e d the  d e m o c r a t i c n a t u r e of t h e c o a l e s c e n c e of p o w e r w i t h i n p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y , various proponents  hands  un-  however,  of t h i s model a l s o suggested that groups were a f u n c t i o n a l  requirement w i t h i n any modern democratic governing  system.  A g r o u p o f e c o n o m i c t h e o r i s t s , l e d b y M a n c u r O l s o n a n d h i s rational m o d e l , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to t h e d o w n f a l l of c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s m . the s a m e t i m e , O l s o n ' s c r i t i c i s m s a l s o u n d e r m i n e d thought.  e l e m e n t s of n e o  H e a r g u e d t h a t , c o n t r a r y to b o t h the p l u r a l i s t a n d n e o  actor At  pluralist  pluralist  a s s u m p t i o n s , the g o a l s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s of g r o u p s w e r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e v a l u e s a n d d e s i r e s of the g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p .  Olson argued that by  Abstract i i i v i r t u e of the n a t u r e of the collective  good,  t h o s e i n c o n t r o l of the  organizational  m e c h a n i s m s of the group c o u l d d i c t a t e the p o l i c y g o a l s of the group and m a i n t a i n the m a n d a t e advantage  of the g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p .  still  O l s o n ' s p a r a d i g m a l s o h a d the  of b e i n g a n a l y t i c a l l y c o n v e n i e n t , a p r e c i s e m o d e l w i t h i n w h i c h  phenomena  social  c o u l d be n e a t l y p a c k a g e d .  Further contributions have b u i l t upon Olson's" m o d e l , d e v e l o p i n g  his  e m p h a s i s u p o n the i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s of the g r o u p a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the i m p o r t a n c e of g r o u p l e a d e r s h i p .  The organizational  behaviouralists  i l l u s t r a t e d the  u t i l i t y of O l s o n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , a n d a l s o t h a t i t c o u l d be t a k e n f u r t h e r , t h a t material  i n c e n t i v e s w e r e o n l y one  t y p e of i n c e n t i v e .  The  exchange t h e o r i s t s further narrowed t h i s a n a l y s i s w i t h an e x c l u s i v e f o c u s the r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r  a n d the g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i t a s a n e x c h a n g e of v a l u e . f o c u s but i n c o r p o r a t e d n o n - m a t e r i a l  T h e e n d r e s u l t i s the p o t e n t i a l for the d e v e l o p m e n t effective analytical tool. neo p l u r a l i s t framework,  and  They adopted Olson's  incentives within their  upon  leadership  framework. of a c o h e r e n t  and  W i t h the s y s t e m i c l e v e l of a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d b y  r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to g r o u p t h e o r y m a y m a k e p o s s i b l e  a n i n t e r e s t g r o u p t h e o r y of p o l i t i c s c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g a l e v e l of i n s i g h t s o c i a l phenomena  the  p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e to p r o p o n e n t s  into  of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l  tradition. It i s t h u s t h e o b j e c t of t h i s p a p e r t o c o m b i n e e l e m e n t s of g r o u p a n a l y s i s previously considered distinct.  Terry Moe b u i l d s upon O l s o n ' s  i l l u s t r a t i n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l form o r g a n i z a t i o n s nature.  While  analysis,  for r e a s o n s of a  t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of g r o u p s w i t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  non-economic  society has  been  s h o w n t o d i f f e r f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n of t h e c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s , t h e  neo  p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of M o e ' s i n s i g h t , h o l d s t h e p o t e n t i a l for a valuable  analytical tool.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  page  i i  Acknowledgement  page  v  Introduction  page  1  Chapter  Outline  C h a p t e r One: "A H e r i t a g e o f C l a s s i c a l Early Pluralism C l a s s i c a l P l u r a l i s t Thought Leadership Tools Conclusion  Pluralism"  page  4  page page page page page  7 9 11 23 25  C h a p t e r Two: "Neo P l u r a l i s m : A . S e c o n d G e n e r a t i o n " The G e n e r a t i o n Gap Neo P l u r a l i s t S o c i e t y The I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f G r o u p s Groups and the S t a t e Leadership Tools Conclusion  p a g e 28 p a g e 34 p a g e 36 p a g e 40 p a g e 41 p a g e 45 p a g e 50  C h a p t e r T h r e e : "A New S u p e r s t r u c t u r e " The R a t i o n a l A c t o r M o d e l Organizational Behaviouralists N o n - M a t e r i a l Groups Exchange T h e o r i s t s The P o l i t i c a l E n t r e p r e n e u r Leadership Tools Groups and t h e S t a t e Conclusion  p a g e 54 p a g e 55 p a g e 63 p a g e 66 p a g e 69 p a g e 70 p a g e 74 p a g e 76 p a g e 77  Bibliography  page  iv  82  Acknowledgement  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s w o r k i s the c u l m i n a t i o n of e i g h t e e n m o n t h s of g r a d u a t e s t u d y , a p e r i o d of t i m e w h i c h h a s p r o v e n u n i q u e l y r e w a r d i n g i n b o t h a p e r s o n a l and an i n t e l l e c t u a l s e n s e . I h a v e , o n o c c a s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e d the e u p h o r i a w h i c h c a n a c c o m p a n y i n s p i r a t i o n a n d , at o t h e r t i m e s , t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e that f o l l o w s c o n f u s i o n . To h a v e h a d the o p p o r t u n i t y , h o w e v e r , i s c e r t a i n l y to have been privileged. M y a b i l i t y t o p a r t a k e of t h i s p r i v i l e g e h a s b e e n a f u n c t i o n of the c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d b y my p a r e n t s . T h e i r s u p p o r t a n d g e n e r o s i t y h a s p r o v e n u n f a i l i n g throughout my u n i v e r s i t y c a r e e r , b o t h s p i r i t u a l l y a n d f i n a n c i a l l y . F o r t h a t , a n d m u c h e l s e , I am t r u l y t h a n k f u l . T o Dr. H o b e r g I o w e a d i f f e r e n t form of d e b t . W h i l e n o t p a r t y to t h e i n c e p t i o n of t h i s w o r k , he w a s a n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t for i t s c o m p l e t i o n . For h i s p a t i e n c e , h i s i n s i g h t and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , h i s i n c r e d i b l y thoughtful and thorough c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s p a p e r , I t h a n k h i m . L a s t l y , but c e r t a i n l y not l e a s t i n my e s t i m a t i o n , i s t h e d e b t I o w e to a v e r y s p e c i a l g r o u p of f r i e n d s . T h e y l i s t e n e d to p o m p o u s , j a r g o n - l a d e n d i a t r i b e s on p l u r a l i s t theory, and seemed i n t e r e s t e d . They repeatedly offered both their h o m e s a n d t h e i r c o m p u t e r s to s o m e o n e w h o p r o b a b l y s e e m e d more i n n e e d of a ghost-writer. But m o s t of a l l , t h e y made me l a u g h ; t h e y g a v e me p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r t h i s , I am d e e p l y a n d s i n c e r e l y i n d e b t e d to t h e m a l l . T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s w o r k w a s , t o m e , t h e m o s t p e r s o n a l , a n d to t h e m g o e s my m o s t p e r s o n a l o f f e r of t h a n k s .  S.L.N.  v  Introduction  1  INTRODUCTION  Are p l u r a l i s t group t h e o r i e s , i n g e n e r a l , a n d n e o p l u r a l i s m i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t i l l of u s e to s t u d e n t s of the p u b l i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i t h i n w e s t e r n states?  W i t h the r e c e n t r e s u r g e n c e  in popularity  democratic  of t h e o r i e s p o s i t i n g  an  a u t o n o m y of the s t a t e , a n d t h e i r e m p h a s i s u p o n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i t s a c t o r s i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e o r i e s of d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n m o d e r n w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s o n c e a g a i n r e e l e d to the o p p o s i t e  extreme w h e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the  o b s o l e s c e n c e of a t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t u s  and  have  apparent  quo.  P l u r a l i s t t h e o r i e s f o c u s u p o n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o w e r w i t h i n s o c i e t y a s the k e y p o i n t of a n a l y s i s .  W i t h the r e s u r g e n c e  of s t a t i s t t h e o r i e s , h o w e v e r ,  f o c u s i s s w i n g i n g a w a y f r o m the q u e s t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s  the  and  t o w a r d s the a n a l y s i s of the r u l e s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n w h i c h the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n of s o c i e t y t a k e s p l a c e . supposed  One of the k e y f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to the  o b s o l e s c e n c e of p l u r a l i s t t h e o r i e s a n d the s u b s e q u e n t  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t t h o u g h t w a s the a p p a r e n t l y l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e l a t e 1960s  unexplainable  and early 1970s,  i n t e r e s t s of o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s . ^  seemingly  rise  increase in  of social  hostile towards  the  W i t h the i n c r e a s e d s u c c e s s of g r o u p s  opposing  the i n t e r e s t s of b u s i n e s s w i t h i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , n e o p l u r a l i s m s e e m e d h a v e r e a c h e d i t s l i m i t of  usefulness.  D e s p i t e the a p p e a r a n c e however,  to  of i m p o t e n c e  o n the p a r t of n e o p l u r a l i s t  i t i s t h e a i m of t h i s p a p e r to b r i n g the group  "back in".  thought,  Perhaps  the  S e e George H o b e r g , "The R e g u l a t o r y S t a t e : P o l i t i c a l S t r u c t u r e a n d P u b l i c P o l i c y , " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , The M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s u r g e of s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h b r o u g h t about a r e n e w e d p o p u l a r i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t t h e o r i e s . x  Introduction  s i n g l e l a r g e s t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the d e m i s e of p l u r a l i s t i n f l u e n c e w a s the n e o p l u r a l i s t a s s e r t i o n t h a t , b e c a u s e of the p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s t o the e c o n o m i c w e l f a r e o f the s t a t e , a n d t h u s t o t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order, o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s p o s s e s s e d a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s e n s u r i n g v a s t l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e the e v e n t u a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of p o l i c y s o l u t i o n s . s e e k s t o e x p l o r e i s t h a t of the c o n t e m p o r a r y  influence in  One of t h e q u e s t i o n s t h i s  r o l e of the s t a t e i n p l u r a l i s t  paper theory.  Is i t p o s s i b l e f o r a g r o u p t h e o r y o f p o l i t i c s t o a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e r o l e of the s t a t e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  western democracies?  It s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s w o r k i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e o r e t i c a l in i t s approach.  T h i s p a p e r m a k e s no c l a i m t o e m p i r i c a l s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of t h e  explanatory c a p a c i t y of elements of models u t i l i z e d herein.  The purpose of t h i s  e x e r c i s e i s , r a t h e r , t o attempt t o d e v e l o p a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p l u r a l i s t m o d e l w h i c h m a y a t some future p o i n t p r o v e u s e f u l i n i t s e x p l a n a t o r y Observers  ability.  c l e a r l y d i f f e r u p o n t h e r e l a t i v e , a u t o n o m y of t h e s t a t e i n i t s  relation to interest organizations within society.  This paper does not seek to  c h a m p i o n a n y s i n g l e o r p a r t i c u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n w h e n i t r e j e c t s t h e e l e m e n t of  business  privilege.  It m e r e l y p o s i t s t h a t t h e a d o p t i o n o f S e l z n i c k ' s  institutionalized typology viewpoint.  a l l o w s the r e j e c t i o n of t h i s popularly  discredited  To the extent that i t embraces any c o n c e p t i o n of the role of the  s t a t e , i t i s t h a t p o s i t e d b y t h e n e o p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l , d e l i n e a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n of groups w i t h i n the p o l i c y community to the state and other  groups.  ^ T h i s n e o p l u r a l i s t a r t i c u l a t i o n of b u s i n e s s p r i v i l e g e i s c o n s i d e r e d i n some depth i n chapter two. For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s e e : Charles Lindblom, Politics and MarketsQtev? Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1 9 7 7 ) ; a n d F r e d B l o c k , "The R u l i n g C l a s s Does Not R u l e : N o t e s o n t h e M a r x i s t T h e o r y o f the S t a t e , " Socialist Revolution^ J u n e , 1977). •^See D a v i d V o g e l , " P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e a n d t h e S t u d y o f Corporate British  Journal  of Political  Science  17(october,  1987), pp.  385-408.  Power,"  Introduction  The l a b e l m o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m i s e n l i s t e d a s a m e a n s for  distinguishing  b e t w e e n i t s e l f a n d the n e o p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l u p o n w h i c h i t i s s o c l o s e l y b a s e d . While  neo p l u r a l i s m f o c u s e s upon groups  a s the p r i m a r y u n i t of a n a l y s i s i n i t s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o w e r i n m o d e r n w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s , m o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m f o r c e s the a n a l y s i s d e e p e r . p l u r a l i s t body questions.  R e v i s i o n s made to the  of thought h a v e t e n d e d to a d d r e s s t w o s e e m i n g l y  unrelated  F i r s t , n e o p l u r a l i s t s r e v i s e d the s y s t e m i c l e v e l e x p l a n a t i o n of the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o w e r w i t h i n s o c i e t y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s to the h e a l t h of the p u b l i c e c o n o m y of p r i v i l e g e d i n p u t .  of  ensured them a p o s i t i o n  S e c o n d l y , M a n c u r O l s o n , Terry Moe a n d o t h e r s h a v e  made  r e v i s i o n s to the t h e o r y of g r o u p s , i l l u s t r a t i n g , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t the s u p p o s e d p l u r a l i s t n a t u r e of g r o u p s ,  a n d the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e of g r o u p g o a l s ,  i s not a s the o r i g i n a l p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n p o r t r a y e d i t .  Choice  Indeed,  Olson's  m o d e l q u e s t i o n s one of the b a s i c t e n e t s of p l u r a l i s t t h o u g h t .  t h e s e t w o d i s p a r a t e a v e n u e s of d e v e l o p m e n t , f r a g m e n t e d t o be o f u s e to c o n t e m p o r a r y  s e e k s to a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n b y i l l u s t r a t i n g the c o m p l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s of t h o u g h t .  In l i g h t of  i s p l u r a l i s t thought now  students of p u b l i c p o l i c y ?  of the c o m p l e x i t i e s of g r o u p s ,  internal organizational characteristics i s necessary.  too  This  paper  n a t u r e of t h e s e  T h i s p a p e r w i l l s u g g e s t t h a t , i n o r d e r to d e v e l o p  necessary understanding  Rational  a  a n a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r  It i s n o t p o s s i b l e to e x p l a i n  a n d p r e d i c t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y w i t h o u t a p p r e c i a t i n g the m o t i v a t i o n s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h c o m p r i s e  Chapter  them.  Outline  T h u s , the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s p a p e r d i s c u s s e s , i n some d e t a i l , the development  classical  a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e of the b o d y of t h o u g h t  pluralism.  c o m m o n l y r e f e r r e d to a s  The c h a p t e r s e t s o u t the b a s i c t e n e t s of t h e m o d e l  and  Introduction  f o c u s e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , upon the o r i g i n a l s e m i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d D a v i d Truman.'*  of Arthur  T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the d i f f i c u l t y t h i s  "theory"  e x p e r i e n c e d i n e f f e c t i v e l y c o p i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h the i n f l u e n c e of group d y n a m i c s western  i n i t s apparent  Bentley  e x p l a n a t i o n of the p o w e r b l o c k s of  internal  modern  democracies.  The  s e c o n d p o r t i o n f o c u s e s u p o n the t h e o r e t i c a l s u c c e s s o r of  p l u r a l i s m : neo(or unfairly  post) pluralism.  W h e r e the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s s e e m e d  r e l e g a t e the r o l e of the s t a t e to a p o s i t i o n of v i r t u a l  these t h e o r i s t s have returned after David Truman's developed  a s o m e w h a t more  Process,  to  insignificance,  i t to a p o r t i o n of i t s former g l o r y .  The Governmental  classical  Thirty  years  C h a r l e s L i n d b l o m a n d Robert  s o p h i s t i c a t e d r o l e for the s t a t e i n m o d e r n  Dahl  western  democracies.^ The t h i r d s e c t i o n of t h i s p a p e r o u t l i n e s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s  of M a n c u r  and T e r r y M o e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , a n d t h e i r i n s i g h t s i n t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g m o t i v a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p member.  O l s o n a n d Moe m a n a g e d  a t t e n t i o n of t h e o r i s t s a w a y from the s t a t e , g r o u p s ,  of  the  to turn  and a s s o c i a t e d actors,  t o w a r d s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n i n t e r e s t Olson argued that only those groups by p h i l a n t h r o p i c organized  Organization founded  individuals,  activity.  s e e k i n g m a t e r i a l g a i n , or g r o u p s  upon non-material  c o u l d p o s s i b l y attain any s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l  and groups.  of  The  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y insightful i n i t s suggestion that i n c e n t i v e s are q u i t e c a p a b l e of d e v e l o p i n g  the  organized  Moe i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t O l s o n w a s , i n p a r t , i n c o r r e c t .  of Interests  Olson  groups  advanced  Arthur B e n t l e y , The Process of G o v e r n / n e n t ( C h i c a g o , IL: U n i v e r s i t y of P r e s s , 1908), w i t h r e - p r i n t i n g s i n 1935 a n d 1 9 4 9 ; D a v i d T r u m a n , The Governmental Process(New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1951).  Chicago  5 C h a r l e s L i n d b l o m , Politics and Markets(New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1977); Robert D a h l , Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy (Hew H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982); a n d A. P a u l P r o s s , Group Politics and Public P o J i ' c y (Toronto, Ont.: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986).  Introduction  l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d , c o n t r a r y to O l s o n ' s a s s e r t i o n s , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s organize  for s o l i d a r y or p u r p o s i v e  observations  reasons.  The c h a p t e r i n c o r p o r a t e s  will  these  c o n c e r n i n g the nature of group a c t i v i t y i n t o w h a t i s a n e s s e n t i a l l y  neo p l u r a l i s t framework  of g r o u p s ,  s t r e s s i n g a n e w l y r e a l i z e d a p p r e c i a t i o n of the  i n t e r n a l e l e m e n t s of group a c t i v i t y and the i m p o r t a n c e of the a s p e c t of organizational process.  characteristics in developing  a n a n a l y s i s of g r o u p s a n d the p o l i c y  A Heritage  of  Classical  Pluralism  Chapter One  A HERITAGE OF CLASSICAL PLURALISM  The t r a d i t i o n of p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t w e h a v e come to c a l l P l u r a l i s m i s the by-product  of a n i n t e l l e c t u a l d u e l d a t i n g f r o m the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  c o m p l e t e c o n t r a d i c t i o n to w h a t w a s t h e n p o p u l a r l y  In  a c c e p t e d p o l i t i c a l thought, J . S .  M i l l c l a i m e d s o c i e t y c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d i n terms of t w o b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s : the i n d i v i d u a l a n d the s t a t e . *  It w a s M i l l ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a l l o t h e r  a l l e g i a n c e s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s p a l e d i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h i s o v e r r i d i n g r e l a t i o n of society.  H e a r g u e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d the s t a t e e x i s t e d a s t w o  competing  e l e m e n t s of a s y s t e m i n w h i c h the n a t u r a l s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m d e m o t e d the  role  of the s t a t e to a p o s i t i o n of s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e v i s - a - v i s t h a t of the individual. unnaturally  The s t a t e w a s a r e s t r i c t i n g d e v i c e s e e k i n g to a r b i t r a r i l y c o n t r o l the free a n d r a n d o m a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s .  and  As Latham has  put i t , M i l l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s o c i e t y c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e d a r a n d o m a n d spontaneous  grouping  of  people:  . . . l i k e m a r b l e s o n a p l a t e , h e l d l o o s e l y t o g e t h e r w i t h i n the c i r c u m f e r e n c e of a c o m m o n r e s t r a i n t but o t h e r w i s e c o m p l e t e , unengaged, p r i v a t e , and unique.  The state w a s an unnatural m a n i f e s t a t i o n , an entity w h o s e role w i t h i n  F o r h i s t r e a t i s e o n the p h i l o s o p h y L / & e r t . v ( M a r k h a m , Ont.: P e n g u i n , 1982).  of the i n d i v i d u a l s e e , J . S . M i l l , On  ^ E a r l L a t h a m m a k e s t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of u t i l i t a r i a n t h o u g h t i n , "The Group B a s i s of P o l i t i c s : N o t e s for a T h e o r y , " American Political Science Review 46:1(1952), pp. 376-97.  6  A Heritage  s o c i e t y s h o u l d c o r r e c t l y be m a i n t a i n e d a s " n i g h t w a t c h m a n . "  of  By  Classical  Pluralism  applying  e c o n o m i c - l i k e r a t i o n a l e to the i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s o n a p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , and e m p h a s i z i n g the n e e d for u n h i n d e r e d  relations between i n d i v i d u a l s ,  the  u t i l i t a r i a n s - d e v e l o p e d a mode .of t h o u g h t w h o s e i n f l u e n c e w o u l d r e m a i n o v e r two h u n d r e d y e a r s  salient  hence.  I n . r e s p o n s e to t h i s s c h o o l , a n o t h e r group of t h i n k e r s e m e r g e d a d v o c a t i n g a c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the i n d i v i d u a l and the s t a t e i n d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n to t h a t s u g g e s t e d b y the u t i l i t a r i a n s . o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e man's  s t a t e performs  social interaction.  While  The statists  s u g g e s t the  a c r u c i a l f u n c t i o n i n the c h o r e o g r a p h y  formal of  the u t i l i t a r i a n t h e o r i s t s a d v o c a t e d the p r i m a c y  the i n d i v i d u a l , the s t a t i s t s c o n s i d e r e d the f u n c t i o n of the f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n the s t a t e a n e c e s s i t y w i t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  society.  of  The s t a t e o r d e r s the a c t i o n s  of i n d i v i d u a l s ; i t i s the f i n i t e e n d to the p r o c e s s of c o n s t a n t e v o l u t i o n of the community.  T y p i c a l of t h i s s c h o o l , H e g e l v i e w e d the s t a t e a s a n e n d g r e a t e r  t h a n t h e s u m of i t s p a r t s , a n i n s t i t u t i o n c a p a b l e of g i v i n g b o t h s t r u c t u r e m e a n i n g t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of m a n .  and  As Earl Latham h a s s u g g e s t e d , w r i t e r s  such  a s H e g e l , F i c h t e a n d T r e i t s c h k e c o n c e i v e d of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y a s : . . . b e a d s o n a s t r i n g , of w h i c h the s e p a r a t e p a r t s b y t h e m s e l v e s were incomplete and without meaning, and w h i c h e x i s t e d o n l y t o f u l f i l l t h e p a t t e r n of the n e c k l a c e . ^  W h e r e t h e u t i l i t a r i a n s a t t e m p t e d to d e s t r o y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s t a t e b y d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , t h e s t a t i s t s a t t e m p t e d to p e r p e t r a t e the s a m e u p o n the c o n c e p t of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . " *  ^A g r o u p of German t h i n k e r s , w r i t i n g i n the e a r l y p a r t of the 19th H e g e l , F i c h t e a n d T r e i t s c h k e , are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s s c h o o l . ^ L a t h a m , o p . c i t . , p.  of  century,  379.  ^ L a t h a m , o p . c i t . , o f f e r s a m u c h more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , c a r e f u l l y t r a c i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l h e r i t a g e of these schools.  both  A Heritage  Early  of  Classical  Pluralism  Pluralism In r e s p o n s e  thought emerged  to t h i s s t a t i s t s c h o o l , the f i r s t e a r l y d o c t r i n e s of  s e e k i n g , a g a i n , to c h a m p i o n the l o t of the i n d i v i d u a l .  early w r i t e r s , among them H a r o l d L a s k i and  G.D.H.  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s t ( s t a t i s t ) m o d e l of s o c i e t y .  These  C o l e , s o u g h t to c o r r e c t w h a t  t h e y p e r c e i v e d a s the s i m p l e i n a c c u r a c y of d e s c r i p t i o n e m b o d i e d  assumptions  pluralist  i n the  T h e y c o n s i d e r e d the b a s i c  of t h i s g r o u p to be c o n t r a r y to a c t u a l f a c t a n d s o u g h t to i l l u s t r a t e  t h a t the s t a t e d i d n o t a b s o r b a l l l o y a l t i e s a n d a t t e n t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s . c o n t r a r y to the s t a t i s t p o s i t i o n , t h e y a r g u e d that a m u l t i t u d e grandiose  Thus,  of a s s o c i a t i o n s l e s s  t h a n the s t a t e p o s s e s s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c l a i m u p o n the d e v o t i o n ,  a n d a l l e g i a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s . organizations,  veterans  Groups  s u c h a s trade u n i o n s ,  a s s o c i a t i o n s , merchant groups;  loyalty  religious  all possessed  allegiance  f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y , a f o r m of a l l e g i a n c e t h a t c o u l d n o t be o f f e r e d the s t a t e .  They  to  a r g u e d the s t a t e w a s m e r e l y one a s s o c i a t i o n a m o n g m a n y , a l l of  w h i c h w e r e c o m p e t i n g for the a l l e g i a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l .  The  state  possessed  no c l a i m u p o n a n y i n d i v i d u a l g r e a t e r t h a n a n y o t h e r g r o u p or a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y a n d , a s s u c h , h a d no b a s i s u p o n w h i c h t o c l a i m a h i g h e r r e l a t i v e They  a r g u e d t h a t m o s t members  clubs, lodges, unions members  or r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s  of t h e s t a t e .  desire were removed  of s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s  A l l elements  s p e c i f i c group organizations.  before they p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s  citizen.  These groups,  Individuals,  of as  independent  a n d i n i t s p l a c e a r o s e the r o l e of  a s the i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h , i n f a c t , p e r f o r m e d of e a c h i n d i v i d u a l  as members  of a s e p a r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y or  from t h i s r e n d i t i o n ,  status.  a n d n o t the s t a t e , w e r e  the  recognized  the m o s t e s s e n t i a l r o l e s i n the  life  i n t h e i r o w n e s t i m a t i o n , are m e m b e r s  ^ C e n t r a l to the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y i s t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f s o c i e t a l proliferation. It s u g g e s t s t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i l l b r i n g a b o u t a more s t r a t i f i e d and' s p e c i a l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n . These increasingly s p e c i a l i z e d g r o u p s of p e o p l e w i l l e n g a g e i n i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s a n d , a s a r e s u l t , w i l l d e v e l o p more d i v e r s i f i e d g o a l s a n d i n t e r e s t s . These  of  A Heritage  the s t a t e o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y .  of  Classical  Pluralism  T a k e n to i t s e x t r e m e , t h i s p l u r a l i s t d o c t r i n e  a d v o c a t e s a s o c i e t y of p o l i t i c a l c o m m u n i t i e s o r g a n i z e d  s y n d i c a l l y by  w i t h common a f f a i r s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y the common c o n s e n t of t h o s e  industry,  governed.''  T h i s e a r l y v e r s i o n of p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y c o n t r i b u t e d t w o p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s i g h t s to the c o n t e m p o r a r y  p e r c e p t i o n of human n a t u r e .  important  F i r s t , i n s e e k i n g to  r e t r i e v e the i m p o r t a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l , t h e y p o i n t e d to w h a t w a s unquestionably spheres.  the g r o u p nature of s o c i e t y , b o t h i n the p o l i t i c a l a n d  economic  S e c o n d l y , i t m a n a g e d t o i l l u s t r a t e a s a m p l i n g of the i n f i n i t e number  of  a c c o m m o d a t i o n s p o s s i b l e b e t w e e n , a s L a t h a m h a s put i t , "the c o m m o n a n d the u n i v e r s a l o n the one h a n d a n d the d i v e r s e a n d p a r t i c u l a r o n the Classical Pluralist  stated...everything i s stated." p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d b y groups  comprise it.  0  Thought  Arthur B e n t l e y h a s w r i t t e n : " W h e n the g r o u p s  p l u r a l i s t thought.  Q  other."  are  adequately  The p l u r a l i s t d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e f o r c e s w i t h i n s o c i e t y forms the v e r y n u c l e u s of  and classical  S o c i e t y , i t i s a r g u e d , i s n o t h i n g more t h a n t h e g r o u p s  which  C l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s argue t h a t b e c a u s e a s o c i e t y i s i n c a p a b l e  r e c o g n i z i n g any demands  expressed within i t s boundaries  n o t e x p r e s s e d i n the  f o r m of g r o u p p r e s s u r e s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t c a n o n l y a r t i c u l a t e d through  cumulative group e x p r e s s i o n .  of  T h u s , the s t a t e d o e s  be not  s p e c i a l i z e d s e t s of p e o p l e w i l l f o l l o w a n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n a n d e v o l v e s p e c i a l i z e d groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y . In t u r n , a n a t u r a l s o c i a l r e s p o n s e of the m a n y s p e c i a l i z e d g r o u p s i s to form f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h r o u g h w h i c h to r e p r e s e n t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s e t of c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h o s e of c o n f l i c t i n g g r o u p s . ^See Paul P r o s s ,  op. c i t .  °Latham, o p . c i t . , p. 3 8 0 . H i s remark i s i n r e f e r e n c e to t h e t e n d e n c y of i n d i v i d u a l s to c o a l e s c e i n g r o u p s of a v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e , h o l d i n g m e m b e r s h i p s i n a n y number of d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s a t o n e t i m e . This overlapping m e m b e r s h i p i s k e y to t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of the " p l u r a l i s t " n a t u r e of s o c i e t y . 9  Arthur Bentley,  p.  222.  now  A Heritage  of  Classical  Pluralism  p o s s e s s a n a t i o n a l or state, i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f ; i t i s m e r e l y a n "umpire", b e t w e e n t w o or more c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y . s t a t e i s i n c a p a b l e of f o r m u l a t i n g d e m a n d s  an a r b i t e r  As s u c h , they argue,  the  w h i c h are n o t the r e s u l t of group  competition.^ A p r o d u c t of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l h e r i t a g e , p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s h a v e . o f f e r e d the i n d i v i d u a l a c e n t r a l r o l e w i t h i n t h e i r m o d e l .  similarly  "Man," they state, " i s a  social animal.  H e i s , w i t h rare e x c e p t i o n s , a l w a y s f o u n d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  other m e n . " ^  A person only e x h i b i t s truly human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h e n  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other people.  in  H e n c e , and w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l s  almost a l w a y s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l s .  are  These associations  m a y i n c l u d e v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d f o r m a l i t y , but r e g a r d l e s s f o r m , are a f u n c t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n s e p a r a t i n g from other a n i m a l s .  In s h o r t , a n i n d i v i d u a l o n l y p o s s e s s e s m e a n i n g  of  man  and  s i g n i f i c a n c e w h e n e n g a g e d i n some form of r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s  in  society. The n a t u r e of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i o l o g i c a l theory.  S i m i l a r l y , the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the  "group" d r a w s f r o m , i n p a r t i c u l a r , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y a n d s o c i o l o g y . c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  of m a n a s a " s o c i a l b e i n g , " p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s  a d o p t e d e l e m e n t s of t h e former t o i l l u s t r a t e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e d e g r e e dependence  In h o p e s  of  m o d e r n m a n h a d come to e x h i b i t t o w a r d g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y .  The  l°Two s e m i n a l t r e a t i s e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l a r e : Arthur B e n t l e y , The Process of G o v e r n m e n t ( E v a n s t o n , I L : P r i n c i p i a P r e s s , 1949); a n d D a v i d T r u m a n , The Governmental P r o c e s s ( N e w Y o r k : A l f r e d K n o p f , 1953). ^Truman,  o p . c i t . , p.  14.  l^Truman,  o p . c i t . , p.  15.  ^ T w o w o r k s p r o m i n e n t i n the w r i t i n g s of D a v i d T r u m a n h a v e b e e n : L l o y d W a r n e r a n d P a u l S . L u n t , The Social Life of a Modern CommunityiNew H a v e n , Conn: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 1 ) ; a n d The Status System of a Modern Community(New  A Heritage  influence  of  Classical  Pluralism  s u c h writers exerted upon c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t thought i s evident  when  Truman w r i t e s : A l t h o u g h no t w o human o r g a n i s m s w i l l d e v e l o p i d e n t i c a l l y i n any one of the e n v i r o n m e n t s m e n t i o n e d , the l i m i t a t i o n s , a s p i r a t i o n s , and v a l u e s that each h o l d s w i l l have developed i n r e l a t i o n t o the g r o u p s w i t h w h i c h e a c h h a s b e e n e a r l y associated.^  The p l u r a l i s t n o t i o n of the i m p o r t a n c e  of commonality  c e r t a i n l y a p r o d u c t of t h i s e x t r a - d i s c i p l i n a r y i n f l u e n c e . individual's  a w a r e n e s s of the i m p o r t a n c e  school contends this commonality  organisms  is  A r i s i n g f r o m one  of o t h e r s w i t h i n s o c i e t y , the  pluralist  of e x p e r i e n c e w i l l r e s u l t i n a r e l a t i v e  s i m i l a r i t y of b o t h a t t i t u d e a n d b e h a v i o u r time, however,  of e x p e r i e n c e  t o w a r d s certain  matters.  At the  same  the m o d e l r e c o g n i z e s the i r r e f u t a b l e p o s i t i o n t h a t no t w o h u m a n  are i d e n t i c a l i n b o t h b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g  and endowment,  although  t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s m a y be v i r t u a l l y t h e s a m e . p l u r a l i s t s readily acknowledge that uncertain behavioural by-product  of t h i s .  Furthermore,  d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be a  e v e n s u p p o s i n g t h e u n l i k e l y s c e n a r i o of  the  e x i s t e n c e of t w o i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i d e n t i c a l g r o u p a f f i l i a t i o n s a t a g i v e n p o i n t time, it would  s e e m v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e for s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s to h a v e  so s i n c e birth.  As Truman has pointed  T h e i r b e h a v i o u r a n d a t t i t u d e s are n o t s i m p l y t h e p r o d u c t of t h e i r c u r r e n t a f f i l i a t i o n s , b u t are t h e r e s u l t of a g e n e t i c p r o c e s s t h a t i n c l u d e s i n some m e a s u r e t h e w h o l e of t h e i r life experience. The c h i l d i s , i n a s e n s e , t h e f a t h e r to t h e man.  T h u s , w i t h i n t h e p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of t h e i n t e r e s t g r o u p , p s y c h o l o g i c a l  H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942). 1 4  Truman,  1 5  Ibid.,  p.  p.  18.  22.  A representative  Cited i n Truman,  p.  and  d e f i n i t i o n of a  17ff.  in  remained  out:  s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s are c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The  A Heritage  of  Classical  Pluralism  p r e s s u r e g r o u p i s o f f e r e d by Truman w h e n he s u g g e s t s t h a t a n " i n t e r e s t group" i s : . . . a n y group t h a t , o n the b a s i s of one or more s h a r e d a t t i t u d e s , m a k e s c e r t a i n c l a i m s u p o n o t h e r g r o u p s i n the s o c i e t y for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , m a i n t e n a n c e , or e n h a n c e m e n t of forms of b e h a v i o u r t h a t are i m p l i e d by the s h a r e d attitudes. 1 6  It i s , t h u s , shared  attitudes  w h i c h constitute i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n s o c i e t y and w h i c h ,  i n t u r n , are the p r o d u c t s of the i n t e r a c t i o n of  groups.  The p l u r a l i s t s s u g g e s t c e r t a i n a n a l y t i c a l b e n e f i t s e x i s t w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n of a g r o u p .  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , t h e y a r g u e , p e r m i t s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  v a r i o u s " p o t e n t i a l g r o u p s , " t o g e t h e r w i t h e x i s t i n g o n e s , i n v i t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a n i n t e r e s t w h e t h e r or n o t the i n t e r e s t i s a c t u a l l y a m a n i f e s t c o m p o n e n t g r o u p a t a g i v e n moment. groups  T h u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to e n v i s a g e p o t e n t i a l  of a  interest  f o r m e d o n the b a s i s of w i d e l y h e l d a t t i t u d e s n o t e x p r e s s e d i n the  i n t e r a c t i o n of g r o u p s .  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n a l s o a l l o w s the a n a l y s t to p r o p e r l y  focus  h i s a t t e n t i o n u p o n the c r u c i a l d e g r e e of " i n t e g r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n " w i t h i n g r o u p s , important c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as i t i s the frequency  an  of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a g r o u p  w h i c h w i l l , i n p a r t , d e t e r m i n e the p r i m a c y of a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l .  A s i t w i l l be s h o w n , t h i s c a n be of m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e  in  determining the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h w h i c h a group a s s e r t s i t s c l a i m upon other groups.  Furthermore,  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n of the i n t e r e s t g r o u p a l s o  u s e f u l l y e n a b l e s t h e o b s e r v e r t o e v a l u a t e the i m p o r t a n c e of the r o l e of  formal  organization.  A group's  o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s a r g u e d , i s i n d i c a t i v e of i t s  developmental  p r o g r e s s i o n , a n d w h e t h e r i t i s h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d , or s i m p l y a 17  potential group, s u c h factors w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y determine  1 6  Ibid.,  p.  its effectiveness.  33.  ^ T h i s t o p i c i s d e a l t w i t h i n more d e p t h b e l o w w h e n the l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development i s d i s c u s s e d , together w i t h i t s effects upon a group's fortunes. It i s s u f f i c i e n t t o a p p r e c i a t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t w h i l e t h e p l u r a l i s t s a c c o r d a d e g r e e of r e c o g n i t i o n t o i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e y f a i l t o f u l l y  A Heritage  of  Classical  The p l u r a l i s t s c o n t e n d i t i s p o s s i b l e to o b s e r v e d e g r e e s of uniformity within s o c i a l groupings.  Pluralism  behavioural  In t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e y a r g u e , the t a s k of the  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s to i d e n t i f y a n d e x p l a i n the a r e a s of b e h a v i o u r to w h i c h t h e s e uniformities apply.  T h u s , p l u r a l i s t s s e e k to m e a s u r e t h i s p h e n o m e n a  the c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h it, o c c u r s .  and n o t e  It i s t h i s e l e m e n t of u n i f o r m i t y  forms the b a s i c r a t i o n a l e for the o v e r t e m p h a s i s u p o n g r o u p s  which  and their p o s i t i o n  w i t h i n c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s m a s the b a s i c s o c i a l u n i t of a n a l y s i s .  T h a t i s , the  i  i n t e r a c t i o n of g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y p r o d u c e s a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y providing  of  behaviour,  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s w i t h t h e m o t i v a t i o n to c o n c e n t r a t e u p o n g r o u p s  s o c i e t y ' s l o w e s t common denominator.  These uniformities, moreover,  as •  depend  l a r g e l y u p o n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d a n d n o t s o l e l y u p o n the s p e c i f i c s i m i l a r i t i e s of e x p e r i e n c e .  W h e r e the a n a l y s i s of g r o u p s i s at i s s u e ,  the o b s e r v e r w i l l f o c u s u p o n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h o s e p e r s o n s As a s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t of p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the group, i t i s understandable  involved.  c o n c e r n s the r o l e of the that these w r i t e r s should  devote  a c e r t a i n e f f o r t to the a n a l y s i s of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of g r o u p s , t h o s e f o r m a l  and  informal  The  s t r u c t u r e s g o v e r n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s .  c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n p o s i t s the d e v e l o p m e n t groups  along a rough conceptual continuum.  of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  At one e x t r e m e l i e t h o s e  w h i c h are c o n s i d e r e d " p o t e n t i a l , " where, the m e m b e r s h i p  of  groups  may p o s s e s s s i m i l a r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b u t , a s y e t , no f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  At t h e  opposite  extreme i s the o r g a n i z e d formal a s s o c i a t i o n complete w i t h a bureaucratic structure and p r o f e s s i o n a l management s t y l e .  At a l l p o i n t s b e t w e e n l i e g r o u p s  at  v a r i o u s l e v e l s of p r o g r e s s i o n , t h e i r l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n b e i n g r o u g h l y r e f l e c t e d i n the stage of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development  exhibited.  In a d d i t i o n , a d i v e r s i t y  of  g r o u p o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s f u n c t i o n a l l y r e q u i s i t e w i t h i n a s o c i e t y of develop their significance.  A Heritage  complex p o l i t i c a l arrangements.  of  Classical  Where the i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n of  Pluralism  individual  b e h a v i o u r p r o v e s i n t r i c a t e , s o too w i l l the p a t t e r n of p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r .  What  i s m o r e , the d e v e l o p m e n t of s u c h p a t t e r n s c a n a s s u m e a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e forms d e p e n d i n g u p o n the v a r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d . An o f t e n c r i t i c a l i n d i c a t i o n of the l e v e l of g r o u p o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e e x i s t e n c e of a n a c t i v e m i n o r i t y w i t h i n t h a t g r o u p . definition, organization(a  By  s t a n d a r d i z e d , h a b i t u a l p a t t e r n of i n t e r a c t i o n ) r e q u i r e s  v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g f r o m e l e m e n t s of the group membership.  Thus, any r e l a t i v e l y advanced o r g a n i z a t i o n p o s s e s s e s a c e r t a i n  d e g r e e of d e l e g a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  T h i s d e l e g a t i o n of  authority  n e c e s s a r i l y creates s p e c i f i c r o l e s w i t h i n a group, t y p i c a l l y h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered a n d w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of d i r e c t i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n m a k i n g .  It s h o u l d be  r e m e m b e r e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t the a u t h o r i t y e x e r c i s e d w i t h i n s u c h g r o u p s  is always a  m a t t e r of d e g r e e .  complete  R a r e l y i s a n y d e l e g a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n g r o u p s  and n o n - r e s c i n d a b l e .  T h u s , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nature of g r o u p s , o r i g i n a t i n g from  the i n d i v i d u a l , i s n o t i m p a i r e d b y t h i s e m b r a c e of a d e c i s i o n m a k i n g e l i t e .  This  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a p r o m i n e n t f a c e t of d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y a n d a f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of the g r o u p . as early as  As James Bryce h a s written  1921: In a l l a s s e m b l i e s a n d g r o u p s a n d o r g a n i z e d b o d i e s of m e n , f r o m a n a t i o n d o w n to t h e c o m m i t t e e of a c l u b , d i r e c t i o n a n d d e c i s i o n s r e s t i n the h a n d s o f a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e , l e s s a n d l e s s i n p r o p o r t i o n to the l a r g e r a n d l a r g e r s i z e of the b o d y , t i l l i n a great population it becomes an i n f i n i t e s s i m a l l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of t h e w h o l e number. T h i s i s a n d a l w a y s h a s b e e n true of a l l forms of g o v e r n m e n t , t h o u g h i n d i f f e r e n t 1 fi degrees.  T h e r e a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a s p e c t s of t h e a c t i v e m i n o r i t y n o w r e c o g n i z e d a s  J a m e s B r y c e , Modern Democracies(Ttew 1921), v o l . II, p. 542. C i t e d i n T r u m a n , p. a  Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 139ff.  A Heritage  l e a d i n g to the i m p a i r m e n t  of  Classical  of e q u a l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the group.  p r o d u c t of p r o l o n g e d m e m b e r s h i p  A by-  w i t h i n the a c t i v e m i n o r i t y e n a b l e s i n d i v i d u a l s  a c q u i r e s k i l l s t h a t empower t h e m to m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n o v e r a p e r i o d of t i m e .  Pluralism  prolonged  V e t e r a n s of t h e s e p o s i t i o n s d e v e l o p p a r t i c u l a r m a n i p u l a t i v e  g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e to o t h e r members w i t h i n the g r o u p ,  p l a c i n g them  p o s i t i o n s of r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e  v i s - a - v i s t h o s e members  of the  c o n f i n e d to the rank a n d f i l e .  Such advantages  skills  in  organization  l e a d to the e n t r e n c h m e n t  p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s at p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s w i t h i n the g r o u p ' s  to  structure  of  for  p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s of t i m e . Despite these advantages  a c c r u i n g to the g r o u p l e a d e r s h i p , h o w e v e r ,  i d e a l of t o t a l c o h e s i o n w i t h i n a group m e m b e r s h i p i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l harmony dependent  i s rarely achieved.  c o m p o s i t i o n of the g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p .  membership  A s the t a s k s f a c i n g t h e g r o u p l e a d e r s  c o n t i n u o u s e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n harmony a n d t h e a c t i o n s of the l e a d e r s h i p .  r e p r e s e n t s t h o s e d e m a n d s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d ,  there w i l l e x i s t  H o w a r t i c u l a t e l y the  leadership  i n p a r t , b y t h e d e g r e e of affairs.  w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e o f a g r o u p , h o w e v e r ,  the observer to the a s s u m p t i o n that s u c h a group represents a mass.  success  The  s h o u l d not  lull  homogeneous  A g r o u p i s a s e t of i n t e r a c t i o n s ; n o t s i m p l y a m a s s of p h y s i c a l  b u t , r a t h e r , some  will  b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s of the  t h e g r o u p l e a d e r s h i p a t t a i n s i n i t s d i r e c t i o n of the g r o u p ' s appearance of harmony  inter-  and the a c t u a l  be d e f i n e d b y t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d v a l u e s of the g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p , a roughly  The  of the g r o u p t y p i c a l l y . r e l i e s u p o n t w o m u t u a l l y  f a c t o r s : the l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s of the a c t i v e m i n o r i t y ;  the  people  of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h o s e p e o p l e , v a r y i n g i n f r e q u e n c y  and  19 i n t e n s i t y , a n d i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e of f l u x .  T h i s c o n c e p t of i n t e r a c t i o n i s a k e y theme i n The Governmental Process, a n d R o b e r t M a c l v e r , The Web of Government(Nev/ Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y . , 1947), p. 4 1 5 , a l s o a r t i c u l a t e s t h i s i d e a a n d i s c i t e d e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h o u t Truman's work. l y  A Heritage  of  Classical  Pluralism  A n e x t e n s i o n of t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of group s t r u c t u r e i s the p r i n c i p l e of "overlapping membership" w i t h i n groups.  The p l u r a l i s t s argue t h a t no  one  i n d i v i d u a l i s w h o l l y a b s o r b e d by a n y group to w h i c h h e / s h e m a y b e l o n g . person's membership  w i t h i n a s i n g l e group r e p r e s e n t s p a r t , a n d o n l y p a r t , of  individual's total interaction within society. a l l e g i a n c e s w i t h other groupings The  A  possess  w i t h i n t h a t s o c i e t y , e i t h e r f o r m a l l y or  s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t of " m e m b e r s h i p "  the r a t i o n a l e of t h i s c o n c e p t .  The i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  the  informally.  e m p l o y e d b y the p l u r a l i s t s i s c l e a r l y k e y to  Membership  i s n o t d e f i n e d s o l e l y i n terms  t h o s e p e r s o n s w h o r e l i g i o u s l y p a y d u e s to a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p .  of  Membership,  r a t h e r , i s c o n c e i v e d i n t e r m s of the s y m p a t h i e s a n d v a l u e s p o s s e s s e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s , and whether they p e r c e i v e any group as a r t i c u l a t i n g these a t t i t u d e s . As T r u m a n h a s s t a t e d : Membership  s h o u l d n o t be u n d e r s t o o d n a r r o w l y a s  including  o n l y t h o s e w h o p a y d u e s to a f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Those " f e l l o w t r a v e l l e r s " w h o s h a r e the a t t i t u d e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a n i n t e r e s t g r o u p m u s t a l s o be r e c e i v e d i n some d e g r e e a s . . . . 20 participants in it. While,  of c o u r s e , t h e r e e x i s t o t h e r i d e n t i f i a b l e e f f e c t s u p o n the  of a g r o u p , o v e r l a p p i n g m e m b e r s h i p s i g n i f i c a n t of t h e s e .  i s v i e w e d b y p l u r a l i s t s a s the  cohesion  most  T h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s c o n c e p t i s d e t e r m i n e d w i t h i n the  c o n t e x t of h o w i n t e r e s t g r o u p s effect i s deemed c r u c i a l .  f u n c t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y , a n d i t i s here t h a t i t s  In t h e l o n g r u n , i t i s a r g u e d , m e m b e r s h i p s  in  both  organized and potential groups overlap, i m p o s i n g both conformity and restraint upon groups  i n the p r o c e s s .  T h i s , i n t u r n , a l l o w s s t a b l e p o l i c i e s to e x i s t i n a  s y s t e m c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n t e r e s t g r o u p s .  Although the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of k n o w l e d g e to a n the n a t u r e of the 2 0  Truman,  p.  That i s , because  p l u r a l i s t s c l e a r l y p o s s e s s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e p h y s i c a l the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of g r o u p s , t h e y f a i l to e x t e n d t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h o w d i f f e r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s e f f e c t group's actions. 28.  A Heritage  individuals  are members  of other g r o u p i n g s  of  Classical  Pluralism  w i t h i n s o c i e t y , t h e y w i l l not  allow  one g r o u p to e x e r c i s e i t s p o w e r to the p o i n t w h e r e t h e y f i n d t h e i r o t h e r  interests  in a relatively disadvantaged  forces  interest groups  T h i s v i g i l a n c e by the i n d i v i d u a l  to m a i n t a i n t h e i r a c t i o n s a n d d e m a n d s  not f o r c i n g other, overlapping  position.  w i t h i n an accepted l i m i t ,  smaller interests into a disadvantaged  membership  position.  In  short,  e n s u r e s the s y s t e m of p l u r a l i s m r e m a i n s p l u r a l i s t  in  nature. As noted above,  however,  or a c c e n t u a t e d d e p e n d i n g  the e f f e c t of s u c h i n f l u e n c e s m a y be  u p o n the a c t i o n s of the g r o u p .  Leadership has  d e f i n e d , n o t a s a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , but a s a n interaction of the g r o u p a n d t h e l e a d e r . r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the members  minimized  between  been members  T h e p o w e r of the l e a d e r i s s a i d t o f l o w f r o m t h i s A s T r u m a n h a s s t a t e d : " P o w e r is  of h i s g r o u p .  the  21 r e l a t i o n s h i p , n o t s o m e t h i n g e x t e r n a l to i t .  D e s p i t e the w e a l t h o f t h e o r i e s  the t o p i c of l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h p r e c e d e d p l u r a l i s m I i n the f i e l d s of  on  psychology  a n d s o c i o l o g y , t h e p o s i t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s i s , i n the w o r d s W.O.  J e n k i n s , t h a t : "No s i n g l e t r a i t or g r o u p of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a s b e e n  of  isolated  22 w h i c h s e t s off the l e a d e r f r o m the members  of h i s g r o u p . "  Furthermore,  p l u r a l i s t s b e l i e v e that the i n d i v i d u a l who e x h i b i t s the a b i l i t i e s to d e v e l o p r e l a t i o n w i t h the g r o u p , w h i c h t h e n e m p o w e r s  a  h i m a s l e a d e r , m u s t be c a p a b l e  m a i n t a i n i n g t h e c o n f i d e n c e of the g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p .  of  Failure in this respect w i l l  l e a d t o t h e r e p l a c e m e n t of t h e l e a d e r w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l the n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n .  the  c a p a b l e of  maintaining  Truman w r i t e s :  . . . t h e o c c u p a n t of a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n i s the o b j e c t of e x p e c t a t i o n s o n t h e p a r t of o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e g r o u p — 2 1  Ibid..  p.  189.  ^W.Cv J e n k i n s , "A R e v i e w of L e a d e r s h i p S t u d i e s w i t h P a r t i c u l a r R e f e r e n c e to M i l i t a r y P r o b l e m s , " Psychological Bulletin 4 4 : l ( J a n u a r y , 1947), p p . 7 4 - 7 5 . T r u m a n o f f e r s J e n k i n s * v i e w a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the " b a l a n c e o f o p i n i o n " w i t h i n P s y c h o l o g y at the t i m e .  A Heritage  of  Classical  Pluralism  e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t b e c o m e s t r o n g e r a s the l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n b e c o m e s more i n c l u s i v e . One w h o f a i l s to l i v e up to t h o s e e x p e c t a t i o n s , or a s u f f i c i e n t number of t h e m , w i l l drop to a l e s s i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n the g r o u p ' s s t r u c t u r e , or w i l l be d r o p p e d from the group e n t i r e l y . On the s a m e t h e m e , H a r o l d L a s s w e l l w r i t e s : Power i s an interpersonal s i t u a t i o n ; those who h o l d power are e m p o w e r e d . They depend upon and continue o n l y so l o n g a s there i s a c o n t i n u i n g s t r e a m of e m p o w e r i n g responses.^  T h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be c o n s t r u e d , h o w e v e r , as entirely dependent  a s d e p i c t i n g the  u p o n the w h i m s of the m e m b e r s h i p .  the p o w e r r e l a t i o n o u t l i n e d a b o v e  leader  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of  s t r e s s e s the d e g r e e of a w a r e n e s s a l e a d e r  p o s s e s s of the l i m i t s i m p o s e d by m e m b e r s h i p  expectations.  must  The p o i n t i s , r a t h e r ,  a p r o l o n g e d t e r m i n o f f i c e w i l l be p o s s i b l e o n l y i f a l e a d e r i s c a r e f u l n o t t o overstep these  Leadership  guidelines.  Tools  The l e a d e r , of c o u r s e , i s n o t w i t h o u t m e a n s w i t h w h i c h to m a n i p u l a t e  the  g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p . • .There e x i s t s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o e x e c u t i v e s of m a n y g r o u p s w h i c h a l l o w t h e m to e l i c i t from the m e m b e r s h i p  the  c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e s w h i c h are t h e s u b s t a n c e of l e a d e r s h i p . m a n i p u l a t i o n of internal  propaganda(inf  ormation)  desired  Through  the  for i n s t a n c e , the g r o u p  ^ T r u m a n , p 1 9 1 . To s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , T r u m a n c i t e s M. S h e r i f , An Outline of Social Psychology, pp. 162; p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s r e s u l t s w i t h autokinetic p h e n o m e n o n ; a n d , F. W h y t e , Street Corner Society(Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1943). Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e h e r e i n , S h e r i f s t a t e s : "A m o v e m e n t m a y be i n i t i a t e d at t h e o u t s e t b y a h a n d f u l of d e t e r m i n e d l e a d e r s w h o k n o w the d i s c o n t e n t a n d r e s t l e s s n e s s of t h e p e o p l e t o w h o m t h e y a p p e a l . But once the m o v e m e n t s t a r t s to a c q u i r e a d e f i n i t e l e a d e r - a n d - m e m b e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e a n d g e t s u n d e r w a y , t h e l e a d e r i s no l o n g e r free to s t o p or a l t e r the c o u r s e of a c t i o n a s h i s whims dictate."(p. 420, Sherif, op. c i t . ) "^Harold Lasswell, 1948), p. 10.  Power  and Personality(Ne-w  York: W.W.  Norton a n d C o . ,  A Heritage  of  Classical  l e a d e r s h i p m a y c o n t r o l the f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n to i t s m e m b e r s h i p ,  Pluralism  information  upon w h i c h m e m b e r s b a s e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the group and i t s l e a d e r s h i p . S u c h t o o l s m a y t a k e the form of a p e r i o d i c a l or i n f o r m a t i o n b u l l e t i n p r o v i d e d  only  to group m e m b e r s , p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h k e y i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group s t r u c t u r e , or e v e n the g r o u p ' s  a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n or m e e t i n g s .  This method  of  c o n t r o l c a n be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e the group p o s s e s s e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i t s a r e a of c o n c e r n u n a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o t h e r s o u r c e s . A s e c o n d d e v i c e for the m a n i p u l a t i o n of g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p ,  and often  r e l a t e d to i n t e r n a l p r o p a g a n d a , i s the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h the group to its membership.  If a s e r v i c e p r o d u c e d b y the g r o u p i s a d e s i r a b l e c o m m o d i t y  i t s e l f , t h i s s e r v i c e c a n be u s e d a s a n i n c e n t i v e to p e r s u a d e g r o u p m e m b e r s the b e n e f i t s of p o l i c i e s s u p p o r t e d b y the l e a d e r s h i p .  in  of  Group i n s u r a n c e p l a n s are  s e r v i c e s t y p i c a l l y p r o v i d e d b y l a r g e r g r o u p s a n d w h i c h may' be s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e to l u r e m e m b e r s to j o i n . T h i r d l y , a g r o u p ' s l e a d e r s h i p m a y r e s o r t to s a n c t i o n s u p o n s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s , or s u b - g r o u p s c o h e s i o n and control.  of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the g r o u p , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n  S u c h s a n c t i o n s m a y v a r y from a n u n s t a t e d form of  d i s a p p r o v a l t o , u l t i m a t e l y , e x p u l s i o n f r o m the g r o u p .  There i s an  opportunity  c o s t i n v o l v e d i n t h e u s e of s a n c t i o n s , h o w e v e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w h i c h are harsh.  If t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f . t h o s e b e i n g s a n c t i o n e d p r o v e p o p u l a r a m o n g s t the  group membership,  s a n c t i o n s w i l l e n d a n g e r t h e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e l e a d e r s .  H a r s h s a n c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p u l s i o n s , c a n c o s t the g r o u p , i n t e r m s  of  m e m b e r s h i p n u m b e r s , more t h a n w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y h a v e b e e n g a i n e d b y t h e i r successful implementation.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the l e a d e r s h i p of t h e g r o u p m u s t  e x e r c i s e c a u t i o n i n the u s e of s u c h m e a s u r e s . L a s t l y , the t o o l of s e c r e c y i s a d e v i c e o f t e n u s e d b y g r o u p s t o m a i n t a i n their c o h e s i o n and e x c l u s i v e n e s s , and i s u s e d by many groups i n varying  degrees  A Heritage  of a p p l i c a t i o n .  It c a n be e f f e c t i v e i n l i m i t i n g o v e r l a p p i n g  p e r i o d of t i m e b y r e q u i r i n g This technique preserving and/or  of m a n i p u l a t i o n  the a p p e a r a n c e  public  Classical  Pluralism  membership  for a  an i n d i v i d u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n one g r o u p e x c l u s i v e l y . i s a l s o u s e f u l for s u p p r e s s i n g d i f f e r e n c e s ,  of u n a n i m i t y  o u t s i d e the group.  problems  of  i n the f a c e of c o m p e t i n g  thus  elements  inside  It c a n a l s o a c h i e v e t h i s b y f a c i l i t a t i n g s o l u t i o n s  w i t h i n the g r o u p i n a " c l o s e d door"  to  s i t u a t i o n , free from the s t r e s s of  glare. While  the p l u r a l i s t s r e a l i z e t h e s e v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s  g r o u p l e a d e r , t h e y r a r e l y c o n s i d e r them p r a c t i c a l m e t h o d s leadership.  Where overlapping membership  are a v a i l a b l e to the  of  maintaining  c r e a t e s a p l u r a l i t y of g r o u p  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s for i n d i v i d u a l s , the m a i n t a s k f a c i n g the l e a d e r ( s ) the s o l i c i t a t i o n of m e m b e r s cohesion.  If l e a d e r s w i s h t h e i r g r o u p s  membership  of the g r o u p harmony  T h u s , the p r i m a r y  a n d c o h e s i o n of the g r o u p ,  i n c r e a s e i n the group's  membership.  and  to be s u c c e s s f u l a n d to g r o w i n s i z e ,  i s the s i n g l e m o s t e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t ;  considerations pale. harmony  a n d the m a i n t e n a n c e  of any g r o u p i s  beside it, all  other  t a s k of a g r o u p l e a d e r i s t o m a i n t a i n  f a c i l i t a t i n g an a t m o s p h e r e  c o n d u c i v e to  Those l e a d e r s h i p t o o l s w h i c h prove  the an  costly  25 t o the l e a d e r s h i p  are u s u a l l y n o t f e a s i b l e  alternatives.  Conclusion At the c o r e of the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of the g r o u p , p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l persons;  i t i s h i s nature.  l e a d to the f o r m a t i o n  as a s o c i a l animal.  then, i s  Man must interact w i t h  In t u r n , t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l , i n a n a t u r a l  of g r o u p s  the  of i n d i v i d u a l s r e v o l v i n g  around  other  progression,  particular  ^ T h e c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s have i l l u s t r a t e d an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of l e a d e r s h i p t o o l s b u t , b e c a u s e of t h e i r b e l i e f i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e of g r o u p s , a n d t h u s the a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f g r o u p l e a d e r s to t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p , t h e y f a i l to u n d e r s t a n d the c o m p l e t e p o t e n t i a l w h i c h t h e s e t o o l s o f f e r to g r o u p leaders.  A Heritage  interests within society. groups  of  Classical  Pluralism  B e c a u s e a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y are members  of some t y p e , a n d m o s t members  of more t h a n o n e , t h e s e f o r m a t i o n s  of are  n a t u r a l l y the m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t of s o c i a l a n a l y s i s . , In t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n of g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y t h e p l u r a l i s t s h a v e s t i p u l a t e d a s y s t e m s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e to a l a i s s e z - f a i r e s t y l e of organization.  B e c a u s e groups  economic  are the a c t u a l s o u r c e of "power" w i t h i n s o c i e t y ,  the s t a t e ' s r o l e i s a k i n to t h a t of a n u m p i r e , r e a c t i n g to g r o u p i n i t i a t i v e s and l a c k i n g i n t h e a b i l i t y of i n d e p e n d e n c e  of t h o u g h t or a c t i o n .  The  groups,  i n t e r n a l l y , m a y be h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n terms of l e a d e r s h i p , but group g o a l s a n d v a l u e s are a l w a y s the p r o d u c t of the i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h c o m p o s e  them.  It i s i n p a r t b e c a u s e of t h i s p r i m a r y r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l t h a t no s i n g l e g r o u p i s a b l e to d e v e l o p a p o s i t i o n of h e g e m o n y  w i t h i n s o c i e t y , a l w a y s f o r c e d to  c o m p e t e w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r g r o u p s i n a s y s t e m of r e l a t i v e l y p e r f e c t g r o u p competition. T h e p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s a d o p t e d a r o u g h t y p o l o g y of i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n interest groups.  T h e y a d m i t t e d t h a t a l l b u t the s m a l l e s t g r o u p i n g s  required the development They  of some v a g u e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t y l e of g r o u p  s t r e s s e d , however, that t h i s development  individuals  organization.  of a g r o u p l e a d e r s h i p d i d  i m p a i r the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nature of group g o a l s . maintain harmonious  of  not  B e c a u s e the group l e a d e r  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the group membership,  While  must  the ends sought by  g r o u p w o u l d be i n c o m p l e t e a g r e e m e n t w i t h the g o a l s a n d v a l u e s h a r b o u r e d the i n d i v i d u a l group members.  of  the  by  the p l u r a l i s t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of  "leadership t o o l s , " they argued that they were p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous,  which  any  l e a d e r u l t i m a t e l y u s e d at h i s / h e r p o t e n t i a l p e r i l . T h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t i l l c o m p r i s e t h e b a s i s of group a n a l y s i s .  The difference a r i s e s , however,  attributed to these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  contemporary  i n the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e n o w T h e p l u r a l i s t s s t r e s s e d the  A Heritage  of  Classical  Pluralism  group n a t u r e of s o c i e t y a n d the i m p o r t a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l a s a member group.  They erred, however,  of a  i n f a i l i n g to look, at the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e of the  interest group, i t s internal organization and d y n a m i c s .  The n e o p l u r a l i s t s , a s  w i l l be s h o w n , i n h e r i t e d t h i s t r a i t , a l o n g w i t h m u c h of the r e m a i n d e r of the c l a s s i c a l pluralist model.  22  Neo  Chapter  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  Two  NEO PLURALISM: A SECOND  GENERATION  In r e c e n t t i m e s c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t t h o u g h t h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d for b e c o m i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e m o v e d f r o m the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l e x p l a i n and predict.  Contemporaries  r e a l i t y i t has sought  of T r u m a n a n d B e n t l e y , a m o n g t h e m  to  Robert  Dahl a n d C h a r l e s L i n d b l o m , r e c o g n i z e d t h i s i n a b i l i t y of p l u r a l i s m I to e f f e c t i v e l y e x p l a i n the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e of r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  society.'''  As a  r e s u l t , t h e y s o u g h t to a l t e r a n d r e - a l i g n the t h e o r y w i t h the p e r c e i v e d r e a l i t y of p o s t - w a r North A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . The G e n e r a t i o n  Gap  One of the k e y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g m a r k s of the n e o p l u r a l i s t m o d e l i s a more d e t a i l e d and contemporary predecessor.  While  v i e w of the s t a t e t h a n t h a t o f f e r e d b y i t s  classical  i n i t i a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t achievement, the  p l u r a l i s t d i s m a n t l i n g of the m o n o l i t h i c , h o m o g e n e o u s  original  c o n c e p t i o n o f the s t a t e  o f f e r e d b y H e g e l a n d o t h e r s s u f f e r s f r o m t h e s a m e b l i g h t of e x t r e m i s m a s t h a t w h i c h t h e y are s e e k i n g t o b r i n g to d i s r e p u t e .  A s the d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e  has  i n d i c a t e d , t h e c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of the s t a t e i s s i m p l y a n e x t e n s i o n of t h i s e a r l i e r p o s i t i o n .  As Earl Latham has so energetically written:  The p l u r a l i s t s d i d u s e f u l w o r k w h e n t h e y e v a p o r a t e d the m i s t y f i g m e n t of the s t a t e w h i c h t h e i d e a l i s t s h a d p r e s e n t e d  F o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n s of n e o - p l u r a l i s t t h o u g h t , s e e : l ) R o b e r t D a h l , Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy(New H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982); a n d 2 ) C h a r l e s L i n d b l o m , Politics and Markets(Nev? Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1977).  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  a s a c o l o s s u s of u n i t y , a m o n o l i t h , a n a b s o l u t e , a t o t a l system s w a l l o w i n g and a s s i m i l a t i n g a l l personal b e l i e f s , a t t a c h m e n t s , o b l i g a t i o n s , a n d r e l a t i o n s e n d o w e d w i t h some of the a t t r i b u t e s of human p e r s o n a l i t y l i k e w i l l , a n d h a v i n g a n a u t o n o m o u s a n d i n d e p e n d e n t l i f e a n d e x i s t e n c e a p a r t from the l i v e s a n d p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f t h e members o f t h e p o l i t i c a l community.  2  What i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, p l u r a l i s t s to extinguish a meaningful  i s t h e a c t u a l i n a b i l i t y of t h e c l a s s i c a l  role  for the state.  While  it was possible  for p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s t o d i s r e g a r d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t a t e w i t h i n t h e i r t h e y c o u l d n o t c o n c e i v e a m o d e l w i t h t h e function  of the state  unfulfilled.  Thus, w h i l e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e w a s presumed minimal, those functions performed  model,  previously  by the state were r e - d i s t r i b u t e d to other elements w i t h i n the s y s t e m :  church, union and professional organizations,  among others.  T h e a s p e c t of  p e r s o n a l i t y w a s t h u s e x o r c i s e d from t h e s t a t e o n l y t o be r e s u r r e c t e d s p e c i f i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  within  That i s , w h i l e i t w a s argued that the state  could  not p o s s e s s a n i d e n t i t y separate from that of the i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h composed i t , other o r g a n i z a t i o n s  apparently  could.  The predicament  of t h e p l u r a l i s t m o d e l w a s  t h a t , w h i l e i t c o u l d n o t r e c o n c i l e t h e r o l e of t h e s t a t e w i t h i t s i n d i v i d u a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s , i t perceived a functional need for this role w i t h i n s o c i e t y .  The  coordination function served by the state w a s considered n e c e s s a r y to f a c i l i t a t e the r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l community  they ultimately envisioned,  b a s e d upon a federation of constituent groups  a  community  replacing the consolidated and  authoritarian c o n c e p t i o n of the state envisaged by the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s t s . Thus,  i t i s not the function of the state w h i c h i s forsaken by the p l u r a l i s t  s c h o o l , merely the state a s a unit of a n a l y s i s . The r e a l i t i e s of representation  Earl Latham, Political  Science  i n the modern p o l i t y are s i m i l a r l y  "The Group B a s i s o f P o l i t i c s : N o t e s f o r a T h e o r y , "  Review  46:1(1952), pp.  376-97.  ^This notion w a s first suggested by Latham, op. c i t .  left  American  Neo  u n t r e a t e d b y the p l u r a l i s t s .  Pluralism:  A Second  P a u l P r o s s a r t i c u l a t e s the a p p a r e n t l y  Generation  fundamental  i n a b i l i t y of p l u r a l i s m I to r e c o n c i l e t w o c o n t r a d i c t o r y but n e c e s s a r y of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i n modern d e m o c r a c i e s :  space and s e c t o r . *  components  It i s a  serious  l i m i t a t i o n of p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y that d o e s not a c c o u n t for the n e c e s s i t y of contemporary  governments  and a s e c t o r a l s e n s e . systems where  to a p p e a l to t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n b o t h a  It h a s b e c o m e  an a c c e p t e d r e a l i t y of p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e  a s p i r a n t s a p p e a l to v o t e r s , n o t o n l y a s c o n s t i t u e n t s of the  w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y r e s i d e , but a l s o a s members  competition between opposing groups for t h i s n e c e s s i t y of Simple naivete  a n d the  of the  s u p p o s e d to e x i s t b e t w e e n c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s  As has been noted above,  the  and imperfect  s e r v e s a s the g u a r d i a n  s y s t e m of m a c h i n a t i o n s  is simply naive.  potential  b y one g r o u p , of a r e l a t i v e m o n o p o l y  of  within  o f the p r e c i o u s d i v e r s i t y  A t t r i b u t i n g s u c h a c r u c i a l t h e o r e t i c a l r o l e to s u c h a  it i s argued,  within  v i g i l a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r , a l e r t a n d a w a r e of the  society which ultimately  unreliable  account  pluralist  t h i s b a l a n c e i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d b y  It i s t h e n a t u r a l a n d d y n a m i c n a t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n of m a n  pluralism.  perfect  this i m p l i e s , they cannot adequately  s i m i l a r l y p l a y s a role in this development  a b u s e r e s u l t i n g f r o m the a t t a i n m e n t , power.  ridings  governing.  c o n c e p t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m  ever-watchful  in  of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s e c t o r s .  B e c a u s e of the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of an e q u i l i b r i u m of g r o u p s  society.  geographical  of  thoroughly  a s the s y s t e m of free  enterprise,  The a c t u a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s u c h a t o o l i n a c t i n g  as an e f f i c i e n t m e c h a n i s m of control and a l l o c a t i o n has l o n g been doubted  and,  i n i t s e l f , c a n no l o n g e r be t o u t e d a s a n a c c e p t a b l e mode of c o n f l i c t m a n a g e m e n t . "*  S e e P a u l P r o s s , Group Politics and Public Policy(ToTonto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986), c h . l l . W h i l e P r o s s w a s n o t the f i r s t to a r t i c u l a t e t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n , he i s the m o s t r e c e n t p r o p o n e n t . 4  ^Neo p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s s u c h a s P r o s s h a v e  s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the  remarkable  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  The e l e m e n t of p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y i s similarly questioned  by the n e o p l u r a l i s t s .  In e a r l y w r i t i n g s , Robert Dahl  suggested that open competition between groups a c c e s s to the p o l i c y p r o c e s s .  6  Theodore  a l l o w e d v i r t u a l l y any  L o w i , however,  has  group  p o i n t s out t h a t  within  the p o l i c y p r o c e s s there e x i s t s a c a p a c i t y for " n o n - d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ; " t h a t i s , groups  s i m p l y w i l l not c o n s i d e r options deemed u n d e s i r a b l e .  Those  options  w h i c h are n o t c o n s i d e r e d c a n n o t b e c o m e p a r t of the p o l i c y s o l u t i o n . groups  Thus,  those  i n a p o s i t i o n of i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s s i m p l y e l e c t not  consider options  d e e m e d h o s t i l e to t h e i r c a u s e , t h u s c o n f i n i n g the d e b a t e  p o l i c y o p t i o n s to a s e l e c t i o n of c h o i c e s s a n c t i o n e d b y the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d groups. organized;  This has resulted, Lowi argues,  c a p i t a l i s m f o r the  to  upon  relevant i n : " . . . s o c i a l i s m for  the  unorganized."  P r o s s , i n p a r t i c u l a r a m o n g the n e o - p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s , d e v e l o p s  a detailed  m o d e l w i t h i n w h i c h the e l e m e n t s of s p a c e a n d s e c t o r are c o m p a t i b l y  accounted  Q  for.  In d o i n g  so, however,  d e s c r i p t i o n of s o c i e t y . of i n t e r e s t g r o u p s systems.  he a l s o c o n f i r m s  Contrary  an e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l  to p o p u l a r p e r c e p t i o n , he a r g u e s ,  d o e s n o t promote  the  anti-democratic tendencies within  pluralist presence political  U s i n g what i s an e s s e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n a l i s t r a t i o n a l e , P r o s s argues  w i t h o u t the a i d of pressure groups modem welfare  i n the d e v e l o p m e n t  of p o l i c y , l e g i s l a t u r e s  s t a t e s w o u l d continue to become overloaded.  continue u n t i l the s y s t e m i s overburdened  This process  to the point where l e g i t i m a c y  i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s e n s u s of the t i m e s w i t h i n w h i c h T r u m a n w a s w r i t i n g m a y f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n the e m e r g e n c e of h i s v i e w p o i n t . 6  United  that  F o r an example of Dahl's c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t w r i t i n g s , s e e : S r a t e s ( C h i c a g o , II: R a n d M c N a l l y , 1976).  Democracy  of  would  imbued have  in the  T h e o d o r e L o w i , The End of Libera/fsm(New Y o r k : Norton a n d C o . , 1979). L o w i h a s e m e r g e d a s one of the h a r s h e s t c r i t i c s o f p l u r a l i s t t h o u g h t a r g u i n g , o n c e a g a i n , a n d t o g e t h e r w i t h P r o s s , t h a t p l u r a l i s m i s i n c a p a b l e of accommodating both f u n c t i o n a l l y and s p a t i a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d demands. °This m o d e l i s p r e s e n t e d i n , P r o s s , c h . 1 1 . 7  Neo  Pluralism:  w i t h i n the s y s t e m by the consent of the electorate i s l o s t . pressure groups  Generation  Therefore,  he a r g u e s ,  a r e a f u n c t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y , a l l o w i n g p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s t o b e made  more q u i c k l y a n d w i t h l e s s d i r e c t i n p u t from l e g i s l a t u r e s . is a prolonged  A Second  The envisioned  a n d l e s s turbulent l i f e for the government of the d a y .  9  effect  He  writes: P r e s s u r e group p o l i t i c s i s a s y m p t o m , n o t t h e c a u s e . . . t h o u g h the t h r e a t o f t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s t a t e c a n b y n o m e a n s be ignored i n Canada, our highly v i s i b l e and active pressure group s y s t e m i s not o n l y far from b e i n g inherently p e r v e r s e , it may a c t u a l l y contain the means of overcoming the s p a c e s e c t o r t e n s i o n described.^®  Clearly, however, the n e o - p l u r a l i s t school i s not convinced of the s e l f r e g u l a t i n g nature of p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y , nor the presence of a natural state of equilibrium.  T h e y argue t h a t w h i l e there m a y b e a c o m m o n  right  to participate  w i t h i n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a p p a r a t u s , t h e r e i s n o t a c o m m o n opportunity. from promoting  Far  any type of natural equilibrium, p l u r a l i s m accentuates those  and economic d i s p a r i t i e s already e x i s t i n g . v i e w e d a s , "a monstrous  social  At i t s extreme, p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y i s  engine of inequity c a p a b l e of u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y i n g the  s o c i e t y that created i t . " ^  T h e arena o f p o l i c y m a k i n g i s n o t a m a r k e t p l a c e  enjoying the euphoria of perfect competition, but a forum w i t h i n w h i c h may be l i m i t e d to those capable of mustering the requirements  admittance  of membership.  Neo P l u r a l i s t S o c i e t y W i t h i n t h i s forum management b y c o n s e n s u s i s the norm.  government  T h e sub-  maintains a l o w - k e y , bureaucratic and c o n c i l i a t o r y style of  management b y ensuring that a l l matters dealt w i t h remain part of the "routine"  9  Ibid.  1 0  Ibid.,  p. 2 4 9 .  1 1  Ibid.,  p. 2 3 4 .  Neo  b u s i n e s s of government.  Pluralism:  A Second  By ensuring a l l elements of d a y - t o - d a y  kept at the bureaucratic l e v e l , the sub-government  Generation  b u s i n e s s are  p o l i c y body c a n reduce to a  m i n i m u m t h e d e g r e e o f o u t s i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e a l l o w e d t o permeate t h e p o l i c y process.  T h e u t i l i t y o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s t w o - f o l d : i t k e e p s t h e p u b l i c e y e from  l i g h t i n g too l o n g upon the d e l i c a t e b u s i n e s s of government  a n d , more  importantly,  k e e p s t h e l e s s p r i v i l e g e d g r o u p s from c o m i n g t o o c l o s e t o t h e j e a l o u s l y  guarded  center of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . W h e n i s s u e s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y emerge a s o p e n a n d p u b l i c t o p i c s o f d e b a t e , it i s due to the m a l f u n c t i o n i n g of t h i s e x c l u s i v e p r o c e s s of p o l i c y  development.  Both the c o m p l e x i t y a n d volume of debate on i s s u e s of p u b l i c c o n c e r n i s s i m p l y too burdensome  a l o a d f o r t h e forum o f o p e n d i s c u s s i o n .  There i s both a l a c k of  s p a c e w i t h i n the p u b l i c medium, and a l a c k of i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s w i t h i n the general population, to serve i t w e l l .  For these reasons the overwhelming  preponderance of d i s c u s s i o n , debate and d e c i s i o n making t a k e s p l a c e w e l l out of the g a z e o f t h e p u b l i c e y e .  The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s upon the nature of the  p o l i c y process i s , to be sure,  profound.  Pross argues that, particularly i n the p o s t - w a r e r a , the i n t e n s i t y and g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f p o l i c y d e b a t e h a s p r o d u c e d a policy  community,  a  r e l a t i v e l y s e l e c t a n d w e l l - i n f o r m e d group of p e r s o n s grouped together t o better determine the r e l e v a n t i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s i n the development of p u b l i c p o l i c y . W i t h the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g importance of government w i t h i n the modern democratic w e l f a r e s t a t e , i t s a c t i o n s a r e b e c o m i n g more w o r t h y o f a t t e n t i o n b y a l a r g e r number o f i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s .  I n t e r e s t g r o u p s , among o t h e r a c t o r s , h a v e f o r m e d a  s i g n i f i c a n t component of this n e w p o l i c y community.  O f f i c i a l s , w i s h i n g to  determine the response of a particular s e c t i o n of the population to a prospective p o l i c y p r o p o s a l , m a y a p p r o a c h o n e o r more a p p r o p r i a t e g r o u p s f o r a s a m p l e response.  They c o u l d s e e k a d v i c e i n the formative s t a g e s of l e g i s l a t i o n , a n d  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  e v e n a s s i s t a n c e i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the f i n a l p o l i c y o u t p u t s . bureaucratic framework  Generation  Within  the  o f f i c i a l s may o p e n l y u s e the s u p p o r t of s p e c i f i c g r o u p s  to  i n d i c a t e the p r o j e c t e d s u c c e s s of p o l i c i e s , t h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l benefit.  There i s e v e n the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , w h e r e o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s  n o t e x i s t , g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s w i l l s e e k to e n c o u r a g e t h e i r c r e a t i o n i n a n  do  effort  to i n c o r p o r a t e t h e m i n t o the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . W i t h i n t h i s p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y the n e o p l u r a l i s t s p o s i t four b a s i c for i n t e r e s t g r o u p s :  communication, legitimation, regulation and  To e f f e c t i v e l y p e r f o r m t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a t t r i b u t e s of f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  administration.  a group must p o s s e s s c e r t a i n  In p a r t i c u l a r , e f f e c t i v e g r o u p s m u s t p o s s e s s a  f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e , c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of r o l e s , a s y s t e m for the g e n e r a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , a c o l l e c t i v e m e m o r y , r u l e s g o v e r n i n g b e h a v i o u r p e r h a p s m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , p r o c e d u r e s for e f f e c t i v e l y r e a c h i n g a n d decisions.  While  functions  and and,  implementing  " s o l i d a r y " or " l a t e n t " g r o u p s l a c k the m e a n s to a c t e f f e c t i v e l y  i n a c o o p e r a t i v e m a n n e r , o r g a n i z e d i n t e r e s t s are t y p i c a l l y q u i t e c a p a b l e of  such  concerted actions.  The I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of  An i n f r e q u e n t  Groups  c o m p o n e n t of n e o p l u r a l i s t w r i t i n g s h a v e u t i l i z e d P h i l i p 12  S e l z n i c k ' s i s s u e - o r i e n t e d / i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d typology  institutionalization  of p r e s s u r e g r o u p s  of p r e s s u r e g r o u p s .  The  i s the p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h a n  organization becomes an i n s t i t u t i o n , how a " t e c h n i c a l instrument d e s i g n e d as a means to d e f i n i t e g o a l s , " becomes a " r e s p o n s i v e , adaptive organism." significant within this understanding  that organizations  It i s  are n o t s e e n t o c r e a t e  P h i l i p S e l z n i c k , Leadership in Administration(Nev/ Y o r k : 1957). Pross gives S e l z n i c k ' s typology e x t e n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e g i n n i n g o n p. 114, o p . c i t . 1 2  1 3  P r o s s , p.  114.  Neo  v a l u e s b u t , r a t h e r , t o embody t h e m .  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  A s t h i s p r o c e s s d e v e l o p s the o r g a n i z a t i o n  becomes increasingly institutionalized.  In t u r n , a s t h e g r o u p d e v e l o p s i t s l e v e l  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , i t i s b e t t e r a b l e t o perform i t s f u n c t i o n s . S e l z n i c k ' s typology,  s i m i l a r b u t n o t b y a n y m e a n s i d e n t i c a l to t h a t  b y the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l , c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a l o n g a l i n e a r of d e v e l o p m e n t .  continuum  At one extreme l i e s the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d g r o u p , e x h i b i t i n g f i v e  developmental characteristics. cohesion.  offered  l)It w i l l p o s s e s s organizational continuity and  Continuity, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s an important element for m a i n t a i n i n g a  w a t c h f u l e y e u p o n t h e e v o l u t i o n of n e w p o l i c i e s .  2)The g r o u p w i l l p o s s e s s  e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e of i t s a r e a ( s ) o f c o n c e r n , e n a b l i n g i t t o d e t e r m i n e significant fluctuations in conditions. base.  3)The g r o u p w i l l h a v e a s t a b l e  membership  T h i s m e m b e r s h i p w i l l t y p i c a l l y be a t t r a c t e d b y s e c o n d a r y i n d u c e m e n t s a n d  e a s i l y s w a y e d i n the determination of p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s by the career l e a d e r s h i p of t h e g r o u p .  4)There w i l l e x i s t b o t h c o n c r e t e a n d i m m e d i a t e  o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n the group.  operational  In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e s e t h e  p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e g r o u p w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t l y g e n e r a l t o a l l o w t h e n e c e s s a r y bargaining w i t h government.  5)The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s of t h e g r o u p w i l l  be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a n y p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e .  The group w i l l  rarely prejudice i t s p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n w i t h government over a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e i f the attainment of that o b j e c t i v e w i l l r e s u l t i n p o s s i b l e  unfavourable  d i s p o s i t i o n of government p o l i c y makers toward that group i n future.  These  groups represent the most s u c c e s s f u l and p r i v i l e g e d of the groups at work w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , often f i n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers to them by government,  provided  and p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n of trust and c o n f i d e n c e by  mandarins w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . At t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e o f S e l z n i c k ' s c o n t i n u u m a v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t t y p e of p r e s s u r e group i s found, and one that t y p i c a l l y a c c o u n t s for the l a r g e s t  number  Neo  of g r o u p s w i t h i n t h i s p o l i c y p r o c e s s . oriented pressure groups  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  A c c o r d i n g to S e l z n i c k ' s t y p o l o g y ,  exhibit seven characteristic elements.  issue-  l)These  groups  p o s s e s s a poor o r g a n i z a t i o n structure r e l a t i v e to their i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d counterparts.  T h e r e i s a l i m i t e d degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  c o h e s i o n i s often n o n - e x i s t e n t .  c o n t i n u i t y , and group  2)The p r a c t i c a l w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e of  i s o f t e n s i m p l i s t i c , or s i m p l y i n c o r r e c t .  3)The m e m b e r s h i p  government  of t h e g r o u p i s  t y p i c a l l y f l u i d , n e v e r d e v e l o p i n g a s t a b l e b a s i s w i t h w h i c h to a t t r a c t n e w members.  4)Because  of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r e c a r i o u s n e s s , the group w i l l  experience considerable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n formulating long-range  o b j e c t i v e s , and  a d h e r e n c e t o a n y s u c h p o l i c i e s w i l l be v i r t u a l l y u n h e a r d of.  5)Contributing to  the i n c a p a c i t y f o r c o h e r e n t a c t i o n w i l l be t h e t y p i c a l l y l o w r e g a r d d i s p l a y e d b y such groups  for those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mechanisms they have managed to develop  for t h e e x e c u t i o n o f a n y p o l i c y g o a l s . general p h i l o s o p h i c a l development, defeat i n return for l o n g - r u n a s m a l l number  of dominant  w i l l become dependent.  6)The g r o u p w i l l l a c k a s u f f i c i e n t l y  t h u s p r o h i b i t i n g i t from a c c e p t i n g  reward.  short-term  T y p i c a l l y , the group w i l l be o b s e s s e d w i t h  i s s u e s u p o n w h i c h i t s r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e  7)Its i n a b i l i t y t o b r o a d e n i t s g e n e r a l  appeal w i l l r e s u l t i n a narrow and s p e c i a l i z e d membership  philosophical  base.  Both of t h e s e i d e a l c a s e s represent extremes w i t h w h i c h no group i s ever l i k e l y to c o m p l e t e l y conform.  Furthermore,  accruing to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d groups, i s not without i t s c o s t s . dilemma when burdened membership.  d e s p i t e the apparent  advantages  such a l e v e l of organizational  development  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group b e c o m e s trapped i n a  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the trust of both government  and i t s  If t h e g r o u p a p p e a r s t o o c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h p o l i c y m a k e r s t h e  l e a d e r s h i p c a n f a c e a s e r i o u s l o s s of c r e d i b i l i t y .  What i s more, once a group i s  an a c c e p t e d and r e c o g n i z e d component of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , i t i s no longer to r a i s e a l l i s s u e s of concern to i t s membership.  free  It m u s t b e c o m e s e l e c t i v e i n  Neo  b o t h the t y p e s , of i s s u e s r a i s e d a n d the m e t h o d s B e c a u s e of i t s b u r e a u c r a t i c  Pluralism:  employed  the m e m b e r s h i p .  Generation  in raising  them.  s t r u c t u r e , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group w i l l n o t  as q u i c k l y as l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y organized groups, amongst  A Second  On the other h a n d ,  possibly creating  i s s u e - o r i e n t e d groups  respond  frustrations  are  capable  of s u c h q u i c k r e s p o n s e s b e c a u s e of t h e i r f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e a n d w i l l i n g n e s s l o b b y o n any i s s u e .  Issue-oriented  p o s i t i o n s w i t h government,  groups  do not' p o s s e s s e s p e c i a l l y  a c o m p l e x nature w h i c h require  of the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y .  prolonged  Groups  a n d the  While  Yet, on questions  of  making  to m a i n t a i n t h e i r  stance  time.  State  s p e c i f i c s v a r y b e t w e e n p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m s , a c c e s s to k e y  government d e c i s i o n makers i s recognized as a u n i v e r s a l l y lobby groups  by  a n d e x p e r t w o r k o n the p o l i c y  pressure p o i n t s , s u c h groups w i l l u s u a l l y falter, unable o v e r a p e r i o d of  privileged  o n the w h o l e , and t h u s h a v e l i t t l e to l o s e  t r a n s g r e s s i n g the a c c e p t e d norms  to  of a l l t y p e s .  valuable tool  for  The a b i l i t y t o c o n f e r w i t h t h o s e i n p o s i t i o n s of  power  w i t h i n the p o l i c y m a k i n g b u r e a u c r a c y b e s t o w s an e l e m e n t of r e c o g n i t i o n u p o n a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p , a n i n d i c a t i o n t o o t h e r s t h i s g r o u p i s a n a c c e p t e d member p o l i c y community.  T h i s recognition i s , i n effect, an acknowledgement  within this select cadre. vital information,  The g r o u p i s r e c o g n i z e d a s a h a r b i n g e r  a r e s i d u a l of p o w e r a n d i n f l u e n c e at e a s e w i t h i n  bureaucratic machinations  of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s .  of  of  of the power  potentially  the  T h i s p o s i t i o n of r e s p e c t  and  i n f l u e n c e i s t h e m o s t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group. a c c e p t e d member  The n e o p l u r a l i s t s m a i n t a i n t h a t i f a g r o u p i s  of the i n n e r p o l i c y a p p a r a t u s  "pressure" d e c i s i o n makers.  i t w i l l not s e e k to a c t u a l l y  A methodical, highly organized  c o o p e r a t i o n b e t t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e s the m a n n e r  an  s y s t e m of  mutual  of i n t e r a c t i o n a t w o r k w i t h i n  the  • Neo  inner p o l i c y echelons.  Indeed,  Pluralism:  A Second  to r e s o r t to the u s e of d e m a n d s  Gene  ration  for p a r t i c u l a r  a c t i o n s i s a l l b u t a d m i t t i n g a l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t i n f l u e n c e a n d r e c o g n i t i o n  within  the p o l i c y s p h e r e t o a c c o m p l i s h the t a s k t h r o u g h r e g u l a r i z e d  channels.  t a c t i c s are u s u a l l y the r e s e r v e of the i s s u e - o r i e n t e d g r o u p s ,  as s u c c e s s f u l  institutionalized organizations order.  Such  r a r e l y b r e a k r a n k s w i t h i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c  pecking-  1 4  It s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d ,  w h i l e m o s t p o l i c y i s s u e s are c o n s i d e r e d  d e a l t w i t h b y t h i s s m a l l c a d r e w i t h i n the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y , e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s r u l e . requiring  Commissions  of i n q u i r y  determined  In t e r m s of s i m p l e v o l u m e ,  however,  T h u s , w h i l e t h e more c o n t e n t i o u s  the v a s t majority  Leadership  of p o l i c y i s s u e s do  d e b a t e w i t h i n the  c o n s u l t a t i o n s may  the m a j o r i t y  be policy's  of p o l i c y  is  policy  and s a l i e n t i s s u e s r e a c h  public  not. "* 1  Tools  S i m i l a r to the t o o l s of l e a d e r s h i p d i s c u s s e d by Truman, r e c o g n i z e t h e e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r i n g t o o l s of m a n i p u l a t i o n leaders, depending Pross offers  interest,  available.  b y b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the  community.  obvious  public  T y p i c a l l y , l e g i s l a t o r s w i l l s e e k a more s a l i e n t r o l e i n the  preparation.  forums,  are c l e a r l y  m a y be e s t a b l i s h e d , p r o l o n g e d  l e g i s l a t u r e m a y b e n e c e s s a r y , or i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l required.  there e x i s t  F o r p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y i s s u e s of o b v i o u s  a n o p e n s t y l e of p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , forums  and  u p o n the g r o u p ' s  an interesting  the n e o  pluralists  a v a i l a b l e to g r o u p  p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of d e v e l o p m e n t .  Of  these,  characterization:  D i s c o u r s e , c o e r c i o n , a n d c o r r u p t i o n are t h e m e a n s g r o u p s u s e to obtain their g o a l s . How they use these methods depends o n t h e i r c o n c e r n s , t h e r e s o u r c e s t h e y h a v e at h a n d , a n d t h e  1 4  Ibid.  1 5  Ibid.  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  e n v i r o n m e n t s u r r o u n d i n g the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . W h e n d r i v e n , e v e r y i n t e r e s t w i l l u s e w h a t e v e r t o o l s i t c a n m u s t e r to protect i t s own. E v e n i l l e g a l m e a n s may not be e x c l u d e d . ^  In f a c t the v a r i o u s t o o l s a v a i l a b l e to g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y are r a t h e r more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d l e g i t i m a t e t h a n P r o s s w o u l d h a v e one b e l i e v e .  These  t o o l s c a n be c o n c e i v e d i n terms of the r e s o u r c e s of the v a r i o u s g r o u p s , the m o s t i m p o r t a n t b e i n g k n o w l e d g e , or " i n f o r m a t i o n . "  The p r e p o n d e r a n c e of a  group's  a c t i v i t y w i l l t a k e the form of an i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e f o r m e m b e r s of the p o l i c y community.  B u r e a u c r a t s a n d o t h e r p o l i c y m a k e r s , i n r e t u r n for s p e c i a l i z e d  i n f o r m a t i o n a n d d a t a o n a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r of p o l i c y c o n c e r n , w i l l o f f e r c o n c e s s i o n s to g r o u p s .  valued  A l s o , the w a y i n w h i c h the i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d , i t s  p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s or b i a s , c a n a s s i s t i n p r o d u c i n g d e s i r a b l e o u t c o m e s w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s .  S i m i l a r l y , i f the i n f o r m a t i o n r e a c h i n g a g r o u p ' s  membership  c a n be c o n t r o l l e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the o p i n i o n s a n d a c t i o n s of t h o s e m e m b e r s .  Furthermore,  as P r o s s h a s pointed out, a group w h i c h  m a i n t a i n s a p o s i t i o n of i m p o r t a n c e w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , t h r o u g h i t s u s e of i n f o r m a t i o n , h a s p r o d u c e d a g r o u p w h i c h i s s o m e w h a t more t h a n the s u m of i t s parts.  A s he w r i t e s : An o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t s t a n d s i n a r e l a t i o n o f t r u s t b e t w e e n i t s members and government not only obtains a p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e m e m b e r s h i p t h a t i s n o t a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t a c q u i r e s a n a u t h o r i t y o v e r a n d a b o v e the w i l l i n g n e s s of members to support it. ^  T h e m a n d a t e of a g r o u p i s i t s s e c o n d m a j o r r e s o u r c e w i t h i n the p o l i c y community.  A s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e of l e g i t i m a c y p r o v i d e s a g r o u p w i t h a n e s s e n t i a l  i n g r e d i e n t c a p a b l e of e n s u r i n g i t s v i e w p o i n t i s c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the p o l i c y process.  O n l y i f a g r o u p ' s m a n d a t e i s c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , w i l l b u r e a u c r a t s be  1 6  I b i d . , p.  130.  1 7  Ibid.,  186.  p.  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  e a g e r to e n l i s t i t s s u p p o r t of p r o p o s e d p r o g r a m s , h o p i n g to o b t a i n p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the p o l i c y .  The i n v o l v e m e n t of s u c h a  g r o u p i n the d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i l l h e l p to e n s u r e the e n d r e s u l t w i l l e n g e n d e r p u b l i c s u p p o r t w i t h i n the a f f e c t e d s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . To r e c e i v e a t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n p u t i n t o the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , a h i g h degree  of  s u p p o r t from a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the a f f e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d . F i n a n c i a l w e a l t h i s the t h i r d and p e r h a p s m o s t o b v i o u s of the r e s o u r c e s of i n t e r e s t g r o u p s .  major  The m a j o r i t y of r e v e n u e r a i s e d b y g r o u p s  t y p i c a l l y the r e s u l t of m e m b e r s h i p d u e s . p u r p o s e f u l l y m a i n t a i n e d at l o w l e v e l s .  T h e s e d u e s , h o w e v e r , are  often  The r a t i o n a l e i n v o l v e d s u g g e s t s i t i s  more s i g n i f i c a n t t o p o s s e s s a l a r g e number of m e m b e r s w i t h l o w  membership  d u e s , t h a n a s m a l l number of m e m b e r s w i t h l a r g e m e m b e r s h i p d u e s . a p p e a r s , t h e n , that membership numbers  is  While  it  are more i m p o r t a n t t h a n the c a p a c i t y t o  r a i s e m o n e y , t h e r e i s a p o i n t w h e r e , o n c e a l a r g e m e m b e r s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the p u r s u i t of f i n a n c e s m u s t p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e w i t h i n t h e g r o u p .  The  greater  the amount of w e a l t h p o s s e s s e d by a g r o u p , t h e more e l a b o r a t e a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d f u n c t i o n s i t c a n perform.  I n f o r m a t i o n , to be of u s e to t h e g r o u p , m u s t be  gathered and organized coherently, a p r o c e s s requiring trained r e s e a r c h e r s , o f f i c e s a n d s u p p o r t s t a f f , a l l of w h i c h m u s t be p a i d for.  Ultimately, for an  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group to s u c c e e d at i t s p r o f e s s e d f u n c t i o n , a c c e s s to s u f f i c i e n t 18 f u n d i n g w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . In o r d e r to u s e t h e s e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d t o o l s t o t h e i r f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l , however, k n o w l e d g e apart from that of t h e i r own i n t e r e s t area i s required.  A  group may p o s s e s s b o u n d l e s s amounts of s i g n i f i c a n t information, mandate  and  m o n e y , y e t be u n a b l e t o u s e i t to i t s f u l l e s t e f f e c t .  and  S e e R o b e r t P r e s t h u s , Elite M a c M i l l a n . 1973). l o  Accommodations  Without  in Canadian  a thorough  Politics(ToTonto:  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  f a m i l i a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y and i t s p a r t i c u l a r d y n a m i c i d i o s y n c r a c i e s , m u c h e f f o r t c a n be w a s t e d i n i l l - a d v i s e d a n d c l u m s y a t t e m p t s to i n f l u e n c e , o f t e n r e d u c i n g the b a r g a i n i n g p o w e r p o s s e s s e d b y a group.  In  e s s e n c e , w h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s a f a m i l i a r i t y of the a c t u a l f l o w - c h a r t of d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o w e r , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m the o f f i c i a l h i e r a r c h y of t h e s y s t e m .  A s s t r e s s e d e a r l i e r , a group m u s t p o s s e s s a d e q u a t e  working  k n o w l e d g e of t h e h i e r a r c h y i t i s w o r k i n g w i t h i n a n d a g a i n s t , i f i t i s t o be effective.  W i t h o u t t h i s , a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e s e x p e n d e d w i l l g e n e r a l l y be i n v a i n .  The n e o p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y d o e s n o t s e e k to e x p l a i n t h e r o l e or i m p o r t a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s of g r o u p s , e v e n to the e x t e n t w h i c h t h e c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s sought.  The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the e f f e c t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  development,  h o w e v e r , b e s p e a k s a n a p p r e c i a t i o n for t h e e f f e c t s of i n t e r n a l a s p e c t s of g r o u p existence.  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e c o g n i t i o n of i n t e r n a l g r o u p d y n a m i c s i s t h u s a  s i g n i f i c a n t a d v a n c e m e n t o v e r the r e l a t i v e d e a r t h of c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h i s  element  r e c e i v e d from c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s .  Business Privilege  P e r h a p s t h e m o s t s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the n e o p l u r a l i s t p a r a d i g m i s a p r o d u c t of a n e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e s c h o o l of w r i t e r s .  W r i t i n g i n the e a r l y  1970s,  L i n d b l o m a n d o t h e r s i d e n t i f i e d w h a t w a s t h e n the m o s t a l a r m i n g i n a d e q u a c y  of  c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y : the i n a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n the d i s c r e p a n c y of l e v e l s of power e x i s t i n g between different groups w i t h i n American s o c i e t y .  As we  have  s e e n , c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s s u g g e s t e d a n y attempt to o b t a i n s y s t e m i c d o m i n a n c e the p a r t of o n e g r o u p w o u l d be c h e c k e d b y the o v e r l a p p i n g m e m b e r s h i p individuals.  The neo p l u r a l i s t s , however,  s h o w e d t h i s t o be f a l s e .  of Lindblom  argued that i n m o d e m c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s most d e c i s i o n s regarding the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i e t a l r e s o u r c e s are e f f e c t e d b y t h e l a r g e o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s  on  Neo  interests. economic  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  R e f e r r i n g to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n a g i v e n system, Lindblom  writes:  In a l l s o c i e t i e s , t h e s e m a t t e r s h a v e to be d e c i d e d . They are of m o m e n t o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s for the w e l f a r e of any society. But i n a p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e m a r k e t s y s t e m , t h e y are i n l a r g e r part d e c i d e d not by g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s but b y businessmen. 1 9  H e a r g u e s t h a t b e c a u s e the a c t i o n s of o r g a n i z e d  b u s i n e s s are s o  pivotal  to the e c o n o m i c h e a l t h of m o d e r n c a p i t a l i s t d e m o c r a c i e s , the a c t i o n s of  the  b u s i n e s s o f f i c i a l s , w i t h r e s p e c t to the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e , are i n m a n y w a y s as e q u a l l y important  a s the a c t i o n s of s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t i c o f f i c i a l s .  things, business interests decide a nation's  industrial technology,  s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s , a n d t h e a l l o c a t i o n of v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s . l a r g e c a t e g o r i e s of d e c i s i o n s d e t e r m i n i n g senior businesspeople  He argues  that  the w e l f a r e of a n a t i o n are made  and, as s u c h : "Businessmen thus become  at the same t i m e , but from a d i f f e r i n g  other  t h e l o c a t i o n of  a k i n d of  o f f i c i a l a n d e x e r c i s e w h a t , o n a b r o a d v i e w of t h e i r r o l e , are p u b l i c Writing  Among  by public  on functions."*  analytical perspective,  Fred  B l o c k a l s o , a r t i c u l a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of a " b u s i n e s s p r i v i l e g e " i n c a p i t a l i s t  21 systems.  B l o c k argues that w i t h i n modern c a p i t a l i s t d e m o c r a c i e s there  a d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r b e t w e e n the c a p i t a l i s t a n d b u r e a u c r a t i c c l a s s e s ,  exists  between  t h o s e w h o a c c u m u l a t e c a p i t a l w i t h i n the s y s t e m a n d t h o s e w h o m a n a g e  the  state.  B l o c k r e j e c t s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t p r o p o s i t i o n of a c l a s s c o n s c i o u s r u l i n g - c l a s s a n d , i n i t s p l a c e , o f f e r s the e x i s t e n c e of " s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g s t a t e managers,  c a p i t a l i s t s and workers."  He argues that w h i l e those who  c a p i t a l w i t h i n a c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m are f u l l y a w a r e of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s 1 9  Lindblom,  2 0  Ibid.,  p.  p.  accumulate as  171.  172.  F r e d B l o c k , "The R u l i n g C l a s s Does Not R u l e : N o t e s o n t h e M a r x i s t o f the S t a t e , " Socialist Revolution ( J u n e , 1977). 2 1  Theory  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  38  c a p i t a l i s t s , t h e y are n o t , i n g e n e r a l , c o n s c i o u s of w h a t i s n e c e s s a r y for the r e p r o d u c t i o n of the s o c i a l order t h e y s o d e p e n d u p o n . s u g g e s t s , f a l l s to t h o s e w h o s e j o b i t i s to manage  T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he  the s t a t e a p p a r a t u s .  It i s  t h e y w h o m u s t c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the r e p r o d u c t i o n of the s o c i a l o r d e r b e c a u s e the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of t h e i r p o w e r r e s t s u p o n the s a t i s f a c t o r y m a i n t e n a n c e of the p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c  order.  B o t h L i n d b l o m a n d B l o c k s u g g e s t t h a t b u r e a u c r a t s w i l l d e f e r t o the  general  w i s h e s of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s b e c a u s e the j o b of m a i n t a i n i n g the e c o n o m i c of the s t a t e i s e n t r u s t e d to t h e s e g r o u p s . s y s t e m are d e p e n d e n t  Bureaucrats i n every  welfare  democratic  u p o n the m a i n t e n a n c e of some l e v e l of e c o n o m i c w e l f a r e .  B l o c k s u g g e s t s t h i s i s true for t w o r e a s o n s :  l)the  c a p a c i t y of t h e s t a t e to  f i n a n c e i t s e l f t h r o u g h t a x a t i o n or b o r r o w i n g d e p e n d s u p o n the s t a t e of the economy;  a n d 2 ) p u b l i c s u p p o r t for a r e g i m e w i l l d e c l i n e s h a r p l y i f the  p r e s i d e s o v e r a s e r i o u s drop i n t h e l e v e l of e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y .  regime  In c a p i t a l i s t  e c o n o m i e s , t h e y a r g u e , the l e v e l of e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t the p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s .  The e f f e c t of t h i s i s t o  give these d e c i s i o n makers, in their c o l l e c t i v e role as investors, a veto state p o l i c i e s .  T h e i r f a i l u r e to i n v e s t . a t a d e q u a t e l e v e l s c a n c r e a t e  p o l i t i c a l problems  for the state managers.  Furthermore,  upon  this also  over  major  means  bureaucrats w i l l p o s s e s s a direct interest in facilitating investment since their own continued power r e s t s upon a healthy economy. state managers  a n d t h u s p e r p e t u a t e the p o w e r of t h e  state  t h e s e m a n a g e r s w i l l g e n e r a l l y c o m p l y w i t h t h e w i s h e s of t h e  b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the p o l i c y m a k i n g arena.  organized  22 *  T h i s c o l l u s i o n between b u s i n e s s representatives and state managers  2 2  Block,  0  senior  d e p e n d u p o n the a c t i o n s of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s to m a i n t a i n a  healthy economic environment, managers,  In s h o r t , b e c a u s e t h e  p.  cit.  is  not  Neo  n e c e s s a r i l y outwardly manifest, however. e x p l i c i t s t y l e of  Pluralism:  Government  A Second  Generation  n e e d not enter i n t o  any  negotiations:  Mutual adjustment i s often impersonal and distant.  It  o p e r a t e s t h r o u g h a n u n s p o k e n d e f e r e n c e of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , l e g i s l a t u r e s , a n d c o u r t s to the n e e d s of b u s i n e s s . And i t r e l i e s o n a m u l t i t u d e of common t a c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s s h a r e d b y the t w o g r o u p s of l e a d e r s , b u s i n e s s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l , w i t h r e s p e c t to the c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h . e n t e r p r i s e s c a n or c a n n o t p r o f i t a b l y While  operate.  23  L i n d b l o m suggests that c o n f l i c t between these two groups  is  not  u n u s u a l , he a l s o s u g g e s t s the nature of the c o n f l i c t w i l l n o r m a l l y be c o n f i n e d to a narrow range.  Any c o n f l i c t w h i c h r e s u l t s between these two groups  a l w a y s be c o n s t r a i n e d b y a m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h a t t o g e t h e r t h e y c o n s t i t u t e the  n e c e s s a r y e l e m e n t s of l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the s y s t e m . undermine  t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e  other.  will  N e i t h e r g r o u p w o u l d s e e k to  2 4  B u s i n e s s , then, o c c u p i e s a " p r i v i l e g e d " p o s i t i o n i n the p r o c e s s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e p o l i c i e s of the m o d e r n d e m o c r a t i c c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e .  B e c a u s e the  a c t i o n s of t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s h a v e the c a p a c i t y t o e f f e c t the h e a l t h of the c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i c s y s t e m , a n d b e c a u s e t h e p o w e r of the s t a t e m a n a g e r s  rests  u p o n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of a h e a l t h y e c o n o m i c a t m o s p h e r e , b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s are proffered  a d e g r e e of i n f l u e n c e u n i q u e  community.  amongst a l l other a c t o r s w i t h i n the p o l i c y  As L i n d b l o m has put i t : B u s i n e s s m e n generally and corporate e x e c u t i v e s i n p a r t i c u l a r take on a p r i v i l e g e d role i n a government that i s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to s a y , unmatched by any l e a d e r s h i p group other 25 than the government o f f i c i a l s t h e m s e l v e s .  T h e a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h e e l e m e n t of b u s i n e s s p r i v i l e g e w a s n o t  inspired  s o l e l y b y a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of t h e s t a t e i n m o d e r n c a p i t a l i s t d e m o c r a c i e s ,  Lindblom, I b i d .  p.  Ibid..  172.  2 3  2  4  2 5  p.  179.  Neo  however.  Pluralism:  A Second  Gene ration  A s G a r s o n h a s p o i n t e d out, the p e r i o d of the e a r l y 1970s b r o u g h t w i t h  i t a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of c o n s u m e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s e a g e r to "big business" head on.  confront  What had been, u n t i l that time, a comfortable  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n b u s i n e s s and g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y ,  now  a p p e a r e d to be the u n - d e m o c r a t i c d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e of o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s o n the p o l i c y m a k i n g p r o c e s s : The m a n y w o r k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h R a l p h N a d e r . . . h e l p e d s p r e a d . even i n academia a profound m a l a i s e over any s u c h sanguine a c c e p t a n c e of g r o u p - p o l i t i c s - a s - u s u a l o f t e n f o u n d i n p l u r a l i s t w r i t i n g s . T h e n , t o o , t h i s v i e w p o i n t d r e w o n a more g e n e r a l i z e d s o r t of r a d i c a l i s m p o p u l a r i z e d i n the p r e v i o u s d e c a d e a m o n g s t u d e n t s n o w b e c o m i n g the p r o f e s s o r s a n d p o l i c y a n a l y s t s of the 1 9 7 0 s . The g o v e r n m e n t - l i k e b u t u n d e m o c r a t i c nature of c o r p o r a t e p o w e r w a s c o n d e m n e d b y p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s . . . E v e n the f e w v e n t u r e s of b u s i n e s s i n t o the r e a l m of s o c i a l a c t i o n a n d a l t r u i s m c a m e u n d e r s h a r p a t t a c k a s c a m o u f l a g e f o r r a c i s t or s e l f - s e r v i n g e n d s . ^ 2  Conclusion  W i t h i n p l u r a l i s m I w e f i n d one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s y s t e m of d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i e t a l p o w e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n North A m e r i c a . a l s o e x i s t s an attempt at s i m p l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  Yet, w i t h i n p l u r a l i s m I there  Contemporaries of Truman and  B e n t l e y , r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n a b i l i t y of p l u r a l i s m I t o e f f e c t i v e l y e x p l a i n t h e a c t u a l structure of r e l a t i o n w i t h i n contemporary s o c i e t y , sought to a l t e r the theory r e - a l i g n i t w i t h t h e r e a l i t i e s of p o s t - w a r s o c i e t y .  and  The n e o p l u r a l i s t s a r g u e d the  s t a t e d o e s i n d e e d p l a y a r o l e i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of g r o u p s w i t h i n s o c i e t y , a n d 27 t h a t t h e r e i s n o t a n e q u a l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g g r o u p s .  M u c h of t h i s r e -  a l i g n m e n t of p l u r a l i s t t h o u g h t o c c u r r e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e r a t h e r d a m n i n g of c r i t i c i s m e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e c l a s s a n a l y s i s o f p l u r a l i s m , h i g h l i g h t i n g , G . D a v i d G a r s o n , Group Theories P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978) p p . 161-62. 2 6  2 7  S e e Lindblom, op. c i t .  of Politics(Beyerly  H i l l s , CA: S a g e  barrage in  40  Neo  Pluralism:  A Second  Generation  p a r t i c u l a r , i t s n a i v e r e l i a n c e u p o n the free e n t e r p r i s e s y s t e m of g r o u p s  in  no  maintaining equilibrium within society.  T h i s , i n f a c t , i s the m o s t  fundamental  c h a n g e b r o u g h t a b o u t b y the n e o p l u r a l i s t s ; the a s s e r t i o n t h a t , i n f a c t , a l l  groups  w i t h i n the s y s t e m are not e q u a l , t h a t g r o u p s w h i c h f a l l i n t o S e l z n i c k ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of institutionalized(typ\caA\y s i g n i f i c a n t advantage  b u s i n e s s g r o u p s ) are o f t e n at a  o v e r t h o s e g r o u p s w h i c h are not.  Not o n l y are  business  g r o u p s w e l l - f u n d e d , b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d a n d more at e a s e w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s a s a w h o l e , but there i s a p r e - d i s p o s i t i o n of f a v o u r a b l e  attitudes  b u s i n e s s g r o u p s w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , g i v i n g t h e m a n disproportionate  i n p u t i n t o the p o l i c y m a k i n g  towards  overwhelmingly  arena.  It i s i n t h e c o n t e x t of s u c h d e b a t e t h a t t h e t h e s i s of t h i s p a p e r presented.  While  is  t h e d e b a t e , a s a w h o l e , h a s b e e n o b s e s s e d w i t h the s y s t e m i c  l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n of i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , t h e i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s of t h e s e g r o u p s  has  29  gone l a r g e l y unnoticed.  While  i t i s true t h a t p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s h a v e  attributed  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the s t a t e to g r o u p o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e y a r g u e d t h a t t h o s e groups p o s s e s s e d m o t i v a t i o n a l d y n a m i c s w h i c h arose from the a c t i o n s , a n d v a l u e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s c o m p o s i n g t h o s e g r o u p s . t h e m s e l v e s , do not p o s s e s s a dynamic  thoughts  The o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  separate from that.  As Truman  in  arguedr'The  ' i n d i v i d u a l ' a n d the ' g r o u p ' are a t m o s t m e r e l y c o n v e n i e n t w a y s of c l a s s i f y i n g 30 behavior,  t w o w a y s of a p p r o a c h i n g the s a m e p h e n o m e n a ,  T h e r e i s no " a u t o n o m y of the g r o u p . "  not different  things."  S i m i l a r l y , the n e o p l u r a l i s t s s a w the  goals  ^ See L i n d b l o m , op. c i t . , and B l o c k , op. c i t . T h e n e o p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s , w h i l e n o t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e of i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of g r o u p s , d i d n o t o f f e r t h e s e e l e m e n t s a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e importance within their model. 2 9  p.  ^ D a v i d Truman, 48.  The Governmental  P r o c e s s ( N e w Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f ,  of  1951),  Neo  a n d m o t i v a t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  Pluralism:  A Second  a s o r i g i n a t i n g , s t i l l , w i t h i n the  The n e o p l u r a l i s t s do not p e r c e i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c r e a t i n g v a l u e s but, r a t h e r , s i m p l y e m b o d y i n g  Generation  individual.^  at a n y l e v e l of d e v e l o p m e n t  them.  It i s t h i s  as  common on  a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h i s at the root of w h a t t h i s p a p e r s e e k s to e x p l o r e .  The  i n s i g h t c o n t r i b u t e d b y the r e a l i z a t i o n of the i m p o r t a n c e of i n t e r n a l g r o u p d y n a m i c s a l t e r s the nature of the n e o p l u r a l i s t a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t g r o u p s society.  within  It i s the p o s i t i o n t a k e n h e r e i n t h a t , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of s e v e r a l r e c e n t  m o d i f i c a t i o n s to t h e t h e o r y of g r o u p s ,  a r e v i s e d p l u r a l i s t theory may once  again  i l l u s t r a t e p o t e n t i a l a s a u s e f u l e x p l a n a t o r y h y p o t h e s i s for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o w e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n North A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y .  It i s t h i s s i m i l a r i t y w h i c h j u s t i f i e s the t r e a t m e n t of t h e s e t w o s c h o o l s a s relative allies herein. P r o s s , p. 186. T h e c o n t e n t i o n here i s t h a t , w h i l e P r o s s m a y r e c o g n i z e the a b i l i t y o f g r o u p s to p o s s e s s a l e v e l o f a u t o n o m y , t h e n e o p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l , a s a w h o l e , i n a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e s t h i s a s p e c t of g r o u p b e h a v i o u r . 3 2  A New  Chapter  A NEW  Superstructure  Three  SUPERSTRUCTURE  The p l u r a l i s t and neo p l u r a l i s t camps share a common c o n c e p t u a l premise in their approaches: the m e m b e r s h i p  a group's  g o a l s are a p r o d u c t of the v a l u e s a n d d e s i r e s  of t h a t i n t e r e s t g r o u p . *  Thus, any o b j e c t i v e s undertaken by  g r o u p are o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h h a v e f i r s t o r i g i n a t e d w i t h at l e a s t a m a j o r i t y of members. members  of  W i t h i n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s hidden yet another:  i n d i v i d u a l s who  the those  are  of a l a r g e g r o u p w i l l s e e k to c o n t r i b u t e to t h e a t t a i n m e n t of a  c o l l e c t i v e g o a l b e c a u s e t h e y p e r c e i v e i t to be i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t to o b t a i n  that  goal.  until  T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s f a i l e d to r e c e i v e a t h o r o u g h  the emergence  of M a n c u r O l s o n ' s The Logic  of Collective  a n a l y s i s , however,  Action,  an  economic  2 theory of interest group d y n a m i c s . The Rational Actor Model T h e m o s t d a m n i n g of O l s o n ' s a s s e r t i o n s s e e k t o s h o w w h y , groups,  in  large  i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l p o s s e s s no i n c e n t i v e to c o n t r i b u t e t o w h a t he h a s  termed  See chapters one and two. T h e p r e s e n c e of s u c h a n i d e a d i d n o t o r i g i n a t e w i t h the p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l . A r i s t o t l e o n c e w r o t e : "Men j o u r n e y t o g e t h e r w i t h a v i e w t o p a r t i c u l a r a d v a n t a g e , a n d b y w a y of p r o v i d i n g some p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g n e e d e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of l i f e , a n d s i m i l a r l y the p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s e e m s to h a v e c o m e t o g e t h e r o r i g i n a l l y , a n d t o c o n t i n u e i n e x i s t e n c e , f o r the s a k e of the g e n e r a l a d v a n t a g e s i t b r i n g s . " ( E t h i c s , v i i i , 9, 1160a.) ^The p r i m a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s s c h o o l c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be t h e r a t i o n a l a c t o r m o d e l p r o p o s e d b y M a n c u r O l s o n i n h i s The Logic of Collective A c r i o n ( C a m b r i d g e , MA: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). A n o t h e r e x a m p l e of a n e c o n o m i c t h e o r y of p o l i t i c s i s C h a r l e s B e a r d ' s Economic Theory of Politics{N.Y.: A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1945).  A New  Superstructure  the " c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , " a n d w h i c h he h a s d e f i n e d a s : . . . a n y good s u c h that, i f any person X; i n a group X ^ . . . X - . . . X c o n s u m e s i t , i t c a n n o t f e a s i b l y be w i t h e l d from the o t h e r s i n t h a t group. In o t h e r w o r d s , t h o s e w h o do n o t p u r c h a s e or p a y f o r a n y of t h e p u b l i c or c o l l e c t i v e g o o d c a n n o t b e e x c l u d e d or k e p t from s h a r i n g i n t h e c o n s u m p t i o n of t h e g o o d , a s t h e y c a n w h e r e n o n c o l l e c t i v e g o o d s are concerned. n  A c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , t h e n , c a n n o t be w i t h e l d from t h o s e w h o do n o t s e e k t o contribute to i t s attainment.  A s s u m i n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are r a t i o n a l l y  self-  i n t e r e s t e d , and that they seek to m a x i m i z e their personal w e l f a r e , they w i l l not a c t to c o n t r i b u t e t o the a t t a i n m e n t of a g r o u p ' s some f o r m o f i n c e n t i v e .  4  c o l l e c t i v e g o o d i n t h e a b s e n c e of  Thus, i t i s argued, groups w i l l not a c t i n their s e l f -  i n t e r e s t ( w h i c h i s t o o b t a i n a n o p t i m a l amount o f the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d b e i n g s o u g h t ) b e c a u s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l do s o .  B e c a u s e a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a group  w i l l b e n e f i t u p o n o b t a i n m e n t of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , b y d e f i n i t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a c t u a l l y work to a c h i e v e the g o a l , l o g i c d i c t a t e s groups  will  n o t a c t i n t h e i r o w n s e l f - i n t e r e s t a n d s t r i v e f o r t h e o p t i m a l d e g r e e o f the g o o d . If i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t a n y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d r e q u i r e s a n e t e x p e n d i t u r e o n the p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l , a n d a s s u m i n g t h a t the group o b j e c t i v e w i l l be provided to the i n d i v i d u a l r e g a r d l e s s of their a c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , no r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l w i l l work w i t h i n the group to obtain the collective good.  As Olson writes:  . . . u n l e s s t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n a g r o u p i s q u i t e s m a l l , o r u n l e s s there i s c o e r c i o n or some o t h e r s p e c i a l d e v i c e to make i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n their common i n t e r e s t , rational self-interested their common or group  individuals interests.  will not act to In o t h e r w o r d s ,  achieve even if  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n a l a r g e g r o u p are r a t i o n a l a n d s e l f i n t e r e s t e d , and w o u l d g a i n if, a s a group they a c t e d to  •'Olson, pp.  all  14-15.  T h i s a s s u m p t i o n of "rational s e l f - i n t e r e s t " i s an admittedly contentious proposition w i t h i n Olson's model and i s g i v e n consideration below. 4  A New  Superstructure  a c h i e v e t h e i r common i n t e r e s t or o b j e c t i v e , t h e y w i l l not v o l u n t a r i l y a c t to a c h i e v e t h a t common or g r o u p i n t e r e s t . The n o t i o n that g r o u p s of i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l a c t to a c h i e v e t h e i r common or group i n t e r e s t , far from b e i n g a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n of the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s i n a group w i l l r a t i o n a l l y further their i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , i s i n f a c t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t assumption.~* If the s e l f - i n t e r e s t of the group i s t h u s d e f i n e d a s the p r o v i s i o n of the o p t i m a l amount of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e n a t u r e of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d c a n be s a i d t o be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e for the t e n d e n c y g r o u p s w i l l t o w a r d s u b - o p t i m a l p r o v i s i o n of t h a t good.**  exhibit  If a n i n d i v i d u a l h a s e l e c t e d to  o b t a i n f o r h i m / h e r s e l f a u n i t of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , b e c a u s e i t w i l l be  provided  t o a l l m e m b e r s of the g r o u p t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l r e c e i v e o n l y p a r t of t h e  benefit  e a c h u n i t of the g o o d p r o v i d e s .  T h u s , a n y r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l w i l l c e a s e to  p r o v i d e a n y amount of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d b e f o r e the o p t i m a l amount of t h e g o o d , for the g r o u p a s a w h o l e , h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d .  Furthermore,  a n y amount of the  g o o d w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the g r o u p r e c e i v e s f r e e t h r o u g h the e f f o r t s a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l , or s u b - g r o u p  of  of i n d i v i d u a l s , w i l l f u r t h e r r e d u c e the d e s i r e of  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t o e x p e n d a n y amount of r e s o u r c e s i n p u r s u i t o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e good.  Since this scenario i s particularly plausible within larger groups, it i s  a r g u e d t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s u b - o p t i m a l p r o v i s i o n of t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the s i z e of the group.  3  01son, p.  In s i t u a t i o n s s u c h a s t h i s , o p t i m a l  2.  ^ O l s o n d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e w h a t a n " o p t i m a l " s c a l e of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d for any group w i l l be. In a n e c o n o m i c s e n s e , a n d f o r our p u r p o s e s h e r e i n , t h e o p t i m a l p o i n t o f p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d c a n be a s s u m e d t o be t h e p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e m a r g i n a l u t i l i t y a n d m a r g i n a l c o s t c u r v e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the good. T h a t i s , t h e o p t i m a l d e g r e e of a c o l l e c t i v e g o o d c a n h y p o t h e t i c a l l y b e c o n s t r u e d a s the p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e m a r g i n a l u t i l i t y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r o v i s i o n of a n o t h e r u n i t of t h e g o o d b y the g r o u p e q u a l s t h e m a r g i n a l c o s t of p r o v i d i n g t h a t good. S e e O l s o n , p. 46. In t h i s r e s p e c t , O l s o n ' s t h e o r y i s b e s t a p p l i e d o n l y to larger groups. In s m a l l g r o u p s e a c h member r e c e i v e s a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r p o r t i o n of t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d b e c a u s e t h e i r e x i s t f e w e r m e m b e r s b e t w e e n w h i c h 7  45  A New  Superstructure  46  p r o v i s i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d i s p o s s i b l e o n l y w h e n a l a r g e r member o f t h e group i s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e b u r d e n o f t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g t h e c o l l e c t i v e good. to p r o v i d e  W h e n one o r more m e m b e r s o f the g r o u p u n d e r t a k e  a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f t h e g o o d at t h e i r o w n e x p e n s e , t h o s e w h o do n o t  c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s p r o v i s i o n w i l l r e c e i v e more o f t h e g o o d t h a n t h e y w e r e w i l l i n g to p u r c h a s e o n t h e i r own.  The l e v e l of o p t i m a l i t y , a s i t w o u l d be defined by the  s m a l l e r members of the group unable or u n w i l l i n g to provide  that amount of the  g o o d f o r t h e m s e l v e s , i s t h u s more c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e d w h e n l a r g e r m e m b e r s are w i l l i n g to i n c u r a disproportionate burden of the c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g the group goal. Olson suggests, however, the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by groups  attempting  to a c h i e v e w h a t i s u l t i m a t e l y i n t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t c a n b e o f f s e t w i t h t h e development of coherent and effective structures of organization w i t h i n the o  group.  He w r i t e s : ...no c o l l e c t i v e g o o d c a n be o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t s o m e g r o u p agreement, coordination, or o r g a n i z a t i o n . In the intermediate or o l i g o p o l y s i z e d g r o u p , w h e r e t w o o r more m e m b e r s m u s t act s i m u l t a n e o u s l y before a c o l l e c t i v e good c a n be obtained, there m u s t b e a t l e a s t t a c i t c o o r d i n a t i o n o r o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The a cost.  establishment  of an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n a group, of c o u r s e , w i l l  exert  The development of a structure w i t h i n the group c a p a b l e of the e f f e c t i v e  p r o m o t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d g r o w s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more d i f f i c u l t a s t h e t o d i v i d e i t . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l w i l l b e more r e s p o n s i v e t o b o t h t h e q u a l i t y a n d nature o f the c o l l e c t i v e good. Most importantly, i f an i n d i v i d u a l were to w i t h o l d t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , there w o u l d b e a m u c h g r e a t e r d a n g e r o f the g o o d n o t b e i n g p r o v i d e d t h a n w o u l d b e t h e c a s e i n l a r g e r g r o u p s . °01son a p p e a r s t o be i n i m p l i c i t a g r e e m e n t h e r e w i t h t h e n e o p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s c o n s i d e r e d i n c h a p t e r t w o . W h i l e T r u m a n et. a l . t e n d e d t o b e l i t t l e t h e role of formalized organization w i t h i n groups, both the neo p l u r a l i s t and economic group t h e o r i s t s apparently recognize the importance of t h i s feature of i n t e r e s t groups. " O l s o n , p. 46. regard.  Again, Olson d i s q u a l i f i e s s m a l l groups from h i s model i n t h i s  A New  number  of m e m b e r s  w i t h i n the group i n c r e a s e s .  i n s t i t u t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n  must develop  A s the m e m b e r s h i p  increased formality  a minimum  w h i c h a commensurate s e e k i n g to o r g a n i z e the amount  l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t be p r o v i d e d l e v e l of m i n i m u m  c o s t w i l l be a t t a c h e d .  w i l l incur a certain minimum  of c o l l e c t i v e g o o d b e i n g s o u g h t .  u n i t - c o s t of o r g a n i z a t i o n  i n e a c h group to T h a t i s , a group  c o s t of d o i n g s o , r e g a r d l e s s  The r e s u l t i s a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h  cost-effective.  g r o u p p o s s e s s e s f i n i t e l e v e l s of r e s o u r c e s , any amount  per-  levels  required to enable  s t r u c t u r e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t be s u b t r a c t e d from t h a t  a  the amount  In s h o r t ,  may a s s i s t a group i n o b t a i n i n g i t s c o l l e c t i v e g o a l , there  potentially prohibitive  of  Because we assume  a l l o t t e d b y t h e g r o u p t o the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d . organization  the  growth.  u n t i l w h i c h time the group a t t a i n s m e m b e r s h i p  m a k i n g the s t r u c t u r e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n more  g r o u p to d e v e l o p  grows,  a n d the c a p a b i l i t i e s  to d e a l e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h the more c o m p l e x i s s u e s a c c o m p a n y i n g Furthermore,  Superstructure  while exist  c o s t s e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t i n g the u t i l i t y of t h i s t o o l for  many  groups.^ At t h i s p o i n t i t a p p e a r s  i m p o s s i b l e for any but the s m a l l e s t of g r o u p s  e f f e c t i v e l y s e e k a n o p t i m a l l e v e l of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d . contributions  of t h e r a t i o n a l a c t o r m o d e l  One of the  unique  a r g u e s t h a t w i t h o u t c o e r c i o n or t h e  of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t g r o u p s  of a n y s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e  provide  However,  a n y amount  of t h i s g o o d f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  a s s e r t i o n t h a t , w i t h t h e u s e o f selective  incentives,  it is also  to  use  will  Olson's  the l e a d e r s h i p of the group  c a n , a n d i n f a c t o f t e n d o e s , e n t i c e p e o p l e t o j o i n the g r o u p a n d c o m p e l s t h e m to a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the g r o u p g o a l s . l e a d e r s h i p to reward those members  A s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e a l l o w s the g r o u p  w h o c o n t r i b u t e to t h e p r o v i s i o n of  c o l l e c t i v e g o o d a n d to w i t h o l d r e w a r d f r o m t h o s e w h o do n o t .  Typically,  r e w a r d s w i l l t a k e the form of c o e r c i o n or s a n c t i o n i f the r e q u i r e d  l°01son, o p . c i t .  the these  contribution  is  A New  not forthcoming.  P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , for i n s t a n c e , o f t e n p o s s e s s  t y p e of q u a s i - j u d i c i a l p o w e r of r e g u l a t i o n o v e r m e m b e r s ( i . e . ,  In p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s g o v e r n m e n t  organizations  a mandatory  given jurisdiction.  requirement  48  some  m e d i c a l and b a r  a s s o c i a t i o n s ) w h i c h a l l o w s the group to d i c t a t e the norms of conduct.  Superstructure  professional  h a s made m e m b e r s h i p  within such  for t h o s e s e e k i n g to p r a c t i c e w i t h i n a  The r e s u l t i s the p o s s e s s i o n , b y t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  c o n t r o l o v e r t h e v e r y l i v e l i h o o d of t h e i r m e m b e r s .  of  On the p o s i t i v e s i d e ,  groups  m a y o f f e r s u c h b e n e f i t s a s s p e c i a l g r o u p i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , r e d u c e d rate v a c a t i o n s or b u l k p u r c h a s i n g p r o g r a m s ,  a l l of w h i c h c a n be d e n i e d to t h o s e  f a i l to m a k e the n e c e s s a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n of the g r o u p g o a l . w i t h the t o o l of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o m o t i v a t e members good.  who Thus,  individual  w i t h i n l a r g e g r o u p s to c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e  1 1  T h e c o n t r i b u t i o n made t o g r o u p t h e o r y b y the e c o n o m i c t h e o r i s t s a n d t h e i r rational actor model i s clearly revolutionary.  The q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d b y t h i s  s t r i k e a t t h e v e r y h e a r t of p r i o r p l u r a l i s t t h o u g h t , assumptions.  model  attacking i t s most b a s i c  If w e a c c e p t t h a t g r o u p a c t i v i t y i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e b a s i c  e c o n o m i c s e l f - i n t e r e s t of t h e g r o u p member,  s t i m u l a t e d by the p r o v i s i o n  s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , and not by e a c h i n d i v i d u a l member's  of  d e s i r e to promote  the  c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , t h e n w e m u s t a l t e r t h e p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e of the group goal(s).  If t h e g r o u p g o a l i s a c h i e v e d o n l y t h r o u g h  c o e r c i o n or  inducement  o f f e r e d b y s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t s u c h a g o a l n e e d b e , or e v e n l i k e l y i s , the p r o d u c t of t h e v a l u e s a n d d e s i r e s of the m e m b e r s group.  of that  If t h e g r o u p l e a d e r s h i p i s c a p a b l e of m o t i v a t i n g the m e m b e r s h i p  to  c o n t r i b u t e to t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d c a n be v i r t u a l l y a n y t h i n g t h e g r o u p  1 1  Ibid.  leadership  A New  d e s i r e s i t to b e .  Superstructure  In s h o r t , there i s no r e a s o n to s u g g e s t t h a t i n t e r e s t  49  groups  s e e k to f o r w a r d the g o a l s a n d d e s i r e s of the members w h o g i v e t h e m l e g i t i m a c y i n the e y e s of t h o s e t h e y l o b b y .  I n s t e a d , the e n d s are s o u g h t b y the  leadership  of the g r o u p , p r o v i d i n g i t i s t h e y w h o c o n t r o l the u s e of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s . A p r o d u c t of the e c o n o m i c nature of the m o d e l i s a h e a v y w i t h r a t i o n a l e w h i c h are s o l e l y m a t e r i a l i n c o n t e n t .  pre-occupation  While Olson's  contribution  of the i m p o r t a n c e of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s i n the a n a l y s i s of i n t e r n a l group d y n a m i c s i s c l e a r l y s e m i n a l , h i s a n a l y t i c a l f o c u s p l a c e s l i m i t s u p o n the s c o p e of h i s t h e o r y . "material")  The r a t i o n a l a c t o r m o d e l r e c o g n i z e s o n l y  s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , e q u a t i n g rational  ultimate  economic(or  m a n w i t h economic  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t e a c h r a t i o n a l p e r s o n s e e k s to m a x i m i z e t h e i r o w n  man.  In  personal  w e l f a r e , t h e r a t i o n a l a c t o r m o d e l f a i l s to r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n  of  " w e l f a r e " i s i n d i v i d u a l - s p e c i f i c ; i n s t e a d of m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t , a p e r s o n m a y i n f a c t place greater relative value upon something entirely l e s s tangible.  The  economic  m o d e l h a s . f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e the i m p o r t a n c e of p e r c e p t i o n u p o n e a c h 13 i n d i v i d u a l ' s rational  activity.  In t h i s m o d e l , O l s o n e t . a l . , h a v e a s s u m e d a s i t u a t i o n of  perfect  information where e a c h i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t e s a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n from the c o m p l e t e r e s e r v o i r of i n f o r m a t i o n .  same  In f a c t , f e w , i f a n y , d e c i s i o n s p o s s e s s the  b e n e f i t of b e i n g p r e m i s e d u p o n p e r f e c t i n f o r m a t i o n . a c t u a l l y b a s e d e c i s i o n s u p o n personal  estimates  As a r e s u l t ,  individuals  of s i t u a t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m  T h i s f u r t h e r b u i l d s u p o n the i m p o r t a n c e of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o g r o u p t h e o r y made b y t h e n e o p l u r a l i s t s ( o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r t w o ) . In t h e i r w o r k the l a c k of ' perfect c o m p e t i t i o n among groups i n s o c i e t y w a s a major f o c u s , i l l u s t r a t i n g the c a p a c i t y w h i c h e x i s t s for the h e g e m o n i c c o n t r o l of p o w e r w i t h i n s o c i e t y . Olson h a s further i l l u s t r a t e d that the p o s i t i o n s a d v o c a t e d by any groups w h i c h may b e c o m e h e g e m o n i c are n o t the v a l u e s a n d d e s i r e s of t h e g r o u p m e m b e r s , b u t those of the group l e a d e r s h i p . In s h o r t , w h a t w a s f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d a s a " d e m o c r a t i c " s t r u c t u r e of p o w e r i s , i n f a c t , e n t i r e l y h e g e m o n i c . 1 2  S e e T e r r y M o e , The Organization of / n r e r e s t s ( C h i c a g o , IL: U n i v e r s i t y C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1980) for a d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n of O l s o n ' s a s s u m p t i o n s . 1 3  of  A JVew Superstructure  information readily available.  A s s u m i n g t h i s , and c o n s i d e r i n g that i n d i v i d u a l s  5  are  m o s t l i k e l y to c o n t r i b u t e to a c o l l e c t i v e g o o d the g r e a t e r t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of the m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t d e r i v e d and the l e s s e r t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of the m a r g i n a l  cost  i n c u r r e d , i n d i v i d u a l s m a y n o w d e t e r m i n e t h a t a r a t i o n a l a c t i o n w o u l d be to c o n t r i b u t e to the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d .  That i s , i f an  individual  e s t i m a t e s t h e y w i l l be m a x i m i z i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l w e l f a r e by c o n t r i b u t i n g to a g r o u p g o a l , t h e r e w i l l e x i s t a n i n c e n t i v e for t h a t i n d i v i d u a l to c o n t r i b u t e to the p r o v i s i o n of t h a t c o l l e c t i v e g o o d . * 1  Organizational  Behaviouralists  B e c a u s e the p e r c e p t u a l g l a u c o m a of the e c o n o m i c m o d e l of g r o u p a c t i v i t y i s a p r o d u c t of the c o n s c i o u s a n d i n t e n t i o n a l b i a s of the p a r a d i g m , o t h e r s c h o o l s of t h o u g h t o f f e r e n l i g h t e n i n g a d d i t i o n s t o O l s o n ' s o r i g i n a l m o d e l . m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , h a s come f r o m the t h e o r i s t s of behaviour. "* 1  T h e s e w r i t e r s i n t r o d u c e d the c o n c e p t of value  One of t h e organizational  typologies,  t h e v a s t n u m b e r of p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e s c a p a b l e of m o t i v a t i n g  making individuals  to a c t i o n w i t h i n g r o u p s more r e c o g n i z a b l e a n d e a s i l y d e a l t w i t h i n a n a n a l y t i c a l  The i n d i v i d u a l m a y d e c i d e t o c o n t r i b u t e , t h e n , f o r r e a s o n s t h a t are entirely " p o l i t i c a l " i n nature. If the i n d i v i d u a l e s t i m a t e s t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l m a k e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p u r s u i t of the c o l l e c t i v e g o a l of the g r o u p , t h i s d e c i s i o n t o c o n t r i b u t e i s m o t i v a t e d for p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s , n o t a n e c o n o m i c d e s i r e t o a d v a n c e t h e i r m a t e r i a l g a i n . T h i s s u p p o r t s the p l u r a l i s t c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are m o t i v a t e d b y p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s , c o n t r a r y t o O l s o n ' s s u g g e s t i o n of rational economic man. F o r a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i n c e n t i v e s s e e the l i s t of Organizational Behaviourists l i s t e d below. 1  ^ F o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t o f w o r k s f r o m t h i s s c h o o l : R. M. C y e r t a n d J . G . M a r c h , A Behavioural Theory of the F i ' r / n ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 6 3 ) ; H . S i m o n , Administrative BehaviouHN.Y.: M a c M i l l a n , 1957); J . F e l d m a n and H K a n t e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g , " J . G . M a r c h , e d . , Handbook of Organizations(Chicago,lL: Rand M c N a l l y , 1965); J.Q. W i l s o n , Political Organizations^.Y.: B a s i c B o o k s , 1973); a n d P.C. C l a r k a n d J . Q . W i l s o n , " I n c e n t i v e S y s t e m s : A T h e o r y of O r g a n i z a t i o n s , " Administrative Science Quarterly, 6:(Sept., 1961). 1  A New  structure.  The r e s u l t i n g a n a l y s i s i s s o m e w h a t l e s s r i g o r o u s  l o  Superstructure  and formal  than  t h a t o r i g i n a l l y o f f e r e d b y the e c o n o m i c s c h o o l , but a l l o w s the o b s e r v e r to more a d e q u a t e l y d e t e r m i n e the i n f l u e n c e of the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of m o t i v a t i o n u p o n the organization in question.  While  the r e s u l t i s a d m i t t e d l y l a c k i n g i n i t s a n a l y t i c a l  c o n v e n i e n c e a n d p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y , i n r e l a t i o n to the o r i g i n a l o f f e r e d b y O l s o n , i t offers a comprehensiveness  unobtainable  w i t h i n the o r i g i n a l b y v i r t u e of i t s  a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e for i n f l u e n c e s p r o v e n t o o u n w i e l d y for the more s t r i c t e c o n o m i c paradigm.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s m a i n t a i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s  1 7  v a r y , n o t o n l y b e t w e e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e organization.  will  same  T h e y q u i t e c o n s c i o u s l y a s s u m e i m p e r f e c t i n f o r m a t i o n o n the p a r t of  individuals.  Furthermore,  understanding  t h e y r e i n t r o d u c e a n e l e m e n t of s u b j e c t i v i t y to the  of t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d y n a m i c s of g r o u p s w i t h t h e i r e x p l i c i t  r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e f a c t t h a t the a b i l i t y of e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t o come t o a n o p t i m a l c h o i c e o n a g i v e n s e t of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s l i m i t e d b y the i n f o r m a t i o n a l f o r m e d o f the s i t u a t i o n c o n f r o n t i n g  estimates  them.  A n y d e f i n i t i o n of r a t i o n a l m a n p r e m i s e d u p o n a s i n g l e e c o n o m i c then, i s inadequate.  motivation,  R a t i o n a l i t y d e p e n d s u p o n the p e r c e p t u a l a s s u m p t i o n s  w h i c h i t i s d e f i n e d b y the i n d i v i d u a l .  Inconceivable, however,  within  to a model  p r e m i s e d s o l e l y u p o n e c o n o m i c r a t i o n a l e i s the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t forms m o t i v a t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e s to a c t i o n .  Peter Clark and James W i l s o n have  of  articulated  t h r e e s e p a r a t e t y p e s o f p o s s i b l e i n c e n t i v e c a p a b l e of m o t i v a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s contribute to a c o l l e c t i v e good. ** 1  The f i r s t i s t h a t i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the  rational  T h i s t y p o l o g y i s d e a l t w i t h i n more d e t a i l b e l o w w h e r e the d i f f e r e n t of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s w h i c h c a n e x i s t for i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n g r o u p s are discussed. 1 6  to  types  T h e t e m p e r a m e n t of s o c i a l p h e n o m e n a c a n o f t e n h a v e t h i s d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t u p o n t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s t o o u n y i e l d i n g t o the c a n t a k e r o u s nature o f reality. 1 7  l o  ^lark  and W i l s o n , op. c i t .  New  A  a c t o r m o d e l of i n t e r n a l group d y n a m i c s : material  incentives.  Superstructure  T y p i c a l l y , these  are  s u c h t a n g i b l e r e w a r d s a s the p r o v i s i o n of g o o d s or s e r v i c e s i n r e t u r n for the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d are n o r m a t i v e l y u n r e l a t e d to the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , to the p r o v i s i o n of the g o o d . intangible  The s e c o n d t y p e , solidary  i n c e n t i v e s , are  s o c i a l v a l u e s , s u c h a s the c a m a r a d e r i e e n g e n d e r e d  w i t h o t h e r g r o u p members their membership  through a s s o c i a t i o n  or the s t a t u s a c c r u i n g to a n i n d i v i d u a l by v i r t u e  w i t h i n the g r o u p .  t h r o u g h the a c t of m e m b e r s h i p  or  B e c a u s e t h e s e q u a l i t i e s are a c q u i r e d  of simply  a n d are the p r o d u c t of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e s e  i n c e n t i v e s are of n e i t h e r a p o l i t i c a l nor a n e c o n o m i c n a t u r e . - The l a s t c a t e g o r y of i n c e n t i v e , purposive,  i s a s i m i l a r l y intangible value and i s acquired by  i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h t h e i r s u p p o r t of a c a u s e w h i c h h e / s h e towards(i.e.,the  c o l l e c t i v e g o a l of the g r o u p ) .  p o l i t i c a l i n nature, prompting  the  exhibits efficacy  T h i s t y p e of i n c e n t i v e i s  a n i n d i v i d u a l to a c t i o n b e c a u s e of t h e i r  entirely  sympathies  t o w a r d the g r o u p g o a l . T h e i m p a c t of t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s t o a l t e r the n a t u r e of t h e c o l l e c t i v e good as defined above.  To t h i s p o i n t a k e y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d  h a s b e e n the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e w a y i n w h i c h i t h a s b e e n p r o p o r t i o n e d members  to a l l  of t h e g r o u p , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r a c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d i t s  achievement.  W i t h the a d d e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o l i d a r y a n d  purposive  m o t i v a t i o n s , i t i s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f w h i c h becomes the i n c e n t i v e . I n d i v i d u a l s m a y n o w c o n t r i b u t e t o the c o l l e c t i v e g r o u p g o a l f o r r e a s o n s of a s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e w i t h o u t the n e e d of a d d e d e c o n o m i c i n d u c e m e n t s  to  action.  Non-Material  Groups  A f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s s c h o o l i s the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x h i b i t e d by groups  founded upon non-material  incentives will  A New  differ considerably  from t h e i r m a t e r i a l i s t i n c e n t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s .  s o l i d a r y forms of i n c e n t i v e w i l l f i n d the i n i t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t more d i f f i c u l t t h a n g r o u p s incentive.  o f f e r i n g the more i n s t r u m e n t a l  In t h i s i n i t i a l p h a s e group l e a d e r ( s )  t y p e of  s o l i d a r y r e w a r d s t h a n for an e n t r e p r e n e u r toaster being offered to prospective  material  more  a t t r a c t i v e to t h o s e  to, perhaps,  of the g r o u p .  seeking the  s e e k i n g to e s t a b l i s h a group on the At the  suddenly  e s t a b l i s h e d upon purposive  outset, promote  incentives  are  Government,  c a p i t u l a t e u p o n i t s o p p o s i t i o n to the c a u s e w h i c h  the g r o u p l i f e , e l i m i n a t i n g the g r o u p ' s s t r u c t u r e o f the g r o u p i s s i m p l e e n o u g h  raison  d'etre.  basis  i n s t e a d , i n the  p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to c h a n g e s i n the e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . i n s t a n c e , may  or  difficult  a l t e r the c o l o r of  The d i f f i c u l t y i s f o u n d ,  Groups  of  of c a m a r a d e r i e  l i t t l e c a p i t a l i s required to s e l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r c a u s e , than  a group as i t s s o l e guardian. maintenance  of the group  It w i l l be more  incentives w i l l have relatively little trouble.  comparatively  using'  members.  In c o n t r a s t , a n y g r o u p o r g a n i z e r of p u r p o s i v e  53  w i l l be p l a c e d at the m e r c y  c o n f e r s t a t u s b y a s s o c i a t i o n for p r o s p e c t i v e m e m b e r s . to m a k e a g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p  Groups  1 9  phase  t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , a s i t i s t h e y w h o w i l l c r e a t e the a t m o s p h e r e  for a n o r g a n i z e r  Superstructure  What i s more, w h i l e  to e s t a b l i s h i n t h e o r y ,  membership  be d i f f i c u l t t o a t t r a c t u n l e s s a p r o v e n p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  for  gave the will  purposive  20 incentives is  provided.  Furthermore, inducements support.  See  purposive  l e n d a d e g r e e of r e l a t i v e i n s t a b i l i t y t o t h o s e g r o u p s t r u c t u r e s  In g r o u p s w i t h a n y a p p r e c i a b l e d e g r e e  non-material 1 9  r e l a t i v e to m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , s o l i d a r y and  of h e t e r o g e n e i t y  of  they  membership,  i n c e n t i v e s w i l l p r o v e t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y d e - s t a b i l i z i n g i n t h e i r  effect  Clark and W i l s o n , op. c i t ; and Moe, op. c i t .  M o e ' s political entrepreneur m o d e l t h u s a c c o u n t s for t h e d i f f e r i n g t y p e s of b a s e s u p o n w h i c h g r o u p s are f o r m e d , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t e a c h w i l l p o s s e s s d i f f e r i n g e f f e c t s u p o n the n a t u r e of t h e g r o u p ' s a c t i o n s . See Moe, op. c i t . 2 u  New  A  u p o n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  roster.  Because non-material  Superstructure  i n c e n t i v e s are l e s s  costly  to d u p l i c a t e t h e y are a l s o more e a s i l y d u p l i c a t e d b y r i v a l group l e a d e r s t h a n more c o s t l y m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s . e a c h other any components  T h i s a l l o w s competing groups  of d i s a f f e c t e d m e m b e r s h i p  to l u r e a w a y  w h i c h may  p e r i o d i c a l l y , r e s u l t i n g i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r a g i l e m e m b e r s h i p  the from  arise structure  within  21  groups  based upon such i n c e n t i v e s . It i s , of c o u r s e , for t h e s e same r e a s o n s t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e g r o u p  may purposefully  s e e k out n o n - m a t e r i a l  i n c e n t i v e s for t h e i r g r o u p ( s ) .  relatively little cost associated with non-material  membership  incentives.  The  incentives reduces  c o s t s of t h e g r o u p for the l e a d e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n g r o u p s b a s i s of p u r p o s i v e  leaders  maintenance  organized  o n the  P r o v i d i n g those s e r v i c e s rendered to the  are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , t h e r e w i l l e x i s t a n  i n c e n t i v e for t h e m e m b e r s  to p r o v i d e  these services themselves,  further  reducing  22 the c o s t to the group leader.  *  The e n t r e p r e n e u r  m a y a l s o s e e k to  p o l i t i c a l g o a l s w i t h i n the g r o u p for the same r e a s o n s .  promote  In s h o r t , i f the  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s of i n s t a b i l i t y w h i c h a c c o m p a n y i n c e n t i v e s a p p e a r a c c e p t a b l e to p r o s p e c t i v e g r o u p o r g a n i z e r s , i n c e n t i v e s are e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e b a s e s of g r o u p o r g a n i z a t i o n .  non-material non-material As Terry  w r i t e s , i n the f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , s o l i d a r y g r o u p s m a y b e more e a s i l y to p u r s u i t of t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d t h a n e c o n o m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d  risks  Moe motivated  organizations:  U n l i k e i n m a t e r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , members need not p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e t h e y v i e w t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a s i n s t r u m e n t a l t o the g r o u p ' s s u c c e s s ( o r f a i l u r e ) , or b e c a u s e t h e y are " s e l f i s h l y " m a n e u v e r i n g for a s t r o n g e r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n . When p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s are i m p o r t a n t , t h e y m a y a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e they g a i n e x p r e s s i v e b e n e f i t s from the p r o c e s s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f — a n d , h e n c e , t h e y are more e a s i l y ^ See Moe, op. c i t . M o e t h u s s u g g e s t s t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t d r a w b a c k s to c e r t a i n n o n m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , t h e r e i s s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e for g r o u p l e a d e r s t o opt for t h e s e b a s e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2 2  A New  Superstructure  i n d u c e d to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s for or a g a i n s t group g o a l s d e p e n d i n g u p o n w h e t h e r t h e y support t h e m . 2 3  Exchange  Theorists  A n a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the theory of i n t e r n a l g r o u p d y n a m i c s o f f e r e d b y the s c h o o l of " e x c h a n g e t h e o r y . "  2 4  While t h i s theory,  is  at l e a s t i n i t s  l a t e r f o r m , e m e r g e d a s a c r i t i q u e of O l s o n ' s r a t i o n a l a c t o r m o d e l , the  two  t h e o r i e s p o s s e s s d i s t i n c t l y s i m i l a r r o o t s i n the t h e o r y of e c o n o m i c s . Of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n to t h i s s t u d y i s the nature of the v a l u e  exchange  t h e s e t h e o r i s t s e n v i s a g e o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n the g r o u p o r g a n i z e r a n d i t s While  the t h e o r y p o s s e s s e s the o u t w a r d t r a p p i n g s of a c l a s s i c a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e values material nature.  While  economic  e x c h a n g e d are not n e c e s s a r i l y of a t a n g i b l e i t i s i m p o r t a n t for e v e r y l e a d e r to m a i n t a i n a n  f l o w of b e n e f i t s from the g r o u p t o h i m / h e r s e l f ,  of the g r o u p o r g a n i z e r ,  and adequate  a n d w h i l e the m e m b e r s h i p  o b t a i n the s a m e f r o m the l e a d e r , t h e r e e x i s t s no s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t t h e s e be of a n e c o n o m i c n a t u r e .  members.  must  benefits  A s Moe a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e s , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the  role  the e x c h a n g e t h e o r i s t s h a v e s h o w n i t i s p o s s i b l e for  e c o n o m i c m o d e l t o i n c o r p o r a t e a d i v e r s i t y of i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e  an  orderings:  L i k e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , he m a y be m o t i v a t e d b y i d e o l o g y , r e l i g i o n , b e l i e f i n democracy, s o c i a l pressures, and perhaps e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y in this case, such considerations as status and power. H e n e e d n o t be d r i v e n s o l e l y or e v e n p r i m a r i l y by e c o n o m i c s e l f - i n t e r e s t and need not make d e c i s i o n s  T e r r y M o e , The Organization P r e s s , 1980). 2 3  of Interests(Chicago,  IL: U n i v e r s i t y of  Chicago  W o r k s w h i c h p o s s e s s g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s o n E x c h a n g e T h e o r y a r e : R. H . S a l i s b u r y , "An E x c h a n g e T h e o r y of I n t e r e s t G r o u p s , " Midwest Journal of Political Science, 1 3 : l ( F e b . , 1969), p p . 1 - 3 2 ; P e t e r B l a u , Exchange and Power in Social L i f e ( N . Y . : W i l e y , 1964); a n d G. H o m a n s , Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms(Jt.Y.: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , 1961). S a l i s b u r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l be the m a i n source of reference on exchange theory h e r e i n . 2 4  A New  Superstructure  The w o r k of b o t h the e x c h a n g e t h e o r i s t s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  behaviouralists  d e s i g n e d to m a x i m i z e h i s e c o n o m i c  The P o l i t i c a l  surplus.  Entrepreneur  p r o v e d to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e u p o n Moe i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s m o d e l of i n t e r e s t g r o u p d y n a m i c s .  M o e ' s political  entrepreneur  own  paradigm  a d v a n c e s f r o m the o r i g i n a l attempt at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of e x t r e m e s to a d e s i r e to formulate  a m o d e l w h i c h c o m b i n e s the a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s e n e s s of t h e  r e n d i t i o n o f i n t e r e s t g r o u p a c t i v i t y w i t h the more s u b j e c t i v e , a n d comprehensive,  formulations  economic  yet  c o n t r i b u t e d b y the t w o p r e c e d i n g s c h o o l s . ^ 2  Moe  is  s e e k i n g a " h y b r i d " of w h a t he p e r c e i v e s are t w o o p p o s i n g a p p r o a c h e s to the t h e o r y of g r o u p s .  H e d e s i r e s a c o m p r o m i s e of a s o r t b e t w e e n t h e  unwieldy  a s s u m p t i o n s of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r a l i s t s , o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d the h y p o t h e t i c a l r a t i o n a l a c t o r m o d e l o n the o t h e r .  As Moe d e s c r i b e s i t ,  too  however,  there i s a n i n t e n s e f r i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o a i m s : [There e x i s t s ] a n i n h e r e n t t e n s i o n b e t w e e n the n e e d f o r a n a l y t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e a n d the d e s i r e t o be c o m p r e h e n s i v e and r e a l i s t i c . A n a l y t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e i s f a c i l i t a t e d b y the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n s of p e r f e c t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c m o t i v a t i o n and by a r a d i c a l l y r a r i f i e d organizational c o n t e x t — o r perhaps, as in Olson's a n a l y s i s , b y o m i t t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t e n t i r e l y . C o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s a n d r e a l i s m are e n h a n c e d b y t h e a s s u m p t i o n s of imperfect information and m i x e d m o t i v a t i o n s a n d b y a n e m p i r i c a l l y g r o u n d e d v e r s i o n of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context. 2 7  2 5  Moe,  p.  122.  ^ W h i l e the a n a l y t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n between M o e ' s p o l i t i c a l entrepreneur and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f f e r e d b y the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r a l i s t s i s n o t d r a w n d i r e c t l y , t h e a d d i t i o n o f the v a l u e t y p o l o g y c i t e d a b o v e c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . 2  2 7  Moe,  p.  20-21.  A New  Superstructure  M o e ' s q u e s t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , to attempt to r e c o n c i l e t h e s e t w o p r o p e n s i t i e s ;  to  develop  in  a t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l of i n t e r e s t g r o u p s w h i c h a s s u a g e s b o t h e x t r e m e s  the h o p e of p r o d u c i n g , a s the f i n a l p r o d u c t ,  a n e x p l a n a t i o n of i n t e r n a l g r o u p  a c t i v i t y t h a t i s b o t h c o n v e n i e n t a n d , at the same t i m e , a c c u r a t e i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of r e a l i t y . Olson's model  s o u g h t to s i m p l i f y the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t of g r o u p s  t h e h o p e t h a t a more m a n a g e a b l e however,  form of a n a l y s i s w o u l d f o l l o w .  In d o i n g  so,  the m o d e l o m i t t e d the v e r y e l e m e n t s of g r o u p a c t i v i t y w h i c h Moe  to e x p l a i n .  Moe's  t h i s m o d e l Moe  s o l u t i o n i s the m o d e l of the p o l i t i c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r .  r e d u c e s the l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e t o a s i n g l e  a b o u t w h o m i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e v i s e s p e c i f i c a s s u m p t i o n s . environment  organizations entrepreneur  seeks  Within  decision-maker  The  operating  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h r e e i m p o r t a n t t y p e s  external actors: l)government  in  of  o f f i c i a l s ; 2 ) n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o f f i c i a l s ; a n d 3)  and r i v a l entrepreneurs.  The f o c u s of the m o d e l i s u p o n  the  through w h i c h c o n c l u s i o n s about group formation, maintenance  i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s c a n be m a d e .  B y v i e w i n g the e n t r e p r e n e u r ' s  options  s t r a t e g i e s under v a r y i n g group c o n d i t i o n s , and determining h o w these r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n the group's  other  and  and are  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and structural p r o c e s s , the  observer  28  may "pull things  together."*  0  In k e e p i n g w i t h the i n f l u e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s m a d e b y t h e  organizational  b e h a v i o u r a l i s t s and exchange t h e o r i s t s , M o e ' s entrepreneur  i s s u s c e p t i b l e to a  m i x e d a r r a y of m o t i v a t i o n s , b o t h m a t e r i a l a n d n o n - m a t e r i a l .  B e c a u s e of the  p a r t i c u l a r l y p i v o t a l i m p o r t a n c e of the e n t r e p r e n e u r ,  any v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r  p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r i n g c a n h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t u p o n the p o l i c i e s of t h e organization.  T h u s , the m o d e l a l l o w s the o b s e r v e r to d e t e r m i n e w h a t  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s w i l l be g i v e n a n e n t r e p r e n e u r ' s 2 8  Moe,  p.  20.  particular  the  value  A New  motivational inclinations.  I n s t e a d of a s s u m i n g a w a y a l l c o m p e t i n g  Superstructure  non-economic  m o t i v a t i o n s , Moe h a s made t h i s e l e m e n t the p i v o t a l v a r i a b l e w i t h i n h i s The a c t i o n s of i d e o l o g i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d e n t r e p r e n e u r s ,  model.  for i n s t a n c e , w i l l  d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h o s e w h o s e s o l e m o t i v a t i o n i s m a x i m i z a t i o n of economic welfare.  Moe s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n c e r n s of i d e o l o g y w i l l t a k e p r e c e d e n c e  o v e r v i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t of the g r o u p ' s  o p e r a t i o n s , from the d e v e l o p m e n t  p o l i c y g o a l s to the h i r i n g of a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f . entrepreneur  personal  An i d e o l o g i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d  c a n q u i t e c o n s c i o u s l y s a c r i f i c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of e x p e r t i s e  c o m p e t e n c e for i d e o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the p r o c e s s of r e c r u i t m e n t . e f f e c t of s u c h a p o l i c y w i l l b e , i n t u r n , the d e v e l o p m e n t s t r u c t u r e , p r o h i b i t i n g the e n t r e p r e n e u r w h i c h m a y a r i s e w i t h i n the g r o u p .  of  of a r i g i d  and The  organizational  f r o m r e s p o n d i n g t o e l e m e n t s of d i v e r s i t y  T h i s , i n turn, w i l l develop  a l l o w t h e s e c e s s i o n of l a r g e a n d i m p o r t a n t  sub-groups,  i n t o a n e e d to  endangering  the  long-run  29  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . m a t e r i a l l y motivated entrepreneur  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a n o t h e r t y p e of  non-  i s that who i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the  p r o m o t i o n of a d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s of i n t e r n a l group r e l a t i o n s .  The m a i n  concern  o f t h i s g r o u p l e a d e r w i l l be the e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of i n t e r e s t s a r t i c u l a t e d b y the group membership. avenue  In t h e p r o c e s s of p r o v i d i n g t h i s , t h e g r o u p b e c o m e s  of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r a n y e l e m e n t s of h e t e r o g e n e i t y  the group.  an  found to e x i s t w i t h i n  A s Moe h a s s t a t e d : . . . b e c a u s e the entrepreneur i s a group p a r t i c i p a n t of p i v o t a l i m p o r t a n c e , the n a t u r e of h i s v a l u e s y s t e m m a k e s a g r e a t d e a l of difference for internal p o l i t i c s as w e l l as for other a s p e c t s of a s s o c i a t i o n a l l i f e . Different v a l u e s w i l l l e a d him t o d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s o n member p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t u s e s of the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , a n d s o o n — a l l of w h i c h h a v e a h a n d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s u b s t a n c e of g r o u p  ^ M o e ' s p o l i t i c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r m o d e l f u l l y s u b s c r i b e s t o t h e e l e m e n t s of n e o p l u r a l i s t theory w i t h r e s p e c t to the group's r e l a t i o n to i t s e x t e r n a l environment(i.e., the importance of mandate and a c c e p t a n c e w i t h i n the p o l i c y community). T h i s r e l a t i o n i s more f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d b e l o w .  A New  Superstructure  g o a l s , the s i z e a n d f i n a n c i a l b a s i s of the g r o u p , a n d i t s 30  d e g r e e of p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s .  Leadership  Tools  In w h a t w a y s , t h e n , are t h e s e s p e c i f i c f a c e t s of g r o u p e x i s t e n c e a f f e c t e d b y the r e c o g n i t i o n of n o n - m a t e r i a l  i n c e n t i v e s b y the entrepreneur?  As  a b o v e , the c o m p o n e n t of c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s ' p e r h a p s the m o s t i m p o r t a n t a v a i l a b l e t o the g r o u p l e a d e r s h i p .  In g r o u p s of s o l e l y e c o n o m i c  c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s s i m p l y the m e a n s to a n e n d . model  outlined tool  motivation,  The t e n e t s of the rational  choice  s u g g e s t t h a t the e c o n o m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d e n t r e p r e n e u r w i l l attempt to u s e  t h e c o n t e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n to a d v a n c e the p u r s u i t of t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o o d will  and  s e e k t o k e e p the m e t h o d of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a s i n e x p e n s i v e a s p o s s i b l e .  When non-material  i n c e n t i v e s are i n t r o d u c e d , h o w e v e r ,  method take on a new s i g n i f i c a n c e .  and  Moe's model suggests that, depending  the p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d e m p l o y e d , t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r to the g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p  b o t h the c o n t e n t  could provide  solidary incentives  through s u c h t e c h n i q u e s as regular group  c o n v e y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s t o the m e m b e r s .  upon  gatherings,  T h e a c t u a l c o n t e n t of  the g r o u p c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i l l a l s o t a k e o n a n e w i m p o r t a n c e , b e c o m i n g  the  e x c l u s i v e v e h i c l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of p o t e n t i a l e x p r e s s i v e i n c e n t i v e s .  W i t h the  i n c l u s i o n of n o n - m a t e r i a l  i n c e n t i v e s , b o t h the n a t u r e a n d t h e p u r p o s e  of g r o u p  c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i l l a l t e r , b e c o m i n g a more d i r e c t i n s t r u m e n t f o r the p r o v i s i o n non-economic  inducements.  A s e c o n d i n s t r u m e n t a v a i l a b l e to the e n t r e p r e n e u r i s t h a t of t h e sub-group, framework  and a r t i c u l a t e d by  Moe  a s m a l l e r c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g w i t h i n the  of t h e l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n .  T h e s e m a y t a k e t h e f o r m of s u c h f a m i l i a r  i n t r a - g r o u p m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a s d i s c u s s i o n p a n e l s or c o m m i t t e e s of v a r i o u s M o e , p. 1 4 1 . 3 0  of  sorts.  A New  The p r i m e  a t t r i b u t e of t h e s e g r o u p s i s the b u t t r e s s i n g of m e m b e r s h i p  t h r o u g h the e n c o u r a g e m e n t identity.  of c o o p e r a t i o n and the f o s t e r i n g of a s e n s e  a t t r a c t i o n to the g r o u p e n t r e p r e n e u r ,  for n o t o n l y w i l l  60  morale of  W i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of s o l i d a r y i n c e n t i v e s to the m o d e l t h e s e  are a n o b v i o u s groups  Superstructure  sub-groups these  be e a s i e r to e s t a b l i s h , t h e y w i l l a l s o c o n v e y a d d e d b e n e f i t s of g r o u p  c a m a r a d e r i e a n d s t a t u s b y a s s o c i a t i o n for t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g s u c h rewards.  While  sub-groups  are o n l y m e a n s t o a n e n d , w h e n c o n s i d e r e d i n the  l i g h t of e c o n o m i c r a t i o n a l e , t h e y p o s s e s s the p o t e n t i a l to b e c o m e e n d s  within  31 t h e m s e l v e s w h e n more d i v e r s e m o t i v a t i o n s  are c o n s i d e r e d .  Groups a n d the S t a t e  A s the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s of the l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n are a l t e r e d b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n of n o n - m a t e r i a l external groups  i n c e n t i v e s , s o too i s the g r o u p ' s  and government.  i n c e n t i v e , government  r e l a t i o n to  Presuming a purely economic rationale  i s the m e a n s b y w h i c h m o s t e n t r e p r e n e u r s  c o l l e c t i v e g o o d for the g r o u p .  the  provide  Once a n y g r o u p h a s o b t a i n e d the s t a t u s  recognition a s s o c i a t e d w i t h membership  i n the policy  of  community,  the and  access  to  i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n s , s t r a t e g i c c o n t a c t s a n d g e n e r a l p o t e n t i a l for s u c c e s s f u l l o b b y i n g are a l l v i r t u a l l y a s s u r e d .  C e r t a i n g r o u p s m a y e v e n be e n d o w e d  administrative and/or q u a s i - j u d i c i a l powers.  with  The economic entrepreneur w i l l  t h i s a s i n c r e a s i n g h i s p o t e n t i a l for e c o n o m i c g a i n .  The p o l i t i c a l  view  entrepreneur,  h o w e v e r , w i l l s e e k t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d p o l i c y g o a l s w h i c h m a y be a c h i e v e d a t t h i s l e v e l , f u l f i l l i n g a n y e x p r e s s i v e g o a l s h e / s h e , or t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p ,  may p o s s e s s .  Any i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g s o l i d a r y i n c e n t i v e s w i l l r e l i s h i n the o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n a c c o r d e d the group by government,  p r o v i d i n g i t w i t h a d e g r e e of s t a t u s o t h e r  3 1  See  Moe, op. c i t .  3 2  S e e P r o s s , o p . c i t . , for a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o l i c y  community.  A New  groups  i n the same s e c t o r c a n n o t a c h i e v e .  entrepreneur,  non-governmental  S i m i l a r l y , to the  economic  e x t e r n a l g r o u p s m a y be a p p r o a c h e d  for a c o a l i t i o n of s o r t s or, the u l t i m a t e r e g u l a r i z e d  as  prospects  form of c o a l i t i o n , a  In t h i s w a y i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to i n c r e a s e the mandate  of the g r o u p ,  more r e s o u r c e s to p o l i c y c o n c e r n s , a n d i n c r e a s e the e c o n o m i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the p r o v i s i o n of m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s . opposing groups  Superstructure  of  merger.  devote  scale  Furthermore,  b l o c k i n g the e f f o r t s of one g r o u p m a y be a p p r o a c h e d w i t h the  p r o s p e c t of logrolling,  e a c h g r o u p o f f e r i n g to s u p p o r t the i n i t i a t i v e of the  for r e c i p r o c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Or, p e r h a p s ,  one g r o u p m a y  s u b s i d i z e t h e e f f o r t s of a n o t h e r g r o u p w h o s e  other  s i m p l y e l e c t to  e f f o r t s t h e y w i s h to s u c c e e d , for  •3-1  whatever  reasons.  Conclusion It h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h e n c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t t h o u g h t p o s i t i o n of d o m i n a n c e  w i t h i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e i n North A m e r i c a , i t d i d s o u p o n  " s t r a w man" c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the s t a t i s t s c h o o l . resurgence  reached its  In t h e i r r e c e n t p e r i o d  t h e n e w s t a t i s t t h e o r i e s h a v e o p t e d for a s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y ,  the current state of p l u r a l i s t d e m i s e . w i t h i n a p l u r a l i s t framework  a  of  producing  M o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m s e e k s to  incorporate  the b e n e f i t s of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a d v a n c e s of  such  w r i t e r s a s P h i l i p S e l z n i c k a n d T e r r y Moe a n d , i n d o i n g s o , s e e k s to c r e a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l for a rejuvenated founded  upon  pluralist paradigm.  The n a t u r e of t h i s m o d e l  a n e m b r a c e of t h e p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t of t h e g r o u p n a t u r e of  is society.  The p i v o t a l q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d i s o n e of a d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o w e r w i t h i n  society:  "Who  pluralist  Gets What, When and H o w ? "  3 4  M o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m a c c e p t s the  T h e s e e l e m e n t s of g r o u p b e h a v i o u r a r t i c u l a t e d b y Moe are accommodated w i t h i n the neo p l u r a l i s t p o l i c y community. 3 3  3 4  1936).  Harold  L a s s w e l l , Politics:  Who  Gets  What,  When  easily  and r / o w ( N . Y . : M G r a w c  Hill,  A New  Superstructure  a s s u m p t i o n s of the g r o u p nature of s o c i e t y a s a r t i c u l a t e d b y s u c h w r i t e r s a s Truman and Dahl.  T h e i r neo p l u r a l i s t s u c c e s s o r s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t the s t a t e i s  i n f l u e n c e d by the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y , interest organizations.  c o m p r i s e d on the w h o l e , of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  To p r e d i c t the c o m p o s i t i o n of the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y  the n a t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n i t , h o w e v e r ,  and  r e q u i r e s a n a p p r e c i a t i o n of a  p r e v i o u s l y n e g l e c t e d e l e m e n t of i n t e r n a l group d y n a m i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r u c t u r e s of group o r g a n i z a t i o n .  T h i s , i n t u r n , r e q u i r e s a n a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the i n d i v i d u a l member leader(s).  i n interest groups  a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , the i n t e r e s t g r o u p  H o w g r o u p s i n t e r a c t w i t h i n the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y w i l l be  determined  l a r g e l y b y the e l e m e n t s of m o t i v a t i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e group.  Specific  i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a g r o u p w i l l s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n s of the g r o u p w i t h i n the p o l i c y  community.  To t h i s p o i n t p l u r a l i s t t h e o r i e s h a v e n o t s o u g h t to e x a m i n e the e l e m e n t s of i n t e r e s t g r o u p s .  Truman,  internal  a n d l a t e r the n e o p l u r a l i s t s , b o t h  examined  the e l e m e n t of g r o u p o r g a n i z a t i o n , y e t f a i l e d to a t t a c h a n y s i g n i f i c a n c e to i t a s a p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l p o i n t of a n a l y s i s . oversight.  Motivational pluralism corrects this  It i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the d e g r e e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n  e f f e c t i v e l y s e p a r a t e s t h o s e g r o u p s w i t h i n the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y from without.  A group's  those  l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l d e t e r m i n e  for p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s w i t h i n the c o m p e t i t i o n for i n f l u e n c e u p o n d e c i s i o n makers and other  groups.  its ability  bureaucratic  36  A n e l e m e n t w h i c h w i l l w o r k to e f f e c t a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d g r o u p ' s  • ^ T h i s i s a fundamental  which  p o s i t i o n of the political  entrepreneur  success  model.  ^ ^ S e e T . L . G a i s , M.A. P e t e r s o n a n d J . L . W a l k e r , " I n t e r e s t G r o u p s , Iron T r i a n g l e s a n d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e I n s t i t u t i o n s i n A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Government," American Political Science /?evi'ew(June, 1983). T h i s p a p e r o f f e r s no e m p i r i c a l s u b s t a n t i a t i o n t o s u p p o r t a n y s u p p o s i t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e a l i t y of the c o m p o s i t i o n of the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y . The aforementioned authors have shown a l o o s e c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h s u p p o r t s the c l a i m t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d g r o u p s form t h e p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y , but more w o r k i s s t i l l n e e d e d to c o n f i r m s u c h a c o n c l u s i o n .  A New  Superstructure  w i t h i n the p o l i c y arena i s i t s a b i l i t y to d e v e l o p a n d d e p l o y i t s r e s o u r c e s effectively.  M o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m a d o p t s M o e ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s p e c i f i c  g r o u p r e s o u r c e s a s " l e a d e r s h i p t o o l s , " a n d r e c o g n i z e s the i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s e t o o l s a s d e t e r m i n a n t s w i t h i n the s t r u g g l e of the p o l i c y c o m m u n i t y .  The  p o s s e s s i o n of a w e l l - h o n e d l e a d e r s h i p t o o l by a s k i l l e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y  motivated  g r o u p l e a d e r c a n be the d e c i s i v e i n s t r u m e n t i n p r o d u c i n g a d e s i r e d r e s u l t w i t h i n 37 the p o l i c y a p p a r a t u s . a g r o u p to d e p l o y  S i m i l a r l y , a n y g r o u p l e a d e r u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the a b i l i t y of  a s p e c i f i c resource, and who i s thus unfamiliar w i t h i t s  a p p l i c a t i o n , c a n p r o v e a s e r i o u s l i a b i l i t y t o the f o r t u n e s of t h a t g r o u p . significant, however, r e s o u r c e s of g r o u p s  i s t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m a r t i c u l a t e s the a n d the " t o o l s " of i t s l e a d e r s h i p a s i m p o r t a n t  u p o n t h e n a t u r e of a g i v e n g r o u p ' s  a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the p o l i c y  interest organizations.  various determinants  arena.  At t h e h e a r t of t h i s r e v i s e d n e o p l u r a l i s t m o d e l , h o w e v e r , a p p r e c i a t i o n for the m o t i v a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l member  What i s  is  an  and group leaders  Moe i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are q u i t e c a p a b l e  j o i n i n g and forming organizations  for r e a s o n s of a n o n - m a t e r i a l  nature.  will  Groups f o u n d e d u p o n s o l i d a r y i n c e n t i v e s  are d i f f i c u l t to i n i t i a t e , but o n c e b e g a n are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e These groups  of He  further p o i n t e d out that groups founded upon differing m o t i v a t i o n a l b a s e s exhibit different outward c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  of  organizations.  are l i k e l y t o a t t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l e v e l s of d e v e l o p m e n t  more  q u i c k l y t h a n p u r p o s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h , w h i l e e a s i e r to i n i t i a t e , are  less  s t a b l e once i n operation. Furthermore,  the d e m a n d s  exerted upon the p o l i c y  p r o c e s s b y g r o u p s o f d i f f e r i n g m o t i v a t i o n s w i l l be s i m i l a r l y d i v e r s e . based upon purposive  i n c e n t i v e s w i l l t y p i c a l l y be a c t i v i s t i n n a t u r e  n e e d i n g to p a c i f y i t s membership's J  3 8  Moe, op. c i t . Ibid.  Groups always  d e s i r e f o r a t t a i n m e n t of t h e e x p l i c i t g o a l  of  A New  the g r o u p . group's  Solidary groups,  on the other h a n d , w i l l e x h i b i t more r e s e r v e ,  p o l i c i e s t y p i c a l l y the p r o d u c t of a n a c t i v e e l i t e at the g r o u p ' s  the r e m a i n d e r of the m e m b e r s h i p demands  Superstructure  b e i n g c o n t e n t s i m p l y to b e l o n g .  the  pinnacle,  Similarly,  e x e r t e d u p o n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s by group l e a d e r s of a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e  w i l l v a r y f r o m the i d e a l i s t i c p u r p o s i v e l y d r i v e n c r u s a d e r to the  consumate  p r a g m a t i s t m o t i v a t e d s o l e l y b y the m a x i m i z a t i o n of h i s / h e r e c o n o m i c w e l f a r e . The p o i n t i s , the i n d i v i d u a l a n d h i s / h e r m o t i v a t i o n s are k e y i n the pluralist model.  motivational  If the i m p o r t a n c e of the i n t e r a c t i o n of g r o u p s i n the s o c i e t a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o w e r w i t h i n m o d e r n w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s i s to be appreciated, an understanding  fully  of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e r n a l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s  w i t h i n i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y .  Bibliography  65  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B a r r y , B. Sociologists, 1970.  Economists  B e a r d , C. The Economic Bentley, A.F.  Bases  and Democracy.  of Politics.  London: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n ,  New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. Knopf,  The P r o c e s s of Government.  1945.  E v a n s t o n , IL: P r i n c i p i a P r e s s ,  B l o c k , F. "The R u l i n g C l a s s Does Not R u l e : Notes o n the M a r x i s t T h e o r y S t a t e , " i n Socialist Revolution^June, 1977). Clark, P.C. and W i l s o n , J.Q. "Incentive Systems: A Theory Administrative  Connolly,  W.,  Science  e d . The Bias  D a h l , R. Dilemmas 1982.  Quarterly  6:(Sept.,  of Pluralism.  of Pluralist  of  the  of O r g a n i z a t i o n s , "  in  1961).  New Y o r k : A t h e r t o n P r e s s ,  Democracy.  1949.  1969.  New H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  F r o h l i c h , N. a n d O p p e n h e i m e r , J . "I Get B y W i t h a L i t t l e H e l p F r o m M y World Politics (October, 1970).  Freinds,"  G a i s , T . L . a n d P e t e r s o n , M.A.. W a l k e r , J . L . " I n t e r e s t G r o u p s , Iron T r i a n g l e s a n d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e I n s t i t u t i o n s i n A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l Government," i n American Political  Science  G a r s o n , G.D. Group 1978.  Review  Theories  (June,  of Politics.  1983).  B e v e r l y H i l l s , CA: S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . ,  H o b e r g , G. "The R e g u l a t o r y S t a t e : P o l i t i c a l S t r u c t u r e a n d P u b l i c P o l i c y , " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology. Hoffer,  E. The True  K a r i e l , H . The Decline Press.  Believer.  New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s ,  of American  Pluralism.  1951.  S t a n f o r d , CA: S t a n f o r d  University  K r a s n e r , S. " A p p r o a c h e s to t h e S t a t e : A l t e r n a t i v e C o n c e p t i o n s a n d H i s t o r i c a l D y n a m i c s , " i n Comparative Politics 1 6 : ( J a n u a r y . 1984), p p . 2 2 3 - 4 6 . L a s s w e l l , H . Politics: 1936.  Who  Gets  What,  When  and How.  New Y o r k : M G r a w  L a t h a m , E. 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