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Motivational pluralism : a revision of pluralist thought Nicoll, Scott L. 1988

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MOTIVATIONAL PLURALISM: A REVISION OF PLURALIST THOUGHT by Scot t L. N i c o l l B.A. (Hon.) Queen's U n i v e r s i t y A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i red s tandard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y , 1988 © Scot t L. N i c o l l , 1988 In present ing this thesis in partial fulf i lment o f the requ i rements for an a d v a n c e d deg ree at the University o f British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall m a k e it freely available for re ference and study. I further agree that permiss ion for extens ive c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholar ly p u r p o s e s may b e granted by the h e a d o f m y depar tment o r by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r publ i ca t ion of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not b e a l lowed wi thout m y wri t ten permiss ion . Depa r tmen t o f T h e Univers i ty o f British C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n Ma l l Vancouve r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1Y3 Da te pjs> o/a np.fin/ftn ABSTRACT T h i s paper i s p r e m i s e d upon the a s s u m p t i o n that c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t theory i s no longer a u s e f u l t o o l of e x p l a n a t i o n for contemporary w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s . In i t s o r i g i n a l form, as e s p o u s e d by Arthur Bent ley and Dav id Truman, p l u r a l i s t theory w a s a c c e p t e d as ma ins t ream p o l i t i c a l thought, apparent ly c a p a b l e of d e -m y s t i f y i n g the st ructure and r e l a t i o n of power b l o c k s w i t h i n modern w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s . As t ime e l a p s e d , however , greater numbers of c r i t i c s emerged and g l a r i n g i n a d e q u a c i e s began to s h o w through i t s once f l a w l e s s f a c a d e . The group of neo pluralist w r i t e r s were the f i r s t to attempt w h o l e s a l e s a l v a g e ' o f the m o d e l . One of t he i r foremost c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w a s the e x p u l s i o n of the myth of pe r fec t c o m p e t i t i o n amongst g roups . T h i s w a s r e p l a c e d i n s t e a d , w i t h what w a s then an a la rm ing p r o p o s i t i o n : contrary to the o r i g i n a l p l u r a l i s t c o n t e n t i o n , there e x i s t s a marked tendency for power to concent ra te i n the hands of an e l i t e policy community. The neo p l u r a l i s t s further s u g g e s t e d i t w a s important to unders tand the st ructure and o r g a n i z a t i o n of a group i f a coherent group theory of p o l i t i c s w a s to be d e v e l o p e d . W h i l e they i l l u s t r a t e d the u n -d e m o c r a t i c nature of the c o a l e s c e n c e of power w i t h i n p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y , however , v a r i o u s p roponents of t h i s mode l a l s o s u g g e s t e d that groups were a f u n c t i o n a l requ i rement w i t h i n any modern democra t i c gove rn ing s y s t e m . A group of e c o n o m i c t h e o r i s t s , l e d by Mancur O l s o n and h i s rational actor m o d e l , a l s o con t r i bu ted s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the d o w n f a l l of c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s m . At the same t i m e , O l s o n ' s c r i t i c i s m s a l s o undermined e lements of neo p l u r a l i s t thought . He argued that , cont rary to both the p l u r a l i s t and neo p l u r a l i s t a s s u m p t i o n s , the g o a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s of groups were not n e c e s s a r i l y the p roduct of the v a l u e s and d e s i r e s of the group membersh ip . O l s o n argued that by Abst ract i i i v i r tue of the nature of the collective good, those i n cont ro l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m s of the group c o u l d d i c t a t e the p o l i c y g o a l s of the group and s t i l l m a i n t a i n the mandate of the group membersh ip . O l s o n ' s parad igm a l s o had the advantage of b e i n g a n a l y t i c a l l y conven ien t , a p r e c i s e mode l w i t h i n w h i c h s o c i a l phenomena c o u l d be n e a t l y p a c k a g e d . Further c o n t r i b u t i o n s have b u i l t upon O lson 's" m o d e l , d e v e l o p i n g h i s e m p h a s i s upon the i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s of the group and , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the impor tance of group l e a d e r s h i p . The organizational behaviouralists i l l u s t r a t e d the u t i l i t y of O l s o n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , and a l s o that i t c o u l d be t a k e n further , that material i n c e n t i v e s were o n l y one type of i n c e n t i v e . The exchange t h e o r i s t s further nar rowed t h i s a n a l y s i s w i t h an e x c l u s i v e f o c u s upon the r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the entrepreneur and the group membersh ip and c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i t as an exchange of v a l u e . They adopted O l s o n ' s l e a d e r s h i p f o c u s but i nco rpo ra ted n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s w i t h i n t h e i r f ramework. The end r e s u l t i s the p o t e n t i a l for the deve lopment of a coherent and e f f e c t i v e a n a l y t i c a l t o o l . W i t h the s y s t e m i c l e v e l of a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d by the neo p l u r a l i s t f ramework, recent c o n t r i b u t i o n s to group theory may make p o s s i b l e an i n t e r e s t group theory of p o l i t i c s c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g a l e v e l of i n s i g h t i n to s o c i a l phenomena p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e to proponents of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n . It i s t hus the o b j e c t of t h i s paper to combine e lements of group a n a l y s i s p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d d i s t i n c t . Terry Moe b u i l d s upon O l s o n ' s a n a l y s i s , i l l u s t r a t i n g that i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l form o r g a n i z a t i o n s for r e a s o n s of a n o n - e c o n o m i c nature . W h i l e the i n t e r a c t i o n of groups w i t h i n contemporary s o c i e t y h a s b e e n shown to d i f f e r f rom the o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s , the neo p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of M o e ' s i n s i g h t , h o l d s the p o t e n t i a l for a v a l u a b l e a n a l y t i c a l t o o l . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t page i i Acknowledgement page v I n t r o d u c t i o n page 1 C h a p t e r O u t l i n e page 4 C h a p t e r One: "A H e r i t a g e o f C l a s s i c a l P l u r a l i s m " page 7 E a r l y P l u r a l i s m page 9 C l a s s i c a l P l u r a l i s t Thought page 11 L e a d e r s h i p T o o l s page 23 C o n c l u s i o n page 25 C h a p t e r Two: "Neo P l u r a l i s m : A . S e c o n d G e n e r a t i o n " page 28 The G e n e r a t i o n Gap page 34 Neo P l u r a l i s t S o c i e t y page 36 The I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Groups page 40 Groups and t h e S t a t e page 41 L e a d e r s h i p T o o l s page 45 C o n c l u s i o n page 50 C h a p t e r T h r e e : "A New S u p e r s t r u c t u r e " page 54 The R a t i o n a l A c t o r Mode l page 55 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r a l i s t s page 63 N o n - M a t e r i a l Groups page 66 Exchange T h e o r i s t s page 69 The P o l i t i c a l E n t r e p r e n e u r page 70 L e a d e r s h i p T o o l s page 74 Groups and t h e S t a t e page 76 C o n c l u s i o n page 77 B i b l i o g r a p h y page 82 i v Acknowledgement v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s work i s the c u l m i n a t i o n of e igh teen months of graduate s tudy , a pe r i od of t ime w h i c h has proven u n i q u e l y reward ing i n both a p e r s o n a l and an i n t e l l e c t u a l s e n s e . I h a v e , on o c c a s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e d the euphor ia w h i c h c a n accompany i n s p i r a t i o n and , at other t i m e s , the i nd i f f e rence that f o l l o w s c o n f u s i o n . To have had the opportun i ty , however , i s c e r t a i n l y to have b e e n p r i v i l e g e d . My a b i l i t y to par take of t h i s p r i v i l e g e has been a f u n c t i o n of the c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e o f fered by my parents . The i r support and g e n e r o s i t y has p roven u n f a i l i n g throughout my u n i v e r s i t y ca ree r , both s p i r i t u a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y . For that , and much e l s e , I am t ru ly t h a n k f u l . To Dr. Hoberg I owe a d i f fe rent form of debt . W h i l e not par ty to the i n c e p t i o n of t h i s work , he w a s a n e c e s s a r y requi rement for i t s c o m p l e t i o n . For h i s p a t i e n c e , h i s i n s i g h t and , i n p a r t i c u l a r , h i s i n c r e d i b l y thought fu l and thorough c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s paper , I thank h im . L a s t l y , but c e r t a i n l y not l e a s t i n my e s t i m a t i o n , i s the debt I owe to a very s p e c i a l group of f r i e n d s . They l i s t e n e d to pompous, j a r g o n - l a d e n d i a t r i b e s on p l u r a l i s t theory , and seemed i n t e r e s t e d . They repea ted l y o f fered both the i r homes and t h e i r computers to someone who p robab ly seemed more i n n e e d of a g h o s t - w r i t e r . But mos t of a l l , they made me l a u g h ; they gave me p e r s p e c t i v e . For t h i s , I am d e e p l y and s i n c e r e l y i ndebted to them a l l . T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s work w a s , to me, the most p e r s o n a l , and to them g o e s my most p e r s o n a l of fer of t h a n k s . S.L.N. Introduction 1 INTRODUCTION Are p l u r a l i s t group t h e o r i e s , i n g e n e r a l , and neo p l u r a l i s m i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t i l l of use to s tudents of the p u b l i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i t h i n w e s t e r n democrat ic s tates? W i th the recent resurgence i n popu la r i t y of t h e o r i e s p o s i t i n g an autonomy of the s t a t e , and the i r emphas is upon the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i t s ac to rs and i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e o r i e s of d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n modern w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s have once a g a i n r e e l e d to the oppos i te extreme when conf ronted w i t h the apparent o b s o l e s c e n c e of a t h e o r e t i c a l s ta tus quo. P l u r a l i s t t h e o r i e s f o c u s upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power w i t h i n s o c i e t y as the k e y po in t of a n a l y s i s . W i th the resurgence of s t a t i s t t h e o r i e s , however , the f o c u s i s s w i n g i n g away from the q u e s t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s and towards the a n a l y s i s of the r u l e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n w h i c h the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n of s o c i e t y t a k e s p l a c e . One of the k e y f ac to rs l e a d i n g to the s u p p o s e d o b s o l e s c e n c e of p l u r a l i s t t h e o r i e s and the subsequent r i s e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t thought w a s the apparent ly u n e x p l a i n a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s , s e e m i n g l y h o s t i l e towards the i n t e r e s t s of o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s . ^ W i t h the i n c r e a s e d s u c c e s s of groups o p p o s i n g the i n t e r e s t s of b u s i n e s s w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , neo p l u r a l i s m seemed to have r e a c h e d i t s l i m i t of u s e f u l n e s s . Desp i te the appearance of impotence on the part of neo p l u r a l i s t thought , however , i t i s the a im of t h i s paper to b r i ng the group "back i n " . Perhaps the x S e e George H o b e r g , "The Regu latory S ta te : P o l i t i c a l Structure and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , The M a s s a c h u s e t t s Ins t i tu te of T e c h n o l o g y , for a d i s c u s s i o n of the surge of s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h brought about a renewed p o p u l a r i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t t h e o r i e s . Introduction s i n g l e l a r g e s t fac to r con t r i bu t ing to the demise of p l u r a l i s t i n f l u e n c e w a s the neo p l u r a l i s t a s s e r t i o n that , b e c a u s e of the p e r c e i v e d importance of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s to the economic we l fa re of the s t a t e , and thus to the perpetuat ion of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order, o rgan i zed b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s p o s s e s s e d a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s ensur ing v a s t l y d i sp ropor t ionate i n f l u e n c e i n the e v e n t u a l de te rminat ion of p o l i c y s o l u t i o n s . One of the q u e s t i o n s t h i s paper s e e k s to exp lo re i s that of the contemporary ro le of the s tate i n p l u r a l i s t theory. Is i t p o s s i b l e for a group theory of p o l i t i c s to adequate ly a c c o u n t for the ro le of the s tate i n contemporary w e s t e r n democrac ies? It s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d , however , that t h i s work i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e o r e t i c a l i n i t s app roach . T h i s paper makes no c l a i m to e m p i r i c a l s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of the exp lana to ry c a p a c i t y of e lements of m o d e l s u t i l i z e d h e r e i n . The purpose of t h i s e x e r c i s e i s , rather , to attempt to d e v e l o p a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p l u r a l i s t mode l w h i c h may at some future po in t prove u s e f u l i n i t s exp lanato ry a b i l i t y . Observers c l e a r l y d i f fe r upon the r e l a t i v e , autonomy of the s ta te i n i t s r e l a t i o n to i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n s o c i e t y . T h i s paper does not s e e k to champ ion any s i n g l e or p a r t i c u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n w h e n i t r e j e c t s the e lement of business p r i v i l e g e . It mere l y p o s i t s that the adopt ion of S e l z n i c k ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t y p o l o g y a l l o w s the r e j e c t i o n of t h i s p o p u l a r l y d i s c r e d i t e d v i e w p o i n t . To the extent that i t embraces any c o n c e p t i o n of the ro le of the s t a t e , i t i s that p o s i t e d by the neo p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l , d e l i n e a t i n g the r e l a t i o n of groups w i t h i n the p o l i c y communi ty to the s ta te and other g roups . ^ T h i s neo p l u r a l i s t a r t i c u l a t i o n of b u s i n e s s p r i v i l e g e i s c o n s i d e r e d i n some depth i n chapte r two . For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s e e : Cha r les L i n d b l o m , Politics and MarketsQtev? York: B a s i c B o o k s , 1977); and Fred B l o c k , "The R u l i n g C l a s s Does Not R u l e : Notes on the M a r x i s t Theory of the Sta te , " Socialist Revolution^ J u n e , 1977). •^See Dav id V o g e l , " P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and the Study of Corporate Power , " British Journal of Political Science 17(october , 1987), pp. 3 8 5 - 4 0 8 . Introduction The l a b e l m o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m i s e n l i s t e d as a means for d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between i t s e l f and the neo p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l upon w h i c h i t i s so c l o s e l y b a s e d . W h i l e neo p l u r a l i s m f o c u s e s upon groups as the pr imary un i t of a n a l y s i s i n i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i n modern w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s , m o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m f o r c e s the a n a l y s i s deeper . R e v i s i o n s made to the p l u r a l i s t body of thought have tended to address two s e e m i n g l y un re la ted q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , neo p l u r a l i s t s r e v i s e d the s y s t e m i c l e v e l e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power w i t h i n s o c i e t y , s u g g e s t i n g that the r e l a t i v e importance of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s to the h e a l t h of the p u b l i c economy ensured them a p o s i t i o n of p r i v i l e g e d input . S e c o n d l y , Mancur O l s o n , Terry Moe and others have made r e v i s i o n s to the theory of g roups , i l l u s t r a t i n g , among other t h i n g s , that the s u p p o s e d p l u r a l i s t nature of g roups , and the rep resen ta t i ve nature of group g o a l s , i s not as the o r i g i n a l p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n por t rayed i t . Indeed, O l s o n ' s Rational Choice mode l q u e s t i o n s one of the b a s i c tenets of p l u r a l i s t thought . In l i g h t of t hese two d i s p a r a t e avenues of deve lopment , i s p l u r a l i s t thought now too f ragmented to be of u s e to contemporary s tudents of p u b l i c p o l i c y ? T h i s paper s e e k s to a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n by i l l u s t r a t i n g the complementary nature of these s c h o o l s of thought . T h i s paper w i l l s u g g e s t that , i n order to d e v e l o p a n e c e s s a r y unde rs tand ing of the c o m p l e x i t i e s of g roups , an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s n e c e s s a r y . It i s not p o s s i b l e to e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t the i n t e r a c t i o n of groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y w i thou t a p p r e c i a t i n g the m o t i v a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h compr i se them. Chapter Out l ine T h u s , the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s paper d i s c u s s e s , i n some d e t a i l , the deve lopment and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the body of thought commonly re fer red to as classical pluralism. The chapter s e t s out the b a s i c tene ts of the mode l and Introduction f o c u s e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , upon the o r i g i n a l s e m i n a l cont r ibu t ions of Arthur Bent ley and Dav id Truman.'* T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the d i f f i c u l t y t h i s "theory" e x p e r i e n c e d i n e f f e c t i v e l y c o p i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h the i n f l u e n c e of i n te rna l group d y n a m i c s i n i t s apparent e x p l a n a t i o n of the power b l o c k s of modern w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s . The s e c o n d por t ion f o c u s e s upon the t h e o r e t i c a l s u c c e s s o r of c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s m : neo(or post ) p l u r a l i s m . Where the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s seemed to u n f a i r l y re legate the ro le of the state to a p o s i t i o n of v i r t u a l i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , these t h e o r i s t s have returned i t to a por t ion of i t s former g lo ry . Th i r t y yea rs after Dav id Truman 's The Governmental Process, Char les L i n d b l o m and Robert Dahl d e v e l o p e d a somewhat more s o p h i s t i c a t e d ro le for the s tate i n modern w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s . ^ The th i rd s e c t i o n of t h i s paper o u t l i n e s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Mancur O lson and Terry Moe , i n p a r t i c u l a r , and the i r i n s i g h t s in to the unde rs tand ing of the m o t i v a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l group member. O l son and Moe managed to turn the a t ten t ion of t h e o r i s t s away from the s t a t e , g roups , and a s s o c i a t e d a c t o r s , and towards the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n i n t e r e s t g roups . O lson argued that o n l y those groups s e e k i n g m a t e r i a l g a i n , or groups o r g a n i z e d by p h i l a n t h r o p i c i n d i v i d u a l s , c o u l d p o s s i b l y a t t a i n any s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y . Moe i l l u s t r a t e d that O lson w a s , i n part , i n c o r r e c t . The Organization of Interests i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s i g h t f u l i n i t s s u g g e s t i o n that groups founded upon n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s are qu i te c a p a b l e of d e v e l o p i n g a d v a n c e d Arthur B e n t l e y , The Process of Govern /nent (Ch icago , IL: U n i v e r s i t y of Ch icago P r e s s , 1908), w i t h r e - p r i n t i n g s i n 1935 and 1949; D a v i d Truman, The Governmental Process(New York: A l f red A. Knopf , 1951). 5Char les L i n d b l o m , Politics and Markets(New York : B a s i c B o o k s , 1977); Robert Dah l , Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy (Hew H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982); and A. P a u l P r o s s , Group Politics and Public PoJ i 'cy (Toronto, Ont.: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986). Introduction l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n and, contrary to O l s o n ' s a s s e r t i o n s , that i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l o rgan i ze for s o l i d a r y or pu rpos ive r e a s o n s . The chapter i ncorpora tes these o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the nature of group a c t i v i t y in to what i s an e s s e n t i a l l y neo p l u r a l i s t f ramework of g roups , s t r e s s i n g a n e w l y r e a l i z e d a p p r e c i a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l e lements of group a c t i v i t y and the importance of the a s p e c t of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d e v e l o p i n g an a n a l y s i s of groups and the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism 6 Chapter One A HERITAGE OF CLASSICAL PLURALISM The t r a d i t i o n of p o l i t i c a l thought we have come to c a l l P l u r a l i s m i s the b y - p r o d u c t of an i n t e l l e c t u a l due l da t ing from the e a r l y e ighteenth century . In complete c o n t r a d i c t i o n to what w a s then p o p u l a r l y a c c e p t e d p o l i t i c a l thought , J . S . M i l l c l a i m e d s o c i e t y c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d i n terms of two b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s : the i n d i v i d u a l and the s t a t e . * It w a s M i l l ' s c o n t e n t i o n that a l l other a l l e g i a n c e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s p a l e d i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h i s o v e r r i d i n g r e l a t i o n of s o c i e t y . He argued that the i n d i v i d u a l and the s tate e x i s t e d as two compet ing e lements of a s y s t e m i n w h i c h the natu ra l s ta te of e q u i l i b r i u m demoted the ro le of the s tate to a p o s i t i o n of secondary importance v i s - a - v i s that of the i n d i v i d u a l . The s ta te w a s a r e s t r i c t i n g d e v i c e s e e k i n g to a r b i t r a r i l y and u n n a t u r a l l y c o n t r o l the free and random a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s . As Latham has put i t , M i l l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y c l o s e l y approx imated a random and spontaneous g roup ing of p e o p l e : . . . l i k e marb les on a p l a t e , h e l d l o o s e l y together w i t h i n the c i r c u m f e r e n c e of a common r e s t r a i n t but o t h e r w i s e c o m p l e t e , unengaged , p r i v a t e , and un ique . The s ta te w a s an unnatura l m a n i f e s t a t i o n , an en t i t y w h o s e ro le w i t h i n For h i s t r e a t i s e on the p h i l o s o p h y of the i n d i v i d u a l s e e , J . S . M i l l , On L /&er t .v (Markham, Ont.: P e n g u i n , 1982). ^ E a r l La tham m a k e s t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of u t i l i t a r i a n thought i n , "The Group B a s i s of P o l i t i c s : Notes for a Theory ," American Political Science Review 46:1(1952) , pp . 3 7 6 - 9 7 . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism s o c i e t y s h o u l d c o r r e c t l y be ma in ta ined as "n ightwatchman." By a p p l y i n g e c o n o m i c - l i k e r a t i o n a l e to the i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s on a p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , and e m p h a s i z i n g the need for unh indered r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s , the u t i l i t a r i a n s - d e v e l o p e d a mode .of thought whose i n f l u e n c e w o u l d remain s a l i e n t over two hundred y e a r s h e n c e . In. r e s p o n s e to t h i s s c h o o l , another group of t h i n k e r s emerged a d v o c a t i n g a c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween the i n d i v i d u a l and the state i n d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n to that s u g g e s t e d by the u t i l i t a r i a n s . The statists s u g g e s t the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s tate performs a c r u c i a l f u n c t i o n i n the choreography of m a n ' s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . W h i l e the u t i l i t a r i a n t h e o r i s t s a d v o c a t e d the p r imacy of the i n d i v i d u a l , the s t a t i s t s c o n s i d e r e d the f u n c t i o n of the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s tate a n e c e s s i t y w i t h i n contemporary s o c i e t y . The s tate orders the a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s ; i t i s the f i n i t e end to the p r o c e s s of c o n s t a n t e v o l u t i o n of the communi ty . T y p i c a l of t h i s s c h o o l , H e g e l v i e w e d the s tate as an end greater than the sum of i t s p a r t s , an i n s t i t u t i o n c a p a b l e of g i v i n g both s t ructure and m e a n i n g to the i n t e r a c t i o n of man. As Ea r l La tham h a s s u g g e s t e d , w r i t e r s s u c h as H e g e l , F i c h t e and T r e i t s c h k e c o n c e i v e d of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y a s : . . . b e a d s on a s t r i n g , of w h i c h the separate par ts by t h e m s e l v e s were i n c o m p l e t e and w i thou t m e a n i n g , and w h i c h e x i s t e d o n l y to f u l f i l l the pat tern of the n e c k l a c e . ^ Where the u t i l i t a r i a n s attempted to dest roy the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s ta te by d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , the s t a t i s t s attempted to perpetrate the same upon the c o n c e p t of the i n d i v i d u a l . " * ^A group of German t h i n k e r s , w r i t i n g i n the e a r l y part of the 19th century , H e g e l , F i c h t e and T r e i t s c h k e , are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s s c h o o l . ^ L a t h a m , op. c i t . , p. 379. ^La tham, op. c i t . , o f fe rs a much more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l deve lopment , c a r e f u l l y t r a c i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l he r i tage of both t h e s e s c h o o l s . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism Ear l y P l u r a l i s m In r e s p o n s e to t h i s s t a t i s t s c h o o l , the f i r s t ea r l y d o c t r i n e s of p l u r a l i s t thought emerged s e e k i n g , a g a i n , to champion the l o t of the i n d i v i d u a l . These ea r l y w r i t e r s , among them H a r o l d L a s k i and G.D.H. C o l e , sought to co r rec t what they p e r c e i v e d as the s i m p l e i n a c c u r a c y of d e s c r i p t i o n embodied i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s t ( s t a t i s t ) mode l of s o c i e t y . They c o n s i d e r e d the b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s of t h i s group to be contrary to a c t u a l f a c t and sought to i l l u s t r a t e that the s tate d i d not absorb a l l l o y a l t i e s and a t tent ions of i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus , contrary to the s t a t i s t p o s i t i o n , they argued that a mu l t i tude of a s s o c i a t i o n s l e s s g r a n d i o s e than the s tate p o s s e s s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c l a i m upon the d e v o t i o n , l o y a l t y and a l l e g i a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s . Groups s u c h as trade u n i o n s , r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , ve te rans a s s o c i a t i o n s , merchant g roups ; a l l p o s s e s s e d a l l e g i a n c e from i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y , a form of a l l e g i a n c e that c o u l d not be o f fered to the s t a t e . They argued the s tate w a s mere ly one a s s o c i a t i o n among many, a l l of w h i c h were compet ing for the a l l e g i a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l . The s tate p o s s e s s e d no c l a i m upon any i n d i v i d u a l greater than any other group or a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y and , as s u c h , had no b a s i s upon w h i c h to c l a i m a h igher r e l a t i v e s t a t u s . They argued that most members of s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as members of c l u b s , l o d g e s , u n i o n s or r e l i g i o u s groups before they p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as members of the s t a t e . A l l e lements of a separate p e r s o n a l i t y or independent d e s i r e were removed from t h i s r e n d i t i o n , and i n i t s p l a c e arose the ro le of the s p e c i f i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e g roups , and not the s t a t e , were r e c o g n i z e d as the i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h , i n f a c t , performed the mos t e s s e n t i a l r o l e s i n the l i f e of e a c h i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n . I n d i v i d u a l s , i n the i r own e s t i m a t i o n , are members of ^Cent ra l to the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y i s the h y p o t h e s i s of s o c i e t a l p r o l i f e r a t i o n . It s u g g e s t s that i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i l l b r i ng about a more s t r a t i f i e d and' s p e c i a l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n . T h e s e i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z e d groups of peop le w i l l engage i n i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s a n d , a s a r e s u l t , w i l l d e v e l o p more d i v e r s i f i e d g o a l s and i n t e r e s t s . T h e s e A Heritage of Classical Pluralism the state o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y . Taken to i t s extreme, t h i s p l u r a l i s t doct r ine a d v o c a t e s a s o c i e t y of p o l i t i c a l communi t ies o r g a n i z e d s y n d i c a l l y by indust ry , w i t h common a f fa i r s admin i s te red by the common c o n s e n t of those governed . ' ' T h i s ea r l y v e r s i o n of p l u r a l i s t theory cont r ibuted two p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n s i g h t s to the contemporary p e r c e p t i o n of human nature . F i r s t , i n s e e k i n g to re t r i eve the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l , they po in ted to what w a s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y the group nature of s o c i e t y , both i n the p o l i t i c a l and economic spheres . S e c o n d l y , i t managed to i l l u s t r a t e a s a m p l i n g of the i n f i n i t e number of accommodat ions p o s s i b l e be tween , as Latham has put i t , "the common and the Q u n i v e r s a l on the one hand and the d i v e r s e and p a r t i c u l a r on the o t h e r . " 0 C l a s s i c a l P l u r a l i s t Thought Arthur Ben t ley h a s w r i t t e n : "When the groups are adequate l y s t a t e d . . . e v e r y t h i n g i s s t a t e d . " The p l u r a l i s t d e l i n e a t i o n of the f o r c e s and p r e s s u r e s exer ted by groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y forms the very n u c l e u s of c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t thought . S o c i e t y , i t i s a rgued, i s no th ing more than the groups w h i c h c o m p r i s e i t . C l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s argue that b e c a u s e a s o c i e t y i s i n c a p a b l e of r e c o g n i z i n g any demands e x p r e s s e d w i t h i n i t s boundar ies not e x p r e s s e d i n the form of group p r e s s u r e s , i t f o l l o w s that the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t c a n o n l y be a r t i c u l a t e d through c u m u l a t i v e group e x p r e s s i o n . T h u s , the s ta te does not s p e c i a l i z e d s e t s of p e o p l e w i l l f o l l o w a natu ra l p r o g r e s s i o n and e v o l v e s p e c i a l i z e d groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y . In turn , a natu ra l s o c i a l r e s p o n s e of the now many s p e c i a l i z e d groups i s to form formal a s s o c i a t i o n s through w h i c h to rep resent t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r se t of c l a i m s a g a i n s t those of c o n f l i c t i n g g roups . ^See P a u l P r o s s , op . c i t . °Latham, op. c i t . , p. 380. H i s remark i s i n re fe rence to the t e n d e n c y of i n d i v i d u a l s to c o a l e s c e i n groups of a v a s t l y d i f fe rent nature , h o l d i n g m e m b e r s h i p s i n any number of d i f fe rent groups at one t ime . T h i s o v e r l a p p i n g membersh ip i s k e y to the ma in tenance of the " p l u r a l i s t " nature of s o c i e t y . 9 A r t h u r B e n t l e y , p. 222. A Heritage of Classical Pluralism p o s s e s s a n a t i o n a l or state, i n te res t i n i t s e l f ; i t i s mere ly an "umpire", an arb i ter be tween two or more compet ing groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y . As s u c h , they argue, the state i s i n c a p a b l e of fo rmulat ing demands w h i c h are not the r e s u l t of group c o m p e t i t i o n . ^ A product of t he i r i n t e l l e c t u a l he r i tage , p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s have s i m i l a r l y .of fered the i n d i v i d u a l a cen t ra l ro le w i t h i n the i r m o d e l . "Man," they s t a t e , " i s a s o c i a l a n i m a l . He i s , w i t h rare e x c e p t i o n s , a l w a y s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other m e n . " ^ A pe rson o n l y e x h i b i t s t ru ly human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h e n i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other p e o p l e . H e n c e , and w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l s are a l m o s t a l w a y s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s may i n c l u d e v a r y i n g degrees of both o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r m a l i t y , but r e g a r d l e s s of form, are a f u n c t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n s e p a r a t i n g man from other a n i m a l s . In short , an i n d i v i d u a l o n l y p o s s e s s e s m e a n i n g and s i g n i f i c a n c e w h e n engaged i n some form of r e l a t i o n w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y . The nature of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i o l o g i c a l theory . S i m i l a r l y , the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the "group" d raws f rom, i n p a r t i c u l a r , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y . In hopes of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the unde rs tand ing of man as a " s o c i a l b e i n g , " p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s adopted e lements of the former to i l l u s t r a t e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the degree of dependence modern man had come to e x h i b i t toward groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y . The l°Two s e m i n a l t r e a t i s e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l are : Arthur B e n t l e y , The Process of Government (Evanston , IL: P r i n c i p i a P r e s s , 1949); and Dav id Truman, The Governmental P r o c e s s ( N e w York: A l f r e d Knopf , 1953). ^ T r u m a n , op . c i t . , p. 14. l ^T ruman , op . c i t . , p. 15. ^ T w o w o r k s prominent i n the w r i t i n g s of Dav id Truman have been : L l o y d Warner and P a u l S . Lunt , The Social Life of a Modern CommunityiNew H a v e n , Conn: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941); and The Status System of a Modern Community(New A Heritage of Classical Pluralism i n f l u e n c e s u c h w r i t e r s exer ted upon c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t thought i s ev ident when Truman w r i t e s : A l though no two human o rgan isms w i l l d e v e l o p i d e n t i c a l l y i n any one of the env i ronments ment ioned , the l i m i t a t i o n s , a s p i r a t i o n s , and v a l u e s that e a c h h o l d s w i l l have d e v e l o p e d i n r e l a t i o n to the groups w i t h w h i c h e a c h has been ea r l y a s s o c i a t e d . ^ The p l u r a l i s t n o t i o n of the importance of commona l i ty of e x p e r i e n c e i s c e r t a i n l y a product of t h i s e x t r a - d i s c i p l i n a r y i n f l u e n c e . A r i s i n g from one i n d i v i d u a l ' s a w a r e n e s s of the importance of others w i t h i n s o c i e t y , the p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l con tends t h i s commona l i t y of e x p e r i e n c e w i l l r e s u l t i n a r e l a t i v e s i m i l a r i t y of both at t i tude and behav iou r towards certain mat te rs . At the same t i m e , however , the mode l r e c o g n i z e s the i r re fu tab le p o s i t i o n that no two human o r g a n i s m s are i d e n t i c a l i n both b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g and endowment, a l though t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s may be v i r t u a l l y the same. The p l u r a l i s t s r e a d i l y a c k n o w l e d g e that u n c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be a b y - p r o d u c t of t h i s . Furthermore, even s u p p o s i n g the u n l i k e l y s c e n a r i o of the e x i s t e n c e of two i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i d e n t i c a l group a f f i l i a t i o n s at a g i v e n po in t i n t i m e , i t w o u l d seem v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e for s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s to have remained so s i n c e b i r t h . As Truman h a s p o i n t e d out : T h e i r behav iou r and a t t i tudes are not s i m p l y the product of t h e i r cur rent a f f i l i a t i o n s , but are the r e s u l t of a g e n e t i c p r o c e s s that i n c l u d e s i n some measure the w h o l e of t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . The c h i l d i s , i n a s e n s e , the father to the man . T h u s , w i t h i n the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of the i n t e r e s t group, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s are c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n of a H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942). C i t e d i n Truman, p. 17ff. 1 4 T r u m a n , p. 18. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 22 . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism pressure group i s o f fered by Truman when he s u g g e s t s that an " in te rest group" i s : . . . any group that , on the b a s i s of one or more shared a t t i t u d e s , makes c e r t a i n c l a i m s upon other groups i n the s o c i e t y for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , m a i n t e n a n c e , or enhancement of forms of behav iour that are i m p l i e d by the shared a t t i t u d e s . 1 6 It i s , t h u s , shared attitudes w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n s o c i e t y and w h i c h , i n turn , are the p roducts of the i n t e r a c t i o n of groups . The p l u r a l i s t s sugges t c e r t a i n a n a l y t i c a l b e n e f i t s e x i s t w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n of a group. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , they argue, permi ts the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v a r i o u s "po ten t ia l g roups ," together w i t h e x i s t i n g o n e s , i n v i t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n of an i n t e r e s t whether or not the i n t e r e s t i s a c t u a l l y a m a n i f e s t component of a group at a g i v e n moment. T h u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to e n v i s a g e p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t groups formed on the b a s i s of w i d e l y h e l d a t t i tudes not e x p r e s s e d i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of g roups . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n a l s o a l l o w s the a n a l y s t to p roper ly f o c u s h i s a t ten t ion upon the c r u c i a l degree of " i n teg ra t i ve i n t e r a c t i o n " w i t h i n g roups , an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as i t i s the f requency of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n a group w h i c h w i l l , i n part , determine the p r imacy of a p a r t i c u l a r group a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l . As i t w i l l be s h o w n , t h i s c a n be of major impor tance i n de te rmin ing the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h w h i c h a group a s s e r t s i t s c l a i m upon other g roups . Furthermore, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n of the i n t e r e s t group a l s o u s e f u l l y e n a b l e s the observe r to eva lua te the importance of the ro le of formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . A g roup 's o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s argued, i s i n d i c a t i v e of i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r e s s i o n , and whether i t i s h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d , or s i m p l y a 17 p o t e n t i a l group, s u c h f a c t o r s w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y determine i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 1 6 I b i d . , p. 33. ^ T h i s t o p i c i s d e a l t w i t h i n more depth b e l o w w h e n the l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l deve lopment i s d i s c u s s e d , together w i t h i t s e f f e c t s upon a g roup 's fo r tunes . It i s s u f f i c i e n t to a p p r e c i a t e , however , that w h i l e the p l u r a l i s t s a c c o r d a degree of r e c o g n i t i o n to i n t e r n a l s t ruc tu res of o r g a n i z a t i o n , they f a i l to f u l l y A Heritage of Classical Pluralism The p l u r a l i s t s contend i t i s p o s s i b l e to observe degrees of behav iou ra l un i fo rmi ty w i t h i n s o c i a l g roup ings . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , they argue, the t a s k of the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s to i d e n t i f y and e x p l a i n the a reas of behav iou r to w h i c h these u n i f o r m i t i e s app ly . T h u s , p l u r a l i s t s s e e k to measure t h i s phenomena and note the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h it, o c c u r s . It i s t h i s e lement of un i fo rmi ty w h i c h forms the b a s i c r a t i o n a l e for the overt e m p h a s i s upon groups and the i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s m as the b a s i c s o c i a l un i t of a n a l y s i s . That i s , the i i n t e r a c t i o n of groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y p roduces a c e r t a i n un i fo rmi ty of behav iou r , p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s w i t h the m o t i v a t i o n to concent ra te upon groups as • s o c i e t y ' s l o w e s t common denominator . These u n i f o r m i t i e s , moreover , depend l a r g e l y upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d and not s o l e l y upon the s p e c i f i c s i m i l a r i t i e s of e x p e r i e n c e . Where the a n a l y s i s of groups i s at i s s u e , the obse rve r w i l l f o c u s upon the i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h o s e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d . As a s i g n i f i c a n t e lement of p l u r a l i s t theory c o n c e r n s the ro le of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the group, i t i s unders tandab le that t h e s e w r i t e r s s h o u l d devote a c e r t a i n ef fort to the a n a l y s i s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of g roups , t h o s e formal and in fo rmal s t ruc tu res gove rn ing the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s . The c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n p o s i t s the deve lopment of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of groups a l o n g a rough c o n c e p t u a l cont inuum. At one extreme l i e those groups w h i c h are c o n s i d e r e d " p o t e n t i a l , " where, the membersh ip may p o s s e s s s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but , a s y e t , no formal s t ructure of o r g a n i z a t i o n . At the o p p o s i t e extreme i s the o r g a n i z e d formal a s s o c i a t i o n comple te w i t h a b u r e a u c r a t i c s t ructure and p r o f e s s i o n a l management s t y l e . At a l l p o i n t s b e t w e e n l i e groups at v a r i o u s l e v e l s of p r o g r e s s i o n , t h e i r l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n b e i n g rough ly r e f l e c t e d i n the s tage of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l deve lopment e x h i b i t e d . In a d d i t i o n , a d i v e r s i t y of group o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s f u n c t i o n a l l y r e q u i s i t e w i t h i n a s o c i e t y of d e v e l o p t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism comp lex p o l i t i c a l arrangements. Where the i n t e r a c t i o n a l pattern of i n d i v i d u a l behav iou r p roves i n t r i c a t e , so too w i l l the pattern of p o l i t i c a l behav iour . What i s more, the deve lopment of s u c h patterns c a n assume a va r ie ty of p o s s i b l e forms depend ing upon the va ry ing c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d . An o f ten c r i t i c a l i n d i c a t i o n of the l e v e l of group o r g a n i z a t i o n a l deve lopment i s the e x i s t e n c e of an a c t i v e m inor i t y w i t h i n that group. By d e f i n i t i o n , o rgan i za t ion (a s t a n d a r d i z e d , h a b i t u a l pat tern of i n te rac t i on ) requ i res v a r y i n g degrees of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g from e lements of the group membersh ip . T h u s , any r e l a t i v e l y a d v a n c e d o r g a n i z a t i o n p o s s e s s e s a c e r t a i n degree of d e l e g a t i o n of author i ty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s d e l e g a t i o n of author i ty n e c e s s a r i l y c r e a t e s s p e c i f i c r o l e s w i t h i n a group, t y p i c a l l y h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ordered and w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of d i r e c t input in to d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . It s h o u l d be remembered, however , that the author i ty e x e r c i s e d w i t h i n s u c h groups i s a l w a y s a matter of degree . Rare ly i s any d e l e g a t i o n of author i ty w i t h i n groups complete and n o n - r e s c i n d a b l e . T h u s , the rep resenta t i ve nature of g roups , o r i g i n a t i n g from the i n d i v i d u a l , i s not impa i red by t h i s embrace of a d e c i s i o n m a k i n g e l i t e . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a prominent f a c e t of democra t i c s o c i e t y and a f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i s i t e for the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of the group. As J a m e s Bryce h a s w r i t t e n as e a r l y as 1921: In a l l a s s e m b l i e s and groups and o r g a n i z e d b o d i e s of men , f rom a n a t i o n down to the committee of a c l u b , d i r e c t i o n and d e c i s i o n s r e s t i n the hands of a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e , l e s s and l e s s i n p ropor t ion to the l a rge r and la rger s i z e of the body , t i l l i n a great p o p u l a t i o n i t b e c o m e s an i n f i n i t e s s i m a l l y s m a l l p ropor t ion of the w h o l e number. T h i s i s and a l w a y s h a s b e e n true of a l l forms of government , though i n d i f fe rent 1 fi deg rees . There a re , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a s p e c t s of the a c t i v e m ino r i t y now r e c o g n i z e d as a J a m e s B r y c e , Modern Democracies(Ttew York: The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1921), v o l . II, p. 542. C i t e d i n Truman, p. 139ff. A Heritage of Classical Pluralism l e a d i n g to the impairment of e q u a l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the group. A b y -product of p ro longed membership w i t h i n the a c t i v e minor i ty e n a b l e s i n d i v i d u a l s to acqu i re s k i l l s that empower them to m a i n t a i n the i r p o s i t i o n over a p ro longed pe r i od of t ime . Veterans of t hese p o s i t i o n s deve lop p a r t i c u l a r m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e to other members w i t h i n the group, p l a c i n g them i n p o s i t i o n s of r e l a t i v e advantage v i s - a - v i s those members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n f i n e d to the rank and f i l e . Such advantages l e a d to the entrenchment of p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s at p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s w i t h i n the g roup 's s t ructure for p ro longed p e r i o d s of t ime . Desp i te these advantages a c c r u i n g to the group l e a d e r s h i p , however , the i d e a l of t o t a l c o h e s i o n w i t h i n a group membersh ip i s r a re l y a c h i e v e d . The i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l harmony of the group t y p i c a l l y . r e l i e s upon two m u t u a l l y i n t e r -dependent f a c t o r s : the l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s of the a c t i v e m i n o r i t y ; and the a c t u a l c o m p o s i t i o n of the group membersh ip . As the t a s k s f a c i n g the group l e a d e r s w i l l be d e f i n e d by the a t t i tudes and v a l u e s of the group membersh ip , there w i l l e x i s t a rough ly c o n t i n u o u s effort to m a i n t a i n harmony be tween the d e s i r e s of the membersh ip and the a c t i o n s of the l e a d e r s h i p . H o w a r t i c u l a t e l y the l e a d e r s h i p r e p r e s e n t s those demands w i l l be determined , i n part , by the degree of s u c c e s s the group l e a d e r s h i p a t t a i n s i n i t s d i r e c t i o n of the g roup 's a f f a i r s . The appearance of harmony w i t h i n the s t ructure of a group, however , s h o u l d not l u l l the obse rve r to the a s s u m p t i o n that s u c h a group rep resen ts a homogeneous m a s s . A group i s a s e t of i n t e r a c t i o n s ; not s i m p l y a m a s s of p h y s i c a l peop le but , ra ther , some of the i n t e r a c t i o n s of those p e o p l e , v a r y i n g i n f requency and 19 i n t e n s i t y , and i n a c o n s t a n t s tate of f l u x . l y T h i s c o n c e p t of i n t e r a c t i o n i s a k e y theme i n The Governmental P r o c e s s , and Robert M a c l v e r , The Web of Government(Nev/ York: The M a c m i l l a n Company. , 1947), p. 4 1 5 , a l s o a r t i c u l a t e s t h i s i d e a and i s c i t e d e x t e n s i v e l y throughout T ruman 's work . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism An e x t e n s i o n of t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of group structure i s the p r i n c i p l e of " o v e r l a p p i n g membersh ip" w i t h i n groups . The p l u r a l i s t s argue that no one i n d i v i d u a l i s w h o l l y absorbed by any group to w h i c h h e / s h e may be long . A p e r s o n ' s membersh ip w i t h i n a s i n g l e group represents part , and o n l y part , of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t o t a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y . The i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p o s s e s s a l l e g i a n c e s w i t h other group ings w i t h i n that s o c i e t y , e i the r fo rma l l y or i n fo rma l l y . The s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t of "membership" employed by the p l u r a l i s t s i s c l e a r l y k e y to the r a t i o n a l e of t h i s c o n c e p t . Membersh ip i s not d e f i n e d s o l e l y i n terms of those p e r s o n s who r e l i g i o u s l y pay dues to a p a r t i c u l a r group. Membersh ip , rather , i s c o n c e i v e d i n terms of the sympath ies and v a l u e s p o s s e s s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s , and whether they p e r c e i v e any group as a r t i c u l a t i n g these a t t i t u d e s . As Truman h a s s t a t e d : Membersh ip s h o u l d not be unders tood na r rowly as i n c l u d i n g o n l y those who pay dues to a formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . Those " f e l l o w t r a v e l l e r s " who share the a t t i tudes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an i n t e r e s t group must a l s o be r e c e i v e d i n some degree as . . . . 20 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i t . W h i l e , of c o u r s e , there e x i s t other i d e n t i f i a b l e e f f e c t s upon the c o h e s i o n of a group, o v e r l a p p i n g membersh ip i s v i e w e d by p l u r a l i s t s as the mos t s i g n i f i c a n t of t h e s e . The importance of t h i s c o n c e p t i s determined w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of h o w i n t e r e s t groups f u n c t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y , and i t i s here that i t s e f f e c t i s deemed c r u c i a l . In the l o n g run , i t i s a rgued, membersh ips i n both o r g a n i z e d and p o t e n t i a l groups o v e r l a p , i m p o s i n g both con fo rmi ty and res t ra in t upon groups i n the p r o c e s s . T h i s , i n tu rn , a l l o w s s t a b l e p o l i c i e s to e x i s t i n a s y s t e m c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n t e r e s t g roups . That i s , b e c a u s e A l though the p l u r a l i s t s c l e a r l y p o s s e s s an unde rs tand ing of the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t ructure of g roups , they f a i l to ex tend t h i s k n o w l e d g e to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how d i f f e r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t ruc tu res e f f e c t the nature of the g roup ' s a c t i o n s . 2 0 T r u m a n , p. 28. A Heritage of Classical Pluralism i n d i v i d u a l s are members of other group ings w i t h i n s o c i e t y , they w i l l not a l l o w one group to e x e r c i s e i t s power to the po int where they f i n d the i r other in te res ts i n a r e l a t i v e l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n . T h i s v i g i l a n c e by the i n d i v i d u a l f o rces i n t e r e s t groups to m a i n t a i n the i r a c t i o n s and demands w i t h i n an a c c e p t e d l i m i t , not f o r c i n g other , s m a l l e r i n t e r e s t s into a d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n . In short , o v e r l a p p i n g membersh ip ensures the s y s t e m of p l u r a l i s m remains p l u r a l i s t i n nature . As noted above , however , the e f fec t of s u c h i n f l u e n c e s may be m i n i m i z e d or a c c e n t u a t e d depend ing upon the a c t i o n s of the group. L e a d e r s h i p h a s been d e f i n e d , not as a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , but as an interaction b e t w e e n members of the group and the leader . The power of the l e a d e r i s s a i d to f l o w from t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the members of h i s group. As Truman has s t a t e d : "Power is the 21 r e l a t i o n s h i p , not someth ing ex te rna l to i t . Desp i te the w e a l t h of t h e o r i e s on the t o p i c of l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h p receded p l u r a l i s m I i n the f i e l d s of p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y , the p o s i t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s i s , i n the words of W.O. J e n k i n s , that : "No s i n g l e t ra i t or group of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h a s b e e n i s o l a t e d 22 w h i c h s e t s off the l e a d e r f rom the members of h i s group." Furthermore, the p l u r a l i s t s b e l i e v e that the i n d i v i d u a l who e x h i b i t s the a b i l i t i e s to d e v e l o p a r e l a t i o n w i t h the group, w h i c h then empowers h i m a s l eade r , must be c a p a b l e of m a i n t a i n i n g the c o n f i d e n c e of the group membersh ip . F a i l u r e i n t h i s r e s p e c t w i l l l e a d to the r e p l a c e m e n t of the l e a d e r w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b l e of m a i n t a i n i n g the n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n . Truman w r i t e s : . . . the o c c u p a n t of a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n i s the o b j e c t of e x p e c t a t i o n s on the part of other members of the g r o u p — 2 1 I b i d . . p. 189. ^ W . C v J e n k i n s , "A R e v i e w of L e a d e r s h i p S t u d i e s w i t h P a r t i c u l a r Reference to M i l i t a r y P rob lems , " Psychological Bulletin 4 4 : l ( J a n u a r y , 1947), pp . 7 4 - 7 5 . Truman o f fe rs J e n k i n s * v i e w as rep resen ta t i ve of the " b a l a n c e of o p i n i o n " w i t h i n P s y c h o l o g y at the t i m e . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism e x p e c t a t i o n s that become stronger as the l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n becomes more i n c l u s i v e . One who f a i l s to l i v e up to those e x p e c t a t i o n s , or a s u f f i c i e n t number of them, w i l l drop to a l e s s important p o s i t i o n i n the group 's s t ructu re , or w i l l be dropped from the group en t i r e l y . On the same theme, H a r o l d L a s s w e l l w r i t e s : Power i s an i n te rpe rsona l s i t u a t i o n ; those who h o l d power are empowered. They depend upon and cont inue o n l y so l o n g as there i s a c o n t i n u i n g s t ream of empower ing r e s p o n s e s . ^ T h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s h o u l d not be c o n s t r u e d , however , as d e p i c t i n g the leader as e n t i r e l y dependent upon the w h i m s of the membersh ip . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the power r e l a t i o n o u t l i n e d above s t r e s s e s the degree of a w a r e n e s s a l eader must p o s s e s s of the l i m i t s i m p o s e d by membersh ip e x p e c t a t i o n s . The po in t i s , rather , a p ro longed term i n o f f i c e w i l l be p o s s i b l e o n l y i f a l e a d e r i s c a r e f u l not to ove rs tep these g u i d e l i n e s . L e a d e r s h i p T o o l s The l e a d e r , of c o u r s e , i s not w i thou t means w i t h w h i c h to man ipu la te the group membersh ip . • .There e x i s t s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to e x e c u t i v e s of many groups w h i c h a l l o w them to e l i c i t from the membersh ip the d e s i r e d c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e s w h i c h are the s u b s t a n c e of l e a d e r s h i p . Through the m a n i p u l a t i o n of internal propaganda(inf ormation) for i n s t a n c e , the group ^ T r u m a n , p 191. To support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , Truman c i t e s M. Sher i f , An Outline of Social P s y c h o l o g y , pp. 162; p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s r e s u l t s w i t h a u t o k i n e t i c phenomenon ; a n d , F. Whyte , Street Corner Society(Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Ch icago P r e s s , 1943). Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e h e r e i n , Sher i f s t a t e s : "A movement may be i n i t i a t e d at the ou tse t by a handfu l of determined l e a d e r s who k n o w the d i s c o n t e n t and r e s t l e s s n e s s of the peop le to whom they a p p e a l . But once the movement s ta r t s to a c q u i r e a d e f i n i t e l e a d e r - a n d - m e m b e r s h i p s t ructure and ge ts under w a y , the l e a d e r i s no longer free to s top or a l t e r the c o u r s e of a c t i o n as h i s w h i m s d ic ta te . " ( p . 420 , Sher i f , op . c i t . ) " ^ H a r o l d L a s s w e l l , Power and Personality(Ne-w York: W .W. Norton and Co . , 1948), p. 10. A Heritage of Classical Pluralism l e a d e r s h i p may cont ro l the f l o w of in format ion to i t s membersh ip , in format ion upon w h i c h members base the i r pe rcept ions of the group and i t s l e a d e r s h i p . Such t o o l s may take the form of a p e r i o d i c a l or in format ion b u l l e t i n p rov ided on ly to group members , pe rsona l c o n t a c t s w i t h k e y i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group s t ruc tu re , or even the g roup 's annual c o n v e n t i o n or m e e t i n g s . T h i s method of con t ro l c a n be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n a s i t u a t i o n where the group p o s s e s s e s in fo rmat ion about i t s area of c o n c e r n u n a v a i l a b l e through other s o u r c e s . A s e c o n d d e v i c e for the m a n i p u l a t i o n of group membersh ip , and o f ten r e l a t e d to i n t e r n a l p ropaganda , i s the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s through the group to i t s membersh ip . If a s e r v i c e p roduced by the group i s a d e s i r a b l e commodity i n i t s e l f , t h i s s e r v i c e c a n be u s e d as an i n c e n t i v e to persuade group members of the b e n e f i t s of p o l i c i e s supported by the l e a d e r s h i p . Group i n s u r a n c e p l a n s are s e r v i c e s t y p i c a l l y p r o v i d e d by la rger groups and w h i c h may' be s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e to lure members to j o i n . T h i r d l y , a g roup 's l e a d e r s h i p may resor t to s a n c t i o n s upon s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s , or s u b - g r o u p s of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group, i n order to m a i n t a i n c o h e s i o n and c o n t r o l . Such s a n c t i o n s may vary from an u n s t a t e d form of d i s a p p r o v a l t o , u l t i m a t e l y , e x p u l s i o n from the group. There i s an opportun i ty c o s t i n v o l v e d i n the u s e of s a n c t i o n s , however , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w h i c h are h a r s h . If the a c t i v i t i e s o f . t h o s e b e i n g s a n c t i o n e d prove popu la r amongst the group membersh ip , s a n c t i o n s w i l l endanger the power r e l a t i o n s h i p of the l e a d e r s . H a r s h s a n c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p u l s i o n s , c a n c o s t the group, i n terms of membersh ip numbers , more than w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y have b e e n g a i n e d by t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . For t h i s r e a s o n , the l e a d e r s h i p of the group must e x e r c i s e c a u t i o n i n the use of s u c h m e a s u r e s . L a s t l y , the t o o l of s e c r e c y i s a d e v i c e o f ten u s e d by groups to m a i n t a i n the i r c o h e s i o n and e x c l u s i v e n e s s , and i s u s e d by many groups i n v a r y i n g degrees A Heritage of Classical Pluralism of a p p l i c a t i o n . It c a n be e f f e c t i v e i n l i m i t i n g o v e r l a p p i n g membership for a pe r i od of t ime by requ i r i ng an i n d i v i d u a l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n one group e x c l u s i v e l y . T h i s techn ique of m a n i p u l a t i o n i s a l s o u s e f u l for s u p p r e s s i n g d i f f e r e n c e s , thus p r e s e r v i n g the appearance of unan imi ty i n the face of compet ing e lements i n s i d e a n d / o r o u t s i d e the group. It c a n a l s o a c h i e v e t h i s by f a c i l i t a t i n g s o l u t i o n s to p rob lems w i t h i n the group i n a " c l o s e d door" s i t u a t i o n , free from the s t r e s s of p u b l i c g l a r e . W h i l e the p l u r a l i s t s r e a l i z e these v a r i o u s ins t ruments are a v a i l a b l e to the group l eade r , they ra re l y c o n s i d e r them p r a c t i c a l methods of m a i n t a i n i n g l e a d e r s h i p . Where o v e r l a p p i n g membersh ip c r e a t e s a p l u r a l i t y of group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s for i n d i v i d u a l s , the m a i n t a s k f a c i n g the leader (s ) of any group i s the s o l i c i t a t i o n of members and the ma in tenance of the group harmony and c o h e s i o n . If l e a d e r s w i s h t h e i r groups to be s u c c e s s f u l and to grow i n s i z e , membersh ip i s the s i n g l e most e s s e n t i a l i ng red ien t ; b e s i d e i t , a l l other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p a l e . T h u s , the pr imary t a s k of a group l e a d e r i s to m a i n t a i n the harmony and c o h e s i o n of the group, f a c i l i t a t i n g an atmosphere c o n d u c i v e to an i n c r e a s e i n the g roup ' s membersh ip . Those l e a d e r s h i p t o o l s w h i c h prove c o s t l y 25 to the l e a d e r s h i p are u s u a l l y not f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . C o n c l u s i o n At the core of the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of the group, t hen , i s the p e r c e p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l as a s o c i a l a n i m a l . Man must i n t e r a c t w i t h other p e r s o n s ; i t i s h i s nature . In tu rn , t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l , i n a na tu ra l p r o g r e s s i o n , l e a d to the fo rmat ion of groups of i n d i v i d u a l s r e v o l v i n g around p a r t i c u l a r ^ T h e c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s have i l l u s t r a t e d an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of l e a d e r s h i p t o o l s but , b e c a u s e of t h e i r b e l i e f i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nature of g roups , and thus the a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of group l e a d e r s to t h e i r membersh ip , they f a i l to unders tand the comple te p o t e n t i a l w h i c h these t o o l s of fer to group l e a d e r s . A Heritage of Classical Pluralism i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n s o c i e t y . B e c a u s e a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n s o c i e t y are members of groups of some t y p e , and most members of more than one , these format ions are n a t u r a l l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t un i t of s o c i a l a n a l y s i s . , In the i r e x p l o r a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n of groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y the p l u r a l i s t s have s t i p u l a t e d a s y s t e m s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e to a l a i s s e z - f a i r e s t y l e of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . B e c a u s e groups are the a c t u a l source of "power" w i t h i n s o c i e t y , the s t a t e ' s ro le i s a k i n to that of an umpire , r e a c t i n g to group i n i t i a t i v e s and l a c k i n g i n the a b i l i t y of i ndependence of thought or a c t i o n . The g roups , i n t e r n a l l y , may be h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n terms of l e a d e r s h i p , but group g o a l s and v a l u e s are a l w a y s the product of the i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h compose them. It i s i n part b e c a u s e of t h i s pr imary ro le of the i n d i v i d u a l that no s i n g l e group i s ab le to d e v e l o p a p o s i t i o n of hegemony w i t h i n s o c i e t y , a l w a y s f o r c e d to compete w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of other groups i n a s y s t e m of r e l a t i v e l y pe r fec t group c o m p e t i t i o n . The p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s adopted a rough t y p o l o g y of i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n t e r e s t g roups . They admit ted that a l l but the s m a l l e s t g roup ings of i n d i v i d u a l s requ i red the deve lopment of some vague h i e r a r c h i c a l s t y l e of group o r g a n i z a t i o n . They s t r e s s e d , however , that t h i s deve lopment of a group l e a d e r s h i p d i d not i m p a i r the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nature of group g o a l s . B e c a u s e the group l e a d e r must m a i n t a i n harmon ious r e l a t i o n s w i t h the group membersh ip , the ends sought by the group w o u l d be i n comple te agreement w i t h the g o a l s and v a l u e s harboured by the i n d i v i d u a l group members . W h i l e the p l u r a l i s t s r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e of " l e a d e r s h i p t o o l s , " they argued that they were p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous , w h i c h any l e a d e r u l t i m a t e l y u s e d at h i s / h e r p o t e n t i a l p e r i l . T h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t i l l c o m p r i s e the b a s i s of contemporary group a n a l y s i s . The d i f f e r e n c e a r i s e s , however , i n the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e now a t t r i bu ted to t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The p l u r a l i s t s s t r e s s e d the A Heritage of Classical Pluralism 22 group nature of s o c i e t y and the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l as a member of a group. They er red , however , i n f a i l i n g to look, at the a c t u a l st ructure of the i n t e r e s t group, i t s i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and d y n a m i c s . The neo p l u r a l i s t s , as w i l l be s h o w n , i nhe r i t ed t h i s t r a i t , a l o n g w i t h much of the remainder of the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t m o d e l . Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation Chapter Two NEO PLURALISM: A SECOND GENERATION In recent t i m e s c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t thought has been c r i t i c i z e d for b e c o m i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y removed from the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y i t h a s sought to e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t . Contemporar ies of Truman and B e n t l e y , among them Robert Dahl and Cha r les L i n d b l o m , r e c o g n i z e d t h i s i n a b i l i t y of p l u r a l i s m I to e f f e c t i v e l y e x p l a i n the a c t u a l s t ructure of r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n contemporary society . ' ' ' As a r e s u l t , they sought to a l te r and r e - a l i g n the theory w i t h the p e r c e i v e d r e a l i t y of p o s t - w a r North Amer ican s o c i e t y . The Generat ion Gap One of the k e y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g marks of the neo p l u r a l i s t mode l i s a more d e t a i l e d and contemporary v i e w of the s ta te than that o f fered by i t s c l a s s i c a l p r e d e c e s s o r . W h i l e i n i t i a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t a c h i e v e m e n t , the o r i g i n a l p l u r a l i s t d i s m a n t l i n g of the m o n o l i t h i c , homogeneous c o n c e p t i o n of the s ta te o f fe red by H e g e l and others su f fe rs from the same b l i g h t of e x t r e m i s m as that w h i c h they are s e e k i n g to b r i ng to d i s r e p u t e . As the d i s c u s s i o n above h a s i n d i c a t e d , the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of the s tate i s s i m p l y an e x t e n s i o n of t h i s e a r l i e r p o s i t i o n . As E a r l La tham h a s so e n e r g e t i c a l l y w r i t t e n : The p l u r a l i s t s d i d u s e f u l work when they evapora ted the m i s t y f igment of the s tate w h i c h the i d e a l i s t s had p r e s e n t e d For r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n s of n e o - p l u r a l i s t thought , s e e : l )Rober t Dah l , Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy(New H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982); and 2 )Char les L i n d b l o m , Politics and Markets(Nev? York: B a s i c B o o k s , 1977). Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation as a c o l o s s u s of un i t y , a m o n o l i t h , an a b s o l u t e , a t o t a l s y s t e m s w a l l o w i n g and a s s i m i l a t i n g a l l p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s , a t tachments , o b l i g a t i o n s , and r e l a t i o n s endowed w i t h some of the a t t r ibutes of human p e r s o n a l i t y l i k e w i l l , and h a v i n g an autonomous and independent l i f e and e x i s t e n c e apart from the l i v e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the members of the p o l i t i c a l 2 community . What i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however , i s the a c t u a l i n a b i l i t y of the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s to e x t i n g u i s h a mean ing fu l role for the s ta te . W h i l e i t w a s p o s s i b l e for p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s to d i s r e g a r d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the state w i t h i n the i r m o d e l , they c o u l d not c o n c e i v e a mode l w i t h the function of the state u n f u l f i l l e d . T h u s , w h i l e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e w a s presumed m i n i m a l , those f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y performed by the state were r e - d i s t r i b u t e d to other e lements w i t h i n the s y s t e m : c h u r c h , u n i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , among others . The a s p e c t of p e r s o n a l i t y w a s thus e x o r c i s e d from the state o n l y to be resu r rec ted w i t h i n s p e c i f i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n s . That i s , w h i l e i t w a s argued that the state c o u l d not p o s s e s s an i d e n t i t y separate from that of the i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h composed i t , other o r g a n i z a t i o n s apparent ly c o u l d . The p red icament of the p l u r a l i s t model w a s that , w h i l e i t c o u l d not r e c o n c i l e the ro le of the state w i t h i t s i n d i v i d u a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s , i t p e r c e i v e d a f u n c t i o n a l need for t h i s ro le w i t h i n s o c i e t y . The c o o r d i n a t i o n f u n c t i o n s e r v e d by the state w a s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y to f a c i l i t a t e the r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l community they u l t i m a t e l y e n v i s i o n e d , a community b a s e d upon a f e d e r a t i o n of c o n s t i t u e n t groups r e p l a c i n g the c o n s o l i d a t e d and au tho r i ta r i an c o n c e p t i o n of the state e n v i s a g e d by the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s t s . T h u s , i t i s not the f u n c t i o n of the s ta te w h i c h i s f o r s a k e n by the p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l , m e r e l y the state as a un i t of a n a l y s i s . The r e a l i t i e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the modern p o l i t y are s i m i l a r l y l e f t E a r l L a t h a m , "The Group B a s i s of P o l i t i c s : Notes for a Theory , " American Political Science Review 46 :1(1952) , pp. 3 7 6 - 9 7 . ^Th is n o t i o n w a s f i r s t s u g g e s t e d by La tham, op . c i t . Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation untreated by the p l u r a l i s t s . Pau l P ross a r t i c u l a t e s the apparent ly fundamental i n a b i l i t y of p l u r a l i s m I to r e c o n c i l e two cont rad ic to ry but n e c e s s a r y components of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n modern d e m o c r a c i e s : space and s e c t o r . * It i s a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n of p l u r a l i s t theory that does not a c c o u n t for the n e c e s s i t y of contemporary governments to appea l to the i r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n both a g e o g r a p h i c a l and a s e c t o r a l s e n s e . It has become an a c c e p t e d r e a l i t y of p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e i n s y s t e m s where a s p i r a n t s appea l to v o t e r s , not o n l y as c o n s t i t u e n t s of the r i d i n g s w i t h i n w h i c h they r e s i d e , but a l s o as members of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s e c t o r s . B e c a u s e of the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of an e q u i l i b r i u m of groups and the per fect c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n o p p o s i n g groups t h i s i m p l i e s , they cannot adequate l y a c c o u n t for t h i s n e c e s s i t y of gove rn ing . S imp le n a i v e t e s i m i l a r l y p l a y s a ro le i n t h i s deve lopment of the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m s u p p o s e d to e x i s t be tween compet ing groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y . As h a s been noted above , t h i s b a l a n c e i s to be m a i n t a i n e d by the e v e r - w a t c h f u l v i g i l a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l member, a le r t and aware of the p o t e n t i a l abuse r e s u l t i n g from the at ta inment , by one group, of a r e l a t i v e monopo ly of power . It i s the natu ra l and dynamic nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n of man w i t h i n s o c i e t y w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y s e r v e s as the gua rd ian of the p r e c i o u s d i v e r s i t y of p l u r a l i s m . A t t r i bu t i ng s u c h a c r u c i a l t h e o r e t i c a l ro le to s u c h a thorough ly u n r e l i a b l e and imper fec t s y s t e m of m a c h i n a t i o n s as the s y s t e m of free e n t e r p r i s e , i t i s a rgued , i s s i m p l y n a i v e . The a c t u a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s u c h a t o o l i n a c t i n g as an e f f i c i e n t m e c h a n i s m of c o n t r o l and a l l o c a t i o n h a s l o n g been doubted and , i n i t s e l f , c a n no longer be touted as an a c c e p t a b l e mode of c o n f l i c t management . "* 4 S e e P a u l P r o s s , Group Politics and Public Policy(ToTonto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986), c h . l l . W h i l e P r o s s w a s not the f i r s t to a r t i c u l a t e t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n , he i s the mos t r e c e n t proponent . ^Neo p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s s u c h as P r o s s have s p e c u l a t e d that the remarkab le Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation The e lement of per fect compet i t i on between groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y i s s i m i l a r l y q u e s t i o n e d by the neo p l u r a l i s t s . In ear l y w r i t i n g s , Robert Dahl has s u g g e s t e d that open compet i t i on be tween groups a l l o w e d v i r t u a l l y any group a c c e s s to the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . 6 Theodore L o w i , however , p o i n t s out that w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s there e x i s t s a c a p a c i t y for " n o n - d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ; " that i s , groups s i m p l y w i l l not c o n s i d e r op t ions deemed u n d e s i r a b l e . Those op t ions w h i c h are not c o n s i d e r e d cannot become part of the p o l i c y s o l u t i o n . T h u s , those groups i n a p o s i t i o n of i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s s i m p l y e l e c t not to c o n s i d e r o p t i o n s deemed h o s t i l e to t h e i r c a u s e , thus c o n f i n i n g the debate upon p o l i c y o p t i o n s to a s e l e c t i o n of c h o i c e s s a n c t i o n e d by the r e l e v a n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d g roups . T h i s has r e s u l t e d , L o w i a rgues , i n : " . . . s o c i a l i s m for the o r g a n i z e d ; c a p i t a l i s m for the unorgan i zed . " P r o s s , i n p a r t i c u l a r among the n e o - p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s , d e v e l o p s a d e t a i l e d mode l w i t h i n w h i c h the e lements of s p a c e and s e c t o r are c o m p a t i b l y a c c o u n t e d Q for . In d o i n g s o , however , he a l s o con f i rms an e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t d e s c r i p t i o n of s o c i e t y . Contrary to popu la r p e r c e p t i o n , he a rgues , the p r e s e n c e of i n t e r e s t groups does not promote a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c t e n d e n c i e s w i t h i n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s . U s i n g w h a t i s an e s s e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n a l i s t r a t i o n a l e , P r o s s argues that w i t h o u t the a i d of p ressu re groups i n the deve lopment of p o l i c y , l e g i s l a t u r e s of m o d e m w e l f a r e s t a t e s w o u l d cont inue to become o v e r l o a d e d . T h i s p r o c e s s w o u l d cont inue u n t i l the s y s t e m i s overburdened to the po in t where l e g i t i m a c y imbued i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s e n s u s of the t i m e s w i t h i n w h i c h Truman w a s w r i t i n g may have f i gu red p rominent l y i n the emergence of h i s v i e w p o i n t . 6 F o r an example of D a h l ' s c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t w r i t i n g s , s e e : Democracy in the United S r a t e s ( C h i c a g o , II: Rand M c N a l l y , 1976). 7 T h e o d o r e L o w i , The End of Libera/fsm(New York : Norton and Co . , 1979). L o w i h a s emerged as one of the h a r s h e s t c r i t i c s of p l u r a l i s t thought a rgu ing , o n c e a g a i n , and together w i t h P r o s s , that p l u r a l i s m i s i n c a p a b l e of a c c o m m o d a t i n g both f u n c t i o n a l l y and s p a t i a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d demands . °This mode l i s p r e s e n t e d i n , P r o s s , c h . 11. Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation w i t h i n the s y s t e m by the c o n s e n t of the e lec to ra te i s l o s t . Therefore , he argues , p ressu re groups are a f u n c t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y , a l l o w i n g p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s to be made more q u i c k l y and w i t h l e s s d i r e c t input from l e g i s l a t u r e s . The e n v i s i o n e d e f fec t i s a p ro longed and l e s s turbulent l i f e for the government of the d a y . 9 He w r i t e s : P r e s s u r e group p o l i t i c s i s a symptom, not the c a u s e . . . t h o u g h the threat of the s p e c i a l i n te res t s tate c a n by no means be ignored i n Canada , our h i g h l y v i s i b l e and a c t i v e p ressu re group s y s t e m i s not o n l y far from b e i n g i nhe ren t l y p e r v e r s e , i t may a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n the means of o v e r c o m i n g the s p a c e -s e c t o r t e n s i o n described.^® C l e a r l y , however , the n e o - p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l i s not c o n v i n c e d of the s e l f -r e g u l a t i n g nature of p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y , nor the p r e s e n c e of a natu ra l s ta te of e q u i l i b r i u m . They argue that w h i l e there may be a common right to p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h i n the d e c i s i o n m a k i n g apparatus , there i s not a common opportunity. Fa r from promot ing any type of natura l e q u i l i b r i u m , p l u r a l i s m a c c e n t u a t e s those s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d i s p a r i t i e s a l ready e x i s t i n g . At i t s ext reme, p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y i s v i e w e d a s , "a monst rous engine of i n e q u i t y c a p a b l e of u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y i n g the s o c i e t y that c r e a t e d i t . " ^ The arena of p o l i c y m a k i n g i s not a m a r k e t p l a c e e n j o y i n g the euphor ia of pe r fec t c o m p e t i t i o n , but a forum w i t h i n w h i c h admit tance may be l i m i t e d to t h o s e c a p a b l e of m u s t e r i n g the requ i rements of membersh ip . Neo P l u r a l i s t S o c i e t y W i t h i n t h i s forum management by c o n s e n s u s i s the norm. The sub-government m a i n t a i n s a l o w - k e y , b u r e a u c r a t i c and c o n c i l i a t o r y s t y l e of management by e n s u r i n g that a l l matters d e a l t w i t h remain part of the "rout ine" 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . , p. 249. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 234. Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation b u s i n e s s of government. By ensur ing a l l e lements of d a y - t o - d a y b u s i n e s s are kept at the bu reauc ra t i c l e v e l , the sub -government p o l i c y body c a n reduce to a min imum the degree of o u t s i d e in te r fe rence a l l o w e d to permeate the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The u t i l i t y of t h i s procedure i s t w o - f o l d : i t k e e p s the p u b l i c eye from l i g h t i n g too l o n g upon the d e l i c a t e b u s i n e s s of government and , more impor tant ly , k e e p s the l e s s p r i v i l e g e d groups from c o m i n g too c l o s e to the j e a l o u s l y guarded cente r of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . When i s s u e s of p u b l i c p o l i c y emerge as open and p u b l i c t o p i c s of debate , i t i s due to the m a l f u n c t i o n i n g of t h i s e x c l u s i v e p r o c e s s of p o l i c y development . Both the c o m p l e x i t y and volume of debate on i s s u e s of p u b l i c c o n c e r n i s s i m p l y too burdensome a l o a d for the forum of open d i s c u s s i o n . There i s both a l a c k of s p a c e w i t h i n the p u b l i c med ium, and a l a c k of i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s w i t h i n the genera l p o p u l a t i o n , to serve i t w e l l . For these r e a s o n s the o v e r w h e l m i n g preponderance of d i s c u s s i o n , debate and d e c i s i o n m a k i n g t a k e s p l a c e w e l l out of the g a z e of the p u b l i c eye . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s upon the nature of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s , to be sure , profound. P r o s s argues that , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p o s t - w a r e ra , the i n t e n s i t y and g rowing impor tance of p o l i c y debate has p roduced a policy community, a r e l a t i v e l y s e l e c t and w e l l - i n f o r m e d group of p e r s o n s grouped together to better determine the r e l e v a n t i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s i n the deve lopment of p u b l i c p o l i c y . W i t h the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g impor tance of government w i t h i n the modern democra t ic w e l f a r e s t a t e , i t s a c t i o n s are b e c o m i n g more worthy of a t ten t ion by a la rge r number of i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . Interest g roups , among other a c t o r s , have formed a s i g n i f i c a n t component of t h i s n e w p o l i c y communi ty . O f f i c i a l s , w i s h i n g to determine the r e s p o n s e of a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n to a p r o s p e c t i v e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l , may approach one or more appropr iate groups for a sample r e s p o n s e . They c o u l d s e e k a d v i c e i n the format ive s t a g e s of l e g i s l a t i o n , and Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation even a s s i s t a n c e i n the imp lementat ion of the f i n a l p o l i c y outputs . W i t h i n the bu reauc ra t i c f ramework o f f i c i a l s may open ly use the support of s p e c i f i c groups to i n d i c a t e the p ro jec ted s u c c e s s of p o l i c i e s , thereby e s t a b l i s h i n g the i r p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l bene f i t . There i s even the p o s s i b i l i t y that , where o r g a n i z e d groups do not e x i s t , government a g e n c i e s w i l l s e e k to encourage the i r c r e a t i o n i n an effort to incorporate them in to the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . W i t h i n t h i s p o l i c y community the neo p l u r a l i s t s p o s i t four b a s i c f unc t ions for i n t e r e s t g roups : c o m m u n i c a t i o n , l e g i t i m a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . To e f f e c t i v e l y perform these f u n c t i o n s , however , a group must p o s s e s s c e r t a i n a t t r ibu tes of formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , e f f e c t i v e groups must p o s s e s s a formal s t ruc tu re , c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of r o l e s , a s y s t e m for the gene ra t i on and a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , a c o l l e c t i v e memory, r u l e s govern ing behav iou r and , perhaps most impor tant l y , p rocedures for e f f e c t i v e l y r e a c h i n g and imp lement ing d e c i s i o n s . W h i l e " s o l i d a r y " or " latent" groups l a c k the means to a c t e f f e c t i v e l y i n a c o o p e r a t i v e manner , o r g a n i z e d i n t e r e s t s are t y p i c a l l y qu i te c a p a b l e of s u c h c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n s . The I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of Groups An in f requent component of neo p l u r a l i s t w r i t i n g s have u t i l i z e d P h i l i p 12 S e l z n i c k ' s i s s u e - o r i e n t e d / i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t y p o l o g y of p ressu re g roups . The institutionalization of p ressu re groups i s the p r o c e s s through w h i c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n b e c o m e s an i n s t i t u t i o n , how a " t e c h n i c a l inst rument d e s i g n e d as a means to d e f i n i t e g o a l s , " b e c o m e s a " r e s p o n s i v e , adapt i ve o rgan ism. " It i s s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n t h i s unde rs tand ing that o r g a n i z a t i o n s are not s e e n to c reate 1 2 P h i l i p S e l z n i c k , Leadership in Administration(Nev/ York : 1957). P r o s s g i v e s S e l z n i c k ' s t y p o l o g y e x t e n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e g i n n i n g on p. 114, op. c i t . 1 3 P r o s s , p. 114. Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation v a l u e s but , rather , to embody them. As t h i s p r o c e s s d e v e l o p s the o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . In turn , as the group d e v e l o p s i t s l e v e l of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , i t i s better ab le to perform i t s f u n c t i o n s . S e l z n i c k ' s t y p o l o g y , s i m i l a r but not by any means i d e n t i c a l to that o f fered by the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l , c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a l o n g a l i n e a r cont inuum of deve lopment . At one extreme l i e s the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group, e x h i b i t i n g f i v e deve lopmenta l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . l ) I t w i l l p o s s e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y and c o h e s i o n . Con t inu i t y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s an important e lement for m a i n t a i n i n g a w a t c h f u l eye upon the e v o l u t i o n of n e w p o l i c i e s . 2)The group w i l l p o s s e s s e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e of i t s area(s) of c o n c e r n , e n a b l i n g i t to determine s i g n i f i c a n t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n c o n d i t i o n s . 3)The group w i l l have a s t a b l e membersh ip b a s e . T h i s membersh ip w i l l t y p i c a l l y be a t t rac ted by secondary i nducements and e a s i l y s w a y e d i n the dete rminat ion of p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s by the ca ree r l e a d e r s h i p of the group. 4)There w i l l e x i s t both concre te and immediate o p e r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n the group. In order to f a c i l i t a t e at ta inment of t hese the p h i l o s o p h y of the group w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t l y gene ra l to a l l o w the n e c e s s a r y b a r g a i n i n g w i t h government . 5)The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s of the group w i l l be more important than any p a r t i c u l a r ope ra t i ona l o b j e c t i v e . The group w i l l r a r e l y p r e j u d i c e i t s p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n w i t h government over a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e i f the at ta inment of that o b j e c t i v e w i l l r e s u l t i n p o s s i b l e un favourab le d i s p o s i t i o n of government p o l i c y makers toward that group i n future. T h e s e groups rep resent the most s u c c e s s f u l and p r i v i l e g e d of the groups at work w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , o f ten f i n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers p r o v i d e d to them by government , and p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n of t rus t and c o n f i d e n c e by mandar ins w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . At the o p p o s i t e extreme of S e l z n i c k ' s cont inuum a v a s t l y d i f fe rent type of p r e s s u r e group i s found , and one that t y p i c a l l y a c c o u n t s for the l a r g e s t number Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation of groups w i t h i n t h i s p o l i c y p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g to S e l z n i c k ' s t y p o l o g y , i s s u e -o r ien ted p ressu re groups e x h i b i t s e v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e lements . l ) T h e s e groups p o s s e s s a poor o r g a n i z a t i o n st ructure r e l a t i v e to the i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d counterpar ts . There i s a l i m i t e d degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y , and group c o h e s i o n i s o f ten n o n - e x i s t e n t . 2)The p r a c t i c a l w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e of government i s o f ten s i m p l i s t i c , or s i m p l y i n c o r r e c t . 3)The membersh ip of the group i s t y p i c a l l y f l u i d , neve r d e v e l o p i n g a s t a b l e b a s i s w i t h w h i c h to a t t ract n e w members . 4 )Because of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r e c a r i o u s n e s s , the group w i l l e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n fo rmulat ing l o n g - r a n g e o b j e c t i v e s , and adherence to any s u c h p o l i c i e s w i l l be v i r t u a l l y unheard of. 5 )Contr ibut ing to the i n c a p a c i t y for coherent a c t i o n w i l l be the t y p i c a l l y l o w regard d i s p l a y e d by s u c h groups for those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m s they have managed to d e v e l o p for the e x e c u t i o n of any p o l i c y g o a l s . 6)The group w i l l l a c k a s u f f i c i e n t l y gene ra l p h i l o s o p h i c a l deve lopment , thus p r o h i b i t i n g i t from a c c e p t i n g s h o r t - t e r m de feat i n return for l o n g - r u n reward . T y p i c a l l y , the group w i l l be o b s e s s e d w i t h a s m a l l number of dominant i s s u e s upon w h i c h i t s r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e w i l l become dependent . 7)Its i n a b i l i t y to broaden i t s gene ra l p h i l o s o p h i c a l appea l w i l l r e s u l t i n a narrow and s p e c i a l i z e d membersh ip b a s e . Both of t h e s e i d e a l c a s e s represent ext remes w i t h w h i c h no group i s ever l i k e l y to c o m p l e t e l y conform. Furthermore, d e s p i t e the apparent advantages a c c r u i n g to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d g roups , s u c h a l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l deve lopment i s not w i t h o u t i t s c o s t s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group b e c o m e s t rapped i n a d i lemma w h e n burdened s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the t rus t of both government and i t s membersh ip . If the group appears too c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h p o l i c y makers the l e a d e r s h i p c a n f a c e a s e r i o u s l o s s of c r e d i b i l i t y . What i s more , o n c e a group i s an a c c e p t e d and r e c o g n i z e d component of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , i t i s no l onger free to r a i s e a l l i s s u e s of c o n c e r n to i t s membersh ip . It must become s e l e c t i v e i n Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation both the t y p e s , of i s s u e s r a i s e d and the methods employed i n r a i s i n g them. B e c a u s e of i t s bu reauc ra t i c s t ructure , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group w i l l not respond as q u i c k l y as l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d g roups , p o s s i b l y c r e a t i n g f rus t ra t i ons amongst the membersh ip . On the other hand , i s s u e - o r i e n t e d groups are c a p a b l e of s u c h q u i c k r e s p o n s e s b e c a u s e of t he i r f l e x i b l e st ructure and w i l l i n g n e s s to l obby on any i s s u e . I s s u e - o r i e n t e d groups do not' p o s s e s s e s p e c i a l l y p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n s w i t h government , on the w h o l e , and thus have l i t t l e to l o s e by t r a n s g r e s s i n g the a c c e p t e d norms of the p o l i c y community . Yet , on q u e s t i o n s of a c o m p l e x nature w h i c h requi re p ro longed and expert work on the p o l i c y m a k i n g p ressu re p o i n t s , s u c h groups w i l l u s u a l l y f a l te r , unab le to m a i n t a i n the i r s t a n c e over a p e r i o d of t ime . Groups and the State W h i l e s p e c i f i c s vary be tween p a r t i c u l a r s y s t e m s , a c c e s s to k e y government d e c i s i o n makers i s r e c o g n i z e d as a u n i v e r s a l l y v a l u a b l e t o o l for l obby groups of a l l t y p e s . The a b i l i t y to con fe r w i t h t h o s e i n p o s i t i o n s of power w i t h i n the p o l i c y m a k i n g b u r e a u c r a c y b e s t o w s an e lement of r e c o g n i t i o n upon a p a r t i c u l a r group, an i n d i c a t i o n to others t h i s group i s an a c c e p t e d member of the p o l i c y communi ty . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i s , i n e f f e c t , an acknowledgement of power w i t h i n t h i s s e l e c t c a d r e . The group i s r e c o g n i z e d as a harb inger of p o t e n t i a l l y v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e s i d u a l of power and i n f l u e n c e at e a s e w i t h i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c m a c h i n a t i o n s of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . T h i s p o s i t i o n of r e s p e c t and i n f l u e n c e i s the mos t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group. The neo p l u r a l i s t s m a i n t a i n that i f a group i s an a c c e p t e d member of the i nne r p o l i c y apparatus i t w i l l not s e e k to a c t u a l l y "p ressure" d e c i s i o n m a k e r s . A m e t h o d i c a l , h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m of mutua l c o o p e r a t i o n bet ter c h a r a c t e r i z e s the manner of i n t e r a c t i o n at work w i t h i n the • Neo Pluralism: A Second Gene ration i nner p o l i c y e c h e l o n s . Indeed, to resor t to the use of demands for p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s i s a l l but admi t t ing a l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t i n f l u e n c e and r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n the p o l i c y sphere to a c c o m p l i s h the t a s k through r e g u l a r i z e d c h a n n e l s . Such t a c t i c s are u s u a l l y the reserve of the i s s u e - o r i e n t e d g roups , as s u c c e s s f u l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ra re l y break ranks w i t h i n the bu reauc ra t i c p e c k i n g -o r d e r . 1 4 It s h o u l d be unders tood , w h i l e most p o l i c y i s s u e s are c o n s i d e r e d and d e a l t w i t h by t h i s s m a l l cadre w i t h i n the p o l i c y community , there e x i s t o b v i o u s e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s r u le . For p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y i s s u e s of o b v i o u s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , r e q u i r i n g an open s t y l e of p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , forums are c l e a r l y a v a i l a b l e . C o m m i s s i o n s of i nqu i ry may be e s t a b l i s h e d , p ro longed debate w i t h i n the l e g i s l a t u r e may be n e c e s s a r y , or i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n s u l t a t i o n s may be requ i red . T y p i c a l l y , l e g i s l a t o r s w i l l s e e k a more s a l i e n t ro le i n the p o l i c y ' s p repara t ion . In terms of s imp le vo lume, however , the ma jo r i t y of p o l i c y i s determined by b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the p o l i c y communi ty . T h u s , w h i l e the more con ten t i ous and s a l i e n t i s s u e s r e a c h p u b l i c forums, the v a s t ma jo r i t y of p o l i c y i s s u e s do not . 1 "* L e a d e r s h i p T o o l s S i m i l a r to the t o o l s of l e a d e r s h i p d i s c u s s e d by Truman, the neo p l u r a l i s t s r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r i n g t o o l s of m a n i p u l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to group l e a d e r s , d e p e n d i n g upon the g roup 's p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of deve lopment . Of t h e s e , P r o s s o f fe rs an i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : D i s c o u r s e , c o e r c i o n , and cor rupt ion are the means groups use to o b t a i n t h e i r g o a l s . H o w they u s e t h e s e methods depends on t h e i r c o n c e r n s , the r e s o u r c e s they have at h a n d , and the 1 4 I b i d . 1 5 I b i d . Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation envi ronment surrounding the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . When d r i v e n , every i n te res t w i l l use whatever t o o l s i t c a n muster to p ro tect i t s own. Even i l l e g a l means may not be e x c l u d e d . ^ In f a c t the v a r i o u s t o o l s a v a i l a b l e to groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y are rather more s t ra ight fo rward and l e g i t i m a t e than P r o s s w o u l d have one b e l i e v e . These t o o l s c a n be c o n c e i v e d i n terms of the r e s o u r c e s of the v a r i o u s g roups , the most important b e i n g k n o w l e d g e , or " in format ion ." The preponderance of a g roup 's a c t i v i t y w i l l t ake the form of an in fo rmat iona l resource for members of the p o l i c y communi ty . Bureaucrats and other p o l i c y m a k e r s , i n return for s p e c i a l i z e d in fo rmat ion and data on a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o r of p o l i c y c o n c e r n , w i l l o f fer v a l u e d c o n c e s s i o n s to g roups . A l s o , the w a y i n w h i c h the in fo rmat ion i s p r e s e n t e d , i t s p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s or b i a s , c a n a s s i s t i n p roduc ing d e s i r a b l e outcomes w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . S i m i l a r l y , i f the in fo rmat ion r e a c h i n g a g roup 's membersh ip c a n be c o n t r o l l e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e to e f f e c t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the o p i n i o n s and a c t i o n s of those members . Furthermore, as P r o s s h a s p o i n t e d out , a group w h i c h m a i n t a i n s a p o s i t i o n of importance w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , through i t s use of i n fo rmat ion , has p roduced a group w h i c h i s somewhat more than the sum of i t s pa r ts . As he w r i t e s : An o r g a n i z a t i o n that s tands i n a r e l a t i o n of t rus t be tween i t s members and government not o n l y o b t a i n s a p e r s p e c t i v e on the membersh ip that i s not a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s , but a c q u i r e s an author i ty over and above the w i l l i n g n e s s of members to support i t . ^ The mandate of a group i s i t s s e c o n d major r e s o u r c e w i t h i n the p o l i c y communi ty . A s i g n i f i c a n t degree of l e g i t i m a c y p r o v i d e s a group w i t h an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t c a p a b l e of e n s u r i n g i t s v i e w p o i n t i s c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . Only i f a g roup ' s mandate i s c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , w i l l bu reaucra ts be 1 6 I b i d . , p. 130. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 186. Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation eager to e n l i s t i t s support of p roposed programs, hop ing to o b t a i n p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e pr io r to the i n t roduct ion of the p o l i c y . The i n v o l v e m e n t of s u c h a group i n the deve lopmenta l s tages of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i l l h e l p to ensure the end r e s u l t w i l l engender p u b l i c support w i t h i n the a f f e c t e d s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . To r e c e i v e a t ru l y s i g n i f i c a n t input into the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , a h i g h degree of support from a s i g n i f i c a n t por t ion of the a f fec ted p o p u l a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y requ i red . F i n a n c i a l w e a l t h i s the th i rd and perhaps most o b v i o u s of the major r e s o u r c e s of i n t e r e s t g roups . The major i ty of revenue r a i s e d by groups i s t y p i c a l l y the r e s u l t of membersh ip dues . These d u e s , however , are o f ten p u r p o s e f u l l y m a i n t a i n e d at l o w l e v e l s . The r a t i o n a l e i n v o l v e d s u g g e s t s i t i s more s i g n i f i c a n t to p o s s e s s a la rge number of members w i t h l o w membersh ip d u e s , than a s m a l l number of members w i t h la rge membersh ip dues . W h i l e i t a p p e a r s , t h e n , that membersh ip numbers are more important than the c a p a c i t y to r a i s e money , there i s a po in t where , once a la rge membersh ip i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the p u r s u i t of f i n a n c e s must p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t ro le w i t h i n the group. The greater the amount of w e a l t h p o s s e s s e d by a group, the more e laborate and s o p h i s t i c a t e d f u n c t i o n s i t c a n perform. In format ion , to be of u s e to the group, must be gathered and o r g a n i z e d c o h e r e n t l y , a p r o c e s s r e q u i r i n g t r a i n e d r e s e a r c h e r s , o f f i c e s and support s ta f f , a l l of w h i c h must be p a i d for . U l t i m a t e l y , for an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d group to s u c c e e d at i t s p r o f e s s e d f u n c t i o n , a c c e s s to s u f f i c i e n t 18 fund ing w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . In order to u s e these a forement ioned t o o l s to t h e i r f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l , however , k n o w l e d g e apart f rom that of t h e i r own i n t e r e s t area i s requ i red . A group may p o s s e s s b o u n d l e s s amounts of s i g n i f i c a n t i n fo rmat ion , mandate and money , y e t be unab le to u s e i t to i t s f u l l e s t e f f ec t . W i thout a thorough and l o S e e Robert P r e s t h u s , Elite Accommodations in Canadian Politics(ToTonto: M a c M i l l a n . 1973). Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation f a m i l i a r unders tand ing of the p o l i c y community and i t s p a r t i c u l a r dynamic i d i o s y n c r a c i e s , much effort c a n be w a s t e d i n i l l - a d v i s e d and c l u m s y attempts to i n f l u e n c e , o f ten r e d u c i n g the ba rga in ing power p o s s e s s e d by a group. In e s s e n c e , what i s requ i red i s a f a m i l i a r i t y of the a c t u a l f l o w - c h a r t of d e c i s i o n m a k i n g power , someth ing w h i c h c a n d i f fe r c o n s i d e r a b l y from the o f f i c i a l h i e r a r c h y of the s y s t e m . As s t r e s s e d e a r l i e r , a group must p o s s e s s adequate w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e of the h i e r a r c h y i t i s w o r k i n g w i t h i n and a g a i n s t , i f i t i s to be e f f e c t i v e . W i thout t h i s , a l l other r e s o u r c e s expended w i l l g e n e r a l l y be i n v a i n . The neo p l u r a l i s t theory does not s e e k to e x p l a i n the ro le or importance of i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s of g roups , e v e n to the extent w h i c h the c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s sought . The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the e f f e c t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l deve lopment , however , b e s p e a k s an a p p r e c i a t i o n for the e f f e c t s of i n t e r n a l a s p e c t s of group e x i s t e n c e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e c o g n i t i o n of i n t e r n a l group d y n a m i c s i s thus a s i g n i f i c a n t advancement over the r e l a t i v e dearth of c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h i s e lement r e c e i v e d from c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s . B u s i n e s s P r i v i l e g e Pe rhaps the mos t s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the neo p l u r a l i s t pa rad igm i s a p roduct of an e n t i r e l y separate s c h o o l of w r i t e r s . W r i t i n g i n the e a r l y 1970s , L i n d b l o m and o thers i d e n t i f i e d what w a s then the most a l a r m i n g i n a d e q u a c y of c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t theory : the i n a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n the d i s c r e p a n c y of l e v e l s of power e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n d i f fe rent groups w i t h i n Amer ican s o c i e t y . As w e have s e e n , c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t s s u g g e s t e d any attempt to o b t a i n s y s t e m i c dominance on the part of one group w o u l d be c h e c k e d by the o v e r l a p p i n g membersh ip of i n d i v i d u a l s . The neo p l u r a l i s t s , however , showed t h i s to be f a l s e . L i n d b l o m argued that i n m o d e m c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s most d e c i s i o n s regard ing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i e t a l r e s o u r c e s are e f f e c t e d by the la rge o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation i n t e r e s t s . Refer r ing to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of mate r i a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n a g i v e n economic s y s t e m , L i n d b l o m w r i t e s : In a l l s o c i e t i e s , these matters have to be d e c i d e d . They are of momentous c o n s e q u e n c e s for the w e l f a r e of any s o c i e t y . But i n a p r i va te enterpr ise market s y s t e m , they are i n l a rge r part d e c i d e d not by government o f f i c i a l s but by b u s i n e s s m e n . 1 9 He argues that b e c a u s e the a c t i o n s of o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s are so p i v o t a l to the e c o n o m i c h e a l t h of modern c a p i t a l i s t d e m o c r a c i e s , the a c t i o n s of the b u s i n e s s o f f i c i a l s , w i t h r e s p e c t to the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e , are i n many w a y s as e q u a l l y important as the a c t i o n s of s e n i o r bu reauc ra t i c o f f i c i a l s . Among other t h i n g s , b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s d e c i d e a n a t i o n ' s i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y , the l o c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s , and the a l l o c a t i o n of v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s . He argues that la rge c a t e g o r i e s of d e c i s i o n s dete rmin ing the w e l f a r e of a n a t i o n are made by s e n i o r b u s i n e s s p e o p l e and , as s u c h : " B u s i n e s s m e n thus become a k i n d of p u b l i c on o f f i c i a l and e x e r c i s e what , on a broad v i e w of t h e i r r o l e , are p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s . " * W r i t i n g at the same t i m e , but from a d i f f e r i n g a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , F red B l o c k a l s o , a r t i c u l a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of a " b u s i n e s s p r i v i l e g e " i n c a p i t a l i s t 21 s y s t e m s . B l o c k argues that w i t h i n modern c a p i t a l i s t d e m o c r a c i e s there e x i s t s a d i v i s i o n of l abour b e t w e e n the c a p i t a l i s t and b u r e a u c r a t i c c l a s s e s , b e t w e e n those who a c c u m u l a t e c a p i t a l w i t h i n the s y s t e m and those who manage the s ta te . B l o c k r e j e c t s the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t p r o p o s i t i o n of a c l a s s c o n s c i o u s r u l i n g - c l a s s and , i n i t s p l a c e , o f fe rs the e x i s t e n c e of " s t ruc tu ra l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s tate managers , c a p i t a l i s t s and w o r k e r s . " He argues that w h i l e those who a c c u m u l a t e c a p i t a l w i t h i n a c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m are f u l l y aware of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a s 1 9 L i n d b l o m , p. 171. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 172. 2 1 F r e d B l o c k , "The R u l i n g C l a s s Does Not Ru le : Notes on the M a r x i s t Theory o f the S t a t e , " Socialist Revolution ( J u n e , 1977). Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation 38 c a p i t a l i s t s , they are not , i n g e n e r a l , c o n s c i o u s of what i s n e c e s s a r y for the rep roduct ion of the s o c i a l order they so depend upon. T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he s u g g e s t s , f a l l s to those w h o s e job i t i s to manage the s tate apparatus . It i s they who must c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the reproduct ion of the s o c i a l order b e c a u s e the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of t he i r power r e s t s upon the s a t i s f a c t o r y ma in tenance of the p o l i t i c a l and economic order. Both L i n d b l o m and B l o c k sugges t that bureaucrats w i l l defer to the genera l w i s h e s of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s b e c a u s e the job of m a i n t a i n i n g the economic we l fa re of the s tate i s ent rusted to these groups . Bureaucrats i n every democra t i c s y s t e m are dependent upon the ma in tenance of some l e v e l of e c o n o m i c w e l f a r e . B l o c k s u g g e s t s t h i s i s true for two r e a s o n s : l ) t h e c a p a c i t y of the s tate to f i n a n c e i t s e l f through t a x a t i o n or bo r rowing depends upon the s tate of the economy ; and 2 )publ ic support for a regime w i l l d e c l i n e s h a r p l y i f the regime p r e s i d e s over a s e r i o u s drop i n the l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t y . In c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i e s , they argue, the l e v e l of economic a c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y dependent upon the p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s . The e f f e c t of t h i s i s to g i v e t h e s e d e c i s i o n m a k e r s , i n the i r c o l l e c t i v e ro le as i n v e s t o r s , a veto over s tate p o l i c i e s . T h e i r f a i l u r e to i n v e s t . a t adequate l e v e l s c a n c rea te major p o l i t i c a l p rob lems for the s tate managers . Furthermore, t h i s a l s o means bu reaucra ts w i l l p o s s e s s a d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n f a c i l i t a t i n g i n v e s t m e n t s i n c e t h e i r own c o n t i n u e d power r e s t s upon a h e a l t h y economy. In shor t , b e c a u s e the s e n i o r s ta te managers depend upon the a c t i o n s of b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s to m a i n t a i n a h e a l t h y e c o n o m i c env i ronment , and thus perpetuate the power of the s tate managers , t h e s e managers w i l l g e n e r a l l y c o m p l y w i t h the w i s h e s of the o r g a n i z e d 22 b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the p o l i c y m a k i n g a rena . * T h i s c o l l u s i o n b e t w e e n b u s i n e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and s ta te managers i s not 2 2 B l o c k , 0 p . c i t . Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation n e c e s s a r i l y ou tward ly m a n i f e s t , however . Government need not enter in to any e x p l i c i t s t y l e of n e g o t i a t i o n s : Mutua l ad justment i s o f ten impersona l and d i s t a n t . It operates through an u n s p o k e n de ference of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , l e g i s l a t u r e s , and cour ts to the needs of b u s i n e s s . And i t r e l i e s on a mu l t i tude of common t a c i t unders tand ings sha red by the two groups of l e a d e r s , b u s i n e s s and governmenta l , w i t h r e s p e c t to the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h . en te rp r i ses c a n 2 3 or cannot p r o f i t a b l y operate . W h i l e L i n d b l o m s u g g e s t s that c o n f l i c t be tween these two groups i s not u n u s u a l , he a l s o s u g g e s t s the nature of the c o n f l i c t w i l l n o r m a l l y be c o n f i n e d to a narrow range. Any c o n f l i c t w h i c h r e s u l t s be tween these two groups w i l l a l w a y s be c o n s t r a i n e d by a mutual unders tand ing that together they c o n s t i t u t e the n e c e s s a r y e lements of l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the s y s t e m . Nei ther group w o u l d s e e k to undermine the f u n c t i o n of the o t h e r . 2 4 B u s i n e s s , t hen , o c c u p i e s a " p r i v i l e g e d " p o s i t i o n i n the p r o c e s s w h i c h dete rmines the p o l i c i e s of the modern democra t i c c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e . B e c a u s e the a c t i o n s of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s have the c a p a c i t y to e f f e c t the h e a l t h of the c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i c s y s t e m , and b e c a u s e the power of the s ta te managers r e s t s upon the m a i n t e n a n c e of a h e a l t h y economic atmosphere , b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s are pro f fered a degree of i n f l u e n c e un ique amongst a l l other a c t o r s w i t h i n the p o l i c y communi ty . As L i n d b l o m h a s put i t : B u s i n e s s m e n g e n e r a l l y and corporate e x e c u t i v e s i n p a r t i c u l a r t a k e on a p r i v i l e g e d ro le i n a government that i s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to s a y , unmatched by any l e a d e r s h i p group other 25 than the government o f f i c i a l s t h e m s e l v e s . The a r t i c u l a t i o n of the e lement of b u s i n e s s p r i v i l e g e w a s not i n s p i r e d s o l e l y by a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of the s ta te i n modern c a p i t a l i s t d e m o c r a c i e s , 2 3 L i n d b l o m , p. 179. 2 4 I b i d . 2 5 I b i d . . p. 172. Neo Pluralism: A Second Gene ration 40 however . As Garson has po in ted out, the pe r iod of the ea r l y 1970s brought w i t h i t a sharp i n c r e a s e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of consumer o r g a n i z a t i o n s eager to confront "b ig b u s i n e s s " head on . What had been , u n t i l that t ime , a comfor tab le r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween b u s i n e s s and government through the p o l i c y communi ty , now appeared to be the u n - d e m o c r a t i c d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e of o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s on the p o l i c y m a k i n g p r o c e s s : The many w o r k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Ra lph Nader . . . he lped sp read . even i n academia a profound m a l a i s e over any s u c h sangu ine a c c e p t a n c e of g r o u p - p o l i t i c s - a s - u s u a l o f ten found i n p l u r a l i s t w r i t i n g s . Then , too , t h i s v i e w p o i n t d rew on a more g e n e r a l i z e d sort of r a d i c a l i s m p o p u l a r i z e d i n the p r e v i o u s decade among s tudents now becoming the p r o f e s s o r s and p o l i c y a n a l y s t s of the 1970s. The g o v e r n m e n t - l i k e but undemocra t ic nature of corporate power w a s condemned by p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s . . . E v e n the f e w ventures of b u s i n e s s in to the rea lm of s o c i a l a c t i o n and a l t r u i s m came under sharp a t t a c k as camouf lage for r a c i s t or s e l f - s e r v i n g e n d s . 2 ^ C o n c l u s i o n W i t h i n p l u r a l i s m I we f i n d one e x p l a n a t i o n for the s y s t e m of d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i e t a l power , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n North A m e r i c a . Ye t , w i t h i n p l u r a l i s m I there a l s o e x i s t s an attempt at s i m p l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Contemporar ies of Truman and B e n t l e y , r e c o g n i z i n g the i n a b i l i t y of p l u r a l i s m I to e f f e c t i v e l y e x p l a i n the a c t u a l s t ructure of r e l a t i o n w i t h i n contemporary s o c i e t y , sought to a l t e r the theory and r e - a l i g n i t w i t h the r e a l i t i e s of p o s t - w a r s o c i e t y . The neo p l u r a l i s t s argued the s ta te d o e s i n d e e d p l a y a ro le i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of groups w i t h i n s o c i e t y , and 27 that there i s not an e q u a l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n among groups . M u c h of t h i s r e -a l i gnment of p l u r a l i s t thought o c c u r r e d i n r e s p o n s e to the rather damning barrage of c r i t i c i s m emerg ing from the c l a s s a n a l y s i s of p l u r a l i s m , h i g h l i g h t i n g , i n 2 6 G . D a v i d Ga rson , Group Theories of Politics(Beyerly H i l l s , CA: Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978) pp . 161-62. 2 7 S e e L i n d b l o m , op . c i t . Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation p a r t i c u l a r , i t s n a i v e r e l i a n c e upon the free enterpr ise s y s t e m of groups i n no m a i n t a i n i n g e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h i n s o c i e t y . T h i s , i n f a c t , i s the most fundamental change brought about by the neo p l u r a l i s t s ; the a s s e r t i o n that , i n f a c t , a l l groups w i t h i n the s y s t e m are not e q u a l , that groups w h i c h f a l l in to S e l z n i c k ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of institutionalized(typ\caA\y b u s i n e s s groups) are o f ten at a s i g n i f i c a n t advantage over those groups w h i c h are not. Not o n l y are b u s i n e s s groups w e l l - f u n d e d , better o r g a n i z e d and more at ease w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s as a w h o l e , but there i s a p r e - d i s p o s i t i o n of favourab le a t t i tudes towards b u s i n e s s groups w i t h i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s , g i v i n g them an o v e r w h e l m i n g l y d i sp ropo r t i ona te input in to the p o l i c y m a k i n g a rena . It i s i n the contex t of s u c h debate that the t h e s i s of t h i s paper i s p r e s e n t e d . W h i l e the debate , as a w h o l e , h a s been o b s e s s e d w i t h the s y s t e m i c l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n of i n t e r e s t g roups , the i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s of t hese groups h a s 2 9 gone l a r g e l y u n n o t i c e d . W h i l e i t i s true that p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s have a t t r ibuted the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the s tate to group o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they argued that those groups p o s s e s s e d m o t i v a t i o n a l d y n a m i c s w h i c h a rose from the a c t i o n s , thoughts and v a l u e s of the i n d i v i d u a l s c o m p o s i n g those g roups . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n t h e m s e l v e s , do not p o s s e s s a dynamic separate from that . As Truman arguedr 'The ' i n d i v i d u a l ' and the 'g roup ' are at mos t mere l y c o n v e n i e n t w a y s of c l a s s i f y i n g 30 b e h a v i o r , two w a y s of a p p r o a c h i n g the same phenomena, not d i f fe rent t h i n g s . " There i s no "autonomy of the group." S i m i l a r l y , the neo p l u r a l i s t s s a w the g o a l s ^ See L i n d b l o m , op. c i t . , and B l o c k , op . c i t . 2 9 T h e neo p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s , w h i l e n o t i n g the e x i s t e n c e of i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of g roups , d i d not o f fer t hese e lements any s i g n i f i c a n t degree of impor tance w i t h i n t h e i r m o d e l . ^ D a v i d Truman, The Governmental P r o c e s s ( N e w York: A l f red A. Knopf , 1951), p. 48 . Neo Pluralism: A Second Generation and m o t i v a t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s as o r i g i n a t i n g , s t i l l , w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . ^ The neo p l u r a l i s t s do not p e r c e i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s at any l e v e l of deve lopment as c r e a t i n g v a l u e s but, rather , s i m p l y embody ing them. It i s t h i s common on a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h i s at the root of what t h i s paper s e e k s to exp lo re . The i n s i g h t cont r ibu ted by the r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance of i n t e r n a l group d y n a m i c s a l t e r s the nature of the neo p l u r a l i s t a s s u m p t i o n s about g roups w i t h i n s o c i e t y . It i s the p o s i t i o n t a k e n h e r e i n that , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of s e v e r a l recent m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the theory of g roups , a r e v i s e d p l u r a l i s t theory may once a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e p o t e n t i a l as a u s e f u l exp lanato ry h y p o t h e s i s for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n North Amer ican s o c i e t y . It i s t h i s s i m i l a r i t y w h i c h j u s t i f i e s the treatment of t h e s e two s c h o o l s as r e l a t i v e a l l i e s h e r e i n . 3 2 P r o s s , p. 186. The c o n t e n t i o n here i s that , w h i l e P r o s s may r e c o g n i z e the a b i l i t y of groups to p o s s e s s a l e v e l of autonomy, the neo p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l , as a w h o l e , i n a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e s t h i s a s p e c t of group behav iou r . A New Superstructure Chapter Three A NEW SUPERSTRUCTURE The p l u r a l i s t and neo p l u r a l i s t camps share a common c o n c e p t u a l p remise i n the i r a p p r o a c h e s : a g roup 's g o a l s are a product of the v a l u e s and d e s i r e s of the membersh ip of that i n t e r e s t g roup .* T h u s , any o b j e c t i v e s under taken by the group are o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h have f i r s t o r i g i n a t e d w i t h at l e a s t a ma jo r i t y of those members . W i t h i n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s h idden y e t another: i n d i v i d u a l s who are members of a la rge group w i l l s e e k to cont r ibute to the at ta inment of a c o l l e c t i v e g o a l b e c a u s e they p e r c e i v e i t to be i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t to o b t a i n that g o a l . T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s f a i l e d to r e c e i v e a thorough a n a l y s i s , however , u n t i l the emergence of Mancur O l s o n ' s The Logic of Collective Action, an economic 2 theory of i n t e r e s t group d y n a m i c s . The R a t i o n a l Actor M o d e l The mos t damning of O l s o n ' s a s s e r t i o n s s e e k to s h o w w h y , i n la rge g roups , i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l p o s s e s s no i n c e n t i v e to cont r ibute to w h a t he has termed See chapte rs one and two. The p r e s e n c e of s u c h an i dea d i d not o r i g ina te w i t h the p l u r a l i s t s c h o o l . A r i s t o t l e once wrote : "Men journey together w i t h a v i e w to p a r t i c u l a r advantage , and by w a y of p r o v i d i n g some p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g needed for the p u r p o s e s of l i f e , and s i m i l a r l y the p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n seems to have come together o r i g i n a l l y , and to cont inue i n e x i s t e n c e , for the s a k e of the gene ra l a d v a n t a g e s i t b r i ngs . " (E th ics , v i i i , 9, 1160a.) ^The pr imary r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s s c h o o l c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s chapte r w i l l be the r a t i o n a l a c t o r mode l p roposed by Mancur O l s o n i n h i s The Logic of Collective Acr ion (Cambr idge , MA: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). Another example of an e c o n o m i c theory of p o l i t i c s i s Char les B e a r d ' s Economic Theory of Politics{N.Y.: A l f r e d A. Knopf , 1945). A New Superstructure the " c o l l e c t i v e good," and w h i c h he has de f ined a s : . . . a n y good s u c h that , i f any pe rson X; i n a group X ^ . . . X - . . . X n consumes i t , i t cannot f e a s i b l y be w i t h e l d from the others i n that group. In other w o r d s , those who do not p u r c h a s e or pay for any of the p u b l i c or c o l l e c t i v e good cannot be e x c l u d e d or kep t from sha r ing i n the consumpt ion of the good , as they c a n where n o n c o l l e c t i v e goods are c o n c e r n e d . A c o l l e c t i v e good , then , cannot be w i t h e l d from those who do not s e e k to cont r ibute to i t s at ta inment . A s s u m i n g that i n d i v i d u a l s are r a t i o n a l l y s e l f -i n t e r e s t e d , and that they s e e k to m a x i m i z e the i r p e r s o n a l w e l f a r e , they w i l l not a c t to cont r ibute to the at ta inment of a g roup 's c o l l e c t i v e good i n the a b s e n c e of some form of i n c e n t i v e . 4 T h u s , i t i s argued, groups w i l l not a c t i n t h e i r s e l f -i n t e r e s t ( w h i c h i s to o b t a i n an op t ima l amount of the c o l l e c t i v e good b e i n g sought) b e c a u s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l do s o . B e c a u s e a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a group w i l l bene f i t upon obta inment of the c o l l e c t i v e good , by d e f i n i t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a c t u a l l y work to a c h i e v e the g o a l , l o g i c d i c t a t e s groups w i l l not a c t i n t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t and s t r i v e for the o p t i m a l degree of the good . If i t i s a s s u m e d that any c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e good requ i res a net expend i tu re on the part of the i n d i v i d u a l , and a s s u m i n g that the group o b j e c t i v e w i l l be p r o v i d e d to the i n d i v i d u a l r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r a c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , no r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l w i l l work w i t h i n the group to o b t a i n the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d . As O lson w r i t e s : . . . u n l e s s the number of i n d i v i d u a l s i n a group i s qu i te s m a l l , or u n l e s s there i s c o e r c i o n or some other s p e c i a l d e v i c e to make i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n the i r common i n t e r e s t , rational self-interested individuals will not act to achieve their common or group interests. In other w o r d s , e v e n i f a l l of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n a la rge group are r a t i o n a l and s e l f -i n t e r e s t e d , and w o u l d g a i n i f , as a group they a c t e d to • 'Olson, pp. 1 4 - 1 5 . 4 T h i s a s s u m p t i o n of " r a t i o n a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t " i s an a d m i t t e d l y c o n t e n t i o u s p r o p o s i t i o n w i t h i n O l s o n ' s mode l and i s g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e l o w . A New Superstructure 45 a c h i e v e the i r common i n te res t or o b j e c t i v e , they w i l l not v o l u n t a r i l y a c t to a c h i e v e that common or group i n te res t . The no t i on that groups of i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l a c t to a c h i e v e the i r common or group i n te res t , far from b e i n g a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n of the assumpt ion that the i n d i v i d u a l s i n a group w i l l r a t i o n a l l y further the i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , i s i n f a c t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h that assumption.~* If the s e l f - i n t e r e s t of the group i s thus d e f i n e d as the p r o v i s i o n of the o p t i m a l amount of the c o l l e c t i v e good , the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e nature of the c o l l e c t i v e good c a n be s a i d to be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e for the tendency groups w i l l e x h i b i t toward s u b - o p t i m a l p r o v i s i o n of that good.** If an i n d i v i d u a l h a s e l e c t e d to o b t a i n for h i m / h e r s e l f a un i t of the c o l l e c t i v e good , b e c a u s e i t w i l l be p rov ided to a l l members of the group the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l r e c e i v e o n l y part of the bene f i t e a c h un i t of the good p r o v i d e s . T h u s , any r a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l w i l l c e a s e to p rov ide any amount of the c o l l e c t i v e good before the o p t i m a l amount of the good , for the group as a w h o l e , has been p r o v i d e d . Furthermore, any amount of the good w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the group r e c e i v e s f ree through the ef for ts of another i n d i v i d u a l , or s u b - g r o u p of i n d i v i d u a l s , w i l l further reduce the d e s i r e of that i n d i v i d u a l to expend any amount of r e s o u r c e s i n p u r s u i t of the c o l l e c t i v e good . S i n c e t h i s s c e n a r i o i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p l a u s i b l e w i t h i n l a r g e r g roups , i t i s argued the t e n d e n c y toward s u b - o p t i m a l p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e good i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the s i z e of the group. In s i t u a t i o n s s u c h as t h i s , op t ima l 3 01son, p. 2. ^O lson d o e s not i n d i c a t e what an "opt ima l " s c a l e of the c o l l e c t i v e good for any group w i l l be . In an e c o n o m i c s e n s e , and for our pu rposes h e r e i n , the o p t i m a l po in t of p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e good c a n be a s s u m e d to be the po in t of i n t e r s e c t i o n of the m a r g i n a l u t i l i t y and m a r g i n a l c o s t c u r v e s p e r t a i n i n g to the g o o d . That i s , the o p t i m a l degree of a c o l l e c t i v e good c a n h y p o t h e t i c a l l y be c o n s t r u e d as the po in t at w h i c h the m a r g i n a l u t i l i t y d e r i v e d from the p r o v i s i o n of another u n i t of the good by the group e q u a l s the m a r g i n a l c o s t of p r o v i d i n g that good . 7 S e e O l s o n , p. 46. In t h i s r e s p e c t , O l s o n ' s theory i s b e s t a p p l i e d o n l y to la rger g roups . In s m a l l g roups e a c h member r e c e i v e s a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g reater po r t i on of the c o l l e c t i v e good b e c a u s e t h e i r e x i s t fewer members b e t w e e n w h i c h A New Superstructure 46 p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e good i s p o s s i b l e only when a larger member of the group i s w i l l i n g to accept a disproportionately large burden of the c o s t of pr o v i d i n g the c o l l e c t i v e good. When one or more members of the group undertake to provide a c e r t a i n l e v e l of the good at their own expense, those who do not contribute to i t s p r o v i s i o n w i l l r e c e i v e more of the good than they were w i l l i n g to purchase on th e i r own. The l e v e l of op t i m a l i t y , as i t would be defined by the sma l l e r members of the group unable or u n w i l l i n g to provide that amount of the good for themselves, i s thus more c l o s e l y approximated when larger members are w i l l i n g to i n c u r a disproportionate burden of the c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g the group go a l . Olson suggests, however, the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by groups attempting to a c h i e v e what i s u l t i m a t e l y i n th e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t can be o f f s e t w i t h the development of coherent and e f f e c t i v e structures of o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the o group. He w r i t e s : ...no c o l l e c t i v e good can be obtained without some group agreement, coordination, or or g a n i z a t i o n . In the intermediate or o l i g o p o l y s i z e d group, where two or more members must act s i m u l t a n e o u s l y before a c o l l e c t i v e good can be obtained, there must be at l e a s t t a c i t c o ordination or or g a n i z a t i o n . The establishment of an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n a group, of course, w i l l exert a cost. The development of a structure w i t h i n the group capable of the e f f e c t i v e promotion of the c o l l e c t i v e good grows proportionately more d i f f i c u l t as the to d i v i d e i t . Each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be more re s p o n s i v e to both the q u a l i t y and nature of the c o l l e c t i v e good. Most importantly, i f an i n d i v i d u a l were to w i t h o l d t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the c o l l e c t i v e good, there would be a much greater danger of the good not b e i n g p r o v i d e d than would be the case i n lar g e r groups. °01son appears to be i n i m p l i c i t agreement here w i t h the neo p l u r a l i s t w r i t e r s c o n s i d e r e d i n chapter two. While Truman et. a l . tended to b e l i t t l e the role of f o r m a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n groups, both the neo p l u r a l i s t and economic group t h e o r i s t s apparently r e c o g n i z e the importance of t h i s feature of i n t e r e s t groups. "Olson, p. 46. Again, Olson d i s q u a l i f i e s s m a l l groups from h i s model i n t h i s regard. A New Superstructure number of members w i t h i n the group i n c r e a s e s . As the membership g rows , the i n s t i t u t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n must deve lop i n c r e a s e d fo rma l i ty and the c a p a b i l i t i e s to d e a l e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h the more comp lex i s s u e s a c c o m p a n y i n g growth . Furthermore, a min imum l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n must be p rov ided i n e a c h group to w h i c h a commensurate l e v e l of min imum c o s t w i l l be a t tached . That i s , a group s e e k i n g to o rgan i ze w i l l i n c u r a c e r t a i n minimum c o s t of do ing s o , r e g a r d l e s s of the amount of c o l l e c t i v e good b e i n g sought . The r e s u l t i s a r e l a t i v e l y h igh p e r -u n i t - c o s t of o r g a n i z a t i o n u n t i l w h i c h t ime the group a t t a i n s membersh ip l e v e l s m a k i n g the s t ruc tu res of o r g a n i z a t i o n more c o s t - e f f e c t i v e . B e c a u s e w e assume a group p o s s e s s e s f i n i t e l e v e l s of r e s o u r c e s , any amount requ i red to enab le the group to d e v e l o p s t ruc tu res of o r g a n i z a t i o n must be sub t rac ted from that amount a l l o t t e d by the group to the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e good . In short , w h i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n may a s s i s t a group i n o b t a i n i n g i t s c o l l e c t i v e g o a l , there e x i s t p o t e n t i a l l y p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t s e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t i n g the u t i l i t y of t h i s t o o l for many g r o u p s . ^ At t h i s po in t i t appears i m p o s s i b l e for any but the s m a l l e s t of groups to e f f e c t i v e l y s e e k an o p t i m a l l e v e l of the c o l l e c t i v e good . One of the un ique c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the r a t i o n a l ac to r mode l argues that w i t h o u t c o e r c i o n or the u s e of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s i t i s u n l i k e l y that groups of any s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e w i l l p rov ide any amount of t h i s good for t h e m s e l v e s . H o w e v e r , i t i s a l s o O l s o n ' s a s s e r t i o n that , w i t h the use of selective incentives, the l e a d e r s h i p of the group c a n , and i n f a c t o f ten d o e s , e n t i c e peop le to j o i n the group and c o m p e l s them to a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the group g o a l s . A s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e a l l o w s the group l e a d e r s h i p to reward t h o s e members who cont r ibute to the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e good and to w i t h o l d reward from t h o s e who do not . T y p i c a l l y , t h e s e rewards w i l l t a k e the form of c o e r c i o n or s a n c t i o n i f the requ i red c o n t r i b u t i o n i s l°01son, op . c i t . A New Superstructure 48 not fo r thcoming . P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , for i n s t a n c e , o f ten p o s s e s s some type of q u a s i - j u d i c i a l power of r e g u l a t i o n over members ( i . e . , m e d i c a l and bar a s s o c i a t i o n s ) w h i c h a l l o w s the group to d i c t a t e the norms of p r o f e s s i o n a l conduct . In p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s government has made membersh ip w i t h i n s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a mandatory requirement for those s e e k i n g to p r a c t i c e w i t h i n a g i v e n j u r i s d i c t i o n . The r e s u l t i s the p o s s e s s i o n , by those o r g a n i z a t i o n s , of con t ro l over the very l i v e l i h o o d of t he i r members. On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , groups may o f fer s u c h b e n e f i t s as s p e c i a l group i nsu rance p o l i c i e s , reduced rate v a c a t i o n s or b u l k p u r c h a s i n g programs, a l l of w h i c h c a n be d e n i e d to those who f a i l to make the n e c e s s a r y con t r i bu t ion to the p r o v i s i o n of the group g o a l . Thus , w i t h the t o o l of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to mot iva te i n d i v i d u a l members w i t h i n la rge groups to cont r ibute to the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d . 1 1 The c o n t r i b u t i o n made to group theory by the e c o n o m i c t h e o r i s t s and the i r r a t i o n a l a c t o r mode l i s c l e a r l y revo lu t i ona ry . The q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by t h i s model s t r i k e at the very heart of p r io r p l u r a l i s t thought , a t t a c k i n g i t s most b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s . If w e a c c e p t that group a c t i v i t y i s i n f l u e n c e d by the b a s i c e c o n o m i c s e l f - i n t e r e s t of the group member, s t i m u l a t e d by the p r o v i s i o n of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , and not by e a c h i n d i v i d u a l member 's d e s i r e to promote the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , then w e must a l te r the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n of the nature of the group g o a l ( s ) . If the group g o a l i s a c h i e v e d o n l y through c o e r c i o n or inducement o f fe red by s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , i t does not f o l l o w that s u c h a g o a l need b e , or e v e n l i k e l y i s , the p roduct of the v a l u e s and d e s i r e s of the members of that group. If the group l e a d e r s h i p i s c a p a b l e of m o t i v a t i n g the membersh ip to cont r ibu te to the a c h i e v e m e n t of the c o l l e c t i v e g o o d , through the u s e o f s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , the c o l l e c t i v e good c a n be v i r t u a l l y a n y t h i n g the group l e a d e r s h i p 1 1 I b i d . A New Superstructure 49 d e s i r e s i t to be . In short , there i s no reason to suggest that i n te res t groups s e e k to forward the g o a l s and d e s i r e s of the members who g i v e them l e g i t i m a c y i n the e y e s of those they lobby . Ins tead , the ends are sought by the l e a d e r s h i p of the group, p r o v i d i n g i t i s they who cont ro l the use of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s . A product of the economic nature of the model i s a h e a v y p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h r a t i o n a l e w h i c h are s o l e l y mate r i a l i n content . W h i l e O l s o n ' s con t r i bu t ion of the importance of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s i n the a n a l y s i s of i n t e r n a l group d y n a m i c s i s c l e a r l y s e m i n a l , h i s a n a l y t i c a l f o c u s p l a c e s l i m i t s upon the u l t imate s c o p e of h i s theory . The r a t i o n a l actor mode l r e c o g n i z e s o n l y economic (o r "mater ia l" ) s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s , equat ing rational man w i t h economic man. In s u g g e s t i n g that e a c h r a t i o n a l pe rson s e e k s to m a x i m i z e t h e i r own p e r s o n a l w e l f a r e , the r a t i o n a l ac to r mode l f a i l s to r e c o g n i z e that the d e f i n i t i o n of "we l fa re" i s i n d i v i d u a l - s p e c i f i c ; i n s t e a d of m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t , a p e r s o n may i n f a c t p l a c e g reater r e l a t i v e v a l u e upon someth ing e n t i r e l y l e s s t a n g i b l e . The economic mode l h a s . f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e the importance of p e r c e p t i o n upon e a c h 13 i n d i v i d u a l ' s rational a c t i v i t y . In t h i s m o d e l , O l son et . a l . , have a s s u m e d a s i t u a t i o n of pe r fec t i n fo rmat ion where e a c h i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t e s a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n f rom the same comple te r e s e r v o i r of i n fo rmat ion . In f a c t , f ew , i f any , d e c i s i o n s p o s s e s s the b e n e f i t of b e i n g p r e m i s e d upon per fec t i n fo rmat ion . As a r e s u l t , i n d i v i d u a l s a c t u a l l y b a s e d e c i s i o n s upon personal estimates of s i t u a t i o n s d e r i v e d from 1 2 T h i s further b u i l d s upon the importance of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to group theory made by the neo p l u r a l i s t s ( o u t l i n e d i n chapter two) . In t h e i r work the l a c k of ' p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n among groups i n s o c i e t y w a s a major f o c u s , i l l u s t r a t i n g the c a p a c i t y w h i c h e x i s t s for the hegemon ic c o n t r o l of power w i t h i n s o c i e t y . O l s o n h a s further i l l u s t r a t e d that the p o s i t i o n s a d v o c a t e d by any groups w h i c h may become hegemon ic are not the v a l u e s and d e s i r e s of the group members , but t h o s e of the group l e a d e r s h i p . In short , what w a s f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d as a " d e m o c r a t i c " s t ructure of power i s , i n f a c t , e n t i r e l y h e g e m o n i c . 1 3 S e e Terry Moe , The Organization of / n r e r e s t s ( C h i c a g o , IL: U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1980) for a d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n of O l s o n ' s a s s u m p t i o n s . A JVew Superstructure 5 i n fo rmat ion r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . A s s u m i n g t h i s , and c o n s i d e r i n g that i n d i v i d u a l s are most l i k e l y to cont r ibute to a c o l l e c t i v e good the greater the i r e s t i m a t i o n of the m a r g i n a l bene f i t d e r i v e d and the l e s s e r the i r e s t i m a t i o n of the m a r g i n a l c o s t i n c u r r e d , i n d i v i d u a l s may now determine that a r a t i o n a l a c t i o n w o u l d be to cont r ibute to the p r o v i s i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e good. That i s , i f an i n d i v i d u a l e s t i m a t e s they w i l l be m a x i m i z i n g the i r pe rsona l we l fa re by c o n t r i b u t i n g to a group g o a l , there w i l l e x i s t an i n c e n t i v e for that i n d i v i d u a l to cont r ibute to the p r o v i s i o n of that c o l l e c t i v e g o o d . 1 * O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r a l i s t s B e c a u s e the p e r c e p t u a l g l a u c o m a of the economic model of group a c t i v i t y i s a p roduct of the c o n s c i o u s and i n t e n t i o n a l b i a s of the pa rad igm, other s c h o o l s of thought of fer e n l i g h t e n i n g a d d i t i o n s to O l s o n ' s o r i g i n a l m o d e l . One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , has come from the t h e o r i s t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behav iou r . 1 " * T h e s e w r i t e r s i n t roduced the c o n c e p t of value typologies, m a k i n g the v a s t number of p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e s c a p a b l e of m o t i v a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to a c t i o n w i t h i n groups more r e c o g n i z a b l e and e a s i l y d e a l t w i t h i n an a n a l y t i c a l 1 The i n d i v i d u a l may d e c i d e to con t r i bu te , t h e n , for r e a s o n s that are e n t i r e l y " p o l i t i c a l " i n nature . If the i n d i v i d u a l e s t i m a t e s t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l make a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence i n the p u r s u i t of the c o l l e c t i v e g o a l of the group, t h i s d e c i s i o n to cont r ibute i s m o t i v a t e d for p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s , not an e c o n o m i c d e s i r e to a d v a n c e t h e i r m a t e r i a l g a i n . T h i s supports the p l u r a l i s t c o n t e n t i o n that i n d i v i d u a l s are m o t i v a t e d by p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s , cont rary to O l s o n ' s s u g g e s t i o n of r a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c man. For a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i n c e n t i v e s s e e the l i s t of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r i s t s l i s t e d b e l o w . 1 ^ F o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t of w o r k s from t h i s s c h o o l : R. M. Cyert and J . G . M a r c h , A Behavioural Theory of the F i ' r /n (Englewood C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1963) ; H . S i m o n , Administrative BehaviouHN.Y.: M a c M i l l a n , 1957) ; J . F e l d m a n and H Kanter , "O rgan i za t iona l D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g , " J . G . M a r c h , e d . , Handbook of Organizations(Chicago,lL: Rand M c N a l l y , 1965); J . Q . W i l s o n , Political Organizations^.Y.: B a s i c B o o k s , 1973); and P.C. C la rk and J .Q . W i l s o n , " Incent ive S y s t e m s : A Theory of O r g a n i z a t i o n s , " Administrative Science Quarterly, 6 : (Sept . , 1961). A New Superstructure s t r u c t u r e . l o The r e s u l t i n g a n a l y s i s i s somewhat l e s s r igorous and formal than that o r i g i n a l l y o f fered by the economic s c h o o l , but a l l o w s the observe r to more adequate ly determine the i n f l u e n c e of the d i f ferent t ypes of m o t i v a t i o n upon the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n . W h i l e the r e s u l t i s admi t ted ly l a c k i n g i n i t s a n a l y t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e and p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y , i n r e l a t i o n to the o r i g i n a l o f fe red by O lson , i t o f fe rs a c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s unobta inab le w i t h i n the o r i g i n a l by v i r tue of i t s a b i l i t y to p rov ide for i n f l u e n c e s proven too u n w i e l d y for the more s t r i c t economic p a r a d i g m . 1 7 The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s m a i n t a i n that s i t u a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l va ry , not o n l y be tween o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but be tween i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the same o r g a n i z a t i o n . They qu i te c o n s c i o u s l y assume imper fect i n fo rmat ion on the part of i n d i v i d u a l s . Furthermore, they re in t roduce an e lement of s u b j e c t i v i t y to the unde rs tand ing of the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d y n a m i c s of groups w i t h t h e i r e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t that the a b i l i t y of e a c h i n d i v i d u a l to come to an o p t i m a l c h o i c e on a g i v e n se t of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s l i m i t e d by the i n fo rmat iona l e s t i m a t e s formed of the s i t u a t i o n con f ron t ing them. Any d e f i n i t i o n of r a t i o n a l man p r e m i s e d upon a s i n g l e e c o n o m i c m o t i v a t i o n , then , i s i nadequa te . R a t i o n a l i t y depends upon the p e r c e p t u a l a s s u m p t i o n s w i t h i n w h i c h i t i s d e f i n e d by the i n d i v i d u a l . I n c o n c e i v a b l e , however , to a mode l p r e m i s e d s o l e l y upon e c o n o m i c r a t i o n a l e i s the e x i s t e n c e of d i f fe rent forms of m o t i v a t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e s to a c t i o n . Peter C la rk and J a m e s W i l s o n have a r t i c u l a t e d three separa te t y p e s of p o s s i b l e i n c e n t i v e c a p a b l e of m o t i v a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to cont r i bu te to a c o l l e c t i v e good . 1 ** The f i r s t i s that i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the r a t i o n a l 1 6 T h i s t y p o l o g y i s d e a l t w i t h i n more d e t a i l b e l o w where the d i f fe rent t y p e s of s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s w h i c h c a n e x i s t for i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n groups are d i s c u s s e d . 1 7 T h e temperament of s o c i a l phenomena c a n o f ten have t h i s d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t upon t h e o r e t i c a l s t ruc tu res too u n y i e l d i n g to the c a n t a k e r o u s nature of r e a l i t y . l o ^ l a r k and W i l s o n , op . c i t . A New Superstructure acto r mode l of i n te rna l group d y n a m i c s : material i n c e n t i v e s . T y p i c a l l y , these are s u c h t a n g i b l e rewards as the p r o v i s i o n of goods or s e r v i c e s i n return for the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n and are no rmat ive ly unre la ted to the c o l l e c t i v e good , or to the p r o v i s i o n of the good . The s e c o n d t ype , solidary i n c e n t i v e s , are i n t a n g i b l e s o c i a l v a l u e s , s u c h as the camarader ie engendered through a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other group members or the s ta tus a c c r u i n g to an i n d i v i d u a l by v i r tue of t h e i r membersh ip w i t h i n the group. B e c a u s e these q u a l i t i e s are a c q u i r e d s i m p l y through the a c t of membersh ip and are the product of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , these i n c e n t i v e s are of ne i the r a p o l i t i c a l nor an economic nature . - The l a s t category of i n c e n t i v e , purposive, i s a s i m i l a r l y i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e and i s a c q u i r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l through the i r support of a c a u s e w h i c h h e / s h e e x h i b i t s e f f i c a c y t o w a r d s ( i . e . , t h e c o l l e c t i v e g o a l of the group) . T h i s type of i n c e n t i v e i s e n t i r e l y p o l i t i c a l i n nature , prompt ing an i n d i v i d u a l to a c t i o n b e c a u s e of t h e i r s y m p a t h i e s toward the group g o a l . The i m p a c t of t h i s con t r i bu t ion i s to a l t e r the nature of the c o l l e c t i v e good as d e f i n e d above . To t h i s po in t a k e y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c o l l e c t i v e good h a s b e e n the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e w a y i n w h i c h i t has been propor t ioned to a l l members of the group, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r a c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n toward i t s a c h i e v e m e n t . W i t h the added c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o l i d a r y and p u r p o s i v e m o t i v a t i o n s , i t i s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f w h i c h b e c o m e s the i n c e n t i v e . I n d i v i d u a l s may n o w cont r ibute to the c o l l e c t i v e group g o a l for r e a s o n s of a s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l nature w i t h o u t the need of added e c o n o m i c i nducements to a c t i o n . N o n - M a t e r i a l Groups A further c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s s c h o o l i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x h i b i t e d by groups founded upon n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s w i l l A New Superstructure 53 d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from the i r m a t e r i a l i s t i n c e n t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s . 1 9 Groups u s i n g ' s o l i d a r y forms of i n c e n t i v e w i l l f i nd the i n i t i a l deve lopment phase of the group more d i f f i c u l t than groups o f fe r ing the more ins t rumenta l type of mate r i a l i n c e n t i v e . In t h i s i n i t i a l phase group leader (s ) w i l l be p l a c e d at the mercy of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , as i t i s they who w i l l c reate the atmosphere of camarader ie or con fe r s ta tus by a s s o c i a t i o n for p r o s p e c t i v e members. It w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t for an o r g a n i z e r to make a group membersh ip more a t t r a c t i v e to those s e e k i n g s o l i d a r y rewards than for an entrepreneur to , pe rhaps , a l te r the c o l o r of the t o a s t e r b e i n g o f fe red to p r o s p e c t i v e members . In c o n t r a s t , any group o rgan i ze r s e e k i n g to e s t a b l i s h a group on the b a s i s of p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t roub le . At the o u t s e t , c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e c a p i t a l i s requ i red to s e l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r c a u s e , than promote a group as i t s s o l e guard ian . The d i f f i c u l t y i s found , i n s t e a d , i n the m a i n t e n a n c e of the group. Groups e s t a b l i s h e d upon p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to changes i n the ex te rna l env i ronment . Government, for i n s t a n c e , may s u d d e n l y c a p i t u l a t e upon i t s o p p o s i t i o n to the c a u s e w h i c h gave the group l i f e , e l i m i n a t i n g the g roup 's raison d'etre. What i s more , w h i l e the s t ructure of the group i s s i m p l e enough to e s t a b l i s h i n theory , membersh ip w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to a t t rac t u n l e s s a proven p o t e n t i a l for the p r o v i s i o n of p u r p o s i v e 20 i n c e n t i v e s i s p r o v i d e d . Furthermore, r e l a t i v e to m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , s o l i d a r y and p u r p o s i v e i n d u c e m e n t s l e n d a degree of r e l a t i v e i n s t a b i l i t y to those group s t ruc tu res they support . In groups w i t h any a p p r e c i a b l e degree of he te rogene i ty of membersh ip , n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s w i l l prove to be p a r t i c u l a r l y d e - s t a b i l i z i n g i n t h e i r e f f e c t 1 9 S e e C la rk and W i l s o n , op . c i t ; and Moe, op . c i t . 2 u M o e ' s political entrepreneur mode l thus a c c o u n t s for the d i f f e r i n g t y p e s of b a s e s upon w h i c h groups are formed, s u g g e s t i n g that e a c h w i l l p o s s e s s d i f f e r i n g e f f e c t s upon the nature of the g roup 's a c t i o n s . See Moe , op . c i t . A New Superstructure upon the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s roster . B e c a u s e n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s are l e s s c o s t l y to d u p l i c a t e they are a l s o more e a s i l y d u p l i c a t e d by r i v a l group l eade rs than the more c o s t l y m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s . T h i s a l l o w s compet ing groups to lure away from e a c h other any components of d i s a f f e c t e d membership w h i c h may a r i s e p e r i o d i c a l l y , r e s u l t i n g i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r a g i l e membersh ip s t ructure w i t h i n 21 groups b a s e d upon s u c h i n c e n t i v e s . It i s , of c o u r s e , for t hese same r e a s o n s that p r o s p e c t i v e group l e a d e r s may p u r p o s e f u l l y s e e k out n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s for t h e i r group(s) . The r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c o s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s r e d u c e s ma in tenance c o s t s of the group for the l eade r , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n groups o r g a n i z e d on the b a s i s of p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s . P r o v i d i n g those s e r v i c e s rendered to the membersh ip are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the c o l l e c t i v e good , there w i l l e x i s t an i n c e n t i v e for the members to p rov ide these s e r v i c e s t h e m s e l v e s , further r e d u c i n g 22 the c o s t to the group leader . * The entrepreneur may a l s o s e e k to promote p o l i t i c a l g o a l s w i t h i n the group for the same r e a s o n s . In shor t , i f the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e lements of i n s t a b i l i t y w h i c h accompany n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s appear a c c e p t a b l e to p r o s p e c t i v e group o r g a n i z e r s , n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s are e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e b a s e s of group o r g a n i z a t i o n . As Terry Moe w r i t e s , i n the f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , s o l i d a r y groups may be more e a s i l y m o t i v a t e d to p u r s u i t of the c o l l e c t i v e good than e c o n o m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s : U n l i k e i n m a t e r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , members need not p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e they v i e w t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a s i ns t rumenta l to the g roup ' s s u c c e s s ( o r f a i l u r e ) , or b e c a u s e they are " s e l f i s h l y " maneuve r i ng for a st ronger b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n . When p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s are important , they may a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e they g a i n e x p r e s s i v e b e n e f i t s f rom the p r o c e s s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f — a n d , h e n c e , they are more e a s i l y ^ See Moe , op . c i t . 2 2 M o e thus s u g g e s t s that , d e s p i t e the apparent d r a w b a c k s to c e r t a i n n o n -m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , there i s s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e for group l e a d e r s to opt for t h e s e b a s e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n . A New Superstructure i n d u c e d to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s for or a g a i n s t group g o a l s depend ing upon whether they support t h e m . 2 3 Exchange T h e o r i s t s An a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the theory of i n t e r n a l group d y n a m i c s i s o f fe red by the s c h o o l of "exchange t h e o r y . " 2 4 W h i l e t h i s theory , at l e a s t i n i t s l a t e r form, emerged as a c r i t i q u e of O l s o n ' s r a t i o n a l actor m o d e l , the two t h e o r i e s p o s s e s s d i s t i n c t l y s i m i l a r roots i n the theory of e c o n o m i c s . Of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n to t h i s study i s the nature of the v a l u e exchange these t h e o r i s t s e n v i s a g e o c c u r r i n g be tween the group o r g a n i z e r and i t s members . W h i l e the theory p o s s e s s e s the outward t rapp ings of a c l a s s i c a l e c o n o m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the values e x c h a n g e d are not n e c e s s a r i l y of a t a n g i b l e and m a t e r i a l nature . W h i l e i t i s important for every l e a d e r to m a i n t a i n an adequate f l o w of b e n e f i t s from the group to h i m / h e r s e l f , and w h i l e the membersh ip must o b t a i n the same from the l eade r , there e x i s t s no s t i p u l a t i o n that t hese b e n e f i t s be of an e c o n o m i c nature . As Moe a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e s , w i t h re fe rence to the ro le of the group o r g a n i z e r , the exchange t h e o r i s t s have shown i t i s p o s s i b l e for an e c o n o m i c mode l to incorporate a d i v e r s i t y of i n d i v i d u a l p re fe rence o rde r ings : L i k e other i n d i v i d u a l s , he may be m o t i v a t e d by i d e o l o g y , r e l i g i o n , b e l i e f i n d e m o c r a c y , s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s , and perhaps e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y i n t h i s c a s e , s u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as s ta tus and power . He need not be d r i v e n s o l e l y or e v e n p r i m a r i l y by e c o n o m i c s e l f - i n t e r e s t and n e e d not make d e c i s i o n s 2 3 T e r r y Moe , The Organization of Interests(Chicago, IL: U n i v e r s i t y of Ch icago P r e s s , 1980). 2 4 W o r k s w h i c h p o s s e s s gene ra l s ta tements on Exchange Theory are : R. H . S a l i s b u r y , "An E x c h a n g e Theory of In terest Groups," Midwest Journal of Political Science, 1 3 : l ( F e b . , 1969), pp . 1 - 3 2 ; Peter B l a u , Exchange and Power in Social L i f e ( N . Y . : W i l e y , 1964); and G. Homans , Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms(Jt.Y.: Ha rcou r t , B race and W o r l d , 1961). S a l i s b u r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l be the m a i n s o u r c e of re fe rence on exchange theory h e r e i n . A New Superstructure d e s i g n e d to m a x i m i z e h i s economic su rp lus . The P o l i t i c a l Entrepreneur The work of both the exchange t h e o r i s t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r a l i s t s p roved to be of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e upon Moe i n the fo rmulat ion of h i s own mode l of i n t e r e s t group d y n a m i c s . M o e ' s political entrepreneur parad igm a d v a n c e s from the o r i g i n a l attempt at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of ext remes to a d e s i r e to formulate a mode l w h i c h comb ines the a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s e n e s s of the economic r e n d i t i o n of i n t e r e s t group a c t i v i t y w i t h the more s u b j e c t i v e , and y e t c o m p r e h e n s i v e , fo rmu la t ions cont r ibuted by the two p r e c e d i n g s c h o o l s . 2 ^ Moe i s s e e k i n g a "hybr id" of what he p e r c e i v e s are two o p p o s i n g approaches to the theory of g roups . He d e s i r e s a compromise of a sort be tween the u n w i e l d y a s s u m p t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r a l i s t s , on the one h a n d , and the too h y p o t h e t i c a l r a t i o n a l ac to r mode l on the other . As Moe d e s c r i b e s i t , however , there i s an i n t e n s e f r i c t i o n be tween these two a i m s : [There e x i s t s ] a n inherent t e n s i o n be tween the need for a n a l y t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e and the d e s i r e to be comprehens ive and r e a l i s t i c . A n a l y t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n s of pe r fec t i n fo rmat ion and e c o n o m i c m o t i v a t i o n and by a r a d i c a l l y r a r i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t — o r pe rhaps , as i n O l s o n ' s a n a l y s i s , by o m i t t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l con tex t e n t i r e l y . C o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s and r e a l i s m are enhanced by the a s s u m p t i o n s of imper fect i n fo rmat ion and m i x e d m o t i v a t i o n s and b y an e m p i r i c a l l y grounded v e r s i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . 2 7 2 5 M o e , p. 122. 2 ^ W h i l e the a n a l y t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n be tween M o e ' s p o l i t i c a l entrepreneur and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f fe red by the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r a l i s t s i s not d rawn d i r e c t l y , the a d d i t i o n of the v a l u e t y p o l o g y c i t e d above cannot be underes t imated . 2 7 M o e , p. 20-21. A New Superstructure M o e ' s ques t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , to attempt to r e c o n c i l e these two p r o p e n s i t i e s ; to d e v e l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l model of i n t e r e s t groups w h i c h a s s u a g e s both ext remes i n the hope of p r o d u c i n g , as the f i n a l product , an e x p l a n a t i o n of i n t e r n a l group a c t i v i t y that i s both c o n v e n i e n t and , at the same t ime , accura te i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of r e a l i t y . O l s o n ' s model sought to s i m p l i f y the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l con tex t of groups i n the hope that a more manageab le form of a n a l y s i s w o u l d f o l l o w . In d o i n g s o , however , the mode l omi t ted the very e lements of group a c t i v i t y w h i c h Moe s e e k s to e x p l a i n . M o e ' s s o l u t i o n i s the model of the p o l i t i c a l entrepreneur. W i t h i n t h i s mode l Moe r e d u c e s the l e a d e r s h i p st ructure to a s i n g l e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r about whom i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e v i s e s p e c i f i c a s s u m p t i o n s . The opera t ing env i ronment of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by three important t y p e s of ex te rna l a c t o r s : l )government o f f i c i a l s ; 2 )non -governmenta l o f f i c i a l s ; and 3) other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r i v a l entrepreneurs . The f o c u s of the mode l i s upon the entrepreneur through w h i c h c o n c l u s i o n s about group fo rmat ion , ma in tenance and i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s c a n be made. By v i e w i n g the ent repreneur 's op t i ons and s t r a t e g i e s under v a r y i n g group c o n d i t i o n s , and de te rmin ing h o w these are r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n the g roup 's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l p r o c e s s , the observe r 2 8 may " p u l l t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . " * 0 In k e e p i n g w i t h the i n f l u e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r a l i s t s and e x c h a n g e t h e o r i s t s , M o e ' s entrepreneur i s s u s c e p t i b l e to a m i x e d array of m o t i v a t i o n s , both m a t e r i a l and n o n - m a t e r i a l . B e c a u s e of the p a r t i c u l a r l y p i v o t a l impor tance of the entrepreneur , any v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r v a l u e p re fe rence o rde r ing c a n have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon the p o l i c i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h u s , the mode l a l l o w s the obse rve r to determine w h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s w i l l be g i v e n an ent repreneur 's p a r t i c u l a r 2 8 M o e , p. 20. A New Superstructure m o t i v a t i o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s . Ins tead of a s s u m i n g away a l l compet ing n o n - e c o n o m i c m o t i v a t i o n s , Moe has made t h i s e lement the p i v o t a l v a r i a b l e w i t h i n h i s m o d e l . The a c t i o n s of i d e o l o g i c a l l y mot i va ted entrepreneurs , for i n s t a n c e , w i l l d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from those w h o s e s o l e m o t i v a t i o n i s m a x i m i z a t i o n of p e r s o n a l e c o n o m i c w e l f a r e . Moe s u g g e s t s that c o n c e r n s of i d e o l o g y w i l l t a k e p r e c e d e n c e over v i r t u a l l y every a s p e c t of the g roup 's o p e r a t i o n s , from the deve lopment of p o l i c y g o a l s to the h i r i n g of a d d i t i o n a l staf f . An i d e o l o g i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d entrepreneur c a n qu i te c o n s c i o u s l y s a c r i f i c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of e x p e r t i s e and competence for i d e o l o g i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the p r o c e s s of recru i tment . The e f f e c t of s u c h a p o l i c y w i l l be , i n turn , the deve lopment of a r i g i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t ruc tu re , p r o h i b i t i n g the entrepreneur from respond ing to e lements of d i v e r s i t y w h i c h may a r i s e w i t h i n the group. T h i s , i n turn , w i l l d e v e l o p in to a n e e d to a l l o w the s e c e s s i o n of la rge and important s u b - g r o u p s , endanger ing the l o n g - r u n 2 9 e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . On the other hand , another type of n o n -m a t e r i a l l y m o t i v a t e d entrepreneur i s that who i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the p romot ion of a d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s of i n t e r n a l group r e l a t i o n s . The m a i n c o n c e r n of t h i s group l e a d e r w i l l be the e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of i n t e r e s t s a r t i c u l a t e d by the group membersh ip . In the p r o c e s s of p r o v i d i n g t h i s , the group b e c o m e s an avenue of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n for any e lements of he te rogene i ty found to e x i s t w i t h i n the group. As Moe h a s s t a t e d : . . . b e c a u s e the entrepreneur i s a group p a r t i c i p a n t of p i v o t a l impor tance , the nature of h i s v a l u e s y s t e m m a k e s a great d e a l of d i f f e r e n c e for i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s as w e l l as for other a s p e c t s of a s s o c i a t i o n a l l i f e . D i f ferent v a l u e s w i l l l e a d h i m to d i f fe rent p e r s p e c t i v e s on member p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d i f fe rent u s e s of the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t ruc tu re , and s o o n — a l l of w h i c h have a hand i n de te rmin ing the s u b s t a n c e of group ^ M o e ' s p o l i t i c a l entrepreneur mode l f u l l y s u b s c r i b e s to the e lements of neo p l u r a l i s t theory w i t h r e s p e c t to the g roup 's r e l a t i o n to i t s e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( i . e . , the impor tance of mandate and a c c e p t a n c e w i t h i n the p o l i c y communi ty ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n i s more f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d b e l o w . A New Superstructure g o a l s , the s i z e and f i n a n c i a l b a s i s of the group, and i t s 30 degree of p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s . L e a d e r s h i p T o o l s In what w a y s , then , are these s p e c i f i c f a c e t s of group e x i s t e n c e a f fec ted by the r e c o g n i t i o n of n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s by the entrepreneur? As o u t l i n e d above , the component of commun ica t ion i s ' p e r h a p s the mos t important t o o l a v a i l a b l e to the group l e a d e r s h i p . In groups of s o l e l y economic m o t i v a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s s i m p l y the means to an end. The tenets of the rational choice mode l s u g g e s t that the e c o n o m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d entrepreneur w i l l attempt to use the content of c o m m u n i c a t i o n to advance the p u r s u i t of the c o l l e c t i v e good and w i l l s e e k to k e e p the method of c o m m u n i c a t i o n as i n e x p e n s i v e as p o s s i b l e . When n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s are i n t r o d u c e d , however , both the content and method take on a n e w s i g n i f i c a n c e . M o e ' s mode l s u g g e s t s that , depend ing upon the p a r t i c u l a r method emp loyed , the entrepreneur c o u l d p rov ide s o l i d a r y i n c e n t i v e s to the group membersh ip through s u c h t e c h n i q u e s as regu la r group g a t h e r i n g s , c o n v e y i n g i n fo rmat ion on group a c t i v i t i e s to the members . The a c t u a l content of the group c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i l l a l s o take on a n e w impor tance , b e c o m i n g the e x c l u s i v e v e h i c l e for the p r o v i s i o n of p o t e n t i a l e x p r e s s i v e i n c e n t i v e s . W i t h the i n c l u s i o n of n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , both the nature and the purpose of group c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i l l a l t e r , b e c o m i n g a more d i r e c t inst rument for the p r o v i s i o n of n o n - e c o n o m i c i n d u c e m e n t s . A s e c o n d ins t rument a v a i l a b l e to the entrepreneur and a r t i c u l a t e d by Moe i s that of the sub-group, a s m a l l e r c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g w i t h i n the f ramework of the l a rge r o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e s e may t a k e the form of s u c h f a m i l i a r i n t r a - g r o u p m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as d i s c u s s i o n p a n e l s or commi t tees of v a r i o u s s o r t s . 3 0 M o e , p. 141. A New Superstructure 6 0 The pr ime att r ibute of these groups i s the b u t t r e s s i n g of membersh ip morale through the encouragement of coopera t ion and the f o s t e r i n g of a s e n s e of i d e n t i t y . W i t h the a d d i t i o n of s o l i d a r y i n c e n t i v e s to the mode l t hese s u b - g r o u p s are an o b v i o u s a t t r a c t i o n to the group entrepreneur, for not o n l y w i l l t hese groups be e a s i e r to e s t a b l i s h , they w i l l a l s o convey added b e n e f i t s of group camarader ie and s ta tus by a s s o c i a t i o n for those i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g s u c h rewards . W h i l e s u b - g r o u p s are o n l y means to an end , w h e n c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t of e c o n o m i c r a t i o n a l e , they p o s s e s s the p o t e n t i a l to become ends w i t h i n 31 t h e m s e l v e s w h e n more d i v e r s e m o t i v a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d . Groups and the State As the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s of the la rger o r g a n i z a t i o n are a l t e r e d by the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of n o n - m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , so too i s the g roup 's r e l a t i o n to e x t e r n a l groups and government . P resuming a pu re l y e c o n o m i c r a t i o n a l e of i n c e n t i v e , government i s the means by w h i c h most entrepreneurs p rov ide the c o l l e c t i v e good for the group. Once any group h a s o b t a i n e d the s t a t u s and r e c o g n i t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h membersh ip i n the policy community, a c c e s s to i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n s , s t r a t e g i c c o n t a c t s and gene ra l p o t e n t i a l for s u c c e s s f u l l o b b y i n g are a l l v i r t u a l l y a s s u r e d . Cer ta in groups may e v e n be endowed w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d / o r q u a s i - j u d i c i a l p o w e r s . The e c o n o m i c entrepreneur w i l l v i e w t h i s a s i n c r e a s i n g h i s p o t e n t i a l for e c o n o m i c g a i n . The p o l i t i c a l entrepreneur , however , w i l l s e e k the p o l i t i c a l and p o l i c y g o a l s w h i c h may be a c h i e v e d at t h i s l e v e l , f u l f i l l i n g any e x p r e s s i v e g o a l s h e / s h e , or t h e i r membersh ip , may p o s s e s s . Any i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g s o l i d a r y i n c e n t i v e s w i l l r e l i s h i n the o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n a c c o r d e d the group by government , p r o v i d i n g i t w i t h a degree of s t a t u s other 3 1 S e e Moe , op . c i t . 3 2 S e e P r o s s , op . c i t . , for a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o l i c y communi ty . A New Superstructure groups i n the same s e c t o r cannot a c h i e v e . S i m i l a r l y , to the economic entrepreneur , non -gove rnmenta l ex te rna l groups may be approached as p r o s p e c t s for a c o a l i t i o n of so r ts or, the u l t imate r e g u l a r i z e d form of c o a l i t i o n , a merger. In t h i s w a y i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to i n c r e a s e the mandate of the group, devote more r e s o u r c e s to p o l i c y c o n c e r n s , and i n c r e a s e the economies of s c a l e p e r t a i n i n g to the p r o v i s i o n of mate r i a l s e l e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e s . Furthermore, o p p o s i n g groups b l o c k i n g the ef forts of one group may be approached w i t h the p r o s p e c t of logrolling, e a c h group o f fe r ing to support the i n i t i a t i v e of the other for r e c i p r o c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Or, pe rhaps , one group may s i m p l y e l e c t to s u b s i d i z e the ef for ts of another group w h o s e ef for ts they w i s h to s u c c e e d , for •3-1 w h a t e v e r r e a s o n s . C o n c l u s i o n It h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d that when c l a s s i c a l p l u r a l i s t thought r e a c h e d i t s p o s i t i o n of dominance w i t h i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e i n North A m e r i c a , i t d i d so upon a " s t r a w man" c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the s t a t i s t s c h o o l . In t h e i r r e c e n t p e r i o d of r esu rgence the n e w s t a t i s t t h e o r i e s have opted for a s i m i l a r s t ra tegy , p roduc ing the current s ta te of p l u r a l i s t d e m i s e . M o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m s e e k s to incorporate w i t h i n a p l u r a l i s t f ramework the b e n e f i t s of the t h e o r e t i c a l a d v a n c e s of s u c h w r i t e r s as P h i l i p S e l z n i c k and Terry Moe and , i n d o i n g s o , s e e k s to c reate the p o t e n t i a l for a re juvenated p l u r a l i s t parad igm. The nature of t h i s model i s founded upon an embrace of the p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t of the group nature of s o c i e t y . The p i v o t a l q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d i s one of a d i s t r i b u t i o n of power w i t h i n s o c i e t y : "Who Gets What , When and H o w ? " 3 4 M o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m a c c e p t s the p l u r a l i s t 3 3 T h e se e lements of group b e h a v i o u r a r t i c u l a t e d by Moe are e a s i l y accommodated w i t h i n the neo p l u r a l i s t p o l i c y communi ty . 3 4 H a r o l d L a s s w e l l , Politics: Who Gets What, When and r / o w ( N . Y . : M c G r a w H i l l , 1936). A New Superstructure a s s u m p t i o n s of the group nature of s o c i e t y as a r t i c u l a t e d by s u c h w r i t e r s as Truman and Dahl . The i r neo p l u r a l i s t s u c c e s s o r s have argued that the state i s i n f l u e n c e d by the p o l i c y community , c o m p r i s e d on the w h o l e , of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . To p r e d i c t the c o m p o s i t i o n of the p o l i c y community and the nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n i t , however , requ i res an a p p r e c i a t i o n of a p r e v i o u s l y n e g l e c t e d e lement of i n te rna l group d y n a m i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s t ructures of group o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s , i n turn , requ i res an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l member i n i n t e r e s t groups and , p a r t i c u l a r l y , the i n t e r e s t group leader (s ) . H o w groups i n t e r a c t w i t h i n the p o l i c y community w i l l be determined l a r g e l y by the e lements of m o t i v a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the group. S p e c i f i c i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a group w i l l s t rong ly i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n s of the group w i t h i n the p o l i c y community . To t h i s po in t p l u r a l i s t t h e o r i e s have not sought to examine the i n t e r n a l e l ements of i n t e r e s t g roups . Truman, and l a t e r the neo p l u r a l i s t s , both examined the e lement of group o r g a n i z a t i o n , y e t f a i l e d to a t t a c h any s i g n i f i c a n c e to i t as a p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l po in t of a n a l y s i s . M o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m c o r r e c t s t h i s o v e r s i g h t . It i s s u g g e s t e d that the degree of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y s e p a r a t e s those groups w i t h i n the p o l i c y communi ty from t h o s e w i t h o u t . A g roup ' s l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l deve lopment w i l l determine i t s a b i l i t y for p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s w i t h i n the c o m p e t i t i o n for i n f l u e n c e upon b u r e a u c r a t i c 3 6 d e c i s i o n m a k e r s and other g roups . An e lement w h i c h w i l l work to e f fec t an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d g roup 's s u c c e s s • ^ T h i s i s a fundamenta l p o s i t i o n of the political entrepreneur m o d e l . ^^See T . L . G a i s , M.A. P e t e r s o n and J . L . W a l k e r , " Interest Groups, Iron T r i a n g l e s and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Amer ican N a t i o n a l Government," American Political Science /?evi 'ew(June, 1983). T h i s paper o f fe rs no e m p i r i c a l s u b s t a n t i a t i o n to support any s u p p o s i t i o n s about the r e a l i t y of the c o m p o s i t i o n of the p o l i c y communi ty . The a forement ioned authors have shown a l o o s e c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h suppor ts the c l a i m that i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d groups form the p o l i c y communi ty , but more work i s s t i l l needed to con f i rm s u c h a c o n c l u s i o n . A New Superstructure w i t h i n the p o l i c y arena i s i t s a b i l i t y to deve lop and dep loy i t s r e s o u r c e s e f f e c t i v e l y . M o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m adopts M o e ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s p e c i f i c group r e s o u r c e s as " l e a d e r s h i p t o o l s , " and r e c o g n i z e s the importance of these t o o l s a s determinants w i t h i n the s t rugg le of the p o l i c y community . The p o s s e s s i o n of a w e l l - h o n e d l e a d e r s h i p t o o l by a s k i l l e d , appropr ia te ly m o t i v a t e d group l e a d e r c a n be the d e c i s i v e inst rument i n p roduc ing a d e s i r e d r e s u l t w i t h i n 37 the p o l i c y apparatus . S i m i l a r l y , any group l e a d e r u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the a b i l i t y of a group to d e p l o y a s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e , and who i s thus u n f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , c a n prove a s e r i o u s l i a b i l i t y to the fortunes of that group. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however , i s that m o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m a r t i c u l a t e s the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s of groups and the " too ls " of i t s l e a d e r s h i p a s important determinants upon the nature of a g i v e n g roup 's a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the p o l i c y a rena . At the hear t of t h i s r e v i s e d neo p l u r a l i s t m o d e l , however , i s an a p p r e c i a t i o n for the m o t i v a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l member and group l e a d e r s of i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Moe i l l u s t r a t e d that i n d i v i d u a l s are qu i te c a p a b l e of j o i n i n g and forming o r g a n i z a t i o n s for r e a s o n s of a n o n - m a t e r i a l nature . He further p o i n t e d out that groups founded upon d i f f e r i n g m o t i v a t i o n a l b a s e s w i l l e x h i b i t d i f fe rent outward c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Groups founded upon s o l i d a r y i n c e n t i v e s are d i f f i c u l t to i n i t i a t e , but once began are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e groups are l i k e l y to a t t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l e v e l s of deve lopment more q u i c k l y than p u r p o s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h , w h i l e e a s i e r to i n i t i a t e , are l e s s s t a b l e o n c e i n o p e r a t i o n . Furthermore, the demands exer ted upon the p o l i c y p r o c e s s by g roups of d i f f e r i n g m o t i v a t i o n s w i l l be s i m i l a r l y d i v e r s e . Groups b a s e d upon p u r p o s i v e i n c e n t i v e s w i l l t y p i c a l l y be a c t i v i s t i n nature a l w a y s n e e d i n g to p a c i f y i t s m e m b e r s h i p ' s d e s i r e for a t ta inment of the e x p l i c i t g o a l of J Moe , op . c i t . 3 8 I b i d . A New Superstructure the group. S o l i d a r y groups , on the other hand, w i l l e x h i b i t more r e s e r v e , the g roup 's p o l i c i e s t y p i c a l l y the product of an a c t i v e e l i t e at the g roup 's p i n n a c l e , the remainder of the membersh ip b e i n g content s i m p l y to b e l o n g . S i m i l a r l y , demands exer ted upon the p o l i c y p r o c e s s by group l e a d e r s of a p a r t i c u l a r type w i l l va ry from the i d e a l i s t i c p u r p o s i v e l y d r i v e n c rusader to the consumate p ragmat i s t mot i va ted s o l e l y by the m a x i m i z a t i o n of h i s / h e r economic w e l f a r e . The po in t i s , the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s / h e r m o t i v a t i o n s are k e y i n the m o t i v a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s t m o d e l . If the importance of the i n t e r a c t i o n of groups i n the s o c i e t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of power w i t h i n modern w e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s i s to be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d , an unders tand ing of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of i n t e r n a l l e v e l v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . Bibliography 65 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barry , B. Sociologists, Economists and Democracy. London : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n , 1970. Beard , C. The Economic Bases of Politics. New York: A l f red A. Knopf, 1945. B e n t l e y , A .F . The P r o c e s s of Government. E v a n s t o n , IL: P r i n c i p i a P r e s s , 1949. B l o c k , F. "The R u l i n g C l a s s Does Not Ru le : Notes on the M a r x i s t Theory of the Sta te , " i n Socialist Revolution^June, 1977). C la rk , P .C. and W i l s o n , J .Q . " Incent ive S y s t e m s : A Theory of O rgan i za t i ons , " i n Administrative Science Quarterly 6 : (Sept . , 1961). C o n n o l l y , W. , ed . The Bias of Pluralism. New York: Atherton P r e s s , 1969. Dah l , R. Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy. New H a v e n , CT: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. F r o h l i c h , N. and Oppenheimer, J . "I Get By W i t h a L i t t l e H e l p From My F r e i n d s , " World Politics (October, 1970). G a i s , T . L . and P e t e r s o n , M.A.. W a l k e r , J . L . " Interest Groups, Iron T r i a n g l e s and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Amer ican Nat iona l Government," i n American Political Science Review ( J u n e , 1983). Garson , G.D. Group Theories of Politics. B e v e r l y H i l l s , CA: Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , I nc . , 1978. H o b e r g , G. "The Regu latory S ta te : P o l i t i c a l Structure and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y . Ho f fe r , E. The True B e l i e v e r . New York: Harper and Brothers , 1951. K a r i e l , H . The Decline of American Pluralism. S tan ford , CA: Stanford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . K rasner , S. "Approaches to the S ta te : A l te rna t i ve C o n c e p t i o n s and H i s t o r i c a l D y n a m i c s , " i n Comparative Politics 16 : (January . 1984), pp . 2 2 3 - 4 6 . L a s s w e l l , H . Politics: Who Gets What, When and How. New York : M c G r a w H i l l , 1936. L a t h a m , E. "The Group B a s i s of P o l i t i c s : Notes for a Theory ," i n American Political Science Review 46:1(1952) , p p . 3 7 6 - 9 7 . L i n d b l o m , C. Politics and Markets: The World's Political-Economic Systems. New York : B a s i c B o o k s , 1977. Bibliography 66 L i p s e t , S. P o l i t i c a l Man: The Social Bases of P o l i t i c s . Garden C i ty , NY: Anchor B o o k s , 1963. L o w i , T. The End of Liberalism. New York: Norton, 1969. M a r c h , J . G . and O l s e n , J . P . 'The New I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m : O rgan i za t i ona l F a c t o r s i n P o l i t i c a l L i f e , " American Political Science Review 78 , pp. 7 3 4 - 4 9 . M i l i b a n d , R. TAe State in Capitalist Society. London : Quartet B o o k s , 1973. Moe , T. The Organization of Interests. C h i c a g o , IL: U n i v e r s i t y of Ch icago P r e s s , 1980. O l s o n , M. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambr idge, MA: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. P r e s t h u s , R. Elite Accommodations in Canadian Politics. Toronto : M a c M i l l a n , 1973. P r o s s , A. Pressure Group Behaviour in Canadian Politics. Toronto : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1975. Group P o l i t i c s and Public Policy. Toronto 2 Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986. S a l i s b u r y , R. "An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups," Midwest Journal of P o l i t i c a l Science 13 : l ( Feb rua ry , 1969), pp. 1 - 32 . S e l z n i c k , P. Leadership In Administration. New York: 1957. Truman, D. The Governmental Process. New York: A l f red A. Knopf , 1953. V o g e l , D. " P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and the Study of Corporate Power , " British Journal of P o l i t i c a l Science 17(0ctober , 1987), pp. 3 8 5 - 4 0 8 . W i l s o n , J . P o l i t i c a l Organizations. New York: B a s i c B o o k s , 1973. 

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