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Canadian Forces families : social impacts of accommodation policy Button, David B. 1988

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CANADIAN FORCES FAMILIES SOCIAL IMPACTS OF ACCOMMODATION POLICY by DAVID B. BUTTON BEng ( C i v i l ) , The Royal M i l i t a r y C o l l e g e of Canada, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1988 © David B. Button, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of 6ft.AD*AT£ ^TUQlttS ( SctVoou t>t- CbWMM iTf A«4& \ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A?l«- l ^ & 8 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT Since World War II the Canadian m i l i t a r y community has evolved to meet the needs of a permanent m i l i t a r y force and has changed from the preserve of the single male to include women and families. Thus the Department of National Defence (DND) has become concerned with the welfare of m i l i t a r y families as an integral part of m i l i t a r y preparedness. A variety of accommodation p o l i c i e s were formulated and programs established to s a t i s f y the needs of these families who worked and l i v e d in such a unique environment. These p o l i c i e s and programs have emphasised housing and related i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and included both physical and s o c i a l services. They have, in part, enabled DND to relieve many family related problems despite the disruptive l i f e s t y l e . However, as a result of evolutionary changes in the Canadian Forces, the l i f e s t y l e of Canadians and the general economic si t u a t i o n , concern has arisen that current DND p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to housing and service provision may no longer be appropriate or e f f e c t i v e . This thesis looks at the l i f e s t y l e and unique d i f f i c u l t i e s of m i l i t a r y families in order to evaluate the s o c i a l impacts on the families r e s u l t i n g from accommodation p o l i c y . Although the general question of whether DND should even be in the business of creating and maintaining i t s own communities i s complex and requires the consideration of many factors, t h i s thesis l i m i t s i t s e l f to the s o c i a l impacts of accommodation p o l i c i e s . i i Since i t i s generally perceived that s o c i a l concerns have received limited consideration in the past, th i s thesis develops a framework to consider and include such concerns. This is done through: secondary research of analogous c i v i l i a n communities and other m i l i t a r y communities; primary data from recent DND family studies; informal interviews with families and decision-makers in the m i l i t a r y community; and, the personal experience of the author as a member of the m i l i t a r y community. There are four main findings. F i r s t , a framework based on L i c h f i e l d ' s Planning Balance Sheet methodology is a suitable and appropriate tool for a s s i s t i n g decision-makers in making informed choices. Second, the creation of a Non-Public Housing Society responding to DND but operated at arms-length, i s seen as a viable housing p o l i c y alternative which deserves further study. Third, the s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y families r e s u l t i n g from the municipalization of physical services are not s i g n i f i c a n t . And fourth,.; s o c i a l services when provided i n t e r n a l l y appear more successful. The unique l i f e s t y l e of m i l i t a r y families i s linked to operational effectiveness and m i l i t a r y preparedness through the work/family environment. The importance of s o c i a l planning on thi s interface i s emphasized to encourage decision-makers to e x p l i c i t l y incorporate s o c i a l planning into the decision-making process. The Planning Balance Sheet methodology i s suggested as an appropriate one for t h i s purpose. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 1.3 SCOPE 1.4 DEFINITIONS 1.5 METHODOLOGY 1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS 2. UNDERSTANDING THE MILITARY COMMUNITY 11 2.1 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION 13 2.1.1 European S o c i e t y 2.1.2 Canadian S o c i e t y 2.1.3 Summary 2.2 PROFILE OF THE MILITARY COMMUNITY 24 2.2.1 Demographics 2.2.2 Geographic L o c a t i o n 2.2.3 Accommodation 2.2.4 The DND School System 2.2.5 Summary 2.3 MILITARY STYLE OF LIFE 35 2.3.1 The M i l i t a r y P r o f e s s i o n 2.3.2 Work and Residence 2.3.3 Role of the Family 2.3.4 M i l i t a r y M o b i l i t y 2.3.5 E t i q u e t t e and Ceremony 2.3.6 Summary 2.4 UNIQUE SOCIAL DIFFICULTIES OF THE MILITARY FAMILY.. 44 2.4.1 P e r c e i v e d M i l i t a r y A t t i t u d e 2.4.2 Role of the Wife 2.4.3 M o b i l i t y 2.4.4 Family S e p a r a t i o n 2.4.5. Employment of Wives and C h i l d r e n 2.4.6 Fishbowl E f f e c t of a Closed Community 2.4.7 Summary 2.5 COMMUNITY STRUCTURES 60 2.5.1 The Community C o u n c i l 2.5.2 The R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l 2.5.3 The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Marr i e d Quarters 2.5.4 Summary 2.6 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS 69 2.6.1 Women i n the Workforce 2.6.2 Occ u p a t i o n a l i s m of M i l i t a r y Personnel 2.6.3 S o c i a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y of R e l o c a t i o n 2.6.4 Human Rights 2.6.5 Housing 2.6.6 Summary 2.7 SUMMARY 77 iv 3. ACCOMMODATION POLICY OPTIONS 79 3.1 FACTORS LEADING TO POLICY OPTIONS 81 3.1.1 Housing Options 3.1.2 I n t e r n a l i z e d or E x t e r n a l i z e d S e r v i c e s 3.1.3 Members L i v i n g On or Off Base 3.2 OPTION A - COMPLETE PUBLIC HOUSING 93 3.2.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e 3.2.2 Housing Requirements 3.2.3 Cost 3.3 OPTION B - NON-PUBLIC HOUSING SOCIETY 98 3.3.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e 3.3.2 Housing Requirements 3.3.3 Cost 3.4 OPTION C - NO HOUSING PROVIDED 103 3.4.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e 3.4.2 Housing D i s p o s a l 3.4.3 Cost 3.5 PROVISION OF SERVICES 107 3.5.1 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s 3.5.2 S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 3.6 SUMMARY 122 4.0 EVALUATION OF THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OF POLICY OPTIONS 125 4.1 DEFINING SOCIAL IMPACTS 127 4.1.1 S o c i a l Planning 4.1.2 Q u a l i t y of L i f e 4.1.3 S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s 4.1.4 S o c i a l Impact Assessment 4.2 THE PLANNING BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS 138 4.2.1 Conceptual Framework 4.2.2 I d e n t i f y i n g Impacts 4.2.3 Measuring Impacts 4.2.4 Data A n a l y s i s 4.3 COMPLETING THE PLANNING BALANCE SHEET 153 4.3.1 Employment of Dependents 4.3.2 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 4.3.3 Sports and R e c r e a t i o n 4.3.4 Housing Q u a l i t y 4.3.5 Personal Safety 4.3.6 D i s l o c a t i o n 4.3.7 Se p a r a t i o n 4.3.8 Community I d e n t i t y 4.3.9 F r i e n d s h i p s 4.3.10 Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n 4.3.11 P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 4.3.12 Degree of Reg u l a t i o n 4.3.13 L i f e S t y l e S e l e c t i o n 4.3.14 Neighbourhood A t t r a c t i v e n e s s 4.3.15 Education 4.3.16 S o c i a l i z a t i o n v 4.4 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 186 4.4.1 Housing 4.4.2 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s 4.4.3 S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 4.5 SUMMARY 192 5.0 CONCLUSIONS 193 6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 199 6.1 THE DND ACCOMMODATION QUESTION 200 6.1.1 Housing 6.1.2 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s 6.1.3 S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 6.2 GENERAL PLANNING IMPLICATIONS 206 BIBLIOGRAPHY 209 v i LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 Marr i e d Quarter P o r t f o l i o Grouped by Provinc e ... 29 Table 2-2 Marr i e d Quarter Inventory Not Owned by DND 30 Table 2-3 Age of Housing Stock at S e l e c t e d Bases as a Percentage of T o t a l Base Stock 1982 32 Table 2-4 U.S.A. M i l i t a r y P o l i t i c a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n -C o n s e r v a t i v e / L i b e r a l 37 Table 2-5 Mean Number of Family S e p a r a t i o n s by Element (1984) 53 Table 2-6 Mean Number of Months Separated During the Year . 54 Table 3-1 P o t e n t i a l D u p l i c a t i o n of Payment f o r S e r v i c e s ... 89 Table 3-2 Comparison of DND and Canadian F i r e Losses 109 Table 4-1 Comparison of S o c i a l Impacts Chosen Versus Others i n the L i t e r a t u r e 148 Table 4-2 Planning Balance Sheet of Housing Options 157 Table 4-3 Planning Balance Sheet of P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s 158 Table 4-4 Planning Balance Sheet of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 159 v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 2-1 Composition of Canadian Forces F a m i l i e s 26 F i g u r e 2-2 Base O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart 61 F i g u r e 3-1 Three Dimensional M a t r i x of F a c t o r s Leading to P o l i c y Options 82 F i g u r e 3-2 Non-Public Housing S o c i e t y O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart ... 100 F i g u r e 4-1 F i n s t e r b u s c h ' s Impact Relevance Tree f o r S o c i a l Impact A n a l y s i s 146 F i g u r e 5-1 The Accommodation Question Relevance Tree 194 F i g u r e 5-2 S o c i a l Impacts as Part of The Decision-Making Process 197 F i g u r e 6-1 Accommodation P o l i c y Areas of P a r t i c u l a r Concern to M i l i t a r y F a m i l i e s 201 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my s i n c e r e thanks to Dr. S e t t y Pendakur for h i s e f f o r t as an a d v i s o r on t h i s t h e s i s , as w e l l as f o r h i s continued support and a s s i s t a n c e throught the program. I am a l s o extremely g r a t e f u l f o r the guidance and a s s i s t a n c e of P r o f e s s o r Peter Boothroyd who was always able to comprehend what I was t r y i n g to express and then provide v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n . I would a l s o l i k e to thank the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence f o r p r o v i d i n g the op p o r t u n i t y to undertake t h i s program. Most imp o r t a n t l y , I would l i k e to thank my wi f e , Gene, f o r her encouragement, support, and understanding. i x 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 .1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to i l l u s t r a t e the need f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y community and to develop a framework i n which to do so. D e c i s i o n s to c r e a t e and maintain m i l i t a r y communities r e s u l t from the extensive c o n s i d e r a t i o n of many f a c t o r s which can g e n e r a l l y be c a t e g o r i z e d as p o l i t i c a l , economic, geographic, o p e r a t i o n a l , or s o c i a l . One of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which i s weaved throughout these c a t e g o r i e s i s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l commitment of s e r v i c e members. T h i s commitment i s a f f e c t e d by the degree to which the member f e e l s he i s meeting h i s fa m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s . In t u r n , the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the f a m i l y i s a s s i s t e d through the c r e a t i o n of a favourable community environment. T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s with the heart of such an environment, i t s accommodation and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n p o l i c i e s . 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT The Department of N a t i o n a l Defence has had a unique r o l e i n the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of numerous communities i n Canada and abroad. Such communities have evolved because of the unique requirements, p o l i c i e s , and o f t e n l o c a t i o n of m i l i t a r y deployment. Maintenance of these communities has been accepted as part of the "cost of doing b u s i n e s s " ; and has been seen as necessary and ac c e p t a b l e i n the maintenance of a t r a i n e d , ready, and capable m i l i t a r y presence. 1 M i l i t a r y philosophy as to how the community should be e s t a b l i s h e d and r e l a t e to the " s o l d i e r ' s " d u t i e s , has been c a r e f u l l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y i n s t i l l e d i n t o the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . A s t a b l e community l i f e has been c o n s i d e r e d necessary to ensure that the " s o l d i e r " c a r r i e s on with h i s d u t i e s , c o n f i d e n t that h i s f a m i l y i s s a f e and w e l l cared f o r . As a r e s u l t , m i l i t a r y communities have been e s t a b l i s h e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of most m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . Through these communities, the m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can ensure that the r e l a t i v e f a m i l y impacts of m i l i t a r y l i f e are c o n t r o l l e d to provide m i l i t a r y members the s e c u r i t y necessary to c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i r primary d u t i e s . As a r e s u l t of e v o l u t i o n a r y changes in the Canadian F o r c e s , the l i f e s t y l e of Canadians and the general economic s i t u a t i o n , concern has a r i s e n that N a t i o n a l Defence p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to housing and community development may no longer be a p p r o p r i a t e or e f f e c t i v e . The general q u e s t i o n of whether the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence should be i n the business of p r o v i d i n g housing and s e r v i c e s i s extremely complex and r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n a l , geographic, p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . O p e r a t i o n a l readiness c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the 1950's (when most of the m a r r i e d - q u a r t e r s were b u i l t ) l e d to o p e r a t i o n a l and support personnel being r e q u i r e d to l i v e near the base. E f f e c t i v e response to v a r i o u s c o n t i n g e n c i e s was seen as being dependent upon the p r o x i m i t y and q u a n t i t y of domestic accommodation. With 2 technological improvements in transportation and communication over the la s t three decades the c r i t e r i o n of operational readiness i s now e a s i l y met with a few on-site duty personnel, and established "fan-out" a l e r t systems to r e c a l l a l l m i l i t a r y personnel regardless of their location. The geographic locations of the various m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s were dictated by technological, strategic and operational defence requirements of the period. As a result many units were positioned in isolated locations requiring that a l l municipal services be provided by the Department of National Defence. In the 1950's, when many of the bases and stations were f i r s t b u i l t they were either isolated or semi-urban. Most have since seen s i g n i f i c a n t growth and many have been engulfed by urban centers. This has caused a d i f f e r e n t problem: fluctuating a v a i l a b i l i t y and higher cost of housing. This d i r e c t l y impacts the nomadic l i k e l i f e s t yle of m i l i t a r y families. Economic considerations have been the easiest to quantify and evaluate. As a re s u l t , assessment of m i l i t a r y accommodation options has predominantly focussed on their f i n a n c i a l consequences. The need to review accommodation p o l i c y has been excentuated by the results of three DND studies undertaken since 1979 which have a l l shown that the costs to operate married quarters on behalf of m i l i t a r y families i s s i g n i f i c a n t . However, the s o c i a l impacts associated with policy review are not e a s i l y quantified and are often not considered in the cost-benefit type analyses. As a resu l t , s o c i a l factors have received r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e consideration in the decision-making process involving the operation and administration of married quarter communities. 3 C o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l f a c t o r s i s o f t e n separated between community (f a m i l y ) and work environments. As such, work and f a m i l y are f r e q u e n t l y viewed as independent domains. T y p i c a l l y , workers have been expected to perform t h e i r jobs as i f they d i d not have f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s and, s i m i l a r l y , f a m i l i e s were supposed to p r o v i d e a haven for the worker. The f a m i l y was c o r p o r a t e l y viewed as a separate i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t the " p r o v i d e r " , g e n e r a l l y the male, c o u l d leave behind p h y s i c a l l y and mentally when he l e f t f o r work in the morning. In the evening the f a m i l y nurtured and rejuvenated the worker so t h a t he c o u l d a r i s e r e f r e s h e d f o r work the f o l l o w i n g day. In t h i s view of the world the worker should experience no or few f a m i l y s t r e s s e s that a f f e c t h i s performance on the job, and job s t r e s s e s should have l i t t l e e f f e c t on f a m i l y l i f e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the s t r e s s e s r e s u l t i n g from work or f a m i l y have become b l u r r e d as a r e s u l t of demographic changes in the s i z e and composition of the f a m i l y along with the i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the labour f o r c e and changes in s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s towards sex r o l e s . These changes suggest that a l a r g e r p o r t i o n of the work f o r c e i s l i k e l y to experience c o n f l i c t s between work and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s i n turn may reduce the o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l commitment of s e r v i c e members as they begin to i n c r e a s e p e r s o n a l p r i o r i t i e s to f a m i l y l i f e and decrease p r i o r i t i e s to work. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence to c o n s i d e r s o c i a l impacts when developing accommodation p o l i c i e s , as t h i s p o l i c y area p r o v i d e s one of the best o p p o r t u n i t i e s to 4 c o n t r o l the unique s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with employment in the Canadian F o r c e s . 1.3 SCOPE T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned only with the unique s o c i a l impacts a s s o c i a t e d with Canadian Forces housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n p o l i c i e s . The framework developed i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g these s o c i a l impacts must then be i n t e g r a t e d with e v a l u a t i o n s of o p e r a t i o n a l , geographic, p o l i t i c a l and economic i s s u e s when the Department e s t a b l i s h e s p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g accommodation and the m i l i t a r y community. The t h e s i s i s a l s o only concerned with accommodation and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d to the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . The s i n g l e m i l i t a r y member although a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the m i l i t a r y establishment (41%), i s not the focus of t h i s t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n , the scope i s a l s o l i m i t e d t o the e v a l u a t i o n of predominantly urban and semi-urban bases and s t a t i o n s , where opt i o n s f o r accommodation programs e x i s t because s e r v i c e s and accommodation are a v a i l a b l e i n adjacent c i v i l i a n communities. 1.4 DEFINITIONS M i l i t a r y members. Refers to Canadian Force s m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l . A l l r e f e r e n c e s and t a b l e s r e f e r to the Canadian Armed Forces and Department of N a t i o n a l Defence u n l e s s otherwise i n d i c a t e d . 5 Dependents. Refers to i n d i v i d u a l s i n the m i l i t a r y member's fam i l y l i v i n g with or supported by him/her. The term r e f e r s to a l l members r e g a r d l e s s of whether one of the other f a m i l y members may in f a c t r e c e i v e a wage i n excess of that r e c e i v e d by the m i l i t a r y member. L i v i n g Accommodation. Used as a gen e r a l term f o r a l l types of l i v i n g accommodation used by CF members (and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ) , whether Crown-owned, Crown-leased, privately-owned, or p r i v a t e l y -rented. P u b l i c accommodation f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , or " S i n g l e Quarters"  (SQ's). Refers to DND accommodation such as b a r r a c k s , rooms, or s u i t e s f o r use by CF members. P r i v a t e Accommodation f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . Refers to p r i v a t e market accommodation f o r i n d i v i d u a l occupancy such as apartment u n i t s , houses and rooms. P u b l i c f a m i l y housing or Marr i e d Quarters (MQs). Refers to DND-operated accommodation such as Crown-owned houses and apartments, and houses and apartments l e a s e d from p r i v a t e entrepreneurs, other government departments and other governments for use by CF members. P r i v a t e f a m i l y housing. Refers to p r i v a t e market homes and apartments privately-owned or p r i v a t e l y - r e n t e d . Non-Public Funds/Organizations. R e f e r s to money and o r g a n i z a t i o n s a d m i n i s t e r e d and c o n t r o l l e d by the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence but not funded by the p u b l i c purse. I t should be noted that "Non-Public" r e f e r s only to i n s t i t u t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y formed and designated as "Non-Public", and not simply anything "not owned" by the p u b l i c . 6 Base. Is used g e n e r i c a l l y to i n c l u d e both CF bases (CFB) and CF s t a t i o n s (CFS), unless noted otherwise. Urban, Semi-urban, and I s o l a t e d . Terms used in r e f e r e n c e to the three c a t e g o r i e s of m i l i t a r y base s p e c i f i e d i n m i l i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s to guide the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of CF l i v i n g accommodation. A l i s t of urban and semi-urban bases and s t a t i o n s of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t h e s i s i s p rovided at Table 2 - 1 . M a r r i e d Quarter Community. Refers to the community of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s who a c t u a l l y l i v e i n Crown-owned MQs, and i s viewed both as a s p a t i a l - t e m p o r a l and s o c i a l system. The married q u a r t e r community i s a subset of the l a r g e r m i l i t a r y community. M i l i t a r y Community. Refers to a more g e n e r a l group of f a m i l i e s , i n which one parent of each f a m i l y i s a member of the m i l i t a r y , without regard to where the f a m i l y r e s i d e s . There i s no s p a t i a l component to the m i l i t a r y community. M u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n . The act of t r a n s f e r r i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s to the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . E x t e r n a l i z a t i o n . The act of t r a n s f e r r i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to an o r g a n i z a t i o n e x t e r n a l to the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. The t r a n s f e r c o u l d be to e i t h e r : another government agency, a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of government, or p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . 7 1.5 METHODOLOGY For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , i n f o r m a t i o n has been obtained from the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence and Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , as w e l l as from other p u b l i s h e d sources. Personal i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with key personnel from the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. E x p e r i e n c e s of other m i l i t a r i e s , and r e l e v a n t c i v i l i a n agencies and c o r p o r a t i o n s , such as "company towns", were obtained through l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s supplemented by the author's 32 years as a member of the m i l i t a r y community; 18 as a dependent, and 14 as a member of the CF. During t h i s p e r i o d a t o t a l of 16 moves were experienced. The author has l i v e d i n both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c living-accommodation i n a v a r i e t y of urban, semi-urban, and i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s , both i n Canada and abroad. Fourteen years of CF membership i n c l u d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of married q u a r t e r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as three years as Chair p e r s o n of a m i l i t a r y community " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l " . 8 1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS The t h e s i s i s organized i n t o four main p a r t s : background, housing p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s , s o c i a l impacts, and conclusions/recommendations. Chapter two pr o v i d e s a h i s t o r i c review of the e v o l u t i o n of the m i l i t a r y community i n c l u d i n g a d e t a i l e d p r o f i l e of the e x i s t i n g demographic, p h y s i c a l , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the community. The m i l i t a r y way of l i f e i s e x p l a i n e d , and the inherent s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g from the unique l i f e s t y l e are i d e n t i f i e d to provide a b a s i s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e accommodation p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . An a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l and economic trends i n Canadian s o c i e t y i l l u s t r a t e s how past accommodation p o l i c i e s must be a d j u s t e d to s u i t the ex p e c t a t i o n s of modern m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . Chapter three d i s c u s s e s the background l e a d i n g to the s e l e c t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y o p t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i o n : HOUSING OPTIONS A - Provide Complete P u b l i c Housing B - E s t a b l i s h a Non-Public Housing S o c i e t y C - Do Not Provide Housing PHYSICAL SERVICES OPTIONS A - I n t e r n a l i z e d B - M u n i c i p a l i z e d SOCIAL SERVICES OPTIONS A - I n t e r n a l i z e d B - E x t e r n a l i z e d 9 The i m p l i c a t i o n s and c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with each of the housing p o l i c y o p t i o n s are d i s c u s s e d . The i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n or e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of community support s e r v i c e s i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d with regard to the s o c i a l impacts on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . Chapter four develops a framework to e v a l u a t e the p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l impact of the p o l i c y o p t i o n s . S i x t e e n p o t e n t i a l d i s s a t i s f i e r s to the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y are i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d with respect to the p e r c e i v e d impact of the d i f f e r e n t o p t i o n s . The t a b l e c r e a t e d p r o v i d e s an e f f e c t i v e r e f e r e n c e t o o l to q u i c k l y i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of f u t u r e p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Based on the r e s u l t s of the e v a l u a t i o n , p o l i c y options are recommended. 10 2.0 UNDERSTANDING THE MILITARY COMMUNITY In order to p r o p e r l y understand the c o m p l e x i t i e s a f f e c t i n g the m i l i t a r y community i t i s necessary to understand . what the " m i l i t a r y community" i s , and how i t evo l v e d . T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the elements of the m i l i t a r y community, as w e l l as f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the community. T h i s p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e framework so that i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s the accommodation and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n p o l i c i e s impacting the community can be p r o p e r l y addressed. In a h i s t o r i c a l review, the formative elements of the Canadian m i l i t a r y community are examined f i r s t . The e v o l u t i o n of the m i l i t a r y p e r s p e c t i v e i s t r a c e d from "the s o l d i e r " , to "the army", to " m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y " , and f i n a l l y to " m i l i t a r y community". As w e l l , i t i s noted that Canada had no s i g n i f i c a n t permanent m i l i t a r y f o r c e p r i o r to the second World War; i t was only a f t e r the war that the " m i l i t a r y community" as we now know i t came i n t o e x i s t e n c e . These two f a c t o r s i l l u s t r a t e the l i m i t e d h i s t o r i c p e r s p e c t i v e a v a i l a b l e i n d e a l i n g with problems r e l a t e d to the m i l i t a r y community. A p r o f i l e of the " m i l i t a r y community" as i t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s f o l l o w s . T h i s snapshot of the t y p i c a l community d e s c r i b e s s i z e , l o c a t i o n , demographic, and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s of the community. Once the f i r s t m i l i t a r y communities were e s t a b l i s h e d i t became important to understand what the m i l i t a r y expected from i t s new f a m i l i e s . These e x p e c t a t i o n s are addressed by reviewing the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . The concept of the c o - l o c a t e d home and 1 1 workplace, as w e l l as the ex p e c t a t i o n s of a m i l i t a r y member, spouse and c h i l d r e n i n the m i l i t a r y community, are important to understand before the s o c i a l problems a r i s i n g from the atmosphere can be adequately addressed. A d i s c u s s i o n of the s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g from the unique job requirements of the m i l i t a r y f o l l o w s . M o b i l i t y , f a m i l y s e p a r a t i o n , employment d i f f i c u l t i e s of the spouse and c h i l d r e n , and the s p e c i a l r o l e of the wife, are i s s u e s p e c u l i a r to t h i s segment of s o c i e t y . In order to i n s t i l l a sense of community, m i l i t a r y d e c i s i o n -makers have e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s to guide the formal o p e r a t i o n of the m i l i t a r y community. The o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e of the r e s u l t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the m i l i t a r y community are t h e r e f o r e d e s c r i b e d . The chapter concludes by d i s c u s s i n g some of the general s o c i a l and economic trends c u r r e n t l y being experienced i n Canadian s o c i e t y which a l s o impact the m i l i t a r y community. 1 2 2.1 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION The concept of "community" in the m i l i t a r y i s very new; however, customs and t r a d i t i o n s have developed over many years which form the backbone of general m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y . In order to b e t t e r understand those which have i n f l u e n c e d the modern m i l i t a r y community i t i s important to r e a l i z e how g e n e r a l m i l i t a r y philosophy has evolved. A change i n p e r s p e c t i v e of m i l i t a r i s m from "the s o l d i e r " to "the army", then to " m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y " , and f i n a l l y to "the m i l i t a r y community" i s a n o t i c e a b l e and important element i n the formation of Canada's m i l i t a r y community. Canada's h i s t o r y had very important European i n f l u e n c e and as such the r i s e of m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y w i l l be looked at f i r s t of a l l from i t s European background, and then s p e c i f i c Canadian f a c t o r s . 2.1.1 European S o c i e t y The c l e r g y of the t w e l f t h century f o s t e r e d the b e l i e f s of a three way d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y : those who prayed, those who fought, and those who worked. ( C o r v i s i e r 1 979, p.7) The Noblemen, separated from the "people" and the c l e r g y , were designated to command the p r o f e s s i o n of arms. The peasants i n turn were o b l i g e d to support t h i s order and p r o v i d e o b l i g a t o r y m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Whole troops of p r i v a t e s o l d i e r s were formed through a f e u d a l system of homage of v a s s a l s to t h e i r l o r d s . In the western monarchies these remained at the l e v e l of p e r s o n a l r e t i n u e s of l o y a l a ttendants or h i r e d f o l l o w e r s , but i n c e n t r a l Europe they became the formative elements f o r n a t i o n a l armies. 13 T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between the m i l i t a r y p r o f e s s i o n and m i l i t a r y o b l i g a t i o n was the begining of a m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y somewhat i s o l a t e d from s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . The m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y was a separate "order" comparable to the c l e r g y as i t a l s o was d i v i d e d i n t o two sub-orders; that of o f f i c e r s , and common s o l d i e r s . Up u n t i l t h i s p o i n t in h i s t o r y c i v i l i a n s and s o l d i e r s were p r a c t i c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . In the s i x t e e n t h century the g r e a t e r number of t r o o p s , improvement of weapons and i n c r e a s e d expense of m a i n t a i n i n g armies made i t p r a c t i c a l only for r u l e r s with s i g n i f i c a n t r e s o u r c e s . Changes in m i l i t a r y technique were a l s o e v ident at t h i s time, r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over men i n the permanent armies ( C o r v i s i e r 1979, p.196). The d i s t i n c t i o n between c i v i l i a n s and m i l i t a r y became grea t e r as the troops were housed i n barracks and i n other ways separated from c i v i l i a n s o c i e t y . The m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y was by nature one of s o l d i e r s — a d u l t s i n g l e males. I t i n c l u d e d some c i v i l i a n s to p r o v i d e v a r i o u s l e v e l s of support but women and c h i l d r e n were g e n e r a l l y not encouraged. M i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s recognized that some women were r e q u i r e d to wash and mend c l o t h e s , and that marriage f o r the s o l d i e r s was the best means to l i m i t p r o s t i t u t i o n i n the camps. However, they took v a r y i n g measures in the d i f f e r e n t armies to a v o i d having too many married men i n order that the armies might not be burdened with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a great number of non-combatants, and so that d i s c i p l i n e might be maintained. The presence of women and c h i l d r e n turned some armies i n t o t r u e s o c i e t i e s . Even where married s o l d i e r s were l e s s common, the army formed a kind of s o c i a l u n i t , i n which regiments and 1 4 companies corresponded to p r o v i n c e s and v i l l a g e s . The s o l i d a r i t y of these u n i t s was a r e s u l t not only of the d i s c i p l i n e , but a l s o of p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o l d i e r s , or between the s o l d i e r and h i s o f f i c e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s were based on l o y a l t y and comradeship. Second only to prayer, the e x e r c i s e of arms was accorded the highest r e s p e c t among a l l human a c t i v i t i e s by the s o c i e t i e s of the ancien regime. T h i s was not only the r e s u l t of weapons being the instruments of power for r u l e r s such as the f e u d a l o v e r l o r d s ; i t was a l s o the e x p r e s s i o n of a moral s e t t i n g i n which v i o l e n c e and respect f o r f o r c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s brought about a change in the s t a t u s and r o l e of arms in s o c i e t y . ( C o r v i s i e r 1979, p.3) The s h i f t from the e s s e n t i a l l y "automaton armies" of the s i x t e e n t h century with very low p o r t i o n s of permanent s o l d i e r s to the " s o l d i e r armies" of the e i g h t e e n t h century with h i g h p o r t i o n s of permanent s o l d i e r s was a long and complex e v o l u t i o n . T h i s s h i f t a l s o brought with i t a change from a " w a r r i o r " m e n t a l i t y to an "army" m e n t a l i t y . The use of f i r e a r m s i m p e r s o n a l i z e d the b a t t l e f i e l d and removed the romanticism of the medieval times. D i s c i p l i n e and s t r u c t u r e became much more important i n the modern army. In the n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , e a s t e r n and c e n t r a l European s o c i e t i e s tended to become more " m i l i t a r y " as they f o l l o w e d the l e a d of government systems, whereas i n western Europe m i l i t a r y s o c i a l groups were found w i t h i n , but d i s t i n c t 15 from s o c i e t y as a whole. I t took the n a t i o n a l wars set o f f by the French R e v o l u t i o n to r e - e s t a b l i s h t i g h t e r , though temporary, l i n k s between armies and s o c i e t i e s . In the end, the widespread, n e a r l y omnipresent m i l i t a r i z a t i o n that we see i n the Europe of 1914 came about with the adoption of the idea of u n i v e r s a l m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e by s o c i e t i e s that were no longer m i l i t a r y i n nature. ( C o r v i s i e r , 1979 pp.171-173) 2.1.2 Canadian S o c i e t y 'Canadians regard themselves as "an u n m i l i t a r y people", and they assume that Canada was b u i l t by the a r t s of peace r a t h e r than by war. However, many know that t h e i r country was born i n war (the American War of Independence), and that Canadian s o l d i e r s performed great f e a t s of m i l i t a r y prowess i n . t h e War of 1812 and even more i n the F i r s t and Second World Wars; and a few r e a l i s e that these wars a l s o had a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on the development of a d i s t i n c t Canadian n a t i o n . Yet t h i s admission does not go f a r enough. It n e g l e c t s other ways in which m i l i t a r y f a c t o r s have been a formative i n f l u e n c e on the making of Canada. For, although m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n has not been the predominant f o r c e i n Canadian h i s t o r y , i t was o f t e n o p e r a t i v e when Canada was at peace as w e l l as when war threatened or occ u r r e d . Canadian S o c i e t y and the Canadian economy have been n o t i c e a b l y , perhaps even profoundly, a f f e c t e d by m i l i t a r y i n t e r e s t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which Canadians want to f o r g e t or r e j e c t . ' (Preston 1972, p.49) New France. The f i r s t French s e t t l e r s were not s o l d i e r s and they had no wish to use the sword i n s t e a d of the plough. The s o c i e t y of French Canada was however very h i e r a r c h i a l i n s t r u c t u r e , being separated i n t o d i s t i n c t upper and lower l a y e r s . The broad lower order was formed by the c o l o n i s t s , or h a b i t a n t s , who were g e n e r a l l y farmers. Government o f f i c i a l s , the l a r g e l a n d h o l d e r s ( s i e g n e u r s ) , and the p r i n c i p a l c l e r g y formed the upper l e v e l . The s e i g n e u r i a l system represented a v e r s i o n of 16 f e u d a l i s m imported i n t o America. Through the workings of feudalism, the l o r d owed d u t i e s of government and m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p to t h e i r t enants, and i n turn they owed obedience and armed support to him. In a wilderness environment such as North America t h i s system was f e l t to be e s s e n t i a l to both develop the land and provide defence. However, with the w i l d s c l o s e at hand, promising freedom and fortune in the fur tr a d e , as w e l l as, the importance of m a i n t a i n i n g a l a r g e number of farmers, heavy o b l i g a t i o n s of the f e u d a l system were not f e a s i b l e ( C a r e l e s s 1970, p.59-63). As a r e s u l t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were minimal, and the h a b i t a n t s d i d not owe m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e to t h e i r s eigneurs (Preston 1972, p.50). However, as there was always the t h r e a t of Ir o q u o i s a t t a c k i n d i v i d u a l settlements e n f o r c e d r e g u l a t i o n s that every ab l e - b o d i e d male i n the colony was p o t e n t i a l l y a s o l d i e r and r e q u i r e d by law to possess weapons, d r i l l and do guard duty. (Goodspeed 1967, p.1) In 1665 i n response to repeated appeals of a s s i s t a n c e to King L o u i s XIV, twenty-four companies of r e g u l a r i n f a n t r y were sent to handle the Indian problem. With t h e i r task a p p a r e n t l y accomplished and the danger to the colony having passed (Stanley 1974, pp.15-19) most of the r e g u l a r s o l d i e r s were re t u r n e d to France by 1667, not to be re p l a c e d u n t i l 1755. A s o l d i e r -settlement scheme drawn on the experience of the Roman m i l i t a r y c o l o n i e s was attempted to a t t r a c t many of the s o l d i e r s to remain. However, i t was not o v e r l y s u c c e s s f u l and as such the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a proper m i l i t i a was ordered. Each p a r i s h or s e i g n e u r i e thus r a i s e d and t r a i n e d at l e a s t one m i l i t i a company. T h i s f o r c e was used by the Governor not only f o r defence but a l s o 1 7 for public works connected with defence such as f o r t i f i c a t i o n , road and bridge building. This had important economic side-effects in knitting the colony together, e s p e c i a l l y when the o f f i c e r s of the regular regiments from France who once again garrisoned the colony in 1755 brought large infusions of money to construct f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , as well as an a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n . The m i l i t a r y influence continued in New France af t e r the conquest by the B r i t i s h . The B r i t i s h used the e x i s t i n g m i l i t i a organization to govern the conquered colony. M i l i t i a captains were given powers equivalent to justices of the peace. Although there was an influx of English-speaking immigrants, "Canadiens" in general were not able to i d e n t i f y with B r i t i s h Imperial interests, and as a result m i l i t a r y interest eventually declined among the body of French-Canadians. (Preston 1972, pp.49-52) B r i t i s h Influence. The B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y system had a much stronger impact on the development of m i l i t a r y society in Canada. Actual m i l i t a r y colonies were created as a result of the American War of Independence, with the relocation of American L o y a l i s t s into B r i t i s h North America being implemented as -a m i l i t a r y operation. The L o y a l i s t s were given rations, tools, and seeds from m i l i t a r y stores, as well as land surveyed and d i s t r i b u t e d by m i l i t a r y engineers and army o f f i c e r s . As such, the new garrisons established a very strong economic base for the growth of B r i t i s h North America. At various times the B r i t i s h Army regulars helped to open the country. They cleared the s i t e s of several c i t i e s , they b u i l t canals such as those on the St. Lawrence and the 18 Rideau, and they b u i l t roads such as the Cariboo T r a i l in B r i t i s h Columbia. (Preston 1972, pp.56-57). C F . Hamilton c a l c u l a t e d that from 1841 to 1851 Great B r i t a i n "spent more i n safeguarding the p r o v i n c e s [of Canada] than the [ p r o v i n c i a l ] l e g i s l a t u r e d i d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t " (Preston 1972, p.58). These g a r r i s o n towns became c e n t r e s of a vigorous s o c i a l l i f e and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e spread widely as they a t t r a c t e d people of wealth and l e i s u r e from d i s t a n t p l a c e s . The B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y i n f l u e n c e d s o c i e t y in more than j u s t the g a r r i s o n s t y l e communities e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the L o y a l i s t s , i t was a l s o an important t i e f o r the "Old Country" a s s o c i a t i o n s . U n t i l 1870 the B r i t i s h g a r r i s o n s helped to f o s t e r E n g l i s h ways and E n g l i s h ideas and as such to r e s i s t " A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n " throughout Canada. These g a r r i s o n s a l s o r e i n f o r c e d a very c o n s e r v a t i v e element i n Canadian s o c i e t y (Preston 1972, pp.64-66). Before the American C i v i l War brought an i n c r e a s e to the numbers of B r i t i s h t roops i n Canada, the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the m i l i t a r y in Canadian l i f e had d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y as a r e s u l t of the l a r g e growth of the c i v i l p o p u l a t i o n . The withdrawal of the B r i t i s h g a r r i s o n i n 1870 reduced i t even f u r t h e r . (Preston 1972, pp.66-67) P o s t - C o n f e d e r a t i o n . A Canadian m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n was c r e a t e d s l o w l y . I t was modelled l a r g e l y i n the B r i t i s h manner, and B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s were of t e n used to develop and guide programs. The main d i f f e r e n c e was not i n s t y l e , as the Canadian m i l i t a r y was s i m i l a r i n kind, but had much l e s s f i n a n c i a l support than the t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h g a r r i s o n . In f a c t r e l a t i v e to the 19 B r i t i s h , the Canadian government spent only one-third of the amount the B r i t i s h garrison had provided, a quarter of a century e a r l i e r , when the country was much smaller. The mid 1870's were very tame times in terms of unrest which accompanied by years of f i n a n c i a l depression, caused decline in m i l i t i a strength and the disbandment of some units. For 1876-1877 the defence budget was the lowest i t had been since Confederation. (Goodspeed 1967, pp.12-13). Lessons learned in the Boer War i n i t i a t e d M i l i t i a reform between 1900 and 1914. A new M i l i t i a Act came into effect on 1 November 1904, and raised the Permanent Force establishment to 2,000. (Goodspeed 1967, pp.22-23) When Halifax and Esquimalt were f i n a l l y taken over from the B r i t i s h in 1906 and 1907, the establishment of the Permanent Active M i l i t i a was doubled to 4,000. After the F i r s t World War, establishment was set at 10,000; however, the strength actually remained at 4,000. The Non-Permanent Active M i l i t i a ' s establishment was s i m i l a r l y increased from a pre-war figure of 75,000 to over 120,000; but the number trained in 1928 was only 34,000, which was less than the 50,000 trained just before the war.(Preston 1972, pp.76-78) The reason for this decline in numbers was that while the Canadian government professed the intention of maintaining a m i l i t a r y establishment almost twice as large as that before the war, i t budgeted only about two-thirds of the pre-war appropriation to pay for i t . The reasons given were the growth of pacifism as a result of the horrors of Canada's f i r s t experience in a modern major war, the hope that the League of 20 Nations would soon make war and armies unnecessary, the government's desire to economize where i t was p o l i t i c a l l y advantageous to do so, and the lack of any apparent danger. Not u n t i l a second war with Germany became imminent was t h i s policy altered. (Preston 1972, pp.78-79) Post World War I I . The influence of the Second World War caused a vast expansion of the t o t a l establishment of a l l three services. I n i t i a l l e v e l s of Permanent Force were set at 50,000 and were soon doubled as a result of the Cold War. Relative to other countries t h i s was not large, nevertheless t h i s introduced a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the Canadian scene. Most Canadians who were unaccustomed to seeing a m i l i t a r y uniform in peace time were now in the midst of them as Canadian Army, Navy and Air Force Bases became scattered across the country. The Canadian regular force had a very strong B r i t i s h flavour, however, the Canadian serviceman developed a d i s t i n c t national ethos. There was less s o c i a l d i v i s i o n between o f f i c e r s and other ranks, and Canadian o f f i c e r s were not selected from one upper c l a s s . The permanent force establishment in 1950 was 47,000 and had doubled by 1952. The peak in Canada's peace time armed forces was in 1962 at 126,500. (Coulombe 1972, p. 129), while strength in 1986 was 86,036 (Defence 86, 1987). It was in the late 1950's and early 1960's that the m i l i t a r y community became at important entity, as the larger permanent force and corresponding increase in m i l i t a r y families caused the m i l i t a r y to rethink i t s p o l i c i e s on the m i l i t a r y family, as i t recognized that i t could not compete with the family for a so l d i e r ' s l o y a l t y (Stanton 1976, p. 21 135; Stoddard and Cabanillas 1976, p. 152). At every m i l i t a r y , naval or a i r force base new "married quarters" were constructed having important s o c i a l and economic e f f e c t s e s p e c i a l l y when located adjacent to small communities. A large number of new m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s were constructed in somewhat isolated locations, such as the three radar warning l i n e s (Pine Tree Line, Mid-Canada "Line, and Distant Early Warning Line). A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of the impact the establishment of a base could have on an entire region, is the locating of Camp Gagetown in New Brunswick in 1952. The neighbouring community of Oromocto grew from 600 people in 1952 to 12,170 in 1961. In fact the t o t a l wage packet of the base amounted to 2.5% of the t o t a l personal income of a l l of New Brunswick. (Preston 1972, pp. 78-80) There are many other similar examples; however, to r e a l i z e the economic impact, just watch the p o l i t i c a l battles when government t r i e s to close down an established base. Although formation of the m i l i t a r y community, and accommodation for i t s families, became a necessary part of the t o t a l m i l i t a r y establishment, there were s t i l l many rules and regulations which discouraged marriage within the m i l i t a r y . In the 1950's the Royal Canadian Air Force did not recognize marriage among i t s members u n t i l they reached the age of twenty-one. As such, a married member under twenty-one (even with children) could not reside in m i l i t a r y Married Quarters. Even to this day (although not a formal requirement) i t i s considered common courteousy to inform your Commanding O f f i c e r of your intentions to be married. 22 2.1.3 Summary Th i s b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l review i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e youth of the m i l i t a r y community. It i s seen t h a t there i s l i m i t e d m i l i t a r y experience i n d e a l i n g with f a m i l i e s to draw upon i n order to a s s i s t i n the review and a n a l y s i s of accommodation p o l i c y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true f o r Canada which d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t permanent peacetime f o r c e , nor any m i l i t a r y community, u n t i l a f t e r World War I I . In Europe, before Canada's C o n f e d e r a t i o n , there were some l a r g e permanent f o r c e armies; however, r e g u l a t i o n s i n most cases precluded f a m i l i e s , "and i n f a c t wives and c h i l d r e n were c o n s i d e r e d as l i a b i l i t i e s . In Canada u n t i l the end of the Second World War, m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y c o n s i s t e d of the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of the part-time m i l i t i a o f f i c e r and s o l d i e r . Even before the c r e a t i o n of a formal m i l i t i a i n Canada, c i t i z e n s fought f o r Canada more i n the form of s e l f - d e f e n c e , as they saw themselves as farmers f i r s t and s o l d i e r s second. T h e i r l i f e s t y l e and community evolved e x c l u s i v e l y around t h e i r c i v i l i a n encounters, except d u r i n g the l i m i t e d p e r i o d s of m i l i t i a s o c i a l or t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y . The establishment of the many Army, Navy and A i r Force bases and the i n c r e a s e i n the permanent f o r c e i n Canada a f t e r World War II r e s u l t e d in the formation of m i l i t a r y communities. The communities were designed and organized based on socio-economic and o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s of the time, but with l i t t l e experience of the p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g from the unique m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . T h i s t h e s i s reviews these demographic, economic, and s o c i a l trends w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y community i n order to assess the s o c i a l impacts. 23 2.2 PROFILE OF THE MILITARY COMMUNITY Since World War II, when the establishment of a large permanent Armed Force brought on the creation of a large scale m i l i t a r y community, the p r o f i l e of the Canadian M i l i t a r y has changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y . No longer i s i t the preserve of the single male, and no longer i s i t s influence on Canadian society an i n s i g n i f i c a n t factor. "The Department of National Defence is the largest real property holder and landlord in the Federal Government, and perhaps in Canada." (Evaluation Report 20, 1979, p. 6) A snapshot of the current demographics, geographic location, accommodation, and dependants schooling in the Department of National Defence, provides the d e t a i l necessary to put the size of the community into perspective. 2.2.1 Demographics In 1986 the Canadian Forces consisted of 86,036 Regular Force members, 24,311 Primary Reserve members and 26,787 Supplementary Reserve members. In addition to these, the Department of National Defence employed 31,681 c i v i l i a n s . There were also 9500 non-public fund employees working in base messes and i n s t i t u t e s associated with the m i l i t a r y community. (Defence 86 1987, p. 85) Of primary concern to the m i l i t a r y community, and s p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s thesis i s the 86,036 Regular Force (fulltime) members. Of even more s i g n i f i c a n t concern i s those of the Regular Force who are married, or have families p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the m i l i t a r y community. 24 The m i l i t a r y community i s f a r from being the preserve of the s i n g l e s e r v i c e member (Goldman 1976, p. 119), and even f u r t h e r from being the e x c l u s i v e domain of the young s i n g l e male. F i g u r e 2-1 i d e n t i f i e s the composition of Canadian Forces F a m i l i e s as of March 1984. (Popoff et a l . 1986, pp. 13-17) As i n d i c a t e d , approximately 60% of s e r v i c e members e i t h e r have been, or are p r e s e n t l y married. Seven percent of the marriages are between m i l i t a r y members ( i n t r a s e r v i c e ) , which i s d i s t i n c t i v e as both husband and wife are Forces members and are, t h e r e f o r e , bound by i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n to the i n t r a s e r v i c e f a m i l i e s where both parents are f u l l y employed w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y , another 27% of married s e r v i c e members had c i v i l i a n spouses who were employed f u l l - t i m e . As such, a t o t a l of 34% of married m i l i t a r y members have spouses who are employed f u l l - t i m e o u t s i d e of the home. Even t h i s i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e estimate of what i s commonly r e f e r r e d to as two income f a m i l i e s , or dual career couples, s i n c e i t does not take i n t o account the 13% of c i v i l i a n spouses who were unemployed and a c t i v e l y l o o k i n g f o r work, nor the 17% of c i v i l i a n spouses who were employed p a r t - t i m e and were i n c l u d e d i n the f i g u r e f o r homemakers. (Popoff et a l . 1986, pp. 14-16) T h e r e f o r e , up to 65% of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as dual c a r e e r couples with as few as 35% of the spouses being c o n s i d e r e d " t r a d i t i o n a l homemakers". 25 FIGURE 2-1 COMPOSITION OF CANADIAN FORCES FAMILIES CanadI a n F o r c e s 83.205 CD Never Marr ted 4 1.1% O t h e r s 58 .9% Marr t ed (46.026) 93 .9% S e p a r a t e d / 0 1 v o r c e d w1 t h Chi 1dren 5.9% Widowed wl t h C h i I d r e n 0.2% I n t r a s e r v 1 c e 7% EmpIoyed C i v i l tan Spouse 27% Unemployed Spouse 13% Homemaker 53% C h i i d l e s s 55% • Preschoo1 36% S c h o o l 8% Empty Nest 1% C h i I d l e s s 2 1% P r e s c h o o l 20% School 26% Teen 25% Empty Nest 8% C h i I d l e s s 12% P r e s c h o o l 43% School 25% Teen 16% Empty Nest 4% MARITAL STATUS MAJOR ACTIVITY FAMILY LIFE CYCLE 2.2.2 Geographic Location The Department of National Defence owns and operates property across the country. It i s the largest real property holder in the Federal Government, and perhaps in Canada. It operates and leases over 4.62 m i l l i o n acres ( i e , over 7,200 square miles are under active use and c o n t r o l ) . The 1978 replacement value of the property was estimated at $7 b i l l i o n . (Evaluation Report 20 1979, pp. 6-7) The climate and f a c i l i t i e s available at each of the dif f e r e n t locations is as diverse as the locations themselves. M i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s vary from the t r o p i c a l island of Bermuda to north of the magnetic north pole ( A l e r t ) . F a c i l i t i e s in the di f f e r e n t locations can vary from: r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e , at a small urban s i t e ; to p r a c t i c a l l y every community service imaginable, at a large more isolated s i t e . Of concern in t h i s thesis i s those locations in which families are a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of the m i l i t a r y community, and in which the m i l i t a r y has f l e x i b i l i t y in how i t accommodates i t s families by allowing some of the burden to be shared with a l o c a l c i v i l i a n community. The next section, which p r o f i l e s accommodation in the m i l i t a r y , delineates those i n s t a l l a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c interest in this t h e s i s . 2.2.3 Accommodat ion In conjunction with being the largest property holder in the Federal Government, and perhaps Canada, the Department i s also the largest landlord. DND controls 81% of the t o t a l Federal Government holdings of employee l i v i n g accommodation. (Evaluation Report 20 1979, p. 6) The Department owns 22,321 27 Married Quarter units augmented by approximately 4,300 that are leased from private entrepreneurs under a number of di f f e r e n t programs at various locations (these are i d e n t i f i e d l a t e r ) . (AWG 1985, p. 2) Housing located: above the 60th p a r a l l e l , at isolated locations, and at the indepedant radar stations (most of which are being closed), has been eliminated for the purposes of this thesis as the various accommodation p o l i c i e s to be discussed later are not a l l feasible options at these locations. The location of the remaining married quarter p o r t f o l i o i s i d e n t i f i e d in Table 2-1. In addition to the 22,321 units owned by DND—of which 21,016 are of s p e c i f i c interest in thi s t h e s i s — t h e r e i s also an important portion of DND family housing accommodation secured by alternate methods. These are Bulk Lease Housing Units (BLHU), Self Help Housing (SHH), Limited Dividend Housing (LDH), CMHC Leased Accommodation dedicated to DND, and Mobile Home Parks and Units. (ND/CMHC AWG 1983, pp. A4-1/2) An inventory of housing not owned but preserved exclusively for DND use and control i s shown in Table 2-2. Of p a r t i c u l a r interest in the consideration of the married quarter p o r t f o l i o owned by DND i s i t s age and state of repair. Generally the p o r t f o l i o has been well maintained; however, i t i s extremely outdated in terms of layout, lacks character, and projects a "rundown" and somewhat s t e r i l e p r o f i l e to the community. The units could generally be categorized as "adequate but ugly". In part, t h i s is a result of the age of the housing p o r t f o l i o as most of the married quarters were b u i l t in the 28 TABLE 2-1 BASE/STATION SELECTED MARRIED QUARTER PORTFOLIO GROUPED BY PROVINCE  NUMBER OF MQs BASE/STATION  B r i t i s h Columbia Chi 11Iwack A l d e r g r o v e Vancouver Comox V i c t o r l a A l b e r t a C a l g a r y Wa 1 nwr 1 grit C o l d Lake Edmonton Pe n h o l d S u f f l e l d 414 41 66 304 739 1564 1010 87 1252 1264 243 183 4039 NUMBER OF MQs Quebec B a g o t v l 1 l e M o n t r e a l St J ean V a l c a r t l e r New Brunswick Chatham Gagetown Moneton P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Summers1de 220 257 36 922 1435 526 2200 92 2818 255 Saskatchewan Moose Jaw Dundurn Manltoba P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e Shi l o 280 28 Winnipeg Ontar1o Borden K i n g s t o n London N o r t h Bay Ottawa Petawawa T o r o n t o T r e n t o n 308 184 744 571 1499 1367 812 137 234 824 1705 292 699 6070 Nova S c o t i a B a r r I n g t o n Cornwal11s Debert Greenwood Hal 1 fax M i l l Cove Newport C o r n e r s Shearwater S h e l b u r n e Sydney Newfoundland Gander S t . John's 59 248 95 1083 7 30 74 12 301 46 67 2715 222 91 313 GRAND TOTAL 21.016 ( S o u r c e : AWG 1985, p. F9-1; ND/CMHC AWG 1983. p. 3-2) TABLE 2-2 Locat ion MARRIED QUARTER INVENTORY NOT OWNED BY DND Method Project Name Number of Units Halifax Wallis Heights 397 BLHU - Lakefront 432 BLHU Maritime Apartments 216 BLHU Westmount 50 CMHC Winnipeg St James Project 409 BLHU North Bay 243 BLHU Summerside H i l l Crest 210 BLHU Ottawa Ottawa South 545 SHH Comox 100 LDH Toronto Downsview 300 LDH Montreal St Bruno 200 LDH Various locations - Mobile Total 3102 (Source: ND/CMHC AWG 1983, pp. A 4 - 1 / 2 ) 30 1950's. Only 598 married quarters were constructed prior to 1948, while 92% of the existing married quarters were constructed prior to 1963. (Evaluation Report 20 1979, p. 65) A detailed l i s t i n g of the age of the DND owned housing stock as of 1982 i s i l l u s t r a t e d in Table 2-3. The current accommodation p o r t f o l i o (both DND owned and administered) is t h e o r e t i c a l l y capable of housing about 27,000 or 60% of our married personnel. In practice about 55% are actually housed due to administrative factors. The remaining 20,000 families either own their own homes (14,000) or are dependent upon private rental accommodation (6,000). (AWG 1985, pp. 4-11) The supply and demand for this private sector housing, and i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y and a f f o r d a b i l i t y is subject to market conditions. M i l i t a r y families who must participate in the private sector are "captured c l i e n t e l l e " , unable to take advantage of the opportunities of time due to the frequency and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of transfers in the m i l i t a r y . 2.2.4 The DND School System The m i l i t a r y has a continuing commitment to i t s members for the education of their dependents. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident in the case of families who are located in areas where the predominant language i s other than th e i r mother tongue. Schooling i s provided through either the l o c a l school system with DND paying school taxes t y p i c a l of any landlord, or through a completely independent DND School System. During the 1985-86 school year, the DND Dependent's School System operated 57 schools in Canada and overseas. These schools 31 TABLE 2-3 AGE OF HOUSING STOCK AT SELECTED BASES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL BASE STOCK 1982 BASE TOTAL 0-10 AGE IN YEARS 10-20 20-30 30 + Hali fax Greenwood V i c t o r i a Gagetown Va l c a r t i e r Petawawa Calgary Borden Kingston Winnipeg Shilo Chilliwack Trenton Ottawa Edmonton Cold Lake 800 1078 692 2203 946 1705 998 1367 795 579 745 480 700 824 1264 1256 1 6 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 22 0 26% 0 13 16 6 19 0 0 0 27 27 2 0 0 0 31 85 61 84 90 61 78 57 33 68 22 55 75 76 51 69 7% 14 20 0 4 20 19 43 67 5 51 35 25 24 27 0 TOTAL 1 6432 2% 1 0% 64% 24% (Source: ND/CMHC AWG 1983, p. A3-13) 32 were staffed by 977 teachers and accommodated 14,469 dependents at both elementary and secondary l e v e l s . In Canada, DND paid for an additional 5,358 dependents of married quarters attending municipal schools. The overseas school system served 3,500 Canadian students. (Defence 86 1987, p. 89) The gross costs for educating children for the f i s c a l year 1985-86 were $82 m i l l i o n . DND received a rebate of about $13 mil l i o n from p r o v i n c i a l grants and t u i t i o n fees paid by non-en t i t l e d pupils attending DND Dependent's Schools. (Defence 86 1987, p. 89) Regardless of the accommodation policy selected, there w i l l continue to be an obligation on the part of DND to provide suitable schooling for i t s dependents. Either a separate school system w i l l have to -be maintained, or adequate schooling in both o f f i c i a l languages w i l l have to be supported f i n a n c i a l l y by the department through l o c a l school boards. A d i s t i n c t advantage to the DND Dependent's School System i s the improved continuity in education which suffers when children are required to regularly transfer between p r o v i n c i a l school systems. 2.2.5 Summary The m i l i t a r y community i s far from being the preserve of the adult single male. Of the 86,036 Regular Force members, approximately 60% are either married, or have been. Of the married couples, 7% are intraservice marriages, and up to 65% of mil i t a r y families could be considered as dual career couples. As such, the family and structures established to support i t are of direct concern when considering the welfare and operational 33 effectiveness of m i l i t a r y members. To provide an appropriate community environment DND has become the largest real property holder and landlord in the Federal Government. The DND owns 22,321 married quarter units augmented by approximately 4,300 administered through private entrepreneurs. Most of t h i s housing stock i s old, but in a r e l a t i v e l y good state of repair, and is generally categorized as "adequate but ugly". Approximately half of the married families l i v e in married quarters while the others are subject to the f l u c t u a t i n g private market. Of these, approximately 14,000 own their own homes, and 6,000 occupy rental accommodation. DND accepts i t s obligation to provide suitable schooling for i t s dependents. To do so, at many locations i t maintains a DND School System which accommodated 14,469 students in 1985 at a cost of $82 m i l l i o n . 34 2.3 MILITARY STYLE OF LIFE The style of l i f e of the t y p i c a l m i l i t a r y family is s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of i t s c i v i l i a n counterpart. This i s mainly due to the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s required to tr a i n and prepare a ready and capable m i l i t a r y force. M i l i t a r y philosophy as to how the community should be established and in t e r - r e l a t e with the "s o l d i e r s " duties, has been c a r e f u l l y and deliberately i n s t i l l e d into the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . In order to appreciate the problems inherent in a m i l i t a r y community, i t i s important to understand the basic philosophies that form the basis of th i s unique m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . A look at the m i l i t a r y as an independant profession indicates why rules and regulations have become an accepted way of l i f e . It also i d e n t i f i e s a v a r i a t i o n in the personal values of members in the three elements of the Armed Forces, as well as, why there may be a requirement for the m i l i t a r y to establish and maintain i t s own communities. 2.3.1 The M i l i t a r y Profession "The M i l i t a r y Profession i s more than an occupation; i t i s a complete style of l i f e . The o f f i c e r i s a member of a community whose claims over his d a i l y existence extend well beyond his o f f i c i a l duties." (Janowitz 1960, p.175) The fact that an o f f i c e r i s a professional and conceivably performs a c r u c i a l " l i f e and death" task, and is therefore expected to be c a l l e d upon at any time to abandon his routine and personal commitments, is a basic element in understanding 35 m i l i t a r y mentality. As a professional, the soldier is in the unique position of having "to carry out his task even to the detriment of his s e l f - i n t e r e s t for the good of the larger society." (Gabriel 1982, p. 82) A less obvious, yet equally disconcerting, fact is that any profession which i s continually preoccupied with the threat of danger requires a strong sense of s o l i d a r i t y i f i t i s to operate e f f e c t i v e l y . (Janowitz, 1960 pp. 175-177) As such, the m i l i t a r y maintains detailed regulations imposing a s p e c i f i c m i l i t a r y l i f e style in order to enhance group cohesion, l o y a l t y , and maintain the martial s p i r i t . This regulating has h i s t o r i c a l l y been e f f e c t i v e in part due to the generally closed community environment in which the m i l i t a r y have l i v e d . However, t h i s philosophy of r i g i d regulation i s changing. In recent years war has not been popular; nor has the m i l i t a r y (Hunter 1982, p.3). Professional pride has dissipated, and the views of the m i l i t a r y as a "way of l i f e " are being challenged. No longer is the m i l i t a r y looked upon by i t s members as purely a " c a l l i n g " or a "profession", but more and more i t i s looked upon as merely an "occupation" or "job". (Hunter 1982, pp. 3-5; McCubbin and Marsden 1978, pp. 207-218; Moskos 1978, pp. 199-206). This t r a n s i t i o n i s discussed further in section 2.6.2. With these s i g n i f i c a n t changes in the mentality of m i l i t a r y members and the community in general, i t i s remarkable to what extent the m i l i t a r y profession has been able to maintain many of i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t r a d i t i o n s and culture (Bowers 1976, pp. 89-90). To those within the system, i t may appear that the "old systems" are gone. However, from outside observers, i t 36 s t i l l appears as though the m i l i t a r y has some how managed to maintain much of the t r a d i t i o n a l style and l i f e of the old Army and Navy. This i s most evident when one looks at the newest member of the m i l i t a r y family, that of the Air Force, who through the large powers of se l f - r e g u l a t i o n , have managed to esta b l i s h t r a d i t i o n a l m i l i t a r y values within i t s members, and community. A closer look at the three elements of the Candian Armed Forces show the values and tra d i t i o n s to be s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . The Army and Navy are generally more regimented and t r a d i t i o n a l in nature then the Air Force. An indication of th i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d in the responses of 576 senior o f f i c e r s in the U.S.A. assigned to the Pentagon Staff Duty in 1954 when asked the following question; "In domestic p o l i t i c s , do you regard yourself as: conservative, a l i t t l e on the conservative side, a l i t t l e on the l i b e r a l side, l i b e r a l ? " : (Janowitz, 1960 page 237) Table 2-4 U.S.A. MILITARY  POLITICAL IDENTIFICATION - CONSERVATIVE/LIBERAL ARMY NAVY AIR FORCE % % % Conservative 25.1 23.0 14.7 Somewhat Conservative 44.5 45.2 46.5 Somewhat Lib e r a l 21.3 18.3 31.8 Libe r a l 5.3 6.3 3.2 No answer 3.8 7.2 3.8 37 T h i s response i s p e r c e i v e d to be c o n s i s t e n t with the r e l a t i v e values between the three elements i n the c u r r e n t Canadian establishment. I t i s a l s o a r e s u l t of the more l i b e r a l p hilosophy of a i r f o r c e members, that has g e n e r a l l y c r e a t e d a somewhat l e s s s t r u c t u r e d and regimented community at A i r Force Bases, as compared to Army or Navy Bases. The value and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a more s t r u c t u r e d community environment i s one of the items that impacts the type of community support s t r u c t u r e evaluated l a t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . 2.3.2 Work and Residence The in t i m a t e s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y of the m i l i t a r y community (which c i v i l i a n s o f t e n both envy and resent) i s grounded i n a p e c u l i a r o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t . Separation between p l a c e of work and pl a c e of reside n c e t y p i c a l of most c i v i l i a n urban oc c u p a t i o n s , i s absent. Instead, the m i l i t a r y community i s a r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e d community where p r o f e s s i o n a l and r e s i d e n t i a l l i f e have been completely i n t e r m i n g l e d . T h i s p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of the work p l a c e , r e l a t i v e to the re s i d e n c e , becomes an important f a c t o r i n drawing the community together. T y p i c a l l y m i l i t a r y housing i s c o - l o c a t e d on the m i l i t a r y base. T h i s r e l a t i v e s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n more c o n t a c t amongst themselves than o u t s i d e r s , a s s i s t s i n the c r e a t i o n of a powerful " e s p r i t de c o r p s " among m i l i t a r y members. Residence i n the married q u a r t e r community a l s o c r e a t e s an a r t i f i c i a l environment which often a f f e c t s the l i f e s t y l e s of the f a m i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c h i l d r e n . Housing i s segregated by rank o f t e n causing the c h i l d r e n to a s s o c i a t e others a c c o r d i n g to the 38 rank and status of their father. The common l i f e s t y l e of playmates also provides a sense of security, as the m i l i t a r y community offers a r e l a t i v e l y well-ordered and semi-sheltered l i f e . It i s undoubtedly one of the few communities in which one hundred percent employment is guaranteed, and in which job security i s not in question. "Indeed, i t i s an a r t i f i c i a l community isolated from the c i v i l i a n world." (Sarkesian 1975, p. 53) 2.3.3 Role of The Family The t r a d i t i o n a l married quarter community molded family l i f e to the requirements of the profession. In most cases the entire family was involved in the profession of the m i l i t a r y member. This i s evident from Elizabeth Finlayson's study of the wives of mil i t a r y o f f i c e r s and her following comment (1976, p. 20): "The l i f e i s founded on customs, t r a d i t i o n s and regulations - and no member of the family can completely escape them." A general philosophy to keep the family involved in the mil i t a r y members career through community p a r t i c i p a t i o n is evident. The community i s organized so that family r e l a t i o n s support the m i l i t a r y member in his conviction that he has--more than a job—some special mission or c a l l i n g . Through this l i f e s t y l e , c o n f l i c t s between family and career obligations are held to a minimum (Janowitz 1960, p. 187). As part of the a r t i f i c i a l environment created in the married quarter community there are v i r t u a l l y no old people, nor any who are physically incapacitated or a i l i n g ; and, children are not 39 l i k e l y to be surrounded by grandparents, cousins, or other re l a t i v e s around them. Cohesion and closeness within the community has therefore been supplied, to a certain extent, by the m i l i t a r y i t s e l f . (Sarkesian 1975, pp. 53-55) An ethos that the m i l i t a r y "takes care of i t s own" is i n s t i l l e d into both the family's and the m i l i t a r y ' s methods of operation. As a re s u l t , instances a r i s i n g in the married quarter community involving a family member are often discussed in the workplace, with the m i l i t a r y member's supervisor. 2.3.4 M i l i t a r y Mobility M i l i t a r y families must adjust to periodic and frequent movements from one base to another or to overseas locations. This i s an accepted part of the m i l i t a r y "way of l i f e " . A move t y p i c a l l y i s necessary every two or three years, although recent p o l i c i e s have attempted to decrease the frequency of moves. It is s t i l l not unusual to find some families who have moved on an average of once every eighteen months over a period of years. As such, i t i s inevitable that a m i l i t a r y family w i l l have to move, regardless of the roots that the family has established in a par t i c u l a r location. The m i l i t a r y reasons for frequent d i s l o c a t i o n stem from the need to provide a variety of experiences, both in terms of environment and types of employment, to i t s members. This combined with the need to share time spent at less desireable locations, and the requirements to s t a f f positions with appropriate rank and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , causes a massive turnover of m i l i t a r y personnel every year. As stated by the senior m i l i t a r y 40 member of the Canadian Armed Forces (Chief of the Defence S t a f f ) d u r i n g a p r e s e n t a t i o n made to the Canadian P u b l i c Personnel Management A s s o c i a t i o n : "Contrary to what you might t h i n k , we have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e l a t i t u d e i n the number of moves we must make each year. Retirements, v o l u n t a r y r e l e a s e s , r e t u r n s from overseas, lengthy career courses and promotions generate over 90 percent of our p o s t i n g s . The remaining moves are due to f a m i l y or other compassionate problems, o v e r l y lengthy s t a y s i n one spot and l i k e reasons." (CF Personnel Newsletter 1986, p. 5) In c o n t r a s t to c i v i l i a n l i f e where moving almost always rewards the e x e c u t i v e with a b e t t e r job and g r e a t e r income, the m i l i t a r y member i s j u s t as l i k e l y as not to be moved from a pleasant and b e n e f i c i a l environment to one that i s l e s s d e s i r e a b l e . T y p i c a l l y only executive l e v e l or h i g h l y s k i l l e d c i v i l i a n employees are t r a n s f e r r e d ( C h a r t i e r 1982, p. 44; Wikstrom 1975, p. 3; Pay Research Bureau 1982, p. 151-2), and such a move i s normally accompanied by a promotion. While some s t u d i e s have concluded that "people g e n e r a l l y tend to be n e i t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y harmed nor s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d by t h e i r moves" t h i s was p e r c e i v e d to be because "people with the most to g a i n , the l e a s t to l o s e , and the most resources to use i n making a move are the most l i k e l y to move." (Surace and Seeman 1981, p. 95) T h i s i s not the case i n the m i l i t a r y , where everyone moves, and not necessary with the i n c e n t i v e of a promotion or p e r s o n a l g a i n . While there are many b e n e f i t s to m o b i l i t y , the s o c i a l consequences to the f a m i l y are a l s o numerous (see s e c t i o n 2.4). In order to a l l e v i a t e some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s the m i l i t a r y has e s t a b l i s h e d a v a r i e t y of support s t r u c t u r e s and b e n e f i t packages 41 as both direct compensation and indirect s o c i a l support. The creation of the married quarter community i s one such structure. This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of similar accommodation p o l i c i e s and provides recommendations. 2.3.5 Etiquette and Ceremony The m i l i t a r y establishment thrives on regulations and detailed operating procedures, and i t would be i l l o g i c a l to think that t h i s mentality would not extend to s o c i a l commitments. Elaborate rules of etiquette and ceremony are in fact, some of the few tr a d i t i o n s encountered in the h i s t o r i c review that have continued to influence the m i l i t a r y community. Members of the m i l i t a r y are energetic s o c i a l i z e r s , and they work hard at their ceremonial obligations. No other occupation, with the exception of professional diplomacy, i s so concerned with courtesy and protocol (Janowitz 1960, pp.196-197). There are many theories as to why the m i l i t a r y has established such elaborate s o c i a l r i t u a l s , but they remain, as t r a d i t i o n s and customs in an e s s e n t i a l l y conservative society. The importance of understanding t h i s protocol i s as important for the spouse as i t i s for the member, as o f f i c e r s are expected to be accompanied by a lady/gentlemen to the numerous o f f i c i a l functions. As well, since the s o c i a l environment is such an important part of the mi l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e , a successful career i s assisted by appropriate conduct by both member and spouse in the s o c i a l arena. 42 2.3.6 Summary M i l i t a r y philosophy i n the c r e a t i o n of past m i l i t a r y communities i d e n t i f i e d a requirement f o r a s t r o n g cohesive community, where the f a m i l y l i v e s i n housing p r o v i d e d , and p a r t i c i p a t e s f u l l y i n that community. The f a m i l y i s expected to support the m i l i t a r y member completely; i n work, community a c t i v i t i e s , and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . "In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the f a m i l y has become an i n s e p a r a b l e part of the p r o f e s s i o n - - t o such an extent i n f a c t that an o f f i c e r ' s chances of r i s i n g i n the m i l i t a r y establishment are i n c r e a s e d by marriage, and even more so by marriage to an a t t r a c t i v e , w e l l -educated woman who has s o c i a l graces and p o l i t i c a l acumen." (Sarkesian 1975, p. 61) T h i s s e c t i o n has p r o v i d e d a thumbnail sketch of the s t y l e of l i f e that has been c r e a t e d by the m i l i t a r y on the assumption that a s u i t a b l e community environment would allow the m i l i t a r y member to co n c e n t r a t e on " s o l d i e r i n g " d u t i e s c o n f i d e n t t h a t h i s f a m i l y would be p r o p e r l y taken care of i n h i s absence. A f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n of the unique s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from such a l i f e s t y l e f o l l o w s i n the next s e c t i o n . Subsequently the i n s t i t u t i o n s c r e a t e d to administer the community, and s o c i a l trends which are p l a c i n g pressure f o r change w i t h i n the community are examined. 43 2.4 UNIQUE SOCIAL DIFFICULTIES OF THE MILITARY FAMILY Since the second world war, when the establishment of a large scale permanent m i l i t a r y force in Canada resulted in the creation of the m i l i t a r y community, the hierarchy of the Canadian M i l i t a r y has placed high values on family l i f e s t y l e . It was f e l t that a stable community l i f e was necessary in order that the "soldier" could carry on with his duty confident that his family would be safe and well cared for in his absence (Bowen 1984, p. 583). However, t h i s r i g i d l y controlled and unique m i l i t a r y environment has resulted in a variety of s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s for the t y p i c a l m i l i t a r y family. The unique job requirements of the m i l i t a r y , place unusual stress on the family. Spouses and children are expected among other things to; cope suitably for extended periods while the m i l i t a r y member i s away on duty, dislodge and move frequently without complaint, and endure the t r a d i t i o n s and customs of a m i l i t a r y environment. It has become increasingly recognized that the service person's s a t i s f a c t i o n with m i l i t a r y l i f e ( l i k e a c i v i l i a n to his job) i s highly related to family s a t i s f a c t i o n and family functioning (Galinsky 1986, pp. 118-119). As such, the mission of the family and of the m i l i t a r y are i n e x t r i c a b l y intertwined, and elimination of disharmony or c o n f l i c t at the family/organization interface is c r i t i c a l for optimal success of both (Bowen 1984, p. 591). It therefore, becomes a d i r e c t economic payoff for the m i l i t a r y i f these c o n f l i c t s can be reduced or eliminated. (Hunter and Nice, 1978) 44 2.4.1 Perceived M i l i t a r y Attitude " i f the m i l i t a r y wanted you to have a wife, they would have issued you one" This common saying about the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e served as a warning against family interference with the demands of m i l i t a r y l i f e . It also served as a reminder of the importance of unit s o l i d a r i t y of the m i l i t a r y mission. In the single man's army, "the problem of choosing between work and family l i f e did not e x i s t . " (Janowitz i960, p.178) A m i l i t a r y organization and a community evolved emphasizing "esprit de corps". The m i l i t a r y family was viewed as an integral fart of t h i s t o t a l system. The predominant attitude was that the family, and es p e c i a l l y the serviceman's wife, played an important but subordinate role in the husband's career. (McCubbin et a l . , 1976 pp.292-293) From t h i s general attitude a hypothesis of the o v e r a l l goals of the m i l i t a r y establishment with respect to the family can be derived. "The m i l i t a r y seeks to make the family instrumental to i t s mission of developing and maintaining an e f f e c t i v e combat-ready body of fighting men, mobile enough to be deployed anywhere in the world when needed. Wives and children of married personnel, from the perspective of the m i l i t a r y , should be s o c i a l i z e d to subordinate their individual needs and desires to the 'good of the service' and to minimize any family claims on the time and presence of the husband/father. The wife of a career m i l i t a r y man might p r o f i t a b l y pursue educational a c t i v i t i e s and perform voluntary services in the m i l i t a r y community but should d e f i n i t e l y not embark on an independent occupational career incompatible with her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as mother and m i l i t a r y wife. Children should observe the rules of the m i l i t a r y community l e s t the reputation of the m i l i t a r y father be tarnished and inte r f e r e with his career. The family should be a morale builder for the m i l i t a r y man, providing love and affection and a minimum of problems to d i s t r a c t him from his central task of serving the 'Cause'." (McCubbin et a l . 1976, pp.11-12) 4 5 A s u p e r f i c i a l look at this statement would lead one to believe that the m i l i t a r y establishment shows l i t t l e concern for the families of i t s most important resource. In fact the opposite would be more correct (Stanton 1976, p. 149). By understanding how i t expects the family to react under inevitable circumstances, i t can then establish appropriate i n s t i t u t i o n s to deal with the problems. The m i l i t a r y attitude towards the family, and the s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s that i t has established to support the family, have been successful (Stoddard and Cabanillas 1976, pp. 152-153). This is also i l l u s t r a t e d by the two following statements: "Compared with the general population, career families in the m i l i t a r y are better educated (both wives and husbands), more traveled, more informed about services to which they are e n t i t l e d , more active in voluntary organizations, and much more mobile. Although 75 percent of families have experienced one or more prolonged periods of father absence, a smaller proportion of career o f f i c e r s are in the divorced status then men in the general population." (McCubbin et a l . 1976, p. 13) "There i s no question that some people are t o t a l l y i l l -suited to m i l i t a r y l i f e and others are well suited. There i s no question that there are d i f f i c u l t i e s with m i l i t a r y l i f e , but, in terms of the frequent moves that one has to encounter, there are arguments about whether that i s good or bad for families or for c h i l d r e n . We are not aware of any recent study in Canada, but I am aware of a study just l a s t week in the United States concerning m i l i t a r y families, showing that, there are less s o c i a l problems, from alcoholism to wife battering to various abuses, in the m i l i t a r y than there are in society as a whole in the United States. We treat our m i l i t a r y families better then they do in the United States, and i f by treating them better contributes to the lowering of those kinds of problems, then we should have an even better record in Canada in terms of m i l i t a r y families versus c i v i l i a n f a m i l i e s . " 46 The A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Defence, Honourable Har v i e Andre, when questioned by the Standing Senate Committee on N a t i o n a l Defence, on the s u b j e c t matter of "Freedom of assembly and speech of spouses of members of the Canadian Armed For c e s " . (Lafond Commission, 5 June 1986 p. 14:21) These o b s e r v a t i o n s are supported by the f i n d i n g s of the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence's D i r e c t o r a t e of S o c i a l and Economic A n a l y s i s i n t h e i r study of "The Emotional Well-Being of Canadian M i l i t a r y F a m i l i e s i n R e l a t i o n to the Canadian P o p u l a t i o n " (Popoff and T r u s c o t t 1986, p. 31). T h e i r f i n d i n g s suggested that "the prevalence of 'frequent' symptoms of a n x i e t y and d e p r e s s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y lower i n the F o r c e s that i n the general p o p u l a t i o n . " D e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of the m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y there are s t i l l a number of s o c i a l i s s u e s that must r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n when d i s c u s s i n g the m i l i t a r y community. The f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s are the main concerns i n the development of community w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y , and w i l l be addressed f u r t h e r as independant problems: a) The r o l e of the wife b) M o b i l i t y c) Employment of wives and c h i l d r e n d) Family s e p a r a t i o n e) Fishbowl e f f e c t of a c l o s e d community 2.4.2 Role of The Wife Many of the s o c i e t a l changes which have taken p l a c e s i n c e World War II have r e s u l t e d i n a changing concept of the r o l e of the modern women. The m i l i t a r y wife has shared i n these changes, and as such the c l i c h e "The women's place i s i n the home" i s 47 outdated. Aside from this change in attitude, one must remember that the m i l i t a r y wife i s expected to f i l l many roles within the mi l i t a r y community. To her husband she i s a wife. To her children she i s a mother; during separations she i s both mother and father. To the m i l i t a r y she i s a dependent. To her c i v i l i a n neighbours she represents the mi l i t a r y , and when on foreign s o i l she is a diplomat. How well she f i l l s a l l of these roles in a changing society i s a true test of her talents and s k i l l s . It also i s seen to af f e c t her husbands career. (Hunter 1 982, pp.1 Gi-l l ) The changing roles of women in society today add a great deal of pressure on wives in the m i l i t a r y community. Sociologists have noted that the greatest pressures on married women occurs in situations where her husband's employer operates within a so c i a l enclave (such as a m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n ) . This causes the wife to partic i p a t e in a c t i v i t i e s and roles which she may personally d i s l i k e , but nonetheless performs (Stoddard and Cabanillas 1976, p. 169). As such, the ambivalence that she experiences i s sometimes destructive to her self-esteem. (Hunter 1982, pp.9-10) Therefore, i t is important that the m i l i t a r y modifies the s o c i a l atmosphere to as s i s t the wife in adapting to the m i l i t a r y community's customs and t r a d i t i o n s , without causing additional stress on the family unit. 2.4.3 Mobility There are two types of mobility of concern to the m i l i t a r y family. The f i r s t i s the fact that an active duty m i l i t a r y person i s always on c a l l , and the second i s that at any time the 48 family may be given orders to relocate. The issue of absence due to training or duty i s addressed in the next section as "family separation" whereas t h i s section looks at "mobility" in terms of the physical d i s l o c a t i o n of the entire household. Dislocation in turn leads to the separate problems of the physical move i t s e l f , and the stress produced by confrontation with a new d i s t i n c t environment (Surace and Seeman 1981, p. 96). M i l i t a r y families experience f i n a n c i a l stresses as a result of relocation; more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, are the s o c i a l -psychological costs associated with such a nomadic l i k e l i f e -s t y l e . "When they are isolated from the t r a d i t i o n a l supports of extended family, close friends, and stable community relationships, members of m i l i t a r y families often experience emotional and interpersonal d i f f i c u l t i e s apparently related to their 'rootlessness'." (McCubbin and Marsden 1978, pp. 212-213) Although there are benefits to a highly mobile l i f e - s t y l e , such as t r a v e l , excitement, a broadening of values, and camaraderie with other m i l i t a r y families (McKain 1976, pp. 69-70), these must be c a p i t a l i z e d upon to compensate for and reduce the negative aspects of the l i f e - s t y l e . In sum, most s o c i o l o g i s t s see relocation as one of the most s o c i a l l y disruptive events in an individuals l i f e (Surace and Seeman 1981, p. 83). P o l i c i e s on relocation in the Canadian Forces are largely based on p o l i c i e s developed for the r e l a t i v e l y immobile Federal Public Service and the private sector. This however i s r e l a t i v e l y incongruent with the frequency of relocation experienced with each of the groups. In FY 77/78, about 11,000 public servants (4%) were geographically relocated. This i s more 49 than the private sector, but substantially less than the 33,327 (42%) m i l i t a r y personnel that were transferred. Of these 21,000 (26%) involved geographic relocations and included 12,000 married personnel (Evaluation Report 20 1979, p. 17). The conference Board of Canada recognizes that in comparison with general industry, who has an average annual relocation of one percent of to t a l employees DND is an exception. They state "...large variations occur by industry and employer, a case in point being the Department of National Defence, which relocates more than 13,000 of i t s n o n - c i v i l i a n employees within Canada every year out of a t o t a l m i l i t a r y staff of 80,000." (Chartier 1982, p. 44) Relocating to a new base is a shared stress for the entire family, with the heaviest burden f a l l i n g on the wife. In many instances a "door to door" move i s not possible due to the un a v a i l a b i l i t y of accommodation at one end or the other. In such cases, as the m i l i t a r y member must get to his job, often the family is l e f t to prepare for the move with the father returning shortly before moving day, to simply t i e loose ends. The bulk of the work and stress has been l e f t behind for the spouse to handle. From a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y viewpoint, the m i l i t a r y member has a predictable and established workplace and s o c i a l atmosphere at the new location which he can simply walk into. Although i t i s s t i l l somewhat stressful--as one always wants to ensure that they make good f i r s t impressions with his/her new boss, peers and subordinates— the environment i s set up in advance for him. There i s also t y p i c a l l y a sponsor to help him become adjusted to 50 h i s new l o c a t i o n . The f a m i l y on the other hand must enter the new community and begin e s t a b l i s h i n g s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , f r i e n d s h i p s , neighbours and acquaintances with minimal a s s i s t a n c e . G e n e r a l l y the same sponsor mentioned above t r i e s to h e l p with t h i s as much as p o s s i b l e , but once agai n any help o u t s i d e of the workplace to the f a m i l y and spouse i s normally l e f t to the sponsor's spouse to p r o v i d e . One of the c o n d i t i o n i n g r e s u l t s of a l a r g e number of moves i s t h at i t enables the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y to become g e n e r a l l y t o l e r a b l e of immediately unpleasant s i t u a t i o n s , with the e x p e c t a t i o n s that they w i l l not have to be endured long. T h i s coupled- with the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e x p e c t a t i o n that "the s e r v i c e i s your f a m i l y " which induces neighbours of the newly assig n e d f a m i l y to h e l p with i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n t o the new community, as w e l l as, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s i m i l a r v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and s e r v i c e c l u b s such as cubs and scouts, h e l p s the f a m i l y a s s i m i l a t e i n t o the community more e a s i l y . ( L i t t l e 1971, p.266) A f a m i l i a r house, community s t r u c t u r e , and p h y s i c a l environment a l s o a s s i s t s the f a m i l y i n f i t t i n g i n t o the new l o c a t i o n more e a s i l y . One b e n e f i t that the s t a n d a r d i z e d m i l i t a r y p a t t e r n of c o n s t r u c t i o n a l l o w s i s f a m i l i a r i t y with houses and b u i d l i n g s r e g a r d l e s s of the geographic l o c a t i o n . As such, when n o t i f i e d of a married q u a r t e r a l l o c a t i o n i n the new l o c a t i o n , the f a m i l y can immediately v i s u a l i z e i t s s i z e and l a y o u t . S i m i l a r l y , s i n c e the A i r Force ( f o r example) had one p a t t e r n f o r r e c r e a t i o n center c o n s t r u c t i o n , then m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s c o u l d t r a v e l from base to base and q u i c k l y recognize the r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r and know e x a c t l y where to enter and how to get the the a c t i v i t y of t h e i r 51 c h o i c e . T h i s reduces the obvious r e l u c t a n c e of newcomers to recommence a c t i v i t i e s they enjoyed i n p r e v i o u s l o c a t i o n s . As such, t h i s standard p a t t e r n of c o n s t r u c t i o n i s i n a l i m i t e d way capable of p r o v i d i n g some r e d u c t i o n to the s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced i n frequent r e l o c a t i o n . S i m i l a r b e n e f i t s are a l s o enjoyed in the conforming o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the v a r i o u s community c o u n c i l s and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s which make i t e a s i e r f o r new members to q u i c k l y understand what i s happening and take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t y . 2.4.4 Family Separation P e r i o d i c d i s r u p t i o n s of f a m i l y l i f e while the f a t h e r i s away on assignment, occurs i n the m i l i t a r y s o c i e t y as a c o n d i t i o n of l i f e r a t h e r than by c h o i c e as i n the c i v i l i a n community. I t i s the u n c e r t a i n n e s s of the f a t h e r s presence that a c t u a l l y p l a c e s the most s t r e s s on the mother, as she must be prepared to p e r i o d i c a l l y assume h i s r o l e as w e l l . ( L i t t l e , 1971) The degree and type of f a m i l y s e p a r a t i o n v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the element of the armed f o r c e s , and the type of p o s i t i o n the m i l i t a r y member i s c u r r e n t l y f i l l i n g . F i g u r e s 2-4 and 2-5 provide a d e t a i l e d breakdown of the number of times fami l y s e p a r a t i o n occurs i n each of the d i f f e r e n t elements, and the number of months of s e p a r a t i o n that can be a n t i c i p a t e d . ( T r u s c o t t and Fleming 1986, pp. 5-8/9) T y p i c a l l y , naval personnel are r e q u i r e d to be at sea f o r long p e r i o d s , normally two to three months at a time. These absences would be i n t e r s p e r s e d with e q u a l l y long p e r i o d s i n the home p o r t . The army on the other hand, does not go away f o r as long an 52 TABLE 2-5 MEAN NUMBER OF FAMILY SEPARATIONS BY ELEMENT DURING THE PAST YEAR* ELEMENT MEAN NUMBER OF SEPARATIONS STANDARD DEVIATION Of f i c e r s Sea Operations 5.7 Land Operations 5.4 A i r Operations 3.2 Communication/Engineering 3.0 P e r s o n n e l / S u p p o r t / L o g i s t i c s 3.0 Other Ranks Sea Operations 6.4 Land Operations 5.1 A i r Operations 2.6 Communication 2.4 En g i n e e r i n g 2.9 Personnel/Support 2.4 L o g i s t i c s 2.9 3.1 2.3 2.4 1.9 2.3 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.5 2. 1 2.3 2.9 •E x c l u d i n g s e p a r a t i o n s of l e s s than one weeks d u r a t i o n (Source: T r u s c o t t and Fleming 1986, p. 5-8) 53 TABLE 2-6 MEAN NUMBER OF MONTHS SEPARATED  DURING THE PAST YEAR MEAN NUMBER ELEMENT OF MONTHS STANDARD DEVIATION Of f i c e r s Sea Operations 4.0 1.0 Land Operations 2.8 0.8 A i r Operations 1.4 0.6 Communication/Engineering 1.2 0.5 P e r s o n n e l / S u p p o r t / L o g i s t i c s 1.3 0.7 Other Ranks Sea Operations 5.2 1.0 Land Operations 2.2 0.8 A i r O perations 1.2 0.8 Communication 1.3 0.9 En g i n e e r i n g 1.5 0.9 Personnel/Support 1.1 0.8 L o g i s t i c s 1.6 0.9 (Source: T r u s c o t t and Fleming 1986, p. 5-9) 54 i n d i v i d u a l p e r i o d (unless a s s i g n e d a United Nations peace keeping d u t y ) , but has many medium l e n g t h t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s , normally of two to s i x weeks, on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s . The a i r f o r c e , v a r i e s immensely with the occupation of the i n d i v i d u a l . Most ground crew r a r e l y leave the home base. Aircrew on the other hand may spend a great d e a l of time on c a l l , and may be r e q u i r e d to f l y missions with l i t t l e or no n o t i c e . Normally a i r c r e w are not gone f o r extended p e r i o d s (more than one week), but o f t e n f o r many s h o r t e r p e r i o d s . Personnel i n any of the three elements can normally expect to o c c a s i o n a l l y f i l l s t a f f jobs i n a headquarters p o s i t i o n , where t r a v e l i s normally common, but u s u a l l y preplanned. In the husband's absence, the wife must take on h i s r o l e . In a s e x i s t , but not u n t y p i c a l view, o f t e n t h i s r e q u i r e s a venture i n t o the o u t s i d e world and i n t o the s t e r e o t y p e d masculine realm, i n order to maintain a f u n c t i o n i n g household. In some cases a d d i t i o n a l m a r i t a l s t r e s s i s caused because of t h i s change in r o l e s , which occur both from the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r , and the n e c e s s i t y to develop independence dur i n g the husband's absence (Stanton 1976, p. 146). In some cases the wife may become u n w i l l i n g to s h i f t back to her former p a s s i v e , dependent r o l e a f t e r the husband's r e t u r n . (Hunter, 1982, p. 12-13) T h i s becomes d i f f i c u l t f o r the c h i l d r e n to understand as w e l l , as they appear to have one set of standards when one parent i s around and d i f f e r e n t standards when both are home. Often the f a m i l y becomes a more female-centered or m a t r i a r c h i a l f a m i l y where the mother takes on i n s t r u m e n t a l f a m i l y t a s k s . (Hunter 1982, p. 13) 55 2.4.5 Employment of Wives and C h i l d r e n Although i t i s g e n e r a l l y not encouraged (as the spouse i s expected to concentrate her e f f o r t s i n a s s i s t i n g her husband's c a r e e r ) , there i s no p o l i c y p r o h i b i t i n g the employment of m i l i t a r y spouses. There are however a l a r g e number of both overt and c o v e r t o b s t a c l e s . Some of the many are i d e n t i f i e d below: a) employers shy away from h i r i n g anyone who i s not going to be permanent (which i s q u i t e understandable i f looked at p u r e l y from the employers p e r s p e c t i v e ) b) Many l o c a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i f i s o l a t e d or overseas, do not have e i t h e r : enough employment for a l l those seeking employment, or s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y f o r those f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r s c) The u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the work schedule of the m i l i t a r y member makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the spouse to guarantee her a v a i l a b i l i t y due to c h i l d c a r e or c a r p o o l type c o n f l i c t s d) S o c i a l c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s i s a l s o important, as i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d improper f o r an o f f i c e r s ' wife, f o r example, to take on what are p e r c e i v e d as menial or demeaning type jobs, or to take one of the few jobs a v a i l a b l e at an i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , r e l a t i v e to c i v i l i a n s of the same age, m i l i t a r y spouses are employed somewhat l e s s . In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n v o l u n t a r y community o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s expected of m i l i t a r y spouses l i v i n g w i t h i n the married q u a r t e r community. ( F i n l a y s o n 1976, pp.22-41) A 1969 study of seven hundred and f i f t y three wives of m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s ' r e v e a l e d ( F i n l a y s o n 1976, pp.24-41): a) n e a r l y h a l f of the wives p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s . 5 6 b) wives were more l i k e l y to perform these s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y community than i n a c i v i l i a n community. c) those wives l i v i n g on the m i l i t a r y base were more l i k e l y to be v o l u n t e e r s than those l i v i n g o f f the base. d) wives l i v i n g o f f the.base who v o l u n t e e r e d i n the c i v i l i a n community were most l i k e l y to be supporting youth programs. e) wives v o l u n t e e r i n g on the base were a c t i v e i n women's c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l programs. f) o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i c i n g the m i l i t a r y community such as Red Cross, and Army Community S e r v i c e s were g e n e r a l l y w e l l supported. g) p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the wife as a v o l u n t e e r i n c r e a s e d with the rank of the spouse, whereas -p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e decreased with rank. Many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with employment f o r spouses a l s o r e l a t e to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Frequent moves combined with the requirement to r e - e s t a b l i s h employment c o n t a c t s at each new l o c a t i o n , makes i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to motivate a teenager to recommence t h e i r quest f o r work. In a d d i t i o n , many l o c a t i o n s due to t h e i r i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n simply have very few job o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 2.4.6 Fishbowl E f f e c t of a C l o s e d Community The phenomenon we have seen with the "closedness" of the m i l i t a r y community in some ways a l s o adds s t r e s s to the i n d i v i d u a l m i l i t a r y f a m i l y , as there has been a growing resentment toward i s o l a t i o n i n the "khaki ghetto" and a d e s i r e by many m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s to l e a d more "normal" l i v e s (Stanton 1976, p. 138). The f a t h e r works i n the same environment i n which the 57 f a m i l y l i v e s , and the c h i l d r e n p l a y and go to s c h o o l . The wife p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the same community while m a i n t a i n i n g most of her c l o s e f r i e n d s as neighbours. T h i s environment while s u p p o r t i v e of community cohesion, i s not conducive to and has low t o l e r a n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n (Frances and Gale 1982, p. 173). Evidence of the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the m i l i t a r y e x i s t s throughout the community. Rank permeates not j u s t the work environment, but a l s o the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , the l o c a t i o n of housing, and per s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . The a c t i o n s of the e n t i r e f a m i l y can s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e the members p o s s i b i l i t i e s of promotion. (Frances and Gale 1982, p. 173; Sa r k e s i a n 1975, pp. 54-56) The p h y s i c a l c l o s e n e s s of the community makes i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to t e m p o r a r i l y remove ones' s e l f i n order to get p r i v a c y . Even when on v a c a t i o n , there i s a f e e l i n g of not being away from work as e v e r y t h i n g around you reminds you of i t . Often peers, bosses, or subordinates w i l l approach you at home due to p h y s i c a l convenience, many times t h i n k i n g that you' would be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r s t o r y or problem. T h i s s o r t of i n t e r r u p t i o n does not occur to other m i l i t a r y members l i v i n g o f f the base, nor i s i t p e r c e i v e d to happen i n the general c i v i l i a n community; although, t h i s c l a u s t r o p h o b i c " f i s h - b o w l f e e l i n g " has a l s o been observed i n most s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y towns (DREE 1977, p. 4). 58 2.4.7 Summary We have seen that although a close, t i g h t l y knit community is encouraged by the m i l i t a r y hierarchy, and helps a l l e v i a t e many so c i a l problems peculiar to m i l i t a r y society, i t also may cause other problems related to i t s "fishbowl" e f f e c t . The m i l i t a r y expects the wife s p e c i f i c a l l y , and the family in general, to help them in the task of creating a suitable environment to ensure the mi l i t a r y member can carry on with the "s o l d i e r i n g " in an ef f e c t i v e manner. This added pressure, combined with other problems related to the nature of m i l i t a r y employment, such as mobility and separation, make l i f e s t y l e s in the m i l i t a r y somewhat awkward. In order to balance these added d i f f i c u l t i e s , the mi l i t a r y has created a m i l i t a r y community structure and molded appropriate community services to ease m i l i t a r y l i f e . The effectiveness of di f f e r e n t policy alternatives are evaluated la t e r in t h i s thesis in terms of sixteen potential s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y families. 59 2.5 COMMUNITY STRUCTURES The m i l i t a r y takes great p r i d e i n what they c o n s i d e r to be a very p o s i t i v e community environment throughout the m i l i t a r y . They have e s t a b l i s h e d a h i e r a r c h y of r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s to guide a v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n order to ensure that they provide t h i s s u i t a b l e environment f o r the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . These r u l e s are implemented f o r the b e n e f i t of the community as a whole. Although i n d i v i d u a l s may o f t e n f e e l that they are p e r s o n a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d , the m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s t r u c t u r e d on the b a s i s that a l o s s f o r some i s j u s t i f i e d by a gain f o r most. Operation of the m i l i t a r y community v a r i e s s l i g h t l y between bases, but i s c o n t r o l l e d and guided i n most p a r t by s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s . These r e g u l a t i o n s are d i r e c t e d mainly at the Commanding O f f i c e r to ensure that he p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s and a s s i s t a n c e c o n s i d e r e d necessary to support the community. Of most concern are two m i l i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s . One concerns the establishment and running of "Married Quarters Community C o u n c i l s " ; the second, r e l a t e s to the p o l i c y f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of R e c r e a t i o n a l Clubs, which are normally grouped to run under the establishment of a " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l . " Both of these o r g a n i z a t i o n are of d i r e c t concern to the CO, but f o r day to day o p e r a t i o n , are managed through the Base A d m i n i s t r a t i o n O f f i c e r , as shown i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l chart at F i g u r e 2-2. 60 Base Commander Base Administration Officer Community Council I President (Mayor) I Vice-President r - r ~ r * E x - O f f i c i o Members Councillors thru Ward System Recreation Council Chairperson I Vice-Chairperson I I I I I I I *Ex-Officio Club and A c t i v i t i e s Members Representatives Committee Members (Scouting, Teen club/ Social, etc. ) * E x - O f f i c i o Members - Are those Base representatives such as, Engineering, P o l i c e , and Accommodation, who are invited to meetings to provide information, as requested. FIGURE 2-2 61 2.5.1 The Community C o u n c i l M i l i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s are very s p e c i f i c about the amount of f l e x i b i l i t y a Commanding O f f i c e r has with respect to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a community c o u n c i l . He i s e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d through these r e g u l a t i o n s by the minimum s e r v i c e that he must pro v i d e to the m i l i t a r y community. Part of the r e g u l a t i o n reads as f o l l o w s : "The commanding o f f i c e r (CO) of a base, s t a t i o n or other element of the Canadian Forces where MQs are l o c a t e d s h a l l e s t a b l i s h an MQ c o u n c i l . " (CFAO 50-21) The same r e g u l a t i o n goes on to s p e c i f y what the f u n c t i o n of a MQ c o u n c i l s h a l l be: "An MQ c o u n c i l i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body that works for the general betterment of l i f e i n the area i t serve s . I t b r i n g s together a l l segments of MQ community i n t e r e s t and prov i d e s a medium f o r c o o p e r a t i v e study, p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n to enhance the l i f e of the MQ community. In g e n e r a l , the f u n c t i o n s of an MQ c o u n c i l are s i m i l a r to those of a community a s s o c i a t i o n i n a c i v i l i a n community. The s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of an MQ c o u n c i l should be designed to r e f l e c t the needs and circumstances at a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . Normally, the MQ c o u n c i l should: a. i d e n t i f y and study community needs, and c o - o r d i n a t e and pl a n programs and p r o j e c t s to meet these needs. b. sponsor and promote new committees, c l u b s and i n t e r e s t groups as the need a r i s e s ; and c. plan f o r the e f f e c t i v e and e q u i t a b l e use of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and for improvements and extensions to f a c i l i t i e s where r e q u i r e d . " (CFAO 50-21) 62 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o u n c i l s a t e a c h o f t h e many l o c a t i o n s i s g e n e r a l l y u p t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e c o u n c i l i t s e l f , w i t h g u i d a n c e a n d d i r e c t i o n p r o v i d e d u p o n r e q u e s t . Of c o u r s e , i f t h e c o u n c i l w e r e t o d e v i a t e d r a s t i c a l l y f r o m t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r t o c o n t r a v e n e o f f i c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s d i r e c t i o n w o u l d no d o u b t be f o r t h c o m i n g . T h e p r i n c i p l e s u s e d t o g u i d e t h e MQ c o u n c i l a r e s p e c i f i e d a s f o l l o w s : a . i t s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e m a i n s e g m e n t s o f i n t e r e s t s , s u c h a s s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l a n d w e l f a r e ; b . i t s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l a r e a s m a k i n g u p t h e c o m m u n i t y ; c . i t s h o u l d p r o v i d e a f o r u m f o r t h e p o i n t s o f v i e w o f m e n , w o m e n , a n d y o u t h ; d . i t s h o u l d p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o u n c i l m e m b e r s t o be e l e c t e d b y t h e MQ r e s i d e n t s ; a n d e . i t s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r c o u n c i l m e m b e r s t o be a p p o i n t e d by t h e b a s e c o m m a n d e r o r C O . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t p a r a g r a p h ( e ) i s m a i n l y i n c l u d e d f o r t h o s e p e r i o d s i n w h i c h no member o f t h e c o m m u n i t y i s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s o r h e r a r e a , o r i n some l o c a t i o n s w h e r e t h e m a y o r i s n o t e l e c t e d , b u t a p p o i n t e d . A m a j o r f a c t o r when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m i l i t a r y c o m m u n i t y i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r , a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a r e o n e i n t h e s a m e . A s s u c h , t h e m i l i t a r y w i t h i t s d u a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t i m e c a n a u t h o r i z e m i l i t a r y members t i m e d u r i n g n o r m a l w o r k i n g h o u r s t o p e r f o r m c o m m u n i t y d u t i e s . I n f a c t , o f t e n m i l i t a r y m e m b e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m s u c h d u t i e s a n d a r e f o r m a l l y a s s i g n e d t h e m a s 63 "secondary d u t i e s " . The member i s then assessed on how w e l l he performs t h i s duty d u r i n g h i s annual performance review. As a r e s u l t , much more community involvement and commitment i s obtained from an i n d i v i d u a l who otherwise may not have p a r t i c i p a t e d . A l t e r n a t e l y , many argue that due to the secondary nature of the duty, the task ends up lower on the i n d i v i d u a l s p r i o r i t y l i s t and o f t e n gets n e g l e c t e d . The u l t i m a t e of course would be to a s s i g n these d u t i e s to an i n d i v i d u a l who has both the time and i n t e r e s t i n the appointment. Another f a c t o r i n the u s e f u l n e s s of m i l i t a r y members becoming i n v o l v e d i n the community c o u n c i l , i s the f a c t that they g e n e r a l l y know the ways and means of g e t t i n g t h i n g s expedited i n the bureaucracy of a t y p i c a l government department. They can o f t e n use t h e i r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s to get tasks done more q u i c k l y . The argument a g a i n s t m i l i t a r y members involvement i s that they may not n e c e s s a r i l y act i n the best i n t e r e s t of the community, but may act i n the manner which they expect t h e i r boss would p r e f e r , i n order not to "rock the boat". 2.5.2 The R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l On l a r g e bases i n a d d i t i o n to the MQ c o u n c i l , a R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l i s a l s o formed to ensure that s u i t a b l e r e c r e a t i o n programs are organized w i t h i n the community. One of the major p r i n c i p l e s on which i t operates i s t h a t : "an i n d i v i d u a l should not only be allowed to choose h i s l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , but a l s o should be a f f o r d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s . S p e c i a l care must be taken that t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s a p p l i e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n programs f o r m i l i t a r y personnel and t h e i r dependants because of t h e i r frequent moves." (CFAO 50-20) 64 Examples of some of the many c l u b s and a c t i v i t i e s a r e : s k i c l u b , scuba c l u b , g o l f c l u b , s a i l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , swimming c l u b , cubs, scouts, guides, brownies, dancing c l u b s , a r t s and c r a f t s , minor league s p o r t s , and many o t h e r s . Often i f a c l u b g e n e r a l l y e x i s t s f o r the e x c l u s i v e use of the members of the married q u a r t e r community (e.g. b a b y s i t t i n g co-op, l o c a l cub pack) then i t i s admi n i s t e r e d through the Community C o u n c i l . I f i t i s an a c t i v i t y that serves the general membership of the l o c a l base ( f o r example a s k i c l u b ) then i t operates through the R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l . The advantage of having two o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s b a s i c a l l y a matter of improved span of c o n t r o l . The o p e r a t i o n of the R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l i s very important to the members of the married q u a r t e r community and of t e n they are the m a j o r i t y of i t s members. The economic v i a b i l i t y of both the Community C o u n c i l and the R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l c e n t e r s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s a l s o t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t c r e a t e s the p o s i t i v e community atmosphere that the m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y f e e l s i s necessary to promote and maintain s a t i s f a c t i o n and a s u i t a b l e " q u a l i t y of l i f e " i n the m i l i t a r y and married q u a r t e r communities. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these c l u b s o f t e n i n v o l v e s a minimal entry f e e . The c l u b s are not funded by the p u b l i c purse; however, many f a c i l i t i e s and some p u b l i c equipment i s o f t e n p e r m i t t e d f o r use. T y p i c a l l y DND allows the use of b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s not c u r r e n t l y i n use f o r m i l i t a r y d u t i e s . The most obvious example i s the use of unused m i l i t a r y land f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a base 65 g o l f course. Not paying f o r the c a p i t a l c o s t s of land or a mun i c i p a l l e v e l of prop e r t y tax improves the f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y of the c l u b . Through t h i s i n d i r e c t support the c o u n c i l i s able to o f f e r members key r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s at reasonable c o s t . 2.5.3 The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Ma r r i e d Quarters At times the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of MQs o f t e n appears s i m i l a r to that of community and r e c r e a t i o n a l c o u n c i l s : a secondary duty. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g MQs i s d i v i d e d among a number of s e c t i o n s . A l l of these have o p e r a t i o n a l commitments and tas k s to perform, o f t e n r e l e g a t i n g problems with MQs to a low p r i o r i t y . T h i s combined with the lack of a s i n g l e source of funding, and a s p l i t i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and o p e r a t i n g MQs among s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s on base, causes extreme f r u s t r a t i o n when attempting to c o o r d i n a t e MQ p r o j e c t s . The v a r i e t y of s e c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are namely: a. C o n s t r u c t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g (CE) f o r maintenance and c o n s t r u c t i o n . b. Base A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a l l o c a t i o n of accommodation, M i l i t a r y P o l i c e , and gen e r a l personnel w e l f a r e . c. Base Transport f o r p r o v i s i o n of v e h i c l e s f o r moving s t o r e s , and heavy snow removal equipment. d. Base Supply f o r p r o v i d i n g new a p p l i a n c e s , and other s t o r e s f o r gen e r a l maintenance of MQs. As a r e s u l t of t h i s wide v a r i e t y of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the lack of one o v e r a l l agency i n charge of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the o p e r a t i o n of MQs, the occupant i s of t e n i l l informed of the s t a t u s of work at h i s res i d e n c e , and when or who w i l l be responding. For example i f the occupant has problems with a 66 major a p p l i a n c e such a f r i d g e a repairman from C o n s t r u c t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g v i s i t s to i n s p e c t the f r i d g e . I f a replacement i s r e q u i r e d then arrangements with Base Transport must be made to remove the f r i d g e and o b t a i n another. Base Supply must arrange f o r a new one and f o r the storage of the o l d one u n t i l p r o p e r l y disposed of, and Base A d m i n i s t r a t i o n must c o o r d i n a t e the movement of the a p p l i a n c e s which are under i t s o v e r a l l c o n t r o l . The e n t i r e , r e l a t i v e l y simple, o p e r a t i o n p r o v i d e s a p o t e n t i a l source of r e a l f r u s t r a t i o n to the occupant who o f t e n sees the bureaucracy as an impossible o b s t a c l e . T h i s negative l a n d l o r d -tenant r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a p e r c e p t i o n that i s p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to erase r e g a r d l e s s of the improvements in maintenance response and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. What the m i l i t a r y establishment gains through the p r o v i s i o n of accommodation, i s o f t e n l o s t through the i n e v i t a b l y n e gative image of " l a n d l o r d " . 2.5.4 Summary The m i l i t a r y has attempted to c r e a t e a very p o s i t i v e community environment i n which some of the s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of m i l i t a r y l i f e are s a t i s f i e d through a strong support s t r u c t u r e . Two formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s "Community C o u n c i l s " and " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l s " are administered at a l l bases to allow p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the day-to-day o p e r a t i o n of the m i l i t a r y community by i t s members. These c o u n c i l s e x i s t i n a very r e g u l a t e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n to ensure that the m i l i t a r y community has ample o p p o r t u n i t y to organize and d i r e c t themselves. The m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y has e s s e n t i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d the system i n t h i s manner to ensure that i n d i v i d u a l Base Commanders do not "take c o n t r o l " and " r u l e " as 67 they p l e a s e , but that a democratic system i s i n p l a c e which all o w s the v o i c e s of a l l w i t h i n the community to be heard. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that such s t r u c t u r e s w i l l h e l p in c r e a t i n g the sense of community necessary to compensate f o r the l i m i t e d t i e s of k i n and f r i e n d s that are t y p i c a l i n l e s s mobile communities. T h i s formation of a m i l i t a r y community attempts to not only c r e a t e high cohesiveness w i t h i n m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s , but a l s o between m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . I t i s c e r t a i n that support systems f o r m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s are needed to make up fo r the lack of extended f a m i l i e s , absent spouses, and other p e c u l i a r i t i e s of m i l i t a r y l i f e . I t i s important that these supports are i n p l a c e and o p e r a t i n g p r i o r to family c r i s e s i f t h e i r e f f i c a c y i s to be maximal. 68 2.6 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS A number of s o c i a l and economic trends i n Canada d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the standard and s t y l e of l i f e expected by m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . S i m i l a r l y , the change i n p r o f i l e of the m i l i t a r y from a predominantly s i n g l e male preserve to a f a m i l y environment has l e a d to necessary changes i n how the m i l i t a r y motivates and a d m i n i s t e r s i t s members. The trends c a u s i n g the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e i n the m i l i t a r y community are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n : 1. Women i n the Workforce 2. O ccupationalism of M i l i t a r y Personnel 3. S o c i a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y of R e l o c a t i o n 4. Human Righ t s 5. Housing 2.6.1 Women in the Workforce The women's l i b e r a t i o n movement of the l a t e s i x t y ' s and e a r l y seventy's p r o v i d e d an impetus f o r r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the sex-r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s , p o l i c i e s , and a t t i t u d e s t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y l i m i t e d the s o c i a l o p tions a v a i l a b l e to women. (McCubbin and Marsden 1978, p.210) Consequently many of the t r a d i t i o n a l economic, l e g a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s encountered by women have crumbled. T h i s has impacted both employment of women i n the Armed Forces, as w e l l as wives of m i l i t a r y members. Growing numbers of women, as w e l l as men, are c r i t i c a l l y examining the i n s t i t u t i o n s of marriage and the f a m i l y with t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d sex r o l e s . "The movement i s a strong s o c i a l f o r c e that l e g i t i m i z e s women's i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e 69 the home and, by extension, men's i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the home." (McCubbin and Marsden 1978, p.210) The changing of these t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n f l e x i b l e sex r o l e s has r e s u l t e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n Canadian s o c i e t y and the l i f e s t y l e s of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s (Margiotta 1978, p. 438). As women f i n d job o p p o r t u n i t i e s more e q u i t a b l e and as a r e s u l t i n c r e a s e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e , dual income f a m i l i e s w i l l become more prominent. The i n c r e a s i n g number of working spouses a l t e r s s o c i a l standards and c r e a t e s d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r l i v i n g accommodation. I n c r e a s i n g numbers of working wives are making i t p o s s i b l e f o r Canadian Forces f a m i l i e s to l i v e i n more expensive housing and thus c r e a t i n g long-term dependencies on jobs which most wives are r e l u c t a n t to give up when t h e i r husbands are posted (Hauser 1984, p. 453; E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979, p. 7). These changes have l e d s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s to suggest that a l a r g e r p o r t i o n of the work f o r c e i s l i k e l y to experience c o n f l i c t s between work and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that may c o n t r i b u t e to absenteeism, a t t r i t i o n and decreased job p r o d u c t i v i t y . (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. 2) S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have suggested that the dual income f a m i l i e s have f o r c e d men to devote l e s s energy to the development of t h e i r c a r e e r s , i n order to enjoy the b e n e f i t s of a two-paycheque marriage. S i m i l a r l y , the i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women in the labour f o r c e has allowed them to r e a l i z e a new found sense of economic s e c u r i t y and p e r s o n a l worth. (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. 2) I t has been sp e c u l a t e d that t h i s i n turn has allowed more women to lea v e u n s u c c e s s f u l marriages ( C a n c e l l i e r 1984, p. 3), as w e l l 70 as a l l o w i n g many working women to value t h e i r own care e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s before those of t h e i r husband, and t h e i r f a m i l y . T h i s change i n a t t i t u d e by the t r a d i t i o n a l homemaker i n c r e a s e s the p o t e n t i a l s t r e s s on the nuclear f a m i l y . In the o l d fashio n e d view of the world, the worker experienced no or few fa m i l y s t r e s s e s that a f f e c t e d h i s performance on the job, as "the fa m i l y was c o r p o r a t e l y viewed as a separate i n s t i t u t i o n that the 'p r o v i d e r ' , g e n e r a l l y the male, co u l d leave behind, both p h y s i c a l l y and mentally, when he l e f t f o r work i n the morning. In the evening the f a m i l y nurtured and rejuvenated the worker so that he c o u l d a r i s e r e f r e s h e d f o r work the f o l l o w i n g day." (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. 1) These changing r o l e s of women i n s o c i e t y , i n the m i l i t a r y , and i n the f a m i l y , have the p o t e n t i a l of profoundly a f f e c t i n g the q u a l i t y and t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e of m i l i t a r y l i f e . Policymakers must be aware of these changes and prepare f o r a host of new f a m i l y - r e l a t e d i s s u e s when c o n s i d e r i n g the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . Members of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s w i l l undoubtedly become more a s s e r t i v e of t h e i r p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y needs, and l e s s w i l l i n g to subordinate t h e i r l i v e s to the order of the m i l i t a r y establishment (Margiotta 1978, pp. 437-439). These changes w i l l a l s o make i t d i f f i c u l t to r e c r u i t , s o c i a l i z e , and r e t a i n h i g h -q u a l i t y m i l i t a r y personnel i n the l i g h t of c u r r e n t and p r o j e c t e d s o c i a l change; unless these s o c i a l f a c t o r s are p r o p e r l y understood and taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g the m i l i t a r y community. 71 2.6.2 O c c u p a t i o n a l ism of M i l i t a r y Personnel "In most Western democracies, the p r o p o s i t i o n that the m i l i t a r y as a p r o f e s s i o n must be somewhat separate from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i t serves has been under a s s a u l t . The tendency has been to reduce the m i l i t a r y ' s sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and to s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t the idea that the m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n t than working at any other o c c u p a t i o n . " ( G a b r i e l 1982, p. 94) T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of change has come from both o u t s i d e and w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y , and r e p r e s e n t s a s h i f t i n philosophy from the t r a d i t i o n a l m i l i t a r y model (Hauser 1984, p. 449). The " c a l l i n g " of m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e was l e g i t i m a t e d by values and norms that underscore a "purpose" which transcended i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y s e l f - i n t e r e s t s i n favour of a presumed p u b l i c good: the defense of the country. In the t r a d i t i o n a l view, m i l i t a r y members, and through s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , were guided by p r i n c i p l e s of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and d e d i c a t i o n . Compensation f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s was r e c e i v e d from an a r r a y of s o c i a l supports that underscored the i n t e n t of the m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n to "take care of i t s own" and set i t apart from general s o c i e t y . (Moskos 1978, pp. 199-206) A s h i f t i n the r a t i o n a l e of the m i l i t a r y toward the o c c u p a t i o n a l model leads to the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the marketplace, where monetary reward i s p r o v i d e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Thus, members are s a i d to enter and remain in the armed f o r c e s f o r the same reasons that any c i v i l i a n choses an o c c u p a t i o n : wages, f r e e time, p a i d v a c a t i o n , working c o n d i t i o n s , and s t a t u s . ( G a b r i e l 1982, pp. 94-96) T h i s s h i f t t o an o c c u p a t i o n a l model s i g n i f i e s most importantly, a f i r s t p r i o r i t y to s e l f and f a m i l y i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than to the employing o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s o b j e c t i v e s 72 (McCubbin and Marsden 1982, p. 208). T h i s s h i f t to a more o c c u p a t i o n a l l y focused m i l i t a r y establishment was experienced i n Canada i n 1966, when the Canadian Forces adopted a p o l i c y of pay c o m p a r a b i l i t y with the F e d e r a l P u b l i c S e r v i c e , and hence, the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . ( E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979, p. 65) Before 1966, members f o r whom DND r a t i o n s and q u a r t e r s were not a v a i l a b l e on bases r e c e i v e d s u b s i s t e n c e allowances to permit them to pay f o r t h e i r p r i v a t e accommodation and food. M a r r i e d members a l s o r e c e i v e d a marriage allowance. In 1966, these allowances were terminated along with the mandatory requirement f o r t r a i n e d members to occupy married q u a r t e r s , when a v a i l a b l e . T h i s s h i f t i n phi l o s o p h y by the employer leads employees and t h e i r f a m i l i e s to a l s o r e c o n s i d e r the p r i o r i t i e s between s e l f - i n t e r e s t / f a m i l y and o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2.6.3 S o c i a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y of R e l o c a t i o n In recent years there has been a decrease i n the w i l l i n g n e s s of employees to be mobile i n both the Un i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. ( C h a r t i e r 1982, p. 45) T h i s change i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to both a changing a t t i t u d e toward c a r e e r success and the h i g h s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l c o s t s of moving. ( E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979, p. 14) Employees have become i n c r e a s i n g l y r e l u c t a n t to leave a f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and a f a m i l i a r neighbourhood simply f o r a promotion. The few p r i v a t e s e c t o r companies which attempt to a l l e v i a t e such employee concerns are f i n d i n g i t i n c r e a s i n g l y expensive. Canadian Forces members, who i n many ways are a l s o showing an i n c r e a s i n g r e l u c t a n c e to move, are probably r e f l e c t i n g 73 a t t i t u d e s of Canadian s o c i e t y from which they were r e c r u i t e d . As a r e s u l t , even promotion and economic inducement p r o v i d e s i n s u f f i c i e n t compensation f o r the f i n a n c i a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o s t s of geographic r e l o c a t i o n . Since the m i l i t a r y must r e l o c a t e r e g u l a r l y to maintain s u i t a b l e l e v e l s of competence and experience, the s o c i o l o g i c a l c o s t s of geographic r e l o c a t i o n become an even more important f a c t o r i n e v a l u a t i n g the w e l f a r e and p o t e n t i a l d i s s a t i s f i e r s of m i l i t a r y l i f e . 2.6.4 Human Rights The average education l e v e l s of Canadian Forces members have c r e a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands f o r improved l i f e s t y l e s . ( E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979, p. 7) T h i s phenomena i s not unique to the m i l i t a r y , as Canadian s o c i e t y i n general has a l s o experienced s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n average education (Future Trends 1974, p. 19). T h i s combined with recent Human Rights l e g i s l a t i o n has c r e a t e d an awareness that s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between employers and employees, as w e l l as, l a n d l o r d s and tenants. No longer are s o c i e t a l members w i l l i n g to accept the s t a t u s quo, and o f t e n , having an improved understanding of b a s i c human r i g h t s , they demand to be t r e a t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y (Future Trends 1974, p. 19). As such , the t r a d i t i o n a l , c o n s e r v a t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s of the m i l i t a r y are being s c r u t i n i z e d i n terms of b a s i c human r i g h t s , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n change. Fr e q u e n t l y the p o l i c i e s r e q u i r i n g changes are those which were s p e c i f i c a l l y implemented i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the m i l i t a r y community; when they are e l i m i n a t e d due to p e r c e i v e d i n e q u i t i e s , they o f t e n are r e p l a c e d 74 with more " o c c u p a t i o n a l l y modelled" systems, or not r e p l a c e d at a l l . 2.6.5 Housing With i n c r e a s e d education and understanding of b a s i c r i g h t s , i t i s evident that the mandatory occupation of married q u a r t e r s - -as was the p o l i c y p r i o r to 1 9 6 6 — i s not p o s s i b l e . F u r t h e r , s i n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands f o r improved l i f e - s t y l e have i n c r e a s e d , young m i l i t a r y members are no longer a c c e p t i n g the "adequate but ugly" married q u a r t e r accommodation p r o v i d e d . What was ordered p r i o r to 1966, and was v o l u n t a r i l y accepted as a s u i t a b l e standard of accommodation u n t i l r e c e n t l y , i s no longer deemed to be e n t i r e l y a c c e p t a b l e . The common s o c i a l arrangement i n modern Canadian s o c i e t y i s that people tend to s l e e p , play and work in d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , and i n each case with a d i f f e r e n t set of p a r t i c i p a n t s , under a d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r i t y , and without an o v e r a l l e x t e r n a l l y imposed r a t i o n a l p l a n . ( E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979, p. 7) M i l i t a r y bases are r a t h e r unique i n s t i t u t i o n s i n that they break with these s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Since most m i l i t a r y members are r e c r u i t e d from ge n e r a l s o c i e t y t h i s p e c u l i a r l i f e i n married and s i n g l e q u a r t e r s i s seen to be at odds with the l i f e - s t y l e they are accustomed t o . To the extent that t h i s d i f f e r e n c e bothers them, they are l i k e l y to want to a v o i d l i v i n g i n q u a r t e r s . A growing t r e n d towards home ownership in the Canadian Forces has p r e v a i l e d s i n c e 1973 when housing p r i c e s s t a r t e d to i n c r e a s e d r a m a t i c a l l y . In p a r t , t h i s i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the changes in accommodation p o l i c y which allowed m i l i t a r y members to l i v e o f f base, but a l s o was a d e s i r e by m i l i t a r y members to 75 accumulate housing e q u i t y i n a market which was q u i c k l y becoming too expensive f o r a r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l to a f f o r d . T h i s i s a l s o p a r t of the general e x p e c t a t i o n s and s o c i a l i z a t i o n of Canadian s o c i e t y : the dream of homeownership. 2.6.6 Summary There have been c o n s i d e r a b l e changes i n the m i l i t a r y i n the past decades, and much of t h i s has been i n d i r e c t response to changes i n f a m i l i e s g e n e r a l l y . F a m i l i e s have become l e s s w i l l i n g , e x p e c i a l l y over the past ten years, to accommodate every demand p l a c e d upon them by the m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Most of the impetus f o r change has come from the wife, who i s no longer asked to do a l l the a d j u s t i n g . The p r e s s u r e s of s o c i e t y have s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed the e x p e c t a t i o n s of women, which i n turn has changed t h e i r r o l e . The i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women ou t s i d e of the home has r a i s e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e d the dependency on two paycheques. T h i s has reduced the f l e x i b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . While f a m i l y l i f e has changed c o n s i d e r a b l y , so has the m i l i t a r y persons view of h i s occ u p a t i o n . The p r o f e s s i o n r o l e of s o l d i e r i s slowly becoming a 9 to 5 job. T h i s combined with higher education, a b e t t e r understanding of b a s i c human r i g h t s , and the s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y of r e l o c a t i o n , i s making the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of m i l i t a r y personnel much more d i f f i c u l t . The fa m i l y i s becoming a more important p r i o r i t y than the member's c a r e e r . As such, the e v a l u a t i o n of accommodation p o l i c i e s i n l i g h t of these s o c i a l changes i s important i n m a i n t a i n i n g an ac c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the m i l i t a r y community. 76 2.7 SUMMARY There have been c o n s i d e r a b l e changes in the m i l i t a r y s i n c e the second world war. S t r u c t u r a l l y i t has changed from the p a r t -time job of the m i l i t i a m a n p r i o r to the war, to the complete, f u l l time m i l i t a r y community that e x i s t s today. The m i l i t a r y i s not the preserve of the s i n g l e a d u l t male, but e x i s t s as a t o t a l f a m i l y and community environment. Recent changes i n Canadian s o c i e t y and i t s f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e has r e s u l t e d i n s i m i l a r changes in the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . F a m i l i e s have changed from being the u n t i r i n g servants of the m i l i t a r y member's c a r e e r . They are now l e s s accommodating to every demand pl a c e d upon them by the m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . In reviewing the v a r i o u s advantages and disadvantages of the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e a number of c o n c l u s i o n s can be made. C e r t a i n l y support systems f o r m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s are needed to make up f o r the lack of extended f a m i l i e s and o f t e n absent spouses. These support systems must be i n p l a c e and o p e r a t i n g p r i o r to f a m i l y c r i s e s i f t h e i r e f f i c a c y i s to be maximal. Commitment to the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e produces job s a t i s f a c t i o n , performance, and r e t e n t i o n . To i n c r e a s e f a m i l y commitment, f a m i l i e s must be valued as important members of the "team", and they must be made f u l l y aware that they are indeed valued by the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which they are enmeshed. The support systems that e x i s t e d i n the past were s u c c e s s f u l in compensating f o r the unique s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . T h i s i s v e r i f i e d by s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s which show that the s o c i a l i l l s of Canadian s o c i e t y are not as common 77 in the m i l i t a r y community. Since changes in policy and operation are always necessary to keep pace with the trends and expectations of general society numerous programs must be restructured, and ongoing evaluation of policy i s necessary. The research findings of yesteryear do not necessarily provide answers concerning the problems of today's m i l i t a r y families. It i s hoped that this thesis w i l l e s t a b l i s h a framework for analyzing how modern m i l i t a r y families are affected by d i f f e r e n t accommodation p o l i c i e s . This chapter has described the community; the next two chapters w i l l describe and evaluate possible accommodation policy options. 78 3.0 ACCOMMODATION POLICY OPTIONS The nature of the m i l i t a r y p r o f e s s i o n , which i n v o l v e s the sur r e n d e r i n g of some pe r s o n a l advantage to the common good, and the demands p l a c e d on s e r v i c e members who must be abl e to respond when ordered t o do so, to meet the m i l i t a r y needs of the S t a t e , r e q u i r e that DND concern i t s e l f to a f a r grea t e r extent than most other o r g a n i z a t i o n s with the accommodation and personnel support needs of s e r v i c e members and of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . L i v i n g accommodation and a s s o c i a t e d personnel support f a c i l i t i e s are a s i g n i f i c a n t element in the m o t i v a t i o n of perso n n e l , and i n t u r n , t h i s a f f e c t s the c o n t r i b u t i o n of each person to o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y . The complex ques t i o n of the extent to which DND should remain i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of i t s own communities i s l i m i t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s to the d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l elements. In a s s e s s i n g s o c i a l impacts the t h e s i s emphasizes accommodation p o l i c i e s as the author f e e l s they are at the heart of the m i l i t a r y community q u e s t i o n . The review of accommodation p o l i c y i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o the areas of housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s three housing p o l i c y o p t i o n s and four s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n o p t i o n s s e l e c t e d by the author: HOUSING OPTIONS A - Provide Complete P u b l i c Housing B - E s t a b l i s h a Housing S o c i e t y C - Do Not Provide Housing PHYSICAL SERVICE OPTIONS A - I n t e r n a l i z e d B - M u n i c i p a l i z e d 79 S O C I A L S E R V I C E O P T I O N S A - I n t e r n a l i z e d B - E x t e r n a l i z e d T h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e s e s p e c i f i c o p t i o n s h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d i s d e s c r i b e d , f o l l o w e d b y a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e o p t i o n s . T h e s e p o l i c y o p t i o n s a r e t h e n e v a l u a t e d i n c h a p t e r 4 t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a f r a m e w o r k d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a s s e s s s o c i a l i m p a c t s o n m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e m i l i t a r y l i f e - s t y l e . 8 0 3.1 FACTORS LEADING TO POLICY OPTIONS Of the many s o c i a l f a c t o r s to be c o n s i d e r e d i n a s s e s s i n g the m i l i t a r y community accommodation p o l i c y , three are p a r t i c u l a r l y important. F i r s t , housing ownership; second, the p r o v i s i o n of community s e r v i c e s ; and t h i r d , the f a c t that m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s l i v e both on base and o f f b a s e — n o r m a l l y by c h o i c e , but o f t e n as a r e s u l t of a lack of on base accommodation f o r them. The concurrent c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these three f a c t o r s leads to the s c e n a r i o s g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the three dimensional matrix at F i g u r e 3-1. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s i n f e a s i b l e to e v a l u a t e a l l twelve of these permutations. F o r t u n a t e l y , however, many of the twelve can be s i m p l i f i e d by grouping s i m i l a r impacts, and making some ba s i c assumptions about r e a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , as d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . Housing i s the c e n t r a l element upon which the other two f a c t o r s hinge. For example, i f no housing were p r o v i d e d (Option C), then the choice of l i v i n g on or o f f base would not e x i s t : m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s would have to l i v e o f f . S i m i l a r l y , f o r s e r v i c e s the p r o v i s i o n of t o t a l p u b l i c housing (Option A) i s l i n k e d more c l o s e l y with i n t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , while no housing (Option C) l o g i c a l l y i m p l i e s more e x t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . T h e r e f o r e , i n d i v i d u a l components of the matrix are separated and c o n c e n t r a t e d on independently, with the main focus being on the p r o v i s i o n of housing and community s e r v i c e s . 81 THREE DIMENSIONAL MATRIX OF FACTORS LEADING TO POLICY OPTIONS SERVICES P u b l i c Housing HOUSING Housing S o c i e t y No Housing On Base O ff Base LOCATION F i g u r e 3-1 82 3.1.1 Housing Options Wherever m i l i t a r y personnel are r e q u i r e d to perform the d u t i e s demanded of them by DND, they must have access to adequate, s u i t a b l e , and a f f o r d a b l e housing. T h i s o b l i g a t i o n agrees with that concluded by i n d u s t r y e x e c u t i v e s surveyed by The Conference Board in 1974. They s t a t e (Wikstrom 1975, p. 28): "Employee housing i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a 'company problem' when i t i s c l e a r that a c t i o n s by the company have c r e a t e d housing problems f o r the employee. When the company i n i t i a t e s a t r a n s f e r that n e c e s s i t a t e s a change i n r e s i d e n c e , when i t a s s i g n s an employee to work at a l o c a t i o n f o r so short a p e r i o d that o b t a i n i n g housing would c l e a r l y be d i f f i c u l t , or when an employee i s asked to work i n so remote an area t h a t no housing i s a v a i l a b l e , the employee's housing problem i s c l e a r l y a r e s u l t of the company's a c t i o n . E x e c u t i v e s agree that i n these cases i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e that the company pr o v i d e s e r v i c e s to h e l p the employee get decent housing, even i f i t means that the company must p r o v i d e i t i n some cases. I t i s a company problem to be s o l v e d by the company." In some areas, s u f f i c i e n t accommodation may be a v a i l a b l e from c i v i l i a n sources to meet t h i s need. But, the v a r i a t i o n s i n m i l i t a r y needs among the geographic regions of Canada and between l o c a l areas i n d i c a t e the need f o r an accommodation system to a s s i s t both DND and i n d i v i d u a l s i n meeting t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s . The system would i n v o l v e housing i n v e n t o r i e s , p o l i c i e s , r e g u l a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n programs. In 1981 the DND Accommodation P o l i c y Task Force developed the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s to guide accommodation p o l i c y (ND/CMHC AWG 1983, p. N5-3): a. the CF must concern i t s e l f to a f a r gr e a t e r extent with the accommodation of i t s members (and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ) than happens i n most other government departments. 83 b. those who l i v e out of q u a r t e r s , whether of married or s i n g l e s t a t u s , must be t r e a t e d e q u i t a b l y to those who l i v e in q u a r t e r s . c. members should be t r e a t e d e q u i t a b l y r e g a r d l e s s of the l o c a t i o n i n which they serve. To f a c i l i t a t e an e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l p o l i c i e s , the assessment of a wide and complete range of accommodation a l t e r n a t i v e s i s necessary. Two of the o p t i o n s were s e l e c t e d as the extremes which ranged from complete p u b l i c housing (Option A), to no housing provided at a l l (Option C). Any combination of housing provided i n between these two extremes c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be chosen; however, an e v a l u a t i o n of the extreme s i t u a t i o n s a l l o w s the s p e c i f i c impacts to be more r e a d i l y apparent. The department c u r r e n t l y maintains p u b l i c housing f o r approximately h a l f of the married m i l i t a r y p o p u l a t i o n , with a v a i l a b i l i t y v a r y i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y among bases. The t h i r d housing o p t i o n chosen for e v a l u a t i o n i s that of c r e a t i n g a housing s o c i e t y at arm's le n g t h from the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. The c o n f i g u r a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of such an o r g a n i z a t i o n allows f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of a p o l i c y o p t i o n between the two extremes. Many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the c u r r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of MQs (which have been responded to by the recent DND s t u d i e s on m i l i t a r y accommodation) are the c o n s t r a i n t s r e s u l t i n g from DND accommodation being p a r t of a huge government bureaucracy and s u b j e c t to the f e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act and other l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l s . Each of the DND accommodation s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d that such r e s t r i c t i o n s are a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r in the o p e r a t i o n of MQs, and that government r e g u l a t i o n s on 84 s t a f f i n g , t e n d e r i n g , f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , i n h i b i t the e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of MQs ( E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979; ND/CMHC AWG 1983; AWG 1985). While i t i s accepted that these are part of the "cost of doing b u s i n e s s " i n the maintenance of a t r a i n e d , ready, and capable m i l i t a r y presence, the c o s t s have become s i g n i f i c a n t enough to provoke the review of the e n t i r e accommodation system. Option B, the c r e a t i o n of a housing s o c i e t y , was chosen by the author as an a l t e r n a t i v e which avoids some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of o p e r a t i n g MQs as a d i r e c t l y government c o n t r o l l e d i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s o p t i o n i s p o s s i b l e because of a s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n i n the N a t i o n a l Defence Act which s t i p u l a t e s that "the F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act does not apply to non-public p r o p e r t y . " ( N a t i o n a l Defence Act, para 38(10)) Other housing o p t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d by the author, but d i s c a r d e d f o r v a r i o u s reasons were: a. MQ C o - o p e r a t i v e s . While the formation of a co-o p e r a t i v e would have the b e n e f i t of i n v o l v i n g occupants i n ongoing management, and. would allow f o r the accumulation of e q u i t y through home ownership, i t i s deemed u n s u i t a b l e f o r the m i l i t a r y community. The s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of a c o - o p e r a t i v e r e q u i r e s the continued involvement of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The extreme m o b i l i t y of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s would preclude t h i s involvement, and c o n t i n u i t y i n the c o - o p e r a t i v e would s u f f e r . b. N o n - P r o f i t C o r p o r a t i o n . Since part of the f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y experienced by DND i n the o p e r a t i o n of MQs r e s u l t e d from having to operate under s t r i n g e n t government g u i d e l i n e s , the c r e a t i o n of a non-p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n o p e r a t i n g s e p a r a t e l y from DND would allow s u i t a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y in o p e r a t i o n to be f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e . However, there i s some doubt as to whether the r e g i s t r a r , under the Canada C o r p o r a t i o n s Act would accept the " n o n - p r o f i t " c o r p o r a t i o n as being "of a n a t i o n a l , p a t r i o t i c , r e l i g i o u s , p h i l a n t h r o p i c , c h a r i t a b l e , s c i e n t i f i c , a r t i s t i c , s o c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l 85 or s p o r t i n g c h a r a c t e r , or the l i k e o b j e c t s . " (Canada Co r p o r a t i o n s Act, para 154(1)) c. Crown C o r p o r a t i o n . The most l o g i c a l c h o i c e of Crown C o r p o r a t i o n to assume the married q u a r t e r p o r t f o l i o i s that of CMHC. With the e x p e r t i s e which the c o r p o r a t i o n enjoys i n the area of housing, combined with the e s t a b l i s h e d r e g i o n a l and l o c a l o f f i c e s , they c o u l d p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c housing. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a s s i m i l a t i o n by CMHC or any other Crown C o r p o r a t i o n would not p r o v i d e r e l i e f from the r e s t r i c t i v e f i n a n c i a l requirements which c u r r e n t l y e x i s t i n the DND o p e r a t i o n . As w e l l , such change would f u r t h e r reduce the f l e x i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l of the m i l i t a r y community by DND, without p r o v i d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t . d. P r i v a t e Management. The MQ p o r t f o l i o c o u l d be s o l d to a p r i v a t e entrepreneur, who would operate the u n i t s under the terms of a s a l e s agreement. T h i s would be s i m i l a r to e x i s t i n g Bulk Lease Housing U n i t (BLHU) agreements which have e x i s t e d i n a number of l o c a t i o n s (see Table 2-2). However, these have been l e s s than f a v o u r a b l e , and d i f f i c u l t to administer due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n pr e p a r i n g an agreement that i n c l u d e s a l l p o s s i b l e problems without being e x c e s s i v e l y onerous on the entrepreneur. 3.1.2 I n t e r n a l i z e d or E x t e r n a l i z e d S e r v i c e s In most l o c a t i o n s DND has the f l e x i b i l i t y to choose whether i t w i l l p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to the married q u a r t e r community i t s e l f , or ensure that e q u i v a l e n t s e r v i c e s are prov i d e d through the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . The f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n have changed d r a s t i c a l l y over the years as l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have grown around the married q u a r t e r community and f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the payment for s e r v i c e s have been r e s t r u c t u r e d . Such changes have provoked the review of s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n p o l i c y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The s e r v i c e s provided to the married q u a r t e r community can g e n e r a l l y be c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , or p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s . M i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s r e g a r d l e s s of where they l i v e 8 6 ( e i t h e r on or o f f base) are e n t i t l e d to partake of the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by both the m i l i t a r y and the l o c a l community. T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y r e s u l t s from the f a c t that DND pays the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r such s e r v i c e s on behalf of the married q u a r t e r community in the form of a G r a n t - I n - L i e u of Tax (GILT). Most m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s were c o n s t r u c t e d i n the 1950's as s e l f - c o n t a i n e d - d e f e n c e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , i n p a r t due to the l i m i t e d c i v i l i a n s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e at the time, as w e l l as, the p e r c e i v e d need for the m i l i t a r y establishment to be completely s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . As such, most bases operate and maintain a complete s e l e c t i o n of both p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . As Canada becomes more urbanized, environmental standards become more r i g i d , and the m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e and o p e r a t i o n becomes l e s s independent; the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of many p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s , and the e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s becomes a more v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . The main impetus to review the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s came i n 1980, when the M u n i c i p a l Grants Act, 1980 (MGA 80) was passed by the f e d e r a l government with the consequence of s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g GILT payments. In the case of f e d e r a l government p r o p e r t i e s , GILT i s p a i d based on the assessment of the p r o p e r t y value and the general m i l l r a t e s t r u c k by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . In r e t u r n f o r these payments f e d e r a l p r o p e r t i e s are e n t i t l e d to the same l e v e l of s e r v i c e p rovided to a l l other tax payers. Since DND i s unique among f e d e r a l government departments i n that i t operates what co u l d be r e f e r r e d to as "company towns" i t had enjoyed s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of GILT. P r i o r to MGA 80, grants p a i d with respect to these p r o p e r t i e s were 87 r e s t r i c t e d i n two ways (D U t i l MS 1984, p. 4): a. S e l f Contained Defence Est a b l i s h m e n t s were exempt from grants except with respect to land and r e s i d e n t i a l housing. b. A r e d u c t i o n i n a grant was made when a s e r v i c e was provided with DND r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e f o r e , when DND provided s e r v i c e s such as a f i r e department, garbage c o l l e c t i o n , sewer and water treatment, e t c . the grant p a i d was reduced by an amount c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new Act e l i m i n a t e d t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n and the f e d e r a l government now pays a f u l l grant f o r a l l DND p r o p e r t i e s . The s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n i s f o r dependents education where DND operates schools or p r o v i d e s s c h o o l i n g from i t s own r e s o u r c e s . (Municipal Grants Act, 1980, para 6 ( a ) ( i ) ) Other r e d u c t i o n s can only be made when a m u n i c i p a l i t y has r e f u s e d to provide a s e r v i c e . The implementation of the Act prompted a review of the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d to DND e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . The review i n i t i a l l y commenced with p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s with the recommendations that "the s t r e e t s , sewers, water l i n e s and a s s o c i a t e d s e r v i c e s l o c a t e d i n MQ areas should be t r a n s f e r r e d to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to e l i m i n a t e d u p l i c a t i o n of c o s t s by the F e d e r a l Government." (D U t i l MS 1984, p. 5) The r e a c t i o n to t h i s by the h i e r a r c h y i n DND was mixed, with general support f o r the economic as p e c t s of the p r o p o s a l , but, with concern expressed about the " l o s s of m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l " and " e r o s i o n of the m i l i t a r y community". P r e c i s e l y the elements being assessed i n t h i s t h e s i s . The d u p l i c a t i o n of payment for s e r v i c e s v a r i e s with l o c a t i o n ; however, the s e r v i c e s i d e n t i f i e d i n Table 3-1 are the s e r v i c e areas where the p o t e n t i a l f o r a double payment e x i s t s . 88 Table 3-1 POTENTIAL DUPLICATION OF PAYMENT FOR SERVICES  P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s 1. Water L i n e Maintenance 2. S a n i t a r y Sewer Maintenance 3. E l e c t r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n System Maintenance 4. Storm Sewer System Maintenance 5. S t r e e t L i g h t i n g 6. Road and Sidewalk Maintenance 7. Gas Lin e Maintenance 8. Garbage D i s p o s a l 9. F i r e P r o t e c t i o n 10. Snow Removal S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 1. P o l i c e P r o t e c t i o n 2. S o c i a l and Welfare 3. Re c r e a t i o n 4. Education 5. P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n There are a number of unique ways i n which married quarter communities c o u l d become i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i n c i a l and mu n i c i p a l support programs i n order to e l i m i n a t e the double payment. Due to v a r y i n g p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s these a l t e r n a t i v e s must be c o n s i d e r e d on a pro v i n c e by pr o v i n c e b a s i s but are g e n e r a l l y c o n t i n g e n t upon the handover of married q u a r t e r i n v e n t o r i e s by DND. A study of CFB Comox, o p e r a t i n g under the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s (Semmens and Adams 1987, pp. 33-39): a. Incorporate CFB Comox as a M u n i c i p a l V i l l a g e b. Extend the boundaries of the Town of Comox to incl u d e CFB Comox c. Incorporate CFB Comox as an Improvement D i s t r i c t 89 d. Incorporate CFB Comox f e d e r a l l y as a l o c a l l e v e l of government. T h i s would be s i m i l a r to the l e g i s l a t i o n r e c e n t l y passed to i n c o r p o r a t e the S e c h e l t Indian Band with i t s own self-government. (S e c h e l t Indian Band Self-Government Act) P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n was then necessary to recognize the area as a m u n i c i p a l i t y under B.C. law. (Sechelt Indian Government D i s t r i c t E n a b l i n g Act) U n l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia, a l l of A l b e r t a i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n some fa s h i o n w i t h i n a l o c a l government e n t i t y . However, the M u n i c i p a l Act of A l b e r t a does allow f o r the c r e a t i o n of a l o c a l government e n t i t y c a l l e d a hamlet. As such, in A l b e r t a , Canadian Forces Bases c o u l d be designated as hamlets s i m i l a r to the community of Sherwood Park (pop. 35,000), east of Edmonton. (Semmens and Adams 1987, pp.46-49) I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that s i m i l a r arrangements c o u l d be made in each pr o v i n c e as r e q u i r e d . The Department of N a t i o n a l Defence c o u l d pursue these types of o p t i o n s i f i t f e l t that the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of DND s e r v i c e s were paramount. However, ex t e n s i v e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l n e g o t i a t i o n would be necessary. T h i s t h e s i s does not e l a b o r a t e on the method of e x t e r n a l i z i n g s e r v i c e s , but l i m i t s i t s assessment to the e v a l u a t i o n of whether such a movement would be advantageous i n terms of s o c i a l impact on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . The m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s , and the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n / e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l impact on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n s e c t i o n 3.5, and i s e v a l u a t e d i n Chapter 4. 90 3.1.3 Members L i v i n g On or Off Base There are two dimensions to the q u e s t i o n of f a m i l i e s l i v i n g on base or o f f base. The f i r s t dimension, i s the s e l e c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n based on p e r s o n a l / f a m i l y c h o i c e . As was noted i n chapter 2, mandatory occupation of married q u a r t e r s ceased i n 1966 ( E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979, p. 65). The second dimension, i s the l i m i t e d number of housing u n i t s provided i n each l o c a t i o n . T h i s number of u n i t s and t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d by the d e s i g n a t i o n of u n i t s at each base a c c o r d i n g to rank and f a m i l y s i z e . T h e r e f o r e , some m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s l i v e i n c i v i l i a n accommodation through p e r s o n a l choice while others are there through circumstances beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . The p r e f e r e n c e of l i v i n g on or o f f base i s hard to assess as a g e n e r a l m i l i t a r y p r e f e r e n c e , as the c h o i c e f l u c t u a t e s with r e s p e c t t o : geographic l o c a t i o n , c o s t - o f - l i v i n g , economic c l i m a t e , community environment, f a m i l y stage, f a m i l y s i z e , c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l i n g , and many other f a c t o r s . The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n of "Do you p r e f e r to l i v e on-base or o f f - b a s e ? " was asked dur i n g an e x t e n s i v e study of Canadian m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s conducted in 1984-1985 designed to examine how the family/work r e l a t i o n s h i p a f f e c t e d the h e a l t h of s e r v i c e f a m i l i e s and the o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e r v i c e members. ( M i l i t a r y Family 1983, p. 84) In t h i s study 16% i n d i c a t e d they p r e f e r r e d to l i v e on-base, 67% p r e f e r r e d to l i v e o f f - b a s e , and 17% had no p r e f e r e n c e . Even with e m p i r i c a l data such as t h i s , or with h i s t o r i c MQ occupancy r a t e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine where 91 m i l i t a r y families would prefer to l i v e given a r e a l i s t i c choice. This i s due to the numerous factors—many administrative and unrelated to the s p e c i f i c question of preferred place of residence—which influences the answer. Since a universally applicable, e x p l i c i t indication of where m i l i t a r y families would prefer to l i v e is not obtainable, t h i s imformation has to be derived through the assessment of the various s o c i a l impacts which a f f e c t m i l i t a r y f a milies. Chapter 4 develops an assessment framework and through the evaluation of the d i f f e r e n t policy options discussed in the following section, i m p l i c i t guidelines on the most s u i t a b l e — a n d therefore mose desireable—accommodation for m i l i t a r y families (based on s o c i a l considerations) can be derived. 92 3.2 OPTION A - COMPLETE PUBLIC HOUSING One of the two extreme ranges of housing p o l i c y that w i l l be e v a l u a t e d i s the p r o v i s i o n of complete p u b l i c housing. T h i s p o l i c y would see a Crown-owned housing u n i t p r o v i d e d f o r every m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . While i t i s impossible to a s c e r t a i n e x a c t l y how many m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s would choose to l i v e on or o f f base ( f o r the reasons d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 3.1.3), i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of crown-owned married q u a r t e r s e x i s t to meet c u r r e n t demand, as i n d i c a t e d by the many bases with e x t e n s i v e MQ w a i t i n g l i s t s . (AWG 1985, p. 9) However, s i n c e t h i s t h e s i s l i m i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the s o c i a l impacts of accommodation p o l i c y on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s , i t i s unnecessary to q u a n t i f y t h i s s h o r t f a l l or i t s l o c a t i o n . Instead, i t i s assumed that the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c accommodation f o r any m i l i t a r y f a m i l y that chooses to occupy such, i s f e a s i b l e . The e v a l u a t i o n of the s o c i a l impacts undertaken in chapter 4 w i l l i n d i c a t e whether the p u r s u i t of t h i s goal i s worthwhile r e l a t i v e to other housing o p t i o n s . 3.2.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e The o p t i o n of complete p u b l i c housing i s a simple extension of the s t a t u s quo. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e would remain e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged from that c u r r e n t l y i n p r a c t i c e . Under the present system married q u a r t e r s are operated and maintained as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of o v e r a l l base o p e r a t i o n s , competing for l i m i t e d budget funds with other m i l i t a r y f u n c t i o n s . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of e x i s t i n g married q u a r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s 93 p r o v i d e d i n s e c t i o n 2.5.3. The b i g g e s t weakness i n the c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e i s the extremely fragmented maintenance/support o r g a n i z a t i o n that e x i s t s i n the o p e r a t i o n of married q u a r t e r s . No s i n g l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c e n t e r e x i s t s to c o - o r d i n a t e and manage a l l aspects of the married q u a r t e r o p e r a t i o n . As such, under P o l i c y Option A the s t a t u s quo w i l l be m o d i f i e d to e s t a b l i s h a s i n g l e m i l i t a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c e n t e r at both the base and N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters l e v e l s , to c o o r d i n a t e both married q u a r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and maintenance. The base a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e and chain of command as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, would remain unchanged. 3.2.2 Housing Requirements The accommodation p r o f i l e of the m i l i t a r y community pro v i d e d i n s e c t i o n 2.2.3 i n d i c a t e d that the c u r r e n t p o r t f o l i o (both DND owned and administered) i s capable of housing about 27,000 or 60% of the married p e r s o n n e l . In p r a c t i c e about 55% are a c t u a l l y housed due to v a c a n c i e s , maintenance, and other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c t o r s . E x t r a p o l a t i n g t h i s data i n d i c a t e s that an a d d i t i o n a l 25,000 housing u n i t s are necessary to ensure that a MQ i s a v a i l a b l e f o r each and every m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . However, as d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 3.1.3 not a l l f a m i l e s would choose to l i v e on base, and s i n c e 1966 i t has not been m i l i t a r y p o l i c y to r e q u i r e the occupation of married q u a r t e r s . Since cost i s not the o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s assessment i t i s assumed that the p o r t f o l i o of MQs c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d s u f f i c i e n t l y to accommodate a l l i n t e r e s t e d m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . 94 3.2.3 Cost While cost i s of l i m i t e d importance i n t h i s t h e s i s ' s e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l impacts on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y , i t i s s t i l l an advantage to understand the r e l a t i v e cost of the d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y o p t i o n s . R e l a t i v e cost i s a l s o p a r t i c u l a r l y important when c o n s i d e r i n g the combination of housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n p o l i c i e s . For example, any funds saved or p r o f i t secured through an e f f e c t i v e DND housing p o l i c y c o u l d p o s s i b l y be t r a n s f e r r e d to the p r o v i s i o n of community s e r v i c e s . As such, i f an assessment of p o l i c y options i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n s o c i a l c o s t s , then i t i s an advantage to understand how the economic c o s t s of the p o l i c i e s vary, so that the combined s o c i a l impacts f o r both housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n are minimized i n c o n j u n c t i o n with c o s t s . S i m i l a r l y , a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n the s o c i a l c o s t s between two o p t i o n s i s more e a s i l y understood or l e g i t i m i z e d i f the l e v e l of f i n a n c i a l support each program enjoyed was recognized. A number of m i l i t a r y accommodation s t u d i e s have assessed the c o s t of o p e r a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the DND housing p o r t f o l i o . Of i n d i s p u t a b l e importance to p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o p e r t y managers as w e l l as DND, i s the q u e s t i o n of the economic v i a b i l i t y of such p o r t f o l i o s . It i s hard to b e l i e v e that DND's p o r t f o l i o with no land c o s t , no debt s e r v i c e to r e t i r e c a p i t a l , and no p r o f i t requirement, c o u l d be l o s i n g money. However, t h i s seems to be the case. A 1979 study estimated the net annual c o s t to operate married q u a r t e r s as $74 m i l l i o n ( E v a l u a t i o n Report 20 1979, p. 71), while a 1985 study estimated the c o s t s at $16.3 m i l l i o n (AWG 95 1985, pp. 29-30). While the assumptions f o r each estimate can undoubtedly be argued, i t i s c l e a r that the economic v i a b i l i t y of the housing p o r t f o l i o as i t i s c u r r e n t l y being operated i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . A l l the s t u d i e s agree that the c o s t excesses i n c u r r e d by the p o r t f o l i o are not n e c e s s a r i l y a f u n c t i o n of the occupant or the s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d to the occupants. "They are more a f u n c t i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n governing the occupancy of Crown land, F e d e r a l p o l i c i e s imposed on the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence, e x c e s s i v e standards imposed by DND, and m i l i t a r y requirements." (ND/CMHC AWG 1983, p. E-1) As such, i t i s concluded that these e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o s t s to the p o r t f o l i o should be borne by DND as a "cost of doing business", and should not be seen as l o s s e s to the housing p o r t f o l i o . Some of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c o s t s i d e n t i f i e d i n the 1983 Accommodation Working Group Study were: a. The cost of s e r v i c e s normally p r o v i d e d tenants i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r through t a x a t i o n are borne by DND i n the payment of GILT and/or p r o v i d e d by DND b. F e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l s u b s i d i e s a v a i l a b l e to support c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s i n the mu n i c i p a l or p r i v a t e s e c t o r s are g e n e r a l l y denied DND c. F e d e r a l p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g p o l l u t i o n of land or ground water d i c t a t e higher l e v e l s of s e r v i c e than the p r i v a t e s e c t o r d. The i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n of many bases and s t a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e s to i n c r e a s e d c o s t s e. C e r t a i n u n i t s w i t h i n the p o r t f o l i o command a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of s e r v i c e s , or are more expensive to maintain ( o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n c e s and h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s ) f. Some s e r v i c e s , or the l e v e l of some s e r v i c e s , exceed the norm due to m i l i t a r y requirements g. Conversion of u n i t s to uses other that MQ with r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e s i n s e r v i c e or maintenance 96 h. Occupants are g e n e r a l l y discouraged from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the maintenance or upgrading of u n i t s and grounds i . Maintenance standards i n some i n s t a n c e s exceed the p r i v a t e s e c t o r norm j . Optimum r e s u l t s are not always achieved i n maintenance and renovation p r a c t i c e s Other s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l impacts to the p u b l i c housing o p t i o n a r e : the age of the housing p o r t f o l i o , i t s outdated s t y l e , and the a c q u i s i t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l stock to in c r e a s e the p o r t f o l i o . Table 2-3 provides a breakdown of the age of housing stock at s e l e c t e d bases. The most s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , i s that at l e a s t 92% of the housing stock i s more than t w e n t y - f i v e years o l d (see s e c t i o n 2.2.3). While i t has been w e l l maintained i t s t i l l r e q u i r e s s i g n i f i c a n t ongoing maintenance to keep the predominantely wood s t r u c t u r e s i n ac c e p t a b l e c o n d i t i o n . The s t r u c t u r a l design of the MQs was found by a CMHC study team (who had j u s t completed a s i m i l a r study on c i v i l i a n homes through the R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program) to have " . . . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that give r i s e to occupant d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s a r i s e s because of d i f f e r e n c e s between MQs and contemporary house design and l i f e s t y l e s . " (ND/CMHC AWG 1983, p. B-3) Renovations necessary to update these homes would be expensive. S i m i l a r l y , there would be e x t e n s i v e c a p i t a l c o s t s i f the housing p o r t f o l i o was i n c r e a s e d to enable housing f o r a l l m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . 97 3.3 OPTION B - NON-PUBLIC HOUSING SOCIETY The p o l i c y o p t i o n of c r e a t i n g a Non-Public Housing S o c i e t y was s e l e c t e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n as i t has the p o t e n t i a l t o s a t i s f y the p r e r e q u i s i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d necessary to operate married q u a r t e r s e f f e c t i v e l y . The f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l s r e q u i r e d i n a government department preclude the e f f e c t i v e management of the housing p o r t f o l i o (see s e c t i o n 3.1.1). However, a s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n i n the N a t i o n a l Defence Act s t i p u l a t e s that "the F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act does not apply to non-public p r o p e r t y . " ( N a t i o n a l Defence Act, para 38(10)) As such, a Non-P u b l i c Housing S o c i e t y operated at arms l e n g t h of the department, would ensure that the necessary f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l s are maintained at a l l l e v e l s , but would provide the d e s i r e d l e v e l of f l e x i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l not a c h i e v a b l e i n the present system. 3.3.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e To operate e f f e c t i v e l y , the Housing S o c i e t y would have to operate i n a manner u n t y p i c a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l m i l i t a r y mode of o p e r a t i o n . A more c e n t r a l i z e d system i s necessary. I t would be c o n t r o l l e d u l t i m a t e l y at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l by the C h i e f of the Defence S t a f f through a Board of D i r e c t o r s made up of se n i o r m i l i t a r y personnel who represented the bases and support s e r v i c e s . The S o c i e t y would e s s e n t i a l l y be a " p r i v a t e " company s t a f f e d by property management p r o f e s s i o n a l s . At the base l e v e l the S o c i e t y would have i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t with base support s t a f f and the Base Commander, but would be r e s p o n s i b l e through a r e g i o n a l system to the Board of D i r e c t o r s at N a t i o n a l Defence 98 Headquarters ( r e f e r to o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t at F i g u r e 3-2). Base Commanders who were not s a t i s f i e d that the needs of h i s personnel were being met by the Housing S o c i e t y c o u l d pursue t h e i r case through the m i l i t a r y chain of command to t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Board. While t h i s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c o n t r o l i s a d r a s t i c change from the standard o p e r a t i o n a l / f u n c t i o n a l command s t r u c t u r e i t i s deemed necessary to ensure the v i a b i l i t y of the S o c i e t y . The c e n t r a l i z e d , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Housing S o c i e t y ensures that e x i s t i n g problems experienced with the c o o r d i n a t i n g of a number of d i f f e r e n t departments i s e l i m i n a t e d . One o r g a n i z a t i o n would now handle maintenance, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and management of the e n t i r e p o r t f o l i o . The o r g a n i z a t i o n would be c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n the married quarter community to be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , approachable, and ensure co n t a c t i s maintained with i t s c l i e n t e l e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l design of such a s t r u c t u r e would o b v i o u s l y need more e x t e n s i v e e l a b o r a t i o n i n order to be s u f f i c i e n t l y p e r s u a s i v e f o r i t s implementation to be c o n s i d e r e d . However, f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , t h i s i s not c o n s i d e r e d necessary. What i s important, i s to understand how the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l run and i n t e r - r e l a t e with the occupant, so that the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s can be assessed. If an o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the Non-Public Housing S o c i e t y operated at arms l e n g t h from DND yet p r o v i d i n g d e d i c a t e d , e x c l u s i v e s e r v i c e to i t s m i l i t a r y community, i s seen as the best housing p o l i c y o p t i o n i n the e v a l u a t i o n undertaken i n chapter 4, then f u r t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l design and c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o u l d be undertaken. 99 NON-PUBLIC HOUSING SOCIETY ORGANIZATION CHART BOARD OF DIRECTORS SOCIETY DIRECTOR D/DIR TECHNICAL SERVICES SECRETARY D/DIR OPERATIONS D/DIR ADMIN/ FINANCE REGIONAL B C D E PROPERTY MANAGER (A) SECRETARY/CLERK BASE PROPERTY MANAGER (A) F i g u r e 3-2 1 0 0 3.3.2 Housing Requirements The Housing S o c i e t y o p t i o n i s based on the assumption that a l l e x i s t i n g housing owned by DND w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d to the S o c i e t y . As such, the c u r r e n t p o r t f o l i o (which i s only capable of accommodating 60% of the married personnel) w i l l have to be in c r e a s e d i f housing i s to be made a v a i l a b l e to a l l m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s through the Housing S o c i e t y . 3.3.3 Cost During a 1984/5 DND accommodation study, p r o p e r t y management s p e c i a l i s t s from CMHC and DND compared the e x i s t i n g married q u a r t e r maintenance o p e r a t i o n with t y p i c a l commercial p r a c t i c e . (AWG 1985, p. 30) I t was estimated that labour c o s t s c o u l d be reduced by approximately 40 percent through a Housing S o c i e t y s t y l e o p e r a t i o n . "The major savings occur as a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y because of the p r o j e c t e d use of handymen as opposed to trade s p e c i a l i s t s and the e l i m i n a t i o n of w a i t i n g times through the move to p e r s o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " (AWG 1985, p. 30) T h i s i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y i s mainly a r e s u l t of the freedom from the F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act, P u b l i c S e r v i c e A l l i a n c e of Canada labour agreements, and the c o n t r a c t i n g agencies of Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, and Defence C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . An estimate of o p e r a t i o n c o s t s conducted by the same group r e v e a l e d a net annual p r o f i t of s l i g h t l y l e s s than $1 m i l l i o n as compared to the net l o s s of $16.3 m i l l i o n experienced through the e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n . I t should be noted that t h i s estimate i n c l u d e s an annual c a p i t a l expenditure program of approximately 101 $15 m i l l i o n to continue c u r r e n t l e v e l s f o r renovation and improvements. The group concludes that " d e s p i t e generous allowances f o r overhead, [the Non-Public Housing S o c i e t y ] can achieve f i n a n c i a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y without having to seek a d d i t i o n a l sources of revenue." (AWG 1985, p. v, o r i g i n a l emphasis) The v i a b l e o p e r a t i o n of the Housing S o c i e t y i s c o n t i n g e n t upon: a. married q u a r t e r p o r t f o l i o being t r a n s f e r r e d to the Housing S o c i e t y b. the Housing S o c i e t y being s e l f s u s t a i n i n g and e n j o y i n g exemption from the e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s inherent i n the e x i s t i n g DND o p e r a t i o n c. r e c o g n i t i o n by DND that c e r t a i n o p e r a t i n g c o s t s should not be borne by married q u a r t e r occupants and that these c o s t s be reimbursed to the Housing S o c i e t y as an accepted " m i l i t a r y cost of doing business" d. the Housing S o c i e t y i s a b l e to r e t a i n o p e r a t i n g revenues and s u r p l u s e s , and o b t a i n other sources of funds f o r c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s as necessary, through p r i v a t e or p u b l i c sources 102 3.4 OPTION C - NO HOUSING PROVIDED The other extreme to p r o v i d i n g complete p u b l i c housing i s the o p t i o n of not p r o v i d i n g any housing at a l l . In some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , t h i s would be more i n l i n e with government p o l i c y which s t a t e s that (Treasury Board 1981, p. 1): " I t i s the p o l i c y of the government t h a t , under normal circumstances, employees are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e c u r i n g t h e i r own l i v i n g accommodation. However, the Crown s h a l l p rovide such accommodation f o r employees when: (a) i t i s an o p e r a t i o n a l requirement and i t i s necessary to combine the employee's accommodation and place of work (such as at a i r p o r t s , n a t i o n a l parks, l o c k s on c a n a l s , and radar s t a t i o n s ) , (b) i t i s c l e a r l y advantageous to have the employee r e s i d e at or near the job l o c a t i o n (such as at a g r i c u l t u r a l or r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s ) , or (c) no s u i t a b l e l i v i n g accommodation i s a v a i l a b l e i n the v i c i n i t y . " T h i s p o l i c y o p t i o n would e n v i s i o n the d i s p o s a l of the married q u a r t e r p o r t f o l i o at a l l urban and semi-urban bases. In accordance with a r t i c l e (c) above, the more i s o l a t e d s i t e s where no s u i t a b l e l i v i n g accommodation i s a v a i l a b l e c o u l d r e t a i n e x i s t i n g housing s t o c k s . 3.4.1 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e would remain unchanged. S e c t i o n s w i t h i n the department that e x i s t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o support the married q u a r t e r o p e r a t i o n would be e l i m i n a t e d . Other bases agencies would be reduced an amount a p p r o p r i a t e to compensate f o r t h e i r decreased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s estimated that approximately 460 P u b l i c S e r v i c e p o s t i o n s c o u l d be d e c l a r e d 1 03 redundant i f the need to operate MQs was t r a n s f e r r e d to a separate o r g a n i z a t i o n . (AWG 1985, p. v) Any a d d i t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s or s e r v i c e s c r e a t e d to support the general m i l i t a r y community l i v i n g in p r i v a t e l y secured accommodation would be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . 3.4.2 Housing D i s p o s a l Assuming that housing was no longer provided f o r m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s the p o r t f o l i o at urban and semi-urban bases c o u l d be d i sposed o f . S e c t i o n 3.1.2 i d e n t i f i e d some unique ways that the e n t i r e married q u a r t e r community c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d to the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y or a d m i n i s t e r e d through self-government. A l t e r n a t e l y , DND c o u l d d i v e s t i t s e l f of the housing p o r t f o l i o by p u b l i c s a l e of the housing stock. T h i s s a l e c o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d i n a number of ways: to m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s o n l y , to the general p u b l i c , or to p r i v a t e l a n d l o r d e n t r e preneurs. No c o n c l u s i v e d i s p o s a l technique to support t h i s o p t i o n i s suggested; f o r the purposes of the e v a l u a t i o n i t i s assumed that i n t h i s o p t i o n m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s would be o b l i g e d to o b t a i n p r i v a t e accom-modation through e i t h e r the p r i v a t e r e n t a l or purchase markets. The relinquishment of housing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by DND would remove the unfavourable " l a n d l o r d / t e n a n t " r e l a t i o n s h i p that e x i s t s , and i s unavoidable r e g a r d l e s s of the l e v e l of s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d . S i m i l a r l y , removal of the maintenance, c o n s t r u c t i o n , and l a n d s c a p i n g c o n s t r a i n t s on the occupants of married q u a r t e r s (as they would now be p r i v a t e l y owned) w i l l enhance the "ghetto" type atmosphere that predominates married q u a r t e r communities. 1 04 The c u r r e n t "ugly but adequate" impression of the housing stock w i l l slowly be upgraded enhancing the community environment as homeowners i n v e s t time and money to improve t h e i r homes and secure t h e i r investments. Concurrent with the s a l e of the housing stock a s h i f t i n p o l i c y emphasis c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d from the e x i s t i n g p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c housing to about one-half of the married f a m i l i e s , to the implementation of a comprehensive p o l i c y i n v o l v i n g s a l a r y and b e n e f i t s which c o u l d be enjoyed by a l l m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . Such b e n e f i t s c o u l d i n pa r t compensate f o r any p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l impact r e s u l t i n g from the l o s s of the married q u a r t e r community. 3 . 4 . 3 Cost T h i s o p t i o n assumes that DND has a r r i v e d at a stage i n i t s e v o l v i n g development where i t may no longer be able to a f f o r d — - o r need to c a r r y — t h e high c o s t s of o p e r a t i n g f a m i l y housing. I f there remains no need f o r housing i t c o u l d be dis p o s e d o f . However, t h i s would not e l i m i n a t e the c o r p o r a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of DND to ensure that s u i t a b l e accommodation i s a v a i l a b l e f o r m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s so that the m o b i l i t y or o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of DND i s not j e o p a r d i z e d . However, accommodation a s s i s t a n c e programs other than the p r o v i s o n of housing c o u l d be co n s i d e r e d to reduce the s o c i a l impacts r e s u l t i n g from the unique l i f e s t y l e of the m i l i t a r y . I t would be l o g i c a l to assume that i f DND i s w i l l i n g to provide p u b l i c housing at e x t e n s i v e c o s t (supposedly to reduce the s o c i a l impacts on f a m i l i e s ) , then i t would a l s o c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t e programs which may provide e q u i v a l e n t s o c i a l b e n e f i t s at a reduced c o s t . 105 DND has been q u i t e p r o g r e s s i v e in i t s r e l o c a t i o n b e n e f i t s over the past decade and pr o v i d e s b e n e f i t s e q u i v a l e n t to what the Conference Board of Canada survey i d e n t i f i e s as a "Standard R e l o c a t i o n Package". ( C h a r t i e r 1982, pp. x i v - x v i ) Such r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e s : moving expenses (both p o s s e s s i o n s and f a m i l y ) , house-hunting t r i p , lump-sum payment as " d i s r u p t i o n " allowance, r e a l e s t a t e and l e g a l f e e s , and temporary l i v i n g expenses. Programs beyond the standard package which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d are ( C h a r t i e r 1982, pp. x v i - x v i i ) : a. a guaranteed home s a l e plan b. employee loans, both short and long term c. s u b s i d i e s f o r v a r i o u s c o s t of l i v i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l s , such as mortgage i n t e r e s t r a t e s and housing While i t i s not the i n t e n t of t h i s t h e s i s to e s t a b l i s h a r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y f o r DND, the b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g to m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s through r e l o c a t i o n a f f e c t the c r i t i c a l s o c i a l impacts inherent i n t h e i r nomadic l i f e s t y l e . Increased r e l o c a t i o n b e n e f i t s can o f f s e t some of the apprehension i n s e c u r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e accommodation (Wikstrom 1975, p. 14). For example, a guaranteed s a l e plan which a l s o guaranteed no l o s s i n s a l e p r i c e , e s p e c i a l l y i f combined with low i n t e r e s t loans, would enable many m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s to enter the p r i v a t e housing market with l i t t l e concern. The f e a s i b i l i t y and implementation of such programs must be c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t of the t o t a l impact on the m i l i t a r y community. Should the e v a l u a t i o n of p o l i c y o p t i o n s undertaken i n Chapter 4 determine that t h i s p o l i c y o p t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y s a t i s f i e s the s o c i a l concerns of the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y , then i t s economic f e a s i b i l i t y would be e v a l u a t e d f u r t h e r . 106 3.5 PROVISION OF SERVICES Table 3-1 i d e n t i f i e d the s e r v i c e s that c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y be d u p l i c a t e d through s e r v i c e s being p r o v i d e d by both DND and the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . These s e r v i c e s have been eva l u a t e d i n past DND s t u d i e s mainly from the view of economic e f f i c i e n c y : i t i s i l l o g i c a l to provide a DND s e r v i c e when an e q u i v a l e n t one i s a v a i l a b l e from the l o c a l community and i s being p a i d f o r anyway through GILT. T h i s t h e s i s i s not concerned with the f i n a n c i a l concerns of e f f i c i e n c y , but i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e v a l u a t i n g what the optimum method of s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n i s to compensate f o r the s o c i a l impacts of the unique m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . The s e r v i c e s were g e n e r a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s and the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n or e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . The d i s c u s s i o n in t h i s s e c t i o n i s more d e s c r i p t i v e i n nature and i d e n t i f i e s the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the v a r i o u s methods f o r each s e r v i c e . A more d e t a i l e d q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the s o c i a l impacts e x i s t s i n chapter 4, where s i x t e e n s o c i a l impacts are e v a l u a t e d through the d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y o p t i o n s . 3.5.1 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s The m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s i s e a s i l y q u a n t i f i e d i n f i n a n c i a l terms. However, the s o c i a l impacts r e s u l t i n g from a p e r c e i v e d e r o s i o n of the m i l i t a r y community are not so e a s i l y measured. T h i s t h e s i s develops a framework which enables such i n t a n g i b l e and incommensurable v a r i a b l e s to be 1 07 c o n s i d e r e d so that they may become a s u b s t a n t i v e input i n the decision-making process. The ten p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s i d e n t i f i e d i n Table 3-1 have been grouped i n t o s e r v i c e areas which e x h i b i t s i m i l a r impacts, and the advantages and disadvantages r e s u l t i n g from m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n are d i s c u s s e d . The s e r v i c e groupings a r e : 1 . F i r e P r o t e c t i o n 2. Roads and S i d e w a l k s / S a n i t a r y and Storm Sewers/Water L i n e s 3. Gas and E l e c t r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Systems/Street L i g h t i n g 4. Garbage D i s p o s a l and Snow Removal F i r e P r o t e c t i o n . F i r e p r o t e c t i o n f o r DND s i t e s i s p r o v i d e d by a combination of m u n i c i p a l f i r e departments and DND operated f i r e h a l l s and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . In many cases DND bases and f a c i l i t i e s are unique and are beyond the scope of some municip a l f i r e departments. For example, DND o p e r a t i o n a l a i r f i e l d s , e x p l o s i v e storage areas, and high s e c u r i t y i n s t a l l a t i o n s . These o p e r a t i o n a l f a c t o r s g e n e r a l l y d i c t a t e the s e l e c t i o n between e i t h e r m i l i t a r y or m u n i c i p a l f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . However, f i r e p r o t e c t i o n i s much more than simply the f i r e f i g h t i n g o p e r a t i o n i t s e l f ; i t i s a l s o f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i n the form of e n g i n e e r i n g , education and enforcement. Through t h i s combination of p r o t e c t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n DND has maintained an e n v i a b l e r e c o r d of f i r e l o s s e s as compared with the Canadian average (Table 3-2). While the p e r c e i v e d higher standard of p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i d e d to m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s i s beyond that expected in a t y p i c a l Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t y , i t has s t i l l become the norm among married q u a r t e r occupants. The e l i m i n a t i o n of the m i l i t a r y f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e , while r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s e l f i s compounded when s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s a f f o r d e d the m i l i t a r y community are a l s o e l i m i n a t e d . S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the m i l i t a r y above and 108 Table 3-2 COMPARISON OF DND AND CANADIAN FIRE LOSSES (1982) Canada DND 1 . Loss per F i r e $5,723 $1,895 2. Per C a p i t a Loss/Year $18.05 $ 2.35 3. F i r e Death Rate per 100,000 37.39 0.41 (Source: D U t i l MS 1984, p. 12) beyond that normally a v a i l a b l e i n the much l a r g e r s e r v i c e area of a t y p i c a l m u n i c i p a l f i r e department ar e : a. regular i n s p e c t i o n s of accommodation b. a s s i s t a n c e i n the s e r v i c i n g of f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment such as smoke alarms and e x t i n g u i s h e r s . c. unscheduled i n s p e c t i o n s upon request d. i n d i v i d u a l f i r e f i g h t i n g and f i r e p r e v e n t i o n t r a i n i n g In summary, w h i l e - s u i t a b l e s t r u c t u r a l f i r e p r o t e c t i o n may be a v a i l a b l e from the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y i t i s necessary to c o n s i d e r any m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of the f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e i n c o n j u n c t i o n with a l l s e r v i c e s being p r o v i d e d to the m i l i t a r y community. Any e x t e n s i v e r e d u c t i o n of even s u p e r f i c i a l s e r v i c e s such as f i r e p r o t e c t i o n c o u l d r e s u l t i n i n c o r r e c t p e r c e p t i o n s that the m i l i t a r y i s no longer i n t e r e s t e d i n " t a k i n g care of i t s own ". 109 Roads and S i d e w a l k s / S a n i t a r y and Storm Sewers/Water L i n e s . These m u n i c i p a l f u n c t i o n s have been grouped together because i t i s d i f f i c u l t to do anything to one which does not impact on the o t h e r s . Normally the sewer and water systems are i n the ground under roads or w i t h i n the road allowances. There i s concern that DND w i l l experience " l o s s of c o n t r o l " i f the roads are turned over to m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The roads would become p u b l i c thoroughfares and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g access to p e d l a r s , s o l i c i t o r s , or other u n d e s i r a b l e s would s h i f t from DND to the i n d i v i d u a l MQ occupants, the same as i n any c i v i l i a n neighbourhood. In urban areas where DND r e t a i n s o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l and maintenance of sewer, water l i n e s , and roads they may f i n d themselves becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t e d from the c i t i e s expanding around them. They c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y become an anachronism, l a r g e l y l e f t out of the c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r r e g i o n a l sewage and water systems, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes, etc (Freedman 1976, p. 78). As such, i t i s important f o r DND planners to enter i n t o j o i n t land-use planning with other l o c a l government agencies. (Low 1979, pp. 22-24) T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y important i f c o n t r o l of m u n i c i p a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s r e t a i n e d by DND. The main concern to the m i l i t a r y community i s the q u e s t i o n of the s o c i a l impacts r e s u l t i n g from the opening up of what has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a very c l o s e d and c o n t r o l l e d environment. The "Neighbourhood Watch" type programs encouraged i n l o c a l communities due to i n c r e a s i n g need ( C a n c e l l i e r 1984, p. 6), have 1 10 never been necessary i n married quarter communities as everyone knows each other, and o u t s i d e r s are c l o s e l y watched both by community members, and the p r i v a t e m i l i t a r y p o l i c e f o r c e . M u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e s the number of i n d i v i d u a l s e x t e r n a l to the married q u a r t e r community who have l e g i t i m a t e a c c e s s . T h i s p e r c e i v e d i n t r u s i o n reduces some of the p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s of a strong cohesive community. Of equal c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s that the nonstandard, r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d m i l i t a r y environment that has t r a d i t i o n a l l y e x i s t e d a l s o may provide some- concern to those members of the married q u a r t e r community who would p r e f e r an environment more t y p i c a l of g e n e r a l Canadian s o c i e t y (Stanton 1976, p. 138). Gas and E l e c t r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Systems and S t r e e t L i g h t i n g . While the s e r v i c e s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s paragraph are t y p i c a l l y m u n i c i p a l l y owned, operated, and c o n t r o l l e d , gas and e l e c t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n systems need not n e c e s s a r i l y be m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . Even where they are owned by the m u n i c i p a l i t y they are u s u a l l y run as revenue-dependent agencies of the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y . As such, the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n or e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of such s e r v i c e s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s l e g i t i m a t e i n t r u s i o n i n t o the m i l i t a r y community, as maintenance i s r e q u i r e d and meters must be read r e g u l a r l y . On t r u l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d bases there i s no a l t e r n a t i v e : DND must supply t h e i r own power. On any other base one a l t e r n a t i v e i s to buy the gas and e l e c t r i c i t y from the "wholesaler" at the gate, and d i s t r i b u t e i t w i t h i n the base MQ area as w e l l as the o p e r a t i o n a l areas. T h i s procedure was common at most bases p r i o r 1 1 1 to 1975, u n t i l a Treasury Board D e c i s i o n 11 March 1975 d i r e c t e d that "...wherever p r a c t i c a b l e , usage of u t i l i t i e s (heat, l i g h t and water) s h a l l be i n d i v i d u a l l y metered, and the occupant s h a l l pay the amounts b i l l e d d i r e c t l y to the s u p p l i e r . . . " (D U t i l MS 1984, p. 20) Since that time most bases have turned over gas and e l e c t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n systems w i t h i n MQ areas to l o c a l s u p p l i e r s of u t i l i t i e s . While t h i s c o n v e r s i o n has proven to be very c o s t e f f e c t i v e , in a d d i t i o n to making occupants more energy c o n s c i o u s , i t i s another incremental e r o s i o n of the c l o s e d environment. While i t i s s t a t e d that no " l o s s of c o n t r o l " has been experienced by the communities that have converted (D U t i l MS 1984, p. 21) t h i s comment i s u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d as such an e f f e c t r e a l i s t i c a l l y i s unmeasurable. As t h i s method of s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n i s p r a c t i c e d throughout c i v i l i a n communities and has become the accepted method throughout Canada, i t i s not a n t i c i p a t e d t h at e f f e c t s on the married q u a r t e r community would be s i g n i f i c a n t , i f any. However, the accumulated a f f e c t s of these minor changes may be e r o d i n g the m i l i t a r y community. Garbage D i s p o s a l and Snow Removal. Comments re g a r d i n g the e r o s i o n of the married q u a r t e r community r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s e d i n t r u s i o n d i s c u s s e d i n other s e r v i c e p r o v i s o n areas, a l s o r e l a t e to these two s e r v i c e s and w i l l not be e l a b o r a t e d f u r t h e r . To enable the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of these s e r v i c e s i t i s necessary to f i r s t t r a n s f e r ownership of the roads and sidewalks. T h i s i s r e q u i r e d to ensure that the o r g a n i z a t i o n that i s damaging the roads (as t y p i c a l l y happens d u r i n g snow c l e a r i n g o p e r a t i o n s ) i s 1 12 the same one that maintains them. For garbage d i s p o s a l , some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have argued that they w i l l p r ovide the e q u i v a l e n t s e r v i c e to DND as i t does f o r any other rate-payer: by p i c k i n g the garbage up at the edge of the "customer's p r o p e r t y " . Unless the roads are owned by the m u n i c i p a l i t y door-to-door garbage pickup i s seen as impossible f o r some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 3.5.2 S o c i a l S e r v i c e s While for p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s economic f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s seem r e l a t i v e l y easy to q u a n t i f y but measurement of the s o c i a l impacts i s d i f f i c u l t ; i n c o n s i d e r i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r the m i l i t a r y community both economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s are d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . The s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s that are c o n s i d e r e d f o r e i t h e r i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n or e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n — a s the s e r v i c e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by e i t h e r DND or the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y at most urban or semi-urban b a s e s — are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , and are e v a l u a t e d i n Chapter 4. The s e r v i c e s d i s c u s s e d are: 1. Dependent's Education 2. P o l i c e P r o t e c t i o n 3. S o c i a l and Welfare S e r v i c e s 4. R e c r e a t i o n 5. P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Dependents's Educ a t i o n. In view of the f a c t t h at Crown lands are not t a x a b l e , DND r e c o g n i z e s i t s o b l i g a t i o n , as a l a n d l o r d , to p rovide f o r the education of dependent c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as, s e r v i c e and c i v i l i a n personnel r e s i d i n g on Crown lands. DND d e r i v e s i t a u t h o r i t y to provide t h i s education from Order i n C o u n c i l P.C. 1977-4/3280 dated 17 November 1977. (D U t i l MS 1984, p. 7) T h i s Order a l s o a f f o r d s dependent c h i l d r e n of 113 s e r v i c e personnel the o p p o r t u n i t y to attend schools where the language of i n s t r u c t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t with the language used i n the home, as w e l l as the p o l i c y i n t e n t of the O f f i c i a l Languages Act. Under t h i s a u t h o r i t y students attend e i t h e r a Dependent's School or a l o c a l m u n i c i p a l school (upon DND's payment of non-r e s i d e n t school f e e s ) . D e t a i l s of the p r o f i l e of the DND Dependent's School System have been provided i n s e c t i o n 2.2.4. DND sc h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those at the elementary l e v e l , are an i n t e g r a l and e s s e n t i a l element of the married q u a r t e r community (Pressman 1976, p. 184). Since s c h o o l i n g i s the s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n to the M u n i c i p a l Grants Act (see s e c t i o n 3.1.2), DND i s capable of o p e r a t i n g i t s own schools without having to be concerned with the d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , and the payment of mun i c i p a l s e r v i c e s not r e c e i v e d . The o p e r a t i o n of DND schools i s l i n k e d d i r e c t l y with the e x i s t e n c e of a married q u a r t e r community owned and operated by DND. T h e r e f o r e , i f no housing was pro v i d e d by DND i t would continue to pay GILT e q u i v a l e n t to school tax on i t s "commercial" base s t r u c t u r e , however, the students would a t t e n d l o c a l s c h o o l s . One of the d i s t i n c t advantages of the DND Dependent's School System i s the improved c o n t i n u i t y i n education which i s not a v a i l a b l e when c h i l d r e n are r e q u i r e d to r e g u l a r l y t r a n s f e r between p r o v i n c i a l school systems. The DND system i s very understanding of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d with r e l o c a t i o n and has e s t a b l i s h e d methods and procedures to accommodate students to reduce the s o c i a l impact. Since the r e d u c t i o n of GILT f o r school s e r v i c e s i s the only 1 1 4 e x c e p t i o n allowed i n MGA 1980 ( M u n i c i p a l Grants Act, 1980, para 6 ( a ) ( i ) ) , the economic pressure to e x t e r n a l i z e the school system has not been as strong as the movement towards m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s . However, s i n c e schools are an i n t e g r a l element i n a community, any change i n the school system must be viewed in c o n j u n c t i o n with i t s a f f e c t upon the e n t i r e married q u a r t e r community. S i m i l a r l y , dependent's education must be c o n s i d e r e d when developing p o l i c y f o r the married q u a r t e r community. P o l i c e P r o t e c t i o n . M i l i t a r y P o l i c e (MP) a l s o form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of each base. The involvement and d u t i e s of MP have evolved d i f f e r e n t l y at each s i t e depending on such f a c t o r s as l o c a l c i v i l i a n p o l i c e a v a i l a b i l i t y , the degree of acceptance of f u l l peace o f f i c e r powers f o r MP, whims of l o c a l c o u r t s , and the p e r c e i v e d g r a v i t y of c e r t a i n o f f e n c e s w i t h i n the r e s p e c t i v e m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n systems. By law, c e r t a i n p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s must be c o n s i d e r e d a v i r t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c i v i l i a n p o l i c e p e r o g a t i v e . For example, impaired d r i v i n g , murder, manslaughter, sexual o f f e n c e s and most drug cases. (D U t i l MS 1984, p. 10) As would be expected i n the m i l i t a r y , commander's p o l i c i e s are t y p i c a l l y e n f o r c e d more r i g i d l y than m u n i c i p a l by-laws. S i m i l a r l y , with the exception of the s p e c i f i c o f f e n c e s which are w i t h i n the e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n of c i v i l i a n c o u r t s , MP give the f i r s t c h o i c e of t r i b u n a l to Commanding O f f i c e r ' s of s u b j e c t s of MP i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s a b i l i t y i s a premise upon which the Code of S e r v i c e D i s c i p l i n e ( N a t i o n a l Defence Act, Part IV) was founded, and impacts upon the 1 15 c o h e s i v e n e s s a n d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a u n i t . T h r o u g h t h i s s y s t e m t h e C o m m a n d i n g O f f i c e r i s c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h a n i n f r a c t i o n i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e u n i t a s a w h o l e , w i t h s p e c i f i c r e g a r d t o m i l i t a r y i n t e r e s t s a n d c o n c e r n s . T o c i v i l i a n i z e t h e p o l i c e f o r c e w o u l d r e m o v e t h i s i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t f r o m t h e i r p o s i t i o n o f c o m m a n d . MP a l s o h a v e a n u m b e r o f a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e made i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i r u s e a s t h e s i t u a t i o n d i c t a t e s . F o r e x a m p l e , p a d r e s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , f i r e m a r s h a l s , u n i t d u t y p e r s o n n e l , a n d m e d i c a l p e r s o n n e l . A l l o f t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s a r e d r a w n f r o m a r e s o u r c e b a s e w h o s e t h r e s h o l d k n o w l e d g e l e v e l a n d h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r - a c t i o n i s g e a r e d t o w a r d s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t f o r a c i v i l i a n p o l i c e f o r c e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c o p e w i t h t h e same v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s . M i l i t a r y P o l i c e t e n d t o p r e s e n t t h e r e s u l t s o f a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e f o r e a c o m m a n d i n g o f f i c e r a n d t h e n w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s c e n e u n l e s s c a l l e d u p o n a s a w i t n e s s . C i v i l i a n p o l i c e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d t e n d t o t h i n k " p r o s e c u t i o n " a n d , . i n d e e d , may a c t a s p r o s e c u t o r when an o f f e n c e o c c u r s . T h i s w o u l d r e d u c e t h e r o l e o f c o m m a n d i n g o f f i c e r s t o , s u b m i t t i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s o f c i v i l c o n v i c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p u n i s h m e n t s b a s e d o n s e r v i c e o r u n i t i n t e r e s t s . S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s w o u l d l i k e l y s u f f e r f r o m t h e i m p e r s o n a l a p p r o a c h t h a t w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m c i v i l i a n p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s b e n e f i t s t o a c l o s e d e n v i r o n m e n t c o m p l e t e w i t h s e l f - p o l i c i n g , i t a l s o c r e a t e s a f e e l i n g o f " l i v i n g 1 16 in a f i s h b o w l " . T h i s f i s h b o w l e f f e c t , as d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 2.4.6, adds some f a m i l y s t r e s s , as the f a t h e r works in the same environment in which the f a m i l y l i v e s , and the c h i l d r e n p l a y and go to school (Stanton 1976, p. 138). Any i n f r a c t i o n committed by a f a m i l y member i s l i k e l y to be d i s c u s s e d with the m i l i t a r y parent's s u p e r v i s o r . T h i s example in i t s e l f has b e n e f i t s and c o s t s , as d i s c u s s i n g the i n f r a c t i o n i n t h i s manner may e l i m i n a t e the pursuance of a c i v i l c o n v i c t i o n , while on the other hand, i t may i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e the m i l i t a r y member's c a r e e r . S o c i a l and Welfare S e r v i c e s . Members of the m i l i t a r y community have access to the complete range of c i v i l i a n s o c i a l work agencies and resources that are a v a i l a b l e to members of the general community. The s e r v i c e s commonly o f f e r e d i n any c i v i l i a n community i n c l u d e such t h i n g s as c h i l d w e l f a r e • s e r v i c e s (adoptions, f o s t e r placements, c h i l d abuse, c o u n s e l l i n g ) and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e (emergency welfare and welfare payments to f a m i l i e s who f a l l below p r o v i n c i a l poverty l i n e s ) . As w e l l , there are u s u a l l y a number of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t agencies that c a t e r to s p e c i f i c problems, ( i e , a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the mentally r e t a r d e d , m u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s s o c i e t y , a l c o h o l i c s anonymous, e t c ) . The c h o i c e of r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e d i r e c t l y from c i v i l i a n agencies or through m i l i t a r y s o c i a l workers has always been a v a i l a b l e . The c i v i l i a n community can o f f e r t h i n g s that cannot be p r o v i d e d by m i l i t a r y s o c i a l workers such as the above mentioned s e r v i c e s . On the other hand, m i l i t a r y s o c i a l workers can do t h i n g s f o r the m i l i t a r y community that c i v i l i a n agencies cannot. Examples of these would i n c l u d e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and 1 17 r e p o r t i n g of compassionate s i t u a t i o n s through the c h a i n of command, with a p p r o p r i a t e recommendations f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and caree r a u t h o r i t i e s . F u r t h e r , because m i l i t a r y s o c i a l workers are f a m i l i a r with the p a r t i c u l a r requirements of the m i l i t a r y community and problems a s s o c i a t e d with the unique m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n , they are b e t t e r s u i t e d to provide a s s i s t a n c e i n many s i t u a t i o n s . The m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s as they e x i s t , seem to complement one another and the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by both w i l l continue to be r e q u i r e d by s e r v i c e f a m i l i e s . Those formal support s e r v i c e s such as s o c i a l workers, d o c t o r s , d e n t i s t s , lawyers, and c h a p l a i n s have been part of Canada's m i l i t a r y f o r years. However, the more i n f o r m a l support systems that augment the s e r v i c e s of these p r o f e s s i o n a l s are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important. The development of these subordinate support s e r v i c e s have r e a l l y o n l y begun i n the m i l i t a r y community s i n c e the e a r l y 1980s. (Dorge 1987, pp. 10-11) One of the more i n f o r m a l s e r v i c e areas that i s i n c r e a s i n g i n need both i n Canadian s o c i e t y and the m i l i t a r y community i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u i t a b l e c h i l d - c a r e ( G a l i n s k y 1986, p. 132). While t h i s i s not the s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e i t h e r m i l i t a r y or c i v i l i a n p u b l i c agencies, i t i s s t i l l a necessary s e r v i c e f o r the community. T y p i c a l l y i t i s pro v i d e d e i t h e r by p r i v a t e entrepreneurs or n o n - p r o f i t a g e n c i e s . DND as the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of non-public a c t i v i t i e s on m i l i t a r y bases must be encouraged to i n i t i a t e the c r e a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n of such s e r v i c e s . As a r e s u l t of a 1984-85 M i l i t a r y Family Study, DND has proposed the 1 18 establishment of a Forces' wide Family Support Program that would e v e n t u a l l y lead to a common base l i n e of support s e r v i c e s on every base. (Personnel Newsletter 1987, p. 4) Re c r e a t i o n . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the m i l i t a r y community i s t r e a t e d s i m i l a r to that of the other s e r v i c e s d i s c u s s e d , i e . the m i l i t a r y has p a i d f o r equal treatment through i t s payment o'f GILT. Members of married q u a r t e r communities are e l i g i b l e f o r the same s e r v i c e s as other r e s i d e n t s , however, a v a r i e t y of reasons e x i s t as to why they e i t h e r do not r e c e i v e , or do not use mu n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The reasons i n c l u d e : a. i n most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the demand f o r s e r v i c e s f a r exceeds the resources a v a i l a b l e , and the MQ area, with a t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i n an ou t - o f - t h e way corner of the m u n i c i p a l i t y has great d i f f i c u l t y i n competing with neighbourhoods composed of long term tax-payers f o r a f a i r share of what i s a v a i l a b l e b. m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are r e l u c t a n t to b u i l d f a c i l i t i e s or operate programs not on m u n i c i p a l l y owned land c. bases are r e l u c t a n t to accept m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s because of p o s s i b l e l o s s of c o n t r o l , expected requests f o r u n c o n t r o l l e d access f o r other p e r s o n n e l , and the gene r a l i n t r u s i o n i n t o the married q u a r t e r community and base. R e c r e a t i o n and i t s d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of m i l i t a r y members i s h i g h l y regarded i n the m i l i t a r y . As a r e s u l t a l a r g e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e has been c r e a t e d at bases to ensure that m i l i t a r y personnel have the o p p o r t u n i t y to remain f i t . R e c r e a t i o n and s p o r t s a l s o p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n the m i l i t a r y i n d o c t r i n a t i o n program. T h i s p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n programs d i r e c t e d mainly at the young s i n g l e male has r e s u l t e d i n s e r v i c e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o c u s i n g on s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 119 However, a number of s p e c i a l t y i n t e r e s t a c t i v i t i e s have a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d at most bases. As a r e s u l t of t h i s e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a s p e c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e e x s i t s at each base to c o o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s . The r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h i s " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l " i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 2.5.2. I t i s c l e a r that the r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d to the m i l i t a r y community are, on a per c a p i t a b a s i s , more ext e n s i v e than those provided to most c i v i l i a n communities. In a d d i t i o n , members of the m i l i t a r y community a l s o have access to these m u n i c i p a l programs i f they d e s i r e . As such, any e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l -service w i l l r e s u l t i n a decrease in the t o t a l s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e to the m i l i t a r y community. Conversely, the e xtension of some m i l i t a r y programs to the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n has been conducted at some bases. T h i s has enabled the expansion or improvement of some programs which are not a l r e a d y f u l l y u t i l i z e d . P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h i s i s a s e r v i c e that the m i l i t a r y community r e l i e s e n t i r e l y upon the m u n i c i p a l i t y to p r o v i d e . In p a r t t h i s i s due to the r e l a t i v e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t community environment c r e a t e d by the m i l i t a r y , which had e l i m i n a t e d the need to t r a v e l . As u r b a n i z a t i o n of the l o c a l community sprawled towards and engulfed many bases the need f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to nearby business, and s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e d . S i m i l a r l y , as base s e r v i c e s became more m u n i c i p a l i z e d or e x t e r n a l i z e d , t r a v e l o u t s i d e of the base became more necessary. It i s apparent that past l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by base personnel 1 2 0 i n j o i n t community pl a n n i n g has r e s u l t e d i n a lower q u a l i t y of mun i c i p a l s e r v i c e being p r o v i d e d to the m i l i t a r y community, e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . (Low 1979, p. 49) P o t e n t i a l l y , i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by base personnel i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s should provide an op p o r t u n i t y f o r i n c r e a s e d or improved s e r v i c e s f o r the m i l i t a r y community. Increased involvement by DND i n the p r o v i s i o n of i t s own p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s not a n t i c i p a t e d . As such, i t i s important that base personnel p r o v i d e more input i n t o m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to ensure that e q u i t a b l e l e v e l s of s e r v i c e are maintained f o r a l l ra t e - p a y e r s , i n c l u d i n g the married q u a r t e r community. 121 3.6 SUMMARY Thi s chapter has d i s c u s s e d the three main f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the s t r u c t u r e of the m i l i t a r y community: housing, community s e r v i c e s , and the choice of whether to l i v e on or o f f base. Emphasis i s p l a c e d on three wide ranging p o l i c y o p t i o n s f o r housing the m i l i t a r y community, as w e l l as the options to e i t h e r e x t e r n a l i z e or i n t e r n a l i z e community support s e r v i c e s . These p o l i c y options were d e a l t with in d e t a i l to ensure that they were p r o p e r l y understood p r i o r to t h e i r assessment in terms of the r e l a t i v e s o c i a l impacts on the f a m i l y r e s u l t i n g from each. The three housing o p t i o n s encompassed a wide range of o p t i o n s s t r e t c h i n g from complete p u b l i c housing to no housing at a l l . A t h i r d o p t i o n , to c r e a t e a non-public housing s o c i e t y , was chosen to p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y to evaluate a housing s t r u c t u r e which remained e x c l u s i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d by DND, but o u t s i d e of the t y p i c a l government bureaucracy. T h i s enables the r e t e n t i o n of the married quarter community, but puts i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at arms l e n g t h from the day-to-day, base l e v e l m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n . Costs f o r each housing o p t i o n were d i s c u s s e d s u p e r f i c i a l l y to i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e c o s t s of each. Option A, the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c housing through the e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e imposes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t on DND; d e s p i t e the f a c t that i t has no land c o s t , no debt s e r v i c e to r e t i r e c a p i t a l , and no p r o f i t requirement. However, t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s more c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y , and allows them to maintain the t r a d i t i o n a l m i l i t a r y community valu e s and systems that have been 1 22 s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o v i d i n g a s t a b l e community environment. I t has been estimated t h a t Option B, the c r e a t i o n of a Housing S o c i e t y o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e of the s t r i c t DND r e g u l a t o r y s t r u c t u r e c o u l d operate the e x i s t i n g married q u a r t e r p o r t f o l i o at a s l i g h t p r o f i t . Included i n t h i s estimate i s the acknowledgement by DND that i t must accept i t s share of non-standard housing expenses as "the c o s t of doing b u s i n e s s " . T h i s s t r u c t u r e would enable the r e t e n t i o n of most of the t r a d i t i o n a l married q u a r t e r community s t r u c t u r e s , but would r e l i e v e DND of the unpleasant and negative l a n d l o r d / t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Option C, to p rovide no housing at a l l , would enable the d i s p o s a l of a l l e x i s t i n g housing i n f r a s t r u c t u r e l o c a t e d at urban and semi-urban bases. In i t s p l a c e a l t e r n a t e accommodation a s s i s t a n c e programs would be c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s l o g i c i s based on the premise that DND would co n t i n u e to accept i t s c o r p o r a t e o b l i g a t i o n to ensure i t s employees have a c c e s s to adequate accommodation at an a f f o r d a b l e c o s t . D i s c u s s i o n of the p r o v i s i o n of community s e r v i c e s was broken down i n t o p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . P h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s e x t e r n a l i z e d to the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y are g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as " m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n " , while the e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s simply r e f e r r e d to as " e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n " . There i s a g e n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n that both m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n and e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n w i l l erode the m i l i t a r y community and u l t i m a t e l y l e a d to i t s demise, to the detriment of the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y and m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . These v a r y i n g p o l i c y o p t i o n s have been chosen to give the 123 widest breadth to the assessment f o l l o w i n g i n chapter 4. Based on the recommendations a r i s i n g from t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y o p t i o n c o u l d be developed f u r t h e r , with a c l e a r e r understanding of the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . 124 4.0 EVALUATION OF THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OF POLICY OPTIONS The more q u a n t i f i a b l e elements of the accommodation question--such as economics—have been c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l i n past DND s t u d i e s of m i l i t a r y accommodation p o l i c y . In p a r t , t h i s has been due to t h e i r ease i n measurement and the e x i s t e n c e of an e s t a b l i s h e d framework to do so. Conversely, s o c i a l concerns impacting the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y (eventhough a high p r i o r i t y to the c o r p o r a t e l e a d e r s i n DND) have only s u p e r f i c i a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d due to the l i m i t e d knowledge: f i r s t , of the impacts, and second, of how to i n c o r p o r a t e what l i t t l e was known about these impacts i n t o the decision-making p r o c e s s . T h i s predicament i s common in most assessments, and t y p i f i e s the adage " I f you can't do i t , ignore i t . " (Peterson and Gemmell 1981, p. 394) Even the Department of Economic and Regional Expansion (DREE), which i n i n t r o d u c i n g a paper on s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y communities i d e n t i f i e d that "while the economic problems appear most obvious, i t i s the s o c i a l problems... which make s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y communities i n Canada a s a l i e n t area f o r p o l i c y p l a n n i n g . " (DREE 1977, p. 2) They then proceed to e s t a b l i s h a framework which ignores s o c i a l impacts, s t a t i n g "A multitude of s o c i a l concerns are excluded from t h i s [framework] as many of them are not r e a d i l y q u a n t i f i a b l e and most are not a g g r e g a t i v e . " (1977, pp.37-38). Chapters 2 and 3 have p r o v i d e d a background and understanding of the unique m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e and the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . T h i s chapter uses t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h a framework through which the s o c i a l impacts on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y r e s u l t i n g 1 25 from accommodation policy can be evaluated. The general concepts of " s o c i a l planning", "quality of l i f e " , " s o c i a l indicators", and "s o c i a l impact assessment" are explored in the process of designing a suitable evaluation technique. The selection of a conceptual framework and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and measurement of s o c i a l impacts are discussed in d e t a i l . Ultimately, a "Planning Balance Sheet Analysis" i s completed on the selected impacts. The interpretation of t h i s analysis allows conclusions and recommendations on housing and service provision p o l i c i e s for m i l i t a r y accommodation to be drawn. 1 2 6 4.1 DEFINING SOCIAL IMPACTS There are l i t e r a l l y thousands of s c a l e s and indexes to measure s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s ( M i l l e r 1983, p. 271). The c h a l l e n g e to the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s i n being knowledgeable of the a l t e r n a t i v e s and to apply the most a p p r o p r i a t e measurement technique to the s i t u a t i o n , w i t h i n given f i n a n c i a l and time c o n s t r a i n t s . To p r o p e r l y understand the r o l e and use of s o c i a l impact assessment in the decision-making process i t i s necessary to r e a l i z e the general goals of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , and v a r i o u s methods of measuring community h e a l t h . T h i s s e c t i o n b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s the purpose and goals o f " " s o c i a l p l a n n i n g " ; d e s c r i b e s the background to the concepts of " q u a l i t y of l i f e " and " s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s " ; and then d i s c u s s e s the " s o c i a l impact assessment" process i t s e l f . T h i s leads to a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the methodology of s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n undertaken in t h i s t h e s i s . 4.1.1 S o c i a l Planning " S o c i a l Planning" i s an e l u s i v e term not s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with any p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n ( L a u f f e r 1987, p. 311), although three c l a i m to p r a c t i c e i t (Qadeer 1977, p. 86): " P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work i n v o l v e s the promotion, o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e l i v e r y of h e a l t h and welfare s e r v i c e s , and p l a n n i n g f o r these tasks i s i t s form of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Programming and p l a n n i n g f o r housing and community s e r v i c e s i s the b a s i s of urban plann i n g ' s c l a i m to the p r a c t i c e of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Contemporary planned e f f o r t s f o r n a t i o n a l development (a l a f i v e year plans) combining economic growth, s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l b u i l d i n g have a l s o been c a l l e d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . " 1 27 Even though such p l a n n i n g l e g i t i m a t e l y e x i s t s i n many f i e l d s , d i s c u s s i o n of i t in t h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d to the domain of urban p l a n n i n g ; although, some e v a l u a t i o n of s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n does extend i n t o the area of s o c i a l work. In the plann i n g of Tumbler Ridge (the most recent l a r g e s c a l e new community i n Canada), the planners saw s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and the c r e a t i o n of a formal s o c i a l plan as "...a process i n v o l v i n g r a t i o n a l decision-making and s e n s i b l e and pragmatic f o r e s i g h t to guide s o c i a l development" (Thompson et a l . 1978, p. 1). The r a t i o n a l e assumes that u n c e r t a i n t y about the fu t u r e and the r e s u l t i n g negative impacts, can be reduced by i n t e n t i o n a l d e s i g n . Planning i s c o n s i d e r e d to be b e t t e r than l e a v i n g t h i n g s to chance. I t i s a l s o l i n k e d c l o s e l y to the s o c i a l ecology concept of pl a n n i n g , which i s based on the b e l i e f that the s o c i a l process and s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y are a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the environmental s u p e r s t r u c t u r e b u i l t upon s t r e e t s , sewers, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , b u i l d i n g s , and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s , which has been a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n urban and s o c i a l l i f e (Kumove 1976, pp. 164-165). However, a d d i t i o n a l knowledge i s necessary on the f u n c t i o n i n g of communities because, " i n s p i t e of a higher q u a l i t y of p h y s i c a l environment, the r e s i d e n t s of such communities are s t i l l s u f f e r i n g from acute degrees of t e n s i o n , s t r e s s and unhappiness." (Pressman 1976, p. 170) Kumove (1976, p. 164) d e s c r i b e s the f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as the development of s o c i a l goals and p o l i c i e s , and i n d i c a t e s that p l a n n i n g should be co n s i d e r e d with regard to the f o l l o w i n g : 1) h e a l t h and pe r s o n a l development of i n d i v i d u a l s 128 2) the maintenance and s t r e n g t h e n i n g of f a m i l y l i f e 3) the development of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r other meaningful s o c i a l and community r e l a t i o n s 4) the i n t e g r a t i o n of the present r e s i d e n t s and the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s i n the new community 5) the i n t e g r a t i o n of d i v e r s e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l groups to assure s u c c e s s f u l settlement and i n t e g r a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s in the new communities and w i t h i n t h e i r region as d e f i n e d i n s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l terms S o c i a l p l a n n i n g c o u l d be used to d i r e c t s o c i a l change w i t h i n a community, or to attempt to minimize negative impacts from e x t e r n a l developments. G e n e r a l l y , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g r e c o g n i z e s that change w i t h i n a s o c i e t y i s i n e v i t a b l e . In the m i l i t a r y community the s o c i a l trends l e a d i n g to p r e s s u r e s of change are d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 2.6. These trends g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e changes i n the c h a r a c t e r of the f a m i l y , i t s values'and a t t i t u d e s . 4.1.2 Q u a l i t y of L i f e The aim of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g has been d e f i n e d as the goal of improving " q u a l i t y of l i f e " (Simmonds 1973, p. 36). While d e c l a r a t i o n s f o r the improvement of the q u a l i t y of l i f e as a n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e are easy to agree upon, there i s l i t t l e consensus on how q u a l i t y of l i f e should be d e f i n e d , measured, and f o s t e r e d (Solomon et a l . 1980, p. 224). Part of the problem stems from the y o u t h f u l n e s s of the concept. A review by S z a l a i i n t o the s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , r e v e a l e d that the term has only achieved currency i n the l a s t 20 y e a r s , and u n t i l 1979 had yet to appear i n e n c y c l o p e d i a s or d i c t i o n a r i e s (1980, pp. 7-8). 1 29 The n o t i o n of q u a l i t y of l i f e that u n d e r l i e s the study i n t h i s t h e s i s i s s i m i l a r to that expressed by Dalkey (1972, p. 9): "The n o t i o n of q u a l i t y of l i f e . . . i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from the one used by the news media, and by most p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . The more ususal meaning i s r e l a t e d to the environment and to the e x t e r n a l circumstances of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e - - p o l l u t i o n , q u a l i t y of housing, a e s t h e t i c surroundings, t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , i n c i d e n c e of crime, and the l i k e . These are important i n f l u e n c e s on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e . And they have the a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e that they appear to be more manageable by m u n i c i p a l , s t a t e , and n a t i o n a l programs than a t t i t u d e s or f e e l i n g s . But they form only a l i m i t e d aspect of the sum of s a t i s f a c t i o n s that make l i f e worthwhile. An important q u e s t i o n f o r p o l i c y i s whether they c o n s t i t u t e a major share of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s w e l l - b e i n g , or whether they are dominated by f a c t o r s such as sense of achievement, love and a f f e c t i o n , p e r c e i v e d freedom, and so on. To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , a somewhat deeper look has to be taken at q u a l i t y of l i f e as the i n d i v i d u a l e x periences i t . " Q u a l i t y of l i f e i s seen as an i n c l u s i v e concept which covers a l l a spects of l i v i n g as experienced by an i n d i v i d u a l . The environment ( n a t u r a l and man-made) o f t e n p r o v i d e s the r e f e r e n c e p o i n t as w e l l as the y a r d s t i c k f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n of h i s q u a l i t y of l i f e (Onyemelukwe 1981, p. 75). For measurement purposes, aggregated i n d i v i d u a l l i f e e xperiences are o f t e n used to assess the q u a l i t y of l i f e of a community; but t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y produce a r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the impact a community has on the q u a l i t y of l i f e of an i n d i v i d u a l (Solomon et a l . 1980, p. 224). Solomon and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have c o n c e p t u a l i z e d q u a l i t y of l i f e r e s e a r c h as f o l l o w s : (Andrews 1980, p. 275) " q u a l i t y of l i f e r e s e a r c h uses both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r s , i s concerned with the i n t e r a c t i o n of these two types of i n d i c a t o r s , draws i t s data mainly from s o c i o l o g i c a l surveys, t r i e s to analyze l i f e - q u a l i t y as an i n t e g r a l system of value frameworks, and i s o r i e n t e d to the past and the f u t u r e as w e l l as to the present." 1 30 4.1.3 S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s " S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s , the t o o l s , are needed to f i n d pathways through the maze of s o c i e t y ' s i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s . They d e l i n e a t e SOCIAL STATES, d e f i n e SOCIAL PROBLEMS, and t r a c e SOCIAL TRENDS, which by SOCIAL ENGINEERING may h o p e f u l l y be guided toward SOCIAL GOALS formulated by SOCIAL PLANNING." ( M i l l e r 1983, p. 339, o r i g i n a l emphasis) U s u a l l y one t h i n k s of q u a n t i t a t i v e measures when r e f e r r i n g to s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s ; however, the author supports Sheldon and Freeman (1970, p. 97) i n the f e e l i n g that q u a l i t a t i v e ones should a l s o be i n c l u d e d . Many of the i n d i c a t o r s of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n use would be c l a s s i f i e d as q u a n t i t a t i v e ( o b j e c t i v e ) and are the products of records taken by i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies with s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s and f u n c t i o n s (Andrews and Withey 1976, p. 5). T y p i c a l of these are the O r g a n i s a t i o n f o r Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) l i s t of s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s (OECD 1982, p. 13), which attempt to s t a n d a r d i z e a comprehensive l i s t of i n d i c a t o r s shared by member c o u n t r i e s to enable comparison. However, s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s by themselves are meaningless. "They a c q u i r e meaning and r e v e l a n c e . . . o n l y when p l a c e d i n a broader v a l u a t i v e c o n t e x t . . . t o p r o t e c t or enhance the q u a l i t y of s o c i a l l i f e . " (Olsen et a l . 1981, p. 48) Since i t i s widely agreed that the n o t i o n of q u a l i t y of l i f e i n c l u d e s important p e r c e p t u a l and s u b j e c t i v e elements, then s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s must go beyond p u r e l y q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements. While both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s can complement each other the more s u b j e c t i v e " p e r c e p t i o n " of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s w e l l - b e i n g must be captured, as i t i s h i s 131 p e r c e p t i o n s of h i s own w e l l - b e i n g , or lack of w e l l - b e i n g , that u l t i m a t e l y d e f i n e s the q u a l i t y of h i s l i v e s . Goudy (1977 p. 381) quoting Campbell et a l . s t a t e s "The repor t e d l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d i m p l i c i t l y by a set of standards h e l d by the person, i n c l u d i n g h i s image of the most a t t r a c t i v e community he has known, or has read about..." Andrews and Withey propose a set of s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s which c o n s i s t of a p a r a l l e l s e r i e s : "one i n d i c a t i n g how people themselves evaluate v a r i o u s aspects of t h e i r l i v e s ; and the other i n d i c a t i n g the e x t e r n a l or environmental c o n d i t i o n s r e l e v a n t to each of those a s p e c t s . " (1976, p.7) The assessment of " w e l l - b e i n g " i s conducted by numerous agencies i n many d i f f e r e n t ways, each with t h e i r own l o g i c , t o o l s , c o n s t r a i n t s , and purposes f o r measuring the p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic i n d i c a t o r s that they do. Standardized h e a l t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s such as M a c m i l l i a n ' s Health Opinon Survey (Popoff and T r u s c o t t 1986) or Dupuy's General Weil-Being Schedule (Popoff et a l . 1986) are examples of s u i t a b l e t o o l s f o r such measurement. The use of such s t a n d a r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s enables comparisons to be made between communities i n a d d i t i o n to the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s apparent w i t h i n any p a r t i c u l a r survey. Although the s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s r e s u l t i n g from such surveys are o f t e n employed by planners as "good s t a t i s t i c s " to rec o r d the success or f a i l u r e of s p e c i f i c programs, t h i s c o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g (Mukherjee 1981, p. 20). The h e a l t h o p i n i o n surveys noted above have been used r e c e n t l y i n the m i l i t a r y community (Popoff and T r u s c o t t 1986: Popoff et a l . 1986), and have provided i n f o r m a t i o n on which 132 elements of the community are most at r i s k or e x h i b i t p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s important and e s s e n t i a l i n understanding the e f f e c t s of the unique m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e . What such h e a l t h type surveys are i n e f f e c t i v e i n doing i s determining the s p e c i f i c impacts of v a r i o u s p o l i c y o p t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s f o l l o w s on from the work of Popoff and c o l l e a g u e s to use the i n d i c a t o r s to assess the p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s that would r e s u l t from s p e c i f i c housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n p o l i c i e s . 4.1.4 S o c i a l Impact Assessment I n s e r t i n g the term "impact" i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s , and q u a l i t y of l i f e , " i m p l i e s that a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s or might e x i s t between the impacting t h i n g and the impacted t h i n g " (Boothroyd 1978, p. 118), which i n turn deserves assessment. A v a r i e t y of techniques have been developed by economists to d e s c r i b e economic phenomena and to a i d i n t h e i r decision-making. C o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s (a technique f o r d e s c r i b i n g and q u a n t i f y i n g the advantages and disadvantages to s o c i e t y of an i n i t i a t i v e p o l i c y i n terms of a common monetary measure) " i s undoubtedly the most commonly employed technique f o r e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e plans of a c t i o n from s o c i e t y ' s or the community's economic viewpoint." (Davis 1984, p. 9) Due to i t s y o u t h f u l n e s s (Boothroyd 1978, pp. 130-132), s o c i a l impact assessment (SIA) has not enjoyed the long h i s t o r y and development of techniques that has p r o v i d e d economists with t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e of t e s t e d and proven assessment t o o l s . SIA has 133 only grown i n prominence s i n c e environmental p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n was passed in the U n i t e d S t a t e s (1969) and Canada (1973). Of p a r t i c u l a r concern to s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , i s t h a t no technique e x i s t s to completely i n t e g r a t e the impacts measured through economic and s o c i a l assessments. As a r e s u l t , independent e v a l u a t i o n s of economic and s o c i a l impacts are o f t e n conducted without c r o s s c o n s u l t a t i o n or f i n a l i n t e g r a t i o n p r i o r to t h e i r submission to decision-makers. L i c h f i e l d et a l . have done ex t e n s i v e work i n i n t e g r a t i v e impact assessment and have c a t e g o r i z e d general approaches to plan e v a l u a t i o n methodology under the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s (1975, p. 49) : 1) F i n a n c i a l investment a p p r a i s a l 2) C h e c k - l i s t of c r i t e r i a 3) Goals-achievement a n a l y s i s 4) Assessment of resource c o s t s 5) S o c i a l c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s 6) Planning balance sheet a n a l y s i s 7) O p t i m i z a t i o n Three of the methods: f i n a n c i a l investment a p p r a i s a l , assessment of resource c o s t s , and o p t i m i z a t i o n are o v e r l y r e s t r i c t i v e i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s as they c o n c e n t r a t e on the areas of economics, resources and d e s i g n - c o s t r e s p e c t i v e l y . As such, they are deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n t h i s t h e s i s , and are not d e s c r i b e d f u r t h e r . The remaining approaches are d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y . C h e c k - l i s t of C r i t e r i a . T h i s methododology has been developed amongst p h y s i c a l planners and b a s i c a l l y uses a system of c r i t e r i a to s e l e c t o p t i o n s ( L i c h f i e l d 1970, pp. 156-157). C r i t e r i a may or may not be weighted. The advantages or 134 disadvantages of each p r o p o s a l a g a i n s t each c r i t e r i o n i s noted. In the method's simplest form, the chosen o p t i o n i s that which has the l e a s t number of items of disadvantage. An improvement to t h i s system, which i n t r o d u c e s an important f e a t u r e e n a b l i n g the o f f - s e t t i n g of measured money c o s t s a g a i n s t f e a t u r e s which cannot be c o s t e d as a b a s i s f o r judgement, was made by the R o s k i l l Commission ( L i c h f i e l d et a l . 1975, p. 51). In t h e i r system, comparison and e l i m i n a t i o n of o p t i o n s was completed i n s t a g e s . Costed c r i t e r i a would be evaluated i n one stage then the uncosted c r i t e r i a i n the next. T h i s system worked w e l l f o r reducing o p t i o n s ; however, s u b j e c t i v e judgement remained a major r o l e i n the f i n a l comparisons. Goals-Achievement A n a l y s i s . Goals achievement methods attempt to determine which o p t i o n i s best given a predetermined set of " g o a l s " or " o b j e c t i v e s " . "Goal" i s d e s c r i b e d by H i l l , the author of the approach, as "an end to which a planned course of a c t i o n i s d i r e c t e d . " ( H i l l 1968, p. 22) The technique measures both t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e consequences, where b e n e f i t s are seen as p o s i t i v e i n terms of a s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e and c o s t s as negative (Davis 1984, p. 27). "For each o b j e c t i v e and each a l t e r n a t i v e course of a c t i o n , c o s t s and b e n e f i t s are compared, aggregated where p o s s i b l e , and r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y . The decision-maker i s then i n a p o s i t i o n to weigh the a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n a g a i n s t each o t h e r . " ( H i l l 1968, p.22) Layout of the matrix c o n s i s t s of a f f e c t e d groups i n the rows and the a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s or b e n e f i t s in each column. The Goals Achievement Matrix with i t s focus exaggerated almost e x c l u s i v e l y on g o a l s , does not compensate for other 135 important consequences with have not been e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d . In a d d i t i o n , i t l i m i t s i t s e l f to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s i n g l e s e c t o r s as c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n s and interdependencies between o b j e c t i v e s are not taken i n t o account (Davis 1984, p. 28) . S o c i a l C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s (SCBA). T h i s approach has been developed by economists f o r a p p r a i s i n g the s o c i a l worth of p r o j e c t s . W i l l i a m s , as quoted by L i c h f i e l d et a l (1975, p.58) d e f i n e s SCBA as: " . . . e s s e n t i a l l y a means of adapting the r u l e s f o r p r o f i t - m a x i m i z i n g investment behaviour by p r i v a t e firms to f i t the d i f f e r e n t circumstances under which governments operate, which i n turn means t r y i n g to take account on the one hand of e x t e r n a l i t i e s and the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of ' p u b l i c goods' compared with ' p r i v a t e goods', and on the other r e c o g n i s i n g that the budgeting process of government may r e q u i r e f u r t h e r r e f o r m u l a t i o n of the r u l e s i f they are to be a p p r o p r i a t e i n a s e t t i n g which i s f a r removed f o r the c l a s s i c a l one of a small f i r m o p e r a t i n g i n a l a r g e and p e r f e c t c a p i t a l market." Items of cost and b e n e f i t i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s are a l l the gains and l o s s e s of every member i n s o c i e t y whose w e l l - b e i n g c o u l d be a f f e c t e d . As much as p o s s i b l e , observed measurements of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o s t s or b e n e f i t s are used r a t h e r than s t a t e d p r e f e r e n c e s . Costs or b e n e f i t s which are not d i r e c t l y comparable are measured by the amount of goods or s e r v i c e s which would provide e i t h e r the same amount of s a t i s f a c t i o n , or would p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t compensation to r e s t o r e the impactees to t h e i r i n i t i a l l e v e l of w e l l - b e i n g . The " t r a d e - o f f " of e q u i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i s a s u b j e c t i v e measurement made by the decision-makers. Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s (PBSA). T h i s method i s an a d a p t a t i o n of the SCBA approach developed by L i c h f i e l d f o r use on 1 36 urban and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s ( L i c h f i e l d 1960, 1966, 1970). I t ' s s t r e n g t h i s i n i t s " m u l t i - s e c t o r a l " nature. The co n v e n t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n of SCBA i s l i m i t e d to items which can be q u a n t i f i e d , measured, or compared i n common u n i t s . PBSA e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r common u n i t s by i n c l u d i n g a statement of i n t a n g i b l e s and incommensurables i n the same t a b l e as those f o r which measurement i s p o s s i b l e . As such, a convenient summary of a l l the inf o r m a t i o n i s produced f o r c i n g "the d e c i s i o n - t a k e r to make e x p l i c i t the s u b j e c t i v e judgements about the value of the i n t a n g i b l e s and incommensurables." ( L i c h f i e l d et a l . 1975, p. 61) "Thus, the balance sheet cannot, and does not, aim to pr o v i d e a c o n c l u s i o n i n terms of rate of r e t u r n or net p r o f i t measured by money valu e s as i s the case i n some t y p i c a l c o s t - b e n e f i t s t u d i e s . I t s value l i e s i n exposing the i m p l i c a t i o n s of each set of pr o p o s a l s to the whole community and to the v a r i o u s groups w i t h i n that community, and a l s o i n i n d i c a t i n g how the a l t e r n a t i v e s might be improved or amalgamated to produce a b e t t e r r e s u l t . The purpose of the approach i s the s e l e c t i o n of a pla n which, on the inf o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , i s l i k e l y to best serve the t o t a l i n t e r e s t s of the community." ( L i c h f i e l d , 1970, p. 156) More d e t a i l s on the PBSA are i n c l u d e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2 as i t i s the method chosen f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l impacts on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y assessed i n t h i s t h e s i s . 1 37 4.2 THE PLANNING BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS The qu e s t i o n of whether DND should be i n the business of c r e a t i n g and ma i n t a i n i n g i t s own communities, and i f so, which housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s o n p o l i c i e s would be most a p p r o p r i a t e , i s a huge q u e s t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s has l i m i t e d i t to the d i s c u s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l impacts on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y . L i c h f i e l d (1966, p. 216) suggests that to e l i m i n a t e the market inadequacies a s s o c i a t e d with other techniques a "supra-investment framework" i s necessary to p r o p e r l y evaluate the problem and ensure that both economic and non-economic f a c t o r s are c o n s i d e r e d . L i c h f i e l d c a l l s t h i s framework the Planning Balance Sheet. I t i s used i n t h i s t h e s i s as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s to eva l u a t e the s o c i a l impacts, a f t e r which i t i s e a s i l y expandable to in c l u d e a l l other elements necessary to pro v i d e informed d i r e c t i o n i n the accommodation q u e s t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s which i s the technique proposed f o r a s s e s s i n g s o c i a l impacts of m i l i t a r y community p o l i c i e s . 4.2.1 Conceptual Framework The Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s was chosen due to i t s st r e n g t h i n a s s e s s i n g i n t e r - s e c t o r a l impacts and e s p e c i a l l y the manner with which i t de a l s with i n t a n g i b l e s and incommensurables. To d i s c u s s the framework i t i s h e l p f u l to r e f e r to the elementary school q u e s t i o n i n g maxim "Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How?" C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the elements of the Planning Balance Sheet by as k i n g these q u e s t i o n s w i l l focus and and a s s i s t i n 138 ensuring a l l elements are adequately c o n s i d e r e d . Who i s Impacted? T h i s f i r s t s tep i n L i c h f i e l d ' s Balance Sheet i s to i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s "producers" and "consumers" who play a p a r t i n a proposed development ( L i c h f i e l d 1966, pp. 219-220). I d e a l l y , a l l producers and consumers are i d e n t i f i e d and the corresponding c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d with each measured. The v a r i o u s " l e v e l s " of s o c i a l systems, such as i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , neighbourhoods, or regions should be i d e n t i f i e d and i n c l u d e d i n an impact assessment (Boothroyd 1978, p. 122). S o c i a l impactees should be f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i z e d i n v a r i o u s dimensions (age, a b i l i t y , e t h n i c i t y , community and economic s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n a l / s o c i a l r o l e , and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e ) . (p. 126) T h i s leads to an e x t e n s i v e l i s t of s o c i a l impactees who must be c o n s i d e r e d independently, as the impacts on them vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y . In the h e u r i s t i c model c r e a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s to assess the m i l i t a r y community the v a r i a b l e s are l i m i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to i l l u s t r a t e the o p e r a t i o n of the framework more simply. Rather than measuring the impacts on both producers and consumers only those a f f e c t i n g consumers are c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s i s a p p r o p r i a t e as the t h e s i s has l i m i t e d i t s i n t e r e s t to determining the s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s (consumers) r e s u l t i n g from v a r i o u s accommodation p o l i c i e s . The group of consumers i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d , i n the systems l e v e l sense, to the f a m i l y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , impacts on f a m i l i e s are l i m i t e d to those i n t e r n a l to the m i l i t a r y community. That i s , the c o s t s or b e n e f i t s to n o n - m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s i n the l o c a l community are not c o n s i d e r e d . 139 D i m e n s i o n a l l y , i t i s assumed that the m i l i t a r y community i s a homogenous group of f a m i l i e s and as such, a d d i t i o n a l dimensions such as husband/wife or p a r e n t / c h i l d r e n are a l s o not addressed as independent consumers. What are the impacts? What are the options? The s e l e c t i o n of impacts i s an e x t e n s i v e and c r u c i a l process, and as such, i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n i t s own s e c t i o n (4.2.2). Choosing a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y o p t i o n s i s a l s o a complicated and important process, which, f o r the h e u r i s t i c model has been completed i n Chapter 3, where three d i f f e r e n t housing p o l i c i e s and e i t h e r i n t e r n a l i z e d or e x t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n were s e l e c t e d . These p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n s were u n i l a t e r a l l y chosen by the author to p r o v i d e extreme cases which would ensure that the comparative r e s u l t s of the e v a l u a t i o n were more obvious. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , other s o c i a l p l a n n i n g techniques such as b r a i n s t o r m i n g , expert and l o c a l surveys, and d e l p h i methodologies c o u l d be employed i n an a c t u a l e v a l u a t i o n to ensure that a l l p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s were developed and e x p l o r e d . When i s the impacting t h i n g to take place? The t i m i n g of an impact assessment i s important. Often i t i s not undertaken soon enough, and as a r e s u l t a d e c i s i o n or some form of commitment i s made without a knowledgeable understanding of a l l the impacts. I d e a l l y , SIA should be undertaken from the beginning of a p r o j e c t ' s conception (Boothroyd 1978, p. 129). Where i s being impacted? I t i s necessary to c l a r i f y the l o c a t i o n which i s being impacted. The many m i l i t a r y communities are i n a v a r i e t y of urban, semi-urban and i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s . 1 40 Each l o c a t i o n has i t s own p e c u l i a r i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s , and t h e r e f o r e accommodation and s e r v i c e p o l i c i e s should be e v a l u a t e d independently for each s i t e to ensure an a c c u r a t e a n a l y s i s . For example a key concern i n the area of housing would be the l o c a l market. If housing in one p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n i s u n a v a i l a b l e or u n a f f o r d a b l e then the impact on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s i n that l o c a t i o n would vary from that e x h i b i t e d i n other l o c a t i o n s , where adequate l o c a l housing was a v a i l a b l e . The h e u r i s t i c model developed in t h i s t h e s i s assumes a generic m i l i t a r y community l o c a t e d in a m u n i c i p a l i t y capable of s u p p o r t i n g members of the m i l i t a r y community as part of the l o c a l community. Why change p o l i c y ? Why S o c i a l Impact Assessment? The reasons f o r a review of e x i s t i n g accommodation p o l i c i e s are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapters 2 and 3. In b r i e f , the need f o r change stems from p r e s s u r e s a r i s i n g from economic c o s t and s o c i a l change. As w e l l , i t i s good management to p r o a c t i v e l y review p o l i c y . S o c i a l impact assessment i s necessary as i t i s concerned with how change a f f e c t s q u a l i t y of l i f e . Q u a l i t y of l i f e i n t u r n , has been seen as an important element i n m a i n t a i n i n g a s a t i s f i e d and e f f e c t i v e workforce. How are impacts measured? T h i s i s another element of the process which merits more ex t e n s i v e e l a b o r a t i o n and i s d i s c u s s e d independently i n s e c t i o n 4.2.3. 4.2.2 I d e n t i f y i n g Impacts The problem of s e l e c t i n g impacts f o r assessment i s s i m i l a r i n nature to the task of c h osing s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s i n a q u a l i t y of l i f e assessment. There are numerous impacts which c o u l d be 141 chosen, and some a n a l y t i c a l methodology i s necessary to j u s t i f y the c h o i c e made. F i n s t e r b u s c h (1981a, pp. 3-5) suggests that t h i s problem can be approached through the f o l l o w i n g techniques: a. relevance t r e e b. l i t e r a t u r e survey c. d e l p h i i n t e r v i e w i n g d. i t e r a t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g e. c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s f. contingency t r e e s g. model c o n s t r u c t i o n The seven techniques i d e n t i f i e d are b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . A relevance t r e e i s a branching diagram which i d e n t i f i e s s o c i a l phenomena i n a t r e e type p a t t e r n moving from ge n e r a l to s p e c i f i c . L i t e r a t u r e surveys enable the use of past experience to be used i n the a n a l y s i s . T h i s c o u l d be v e r i f i e d or augmented by s m a l l -s c a l e a t t i t u d e data sampling techniques such as the "Community A t t i t u d e Assessment S c a l e " o f f e r e d by Fitzsimmons and Ferb ( 1977), or "mini-surveys" suggested by F i n s t e r b u s c h (198'1d). Delphi i n t e r v i e w i n g employs "ex p e r t s " to i n d i v i d u a l l y assess p o s s i b l e s o c i a l phenomena, and then to r e e v a l u a t e t h e i r judgements a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the op i n i o n s and c r i t i c i s m of ot h e r s . I t e r a t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g i n f o r m a l l y o b t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r c e i v e d impacts from a v a r i e t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , groups, and i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e l y to be impacted, and a l t e r s subsequent i n t e r v i e w s to maximize the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from previous i n t e r v i e w e e s . Contextual a n a l y s i s p l a c e s the s p e c i f i c community, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s of the p r o j e c t i n t o the proper context to c o n s i d e r the a n a l y s i s of impacts. A contingency t r e e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y maps p o s s i b l e impacts i n t o f i r s t -second- or h i g h e r - o r d e r s . A r e l a t e d technique, the use of a " s c e n a r i o " (Vlachos 1981), i s simply one of the paths on a 1 42 contingency t r e e . Model c o n s t r u c t i o n uses r e l a t i o n s h i p s , normally mathematical, to c a l c u l a t e the cross-impacts of a p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e . Davis (1984, pp. 15-22) o f f e r s two a d d i t i o n a l techniques, analogous communities and demographic i n f e r e n c e . Analogous  communit i e s , a type of l i t e r a t u r e survey, i n f e r s from the experience of a s i m i l a r community the a n t i c i p a t e d a f f e c t s of a c e r t a i n stimulus on the community being e v a l u a t e d . "Demographic  i n f e r e n c e attempts to estimate community impacts by r e l a t i n g changes i n community s o c i a l p a t t e r n s to a l t e r a t i o n s i n the s o c i o -demographic s t r u c t u r e of the study r e g i o n . " (Davis 1984, p. 21) These v a r i o u s techniques can be c o n s i d e r e d as scanning d e v i c e s which enable the re s e a r c h e r to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y q u e s t i o n whether a proposed a l t e r n a t i v e would have any p o t e n t i a l impacts which would r e q u i r e f u r t h e r study. The wider the range of s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s , the more techniques, and the more a n a l y s t s used, the l e s s l i k e l y the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u b j e c t i v e b i a s . Once an exhaustive l i s t of p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l impacts are i d e n t i f i e d , i t i s necessary to i s o l a t e the more s i g n i f i c a n t ones fo r f u r t h e r study. F i n s t e r b u s c h (1981a, p. 8) o f f e r s commonly used c r i t e r i a of s i g n i f i c a n c e to reduce t h i s l i s t as : " i n t e n s i t y , p r o b a b i l i t y , i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y , p o l i t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y , d u r a t i o n , h i g h e r - o r d e r impacts, and the number of persons a f f e c t e d . " He agrees that i n e v i t a b l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b j e c t i v e judgement w i l l have t o enter i n t o the pro c e s s . In a d d i t i o n to using these c r i t e r i a to pare the l i s t , i t suggested that the i t e r a t i v e d e l p h i technique using both experts and those p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d be 1 43 u t i l i z e d to weight or rank a l l p o s s i b l e impacts u n t i l a consensus i s a c h i e v e d . S e v e r a l authors have suggested that i d e n t i f y i n g impacts, l i k e a l l of components of SIA, should be an i t e r a t i v e process (Bowles 1981, p. 25). The use of a combination of techniques f o r s e l e c t i n g impacts d e s c r i b e d above are suggested when conducting impact assessments. The l o g i c and s e l e c t i o n technique used to s e l e c t the s o c i a l impacts used i n the h e u r i s t i c model evaluated i n t h i s t h e s i s are d e s c r i b e d below. A v a r i e t y of s o c i a l impact assessment c h e c k l i s t s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e of past case s t u d i e s were reviewed. I t was determined that g e n e r a l l y each case developed i t s own unique l i s t based on the p e c u l i a r impacts p e r c e i v e d i n i t s p r o j e c t (an a n t i c i p a t e d and l o g i c a l r e s u l t ) . As such, two of the more ge n e r i c s o c i a l impact c h e c k l i s t s reviewed were used. F i n s t e r b u s c h ' s "Impact Relevance Tree f o r S o c i a l Impact A n a l y s i s " was one (1981a, pp.6-7), and Boothroyd's " C h e c k l i s t of s o c i a l environmental c o n d i t i o n s (impact c a t e g o r i e s ) to be c o n s i d e r e d i n s o c i a l impact assessment" was the other (1978, p. 125). F i n s t e r b u s c h ' s relevance t r e e was a l s o s i t e d by Bowles (1981, p. 17) as a s u i t a b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t to answer the q u e s t i o n of "What are the s o c i a l phenomena which might be a f f e c t e d ? " i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l impact assessment i n small communities. The s t r e n g t h of the relevance t r e e i s i n i t s generic but e x t e n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l p o s s i b l e s o c i a l impacts across a broad range of s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s . The almost two hundred impacts i d e n t i f i e d by F i n s t e r b u s c h , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the adapted relevance t r e e at F i g u r e 4-1, are f a r too many to be p r o p e r l y 144 addressed i n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n . Those u l t i m a t e l y chosen are i n d i c a t e d on the t r e e . The author used a number of techniques to i s o l a t e the impacts c o n s i d e r e d most s i g n i f i c a n t . The l i s t of impacts r e s o l v e d from each of the d i f f e r e n t methods was s y n t h e s i z e d to s e l e c t the f i n a l l i s t of impacts. F i r s t , a l i s t was produced i n t u i t i v e l y based on p e r s o n a l experience. T h i s l i s t was prepared before being i n f l u e n c e d by a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h as i t was developed as an i n i t i a l part of the t h e s i s p r ospectus. Second, l i t e r a t u r e survey was undertaken of analogous communities and general s o c i e t a l t r e n d s . Communities that were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n c l u d e d : those of other m i l i t a r i e s , resource towns, small communities, and planned towns. Included i n t h i s r e s e a r c h was the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey r e s u l t s of a m i l i t a r y l i f e study survey conducted i n 1983/4 by the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence on the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y (Popoff et a l . 1986). A review of s o c i e t a l trends and i t s impact on components of s i m i l a r communities a l s o enabled some demographic i n f e r e n c e of what a f f e c t s c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d i n the m i l i t a r y community. Based on t h i s review, a second l i s t of impacts was c r e a t e d . T h i r d , the 200 or so impacts on the relevance t r e e d e s c r i b e d above were reduced to a workable number using l e x i c o g r a p h i c pruning. T h i s technique i s commonly used in every day d e c i s i o n -making and simply e l i m i n a t e s a l t e r n a t i v e s which are not high i n the key dimension. In t h i s case, the key dimension i s the f a m i l y as a s o c i a l u n i t and i t s p e r c e i v e d w e l l - b e i n g given d i f f e r e n t 1 45 Figurt 4-1 FlMSTtRBUSCH'S IMPACT RELIANCE TREE FOB SOCIAL IMPACT ANALYSIS 1.00 HOUSEHOLDS 1.01 INDIVIDUALS 1.02 NUCLEAR FAMI 1.03 OTHER HOUSEHOLDS! 1.10 ECONOMIC 1.20 POLITICAL [-{ 1.30 SOCIAL .11 MATERIAL CONSUMPTION • MOUSING CLOTHING AUTOMOBILE FUEL RECREATIONAL ITEMS FOOD PERSONAL ITEMS OTHER HOUSEHOLD DURABLES • COMMUTING HOUSEWORK JOB SATISFACTION I CONDITIONS UNION AMD PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS HOME MAINTENANCE OTHER 1.12 WORK RELATED ACTIVITIES DEGREE OF REGULATION SOCIAL CONTROL AND CONSTRAINTS ON FREEDOMS POLITICAL PARTICIPATION OTHER • HEALTH AND DISABILITIES • SAFETY FROM CRIME AND VIOLENCE • SAFETY FROM HAZARDS AND DANGER PSYCHOLOGICAL (ELL BE INS NUTRITION. APPEARANCE. EXERCISE OTHER 1.31 PHYSICAL I PSYCHO-L06ICAL WELL BEING • BASIC SKILLS (3 R'|) OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS I DEGREES SEVERAL LEARNING • POLITICAL I CULTURAL SOCIALIZATION OTHER 1.32 EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION •c 1.33 LEISURE ACTIVITIES - j l.3< SOCIAL RELATIONS MEDIA ENTERTAINMENT TRAVEL SPECTATOR SPORTS POLLUTION AREAS OF NATURAL BEAUTY CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES HOBBY •NI6HT LIFE" VACAT10N1M6 SPORTS AND RECREATION OTHER FAMILY RELATIONS • FRIENDSHIPS PETS RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY OTHER MEDITATION & SELF CONTROL EXERCISES • PARTICIPATION IN MORAL CAUSES 1.40 CULTURAL MORAL SYSTEMS •j 2. 10 ECONOMIC { -| 2 00 COMMUNITIES f 2.20 POLITICAL •{ 2 30 SOCIAL { 2.40 CULTURAL 2.50 ENVIRONMENTAL • EMPLOYMENT SHORTAGES SALES TRANSPORTATION HOUSING OTHER WELFARE PARTICIPATION LEGAL SYSTEM DISTURBANCES SERVICES MEWS TAXES AND REVENUE CRIME AMD LAV ENFORCEMENT OTHER COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES CLUBS SCHOOL SYSTEM ENTERTAINMENT SPORTS AND RECREATION OTHER ARTS WJSEUMS AND LIBRARIES RELIGION OTHER AIR POLLUTION TRAFFIC WATER POLLUTION PUBLIC PARKS & • NATURAL BEAUTY RECREATION AREAS DENSITY AND CROWD IMG OTHER (Source: Adaoteo f r o * Flnst«rousc* 1981a. p. 6) 146 4 accommodation p o s s i b i l i t i e s . As such, impacts on the t r e e were e l i m i n a t e d i f they d i d not seem to meet t h i s key p r e r e q u i s i t e . As a r e s u l t a t h i r d l i s t was c r e a t e d . Fourth, the Boothroyd c h e c k l i s t was used because of i t s ex t e n s i v e grounding i n s o c i a l theory. I t was d e r i v e d from s o c i a l environment c o n d i t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d necessary to meet the b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l human needs d e f i n e d by Maslow (Boothroyd 1978, p. 124). In c o n j u n c t i o n with the Boothroyd c h e c k l i s t , a check was made with l i s t s of concerns r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n from o f f i c i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies doing work on s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s , such as UNESCO (1981) and OECD (1982). I t was p e r c e i v e d t h a t some c r i t i c a l s o c i a l i s s u e s may have been missed by the three p r e v i o u s methods, as such i t was necessary to use a f o u r t h l i s t which captured s o c i a l i s s u e s i n a manner g e n e r i c but s u i t a b l y comprehensive to provide a s s i s t a n c e i n the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . The l i s t s produced through the four techniques were compared, and although the terminology d e s c r i b i n g the impacts was d i v e r s e , the impacts i d e n t i f i e d were q u i t e s i m i l a r . The f i n a l s e l e c t i o n , as i n most s o c i a l impact assessments, was a s u b j e c t i v e one by the author. The f i n a l s i x t e e n s o c i a l impacts appear i n Table 4-1, and are d e s c r i b e d and assessed i n s e c t i o n 4.3. Table 4-1 a l s o r e l a t e s the p a r t i a l e q u ivalency between the 21 s o c i a l impacts i n the Boothroyd c h e c k l i s t , the p o r t i o n s of the rele v a n c e t r e e which were u l t i m a t e l y used, and the s i x t e e n impacts s e l e c t e d . 1 47 T a b l e 4 1: COMPARISON OF IMPACTS CHOSEN VERSUS OTHERS IN LITERATURE SOCIAL IMPACTS REMARKS FINSTERBUSCH BOOTHROYD CHECKLIST WITH BASIC NEED TO BE MET •fr-ee 4.3.1 Employment o f Dependents 4.3.2 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 4.3.3 S p o r t s / R e c r e a t i o n 4.3.4 Hous 1ng Qua 11ty 4.3.5 P e r s o n a l S a f e t y 4.3.6 D i s l o c a t i o n 4.3.7 S e p a r a t I o n 4.3.8 Community I d e n t i t y 4.3.9 F r i e n d s h i p s 4.3.10 Commun1ty Par t I c I p a t 1 o n 4.3.11 P o l i t i c a l P a r t I c l p a t I o n 4.3.12 Degree o f R e g u l a t I o n 4.3.13 L i f e s t y l e Se l e c t Ion 4.3.14 N e i g h b o u r h o o d A t t r a c t 1veness 4.3.15 E d u c a t i o n 4.3.16 S o d a 11zat Ion - o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r de p e n d e n t s 2.101 - p h y s i c a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o work, s e r v i c e s , a c t i v i t i e s - a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s and a c t i v i t i e s - q u a l i t y o f s h e l t e r -from: c r i m e , v i o l e n c e d a n g e r s and h a z a r d s - m i t i g a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o s t s o f r e l o c a t i o n - m i t i g a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o s t s - b e l o n g l n g n e s s t o the commun11 y - a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h a t the I n d i v i d u a l l e v e l - a c c e s s i b i l i t y I n t o community programs - a c c e s s i b i l i t y I n t o community p o l i t i c s - p a t e r n a 11 sm - d e p e r s o n a l 1 z a t I o n - a b i l i t y t o be I n v o l v e d In l i f e s t y l e o f c h o i c e - a e s t h e t i c s / n a t u r a l b e a u t y - p r i d e In n e i g h b o u r h o o d - o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s - t o m i l I t a r y 1 I f e - t o s o c i e t a l norms 1.112 1 . 336 1.111 1.311 2.501/2 1.312/3 1 . 342 1 .403 1 .202 1 .201 1 . 334 4.406 2.503 1. Economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s / s e c u r i t y 2. P h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y / a c c e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s 3. E x e r c i s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n ) 4. Decent she 1ter 5. H e a l t h c a r e 6. H e a l t h y e n vironment 7-8 P h y s i c a l l y / S o c i a l l y s a f e e n vironment 9. E m o t i o n a l l y s e c u r e environment ( a n x i e t y f r e e ) P h y s 1 o l o g y P h y s 1 o l o g y / s e l f - a c t u a 1 I z a t I o n 1 . 321 1. 324 10. Community I d e n t i t y oppor t u n 1 1 l e s 11 . (Non-1nv I d l o u s ) I n t e r a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s 12. Community Involvement oppor tun 1 1 l e s 13. ( P o l i t i c a l ) power o v e r own environment o p p o r t u n i t i e s 14-15. S p e c i f i c / u n i v e r s a l c u l t u r a l p r e s e r v a t i o n 16. S y m b o l s / h i s t o r i c s i t e s 17. A e s t h e t i c s ( d e s i g n t e x t u r e ) 18-21 T r a n q u i l l i t y and l e i s u r e time o p p o r t u n i t i e s 19. L e a r n i n g / e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n I t l e s 20. I n f o r m a t i o n Phys 1ology P h y s i o l o g y / S a f e t y P h y s < o l o g y / S a f e t y P h y s 1 o l o g y / S a f e t y S a f e t y S a f e t y S a f e t y Be l o n g I n g n e s s Be l o n g I n g n e s s / esteem Be l o n g I n g n e s s / Esteem S e l f - A c t u a l I z a t I o n Esteem S e l f - A c t u a l I z a t I o n Esteem B e l o n g l n g n e s s S e l f - a c t u a l I z a t I o n Be l o n g I n g n e s s A e s t h e t i c s A e s t h e t f e s S e l f - a c t u a l I z a t I o n B e l o n g l n g n e s s , Esteem Cogn1t1on S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n C o g n 1 t I o n C o g n 1 t I o n S e l f - a c t u a l I z a t I o n 4.2.3 Measuring Impacts The r o l e of measurement i s to f i n d an e x p r e s s i o n f o r the degree of d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e q u a l i t i e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( L i c h f i e l d et a l . 1975, p. 98). Economic impact assessment can perform t h i s task r e a d i l y as the d i r e c t impacts are c l e a r l y e v i d e n t , e a s i l y q u a n t i f i e d , and r e p r e s e n t a b l e by d o l l a r v a l u e s . S o c i a l impact assessment, however, d e a l s with " i n i t i a t i v e s whose e f f e c t s are fundamentally non-monetary in nature and thus r e l a t i v e l y l e s s e vident than those of an economic nature and more d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d o l l a r terms." (Davis 1984, p. 37) The Planning Balance Sheet o f f e r s a means to e x p l i c i t l y i n c o r p o r a t e these d i f f e r e n t assessments i n t o a common framework. All" of the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of both producers and consumers must be c o n s i d e r e d p r i o r to a d e c i s i o n being o f f e r e d . The h e u r i s t i c framework developed i n t h i s t h e s i s has s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i m i t e d the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of many of these elements to f a c i l i t a t e i l l u s t r a t i o n of the p r o c e s s . As such, only consumers are c o n s i d e r e d . T y p i c a l l y , consumer c o s t s and b e n e f i t s are i n t a n g i b l e t r a n s a c t i o n s not measurable in terms of the common denominator, money. Where measurement i s not p o s s i b l e because of i n t a n g i b l e s , i t i s noted as such on the balance sheet, and t h e r e f o r e , not excluded ( L i c h f i e l d 1966, p. 221). Normally, an a n a l y s i s would compare c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g from a p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e , a g a i n s t those a r i s i n g from simple maintenance of the s t a t u s quo. In t h i s case, o p t i o n s have been s e l e c t e d symbolizing the extremes of p o l i c y o p t i o n s and 149 comparisons are made of the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s accrued from each. Comparisons can be made i n terms of e i t h e r a b s o l u t e s or d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s mainly the d i f f e r e n c e that i s being sought i n t h i s s u b j e c t i v e assessment; however, the i n c l u s i o n of the amount of d i f f e r e n c e ( i f known) a s s i s t s i n gauging the impact. U s u a l l y a b s o l u t e s are d i f f i c u l t or c o s t l y to c a l c u l a t e , whereas d i f f e r e n c e s can be q u i c k l y grasped. To provide a more f a c t u a l b a s i s f o r these s u b j e c t i v e judgements Olsen and c o l l e a g u e s suggest that each of the impacts can be d e s c r i b e d as a b s o l u t e s or d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of s e v e r a l dimensions, such as: (Olsen et a l . , 1981, p. 56) 1. P r o b a b i l i t y : How l i k e l y i s the change to occur? 2. Primacy: W i l l the change be a r e l a t i v e l y d i r e c t or more i n d i r e c t consequence of the proposed a c t i o n ? 3. Onset: W i l l the change occur r e l a t i v e l y immediately or only a f t e r some delay? 4. D u r a t i o n : W i l l the change be temporary or permanent i n length? 5. Magnitude: How l a r g e or e x t e n s i v e w i l l the change be? 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n : What c a t e g o r i e s or groups of people w i l l be most a f f e c t e d by the change? 7. Scope: W i l l the change extend beyond the community to a f f e c t other communities, the s t a t e , or the region? The judgement of the v a r i o u s impacts over these dimensions can be performed i n a v a r i e t y of ways. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the more people i n v o l v e d , the more s o c i a l s c i e n c e techniques employed, and the more i t e r a t i o n s performed, the g r e a t e r the chance of accuracy. T h i s h e u r i s t i c model e x t e n s i v e l y uses the s u b j e c t i v e judgement of the author to evaluate the v a r i o u s impacts. T h i s 150 judgement i s based on: l i t e r a t u r e surveys of both primary and secondary data on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s and analogous communities; per s o n a l experience; demographic i n f e r e n c e ; and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s with members of the m i l i t a r y community. The r e s u l t i n g judgements are d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 4.3, and are entered i n t o the three balance sheets i n t a b l e s 4-2, 4-3, and 4-4. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o s t b e n e f i t approach from which t h i s model i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d , can be found i n L i c h f i e l d (1966). 4.2.4 Data A n a l y s i s Once the Planning Balance Sheet i s completed i t i s necessary to put a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n together i n a way that " t e l l s the s t o r y " ( F i n s t e r b u s c h 1981a, p. 9). T h i s can be done through a v a r i e t y of a n a l y t i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e techniques such as: c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s y n t h e s i s , comparison of cases, measurements of the a s s o c i a t i o n among v a r i a b l e s , and other data manipulation techniques. However, s i n c e s o c i a l impact assessment i s r e p l e t e with i n t a n g i b l e s much of t h i s s y n t h e s i s i s i m p r a c t i c a l , or simply camouflages the important o b s e r v a t i o n s determined i n the assessment. The balance sheet i t s e l f i d e n t i f i e s the s i g n i f i c a n t impacts, t h e i r l i k e l y consequences f o r the people i n v o l v e d , what dimensions are most s e v e r l y a f f e c t e d by s o c i a l impact, and other important i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s important f o r the decison-makers to be o b l i g e d to make t h e i r values and b i a s e s e x p l i c i t i n order to dea l with these. Since many of the p r e d i c t e d s o c i a l impacts may i n f l u e n c e one another, the f i n a l a n a l y s i s must view the t o t a l set as an 151 i n t e r r e l a t e d system (Olsen et a l . 1981, p. 56). T h i s means that the f i n a l d e c i s i o n must i n v o l v e a s e r i e s of t r a d e o f f s between the impacts. T h i s d e c i s i o n c o u l d be made u n i l a t e r a l l y by the p o l i c y makers, but i t i s argued by many that such d e c i s i o n s should only be made by the people who w i l l be most d i r e c t l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by them, on the b a s i s of t h e i r own value system. S e c t i o n 4.4 i n t e r p r e t s the data d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . D i f f e r e n t methods of t r a d i n g o f f impacts c o u l d be done using d i f f e r e n t weighting schemes. However, such ranking and weighting i s not recommended as many important v a r i a b l e s get l o s t i n the process which defeats the purpose and s t r e n g t h of the Planning Balance Sheet. L i c h f i e l d and c o l l e a g u e s s t a t e the importance of planners and i n d i v i d u a l s other then decision-makers who are i n v o l v e d i n the process, q u i t e w e l l i n the f o l l o w i n g statement (1975, pp.105-106): "A f u r t h e r p o i n t of some importance f o r the proper understanding of the r o l e of measurement i n e v a l u a t i o n must be made about ranking. The f u n c t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n i s to provide the best i n f o r m a t i o n p o s s i b l e to those whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to make and j u s t i f y d e c i s i o n s . I t i s f o r planners to pro v i d e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and f o r others to use i t as they see f i t . The planners' r o l e i n e v a l u a t i o n i s not that of d e c i s i o n - t a k e r s , whether or not the planners have a d e c i s i o n - t a k i n g r o l e delegated to them, f o r example when asked to recommend a course of a c t i o n . But that r o l e , which i n v o l v e s using e v a l u a t i o n evidence, should not be confused with the e v a l u a t i o n i t s e l f . E v a l u a t i o n evidence does not i n d i c a t e which a l t e r n a t i v e should be s e l e c t e d as p r e f e r r e d . " 1 52 4.3 COMPLETING THE PLANNING BALANCE SHEET The i s s u e s t y p i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d by s o c i a l a n a l y s t s i n conducting s o c i a l impact assessments tend to be "squishy" as they cannot be unambiguously captured i n any w e l l - d e f i n e d mathematical manner (Davis 1984, p. 21). The Planning Balance Sheet approach enables the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such i n t a n g i b l e s and incommensurables by e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d i n g them i n the balance sheet i t s e l f and d e s c r i b i n g the noted i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n accompanying prose. In t h i s manner, decision-makers have access to a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n p r i o r to choosing between a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s the sup p o r t i n g prose to the three balance sheets s i t u a t e d at the end of the s e c t i o n . Separate sheets are p r o v i d e d f o r each of the op t i o n areas: housing, p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and are l o c a t e d i n Tables 4-2, 4-3 and 4-4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each t a b l e uses the s o c i a l impact methodology d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2 f o r s e l e c t i o n , and 4.3 f o r measurement. Each t a b l e i s s t r u c t u r e d to i d e n t i f y : the s o c i a l impact being measured, the e f f e c t ( s ) r e s u l t i n g from each of the v a r i o u s p o l i c y o p t i o n s , the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e ) of the impacts between o p t i o n s , and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the o p t i o n with the net advantage. Summation and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the balance sheets i s then conducted i n s e c t i o n 4.4. Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the v a r i o u s impacts i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . The use of prose to d e s c r i b e the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s impacts r e s u l t i n g from each 153 o p t i o n p r o v i d e s a great d e a l of a s s i s t a n c e ; i n a d d i t i o n , i t was found advantageous to view the impacts i n terms of " d i s s a t i s f i e r s " . Since the concepts are bound to i n c o r p o r a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t element of s u b j e c t i v e judgement i t has been argued that i t i s e a s i e r to work with the no t i o n of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as opposed to attempting to d e f i n e some other a c c e p t a b l e measure of community welfare (Davis 1984, p. 32). Use of d i s s a t i s f i e r s i s a l s o s i m p l i f i e d by the f a c t that most case s t u d i e s and a r t i c l e s seem to focus on community problems, d i f f i c u l t i e s , and c o n s t r a i n t s , but not t h e i r s t r e n g t h s , making c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e e a s i e r . While some s u b j e c t i v e judgement i s used on the pa r t of the author to sy n t h e s i z e i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from a great v a r i e t y of sources (see s e c t i o n 4.2) s t i l l f u r t h e r judgement i s necessary" to d i s c o v e r the hidden a t t i t u d e s of. m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . T h i s i s necessary, as d e s p i t e whether an impactee's e x p e c t a t i o n s are s u b s t a n t i a t e d or not, h i s / h e r s t a t e of s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g i s based on h i s / h e r p e r c e p t i o n of the issue (Gunder 1981, p. 28; Rojek et a l . 1974, p. 20). And, these p e r c e p t i o n s cannot be p r o p e r l y i n f e r r e d from secondary data (Fitzsimmons and Ferb 1977, p. 376). In e v a l u a t i n g community s a t i s f a c t i o n Goudy (1977) s t a t e s t h a t , "The r e p o r t e d l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d i m p l i c i t l y by a set of standards h e l d by the person, i n c l u d i n g h i s image of the most a t t r a c t i v e community he has known or read about..." (p. 381). These f i n d i n g s are confirmed by Fitzsimmons and Ferb who compared " r e s i d e n t a t t i t u d e s " with other " o b j e c t i v e " community s t a t u s measures and found that they d i d not c o r r e l a t e (1977, p. 1 54 374). Due to the r e c o g n i z e d importance of p e r c e p t i o n s , t h i s e v a l u a t i o n attempts to acknowledge both the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g s o c i a l impacts. A thorough and complete assessment of the impacts in the s i x t e e n c a t e g o r i e s evaluated i n t h i s h e u r i s t i c model would r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n ; a process which i s i n f e a s i b l e w i t h i n the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , and i s unnecessary to d e s c r i b e the process and framework developed i n the t h e s i s . As such, a few key f a c t o r s w i t h i n each category are i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d simply i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s . A s u b j e c t i v e measurement of the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n the accompanying prose, and i d e n t i f i e d i n the Planning Balance Sheet t a b l e s . Each of the s i x t e e n s e l e c t e d impact c a t e g o r i e s are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . A general d e s c r i p t i o n of the impact and i t s c r i t i c a l elements are d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d by s p e c i f i c comment on the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n o p t i o n s . Tables 4-2, 4-3, and 4-4 have been i n s e r t e d p r i o r to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s , and the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n , to a i d i n comprehending the assessment process. A key to the Planning Balance Sheet t a b l e s i s p r o v i d e d to c l a r i f y the a c c o u n t i n g method and terminology used. 1 55 Key to Planning Balance Sheets 1. Costs or b e n e f i t s are measurements i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of money, time, or i n t a n g i b l e s (M,T,I). 2. Costs and b e n e f i t s are d i s c u s s e d in terms of d i f f e r e n c e o n l y , and as such a b s o l u t e s are undetermined. T h i s a l s o e l i m i n a t e s the requirement to i d e n t i f y separate columns f o r cost and b e n e f i t i n the h e u r i s t i c model. 3. S u b s c r i p t s d i s t i n g u i s h the d i f f e r e n t M, T, and I e n t r i e s . The same number i s used i n an element i f the p a r t i c u l a r e n t r i e s are c o n s i d e r e d to be e q u i v a l e n t . 4. A balance column i s pr o v i d e d to d i s t i n g u i s h the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between e n t r i e s . T h i s i s necessary s i n c e a b s o l u t e s have not been determined f o r t a n g i b l e s , and i n t a n g i b l e s cannot be a r i t h m e t i c a l l y reduced. Mathematical symbols of gre a t e r than (>) and equal to (=) are used to i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h . 5. Where any s o c i a l account c o n t a i n s more than one dimension (M,T,or I) then a mathematical statement of the r e l a t i v i t y between dimensions i s i n d i c a t e d i n the balance column. 6. A net advantage column i n d i c a t e s which o p t i o n has the net advantage i n the p a r t i c u l a r c a t e gory. Where no advantage i s p e r c e i v e d i t i s i n d i c a t e d as no advantage (N). The housing balance sheet i n d i c a t e s advantages f o r Options A, B, or C, as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3. The p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e balance sheets i n d i c a t e the advantage between i n t e r n a l i z e d (INT) and e i t h e r m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n (MUN) or e x t e r n a l i z e d (EXT) s e r v i c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 7. I f the impact of an op t i o n i s not observable, then no assessment i s made, and i s i n d i c a t e d by a dash (-). 1 56 TABLE 4-2 PLANNING BALANCE SHEET OF HOUSING OPTIONS A PUBLIC HOUSING B HOUSING SOCIAL IMPACT 1. Employment, Dependents I 1 C NO SOCIETY HOUSING BALANCE NET I I I =1 =1 N 2 3 1 2 3 2. A c c e s s i b i 1 1 t y I >I 1 2 T >T 1 2 A.B 3. S p o r t s / R e c r e a t i o n I >I 1 2 T >T 1 2 A.B 4. H o u s i n g Q u a l i t y I >I >I 3 2 1 M >M >M 1 2 3 I >M 3 1 5. P e r s o n a l S a f e t y I >I 1 2 A, B D1 s 1 o c a t I o n I >I >I 2 1 3 T >T 1 2 M >M 2 1 I +T >M 2 1 2 7. S e p a r a t i o n 8. Community I d e n t i t y 9. F r i e n d s h i p s 10. Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n 11. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 12. Degree of R e g u l a t i o n 13. L i f e s t y l e S e l e c t i o n 14. Ne i ghbourhood A t t r a c t i v e n e s s 15. E d u c a t i o n 16. S o c i a l i z a t i o n I >I >I 1 2 3 I >I 1 2 I >I >I 2 1 3 I >I >I 2 1 3 I >I >I 2 1 3 I >I >I 3 2 1 I >I >I 3 2 1 I >I >I 3 2 1 I >I 1 2 I >I >I 3 2 1 A.B A, B 157 TABLE 4-3 PLANNING BALANCE SHEET OF PHYSICAL SERVICES SOCIAL IMPACT INTERNAL MUNICI PAL BALANCE NET 1. Employment, Dependents 2. A c c e s s i b i l i t y 3. Sports/Recreation I 4. Housing Quality 5. Personal Safety I 6. Dislocation I 7. Separation I 8. Community Identity I 9. Friendships 10. Community Pa r t i c i p a t i o n -11. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n -12. Degree of Regulation I 13. L i f e s t y l e Selection I 14. Neighbourhood Attractiveness 15. Education 16. S o c i a l i z a t i o n I 1 > I 2 I 1 > I 2 I 1 > I 2 I 1 > I 2 I 1 > I 2 !2 = I1 I 2>I. INT INT INT INT INT N MUN 158 TABLE 4-4 PLANNING BALANCE , SHEET OF SOCIAL SERVICES SOCIAL IMPACT INTERNAL EXTERNAL BALANCE NET 1 . Employment, Dependents M1 M 2 INT 2. A c c e s s i b i l i t y ?! M 2 T M >M„ T ! > T 2 INT 3. S p o r t s / R e c r e a t i o n l 2 M 2 T2 M >v£ T 1 > T 2 INT 4. Housing Q u a l i t y - - - -5. Personal Safety 11 l 2 I 1 > I 2 INT 6. D i s l o c a t i o n 11 l 2 I 1 > I 2 INT 7. Sep a r a t i o n 11 J2 I 1 > I 2 INT 8. Community I d e n t i t y 11 l 2 I 1 > I 2 INT 9. F r i e n d s h i p s 11 l 2 I 1 > I 2 INT 10. Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n «! l 2 M 2 I 1 > I 2 M 1 > M 2 INT 1 1 . P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 11 l 2 T 1 = I 2 N 12. Degree of Regula t i o n 11 l 2 I 2 > 1 1 EXT 13. L i f e s t y l e S e l e c t i o n 11 l 2 I 2 > I 1 EXT 14. Neighbourhood A t t r a c t i v e n e s s - - -15. Education 11 l 2 I 1 > I 2 INT 16. S o c i a l i z a t i o n 11 l 2 N 159 4.3.1 Employment of Dependents T h i s impact element i s concerned e x c l u s i v e l y with the employment of dependents and not the job of the m i l i t a r y member. In a m i l i t a r y f a m i l y study conducted by DND i n 1983/4 i t was determined that 50% of c i v i l i a n wives of servicemen found i t s t r e s s f u l to maintain a ca r e e r while married to a f o r c e s member (Popoff et a l . 1986, pp. 22-23). D i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of t h i s s t r e s s were: attempts to f i n d work at a new l o c a t i o n (47%), having to give up a c a r e e r due to moves (47%), and having to give up a ca r e e r to f u r t h e r t h e i r spouses c a r e e r (26%). These s t r e s s e s were f u r t h e r accentuated i n 20% of the cases as the wives p e r c e i v e d that they had been r e f u s e d past employment because of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with the f o r c e s which i s known to r e l o c a t e f a m i l i e s f r e q u e n t l y . Other employment r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s are a l s o experienced by the teenage c h i l d r e n of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s who seek p a r t - t i m e work. Housing. The three housing a l t e r n a t i v e s each reduce the negative impacts a s s o c i a t e d with employment d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r own ways. Both A ( p u b l i c housing) and B (housing s o c i e t y ) can employ community-supported nepotism s i m i l a r to that experienced i n o n e - i n d u s t r y towns (Himelfarb 1982, p. 23) to ensure that jobs w i t h i n the community are maintained f o r community members. F a m i l i e s l i v i n g o f f base and i n t e r a c t i n g with members of the l o c a l community on a r e g u l a r b a s i s are more apt to hear about, and e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t s to i n c r e a s e l o c a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Part-time work f o r teenagers i s more abundant i n the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . 160 Although the i n t a n g i b l e impact on each housing o p t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t they are p e r c e i v e d to be s i m i l a r i n s c a l e and no net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d . P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . The method of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n does not appear to impact employment. S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . In the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s there are a v a r i e t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to improve employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i f the s e r v i c e s are i n t e r n a l i z e d . Examples drawn from Langin (1981, pp. 87-88) a r e : 1. a commitment and a c t i v e program on the par t of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s e c t o r (and DND) to h i r e and i n t e g r a t e m i l i t a r y spouses i n a l l phases of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s 2. p r o v i d e a wider v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s (on a user pay b a s i s ) to inc r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , 3. c r e a t e more part-time jobs through j o b - s h a r i n g programs, 4. p r o v i d e c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s which enable more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e , 5. encourage and enable one-woman home occupations which can add to the p r o v i s i o n of goods and pe r s o n a l s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d i n the community without a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g neighbours (e.g. h a i r c u t t i n g , dog trimming, seamstress, photography s t u d i o , cake d e c o r a t i n g , b a b y s i t t i n g ) 6. i n i t i a t e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and s k i l l s c l a s s e s (e.g. e x e r c i s e , music, dance and c r a f t c l a s s e s ) Since the encouragement and e n a b l i n g of such a c t i v i t i e s can be a s s i s t e d more r e a d i l y through a more i n t e r n a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 161 4.3.2 A c c e s s i b i l i t y T h i s impact element assesses the b e n e f i t s which l o c a t i o n and the r e s u l t i n g p h y s i c a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y had on the p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s . Most married quarter s i t e s are c o - l o c a t e d with the m i l i t a r y member's place of employment. T y p i c a l l y the o p e r a t i o n a l s i t e and l i v i n g q u a r t e r s are w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e or a short d r i v e of each other. S i m i l a r l y , s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are a l s o c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d . Having a common l i v i n g area l i n k e d with a place of employment r e s u l t s i n s i m i l a r d e s t i n a t i o n s f o r many workers and enables car p o o l i n g or other c o s t saving measures to be employed. Housing. Both o p t i o n s A and B would enjoy c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d work, p l e a s u r e , and l i v i n g l o c a t i o n s , while o p t i o n C would r e q u i r e v a r y i n g commuting d i s t a n c e s both to work and to r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e d t r a v e l i s p e r c e i v e d to have monetary, time and i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s p r o v i d i n g a net advantage e q u a l l y to Options A and B. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . There i s no p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t on the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to a c c e s s i b i l i t y . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . With the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , the b e n e f i t s noted of c o - l o c a t e d work, p l e a s u r e and home are repeated in the scope of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . If such s e r v i c e s are e x t e r n a l i z e d then a d d i t i o n a l t r a v e l i s necessary, and not to one common d e s t i n a t i o n . A net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 162 4.3.3 Sports and R e c r e a t i o n T h i s impact element assesses the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n resources and a c t i v i t i e s . Such a c t i v i t i e s are o f t e n e s t a b l i s h e d to keep " i d l e hands busy" and i n d i v i d u a l s out of t r o u b l e (Lucas 1971, pp. 192-194). Based on t h i s l o g i c , the m i l i t a r y has operated a vast i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of p u b l i c l y funded f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s m i l i t a r y members. In a d d i t i o n , many non-p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a l s o been c r e a t e d under the c o n t r o l of the community " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l " . Through both of these avenues a c t i v i t i e s are organized to serve the e n t i r e m i l i t a r y community. Due to the s i z e of the m i l i t a r y community, and the s c a l e of f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , access i s normally b e t t e r than that experienced in most adjacent communities; although, the v a r i e t y i n l a r g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may be more d i v e r s e . In a d d i t i o n , members of the m i l i t a r y community, through the payment of GILT, a l s o have access to m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s . Housing. Options A and B p rovide f a m i l i e s with b e t t e r access i n terms of time and the i n t a n g i b l e d i f f i c u l t y and involvement of a parent who must package up her c h i l d r e n and d r i v e them to a d i s t a n t f a c i l i t y . In many cases married q u a r t e r r e s i d e n t s can simply walk. A net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r Options A and B. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . P h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s impacts the community in a minor way through the o p e r a t i o n and s c h e d u l i n g of i t s maintenance program. F a c i l i t i e s , e i t h e r s p o r t s f i e l d s or b u i l d i n g s , r e q u i r e ongoing maintenance. A s m a l l e r s c a l e o p e r a t i o n , u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the same master, enables more 163 f l e x i b i l i t y and contact between users and m a i n t a i n e r s . I f such s e r v i c e s were performed by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of many of such f a c i l i t i e s , f l e x i b i l i t y c o u l d be j e o p a r d i z e d . A net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . Most of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e impacts on s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n r e l a t e to a c c e s s . Since many DND non-p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s are o f f e r e d underused space i n p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s at non-peak times at l i t t l e or no c o s t , they i n tu r n can o f f e r s e r v i c e s at a ra t e lower than the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . Access i s almost always a v a i l a b l e to members of the m i l i t a r y community. In a d d i t i o n , m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s a l s o have access to s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . A net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 4.3.4 Housing Q u a l i t y T h i s element d e a l s with the q u a l i t y of the housing stock i t s e l f , and the p e r c e p t i o n of the f a m i l y ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n with i t s s h e l t e r . I t a l s o c o n s i d e r s the negative a f f e c t s inherent i n a l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (Queen's U n i v e r s i t y 1953, pp. 122-123). T h i s negative a f f e c t i s observed i n survey r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e d that 45% of married q u a r t e r occupants f e l t that DND as l a n d l o r d d i d not handle household r e p a i r s and maintenance promptly (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. B-13). Housing. D e t a i l s of the e x i s t i n g DND housing stock are pro v i d e d i n s e c t i o n 2.2.3, and can be g e n e r a l i z e d as "adequate but ugly" and "out of date". As a r e s u l t , the CMHC s t i p u l a t e d r e n t s (based on e q u i v a l e n t accommodation i n the l o c a l community) 164 are somewhat lower than s i m i l a r s i z e d homes i n the l o c a l community. The Housing S o c i e t y o p t i o n would enable upgrading of the housing stock, but would a l s o r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d r e n t s once they were not s u b j e c t e d to the c o n s t r a i n t s of f e d e r a l bureaucracy. As such, a monetary b e n e f i t e x i s t s f o r Option A as out of pocket housing c o s t s are l e s s than the other two o p t i o n s . Having f a m i l i e s o b t a i n t h e i r own s h e l t e r allows them to choose the environment, l o c a t i o n , s i z e and type of home that they p r e f e r w i t h i n t h e i r budget. In a d d i t i o n , the no housing o p t i o n a l s o enjoys the b e n e f i t of "removing the monkey [of being l a n d l o r d ] from [DND's] back" (Oncken and Wass 1974). Experience has shown that i n company towns where c o n t r o l of housing was r e l i n q u i s h e d to home owners, the i n t e r e s t i n and care of the p r o p e r t y improved (Lucas 1971, p. 79). T h e r e f o r e , an i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t i s p e r c e i v e d f o r Option C. In sum, while marginal monetary b e n e f i t s are enjoyed by the p u b l i c housing o p t i o n these are surpassed by the i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s of good q u a l i t y housing stock as chosen by the f a m i l i e s themselves through Option C. P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . N e i t h e r s o c i a l nor p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s are a f f e c t e d by t h i s impact. 4.3.5 P e r s o n a l Safety T h i s impact element assesses the p e r c e i v e d impacts a s s o c i a t e d with p e r s o n a l s a f e t y from crime, v i o l e n c e , dangers, or hazards. A Queen's U n i v e r s i t y study of s i n g l e - e n t e r p r i s e communities in C a n a d a — a l t h o u g h somewhat d a t e d — i d e n t i f i e s the t y p i c a l p o l i c i n g s i t u a t i o n in company towns which g e n e r a l l y 1 65 m i r r o r s that p e r c e i v e d of the c u r r e n t m i l i t a r y community (1953, p. 206): "Most p o l i c e agree that there i s a minimum of crime i n company towns because of the f a c t that everbody i s f u l l y employed. There are no breeding grounds f o r crime such as poor housing, slums, or unemployment w i t h i n the company-owned townsite. Teenagers are u s u a l l y kept out of m i s c h i e f by means of the company's i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a l programme which keeps j u v e n i l e s ' l e i s u r e time f u l l y occupied. Furthermore, s i n c e most company towns are r e l a t i v e l y small i n p o p u l a t i o n , there i s the added pressure of s o c i a l s a n c t i o n s tending to make the townspeople la w - a b i d i n g . S o c i a l pressure i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e because the m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s are p a r t of the one b i g i n d u s t r i a l f a m i l y . The u l t i m a t e s a n c t i o n i s the fear of being d i s c i p l i n e d by the company." Although the study concludes t h a t "maintenance of a company p o l i c e f o r c e , except f o r use as watchmen or p l a n t guards, i s c o n t r a r y to the Canadian concept of i m p a r t i a l law enforcement" (p. 264), i t i s not d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to m i l i t a r y communities p a t r o l l i n g the married quarter community, as the m i l i t a r y s i t e s being assessed are not i s o l a t e d , and other c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s are a l s o a v a i l a b l e . Housing. Options A and B enjoy the a d d i t i o n a l s e c u r i t y o f f e r e d by m i l i t a r y p o l i c e p a t r o l s i n the community. The community s t r u c t u r e i s a l s o : very homogeneous, everyone knows each other, and access i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d ; thus p u b l i c order becomes the concern of everyone, f u r t h e r i n c r e a s i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of s a f e t y (Time-Life 1976, p. 77). E i g h t y - n i n e percent of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s surveyed r a t e d the s a f e t y of the married q u a r t e r neighbourhood as a "very good" to "good" (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. B-14). As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r o p t i o n s A and B. 166 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . Each s e r v i c e m u n i c i p a l i z e d l e g i t i m i z e s entry to an a d d i t i o n a l group. T h i s i n c r e a s e d i n t r u s i o n erodes the a b i l i t y of community members to s e l f - p o l i c e . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . The e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of p o l i c e s e r v i c e s decreases the t o t a l amount of p o l i c i n g r e c e i v e d by the m i l i t a r y community. They p r e s e n t l y enjoy the s e r v i c e s of both m i l i t a r y and l o c a l p o l i c e . M i l i t a r y p o l i c e are a l s o understanding of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s of the m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to cope with the v a r i e t y of problems experienced by the m i l i t a r y community. Although the i n c r e a s e d p o l i c i n g c r e a t e s a f i s h - b o w l a f f e c t i t i s p e r c e i v e d that i n t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e s a net advantage. 4.3.6 D i s l o c a t i o n T h i s impact element assesses the a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d to overcome the d i f f i c u l t y of d i s l o c a t i o n . M i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s move more f r e q u e n t l y that any other i d e n t i f i a b l e group. In the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y study " p o s t i n g s " were i d e n t i f i e d as the hig h e s t s t r e s s area by c i v i l i a n spouses. Some key elements were: the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the move i t s e l f (47%), p o s t i n g s p r e v e n t i n g the purchase of a home (49%), inadequate sponsorship provided on a p o s t i n g (48%), inadequate support i n f i n d i n g accommodation (56%), inadequate time to prepare f o r a move (81%), and inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n about a new l o c a t i o n (66%). (Popoff et a l . 1986, pp. B-9/10) The s t r e s s e s i n d i c a t e d can be a s s i s t e d or exacerbated by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , f i n a n c i a l , or p s y c h o l o g i c a l 167 stresses associated with d i f f e r e n t accommodation policy options. Housing. Monetary, time, and intangible considerations are affected by th i s impact. A recurring monetary concern to m i l i t a r y families r e l a t i n g to housing, i s the inabi1ity to build equity due to frequent moves. Programs such as guaranteed buy-back (see section 3.4.3) possible through option C would enable more m i l i t a r y families to enter the private housing market. In concerns related to time, both options A and B enable the occupant to acquire accommodation more quickly as s u f f i c i e n t public or society housing would be available for a l l families. More intangibles elements include: f a m i l i a r i t y with the housing stock and the structure of the organization c o n t r o l l i n g housing. Options A and B enjoy the benefits of a common style housing throughout the various s i t e s . Furthermore, Option B with i t s single-purpose organizational structure i s available to concentrate on providing a housing service, thus ensuring that a l l o c a t i o n s are made quickly and e f f i c i e n t l y and that the occupant receives as much information about the house and s i t e as early as possible. The combinations of intangibles and time are perceived to out weigh the limited monetary benefit of option C to provide a net advantage to option B. Physical Services. A minor intangible benefit for internalized physical services is perceived during transfers, as occupants would only have to deal with one agency to complete the administration necessary to terminate and i n i t i a t e services. Social Services. Social services run i n t e r n a l l y can focus more on the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with frequent transfers and can offer programs to ease the stress. The smaller-scale, more 168 f l e x i b l e s o c i a l w e l f a r e , s p o r t s , and r e c r e a t i o n programs can be s t r u c t u r e d to accommodate new a r r i v a l s e l i m i n a t i n g the long r e g i s t r a t i o n l e a d times c o n s i d e r e d the norm i n most mu n i c i p a l a c t i v i t i e s . As w e l l , the DND School System i s understanding of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l t r a n s f e r s and i s w e l l s t r u c t u r e d to ease the t r a n s i t i o n . A net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 4.3.7 Separation T h i s impact element assesses the a s s i s t a n c e provided to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the temporary s e p a r a t i o n of f a m i l i e s . With an average s e p a r a t i o n frequency of s i x times per year and f o r p e r i o d s t o t a l l i n g f i v e months an n u a l l y (see s e c t i o n 2.4.4), i t i s l o g i c a l that t h i s impact concerns m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s almost as s i g n i f i c a n t l y as the t u r m o i l a s s o c i a t e d with frequent t r a n s f e r s . In a survey of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s 43% of c i v i l i a n spouses r e p o r t e d moderate to high s t r e s s r e s u l t i n g from s e p a r a t i o n (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. B-12). Housing. The i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t a c c r u i n g to Options A and B from the knowledge that others i n your heighbourhood s u f f e r from the same d i f f i c u l t y of t e m p o r a r i l y being a one-parent household makes i t e a s i e r to meet the s t r e s s of s e p a r a t i o n (Siemens 1970, pp. 67-68). Option A b e n e f i t s even f u r t h e r s i n c e the employer has more d i r e c t c o n t r o l over the neighbourhood. When a m i l i t a r y u n i t s f a m i l i e s ' are a l l l i v i n g i n a common l o c a t i o n , i t enables the u n i t to provide a s s i s t a n c e more r e a d i l y t o f a m i l i e s i n the absence of the m i l i t a r y member. As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r Option A. 169 P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . For s i m i l a r more d i r e c t c o n t r o l reasons, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s as i t enables more d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e to be provided f o r t e m p o r a r i l y separated m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . 4.3.8 Community I d e n t i t y T h i s impact element assesses the belongingness f e l t by members of the community and i s e v a l u a t e d mainly i n terms of an observed s p a t i a l boundary and cohesiveness of membership. Such s o c i a l cohesiveness was the goal of the planners of Tumbler Ridge (Budgen 1983, p. 10), and as such, s o c i a l development of the community was given the same p r i o r i t y as p h y s i c a l development (Harkness and Paget 1982, s e c t i o n 8.0). T h i s was done through a number of i n n o v a t i o n s at the e a r l y stages: d e s i g n a t i o n of a D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Development to spear-head "community b u i l d i n g " , and formation of a "community s e r v i c e s committee" who c o u l d provide community involvement and c o o r d i n a t e s e r v i c e s . McCalla (1976) while studying s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t suburbs, observed a p o s i t i v e c o - r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and community i d e n t i t y (pp. 36-38). Bowles (1981, p.48) l a b e l s t h i s type of p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n as " s o c i a l v i t a l i t y " and c l a r i f i e s the concept by c o n t r a s t i n g " v i t a l " and " n o n v i t a l " communities. In a n o n v i t a l community there are s t i l l many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r m i n g l i n g but they are sponsored, organized and conducted by an o f f i c i a l agency and do not f o s t e r a sense of "community". "Thus, i n the n o n v i t a l community, members do not share p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o l l e c t i v e events, do not work together i n o r g a n i z i n g c o l l e c t i v e events, do 1 70 not spontaneously p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s and a s s i s t a n c e to each ot h e r , and so not share l i f e ' s sorrows and joys with each o t h e r . " (1981, p. 48) In a v i t a l community networks i n t e r - r e l a t e almost every one i n the community, l e a v i n g few that are s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d . "These networks can be based on k i n s h i p , on the f a c t t h a t people work together, on r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , on common p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n churches, or on v i s i t s between f a m i l i e s . " (1981, pp. 49-50) Housing. Most married q u a r t e r communities have been c o n s t r u c t e d on the s e l f - c o n t a i n e d neighbourhood u n i t concept a t t r i b u t e d to C. Perry (Goodall 1987, p. 321; Endersby 1965, p. 61). T h i s f a c i l i t a t e s easy s p a t i a l community i d e n t i f y by m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . F a m i l i e s d i s p e r s e d throughout the l o c a l community may have v a r y i n g t i e s to t h e i r own new community; however, the married q u a r t e r i d e n t i t y — d u e to the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the many l o c a t i o n s — e n a b l e s such i d e n t i t y to be c a r r i e d from l o c a t i o n to l o c a t i o n . There i s a l s o an i d e n t i t y b u i l t through the common employment, uniform, and l i f e s t y l e of those w i t h i n the married q u a r t e r community. The married q u a r t e r "Community C o u n c i l " a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n that d e s i g n e r s of Tumbler Ridge f e l t was necessary to c r e a t e community i d e n t i t y . The married q u a r t e r community c o n t a i n s most of the dimensions of a strong " v i t a l community" expressed by Bowles (1981, p. 52). As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r options A and B. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . A minor i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s i s p e r c e i v e d through the 171 l i m i t a t i o n of l e g i t i m a t e access i n t o the community. S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . The concept of the neighbourhood u n i t e n v i s i o n e d by town p l a n n e r s : Perry, G a l l i o n , and S t e i n , a l l had elementary schools as the c e n t r a l element of the community ( S t e i n 1978, p.150, pp.47-51; Endersby 1965, pp. 60-62). I t was seen that "the s p i r i t of the [community] i n f l u e n c e s the school and the school p l a y s an important part i n forming that s p i r i t . " ( S t e i n 1978, p. 157) If DND no longer maintained i t s own school system i t i s f e a s i b l e that the l o c a l s c h o o l board would l o c a t e o u t s i d e of the married q u a r t e r community on to non DND p r o p e r t y , removing the f o c a l p o i n t of the neighbourhood u n i t . If other s o c i a l s e r v i c e s were a l s o e x t e r n a l i z e d there would "be no c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e community f o c a l p o i n t (Wiesman 1977, p. 21), as the s e r v i c e s would be o f f e r e d at a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s some d i s t a n c e from the married q u a r t e r community. In terms of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , married q u a r t e r communities have been organized to maximize the dimensions of a " v i t a l community" as e n v i s i o n e d by Bowles (1981, p. 52). As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 4.3.9 F r i e n d s h i p s T h i s impact element assesses the a b i l i t y to i n i t i a t e non-i n v i d i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s l e a d i n g to f r i e n d s h i p s . For an i n d i v i d u a l to achieve a sense of belongingness and s e l f - e s t e e m i t i s necessary f o r them to e s t a b l i s h a number of both i n t i m a t e and non-intimate i n t e r p e r s o n a l community t i e s . Such t i e s are p o s s i b l e through i n t e r a c t i o n both i n person and on the telephone (Wellman 1982, p. 24). Wellman argues that i n order to study 1 72 comtemporary community t i e s we must look beyond the neighbourhood to see them as a network of t i e s r e g a r d l e s s of l o c a t i o n . Although t h i s has merit i t p r o v i d e s f o r l i t t l e r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between the p o l i c y o p t i o n s ; as such, f r i e n d s h i p i s e v a l u a t e d in terms of the a b i l i t y of the f a m i l i e s to e s t a b l i s h n o n - i n v i d i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the l o c a l community. Housing. Options A and B p r o v i d e an extremely homogeneous environment i n which members: share the same employer, share a unique l i f e s t y l e , share the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s l i f e s t y l e , and have roughly the same age and s o c i a l s t a t u s . As a r e s u l t , i n t e r a c t i o n between community members i s f a c i l i t a t e d ; and the more o f t e n they i n t e r a c t , the more they w i l l share common values (Lucas 1971, p. 329); and the e a s i e r i t w i l l be to nurture f r i e n d s h i p s . However, such c o n t a c t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d unbiased, as housing and s o c i a l i z i n g are o f t e n segregated a c c o r d i n g to the rank of the m i l i t a r y member. As i n many company towns, wives f r e q u e n t l y act out the husband's s t a t u s r o l e which consequently remains class-bound (Porteous 1976, p. 337). T h i s i s a r e s u l t of the f a c t that (again l i k e company towns) r e s i d e n t s are a l l employed by the same company e l i m i n a t i n g "the s u b t l e g r a d a t i o n s and vagueness of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n p r e v a l e n t i n a more open s o c i e t y . " (Robinson 1962, p. 82; McCann 1978, p. 47) The emphasis on a l l o c a t i n g homes by rank would decrease i n Option B as the S o c i e t y would opt f o r a more f l e x i b l e and e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n technique. A problem f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as a major one of s o c i a l l i f e i n i s o l a t e d company towns (which are p e r c e i v e d to have a s o c i a l atmosphere s i m i l a r to married q u a r t e r communities) i s g o s s i p i n g . 173 However, Porteous (1976, p. 336) agreed with Matthiasson (1970, p. 2) that t h i s was not a g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d problem among community members. Lucas (1971, p. 347) even found g o s s i p to be "the most e f f e c t i v e means of s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n a small and i s o l a t e d community." For those at the mercy of the e x t e r n a l community seeking out new f r i e n d s h i p s i n a community i s a task. Although o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as Welcome Wagon and kind-hearted neighbours t r y to ease the t r a n s i t i o n i t i s not as noteworthy as that which e x i s t s by v i r t u e of commonality in the m i l i t a r y community. As such, although the n o n - m i l i t a r y community i s c o n s i d e r e d unbiased in i t s housing market, i t i s p e r c e i v e d that the ease of e s t a b l i s h i n g f r i e n d s h i p t i e s i n the married q u a r t e r community p r o v i d e s a net advantage f o r Option B. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . There i s no p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t on f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t i n g to the p r o v i s o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . For s o c i a l s e r v i c e s the environment noted above i s extended to the r e c r e a t i o n a l arena, where community members again have the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet t h e i r neighbours and workmates to nurture f r i e n d s h i p . T h i s i n c r e a s e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n yet another forum p r o v i d e s f o r " i n c r e a s i n g normative agreement, while p e r s o n a l i z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s even f u r t h e r . " (Lucas 1971, p. 330) The i s s u e of rank s e g r e g a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n the area of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 174 4.3.10 Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n T h i s impact element assesses the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community programs and s e r v i c e s . Lucas (1971, p. 199) and K e r r i (1971, p. 24) found that community a c t i v i t i e s , i n a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s o u t s i d e the home, a l s o performed an i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of b r i n g i n g together people who would have otherwise be u n l i k e l y to i n t e r a c t . While N i c k e l s and c o l l e a g u e s (1976), i n studying l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f r o n t i e r communities d i d not f i n d a strong p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between q u a l i t y of l i f e and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (p. 92), they questioned t h e i r survey methods, and c i t e d a number of other s t u d i e s which d i d f i n d p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s (p. 16). T h i s premise i s a l s o assumed in t h i s e v a l u a t i o n . I t should be noted t h a t , while element 4.3.3 ( s p o r t s / r e c r e a t i o n ) comments on the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a c t i v i t i e s and resources, t h i s element looks at the r e a l i s t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a c t i v i t i e s . Housing. Any m i l i t a r y member i s e n t i t l e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n non-public a c t i v i t i e s organized by the " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l " . However, t h i s b e n e f i t i s not as advantageous to a f a m i l y l i v i n g a long d i s t a n c e from the m i l i t a r y s i t e . While the m i l i t a r y member may be w i l l i n g to commute f o r employment, p a r t i c i p a t i o n by f a m i l y members with heavy requirements f o r long d i s t a n c e commuting i s not as c o n c e i v e a b l e . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d to e x i s t f o r options A and B as they are c o - l o c a t e d with an expansive i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of community a c t i v i t i e s . 175 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . There i s no p e r c e i v e d a f f e c t on the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . The i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ensures that m i l i t a r y members have access to s e r v i c e s without having to s u f f e r the consequences a s s o c i a t e d with t r a n s i e n c y . Although a l l rate-payers have access to s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s they o f t e n r e q u i r e long l e a d times f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n , and are g e n e r a l l y organized on a " f i r s t come f i r s t served" b a s i s . For those programs which continue a n n u a l l y entry i n t o the system by a t r a n s i e n t i s d i f f i c u l t . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 4.3.11 P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n "The way i n which community r e s i d e n t s respond to [changes] i s c r i t i c a l i n shaping the s o c i a l consequences of the impacting event. Responses can vary, i n c l u d i n g t o t a l apathy and p a s s i v i t y , p r i v a t i z e d i n d i v i d u a l a d a p t a t i o n s , c o l l e c t i v e responses which are unorganized or i n e f f e c t i v e , and e f f e c t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d c o l l e c t i v e responses. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p u b l i c i n the decision-making process i s commonly regarded as necessary to prevent negative s o c i a l impacts." Roy T. Bowles (1981, p. 57) T h i s impact element assesses the a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e p o l i t i c a l l y at the l o c a l l e v e l , and the r e s u l t a n t involvement i n "neighbourhood self-management". C u r r e n t l y , members of s o c i e t y " e x e r c i s e almost no c o n t r o l over the development and p l a n n i n g of the neighbourhood, nor over such v a r i e d f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y as housing, consumption, community or h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s e t c . " ( F i s h 1982, p. 220) A l l that i s expected of 176 the average c i t i z e n i s a vote every few years, and otherwise e v e r y t h i n g i s l e f t i n the hands of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . Housing. DND has c r e a t e d a very r i g i d and c o n t r o l l e d environment i n i t s married q u a r t e r communities. To compensate somewhat f o r t h i s i t has a l s o d i r e c t e d that Base Commanders c r e a t e a "Community C o u n c i l " which "brings together a l l segments of a MQ community i n t e r e s t and p r o v i d e s a medium f o r c o o p e r a t i v e study, pla n n i n g and a c t i o n to enhance the l i f e of the MQ community." (CFAO 50-21) T h i s c o u n c i l i s s t r u c t u r e d so that r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e from every c o n c e i v e a b l e i n t e r e s t , and through membership by e l e c t i o n . As the married q u a r t e r community i s such a c l o s e d " f i s h b o w l " environment i t i s p e r c e i v e d that the Housing S o c i e t y s l i g h t l y at arms le n g t h from the m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y would enable more u n f e t t e r e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . While members l i v i n g i n the l o c a l community have an equal v o i c e i n t h e i r l o c a l community matters t h e i r r e l a t i v e youth i n the area and l i m i t e d network of c o n t a c t s r e s t r i c t s t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and r e a l i s t i c a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r Option B. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . There i s no p e r c e i v e d a f f e c t on the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . The " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l , " a p a r a l l e l o r g a n i z a t i o n to the "Community C o u n c i l , " e x i s t s f o r s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s forum pro v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s (CFAO 50-20) r e g a r d l e s s of whether they a c t u a l l y belong to a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y or not. Since 1 77 t h i s l e v e l of involvement i s not a v a i l a b l e i n s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d i n most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s p e r c e i v e d to have a net advantage. 4.3.12 Degree of R e g u l a t i o n T h i s impact assesses the a f f e c t s of p a t e r n a l i s m and d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the degree of r e g u l a t i o n e x e r c i s e d . The c o n t r o l that DND e x e r t s on i t s employees moves f a r from the work place and w e l l i n t o the community. T h i s i s evident from i t s d i r e c t c o n t r o l and o p e r a t i o n of housing and some s e r v i c e s , and i n d i r e c t c o n t r o l of almost e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i n the married q u a r t e r community. When questioned 58% of s e r v i c e members and 61% of c i v i l i a n spouses agreed or s t r o n g l y agreed with the statement that "The Forces u s u a l l y a c t s as i f i t s r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s were more important than people." (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. 24) S t u d i e s of s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y communities with s i m i l a r problems r e s u l t i n g from strong company i n f l u e n c e s , have i n d i c a t e d that although o u t s i d e r s observe the phenomenon i t i s not f e l t by the r e s i d e n t s themselves (Porteous 1976, 340; Wiesman 1977, p. 15). In a study of m i g r a t i o n from such communities "company dominated town" was c i t e d as the lowest of twelve c a t e g o r i e s of reasons f o r l e a v i n g (Matthiasson 1971, p. 32). F u r t h e r , i n comparing communities which had changed from being company c o n t r o l l e d to p r i v a t e ownership, Lucas i d e n t i f i e d that such a change was unpopular (1971, p. 77): "Before the change, the c i t i z e n s complained about the undue a u t h o r i t y h e l d by the company over the small d e t a i l s of l i f e , i n c l u d i n g such t h i n g s as the c o l o u r 1 78 scheme of the house, the p l a n t i n g of a hedge, the c l e a n l i n e s s of the house, and the p a t e r n a l i s m that invaded a l l asp e c t s of l i v i n g . Once the changes of s t a t u s were announced, however, there were many o b j e c t i o n s . As one informant put i t , ' I t i s a good t h i n g that the change-over d i d not have to be put to a vote, or we would never have had the changes made.'" Some of the reasons f o r workers embracing company p a t e r n a l i s m center around the reminder that i n c o n j u n c t i o n with r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s come d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s . As w e l l , some people are a t t r a c t e d to communities such as t h i s because t h e r e ' s l e s s need f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than elsewhere, as the company takes care of so many t h i n g s (Porteous 1976, p. 340; Lucas 1971, p. 78). In a d d i t i o n , some members of the community may know no other c u l t u r e , and become paternalism-dependent. Des p i t e some of the b e n e f i t s of a h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d community, and i t a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to some members of s o c i e t y , there are others who p r e f e r a f r e e r environment. In 1962 Robinson expressed t h i s f e e l i n g and suggested that no more company towns should be b u i l t as a r e s u l t (1962, p. 5). With s o c i a l trends now f o c u s i n g on human r i g h t s and freedoms, i t i s p e r c e i v e d that the once popular p a t e r n a l i s t - b e n e v o l e n c e provided by a company would now be seen as h i g h l y s c e p t i c a l . T h i s may be evi d e n t i n the 60% of s e r v i c e members and 66% of c i v i l i a n spouses who " s t r o n g l y agreed" or "agreed" with the statement that "The Forces expects more from me than i t i s w i l l i n g to give back." (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. 25). Housing. Having f a m i l i e s secure accommodation on t h e i r own (Option C) p r o v i d e s the l e a s t amount of r e g u l a t i o n . Option B, s l i g h t l y at arms l e n g t h from the m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y provides l e s s r e g u l a t i o n than that of the completely p u b l i c l y c o n t r o l l e d 179 married q u a r t e r environment. Although a p a t e r n a l i s t i c atmosphere i s enjoyed by some, i t i s p e r c e i v e d that the modern m i l i t a r y f a m i l y would p r e f e r the l e s s ordered and d e p e r s o n a l i z e d community environment a v a i l a b l e through Option C. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . M u n i c i p a l i z e d p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s are t y p i c a l l y owned and operated e i t h e r : by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , a monopoly, or a l a r g e conglomerate, whose o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s (from the p e r c e p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l consumer) are hard to d i f f e r e n t i a t e from that of DND. As such, no net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . Often, dependents of m i l i t a r y members e n r o l l and p a r t i c i p a t e i n DND community s e r v i c e s not as i n d i v i d u a l s , but as a dependent of a m i l i t a r y member. Even being r e f e r r e d to as a "dependent" i s r e v o l t i n g to most (Berton and Smith 1985, p. 74). As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r e x t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . 4.3.13 L i f e S t y l e S e l e c t i o n T h i s impact element assesses the o p p o r t u n i t y of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s to l i v e i n and enjoy the l i f e s t y l e of t h e i r c h o i c e , i n c l u d i n g c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , language, and r e l i g i o n . There i s evidence that most people p r e f e r to l i v e among those who share a s i m i l a r s t y l e of l i f e (Siemens 1976, p. 283). While the m i l i t a r y has a t r a d i t i o n and l i f e s t y l e a l l i t s own, members of the married quarter community are r e c r u i t e d from s o c i e t y at l a r g e , and b r i n g with them d i f f e r e n t values and e x p e c t a t i o n s . U n t i l they become s o c i a l i z e d to, and completely accept, t h i s new way of l i f e they may wish to share l i f e i n an environment which 180 more c l o s e l y resembles that from which they came. Housing. L i v i n g in the c i v i l i a n community a f f o r d s the best o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f a m i l i e s to s e l e c t accommodation based on p r e f e r r e d l i f e s t y l e . Even i f a m i l i t a r y married q u a r t e r community d i d not e x i s t , f a m i l i e s which shared t h e i r enjoyment for such a l i f e s t y l e c o u l d migrate to a common l o c a t i o n i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , l i k e l y adjacent to the m i l i t a r y camp. T h i s e x t e r n a l formation of r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous neighbourhoods i s p o s s i b l e through the combination of the open market system and p e r s o n a l c h o i c e (McCann 1978, p. 54). As such, Option C with i t s inherent freedom to choose i s p e r c e i v e d to have a net advantage. P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . Both m u n i c i p a l i z e d p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s and e x t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s are the norm in Canadian s o c i e t y and are p e r c e i v e d to have a net advantage. 4.3.14 Neighbourhood A t t r a c t i v e n e s s T h i s impact element assesses the neighbourhood a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as viewed by the occupant. "Basic human needs and a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have to be s a t i s f i e d to make a s u c c e s s f u l community." ( B o l l i n g e r 1976, p. 39) For an i n d i v i d u a l to take p r i d e i n what he c a l l s h i s neighbourhood or community he must be s a t i s f i e d with i t s a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s . An important p a r t of t h i s i s l a n d s c a p i n g , which S t e i n (1978, p. 91) concludes " i s a sound i n v e s t m e n t — f i n a n c i a l l y as w e l l as i n good l i v i n g " . Housing Options. M a r r i e d q u a r t e r c o m m u n i t i e s — l i k e many company t o w n s — s u f f e r from monotonous and mundane atmospheres (McCann 1978, p. 47). T h i s r e s u l t s from the houses being b u i l t 181 "en masse" from a l i m i t e d number of d e s i g n s . While t h i s makes maintenance e a s i e r and cheaper, i t d e t r a c t s from the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of the neighbourhood. F u r t h e r , s i n c e a very t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n occupies the homes, l i t t l e yard maintenance or l a n d s c a p i n g i s done. DND as l a n d l o r d has a l s o been r e l u c t a n t to i n c r e a s e maintenance c o s t s by p r o v i d i n g e l a b o r a t e landscaping even i n common areas. As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r o p t i o n C. P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . N e i t h e r p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l s e r v i c e s are p e r c e i v e d to have an impact on neighbourhood a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . 4.3.15 Education T h i s impact element assesses the l e a r n i n g / e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . The concept of the "neighbourhood u n i t " c e n t e r s on the elementary school as a f o c a l p o i n t ( S t e i n 1978, p. 150). In a very t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y one which f r e q u e n t l y t r a n s f e r s between p r o v i n c e s ) the school system p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e . Parents who f e e l somewhat q u i l t y about having to t e a r t h e i r c h i l d r e n from a group of f r i e n d s , move them to a new area and e n r o l l them in a new s c h o o l , can be r e l i e v e d of some a n x i e t y i f they see that the new school i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d to d e a l with these p e c u l i a r i t i e s . M a r r i e d m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s are made up o f : 17% c h i l d l e s s , 36% p r e s c h o o l , 42% school age, and 5% empty nest households (Popoff et a l . 1986, p. 14). As such, approximately 78% of the f a m i l i e s are i n v o l v e d or w i l l be i n v o l v e d with a r r a n g i n g s c h o o l i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y survey 45% of spouses 182 f e l t that t h e i r f a m i l y was i n an u n s u i t a b l e p o s t i n g area because of the " d i f f e r e n t school standards f o r c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n " (p. B-10). For a d u l t education frequent p o s t i n g s can a l s o be a d i s i n c e n t i v e as i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t r a n s f e r c r e d i t s between i n s i t u t i o n s and r e - e n r o l l . Housing. Although the housing o p t i o n s do not d i r e c t l y impact education, the f a c t that the e n t i r e m i l i t a r y community would be c o - l o c a t e d i n op t i o n s A and B enables c h i l d r e n i n the community to a t t e n d the same s c h o o l , r e g a r d l e s s of whether i t was operated by DND or the l o c a l school board. T h i s allows the school board to concentrate on the p a r t i c u l a r problems of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r Options A and B. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . There i s no p e r c e i v e d impact on education from the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . The DND School System was o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d to provide education s e r v i c e s f o r m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s , and has been s t r u c t u r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to deal with t h e i r unique d i f f i c u l t i e s . To a s s i s t t r a n s i e n t m i l i t a r y members, DND has co o r d i n a t e d a u n i v e r s i t y education program through The U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba which enables m i l i t a r y members at v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s to o b t a i n degrees without r e s i d e n c y . Programs such as these are only f e a s i b l e i f s e r v i c e s are i n t e r n a l i z e d and org a n i z e d on l a r g e s c a l e . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 1 83 4.3.16 S o c i a l i z a t i o n T h i s impact element assesses the o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and be s o c i a l i z e d i n the way of l i f e o f ones c h o i c e . I t i s s i m i l a r to the l i f e s t y l e element d i s c u s s e d above, but i n s t e a d of e v a l u a t i n g whether the e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e i s the one p r e f e r r e d , i t e v a l u a t e s whether there i s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u t u r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the manner of your c h o i c e . There are two main areas of s o c i a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r e s t : to m i l i t a r y way of l i f e , and to s o c i e t a l norms. Housing. Option A p r o v i d e s the best b e n e f i t s f o r a complete i n d o c t r i n a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o the m i l i t a r y way of l i f e . Work, p l a y , s c h o o l , neighbourhood, s o c i a l l i f e and church are a l l centered ' around the married q u a r t e r community. Option B i s a l l of the above but s l i g h t l y removed, as DND has "loosened the r e i n s " on the neighbourhood somewhat. Option C enables the f a m i l y to be immersed in the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y , but s t i l l have contact with the m i l i t a r y establishment at a l e v e l r e g u l a t e d by p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . As such, a net advantage i s p e r c e i v e d f o r Option C. P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s . There i s no p e r c e i v e d impact on s o c i a l i z a t i o n from the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s . S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . I n t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s would enable the promotion of the m i l i t a r y way of l i f e , while e x t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s would provide a r e a l i s t i c view of general s o c i e t y . I t i s p e r c e i v e d that both are necessary. To h e l p ease the d i f f i c u l t i e s of m i l i t a r y l i f e i t i s necessary to become accustomed to i t s ways. S i m i l a r l y , s i n c e f a m i l y members w i l l not 184 always be under the protective wing of the married quarter community they must become familiar with "the real world". No net advantage i s perceived between internalized or externalized s o c i a l services. 185 4.4 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS In a t y p i c a l Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s , with i t s ext e n s i v e l i s t o f: c o s t s / b e n e f i t s , producers/consumers, a b s o l u t e s / d i f f e r e n c e s and t a n g i b l e s / i n t a n g i b l e s i t i s an advantage to complete a "summation" balance sheet which groups as many of the components as p o s s i b l e and provi d e s a f u r t h e r balance and net advantage. However, i t i s important that t h i s summation does not remove any of the i n t a n g i b l e and s u b j e c t i v e measurements which have been i d e n t i f i e d ; as t h i s i s the task of the d e c i s i o n -makers. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that the decision-maker i s f o r c e d to make e x p l i c i t these judgements about i n t a n g i b l e s and incommensurables f o r the Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s t o be e f f e c t i v e . Planners and s o c i a l a n a l y s t s must not become so i n v o l v e d i n conducting the a n a l y s i s that they o v e r s t e p t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n p r e s e n t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n , i n an attempt to s i m p l i f y i t f o r decision-makers (Boothroyd 1978, p. 130). They should not d i s g u i s e the f a c t t h at recommendations are value laden. Since many of the f a c t o r s are u n q u a n t i f i a b l e and cannot be "summed", i t ' s impossible to have a c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d f i n a l r e s u l t : or winner. A number of weighting and ranking schemes are used i n other matrix type assessments to determine a " s c i e n t i f i c " s o l u t i o n . However, t h i s i s presumptuous as the s c i e n t i f i c s o l u t i o n i s subj e c t to the p e r c e p t i o n s , judgements and values of the a n a l y s t . If p u b l i c input i s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s process the r e s u l t i n g " s c i e n t i f i c " judgement i s deemed more a c c e p t a b l e . However, the most a p p r o p r i a t e procedure would be to have 186 decision-makers in c o n j u n c t i o n with the impacted p u b l i c not only weigh and rank the elements, but a l s o choose the p r e f e r r e d course of a c t i o n . Aside from a s s i s t i n g i n the s e l e c t i o n of a p r e f e r r e d accommodation p o l i c y , the balance sheet i s u s e f u l f o r a number of other very p r a c t i c a l p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y uses. F i r s t , i t i d e n t i f i e s the elements of the community most i n need of support. T h i s enables the governing body to get the best "bang f o r i t s buck" by i n c o r p o r a t i n g p o l i c y which e l i m i n a t e s elements e x h i b i t i n g the most p e r c e i v e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Second, i t i d e n t i f i e s elements of concern which must be addressed i f a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y o p t i o n i s chosen. T h i r d , i t i d e n t i f i e s elements which e x h i b i t l i t t l e impact and as a consequence can e s s e n t i a l l y be ignored. Once the balance sheet has been completed c e r t a i n elements w i l l appear as being more s i g n i f i c a n t than o t h e r s . In t u r n , other elements may be vague and r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The impact assessment process should be i t e r a t i v e , so at t h i s stage refinement through the r e - e v a l u a t i o n of some areas of the assessment and c o n f i r m a t i o n of any u n c e r t a i n t i e s would be a p p r o p r i a t e . Since the h e u r i s t i c model has a l r e a d y been s i m p l i f i e d through the e l i m i n a t i o n of a l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s a summation balance sheet i s not necessary. As most of the elements remaining i n v o l v e i n t a n g i b l e s and are measured i n terms of r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e ( v i c e a b s o l u t e s ) , any r e d u c t i o n would g e n e r a l l y shroud important i n f o r m a t i o n . 187 The i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s of each of the balance sheets are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y below. Although many of the f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to housing and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n are i n t e r - r e l a t e d , and p o l i c i e s f o r one would have to be co n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the other, they are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y to i n t e r p r e t the p e r c e i v e d p o l i c y impacts p e c u l i a r to each. Wi t h i n each of the p o l i c y areas no i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y option c o u l d c l e a r l y be co n s i d e r e d the best a l t e r n a t i v e as d e f i n i t e advantages were observed by each of the op t i o n s in the d i f f e r e n t impact elements. Since the accommodation q u e s t i o n i s l a r g e r i n scope than simply the s o c i a l impact concerns of the f a m i l y , i t i s unnecessary to determine a s o l u t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y from the s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Instead i t i s necessary to understand the r e l a t i v e advantages and disadvantages so that they can be p r o p e r l y i n c o r p o r a t e d in a f i n a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n . As such, each of the opt i o n s are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . 4.4.1 Housing Option A - Complete P u b l i c Housing. T h i s o p t i o n enjoyed a net advantage i n s i x of the s i x t e e n elements. I t s s t r e n g t h e x i s t s as a r e s u l t of i t s : l o c a t i o n ; a v a i l a b i l i t y of sp o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l resources; p e r c e i v e d s a f e t y ; s c h o o l i n g ; and e s p e c i a l l y i t s a b i l i t y to pro v i d e support to f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the absence of the m i l i t a r y member. Weaknesses can be seen i n the elements o f : q u a l i t y of s h e l t e r ; a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the neighbourhood; degree of r e g u l a t i o n ; and, a b i l i t y to provide s o c i a l i z a t i o n for both m i l i t a r y and s o c i e t a l ways of l i f e . 188 Option B - Create A Housing S o c i e t y . T h i s o p t i o n enjoyed a net advantage i n nine of the s i x t e e n areas (the most of any o p t i o n ) . The impacts are s i m i l a r i n many aspects to those of op t i o n A as they shared a net advantage i n f i v e of the elements. In f a c t the only element i n which Option B was not at l e a s t equal to or b e t t e r than Option A, was i n reducing negative impacts r e s u l t i n g from temporary f a m i l y s e p a r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to having s t r e n g t h s e q u i v a l e n t to Option A the f o l l o w i n g s t r e n g t h s a l s o e x i s t e d : a s s i s t a n c e f o r d i s l o c a t i o n ; a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h n o n - i n v i d i o u s f r i e n d s h i p s ; and, a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s that Option B was not seen as l e a s t advantageous p o l i c y i n any of the s i x t e e n elements. Option C - No Housing Provided. T h i s o p t i o n enjoyed a net advantage i n f i v e of the s i x t e e n areas. Real s t r e n g t h s were e x h i b i t e d i n the areas o f : q u a l i t y of s h e l t e r ; a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the neighbourhood; degree of r e g u l a t i o n ; l i f e s t y l e ; and, the a b i l i t y to s o c i a l i z e towards both the m i l i t a r y and s o c i e t a l ways of l i f e . Weaknesses were seen i n : l o c a t i o n ; a v a i l a b i l i t y of sp o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s ; s a f e t y ; a b i l i t y to provide support f o r d i s l o c a t i o n and temporary s e p a r a t i o n ; community i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d s h i p s ; a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n community and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ; and, education. C o n c l u s i o n . The f i n a l d e c i s i o n would i n v o l v e s i g n i f i c a n t t r a d e - o f f s i n many of the elements. However, t h i s framework enables the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of those elements r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e s t 1 8 9 c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n order that they can be addressed as p r i o r i t y elements. From the s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e undertaken i n t h i s assessment i t appears that the c r e a t i o n of a housing s o c i e t y would be the best a l t e r n a t i v e . T h i s i s a r e s u l t of i t s grea t e r number of str e n g t h s and e s p e c i a l l y because i t weaknesses are not as s i g n i f i c a n t as those e x h i b i t e d by the other o p t i o n s . However, i f some of the noted problem areas are addressed through p o l i c i e s e x t e r n a l to accommodation (e.g. to e l i m i n a t e / r e d u c e m i l i t a r y t r a n s f e r s and sep a r a t i o n ) then a d i f f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as a c c e p t a b l e . 4.4.2 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s I n t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s had a net advantage i n f i v e elements as compared to only one f o r m u n i c i p a l i z e d s e r v i c e . Advantages f o r i n t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s were e x h i b i t e d i n : a v a i l a b i l i t y of sp o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; s a f e t y ; d i s l o c a t i o n ; s e p a r a t i o n ; and, community i d e n t i t y . Whereas, m u n i c i p a l i z e d s e r v i c e s had an advantage i n l i f e s t y l e . What i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n the assessment of t h i s p o l i c y area i s that ten out of the s i x t e e n elements e i t h e r experienced no impact, or were seen as being e q u i v a l e n t . Even the s i x impact elements i n which some impact was i d e n t i f i e d the e f f e c t s were minimal. As such, the s o c i a l impact r e s u l t i n g from p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s p o l i c y appears to be of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e past economic analyses of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s have determined that s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t can be obtained through the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , i t i s apparent why i t has proceeded. 190 4.4.3 Social Services Internalized services had a net advantage in ten elements as compared to two for externalized services. Externalized services only displayed an advantage i n : degree of regulation and l i f e s t y l e ; of which both were only marginally more advantageous than internalized services. Unlike physical services and housing, there appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the m i l i t a r y family resulting from the provision of soc i a l services; i t appears that these impacts can be best s a t i s f i e d through providing s o c i a l services i n t e r n a l l y . This i s not to say that services must continue to be provided in the current manner, but that the consequences of a change in t h i s area appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t . 191 4.5 SUMMARY While i t cannot be s a i d that the Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s has provided the answer f o r a very d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n , a b a s i s f o r an informed value judgement has been l a i d . The impact elements have been i d e n t i f i e d , t h e i r r e l a t i v e a f f e c t noted, the nature of the b e n e f i t s i s o l a t e d and d e s c r i b e d , and a comprehensive p i c t u r e presented. The h e u r i s t i c model, i n a s s e s s i n g the s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s r e s u l t i n g from v a r i o u s accommodation p o l i c i e s , p r e s e n t s only a sm a l l p o r t i o n of the t o t a l assessment necessary to answer the q u e s t i o n of whether DND should continue to c r e a t e and maintain i t s own communities? To do t h a t , each of the components of the Planning Balance Sheet would have to be e x t e n s i v e l y expanded. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n would be a value judgement which would i n v o l v e a l l the c l a s s i c a l problems of s o c i a l c h o i c e : "how to make judgements on behalf of others whom you rep r e s e n t ; how to hol d the balance between s e c t i o n s of the community whose o b j e c t i v e s are i n c o n f l i c t ; how to defend the i n t e r e s t s of a m i n o r i t y and of the yet unborn." ( L i c h f i e l d 1966. p. 241) But, the value judgement would be made more sure based on t h i s comprehensive Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s than without. The p r e v i o u s l y i n t a n g i b l e and incommensurable i s s u e s have been brought to the a t t e n t i o n of decision-makers f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n a l o n g s i d e t r a d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s . T h i s improves the chances of a sound d e c i s i o n being made. 192 5.0 CONCLUSIONS The q u e s t i o n of whether DND should be i n the business of c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g i t s own communities, and i f so, what accommodation p o l i c i e s are a p p r o p r i a t e , i s very i n v o l v e d and complicated. The e v a l u a t i o n of the s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s undertaken i n t h i s t h e s i s has only s c r a t c h e d at the s u r f a c e of the e n t i r e q u e s t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the h e u r i s t i c model used to d e s c r i b e the Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s methodology has a l s o been s i m p l i f i e d to enable v i s u a l i z a t i o n of the process such that i t too only p a r t i a l l y covers the s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s . As such, i t i s necessary to put the l a r g e r problem back i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e to show how the Planning Balance Sheet method can a s s i s t i n s o l v i n g the problem. F i g u r e 5-1 uses a r e l e v a n c e t r e e to i l l u s t r a t e the components of the problem which have been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Of the many f a c t o r s which must be c o n s i d e r e d p r i o r to making an informed d e c i s i o n on m i l i t a r y communities, only a minute p o r t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d , as e v i d e n t from the many unexplored branches of the t r e e . E x t e n s i v e expansion both v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y on the relevance t r e e i s necessary before a completely informed d e c i s i o n i s p o s s i b l e . To complete t h i s process i t i s a l s o necessary to expand the impact c a t e g o r i e s to be assessed. In chapter f o u r , the c a t e g o r i e s were l i m i t e d to s i x t e e n which s p e c i f i c a l l y impacted the f a m i l y . Although the c a t e g o r i e s are somewhat generic they would s t i l l have to be expanded when other key f a c t o r s are i n c l u d e d . As w e l l , t h i s assessment only i n v e s t i g a t e d the 1 93 F i g u r e 5-1 THE ACCOMMODATION QUESTION RELEVANCE TREE I—OPERATIONAL . [• SOCIAL CO THE MILITARY COMMUNITY QUESTION WORK ENVIRONMENT •COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT ISOLATED SITES • URBAN SITES MM* -SINGLE JHtMARRI ED^HHf ' •GEOGRAPHIC -INDIVIDUALS-l— c HUSBAND I FE CHILDREN pFAMILY• i — AGE — RANK — ETHNICITY — ECONOMIC STATUS — OCCUPATIONAL ROLE 'MARRIED QUARTER |—MARR f -NEIGHBOURHOOD—1_LOCAL COMMUNITY -REGION• ECONOMY HOUSING FACILITIES • ECONOMIC •POLITICAL -Areas c o n s i d e r e d i n the h e u r i s t i c model c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i n terms of consumers ( f a m i l i e s ) . To provide s u f f i c i e n t and accurate i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a w e l l informed d e c i s i o n , the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s to both consumers and producers must be determined. F u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f a m i l y i t s e l f i s a l s o necessary, as t h i s t h e s i s has d e a l t with a g e n e r ic m i l i t a r y f a m i l y l i v i n g i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y which was assumed capable of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e to the m i l i t a r y community. These areas would have to be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r as i n d i c a t e d on the relevance t r e e . T h i s t h e s i s has d e s c r i b e d the techniques necessary to develop each stage of each of the many unexplored branches, as w e l l as having p r o v i d e d an a p p r o p r i a t e method to capture the r e s u l t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to decision-makers. The Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s i s recommended as a s u i t a b l e methodology to evaluate the impacts determined from any branch of the relevance t r e e , and then to capture the i n f o r m a t i o n in a manner which can be e a s i l y diagnosed by decision-makers. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to allow c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l a r g e v a r i e t y of i n t a n g i b l e s and incommensurables, while s t i l l p r o v i d i n g the s c i e n t i f i c accuracy necessary to compare measureable a b s o l u t e s . I t i s d o u b t f u l whether a f u l l a n a l y s i s of a l l elements of the completed r e l e v a n c e t r e e would be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y conducted due to the time and expense which a f u l l s c a l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e s . However, the PBSA can a l s o be used as an i n t e g r a t i v e t o o l to combine the r e s u l t s of a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t independent s t u d i e s undertaken i n d i f f e r e n t impact areas. The PBSA with i t s combination of a d e t a i l e d balance sheet and accompanying prose 195 allows decision-makers to q u i c k l y a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between a l t e r n a t i v e s and o b t a i n d e t a i l s of s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s as r e q u i r e d from the d e s c r i p t i v e n a r r a t i v e . The manner in which the s o c i a l impact assessment process d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s i n t e g r a t e d with p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5-2. The decision-making process d e p i c t e d has been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d from a s i m i l a r model designed by Olsen and c o l l e a g u e s (1981, p. 45), and i d e n t i f i e s the p r e d i c t e d s o c i a l impacts r e s u l t i n g from the key elements e v a l u a t e d i n the s o c i a l impact assessment. Use o f * t h e Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s enables s o c i a l p r e d i c t i o n s to be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g s i d e o p e r a t i o n a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and geographic f a c t o r s , even though the l a t e r may have been e v a l u a t e d i n independent s t u d i e s . Separate balance sheets can be prepared f o r each of the f a c t o r s based on t h e i r independent s t u d i e s and can be summarized i n t o a f i n a l balance sheet f o r the informed c o n s i d e r a t i o n of dec ision-makers. More importantly however, i s the use of the P l a n n i n g Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s as a p r e s e n t a t i o n d e v i c e . While most e v a l u a t i o n d e v i c e s (even the most s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s ) are extremely complicated and d i f f i c u l t f o r decision-makers to absorb and understand i n the l i m i t e d time that i s t y p i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e , the Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s enables a very quick and r e l a t i v e l y easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and comparison of impacts. As w e l l , i t i s one of the few techniques which p r o v i d e s d e c i s i o n -makers with i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l the f a c t o r s , both measureable and immeasurable, i n order to make t h e i r informed c h o i c e . 196 Figure 5-2 SOCIAL IMPACTS AS PART OF THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS INPUTS THRUPUTS OUTPUTS EXISTING SOCIAL a ECONOMIC CONDITIONS r~" VALUES INTERESTS ATTITUDES IMPACT AMELIORATION EXISTING POLICY L. OPERATIONAL ECONOMIC POLITICAL ft GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS POLICY . RECOMMENDATIONS PLANNING ft MANAGEMENT. RESOURCES In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a t o o l to a s s i s t i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such complex problems, t h i s t h e s i s has a l s o o r g a n i z e d a great d e a l of p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the m i l i t a r y community. As w e l l , the t h e s i s has i l l u s t r a t e d the importance of the m i l i t a r y family to the o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of DND and thus the need for s o c i a l p l a n n i n g to be e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d i n the DND c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g process. 198 6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS Having reviewed and understood the unique s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from the m i l i t a r y s t y l e of l i f e , d e s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y extremes to deal with these problems, c r e a t e d a framework to assess the impacts a r i s i n g from the p o l i c y o p t i o n s , and e v a l u a t e d the s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s r e s u l t i n g from the p o l i c i e s , i t i s necessary to provide recommendations on how to use what has been l e a r n e d . There are many areas i n which t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may be used. The most obvious b e n e f i t s e x i s t f o r DND i n f o r m u l a t i n g accommodation r e l a t e d p o l i c i e s and improving q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the m i l i t a r y community. However, many of the o b s e r v a t i o n s are of value to and can be e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n some c i v i l i a n communities. As such, s p e c i f i c comments and recommendations are p r o v i d e d f o r each of these areas in the f o l l o w i n g two s e c t i o n s : 6.1 The DND Accommodation Question 6.2 General Planning I m p l i c a t i o n s 199 6.1 THE DND ACCOMMODATION QUESTION As s e s s i n g the s o c i a l impact c a t e g o r i e s as they are a f f e c t e d by the d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y o p t i o n s , p r o v i d e s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of which c a t e g o r i e s are the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n each area. These o b s e r v a t i o n s enable p o l i c y makers to conc e n t r a t e on c a t e g o r i e s i n which the impacts are most severe, and the r e t u r n s from any e f f o r t are l i k e l y to be h i g h e s t . F i g u r e 6-1 i l l u s t r a t e s the s o c i a l impact c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i d e r e d to be most s i g n i f i c a n t i n each of the p o l i c y areas as assessed i n the h e u r i s t i c model. The flow chart enables decision-makers to q u i c k l y i d e n t i f y areas of p a r t i c u l a r concern as they are impacted by any a n t i c i p a t e d change i n p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n . T h i s does not suggest that other impact c a t e g o r i e s can be ignored, but simply that those i d e n t i f i e d on the flow c h a r t should be co n s i d e r e d f i r s t , as higher p r i o r i t y concerns. T h i s quick r e f e r e n c e i s a l s o u s e f u l when attempting to m i t i g a t e the impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s a r i s i n g from p o l i c y formulated without f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l impacts. I t does not a l l e v i a t e the need to conduct d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g i n the manner suggested i n t h i s t h e s i s , but pr o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e i n s a l v a g i n g p o l i c i e s which c o u l d otherwise be even more s o c i a l l y harmful. In sum, i t i s hoped that decision-makers w i l l r e a l i z e the importance of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n the decision-making process i n v o l v i n g m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s , and w i l l be a b l e to i n c o r p o r a t e such p l a n n i n g through the use of the Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s . S p e c i f i c recommendations i n the three p o l i c y areas are provided i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 200 FIGURE 6-1: ACCOMMODATION SOCIAL PLANNING-ro O •HOUSING PHYSICAL SERVICES-•SOCIAL SERVICES-POLICY AREA CY AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN TO MILITARY FAMILIES TOWARD MORE PUBLIC HOUSING-TOWARD A HOUSING SOCIETY TOWARD PRIVATE HOUSING-HOUSING QUALITY NEIGHBOURHOOD ATTRACTIVENESS DEGREE OF REGULATION SOCIALIZATION LIFESTYLE SELECTION HOUSING QUALITY NEIGHBOURHOOD ATTRACTIVENESS LIFESTYLE SELECTION SOCIALIZATION ACCESSIBILITY SPORTS/RECREATION EDUCATION PERSONAL SAFETY COMMUNITY IDENTITY DISLOCATION SEPARATION FRIENDSHIPS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION POLITICAL PARTICIPATION TOWARD INTERNALIZED SERVICES- LIFESTYLE SELECTION TOWARD MUNICIPALIZATION j — SPORTS/RECREATION — PERSONAL SAFETY • DISLOCATION SEPARATION * — COMMUNITY IDENTITY TOWARD INTERNALIZED SERVICES" DEGREE OF REGULATION LIFESTYLE SELECTION TOWARD EXTERNALIZED SERVICES-EMPLOYMENT OF DEPENDENTS ACCESSIBILITY SPORTS/RECREATION PERSONAL SAFETY DISLOCATION SEPARATION COMMUNITY IDENTITY — FRIENDSHIPS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION EDUCATION POLICY DIRECTION AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN 6 . 1 . 1 Housing The e v a l u a t i o n of housing p o l i c y undertaken in t h i s t h e s i s determined that the c r e a t i o n of a Non-Public Housing S o c i e t y deserves a great deal more c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A Housing S o c i e t y s t y l e of o r g a n i z a t i o n seems to enjoy most of the b e n e f i t s of the very c l o s e d p u b l i c l y c o n t r o l l e d married q u a r t e r community, but would a l s o be capable of a l t e r i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s u f f i c i e n t l y to o b t a i n some of the b e n e f i t s of a l e s s s t r u c t u r e d environment. Through the Planning Balance Sheet A n a l y s i s i t was a l s o p o s s i b l e to see how the housing p o l i c y extremes impacted the m i l i t a r y f a m i l y i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The Planning Balance Sheet was a l s o capable of s e g r e g a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l impacts such that the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of each component were v i s a b l e . As such, i t a s s i s t s i n d e v e l o p i n g housing p o l i c y which i n c o r p o r a t e s as many of the s t r e n g t h s of each of the o p t i o n s as p o s s i b l e . A r i s i n g both d i r e c t l y from the h e u r i s t i c model, as w e l l as i n d i r e c t l y from the i n f o r m a t i o n about the m i l i t a r y community organized i n t h i s t h e s i s , the f o l l o w i n g housing r e l a t e d a c t i o n s are suggested: a. The c r e a t i o n of a Non-Public Housing S o c i e t y should be i n v e s t i g a t e d and developed f u r t h e r . b. I f the concept of a formal housing s o c i e t y i s not adopted, then e f f o r t s should be undertaken to r e -o r g a n i z e housing support under one agency. T h i s w i l l a s s i s t i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e to the occupants and a l s o ensure that support to married q u a r t e r s does not become a "secondary" t a s k i n g among a number of base o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 202 c. The importance of the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of accommodation should be r e a l i z e d , and e f f o r t s made to improve the housing stock and neighbourhood a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of married q u a r t e r communities. d. The e x i s t i n g r i g i d c o n t r o l over DND housing should be i n v e s t i g a t e d and s e l f - h e l p programs c o n s i d e r e d to f o s t e r both community p r i d e and cohesiveness and to improve housing stock and neighbourhood a t t r a c t i veness. e. Housing a l l o c a t i o n should be s t r u c t u r e d to accommodate those f a m i l i e s most in need. In c o n j u n c t i o n with t h i s , the p o l i c y of s e g r e g a t i o n by rank should a l s o be s t u d i e d . f. Since many of the b e n e f i t s i n both s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and housing are based on the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s to m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s , the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of the two must be c o n s i d e r e d when developing p o l i c i e s f o r e i t h e r . 6.1.2 P h y s i c a l S e r v i c e s The e v a l u a t i o n undertaken i n t h i s t h e s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d that s o c i a l impacts on m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s which c o u l d r e s u l t from the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Although i n t e r n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s e x h i b i t more b e n e f i t s they are seen to impact f a m i l i e s only m a r g i n a l l y . Since the economic b e n e f i t s of m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n have been shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s r e a l i s t i c to allow the t r a n s f e r of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s to proceed. However, c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be given to the r e - d i r e c t i o n of f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g from m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n back i n t o the m i l i t a r y community through e i t h e r housing or s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s w i l l a s s i s t i n ensuring that the marginal impacts of m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n are compensated f o r , with a net b e n e f i t to m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s , but without a d d i t i o n a l c o s t to DND. 203 6 . 1 . 3 S o c i a l S e r v i c e s A very s i g n i f i c a n t , and the most notable o b s e r v a t i o n a r i s i n g from the assessment of the h e u r i s t i c model, i s the importance of the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . While the p o l i c y areas of housing and p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s e x h i b i t e d numerous c o s t s and b e n e f i t s which r e q u i r e d some t r a d i n g - o f f between a l t e r n a t i v e s and as such d i d not i n d i c a t e a d i s t i n c t "winner", s o c i a l s e r v i c e s were seen to c l e a r l y s a t i s f y f a m i l y s o c i a l impacts much more s u c c e s s f u l l y when provided i n t e r n a l l y . The a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s overwhelmingly suggests that DND should p l a y a major r o l e i n the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , but the r o l e does not n e c e s s a r i l y need to be f i n a n c i a l i n nature. However, i t i s suggested that DND as the a d m i n i s t r a t o r of p u b l i c and non-public a c t i v i t i e s i n the m i l i t a r y community take the i n i t i a t i v e to ensure that s u i t a b l e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s are encouraged, enabled, and a s s i s t e d at a l l m i l i t a r y l o c a t i o n s . As i t i s s t r o n g l y recommended that DND play a major r o l e i n the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to p r o v i d e more s p e c i f i c recommendations on how t h i s r o l e should be i n c r e a s e d . While the general recommendation f o r DND to be i n v o l v e d i s drawn e x p l i c i t l y from the f i n d i n g s of the t h e s i s , the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are not so e x p l i c i t l y drawn. They a r i s e from a combination of the r e a l i z e d importance of the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and the s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of areas in which the author f e e l s the improvement of s e r v i c e s i s warranted and f e a s i b l e : 204 a. Family support c e n t e r s should be e s t a b l i s h e d (at p u b l i c expense) at a l l bases to provide a c e n t r a l o f f i c e from which concerns of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s can be a d m i n i s t e r e d and s e r v i c e s c o o r d i n a t e d . b. A c o - l o c a t e d v o l u n t e e r bureau should be e s t a b l i s h e d to organize v o l u n t e e r e f f o r t s . c. U n i t f a m i l y l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s should be designated f o r each m i l i t a r y u n i t , to f a c i l i t a t e u n i t support through the f a m i l y support center to f a m i l i e s whose m i l i t a r y member i s absent. d. A p o s i t i o n of ombudsperson should be e s t a b l i s h e d at each base to act as a spouse intermediary and a s s i s t spouses to understand procedures and to cut through the bureaucracy when necessary. e. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n of committees should be reviewed to enable and encourage more spouses to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the "Community C o u n c i l " and " R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l " . f. S u i t a b l e c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s should be e s t a b l i s h e d i n c l u d i n g the p r o v i s i o n of emergency 24 hour s e r v i c e f o r problems a r i s i n g from m i l i t a r y exigences. g. Spousal employment should be encouraged and a s s i s t e d through community nepotism, j o b - s h a r i n g programs, one-women home occupations, and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and s k i l l s c l a s s e s ( s e c t i o n 4.3.1). h. Base a c t i v i t y programs should be reviewed to ensure that adequate s p e c i f i c programs are a v a i l a b l e f o r spouses and c h i l d r e n . i . A r e l o c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n bureau should be e s t a b l i s h e d at each base. T h i s c o u l d be operated as a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a manner s i m i l a r to l o c a l "Welcome Wagons" with funding s o l i c i t e d from l o c a l businesses (through a d v e r t i s i n g ) and with f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by DND. The bureau would send i n f o r m a t i o n to members newly posted i n as soon as they were informed, and would greet them with a h o u s e c a l l upon a r r i v a l . S i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e p a r i n g to move, and the s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e on the departure end of the p o s t i n g would a l s o be p r o v i d e d . 205 6.2 GENERAL PLANNING IMPLICATIONS The Canadian m i l i t a r y f a m i l y i s simply a microcosm of the f a m i l y i n Canadian s o c i e t y . As such, many of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of o v e r a l l s o c i e t a l trends apply to a l l communities although many are of p a r t i c u l a r relevance to the m i l i t a r y . Since some of the impacts a r e : l a r g e r , more apparent, and occur more q u i c k l y as a r e s u l t of the uniqueness of m i l i t a r y l i f e , the m i l i t a r y environment serves as a u s e f u l case study to i n f e r impacts on other communities. As w e l l , the workable s i z e of m i l i t a r y communities, t h e i r s p a t i a l d e f i n i t i o n , t h e i r d i s p e r s a l throughout Canada, and t h e i r mixed urban/semi-urban/isolated l o c a t i o n s enables them to be a u s e f u l t o o l f o r p r o j e c t i n g impacts on other Canadian communities. In a d d i t i o n to being u s e f u l as a good, ge n e r a l i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l impacts, m i l i t a r y communities a l s o e x h i b i t a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are so s i m i l a r to those experienced by s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y towns that d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n s can be made. Some of the p a r a l l e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shared by these r e l a t i v e l y analogous communities a r e : a. M o b i l i t y of workforce b. Lack of k i n s h i p t i e s c. P a t e r n a l i s m d. Homogeniety of p o p u l a t i o n e. Unbalanced p o p u l a t i o n f. S i n g l e employer g. Closedness of community h. Lack of employment f o r dependents i . Community i d e n t i t y j . Monotonous housing stock 206 Many of the recommendations d i r e c t e d at m i l i t a r y p o l i c y makers i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n can be extended to other forms of community. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the importance of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by Goudy (1977) i n h i s study of community s a t i s f a c t i o n , by S u t t l e s i n h i s r e s e a r c h on l o c a l community (Franck 1983, p. 309), and by the planners of Tumbler Ridge who have e x p l i c i t l y attempted to i n c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n t o t h e i r p l a n n i n g process (Budgen 1983; Thompson et a l . 1978). As planners become more i n v o l v e d i n developing and m a i n t a i n i n g communities i t i s p e r c e i v e d that s o c i a l dimensions w i l l begin to assume gre a t e r and gre a t e r importance r e l a t i v e to the t r a d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l dimension of p l a n n i n g . Some qu e s t i o n s f o r planners which are drawn from t h i s p r o f i l e of the m i l i t a r y community but are shared with many other communities a r e : a. How to d e a l with community members who do not appear to make a long-term commitment to the community. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue of m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s as they know they w i l l be moving on w i t h i n a few y e a r s . However, the phenomenon e x i s t s throughout s o c i e t y . b. How to d e a l with apathy r e s u l t i n g i n a p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e of " l e t the company [ m u n i c i p a l i t y ] do i t ... i t ' s t h e i r community [job] anyway". c. How to s a t i s f y a d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n s o c i a l i z e d to s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l forms developed i n other r e g i o n s . d. How to evaluate impacts r e p l e t e with i n t a n g i b l e s and incommensurables; and then, how to inform d e c i s i o n -makers of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 207 In the opinion of the author, the Department of National Defence has done a good job of answering these questions, and with the Planning Balance Sheet now has a technique to address them further. DND's success i s evident from the positive results indicated by measured s o c i a l i l l s in the m i l i t a r y community as compared to society in general. 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