UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ennius and his predessors Hartley, Vivian Alma 1988

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ENNIUS AND HIS PREDECESSORS By VIVIAN ALMA HARTLEY B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October (c)  1988  V i v i a n Alma H a r t l e y ,  1988  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his  or  her  representatives.  It is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  C LA SS/CS  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  6CT.  \^ \ i&Z c  >  Abstract  The A n n a l e s o f example epics  of  of  torical  the  Roman p o e t ,  an h i s t o r i c a l e p i c .  various  types,  Other  and d i f f e r e n t  study w i l l  a n d show how he  have  historical  Finally, of  the  be  that place  Rome w i l l  be  Ennius  had d e a l t  mythological legends  the  with  the  Homeric of  determine whether  for  and h i s  his-  epics,  other  they  might  two Roman p o e t s  the  Greek  who  made a b o u t  poet  to use  Annales i n the  other  in  his  his-  discussed. have been u n i q u e i n t h a t  period  of  and l e g e n d a r y m a t e r i a l . history  the  i n which the  some a s p e c t s  a n d more r e c e n t  with  Ennius.  The w r i t i n g s  the  isolated  time had w r i t t e n  a n d some o b s e r v a t i o n s  Quintus Ennius  an  dealt  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  The works o f  the whole h i s t o r y of  r i g h t down t o  that  influenced  may h a v e b e e n a v a i l a b l e of  was n o t  Ennius'  poems  these  examined t o  looked a t ,  T h e A n n a l e s seems t o which encompassed  be  Roman p o e t .  Ennius w i l l  materials  toriography  of  i m i t a t e d them i n f o r m a n d s t y l e .  i n f l u e n c e d the  wrote b e f o r e  times  sorts  consider Ennius*  p o e t s who p r e c e d e d E n n i u s w i l l  work.  poets before  o r n a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , a n d some o f This  also  Quintus Ennius,  into  Roman p e o p l e poet  lived.  their cities' E n n i u s was one c o h e r e n t  the  it  was  from  an e p i c the  first  epic  earliest  Other poets  backgrounds, to  before  including  combine  poem, h i s  poem  ancient  Annales,  i i i  Table  of  Contents  Introduction  Chapter  1.  The L i f e  Chapter  2.  Ennius'  Chapter  3.  Ennius  and Works o f Relationship  and O t h e r  A.  Early  B. C.  other  Epic  during  the  Epic  poetry  in  4.  Ennius'  Chapter  5.  Ennius  to  Greek  epic  Chapter  Quintus Homer.  Lyric  Iliad  10.  and  Odyssey.  Age.  Hellenistic  Roman p r e d e c e s s o r s . and H i s t o r y .  3.  Predecessors:  than  the  Ennius.  26. Age.  34_ 42  m  54^  Conclusion.  74^  Bibliography.  75_  iv  Abbreviations  used  The standard a b b r e v i a t i o n s a r e used f o r the works of the c l a s s i c a l authors.  AJAH  American J o u r n a l of A n c i e n t  History  AJPh  American J o u r n a l of P h i l o l o g y  ANRW  A u f s t i e g und Niedergang der romischen Welt  CB  Classical  CPh  Classical Philology  CQ  Classical  GRBS  Greek Roman and Byzantine  ICS  Illinois  JHS  J o u r n a l of H e l l e n i c S t u d i e s  JRS  J o u r n a l of Roman  MAAR  Memoirs of the American. Academy i n Rome  PCPhS  Proceedings of the Cambridge  RFIC  R i v i s t a d i F i l o l o g i a e d'Instruzione C l a s s i c a  Bulletin  Quarterly  Classical  Studies  Studies  Studies  P h i l o l o g i c a l Soc.  1  Introduction  This poet,  Quintus Ennius,  The b a s i c of  study w i l l  topic  an e p i c  whether  look at  and a t t e m p t  t o be  discussed  Surely  epic  in  the  no w r i t e r o f  own a g e ,  style,  o r from  of  especially  dim and d i s t a n t  Annales,  t h e r e were  Ennius streams  of  the  almost of  also  local  the  seems  literary  the  of  style  and h i s  These authors  types  of  in  often  sought  to  join  or  have  preceded him. subjects  whose o r i g i n s w e r e down t o  \  isolation,  with a v a r i e t y of  sat  example  poems.  ever writes  compose  lost  his histories  i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r works  c u l t u r e and mythology o f together  T h e A n n a l e s was  achievements,  the  poets,  Annales w i l l  prose h i s t o r i e s  be  and a l s o  at  their  i n one once  a great  people.  these  two  a h i s t o r y of  epic  the  poem w r i t t e n  to  b o t h Greek  a n d Roman,  who p r e c e d e d Q u i n t u s  considered,  especially  the  a h i s t o r i c a l nature.  comprise too  may h a v e h a d a c c e s s  a great  vast  a field  amount o f  h i m i n some w a y . the  The w r i t i n g s  of  form and s t y l e  (The works o f  the  Works.which  his  epic.  of  the  those writers Ennius  a r e known  Roman p o e t a n d  e a r l i e r p o e t s may h a v e of  writings  to be d i s c u s s e d h e r e . )  poetry.  now b y name o n l y may h a v e b e e n w e l l - k n o w n t o  to  subject-matter,  many p r o s e w r i t e r s who c h r o n i c l e d t h e  who w r o t e n a t i o n a l p o e t r y o f  regard  an i s o l a t e d  l i t e r a t u r e that  Before Ennius  context.  Homer.  The w o r k s o f  with  poem i s  similar  or prose  e a r l y Roman  in a historical  E n n i u s who d e a l t  endeavour.  in  of  whether  it  w i t h myths and l e g e n d s  to have  and t h e i r  Ennius  place  works of  folklore,  Roman p e o p l e the  is  poetry  past.  their various c i t i e s .  details  to  Ennius wrote  T h e r e w e r e many p o e t s b e f o r e in  poem, A n n a l e s , by t h e  poem w r i t t e n on h i s t o r i c a l a n d n a t i o n a l  other poets before  from h i s  the  inspired  influenced  Ennius  2  With r e g a r d to Ennius  seems t o h a v e  of  Roman p e o p l e  the  century  Latin  l i t e r a t u r e was  history  Ennius  advance  to  the  In sketched,  development  the  into  survey  of  some o f chapter.  predecessors  of  subject-matter  look  the  at  other  however,  interest, By t h e  Quintus  the  whole  early  so  was  there  its  the  infancy, to  Latin  and a l s o of  plenty  this  the  of  though,  him to  study,  relationship  for  and t h e r e  experiment  language greatly  scope  life  made a b o u t of  Ennius  the was  The f i n a l  chapter w i l l  the  of  the  his to  and  poet  will  works.  The  Homer.  works o f  deal with  A n n a l e s and w i t h Q u i n t u s E n n i u s  little  as  the  vocabulary.'  G r e e k p o e t s who p r e c e d e d E n n i u s w i l l consider  poet.  He i n t r o d u c e d  expanded L a t i n the  hundred  and i n v e n t ,  himself.  history  second  Rome a l r e a d y h a d s e v e r a l  A further chapter w i l l  the  great  general'observations  Ennius. of  of  of  Annates,  writing,  fell  chapter  a n d a few  chapter w i l l  It  the  accomplishments.  in  Latin,  first  second  next  still  of  a subject  behind her,  work w i t h .  Greek hexameter  the  chosen  B . C . when E n n i u s was  of  be  content  and t h e i r  years  for  the  the  A brief follow  in  t h e Roman  actual  an h i s t o r i c a l  poet.  3  Chapter 1:  The  the L i f e and Works of Quintus Ennius  l i f e o f the poet, Quintus Ennius, u n l i k e those of h i s f e l l o w -  w r i t e r s , i s q u i t e w e l l documented i n a n c i e n t s o u r c e s . 239 B;C. i s known from C i c e r o :  H i s b i r t h - d a t e of  "...anno i p s o antequam natus e s t Ennius,.  post Roman conditam autem quartodecimo  et q u i n g e n t e s i m o . . . . H i s  p l a c e was Rudiae, now Rugge, i n C a l a b r i a .  birth-  "Nos sumus Romani q u i fuimus  2 ante R u d i n i . "  C a l a b r i a was a l s o c a l l e d Messapia, a f t e r King Messapus, an  a n c i e n t hero o f that a r e a , from whom Ennius c l a i m e d d e s c e n t .  Silius 3  I t a l i c u s mentions:  "Ennius, a n t i q u a Messapi ab o r i g i n e  regis....",  He must have had some Oscan c o n n e c t i o n s , too, f o r Aulus G e l l i u s says of him:  "Quintus Ennius t r i a corda habere  et Osce e t L a t i n e s c i r e t . "  4  sese d i c e b a t quod l o q u i  Graece  The poet was probably educated a t nearby  Tarentum, one o f the c i t i e s of Magna G r a e c i a . Quintus Ennius saw s e r v i c e i n the Roman army, and must have acquitted himself well, for S i l i u s I t a l i c u s t e l l s rank o f c e n t u r i o n .  t h a t he a t t a i n e d t h e  "Ennius.<, .miscebat primas a c i e s L a t i a e q u e superbum  v i t i s adornabat dextram decus.""'  While Ennius was s e r v i n g i n S a r d i n i a  i n 204 B.C., he met Marcus P o r c i u s Cato who was quaestor t h e r e . i s s a i d t o have spent time w i t h Cato t e a c h i n g him Greek: Sardiniam s u b e g i t , u b i ab Ennio G r a e c i s l i t t e r i s  The poet  " . . . i n praetura  institutus..  . . C a t o  took Ennius back t o Rome w i t h him, where Ennius c o n t i n u e d t o do some t e a c h i n g o f Greek.  1  2  Suetonius comments:  " I n i t i u m quoque e i u s  C i c e r o Brutus 18.72. Ann.  525 ( I use Skutsch's numbering.)  3 S i l i u s I t a l i c u s Punica xii.393ff„ 4  Aulus G e l l i u s N.A. 17.17.1. S i l i u s I t a l i c u s Punica x i i . 3 9 3 f f ^  ^ A u r e l i u s V i c t o r de V i r . I l l u s . 47.  mediocre  e x s t i t i t  s i q u i d e m  g r a e c a e  e r a n t  d o c u i s s e s i  a n t i q u i s s i m i  ( L i v i u m et  a d n o t a t u m  q u i d  i p s i  Q u i n t u s o n  s t a g e .  n i h i l  a m p l i u s  c o m p o s u i s s e n t  E n n i u s  a l s o  h e  " . . . a n n o s  s e p t u a g i n t a  d u o  q u a e  d i d  m a x i m a  q u i  i i d e m  et  p o e t a e  e t  s e m i -  q u o s  u t r a q u e  l i n g u a  d o m i  f o r i s q u e  q u a m  G r a e c o s  i n t e r p r e t a b a n t u r ,  a u t  p r a e l e g e b a n t .  b e g a n  E v i d e n t l y  o b s e r v e s : f e r e b a t  E n n i u m d i c o ,  e s t )  L a t i n e  d o t a r u m ,  n o t  to  w r i t e  b e c o m e  r i c h  n a t u s .  p u t a n t u r  p o e t r y , f r o m  t o t  o n e r a ,  e n i m  a n d  h i s  p r o d u c e d  w r i t i n g ,  v i x i t  p a u p e r t a t e m  as  E n n i u s ,  e t  t r a g e d i e s C i c e r o i t a  s e n e c t u t e m ,  u t  e i s  8 p a e n e  d e l e c t a r i  ' T h y e s t e s * , h o c  Q .  i n  p r a e t o r e  M a r c i o  v i d e r e t u r . " t h e  l u d o s  C n .  l i t t l e  S k u t s c h a n d  a d a p t i n g  y e a r s . ^ n o t b y  t h e m  M a n y  E n n i u s '  d i e d  A p o l l i n i  f a c i e n t e  c u m  c o n s u l i b u s  E n n i u s  i t  w a s  l i k e l y f r o m  i s  G r e e k o f  a v a i l a b l e  S e d i g i t u s ,  i n  t h e f o r  h i s  G e l l i u s  a  p o e t  o f  a b o u t w o r k e d  o r d e r  t h e  o f  o n  a t  l i s t  t r a g e d y  r e c o r d s :  " N a m  d o c u i s s e t ,  w r i t e r ,  b u t  c h r o n o l o g y h i s  as o f  S k u t s c h h i s  t r a g e d i e s ,  R o m e ,  o v e r  e x t a n t .  o f  m e r i t :  C i c e r o  t h e  E n n i u s . "  t h e  a r e  p r o d u c e d  f a b u l a m 9  p r o l i f i c  t r a g e d i e s  h a d  g o u t .  o b i i t  p r o d u c t i o n  q u o t e s  p o e t  T h y e s t e  m o r t e m  c e r t a i n l y  t h a t  f r a g m e n t s  f o r t e .  V o l e a t i u s  t h e  B . C . , h e  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h i n k s  a f t e r  169  S e r v i l i o  Q u i n t u s n o t e s ,  y e a r  J u s t  o f a d d o  t r a n s l a t i n g  p e r i o d  C o m e d y  a u t h o r s  " D e c i m u m  a  w o r k s . ^  w a s  c o m e d y c a u s a  o f  m a n y  e v i d e n t l y c o m p i l e d a n t i q u i -  12 t a t i s  E n n i u m . " T h e  ' S a c r e d o f  p o e t  w o r k e d  S c r i p t u r e '  S a t i r e s  h a v e ^ 8 9  ^ C l a r e n d o n ^ 12  o f  i n  E u h e m e r u s  s u r v i v e d .  S u e t o n i u s  d e  C i c e r o  S e n e c t .  C O P r S G  i t e k e  c e t o s s u t l l  de  o t h e r  r o B r u t S k u t s c , 1985) s c h A n n i u s N . A  u s h .  A  g e n r e s , i n t o  p o e m  L a t i n  c a l l e d  G r a m m a t i c i s  as  w e l l .  v e r s e , ' S c i p i o '  H e a n d d e a l t  t r a n s l a t e d a  n u m b e r w i t h  t h e  1.  5 . 1 4 .  2 0 . 7 8 . T h e A n n a l s p . 2 . , p . 2 . . 1 5 . 2 4 .  o f  Q u i n t u s  E n n i u s  o f  ( O x f o r d :  t h e f r a g m e n t s A f r i c a n  5  c a m p a i g n s v i c t o r y  o f o f  S c i p i o ,  h i s  T h e I t  M . o f  v e r y  l o n g  e p i c  p o e m  p e o p l e ,  f r o m  t h e  a  l i v e d ,  p o e t ' s  E n n i u s  t o  b e c o m e  l i f e  w h i c h  t i m e s  t h a t  a g e  b e c a u s e  f a m i l i a r  a n  e n o u g h  w a s ,  t h e  t o  w i t h  t h e  t h e  h a v e  o f  p e r i o d  h a v e  b e e n  t a k e n  c u l t u r e ,  A n n a l e s .  h i s t o r y  t h e  m u s t  w o u l d  l a u d i n g  h i s  w h o l e  u p  A n n a l e s i t  ,  1  A m b r a c i a .  h o w e v e r ,  r i g h t  t h e  ' A m b r a c i a  a t  d e t a i l e d  f e e l s  m i d d l e  w r o t e  N o b i l i o r ,  E n n i u s '  e a r l i e s t  S k u t s c h  l a t e r  a l s o  F u l v i u s  w o r k  E n n i u s . t h e  p a t r o n ,  E n n i u s  g r e a t  was  R o m a n  a n d  a  i n  w h i c h  t h e  w o r k  f e w  h i s t o r y ,  t h e  y e a r s  a n d  o f f o r  c u s t o m s  13 o f  R o m e  b e e n a t  to  u n d e r t a k e  s p e n t  o n e  w o r k i n g  p o i n t ,  m e n t i o n s :  p r o p t e r  eos  E n n i u s  t h a t  t h e o l d  a n n u m l i b r o  m a y  p o e t  a  t h e  t h e n  s e x t u m h a v e  v e n t u r e .  A n n a l e s .  d e c i d e d T .  t o  C a e l u m  d e c i m u m  a g e .  " E n n i u m . . . M .  h a b e r e t ,  d u o d e c i m u m  a d d  g r e a t  t o  m a n y  E n n i u s  i t .  P l i n y  a n n a l e m . "  w o r k  a f t e r  t h a t . h e  w a s  V a r r o . . . s c r i p s i t A n n a l e m  a  s e e m  t h a t  t h e  E l d e r ,  e i u s  b r e a k .  G e l l i u s ,  i d q u e  on. h i s  h a v e  w a s  c o m p l e t e  f o r  p r a e c i p u e  c e r t a i n l y  . . . c u m  t o  i t  T h i s  w o r k i n g  s c r i p s i s s e  y e a r s  f e l t  T e u c r u m f r a t r e m q u e 14  h i s  o b s e r v e d  A  P e r h a p s  a d l e c i t  r e s u m e d  h i m s e l f  e x a m p l e , m i r a t u s  s u g g e s t s t o o ,  c o m m e n t s  m a s t e r p i e c e  s e p t i m u m i p s u m  et  i n  s e x a g e s i m u m  E n n i u m i n  eodera  d i c ' e r e . " ^ T h e  s u g g e s t s ) , n o t  o n  " Q . E n n i u s  t h a t  h i s  a n d  s u c h  A n n a l e s  i n  n e c e s s a r i l y  c o m m e n t a r y  o n  c o n s i s t e d  o f  g r o u p s  o f  t h r e e  e d i t  o r  p u b l i s h  t h e  f r a g m e n t s  o f  e i g h t e e n  b o o k s . ^ t h e B o o k  H e  S k u t s c h  A n n .  o f  V I I  t h e  o f  t h e  p . 4 .  P l i n y  E l d e r  N . H .  15  G e l l i u s  N . . A .  1 7 . 2 1 . 4 3 .  ^  S k u t s c h  A n n .  p . 6 .  ^  S k u t s c h  A n n ,  p . 6 .  g o e s  t r i a d s  13  1 4  b o o k s ,  v i i . 1 0 1 .  s t r u c t u r e d o n  b o o k s  t o  s a y  (as  t h a t  S k u t s c h t h e  s e p a r a t e l y . ^  A n n a l e s ,  t h e  s a m e  p o e t I n  d i d h i s  s c h o l a r  o b s e r v e s  t h a t  h i m s e l f  a n d  b e g i n n i n g  t h e  h i s  a t  b o o k  b e g i n s  w o r k .  t h i s  T h i s  p o i n t ,  w i t h  a  p r o e m  s u g g e s t s  a n d  m a y  to  i n  w h i c h  S k u t s c h  a l r e a d y  h a v e  t h e  t h a t  p o e t  E n n i u s  p u b l i s h e d  s p e a k s m a d e  t h e  a b o u t  a  n e w  p r e v i o u s  18 b o o k s . was  T h e  a l s o  h e l d  A n n a l e s  c o p i e d  i n  some  n a t i o n a l  o f  r e g a r d  E n n i u s  c a m p a i g n e d a r m y  a n d  s t a t e  h a d  p e o p l e  A l t h o u g h  e x t a n t  ( r e l a t i v e  r e m a i n  g i v e  a  p r o v i d e  a  l i t t l e  f e e l i n g  f o r I n  to  A e n e i d  m e n t i o n s  h i m s e l f o f  i n o f  h o w  a u d i e n c e s  i n  b e e n  a  m a d e  M a r c u s ,  t h e  p o e t ' s  R o m a n  a  p a t r i o t i c  s c h o o l s ,  w e r e  r e m a r k a b l e ,  t h e r e t o  a r e t h e  g l i m p s e  o n l y  s i z e  a  o f  t h e  was  p o e m  g e n e r a l l y  i t  Q u i n t u s  V a r g u n t i u s 19  e x p o u n d e d  t h e  C i c e r o  r e p o r t s :  l a t e r  o f  o f  w h a t  t h e  w h o l e  i n s i g h t  i n t o  t h e  p o e t ' s  p o e t  R o m e ' s  a  o f  h a v e  o f  a n d b e e n  t a l e n t ,  t h e  t h e i n  t h e  r e a d i n g E n n i u s  a d v a n t a g e .  a  20  g r e a t  A n n a l e s  l i k e ,  t h a t a n d  w e l l  as  t h e  f r a g m e n t s  o f  t h e o f  A n n a l e s ,  l o v e d  t h e  s o u n d s  t h e  T i m e  a n d  a g a i n . s o u n d s  o n e  L a t i n a r e  c a n  e a s i l y  a l s o h i s  l a n g u a g e ,  e c h o e d  f r o m  a n d o n e  d i s c e r n u s e d v e r s e  a n o t h e r . 18  R o m a n R o m a n  p h r a s e s  as  i n  h a d  i n  c e l e b r a t e d  v e r s e s  a n d  w h o  s e r v e d  f r a g m e n t s  m u s t  t r i u m v i r  E n n i u s ,  h a d  b e i n g  o f  s t y l e  as  a c h i e v e m e n t s  t h o s e  p o e m  as  Q u i n t u s  o f  n u m b e r  p o e m ) ,  R o m e ,  p r i v i l e g e  t h e  w o r t h y  as  t i m e s .  h i s  t h a t  s m a l l  a n d  T h e  s u p e r c e d e d  . . . u s i n g  a n d  t i m e .  V i r g i l  c i t i z e n  f e e l i n g  o w n  R o m e .  Q u i n t u s  g r e a t  s t u d y  i n  a  d e v e l o p e d  a n d  f o r t h e  l a r g e  s o n  r e c e i v e d  c o l o n y , b e s t o w e d c i t i z e n s h i p o n . . 20 w i t h h i s f a t h e r i n A e t o l i a . " T h e .  e p i c .  t h a t  t o  N o b i l i o r ,  e s t a b l i s h i n g  u n t i l  S u e t o n i u s  E n n i u s " Q u i n t u s  w e l l  e x t e n s i v e l y  p o e m .  A n n a l e s  w a s  S k u t s c h A n n , S u e t o n i u s de C i c e r o  B r u t u s  p . 3 6 7 . G r a m . 2. x x . 7 9 .  ( M y  p a r a p h r a s e . )  ( T r a n s l a t i o n  o f  G .  L .  H e n d r i c k s o n ) .  t h e m t o  7  For example, the poet is fond of puns, and frequently uses two compound words which have the same root in one l i n e or in adjacent  lines  0  One l i n e which shows this technique i s Ann. 518: "navibus explebant sese terrasque replebant."  This kind of word-play is both f a c i l i t a t e d by and  made effective in an inflected language.  Skutsch observes that Ennius  loved to tease his readers with a pun, and frequently used proper nouns in ambiguous contexts so that they could be mistaken for appellative nouns 21 or adjectives.  Examples of this are Ann. 222: "Sulpureas posuit spiramina  Naris ad undas;" and Ann. 540: "unus surum Surus f e r r e . " The Annales were l i k e l y read aloud in public presentations the effect of sound was very important.  so  A l l i t e r a t i o n and assonance abound  in the fragments, and their use was obviously a significant attribute of the poet's s t y l e .  These effects were occasionally c a r r i e d to extremes as  in Ann. 620: "machina multa minax minitantur maxima muris," or in the w e l l known Ennian l i n e , Ann.104: "0 T i t e , tute, T a t i , t i b i tanta, tyranne, tulisti."  Perhaps i f the context of these verses were known, they might  not seem so odd.  Perhaps the poet had some purpose which i t is now not  easy to appreciate because of the fragmentary nature of the poem. Another important feature of the Annales.was Ennius' use of imagery.  With regard to this aspect of the poet's work, Skutsch observes 22  that Ennius' metaphors are numerous, bold, and often o r i g i n a l .  Some of  the poet's images are without doubt inspired by the works of Homer, but 21 Otto Skutsch Studia Enniana (Univ. of London: Athlone Press, 1968) p.45, n.5. 22 Skutsch Ann. p.445.  8  m a n y  o f  t h e  t h e m  s e e m  f i g h t i n g  t o  b e  b e t w e e n  h i s  t h e  o w n  i n v e n t i o n .  w a r r i o r s  i n  a  I n  A n n .  d r a m a t i c  w i n d s  t h u s  n a m e d  t h e  u s e  o f  a c t i o n  o f  t h e  I l i a d  i x . 4 - 8 : " L e T l t t  i v h i h h  k e r f e e  n a m e s  t h e  a  w i n d s ,  H o m e r  t h a n  to  c r e a t e  a n  H e  f e e l s  t h a t  a  t h e  w e r e  w i n d s t h w i n g s u t s c r n so t . " 2 3  as  n d e w  W i l l i a m s 24  c o n j u r e  t h e  i m p r e s s i o n  o n  d r i v i n g u p  t h e  c o m p a r e s  t h e  h e a r t s  p o i n t s  W i l l i a m s  g e n e r a l l y  e m p h a s i s  f o r  A u s t r i f l u c t u s  g i v e s  o u t ,  o f  a  t h e  same  m e m o r a b l e o f  t h e  t o  b e  a n  e x a m p l e ,  t a k e s  i t  a n d  h m h o i  e s , t w a y n g n  w i t h o u t  H e ,  c o n c r e t e  E n n i u s  l a n g u a g e ,  t o  h e r o e s .  t o  h i s  r a t h e r  t o o , d e t a i l  d o e s  v i s u a l  e x p r e s s i o n  s o u n d  f i s f r o a i g a l d  a n d  s p i r i t e d  f r a g m e n t  m o r e  w h a t  s t o r m s ,  a n d  o m e o f t b l o w l o w s t r g l e o u t t r o u b l e  i s  t h a t  s t o r m  v i o l e n t  G r e e k  t h e r e  o b s e r v e s  o n  t h i s  o f  d e s c r i b e s  i m b r i c i t o r e x t o l l e r e  v i o l e n c e  s t i r u p t h e m a i n , t h e h d a n d t h e w e s t w i n d t h a d e n l y ; a n d t h e d a r k b i l s t a n d c a s t e t h m u c h t a n as t h e A c h a i a n s ' s p i r i t  w i t h i n  o n o m a t o p o e t i c  s t r o n g  t o  G o r d o n W i l l i a m s  E n n i u s .  E n n i u s  f a m o u s  h e l p s  t e m p e s t b u t  m  p o e t  n a m e s  e as two n t h e n o r a c e , c o m i t e t h u p i .sea; e v e i r b r e a s  d e s c r i b e s  m  t h e  s c e n e .  H o m e r  m a k i n g  b y  E n n i u s  s i m i l e :  c o n c u r r e n t v e l u t i v e n t i , q u o m s p i r i t u s s u o c u m f l a m i n e c o n t r a i n d u m a r i m a g n o c e r t a n t . T h e  4 3 2 - 4 3 4 ,  " i s  d e t a i l . " i d e a s  t h a n  25  b y  c o n j u r i n g  26 u p  v i s u a l  g o t  t h e  i m a g e s . i d e a  s o m e t h i n g  f r o m  h i s T h e r e  w h i c h  d e a l s 23  H o m e r ,  s e e m s b u t  ^  h e  t h e n ,  m a k e s  w h e r e  E n n i u s  s o m e t h i n g  p e r h a p s  d i f f e r e n t ,  o w n . i s  w i t h  a n t h e  i n t e r e s t i n g t a k i n g  L e a f , a n d . G o r d o n W i l l i a m s 1968) p . 6 9 7 . 25 24  ( O x f o r d ,  T h i s  L a n g ,  W i l l i a m s  p . 6 9 7 .  W i l l i a m s  p . 6 9 3 .  o f  s i m i l e t h e  i n s e r t e d  a u s p i c e s  f o r  i n t o t h e  t h e  l o n g  f o u n d i n g  M y e r s ' t r a n s l a t i o n . . . . . . . T r a d i t i o n a n d O r i g i n a l i t y m  o f  R o m a n  f r a g m e n t t h e  c i t y :  P o e t r y  9  E V Q S R T h i s  s i m i l e  E n n i u s . o r  so  r e c a s t  p o e t  d e v i c e  c o n c l u d e s t h e  e c t a n t t , orane m m o x e e x s p e c u s u t r i  a  o f o u t  a d m i t  t h a t  t h i s  R o m a n  m o u l d  t h a t  i t s  u s i n g  i s  u t i c o n v i d i s p t a t p i c a t p o p u g n i v i c  t o  ' s i c  o u t c o m e  l a t b a  i n  w i t h  w i t h  v e s m i t a m  R o m a n  h a s  i n  s t a r t s  p l a c b  u n i q u e l y  S k u t s c h  E n n i a n  o f  is  x o u i e  i t s  c o n c e p t i o n ,  d i f f e r e n t  f o r m s  ' e x p e c t a n t ' ,  u s e s  e x p e c t a b a t ' .  k e p t  b e f o r e  T h e  t h e  s u l quota m i t t e r e s e c t a n t a d c a r c e r i s t o s e f a u c i b u s c u r l u s a t q u e o r e t i m e t o r i a s i t d a t a r e g a n d  s i m i l e  is i s  o f  s a m e  t h e  e n t i r e l y  v e r b i n  27  e y e s  i s  t h e  r e s t l e s s  a u d i e n c e ' s  o r i g i n a l  c o n c e a l e d .  ' s p e c t a n t ' c r o w d ' s  l i k e l y  e i t h e r  . . o r i g i n  i g n u m o r a s r u s : b a t n i .  t h e  o r i g i n a l  T h e  s e e n  t y p i c a l l y  h e r e .  m i d d l e ,  a n d  T h e  a n d  e a g e r  w h o l e  w i t h  a n t i c i p a t i o n  t i m e .  A s  28 W i l l i a m s  s a y s ,  t h e  e m p h a s i s  w h e r e  h e  s i m i l e w i s h e s  A n o t h e r p o e t ' s  g r e a t  I n  t h e  f e w  is  f o u n d  O n c e  i n  c o n v e n i e n t  t h e a n d  i n t e r e s t  i n  v i e w ,  w e l l  o f  h i s  l o n g as  t h e  A n n a l e s .  a n d  i n t e r e s t i n g  p o e t  i n  f u l l  27 28  E n n i u s  n a r r a t i v e ,  m a t e r i a l . o f  S k u t s c h W i l l i a m s  A n n , T r a d ,  o f  t h e  A n n a l e s  o f  s o u n d  is  a r e . s e v e r a l  a n d  m a k e s a n d  b o n u s ,  T h e  u s e  v a r i e d  s h o w  l a n g u a g e . p . 2 2 8 . p . 6 9 0 .  m u s t  p o e t  t h a t  a n d  a l s o  u s e  l e n d s  k e e p s  h a v e  m a d e  a n d  h i s  c h i a s m u s .  e x a m p l e s .  m i l e s  i t s e l f  h e l p e d  t h e  O n e  a m a t u r . " t o  a n d t o  d i f f e r e n t  s u c h t h e  o t h e r  s u s t a i n p o i n t s  o f  p a s s a g e s . a b o u t  c o n t a i n  Q u i n t u s  s h o w s  o f  C h i a s m u s  v a r i e t y  b e  h i s  h o r r i d u s  p a r t i c u l a r c o u l d  t h a t  e x c e l l e n t  b a l a n c e .  a d d e d  t o  q u i t e  T h e y  h i s  d e t a i l s .  p a r t i c u l a r l y  o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e  i t s  o r a t o r  e m p h a s i s  v e r s e s  c o n t r o l  t h e r e  p a r a l l e l i s m  w h i c h  o t h e r  T h e  e f f e c t s  l a n g u a g e  l e n d i n g  M a n y  f e a t u r e  t h e  i n  b e .  " s p e r n i t u r  d r a m a t i c  d e v i c e s  as  o f  i n f l e c t e d  l i t e r a r y  t o  a v a i l a b l e  A n n . 2 4 8 :  a g a i n ,  i t  s p a r i n g  s t r i k i n g  a w a r e n e s s f r a g m e n t s  i s  t h e  f r a g m e n t s  d i f f e r e n t  E n n i u s  w a s  a n  o f  u s a g e s a c c o m p l i s h e d  10  In as  Chapter  2:  Ennius'  setting  out  to  write  a Roman Homer who w o u l d b r i n g  people.  Homer o c c u p i e d  culture  of  eminent  symbol of  history, as  Relationship  •  their  himself "et  the  Greek p e o p l e .  the  position  et  creation  a n d most  widely  quoted  et  alter  lives  of  the  himself  accomplishments  t h e Roman  in  the  Finley notes,  unimpeachable  later  Q u i n t u s E n n i u s saw  position  i n the  fortis  i n the  the  figure  a Homer r e b o r n , a n d t h e  sapiens  to  unique  As M . I .  nationhood,  beloved  Annales,  renown  a totally  and a d e c i s i v e most  his  t o Homer  life,  "He was  authority of  their  poet."  29  of  history,  their  pre-  on t h e i r  pantheon, Ennius  earliest as  well  considered  Roman p o e t H o r a c e r e f e r r e d t o h i m  Homerus.""^  Romans t h a t  and  as  E n n i u s sought  to  occupy  a  Homer w o u l d h a v e  if  he had  been  Ennius describes  how h e  receives  a Roman. In the  soul  poeta," fieri it  of  the his  been  book o f  the  Greek p r e d e c e s s o r .  and a l i t t l e  pavom."  has  first  further on,  Curiously,  then,  in a peacock.  Ennius v i a  Annales, He t e l l s  Homer h i m s e l f the  soul  of  Skutsch points  soul  to  soul  from Euphorbus, a s t o r y  how " v i s u s  r e b i r t h i n a.peacock prevalent  to  out  that  the  modelled  the  regions  adesse  E n n i u s " m e m i n i me  Homer p a s s e s  was in  says  Homerus  to  Ennius  passage of  on t h a t of  of  south  after Homer's  Pythagoras' Italy  in  31 Ennius'  time.  a way s i n c e  It  h e was  is  quite  obviously  possible very well  that  the  read,  p o e t was  and h i s  inspired  acquaintance  32 philosophical  matters  29 Penguin,  is  ably demonstrated  by h i s  0  E p . II.1.50.  31 32  works.  .  M . I . F i n l e y The W o r l d o f Odysseus 1954; r e p r i n t e d . 1984) p . 15. 3  other  Skutsch Ann. Eg.  p.164.  Epicharmus & Euhemerus.  (Harmondsworth:  in  such  with  Q u i n t u s o f  e p i c .  T h e  G r e e k  o n e .  m e n t s  o f  o f  t h e  a n  e p i c  H e  h i m s e l f  H o m e r  was  n o t  m e r e l y  h i s t o r y  o f  t h e  t h e  h e r  p e o p l e  w e r e  c o m p a r a b l e  g r e a t  h e r o e s  o f  E n n i u s s t a t e  h i s  n a r r a t i o n s , " r e r u m  l e g e n d s  o f  H o m e r ' s h a d  w o u l d  b u t  E n n i u s  s c r i p t o r " , h i s  a  n e w  c o u l d  t h e a n d  R o m a n  r e c o r d e r  c i t y  o f  o f  a n d  a c c o m p l i s h -  R o m e a n d  w e r e  w o n d e r f u l  h i s  t h e  d e e d s  s u b j e c t s  f o r  p a t r i o t i s m  H o m e r  was  M o r e o v e r , n o t  t h e  s u i t a b l e  a n d  e p i c .  h i s t o r y ,  b e g i n n i n g  i m i t a t o r  c i t i z e n , to  n e w  s l a v i s h  a d v e n t u r e s  s u b j e c t i v e .  o f  c o m p l e t e l y  a  h e n c e  e l e m e n t b e  a  m e r e l y  o b j e c t i v e  h e  a  t o w a r d s  s a w  p o e t  i n  h i m s e l f  r e l a t i n g  t h e  p e o p l e .  G o r d o n i n e x h a u s t i b l e  a  a  t o  w o r k s ,  b e c o m e  a d d  m a k i n g  b e  t h a t  p o e m .  as  to  f e l t  a d o p t e d  a  s a w  R o m a n  h i s  as  E n n i u s  W i l l i a m s  s o u r c e  o f  o b s e r v e s ,  p o e t i c  " T h e  g r e a t e s t  i n s p i r a t i o n  i n  R o m a n  p o e t s  t r a n s f e r r i n g  f o u n d  i d e a s  a n  a n d  i m a g e s  33 o f  G r e e k  w h a t  p o e t s  E n n i u s  was  t h e  a  d i d .  o p e r a t i n g  i n  t o  v e r y ,  i n  n e w  H e a  c o n t e x t  s h o w e d  G r e e k  o f  f r o m  m o d e .  t h e i r  t h e T h e  o w n  v e r y  c r e a t i o n . "  b e g i n n i n g  h e x a m e t e r  w a s  o f t h e  T h i s t h e  is  p r e c i s e l y  A n n a l e s  m e t r e  o f  t h a t  c h o i c e ,  h e a n d  f r a g m e n t h e a d d r e s s e s t h e M u s e s . " M u s a e , q u a e p e d i b u s 34 p u l s a t i s O l y m p u m , " i s t h o u g h t to h a v e b e e n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e o f t h e S k u t s c h o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e n a m e o f t h e M u s e s was h a r d l y u n k n o w n a t  m a g n u m p o e m ;  f i r s t  35 R o m e , t h a t o f  b u t a n  t h i s  a d d r e s s  m e t r e .  T h e  i n t e l l e c t u a l m a s t e r  o f  i s  t h e t o  e a r l i e s t  t h e  M u s e s  M u s e s  h a d  p u r s u i t s .  h i s  c r a f t  i n  L a t i n  s y m b o l i c  o f  m u c h  w a s  b e c o m e H e n c e  a n d  o c c u r r e n c e  as  o n e  i n  G r e e k  E n n i u s w h o  w o r k s  33 W i l l i a m s  T r a d ,  p . 2 5 5 .  A n n . 1 . 35 36  S k u t s c h S k u t s c h  A n n . p . 1 4 7 . S t u d . E n n .  i s  p . 5 ,  p o e t r y . m o r e  l i t e r a t u r e c l a i m i n g i n  t h e  t o f u l l  H e  t h a n  t h e  m e r e l y  p a t r o n s  w r i t e l i g h t  s u g g e s t s  as o f  a  o f  o n e  w h o  t h i s  c h a n g e a l l i s k n o w l e d g e .  12  A n o t h e r H e  n o t e s  t h a t  t h e  t h e  i n t e r l o c k i n g  r e s e m b l a n c e  T p o T f o Vo S t h e  s a m e  37 also.  a b o u t  T h e r e  i s  k n e w  e c h o e s  o f  h i s  G r e e k  h i m  t h e  t h e  as  i n  t h e  v e r y  E n n i u s  a p a r t  h a n d  d i d ,  f r o m  m e n t i o n s  o l i m  r a t h e r b e e n  c a n e b a n t . "  t o  I l i a d  A n n a l e s  t o  n o t  s u r p r i s i n g  ' v a t e s ' a  d o n e s a y s :  o f  h a v e  H e  (...  U  s a y s T T o  t h a t  f i n d  v a r i o u s  t h a n  t h e  C a m e n a e  ' p o e t a * , e a r l i e r  L a t i n  h i n t s  t o  b e f o r e . ; . a l i i  w r i t t e n  a d a p t i n g  p o e t s .  E n n i u s  " s c r i p s e r e  . " O t h e r s  b u t  i n d i c a t e  ' c a r m e n ' . i n  A n n . l .  lTo\(j~  8 . 4 4 3  t h e  t h a n  ' p ' s ,  c o i n c i d e n t a l .  h i m s e l f  t h e  a b o u t  / ^ j o ^ r r c u ^  c a l l s  t h a n  H e  t h e  r a t h e r  r a t h e r  a g a i n .  a n d  M u s e s  h e  h a d  (...  S k u t s c h  t h e  t o o ,  p o i n t  v a t e s q u e  is  so,  t h a t  ' m ' s  A n n . l  i t  b y  p r o b a b l y  s  o f  so  ' p o e m a '  a n y t h i n g t h i s  F a u n e i  a  i  a d d r e s s e d  ,  i s  1.1  )  m a d e  t h e  f r a g m e n t s o f  h a d  <  i s  o f  O d y s s e y  w e l l ,  p r e d e c e s s o r s  a t  to  r e s e m b l a n c e  TTQ -.1 T " 1 *  p o e t  q u o s  J u s t  a l l i t e r a t i o n  -TTO\\0~  H o m e r b a r d .  o b s e r v a t i o n  t h a t  m u c h  t h e  w o r k  A n n a l e s t h e  h i s  R o m a n  t h e  o f  J*LQ.A<*-  t h i n g  E n n i u s  as  i n t e r e s t i n g  F o r  s e t s I n  t h e  A n n . 2 0 6 - 7  r e m /  v o r s i b u s  h i s t o r y  i n  v e r s e s  38 w h i c h i n  o n c e  t h e  L a t i n ,  n o t a b l y  S a t u r n i a n s a w  t h e  F a u n s  m e t r e  A n n a l e s  L i v i u s  w h i c h as  A d a p t i n g w a s  a  d i f f i c u l t  O n e  o f  E n n i u s '  t h e s e  w o r d s 33 87  a n d  a  r u s t i c  A n d r o n i c u s  s e e m s n e w  t h e  i m i t a t e d  t o  k i n d  L a t i n  e n d e a v o u r . a n s w e r s  t o  b a r d s  h a v e o f  t h i s  H o m e r i c  b e e n  s i n g . "  O t h e r  N a e v i u s ,  n a t i v e  t o  h a d  I t a l y .  p o e t s ,  u s e d  w r i t i n g  t h e  o l d  E n n i u s  o b v i o u s l y  G r e e k  h e x a m e t e r  u n d e r t a k i n g .  L a t i n  p r o b l e m e p i t h e t s ;  MS ky u t ts rc ha n sA l n a n t , i o n p . . 1 4 7 .  t o  a n d . C n a e u s  l a n g u a g e M a n y  u s e d  t o  t h e  w o r d s  d e m a n d s  o f  j u s t  n o t  w a s  t o  c o i n  f o r  e x a m p l e ,  d o  s o m e A n n .  t h e  w o r k n e w 4 5 1  i n  w o r d s . h a s :  h e x a m e t e r s . S o m e  o f  13  " I o v i s o f  o m n i p o t e n t i s . "  H o m e r i c  S e v e r a l t h a t  p o e t  p h r a s e s  p h r a s e s  n o  n a m e l y  t h a t  p r o v i d i n g  r e p e a t e d  i n  f o r m u l a e ,  p h r a s e s  t h e  S u c h  t o  a r e f o u n d  t h i s  d e s c r i b e I n  a  t h e  u s e f u l  v a r i o u s  o t h e r  o f  i t  t h e  i n t o  d i r e c t l y  f r o m  G r e e k  u s e s  t h e  ' p o n t u s ' ,  s e r v e d  v a r i o u s  c a n  a s  b e  a d d i t i o n a l  f r a g m e n t s  o f  P e r h a p s  H o m e r  s e e n  L a t i n .  a n  c o n v e n i e n t  r e s o u r c e .  a c t i v i t i e s  f r a g m e n t s  o v e r  d o u b t  m e t r i c a l  u n i t s .  A n n a l e s ,  s u g g e s t i n g  e v e n  h a d  s t o c k  h a d .  t h a t  F o r  h e  f u n c t i o n  E n n i u s  s i m p l y  e x a m p l e ,  i n  t o o k  A n n .  2 1 7 ,  w o r d s t h e  p o e t  3 9 G r e e k w o r d  w o r d  T f o v•f& 3 ' p o n t u s '  .  w h i c h , H e  b e l o n g s  a d d s ,  as  S k u t s c h  t h a t  e x c e p t  e x c l u s i v e l y  t o  n o t e s , a s  p o e t r y ,  a  i s  a  n a m e  a n d  i s  L a t i n i z a t i o n o f  w i t h  f o u n d  " E u x i n u s " , h e r e  t h e t h e  f o r  t h e  i n  A n n .  f i r s t  A O t i m e  i n  L a t i n .  ' i n t e r e a t h e  f a x  f i r s t  T h e /  o c c i d i t  i n s t a n c e  t r a n s l i t e r a t e d i n  t h i s  w a y ,  A n n a l e s ,  t o o .  H e  I l i a d  1 . 5 4 4 :  a r e :  A n n . 5 9 2  B y  u s i n g  d i s p o s a l , o n l y  a n d  i m i t a t e d  t h e a a r e  u s e d  t h e  G r e e k s o m e  i n  e n c l i t i c d i s t i n c t  r u b r a  T h e o f  d i v o m q u e t h i s  t o  w e l l  a s  a s  w e l l .  h a v e  b e e n  o n e  c o n t r i v e s  t o  ..  »  a n d  p o e t  so i n t o  h a d  m a n y  e x t r a  L a t i n  d a c t y l i c  i t f  o  r  i n  w o r d s  s y l l a b l e s  h a v e  h e x a m e t e r s .  ^  " u r s e r a t  A n n , h u e  p . 3 9 0 . n a v i m  c o n p u l s a m  f l u c t i b u s  p o n t u s . "  t o  l o n g  w a y ,  i n  E n n i a n  ' n o c t e s q u e  s h o r t  v o c a b u l a r y  H o m e r i c  ^ 3 4 4  w o r d  f a v o u r i t e  e x a m p l e  3 9 S k u t s c h  a  4 1 5 - 4 1 6 : i s  f l a v o u r  E n n i u s '  T*  A n n .  G r e e k  H o m e r i c  o f  a s  a  T h i s  e n l a r g i n g  u s e f  0&<»>^  a e t h r a . " a l s o  i n t e r e s t  T " €  f i t  A s  i s  s o m e  p o e t  w h e n  o b r u i t  a d d e d  t o  t h e  ' o c e a n u m '  h a v e  h o m i n u m q u e ' ,  a d v a n t a g e  d i f f i c u l t  '.  m u s t  w o r d  ' A e t h r a '  ' " T t . . . T"6r  w a y  t h e  t r a c t i m  L a t i n .  s e e m s  u s e  o f  ' < 3 . c ©"fl  a V ^ p w ^  i n  t r u e  a d d i t i o n a l  ' - q u e '  H o m e r ' s  ' p a t r e m  i s  w o r d s  A n n a l e s .  Ifa-Tlgf  v e r y  w o r d  L a t i n f r o m  e n c l i t i c  i n  t h i n g  O c e a n u m q u e t h e  p e r h a p s  T h e c o n n e c t i v e s  o f  i n t o  t h e  a n d  s a m e  e x a m p l e s  d i e s q u e . ' a t  h i s  s y l l a b l e s  14  S o m e H o m e r  h a d  c a r i n a  o f  t h e  f r a g m e n t s  m a s t e r e d  t h e  h e x a m e t e r .  p e r  a e q u o r a  s e a - i m a g e r y  c a n a  r a t h e r  e a s e  a n d  E n n i u s  r a p i d i t y  u s e d  v o l a t  s u p e r  v e r s e  a l s o .  h a d  u s e d  t h e  o f  i m p e t u s T h e  t h e  o f  w a s  A n n . 1 1 7 :  a r e  w o u l d  d i f f i c u l t  t o o k  h i s  " o l l i a l m o s t  a r e  o v e r ,  o r  r e c a l l e d  t h a t  t h e i n  a  t h e  m a s t e r f u l  l i n e ,  p o e t  h a s  s u c c e e d e d  i n  a t t a i n i n g  A n n .  " l a b i t u r  a l s o  c a l l  i t s  w o r k s .  i n i s  u n c t a  w i t h  p h r a s e  a l w a y s  r a t h e r  O f  so  3 7 6  a  to  t o o :  v e r y  m i n d  p o e t r y  s m o o t h ,  o t h e r  t h e  l e a d e n - f o o t e d  i n  l i n e a r e  a u r a t i s  o f  u n c t a  c o n t e x t s  t h a t  H o m e r .  r a p i d l y  t h e s e  a n y  o r  w r i t i n g  j u s t  m a y  n a m e s ,  c o n t e x t . r e f l e c t  q u i t e  a  a c t i v i t y  w i t h  i n  c a r i n a  f l o w i n g  w h e r e  E n n i u s  T h e  i t  A l l  o f  t h e  s i x  t h e i r  l o n g  P e r h a p s  t h e  n a m e s  a r e  s o u r c e , o f  f r o m  s u c h  h e a v i n e s s  o f  I t  c o n c l u s i o n s  w h i c h  l i n e s .  c a n  m e a n t  h a s  s e e m s  h o w e v e r ,  o f t e n  t o  p o e t  621  l i n e  m u s t ,  s y l l a b l e s ,  t h e  A n n .  t h e  a n d O n e  a l l  d e s c r i b e s .  f r a g m e n t s  p r o s a i c .  w i t h  t h e  n u m b e r  h e x a m e t e r s ,  p l a i n  F u r i n a l e m F l o r a l e m q u e . "  h a u s e r u n t " .  j o y f u l  d e a l i n g  s u c c e s s f u l  c o u r s e ,  p l a c e  T h e r e  ex  b e l i e  i s  R o m a n  " l a b i t u r  t h e  P a l a t u a l e m  t o  m a t e r i a l .  t o  n o t  s p o n d e e s .  c r e t e r r i s  5 0 5 :  t h e  w o r d s „  is  p o n d e r e d  A n n .  c h a r a c t e r i z e s  w o u l d  m e a s u r e s  b e  e x a m p l e ,  w e l l  so  r e p e t i t i o n  s a m e  h o w  w h i c h  T h i s  v e r s e s  b e  o p e n i n g  s h o w  H o m e r ' s  l i n e , -  u n d a s . "  h i s  e x a m p l e  t h i s  A n n a l e s  T h i s  o f  m o v e m e n t  s a m e  E n n i u s s o m e  i n  t h e F o r  c e l o c i s . "  r e m i n i s c e n t  M o r e o v e r ,  o f  b e  b e  o n l y  c o n j e c t u r a l . O t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n u s e d  t h e  w a r r i o r s E n n i u s c o u n c i l  o f  s t i l l o f  h a d  w h i c h  i n  e p i c s  a n d  i n  n e v e r  c o n s i d e r a b l e  g o d s ,  E n n i u s  b a t t l e .  d e s c r i p t i o n s  H o m e r ' s  t h e  i n  w a r r i o r s  H o m e r i c o f  a r e a s  t h e  b o r r o w e d  E n n i u s a  u s u a l l y  d i f f e r e n t  s a w s c o p e  d e i t i e s  e l e p h a n t s t o  b e  a r e  f r o m  s o r t o r  c h a n g e d o f  m a y  i n c l u d e  t h e  s o m e  d e t a i l ,  o r  c o n t e x t .  O f  s i e g e - w o r k s ,  o r i g i n a l . c a l l e d  H o m e r ,  u p o n  T h e r e a t  is  so a t  v a r i o u s  c o u r s e  t h e  p r e s u m a b l y l e a s t t i m e s ,  o n e as  15  in  Homer.  Iliad be  Night,  and t h e  seen  that  the  sun,  Odyssey.  a n d dawn a r e a n i m a t e b e i n g s  There  Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was  Elinor  lines  merely of  that  are  openings  narrative  and  of  then  into  merely,form the  J.  the  he  extend  deems  .  "If  and o f  i n which  it  can  phrases  They  and even  them s u i t a b l e  Ennius  work p o s s e s s e s  .  colours  .  for  i m i t a t i o n of attempt  to  the  show t h a t  the  Homeric  .  Homeric  to w r i t e  merely cast  and p h r a s e s ,  .  whole the  Ennius to  episodes.  In t h i s  seems  form and s t y l e  create  Homer  of  than  a Roman e p i c  he  does  Ennius  so  permeation with sense  it  the  heroes  idea  . was  a  in his  in virtue  e n e r g y w i t h w h i c h h e c a n make h i s  a c h i e v e d b y Rome.  This  owed m o r e t o  f o l l o w i n g judgment of  i n i t s  a n d now  that  epics.  remains Homeric,  lies  his  42  i n the  . gradually  the  beyond form.  Ennius  A n n a l e s . . He w a n t e d  of  makes  that  . in  in his  that  reproducing  tried  and f e e l i n g  Wight Duff  descriptions  in  although Ennian borrowings  of. v e r s e s ,  because  Ennius'  study has  and s t y l e  t o be H o m e r i c :  unity  .  summation of  ethos  that  She c o n c l u d e s  a Homeric mould,  this  ways  are  by Homer.  do n o t  and c l o s i n g s  s h a p i n g an i n c i d e n t  but  often  they  41  .  a good  Homer,  they  record.  '  to be  had  his  a number o f  observes  a d a p t e d by E n n i u s  . expression  then,  inspired  D u c k e t t , however,  f r o m Homer may b e n u m e r o u s , consist  are,  as  Romaid."  41  . . : ... ' • / E l i n o r S. Duckett S t u d i e s i n Ennius (Bryn Mawr; 1915) p.41. 42 Duckett Stud, p.45. J . Wight Duff A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Rome (Unwin; 1909; r e p r i n t ed. London; Benn, 1953) p.108.  of  43  of  attempt rapid  speak. greatness  What  16  Chapter 3:  Other Greek Predecessors of Ennius  A. Very early Greek Epic other than the I l i a d or Odyssey  The Greek poet who most influenced Quintus Ennius was undoubtedly Homer.  In. the years after Homer, the epic t r a d i t i o n continued in the works  of other w r i t e r s .  On the one hand there was a group of poets or r e c i t e r s  of poetry who were alleged to be the sons and heirs of Homer, the Homeridae. They supposedly recited only authentic material handed down from Homer. T.W. Allen points out that to Pindar the Homeridae were the equivalents of rhapsodes, with a private store of material.  44  To fourth century writers  they were persons who possessed the history of Homer, a body, of recondite 45 verse, and functioned as a sort of g u i l d . On the other hand, the Homeric t r a d i t i o n was also continued by a group of poets working in Ionia, whose poems were l a t e r loosely linked together under the name, the 'Epic C y c l e ' .  Among these poets, style and  methods were Homeric, as were most of the vocabulary and d i a l e c t used.  For  subject-matter, however, the poets of the 'Epic Cycle' looked to material which lay outside the scope of the I l i a d and Odyssey.  They chose to relate  legends and myths which preceded the action of Homer's works, or happened afterwards,  so that eventually there was a whole body of poetry by a variety  of writers that dealt with the entire Trojan story. The 'Epic Cycle' was a l a t e r designation for this body of poetry. The poets themselves did not use that name.  During the H e l l e n i s t i c period,  the industrious scholars of Alexandria, among them, Zenodotus of Ephesus, 44 . • ' . . , Thos. W. Allen Homer: the Origins and the Transmission (Oxford: Clarendon, 1924) p.43. 45 Allen Homer p.45 a  17  c o m p i l e d a l l t h e poems o f t h e ' E p i c and a r r a n g e d them i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l unfortunately, of  only  a smattering  t h e main t h r e a d s  have  come  fifth  other  From t h i s  of fragments  of the s t o r i e s  of i t  survived  Byzantine works.  matter  of epitomes,  of the l o s t The  a s i t h a d become  have  Cycle'  route,  been  poems o f t h e ' E p i c  'Epic  bits  of  knowledge  information  of Sicca,  t o o , was l o s t ,  i n the B i b l i o t h e c a of P a t r i a r c h  By a r o u n d a b o u t scholars  poetry,  However,  (or Proculus) This,  known b y t h e n ,  mass o f  remain.  a n d a few o t h e r  A . D . , i n h i s Chrestomathia.  extracts  epitomes  order.  t h r o u g h s y n o p s e s made b y P r o c l u s  century,  copious  Cycle',  was a s o r t  able  involving,  but f a i r l y Photius and  so t o  to reconstruct  i n the  speak,  the  subject-  Cycle', of connected  history  o f the whole  46 heroic parts  Greek w o r l d . of the t a l e  began w i t h people  of Troy.  t h e p l a n o f Zeus  by a great  judgment  The K y p n a n  war.  of Paris,  point  I t was e l e v e n b o o k s to r e l i e v e  The s t o r y  i n several  a t which the q u a r r e l  T h i s « p o e m was v a r i o u s l y or  to Hegesinus  of  or Kypria  the earth  incidents,  i n length,  the  o f h e r b u r d e n o f t o o many of d i s c o r d , the  and the t a l e  to  place  after  a n d Agamennon b r e a k s o u t .  t o Homer h i m s e l f ,  to Stasinus  the close  were e p i s o d e s  In George Huxley Faber  &Faber,  of  Cyprus,  Salamis.  Arctinus of Miletus,  Aithiopis  of the  was b r o u g h t u p t o  T h e poems A i t h i o p i s a n d t h e S a c k o f I l i u m d e s c r i b e d took  earliest  and a p p a r e n t l y  The g a t h e r i n g  between A c h i l l e s  ascribed  contained  went o n t o t h e a p p l e  and the a b d u c t i o n o f H e l e n .  A c h a e a n s was r e l a t e d the  Lays  of the I l i a d ,  o f whom n o t h i n g  1969)  else  two w o r k s w e r e  i s known.  Poetry  which f o l l o w s , from Eumelos  pp.144-173.  that  attributed  Included i n  s u c h a s t h e c o m i n g o f t h e Amazon P e n t h e s i l e a  the discussion  Greek E p i c  These  events  I am i n d e b t e d to Panyassis  to  (London:  to  18  help the  the  slaying  over  the  Sack o f of  Trojans,  his  of  the  similar arrival  A c h i l l e s by P a r i s .  arms o f  Achilles  I l i u m was  rather  Aeneid.  The d i s p u t e  formed the similar  H e r e were  found  to the  last  and the  Greeks.  Final  with  burning the to  of  Troy.  Little  T h e r e was  Iliad.  Lesches  of  It  Pyrrha  seems t o or of  The N o s t o i herois of  returns  1  Troezen.  The f i n a l This  Odysseus,  and t o l d  his  ascribed  to  and a l l  the  death  the of  poems d e p e n d e d material  of  hero  in  Odysseus  regaled  the  way  that  are Homer's c h a r a c t e r s ,  of  the  the  a happy,  that  saga  death  poems,  w h i c h was  then.  from the the  related  events  the  the  Odyssey.  the  by  story  II  the  and  the  the called  a n d was  further at  if  the  and they  to  ascribed  stories  Agias  somewhat  with  of  for  behave  Hegias in  the  of  This  work  with  was  568 B . C .  of  the  heroic  story  age.  they  The  of  world r i g h t A l l of  Their handling  them. as  the  Telegonus,  They c a r r i e d the  the  of  bizarre ending,  Circe.  about  or  adventures  hands  established.  he had s e t  the  were d e a l t  beginning  end o f  told  up  the of  characters  didin  A and the  in  i n Book  city  spoils  attributed  Trojan  on w h a t Homer h a d a l r e a d y in  books  and T e l e m a c h u s wedding  myths  Odysseus  Lesbos.  met h i s  cyclic  and  Laocoon, Sinon,  sacking  C y r e n e , who f l o u r i s h e d  the  of  b e e n more e l a b o r a t e ,  the  h a d , however,  telling  r e - w o r k i n g of  in five  two b o o k s  associated  continued  presented  chapters  Eugammon o f These were  Troy  an e p i c  marrying Penelope to  have  E t h i o p i a n Memnon, a n d  The s t o r y  d i v i s i o n of  another  Mytilene  how t h e It  the  T r o j a n W a r , a n d was  poem i n  son by C i r c e .  Telegonus  was  from the  Telegony.  also  actual  the  between A j a x  wooden h o r s e ,  r e t u r n from Tenedos, dealt  of  part.  Virgil's  Achaeans  episodes  and d e a t h  the  Iliad  19  There are some differences, however, between the cyclic poems .  i  .  .  47  and Homer s two epics, as Evelyn-White points out.  Poems such as the  Nostoi, for instance, show a far more exact knowledge of geography than Homer does.  Another aspect in which they differ greatly is that the  main interest is in facts rather than character. showed more fidelity to "real life".  Epic poetry after Homer  Actual places were mentioned, and  some of the individuals were actually historical, rather than legendary. Stories other than those related to the Trojan War were also found worthy of epic treatment.  Another group of poems that were well-known  in antiquity was called the 'Theban Cycle'.  One poem of this group was the  Oidipodea, of which l i t t l e is known beyond the tradition that i t contained 6600 lines.  It told the story of Oedipus, and was attributed to Kinaithon, 48 a Lacedaimonian poet. A second poem of this cycle was the Thebais, an •*  epic extending to 7000 lines, which told of the attack against Thebes and the events that preceded i t .  This poem is mentioned in the fragments of  the work of the poet Callinus, who thought that Homer had written i t .  The  f i r s t line of Thebais was sly in imitation of the 49 Iliad.  Pausanias comments that he rates the Thebais as "the best poem  after the Iliad and the Odyssey. H. G. Evelyn-White Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns, and Homerica (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard, 1914. Loeb Library E d . , Reprint 1982 pp.xxx, xxxi. 48 Huxley Greek Epic pp.40-42. 49 Thos. W. Allen Homeri Opera vol.v. (Oxford, Clarendon, 1912, Reprint ed. 1978) p.113. Pausanias. Guide to Greece trans.Peter Levi (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971; Reprint ed. 1984) p.327. 5 0  20  T h e  E p i g o n i  t h e  " s u c c e s s o r s "  p o e m s  c a r r i e d  w e r e  s e e m T h e s e  m a t e r i a l  G r e e c e .  s e e m s  c i p i e s  u t  l i n e  r e m a r k s  g e n e r a t i o n ,  T h e b e s  l a r g e r  c o n v e y  o n e  c a n  t e l l  t h e  r e m a r k  o f  t h e  i n d i c a t e  , l a t e r  c y c l i c u s  b e  a  o r  E p i c  a n d  t e l l i n g  s a c k e d  C y c l e  a n  l e a s t  w a s  some  k n o w n  o f  t o o ,  p o e t ,  h o w  i t . " ^  T h e s e  t h o u g h  t r a n s l a t i o n  o f  a  t h e  o n  h i s  o f  p a r t : c a n t a b o  o f  b o d y  p e r i o d  w i t h  t h e  B r i n k  o n e  v a s t  a r c h a i c  i n  s c h o l a r s .  p r o e m  t h e  a c q u a i n t a n c e ,  ' F o r t u n a m P r i a m i  p u z z l e d  o f  t h e  H o r a c e ,  a c q u a i n t a n c e  l o n g  i d e a  f r o m  E n n i u s '  R o m a n  o l i m : /  h a s  a t  e x t e n t  s u c h  c o m m e n t  m a y  n e x t  a g a i n s t  t h e  w r i t t e n  T h i s  q u o t e d  o f  b e e n  s c r i p t o r  b e l l u m ' . "  p a r t  t h e  t e n u o u s . b r i e f  t o  i n t o  a s s a u l t  h a d  A  1 3 6 - 7 ,  a  a n  s a g a  t h a t  N o  m a t e r i a l .  T h e b a n  m o u n t e d  c o n s i d e r e d  c o n n e c t i o n s  o f  t h e  t h i s  A r s  P o e t i c a ,  " N e c  s i c  et  i n -  n o b i l e  s u g g e s t s  t h e  o f  c y c l i c  t h a t  e p i c s  t h e n o  52 l o n g e r i n  k n o w n .  A u g u s t a n  I f t i m e s ,  T h u s r e a l m  w h e r e  i d e a  t h e  a g e s .  E n n i u s ,  t h e  A n n a l s  o n  t h o u g h t s  a n d  t h i s  b e  p o e t r y f e l l o w  t h a t  o f  t h e f o r  u s e d  c o m p l e t e l y w e r e  t h e  s p r a n g  u p  a  ' E p i c  E n n i u s  h a d  m e n t i o n e d  g o d ,  o r  t h i s  a t  a  b r o u g h t -  t o  l e v e l  i n t o  t h e  p e r h a p s  m a i n l a n d  o f  C y c l e ' s o m e  a r e t h e  i n  a  h i s  t h e  p o e m o n l y  o f  o f  -  G r e e k  E p i c  C O . 1971)  B r i n k H o r a c e p . 2 1 4 .  p p . 4 6 - 7 . on. P o e t r y .  T h e  ' A r s  M u s e s .  d i d  P o e t i c a ' .  t h r o u g h n o t  H i s  t h e  H e s i o d  52 ( C a m b r i d g e ,  t h e  p o i n t s ,  p o e t s . H u x l e y  o f  o f  t o o .  i m p e r s o n a l  b u t  s e v e r a l  t h a t  t h e m ,  s p e a k i n g .  i n d i r e c t  G r e e c e ,  t o  k n o w n  l i t e r a t u r e  w o r k ,  p o e t  a t  s t i l l  r a t h e r  i n s p i r a t i o n  b e g i n as  w e r e  a c c e s s  c o n v e n t i o n e d  d e v i c e  i m p e r s o n a l  t h e  t h e  r e m a i n e d  i n f l u e n c e o n  o f  t h a t  p o e m s  M u s e s  t o o ,  t o  p o e m s  p o s s i b l e  t h e  f e e l i n g s d u e  i s  t h e  s p e a k s  i n v o k i n g  a  o f  a l l  p o e t  T h e  m a y  i t  f a r ,  t h e  o f  s o m e  k e e p o w n  a n d s c h o o l  a n d  h i s  o f  21  Hesiod and  to  express  Muses.  his  He d o e s ,  and e v e n taught  him to  really  however,  invented.  In  epic  observes  that  is  poet  his  the  Works  puts  histories Hesiod  being  used.  seldom  the  reaches  merely  beginning  and the  of  those of  quite  literary  a different  treatise,  beginning any  Theogony,  No o t h e r  a mythological to  the  something  his  great  of  the  height,  the  poems, they Homeric  forms  use  with  the  himself, of  them o n Mount H e l i c o n , w h e r e  them t o  back  reveal  and n o t  at  and D a y s  are  to  own,  Muses  encountered  the  The p o e t  and t h e i r  as  dialect  The Theogony gods  earliest  invoke  how h e  sing.  and the  the  thoughts  describes  hexameter been  is  had  yet  from Homer.  long  lists  world.  of  the  Quintilian  and t h a t  much o f  his  53  work is  is  t a k e n up w i t h  an e p i c  work.  exhortation  advice  plough,  and n o t e s  It  will  noticed  of  the  be  great  epic  has  come  into  glorious  is  is  once and  the  of  Hesiod uses  life,  this  dealing  in nature, it  Perses,  makes  as  the  present  poet with  has  thoughts  and i t s  name m i g h t the  stories  comments in  on  of  the  and v a l u e s  hardships,  imply, of  exempla,  the  best  times  calendar.  from  down-to-earth  life  virtue  as  the  t u r n e d away  very  and the  its  about  l u c k y and u n l u c k y days  that  is  and w i t h  with  of  and D a y s ,  brother,  didactic.  aspects  list  didactic  poetry,  concern  at  heroes,  become  a  T h e Works  Hesiod's  on d i f f e r e n t  to  the  adventures  concerns.  The  o r d i n a r y person  of  rather  the  has  individual.  than with  a  past. Other  were  to  The s u b j e c t - m a t t e r  gives  The  names.  ascribed  to  epic  poems  Hesiod.  One o f  of  Heracles,  a poem t h a t  of  the  of  shield  Heracles,  Quintilian  seem t o  is in  Inst,  date  from  the  these  that  is  mostly  same p e r i o d , still  t a k e n up w i t h  imitation  x.1.53.  of  the  extant  some o f is  "an i n f e r i o r  Homeric s h i e l d  the  which  Shield  description of  Achilles  22  ( I l i a d p o e m  r e l a t i n g  t h e  T h e o f  t h e  54  x v i i i . 4 7 8 f f . ) . "  s t o r i e s  H e s i o d i c  h e r o  T h e r e o f  a l s o  f a m o u s  s c h o o l  H e r a c l e s .  was  o f  C a t a l o g u e  w o m e n  p o e t r y  A t h e n a e u s  a  w h i c h  was  n o w  m u c h  m e n t i o n s  a n  o f  W o m e n ,  s u r v i v e s  i n t e r e s t e d  e p i c  c a l l e d  a  l o n g  o n l y i n  e p i c  i n  t h e  f r a g m e n t s .  a d v e n t u r e s  A i g i m i o s  w h o s e  55 a u t h o r  m a y  o f  t h e  b e e n  H e s i o d  a n c i e n t  D o r i a n  k i n g ,  t o  a n d  H e r a c l e s  h a v e  c o m e  a d o p t e d  H e r a c l e s '  l a n d  t h e  t o  h i s t o r i c a l  l e g e n d a r y e l e m e n t c l a i m s  p o e m  p a s t a d d e d  o f  a  i n  o f t o  H e r a c l e s  H y l l o s ,  H .  J .  R o s e  w h i c h  t h e  c o u n t r y  e p i c .  T h e as  o f  w e l l  b e i n g  o b l i g e d  o b s e r v e s  h e  was  t h a t  h a d  i s as  w a y  as o f  a  w a r  w a s  t h a n k f u l , A i g i m i o s  c o n n e c t 56  o v e r - r u n .  s e e n  a  t o  e p i c  p r e s s e d  t h e  so t h e  T h i s  h a r d  a n d  a t t e m p t e d  t h e y  e p i c  M i l e t u s .  w h o ,  b e c a u s e  p o e t  t h e  c o n q u e r o r ,  K e r c o p s  A i g i m i o s ,  h e l p .  s o n ,  h e r o .  o r  H e r e ,  v e h i c l e  a  a n d  t h e  t a l e  w a r ,  w o n .  i n v i t e d  A i g i m i o s  a l s o  g a v e  a. s o r t  s o m e  o f  D o r i a n s  t h e n ,  f o r  r e c o r d i n g  i n  w a s  t h e  t o l d  is  t o  t h e  a n  n e w  l e g i t i m i z i n g  ( o r  p e r h a p s  t h e  C o r i n t h i a n  t h e  c r e a t i n g )  h i s t o r y . P a u s a n i a s K a r k i n o s ,  t o  w h o m  s i m i l a r  t o  t h e  w o m e n .  It  a l s o t h e  m e n t i o n s was  a s c r i b e d  C a t a l o g u e d e a l t  l e g e n d  a b o u t  a n d  q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l i n 54 . E v e l y n - W h i t e  M e t h u e n  H . C o . ,  & ^  o f  w i t h  a r e  A t h e n a e u s  a  o f  p o e t  f r o m  N a u p a c t u s  t h e  P o e m  o f  W o m e n , t h e  d e a l i n g  s t o r y  A d m e t u s . " ^ n a t u r e . . H e s i o d p .  o f . I t  t h e  o n  N a u p a c t o s . as  i t  d i d  w i t h  A r g o n a u t s ,  s e e m s  t o  h a v e  . x x i v .  a n d b e e n  s e e m s t h e  G r e e k  E p i c  p p . 6 9 - 7 0 .  to  l i v e s  t w o  o f  m o s t l y  •  x i i i . 5 0 3 d .  J . R o s e A H a n d b o o k o f G r e e k L i t e r a t u r e 1 9 3 4 ; R e p r i n t e d . 1964) p . 6 7 .  H u x l e y  I t  ( L o n d o n :  G u l f , h a v e  b e e n  o f  f a m o u s  t h e  f r a g m e n t s  g e n e a l o g i c a l  23  T h e a l s o o f  c i t y  a t t a i n e d  o f  C o r i n t h  a p o s i t i o n  p o t t e r y .  d i s s a t i s f i e d  o f  i n  t h i s  some  a r c h a i c  p r o m i n e n c e ,  s u g g e s t s ,  h o w e v e r ,  t h a t  w i t h  f a c t  t h e y  n o  t h a t  h a d  o f  G r e e k  e s p e c i a l l y  D u n b a b i n t h e  p e r i o d  t h e  b e c a u s e  p e o p l e  g l o r i o u s  h i s t o r y  o f  p a s t  o f  h a d  e x p o r t  C o r i n t h  w e r e  e x t o l l e d  i n  58 H o m e r .  T h e  I l i a d  c i t e d  i n  t h e  n a m e d  as  a p a r t  m e n t i o n s  O d y s s e y o f  at t h e  C o r i n t h b r i e f l y  a l l .  I n  k i n g d o m  t h e  o f  t w i c e ,  ' C a t a l o g u e  A g a m e m n o n .  a n d  o f  t h e  L a t e r  t h e  c i t y  S h i p s ' ,  o n ,  a s o n  is  n o t  C o r i n t h i o f  s  C o r i n t h i  s  59 r e f e r r e d  t o  as  o n e  o f  E u m e l o s , c e n t u r y  3  t h o s e  w h o m  a m e m b e r  B . C . , set  o u t  to  o f  P a r i s t h e  p r o v i d e  s l e w .  r u l i n g  h i s  c i t y  B a c c h i a d w i t h  f a m i l y ,  a r e a l  i n  e p i c  a E pu lm ae cl eo s c as li ml ep dl y E ap dh oy pr t e e . d  r a t h e r  s a y s  o n e  G r e e k  o f  jA.u%£l  £<^p^ N o  p l a c e ,  k n e w  m u c h  m a i n l a n d .  i n c l u d e d  t h e  E u m e l o s '  w o r k  H o m e r  Apfr&os  a b o u t T h e  E p h y r e , l e g e n d s  s t o r i e s t h a t  w h i c h  o f  J a s o n  s u r v i v e  i t  w a s  m y t h s  a n d  a r e  £ o ~ T C  CITWO  b u t  a n d  o n l y :  M e d e a ,  f o u n d  a n d  m a i n l y  t o t o  t h e i n  H e  was  Ef op rh y rC e o r w i a ns t h a JfoA<~S  /JoTOc_o  t h o u g h t  a t t a c h e d  e i g h t h  p a s t . ^  aq u bi ot ed y i no gf e np i o o e u t s r y i nl o ot sh ei ls y u na td te ar c t ha ek d i n gt o. o b s c u r e  t h e  b e  t h i s  s o m e w h e r e o b s c u r e  A r g o n a u t s . t h e  t o  t h e  p l a c e  T h e  S c h o l i a  o n  v e r s e s  f r o m  A p o l l o n i u s  62 R h o d i o s , E u m e l o s  b e c a u s e  o f  i n f l u e n c e d  t h e i r o r  r e l e v a n c e  i n s p i r e d  t h e r e ,  A p o l l o n i u s  as i n  H u x l e y h i s  e p i c  n o t e s . o n  P e r h a p s  t h e  v o y a g e  A r g o . 58 T . ( 1 9 4 8 )  5 9 - 6 9 , 5  9  ^ 6  J . D u n b a b i n p . 6 6 .  I I . . I I . H u x l e y  1  62  I I .  5 7 0 - 1 ; G r e e k  ' T h e  E a r l y  X I I I . 6 6 3 - 5 . E p i c  p . 6 1 .  V I . 1 5 2 .  H u x l e y  G r e e k  E p i c ,  p . 6 3 .  H i s t o r y  o f  C o r i n t h '  J H S _  68  o f  t h e  24  P a u s a n i a s  c i t e s  a  p r o s e  63 w o r k  o f  w h a t  P a u s a n i a s o f  D u n b a b i n  h a d  b e f o r e  E u m e l o s '  f o r  o f  h i s  w r i t i n g  f o r  t h e  a n d  K o r i n t h o s  t h e  a n d  t h e  l a n d  g r a n d s o n  o f  H e l i o s .  t h e  r a t h e r  t h a t  f i c t i t i o u s  a r c h a i c  p e r i o d , A t  P a u s a n i a s w r o t e  a  H u x l e y  t h e  p o e m a l s o  h e r o  k n o w n  f r o m  w r i t t e n t h e  m a n y  i n  f a r  a t  as  b u t  6 3  ^ 6 5  so  a  b e i n g  a g r e e d  p u r p o r t e d  p e r i o d ,  E p h y r e t h e  to  l a n d s b y  b e  d e t a i l s  to  a  t h a t  b e  t h e  w e r e s o m e  a t  a n  v e r s e s  f r a g m e n t s b y  t i t l e  A m o n g  t h e m  a r e  h a v e 68  H e r a c l e s . •• n . i1 . i1 . D u n b a b i n E a r l y H i s t o r y  a l o n e , t h e  o f  „P a u s a n i • a s  H u x l e y  G r e e k E p i c  p . 6 3 .  6 6  H u x l e y  G r e e k  p . 7 9 .  ^ 68  P a u s a n i a s H u x l e y  i x . 2 9 . 1 .  G r e e k  E p i c  o f  p . 1 1 8 .  p . 6 6 .  t h e  a r e  w h i c h  w e r e  a n d  e q u a l l y  a  H u x l e y g l o r i o u s i n  m a t e r i a l  a r c h a i c  t h e  a v a i l a b l e . ^  t h e  a n c i e n t  e p i c  t h e  a p p a r e n t l y  c a l l e d  a l s o  i f  p e r i o d .  w h o  s e v e r a l  S i k y o n  g r e a t -  n a t i v e - b o r n  T h e r e  M i n y a s  o u t  c i t y  A t t i c a  t r e a t e d  a  to  ( S i k y o n ) ,  n e c e s s a r y .  H e g e s i n o u s , o f  p o e t  A s o p u s was  i n  h i s t o r y  t h e  l i t e r a r y  i n  t h e  a  b r o t h e r s  w h o  h i s  o t h e r  f r o m  s u r v i v e .  m a i n l y  E p i c  n o  h i s t o r y  m a y  as  t h o u g h t  T h e  w o r k e d  g i v i n g  w o r k  l e g e n d a r y w h i c h  w e r e  b y  b y  f a t h e r ,  h a v e  p r o v i d i n g  c r e a t e d  m a t e r i a l  d e t e r m i n e d  o f  w a t e r e d  i n  t o  C o r i n t h .  t h e i r  h i s  p o e t  p e r h a p s  C o r i n t h p r o d u c e d  T h e s e i d  n o  o r  s u c c e s s f u l  h a n d  w i t h  h e x a m e t e r s .  m y t h s  p e r h a p s  g e n e r a l l y  w h i c h  g e n e a l o g y  o t h e r  p o e t s  s e c o n d  m e n t i o n s  o v e r  c a n  t o o ,  d e a l i n g  t h e  a d a p t i n g  was t h a t  A t h e n s ,  t h i s  is  e a r l i e s t  c i t y ,  f r o m  d o u b t  p o e t  p o e t  as  T h e s e u s ,  i t  w o r k  t h e  r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  t h e  p a s t  q u o t e s  t h a t  p r o s e  h i s  n a m e  N o  c o n c l u d e s  a  b e e n  o f  r u l e  E p h y r e , 65  w i t h  o u t  e x p l a i n s  o f  g i v e n  e x p e d i t i o u s l y ,  was  h a v e  h i s t o r y  c h a n g e  o f  to  H u x l e y  w e r e  p o i n t s  h i m  s e e m s  h o m e l a n d .  a c c o u n t  C o r i n t h as  v e r s e s , ^  E u m e l o s t e r m s  o f  •  E u m e l o s .  e p i t o m e  h i s t o r y  o t h e r i n w o r k s  A t t h i s  l e g e n d s  ^ o f  p o e m s s t y l e w h i c h  a n d t o l d  25  E v e n T h i s  was  p a g e  /9  b u t  K i n a i t h o n , .  H e  H u x l e y  o f  t h e  w i t h  m a y  a n y  o b s e r v e s  t h e  m a j o r  m a n y  w r i t e r s .  t o  t o  h a v e  t h e  b e e n a n d ,  H e g e s i n u s  f r o m  T o  t h e  j u d g e  t o t a l l y  b e i n g  u s e d  i t s  i n  a r c h a i c  e x t a n t ,  a n d  w h o  t o  f r o m  u s e  t h e  E n n i u s ' t h e  a t  a l l  o f  i n  a n  i t  as  s e e m s  b u t ,  o w n  w h i c h  H u x l e y  G r e e k  E p i c ,  p . 8 6 .  ^  H u x l e y  G r e e k  E p i c ,  p . 8 7 .  ^  S k u t s c h  p . 6 .  t o  g l o r i f y  t h e  as  l e g e n d a r y p o e t r y Q u i n t u s t h e  t h e  f o r  f e w  c a n  b e  f r a g m e n t s a t t a c h e d  d e a l  w i t h  some  o f  t h a t t o  p a s t  t h a t  l a t e r  w e r e  c o n v e y  p a s t  t h e y  h i s  t h e  h a v e  E n n i u s  s e e m s  h i s t o r i c a l o f  o f  p o e t s  s o u r c e s  e x a m p l e ,  t e n t a t i v e  S k u t s c h  c o v e r e d  d a y . " ^  ^  A n n a l e s  t o  s a w  i s  v o c a b u l a r y  v e h i c l e  o f  A  t h a t  a v a i l a b l e  a  t h a t  p u r p o s e s ,  e p i c s  E u m e l o s ,  t h e  p e r i o d  p o e t ' s  t h e m  t o o .  a r c h a i c  A n n a l e s  m a d e  a n d  a d v e n t u r e s ,  f r a g m e n t s a n d  o n  k n o w n . ^  e a r l y  f r a g m e n t s  s t i l l  a r e  t h e s e  s t y l e ,  e p i c  t h e  a b o v e  h i s  t h a t  M e n e l a u s ,  t h a t  h e n c e  e p i c  w o r k  t h a t  o f  a n d  c l e a r . ^  o n l y  n o t e s  f a m i l y  e p i c  u s e  s c a n t y  T h e  n o t t h e  p e r i o d .  m e n t i o n e d  a r e  t h e m ,  t o  O i d i p o d e a  H e r a c l e s  a l l  t h e  a r c h a i c  o n  o t h e r s  a n d  t h e  p o e m  t e c h n i q u e s ,  r e l a y  p e r i o d ,  t o  o f  f o l l o w e d  t o  h i s t o r i c a l  b e f o r e  b e g i n n i n g s  t h e i r  t h e  i n  a  t h i s i s  f r o m  s t o r i e s ,  p o e t t h e  H u x l e y  w i t h  p a r t i c u l a r ,  u n i q u e .  f o r  p o e m  s o u r c e s  d i f f e r  f i r s t  a t t e m p t e d  t h i n g  e p i c  t h o s e  a s c r i b e d  t h e  a n d  e p i c  c o m p o s e d  i m p o r t a n c e  P e r h a p s  i n f l u e n c e  was  o w n  K i n a i t h o n .  a n c i e n t  o f  A t t i c a .  a r e t o  i t s  h a v e  g e n e a l o g i e s  T h e  m a t e r i a l  w h o m  A r g o n a u t i c a ,  K i n a i t h o n ' s  h a d  t h a t  c e r t a i n t y  p r e s e r v e d  t o a l s o  G e n e a l o g i e s  C r e t e ,  a n d  L a c e d a i m o n  city,, l a n d  o f  s u r v i v e d  u n d e r t o o k  s o m e -  b e g i n n i n g s  o f  e p i c  o f  n o  n o t e s ,  ".  h i s t o r y  o f  ...we a  k n o w  n a t i o n  f r o m  26  B.  Epic  The  Iliad  anonymous persona  and g u i d e  story,  did  not  impersonal. the  homely  things to  have  the  g a v e way lyric  the  hexameter  elegiac  and f e e l i n g s . each was  poet  the  on E n n i u s ,  to  a wide each  reveals life.  "In these  b u t he  lessons  might  the  Annales  poetry,  the  various  for  legends  learned.  thus  f a r has  Quintus  Poetry shown  Ennius.  and g r a d u a l l y  poetry  personal  of  still  merely  concern and  be  of  poet  d i d not  The o l d myths  poet  essentially This  a man w i t h h i s  The d i s c u s s i o n  lyric  was  The  the  the  individual.  interests,  may  too.  it  was  in his  many o f  epic  appeared.  Homeric d i a l e c t ,  t u r n e d away  p o e t when  up n e a t l y  Age.  scope  n a r r a t o r of  the  did literary pursuits, of  the  and  influenced  to  merely  a particular  all,  in pursuing their  retained,  He was  as  own c o n c l u s i o n s .  aspect.  poets  poetry  remained  its  from which  rise  his  a difference  everyday  so  b y a p o e t who  drew  it  epic  for  conveying  a b o u t new m e t r e s  style.  to  choosing  themes  poems t h e r e  are  that  -  as  well,  feelings  the  thoughts thus  enabling  T h e same w i d e  themes.  occur  Although  creating  personal  i n d i v i d u a l works.  came  the  from the  added a p e n t a m e t e r ,  w h i c h p r o v e d much more a p t  have  sums  Lyric  at  Experimentation brought  available  R. L e w i s , of  to  the  Age,  story.  His poetry  exempla  poets,  Lyric was  metre,  Hesiod,  and t h e  enter  then  feelings  change,  to  the  audience  p o e t s may h a v e  had an i n f l u e n c e In  of  touch h i s  to  Age  d i d not  and p e r s o n a l  continued  the  he  poems o f  which  early  style  Some o f  the  tales.  on a d i d a c t i c  times  epic  is,  personal  ancient  Lyric  O d y s s e y were composed  outcome  b e more s i m p l y  how t h e s e As  his  the  Homeric hexameter  the  took  the  In the  relate  began  That  from which  reveal  in  and the  himself.  the  used  Poetry  in  the  scope  The c r i t i c , beautiful  we r e c o g n i z e :  poetry  man's  27  r e s p o n s e  t o  a  h i s  b r o o d i n g  h i s  s o r r o w  S e v e r a l  t h e  p o e t s  o r  I n  w a s  t h e  p e r h a p s  p o e t  w o u l d  l a r g e l y  m a t t e r c a n  i n  t h e  o f  b e c o m e  t h e  a  l o o k  u p  t o  a  h o n o u r b r a v e  h i s  g r e a t  C o l o p h o n  d e a l  d e a l t  s u r v i v e d  d e f e n s e  b u t  h e  o f  t h e  s h o r t - l i v e d  a n d  n o  t h e  t o  w h a t  m i g h t  d e a t h . " . b e  n a t u r e ;  t e r m e d  l e g e n d s  t o  a n d  d o  T h e  i s  n e i g h b o r i n g n o t  b a t t l e ,  t h e  h i s c i t y ,  c l e a r . )  a n d  v o c a b u l a r y o n  u r g e s  u s e d  c l a i m s  t h a t  b y  p o e t  t h e  i n d i v i d u a l .  T h e  p o e t  s a y s  6 3 0  B . C .  H e  T h e  I t  i s  e v e r y  n o t  s o l d i e r  c i t y . a b o u t  t h e a  a m a t o r y  s i d e  m e l a n c h o l y  p l e a s u r e s h i m  o f  o f a  f o u n d i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n  a  i n  h a s  c o m e  S p a r t a  o f  c a l l e d  M a n y H i s  T h e o f  f e w  t h e  i n t e r e s t  S m y m e i s ,  S m y r n a .  A s  d o w n ,  f i r m  n o  c h i e f l y  e l e g y .  t o n e .  y o u t h .  w o r k o f  o f  w r o t e  o n l y  t w o  h e r e , w h i c h l i n e s  j u d g m e n t s  m a d e . T y r t a e u s  A n c i e n t  l i v e d  w a r ;  72  B . C . ,  C a l l i n u s  w i t h  t o  m o r e  h i s  c e n t u r y ,  e l e g i a c s  b a t t l e .  e x h i b i t  a s c r i p t i o n  o t h e r  m a n  i s  d e v e l o p e d  w i t h  w i t h  i n  c o n f r o n t i n g  a n d  c h r o n o l o g y  f l o u r i s h e d  p o e t r y  t h e  a  i n t o  h i s  t o  i n  d e s p a i r  l i f e  s t r u g g l e  ( T h e  f o r  o f  d u e  a n d  o v e r  s e v e n t h  h i s  w a r r i o r .  h e r o e s  o f  t h e  o f  t h e  e m p h a s i s  M i m n e r m u s  m a y  b e  a n  t h e  i6  i n  b e  b u t  i n  r e m a i n  b r a v e l y  i n  h o w e v e r ,  h a v e  t h a t  t o  m e t r e ,  p a i n  c o u r a g e  i n t e r e s t  l i v e d  i t  f r a g m e n t s  h a v e  w h o  h e r o  f r a g m e n t s  t h e i r  h i s  h i s  p u z z l e m e n t  C i m m e r i a n s .  e l e g i a c  e x t a n t  p o e t  f i g h t  f o l l o w i n g  l o v e ;  p o e t r y .  a  H o m e r i c ,  i n  h i m s e l f ;  i n v a d i n g  c o n s i d e r s  p e o p l e i s  t o  j o y  h i s  t u r n e d  f r a g m e n t s  f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s o r  a g e ;  a l s o  n a t i o n a l  h i s  a b o u t  • a d v a n c i n g  C a l l i n u s E p h e s u S c  c h a n g e ;  t h o u g h t f u l n e s s  w i t h  o f  h i s t o r i c a l  s e a s o n ' s  a n d  w o r k e d  i n  L a c o n i a .  R . L e w i s M u s e o f t h e R o u n d S k y . L y r i c P o e t r y G r e e c e ( N e w Y o r k : S i m o n & S c h u s t e r , 1969) p . 1 2 .  H e  o f  f l o u r i s h e d  c a n  a  28  a b o u t  6 5 0  B . C . , a n d  M e s s e n i a n S p a r t a n s  a n d  r e m a i n ,  b u t  t h e  u s e s  s t a t u s  b y  A n o t h e r  w e r e  e l s e t h e  o r i g i n  f r a g m e n t s A t o  o n  u p t h e  w o u l d  T h e  n o  t h e  a n d  p o e t s  d e a l t  w i t h  i n  S t r a b o G e o r g e  t h e a n  L y r i c  s t y l e  o f  i n t e r e s t i n g  o n  i n  h i s  w o r k s  f r a g m e n t s  e m p h a s i s  h i s  c o u n t r y .  o n  i s  t h e  " E n n i u s  t h e a r e  a n d  s t y l e ,  i n d i v i d u a l  A m o n g a n d  t h o s e  T h e  t o  a t t a i n  i n  n a t u r e ,  a n d  f l o u r i s h e d  a s c r i b e d  C o l o n i z i n g  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  f r a g m e n t s ,  H e  o f  p o e m  o t h e r  t o  h i m  E l e a  b u t  i n  n o t h i n g  d e a l i n g  w i t h  s u r v i v i n g  A g e ,  t h e n ,  t u r n e d  C a l l i n u s  u r g e d  h i s  e x h o r t e d t h e  i n d i v i d u a l a n d O f  t h e  Q u i n t u s s t u d y  e a c h  E n n i u s b y  m a y  i n  w h i c h  G e o r g e  t o  f i g h t i n g  i n t e r e s t  i n d i v i d u a l  a t t e n t i o n  f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s  s o l d i e r  X e n o p h a n e s m o r e  t h e i r  s e e k  f o r  h a v e t o  L y r i c u s "  I C S  t o  e x c e l l e n c e  h i s  c o u n t r y  w r i t t e n  t h e s e  w o r k s  p o e t s  was  w a r - t i m e . m i g h t  S h e e t s .  74  b e H e  t e r m e d p o i n t s  8 . 3 5 2 . S h e e t s  o n  T h e r e  l a n g u a g e  X e n o p h a n e s .  h i s t o r i c a l A  o n l y  H i s  b o t h  t h e  h o m e l a n d .  w o r k s .  c i t i e s .  m a d e  h i s  s e c o n d  H e s i o d .  M i m n e r m u s  t h e i r  d e m a n d s  o f  b e  a n d  t h a t  r o u s e  u r g e  C o l o p h o n  T y r t a e u s f e l t  t o  C o l o p h o n - w a s  i n  t h e m e s .  s t a t u s . o f  t h e  e l e g i a c s  f o r  to  s u r v i v e .  H o m e r o f  w h i l e  h i s t o r y  o f  o f  d o e s ,  to  s u r v i v e s  B o t h  t h e  s e e m  t h e  T y r t a e u s ,  o f  o f  f r a g m e n t s  b r a v e l y ,  a n d  v a r i e t y  F o u n d i n g  n a t i o n a l  h e r o i c  o f  i n  c o u r a g e .  b e h a l f  c i t y  a  u n i v e r s e  b a t t l e f i e l d .  p r e s e n t  o n  c e r t a i n l y  o f  t h e  t h e  w r o t e  f e w  A s p e c t s a r e  o f  o f  C a l l i n u s  b a t t l e  c r i t i c i s m s  a t t a i n  p o e t r y  as  a r e  a r m s  d e t a i l i n g "the  p o e t  t h e  h i s t o r i c a l  t a k e  t h e  d o i n g  a n d  o f  i n  g e n e r a l  O f  f i g h t i n g  e n t i t l e d  k n o w n ,  w a r .  s o l d i e r  p o e m s  is  t h e  m  i n d i v i d u a l  t h e m ,  t i t l e s  i n  p o e m s  a  t o  B . C . , a n d  T h e  t h e m  as  a p p e a l s  565  I t a l y .  s e r v e d  p o e t  e c h o e s  T y r t a e u s  a b o u t  t h e  h e  . . p a t r i o t i c  w r o t e  t h e m  o f  s a y s  e n c o u r a g e  i n  H o m e r i c  h e r o i c  H e  t o  a n d  e x c e l l e n c e some  73  W a r .  S t r a b o  v i i i . 1 ( 1 9 8 3 ) 2 2 - 3 2 .  ' l y r i c ' o u t  29  that  Ennius  found  set  i n the  a precedent  works of  The a t t i t u d e  of  without of  Sheets  that  observes  h e was  the Muses. is  Sheets, Hesiod  that  Ennius,  the  it  audience  to h i s  technique.  but  also  that  that  he  is  he  the  both  celebrate  that  epinikia the  of  on t o  Pindar.  poets  approach t h e i r  towards  those  subjects.  "Ennius"  p.23.  this,  to  this  for  thought  the  with  dream-  according  Ennius  to Homeric  create  his  with  may b e there  especially the  For  encounter  to  thus  poet  similar  is  keeps  h e r o i c n a r r a t i v e of  style  to  especially they  difference  attitude  his  style.  in that  a great  i n the  makes  and  epic  and  free  done h a d he  own u n i q u e  lyric,  is  style  Ennius broadened the  men, b u t  it.  p r i v i l e g e d i n i t i a t i o n of  himself  and e p i c  subjects,  the  set  i n mind,  of  I of A n n a l e s ,  H e s i o d and h i s  all  principle  Quintus Ennius  associated  In h e r o i c epic  persona because  Sheets  the  Book  they  material  make u s e  however,  of  Greece  do as  d o i n g what Homer w o u l d h a v e  freely  Lyric of  to  Proem o f  The p o e t ,  show t h a t  famous d e e d s  how t h e  no p a r t i c u l a r  i n the  limiting  are generally  of  this  journey.of Callimachus.  is  not  to  adapt  first  previously unmixable.  then goes  features  with  the  The r e s u l t  aesthetic  poets  free  to  had Callimachus  He b o r r o w s a n d a d a p t s  Sheets  free  of m a t e r i a l  remained a fundamental  a r e b o r n Homer e x p e r i e n c e s  things  include  concept  the  t h e y were  b u t E n n i u s was  Ennius  to mix t o g e t h e r  b e e n a Roman,  that  r a t h e r more r e m i n i s c e n t o f  and r e t r a v e l s  plain  This  Homer r e i n c a r n a t e d .  Moreover,  that  and e s p e c i a l l y  was  borrowed from the A i t i a . is  from and making use  had b o r r o w e d , and a l s o  activity,  a scene which i s  motif  and o t h e r s  any r e s t r i c t i o n s .  example,  in  they  Roman l i t e r a r y  said  e a r l i e r poets,  Ennius  w i s h e d w i t h what  for borrowing  they  distance.  can in  take He h a s  c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n  30  move forward on their own and do not need the poet's interpretive commentary on them.  In the epinikia, however, Pindar does.not let the audience overlook  the fact that the famous deeds of men are preserved.through his agency.  For  example, in Pythians III.114-5, Pindar remarks, "Greatness in noble songs/ endures through time: but to win this, few find easy."^ .Similar sentiments are found fairly frequently elsewhere in the poet's work.  Pindar is also at  pains to emphasize that the true significance of these heroic achievements can only be revealed through his Sophia, as he indicates in Olympians II. 83-6: "In the quiver under my elbow/ are many swift arrows that speak to the wise,/ but for the crowd they need interpreters./ much."^  He knows, whose blood tells him  There is very much a feeling, as Sheets suggests, that the poet,  . 78 his poem, and the subject are inseparable from each other.  Sheets believes  Quintus Ennius meant to imply exactly the same as Pindar in Annales 12 and 13: "Latos per populos res atque poemata nostra/ clara cluebunt."  "Widely among  79 the peoples shall my subject and my poem have renown."  As Sheets observes,  this kind of conceit is not usually found in epic. Another example of a lyric intrusion into epic noted by Sheets is Ennius' personal evaluation of his subject for which there i s evidence in a notice by the Elder Pliny:  "Q. Ennius T. Caecilium Teucrum fratremque eius  praecipue miratus propter eos sextum decimum adiecit annalem." "Quintus Ennius added a sixteenth book to his Annals, because he especially admired 80 Titus Caecilius Teucer and his brother." Ennius apparently added the ^ • C . . M . Bowra The Odes of Pindar (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969), p.99. ^  Bowra Odes p.83.  78  Sheets "Ennius" p.25. ' E.H. Warmington Remains of Old Latin v . l (W. Heinemann Ltd. Loeb 80 Library, 1935; Reprint ed. 1956) p.3. Pliny the Elder N.H. vii.101. (My translation.) 79  31  sixteenth book to his poem so that he could include the exploits of the two brothers.  The poet is in f u l l control of the  subject-matter  to be included in his poem, and he can add or subtract from i t as he  sees f i t .  Sheets discovers a similar attitude in Pindar's Pythians v i i ,  where that poet declares in line 13 that "There c a l l to me also/ Five victories at the Isthmus/'and in line 18, "And in this last happy fortune/ 81 some pleasure I have."  The individual personality of the poet intrudes  into his poem here, whereas it was not usual for an epic poet to enter his narrative in any way.  Aurelius Victor remarks on the Ambracian victory of  M„ Fulvius Nobilior: "Quam victoriam per se magnificam Q. Ennius amicus 82 eius insigni laude celebravit." This notice prompts Sheets to ask why ~>  'insigni laude'? encomium?  •  Did the passage in question include, perhaps, a personal  He compares Victor's statement to Annales 363-5:  "Unus homo  nobis cunctando restituit rem./ Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem,/ ergo postque magisque v i r i nunc gloria claret."  "One man by his delays restored  the state;/ Hearsay he would not put before our safety;/ Hence to this day 83 the warrior's glory shines —I In after time, and more than i t shone once." Sheets suggests that the 'nobis' and the 'nunc' in this passage hint at a personal perspective the poet wants his audience to share.  Good deeds are  great examples: the lyric poet draws from them the appropriate inferences for his audience and so does Quintus Ennius. Another passage Sheets considers is Annales 522-3, which Vahlen, whom Sheets is citing, assigned to the end of Book xv. 81 Bowra Odes p.34. 82  83 Aurelius Victor d e V i r . Illust. 84 Warmington Remains p.133. Sheets "Ennius" p.27:  52.3  Skutsch, however, puts  32 i t  a m o n g  s a e p e  h i s  " S e d i s  s u p r e m o /  v a l i a n t  I n c e r t a e  v i c i t  s t e e d  w h o  F r a g m e n t a . "  O l y m p i a n u n c  h a s  o f t e n  w o n  s e n i o  " S i c u t i  f o r t i s  c o n f e c t u s  v i c t o r i e s  a t  e q u u s  s p a t i o  q u i e s c i t . "  t h e  O l y m p i c  " J u s t  g a m e s  i n  q u i as  t h e  a l a s t  85 l a p ,  n o w  a t  p r e s e r v e d  l e n g t h ,  t h e  d e f i n i t e l y w o r k .  c i t a t i o n  s p e a k i n g  S h e e t s  r e a s o n s  f o r  p e r s o n a  o f  e n d  i f  t h e  i n  t h e s e  h i s  e p i c  a t  n o t  h i m s e l f . a n d  t h e  t h e  o t h e r  p o e t  w a s  I t  p a s s a g e s ,  i s a n d  r a t h e r  p o i n t ,  t h a t  i n  to  f e e l  r e s t  t h a t  a f t e r  t h e  P l i n y ' s  E n n i u s  i s  i n d e e d  a u d i e n c e 86  n o t i c e .  b e c a u s e  t h e  i s  c o m p l e t i n g  f r a g m e n t t h e n  w h o  s t o r y  h i s t o  E n n i u s  p e r c e i v e s  1  a  T h e  p o e m  m a y  is  c o m p l e t e d .  a n d  s t a t e m e n t  o f  i n t e r e s t i n g E n n i u s .  4 1 0 :  " p o s t  y e a r s  o l d  t o  t h e n ,  t h a t  t h e s e  o t h e r  p e r s o n a l  a n d  a e t a t e  E n n i u s  w h e n  p o s s i b l e ,  e p i c  u s e  t h a t  p o e t r y ,  o f  E n n i u s  o n e  i n t o  t h o u g h  R e m a i n s  " E n n i u s "  E n n i u s  h e was  b y  w a s  p i g r e t G e l l i u s  w r i t i n g  r e f e r r i n g  i n t r u s i o n s  so  p . 1 4 5 .  p . 2 8 .  S k u t s c h  A n n a l s  p . 6 7 4 .  S k u t s c h  A n n a l s  p . 6 7 4 .  " E n n i u s "  p . 3 2 .  QQ  t r a n s f o r m e d  b a s e d  a d a p t a t i o n s  i n s i g h t s  E v e n  W a r m i n g t o n  S h e e t s  A n n .  a t t r i b u t e d  s i x t y - s e v e n  c o n c l u d e s  m a k i n g  S h e e t s  is  o f  s u f f e r r e a f t e r  B o o k t o  t h e  x i i  h i m s e l f  p o e t  i n t o  u n u s u a l .  S h e e t s  t r a d i t i o n  a  8 7 88  t h i s  C i c e r o ,  t h a t t h i s i s t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e o f a n e p i c 87 a s i m i l e t o h i m s e l f . . T h e same s c h o l a r n o t e s f u r t h e r t h a t m o r e r e f e r e n c e s t o o l d a g e i n t h e A n n a l e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o a p p l y 88  A n n a l e s .  8 6  t h e  n e c e s s a r i l y  f i r s t  i n f l u e n c e d 85  o f  so,  T h e  s o m e  a  to  l i n e s  a r e  t a k e  s i m i l a r  t h e s e  H o m e r ,  g i v e s  p o e m  a b o u t  r e b o r n  n e w  v e r y  t o  r e s t . "  s e e m s  r e f e r e n c e  r e m a r k s  G e o r g e a  t h e  h i s  t a k e s 14,  r e a d y  i t  t h a t  t h e  i f  a g e ,  S e n e c t u t e  w i l l s  p o e t  o f  de  o l d  p o e t  l a b o r e m , " V a r r o  t h a t  p o e t  b y  h i m s e l f ,  c o n c l u d i n g  p o e t a p p l y i n g t h e r e a r e two t o  o u t  i n  o f  n o t e s  t h e  t h e  S k u t s c h  w o r n  h o w l i t t l e  f r o m t h e o f  o n  a  n e w  m a n y p o e t s t h e  e p i c  s t y l e  l a n g u a g e 89  t h e  A n n a l e s  H i s L y r i c  h a s  p a r t  w i e l d e d  s o u r c e s . o f  as  A g e  b y  o f a  a r t i c l e c o u l d  s u r v i v e d ,  o n e  h a v e c a n  33  still epic and  see  from  the  tradition. so  many h a v e  It  fragments seems t o  been  that  the  A n n a l e s was  c o m b i n e many a s p e c t s  influenced  in a variety  of  not of  merely  a poem i n  different  ways b y many  types  of  authors.  the poetry,  34 C .  E p i c  T h e r e f i f t h  a n d  e a r l y  t o p i c s  c a m e  t h o u g h  t h e  a  n e w  k n o w n  h a v e  b e e n  o l d  o r  a t  t h e  i n  f o u r t h  c e n t u r i e s ,  as  o f  m y t h s  t h i n g s  i n t e r e s t  s u i t a b l e  i n f l u e n c e d  b y  t h e m  a n d  t h e  a r i s e n .  t h e  f l o u r i s h e d  o f  H i s  t h r e e  4 1 0  i n  was  o r  m e r e l y  t h a t  Q u i n t u s  E n n i u s  m a y  o f  a n d  h i s  as  so  B . C . , a n d  w a s  e p i c  w a s  e n t i t l e d  T h i s  w o r k  w a s  a p p a r e n t l y  a  <  T h e b a i s ,  T h e b a i s  " t h a t  l o n g  t o o k  b o o k s  e v e n  24  m a y  A n n a l e s .  l e n g t h y  T h e b e s .  t h e  I t  p o e t s  w r i t i n g  w e l l - k n o w n i n a n t i q u i t y . C i c e r o c a l l e d 9 0 o f h i s . " N e w m a n n o t e s t h a t A n t i m a c h u s  p o e m  e p i c .  e x h a u s t e d ,  a b o u t  l a t e  h i s t o r i c a l / n a t i o n a l  P e r h a p s  i n  p o e t .  s i e g e  b e e n  w a y  e p i c  o f  h a d  h a d  a g a i n  m o r e f o r  s o m e  as  s t o r y  O n c e  f o l l o w i n g  C o l o p h o n  a n  p o e t r y  t h e  o f  as  e p i c  o f  A n t i m a c h u s w e l l  i n B . C .  l e g e n d s  w o r k s i n  A g e  s u b j e c t - m a t t e r  h i s t o r i c a l t h e  t h e  H e l l e n i s t i c  o f  f o r e  s t o c k  t h e  f l u r r y  o f  l e a s t  f a m o u s  i n  a  i n  s o m e t h i n g  g r a m m a r i a n t o l d  was  t h e  i n t e r e s t  h a v e  a n d  t o  P o e t r y  a d m i r e d , a n d t o  g e t  91 h i s  h e r o e s  o b s e r v e d b y a  t o  a  t h e  l i t t l e  A n t i m a c h u s , p o e m  o f  t h e  o f  a l l  o f  h e  l a n g u a g e . o f  T h e b e s . o n  g o t  i n u p  P e r h a p s  h i s a n d  a l l u s i o n s  t h a t  d i s c u s s i o n l e f t  f r o m  t h e  r e a s o n  t h a t  C i c e r o  i n  t h e  m i d d l e  o f  r e a d i n g  t h a t  e x c e p t  c o u l d  w a s  P l a t o .  i t s  C i c e r o  n a t u r e  o n l y  a l s o  w i n  a  n o t e d  t h e  t h a t  a p p r o v a l  .  Q u m t i l i a n  t e a c h e r s  H o m e r ) ,  o b s c u r e . . . .  f e w .  o f  f u r t h e r  e v e r y o n e  s u c h 92  e l e v a t i o n  g a t e s  p r a i s e s  A n t i m a c h u s  H e  g o e s  o n  l i t e r a t u r e  r a n k  h i m  h i m s e l f  f i n d s  T h e  f r a g m e n t s  t o  A n t i m a c h u s  s a y , s e c o n d  f o r  h i s  h o w e v e r , a m o n g  d e f i c i e n t  i n  v i g o u r , t h a t  e p i c  d i g n i t y ,  a l t h o u g h  p o e t s  a n d  p r a c t i c a l l y  ( p r e s u m a b l y  c h a r m  a n d  t o t a l l y  s u r v i v e  a r e  c i t a t i o n s  a f t e r  d e v o i d  o f  m a d e  b y  93 r e a l  a r t . 9 0 91  W i s e .  C i c e r o  J . K . & L o n d o n , 198 92 93 C i c e r Q u i n t  o f  B r u t u s  N e w m a n T h e 6) p . 1 0 1 . o .  t h e  T h e b a i s  t h a t  191 C l a s s i c a l  B r u t u s 1 9 1 . I n s t , x . 1 . 5 3 .  E p i c  T r a d i t i o n  ( M a d i s o n ,  i  35  l a t e r authors t o i l l u s t r a t e obscure words and u n u s u a l m y t h o l o g i c a l  detail.  In h i s use o f such m a t e r i a l as neologisms and obscure m y t h o l o g i c a l  details,  Antimachus perhaps s e t a precedent f o r t h e H e l l e n i s t i c poets who would p r i d e themselves on t h e i r l e a r n i n g . logisms,  later  Quintus Ennius had t o r e s o r t t o neo-  too, t o extend L a t i n v o c a b u l a r y .  He may have been i n f l u e n c e d by  Antimachus i n t h i s . Choerilus to about 399 B.C.  t h e poet from t h e i s l a n d o f Samos, l i v e d from about 479 I n a fragment s t i l l  extant  t h e poet laments the d e c l i n e  of t h e e p i c t r a d i t i o n , and exclaims t h a t a l l t h e a r t s a r e a t an end, t h e ways a r e a l l used up and there  i s simply  no p l a c e  f o r him t o d r i v e h i s  94 newly-yoked c h a r i o t .  This conclusion  as a source o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . of t h e P e r s i a n Wars.  l e d him t o t u r n t o r e c e n t  history  He i s s a i d t o have composed a v e r s e  He i s a l s o c r e d i t e d w i t h an e p i c poem c a l l e d  Nothing i s known o f t h i s work.  P l u t a r c h n o t e s t h a t L y s a n d e r kept 95  i n h i s r e t i n u e t o adorn h i s achievements w i t h v e r s e .  history Samiaca..  Choerilus  The poet spent h i s  l a s t days i n Macedon, a t the c o u r t o f A r c h e l a u s . J . K. Newman p o i n t s out t h a t C h o e r i l u s o f Samos was the f i r s t to honour contemporary m i l i t a r y achievements i n h e r o i c hexameter He  a l s o suggests t h a t t h e use o f ' a u t h o r i a l p r e f a c e s '  97  . Ennius was taken along  H. L l o y d - J o n e s , P. P a r - c o n s ,  9 4  "\ P l u t a r c h Lysander x v i i i . 4 .  9 6  Newman C l a s s . . E p i c p.17.  9 7  Newman C l a s s . E p i c p.377.  9  t o comment on h i s  on the A e t o l i a n campaign m e d . Supplementum H e l l e n -  i s t i c u m ( d e G r u y t e r : B e r l i n & N.Y., 1983) p.157. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 9  verses. ^  t o e p i c was as o l d as  H e s i o d , and. observes t h a t C h o e r i l u s had used h i s p r e f a c e difficulties.  poet  189 B.C.  36  by F a b i u s the  so  that  noteworthy  have  been  Ennius' the  to  whole  what  of  Choerilus  field  difficulties,  and h i s  He w r o t e  the  the  of  historian,  poem named I o n i k a ,  Quintilian although  late  fragments  feels  war,  patron.  epic and,  to  and modern, as  comment  like  him,  the  which d e a l t  with  the  inferior  to  of  of  style,  as  his  other  he  a  Halicarnassus. hero  work w h i c h of  qualities yet  who was  the  settlement  combined the  them i n  Panyassis  adventures and h i s  had  just  age,  for  detail.  a native  this  Panyassis  on h i s  into, lengthy  r e v i v a l was  Also,  contemporaries,  'authorial prefaces'  prefaces going  presumably,  T h i s work would  of  ancient  of  and,  Lysander's court.  remain of  that  h e was  the  d i d at  Heracleia detailing  an e l e g i a c  his  history,  for not  Herodotus,  Only  Antimachus  was  this  Heracles.  Greeks.  poet  E n n i u s makes u s e  poet  small  who was  of  m i l i t a r y achievements  study  reasons  a poem c a l l e d  history  earlier  T h e Roman p o e t u s e s  The t h i r d of  general  the  of  Choerilus.  did.  r e c o r d the  the  Annales celebrated  that  cousin  could  deeds of  similar  poet's  been  he  was  I o n i a by of  the  H e s i o d and  surpassed  Hesiod  98 in  the  choice  H e r e was  of  another  c o u l d have  Hellenistic of  Alexandria. as  writers,  Age the  to  and A n t i m a c h u s  p o e t who d e a l t  was  Many o f and they  Rhodes  Quint.  with, h i s t o r i c a l  undoubtedly  school  of the also  This  greatly  period  poets  that  arrangement  subject-matter,  collected  also  at  x.1.54.  his  the  the  the  of  his  and  poets  of  material.  perhaps  the  A l e x a n d r i a n Age  great  library  and g r a m m a r i a n s as  and r e s e a r c h e d  of  by  called  flourished  R h o d e s was  make a r e v i s i o n  Inst,  is  influenced  p o e t s were p h i l o l o g i s t s  A p o l l o n i u s of to  i n the  Ennius.  itself.  The p o e t retired  subject  influenced  Ennius  because  his  of well  manuscripts.  from A l e x a n d r i a o r i g i n a l l y , epic  poem,  the A r g o n a u t i c a .  but  37  It  is  i s  d i v i d e d  t h e  w r i t t e n  i n  i n t o  s t o r y  l o v e  b e t w e e n  J a s o n  a n d  M e d e a  S k u t s c h  w i t h  t h e  o f  e x t a n t  v o y a g e  i s  p a s s a g e  o f  t u r n i n g  i n  s o m e  o f  v a g u e ,  i n  t h e  E n n i u s  s c e n e : t h i n k s  s e v e r a l  o f  i n  e n t i r e t y ,  i t s  a t  u s e  5 , 8 3 5  t h e  some  v e r s e s , a n d  g o l d e n  l e n g t h ,  a n d  d e a l s  w i t h  f l e e c e .  T h e  a n  u n u s u a l  i n t r u s i o n  f r o m  A n n a l e s  ( 3 4 - 5 0 )  w h i c h  o f  r e a l i s m  d e v e l o p e d  p a s s a g e  m a k e s  I l i a  to  m u s t  t h a t  t h e r e  i s  i s  o f  i s  a  " T h e  o f  a n d  h e r  a u r a i s  i s o f  a s p e r p l o t  i n  t h a t  s p e a r s  S k u t s c h  i n  A r e s , a n d  A n n a l s  T r a n s l a t i o n  o f  o f  to  t h e  a  t h e  i n i s  A n n . 3 8 4 , s o m e w h a t  d e a t h - d e a l e r ,  s h i n i n g  a l s o  ( L o e b  u n r e a l i t y  a n d  a c t i o n  s c e n e h e r  e d . )  is  s i m i l a r  d r e a m ;  s h e  s p e a k s  t h e r e  was  n o  p a t h  w h o  t e l l s  h e r  o f  t h e  i s b y  p a l p a b l e .  o f  h a v e  i n  e v e r y t h i n g .  h i s  d r e a m  h a s :  w i t h  h i s S k u t s c h  p s y c h o l o g y .  i n f l u e n c e d  E n n i u s  f o r  T h e  A p o l l o n i u s  a b o u t  b r i s t l e d  p . 1 9 4 . R . C . S e a t o n  h a l t i n g  r e m i n i s c e n t  h e l m e t s . " ' ' ' ^  r o o m .  t h a t  c r e a t e d  c o u l d  a n d  h e r  t h i s  m e r i t  o x e n ,  s h o w  r e p o r t s  u n c e r t a i n t y  e x a m p l e ,  o f  t o  p o e t  t h e  s t a r t l e d  E n n i u s '  a b o u t  p o e t i c  T h i s  o n e  f a t h e r  t h a t  a n d  p h r a s e s  a n d  h e r  A p o l l o n i u s  F o r  s i s t e r ' s  m e n t i o n s  f o r e b o d i n g  m y s t e r y  h e r  t o  G r e e k o f  go  i s  s l e e p  c o n t e s t i s  t r u e .  a n d  v i s i o n  u t r i m q u e . " o f  o f  t h e  t h e  S h e  to  r i n g s  s i m i l a r  s u p e r i o r  p o s s i b l e  a n d  f f . ,  h i m .  d i s j o i n t e d  t h i n g s ,  s u f f e r ,  m a r r y  c r e a t e d  o u t  a  a n  d o u b l e - p o i n t e d  e f f e c t  s t a r t l e d  a t t a i n s  to  i i i . 6 1 6  J a s o n ,  a t t e m p t s  v i v i d  v o c a b u l a r y .  e x e r c i t u s  99  T h e  B o o k  a b o u t  r a t h e r  h a s  E n n i u s  i i i . 1 3 5 5 - 7 :  p a r e n t s  S h e  E n n i u s  t h a t  h e r  s h a d o w s  f o l l o w .  she  d r e a m i n g  c h o p p y ,  i s  I n  a n d  h e s i t a n t  p i c t u r e  f l e e t i n g  m a t t e r s  f r o m  s h o r t ,  T h e  I t  t e l i s  l e n g t h  p r o c u r e  o n  A r g o n a u t i c a .  m o v e m e n t s „  w a y s :  f e e t  s o r r o w s  a w a y  u s e s  s u s p e n d e d .  t h e  s l e e p i n g  m a k i n g  u n c e r t a i n  e f f e c t  i n  M e d e a  u p ,  h e r  to  d w e l t  t h a t  I l i a ,  a  99  A p o l l o n i u s  a n d  e p i c  s u g g e s t s  d r e a m  i s  to  .  w a k e s  i n  I t  h i s  d e s c r i b e s  a n d  b o o k s .  a n d  s i m i l a r  a n d  f o u r  e x t e n d s  J a s o n  d e a l s .  h e x a m e t e r s ,  o f  e p i c .  .  i n  E n n i u s  " h o r r e s c i t o f  A r g o n a u t i c a  s t u r d y  s h i e l d s  38  In  Skutsch's commentary on Ann.384, he i d e n t i f i e s Lycophron, a  of  A p o l l o n i u s of Rhodes, as h a v i n g been the f i r s t  Homeric ideas o f the b r i s t l i n g battle. fields to  field  Skutsch c i t e s Lycophron's  13.339: "The f i e l d  poet t o combine the two  of c o r n and the b r i s t l i n g  f i e l d of  A l e x a n d r a 252: " I t b r i s t l e s j u s t as the  s h i n e b r i g h t w i t h the spear-heads  Iliad  contemporary  of c o r n . - " ^ ^  T h i s l i n e i s compared  of death b r i s t l e d w i t h the l o n g f l e s h - c u t t i n g  102 spears."  Homer uses the imagery both f o r b a t t l e and f o r a f i e l d . o f c o r n ,  but Lycophron It  seems t o combine the two p i c t u r e s . i s thought t h a t A p o l l o n i u s a l s o i n c l u d e d among h i s works a group  of. poems i n d i f f e r e n t metres  called  i ^ T f- & £ L S ^  'Foundations'  which may have d e a l t w i t h the: f o u n d a t i o n legends of a number o f c i t i e s , even A l e x a n d r i a i t s e l f . of the  No fragments have s u r v i v e d , but h i s t o r i c a l p o e t r y  t h i s type may w e l l have i n f l u e n c e d Quintus Ennius f o r he seems t o have t o l d f o u n d a t i o n legends o f Rome i n the A n n a l e s . A contemporary  of  perhaps  Crete.  Elis,  o f A p o l l o n i u s who a l s o wrote e p i c poems was Rhianus  To him a r e a s c r i b e d s e v e r a l e p i c s , among them poems about A c h a i a ,  and a l s o H e r a c l e s .  epic c a l l e d  The work.for which Rhianus  the Messeniaka.  i s b e s t known i s h i s long  T h i s poem was n o t l e s s than s i x books i n l e n g t h  and was c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r e d an h i s t o r i c a l e p i c because Pausanias used i t as . ' . • 103 mam source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the Second Messenian War. The poem  his  a p p a r e n t l y d e a l t w i t h the s t o r y o f Aristomenes, the h a l f - l e g e n d a r y l e a d e r o f the  Messenians,  and t h e i r s t r u g g l e w i t h S p a r t a .  There a r e n o t enough  s u r v i v i n g t o g i v e any more i n f o r m a t i o n . Here, though,  fragments  t h e r e may have been  another precedent f o r Quintus Ennius i n u s i n g an e p i c poem was a v e h i c l e f o r history. Skutsch Annals 102  p.548.  T r a n s l a t i o n o f E.V. Rieu (Penguin ed.) pp.428, 243. Pausanias  rv.o.lff.  39  C a l l i m a c h u s m o s t  i n f l u e n c e d  Q u i n t u s  m a n u s c r i p t s  i  i a m b i c s  s h o r t  a c t i c  a n d  e l e g y  o r i g i n s  t h e  G r e e k  nf o u r  s c h o l a r s  b e g i n n i n g  t h e  v o c a b u l a r y .  p r i n c e p s ' ,  a r e a  i  S k u t s c h ,  u s e  w o r d s  A n  i n t e r e s t i n g  d e n t e f a b r e s o n l y  h e r e  f u t u r e  i  s c h o l a r s h a v e  b e e n  i n f l u e n c e t h e  m a y  4  1 0 5  f r o m  t h a t  h a v e  E n n i u s ' b  c o m e  S k u t s c h W i l l i a m s  o f m e t r e s ,  t h e  A i t i a ,  a n d  b o r r o w e d  a  d i d -  l e g e n d a r y  m e n t i o n e d  a b o v e o n  t h e  d r e a m  A i t i a  0  a n d  h a v e  nA n n .  m o t i f  w h e r e  6 3 ,  ' q u i  b ea n o t h e r f e l l o w  e s t  a r e a  t h e  T h e  i  w o r d  nl i n e  3 0 0 :  u n u s u a l  i m a g e r y  o f ' g r o o m i n g  i n t r u s i o n  3 8 - 9 ) ,  o f p e r s o n a l  i n f l u e n c e  A n n a l s  p . 2 1 4 .  T r a d .  &P r i g ,  p . 6 9 7 .  n u a n c e .  " r a s t r o s  w i t h  i s t h e  t h e  f o u n d a r c h a i c  f i e l d '  m a y  p o e t s .  G o r d o n W i l l i a m s , t h e  h e w a s  o f t e n  ' d e n t e f a b r e s ' . w o r d  i^^^C^plti  nw h i c h  a c e r t a i n  'new'  ( p a g e s  i  i s  o m n i b u s  A l e x a n d r i a n s  t o a c h i e v e  i s f o u n d  A l e x a n d r i n e  E n n i u s  ^a<r<-S TTor<y*.wV  4  h i s  a g r i . "  i n f l u e n c e d  o f t h i s  a b o v e  f r o m  was  u s e  t h e  yP i n d a r . .  1  A n n a l e s  T h e  r a t h e r  i  c o m p o u n d s *  p o l i e n d i /  d i s c u s s i o n  i n s p i r e d  ^  t h e  w a s  h a v e  m a y  m i g h t  p o e t  nE n n i u s '  l i t e r a t u r e . a n d  1 . 7 . 3 4 :  u pl e a r n e d  nL a t i n  p o e m s  w h o  o f t h e  na v a r i e t y  o f C a l l i m a c h u s '  s e e s  w o r d s  T h i s  c a u s a  f e e l  i n t r u s i o n s  i  i  A s  m a y  a p a r t  e x a m p l e ,  c a p s i t  s o m e I n  rm a d e  e x a m p l e  ' c a p s i t ' ,  i n d i c a t e  o  a c a t a l o g u e  m y t h o l o g i c a l  C a l l i m a c h u s  o fc o m p o u n d  c o i n e d  w i t h  p e r i o d  d r e a m .  t o A i t i a  b yC a l l i m a c h u s .  f a m o u s  E n n i u s  f r o m  nw h i c h  i n f l u e n c e d n e w  na  f o r  a r e s e m b l a n c e  ^Jtvct/W^fEnnius'  i  h y m n s  m a t e r i a l .  t h a t  A l e x a n d r i a n  i n c l u d e d  m o s t  d e a l t  A n n a l e s  M u s e s  o f t h e  w o r k s  o fh i s  r e l a t e d  f e e l  p o e t  e p i g r a m s ,  w h i c h  o t h e r  o fh i s  A n o t h e r i n  O n e  t h e  H i s  L i b r a r y ,  b o o k s ,  » s o m e  m e t  E n n i u s .  e p i c s .  a n d  p o e t  p r o b a b l y  G r e a t  o f p l a c e s  p a g e a t  nt h e  i  was  i t was  n o t e d  t h o u g h t s h o w e v e r ,  t h a t  i n t o  h i s  o b s e r v e s  o f C a l l i m a c h u s . ' ' " ^ ^  s o m e e p i c t h a t  m a y t h e  40  H e  r e f e r s  h o w  h e  t h e  p o e t  e s p e c i a l l y  b e c a m e  t h e  g i v e s  A n n a l e s .  A t  o t h e r  r e f e r e n c e s  p a s s a g e  o f  t h e  o f  n e w  h i s  s e v e r a l  s p e a k s  o l d  to  t h e  b e g i n n i n g  H o m e r ,  a n d  o f  t h e  n a r r a t i v e  w h e r e  t o  t h e  b e g i n n i n g  o f  a l s o  r e a s o n  f o r  n o t  d e a l i n g  p o i n t s ,  as  h a s  b e e n  o w n  o l d  a g e .  t o  w o r k s a g e :  h i s o f  C a l l i m a c h u s ,  " . . . t h a t  I  m a y  w i t h  n o t e d  t h e  a b o v e  W i l l i a m s b u t  t h e n  F i r s t  i n  t h e  s h e d  B o o k  t h e  a g e ,  w h i c h  o l d  i n  h i s  t h e  r e f e r  A i t i a ,  w h e r e  W a r  3 1 - 2 ) ,  n o t  e x p l a i n s  v i i ,  P u n i c  ( p a g e s d o e s  E n n i u s  to  G r e e k  p o e t  a  s p e c i f i c  p o e t  w e i g h s  m a d e  a l s o  u p o n  me  106 l i k e  t h e  v e r y  s i m i l a r  was  T h r e e - c o r n e r e d t o  s o m e t h i n g  m a k e s  v i e w e d  o f  s e v e r a l  c o n c l u d e s  t h a t  P h a i n o m e n a ,  a  b a s e d t r e a t i s e  c o n n e c t e d E n n i a n  o l d  t r a n s l a t e  m a y  a r t i s t i c  p o e t  s t a r s  t h e ' i n  n o c t e  w o u l d  L a t i n ,  t h e  i n  h i s  t o  1154  l i n e s ,  a n d  o f  t h e  e a r l i e r  w h i c h  m a k e s  s e r e n a '  f i n d a n d  i f  C . A . T r y p a n i s W i l l i a m s  T r a d . A n n a l s  t h e  T h e &  u s e  387)  p h r a s e  P h a i n o m e n a k n e w  P e n g u i n P r i g ,  p . 5 5 2 .  o f  b u t  w h o m  h e x a m e t e r s  g e o g r a p h y  w a s  B o o k  o f  G r e e k  V e r s e  h a v e  P h a i n o m e n a a n d  i t  is  m y t h o l o g y t h a t  o f  t h e  f r o m K T l .  i n t e r e s t i n g i t  H o m e r  t h e  C n i d u s ,  Vo  d o u b t  a  m i g h t  T h e  d e r i v e d  n o  p . 6 9 6 .  i s  E n n i u s  a n d  i t ,  a l s o  E n n i u s . t o o k  K ^ ^ p f ) A r a t u s  a g e  W i l l i a m s  i t  s u g g e s t s  b e e n  o l d  C i c e r o  c a l l e d  o f  o f  p o e m .  t o d a y .  E u d o x u s  h a v e  f o r  a l s o .  u n i q u e  w i t h  c e r t a i n t l y  b u r d e n  Q u i n t u s  7  S k u t s c h m a y  i s  w e l l ,  H o m e r ,  e x t a n t  o f  b o d i e s .  t h e  E n n i u s  i n  s t i l l  m u c h  ( A n n .  u s e s  p o e m  t h e  t e r m s ,  h i s  p e r i o d  a s t r o n o m e r ,  c e l e s t i a l  o n  f a s h i o n i n g  a  A r a t u s  e p i c  A l e x a n d r i a n  as  s a m e  C a l l i m a c h u s . ' ' ' ^  c o m p o s e d  1 0 7  S k u t s c h  a  t h e  T h i s  P e r h a p s  l i t e r a t u r e  m u c h  H e  1 0 6  108  i n  i n  o f  E n c e l a d u s . "  A n n a l e s .  m o d e l l e d  s o u r c e s  v a r i o u s  w h e r e  C i c e r o i n t o  w o r k  a g e  e y e s  o f  A r a t u s .  t h e  3 2 3 ,  h a v e  d i f f e r e n t  t h e  p h r a s e  o n ,  t h e  i s  w i t h  P h a i n o m e n a L a t e r  t o  l a s t  o n  h i s  r e f e r e n c e s  e x t e n d i n g o n  i n  c o m m o n p l a c e  f r o m  f a m i l i a r  s a y s  d e a d l y  o r  E n n i u s  O n e  was  a  E n n i u s  u p o n  t o p o s  t h r o u g h  i n s p i r a t i o n  b e e n  w h a t  I s l a n d  e n o u g h some  ( 1 9 7 1 )  1 0 8  t o i n t e r e s t  p . 3 1 0 .  41 t o  h i m  a l s o ,  b u t  p e r h a p s  m o r e  f o r  i t s  p o e t i c  t e c h n i q u e  t h a n  f o r  i t s  s u b j e c t -  m a t t e r . T h e s e A g e , b y  t a l e n t e d t h e i r  a n d  E n n i u s  t h e  a n d  t o  g r e a t h i s  i t  t r e a t m e n t  w h i c h  t h i s  w o r k .  f r e e l y  a n d  f r o m  t h a t  o f  o f  a v a r i e t y  o f  i m m o r t a l i t y  o n  i t s  p o e m a t a t h i n g  n o s t r a / s i m i l a r  o f  m a k e  l o f t y  t h a t  f a c t  i n  5 1 4 ,  i f  m u c h  h a v e  t h e  b e  t h e  t h e  w i t h  w o r l d  T h e  f i r s t  H e  t h e  t h e  t o  l i t e r a t u r e o f  a n d  p o e t s t o  w o r k  o f  a l l  g i v i n g  a d a p t  b e s t o w i n g  E n n i u s  m e a n t  p a s s a g e  t o  p o e t r y  p o p u l o s  p o e t  E n n i u s  s o m e t h i n g  P i n d a r . p e r  s h o w n  w h i l e  a b l e  c r e a t e o f  h a s  Q u i n t u s  t o  w a s  i d e a  i n  " L a t o s  t h i n k s  G r e e k  i n t e r e s t  s t y l e s  a g e s .  o f  o f  A n n a l e s  a v a i l a b l e  o f  a n d  r e s t  t h e  t h e  v a r i o u s  b e e n  1 2 - 3 :  A l e x a n d r i a n  w o r l d  i n  m a t e r i a l .  f o u n d  o r  t h e m .  s u b j e c t  S k u t s c h  o n l y  is  t h e  n o b l e  A n n .  c l u e b u n t . "  A n n .  h i s  f o r t o  to  b y  o f  t e c h n i q u e s  s e e m s  m u c h  f a m i l i a r  m a y  a n d  t r e a s u r e  H e l l e n i s t i c  T h e r e  i n f l u e n c e d  t h a t  p o e t i c  s u b j e c t  c l a r a i n  a d d e d  d i s c u s s i o n  t o  t h e  q u i t e  w a s  t h e  s u c h  a l a s t i n g  a w a r e n e s s  o f  w h o  was  h e  s o u g h t  b e  h i s  p o e t s  m a t e r i a l  w o u l d  o u t  h e  t h a t  E n n i u s w o r t h y  t h e  s c h o l a r s  c h a p t e r  a b u n d a n c e  i n  o f  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  s h o w  A l e x a n d r i a n s , I n  s o m e  l e a r n e d  r e s e a r c h  Q u i n t u s t h e  w e r e  r e s t o  h a d  b r i n g s a t q u e  s a y  s o m e -  s u r v i v e d :  109 " d u r a q u i d e m v e r s e s o w n  c a n  s a i d  R o m a n u s a b o u t  e x p r e s s e d  f l a t u /  s c h o l a r l y b e  h o m o  s o m e t h i n g  e p i t a p h ,  f u n e r a o f  s a y  u n u s  f a x i t .  c u r ?  a t t e n t i o n t o  h a v e  t h e  t h e  b e e n  t o g a  t h e  s u p e r e s c i t , "  p o e t ' s  s a m e v o l i t o  W o u l d  n a m e  b e i n g  k n o w n  c e r t a i n t y :  " N e m o  m e  v i v u s  f r a g m e n t s  p e r  h a v e  o r a  a l s o ?  I n  E n n i u s '  r e s t  o f  E n n i u s ,  l a c r i m i s  v i r u r a . "  r e c e i v e d ,  t h e  d e c o r e t ,  v i e w h o p e  o f  t h e  a n d  t h e i n  h i s  n e c a m o u n t p r o p h e c y  f u l f i l l e d .  Skutsch Annals  p.667. >  4.2  C h a p t e r  Q u i n t u s H e  m a y  m a y  h a v e  h a v e  t i m e  h e  b e e n was  l i t e r a t u r e L a t i n  o n  p r e c e d e d w e r e  h a d  a c c e s s  w r i t i n g , h a d  a  a  p o e t  h i m .  T w o  p o e t s  A n d r o n i c u s  o n l y  a n d  t h e  f a l l  t e a c h i n g  L a t i n  a n d  d i c o . . . )  n i h i l  a m p l i u s  was  o f  G r e e k :  h a d  a n d w a s  n o r  a  G r e e k i n  G r a e c o s  i n  L a t i n .  o u t  o f  m a y  h a v e  S a t u r n i a r i a  r e a l  t h i s  b y  n a t i v e s o m e f o r  v e r s e s  n e e d  o f  a v a i l a b l e s o m e t h i n g  t r a n s l a t i n g S a t u r n i a n  a u t h e n t i c y e a r s .  m e t r e  R o m a n  T h e  t h e  p o e t  R e p r i n t  e d .  b u t - n o t  to  h i s  f l a v o u r , H o r a c e  d e  t h e o f  s o u t h  I t a l y  G r e e c e .  e x t a n t ,  a n d  H o w e v e r ,  a t  c e n t u r i e s ,  m a n y  a t  o f  p o e t s  b e f o r e  t h e  B . C . ,  m a t e r i a l  R o m a n  R o m e  B . C .  t h a t  n o t a  u s e f u l g a p .  i t  . . „  L a t i n i n  w h o  E n n i u s .  s t u d y  o f  w h i l e  a  n o r  T h e y  s p e a k s  s i  q u i d  t h e s t u d y  a n d  m u s t  h a v e  w a s  u s e d  as  v e r s e s . s u c c e e d e d  set  t h e  o u t  i n  R o m a n  e q u i d e m  i n s e c t o r  d e l e n d a v e  1. R o m e  ( U n w i n ;  1909  b e  f e w  o l d w a s  t o  p r o v i d e  c h o s e  g i v i n g  t e x t b o o k  o f  t o  T a b l e s  a  J . W i g h t D u f f A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y L o n d o n : B e n n , 1953) p . 1 0 8 .  h i m  i p s i  L i v i u s i n  R o m e  E n n i u m  T w e l v e o f  to  o f  s u b j e c t - m a t t e r  A n d r o n i c u s  L a t i n  G r a m m a t i c i s  b r o u g h t  a e s t h e t i c . T h e r e  L i v i u s  " N o n  was  ( L i v i u m et  a u t  m u c h  i n t o  r e c a l l s :  w h o  S u e t o n i u s  d o c t o r u m  was  H o m e r  p o e m , f o r  p o e t s .  b o d y  w o r k s  a e s t h e t i c ,  n e i t h e r  f i l l  O d y s s e y f o r  S u e t o n i u s 1 1 1  p o i n t s  w a s  g r e a t  o f  l o n g e r  s e c o n d  i n t e r p r e t a b a n t u r ,  t a u g h t  u s e f u l  a  p o e t s  n o  G r e e k  t h e r e  272  t h e r e  b e e n  n o t  o f  p r a e l e g e b a n t . C e r t a i n l y  L a w  t h e  N a e v i u s .  T a r e n t u m  D u f f  b y  e a r l y  w e r e  L a t i n e  W i g h t  a m o n g  m a t e r i a l  " . . . a n t i q u i s s i m i  q u a m  P r e d e c e s s o r s  w a y s  c o m p o s e d  C n a e u s  A n d r o n i c u s  a f t e r  t h e r e  b u i l d  o f  o f  t h i r d  so  c o u l d  a m o u n t  v a r i e t y  l a t e  b e g u n ,  R o m a n  p r e d e c e s s o r s  l a r g e  t h e  t h e  s l a v e  m a n y  i n  i n  w h i c h  L i v i u s  a  t o  b a r e l y  E n n i u s '  h a d  i n f l u e n c e d  L i v i u s as  E n n i u s  4:  t h e  i t s c h o o l s c a r m i n e  43 L i v i /  e s s e  r e o r ,  C i c e r o  k n e w  L a t i n a  est  d i g n a e  q u a e  m e m i n i  t h e  p o e m  s i c  M o d e r n  t h e i r  to  n o t e  t h a t  R o m a n  t h e  a d v e n t u r e s  e f f o r t R o m a n  0 <lf° -  b e c a m e  a  r e m a r k s a l s o  O r b i l i u m  t h a t :  D a e d a l i  d i c t a r e . "  " . . . n a m  L i v i a n a e  c h o i c e a n d  t h e i r  o p i n i o n s  so  c o u r s e  was  et  f a b u l a e  as  h e r o ,  H o m e r i c  a n d  112  O d y s s i a n o n  s a t i s  R o m a n i z a t i o n  t h e  u s e  o f  t h e  o f  S a t u m i a n  a n d  m e t r e ,  d i f f i c u l t o f  t h e  to  t h e  j u d g e  O d y s s e y  was  a .  i n f l u e n c e d  b y  t h e  t r a d i t i o n a l  O d y s s e u s '  w a n d e r i n g s .  o f  t h e i r t h e y  l a n g u a g e  c o u l d  b e i n g  l i n k e d  m o r e  e a s i l y  e v i d e n t l y  c a u s e  i t  to  some  o f  t h e  h a v e  m a d e  a p p e a l  n a m e s  b e c a m e  e p i t h e t s  t h e n  D u f f ' s  ' i d e a  W i g h t  L i v i u s  w e r e  o f  o n  7T©CT«S-<- <TwV n a m e s  w o r t h  e x p a n d s  t o o . to  t h e  s e l e c t i o n  p e r h a p s  a n d  is  s e t t i n g  R o m a n i z e d  ' M o r t a ' , a n d  t h e  t h e  h e r o e s ,  h e  i t  a p p r e c i a t e d  m e m o r a b l e ,  a b o u t  W i g o d s k y p r o b a b l y  l i k e l y  t h a t  L i v i u s '  114  I t a l y  e x a m p l e ,  o f  t h a t  L i v i u s .  g r e a t  p o e m  F o r  t h i n k s  d a y  o t h e r  h i s  a u d i e n c e .  t h e  t h e  t h e  m a k e  <  a n d  o f o f  w i t h to  S i c i l y  i n  r e m a i n ,  o f  A n d r o n i c u s '  p e o p l e  i d e n t i f y  D u f f  a c u m e n  o f  p a r v o /  o b s e r v e s  a l i q u o d  v a r y  f r a g m e n t s  t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n T h e  o p u s  a n d  raihi  l e g a n t u r ,  W i g h t  to  p l a g o s u m t o o ,  s c h o l a r s  F e w  v a l u e .  t e s t i m o n y  w e l l ,  t a m q u a m  i t e r u m  ' O d y s s i a ' .  q u a e  o f  a  ' N e p t u n e ' .  b o t h  i n t e n d e d  h u m a n  t o  g r e a t  f o r t h e  to  h i s d e i t i e s :  W i g o d s k y  a n d  a p p e a l  to  d i v i n e , I t a l i c  . 1 1 6 s e n t i m e n t . W i g h t is  u n c e r t a i n  ' O d y s s i a ' to  n o t e  D u f f  i s  t h e  b e g a n t h a t 112 113 114  w i t t i l y b e s t  w i t h :  t h e  p o e t  o b s e r v e s  p r o o f  o f  t h a t  L i v i u s '  " V i r u m m i h i ,  C a m e n a ,  c a l l s  I t a l i c  H o r a c e  E p i s t l e s  C i c e r o  B r u t u s  o n  t h e  t h e  n u m b e r  i n e x a c t i n s e c e  v e r s u t u m . "  ' C a m e n a ' ,  r a t h e r  117  J.  W i g h t  V i r g i l D u f f  It  t h a n  w h o s e T h e  7  is t h e  i i . 1 . 6 9 - 7 1 . ... x v i i i . 7 1 .  W i g h t D u f f L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y p . 1 2 3 . M . W i g o d s k y V i r g i l a n d E a r l y L a t i n P o e t r y E i z e l s c h i f t e n , 1972) p . 1 6 . 116 W i g o d s k y  f r a g m e n t s  t r a n s l a t i o n . ^  1 1 5  H e r m e s  o f  p . 1 6 . L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y  p . 1 2 4 .  ( W i e s b a d e n :  p l a c e L a t i n  i n t e r e s t i n g G r e e k  M u s e ,  44  t h u s  b r i n g i n g  h a v e  t h e  i n  d r a m a  a m o r e  o f  w o r d  B o o k  x:  i n t o  ' i n s e c e ' , " I n s e c e ,  ' M u s e '  r a t h e r  a G r e e k  o n e .  I n  u s e d  t h e  £v"  \/&if>0~  TTo/\A Ou  M u s a ,  m a n u  R o m a n o r u m  w h i l e  c o m m e n t a r y  o n  a r c h a i c  V t r T T f e , a n d  f o r m ,  t h a t  i n  l i n e  to  w h o  3 2 2 ,  n o t  to  n o t e s  a l i t e r a l  g e n e r a l l y  t h a t  o f  R o m a n  e p i c  i n t o  a  R o m a n  A n d r o n i c u s  r e n d e r i n g  s h u n s  e x t r e m e  o f  u s e s  e p i c  o f  -  u s e  E n n i u s  h i s  G r e e k  'Vo\u  }  f r a g m e n t  t h a t  c a s t  q u i t e  L i v i u s '  f i r s t  N o t e  t h e  S k u t s c h as  d o e s  l i k e d  t h e  s o u g h t  c a s t  3 2 2 ,  ' i n s e c e ' ,  E n n i u s ,  h o w e v e r ,  A n n .  E n n i u s  s o u g h t  l i n e  MoGcTOL  i n d u p e r a t o r . "  Q u i n t u s  A n n ,  T h e  L  ts i m i l a r l y  L i v i u s  R o m a n s .  E n n i u s ,  i  ' C a m e n a ' .  t h e  JJLO  .  u s e d  t h a n  h i g h l y  t o  a n d  m o u l d ,  h i s  f l a v o u r  H o m e r ' s  yxa/|a,  OTfoV/OS t h e  l o c a l  h a d  H o m e r ' s  a r c h a i s m s ,  s a w  118 t h e  a d v a n t a g e  ' i n s e c e '  h a d  b e g i n n i n g d a y  o f  u s i n g  a l s o  a n  b e c o m e  e p i c ,  o r  o n e  f o r  t o n e  a w o r d  o n e  w o u l d  e x p e c t  to  f i n d  o f  e p i c ,  e v e n  i f  a n e w  s e c t i o n  l a t e r  p o e t s  s u g g e s t s  b e c a u s e  119  .  d i c t i o n .  i t  t h a t w a s  a n  f l a v o u r .  P e r h a p s i n i t  t h e  t h e  w o r d  c o n t e x t  w a s  n o t  o f  i n  e v e r y -  f i r s t  a t t e m p t  a t  a n o t a b l e  c o n t r i b u t i o n  E n n i u s  l e a s t  some  h a d  v o c a b u l a r y .  L i v i u s  h a s  L i v i u s  w a s  h o m o n e m . "  b e e n  ' m a n d e b a t ' L i v i u s '  W i g o d s k y S k u t s c h  u s e  o r t o  f r o m o f  t h e  d i s c u s s e d . i n  l i n e  S k u t s c h 119 118  p o i n t  E n n i u s '  a l r e a d y  ( M o r e l , 3 2 ) .  ' O d y s s i a '  m u s t  a t t e m p t  a t  h a v e t h e  r e t a i n e d  c r e a t i o n  some  o f  i n t e r e s t  a L a t i n  e p i c  .  T h i s  a t  t h e a f i r s t  c e r t a i n l y  e p i c  a n d  u s e . W i g o d s k y  f o r  t h i s  A n n . i s :  " c u m  e m p h a s i z e s V i r g i l A n n a l s  125:  b e g i n n i n g  t h e  w h i c h  p . 1 6 . p . 4 9 9 .  t o  w o r d  o f  " v o l t u r u s  i n  n o s t r o s v e r b  e p i c  a L a t i n h i s  ' i n s e c e ' w o r d  t h i s  L a t i n  b e g i n  A n o t h e r  s o c i o s t h a t  g r o w t h  o f  i n h e  d i c t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e .  s e a r c h  f o r  a s i m i l a r  u s e d  s p i n e t o  i n  t h e  s a m e  i m p i u s t h e  v i s u a l  Q u i n t u s  s u i t a b l e  w a y  m i s e r u m  m a n d i s s e t s t r e s s e s  was  t o  t h a t  w a y  o f  as  m a n d e b a t C y c l o p s " a s p e c t  o f  45  e a t i n g  a n d  t h e r e f o r e  t e n d s  to  b e  u s e d  i n  s c e n e s  o f  h o r r o r  s u c h  as  t h e  C y c l o p s  120 d e v o u r i n g  O d y s s e u s '  ' S a t u r n i e ' , o f  p r o b a b l y  L i v i u s ,  A n n .  589  i n :  " M e a  was  L i v i u s  o f t h a t  a u s u s  est  p u e r a ,  q u i d  O d y s s e y  f e w  i n s p i r a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d h e  w h o  a  R o m a n  L i v i u s t h e  c o u l d h o w  c r e a t e d  v o c a t i v e  to  l a t e r i n  t h e  f l a v o u r  to  A n d r o n i c u s  e x i s t  o f i n  w o r k s  p l a y s a l l  a l s o s o r t s  o f  a n d o f  a  o f  c a n is  see  f o u n d  t h e  i n  l a s t  the  ' f i l i e '  ( M o r e l ,  t h r e e  w o r d s  o f  t h e  i d e a  o f  a  t h e  ' O d y s s i a '  f r a g m e n t  as E n n i u s is  i n  w e r e  ZrJiJ-oV  d o e s  o n e  3 8 ) ,  ( M o r e l ,  t r a n s l a t i o n  w o r d i n  2,  w o r k  f u g i t ? "  a n d  to  u s e d  3)  b y  T h i s  L i v i u s v e r s e  TToCoV  }  n o t h a v e  f o r b i d d e n  t h e  f o r c e  w o r d  S k u t s c h  A n n a l s  p . 2 7 8 .  S k u t s c h  A n n a l s  p . 6 0 2 .  t h e  f o r  a  s a y  h e  i t  p r o v i d e d  w h e t h e r  s p o k e n  n e w  R o m a n  w o r l d  c o u l d  f o r  h e  s t a g e ,  g r o w t h  o f  to  some m a y  P e r h a p s  to  to  t h e  b u i l d .  h a v e  i t  t r i e d  a c c e s s i b l e  l a n g u a g e ,  A n d r o n i c u s  L i v i u s  c e r t a i n l y  E n n i u s  u s e d ,  t h e  L i v i u s  t h a t  m o r e  L a t i n  u p a n d  to  i t  o f  v o c a b u l a r y .  f o r  w h i c h  t h e  o p e n e d  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  i n  m a k e o n  f o r  t h e m  to  H o m e r ,  t r a n s l a t e d  b r o u g h t  l e a s t  b e s i d e s  f o u n d a t i o n  a l s o  a t  d i f f i c u l t  R o m a n  d i c t i o n  b e  c o n v e y  w a y  e p i c  H e  a f t e r  -T-^-^VO^/  T h e  m e r i t s  o t h e r  a  f o r m  u s e s  b a c k .  It  e p i c  c o u l d  i t  E n n i u s  s u p r a /  e l s e w h e r e .  p o e t s .  G r e e k  o r e  444,  f r a g m e n t  T h e  H o m e r i c  o n e  i d e a  L a t i n .  t h e  c i t e d  l a i d  a n  t u o  d o e s  a n y  t u o . "  ex  p o e t i c  e x a m p l e s  i n s p i r e d  G r e e k  G r e e k  h i s  o r e  h e l d  t h e  E n n i u s  c r e a t i o n  n o r  b e e n  W h a t e v e r  o f  a n d  l i n e ,  h a v e  ex  v e r b i  1.64  H o m e r i c  t h e  h o c  t r a n s l a t i o n  s h o u l d  f r o m  m o d e l l i n g  A n n .  a n d  "  a t  t h e  I n  ' L a e r t i e ' f o u n d i n a n o t h e r 121 . s u g g e s t s . A n o t h e r L i v i a n e c h o  S k u t s c h  f o u n d  c o m p a n i o n s .  was b r i n g R o m a n s .  H e  b e g a n  a n d  s h o w e d  t h a t  t h e  R o m a n s ,  by.  h i m s e l f  t r a n s l a t e d  L i v i u s L a t i n  A n d r o n i c u s  l i t e r a t u r e .  e p i c s h o w i n g m a n y  46  G n a e u s a  R o m a n  to  t h e  f r o m  C a p u a ,  a t  E n n i u s '  l e a s t  so  ' C a m p a n i o n h a u g h t i n e s s ' I F I O  O n e  N a e v i u s ,  c a n  m m o r t a l i l e r e n t d t a q u e p o b l i t e i s  see  s o l d i e r  w h y  i n  a b o u t  t h e  s o m e  c o m e d i e s  V o l c a t i u s  G e l l i u s F i r s t  p o e m  o n  o f  m i g h t  P u n i c w a r .  W a r ,  h i s  c o m m o n l y  t h a t  l a t e r  w r o t e a n d  N a e v i u s  h e l d ,  122  e p i t a g h .  f e l t  a l s o  p r e d e c e s s o r  i n  p o e t r y ,  b e c a u s e  H i s  o n  a n d  o t h e r s  t h i r d  w a y .  i n  h e  N a e v i u s w a s  m a n y  o n  o r  R o m a n  h i s  is  l i s t  as  s e r v e d  a  w r i t e  p l a y s ,  t h e  f o l l o w s :  as  a n  i n c l u d i n g  I t a l i a n  o f  r e f e r s  6 4 - 6 7 )  i n s p i r e d . t o  p r o d u c e d  w a s  G e l l i u s  e p i t a p h  r e t . f a s f l e r e , v i o m p o e t a m : t r a d i t u s t h e n s a u r o , r l i n g u a L a t i n a . ( M o r e l ,  a n d  s u b j e c t s ,  p l a c e d  R o m a n  was  h a v e  H e  G r e e k  S e d i g t u s  i t  s m o r t a l i s s i f o i v a e C a m e n a e N a e s t q u a m e s t O r c i u n t R o m a i l o q u i e  t h e  e p i c  o t h e r  s u b j e c t s .  w r i t e r s  o f  c o m e d y :  p l a y s  o n  123 " D e i n  N a e v i u s  R o m a n  s u b j e c t s  p r i s o n .  A f t e r  r e l e a s e d . r e s u m e d a n d  q u i  N a e v i u s  h i s  U t i c a  h i s  B e l l i T h e  P u n i c l  s o m e  n o r t h e r n  i n  h i s  i n  w i t h  t h e  F i r s t  s t o r y  o f  w a r ,  b u t  a p p a r e n t l y  t h e  c a u s e s  a r e  n o t  a r e  so  o f  c o m p l e t e l y f e w  e n m i t y c l e a r  f r a g m e n t s . 122 G e l l i u s 123 G e l l i u s 10/  ( 1 9 7 2 )  t h e  p . 9 9 8 .  H . D .  t o  S o m e N . A .  h o w  t h i n k x v m . 9  n o t  i n  T h e  t h a t . h e  i n  h i m ,  t h e  o r  o f  h e  was h e  e x i l e ,  p o e t  c o m p o s e d  p o e m  i n  d i d  t h r o u g h a n d  t h e  h a n d l e d  s e v e n  b o o k s  w h i c h  n o t  m e r e l y  h i s t o r y  t o  h i s  i n t r o d u c e d  Q u i n t u s  t e l l  h i s  m a t e r i a l t h e  E n n i u s " ,  i n t o S c h o l a r s  b e c a u s e  m y t h o l o g i c a l  A N R W  t h e  d e l v e  C a r t h a g i n i a n s .  .5 .  P o e m s  i n t o  p o s s i b l y  i n t o  x v . 2 4 .  J o c e l y n ' " T h e  c a s t  p r i s o n ,  d r i v e n  b e l i e v e s 124  p o e m  b a c k  N a e v i u s  w h i l e  w a s  h i s  and. w a s  f o r g i v e h e  o f  e x i l e .  e p i c  R o m a n s  s o m e  s t a t e ,  w r i t t e n  o t h e r ,  a n  W a r .  t h e  t h e  J o c e l y n  l o o k e d  b e t w e e n as  o r  w a s  P u n i c  o f  d i d  w h i l e  P u n i c i  m a i n l y  m e n  e i t h e r  a g e  I n  p l a y s  A f r i c a .  d e a l t  t h e  two  r e a s o n  o l d  C a r m e n B e l l i  t e r t i o s t . "  l e a d i n g  o p p o n e n t s  F o r  i n  i n  a p o l o g i e s  a t t a c k s .  i n  p r e t i o a t t a c k e d  m a k i n g  H o w e v e r ,  d i e d  C a r m e n  f e r v e t  t h e r e a s p e c t  47  as  a n  e x c u r s u s ,  t o  t h e  i n  a  w a r  o n c e  i t s e l f .  t h a t  w a y ,  N a e v i u s  i n t e r w e a v i n g  o f  b o t h  a n d  c i t i e s ,  h a d  b e g u n  O t h e r s  c h r o n o l o g i c a l  n o t e s  h e  t h e  h i s  so  a  g r e a t  i n  t h i n k  a n d  s h o w e d  h i s  d i s c u s s i o n  N a e v i u s  m a y  m a y  h a v e  p a g e a n t  o f  c o n n e c t i n g  h a v e  b e g u n  c o n s t r u c t i v e  t h e  p o w e r  o f  t h e a  w i t h  t h r o u g h  w a r ,  h a n d l e d  w i t h  h i s t o r y i t  o f  a l l  t h e n  o f  v e r y  h i g h  m a t e r i a l  s t o r y  o f  M a c k a i l  o r d e r  a n c i e n t  r e t u r n e d  h i s  m y t h o l o g y .  t h e  t h e  a n d  i n  l e g e n d s  A e n e a s  h i s o f  to  t h e  w a r  125 o f  T r o y .  I n d e e d ,  c o m b i n e E n n i u s  so g o t  N a e v i u s a n d  m a n y  h e  e l e m e n t s .  t h e  i d e a  s h o w e d  m u s t  h i m  h a v e  b e e n  a  f a i r l y  i t  was  f r o m  P e r h a p s  o f  w r i t i n g  w h a t  c o u l d  t h e b e  w h o l e  d o n e  s k i l l f u l N a e v i u s ,  h i s t o r y  i n  a  p o e t  o f  p o e m  b y  t o  t h e n ,  R o m e  as  b e  a b l e  t h a t a n  Q u i n t u s  e p i c  j u x t a p o s i n g  t o  p o e m .  m y t h o l o g y  h i s t o r y . T h e  r e m a r k s  a t  v o r s i b u s t h i n k  t h e  q u o s  t h a t  c o m m e n t s  C a r m e n B e l l i b e g i n n i n g o l i m  h e  i s  t h a t  P u n i c i  o f  F a u n e i  to  S a t u r n i a n  c o m p o s e d  s e v e n t h  v a t e s q u e  r e f e r r i n g  t h e  t h e  was  b o o k , o f  c a n e b a n t . "  N a e v i u s  l i n e  i n  i s  a n d  v e r y  t h e  A n n a l e s : ( A r m .  h i s  u s e  m u c h  S a t u r n i a n  a  " s c r i p s e r e  2 0 6 - 7 )  o f  m e t r e .  t h e  M o s t  E n n i u s  a l i i  s c h o l a r s  S a t u r n i a n s .  m y s t e r y  w i t h  r e g a r d  r e m /  S k u t s c h to  i t s 126  o r i g i n , H e  i t s  n a m e ,  s u g g e s t s  i t s  f o r c e .  i m p e d e d . v e h i c l e E n n i u s t h a t  t h e o f  t h a t H e  i t  .  i n f l u e n c e d f r o m  f l o w  t h e  t h e  o f  t h o u g h  s h o r t ,  t h e  s h a r p  t h a t  t h e  i t  d i d  c o l a  p o s s e s s  w h i c h  h a m m e r i n g  d i g n i t y  g i v e  t h e  r h y t h m  o f  a n d  S a t u r n i a n  m e t r e  i t s  c o l a  b r i e f  Q u i n t u s  h e x a m e t e r .  w e l l  .  c h o i c e  N a e v i u s  O f o f  a n d  c o u r s e ,  m e t r e .  o t h e r s  H e h a d  t h e r e  w e r e  o t h e r  f e l t  t h a t  h e  w a s  d o i n g  t h a t  t h e  h e x a m e t e r  d o n e ,  a n d  f a c t o r s  125 1 8 9 5 ;  1 7 T H  J i m p r 126 S 127 S  f o r c e .  s e n t e n c e , a n d m a d e t h e m e t r e u n s u i t a b l e as 127 n a r r a t i v e . P e r h a p s t h i s was o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s  E n n i u s ' w h a t  n a t u r e ,  h o w e v e r ,  s u s t a i n e d t o  i t s  is  n o t e s ,  f r e e  t u r n e d  d i f f e r e n t  a n d  . W . M a c k a i l L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e e s s i o n 1958) p . 6 . k u t s c h  S t u d i a  k u t s c h ,  S t u d . E n n .  ( L o n d o n : . J o h n  E n n i a n a . ( L o n d o n : A t h l o n e , p.4.  M u r r a y ,  1968)  p . 4 .  as  a  s o m e t h i n g w a s  a  48  b e t t e r  v e h i c l e  R o m a n o f  a n d  t h e  f o r  I t a l i a n  p u r p o s e s . -  p o e t r y ,  a n d  T h e  S a t u r n i a n  E n n i u s  w a s  t a k i n g  m e t r e  was  a l s o  a s s o c i a t e d  L a t i n  l i t e r a t u r e  i n t o  w i t h  t h e  r e a l  G r e e k s . Q u i n t u s  f a c t ,  h i s  C i c e r o  m e n t i o n e d E n n i u s  r e m a r k s  a b o v e )  h a d  E n n i u s t h a t  w r o t e  i n d e e d  w a s  i n f l u e n c e d  t h o s e  v e r y  w h o m  w e l l ,  b o r r o w e d  m a n y  b y  N a e v i u s  E n n i u s  i f  a  d i s m i s s e s  l i t t l e  t h i n g s  i n  f r o m  l e s s  o t h e r so  w a y s ,  c a s u a l l y  p o l i s h e d  N a e v i u s  h o w e v e r .  t h a n  i f  o n l y  h e  o f  C i c e r o ' s  ( A n n . h e ,  I n 2 0 6 - 7 ,  a n d  h a d  t h a t  a d m i t t e d  128 i t .  S c h o l a r s  t h i s  p a s s a g e  r e v e a l  a n  u n f o r t u n a t e l y  s i n c e  t h e  e x t e n s i v e  a r e  f r a g m e n t s  r e l i a n c e  n o t  o f  o n  e x a c t l y  E n n i u s '  N a e v i u s .  s u r e  w o r k s  T h e r e  t h a t  a r e  h a v e  s o m e  m e a n i n g  s u r v i v e d  p a s s a g e s  i n  do  i n  n o t  t h e  r  A n n a l e s F o r  o f  Q u i n t u s  e x a m p l e ,  F a r i  A n n .  d o n a v i t ,  r e m a r k s  N a e v i u s  a n d  g i f t  o f  t o  w h e r e  1 5 - 1 6 :  d i v i n u m  S k u t s c h  t h e  E n n i u s  t h a t t h e s e  s o m e  i n f l u e n c e  " D o c t u s q u e  p e c t u s t h e l i n e s  d i v i n a t i o n ,  A n c h i s e s q u e  h a b e r e . "  s c h o l i a s t s o f  a n d  I n  o n  E n n i u s  f o r  o f  V i r g i l  i n  t h a t  h i s  o r d e r  r e a s o n ,  N a e v i u s V e n u s  c a n  q u e m  b e  s e e n ,  p u l c r a  c o m m e n t a r y  o n  t h e s e  r e f e r  t o  a  t o  b o t h  p r o v e  p e r h a p s ,  t h a t b o t h  h o w e v e r  d e a r u m / v e r s e s ,  p a s s a g e  i n  A n c h i s e s p o e t s  h a d  p o s s e s s e d a  c o m m o n  129 s o u r c e . r e a d i l y as  T h i s  S k u t s c h  N a e v i u s  a  e a s y t o  A n c h i s e n ' .  N a e v i u s  i s  i s  a v a i l a b l e  ' p i u m /  p o e m . so,  I t  s e e m s  i n f e r s ,  L a t i n i z e d  t o  f o r g e t  E n n i u s N a e v i u s t o  m e a n  as  t h a t  m o s t  w e l l . u s e s t h e  A n n .  ' s e n e x  E n n i u s . ^ ^  f o r m  o f  I n  G r e e k  ( M o r e l , 19) w h e r e t h e p o e 128 * C i c e r o B r u t u s x i x . 7 129 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 1 130 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 1  t 5 . 7 1 . 8 7 .  o f  ( M y  2 8 - 9 ,  ' q u o  s o u r c e s  E n n i u s  p i e t a t i '  A n c h i s e s  A n n . .25  w o r d  h a s  N a e v i u s '  f r e t u s  a t t i t u d e  d o e s  t h e  I n  o f  E n n i u s  ( M o r e l ,  u s e s  T i t a n i ' .  p a r a p h r a s e . )  d e s c r i b e s  t o w a r d s  I (-T~O-V, m o d o  w o u l d  t h e t h e  i t  T h e s e  i n  g o d s ,  h i s a n d  ' T i t a n u s '  o c c u r s a r e  b e e n  A n c h i s e s  12)  w o r d  a l s o  h a v e  t h e  i n  49  e a r l i e s t  u s a g e s I n  a t q u e i n  w h i c h  N a e v i u s  i s  w i t h  w o r d  i n  L a t i n ,  as  Q u i n t u s  E n n i u s  p r o c l a i m e d :  c l a r a  ' L y r i c  ' p o e m a t a ' h a d  i n s e p a r a b l y  b r e a k .  w o r d  1 2 - 1 3  n o s t r a /  c o n n e c t i o n t h e  t h i s  A n n .  p o e m a t a  c h o s e  o f  ' P o e m a t a '  i s  i n t r u s i o n s ' w i t h  u s e d  i n  l i n k e d  c l u e b u n t , "  t h e  t h e  to t h e  p a s s a g e  o f  p o i n t s  o f  h i s  o f  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  to  F o r  p o e t r y ,  w i t h  ) E n n i u s  ' c a r m e n '  E n n i u s ,  m o d e l l e d  10  t h a t  t h e  w h i c h  r e s  ( p a g e  s u g g e s t s  r e p l a c e  p o e m .  p o e t r y  p o p u l o s  a b o v e  S k u t s c h  c a r e  131  p e r  m e n t i o n e d  e p i c  p h a s e  o u t .  " L a t o s  e p i c .  g r e a t e s t  e a r l i e r  m o r e  a  i n t o  t i t l e  t h e  S k u t s c h  ' c a r m e n '  h e  m e a n s  a f t e r  t o  t h a t  o f  132 G r e e c e , t h e  w i t h  p o e t ' s  F a u n e i  » )  w a y .  T h e w a y  H i s  t h e  c a n e b a n t o "  ( T h i s  ' v a t e s '  H e  w a s  i n  " B e l l i p o t e n t e s l i n e  S k u t s c h  i n t e r e s t i n g P l a u t u s  t h e  132  u s e t h e  o l d  as  a  a c t u a l  t h e  p o e t  h a p p e n i n g s  a s p e c t  o f  e p i c  v o c a b u l a r y  u s e  c o m p o u n d  m a g i s  t h e  q u a m  t h a t  i t  w o r d s , f i r s t  a n  v e r b s .  v e r y  b e c a u s e  w h e r e  F o r  f e w  b o o k s  S k u t s c h  A n n a l s  p . 1 8 4 .  S k u t s c h  A n n a l s  p . 1 6 8 .  l i k e l y  some o f  a n d  o f  r a t h e r  e n t e r t a i n e r . c o u l d  d i d  see  h i m s e l f  a  ' s c r i p t o r  w e r e  t h e  N a e v i u s i n  o f  g r e a t  w h o  c o i n e d  w e r e  n o t  r e r u m ' . n o t e -  198:  N a e v i u s  i n  q u i t e  i n f l u e n c e d  c o m m e n t a r y  f o u n d  t h e  a n  h e r o e s .  h i s  a r e  i n  a  p r o b a b l y A n n .  I n  p r o v i d e  I n  A n n a l e s  s l i g h t i n g  a n d  e x a m p l e ,  t h e m  o n  l e g e n d s n o t  is  o l i m  a b o v e  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s  h i s t o r y  s a p i e n t i p o t e n t e s . " w a s  o f  b a r d  a  v e i n  q u o s  b r i e f l y  h i s t o r i a n ,  a n d  s i m i l a r  v o r s i b u s  i n  a n d  a n d  o f  r e m /  a  ' v a t e s '  E n n i u s  p e o p l e  o f  w o r d  s t o r i e s  t h e m .  I n  d i s c u s s e d  f u n c t i o n s  r e a l  c o m p o u n d  131  t o  a l i i  was  t h e  s u n t  a n d  p a s s a g e  r e c i t i n g  t h e  a s s o c i a t e d .  " S c r i p s e r e  t h e  h i m s e l f  h i m  o b s e r v e s  a l s o ,  a l l  b y  s a w  , F o r  s e e m s  n a m e  c o m b i n e d  k n e w  r e c o r d e d  A n o t h e r E n n i u s  E n n i u s  e n t e r t a i n m e n t  p e o p l e .  h i s  2 0 6 - 7 :  ' v a t e s '  ' p o e m a t a '  w a n t s  A n n .  Q u i n t u s  c a p a c i t y .  w o r t h y  i n  a n c i e n t  e v e n i n g ' s t h a t  E n n i u s  t h o u g h t  v a t e s q u e  p a g e  s o m e  w h i c h  o n  t h i s  t h e s e w o r k s  p u b l i s h e d  o f  b e f o r e  50  P l a u t u s ' c o i n e d  s o m e  s u i t a b l e  a r e  133  d e a t h .  s e t  o f  O n  h i s  a b o v e  c o m p o u n d  w o r d s  f o r  u s e  i n  I n  t h e  C a r m e n B e l l i  a l o n g s i d e  c a n n o t  p a g e  e x p e c t  was  o b s e r v e d  h i m s e l f ,  to  m e e t  t h a t  t h e  E n n i u s  d e m a n d s  m a y  o f  h a v e  v o c a b u l a r y  h e x a m e t e r s .  e a c h  o f  i t  P u n i c i  o t h e r ,  t h a t  e a r l y  as  H o m e r i c  B r o o k s  e r a  a  m y t h o l o g y  O t i s  g r e a t  n o t e s .  a n d  H e  s e n s i t i v i t y  r a t h e r  o b s e r v e s  to  s t y l e ,  b a l d t h a t  o r  h i s t o r y o n e  a n y  s t r o n g 134  s e n s e  o f  t h e  N a e v i u s f o r  t r i e d  v e r y  c o m p o s i n g  w a y s ,  a n d  A l t h o u g h d i s p a r a g i n g d e b t  h e  h e  f e l t  P e r h a p s  L i v i u s  L a t i n .  H e  d i c t i o n . h i s t o r y p o e m w h i c h  F r o m as  w h a t  t h e  i n  t h a t  l e f t  t o  C n a e u s  t h e  w e r e  t o  b e  h a v e  e n h a n c e d  L a t i n  e p i c  a l s o  d e m o n s t r a t e d  ( O x f o r d ,  h o w  s u c c e s s f u l , ' h e  1964) 1 3 5  S k u t s c h  w r i t t e n  o w e d  t h e m  a  t h e  f o r  e p i c  a v o i d e d ,  m y t h o l o g y  i d e a  o f  i t  o f  was  a  c r u d e  c r e d i t  i n  P u n i c i .  n a t i o n a l  h a v e  t h e  135  some  f e e l i n g ,  i n  c o u l d  b e  h a d  s o m e  a n  S t u d y  i n  e p i c  o f  f o r  c o m b i n e d .  C i v i l i z e d  i n f l u e n c e  P o e t r y  a t h a t p o e t r y .  p o e m  i n  e p i c  o f  c h o o s i n g  see  f r o m  N a e v i u s '  p e r h a p s ,  N a e v i u s ,  s c o p e  o f  L a t i n  see,  v e r s e .  m o r e  r e a l m  c o u l d  a l s o  i n  m i n i m i z e  i d e a  E n n i u s c o u l d  m u c h  t h e  w r i t i n g  g o t t e n  h e  h i s t o r y  i n  t o  p . 3 5 9 .  B r o o k s O t i s V e r g i l , p . 2 0 . O t i s V e r g i l p . 2 1 .  f u l l  p r e d e c e s s o r s  b e g i n n i n g s  p o e m .  a n d  l e a v i n g a n d  d e s e r v e s  w a n t e d  n e w  t h e  h a v e  h i s  H e  d e x t e r o u s l y  n e v e r t h e l e s s  A n n a l s  d e b t .  H o m e r u s '  m o r e  n a r r a t i v e .  C a r m e n B e l l i f u l l  o f  s o m e t h i n g  m a y  d i c t i o n ,  m a y  d o i n g  E n n i u s  h a n d l e d  t h e  e p i c ,  h a v e  a n  a n d  P e r h a p s  i n a n  H o m e r i c  H o m e r .  E n n i u s  b e  e p i c .  s u c h  a n d  h i s t o r y ,  t o  ' a l t e r  N a e v i u s  c o u l d  134  g a v e  o f  f e e l i n g  j u s t  w a s  s u b j e c t - m a t t e r  p i t f a l l s  133  h e  o u t  s t y l e . o f  s e e m s  h i s t o r y  n a t i o n a l  R o m a n  o b v i o u s l y  h i s t o r y  t o t a l l y  r e a l  t h e  A n d r o n i v u s  a l s o  p o e t r y  p r o d u c e  E n n i u s  w a y ,  b e c a u s e  f i r s t  t o  a n n a l i s t i c  m a k e  g e n u i n e  s o u g h t  p o l i s h e d ,  b e t w e e n t o  v e r y . f i n d s a  E n n i u s  m o r e  h a r d  t h e  . O t i s  b u t  Q u i n t u s b u t  i n c o n g r u i t y  t o o ,  E n n i u s . I f o n  w a y s  h e  i n  w o u l d H e  w a s  E n n i u s .  n o t  51  Q u i n t u s e p i c  E n n i u s  p o e m  w a n t e d  w h i c h  d o w n - p l a y e d  s h o w  r o l e s  o f  t h e  t h e  N a e v i u s ,  t h e r e  o r  i n f l u e n c e d  t h e  r e c o r d s  C i c e r o  t e l l s " F w t t u o p h t  F r i e r  m a y  k e p t  o h r o s f o a h  p o i n t s  t h e  o f  b e e n  t h e  p r i e s t s  t h a t  t h e  f i r s t o f  p o e t s ,  o t h e r  i n  b e n t , f r i f i m i t a n d t a y t o s e  t h e  g r e a t n e s s  h i m  i s t o r y a c c o u t i o n s , e p o n t to c o m f i c e , u p t h e l i b e r t d a y t h  as  R o m a n  R o m e  p o e t  a n d  h e r  to  h a v e  e x e c u t e d  a c h i e v e m e n t s ,  a n  so  he  p r e d e c e s s o r s .  w o r k s  a u d i e n c e  o u t  k n o w n  h i s  h a v e  b y  h i s r h i c h a d i t h e d o f s t v e i s  b e  w o u l d  B e s i d e s  w h i c h  to  m a t e r i a l  w r i t i n g  i n  g a n a n d o m t c a t e t o r e c b l e t o a c r e c  h i s  t h a t  de as  L i v i u s  A n d r o n i c u s ,  a v a i l a b l e  A n n a l e s « ,  w e r e  w h i c h  T h e r e  k n o w n  as  a n d E n n i u s  w e r e ,  t h e  C n a e u s  f o r  ' A n n a l e s  d r e w  f r o m ,  e x a m p l e , M a x i m i ' .  A s  O r a t o r e : a  i n  o h e e a o f P w r i t i o r d t a t h q u a i n o r d s  d i f f e r e n t  m e r e c o m p i l r d e r to p r e r l i e s t p e r i u b l i u s M u c i n g a l l t h e h e m o n a w h i s h o u s e , t t t h e m s e l v e a r e k n o w n a  t i t l e s  w e r e  a t i o n s e r v e o d o f u s , e e v e n t i t e s h a t a s t h e s t h e  o t t a c s u r l l r e A  f h h h o f  a n n g C i H i g f h i a c e , m e n w i t h , n n a l e  u s e d  f o r  e e  a l s , o e n e r a l t y d o w h P r i e s y e a r a n d m i g h t a n d t s M a x i  t h e  n n s t  o m i . "  r e c o r d s ,  a n d  t h a t  137 C i c e r o  h i m s e l f  ' A u c t u s ' , n a m e  c h r o n i c l e ,  to  b a s e d t h e  i s  t o  F r i e r  b u t  o n  e a r l y  e c l i p s e  137 o f i n  c a m e  t h e r e  n o t h i n g  f o r  P a u l u s  u n c e r t a i n  f r o m w h e n  a r e  t h e m .  F r i e r  a l l  s a y  t h e  t i t l e  t h e  f i r m l y  v a r i o u s  t h a t  c o n t e m p o r a r y  a r c h i v a l  n o t i c e s .  p o r t i o n  r e f e r e n c e  E n n i u s , C i c e r o  A n n . de  to  o f  t h e  153:  O r a t o r e  t h e e a r l y  " N o h i s  t h e  s e c o n d  v e r y 138  T h e r e b u t  R e p u b l i c a n  I I . x i i . 5 2 ,  t h e  e a r l y  s o l i  t h a t  S e r v i u s  c o m p o n e n t  o f  t h e  M a x i m u s .  t o  c h r o n i c l e  I u n i s  n o t e s  r e c o r d s - b e g a n  r e f e r e n c e s  i n d i c a t e  R e p u b l i c a n  t h e  a l s o  P o n t i f e x  p o n t i f i c a l  t o  O n e i n 136  n a m e s  a n d  M a x i m i '  I t  u n s p e c i f i c . a n  f o u r  M a c r p b i u s ,  ' A n n a l e s  A c c o r d i n g  was  u s e d  to  r e g a l  b e  s e c t i o n  p o r t i o n  a r e  k e p t .  o f  a l s o  t h e  s o m e  m o s t  o f  t h e s e  p e r i o d  i s  t h e  l u n a  t r a n s l a t e d  o b s t i t i t b y  E.W.  o f  t h e r e c o r d  r e f e r e n c e s a r e  v e r y  m e n t i o n et  n o x . "  S u t t o n .  B.W. F r i e r " L i b r i A n n a l e s P o n t i f i c u m M a x i m o r u m : T h e O r i g i n s t h e A n n a l i s t i c T r a d i t i o n " P a p e r s & M o n o g r a p h s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A c a d e m y R o m e x x v i i ( 1 9 7 9 ) p . 4 7 . F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 1 1 4 .  o f  52 C i c e r o the i s  p r e s e r v e d  e c l i p s e n o t e d  E n n i u s  as  i n  g o t  t h i s  c i t a t i o n  b e i n g  t h e  3 5 0  A.U.C.,  ' A n n a l e s  h i s  i n  h i s a n d  h e  139  M a x i m i ' .  i n f o r m a t i o n  R e p u b l i c ,  f r o m  a l s o  C i c e r o  t h e  i n  m e n t i o n i n g  o b s e r v e s  t h a t  d o e s  s a y  c h r o n i c l e ,  n o t  t h o u g h  the  m a y  b e  O n  t h e  b a s i s  h i s  i m p l y i n g o f  s o u r c e s ,  c h r o n i c l e  t h e  t h i s  d e r i v e d  b y  i n t r o d u c i n g  r e f e r e n c e ,  t h o u g h  T h e i n  i t  s c a n t y ,  f r o m  c o m m e n t a r i e s  t h e n ,  w i t n e s s  c o n t e m p o r a r y  h i s t o r i a n o f  L i v y t h e  t h e a n d  F r i e r  s o m e  i n t o  e c l i p s e t h a t  s u g g e s t s  t h a t  .  h i s  o t h e r s ,  s a m e  o f  140  d i s c u s s i o n .  F r i e r  c o n c l u d e s  t h a t  to  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o n t i f i c a l . ' 141 n o t i c e s b e f o r e 3 9 0 B . C .  r e l a t e s  p o n t i f f s  c h r o n i c l e  d a t e  s p e c i f i c a l l y  . h e  t h e  t h a t a n d  " . . . e v e n i n  o t h e r  s u c h p u b l i c  r e c o r d s a n d  as  e x i s t e d  p r i v a t e  d o c u m e n t s ,  142 n e a r l y s a c k  a l l  o f  p e r i s h e d  t h e  c i t y  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n e v e n t s  o f  t h e  i n  o f  o f  t h e  R o m e  t h e  r e c e n t  c o n f l a g r a t i o n  b y  t h e  r e c o r d s p a s t ,  G a u l s  was  s u c h  o f  i n  3 8 7  l i k e l y  as  a n  t h e  c i t y . "  B . C .  C r a k e  u n d e r t a k e n  e c l i p s e ,  H e  r e f e r s  s u g g e s t s  i m m e d i a t e l y ,  w o u l d  h a v e  t h a t a n d  e a s i l y  143 r e c a l l e d . P e r h a p s t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n is w h a t L i v y r e f e r s s a y s : " C l a r i o r a d e i n c e p s c e r t i o r a q u e a b s e c u n d o o r i g i n e v e l u t  to  t h e a  n o t a b l e  b e e n  t o ab  w h e n h e s t i r p i b u s ,144  l a e t i u s  f e r a c i u s q u e I n  as  f o l l o w s .  u p  a  a  m e a n s  o f  ' t a b u l a ' ,  a c c o r d a n c e I n  ' t a b u l a '  r e n a t a e  t h e  i n f o r m i n g a f t e r  139  w i t h  f i f t h  y e a r l y  t h e  g e s t a  s o u r c e s  c e n t u r y ,  r e c o r d i n g t h e y e a r  C i c e r o  u r b i s  h a d  R e p .  1 . 2 5 .  ( M y  F r i e r" L i b r i " p . 1 1 9 .  1 4 1  F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 1 1 9 .  F r i e r  o f  i m p o r t a n c e  F r o m  a n  e a r l y  e x p o n e n t u r .  s u m m a r i z e s  B . C . , t h e - P o n t i f e x  p a s s e d , , w e r e  1 4 0  m i l i t a e q u e  a v a i l a b l e  e v e n t s  p o p u l a c e .  d o m i  M a x i m u s  h i s  b e g a n  t o  t h e  s t a t e .  t i m e  t h e  c o n t e n t s  t r a n s f e r r e d  i n t o  a  C P  35  ( 1 9 4 0 ) 144  v i . 1 . 2 .  p a r a p h r a s e , ) '  T r a n s l a t e d b y  J . E . A . C r a k e " T h e 3 7 5 - 3 8 6 ; p . 3 7 9 . L i v y  v i . 1 . 3 .  A n n a l s  o f  T r a n s l a t e d b y  B . O .  F o s t e r .  t h e  P o n t i f e x  B . O .  F o s t e r .  t o  M a x i m u s  1  s e t  T h i s  w a s  o f  e a c h  c o n t i n u o u s  142 L i v y  f i n d i n g s  r e c o r d  53  w h i c h became known as  the  Annales Maximi.  continued  B . C . when P . M u c i u s  The c o l l a t i o n  of  the  'tabulae'  145 of  the  down t o  chronicle  130 is  u n c e r t a i n , but  it  Scaevola  ended  s u r v i v e d a n d was  it.  The  'exhibited'  form  in  some  146 way  in  the  thinks  time  that  of  Claudius Quadrigarius,  some o f  the  as  Plutarch  i n s c r i p t i o n s , from the  records.  'tabulae'  were  Grant  transferred  to  147 stone.  T h e r e seems  c o u l d be  some s c h o l a r s one  even have of  of  put  his into  the  shape  that  that  some s o r t  of  "Nonis  Cato s a i d  Iunis of  the  the  document  or  'Annales Maximi'  Skutsch suggests  poet's  He n o t e s  and f o l l o w e d  form of  E n n i u s might have been  sources, the  or  mind  also  them i n u s i n g  soli  the  that  A n n . 153, as was m e n t i o n e d a b o v e  eclipse:  in  feel  Rome i n v e r s e .  records, In  have been  source  that  consulted. Whatever  them a s  to  idea of  the  the  t a b u l a a p u d p o n t i f i c e m maximum e s t ,  title  names  SI* ), 3  nox„"  been, used  'Annales Maximi'  took h i s  (on pages et  the  r e c o r d i n g the whole  consuls'  luna o b s t i t i t  'Annales' of  i n f l u e n c e d b y them o r  that  Ennius  may h a v e  to  Aulus  history  from the  priestly  designate  Ennius  years.^  describes  Gellius  priests,  "Non l u b e t  quotiens  annona c a r a ,  may  4 8  an  reports  scribere,  quod  quotiens  lunae  ,149 aut on the  solis  lumme c a l i g o  A n n . 153,  observes  official  Scribner's  aut  that  quid the  obstiterit,  Cato passage  Skutsch,  in his  shows how c l o s e l y  Ennius  terminology.  1  4  5  Frier Libri  1  4  6  P l u t a r c h Numa  1.2.  1  4  7  Michael  The A n c i e n t H i s t o r i a n s  Sons,  p.175.  Grant  1970) p.168.  1  4  8  Skutsch Annals  1  4  9  Gellius  1  5  0  p.6.  ii.28.6.  Skutsch Annals  p.313.  (N.Y.:  Chas.  commentary followed  54  a b l e  H .  D .  J o c e l y n  a l s o  i n f l u e n c e  o n  E n n i u s '  s t y l e ,  w o r k . is  H e  d e f i n i t e l y  l i k e l y  t h e  c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r  r e g a r d  t o  w h e t h e r  I n  o f  i n  t h e  p r i e s t l y  h i s  o f  t h e  v e r s e s  S u r e l y  a  s t y l e  A n n .  F a c t s v e r s e  s u c h  v e r s e s  w r o t e  H e  s i m p l y  h a s : s t a t e d  as  a n d  t h i s  g o o d  t h a t  t h e  g o d s  o f  t h e  A n n a l e s  o f  Q u i n t u s  o b s e r v e  t h a t  t h e  i n  t h e  a f f e c t  j u s t  n o  S u l p i c i o  l i k e  i t  m u s t  b e  t h e  i n  m a n y  o f  s t y l e .  G a l l i a  a d d e d s t o o d  p o e t  J o c e l y n  w o u l d  E n n i u s  i s  t h e  g a v e  w h i c h  d a t a ,  h i s  a r e  E n n i u s ,  i n  s o r t i  h a v e  b y  s t a t e  p l a i n n e s s  o r n a m e n t a t i o n  f o r  a l l  w h i c h  a n d a  t i t l e  R o m a n  s t y l e  s u c h  c o n s i d e r -  e v e n t s  t h a t  e x t r e m e ,  h a d  o v e r  n a m e l y  l i k e  o t h e r s  a  a d o p t e d  v e r y  a n d  M a x i m i '  r e c o r d s ,  " G r a e c i a  p l a i n l y  v i e w  h i m  b e e n  b a l d t o  ' A n n a l e s  g i v i n g  o f  t h e  h a v e  w a s  as  n o t  o f  m u s t  d e l i b e r a t e l y  324  a r e  o r  ' A n n a l e s ' .  t h e  p o i n t  p r i e s t l y  w h i c h  p o n t i f f s s e e m s  e x a m p l e ,  C o t t a e . "  a  s o m e  t h a t  w e l l  t h e  t h e  u s e  s c r i b a e  t h a t  i n  t h e  f o u n d  F o r  w i t h  as  h e l d  approval.''""'''"  s e e s  o f  o n e  f e e l s  t h i n k s  a t  o u t  a l l . i n  t h e  152 u s u a l l y t h e  m o r e  p r o b l e m  A n n a l e s . o f  p o e t  d i d t h e  l i f e . a n  t h e  n o t  c o n f i n e  R o m a n  p e o p l e .  J o c e l y n  .  h i s  n a r r a t i v e v a s t  n o t e s  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h a t  H e  t h a t m a y  w a s  n a r r a t i v e . n e w k i n d o f  1 5 1  w h i c h . e p i c  a n o f  t h e  t o  a c c o m p l i s h e d m a t e r i a l  f r a g m e n t s  h a v e  b e e n  m e r e l y  w a s  b u t  h e  o n e  h o n o u r e d 153 p o e t r y . "  SI  p o e t  w a n t e d  E n n i u s '  p o e m  J o c e l y n  " P o e m s "  p . 1 0 0 8 .  J o c e l y n  " P o e m s "  p . 1 0 0 9 .  J o c e l y n  " P o e m s "  p . 1 0 0 9 .  t o  ' A n n a l e s  r e l a t i n g  t h e  g r e a t  m a n y  p o e t  s t r u g g l i n g  i t s  o w n  t o  a s p e c t s  b u t  s o u g h t  o f h i s  e v e r y T h e c a m p a i g n s o f  c i v i c  u n s u c c e s s f u l l y  k n o w l e d g e a b l e  c o n t e x t  i n  M a x i m i ' .  m i l i t a r y  d i f f e r e n t  p a r t  r e c o r d  c o n t a i n  t h e  i n d i c a t i n g i n  C e r t a i n l y  i n  a  152  1  o f  w i t h  n o t  p o e t .  t h e  f o u n d  c o n c e r n e d  " T h i s  s u b j e c t - m a t t e r  o f  o f  a m o u n t  h i m s e l f  c o n c l u d e s ,  i n t r a c t a b l e  s t y l e i n  was  J o c e l y n  t y p e  o f  o r n a t e  w i t h  r e a d e r s t o  a  s u r p a s s  55  A s h i s t o r i c a l  w e l l  as  m a t e r i a l s  t h e  a v a i l a b l e  a c c e s s  t o  o f  509  B . C . w i t h  C a r t h a g e ,  o f  t h e  T r e a t y  493  m e n t i o n s o f  T r e a t i e s ,  a  T r e a t y  S p u r i u s  was  1  5  f o r  a n d  a n d  m u s t  w e r e  f u n e r a l s  w h i c h  p r a i s e d  o r  g l o r i o u s  o f  h i s t o r y .  h a d  as  s o m e  a r e  t h e y  1  5  ^  h a v e some  t h e  t h e  L a t i n  t h e  w h i c h  c o l u m n  1  5  o f  T h e r e  t e x t  L a t i n s n o t  so  o t h e r  h a v e  T r e a t y  g i v e s 1  some  t h e  5  t h e  s e e m  154 1 5 5  156 1 5 7  c o n s u l s h i p  a g o  we  s t a n d i n g  •  .  r e m e m b e r  b e h i n d  t o  E n n i u s  m o v e d  h a v e  b e e n  i n  L i v y  1 . 6 0 . 4 ,  h a v e  b e e n  P o l y b i u s  c o m m o n  L i i . 2 2 ;  C i c e r o p r o B a l b o _ .... , L i v y v m . 4 0 . 4 .  t o  h i s  a n d  t h e  p u b l i c  o r a t i o n s  u s e d  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s  s o m e t i m e s  a r i s t o c r a t i c  r e c o r d s  h a n d b o o k s  p r i v a t e  t h e s e  t o  o r a t i o n s  s o m e ' l a u d a t i o n e s ' d i s t o r t  i n  a l s o  o f  f u n e b r e s ' ,  t h a t  t h a t  f a m i l y  p r o c e d u r a l  i t e m s  w h i c h  a v a i l a b l e a n d  i v . 3 . 9 .  i n d i c a t i n g a l l  t h e  '. ' D i o n y s i u s o f x x i i i . 5 3  c i r c l e s ,  r e c o r d e d t o  E n n i u s  O g i l v i e m e t h o d  p r i e s t l y  R .  so  t h e s o m e n o t e s  a n d  n o b l e  B r u t .  x v i .  1965)  R . M . O g i l v i e p . 2 3 1 .  A  t h a t  158  v i . 9 5 . 1 - 2 .  G a r d n e r )  6 2 . C o m m e n t a r y  o n  L i v y  B o o k s  I - V  t h o s e c o u l d f a c t s h e  d e e d s  ' c o m m e n t a r i i '  / A  C i c .  a t  p e r h a p s  p r o t o c o l ,  c o l l e g e s .  H a l i c a r n a s s u s  ( t r a n s .  t h e  158 C l a r e n d o n ,  t e x t  C i c e r o  4  i n . t h e l o n g  h a d  o f  L e a g u e .  b r o n z e  j o i n e d  a d v i s e s  m a y  m e n t i o n e d w e r e  a n d  c a u t i o n s  o t h e r  o t h e r  ' l a u d a t i o n e s  L i v y  7  to  b e e n  d e c e a s e d  C i c e r o  a c c e s s  ' c o m m e n t a r i i ' t h a t  l i k e l y  t h e m .  a n c e s t o r s .  s u c h  a  m u s t  b e e n  H a l i c a r n a s s u s  t h e  a l l  C o m i n i u s  u p o n  a n c e s t o r s .  e x a g g e r a t e  a l s o  o u t  a l s o  T h e r e  f a l s i f y  P o s t u m u s  o f  a n d  w i t h  H e  h a v e  5  r e c o r d .  h i s  s t r u c k  m a y  r e c o r d s  D i o n y s i u s R o m e  t h e r e  E n n i u s .  P o l y b i u s  w h i l e  "was  M a x i m i ' ,  Q u i n t u s  B . C . b e t w e e n  w r i t t e n  T h e r e  o f  t o  e x a m p l e .  t h a t  C a s s i u s  e n g r a v e d  R o s t r a . "  o f  ' A n n a l e s  ( O x f o r d  t h e a n d  56  I n t i m e s  i n  o r a l  h i s  p o e t r y  e x a m p l e , a u c t o r u t  C i c e r o  h a d  d i a l o g u e , c a n e r e t h e  a t  W h i c h  d i x i t  1  0  2 . 3 :  w e r e  s u n g  t i b i c i n e m  e x p r e s s e s  a  w i s h  de  a t  m o r e m  o f  i n  t i m e s  t i b i a m  o l d  h u n c  v i r o r u m  ' c a r m i n a '  p a s t .  o r  F o r  " G r a v i s s i m u s e p u l a r u m  e a r l i e r  f u i s s e ,  a t q u e  i n  e s s e  e x i s t e d  v i r t u t e s . "  t h e  s a m e  i n  e p u l i s  v i r t u t i b u s . "  s t i l l  s e v e r a l  t r a d i t i o n a l  l a u d e s  s o l i t o s  s o n g s  r e f e r s  n o t e s :  m a i o r e s  o r i g i n i b u s  t h e  s o r t  o r a t o r  c l a r o r u m h o m i n u m  t h a t  C i c e r o  b a n q u e t s t h e  a n c i e n t i n  some  a p u d  a d  " Q u a m q u a m e s t  a d  m a t e r i a l s ,  4 . 2 . 3 ,  c a n e r e n t t h e s e  o f  ' c a r m i n a ' ,  C a t o ,  m e n t i o n e d  c o n v i v o s  o r a t o r  a n c i e n t  a c c u b a r e n t  a l s o  t y p e s  D i s p u t a t i o n s  o r i g i n i b u s q u i  t h e s e  t o  b a l l a d s  T u s c u l a n  d e i n c e p s  to  d i a l o g u e s o r  i n i n  a d d i t i o n  I n  t h e  w h i c h  B r u t u s ,  C a t o  m e n -  159 t i o n e d m a k e  h a d  b e e n  s u n g  r e f e r e n c e s  t o  E . M .  a t  b a n q u e t s  a n c i e n t  S t e u a r t  a g e s  s o n g s , p o i n t s  b e f o r e  h i s  t i m e .  O t h e r  R o m a n  a u t h o r  t o o . o u t  t h a t  t h e  e x i s t e n c e  o f  t h e  ' c a n t u s 160  c o n v i v i a l e s '  was  S h e  t h a t  s u g g e s t s  t o  i n  o f  t h e  W i t h f o r  a n c i e n t  t h e i r  t h a t s c a l e . e a r l y  t o  h a d  S h e  15  a n d  w e l l  as  t h e r e  p e r h a p s  c h a l l e n g e d , t h e  a l r e a d y  o t h e r  t h e  p r o v e d  t h e y s o n g s  a r e a n d  so  e p i t a p h s  v e r y  S a t u r n i a n  N a e v i u s  t h a t a  o l d  t h e f i t  ' C a r m e n P r i a m i '  i n  a t t e s t e d . s o n g s  t h e  m a y  a l s o  l i k e  h a v e  b e e n  f o r  n a r r a t i o n  a n d  ' C a r m e n N e l e i '  ( 1 9 2 1 ) 1 6 1  E . M . S t e u a r t . 3 1 - 3 7 . S t e u a r t  " T h e  E a r l i e s t  o n  " E a r l i e s t . P o e t r y . "  p . 3 5 .  P o e t r y  o f  b e c a u s e  s u c h  as  1  N a r r a t i v e  m e t r e  m a d e  e x a m p l e s o f n a r r a t i v e s i n S a t u r n i a n s . ^ 159 C i c e r o B r u t u s 1 9 . 7 5 . ( M y t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 1  t h o s e  e x i s t e d .  S a t u r n i a n  v e h i c l e t h e  a t t e s t e d -  S a t u r n i a n s  p o e m s  c h o o s i n g c h o i c e  w e l l  f u n e r a l  p r o b a b l y  a n d  o b s e r v e s  b e e n  as  b a n q u e t  w e r e  A n d r o n i c u s  S t e u a r t  m e n t i o n s  1 6 0  C Q  as  L i v i u s  p o e m s ,  m e t r e  r e a l l y  a u t h o r s ,  S c i p i o s ,  r e g a r d  n o t  R o m e "  a  p o s s i b l e  57  These  poems,  conclusions notes  that  have the  narrative,  part  are  been  reached  the  examines  who w o r k e d  in  the  the  what  discussion  on t h e  they  the  himself,  that  were.  the  may n o t  theories  a n d who was first  one  Perizonius  of  to  to  con-  a drama r a t h e r  example,  than  e v e n be  an a r c h a i c  earlier  scholars  a  poem.  such  introduce  by  little  the  Perizonius.  the  and p o e t r y  1 6 2  as  a n d N i e b u h r , who w o r k e d i n  attached  a n d made no a t t e m p t  and no f i r m  A Momigliano, for  influenced  r e l a t i o n between h i s t o r y  however,  fragments,  probably part of  17TH c e n t u r y ,  19TH c e n t u r y ,  a p p a r e n t l y was  'carmina'  to  was  1  Momigliano  of  out,  as  from s m a l l  'Carmen P r i a r a i '  Perizonius  points  known o n l y  'Carmen N e l e i  and t h a t  Perizonius, last  however,  'carmina' into  i n Rome.  Momigliano  importance  e x p l a i n how t h e  a  to  songs  the  influenced  163 Roman h i s t o r i c a l  tradition.  were v e r y  important,  He n o t e d ,  too,  episodes many o f of  that the  heroes  speak  that  and t h a t the  would have  o l d Roman l e g e n d s h a v e  of  'gesta  rather  virorum',  existed,  and they  b u t by and l a r g e  annalists,  as  and u n i f y  the  observes.  They c r e a t e d  each based  Early  t r a d i t i o n of  (ROMA, 163 1  6  4  1960)  ballads.  Greek  they  the  Roman p l e b s .  exceedingly  too;  that  past  the  rich  a few p i e c e s  i  "Perizonius"  Momigliano "Perizonius"  p.75. pp.83-4.  legends.  some  select,  such  The  combine,  as M o m i g l i a n o  information which  N i e b u h r , and t h e C h a r a c t e r  Contributo, Alia  sources  tradition.  success, of  that  Roman h i s t o r i c a l  the  managed t o  in  majority  no d o u b t  the  part of  considerable  and o n l y  "Perizonius, Secondo  other,  with  that  influenced  s i m p l y becamea  work on t h e  the  of  'carmina'  Momigliano suggests  elements,  p.69.  Momigliano  voice  the  t h a n p l e b e i a n s ; and t h a t , though t h e . . . women a l s o f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n some  a pattern  Roman T r a d i t i o n "  the  that  t r a d i t i o n was  may i n d e e d h a v e  his  Momigliano of  felt  r e a c h e d by M o m i g l i a n o i s  tradition,  Classici  represented  made e x c e l l e n t  The c o n c l u s i o n 'carmina'  they  though,  Roman h i s t o r i c a l  are patricians  only  Niebuhr,  Storia Degli  Studi  164  58  d i d  n o t  f i t  i n t o  A G r a n t .  1  6  t h e  H e  t h a t  q u i t e  w i t h o u t  c u s t o m  o f  f e e l  H o m e r ' s t h e r e  t h a t  a r e  n o  w h e n  o l d  o f  t h e m .  t h e i r 1  6  w h i c h  h e  t h e  p o e t  T h i s  7  so  i t  t h e r e i s  m u s t  r e l a t e d  i n  c o u l d  h a v e  O n e  o t h e r  a v a i l a b l e  t o  Q u i n t u s  T h e  o f  t h e  s t u d y a  b e c a u s e ,  f i e l d .  s i n c e  as  T h e  E n n i u s ^ 166  16  S c r i b n e r ' s  l e a r n e d s o u r c e  is  o f  o f t o  1970)  1 6 7  G r a n t  1 6 8  S k u t s c h  t h e  p a g e  F a b i u s  /  P i c t o r ,  r e a d  t h i s  ,  t h e s e  n o t  as  C a t o  T h e  H i s t o r i a n s A n n a l s  p . 1 7 1 . p . 7 .  c o m p a t r i o t s o f  ' c a r m i n a '  s i n c e  u n l i k e l y , •  s u n g  a t  k n e w  s a i d  c o n c e r n e d  b a n q u e t s a n y t h i n g  t o  h a v e  E n n i u s ,  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ,  a n d so  t h a t b y  w o u l d  F a b i u s  h a v e  b e e n  P i c t o r .  d i s c u s s e d  i n  w r i t i n g s  e n c o m p a s s  t o o  w i l l  b e  S k u t s c h  p . 8 6 . > A n c i e n t H i s t o r i a n s  p . 1 7 1 .  f a b r i c a t e d  h i s  t h e  c o n s i d e r e d n o t e s .  " P e r i z o n i u s "  G r a n t  m a n a g e  b e e n  h o w e v e r , w o r k ,  H e  C a t o .  c o m p o s e d  g e n e r a l l y  c o u l d  r a t h e r  w e r e  w e r e  f r o m  a l l .  c o u n t e r p a r t  E n n i u s  i n f o r m a t i o n  h i s t o r y  h a v e  o n  h a v e  ' c a r m i n a '  M i c h a e l  s o n g s .  g r e a t l y  E n n i u s  o f  a t  t h a t  o f  s o n g s  w h e t h e r  w h i c h  h i s t o r i c a l  was  a b o v e  M o m i g l i a n o M i c h a e l  t h e  so  t h e  ' c a r m i n a '  a n d  p o i n t ,  s e e m s  a n c i e n t  t h e  m a t t e r s  I t  t h a t  t h e y  p a t r i o t i c  a b o u t  c e r t a i n  C a t o  t h a t  e x p l a n a t i o n  s o m e  t h a t  h i s t o r i a n s  n o t e d  b o u n d  S o n s ,  o f  E n n i u s  ' A n n a l s '  b e  A n n a l e s .  a  i s  e x i s t e d  b a n q u e t s  t r a d i t i o n .  b e e n  t o  v i r o r u m ' ,  p r o s e  p o s s i b l e  h o w e v e r ,  t h e  R o m a n  a t t e s t a t i o n s  h a v e  h a v e  R o m a n s  c o n t a i n e d  o r a l  i m p o s s i b l e  ' g e s t a  a  n o t  n a t i o n a l i s t i c  a n c i e n t  b e  m a n y  h i s  ' c a r m i n a '  m a y t h e  165  i t .  a n c i e n t  s h o w  p r o v e  a n  m a y  n o t e ,  to  a t  m i g h t  a r e  t h e  t r a d i t i o n  t h e r e  t h e  w o r k s  T o  f r o m  O n e  w i t h  o w n  o u t s i d e  ' c a r m i n a '  w a n t e d  f r a g m e n t s  t i m e s ,  d e a l t  t h e  G r e e c e ,  A l t h o u g h i n  t h a t  h a v e  s u r v i v e  a b o u t  b a l l a d - s i n g i n g  w o r k s .  t h o u g h ,  m a y  t o  v o i c e  o b s e r v e s  C a t o  w e l l  c o u l d  m a n a g e d  d i s s e n t i n g  6  t h i n k s  i t  (N.Y.;  C h a s .  168  t h i s v a s t  b r i e f l y ,  59  Q u i n t u s w h o  was  i n  t h e  t h e i n  b o r n  a  t h a t  a b o u t  S e c o n d  h i s t o r y f e w  F a b i u s 254  B . C . H i s  R o m e  f r o m  A e n e a s  O n  P i c t o r ' s  o f  f r a g m e n t s . h a v e  h i s t o r y  a n d  i n s t i t u t i o n s .  was  y e t  f i t t e d  o f  o f  G r e e k  R o m e ,  a  . . . i n f o r m e d .  f e w  o f  p e r i o d s  t h e i r  o f  h a d  u s e  G r e e k  o f  w r o t e  b e e n  t h e  6  s e n a t o r i a l w r i t t e n  t i m e s ,  a l s o ,  t h a t  h a d  was  a n d  G r e e k  a u d i e n c e s ,  n o t e s  c o n t e m p o r a r y  o f  h i s . o w n  prose.''"  i n  b u t  r a n k ,  i t  s u r v i v e s  t o  m o s t  o f  c h r o n i c l e d n o w  R o m a n  L a t i n t h a t  t h e  l a n g u a g e F a b i u s '  G r e e k  w h o m  h a d  o n l y  c o m m e n t s  e x p l a i n  o b s e r v e s  f o u g h t  B a d i a n  t h e  t o  a n d  G r e e k ,  t h a t  r e a c t i o n  E n n i u s ,  i n  p e r h a p s ,  F r i e r  9  o f  l a n g u a g e ,  t h o u g h ,  h o s t i l e ,  f o r  w o r d  f o r  w o r d ,  m o r e  b r i e f l y  1  7  e v e n t h e  a v o i d i n g  Q u i n t u s P i c t o r  R o m a n  h i s t o r y . t h i s  w e r e t o  F a b i u s  s e e m s  a l l  o f  t h e  u n a u t h e n t i c a t e d  to  n o t e s t h a t  a n d t h a t  h e  h a v e  e a r l y f a m i l y  i t  d e a l t  a t  h i s t o r i a n s  b e e n  i l l -  R e p u b l i c . l e g e n d s  s o m e  172  as  s t i c k i n g  t h e  G r e e k  t h e  t o  f e e l s  t h e  F a b i u s  h a d e a r l i e s t  r e p o r t  P i c t o r  D u c k e t t  a n d  w i t h  t h a t  s e e m s  p a r t s ,  o f  l e g e n d s  H e  s t a t e m e n t .  t h r e e  l e n g t h  l i k e l y  g a v e  g i v e .  i n t o  t h a t  s e e m s  F a b i u s  . i n  f a l l  o b s e r v e s  c o u l d  . i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  p e r i o d  P i c t o r  B a d i a n  p e r i o d ,  D u c k e t t  1  l e g e n d s  o f  n o t e .  s t u d i e d  w o r k s .  h i s t o r y ,  was  w h i c h  t o  h e  e l d e r  R o m a n  l i t e r a r y  ' A n n a l s '  s c h o l a r s  a n t i q u a r i a n s r e a d  w h o m  a  w o r k ,  H e  a n  170  s e v e r a l  e a r l i e s t  f o r  f o r  s u g g e s t s  T h e as  w r i t t e n  was  was  W a r .  m a y  c h o i c e  H e  P u n i c  h e  n o t  P i c t o r  t h e m  t r e a t e d  t h a t  c l o s e l y  P i c t o r t o  t h e  173 s t a t e m e n t s s u r v i v i n g  f o u n d  i n  f r a g m e n t s  t h e  ' A n n a l e s  t e n d  t o  M a x i m i ' .  d e r i v e  f r o m  F r i e r B o o k  I  n o t e s  ( b e t t e r  t h a t  t h a n  m o s t a  o f  t h i r d  o f  169 e d .  T . A . D o r e y 1 7 0  1 7 1  E . B a d i a n " T h e E a r l y H i s t o r i a n s " ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n , P a u l , F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 2 8 1 . B a d i a n  " H i s t o r i a n s "  T h e L a t i n H i s t o r i a n s 1966) p . 3 .  p . 3 .  172 173  E . S .  D u c k e t t  E . S .  D u c k e t t  S t u d i e s . S t u d i e s  i n  E n n i u s  p . 2 3 .  ( B r y n M a w r ,  1915)  p . 2 4 .  t h e t h e m ) ,  60 w h i c h a b l e a  d e a l t to  w i t h  e x p a n d  d e t a i l e d  t h e  h i s  f o u n d a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n  a c c o u n t  o f  Q u i n t u s  t h e  l e g e n d s as  F i r s t  F a b i u s  h e  o f  t h e  a p p r o a c h e d  P u n i c . W a r ,  P i c t o r  a t  p r o b a b l y  174  c i t y . h i s t h e  h a d  T h e  own  t i m e .  l a t e s t ,  t h r e e  h i s t o r i a n  as  m a i n  T h e  was  w o r k  B a d i a n  s o u r c e s  b e c a m e  comments.'''  f o r  7  5  h i s  176 i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d  as  e s p e c i a l l y  P o l y b i u s a c c o u n t  i n  a  to  b e e n  o w n  n o t e s .  P h i l i n u s  r e m a r k s .  o p p o s i t e h i s  F r i e r  1  7  o f  o f  w a y .  F r i e r  i n s t i t u t i o n s  h a v e  t h e  p a s t .  T h e  t h i r d  to  s o u r c e  a  p r i n c i p a l  h a v e  P o l y b i u s 178  n o t e s b e e n  s o u r c e  o f  f o r  s o u g h t  to  s e c o n d  s o u r c e  R o m e ,  a n d t h a t  a d v a n t a g e F a b i u s '  G r e e k  o u t  t h a t  t h e  F r i e r  h o s t i l e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of.  w o r k t h e  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  e k i n g  as  P h i l i n u s '  F a b i u s '  p a r t s  a u t h o r s ,  a u t h o r  r e p r e s e n t  f o r  i n d e e d ,  h i s t o r y  t h e  F a b i u s '  F a b i u s ' i n  i n  p r o - C a r t h a g e  t h a t  f u r t h e r  a n  was  o b s e r v e s  T h e  k n o w l e d g e  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . w o u l d  s e e m s  P h i l i n u s .  p e r s o n a l  f i r s t  A g r i g e n t u m ,  P i c t o r  7  p r o - R o m e  t h a t  T h e  e x i g u o u s f i n d s  w o u l d  w o r k d f  a r e  h i s  s t y l i z e d  o f  t h e  o r i g i n a l  F a b i u s  m a y  h a v e  c o n t e n t s  o f  t h e  ' A n n a l e s  M a x i m i ' ,  b e  R o m a n r e c o r d  o f  t h e  H e d o e s n o t f e e l t h a t F a b i u s c o n s u l t e d a l l t h e d o c u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e , b u t h e c o m m e n t s t h a t t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' m u s t 180 m a j o r s o u r c e . P e r h a p s t h e a n n a l i s t i c f o r m is o n l y a h i g h l y  v e r s i o n  h a v e  m a y  188 d o c u m e n t s . m a y h a v e b e e n b e e n  is  t h a t h a v e  F r i e r  181 r e m a r k s .  u s e d  a  v a r i e t y  1 7 4  F r i e r " L i b r i "p . 3 2 2 .  1 7 5  B a d i a n  1 7 6  F r i e r " L i b r i "p p . 2 6 0 - 2 6 2 .  1 7 7  P o l y b i u s  1.14.3.  P o l y b i u s  1 . 1 5 . 1 2 .  " H i s t o r i a n s "  o f  s o u r c e s ,  G r e e k  a n d  p . 3 .  ( T r a n s l a t o r  I a n  S c o t t - K i l v e r t )  178 ( S a m e  1 7 9  F r i e r " L i b r i "p . 2 6 8 .  1 8 0  F r i e r " L i b r i "p . 2 6 9 .  1 8 1  F r i e r " L i b r i "p . 2 7 2 .  t r a n s l a t o r )  R o m a n ,  a n d  61  s o m e  o f  h i s  h i s t o r y  C o n s u l s  of. t h e  t h a t  a l s o  h e  r e f l e c t s  y e a r ,  u s e d  a t  t h a t  l e a s t  f a c t .  i n  h i s  O l y m p i a d d a t i n g ,  H e  m u s t  d e t a i l e d i n  t h e  h a v e  u s e d  h i s t o r y ,  G r e e k  t h e  b u t  m a n n e r  o f  n a m e s  B a d i a n  o f  o b s e r v e s  e s t a b l i s h i n g  a n  182 i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y  a c c e p t a b l e  W i t h ' A n n a l s '  o f  E n n i u s  as  e i t h e r  t h e  w h e r e m a y  Q u i n t u s i t  was  l i k e l y  m a y  h a v e  i n t e r e s t i n g  i n d i x i t  o n  l i n e  t h i s  a n d  t h a t  a n d  P o l y b i u s ,  i b e  T h i s  l i n e  is  w o r k  o f  t h e t o  w a r t h e  v i s . "  h a v e  a r e  b e e n  so  f e w  w o r k  o f  E n n i u s  i n f l u e n c e d  b y  F a b i u s .  h i m  t h e r e  i n  f o r  h i s  a c c o u n t  t h e  E n n i u s  t r i e d  o f  c e r t a i n l y  ( N o t e as  h e  S k u t s c h r e 18 2 B 183 S S S 185  i s  o r  o f  t h e  a l l  h a d  is  230:  t h i s  m a r k s  t h a t  a d i a n  " H i s t o r i a n s " A n n a l s A n n a l s A n n a l s  ' i b e '  i n  p . 3 2 5 . p . 4 1 0 . p . 3 8 6 .  p . 3 .  f o r  W a r ,  l i n e  f o r  s u r v i v i n g  o f  d i f f i c u l t  F a b i u s n o t e s  t h a t  i s  i n  b u t 183  i s  a t  O n e A n n .  h i s  F a b i u s  c e n s e n t a n d  f o r  o b s e r v e s  s o u r c e 185  f o r  c o h o r s , t o  a  w a r ,  l i n e  t e r r e r e  'sos'  A n o t h e r  o f  P i c t o r  S k u t s c h  w a r .  216:  c o m m e n t a r y  A n o t h e r  ' i b i ' ,  b e l o n g e d  t e l l  E n n i u s  d e c l a r a t i o n  b y 184  " D u m  P a e l i g n a  t o  r e p u b l i c .  f a c t *  a n d  t h e  s o u r c e  n o t e s  f o r m a l  E n n i u s '  t h a t  m a n u s ,  E n n i a n  a  w o r k ,  b e g i n n i n g s ,  r e p r e s e n t e d  A n n .  is  t h e e a r l y  b e e n  l i k e l i h o o d  " M a r s a  R o m e ' s  t h e  s e r v e d  i t  o n e  a  S k u t s c h  c o n c e a l  G a l l i c  g r e a t  f o l l o w e d  as  i n t o  f r a g m e n t s  S k u t s c h  h a v e  a r c h a i c  A n n . 2 2 9 :  k u t s c h k u t s c h k u t s c h  t o  p r o b a b l y  i n  ( P i c t o r )  d e n y  t h e  p a r t w a s  s e e m  as  t h a t  o f  h i s t o r y  t r a d i t i o n ,  t o  s e e m s  P i c t o r  W a r  d i d n ' t  h i s t o r i c a l  p l a c e d  1 8 4  t h e  i n c o r p o r a t e d  C a r t h a g i n i e n s i b u s : b e l l u m . "  s o s . "  G a l l i c  w o u l d  T h e r e  P i c t o r  i n f l u e n c e  b e c a u s e  o r  w h i c h  v a i n l y  F a b i u s  m a t e r i a l  P i c t o r  b e e n  o n  a t  R o m a n  F a b i a n  h o r t a n t u r  P i c t o r  f r o m  t h a t  t h e  o f  P o l y b i u s .  h a v e  p o i n t  w e a l t h  F a b i u s  d r a w n  " A p p i u s  w h e r e  o f  d i f f e r e d  t o  a  f o r  w o r k  E n n i u s  h a v e  s u c h  c h r o n o l o g y .  ' e o s ' . )  t h a t  m a t e r i a l  l i n e  V e s t i n a c a t a l o g u e  m i n i s  t h e a b o u t  b e l o n g i n g v i r u m o f  w a r r i o r s 186  P i c t o r . o f  t h a t  was  T h e r e  E n n i u s  a n d  p o i n t s  h i s  o u t  a r e  o n  t h a t  o n i n  i t  G r e e k  s u b s t a n c e  o f  ~ v e r y  F a b i u s  t h a t  t h e  c e n s u s  o t h e r  o f  r e m a r k s  e p i c  t h e  s o m e  f r a g m e n t s  F r i e r m o d e l l e d  b a s e d  225  s u p e r f i c i a l  w h i c h  m a k e s  c o u l d  s e n s e  h i s t o r i e s  t h e  B . C . as  p o e m  o f  i s  F a b i u s  b e t w e e n  l i n e s  c o i n c i d e n t a l .  a s s u m e  P i c t o r  n o t  b y  r e s e m b l a n c e s  b e  to  r e p o r t e d  t h a t  a n d  E n n i u s  o t h e r s ,  i n f r e q u e n t l y  a t  c o n s c i o u s l y  t h o u g h  h e  v a r i a n c e  w i t h  187 t h e  a n n a l i s t i c  a t t e s t e d  i n  c o n s u l . "  t h e  S e c o n d  E n n i u s  e c o n o m y ,  as  f r a g m e n t s f o r  t r a d i t i o n .  F r i e r  t o  t h i s  b e  p a r t  l i t t l e  T h i s  o f  b y  h i s  a n d  h i s  is  h a s  R o m a n  i n  s o m e  t r i e d  w e r e  w h i c h  w i t h  h i s t o r y  i n  a n  r e a c h e d a n d  I t  t h a t t o  to  e p i c  E n n i u s  e a r l y t h a n  i n s p i r e d E n n i u s 186  290:  E n n i u s '  " Q u i n t u s  e a r l i e r  b e  t h e  t h a t  b o o k s  t h e r e  p o e t  w a y  a r e t o  A n n a l e s  p a t e r  f o r  s o u g h t  d r e w  b u t  h o w  T h e  w o r k s  c o u l d  i s  s e t  f i t  o f  n o t  a  f i r s t  q u a r t u m  r e a s o n s  j u s t  s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ,  p o e t i c  e n o u g h  d i f f e r e n t  S k u t s c h  h e  h a d  A n n a l s ,  a n y  p . 4 0 9  1 8 7  F r i e r " L u b r i "p . 2 5 9 .  1 8 8  F r i e r " L i b r i "p . 2 5 9 .  t h e  t h e s e  m i g h t e p i c  f o r . m u c h  o f  c o u l d c a n  t o n e  o f  s h o w e d  b e  d r a w n . i n f l u e n c e d  L i v i u s  E n n i u s as  p o e t .  h o w  A n d r o n i c u s a  L a t i n t o  ' A n n a l e s  S o m e  s c h o l a r s  h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n .  b r i e f l y ,  a n d  t h e  t h e m .  w o u l d  F i n a l l y ,  d e a l  t h e  o f  v i r o r u m ' ,  o f  h a v e  c r e a t i n g  k n o w n  t h e  t o o ,  b e e n  p o e t s ,  c h r o n i c l e f o r  R o m e ,  h a v e  p r o c e s s  N a e v i u s  ' g e s t a  k n o w l e d g e  o f  o f  c o n c l u s i o n s  two  e x a m i n e d  t h e  h i s t o r y  E n n i u s  m a t e r i a l  c h r o n i c l e w e r e  f i r m  b e g a n  o f  t h e S o m e  t h e  p r i e s t l y  s o u r c e  ' c a r m i n a '  i f  o f  b u i l d .  T h e  t h e  n o  Q u i n t u s  L i v i u s  o n  o f  n a m e s .  a l s o ,  s h o w  a  a n n a l i s t s  t h e i r  p o e m . as  a n c i e n t t h e i r  m a y  p e r h a p s  E n n i u s  c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t  i n  c o n s i d e r e d .  o n  r e f e r e n c e s  i t  o r  k n o w n  d i c t i o n  c o n c l u d e  a v o i d e d 188  o t h e r  e p i c  w a s  A n n .  p r e d e c e s s o r s .  N a e v i u s ,  M a x i m i '  i n  i n  p o e m .  w e r e  E n n i u s  c h a p t e r  h a v e  d a t i n g  W a r ,  r e m a r k s .  m o r e  i n f l u e n c e d  P u n i c  c e r t a i n ,  T h e r e w h o m  m a y  E p o n y m o u s  T h e  c o n c l u s i o n h a v e t h e  i n t e r e s t e d ' A n n a l s '  63  of  Quintus Fabius  that which  E n n i u s was  v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d  Ennius used  paucity  of  P i c t o r were b r o u g h t  h i m as  fragments  of  a source both  under by  cannot  authors.  the be  scrutiny. work o f detailed  It  is  Fabius, in  reasonably but  the  certain  extent  any way b e c a u s e  of  to the  64  Chapter  Besides being Annales  of  the  best  i n an e p i c  but  could  also  an  a historian,  became  'alter  Aeneas  in  a  Books  II  lated  the  the  Muses,  Homerus'.  the  First alii  referred  himself  not  merely  a  Rome  Annales. w i l l of.eighteen  give  then  proceeded  time  was  some i n d i c a t i o n  books.  The book  poet,  poet's  spent  The f i r s t  explanation to  recount  of  book, of  the  its after  how  he  landing  i n n a r r a t i n g the of  Romulus.  the  of  the  kings  of  Rome,  stories the  of  the  rest  Republic.  the  The e a r l y  f o u r t h book.  Pyrrhus, with  all  of  history  Book V d e a l t  Book V I b e i n g  of  of  hero's  death  of  as  rerum'.  the  to  Book V I I , E n n i u s e x p l a i n e d  P u n i c War i n d e t a i l . rem/ v o r s i b u s Naevius  Annales.  Book X a l s o b e g a n  Muses  e l e v e n t h book  the  with  and  re-  Republic  the  devoted  with  In A n n . 206-7,  Carmen B e l l i the  Punici.  eighth  to  the  one  of for  the  d i d not poet  Samnite the  war  the  canebant."  poet  of  of  sought  Ennius.  to  He may  The d i s c u s s i o n  Second Macedonian War.  students  plan  writes:  and n i n t h b o o k s  a proem i n w h i c h  events  a problematical  why h e  olim Faunei vatesque  through  i n n a r r a t i n g the is  quos  and h i s  Carthage continued  the  of  with  wars w i t h  of  people  Pyrrhus.  "Scripsere have  the  The  the  In a proem t o cover  the  poetically„  of  began  c a r r i e d on t h r o u g h of  record history  the  to  told  rise  and p r o p o r t i o n s ,  The n a r r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d  establishment  and the  to  He c o n s i d e r e d  A p p a r e n t l y no  en r o u t e .  and I I I  then  against  to  style  and accomplishments  'scriptor of  epic  an a t t e m p t  style.  outline  Italy.  adventures  Wars,  poem o f  T h e w h o l e work c o n s i s t e d  invocation  was  a long  whole h i s t o r y  A brief scope.  E n n i u s and H i s t o r y  Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was  poet n a r r a t e d he  5:  of  the the  aid  The  Skutsch  the  65  o b s e r v e s  t h a t  w i t h  d e g r e e  a n y  c o n t a i n e d  a n d  o n e  o f  t h e  d e c l a r a t i o n t e n t h  n o t  f r a g m e n t  c e r t a i n t y .  s u c c e s s f u l  o f  f r e e d o m  e l e v e n t h  o f  t h i s  H e  n o t e s  c o n c l u s i o n f o r  b o o k s  G r e e c e  o f  b o o k t h a t  o f i n  A n n a l e s  c a n - b e  t h e  196  i t  s e e m s  w a r  i n  i t s  l i k e l y  t h e  a g a i n s t  189  B . C .  p r o b a b l y  p l a c e d  P h i l l i p  S e l l a r  d e a l t  c o n t e x t  a n d  r e m a r k s  w i t h  t h e  b o o k t h e  t h a t  t h e  M a c e d o n i a n  W a r  190 a n d  t h e  d e e d s  X I I  t o g e t h e r  o p e n i n g  a n d  o f  as  A s i a  Q u m c t i u s  c o v e r i n g  f o u r t e e n t h  d e p a r t i n g  T .  t h e  b o o k s  h o w e v e r ,  o f  t h e  p e r i o d  f r o m  e a s t ,  a n d  a f t e r  t h e  b a t t l e  o f t o  h a v e  J o c e l y n  n o t e s  t h a t  b e e n  t h e r e  p e a c e  b o o k s  i n  s u b j e c t  c o n t a i n e d t h e  B o o k s  X I  a n d  B . C .  t o  t h e  196  f o r  S k u t s c h ' s  t h e  t h i r t e e n t h  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . t h e  h i s t o r y  192  as  s t o r y f a r  o f  as  t h e  191 S c i p i o s  t h e  s e t t l e m e n t  .  i n t e n d e d  was  p u t s  m a d e  t h e  t o  c a r r i e d  M a g n e s i a .  s e e m s  t h e  p r o v i d e d  t h e s e  l i k e l y  X V  W a r m i n g t o n  a c c o r d i n g  t h a t  t h e  B o o k  p o e m  f e e l s  f o r  A n n a l e s .  F l a m m m u s .  t h e w a r w i t h A n t i o c h u s . T h e w a r a g a i n s t A n t i o c h u s  W a r m i n g t o n ,  o f  o f  e v e n  as  a  t h e  c o m p l e t i o n  p u b l i s h e d  o f  v e r s i o n  t h e  k n o w n  i n  h i s  w o r k  193 a n t i q u i t y  t h a t  h a d  B o o k  to  w i t h  a n  a c c o u n t  f i n i s h  N o b i l i o r , w o u l d t e m p l e  i n  h a v e  d e a l t  H e r c u l i s 189 190  1880;  A e t o l i a ,  R e p r i n t 191 192  193  194  w i t h  X V as  o f  o f  J o c e l y n S k u t s c h  as  i n  T h e  c o n d u c t e d h a d  b e e n  187  B  S k u t s c h  a  C .  n o t e s .  p o e t b y  a  h i s  p a t r o n ,  a n d 194  h i s  T h e  f o u n d i n g  p . 5 2 0 .  p  . 5 3 5 .  R e m a i n s  " P o e m s " A n n a l s  w a n t e d  w i t n e s s .  T h e R o m a n P o e t s o f t h e R e p u b l i c C l a r e n d o n , 1905) p . 9 1 .  A n n a l s  W a r m i n g t o n  o n e .  h i m s e l f  t r i u m p h  R o m e ,  A n n a l s  f i n a l  c a m p a i g n  h e  F u l v i u s '  W . Y . S e l l a r e d . O x f o r d : S k u t s c h  t h e  w h i c h  M u s a r u m a t  S k u t s c h  t h e  p p . 1 3 5 ,  p . 1 0 0 5 . p . 5 5 3 .  1 3 9 .  ( O x f o r d :  M .  F u l v i u s  c o n c l u s i o n o f  t h e  66  A s n o t e d  t h a t  was  .the  d i s c u s s e d s i x t e e n t h .  d e e d s  o f  t h e  f o l l o w e d  b y  p r o b a b l y  a l s o  a n d  t h e r e  n o t e s -|..  t h e  h a v e  o f t h e  p o e t  A n n a l e s t h a t  t h e  a s s u m e s  w i t h  t h e a n  B o o k  f e e l s  C a e c i l i i  was  a d d e d  t h e  t o  E l d e r  h a d  c e l e b r a t e  t h e  t h a t  t h e r e  a n d , t h e i r  m u s t  h a v e  b e e n  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s .  a  p r o e m  T h e  p o e t  r e c o n i l i a t i o n o f F u l v i u s a n d A e m i l i u s L e p i d u s , • • 196 ' O r i g o g e n t i s I l l y r i c a e ' i n c l u d e d . W a r m i n g t o n  X V I c o v e r e d  l a s t  t h e  p e r i o d f r o m  b o o k s  A n n a l e s i s  a  t o o k  s t o r y .  H e  n o t e s ,  t h e  b e f o r e  t h e  s e v e n t e e n t h  b o o k  188  B . C . t o  t h e  e n d  o f  1 9 5  m a y  l a s t  two  o f  198 199  b o o k s  P e r s e u s  h a v e  g i v e  t h a t  a t  c o n t a i n e d  b o o k s .  c o n j e c t u r e .  h o w e v e r ,  n o  i t  i s 198  P y d n a .  T h e  S k u t s c h  t h e  i n d i c a t i o n c e r t a i n  o f  d e a l i n g  h o w  t h a t  B o o k w a s  X V I I I i n  a l l  t h a t  t o  t h e  A n n a l e s  l i k e l i h o o d  s o m e  t h e  P l i n y  o f  i n  s c h o l a r s t h e  E l d e r  s t y l e  o f o f  N . H .  S k u t s c h  A n n a l s  W a r m i n g t o n  S k u t s c h A n n a l s , p . 5 6 3 . W a r m i n g t o n R e m a i n s p . 1 5 9 . W a r m i n g t o n  R e m a i n s  p , 163  .  w h e n  w i t h  E n n i u s  t h a t  B o o k  n a r r a t i v e  f r o m  B o o k s  v i i . 1 0 1 ,  p . 1 4 7 .  d e a l t  s u p p o s e d  i n d i v i d u a l  p . 5 6 4 .  R e m a i n s  h a v e  u n f i n i s h e d h a v e  d e s c r i p t i o n  t h e  m a y  c o n s i d e r s  w i t h  t h e  e x p l o i t s ,  p e r i o d a t  e d i t o r  f u r t h e r  e v e n t s  d i e d  169  i n  X V I m i g h t I  a n d  t o  o f B . C . ^ ^  h a v e  X V ,  t h a t  f a r  t h e  W a r m i n g t o n  m a t e r i a l  s u b j e c t -  s u g g e s t s  I s t r i a n W a r to the. d e f e a t o f P . L i c i n i u s C r a s s u s , , ^99 B . C . , d u r i n g t h e t h i r d M a c e d o n i a n W a r . T h e s a m e  196 197  f o r  e i g h t e e n  t h e  f u n d a m e n t a l l y  d e v o t e d  d e f e a t  c o m p r i s e d  m a t t e r  t h e  r e m a r k s  d i f f e r e d  two  t h e  o f  t h a t  J o c e l y n  t h a t  r e m a i n s  B . C . , b u t  was  t h e  k n o w n  t h e e n d o f . . . . C a l l m i c u s , 171  i t  o f  p i t i a b l e  e n d e d  t h e  i s  f r o m  171  A n n a l e s  P l i n y  W a r .  m a t t e r  t h e  t h e  ),  30-/  197  I t  t h a t  p a g e s  S k u t s c h  b e e n  t h a t  o f  ( o n  195  s t o r y d e a l t  m a y  rf  I s t r i a n  b o o k  C a e c i l n .  m e r e l y *  . .  a b o v e  t h e  s i n c e l a s t  67  two  b o o k s  ( X V I I T h e  t h e  h i s t o r y  a n d  X V I I I )  A n n a l e s  o f  R o m e  w o u l d  h a v e  b e e n  o f  Q u i n t u s  E n n i u s  f r o m  A e n e a s '  a r r i v a l  o f  was  a  a n  i n  s i m i l a r h i s t o r i c a l  I t a l y  t o  201  t y p e .  t h e  e p i c  p o e m  t i m e  n a r r a t i n g  w h e n  t h e  l a s t  202 w a r as  w i t h  M a c e d o n  S k u t s c h  o l d e s t  was  n e a r i n g  c o n t i n u e s ,  t h a t  a n d  m o s t  i m p o r t a n t  t a k e  s h a p e  f r o m  t h e  t e r m s  w i t h  m e m b e r s  i t s  i f  t h e  as  s o m e  as  w o r k  s o u r c e s  c e n t e r , o f  e n d ,  o f  i t  h a d  n o t e s .  s u r v i v e d ,  s i n c e  h e  a r i s t o c r a t i c  O n e  i t  R o m a n : h i s t o r y .  w e r e ,  o f . t h e  S k u t s c h  w o u l d  E n n i u s  was  o n  f a m i l i e s  m i g h t  b e  o n e  c o u l d  o b s e r v e , o f  t h e  w a t c h  e v e n t s  f r i e n d l y  a n d  i n t i m a t e  w h o  t h e  l e a d i n g  w e r e  203 R o m e . S k u t s c h c o n c l u d e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p o e t i c e y e o f E n n i u s n o t o n p o l i t i c s , b u t o n b a t t l e s , t h e g l a m o u r a n d h o r r o r o f w a r ,  l i g h t s o f was f i x e d  204 a n d  o n  t h e  v a l o u r T h e  h a v e  b e e n  E n n i u s ,  a  a n d  v a l o u r  p r i m e  s a y s  o f  t h e  v a r y i n g  a n d  f o r t u n e s  c o n c e r n  h i m :  f o r t u n e s  o f  " H i e  o f  m e n  Q u i n t u s  c a n e t  o f a n d  t h e  E n n i u s .  i l l u s t r i  m e n . ' g e s t a  S i l i u s  p r i m u s  v i r o r u m '  I t a l i c u s ,  b e l l a  I t a l a  s e e m s  i n  t o  m e n t i o n i n g  v e r s u /  a t t o l -  205 l e t q u e i t  is  d u c e s t h e  H o m e r i c h a v e  r e c o r d i n  i t s  a n d  a n d  i t t h e  h i s  h a d  t h e  t o g e t h e r  2f>l  t h e  g r e a t  h e  v i e w  d e e d s  E n n i u s  b e e n  a  c o n s e q u e n c e s  e n d l e s s  e n c o m p a s s e d a l l  o f  E n n i u s '  c o n c e p t i o n .  w r i t t e n  w r a t h , m a n  c a e l o . "  o f  R o m a n . f o r  w a n d e r i n g s  as  h e . m a d e  o f  J o c e l y n  m a n y  t h e  p e r s o n s  h i s t o r y  202 203  S t u d .  E n n .  P .2.  204  S t u d .  E n n .  P .2.  I t a l .  o f  a n  T h e f o r  is  O d y s s e y  a n d  t h e  t h e  R o m a n  P u n i c a x i i . 4 1 0 - 1 1 .  t h e  h o m e .  t o  i d e a  h i s t o r i c a l  I l i a d  a l l .  a p p e a r s  m e n ,  h i s  T h e  i t  r e p r e s e n t e d  S i l i u s  g r e a t  o f  s t o r i e s  h i s t o r y  w r o t e  " P o e m s " p . 1 0 2 1 . S t u d . E n n . P . 1 .  205  o f  h a v e  w h i c h  i s  t h a t  e m i n e n t l y  p o e m  as  H o m e r  s t o r y  o f  o n e  m a n ,  s t o r y  o f  i s  t h e  P e r h a p s  g r e a t  b e e n  d e e d s  p e o p l e .  m i g h t  t h e  A n n a l e s  t h e y  w r o u g h t ,  h i s o n e  a n d  68  As was Pliny his  the  mentioned  Elder  gives  just  notice  A n n a l e s because he  above  that:  especially  (on  page  and e a r l i e r  " Q u i n t u s E n n i u s added a  (on  page5io-l),  s i x t e e n t h book  a d m i r e d T i t u s C a e c i l i u s T e u c e r and  to  his  206 brother." Caecilii of  the  T h e p o e t was brothers  Caecilii  as  part  Teucri  is  them f o r w a r d a s  being  ably  fragments  the  taken, the  meagre  or whether  it  interested  of  his  was  of  give  Skutsch  and s u g g e s t s  men w o r t h y  no h i n t  of  what  great  observes  that  of  i n a n y way d i f f e r e n t  the  poetic  deeds  that  poet  of  the  identity  merely 207  praises.  form the  the  put  Regret-  n a r r a t i o n may  from p r e v i o u s  have  narratives  in  Annales. Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  of  Annales.  unknown,  examples  i n r e c o r d i n g the  Aurelius Victor  about  "Quam v i c t o r i a m p e r  se  the  also  given  above  Ambracian v i c t o r y  ( o n p a g e 31 )  of  to  the  remark  M. F u l v i u s N o b i l i o r :  magnificam Quintus. E n n i u s amicus  eius  insigni  laude  208 celebravit." 'conspicuous here.  praises'.  story  all of  T h e r e was  too,  reference  that  transpired.  Fulvius' victory  Book XV o f . t h e a poem,  celebrated  his  patron's  obviously  Annales,  and i t s  c a l l e d Ambracia,  to h i s  at  capture  of  A s was  campaign,  also noted  A m b r a c i a was finale.  victory  no m i s t a k i n g  E n n i u s had accompanied F u l v i u s . o n the  witness of the  The p o e t  to  be  the  as  the  Elder  E n n i u s had honoured h i s  N.H. vii.101,  (my  p.570.  208 Aur. 209  Victor  de V i r . I I l u s t . .  Warmington Remains  p.359.  with  intention first-hand ), of  patron  was t o g l o r i f y F u l v i u s w i t h . 209 Warmington n o t e s . Whether  207 Skutsch,Annals  a  center-piece  206 Pliny  poet's  ( o n p a g e 9 *f  whose o b j e c t  Ambracia,  Ambracia  so h e was  above the  at  52.3„  translation)  in special the  69  'conspicuous Annales at  is  unknown.  Ambracia  Ennius  praises'  however, epic  seems  included  Another  campaigns  The p o i n t  certainly  wanted  Africanus.  mentioned  Book I X o f of  Scipio.  mention  could not  have  that  belonged  the  been  epic,  story  of  exactly  namely,  to  the  Annales  great  the  seems  type  deeds  been w r i t t e n  dealt  fragments  that  survive  before  179  B  0  thing  great  with  the  that  Scipio  African  from t h i s  that  C , b u t he  the  men.  a b o u t was  have  Skutsch notes  to  accomplishments  of  of  to  man b y name.  poem o r  Fulvius'  the  great  the  Roman whom Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w r o t e  None o f  the  is  to have  in his  famous  by V i c t o r  book,  Book I X o f  admits  to  the  much  210 uncertainty  in placing  how E n n i u s d e a l t Ennius 'Scipio',  where  as  of  a hero  regarded a Greek  with also he  as  regard  to  Aelian  through  another  to  a hero.  have  the  the  demands  of  the  'Scipio', i n the 210  of  poem i n h o n o u r o f  praised  is  totally  abounded;  Scipio,  Scipio highly  some r e a s o n s  and thought  of  the  of  the  a Scipio.  moment,  however,  of  'Scipio',  Suida Lexicon that 212  worthy  the  It  not  a Roman, b u t  he  was  The  yield  Scipio  best.  any c l e a r  likely  in  the  the  R.M. 212  1933)  . Warmington Remains  p.395.  fact.  that  the  With  comment  only  of  a Homer c o u l d  Homerus' c o u l d o b v i o u s l y T h e few  fragments  i n f o r m a t i o n about  on S c i p i o A f r i c a n u s  p.20.  man  same t e r m s .  pp.475-6.  Haywood S t u d i e s  have  great  a n d may' i n 211  211 John Hopkins P r e s s ,  to J  poem. Skutsch Annals  simply  came f r o m T a r e n t u m ,  a f r i e n d of  Warmington n o t e s  'alter  called  and p o r t r a y e d him  why E n n i u s i s  Ennius observed  a n d do h i s  do n o t  unclear  Annales.  T h e p o e t was  idea,  fragments  praises  in context.  and E n n i u s had c o n s i d e r e d Romulus a h e r o . .  that  to  method  the  r e g i o n where h e r o - c u l t s  originated  utter  wrote  in  Haywood n o t e s  and knew h i m w e l l ; . . . have  fragments  Scipio  seems  old.  Scipio  the  (Baltimore:  that  rise  remain  Ennius'  70  Ennius Scipio's the  also  mouth h e  regions  of  praised  puts  heaven's  213 open."  the  or  words:  dwellers,  "If for  it  is  in  foeman,  will  be  me a l o n e ,  able  some o f  right  . epigram E n n i u s speaks of  In another  fellow-countryman  Scipio generously  to  for  epigrams.  anyone  heaven's  to  great  S c i p i o as  render  his  one  for his  go up  gate  Into into  lies  "To whom n o pains  a  one,  recompense  2 XA fitting Scipio dear  his in  to  deeds."  the  P e r h a p s E n n i u s made  Annales.  Cicero  Scipio Africanus that  own b u r i a l  place.  He n o t e s  the  praised,  Cicero  must h a v e  that  in his  epic,  deeds  of  and p a r t  great It  was  example,  Ennius, Badian  by  the  name o f  s u c c e s s was  Scullard  is  does n o t  above  they  due  that  of  plaudits  the  in his  to  to  him erected of  purpose way  the  of  of  so  in  their  poet not  was  only 215  adorned..  g l o r i f y i n g Rome  praising  that  so  it  though  show t h a t  would  of  the  that  seem a s  if  oldest  the  Annales  a n d most  the  of  great  i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n had a c c e s s  P o l y b i u s must h a v e  Annales  at  all  in  though he h a d n o t 217  to  of  looking  source those For  poetry 216  of  him. into  the  early  f o u n d E n n i u s \ work  215 213  C i c . pro A r c h . 9.22 (my.paraphrase) W t ol n s i op .A 4 0f 1r i c a n u s : S o l d i e r H . aHr.m iSncgu l a rRde mSaci n ip 216 Thames & H u d s o n , 1970 p . 1 6 . 217 Badian "Early H i s t o r i a n s " .  to  them?  r e a d the  P o l y b i u s made a n y u s e  Quintus  important  Warmington Remains p . 4 0 1 , s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development of h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . 214  (London:  friend  E n n i u s was  Roman p e o p l e  his  a n d who m i g h t h a v e  mention E n n i u s or h i s  Roman h i s t o r i a n s ,  been  a source  Ennius,  observes  nothing  ( o n p a g e Ifo )  would have  Were t h e y  who f o l l o w e d  there  the  had a s t a t u e  Ennius succeeded  the  suggested  Roman h i s t o r y .  historians  that  remarks  his  men.  E n n i u s had s u r v i v e d , of  of  but  pro A r c h i a  Scipios  further  was A f r i c a n u s h i m s e l f felt  in his  s i m i l a r remarks about  & Politician  71  Elinor  Duckett  remarks t h a t  the  influence  of  the  Annales of  Quintus  218 E n n i u s c a n o n l y be  estimated  creative  poet w i t h a g i f t  probably  stamped h i s  and e v e n t s , uses  the  appreciation  by  the  historians  finds  Rome l o n g a f t e r  been  forgotten .  studied  Ennius'  i n r e c o r d i n g the Pyrrhus  showing  r e g a r d to  trace  of  conclusion the  gave the It  in his  study  of  the A n n a l e s as and from t h a t 219 his  merits.  his is  that  the  story  of  the  in school.  with of  them so  this  over  place  Pyrrhus  poet's  of  p i c t u r e of  kindly  Pyrrhus him  Many o f  that  later  the  the they  style.  writers  attempts  of  alive  poet's  likely graphic  the  first  is  his  early  books o f  the  history  to  the  write  Ennius'  century 221  i n t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f Rome. Ennius  He o b s e r v e s  that  to  e a r l y books  fact  lend his  that  a clear  that  a certain poetic  218 Duckett  Studies  p.46.  Duckett  Studies  p.49.  Duckett  Studies  p.48.  Duckett  Studies  p.52.  219 220  221 222 1963)  P . G . Walsh L i v y . p.136.'  have  phrases  could scarcely Hence i t  had  to  Walsh  notes  distinction some  poetic  r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f E n n i u s , a n d u s i n g t h e A n n a l e s as 222 • . account. Walsh a t t r i b u t e s any p o e t i c f e a t u r e s f o u n d i n  of  left  other historians  century are  pervading influence of  the h i s t o r i a n L i v y . Livy's  first  E n n i a n and Homeric  a significant  the  She  Annales remained  the  boys  own d a y .  E n n i u s ' a c c o u n t s o f t h e men o f Rome, • 220 i n f l u e n c e on p r o s e a n n a l i s t s .  of  some t r a c e  a  personalities  The v i e w s  T h e Roman h i s t o r i a n s  precisely  his  came  F a b i u s and the  would stay  as  by d e l i b e r a t e  basis  (Camb.,  Ennius,  an example.  of  must b e made between flavour  of  dry statements  poet  is  history  w o u l d a l w a y s be c o l o u r e d b y t h e  unobtrusive but pervading influence  that  in  the M e s s a p i i ,  A n n a l e s as  and d e s c r i p t i o n s without  With  little  Duckett's at  people,  early poet.  Duckett  that  c h a r a c t e r - d r a w i n g and g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e ,  and g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n of  later  She n o t e s  own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p e r m a n e n t l y u p o n many  p o r t r a i t of  had h e l p e d E n n i u s '  taken by  for  more e s p e c i a l l y  poet's  indirectly.  His Historical  Aims & Method.  licence  was  the the  72  allowed  to w r i t e r s  Ennius.  of  'historia',  T h e r e may e v e n h a v e b e e n  "Nowhere c a n a n y e x t r e m e  i  and p a r t l y p e r h a p s some i n f l u e n c e  dependence  on E n n i u s be  to  sources  from the  influenced  rhetorical  d e m o n s t r a t e d , " he  by  schools.  states  ,223  clearly.  Livy  p r o b a b l y knew some p o r t i o n s  by  rote.  Skutsch finds  to  echo E n n i u s ,  speeches. height  especially  He n o t e s  in  the  formulations  a few  that  speeches, left  their  examples  in  the  Ennius'  of  of  early  p a s s a g e s where  books  power o f  and he  feels  it  mark.  A t the  the Annales of  of  the  possible  same t i m e ,  the h i s t o r i a n  history,  expression  is  Quintus Ennius  reached that  notably its  their  perhaps  the  seems in  the  highest  striking  poetic  narrative  2 2A was n o t  deemed  conclusion.  a proper source  After  all,  the  for historians.  p o e t was  relating historical material. aspects  might be  occasionally it  was  not  at  that  composing  Poetic  exaggerated,  while  licence  others  i n f o r m a t i o n would have been  inherently  point  in his  poetic poem.  or did not F o r example,  so a n y m a j o r m i l i t a r y d e f e a t w o u l d h a v e Ennius the  dealt  source It  with  he was seems,  this  then,  r e a d and e n j o y e d ,  value  to  however,  that  question.  that  Walsh L i v y Skutsch  while  the  and even s t u d i e d  historians  suggests  of  an e p i c  omitted the  the  poem,  would have  m i g h t be  suit  seems t o b e well  dictated  downplayed.  or a l t e r e d tone  the  poet wanted  posed  as  a problem.  Of c o u r s e ,  it  in  a  It  as  where  some  Perhaps some way  p o e t was to  logical  setting  glorify is  Rome,  not  would a l s o  if  clear depend  how on  following.  doubt  later  sort  This  as  a source  A n n a l e s d f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was in  schools,  of h i s t o r i c a l  the A n n a l e s had a v a l u e  p.136.  Stud,Enn.  p.14.  it  was n o t  information.  beyond  their  of  no  great J . Wight D u f f ,  possible  (but  73  h y p o t h e t i c a l ) a n d  o t h e r  t h e y  L a t i n  p o e t r y  h i s t o r i c  T h e y a r e  o n  e a r l y  e p i g r a p h i c , m e r i t .  i n f l u e n c e  a  a l s o  a n d  h a v e  c o n t r a s t  O ' N e a l ' s  l a t e r  w i t h v e r y  p o s s e s s  s o c i a l  s o m e  h i s t o r i a n s . v a l u e  e l e m e n t s  i m p o r t a n c e  a n d  a  r e c e n t  m o r e f o u n d  i n  r e m a r k s  i n  f o r  t h e m  as  o f t h a n  w a s  a n  t h e  t h e  A n n a l e s  l i n g u i s t i c ,  b e c a u s e  h i s t o r y ,  w h a t  " E n n i u s  t h a t  b e c a u s e  l i t e r a r y  p r e p a r a t i o n a r t i c l e  H e  h e  to  o f  n o t e s ,  f o l l o w .  H i s t o r i c a l  l i t e r a r y b e c a u s e  225  S o u r c e " , 226  j u s t H e  c a m e  n o t e s  to  t h i s  w r i t e r ' s  C i c e r o s '  i n f o r m a t i o n  a n d  t h i s  n a m e l y  s t u d y ,  h i s t o r i a n s a n  is  i n d i r e c t  225 226 C B  64  ( 1 9 8 8 )  h i g h  r e g a r d  q u o t a t i o n s . t h a t  i n f l u e n c e  W i g h t  t o  a t  D u f f  f o r T h e  a n y  i m p o s s i b l e  W .  a t t e n t i o n  as  a n d  t h i s u s e  s t u d y o f  c o n c l u s i o n  d i r e c t  i n f l u e n c e  d e m o n s t r a t e ,  b u t  was  E n n i u s  h e  b e i n g as  r e a c h e s  o f  i s  Q u i n t u s  t h a t  i t  a  l e a s t .  L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y  J . O ' N e a l 3 5 - 3 9 ,  " E n n i u s  as  a n  p . 4 7 . H i s t o r i c a l  s o u r c e m u c h  E n n i u s  w o u l d  S o u r c e "  c o m p l e t e d .  b e  f o r t h e  same  o n  l a t e r  s a f e  to  as  a s s u m e  74  Conclusion  Quintus in  the  life was  field  of  and works concluded  matters Iliad  of  epic of  and n a t i o n a l  the  that  in writing his  the  t h e s e works In  this  i n the  matter  epic  the  use  of  of  that  it  was  they  also  in  the  Ennius,  it  H i s t o r y was works  of was  more u s u a l l y  Hellenistic  Age were a l s o  vocabulary,  and perhaps  of  the  demonstrated found  in  have  examined.  It  the  of  that  that  Homer  other  the  in  than  the  importance  ancient: stories Heroic, world  suitable  as  of  and  was  subject-  others. of  the  the  works.  of  epics  epics  whole  influenced  i n arrangement  Homer was  deemed  poets  lyric  the  noted  the  predecessors of  Greek  Eumelos and  some o f  shown t o  even  to  many  consideration  preserved  Epic  poems  techniques  fact  and  early  of  Cycle.  a brief  E n n i u s owed much t o  archaic period a history  In a c o n s i d e r a t i o n predecessors  After  The f r a g m e n t a r y  in  had a g r e a t  relationship  Odyssey were d i s c u s s e d ,  formulated for  his  Annales of  probably lay  Annales,  poetry.  Roman p o e t ,  form and s t y l e .  and the  legends.  Ennius,  Lyric  Annales  Age  seemed t o  The p o e t s  Ennius i n  historical  as  of  make  the  technique,  material  in  epic  poetry. The w r i t i n g s w o r l d were  studied.  influenced  by  in_the  Latin  these  expanded  well  in epic  how t h e  epic  the  the  two  p o e t s who p r e c e d e d  The c o n c l u s i o n two.  language,  Naevius as  of  Livius  r e a c h e d was  development  poetry.  c o u l d become  that  A n d r o n i c u s showed  a n d made a b e g i n n i n g of  He p e r h a p s a vehicle  Ennius in  for  E n n i u s was  considerably  that  epic  c o u l d be  written  a Latin  epic  diction.  Cnaeus  L a t i n vocabulary influenced  t h e Roman  in his  many p l a y s ,  E n n i u s by d e m o n s t r a t i n g  for history.  In the  same c h a p t e r ,  as to the  him  75  'Annales Maximi'  were c o n s i d e r e d  Ennius.  l o o k was  A brief  songs.  The f r a g m e n t s  immediate Ennius'  predecessor  Annales,  may h a v e  that  the  as  source  a  studied of  last  Annales  the  are  epic,  works  had a c c e s s  in  the  people with times  to  his fact in  historical  possible  information  existence  of  Quintus Fabius P i c t o r , were compared to  made a b o u t  t h e : ways  the  for  early  Ennius' remants  i n which  of  Pictor  this  study  attempted  of  Rome.  material.  school,  type  of  The l a t e r  and were  influence  so  i n those  influence  of  was  to  show t h e  place  :  The c o n c l u s i o n their  pervading  Roman h i s t o r i a n s  steeped  in Ennian  can o c c a s i o n a l l y  noted  in  the  d r a w n was influence  than  probably  style  areas  of  and  be  e a r l y books  forms  seen of  in  the  Livy.  historical  many o f  of  historiography  at  The A n n a l e s  written  'Annals' of  i m p o r t a n t more b e c a u s e  his  This  the  of  poet.  historical  Annales  works.  Historian  the  chapter  narration that  their  taken at  in writing history,  i n the  Annales of  the  a source  a n d some s u g g e s t i o n s  influenced The  Ennius'  of  also  as  of  Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was  then.  It  on h i s t o r i c a l a great  that  the  epic  poem.  own d a y .  shown, t h a t  of  The A n n a l e s o f  an i s o l a t e d many p o e t s  themes.  material,  p o e t had encompassed  contemporary h i s t o r y to h i s  been  and n a t i o n a l  variety  predecessors.  one  has  not  doubt  E n n i u s seems t o whole  He h a d c o m b i n e d l e g e n d a r y to  no  form a continuous  No p o e t h a d u n d e r t a k e n  of  influenced  of  by  unique  t h e Roman  and m y t h o l o g i c a l from the  such a v e n t u r e  had  certainly  have been  history  chronicle  an  and a u t h o r s  Ennius almost  a n d was  the  example  material  earliest  before.  76  Bibliography-  Primary Allen,  Sources Thomas W. 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