UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ennius and his predessors Hartley, Vivian Alma 1988

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ENNIUS AND HIS PREDECESSORS By VIVIAN ALMA HARTLEY B . A . , The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS We accept th i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 (c) V iv ian Alma H a r t l e y , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C LA SS/CS The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 6 C T . \^>\ci&Z DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t The A n n a l e s o f the Roman p o e t , Q u i n t u s E n n i u s , was n o t an i s o l a t e d example o f an h i s t o r i c a l e p i c . O t h e r p o e t s b e f o r e E n n i u s ' t i m e had w r i t t e n e p i c s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s , and d i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f poems t h a t d e a l t w i t h h i s -t o r i c a l o r n a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , and some o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n s i d e r E n n i u s * r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e H o m e r i c e p i c s , and show how he i m i t a t e d them i n form and s t y l e . The w r i t i n g s o f o t h e r G r e e k p o e t s who p r e c e d e d E n n i u s w i l l be examined t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e y might a l s o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e Roman p o e t . The works o f t h e two Roman p o e t s who w r o t e b e f o r e E n n i u s w i l l be l o o k e d a t , and some o b s e r v a t i o n s made about o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t may have been a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p o e t to use i n h i s w o r k . F i n a l l y , t h e p l a c e o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s and h i s A n n a l e s i n t h e h i s -t o r i o g r a p h y o f Rome w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The A n n a l e s seems t o have been u n i q u e i n t h a t i t was an e p i c poem w h i c h encompassed the whole h i s t o r y o f t h e Roman p e o p l e f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s r i g h t down t o t h e p e r i o d i n wh ich the poe t l i v e d . O t h e r p o e t s b e f o r e E n n i u s had d e a l t w i t h some a s p e c t s o f t h e i r c i t i e s ' b a c k g r o u n d s , i n c l u d i n g m y t h o l o g i c a l and l e g e n d a r y m a t e r i a l . E n n i u s was t h e f i r s t t o combine a n c i e n t l e g e n d s and more r e c e n t h i s t o r y i n t o one c o h e r e n t e p i c poem, h i s A n n a l e s , i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I n t r o d u c t i o n C h a p t e r 1. The L i f e and Works o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . 3. C h a p t e r 2 . E n n i u s ' R e l a t i o n s h i p t o Homer . 10. C h a p t e r 3 . E n n i u s and O t h e r G r e e k P r e d e c e s s o r s : A . E a r l y e p i c o t h e r t h a n I l i a d and O d y s s e y . B . E p i c d u r i n g t h e L y r i c A g e . 26. C . E p i c p o e t r y i n t h e H e l l e n i s t i c A g e . 34_ C h a p t e r 4. E n n i u s ' Roman p r e d e c e s s o r s . 42m C h a p t e r 5. E n n i u s and H i s t o r y . 54^ C o n c l u s i o n . 74^ B i b l i o g r a p h y . 75_ iv Abbreviations used The standard abbreviations are used for the works of the c l a s s i c a l authors. AJAH American Journal of Ancient History AJPh American Journal of Philology ANRW Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt CB C l a s s i c a l B u l l e t i n CPh C l a s s i c a l Philology CQ C l a s s i c a l Quarterly GRBS Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies ICS I l l i n o i s C l a s s i c a l Studies JHS Journal of He l l e n i c Studies JRS Journal of Roman Studies MAAR Memoirs of the American. Academy i n Rome PCPhS Proceedings of the Cambridge P h i l o l o g i c a l Soc. RFIC R i v i s t a d i F i l o l o g i a e d'Instruzione C l a s s i c a 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s s t u d y w i l l l o o k a t t h e poem, A n n a l e s , by t h e e a r l y Roman p o e t , Q u i n t u s E n n i u s , and a t t e m p t to p l a c e i t i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The b a s i c t o p i c to be d i s c u s s e d i s whether the poem i s an i s o l a t e d example o f an e p i c poem w r i t t e n on h i s t o r i c a l and n a t i o n a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , o r \ whether o t h e r p o e t s b e f o r e E n n i u s wrote s i m i l a r types o f poems. S u r e l y no w r i t e r o f p o e t r y o r p r o s e e v e r w r i t e s i n i s o l a t i o n , f r o m h i s own a g e , o r from the works o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t have p r e c e d e d h i m . T h e r e were many p o e t s b e f o r e E n n i u s who d e a l t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s i n e p i c s t y l e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h myths and l e g e n d s whose o r i g i n s were l o s t i n the d im and d i s t a n t p a s t . B e f o r e E n n i u s s a t down to compose h i s A n n a l e s , t h e r e were a l s o many p r o s e w r i t e r s who c h r o n i c l e d t h e h i s t o r i e s o f t h e i r v a r i o u s c i t i e s . These a u t h o r s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r works d e t a i l s o f the l o c a l f o l k l o r e , c u l t u r e and mytho logy o f t h e i r p e o p l e . E n n i u s a l m o s t seems t o have sought to j o i n t o g e t h e r i n one t h e s e two s treams o f l i t e r a r y e n d e a v o u r . The A n n a l e s was a t once a h i s t o r y o f t h e Roman p e o p l e and t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t s , and a l s o a g r e a t e p i c poem w r i t t e n i n the s t y l e o f Homer. The works o f t h e p o e t s , b o t h Greek and Roman, who p r e c e d e d Q u i n t u s E n n i u s and h i s A n n a l e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d , e s p e c i a l l y t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h o s e who w r o t e n a t i o n a l p o e t r y o f a h i s t o r i c a l n a t u r e . (The works o f the w r i t e r s of p r o s e h i s t o r i e s c o m p r i s e too v a s t a f i e l d t o be d i s c u s s e d h e r e . ) E n n i u s may have had a c c e s s to a g r e a t amount o f p o e t r y . W o r k s . w h i c h a r e known now by name o n l y may have been w e l l - k n o w n to t h e Roman p o e t a n d i n s p i r e d h im i n some way. The w r i t i n g s o f e a r l i e r p o e t s may have i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s w i t h r e g a r d t o the form and s t y l e o f h i s e p i c . 2 W i t h r e g a r d to the c o n t e n t o f the A n n a t e s , however , Q u i n t u s E n n i u s seems to have chosen a s u b j e c t o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , the whole h i s t o r y of t h e Roman p e o p l e and t h e i r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . By the e a r l y second c e n t u r y B . C . when E n n i u s was w r i t i n g , Rome a l r e a d y had s e v e r a l h u n d r e d y e a r s o f h i s t o r y b e h i n d h e r , so t h e r e was p l e n t y o f scope f o r the p o e t . L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e was s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y , t h o u g h , and t h e r e was l i t t l e f o r E n n i u s to work w i t h . I t f e l l t o h im to e x p e r i m e n t and i n v e n t , and advance the deve lopment o f the L a t i n l an gu age h i m s e l f . He i n t r o d u c e d t h e Greek hexameter i n t o L a t i n , and a l s o g r e a t l y expanded L a t i n v o c a b u l a r y . ' In the f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s s t u d y , the l i f e o f t h e p o e t w i l l be s k e t c h e d , and a few g e n e r a l ' o b s e r v a t i o n s made about h i s w o r k s . The second c h a p t e r w i l l l o o k a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f E n n i u s t o Homer. A b r i e f s u r v e y o f some o f the o t h e r G r e e k p o e t s who p r e c e d e d E n n i u s w i l l f o l l o w i n the n e x t c h a p t e r . A f u r t h e r c h a p t e r w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e works o f t h e Roman p r e d e c e s s o r s o f E n n i u s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e a c t u a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f the A n n a l e s and w i t h Q u i n t u s E n n i u s as an h i s t o r i c a l p o e t . 3 Chapter 1: the L i f e and Works of Quintus Ennius The l i f e of the poet, Quintus Ennius, unlike those of his fellow-writers, i s quite well documented i n ancient sources. His birth-date of 239 B;C. i s known from Cicero: "...anno ipso antequam natus est Ennius,. post Roman conditam autem quartodecimo et q u i n g e n t e s i m o . . . . H i s b i r t h -place was Rudiae, now Rugge, i n Calabria. "Nos sumus Romani qui fuimus 2 ante Rudini." Calabria was also c a l l e d Messapia, a f t e r King Messapus, an ancient hero of that area, from whom Ennius claimed descent. S i l i u s 3 I t a l i c u s mentions: "Ennius, antiqua Messapi ab origine r e g i s . . . . " , He must have had some Oscan connections, too, for Aulus G e l l i u s says of him: "Quintus Ennius t r i a corda habere sese dicebat quod loqui Graece et Osce et Latine s c i r e t . " 4 The poet was probably educated at nearby Tarentum, one of the c i t i e s of Magna Graecia. Quintus Ennius saw service i n the Roman army, and must have acquitted himself w e l l , for S i l i u s I t a l i c u s t e l l s that he attained the rank of centurion. "Ennius.<, .miscebat primas acies Latiaeque superbum v i t i s adornabat dextram decus.""' While Ennius was serving i n Sardinia i n 204 B.C., he met Marcus Porcius Cato who was quaestor there. The poet i s said to have spent time with Cato teaching him Greek: " . . . i n praetura Sardiniam subegit, ubi ab Ennio Graecis l i t t e r i s i n s t i t u t u s . . . . C a t o took Ennius back to Rome with him, where Ennius continued to do some teaching of Greek. Suetonius comments: "Initium quoque eius mediocre 1 Cicero Brutus 18.72. 2 Ann. 525 (I use Skutsch's numbering.) 3 S i l i u s I t a l i c u s Punica xii.393ff„ 4 Aulus G e l l i u s N.A. 17.17.1. S i l i u s I t a l i c u s Punica x i i . 3 9 3 f f ^ ^ Aurelius V i c t o r de V i r . I l l u s . 47. e x s t i t i t s i q u i d e m a n t i q u i s s i m i d o t a r u m , q u i i i d e m e t p o e t a e e t s e m i -g r a e c a e e r a n t ( L i v i u m e t E n n i u m d i c o , q u o s u t r a q u e l i n g u a d o m i f o r i s q u e d o c u i s s e a d n o t a t u m e s t ) n i h i l a m p l i u s q u a m G r a e c o s i n t e r p r e t a b a n t u r , a u t s i q u i d i p s i L a t i n e c o m p o s u i s s e n t p r a e l e g e b a n t . Q u i n t u s E n n i u s a l s o b e g a n t o w r i t e p o e t r y , a n d p r o d u c e d t r a g e d i e s o n s t a g e . E v i d e n t l y h e d i d n o t b e c o m e r i c h f r o m h i s w r i t i n g , a s C i c e r o o b s e r v e s : " . . . a n n o s s e p t u a g i n t a n a t u s . t o t e n i m v i x i t E n n i u s , i t a f e r e b a t d u o q u a e m a x i m a p u t a n t u r o n e r a , p a u p e r t a t e m e t s e n e c t u t e m , u t e i s 8 p a e n e d e l e c t a r i v i d e r e t u r . " J u s t a f t e r t h e p o e t h a d p r o d u c e d t h e t r a g e d y ' T h y e s t e s * , i n t h e y e a r 1 6 9 B . C . , h e d i e d o f g o u t . C i c e r o r e c o r d s : " N a m h o c p r a e t o r e l u d o s A p o l l i n i f a c i e n t e c u m T h y e s t e f a b u l a m d o c u i s s e t , 9 Q . M a r c i o C n . S e r v i l i o c o n s u l i b u s m o r t e m o b i i t E n n i u s . " Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w a s c e r t a i n l y a p r o l i f i c w r i t e r , b u t a s S k u t s c h n o t e s , l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e a b o u t t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f h i s w o r k s . ^ S k u t s c h t h i n k s i t l i k e l y t h a t t h e p o e t w o r k e d o n h i s t r a g e d i e s , t r a n s l a t i n g a n d a d a p t i n g t h e m f r o m G r e e k f o r p r o d u c t i o n a t R o m e , o v e r a p e r i o d o f m a n y y e a r s . ^ M a n y f r a g m e n t s o f h i s t r a g e d i e s a r e e x t a n t . C o m e d y w a s e v i d e n t l y n o t E n n i u s ' f o r t e . G e l l i u s q u o t e s t h e l i s t o f a u t h o r s o f c o m e d y c o m p i l e d b y V o l e a t i u s S e d i g i t u s , i n o r d e r o f m e r i t : " D e c i m u m a d d o c a u s a a n t i q u i -1 2 t a t i s E n n i u m . " T h e p o e t w o r k e d i n o t h e r g e n r e s , a s w e l l . H e t r a n s l a t e d t h e ' S a c r e d S c r i p t u r e ' o f E u h e m e r u s i n t o L a t i n v e r s e , a n d a n u m b e r o f f r a g m e n t s o f S a t i r e s h a v e s u r v i v e d . A p o e m c a l l e d ' S c i p i o ' d e a l t w i t h t h e A f r i c a n ^ S u e t o n i u s d e G r a m m a t i c i s 1 . 8 C i c e r o d e S e n e c t . 5 . 1 4 . 9 C i c e r o B r u t u s 2 0 . 7 8 . ^ O t t o S k u t s c h . T h e A n n a l s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) p . 2 . ^ S k u t s c h A n n , p . 2 . 1 2 G e l l i u s N . A . 1 5 . 2 4 . 5 c a m p a i g n s o f S c i p i o , a n d E n n i u s a l s o w r o t e a n ' A m b r a c i a 1 , l a u d i n g t h e v i c t o r y o f h i s p a t r o n , M . F u l v i u s N o b i l i o r , a t A m b r a c i a . T h e g r e a t w o r k o f E n n i u s ' l i f e w a s , h o w e v e r , h i s A n n a l e s . I t w a s a v e r y l o n g e p i c p o e m w h i c h d e t a i l e d t h e w h o l e h i s t o r y o f t h e R o m a n p e o p l e , f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s r i g h t u p t o t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h E n n i u s . l i v e d , S k u t s c h f e e l s t h a t t h e A n n a l e s m u s t h a v e b e e n t h e w o r k o f t h e p o e t ' s l a t e r m i d d l e a g e b e c a u s e i t w o u l d h a v e t a k e n a f e w y e a r s f o r E n n i u s t o b e c o m e f a m i l i a r e n o u g h w i t h t h e c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y , a n d c u s t o m s 1 3 o f R o m e t o u n d e r t a k e s u c h a v e n t u r e . A g r e a t m a n y y e a r s s e e m t o h a v e b e e n s p e n t w o r k i n g o n t h e A n n a l e s . P e r h a p s E n n i u s f e l t t h a t i t w a s c o m p l e t e a t o n e p o i n t , a n d t h e n d e c i d e d t o a d d t o i t . P l i n y t h e E l d e r , f o r e x a m p l e , m e n t i o n s : " Q . E n n i u s T . C a e l u m T e u c r u m f r a t r e m q u e e i u s p r a e c i p u e m i r a t u s 1 4 p r o p t e r e o s s e x t u m d e c i m u m a d l e c i t a n n a l e m . " T h i s c e r t a i n l y s u g g e s t s t h a t E n n i u s m a y h a v e r e s u m e d h i s w o r k a f t e r a b r e a k . G e l l i u s , t o o , c o m m e n t s t h a t t h e p o e t h i m s e l f o b s e r v e d t h a t . h e w a s w o r k i n g o n . h i s m a s t e r p i e c e i n h i s o l d a g e . " E n n i u m . . . M . V a r r o . . . s c r i p s i t . . . c u m s e p t i m u m e t s e x a g e s i m u m a n n u m h a b e r e t , d u o d e c i m u m A n n a l e m s c r i p s i s s e i d q u e i p s u m E n n i u m i n e o d e r a l i b r o d i c ' e r e . " ^ T h e A n n a l e s c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t e e n b o o k s , s t r u c t u r e d ( a s S k u t s c h s u g g e s t s ) , i n g r o u p s o f t h r e e b o o k s . ^ H e g o e s o n t o s a y t h a t t h e p o e t d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e d i t o r p u b l i s h t h e t r i a d s o f b o o k s s e p a r a t e l y . ^ I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e f r a g m e n t s o f B o o k V I I o f t h e A n n a l e s , t h e s a m e s c h o l a r 1 3 S k u t s c h A n n . p . 4 . 1 4 P l i n y t h e E l d e r N . H . v i i . 1 0 1 . 1 5 G e l l i u s N . . A . 1 7 . 2 1 . 4 3 . ^ S k u t s c h A n n . p . 6 . ^ S k u t s c h A n n , p . 6 . o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e b o o k b e g i n s w i t h a p r o e m i n w h i c h t h e p o e t s p e a k s a b o u t h i m s e l f a n d h i s w o r k . T h i s s u g g e s t s t o S k u t s c h t h a t E n n i u s m a d e a n e w b e g i n n i n g a t t h i s p o i n t , a n d m a y a l r e a d y h a v e p u b l i s h e d t h e p r e v i o u s 1 8 b o o k s . T h e A n n a l e s w a s w e l l r e c e i v e d i n t h e p o e t ' s o w n t i m e . T h e p o e m w a s a l s o c o p i e d e x t e n s i v e l y f o r s t u d y i n R o m a n s c h o o l s , a n d w a s g e n e r a l l y h e l d i n s o m e r e g a r d u n t i l t h e A e n e i d o f V i r g i l s u p e r c e d e d i t a s R o m e ' s n a t i o n a l p o e m . S u e t o n i u s m e n t i o n s h o w Q u i n t u s V a r g u n t i u s e x p o u n d e d t h e 1 9 A n n a l e s o f E n n i u s t o l a r g e a u d i e n c e s i n l a t e r t i m e s . E n n i u s h a d h i m s e l f b e e n m a d e a c i t i z e n o f R o m e , a s C i c e r o r e p o r t s : " Q u i n t u s N o b i l i o r , s o n o f M a r c u s , . . . u s i n g h i s p r i v i l e g e a s a t r i u m v i r i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o l o n y , b e s t o w e d c i t i z e n s h i p o n Q u i n t u s E n n i u s , w h o h a d . . . 2 0 c a m p a i g n e d w i t h h i s f a t h e r i n A e t o l i a . " T h e p o e t h a d s e r v e d i n t h e R o m a n a r m y a n d d e v e l o p e d a p a t r i o t i c f e e l i n g t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e R o m a n s t a t e a n d p e o p l e w e r e r e m a r k a b l e , a n d w o r t h y o f b e i n g c e l e b r a t e d i n a g r e a t e p i c . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o n l y a s m a l l n u m b e r o f f r a g m e n t s o f t h e A n n a l e s e x t a n t ( r e l a t i v e t o t h e s i z e o f t h e p o e m ) , t h o s e v e r s e s a n d p h r a s e s t h a t r e m a i n g i v e a g l i m p s e o f w h a t t h e w h o l e p o e m m u s t h a v e b e e n l i k e , a n d a l s o p r o v i d e a l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p o e t ' s s t y l e a n d t a l e n t , a s w e l l a s h i s f e e l i n g f o r R o m e . I n r e a d i n g t h e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e A n n a l e s , o n e c a n e a s i l y d i s c e r n t h a t Q u i n t u s E n n i u s l o v e d t h e s o u n d s o f t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e , a n d u s e d t h e m t o g r e a t a d v a n t a g e . T i m e a n d a g a i n . s o u n d s a r e e c h o e d f r o m o n e v e r s e t o a n o t h e r . 1 8 S k u t s c h A n n , p . 3 6 7 . S u e t o n i u s d e G r a m . 2 . ( M y p a r a p h r a s e . ) 20 C i c e r o B r u t u s x x . 7 9 . ( T r a n s l a t i o n o f G . L . H e n d r i c k s o n ) . 7 For example, the poet is fond of puns, and frequently uses two compound words which have the same root in one l ine or in adjacent l ines 0 One line which shows this technique is Ann. 518: "navibus explebant sese terrasque replebant." This kind of word-play is both fac i l i ta ted by and made effective in an inflected language. Skutsch observes that Ennius loved to tease his readers with a pun, and frequently used proper nouns in ambiguous contexts so that they could be mistaken for appellative nouns 21 or adjectives. Examples of this are Ann. 222: "Sulpureas posuit spiramina Naris ad undas;" and Ann. 540: "unus surum Surus ferre." The Annales were l ike ly read aloud in public presentations so the effect of sound was very important. A l l i t era t ion and assonance abound in the fragments, and their use was obviously a significant attribute of the poet's style. These effects were occasionally carried to extremes as in Ann. 620: "machina multa minax minitantur maxima muris," or in the well-known Ennian l ine , Ann.104: "0 Ti te , tute, Tat i , t i b i tanta, tyranne, t u l i s t i . " Perhaps i f the context of these verses were known, they might not seem so odd. Perhaps the poet had some purpose which i t is now not easy to appreciate because of the fragmentary nature of the poem. Another important feature of the Annales.was Ennius' use of imagery. With regard to this aspect of the poet's work, Skutsch observes 22 that Ennius' metaphors are numerous, bold, and often or ig ina l . Some of the poet's images are without doubt inspired by the works of Homer, but 21 Otto Skutsch Studia Enniana (Univ. of London: Athlone Press, 1968) p.45, n.5. 22 Skutsch Ann. p.445. 8 m a n y o f t h e m s e e m t o b e h i s o w n i n v e n t i o n . I n A n n . 4 3 2 - 4 3 4 , E n n i u s d e s c r i b e s t h e f i g h t i n g b e t w e e n t h e w a r r i o r s i n a d r a m a t i c s i m i l e : c o n c u r r e n t v e l u t i v e n t i , q u o m s p i r i t u s A u s t r i i m b r i c i t o r s u o c u m f l a m i n e c o n t r a i n d u m a r i m a g n o f l u c t u s e x t o l l e r e c e r t a n t . T h e w i n d s n a m e d b y t h e p o e t w e r e f a m o u s f o r d r i v i n g o n v i o l e n t s t o r m s , a n d t h u s t h e u s e o f t h e n a m e s h e l p s t o c o n j u r e u p t h e v i o l e n c e a n d s p i r i t e d a c t i o n o f t h e s c e n e . G o r d o n W i l l i a m s c o m p a r e s t h i s s a m e f r a g m e n t t o I l i a d i x . 4 - 8 : " L i k e a s t w o w i n d s s t i r u p t h e m a i n , t h e h o m e o f f i s h e s , e v e n t h e n o r t h w i n d a n d t h e w e s t w i n d t h a t b l o w f r o m T h r a c e , c o m i n g s u d d e n l y ; a n d t h e d a r k b i l l o w s t r a i g h t w a y l i f t e t h u p i t s c r e s t a n d c a s t e t h m u c h t a n g l e o u t a l o n g t h e . s e a ; e v e n s o w a s t h e A c h a i a n s ' s p i r i t t r o u b l e d i n t h e i r b r e a s t . " 2 3 H o m e r d e s c r i b e s a t e m p e s t w i t h i n t h e h e a r t s o f t h e G r e e k h e r o e s . H e , t o o , n a m e s t h e w i n d s , b u t a s W i l l i a m s p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e i s m o r e c o n c r e t e d e t a i l 2 4 m H o m e r t h a n m E n n i u s . W i l l i a m s o b s e r v e s t h a t w h a t E n n i u s d o e s " i s 2 5 t o c r e a t e a n o n o m a t o p o e t i c i m p r e s s i o n o f a s t o r m w i t h o u t v i s u a l d e t a i l . " H e f e e l s t h a t E n n i u s g e n e r a l l y g i v e s m e m o r a b l e e x p r e s s i o n t o h i s i d e a s b y m a k i n g a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s o n t h e s o u n d o f t h e l a n g u a g e , r a t h e r t h a n c o n j u r i n g 2 6 u p v i s u a l i m a g e s . T h i s s e e m s t o b e a n e x a m p l e , t h e n , w h e r e E n n i u s p e r h a p s g o t t h e i d e a f r o m H o m e r , b u t h e t a k e s i t a n d m a k e s s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t , s o m e t h i n g h i s o w n . T h e r e i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l e i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e l o n g f r a g m e n t w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e t a k i n g o f t h e a u s p i c e s f o r t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e c i t y : 2 3 L a n g , L e a f , a n d M y e r s ' t r a n s l a t i o n . 2 4 . . . . . . . G o r d o n W i l l i a m s T r a d i t i o n a n d O r i g i n a l i t y m R o m a n P o e t r y ( O x f o r d , 1 9 6 8 ) p . 6 9 7 . 2 5 W i l l i a m s p . 6 9 7 . ^ W i l l i a m s p . 6 9 3 . 9 E x p e c t a n t v e l u t i c o n s u l q u o t a m i t t e r e s i g n u m V o l t , o r a n e s a v i d i s p e c t a n t a d c a r c e r i s o r a s Q u a m m o x e m i t t a t p i c t o s e f a u c i b u s c u r r u s : S i c e x s p e c t a b a t p o p u l u s a t q u e o r e t i m e b a t R e b u s u t r i m a g n i v i c t o r i a s i t d a t a r e g n i . T h i s s i m i l e i s u n i q u e l y R o m a n i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n , a n d l i k e l y o r i g i n a l w i t h E n n i u s . S k u t s c h h a s t o a d m i t t h a t t h i s s i m i l e i s e i t h e r e n t i r e l y o r i g i n a l . . 2 7 o r s o r e c a s t i n a R o m a n m o u l d t h a t i t s o r i g i n i s c o n c e a l e d . T h e t y p i c a l l y E n n i a n d e v i c e o f u s i n g d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f t h e s a m e v e r b i s s e e n h e r e . T h e p o e t s t a r t s o u t w i t h ' e x p e c t a n t ' , u s e s ' s p e c t a n t ' i n t h e m i d d l e , a n d c o n c l u d e s w i t h ' s i c e x p e c t a b a t ' . T h e c r o w d ' s r e s t l e s s a n d e a g e r a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e o u t c o m e i s k e p t b e f o r e t h e a u d i e n c e ' s e y e s t h e w h o l e t i m e . A s 2 8 W i l l i a m s s a y s , t h e s i m i l e i s s p a r i n g i n i t s d e t a i l s . T h e p o e t k e e p s h i s e m p h a s i s w h e r e h e w i s h e s i t t o b e . A n o t h e r s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e A n n a l e s t h a t a l s o s h o w s t h e p o e t ' s g r e a t a w a r e n e s s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f s o u n d i s h i s u s e o f c h i a s m u s . I n t h e f e w f r a g m e n t s a v a i l a b l e t h e r e a r e . s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e s . O n e i s f o u n d i n A n n . 2 4 8 : " s p e r n i t u r o r a t o r b o n u s , h o r r i d u s m i l e s a m a t u r . " O n c e a g a i n , t h e i n f l e c t e d l a n g u a g e p a r t i c u l a r l y l e n d s i t s e l f t o s u c h c o n v e n i e n t a n d d r a m a t i c p a r a l l e l i s m a n d b a l a n c e . C h i a s m u s a n d t h e o t h e r l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s o f w h i c h E n n i u s m a k e s u s e m u s t h a v e h e l p e d t o s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t i n h i s l o n g n a r r a t i v e , a n d a d d e d v a r i e t y a n d d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w , a s w e l l a s l e n d i n g e m p h a s i s t o p a r t i c u l a r p a s s a g e s . M a n y o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d b e m a d e a b o u t t h e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e A n n a l e s . T h e v e r s e s a r e q u i t e v a r i e d a n d c o n t a i n d i f f e r e n t u s a g e s a n d i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l . T h e y s h o w t h a t Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w a s a n a c c o m p l i s h e d p o e t i n f u l l c o n t r o l o f h i s l a n g u a g e . 2 7 S k u t s c h A n n , p . 2 2 8 . 2 8 W i l l i a m s T r a d , p . 6 9 0 . 10 C h a p t e r 2: E n n i u s ' R e l a t i o n s h i p to Homer In s e t t i n g out to w r i t e h i s A n n a l e s , Q u i n t u s E n n i u s saw h i m s e l f as a Roman Homer who would b r i n g renown to the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o f the Roman p e o p l e . Homer o c c u p i e d a t o t a l l y u n i q u e p o s i t i o n i n the l i f e , h i s t o r y , and c u l t u r e o f the G r e e k p e o p l e . As M . I . F i n l e y n o t e s , "He was t h e i r p r e -eminent symbol o f n a t i o n h o o d , the u n i m p e a c h a b l e a u t h o r i t y on t h e i r e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y , and a d e c i s i v e f i g u r e i n the c r e a t i o n o f t h e i r p a n t h e o n , as w e l l • 29 as t h e i r most b e l o v e d and most w i d e l y q u o t e d p o e t . " E n n i u s c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a Homer r e b o r n , and the l a t e r Roman p o e t H o r a c e r e f e r r e d t o h i m as "et s a p i e n s e t f o r t i s e t a l t e r Homerus .""^ E n n i u s sought t o occupy a p o s i t i o n i n the l i v e s o f the Romans t h a t Homer would have i f he had been a Roman. In the f i r s t book o f the A n n a l e s , E n n i u s d e s c r i b e s how he r e c e i v e s the s o u l o f h i s G r e e k p r e d e c e s s o r . He t e l l s how " v i s u s Homerus adesse p o e t a , " and a l i t t l e f u r t h e r o n , Homer h i m s e l f says to E n n i u s "memini me f i e r i pavom." C u r i o u s l y , t h e n , the s o u l o f Homer p a s s e s t o E n n i u s a f t e r i t has been i n a p e a c o c k . S k u t s c h p o i n t s o u t t h a t the p a s s a g e o f Homer ' s s o u l to E n n i u s v i a r e b i r t h i n a . p e a c o c k was m o d e l l e d on t h a t o f P y t h a g o r a s ' s o u l f rom E u p h o r b u s , a s t o r y p r e v a l e n t i n the r e g i o n s o f s o u t h I t a l y i n 31 E n n i u s ' t i m e . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the poe t was i n s p i r e d i n such a way s i n c e he was o b v i o u s l y v e r y w e l l r e a d , and h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h 32 p h i l o s o p h i c a l m a t t e r s i s a b l y d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s o t h e r w o r k s . 29 . M . I . F i n l e y The W o r l d o f Odysseus (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1954; r e p r i n t e d . 1984) p . 15. 3 0 E p . II.1.50. 31 S k u t s c h A n n . p.164. 32 E g . E p i c h a r m u s & Euhemerus . Q u i n t u s E n n i u s s a w h i m s e l f a s m a k i n g a c o m p l e t e l y n e w b e g i n n i n g o f e p i c . T h e R o m a n H o m e r w a s n o t t o b e m e r e l y a s l a v i s h i m i t a t o r o f t h e G r e e k o n e . H e f e l t t h a t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c i t y o f R o m e a n d t h e a c c o m p l i s h -m e n t s o f h e r p e o p l e w e r e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e a d v e n t u r e s a n d w o n d e r f u l d e e d s o f t h e g r e a t h e r o e s o f H o m e r ' s w o r k s , a n d h e n c e w e r e s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t s f o r a n e p i c p o e m . E n n i u s h a d b e c o m e a R o m a n c i t i z e n , a n d h i s p a t r i o t i s m t o w a r d s h i s a d o p t e d s t a t e w o u l d a d d a n e w e l e m e n t t o e p i c . H o m e r w a s o b j e c t i v e i n h i s n a r r a t i o n s , b u t E n n i u s c o u l d b e s u b j e c t i v e . M o r e o v e r , h e s a w h i m s e l f a s a " r e r u m s c r i p t o r " , a r e c o r d e r o f h i s t o r y , n o t m e r e l y a p o e t r e l a t i n g t h e l e g e n d s o f h i s p e o p l e . G o r d o n W i l l i a m s o b s e r v e s , " T h e g r e a t e s t R o m a n p o e t s f o u n d a n i n e x h a u s t i b l e s o u r c e o f p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n i n t r a n s f e r r i n g i d e a s a n d i m a g e s 3 3 o f G r e e k p o e t s t o a n e w c o n t e x t o f t h e i r o w n c r e a t i o n . " T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y w h a t E n n i u s d i d . H e s h o w e d f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e A n n a l e s t h a t h e w a s o p e r a t i n g i n a G r e e k m o d e . T h e h e x a m e t e r w a s t h e m e t r e o f c h o i c e , a n d i n t h e v e r y , f i r s t f r a g m e n t h e a d d r e s s e s t h e M u s e s . " M u s a e , q u a e p e d i b u s 3 4 m a g n u m p u l s a t i s O l y m p u m , " i s t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e o f t h e p o e m ; S k u t s c h o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e n a m e o f t h e M u s e s w a s h a r d l y u n k n o w n a t 3 5 R o m e , b u t t h i s i s t h e e a r l i e s t o c c u r r e n c e i n L a t i n p o e t r y . H e s u g g e s t s t h a t a n a d d r e s s t o t h e M u s e s w a s s y m b o l i c o f m u c h m o r e t h a n m e r e l y a c h a n g e o f m e t r e . T h e M u s e s h a d b e c o m e i n G r e e k l i t e r a t u r e t h e p a t r o n s o f a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s . H e n c e E n n i u s i s c l a i m i n g t o w r i t e a s o n e w h o i s m a s t e r o f h i s c r a f t a n d a s o n e w h o w o r k s i n t h e f u l l l i g h t o f t h i s k n o w l e d g e . 3 3 W i l l i a m s T r a d , p . 2 5 5 . A n n . 1 . 3 5 S k u t s c h A n n . p . 1 4 7 . 3 6 S k u t s c h S t u d . E n n . p . 5 , 1 2 A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i s m a d e b y S k u t s c h a b o u t A n n . l . H e n o t e s t h e i n t e r l o c k i n g a l l i t e r a t i o n o f t h e ' m ' s a n d t h e ' p ' s , b u t h i n t s t h a t t h e r e s e m b l a n c e o f t h a t t o O d y s s e y 1 . 1 ( . . . / ^ j o ^ r r c u ^ lTo\(j~ T p o T f o V o S J*LQ.A<*- -TTO\\0~ ) i s p r o b a b l y c o i n c i d e n t a l . H e s a y s t h e s a m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e r e s e m b l a n c e o f A n n . l t o I l i a d 8 . 4 4 3 ( . . . U T T o 3 7 also. T h e r e i s m u c h i n t h e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e A n n a l e s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t E n n i u s k n e w h i s H o m e r v e r y w e l l , s o i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d v a r i o u s e c h o e s o f t h e b a r d . J u s t a s E n n i u s h a d a d d r e s s e d t h e M u s e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e C a m e n a e a s h i s R o m a n p r e d e c e s s o r s d i d , s o , t o o , h e c a l l s h i m s e l f ' p o e t a * , a d a p t i n g t h e G r e e k TTQ<-.1 T " 1 * , r a t h e r t h a n t h e ' v a t e s ' o f e a r l i e r p o e t s . F o r h i m t h e w o r k a t h a n d i s a ' p o e m a ' r a t h e r t h a n a ' c a r m e n ' . E n n i u s s e t s t h e A n n a l e s a p a r t f r o m a n y t h i n g t h a t h a d b e e n d o n e i n L a t i n b e f o r e . ; . I n A n n . 2 0 6 - 7 t h e p o e t m e n t i o n s t h i s p o i n t a g a i n . H e s a y s : " s c r i p s e r e a l i i r e m / v o r s i b u s q u o s o l i m F a u n e i v a t e s q u e c a n e b a n t . " . " O t h e r s h a v e w r i t t e n h i s t o r y i n v e r s e s 3 8 w h i c h o n c e t h e F a u n s a n d r u s t i c b a r d s u s e d t o s i n g . " O t h e r p o e t s , w r i t i n g i n L a t i n , n o t a b l y L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s a n d . C n a e u s N a e v i u s , h a d u s e d t h e o l d S a t u r n i a n m e t r e w h i c h s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n n a t i v e t o I t a l y . E n n i u s o b v i o u s l y s a w t h e A n n a l e s a s a n e w k i n d o f u n d e r t a k i n g . A d a p t i n g t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e t o t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e G r e e k h e x a m e t e r w a s a d i f f i c u l t e n d e a v o u r . M a n y L a t i n w o r d s j u s t d o n o t w o r k i n h e x a m e t e r s . O n e o f E n n i u s ' a n s w e r s t o t h i s p r o b l e m w a s t o c o i n s o m e n e w w o r d s . S o m e o f t h e s e w o r d s i m i t a t e d H o m e r i c e p i t h e t s ; f o r e x a m p l e , A n n . 4 5 1 h a s : 3 7 S k u t s c h A n n , p . 1 4 7 . 3 8 M y t r a n s l a t i o n . 1 3 " I o v i s o m n i p o t e n t i s . " S u c h p h r a s e s n o d o u b t s e r v e d a n a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f H o m e r i c f o r m u l a e , n a m e l y t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g c o n v e n i e n t m e t r i c a l u n i t s . S e v e r a l p h r a s e s a r e r e p e a t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s f r a g m e n t s o f A n n a l e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e p o e t f o u n d t h i s a u s e f u l r e s o u r c e . P e r h a p s h e e v e n h a d s t o c k p h r a s e s t o d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a s H o m e r h a d . I n o t h e r f r a g m e n t s i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t E n n i u s s i m p l y t o o k w o r d s o v e r d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e G r e e k i n t o L a t i n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n A n n . 2 1 7 , t h e p o e t 3 9 u s e s t h e w o r d ' p o n t u s ' , w h i c h , a s S k u t s c h n o t e s , i s a L a t i n i z a t i o n o f t h e G r e e k T f o v • f & 3 . H e a d d s , t h a t e x c e p t a s a n a m e w i t h " E u x i n u s " , t h e w o r d ' p o n t u s ' b e l o n g s e x c l u s i v e l y t o p o e t r y , a n d i s f o u n d h e r e f o r t h e f i r s t A O t i m e i n L a t i n . T h e s a m e t h i n g i s t r u e o f t h e w o r d ' o c e a n u m ' i n A n n . 4 1 5 - 4 1 6 : ' i n t e r e a f a x / o c c i d i t O c e a n u m q u e r u b r a t r a c t i m o b r u i t a e t h r a . " T h i s i s t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f t h e w o r d i n L a t i n . ' A e t h r a ' i s a l s o a G r e e k w o r d t r a n s l i t e r a t e d i n t o L a t i n f r o m ' < 3 . c ©"fl ' . A s w e l l a s e n l a r g i n g v o c a b u l a r y i n t h i s w a y , t h e u s e d G r e e k w o r d s m u s t h a v e a d d e d s o m e H o m e r i c f l a v o u r t o A n n a l e s , a n d p e r h a p s s o m e a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a s w e l l . T h e e n c l i t i c ' - q u e ' s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n o n e o f E n n i u s ' f a v o u r i t e c o n n e c t i v e s i n t h e A n n a l e s . T h e p o e t c o n t r i v e s t o u s e i t i n a H o m e r i c w a y , t o o . H e i m i t a t e d H o m e r ' s u s e o f ' " T t . . . T"6r .. » f a s f o r e x a m p l e i n I l i a d 1 . 5 4 4 : Ifa-Tlgf a V ^ p w ^ T " € 0&<»>^ T* ^ E n n i a n e x a m p l e s a r e : A n n . 5 9 2 ' p a t r e m d i v o m q u e h o m i n u m q u e ' , a n d A n n . 3 4 4 ' n o c t e s q u e d i e s q u e . ' B y u s i n g t h e e n c l i t i c i n t h i s w a y t h e p o e t h a d e x t r a s h o r t s y l l a b l e s a t h i s d i s p o s a l , a d i s t i n c t a d v a n t a g e w h e n s o m a n y L a t i n w o r d s h a v e l o n g s y l l a b l e s o n l y a n d a r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o f i t i n t o d a c t y l i c h e x a m e t e r s . 3 9 S k u t s c h A n n , p . 3 9 0 . ^ " u r s e r a t h u e n a v i m c o n p u l s a m f l u c t i b u s p o n t u s . " 1 4 S o m e o f t h e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e A n n a l e s s h o w h o w w e l l t h e R o m a n H o m e r h a d m a s t e r e d t h e h e x a m e t e r . F o r e x a m p l e , A n n . 5 0 5 : " l a b i t u r u n c t a c a r i n a p e r a e q u o r a c a n a c e l o c i s . " T h i s i s a m a s t e r f u l l i n e , w i t h i t s s e a - i m a g e r y r a t h e r r e m i n i s c e n t o f H o m e r ' s w o r k s . M o r e o v e r , i n t h i s l i n e , - t h e p o e t h a s s u c c e e d e d i n a t t a i n i n g t h a t e a s e a n d r a p i d i t y o f m o v e m e n t w h i c h s o c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p o e t r y o f H o m e r . E n n i u s u s e d t h e s a m e o p e n i n g p h r a s e i n A n n . 3 7 6 t o o : " l a b i t u r u n c t a c a r i n a v o l a t s u p e r i m p e t u s u n d a s . " T h i s i s a l s o a v e r y s m o o t h , r a p i d l y f l o w i n g v e r s e a l s o . T h e r e p e t i t i o n w o u l d c a l l t o m i n d o t h e r c o n t e x t s w h e r e E n n i u s h a d u s e d t h e s a m e w o r d s „ E n n i u s w a s n o t a l w a y s s o s u c c e s s f u l i n w r i t i n g h e x a m e t e r s , a n d s o m e o f h i s v e r s e s a r e r a t h e r l e a d e n - f o o t e d o r j u s t p l a i n p r o s a i c . O n e e x a m p l e i s A n n . 1 1 7 : P a l a t u a l e m F u r i n a l e m F l o r a l e m q u e . " A l l o f t h e s i x m e a s u r e s a r e s p o n d e e s . O f c o u r s e , t h e s e n a m e s , w i t h a l l t h e i r l o n g s y l l a b l e s , w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o p l a c e i n a n y c o n t e x t . P e r h a p s t h e n a m e s a r e m e a n t t o b e p o n d e r e d o v e r , o r t h e l i n e m a y r e f l e c t t h e s o u r c e , f r o m w h i c h t h e p o e t t o o k h i s m a t e r i a l . T h e r e a r e q u i t e a n u m b e r o f s u c h l i n e s . A n n . 6 2 1 h a s " o l l i c r e t e r r i s e x a u r a t i s h a u s e r u n t " . T h e h e a v i n e s s o f t h e l i n e s e e m s a l m o s t t o b e l i e t h e j o y f u l a c t i v i t y i t d e s c r i b e s . I t m u s t , h o w e v e r , b e r e c a l l e d t h a t i n d e a l i n g w i t h f r a g m e n t s c o n c l u s i o n s c a n o f t e n b e o n l y c o n j e c t u r a l . O t h e r a r e a s i n w h i c h E n n i u s b o r r o w e d f r o m H o m e r , m a y i n c l u d e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f w a r r i o r s i n b a t t l e . E n n i u s u s u a l l y c h a n g e d s o m e d e t a i l , o r u s e d t h e H o m e r i c d e s c r i p t i o n s i n a d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f c o n t e x t . O f c o u r s e t h e w a r r i o r s o f H o m e r ' s e p i c s n e v e r s a w e l e p h a n t s o r s i e g e - w o r k s , s o p r e s u m a b l y E n n i u s s t i l l h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e t o b e o r i g i n a l . T h e r e i s a t l e a s t o n e c o u n c i l o f t h e g o d s , a n d t h e d e i t i e s a r e c a l l e d u p o n a t v a r i o u s t i m e s , a s 15 i n Homer. N i g h t , the s u n , and dawn a r e an imate b e i n g s as t h e y a r e i n the I l i a d and the O d y s s e y . T h e r e a r e , t h e n , a number o f ways i n w h i c h i t c a n be seen t h a t Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was i n s p i r e d by Homer. E l i n o r D u c k e t t , however , o b s e r v e s t h a t a l t h o u g h E n n i a n b o r r o w i n g s from Homer may be numerous , they o f t e n do n o t e x t e n d beyond f o r m . They c o n s i s t m e r e l y o f o p e n i n g s and c l o s i n g s of. v e r s e s , p h r a s e s and even whole l i n e s t h a t a r e a d a p t e d by E n n i u s b e c a u s e he deems them s u i t a b l e f o r the . 41 e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s r e c o r d . She c o n c l u d e s t h a t E n n i u s m e r e l y c a s t h i s n a r r a t i v e i n t o a Homer ic m o u l d , r e p r o d u c i n g c o l o u r s and p h r a s e s , and now - ' . . . . . . . . 42 and then s h a p i n g an i n c i d e n t i n i m i t a t i o n o f Homer ic e p i s o d e s . T h i s seems to be a good summation o f E n n i u s ' a t t empt to w r i t e i n t h e f o r m and s t y l e o f Homer, b u t t h i s s t u d y has t r i e d t o show t h a t E n n i u s owed more t o Homer t h a n m e r e l y , f o r m and s t y l e i n h i s A n n a l e s . . He wanted to c r e a t e a Roman e p i c t h a t had the e t h o s and f e e l i n g o f the Homer ic e p i c s . J . Wight D u f f makes t h e f o l l o w i n g judgment o f E n n i u s i n h i s a t t e m p t to be H o m e r i c : " I f E n n i u s r e m a i n s H o m e r i c , he does so i n v i r t u e o f r a p i d d e s c r i p t i o n s and o f t h a t energy w i t h w h i c h he c a n make h i s h e r o e s s p e a k . What u n i t y t h e work p o s s e s s e s l i e s i n i t s p e r m e a t i o n w i t h t h e i d e a o f g r e a t n e s s . . 43 g r a d u a l l y a c h i e v e d by Rome. In t h i s sense i t was a R o m a i d . " 41 . . : ... ' • / E l i n o r S. Duckett Studies i n Ennius (Bryn Mawr; 1915) p.41. 42 Duckett Stud, p.45. J. Wight Duff A L i t e r a r y History of Rome (Unwin; 1909; re p r i n t ed. London; Benn, 1953) p.108. 16 Chapter 3: Other Greek Predecessors of Ennius A. Very early Greek Epic other than the I l iad or Odyssey The Greek poet who most influenced Quintus Ennius was undoubtedly Homer. In. the years after Homer, the epic tradition continued in the works of other writers. On the one hand there was a group of poets or reciters of poetry who were alleged to be the sons and heirs of Homer, the Homeridae. They supposedly recited only authentic material handed down from Homer. T.W. Allen points out that to Pindar the Homeridae were the equivalents of 44 rhapsodes, with a private store of material. To fourth century writers they were persons who possessed the history of Homer, a body, of recondite 45 verse, and functioned as a sort of gui ld. On the other hand, the Homeric tradition was also continued by a group of poets working in Ionia, whose poems were later loosely linked together under the name, the 'Epic Cycle' . Among these poets, style and methods were Homeric, as were most of the vocabulary and dialect used. For subject-matter, however, the poets of the 'Epic Cycle' looked to material which lay outside the scope of the I l iad and Odyssey. They chose to relate legends and myths which preceded the action of Homer's works, or happened afterwards, so that eventually there was a whole body of poetry by a variety of writers that dealt with the entire Trojan story. The 'Epic Cycle' was a later designation for this body of poetry. The poets themselves did not use that name. During the Hellenist ic period, the industrious scholars of Alexandria, among them, Zenodotus of Ephesus, 44 . • ' . . , Thos. W. Allen Homer: the Origins and the Transmission (Oxford: Clarendon, 1924) p.43. 45 Allen Homer p.45 a 17 c o m p i l e d a l l the poems o f the ' E p i c C y c l e ' , as i t had become known by t h e n , and a r r a n g e d them i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . From t h i s mass o f p o e t r y , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n l y a s m a t t e r i n g o f f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n . However , knowledge o f the main t h r e a d s o f the s t o r i e s and a few o t h e r b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n have come t h r o u g h synopses made by P r o c l u s ( o r P r o c u l u s ) o f S i c c a , i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y , A . D . , i n h i s C h r e s t o m a t h i a . T h i s , t o o , was l o s t , b u t f a i r l y c o p i o u s e x t r a c t s o f i t s u r v i v e d i n the B i b l i o t h e c a o f P a t r i a r c h P h o t i u s and o t h e r B y z a n t i n e w o r k s . By a roundabout r o u t e , i n v o l v i n g , so to s p e a k , ep i tomes o f e p i t o m e s , s c h o l a r s have been a b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t the s u b j e c t -m a t t e r o f the l o s t poems of the ' E p i c C y c l e ' , The ' E p i c C y c l e ' was a s o r t o f c o n n e c t e d h i s t o r y o f the whole 46 h e r o i c G r e e k w o r l d . The K y p n a n L a y s o r K y p r i a c o n t a i n e d the e a r l i e s t p a r t s o f the t a l e o f T r o y . I t was e l e v e n books i n l e n g t h , and a p p a r e n t l y began w i t h the p l a n o f Zeus t o r e l i e v e the e a r t h o f h e r b u r d e n o f too many p e o p l e by a g r e a t w a r . The s t o r y went on to the a p p l e o f d i s c o r d , the judgment o f P a r i s , and the a b d u c t i o n o f H e l e n . The g a t h e r i n g o f the Achaeans was r e l a t e d i n s e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s , and the t a l e was b r o u g h t up to the p o i n t a t w h i c h the q u a r r e l between A c h i l l e s and Agamennon b r e a k s o u t . T h i s « p o e m was v a r i o u s l y a s c r i b e d t o Homer h i m s e l f , t o S t a s i n u s o f C y p r u s , o r t o H e g e s i n u s o f S a l a m i s . The poems A i t h i o p i s and the Sack o f I l i u m d e s c r i b e d e v e n t s t h a t took p l a c e a f t e r the c l o s e o f the I l i a d , These two works were a t t r i b u t e d to A r c t i n u s o f M i l e t u s , o f whom n o t h i n g e l s e i s known. I n c l u d e d i n A i t h i o p i s were e p i s o d e s such as t h e coming o f the Amazon P e n t h e s i l e a t o In the d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s , I am i n d e b t e d t o George Huxley Greek E p i c P o e t r y f rom Eumelos t o P a n y a s s i s (London: F a b e r & F a b e r , 1969) pp.144-173. 18 h e l p the T r o j a n s , the s i m i l a r a r r i v a l and d e a t h o f the E t h i o p i a n Memnon, and the s l a y i n g o f A c h i l l e s by P a r i s . The d i s p u t e between A j a x and Odysseus o v e r the arms o f A c h i l l e s formed the l a s t p a r t . The s t o r y r e l a t e d i n the Sack o f I l i u m was r a t h e r s i m i l a r to V i r g i l ' s t e l l i n g o f e v e n t s i n Book I I o f h i s A e n e i d . H e r e were found the wooden h o r s e , L a o c o o n , S i n o n , the Achaeans r e t u r n from T e n e d o s , and the a c t u a l s a c k i n g o f the c i t y by t h e G r e e k s . F i n a l e p i s o d e s d e a l t w i t h the d i v i s i o n o f the s p o i l s and the b u r n i n g o f T r o y . T h e r e was a l s o a n o t h e r r e - w o r k i n g o f the s t o r y c a l l e d the L i t t l e I l i a d . I t seems to have been more e l a b o r a t e , and was a s c r i b e d to L e s c h e s o f P y r r h a o r o f M y t i l e n e i n L e s b o s . The N o s t o i was an e p i c i n f i v e books t h a t t o l d the s t o r i e s o f the h e r o i s 1 r e t u r n s f rom the T r o j a n War, and was a t t r i b u t e d to A g i a s o r H e g i a s o f T r o e z e n . The f i n a l c h a p t e r s o f the T r o j a n saga were d e a l t w i t h i n the T e l e g o n y . T h i s poem i n two books r e g a l e d the f u r t h e r a d v e n t u r e s o f O d y s s e u s , and t o l d how the h e r o met h i s d e a t h a t the hands o f T e l e g o n u s , h i s son by C i r c e . I t h a d , however , a h a p p y , i f somewhat b i z a r r e e n d i n g , w i t h T e l e g o n u s m a r r y i n g P e n e l o p e and Te lemachus wedding C i r c e . T h i s work was a s c r i b e d to Eugammon o f C y r e n e , who f l o u r i s h e d about 568 B . C . These were the c y c l i c poems, t h e n . They c a r r i e d the s t o r y o f T r o y and a l l t h e a s s o c i a t e d myths f rom the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w o r l d r i g h t up to t h e d e a t h o f Odysseus w h i c h was the end o f the h e r o i c a g e . A l l o f the poems depended on what Homer had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e i r h a n d l i n g of m a t e r i a l c o n t i n u e d i n t h e way t h a t he had se t f o r them. The c h a r a c t e r s p r e s e n t e d a r e H o mer ' s c h a r a c t e r s , and they behave as t h e y d i d i n the I l i a d A and the O d y s s e y . 19 There are some differences, however, between the cyclic poems i . . . 47 and Homer s two epics, as Evelyn-White points out. Poems such as the Nostoi, for instance, show a far more exact knowledge of geography than Homer does. Another aspect in which they differ greatly is that the main interest is in facts rather than character. Epic poetry after Homer showed more fidelity to "real life". Actual places were mentioned, and some of the individuals were actually historical, rather than legendary. Stories other than those related to the Trojan War were also found worthy of epic treatment. Another group of poems that were well-known in antiquity was called the 'Theban Cycle'. One poem of this group was the Oidipodea, of which l i t t l e is known beyond the tradition that i t contained 6600 lines. It told the story of Oedipus, and was attributed to Kinaithon, 48 a Lacedaimonian poet. A second poem of this cycle was the Thebais, an •* epic extending to 7000 lines, which told of the attack against Thebes and the events that preceded i t . This poem is mentioned in the fragments of the work of the poet Callinus, who thought that Homer had written i t . The first line of Thebais was sly in imitation of the 49 Iliad. Pausanias comments that he rates the Thebais as "the best poem after the Iliad and the Odyssey. H. G. Evelyn-White Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns, and  Homerica (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard, 1914. Loeb Library Ed. , Reprint 1982 pp.xxx, xxxi. 48 Huxley Greek Epic pp.40-42. 49 Thos. W. Allen Homeri Opera vol.v. (Oxford, Clarendon, 1912, Reprint ed. 1978) p.113. 5 0 Pausanias. Guide to Greece trans.Peter Levi (Harmonds-worth: Penguin, 1971; Reprint ed. 1984) p.327. 2 0 T h e E p i g o n i c a r r i e d t h e T h e b a n s a g a i n t o t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n , t e l l i n g h o w t h e " s u c c e s s o r s " m o u n t e d a n a s s a u l t a g a i n s t T h e b e s a n d s a c k e d i t . " ^ T h e s e p o e m s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r E p i c C y c l e t o o , t h o u g h t h e c o n n e c t i o n s s e e m t e n u o u s . T h e s e b r i e f r e m a r k s c o n v e y a t l e a s t s o m e i d e a o f t h e v a s t b o d y o f m a t e r i a l t h a t h a d b e e n w r i t t e n o r w a s k n o w n f r o m t h e a r c h a i c p e r i o d o f G r e e c e . N o o n e c a n t e l l t h e e x t e n t o f E n n i u s ' a c q u a i n t a n c e , w i t h t h i s m a t e r i a l . A r e m a r k o f t h e , l a t e r R o m a n p o e t , H o r a c e , i n t h e A r s P o e t i c a , 1 3 6 - 7 , s e e m s t o i n d i c a t e s u c h a n a c q u a i n t a n c e o n h i s p a r t : " N e c s i c i n -c i p i e s u t s c r i p t o r c y c l i c u s o l i m : / ' F o r t u n a m P r i a m i c a n t a b o e t n o b i l e b e l l u m ' . " T h i s c o m m e n t h a s l o n g p u z z l e d s c h o l a r s . B r i n k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l i n e q u o t e d m a y b e a t r a n s l a t i o n o f a p r o e m o f o n e o f t h e c y c l i c e p i c s n o 5 2 l o n g e r k n o w n . I f s o m e o f t h e p o e m s o f t h e ' E p i c C y c l e ' w e r e s t i l l k n o w n i n A u g u s t a n t i m e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t E n n i u s h a d s o m e a c c e s s t o t h e m , t o o . T h u s f a r , a l l o f t h e p o e m s m e n t i o n e d a r e i n a r a t h e r i m p e r s o n a l r e a l m w h e r e t h e p o e t s p e a k s f o r a g o d , o r a t t h e i n s p i r a t i o n o f t h e M u s e s . T h e i d e a o f i n v o k i n g t h e M u s e s r e m a i n e d a c o n v e n t i o n e d o f l i t e r a t u r e t h r o u g h t h e a g e s . E n n i u s , t o o , u s e d t h i s d e v i c e t o b e g i n h i s w o r k , b u t d i d n o t k e e p t h e A n n a l s o n a c o m p l e t e l y i m p e r s o n a l l e v e l a s t h e p o e t s p e a k i n g . H i s o w n t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o t h e p o e m a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s , a n d t h i s m a y b e d u e t o t h e i n f l u e n c e - p e r h a p s o n l y i n d i r e c t - o f t h e s c h o o l o f p o e t r y t h a t s p r a n g u p o n t h e m a i n l a n d o f G r e e c e , t h a t o f H e s i o d a n d h i s f e l l o w p o e t s . H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c p p . 4 6 - 7 . 5 2 C O . B r i n k H o r a c e o n . P o e t r y . T h e ' A r s P o e t i c a ' . ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 7 1 ) p . 2 1 4 . 21 H e s i o d i s r e a l l y the e a r l i e s t poet to r e v e a l someth ing o f h i m s e l f , and t o e x p r e s s h i s t h o u g h t s as b e i n g h i s own, and n o t m e r e l y those o f the M u s e s . He d o e s , however , i n v o k e the Muses a t the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s poems, and even d e s c r i b e s how he e n c o u n t e r e d them on Mount H e l i c o n , where they t a u g h t h i m t o s i n g . In the Works and Days and the T h e o g o n y , the Homer ic hexameter and the e p i c d i a l e c t a r e u s e d . No o t h e r l i t e r a r y forms had y e t been i n v e n t e d . The p o e t p u t s them to q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t use from Homer. The Theogony i s a m y t h o l o g i c a l t r e a t i s e , w i t h l o n g l i s t s o f the gods and t h e i r h i s t o r i e s b a c k to the b e g i n n i n g o f the w o r l d . Q u i n t i l i a n o b s e r v e s t h a t H e s i o d se ldom r e a c h e s any g r e a t h e i g h t , and t h a t much o f h i s 53 work i s t a k e n up w i t h names . The Works and D a y s , as i t s name m i g h t i m p l y , i s an e p i c e x h o r t a t i o n to H e s i o d ' s b r o t h e r , P e r s e s , about the v i r t u e o f work . The s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i s d i d a c t i c . H e s i o d uses s t o r i e s as e x e m p l a , g i v e s a d v i c e on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f l i f e , makes comments on the b e s t t i m e s to p l o u g h , and n o t e s a l i s t o f l u c k y and u n l u c k y days i n the c a l e n d a r . I t w i l l be n o t i c e d a t once t h a t t h i s poet has t u r n e d away f rom the a d v e n t u r e s o f the g r e a t h e r o e s , and i s d e a l i n g w i t h v e r y d o w n - t o - e a r t h c o n c e r n s . The e p i c has become d i d a c t i c i n n a t u r e , and the l i f e o f the o r d i n a r y p e r s o n has come i n t o p o e t r y , and w i t h i t the t h o u g h t s and v a l u e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The c o n c e r n i s w i t h the p r e s e n t and i t s h a r d s h i p s , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h a g l o r i o u s p a s t . O t h e r e p i c poems seem t o d a t e f rom the same p e r i o d , some o f w h i c h were a s c r i b e d to H e s i o d . One o f t h e s e t h a t i s s t i l l e x t a n t i s the S h i e l d  o f H e r a c l e s , a poem t h a t i s m o s t l y t a k e n up w i t h "an i n f e r i o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s h i e l d o f H e r a c l e s , i n i m i t a t i o n o f the Homeric s h i e l d o f A c h i l l e s Q u i n t i l i a n I n s t , x . 1 . 5 3 . 22 5 4 ( I l i a d x v i i i . 4 7 8 f f . ) . " T h e r e w a s a l s o a C a t a l o g u e o f W o m e n , a l o n g e p i c p o e m r e l a t i n g t h e s t o r i e s o f f a m o u s w o m e n w h i c h n o w s u r v i v e s o n l y i n f r a g m e n t s . T h e H e s i o d i c s c h o o l o f p o e t r y w a s m u c h i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f t h e h e r o H e r a c l e s . A t h e n a e u s m e n t i o n s a n e p i c c a l l e d A i g i m i o s w h o s e 55 a u t h o r m a y h a v e b e e n H e s i o d o r K e r c o p s o f M i l e t u s . T h i s e p i c t o l d t h e t a l e o f t h e a n c i e n t D o r i a n k i n g , A i g i m i o s , w h o , b e i n g h a r d p r e s s e d i n a w a r , i n v i t e d H e r a c l e s t o c o m e a n d h e l p . H e r a c l e s o b l i g e d a n d t h e w a r w a s w o n . A i g i m i o s a d o p t e d H e r a c l e s ' s o n , H y l l o s , b e c a u s e h e w a s s o t h a n k f u l , a n d a l s o g a v e s o m e l a n d t o t h e h e r o . H . J . R o s e o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e A i g i m i o s w a s a . s o r t o f h i s t o r i c a l p o e m i n w h i c h t h e p o e t a t t e m p t e d t o c o n n e c t t h e D o r i a n s t o t h e 5 6 l e g e n d a r y p a s t o f t h e c o u n t r y t h e y h a d o v e r - r u n . H e r e , t h e n , i s a n n e w e l e m e n t a d d e d t o e p i c . T h e e p i c i s s e e n a s a v e h i c l e f o r l e g i t i m i z i n g t h e c l a i m s o f a c o n q u e r o r , a s w e l l a s a w a y o f r e c o r d i n g ( o r p e r h a p s c r e a t i n g ) h i s t o r y . P a u s a n i a s m e n t i o n s a p o e t f r o m N a u p a c t u s o n t h e C o r i n t h i a n G u l f , K a r k i n o s , t o w h o m w a s a s c r i b e d t h e P o e m o f N a u p a c t o s . I t s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n s i m i l a r t o t h e C a t a l o g u e o f W o m e n , d e a l i n g a s i t d i d w i t h t h e l i v e s o f f a m o u s w o m e n . I t a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e s t o r y o f t h e A r g o n a u t s , a n d t w o o f t h e f r a g m e n t s a r e a b o u t t h e l e g e n d o f A d m e t u s . " ^ . I t s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n m o s t l y g e n e a l o g i c a l a n d q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l i n n a t u r e . 5 4 . . . • E v e l y n - W h i t e H e s i o d p . x x i v . A t h e n a e u s x i i i . 5 0 3 d . H . J . R o s e A H a n d b o o k o f G r e e k L i t e r a t u r e ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n & C o . , 1 9 3 4 ; R e p r i n t e d . 1 9 6 4 ) p . 6 7 . ^ H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c p p . 6 9 - 7 0 . 2 3 T h e c i t y o f C o r i n t h i n t h i s a r c h a i c p e r i o d o f G r e e k h i s t o r y h a d a l s o a t t a i n e d a p o s i t i o n o f s o m e p r o m i n e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y b e c a u s e o f e x p o r t o f p o t t e r y . D u n b a b i n s u g g e s t s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f C o r i n t h w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d n o g l o r i o u s p a s t e x t o l l e d i n 5 8 H o m e r . T h e I l i a d m e n t i o n s C o r i n t h b r i e f l y t w i c e , a n d t h e c i t y i s n o t c i t e d i n t h e O d y s s e y a t a l l . I n t h e ' C a t a l o g u e o f t h e S h i p s ' , C o r i n t h i s n a m e d a s a p a r t o f t h e k i n g d o m o f A g a m e m n o n . L a t e r o n , a s o n o f C o r i n t h i s 5 9 r e f e r r e d t o a s o n e o f t h o s e w h o m P a r i s s l e w . E u m e l o s , a m e m b e r o f t h e r u l i n g B a c c h i a d f a m i l y , i n t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y B . C . , s e t o u t t o p r o v i d e h i s c i t y w i t h a r e a l e p i c p a s t . ^ H e w a s q u i t e i n g e n i o u s i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . E u m e l o s s i m p l y a d o p t e d f o r C o r i n t h a b o d y o f p o e t r y l o o s e l y a t t a c h e d t o a p l a c e c a l l e d E p h y r e . E p h y r e w a s a r a t h e r o b s c u r e p l a c e , o f w h i c h H o m e r s a y s o n l y : £ o ~ T C JfoA<~S 3 £ < ^ p ^ jA.u%£l Apfr&os CITWO / J o T O c _ o N o o n e k n e w m u c h a b o u t E p h y r e , b u t i t w a s t h o u g h t t o b e s o m e w h e r e o n t h e G r e e k m a i n l a n d . T h e l e g e n d s a n d m y t h s a t t a c h e d t o t h i s o b s c u r e p l a c e i n c l u d e d t h e s t o r i e s o f J a s o n a n d M e d e a , a n d t h e A r g o n a u t s . T h e v e r s e s f r o m E u m e l o s ' w o r k t h a t s u r v i v e a r e f o u n d m a i n l y i n t h e S c h o l i a t o A p o l l o n i u s 6 2 R h o d i o s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t h e r e , a s H u x l e y n o t e s . P e r h a p s E u m e l o s i n f l u e n c e d o r i n s p i r e d A p o l l o n i u s i n h i s e p i c o n t h e v o y a g e o f t h e A r g o . 5 8 T . J . D u n b a b i n ' T h e E a r l y H i s t o r y o f C o r i n t h ' J H S _ 6 8 ( 1 9 4 8 ) 5 9 - 6 9 , p . 6 6 . 5 9 I I . . I I . 5 7 0 - 1 ; X I I I . 6 6 3 - 5 . ^ H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c p . 6 1 . 6 1 I I . V I . 1 5 2 . 6 2 H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c , p . 6 3 . 2 4 P a u s a n i a s c i t e s a p r o s e h i s t o r y o f C o r i n t h a s p e r h a p s b e i n g a 6 3 • w o r k o f E u m e l o s . D u n b a b i n p o i n t s o u t t h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t w h a t P a u s a n i a s h a d b e f o r e h i m w a s a p r o s e w o r k w h i c h p u r p o r t e d t o b e a n e p i t o m e o f E u m e l o s ' v e r s e s , ^ E u m e l o s s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n t h e e a r l i e s t p o e t t o h a v e t h o u g h t i n t e r m s o f w r i t i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f h i s c i t y , o r p e r h a p s o f p r o v i d i n g a h i s t o r y f o r h i s h o m e l a n d . H u x l e y e x p l a i n s t h e g e n e a l o g y c r e a t e d b y t h e p o e t t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e c h a n g e o f n a m e f r o m E p h y r e t o C o r i n t h . T h e b r o t h e r s S i k y o n a n d K o r i n t h o s w e r e g i v e n r u l e o v e r t h e l a n d s w a t e r e d b y t h e A s o p u s ( S i k y o n ) , a n d t h e l a n d o f E p h y r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , b y t h e i r f a t h e r , w h o w a s a g r e a t -6 5 g r a n d s o n o f H e l i o s . N o d o u b t o t h e r d e t a i l s w e r e w o r k e d o u t e q u a l l y e x p e d i t i o u s l y , w i t h t h e p o e t a d a p t i n g h i s m a t e r i a l a s n e c e s s a r y . H u x l e y -c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e p o e t w a s s o s u c c e s s f u l i n g i v i n g h i s c i t y a g l o r i o u s i f r a t h e r f i c t i t i o u s p a s t t h a t C o r i n t h p r o d u c e d n o o t h e r n a t i v e - b o r n i n t h e a r c h a i c p e r i o d , a s f a r a s c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e . ^ A t A t h e n s , t o o , p o e t s w e r e a t w o r k i n t h e a r c h a i c p e r i o d . P a u s a n i a s q u o t e s a t s e c o n d h a n d s o m e v e r s e s o f H e g e s i n o u s , w h o a p p a r e n t l y w r o t e a p o e m d e a l i n g w i t h t h e l e g e n d a r y h i s t o r y o f A t t i c a c a l l e d t h e A t t h i s ^ H u x l e y a l s o m e n t i o n s a T h e s e i d w h i c h m a y h a v e t r e a t e d t h e a n c i e n t l e g e n d s o f 6 8 t h e h e r o T h e s e u s , b u t n o f r a g m e n t s s u r v i v e . T h e r e a r e a l s o o t h e r p o e m s k n o w n f r o m t h i s p e r i o d , m a i n l y b y t i t l e a l o n e , w h i c h w e r e e p i c i n s t y l e a n d w r i t t e n i n h e x a m e t e r s . A m o n g t h e m a r e t h e M i n y a s a n d s e v e r a l w o r k s w h i c h t o l d t h e m a n y m y t h s o f H e r a c l e s . 6 3 „ • •• i i P a u s a n i a s n . 1 . 1 . ^ D u n b a b i n E a r l y H i s t o r y p . 6 6 . 6 5 H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c p . 6 3 . 6 6 H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c p . 7 9 . ^ P a u s a n i a s i x . 2 9 . 1 . 6 8 H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c p . 1 1 8 . 25 E v e n L a c e d a i m o n h a d i t s o w n e p i c p o e t i n t h e a r c h a i c p e r i o d . T h i s w a s K i n a i t h o n , t o w h o m w a s a s c r i b e d t h e O i d i p o d e a m e n t i o n e d a b o v e o n p a g e /9 . H e m a y a l s o h a v e c o m p o s e d a p o e m o n H e r a c l e s a n d h i s a d v e n t u r e s , b u t H u x l e y o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e s o u r c e s a r e n o t a t a l l c l e a r . ^ A f e w f r a g m e n t s o f t h e G e n e a l o g i e s a r e e x t a n t , a n d t h i s i s t h e o n l y w o r k t h a t c a n b e a t t a c h e d w i t h a n y c e r t a i n t y t o K i n a i t h o n . H u x l e y n o t e s t h a t t h e f r a g m e n t s d e a l w i t h C r e t e , t h e A r g o n a u t i c a , a n d w i t h t h e f a m i l y o f M e n e l a u s , a n d t h a t s o m e o f K i n a i t h o n ' s g e n e a l o g i e s d i f f e r f r o m o t h e r s t h a t a r e k n o w n . ^ T h e m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e o f a l l o f t h e s e e a r l y e p i c s i s t h a t t h e y p r e s e r v e d m a n y a n c i e n t s t o r i e s , a n d h e n c e m a d e t h e m a v a i l a b l e t o l a t e r p o e t s a n d w r i t e r s . P e r h a p s t h e i r t e c h n i q u e s , s t y l e , a n d v o c a b u l a r y w e r e s o u r c e s o f i n f l u e n c e t o t h o s e w h o f o l l o w e d t h e m , t o o . E u m e l o s , f o r e x a m p l e , s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n t h e f i r s t t o u s e t h e e p i c a s a v e h i c l e t o c o n v e y h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o u s e e p i c t o g l o r i f y t h e p a s t o f h i s c i t y , , H e g e s i n u s a t t e m p t e d t o r e l a y i n a n e p i c t h e l e g e n d a r y p a s t o f t h e l a n d o f A t t i c a . T o j u d g e f r o m t h e s c a n t y f r a g m e n t s o f p o e t r y t h a t h a v e s u r v i v e d f r o m t h e a r c h a i c p e r i o d , i t s t i l l s e e m s t h a t Q u i n t u s E n n i u s u n d e r t o o k s o m e -t h i n g t o t a l l y u n i q u e . T h e a r c h a i c p e r i o d s a w t h e t e n t a t i v e b e g i n n i n g s o f e p i c b e i n g u s e d f o r h i s t o r i c a l p u r p o s e s , b u t , a s S k u t s c h n o t e s , " . . . . w e k n o w o f n o e p i c p o e m b e f o r e E n n i u s ' A n n a l e s w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e h i s t o r y o f a n a t i o n f r o m i t s b e g i n n i n g s t o t h e p o e t ' s o w n d a y . " ^ ^ H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c , p . 8 6 . ^ H u x l e y G r e e k E p i c , p . 8 7 . ^ S k u t s c h A n n a l e s p . 6 . 26 B . E p i c P o e t r y i n the L y r i c Age The I l i a d and the Odyssey were composed by a poe t who remained anonymous h i m s e l f . T h a t i s , he d i d n o t e n t e r h i s p o e t r y as a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a and g u i d e t h e outcome o f the s t o r y . He was m e r e l y the n a r r a t o r o f the s t o r y , f rom which the a u d i e n c e t h e n drew i t s own c o n c l u s i o n s . The poe t d i d n o t r e v e a l h i s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s a t a l l , and the e p i c was e s s e n t i a l l y i m p e r s o n a l . In the poems o f H e s i o d , a d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r e d . T h i s poe t s t i l l u s e d the Homer ic hexameter and t h e Homer ic d i a l e c t , b u t he d i d n o t m e r e l y r e l a t e the a n c i e n t t a l e s . H i s p o e t r y r e v e a l s a man w i t h h i s c o n c e r n f o r homely t h i n g s w h i c h t o u c h h i s e v e r y d a y l i f e . The o l d myths and l e g e n d s began to be more s i m p l y exempla f rom which l e s s o n s might be l e a r n e d . P o e t r y took on a d i d a c t i c and p e r s o n a l a s p e c t . The d i s c u s s i o n t h u s f a r has shown how t h e s e e a r l y p o e t s may have i n f l u e n c e d the A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . As t imes c o n t i n u e d to c h a n g e , so d i d l i t e r a r y p u r s u i t s , and g r a d u a l l y the e p i c s t y l e gave way to t h e r i s e o f l y r i c p o e t r y , the p o e t r y o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Some o f the l y r i c p o e t s , i n p u r s u i n g t h e i r v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s , may have had an i n f l u e n c e on E n n i u s , t o o . I n the L y r i c A g e , p o e t s t u r n e d away from the e p i c s t y l e . A l t h o u g h the hexameter was r e t a i n e d , to i t was added a p e n t a m e t e r , - c r e a t i n g the e l e g i a c m e t r e , w h i c h p r o v e d much more a p t f o r c o n v e y i n g p e r s o n a l t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s . E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n b r o u g h t about new metres as w e l l , thus e n a b l i n g each poet to have a wide scope i n h i s i n d i v i d u a l w o r k s . The same wide scope was a v a i l a b l e to each p o e t when i t came to c h o o s i n g themes . The c r i t i c , R. L e w i s , sums up n e a t l y many o f the themes t h a t o c c u r i n t h e b e a u t i f u l p o e t r y o f t h e L y r i c A g e . "In t h e s e poems t h e r e a r e f e e l i n g s we r e c o g n i z e : man's 27 r e s p o n s e t o a s e a s o n ' s c h a n g e ; h i s j o y i n l o v e ; h i s p a i n a n d d e s p a i r i n w a r ; h i s b r o o d i n g t h o u g h t f u l n e s s a b o u t h i m s e l f ; h i s c o u r a g e i n c o n f r o n t i n g n a t u r e ; • 7 2 h i s s o r r o w w i t h a d v a n c i n g a g e ; h i s p u z z l e m e n t o v e r l i f e a n d d e a t h . " . S e v e r a l o f t h e p o e t s a l s o t u r n e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o w h a t m i g h t b e t e r m e d h i s t o r i c a l o r n a t i o n a l p o e t r y . C a l l i n u s w a s a p o e t w h o l i v e d i n t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y , B . C . , i n E p h e s u S c I n t h e f r a g m e n t s t h a t r e m a i n o f h i s e l e g i a c s C a l l i n u s u r g e s h i s f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s t o f i g h t b r a v e l y i n t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h a n e i g h b o r i n g c i t y , o r p e r h a p s t h e i n v a d i n g C i m m e r i a n s . ( T h e c h r o n o l o g y i s n o t c l e a r . ) T h e p o e t c o n s i d e r s i t t o b e a n h o n o u r f o r a m a n t o d o b a t t l e , a n d c l a i m s t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d l o o k u p t o a b r a v e w a r r i o r . T h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d b y t h e p o e t i s l a r g e l y H o m e r i c , b u t h i s e m p h a s i s i s m o r e o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s n o t a m a t t e r o f f o l l o w i n g g r e a t h e r o e s i n t o b a t t l e . T h e p o e t s a y s e v e r y s o l d i e r c a n b e c o m e a h e r o i n t h e d e f e n s e o f h i s c i t y . M i m n e r m u s o f C o l o p h o n f l o u r i s h e d a b o u t 6 3 0 B . C . H e w r o t e c h i e f l y i n t h e e l e g i a c m e t r e , b u t h e d e v e l o p e d t h e a m a t o r y s i d e o f e l e g y . T h e f e w e x t a n t f r a g m e n t s o f h i s p o e t r y e x h i b i t a m e l a n c h o l y t o n e . M a n y o f t h e f r a g m e n t s d e a l w i t h t h e s h o r t - l i v e d p l e a s u r e s o f y o u t h . H i s i n t e r e s t h e r e , h o w e v e r , i6 d u e t o t h e a s c r i p t i o n t o h i m o f a w o r k c a l l e d S m y m e i s , w h i c h m a y h a v e d e a l t w i t h t h e l e g e n d s a n d f o u n d i n g o f S m y r n a . A s o n l y t w o l i n e s h a v e s u r v i v e d a n d n o o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n h a s c o m e d o w n , n o f i r m j u d g m e n t s c a n b e m a d e . T y r t a e u s l i v e d a n d w o r k e d i n S p a r t a o f L a c o n i a . H e f l o u r i s h e d R . L e w i s M u s e o f t h e R o u n d S k y . L y r i c P o e t r y o f A n c i e n t G r e e c e ( N e w Y o r k : S i m o n & S c h u s t e r , 1 9 6 9 ) p . 1 2 . 2 8 a b o u t 6 5 0 B . C . , a n d S t r a b o s a y s h e s e r v e d a s a g e n e r a l i n t h e s e c o n d 7 3 . . M e s s e n i a n W a r . H e w r o t e p a t r i o t i c p o e m s m e l e g i a c s t o r o u s e t h e S p a r t a n s a n d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e m i n t h e w a r . O f h i s w o r k s o n l y f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n , a n d i n t h e m t h e p o e t a p p e a l s t o c o u r a g e . H i s e m p h a s i s i s o n t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o l d i e r f i g h t i n g f o r h i s c o u n t r y . T h e r e a r e s o m e H o m e r i c e c h o e s i n t h e p o e t r y o f T y r t a e u s , i n b o t h l a n g u a g e a n d s t y l e , b u t T y r t a e u s u s e s t h e m , a s C a l l i n u s d o e s , t o u r g e o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a t t a i n h e r o i c s t a t u s b y d o i n g b a t t l e o n b e h a l f o f h i s h o m e l a n d . A n o t h e r p o e t o f t h e c i t y o f C o l o p h o n - w a s X e n o p h a n e s . H e f l o u r i s h e d a b o u t 5 6 5 B . C . , a n d w r o t e a v a r i e t y o f w o r k s . A m o n g t h o s e a s c r i b e d t o h i m w e r e p o e m s e n t i t l e d T h e F o u n d i n g o f C o l o p h o n a n d T h e C o l o n i z i n g o f E l e a i n  I t a l y . T h e t i t l e s c e r t a i n l y s e e m t o b e h i s t o r i c a l i n n a t u r e , b u t n o t h i n g e l s e i s k n o w n , a n d n o f r a g m e n t s s u r v i v e . A p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o e m d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o r i g i n o f t h e u n i v e r s e s u r v i v e s i n f r a g m e n t s , a n d o t h e r s u r v i v i n g f r a g m e n t s a r e c r i t i c i s m s o f H o m e r a n d H e s i o d . A f e w o f t h e p o e t s o f t h e L y r i c A g e , t h e n , t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o h i s t o r i c a l a n d n a t i o n a l t h e m e s . C a l l i n u s u r g e d h i s f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s t o t a k e u p a r m s b r a v e l y , w h i l e T y r t a e u s e x h o r t e d e a c h s o l d i e r t o s e e k e x c e l l e n c e o n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d . B o t h f e l t t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i g h t i n g f o r h i s c o u n t r y w o u l d a t t a i n h e r o i c s t a t u s . M i m n e r m u s a n d X e n o p h a n e s m a y h a v e w r i t t e n w o r k s d e t a i l i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e i r c i t i e s . O f m o r e i n t e r e s t t o t h e s e p o e t s w a s " t h e p r e s e n t a n d t h e d e m a n d s m a d e o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n w a r - t i m e . A s p e c t s o f t h e s t y l e o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w h i c h m i g h t b e t e r m e d ' l y r i c ' 7 4 a r e d e a l t w i t h i n a n i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y b y G e o r g e S h e e t s . H e p o i n t s o u t S t r a b o 8 . 3 5 2 . G e o r g e S h e e t s " E n n i u s L y r i c u s " I C S v i i i . 1 ( 1 9 8 3 ) 2 2 - 3 2 . 29 t h a t E n n i u s s e t a p r e c e d e n t f o r b o r r o w i n g f rom and making use o f m a t e r i a l f ound i n the works o f e a r l i e r p o e t s , and e s p e c i a l l y the p o e t s o f G r e e c e The a t t i t u d e o f E n n i u s and o t h e r s was t h a t t h e y were f r e e to do as they w i s h e d w i t h what t h e y had b o r r o w e d , and a l s o f r e e to adapt t h i s m a t e r i a l w i t h o u t any r e s t r i c t i o n s . T h i s c o n c e p t r e m a i n e d a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f Roman l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y , b u t E n n i u s was t h e f i r s t t o make use o f i t . F o r example , Shee t s o b s e r v e s t h a t E n n i u s , i n the Proem o f Book I o f A n n a l e s , s a i d t h a t he was Homer r e i n c a r n a t e d . The p o e t , h o w e v e r , s e t t h i s t h o u g h t i n a scene w h i c h i s r a t h e r more r e m i n i s c e n t o f H e s i o d and h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e M u s e s . M o r e o v e r , E n n i u s a l s o h a d C a l l i m a c h u s i n m i n d , f o r t h e d r e a m -m o t i f i s b o r r o w e d from the A i t i a . The r e s u l t o f a l l t h i s , a c c o r d i n g to S h e e t s , i s t h a t a r e b o r n Homer e x p e r i e n c e s the p r i v i l e g e d i n i t i a t i o n o f H e s i o d and r e t r a v e l s t h e a e s t h e t i c j o u r n e y . o f C a l l i m a c h u s . E n n i u s i s f r e e to mix t o g e t h e r t h i n g s p r e v i o u s l y u n m i x a b l e . Q u i n t u s E n n i u s thus makes i t p l a i n to h i s a u d i e n c e t h a t he i s d o i n g what Homer would have done had he been a Roman, b u t t h a t he i s n o t l i m i t i n g h i m s e l f to H o m e r i c s t y l e and t e c h n i q u e . He borrows and a d a p t s f r e e l y to c r e a t e h i s own u n i q u e s t y l e . Shee t s t h e n goes on to show t h a t E n n i u s b r o a d e n e d the e p i c s t y l e to i n c l u d e f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l y r i c , and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e e p i n i k i a o f P i n d a r . L y r i c and e p i c may be s i m i l a r i n t h a t t h e y c a n b o t h c e l e b r a t e the famous deeds o f men, b u t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e i n how the p o e t s a p p r o a c h t h e i r s u b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a t t i t u d e t h e y t a k e towards those s u b j e c t s . In h e r o i c e p i c the p o e t keeps h i s d i s t a n c e . He has no p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a b e c a u s e the h e r o i c n a r r a t i v e o f c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n S h e e t s " E n n i u s " p . 2 3 . 30 move forward on their own and do not need the poet's interpretive commentary on them. In the epinikia, however, Pindar does.not let the audience overlook the fact that the famous deeds of men are preserved.through his agency. For example, in Pythians III.114-5, Pindar remarks, "Greatness in noble songs/ endures through time: but to win this, few find easy."^ .Similar sentiments are found fairly frequently elsewhere in the poet's work. Pindar is also at pains to emphasize that the true significance of these heroic achievements can only be revealed through his Sophia, as he indicates in Olympians II. 83-6: "In the quiver under my elbow/ are many swift arrows that speak to the wise,/ but for the crowd they need interpreters./ He knows, whose blood tells him much."^ There is very much a feeling, as Sheets suggests, that the poet, . 78 his poem, and the subject are inseparable from each other. Sheets believes Quintus Ennius meant to imply exactly the same as Pindar in Annales 12 and 13: "Latos per populos res atque poemata nostra/ clara cluebunt." "Widely among 79 the peoples shall my subject and my poem have renown." As Sheets observes, this kind of conceit is not usually found in epic. Another example of a lyric intrusion into epic noted by Sheets is Ennius' personal evaluation of his subject for which there is evidence in a notice by the Elder Pliny: "Q. Ennius T. Caecilium Teucrum fratremque eius praecipue miratus propter eos sextum decimum adiecit annalem." "Quintus Ennius added a sixteenth book to his Annals, because he especially admired 80 Titus Caecilius Teucer and his brother." Ennius apparently added the ^ • C . . M . Bowra The Odes of Pindar (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969), p.99. ^ Bowra Odes p.83. 78 Sheets "Ennius" p.25. 79 ' E.H. Warmington Remains of Old Latin v . l (W. Heinemann Ltd. Loeb Library, 1935; Reprint ed. 1956) p.3. 80 Pliny the Elder N.H. vii.101. (My translation.) 31 sixteenth book to his poem so that he could include the exploits of the two brothers. The poet is in f u l l control of the subject-matter to be included in his poem, and he can add or subtract from it as he sees f i t . Sheets discovers a similar attitude in Pindar's Pythians v i i , where that poet declares in line 13 that "There call to me also/ Five victories at the Isthmus/'and in line 18, "And in this last happy fortune/ 81 some pleasure I have." The individual personality of the poet intrudes into his poem here, whereas it was not usual for an epic poet to enter his narrative in any way. Aurelius Victor remarks on the Ambracian victory of M„ Fulvius Nobilior: "Quam victoriam per se magnificam Q. Ennius amicus 82 eius insigni laude celebravit." This notice prompts Sheets to ask why ~> • 'insigni laude'? Did the passage in question include, perhaps, a personal encomium? He compares Victor's statement to Annales 363-5: "Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem./ Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem,/ ergo postque magisque v i r i nunc gloria claret." "One man by his delays restored the state;/ Hearsay he would not put before our safety;/ Hence to this day 83 the warrior's glory shines —I In after time, and more than i t shone once." Sheets suggests that the 'nobis' and the 'nunc' in this passage hint at a personal perspective the poet wants his audience to share. Good deeds are great examples: the lyric poet draws from them the appropriate inferences for his audience and so does Quintus Ennius. Another passage Sheets considers is Annales 522-3, which Vahlen, whom Sheets is citing, assigned to the end of Book xv. Skutsch, however, puts 81 Bowra Odes p.34. 82 Aurelius Victor deVir . Illust. 52.3 83 Warmington Remains p.133. 84 Sheets "Ennius" p.27: 32 i t a m o n g h i s " S e d i s I n c e r t a e F r a g m e n t a . " " S i c u t i f o r t i s e q u u s s p a t i o q u i s a e p e s u p r e m o / v i c i t O l y m p i a n u n c s e n i o c o n f e c t u s q u i e s c i t . " " J u s t a s a v a l i a n t s t e e d w h o h a s o f t e n w o n v i c t o r i e s a t t h e O l y m p i c g a m e s i n t h e l a s t 8 5 l a p , n o w a t l e n g t h , w o r n o u t b y o l d a g e , t a k e s r e s t . " C i c e r o , w h o p r e s e r v e d t h e c i t a t i o n i n d e S e n e c t u t e 1 4 , s e e m s t o f e e l t h a t E n n i u s i s d e f i n i t e l y s p e a k i n g o f h i m s e l f , r e a d y t o t a k e a r e s t a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g h i s w o r k . S h e e t s n o t e s t h a t i f t h e r e f e r e n c e o f t h e f r a g m e n t i s i n d e e d t o E n n i u s 1 r e a s o n s f o r c o n c l u d i n g h i s p o e m a t t h i s p o i n t , t h e n t h e a u d i e n c e p e r c e i v e s a 8 6 p e r s o n a o f t h e p o e t v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n P l i n y ' s n o t i c e . T h e p o e m m a y e n d i f t h e p o e t w i l l s i t s o , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e c a u s e t h e s t o r y i s c o m p l e t e d . S k u t s c h r e m a r k s a b o u t t h e s e l i n e s t h a t t h i s i s t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e o f a n e p i c 8 7 p o e t a p p l y i n g a s i m i l e t o h i m s e l f . . T h e s a m e s c h o l a r n o t e s f u r t h e r t h a t t h e r e a r e t w o m o r e r e f e r e n c e s t o o l d a g e i n t h e A n n a l e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o a p p l y 8 8 t o t h e p o e t h i m s e l f . T h e f i r s t i s A n n . 4 1 0 : " p o s t a e t a t e p i g r e t s u f f e r r e l a b o r e m , " a n d t h e o t h e r a s t a t e m e n t a t t r i b u t e d t o E n n i u s b y G e l l i u s a f t e r V a r r o t h a t t h e p o e t w a s s i x t y - s e v e n y e a r s o l d w h e n h e w a s w r i t i n g B o o k x i i o f t h e A n n a l e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e n , t h a t E n n i u s w a s r e f e r r i n g t o h i m s e l f i n t h e s e p a s s a g e s , a n d t h e s e a n d o t h e r p e r s o n a l i n t r u s i o n s o f t h e p o e t i n t o h i s e p i c a r e r a t h e r u n u s u a l . G e o r g e S h e e t s c o n c l u d e s t h a t E n n i u s t r a n s f o r m e d e p i c s t y l e a s p a r t o f a r e b o r n t r a d i t i o n o f e p i c p o e t r y , o n e b a s e d o n a n e w l a n g u a g e w i e l d e d b y a 8 9 n e w H o m e r , a n d m a k i n g u s e o f a d a p t a t i o n s f r o m m a n y s o u r c e s . H i s a r t i c l e g i v e s s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o h o w t h e p o e t s o f t h e L y r i c A g e c o u l d h a v e i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s . E v e n t h o u g h s o l i t t l e o f t h e A n n a l e s h a s s u r v i v e d , o n e c a n 8 5 W a r m i n g t o n R e m a i n s p . 1 4 5 . 8 6 S h e e t s " E n n i u s " p . 2 8 . 8 7 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 6 7 4 . 8 8 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 6 7 4 . QQ S h e e t s " E n n i u s " p . 3 2 . 33 s t i l l see f rom t h e f ragments t h a t the A n n a l e s was n o t m e r e l y a poem i n the e p i c t r a d i t i o n . I t seems to combine many a s p e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p o e t r y , and so many have been i n f l u e n c e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways by many a u t h o r s . 3 4 C . E p i c P o e t r y i n t h e H e l l e n i s t i c A g e T h e r e w a s a f l u r r y o f i n t e r e s t i n e p i c p o e t r y a g a i n l a t e i n t h e f i f t h a n d e a r l y i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s , B . C . O n c e m o r e h i s t o r i c a l / n a t i o n a l t o p i c s c a m e t o t h e f o r e a s s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f o r e p i c . I t w a s a s t h o u g h t h e o l d s t o c k o f m y t h s a n d l e g e n d s h a d b e e n e x h a u s t e d , o r m e r e l y t h a t a n e w i n t e r e s t i n t h i n g s h i s t o r i c a l h a d a r i s e n . P e r h a p s Q u i n t u s E n n i u s m a y h a v e k n o w n s o m e t h i n g o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e p o e t s a n d s o m a y h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e m i n s o m e w a y i n t h e w r i t i n g o f h i s A n n a l e s . A n t i m a c h u s o f C o l o p h o n f l o u r i s h e d a b o u t 4 1 0 B . C . , a n d w a s a < g r a m m a r i a n a s w e l l a s a n e p i c p o e t . H i s l e n g t h y e p i c w a s e n t i t l e d T h e b a i s , a n d t o l d t h e s t o r y o f t h e s i e g e o f T h e b e s . T h i s w o r k w a s a p p a r e n t l y a d m i r e d , o r a t l e a s t w e l l - k n o w n i n a n t i q u i t y . C i c e r o c a l l e d T h e b a i s " t h a t l o n g a n d 9 0 f a m o u s p o e m o f h i s . " N e w m a n n o t e s t h a t A n t i m a c h u s t o o k 2 4 b o o k s e v e n t o g e t 9 1 h i s h e r o e s t o t h e g a t e s o f T h e b e s . P e r h a p s t h a t w a s t h e r e a s o n t h a t C i c e r o o b s e r v e d a l i t t l e f u r t h e r o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i n t h e m i d d l e o f a r e a d i n g b y A n t i m a c h u s , e v e r y o n e g o t u p a n d l e f t e x c e p t P l a t o . C i c e r o a l s o n o t e d t h a t a p o e m o f s u c h o b s c u r e a l l u s i o n s c o u l d f r o m i t s n a t u r e o n l y w i n t h e a p p r o v a l 9 2 . . . . . o f t h e f e w . Q u m t i l i a n p r a i s e s A n t i m a c h u s f o r h i s v i g o u r , d i g n i t y , a n d e l e v a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . H e g o e s o n t o s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t a l t h o u g h p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t e a c h e r s o f l i t e r a t u r e r a n k h i m s e c o n d a m o n g e p i c p o e t s ( p r e s u m a b l y a f t e r H o m e r ) , h e h i m s e l f f i n d s A n t i m a c h u s d e f i c i e n t i n c h a r m a n d t o t a l l y d e v o i d o f 9 3 r e a l a r t . T h e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e T h e b a i s t h a t s u r v i v e a r e c i t a t i o n s m a d e b y 9 0 C i c e r o B r u t u s 1 9 1 9 1 J . K . N e w m a n T h e C l a s s i c a l E p i c T r a d i t i o n ( M a d i s o n , W i s e . & L o n d o n , 1 9 8 6 ) p . 1 0 1 . 9 2 C i c e r o B r u t u s 1 9 1 . 9 3 Q u i n t . I n s t , x . 1 . 5 3 . 3 5 i l a t e r authors to i l l u s t r a t e obscure words and unusual mythological d e t a i l . In h i s use of such material as neologisms and obscure mythological d e t a i l s , Antimachus perhaps set a precedent for the H e l l e n i s t i c poets who would l a t e r pride themselves on t h e i r learning. Quintus Ennius had to resort to neo-logisms, too, to extend L a t i n vocabulary. He may have been influenced by Antimachus i n t h i s . Choerilus the poet from the i s l a n d of Samos, l i v e d from about 479 to about 399 B.C. In a fragment s t i l l extant the poet laments the decline of the epic t r a d i t i o n , and exclaims that a l l the art s are at an end, the ways are a l l used up and there i s simply no place f o r him to drive h i s 94 newly-yoked c h a r i o t . This conclusion led him to turn to recent h i s t o r y as a source of subject-matter. He i s said to have composed a verse h i s t o r y of the Persian Wars. He i s also credited with an epic poem c a l l e d Samiaca.. Nothing i s known of t h i s work. Plutarch notes that Lysander kept Choerilus 95 i n h i s retinue to adorn h i s achievements with verse. The poet spent h i s l a s t days i n Macedon, at the court of Archelaus. J . K. Newman points out that Choerilus of Samos was the f i r s t poet to honour contemporary m i l i t a r y achievements i n heroic hexameter ve r s e s . 9 ^ He also suggests that the use of 'authorial prefaces' to epic was as old as Hesiod, and. observes that Choerilus had used h i s preface to comment on his 97 . d i f f i c u l t i e s . Ennius was taken along on the Ae t o l i a n campaign m 189 B.C. 9 4 H. Lloyd-Jones, P. P a r - c o n s , ed. Supplementum Hellen-isticum (deGruyter: B e r l i n & N.Y., 1983) p.157. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 9 "\ Plutarch Lysander x v i i i . 4 . 9 6 Newman Class..Epic p.17. 9 7 Newman Class. Epic p.377. 36 by F a b i u s so t h a t he c o u l d r e c o r d the h i s t o r y o f the w a r , a n d , p r e s u m a b l y , the n o t e w o r t h y deeds o f t h e g e n e r a l who was h i s p a t r o n . T h i s work would have been s i m i l a r to what the e a r l i e r p o e t d i d a t L y s a n d e r ' s c o u r t . A l s o , E n n i u s ' A n n a l e s c e l e b r a t e d the m i l i t a r y a c h i e v e m e n t s o f c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , f o r the p o e t ' s whole f i e l d o f s tudy was h i s t o r y , a n c i e n t and modern , as had been t h a t o f C h o e r i l u s . E n n i u s makes u s e o f ' a u t h o r i a l p r e f a c e s ' j u s t as C h o e r i l u s d i d . The Roman poe t u s e s p r e f a c e s to comment on h i s a g e , h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s , and h i s r e a s o n s f o r n o t g o i n g i n t o , l e n g t h y d e t a i l . The t h i r d p o e t o f t h i s l a t e e p i c r e v i v a l was P a n y a s s i s who was a c o u s i n o f t h e h i s t o r i a n , H e r o d o t u s , a n d , l i k e h i m , a n a t i v e o f H a l i c a r n a s s u s . He wrote a poem c a l l e d H e r a c l e i a d e t a i l i n g the a d v e n t u r e s o f the h e r o H e r a c l e s . O n l y s m a l l f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n o f t h i s and h i s o t h e r work w h i c h was an e l e g i a c poem named I o n i k a , w h i c h d e a l t w i t h the s e t t l e m e n t o f I o n i a by t h e G r e e k s . Q u i n t i l i a n f e e l s t h a t P a n y a s s i s combined t h e q u a l i t i e s o f H e s i o d and A n t i m a c h u s a l t h o u g h he was i n f e r i o r to them i n s t y l e , y e t he s u r p a s s e d H e s i o d 98 i n the c h o i c e o f h i s s u b j e c t and A n t i m a c h u s i n the arrangement o f h i s m a t e r i a l . Here was a n o t h e r p o e t who d e a l t wi th , h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , and p e r h a p s c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s . E n n i u s was u n d o u b t e d l y g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p o e t s o f the H e l l e n i s t i c Age i t s e l f . T h i s p e r i o d i s a l s o c a l l e d the A l e x a n d r i a n Age b e c a u s e o f the s c h o o l o f p o e t s t h a t f l o u r i s h e d a t the g r e a t l i b r a r y o f A l e x a n d r i a . Many o f the p o e t s were p h i l o l o g i s t s and grammarians as w e l l as w r i t e r s , and t h e y a l s o c o l l e c t e d and r e s e a r c h e d m a n u s c r i p t s . The p o e t A p o l l o n i u s o f Rhodes was f rom A l e x a n d r i a o r i g i n a l l y , b u t r e t i r e d t o Rhodes to make a r e v i s i o n o f h i s e p i c poem, t h e A r g o n a u t i c a . Q u i n t . I n s t , x . 1 . 5 4 . 3 7 I t i s w r i t t e n i n h e x a m e t e r s , e x t e n d s t o a l e n g t h o f 5 , 8 3 5 v e r s e s , a n d i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r b o o k s . I t i s e x t a n t i n i t s e n t i r e t y , a n d d e a l s w i t h t h e s t o r y o f J a s o n a n d h i s e p i c v o y a g e t o p r o c u r e t h e g o l d e n f l e e c e . T h e l o v e b e t w e e n J a s o n a n d M e d e a i s d w e l t o n a t s o m e l e n g t h , a n u n u s u a l i n t r u s i o n i n e p i c . S k u t s c h s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h e p a s s a g e f r o m A n n a l e s ( 3 4 - 5 0 ) w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e d r e a m o f I l i a , E n n i u s m a k e s u s e o f a r e a l i s m d e v e l o p e d i n a . . . 9 9 s i m i l a r p a s s a g e i n t h e A r g o n a u t i c a . I n B o o k i i i . 6 1 6 f f . , t h e G r e e k p o e t d e s c r i b e s M e d e a s l e e p i n g a n d d r e a m i n g a b o u t J a s o n , t h e c o n t e s t o f t h e o x e n , a n d o f t u r n i n g a w a y f r o m h e r p a r e n t s t o m a r r y h i m . S h e i s s t a r t l e d a n d w a k e s u p , m a k i n g s e v e r a l h e s i t a n t a t t e m p t s t o g o t o h e r s i s t e r ' s r o o m . A p o l l o n i u s u s e s s h o r t , c h o p p y , r a t h e r d i s j o i n t e d p h r a s e s t o s h o w h e r h a l t i n g a n d u n c e r t a i n m o v e m e n t s „ T h e e f f e c t c r e a t e d i s o n e o f u n r e a l i t y a n d a c t i o n s u s p e n d e d . T h e p i c t u r e i s v i v i d a n d r i n g s t r u e . E n n i u s ' s c e n e i s s i m i l a r i n s o m e w a y s : I l i a i s s t a r t l e d o u t o f s l e e p a n d r e p o r t s h e r d r e a m ; s h e s p e a k s o f v a g u e , f l e e t i n g s h a d o w s o f t h i n g s , a n d m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e r e w a s n o p a t h f o r h e r f e e t t o f o l l o w . S h e h a s a v i s i o n o f h e r f a t h e r w h o t e l l s h e r o f t h e s o r r o w s s h e m u s t s u f f e r , a n d h e r f o r e b o d i n g a b o u t t h i s i s p a l p a b l e . T h e e f f e c t t h a t E n n i u s a t t a i n s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t c r e a t e d b y A p o l l o n i u s i n h i s s c e n e : t h e r e i s a n a u r a o f m y s t e r y a n d u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t e v e r y t h i n g . S k u t s c h t h i n k s t h a t E n n i u s i s s u p e r i o r i n t h e p o e t i c m e r i t o f h i s d r e a m p s y c h o l o g y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t A p o l l o n i u s c o u l d a l s o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s i n m a t t e r s o f v o c a b u l a r y . F o r e x a m p l e , i n A n n . 3 8 4 , E n n i u s h a s : " h o r r e s c i t t e l i s e x e r c i t u s a s p e r u t r i m q u e . " T h i s i s s o m e w h a t r e m i n i s c e n t o f A r g o n a u t i c a i i i . 1 3 5 5 - 7 : " T h e p l o t o f A r e s , t h e d e a t h - d e a l e r , b r i s t l e d w i t h s t u r d y s h i e l d s a n d d o u b l e - p o i n t e d s p e a r s a n d s h i n i n g h e l m e t s . " ' ' ' ^ 9 9 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 1 9 4 . T r a n s l a t i o n o f R . C . S e a t o n ( L o e b e d . ) 3 8 In Skutsch's commentary on Ann.384, he i d e n t i f i e s Lycophron, a contemporary of Apollonius of Rhodes, as having been the f i r s t poet to combine the two Homeric ideas of the b r i s t l i n g f i e l d of corn and the b r i s t l i n g f i e l d of b a t t l e . Skutsch c i t e s Lycophron's Alexandra 252: " I t b r i s t l e s just as the f i e l d s shine bright with the spear-heads of corn.-"^^ This l i n e i s compared to I l i a d 13.339: "The f i e l d of death b r i s t l e d with the long f l e s h - c u t t i n g 102 spears." Homer uses the imagery both for b a t t l e and for a f i e l d . o f corn, but Lycophron seems to combine the two pi c t u r e s . It i s thought that Apollonius also included among h i s works a group of. poems i n d i f f e r e n t metres c a l l e d 'Foundations' i ^ T f- & £ L S ^ which may have dealt with the: foundation legends of a number of c i t i e s , perhaps even Alexandria i t s e l f . No fragments have survived, but h i s t o r i c a l poetry of t h i s type may well have influenced Quintus Ennius for he seems to have t o l d the foundation legends of Rome i n the Annales. A contemporary of Apollonius who also wrote epic poems was Rhianus of Crete. To him are ascribed several epics, among them poems about Achaia, E l i s , and also Heracles. The work.for which Rhianus i s best known i s h i s long epic c a l l e d the Messeniaka. This poem was not less than s i x books i n length and was c e r t a i n l y considered an h i s t o r i c a l epic because Pausanias used i t as . ' . • 103 his mam source of information on the Second Messenian War. The poem apparently dealt with the story of Aristomenes, the half-legendary leader of the Messenians, and t h e i r struggle with Sparta. There are not enough fragments surviving to give any more information. Here, though, there may have been another precedent for Quintus Ennius i n using an epic poem was a ve h i c l e f o r hi s t o r y . Skutsch Annals p.548. 102 Translation of E.V. Rieu (Penguin ed.) pp.428, 243. Pausanias r v . o . l f f . 3 9 C a l l i m a c h u s w a s p r o b a b l y t h e p o e t o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a n p e r i o d w h o m o s t i n f l u e n c e d Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . H i s w o r k s i n c l u d e d a c a t a l o g u e o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t s i n t h e G r e a t L i b r a r y , e p i g r a m s , h y m n s i n a v a r i e t y o f m e t r e s , i a m b i c s a n d s h o r t e p i c s . O n e o f h i s m o s t f a m o u s p o e m s w a s t h e A i t i a , a d i d -a c t i c e l e g y i n f o u r b o o k s , w h i c h d e a l t w i t h m y t h o l o g i c a l a n d l e g e n d a r y o r i g i n s o f p l a c e s a n d o t h e r r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l . A s w a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e o n p a g e » s o m e s c h o l a r s f e e l t h a t E n n i u s m a y h a v e b o r r o w e d t h e d r e a m m o t i f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s A n n a l e s f r o m a p a r t o f C a l l i m a c h u s ' A i t i a w h e r e t h e G r e e k p o e t m e t t h e M u s e s i n a d r e a m . A n o t h e r a r e a i n w h i c h C a l l i m a c h u s m a y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s i s i n v o c a b u l a r y . S k u t s c h , f o r e x a m p l e , s e e s i n A n n . 6 3 , ' q u i e s t o m n i b u s p r i n c e p s ' , a r e s e m b l a n c e t o A i t i a 1 . 7 . 3 4 : 1 0 4 a^<r<-S TTor<y*.wV i^^^C^plti ^ J t v c t / W ^ f E n n i u s ' u s e o f c o m p o u n d w o r d s m i g h t b e a n o t h e r a r e a i n w h i c h h e w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y C a l l i m a c h u s . T h i s p o e t a n d h i s f e l l o w A l e x a n d r i a n s o f t e n c o i n e d n e w w o r d s o r m a d e u p l e a r n e d c o m p o u n d s * t o a c h i e v e a c e r t a i n n u a n c e . A n i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e i n E n n i u s ' A n n a l e s i s f o u n d i n l i n e 3 0 0 : " r a s t r o s d e n t e f a b r e s c a p s i t c a u s a p o l i e n d i / a g r i . " T h e w o r d ' d e n t e f a b r e s ' . i s f o u n d o n l y h e r e i n L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . T h e u s e o f t h i s ' n e w ' w o r d w i t h t h e a r c h a i c f u t u r e ' c a p s i t ' , a n d t h e r a t h e r u n u s u a l i m a g e r y o f ' g r o o m i n g t h e f i e l d ' m a y i n d i c a t e s o m e i n f l u e n c e f r o m t h e A l e x a n d r i n e p o e t s . I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e ( p a g e s 3 8 - 9 ) , i t w a s n o t e d t h a t s o m e s c h o l a r s f e e l t h a t E n n i u s ' i n t r u s i o n o f p e r s o n a l t h o u g h t s i n t o h i s e p i c m a y h a v e b e e n i n s p i r e d b y P i n d a r . . G o r d o n W i l l i a m s , h o w e v e r , o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e i n t r u s i o n s m a y h a v e c o m e f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f C a l l i m a c h u s . ' ' " ^ ^ ^ 4 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 2 1 4 . 1 0 5 W i l l i a m s T r a d . & P r i g , p . 6 9 7 . 4 0 H e r e f e r s e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n a r r a t i v e w h e r e E n n i u s e x p l a i n s h o w h e b e c a m e t h e n e w H o m e r , a n d a l s o t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f B o o k v i i , w h e r e t h e p o e t g i v e s h i s r e a s o n f o r n o t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e F i r s t P u n i c W a r i n h i s A n n a l e s . A t o t h e r p o i n t s , a s h a s b e e n n o t e d a b o v e ( p a g e s 3 1 - 2 ) , t h e p o e t m a d e s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s o w n o l d a g e . W i l l i a m s d o e s n o t r e f e r t o a s p e c i f i c p a s s a g e o f t h e w o r k s o f C a l l i m a c h u s , b u t i n t h e A i t i a , t h e G r e e k p o e t a l s o s p e a k s o f o l d a g e : " . . . t h a t I m a y t h e n s h e d o l d a g e , w h i c h w e i g h s u p o n m e 1 0 6 l i k e t h e T h r e e - c o r n e r e d I s l a n d u p o n d e a d l y E n c e l a d u s . " T h i s i s c e r t a i n t l y v e r y s i m i l a r t o w h a t E n n i u s s a y s i n h i s A n n a l e s . P e r h a p s t h e b u r d e n o f o l d a g e w a s s o m e t h i n g o f a t o p o s o r c o m m o n p l a c e i n l i t e r a t u r e a s w e l l , f o r C i c e r o a l s o m a k e s s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s t o o l d a g e i n m u c h t h e s a m e t e r m s , a l s o . W i l l i a m s c o n c l u d e s t h a t E n n i u s m a y h a v e m o d e l l e d h i s e p i c o n H o m e r , b u t i t i s a H o m e r v i e w e d t h r o u g h t h e a r t i s t i c e y e s o f a C a l l i m a c h u s . ' ' ' ^ 7 Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . t o o k i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s i n f a s h i o n i n g h i s u n i q u e p o e m . O n e l a s t p o e t o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a n p e r i o d w i t h w h o m E n n i u s m i g h t h a v e b e e n f a m i l i a r i s A r a t u s . H e c o m p o s e d a p o e m i n h e x a m e t e r s c a l l e d t h e P h a i n o m e n a , e x t e n d i n g t o 1 1 5 4 l i n e s , a n d s t i l l e x t a n t t o d a y . T h e P h a i n o m e n a w a s b a s e d o n t h e w o r k o f t h e e a r l i e r a s t r o n o m e r , E u d o x u s o f C n i d u s , a n d i t i s a t r e a t i s e o n t h e s t a r s w h i c h m a k e s m u c h u s e o f g e o g r a p h y a n d m y t h o l o g y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e v a r i o u s c e l e s t i a l b o d i e s . S k u t s c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e E n n i a n p h r a s e ' i n n o c t e s e r e n a ' ( A n n . 3 8 7 ) m a y h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m P h a i n o m e n a 3 2 3 , w h e r e A r a t u s u s e s t h e p h r a s e K ^ ^ p f ) Vo K T l . 1 0 8 L a t e r o n , C i c e r o w o u l d f i n d t h e P h a i n o m e n a o f A r a t u s i n t e r e s t i n g e n o u g h t o t r a n s l a t e i n t o L a t i n , a n d i f E n n i u s k n e w i t , n o d o u b t i t w a s o f s o m e i n t e r e s t 1 0 6 C . A . T r y p a n i s T h e P e n g u i n B o o k o f G r e e k V e r s e ( 1 9 7 1 ) p . 3 1 0 . 1 0 7 W i l l i a m s T r a d . & P r i g , p . 6 9 6 . 1 0 8 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 5 5 2 . 4 1 t o h i m a l s o , b u t p e r h a p s m o r e f o r i t s p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e t h a n f o r i t s s u b j e c t -m a t t e r . T h e s e w e r e s o m e o f t h e p o e t s o f t h e H e l l e n i s t i c o r A l e x a n d r i a n A g e , t a l e n t e d a n d l e a r n e d s c h o l a r s w h o a d d e d m u c h t o t h e w o r l d o f l i t e r a t u r e b y t h e i r r e s e a r c h a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h e r e i s m u c h i n t h e A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s t o s h o w t h a t h e w a s q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e w o r l d a n d w o r k o f t h e A l e x a n d r i a n s , a n d t h a t h e w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e m . I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s G r e e k p o e t s h a s s h o w n t h e g r e a t a b u n d a n c e o f m a t e r i a l t h a t m a y h a v e b e e n a v a i l a b l e t o Q u i n t u s E n n i u s i n h i s w o r k . E n n i u s s o u g h t t o m a k e h i s s u b j e c t o f i n t e r e s t t o a l l w h i l e g i v i n g i t t r e a t m e n t w o r t h y o f s u c h l o f t y a n d n o b l e m a t e r i a l . H e w a s a b l e t o a d a p t f r e e l y f r o m a v a r i e t y o f p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s a n d s t y l e s t o c r e a t e s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w o u l d b e a l a s t i n g t r e a s u r e f o r t h e a g e s . T h e i d e a o f p o e t r y b e s t o w i n g i m m o r t a l i t y o n i t s s u b j e c t s e e m s t o b e f o u n d f i r s t i n P i n d a r . E n n i u s b r i n g s o u t h i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h a t f a c t i n A n n . 1 2 - 3 : " L a t o s p e r p o p u l o s r e s a t q u e p o e m a t a n o s t r a / c l a r a c l u e b u n t . " S k u t s c h t h i n k s t h e p o e t m e a n t t o s a y s o m e -t h i n g s i m i l a r i n A n n . 5 1 4 , i f o n l y t h e r e s t o f t h e p a s s a g e h a d s u r v i v e d : 1 0 9 " d u r a q u i d e m u n u s h o m o R o m a n u s t o g a s u p e r e s c i t , " W o u l d t h e r e s t o f t h e v e r s e s s a y s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e p o e t ' s n a m e b e i n g k n o w n a l s o ? E n n i u s , i n h i s o w n e p i t a p h , e x p r e s s e d t h e s a m e c e r t a i n t y : " N e m o m e l a c r i m i s d e c o r e t , n e c f u n e r a f l a t u / f a x i t . c u r ? v o l i t o v i v u s p e r o r a v i r u r a . " I n v i e w o f t h e a m o u n t o f s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n t h e f r a g m e n t s h a v e r e c e i v e d , E n n i u s ' h o p e a n d p r o p h e c y c a n b e s a i d t o h a v e b e e n f u l f i l l e d . S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 6 6 7 . > 4 . 2 C h a p t e r 4 : E n n i u s ' R o m a n P r e d e c e s s o r s Q u i n t u s E n n i u s h a d m a n y p r e d e c e s s o r s a m o n g t h e p o e t s o f G r e e c e . H e m a y h a v e h a d a c c e s s t o a l a r g e a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l n o l o n g e r e x t a n t , a n d m a y h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s b y G r e e k p o e t s . H o w e v e r , a t t h e t i m e h e w a s w r i t i n g , i n t h e l a t e t h i r d a n d e a r l y s e c o n d c e n t u r i e s , B . C . , L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e h a d b a r e l y b e g u n , s o t h e r e w a s n o t a g r e a t b o d y o f m a t e r i a l i n L a t i n o n w h i c h t h e p o e t c o u l d b u i l d n o r w e r e t h e r e m a n y R o m a n p o e t s w h o p r e c e d e d h i m . T w o p o e t s o n l y h a d c o m p o s e d w o r k s a t R o m e b e f o r e E n n i u s . T h e y w e r e L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s a n d C n a e u s N a e v i u s . L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s w a s a G r e e k o f s o u t h I t a l y w h o w a s b r o u g h t t o R o m e a s a s l a v e a f t e r t h e f a l l o f T a r e n t u m i n 2 7 2 B . C . S u e t o n i u s s p e a k s o f h i m t e a c h i n g L a t i n a n d G r e e k : " . . . a n t i q u i s s i m i d o c t o r u m . . „ ( L i v i u m e t E n n i u m d i c o . . . ) n i h i l a m p l i u s q u a m G r a e c o s i n t e r p r e t a b a n t u r , a u t s i q u i d i p s i L a t i n e p r a e l e g e b a n t . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e w a s n o t m u c h s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t o b e t a u g h t i n L a t i n . W i g h t D u f f p o i n t s o u t t h a t a s t u d y o f t h e T w e l v e T a b l e s o f L a w m a y h a v e b e e n u s e f u l b u t - n o t a e s t h e t i c , w h i l e a s t u d y o f t h e f e w o l d S a t u r n i a r i v e r s e s a v a i l a b l e w a s n e i t h e r u s e f u l n o r a e s t h e t i c . T h e r e w a s a r e a l n e e d o f s o m e t h i n g t o f i l l t h e g a p . L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s s e t o u t t o p r o v i d e t h i s b y t r a n s l a t i n g t h e O d y s s e y o f H o m e r i n t o L a t i n v e r s e s . L i v i u s c h o s e t h e n a t i v e S a t u r n i a n m e t r e f o r h i s p o e m , a n d m u s t h a v e s u c c e e d e d i n g i v i n g i t s o m e a u t h e n t i c R o m a n f l a v o u r , f o r i t w a s u s e d a s a t e x t b o o k i n R o m a n s c h o o l s f o r y e a r s . T h e p o e t H o r a c e r e c a l l s : " N o n e q u i d e m i n s e c t o r d e l e n d a v e c a r m i n e S u e t o n i u s d e G r a m m a t i c i s 1 . 1 1 1 J . W i g h t D u f f A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f R o m e ( U n w i n ; 1 9 0 9 R e p r i n t e d . L o n d o n : B e n n , 1 9 5 3 ) p . 1 0 8 . 4 3 1 1 2 L i v i / e s s e r e o r , m e m i n i q u a e p l a g o s u m raihi p a r v o / O r b i l i u m d i c t a r e . " C i c e r o k n e w t h e p o e m w e l l , t o o , a n d o b s e r v e s t h a t : " . . . n a m e t O d y s s i a L a t i n a e s t s i c t a m q u a m o p u s a l i q u o d D a e d a l i L i v i a n a e f a b u l a e n o n s a t i s d i g n a e q u a e i t e r u m l e g a n t u r , M o d e r n s c h o l a r s v a r y i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e w o r t h o f t h e ' O d y s s i a ' . F e w f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n , s o o f c o u r s e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o j u d g e t h e i r v a l u e . W i g h t D u f f t h i n k s t h a t L i v i u s ' s e l e c t i o n o f t h e O d y s s e y w a s a 1 1 4 . ' t e s t i m o n y t o t h e a c u m e n o f L i v i u s . W i g o d s k y e x p a n d s o n W i g h t D u f f ' s i d e a t o n o t e t h a t A n d r o n i c u s ' c h o i c e w a s p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f S i c i l y a n d I t a l y a s t h e s e t t i n g o f O d y s s e u s ' w a n d e r i n g s . T h e R o m a n p e o p l e o f t h e d a y l i k e l y a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i r l a n g u a g e b e i n g l i n k e d t o t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f t h e g r e a t h e r o , a n d p e r h a p s t h e y c o u l d t h e n m o r e e a s i l y i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e o t h e r H o m e r i c h e r o e s , t o o . L i v i u s e v i d e n t l y m a d e a g r e a t e f f o r t t o m a k e h i s p o e m m e m o r a b l e , a n d t o c a u s e i t t o h a v e a p p e a l f o r h i s R o m a n a u d i e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , h e R o m a n i z e d s o m e o f t h e n a m e s o f t h e d e i t i e s : 0 <lf°<a- b e c a m e ' M o r t a ' , a n d 7T©CT«S-<- <TwV b e c a m e ' N e p t u n e ' . W i g o d s k y r e m a r k s t h a t t h e R o m a n i z a t i o n o f n a m e s a n d e p i t h e t s b o t h h u m a n a n d d i v i n e , a n d a l s o t h e u s e o f t h e S a t u m i a n m e t r e , w e r e i n t e n d e d t o a p p e a l t o I t a l i c . 1 1 6 s e n t i m e n t . W i g h t D u f f w i t t i l y o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f f r a g m e n t s w h o s e p l a c e i s u n c e r t a i n i s t h e b e s t p r o o f o f L i v i u s ' i n e x a c t t r a n s l a t i o n . ^ 7 T h e L a t i n ' O d y s s i a ' b e g a n w i t h : " V i r u m m i h i , C a m e n a , i n s e c e v e r s u t u m . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e p o e t c a l l s o n t h e I t a l i c ' C a m e n a ' , r a t h e r t h a n t h e G r e e k M u s e , 1 1 2 H o r a c e E p i s t l e s i i . 1 . 6 9 - 7 1 . 1 1 3 . . . C i c e r o B r u t u s x v i i i . 7 1 . 1 1 4 W i g h t D u f f L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y p . 1 2 3 . 1 1 5 M . W i g o d s k y V i r g i l a n d E a r l y L a t i n P o e t r y ( W i e s b a d e n : H e r m e s E i z e l s c h i f t e n , 1 9 7 2 ) p . 1 6 . 1 1 6 W i g o d s k y V i r g i l p . 1 6 . 1 1 7 J . W i g h t D u f f L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y p . 1 2 4 . 4 4 t h u s b r i n g i n g i n a m o r e l o c a l f l a v o u r t o t h e R o m a n s . T h e l i n e d o e s n o t q u i t e h a v e t h e d r a m a o f H o m e r ' s \/&if>0~ JJLO L MoGcTOL } 'Vo\u -O T f o V / O S yxa/|a, TTo/\A Ou . E n n i u s , h o w e v e r , l i k e d L i v i u s ' u s e o f t h e w o r d ' i n s e c e ' , a n d u s e d i t s i m i l a r l y i n A n n . 3 2 2 , t h e f i r s t f r a g m e n t o f B o o k x : " I n s e c e , M u s a , m a n u R o m a n o r u m i n d u p e r a t o r . " N o t e t h a t E n n i u s u s e s ' M u s e ' r a t h e r t h a n ' C a m e n a ' . Q u i n t u s E n n i u s s o u g h t t o c a s t h i s R o m a n e p i c i n t o a G r e e k m o u l d , w h i l e L i v i u s s o u g h t t o c a s t t h e G r e e k e p i c i n t o a R o m a n o n e . I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n A n n , l i n e 3 2 2 , S k u t s c h n o t e s t h a t A n d r o n i c u s h a d u s e d t h e h i g h l y a r c h a i c f o r m , ' i n s e c e ' , a s a l i t e r a l r e n d e r i n g o f H o m e r ' s £ v " V t r T T f e , a n d t h a t E n n i u s , w h o g e n e r a l l y s h u n s e x t r e m e a r c h a i s m s , s a w 1 1 8 t h e a d v a n t a g e o f u s i n g t h i s o n e f o r t o n e a n d f l a v o u r . P e r h a p s t h e w o r d ' i n s e c e ' h a d a l s o b e c o m e a w o r d o n e w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f b e g i n n i n g a n e p i c , o r a n e w s e c t i o n o f a n e p i c , e v e n i f i t w a s n o t i n e v e r y -d a y u s e . W i g o d s k y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e ' O d y s s i a ' m u s t h a v e r e t a i n e d s o m e i n t e r e s t f o r l a t e r p o e t s b e c a u s e i t w a s a f i r s t a t t e m p t a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f a L a t i n e p i c 1 1 9 . . d i c t i o n . T h i s f i r s t a t t e m p t a t o r b e g i n n i n g o f L a t i n e p i c d i c t i o n w a s c e r t a i n l y a n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e g r o w t h o f a L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . Q u i n t u s E n n i u s a t l e a s t h a d s o m e p o i n t f r o m w h i c h t o b e g i n h i s s e a r c h f o r s u i t a b l e e p i c v o c a b u l a r y . E n n i u s ' u s e o f t h e w o r d ' i n s e c e ' i n a s i m i l a r w a y t o t h a t o f L i v i u s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d . A n o t h e r w o r d h e u s e d i n t h e s a m e w a y a s L i v i u s w a s ' m a n d e b a t ' i n A n n . 1 2 5 : " v o l t u r u s i n s p i n e t o m i s e r u m m a n d e b a t h o m o n e m . " L i v i u s ' l i n e i s : " c u m s o c i o s n o s t r o s m a n d i s s e t i m p i u s C y c l o p s " ( M o r e l , 3 2 ) . S k u t s c h e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h i s v e r b s t r e s s e s t h e v i s u a l a s p e c t o f 1 1 8 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 4 9 9 . 1 1 9 W i g o d s k y V i r g i l p . 1 6 . 4 5 e a t i n g a n d t h e r e f o r e t e n d s t o b e u s e d i n s c e n e s o f h o r r o r s u c h a s t h e C y c l o p s 1 2 0 d e v o u r i n g O d y s s e u s ' c o m p a n i o n s . I n A n n . 4 4 4 , E n n i u s u s e s t h e w o r d ' S a t u r n i e ' , p r o b a b l y m o d e l l i n g h i s v o c a t i v e f o r m a f t e r ' f i l i e ' i n o n e f r a g m e n t o f L i v i u s , a n d ' L a e r t i e ' f o u n d i n a n o t h e r f r a g m e n t ( M o r e l , 2 , 3 8 ) , a s 1 2 1 . -S k u t s c h s u g g e s t s . A n o t h e r L i v i a n e c h o f o u n d i n t h e w o r k o f E n n i u s i s i n A n n . 5 8 9 " a u s u s e s t h o c e x o r e t u o . " T h e l a s t t h r e e w o r d s w e r e u s e d b y L i v i u s i n : " M e a p u e r a , q u i d v e r b i e x t u o o r e s u p r a / f u g i t ? " ( M o r e l , 3 ) T h i s v e r s e w a s L i v i u s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e H o m e r i c -T-^-^VO^/ ZrJiJ-oV } T T o C o V f o u n d a t O d y s s e y 1 . 6 4 a n d e l s e w h e r e . T h e t r a n s l a t i o n d o e s n o t h a v e t h e f o r c e o f t h e H o m e r i c l i n e , n o r d o e s i t c o n v e y t h e i d e a o f a f o r b i d d e n w o r d s p o k e n t h a t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n h e l d b a c k . W h a t e v e r t h e p o e t i c m e r i t s o f t h e ' O d y s s i a ' o f L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s f r o m t h e f e w e x a m p l e s c i t e d o n e c a n s e e a t l e a s t t h a t i t p r o v i d e d s o m e i n s p i r a t i o n t o l a t e r p o e t s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a y w h e t h e r L i v i u s m a y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s i n a n y o t h e r w a y b e s i d e s i n v o c a b u l a r y . P e r h a p s i t w a s h e w h o i n s p i r e d t h e i d e a o f a R o m a n H o m e r , f o r h e c e r t a i n l y t r i e d t o b r i n g a R o m a n f l a v o u r t o G r e e k e p i c a n d t o m a k e i t m o r e a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e R o m a n s . L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s l a i d a f o u n d a t i o n o n w h i c h E n n i u s c o u l d b u i l d . H e b e g a n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e p i c d i c t i o n f o r t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e , a n d s h o w e d t h a t e p i c c o u l d e x i s t i n L a t i n . H e a l s o o p e n e d u p a n e w w o r l d t o t h e R o m a n s , b y . s h o w i n g h o w G r e e k w o r k s c o u l d b e t r a n s l a t e d a n d u s e d , f o r h e h i m s e l f t r a n s l a t e d m a n y G r e e k p l a y s a l s o a n d b r o u g h t t h e m t o t h e R o m a n s t a g e , L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s c r e a t e d a l l s o r t s o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e g r o w t h o f L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 2 7 8 . S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 6 0 2 . 4 6 G n a e u s N a e v i u s , E n n i u s ' o t h e r R o m a n p r e d e c e s s o r i n p o e t r y , w a s a R o m a n f r o m C a p u a , a t l e a s t s o i t w a s c o m m o n l y h e l d , b e c a u s e G e l l i u s r e f e r s 1 2 2 t o t h e ' C a m p a n i o n h a u g h t i n e s s ' o f h i s e p i t a g h . H i s e p i t a p h i s a s f o l l o w s : I m m o r t a l i s m o r t a l i s s i f o r e t . f a s f l e r e , F l e r e n t d i v a e C a m e n a e N a e v i o m p o e t a m : I t a q u e p o s t q u a m e s t O r c i t r a d i t u s t h e n s a u r o , O b l i t e i s u n t R o m a i l o q u i e r l i n g u a L a t i n a . ( M o r e l , 6 4 - 6 7 ) O n e c a n s e e w h y G e l l i u s m i g h t h a v e f e l t t h a t w a y . N a e v i u s s e r v e d a s a s o l d i e r i n t h e F i r s t P u n i c W a r , a n d l a t e r o n h e w a s i n s p i r e d . t o w r i t e a n e p i c p o e m a b o u t t h e w a r . H e a l s o w r o t e a n d p r o d u c e d m a n y p l a y s , i n c l u d i n g s o m e c o m e d i e s o n G r e e k s u b j e c t s , a n d o t h e r s o n R o m a n o r I t a l i a n s u b j e c t s . V o l c a t i u s S e d i g t u s p l a c e d N a e v i u s t h i r d i n h i s l i s t o f t h e w r i t e r s o f c o m e d y : 1 2 3 " D e i n N a e v i u s q u i f e r v e t p r e t i o i n t e r t i o s t . " I n s o m e o f h i s p l a y s o n R o m a n s u b j e c t s N a e v i u s a t t a c k e d l e a d i n g m e n o f t h e s t a t e , a n d . w a s c a s t i n t o p r i s o n . A f t e r m a k i n g a p o l o g i e s i n t w o p l a y s w r i t t e n w h i l e i n p r i s o n , h e w a s r e l e a s e d . H o w e v e r , h i s o p p o n e n t s e i t h e r d i d n o t f o r g i v e h i m , o r p o s s i b l y h e r e s u m e d h i s a t t a c k s . F o r s o m e r e a s o n o r o t h e r , h e w a s d r i v e n i n t o e x i l e , a n d d i e d i n U t i c a i n n o r t h e r n A f r i c a . J o c e l y n b e l i e v e s t h e p o e t c o m p o s e d h i s 1 2 4 C a r m e n B e l l i P u n i c l i n h i s o l d a g e w h i l e i n e x i l e . T h e C a r m e n B e l l i P u n i c i w a s a n e p i c p o e m i n s e v e n b o o k s w h i c h d e a l t m a i n l y w i t h t h e F i r s t P u n i c W a r . T h e p o e m d i d n o t m e r e l y t e l l t h e s t o r y o f t h e w a r , b u t a p p a r e n t l y l o o k e d b a c k t h r o u g h h i s t o r y t o d e l v e i n t o t h e c a u s e s o f t h e e n m i t y b e t w e e n t h e R o m a n s a n d t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n s . S c h o l a r s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r a s t o h o w N a e v i u s h a n d l e d h i s m a t e r i a l b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e s o f e w f r a g m e n t s . S o m e t h i n k t h a t . h e i n t r o d u c e d t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t 1 2 2 G e l l i u s N . A . x v m . 9 . 5 . 1 2 3 G e l l i u s x v . 2 4 . 1 0 / H . D . J o c e l y n ' " T h e P o e m s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s " , A N R W ( 1 9 7 2 ) p . 9 9 8 . 4 7 a s a n e x c u r s u s , o n c e h e h a d b e g u n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e w a r , a n d t h e n r e t u r n e d t o t h e w a r i t s e l f . O t h e r s t h i n k N a e v i u s m a y h a v e h a n d l e d a l l o f h i s m a t e r i a l i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l w a y , a n d s o m a y h a v e b e g u n w i t h t h e m y t h o l o g y . M a c k a i l n o t e s t h a t N a e v i u s s h o w e d a c o n s t r u c t i v e p o w e r o f a v e r y h i g h o r d e r i n h i s i n t e r w e a v i n g o f t h e g r e a t p a g e a n t o f h i s t o r y w i t h t h e a n c i e n t l e g e n d s o f b o t h c i t i e s , a n d i n h i s c o n n e c t i n g i t t h r o u g h t h e s t o r y o f A e n e a s t o t h e w a r 1 2 5 o f T r o y . I n d e e d , h e m u s t h a v e b e e n a f a i r l y s k i l l f u l p o e t t o b e a b l e t o c o m b i n e s o m a n y e l e m e n t s . P e r h a p s i t w a s f r o m N a e v i u s , t h e n , t h a t Q u i n t u s E n n i u s g o t t h e i d e a o f w r i t i n g t h e w h o l e h i s t o r y o f R o m e a s a n e p i c p o e m . N a e v i u s s h o w e d h i m w h a t c o u l d b e d o n e i n a p o e m b y j u x t a p o s i n g m y t h o l o g y a n d h i s t o r y . T h e C a r m e n B e l l i P u n i c i w a s c o m p o s e d i n t h e S a t u r n i a n m e t r e . E n n i u s r e m a r k s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e v e n t h b o o k , o f A n n a l e s : " s c r i p s e r e a l i i r e m / v o r s i b u s q u o s o l i m F a u n e i v a t e s q u e c a n e b a n t . " ( A r m . 2 0 6 - 7 ) M o s t s c h o l a r s t h i n k t h a t h e i s r e f e r r i n g t o N a e v i u s a n d h i s u s e o f t h e S a t u r n i a n s . S k u t s c h c o m m e n t s t h a t t h e S a t u r n i a n l i n e i s v e r y m u c h a m y s t e r y w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s 1 2 6 o r i g i n , i t s n a m e , a n d i t s n a t u r e , t h o u g h i t d i d p o s s e s s d i g n i t y a n d f o r c e . H e s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s t h e s h o r t , s h a r p c o l a w h i c h g i v e t h e S a t u r n i a n m e t r e i t s f o r c e . H e n o t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e h a m m e r i n g r h y t h m o f i t s b r i e f c o l a i m p e d e d t h e f r e e f l o w o f t h e s e n t e n c e , a n d m a d e t h e m e t r e u n s u i t a b l e a s a . . . 1 2 7 v e h i c l e o f s u s t a i n e d n a r r a t i v e . P e r h a p s t h i s w a s o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s Q u i n t u s E n n i u s t u r n e d t o t h e h e x a m e t e r . O f c o u r s e , t h e r e w e r e o t h e r f a c t o r s a s w e l l t h a t i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s ' c h o i c e o f m e t r e . H e f e l t t h a t h e w a s d o i n g s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t N a e v i u s a n d o t h e r s h a d d o n e , a n d t h a t t h e h e x a m e t e r w a s a 1 2 5 J . W . M a c k a i l L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e ( L o n d o n : . J o h n M u r r a y , 1 8 9 5 ; 1 7 T H i m p r e s s i o n 1 9 5 8 ) p . 6 . 1 2 6 S k u t s c h S t u d i a E n n i a n a . ( L o n d o n : A t h l o n e , 1 9 6 8 ) p . 4 . 1 2 7 S k u t s c h , S t u d . E n n . p . 4 . 4 8 b e t t e r v e h i c l e f o r h i s p u r p o s e s . - T h e S a t u r n i a n m e t r e w a s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h R o m a n a n d I t a l i a n p o e t r y , a n d E n n i u s w a s t a k i n g L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i n t o t h e r e a l o f t h e G r e e k s . Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y N a e v i u s i n o t h e r w a y s , h o w e v e r . I n f a c t , C i c e r o r e m a r k s t h a t t h o s e w h o m E n n i u s d i s m i s s e s s o c a s u a l l y ( A n n . 2 0 6 - 7 , m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ) w r o t e v e r y w e l l , i f a l i t t l e l e s s p o l i s h e d t h a n h e , a n d t h a t E n n i u s h a d i n d e e d b o r r o w e d m a n y t h i n g s f r o m N a e v i u s i f o n l y h e h a d a d m i t t e d 1 2 8 i t . S c h o l a r s u n f o r t u n a t e l y a r e n o t e x a c t l y s u r e o f C i c e r o ' s m e a n i n g i n t h i s p a s s a g e s i n c e t h e f r a g m e n t s o f E n n i u s ' w o r k s t h a t h a v e s u r v i v e d d o n o t r e v e a l a n e x t e n s i v e r e l i a n c e o n N a e v i u s . T h e r e a r e s o m e p a s s a g e s i n t h e r A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w h e r e s o m e i n f l u e n c e o f N a e v i u s c a n b e s e e n , h o w e v e r F o r e x a m p l e , A n n . 1 5 - 1 6 : " D o c t u s q u e A n c h i s e s q u e V e n u s q u e m p u l c r a d e a r u m / F a r i d o n a v i t , d i v i n u m p e c t u s h a b e r e . " I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e s e v e r s e s , S k u t s c h r e m a r k s t h a t t h e s c h o l i a s t s o n V i r g i l r e f e r b o t h t o a p a s s a g e i n N a e v i u s a n d t o t h e s e l i n e s o f E n n i u s i n o r d e r t o p r o v e t h a t A n c h i s e s p o s s e s s e d t h e g i f t o f d i v i n a t i o n , a n d f o r t h a t r e a s o n , p e r h a p s , b o t h p o e t s h a d a c o m m o n 1 2 9 s o u r c e . I t i s e a s y t o f o r g e t t h a t m o s t o f N a e v i u s ' s o u r c e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o E n n i u s a s w e l l . I n A n n . 2 8 - 9 , E n n i u s d e s c r i b e s A n c h i s e s a s ' p i u m / A n c h i s e n ' . N a e v i u s u s e s ' s e n e x f r e t u s p i e t a t i ' ( M o r e l , 1 2 ) i n h i s p o e m . N a e v i u s s e e m s t o m e a n t h e a t t i t u d e o f A n c h i s e s t o w a r d s t h e g o d s , a n d s o , S k u t s c h i n f e r s , d o e s E n n i u s . ^ ^ I n A n n . . 2 5 E n n i u s u s e s t h e w o r d ' T i t a n u s ' T h i s i s a L a t i n i z e d f o r m o f t h e G r e e k w o r d I (-T~O-V, i t a l s o o c c u r s i n N a e v i u s ( M o r e l , 1 9 ) w h e r e t h e p o e t h a s ' q u o m o d o T i t a n i ' . T h e s e a r e t h e 1 2 8 * C i c e r o B r u t u s x i x . 7 5 . ( M y p a r a p h r a s e . ) 1 2 9 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 1 7 1 . 1 3 0 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 1 8 7 . 4 9 1 3 1 e a r l i e s t u s a g e s o f t h i s w o r d i n L a t i n , a s S k u t s c h p o i n t s o u t . I n A n n . 1 2 - 1 3 Q u i n t u s E n n i u s p r o c l a i m e d : " L a t o s p e r p o p u l o s r e s a t q u e p o e m a t a n o s t r a / c l a r a c l u e b u n t , " a p a s s a g e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ( p a g e 10 ) i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h ' L y r i c i n t r u s i o n s ' i n t o e p i c . S k u t s c h s u g g e s t s t h a t E n n i u s c h o s e t h e w o r d ' p o e m a t a ' w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t o f c a r e t o r e p l a c e t h e ' c a r m e n ' w h i c h N a e v i u s h a d u s e d i n t h e t i t l e o f h i s e p i c p o e m . F o r E n n i u s , ' c a r m e n ' i s i n s e p a r a b l y l i n k e d t o t h e e a r l i e r p h a s e o f p o e t r y w i t h w h i c h h e m e a n s t o b r e a k . ' P o e m a t a ' i s t h e m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o e t r y , m o d e l l e d a f t e r t h a t o f 1 3 2 G r e e c e , w i t h w h i c h E n n i u s w a n t s h i s n a m e a s s o c i a t e d . I n a s i m i l a r v e i n i s t h e p o e t ' s t h o u g h t i n A n n . 2 0 6 - 7 : " S c r i p s e r e a l i i r e m / v o r s i b u s q u o s o l i m F a u n e i v a t e s q u e c a n e b a n t o " ( T h i s p a s s a g e w a s d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y a b o v e o n p a g e » ) Q u i n t u s E n n i u s s e e m s t o u s e t h e w o r d ' v a t e s ' i n a r a t h e r s l i g h t i n g w a y . T h e a n c i e n t ' v a t e s ' c o m b i n e d t h e f u n c t i o n s o f b a r d a n d e n t e r t a i n e r . I n s o m e w a y t h e ' v a t e s ' k n e w a l l t h e o l d s t o r i e s a n d l e g e n d s a n d c o u l d p r o v i d e a n e v e n i n g ' s e n t e r t a i n m e n t b y r e c i t i n g t h e m . E n n i u s d i d n o t s e e h i m s e l f i n q u i t e t h a t c a p a c i t y . H e s a w h i m s e l f a s a p o e t a n d a n h i s t o r i a n , a ' s c r i p t o r r e r u m ' . H i s ' p o e m a t a ' r e c o r d e d t h e a c t u a l h a p p e n i n g s a n d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o f a n o t e -w o r t h y p e o p l e . , F o r h i m t h e r e a l p e o p l e o f h i s t o r y w e r e t h e g r e a t h e r o e s . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f e p i c v o c a b u l a r y w h e r e N a e v i u s p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s w a s i n t h e u s e o f c o m p o u n d v e r b s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n A n n . 1 9 8 : " B e l l i p o t e n t e s s u n t m a g i s q u a m s a p i e n t i p o t e n t e s . " I n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n t h i s l i n e S k u t s c h o b s e r v e s t h a t i t w a s v e r y l i k e l y N a e v i u s w h o c o i n e d t h e s e i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p o u n d w o r d s , b e c a u s e s o m e o f t h e m a r e f o u n d i n t h e w o r k s o f P l a u t u s a l s o , a n d t h e f i r s t f e w b o o k s o f A n n a l e s w e r e n o t p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1 3 1 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 1 8 4 . 1 3 2 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 1 6 8 . 5 0 1 3 3 P l a u t u s ' d e a t h . O n p a g e a b o v e i t w a s o b s e r v e d t h a t E n n i u s m a y h a v e c o i n e d s o m e o f h i s c o m p o u n d w o r d s h i m s e l f , t o m e e t t h e d e m a n d s o f v o c a b u l a r y s u i t a b l e f o r u s e i n h e x a m e t e r s . I n t h e C a r m e n B e l l i P u n i c i H o m e r i c m y t h o l o g y a n d r a t h e r b a l d h i s t o r y a r e s e t a l o n g s i d e e a c h o t h e r , a s B r o o k s O t i s n o t e s . H e o b s e r v e s t h a t o n e c a n n o t e x p e c t o f t h a t e a r l y e r a a g r e a t s e n s i t i v i t y t o s t y l e , o r a n y s t r o n g 1 3 4 s e n s e o f t h e i n c o n g r u i t y b e t w e e n a n n a l i s t i c h i s t o r y a n d H o m e r i c n a r r a t i v e . N a e v i u s t r i e d v e r y h a r d t o m a k e p o e t r y o u t o f h i s t o r y , a n d d e s e r v e s f u l l c r e d i t f o r c o m p o s i n g t h e v e r y f i r s t r e a l n a t i o n a l e p i c . P e r h a p s i t w a s c r u d e i n s o m e . . 1 3 5 w a y s , b u t O t i s f i n d s a g e n u i n e R o m a n f e e l i n g i n t h e C a r m e n B e l l i P u n i c i . Q u i n t u s E n n i u s s o u g h t t o p r o d u c e j u s t s u c h a n e p i c , f u l l o f n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g , b u t m o r e p o l i s h e d , a n d i n t h e s t y l e . o f H o m e r . A l t h o u g h E n n i u s s e e m s t o h a v e w r i t t e n o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n a d i s p a r a g i n g w a y , h e o b v i o u s l y o w e d t h e m a d e b t . H e w a n t e d t o m i n i m i z e t h a t d e b t b e c a u s e h e f e l t t h a t h e w a s d o i n g s o m e t h i n g n e w i n t h e r e a l m o f p o e t r y . P e r h a p s L i v i u s A n d r o n i v u s g a v e E n n i u s t h e i d e a o f w r i t i n g a n e p i c p o e m i n L a t i n . H e a l s o l e f t t o t h e ' a l t e r H o m e r u s ' t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f L a t i n e p i c d i c t i o n . F r o m C n a e u s N a e v i u s E n n i u s m a y h a v e g o t t e n t h e i d e a o f c h o o s i n g h i s t o r y a s t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f o r a n e p i c p o e m . E n n i u s c o u l d s e e f r o m N a e v i u s ' p o e m w h a t p i t f a l l s w e r e t o b e a v o i d e d , a n d h e c o u l d a l s o s e e , p e r h a p s , w a y s i n w h i c h h i s t o r y c o u l d b e h a n d l e d m o r e d e x t e r o u s l y i n v e r s e . N a e v i u s , t o o , w o u l d h a v e e n h a n c e d L a t i n e p i c d i c t i o n , l e a v i n g m u c h m o r e s c o p e f o r E n n i u s . H e a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w m y t h o l o g y a n d h i s t o r y c o u l d b e c o m b i n e d . I f h e w a s n o t t o t a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , ' h e m a y n e v e r t h e l e s s h a v e h a d s o m e i n f l u e n c e o n E n n i u s . 1 3 3 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 3 5 9 . 1 3 4 B r o o k s O t i s V e r g i l , a S t u d y i n C i v i l i z e d P o e t r y ( O x f o r d , 1 9 6 4 ) p . 2 0 . 1 3 5 O t i s V e r g i l p . 2 1 . 5 1 Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w a n t e d t o b e k n o w n a s t h e f i r s t R o m a n p o e t t o h a v e e x e c u t e d a n e p i c p o e m w h i c h w o u l d s h o w t h e g r e a t n e s s o f R o m e a n d h e r a c h i e v e m e n t s , s o h e d o w n - p l a y e d t h e r o l e s o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s . B e s i d e s t h e w o r k s o f t h e p o e t s , L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s , a n d C n a e u s N a e v i u s , t h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n o t h e r m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e w h i c h E n n i u s d r e w f r o m , o r w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d h i m i n w r i t i n g h i s A n n a l e s « , T h e r e w e r e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e c o r d s k e p t b y t h e p r i e s t s t h a t w e r e k n o w n a s t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' . A s C i c e r o t e l l s h i s a u d i e n c e i n d e O r a t o r e : " F o r h i s t o r y b e g a n a s a m e r e c o m p i l a t i o n o f a n n a l s , o n w h i c h a c c o u n t , a n d i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e g e n e r a l t r a d i t i o n s , f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t p e r i o d o f t h e C i t y d o w n t o t h e p o n t i f i c a t e o f P u b l i u s M u c i u s , e a c h H i g h P r i e s t u s e d t o c o m m i t t o w r i t i n g a l l t h e e v e n t s o f h i s y e a r o f o f f i c e , a n d r e c o r d t h e m o n a w h i t e s u r f a c e , a n d p o s t u p t h e t a b l e t a t h i s h o u s e , t h a t a l l m e n m i g h t h a v e l i b e r t y t o a c q u a i n t t h e m s e l v e s t h e r e w i t h , a n d t o t h i s d a y t h o s e r e c o r d s a r e k n o w n a s t h e A n n a l e s M a x i m i . " F r i e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s w e r e u s e d f o r t h e r e c o r d s , a n d t h a t 1 3 7 C i c e r o h i m s e l f u s e d f o u r n a m e s f o r t h e m . F r i e r a l s o n o t e s t h a t S e r v i u s ' A u c t u s ' , M a c r p b i u s , a n d P a u l u s a l l s a y f i r m l y t h e s e c o n d c o m p o n e n t o f t h e n a m e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' c a m e f r o m t h e t i t l e P o n t i f e x M a x i m u s . I t i s u n c e r t a i n w h e n t h e p o n t i f i c a l r e c o r d s - b e g a n t o b e k e p t . A c c o r d i n g t o F r i e r t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e r e g a l s e c t i o n o f t h e c h r o n i c l e , b u t n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e v e r y e a r l y p o r t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d 1 3 8 w a s b a s e d o n c o n t e m p o r a r y a r c h i v a l n o t i c e s . T h e r e a r e a l s o s o m e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e e a r l y R e p u b l i c a n p o r t i o n o f t h e c h r o n i c l e b u t m o s t o f t h e s e a r e v e r y u n s p e c i f i c . O n e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e a r l y R e p u b l i c a n p e r i o d i s t h e m e n t i o n o f a n e c l i p s e i n E n n i u s , A n n . 1 5 3 : " N o h i s I u n i s s o l i l u n a o b s t i t i t e t n o x . " 1 3 6 C i c e r o d e O r a t o r e I I . x i i . 5 2 , t r a n s l a t e d b y E.W. S u t t o n . 1 3 7 B.W. F r i e r " L i b r i A n n a l e s P o n t i f i c u m M a x i m o r u m : T h e O r i g i n s o f t h e A n n a l i s t i c T r a d i t i o n " P a p e r s & M o n o g r a p h s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A c a d e m y  i n R o m e x x v i i ( 1 9 7 9 ) p . 4 7 . F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 1 1 4 . 52 C i c e r o p r e s e r v e d t h i s c i t a t i o n i n h i s R e p u b l i c , i n m e n t i o n i n g t h e d a t e o f t h e e c l i p s e a s b e i n g 3 5 0 A . U . C . , a n d h e a l s o o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e s a m e e c l i p s e 1 3 9 i s n o t e d i n t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' . C i c e r o d o e s n o t s a y s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t E n n i u s g o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c h r o n i c l e , t h o u g h F r i e r s u g g e s t s t h a t . . 1 4 0 h e m a y b e i m p l y i n g i t b y i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c h r o n i c l e i n t o h i s d i s c u s s i o n . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s r e f e r e n c e , t h e n , a n d s o m e o t h e r s , F r i e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t h i s s o u r c e s , t h o u g h s c a n t y , w i t n e s s t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o n t i f i c a l . ' 1 4 1 c h r o n i c l e d e r i v e d f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y n o t i c e s b e f o r e 3 9 0 B . C . T h e h i s t o r i a n L i v y r e l a t e s t h a t " . . . e v e n s u c h r e c o r d s a s e x i s t e d i n t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s o f t h e p o n t i f f s a n d i n o t h e r p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e d o c u m e n t s , 1 4 2 n e a r l y a l l p e r i s h e d i n t h e c o n f l a g r a t i o n o f t h e c i t y . " H e r e f e r s t o t h e s a c k o f t h e c i t y o f R o m e b y t h e G a u l s i n 3 8 7 B . C . C r a k e s u g g e s t s t h a t a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d s w a s l i k e l y u n d e r t a k e n i m m e d i a t e l y , a n d n o t a b l e e v e n t s o f t h e r e c e n t p a s t , s u c h a s a n e c l i p s e , w o u l d h a v e e a s i l y b e e n 1 4 3 r e c a l l e d . P e r h a p s t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s w h a t L i v y r e f e r s t o w h e n h e s a y s : " C l a r i o r a d e i n c e p s c e r t i o r a q u e a b s e c u n d o o r i g i n e v e l u t a b s t i r p i b u s , 1 4 4 l a e t i u s f e r a c i u s q u e r e n a t a e u r b i s g e s t a d o m i m i l i t a e q u e e x p o n e n t u r . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e F r i e r s u m m a r i z e s h i s f i n d i n g s a s f o l l o w s . I n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , B . C . , t h e - P o n t i f e x M a x i m u s b e g a n t o s e t u p a ' t a b u l a ' y e a r l y r e c o r d i n g e v e n t s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s t a t e . T h i s w a s a m e a n s o f i n f o r m i n g t h e p o p u l a c e . F r o m a n e a r l y t i m e t h e c o n t e n t s o f e a c h ' t a b u l a ' , a f t e r t h e y e a r h a d p a s s e d , , w e r e t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o a c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d 1 3 9 C i c e r o R e p . 1 . 2 5 . ( M y p a r a p h r a s e , ) 1 4 0 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 1 1 9 . ' 1 4 1 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 1 1 9 . 1 4 2 L i v y v i . 1 . 2 . T r a n s l a t e d b y B . O . F o s t e r . J . E . A . C r a k e " T h e A n n a l s o f t h e P o n t i f e x M a x i m u s 1 C P 3 5 ( 1 9 4 0 ) 3 7 5 - 3 8 6 ; p . 3 7 9 . 1 4 4 L i v y v i . 1 . 3 . T r a n s l a t e d b y B . O . F o s t e r . 53 which became known as the A n n a l e s M a x i m i . The c o l l a t i o n of the ' t a b u l a e ' 145 c o n t i n u e d down to 130 B . C . when P . M u c i u s S c a e v o l a ended i t . The form of the c h r o n i c l e i s u n c e r t a i n , b u t i t s u r v i v e d and was ' e x h i b i t e d ' i n some 146 way i n the t ime o f C l a u d i u s Q u a d r i g a r i u s , as P l u t a r c h r e c o r d s . G r a n t t h i n k s t h a t some of the i n s c r i p t i o n s , f rom the ' t a b u l a e ' were t r a n s f e r r e d to 147 s t o n e . T h e r e seems to have been some s o r t o f document o r s o u r c e t h a t c o u l d be c o n s u l t e d . Whatever the shape o r form o f the ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' may have b e e n , some s c h o l a r s f e e l t h a t E n n i u s might have been i n f l u e n c e d by them o r u s e d them as one of h i s s o u r c e s , S k u t s c h s u g g e s t s t h a t the ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' may even have put i n t o the p o e t ' s mind the i d e a o f r e c o r d i n g the whole h i s t o r y of Rome i n v e r s e . He n o t e s a l s o t h a t E n n i u s took h i s t i t l e f rom the p r i e s t l y r e c o r d s , and f o l l o w e d them i n u s i n g the c o n s u l s ' names to d e s i g n a t e y e a r s . ^ 4 8 In Ann. 153, as was m e n t i o n e d above (on pages SI*3), E n n i u s d e s c r i b e s an e c l i p s e : "Nonis I u n i s s o l i l u n a o b s t i t i t e t n o x „ " A u l u s G e l l i u s r e p o r t s t h a t C a t o s a i d o f the ' A n n a l e s ' o f the p r i e s t s , "Non l u b e t s c r i b e r e , quod i n t a b u l a apud p o n t i f i c e m maximum e s t , q u o t i e n s annona c a r a , q u o t i e n s l u n a e ,149 aut s o l i s l u m m e c a l i g o au t q u i d o b s t i t e r i t , S k u t s c h , i n h i s commentary on A n n . 153, o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e C a t o passage shows how c l o s e l y E n n i u s f o l l o w e d the o f f i c i a l t e r m i n o l o g y . 1 4 5 F r i e r L i b r i p.175. 1 4 6 P l u t a r c h Numa 1.2. 1 4 7 M i c h a e l G r a n t The A n c i e n t H i s t o r i a n s ( N . Y . : C h a s . S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1970) p.168. 1 4 8 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p.6. 1 4 9 G e l l i u s ii.28.6. 1 5 0 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p.313. 5 4 H . D . J o c e l y n a l s o t h i n k s t h a t t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' h a d c o n s i d e r -a b l e i n f l u e n c e o n E n n i u s ' s t y l e , a s w e l l a s g i v i n g h i m a g o o d t i t l e f o r h i s w o r k . H e d e f i n i t e l y f e e l s t h a t t h e p o i n t o f v i e w a d o p t e d o v e r a l l b y t h e p o e t i s l i k e l y t h e o n e h e l d i n t h e p r i e s t l y r e c o r d s , n a m e l y t h a t e v e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e g o d s o f t h e R o m a n s t a t e g a v e t h e i r a p p r o v a l . ' ' " " ' ' ' " I n s o m e v e r s e s o f t h e A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s , J o c e l y n s e e s t h e u s e o f a s t y l e w h i c h m u s t h a v e b e e n v e r y l i k e t h a t w h i c h w o u l d b e f o u n d i n t h e p r i e s t l y ' A n n a l e s ' . H e o b s e r v e t h a t t h e s t y l e i n w h i c h t h e s c r i b a e o f t h e p o n t i f f s w r o t e w a s b a l d i n t h e e x t r e m e , a n d E n n i u s i n m a n y o f h i s v e r s e s s e e m s d e l i b e r a t e l y t o a f f e c t j u s t s u c h a p l a i n n e s s o f s t y l e . F o r e x a m p l e , A n n . 3 2 4 s i m p l y h a s : " G r a e c i a S u l p i c i o s o r t i d a t a , G a l l i a C o t t a e . " F a c t s a r e p l a i n l y s t a t e d a n d n o o r n a m e n t a t i o n i s a d d e d a t a l l . S u r e l y a v e r s e s u c h a s t h i s a n d o t h e r s l i k e i t m u s t h a v e s t o o d o u t i n t h e 1 5 2 u s u a l l y m o r e o r n a t e n a r r a t i v e o f a n a c c o m p l i s h e d p o e t . C e r t a i n l y p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m w a s t h e v a s t a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l t h e p o e t w a n t e d t o r e c o r d i n h i s A n n a l e s . J o c e l y n n o t e s t h a t t h e f r a g m e n t s o f E n n i u s ' p o e m c o n t a i n e v e r y t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m a y h a v e b e e n f o u n d i n t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' . T h e p o e t d i d n o t c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o m e r e l y r e l a t i n g t h e g r e a t m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n s o f t h e R o m a n p e o p l e . H e w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a n y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f c i v i c l i f e . J o c e l y n c o n c l u d e s , " T h i s w a s n o t a p o e t s t r u g g l i n g u n s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h a n i n t r a c t a b l e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r b u t o n e i n d i c a t i n g t o k n o w l e d g e a b l e r e a d e r s a s t y l e o f n a r r a t i v e w h i c h h e h o n o u r e d i n i t s o w n c o n t e x t b u t s o u g h t t o s u r p a s s . - . . 1 5 3 i n h i s n e w k i n d o f e p i c p o e t r y . " 1 5 1 J o c e l y n " P o e m s " p . 1 0 0 8 . 1 5 2 J o c e l y n " P o e m s " p . 1 0 0 9 . 1 SI J o c e l y n " P o e m s " p . 1 0 0 9 . 5 5 A s w e l l a s t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' , t h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e t o Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . H e m u s t h a v e h a d s o m e a c c e s s t o T r e a t i e s , f o r e x a m p l e . P o l y b i u s r e c o r d s t h e t e x t o f t h e T r e a t y o f 5 0 9 B . C . w i t h C a r t h a g e , w h i l e D i o n y s i u s o f H a l i c a r n a s s u s g i v e s t h e t e x t o f t h e T r e a t y o f 4 9 3 B . C . b e t w e e n R o m e a n d t h e L a t i n L e a g u e . 1 5 4 C i c e r o m e n t i o n s a T r e a t y t h a t " w a s s t r u c k w i t h a l l t h e L a t i n s i n . t h e c o n s u l s h i p • . o f S p u r i u s C a s s i u s a n d P o s t u m u s C o m i n i u s w h i c h n o t s o l o n g a g o w e r e m e m b e r w a s e n g r a v e d a n d w r i t t e n o u t u p o n a c o l u m n o f b r o n z e s t a n d i n g b e h i n d t h e R o s t r a . " 1 5 5 T h e r e m u s t a l s o h a v e b e e n o t h e r i t e m s o f p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c r e c o r d . T h e r e w e r e l i k e l y s o m e ' l a u d a t i o n e s f u n e b r e s ' , o r a t i o n s u s e d a t f u n e r a l s w h i c h p r a i s e d t h e d e c e a s e d a n d j o i n e d h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s t o t h o s e o f h i s g l o r i o u s a n c e s t o r s . L i v y a d v i s e s t h a t s o m e t i m e s t h e s e o r a t i o n s c o u l d f a l s i f y h i s t o r y . 1 5 ^ C i c e r o c a u t i o n s t h a t s o m e ' l a u d a t i o n e s ' d i s t o r t t h e f a c t s o r e x a g g e r a t e t h e m . 1 5 7 E n n i u s m o v e d i n a r i s t o c r a t i c c i r c l e s , s o p e r h a p s h e a l s o h a d s o m e a c c e s s t o o t h e r f a m i l y r e c o r d s w h i c h r e c o r d e d t h e n o b l e d e e d s o f a n c e s t o r s . T h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o E n n i u s s o m e ' c o m m e n t a r i i ' s u c h a s a r e m e n t i o n e d i n L i v y 1 . 6 0 . 4 , a n d i v . 3 . 9 . O g i l v i e n o t e s t h a t t h e ' c o m m e n t a r i i ' w e r e p r o c e d u r a l h a n d b o o k s i n d i c a t i n g m e t h o d a n d p r o t o c o l , a n d 1 5 8 t h a t t h e y s e e m t o h a v e b e e n c o m m o n t o a l l t h e p r i e s t l y c o l l e g e s . 1 5 4 '. ' P o l y b i u s L i i . 2 2 ; D i o n y s i u s o f H a l i c a r n a s s u s v i . 9 5 . 1 - 2 . 1 5 5 C i c e r o p r o B a l b o x x i i i . 5 3 ( t r a n s . R . G a r d n e r ) 1 5 6 _ . . . . / A , L i v y v m . 4 0 . 4 . 1 5 7 C i c . B r u t . x v i . 6 2 . 1 5 8 R . M . O g i l v i e A C o m m e n t a r y o n L i v y B o o k s I - V ( O x f o r d C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 6 5 ) p . 2 3 1 . 5 6 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s , C i c e r o r e f e r s s e v e r a l t i m e s i n h i s d i a l o g u e s t o a n c i e n t ' c a r m i n a ' , s o m e s o r t o f t r a d i t i o n a l o r o r a l p o e t r y o r b a l l a d s W h i c h w e r e s u n g a t b a n q u e t s i n t i m e s p a s t . F o r e x a m p l e , i n T u s c u l a n D i s p u t a t i o n s 4 . 2 . 3 , t h e o r a t o r n o t e s : " G r a v i s s i m u s a u c t o r i n o r i g i n i b u s d i x i t C a t o , m o r e m a p u d m a i o r e s h u n c e p u l a r u m f u i s s e , u t d e i n c e p s q u i a c c u b a r e n t c a n e r e n t a d t i b i a m v i r o r u m l a u d e s a t q u e v i r t u t e s . " C i c e r o h a d a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h e s e a n c i e n t ' c a r m i n a ' e a r l i e r i n t h e s a m e d i a l o g u e , a t 1 0 2 . 3 : " Q u a m q u a m e s t i n o r i g i n i b u s s o l i t o s e s s e i n e p u l i s c a n e r e c o n v i v o s a d t i b i c i n e m d e c l a r o r u m h o m i n u m v i r t u t i b u s . " I n t h e B r u t u s , t h e o r a t o r e x p r e s s e s a w i s h t h a t t h e o l d s o n g s s t i l l e x i s t e d w h i c h C a t o m e n -1 5 9 t i o n e d h a d b e e n s u n g a t b a n q u e t s a g e s b e f o r e h i s t i m e . O t h e r R o m a n a u t h o r m a k e r e f e r e n c e s t o a n c i e n t s o n g s , t o o . E . M . S t e u a r t p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e ' c a n t u s 1 6 0 c o n v i v i a l e s ' w a s n o t r e a l l y c h a l l e n g e d , a s t h e y a r e s o w e l l a t t e s t e d . S h e s u g g e s t s t h a t a s w e l l a s t h e b a n q u e t s o n g s a n d f u n e r a l s o n g s a t t e s t e d -t o i n a n c i e n t a u t h o r s , t h e r e w e r e p r o b a b l y e p i t a p h s i n S a t u r n i a n s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e S c i p i o s , a n d p e r h a p s o t h e r v e r y o l d S a t u r n i a n p o e m s a l s o e x i s t e d . W i t h r e g a r d t o L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s a n d N a e v i u s c h o o s i n g t h e S a t u r n i a n m e t r e f o r t h e i r p o e m s , S t e u a r t o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e c h o i c e m a y h a v e b e e n m a d e b e c a u s e t h a t m e t r e h a d a l r e a d y b e e n p r o v e d a f i t v e h i c l e f o r n a r r a t i o n o n s u c h a s c a l e . S h e m e n t i o n s t h e ' C a r m e n P r i a m i ' a n d t h e ' C a r m e n N e l e i ' a s p o s s i b l e e a r l y e x a m p l e s o f n a r r a t i v e s i n S a t u r n i a n s . 1 ^ 1 1 5 9 C i c e r o B r u t u s 1 9 . 7 5 . ( M y t r a n s l a t i o n . ) 1 6 0 E . M . S t e u a r t . " T h e E a r l i e s t N a r r a t i v e P o e t r y o f R o m e " C Q 1 5 ( 1 9 2 1 ) 3 1 - 3 7 . 1 6 1 S t e u a r t " E a r l i e s t . P o e t r y . " p . 3 5 . 57 These poems, however , a r e known o n l y from s m a l l f r a g m e n t s , and no f i r m c o n -c o n c l u s i o n s have been r e a c h e d as to what they were . A M o m i g l i a n o , f o r example , no te s t h a t the 'Carmen N e l e i 1 was p r o b a b l y p a r t o f a drama r a t h e r than a n a r r a t i v e , and t h a t the 'Carmen P r i a r a i ' may not even be an a r c h a i c p o e m . 1 6 2 M o m i g l i a n o examines the t h e o r i e s o f e a r l i e r s c h o l a r s such as P e r i z o n i u s , who worked i n the 17TH c e n t u r y , and N i e b u h r , who worked i n the l a s t p a r t o f the 19TH c e n t u r y , and who was i n f l u e n c e d by P e r i z o n i u s . P e r i z o n i u s a p p a r e n t l y was the f i r s t one to i n t r o d u c e the ' c a r m i n a ' i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n on the r e l a t i o n between h i s t o r y and p o e t r y i n Rome. M o m i g l i a n o p o i n t s o u t , however , t h a t P e r i z o n i u s a t t a c h e d l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e to t h e ' c a r m i n a ' h i m s e l f , and made no a t t empt to e x p l a i n how the songs i n f l u e n c e d 163 Roman h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n . N i e b u h r , t h o u g h , f e l t t h a t the ' c a r m i n a ' were v e r y i m p o r t a n t , and t h a t they r e p r e s e n t e d t h e v o i c e of the Roman p l e b s . He n o t e d , t o o , t h a t the Roman h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n was e x c e e d i n g l y r i c h i n e p i s o d e s t h a t would have made e x c e l l e n t b a l l a d s . M o m i g l i a n o sugges t s t h a t many o f t h e o l d Roman l e g e n d s have Greek e l e m e n t s , t o o ; t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f h e r o e s a r e p a t r i c i a n s r a t h e r t h a n p l e b e i a n s ; and t h a t , though the s o u r c e s . . . 164 speak o n l y o f ' g e s t a v i r o r u m ' , women a l s o f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n some l e g e n d s . The c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d by M o m i g l i a n o i s t h a t no doubt some such ' c a r m i n a ' e x i s t e d , and they may i n d e e d have i n f l u e n c e d the Roman h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n , b u t by and l a r g e they s i m p l y becamea p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n . The a n n a l i s t s , as each b a s e d h i s work on the o t h e r , managed t o s e l e c t , combine , and u n i f y the t r a d i t i o n o f the p a s t w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s , as M o m i g l i a n o o b s e r v e s . They c r e a t e d a p a t t e r n and o n l y a few p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h M o m i g l i a n o " P e r i z o n i u s , N i e b u h r , and the C h a r a c t e r o f E a r l y Roman T r a d i t i o n " Secondo C o n t r i b u t o , A l i a S t o r i a D e g l i S t u d i  C l a s s i c i (ROMA, 1960) p . 6 9 . 163 i M o m i g l i a n o " P e r i z o n i u s " p . 7 5 . 1 6 4 M o m i g l i a n o " P e r i z o n i u s " p p . 8 3 - 4 . 5 8 1 6 5 d i d n o t f i t i n t o i t m a n a g e d t o s u r v i v e o u t s i d e i t . A d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e a b o u t t h e a n c i e n t ' c a r m i n a ' i s t h a t o f M i c h a e l G r a n t . 1 6 6 H e o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e ' c a r m i n a ' m a y n o t h a v e e x i s t e d a t a l l . H e t h i n k s t h a t C a t o m a y h a v e w a n t e d t o s h o w t h e R o m a n s t h a t t h e y c o u l d m a n a g e q u i t e w e l l w i t h o u t G r e e c e , T o p r o v e h i s n a t i o n a l i s t i c p o i n t , C a t o f a b r i c a t e d t h e c u s t o m o f b a l l a d - s i n g i n g a t a n c i e n t R o m a n b a n q u e t s s o t h a t h i s c o m p a t r i o t s c o u l d f e e l t h a t t h e i r o w n t r a d i t i o n c o n t a i n e d a p a t r i o t i c c o u n t e r p a r t o f H o m e r ' s w o r k s . 1 6 7 T h i s m i g h t b e a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e ' c a r m i n a ' s i n c e t h e r e a r e n o f r a g m e n t s f r o m a n o r a l t r a d i t i o n . I t s e e m s r a t h e r u n l i k e l y , t h o u g h , w h e n t h e r e a r e s o m a n y a t t e s t a t i o n s a b o u t t h e s o n g s . • A l t h o u g h t h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n s o m e a n c i e n t s o n g s s u n g a t b a n q u e t s i n o l d t i m e s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o b e c e r t a i n w h e t h e r E n n i u s k n e w a n y t h i n g o f t h e m . O n e m u s t n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e ' c a r m i n a ' w e r e s a i d t o h a v e d e a l t w i t h t h e ' g e s t a v i r o r u m ' , m a t t e r s w h i c h g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d E n n i u s , a n d w h i c h h e r e l a t e d i n t h e A n n a l e s . C a t o a n d E n n i u s w e r e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , s o t h e p o e t c o u l d h a v e l e a r n e d o f t h e ' c a r m i n a ' f r o m C a t o . O n e o t h e r s o u r c e o f h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a v a i l a b l e t o Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w a s t h e h i s t o r y c o m p o s e d b y F a b i u s P i c t o r . T h e w o r k s o f t h e p r o s e h i s t o r i a n s h a v e g e n e r a l l y n o t b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e , a s n o t e d a b o v e o n p a g e / , t h e s e w r i t i n g s e n c o m p a s s t o o v a s t a f i e l d . T h e ' A n n a l s ' o f F a b i u s P i c t o r , h o w e v e r , w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d b r i e f l y , 1 6 8 s i n c e E n n i u s i s b o u n d t o h a v e r e a d t h i s w o r k , a s S k u t s c h n o t e s . 1 6 ^ M o m i g l i a n o " P e r i z o n i u s " p . 8 6 . 1 6 6 > M i c h a e l G r a n t T h e A n c i e n t H i s t o r i a n s ( N . Y . ; C h a s . S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 9 7 0 ) p . 1 7 1 . 1 6 7 G r a n t H i s t o r i a n s p . 1 7 1 . 1 6 8 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 7 . 5 9 Q u i n t u s F a b i u s P i c t o r w a s a n e l d e r c o n t e m p o r a r y o f E n n i u s , w h o w a s b o r n a b o u t 2 5 4 B . C . H e w a s a R o m a n o f s e n a t o r i a l r a n k , a n d f o u g h t i n t h e S e c o n d P u n i c W a r . H i s w o r k , w h i c h w a s w r i t t e n i n G r e e k , c h r o n i c l e d t h e h i s t o r y o f R o m e f r o m A e n e a s t o h i s . o w n t i m e s , a n d i t s u r v i v e s n o w o n l y i n a f e w f r a g m e n t s . O n P i c t o r ' s u s e o f t h e G r e e k l a n g u a g e , B a d i a n c o m m e n t s t h a t h e m a y h a v e w r i t t e n f o r G r e e k a u d i e n c e s , p e r h a p s , t o e x p l a i n R o m a n h i s t o r y a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s . H e n o t e s a l s o , t h o u g h , t h a t t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e w a s n o t y e t f i t t e d f o r l i t e r a r y p r o s e . ' ' " 6 9 F r i e r o b s e r v e s t h a t F a b i u s ' c h o i c e o f G r e e k s u g g e s t s t h a t h e w r o t e i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e G r e e k h i s t o r i a n s o f R o m e , a f e w o f w h o m h a d b e e n h o s t i l e , b u t m o s t o f w h o m h a d b e e n i l l -. . . 1 7 0 i n f o r m e d . T h e ' A n n a l s ' o f Q u i n t u s F a b i u s P i c t o r f a l l i n t o t h r e e p a r t s , a s s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s n o t e . P i c t o r s e e m s t o h a v e d e a l t a t l e n g t h w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t p e r i o d s o f R o m a n h i s t o r y . B a d i a n o b s e r v e s t h a t s o m e o f t h e G r e e k a n t i q u a r i a n s h a d s t u d i e d t h i s p e r i o d , a n d i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t F a b i u s h a d r e a d t h e i r w o r k s . 1 7 1 D u c k e t t n o t e s t h a t F a b i u s g a v e l e g e n d s a s t h e e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y , f o r l e g e n d s w e r e a l l t h a t h e c o u l d g i v e . H e s e e m s t o r e p o r t t h e m . . 1 7 2 w o r d f o r w o r d , e v e n t o i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n s t a t e m e n t . P i c t o r t r e a t e d m o r e b r i e f l y t h e p e r i o d o f t h e e a r l y R e p u b l i c . D u c k e t t f e e l s t h a t P i c t o r w a s a v o i d i n g u n a u t h e n t i c a t e d f a m i l y l e g e n d s a n d s t i c k i n g c l o s e l y t o t h e 1 7 3 s t a t e m e n t s f o u n d i n t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' . F r i e r n o t e s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s u r v i v i n g f r a g m e n t s t e n d t o d e r i v e f r o m B o o k I ( b e t t e r t h a n a t h i r d o f t h e m ) , 1 6 9 E . B a d i a n " T h e E a r l y H i s t o r i a n s " T h e L a t i n H i s t o r i a n s e d . T . A . D o r e y ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n , P a u l , 1 9 6 6 ) p . 3 . 1 7 0 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 2 8 1 . 1 7 1 B a d i a n " H i s t o r i a n s " p . 3 . 1 7 2 E . S . D u c k e t t S t u d i e s i n E n n i u s ( B r y n M a w r , 1 9 1 5 ) p . 2 4 . 1 7 3 . E . S . D u c k e t t S t u d i e s p . 2 3 . 6 0 1 7 4 w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e f o u n d a t i o n l e g e n d s o f t h e c i t y . T h e h i s t o r i a n w a s a b l e t o e x p a n d h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a s h e a p p r o a c h e d h i s o w n t i m e . T h e w o r k b e c a m e a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e F i r s t P u n i c . W a r , a t t h e l a t e s t , a s B a d i a n c o m m e n t s . ' ' ' 7 5 Q u i n t u s F a b i u s P i c t o r p r o b a b l y h a d t h r e e m a i n s o u r c e s f o r h i s 1 7 6 i n f o r m a t i o n , a s F r i e r n o t e s . T h e f i r s t s o u r c e w a s i n t h e G r e e k a u t h o r s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y P h i l i n u s o f A g r i g e n t u m , a p r i n c i p a l p r o - C a r t h a g e a u t h o r a s P o l y b i u s r e m a r k s . 1 7 7 P i c t o r s e e m s t o h a v e s o u g h t t o r e p r e s e n t P h i l i n u s ' h o s t i l e a c c o u n t i n a p r o - R o m e w a y . P o l y b i u s o b s e r v e s t h a t F a b i u s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s 1 7 8 o p p o s i t e t o t h a t o f P h i l i n u s . T h e s e c o n d s o u r c e f o r F a b i u s ' w o r k w o u l d h a v e b e e n h i s o w n p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e o f R o m e , a n d i n d e e d , p a r t s o f . t h e w o r k m a y b e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . F r i e r n o t e s f u r t h e r t h a t F a b i u s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g d f R o m a n i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a n a d v a n t a g e i n e k i n g o u t t h e e x i g u o u s r e c o r d o f t h e p a s t . T h e t h i r d s o u r c e f o r F a b i u s ' h i s t o r y t h a t F r i e r f i n d s a r e t h e 1 8 8 d o c u m e n t s . H e d o e s n o t f e e l t h a t F a b i u s c o n s u l t e d a l l t h e d o c u m e n t s t h a t m a y h a v e b e e n a v a i l a b l e , b u t h e c o m m e n t s t h a t t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' m u s t h a v e 1 8 0 b e e n h i s m a j o r s o u r c e . P e r h a p s t h e a n n a l i s t i c f o r m i s o n l y a h i g h l y s t y l i z e d v e r s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t e n t s o f t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' , F r i e r 1 8 1 r e m a r k s . F a b i u s m a y h a v e u s e d a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s , G r e e k a n d R o m a n , a n d 1 7 4 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 3 2 2 . 1 7 5 B a d i a n " H i s t o r i a n s " p . 3 . 1 7 6 F r i e r " L i b r i " p p . 2 6 0 - 2 6 2 . 1 7 7 P o l y b i u s 1 .14 . 3 . ( T r a n s l a t o r I a n S c o t t - K i l v e r t ) 1 7 8 P o l y b i u s 1 . 1 5 . 1 2 . ( S a m e t r a n s l a t o r ) 1 7 9 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 2 6 8 . 1 8 0 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 2 6 9 . 1 8 1 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 2 7 2 . 6 1 s o m e o f h i s h i s t o r y r e f l e c t s t h a t f a c t . H e m u s t h a v e u s e d t h e n a m e s o f C o n s u l s o f . t h e y e a r , a t l e a s t i n h i s d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y , b u t B a d i a n o b s e r v e s t h a t h e a l s o u s e d O l y m p i a d d a t i n g , i n t h e G r e e k m a n n e r o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a n 1 8 2 i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c h r o n o l o g y . W i t h s u c h a w e a l t h o f m a t e r i a l i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o o n e w o r k , t h e ' A n n a l s ' o f Q u i n t u s F a b i u s P i c t o r w o u l d h a v e b e e n a s g r e a t a s o u r c e f o r E n n i u s a s i t w a s f o r P o l y b i u s . T h e r e a r e s o f e w f r a g m e n t s s u r v i v i n g o f e i t h e r t h e w o r k o f P i c t o r o r t h e w o r k o f E n n i u s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e r e E n n i u s m a y h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y F a b i u s . S k u t s c h n o t e s t h a t E n n i u s m a y h a v e d i f f e r e d f r o m P i c t o r i n h i s a c c o u n t o f R o m e ' s b e g i n n i n g s , b u t i s 1 8 3 l i k e l y t o h a v e d r a w n o n h i m f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e e a r l y r e p u b l i c . O n e i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t a t w h i c h E n n i u s c e r t a i n l y f o l l o w e d F a b i u s i s a t A n n . 2 1 6 : " A p p i u s i n d i x i t C a r t h a g i n i e n s i b u s : b e l l u m . " S k u t s c h n o t e s i n h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n t h i s l i n e t h a t t h e r e d i d n ' t s e e m t o h a v e b e e n a f o r m a l d e c l a r a t i o n o f w a r , a n d t h a t t h e R o m a n h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n , a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y F a b i u s P i c t o r 1 8 4 a n d P o l y b i u s , v a i n l y t r i e d t o d e n y o r c o n c e a l t h e f a c t * A n o t h e r l i n e w h e r e F a b i a n i n f l u e n c e s e e m s p r o b a b l y i s A n n . 2 3 0 : " D u m c e n s e n t t e r r e r e m i n i s h o r t a n t u r i b e s o s . " ( N o t e t h e a r c h a i c ' i b e ' f o r ' i b i ' , a n d ' s o s ' f o r ' e o s ' . ) T h i s l i n e i s p l a c e d a s p a r t o f t h e G a l l i c W a r , a n d S k u t s c h o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e w o r k o f F a b i u s P i c t o r w a s i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d E n n i u s ' s o u r c e f o r m a t e r i a l a b o u t 1 8 5 t h e w a r b e c a u s e h e ( P i c t o r ) h a d s e r v e d i n t h a t w a r . A n o t h e r l i n e b e l o n g i n g t o t h e G a l l i c W a r i s A n n . 2 2 9 : " M a r s a m a n u s , P a e l i g n a c o h o r s , V e s t i n a v i r u m v i s . " S k u t s c h r e m a r k s t h a t t h i s E n n i a n l i n e b e l o n g e d t o a c a t a l o g u e o f 1 8 2 B a d i a n " H i s t o r i a n s " p . 3 . 1 8 3 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 3 2 5 . 1 8 4 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 3 8 6 . 1 8 5 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 4 1 0 . w a r r i o r s t h a t w a s b a s e d o n t h e c e n s u s o f 2 2 5 B . C . a s r e p o r t e d b y F a b i u s 1 8 6 ~ P i c t o r . T h e r e a r e s o m e o t h e r v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l r e s e m b l a n c e s b e t w e e n l i n e s o f E n n i u s a n d f r a g m e n t s o f F a b i u s w h i c h c o u l d b e c o i n c i d e n t a l . F r i e r r e m a r k s t h a t i t m a k e s s e n s e t o a s s u m e t h a t E n n i u s c o n s c i o u s l y m o d e l l e d h i s e p i c o n t h e G r e e k h i s t o r i e s o f P i c t o r a n d o t h e r s , t h o u g h h e p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n s u b s t a n c e t h e p o e m i s n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h 1 8 7 t h e a n n a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . E p o n y m o u s d a t i n g i n E n n i u s ' A n n a l e s i s f i r s t a t t e s t e d i n t h e S e c o n d P u n i c W a r , i n A n n . 2 9 0 : " Q u i n t u s p a t e r q u a r t u m f i t c o n s u l . " E n n i u s m a y h a v e a v o i d e d i t i n e a r l i e r b o o k s f o r r e a s o n s o f p o e t i c 1 8 8 e c o n o m y , a s F r i e r r e m a r k s . I t m a y b e t h a t t h e r e a r e j u s t n o t e n o u g h f r a g m e n t s t o b e c e r t a i n , o r p e r h a p s t h e p o e t s o u g h t t o s e t a d i f f e r e n t t o n e f o r t h i s p a r t o f h i s p o e m . T h e r e w e r e o t h e r e a r l y a n n a l i s t s o f t h e h i s t o r y o f R o m e , t o o , o f w h o m l i t t l e m o r e i s k n o w n t h a n t h e i r n a m e s . S o m e o f t h e s e c o u l d h a v e i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s i n s o m e w a y a l s o , b u t n o f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e d r a w n . T h i s c h a p t e r h a s t r i e d t o s h o w h o w Q u i n t u s E n n i u s m i g h t h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y h i s R o m a n p r e d e c e s s o r s . T h e w o r k s o f t h e t w o e p i c p o e t s , L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s a n d N a e v i u s , w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . L i v i u s b e g a n t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g a L a t i n e p i c d i c t i o n o n w h i c h E n n i u s c o u l d b u i l d . N a e v i u s s h o w e d E n n i u s h o w t o d e a l w i t h h i s t o r y i n a n e p i c p o e m . T h e p r i e s t l y c h r o n i c l e k n o w n a s t h e ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s a s o u r c e o f m a t e r i a l f o r t h e p o e t . S o m e s c h o l a r s c o n c l u d e t h a t E n n i u s d r e w o n t h e c h r o n i c l e f o r . m u c h o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e f e r e n c e s t o a n c i e n t ' c a r m i n a ' w e r e e x a m i n e d b r i e f l y , a n d t h e c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , t h e ' g e s t a v i r o r u m ' , w o u l d h a v e i n t e r e s t e d a n d i n s p i r e d E n n i u s i f h e h a d a n y k n o w l e d g e o f t h e m . F i n a l l y , t h e ' A n n a l s ' 1 8 6 S k u t s c h A n n a l s , p . 4 0 9 1 8 7 F r i e r " L u b r i " p . 2 5 9 . 1 8 8 F r i e r " L i b r i " p . 2 5 9 . 63 of Q u i n t u s F a b i u s P i c t o r were b r o u g h t u n d e r s c r u t i n y . I t i s r e a s o n a b l y c e r t a i n t h a t E n n i u s was v e r y much i n f l u e n c e d b y the work o f F a b i u s , b u t the e x t e n t to wh ich E n n i u s u s e d h i m as a s o u r c e c a n n o t be d e t a i l e d i n any way b e c a u s e of t h e p a u c i t y o f f ragments o f b o t h a u t h o r s . 64 C h a p t e r 5: E n n i u s and H i s t o r y B e s i d e s b e i n g a l o n g poem of e p i c s t y l e and p r o p o r t i o n s , t h e A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was an a t t e m p t t o r e c o r d h i s t o r y p o e t i c a l l y „ The poet n a r r a t e d the whole h i s t o r y and a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o f the p e o p l e o f Rome as b e s t he c o u l d i n an e p i c s t y l e . He c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f n o t m e r e l y a p o e t , b u t a l s o a h i s t o r i a n , a ' s c r i p t o r r e r u m ' . A b r i e f o u t l i n e of the Annales . w i l l g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s s c o p e . The whole work c o n s i s t e d o f . e i g h t e e n b o o k s . The f i r s t b o o k , a f t e r an i n v o c a t i o n t o the Muses , began w i t h the p o e t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f how he became ' a l t e r H o m e r u s ' . The book then p r o c e e d e d to r e c o u n t t h e l a n d i n g o f Aeneas i n I t a l y . A p p a r e n t l y no t ime was spent i n n a r r a t i n g the h e r o ' s a d v e n t u r e s en r o u t e . The n a r r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d to t h e d e a t h o f Romulus . Books I I and I I I t o l d the s t o r i e s o f the r e s t o f t h e k i n g s o f Rome, and r e -l a t e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the R e p u b l i c . The e a r l y h i s t o r y of the R e p u b l i c was then c a r r i e d on t h r o u g h the f o u r t h b o o k . Book V d e a l t w i t h the Samnite Wars , and the r i s e o f P y r r h u s , w i t h a l l o f Book V I b e i n g d e v o t e d t o t h e war a g a i n s t P y r r h u s . In a proem t o Book V I I , E n n i u s e x p l a i n e d why he d i d n o t p l a n t o c o v e r the F i r s t P u n i c War i n d e t a i l . In A n n . 2 0 6 - 7 , t h e p o e t w r i t e s : " S c r i p s e r e a l i i rem/ v o r s i b u s quos o l i m F a u n e i v a t e s q u e c a n e b a n t . " He may have r e f e r r e d to N a e v i u s and h i s Carmen B e l l i P u n i c i . The d i s c u s s i o n of the wars w i t h C a r t h a g e c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h t h e e i g h t h and n i n t h books of t h e A n n a l e s . Book X a l s o began w i t h a proem i n w h i c h t h e p o e t sought t h e a i d of the Muses i n n a r r a t i n g the e v e n t s o f t h e Second M a c e d o n i a n War . The e l e v e n t h book i s a p r o b l e m a t i c a l one f o r s t u d e n t s o f E n n i u s . S k u t s c h 6 5 o b s e r v e s t h a t n o t o n e f r a g m e n t o f t h i s b o o k c a n - b e p l a c e d i n i t s c o n t e x t w i t h a n y d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y . H e n o t e s t h a t i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h e b o o k c o n t a i n e d t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e w a r a g a i n s t P h i l l i p a n d t h e 1 8 9 d e c l a r a t i o n o f f r e e d o m f o r G r e e c e i n 1 9 6 B . C . S e l l a r r e m a r k s t h a t t h e t e n t h a n d e l e v e n t h b o o k s o f A n n a l e s p r o b a b l y d e a l t w i t h t h e M a c e d o n i a n W a r 1 9 0 a n d t h e d e e d s o f T . Q u m c t i u s F l a m m m u s . W a r m i n g t o n p u t s B o o k s X I a n d X I I t o g e t h e r a s c o v e r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m t h e p e a c e m a d e i n 1 9 6 B . C . t o t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e w a r w i t h A n t i o c h u s . T h e w a r a g a i n s t A n t i o c h u s p r o v i d e d t h e s u b j e c t f o r t h e t h i r t e e n t h 1 9 1 a n d f o u r t e e n t h b o o k s o f t h e p o e m a c c o r d i n g t o S k u t s c h ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . W a r m i n g t o n , h o w e v e r , f e e l s t h a t t h e s e b o o k s c o n t a i n e d t h e s t o r y o f t h e S c i p i o s d e p a r t i n g f o r t h e e a s t , a n d l i k e l y c a r r i e d t h e h i s t o r y a s f a r a s t h e s e t t l e m e n t 1 9 2 o f A s i a a f t e r t h e b a t t l e o f M a g n e s i a . . B o o k X V s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d a s t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e A n n a l e s . J o c e l y n n o t e s t h a t t h e r e w a s e v e n a p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n k n o w n i n 1 9 3 a n t i q u i t y t h a t h a d B o o k X V a s t h e f i n a l o n e . T h e p o e t w a n t e d h i s w o r k t o f i n i s h w i t h a n a c c o u n t o f t h e c a m p a i g n c o n d u c t e d b y h i s p a t r o n , M . F u l v i u s N o b i l i o r , i n A e t o l i a , o f w h i c h h e h i m s e l f h a d b e e n a w i t n e s s . T h e c o n c l u s i o n w o u l d h a v e d e a l t w i t h F u l v i u s ' t r i u m p h i n 1 8 7 B a C . a n d h i s f o u n d i n g o f t h e 1 9 4 t e m p l e H e r c u l i s M u s a r u m a t R o m e , a s S k u t s c h n o t e s . 1 8 9 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 5 2 0 . 1 9 0 W . Y . S e l l a r T h e R o m a n P o e t s o f t h e R e p u b l i c ( O x f o r d : 1 8 8 0 ; R e p r i n t e d . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 0 5 ) p . 9 1 . 1 9 1 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 5 3 5 . 1 9 2 W a r m i n g t o n R e m a i n s p p . 1 3 5 , 1 3 9 . 193 J o c e l y n " P o e m s " p . 1 0 0 5 . 1 9 4 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 5 5 3 . 6 6 A s w a s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e ( o n p a g e s 30-/ ) , P l i n y t h e E l d e r h a d n o t e d t h a t . t h e s i x t e e n t h b o o k o f t h e A n n a l e s w a s a d d e d t o c e l e b r a t e t h e . . . 1 9 5 d e e d s o f t h e C a e c i l n . S k u t s c h f e e l s t h a t t h e r e m u s t h a v e b e e n a p r o e m f o l l o w e d b y t h e s t o r y o f t h e C a e c i l i i a n d , t h e i r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . T h e p o e t p r o b a b l y a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e r e c o n i l i a t i o n o f F u l v i u s a n d A e m i l i u s L e p i d u s , • • 1 9 6 a n d t h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n a n ' O r i g o g e n t i s I l l y r i c a e ' i n c l u d e d . W a r m i n g t o n n o t e s m e r e l y t h a t B o o k X V I c o v e r e d t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 8 8 B . C . t o t h e e n d o f t h e - | . . * rf 1 9 7 I s t r i a n W a r . I t i s k n o w n t h a t t h e A n n a l e s c o m p r i s e d e i g h t e e n b o o k s . T h e s u b j e c t -m a t t e r o f t h e l a s t t w o b o o k s i s a m a t t e r f o r c o n j e c t u r e . S k u t s c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p i t i a b l e r e m a i n s o f t h e l a s t t w o b o o k s g i v e n o i n d i c a t i o n o f h o w f a r t h e p o e t t o o k t h e s t o r y . H e n o t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e 1 9 8 A n n a l e s e n d e d b e f o r e t h e d e f e a t o f P e r s e u s a t P y d n a . W a r m i n g t o n c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e s e v e n t e e n t h b o o k m a y h a v e c o n t a i n e d m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p e r i o d f r o m t h e e n d o f t h e I s t r i a n W a r t o t h e . d e f e a t o f P . L i c i n i u s C r a s s u s a t . . . . , , ^ 9 9 C a l l m i c u s , 1 7 1 B . C . , d u r i n g t h e t h i r d M a c e d o n i a n W a r . T h e s a m e e d i t o r a s s u m e s t h a t B o o k X V I I I o f t h e A n n a l e s m a y h a v e d e a l t w i t h f u r t h e r e v e n t s o f 1 7 1 B . C . , b u t w a s i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d u n f i n i s h e d w h e n E n n i u s d i e d i n 1 6 9 B . C . ^ ^ J o c e l y n r e m a r k s t h a t s o m e s c h o l a r s h a v e s u p p o s e d t h a t B o o k X V I m i g h t h a v e d i f f e r e d f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n t h e s t y l e o f n a r r a t i v e f r o m B o o k s I t o X V , s i n c e i t w a s d e v o t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l e x p l o i t s , a n d t h a t t h e l a s t 1 9 5 P l i n y t h e E l d e r N . H . v i i . 1 0 1 , 1 9 6 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p . 5 6 4 . 1 9 7 W a r m i n g t o n R e m a i n s p . 1 4 7 . 1 9 8 S k u t s c h A n n a l s , p . 5 6 3 . 1 9 9 W a r m i n g t o n R e m a i n s p . 1 5 9 . W a r m i n g t o n R e m a i n s p , 1 6 3 . 67 2 0 1 t w o b o o k s ( X V I I a n d X V I I I ) w o u l d h a v e b e e n o f a s i m i l a r t y p e . T h e A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w a s a n h i s t o r i c a l e p i c p o e m n a r r a t i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f R o m e f r o m A e n e a s ' a r r i v a l i n I t a l y t o t h e t i m e w h e n t h e l a s t 2 0 2 w a r w i t h M a c e d o n w a s n e a r i n g i t s e n d , a s S k u t s c h n o t e s . O n e m i g h t o b s e r v e , a s S k u t s c h c o n t i n u e s , t h a t i f t h e w o r k h a d s u r v i v e d , i t w o u l d b e o n e o f t h e o l d e s t a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f R o m a n : h i s t o r y . E n n i u s c o u l d w a t c h e v e n t s t a k e s h a p e f r o m t h e c e n t e r , a s i t w e r e , s i n c e h e w a s o n f r i e n d l y a n d i n t i m a t e t e r m s w i t h m e m b e r s o f s o m e o f . t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s w h o w e r e t h e l e a d i n g 2 0 3 l i g h t s o f R o m e . S k u t s c h c o n c l u d e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p o e t i c e y e o f E n n i u s w a s f i x e d n o t o n p o l i t i c s , b u t o n b a t t l e s , t h e g l a m o u r a n d h o r r o r o f w a r , 2 0 4 a n d o n t h e v a l o u r a n d t h e v a r y i n g f o r t u n e s o f m e n . T h e v a l o u r a n d f o r t u n e s o f m e n a n d t h e ' g e s t a v i r o r u m ' s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n a p r i m e c o n c e r n o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . S i l i u s I t a l i c u s , i n m e n t i o n i n g E n n i u s , s a y s o f h i m : " H i e c a n e t i l l u s t r i p r i m u s b e l l a I t a l a v e r s u / a t t o l -205 l e t q u e d u c e s c a e l o . " E n n i u s ' v i e w o f h i s t o r y a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n t h a t i t i s t h e r e c o r d o f t h e g r e a t d e e d s o f g r e a t m e n , a n i d e a w h i c h i s e m i n e n t l y H o m e r i c i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n . E n n i u s w r o t e h i s h i s t o r i c a l p o e m a s H o m e r m i g h t h a v e w r i t t e n i t h a d h e b e e n a R o m a n . T h e I l i a d i s t h e s t o r y o f o n e m a n , h i s w r a t h , a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f i t f o r a l l . T h e O d y s s e y i s t h e s t o r y o f o n e m a n a n d h i s e n d l e s s w a n d e r i n g s a s h e . m a d e f o r h o m e . P e r h a p s t h e A n n a l e s e n c o m p a s s e d t h e s t o r i e s o f m a n y p e r s o n s a n d t h e g r e a t d e e d s t h e y w r o u g h t , a n d a l l t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e R o m a n p e o p l e . 2f>l J o c e l y n " P o e m s " p . 1 0 2 1 . 2 0 2 2 0 3 2 0 4 2 0 5 S t u d . E n n . P . 1 . S t u d . E n n . P . 2 . S t u d . E n n . P . 2 . S i l i u s I t a l . P u n i c a x i i . 4 1 0 - 1 1 . 68 As was m e n t i o n e d j u s t above (on page and e a r l i e r (on p a g e 5 i o - l ) , P l i n y t h e E l d e r g i v e s n o t i c e t h a t : " Q u i n t u s E n n i u s added a s i x t e e n t h book to h i s A n n a l e s b e c a u s e he e s p e c i a l l y a d m i r e d T i t u s C a e c i l i u s T e u c e r and h i s 206 b r o t h e r . " The poet was i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c o r d i n g the g r e a t deeds o f the C a e c i l i i b r o t h e r s as p a r t o f h i s A n n a l e s . S k u t s c h o b s e r v e s t h a t the i d e n t i t y of t h e C a e c i l i i T e u c r i i s unknown, and s u g g e s t s t h a t the poe t m e r e l y put 207 them f o r w a r d as b e i n g examples o f men worthy o f p o e t i c p r a i s e s . R e g r e t -a b l y the meagre f ragments g i v e no h i n t o f what f o r m the n a r r a t i o n may have t a k e n , o r whether i t was i n any way d i f f e r e n t f rom p r e v i o u s n a r r a t i v e s i n the A n n a l e s . Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n was a l s o g i v e n above (on page 31 ) t o t h e remark o f A u r e l i u s V i c t o r about the A m b r a c i a n v i c t o r y o f M . F u l v i u s N o b i l i o r : "Quam v i c t o r i a m p e r se m a g n i f i c a m Q u i n t u s . E n n i u s amicus e i u s i n s i g n i l a u d e 208 c e l e b r a v i t . " The p o e t c e l e b r a t e d h i s p a t r o n ' s v i c t o r y a t A m b r a c i a w i t h ' c o n s p i c u o u s p r a i s e s ' . T h e r e was o b v i o u s l y no m i s t a k i n g t h e p o e t ' s i n t e n t i o n h e r e . E n n i u s had accompanied F u l v i u s . o n the c a m p a i g n , so he was a f i r s t - h a n d w i t n e s s o f a l l t h a t t r a n s p i r e d . As was a l s o n o t e d above (on page 9 *f ), the s t o r y o f F u l v i u s ' v i c t o r y a t A m b r a c i a was to be the c e n t e r - p i e c e o f Book XV o f . t h e A n n a l e s , and i t s f i n a l e . E n n i u s had h o n o u r e d h i s p a t r o n i n a poem, t o o , c a l l e d A m b r a c i a , whose o b j e c t was to g l o r i f y F u l v i u s w i t h s p e c i a l . 209 r e f e r e n c e to h i s c a p t u r e o f A m b r a c i a , as Warmington n o t e s . Whether the 206 P l i n y t h e E l d e r N . H . v i i . 1 0 1 , (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) 207 S k u t s c h , A n n a l s p . 5 7 0 . 208 A u r . V i c t o r de V i r . I I l u s t . . 5 2 . 3 „ 209 Warmington Remains p . 3 5 9 . 69 ' c o n s p i c u o u s p r a i s e s ' m e n t i o n e d by V i c t o r b e l o n g e d to the poem or to the A n n a l e s i s unknown. The p o i n t i s t h a t the s t o r y o f F u l v i u s ' a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s a t A m b r a c i a c e r t a i n l y seems to have been e x a c t l y the t y p e o f t h i n g t h a t E n n i u s wanted i n c l u d e d i n h i s e p i c , n a m e l y , g r e a t deeds o f g r e a t men. A n o t h e r famous Roman whom Q u i n t u s E n n i u s w r o t e about was S c i p i o A f r i c a n u s . Book IX o f the A n n a l e s seems to have d e a l t w i t h the A f r i c a n campaigns of S c i p i o . None o f the f r a g m e n t s t h a t s u r v i v e f r o m t h i s b o o k , however , m e n t i o n the g r e a t man by name. S k u t s c h n o t e s t h a t Book IX o f the e p i c c o u l d n o t have been w r i t t e n b e f o r e 179 B 0 C , b u t he a d m i t s to much 210 u n c e r t a i n t y i n p l a c i n g the f r a g m e n t s i n c o n t e x t . I t i s t o t a l l y u n c l e a r how E n n i u s d e a l t w i t h S c i p i o i n the A n n a l e s . E n n i u s a l s o wrote a n o t h e r poem i n honour of S c i p i o , c a l l e d s i m p l y ' S c i p i o ' , where he seems to have p r a i s e d S c i p i o h i g h l y and p o r t r a y e d h i m as a h e r o of o l d . Haywood n o t e s some r e a s o n s why E n n i u s i s l i k e l y t o have r e g a r d e d S c i p i o as a h e r o . The p o e t was n o t a Roman, b u t came f r o m J T a r e n t u m , a Greek r e g i o n where h e r o - c u l t s abounded; he was a f r i e n d of the g r e a t man and knew h i m w e l l ; and E n n i u s had c o n s i d e r e d Romulus a h e r o and may' i n f a c t . . . . - . . 211 have o r i g i n a t e d t h a t i d e a , and thought o f S c i p i o i n t h e same t e r m s . W i t h r e g a r d to the f r a g m e n t s o f the ' S c i p i o ' , Warmington n o t e s the comment o f A e l i a n t h r o u g h the S u i d a L e x i c o n t h a t E n n i u s o b s e r v e d t h a t o n l y a Homer c o u l d 212 u t t e r p r a i s e s w o r t h y o f a S c i p i o . The ' a l t e r Homerus ' c o u l d o b v i o u s l y r i s e to the demands o f the moment, and do h i s b e s t . The few f r a g m e n t s t h a t r e m a i n o f the ' S c i p i o ' , however , do n o t y i e l d any c l e a r i n f o r m a t i o n about E n n i u s ' method i n t h e poem. 210 S k u t s c h A n n a l s p p . 4 7 5 - 6 . 211 R . M . Haywood S t u d i e s on S c i p i o A f r i c a n u s ( B a l t i m o r e : J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1933) p . 2 0 . 212 . Warmington Remains p . 3 9 5 . 70 E n n i u s a l s o p r a i s e d S c i p i o g e n e r o u s l y i n some o f h i s e p i g r a m s . I n t o S c i p i o ' s mouth he p u t s the w o r d s : " I f i t i s r i g h t f o r anyone to go up i n t o the r e g i o n s o f h e a v e n ' s d w e l l e r s , f o r me a l o n e , h e a v e n ' s g r e a t g a t e l i e s 213 . o p e n . " I n a n o t h e r e p i g r a m E n n i u s speaks of S c i p i o as one "To whom no one , f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m a n o r foeman, w i l l be a b l e to r e n d e r f o r h i s p a i n s a recompense 2 X A f i t t i n g h i s d e e d s . " P e r h a p s E n n i u s made s i m i l a r remarks about h i s f r i e n d S c i p i o i n the A n n a l e s . C i c e r o i n h i s p r o A r c h i a remarks t h a t E n n i u s was so dear t o S c i p i o A f r i c a n u s t h a t t h e S c i p i o s had a s t a t u e o f h i m e r e c t e d i n t h e i r own b u r i a l p l a c e . He n o t e s f u r t h e r t h a t by t h e p l a u d i t s o f t h e p o e t n o t o n l y 215 was A f r i c a n u s h i m s e l f p r a i s e d , b u t the name of the Roman p e o p l e was a d o r n e d . . C i c e r o must have f e l t t h a t E n n i u s s u c c e e d e d i n h i s p u r p o s e o f g l o r i f y i n g Rome i n h i s e p i c , and p a r t o f the s u c c e s s was due to h i s way o f p r a i s i n g the g r e a t deeds o f g r e a t men. I t was s u g g e s t e d above (on page Ifo ) t h a t i f t h e A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s had s u r v i v e d , they would have been the o l d e s t and most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e of Roman h i s t o r y . Were they a s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n to t h o s e h i s t o r i a n s who f o l l o w e d E n n i u s , and who might have had a c c e s s to them? F o r example , S c u l l a r d o b s e r v e s t h a t though P o l y b i u s must have r e a d the p o e t r y of 216 E n n i u s , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g to show t h a t P o l y b i u s made any use of h i m . B a d i a n does n o t m e n t i o n E n n i u s or h i s A n n a l e s a t a l l i n l o o k i n g i n t o the e a r l y Roman h i s t o r i a n s , so i t wou ld seem as though he had n o t f o u n d E n n i u s \ work 217 s i g n i f i c a n t i n the deve lopment o f h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . 213 Warmington Remains p .401 216 Warmington Remains p . 4 0 1 , 214 215 C i c . p r o A r c h . 9 .22 ( m y . p a r a p h r a s e ) H . H . S c u l l a r d S c i p i o A f r i c a n u s : S o l d i e r & P o l i t i c i a n ( L o n d o n : Thames & H u d s o n , 1970 p . 1 6 . 217 B a d i a n " E a r l y H i s t o r i a n s " . 71 E l i n o r D u c k e t t remarks t h a t the i n f l u e n c e o f the A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s 218 E n n i u s can o n l y be e s t i m a t e d i n d i r e c t l y . She n o t e s t h a t E n n i u s , as a c r e a t i v e poet w i t h a g i f t f o r c h a r a c t e r - d r a w i n g and g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e , p r o b a b l y stamped h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p e r m a n e n t l y upon many p e r s o n a l i t i e s and e v e n t s , more e s p e c i a l l y i n r e c o r d i n g the h i s t o r y of h i s own d a y . She uses the p o e t ' s p o r t r a i t o f P y r r h u s i n the A n n a l e s as an example . P y r r h u s had h e l p e d E n n i u s ' p e o p l e , t h e M e s s a p i i , and f rom t h a t came the p o e t ' s k i n d l y 219 a p p r e c i a t i o n and g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s m e r i t s . The v iews o f P y r r h u s t a k e n by l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s would a lways be c o l o u r e d by t h e p i c t u r e o f h im l e f t by the e a r l y p o e t . W i t h r e g a r d to E n n i u s ' a c c o u n t s o f the men o f Rome, • 220 D u c k e t t f i n d s l i t t l e t r a c e o f h i s i n f l u e n c e on p r o s e a n n a l i s t s . D u c k e t t ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the s t o r y o f the A n n a l e s r e m a i n e d a l i v e a t Rome l o n g a f t e r the d r y s ta t ement s o f F a b i u s and the o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s had been f o r g o t t e n . The Roman h i s t o r i a n s o f the f i r s t c e n t u r y a r e l i k e l y to have s t u d i e d E n n i u s ' A n n a l e s as boys i n s c h o o l . Many of the p o e t ' s g r a p h i c p h r a s e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s would s t a y w i t h them so t h a t l a t e r they c o u l d s c a r c e l y w r i t e w i t h o u t showing some t r a c e o f E n n i a n and Homeric s t y l e . Hence i t i s E n n i u s ' u n o b t r u s i v e b u t p e r v a d i n g i n f l u e n c e o v e r the w r i t e r s o f the f i r s t c e n t u r y 221 t h a t gave t h e poe t a s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e i n the h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f Rome. I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s p e r v a d i n g i n f l u e n c e o f E n n i u s t h a t Walsh n o t e s i n h i s s t u d y o f the h i s t o r i a n L i v y . He o b s e r v e s t h a t a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between L i v y ' s a t t e m p t s to l e n d h i s e a r l y books some p o e t i c f l a v o u r by d e l i b e r a t e r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f E n n i u s , and u s i n g t h e A n n a l e s as the 222 • - . b a s i s o f h i s a c c o u n t . Walsh a t t r i b u t e s any p o e t i c f e a t u r e s found i n the e a r l y books o f the h i s t o r y to the f a c t t h a t a c e r t a i n p o e t i c l i c e n c e was 218 D u c k e t t S t u d i e s p . 4 6 . 219 D u c k e t t S t u d i e s p . 4 9 . 220 D u c k e t t S t u d i e s p . 4 8 . 221 D u c k e t t S t u d i e s p . 5 2 . 222 P . G . Walsh L i v y . H i s H i s t o r i c a l Aims & M e t h o d . (Camb. , 1963) p . 1 3 6 . ' 72 a l l o w e d to w r i t e r s o f ' h i s t o r i a ' , and p a r t l y p e r h a p s to s o u r c e s i n f l u e n c e d by E n n i u s . T h e r e may even have been some i n f l u e n c e from t h e r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s . "Nowhere can any extreme dependence on E n n i u s be d e m o n s t r a t e d , " he s t a t e s i , 2 2 3 c l e a r l y . L i v y p r o b a b l y knew some p o r t i o n s o f the A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s by r o t e . S k u t s c h f i n d s a few examples o f pas sages where the h i s t o r i a n seems to echo E n n i u s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y books o f the h i s t o r y , n o t a b l y i n the s p e e c h e s . He n o t e s t h a t E n n i u s ' power o f e x p r e s s i o n r e a c h e d i t s h i g h e s t h e i g h t i n the s p e e c h e s , and he f e e l s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e i r s t r i k i n g f o r m u l a t i o n s l e f t t h e i r mark. A t the same t i m e , p e r h a p s t h e p o e t i c n a r r a t i v e 2 2 A was n o t deemed a p r o p e r s o u r c e f o r h i s t o r i a n s . T h i s seems to be a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n . A f t e r a l l , t h e poe t was compos ing an e p i c poem, as w e l l as r e l a t i n g h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l . P o e t i c l i c e n c e would have d i c t a t e d where some a s p e c t s might be e x a g g e r a t e d , w h i l e o t h e r s might be d o w n p l a y e d . P e r h a p s o c c a s i o n a l l y i n f o r m a t i o n would have been o m i t t e d o r a l t e r e d i n some way i f i t was n o t i n h e r e n t l y p o e t i c o r d i d n o t s u i t t h e tone t h e p o e t was s e t t i n g a t t h a t p o i n t i n h i s poem. F o r example , the poe t wanted to g l o r i f y Rome, so any major m i l i t a r y d e f e a t would have posed a p r o b l e m . I t i s n o t c l e a r how E n n i u s d e a l t w i t h t h i s s o r t o f q u e s t i o n . Of c o u r s e , i t wou ld a l s o depend on the s o u r c e he was f o l l o w i n g . I t seems, t h e n , t h a t w h i l e the A n n a l e s d f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was no doubt r e a d and e n j o y e d , and even s t u d i e d i n s c h o o l s , i t was n o t o f g r e a t v a l u e t o l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s as a s o u r c e of h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . J . Wight D u f f , however , s u g g e s t s t h a t the A n n a l e s had a v a l u e beyond t h e i r p o s s i b l e (but Walsh L i v y p.136. S k u t s c h S t u d , E n n . p .14. 7 3 h y p o t h e t i c a l ) i n f l u e n c e o n l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s . H e r e m a r k s t h a t t h e A n n a l e s a n d o t h e r e a r l y L a t i n p o e t r y p o s s e s s v a l u e m o r e b e c a u s e o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c , e p i g r a p h i c , h i s t o r i c a n d s o c i a l e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n t h e m t h a n b e c a u s e o f l i t e r a r y m e r i t . T h e y a l s o h a v e s o m e i m p o r t a n c e i n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , h e n o t e s , b e c a u s e 2 2 5 t h e y a r e a c o n t r a s t w i t h a n d a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w h a t w a s t o f o l l o w . O ' N e a l ' s v e r y r e c e n t a r t i c l e " E n n i u s a s a n H i s t o r i c a l S o u r c e " , 2 2 6 j u s t c a m e t o t h i s w r i t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n a s t h i s s t u d y w a s b e i n g c o m p l e t e d . H e n o t e s C i c e r o s ' h i g h r e g a r d f o r a n d u s e o f E n n i u s a s a s o u r c e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d q u o t a t i o n s . T h e c o n c l u s i o n h e r e a c h e s i s m u c h t h e s a m e a s t h i s s t u d y , n a m e l y t h a t a n y d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s o n l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e , b u t t h a t i t w o u l d b e s a f e t o a s s u m e a n i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e a t l e a s t . 2 2 5 W i g h t D u f f L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y p . 4 7 . 2 2 6 W . J . O ' N e a l " E n n i u s a s a n H i s t o r i c a l S o u r c e " C B 6 4 ( 1 9 8 8 ) 3 5 - 3 9 , 74 C o n c l u s i o n Q u i n t u s E n n i u s , i n w r i t i n g h i s A n n a l e s , had a g r e a t many p r e d e c e s s o r s i n the f i e l d o f e p i c and n a t i o n a l p o e t r y . A f t e r a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l i f e and works o f t h e Roman p o e t , h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Homer was examined . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the A n n a l e s o f E n n i u s owed much to t h e e p i c s o f Homer i n m a t t e r s o f form and s t y l e . The f r a g m e n t a r y e a r l y G r e e k e p i c s o t h e r t h a n the I l i a d and the Odyssey were d i s c u s s e d , and i t was n o t e d t h a t the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e works p r o b a b l y l a y i n the f a c t t h a t t h e y p r e s e r v e d a n c i e n t : s t o r i e s and l e g e n d s . In t h i s a r c h a i c p e r i o d a h i s t o r y of the whole H e r o i c , w o r l d was f o r m u l a t e d i n the E p i c C y c l e . H i s t o r y was a l s o deemed s u i t a b l e as s u b j e c t -m a t t e r f o r e p i c poems in t h e works of Eumelos and o t h e r s . In a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some o f t h e p o e t s o f the L y r i c Age as p r e d e c e s s o r s o f E n n i u s , i t was d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the A n n a l e s seemed to make use o f t e c h n i q u e s more u s u a l l y found i n l y r i c w o r k s . The p o e t s o f t h e H e l l e n i s t i c Age were a l s o shown t o have i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s i n t e c h n i q u e , v o c a b u l a r y , and p e r h a p s even i n arrangement o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i n e p i c p o e t r y . The w r i t i n g s o f the two p o e t s who p r e c e d e d E n n i u s i n t h e Roman w o r l d were s t u d i e d . The c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d was t h a t E n n i u s was c o n s i d e r a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e two. L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s showed t h a t e p i c c o u l d be w r i t t e n i n _ t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e , and made a b e g i n n i n g f o r a L a t i n e p i c d i c t i o n . Cnaeus N a e v i u s expanded t h e deve lopment o f L a t i n v o c a b u l a r y i n h i s many p l a y s , as w e l l as i n e p i c p o e t r y . He p e r h a p s i n f l u e n c e d E n n i u s by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t o h i m how the e p i c c o u l d become a v e h i c l e f o r h i s t o r y . In t h e same c h a p t e r , t h e 75 ' A n n a l e s M a x i m i ' were c o n s i d e r e d as a s o u r c e o f h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r E n n i u s . A b r i e f l o o k was a l s o t a k e n a t the p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f e a r l y s o n g s . The f ragments o f the ' A n n a l s ' o f Q u i n t u s F a b i u s P i c t o r , E n n i u s ' immediate p r e d e c e s s o r i n w r i t i n g h i s t o r y , were compared to the remants o f E n n i u s ' A n n a l e s , and some s u g g e s t i o n s made about the: ways i n w h i c h P i c t o r may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e p o e t . The l a s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s s tudy a t t e m p t e d to show : t h e p l a c e o f E n n i u s ' A n n a l e s i n t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y of Rome. The c o n c l u s i o n drawn was t h a t the A n n a l e s a r e i m p o r t a n t more b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p e r v a d i n g i n f l u e n c e than as a s o u r c e o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l . The l a t e r Roman h i s t o r i a n s p r o b a b l y s t u d i e d the A n n a l e s a t s c h o o l , and were so s t e e p e d i n E n n i a n s t y l e and forms o f n a r r a t i o n t h a t h i s i n f l u e n c e i n t h o s e a r e a s can o c c a s i o n a l l y be seen i n t h e i r w o r k s . T h i s type of i n f l u e n c e was n o t e d i n the e a r l y books o f t h e H i s t o r i a n L i v y . The A n n a l e s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s was n o t an i s o l a t e d example of an h i s t o r i c a l e p i c , t h e n . I t has been shown, t h a t many p o e t s and a u t h o r s had w r i t t e n works on h i s t o r i c a l and n a t i o n a l themes . E n n i u s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y had a c c e s s t o a g r e a t v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l , and was no doubt i n f l u e n c e d by many o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s . The A n n a l e s o f E n n i u s seems to have been u n i q u e i n the f a c t t h a t t h e p o e t had encompassed t h e whole h i s t o r y o f t h e Roman p e o p l e i n one e p i c poem. He h a d combined l e g e n d a r y and m y t h o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y to f o r m a c o n t i n u o u s c h r o n i c l e f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t imes to h i s own d a y . No poe t had u n d e r t a k e n such a v e n t u r e b e f o r e . 76 B i b l i o g r a p h y -P r i m a r y Sources A l l e n , Thomas W. Homer i O p e r a . V o ' l . V . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1912; R e p r i n t e d . 1978. L l o y d - J o n e s , H . , P a r s o n s , P . e d d . Supplementum H e l l e n i s t i c u m . B e r l i n & N . Y . : d e G r u y t e r , 1983. M o r e l , W. Fragmenta Poetarum L a t i n o r u m . L e i p z i g : T e u b n e r , 1963. P e t e r , H . W . G . , e d . H i s t o r i c o r u m Romanorum F r a g m e n t a . S t u t t g a r t : T e u b n e r , 1967. P o w e l l , J o h n U . , e d . C o l l e c t a n e a A l e x a n d r i n a . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1925. ~ ~ S k u t s c h , O t t o . The A n n a l s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1985. S t e u a r t , E t h e l M . The A n n a l s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . C a m b r i d g e : 1925. S t r z e l e c k i , W. C n . N a e v i i B e l l i P u n i c i ; C a r m i n i s quae S u p e r s u n t . Wroc law: Z a k l a d Narodowy, 1959. V a h l e n J . E n n i a n a e P o e s i s R e l i q u i a e . L e i p z i g , 1903. Warmington , E . H . Remains o f O l d L a t i n . V o l . 1 & I I . L o n d o n : Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , Heinemann, 1935; R e p r i n t e d . 1956. Secondary M a t e r i a l A l l e n , Thomas W. Homer. The O r i g i n s and the T r a n s m i s s i o n . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1924. B a d i a n , E . "The E a r l y H i s t o r i a n s " The L a t i n H i s t o r i a n s , e d . T . A . D o r e y . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1966. " E n n i u s and h i s F r i e a d s . " E n n i u s , E n t r e t i e n s Tome X V I I . G e n e v a : F o n d a t i o n - H a r d t , 1971. 77 B o w r a , M . S i r . A n c i e n t G r e e k L i t e r a t u r e . O x f o r d , 1 9 3 3 : R e p r i n t e d . L o n d o n : O x f o r d , 1 9 7 1 . T h e O d e s o f P i n d a r . H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n , 1 9 6 9 . B r i n k , C O . " E n n i u s a n d t h e H e l l e n i s t i c W o r s h i p o f H o m e r " . A J P h 9 3 ( 1 9 7 2 ) 5 4 7 - 5 6 7 . H o r a c e o n P o e t r y . T h e ' A r s P o e t i c a ' . C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 7 1 . C l a u s e n , W . " C a l l i m a c h u s a n d R o m a n P o e t r y " . G R B S 5 ( 1 9 6 4 ) 1 8 1 - 1 9 6 . C o r n e l l , T . J . " R e v i e w o f ' T h e A n n a l s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s ' " . J R S 7 6 ( 1 9 8 6 ) 2 4 4 - 2 5 0 . " " E n n i u s , A n n a l s V I : a R e p l y . " C Q x x x v i i . 2 ( 1 9 8 7 ) 5 1 4 - 5 1 6 . C r a k e , J . E . A . " T h e A n n a l s o f t h e P o n t i f e x M a x i m u s . " C P h 3 5 ( 1 9 4 0 ) 3 7 5 - 3 8 6 . D u f f , J . W i g h t . A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f R o m e . 3 r d e d . A . M . D u f f . U n w i n , 1 9 0 9 ; R e p r i n t e d . L o n d o n : B a r n , 1 9 5 3 . D u n b a b i n , T . J . " T h e E a r l y H i s t o r y o f C o r i n t h . " J H S 6 8 ( 1 9 4 8 ) 5 9 - 6 9 . E c k s t e i n , A . M . " T h e P e r i l s o f P o e t r y . T h e R o m a n ' P o e t i c T r a d i t i o n ' o n t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e F i r s t P u n i c W a r . " A J A H 5 ( 1 9 8 0 ) 1 7 4 - 1 9 2 . E r a s m i , G . " T h e S a t u r n i a n a n d L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s . " G l o t t a 5 7 ( 1 9 7 9 ) 1 2 5 - 1 4 9 . E v e l y n - W h i t e , H . G . H e s i o d , T h e H o m e r i c H y m n s a n d H o m e r i c a . L o n d o n : L o e b C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , H e i n e m a n n , 1 9 1 4 ; R e p r i n t e d . H e i n e m a n n , 1 9 8 2 . F i n l e y , M . I . T h e W o r l d o f O d y s s e u s . H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n 1 9 5 4 ; R e p r i n t e d . P e n g u i n , 1 9 8 4 . F r a e n k e l , E . " T h e G i a n t s i n t h e P o e m o f N a e v i u s . " J R S 4 4 ( 1 9 5 4 ) 1 4 - 1 7 . F r i e r ; B r u c e W . " L i b r i A n n a l e s P o n t i f i c u m M a x i m o r u m : T h e O r i g i n s o f t h e A n n a l i s t i c T r a d i t i o n . " P a p e r s a n d M o n o -g r a p h s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A c a d e m y i n R o m e , x x v i i ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 7 8 G r a n t , M i c h a e l T h e A n c i e n t H i s t o r i a n s . N . Y . : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 9 7 0 . G r i f f e n , J a s p e r " T h e E p i c C y c l e a n d t h e U n i q u e n e s s o f H o m e r . " J H S 9 7 ( 1 9 7 7 ) 3 9 - 5 3 . H a y w o o d , R . M . S t u d i e s o n S c i p i o A f r i c a n u s . B a l t i m o r e : T h e J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 . H u x l e y , G . L . G r e e k E p i c P o e t r y f r o m E u m e l o s t o P a n y a s s i s . L o n d o n : F a b e r & F a b e r , 1 9 6 9 . J o c e l y n , H . D . " T h e P o e m s o f Q u i n t u s E n n i u s . " A N R W 1 . 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) 9 8 7 - 1 0 2 6 . " T h e P o e t C n . N a e v i u s , P . C o r n e l i u s S c i p i o . a n d Q . C a e c i l i u s M e t e l l u s . " A n t i c h t h o n 3 ( 1 9 6 9 ) 3 2 - 4 7 . K e s s i s s o g l u , A . " R e m a r k s t o L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s , f r . 1 4 M a r . f r . 4 M a r . " G y m n a s i u m 8 1 ( 1 9 7 4 ) 4 7 6 - 4 8 0 . L e a f , W a l t e r H o m e r a n d H i s t o r y . L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n & C o . , 1 9 1 5 . L e w i s , R i c h a r d , e d . M u s e o f t h e R o u n d S k y . . L y r i c P o e t r y o f A n c i m t G r e e c e . N . Y . : S i m o n & S c h u s t e r , 1 9 6 9 . L u c k , G . " N a e v i u s a n d V e r g i l . " I C S v i i i . 2 ( 1 9 8 3 ) 2 6 7 - 2 7 5 . M a c k a i l , J . W . L a t i n L i t e r a t u r e . L o n d o n : J o h n M u r r a y , 1 9 8 5 ; 1 7 T H I m p r e s s i o n , 1 9 5 8 . M o m i g l i a n o , A . " P e r i z o n i u s , N i e b u h r , a n d t h e C h a r a c t e r o f E a r l y R o m a n T r a d i t i o n . " J R S 4 7 ( 1 9 5 7 ) 1 0 4 - 1 1 4 . = S e c o n d o  C o n t r i b u t o , A l i a S t o r i a D e g l i S t u d i C l a s s i c i . R o m a ( 1 9 6 0 ) 6 9 - 8 7 . " N e w m a n , J o h n K . A u g u s t u s a n d t h e N e w P o e t r y . B r u s s e l s : C o l l . L a t o m u s , 1 9 6 7 . T h e C l a s s i c a l E p i c T r a d i t i o n . M a d i s o n , W i s e . & L o n d o n , 1 9 8 6 . " M e m i n i m e F i e r e P a v u m . E n n i u s a n d t h e Q u a l i t y o f t h e R o m a n A e s t h e t i c I m a g i n a t i o n . " I C S v i i i . 2 ( 1 9 8 3 ) 1 7 3 - 1 9 3 . O g i l v i e , R . M . A C o m m e n t a r y o n L i v y B o o k s I - V . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 6 5 . O ' N e a l , W i l l i a m J . " E n n i u s a s a n H i s t o r i c a l S o u r c e . " C B 6 4 ( 1 9 8 8 ) 3 5 - 3 9 . 79 O t i s , B r o o k s V e r g i l , a S tudy i n C i v i l i z e d P o e t r y . O x f o r d , 1964. P o d l e c k i , A . J . The E a r l y Greek Poets , and t h e i r T i m e s . V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . , 1984. Rose , H . J . A Handbook o f Greek L i t e r a t u r e . L o n d o n : Methuen , 1934; R e p r i n t e d . 1964. R o w e l l , H . T . "The Campanion O r i g i n o f C n . N a e v i u s and i t s L i t e r a r y A t t e s t a t i o n s . " MAAR 19 (1949) 15-34 . • "The O r i g i n a l Form o f N a e v i u s ' B e l l u m P u n i c u m . " AJPh l x v i i i . l (1947) 2 1 - 4 6 . S c u l l a r d , H . H . S c i p i o A f r i c a n u s : S o l d i e r and P o l i t i c i a n . L o n d o n : Thames & H u d s o n , 1970. S h e e t s , George " E n n i u s L y r i c u s . " ICS v i i i . l (1983) 22-32 . S k u t s c h , 0 . "Book V I o f E n n i u s ' A n n a l s . " CQ x x x v i i . 2 (1987) 512-514 . S t u d i a E n n i a n a . L o n d o n : A t h l o n e , 1968. S t e u a r t , E . M . "The E a r l i e s t N a r r a t i v e P o e t r y o f Rome." CQ 15 (1921) 3 1 - 3 7 . S t r z e l e c k i , W. "Naevius and Roman A n n a l i s t s . " RFIC 91 (1963) 440-458 . Walbank, F . W . "The S c i p i o n i c L e g e n d . " PCPhS 193 (1967) 5 4 - 6 9 . W a l s h , P . G . L i v y . H i s H i s t o r i c a l Aims & M e t h o d . C a m b r i d g e , 1963. W i g o d s k y , M . V e r g i l and E a r l y L a t i n P o e t r y . W i e s b a d e n : Hermes E i z e l s c h i f t e n , 1972. W i l l i a m s , G . W . "Roman P o e t s as L i t e r a r y H i s t o r i a n s : Some A s p e c t s o f ' I m i t a t i o ' . " ICS v i i i . 2 (1983) 211-237 . T r a d i t i o n and O r i g i n a l i t y i n Roman P o e t r y . O x f o r d , 1968. 

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