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British Columbia 1972-75 : the genesis of a two-party system Harris, Christopher C. 1987

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BRITISH COLUMBIA 1972-75: THE GENESIS OF A TWO-PARTY SYSTEM by CHRISTOPHER C. HARRIS B.A. (Hons.), M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1976, LL.B., Da l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES P o l i t i c a l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1987 © C h r i s t o p h e r C. H a r r i s , 1987 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of P o l i t i c a l Science The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 9 March 1987 i i A b s t r a c t The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to p o s i t an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r a t h e r s p e c t a c u l a r r e v e r s a l of S o c i a l C r e d i t f o r t u n e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the 1972-75 p e r i o d and the concomitant c r e a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e ' s present two-party system. A d e t a i l e d examination of the p o l i t i c a l events of the p e r i o d was undertaken i n an attempt to determine what had taken p l a c e and i n what o r d e r . The re s e a r c h i n v o l v e d a n a l y s i s of e l e c t o r a l s t a t i s t i c s and press c l i p p i n g s , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s and the t r a d i t i o n a l review of a v a i l a b l e academic l i t e r a t u r e . The t h e s i s r e j e c t e d a monocausal e x p l a n a t i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s 1975 e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y . Research i n d i c a t e s that Socred le a d e r B i l l Bennett was able to c a p i t a l i z e on "the widespread -and l a r g e l y s e l f - c r e a t e d - disenchantment with the NDP government and p o s i t i o n h i s party to be seen by the p u b l i c as the only c r e d i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . Contrary to popular p e r c e p t i o n , the post-1972 v e r s i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t was not a " c o a l i t i o n " i n the p o l i t i c a l sense. Rather, L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e e l i t e s r e c o g n i z e d Bennett's success i n p r o j e c t i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t as the only r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e to the NDP and j o i n e d him to p r o t e c t t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e seats and f u r t h e r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r s . Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v Acknowledgement v i Sources v i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter II THE NDP GOVERNMENT: A FAILURE OF POLICY CO-ORDINATION AND POLITICAL JUDGMENT 4 Land Use C o n t r o l 9 I. C. B. C 11 M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s L e g i s l a t i o n 14 Rent C o n t r o l s 15 Human Resources F i s c a l Management 16 Other Examples Of Poor Judgment 17 Chapter III SOCIAL CREDIT POST-1972: THE "COALITION" DESCRIPTION 24 Chapter IV SOCIAL CREDIT: THE NON-SOCIALIST ALTERNATIVE EMERGES 29 A. THE REBUILDING OF SOCIAL CREDIT 29 1. B i l l Bennett Takes The Helm 29 2. The S t r u g g l e For " A l t e r n a t i v e " Status 35 3. The Non-Socred " U n i t y " M.L.A.s 46 B. THE 1975 SOCIAL CREDIT NOMINATION PROCESS: EVIDENCE OF GENUINE PARTY REJUVENATION 54 Chapter V THE 1975 ELECTION: A POST-MORTEM 63 Chapter VI CONCLUSION 68 APPENDIX A - POPULAR VOTE STATISTICS FOR MAJOR PARTIES 1920 - 1983 70 APPENDIX B - SAANICH AND THE ISLANDS - PERCENTAGE OF VALID VOTES RECEIVED BY MAJOR PARTY CANDIDATES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL ELECTIONS OF 1966, 1969 AND 1972 ..71 APPENDIX C - WEST VANCOUVER-HOWE SOUND - PERCENTAGE OF ,VALID VOTES RECEIVED BY MAJOR PARTY CANDIDATES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL ELECTIONS OF 1966, 1969 AND 1972 72 APPENDIX D - VANCOUVER-POINT GREY - PERCENTAGE OF VALID , VOTES RECEIVED BY MAJOR PARTY CANDIDATES AND PARTIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL ELECTIONS OF 1966, 1969 AND i v 1972 73 APPENDIX E - PROFILE OF CONSTITUENCIES AND NOMINATED 1975 SOCIAL CREDIT CANDIDATES 74 APPENDIX F - NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF CONTESTED NOMINATIONS BY 1972 ELECTORAL CLASSIFICATION 75 APPENDIX G - CALENDAR OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL EVENTS IN B.C. - 1972-75 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 PERSONAL INTERVIEWS 86 V L i s t of Tables TABLE 1 - SOUTH OKANAGAN - Percentage Of V a l i d Votes Received By Major P a r t y Candidates In B.C. P r o v i n c i a l P r o v i n c i a l B y - E l e c t i o n Held September 7, 1973 33 TABLE 2 - NORTH VANCOUVER-CAPILANO - Percentage of V a l i d Votes Received by Major Party Candidates i n B.C. P r o v i n c i a l B y - E l e c t i o n h e l d February 5, 1974 36 v i Acknowledgement I would l i k e to acknowledge my g r a t i t u d e to a number of i n d i v i d u a l s whose h e l p with respect to t h i s t h e s i s has proven to be i n v a l u a b l e . I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e the a s s i s t a n c e rendered by P r o f e s s o r Terence Morley of the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a both f o r h i s i n s i g h t s i n t o the sub j e c t matter of t h i s t h e s i s and f o r the wide l a t i t u d e accorded to me f o r the purpose of examining a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l connected with the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o j e c t . A l s o , my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r Paul Tennant, was very h e l p f u l i n f o r c i n g me to c l a r i f y terms and focus a t t e n t i o n on nuances of the E n g l i s h language. Vari o u s other i n d i v i d u a l s were very h e l p f u l i n my search f o r data: Mrs. Iza Laponce, Mr. George Brandak and Mr. George E l l i s t o n , a l l of the U.B.C. Main L i b r a r y , a s s i s t e d me g r e a t l y i n l o c a t i n g r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e s . A l s o , I wish t o thank s t a f f of the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s i n V i c t o r i a f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e with the r e t r i e v a l of v a r i o u s items. The o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d to me to i n t e r v i e w Gary V. Lauk, Peter S. Hyndman and A r n o l d Hean have a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l y a s s i s t e d my understanding of the 1972-75 p e r i o d i n B r i t i s h Columbia's p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . Without t h e i r help, my task c e r t a i n l y would have been more d i f f i c u l t . Last but not l e a s t , I am deeply indebted to a number of perso n a l f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r v a r i o u s a s s i s t a n c e s : Marc D e s j a r d i n s helped me by s o r t i n g out a number of computer problems a s s o c i a t e d with p u t t i n g the the t h e s i s on computer; K a r i n Wilson and Paul Biscop read the i n i t i a l d r a f t and gave me the b e n e f i t of t h e i r input; and C h r i s t i a n Boure, my best f r i e n d , a s s i s t e d me in a s e e m i n g l y - i n f i n i t e number of p e r s o n a l ways. Most of a l l however, I am deeply g r a t e f u l to my f r i e n d and f e l l o w - s t u d e n t David Stewart f o r h i s immeasurable a s s i s t a n c e and moral support d u r i n g some of my darkest moments. Dave took a gr e a t d e a l of time, on a number of o c c a s s i o n s , to p r o o f r e a d the t h e s i s and give me the b e n e f i t of h i s keen academic i n s i g h t . I s h a l l always be t r u l y g r a t e f u l . v i i Sources The sources u t i l i z e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s t h e s i s t o p i c were wide and v a r i e d . I attempted to read a l l t h a t was w r i t t e n on the subject matter p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n the f i e l d as w e l l as in t e r v i e w key people who might be r e s p o n s i v e to d i s c u s s i n g the r e l a t e d matters with me. I succeeded i n o b t a i n i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h former Socred Party P r e s i d e n t Peter Hyndman, former NDP Mines M i n i s t e r Gary Lauk and former M a j o r i t y Movement Co-Chairman A r n o l d Hean. I was not so f o r t u n a t e when i t came to o t h e r s . Mrs. Grace McCarthy c o u r t e o u s l y d e c l i n e d my request f o r an i n t e r v i e w . As Garde Gardom and P a t r i c k McGeer were Bennett government cabinet m i n i s t e r s at the time my r e s e a r c h was being undertaken, I decided to seek an i n t e r v i e w with A l l a n W i l l i a m s i n the hope of g e t t i n g h i s can d i d p e r s p e c t i v e as a former L i b e r a l who j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t i n 1975. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I was u n s u c c e s s f u l in my v a r i o u s attempts to make co n t a c t with him. A l s o , my attempts to arrange f o r an i n t e r v i e w with B i l l Bennett, through the good o f f i c e s of one of h i s a s s i s t a n t s , came to nought. The data compiled i n the appendices to t h i s t h e s i s were obtained from a wide v a r i e t y of sources i n c l u d i n g Howard Scarrow's Canada Votes; A Handbook of F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n Data, the Statement of Votes f o r v a r i o u s e l e c t i o n s , newspaper a r t i c l e s and i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l . The data p r o v i d e d i n Robert Lapper's a r t i c l e (see B i b l i o g r a p h y ) c o n s t i t u t e d a f i r s t s tep i n my r e s e a r c h on the nomination of S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e s f o r the 1975 p r o v i n c i a l v i i i e l e c t i o n . However, s i n c e Lappper's study was based on o f t e n incomplete q u e s t i o n n a i r e s about matters which took p l a c e much e a r l i e r , I sought v e r i f i c a t i o n from newpaper sources. I n i t i a l l y , newspaper accounts in The Vancouver Sun, The P r o v i n c e and the V i c t o r i a Times were used to supplement the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by Lapper. As those newspapers gave l i t t l e or no r e a l coverage of many of the nomination c o n t e s t s o u t s i d e Greater V i c t o r i a or the Lower Mainland, t h i s m a t e r i a l was supplemented by a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from v a r i o u s l o c a l community newspapers a v a i l a b l e on m i c r o f i l m at the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s i n V i c t o r i a . In a l l circumstances where a newspaper r e p o r t of a nomination meeting c o n f l i c t e d with i n f o r m a t i o n i n the Lapper a r t i c l e , I accepted the newspaper r e p o r t as probably being more a c c u r a t e . I had some a s s i s t a n c e from Peter S. Hyndman, former P r e s i d e n t of the B.C. S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y , i n determining the p o l i t i c a l background of 1975 S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e s . Newspaper r e p o r t s were a l s o of a s s i s t a n c e . 1 I . INTRODUCTION On August 30, 1972, f o r t y years a f t e r the formation of the Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h e i r , the New Democratic P a r t y , came to power i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n a l e g i s l a t i v e l a n d s l i d e exceeding v i r t u a l l y a l l p r o j e c t i o n s . The " s o c i a l i s t hordes" had f i n a l l y broken through the "gates," winning almost 40 percent of the popular vote and 38 of the L e g i s l a t u r e ' s 55 s e a t s . The once seemingly-impregnable S o c i a l C r e d i t League, which had governed the p r o v i n c e c o n t i n u o u s l y s i n c e 1952, was reduced to approximately 31 percent support and 10 s e a t s . S o c i a l C r e d i t had not on l y been routed but was consigned, by many o b s e r v e r s , to the annals of h i s t o r y . Less than 1200 days l a t e r , on December 11, 1975, S o c i a l C r e d i t was r e t u r n e d to o f f i c e with a mandate that surpassed even that r e c e i v e d by the NDP three years e a r l i e r . Over 49 percent of the people of B r i t i s h Columbia supported S o c i a l C r e d i t i n 1975, a degree of support which had been accorded to no other p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e 1928. 1 The end r e s u l t of the events l e a d i n g up to the 1975 e l e c t i o n meant that f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e the formation of the C.C.F. i n 1933, B r i t i s h Columbia e f f e c t i v e l y had a two-party system. T h i s f e a t u r e of the post-1975 B.C. p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y was r e i n f o r c e d i n the See Appendix A. Although t h i s a s s e r t i o n does not u n e q u i v o c a l l y cover the e l e c t i o n s of 1945 and 1949 when L i b e r a l s and Co n s e r v a t i v e s d i d not run a g a i n s t each o t h e r , support f o r those p a r t i e s was probably i n the range of the previous three e l e c t i o n s , with the r e s u l t that i t i s d o u b t f u l that e i t h e r party had the support of 49 percent of the e l e c t o r a t e . 2 subsequent three e l e c t i o n s and has shown no r e a l s i g n of d e t e r i o r a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n that generated my i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t o p i c was "What happened i n B r i t i s h Columbia between the years 1972 and 1975 to b r i n g about the s u b s t a n t i a l r e v e r s a l of S o c i a l C r e d i t f o r t u n e s between the e l e c t i o n s of those y e a r s ? " When embarking on my study, I d i d not have a c l e a r l y - f o r m e d view of what a c t u a l l y had taken p l a c e , but I was g enuinely i n t r i g u e d by the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e s e a r c h i n g the s u b j e c t . As v a r i o u s o b s ervers had suggested that a " c o a l i t i o n of the r i g h t " was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the demise of the NDP government and the r e s t o r a t i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t , I wondered whether t h i s a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d the cause of the phenomenon. I began by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e on c o a l i t i o n and then undertook a d e t a i l e d examination of the p o l i t i c a l events of the p e r i o d i n an attempt to determine j u s t what had o c c u r r e d - and i n what sequence. I had a s s i s t a n c e from a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l i n c l u d i n g academic w r i t i n g s of the p e r i o d , m a t e r i a l l o c a t e d at the B.C. p r o j e c t at the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , e l e c t o r a l s t a t i s t i c s f o r a number of years as w e l l as the wealth of press c l i p p i n g s a v a i l a b l e at the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . As a r e s u l t of my r e s e a r c h , I came to some c l e a r c o n c l u s i o n s as to what i n f a c t had taken p l a c e . My purpose i n t h i s t h e s i s i s to p o s i t an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r a t h e r s p e c t a c u l a r r e v e r s a l of S o c i a l C r e d i t f o r t u n e s i n the p e r i o d 1972-75 and the concomitant c r e a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's present two-party system. I s h a l l argue that S o c i a l 3 C r e d i t ' s 1975 e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y r e s u l t e d from a combination of f a c t o r s of which two were key: widespread and l a r g e l y s e l f -c r e a t e d disenchantment with the manner i n which the NDP governed the p r o v i n c e ; and B i l l Bennett's c a p i t a l i z a t i o n on that disenchantment by s u c c e s s f u l l y p o s i t i o n i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t , by 1975, to be seen as the "one w e l l - o r g a n i z e d r e s p o n s i b l e group opposed to extremism" 2 and hence as the s o l e c r e d i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the NDP. Furthermore, as a s u b s i d i a r y matter, I s h a l l c o n s i d e r the v a r i o u s uses of the word " c o a l i t i o n " and argue that i t s use i n the c o n t e x t at hand tends to c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n at to what a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d and t h e r e f o r e should not be used. 2 T h i s phrase, o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e of the L i b e r a l Party, appeared i n the e d i t o r i a l comment of the B r i t i s h Columbia Miner, the o f f i c i a l organ of the mining i n d u s t r y upon the e l e c t i o n of the P a t u l l o government i n 1933. See: Robert E. Groves, Business Government: Party P o l i t i c s and the B r i t i s h Columbia  Business Community, 1928-33 (Vancouver, 1976), p. 180. 4 II . THE NDP GOVERNMENT: A FAILURE OF POLICY CO-ORDINATION AND POLITICAL JUDGMENT The 1972-1975 p e r i o d has been d e s c r i b e d as one of "ragged e b u l l i e n c e i n which i n e x p e r i e n c e combined with enthusiasm to open doors and empty t i l l s ... [one t h a t ] r e v e a l e d the extent to which p o l i t i c i a n s are p r i s o n e r s of t h e i r e xperience as much as t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s . " 3 The events of t h i s p e r i o d set B r i t i s h Columbia on a course, both governmentally and p o l i t i c a l l y , from which there c o u l d be no t u r n i n g back. The p e r i o d was one i n which the s i z e and scope of government would change permanently. Furthermore, i t set the stage f o r the present two-party system. P r i o r to i t s e l e c t i o n i n 1972, the NDP had always been a p a r t y that had enjoyed the freedom from d i s c i p l i n e t h a t c o n t i n u a l e l e c t o r a l f a i l u r e p r o v i d e s . The government that was sworn i n on September 15, 1972 was l a r g e l y composed of men and women who had served on the O p p o s i t i o n benches - some, f o r many y e a r s . Those i n d i v i d u a l s c a r r i e d with them to the Cabinet Room the c o l l e g i a l s t y l e to which they had become accustomed i n o p p o s i t i o n . During the NDP government's b r i e f p e r i o d i n o f f i c e , the l e g i s l a t u r e passed 367 b i l l s , more than double those of the p r e c e d i n g three y e a r s . " The government's l e g i s l a t i v e 3 Walter Young, P o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1970s: The  Three Year Decade. (Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1981), p. 4 4 Lome J . Kavic and Garry B r i a n Nixon, The 1200 Days - A  S h a t t e r e d Dream: Dave B a r r e t t and the NDP i n B.C. 1972-75 (Coquitlam, B.C., 1978), p. 248. 5 accomplishments were not o n l y numerous, but impressive i n scope. They i n c l u d e d a Land Commission Act, a Human Rights Act, Mincome, Pharmacare, the B.C. Petroleum C o r p o r a t i o n , strengthened tenants' p r o t e c t i o n , a l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s program, the c r e a t i o n of Housing and Consumer A f f a i r s M i n i s t r i e s , an a g r i c u l t u r a l income maintenance program and a new Labour Code. A l s o enacted were government automobile insurance, f i n a n c i a l a i d to post-secondary s t u d e n t s , a new mineral r o y a l t i e s a c t , Community Resource Boards, a i d to nursing care homes, and daycare s u b s i d i e s . Urban t r a n s i t was g r e a t l y improved and more parks were c r e a t e d than i n the previous two decades of S o c i a l C r e d i t r u l e . 5 In l a r g e measure, the p o l i t i c a l problems which the B a r r e t t government s u s t a i n e d r e s u l t e d not from the substance of i t s l e g i s l a t i o n , but r a t h e r from i t s s t y l e of government, as w e l l as from the p e r c e p t i o n i t f o s t e r e d of being "out of c o n t r o l . " As one former c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s t a t e d : Each m i n i s t e r i n the B a r r e t t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f e l t that they had to r i g h t the wrongs of a generation i n three and a h a l f y e a r s , w i t h i n the parameters of t h e i r p o r t f o l i o s - and they went about to do i t . 6 In going about i t s task of " r i g h t i n g wrongs," the government f a i l e d , however, to pay adequate a t t e n t i o n to the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s ' requirements i m p l i c i t i n undertaking such an endeavour. The consequence of t h i s f a i l u r e was that the p u b l i c 5 I b i d . , pp. 248-249. 6 Interview with Gary V. Lauk, June 24, 1986. 6 was l e f t f e e l i n g " d i z z y " with the pace of change, concerned about the manner of change, and s k e p t i c a l about the government's o v e r a l l management a b i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l judgment. David B a r r e t t , as O p p o s i t i o n Leader, was used to being a n o n - d i r e c t i v e , p e r m i s s i v e type of le a d e r whose approach to caucus management was one of o f f e r i n g encouragement and g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , while c r e a t i n g a c o n g e n i a l forum f o r h i s c o l l e g u e s to explore t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . Upon forming a government, B a r r e t t ' s p e r s o n a l p r o c l i v i t y f o r group i n t e r a c t i o n , r a t h e r than s t r i c t c o n t r o l from the C h a i r , ensured that h i s Cabinet would e f f e c t i v e l y be " f e d e r a l " r a t h e r than " u n i t a r y " i n c h a r a c t e r . As Premier, B a r r e t t d i d not take on the r o l e of c e n t r a l co-o r d i n a t o r at the head of a group of p o l i c y i n n o v a t o r s , but ra t h e r allowed t h i n g s to happen seemingly on the assumption that a government of s o c i a l democrats c o n s t i t u t e d "a ki n d of c r i t i c a l mass f o r the generation of p o l i c i e s f o r the common we a l . " 7 The f a i l u r e of Premier B a r r e t t to take c o n t r o l of h i s ca b i n e t ' s decision-making process r e s u l t e d i n a s i t u a t i o n where the major d e c i s i o n s and in n o v a t i o n s made d u r i n g the NDP p e r i o d came about through the i n f l u e n c e of dominant m i n i s t e r s r a t h e r than from any r e a l , c o l l e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o v e r a l l p o l i c y p r i o r i t i e s and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . 8 As Gary Lauk s t a t e d : The psycho-dynamics of the B a r r e t t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i t h i n i t s c a b i n e t , was such that l i t t l e groups of 7 Young, l o c . c i t . , p. 22. 8 Paul, Tennant, "The NDP Government of B r i t i s h Columbia: Unaided P o l i t i c a n s i n Unaided C a b i n e t , " Canadian P u b l i c P o l i c y 111:4 (Autumn 1977), p. 492. 7 c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s would make d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g p a r t i c u l a r a reas without an overview expressed by the group as a whole .. . You had a number of c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s who were merely t r y i n g to jockey i n t o p o s i t i o n f o r t h e i r own m i n i s t r i e s and succeed i n g e t t i n g t h e i r own p o l i c i e s p r i o r i t i z e d . ( s i c ) 9 Although Paul Tennant was c o r r e c t when he s t a t e d that "the NDP government's o v e r a l l p o l i c y process was marked by [the] absence of p l a n n i n g and absence of c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l , " 1 0 he was i n a c c u r a t e i n h i s suggestion that the B a r r e t t government was "unaided." The B a r r e t t government, no t w i t h s t a n d i n g i t s appearance of haste and l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o n s u l t e d c a r e f u l l y and w i d e l y , 1 1 and was w e l l - a d v i s e d with r e s p e c t to p o l i c y and program d e t a i l s . 1 2 I t s f a i l u r e was i n i t s l a c k of a p o l i t i c a l overview. In essence, the government d i d not o r g a n i z e i t p o l i t i c a l agenda with a c o n s i s t e n t and conscious "eye" on the p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r the next e l e c t i o n . At the b e g i n n i n g of the NDP government's term of o f f i c e , the B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n i n general and the business community i n p a r t i c u l a r i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to adopt a "wait and see" approach to the new government. 1 3 One businessman summed-it up when he s t a t e d : T h i s has been hanging over B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 30 9 Lauk Inte r v i e w . 1 0 Tennant, l o c . c i t . , p. 501. 1 1 Young, l o c . c i t . , p. 19. 1 2 While Lauk was very c a n d i d and g e n e r a l l y accepted Tennant's l i n e of a n a l y s i s , t h i s was one area i n which he thought Tennant to be i n a c c u r a t e . 1 3 "Business Calm but Shocked as S o c i a l i s t s R o l l to Win: 'Wait and See' Becomes Maxim," The Sun (Vancouver), August 31, 1972. 8 years. Now i t s here. We're e i t h e r going to f i n d out we can l i v e with i t or we're going to throw i t the h e l l o u t . 1 4 I t d i d not take long however, f o r many people i n the p r o v i n c e to view the new government and i t s d i r e c t i o n with an acute sense of alarm. For some, the s e n s a t i o n was one of f e a r . By e a r l y 1973, the government began to g i v e the appearance that i t d i d not c a r e f u l l y plan i t s d e c i s i o n s , but r a t h e r " f e l l " i n t o them. The sense of alarm and f e a r which ensued was f o s t e r e d not so much by the government's p o l i c y c h o i c e s as by the manner in which those p o l i c i e s were pursued. The problem was that the government c r e a t e d the impression t h a t i t was moving i n t o new areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y without adequate p r e p a r a t i o n . An examination of f i v e major i n i t i a t i v e s of the 1972-75 p e r i o d w i l l s e r v e . t o i n d i c a t e how the government, by i t s a c t i o n s , helped to c r e a t e the impression that i t was a c t i n g i n haste and without due c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Those i n i t i a t i v e s were: the land use c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , the government's i n c u r s i o n i n t o the domain of automobile i n s u r a n c e , i t s h a n d l i n g of the mineral r o y a l t i e s i s s u e , i t s implementation of rent c o n t r o l s , and the f i a s c o over the $102.8 m i l l i o n " c l e r i c a l e r r o r " i n the Human Resources budget. The p o l i t i c a l impact of each of these matters w i l l be b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d . 1 5 1 4 I b i d . 9 Land Use C o n t r o l The B a r r e t t government began i t s " l e g i s l a t i o n by t h u n d e r b o l t " on December 21, 1972 when the c a b i n e t approved the passage of an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l which, pursuant to s e c t i o n 6 of the Environment and Land Use  Act p r o h i b i t e d a l l s u b d i v i s i o n s of farmland, i n c l u d i n g a l l lands deemed by the Committee to be s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l crops, u n t i l f u r t h e r order or p r o v i s i o n of s t a t u t e to the c o n t r a r y . . . 1 6 T h i s was f o l l o w e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n , on February 22, 1973, of B i l l 42, the Land Commission Act, which had as i t s primary purpose the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . 1 7 The o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e behind the b i l l was the c r e a t i o n of a province-wide zoning scheme which i n v e s t e d a newly-created Land Commission with major a d j u d i c a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v i n g the d e s i g n a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l and. The p o l i t i c a l problems which r e s u l t e d from the implementation of the government's farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n program 1 5 I have r e l i e d e x t e n s i v e l y on Kavic and Nixon, op. c i t . , f o r d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the p o l i t i c a l problems encountered by the B a r r e t t government in the passage and implementation of i t s l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s . Nothwithstanding the v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s of t h i s book by both Alan C. C a i r n s (B.C. S t u d i e s , No. 49, pp. 94-102) and Reg Whitaker (Canadian  Dimension, V o l . 13, No. 8, pp. 49-53), i t remains the most balanced account of the p e r i o d p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . I t f a r surpasses Paul Hurmuses' Power Without G l o r y : The Rise and F a l l  of the NDP Government i n B F i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver, 1976) Tn that the l a t t e r work i s more of a polemic a g a i n s t the NDP than an honest attempt at d i s i n t e r e s t e d examination of the s u b j e c t matter. 1 6 B.C. Reg. 4/73. 1 7 Andrew P e t t e r , "Sausage Making in B r i t i s h Columbia's NDP Government: The C r e a t i o n of the Land Commission Act, August 1972 - A p r i l 1973," B.C. S t u d i e s No. 65 (Spring 1985), p. 7. 10 p r i m a r i l y came about due to the manner by which the program was promoted and the l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted. As Andrew P e t t e r has po i n t e d out, the p r i n c i p l e of a farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n program had been p u b l i c l y promoted by A g r i c u l t u r e M i n i s t e r S t u p i c h before i t had even r e c e i v e d c a b i n e t a p p r o v a l and before a l l of i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s had been c o n s i d e r e d . 1 8 The February 22nd d r a f t of the b i l l p r o v i d e d that the Commission was to be appointed by Cabinet and to h o l d o f f i c e "during p l e a s u r e , " c r e a t i n g the impression of a government-controlled p o l i t i c a l body performing a d j u d i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s - f u n c t i o n s that would have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the l i v e l i h o o d s of i n d i v i d u a l s and on the value and use of t h e i r land - with no r i g h t of a p p e a l . T h i s impression caused a great d e a l of fear and o p p o s i t i o n among many of those who otherwise might not have been opposed to the no t i o n of a p r o v i n c i a l farmland p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o g r a m . 1 9 Much of the c r i t i c i s m of the proposed Act took the form of g e n e r a l o u t c r i e s a g a i n s t the tyranny of government and demands f o r compensation by landowners who stood to l o s e f i n a n c i a l l y by v i r t u e of t h i s "zoning" p r o c e s s . 2 0 In a d d i t i o n , the lack of an appeal mechanism i n v i t e d a d d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m of the l e g i s l a t i o n . On March 19, 1973, l e s s than one month a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of B i l l 42, the B a r r e t t government introduced amendments which, i n t e r a l i a , a l lowed f o r a l i m i t e d appeal mechanism, p r o v i d e d f o r l o c a l government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the 1 8 I b i d . 1 9 I b i d . 2 0 I b i d . , P-, P. , P-31 . 27. 29. 11 la n d d e s i g n a t i o n process, and attempted to a l l a y f e a r s that the government might want to e x p r o p r i a t e land i n the f u t u r e . 2 1 Although these amendments succeeded i n b l u n t i n g some of the s e v e r e s t c r i t i c i s m of the l e g i s l a t i o n , i t set i n motion an emerging b e l i e f that t h i s was a governnment which acted b e f o r e i t c o l l e c t i v e l y 'thought'. B i l l 42 r e c e i v e d Royal Assent on A p r i l 16, 1973, only 53 days a f t e r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n . I t s speed of passage torpedoed any p o s s i b i l i t y of e d u c a t i n g the p u b l i c as to the need f o r and the aims of the l e g i s l a t i o n and thus served to l e n d credence to o p p o s i t i o n claims that the NDP was a c t i n g i n an extreme and heavy-handed manner. The c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding B i l l 42 was a p r e c u r s o r of things to come. I.C.B.C. On February 16, 1973, s h o r t l y a f t e r the implementation of the l a n d f r e e z e by way of O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l and j u s t s i x days p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Land Commission A c t , the government i n t r o d u c e d B i l l 54, the Insurance C o r p o r a t i o n of  B r i t i s h Columbia A c t . The l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e n t of t h i s b i l l was the c r e a t i o n of a Crown monopoly to a d m i n i s t e r a wholly s t a t e -run automobile insurance program i n the p r o v i n c e . U n l i k e Manitoba's Autopac scheme which had been i n s t i t u t e d a few years e a r l i e r , B.C.'s "Autoplan" was to encompass the e n t i r e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's automobile insurance business without I b i d . , pp. 28-30. 12 a l l o w i n g p r i v a t e insurance companies to underwrite even excess insurance above the government's mandatory minimum. The p o l i t i c a l problems which accompanied the scheme would plague the NDP government throughout i t s term. Although a l l o w i n g some "designated" agents to s e l l I.C.B.C. p o l i c i e s with l i c e n s e p l a t e s i n c o m p e t i t i o n with the Motor V e h i c l e Branch, Autoplan put hundreds of previously-employed agents out of work. In a d d i t i o n , the Act allowed I.C.B.C. to become the f i r s t government insurance company i n North America to s e l l g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y i n s u r a n c e . The o v e r a l l e f f e c t was to push some 183 p r i v a t e insurance companies out of the automobile insurance business and to render even the on-going s e r v i c i n g of general insurance of marginal value to many f i r m s . 2 2 From the day i t commenced o p e r a t i o n , the Insurance C o r p o r a t i o n proved to be a p o l i t i c a l embarrassment for the government. I t s s t a r t - u p , o r i g i n a l l y scheduled f o r February 1974 to c o i n c i d e with the normal renewal of l i c e n s e s , had to be d e f e r r e d u n t i l March 1974 to enable the "bugs" to be ironed out. In a c q u i r i n g i t s s t a f f , I.C.B.C. was accused of e n t i c i n g away personnel from p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y and other p r o v i n c i a l governments with generous s a l a r i e s . In o b t a i n i n g s i t e s f o r claims c e n t r e s , the C o r p o r a t i o n was accused of paying too much and too l i t t l e , and of u s i n g i t s s t a t u s to a c q u i r e Crown land f o r nothing. In Richmond, I.C.B.C. purchased farmland f o r a c l a i m s c e n t r e , only to have a head-on c o l l i s i o n with the newly-created and very 2 2 Kavic and Nixon, op. c i t . , p. 134 1 3 c o n t r o v e r s i a l Land Commission over the proposed farmland c o n v e r s i o n . Furthermore, s u s p i c i o n s of f a v o u r i t i s m were r a i s e d when i t came to l i g h t that some r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s of c a b i n e t members were among those designated to be I.C.B.C. agents. Once i n o p e r a t i o n , I.C.B.C. continued to have i t s problems. The Co r p o r a t i o n was i n v o l v e d i n a s e r i e s of s k i r m i s h e s with bodyshops over r a t e s when i t r e f u s e d to meet the f u l l e xtent of higher r a t e s i n s t i t u t e d by the bodyshops - with the consequence that many m o t o r i s t s were f o r c e d to pay the d i f f e r e n c e where i t e x i s t e d . From May to August 1975, I.C.B.C. was p a r a l y z e d by a s t r i k e of i t s 2,000 employees which caused s e r i o u s inconvenience f o r tens of thousands of m o t o r i s t s d e p r i v e d of "the only s e r v i c e i n town." Upon resumption of s e r v i c e a f t e r the s t r i k e , the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s e f f i c i e n c y was reduced by the need to c l e a n up the backlog of work i n a l l areas of I.C.B.C. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The g e n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n c r e a t e d by I.C.B.C. was one of c l a i m s abuses, mistakes i n a p p r a i s a l , and r e p a i r a b l e c a r s ending up i n the junkyard thanks to an "overly-generous" p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n . By February 1975, when the government was f o r c e d to admit that I.C.B.C. had a s t a g g e r i n g $34.5 m i l l i o n d e f i c i t , the d i e was c a s t . In the minds of many, the NDP had p r e c i p i t o u s l y jumped i n t o a former preserve of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and had s e r i o u s l y mismanaged i t . 1 4 M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s L e g i s l a t i o n I t was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s Act on February 19, 1974 that c r e a t e d perhaps the most s u s t a i n e d o p p o s i t i o n that the NDP government would encounter d u r i n g i t s t e r m . 2 3 The Act p r o v i d e d f o r a two and one-half percent r o y a l t y on metals and c e r t a i n m i n e r a l s , f o r r o y a l t i e s on a s l i d i n g s c a l e up to f i v e percent f o r succeeding years based on a f i v e - y e a r averaging p r i c e , and f o r a s p e c i a l f i f t y percent surtax or "super r o y a l t y " on p r i c e s above twenty percent of the p r e v i o u s f i v e year average. The l e g i s l a t i o n was designed to r e c t i f y a s i t u a t i o n of s h a r p l y r i s i n g m i n e r a l p r i c e s with high p r o f i t s f o r the mining i n d u s t r y but very s m a l l r e t u r n s to the p r o v i n c i a l t r e a s u r y . The r e a c t i o n of the mining i n d u s t r y to the mineral r o y a l t i e s l e g i s l a t i o n was sharp and s w i f t . The i n d u s t r y i s s u e d d i r e warnings of the economic consequences of such l e g i s l a t i o n c l a i m i n g t hat i t would a l l but d e s t r o y the p r o v i n c e ' s mining s e c t o r . I t undertook i n t e n s i v e p u b l i c i t y and lobbying campaigns u t i l i z i n g r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n and the w r i t t e n press to r e f i n e and dramatize i t s c o n t e n t i o n that mining was threatened i n B.C., a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s of jobs was i n e v i t a b l e and that the e n t i r e p r o v i n c i a l economy was t h e r e f o r e i n d a n g e r . 2 4 However, d e s p i t e 2 3 For a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the background, o b j e c t i v e s and consequences of t h i s l e g i s l a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e , see Raymond W. Payne, "Corporate Power, I n t e r e s t Groups and the Development of Mining P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972-77," in B.C. S t u d i e s No. 54 (Summer 1982), pp. 3-37. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 18. 15 n o i s y p u b l i c demonstrations and the i n d u s t r y ' s e f f o r t s , the M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s Act r e c e i v e d t h i r d reading and Royal Assent on June 20, 1974, four months and one day a f t e r i t was i n t r o d u c e d . Although the government, towards the end of i t s term, attempted to come to an accommodation with the mining i n d u s t r y , the subsequent d e c l i n e i n mining a c t i v i t y - t hat to some extent r e s u l t e d from the f a l l of world mineral p r i c e s - was blamed on the NDP. Even though the l e g i s l a t i o n was l a t e r watered down with the "super r o y a l t y " p r o v i s i o n e f f e c t i v e l y withdrawn, the impression was l e f t that the NDP had s e v e r e l y c r i p p l e d the i n d u s t r y . The p o l i t i c a l consequences of the m i n e r a l r o y a l t i e s c o n t r o v e r s y were f a r - r e a c h i n g ; the government's h a n d l i n g of the whole matter undoubtedly undermined i t s g e n e r a l c r e d i b i l i t y i n economic matters. Furthermore, i t c r e a t e d avowed enemies w i t h i n the mining i n d u s t r y who e x p l i c i t l y campaigned a g a i n s t the NDP i n the f o l l o w i n g e l e c t i o n . 2 5 Rent C o n t r o l s On March 14, 1974, A ttorney-General Alex Macdonald i n t r o d u c e d the R e s i d e n t i a l Premises Interim Rent S t a b i l i z a t i o n  A c t ; rent c o n t r o l s had come to B r i t i s h Columbia. H e n c e f o r t h , no l a n d l o r d c o u l d r a i s e r e n t s more than e i g h t percent per annum without "government" approval except i n the cases of new 2 5 I b i d . , p. 28. 1 6 apartments in t h e i r f i r s t f i v e y e ars of use, u n i t s r e n t i n g f o r more than $500 per month, and owner-occupied residences of l e s s than four u n i t s . The l e g i s l a t i o n angered l a n d l o r d s and was l a t e r blamed f o r a s h a r p l y - i n c r e a s e d r e n t a l and housing shortage as w e l l as an i n c r e a s i n g l y n e gative a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of b u i l d i n g owners towards maintenance. Although the A t t o r n e y -General had i n t r o d u c e d the measure as a "temporary" one, i t was viewed by many as c r e a t i n g long-term problems. The business community saw rent c o n t r o l s as making the problem of r e n t a l housing shortage more a c u t e . Although popular with tenants, the rent c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n added to the image of the NDP as market-place meddlers who, i n the eyes of the business community, d i d not know what they were doing. Human Resources F i s c a l Management The " a c h i l l e s h e e l " of the NDP i s , and has always been, that i t i s p e r c e i v e d as being l e s s than r e s p o n s i b l e i n i t s management of w e l f a r e spending. The c o n d i t i o n of the s i c k , the handicapped and the poor has long been a prime NDP concern. When the B a r r e t t government was e l e c t e d i n 1972, welfare was given high p r i o r i t y with the establishment of 18 new programs. In a d d i t i o n , w e l f a r e r a t e s were r a i s e d by 20 to 40 percent with a concomitant l o o s e n i n g of means t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s . 2 6 By e a r l y September 1974, rumours had been c i r c u l a t i n g f o r 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 199-200. 17 weeks that the Treasury Board had d i s c o v e r e d a g i g a n t i c overrun i n Human Resources Department spending. O f f i c i a l acknowledgement was f i n a l l y forthcoming at a press c o n f e r e n c e on September 18, 1974 when Premier B a r r e t t , i n the course of speaking on another s u b j e c t c a s u a l l y s t a t e d : An u n i d e n t i f i e d person i n the Human Resources Department has made a c l e r i c a l e r r o r ... of $102.8 m i l l i o n i n t h i s year's b u d g e t . 2 7 The " c l e r i c a l e r r o r " episode was a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i a s c o f o r the NDP. The press and the o p p o s i t i o n had a f i e l d day with the r e v e l a t i o n . L i b e r a l M.L.A., Dr. Pat McGeer s t a t e d t h a t the M i n i s t e r of Human Resources "has been l e t loose with a sh o v e l i n the Treasury v a u l t s . " 2 8 The NDP would pay d e a r l y f o r the mistake and the way i t was handled. The " c l e r i c a l e r r o r " stuck i n people's minds with the h e l p of constant reminders from B i l l Bennett i n h i s campaign the f o l l o w i n g year. Other Examples Of Poor Judgment It would be i n a c c u r a t e to leave the impression t h a t i t was only the f i v e i n i t i a t i v e s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d t h a t c r e a t e d p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the government. In a d d i t i o n to concerns about the nature and wisdom of the government's s u b s t a n t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y , i t s s t y l e i n other areas was a 2 7 I b i d . , p. 191. 2 8 I b i d . 18 matter of c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n . There was Premier B a r r e t t ' s t e l e v i s e d " f i r i n g " of Education M i n i s t e r E i l e e n D a i l l y ' s s p e c i a l Commissioner of Education - a p p a r e n t l y without the M i n i s t e r ' s p e r s o n a l f o r e k n o w l e d g e , 2 9 the uproar over Premier B a r r e t t ' s use of e x p l e t i v e s d i r e c t e d at Vancouver Sun columnist M a r j o r i e N i c h o l s i n the l e g i s l a t i v e c o r r i d o r , 3 0 and the p u b l i c embarrassment i n c u r r e d when Government Whip Emery Barnes voted a g a i n s t h i s own l e a d e r on a p r o c e d u r a l matter i n the L e g i s l a t u r e . 3 1 C o l l e c t i v e l y , these i n c i d e n t s added to the impression that the government was "out of c o n t r o l . " A l l a n Fotheringham's words, i n the aftermath of the "Barnes i n c i d e n t , " were perhaps i n d i c a t i v e of the emerging p e r c e p t i o n : Poor b a t t e r e d Mr. B a r r e t t , of course, as with so many other of h i s recent t r o u b l e s has only h i m s e l f to blame. H i s r a t h e r a s t o n i s h i n g d e c i s i o n to p l a c e the r e s p o n s i b l e mantle of government whip on the i n e x p e r i e n c e d Mr. Barnes, untutored i n the more devious r u l e s of the l e g i s l a t i v e game, drew a s t o n i s h e d s t a r e s a l l around. ...Mr. Barnes can't handle i t . And now Mr. B a r r e t t can't handle Mr. Barnes. If they p l a y rugby l i k e t h e y're p r e s e n t l y running t h i s l e g i s l a t u r e , they'd run the wrong way - without the b a l l . 3 2 I f the spate of the NDP government's l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y along with i t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s blunders caused i t problems in 9 I b i d . , p. 165. 0 See: M a r j o r i e N i c h o l s i n the The Vancouver Sun, March 13th and 14th, 1974 as w e l l as "Gutter Language by B a r r e t t C i t e d , " i n the The Vancouver Sun, March 14, 1974. 1 See: "Six NDP D i s s i d e n t s Vote Against Motion by B a r r e t t , " i n The Vancouver Sun, March 30, 1974. 2 A l l a n Fotheringham in The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 2, 1974. 19 i t s f i r s t two years of o f f i c e , the remainder of i t s term was l a r g e l y spent i n defending i t s e l f a g a i n s t a l l e g a t i o n s that i t was "undemocratic" i n s t y l e and i n c l i n a t i o n . In May 1975, two iss u e s dominated media a t t e n t i o n : the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Emergency Programmes Act and the "not a dime without debate" campaign waged by B i l l Bennett i n the wake of the l e g i s l a t i v e standoff over the s e t t i n g of time l i m i t s f o r l e g i s l a t i v e debate. These i s s u e s l e f t the impression i n the minds of many that the government p r e f e r r e d to bludgeon ahead with i t s agenda, using the v e h i c l e of a democratic l e g i s l a t u r e w h i l e , at b e s t , having something l e s s than a h e a l t h y r e s p e c t f o r democratic procedures. B i l l 61, the Emergency Programmes A c t , was i n t r o d u c e d by the Government on May 8, 1975 o s t e n s i b l y f o r the purpose of d e a l i n g "with those d i s a s t e r s which b e f a l l modern communities, such as earthquakes, f l o o d and other d i s a s t e r s . " 3 3 A c c o r d i n g to the a c t u a l wording of the b i l l however, the Act, i f passed, would have given the B.C. Cabinet more powers than those possessed by i t s f e d e r a l c o u n t e r p a r t pursuant to the War  Measures Act. The empowering s e c t i o n of the proposed l e g i s l a t i o n s t a t e d : Where at any time the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r s that an emergency e x i s t s , he may, by o r d e r , d e c l a r e t h a t , as a r e s u l t of circumstances s p e c i f i e d in the d e c l a r a t i o n , a s t a t e of emergency e x i s t s i n the province or i n any p a r t of the p r o v i n c e . 3 4 3 3 P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y E r n e s t H a l l quoted i n Hurmuses, op. c i t . , p. 100. 3 4 I b i d . 20 I n i t i a l l y , the predominant concern expressed with regard to B i l l 61 was i t s l a c k of a d e f i n i t i o n of 'emergency'. Vancouver columnist M a r j o r i e N i c h o l s commmented at the time t h a t : T h i s i s the most t e r r r i f y i n g b i l l ever churned out of the NDP m i l l ... Well, yes t h i s t h i n g c o u l d be used to d e a l w i t h n a t u r a l gas. And r i o t s and earthquakes and economic turndowns and p o s s i b l y even the s t a t e of the weather. 3 5 The Emergency Programmes Act would have empowered the government, i n the case of an "emergency," to a c q u i r e p r o p e r t y "by agreement, e x p r o p r i a t i o n , c o n f i s c a t i o n or other means." 3 6 Furthermore, i t would have permitted c o n s c r i p t i o n with or without remuneration, of such persons between the ages of 18 and 60 as the M i n i s t e r c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y . 3 7 Perhaps most damaging from a p o l i t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , the Act would have gi v e n Cabinet the power to enter upon or demolish p r o p e r t y , p r o h i b i t t r a v e l and f i x p r i c e s . 3 8 D e s p i t e the storm of p r o t e s t , Premier B a r r e t t i n i t i a l l y r e f u s e d to withdraw B i l l 61, c l a i m i n g that he d i d not understand what a l l the f u s s was about, as t h i s was simply c i v i l defense l e g i s l a t i o n . O p p o s i t i o n to the l e g i s l a t i o n was however u n y i e l d i n g , with the B.C. C i v i l L i b e r t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s i d e n t s t a t i n g t h a t "the p r o s p e c t " that "the b i l l may be amended or dropped e n t i r e l y i s the only b r i g h t spot about i t . " 3 9 F i n a l l y , 3 5 I b i d . , pp. 101-103. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 103. 3 7 I b i d . 3 8 I b i d . 3 9 I b i d . 21 on June 13, 1975, Premier B a r r e t t r e l e n t e d and withdrew B i l l 61 - but not before the p o l i t i c a l damage had been done. B.C.'s f i r s t s o c i a l i s t government had attempted to pass l e g i s l a t i o n empowering the s t a t e to e x p r o p r i a t e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and enforce c o n s c r i p t i o n without the r i g h t of remuneration - when i_t deemed such to be necessary. In the same p e r i o d that the debate over the Emergency  Programmes Act was t a k i n g p l a c e , Socred l e a d e r B i l l Bennett commenced h i s c r o s s - p r o v i n c e "Not a Dime Without Debate" campaign. T h i s i s s u e had i t s g e n e s i s i n May 1974 when the NDP government i n t r o d u c e d a change i n s t a n d i n g o r d e r s to l i m i t debate on e s t i m a t e s . The new Standing Order 45A s t i p u l a t e d that i f the estimates were not passed i n 135 hours or f o r t y - f i v e s i t t i n g s (whichever o c c u r r e d l a s t ) , then the remaining estimates would be passed a u t o m a t i c a l l y without a d d i t i o n a l debate." 0 Although such a change was reasonable i n the eyes of many, i t s success r e s t e d upon the assumption that the o p p o s i t i o n accepted such a l i m i t a t i o n i n p r i n c i p l e . The o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s i n f a c t d i d not accept the p r i n c i p l e of debate l i m i t a t i o n , and i n the s p r i n g of 1975 f o r c e d the i s s u e by e n s u r i n g that a l l the estimates were not passed when the 135 hour l i m i t e x p i r e d . With l e s s than 20 percent of the e s t i m a t e s passed when time ran out, b i t t e r l e g i s l a t i v e wrangling ensued. On May 13, 1975, the government sought to pass the remaining e s t i m a t e s without debate. Upon h i s e x p u l s i o n from the House f o r h i s behaviour i n "° Terence Morley et a l . , The Reins of Power: Governing B r i t i s h  Columbia (Vancouver, 1983), p. 34. 22 the midst of the f u r o r , B i l l Bennett promptly embarked on a province-wide crusade "wrapped i n the robes of democracy p r o c l a i m i n g 'not a dime without d e b a t e ' . " 4 1 The p o l i t i c a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the debate over time l i m i t s were f a r - r e a c h i n g . The NDP's c o n s t r u c t i v e reforms were now overshadowed. The p a r t y that had always been viewed (and viewed i t s e l f ) as the champion of pa r l i a m e n t a r y t r a d i t i o n had to defend i t s e l f a g a i n s t the charge that i t had v i o l a t e d the most b a s i c of those t r a d i t i o n s . The charge was made more s t i n g i n g by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t W.A.C. Bennett, i n h i s time, had r e g u l a r l y abused the O p p o s i t i o n with a l l - n i g h t s e s s i o n s and " l e g i s l a t i o n by e x h a u s t i o n . " The NDP government, on the other hand, had improved the r i g h t s of the Op p o s i t i o n with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Question P e r i o d and the appointment of an O p p o s i t i o n M.L.A. to the chairmanship of the L e g i s l a t u r e ' s P u b l i c Accounts Committee. At the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s l e v e l however, the NDP l o s t the argument. C h a r a c t e r i z i n g the p e r c e p t i o n of the NDP h e l d by many people when i t was f i r s t e l e c t e d , one academic w r i t e r s t a t e d : Perhaps we as academics d i d not see the end of the world coming when the NDP was e l e c t e d . Many immigrants, businessman, and housewives d i d : B r i t i s h Columbia was soon to be a s a t e l l i t e of the U.S.S.R. 4 2 As a consequence of two years of inte n s e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y , 4 1 Young, op. c i t . , p. 29. 4 2 Mercedes Ballem, "The Unity P a r t y : I t s Death and R e s u r r e c t i o n s . " (A Paper dated September 30, 1979 and forming p a r t of The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o j e c t , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a ) , p. 1 . 23 the events of 1975 added to the s u s p i c i o n i n some q u a r t e r s that t h i s was a government that intended to r a d i c a l l y transform the way people c a r r i e d on t h e i r l i v e s . Furthermore, many con s i d e r e d the NDP to be "arrogant, impervious to c r i t i c i s m or suggestion," with t h e i r methods being "repugnant to the great m a j o r i t y of B.C. r e s i d e n t s . " * 3 In r e t r o s p e c t , i t cannot be s u r p r i s i n g that the NDP government f a i l e d to win a second term. I t c o u l d probably only have done so i f i t s opponents had remained d i v i d e d as to the best way to b r i n g about i t s d e f e a t . By and l a r g e , t h i s was not to be the case. 4 3 I b i d . , p. 37. 24 I I I . SOCIAL CREDIT POST-1972: THE "COALITION" DESCRIPTION The p e r i o d l e a d i n g up to the 1975 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n has been d e s c r i b e d both as "a p e r i o d of realignment" i n B.C. p o l i t i c s 4 " and as one i n which a " c o a l i t i o n of the r i g h t " 4 5 emerged to d e f e a t the NDP government. The e l e c t i o n of 1975 was indeed a " r e a l i g n i n g " one i n that i t was one i n which the "popular f e e l i n g a s s o c i a t e d with p o l i t i c s [was] s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e n s e t h a t the b a s i c p a r t i s a n commitments of a p o r t i o n of the e l e c t o r a t e c h a n g e f d ] . " 4 6 However, the use of the term " c o a l i t i o n " to d e s c r i b e the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up to the 1975 causes more d i f f i c u l t y . A f t e r a review of the p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e with r e s p e c t to " c o a l i t i o n , " i t would seem that while p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s have d e f i n e d " c o a l i t i o n " i n a v a r i e t y of ways, no one d e f i n i t i o n has been widely accepted i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 4 7 C o a l i t i o n has been d e f i n e d as "the j o i n t use of resources to determine the outcome of a d e c i s i o n , " 4 8 "a subgroup which comes i n t o e x i s t e n c e i n order to c o n t r o l a d e c i s i o n , " 4 9 and as a 4 4 Donald E. Blake, 2 P o l i t i c a l Worlds: P a r t i e s and V o t i n g i n  B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver, 1976), p~! TT~. 4 5 Among o t h e r s , see i b i d . , p. 25; Morley et a l , op. c i t . , p. 89; and G.L. K r i s t i a n s o n , "The Non-partisan Approach to B.C. P o l i t i c s : the Search for a U n i t y Party - 1972-1975," i n B.C.  S t u d i e s No. 33 (Spring 1977), pp 13-29 at p. 14. 4 6 Angus Campbell et a l . , The American Vot e r , An Abridgement (New York, 1964), p. 276. 4 7 E r i c C. Browne, C o a l i t i o n T h e o r i e s : A L o g i c a l and E m p i r i c a l  C r i t i q u e (London, 1973), p. \2~. 4 8 W.A. Gamson, "A Theory of C o a l i t i o n Formation," American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 26 (June 1961), p. 374. 4 9 W.H. R i k e r , The Theory of P o l i t i c a l C o a l i t i o n s (New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t , 1 962) , p. \2. 25 "combination of a c t o r s seeking to c o n t r o l p a y o f f s . " 5 0 E r i c Browne, a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g other d e f i n i t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e , d e s c r i b e d c o a l i t i o n as "the r e s u l t of g o a l - o r i e n t e d behaviour of two or more a c t o r s who c o n s c i o u s l y make common cause contingent on some prearranged d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e w a r d s . " 5 1 The most e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n of c o a l i t i o n found in the l i t e r a t u r e i s that of E.W. K e l l e y , who s t a t e d t h a t : By a c o a l i t i o n we mean a group of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups who: 1. agree to pursue a common and a r t i c u l a t e d g o a l ; 2. pool t h e i r r e l e v a n t resources i n p u r s u i t of that g o a l ; 3. engage in conscious communication c o n c e r n i n g the g o a l and the means of o b t a i n i n g i t ; 4. agree on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a y o f f s ( b e n e f i t s ) r e c e i v e d when o b t a i n i n g the g o a l . 5 2 D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s of c o a l i t i o n a l s o lend a s s i s t a n c e to understanding the manner i n which the term i s used. According to Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i s h  Language Unabridged, c o a l i t i o n i s d e f i n e d as 1a: the act of c o a l e s c i n g : the union of things separate i n t o a s i n g l e body or group ( c o a l i t i o n of water vapour i n t o r a i n d r o p s ) b: a group or body formed by the c o a l e s c i n g of o r i g i n a l l y d i s t i n c t elements: COMBINATION (they formed a c o a l t i o n with the t h e a t r e owners) 2 i n government and p o l i t i c s : a temporary a l l i a n c e of d i s t i n c t p a r t i e s , persons or s t a t e s f o r j o i n t a c t i o n or to achieve a common purpose (the p a r t y c o u l d keep c o n t r o l only by c o a l i t i o n with two smaller p a r t i e s ) 5 o M.A. Leiserman, " F a c t i o n s and C o a l i t i o n s i n One-Party Japan," American P o l i t i c a l Science Review 62 (February 1968), pp. 62-63. 5 1 Browne, op. c i t . , p. 13. 5 2 E.W. K e l l e y , "Techniques of S t u d y i n g C o a l i t i o n Formation," Midwest J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e 12 (February 1968), pp. 62-63. 26 (the p a r t i e s of the r i g h t formed a c o a l i t i o n a g a i n s t the Communists) (a c o a l i t i o n of f r e e n a t i o n s ) . The Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y suggests four uses of the term but suggests that now the term i s most-commonly understood i n i t s f o u r t h usage: 1. The growing together of p a r t s , c o a l e s c e n c e ; 2. Union i n t o one mass or body; combination; 3. Union, combination, f u s i o n (of p a r t i e s , p r i n c i p l e s , i n t e r e s t s , e t c . ) ; 4. esp. i n p o l i t i c s . An a l l i a n c e f o r combined a c t i o n of d i s t i n c t p a r t i e s , persons, or s t a t e s , without permanent i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o one body. The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y goes f a r t h e r and, by use of an a p p r o p r i a t e symbol, i n d i c a t e s that i t s p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s c r i p t i v e of how the term i s u s u a l l y understood i n the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. That v e r s i o n d e s c r i b e s c o a l i t i o n in i t s p o l i t i c a l sense as a "temporary combination of p a r t i e s that r e t a i n d i s t i n c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s . " As a consequence of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a number of usages of " c o a l i t i o n , " i t becomes c l e a r that the context i n which the word i s used i s c r u c i a l to a proper understanding of i t s meaning. In the context of the events of the 1972-75 p e r i o d , the waters are f u r t h e r muddied by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t , at the time, there were those who b e l i e v e d that the r e - i n v i g o r a t e d S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y was simply the r e s u l t of a marriage of convenience between ri g h t - w i n g e l i t e s - a marriage which might w e l l prove to be temporary. I f such had been the case, the use of the term " c o a l i t i o n " to d e s c r i b e the phenomenon would have been a p p r o p r i a t e . However, as' t h i s t h e s i s i m p l i c i t l y r e j e c t s 27 such an e x p l a n a t i o n of the re-emergence of S o c i a l C r e d i t , I would submit that the use of the word lends u n c e r t a i n t y as to i t s meaning. Among the p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s who attempt to d e f i n e " c o a l i t i o n , " two themes by-and-large seem to be common: c o a l i t i o n s , i n the p o l i t i c a l sense, are c r e a t u r e s of agreement between a c t o r s about g o a l s so as to c o n t r o l the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a y o f f s ; and they are i m p l i c i t l y temporary arrangements. A c o a l i t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l sense can be best understood as a non-permanent a l l i a n c e of a c t o r s who decide to pool t h e i r r esources f o r the purpose of c o n t r o l l i n g an outcome and i t s p a y o f f s . In view of the above d e f i n i t i o n , I would suggest that the use of the term " c o a l i t i o n " i n the context of the 1972-75 B.C. p o l i t i c a l environment i s l e s s than h e l p f u l . I would submit that when the circumstances s u r r o u n d i n g the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t are s c r u t i n i z e d , the e m p i r i c a l evidence does not bear out any s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the phenomenon took plac e as a r e s u l t of an "agreement," e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t , temporary or permanent, between r i g h t - w i n g e l i t e s . Rather, those circumstances p o i n t i n the d i r e c t i o n of a genuine B e n n e t t - l e d realignment i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s - one i n which most non-Socred e l i t e s observed from the s i d e l i n e s b e f o r e t a k i n g an a c t i v e r o l e . I d e a l l y , , the term " c o a l i t i o n " should not be used to d e s c r i b e the p e r t i n e n t events which oc c u r r e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the 1972-75 p e r i o d . Although the term does allow f o r a number of usages, i n i t s p o l i t i c a l sense i t i m p l i e s the 28 e x i s t e n c e of an agreement of a temporary nature f o r s p e c i f i c purposes - that i n the circumstances of S o c i a l C r e d i t between 1972 and 1975 a p p a r e n t l y d i d not e x i s t . The consequence of the use of t h i s term i n t h i s context i s that i t serves to c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n as to i t s meaning and hence tends to m i s l e a d . 29 IV. SOCIAL CREDIT: THE NON-SOCIALIST ALTERNATIVE EMERGES A. THE REBUILDING OF SOCIAL CREDIT 1 . B i l l Bennett Takes The Helm The r e b u i l d i n g of S o c i a l C r e d i t , a f t e r i t s d e v a s t a t i n g 1972 def e a t , o s t e n s i b l y began on March 23, 1973 when W.A.C. Bennett announced h i s i n t e n t i o n to r e t i r e as Socred l e a d e r . H i s r e s i g n a t i o n was to take e f f e c t upon the s e l e c t i o n of a replacement at a l e a d e r s h i p convention, to be h e l d at the Bayshore H o t e l i n Vancouver on the weekend of November 22-24, 1973. G i v i n g an i n d i c a t i o n of the type of leader he thought should succeed him, he t o l d a Socred meeting i n New Westminster: I know you w i l l e l e c t a b r i l l i a n t young person to l e a d you f o r another 20 years ... God b l e s s him or h e r . 5 3 On a p l a t f o r m next to him sat Mrs. Grace McCarthy, former M i n s i t e r Without P o r t f o l i o i n h i s government and the person he d e s c r i b e d as "the number one freedom f i g h t e r i n B.C." 5 4 On June 5, 1973, W.A.C. Bennett tendered h i s r e s i g n a t i o n as the M.L.A. f o r South Okanagan. His l e t t e r to the Speaker of the L e g i s l a t u r e s t a t e d , i n p a r t : While I have been a Member f o r so many years 5 3 "Bennett Urges Socreds: 'Pick a Young Leader'," The Sun (Vancouver), March 24, 1973. 5 a I b i d . The Sun h i n t e d t h a t the presence of Mrs McCarthy on the p l a t f o r m next to W.A.C. Bennett c o u l d p o s s i b l y p o s s i b l y be constr u e d as a s u b t l e endorsement of her as h i s su c c e s s o r . However, as events u n f o l d e d i t became c l e a r that she was not the " b r i l l i a n t young person" he had i n mind. 30 r e p r e s e n t i n g South Okanagan, i t i s with great r e g r e t that I tender t h i s r e s i g n a t i o n , but I f e e l i t i s time for a younger person to r e p r e s e n t t h i s C o n s i t i t u e n c y . 5 5 Premier B a r r e t t c a l l e d a b y - e l e c t i o n f o r September 7, 1973 and a few days l a t e r , W.A.C.'s son, B i l l Bennett, announced h i s i n t e n t i o n to seek the l e g i s l a t i v e seat under the Socred banner. The South Okanagan b y - e l e c t i o n campaign took p l a c e a g a i n s t a background i n which v a r i o u s n o n - s o c i a l i s t s i n B.C. were c o n s i d e r i n g how to prevent a re-occurrence of the f r a c t u r i n g of the " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e vote". The L i b e r a l , P r o g r e s s i v e Conservative and S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t i e s were exhorted by v a r i o u s n o n - s o c i a l i s t s to put a s i d e t r a d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n favour of a u n i t e d stand a g a i n s t the NDP. A v a r i e t y of p r o p o s a l s were brought forward i n c l u d i n g e l e c t o r a l reform (and p a r t i c u l a r l y a r e t u r n to the s i n g l e t r a n s f e r a b l e vote which had been a b o l i s h e d a f t e r the 1953 e l e c t i o n ) . However, most i n t e r e s t c e n t r e d on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of combining the three o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s i n t o a s i n g l e f o r c e a g a i n s t the NDP thereby e n s u r i n g a " f r e e -e n t e r p r i s e " 60 percent m a j o r i t y . 5 6 The unspoken premise of the proponents of these attempts was that S o c i a l C r e d i t was f i n i s h e d as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n the p r o v i n c e , t h a t the p a r t y , l i k e the government was W.A.C. Bennett - and that i t was d i s a p p e a r i n g along with him. 5 7 As e a r l y as March 23, 1973, the day that he c a l l e d f o r a 5 5 M i t c h e l l , op. c i t . , p. 430. 5 6 K r i s t i a n s o n , l o c . c i t . , p. 15. 5 7 Young, l o c . c i t . , p. 27 31 S o c i a l C r e d i t l e a d e r s h i p convention, W.A.C. Bennett r e j e c t e d the idea of „ an a l l i a n c e with the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s or C o n s e r v a t i v e s . "The o n l y movement," he s a i d "that can beat the s o c i a l i s t s i s the same movement that beat them seven times i n a row." 5 8 I n s t e a d , he i s s u e d the i n v i t a t i o n to d i s a f f e c t e d p a r t i s a n s of a l l other p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to j o i n S o c i a l C r e d i t . "Welcome them warmly," he urged h i s Socred s u p p o r t e r s , "because t h e y ' l l come by the hundreds and the t h o u s a n d s . " 5 9 The most prominent group advocating an e l e c t o r a l a l l i a n c e was the M a j o r i t y Movement f o r Freedom and P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e , an o r g a n i z a t i o n which was formed i n e a r l y 1973. C o - c h a i r e d by Burnaby Lawyer, A r n o l d Hean and Kamloops lawyer and self-made m i l l i o n a i r e , J a r l W h i s t , 6 0 the group h e l d a s e r i e s of meetings u r g i n g u n i t y to d e f e a t the NDP by way of " u n i f y i n g the three f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e p a r t i e s , or f a i l i n g t h a t , the f r e e e n t e r p r i s e v o t e . " 6 1 In a t a b l o i d - s i z e d handout is s u e d i n mid-1973, the M a j o r i t y Movement's purpose was s t a t e d : For the f i r s t time we have found o u r s e l v e s together, on the same s i d e , i n the p o l i t i c a l arena. Most of us now r e a l i z e t h a t what d i f f e r e n c e s that we had were s m a l l , and what u n i t e s us i n common i s very l a r g e and very important. The M a j o r i t y Movement has been formed to o f f e r a n o n - p o l i t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e which goes beyond p a r t y d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s open to concerned B r i t i s h 5 8 "Bennett Urges Socreds: 'Pick a Young Leader'," op. c i t . 5 9 l o c . c i t ., p. 27 6 0 I was informed by Mr. Hean that Mr. Whist was a law partner of Rafe Mair, the i n d i v i d u a l who secured the Socred nomination for Kamloops i n 1975 and subsequently became a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r i n B i l l Bennett's government. 6 1 K r i s t i a n s o n , l o c . c i t . , p. 15. 32 Columbians who value p e r s o n a l freedom above a l l e l s e . The M a j o r i t y Movement e x i s t s to u n i t e the thousands of v o i c e s , from every p a r t of our p r o v i n c e , who r e a l i z e that we are powerless as long as we are d i v i d e d . 6 2 Even though i n the aftermath of of the 1972 e l e c t i o n S o c i a l C r e d i t r e f u s e d to e n t e r t a i n " u n i t y " d i s c u s s i o n s , B i l l Bennett d i d not f a i l to n o t i c e the appeal that the u n i t y movement had to many v o t e r s . In the South Okanagan b y - e l e c t i o n , he campaigned under the slogan " U n i t y " - the M a j o r i t y Movement's theme. In the Socred p a r t y l i t e r a t u r e , the p a r t y ' s c r o s s - s e c t i o n e d base of support was emphasized and Bennett's p o s t e r s f e a t u r e d the M a j o r i t y Movement's c o l o u r s : red, white and b l u e . Furthermore, h i s p l a t f o r m was s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to that of the M a j o r i t y Movement - that "we must as a u n i t e d group, d e f e a t the NDP." 6 3 The b y - e l e c t i o n was a l s o to be c o n t e s t e d by the Conservative P a r t y ' s new and p o l i t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e l e a d e r , D e r r i l Warren, who had f a i l e d to get e l e c t e d i n the 1972 general e l e c t i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the 12.7 percent of the popular vote the C o n s e r v a t i v e Party had garnered under h i s l e a d e r s h i p - the highest i t had r e c e i v e d s i n c e the Socreds were f i r s t e l e c t e d i n 1952. The South Okanagan c o n t e s t would determine whether or not the C o n s e r v a t i v e Party would have a chance of once again becoming the c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l standard bearer i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was a l s o the f i r s t post-1972 t e s t of S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s r e s e r v o i r of support. 6 2 Undated M a j o r i t y Movement pamphlet quoted i n K r i s t i a n s o n , i b i d . 6 3 Ballem, op. c i t . , p. 6. 33 The South Okanagan b y - e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s , a lthough not a l a n d s l i d e i n B i l l Bennett's favour, were s u f f i c i e n t to e l i m i n a t e the immediate t h r e a t posed by Warren and the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y . (See Table 1 below) TABLE 1 SOUTH OKANAGAN - Percentage of V a l i d Votes  Received by Major Party Candidates i n B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l B y - E l e c t i o n h e l d September 7, 1973 Mclver (N.D.P.) 25.9 Bennett ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 39.5 Dyck ( L i b e r a l ) 9.9 Warren (P.C.) 24.4 Bennett had p u b l i c l y maintained that i t was necessary to " l i b e r a l i z e the p a r t y ... to widen i t s base ... to appeal to the p r o f e s s i o n s - people [the Socreds] had never been a b l e to a t t r a c t . " 6 4 On t h a t score he was e l e c t e d i n h e a r t l a n d of t r a d i t i o n a l S o c i a l C r e d i t support, winning a p l u r a l i t y of votes i n every p o l l i n g d i s t r i c t i n the c o n s t i t u e n c y . 6 5 The way was now c l e a r f o r Bennett to seek the l e a d e r s h i p of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t League. On October 10, 1973, j u s t over one month a f t e r h i s by-e l e c t i o n win, B i l l Bennett announced h i s i n t e n t i o n to seek the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p . C l a i m i n g that h i s campaign i n South Okanagan had a t t r a c t e d a new breed of "young, e n t h u s i a s t i c Socreds," he i n d i c a t e d that he wished to extend h i s success i n t o a r e c r u i t i n g program elsewhere i n the province so as to "broaden 6 4 Stan Persky, Son of Socred; Has B i l l Bennett Gotten B.C.  Moving Again? (Vancouver, 1 979) , p. 41T 6 5 P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Statement of Votes; General  E l e c t i o n December 11, 1975 and B y - E l e c t i o n s , p. 132 34 and expand" the p a r t y . 6 6 The November 22-24, 1973 S o c i a l C r e d i t l e a d e r s h i p convention f e a t u r e d a race f o r the p a r t y p r e s i d e n c y as w e l l as for the pa r t y . l e a d e r s h i p . Grace McCarthy, a f r i e n d and co n f i d a n t of W.A.C. Bennett as w e l l as a b i g booster of B i l l Bennett's l e a d e r s h i p b i d , succeeded to the p a r t y presidency on November 23rd by a margin of only 26 votes over former Socred c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r Kenneth Kiernan. A f t e r her e l e c t i o n , W.A.C. Bennett proclaimed her "Queen Grace of the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y , " and f u r t h e r s t a t e d : "You watch the p a r t y membership grow now." 6 7 I t was a p r o p h e t i c statement. The a c t u a l l e a d e r s h i p c o n t e s t which was h e l d the f o l l o w i n g day r e s u l t e d i n a d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y f o r B i l l Bennett. Having staked out h i s p o s i t i o n as the " l e f t wing" c a n d i d a t e 6 8 for the l e a d e r s h i p , Bennett def e a t e d f i v e other a s p i r a n t s by o b t a i n i n g 56 percent support on the f i r s t b a l l o t . H is 833 votes f a r surpassed those of the second runner-up, Bob M c C l e l l a n d , who had 269. The r e a l r e b u i l d i n g of S o c i a l C r e d i t was about to begin. 6 6 "Leadership Race: B i l l Bennett's I n ," The Vancouver Sun, October 10, 1973. 6 7 "McCarthy Pic k e d as Socred P r e s i d e n t , " The Vancouver Sun, November 24, 1973. 6 8 M a r j o r i e N i c h o l s i n The Vancouver Sun, November 22, 1973. 35 2. The S t r u g g l e For " A l t e r n a t i v e " S tatus The year 1974 was a watershed f o r both the NDP government and the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . The events of that year would c r y s t a l l i z e two p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s : 1) that the government was going too f a r , too f a s t and was "out of c o n t r o l " ; and 2) that S o c i a l C r e d i t was the only v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the NDP. I t was the year of the M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s Act c o n t r o v e r s y , the s t a r t - u p of I.C.B.C, the implementation of rent c o n t r o l s and the $102.8 m i l l i o n " c l e r i c a l e r r o r . " I t was a l s o the year i n which the people of B.C. witnessed such s p e c t a c l e s as the p u b l i c " f i r i n g " of the Education Commissioner, the Premier swearing at a female r e p o r t e r , and the Government Whip v o t i n g a g a i n s t h i s own le a d e r . The year saw the M a j o r i t y Movement f o l d , the C o n s e r v a t i v e Party d i s i n t e g r a t e and S o c i a l C r e d i t a t t r a c t s u p p o r t e r s by the thousands. By the end of 1974, the stage was set f o r S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s dramatic p o l i t i c a l comeback the f o l l o w i n g year. The second post-1972 e l e c t o r a l t e s t of r e s i d u a l S o c i a l C r e d i t support came in the North Vancouver-Capilano b y - e l e c t i o n , h e l d on February 5, 1974. C a l l e d as a r e s u l t of the e a r l i e r r e s i g n a t i o n of L i b e r a l M.L.A. David Brousson, the b y - e l e c t i o n was v i g o u r o u s l y c o n t e s t e d by a l l four p a r t i e s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g an i n i t i a l i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t by the M a j o r i t y Movement to convince the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s to u n i t e behind one " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " c a n d i d a t e . The L i b e r a l s nominated Gordon Gibson J r . , son of the c o n s t i t u e n c y ' s former M.L.A., whose chances were favoured by v i r t u e of the f a c t that the L i b e r a l s had taken approximately 40 36 percent of the r i d i n g ' s popular vote i n 1972 (compared with about 20 percent by each of the other p a r t i e s ) . Chosen by the Socreds, NDP and C o n s e r v a t i v e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , were North Vancouver Mayor Ron Andrews; Diane Baigent; and Conservative Party p r e s i d e n t Peter Hyndman who had been a narrow l o s e r to L i b e r a l A l l a n W i l l i a m s i n neighbouring West Vancouver-Howe Sound in the 1972 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . The North Vancouver-Capilano b y - e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e "shot i n the arm" to the Socreds. Although they l o s t , they d i d so o n l y narrowly as i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2 below. TABLE 2 NORTH VANCOUVER-CAPILANO - Percentage of V a l i d Votes  Received by Major Party Candidates i n B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l B y - E l e c t i o n h e l d February 5, 1974 Baigent (N.D.P.) 17.3 Andrews ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 30.7 Gibson ( L i b e r a l ) 31.1 Hyndman (P.C.) 20.7 While Gibson won the b y - e l e c t i o n , he managed to maintain the t r a d i t i o n a l l y L i b e r a l seat f o r h i s p a r t y by only 57 votes over the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e . Because of the c l o s e n e s s of t h i s race, the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y f e l t encouraged. Henceforth, S o c i a l C r e d i t l e a der B i l l Bennett adamantly r e f u s e d to e n t e r t a i n e i t h e r the M a j o r i t y Movement's p r o p o s a l of o f f e r i n g only one " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " c a n d i d a t e per r i d i n g or to c o n s i d e r 37 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a " u n i t y p a r t y " arrangement. 6 9 Instead, a l l e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d to the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t as the one " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " p a r t y capable of d e f e a t i n g the NDP i n the next e l e c t i o n . From the date of the b y - e l e c t i o n to the end of November 1974, events of immense s i g n i f i c a n c e to the f u t u r e s of both the NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t took p l a c e at a phenomenal pace. On February 19th, Mines M i n i s t e r Leo Nimsick i n t r o d u c e d the M i n e r a l  R o y a l t i e s Act i n the L e g i s l a t u r e . T h i s event was f o l l o w e d by the opening, on March 1st, of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l and problem-prone Insurance C o r p o r a t i o n of B.C. and the passage a few days l a t e r of Standing Order 45-A. On March 14th, the government i n t r o d u c e d i t s rent c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , and on the 29th i t was s u b j e c t e d to the embarassment i n c u r r e d by the Barnes i n c i d e n t . Amidst the tumultuous events of March 1974, a new b a t t l e one l a r g e l y unnoticed by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c - began to take form: the b a t t l e over how e l e c t o r a l o p p o s i t i o n to the NDP would be mounted in the next e l e c t i o n , and who would l e a d i t . On the one hand, a number of high p r o f i l e o p p o s i t i o n M.L.A.s, egged on by the M a j o r i t y Movement, a c t i v e l y d i s c u s s e d the c r e a t i o n of a " u n i t y p a r t y " to defeat the NDP. At the same time, B i l l Bennett attempted to r e - i n f o r c e the p e r c e p t i o n that S o c i a l C r e d i t was the o n l y r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e to the government. 6 9 See "No Deals f o r P o l i t i c a l Backing, Says Bennett," The  P r o v i n c e (Vancouver, May 8, 1975) where Bennett i s quoted as s t a t i n g t h at t h i s has been h i s p o s i t i o n s i n c e "Day One." That Bennett at no time ever endorsed the m a j o r i t y or u n i t y p r o p o s a l s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by Young, l o c . c i t . , p. 28. 38 The M a j o r i t y Movement should, however, be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the " u n i t y p a r t y " e f f o r t s which took place more-or-less c o n c u r r e n t l y . While the f a t e s of the M a j o r i t y Movement and the attempts to form a " u n i t y p a r t y " ran v i r t u a l l y p a r a l l e l courses - with t h e i r peak i n e a r l y 1974 and t h e i r denouement towards the end of that year - the two e n t i t i e s are d i s t i n c t . The M a j o r i t y Movement o r i g i n a t e d i n the b u s i n e s s community and i t s membership was comprised of members of the p u b l i c . The " u n i t y p a r t y , " on the other hand, had i t been formed, would have been comprised of p o l i t i c i a n s - the m a j o r i t y of s i t t i n g o p p o s i t i o n M.L.A.s. D i s c u s s i o n of a p o s s i b l e u n i t y p a r t y was the p o l i t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the emotions underpinning the M a j o r i t y Movement. 7 0 Although S c o t t Wallace, who became Conservative Leader on December 1, 1973 i n d i c a t e d , e a r l y on, an i n t e r e s t i n the M a j o r i t y Movement's p r o p o s a l s , L i b e r a l Leader David Anderson and Socred Leader B i l l Bennett stood r e s o l u t e l y in o p p o s i t i o n to them. Anderson c l e a r l y hoped t h a t the L i b e r a l Party would become the f o c a l p o i n t of o p p o s i t i o n to the NDP. B i l l Bennett h e l d h i s ground as the l e a d e r of the l a r g e s t o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y i n the L e g i s l a t u r e . The maze of events which u l t i m a t e l y wrecked the u n i t y p a r t y movement began on March 7, 1974 when Highways M i n i s t e r Graham Lea a l l e g e d i n the L e g i s l a t u r e t h a t u n i d e n t i f i e d M.L.A.s from a l l o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s had been h o l d i n g meetings to work out the 7 0 Ballem, op. c i t . , p. i . 39 p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an o p p o s i t i o n merger. The whole matter might have blown over had i t not been f o r the d e c i s i o n of C o n s e r v a t i v e Leader Scott Wallace to c a l l a press conference, i n which he admitted to h i s own i n t e r e s t i n forming a new u n i t e d o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y and named Socred Bob M c C l e l l a n d as one of the d i s c u s s a n t s . The r e s u l t was two-fold: Socreds, under p r e s s u r e from Bennett backed out of such d i s c u s s i o n s and denounced Wallace as having broken a "confidence"; and Wallace was seen as having e f f e c t i v e l y undermined the c o n f i d e n c e of C o n s e r v a t i v e a c t i v i s t s i n t h e i r own p a r t y . As M a r j o r i e N i c h o l s s t a t e d : Now, through p u b l i c acknowledgement of the f a c t t h a t he p e r s o n a l l y i s i n t e r e s t e d i n forming a new p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , Wallace has e f f e c t i v e l y w r i t t e n o f f h i s own p a r t y . 7 1 On March 9, 1974, a few days a f t e r the Wallace statement, an event occurred of the s o r t which would soon become commonplace. Con s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e f o r Nanaimo, Graeme Roberts, announced at a j o i n t p ress conference with ^ B i l l Bennett that he had j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t . In doing so, he s t a t e d : I know i n my own heart that thousands and thousands of people are t h i n k i n g the same way. 7 2 While s t a t i n g that he intended to remain a f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e , Roberts i n d i c a t e d h i s i n t e n t i o n to work a c t i v e l y to c onvince other C o n s e r v a t i v e s , as w e l l as members of other p a r t i e s to j o i n 7 1 M a r j o r i e N i c h o l s i n The Vancouver Sun, March 12, 1974. 7 2 John Gibbs, "Former Tory Candidate J o i n s Bennett's Socreds," The Vancouver Sun, March 20, 1974. 40 the Socreds. In h i s d e c i s i o n to become a p r o v i n c i a l Socred, Roberts would soon be f o l l o w e d by numerous other C o n s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l p a r t y a c t i v i s t s . Although most of the e a r l y prominent d e s e r t i o n s to S o c i a l C r e d i t came from the ranks of the Conservative P a r t y , the Socreds won over Surrey Mayor W i l l i a m Vander Zalm on May 29, 1974. Vander Zalm, who was a former p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l candidate and l e a d e r s h i p a s p i r a n t i n d i c a t e d that he b e l i e v e d that B.C. now needed a "choice between s o c i a l i s m and non-s o c i a l i s m . " 7 3 For a l l i n t e n t s and purposes, the month of June 1974 was the one i n which the M a j o r i t y Movement f i z z l e d out and s e r i o u s hopes of forming a u n i t y p a r t y were dashed. The p e r t i n e n t events took p l a c e i n the c o n t e x t of a p u b l i c r a l l y which had been scheduled by the M a j o r i t y Movement for June 21st, at the L e g i s l a t u r e , f o r the purpose of b r i n g i n g together opponents of the proposed M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s A c t . Two days b e f o r e the proposed r a l l y , C o n servative l e a d e r Scott Wallace p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e d B i l l Bennett, i n a speech i n Courtenay as "... the only o b s t a c l e to the formation of a u n i t e d o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y i n B.C." He claimed that " s e v e r a l " S o c i a l C r e d i t M.L.A.s 7 4 had expressed i n t e r e s t i n the formation 7 3 "Vander Zalm a Socred," The Vancouver Sun, June 1, 1974. 7 4 A c c o r d i n g to A l l a n Fotheringham i n The Vancouver Sun, June 22, 1974, the nine M.L.A.s i n v o l v e d were: L i b e r a l s A l l a n W i l l i a m s , P a t r i c k McGeer and Garde Gardom; Co n s e r v a t i v e s Scott Wallace and Hugh C u r t i s ; and Socreds Bob M c C l e l l a n d , Newell M o r r i s o n , Harvey Schroeder and another unnamed Socred. Ballem, op. c i t . , p. 18, suggests t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n s i n c l u d e d Socreds Alex F r a s e r and Don P h i l l i p s . 41 of a new p a r t y but that "...the move has been b l o c k e d by the r i g i d and s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d , f i x e d p o s i t i o n taken by B i l l B e n n e t t . " 7 5 The remarks were, from the u n i t y movement's p e r s p e c t i v e , i l l - t i m e d and u n f o r t u n a t e . On Thursday, June 20th, the day that the M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s  Act was passed and r e c e i v e d Royal Assent, S o c i a l C r e d i t M.L.A.s h i t back at Wallace, a c c u s i n g him of " m a l i c i o u s mischief-making" and saying that he l a c k e d c r e d i b i l i t y or h o n e s t y . 7 6 The Socred caucus' statement read, i n p a r t : The C o n s e r v a t i v e leader i s a person to be p i t i e d . He i s doing a great d i s s e r v i c e to the people of t h i s p r ovince and he should r e s i g n because he i s s e r v i n g as the leader of a p a r t y he admits he wants to d e s t r o y . 7 7 Bennett, meanwhile, in a separate statement, s a i d : U n i t y can only happen when people come together on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s w i t h i n t h e i r communities and c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , and i t has been proven that t h i s cannot happen at the d i r e c t i o n of armchair g e n e r a l s or p e r s o n a l l y ambitious p o l i t i c i a n s s e c r e t l y meeting to get power through the back door when they have been r e j e c t e d at the f r o n t . 7 8 Bennett had repeated h i s theme that o p p o s i t i o n u n i t y c o u l d only be achieved through the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . The M a j o r i t y Movement's demonstration a g a i n s t the M i n e r a l  R o y a l t i e s Act took p l a c e , as planned, on June 21st even though the l e g i s l a t i o n had r e c e i v e d Royal Assent the p r e v i o u s day. By 5 K r i s t i a n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 26. 6 "Wallace Branded M a l i c i o u s by Socred MLAs," The P r o v i n c e (Vancouver), June 21, 1974. 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . 42 any standard, i t c o u l d not be viewed as having been a success. The r a l l y was not onl y p o o r l y - t i m e d , but i t was a l s o p o o r l y -attended with o n l y about 300 people t a k i n g p a r t . Furthermore, i t was d i s c o v e r e d by the press that many of the demonstrators were uninformed about the nature of the issue and had only come because they had been g i v e n f r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to V i c t o r i a . 7 9 At the June 21st r a l l y , L i b e r a l M.L.A.s Pat McGeer and A l l a n W i l l i a m s p u b l i c l y announced, i n the presence of t h e i r p a r t y l e a d e r , t h a t they were prepared to " b o l t " the L i b e r a l P arty i f a new u n i t y p a r t y arrangement c o u l d be agreed u p o n . 8 0 Anderson, i n h i s c o u n t e r b l a s t , maintained h i s r e f u s a l to c o n s i d e r " u n i t y " t a l k s and s a r d o n i c a l l y s t a t e d that " B a r r e t t won't be beaten by any group that has got the b r a i n s to or g a n i z e a r a l l y f o r the day a f t e r [the M i n e r a l R o y a l t i e s Act] i s p a s s e d . " 8 1 In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the u n i t y p a r t y movement was k i l l e d by two people: B i l l Bennett and Scott Wallace. Bennett remained i n t r a n s i g e n t - d e s p i t e e n t r e a t i e s that he and h i s p a r t y enter formal u n i t y d i s c u s s i o n s - and i n s t e a d , c o n c e n t r a t e d on the renewal of S o c i a l C r e d i t . For Wallace's p a r t , he succeeded i n o f f e n d i n g the Socreds to such an extent that they r a l l i e d behind t h e i r l e a d e r and worked with him to broaden S o c i a l C r e d i t and c r e a t e the p e r c e p t i o n - i n the community at l a r g e - that only S o c i a l C r e d i t c o u l d d e f e a t the NDP. 7 9 Ballem, op. c i t . , p. 20. 8 0 "Key L i b e r a l s Ready to Jump: W i l l i a m s and McGeer Eye U n i t y Party to Beat NDP," The Provinc e (Vancouver), June 22, 1974. 8 1 I b i d . 43 Events now began to move more q u i c k l y as h i g h p r o f i l e d e s e r t i o n s to S o c i a l C r e d i t from the other p a r t i e s began to take p l a c e . On June 26th, the C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e f o r the c o n s t i t u e n c y of Okanagan Boundary i n the forthcoming f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , George Whittake, p u b l i c l y announced h i s c o n v e r s i o n to S o c i a l C r e d i t at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . 8 2 On F r i d a y , J u l y 12th, Vancouver lawyer and former p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e Party p r e s i d e n t Peter Hyndman announced that he had taken out a S o c i a l C r e d i t membership and intended to seek the S o c i a l C r e d i t nomination i n h i s home c o n s t i t u e n c y of West Vancouver-Howe Sound f o r the next p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . 8 3 The same day, f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e Doug Jebson made a s i m i l a r announcement. 8 1* Furthermore, on the day f o l l o w i n g these announcements, a h e a d l i n e i n The P r o v i n c e e n t i t l e d "Bennett Plus R a l l y i n g Forces - Could F e l l B a r r e t t " r e v e a l e d the i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n that S o c i a l C r e d i t had become the v e h i c l e that had the best chance of b e a t i n g the NDP. 8 5 The p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e Party was d e a l t a major blow ten days l a t e r when C o n s e r v a t i v e M.L.A. Hugh C u r t i s announced on J u l y 22nd that the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y was going "out of b u s i n e s s " and that any d i s c u s s i o n s with r e s p e c t to how Scott Wallace had been conducting h i s l e a d e r s h i p of the p a r t y 2 " I n t e r i o r Tory Candidate J o i n s B.C. Socreds," The Province (Vancouver), June 27, 1974. 3 "B.C. T o r i e s 'Evaporate': Hyndman Jumps to Socreds," The  Vancouver Sun, J u l y 13, 1974. * "Tory Swings to Socreds," The Vancouver Sun, J u l y 13, 1974. 5 "Bennett - Plus R a l l y i n g Forces - Could F e l l B a r r e t t , " The  Province (Vancouver), J u l y 13, 1974. 44 were now i r r e l e v a n t . C u r t i s s t a t e d that the C o n s e r v a t i v e Party would soon be absorbed by a " u n i t y p a r t y " or by S o c i a l C r e d i t and that he would make h i s own d e c i s i o n w i t h i n two months. 8 6 The s p e c t a c l e of Conservative a c t i v i s t s p u b l i c l y j o i n i n g the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y continued unabated i n August 1974. On August 19th, s i x t e e n members of the Vancouver-Point Grey P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e , i n c l u d i n g the group's p r e s i d e n t , p u b l i c l y d e f e c t e d to S o c i a l C r e d i t , a phenomenon t h a t B i l l Bennett d e s c r i b e d as being " j u s t the t i p of the i c e b e r g . " 8 7 I t was f o l l o w e d on August 29th by the d e f e c t i o n to S o c i a l C r e d i t of s i x Vancouver I s l a n d L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g the past p r e s i d e n t of the Cowichan-Malahat c o n s t i t u e n c y assoc i a t i o n . 8 8 B i l l Bennett and Grace McCarthy understood, from the o u t s e t , the importance of generating p a r t y enthusiasm and l o y a l t y . A l s o they understood the value to be gained from a p e r c e i v e d sense of momentum. In e a r l y 1974, under the d i r e c t i o n of McCarthy and former Socred c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r Dan Campbell, the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y embarked on a mammoth membership d r i v e , o f f e r i n g membership i n the p a r t y at the c u t - r a t e of $5 f o r four y e a r s . The o b j e c t was not to r a i s e funds but r a t h e r to give the p a r t y ' s s u p p o r t e r s a " l a b e l " and to generate a sense that S o c i a l 6 "Says C u r t i s : ' T o r i e s F i n i s h e d ' , The Vancouver Sun, J u l y 23, 1 974. 7 "16 P o i n t Grey C o n s e r v a t i v e s Defect to Bennett's Socreds," The  Vancouver Sun, August 20, 1974. 8 "Six L i b e r a l s from I s l a n d go to Socreds," The Province (Vancouver), August 30, 1974. 9 Young, l o c . c i t . , pp. 28-29. 45 C r e d i t was a p a r t y on the move. 8 9 The s t r a t e g y p a i d o f f . On September 24, 1974, Grace McCarthy p r o u d l y announced that Socred part y membership had r i s e n to more than 50,000 people, up from 4,000 at the time of the 1972 e l e c t i o n , making S o c i a l C r e d i t the l a r g e s t p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y . 9 0 On October 25th, Hugh C u r t i s announced t h a t he had become a S o c i a l C r e d i t e r , l e a v i n g S c o t t Wallace as the s o l e C onservative M.L.A. Wallace, however, remained adamant that he would not "bend i n the face of another blow to the [ C o n s e r v a t i v e ] p a r t y g e n e r a l l y . " 9 1 Throughout the remainder of 1974 and 1975, S o c i a l C r e d i t continued to a t t r a c t money, t a l e n t and support from the other " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " p a r t i e s , 9 2 and by so doing, showed i t s e l f to be the only p a r t y with a r e a l i s t i c chance of d e f e a t i n g the NDP. On J u l y 28, 1975, Mrs. McCarthy s t a t e d t h a t n e a r l y 5,000 people had j o i n e d the Socreds i n the p r e v i o u s two months. 9 3 The membership recruitment c o n t i n u e d , with B i l l Bennett announcing on September 3, 1975, two days a f t e r the c o n v e r s i o n of former f e d e r a l L i b e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r Jack Davis to S o c i a l C r e d i t , that 469 membership a p p l i c a t i o n s had been p r o c e s s e d the p revious day a l o n e . 9 4 By the time of the December 1975 e l e c t i o n , S o c i a l 0 "'Socreds Now T o t a l 50,000'," The Vancouver Sun, September 24, 1 974. 1 "Wallace Stays Firm A f t e r C u r t i s Switch," The Vancouver Sun, October 26, 1974. 2 See: "22 Richmond T o r i e s Jump to S o c i a l C r e d i t , " The Vancouver  Sun, September 27, 1974; and "Former L i b e r a l E x e c u t i v e i n P.G. Turns Socred," The Province (Vancouver), November 2, 1974. 3 "Former Top B.C. L i b e r a l Seeing the Socred L i g h t , " The  Province (Vancouver), J u l y 29, 1975. 46 C r e d i t had an estimated 75,000 signed-up members. 9 5 3. The Non-Socred "Unity" M.L.A.s By the time of the December 1975 e l e c t i o n , In the context of the quickly-moving events of 1974-75, L i b e r a l M.L.A.s A l l a n W i l l i a m s , Pat McGeer and Garde Gardom found themselves i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y untenable p o s i t i o n . The success of S o c i a l C r e d i t i n a t t r a c t i n g members, t a l e n t and money away from the other f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e p a r t i e s was, by mid-1975, obvious. Although the l o g i c a l step f o r them would have been to j o i n S o c i a l C r e d i t when t h i s t r e n d became e v i d e n t , they were c l e a r l y h e s i t a n t to to so. U n l i k e Hugh C u r t i s , who was f i r s t e l e c t e d i n 1972, each of these L i b e r a l M.L.A.s had b u i l t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r s and r e p u t a t i o n s i n o p p o s i t i o n to S o c i a l C r e d i t d u r i n g the W.A.C. Bennett p e r i o d , with Pat McGeer having served a s t i n t as L i b e r a l l e a d e r . Becoming S o c i a l C r e d i t e r s and s e r v i n g under the d i r e c t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l neophyte named B i l l Bennett c o u l d h a r d l y have been t h e i r p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n . On May 6, 1975, A l l a n W i l l i a m s announced that he would leave the L i b e r a l Party unless i t decided to r e a l i g n i t s e l f with the other f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e p a r t i e s ; he i n d i c a t e d that i f such an occurrence d i d not take p l a c e he would c o n s i d e r e i t h e r j o i n i n g 9 a A l l a n G a r r , Tough Guy: B i l l Bennett and the Taking of B r i t i s h  Columbia (Toronto, 1985), p. 26~. 9 5 "Davis as Welcome 'As Any Other New Socred'," The P r o v i n c e (Vancouver), September 3, 1975. 9 6 " W i l l i a m s Says H e ' l l Quit i f L i b e r a l s Shun U n i t y A c t i o n , " The  Vancouver Sun, May 6, 1975. 47 S o c i a l C r e d i t or l e a v i n g p o l i t i c s . 9 6 When asked, on the f o l l o w i n g day to comment, B i l l Bennett remained f i r m : he would make no s p e c i a l d e a l s to e n t i c e W i l l i a m s or any other p o t e n t i a l d e f e c t o r to S o c i a l C r e d i t . Bennett s t a t e d : I don't make s p e c i a l d e a l s . There are no s p e c i a l inducements. Over 30,000 people made the d e c i s i o n to j o i n our p a r t y l a s t year and I expect the same t h i s year, and that w e l l c o u l d i n c l u d e some very prominent names. ...That i n c l u d e s prominent p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s who have come, i t i n c l u d e s e x i s t i n g M.L.A.s p l u s those who may come i n f u t u r e . 9 7 Furthermore, Bennett r e i t e r a t e d h i s r e j e c t i o n of any d e a l s r e g a r d i n g guaranteed nominations or e l e c t o r a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t : My p o s i t i o n from Day One i s that p o l i t i c s , the p a r t y system, was designed to be a p o s i t i v e system, not n e g a t i v e . A p o l i t i c a l p a r t y f u n c t i o n s only when i t has broad membership. The c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n t r o l and d i r e c t the a c t i v i t i e s of the p a r t y , and among these a c t i v i t i e s are the s e l e c t i o n and e l e c t i o n of c a n d i d a t e s . ...I would be t o t a l l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e to compromise on my commitment to [the membership] and t h e i r r i g h t to s e l e c t and e l e c t c a n d i d a t e s , or to even c o n s i d e r any d e a l which compromises the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of our p a r t y . 9 8 On May 9, 1975, two days a f t e r Bennett's statement, A l l a n W i l l i a m s and Pat McGeer r e s i g n e d from the L i b e r a l caucus to s i t i n the House as independents. They were j o i n e d , on May 20th, by Garde Gardom who expressed h i s hope that the three o p p o s i t i o n "No Deals fo r P o l i t i c a l Backing, Says Bennett," l o c . c i t . I b i d . 48 p a r t i e s c o u l d s t i l l reach "some kind of understanding or accommodation" i n order that the " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " vote would not be f r a c t u r e d . " His hope was to be i n v a i n . The r e s i g n a t i o n s of W i l l i a m s , McGeer and Gardom from the L i b e r a l caucus took p l a c e amidst the c o n t r o v e r s y over the Emergency Programmes Act which had been int r o d u c e d on May 8th. A l s o , t h i s was a p e r i o d i n which B i l l Bennett's "not a dime without debate" campaign got underway. Both c o n t r o v e r s i e s a s s i s t e d B i l l Bennett in h i s attempt to become, as a matter of p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n , the prime a n t a g o n i s t of the NDP. The Emergency Programmes Act was withdrawn on June 13th, but not b e f o r e i t r e i n f o r c e d i n the minds of many that t h i s government had to go. On June 27th, another hi g h p r o f i l e L i b e r a l p u b l i c l y abandoned h i s p a r t y . B.C. L i b e r a l Party E x e c u t i v e V i c e -P r e s i d e n t Don Wray s t a t e d that he agreed with the p o s i t i o n taken by W i l l i a m s , McGeer and Gardom, and "that i t i s now time to put the needs of the province before those of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . " 1 0 0 On J u l y 28th, Wray j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t . His d e f e c t i o n was f o l l o w e d , on September 1st, by that of Jack Davis. F i n a l l y on September 30th, the suspense r e g a r d i n g W i l l i a m s , McGeer and Gardom ended when they j o i n t l y announced that h e n c e f o r t h they would be s i t t i n g i n the L e g i s l a t u r e as Socreds and would seek S o c i a l C r e d i t nominations in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s f o r the forthcoming e l e c t i o n - an e l e c t i o n t h a t , as i t turned out, 9 9 "Garde Gardom Qu i t s L i b e r a l s 'For U n i t y ' , " The Vancouver Sun, May 21, 1975. 1 0 0 " v i c e - P r e s i d e n t Don Wray Q u i t s L i b e r a l s , " The P r o v i n c e (Vancouver), June 28, 1975. 49 was c a l l e d j u s t over one month l a t e r . In r e t r o s p e c t , the d e c i s i o n s of C u r t i s , W i l l i a m s , McGeer and Gardom to become Socreds. d u r i n g the 1974-75 p e r i o d are b e t t e r understood when viewed i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n t e x t s . There are v a l i d reasons to b e l i e v e that the circumstances i n which those M.L.A.s j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t were other than the r e s u l t s of " d e a l s . " B i l l Bennett, i t must be remembered, had c o n s i s t e n t l y r e j e c t e d any "deal-making" fo r the purpose of a t t r a c t i n g s u p p o r t e r s or incumbent M.L.A.s to S o c i a l C r e d i t : i n p o i n t of f a c t B i l l Bennett h e l d a l l the c a r d s . A r i d i n g - b y - r i d i n g a n a l y s i s of the 1972 e l e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s that although the resurgent C o n s e r v a t i v e s t r e n g t h d i d not, on i t s own, d e f e a t S o c i a l C r e d i t i n that e l e c t i o n , i t a p p a r e n t l y d i d a f f e c t the outcome i n a number of c o n t e s t s . Had S o c i a l C r e d i t garnered a l l C o n s e r v a t i v e votes c a s t i n the 1972 e l e c t i o n , the Socreds would have ca p t u r e d nine seats that went to the NDP: Esquimalt, both s e a t s i n V a n c o u v e r - L i t t l e Mountain, Kamloops, Dewdney, North Vancouver-Seymour, D e l t a , Omineca, and F o r t G e o r g e . 1 0 1 In a d d i t i o n , such a s c e n a r i o would have n e t t e d the Socreds three of the f i v e s e a t s that went to the L i b e r a l s and of course, the two s e a t s won by the C o n s e r v a t i v e s . 1 0 2 The v i c t o r y of Hugh C u r t i s i n Saanich and the I s l a n d s o c c u r r e d i n a c o n s t i t u e n c y t h a t had t r a d i t i o n a l l y been h e l d by S o c i a l C r e d i t . From the vantage p o i n t of 1974 when the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e Party was f a l l i n g a part, C u r t i s must 1 0 1 The Sun (Vancouver), August 31, 1972. 1 0 2 I b i d . 50 have been aware that h i s own seat was p r e c a r i o u s l y h e l d . H i s margin of v i c t o r y i n 1972 was such that a s h i f t of only s i x percent back to a resurgent S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y would have d e p r i v e d him of the seat. (See Appendix B) By mid-1974, i t would have undoubtedly o c c u r r e d to C u r t i s that i f he d e f e c t e d to the Socreds while s i t t i n g i n the L e g i s l a t u r e , he would be i n a very strong p o s i t i o n to o b t a i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t nomination at the time of the next e l e c t i o n - and be r e - e l e c t e d . A l l a n W i l l i a m s found h i m s e l f i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . Although he f i r s t won the c o n s t i t u e n c y of West Vancouver-Howe Sound i n 1966 with 52.8 percent of the popular vote, h i s support d e c l i n e d to 46.4 percent i n 1969 and 33.9 percent i n 1972. In 1972, W i l l i a m s narrowly d e f e a t e d P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e Peter Hyndman who o b t a i n e d 31.6 percent support, with the S o c i a l C r e d i t candidate f o l l o w i n g behind with 22.8 p e r c e n t . (See Appendix C) In J u l y 1974, Hyndman announced h i s c o n v e r s i o n to S o c i a l C r e d i t as w e l l as h i s i n t e n t i o n to seek the West Vancouver-Howe Sound S o c i a l C r e d i t nomination. When, i n September 1975, Wi l l i a m s announced h i s d e c i s i o n to s i t as a S o c i a l C r e d i t M.L.A., h i s p o l i t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n undoubtedly i n c l u d e d a r e c o g n i t i o n of the consequences of doing o t h e r w i s e . In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , he would have been f o r c e d to run a g a i n s t Socred candidate Peter Hyndman at a time when the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y was i n a s t a t e of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . By e f f e c t i v e l y d e c l a r i n g himself to be the incumbent Socred M.L.A. f o r West Vancouver-Howe Sound i n September 1975, W i l l i a m s put h i m s e l f i n a st r o n g p o s i t i o n to capture the S o c i a l C r e d i t nomination and 51 win r e - e l e c t i o n . By doing so, he out-maneouvred Hyndman. In the two-member c o n s t i t u e n c y of Vancouver-Point Grey, p o l i t i c a l support f o r L i b e r a l s Gardom and McGeer had a l s o been s l i p p i n g s i n c e 1966. (See Appendix D) A survey of the e l e c t i o n s i n the c o n s t i t u e n c y from 1966 to 1972 r e v e a l s some very u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . The decrease i n the t o t a l percentages of votes obtained by the L i b e r a l s i n 1972, i n r e l a t i o n to the pr e v i o u s e l e c t i o n , was roughly e q u i v a l e n t to the increase r e c e i v e d by the NDP. At the same time, the S o c i a l C r e d i t decrease of 15.3 percent between 1969 and 1972 was matched by a phenomenal Con s e r v a t i v e i n c r e a s e of 14.6. Although i t would be f o l l y , i n s t r i c t a n a l y t i c a l terms, t o suggest that the i n c r e a s e i n NDP support i n 1972 took p l a c e at the expense of Gardom and McGeer, or that the i n c r e a s e i n C o n s e r v a t i v e support was wholly at the expense of S o c i a l C r e d i t , the percentages were meaningful to the extent that they had the p o t e n t i a l of i n f l u e n c i n g the behaviour of p o l i t i c i a n s . By mid-1975, Gardom and McGeer were undoubtedly aware of t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e c a r i o u s h o l d on t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e s e a t s . The l e v e l of p u b l i c support f o r them, as L i b e r a l s at l e a s t , had been c o n s i s t e n t l y d e c l i n i n g . S o c i a l C r e d i t , meanwhile, had s u c c e s s f u l l y completed a major membership d r i v e , was h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g money and t a l e n t from other p a r t i e s , and was c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d as the o n l y r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e to the NDP. Furthermore, these M.L.A.s c o u l d see the decomposing s t a t e of the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y and a p p r e c i a t e i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n Vancouver-Point Grey, p a r t i c u l a r l y given the d e f e c t i o n to S o c i a l 52 C r e d i t of 16 C o n s e r v a t i v e e x e c u t i v e members the p r e v i o u s August. In such circumstances, i f L i b e r a l support had c o n t i n u e d to erode, Gardom and McGeer c o u l d have had s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g r e - e l e c t e d - as L i b e r a l s . By j o i n i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t i n September 1975, Gardom and McGeer, l i k e W i l l i a m s , put themselves i n the advantageous p o s i t i o n of being incumbent S o c i a l C r e d i t M.L.A.s at the time the 1975 e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d . From the o u t s e t , B i l l Bennett had s t a t e d that t h e r e would be no inducements or s p e c i a l d e a l s p r o f f e r e d f o r the purpose of e n t i c i n g M.L.A.s from other p a r t i e s to j o i n S o c i a l C r e d i t . There i s no evidence to i n d i c a t e that he ever a c t e d i n c o n t r a r y f a s h i o n . Indeed, Peter Hyndman, i n an i n t e r v i e w on November 18, 1985, s t a t e d h i s b e l i e f that no d e a l s or inducements were ever made. He i n d i c a t e d t h a t a f t e r the 1975 e l e c t i o n , he was an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n d i s c u s s i o n s with Bennett about the makeup of the new S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t . Hyndman i n s i s t e d t h a t Bennett had a completely f r e e hand i n the composition of the c a b i n e t and was bound by no d e a l s . Although the a d d i t i o n to Socred ranks of h i g h - p r o f i l e M.L.A.s from the other p a r t i e s undoubtedly a s s i s t e d S o c i a l C r e d i t i n i t s attempt to c r e a t e a p e r c e p t i o n of momentum, there i s no c e r t a i n t y that the Socreds would not have been s u c c e s s f u l i n 1975 without them. In viewing the world from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the L i b e r a l d e f e c t o r s , G.L. K r i s t i a n s o n , former E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t to L i b e r a l leader David Anderson, s t a t e d : A l l were in the midst of s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r s and not eager to spend more time i n V i c t o r i a except as c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . McGeer was fond of s a y i n g t h a t he would 53 not go back a f t e r another e l e c t i o n to s i t i n o p p o s i t i o n . 1 0 3 In McGeer's case, t h e r e was s p e c u l a t i o n that he had a s p i r a t i o n s of e v e n t u a l l y becoming Socred l e a d e r . 1 0 " In any event, the d e f e c t i n g M.L.A.s must have r e a l i z e d that even without promises or inducements from Bennett, t h e i r backgrounds made them prime c a n d i d a t e s f o r m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n s . I f they wished to be more than - at best - o p p o s i t i o n M.L.A.s, they must have been aware that there was o n l y one c h o i c e f o r them. C l e a r l y , t h e i r expressed concerns about the d e s i r a b i l i t y of d e f e a t i n g the NDP p o i n t e d them i n the same d i r e c t i o n as t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t s . Bennett d i d not need to make any d e a l s to get them to j o i n him. In f a c t , i t was very much i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s to do so -t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s u r v i v a l , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , depended on t h e i r doing so. In the end r e s u l t , t here i s no evidence of any agreement between B i l l Bennett and any of the d e f e c t i n g M.L.A.s. Rather i t seems t h a t d e c i s i o n s were made by the M.L.A.s in t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t without guarantees of any k i n d . Hence, d e s c r i b i n g the p o l i t i c a l phenomenon which occurred as being the r e s u l t of a " c o a l i t i o n " i s , at b e s t , m i s l e a d i n g . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n tends to imply the e x i s t e n c e of a bargain and c r e a t e s the impression 1 0 3 K r i s t i a n s o n , l o c . c i t . , p. 21. 1 0 4 Two days before the 1975 e l e c t i o n , L i b e r a l l e a d er Gordon Gibson c l a i m e d that W.A.C. Bennett had once s t a t e d , i n f r o n t of a group of M.L.A.s, that McGeer had been h i s f i r s t c h o i c e as h i s successor to the Socred l e a d e r s h i p . Gibson i n f e r r e d that McGeer was s t i l l " i n t e r e s t e d . " See: "'Pat McGeer was W.A.C.'s Choice'," The Vancouver Sun, December 10, 1975. 54 that the success of S o c i a l C r e d i t i n 1975 i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the a c t i o n s of these e l i t e s - a suggestion which while f l a t t e r i n g to the M.L.A.s i n v o l v e d , i s a p p a r e n t l y one without e v i d e n t i a r y foundation as w e l l as one that would not seem to be s u s c e p t i b l e to v e r i f i c a t i o n . By the time the 1975 e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d , the C o n s e r v a t i v e Party had d i s i n t e g r a t e d , the L i b e r a l Party was i n the process of d i s i n t e g r a t i n g , and the people of B r i t i s h Columbia were f u l l y aware of which o r g a n i z e d group had the most p o t e n t i a l of d e f e a t i n g the NDP. While i t i s tr u e that the d e f e c t i o n s of the three L i b e r a l M.L.A.s aid e d and a b e t t e d the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the B.C. L i b e r a l P a r t y , i t i s a l s o c l e a r that t h e i r d e c i s i o n s were not made i n a vacuum. They undoubtedly r e a l i z e d that the party to which they were t r a n s f e r r i n g was the one which, by v i r t u e of B i l l Bennett's r e b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s , o f f e r e d the most hope for e l e c t o r a l success and p o l i t i c a l advancement. B. THE 1975 SOCIAL CREDIT NOMINATION PROCESS: EVIDENCE OF  GENUINE PARTY REJUVENATION An examination of the 1975 Socred nomination process lends f u r t h e r credence to the view that the 1975 e l e c t o r a l r e s u l t occurred due to a genuine r e j u v e n a t i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t . That r e j u v e n a t i o n was evident i n the circumstances surrounding the s e l e c t i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e s to run i n the 1975 e l e c t i o n . By November 3, 1975, when Premier B a r r e t t c a l l e d the e l e c t i o n , only one S o c i a l C r e d i t c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n , that 55 of Kamloops, had nominated i t s candidate f o r the next e l e c t i o n . Rafe Mair, a former Kamloops alderman, had been s e l e c t e d i n March 1975 over three other c o n t e s t a n t s i n c l u d i n g the P r e s i d e n t of the l o c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n . The other f o r t y - s e v e n p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s h e l d t h e i r formal nomination meetings between November 6th and November 18th i n c l u s i v e . Those g a t h e r i n g s were, for the most p a r t , l a r g e , e n t h u s i a s t i c and h i g h l y - c o m p e t i t i v e events. In many cases, the l o c a l community newspapers d e s c r i b e d them as the b i g g e s t nomination meetings ever h e l d i n t h e i r a r e a s . Some of the meetings were e s t i m a t e d to be as l a r g e as 2,000 people, with the meeting i n Y a l e - L i l l o o e t choosing from amongst e i g h t c o n t e s t a n t s . Robert Lapper, i n h i s paper e n t i t l e d "Contested N o m i n a t i o n s , " 1 0 5 compared the degree of c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s f o r NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t nominations over three e l e c t i o n s - 1972, 1975 and 1979. While he found, on the b a s i s of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h a t the percentages of r e p o r t e d contested NDP nominations f o r those years were f a i r l y c o nstant at 35%, 35% and 31% r e s p e c t i v e l y , he d i s c o v e r e d that such a p a t t e r n d i d not occur i n the case of S o c i a l C r e d i t . Although Lapper reported that the percentages of S o c i a l C r e d i t nominations contested were 21%, 67%, and 32% r e s p e c t i v e l y , i t now appears that only 15 of 55 Socred nominations were not c o n t e s t e d i n 1975. On the b a s i s of my own 5 Robert Lapper, "Contested Nominations," a paper dated January 2, 1982 and forming p a r t of The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o j e c t ( U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a ) . 56 res e a r c h using community newspapers, I have a s c e r t a i n e d that 73% of the 1975 S o c i a l C r e d i t nominations were c o n t e s t e d . Lapper a t t r i b u t e d the s i z a b l e i n c r e a s e i n 1975 S o c i a l C r e d i t nominations to "a h i g h - l e v e l of i n t e r e s t i n a r e v i v e d ' f r e e -e n t e r p r i s e ' c o a l i t i o n . " Those i n d i v i d u a l s who were u l t i m a t e l y chosen as Socred candidates f o r the 1975 e l e c t i o n came from many o c c u p a t i o n a l backgrounds (with a decided emphasis on s m a l l b u s i n e s s ) and had a v a r i e t y of p r e v i o u s p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s and involvements. The l i s t of Socred c a n d i d a t e s i n c l u d e d the four incumbent M.L.A.s who d e f e c t e d i n the 1974-75 p e r i o d , one NDP M.L.A. Frank Calder - who d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f to be a Socred a f t e r the e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d , and a number of d e s e r t e r s from the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s who had p r e v i o u s l y been e i t h e r candidates , f o r , or supporters o f , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s . (See Appendix E) To the extent that i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l process can be measured by involvement i n the nomination of c a n d i d a t e s , the 1975 e l e c t i o n generated a great d e a l of i n t e r e s t i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t nomination meetings were o f t e n c a l l e d on short n o t i c e , they e x h i b i t e d a high degree of co m p e t i t i v e n e s s . Of the 55 nominations a v a i l a b l e , 13 were sought by incumbent M.L.A.s. While o n l y 2 of the incumbent 13 M.L.A.s who sought renomination as S o c i a l C r e d i t candidates had to " f i g h t " f o r t h e i r nominations, 38 of the remaining 42 c a n d i d a t e - p o s i t i o n s were c o n t e s t e d . A very u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r d e s i g n a t i n g the 57 r e l a t i v e p a r t i s a n s a f e t y , or "swing p o t e n t i a l , " of a given c o n s t i t u e n c y has been devised by T. P a t r i c k Boyle. He has d e f i n e d a "Swing" c o n s t i t u e n c y as one i n which a p o t e n t i a l "swing" i n c o m p e t i t i v e p a r t y support of l e s s than 6% from the p a r t y h o l d i n g the l e g i s l a t i v e seat to i t s nearest competitor would r e s u l t i n the former p a r t y ' s candidate being d e f e a t e d . 1 0 6 In other words, a "Swing" c o n s t i t u e n c y i s one i n which the a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e of votes between the two p a r t i e s i s l e s s than 12%. The system which Boyle has designed f u r t h e r i n c l u d e s the c a t e g o r i e s " F a i r l y Safe," " G e n e r a l l y Safe," and "Safe." The "swing" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r each of the c a t e g o r i e s i s as f o l l o w s : Swing (0% to 5.99%); F a i r l y Safe (6% to 9.99%); G e n e r a l l y Safe (10% to 19.99%); and Safe (20% and u p ) . 1 0 7 Appendix F i n d i c a t e s the number and percentage of S o c i a l C r e d i t nominations c o n t e s t e d i n 1975 a c c o r d i n g to the Boyle c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, using the 1972 Statement of Votes to determine the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of each c o n s t i t u e n c y . 1 0 8 As can be seen from t h i s data, no c o n s t i t u e n c i e s c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as "Safe" on the b a s i s of the 1972 r e s u l t s . Although i n the "Swing Other" and " F a i r l y Safe Other" c a t e g o r i e s there was a r e l a t i v e l y low degree of c o m p e t i t i o n f o r nominations, i t should be noted that these c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d the home c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of 1 0 6 T > P a t r i c k Boyle, E l e c t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver, 1982), p. 24. 1 0 7 I b i d . , p. 30. 1 0 8 The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s with respect to the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of South Okanagan and North Vancouver-Capilano were determined by r e f e r e n c e to the o f f i c i a l votes statements f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b y - e l e c t i o n s , found i n Statement of Votes: General E l e c t i o n  December 11, 1975 and B y - E l e c t i o n s . 58 C u r t i s , W i l l i a m s , Gardom and McGeer who, by the time the nomination meetings took p l a c e , were t e c h n i c a l l y incumbent S o c i a l C r e d i t M.L.A.s. T.H. Q u a l t e r has suggested that where a p a r t y i s u n l i k e l y to win a l e g i s l a t i v e s e a t , there i s not l i k e l y to be more than a token c a n d i d a t e put up f o r n o m i n a t i o n . 1 0 9 With regard to S o c i a l C r e d i t i n 1975, t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s not borne out by a review of the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . As can be seen from a p e r u s a l of Appendix F, the degree of c o m p e t i t i o n i n every category of c o n s t i t u e n c y , except that of " F a i r l y Safe Other" exceeded the o v e r a l l percent of c o n t e s t e d nominations f o r the e l e c t i o n s of 1972 and 1979 - as determined by Lapper. ( I t should be noted that the category " F a i r l y Safe Other" c o n t a i n e d s o l e l y Vancouver-Point Grey, the du a l c o n s t i t u e n c y represented by Gardom and McGeer.) The evidence can be taken as i n d i c a t i n g that i n 1975, i n t e r e s t i n S o c i a l C r e d i t was so inte n s e that people competed f o r nominations i n c o n s t i t u e n c i e s where S o c i a l C r e d i t d i d not reasonably expect to win. The impact of l e g i s l a t i v e incumbency i n d i s c o u r a g i n g nomination c o m p e t i t i o n i s one of the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s of the 1975 Socred nomination p r o c e s s . Although 2 of the 8 Socred incumbents seeking re-nomination were c h a l l e n g e d , both of them in due course were re-nominated. As w e l l , a l l four of the prominent " d e f e c t i n g " M.L.A.s p l u s Frank Calder and Jack Davis were spared the n e c e s s i t y of having to f i g h t f o r t h e i r 9 Terence H. Q u a l t e r , The E l e c t i o n Process i n Canada (Toronto, 1970), pp. 61 and 65. 59 nominations. As f o r Hugh C u r t i s i n Saanich and the I s l a n d s , i t might be argued that not only was he t e c h n i c a l l y the Socred incumbent, but that s i n c e he had j o i n e d the p a r t y i n mid-1974, he was now p e r c e i v e d as a Socred. T h i s p e r c e p t i o n may have been a s s i s t e d by the f a c t that by November 1975 C u r t i s was the S o c i a l C r e d i t caucus c h a i r m a n . 1 1 0 W i l l i a m s , McGeer and Gardom, on the other hand, were arg u a b l y i n a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n c e they had not j o i n e d the S o c i a l C r e d i t Party u n t i l September 1975. There had been s p e c u l a t i o n t h at Williams would be c h a l l e n g e d i n West Vancouver-Howe Sound by h i s o l d nemesis Peter Hyndman. However, j u s t p r i o r t o the c a l l i n g of the e l e c t i o n , Hyndman had secured the P r e s i d e n c y of the S o c i a l C r e d i t Party and, i n not c h a l l e n g i n g W i l l i a m s , perhaps was acknowledging the need f o r " u n i t y " as expressed by the two would-be ca n d i d a t e s i n Vancouver - P o i n t Grey who withdrew in favour of Gardom and McGeer. Emphasizing t h a t the d e c i s i o n to withdraw was s t r i c t l y t h e i r own, with no p r e s s u r e from B i l l Bennett or anyone e l s e , the p r o s p e c t i v e c a n d i d a t e s f o r Vancouver-Point Grey suggested that to do otherwise would be to "do a d i s s e r v i c e to your p a r t y , your p r o v i n c e and your c o u n t r y . " 1 1 1 F i n a l l y , the extent of B i l l Bennett's involvement i n the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n process i s worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Although undoubtedly he would have had p r e f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g 1 1 0 Frances R u s s e l l , "3 New Socred MLAs 'Feel Welcome' at R a l l y , " The Vancouver Sun, November 1, 1975. 1 n "Two Step Aside as Candidates," The Vancouver Sun, October 29, 1975. 60 the s e l e c t i o n of c a n d i d a t e s , t h e r e i s no evidence that e i t h e r he, or the c e n t r a l p a r t y g e n e r a l l y , attempted to i n f l u e n c e the l o c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s to accept c e r t a i n c a n didates over o t h e r s . C e r t a i n l y there i s no evidence that the c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s were p r e s s u r e d to keep the nomination processes "under c o n t r o l . " The sheer s i z e of some of them would have made such an endeavour next to i m p o s s i b l e . B i l l Bennett had s a i d on v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s that he would not "compromise" on h i s commitment to the p a r t y membership "and t h e i r r i g h t to s e l e c t and e l e c t c a n d i d a t e s , or even c o n s i d e r any d e a l which compromises the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of [the p a r t y ] . " 1 1 2 That Bennett kept h i s word i n the matter i s supported by Peter Hyndman's a s s e r t i o n that a l t h o u g h Bennett and others i n the Socred h i e r a r c h y "encouraged" good c a n d i d a t e s to get i n v o l v e d i n c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s and seek nominations, the l e a d e r s h i p d i d not tamper with the autonomy of the l o c a l nomination p r o c e s s . 1 1 3 Hyndman has emphasized t h a t i f d e s i r a b l e c a ndidates i n s i s t e d on a guarantee of success at the candidate s e l e c t i o n l e v e l , they were simply t o l d not to bother seeking the nomination. That the l e a d e r s h i p of S o c i a l C r e d i t d i d not s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r e i n the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n process would seem to be f u r t h e r b u t t r e s s e d by the r e s u l t s of some of the nominations and c o n t e s t s . Although there would seem to be no w r i t t e n accounts of the Socred l e a d e r s h i p s u c c e s s f u l l y attempting to i n f l u e n c e 1 1 2 "No Deals f o r P o l i t i c a l Backing, Says Bennett," op. c i t . 1 , 3 Hyndman Interview, November 18, 1985, op. c i t . 61 the l o c a l nomination processes i n 1975, there have been v a r i o u s r e p o r t s that might support s u p p o s i t i o n s of l e a d e r s h i p unhappiness with the f i n a l outcome of a c o n t e s t . In North Vancouver-Capilano, the l o s i n g c o n t e s t a n t , Reverend Desmond Kimmett, s t a t e d that Bennett had wanted him as the c a n d i d a t e "because the image I represent i s what the p a r t y i s a l l about these d a y s . " 1 1 4 In an i n t e r v i e w a f t e r h i s s u c c e s s f u l 1975 nomination b i d , former Vancouver Centre M.L.A. Herb Capozzi " r e f u s e d to comment on r e p o r t s that Bennett d i d not want him as a c a n d i d a t e . " 1 1 5 In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the evidence i n d i c a t e s that the 1975 S o c i a l C r e d i t nomination i n g e n e r a l e x h i b i t e d a h i g h degree of i n t e r e s t and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s . I t seems t h a t the p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p g e n e r a l l y r e f r a i n e d from i n t e r f e r i n g i n the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n process, l e a v i n g f i n a l a u t h o r i t y with the l o c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s . The sheer extent of a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and competition i n the 1975 nomination p r o c e s s would seem to i n d i c a t e that a hands-off approach had been taken. I t i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t that the c l e a r e x c e p t i o n to the c o m p e t i t i v e norm was the s e r i e s of acclamations given to the d e f e c t i n g M.L.A.s as w e l l as Frank Calder and Jack D a v i s . There a r e , however, reasonable e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these phenomena. A l l of the d e f e c t i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l M.L.A.s were t e c h n i c a l l y Socred incumbents by the time the 1975 e l e c t i o n was 1 1 4 "Andrews Favoured i n Nomination Stakes," The Vancouver Sun, November 8, 1975. 1 1 5 "Capozzi, Lau Win Socred Nominations," The Vancouver Sun, November 17, 1975. 62 c a l l e d . A l s o , one should not l i g h t l y discount the s e r i o u s n e s s of the expressed sentiment that to c h a l l e n g e the h i g h - s t a t u s L i b e r a l s who had come over to S o c i a l C r e d i t would have been to "do a d i s s e r v i c e " to the p a r t y and the p r o v i n c e . In C a l d e r ' s case, h i s g e n e r a l l y s a f e NDP c o n s t i t u e n c y of A t l i n had r e t u r n e d him to the L e g i s l a t u r e c o n t i n u o u s l y (with the s o l e exception of 1956) i n every e l e c t i o n s i n c e 1 9 4 9 . 1 1 6 C a l d e r ' s d e f e c t i o n to S o c i a l C r e d i t a f t e r the c a l l i n g of the 1975 e l e c t i o n and h i s subsequent candidacy gave the A t l i n S o c i a l C r e d i t A s s o c i a t i o n an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to win the s e a t . I would surmise that the h i g h - p r o f i l e L i b e r a l e l i t e s who j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t i n 1975 were warmly welcomed due to the s t a t u s which they brought to t h e i r new p a r t y . They were the kind of "new" Socreds that B i l l Bennett had d e l i b e r a t e l y set out to a t t r a c t when he became p a r t y leader i n 1973. A l l had experience i n the L e g i s l a t u r e or i n government and were p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e i r own r i g h t : Davis was a former f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r and an engineer by background; McGeer was the former p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r as w e l l as being a h i g h l y -regarded n e u r o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e r ; Gardom and W i l l i a m s were both lawyers. These i n d i v i d u a l s were perhaps seen as b r i n g i n g a degree of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y to S o c i a l C r e d i t that i t had p r e v i o u s l y l a c k e d - p a r t i c u l a r l y amongst those educated and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e c t o r s of the p o p u l a t i o n t h a t B i l l Bennett wished to t a r g e t as supporters of the "new" S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . 1 1 6 Kavic and Nixon, op. c i t . , p. 41. 63 V. THE 1975 ELECTION: A POST-MORTEM When the r e s u l t s of the 1975 e l e c t i o n came i n on the evening of December 11th, i t was apparent that the NDP had taken a severe drubbing. Not only was the NDP reduced to 18 s e a t s i n the L e g i s l a t u r e , but Dave B a r r e t t was p e r s o n a l l y d e f e a t e d i n h i s own c o n s t i t u e n c y of Coquitlam. The NDP l o s t a number of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y - s e c u r e Lower Mainland seats as w e l l as a l l nine formerly-Socred c o n s t i t u e n c i e s which i t had won i n 1972 as a p o s s i b l e consequence of i n c r e a s e d C o n s e r v a t i v e gains t h a t year. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the NDP was wiped out i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and l o s t seven of the nine s e a t s i t p r e v i o u s l y h e l d i n c o n s t i t u e n c i e s where mining was a s i g n i f i c a n t economic f a c t o r . 1 1 7 Although o v e r a l l , the aggregate of 1975 NDP support i n the p r o v i n c e remained w i t h i n .4 percent of that r e c e i v e d i n 1972, the n e a r l y - i d e n t i c a l popular vote t o t a l s masked a g r e a t d e a l of movement at the voter l e v e l . 1 1 8 Popular myths n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , had i t not been f o r compensating d e f e c t i o n s from other p a r t i e s , the NDP's 1975 d e f e a t , i n popular vote terms, would have been even more c o n v i n c i n g . 1 1 9 S o c i a l C r e d i t , on the other hand, won 35 s e a t s and r e c e i v e d 1 1 7 For a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o s s i b l e e l e c t o r a l e f f e c t of the m i n e r a l r o y a l t i e s c o n t r o v e r s y on the outcome of the 1975 e l e c t i o n , see Payne, op. c i t . , p. 28. Although he admits that the c o r r e l a t i o n i s i n c o n c l u s i v e due to a l a c k of a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s , he suggests that such a c o r r e l a t i o n i s p r o b a b l e . 1 1 8 Donald E. Blake et a l . , "Sources of Change in the B.C. P a r t y System," in B.C. S t u d i e s No. 50 (Summer 1981), p. 5. 1 1 9 I b i d . 64 a h i t h e r t o - u n p r e c e d e n t e d 49.2 percent of the popular vote. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s and L i b e r a l s were a l l but demolished, e l e c t i n g only t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s and r e t a i n i n g only 3.9% and 7.2% of the popular vote r e s p e c t i v e l y . (See Appendix A) Although the M a j o r i t y Movement d i d not succeed i n i t s o r i g i n a l task of s e c u r i n g an e l e c t o r a l arrangement i n which f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e c a n d i d a t e s would not run a g a i n s t each o t h e r , i t s broader o b j e c t i v e came to f r u i t i o n . That o b j e c t i v e was to see a v e h i c l e c r e a t e d that would u n i t e the major " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s and prevent a f r a c t u r i n g of the anti-NDP vote. The v e h i c l e which emerged was not one i n the t r a d i t i o n of the n o n - p a r t i s a n movement, as advocated by Arnold Hean when he s t a t e d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia c o u l d no longer a f f o r d to "enjoy the l u x u r y of p a r t y p o l i t i c s . " 1 2 0 Nor was i t one of p o l i t i c a l " c o a l i t i o n " i n which the p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s entered i n t o a temporary a l l i a n c e to c o n t r o l a p o l i t i c a l outcome. Rather, B i l l Bennett, along with Grace McCarthy, Dan Campbell and Peter Hyndman, worked to generate a sense of enthusiasm f o r a " p o s i t i v e " a l t e r n a t i v e to the NDP - and, as the i n t e r e s t shown in the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n process i n d i c a t e s , they succeeded. There has been s p e c u l a t i o n as to whether the NDP c o u l d have done more to t r y to prevent the realignment which took p l a c e . 1 2 1 K r i s t i a n s o n has suggested that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to understand, i n r e t r o s p e c t , why the NDP d i d not c a r r y through on i t s e a r l i e r 1 2 0 Excerpt from l e t t e r dated May 3, 1974 from A r n o l d Hean to David Anderson. Quote taken from K r i s t i a n s o n , l o c . c i t . , p. 19. 1 2 1 K r i s t i a n s o n , l o c . c i t . , pp. 28-29. 65 plans to i n t r o d u c e campaign f i n a n c i n g l e g i s l a t i o n with d i s c l o s u r e requirements, spending l i m i t s and p a r t i a l p u b l i c funding of campaign c o s t s before going to the p o l l s . 1 2 2 In my o p i n i o n , such l e g i s l a t i o n , had i t been passed p r i o r to the e l e c t i o n , would not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d i t s outcome. As Kavic and Nixon have suggested: Money i t s e l f [ i s ] not enough to d e c i d e every seat. The NDP outspent the Socreds by some $700 i n A t l i n and by $4,500 i n North Vancouver - Seymour, but were unable to e i t h e r wrest v i c t o r y from the d e f e c t o r Calder or to save a seat where [NDP incumbent, C o l i n ] Gableman had p r e v i o u s l y squeezed i n with l e s s than a t h i r d of the v o t e . Conversely, the Socreds had outspent t h e i r opponents in every other c o n s t i t u e n c y , but 20 seats s t i l l eluded t h e m . 1 2 3 S o c i a l C r e d i t won the 1975 e l e c t i o n because i t was a b l e to c a p i t a l i z e on the p o l a r i z e d p o l i t i c a l environment which the NDP, by i t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s mis-management, help e d c r e a t e . I t d i d so by s u c c e s s f u l l y p o s i t i o n i n g i t s e l f as the o n l y c r e d i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to a government that the m a j o r i t y of B r i t i s h Columbians wanted removed from o f f i c e . In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , the NDP had l o s t the e l e c t i o n even before i t was c a l l e d . Perhaps one of the keys to S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s e l e c t o r a l success s i n c e 1975 i s that i t has been s o l e l y a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , having f o r m a l l y severed i t s c o n n e c t i o n s with the n a t i o n a l p a r t y i n 1971. 1 2 1 1 By having no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s to any p a r t y 1 2 2 I b i d . 1 2 3 Kavic and Nixon, op. c i t . , p. 236. 1 2 4 Morley et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 91. 66 at the f e d e r a l l e v e l , a B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t government a v o i d s e i t h e r being seen as compromising the p r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r e s t s f o r the sake of p r o t e c t i n g a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , or being punished fo r the p e r c e i v e d " s i n s " of a f e d e r a l p a r t y . More important - p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t to the 1973-75 p e r i o d - the f a c t that S o c i a l C r e d i t was a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y meant that i t c o u l d a c t i v e l y encourage f e d e r a l L i b e r a l and Conservative p a r t i s a n s to become e n t h u s i a s t i c p r o v i n c i a l Socreds without the n e c e s s i t y of disowning t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f e d e r a l l o y a l t i e s . Hence, S o c i a l C r e d i t o b t a i n s the best of both worlds: on the one hand, i t has been ab l e to a t t r a c t support, money and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resources from f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s , while on the other hand i t has been a b l e to a v o i d the p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l l i a b i l i t i e s which can flow from t o o - c l o s e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l attachment to any f e d e r a l p a r t y . M a r t i n Robin, i n 1966, d e s c r i b e d W.A.C. Bennett and B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t in the f o l l o w i n g terms: To Bennett and h i s l e a d i n g c o l l e a g u e s , S o c i a l C r e d i t i s an instrument of power rather than a means of reform or way of l i f e . ...The fundamental p r i n c i p l e of S o c i a l C r e d i t l e g i s l a t i o n , and the b a s i c r a t i o n a l e of the movement, i s to preserve i n t a c t the m o d i f i e d f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system and, the necessary c o r o l l a r y to t h i s , to keep the New Democratic Party from g a i n i n g power. 1 2 5 When one looks a t the circumstances l e a d i n g up to the 1975 5 M a r t i n Robin, "The S o c i a l B a s i s of Party P o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Queens's Q u a r t e r l y , LXII (1965), p. 696. 67 e l e c t i o n , the case c o u l d be made t h a t , i n l a r g e measure, Robin's r a t i o n a l e f o r S o c i a l C r e d i t i n 1966 was openly acknowledged by i t s supporters i n 1975. Without n e c e s s a r i l y a c c e d i n g to Walter Young's view that the post-1975 S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y i s one "which today bears only s u p e r f i c i a l resemblance to the pa r t y of W.A.C. B e n n e t t , " 1 2 6 I would submit that the p a r t y , s i n c e B i l l Bennett became l e a d e r , has been one that sought to broaden i t s e l f to i n c l u d e s e c t o r s of the populace that i t had not p r e v i o u s l y a t t r a c t e d . A November 30, 1974 Socred convention d e c i s i o n to change the p a r t y ' s o f f i c i a l name from the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t League to the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t Party, although otherwise i n s i g n i f i c a n t , was symbolic of i t s d e s i r e to be seen as a broader p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The su s t a i n e d degree of i n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l support which S o c i a l C r e d i t has r e c e i v e d s i n c e 1975 i s i n d i c a t i v e of B i l l Bennett's success i n moulding h i s pa r t y i n t o such an o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 2 6 Young, l o c . c i t . , p. 1. 68 VI. CONCLUSION The post-1973 v e r s i o n of S o c i a l C r e d i t was born of o p p o s i t i o n to the B a r r e t t government while i t s p o l i t i c a l r e s u r r e c t i o n i n 1975 can be a t t r i b u t e d to two c o n d i t i o n s , n e i t h e r of which would have been s u f f i c i e n t on i t s own to b r i n g about t h a t r e s u r r e c t i o n . F i r s t , i n l a r g e measure, the 1975 e l e c t i o n r e s u l t was a t t r i b u t a b l e to the g e n e r a l a l i e n a t i o n which the NDP government brought upon i t s e l f as a consequence of the manner by which i t conducted i t s e l f d u r i n g i t s term of o f f i c e . Second, B i l l Bennett, by s k i l l f u l l y t a k i n g advantage of a number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s which became a v a i l a b l e , succeeded i n c a p i t a l i z i n g on that a l i e n a t i o n . Although the government was lauded f o r i t s many achievements, a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l those achievements were overshadowed by a sense that the government went too f a r too f a s t , and i n c e r t a i n respects seemed to be out of c o n t r o l . In the pace of i t s t i m e t a b l e and the s t y l e of i t s o p e r a t i o n , the NDP government f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e how much change and f u r o r the people of B.C. c o u l d handle i n a r e l a t i v e l y short p e r i o d of time. Such a f a i l u r e proved to be f a t a l with the consequence that the stage was set f o r the realignment which subsequently o c c u r r e d . From the p o i n t at which B i l l Bennett became Socred l e a d e r , he worked to encourage the b e l i e f that S o c i a l C r e d i t was the only c r e d i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to the NDP. He h e l d h i s ground a g a i n s t the u n i t y p a r t y movement and u l t i m a t e l y reaped the b e n e f i t s . Once S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s c r e d e n t i a l s had been e s t a b l i s h e d 69 by v i r t u e of impressive membership i n c r e a s e s as w e l l as numerous p u b l i c d e f e c t i o n s from the C o n s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l p a r t i e s , important n o n - s o c i a l i s t p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t , f o r the minimum purpose of enhancing t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the p o l i t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e c r e a t e d by the NDP government's manner of g o v e r n i n g gave the post-1973 S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y an i n t e n s i f i e d sense of purpose: i t e x i s t e d to u n i t e those who opposed the NDP. S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s success in 1975 r e p r e s e n t e d a r e a f f i r m a t i o n of a resonant theme i n B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e 1933: that " s o c i a l i s m " - whatever image the word may c o n j u r e - remained the dominant i s s u e f o r the p o l i t i c s of t h i s p r o v i n c e . In S o c i a l C r e d i t mythology at l e a s t , the people of t h i s p r o v i n c e , i n 1975, heeded the B r i t i s h Columbia Miner's 1933 warning that " [ i ] n f u t u r e ... i t would be f a t a l to have more than one p a r t y to r e p r e s e n t those who b e l i e v e i n i n d i v i d u a l freedom." In t h i s e r a , S o c i a l C r e d i t i s t h a t p a r t y . 70 APPENDIX A* POPULAR VOTE STATISTICS FOR MAJOR PARTIES 192 0 - 1983 Combined Vote Year C o n s e r v a t i v e L i b e r a l Socred Labour/ CCF/NDP of Two : P a r t i e s 1920 31.5 38.0 12.6 1924 29.6 32.3 12.8 1928 53.3 40.5 4.6 1933 26.7 * * 41.7 31.5 1937 28.6 37.3 1.2 28.6 1941 1945 30.9 .« n • . • 32.9 C o a l i t i o n 55. 8 1.5 33.4 37.6 93. 4 1949 61. 4 1.2 35.1 96.5 1952 16. 8 23.5 27.2 30.8 58.0 1953 5.6 23.6 37. 8 30.9 68.7 1956 3.1 21. 8 45.8 28.3 74.1 1960 6.7 20.9 38.8 32.7 71.4 1963 11. 3 20.0 40.8 27.8 68.6 1966 0.2 20.2 45.6 33.6 79.2 1969 0.1 19.3 46. 8 33.9 80. 7 1972 12.7 16.4 31.2 39.6 70. 8 1975 3.9 7.2 49.2 39.2 88. 4 1979 5.1 0.5 48.2 46.0 94.2 1983 1.2 2.7 49. 8 44.9 94. 7 * The i n f o r m a t i o n t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix A was d e r i v e d from Canada Votes: A Handbook o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n Data, Statement o f Votes - T h i r t y - T h i r d P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n , May 5, 1983, Statement o f V o t e s : General E l e c t i o n September 30, 1963 and E l e c t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia. (See B i b l i o g r a p h y ) ** The Non-Partisan movement was headed by a former l e a d e r o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , and r e p r e s e n t e d the C o n s e r v a t i v e Government's d e s i r e t o form a n o n - p a r t i s a n government. A c c o r d i n g to Canada  Votes, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n i n the r e p o r t i n g o f t h i s e l e c t i o n , w i t h sources d i s a g r e e i n g over whether c e r t a i n c a n d i d a t e s were l a b e l e d as Independents, o r whether they were t o be i n c l u d e d i n another manner. For the purposes o f t h i s t a b l e , they have a l l been counted as C o n s e r v a t i v e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y d i d not o f f i c i a l l y c o n t e s t the e l e c t i o n o f 1933. ***For 1945 and 1949, the C o a l i t i o n i s t r e a t e d as one p a r t y . 71 APPENDIX B - SAANICH AND THE ISLANDS - PERCENTAGE OF VALID  VOTES RECEIVED BY MAJOR PARTY CANDIDATES' IN B.C. PROVINCIAL  ELECTIONS OF: 1966,: 1969 AND 1972 1966 T i s d a l e ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 50.1 Haw (NDP) 26.4 Campbell ( L i b e r a l ) 23.6 1969 Brot h e r s ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 48.5 MacKenzie (NDP) 38.6 Remesz ( L i b e r a l ) 10.6 1972 Isherwood ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 25.1 Sherwood (NDP) 2 3.6 Anderson ( L i b e r a l ) 15.3 C u r t i s (Conservative) 35.9 The i n f o r m a t i o n t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix B was d e r i v e d from Statement o f Votes; General E l e c t i o n September 12, 1966, Statement o f Votes; General' E l e c t i o n August 27, 1969, and Statement of Votes: General E l e c t i o n August 30, 1972. (See B i b l i o g r a p h y ) 72 APPENDIX C - WEST VANCOUVER-HOWE SOUND - PERCENTAGE OF VALID  VOTES RECEIVED BY MAJOR PARTY CANDIDATES IN B.C. PROVINCIAL  ELECTIONS OF 1966/ 1969 AND 1972 1966 E c k a r d t ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 34.8 MacKenzie (NDP) 12.5 Wi l l i a m s ( L i b e r a l ) 52.8 1969 Corcoran ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 38.4 Mundy (NDP) 15.2 Wi l l i a m s ( L i b e r a l ) 46.4 1972 Corcoran ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 22.8 Copes (NDP) 11.8 Wi l l i a m s ( L i b e r a l ) 33.9 Hyndman (Conservative) 31.6 * The i n f o r m a t i o n t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix C was d e r i v e d from Statement o f Votes: General E l e c t i o n September 12, 1966, Statement o f Votes: General E l e c t i o n August 27, 196 9, and Statement o f Votes: General E l e c t i o n August 30, 1972. (See B i b l i o g r a p h y ) 73 APPENDIX D - VANCOUVER-POINT GREY - PERCENTAGE OF VALID  VOTES RECEIVED BY MAJOR PARTY CANDIDATES IN B.C. PROVINCIAL  ELECTIONS OF 1966/ 1969 AND 1972 1966 Bonner ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 20.0 )> r>c ? Ranta ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 16.2 )' Brown (NDP) 5.0 )> , n , L a v a l l e (NDP) 5.1 )' ± U ' L Gardom ( L i b e r a l ) 2 3.6 )> j-o q McGeer ( L i b e r a l ) 30.3 ) ; 1969 Rathie ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) Widman ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 20. 18. 3 7 !> Bush (NDP) Macey (NDP) 6. 6. 8 3 ! » Gardom ( L i b e r a l ) McGeer ( L i b e r a l ) 21. 24. 6 8 !> DeWolfe (Conservative) 1. 7 )) 1972 P u i l ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) Sweeney ( S o c i a l C r e d i t ) 12. 12. 6 1 1 ' Sabatino (NDP) Thomas (NDP) 8. 8. 0 1 i> Gardom ( L i b e r a l ) McGeer ( L i b e r a l ) 20. 22. 7 1 !> Kelsey (Conservative) L i n n e l l (Conservative) 7. 8. 7 6 i> * The i n f o r m a t i o n t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix D was d e r i v e d from Statement o f Votes: General E l e c t i o n September 12, 196 6, Statement o f Votes: General E l e c t i o n August 27, 1969,- and Statement o f Votes: General E l e c t i o n August 30, 1972. (See B i b l i o g r a p h y ) APPENDIX E - PROFILE OF CONSTITUENCIES AND NOMINATED 1975 SOCIAL CREDIT CANDIDATES R e g i o n and C o n s t i t u e n c y S o c i a l C r e d i t C a n d i d a t e i n 1975 E l e c t i o n O c c u p a t i o n and Known M u n i c i p a l I n v o l v e m e n t E l e c t e d o r De f e a t e d D o y l e CI a s s i f i c a t i o n 1972 E l e c t i o n Known Former P o l i t i c a l P r o f i l e o f S o c r e d C a n d i d a t e s Number o f O t h e r C o n t e s t a n t s T o r The N o m i n a t i o n G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a E s q u i m a l t Oak Ray S a a n i c h and t h e I s l a n d s V i c t o r i a (2) K a h l C a r s o n C u r t i s B a w l f R e n d l e T e a c h e r E l e c t e d A u t o m o b i l e D e a l e r D e f e a t e d S a l e s M a n a q e r / B r o a d c a s t e r E l e c t e d D u s l n e s s m a n / A l d e r m a n E l e c t e d I n s u r a n c e Agent D e f e a t e d Swing N.D.P. G e n e r a l l y S a f e P.C. ] Swing P.C. 2 Swing S.C.** P r e v i o u s L i b . S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r P.C. Incumbent P.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r S i x One None Two I s l a n d and N o r t h C o a s t A l b e r n i H a g g a r d Comox l l a n u s e Cowl chart - Mai a h a t E n n a l s Mackenz i e P a e t k a u Nanaimo R o b e r t s P r i n c e R u p e r t L a s t C o n t r a c t o r / A l d e r m a n P h y s i c i a n r h y n i c i a n A u t o m o b i l e D e a l e r Manager D e f e a t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. D e f e a t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. D e f e a t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. D e f e a t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. D e f e a t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. D e f e a t e d S w ing N.D.P. S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s S.C. C a n d i d a t e S.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s P.C. C a n d i d a t e P r e v i o u s L i b . S u p p o r t e r Two E i g h t Two Two One F o u r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r and West V a n c o u v e r N o r t h V a n c o u v e r -C a p i l a n o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r -Seymour West V a n c o u v e r -Howe Sound Andrews D a v i s W i l l i a m s Mayor E n g i n e e r E c o n o m i s t Lawyer D e f e a t e d F a i r l y S a f e L i b e r a l ^ P r e v i o u s L i b . S u p p o r t e r E l e c t e d E l e c t e d S winn N.D.P. Swing L i b e r a l P r e v i o u s L i b . M.P. L i b . Incumbent One None None V a n c o u v e r - Durnaby -New W e s t m i n s t e r Burnnby - Fdmonds Burnaby N o r t h Durnaby - W i l l i n g d o n New W e s t m i n s t e r V a n c o u v e r - B u r r a r d (2) V a n c o u v e r C e n t r e (2) V a n c o u v e r E a s t (2) V a n c o u v e r -L i t t l e M o u n t a i n (2) V a n c o u v e r -P o i n t G r e y (2) V a n c o u v e r S o u t h (2) V a n c o u v c r Suburb.i and F r a s e r ~ V a l l e y C h i 1 l i w a c k C o q u i t l a m D e l t a Lanq l e y Richmond S u r ro y Loewen O s w a l d V e i t c h S e i g o H i l l i e r P r i c e C a p o z z i Lau B a b i c Mandrusj.ak M c C a r t h y W o l f e Ga;:r;on McG'je r Rogers Strom-man S c h r o e d e r K e r s t e r D a v i d s o n M c C l e l l a n d N i e l s o n V a n d e r Zalm B u s i n e s s m a n Longshoreman B u s i n e s s C o n s u l t a n t G e n e r a l I n s u r a n c e Agent M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r B u s i n e s s C o n s u l t a n t D u s l n e s s m a n B u s i n e s s m a n C o n t r a c t o r S a l e s m a n F l o r i s t A u t o m o b i l e D e a l e r Lawyer N e u r o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h r : : A i r l i n e P i l o t B u s i n e s s m a n C l e r g y m a n A u t o m o b i l e D e a l e r B u s i n e s s m a n A i ' t o ^ o b i l o - Oc-ile*: P u b l i s h e r / B r o a d c a s t e r B r o a d c a s t e r N u r s e r y m a n / M a y o r F . l e c t e d D e f e a t e d E l e c t e d D e f e a t e d D e f e a t e d D e f e a t e d De f e a t e d De f e a t e d De Seated D e f e a t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d F l e e t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d E l e c t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. F a i r l y S a f e N.D.P.* F a i r l y S a f e N.D.P.* G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. Swing N.D.P.* F a i r l y S a f e L i b . * 5 Swing N.D.P.* F a i r l y S a f e S.C. G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. Swing N.D.P. 5v/ir\c? . D. P . S w i n n S.C. F a i r l y S a f e N.D.P. G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s S.C. Incumbent S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s S . C Incumbent Previous S.C. Incumbent L i b . Incumbent L i b . Incumbent P r e v i o u s P.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s P.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. I n c u n b e n t S.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s P.C. S u p p o r t e r S. - Tnour-ihr/nt-S.C. Incumbent P r e v i o u s P.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s L i b . C a n d i d a t e F o u r T h r e e None Two One F i v e None One None Two One F o u r F o u r None One One C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r Ca r i h o o Kamloops Ya3c - L i l l o o e t F r a s e r B u s i n e s s m a n E l e c t e d M a i r L a w y e r / F o r m e r A l d e r m a n E l e c t e d W a t e r l a n d M i n i n g E n g i n e e r • E l e c t e d S winn S.C. Swing N.D.P. G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. S.C. Incumbent S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r None Th r e e S e v e n Okanagan B o u n d r y -S i m i l k a m e e n N o r t h Okanagan S o u t h Okanagan R e v e l s t o k e - S l o c a n Shuswap H e w i t t M a n a g e r / A l d e r m a n J o r d a n Homemaker B e n n e t t B u s i n e s s m a n O l y n y k Manager S u p e r i n t e n d e n t B a w t r e e R a n c h e r E l e c t e d Swing S.C. E l e c t e d S w i n g S.C. E l e c t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e S.C. D e f e a t e d F a i r l y S a f e N.D.r. E l e c t e d S w i ng N.D.P. S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. Incumbent S.C. Incumbent S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r One None None One F o u r K o o t e n a y s C o l u m b i a R i v e r K o o t e n a y N e l s o n - C r e s t o n R o s s l a n d - T r a i l C h abot C P . R a i l S u p e r v i s o r lladdad B u s i n e s s m a n / F o r m e r Mayor Coleman E l e c t r i c i a n C a m p b e l l P u b l i s h e r E l e c t e d S w i ng S.C. E l e c t e d F a i r l y S a f e N.D.P. D e f e a t e d F a i r l y S a f e N.D.P. D e f e a t e d F a i r l y S a f e N.D.P. S.C. Incumbent P r e v i o u s L i b . C a n d i d a t e S.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s S . C Incumbent None F o u r None Two N o r t h A t l i n F o r t G e o r g e Omineca Skeena C a l d e r B u s i n e s s m a n L l o y d L o g g i n g C o n t r a c t o r / A l d e r m a n Kempf B u s i n e s s m a n / M a y o r S h e l f o r d Manager E l e c t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e N.D.P. E l e c t e d S w i n g N.D.P. E l e c t e d S w i n g N.D.P. E l e c t e d F a i r l y S a f e N.D.P. N.D.P. Incumbent S.C. S u p p o r t e r S.C. S u p p o r t e r P r e v i o u s S.C. Incumbent None Two F i v e . T h r e e N o r t h P eace R i v e r S o u t h Peace R i v e r S m i t h P h i l l i p s L i f e U n d e r w r i t e r A u t o m o b i l e D e a l e r E l e c t e d E l e c t e d G e n e r a l l y S a f e S . C Swing S.C. S . C Incumbent S . C Incumbent Two None * Both s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s were from t h e same p a r t y . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d on c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e combined p e r c e n t a g e s r e c e i v e d by c a n d i d a t e s o f t h e same p a r t y . ** As a g a i n s t L i b e r a l . W h i l e u s i n g t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e co m b i n e d p e r c e n t a g e s r e c e i v e d by c a n d i d a t e s r e n d e r s t h i s r e s u l t , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n f a c t one S o c r e d and one L i b e r a l were e l e c t e d . ( L i b e r a l A n d e r s o n b a r e l y won t h e s e a t o v e r S o c r e d . ) 1 As a g a i n s t S o c i a l C r e d i t . T h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y was r e p r e s e n t e d by P . C l e a d e r Dr. S c o t t W a l l a c e , a f o r m e r S o c r e d who became a P . C i n 1971 and was r e - e l e c t e d as s u c h i n 1972 and 1?75. 2 As a g a i n s t S o c i a l C r e d i t . C u r t i s was e l e c t e d as a P.C. i n t h e 1972 e l e c t i o n and became a S o c r e d i n 1974. 3 As a g a i n s t S o c i a l C r e d i t . L i b e r a l D a v i d B r o u s s o n was e l e c t e d i n 1972, r e s i g n e d i n 1973 and,was r e p l a c e d by L i b e r a l G o r d o n G i b s o n i n a b y - e l e c t i o n h e l d September 7, 1973. 4 As a g a i n s t S o c i a l C r e d i t . W i l l i a m s r a n as a L i b e r a l i n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1966, 1969 and 197?. and t h e n j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t i n September 1975 p r i o r t o t*» c a l l i n g o f t h e e l e c t i o n and the h o l d i n g o f t h e c a n d i d a t e n o m i n a t i o n m e e t i n g . 5 As a g a i n s t S o c i a l C r e d i t . Gardom and McGeer r a n as L i b e r a l s i n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1966, 1969 and 1972 and t h e n j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t i n Se p t e m b e r 1975 p r i o r t o t h e c a l l i n g o f t h e e l e c t i o n and t h e h o l d i n g o f t h e c a n d i d a t e n o m i n a t i o n m e e t i n g . APPENDIX F - NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF CONTESTED NOMINATIONS BY 1972 ELECTORAL CLASSIFICATION Boyle C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Number of C o n s t i t u e n c i e s oh the b a s i s o f the 19 72 r e s u l t s * Number and Percentage of C o n s t i t u e n c i e s which had a c t u a l Nomination Contests, Number of Nominations A v a i l a b l e Number and Percentage o f Socred Candidates S e l e c t e d i n Contested Nominations Safe Socred G e n e r a l l y Safe Socred F a i r l y Safe Socred Swing Socred Swing NDP F a i r l y Safe NDP G e n e r a l l y Safe NDP Safe NDP None 1 2 7 11 8 14 None 1 (100%) 1 (50%) 2 (29%) 10 (91%) 8 (100%) 11 (79%) 1 2 8 13 10 15 1 (100%) 1 (50%) 3 (38%) 12 (92%) 10 (100%) 11 (73%) Swing Other** F a i r l y Safe Other*** G e n e r a l l y Safe Other**** Safe Other TOTAL 3 1 1 None ~48~ 1 (33%) 0 ( 0%) 1 (100%) "34 (71%) 3 2 1 55 1 (33%) 0 ( 0%) 1 (100%) "40 (73%) * South Okanagan and North Vancouver-Capilano f i g u r e s are based on the b y - e l e c t i o n s ** North Vancouver-Capilano; West Vancouver-Howe Sound; and Saanich and the I s l a n d s * ** Vancouver-Point Grey * * * * n a V R a v 76 APPENDIX G ~ CALENDAR OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL EVENTS IN B.C. - 1972-75 1972 August 30 September 15 December 21 NDP e l e c t e d Government of B r i t i s h Columbia NDP assumes O f f i c e O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p r o h i b i t i n g s u b - d i v i s i o n of farmland r e c e i v e s Cabinet approval 1973 February 16 22 March 19 23 A p r i l 16 June 5 September 7 October 10 23 November 2 3 24 December 1 I.C.B.C. L e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d Land Commission A c t i n t r o d u c e d Amendments to Land Commission A c t i n t r o d u c e d Socred l e a d e r s h i p convention c a l l e d f o r November 22-24, 1973 Land Commission A c t passed W.A.C. Bennett r e s i g n s as M.L.A. f o r South Okanagan B i l l Bennett d e f e a t s D e r r i l Warren i n South Okanagan b y - e l e c t i o n B i l l Bennett announces h i s i n t e n t i o n to seek the Socred l e a d e r s h i p L i b e r a l M.L.A. D.M. Brousson r e s i g n s h i s North Vancouver-Capilano l e g i s l a t i v e s e a t Grace McCarthy becomes P r e s i d e n t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t League B i l l Bennett becomes Leader o f the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t League S c o t t Wallace becomes Leader o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e Party 1974 January 12 NDP Educat i o n Commissioner John Bremer i s p u b l i c l y " f i r e d " by Premier B a r r e t t on T.V. 77 1974 (continued) February ,' 5 19 March .1 7 12 13 14 19 29 May 30 June 19 20 20 20 21 26 July 12 12 22 Social Credit candidate i s narrowly defeated i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y L i b e r a l North Vancouver-Capilano Mines Minister Leo Nimsick introduces Mineral Royalties Act I.C.B.C. commences operation Highways Minister Graham Lea alleges private discussion with respect to Opposition merger Premier Barrett swears at Marjorie Nichols i n L e g i s l a t i v e corridor Marjorie Nichols, i n her Vancouver Sun column graphically describes her recent encounter with Premier Barrett Rent controls are introduced Nanaimo Conservative Graeme Roberts announces his defection to Social Credit Government Whip Emery Barnes votes against Barrett's motion to adjourn the Legislature William•..Vander-.Zalm becomes a Socred Scott Wallace p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e s B i l l Bennett as "the only obstacle to unity" Socred M.L.A.s p u b l i c l y support Bennett , Standing Order 45-A i s adopted by Legislature Mineral Royalties Act receives Third Reading and Royal Assent Majority Movement r a l l y takes place at which Williams and McGeer indicate i n t e r e s t i n a "unity party" Federal Conservative George Whittake announces p r o v i n c i a l switch to Social Credit Peter Hyndman announces his conversion to Social Credit Federal Conservative Doug Jebson does likewise Conservative M.L.A. Hugh Curtis p u b l i c l y announces that his party i s "finished" at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l 78 1974 (continued) August 19 29 September 18 24 26 October 25 November 1 30 Sixteen members of the Vancouver-Point Grey Progressive Conservative executive announce t h e i r defection to Social Credit Six Vancouver Island Liberals p u b l i c l y defect to Social Credit Premier Barrett admits to $102.8 m i l l i o n " c l e r i c a l error i n Human Resources budget Grace McCarthy announces that Socred party membership has r i s e n from 4,000 to 50,000 Twenty-two Richmond Conservatives, including a majority of the p r o v i n c i a l constituency association's executive, defect to Social Credit Hugh Curtis defects to Social Credit Former Prince George L i b e r a l Association President, Jack Heinrick, announces his switch to Social Credit Social Credit League changes i t s name to the B r i t i s h Columbia Social Credit Party 1975 March 22 May 8 9 13 20 June 13 27 July 2 8 28 At contested nomination, Kamloops Socreds choose Rafe Mair Emergency Programmes Act introduced Williams and McGeer resign from L i b e r a l caucus to s i t i n the Legislature as Independents B i l l Bennett commences his "Not a Dime Without Debate" campaign Gardom resigns from L i b e r a l caucus to s i t with Williams and McGeer as an Independent Emergency Programmes Act i s withdrawn P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l Vice-President Don Wray resigns from his position s t a t i n g that he no longer supports the Liberals p r o v i n c i a l l y Don Wray joins Social Credit Grace McCarthy announces that 5,000 people joined S o c i a l Credit i n the previous two months 79 1975 (continued) September .1 28 30 November 1.'. 3 6-19 December 11 Former f e d e r a l L i b e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r Jack Davis announces t h a t he has j o i n e d S o c i a l C r e d i t B i l l Bennett announces t h a t 469 S o c i a l C r e d i t membership a p p l i c a t i o n s had been processed on the p r e v i o u s day alone Gordon Gibson becomes L i b e r a l Leader W i l l i a m s , Gardom and McGeer j o i n / S o c i a l C r e d i t P e t e r Hyndman becomes P r e s i d e n t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y Premier B a r r e t t c a l l s an e l e c t i o n f o r December 11 A l l remaining S o c i a l C r e d i t nominations take p l a c e S o c i a l C r e d i t wins the e l e c t i o n , d e f e a t i n g the NDP 80 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l p e r , Donald. 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