UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Flaxman's Homer illustrations Stuart, John Radcliffe 1986

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FLAXMAN'S  HOMER  ILLUSTRATIONS  by JOHN RADCLIFFE STUART B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department  We a c c e p t  this  of Fine  STUDIES Arts)  t h e s i s as conforming  to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y 1986 (c) John R a d c l i f f e  S t u a r t , 1986  7 8  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  in partial  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  understood that for  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  Fine  Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  Date F e b r u a r y  14,  1986  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  agree t h a t permission department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  written  ABSTRACT S i n c e t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e i n 1793 J o h n F l a x m a n ' s to  illustrations  Homer's I l i a d a n d O d y s s e y h a v e b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  a n c i e n t a r t t h a t i n s p i r e d t h e i r commission. I n t h i s t h e s i s they are examined from a s t a n d p o i n t o t h e r than major l i t e r a t u r e . that the designs is  Besides  t h a t adopted i nthe  s u s t a i n i n g F l a x m a n ' s own a s s e r t i o n  w e r e t o be u s e d f o r s c u l p t u r e , t h e i r  r e l a t e d t o o u t l i n e designs submitted  t o h i s former emloyer o f  12 y e a r s , i n d u s t r i a l i s t J o s i a h Wedgwood. t h e i r most c o n s p i c u o u s  conception  More  characteristics--their  significantly, two-dimensional  space, absence o f c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , and d e t a i l and most n o t i c e a b l y t h e i r rendering i n simple o u t l i n e — a r e , f o r the f i r s t p l a c e d i n another 18th Century.  context of considerable  importance i nthe  L i n e drawing and i t s m u l t i p l e - p r o d u c t i o n  part, l i n e engraving, in  time,  counter-  w e r e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l modes o f c h o i c e  the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f e s s e n t i a l ideas i n a wide v a r i e t y o f  d i s c i p l i n e s i n c l u d i n g h i s own d e s i g n s of the connection regarded  f o r Wedgwood.  with ancient a r t , simple  l i n e w o u l d have been  as t h e most s u i t a b l e form o f i l l u s t r a t i o n  poems w h i c h were b e i n g  s t u d i e d a t t h e time  e s s e n t i a l human s o c i e t y . as one a s p e c t  Exclusive  f o r the epic  as models o f t h e  T h i s t h e s i s t r e a t s Flaxman's  designs  o f t h e e f f o r t t o d e f i n e u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s and t h e  r e l a t e d need t o c r e a t e c o n c e p t u a l  m o d e l s o f them i n t h e 1 8 t h  Century. To e s t a b l i s h t h e d e s i g n s four chapters  i n this-j broader c o n t e x t , t h e f i r s t  s e t out i n succession: the search  f o r , and '  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f , the e s s e n t i a l i n the 18th Century;  Flaxman's  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o h i s e d u c a t i o n and 12 y e a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Wedgwood; t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Homer designs and,  themselves  the c r i t i c a l  f r o m h i s s t u d i e s o f a r t w o r k s he h a d s e e n reviews  of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s  s u b s e q u e n t a d o p t i o n by o t h e r a r t i s t s a s s o u r c e s The  t h e s i s concludes  by c r i t i c a l l y  and t h e i r of inspiration.  a n a l y z i n g Flaxman's  achieve-  ment, r e v i e w i n g h i s o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e s e r i e s a n d r e l a t i n g t h e designs  t o i n d u s t r i a l / w o r k s h o p d r a w i n g s by Flaxman and o t h e r  contemporary  artists.  TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  Abstract List  i i  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  v  Acknowledgements  xi  Chapter I  II III IV  V  H i s t o r i c a l and P h i l o s o p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d : the e s s e n t i a l i n the 18th Century Footnotes  1 15  Flaxman's Footnotes  19 47  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the E s s e n t i a l  The A c t u a l P r o d u c t i o n o f t h e D e s i g n s Footnotes  53 68  T h e R e c e p t i o n R e c e i v e d by t h e E n g r a v i n g s : C r i t i c a l comments by F l a x m a n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and t h e u s e o f d e s i g n s by o t h e r a r t i s t s Footnotes  70 88  Flaxman's Achievement: C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e d e s i g n s and t h e i r among i n d u s t r i a l d r a w i n g s Footnotes  place 92 109  Bibliography  111  Illustrations  123  i-v  L I S T OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  1  T h e t i s B r i n g i n g t h e Armour t o A c h i l l e s E n g r a v i n g , F l a x m a n by Tomaso P i r o l i , I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 31.  2  Anthony's O r a t i o n wash. 22.3 X 34.1  3a  Sosias Painter R e d - F i g u r e cup A c h i l l e s and P a t r o c l u s  3b  Sosias Painter R e d - F i g u r e cup e x t e r i o r I n t r o d u c t i o n o f H e r a c l e s t o Olympus  4  Henry F l i t c r o f t England  5  William Sutherland Marine A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  6  The M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s Arms, Wedgwood Museum, B a r l a s t o n .  7  John Flaxman, the e l d e r : A r c h i t e c t u r e , Marble, B a r n a r d , Raby C a s t l e , Durham. 117.7 cms high.  8a  Ann All  8b  A f i g u r e f r o m The Tower o f t h e Winds i n A t h e n s . Depicted i n James S t u a r t and N i c h o l a s R e v e t t : The A n t i q u i t i e s o f A t h e n s , 1762, V o l . I , C h a p t e r I I I , P l a t e XVII.  9  Barbara Bourchier : monument. Newent, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e .  10  Mrs. Sarah Cathedral.  11  R e v e r a n d Thomas and Chichester Cathedral.  12  Mrs. S i d d o n s of 1782.  13  F l a x m a n ' s own L a t e r executed  14  The C r o w n i n g o f a K i t h a r i s t . C a b i n e t o f t h e Hon. W i l l i a m  over cm.  the  Dead  : Pantheon  Pencil  and  grey  interior  Temple  Stourhead,  Wiltshire  : The S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t o r 1755, P l a t e I I I S e c t i o n o f a S h i p .  R u s s e l l and h e r son S a i n t s , Lydd, Kent.  Morley  Caesar,  after  1784. The Staffs.  Henry  : monument  Died  : monument. D i e d  Mrs.  : Jasperware  Trustees  Ball  portrait  1784. 1784.  : monument, After  d e s i g n f o r t h e Chessmen. i n J a s p e r w a r e by Wedgwood.  v  Died  of  the Lord  1780-81.  St  Mary,  Gloucester  1784-86.  Flaxman's  model  Probably  1783.  E n g r a v i n g f r o m D' H a n c a r v i l l e ' s H a m i l t o n , 1766-67, V o l . 3 .  15  Kitharist  Vase.  D e s i g n by J o h n F l a x m a n ,  16  P e a s a n t a s l e e p on t h e p l i n t h 5.8 x 10.5 cm.  17  B a t t l e o f t h e Nudes, a f t e r P e n c i l , 15.2 x 36.2 cms.  18  Signorelli  19  B a t t l e o f t h e Amazons, a f t e r a n t i q u e P e n c i l , 24x16.5 cms. •  20  Fury  21  William, 1st Earl W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey.  22  W i l l i a m C o l l i n s : monument: d e s i g n : d e t a i l . and wash, 39.5 x 27 cms. ( w h o l e s h e e t )  23  Williams C o l l i n s  24  Aurora v i s i t i n g 184 cms. h i g h .  25  A u r o r a v i s i t i n g C e p h a l u s on Mount I d a : i n o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g . P l a t e 7 f r o m Thomas Hope, H o u s e h o l d F u r n i t u r e , 1807.  26  H e r c u l e s and Hebe, 1792.  27  Minerva Repressing the Fury p e n c i l , i n k , and brown wash. L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y .  28  T h e t i s and Eurynome R e c e i v i n g t h e I n f a n t V u l c a n . Engraving a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 29.  29  Vulcan and C h a r e s R e c e i v i n g T h e t i s . Engraving F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 30.  after  30  A c h i l l e s Contending with the Rivers. Engraving F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 33.  after  31  The F u n e r a l P i l e by Thomas P i r o l i .  32  K i n g o f t h e L e s t r i g e n s S e i z i n g One o f t h e Companions o f Ulysses. E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 15.  of a b u i l d i n g . Signorelli,  : B a t t l e o f t h e Nudes  o f Athamas, 1790-1794.  1786. Pen and i n k ,  Duomo,  ( d e t a i l ) Duomo, O r v i e t o . r e l i e f i n the Vatican.  Marble,  of Mansfield  208.5 cms.  : monument,  on Mount  high. 1793-1801.  Pen  : monument, 1792-95 C h i c h e s t e r Cephalus  Orvieto.  and i n k  Cathedral.  I d a , 1789-90.  Marble,  P l a s t e r , c o l o u r e d , 190.5 cms. of A c h i l l e s . 22.9 x 27 cm.  of Patroclus Engraving I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 35.  vi  high.  Preliminary Huntington  after  Flaxman  33  U l y s s e s a n d H i s Dog. P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805,  Engraving P l a t e 26.  34  U l y s s e s T e r r e f i e d ( s i c ) by t h e G h o s t s . F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805,  35  The D e p a r t u r e of B r i s e i s E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x m a n by P l a t e 3.  36  The Embassy t o A c h i l l e s . Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805,  37  M i n e r v a R e p r e s s i n g the Fury of A c h i l l e s . Engraving a f t e r F l a x m a n by W i l l i a m B l a k e . I l i a d 1805, P l a t e 2.  38  H e c t o r ' s Body D r a g g e d a t t h e C a r o f A c h i l l e s . Engraving a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 36.  39  Andromache F a i n t i n g on t h e W a l l . Engraving by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 34.  40  U l y s s e s K i l l i n g the S u i t o r s Engraving a f t e r James N e a g l e . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 31.  41  Two p r e l i m i n a r y d r a w i n g s f o r M i n e r v a R e p r e s s i n g t h e F u r y o f A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l (top) : ink over p e n c i l ( b o t t o m ) s h e e t 26.7 x 21 cm. H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y and A r t Gallery.  42  P r e l i m i n a r y drawing (lower) f o r Minerva Repressing the F u r y o f A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. Ink o v e r p e n c i l . Sheet 25.4 x 20.7 cm. Hungtington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y .  43  P r e l i m i n a r y drawing (lower) f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the Fury o f A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l , p a r t i a l l y erased.  44  P r e l i m i n a r y drawing f o r Minerva Repressing the Fury A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. Ink o v e r p e n c i l . 8.8 x 13.6 cm.  of  45  N a u s i c a a Throwing the B a l l . Engraving James P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 10.  after  by  46  The S i r e n s . Engraving O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 19.  Flaxman  by  James  Engraving P l a t e 17.  after  by  47  The H a r p i e s G o i n g t o S e i z e t h e Daughters of Pandarus. E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 29.  from the Tent Thomas P i r o l i . Engraving P l a t e 18.  after  vii  after  Flaxman  of A c h i l l e s . IHad, 1805,  after  Flaxman  after  Flaxman  Flaxman  Flaxman  James  by  by  Parker.  48  P e n e l o p e C a r r y i n g t h e Bow E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x x m a n by P l a t e 30.  49  Ajax Defending the Greek Ships a g a i n s t the T r o j a n s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 24.  50  Neptune R i s i n g Thomas P i r o l i .  51  U l y s s e s F o l l o w i n g the Car of N a u s i c a a . F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805,  52  Plate 1791.  53  A c h i l l e s D r a g g i n g H e c t o r ' s Body a r o u n d t h e W a l l s o f T r o y E n g r a v i n g by Domenico Cunego, 1766, a f t e r a p a i n t i n g by Gavin Hamilton.  54  P l a t e XXVII  55  Self-Portrait, Halesowen.  56  T h e M e e t i n g o f H e c t o r and Andromache. Engraving F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 14.  57  J u p i t e r S e n d i n g t h e E v i l Dream a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . 6.  58  I r i s A d v i s e s P r i a m t o O b t a i n t h e Body o f H e c t o r . Engraving a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 38.  59  Otus after  60  The V o y a g e e n g r a v e d by Carstens.  61  Mrs. Mary B l a c k s h a w (Mary L u s h i n g t o n ) : monument, 1798-99. S t . Mary Lewishara, K e n t .  62  P e n e l o p e ' s Dream E n g r a v e d O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 7.  63  L e u c o t h e a P r e s e r v i n g U l y s s e s Engraved James N e a g l e . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 9.  from  from the Sea. I l i a d , 1805,  of U l y s s e s to the Suitors. James N e a g l e . O d y s s e y , 1805,  Engraving a f t e r P l a t e 22.  S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton,  from  t h e Rev.  Mr.  1779.  Engraving P l a t e 11.  Collection  Spencer's  College  of  Flaxman  after  of Vases,  Polymetis,  Further  by  I,  1747.  Education, after  t o Agamemnon. Engraving I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e  and E p h i a l t e s H o l d i n g Mars C a p t i v e . Engraving F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 11. of the Argonauts Joseph Koch a f t e r  after  viii  1799 One o f 24 designs d r a w i n g s by Asmus J a c o b  Flaxman  by  James  after  Parker.  Flaxman  by  64  P r e p a r a t o r y s t u d y f o r t h e K l e i n e r Morgen by Runge. Pen o v e r t r a c e s o f p e n c i l .  65  Les Sabines,  66  W a r r i o r s , by J a c q u e s - L o u i s D a v i d . From s k e t c h b o o k . des B e a u x - A r t s , L i l l e . )  67  F i g h t f o r t h e Body o f P a t r o c l u s E n g r a v i n g by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 26.  68a  The S h i e l d L i b r a r y and  68b  The b a t t l e s c e n e i n 68a of the A c h i l l e s S h i e l d .  69  S h i e l d o f A c h i l l e s , 1821. S i l v e r g i l t , 94 E x e c u t e d a f t e r F l a x m a n by P h i l i p R u n d e l l .  70  A c h i 1 l e d e p l o r e 1'enterrement de B r i s e i s , Rude. P l a s t e r r e l i e f (Musee Rude, D i j o n ) .  71  A c h i l l e d e p l o r e 1'enterrement de B r i s e i s , by F r a n c o i s Rude. Pen and i n k , 21.5 by 37 cm. (Mus£e des B e a u x - A r t s , Dijon)  72  S t u d y a f t e r F l a x m a n ' s O d y s s e y , by A n t o i n e G r o s . From s k e t c h b o o k , R.F. 2 9 9 5 5 , f . 2 8 v . P e n a n d b r o w n i n k o v e r c h a l k , 16.3 by 22.5 cm. ( C a b i n e t des D e s s i n s Musee du Louvre).  73  Study a f t e r sketchbook, c h a l f , 16.3 Louvre.)  74  S t u d i e s o f H o r s e s , and s t u d y a f t e r a p l a t e f r o m F l a x m a n ' s O d y s s e y , by A n t o i n e G r o s . From s k e t c h b o o k , R.F. 29955, f.20. P e n a n d b r o w n i n k o v e r c h a l k , 16.3 by 22.5 cm. ( C a b i n e t des D e s s i n s , M u s £ e du L o u v r e )  75  J u p i t e r and T h e t i s by J-A-D Ingres cm (Mus£e I n g r e s , M o n t a u b a n ) .  76  T h e t i s I n t r e a t i n g J u p i t e r t o Honor A c h i l l e s Engraved a f t e r F l a x m a n by W i l l i a m B l a k e . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 5.  77  The C o u n c i l o f t h e Gods E n g r a v e d Piroli. I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 9.  by J a c q u e s - L o u i s D a v i d .  Philipp  (Mus6e du  Otto  Louvre)  after  (Mus6e Flaxman  of A c h i l l e s : drawing. (Henry E. H u n t i n g t o n , A r t G a l l e r y , San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a ) . altered  to f i t the curved cms by  format  diameter. Francois  F l a x m a n ' s O d y s s e y , by A n t o i n e G r o s . From R.F. 2 9 9 5 5 , f . 2 8 . P e n a n d b r o w n i n k o v e r by 22.5 cm. ( C a b i n e t des D e s s i n s , Musee du  ix  Pencil,  after  32.5  F l a x m a n by  by  24.2  Thomas  78  Homere D e i f i e , by I n g r e s . S i g n e d B l a c k c h a l k , pen and i n k wash, 21 by 31 cm. (Musee du L o u v r e , P a r i s ) .  79  'I T e l l You, I Know t h e W o r l d ' by P h i l S m i t h , I n L o n d o n Town London 1907.  80  D e s i g n f o r a w i n e - c o o l e r by Thomas S t o t h a r d ( 1 7 5 5 - 1 8 3 4 ) . Pen and wash, 25.4 x 20.3 cm. B r i t i s h Museum.  81  D e s i g n f o r a wine c o o l e r a f t e r and wash, 30.4 x 20.9 cm.  82  D e s i g n f o r a w i n e - c o o l e r (perhaps a f t e r W i l l i a m Theed, 1 7 6 4 - 1 8 1 7 ) , Pen d r a w i n g , 26.7 x 24.7 cm.  83a  W i n e c o o l e r , m a k e r ' s mark o f P a u l S t o r r ( 1 7 7 1 - 1 8 4 4 ) , L o n d o n h a l l - m a r k f o r 1809. S i l v e r g i l t , h e i g h t 35.56 cm. C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e M a r q u e s s o f Ormonde.  83b  Detail  o f wine c o o l e r .  x  May  i n F.  Thomas S t o t h a r d .  Berkeley  Pen R.A.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n have  assisted i n bringing  Aileen the  Dawson o f t h e B r i t i s h  people  thesis t o completion.  Museum; D r . I a n F r a s e r , A r c h i v i s t  A r t and D a v i d P h i l l i p s ,  of Nottingham, C a s t l e  who  They a r e  L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f K e e l e , S t a f f o r d s h i r e ; Pamela  Keeper o f A p p l i e d  and  this  to several  Keeper o f A r t , C i t y  Museum; F r a n k B r o o k e s o f J o s i a h  Sons, and Sharon R a t c l i f f e  Wood,  Wedgwood  o f t h e Wedgwood Museum a t  Barleston. Special University interest  t h a n k s a r e due t o : D i a n a E . M. C o o p e r , L i b r a r i a n ,  of British  Arts  D i v i s i o n , f o r her  a n d e n t h u s i a s m ; D r . G e o r g e Knox, who p r o v i d e d  perspectives  o n what was i n I t a l y  to Flaxman and f r e e use  Columbia - Fine  access  t h a t would have been o f use  to his library  o f books  t o me; a n d D r . R h o d r i W i n d s o r L i s c o m b e , w i t h o u t  guidance, encouragement have b e e n  and p a t i e n c e  s e t on paper.  xi  both  this  t h a t were o whose  t h e s i s would never  CHAPTER I Since to  their  publication  i n 1793 J o h n F l a x m a n ' s  illustrations  Homer have been o b j e c t s o f a d m i r a t i o n and s t u d y .  considered  exclusively  minor works.  They a r e n o t i m p o s i n g  architecture. observed indeed  plication  a study  remains  i n p r e p a r i n g such  paintings,  only p a r t i a l l y  h i s Homer d e s i g n s  consistantly  scale  commercial  study  p l a c e d them i n a r t i s t i c  recently the E a r l y  4  i s that  A.W.  Essick  appeared  Constable  represents,  Zeichnungen  i n Athenaum  included a More Study i n  Designs."  6  have p r o v i d e d  information i n addition  commentary w h i c h d i s c u s s e s e a c h  Werk"  In the  o f Flaxman's I l l u s t r a t i o n s t o  and J e n i j o y L a B e l l e  and b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l  have  T h i s began i n  S c h l e g e l ' s "Uber  o f Flaxman's C l a s s i c a l  1977 r e p r i n t  a  designs  Gerald Bentley provided a "Bibliographical Engravings  when  community b u t  o f them i n h i s J o h n F l a x m a n 1755-1826.5  Homer R o b e r t  A com-  "Uber d i e F l a x m a n i s c h e  I n t h i s c e n t u r y , W.G.  Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s  graphical  contexts.  und J o h n F l a x m a n ' s U m r i s s e n "  t h e same y e a r .  and  1  production.2  d i s c u s s i o n s o f Flaxman's engraved  were p u b l i s h e d i n P r o p y l a e n . 3  discussion  study"  the greater part of h i s  pottery  w i t h Johann Goethe's a r t i c l e  zu Gedichten  Rosenblum  o f d e s i g n s and m o d e l s f o r J o s i a h Wedgwood  of large  Critical  are r e l a t i v e l y  completed.  a comprehensive  i f  sculpture, or  e x p e r i e n c e had been n o t i n t h e a r t i s t i c  as a p r o d u c e r  1799  they  As y e t t h e y have n o t been, a s R o b e r t  Flaxman produced  leader  context  i n 1956, " t h e s u b j e c t o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  such  working  i n an a r t i s t i c  Yet,  plate  how t h e image p r e s e n t e d  I  bioto a  i n t e r m s o f what i t  varies  from  the Homeric  text,  possible  sources  drawings f o r each was at  image, and  image a r e now.  David  7  where p r e l i m i n a r y Bindman's J o h n  p u b l i s h e d as c a t a l o g u e f o r J o h n Flaxman RA the Royal  1979.8 of  f o r the  Academy o f A r t s i n L o n d o n , 26  T h i s work p u t  his life's  chapter 122)  output.  derivatives,  methods and  a matter  established  contemporary  of h i s t o r i c a l  reputation.  thus to  century.H  Indeed,  from  He  was  he  and  the form  until  w h i l e F l a x m a n was  artist  obscure  artist  of designs f o r  and  methods he  the t u r n of  in Italy  i n the  continued  were drawn i n t h e e v e n i n g s t o augment F l a x m a n ' s  was  designs the early to  send  after  the  otherwise  income.  Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s  current  an  Flaxman s o l d  after  1792/3  c a s t s o f a n c i e n t r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e s t o Wedgwoodl2  d a y ' s more p r e s s i n g p r o j e c t s  that  not  This industrialist's  designs.10  1775  t h e Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s  meager  was  a relatively  1790's ( w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Wedgwood) he d e s i g n s and  entire  comments.  l a r g e numbers o f i t e m s  i n c o n s t a n t need o f new  t h e Wedgwood f i r m  an  r e c o r d , i n the w i n t e r of  J o s i a h Wedgwood's p o t t e r y f i r m . of producing  context  1755-1826^ w h i c h c o n s i d e r s s o u r c e s ,  whose most w i d e l y known work t o o k  were c a p a b l e  i n the  ( C h a p t e r V pp.67 -  when F l a x m a n drew t h e Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s of  - 9 December  Irwin devoted  t o a l l of Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  i n h i s J o h n Flaxman  As  David  exhibition  October  F l a x m a n ' s Homer d e s i g n s Finally  an  Flaxman  i t s h o u l d come a s no  derived directly  o b s e r v a t i o n s i n Rome and 2  earlier  from  academic  surprise Flaxman's  studies.  In  illustration  31  of  the  Iliad  t h e Armour t o A c h i l l e s , figures.  At  resembling done by  the  the  central  Flaxman as  m o u r n i n g man be  right  found  i n any  ( F i g u r e 1) the  of  entitled  13  i n the  earliest  (Figure 2).  artist's  i s an  c o n t r a s t resembles medieval  the  Thetis i s reminiscent  figures  A strong  assembled diagonal  line  goddess T h e t i s with embrace o f t h e  of a m u s i c a l  sentimental  method, a s  figures'  that...'they  as  true ancient  left  figure effect  arpeggio  to  while  frieze  members o f  to r i g h t  the grief.  from  the  body i n  tearful  o f t h e woman resembles  and  creates a  had  the  the persuasive  U n i v e r s a l l y they their  purity  regarded  o f f o r m and  simple,  grand,  been made i n t h e age,  3  remarked  shadow, but and  i n the  pure...  varied  contemporaries  representations s k i l l f u l l y  o u t l i n e s without  They a r e  apparently  comments o f  G e o r g e Romney, f o r example,  are  art.  i f they  The  a  supine  i d e a of A c h i l l e s  p o s e s make t h e  particularly  from the p a s t .  ancient  descending  inappropriate.  illustrations, of  The  d e p i c t i o n o f e m o t i o n and  f o r the  seem o d d l y  The  head bowed t h r o u g h A c h i l l e s '  grief.  of  appeal.  This overt sources  the  descends from  f o r her  five  academic f i g u r e  i n f o r m o f Roman  dead P a t r o c l u s t o t h e  unable to stand figure  to strengthen  figure  tomb f i g u r e s ,  or perhaps a Greek vase f i g u r e .  group are  are  s u r v i v i n g sketch  The  sketchbook.  P a t r o c l u s by standing  there  woman i s i n a p o s e s t r o n g l y  Patroclus' bier  student  Thetis Bringing  f o r example,  crouched  figure  a boy  behind  series  the  Homer  austerity transported in  1793  style  They  of  look  when Homer w r o t e . ' 1 3  i  n  fact, an  the " o u t l i n e s without  shadow" o r l i n e a r  anachronism - a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  b r o n z e age o r H o m e r i c G r e e c e . used  ancient  mode o f c l a s s i c a l n o t  Even t h i s  1 4  Greek vase p a i n t i n g —  style i s itself  aside,  when F l a x m a n  w i t h w h i c h he was f a m i l i a r  through h i s study of both ancient  pieces  publications depicting vases  a s an i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e  form o f h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s siderably  from a n c i e n t  1 4  —  t h e images he p r o d u c e d  pieces.  A useful  between a c u p c . 500 BC by t h e S o s i a s Flaxman's I l i a d will  the no  3a) and  The c u p e x h i b i t s many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Greek p a i n t i n g .  s t y l e involved  I n common  w i t h Flaxman's  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f dark  But u n l i k e  F l a x m a n ' s work t h e r e  lines  The b a c k g r o u n d there  i s darkened  decorated  profile  s i n g u l a r l y Egyptian  with  anatomy i s p o o r l y  c l o t h i n g and t h e i r  rendered  and A c h i l l e s s p i n d l y  variety Figure  i n pose  (here  looking  arms and l e g s .  to A c h i l l e s f u l l y  hand  and, w h i l e  faces  are i n s t r i c t  frontal  eyes.  grotesque  o f t h e cup  bearded.  31, T h e t i s B r i n g i n g  4  Frequently  There i s a lack of  heavily  40% o f t h e p i c t u r e a r e a  there i s  The f i g u r e s  d e m o n s t r a t e d on t h e o u t s i d e  in Iliad  lighter  not r e l e v a n t t o  such as P a t r o c l u s ' s  3 b ) , and male f i g u r e s a r e o f t e n  On t h e o t h e r  on a  i s a substantial groundline.  wear h e a v i l y  illustrations  i s a tendency t o  t h e frame o f t h e p i c t u r e w i t h d e c o r a t i o n  landscape,  foot  (Figure  o r O d y s s e y and t h e 1805  subject.  the  Painter  exists  be r e f e r r e d t o by e i t h e r I l i a d  ground.i5 fill  comparison  con-  F l a x m a n ' s Homer d e s i g n s  ancient  this  differ  p l a t e 31 ( h e r e a f t e r  Longman e d i t i o n number). of  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  i s left  t h e Armour  undecorated.  There  i s no  ground  landscape,  line  frame of  of  f i g u r e s are long  picture. anatomy  Drapery  presented  t o the was  story  simply  presented one  the  the  i t could  background. be  a part  is relatively  Sosias  painter  to cover  a p i c t u r e that  more c o m p e t e n t  sense of  the  reminds the  decorations  gives the  represents other.  depicted  To  the  armour he  of  the  o l d armour t h a t  Thetis  now  had  the  of  that  a s e r i e s of  Homeric n a r r a t i v e . viewer of  the  The is  In  not  b a t t l e that  the  form a p a r a l l e l  this  and  ends i n T r o y ' s  t e x t but  the  d e t a i l s of  5  Flaxman  better  thus the  of  this  the  loss loss  new  the  Parthenon  defeat.  drawn f r o m t h e  produce a b s o l u t e l y  as  calling Achilles  Flaxman's d e s i g n , the  reference  i t , nor  a  I t was  the  F l a x m a n d i d not  He  Patroclus  manufacture of  p e r s o n i f i e s duty  s t o o l beside  he  s i n g l e image F l a x m a n  theme o f  b i e r , the  that  case  events to give  In a p o s e r e m i n i s c e n t  Homer made no  relevant  a s i n g l e moment i n t i m e  dominant  funeral  something  vase with d e c o r a t i o n .  from A c h i l l e s .  prompted  delivers.  Flaxman's i n v e n t i o n .  and  impression  death of P a t r o c l u s  borrowed  A t h e n a o r B r i t a n n i a , she back to the  The  Patroclus'  m i g h t have i s o l a t e d A c h i l l e s g r i e v i n g o v e r a dead he  the  models.  open a r e a s w i t h  attempting  instead  of  mourning a t t e n d a n t ' s g e n i t a l area  f i g u r e bandages the  but  The  undecorated.  i n much more v a r i e d p o s e s .  s e l d o m done i n a n c i e n t filling  darkened  is significantly  l e g s obscure the  By  or  i s so ambiguous t h a t  the  rendering  shading  the  faithful  human  picture to  grief, are  Patroclus'  f e m a l e mourner.16 t r a n s l a t i o n s of  the Homeric t e x t s from as Mrs. her  bard  recognized  Homer.'  Today t h e The  as  to W i l l i a m Hayley  'the b e s t  o f Mrs.  University required, the  of B r i t i s h and  case  in British  the  18th 18th  be  Columbia  Century  particulars  c a p a c i t i e s of c h i l d r e n  the  Iliad  R e v e r e n d H o o l e recommended  in Greek.' fellow  only  years the  as  Theocritus,  appropriate Hesiod,  authors.21  direction  century.  at  the  the  other Such  1 8  is was  foreign countries;  to the  Century  curricula  6  R.L.  the  1  of  and  Poetry", Aristophanes  Holdsworth  f r o m 1613  educators  D.D.,  t o 1637  Homer,  t r a g e d i e s and  throughout  Sydney S m i t h r e v i e w i n g  ordinary  of a g e " ^  h i s Theognis,  a number o f  These 17th  f o r the  or  "contrived according  '"Father  the Reverend R i c h a r d  P l u t a r c h and  for  O d y s s e y were a  E u r i p i d e s , Sophocles  of S t . John's C o l l e g e , Oxford,  regarded  Latin  Earlier  2 0  and  proportioned  not  and  In a program  under f i f t e e n  [but a l s o ] P i n d a r ,  or  in translation.  t o what i s commonly p r a c t i c e d i n E n g l a n d  Homer,  schools  one  obscure.  Century.  fundamental p a r t of e d u c a t i o n .  i s i n sundry  the  literature,  They a r e n o t ,  C o l u m b i a where o n l y  t h a t r e a d i n g may i n the  1802,  commentator o f  T h i s i n c l u d e s the C l a s s i c s Department  Throughout  the  in  F l a x m a n ' s remark i s  i n modern e d u c a t i o n .  required reading  universities.  Rather  17  significance  important  example,  and  imagery.  H o m e r i c e p i c s , t h e o l d e s t g r e a t works o f w e s t e r n  a r e not  not  to p i c t o r i a l  Flaxman wrote from F r a n c e  husband was  great  literary  had  Pindar,  o r a t i o n s of  apparently  set  the f o l l o w i n g  Edgeworth's P r o f e s s i o n a l  Education entitled  o f 1809 w r o t e i n t h e E d i n b u r g h "Too Much L a t i n  and G r e e k , " t h a t "a Young  goes t o s c h o o l a t s i x o r seven course  of education  till  years  In a l l t h a t time  Latin  and G r e e k : he h a s s c a r c e l y  Englishman  o l d ; and he r e m a i n s i n a  twenty-three  age.  or twenty-four  years of  s o l e and e x c l u s i v e o c c u p a t i o n  other kind of e x c e l l e n c e . ' to higher  R e v i e w i n an e s s a y  i s learning  a n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s any  F o r t h o s e who d i d n o t c o n t i n u e  2 2  f o r m s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Homer were w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e . 3 2  Thus t h e g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y o f t h e young men d e s t i n e d f o r careers  i n t h e law, p o l i t i c s ,  t h e armed s e r v i c e s and t h e  C h u r c h and even commerce, t r a d e , and i n d u s t r y had r e a d authors  including  Homer o f whom a w r i t e r t o t h e G e n t l e m e n ' s  M a g a z i n e i n 1793 w r o t e : idle  or i r r e l a t i v e ,  pregnant 18th  with  Century  discipline  'In Homer n o t h i n g  n i l molitur inepte.  meaning.' merely  another  model o f human s o c i e t y . that  or the i n t e l l e c t u a l  the purpose never  carried  ( f o r t o deny t h a t he  h i s choice of characters  him beyond N a t u r e ,  and h i s own  life'. 5 2  Homer, i t was b e l i e v e d , 'had l i v e d and p o s s e s s e d 2 6  as a  Wood had w r i t t e n some  m i g h t have been  for  talents'.  i n the l a t e  'whatever h i s [Homer's] p l a n o f i n s t r u c t i o n ,  any would he h i g h l y u n r e a s o n a b l e ) ,  age,  expression i s  language but presented  had  of  Every  T h e o r i s t Robert  e i t h e r moral o r p o l i t i c a l ,  experience  i s casual, nothing  Homer was n o t r e a d  2 4  f o r entertainment  of learning  years before  classical  i n t h e most  a l l advantages f o r improving  In that  enlightened  h i snatural  'most e n l i g h t e n e d a g e ' t h e G r e e k s o f  7  Homer's s t o r i e s were s e e n t o p r o w e s s and by  refinement.27  human v a l u e s ,  The  Achaean G r e e k s had  the  accumulation  in Britain  who  goods p r o v i d e d society. Magazine  In  t o be  created  later  the  by  an  simply as  to m u l t i p l y  woe,  and  torments,  h a v e no  connection being  torments that the  s o c i e t y of and  Iliad  thus the  by  Homer).  to T h e t i s B r i n g i n g artist  the  might w e l l  In  fact,  Armour t o A c h i l l e s ,  8  in  and .  of  things,  happiness.'29  the  essential  description logically  enlightened.  d i d Flaxman.  have i n c l u d e d  2  overburdened  O d y s s e y was  i t s more mundane a s p e c t s  have gone u n r e c o r d e d  nation.' ^  anxious  order  with h i s  most  consumer  life,  progressively  and  those  ingenious  e n t h u s i a s m o f H o m e r i c s o c i e t y was  acknowledgement o f  p o e t and  man,  o l d e s t known e x t e n d e d the  of  whole  were o b s c u r i n g  s p a r e a p i c t u r e o f h i s s o c i e t y as  again  the  on  on  corrupt  to embitter  inverted  subject.  i n London  the  'But  31,  vigour  lost  would  to:  h e r e s e e n as  In  not  sudden p r o l i f e r a t i o n  e n j o y m e n t , has  l e a s t overburdened Oddly, the  a point  expanded  new  were t h e  Luxury' appearing  i d e a was  wishes that  the  wealth,  Iliad  national  s a i d t o have p o i s o n e d  plagues,  p l a g u e s and  age  objects,  dissipated their  'Essay on  [was]  n a t u r e of mankind. any  material  the  illustrated  Armour t o A c h i l l e s ,  Industrial Revolution  the  of wealth, m i l i t a r y passage  by  Human s o c i e t y was new  the  that  a 1774  new  as  age  feared  sour every present  with  not  unhappy, i n d u s t r i o u s  contriving  has  not  i n an  yet,  the  of m a t e r i a l  'luxury  Five years  the  ^nd  Flaxman's T h e t i s B r i n g i n g  indicated,  of  live  not  tempered  (which Homer  may  provided  Referring Iliad  a background.  31  both The  Myrmidons may  h a v e been p r e s e n t e d  polishing  armour,  weapons, p r e p a r i n g f o o d o r e a t i n g o r even j u s t in  carefully  detailed  material surroundings.  n o r F l a x m a n p r o v i d e any spare q u a l i t y Odyssey  of t h e i r  details  as  that  i t had  instruct'.30  the everyday stories' Century  life  AS  been S U  by  N e i t h e r Homer  significantly  different  o f man  describing  of h i s l i s t e n e r s  details  The from  concept  human  a late  1770's),  'iron  the  historian Livy G r e e k s and derived  and  in  was  not  derived  into English  living  similarly  revived authors  created  the  the  18th  and  In  i n Flaxman's  with uncorrupted  close  t o nature.32  revived. and  "fake" C e l t i c  similar  and  French  i n the  P i n d a r , t h e Roman of  manners Dante,  visions  Recognizing  addition  severe tragedies  From t h e works o f t h e s e a u t h o r s  the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d presented  these  i n the  works o f H e s i o d  a c o n c e p t i o n o f man  them was  in  entirely  the Greek, P l u t a r c h , b i o g r a p h e r  Romans.31  emotions of those and  translated age'  as  society.  increased interest  (first  Robert  essential  a p e r u s a l o f Homer o r even a n c i e n t a u t h o r s .  of A e s c h y l u s  and  familiar  embellishing detail  of the e s s e n t i a l  t o Homer t h e r e was  Iliad  would have d i l u t e d  Alternatively,  would have s e e n  and  the  means.  d e s i g n s a s o b s c u r i n g Homer's p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e nature  about  'Homer's o b j e c t t o p l e a s e  ch,  vigorous narrative. audience  but  standing  r e s p e c t i v e d e p i c t i o n s of the  seem t o have been r e a c h e d  Wood b e l i e v e d well  such  sharpening  and  both was and Shakespeare, interest  the p o p u l a r i t y  of  u s i n g Homer as a m o d e l , James M a c P h e r s o n b a r d O s s i a n and  9  published his Fingal  and  Temora between 1760  created  c h a r a c t e r s and  and put  1763.  them i n t o  accommodate t h e most n o s t a l g i c by  18th Century w r i t e r s  O s s i a n was  and  rational  and  the a u t h e n t i c i t y  which had  I t was  were  shepherds  given c l a s s i c  Sicily  by  reason, reveal  applied  to c a r e f u l  universally  extension benefit  and  valid  n a t u r e and  who  o f mankind. fields  invention  (Figure 4). thought.  truths,  Indeed,  of i n t e r e s t  extended  life  gardens,  landscape  which  populated with  transferred  i t from  The  34  whimsies  poets,  as  the  S u c h c o n c e p t s were  I t was  believed  that  o b s e r v a t i o n s o f n a t u r e , would  reason could  d u r i n g Flaxman's  field  landscape  as  not  the o t h e r b u c o l i c  d w e l l i n such a r c h i t e c t u r a l  t o 18th C e n t u r y  hailed  work was  t o more r e m o t e A r c a d i a and V a l e o f T e m p e ' .  fundamental  With  3 3  immediately  the l i t e r a r y  e x p r e s s i o n by V i r g i l  Temple a t S t o u r h e a d  of  i n discussions regarding  by T h e o c r i t u s and  Pantheon  to  a t t h e same  with sentiment'.  18th C e n t u r y  to recreate  might  Even  and  MacPherson's c o n t r i v e d  shepherd  divers  i n the time  unsophisticated  been s k e t c h e d by Homer, e l a b o r a t e d and  love-sick and  Life  h i s absence  paralleled  'attempts  successfully  o f human s o c i e t y d e v i s e d  o f h i s work, O s s i a n was  a g r e a t a n c i e n t work. unique.  visions  touched  M a c p h e r s o n c o n s p i c u o u s by  books  s i t u a t i o n s designed  readers.  'simple, rugged,  time, moral,  The  laws, be  and  employed  exploration  characterized and  career,  over a broad  of s c i e n c e the d i s c o v e r y  and  by  exposition in  discovery,  range  and  f o r the g e n e r a l  the 18th  of s e v e r a l  10  principles  Century. discussion  of endeavour: of the  i n the  elements  including in  hydrogen  1772 and Oxygen i n 1774 by P r i e s t l y ;  exploration examples  of A u s t r a l i a  should  only a passive The  i n 1766 by C a v e n d i s h , n i t r o g e n  isolation  their  interest  i n the accummulation  resulted  an i n c r e a s e d  i n a greater  included:  i n 1777, F r a n k l i n ' s  Harrison's 1792. is  Watts p i s t o n  steel  indicated  ranging Origin  combustion i n  understanding of properties  social  impact.  Those  i n t h e form o f inventions  steam e n g i n e i n 1769, M i l l e r ' s bifocal  lens  gas l i g h t i n g i n  intellectual  arguments  o f b u t a few works o f t h e t i m e  f r o m Edmund B u r k e ' s P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Inquiry  i n t o the  o f o u r I d e a s o f t h e s u b l i m e and t h e B e a u t i f u l into  circular  ( f o r e y e g l a s s e s ) i n 1780,  of t h e contemporary  by t h e t i t l e s  Adam S m i t h ' s I n q u i r y of  suggested t o L a v o i s i e r  pen i n 1780, and M u r d o c k ' s  The d i v e r s i t y  represented  o f knowledge.  u t i l i z a t i o n of materials  inventions of s i g n i f i c a n t  These  research or i n q u i r i e s  o f e l e m e n t s , f o r example,  Generally  Cook's  i n 1778.  p r e v i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n a s when he e x p l a i n e d  1777.  saw  i n geography  i n 1770 and P a c i f i c  not suggest that  by R u t h e r f o r d  i n 1756,  t h e N a t u r e and C a u s e s o f t h e W e a l t h  N a t i o n s i n 1776, t o D a v i d Hume's D i a l o g u e s c o n c e r n i n g  Natural Religion  i n 1779.  Common t o a l l t h e s e f i e l d s o f 1 8 t h C e n t u r y i n t e l l e c t u a l e n d e a v o u r was t h e need  t o c r e a t e c o n c e p t u a l models.  itself  recognized.  of  had been w i d e l y  made o f l i n e s  need  In h i s A n a l y s i s of Beauty  1753 W i l l i a m H o g a r t h , whose i n t e l l e c t u a l  exceeded h i s a c t u a l  That  accomplishments, wrote:  by m a t h e m a t i c i a n s , a s w e l l  aspirations  greatly  'The c o n s t a n t u s e  as p a i n t e r s , i n  describing  t h i n g s upon p a p e r , h a t h e s t a b l i s h e d  them, a s i f a c t u a l l y  existing  T h e r e a r e two i d e a s h e r e . were u s e d  'in describing  v a t i o n may have been  The f i r s t  endeavour  to general something  forms  i s that  extended  f a r beyond  1755. hull  had n o t p r e v i o u s l y  t o reduce  existed.  o f an e x i s t i n g  b u t r a t h e r an i l l u s t r a t i o n  F i g u r e 6 i s a d r a w i n g by Flaxman  submitted  t o Wedgwood i n 1783.  F o r example, of a ship  o r even  Herein l i e s Hogarth's  d r a w i n g must c o n v e y  model i g n o r e  second  fervent  existing  on t h e r e a l  Flaxman's  the e s s e n t i a l  should  belief  idea  common  to translate that  d e s i g n and H o g a r t h ' s  colour,  into  the l i n e drawn  forms t h e m s e l v e s ' .  Thus  mathematical  t e x t u r e and p e r s p e c t i v e b u t t o sufficient  information to  concept. theme o f 1 8 t h C e n t u r y t h o u g h t was t h e  o f e n l i g h t e n e d men b e l i e v e d  be d i r e c t e d  artistic  t o the viewer the idea of the thing  solidity,  A second  a proposed  I t i s not a f i n i s h e d  the e x p e r i e n c e d v i e w e r they convey explain  which  f o ra medallion  work b u t a d e s i g n e r s c o n c e p t f o r a t r a d e s m a n  the s h i p ' s h u l l ,  to visualize  o f how t o l a y o u t a h u l l .  Similarly  'as i f a c t u a l l y  observations  Sutherland's Ship-Builder's Assistant of  I t i s not a p i c t u r e  pottery.  obser-  t o i n c l u d e a l l s c i e n t i f i c and  where t h e r e was a need  i n William  drawings  Hogarth's  laws o r i n t h e i n s t a n c e o f i n v e n t i o n s , that  3 5  h i s examples o f  F i g u r e 5 i s a c o n c e p t u a l model o f t h e h u l l appeared  themselves'.  line  t h i n g s upon p a p e r . '  m a t h e m a t i c i a n s and a r t i s t s technical  on t h e r e a l  a conception of  to the general  that  endeavour  betterment of s o c i e t y .  In  the case  of the Ship-Builder's A s s i s t a n t,  as  the preface  in  t h e most p l a i n  instructing  indicates,  strength  acquainted  'that every  Arts  to society,  and i n t e r e s t  out that  of Elegance  rialist  inspired  t o t h e power,  Similarly  an Age o f P e r f e c t i o n ' . 3 7  saw h i s p o s i t i o n  'to d i f f u s e  c o n s t a n t l y searched cameos.  ancient pieces.  Darwin,  'I o n l y p r e t e n d  antique  forms,  a good  to preserve simplicity  the antique  and s p i r i t ,  h i s products  s m a l l measure by a r c h a e l o g i c a l 4 0  f o r designs  designs  terras.  Wedgwood  things'.38  merely Erasmus  t o copy t h e f i n e I have  endea-  o r i f you p l e a s e , the  forms'.39  Wedgwood's  e m u l a t e d was f o r m e d  impression  i n no  p u b l i c a t i o n s many o f w h i c h  The c a n d i d  In  f o r Jasperware,  absolute s e r v i l i t y .  of the antique  h i s own l i b r a r y .  copies of f i n e  t o have a t t e m p t e d  many  through the  He w r o t e t o h i s f r i e n d  the s t y l e  form  taste  He d i d n o t , however,  but not with  Robert  The i n d u s t -  i n similar  i n a number o f h i s c a t a l o g u e s ,  by a n t i q u e  reproduce  in  security  singular Attention to the  by t h e 'power o f m u l t i p l y i n g  elegant  Fabrics...;  o f S p a l a t r o t o King George I I I  Majesty's  promises  t h a t he wanted  voured  surprising  J o s i a h Wedgwood, t o whom F l a x m a n s u b m i t t e d  Wedgwood  of  these  o f t h e s e kingdoms'.36  'your  a passage repeated  arts'  with  adds a f a r t h e r  ( F i g u r e 6 f o r example),  stated  a desire to  improvement made i n an A r t o f s u c h  Adam i n d e d i c a t i n g h i s R u i n s pointed  manner, w i t h  young SHIPWRIGHTS, and t h o s e G e n t l e m e n who a r e  t h e hope]  importance  Sutherland,  ' e n d e a v o u r e d t o l a y e v e r y t h i n g down  and p e r s p i c u o u s  desirous of being [with  William  statement  regarding h i s  were  products almost paraphrases the i n t r o d u c t i o n Caylus' (Paris past  Recueil  d'antiquites  egyptiennes,  etrusques,  1757) t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h was ' t o shed  ... t o a r r i v e a t t h e s p i r i t  copy a n t i q u e  details'.41  of the antique  illustrated  engravings,  there  and  the essence of ancient  extract  design.  'to the simple  o f t h e Vases, which  3 a s an example, a n c i e n t  the  pictorial  archaeological Collection the  detailed  states  o u t l i n e of the  vase p a i n t e r s  Recalling often  not a s s o c i a t e d  of ancient  society.  f i g u r e d v a s e s were, i n f a c t ,  included with In a d d i t i o n ,  colored.  The  p u b l i c a t i o n s s u c h a s de C a y l u s and t h e H a m i l t o n  were f o r many, i n c l u d i n g Wedgwood and h i s a r t i s t s ,  Significantly  record  the late  detail  The p r e f a c e  c h i e f s o u r c e o f knowledge o f t h e m a t e r i a l  antiquity.  as  representations  r e d and b l a c k  line  i s t h e e s s e n t i a l , and no u n n e c e s s a r y  ' u n n e c c e s s a r y Ornaments' o r d e c o r a t i o n their  than t o  with  t o remove  Ornaments o r c o l o r i n g . . . [ a r e ] . . . i n t r o d u c e d ' . 4 2 Figure  on t h e  rather  entirely  was a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t  t h e work was c o n f i n e d  figures  light  e t romaines  In the p u b l i c a t i o n s o f W i l l i a m  Hamilton C o l l e c t i o n of Vases,  that  t o t h e Comte de  they presented  of the ancient  remains of  n o t an  s o c i e t y but rather  1 8 t h C e n t u r y wanted t o s e e i t .  14  accurate the antique  NOTES TO THE TEXT CHAPTER I 1  R o b e r t Rosenblum, The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t y l e o f 1800 : A S t u d y i n L i n e a r A b s t r a c t i o n (New Y o r k , 1956 and 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 114 fn.  2  S o u r c e s f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f Wedgwood Flaxman seem t o f a l l n a t u r a l l y i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e c e n t e r i n g pn the l i f e o f Wedgwood, s u c h a s ; E l i z a M e t e y a r d , The L i f e of J o s i a h Wedgwood ( L o n d o n , 1865-66); K.E. F a r r e r , L e t t e r s of J o s i a h Wedgwood ( L o n d o n , 1903-06); t h e more r e c e n t A. F i n e r and G. Savage The S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s o f J o s i a h Wedgwood ( L o n d o n , 1965); and W o l f M a n k o w i t z , Wedgwood (New Y o r k , 1953) and t h o s e t r e a t i n g t h e works o f Wedgwood a r t i s t s and t h e i r works a s c o l l e c t o r ' s i t e m s , s u c h a s H.M. B u t e n , Wedgwood and A r t i s t s ( M e r i o n P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1960).  3  J o h a n n W o l f g a n g v o n G o e t h e , "Uber d i e F l a x m a n i s c h e n werke," P r o p y l a e n , 1799, a l s o i n Werke, 47 (Weimar, 1896) p p . 245-46.  4  A.W. v o n S c h l e g e l , "Uber Z e i c h n u n g e n z u G e d i c h t e n und J o h n Flaxmans U m r i s s e n , " Athenaum, 1799 a l s o i n S a m m t l i c h e Werke ( L e i p z i g , 1 8 4 6 ) , IX, pp. 102-57.  5  W i l l i a m George 1927).  ^  G e r a l d B e n t l e y 'Notes on t h e E a r l y E d i t i o n s o f F l a x m a n ' s C l a s s i c a l D e s i g n s ' , B u l l e t i n o f t h e New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 68, ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 277-307, 361-380. Published s e p a r a t e l y a s The E a r l y E n g r a v i n g s o f F l a x m a n ' s C l a s s i c a l D e s i g n s , (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 ) .  7  Robert E s s i c k and J e n i j o y L a B e l l e , t o Homer, (New Y o r k , 1 9 7 7 ) .  8  D a v i d Bindman, J o h n F l a x m a n , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . Appeared p r e v i o u s l y a s Werner Hofmann, D a v i d Bindman e t a l . J o h n F l a x m a n M y t h o l o g i e und I n d u s t r i e , (Hamburg, 1 9 7 9 ) .  9  David Irwin,  1  0  C o n s t a b l e , J o h n Flaxman  J o h n Flaxman  1755-1826  1755-1826  Flaxman's  (London,  Illustrations  ( L o n d o n , 1979)  Wedgwood's s e t o f d i s h e s f o r Empress C a t h e r i n e c o n s i s t i n g of 952 p i e c e s c o n t a i n e d 1244 d i f f e r e n t v i e w s f o r example. J o s i a h Wedgwood: t h e A r t s and S c i e n c e s U n i t e d (1978) p. 50. F o r more on t h e Wedgwood f i r m ' s v o r a c i o u s a p p e t i t e for designs see David Irwin, N e o - C l a s s i c a l Design : i n d u s t r y p l u n d e r s a n t i q u i t y , A p o l l o ns 96 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 289-297. 15  'An A c c o u n t Book o f J o h n F l a x m a n , R.A.' (British Library Add. MS. 39784 B B ) , Edward C r o f t - M u r r a y ( e d . ) , W a l p o l e S o c i e t y X X V I I I 1939-40 pp.79. The e n t r y f o r J u l y 8, 1803 i s a s f o l l o w s " J o s i a h Wedgwood E s q . A Monument s e n t by G o d d a r d ' s Waggon ( s i c ) , C a s t l e and F a l c o n , A l d e r s g a t e S t r 73, 10, -. M e t e y a r d , op. c i t . W.  H a y l e y , The L i f e  p.  504. Romney ( L o n d o n ,  1809),  See R.M. Cook, G r e e k P a i n t e d P o t t e r y ( L o n d o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t e c h n i q u e c h . 9 , pp. 240 f f .  1972),  Discussed  later  of George  p.203.  ch. II  In a d d i t i o n t o A l e x a n d e r Pope's r e n d i t i o n s o f the I l i a d and O d y s s e y modern t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e a l s o u s e f u l and o f t e n more r e a d a b l e . Two s u c h a r e : The I l i a d t r a n s E.V. R i e u (Harraondsworth, 1950) and The O d y s s e y t r a n s E.V. R i e u Harraondsworth, 1946) MSS, A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , G u r l e y C o l l e c t i o n , F l a x m a n t o H a y l e y , 10 December [ 1 8 0 2 ] . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C a l e n d a r , V a n c o u v e r , 1984  Columbia p.71.  70th S e s s i o n  Mrs.  (1984-85)  C h a r l e s H o o l e , New D i s c o v e r y o f t h e A r t o f T e a c h i n g S c h o o l e s ( s i c ) 1660. Q u o t e d by J o h n R. M u l d e r , The Temple o f M i n d (New Y o r k , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 25. Mulder  ibid  p.  18.  Mulder  ibid  p.  30.  Syndney S m i t h , 'Too Much L a t i n and G r e e k ' (a review of R.L. E d g e w o r t h , P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n (1809) E d i n b u r g h Review 1809 c i t e d i n H.C. B a r n a r d A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n f r o m 1760 ( L o n d o n , 1961) p. 17. An i n c o m p l e t e l i s t w i l l i n c l u d e : Ten Bookes ( s i c ) o f Homers I l i a d e s ( s i c ) , t r a n s , o u t o f t h e F r e n c h by A r t h u r H a l l ( L o n d o n , 1581); S e v e n Bookes ( s i c ) o f t h e I l i a d e s ( s i c ) o f Homer P r i n c e o f P o e t s T r a n s , a c c o r d i n g t h e G r e e k e ( s i c ) G e o r g e Chapman ( L o n d o n , 1598); A c h i l l e s S h i e l d , t r a n s . G e o r g e Chapman (London 1598); Homer P r i n c e o f P o e t s t r a n s . G e o r g e Chapman ( L o n d o n , 1610); The Whole Works o f Homer, P r i n c e o f P o e t s , i n h i s I l i a d e s ( s i c ) and O d y s s e s ( s i c ) t r a n s . G e o r g e Chapman ( L o n d o n , 1612); Homers O d y s s e s ( s i c ) trans. G e o r g e Chapman ( L o n d o n , 1614); The Whole Works o f Homer; P r i n c e o f P o e t t s ( s i c ) i n h i s I l i a d s ( s i c ) and 16  O d y s s e y s ( s i c ) t r a n s . G e o r g e Chapman ( L o n d o n , 1616); The F i r s t T h r e e Books o f Homer's I l i a d t r a n s . Thomas G r a n t h a m ( L o n d o n , 1 6 6 1 ) ; The T r a v e l s o f U l y s s e s ; As t h e y were r e l a t e d by h i m s e l f i n Homer's N i n e t h , T e n t h , E l e v e n t h and T w e l f t h Books o f h i s Odysses ( s i c ) t o A l c i n o u s K i n g o f Phaeacia trans. Thomas Hobbs Malmessby ( L o n d o n , 1 6 7 3 ) ; and o c c a s i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e s o f amateur t r a n s l a t o r s s u c h a s t h a t o f an u n i d e n t i f i e d p e r s o n who s u b m i t t e d 'A T r a n s l a t i o n o f a P a r t o f t h e 22nd Book o f Homer's I l i a d i n t o B l a n k v e r s e made a l m o s t l i t e r a l l y , ' G e n t l e m e n ' s M a g a z i n e Dec. 1797 p. 1052. 2  4  Gentlemen's  Magazine,  (July  1793)  p.  2  5  R o b e r t Wood, An E s s a y on t h e O r i g i n a l (1769; New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 298.  2  6  A l e x a n d e r G e r a r d , An 1966) p. 11.  E s s a y on G e n i u s  (1774;  2  7  J.V. L u c e , Homer and p. 181.  the Homeric  (London,  2  8  London  Magazine,  XLII  2  9  London  Magazine,  XLVIII  3  0  R o b e r t Wood, op. c i t . , p.  3  1  Hugh Honour, N e o - c l a s s i c i s m  3  2  Ibid.,  p.  142.  3  3  Ibid.,  p.  66.  3  4  Ibid.,  p.  161.  3  5  William  3  6  W i l l i a m S u t h e r l a n d , The S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t , M a r i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e (London, 1755), p . i i i .  3  7  R o b e r t Adam, R u i n s o f t h e P a l a c e o f t h e Emperor a t S p a l a t r o ( L o n d o n , 1764) p . I V .  3  8  Noted  3  9  Wedgwood t o Erasmus D a r w i n ,  4  0  F o r more on t h i s p o i n t and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s s e e D a v i d Irwin, 'Neo-classical design: industry plunders a n t i q u i t y , ' A p o l l o ns 96: 289-297, O c t o b e r 1972.  G e n i u s o f Homer  Age  ( O c t o b e r , 1774) (1779) p.  p.  Munchen, 1975)  481.  537.  30. (Harmondsworth,  Hogarth, A n a l y s i s of Beauty  by D a v i d I r w i n ,  623.  op. c i t . , p .  17  28 J u n e  (London,  1968)  p.  1753)  p.  64.  37.  or  Diocletian  19. 1789.  Comte de C a y l u s , R e c u e i l d' a n t i q u i t ^ s £ g y p t i e n n e s , e t r o m a i n ( P a r i s 1752-67) I pp. X l l f f . S i r William Hamilton, preface.  A n c i e n t Vases  18  6trusques  (1791-95) u n p a g i n a t e d  CHAPTER  II  Flaxman's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s g e n e r a l l y engravings of  the  principles  'the  of  Iliad age  and  Odyssey  believed  embodied  when Homer w r o t e ' .  the  to ancient  poses of  the  works.  The  artistic  f i g u r e s , t h e i r more a c c u r a t e  anatomy,  of  of  deliberate depiction  society  as  an  e v e n t s and uncluttered  whose e x p e r i e n c e was could  the  conceptual  p i c t u r e space,  model, r e v e a l  much w i d e r t h a n any  resem-  sources  more c a r e f u l l y d e t e r m i n e d use consecutive  has  superficial  apparent v a r i e t y of  the  his  However, as  been s u g g e s t e d , F l a x m a n ' s d e s i g n s b e a r o n l y blance  the  that  ancient  for  the  the  depiction  of  Homeric  an  artist  artist's  p o s s i b l y have b e e n . Flaxman's e a r l i e s t  When o n l y of A r t s  11  years of  age  Society  Prize  at modelling  of h i s f a t h e r ' s  carrying  on  c a s t maker. repair  of  was  classical  i n 1755  directly sculpture  that  imported  thus ranged  Prize  In  1769  i n c l a y and  success.  from the he  at  Society  gained  i n 1770  he  f o r a f i g u r e of G a r r i c k .  won  the  Flaxman's  1  least, explained  by  the  business.  and  l a t e r moved t o t h e  a f t e r the  reproductions  clients  in clay.  with  opened h i s London p r e m i s e s i n  2  of p l a s t e r c a s t were b e i n g  a First  shop and  business u n t i l He  works met  i s , in part  J o h n Flaxman S e n i o r Covent Garden  won  f o r a model  of A r t s Gold P a l e t t e  precosity  Street  he  f o r a medal m o d e l l e d  another F i r s t  milieu  exhibited  involved  turn  of  i n the  and  gems as  of  classical  the  Strand  century  19  s u c h as  well  as  the  sculpture  the  as  restoration  a  and  making and  i n l a r g e numbers t o E n g l a n d .  from a r t i s t s  New  sculptors  gems  His Louis  Francois  Roubiliac  and P e t e r  i s t s Matthew B o u l t o n  Scheeraakers, t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l -  and J o s i a h  f a t h e r m e r e l y a c a s t maker.  Wedgwood.  He o c c a s s i o n a l l y e x e c u t e d  works, s u c h a s t h e f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g in  a l a t e Baroque s t y l e ,  customers R o u b i l i a c  cut  folds of Architecture  outward gaze a r e a n t i t h e t i c a l  and Scheeraakers.  teacher  the  the a c t i v i t i e s  3  style  with  of A r t i s t s .  The d e e p l y  i t s t o r s i o n and  around h i s f a t h e r ' s  shop a s  an a r t i s t i c (Figure  style  2) a t a b o u t  t h e p r i z e winning models a t t h e F r e e I t s theme i s c l a s s i c a l l y  i s less distinctly  trations,  7)  designs.  He drew The D e a t h o f C a e s a r  t i m e he e x h i b i t e d  Society  along  t h e y o u n g e r F l a x m a n was d e v e l o p i n g  o f h i s own.  (Figure  t o t h e s t y l e h i s son would  d e v e l o p and employ f o r t h e Homer With only  Architecture  original  somewhat a f t e r t h e manner o f h i s most  illustrious drapery  Nor was F l a x m a n ' s  classical  even t h o u g h , a s a l r e a d y  than  i n s p i r e d but i t s  the l a t e r  noted,  there  Homer  is a  illus-  similarity  between t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n The D e a t h o f C a e s a r and t h e m o u r n i n g woman i n t h e T h e t i s B r i n g i n g Iliad the  31 d e s i g n .  In f a c t ,  same f i g u r e d e p i c t e d  i n t o deeper The  t h e Armour t o A c h i l l e s ,  one m i g h t a l m o s t  imagine i t being  a few s e c o n d s l a t e r  when  collapsed  grief.  Death o f Caesar p r o v i d e s  an i d e a  o f Flaxman's  d e v e l o p m e n t and k n o w l e d g e a t t h e age o f 13 o r 14 y e a r s . was q u i t e and  capable of rendering  vigorous  using  poses.  overlapping,  anatomy  i n remarkably  He knew how t o c r e a t e shading,  and v a r i e d  20  spatial  artistic He  varied  perspective  f i g u r e s i z e and d e t a i l .  He knew how t o d i r e c t o f a c t i o n by h a v i n g less detailed at  that  time  than  the figures  matter  no a r t i s t i c  developed  In h i s f a t h e r ' s  first,  t h e Reverend  something in  of  Italian  later  Matthew  her  text,  promised  a d e s i g n on  entered young  Flaxman  who r e a d Homer  i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o members o f h e r  group.  Anna L e t i t i a  Brief  biographical  horizons that Barbauld  and had a k n o w l e d g e o f L a t i n  n o t e s o f some  t h e n opened t o  had m a s t e r e d  French  and G r e e k and was  school at Palgrave i n  E l i z a b e t h C a r t e r s p o k e s i x modern l a n g u a g e s  and g e o g r a p h y .  own t r a n s l a t i o n  o f Mr. P o p e ' s E s s a y  from  with a great  t h e F r e n c h o f M. C r o u s a z  o f Man.  5  b u t was interest  I n 1739 s h e had p u b l i s h e d An  H e s t e r Chapone w r o t e ,  on t h e Improvement o f t h e M i n d .  centre of a c t i v i t i e s  paper.  to give the l a d  His wife Henrietta,  the i n t e l l e c t u a l  ancient history  Letters  4  1768 and, f i n d i n g  b e s t known a s a s c h o l a r o f a n c i e n t G r e e c e in  of the subject  John  to operate a very s u c c e s s f u l  Suffolk.  He  Anthony Stephen  literary  t h e young F l a x m a n . and  means o f s e t t i n g  t o Flaxman, a l s o  them i n d i c a t e  sensibilities.  The  more s u i t a b l e .  'blue s t o c k i n g '  artistic  i n h i s father's  i n f l u e n c e upon h i s d e v e l o p m e n t .  t o read a L a t i n  translation  o t h e r than  he had  shop F l a x m a n met two p e o p l e who were t o  F l a x m a n S e n i o r ' s shop a b o u t attempting  Although  and d r a m a t i c p o t e n t i a l  and had t h e m e c h a n i c a l  a significant  towards t h e c e n t r e  n e a r e r t h e edge o f t h e f r a m e  instruction  the p i c t o r i a l  exert  attention  those nearer the c e n t r e .  shop Flaxman had w e l l appreciated  the viewers  6  Finally,  Examination i n 1772,  at the  was E l i z a b e t h Montagu who b o l d l y  proclaimed,  'I  never  invite  idiots  t o my h o u s e ' .  She d i d e n t e r t a i n  7  W a l p o l e , D r . J o h n s o n , Edmund B u r k e , D a v i d G a r r i c k Joshua R e y n o l d s . Montagu,  The p o e t W i l l i a m  8  'I no l o n g e r  head o f a l l t h a t Flaxman's f i r s t  wonder t h a t  i s called  that  M.P.  took p l a c e of study  i n Rome.  and e v e n i n g  recalling  i n 1783 l o o k i n g  Shortly  1 1  that  he would  together  g i v i n g me e n c o u r a g e m e n t  s p e n t an at the sculpture  come t o s e e my  Romney's s o n t h a t  and  conversation'  sculptural  works.13  sculptor  the s k i l l  acquired  1 2  As l a t e  h i s father's  me  deter-  a s 1821,  earlier  'original  t o be o f b e n e f i t  F l a x m a n ' s words t h a t  i n modelling'  father's  while  and c o n f i r m e d my  continued  f o u n d me employed  found  by me a l o n g  of s c u l p t u r e ' .  Flaxman t o l d  i n 1802,  i n a manner s o o b l i g i n g and  he won my h e a r t ,  i n the p u r s u i t  striking  stand  from  i n h i s own r i g h t , w r o t e  Romney had ' f i r s t  i n modelling,  that  The  Romney  a f t e r Romney's d e a t h artist  employed  mination  Hayley,  I was a l i t t l e boy, and a s he f r e q u e n t l y  affectionate  came  to h i s career  shop was G e o r g e Romney.  friend William  F l a x m a n , by t h e n an e s t a b l i s h e d  casts.  importance  On a t l e a s t one o c c a s i o n ,  together  Westminster A b b e y .  to Hayley  circle  i n 1775 soon a f t e r Romney had r e t u r n e d  F l a x m a n and t h e i r m u t u a l afternoon  Out o f t h i s  9  10  second person o f s u s t a i n e d  a period  in  M r s . Montagu s t a n d s a t t h e  c o m m i s s i o n - a s e t o f s i x s k e t c h e s b a s e d on  F l a x m a n met i n h i s f a t h e r ' s  meeting  and S i r  Cowper w r o t e o f E l i z a b e t h  learned.'  Homer f o r J e r e m i a h C r u t c h l e y , The  Horace  Romney had  to h i s 'frequently  i n d i c a t e how t h e a s p i r i n g  t o p r o d u c e t h e medal  22  i n c l a y and  figure Arts  o f G a r r i c k t h a t won  and a p l a c e Throughout  the Royal The  won  f o r him i n t h e t h e n  Academy i n s t r u c t i o n  there  one y e a r  o l d Royal  t h e d u r a t i o n o f Flaxman's y e a r s  principles  students  f o r him p r i z e s f r o m t h e S o c i e t y o f  he u s e d  (then  was d i r e c t e d  to direct  including  as s t u d e n t a t  by J o s h u a  a number o f a r t i s t s  who  l e c t u r e s he a d d r e s s e d  a s s e m b l e d members and s t u d e n t s collected  by  the students  To  develop  i n three stages  instruction  acquired  educated  stage  judgement.!  s c u l p t o r , casts of ancient  With the c r e a t i o n of the Royal  higher  relevance  such  [than merely  i n manufactures;  t o t h e newly  as the Royal  mercantile]  a r t i n t h e form t o Flaxman t h e  sculpture.1? Academy R e y n o l d s  amelioration of natural B r i t i s h  an i n s t i t u t i o n  modelling  To accommodate t h e s e c o n d  6  i  a general  was  o f t h e works o f p a s t  o f new works o f a c c o r d i n g  o f b o r r o w e d works and, o f p a r t i c u l a r  If  a t t h e Academy  t h e Academy became a r e p o s i t o r y o f f i n e  aspiring  by t h e a r t i s t .  - the rudiments of drawing,  the use of c o l o u r , the examination the production  The  on A r t .  and t h e o b j e c t i v e s t o be p u r s u e d  artists,  to the  R e y n o l d s s e t o u t a p l a n t o be f o l l o w e d  the required s k i l l s ,  t o be g i v e n  Stothard)15  Academy.  l e c t u r e s a r e known a s t h e D i s c o u r s e s  In h i s D i s c o u r s e s  and  of the Royal  later  s c u l p t o r Thomas  B a n k s , t h e e l d e r J o h n B a c o n , James T a s s i e and Thomas i n the annual  Reynolds.14  t h e s t u d i e s o f t h e many  r e c o g n i t i o n : the p a i n t e r W i l l i a m Hamilton,  were e n s h r i n e d  Academy.  t a s t e and d e s i g n .  Academy h a s 'an o r i g i n  no t a s t e c a n e v e r  but i f the higher A r t s of Design 23  envisioned  no  be f o r m e d flourish,  these  inferior  was n o t s i m p l y artistically envisioned  ends w i l l  be a n s w e r e d  to provide  Britain's  of c o u r s e . ' industrial  aware and c o m p e t e n t d e s i g n e r s .  was much l o f t i e r .  He d e c l a r e d ,  g e n u i n e p a i n t e r . . . i s t o 'improve' mankind his  ideas'  tion'.  and t o s t r i v e  f o r fame,  Although himself  1 9  regarded  the noblest  advantage t h a t a s u b j e c t  is,  of general  and  Roman  usual all  of reading,  Europe'.  Of s i m i l a r  of B i b l i c a l  History create  of  be a ' g e n e r a l 'the g r e a t  appeal  painter necessarily differed. an image t h a t d e p i c t e d of h i s s i t t e r .  a figure of J u p i t e r . Jupiter,  one' ( t h a t  events of Greek and t h e  and i n t e r e s t i n g t o  were t h e c h i e f  subjects  only  Reynolds attempted t o  However, no c o n t e m p o r a r y  immortalized  by Homer.  i s demonstrated  R e y n o l d s was aware  ever  'when he f o r m e d h i s  presented  to h i s sight;  image w h i c h he c o n c e i v e d  f r o m Homer's d e s c r i p t i o n . '  whatever  the story of Phidias s c u l p t i n g  ' P h i d i a s ' , he w r o t e ,  that  p a i n t e r and  t h e a p p e a r a n c e and e v o k e d a  d i d n o t c o p y an o b j e c t  contemplated  principle  which  H i s t o r y P a i n t i n g had  h a v e made f a m i l i a r  t h e p r o b l e m when he r e c o u n t e d  mind  to History Painting  drawn f r o m  broad  portraits,  history.20  seen the c h a r a c t e r s  but  'by t h e g r a n d e u r o f  methods and i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e p o r t r a i t  recollection had  could  he  "the wish of the  f a b l e and h i s t o r y , w h i c h e a r l y e d u c a t i o n ,  course  The  The g o a l  with  'by c a p t i v a t i n g t h e i m a g i n a -  of a l l forms.  the  appeal),  revolution  a painter of fashionable  Reynolds d i r e c t e d a s p i r i n g a r t i s t s he  H i s idea  1 8  2 1  in his  An a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e  by F l a x m a n ' s v e r s i o n o f A c h i l l e s  24  shield Iliad  in Figure 31  1 Thetis  Bringing  which i s a c o n v i n c i n g  the  Armour t o A c h i l l e s  conceptualization  of  Homer's  description. To  draw p i c t u r e s f r o m d e s c r i p t i o n s by  required  familiarity  spective. its  the  texts  and  and  i t s Professors  History.  authors  some h i s t o r i c a l  T h e s e R o y a l Academy e n d e a v o r e d  library  Ancient  with  ancient  to  of A n c i e n t  instill  through  Literature  D u r i n g Flaxman's student  period  r e s p e c t i v e l y be  men  t h a n Samuel J o h n s o n  (1770-1784) and  O l i v e r Goldsmith  fact  Considering  2 2  t h a t Mrs.  been of By  great  Matthew had  the  including ancient  the  airs  by and  Fourteenth;  'that  an  absurdity  who  and  education,  must a l s o  that  i n the  almost  as  court  great  fashion  of  of Lewis  as  the  have  publications.  archaeological  detail  current  c o n c e p t i o n s of  the  Ancients  as  Royal  students  Yet,  but  that  ancient  world.  (sic)  as  the  'We  were  must  wrote,  2 3  ancient illustrated  not  a reflection  i n s t r u c t o r s , ' he  25  Heroes  court.'  R e y n o l d s was  rather  been  i t w o u l d have been  i n c r e a s i n g l y absurd  seeking  the  his  to Grecian  became more common i n c o l l e c t i o n s and  to  (1770-  h i s t o r y i n the  have g i v e n  them a f t e r t h e  archaeological  recourse  stature  r i d i c u l o u s s t y l e w h i c h has  graces p r a c t i s e d  These anachronisms appeared  in  Homer t o him  literature  some p a i n t e r s ,  t o have d r e s s e d  artifacts  formal  s t u d i e s Reynolds assured  means t o a v o i d  practised  read  less a  honorary  value.  Academy's c o u r s e o f had  Flaxman's l a c k of  no  and  these  p o s i t i o n s were h e l d  1774).  of  per-  simply of  have 'to a t t a i n  t o the or  nothing  this he  real  simplicity  of  nature  to unlearn,  as  t h e i r manners were n e a r l y  desireable  can  see  the  [as]  (sic) simplicity; t r u t h of  things,  fashion  cover h e r . '  I t would seem t h a t  the  simplicity  but  that  i t was  things', and  of  the  the  universally valid  enters his  the  d e t a i l s of  linen, nothing  nor  silk,  exponent of  Reynolds suggested with the be  praised for  ideal.  'Truth  of  human b e i n g s  When d e p i c t i n g  d e t a i l s of  every  historical neither to the  forms,  kind.'25  painter d o e s he  never debase  discriminations  (sic) i s neither or v e l v e t :  to  reality,  above a l l s i n g u l a r  so  veil,  thought  'get  colours,  (sic),  only  before  woolen,  nor  i t i s drapery;  it is  more.'26  A l w a y s an  will  thought proper  fashion.  'the  cloathing  sattin  t o remove t h e  t o have been a  c o n c e p t i o n s with minute a t t e n t i o n W i t h him  approaching  from  and  universally valid  i n t o the  of Drapery.  is  should  little  modern a r t i s t ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  divorced  artist  probably  R e y n o l d s not  world  customs, p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s  depict  the  also a desirable aesthetic  human s o c i e t y t h e  To  t i m e s has  ancient  human s o c i e t y , was  local  the  while  i s obliged  w i t h which the 2 4  of  t h e y had  that  works o f  consistency  example, by  'The  noting  that  the  As  a form of  best  i  n  artists,  your the  acquaintance  more  "always p r e s e r v e d  he  Poussin, a  perfect  parts  of  their  exercise  he  recommended h i s  26  extensive  his Discourses  s t y l e s o f Rubens and  both  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between a l l t h e manners..."28  have e x c e l l e d ,  invention.'27 of  from the  more e x t e n s i v e . . .  t h e s e who  y o u r powers o f the  learning  respective students  to  "consider with  y o u r s e l f how a M i c h a e l  w o u l d have t r e a t e d ( y o u r ) belief when  s u b j e c t : and work y o u r s e l f i n t o a  t h a t y o u r p i c t u r e i s t o be s e e n and c r i t i c i s e d 2  accomplishment  t h e i r mechanical  o f worthy a r t i s t s ,  their  own w o r k s .  too.  He w r o t e t h a t with  skills  'the p a i n t e r the general  the student  in painting...  3 0  brush  strokes, etc.)  of [the]  conceptions.'  3 1  Instead  of copying  only  confused  degree  3 2  me o u t o f t h e r e a c h  s u r e l y possess  of our a r t . '  3 3  tor.'  3 4  only  'serve  In t h e end, a p a i n t i n g s h o u l d  A r t , and r a n k s  i t s ,to  and  ... a p p e a r s t o to embellish  of i t s increased  to d i v i d e the a t t e n t i o n of the specta-  t o t h e mind' and s o d o i n g  Liberal  with  t o any e m i n e n t  D e t a i l s added by v i r t u e  their  i n which you  youthful elegance,  o f a mixed p a s s i o n  appeal  'entitles  i t as a s i s t e r  27  the  Referring  of P a r i s with  'A s t a t u e  (i.e.  pursued the  idea.  none o f t h e s e  a theme o r make i t more s a t i s f y i n g complexity  the touches  dominant  dignity,,  ... t h e e x p r e s s i o n  of the great  from a s i t u a t i o n  theme, R e y n o l d s w r o t e :  v a l o u r , must  distinctly, A f i r m and  he r e p e a t e d l y  the single  endeavor t o u n i t e s t a t e l y  regard  g r e a t masters, copy o n l y  to P l i n y ' s account of Euphranor's Statue  stern  i n this  forms o f t h i n g s .  In h i s Discourses  potential  created  ... i s t o e x h i b i t  theme o f e x t r a c t i n g and i l l u s t r a t i n g  him,  also  o u t l i n e i s one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  style  artistic  and s t u d y i n g t h e  Reynolds o f f e r e d d i r e c t i o n  precision,  determined  but  by them  completed." ^ In d e v e l o p i n g  and  Angelo or a R a f f a e l l e  'not t o t h e e y e  i t t o t h e name o f a  of p o e t r y . '  3 5  Upon h i s g r a d u a t i o n attempted missions  t o s e t up  and  at Lydd  i n Kent  Stuart  and  her  son  Mrs.  died,  10)),  F l a x m a n was  and  also died  1762  i n 1784,  (Figure 11)).  forced to r e l y  praising  t h e young a r t i s t  F l a x m a n as  Wedgwood d e s i g n s jasperware.  imitation  of  stone  ground.  The  12)  principal  (Gloucester Mrs.  Thomas B e n t l e y  Cathedral  Ball  (1784-86 himself  The  majority  of  The  in early  started submitting  cut  since classical  medallions.  s u b j e c t s were o f g r e a t p e o p l e ) s u c h as  as w e l l as  designer  designs,  Flaxman's products  In  the  times  cameos  in colour  to  variety including  the  a c t r e s s Mrs  13).  28  to  and the "illustrious  Siddons  a c h e s s s e t f o r w h i c h Flaxman was  (Figure  in  r e m a i n s ) a p o t t e r y ware made i n  jasper,  partial  and  (Figure 9)); for  Thus t o s u p p o r t  f i g u r e s appear c o n t r a s t e d  moderns" ( n o t a b l e (Figure  (and  from  died  were f o r t h e most famous o f Wedgwood's  p r o d u c e cameos and jasperware the  who  Flaxman's a b i l i t i e s .  "valuable".36  I t was the  a plate  firm.  wrote to h i s p a r t n e r  soon a f t e r  Ann  upon h i s e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h e J o s i a h Wedgwood p o t t e r y  industrialist  Com-  ( F i g u r e s 8a  f o r t h e R e v e r e n d Thomas and  Cathedral  Flaxman  in A l l Saints  p e r h a p s i n s p i r e d by  Wedgwood q u i c k l y a p p r e c i a t e d  -  i n 1780-81,  i n memory o f B a r b a r a B o u r c h i e r ,  S a r a h M o r l e y , who  in Chichester  1775,  monuments t o  ( i n S t . Mary, Newent, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e  (Figure  with  size:  A n t i q u i t i e s of Athens,  b respectively)); 1784,  H e n r y who  1775  a s c u l p t o r i n London.  i n number and  (with angels  Revett  t h e R o y a l Academy o f  a p r a c t i c e as  were modest  Russell  from  the  Wedgwood h a d more t h a n one c o n c e r n jasperware. him  Of u t m o s t  from which  T h a t mould was f i l l e d  when d r y , was f i r e d . the s i z e  design, plate,  could  firing  figure.  The mould c o u l d  of  such as a d i s h  By r e p e a t i n g  artist's  the process, a of a dinner  of the technical  i s ) fundamental.  during  t o t h e body and y e t t h i n  produce relaxed.  Even  Flaxman produced unuseable. too  flat  jasperware pieces,  after  F i g u r e s made of handling  enough t o l e t  effects.  standards could  To n o t be  s u b m i t t i n g many d e s i g n s t o Wedgwood,  models f o r j a s p e r w a r e which  Wedgwood w r o t e  i n several  problems  enough f o r e a s e  o f t h e body e n h a n c e t h e m o d e l l e d  successful  bonded.  t r a n s f o r m e d t h e models  t o be t h i c k  colour  t o form t h e  t h e y were p e r m a n e n t l y  f r o m wax m o d e l s needed  the  from  When t h e body and  who a c t u a l l y  i n t o j a s p e r w a r e was ( a n d s t i l l  the application  reduction  t o items as s m a l l as  or vase.  appreciation  by t h e t r a d e s m e n  which,  l e a t h e r h a r d , t o a c o l o u r e d body  d e c o r a t i o n were f i r e d  addressed  a one s e v e n t h  a t any s t a g e be u s e d  were a p p l i e d ,  The  t o form a f i g u r e  caused  of the o r i g i n a l  f i g u r e s which  applied  with clay  applied  o f p a r i s mould was  f o rjasperware products ranging  the s i z e  an a r t i c l e  a plaster  a s a wax model t h e d i a m e t e r  be u s e d  six-sevenths buttons.  This  of the clay  executed  In the  a model was n o r m a l l y made o f wax  a supporting plaque  made.  in  the designs submitted t o  had t o be c a p a b l e o f e x e c u t i o n i n j a s p e r w a r e .  p r o c e s s he d e v e l o p e d , to  importance,  i n the production of  parts  the potter  found  t o B e n t l e y : "Mr. F l a x m a n ' s model i s ... I n some t h i n g s t h e b l u e  29  shade  which our ground the  ground,  of the Figure  i t i s generally  i s penetrated injurious.  with  of concern  a consistent  artists  the colour  of the  See t h e p o o r Queen's  t o Wedgwood, t h e j a s p e r w a r e needed  and d i s t i n c t i v e  nose  artists  and s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n were u s e d .  a s he s t a t e d  pieces.  in a letter  'I a p p r e h e n d we s h a l l  F l a x m a n and p e r h a p s a s w e l l have F i n e  excite  to Bentley  i n other  consideration,  design  respects,  provided  jasperware than we  from, b u t I  and a c q u a i n t  Wedgwood's t h i r d  Wedgwood w r o t e ,  us w i t h  may be done i n L o n d o n . '  t h e need t o make a p r o f i t .  depicting  concerning  [at E t r u r l a ] emulation  comment r e v e a l s  must be s a l e a b l e .  t o h i s many  f r o m Gems t o model  p r i c e s f o r which those t h i n g s last  materials  provided  F l a x m a n a head o r two t o model a s i t may  our modelers'  This  He  model them much c h e a p e r  P r i n t s or impressions  w i s h you would g i v e  t o be  f o r m even when a v a r i e t y o f  books o f e n g r a v i n g s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  the  ... B u t when t h e  many o t h e r Cameos."37 Also  of  through the t h i n p a r t s of  w h i t e may be o f a d v a n t a g e t o t h e s u b j e c t  naked p a r t  and  i s so a p t t o c a s t  this  3 8  and o v e r r i d i n g  Hence h i s p r o d u c t s  time t o Flaxman, o f a  t h e Judgement o f P a r i s t h a t  " i t i s absolutely  n e c e s s a r y " t o d r a p e nude f i g u r e s , f o r t h o u g h " s o g e n e r a l i n the  works o f t h e a n c i e n t s ,  present  generation  will  figures  are naked."  none e i t h e r male o r f e m a l e o f t h e  take or apply  them a s f u r n i t u r e i f t h e  3 9  Wedgwood d i d i n d e e d  seek t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f  h i s products with p o t e n t i a l customers. 30  In h i s a d v e r t i s i n g  c a t a l o g u e s he p r o c l a i m e d were " c o p i e d they  from  of  the antique with  a r e t o be f o u n d  more e s p e c i a l l y  that h i s "Painted Etruscan  i n Dempster, G o r i ,  exactness:  Caylus,  collection  The works t o w h i c h he was  4 0  (Thomas D e m p s t e r ' s De E t r u r i a  R e g a l i (1723-1726),  G o r i ' s Museum E t r u s c u m  Antonio  Etrusques  e t Romaines  ( 1 7 5 2 - 1 7 7 0 ) , and P a s s e r i ' s L a P e i n t u r e a 1 ' E n c a u s t i q u e  interest  being purchased  the Royal Tour.  of  from  which  The f a c t o r y  such as  that h i s a r t i s t s then  seem somewhat  library also  o f t h e Hon. W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n  ( F i g u r e 14) p r o v i d e d  o f F l a x m a n ' s most p o p u l a r a Kitharist  them i n o r d e r  f o r works t h a t w o u l d  t o h i s customers.  d'Hancarville's Cabinet a plate  of p u b l i c a t i o n s of antiquarian  by e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  Wedgwood had p u r c h a s e d  familiar  (1775)  Academy and by g e n t l e m e n who h a d been on t h e G r a n d  might d e r i v e i n s p i r a t i o n  one  corpus  referring  ( 1 7 3 7 - 1 7 4 3 ) , t h e comte de  Caylus's Recueil d'Antiquites Egyptiennes,  were p a r t o f t h e e x p a n d i n g  as  P a s s e r i , but  i n t h e most c h o i c e and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  S i r William Hamilton".  Francesco  t h e utmost  Vases"  contained (1766-1767)  the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r  J a s p e r w a r e d e s i g n s The C r o w n i n g  (Figure 15).  Despite h i s f a m i l i a r i t y with  the production  process  F l a x m a n d i d n o t work a t t h e p o t t e r y u n l i k e most o f Wedgwood's artists  and m o d e l l e r s .  could maintain practice  h i s Royal  as a s c u l p t o r .  represented catalogues  the bulk  He c h o s e t o r e m a i n  i n London where he  Academy a s s o c i a t i o n s and b u i l d Although  the jasperware  o f h i s work a t t h e t i m e ,  a  designs  Wedgwood's  d i d n o t name t h e a r t i s t s who p r o v i d e d d e s i g n s and  as a r e s u l t important  Flaxman c o u l d a c q u i r e n e i t h e r a r e p u t a t i o n nor  commissions.  of h i s designs  as j a s p e r w a r e ,  Wedgwood p r o v i d e d  so o f t e n s e r v e d The  world 1771  second  such year  t h a t he  an  expense.41  at Royal  According  to Constable,  against  Flaxman.'  precocious.  was  he  send  The  4 2  R e y n o l d s may  delivered  terms.  t h a t i t was  h i s comments were b r i e f . sculpture never  be  the ornamental used,  develop  never  able  to  i n Flaxman's  'but  a few  In f a c t ,  43  ruled  out,  annoyingly by  to partner years  since  R e y n o l d s was  I n d e e d , he  left  Flaxman  been n o t e d  In a l e t t e r  Bentley [Flaxman]  never  r e s e r v e d h i s most  t h e Academy and 'grand  style'  then of  modern d r e s s must  b a c k g r o u n d s i n p e r s p e c t i v e were  32  really  h i s tenth Discourse,  In the h i g h e s t or  architectural  suggested  his influence  have f o u n d  F l a x m a n had  was  as  G o l d M e d a l and i t s  'used  for sculptors until  5 years a f t e r  ancient  early  had  same t i m e ,  manner had  towards s c u l p t o r s .  suggestions  As  t o Rome t o  the  R e y n o l d s had  a most supreme C o x c o m b . '  specific  antiquities  awarded t o Thomas E n g l e h a r t .  young a r t i s t ' s  commented  sympathetic  h i s son  At about  p r i z e was  Wedgwood i n u n f l a t t e r i n g 1775  i n F l a x m a n ' s mind.  Academy, t h e c o v e t e d  travelling  accumulate  the remains of the  Flaxman S e n i o r ' s b u s i n e s s was  attendant  in  examining  Freeman r e p o r t e d t o Wedgwood t h a t he  t a l e n t s but  support  hand t h e  from  inspiration.  must have been f o r e m o s t a Mr.  at f i r s t  distribution  received  income f o r F l a x m a n t o  study  as h i s  v a l u e of d i r e c t l y  t o John Flaxman S r . his  and  d e s p i t e the wide  t h e c o m m i s s i o n s he  insufficient  the r e s o u r c e s to t r a v e l that  In a d d i t i o n ,  to  be  but  avoided,  and  t h e r e were t o be  r a t h e r a symmetrical  have been d e s c r i b i n g  no  picturesque contrasts  b a l a n c i n g of p a r t s .  a two  dimensional  He  4 4  might  well  image r a t h e r t h a n  a  three dimensional sculpture. Reynolds  remained  Flaxman attempted approached sculptor, trained could  unsympathetic  to o b t a i n funds  Reynolds  with  the  declined  offer.  U n d a u n t e d , F l a x m a n and Rome i n t h e autumn o f 1787 were a s s i s t e d from  might of  later  their  find  what he was  of c a s t s to the  t o s t a y two  accepted  shop  still  years.  s e e i n g was  based  on  t h e a t r e was  a few  The  48  France  and  in late  His notes new  t o h i s p a r e n t s , he while  'barbarous.'  5 0  saw  their to  arrived  and  that  i n Rome.  believed  although  he  much  At V e r s a i l l e s ,  considered that i n h i s own  Ornamentation  33  4 6  h i s r e a c t i o n s were  principles.  4  left,  i n j o u r n a l s and  suggest  t o him,  firm  1787  for  of c a s t s  Flaxman's c r o s s e d  t h i n g s he  'wonderfully r i c h ' ^  i t as  headed,  They  p a i d t o have  j o u r n e y Flaxman r e c o r d e d  useful.  and  Academy.  Flaxman's o f f e r  by Wedgwood who  to Rome.  through  wrote i n a l e t t e r  described  cast  h i s w i f e Nancy e v e n t u a l l y l e f t  h i s impressions of those  ultimately he  and  4 7  s e n t on  travelled  During letters  young  Rome i n e x c h a n g e f o r money p a i d b e f o r e t h e y  luggage  Dieppe,  the eager  he  4 5  hoping  by Romney who  by N a n c y ' s p a r e n t s heavy  he,  Academy s c h o o l s w h i c h R e y n o l d s  the  When  t o Rome i n 1784  in his father's  become a Rome-based s u p p l i e r  Reynolds  sent  t o go  idea that  with experience gained  at the Royal  t o Flaxman's cause.  the  journal  m i g h t be  as  he  pretty  to  l o o k a t b u t be c o u l d n o t f o r e s e e i t s b e i n g  own work.  In I t a l y  tainted with  he f o u n d  poor  'as r i c h  their  i n gold, s i l v e r  in taste.'  In s t r i k i n g  5 1  carved  tion, was  there  chosen  judgment...' silver  works showed execution capable  of motion,  and t h u s  disposed  of s t y l e ,  'poor  i n proper  beautiful  nature  spirit,  'rich  i n taste'  exaggera-  i n gold  the c l a s s i c a l  light  t h e naked p a r t s seem  16 i s a s t u d y  to the f i g u r e s . '  from  t h e Homer d e s i g n s w i t h  in  the background.  only  shading  extensively.  Of p a r t i c u l a r  life  rendered  i t s pure  o f m o t i f s he  i n a manner  outline  o f t h e Nudes  and p a r a l l e l  selected.  hatching detail  ( F i g u r e 18) i n t h e Duomo  The r e d u c t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n  34  interest  suggestive  F i g u r e 17 i s F l a x m a n ' s s k e t c h o f a  of S i g n o r e l l i ' s B a t t l e 5 3  light,  5 2  o f t h e t y p e and s t y l e  of  in O r v i e t o .  cloths,  t o c o n t r a s t t h e l i m b s and shew them, a s  sketched  i s the v a r i e t y  slight  these s c u l p t u r e s  to nature without  the d r a p e r i e s are of f i n e  a s t o add d i g n i t y  Figure  'barbarous'  ' t r u t h o f anatomy and o u t l i n e w i t h a d e l i c a c y o f  Flaxman a l s o here  attention  in Florence.  and c o p i e d w i t h s o much  t h a t when s e e n  beautifully well  was  Where t h e B a r o q u e p a l a c e s were  and f i n e m a r b l e '  were  c o n t r a s t were h i s r e a c t i o n s t o  [was] no a f f e c t a t i o n by t h e A r t i s t  interiors  and f i n e m a r b l e a s t h e y  Where t h e t h e a t r e i n V e r s a i l l e s 'wonderful  succeeded  f a c a d e s and  t h e Venus de M e d i c i and t h e N i o b e he a d m i r e d  were done w i t h  f o rh i s  the Baroque p a l a c e s i n T u r i n  t h e 'bad t a s t e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e w h i c h  t h e age o f M i c h e l a n g e l o ' , being  suitable  to o u t l i n e  with  of the background  has  given  that  sketch  in  Signorelli's  the  anatomy o f  antique r e l i e f Amazons, slight  that  be  lines.  figures  members o f 1790  friends that  The  French  The  Flaxman's c i r c l e  the he  Painter  Guy  And  he  wrote a  the  English  letter  the  with  by  the  figures  little  artistic  most o f  community.  In  'I have b e e n  the  artists  foreigners'.54  of  images  of  Italian  a  contact  letter  treated the  first  A number became  s k e t c h e s t o one  the  Ducros c o n t r i b u t e d  friends also  the  to  detail,  F l a x m a n came i n t o  'a F r e n c h a r c h i t e c t o f  of  an  varied  Among them were C h a r l e s  5 5  included  of  Percier  first a  the  who  talent'.  watercolour. Irish  por-  the  English  History  sculptor  Antonio  Canova.  5 7  introduction  f o r James  Playfair,58  a r c h i t e c t , to S i r William  Hamilton,  the  Ambassador  to the  acquainted  f o r some t i m e .  Hamilton,  Italy,  Hugh D o u g l a s H a m i l t o n ,  Head, and  of  compositions.  commented,  landscape p a i n t e r  trait-painter  corrected  B a t t l e of  reduced  poses but  they c o n t r i b u t e d  Flaxman's s k e t c h b o o k s . as  again  about  e m i n e n c e , b o t h E n g l i s h m e n and  Flaxman d e s c r i b e d  the  this  These s k e t c h e s from  i n new  with p a r t i c u l a r attention  s u c h good  stressed  Flaxman's attempts to accumulate  reasembled  to h i s p a r e n t s from  i s not  sketch,  depicting  in varied  of  that  a l s o a l t e r e d and  a third  F l a x m a n has  his peregrinations  a several  In  Vatican  19),  representative  On with  i n the  aspect  Flaxman has  figures.  outline pencil  could  dimensional  version.  the  (Figure  sources, with are  a two  asking  Court  him  for  British  a t N a p l e s , w i t h whom F l a x m a n had In  1790  'some few  35  Flaxman c o r r e s p o n d e d p a r t i c u l a r s of  the  been with  Greek  5 6  stories  represented  on  you  have added t o y o u r  and  which  sculptural  w h i c h came on  C a n o v a , and The by  beautiful  collection  Etrusean  s i n c e I was  I have so g r e a t a l o n g i n g t o s e e . '  important 20)  these  c o m m i s s i o n was  the  F l a x m a n i n 1824 who  Naples  H i s most  5 9  o f Athamas ( F i g u r e  of h i s f r i e n d  Antonio designs.  o f t h e H o m e r i c c o m m i s s i o n s was  to h i s f r i e n d  recorded  which  at  l e d t o the commissions f o r the Homeric  precise history  Cockerell  last  the Fury  recommendation  vases  their  the  architect  recounted  Charles  conversation i n his  Robert  diary:  F l a x m a n had r e c e i v e d L600 f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f Athamas i n 1790 b u t t h e m a r b l e , t i m e and e x p e n s e s ( s i c ) had c o s t so much t h a t t h i s work "had b e g g a r e d him" ( h i s own p h r a s e ) [;] he was g l a d b e i n g t h u s named t o a c c e p t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t o e x e c u t e t h e d e s i g n s o f Homer f o r Mr. [ H a r e - ] N a y l o r . Flaxman composed t h e D a n t e a t Mr. Hope's i n v i t a t i o n . 6 0  I n d e e d The but  o f 1790  an  ulterior  i n October expect  of the t o be  that I should  abilities,  otherwise  that kind,' 2 In f a c t ,  i t was  grown f r o m  or nine foot free  He  w r o t e t o Romney i n  In a l e t t e r ,  same y e a r ,  employed  on  he was  I cannot  'might  reasonably  establish  w r i t t e n to h i s  even more  g r e a t works,  show t h e w o r l d  success  i t i s but  some p r o o f expect  specific:  o f ray  employment  of  .  6  the  motive.  6  I ever  been a f i n a n c i a l  e x p r e s s i n g t h e hope t h a t t h e work  reasonable  had  not  r e p u t a t i o n as a s c u l p t o r ' . !  parents 'if  o f Athamas had  F l a x m a n had  April my  Fury  on F l a x m a n ' s i n s i s t e n c e  what L o r d B r i s t o l  bas-relief  based  standing four figure  on  wanted - a f i v e an  existing  group over  36  t h a t the foot  commission by  terracotta  seven  feet  tall  eight -  to  Flaxman f i n a l l y  delivered.  became o b v i o u s t h a t support  the costs  As he worked on t h e Athamas i t  h i s other a r t i s t i c  of production.  more money b u t o n l y  successful  Lord Mansfield  Flaxman's s c u l p t o r ' s certainly  f e e a l o n e was L 2 0 0 0 .  example,  The c o n c e p t  of study  following  lured  year  commission Lord  rather  only  to leave  failed  23).  6 4  " e c c e n t r i c and shabbily.  For  i n Rome t o  prematurely  i n the  away by L o r d B r i s t o l ' s p r o m i s e o f t h e  t o honour h i s p r o m i s e .  t o resume h i s I t a l i a n  desire  other a r t i s t s  f o r h i s new m a n s i o n a t I c k w o r t h .  Bristol  seem t h a t  (Figure  f o r being  for a  22) was abandoned  i n 1778 t h e a r c h i t e c t J o h n Soane a r r i v e d  begin a period  more  Flaxman was  6 3  C o l l i n s (Figure  had a r e p u t a t i o n  and had t r e a t e d  8 5  agreed  monument o f 1794 ( F i g u r e 2 1 ) .  t h e l e s s e x p e n s i v e one F l a x m a n d e l i v e r e d  mean"  t o ask f o r  f o rthe rather  aware o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o s t s .  Lord B r i s t o l  could not  to the o r i g i n a l l y  By c o m p a r i s o n ,  monument f o r t h e p o e t W i l l i a m for  He was f o r c e d  L100 i n a d d i t i o n  upon L500 was f o r t h c o m i n g .  activities  Lord B r i s t o l  studies.  6 6  returned  Soane was n e v e r  In Flaxman's case,  was t a k i n g  to e s t a b l i s h himself  When Soane  i t would  advantage o f the s c u l p t o r ' s  t o guarantee the completion  of the  project. For  a l l h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o Flaxman's f i n a n c i a l  Lord B r i s t o l After that  d i d not h e s i t a t e  to praise  plight,  t h e man o r h i s work.  a l l , no l e s s a f i g u r e t h a n A n t o n i o C a n o v a had s u g g e s t e d F l a x m a n was c a p a b l e o f d e l i v e r i n g e x c e l l e n t  Furthermore, Lord B r i s t o l  mentioned  37  in a letter  work. t o Lady  6 7  Erne  that  he  had  young man He  sent  would  hoped he  the  was  a message t o F l a x m a n ' s f a t h e r 'rise  t o be  sculptor  product  of  three  his refined tastes.  Reynolds' observation N o b i l i t y t o be  Arts',  that  'there  distinguished  To  I n d e e d , he  i t transpired  The  Fury of  Athamas was  i n no  small  part  because i t i s r e a l l y  hensible  when v i e w e d  from  the  But  even t h e n  the  figures passionless.  divorced  i t s dramatic  from the  on,  divorced  action.  without  from the  one  missioned  the  They were n o t friends.  The  personified among the  sons.71  One  simply  compre-  shown i n F i g u r e  i s subdued and  might  the  imagine that  20.  faces  as  h i s e n t h u s i a s m was  the  of  Flaxman similarly  could  H a r e - N a y l o r s , who  not  fellow v i s i t o r s  to  Hare-Naylor embroidered was  the  Italy  a return  and  had  outright  the  personal  f o r the  gift  Flaxmans  Hare-Naylor's  s i t u a t i o n did  t h e y o f f e r e d him  38  but  a carpet  governess of  F l a x m a n an  com-  have been more d i f f e r e n t .  Hare-Naylor's f i n a n c i a l  them t o g i v e  hope o f  only  work.  Homer d e s i g n s ,  The  artistic  p a r t i c i p a n t s seem c u r i o u s l y  compensation,  Flaxman's s i s t e r  permit the  Mrs.  side  impact  Flaxman's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  four  business  judges of  an  failure,  and  only  6 9  As  toiled  6 8  before  desire  l o v e r s and  the  have p u r c h a s e d  Bristol's  i s a general as  Europe'.  y e a r s work, f o r  g u i n e a s would have d e m o n s t r a t e d L o r d as  in  that  work j u s t  s c u l p t o r ' s name became a h o u s e h o l d word.  acumen as w e l l  our  first  g e t t i n g Flaxman's g r e a t e s t  s u c h a m a j o r work, t h e 600  the  saying  without a loan  at  not least  Flaxman  7 0  p r o b a b l y would  have r e f u s e d .  He  had  a c c e p t money f r o m Romney t o a s s i s t to  Rome and  only  agreed  F l a x m a n had man.  As  early  surprised thought  life,  even  at t h i s  a r t works a n c i e n t  line  produce drawings  from the s t o r i e s  The  illustrate,  significant  related  the s t o r i e s able  and modern, and  with passages  Hare-Naylor proposed and O d y s s e y ,  n a r r a t i v e s had half  1750  t o 1825  toward  She  increase factor  identified  7 3  from  Greek  that  'copied  drawings literature.  Flaxman s h o u l d  inspired  a promise a number o f  works b a s e d  on  two  a r e from  factors  that  In  subjects  t h a t w h i l e o v e r 200  t h a n 40  of  date  the preceeding contributed  in popularity. i s a change i n a t t i t u d e  the Homeric  "Homer's common l a n g u a g e , poems w i t h l i t t l e  from  of the 18th Century.  o v e r 300  fewer  his  also offered  from the p e r i o d  critics  expressly  who  vases'.  to take subjects  from a n c i e n t  Wiebenson f o u n d  first  ( i n Rome),  on G r e e k  vases' suggest that  Dora  The  here  have  h i s words  course of i n v e s t i g a t i n g  t h e sudden  drawings  Further,  vases.  from the I l i a d ,  to  'my  on a n c i e n t  works i n t h e s e c o n d  7 4  that  artists  t i m e he was  epics.  of  B e f o r e 1750,  literary they  long d i g r e s s i o n s which  formal structure, 39  7 2  h i s t a l e n t s as a d r a u g h t s -  r e m i n i s c e n t of  the e p i c  three c e n t u r i e s .  trip  drawings  the I l i a d  success since  from  on G r e e k  t e x t s Mr.  for his  f r o m them o r i g i n a l  were b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d  the  he had  t h e y were c o p i e d  v a s e s and the  demonstrated  some o f t h e b e s t E n g l i s h  Apparently  w i t h expenses  to  t o a c c e p t money i n e x c h a n g e f o r c a s t s .  already  as 1788  been v e r y r e l u c t a n t  his realistic  left and  censured his vulgar  descriptions, and  the  ordinary,  l a c k of  unideal  allegorical  vigour  o f h i s n a r r a t i v e was  artist  a l i k e such t h a t ,  subjects rather  than a c c u r a t e  notable by  were d e p i c t e d ,  s e r i e s of  on  actions  structure ignored the  e m p h a s i s was  earlier  Rubens ( c . 1 6 3 0 ) , f o c u s e d  the  poems".  literary  placed of  period,  the  on  on  a depiction  of  the  d i d a c t i c purpose The  the  designs  life  of  on  Included  are  a Wrath o f A c h i l l e s ( c f . F l a x m a n ' s M i n e r v a 2,  known R e t u r n o f B r i s e i s ( n o t painter visual  has  upon men  and  the  century  18th  visual three  image.  visible  period,  the  expansive and  themes —  dominance of  the  love.  In h i s v e r s i o n  of  the  In  7 6  described costumed  second was  the  Repressing  earliest  Flaxman).  the  War.  to  The  present the  first  gods  half to  of  spectacular  Wrath o f A c h i l l e s (one 7 7  of  (1721-1725)) A n t o i n e p l a c i n g Minerva  consistant  landscape completed with  colorfully  subjects  yet,  the  subordinated  g o d d e s s by  c e n t r a l f i g u r e s i n the  a fully  The  to A c h i l l e s ;  by  Trojan  i n f l u e n c e of  d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e was  s e p a r a t e s m o r t a l s and  and  known c h a r a c t e r s  designs for Gobelins t a p e s t r i e s  Coypel only  the  two  37))  illustrated  u s e d Homer's w e l l  metaphors of  Figure  the  most  not  Fury of A c h i l l e s ( I l i a d  events of  and  when H o m e r i c  tapestry of  The  7 5  critic  text.  eight  heroes,  Achilles  the  a recounting  unheroic  occasions  representation  the  of  by  rare  and  in a  w i t h works o f  a c t i o n are  located  f o l i a g e , ships  in a  m i l i t a r y encampment p o p u l a t e d  by  the  in  an  harbour many  figures.  f a c t o r i n the  increased  popularity  p u b l i c a t i o n o f T a b l e a u x t i r £ s de  40  of  cloud  Homeric  I'Iliad,  de  I ' 0 d y s s 6 e d'Homere e t de t i o n s g£nerales sur de  Caylus,  used  at  l e n g t h how  to s u c c e s s f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e  consequence of wrath the  two  addition,  by  private Before  the  s i d e s of  artists  1757  who  the  J.H.  of  the  Tischbein  prot£g6,  i n the  each c o n t a i n s (Iliad  2 and  3,  from a l l p r e v i o u s using  no  s u b j e c t s had  and  from e n g r a v i n g s of  this  compositions  a  Tiepolo  8 2  frieze-like  for  months a f t e r 1760's, de  the 7 9  Caylus' While  Flaxman's  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) are revealed  often.  1790's.  Caylus,  exposed.  associated  i n the  i n the  the  be  together  a few  In  and  could  been  Sergei  setting.  set  Achilles  apart  character  compositions  with  ,  French a r t , notably  the  de  35  de  Caylus'  "which s t r e s s e d a r e t u r n t o the  derived  only  Flaxman  t r e a t m e n t s as he  Wiebenson a l s o r e c a l l s  century  public o f f i c i a l  i n 1757  and  37  be  was  appear t o g e t h e r .  were r e n d e r e d  fewer f i g u r e s i n simple  virtually  the  i n s p i r e d by  Figures  Comte  analytical  1770's,80 J o s e p h - M a r i e V i e n , 8 1  the  departure  d i d so were: G i a m b a t t i s t a  1780*s,  details  This  as B r i s e i s  Tableaux,78 Tobias  i n the  observa-  which scenes might  hero's character  they  h i s Valmarana s e r i e s p a i n t e d publication  I t s author,  epics.  logically  Tableaux the  after  a v e c des  that p r e c i p i t a t e d A c h i l l e s '  p a i r i n g them, b o t h  once but  Among t h e  same e v e n t  images s h o u l d  Caylus'  Virglle,  and  the  f o r example, t h a t  domestic de  de  l e costume i n 1757.  considered  work s u g g e s t e d ,  only  l'Eneide  classical  to the  artist's f o r at  41  activities  i n a movement  i d e a l s of  17th  a r t of Poussin."83  works t h a t G a v i n least  three  it  was  Hamilton  o f h i s works  —  Hector's Farewell, A  P r i a m and A c h i l l e s and Andromache M o u r n i n g .  f o u r t h work A c h i l l e s D r a g g i n g H e c t o r ' s Body a r o u n d  of Troy  (Figure  53) i s b a s e d on an e n g r a v i n g  member o f P o u s s i n ' s c i r c l e  i n Rome.  borrowed a scene o f t h e s u b j e c t in Gori's  Museum E t r u s c u m  f r o m an a n t i q u e  Iliad  a well  world with  Rome on t h e G r a n d T o u r . images o f Rome an added were a c t i v e l y engaged of  ancient  as  a guide t o s i t e s  f o r Hamilton's p a i n t i n g  art.  e s t a b l i s h e d market  the steady  flow  Flaxman h i m s e l f  8 5  incentive  as a  F l a x m a n was w e l l of antiquarian  This  He w r o t e t o h i s f a t h e r  English  nobility  England  f o rplaster casts  ture'.  8 6  8 7  stock  believed  and g e n t r y  Accordingly of casts. that  an a t t r a c t i v e s u p p l e m e n t  with  i n t e r e s t with  contact  such  acting  frequency 'almost  was n o t w i t h o u t  f r o m what I s e e o f t h e  as other that  them,  the v i s i t o r s  the taste  classically  increases i n  articles  of sculp-  Flaxman S r . i n c r e a s e have  inspired designs  to the c o l l e c t i n g  42  Piranesi's The t o u r i s t s  F l a x m a n , w i t h H a r e - N a y l o r , must  newly c r e a t e d  through  had f o u n d  acquainted  here that  he s u g g e s t e d  of people  a n t i q u i t i e s and d e p i c t i o n s  'I f i n d  as well  f o r depictions  to t r a v e l there.  i n collecting  him o f f h i s l e g s ' .  effect.  be  illustrated  i t f o r t h e Homer c o m m i s s i o n .  as Mrs. Flaxman wrote t o h e r s i s t e r ,  hurried  his  gem  36 ( F i g u r e 3 8 ) .  the ancient  that,  F l a x m a n had  ( s i c ) Body D r a g g e d a t t h e C a r o f A c h i l l e s ,  T h e r e was a l r e a d y of  a  t o produce a Jasperware design f o r  8 4  he u s e d an e n g r a v i n g  model f o r h i s H e c t o r s  by P l e t r o T e s t a  Years before  Wedgwood b u t he c h o s e n o t t o r e v i v e Instead,  the Walls  would  p r o c l i v i t i e s of  the  Grand T o u r i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y  familiar, At  the  this  form a p p r o p r i a t e juncture,  circumstances that Thomas Hope and entered  i f the  into his  i t would  surrounded  the  and  the  subject  matter  volumes  affordable.  seem a p p r o p r i a t e  discussions  with  winter  of  Aurora v i s i t i n g originally It  was  C e p h a l u s on  t o be  t o be  the  cast  been w o r k i n g on  Mount  Ida  i n bronze but  focal  point  A good i n d i c a t i o n o f  with  sculpture  and  o f Hope's H o u s e h o l d advanced  unexecuted  The  Flaxman f e l t stone.90  fault figure t o be  a n c  j  work was  comparable to that  into  o f an  r e c r e a t i o n of  Torso Belvedere89 Hebe.  other  i n the  how  the  may  ancient  a young g i r l  25).  the  original not  as  1792  i n marble.88 Star  1807  edition  Hope as  yet the and  i n a marble  Torso Belvedere. be  in  arranged  b a s e d upon  intended,  Apparently  successfully translated  have b e e n c o r r e c t . (Figure  than a b r i d e  43  was  marriage of H e r c u l e s  disproportionately  rather  In  g r o u p t o be  s u r v i v i n g p l a s t e r model  o f Hebe i s so  t o be  a n t i c i p a t e d L700 f o r an  could  well  room was  (Figure  never attemped, of  titled  which  executed  the  house i n Duchess S t r e e t  the  to represent  h i s design He  an  24)  works i s shown i n t h e  Furniture  F l a x m a n L341  In  of a s o - c a l l e d Flaxman o r  London. the  begun some  a group  (Figure  finally  room i n Hope's t h e n newly f u r n i s h e d  which  Cockerell.  D a n t e d e s i g n s were e v e n c o n s i d e r e d .  1789-90 F l a x m a n had  the  with  s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s Dante commission  later  the  to note  Flaxman's a s s o c i a t i o n  F l a x m a n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Thomas Hope had years before  were  small of  A 26)  conspicuous i s that  that  Hercules.  she  the  appears  At the to  least  Dante  two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s had prompted Hope t o c o m m i s s i o n  illustrations.  His intention,  g i v e engraved v e r s i o n s  idea  of a very p e r s o n a l  Wedgewood had p r o v i d e d dividuals  for similar  employ.91  f r i e n d s as g i f t s .  and e x p e n s i v e g i f t  was  Jasperware p o r t r a i t disposition  England.  his  History  As r e c e n t l y  a s 1781  of E n g l i s h Poetry  not  the  English Just  he c o u l d pictorial to  I t was  Thomas Warton  had  text  a s t h e r e had been refer  t h e r e was  Flaxman's u n d e r t a k i n g  I n t h e same  translation  w h i c h was  also very  literary little  specific  t h e Dante Commission  t h e most  15th  by S a n d r o B o t t i c e l l i .  obvious i n t e r e s t  rendered  i n the l i n e  t o Flaxman.  i n the 16th Century only  Scottish  collection.  access to t h i s consulted  Prior recent late  these  t h e y w o u l d have been o f  However, t h e B o t t i c e l l i  vanished  t o r e a p p e a r i n 1803  manuscript in a  i t i s unlikely  that  Flaxman  I t a l i a n ' s work i t i s p o s s i b l e  that  both  9 4  while  the As  9 3  to which  contemporary  t o use f o r i n s p i r a t i o n .  f o r t h e D i v i n e Comedy was  d e s i g n s were a l s o  of the  to provide  criticism  series of i l l u s t r a t i o n s Century c o l l e c t i o n  a common s o u r c e ,  been  illustrations.  little  imagery f o r Flaxman  published  t h e p o e t ' s work i n  English  translation  t o Flaxman's  i n Dante  i n w h i c h D a n t e ' s g e n i u s had  the f i r s t  this  in his  interest  T r i u m p h o f Temper and h i s E s s a y on E p i c P o e t r y .  D i v i n e Comedy."  This new.  w h i l e F l a x m a n was  and W i l l i a m H a y l e y had c o n s i d e r e d  y e a r H e n r y Boyd p r o v i d e d  was  medalions of i n -  T h e r e had a l s o been an i n c r e a s e d  in  explored  to close  on t h e one hand,  Italian  44  late Gothic  had  artists  illuminated  m a n u s c r i p t s of  the  D i v i n e Comedy o v e r  Rather unexpectedly, to  e x h i b i t a Dante s u b j e c t  Similarly, of  the  1596. to  i n 1773, at  dearth  pictorial tently  precents,  original  To  s e r i e s of  r e t u r n to the  illustrations."  subject  of  c o m m i s s i o n had  ages.  e x p l o i t the  artistic  opposed highly the to  In  1792,  execution developed  skill.  his  him.  these  forte',  skills  Matthew had His  subjects  first  9 8  No  to a story with  read  sculptural  and  c o m m i s s i o n had  illustrations  was  The t o be  had  duration  importantly w h i c h he  design  small the  considerably  45  (as  h i s most Cockerell  of  artist  appreciates  F l a x m a n was  was  long  to  Homeric  the Matthews.  compared w i t h  work on  shortened  the  to  familiar.  in translation  a friend  of  advant-  previously  been f o r d r a w i n g o f  l a b o r c o s t s would be  works.  he  knows he  t h e Homer s t o r i e s  f o r Jeremiah Crutchley  materials  from  h a p p i n e s s t o an  someone who  rely  consis-  conspicuous  f o r example) as  less  to  Dante  l a c k of a v a i l a b l e  regarded  'It i s a great  i n t o a c t i o n by  particular  apply Mrs.  called  with  forced  A f t e r h i s discussions with  that  since  9 7  skills  apparently  of s c u l p t u r e ,  a r c h i t e c t noted be  he  first  t h e Homer d e s i g n s ,  of view the  demonstrated.  edition  became " h i s most  Flaxman's p o i n t It could  was  Thus, perhaps f o r the  the Dante d e s i g n s  Ugolino.  specifically  r e f e r meant t h a t he  resources.  the  y £ )  artist  illustrated  i t was  o r works a s s o c i a t e d  which Flaxman c o u l d  upon h i s own  i n 1757  an  survive.  first  t h e R o y a l Academy, an  when A n t o n i o Z a t t a p u b l i s h e d  The  of which  R e y n o l d s became t h e  D i v i n e Comedy i n V e n i c e 9 6  thirty  Flaxman's  Homeric  because  The  the  final  v e r s i o n s were t o be e n g r a v e d  and p r e s e n t e d  someone e l s e , t h e e n g r a v e r Thomas P i r o l i . task,  the designs  dispensing panying  with  were t o be p u b l i s h e d  t h e need  f o r securing  t e x t on t r a n s l a t i o n .  Expediting  t h e r i g h t s t o an accom-  Finally,  the chosen form,  was,  Collection  o f V a s e s o f 1791, an i n e x p e n s i v e  a l l those  project  a s S i r W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n had n o t e d  involved, Hare-Naylor,  promised  line  inhis  form o f  illustration.  F l a x m a n , and P i r o l i ,  an e a r l y and s u c c e s s f u l  46  Piroli's  as books o f e n g r a v i n g s  engraving,  For  f o r s a l e by  conclusion.  the  NOTES TO THE  TEXT  CHAPTER I I J o h n Thomas, 'John Flaxman, R.A. ( 1 7 5 5 - 1 8 2 6 ) ' , Journal o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f A r t s , ( 9 t h December 1 9 5 5 ) , p.43 R . G u n n i s , D i c t i o n a r y o f B r i t i s h S c u l p t o r s ( L o n d o n 1953; and r e v i s e d e d i t i o n 1968) g i v e s as c o m p l e t e a b i o g r a p h y as i s p o s s i b l e f o r J o h n F l a x m a n S r whose c a r e e r was a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y o v e r s h a d o w e d by h i s s o n ' s . F l a x m a n ' s s i s t e r - i n - l a w M a r i a Denman s a i d i n The B u i l d e r (24 J a n u a r y 1863) p. 60 t h a t F l a x m a n r e c e i v e d no t r a i n i n g . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s A l l a n Cunningham, L i v e s o f t h e Most E m i n e n t B r i t i s h P a i n t e r s S c u l p t o r s and A r c h i t e c t s , 2nd edition. ( L o n d o n , 1830-1833) v o l . I l l p . 61. N o t e d by I r w i n op. c i t . p. 213 f n 26. F o r t h e most c o m p l e t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Rev. and M r s . Mathew see G e r a l d B e n t l e y , ' P a t r o n o f F l a x m a n and B l a k e , ' N o t e s and Q u e r i e s , 203, 1958, pp. 168-178. G e o r g e -Smith The D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y e d . S i r L e s l i e S t e p h e n and S i r S i d n e y L e e ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 8 ) , v o l . I l l p.1104. 6  Ibid.,  v o l IV  p.59.  7  Ibid.,  v o l XIII  p.688.  8  Ibid.,  v o l XIII  p.688.  9  Ibid.,  v o l XIII  p.689.  1  0  The f i r s t p a t r o n o f F l a x m a n as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t was p r o b a b l y Edward K n i g h t s e n i o r c o u s i n o f R i c h a r d Payne Knight. See E l l a H e n d r i c k s , 'The F i r s t p a t r o n o f J o h n F l a x m a n ' B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e O c t o b e r 1984 pp. 618-625. Mr. C r u t c h l e y ' s s i x b l a c k c h a l k d r a w i n g s a r e now l o s t . I r w i n op. c i t . , p . 220, n. 51.  1  1  W i l l i a m H a y l e y , Memoirs  1  2  (London  MSS, P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y , 24 A u g u s t 1803.  1823).  New  I.  p.309.  York, Flaxman  1  3  J . Romney, Memoirs o f G e o r g e  1  4  S i d n e y C. H u t c h i s o n The H i s t o r y o f t h e R o y a l Academy 1768-1968 ( L o n d o n , 1968); James N o r t h c o t e , E s q . The L i f e o f S i r J o s h u a R e y n o l d s ( L o n d o n , 1818) p. 164 f f . 47  Romney (London  to Hagley,  1830),  p.203.  1  S i d n e y C. H u t c h i s o n , 'The R o y a l Academy S c h o o l s , W a l p o l e S o c i e t y , X X X V I I I , 1960-1962, p.134.  5  1768-1830',  16  S i r J o s h u a R e y n o l d s , D i s c o u r s e s on A r t e d . R o b e r t R. Wark (San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a , 1959) D i s c o u r s e I I 1 1 . 1 8 f f .  1  7  Hutchison  op. c i t . , p.102.  1  9  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I I , 11. 23-27.  2  0  Reynolds,  Discourse  I V , 11. 27-33.  2  1  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I I , 11. 45-47.  2  2  S i d n e y C. H u t c h i s o n , The H i s t o r y 1768-1968 ( L o n d o n , 1968) p . 237.  2  3  2  *  of the Royal  Academy  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I I , 11. 242-246.  4  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I I , 11. 256-265.  2  5  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I I , 11. 103-105.  2  6  Reynolds,  Discourse  IV, 11. 167-171.  2  7  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I , 11. 97-99.  2  8  Reynolds,  D i s c o u r s e V, 11. 312-316.  2  9  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I , 11. 188-191.  3  0  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I I , 11. 355-361.  3  1  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I , 11. 184-185.  3  2  Reynolds,  D i s c o u r s e V, 11. 70-75.  3  3  Reynolds,  D i s c o u r s e V, 11. 45-52.  3  4  Reynolds,  Discourse  I V , 11. 34-36.  3  5  Reynolds,  Discourse  I I I , 11. 300-301.  3  6  Wedgwood t o B e n t l e y 14 J a n u a r y 1775 i n E . M e t e y a r d , o f Wedgwood (London 1 8 6 5 - 1 8 6 6 ) , I I p . 321.  3  7  Wedgwood t o B e n t l e y 9 J u l y I I p . 366.  3  8  Wedgwood t o B e n t l e y , op. c i t . , p . 10.  1776 i n M e t e y a r d ,  14 F e b r u a r y  48  op.  Life  cit.,  1776 i n C o n s t a b l e ,  3  9  Wedgwood t o F l a x m a n , op. c i t . , p . 589.  4  0  The whole i s s u e o f i n d u s t r y d r a w i n g upon a n c i e n t w o r k s f o r i n s p i r a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d by D a v i d I r w i n , "Neoc l a s s i c a l D e s i g n : I n d u s t r y P l u n d e r s A n t i q u i t y " , A p o l l o ns 96: pp.283-297.  4  1  4  2  C o n s t a b l e , op. c i t . , p . 7 .  4  3  Wedgwood t o B e n t l e y p. 8.  4  4  J o s e p h B u r k e , E n g l i s h A r t 1714-1800 ( O x f o r d , p. 259.  4  5  C o n s t a b l e , op. c i t . ,  4  6  W i l l i a m H a y l e y , The L i f e o f G e o r g e Romney E s q . 1809) p.313 and J . Romney, op. c i t . , p .  4  7  British Library, entries.  4  8  E . M e t e y a r d op. c i t . , p . 506 i n c l u d e s a f a c s i m i l e o f a l i s t w r i t t e n by F l a x m a n o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f a box o f t h e F l a x m a n s s e n t by Wedgwood ' t o t h e c a r e o f Mess, M i c a l i and Son L e g h o r n . '  4  9  B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MSS. 39780 f . 38v, Flaxman p a r e n t s , f r o m P a r i s 1 O c t o b e r 1787.  5  0  D a v i d I r w i n , J o h n Flaxman p. 3 1 .  5  1  I b i d . , p 31 a l s o D a v i d I r w i n , 'Flaxman: I t a l i a n J o u r n a l s and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e ' B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , C l (1959) pp. 212-213.  5  2  Q u o t e d a t l e n g t h by D a v i d I r w i n , 'Flaxman I t a l i a n J o u r n a l s and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e ' a s i n p r e v i o u s f o o t n o t e p . 213.  5  3  The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e s e two images I r w i n , J o h n Flaxman 1755-1826 ( L o n d o n ,  5  4  Noted Finer  11 F e b r u a r y 1790, i n M e t e y a r d ,  i n a l e t t e r Wedgwood t o B e n t l e y 7 September and Savage op. c i t . , p . 114. *  1771 i n  14 J a n u a r y 1775 i n C o n s t a b l e , o p . c i t . , 1976),  p . 7.  MS. 39784, A., Flaxman  1755-1826  (London,  a c c o u n t book  (London,  to h i s  1979),  i s noted i n David 1979), p. 41.  B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , A d d . MS. 3 9 J 8 0 , f . 47v, F l a x m a n t o p a r e n t s , Rome, 26 J a n u a r y [-4790].  49  J o h n M u r r a y L t d London, F l a x m a n s k e t c h b o o k 435. N o t e d i n D a v i d I r w i n , J o h n Flaxman 1755-1826 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 49, 223 n.52 C o l l e c t i o n of Autograph l e t t e r s . . . A l f r e d Morrison. H a m i l t o n and N e l s o n p a p e r s , I L e t t e r 237. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , A d d . MS. 39780, f . 179, M r s . F l a x m a n t o s i s t e r , [Rome], 22 J u l y 1788 w h e r e i n H a m i l t o n i s d e s c r i b e d a s F l a x m a n ' s ' b e s t f r i e n d i n Rome.' Bodleian Library, 13 March 1792.  MSS. A u t o g r a p h d. I I , f f . 319-20,  Rome,  Flaxman t o S i r W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n , u n d a t e d [ 1 7 9 0 ] , p r i n t e d i n C o l l e c t i o n of Autograph l e t t e r s . . . A l f r e d Morrison. H a m i l t o n and N e l s o n P a p e r s ( 1 8 9 3 ) , I , L e t t e r 237. Charles Robert C o c k e r e l l ,  Diaries,  F l a x m a n t o Romney, Rome, 15 A p r i l op. c i t . , p 208.  2 7 t h November 1824. 1790 i n J . Romney,  F l a x m a n t o p a r e n t s , Rome, 7 O c t o b e r 1790 i n B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39780 f . 50. S a r a h Symmons, The S p i r i t o f D e s p a i r : P a t r o n a g e , P r i m i t i v i s m and t h e A r t o f J o h n F l a x m a n ' , B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , C X V I I , 1975, p . 647. The r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n w o u l d have c o s t a b o u t L 2 2 5 . d e l i v e r e d one d i d c o s t L90 D. I r w i n J o h n F l a x m a n ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 9 ) , p 63. Ibid.,  The 1755-1826  p . 54.  P i e r r e de l a R u f f i n i e r e du P r e y i n h i s J o h n S o a n e ' s A r c h i t e c t u r a l E d u c a t i o n 1753-80 (New Y o r k , 1977) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t L o r d B r i s t o l m i g h t have b e e n j u s t i f i e d i n h i s u l t i m a t e r e j e c t i o n o f Soane's d e s i g n . Du P r e y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f rooms would have made t h e m a n s i o n an " i n c o n v e n i e n t hodgepodge" due m o s t l y t o t h e " t a m p e r i n g o f t h e a r c h i t e c t - B i s h o p and h i s s e l f - o p i n i o n a t e d amanuens i s " , p.285 I n a d d i t i o n , t h e b u i l d i n g seems t o have been d e s i g n e d w i t h no p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i n mind. p.286. L e t t e r f r o m F l a x m a n t o Romney 15 A p r i l 1790 i n J o h n Romney, Memoirs o f t h e L i f e and Work o f G e o r g e Romney ( L o n d o n , 1830) pp. 204-207.  50  L o r d B r i s t o l t o L a d y E r n e , 26 M a r c h 1792 i n W i l l i a m S C h i l d e P e m b e r t o n , The E a r l B i s h o p [1924] V o l , I I , p. 439. Reynolds, Discourse  I,  11.  30-32.  Mrs G. H a r e - N a y l o r t o Mrs F l a x m a n 8 November B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39781 f . 386. Irwin,  op.  c i t . , p.  138.  W i l l i a m H a y l e y , The 1 8 0 9 ) , p.313.  Life  F l a x m a n t o Romney 25 p. 204.  May  o f G e o r g e Romney, E s q .  1788  Kerry  p.  (Chichester,  i n J . Romney op. c i t . ,  D o r a W i e b e n s o n , " S u b j e c t s f r o m Homer's I l i a d A r t " , A r t B u l l e t i n v.46, 1964; pp.23-37. Ibid.,  1794.  in Neoclassical  23.  Downes, Rubens,  (London,  W i e b e n s o n , op. c i t . , p.25. The H e c t o r ' s F a r e w e l l and A c h i l l e s '  1980),  pp.90-2.  o t h e r two Revenge.  designs  were a  M i c h a e l Levey, " T i e p o l o ' s Treatment of the C l a s s i c a l S t o r y at the V i l l a Valmarana; A Study i n E i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y I c o n o g r a p h y and A e s t h e t i c s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , 1957, pp.298-317 n o t e s t h a t i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum t h e r e i s a copy o f t h e T a b l e a u x which c o n t a i n s the b o o k - p l a t e of Consul Joseph Smith to w h i c h T i e p o l o may have a c c e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e book was r e g i s t e r e d as a p p r o v e d a t P a r i s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n A u g u s t 3.1, 1756 and t h u s T i e p o l o may mave had t i m e t o s t u d y i t . p.302 f o o t n o t e . H a r a l d B r i s i n g , " S e r g e l s t e c h n i n g e r t i l l Homeros och V i r g i l i u s " , T i d s k r i f t f o r K o n s t v e t e n s k a p , 1917 d a t e s d e s i g n s t o 1766-1767. p.139. W i e b e n s o n , op.  c i t . , p.  the  25.  V i e n p a i n t e d f i v e o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n the s e r i e s . They were: V e n u s Wounded ( S a l o n 1 7 7 5 ) , H e c t o r R e p r o a c h i n g P a r i s ( S a l o n 1 7 7 9 ) , P r i a m D e p a r t i n g f o r t h e G r e e k Camp ( S a l o n 1783, A n g i e r s ) , P r i a m R e t u r n f r o m t h e G r e e k Camp ( S a l o n 1785) and H e c t o r D e p a r t i n g (1786, S a l o n 1791, Eplnal). W i e b e n s o n , op.  c i t . , pp.  25-27.  51  Wiebenson,  op. c i t . ,  p.32.  See A n t o n i o F r a n c e s c o G o r i , Museum F l o r e n t i u m , I I , Gemmae a n t i q u a e , F l o r e n c e , 1731-1732, p. 60, p i . xxv, no. 1. F l a x m a n ' s Wedgewood p l a g u e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n R o d e r i c k Cameron, "Flaxman e t Wedgwood", L ' O e i l , May, 1959, p.54. U s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n s of the Grand T o u r l a n d i t s t o u r i s t a r e : W i l l i a m Edward Mead The G r a n d T o u r i n t h e 1 8 t h C e n t u r y ( B o s t o n and New Y o r k , 1914) and C h r i s t o p h e r H i b b e r t , The G r a n d T o u r (New Y o r k , 1969) M r s . F l a x m a n t o h e r s i s t e r M a r i a Denman [Rome] 24 1792. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39780 f . 53. F l a x m a n t o p a r e n t s [Rome] 3 M a r c h Add. MS. 39780 f . 57.  1792  British  B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MS.39780, f , 4 7 v , F l a x m a n Rome, 26 J a n u a r y 1790.  April  Library to parents,  F l a x m a n b a s e d t h i s two f i g u r e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n on a s u g g e s t i o n of d ' H a n c a r v i l l e . MSS. B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , A u t o g . d. 1 1 , f . 3 1 9 , F l a x m a n t o S i r W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n , Rome, 13 M a r c h 1792. A f t e r A.W. von S c h l e g e l v i s i t e d F l a x m a n i n 1820's t h e German c r i t i c was p r o m o t e d t o i n c l u d e t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e 1828 e d i t i o n o f h i s 1799 a r t i c l e . S c h e g e l , op. c i t . , p.154. R o b i n R e i l l y and G e o r g e S a v a g e , Wedgwood t h e P o r t r a i t M e d a l l i o n s , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 3 ) , p.29. F l a x m a n ' s d e s i g n s f o r t h e D i v i n e Comedy have a l s o been u s e d by o t h e r a r t i s t s . See V i c t o r Chan, " B l a k e , Goya, F l a x m a n , Romney, and F u s e l i : T r a n s c r i p t i o n s and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f a D a n t e s q u e Image, A r t s M a g a z i n e , 55, May 1981, pp. 80-84. See K e n n e t h C l a r k , The D r a w i n g s by S a n d r o B o t t i c e l l i f o r D a n t e ' s D i v i n e Comedy ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . T a t e G a l l e r y , H e n r y F u s e l i 1741-1825 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. Clark,  op. c i t . ,  pp. 12 f f .  Irwin,  op. c i t . ,  p.95.  Irwin,  op. c i t . ,  p.95.  C.R.Cockerell, Diaries  27 November  52  1824.  102.  CHAPTER I I I Flaxman's 15,  1792  w i f e Nancy w r o t e t o h e r s i s t e r  relating  that  w i t h commissioned is  employ'd  set  h e r husband  s c u l p t u r e s and  and t h a t  closely  was  Making  o f one h u n d r e d  f o r Mr.  t o o - i n making  and  Hope, a f t e r  v e r y busy  in' the daytime  Hell,  (or rather  fully  treated  o f 60 most b e a u t i f u l  he  and P u r g a t o r y , engravings are  going  on a t t h e  same t i m e ) a r e a s e t o f d r a w i n g s f r o m Homer's i l i a d (sic) - consisting  December  a compleat ( s i c )  t e n - from which  there  on  ' a t home i n t h e E v e n i n g s -  o f d r a w i n g s f r o m D a n t e s Heaven,  consisting  May  and  S u b j e c t s and  as  Oddyssey beauti-  - w h i c h a l s o he makes d u p l i c a t e s  f o r Mr.  Udney  E n g l i s h m a n - on w h i c h a l s o he makes d u p l i c a t e d  f o r Mr.  Naylor  (Husband  of the l a t e B i s h o p of S t . Asaph's  a r e a l s o E n g r a v i n g h e r e as Mr. his  return  t o E n g l a n d [;]  dozen c o p i e s ' . 1 beautiful  How  of t h i s  letter  actually  served  Homer d e s i g n s t o h e r f a m i l y sculptor's  earlier  reviewed.  (1722-1902)  2 a  s e t Mr. treated'  on  a  '60  on p a p e r  London  Udney was merchant  most  forms  who  traded  of a r t .  to the East  John  the The  already  probably Robert F u l l e r t o n  V e n i c e , were a v i d  collectors  patrons.  w i t h Thomas Hope h a s  (1727-1800),  (if  Naylor's  to introduce  but a l s o Flaxman's  association  Mr.  not only  B o t h he and h i s b r o t h e r J o h n  supplied  them  chapter.  Mrs. Flaxman's  been  N a y l o r means t o p u b l i s h  s u b j e c t s and a s b e a u t i f u l l y  the s u b j e c t  Daughter) the which  he has p r o m i s ' d t o g i v e us h a l f  Flaxman  an  Udney  Indies.  English Consul to i s known t o have  h i s b r o t h e r w i t h works o t a r t b u t what h i s c o n n e c t i o n  a n y ) m i g h t have been w i t h  t h e Homer c o m m i s s i o n  i s unknown.  The  surviving  Homer d e s i g n s u s u a l l y  name a r e t h o s e e x e c u t e d i s markedly fact,  different  i n a shaded  from  t h e r e seems t o be  As an a d v a n c e d  associated style  on any  The "Mr.  R o b e r t Udney p u t an  the  person  I t was  Mrs.  identified of the l a t e  daughter  of Jonathan  Shipley,  father,  and  she had  devoted h e r s e l f  friend  painted  all  seven  surviving  Reducing nothing  Mrs.  o f t h e dowager C o u n t e s s  order a s e t of t h i r t y  studied  Tambroni, 4  studio.  and  had  is a  Hare-Naylor) was  Spencer  who  accom-  with her  While  in  Italy  a l s o become a  H a r e - N a y l o r was was  famous  also  herself  depicted  a to  scenes  from  p l a y s of A e s c h y l u s .  Homer's e p i c poems w h e r e i n  a f o r m i d a b l e achievement. left  (Mrs.  classics  i l l u s t r a t i o n s which  w i t h meaning'5 t o t h e 60  was  style.  at the time, the  i d l e or i r r e l a t i v e ' wherein  illustrate  not  Flaxman's l e t t e r  Shipley  to painting  of G r e e k .  ma r k 3  a p p a r e n t l y gave Flaxman  i n Reynolds's  of C l o t i l d a  female p r o f e s s o r cousin  does  b i s h o p o f S t . Asaph,  i n modern l a n g u a g e s , had had  In  B i s h o p o f S t . A s a p h ' s Daugh-  Georgianna  plished  close  but t h i s  i n Mrs.  H a r e - N a y l o r who  Homer c o m m i s s i o n .  which  identifying  o f t h e Homer d e s i g n s i n t h e s h a d e d  N a y l o r (Husband  ter)".  ( s e e F i g u r e 27)  no c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f o f t h i s c o n n e c t i o n .  collector  third  Udney's  the simple l i n e e n g r a v i n g s .  on many o f t h e works i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n , appear  w i t h Mr.  'nothing i s casual,  'every e x p r e s s i o n i s pregnant  images c a p a b l e o f b e i n g e n g r a v e d A p p a r e n t l y t h e c h o i c e o f what  t o Flaxman h i m s e l f .  54  Mrs.  was to  F l a x m a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n 'a s e t o f d r a w i n g s f r o m Homer's and  Oddyssey  and  as  beautifully  individual no  ( s i c ) - c o n s i s t i n g o f 60 treated -  indication  e n t i r e s t o r i e s by  the  end  to  be  the  chosen.  t h a t a v i e w e r was  the  illustrated.  t o be  Homer f r o m t h e  s e l e c t i o n of  most b e a u t i f u l s u b j e c t s  ...'makes no  s u b j e c t s were t o be  Iliad  m e n t i o n o f how  There i s , f o r able  by  infer  Flaxman.  d i c t a t e d by  Some w h o l e b o o k s a r e  example,  to r e c r e a t e or  designs  s u b j e c t s was  the  the  represented  In  stories by  single  drawings. Although both the  Trojan  lines. just  War,  The  the  continuously was  well  istic  of  to the  by  end.  writing lines,  of  the  The  This  the  of  distinctly  s t o r y begins  and  Century  as  time i s the  painter'.  6  [Homer] has  that  a particular who  department  Poetry  by  instantaneous  f i g u r e s which f i l l e d  and  closely,  i t s materials,  of  produce a drawing of p r e c i s e l y that  have n o t  i t corresponding  in Iliad  31  'I poet,  nature  p i c t u r e of  Achilles' by  splendid  i t s f o r m , and a l l  found  so c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y i t difficult  in a l l points'.  Thetis Bringing  55  character-  the  i t s very  i t s enormous s u r f a c e ,  t h a t modern a r t i s t s  events  wrote:  ' i n more t h a n a h u n d r e d  described  days  of  t h u s p r a i s e d Homer's m a s t e r y o f p o e t r y  shield  different  moves  sense of a p r o g r e s s i o n  18th  with  consecutive  s u c h t h e o r i s t s as L e s s i n g  the  did  e v e n t s o f 50  f o r example, an  Lessing  associated  develop along  the  i n the  space i s t h a t of  shield.  Odyssey a r e  t h e war.  succession  cannot present,  and  they  recounts  recognized  the  Iliad  stories  end  of poetry  maintain as  as  Iliad  before  the  7  to  Flaxman  t h e Armour  to  Achilles. the  Iliad  artist, the  W h i l e Homer, t h e p o e t , d e s c r i b e d  t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e s h i e l d was made F l a x m a n , t h e  showed  i t as a f i n i s h e d a r t i c l e  sense of p r o g r e s s i v e F l a x m a n was a b l e  actions first  in pictorial  i s consistent  historical tended...'  8  to recreate  images by e m p l o y i n g  Flaxman f r e q u e n t l y  grief  i s combined  included  Thetis  and T h e t i s  29 ( F i g u r e  Contending with  the Rivers  i n the very  characterizes  the text  been a p p r o p r i a t e  e v e n t s and 29 t o 33  T h e t i s and  t h e now grown  30) h a v i n g  t h e sense o f c o n s e c u t i v e of the I l i a d .  forillustrating  56  In  armour and c a l l s t h e  armour T h e t i s h a d d e l i v e r e d  Flaxman thus c a p t u r e d  was t o  A c h i l l e s appears i n I l i a d (Figure  deepest  new armour f o r A c h i l l e s .  the completed  A c h i l l e s t o arms.  into  30, V u l c a n and  29) r e a s s o c i a t e s  as she r e q u e s t s  In the  t h e Armour t o  Iliad  28) d e p i c t s Iliad  great  designs  The s e c o n d d e v i c e  The s e r i e s f r o m  (Figure  31 T h e t i s p r e s e n t s  grieving  battle  i n single  i n t h e H o m e r i c poem.  Eurynome r e c e i v i n g t h e i n f a n t V u l c a n . Chares Receiving  'in  w i t h t h e moment A c h i l l e s f a l l s  Iliad  The  always ex-  i n i n d i v i d u a l drawings a l l u s i o n s t o past  demonstrates t h i s .  Iliad  that  the a c t of Thetis Bringing  foreshadowings of the f u t u r e .  Vulcan  two d e v i c e s .  observation  over the death of P a t r o c l u s .  include  so l o s e s  progressive  t h e s i n g l e moment i s a l m o s t  31 f o r example,  Achilles  t h e sense o f  with Lessing's  pictures  b u t by d o i n g  action.  events which occur c o n s e c u t i v e l y Iliad  i n Book X V I I I o f  Neither  The O d y s s e y .  33 A c h i l l e s  returned  to  i n I l i a d 31. action device  that could  have  Homer's O d y s s e y Ulysses) fall  during  of Troy.  reduced  h i s 10 y e a r  t h e adventures o f Odysseus  Spanning a decade,  and p h y s i c a l l y .  the story of necessity i s  t a l e s which a r e s e p a r a t e d  Flaxman responded  a d v e n t u r e and a v o i d e d images.  representing  events  i n single  single  themes and images o f g r e a t e r d r a m a t i c  compare t r e a t m e n t s former A c h i l l e s ' limbs  Patroclus'  The r e s u l t  i n the I l i a d  bound) i s o n l y f u n e r a l pyre  i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on intensity.  i n Iliad  by t h e i r  35 The F u n e r a l  Pile  of Patroclus  of the L e s t r i g e n s s e i z i n g  companions o f U l y s s e s , Odyssey  pieces a defenseless  (Figure 32).  15, t h e b r u t a l g i a n t i s  of the d i f f e r i n g  approach  designs  appeal  and H i s Dog, O d y s s e y 26 ( F i g u r e 3 3 ) ,  by  o r as a f f e c t i n g  the Ghosts,  Iliad  seem t o have a s d i r e c t  an image a s U l y s s e s  a variety,  crew  sentimental for (sic)  17 ( F i g u r e 34) where t h e s h r i e k s o f t h e  Pope had w r i t t e n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s has ever  a  Terrefied  t o r m e n t e d go u n h e a r d by a l l b u t t h e t e r r i f i e d  author  t o hack  i s that  none o f t h e I l i a d  example,  one o f  o r o v e r p o w e r e d member o f U l y s s e s '  The r e s u l t  as U l y s s e s  animals  p r e s e n c e on  shown i n t h e much more u n s e t t l i n g image a s he i s a b o u t to  To  o f d e f e n s e l e s s men and  recalled  i n the King  consecutive  and O d y s s e y s e r i e s , i n t h e  brutal slaughter  ( F i g u r e 31 w h i l e the  to the e p i s o d i c  o f t h e s t o r y by f o c u s s i n g on a p a r t i c u l a r moment i n t h e  individual  (with  (Latin  v o y a g e home t o G r e e c e a f t e r t h e  t o a few w e l l d e v e l o p e d  temporally nature  recounts  drawn s o many, w i t h  o r g i v e n us such  lively  57  hero  Ulysses.  i n Homer t h a t 'no  so v i s i b l e  and s u r p r i s i n g  and a f f e c t i n g  impressions  of  them.  Every  painter  could  than the artist  one  p o e t has  by  their  to concentrate  present  the  the  a person  revealing  on  some f a c e t o f  29  (Figure  28),  one  (Figure  29)  in  Iliad  31  (Figure  1).  having  Thetis kneel,  to b e t t e r  Her  character  and  Achilles,  as  'one  p i o u s as  may  Achilles, and  the  the  in  him  to  personality.  she  her.  by  A c h i l l e s to  further variety  i n the  respective  prudent  imagine a hero that the  arms  by  designs character.  d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n s Flaxman  as  in  assistance  d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of her  A E n e a s , and  appears  infant Vulcan  calling  example the  She  asks Vulcan's  dutifully  stand  An  followed  valiant  as  as U l y s s e s . has  the  but  valour  of  prudence of U l y s s e s ,  at  same t i m e ' . 1 0  h e r o e s Pope had viewer with  the  as  p i e t y o f A E n e a s , and  When F l a x m a n was  respective  the  character  allowed  indeed,make a h e r o as  i s a mere c h i m a e r a t o  advised  i s established  F l a x m a n added  three  no  d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s each  character's  d i s p l a y i n g them i n t h r e e that  of  that  features,  R e y n o l d s had  9  the  s i t and  d i s p l a y the  Pope's i d e a  their  p a r t i c u l a r aspect  humbled  30  of  manners'.  s i t u a t i o n s i n which Flaxman p r e s e n t s  Iliad  one  them more by  i n a v a r i e t y of  in  it  s i n g u l a r l y h i s own,  a f o n d l i n g mother w h i l e r e c e i v i n g t h e  Iliad  By  so  n a t u r e of Flaxman's p r o j e c t  goddess T h e t i s .  various as  something  have d i s t i n g u i s h e d  a p a i n t i n g but  is  has  required  m e n t i o n e d , A c h i l l e s and  images t h a t characters.  Iliad  to present  clearly As  58  two  Ulysses,  distinguished  drawn by  appears i n a r a t h e r  the  Homeric he  left  a s p e c t s of  Flaxman, A c h i l l e s the  insipid,  p e n s i v e pose i n  the their hero Iliad  3,  The  35),  D e p a r t u r e of B r i s e i s  as  the p r i n c e  Achilles  (Figure  Thetis Bringing Iliad the  33,  36  the  2,  present  Rivers.  He  d e p i c t i n g him  Minerva Repressing  the  H e c t o r ' s body, n o t  in  these acts-as  o f human s a c r i f i c e s  a  not  of  the  character  1 4  the  34  merely a warrior prowess but  designs who  rather  of  relied  the  overcomes the  threat  escapes the  leadership  (Odyssey  14),  and  the  exemplar  Trojan  war  and  design  of  Achilles's  designs  him.  series.  as  characterizes  and  1 3  i n no He  fewer  is  of  f o r a l l men.15  59  Sirens  Cyclops  (Odyssey Having  h i s v o y a g e home he  t r e m e n d o u s v i o l e n c e and  the  by  not  12).  by  his  wins to h i s cause the  h i s diplomacy  survived  and  and  e x c l u s i v e l y upon h i s p h y s i c a l  19),  indeed  1 1  more f u l l y  (Odyssey  by  Iliad  Even  than m a g n i f i c e n t  Odyssey  (Figure  in  39).  Flaxman's  ahead  f o r e i g n lands  presents  f u n e r a l pyre  h e r o Pope f a n c i e d  i s explored  also  warrior  ( F i g u r e 38)  Dictionary  barbarian.'  'valiant'  31,  brave  twice,  (Figure  of P a t r o c l u s  somewhat more b a r b a r i c  Iliad  uncontrolable  once but  'unseemly d e e d , '  Oxford C l a s s i c a l  'magnificent  as  Ulysses'  The  1 2  to  Fury of A c h i l l e s  Wall  as  planning  the  the  him  18  as  Andromache F a i n t i n g on  certainly  than  the  and  grief  of A c h i l l e s  deeds.'  Achilles  tearful  (Figure  Embassy  Car  inclusion  of  by  The  the  Homer d e s c r i b e d  'evil  with  of A c h i l l e s  18,  Armour t o A c h i l l e s ,  desecrating  34  Tent  in Iliad  prostrated  H e c t o r ' s Body D r a g g e d A t  Iliad  and  36),  s i d e of A c h i l l e s  rage i n I l i a d and  of p r i n c e s  A c h i l l e s Contending with  darker  37)  from the  carefully cleverness  residents  Ulysses  fought  is  through  appears i n only  t h a t when he  slaughters  the one the  suitors, 40),  i n O d y s s e y 31,  at the As  he  climatic  by  particular  includes himself.I  to r e l a t e  chief  passages.  His  sufficient Although including  the S u i t o r s  interest  t o prompt him i n England  The  F l a x m a n was  grisaille  sketch  a translation  i n the o r i g i n a l  p e r h a p s by  been a v a r i e t y  of  submitted  a  contributor  had  letter the  has  many w e l l w r i t t e n n o t e s  The  adjective 'historical'  poetry  and  regarding  notes  and  may  be  a  explanation'  to which 8  a  considerable while  chiefly  'Mr.  the  Pope  historical'.19  somewhat m i s l e a d i n g .  o f t e n i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n s of  i t s limitations.  remained  t r a n s l a t i o n s by  'without  [which] are  when  Roman c o s t u m e , !  i n the  Cowper's were n o t  of j u d i c i o u s sentiment  covered  been  i n 1791  F l a x m a n had  topics  Flaxman  translations,  In t h e G e n t l e m a n ' s M a g a z i n e ,  share  27  G r e e k t e x t s had  i n Rome, t h e A l e x a n d e r Pope t r a n s l a t i o n  Pope.  inspired  in Figure  t h e most a t t r a c t i v e .  Cowper and  the  t o p u r c h a s e a l e x i c o n i n 1790.17  t h e r e had  compared  and  evidently  t h e W i l l i a m Cowper v e r s i o n s p u b l i s h e d  F l a x m a n was  (Figure  the Homeric s t o r i e s  figures,  t h e H o m e r i c t e x t and 6  Killing  c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s r e t u r n home.  endeavoured  c h a r a c t e r s of t h e i r  Ulysses  nature  The of  Pope w r o t e :  "The q u e s t i o n i s , how f a r a p o e t , i n p u r s u i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f image o f an a c t i o n , can a t t a c h h i m s e l f to l i t t l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , without v u l g a r i t y or t r i f l i n g ? What p a r t i c u l a r a r e p r o p e r , and e n l i v e n t h e image; o r what a r e i m p e r t i n e n t , and c l o g i t ? i n t h i s m a t t e r p a i n t i n g i s t o be c o n s u l t e d , and t h e whole r e g a r d had to those c i r c u m s t a n c e s , which c o n t r i b u t e t o form a f u l l , and y e t n o t c o n f u s e d i d e a o f a t h i n g . " 2 0 The  questions  considered  Reynold's t h e o r e t i c a l  h e r e seem f a m i l i a r  statements. 60  Reynolds'  when compared told  his  with  students  that  the a r t i s t  should  'get above a l l s i n g u l a r forms,  customs, p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s Mere e m b e l l i s h m e n t Its  appeal  and d e t a i l s  could only serve  t o t h e mind r a t h e r t h a n  ' t o t h e name o f a L i b e r a l poetry'.  2 1  'to d i v i d e the a t t e n t i o n ' .  Mrs. Flaxman d i d n o t s p e c i f y  were t o be l i n e  engravings,  'as a s i s t e r o f  engravings)  versions  introduced  and O d y s s e y  From t h e e a r l i e s t  are recorded  shading,  the p u b l i s h e d  f o r the I l i a d  ( t h o s e most c l o s e l y  the designs  that  t h e r e seemed t o be no d o u b t  was t o be t h e u l t i m a t e f o r m .  to the f i n a l  resembling  as l i n e  backgrounds,  the published  drawings.  figures  only  sketches.  He u s u a l l y s t a r t e d  a b a s i c i d e a f o r each  Iliad  e v o l u t i o n of Minerva  the production  i t .  figure other  Repressing  the Fury  2 ( F i g u r e 37) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e p r o c e s s  preliminary for  t o remove them i n l a t e r scene  developed i t . The  in  Flaxman  or the i n t r i c a t e  common on a n c i e n t v a s e s with  that  sketches  decoration  and  2 2  t h e eye e n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g  A r t ' and t o a r a n k  v e r s i o n s o f h e r husband's d e s i g n s  rarely  kind'.  2 3  Although  this  of every  local  of a design  sketches  In the l e a s t  of A c h i l l e s figures,  In another  since there  and t h e g r i s a i l l e  sketch  rendering  ( F i g u r e 27)  ( F i g u r e 41) t h e  defined  than t h e  o n l y by t h e s c a n t e s t  on t h e b o t t o m o f t h e same s h e e t descending  delineated while A c h i l l e s  61  followed  survive several  i s somewhat more c l e a r l y  f i g u r e h a s b e e n added and M i n e r v a b e e n more c l e a r l y  Flaxman  complete of t h e sketches  which a r e i n d i c a t e d  of A c h i l l e s ,  outlines.  a seated  from t h e r i g h t has r e m a i n s t h e most  clearly he  defined figure.  proceeded  finally 42).  choosing  Achilles  Minerva. sketch  l o o k i n g over  toward  and h i s sword h a l f  these  series,  too  three dimensional.  37)  Achilles  away f r o m M i n e r v a , p i c t u r e plane.  The  series  Achilles  the viewer  positions  with  of sketches  and two s t a n d i n g  positional  method.  f i g u r e s and  above h i s head  quality  individual  Repressing  cameo-like  at least  i n a way  the Fury of  t h e p i c t u r e by figures i n  on t h e l e f t ,  By f o l l o w i n g  t h e two d i f f e r e n t  the engraved, with  figures  three  and t h e g r i s a i l l e ,  on t h e l e f t .  t h a t seems t o be i n h e r e n t  Both  i n h i s com-  I n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s o f many d e s i g n s  62  to the  of the composition.  t h e whole c o m p o s i t i o n .  and t h r e e s t a n d i n g fault  them t o be  but p a r a l l e l  t h a t F l a x m a n composed  figures  Neither  i n the f i n a l  to the other  f o r Minerva  t h a t would b a l a n c e  a common  H i s arm i s  engraved v e r s i o n ( F i g u r e  A l s o h i s arm i s r a i s e d  v e r s i o n s a l r e a d y mentioned:  exhibit  to g r i s a i l l e  of h i s chest.  and h i s l e g s w i d e s p r e a d  and a r r a n g i n g  two s e a t e d  (Figure  s t r i d i n g out  for inclusion  h i s face turned  t h i s method he c o u l d and d i d a r r i v e  seated  related  ( F i g u r e 44).  drawn i n f r o n t  In the f i n a l  f u r t h e r suggests  accumulating  before  at the descending  a p p e a r s t o be a l m o s t  s t r e s s e s t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l  final  shoulder  perhaps because Flaxman c o n s i d e r e d  stands,  solution  a s most a p p r o p r i a t e  his left  p o s e s were seemed s u i t a b l e  engraved  that  of poses f o r A c h i l l e s  In a v e r s i o n which i s a p p a r e n t l y  the p i c t u r e plane  a final  ( F i g u r e 43) r e v e a l s t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d  i n F i g u r e 27 A c h i l l e s  raised of  a variety  t h e one he r e g a r d e d  Another sketch  having  of  to test  As Flaxman approached  seem  curiously to  separated  from  e a c h o t h e r and s o m e t i m e s even u n r e l a t e d  the actions depicted.  contributes version  F o r example, a l t h o u g h  to the balance  of Minerva  Repressing  standing  figures  affected  by A c h i l l e s '  nearest A c h i l l e s  of the composition the Fury  on t h e r e a r l e f t fury.  cessful.  When most s u c c e s s f u l l y  integrate  figures  Throwing figures in  are arranged  S i r e n s , Odyssey  unrelated left on  Odyssey  scenes  composition.  suc-  him t o In Nausicaa  a balanced  but v a r i e d  are involved i n the action.  i s being  composition By c o n t r a s t ,  On t h e  t h e bones o f t h e i r  v i c t i m s and  l a s h e d t o t h e mast o f h i s b o a t .  i s one o f t h e l e a s t to balance  s u c c e s s f u l of a l l the a grouping  of three  figures  a s h i p and a crew F l a x m a n was f o r c e d t o d e p i c t t h e l a t t e r  in  a much s m a l l e r s c a l e .  of  p e r s p e c t i v e a viewer  far  a p p l i e d i t allowed  s i t amidst  designs because i n order with  was n o t i n v a r i a b l y  p l a c e d t o g e t h e r on t h e same p l a t e .  Ulysses  This composition  space.  19 ( F i g u r e 46) h a s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f two  the three sirens  the r i g h t  figure  10 ( F i g u r e 4 5 ) , f o r example, t h e  to present  which a l l the f i g u r e s  The  the seated  process  i n t o an a t t r a c t i v e  the B a l l ,  t h e two  do n o t seem t o be a t a l l  i s gazing blankly into  Flaxman's a g g l o m e r a t i v e  presence  i n the engraved  of A c h i l l e s ,  Similarly,  Yet  their  distance.  dimensional  According  to the conventional  w o u l d assume t h a t t h e b o a t  Flaxman's r i g o r o u s attempt  system  was i n t h e  t o exclude  the three  i n h i s o t h e r Homer d e s i g n s makes The S i r e n s p l a t e  seem o u t o f p l a c e i n t h e s e r i e s .  63  Although the only  line  first  references  e d i t i o n s of  to the  Longman e d i t i o n i n c l u d e d was  left  to  infer  that  the  Homer e n g r a v i n g s  t e x t s o f Pope and  the  this  rigourously  many v a r i a t i o n s f r o m b o t h  the  occur.  f o r example, c l e a r l y  there  The  Homeric  were o n l y  three.  He  presented  and  Sirens  (12:167).  considered  of  the  (Figure For  Trojans  48).  the  Pope  implies  Flaxman i n s t e a d  Bow  three  i t recurs  of Ulysses  F l a x m a n was  not  Iliad  24,  Ajax Defending  (Figure  49)  the  text  l i n e s before  room t o p o i s e  the  Pope had  lance  figures in his (Figure  to the  Greek S h i p s  the  the  scene with  bow'  a t A j a x ' s back i s Flaxman's c o n t r i b u t i o n  of  b a t t l e , added as  balance of h i s design. of  the  chariot rather not  a useful A  third  component instance  than the  two  specify their  from  the  i n d i c a t e d by  number.  64  specific against  Sea  904 line  that  to the  i n the  'No the  description  compositional  of Flaxman's a l t e r a t i o n  t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n appears i n I l i a d of Neptune R i s i n g  the  suggesting  archer the  Suitors  reads:  set  o r bend  do  that  above a l t e r i n g  the  Yet  depicted  ' F u l l T w e l v e t h e B o l d e s t , i n a Moment F e l l , S e n t by g r e a t A j a x t o t h e s h a d e s o f H e l l . ' P o p e ' s Homers I l i a d B15 L i n e Some 48  viewer  followed.  o f Homer and  a group of  1805  the  D a u g h t e r s o f P a n d a r u s , O d y s s e y 29  i n Penelope C a r r y i n g  details.  versions  a more s a t i s f a c t o r y e f f e c t as  O d y s s e y 30  the  two  apparently  depictions 47)  text,  Homer, t h e  p a s s a g e s f r o m Pope and t e x t was  had  22  drawn by  Homer ( F i g u r e  showing four 50).  the  horses Pope d i d  While designs,  taking care with  F l a x m a n was  to the people  logical use  of  books.  f o r an  line  a t home i n E n g l a n d  D o r a W i e b e n s o n has  artist  engraving,  to l i n k  details.  Items s u c h  suggested  h i s own  work w i t h  their  s c u l p t u r e or, perhaps  more l i k e l y ,  David  of Odyssey  ( F i g u r e 51)  with a plate  of Vases...  o f 1791  Collection  examples found  I r w i n has  composition  i s unlikely  the c h a r i o t ,  36  11,  on  thus a s s o c i a t e d , the c a r t  U l y s s e s F o l l o w i n g the Car  from  S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton's  that  an  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l book s u c h  ( F i g u r e 38).  The  i t s r e a r p l a r f o r m , and  of  and such  and Nausicaa  Collection  Century  engraved  however, i n b o t h Dragging  A c h i l l e s Dragging The  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  Hector  Pietro and  work was  o f a 1766  65  the  inspiraof of  of  known a n c i e n t Testa's  Gavin  H e c t o r ' s 3ody a r o u n d  latter  Hamilton's  the e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n  appear, Achilles  as  three-quarter position  They do  through  seem  at the Car  work.25  ( F i g u r e 53)  but  (Figure 52).  n o t a p p e a r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n any  2 6  The  2 4  t h e e n g r a v i n g s made o f  l e g s do  Troy.  archaeo-  ancient pottery  Hector's  painting  an  f o r technique  o f V a s e s would have s u p p l i e d F l a x m a n w i t h  Iliad  that  technique.'  f o r h i s v e r s i o n o f H e c t o r ' s Body D r a g g e d  Achilles,  acquiring  as p i e c e s o f f u r n i t u r e  by  antiquities.  were  common i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p u b l i c -  t o have been i n s p i r e d  tion  who  seems t o have been n o t o n l y a s o u r c e  specific  It  o f t h e Homer  i n m a k i n g them a p p e a l i n g  publications...was to imitate  ations, for  interested  i n Rome and  archaeological ' o b v i o u s way  also  the compositions  17th  Hamilton's  the Walls  of  most commonly known  engraving  by Domenico Cunego.  As  the Flaxmans lodged  seems more t h a n compositional  i n h i s house w h i l e  p o s s i b l e t h a t F l a x m a n was  details  of  the w o r k .  reduce i t t o a form c o n s i s t a n t w i t h series. in  He  the  by  the  drastically  e l i m i n a t i o n of  much g r e a t e r  adaptation his  own  that an  used the  the self  detail,  to d r i v e the  d r i v e r ) and  engraving  A device  with  line  portrait  lines,  provides  of  ( F i g u r e 55)  i s put  to three  represents  the  p e c t i v e by  indicating  that  the  finally  In  different  Here  Iliad  Achilles  lies  l e g and, behind  by  including the  hatching 31,  66  purposes. defines  extension,  a i d by  are  in  is  Thetis the It pers-  f a r t h e r back i n  t h e bed  as a c o m p o s i t i o n a l  the  long  before  the  l e g o f t h e bed,  the bedding  t h e mourner s t a n d i n g  i t , and  in Figure  ( F i g u r e 1 ) , f o r example,  distinctly  s t r u c t u r e of  the p i c t u r e space than  behind  1747.  i n t h e Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s  hatching  legs of  those  years  i n a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner.  suit  i n archaeo-  F l a x m a n had  done some 15  t h e Armour t o A c h i l l e s  to  i s hatching,  s u c h as  a background.  i s Flaxman's  technique  i n a s i m i l a r manner i n s k e t c h e s ,  But  notably  chariot (necessi-  details  engravings  from Spence's P o l y m e t i s  technique  Homer most  f r e q u e n t l y encountered  spaced p a r a l l e l  hatching  to  r e p o s i t i o n i n g of  line  Bringing  the  of the  of elements of the  Homer d e s i g n s . used  rest  particular  illustration  the  more o f a s i d e v i e w .  books i l l u s t r a t e d  horizontal  the  than  i s closely  with  H i s main t a s k was  2 7  interest  purpose.  logical  the  were i n Rome, i t  familiar  reducing  turning Achilles  c h a r i o t to present Of  54  d i d so by  the background,  tated  they  that fact  partially  filling  the v o i d  under the bed.  volume, p e r s p e c t i v e and  to accomplish  position,  are repeated with  Iliad  The  14,  implied of  by  Meeting  horizontal  further  of Hector  and  Sending  F l a x m a n has hatching Captive seats  ( F i g u r e 59)  f o r O t u s and  mid-space.  At  Infant Vulcan  I I , O t u s and  he h a s , Ephialtes  In I l i a d ( F i g u r e 28)  apparently with any  Dream t o Agamemnon  t h e same t i m e  introduced.  without  (Figure 56).  29,  more f i g u r e s  so t h a t  a few  they a r e not  distracting  T h e t i s and  or  67  and  38  curved Mars  created left  background  with  6,  58)  in detail  Eurynome R e c e i v i n g  of b a l a n c i n g the structures.  verticality  (Figure  lines,  areas are covered  the purpose  In  In I l i a d  Ephialtes Holding  w i t h but  no  the  ( F i g u r e 57)  t o o b t a i n t h e Body o f H e c t o r  in Iliad  com-  Andromache, a s t a i r c a s e i s  d e f i n e d t h e shape o f t h e h e a v e n s w i t h  and  indicate  elsewhere.  h a t c h i n g which n e a t l y o f f s e t  the E v i l  I r i s Advises Priam  to  a more s u c c e s s f u l  variations  the nanny's r a t h e r columnar d r e s s  Jupiter  is  These techniques  hatching  compositions  the  NOTES TO THE  TEXT  CHAPTER I I I G e r a l d B e n t l e y , The Designs (New Y o r k , f . 197.  1  2  Irwin,  op. c i t . ,  E a r l y E n g r a v i n g s o f Flaxman's C l a s s i c a l 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 17-18. " BM Add. MSS 39780  p.68  3  F r i t s L u g t s , L e s Marques de C o l l e c t i o n s e n t r y 2248.  4  George 1938),  5  Gentlemen's  6  G o t t h o l d E p h r a i m L e s s i n g , L a o k o o n and How R e p r e s e n t e d D e a t h (London 1 9 1 4 ) , p.103.  Magazine,  Ibid,  p.107.  8  Ibid,  p.104.  1  (July  1793)  A l e x a n d e r Pope, The P o e t i c a l ( L o n d o n , 1841) p . 2 0 4 ) .  10 1  12  1956)  Biography  (Oxford,  S m i t h , The D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l entry f o r Francis Hare-Naylor.  7  9  ( t h e Hague,  Pope, I b i d ,  p.  623. the Ancients  Works o f A l e x a n d e r Pope  p.364.  Homer, I l i a d ,  Book 22,  1.395.  Homer, I l i a d ,  Book 23,  1.176.  1  3  O x f o r d C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y e d . N.G.L. Hammond and S c u l l a r d ( O x f o r d , 1977), p.5.  1  4  F o r an expanded a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f U l y s s e s and h i s a p p e a r a n c e i n a r t works s e e W.B. S t a n f o r d and J . V . L u c e , The Q u e s t f o r U l y s s e s ( L o n d o n , .1974).  1  5  Stanford  1  6  T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y n o t P o p e ' s a p p r o p r i a t e p a s s a g e as R o b e r t R. Wark, D r a w i n g s by J o h n F l a x m a n i n t h e H u n g t i n g t o n C o l l e c t i o n (San M a r i n o C a l i f o r n i a , 1970) has p o i n t e d o u t i n h i s n o t e f o r p l a t e 16.  1  7  B r i t i s h Museum, Add. e n t r y , 1790.  and L u c e , I b i d ,  MSS.  H.H.  p.194.  39784, E., f . 21,  68  account-book  Gentlemen's Magazine illustrations. Gentlemen's  V o l 51  Magazine,  (1781) p. 65 p r i n t e d  (November,  1793),  I I I , 11.103-105.  Reynolds, Discourse  I I I , 11.  Reynolds, Discourse  I I I , 11.300-301.  ibid,  Poetical  296.  D o r a W i e b e n s o n , ' S u b j e c t s f r o m Homer's I l i a d A r t , ' A r t B u l l e t i n , Volume 46 (1964) pp 34. Wiebenson,  four  p.981.  A l e x a n d e r Pope, ' P o s t s c r i p t t o t h e O d y s s e y ' The Works o f A l e x a n d e r Pope ( L o n d o n , 1 8 4 1 ) , p 474 Reynolds, Discourse  with  in Neoclassical  p.29.  D o r a W i e b e n s o n , i b i d . , r e f e r s t o t h i s work as A c h i l l e s V e n t s h i s Rage on H e c t o r . D a v i d I r w i n , ' G a v i n H a m i l t o n A r c h a e o l o g i s t , P a i n t e r " " and D e a l e r ' A r t B u l l e t i n , Volume (1962) p.94 r e f e r s t o i t by t h e t i t l e u s e d h e r e . Irwin d o e s n o t m e n t i o n any p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e T e s t a work. Irwin,  1979,  op. c i t . ,  p.48.  69  CHAPTER In 1811, critics  after  r e a d i n g some f a v o u r a b l e comments by  something  modesty b u t  was  probably  he  foresaw  of the c r i t i c a l  illustrations  Fury  acclaim,  an  international and  financial  22,  by  established  1793  suggested  1793)  well  difficulty  earned. and  that  t h e O d y s s e y and 1,  i n 1810,  the completion  of a l l the I l i a d , has  e x p r e s s i o n of  Flaxman's  undertaken  the  the  the  commissions  brought  to the him  election  into  critical  sculptural  as P r o f e s s o r o f  Moreover,  artists  immediate  and  the  illus-  students  the V i c t o r i a n  alike  age.  i n which Flaxman found  himself  o f t h e Homer d e s i g n s .  How  h i s income may  be  gauged  effective  i f the  to the  amount  Nancy F l a x m a n w r o t e t o W i l l i a m H a y l e y  informed  him  O d y s s e y and the dates  Iliad  probably  between  d r a w i n g s and  w i t h w h i c h F l a x m a n drew them i s r e l a t e d  o f money he July  had  Academy i n L o n d o n .  t h e y were i n s u p p l e m e n t i n g rapidity  talents.*  r e p u t a t i o n a s an a r t i s t ,  as s o u r c e s of i n s p i r a t i o n  with  He  had  critical  of the d i s p a r i t y  illustrations  indirectly  t r a t i o n s v/ere a d o p t e d  eased  an  t h e Germans  t o h i s amazement, i n a d d i t i o n  S c u l p t u r e at the Royal  was  simply  for his line  praise.  reward, h i s l i n e  commissions,  The  he w i s h e d  the  t o make enough money t o c o n t i n u e w i t h h i s  o f Athamas b u t  financial  not  rather a reflection  u l t i m a t e purpose  for  that  b e t t e r upon w h i c h t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r  response  nature  German  r e g a r d i n g the Dante d e s i g n s , Flaxman i n t i m a t e d t o  t h e o l o g i a n Henry Crabb-Robinson  This  IV  of the completion Dante d e s i g n s .  indicated  (respectively  r e c o r d when e a c h 70  of the  engravings  Gerald Bentley  2  i n the f i r s t  February  on  1,  editions  1793  and  June  s e t of engravings  was  com-  of  pleted.  By  3  the  latter  date  F l a x m a n had  d r a w i n g s f o r Mr.  Udney.  than  f o r engraving  174  designs  Odyssey;  32,  titlepage  months.  plus a titlepage  not  He  exact  a day.  Again paid  work was  ficulties  .  Hare-Naylor the  Iliad  engravings  sale  least  remained  i n about  8  at a r a t e  then  the  designs.  he  had  been  designs,  and  4  less  C o n s i d e r i n g the Flaxman's f i n a n c i a l  dif-  o f The and  Fury  o f Athamas and  m a t e r i a l s upon them,  incredibly  d r a w i n g s ) had L100  by  well.  He  c o s t him  sold  good f r i e n d s .  Indicating  than  their  of t h e i r  t o the Reverend Dr.  Warton e x e c u t e d  Joseph  71  Mr.  Hare-  Hare-Naylors  Flaxman,  continued  Flaxman i n c l u d e d p o r t r a i t s  the  before his  Even though the  t h e Homer d e s i g n s  the  the p l a t e s  in Italy.  the books i n I t a l y  Iliad'.5  his  profitable.  t o Longman f o r t w i c e as much a s  of the p l a t e s of the  made more money f r o m  but  o f no  a l s o d i d moderately  series  fewer  conservative.  husband's  o f 111  46  plus a  to,  Udney d r a w i n g s f o r a t o t a l  i n l a b o u r , time  (original  N a y l o r made a t  her  t h a t Flaxman r e c a l l e d  Homer d e s i g n s must h a v e seemed  for  i s probably  no  110,  m e n t i o n s t h a t by  from  t h a t came as a r e s u l t  investment  and  the d e s i g n s  each f o r the Dante s e r i e s  L227 - 13 -  small  to Hayley  completed  Crowns e a c h f o r t h e 46 than  Iliad;  the  page f o r t h e  drawings r e l a t e d  This estimate  C o c k e r e l l recorded 1 guinea  produced  plus a t i t l e  f o r the 46  finished  c o p i e s o f , t h e Homer d e s i g n s  Flaxman's l e t t e r  engraver's  (28,  must have been u n d e r t a k i n g  o f a b o u t one Mrs.  T h u s F l a x m a n had  4  f o r t h e D a n t e ) and  apparently  also  they  closeness,  f o u r s o n s i n h i s monument from  1800  to  1804.  6  Years  later  when M r s . H a r e - N a y l o r w r o t e a n o v e l ,  w h i c h was T h e o d o s i u s o r t h e E n t h u s i a s t , design  a series  of i l l u s t r a t i o n s  Tomaso (Thomas) P i r o l i in  she asked Flaxman t o  for i t .  the t h i r d  7  of those d i r e c t l y  t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Homer c o m m i s s i o n  Bentley  has suggested t h a t  directly  from u n a u t h o r i z e d shop.  plates ultimately  involved  also did well.  t o t h e income  derived  some o f t h e e d i t i o n s traceable  completed Flaxman  series  t h e Homer and D a n t e  wrote t o H a y l e y t h a t  o f c o m p o s i t i o n s on p r i n c i p l e s  soon a s I r e t u r n  c o m m i s s i o n s had  the purpose of the  senting But,  i n h i s own mind, functions.  t o g i v e specimens i n  architecture.'  i n a series  suited  Flaxman's  9  H a r e - N a y l o r ' s commission  and O d y s s e y  in a  o f which  i n groups of b a s - r e l i e f s ,  and c i v i l  a i m was t o f u l f i l  the I l i a d  subsequent as  kinds,  a l l purposes of sacred  immediate  of the ancients,  t o England I intend  scupture of d i f f e r e n t to  came  to P i r o l i ' s  e n g r a v i n g s was t o show 'how any s t o r y may be r e p r e s e n t e d  as  Gerald  8  S e v e r a l months a f t e r been  i n addition  from t h e H a r e - N a y l o r p l a t e s  the t i t l e of  by r e p r e -  of compositions.  t h e d e s i g n s were t o p e r f o r m a t l e a s t First,  t h e y were,  working drawings f o r a s c u l p t o r  i n essence, to serve  (Flaxman h i m s e l f  happened) t o t r a n s l a t e  i n t o another a r t i s t i c  thus akin  t o Flaxman's  d e s i g n s f o r Wedgwood.  resultant  b a s - r e l i e f s were t o e s t a b l i s h  amongst p e o p l e who w o u l d  as i t  medium.  They  were  Second, t h e  Flaxman  purchase sculpted  72  two  a s an  artist  versions of the  images f o r t h e i r  houses or i n s t i t u t i o n a l  buildings  i n which  t h e y had t h e c h o i c e o f d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s . In  striking  contrast  future usefulness,  t o F l a x m a n ' s e m p h a s i s on t h e d e s i g n ' s  was t h e i r  critical  reception.  Where R o b e r t  Adam hoped h i s R u i n s o f S p a l a t r o w o u l d p r o m i s e 'an Age o f Perfection', ushered  1 0  J.C. F i o r i l l o  i n that  age.  England's a r t i s t i c the  thought Flaxman's  He w r o t e  heaven.  'a s h i n i n g  of a r t . '  S m i r k e saw F l a x m a n ' s c l a s s i c a l  made an a s s o c i a t i o n  between  the l i n e  drawings of a n c i e n t Greek a r t . works had a ' f o r c e d s u g g e s t e d , was the  simplicity',  'very p r o p e r  this  d e s i g n s he t o o i m m e d i a t e l y e n g r a v i n g s and t h e l i n e  characteristic,  1 2  of adopting  Flaxman's the  which d e a l t  He d e s c r i b e d  style They  art.  with  Italian  School.'  to report  that  shadow, b u t i n t h e  g r a n d , and p u r e . . .  l o o k a s i f t h e y had been made i n t h e a g e , when Homer  wrote.'  1 4  The v a l i d i t y art  'outlines without  They a r e s i m p l e ,  largely  and commented on h i s  f r i e n d G e o r g e Romney was d e l i g h t e d  of ancient  after  F l a x m a n ' s economy o f  the innocence of the older  Homer e n g r a v i n g s were  he  G o e t h e made a n a l o g o u s  means i n t h e D a n t e d r a w i n g s a s ' n a i v e t y ' 'gift  When t h e a r c h i t e c t  t o t h e d e s i g n s when t r e a t e d  i n h i s 1799 a r t i c l e  Flaxman's Dante drawings.  1 1  announce  A l t h o u g h he t h o u g h t F l a x m a n ' s  manner o f a n t i q u e d e s i g n s . '  observations  has r i s e n i n  May h i s ( F l a x m a n ' s ) a r r i v a l  dawn o f a m a r v e l l o u s p e r i o d  Robert  star  illustrations  was q u e s t i o n e d  o f Flaxman's p l a c e  i n discussions of ancient  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e q u a l i t y 73  of the engraved  1 3  line and  by G e o r g e C u m b e r l a n d t h e system  their  figures  that  i n h i s T h o u g h t s on o u t l i n e  guided  and g r o u p s  the ancient a r t i s t s  i n 1796.  sculpture,  i n composing  He m e n t i o n e d  'the v e r y  tasteful  Homer and A e s c h y l u s by Mr. F l a x m a n ' and t h e t h e n  recently  published S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton's  ... o f h i s s e c o n d the  latter  nately'  because  but c r i t i c i z e d  t h e y had ' o u t l i n e s  and n o t t h e u n i f o r m l y t h i c k  observed '...  collection  on a n c i e n t v a s e s .  a faithful  Cumberland style  tracing  upheld  l i n e width  The l a s t  that  and t h i n  alter-  he had c o r r e c t l y volume, he  wrote,  blow t o a l l hope o f e v e r d e s i g n on c o p p e r p l a t e ' .  t o be t r u l y  should not vary.  of Engravings  the engravings i n  Hamilton  o f any o u t l i n e  t h e view  F l a x m a n had m i s s e d  thick  lines  seems t o have g i v e n t h e d e a t h ' s  seeing  Collection  i n the ancient  In h i s (Cumberland's) o p i n i o n ,  t h i s most i m p o r t a n t  characteristic  of ancient  drawing.15 Paradoxically, for  too closely  t h e Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s  resembling ancient a r t .  F a r i n g t o n w r o t e i n December 1795 t h a t formed from  on t h e G r e e k m o d e l . . . e a c h  some a u t h o r i t y . '  E n g l i s h p a i n t e r John all  1 6  (Flaxman) has seen. him'.17  indeed  Hamilton's  that  'were  o f t h i n g s w h i c h he  He ( F l a x m a n ) h a s n o t h i n g o r i g i n a l correspondence  about  o f Flaxman's  11 and one f r o m  o f E n g r a v i n g s h a s a l r e a d y been  74  'strictly  dopied  the designs  the C a r o f Nausecaa Odyssey  Collection  Joseph  t h e d e s i g n s were  a variety  the rather obvious  Ulysses following  criticized  1797 he r e c o r d e d t h a t t h e  Hoppner b e l i e v e d from  The d i a r i s t  circumstance being  In January  b o r r o w e d and p u r l o i n e d  were a l s o  noted.  When c o m p a r i n g F l a x m a n ' s o u t l i n e s and A . J . C a r s t e n ' s illustrations wrote t h a t  t o L e s A r g o n a u t e s (1799) C a r s t e n ' s e n g r a v e r  a s t h i s work was more  would be p r e f e r r e d correctly  had made Flaxman  'the i d o l idol  early in  used  most s o u g h t a f t e r as a d i r e c t  Prompted  a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e Homer  1795, C o m p o s i t i o n s  him t o t h e e x t e n t commission.  of the engraved designs  t h e 30 p l a t e s .  The s i m p l e  my G o t h i c  that  he was  Had i t been o f f e r e d  to i l l u s t r a t e  that  already  his edition  s t a t e d my  of p r i n t e d  with  a  Scott  declined to  'too c l a s s i c a l  to stoop  race of S a l -  F l a x m a n may h a v e d e c l i n e d able  such  t o p e r s u a d e Flaxman  o f M i l t o n ' s L a t i n poems b e c a u s e he  friend.  objections  books - t h a t  Flaxman  he i l l u s t r a t e S i r  than the i r o n  I n 1807 H a y l e y was o n l y  was a c l o s e p e r s o n a l  line  b o r d e r e r s ' who m i g h t r e s e m b l e ' t h e  a n t i q u e o f Homer's h e r o e s r a t h e r  a commission.  with  one i n s t a n c e he l o s t  Walter S c o t t ' s Lay of the Lost M i n s t r e l .  vator',20  enthusiastic  c o m p o s i t i o n s was a s s o c i a t e d  i n at least  engage F l a x m a n , r e a s o n i n g  Having  1 9  and D a n t e d e s i g n s he p u b l i s h e d ,  inspired  that  designs  illustrator.  by t h e g e n e r a l l y  I n 1804 i t was s u g g e s t e d  t o body f o r t h  inspired  from t h e T r a g e d i e s of A e s c h y l u s  engraving  for classically  G o e t h e more  F l a x m a n m i g h t have e x p e c t e d t h e  commissions a r i s i n g  Tomaso P i r o l i  ( F i g u r e 60).18  of a l l the d i l e t t a n t e . '  t o make him t h e i r  seem t o have been few.  Koch  than Flaxman's i t  t h a t Flaxman's c l a s s i c a l l y  been nominated t h e i r  Instead  'painterly'  by c o n n o i s s e u r s  suggested  dilettante  line  Flaxman p r o t e s t e d  that:  'I h a v e  t o make d e s i g n s f o r t h e d e c o r a t i o n  I n e v e r have made any f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s  that for  i t i s a branch  o f a r t i n which  want o f p r a c t i c e ,  I am n o t l i k e l y  and t h e p r o d u c t i o n s i n w h i c h  w i l l be  r e g a r d e d w i t h a j e a l o u s e y e by t h o s e t o whom t h a t belongs'.21  Flaxman c l e a r l y  a book i l l u s t r a t o r . from  t o succeed  had l i t t l e  interest  department i n a career as  When he p u b l i s h e d h i s s e r i e s  t h e Works and Days and Theogony o f H e s i o d  c h o i c e s o f s u b j e c t s and t h e s m a l l income f r o m  of Compositions  i n 1817 t h e their  sale  were  his. Rather  than p u r s u i n g commissions  Flaxmans' r e t u r n practice  t o England  as a s c u l p t o r  than h i s i n d i v i d u a l His  that for  for greater personal  had r e c e i v e d  a m b i t i o n was t o c a p i t a l i z e  them i n t o  stone.  reliefs  Their  based  suggested  years before.  to Lord  of the r e l i e f s  Ironically,  in  1809, F l a x m a n d e s i g n e d anew a f r i e z e  Rossi, Rossi  b r o t h e r s i n 1800 and 1803.  and Modern Drama f o r C o v e n t of the r e l i e f s  Similarly,  designing  upon m a r b l e  and m o d e l l i n g ' . 2 2  by J o h n  'of t h e l i t t l e  of stone. T h i s view  76  when,  Garden T h e a t r e t h e a c t u a l  protege' o f i t s a r c h i t e c t R o b e r t S m i r k e .  i n working  by F l a x m a n b u t  on t h e s u b j e c t s o f  was a c c o m p l i s h e d  i s r e p o r t e d t o have s p o k e n  was t o  however, t h e a c t u a l  was n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d  the C a r a b e l l i  production  Bristol  on t h e Homer d e s i g n s would be a p p r o p r i a t e  by  Ancient  recognition  on h i s d e s i g n s by t r a n s l a t i n g  suitability  h o u s e t h e F u r y o f Athamas.  has  seven  d e c o r a t i n g t h e R o t u n d a o f I c k w o r t h House, w h i c h  production  upon t h e  i n 1794, he r e e s t a b l i s h e d h i s  hoping  efforts  f o ri l l u s t r a t i o n  Charles  A s he worked, power F l a x m a n  H i s power i s c o n f i n e d t o was somewhat  restrictive.  Long b e f o r e a d e s i g n e r and  1809  F l a x m a n had  modeller.  tomb o f W i l l i a m , f i r s t installed  unknown.  had  I t had  eventual  (after  of M a n s f i e l d  installation as  been more modest  Mary B l a c k s h a w  a direct  the  in their  i t was  completed  the  the  figures  the E v i l  i n a semiprone p o s i t i o n  f o l l o w i n g year.  resembling  O d y s s e y 7,  angel  aflutter  stone  the  to i n d i c a t e  f o r example I t i s not,  and  y e t , when familiar:  a wide m o u l d i n g arcing  parallel  l i d of a sarcophagus  over  (Figure 1);  Penelope's  Dream  flight.  For  77  this  recalls  f i g u r e with  new  Iliad  the  composition  ( F i g u r e 62);and  to the Minerva  6,  the  t h e dead P a t r o c l u s i n  i n a manner t h a t c r e a t e s a  i s analogous  monument  elements are  i s formed w i t h  T h e t i s B r i n g i n g t h e Armour t o A c h i l l e s are disposed  The  Dream t o Agamemnon ( F i g u r e 5 7 ) ; ,  Achilles  winged  h i s return to  ( F i g u r e 61)  into  of  to r e p r e s e n t t h e h e a v e n s i n I l i a d  f i g u r e p o s i t i o n e d over  figures  house  of the view  of these.  context, v a r i o u s of the  grieving  31,  either  virtually  engraved.  projects after  than  been  o f Athamas  country  of c o n c e n t r i c a r c s r e m i n i s c e n t of the  Sending  had  t r o o p s and f o l l o w i n g  never  (Mary L u s h i n g t o n )  h a t c h i n g Flaxman used  Jupiter  French  o f a Homer d e s i g n  frame s u r r o u n d i n g  comprised line  and  translation  considered  by  Moreover,  L o n d o n had  begun i n 1798  Fury  i t happened) remained out  however, h i s f i r s t  was  The  i n Lord B r i s t o l ' s  Typically,  Mrs.  ( F i g u r e 21)  h i s h o p e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n was  been c a p t u r e d  h i s death,  just  H i s m a j o r work t h e monument f o r t h e  Earl  pinned  the general p u b l i c .  to  h i m s e l f more t h a n  i n W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey i n 1801.  upon w h i c h he  its  proven  the  draperies  composition,  rendered  as  a bas  relief,  contemporary classically  F l a x m a n was  inspired  designs as  the c a t a g o r y ...  inspiration designs  or  engraved  for adaptation The  t h a t now  no  refer  longer  2 3  The  i n t o new  had  were no  Wedgwood k e p t  suitability  works was  of  been s u g g e s t e d  as  longer rather Collection the  recognized Otto  by  artists  Runge e v e n he  need  vases f o r i n s p i r a t i o n . 2 4  a p o s s i b l e source  f o r the  (Figure  central  ( F i g u r e 64).25 w i t h  the p e r s p e c t i v e of  established  Jacques L o u i s David  was  said and  somewhat p r o p h e t i c a l l y o f Homer d e s i g n s , David  (now he  himself  "Cet  he  central  Flaxman's d e s i g n  33,  Rivers was  ( F i g u r e 30).  drawn f r o m  des  In a  filled  f o r h i s Les  Iliad  character  have  the  i n the  (Figure  (Achilles)  composition  1790's  Sabines.27  f o r Les  the F i g h t f o r t h e Body o f P a t r o c l u s I l i a d  78  Aeschylus  sketchbook  A c h i l l e s Contending with  Similarly,  an  tableaux."26  drew f i g u r e s o f a w a r r i o r  which are v a r i a t i o n s of the from  faire  foresight.  details  to  newly p u b l i s h e d  Beaux-Arts i n L i l l e )  compositional  t h i s work ( F i g u r e 65)  then  ouvrage f e r a  p r o v e d h i s own  i n t h e M u s £ e des  worked o u t  the  reported  63)  figure  i n Runge's M o r n i n g artist  own  Flaxman's  Flaxman's L e u c o t h e a P r e s e r v i n g U l y s s e s , Odyssey 9 has  for  Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  to copies of Etruscan  His  They f e l l  to Hamilton's  young German p a i n t e r P h i l i p t h a t he  models,  components.  motifs.  sources  live  f r o m them.  designs  of p a t t e r n books, a k i n  the  suggested  the  the  for figural  of h i s a r t i s t s .  of a l l ages.  provided  engravings,  Flaxman's p r i v a t e quarry  of Vases  r e q u i r e d to study  o r a n c i e n t works o r e n g r a v i n g s  Once p u b l i s h e d  into  not  p  o r  66)  in the Sabines 26  (Figure 67).  David  e l a b o r a t e d t h e image by a d d i n g  combatants t o t h e soon t o c l a s h architectural  background.  components t a k e n the s c u l p t o r subsequent  from  David's  individual  and by p r o v i d i n g an  Les Sabines,  t h e Homer e n g r a v i n g s ,  as the f i n i s h e d  Flaxman  armies  many  based  upon  apparently  scheme was t o r e a p p e a r  intrigued  in a  design.  In 1810 F l a x m a n began work on t h e d e s i g n o f a S h i e l d o f Achilles  t o be drawn f r o m  Book X V I I I part  at least,  visual  ground  and  of David's line  Design  2 7  battle  scene  (Figure 69).  f i v e models i n c l u d i n g  2 8  The s i l v e r - g i l t  G e o r g e IV ( i n c e l e b r a t i o n 1820)  and s i l v e r  Huntington and  ounces o f s i l v e r  h i s biography proud'  of t h i s  fitted  the f i n a l  to royalty,  original  straight  to the c i r c u l a r  format  drawings of d e t a i l s of Rundell,  p a i d F l a x m a n 600  was p u r c h a s e d  by K i n g  of h i s succession t o the throne i n  Each s h i e l d  are also plaster  Cunningham r e c o r d s t h a t  c o n t a i n e d o v e r 600 o f work o f R u n d e l l  and b r o n z e F l a x m a n was  ' m a g n i f i c e n t ' p i e c e w h i c h was  many a s one o f t h e a r t i s t ' s most s u c c e s s f u l  79  (now i n t h e  t h e Duke o f N o r t h u m b e r l a n d  and r e p r e s e n t e d many h o u r s There  years, i n  in relating  one t h e f i r m  i n San M a r i n o ) ,  of Lonsdale.  smiths.  eight  on a  v e r s i o n s by t h e Duke o f Y o r k  Art Gallery  the E a r l  silver  drawn f i r s t  For twenty-four  B r i d g e and R u n d e l l , g o l d s m i t h s guineas.  took  I n c l u d e d was a r a t h e r two d i m e n s i o n a l  ( F i g u r e 68) and t h e n  the s h i e l d  alone  g i v e n by Homer i n  because o f t h e c a r e Flaxman took  image t o t e x t .  version  of  of the I l i a d .  the d e s c r i p t i o n  versions. 'justly  ' c o n s i d e r e d by works.'  2 9  In  To  return  e n g r a v i n g s on  to the  theme o f  French a r t i s t s ,  was  i n France that  and  research  the  h i s work p r o v o k e d  throughout  the  was  himself  Francois  Waterloo, in  of Flaxman's  line  derived  from  (Figure  3 5 ) ( I l i a d 3).  clearly  shows t h a t  not  akin the  to Flaxman's  eliminate the  original  s i d e s by the  the  he  line  one  his exile  rather and  of  i n w h i c h Flaxman had  was  relief  anew  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  left  adopting  a v i s u a l means  d r a w i n g c l o s e r them t o g e t h e r , division  70)  F l a x m a n ' s work Rude d i d  chose to c r e a t e  71).  reliefs.  of A c h i l l e s  f o r the  significantly  (Figure  Tent  Tervueren  potential  B r i s e i s (Figure the  such  after  C h a t e a u de  r e a l i z e d the  sketch  i n s p i r e d by  gestures  apparent  by  rearranging  Rude was  and  able  to  right sides  of  less successfully united  adding h o r i z o n t a l hatching.  f i g u r e s and  the  to  the  f o r t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o bas  A preparatory  while  From D a v i d  admiration."30 during  "It  imitation  i m p o r t a n c e and  D e p a r t u r e of B r i s e i s from  p o s e s and  f i g u r e s and  most f r u i t f u l  e x t e r i o r of  1 ' e n t e r r e m e n t de  t r a c e h i s f i g u r e s but  similar  of  a sculptor himself  A c h i l l e s deplore the  their  object  the  engravings  Flaxman's  century.  commissioned,  decorate As  3 1  was  the  nineteenth  a l w a y s an  Rude who  t o the  Brussels.  His  was  of  S a r a h Symmons c o n t e n d s t h a t ,  Degas F l a x m a n ' s o u t l i n e s r e t a i n e d artist  influence  v i s u a l means Rude u s e d  I f the  relief  was  to e s t a b l i s h h i s  the  Rude's, conception  were F l a x m a n ' s . The altering rather  on  second a r t i s t ,  Antoine Gros,  Flaxman's c o m p o s i t i o n s individual figures.  3 2  80  concentrated  t o f i t h i s own  not  purpose  In h i s s k e t c h b o o k s G r o s  on but followed  a procedure sheet  similar  individual  instead  figures  of adopting  drew f i g u r e s w i t h Homer d e s i g n s .  draped  figures with  s t a n d a r d means o f p i c t o r i a l  demonstrated figures shaded  i n F i g u r e 74  i s rendered study  on  have been t r a c e d w i t h of p a r t i c u l a r t o time  six  third  French  of course,  library  figures  had  concept  settled  of  figure  effort  i n Gros'  and  vigourous seem  to  to f i x impressions  mind w i t h o u t  his  resorting  models o r o t h e r a r t i s t s  i n the Mus£e Ingres  works.  His  personal  i n Montauban  contains  including  D i v i n e Comedy.  Soon a f t e r  upon and  fluttering  seated  drawings would  i n an  the  work J u p i t e r  developed  soon a f t e r  appeared  new  o f t h e Homer e n g r a v i n g s  81  the  illustrations  From t h e s e  Ingres  t u r n of the e i g h t e e n t h  ( F i g u r e 75) edition  in  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F l a x m a n ' s work  been c o n s i d e r i n g a new he  standing,  Similarly  of a s e r i e s  line  live  artist  O d y s s e y , and  drew i n s p i r a t i o n .  figures  are  Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.33  as p r e s e r v e d  Iliad,  the  a number o f  s t u d i e s of types  o f t h e p u b l i s h e d works o f F l a x m a n  to the  he  These  great care  of  from  representation i s dramatically  where one  consuming s t u d i e s of  The was,  types  Gros  a page below a r e m a r k a b l y  of a horse.  single  However,  three gesturing f i g u r e s with  c o n t r a s t between t h e s e  a  of other a r t i s t s  A l l five  h e a d s bowed f o r w a r d .  accumulated  The  quality  series.  on  of sources.  f o r example d i s p l a y s f i v e  Flaxman's Odyssey  G r o s has  Gros's  a variety  assembling  t h e work o f a v a r i e t y  F i g u r e 72  from  drapery.  from  some p a r t i c u l a r  traced  73.  t o t h a t o f F l a x m a n by  1805  into  and  Thetis.  the  final  century The  work  as d i d c o i n c i d e n t a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n London  by  a  Longman.  To supplement  F l a x m a n had been added Honor A c h i l l e s ( I l i a d  the o r i g i n a l  34, f i v e  including Thetis 5) ( F i g u r e  76).  new d e s i g n s by  Entreating  Symmons h a s i n f e r r e d  f r o m t h e r e s e m b l a n c e o f F l a x m a n ' s and I n g r e s ' figures,  with  s i n u o u s n e c k s and h e a d s t i l t e d  probably acquired from  this  contoured  and of  suppliant back,  Thetis  that  Ingres  one o f t h e s e new Longman O d y s s e y ' s a n d drew  his Thetis soft,  Jupiter to  i t .  To c o m p l e t e Thetis  the composition  f i g u r e with  Ingres  contrasted  a more m u s c u l a r ,  angular,  d o m i n a t i n g m a l e f i g u r e a n a l o g o u s t o J u p i t e r i n The C o u n c i l t h e Gods, I l i a d Ingres'  appreciation production his  9 (Figure 77).  own h a r d  edge s t y l e may a l s o have d e r i v e d  o f Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  o f a new p a i n t i n g  a t t i t u d e s toward  b e a u t e s' a s s o c i e n a t u r e de d e s s i n  i t .  Of T h e t i s '  made n o t e s  a p p e a r a n c e he w r o t e :  a l a j e u n e s s e . . . L a gorge des d e e s e s pour b l a n c '  3 6  d o i t dominer s u r t o u t [ ; ]  comme l a p l u s  In h i s m e t h o d i c a l  Ingres frequently  and d i r e c t l y  b e a u t e dans l e s o u v r a g e s de l ' a r t elle  3 4  b e l l e pour  from h i s  about 'La la  3 5  t o t h e p o i n t 'La  e s t l a premiere chose  [,]  blanche e s t adoptee  l a couleur  l e sa n c i e n s [ . ] '  3 7  The v e r y  whiteness  upon w h i c h I n g r e s f i x e d h i s a t t e n t i o n and w h i c h he b e l i e v e d most a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r the subject  i s p e r h a p s t h e most  quality  o f Flaxman's engraved  defined  h i s f i g u r e s on t h e w h i t e f i e l d  black light,  lines.  Ingres rendered  consistant  his paintings  designs.  The E n g l i s h  give  artist  of the p i c t u r e with  h i s f i g u r e s by p a i n t i n g  t o n e s on a c o n t r a s t i n g  would  conspicuous  a comparable  82  ground  impression  thin  them i n  apparently  so  of precision.  The  relative  L'Artiste  i n 1833.  said  to possess:  tres  grande s o i n .  simplicity  compositions; profils  en  Nul  d e s s i n p l u s que  t o u t e s ces qualit£s;  des  contours  font  l a moindre a l t e r a t i o n  ferait  de  ridicules  i f they are s u b j e c t e d to the  become r i d i c u l o u s of  upheld  line  and  as h a v i n g  the b e t t e r  "Ingres,  dont  le  a compris  sien,  avec  au bas  renoncer  - relief,  the author  k  instincts. sans  a pas  eu  k la statuaire."  l i n e was  best applied  painter,  was  alteration  de  writer  n'  avait  l e bon  when F l a x m a n ' s  noted  rien  tenir  t o bas  relief  or s t a t u t o r y .  a  was  : avec  demeler comrae  au d e s s i n , Flaxman,  Ingres  Although  received a  does n o t  appear 83  At  in his feelings  i t was  Ingres,  the  later.  v e r s i o n o f L ' A p o t h e o s e d'Homere.  Flaxman's p o r t r a i t  they  instinct,  s' en  3 8  designs  nombreux r a p p o r t s  t o show h i s agreement many y e a r s  importance.  chinois."  t h e s c u l p t o r ' s method o f d e s i g n i n g w i t h  must have been somewhat a m b i v a l e n t sculptor's  ombres  purs  As much as p r a i s i n g  3 y  I n t h e y e a r Flaxman d i e d , 1826, for his f i r s t  et  ses  of Flaxman's  The  l a p e i n t u r e e t de  implies that  d'  wonder t h a t  de meme q u ' i l  l a c o u l e u r ; m a i s i l n'  F l a x m a n , de  least  une  lignes,  o f c o l o u r a r e compared F l a x m a n  l e g e n i e n ' e s t pas aussi  ces graves  little  des  c a r a c t e r e de  upon t h e u s e  silhouettes -  I n g r e s ' use  de  were  de F l a x m a n n '  l a s6v£rite'  silhouettes  -  Aeschylus  grande f i n e s s e ,  celui  l e grand  p l a c e d the c o n s t r a i n t  use  were c o n s i d e r e d i n  F l a x m a n ' s D a n t e , Homer, and  Having that  artists  "...une g r a n d e p u r e t e ; une  e x i g e absolument la  m e r i t s o f t h e two  this  time  about  considered f o r  i n t h i s work.  commission  Only  he  the  inclusion, after  many y e a r s r e f l e c t i o n in  a second  work on  autobiographical p a i n t e r ' s death Ingres judged of  Homer and  personages Sublime  and  work d i d I n g r e s i n c l u d e  t h e same theme Homere D 6 i f i 6 .  work was  completed  i n 1867.  o n l y two  greatness, M  threw  Flaxman the a r t i s t  images t o complement  1 s t C e n t u r y A.D.  real  light  on what  whose d e s i g n s had  I n g r e s p r e s e n t e d as r e c o g n i z a b l e s p e c i f i c  frieze  of the b u i l d i n g  As  a result  of the r e c o g n i t i o n  he  a u t h o r o f On  only v i s u a l  t o form  (Figure  received  influence  o v e r more, p a r t i c u l a r l y  was  t h e c o n t i n e n t , where he was  was  elected  later to  a full  associate  of h i s engraved  He  was  a House o f Commons Committee c o n s i d e r i n g  Elgin  marbles.  first  P r o f e s s o r of S c u l p t u r e , ! which  six  invited  4 0  I n 1810  John  Flaxman R.A. 4  lectures a year.  84  of  than  he  exclusively  designs.  o f t h e R o y a l Academy and  Royal Academician.  t o be  young, a r t i s t s  known a l m o s t  the  when he r e t u r n e d  direct  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  works  78).  Flaxman found h i m s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n  through  French,  s o u r c e s i n Homere  home t o E n g l a n d ,  on  the  constituted  adapted  i n the background  The  o f Homer i n t o  The  outlines  people  provided readers with  the Homeric t e x t s .  D£if±6 a r e Flaxman's c l a s s i c a l  semi-  popularity  of h i s s u b j e c t .  Dacier translator  m e  of those  to the continued  thus to the c r e d i b i l i t y  included Longinus,  This  Flaxman  years b e f o r e the  I n i t were p o r t r a i t s  t o have c o n t r i b u t e d  a work w h i c h  literary  on h i s own  In 1797  he  three years to give evidence  the purchase  of  the  became t h e Academy's  required  him  to present  John Flaxman's L e c t u r e s before in  the  1829  skills  President  give and  of  artists,'  construction  the he  4 3  studies  wrote.  Sculpture  Members o f  his perspectives  the  ourselves  and  on  of  and  His  on  the  delivered  p r a c t i c e of  "We the  of  must  most  the  celebrated  ancient  associated  with h i s  outline  to b e l i e v e  that  of a  ancient l a c k of  sculpture  had  l e d him  or b a r b a r i c  scientific  knowledge i n the  mathematics, p r o p o r t i o n  etc.  earliest  works were r e s o l v e d  sciences  arithmetic  of  the  and  of bodies,  The  4 4  other  drapery  figure, regulated  the  proportions, f i g u r e s he the  of  the  painting'.  own  words:  the  whole and  (sic), figures  and  the  and  4 6  and  opposition  Parrhasius  s o u l may  be  by  of  i n a l l the  extremities'.  4 7  with every  85  the  faces,  the  two  proportions  and  the ascertained;  outline,  individual notes  that  evil  f i g u r e of  man  principle in of  action  figures,  i n t o a new  contributing  and  agreeable  good and  species  When a s s e m b l i n g feature  where he 'the  expressed  i n the  For  4 5  i n the  the  these  shade  motions,  agree that  parts;  and  contrast*.  distinguishes  geometry,  the  harmony o f  represented  crudeness  anatomy,  reckoned,  light  the  own  a t t r i b u t a b l e to  arithmetic,  of Socrates  S u b s e q u e n t l y he  'Expression  created  'by  works  a p p l i c a t i o n of  diagrams f o r the  r e c a l l e d a dialogue  philosopher  qualities by  or  the  s u p e r f i c i e s , or  lines  of  form of  animals are  geometry g i v e s  was  the  d e f i c i e n c i e s of  through  geometry:  human f i g u r e and  quantities  sculpture  artistic  avail  w i t h w h i c h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s had illustrations  published  4 2  a c q u i s i t i o n of  works.  studies  As  Royal Academy,  a r t , the  new  own  ...  t o an  his in  limbes composition expression  of  the  c h a r a c t e r ' s s o u l the  ancient  art:  the best story  'The  sufficient show t h e  For  the  production  particular  designs  with  relevance  i s a comment on  one  group; but  may  be  events  on  i n the  or c o n t r a s t of well  as  the  as  a sculptor.  1805  and  the  5  about  them  the  limbs  and  forms of  work t h e  draperies  the  end,  indication  i n t h e moment  chosen'.  basso r e l i e v o .  He  t o be  this  the  seen  their  during  latter  sometimes a  Roscoe wrote,  5 0  Bentley's  of the  The  critical  was  not a  maintained  reputation  were s o l d  656  between  Century a l l  apologetically.  ' [ F l a x m a n ' s ] works a p p e a l  86  then  t o harmony,  f i g u r e s only  19th  the  f i g u r e s as  h i s l i f e t i m e by  almost  like  succession  force i s given  illustrations  part  species  t h a t more g r o u p s  shadows.'  from the  'The  i n many v i e w s  advantage, and  wrote,  number o f g r o u p s and  F l a x m a n ' s works were r e v i e w e d example, E.S.  to  instant depicting  i t comprehends an  of  follow Gerald  the  have a  left  t h e Longman Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s 1 8 2 8 . 1 By  gentle  p u r p o s e f o r t h e Homer  replaced  To  by  to h i s intended  p r o j e c t i o n of  England, being  of  d i s t i n c t n e s s ... Where  same s t o r y ; a g r e a t e r  in  of in  same b a c k - g r o u n d ,  l i n e s by  mindful  4 8  intended  a c c l a i m Flaxman a c c r u e d  copies  the  o f a new  i t has  the  be  composition,  back-ground  a certainty  s c u l p t u r e i s not  entire  of G r e c i a n  and  a c t i o n i s more p e r f e c t as  Of  again  whether grouped or s i n g l e ,  l i n e s with  intelligible.'  the past,  of  figures,  p o r t i o n of p l a i n  of  of  the  general  perfectly  simplicity  should  r e q u i r e much a c t i o n , i t i s t o l d  movements, and  'every  characteristics  ages, are  does n o t  artist  For to  the  4 9  cultured 20th  of a very  s m a l l number ...'52 ^  c e n t u r y Flaxman's v i s u a l  reduced Phil  minds  t o t h e form  May r e p r e s e n t e d  designs  of a century  parallel types intent  suitable  h a t c h i n g , minimal  r a t h e r than  means o f i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r cartoons  by F i g u r e 79. before  such  engraving,  background presence are familiar  h a s been r e p l a c e d by s o c i a l  87  satire.  had b e e n  a s t h e one by  When compared  the l i n e  individuals  the turn of the  with  Flaxman's  heavy d r a p e r i e s , of p h y s i c a l  but Flaxman's  serious  NOTES TO THE TEXT CHAPTER IV 1.  Henry  Crabb-Robinson,  2.  M r s . F l a x m a n t o H a y l e y Rome 22 J u l y Museum, F l a x m a n l e t t e r box n o . 3 .  3.  G e r a l d E . B e n t l e y J r . , The E a r l y E n g r a v i n g s o f F l a x m a n ' s C l a s s i c a l D e s i g n s , (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 31  4.  I b i d . p . 18 f o o t n o t e 8 n o t e s t h a t F l a x m a n r e c o r d e d " S e n t by Hawkins M c K i n n o n & Com: t o Mr. Udney 46 d r a w i n g s f r o m t h e I l i a d & O d y s s e y a t 4 Crowns e a c h 184 — " i n h i s A c c o u n t book f o r 1792-1794 ( B r i t i s h Museum, A d d . Mss 39784 F, f . 32)  5.  C h a r l e s R o b e r t C o c k e r e l l , D i a r i e s . M a n u s c r i p t i n R.I.B.A. D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n . 27 November 1824.  6.  D a v i d I r w i n , John p.138.  7.  G e o r g e S m i t h , The D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l 1938), e n t r y f o r F r a n c i s H a r e - N a y l o r .  8.  B e n t l e y , op. c i t . ,  9.  F l a x m a n t o H a y l e y Rome 26 O c t o b e r Museum, F l a x m a n l e t t e r - b o x no.4.  10.  R o b e r t Adam, R u i n s o f t h e p a l a c e o f t h e Emperor D i o c l e t i a n a t S p a l a t r o i n D a l m a t i a (London, 1 7 6 4 ) , p . i v .  11.  J.D. F i o r i l l o , G e s c h i c h t e d e r z e i c h n e n d e r K u n s t e ( G o t t i n g e n 1798-1808), V, p.851. I n I r w i n , op. c i t . , p . 6 7 .  12.  Farington, Diary, unpublished entry, I r w i n , op. c i t . , 84.  13.  Goethe,  14.  W i l l i a m H a y l e y , The L i f e p.203.  15.  I r w i n , op. c i t . , p.84.  16.  Farington, Diary, unpublished entry, I r w i n , op. c i t . , 84.  op. c i t . ,  Diaries,  Flaxman:  V o l . I 1 7 t h J a n u a r y 1811.  1755-1826  1793 F i t z w i l l i a m  (London,  1979),  Biography  (Oxford,  pp. 13-14, 3 1 . 1793. MSS. F i t z w i l l i a m  19 December 1795. I n  p.245. o f G e o r g e Romney, ( L o n d o n ,  88  1809),  19 December 1795. I n  17.  Farington, Diary, edit. Greig, In I r w i n , op. c i t . , 84.  I , p.184, 12 J a n u a r y 1797.  18.  Koch l e t t e r , Lutteroitti,  19.  G o e t h e , op. c i t . , p.245.  20.  S i r Walter Scott, L e t t e r s , e d i t 1932-1936), I , pp.226-227.  21.  L e t t e r F l a x m a n t o H a y l e y , L o n d o n , 6 November 1807. L i b r a r y , Add. MSS. 39780, f . 9 8 .  22.  Farington, Diary unpublished op. c i t . , p.172.  23.  David Irwin, N e o c l a s s i c a l Design: Industry A n t i q u i t y , A p o l l o , XCVI, 1972, p p . 2 8 9 f f .  24.  P h i l l i p O t t o Runge: H i n t e r l a s s e n S c h r i f t e n , Hamburg ( 1 8 4 0 ) , V o l . I I p . 31. Runge t o h i s b r o t h e r D a n i e l , 23 A u g u s t 1800.  25  Bindman,  26.  Q u o t e d J e a n n e D o i n 'John F l a x m a n ( I ) ' , G a z e t t e de B e a u x - A r t s , V [ 1 9 1 1 ] , 4me p e r i o d e , p.233.  27.  B r i a n I v o n - J o n e s , 'The A c h i l l e s S i l v e r - g i l t A p o l l o ns 97 [ A p r i l 1973] p.447.  28.  B r i t i s h Museum, Add. MSS. 39783 a volume c o n t a i n i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f M a r i a Denman f 2 8 1 i n R o b e r t R. Work B r i t i s h S i l v e r i n t h e H u n t i n g t o n C o l l e c t i o n (San Marino C a l i f o r n i a , 1978) number 58.  29.  A l l a n Cunningham L i v e s o f t h e Most e m i n e n t B r i t i s h P a i n t e r s S c u l p t o r s and A r c h i t e c t s 2nd e d i t i o n , 6 v o l s . L o n d o n 1830-3 i n I r w i n , op. c i t . , p.196.  30.  S a r a h Symmons, ' F r e n c h c o p i e s a f t e r F l a x m a n ' s O u t l i n e s ' B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , 115 [ S e p t 1973] pp.591-599. This p a s s a g e p.596.  31.  Now d e s t r o y e d .  32.  I b i d . , p.596.  33.  S a r a h Symmons, 'J.A.D. I n g r e s : The a p o t h e o s i s o f F l a x m a n ' B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e v o l 121 [November 1979] pp.721-725.  34.  I b i d . , p.722.  d a t e d Rome 16 J a n u a r y 1799, i n O t t o R. v o n J . A . K o c h ( B e r l i n , 1 9 4 0 ) , p.142.  H.J.C. G r i e r s o n  entry  (London, British  19 J u l y 1809 i n I r w i n , plunders  op. c i t . , p.177.  Shield',  I b i d . , p.595.  89  35.  Q u o t e d by D a n i e l T e r n o i s , I n g r e s , ( P e t i t P a l a i s , P a r i s [ 1 9 6 7 - 1 9 6 8 ] ) , p.76, No. 51 i n Symmons, i b i d . , p.722.  36.  Montaubon, Mus6e I n g r e s , I n v . No. 8671786. i n Symmons, i b i d . , p.722.  37.  Montaubon, Mus6e I n g r e s , I n v . No. 8671793. i n Symmons, i b i d . , p.722.  38.  L ' O e u v r e C o m p l e t de J o h n F l a x m a n , ' L ' A r t i s t e , l i v r a i s o n [ 1 8 3 3 ] , p.260.  39.  Ibid.  40.  P u b l i s h e d a s : R e p o r t f r o m t h e S e l e c t Committee o f t h e House o f Commons on t h e E a r l o f E l g i n ' s C o l l e c t i o n e t c I L o n d o n , 1816 J . F l a x m a n ' s e v i d e n c e pp.70-80.  41.  S i d n e y C. H u t c h i s o n , The H i s t o r y 1768-1968 [London 1 9 6 8 ] , p.233.  42.  J o h n F l a x m a n , L e c t u r e on S c u l p t u r e ... A s d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e t h e P r e s i d e n t and Members o f t h e R o y a l Academy. With a b r i e f memoir o f t h e a u t h o r . L o n d o n , 1829. L a t e r p u b l i s h e d a s J o h n F l a x m a n , L e c t u r e s on S c u l p t u r e ... S e c o n d e d i t i o n . To w h i c h a r e now f i r s t a d d e d , an i n t r o d u c t o r y l e c t u r e and two a d d r e s s e s t o t h e R o y a l Academy on t h e d e a t h o f T. B a n k s , i n 1805, and A. C a n o v a , i n 1822, w i t h and A d d r e s s on t h e d e a t h o f F l a x m a n by S i r R. W e s t m a c o t t . L o n d o n , 1838. New e d i t i o n L o n d o n , G. B e l l and s o n s , 1881.  43.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , P- 215.  44.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , P- l O l f f .  45.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , P- 160.  46.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , P- 133.  47.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , p. 151.  48.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , P- 157.  49.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , P. 151.  50.  Ibid.,  ( 1 8 8 1 ) , P- 153.  51.  Gerald  Bentley  52.  E.S. R o s c o e , 'The C a r e e r and Works o f F l a x m a n ' M a g a z i n e o f A r t V4 [ 1 8 8 1 ] , p.368.  Tome V. 2 1  e  p.260.  of the Royal  Academy  op . c i t . ,  90  A p l a q u e on t h e h o u s e where P h i l i p W i l l i a m May was b o r n r e a d s : "A g r e a t b l a c k and w h i t e a r t i s t ... A f e l l o w o f infinite jest". H i s s t y l e ranged from l i n e t o h e a v i l y shaded f i g u r e s . See D a v i d C u p p l e d i t c h , P h i l May, The A r t i s t and H i s Wit (London, 1 9 8 1 ) , p.125.  91  CHAPTER V H a v i n g examined t h e influence  intellectual  o f t h e Homer d e s i g n s ,  context,  i t i s necessary  Flaxman's achievement  i n producing  this  captivating freshness  day  retain  conceived not  only  nature  and  their  u n c l u t t e r e d by  Indeed,  they  his stories, seem t o be  with  removed  f r o m t h e a n c i e n t d e c o r a t i v e a r t by  of  inspired.  objective, scientific  Instead  t h e H o m e r i c e p i c s and,  that  c h a r a c t e r i z e d 18th  essence  the  line  i n the  Century  of humanity without  of  and  appraise  images t h a t  and  vigour.  but  the  to  Lucidly  engravings  also explore  the  documents r e c o r d i n g a  society  partly  an  a series  to  superfluous d e t a i l ,  i l l u m i n a t e Homer and  o f man.  history  precision  which they  engravings  spirit  of  thought,  that i s f a r  form a  were compendium  intellectual  seemingly  the d i s t r a c t i o n  of  enquiry  present  the  i t s material  substance. J o h n F l a x m a n ' s 1792  Homer d e s i g n s  accumulated  during his f i r s t  model shop,  four years  designer  with  of the  has  pretation,  however, o v e r l o o k s  approach. his  technical  years  as  five  centred  on  contemporary  years  and  a  (a l e a d e r i n the development  t h e work o f a n c i e n t and  linear  Academy, 12  the prominence of commercial engravings  experience  i n his fathers' cast  methods o f mass p r o d u c t i o n ) , and  Despite  criticism  years  at the Royal  f o r J o s i a h Wedgwood  industrial Italy.  15  embodied h i s  of  study  constrictions  their  relationship  artists.  That  inter-  h i s more p r o s a i c and  practical  While  i n Wedgwood's employ, F l a x m a n had  developed  style  as b o t h  communication  a means o f c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , to the  industrialist  92  in  and  and  his potters,  of  paralleling the  18th  ideas.  the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d use  Century  plished  belong,  industrial  artistic  context  having  any  designer  the  be  be  of the  adapted  Homeric e p i c s . alterations  intended  indicated  represented  ancients.'1  a n c i e n t s ' d i d not  could  and  rapidly  preclude  to present His  of the  an  in a series  was  The  expression  the  inclusion  'on  but  not  i n 18th  and  Century  (even  detail  of  the  of  as  the  the  engraving  to create a s e r i e s f r o m a n c i e n t work. observed,  'My  God,  novel  Italian  devices  process,  He  was  decorated  and,  last  a mass Clearly,  a n c i e n t s " d i d n o t mean  of a n c i e n t compositions.  ancient or e a r l y  the  inclusion  o f t e n show i t ) ;  the  adopting  that  e x c l u s i o n of h e a v i l y  Flaxman,  reproduction  of  of a n c i e n t a r t ) ;  unknown i n Homer's t i m e .  p r i n c p l e s of  on  (more u s u a l l y  p r o d u c t i o n method, i t s e l f "on  'show  principles  stories,  books o f e n g r a v i n g s  though a n c i e n t vases selection  to  i n n o v a t i o n s were many: ,  the h o r i z o n t a l h a t c h i n g  ' s h o r t c u t s ' such  least,  into  of anything  as  h i g h a r t such  draperies  accom-  of compositions  in  of  an  appearance a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  adaptations f o c u s and  to Hayley,  schemes unknown t o Homer's t i m e ;  taking  by  for translation  of compositional  employed  illustrations  media.  s t o r y may  principles  t h a t F l a x m a n ' s Homer  been c o m p l e t e d  F l a x m a n ' s g o a l , as he how  in  t h e medium f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g e s s e n t i a l  It i s in this  essentially  other  as  of drawing/engraving  detailed  neither  a r t as m o d e l s n o r  to  simply  attempting  o f images c o n t r i v e d t o be i n d i s t i n g u s h a b l e Runge, commenting  in a letter  I have n e v e r s e e n t h i s k i n d o f  93  of  1800,  thing  before  i n my  life;  the  comparison'. unlike had  d r a w i n g s on indeed,  2  the E t r u s c a n  employed  comparison,  Flaxman c l e a r l y  The  Collins of  the  drawing  f i g u r e s t o be  of  the  trative  and  result.  figure  g i v i n g an  At  notes  and  o f what t h e  f i g u r e would  the  leaving  top  of  was  different line  shadow.  linear  At  the  sheet  top,  relief By  would  shorthand,  the  convey s u f f i c i e n t  a mental  scheme o f an  object  with  like  a  and  good  what  lower drawing, the  Unlike  done  the  rendering  suggestive, the  f a s h i o n , F l a x m a n ' s Homer d e s i g n s  do  not  of  each  relative  i s only  f o r the viewers  As  i t s enlivening  of  94  3  illus-  imagination  information  to the  image'  'an  shows o n l y  bottom s k e t c h  line  is instructive.  look  c o n t r a s t , the  a  wash  i s a picture,  included to give h i s patrons  the p r o v i s i o n of d e t a i l  In a s i m i l a r  top  i s a diagram,  distinction  d e s c r i b e , the  and  be  William  i n k and  relief,  suggesting  the bottom  The  4  and  t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e work. the  ideas.  purposes to which  i n pen  i n a bas  of  own  diagrams should  o u t l i n e or general  finished  represent.  F l a x m a n ' s own  p o s i t i o n s of at  sheet  shading  his  s i d e of h i s p r a c t i c e  a study  ink without  the  in  of e s s e n t i a l  represented  i t s various p a r t s . '  idea  expression  contains  finished  the  by  Flaxman  scheme f o r a monument t o t h e p o e t  and  detail,  utilized  sculptural  by  were q u i t e  principles  d e s c r i p t i o n . . . capable  on  pale  s m a l l p a r t because  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and  i n F i g u r e 22  i n pen  clear  i n the  conceptual  'a g r a p h i c  i n no  d i s t i n g u i s h e d the  shaded p i c t o r i a l put.  designs,  f o r the  vases completely  t h e Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s  t h e methods and  contemporaries By  Etruscan  them t o  viewer.  create  a mental for  example, p o r t r a y e d  before ever of  image o f c h a r a c t e r s he  him,  people  people  Homer's c h a r a c t e r s t h u s t e x t s but  suggestive,  final  the  extension,  reconstruct Strictly  in  been  Homer.  n e c e s s i t a t e d the  detail.  use  artist's  seated  The  being  had  portrayal  of d e t a i l s  experience.  H i s d e p i c t i o n s were  interpretation  story  i t would be  Homer's s t o r i e s  speaking  already  familiar  engraved  designs  the  'the u s u a l with  the  not  Yet,  only  l e f t to the  imagination  Achilles'  Iliad  To occurred  and And  5  course  viewer  to  inspired  be  literate  For  people,  noted, those  Flaxman's  d i v e r s i o n as  images d i s p l a y , as  how  represented  y e t , as R e y n o l d s  of r e a d i n g . '  images.  'show  O d y s s e y ) may  a kind  f u r y , Penelope c o n f r o n t i n g the  suitors,  o f t h e L e s t r i g e n s k i l l i n g a man,  i s stimulated viewer,  the  hundred y e a r s  to r e c a l l  the  textual  d e p i c t i o n of events ago  might  g a r d e n s u c h as S t o u r h e a d w i t h  t o p o g r a p h y and  and context.  pure  English  its classically  architecture (Figure 4).  95  of  that  seem t o be  escapism, akin to t a k i n g a s t r o l l through a great Neo-Classical  to  captions  a 20th century twenty-five  viewer  the  Argus' death or the King informed  i n h i s attempt  stories,  The  f o r any  Flaxman's v i s u a l  c o u l d become a p l e a s a n t  s e c u l a r Book o f H o u r s . indicate,  studying  Flaxman f a i l e d  (in particular  p a r t of  impossible  by  a s e r i e s of c o m p o s i t i o n s . . . '  Homer was  the  actually  viewer.  By  any  Whereas R e y n o l d s ,  anyone e l s e o f h i s t i m e  r a t h e r from the  provide  the  had  o r gods d e s c r i b e d by  Flaxman d i d not  of  who  n e i t h e r Flaxman nor  seen the  from the  represents.  But  escapism,  a 2 0 t h C e n t u r y word, i s f r e q u e n t l y that  seem f r i v o l o u s o r u n r e a l .  reflect  a late  observers, society.  with  o f view.  studied  R o b e r t Wood had w r i t t e n  F o r 18th Century  a s a model f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y o f Homer t h a t  plan  of i n s t r u c t i o n , e i t h e r moral o r p o l i t i c a l ,  (for  t o deny t h a t  choice  he had any would be h i g h l y  of characters  Nature,  'whatever h i s m i g h t have been  unreasonable), h i s  f o r t h e purpose never c a r r i e d him beyond  and h i s own e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e . '  6  Homer d e m o n s t r a t e d  a m o r a l p o s i t i o n by i n c l u d i n g s u c h c h a r a c t e r s Penelope.  as t h e ever  He even opened t h e s t o r y o f t h e I l i a d  by  how a p l a g u e had b e f a l l e n t h e G r e e k s b e c a u s e t h e i r Agamemnon, had r e f u s e d for  to give  ransom and t h u s o f f e n d e d  When c o n s i d e r i n g  the I l i a d  reader cannot but n o t i c e  up t h e p r i e s t  throughout both  and u p h e a v a l  secure.  Gods a l w a y s r a n k e d b e f o r e  heroes before  hero,  t h e exemplar  upstart that  men.  above k i n g s  kings,  Ulysses,  maintained  models, a  t a l e s o f war,  kings  before  the greatest  remained heroes Homeric  I t i s of i n t e r e s t  Gods a r e t y p i c a l l y  who a r e ,  i n turn,  shown above common men.  relationships  god A p o l l o .  f o r a l l men, p r e v a i l s by o v e r c o m i n g t h e  i n Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  turn,  daughter  o f Homeric s o c i e t y  s u i t o r s and r e s t o r i n g t h e o l d o r d e r .  physically in  the s t r u c t u r e  ordinary  king,  and O d y s s e y a s p o l i t i c a l  that  faithful  recounting  Chryses'  the plague causing  violence  and  activities  I t s a p p l i c a t i o n h e r e would not  18th Century point  Homer was b e i n g  associated  depicted  above h e r o e s who a r e ,  In Homeric s o c i e t y  human  a r e s i m p l e and d i r e c t and i t s h i e r a r c h i e s a r e  and f r e q u e n t l y  demonstrated.  96  Flaxman's  designs  reflect lived  these p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s  l o n g e r Wood m i g h t h a v e r e g a r d e d  F l a x m a n ' s d e s i g n s as v i s u a l and  of Homeric s o c i e t y .  political The  statement  t o assume t h a t  I t has  been o b s e r v e d  i n the  he was  1790's  politically  of p e r s o n a l . i t e m s taken  t o Rome he  B o o k s a r e none e i t h e r R e l i g o u s e x c l u s i o n s may  intentionally  i n t h e Homer d e s i g n s can  in politics  simply  but  7  that  he  noted  about  that  However, by  t o l e a v e Rome, h o l d i n g c e r t a i n  could  dangerous.  war  that  failed of  was  actually  to a t t a i n ,  society.  The  of a c c i d e n t a l l y leaving  Italy  A u g s b u r g and France,  removal  he  had  namely,  These  8  of m a t e r i a l  i n the  foreign  as t h e  political  i n the midst  the overthrow  Flaxmans thus chose straying  Kassel.  briefly.  was  1794,  the  Flaxmans  positions  of a r e v o l u t i o n a r y  a c c o m p l i s h i n g what t h e T r o j a n war  into  v i a Venice  a r t N a p o l e o n had visit  France  inventory  "amongst  ( s i c ) or P o l i t i c a l " .  little  incorrect  I n h i s own  r e p r e s e n t the prudent  to v i s i t .  regarded  showed  i t would be  unaware.  prepared be  moral  included a  o n l y be  w h i c h m i g h t have been c o n s i d e r e d c o n t r o v e r s i a l l a n d s he was  books of  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f Homer's  f o r Flaxman h a v i n g  as c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . interest  the engraved  he  instructions.  evidence  political  Had  9  and  looted  he  travelling  from  north through  Paris  conquered  97  t o see  countries.  t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet D a v i d ,  possibility  of c o n f l i c t  only to t r a v e l  visited  structure  t o a v o i d even the  t h e main a r e a s  F l a x m a n was  In 1802  of the very  had  but  by  Innsbruck,  again i n t h e works o f During  that  Flaxman r e f u s e d  feeling  that,  as a r e s u l t  F r e n c h m a n ' s hands had By  been  i n the R e v o l u t i o n , the  beyond  finished  purification."  instruction.  to h i s close  friend  t h e d e s i g n s i n t h e form suggests  that,  In l a t e Hayley  1793 that  of " s c u l p t u r e  as he worked on  he he  by  an e n g r a v e r  forms.  typically  had  not  by  into  other a r t i s t s .  anticipated  that  illustrations  c o u l d be  other a r t i s t s  a s he had  It  as u s e f u l hoped  engraved edition.  kinds".  t o be  i n t o h i s chosen a variety  of  line  engraver  the a c t u a l  for  that  Flaxman  engravings  so  Longman e d i t i o n  much g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n lines  The  i n l i n e width,  f o r some d e t a i l s  attracted by  of the  a engravers  first  W i l l i a m Blake  who 1805  at the  lower  Blake engravings  offer  e x t e n d i n g from  the use  of musculature  98  by  four  1 2  image i s i d e n t i f i e d  hand c o r n e r o f t h e p l a t e .  the  him.  n o t by F l a x m a n b u t  James P a r k e r and  but  sculptural  works t h a t  the engraver  of each  used  medium  t h e F l a x m a n c o m p o s i t i o n s newly c r e a t e d f o r t h e The  1 1  i n o t h e r media  appear  t h e y would be  In t h e 1805  James N e a g l e ,  exploit  a source of i n s p i r a t i o n  were e x e c u t e d  of engravers.  editions,  dotted  drawings  I t would  a r e r e p r e s e n t e d : Tomaso P i r o l i ,  right  intended to  once p u b l i s h e d a s  i s paradoxical that  these other a r t i s t s series  intimated in a  Some o f t h e d e s i g n s were i n d e e d r e n d e r e d  but  instruments  them, F l a x m a n came t o  to t r a n s l a t e  Flaxman h i m s e l f t o t r a n s l a t e  as  of d i f f e r e n t  c o n c e i v e o f t h e Homer d e s i g n s as w o r k i n g n o t o n l y by  1 0  t h e Homer d e s i g n s , h i s  f o r them were much more mundane t h a n  of p o l i t i c a l  This  "dyed  t h e t i m e F l a x m a n had  objectives  letter  of h i s part  (Iliad  2,  Figure  of  37) t o h e a v y r a g g e d  lines  for horizontal  represented  shadow u s i n g n o t h o r i z o n t a l  whose w i d t h  i s s e v e r a l times  Parker  together completely  Longman for  edition  the I l i a d .  to Blake's Blake  B o t h men  Iliad  more s u b t l e ,  maintained  used  hatching but a  the Odyssey  variations  f o r t h e 1805 designs  i n l i n e width  the e f f e c t  comparable  achieved  i t was n o t a s a r c h e o l o g i c a l l y  The l i n e s o f e n g r a v i n g  a more c o n s t a n t  width.  from  by  i s perhaps  Piroli's  correct  studio  He and h i s a s s o c i a t e s were  e i t h e r more c o n s e r v a t i v e o r p e r h a p s more c o n s c i o u s potential  line  N e a g l e and  t h r e e o f t h e new  e x t e n t by N e a g l e and P a r k e r  even p r e t t y ,  as P i r o l i ' s .  engraved  a d d i t i o n s . Although  and t o a l e s s e r  He h a s a l s o  that of the narrowest.  re-engraved  and P a r k e r  hatching.  p l a c e o f t h e F l a x m a n Homer  designs  of the  i n a l i b r a r y of  contemporary a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e x t s . L i n e d r a w i n g was, i n d e e d , a n c i e n t s b u t i t was a l s o 18th  Century  instruction and  intimately  the v i s u a l  a s s o c i a t e d with the  language of c h o i c e i n the  f o r the transmission of e s s e n t i a l i n a wide v a r i e t y  scientific  disciplines.  of f i e l d s  including  T h i s had been n o t e d  h i s A n a l y s i s o f Beauty p a r t i c u l a r l y  with  use  problems.13  of l i n e  saw l i n e lines figure  t o diagram mathematical  in a similar  context  when he w r o t e  Once mass p r o d u c e d  w h i c h t h e y were most w i d e l y known o u t l i n e s were a t o n c e removed  by H o g a r t h i n  Flaxman  'geometry and d r a p e r y  as e n g r a v i n g s ,  himself  gives of the  t h e form i n  and i n f l u e n t i a l ,  i n k i n d from  99  art, technical  reference to the  and d i a g r a m s f o r t h e m o t i o n , o u t l i n e ...'14  ideas, f o r  one-off  Flaxman's artistic  works o r diagrams. but,  by  virtue  Those 2 l a t t e r  of t h e i r  distribution  d e s i g n s c o u l d become i n s t r u m e n t s of e s t a b l i s h e d of  examining  artists  and  the o r i g i n a l  the c a t e g o r y of books of  of i n s p i r a t i o n  drawings.  instruction.  established  artist  demonstrated  production  o f new  The  artistic  a n c i e n t work q u i c k l y as D a v i d  as e n g r a v i n g s ,  students a l i k e  d e s i g n s a s a means o f a c q u i r i n g  such  required personal  works t h e y  use  t h e Homer  and  without  study,  instruction  the n e c e s s i t y  o f t h e Homer  skills  p l a c e d them i n  Their association  their  credibility  their  and  suitability  a l s o became an  with  once  an  i n the  essential  addition  to the s t u d i o s of h i s s t u d e n t s . During  t h e p e r i o d between t h e  created Les used  and  1865,  t h e r e had  engravings own  detail  imagery  been a s i g n i f i c a n t  were v i e w e d .  o f h i s own Some 50  fresh  Even though Les  and  later  t h e y had  the f o l k  imagery,  beyond  artists,  and  providing  now  forming  images s u i t a b l e  Ingres s y m b o l i c a l l y  not  age  the b a s i s to  1818. to  form  become a p a r t o f  work b u t  f o r the background. the c r e d i b i l i t y  100  upon  and  t h e memory o f  a b a s i s f o r new  established  based  them as o f 1810  line  t h e Homer d e s i g n s  t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f h i s Homere Delfl6 c r e a t e d i n an  was  i t s composition  of A c h i l l e s  when I n g r e s u s e d  f o r h i s Homere  Sabines  v i g o r o u s t o use  d e s i g n f o r the S h i e l d  years  David  c h a n g e i n t h e way  work F l a x m a n a p p a r e n t l y f o u n d sufficiently  1790's when  when I n g r e s as a m a t u r e p a i n t e r  F l a x m a n ' s d e s i g n s as s o u r c e s o f  Deifi^,  his  Sabines  late  By  working  rather  using  them,  of h i s s u b j e c t  and  o f h i m s e l f , an a r t i s t s  neo-classical  such as David,  fulfilling  a particular  throughout  Flaxman;s  Wedgwood hoped  After was  that  effort  of s o c i e t y .  f o r h i s own  t o suggest  work, d i f f u s e  that  the E n g l i s h  o f young  Flaxman w i t h t h e wish  f o r Wedgwood. In h i s own note in  that  artists  "a good  some y e a r s a f t e r  students.  Watts  the completion  (1817-1904)  with  1 6  and s c u l p t u r e had been  might  to the contemplation  Iliad  and O d y s s e y were,  that  by  to excite to exalt  and  the  qualities  of a r t i n major  o f t h e ' n o b l e s t and b e s t  101  to  ' s t u d i e d by  of d i v i n e  i n F l a x m a n ' s mind, works  f o r m s were t o e l e v a t e t h e t a s t e  be  worked  t h e y were i m p r o v e d  and e x c e l l e n c e ; and, f i n a l l y ,  attributes.'18  of  o f t h e Homer d e s i g n s  celebrate virtue  of the beholder  the  Academy F l a x m a n was  persons;  1 5  o f t h e Homer d e s i g n s .  o f s c i e n c e ; t h e y were employed  The  through  ended h i s b i o g r a p h y  the accumulation  persons'.  taste  and m a n u f a c t u r e r s  l e c t u r e s before the Royal  t h e n o b l e s t and b e s t e d u c a t e d  and  d i d , as  t o g e t h e r a s t h e y had been when F l a x m a n  ancient Greece p a i n t i n g  mind  directed  copies of f i n e t h i n g s " .  The same m i g h t be s a i d  17  to  expressed  s h o u l d be  t h e w a l l s o f s c h o o l s be a d o r n e d  f o r the betterment  as c l o s e  often  p a i n t e r G.F.  In 1927 W i l l i a m G e o r g e C o n s t a b l e  brought  i n the  t h e images were  The e n g r a v i n g s  by t h e "power o f m u l t i p l y i n g  Flaxman's death,  outlines  works,  a s p e c t o f an o b j e c t i v e  lifetime:  the c u l t i v a t i o n  the a r t s "  based  I n g r e s , Rude and G r o s began  t h e Homer d e s i g n s t o c r e a t e new  toward  was  tradition.  When a r t i s t s use  whose t r a i n i n g  educated  of course, being s t u d i e d  in  Flaxman's time f o r v i r t u a l l y  best  effect  epics,  an  amelioration  then acknowledged  ancient tures,  world,  should  the h i g h e s t  ancient craft of  a r t simple  traditions  The  l i n e was  form d u r i n g  years  he  rather  f o r the  works o f  line,  In  the  or  was  however,  context  designs  with  t o Wedgwood  f o r profound  industrial  This  i d e a of  u n i t i n g the  o b j e c t i v e s of high designs  was  of  the  all can.  a guiding  methods;  of c r a f t  A pamphlet p u b l i s h e d  I t reads i n part:  i t c a n n o t be  taught  as  and  unwit-  the Homer  i n 1919  entitled  19th  such,  o b j e c t i v e s of  although craftsmen  the in  and  Program  " A r t comes i n t o b e i n g  A r c h i t e c t s , p a i n t e r s , s c u l p t o r s are  102  of  arts.  i n the  the  his  and  principle  S t a t e Bauhaus i n Weimar s e t s o u t  Bauhaus S c h o o l .  traditions  a r t t h a t Flaxman e x h i b i t e d i n the  t o r e a p p e a r as  20th C e n t u r i e s .  traditions  (Figure  In  and  o b j e c t i v e s of high  line  contemplation  ancient  cultural  rather  the  a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l form  f u r t h e r e d the  Pieces  improvement.  F l a x m a n combined  tingly  the  figure pottery.  o f Wedgwood's p o t t e r s .  contemporary  of  associated with  intellectual  intended  sculp-  and  Homer d e s i g n s craft  the  f o r e v e r y d a y d o m e s t i c use  submitted  shop u s e  f r o m Homer's  ancient  become i n t i m a t e l y f a m i l i a r  T h e s e d r a w i n g s were n e v e r  but  the  simple  black  to  i n p a i n t i n g s or  forms.  and  contemplation  had  literary  most c l o s e l y  were i n t e n d e d  Flaxman h i m s e l f  6).  visual  Thus,  episodes  a r t of  form used,  of Greek red  f o r profound  the  greatest  have been d e p i c t e d  u n l i k e these  this pottery  than  the  same r e a s o n s .  t a s t e , the  forms of v i s u a l  contemprorary world. fundamentally  of  the  the above  craft the  original  sense  expected  to a c q u i r e a thorough  the p r a c t i c e  o f t h e word; c o n s e q u e n t l y a l l s t u d e n t s  and  work s i t e s ,  training  since  b a s i s of a l l c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y " . t h o s e e n v i s i o n e d by Gropius. for  He  had  solutions  urban  living  undertook  t h e Bauhaus c u r r i c u l u m . the commission.  been spent  in his father's  of  m o d e l l i n g and  to  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  Roubilliac training  and  i t was  mankind".20  t r a t i o n s he  had  exclusively).  was  37  War  The  He  the "wish  I Germany.  to  the  y e a r s o l d when  l e a r n e d the  15  had  principles  that  included  the  sculptors  p r o g r e s s e d t o a more f o r m a l impressed  of the genuine  upon  painter  1792  when he began t h e Homer  industrialist  a good t a s t e  through  had  expressed  the a r t s "  103  by  t o 1787 a wish  the s a l e  the  [to]  From t h e t i m e o f h i s g r a d u a t i o n f r o m until  he  p r o d u c t s o f t h e shop were made  worked f o r Wedgwood ( f r o m 1775 The  in particular  those years, the f i r s t  of a c l i e n t e l e  Scheemakers.  R o y a l Academy i n 1775  diffuse  He  shop where he  sculpture.  of  i n t h e Homer d e s i g n s  a t t h e R o y a l Academy where i t was  students that improve  Of  housing,  the fundamentals  Flaxman's path  he d i s p l a y e d  search  mass-production.  objective,  beforehand,  the  a r e a s as  c o n d i t i o n s i n post World  not planned  competence t h a t  paralleled  utilitarian  with a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  an a m e l i o r a t i o n o f  artistic  problems i n such  high-quality,  were  of the s c h o o l , Walter  t h e s o l u t i o n s were t o u n i t e  tradition  Although  worksites cited  formulated the c u r r i c u l u m to s t r e s s  p l a n n i n g , and  on  i s the i n d i s p e n s a b l e  The  director  t o contemporary  Significantly, craft  t h e new  i n t h e w o r k s h o p s and  this  1 9  are  the illus-  almost "to  of h i s  mass-distributed was  products;^  however, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t i t  1  F l a x m a n ' s i d e a l i s m t h a t made him a t t r a c t i v e When Wedgwood w r o t e t o h i s p a r t n e r B e n t l e y  "glad —  F l a x m a n i s a s v a l u a b l e an a r t i s t "  t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n  praise.  Wedgwood s u g g e s t s facility, 12)),  d e s i g n s based  a Kitharist particular  from  ( s u c h a s o f Mrs S i d d o n s  o r as a modeller.  o f an a c c o m p l i s h e d  was  creating  designs  the craftsmen  artist,  i n a form  shop.  to f i l l  a  Arms ( F i g u r e 6 f o r  He was m o d e l l i n g w i t h t h e  utilized  t h e moulds which formed t h e Jasperware.  With  Flaxman's between  m i g h t be expended r e n d e r i n g an a r t i s t ' s  i n t o working drawings f o r t h e use of a craftsman Such i s demonstrated  received  he  p r e s e n t a t i o n and shop u s e .  B r i d g e and R u n d e l l , t h e f i r m  smiths  designs  t h a t c o u l d be r e a d i l y  who were making  Considerable e f f o r t concept  (Figure  ( s u c h a s The C r o w n i n g o f  no i n t e r m e d i a t e r e n d e r i n g s were n e c e s s a r y  artist's  equal  and, p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t ,  components t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d  designs  be  He was v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e he c o u l d f u n c t i o n e q u a l l y  a s an a r t i s t  clay  life  (The M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s  eye  by  F l a x m a n was e x e c u t i n g w i t h  upon t h e a n t i q u e  commission  a s he soon p r o v e d  o f t h e work he was d o i n g f o r  ( F i g u r e 1 4 ) ) , and o r i g i n a l  example)). well  nature  an answer.  portraits  t h a t he was  o f what q u a l i t i e s p r o m p t e d t h e  Yet, the varied  2 2  —  t o Wedgwood.  t h e commission  executed  by t h e a c t i v i t i e s of silversmiths,  f o r the Shield  represents a design  (now i n t h e B r i t i s h  104  of Rundell, from  of A c h i l l e s  various other of h i s d e s i g n s .  ina  2 3  whom F l a x m a n and whose  F i g u r e 80  Museum) f o r a w i n e - c o o l e r  by F l a x m a n ' s R o y a l Thomas S t o t h a r d . comparatively designs 81)  well  I t i s an  2 4  little  and  In an Albert  the S t o t h a r d o r i g i n a l .  and  Rundell probably  acquainted  with  by  the o r i g i n a l  the d e t a i l s  t h a t were t o c o v e r  Rundell.  effort  82  design  W i l l i a m Theed R . A .  2 6  c r e a t e d e x p r e s s l y f o r the use  and  a c c o r d i n g l y was While  clarity  animals  r i m was  s t r e s s e d , p e r s p e c t i v e was  and  the  relief  right  More d r a w i n g s t o c l a r i f y  v  l i n e without  Figure after It  themselves any  105  forms beneath to a degree finished  the curved  visible  from  a  of the  clearly  cooler surface single  t o have been a p p l i e d t o a  a p p l i e d to a curved the c o n v e n t i o n  the  covers  a r e not  paper i t appeared  unnecessary because  concepts,  silversmiths  floral  i s compared w i t h  flat  t o be  of  and  design department.  compromised  On  d e s i g n was  piece.  by R u n d e l l , B r i d g e  pen  and  view p o i n t . panel.  has  precisely  more p r e c i s e manner.  i n the r e l i e f  In s i l v e r ,  was  i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the o u t l i n e s  and  the extreme l e f t  down more  finished  of the  (Figure  for Rundell  draughtsman  setting  to simple  figures  e v i d e n t when t h e d e s i g n  plate  f o r a wine c o o l e r p e r h a p s  was  and  by  The  2 5  head o f t h e R u n d e l l  reduced  that includes  e m p l o y e e s who  to o b t a i n complete c l a r i t y in a s t i l l  represents another  sketch  prepared  of t h e i r  the  d e s i g n s were r e n d e r e d  (Figure 83).  I t was  one  concept  friend  museum i s a r e n d e r i n g  d e s i g n s were a l s o p r o d u c e d  I n an  shading.  long time  album o f s i l v e r  silversmithing.  transformed  Original  and  impressionistic  detail.  i n the V i c t o r i a  after  Bridge  Academy c l a s s m a t e  the p o i n t t h a t a s u r f a c e were  of the  flat  clearly  two-dimensional  line  drawing conveyed silversmith  sufficient  illustrations  t o be  and  silverware  i n t e r p r e t e d and  problems a s s o c i a t e d f o r m were t o be by  unspecified potter, in  rendered  with  solved  Flaxman, time  the  by  as  little  production  The flat  and  capacity To  of be  as  s a l e of  sheets f o r rendering  clearly  and  curved  6,  the  small,  2 7  designer  a s t y l e which  and  also that  was  consistent  period. bridge traffic  was  design  with  between t h e ideas  that  of  had  long  Although  a r t s and  Homer  accepting  shop d r a w i n g  implies,  t h r o u g h him  106  on  been known the  sample  Figure shows  industrialist  illustrations, from h i s  i n use  artist  through  Flaxman c o n s t i t u t e d  industry  so  t o Wedgwood i s  work t o t h e the  presented  drawings  i n Wedgwood's employ,  submitting  industrial  flowed  line  delivered  Wedgwood was  I f , as C o n s t a b l e  of  still  the  t o be  i t i s nonetheless s i g n i f i c a n t .  foreshadowed  the  for  required.  objects  h i s hand and  drawn w h i l e F l a x m a n was  both that in  by  bas  some  unambiguously  with presenting  on  ultimate  case of  most u s e f u l  t o F l a x m a n t h r o u g h h i s work f o r Wedgwood.  unfortunately  i n the  but  technical  the  a s c u l p t o r at  p o s s i b l e was  problems a s s o c i a t e d  of designs executed  The  s i l v e r s m i t h h i s d e s i g n s needed  adaptation  Homer  common  i n a n o t h e r medium.  future.  the  a f i n i s h e d work i n i t s e l f  someone e l s e , o r ,  i n the  i n the  engraver or  t o be  or  piece.  were s i m i l a r i n t h e i r  a form which s p e c i f i e d d e t a i l  that  modeller  Flaxman's d e s i g n s f o r Jasperware,  None were c r e a t e d  reliefs,  f o r the  to produce a f i n i s h e d three-dimensional  Significantly,  purpose.  information  i t would seem t h a t i n both d i r e c t i o n s .  the  the the Flaxman  took  t o Wedgwood  ancient could  his skill  h i s knowledge o f  work, and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o d e s i g n  be a d a p t e d  Wedgwood's  into.products reminiscent  design  s t y l e of graphic equal  as a m o d e l l e r ,  facility  requirements  i n a manner t h a t of ancient  work.  f o r c e d Flaxman t o take  back a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d  t o the manufacture of Jasperware,  with  engravings  and  silverplate. Flaxman's f r i e n d illustration ...  clearly  works."28  t h a t they the f r u i t  Strictly  not achieve  cultivates  n  i n t o t h e s c u l p t u r e he e n v i s a g e d  fact,  definition  arts,  of a designer design  who makes d e s i g n s  live  a r e those  and t h u s  of a r t i s t  a s "one who  w h i c h p l e a s e by p e r f e c t i o n o f  f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e Homer  the actual production  makes an a r t i s t i c  a s an a r t i s t  of the  Flaxman never d i d t r a n s f o r m t h e  the d i c t i o n a r y  j  the d e f i n i t i o n  one  o f Flaxman's l i f e  one o f t h e f i n e  execution".29 commission,  a r e " t h e works by w h i c h he w i l l  speaking  Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s did  C o c k e r e l l wrote e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y  of the designs,  r a t h e r than  he  an a r t i s t :  or plan of c o n s t r u c t i o n :  fulfill "one who  specifically  or patterns f o r the manufacturer or  constructor".30 If  Flaxman's Homeric i l l u s t r a t i o n s  from t h e s t a n d p o i n t context the  o f what t h e y  a s s o c i a t i o n with  when t h e l i n e stated  are considered  of h i s contemporaries, regarded  that  drawings are considered  p u r p o s e f o r them —  i s , i n the  a s t h e g r e a t e s t o f human  ancient a r t i s inevitable.  107  societies,  But i t i s o n l y  i n the l i g h t  the p r e l i m i n a r y stage  only  of h i s  i n the production  of  s c u l p t u r a l works i n a f o r m a k i n  suitable Rundell and of his  f o r submission —  praise ancient  that  t o Wedgwood o r R u n d e l l ,  h i s reaction  c a n be e x p l a i n e d .  on t h e b a s i s  drawings B r i d g e and  to h i s contemporaries' Hailed  work, F l a x m a n r e g r e t t e d  creativity  to industrial  as c a p t u r i n g  that  of a project  108  interpretation  the essence  the c r i t i c s never f u l l y  were  judging  realized.  Footnotes Chapter 5 MSS F i t z w i l l i a m Museum, Flaxman l e t t e r - b o x t o H a y l e y , Rome, 26 O c t o b e r 1793. P.O. Runge, H l n t e r l a s s e n e S c h r l f t e n p. 54.  See  Flaxman  (Hamburg 1 8 4 1 ) ,  The S h o r t e r O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (Oxford, 1975) v . I I p.1580 no. 4. I b i d V . I p.539,  no. 4,  ed C.T.  I,  Onions  no.2.  note 1 Chapter  V.  R o b e r t Wood, An E s s a y on t h e O r i g i n a l (1769; New Y o r k , 1 9 7 1 ) , p.298. Hugh Honour, N e o c l a s s i c i s m  G e n i u s o f Homer  (Harmondsworth,  1968),  p.71.  M e t e y a r d , op. c i t . , p. 506 i n c l u d e s a copy o f t h i s i n v e n tory. I t l i s t s as w e l l as p e r s o n a l e f f e c t s "Some C l a s s i c a l B o o k s " and a r t i s t s ' s u p p l i e s . I r w i n , op. c i t . , p . 224 f n 7 3 , n o t e s " A u g s b u r g f o r example i s m e n t i o n e d i n B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MS. 39781, f . 382, unnamed c o r r e s p o n d e n t t o M r s . Flaxman (4 November 1794) and K a s s e l i n same volume, f . 386, M r s . G. H a r e - N a y l o r t o Mrs F l a x m a n , 8 November 1794." Honour, op. c i t . , Flaxman  p.71.  t o H a y l e y Rome 26 O c t o b e r  1793.  R e p r o d u c e d by D o v e r P u b l i c a t i o n s a s F l a x m a n ' s I l l u s t r a t i o n s t o Homer (New Y o r k , 1977) w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and commentary by R o b e r t E s s i c k and J e n i j o y L a B e l l e . W i l l i a m Hogarth, A n a l y s i s of Beauty  (London,  1753),  John Flaxman,  (London,  1881)  L e c t u r e s on S c u l p t u r e  N o t e d by D a v i d I r w i n , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 19. George W.G.  J o h n Flaxman  1755-1826  F r e d e r i c W a t t s , Works ( 1 9 1 2 ) , V o l . I l l ,  C o n s t a b l e , op.  Flaxman,  op.  cit.,  cit., 1881,  p.77. p.179.  109  p.37. p.160.  (London, p.  109.  Hans W i n g l e r , p. 18.  Graphic  Reynolds Discourse See  Work From t h e Bauhaus  (London,  1965),  I I I , 11. 23-26.  n o t e 15 a b o v e .  Wedgwood t o B e n t l e y , 14 J a n u a r y op. c i t . , V o l . I I , p . 321.  1775.  Q u o t e d by M e t e y a r d ,  See C h a p t e r IV n o t e . A l s o Mary H e n d e r s o n , "The B e r e s f o r d Hope S i l v e r " A p o l l o ns 99 J a n u a r y 1974 pp.34-37, w h e r e i n t h e B e r e s f o r d Cup i s a t t r i b u t e d t o F l a x m a n ; J o h n F. Hayward, " R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and R u n d e l l , A u r i f i c e s R e g i s P a r t I " A n t i q u e s 99 ( J u n e 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 860-865, P a r t I I A n t i q u e s 100 ( J u l y 1 9 7 1 ) , pp.110-115; N.M. P e n z e r , "Some R o y a l P l a t e o f t h e Regency by P a u l S t o r r " , A p o l l o 62 September 1955 p.66 has s p e c i f i c d a t a on F l a x m a n ' s T h e o c r i t u s Cup and C h a r l e s Oman, "A P r o b l e m o f A r t i s t i c R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : The f i r m o f R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and R u n d e l l " , A p o l l o ns 83 ( M a r c h 1966) pp.174-183, w h i c h d i s c u s s e s R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and R u n d e l l w o r k i n g methods a s t h e y r e l a t e t o an ablum o f s i l v e r p l a t e d e s i g n s (now i n t h e V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum) t i t l e d D e s i g n s f o r p l a t e by J o h n F l a x m a n , e t c . S t o t h a r d ' s s i l v e r d e s i g n s i n c l u d e d The W e l l i n g t o n S h i e l d . C h a r l e s Oman, E n g l i s h S i l v e r s m i t h s ' Work ( L o n d o n , 1965) r e p r o d u c e s S t o t h a r d ' s d e s i g n i n l i n e ( P l a t e 205) and i n c l u d e s a photograph of the s h i e l d ( P l a t e 206). Oman, o p . c i t . , p . 8 0 . B r y a n ' s D i c t i o n a r y p f P a i n t e r s and E n g r a v e r s e d . G e o r g e C. W i l l i a m s o n ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 1 ) , V o l . V p.164 n o t e s t h a t W i l l i a m Theed 1764-1817 was a g r e a t f r i e n d o f F l a x m a n , s u b m i t t e d d e s i g n s t o Wedgwood and f r o m 1803 worked f o r R u n d e l l and B r i d g e " f o r whom he p r e p a r e d t h e d r a w i n g s t h a t t h e e n g r a v e r s m i g h t work on t h e i r p l a t e . " A l i s o n K e l l y , The S t o r y o f Wedgwood ( L o n d o n , 1975) r e l a t e s t h a t i n 1828 Wedgwood's ' s t o c k o f ware, o l d m o u l d s and m o d e l s was s o l d f o r L16,000' p . 5 1 . T h e r e may h a v e been F l a x m a n d r a w i n g s amongst t h i s m a t e r i a l b u t more l i k e l y when m o u l d s o r m o d e l s were made f r o m a d e s i g n t h e d r a w i n g s were s i m p l y d i s c a r d e d . C.R. C o c k e r e l l , D i a r i e s ,  2 7 t h November 1824.  The S h o r t e r O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y e d . C.T. O n i o n s ( O x f o r d , 1975) V. I p . I l l n o . I I I . 1. Ibid.,  p.528 no.2. 110  Selected Bibliography T i t l e s f o r Works C e n t e r i n g on Flaxman Books Bindman, D a v i d , J o h n F l a x m a n , L o n d o n : Thames and Hudson, 1979 w h i c h i s t h e E n g l i s h e d i t i o n o f Hofmann, Werner, D a v i d Bindman e t a l . J o h n F l a x m a n M y t h o l o g i e und I n d u s t r i e Hamburg, 1979. C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e s m a l l b u t v a l u a b l e L i b r a r y o f Books ... o f J o h n F l a x m a n , E s q . , R.A. Dec, London, 12 J u n e 1828. C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, C a t a l o g u e o f a v a l u a b l e a s s e m b l a g e o f E n g r a v i n g s by a n c i e n t and modern M a s t e r s •.. t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e l a t e J o h n F l a x m a n , E s q . , R.A. Dec, London, 1 J u l y 1828. C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, M a r i a Denman S a l e London, 1862.  Catalogue,  C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g o f J o h n F l a x m a n , R.A., L o n d o n , 26 A p r i l 1876. C o n s t a b l e , W.G., J o h n F l a x m a n , 1775-1826, o f London P r e s s L t d . , 1927. F l a x m a n , J o h n , 1755-1826, gravies par R e V e i l ) , NC 1115 F64 1835  London:  Works  University  O e u v r e de F l a x m a n ( c o m p o s i t i o n s P a r i s : R e v e i l , 1836.  F l a x m a n , J o h n , Homer H e s i o d A e s c h y l u s , L o n d o n : Rees and Orme, 1805-1831.  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I r w i n , D a v i d , John Flaxman, 1979.  1755-1826,  ill  London, C a s s e l l L t d . ,  Wark, R o b e r t R., D r a w i n g s by J o h n F l a x m a n i n t h e H u n t i n g t o n C o l l e c t i o n , San M a r i n o C a l i f : H e n r y E . H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y , 1970. NC 242 F57 W3 1970 Whinney M a r g a r e t and R u p e r t G u n n i s , The C o l l e c t i o n o f M o d e l s by J o h n F l a x m a n R.A. a t U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , L o n d o n : a c a t a l o g u e and i n t r o d u c t i o n . L o n d o n , 1967. Articles B e n t l e y , G e r a l d E d d e s , " N o t e s on t h e E a r l y E d i t i o n s o f F l a x man's C l a s s i c a l D e s i g n s , " B u l l e t i n o f t h e New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y V o l . 68 May 1964 no.5 p p . 277-307, 361-388. ( P u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y a s The E a r l y E n g r a v i n g s o f F l a x man's C l a s s i c a l D e s i g n s New Y o r k : The New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 1964). Z 881 N4 Cameron, R., 55. N l 04  "Flaxman  e t Wedgwood," O e i l ,  #53 May 1959 pp.48-  C r o f t - M u r r a y E . , "An A c c o u n t Book o f J o h n F l a x m a n R.A.," W a l p o l e S o c i e t y V o l . 2 8 [1939-1940] pp.51-101. N l W3 G a u n t , W i l l i a m , "A S e t o f D r a w i n g s by J o h n F l a x m a n , " C o n noiseur, Bd 153 1963 S 250-254. N l C75 G i l l o w , N o r a h , "Some Flaxman D r a w i n g s a t Y o r k , " P r e v i e w , XXVI A p r . , 1973 pp.915-19. n l B95 I r w i n , D a v i d , "Flaxman: I t a l i a n J o u r n a l s and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , " B u r l i n g t o n Mag. C l [ 1 9 5 9 ] pp.212-17. R o s c o e , E.S., "The C a r e e r and Works o f F l a x m a n , " M a g a z i n e o f A r t , V4 ( 1 8 8 1 ) . N l M22 Symmons, S a r a h , " F r e n c h C o p i e s a f t e r F l a x m a n ' s O u t l i n e s , " B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , V o l . 115 S e p t . 1973. N l B95 Symmons, S a r a h , "J.A.D. I n g r e s : t h e a p o t h e o s i s o f F l a x m a n , " B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , V o l . 121 Nov. 1979. N l B95  112  Symmons, S a r a h , "The S p i r i t o f D e s p a i r : P a t r o n a g e , P r i m i t i v i s m and t h e A r t o f J o h n F l a x m a n , " B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , V o l . 117 O c t . 1975. N l B95 T e n i s w o o d , C.F., "Flaxman N l A5  a s D e s i g n e r , " The A r t J o u r n a l , 1872.  T e n i s w o o d , C.F., " M e m o r i a l s o f F l a x m a n , " & 1868. N l A5  The A r t J o u r n a l ,  Thomas, J o h n , " J o h n F l a x m a n , R.A.," J o u r n a l S o c i e t y o f A r t s , CIV, 1955. AP 4 R7  1867  of the Royal  Watson, F r a n c i s , "Flaxman: t h e B i c e n t e n a r y o f an E n g l i s h NeoC l a s s i c i s t , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, Bd 118 S e p t . 1955. NA 1 A69 Whinney, M a r g a r e t , "Flaxman and t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , V o l . 1 9 J u l y 1956 pp.269-282. N 1 L65 Wick, P e t e r , A. "Flaxman a s a D r a u g h t s m a n , " Wedgwood I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e m i n a r . Bd 3, 1958.  Proceedings of the  W i l l i a m , I o l o A. "An I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some e a r l y d r a w i n g s by J o h n F l a x m a n , " B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , C H , 1960, pp.246250. N l B95  Titles  f o r the C e n t r a l Issues  Books Adam, R o b e r t ( 1 7 2 8 - 1 7 9 2 ) , The works i n A r c h i t e c t u r e o f R o b e r t and James Adam, L o n d r e s : Aax d £ p e n s d e s a u t e u r s , 17781822. NA 997 A4 A4 1778a Adam, R o b e r t , R u i n s o f t h e p a l a c e o f t h e Emperor D i o c l e t i a n a t S p a l a t r o , L o n d o n : P r i n t e d f o r t h e A u t h o r , 1764. NA 320 A5 A g o s t i n i , L e o n a r d o , L e gemme a n t i c h e B r u s s o t t i , 1686. NK 5565 A3 113  figurate,  Roma: G.B.  Bland, David, A h i s t o r y and F a b e r , 1958. NC 960 B62  o f Book I l l u s t r a t i o n ,  London:  Faber  B o a s e , T.S.R., E n g l i s h A r t 1800-1870, O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1959. N 6761 09 B o l g a r , R.R., The C l a s s i c a l New Y o r k , E v a n s t o n and CB 245 B 63  H e r i t a g e and I t s B e n e f i c i a r i e s , London: Harper Torchbooks, 1964.  B o l t o n , A r t h u r Thomas, The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f R o b e r t and Adam, (1758-1794) L o n d o n : C o u n t r y L i f e , 1922. NA 997 A4 B6 V 1-2  James  Booker, P e t e r J e f f r e y , A H i s t o r y of E n g i n e e r i n g Drawing, L o n d o n : C h a t t o and Windus, 1963. T 353 B69 1963 B u r k e , Edmund 1729?-1797, A P h i l o s o p h i c a l S u b l i m e and t h e B e a u t i f u l , New Y o r k : N 62 B8 1759a Burke, Joseph, 1976. N 6761 09  I n q u i r y i n t o the G a r l a n d Pub., IU71.  E n g l i s h A r t 1714-1800, O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , V.9  B u t e n , H a r r y M., Wedgwood and A r t i s t s , B u t e n Museum o f Wedgwood, 1960. NK 4335 B73  Merion, Pennsylvania:  C u m b e r l a n d , G e o r g e , T h o u g h t s and O u t l i n e , S c u l p t u r e and t h e S y s t e m t h a t g u i d e d t h e A n c i e n t A r t i s t s i n Composing t h e i r F i g u r e s and G r o u p s , L o n d o n , 1796. D e l i e b , E r i c , The G r e a t S i l v e r M a n u f a c t o r y , Matthew B o u l t o n and t h e B i r m i n g h a m s i l v e r s m i t h s , 1760-1790. London: S t u d i o V i s t a P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. NK 7143 D425 1971 D u f f , W., 1732-1815, An E s s a y on O r i g i n a l G e n i u s , 1767. G a i n e s v i l l e F l a . : S c h o l a r s ' F a c s i m i l e s and R e p r i n t s , 1964. BF 412 D78 1767a Du  F r e s n o y , C h a r l e s A l p h o n s e , The A r t o f P a i n t i n g , t r a n s , by W i l l i a m Mason w i t h a n n o t a t i o n s by S i r J o s h u a R e y n o l d s , D u b l i n : P r i n t e d f o r a W h i t e s t o n e e t a l . , 1783. ND 1130 D8 1783 114  F a r r a r , L a d y K a t h e r i n e Euphemia ( E d i t . ) . L e t t e r s o f J o s i a h Wedgwood, 3 V o l u m e s , L o n d o n : Women's P r i n t i n g S o c i e t y , 1903-1906. F i n e r Ann and G e o r g e S a v a g e , The S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s o f J o s i a h Wedgwood, L o n d o n : C o r y , Adams and MacKay, 1965. NK 4335 W4 F r i e d l a n d e r , Walter, David 1952. ND 547 F75  t o D e l a c r o i x , Cambridge,  G e r a r d , A l e x a n d e r ( 1 7 2 8 - 1 7 9 5 ) , An E s s a y G a r l a n d Pub., 1970. BF 412 G5 1774a  on G e n i u s ,  Mass.:  New  York:  H a m i l t o n , S i r W i l l i a m 1730-1803, C o l l e c t i o n o f e n g r a v i n g s f r o m a n c i e n t v a s e s m o s t l y o f p u r e G r e e k workmanship d i s c o v e r e d ... i n 1789-90. N a p l e s : W. T i s c h b e i n , 1791-95. NK 4624 H25 V . l - 3 Hawley, H e n r y , N e o - C l a s s i e i s m , S t y l e and M o t i f w i t h an e s s a y by R6my G. S a i s s e l i n C l e v e l a n d : t h e C l e v e l a n d Museum o f A r t , 1964. N 6410 H34 H a y l e y , W i l l i a m , The L i f e o f G e o r g e Romoney E s q . , Payne, 1809. ND 497 R7 H4 1809 FAD M0RG H i b b e r t , C h r i s t o p h e r , The G r a n d T o u r , N i c o l s o n , 1969. D 907 H56 1969 H I g h e t , G i l b e r t , The C l a s s i c a l O x f o r d U P r e s s , 1949. PN 883 H5 1949  L o n d o n : T.  L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d and  Tradition,  N.Y. and L o n d o n :  H u t c h i s o n , S i d n e y , C , The H i s t o r y o f t h e R o y a l Academy 17681968, L o n d o n : Chapman and H a l l , 1968. N 1100 H78 1968 Irwin, David, E n g l i s h N e o c l a s i c a l A r t , Greenwich C o n n e c t i c u t : New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1966. N 6766 17 J e w i t t , L . L e w e l l y n n , L i f e o f J o s i a h Wedgwood, L o n d o n : B r o t h e r s and Co., 1865. NK 4210 W4 J 6 1865  115  Virtue  J o h a n s e n , K. F r i i s , The I l i a d M u n k s g a a r d , 1967. NK a4646 F713 1967 K e l l y , A l i s o n , The S t o r y 1962. NK 4335 KA 1962  i n E a r l y Greek  A r t , Copenhagen:  o f Wedgwood, L o n d o n : F a b e r and  Faber,  K l i n g e n d e r , F r a n c i s D., A r t and t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n E d i t e d and R e v i s e d by A r t h u r E l t o n , Chatham E n g l a n d : W i n i f r e d K l i n g e n d e r and E v e l y n , Adams and MacKay L t d , 1968. N 8218 1968 L u c e , J.V., Homer and t h e H o m e r i c Hudson, 1975. PA 4037 L68 1975  Age,  L o n d o n : Thames and  L e s s i n g , G o t t h o l d E p h r a i m , L a o k o o n and How t h e A n c i e n t s R e p r e s e n t e d D e a t h ( 1 7 6 6 ) , L o n d o n : G B e l l and Sons L t d . , 1914. N 64 L7 1914 M a n k o w i t z , W o l f , Wedgwood, New I n c . , 1953. NK 4335 M3 1953  York:  E.P.  D u t t o n and  Co.,  Mead, W i l l i a m Edward, The G r a n d T o u r i n t h e 1 8 t h C e n t u r y , B o s t o n and New Y o r k ! Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1914. D 917 M4 1914 M e t e y a r d , E l i z a 1816-1879, The L i f e h i s p r i v a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and H u r s t and B l a c k e t t , 1865-66. NK 4210 W4 M6 1865  o f J o s i a h Wedgwood, f r o m f a m i l y p a p e r s 77~. London:  M u l d e r , J o h n R., The Temple o f t h e M i n d : E d u c a t i o n and L i t e r a r y T a s t e i n S e v e n t e e n - C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , New Y o r k : P e g a s u s Backgrounds i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , Western P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1935. PR 438 T3 M84 1969 N o r t h c o t e , James E s q . R.A., The L i f e L o n d o n : Henry C o l b u r n , 1818. ND 497 R4 N8 1818  of S i r Joshua  Oman, C h a r l e s , E n g l i s h S i l v e r s m i t h s ' S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1965. NK 7143 V492 1965  Work, L o n d o n : Her  116  Reynolds,  Majesty's  P r e s s l y , Nancy L . , The F u s e l i C i r c l e i n Rome, E a r l y R o m a n t i c A r t o f t h e 1770's, New Haven C o n n e c t i c u t : Y a l e C e n t e r f o r B r i t i s h A r t , 1979. R e i l l y , R o b i n and G e o r g e M e d a l l i o n s , London: NK 4335 R454 1973  S a v a g e , Wedgwood - t h e P o r t r a i t B a r r i e and J e n k i n s L t d . , 1973.  Rosenblum, R o b e r t , T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n L a t e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y A r t , P r i n c e t o n , 1967. S h a r p e , W i l l i a m 1724-1783, A d i s s e r t a t i o n Upon G e n i u s , 1755, Delmar N.Y.: S c h o l a r ' s F a c s i m i l e s and R e p r i n t s , 1973. BF 412 S45 1755a S m i t h , J . T . , N o l l e k e n s and H i s T i m e s , 2 V o l s , L o n d o n , 1828, E d i t . W. W h i t t e n L o n d o n , 1920. S p e n c e , J o s e p h 1699-1768, P o l y m e t u s New Y o r k : G a r l a n d Pub., 1971. N S613 S7 1755a S t a n f o r d , W.B. and J . V . L u c e , The Q u e s t P h a i d o n P r e s s L i m i t e d , 1974. NX 652 D3 S72 1974  f o r Ulysses,  London:  S t i l l m a n , Damie, The D e c o r a t i v e Work o f R o b e r t Adam, A l e c T i r a n t i , 1966. NK 1535 A3 S8  London:  S t u a r t , James and N i c h o l a s R e v e t t , The A n t i q u i t i e s o f A t h e n s , London: J o h n H a b e r k o r n , 1762; The A n t i q u i t i e s o f A t h e n s V o l . I I , London: J o h n N i c h o l s , 1787; The A n t i q u i t i e s o f A t h e n s V o l . I I I , London: J o h n N i c h o l s , 1794. ( A l l t h r e e v o l u m e s r e p u b l i s h e d New Y o r k and London: B e n j a m i n Blom, 1968). NA 280 S913 S w a r b r i c k , J o h n , R o b e r t Adam and h i s B r o t h e r s , London: B a t s f o r d , 1915. NA 997 A4 S85  B.T.  R e y n o l d s , S i r J o s h u a , D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , R o b e r t R. Wark ( e d . ) , San M a r i n o C a l i f o r n i a : H e n r y E . H u n t i n g t o n , L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y , 1959. W h i t n e y , L o i s , P r i m i t i v i s m and t h e I d e a o f P r o g r e s s i n E n g l i s h Popular L i t e r a t u r e of the Eighteenth Century. Baltimore: The J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1934. PR 448 P7 W5  117  Wood, R o b e r t 1717-1771, An E s s a y on t h e O r i g i n a l Homer, New Y o r k : G a r l a n d Pub., 1971. PA 4037 A2 W7 1775a  Genius of  Young, Edward 1683-1765, C o n j e c t u r e s on O r i g i n a l 1759, New Y o r k : G a r l a n d Pub., 1970. PR 3664 C43 R4 1970:3  Composition,  Yarwood, D o r e e n , R o b e r t Adam, L o n d o n : J.M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1970. 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NA 1 A69  Architectural  W i e b e n s o n , D o r a , " S u b j e c t s f r o m Homer's I l i a d i n N e o - C l a s s i c a l A r t , " A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . XLVI M a r c h 1964 pp23-37. N l A4 Wind, E d g a r , "Borrowed A t t i t u d e s i n R e y n o l d s and H o g a r t h , " J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e , V o l . 2 (1938-1939). N l L65  118  T i t l e s f o r S p e c i f i c P e r i p h e r a l Issues Books E i t n e r , L o r e n z , N e o c l a s s i c i s m and R o m a n t i c i s m , 1750-1850, S o u r c e s and Documents V o l . 1 Enlightenment/Revolution, E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , 1970. N 6425 N4 E35 1970 V . l Hammelmann, Hanns, e d i t e d and c o m p l e t e d I l l u s t r a t o r s i n Eighteenth-Century L o n d o n : Y a l e U. P r e s s , 1975. NC 978 H28 1975  by TSR B o a s e , Book E n g l a n d , New Haven  and  H u r d , R i c h a r d Bp o f W o r c e s t e r 1720-1808, L e t t e r s on C h i v a l r y and Romance, 1762, New Y o r k : G a r l a n d Pub., 1971. PN 56 C53 H8 1962a K n i g h t , D o u g l a s , Pope and t h e H e r o i c T r a d i t i o n , A C r i t i c a l S t u d y o f h i s I l i a d , New Haven: Y a l e U. P r e s s , 1951. PA 4025 A2 P65 1951 L e e s - M i l n e , James, The Ltd., 1947. NA 997 A4 L4  Age  o f Adam, London e t a l . : BT  M a l c o l m s o n , R o b e r t W., Popular Recreations C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U. P r e s s , 1973. DA 485 M217 1973 C2  Batsford  in English Society,  v  P a n o f s k y , D o r a and E r w i n , P a n d o r a ' s Box; The C h a n g i n g A s p e c t s o f a M y t h i c a l Symbol, New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s I n c . , 1956. N 7760 P e l l e s , G e r a l i n e , A r t A r t i s t s and S o c i e t y , O r i g i n o f a Modern Dilemma, P a i n t i n g i n E n g l a n d and F r a n c e , 1750-1850, E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s N.J., 1963. ND 466 P4 Penny, N i c h o l a s , C h u r c h Monuments i n R o m a n t i c E n g l a n d , Haven and L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. NB 1860 P44 1977  New  P h y s i c k , J o h n , D e s i g n s f o r E n g l i s h S c u l p t u r e 1680-1860, L o n d o n : Her M a g j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y o f f i c e , 1969. NB 464 P45 1969 P i r a n e s i , Giovanni B a t t i s t a , II Teateo Stamperia Salmoni, 1783. N 5775 P57  119  d'Ercolano,  Roma,  nella  Plumb, J.H., The P u r s u i t o f H a p p i n e s s , A V i e w o f L i f e i n G e o r g i a n E n g l a n d , New Haven: Y a l e C e n t e r f o r B r i t i s h A r t , 1977. N 6766 P58 1977 P r e s s l y , W i l l i a m L . , James B a r r y t h e A r t i s t a s H e r o , T a t e G a l l e r y P u b l i c a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t , 1983. N 6797 B38 P72 1983 Pyke, E . J . , A B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y a t t h e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1973. NK 9580 P939 1973 Ray,  London:  o f Wax M o d e l l e r s , O x f o r d :  G o r d o n N., The I l l u s t r a t i o n and t h e Book i n E n g l a n d f r o m 1790 t o 1914, New Y o r k : t h e P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y , 1976. NC 978 R37 1976  R e d g r o v e , Samuel, A D i c t i o n a r y o f A r t i s t s o f t h e E n g l i s h S c h o o l , L o n d o n : G. B e l l and S o n s , 1878. N 6796 R45 1878 Rowe, R o b e r t , Adam S i l v e r 1965. NK 71A43 R6 1965  1765-1795, London: F a b e r  S l y t h e , R. M a r g a r e t , The A r t o f I l l u s t r a t i o n , London: The L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1970. NC 960 S59 1970  and F a b e r ,  1750-1900,  Steegman, J o h n , V i c t o r i a n T a s t e , A S t u d y o f t h e A r t s and A r c h i t e c t u r e f r o m 1830 t o 1870, L o n d o n : Thomas N e l s o n and Sons L t d , 1970. N 6767 S8 1970 Steegman, J o h n , The R u l e o f T a s t e , L o n d o n : M a c M i l l a n and Co. L i m i t e d , 1936. N 6766 S7 R o t h e n b e r g , J a c o b , The A c q u i s i t i o n and R e a c t i o n t o t h e E l g i n M a s r b l e s , New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h e r s , 1977. NB 92 Warton, J o s e p h , An E s s a y on t h e G e n i u s and W r i t i n g ( 1 7 5 7 ) , New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h e r s , 1970.  o f Pope  Wark, R o b e r t R., B r i t i s h S i l v e r i n t h e H u n t i n g t o n C o l l e c t i o n , San M a r i n o : H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y , 1978. NK 7143 H45 1978  120  Watson, J . S t e v e n , The Clarendon Press, DA 505 W2  R e i g n o f G e o r g e I I I , 1760-1815, 1960.  Oxford:  Waterhouse, E l l i s Kirkham, Three Decades of B r i t i s h A r t , 1770, P h i l a d e l p h i a : American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , N 6766 W3 W e i n g l a s s , D a v i d H. Henry F r e s e l i , Publications, ND 853 F85 A3  17401965.  ( e d ) , The C o l l e c t e d E n g l i s h L e t t e r s o f M i l l w o o d N.Y. et a l . : Kraus I n t e r n a t i o n a l 1987. 1982  Whinney, M a r g a r e t , S c u l p t u r e i n B r i t a i n 1530 mondsworth: P e n g u i n b o o k s I n c . , 1964. NB 464 W5  to  1830,  Har-  W i l s o n , J o h n , The P a i n t i n g o f t h e P a s s i o n s i n T h e o r y , P r a c t i c e , and C r i t i c i s m i n L a t e r 1 8 t h C e n t u r y F r a n c e , Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n Iowa, U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. ND 548 W 54 1981 Articles C r a v e n , W. " H o r a t i o G r e e n o u g h ' s S t a t u e o f W a s h i n g t o n and P h i d i a s ' O l y m p i a n Z e u s , " A r t Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2 6 #4 (1963) p.435. Nl A63 F r i e d l a n d e r , W a l t e r , " N o t e s on t h e A r t o f W i l l i a m B l a k e A R o m a n t i c M y s t i c C o m p l e t e l y E x h i b i t e d . " A r t News, 18 Feb. 1939. G o m b r i c h , E.H., "Debate on P r i m i t i v i s m i n A n c i e n t R h e t o r i c , " J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , V o l . 29, 1966, pp.24-38. N l L65 V.29 K n o w l s o n , James R., The I d e a s o f G e s t u r e as a U n i v e r s a l L a n g u a g e i n t h e X V I I t h and X V I I I C e n t u r i e s , J o u r n a l o f t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s , 26, 1965. B l J54 V.26 R o g e r s o n , B r e w s t e r , "The A r t o f P a i n t i n g o f t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s , 14, 1953. B l J54 V.14.  the  Passions,"  Journal  S c h o r s c h , A n i t a , "Mourning A r t : A N e o c l a s s i c a l R e f l e c t i o n America," American A r t J o u r n a l , V o l . V I I I .  121  in  Smart, A l a s t a i r , " D r a m a t i c G e s t u r e and E x p r e s s i o n i n t h e Age o f H o g a r t h and R e y n o l d s , " A p o l l o , 1965. N l A255 V81/82 S n o d g r a s s , A.M., " H i s t o r i c a l H o m e r i c a S o c i e t y , " J o u r n a l o f H e l l e n i c S t u d i e s , V o l . 94, 1974. DF 10 J 8 Uphaus, R o b e r t W. "The I d e o l o g y o f R e y n o l d s D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , " E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y S t u d i e s , V o l . 12 #1, F a l l 1978. W i l l s , G e o f f r e y , " E a r l y S i g n s o f N e o - C l a s s i c i s m and t h e Gout G r e c , " A p o l l o , V o l . 9 6 O c t . 1972. N l A255  122  124  3a  3b  Sosias Painter Red-Figure A c h i l l e s and P a t r o c l u s  cup  interior  Sosias Painter R e d - F i g u r e cup e x t e r i o r I n t r o d u c t i o n o f H e r a c l e s t o Olympus  125  126  5  William Sutherland : The S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t o r M a r i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1755, P l a t e I I I S e c t i o n o f a S h i p .  6  The M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s Arms, Wedgwood Museum, B a r l a s t o n .  128  1 7 8 4 . The T r u s t e e s Staffs.  of the  7  John Flaxman, the e l d e r : A r c h i t e c t u r e , Marble, B a r n a r d , Raby C a s t l e , Durham. 117.7 cms high.  129  Lord  8a  8b  Ann R u s s e l l and h e r s o n H e n r y A l l S a i n t s , Lydd, Kent.  : monument  Died  1780-81.  A f i g u r e f r o m The Tower o f t h e Winds i n A t h e n s . Depicted i n James S t u a r t and N i c h o l a s R e v e t t : The A n t i q u i t i e s o f Ajthens, 1762, V o l . I , C h a p t e r I I I , P l a t e X V I I .  130  9  Barbara Bourchier : monument. Newent, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e .  131  Died  1784.  St  Mary,  1  1  R e v e r a n d Thomas and Chichester Cathedral.  Mrs. B a l l  132  : monument,  1784-86  Mrs. Siddons : Jasperware p o r t r a i t , model of 1782.  after  Flaxman's  Flaxman's own design for the Chessmen. Probably 1783. Later executed i n Jasperware by Wedgwood. 133  The C r o w n i n g o f a K i t h a r i s t . C a b i n e t o f t h e Hon.  William  134  Engraving from D H a n c a r v i l l e 1  Hamilton,  1766-67,  Vol.3.  135  Signorelli  : Battle  of  the  136  Nudes ( d e t a i l ) Duomo,  Orvieto.  20  F u r y o f Athamas, 1790-1794.  137  Marble,  208.5 cms.  high.  138  22  W i l l i a m C o l l i n s : monument: d e s i g n : d e t a i l . and wash, 39.5 x 27 cms. (whole s h e e t )  139  Pen  and  ink  140  24  A u r o r a v i s i t i n g C e p h a l u s o n Mount I d a , 1739-90. M a r b l e , 184 cms. h i g h .  H e r c u l e s and Hebe, 1792.  P l a s t e r , c o l o u r e d , 190.5  142  cms.  high.  27  Minerva Repressing the Fury p e n c i l , i n k , and brown wash. L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y .  143  of A c h i l l e s . 22.9 x 27 cm.  Preliminary Huntington  28  T h e t i s and Eurynome R e c e i v i n g t h e I n f a n t V u l c a n . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 29.  1IB SAID, AND ON THK CHIlii' IH'.S03n>S AMAIN, INCIU'.ASH WITIr GOKJ', AND SWlli.l.lNC, WITH Till'. SI.AIS.  30  A c h i l l e s Contending with the Rivers. Engraving a f t F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 33.  31  The F u n e r a l P i l e by Thomas P i r o l i .  of P a t r o c l u s I l i a d , 1805,  Engraving P l a t e 35.  after  Flaxman'  32  K i n g o f t h e L e s t r l g e n s S e i z i n g One o f t h e Companions o f U l y s s e s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by James P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 15.  Odysily Plate 26  j |  33  ULYSSES 1- HIS  U l y s s e s a n d H i s Dog. P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805,  DOG.  Engraving P l a t e 26.  149  after  Flaxman  by  James  Oi stjtUttn V  34  ,<  ULYSSKS TKKREFIKD BY T H E GHOSTS.  Ulysses Terrefied ( s i c ) by t h e G h o s t s . Engraving' a f t e r F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 17.  35  36  The Embassy to A c h i l l e s . Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805,  Engraving P l a t e 18.  after  Flaxman  by  WTIII.K  H.w.r  MIXKRVA  iTNSMi-:.vrni>  SWIFT  AITKARD  !ir.SCEM>Pft  I'llOM  T H K  UI.ITrauxr,  KLADI:,  AllOVK.  Ibgw't lUmnt lliul II llinf His.  37  M i n e r v a Repressing the Fury of A c h i l l e s . Engraving a f t e r F l a x m a n by W i l l i a m B l a k e . I l i a d 1805, P l a t e 2.  H e c t o r ' s Body D r a g g e d a t t h e C a r o f A c h i l l e s . Engravin a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 36.  Iliad Piatt 34  39  ANDROMACHE  FAINTING  ON T H E WALL.  Andromache F a i n t i n g on t h e W a l l . Engraving by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 34.  after  Flaxman  Odjuty PUlt 31  UJ.YSSKS  ICII-MUG  T H K  SUITORS.  I— 1  (JI  4  0  HA8TK  It RKTLTOT, ULYS8KB MADK B K l ' I . Y ,  WniLK  YET  TH* AVXILIAlt  8 I U T T 3 THIS HASH  SWTl.Y.  U l y s s e s K i l l i n g the S u i t o r s Engraving a f t e r James N e a g l e . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 3 1 .  Flaxman  by  Two p r e l i m i n a r y drawings f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the Fury o f A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l (top) : ink over p e n c i l ( b o t t o m ) s h e e t 26.7 x 21 cm. H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y and A r t Gallery.  157  P r e l i m i n a r y drawing (lower) f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the F u r y o f A c h i l l e s I l i a d 2. Ink o v e r p e n c i l . S h e e t 25.4 x 20.7 cm. Hungtington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y .  158  P r e l i m i n a r y drawing (lower) f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the Fury of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l , p a r t i a l l y erased.  159  44  P r e l i m i n a r y drawing f o r Minerva Repressing the Fury A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. Ink o v e r p e n c i l . 8.8 x 13.6 cm.  160  of  F O K T U F R O M UKH SNOWY HAND TlfK  YARIOVB  B A M . ,TIIK  NAUSICAA  H A L L KKKO.VKOUS  TIIKEW, KLEW. IWpn a o w ' l n^rOry II-*- L w L5J.  N a u s i c a a Throwing the B a l l . Engraving James P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 10.  after  Flaxman  by  Odjjsty PUtt 19  46  THE  The S i r e n s . Engraving O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 19.  SIKKNS.  after  Flaxman  by  James  Parker.  WINOIJ  HAIU'IES  SNATCIlfl  Til'  UNOL'ARUBJ*  C1IAKOK  AWAY.  VnjV. llnrri CMyfln B. 3<1. I.iar f»3 .  The H a r p i e s G o i n g t o S e i z e t h e Daughters of Pandarus. E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . Odyssey—1805 P l a t e 29.  48  Penelope Carrying t h e Bow E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxxman by P l a t e 30.  of U l y s s e s to the Suitors. James N e a g l e . O d y s s e y , 1805,  AJAX DEFENDING THE GKEF.K SHIPS AGAINST THE TROJANS.  IU1.1. TWKLYK TJIK HOI.OUST. IN A MOMT.NT FELL, SKNT 1)1 GHKAT AJAX TO THE SHADES O f U E L L .  49  Ajax Defending t h e Greek Ships a g a i n s t t h e T r o j a n s . ! E n g r a v i n g a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, j P l a t e 24.  50 N e p t u n e R i s i n g f r o m t h e Sea. Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e  E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman 22.  by  I i  51  U l y s s e s F o l l o w i n g the Car of Nausicaa. F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . O d y s s e y , 1805,  Engraving P l a t e 11.  after  52 Plate 1791.  53  from S i r W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n ,  Collection  of Vases,  I,  A c h i l l e s D r a g g i n g H e c t o r ' s Body a r o u n d t h e W a l l s o f T r o y E n g r a v i n g by Domenico Cunego, 1766, a f t e r a p a i n t i n g by Gavin Hamilton.  168  170  56  T h e M e e t i n g o f H e c t o r and Andromache. Engraving F l a x m a n by James P a r k e r . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 14.  after  57  J u p i t e r S e n d i n g t h e E v i l Dream a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . 6.  t o Agamemnon. Engraving I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e  Wat Plan 38  i  5 8  59  O t u s and E p h i a l t e s H o l d i n g Mars C a p t i v e . Engraving a f t e r F l a x m a n by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e  The Voyage of the Argonauts e n g r a v e d by J o s e p h Koch a f t e r Carstens.  1799 One o f 24 d e s i g n s d r a w i n g s b y Asmus J a c o b  M r s . Mary B l a c k s h a w (Mary L u s h i n g t o n ) : monument. S t . Mary Lewisham, K e n t . —"  175  1798-99.  63  L e u c o t h e a P r e s e r v i n g U l y s s e s Engraved James N e a g l e . O d y s s e y , 1805, P l a t e 9.  after  Flaxman  by  178  179  W a r r i o r s , by J a c q u e s - L o u i s D a v i d . From s k e t c h b o o k . des B e a u x - A r t s , L i l l e . )  180  (Musee  Plan 26  THE FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF fATROCLCS.  THE  67  T R O J A N S SK1ZK  TIIK  SLAIN  F i g h t f o r t h e Body o f P a t r o c l u s E n g r a v i n g by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 26.  after  Flaxman ! I  6 8a  The S h i e l d o f A c h i l l e s : d r a w i n g . (Henry E. H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y , San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a )  182  S h i e l d of A c h i l l e s , 1821. S i l v e r g i l t , 94 E x e c u t e d a f t e r Flaxman by P h i l i p R u n d e l l .  183  cms  diameter.  70  A c h i l l e deplore 1'enterrement de B r i s e i s . Rude. P l a s t e r r e l i e f (Mus6e Rude, D i j o n ) .  by  Francois  A c h i l l e deplore 1 ' e n t e r r e m e n t de B r i s e i s . by F r a n c o i s ^ Pen and i n k , 21.5 by 37 cm. (Musc§e d e s B e a u x - A r t s ,  R  u  d  e  S t u d y a f t e r F l a x m a n ' s O d y s s e y , by A n t o i n e G r o s . From s k e t c h b o o k , R.F. 2 9 9 5 5 , f . 2 8 v . P e n a n d b r o w n i n k o v e r c h a l k , 16.3 by 22.5 cm. ( C a b i n e t d e s D e s s i n s Mus6e du Louvre).  185  73  S t u d y a f t e r F l a x m a n ' s O d y s s e y , by A n t o i n e G r o s . From s k e t c h b o o k , R.F.29955, f . 2 8 . Pen and brown i n k o v e r c h a l k , 1 6 . 3 by 2 2 . 5 cm. ( C a b i n e t d e s D e s s i n s , Musee du Louvre.)  186  S t u d i e s o f H o r s e s , and s t u d y a f t e r a p l a t e f r o m F l a x m a n ' s O d y s s e y , by A n t o i n e G r o s . From s k e t c h b o o k , R.F. 29955, f.20. P e n a n d b r o w n i n k o v e r c h a l k , 16.3 by 22.5 cm. ( C a b i n e t d e s D e s s i n s , Musee du L o u v r e )  187  75  J u p i t e r and T h e t i s by J-A-D I n g r e s , P e n c i l , cm (Mus£e I n g r e s , M o n t a u b a n ) .  188  32.5  by  24.2  WadPUtei  THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER  TIH'S THE  THETIS SAdlEl)  BI'OKK  BIT  COlTSriLS  TO HONOR ACHILLES.  J O V E IS OF HIS  SIMtNCE  11RIIAST  IIK1.I)  COSCKAI/IJ.  T h e t i s I n t r e a t i n g J u p i t e r t o Honor A c h i l l e s Engraved a f t e r F l a x m a n by W i l l i a m B l a k e . I l i a d . 1805. P l a t e 5.  77  The C o u n c i l o f t h e Gods E n g r a v e d Piroli,, I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 9.  after  Flaxman by  Thomas  191  'I T e l l You, I Know t h e W o r l d ' by P h i l S m i t h , I n London Town London 1907.  192  May  i n F.  Berkeley  D e s i g n f o r a w i n e - c o o l e r by Thomas S t o t h a r d R.A. Pen and Wash, 25.4 x 20.3 cm. British Museum.  1'  D e s i g n f o r a w i n e - c o o l e r (perhaps a f t e r W i l l i a m Theed, 1764-1817), Pen d r a w i n g , 26.7 x 24.7 cm.  194  R.A.  83a  Wine-cooler, maker's mark of Paul S t o r r (1771-1844), London Hall-mark for 1809. S i l v e r g i l t , height 35.56 cm. C o l l e c t i o n of the Marquess of Ormonde.  83b  D e t a i l of wine-cooler i n 83a. 195  

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