UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Flaxman's Homer illustrations Stuart, John Radcliffe 1986

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FLAXMAN'S HOMER ILLUSTRATIONS by JOHN RADCLIFFE STUART B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of F i n e A r t s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1986 (c) John R a d c l i f f e S t u a r t , 1986 7 8 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Fine A r t s  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date February 14, 1986 ABSTRACT S i n c e t h e i r appearance i n 1793 John Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o Homer's I l i a d and Odyssey have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a n c i e n t a r t t h a t i n s p i r e d t h e i r commission. I n t h i s t h e s i s t h e y are examined from a s t a n d p o i n t o t h e r t h a n t h a t adopted i n the major l i t e r a t u r e . B e s i d e s s u s t a i n i n g Flaxman's own a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e d e s i g n s were t o be used f o r s c u l p t u r e , t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o o u t l i n e designs s u b m i t t e d t o h i s former emloyer o f 12 y e a r s , i n d u s t r i a l i s t J o s i a h Wedgwood. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e i r most c o n s p i c u o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - - t h e i r t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l space, absence o f c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , and d e t a i l and most n o t i c e a b l y t h e i r r e n d e r i n g i n s i m p l e o u t l i n e — a r e , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , p l a c e d i n an o t h e r c o n t e x t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e 18th C e n t u r y . L i n e d rawing and i t s m u l t i p l e - p r o d u c t i o n c o u n t e r -p a r t , l i n e e n g r a v i n g , were the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l modes o f c h o i c e i n t he t r a n s m i s s i o n o f e s s e n t i a l i d e a s i n a wide v a r i e t y o f d i s c i p l i n e s i n c l u d i n g h i s own d e s i g n s f o r Wedgwood. E x c l u s i v e o f the c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a n c i e n t a r t , s i m p l e l i n e would have been r e g a r d e d as the most s u i t a b l e form o f i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r the e p i c poems w h i c h were b e i n g s t u d i e d a t t h e time as models o f t h e e s s e n t i a l human s o c i e t y . T h i s t h e s i s t r e a t s Flaxman's d e s i g n s as one a s p e c t o f the e f f o r t t o d e f i n e u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s and the r e l a t e d need t o c r e a t e c o n c e p t u a l models o f them i n t h e 18th Cen t u r y . To e s t a b l i s h the d e s i g n s i n t h i s - j b r o a d e r c o n t e x t , t h e f i r s t f o u r c h a p t e r s s e t out i n s u c c e s s i o n : t h e s e a r c h f o r , and ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f , the e s s e n t i a l i n t h e 18th C e n t u r y ; Flaxman's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o h i s e d u c a t i o n and 12 y e a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Wedgwood; t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the Homer d e s i g n s themselves from h i s s t u d i e s o f a r t works he had seen and, t h e c r i t i c a l r e v i e w s o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and t h e i r subsequent a d o p t i o n by o t h e r a r t i s t s as s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n . The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s by c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g Flaxman's a c h i e v e -ment, r e v i e w i n g h i s o b j e c t i v e s f o r the s e r i e s and r e l a t i n g t h e d e s i g n s t o i n d u s t r i a l / w o r k s h o p drawings by Flaxman and o t h e r contemporary a r t i s t s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s v Acknowledgements x i Chapter I H i s t o r i c a l and P h i l o s o p h i c a l background: the e s s e n t i a l i n the 18th Century 1 Footnotes 15 II Flaxman's I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the E s s e n t i a l 19 Footnotes 47 II I The A c t u a l P r o d u c t i o n of the Designs 53 Footnotes 68 IV The Re c e p t i o n Received by the Engravings: C r i t i c a l comments by Flaxman's contemporaries and the use of designs by other a r t i s t s 70 Footnotes 88 V Flaxman's Achievement: C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s of the designs and t h e i r p l a c e among i n d u s t r i a l drawings 92 Footnotes 109 B i b l i o g r a p h y 111 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 123 i-v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1 T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s Engraving, a f t e r Flaxman by Tomaso P i r o l i , I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 31. 2 Anthony's O r a t i o n over the Dead Caesar, P e n c i l and grey wash. 22.3 X 34.1 cm. 3a S o s i a s P a i n t e r Red-Figure cup i n t e r i o r A c h i l l e s and P a t r o c l u s 3b S o s i a s P a i n t e r Red-Figure cup e x t e r i o r I n t r o d u c t i o n of H e r a c l e s to Olympus 4 Henry F l i t c r o f t : Pantheon Temple Stourhead, W i l t s h i r e England 5 W i l l i a m S u t h e r l a n d : The S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t or  Marine A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1755, P l a t e I I I S e c t i o n of a Ship. 6 The M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s Arms, 1784. The T r u s t e e s o f t h e Wedgwood Museum, B a r l a s t o n . S t a f f s . 7 John Flaxman, th e e l d e r : A r c h i t e c t u r e , M a r b l e , Lord Barnard, Raby C a s t l e , Durham. 117.7 cms high. 8a Ann R u s s e l l and her son Henry : monument Died 1780-81. A l l S a i n t s , Lydd, Kent. 8b A f i g u r e from The Tower of the Winds i n Athens. D e p i c t e d i n James S t u a r t and N i c h o l a s Revett: The A n t i q u i t i e s of  Athens, 1762, V o l . I, Chapter I I I , P l a t e XVII. 9 B a r b a r a B o u r c h i e r : monument. D i e d 1784. S t Mary, Newent, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e . 10 M r s . S a r a h M o r l e y : monument. D i e d 1784. G l o u c e s t e r C a t h e d r a l . 11 R e v e r a n d Thomas and Mrs. B a l l : monument, 1784-86. C h i c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l . 12 Mrs. Siddons : Jasperware p o r t r a i t A f t e r Flaxman's model of 1782. 13 Flaxman's own design f o r the Chessmen. Probably 1783. L a t e r executed i n Jasperware by Wedgwood. 14 The Crowning of a K i t h a r i s t . Engraving from D' H a n c a r v i l l e ' s Cabinet of the Hon. W i l l i a m Hamilton, 1766-67, V o l . 3 . v 15 K i t h a r i s t Vase. Design by John Flaxman, 1786. 16 Peasant a s l e e p on the p l i n t h of a b u i l d i n g . Pen and ink, 5.8 x 10.5 cm. 17 B a t t l e o f t h e Nudes, a f t e r S i g n o r e l l i , Duomo, O r v i e t o . P e n c i l , 15.2 x 36.2 cms. 18 S i g n o r e l l i : B a t t l e of the Nudes ( d e t a i l ) Duomo, O r v i e t o . 19 B a t t l e of t h e Amazons, a f t e r antique r e l i e f i n the V a t i c a n . P e n c i l , 24x16.5 cms. • 20 Fury of Athamas, 1790-1794. Marble, 208.5 cms. h i g h . 21 W i l l i a m , 1 s t E a r l o f M a n s f i e l d : monument, 1793-1801. Westminster Abbey. 22 W i l l i a m C o l l i n s : monument: design: d e t a i l . Pen and ink and wash, 39.5 x 27 cms. (whole sheet) 23 W i l l i a m s C o l l i n s : monument, 1792-95 C h i c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l . 24 Aurora v i s i t i n g Cephalus on Mount Ida, 1789-90. Marble, 184 cms. h i g h . 25 Aurora v i s i t i n g Cephalus on Mount Ida: i n o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g . P l a t e 7 from Thomas Hope, Household F u r n i t u r e , 1807. 26 He r c u l e s and Hebe, 1792. P l a s t e r , c o l o u r e d , 190.5 cms. h i g h . 27 M i n e r v a R e p r e s s i n g the F u r y o f A c h i l l e s . P r e l i m i n a r y p e n c i l , ink, and brown wash. 22.9 x 27 cm. Huntington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y . 28 T h e t i s and Eurynome R e c e i v i n g the In f a n t Vulcan. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 29. 29 V u l c a n and C h a r e s R e c e i v i n g T h e t i s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 30. 30 A c h i l l e s C o n t e n d i n g w i t h t h e R i v e r s . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 33. 31 The F u n e r a l P i l e of P a t r o c l u s Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 35. 32 King of the L e s t r i g e n s S e i z i n g One of the Companions of  U l y s s e s . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 15. v i 33 U l y s s e s and H i s Dog. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 26. 34 U l y s s e s T e r r e f i e d ( s i c ) by the Ghosts. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 17. 35 The D e p a r t u r e of B r i s e i s from t h e T e n t of A c h i l l e s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I H a d , 1805, P l a t e 3. 36 The Embassy t o A c h i l l e s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 18. 37 M i n e r v a R e p r e s s i n g t h e F u r y of A c h i l l e s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by W i l l i a m Blake. I l i a d 1805, P l a t e 2. 38 Hector's Body Dragged at the Car of A c h i l l e s . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 36. 39 Andromache F a i n t i n g on the W a l l . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 34. 40 U l y s s e s K i l l i n g the S u i t o r s Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Neagle. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 31. 41 Two p r e l i m i n a r y drawings f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the Fury  of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l (top) : ink over p e n c i l (bottom) sheet 26.7 x 21 cm. Huntington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y . 42 P r e l i m i n a r y d r a w i n g (lower) f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the  Fury of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. Ink over p e n c i l . Sheet 25.4 x 20.7 cm. Hungtington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y . 43 P r e l i m i n a r y drawing (lower) f o r Minerva Repressing the Fury  of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l , p a r t i a l l y erased. 44 P r e l i m i n a r y drawing f o r Minerva Repressing the Fury of  A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. Ink over p e n c i l . 8.8 x 13.6 cm. 45 N a u s i c a a Throwing the B a l l . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 10. 46 The S i r e n s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 19. 47 The H a r p i e s G o i n g t o S e i z e t h e Daughters of Pandarus. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 29. v i i 48 P e n e l o p e C a r r y i n g t h e Bow of U l y s s e s t o t h e S u i t o r s . Engraving a f t e r Flaxxman by James Neagle. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 30. 49 A j a x D e f e n d i n g t h e Greek S h i p s a g a i n s t the T r o j a n s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 24. 50 Neptune R i s i n g from the Sea. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 22. 51 U l y s s e s F o l l o w i n g the Car of Nausicaa. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 11. 52 P l a t e from S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton, C o l l e c t i o n of Vases, I, 1791. 53 A c h i l l e s Dragging Hector's Body around the Walls of Troy Engraving by Domenico Cunego, 1766, a f t e r a p a i n t i n g by Gavin Hamilton. 54 P l a t e XXVII from the Rev. Mr. Spencer's P o l y m e t i s , 1747. 55 S e l f - P o r t r a i t , 1779. C o l l e g e of F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n , Halesowen. 56 The M e e t i n g of H e c t o r and Andromache. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 14. 57 J u p i t e r Sending the E v i l Dream to Agamemnon. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 6. 58 I r i s A d vises Priam to Obtain the Body of Hector. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 38. 59 O t u s and E p h i a l t e s H o l d i n g Mars C a p t i v e . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 11. 60 The Voyage of t h e A r g o n a u t s 1799 One o f 24 d e s i g n s engraved by Joseph Koch a f t e r d r a w i n g s by Asmus J a c o b C a r s t e n s . 61 Mrs. Mary Blackshaw (Mary L u s h i n g t o n ) : monument, 1798-99. St. Mary Lewishara, Kent. 62 Penelope's Dream Engraved a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 7. 63 L e u c o t h e a P r e s e r v i n g U l y s s e s Engraved a f t e r Flaxman by James Neagle. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 9. v i i i 64 P r e p a r a t o r y study f o r the K l e i n e r Morgen by P h i l i p p O tto Runge. Pen over t r a c e s of p e n c i l . 65 Les Sabines, by Jacques-Louis David. (Mus6e du Louvre) 66 W a r r i o r s , by Jacques-Louis David. From sketchbook. (Mus6e des Beaux-Arts, L i l l e . ) 67 F i g h t f o r the Body of P a t r o c l u s Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 26. 68a The S h i e l d of A c h i l l e s : drawing. (Henry E. Huntington, L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y , San Marino, C a l i f o r n i a ) . 68b The b a t t l e scene i n 68a a l t e r e d to f i t the curved format of the A c h i l l e s S h i e l d . 69 S h i e l d of A c h i l l e s , 1821. S i l v e r g i l t , 94 cms diameter. Executed a f t e r Flaxman by P h i l i p R u n d e l l . 70 A c h i 1 l e d e p l o r e 1'enterrement de B r i s e i s , by F r a n c o i s Rude. P l a s t e r r e l i e f (Musee Rude, D i j o n ) . 71 A c h i l l e d e p l o r e 1'enterrement de B r i s e i s , by F r a n c o i s Rude. Pen and ink, 21.5 by 37 cm. (Mus£e des Beaux-Arts, D i j o n ) 72 Study a f t e r Flaxman's Odyssey, by A n t o i n e G r o s . From sketchbook, R.F. 29955, f.28v. Pen and brown i n k o v e r c h a l k , 16.3 by 22.5 cm. ( C a b i n e t des D e s s i n s Musee du L o u v r e ) . 73 Study a f t e r Flaxman's Odyssey, by Antoine Gros. From s k e t c h b o o k , R.F. 29955, f . 2 8 . Pen and brown i n k o v e r c h a l f , 16.3 by 22.5 cm. (Cabinet des Dessins, Musee du Louvre.) 74 S t u d i e s of Horses, and study a f t e r a p l a t e from Flaxman's  Odyssey, by Antoine Gros. From sketchbook, R.F. 29955, f . 2 0 . Pen and brown i n k over chalk, 16.3 by 22.5 cm. (Cabinet des Dessins, Mus£e du Louvre) 75 J u p i t e r and T h e t i s by J-A-D Ingres P e n c i l , 32.5 by 24.2 cm (Mus£e Ingres, Montauban). 76 T h e t i s I n t r e a t i n g J u p i t e r t o Honor A c h i l l e s Engraved a f t e r Flaxman by W i l l i a m Blake. I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 5. 77 The C o u n c i l of the Gods Engraved a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 9. i x 78 Homere D e i f i e , by Ingres. Signed Black c h a l k , pen and ink wash, 21 by 31 cm. (Musee du Louvre, P a r i s ) . 79 'I T e l l You, I Know the World' by P h i l May i n F. Berkeley Smith, In London Town London 1907. 80 Design f o r a wine-cooler by Thomas S t o t h a r d (1755-1834). Pen and wash, 25.4 x 20.3 cm. B r i t i s h Museum. 81 Design f o r a wine c o o l e r a f t e r Thomas S t o t h a r d . Pen and wash, 30.4 x 20.9 cm. 82 Design f o r a wine-cooler (perhaps a f t e r W i l l i a m Theed, R.A. 1764-1817), Pen drawing, 26.7 x 24.7 cm. 83a Wine c o o l e r , maker's mark of P a u l S t o r r (1771-1844), London hall-mark f o r 1809. S i l v e r g i l t , h e i g h t 35.56 cm. C o l l e c t i o n of the Marquess of Ormonde. 83b D e t a i l of wine c o o l e r . x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o s e v e r a l people who have a s s i s t e d i n b r i n g i n g t h i s t h e s i s t o c o m p l e t i o n . They are A i l e e n Dawson o f the B r i t i s h Museum; Dr. Ian F r a s e r , A r c h i v i s t the L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f K e e l e , S t a f f o r d s h i r e ; Pamela Wood, Keeper o f A p p l i e d A r t and David P h i l l i p s , Keeper o f A r t , C i t y o f Nottingham, C a s t l e Museum; Frank Brookes o f J o s i a h Wedgwood and Sons, and Sharon R a t c l i f f e o f the Wedgwood Museum a t B a r l e s t o n . S p e c i a l thanks are due t o : Diana E. M. Cooper, L i b r a r i a n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia - F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n , f o r her i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm; Dr. George Knox, who p r o v i d e d both p e r s p e c t i v e s on what was i n I t a l y t h a t would have been o f use to Flaxman and f r e e access t o h i s l i b r a r y o f books t h a t were o use t o me; and Dr. Rhodri Windsor Liscombe, w i t h o u t whose guidance, encouragement and p a t i e n c e t h i s t h e s i s would never have been s e t on paper. x i CHAPTER I Since t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1793 John Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s to Homer have been o b j e c t s of admir a t i o n and study. Yet, i f con s i d e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n an a r t i s t i c context they are r e l a t i v e l y minor works. They are not imposing p a i n t i n g s , s c u l p t u r e , or a r c h i t e c t u r e . As yet they have not been, as Robert Rosenblum observed i n 1956, "the s u b j e c t of a comprehensive s t u d y " 1 and indeed such a study remains only p a r t i a l l y completed. A com-p l i c a t i o n i n p r e p a r i n g such a comprehensive study i s that when Flaxman produced h i s Homer designs the g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s working experience had been not i n the a r t i s t i c community but as a producer of designs and models f o r J o s i a h Wedgwood a lea d e r of l a r g e s c a l e commercial p o t t e r y production.2 C r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s of Flaxman's engraved designs have c o n s i s t a n t l y p l a c e d them i n a r t i s t i c c o n t e x t s . T h i s began i n 1799 with Johann Goethe's a r t i c l e "Uber d i e Flaxmanische Werk" were p u b l i s h e d i n Propylaen.3 A.W. S c h l e g e l ' s "Uber Zeichnungen zu Gedichten und John Flaxman's Umrissen" appeared i n Athenaum the same y e a r . 4 In t h i s century, W.G. Constable i n c l u d e d a d i s c u s s i o n of them i n h i s John Flaxman 1755-1826.5 More r e c e n t l y G e r a l d B e n t l e y p r o v i d e d a " B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Study i n the E a r l y Engravings of Flaxman's C l a s s i c a l D e s i g n s . " 6 In the Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s 1977 r e p r i n t of Flaxman's I l l u s t r a t i o n s to  Homer Robert E s s i c k and J e n i j o y La B e l l e have pr o v i d e d b i o -g r a p h i c a l and b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to a commentary which d i s c u s s e s each p l a t e i n terms of what i t re p r e s e n t s , how the image presented v a r i e s from the Homeric I t e x t , p o s s i b l e sources f o r the image, and where p r e l i m i n a r y drawings f o r each image are now.7 David Bindman's John Flaxman was p u b l i s h e d as catalogue f o r John Flaxman RA an e x h i b i t i o n at the Royal Academy of A r t s i n London, 26 October - 9 December 1979.8 T h i s work put Flaxman's Homer designs i n the context of h i s l i f e ' s output. F i n a l l y David Irwin devoted an e n t i r e chapter to a l l of Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s (Chapter V pp.67 -122) i n h i s John Flaxman 1755-1826^ which c o n s i d e r s sources, d e r i v a t i v e s , methods and contemporary comments. As a matter of h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d , i n the winter of 1792/3 when Flaxman drew the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s he was not an a r t i s t of e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n . He was a r e l a t i v e l y obscure a r t i s t whose most widely known work took the form of designs f o r J o s i a h Wedgwood's p o t t e r y f i r m . T h i s i n d u s t r i a l i s t ' s methods were capable of producing l a r g e numbers of items and he was thus i n constant need of new designs.10 Flaxman s o l d designs to the Wedgwood f i r m from 1775 u n t i l a f t e r the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . H Indeed, while Flaxman was i n I t a l y i n the e a r l y 1790's (with the a s s i s t a n c e of Wedgwood) he continued to send designs and c a s t s of a n c i e n t r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e s to Wedgwoodl2 and the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s were drawn i n the evenings a f t e r the day's more p r e s s i n g p r o j e c t s to augment Flaxman's otherwise meager income. Under these circumstances i t should come as no s u r p r i s e t hat the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from Flaxman's c u r r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s i n Rome and e a r l i e r academic s t u d i e s . In 2 i l l u s t r a t i o n 31 of the I l i a d s e r i e s e n t i t l e d T h e t i s B r i n g i n g  the Armour to A c h i l l e s , ( F i g u r e 1) f o r example, there are f i v e f i g u r e s . At the r i g h t the crouched woman i s i n a pose s t r o n g l y resembling the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g sketch done by Flaxman as a boy of 13 ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The f i g u r e of a mourning man behind P a t r o c l u s ' b i e r i s an academic f i g u r e to be found i n any student a r t i s t ' s sketchbook. The supine P a t r o c l u s by c o n t r a s t resembles medieval tomb f i g u r e s , w h ile the s t a n d i n g T h e t i s i s r e m i n i s c e n t i n form of Roman f r i e z e f i g u r e s or perhaps a Greek vase f i g u r e . The members of the group are assembled to strengthen the idea of A c h i l l e s g r i e f . A s t r o n g d i a g o n a l l i n e descends from l e f t to r i g h t from the goddess T h e t i s with head bowed through A c h i l l e s ' body i n t e a r f u l embrace of the dead P a t r o c l u s to the f i g u r e of the woman unable to stand f o r her g r i e f . The e f f e c t resembles the f i g u r e of a m u s i c a l descending arpeggio and c r e a t e s a p e r s u a s i v e s e n t i m e n t a l appeal. T h i s o v e r t d e p i c t i o n of emotion and the a p p a r e n t l y v a r i e d sources f o r the f i g u r e s ' poses make the comments of contemporaries seem oddly i n a p p r o p r i a t e . U n i v e r s a l l y they regarded the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r p u r i t y of form and a u s t e r i t y of method, as t r u e a n c i e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s s k i l l f u l l y t r a n s p o r t e d from the p a s t . George Romney, f o r example, remarked i n 1793 t h a t . . . ' t h e y are o u t l i n e s without shadow, but i n the s t y l e of a n c i e n t a r t . They are simple, grand, and pure... They look as i f they had been made i n the age, when Homer wrote.'13 i n 3 f a c t , the " o u t l i n e s without shadow" or l i n e a r s t y l e i s i t s e l f an anachronism - a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l mode of c l a s s i c a l not bronze age or Homeric G r e e c e . 1 4 Even t h i s a s i d e , when Flaxman used a n c i e n t Greek vase p a i n t i n g — with which he was f a m i l i a r through h i s study of both a n c i e n t p i e c e s and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s d e p i c t i n g v a s e s 1 4 — as an i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the form of h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s the images he produced d i f f e r con-s i d e r a b l y from a n c i e n t p i e c e s . A u s e f u l comparison e x i s t s between a cup c. 500 BC by the S o s i a s P a i n t e r ( F i g u r e 3a) and Flaxman's I l i a d p l a t e 31 ( h e r e a f t e r Flaxman's Homer designs w i l l be r e f e r r e d to by e i t h e r I l i a d or Odyssey and the 1805 Longman e d i t i o n number). The cup e x h i b i t s many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a n c i e n t Greek p a i n t i n g . In common with Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h i s s t y l e i n v o l v e d the a p p l i c a t i o n of dark l i n e s on a l i g h t e r ground.i5 But u n l i k e Flaxman's work there i s a tendency to f i l l the frame of the p i c t u r e with d e c o r a t i o n not r e l e v a n t to the s u b j e c t . The background i s darkened and, while there i s no landscape, there i s a s u b s t a n t i a l g r o u n d l i n e . The f i g u r e s wear h e a v i l y decorated c l o t h i n g and t h e i r f a c e s are i n s t r i c t p r o f i l e with s i n g u l a r l y E g y p t i a n l o o k i n g f r o n t a l eyes. F r e q u e n t l y the anatomy i s p o o r l y rendered such as P a t r o c l u s ' s grotesque f o o t and A c h i l l e s s p i n d l y arms and l e g s . There i s a l a c k of v a r i e t y i n pose (here demonstrated on the o u t s i d e of the cup F i g u r e 3b), and male f i g u r e s are o f t e n h e a v i l y bearded. On the other hand i n I l i a d 31, T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour  to A c h i l l e s f u l l y 40% of the p i c t u r e area i s l e f t undecorated. 4 There i s no landscape, shading or darkened background. The ground l i n e i s so ambiguous t h a t i t c o u l d be a p a r t of the frame of the p i c t u r e . Drapery i s r e l a t i v e l y undecorated. The r e n d e r i n g of anatomy i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more competent and f i g u r e s are presented i n much more v a r i e d poses. P a t r o c l u s ' long l e g s obscure the mourning att e n d a n t ' s g e n i t a l area something seldom done i n a n c i e n t models. By f i l l i n g the open areas with d e c o r a t i o n s not r e l e v a n t to the s t o r y the S o s i a s p a i n t e r g i v e s the impression that he was simply attempting to cover the vase with d e c o r a t i o n . He presented a p i c t u r e that r e p r e s e n t s a s i n g l e moment i n time as one f i g u r e bandages the o t h e r . To form a p a r a l l e l case Flaxman might have i s o l a t e d A c h i l l e s g r i e v i n g over a dead P a t r o c l u s but i n s t e a d he d e p i c t e d a s e r i e s of events to g i v e a b e t t e r sense of the Homeric n a r r a t i v e . In t h i s s i n g l e image Flaxman reminds the viewer of the death of P a t r o c l u s and thus the l o s s of the armour he had borrowed from A c h i l l e s . I t was t h i s l o s s of the o l d armour that prompted the manufacture of the new that T h e t i s now d e l i v e r s . In a pose r e m i n i s c e n t of the Parthenon Athena or B r i t a n n i a , she p e r s o n i f i e s duty c a l l i n g A c h i l l e s back to the b a t t l e that ends i n Troy's d e f e a t . The dominant theme of the Flaxman's design, human g r i e f , i s drawn from the t e x t but the d e t a i l s of the p i c t u r e are Flaxman's i n v e n t i o n . Homer made no r e f e r e n c e to P a t r o c l u s ' f u n e r a l b i e r , the s t o o l beside i t , nor the female mourner.16 Flaxman d i d not produce a b s o l u t e l y f a i t h f u l t r a n s l a t i o n s of 5 the Homeric t e x t s from l i t e r a r y to p i c t o r i a l imagery. Rather as Mrs. Flaxman wrote from France to W i l l i a m Hayley i n 1802, her husband was r e c o g n i z e d as 'the best commentator of the great bard Homer.' 1 7 Today the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Mrs. Flaxman's remark i s obscure. The Homeric e p i c s , the o l d e s t great works of western l i t e r a t u r e , are not important i n modern edu c a t i o n . They are not, f o r example, r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l s or u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h i s i n c l u d e s the C l a s s i c s Department at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia where only one or the other i s r e q u i r e d , and that r e a d i n g may be i n t r a n s l a t i o n . 1 8 Such was not the case i n the 18th Century. Throughout the 18th Century the I l i a d and Odyssey were a fundamental p a r t of e d u c a t i o n . In a program " c o n t r i v e d a c c o r d i n g to what i s commonly p r a c t i c e d i n England and f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s ; and i s i n sundry p a r t i c u l a r s p r o p o r t i o n e d to the o r d i n a r y c a p a c i t i e s of c h i l d r e n under f i f t e e n years of age" 1^ the Reverend Hoole recommended not only the '"Father of Poetry", Homer, [but a l s o ] P i n d a r , E u r i p i d e s , Sophocles and A r i s t o p h a n e s i n G r e e k . ' 2 0 E a r l i e r the Reverend R i c h a r d Holdsworth D.D., f e l l o w of S t . John's C o l l e g e , Oxford, from 1613 to 1637 had regarded as a p p r o p r i a t e Hesiod, h i s Theognis, Homer, Pi n d a r , T h e o c r i t u s , P l u t a r c h and a number of t r a g e d i e s and o r a t i o n s of L a t i n authors.21 These 17th Century educators a p p a r e n t l y s e t the d i r e c t i o n f o r the c u r r i c u l a throughout the f o l l o w i n g century. Sydney Smith reviewing R.L. Edgeworth's P r o f e s s i o n a l 6 E d u c a t i o n of 1809 wrote i n the Edinburgh Review i n an essay e n t i t l e d "Too Much L a t i n and Greek," t h a t "a Young Englishman goes to sc h o o l at s i x or seven years o l d ; and he remains i n a course of education t i l l twenty-three or twenty-four years of age. In a l l t h a t time s o l e and e x c l u s i v e o c c u p a t i o n i s l e a r n i n g L a t i n and Greek: he has s c a r c e l y a n o t i o n that there i s any other k i n d of e x c e l l e n c e . ' 2 2 For those who d i d not continue to higher forms t r a n s l a t i o n s of Homer were widely a v a i l a b l e . 2 3 Thus the g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of the young men d e s t i n e d f o r c a r e e r s i n the law, p o l i t i c s , the armed s e r v i c e s and the Church and even commerce, tr a d e , and i n d u s t r y had read c l a s s i c a l authors i n c l u d i n g Homer of whom a w r i t e r to the Gentlemen's  Magazine i n 1793 wrote: 'In Homer nothing i s c a s u a l , nothing i d l e or i r r e l a t i v e , n i l m o l i t u r i n e p t e . Every e x p r e s s i o n i s pregnant with meaning.' 2 4 Homer was not read i n the l a t e 18th Century merely f o r entertainment or the i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e of l e a r n i n g another language but presented as a model of human s o c i e t y . T h e o r i s t Robert Wood had w r i t t e n some years b e f o r e t h a t 'whatever h i s [Homer's] p l a n of i n s t r u c t i o n , e i t h e r moral or p o l i t i c a l , might have been ( f o r to deny t h a t he had any would he h i g h l y unreasonable), h i s c h o i c e of c h a r a c t e r s f o r the purpose never c a r r i e d him beyond Nature, and h i s own experience of l i f e ' . 2 5 Homer, i t was b e l i e v e d , 'had l i v e d i n the most e n l i g h t e n e d age, and possessed a l l advantages f o r improving h i s n a t u r a l t a l e n t s ' . 2 6 In that 'most e n l i g h t e n e d age' the Greeks of 7 Homer's s t o r i e s were seen to l i v e i n an age of wealth, m i l i t a r y prowess and refinement.27 ^nd y e t , as the passage i l l u s t r a t e d by Flaxman's T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 31, i n d i c a t e d , human v a l u e s , not m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , were the s u b j e c t . The Achaean Greeks had not d i s s i p a t e d t h e i r n a t i o n a l v i g o u r on the accumulation of m a t e r i a l wealth, a p o i n t not l o s t on those i n B r i t a i n who f e a r e d that the sudden p r o l i f e r a t i o n of consumer goods pro v i d e d by the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n would c o r r u p t s o c i e t y . In a 1774 'Essay on Luxury' appearing i n London  Magazine 'luxury [was] s a i d to have poisoned the whole n a t i o n . ' 2 ^ F i v e years l a t e r the i dea was expanded to: 'But man, anxious to be unhappy, i n d u s t r i o u s to m u l t i p l y woe, and ingenious i n c o n t r i v i n g new plagues, new torments, to embitter l i f e , and . sour every present enjoyment, has i n v e r t e d the order of t h i n g s , has c r e a t e d wishes that have no connection with h i s happiness.'29 Human s o c i e t y was here seen as being p r o g r e s s i v e l y overburdened with new plagues and torments t h a t were obscur i n g the e s s e n t i a l nature of mankind. In the o l d e s t known extended d e s c r i p t i o n of any age the s o c i e t y of the I l i a d and Odyssey was l o g i c a l l y the l e a s t overburdened and thus the most e n l i g h t e n e d . Oddly, the enthusiasm of Homeric s o c i e t y was not tempered by an acknowledgement of i t s more mundane aspects (which may simply have gone unrecorded by Homer). In f a c t , Homer pro v i d e d as spare a p i c t u r e of h i s s o c i e t y as d i d Flaxman. R e f e r r i n g again to T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 31 both poet and a r t i s t might w e l l have i n c l u d e d a background. The 8 Myrmidons may have been presented p o l i s h i n g armour, sharpening weapons, p r e p a r i n g food or e a t i n g or even j u s t s t a n d i n g about i n c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d m a t e r i a l surroundings. N e i t h e r Homer nor Flaxman p r o v i d e any such d e t a i l s but s i g n i f i c a n t l y the spare q u a l i t y of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e p i c t i o n s of the I l i a d and Odyssey seem to have been reached by d i f f e r e n t means. Robert Wood b e l i e v e d that i t had been 'Homer's o b j e c t to p l e a s e as w e l l as i n s t r u c t ' . 3 0 AS S U c h , d e s c r i b i n g d e t a i l s f a m i l i a r i n the everyday l i f e of h i s l i s t e n e r s would have d i l u t e d the s t o r i e s ' v i g o r o u s n a r r a t i v e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a l a t e 18th Century audience would have seen e m b e l l i s h i n g d e t a i l i n Flaxman's designs as o b s c u r i n g Homer's p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e s s e n t i a l nature of man and human s o c i e t y . The concept of the e s s e n t i a l was not d e r i v e d e n t i r e l y from a p e r u s a l of Homer or even a n c i e n t authors. In a d d i t i o n t o Homer there was i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the severe t r a g e d i e s of Aeschylus ( f i r s t t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h and French i n the 1770's), the ' i r o n age' works of Hesiod and P i n d a r , the Roman h i s t o r i a n L i v y and the Greek, P l u t a r c h , biographer of both Greeks and Romans.31 From the works of these authors was d e r i v e d a conception of man with uncorrupted manners and emotions of those l i v i n g c l o s e t o nature.32 Dante, Shakespeare, and the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d presented s i m i l a r v i s i o n s and i n t e r e s t i n them was s i m i l a r l y r e v i v e d . Recognizing the p o p u l a r i t y of these r e v i v e d authors and u s i n g Homer as a model, James MacPherson c r e a t e d the "fake" C e l t i c bard Ossian and p u b l i s h e d h i s F i n g a l 9 and Temora between 1760 and 1763. The books s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e d c h a r a c t e r s and put them i n t o s i t u a t i o n s designed to accommodate the most n o s t a l g i c v i s i o n s of human s o c i e t y d e v i s e d by 18th Century w r i t e r s and r e a d e r s . L i f e i n the time of Ossian was 'simple, rugged, u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d and at the same time, moral, r a t i o n a l and touched with s e n t i m e n t ' . 3 3 With Macpherson conspicuous by h i s absence i n d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the a u t h e n t i c i t y of h i s work, Ossian was immediately h a i l e d as a great a n c i e n t work. MacPherson's c o n t r i v e d work was not unique. I t was p a r a l l e l e d by 18th Century landscape gardens, which were 'attempts to r e c r e a t e the l i t e r a r y landscape which had been sketched by Homer, e l a b o r a t e d and populated with l o v e - s i c k shepherds by T h e o c r i t u s and the other b u c o l i c poets, and given c l a s s i c e x p r e s s i o n by V i r g i l who t r a n s f e r r e d i t from S i c i l y t o more remote A r c a d i a and V a l e of Tempe'. 3 4 The shepherd might dwell i n such a r c h i t e c t u r a l whimsies as the Pantheon Temple at Stourhead ( F i g u r e 4 ) . Such concepts were fundamental to 18th Century thought. I t was b e l i e v e d that reason, a p p l i e d to c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s of nature, would r e v e a l u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d t r u t h s , laws, and p r i n c i p l e s and by e x t e n s i o n nature and reason c o u l d be employed f o r the g e n e r a l b e n e f i t of mankind. Indeed, e x p l o r a t i o n and e x p o s i t i o n i n d i v e r s f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the 18th Century. Even d u r i n g Flaxman's l i f e and c a r e e r , d i s c o v e r y , d i s c u s s i o n and i n v e n t i o n extended over a broad range of endeavour: i n the f i e l d of s c i e n c e the d i s c o v e r y of s e v e r a l of the elements 10 i n c l u d i n g hydrogen i n 1766 by Cavendish, n i t r o g e n by R u t h e r f o r d i n 1772 and Oxygen i n 1774 by P r i e s t l y ; i n geography Cook's e x p l o r a t i o n of A u s t r a l i a i n 1770 and P a c i f i c i n 1778. These examples should not suggest that r e s e a r c h or i n q u i r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d only a p a s s i v e i n t e r e s t i n the accummulation of knowledge. The i s o l a t i o n of elements, f o r example, suggested to L a v o i s i e r t h e i r p r e v i o u s combination as when he e x p l a i n e d combustion i n 1777. G e n e r a l l y an i n c r e a s e d understanding of p r o p e r t i e s r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s i n the form of i n v e n t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l impact. Those i n v e n t i o n s i n c l u d e d : Watts p i s t o n steam engine i n 1769, M i l l e r ' s c i r c u l a r saw i n 1777, F r a n k l i n ' s b i f o c a l l e n s ( f o r e y e g l a s s e s ) i n 1780, H a r r i s o n ' s s t e e l pen i n 1780, and Murdock's gas l i g h t i n g i n 1792. The d i v e r s i t y of the contemporary i n t e l l e c t u a l arguments i s i n d i c a t e d by the t i t l e s of but a few works of the time ranging from Edmund Burke's P h i l o s o p h i c a l I n q u i r y i n t o the  O r i g i n of our Ideas of the sublime and the B e a u t i f u l i n 1756, Adam Smith's I n q u i r y i n t o the Nature and Causes of the Wealth  of N a t i o ns i n 1776, to David Hume's Dialogues concerning  N a t u r a l R e l i g i o n i n 1779. Common to a l l these f i e l d s of 18th Century i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavour was the need to c r e a t e conceptual models. That need i t s e l f had been widely r e c o g n i z e d . In h i s A n a l y s i s of Beauty of 1753 W i l l i a m Hogarth, whose i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s g r e a t l y exceeded h i s a c t u a l accomplishments, wrote: 'The constant use made of l i n e s by mathematicians, as w e l l as p a i n t e r s , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i n g s upon paper, hath e s t a b l i s h e d a co n c e p t i o n of them, as i f a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n g on the r e a l forms t h e m s e l v e s ' . 3 5 There are two ideas here. The f i r s t i s t h a t l i n e drawings were used ' i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i n g s upon paper.' Hogarth's obser-v a t i o n may have been extended f a r beyond h i s examples of mathematicians and a r t i s t s to i n c l u d e a l l s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l endeavour where there was a need to reduce o b s e r v a t i o n s to g e n e r a l laws or i n the i n s t a n c e of i n v e n t i o n s , to v i s u a l i z e something t h a t had not p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d . For example, F i g u r e 5 i s a conceptual model of the h u l l of a s h i p which appeared i n W i l l i a m Sutherland's S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t of 1755. I t i s not a p i c t u r e of an e x i s t i n g or even a proposed h u l l but r a t h e r an i l l u s t r a t i o n of how to l a y out a h u l l . S i m i l a r l y F i g u r e 6 i s a drawing by Flaxman f o r a m e d a l l i o n submitted to Wedgwood i n 1783. I t i s not a f i n i s h e d a r t i s t i c work but a d e s i g n e r s concept f o r a tradesman t o t r a n s l a t e i n t o p o t t e r y . H e rein l i e s Hogarth's second idea that the l i n e drawing must convey to the viewer the idea of the t h i n g drawn 'as i f a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n g on the r e a l forms themselves'. Thus the s h i p ' s h u l l , Flaxman's design and Hogarth's mathematical model ignore s o l i d i t y , c o l o u r , t e x t u r e and p e r s p e c t i v e but to the experienced viewer they convey s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to e x p l a i n the e s s e n t i a l concept. A second common theme of 18th Century thought was the f e r v e n t b e l i e f of e n l i g h t e n e d men b e l i e v e d that endeavour should be d i r e c t e d to the general betterment of s o c i e t y . In the case of the S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t , W i l l i a m S u t h e r l a n d , as the p r e f a c e i n d i c a t e s , 'endeavoured t o l a y e v e r y t h i n g down i n the most p l a i n and perspicuous manner, with a d e s i r e t o i n s t r u c t i n g young SHIPWRIGHTS, and those Gentlemen who are d e s i r o u s of being acquainted with these s u r p r i s i n g F a b r i c s . . . ; [with the hope] 'that every improvement made i n an A r t of such importance to s o c i e t y , adds a f a r t h e r s e c u r i t y to the power, s t r e n g t h and i n t e r e s t of these kingdoms'.36 S i m i l a r l y Robert Adam i n d e d i c a t i n g h i s Ruins of S p a l a t r o t o King George I I I po i n t e d out t h a t 'your Majesty's s i n g u l a r A t t e n t i o n to the A r t s of Elegance promises an Age of P e r f e c t i o n ' . 3 7 The i n d u s t -r i a l i s t J o s i a h Wedgwood, to whom Flaxman submitted many designs ( F i g u r e 6 f o r example), saw h i s p o s i t i o n i n s i m i l a r terras. In a passage repeated i n a number of h i s cat a l o g u e s , Wedgwood s t a t e d t h at he wanted 'to d i f f u s e a good t a s t e through the a r t s ' by the 'power of m u l t i p l y i n g c o p i e s of f i n e things'.38 Wedgwood c o n s t a n t l y searched f o r designs f o r Jasperware, i n s p i r e d by antique cameos. He d i d not, however, merely reproduce a n c i e n t p i e c e s . He wrote to h i s f r i e n d Erasmus Darwin, 'I onl y pretend to have attempted to copy the f i n e antique forms, but not with a b s o l u t e s e r v i l i t y . I have endea-voured to pr e s e r v e the s t y l e and s p i r i t , or i f you p l e a s e , the elegant s i m p l i c i t y of the antique forms'.39 Wedgwood's impression of the antique form h i s products emulated was formed i n no small measure by a r c h a e l o g i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s many of which were i n h i s own l i b r a r y . 4 0 The candid statement r e g a r d i n g h i s products almost paraphrases the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Comte de Caylus' R e c u e i l d ' a n t i q u i t e s egyptiennes, etrusques, et romaines ( P a r i s 1757) the purpose of which was 'to shed l i g h t on the past ... to a r r i v e at the s p i r i t of the antique r a t h e r than to copy antique d e t a i l s ' . 4 1 In the p u b l i c a t i o n s of W i l l i a m Hamilton C o l l e c t i o n of Vases, i l l u s t r a t e d e n t i r e l y with l i n e engravings, there was a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to remove d e t a i l and e x t r a c t the essence of an c i e n t d e s i g n . The p r e f a c e s t a t e s t h a t the work was c o n f i n e d 'to the simple o u t l i n e of the f i g u r e s of the Vases, which i s the e s s e n t i a l , and no unnecessary Ornaments or c o l o r i n g . . . [ a r e ] . . . introduced'.42 R e c a l l i n g F i g u r e 3 as an example, a n c i e n t vase p a i n t e r s o f t e n i n c l u d e d 'unneccessary Ornaments' or d e c o r a t i o n not a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a n c i e n t s o c i e t y . In a d d i t i o n , the red and bl a c k f i g u r e d vases were, i n f a c t , c o l o r e d . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s such as de Caylus and the Hamilton C o l l e c t i o n were f o r many, i n c l u d i n g Wedgwood and h i s a r t i s t s , the c h i e f source of knowledge of the m a t e r i a l remains of a n t i q u i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y they presented not an a c c u r a t e d e t a i l e d r e c o r d of the an c i e n t s o c i e t y but r a t h e r the antique as the l a t e 18th Century wanted t o see i t . 14 NOTES TO THE TEXT CHAPTER I 1 Robert Rosenblum, The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t y l e of 1800 : A  Study i n L i n e a r A b s t r a c t i o n (New York, 1956 and 1976), p. 114 f n . 2 Sources f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n of Wedgwood Flaxman seem to f a l l n a t u r a l l y i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : those c e n t e r i n g pn the l i f e of Wedgwood, such as; E l i z a Meteyard, The L i f e  of J o s i a h Wedgwood (London, 1865-66); K.E. F a r r e r , L e t t e r s  of J o s i a h Wedgwood (London, 1903-06); the more recent A. F i n e r and G. Savage The S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of J o s i a h  Wedgwood (London, 1965); and Wolf Mankowitz, Wedgwood (New York, 1953) and those t r e a t i n g the works of Wedgwood a r t i s t s and t h e i r works as c o l l e c t o r ' s items, such as H.M. Buten, Wedgwood and A r t i s t s (Merion P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1960). 3 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, "Uber d i e Flaxmanischen werke," Propylaen, 1799, a l s o i n Werke, 47 (Weimar, 1896) pp. 245-46. 4 A.W. von S c h l e g e l , "Uber Zeichnungen zu Gedichten und John Flaxmans Umrissen," Athenaum, 1799 a l s o i n Sammtliche  Werke ( L e i p z i g , 1846), IX, pp. 102-57. 5 W i l l i a m George Constable, John Flaxman 1755-1826 (London, 1927). ^ G e r a l d B e n t l e y 'Notes on the E a r l y E d i t i o n s of Flaxman's C l a s s i c a l Designs', B u l l e t i n of the New York P u b l i c  L i b r a r y , 68, (1964), pp. 277-307, 361-380. P u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y as The E a r l y Engravings of Flaxman's C l a s s i c a l  Designs, (New York, 1964). 7 Robert E s s i c k and J e n i j o y L a B e l l e , Flaxman's I l l u s t r a t i o n s  to Homer, (New York, 1977). 8 David Bindman, John Flaxman, (London, 1979). Appeared p r e v i o u s l y as Werner Hofmann, David Bindman et a l . John  Flaxman Mythologie und I n d u s t r i e , (Hamburg, 1979). 9 David Irwin, John Flaxman 1755-1826 (London, 1979) 1 0 Wedgwood's set of d i s h e s f o r Empress C a t h e r i n e c o n s i s t i n g of 952 p i e c e s contained 1244 d i f f e r e n t views f o r example. J o s i a h Wedgwood: the A r t s and Scie n c e s U n i t e d (1978) p. 50. For more on the Wedgwood f i r m ' s v o r a c i o u s a p p e t i t e f o r d esigns see David Irwin, N e o - C l a s s i c a l Design : i n d u s t r y p lunders a n t i q u i t y , A p o l l o ns 96 (October, 1972), pp. 289-297. 15 'An Account Book of John Flaxman, R.A.' ( B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39784 BB), Edward Croft-Murray ( e d . ) , Walpole  S o c i e t y XXVIII 1939-40 pp.79. The e n t r y f o r J u l y 8, 1803 i s as f o l l o w s " J o s i a h Wedgwood Esq. A Monument sent by Goddard's Waggon ( s i c ) , C a s t l e and F a l c o n , A l d e r s g a t e S t r 73, 10, -. Meteyard, op. c i t . p. 504. W. Hayley, The L i f e of George Romney (London, 1809), p.203. Di s c u s s e d l a t e r ch. II See R.M. Cook, Greek P a i n t e d P o t t e r y (London, 1972), p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r technique ch.9, pp. 240 f f . In a d d i t i o n to Alexander Pope's r e n d i t i o n s of the I l i a d and Odyssey modern t r a n s l a t i o n s are a l s o u s e f u l and o f t e n more readable. Two such are : The I l i a d t r a n s E.V. Rieu (Harraondsworth, 1950) and The Odyssey t r a n s E.V. Rieu Harraondsworth, 1946) MSS, A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago, G u r l e y C o l l e c t i o n , Mrs. Flaxman to Hayley, 10 December [1802]. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 70th S e s s i o n (1984-85) Calendar, Vancouver, 1984 p.71. C h a r l e s Hoole, New D i s c o v e r y of the A r t of Teaching  Schooles ( s i c ) 1660. Quoted by John R. Mulder, The Temple  of Mind (New York, 1935), p. 25. Mulder i b i d p. 18. Mulder i b i d p. 30. Syndney Smith, 'Too Much L a t i n and Greek' (a review of R.L. Edgeworth, P r o f e s s i o n a l Education (1809) Edinburgh Review 1809 c i t e d i n H.C. Barnard A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h  E d u c a t i o n from 1760 (London, 1961) p. 17. An incomplete l i s t w i l l i n c l u d e : Ten Bookes ( s i c ) of Homers  I l i a d e s ( s i c ) , t r a n s , out of the French by A r t h u r H a l l (London, 1581); Seven Bookes ( s i c ) of the I l i a d e s ( s i c )  of Homer P r i n c e of Poets Trans, a c c o r d i n g the Greeke ( s i c ) George Chapman (London, 1598); A c h i l l e s S h i e l d , t r a n s . George Chapman (London 1598); Homer P r i n c e of Poets t r a n s . George Chapman (London, 1610); The Whole Works of Homer,  P r i n c e of Poets, i n h i s I l i a d e s ( s i c ) and Odysses ( s i c ) t r a n s . George Chapman (London, 1612); Homers Odysses ( s i c ) t r a n s . George Chapman (London, 1614); The Whole Works of  Homer; P r i n c e of P o e t t s ( s i c ) i n h i s I l i a d s ( s i c ) and 16 Odysseys ( s i c ) t r a n s . George Chapman (London, 1616); The  F i r s t Three Books of Homer's I l i a d t r a n s . Thomas Grantham (London, 1661); The T r a v e l s of U l y s s e s ; As they were r e l a t e d by h i m s e l f i n Homer's Nineth, Tenth, E l e v e n t h and T w e l f t h Books of h i s Odysses ( s i c ) to A l c i n o u s King of Phaeacia t r a n s . Thomas Hobbs Malmessby (London, 1673); and o c c a s i o n a l appearances of amateur t r a n s l a t o r s such as that of an u n i d e n t i f i e d person who submitted 'A T r a n s l a t i o n of a P a r t of the 22nd Book of Homer's I l i a d i n t o Blank verse made almost l i t e r a l l y , ' Gentlemen's Magazine Dec. 1797 p. 1052. 2 4 Gentlemen's Magazine, ( J u l y 1793) p. 623. 2 5 Robert Wood, An Essay on the O r i g i n a l Genius of Homer (1769; New York, 1971), p. 298. 2 6 Alexander Gerard, An Essay on Genius (1774; Munchen, 1966) p. 11. 2 7 J.V. Luce, Homer and the Homeric Age (London, 1975) p. 181. 2 8 London Magazine, XLII (October, 1774) p. 481. 2 9 London Magazine, XLVIII (1779) p. 537. 3 0 Robert Wood, op. c i t . , p. 30. 3 1 Hugh Honour, N e o - c l a s s i c i s m (Harmondsworth, 1968) p. 64. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 142. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 66. 3 4 I b i d . , p. 161. 3 5 W i l l i a m Hogarth, A n a l y s i s of Beauty (London, 1753) p. 37. 3 6 W i l l i a m S utherland, The S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t , or  Marine A r c h i t e c t u r e (London, 1755), p . i i i . 3 7 Robert Adam, Ruins of the P a l a c e of the Emperor D i o c l e t i a n  at S p a l a t r o (London, 1764) p.IV. 3 8 Noted by David Irwin, op. c i t . , p. 19. 3 9 Wedgwood to Erasmus Darwin, 28 June 1789. 4 0 For more on t h i s p o i n t and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s see David Irwin, ' N e o - c l a s s i c a l design: i n d u s t r y plunders a n t i q u i t y , ' A p o l l o ns 96: 289-297, October 1972. 17 Comte de Caylus, R e c u e i l d' a n t i q u i t ^ s £gyptiennes, 6trusques  et romain ( P a r i s 1752-67) I pp. X l l f f . S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton, A n c i e n t Vases (1791-95) unpaginated p r e f a c e . 18 CHAPTER II Flaxman's contemporaries g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s engravings of the I l i a d and Odyssey embodied the a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s of 'the age when Homer wrote'. However, as has been suggested, Flaxman's designs bear only s u p e r f i c i a l resem-blance to a n c i e n t works. The apparent v a r i e t y of sources f o r the poses of the f i g u r e s , t h e i r more ac c u r a t e anatomy, the more c a r e f u l l y determined use of the p i c t u r e space, the d e p i c t i o n of c o n s e c u t i v e events and the d e l i b e r a t e d e p i c t i o n of Homeric s o c i e t y as an u n c l u t t e r e d conceptual model, r e v e a l an a r t i s t whose experience was much wider than any a n c i e n t a r t i s t ' s c o u l d p o s s i b l y have been. Flaxman's e a r l i e s t e x h i b i t e d works met with success. When only 11 years of age he won a F i r s t P r i z e from the S o c i e t y of A r t s f o r a medal modelled i n c l a y . In 1769 he gained another F i r s t P r i z e f o r a model i n c l a y and i n 1770 he won the S o c i e t y of A r t s Gold P a l e t t e f o r a f i g u r e of G a r r i c k . 1 Flaxman's p r e c o s i t y at m o d e l l i n g i s , i n p a r t at l e a s t , e x p l a i n e d by the m i l i e u of h i s f a t h e r ' s shop and b u s i n e s s . John Flaxman S e n i o r 2 opened h i s London premises i n New S t r e e t Covent Garden i n 1755 and l a t e r moved to the Strand c a r r y i n g on b u s i n e s s u n t i l a f t e r the t u r n of the century as a c a s t maker. He was d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the r e s t o r a t i o n and r e p a i r of c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e and gems as w e l l as the making of p l a s t e r c a s t r e p r o d u c t i o n s of c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e and gems that were being imported i n l a r g e numbers to England. H i s c l i e n t s thus ranged from a r t i s t s such as the s c u l p t o r s L o u i s 19 F r a n c o i s R o u b i l i a c and Pe t e r Scheeraakers, to the i n d u s t r i a l -i s t s Matthew Boulton and J o s i a h Wedgwood. Nor was Flaxman's f a t h e r merely a c a s t maker. He o c c a s s i o n a l l y executed o r i g i n a l works, such as the f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g A r c h i t e c t u r e ( F i g u r e 7) i n a l a t e Baroque s t y l e , somewhat a f t e r the manner of h i s most i l l u s t r i o u s customers R o u b i l i a c and Scheeraakers. The deeply cut drapery f o l d s of A r c h i t e c t u r e along with i t s t o r s i o n and outward gaze are a n t i t h e t i c a l to the s t y l e h i s son would develop and employ f o r the Homer des i g n s . With only the a c t i v i t i e s around h i s f a t h e r ' s shop as teacher the younger Flaxman was dev e l o p i n g an a r t i s t i c s t y l e of h i s own. 3 He drew The Death of Caesar ( F i g u r e 2) at about the time he e x h i b i t e d the p r i z e winning models at the Free S o c i e t y of A r t i s t s . I t s theme i s c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d but i t s s t y l e i s l e s s d i s t i n c t l y c l a s s i c a l than the l a t e r Homer i l l u s -t r a t i o n s , even though, as a l r e a d y noted, there i s a s i m i l a r i t y between the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n The Death of Caesar and the mourning woman i n the T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 31 de s i g n . In f a c t , one might almost imagine i t being the same f i g u r e d e p i c t e d a few seconds l a t e r when c o l l a p s e d i n t o deeper g r i e f . The Death of Caesar p r o v i d e s an i d e a of Flaxman's a r t i s t i c development and knowledge at the age of 13 or 14 y e a r s . He was q u i t e capable of r e n d e r i n g anatomy i n remarkably v a r i e d and v i g o r o u s poses. He knew how to c r e a t e s p a t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e u s i n g o v e r l a p p i n g , shading, and v a r i e d f i g u r e s i z e and d e t a i l . 20 He knew how to d i r e c t the viewers a t t e n t i o n towards the c e n t r e of a c t i o n by having the f i g u r e s nearer the edge of the frame l e s s d e t a i l e d than those nearer the c e n t r e . Although he had at t h a t time no a r t i s t i c i n s t r u c t i o n other than i n h i s f a t h e r ' s shop Flaxman had w e l l developed a r t i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s . He a p p r e c i a t e d the p i c t o r i a l and dramatic p o t e n t i a l of the s u b j e c t matter and had the mechanical means of s e t t i n g a design on paper. In h i s f a t h e r ' s shop Flaxman met two people who were to exe r t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e upon h i s development. The f i r s t , the Reverend Anthony Stephen Matthew 4 entered John Flaxman S e n i o r ' s shop about 1768 and, f i n d i n g young Flaxman attempting to read a L a t i n t e x t , promised to g i v e the l a d something more s u i t a b l e . H i s wife H e n r i e t t a , who read Homer i n t r a n s l a t i o n to Flaxman, a l s o i n t r o d u c e d him to members of her 'blue s t o c k i n g ' l i t e r a r y group. B r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l notes of some of them i n d i c a t e the i n t e l l e c t u a l h o r i z o n s that then opened to the young Flaxman. Anna L e t i t i a Barbauld had mastered French and I t a l i a n and had a knowledge of L a t i n and Greek and was l a t e r to operate a very s u c c e s s f u l school at Palgrave i n S u f f o l k . E l i z a b e t h C a r t e r spoke s i x modern languages but was best known as a s c h o l a r of a n c i e n t Greece with a great i n t e r e s t i n a n c i e n t h i s t o r y and geography. In 1739 she had p u b l i s h e d her own t r a n s l a t i o n from the French of M. Crousaz An Examination  of Mr. Pope's Essay of Man. 5 Hester Chapone wrote, i n 1772, L e t t e r s on the Improvement of the Mind. 6 F i n a l l y , at the ce n t r e of a c t i v i t i e s was E l i z a b e t h Montagu who b o l d l y proclaimed, 'I never i n v i t e i d i o t s t o my house'. 7 She d i d e n t e r t a i n Horace Walpole, Dr. Johnson, Edmund Burke, David G a r r i c k and S i r Joshua R e y n o l d s . 8 The poet W i l l i a m Cowper wrote of E l i z a b e t h Montagu, 'I no longer wonder that Mrs. Montagu stands at the head of a l l that i s c a l l e d l e a r n e d . ' 9 Out of t h i s c i r c l e came Flaxman's f i r s t commission - a set of s i x sketches based on Homer f o r Jeremiah C r u t c h l e y , M.P. 1 0 The second person of s u s t a i n e d importance t o h i s c a r e e r t h a t Flaxman met i n h i s f a t h e r ' s shop was George Romney. The meeting took p l a c e i n 1775 soon a f t e r Romney had retu r n e d from a p e r i o d of study i n Rome. On at l e a s t one o c c a s i o n , Romney Flaxman and t h e i r mutual f r i e n d W i l l i a m Hayley, spent an af t e r n o o n and evening together i n 1783 l o o k i n g at the s c u l p t u r e i n Westminster Abbey. 1 1 S h o r t l y a f t e r Romney's death i n 1802, Flaxman, by then an e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t i n h i s own r i g h t , wrote to Hayley r e c a l l i n g t h a t Romney had ' f i r s t come to see my f a t h e r ' s c a s t s . I was a l i t t l e boy, and as he f r e q u e n t l y found me employed i n mo d e l l i n g , he would stand by me a long w hile together g i v i n g me encouragement i n a manner so o b l i g i n g and a f f e c t i o n a t e that he won my h e a r t , and confirmed my d e t e r -mination i n the p u r s u i t of s c u l p t u r e ' . 1 2 As l a t e as 1821, Flaxman t o l d Romney's son that h i s f a t h e r ' s e a r l i e r ' o r i g i n a l and s t r i k i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n ' continued to be of b e n e f i t to h i s s c u l p t u r a l works.13 Flaxman's words that Romney had ' f r e q u e n t l y found me employed i n m o d e l l i n g ' i n d i c a t e how the a s p i r i n g s c u l p t o r a c q u i r e d the s k i l l to produce the medal i n c l a y and 22 f i g u r e of G a r r i c k that won f o r him p r i z e s from the S o c i e t y of A r t s and a p l a c e f o r him i n the then one year o l d Royal Academy. Throughout the d u r a t i o n of Flaxman's years as student at the Royal Academy i n s t r u c t i o n was d i r e c t e d by Joshua Reynolds.14 The p r i n c i p l e s he used to d i r e c t the s t u d i e s of the many students there (then i n c l u d i n g a number of a r t i s t s who l a t e r won r e c o g n i t i o n : the p a i n t e r W i l l i a m Hamilton, s c u l p t o r Thomas Banks, the e l d e r John Bacon, James T a s s i e and Thomas Stothard)15 were enshrined i n the annual l e c t u r e s he addressed to the assembled members and students of the Royal Academy. The c o l l e c t e d l e c t u r e s are known as the D i s c o u r s e s on A r t . In h i s D i s c o u r s e s Reynolds set out a p l a n to be f o l l o w e d by the students and the o b j e c t i v e s to be pursued by the a r t i s t . To develop the r e q u i r e d s k i l l s , i n s t r u c t i o n at the Academy was to be given i n three stages - the rudiments of drawing, m o d e l l i n g and the use of c o l o u r , the examination of the works of past a r t i s t s , the p r o d u c t i o n of new works of a c c o r d i n g to the newly a c q u i r e d educated judgement.! 6 To accommodate the second stage the Academy became a r e p o s i t o r y of f i n e a r t i n the form i of borrowed works and, of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to Flaxman the a s p i r i n g s c u l p t o r , c a s t s of a n c i e n t s c u l p t u r e . 1 ? With the c r e a t i o n of the Royal Academy Reynolds e n v i s i o n e d a general a m e l i o r a t i o n of n a t u r a l B r i t i s h t a s t e and d e s i g n . I f an i n s t i t u t i o n such as the Royal Academy has 'an o r i g i n no highe r [than merely m e r c a n t i l e ] no t a s t e can ever be formed i n manufactures; but i f the high e r A r t s of Design f l o u r i s h , 23 these i n f e r i o r ends w i l l be answered of c o u r s e . ' 1 8 H i s i d e a was not simply t o p r o v i d e B r i t a i n ' s i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n with a r t i s t i c a l l y aware and competent d e s i g n e r s . The goal he e n v i s i o n e d was much l o f t i e r . He d e c l a r e d , "the wish of the genuine p a i n t e r . . . i s to 'improve' mankind 'by the grandeur of h i s i d e a s ' and to s t r i v e f o r fame, 'by c a p t i v a t i n g the imagina-t i o n ' . 1 9 Although h i m s e l f a p a i n t e r of f a s h i o n a b l e p o r t r a i t s , Reynolds d i r e c t e d a s p i r i n g a r t i s t s to H i s t o r y P a i n t i n g which he regarded the n o b l e s t of a l l forms. H i s t o r y P a i n t i n g had the advantage t h a t a s u b j e c t c o u l d be a 'general one' ( t h a t i s , of general a p p e a l ) , drawn from 'the great events of Greek and Roman f a b l e and h i s t o r y , which e a r l y education, and the usu a l course of re a d i n g , have made f a m i l i a r and i n t e r e s t i n g to a l l Europe'. Of s i m i l a r broad appeal were the c h i e f s u b j e c t s of B i b l i c a l h i s t o r y . 2 0 The methods and i n t e n t i o n s of the p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r and H i s t o r y p a i n t e r n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r e d . Reynolds attempted to c r e a t e an image that d e p i c t e d the appearance and evoked a r e c o l l e c t i o n of h i s s i t t e r . However, no contemporary whatever had seen the c h a r a c t e r s immortalized by Homer. Reynolds was aware of the problem when he recounted the s t o r y of P h i d i a s s c u l p t i n g a f i g u r e of J u p i t e r . ' P h i d i a s ' , he wrote, 'when he formed h i s J u p i t e r , d i d not copy an o b j e c t ever presented to h i s s i g h t ; but contemplated o n l y that image which he conceived i n h i s mind from Homer's d e s c r i p t i o n . ' 2 1 An a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e i s demonstrated by Flaxman's v e r s i o n of A c h i l l e s 24 s h i e l d i n F i g u r e 1 T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s  I l i a d 31 which i s a c o n v i n c i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of Homer's d e s c r i p t i o n . To draw p i c t u r e s from d e s c r i p t i o n s by a n c i e n t authors r e q u i r e d f a m i l i a r i t y with the t e x t s and some h i s t o r i c a l p e r-s p e c t i v e . These Royal Academy endeavored to i n s t i l l through i t s l i b r a r y and i t s P r o f e s s o r s of A n c i e n t L i t e r a t u r e and A n c i e n t H i s t o r y . During Flaxman's student p e r i o d these honorary p o s i t i o n s were h e l d r e s p e c t i v e l y be men of no l e s s a s t a t u r e than Samuel Johnson (1770-1784) and O l i v e r Goldsmith (1770-1 7 7 4 ) . 2 2 C o n s i d e r i n g Flaxman's l a c k of formal education, the f a c t t h a t Mrs. Matthew had read Homer to him must a l s o have been of great v a l u e . By i n c l u d i n g a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y i n the Royal Academy's course of s t u d i e s Reynolds assured t h a t h i s students had the means to a v o i d 'that r i d i c u l o u s s t y l e which has been p r a c t i s e d by some p a i n t e r s , who have given to G r e c i a n Heroes the a i r s and graces p r a c t i s e d i n the c o u r t of Lewis ( s i c ) the Fourteenth; an a b s u r d i t y almost as great as i t would have been to have dressed them a f t e r the f a s h i o n of that c o u r t . ' 2 3 These anachronisms appeared i n c r e a s i n g l y absurd as a n c i e n t a r t i f a c t s became more common i n c o l l e c t i o n s and were i l l u s t r a t e d i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . Yet, Reynolds was not simply seeking a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e t a i l but r a t h e r a r e f l e c t i o n of c u r r e n t c o nceptions of the a n c i e n t world. 'We must have recourse to the A n c i e n t s as i n s t r u c t o r s , ' he wrote, 'to a t t a i n 25 to the r e a l s i m p l i c i t y of nature [as] they had probably l i t t l e or nothing to u n l e a r n , as t h e i r manners were n e a r l y approaching t h i s d e s i r e a b l e ( s i c ) s i m p l i c i t y ; w h ile the modern a r t i s t , b e f o r e he can see the t r u t h of t h i n g s , i s o b l i g e d to remove the v e i l , with which the f a s h i o n of the times has thought proper to cover h e r . ' 2 4 I t would seem that Reynolds not only thought the s i m p l i c i t y of the a n c i e n t world to have been a r e a l i t y , but that i t was a l s o a d e s i r a b l e a e s t h e t i c i d e a l . 'Truth of t h i n g s ' , the u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of human beings and human s o c i e t y , was d i v o r c e d from f a s h i o n . When d e p i c t i n g human s o c i e t y the a r t i s t should 'get above a l l s i n g u l a r forms, l o c a l customs, p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s and d e t a i l s of every kind.'25 To d e p i c t the u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d 'the h i s t o r i c a l p a i n t e r never e n t e r s i n t o the d e t a i l s of c o l o u r s , so n e i t h e r does he debase h i s conceptions with minute a t t e n t i o n to the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s of Drapery. With him c l o a t h i n g ( s i c ) i s n e i t h e r woolen, nor l i n e n , nor s i l k , s a t t i n ( s i c ) , or v e l v e t : i t i s drapery; i t i s nothing more.'26 Always an exponent of l e a r n i n g from the best a r t i s t s , Reynolds suggested that 'The more e x t e n s i v e . . . your acquaintance i s with the works of these who have e x c e l l e d , the more e x t e n s i v e w i l l be your powers of invention.'27 i n h i s D i s c o u r s e s he p r a i s e d the c o n s i s t e n c y of the s t y l e s of Rubens and P o u s s i n , f o r example, by n o t i n g that both "always preserved a p e r f e c t correspondence between a l l the p a r t s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e manners..."28 As a form of e x e r c i s e he recommended h i s students 26 to " c o n s i d e r with y o u r s e l f how a Michael Angelo or a R a f f a e l l e would have t r e a t e d (your) s u b j e c t : and work y o u r s e l f i n t o a b e l i e f t h a t your p i c t u r e i s to be seen and c r i t i c i s e d by them when completed." 2^ In developing t h e i r mechanical s k i l l s and s t u d y i n g the accomplishment of worthy a r t i s t s , the student a l s o c r e a t e d t h e i r own works. Reynolds o f f e r e d d i r e c t i o n i n t h i s regard too. He wrote t h a t 'the p a i n t e r ... i s to e x h i b i t d i s t i n c t l y , and with p r e c i s i o n , the general forms of t h i n g s . A f i r m and determined o u t l i n e i s one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the gre a t s t y l e i n p a i n t i n g . . . 3 0 Instead of copying the touches ( i . e . the brush s t r o k e s , e t c . ) of [the] great masters, copy only t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s . ' 3 1 In h i s D i s c o u r s e s he r e p e a t e d l y pursued the theme of e x t r a c t i n g and i l l u s t r a t i n g from a s i t u a t i o n with a r t i s t i c p o t e n t i a l only the s i n g l e dominant i d e a . R e f e r r i n g to P l i n y ' s account of Euphranor's Statue of P a r i s with i t s , to him, confused theme, Reynolds wrote: 'A s t a t u e i n which you endeavor to u n i t e s t a t e l y d i g n i t y , , y o u t h f u l elegance, and s t e r n v a l o u r , must s u r e l y possess none of these to any eminent d e g r e e 3 2 ... the ex p r e s s i o n of a mixed p a s s i o n ... appears t o me out of the reach of our a r t . ' 3 3 D e t a i l s added to e m b e l l i s h a theme or make i t more s a t i s f y i n g by v i r t u e of i t s i n c r e a s e d complexity only 'serve to d i v i d e the a t t e n t i o n of the s p e c t a -t o r . ' 3 4 In the end, a p a i n t i n g should appeal 'not to the eye but to the mind' and so doing ' e n t i t l e s i t to the name of a L i b e r a l A r t , and ranks i t as a s i s t e r of p o e t r y . ' 3 5 27 Upon h i s g r a d u a t i o n from the Royal Academy of 1775 Flaxman attempted to set up a p r a c t i c e as a s c u l p t o r i n London. Com-mis s i o n s were modest i n number and s i z e : monuments to Ann R u s s e l l and her son Henry who d i e d , i n 1780-81, i n A l l S a i n t s at Lydd i n Kent (with angels perhaps i n s p i r e d by a p l a t e from S t u a r t and Revett A n t i q u i t i e s of Athens, 1762 ( F i g u r e s 8a and b r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ) ; i n memory of Barbara B o u r c h i e r , who d i e d i n 1784, ( i n S t . Mary, Newent, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e ( F i g u r e 9 ) ) ; f o r Mrs. Sarah Morley, who a l s o d i e d i n 1784, ( G l o u c e s t e r C a t h e d r a l ( F i g u r e 10)), and f o r the Reverend Thomas and Mrs. B a l l (1784-86 i n C h i c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l ( F i g u r e 11)). Thus to support h i m s e l f Flaxman was f o r c e d to r e l y upon h i s e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p with the J o s i a h Wedgwood p o t t e r y f i r m . Wedgwood q u i c k l y a p p r e c i a t e d Flaxman's a b i l i t i e s . The i n d u s t r i a l i s t wrote to h i s p a r t n e r Thomas Ben t l e y i n e a r l y 1775, soon a f t e r the young a r t i s t s t a r t e d s u b m i t t i n g designs, p r a i s i n g Flaxman as "valuable".36 The m a j o r i t y of Flaxman's Wedgwood designs were f o r the most famous of Wedgwood's products - jasperware. I t was (and remains) a p o t t e r y ware made i n i m i t a t i o n of the stone j a s p e r , cut s i n c e c l a s s i c a l times to produce cameos and p a r t i a l m e d a l l i o n s . In the cameos and jasperware the f i g u r e s appear c o n t r a s t e d i n c o l o u r to the ground. The s u b j e c t s were of great v a r i e t y i n c l u d i n g " i l l u s t r i o u s moderns" ( n o t a b l e people) such as the a c t r e s s Mrs Siddons ( F i g u r e 12) as w e l l as a chess s e t f o r which Flaxman was the p r i n c i p a l d e s i g n e r ( F i g u r e 13). 28 Wedgwood had more than one concern i n the p r o d u c t i o n of jasperware. Of utmost importance, the designs submitted t o him had to be capable of ex e c u t i o n i n jasperware. In the process he developed, a model was normally made of wax a p p l i e d to a s u p p o r t i n g plaque from which a p l a s t e r of p a r i s mould was made. That mould was f i l l e d with c l a y to form a f i g u r e which, when dry, was f i r e d . T h i s f i r i n g caused a one seventh r e d u c t i o n i n the s i z e of the c l a y f i g u r e . By r e p e a t i n g the process, a design, executed as a wax model the diameter of a dinn e r p l a t e , c o u l d be used f o r jasperware products ranging from s i x - s e v e n t h s the s i z e of the o r i g i n a l to items as smal l as buttons. The mould c o u l d at any stage be used to form the f i g u r e s which were a p p l i e d , l e a t h e r hard, to a c o l o u r e d body of an a r t i c l e such as a d i s h or vase. When the body and a p p l i e d d e c o r a t i o n were f i r e d they were permanently bonded. The a r t i s t ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the t e c h n i c a l problems addressed by the tradesmen who a c t u a l l y transformed the models i n t o jasperware was (and s t i l l i s ) fundamental. F i g u r e s made from wax models needed to be t h i c k enough f o r ease of h a n d l i n g d u r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n to the body and yet t h i n enough to l e t the c o l o u r of the body enhance the modelled e f f e c t s . To produce s u c c e s s f u l jasperware p i e c e s , standards c o u l d not be r e l a x e d . Even a f t e r s u b m i t t i n g many designs t o Wedgwood, Flaxman produced models f o r jasperware which the p o t t e r found unuseable. Wedgwood wrote to Ben t l e y : "Mr. Flaxman's model i s too f l a t i n s e v e r a l p a r t s ... In some t h i n g s the blue shade 29 which our ground i s so apt to c a s t through the t h i n p a r t s of the white may be of advantage to the s u b j e c t ... But when the naked p a r t of the F i g u r e i s penetrated with the c o l o u r of the ground, i t i s g e n e r a l l y i n j u r i o u s . See the poor Queen's nose and many other Cameos."37 A l s o of concern to Wedgwood, the jasperware needed t o be of a c o n s i s t e n t and d i s t i n c t i v e form even when a v a r i e t y of a r t i s t s and sources of i n s p i r a t i o n were used. He pro v i d e d books of engravings of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s to h i s many a r t i s t s as he s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r to Ben t l e y concerning jasperware p i e c e s . 'I apprehend we s h a l l model them much cheaper than Flaxman and perhaps as w e l l i n other r e s p e c t s , p r o v i d e d we have F i n e P r i n t s or impressions from Gems to model from, but I wish you would g i v e Flaxman a head or two to model as i t may e x c i t e our modelers' [at E t r u r l a ] emulation and acquaint us with the p r i c e s f o r which those t h i n g s may be done i n Lon d o n . ' 3 8 T h i s l a s t comment r e v e a l s Wedgwood's t h i r d and o v e r r i d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the need to make a p r o f i t . Hence h i s products must be s a l e a b l e . Wedgwood wrote, t h i s time to Flaxman, of a design d e p i c t i n g the Judgement of P a r i s t h a t " i t i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary" t o drape nude f i g u r e s , f o r though "so general i n the works of the a n c i e n t s , none e i t h e r male or female of the present g e n e r a t i o n w i l l take or apply them as f u r n i t u r e i f the f i g u r e s are n a k e d . " 3 9 Wedgwood d i d indeed seek to e s t a b l i s h the c r e d i b i l i t y of h i s products with p o t e n t i a l customers. In h i s a d v e r t i s i n g 30 c a t a l o g u e s he proclaimed that h i s "Painted E t r u s c a n Vases" were "copied from the antique with the utmost exactness: as they are to be found i n Dempster, G o r i , Caylus, P a s s e r i , but more e s p e c i a l l y i n the most c h o i c e and comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n of S i r W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n " . 4 0 The works to which he was r e f e r r i n g (Thomas Dempster's De E t r u r i a R e g a l i (1723-1726), Antonio Francesco G o r i ' s Museum Etruscum (1737-1743), the comte de Cay l u s ' s R e c u e i l d ' A n t i q u i t e s Egyptiennes, Etrusques et Romaines (1752-1770), and P a s s e r i ' s La P e i n t u r e a 1'Encaustique (1775) were p a r t of the expanding corpus of p u b l i c a t i o n s of a n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t being purchased by e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the Royal Academy and by gentlemen who had been on the Grand Tour. Wedgwood had purchased them i n order that h i s a r t i s t s might d e r i v e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r works t h a t would then seem somewhat f a m i l i a r to h i s customers. The f a c t o r y l i b r a r y a l s o c o n t a i n e d d ' H a n c a r v i l l e ' s Cabinet of the Hon. W i l l i a m Hamilton (1766-1767) a p l a t e from which ( F i g u r e 14) pr o v i d e d the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r one of Flaxman's most popular Jasperware designs The Crowning  of a K i t h a r i s t ( F i g u r e 15). De s p i t e h i s f a m i l i a r i t y with the p r o d u c t i o n process Flaxman d i d not work at the p o t t e r y u n l i k e most of Wedgwood's a r t i s t s and m o d e l l e r s . He chose t o remain i n London where he coul d m a intain h i s Royal Academy a s s o c i a t i o n s and b u i l d a p r a c t i c e as a s c u l p t o r . Although the jasperware designs represented the bulk of h i s work at the time, Wedgwood's cat a l o g u e s d i d not name the a r t i s t s who pro v i d e d designs and as a r e s u l t Flaxman c o u l d a c q u i r e n e i t h e r a r e p u t a t i o n nor important commissions. In a d d i t i o n , d e s p i t e the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i s designs as jasperware, the commissions he r e c e i v e d from Wedgwood pro v i d e d i n s u f f i c i e n t income f o r Flaxman to accumulate the r e s o u r c e s to t r a v e l and study at f i r s t hand the a n t i q u i t i e s t h a t so o f t e n served as h i s i n s p i r a t i o n . The value of d i r e c t l y examining the remains of the a n c i e n t world must have been foremost i n Flaxman's mind. As e a r l y as 1771 a Mr. Freeman r e p o r t e d to Wedgwood that he had suggested to John Flaxman Sr. that he send h i s son to Rome to develop h i s t a l e n t s but Flaxman S e n i o r ' s b u s i n e s s was never a b l e to support such an expense.41 At about the same time, i n Flaxman's second year at Royal Academy, the coveted Gold Medal and i t s attendant t r a v e l l i n g p r i z e was awarded to Thomas E n g l e h a r t . A c c o r d i n g to Constable, Reynolds had 'used h i s i n f l u e n c e a g a i n s t F laxman.' 4 2 Reynolds may have found Flaxman annoyingly p r e c o c i o u s . The young a r t i s t ' s manner had been noted by Wedgwood i n u n f l a t t e r i n g terms. In a l e t t e r to p a r t n e r B e n t l e y i n 1775 he commented that i t was 'but a few years s i n c e [Flaxman] was a most supreme Coxcomb.' 4 3 In f a c t , Reynolds was never r e a l l y sympathetic towards s c u l p t o r s . Indeed, he r e s e r v e d h i s most s p e c i f i c s u ggestions f o r s c u l p t o r s u n t i l h i s tenth D i s c o u r s e , d e l i v e r e d 5 years a f t e r Flaxman had l e f t the Academy and then h i s comments were b r i e f . In the h i g h e s t or 'grand s t y l e ' of s c u l p t u r e the ornamental was r u l e d out, modern dress must never be used, a r c h i t e c t u r a l backgrounds i n p e r s p e c t i v e were 32 to be avoided, and there were to be no p i c t u r e s q u e c o n t r a s t s but r a t h e r a symmetrical b a l a n c i n g of p a r t s . 4 4 He might w e l l have been d e s c r i b i n g a two dimensional image r a t h e r than a t h r e e dimensional s c u l p t u r e . Reynolds remained unsympathetic to Flaxman's cause. When Flaxman attempted to o b t a i n funds to go to Rome i n 1784 he approached Reynolds with the i d e a that he, the eager young s c u l p t o r , with experience gained i n h i s f a t h e r ' s c a s t shop and t r a i n e d at the Royal Academy s c h o o l s which Reynolds s t i l l headed, c o u l d become a Rome-based s u p p l i e r of c a s t s to the Academy. Reynolds d e c l i n e d the o f f e r . 4 5 Undaunted, Flaxman and h i s wife Nancy e v e n t u a l l y l e f t f o r Rome i n the autumn of 1787 hoping to stay two y e a r s . They were a s s i s t e d by Romney who accepted Flaxman's o f f e r of c a s t s sent from Rome i n exchange f o r money p a i d before they l e f t , 4 6 by Nancy's p a r e n t s 4 7 and by Wedgwood who p a i d to have t h e i r heavy luggage sent on to Rome. 4 8 The Flaxman's cro s s e d to Dieppe, t r a v e l l e d through France and i n l a t e 1787 a r r i v e d i n Rome. During t h e i r journey Flaxman recorded i n j o u r n a l s and l e t t e r s h i s impressions of those t h i n g s he saw and b e l i e v e d he might l a t e r f i n d u s e f u l . H i s notes suggest that although much of what he was seeing was new to him, h i s r e a c t i o n s were u l t i m a t e l y based on a few f i r m p r i n c i p l e s . At V e r s a i l l e s , as he wrote i n a l e t t e r t o h i s parents, he c o n s i d e r e d that the t h e a t r e was 'wonderfully r i c h ' 4 ^ w h i le i n h i s own j o u r n a l he d e s c r i b e d i t as ' b a r b a r o u s . ' 5 0 Ornamentation might be p r e t t y 33 to look at but be c o u l d not f o r e s e e i t s being s u i t a b l e f o r h i s own work. In I t a l y he found the Baroque p a l a c e s i n T u r i n t a i n t e d with the 'bad t a s t e of a r c h i t e c t u r e which succeeded the age of Mich e l a n g e l o ' , t h e i r carved facades and i n t e r i o r s being 'as r i c h i n g o l d , s i l v e r and f i n e marble as they were poor i n t a s t e . ' 5 1 In s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t were h i s r e a c t i o n s t o the Venus de M e d i c i and the Niobe he admired i n F l o r e n c e . Where the t h e a t r e i n V e r s a i l l e s was 'barbarous' these s c u l p t u r e s were done with 'wonderful a t t e n t i o n to nature without exaggera-t i o n , there [was] no a f f e c t a t i o n of s t y l e , b e a u t i f u l nature was chosen by the A r t i s t and copied with so much s p i r i t , judgment...' Where the Baroque p a l a c e s were ' r i c h i n gold s i l v e r and f i n e marble' and thus 'poor i n t a s t e ' the c l a s s i c a l works showed ' t r u t h of anatomy and o u t l i n e with a d e l i c a c y of ex e c u t i o n that when seen i n proper l i g h t the naked p a r t s seem capable of motion, the d r a p e r i e s are of f i n e c l o t h s , l i g h t , b e a u t i f u l l y disposed to c o n t r a s t the limbs and shew them, as w e l l as to add d i g n i t y to the f i g u r e s . ' 5 2 Flaxman a l s o sketched e x t e n s i v e l y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t here i s the v a r i e t y of the type and s t y l e of m o t i f s he s e l e c t e d . F i g u r e 16 i s a study from l i f e rendered i n a manner s u g g e s t i v e of the Homer designs with i t s pure o u t l i n e and p a r a l l e l h a t c h i n g i n the background. F i g u r e 17 i s Flaxman's sketch of a d e t a i l of S i g n o r e l l i ' s B a t t l e of the Nudes ( F i g u r e 18) i n the Duomo i n O r v i e t o . 5 3 The r e d u c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l to o u t l i n e with only s l i g h t shading and the e l i m i n a t i o n of the background has 34 given that sketch a two dimensional aspect that i s not s t r e s s e d i n S i g n o r e l l i ' s v e r s i o n . Flaxman has a l s o a l t e r e d and c o r r e c t e d the anatomy of the f i g u r e s . In a t h i r d s ketch, t h i s of an antique r e l i e f i n the V a t i c a n d e p i c t i n g the B a t t l e of the  Amazons, ( F i g u r e 19), Flaxman has again reduced the f i g u r e s to s l i g h t o u t l i n e p e n c i l l i n e s . These sketches from v a r i e d sources, with f i g u r e s i n v a r i e d poses but with l i t t l e d e t a i l , are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Flaxman's attempts to accumulate images that c o u l d be reasembled i n new compositions. On h i s p e r e g r i n a t i o n s about I t a l y , Flaxman came i n t o c o n t a c t with a s e v e r a l members of the a r t i s t i c community. In a l e t t e r to h i s parents from 1790 he commented, 'I have been t r e a t e d with p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n by most of the a r t i s t s of the f i r s t eminence, both Englishmen and f o r e i g n e r s ' . 5 4 A number became such good f r i e n d s t h a t they c o n t r i b u t e d sketches to one of Flaxman's s k e t c h b o o k s . 5 5 Among them were C h a r l e s P e r c i e r who Flaxman d e s c r i b e d as 'a French a r c h i t e c t of the f i r s t t a l e n t ' . 5 6 The French landscape p a i n t e r Ducros c o n t r i b u t e d a w a t e r colour. The Flaxman's c i r c l e of f r i e n d s a l s o i n c l u d e d the I r i s h por-t r a i t - p a i n t e r Hugh Douglas H a m i l t o n , 5 7 the E n g l i s h H i s t o r y P a i n t e r Guy Head, and the I t a l i a n s c u l p t o r Antonio Canova. And he wrote a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r James P l a y f a i r , 5 8 the E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t , to S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton, the B r i t i s h Ambassador to the Court at Naples, with whom Flaxman had been acquainted f o r some time. In 1790 Flaxman corresponded with Hamilton, as k i n g him f o r 'some few p a r t i c u l a r s of the Greek 35 s t o r i e s represented on these b e a u t i f u l Etrusean vases which you have added to your c o l l e c t i o n s i n c e I was l a s t at Naples and which I have so great a l o n g i n g to s e e . ' 5 9 H i s most important s c u l p t u r a l commission was the Fury of Athamas ( F i g u r e 20) which came on the recommendation of h i s f r i e n d Antonio Canova, and l e d to the commissions f o r the Homeric d e s i g n s . The p r e c i s e h i s t o r y of the Homeric commissions was recounted by Flaxman i n 1824 to h i s f r i e n d the a r c h i t e c t C h a r l e s Robert C o c k e r e l l who recorded t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n i n h i s d i a r y : Flaxman had r e c e i v e d L600 f o r the composition of Athamas i n 1790 but the marble, time and expenses ( s i c ) had c o s t so much that t h i s work "had beggared him" ( h i s own phrase) [;] he was glad being thus named to accept the p r o p o s i t i o n to execute the designs of Homer f o r Mr. [Hare-]Naylor. Flaxman composed the Dante at Mr. Hope's i n v i t a t i o n . 6 0 Indeed The Fury of Athamas had not been a f i n a n c i a l success but Flaxman had an u l t e r i o r motive. He wrote to Romney i n A p r i l of 1790 e x p r e s s i n g the hope that the work 'might e s t a b l i s h my r e p u t a t i o n as a s c u l p t o r ' . 6 ! In a l e t t e r , w r i t t e n to h i s parents i n October of the same year, he was even more s p e c i f i c : ' i f I ever expect to be employed on great works, i t i s but reasonable that I should show the world some proof of ray a b i l i t i e s , otherwise I cannot reasonably expect employment of that k i n d , ' 6 2 . In f a c t , i t was on Flaxman's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the commission had grown from what Lord B r i s t o l wanted - a f i v e f o o t by e i g h t or nine f o o t b a s - r e l i e f based on an e x i s t i n g t e r r a c o t t a - to the f r e e s t a n d i n g f o u r f i g u r e group over seven f e e t t a l l 36 Flaxman f i n a l l y d e l i v e r e d . As he worked on the Athamas i t became obvious that h i s other a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d not support the c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n . He was f o r c e d t o ask f o r more money but only L100 i n a d d i t i o n to the o r i g i n a l l y agreed upon L500 was forthcoming. By comparison, f o r the r a t h e r more s u c c e s s f u l Lord M a n s f i e l d monument of 1794 ( F i g u r e 21). Flaxman's s c u l p t o r ' s f ee alone was L 2 0 0 0 . 6 3 Flaxman was c e r t a i n l y aware of the importance of c o s t s . The concept f o r a monument f o r the poet W i l l i a m C o l l i n s ( F i g u r e 22) was abandoned f o r the l e s s expensive one Flaxman d e l i v e r e d ( F i g u r e 2 3 ) . 6 4 Lord B r i s t o l had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r being " e c c e n t r i c and mean" 8 5 and had t r e a t e d other a r t i s t s r a t h e r s h a b b i l y . For example, i n 1778 the a r c h i t e c t John Soane a r r i v e d i n Rome to begin a p e r i o d of study only to leave prematurely i n the f o l l o w i n g year l u r e d away by Lord B r i s t o l ' s promise of the commission f o r h i s new mansion at Ickworth. When Soane ret u r n e d Lord B r i s t o l f a i l e d to honour h i s p r o m i s e . 6 6 Soane was never to resume h i s I t a l i a n s t u d i e s . In Flaxman's case, i t would seem that Lord B r i s t o l was t a k i n g advantage of the s c u l p t o r ' s d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f to guarantee the completion of the p r o j e c t . For a l l h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e to Flaxman's f i n a n c i a l p l i g h t , Lord B r i s t o l d i d not h e s i t a t e t o p r a i s e the man or h i s work. A f t e r a l l , no l e s s a f i g u r e than Antonio Canova had suggested t h a t Flaxman was capable of d e l i v e r i n g e x c e l l e n t w ork. 6 7 Furthermore, Lord B r i s t o l mentioned i n a l e t t e r to Lady Erne 37 that he had sent a message to Flaxman's f a t h e r s a y i n g that the young man would ' r i s e t o be the f i r s t s c u l p t o r i n E u r o p e ' . 6 8 He hoped he was g e t t i n g Flaxman's g r e a t e s t work j u s t b e f o r e the s c u l p t o r ' s name became a household word. To have purchased such a major work, the product of three years work, f o r only 600 guineas would have demonstrated Lord B r i s t o l ' s b u s i n e s s acumen as w e l l as h i s r e f i n e d t a s t e s . Indeed, he p e r s o n i f i e d Reynolds' o b s e r v a t i o n that 'there i s a general d e s i r e among our N o b i l i t y to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as l o v e r s and judges of the A r t s ' , 6 9 As i t t r a n s p i r e d The Fury of Athamas was an a r t i s t i c f a i l u r e , i n no s m a l l p a r t because i t i s r e a l l y only compre-h e n s i b l e when viewed from the one s i d e shown i n F i g u r e 20. But even then i t s dramatic impact i s subdued and the f a c e s of the f i g u r e s p a s s i o n l e s s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s seem c u r i o u s l y d i v o r c e d from the a c t i o n . One might imagine that as Flaxman t o i l e d on, without compensation, h i s enthusiasm was s i m i l a r l y d i v o r c e d from the work. Flaxman's r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Hare-Naylors, who com-missioned the Homer designs, c o u l d not have been more d i f f e r e n t . They were not simply f e l l o w v i s i t o r s to I t a l y but p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s . Mrs. Hare-Naylor embroidered a c a r p e t f o r the F l a x m a n s 7 0 and Flaxman's s i s t e r was the governess of the Hare-Naylor's f o u r sons.71 The Hare-Naylor's f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n d i d not permit them to g i v e Flaxman an o u t r i g h t g i f t without at l e a s t the hope of a r e t u r n and had they o f f e r e d him a loan Flaxman 38 probably would have r e f u s e d . He had been very r e l u c t a n t to accept money from Romney to a s s i s t with expenses f o r h i s t r i p to Rome and only agreed to accept money i n exchange f o r c a s t s . 7 2 Flaxman had a l r e a d y demonstrated h i s t a l e n t s as a draughts-man. As e a r l y as 1788 he had r e l a t e d t h at 'my drawings have s u r p r i s e d some of the best E n g l i s h a r t i s t s here ( i n Rome), who thought they were copied from the s t o r i e s on Greek v a s e s ' . 7 3 Apparently even at t h i s time he was able to take s u b j e c t s from l i f e , a r t works a n c i e n t and modern, and e x p r e s s l y from Greek vases and produce from them o r i g i n a l drawings r e m i n i s c e n t of the l i n e drawings on a n c i e n t vases. F u r t h e r , h i s words 'copied from the s t o r i e s on Greek vases' suggest t h a t h i s drawings were being a s s o c i a t e d with passages from a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e . The t e x t s Mr. Hare-Naylor proposed t h a t Flaxman should i l l u s t r a t e , the I l i a d and Odyssey, a l s o o f f e r e d a promise of success s i n c e the e p i c n a r r a t i v e s had i n s p i r e d a number of s i g n i f i c a n t works i n the second h a l f of the 18th Century. In the course of i n v e s t i g a t i n g over 300 works based on s u b j e c t s from the I l i a d , Dora Wiebenson found that w h ile over 200 date from the p e r i o d 1750 to 1825 fewer than 40 are from the preceeding three c e n t u r i e s . 7 4 She i d e n t i f i e d two f a c t o r s t hat c o n t r i b u t e d to the sudden i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a r i t y . The f i r s t f a c t o r i s a change i n a t t i t u d e of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s toward the Homeric e p i c s . Before 1750, they censured "Homer's common language, long d i g r e s s i o n s which l e f t h i s poems with l i t t l e formal s t r u c t u r e , h i s r e a l i s t i c and v u l g a r 39 d e s c r i p t i o n s , o r d i n a r y , u n i d e a l a c t i o n s and unheroic heroes, and the l a c k of a l l e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the poems". 7 5 The v i g o u r of h i s n a r r a t i v e was ignored by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c and a r t i s t a l i k e such t h a t , on the r a r e o c c a s i o n s when Homeric s u b j e c t s were d e p i c t e d , emphasis was p l a c e d on d i d a c t i c purpose r a t h e r than a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t e x t . The most notable s e r i e s of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d , e i g h t t a p e s t r y designs by Rubens ( c . 1630), focused on a d e p i c t i o n of the l i f e of A c h i l l e s not on a r e c o u n t i n g of the events of the T r o j a n War. Included are a Wrath of A c h i l l e s ( c f . Flaxman's Minerva Repressing  the Fury of A c h i l l e s ( I l i a d 2, F i g u r e 37)) and the e a r l i e s t known Return of B r i s e i s (not i l l u s t r a t e d by Flaxman). The p a i n t e r has used Homer's w e l l known c h a r a c t e r s to present v i s u a l metaphors of two themes — the i n f l u e n c e of the gods upon men and the dominance of l o v e . 7 6 In the f i r s t h a l f of the 18th century d i d a c t i c purpose was subordinated to s p e c t a c u l a r v i s u a l image. In h i s v e r s i o n of the Wrath of A c h i l l e s (one of t h r e e designs f o r G o b e l i n s t a p e s t r i e s 7 7 (1721-1725)) Antoine Coypel separates mortals and goddess by p l a c i n g Minerva i n a c l o u d o n l y v i s i b l e to A c h i l l e s ; yet, c o n s i s t a n t with works of the p e r i o d , the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s i n the a c t i o n are l o c a t e d i n an expansive landscape completed with f o l i a g e , s h i p s i n a harbour and a f u l l y d e s c r i b e d m i l i t a r y encampment populated by many c o l o r f u l l y costumed f i g u r e s . The second f a c t o r i n the i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y of Homeric s u b j e c t s was the p u b l i c a t i o n of Tableaux tir£s de I ' I l i a d , de 40 I'0dyss6e d'Homere et de l ' E n e i d e de V i r g l l e , avec des observa- t i o n s g£nerales sur l e costume i n 1757. I t s author, the Comte de Caylus, c o n s i d e r e d at l e n g t h how and which scenes might be used to s u c c e s s f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e the e p i c s . T h i s a n a l y t i c a l work suggested, f o r example, that as B r i s e i s departure was a consequence of the same event t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d A c h i l l e s ' wrath the two images should l o g i c a l l y appear t o g e t h e r . In a d d i t i o n , by p a i r i n g them, both the p u b l i c o f f i c i a l and the p r i v a t e domestic s i d e s of the hero's c h a r a c t e r c o u l d be exposed. Before de Caylus' Tableaux the s u b j e c t s had been a s s o c i a t e d o n l y once but a f t e r 1757 they were rendered together o f t e n . Among the a r t i s t s who d i d so were: G i a m b a t t i s t a T i e p o l o f o r h i s Valmarana s e r i e s p a i n t e d i n 1757 only a few months a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Tableaux,78 Tobias S e r g e i i n the 1760's, 7 9 J.H. T i s c h b e i n i n the 1770's,80 Joseph-Marie V i e n , de Caylus' prot£g6, i n the 1780*s, 8 1 and Flaxman i n the 1790's. While each c o n t a i n s d e t a i l s i n s p i r e d by de C a y l u s , 8 2 Flaxman's ( I l i a d 2 and 3, F i g u r e s 37 and 35 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) are set a p a r t from a l l p r e v i o u s treatments as he r e v e a l e d A c h i l l e s c h a r a c t e r u s i n g fewer f i g u r e s i n simple f r i e z e - l i k e compositions with v i r t u a l l y no s e t t i n g . , Wiebenson a l s o r e c a l l s de Caylus' a c t i v i t i e s i n a movement "which s t r e s s e d a r e t u r n to the c l a s s i c a l i d e a l s of 17th century French a r t , n o t a b l y to the a r t of Poussin."83 i t was from engravings of t h i s a r t i s t ' s works that Gavin Hamilton d e r i v e d the compositions f o r at l e a s t three of h i s works — 41 Hector's F a r e w e l l , Priam and A c h i l l e s and Andromache Mourning. A f o u r t h work A c h i l l e s Dragging Hector's Body around the Walls  of Troy ( F i g u r e 53) i s based on an engraving by P l e t r o T e s t a a member of Poussin's c i r c l e i n Rome. Years b e f o r e Flaxman had borrowed a scene of the s u b j e c t from an antique gem i l l u s t r a t e d i n G o r i ' s Museum E t r u s c u m 8 4 to produce a Jasperware design f o r Wedgwood but he chose not to r e v i v e i t f o r the Homer commission. Instead, he used an engraving f o r Hamilton's p a i n t i n g as a model f o r h i s Hectors ( s i c ) Body Dragged at the Car of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 36 ( F i g u r e 38). There was a l r e a d y a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d market f o r d e p i c t i o n s of the a n c i e n t world with the steady flow of people through Rome on the Grand T o u r . 8 5 Flaxman h i m s e l f had found P i r a n e s i ' s images of Rome an added i n c e n t i v e to t r a v e l t h e r e . The t o u r i s t s were a c t i v e l y engaged i n c o l l e c t i n g a n t i q u i t i e s and d e p i c t i o n s of a n c i e n t a r t . Flaxman was w e l l acquainted with them, a c t i n g as a guide t o s i t e s of a n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t with such frequency t h a t , as Mrs. Flaxman wrote to her s i s t e r , the v i s i t o r s 'almost h u r r i e d him o f f h i s l e g s ' . 8 6 T h i s c o n t a c t was not without e f f e c t . He wrote t o h i s f a t h e r 'I f i n d from what I see of the E n g l i s h n o b i l i t y and gentry here that the t a s t e i n c r e a s e s i n England f o r p l a s t e r c a s t s as w e l l as other a r t i c l e s of s c u l p -t u r e ' . 8 7 A c c o r d i n g l y he suggested t h a t Flaxman Sr. i n c r e a s e h i s stock of c a s t s . Flaxman, with Hare-Naylor, must have b e l i e v e d that newly c r e a t e d c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d designs would be an a t t r a c t i v e supplement to the c o l l e c t i n g p r o c l i v i t i e s of 42 the Grand T o u r i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the s u b j e c t matter were f a m i l i a r , the form a p p r o p r i a t e and the volumes a f f o r d a b l e . At t h i s j u n c t u r e , i t would seem a p p r o p r i a t e to note the circumstances that surrounded Flaxman's a s s o c i a t i o n with Thomas Hope and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s Dante commission which entered i n t o h i s l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n s with C o c k e r e l l . Flaxman's a s s o c i a t i o n with Thomas Hope had begun some years b e f o r e the Dante designs were even c o n s i d e r e d . In the winter of 1789-90 Flaxman had been working on a group t i t l e d Aurora v i s i t i n g Cephalus on Mount Ida ( F i g u r e 24) which was o r i g i n a l l y t o be c a s t i n bronze but f i n a l l y executed i n marble.88 I t was to be the f o c a l p o i n t of a s o - c a l l e d Flaxman or S t a r room i n Hope's then newly f u r n i s h e d house i n Duchess S t r e e t i n London. A good i n d i c a t i o n of how the room was to be arranged with the s c u l p t u r e and other works i s shown i n the 1807 e d i t i o n of Hope's Household F u r n i t u r e ( F i g u r e 25). In 1792 Hope advanced Flaxman L341 of an a n t i c i p a t e d L700 f o r an as yet unexecuted r e c r e a t i o n of an a n c i e n t group to be based upon the Torso Belvedere89 a n c j to r e p r e s e n t the marriage of H e r c u l e s and Hebe. The work was never attemped, as intended, i n a marble comparable to that of the o r i g i n a l Torso Belvedere. Apparently Flaxman f e l t h i s design c o u l d not be s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o stone.90 He may w e l l have been c o r r e c t . A conspicuous f a u l t i n the s u r v i v i n g p l a s t e r model ( F i g u r e 26) i s that the f i g u r e of Hebe i s so d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y small that she appears to be a young g i r l r a t h e r than a b r i d e of H e r c u l e s . 43 At l e a s t two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s had prompted Hope to commission the Dante i l l u s t r a t i o n s . H i s i n t e n t i o n , on the one hand, was to g i v e engraved v e r s i o n s t o c l o s e f r i e n d s as g i f t s . T h i s i d e a of a very p e r s o n a l and expensive g i f t was not new. Wedgewood had provided Jasperware p o r t r a i t medalions of i n -d i v i d u a l s f o r s i m i l a r d i s p o s i t i o n while Flaxman was i n h i s employ.91 There had a l s o been an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n Dante i n England. As r e c e n t l y as 1781 Thomas Warton had p u b l i s h e d h i s H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Poetry i n which Dante's genius had been explo r e d and W i l l i a m Hayley had c o n s i d e r e d the poet's work i n Triumph of Temper and h i s Essay on E p i c Poetry. In the same year Henry Boyd pr o v i d e d the f i r s t E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the D i v i n e Comedy." I t was t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n which was to p r o v i d e the E n g l i s h t e x t to Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s . J u s t as there had been l i t t l e l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m to which he c o u l d r e f e r there was a l s o very l i t t l e s p e c i f i c contemporary p i c t o r i a l imagery f o r Flaxman to use f o r i n s p i r a t i o n . P r i o r to Flaxman's undertaking the Dante Commission the most recent s e r i e s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the D i v i n e Comedy was the l a t e 15th Century c o l l e c t i o n by Sandro B o t t i c e l l i . 9 3 As these designs were a l s o rendered i n the l i n e they would have been of obvious i n t e r e s t t o Flaxman. However, the B o t t i c e l l i manuscript vanished i n the 16th Century only to reappear i n 1803 i n a S c o t t i s h c o l l e c t i o n . 9 4 while i t i s u n l i k e l y t h at Flaxman had access to t h i s I t a l i a n ' s work i t i s p o s s i b l e that both a r t i s t s c o n s u l t e d a common source, I t a l i a n l a t e G o t h i c i l l u m i n a t e d 44 manuscripts of the D i v i n e Comedy over t h i r t y of which s u r v i v e . y £ ) Rather unexpectedly, i n 1773, Reynolds became the f i r s t a r t i s t to e x h i b i t a Dante s u b j e c t at the Royal Academy, an U g o l i n o . S i m i l a r l y , when Antonio Z a t t a p u b l i s h e d an i l l u s t r a t e d e d i t i o n of the D i v i n e Comedy i n Venice i n 1757 i t was the f i r s t s i n c e 1 5 9 6. 9 6 The dearth or works a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y with Dante to which Flaxman c o u l d r e f e r meant t h a t he was f o r c e d to r e l y upon h i s own r e s o u r c e s . Thus, perhaps f o r the l a c k of a v a i l a b l e p i c t o r i a l p r e c e n t s , the Dante designs became " h i s most c o n s i s -t e n t l y o r i g i n a l s e r i e s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . " 9 7 To r e t u r n to the s u b j e c t of the Homer designs, from Flaxman's p o i n t of view the commission had conspicuous advant-ages. I t c o u l d e x p l o i t the a r t i s t i c s k i l l s he had p r e v i o u s l y demonstrated. In 1792, he a p p a r e n t l y regarded design (as opposed execution of s c u l p t u r e , f o r example) as h i s most h i g h l y developed s k i l l . A f t e r h i s d i s c u s s i o n s with C o c k e r e l l the a r c h i t e c t noted that ' I t i s a great happiness to an a r t i s t to be c a l l e d i n t o a c t i o n by someone who knows he a p p r e c i a t e s h i s p a r t i c u l a r f o r t e ' , 9 8 No l e s s i m p o r t a n t l y Flaxman was to apply these s k i l l s to a s t o r y with which he was long f a m i l i a r . Mrs. Matthew had read the Homer s t o r i e s i n t r a n s l a t i o n to him. H i s f i r s t commission had been f o r drawing of Homeric s u b j e c t s f o r Jeremiah C r u t c h l e y a f r i e n d of the Matthews. The m a t e r i a l s and l a b o r c o s t s would be small compared with Flaxman's s c u l p t u r a l works. The d u r a t i o n of the work on the Homeric i l l u s t r a t i o n s was to be c o n s i d e r a b l y shortened because the 45 f i n a l v e r s i o n s were to be engraved and presented f o r s a l e by someone e l s e , the engraver Thomas P i r o l i . E x p e d i t i n g P i r o l i ' s task, the designs were to be p u b l i s h e d as books of engravings d i s p e n s i n g with the need f o r s e c u r i n g the r i g h t s to an accom-panying t e x t on t r a n s l a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the chosen form, l i n e engraving, was, as S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton had noted i n h i s C o l l e c t i o n of Vases of 1791, an inexpen s i v e form of i l l u s t r a t i o n . For a l l those i n v o l v e d , Hare-Naylor, Flaxman, and P i r o l i , the p r o j e c t promised an e a r l y and s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n . 4 6 NOTES TO THE TEXT CHAPTER I I 6 John Thomas, 'John Flaxman, R.A. (1755-1826)', J o u r n a l  of the Royal S o c i e t y of A r t s , (9th December 1955), p.43 R.Gunnis, D i c t i o n a r y of B r i t i s h S c u l p t o r s (London 1953; and r e v i s e d e d i t i o n 1968) g i v e s as complete a biography as i s p o s s i b l e f o r John Flaxman Sr whose c a r e e r was almost completely overshadowed by h i s son's. Flaxman's s i s t e r - i n - l a w Maria Denman s a i d i n The B u i l d e r (24 January 1863) p. 60 that Flaxman r e c e i v e d no t r a i n i n g . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s A l l a n Cunningham, L i v e s of the Most  Eminent B r i t i s h P a i n t e r s S c u l p t o r s and A r c h i t e c t s , 2nd e d i t i o n . (London, 1830-1833) v o l . I l l p. 61. Noted by Irwin op. c i t . p. 213 f n 26. For the most complete c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Rev. and Mrs. Mathew see G e r a l d B e n t l e y , 'Patron of Flaxman and Blake,' Notes  and Q u e r i e s , 203, 1958, pp. 168-178. George -Smith The D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography ed. S i r L e s l i e Stephen and S i r Sidney Lee (London, 1938), v o l . I l l p.1104. I b i d . , v o l IV p.59. 7 I b i d . , v o l XIII p.688. 8 I b i d . , v o l XIII p.688. 9 I b i d . , v o l XIII p.689. 1 0 The f i r s t p a tron of Flaxman as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t was probably Edward Knight s e n i o r c o u s i n of R i c h a r d Payne Knight. See E l l a Hendricks, 'The F i r s t p atron of John Flaxman' B u r l i n g t o n Magazine October 1984 pp. 618-625. Mr. C r u t c h l e y ' s s i x b l a c k chalk drawings are now l o s t . Irwin op. c i t . , p. 220, n. 51. 1 1 W i l l i a m Hayley, Memoirs (London 1823). I. p.309. 1 2 MSS, P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y , New York, Flaxman to Hagley, 24 August 1803. 1 3 J . Romney, Memoirs of George Romney (London 1830), p.203. 1 4 Sidney C. Hutchison The H i s t o r y of the Royal Academy  1768-1968 (London, 1968); James Northcote, Esq. The  L i f e of S i r Joshua Reynolds (London, 1818) p. 164 f f . 47 1 5 Sidney C. Hutchison, 'The Royal Academy Schools, 1768-1830', Walpole S o c i e t y , XXXVIII, 1960-1962, p.134. 16 S i r Joshua Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e s on A r t ed. Robert R. Wark (San Marino, C a l i f o r n i a , 1959) D i s c o u r s e II 11.18ff. 1 7 Hutchison op. c i t . , p.102. 1 9 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 23-27. 2 0 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e IV, 11. 27-33. 2 1 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 45-47. 2 2 Sidney C. Hutchison, The H i s t o r y of the Royal Academy  1768-1968 (London, 1968) p. 237. 2 3 * Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 242-246. 2 4 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 256-265. 2 5 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 103-105. 2 6 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e IV, 11. 167-171. 2 7 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I , 11. 97-99. 2 8 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e V, 11. 312-316. 2 9 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I , 11. 188-191. 3 0 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 355-361. 3 1 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I , 11. 184-185. 3 2 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e V, 11. 70-75. 3 3 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e V, 11. 45-52. 3 4 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e IV, 11. 34-36. 3 5 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 300-301. 3 6 Wedgwood to B e n t l e y 14 January 1775 i n E. Meteyard, L i f e  of Wedgwood (London 1865-1866), II p. 321. 3 7 Wedgwood to Ben t l e y 9 J u l y 1776 i n Meteyard, op. c i t . , II p. 366. 3 8 Wedgwood to Bentley, 14 February 1776 i n Constable, op. c i t . , p. 10. 48 3 9 Wedgwood to Flaxman, 11 February 1790, i n Meteyard, op. c i t . , p. 589. 4 0 The whole i s s u e of i n d u s t r y drawing upon a n c i e n t works f o r i n s p i r a t i o n was co n s i d e r e d by David Irwin, "Neo-c l a s s i c a l Design: Industry Plunders A n t i q u i t y " , A p o l l o ns 96: pp.283-297. 4 1 Noted i n a l e t t e r Wedgwood t o B e n t l e y 7 September 1771 i n F i n e r and Savage op. c i t . , p. 114. * 4 2 Constable, op. c i t . , p.7. 4 3 Wedgwood to Ben t l e y 14 January 1775 i n Constable, op. c i t . , p. 8. 4 4 Joseph Burke, E n g l i s h A r t 1714-1800 (Oxford, 1976), p. 259. 4 5 Constable, op. c i t . , p. 7. 4 6 W i l l i a m Hayley, The L i f e of George Romney Esq. (London, 1809) p.313 and J . Romney, op. c i t . , p. 4 7 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , MS. 39784, A., Flaxman account book e n t r i e s . 4 8 E. Meteyard op. c i t . , p. 506 i n c l u d e s a f a c s i m i l e of a l i s t w r i t t e n by Flaxman of the contents of a box of the Flaxmans sent by Wedgwood 'to the care of Mess, M i c a l i and Son Leghorn.' 4 9 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MSS. 39780 f . 38v, Flaxman to h i s parent s , from P a r i s 1 October 1787. 5 0 David Irwin, John Flaxman 1755-1826 (London, 1979), p. 31. 5 1 I b i d . , p 31 a l s o David Irwin, 'Flaxman: I t a l i a n J o u r n a l s and Correspondence' B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, C l (1959) pp. 212-213. 5 2 Quoted at l e n g t h by David Irwin, 'Flaxman I t a l i a n J o u r n a l s and Correspondence' as i n p r e v i o u s f o o t n o t e p. 213. 5 3 The correspondence of these two images i s noted i n David Irwin, John Flaxman 1755-1826 (London, 1979), p. 41. 5 4 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MS. 3 9 J 8 0 , f . 47v, Flaxman to parents, Rome, 26 January [-4790]. 49 John Murray L t d London, Flaxman sketchbook 435. Noted i n David Irwin, John Flaxman 1755-1826 (London, 1979), p. 49, 223 n.52 C o l l e c t i o n of Autograph l e t t e r s . . . A l f r e d M o r r i s o n .  Hamilton and Nelson papers, I L e t t e r 237. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MS. 39780, f . 179, Mrs. Flaxman to s i s t e r , [Rome], 22 J u l y 1788 wherein Hamilton i s d e s c r i b e d as Flaxman's 'best f r i e n d i n Rome.' Bo d l e i a n L i b r a r y , MSS. Autograph d. I I , f f . 319-20, Rome, 13 March 1792. Flaxman to S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton, undated [1790], p r i n t e d i n C o l l e c t i o n of Autograph l e t t e r s . . . A l f r e d M o r r i s o n . Hamilton and Nelson Papers (1893), I, L e t t e r 237. C h a r l e s Robert C o c k e r e l l , D i a r i e s , 27th November 1824. Flaxman t o Romney, Rome, 15 A p r i l 1790 i n J . Romney, op. c i t . , p 208. Flaxman to pare n t s , Rome, 7 October 1790 i n B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39780 f . 50. Sarah Symmons, The S p i r i t of Despair: Patronage, P r i m i t i v i s m and the A r t of John Flaxman', B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, CXVII, 1975, p. 647. The r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n would have c o s t about L225. The d e l i v e r e d one d i d co s t L90 D. Irwin John Flaxman 1755-1826 (London 1979), p 63. I b i d . , p. 54. P i e r r e de l a R u f f i n i e r e du Prey i n h i s John Soane's Arch- i t e c t u r a l E ducation 1753-80 (New York, 1977) has suggested t h a t Lord B r i s t o l might have been j u s t i f i e d i n h i s u l t i m a t e r e j e c t i o n of Soane's d e s i g n . Du Prey p o i n t e d out that the d i s p o s i t i o n of rooms would have made the mansion an "in c o n v e n i e n t hodgepodge" due mostly to the "tampering of the a r c h i t e c t - B i s h o p and h i s s e l f - o p i n i o n a t e d amanuen-s i s " , p.285 In a d d i t i o n , the b u i l d i n g seems t o have been designed with no p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i n mind. p.286. L e t t e r from Flaxman to Romney 15 A p r i l 1790 i n John Romney, Memoirs of the L i f e and Work of George Romney (London, 1830) pp. 204-207. 50 Lord B r i s t o l to Lady Erne, 26 March 1792 i n W i l l i a m S C h i l d e Pemberton, The E a r l Bishop [1924] V o l , I I , p. 439. Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I, 11. 30-32. Mrs G. Hare-Naylor to Mrs Flaxman 8 November 1794. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39781 f . 386. Irwin, op. c i t . , p. 138. W i l l i a m Hayley, The L i f e of George Romney, Esq. ( C h i c h e s t e r , 1809), p.313. Flaxman to Romney 25 May 1788 i n J . Romney op. c i t . , p. 204. Dora Wiebenson, "Subjects from Homer's I l i a d i n N e o c l a s s i c a l A r t " , A r t B u l l e t i n v.46, 1964; pp.23-37. I b i d . , p. 23. Kerry Downes, Rubens, (London, 1980), pp.90-2. Wiebenson, op. c i t . , p.25. The other two designs were a Hector's F a r e w e l l and A c h i l l e s ' Revenge. Michael Levey, " T i e p o l o ' s Treatment of the C l a s s i c a l S t o r y at the V i l l a Valmarana; A Study i n E i g h t e e n t h -century Iconography and A e s t h e t i c s , " J o u r n a l of the  Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , 1957, pp.298-317 notes t h a t i n the B r i t i s h Museum there i s a copy of the Tableaux which c o n t a i n s the book-plate of Consul Joseph Smith to which T i e p o l o may have acc e s s . In a d d i t i o n , the book was r e g i s t e r e d as approved at P a r i s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n August 3.1, 1756 and thus T i e p o l o may mave had time to study i t . p.302 f o o t n o t e . H a r a l d B r i s i n g , " S e r g e l s t e c h n i n g e r t i l l Homeros och V i r g i l i u s " , T i d s k r i f t f o r Konstvetenskap, 1917 dates the designs to 1766-1767. p.139. Wiebenson, op. c i t . , p. 25. V i e n p a i n t e d f i v e other s u b j e c t s i n the s e r i e s . They were: Venus Wounded (Salon 1775), Hector Reproaching  P a r i s (Salon 1779), Priam Departing f o r the Greek Camp (Salon 1783, A n g i e r s ) , Priam Return from the Greek Camp (Salon 1785) and Hector Departing (1786, Salon 1791, E p l n a l ) . Wiebenson, op. c i t . , pp. 25-27. 51 Wiebenson, op. c i t . , p.32. See Antonio Francesco G o r i , Museum Fl o r e n t i u m , I I , Gemmae  antiquae, F l o r e n c e , 1731-1732, p. 60, p i . xxv, no. 1. Flaxman's Wedgewood plague i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Roderick Cameron, "Flaxman et Wedgwood", L ' O e i l , May, 1959, p.54. U s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n s of the Grand Tourland i t s t o u r i s t are: W i l l i a m Edward Mead The Grand Tour i n the 18th Century (Boston and New York, 1914) and C h r i s t o p h e r H i b b e r t , The  Grand Tour (New York, 1969) Mrs. Flaxman to her s i s t e r Maria Denman [Rome] 24 A p r i l 1792. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39780 f . 53. Flaxman to parents [Rome] 3 March 1792 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Add. MS. 39780 f . 57. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MS.39780, f,47v, Flaxman to par e n t s , Rome, 26 January 1790. Flaxman based t h i s two f i g u r e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n on a sug g e s t i o n of d ' H a n c a r v i l l e . MSS. B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , Autog. d. 11,f.319, Flaxman to S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton, Rome, 13 March 1792. A f t e r A.W. von S c h l e g e l v i s i t e d Flaxman i n 1820's the German c r i t i c was promoted to i n c l u d e t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i n the 1828 e d i t i o n of h i s 1799 a r t i c l e . Schegel, op. c i t . , p.154. Robin R e i l l y and George Savage, Wedgwood the P o r t r a i t  M e d a l l i o n s , (London, 1973), p.29. Flaxman's designs f o r the D i v i n e Comedy have a l s o been used by other a r t i s t s . See V i c t o r Chan, "Blake, Goya, Flaxman, Romney, and F u s e l i : T r a n s c r i p t i o n s and Trans-formations of a Dantesque Image, A r t s Magazine, 55, May 1981, pp. 80-84. See Kenneth C l a r k , The Drawings by Sandro B o t t i c e l l i f o r  Dante's D i v i n e Comedy (London, 1976). Tate G a l l e r y , Henry F u s e l i 1741-1825 (London, 1975), p. 102. C l a r k , op. c i t . , pp. 12 f f . Irwin, op. c i t . , p.95. Irwin, op. c i t . , p.95. C . R . C o c k e r e l l , D i a r i e s 27 November 1824. 52 CHAPTER I I I Flaxman's wife Nancy wrote to her s i s t e r May on December 15, 1792 r e l a t i n g t h at her husband was very busy in' the daytime with commissioned s c u l p t u r e s and 'at home i n the Evenings - he i s employ'd and that c l o s e l y too - i n making a compleat ( s i c ) set of drawings from Dantes Heaven, H e l l , and Purgatory, c o n s i s t i n g of one hundred and ten - from which engravings are Making f o r Mr. Hope, a f t e r there (or r a t h e r going on at the same time) are a set of drawings from Homer's i l i a d and Oddyssey ( s i c ) - c o n s i s t i n g of 60 most b e a u t i f u l S u b j e c t s and as b e a u t i -f u l l y t r e a t e d - which a l s o he makes d u p l i c a t e s f o r Mr. Udney an Englishman - on which a l s o he makes d u p l i c a t e d f o r Mr. Naylor (Husband of the l a t e Bishop of S t . Asaph's Daughter) the which are a l s o Engraving here as Mr. Naylor means to p u b l i s h them on h i s r e t u r n to England [;] he has promis'd to g i v e us h a l f a dozen copies'.1 How Flaxman a c t u a l l y s e t Mr. N a y l o r ' s '60 most b e a u t i f u l s u b j e c t s and as b e a u t i f u l l y t r e a t e d ' on paper forms the s u b j e c t of t h i s chapter. Mrs. Flaxman's l e t t e r served not only to i n t r o d u c e the Homer designs to her f a m i l y but a l s o Flaxman's p a t r o n s . The s c u l p t o r ' s e a r l i e r a s s o c i a t i o n with Thomas Hope has a l r e a d y been reviewed. Mr. Udney was probably Robert F u l l e r t o n Udney (1722-1902) 2 a London merchant who traded to the East I n d i e s . Both he and h i s b r o t h e r John (1727-1800), E n g l i s h Consul to Venice, were a v i d c o l l e c t o r s of a r t . John i s known to have s u p p l i e d h i s b r o t h e r with works ot a r t but what h i s conne c t i o n ( i f any) might have been with the Homer commission i s unknown. The s u r v i v i n g Homer designs u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with Mr. Udney's name are those executed i n a shaded s t y l e (see F i g u r e 27) which i s markedly d i f f e r e n t from the simple l i n e engravings. In f a c t , t here seems to be no c o n c l u s i v e proof of t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . As an advanced c o l l e c t o r Robert Udney put an i d e n t i f y i n g ma rk3 on many of the works i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n , but t h i s does not appear on any of the Homer designs i n the shaded s t y l e . The t h i r d person i d e n t i f i e d i n Mrs. Flaxman's l e t t e r i s a "Mr. Naylor (Husband of the l a t e Bishop of S t . Asaph's Daugh-t e r ) " . I t was Mrs. Hare-Naylor who a p p a r e n t l y gave Flaxman the Homer commission. Georgianna S h i p l e y (Mrs. Hare-Naylor) daughter of Jonathan S h i p l e y , bishop of S t . Asaph, was accom-p l i s h e d i n modern languages, had s t u d i e d c l a s s i c s with her f a t h e r , and had p a i n t e d i n Reynolds's s t u d i o . While i n I t a l y she had devoted h e r s e l f to p a i n t i n g and had a l s o become a c l o s e f r i e n d of C l o t i l d a Tambroni, at the time, the famous female p r o f e s s o r of Greek. 4 Mrs. Hare-Naylor was a l s o a c o u s i n of the dowager Countess Spencer who was h e r s e l f to order a set of t h i r t y i l l u s t r a t i o n s which d e p i c t e d scenes from a l l seven s u r v i v i n g p l a y s of Aeschylus. Reducing Homer's e p i c poems wherein 'nothing i s c a s u a l , nothing i d l e or i r r e l a t i v e ' wherein 'every e x p r e s s i o n i s pregnant with meaning'5 to the 60 images capable of being engraved was a formidable achievement. Apparently the c h o i c e of what to i l l u s t r a t e was l e f t to Flaxman h i m s e l f . Mrs. 54 Flaxman's d e s c r i p t i o n 'a s e t of drawings from Homer's I l i a d and Oddyssey ( s i c ) - c o n s i s t i n g of 60 most b e a u t i f u l s u b j e c t s and as b e a u t i f u l l y t r e a t e d - ...'makes no mention of how the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s were to be chosen. There i s , f o r example, no i n d i c a t i o n t h at a viewer was to be a b l e to r e c r e a t e or i n f e r the e n t i r e s t o r i e s by Homer from the designs by Flaxman. In the end the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s was d i c t a t e d by the s t o r i e s to be i l l u s t r a t e d . Some whole books are represented by s i n g l e drawings. Although both the I l i a d and Odyssey are a s s o c i a t e d with the T r o j a n War, as s t o r i e s they develop along d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t l i n e s . The I l i a d recounts the events of 50 c o n s e c u t i v e days j u s t b e f o r e the end of the war. The s t o r y begins and moves c o n t i n u o u s l y to the end. T h i s sense of a p r o g r e s s i o n of events was w e l l r e c o g n i z e d i n the 18th Century as a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of poetry by such t h e o r i s t s as L e s s i n g who wrote: 'I m a i n t a i n the s u c c e s s i o n of time i s the department of the poet, as space i s that of the p a i n t e r ' . 6 Poetry by i t s very nature cannot present, f o r example, an instantaneous p i c t u r e of A c h i l l e s ' s h i e l d . L e s s i n g thus p r a i s e d Homer's mastery of poe t r y by w r i t i n g of the s h i e l d that ' i n more than a hundred s p l e n d i d l i n e s , [Homer] has d e s c r i b e d i t s m a t e r i a l s , i t s form, and a l l the f i g u r e s which f i l l e d i t s enormous s u r f a c e , so c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y and c l o s e l y , that modern a r t i s t s have not found i t d i f f i c u l t to produce a drawing of i t corresponding i n a l l p o i n t s ' . 7 Flaxman d i d p r e c i s e l y t h a t i n I l i a d 31 T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to 55 A c h i l l e s . While Homer, the poet, d e s c r i b e d i n Book XVIII of the I l i a d the process by which the s h i e l d was made Flaxman, the a r t i s t , showed i t as a f i n i s h e d a r t i c l e but by doing so l o s e s the sense of p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i o n . Flaxman was abl e to r e c r e a t e the sense of p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i o n s i n p i c t o r i a l images by employing two d e v i c e s . The f i r s t i s c o n s i s t e n t with L e s s i n g ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t ' i n great h i s t o r i c a l p i c t u r e s the s i n g l e moment i s almost always ex-tended...' 8 Flaxman f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d i n s i n g l e designs events which occur c o n s e c u t i v e l y i n the Homeric poem. In the I l i a d 31 f o r example, the act of T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to  A c h i l l e s i s combined with the moment A c h i l l e s f a l l s i n t o deepest g r i e f over the death of P a t r o c l u s . The second d e v i c e was to i n c l u d e i n i n d i v i d u a l drawings a l l u s i o n s t o past events and foreshadowings of the f u t u r e . The s e r i e s from I l i a d 29 t o 33 demonstrates t h i s . I l i a d 29 ( F i g u r e 28) d e p i c t s T h e t i s and  Eurynome r e c e i v i n g the i n f a n t Vulcan. I l i a d 30, Vulcan and  Chares R e c e i v i n g T h e t i s ( F i g u r e 29) r e a s s o c i a t e s the now grown Vulcan and T h e t i s as she requests new armour f o r A c h i l l e s . In I l i a d 31 T h e t i s p r e s e n t s the completed armour and c a l l s the g r i e v i n g A c h i l l e s t o arms. A c h i l l e s appears i n I l i a d 33 A c h i l l e s  Contending with the R i v e r s ( F i g u r e 30) having re t u r n e d to b a t t l e i n the very armour T h e t i s had d e l i v e r e d i n I l i a d 31. Flaxman thus captured the sense of c o n s e c u t i v e a c t i o n that c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t e x t of the I l i a d . N e i t h e r d e v i c e c o u l d have been a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g The Odyssey. 56 Homer's Odyssey recounts the adventures of Odysseus ( L a t i n U l y s s e s ) d u r i n g h i s 10 year voyage home to Greece a f t e r the f a l l of Troy. Spanning a decade, the s t o r y of n e c e s s i t y i s reduced to a few w e l l developed t a l e s which are separated temporally and p h y s i c a l l y . Flaxman responded to the e p i s o d i c nature of the s t o r y by f o c u s s i n g on a p a r t i c u l a r moment i n the i n d i v i d u a l adventure and avoided r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n s e c u t i v e events i n s i n g l e images. The r e s u l t i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s i n g l e themes and images of g r e a t e r dramatic i n t e n s i t y . To compare treatments i n the I l i a d and Odyssey s e r i e s , i n the former A c h i l l e s ' b r u t a l s l a u g h t e r of d e f e n s e l e s s men and animals (with limbs bound) i s only r e c a l l e d by t h e i r presence on P a t r o c l u s ' f u n e r a l pyre i n I l i a d 35 The Fun e r a l P i l e of P a t r o c l u s ( F i g u r e 31 while i n the King of the L e s t r i g e n s s e i z i n g one of  the companions of U l y s s e s , Odyssey 15, the b r u t a l g i a n t i s shown i n the much more u n s e t t l i n g image as he i s about to hack to p i e c e s a d e f e n s e l e s s or overpowered member of U l y s s e s ' crew ( F i g u r e 32). The r e s u l t of the d i f f e r i n g approach i s that none of the I l i a d designs seem to have as d i r e c t a s e n t i m e n t a l appeal as U l y s s e s and H i s Dog, Odyssey 26 ( F i g u r e 33), f o r example, or as a f f e c t i n g an image as U l y s s e s T e r r e f i e d ( s i c )  by the Ghosts, I l i a d 17 ( F i g u r e 34) where the s h r i e k s of the tormented go unheard by a l l but the t e r r i f i e d hero U l y s s e s . Pope had w r i t t e n of the c h a r a c t e r s i n Homer th a t 'no author has ever drawn so many, with so v i s i b l e and s u r p r i s i n g a v a r i e t y , or given us such l i v e l y and a f f e c t i n g impressions of 57 them. Every one has something so s i n g u l a r l y h i s own, t h a t no p a i n t e r c o u l d have d i s t i n g u i s h e d them more by t h e i r f e a t u r e s , than the poet has by t h e i r manners'. 9 Reynolds had advised the a r t i s t to c o n c e n t r a t e on one p a r t i c u l a r aspect of c h a r a c t e r i n a p a i n t i n g but the nature of Flaxman's p r o j e c t allowed him to present a person i n a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s each r e v e a l i n g some f a c e t of the c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . An example i s the goddess T h e t i s . Her c h a r a c t e r i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s i n which Flaxman p r e s e n t s her. She appears as a f o n d l i n g mother while r e c e i v i n g the i n f a n t Vulcan i n I l i a d 29 ( F i g u r e 28), humbled as she asks Vulcan's a s s i s t a n c e i n I l i a d 30 ( F i g u r e 29) and d u t i f u l l y c a l l i n g A c h i l l e s to arms i n I l i a d 31 ( F i g u r e 1). Flaxman added f u r t h e r v a r i e t y by having T h e t i s k n e e l , s i t and stand i n the r e s p e c t i v e designs to b e t t e r d i s p l a y the three d i f f e r e n t aspects of her c h a r a c t e r . By d i s p l a y i n g them i n three d i f f e r e n t designs Flaxman f o l l o w e d Pope's i d e a that 'one may indeed,make a hero as v a l i a n t as A c h i l l e s , as pious as AEneas, and as prudent as U l y s s e s . but i t i s a mere chimaera to imagine a hero that has the v a l o u r of A c h i l l e s , the p i e t y of AEneas, and the prudence of U l y s s e s , at one and the same time'.10 When Flaxman was r e q u i r e d to present the two Homeric heroes Pope had mentioned, A c h i l l e s and U l y s s e s , he l e f t the viewer with images that c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d aspects of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s . As drawn by Flaxman, A c h i l l e s the hero of the I l i a d appears i n a r a t h e r i n s i p i d , pensive pose i n I l i a d 58 3, The Departure of B r i s e i s from the Tent of A c h i l l e s ( F i g u r e 35), as the p r i n c e of p r i n c e s i n I l i a d 18, The Embassy to  A c h i l l e s ( F i g u r e 36), p r o s t r a t e d with t e a r f u l g r i e f I l i a d 31, T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s , and as the brave w a r r i o r I l i a d 33, A c h i l l e s Contending with the R i v e r s . He a l s o p r e s e n t s the darker s i d e of A c h i l l e s by d e p i c t i n g him i n u n c o n t r o l a b l e rage i n I l i a d 2, Minerva Repressing the Fury of A c h i l l e s ( F i g u r e 37) and d e s e c r a t i n g Hector's body, not once but twice, i n I l i a d 36 Hector's Body Dragged At the Car of A c h i l l e s ( F i g u r e 38) and I l i a d 34 Andromache F a i n t i n g on the Wall ( F i g u r e 39). Even Homer d e s c r i b e d these a c t s - a s 'unseemly d e e d , ' 1 1 and A c h i l l e s ' s i n c l u s i o n of human s a c r i f i c e s of P a t r o c l u s f u n e r a l pyre as ' e v i l d e e d s . ' 1 2 The Oxford C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y c h a r a c t e r i z e s A c h i l l e s as a 'magnificent b a r b a r i a n . ' Flaxman's designs p r e s e n t him as somewhat more b a r b a r i c than m a g n i f i c e n t and c e r t a i n l y not the ' v a l i a n t ' hero Pope f a n c i e d h i m . 1 3 U l y s s e s ' 1 4 c h a r a c t e r i s e x p l o r e d more f u l l y i n no fewer than 18 of the 34 designs of the Odyssey s e r i e s . He i s not merely a w a r r i o r who r e l i e d e x c l u s i v e l y upon h i s p h y s i c a l prowess but r a t h e r overcomes the t h r e a t of the S i r e n s by c a r e f u l l y p l a n n i n g ahead (Odyssey 19), escapes the Cyclops by h i s c l e v e r n e s s and l e a d e r s h i p (Odyssey 14), and wins to h i s cause the r e s i d e n t s of f o r e i g n lands by h i s diplomacy (Odyssey 12). U l y s s e s i s indeed the exemplar f o r a l l men.15 Having fought through the T r o j a n war and s u r v i v e d h i s voyage home he appears i n only one design of tremendous v i o l e n c e and that when he s l a u g h t e r s the 59 s u i t o r s , i n Odyssey 31, U l y s s e s K i l l i n g the S u i t o r s ( F i g u r e 40), at the c l i m a t i c c o n c l u s i o n of h i s r e t u r n home. As he endeavoured to r e l a t e the Homeric s t o r i e s and the c h a r a c t e r s of t h e i r c h i e f f i g u r e s , Flaxman was e v i d e n t l y i n s p i r e d by p a r t i c u l a r passages. The g r i s a i l l e sketch i n F i g u r e 27 i n c l u d e s the Homeric t e x t and a t r a n s l a t i o n perhaps by Flaxman h i m s e l f . I 6 H i s i n t e r e s t i n the o r i g i n a l Greek t e x t s had been s u f f i c i e n t to prompt him to purchase a l e x i c o n i n 1790.17 Although i n England there had been a v a r i e t y of t r a n s l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the W i l l i a m Cowper v e r s i o n s p u b l i s h e d i n 1791 when Flaxman was i n Rome, the Alexander Pope t r a n s l a t i o n remained the most a t t r a c t i v e . In the Gentleman's Magazine, to which Flaxman had submitted a l e t t e r r e g a r d i n g Roman costume,! 8 a c o n t r i b u t o r had compared the notes i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s by Cowper and Pope. Cowper's were not 'without a c o n s i d e r a b l e share of j u d i c i o u s sentiment and e x p l a n a t i o n ' while 'Mr. Pope has many w e l l w r i t t e n notes [which] are c h i e f l y h i s t o r i c a l ' . 1 9 The a d j e c t i v e ' h i s t o r i c a l ' may be somewhat m i s l e a d i n g . The t o p i c s covered o f t e n i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n s of the nature of p o e t r y and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . Pope wrote: "The q u e s t i o n i s , how f a r a poet, i n pursuing the d e s c r i p t i o n of image of an a c t i o n , can a t t a c h h i m s e l f to l i t t l e c ircumstances, without v u l g a r i t y or t r i f l i n g ? What p a r t i c u l a r are proper, and e n l i v e n the image; or what are i m p e r t i n e n t , and c l o g i t ? i n t h i s matter p a i n t i n g i s to be c o n s u l t e d , and the whole regard had to those circumstances, which c o n t r i b u t e to form a f u l l , and yet not confused i d e a of a thing."20 The q u e s t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d here seem f a m i l i a r when compared with Reynold's t h e o r e t i c a l statements. Reynolds' t o l d h i s students 60 that the a r t i s t should 'get above a l l s i n g u l a r forms, l o c a l customs, p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s and d e t a i l s of every k i n d ' . 2 1 Mere embellishment c o u l d only serve 'to d i v i d e the a t t e n t i o n ' . 2 2 I t s appeal to the mind r a t h e r than the eye e n t i t l e d p a i n t i n g 'to the name of a L i b e r a l A r t ' and to a rank 'as a s i s t e r of p o e t r y ' . 2 3 Although Mrs. Flaxman d i d not s p e c i f y t h at the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n s of her husband's designs f o r the I l i a d and Odyssey were to be l i n e engravings, there seemed to be no doubt t h a t t h i s was to be the u l t i m a t e form. From the e a r l i e s t sketches to the f i n a l v e r s i o n s (those most c l o s e l y resembling the p u b l i s h e d engravings) the designs are recorded as l i n e drawings. Flaxman r a r e l y i n t r o d u c e d shading, backgrounds, f i g u r e s or the i n t r i c a t e d e c o r a t i o n common on an c i e n t vases only to remove them i n l a t e r s k etches. He u s u a l l y s t a r t e d with a b a s i c i d e a f o r each scene and developed i t . The e v o l u t i o n of Minerva Repressing the Fury of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2 ( F i g u r e 37) demonstrates the process Flaxman f o l l o w e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of a design s i n c e there s u r v i v e s e v e r a l p r e l i m i n a r y sketches and the g r i s a i l l e r e n d e r i n g ( F i g u r e 27) f o r i t . In the l e a s t complete of the sketches ( F i g u r e 41) the f i g u r e of A c h i l l e s i s somewhat more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d than the other f i g u r e s , which are i n d i c a t e d only by the s c a n t e s t o u t l i n e s . In another sketch on the bottom of the same sheet a seated f i g u r e has been added and Minerva descending from the r i g h t has been more c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d while A c h i l l e s remains the most 61 c l e a r l y d e f i n e d f i g u r e . As Flaxman approached a f i n a l s o l u t i o n he proceeded to t e s t a v a r i e t y of poses f o r A c h i l l e s b e f o r e f i n a l l y choosing the one he regarded as most a p p r o p r i a t e ( F i g u r e 42). Another sketch ( F i g u r e 43) r e v e a l s that he c o n s i d e r e d having A c h i l l e s l o o k i n g over h i s l e f t shoulder at the descending Minerva. In a v e r s i o n which i s ap p a r e n t l y r e l a t e d to g r i s a i l l e s k e tch i n F i g u r e 27 A c h i l l e s appears to be almost s t r i d i n g out of the p i c t u r e plane toward the viewer ( F i g u r e 44). H i s arm i s r a i s e d and h i s sword h a l f drawn i n f r o n t of h i s c h e s t . N e i t h e r of these poses were seemed s u i t a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the f i n a l engraved s e r i e s , perhaps because Flaxman c o n s i d e r e d them to be too three d i m e n s i o n a l . In the f i n a l engraved v e r s i o n ( F i g u r e 37) A c h i l l e s stands, h i s fa c e turned to the other f i g u r e s and away from Minerva, and h i s le g s wide spread but p a r a l l e l to the p i c t u r e plane. A l s o h i s arm i s r a i s e d above h i s head i n a way that s t r e s s e s the two dimensional q u a l i t y of the composition. The s e r i e s of sketches f o r Minerva Repressing the Fury of  A c h i l l e s f u r t h e r suggests t h a t Flaxman composed the p i c t u r e by accumulating and ar r a n g i n g i n d i v i d u a l cameo-like f i g u r e s i n p o s i t i o n s t h a t would balance the whole composition. By f o l l o w i n g t h i s method he co u l d and d i d a r r i v e at l e a s t the two d i f f e r e n t f i n a l v e r s i o n s a l r e a d y mentioned: the engraved, with three seated and two sta n d i n g f i g u r e s on the l e f t , and the g r i s a i l l e , with two seated and three s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s on the l e f t . Both e x h i b i t a common f a u l t t h a t seems to be inhe r e n t i n h i s com-p o s i t i o n a l method. I n d i v i d u a l elements of many designs seem 6 2 c u r i o u s l y separated from each other and sometimes even u n r e l a t e d to the a c t i o n s d e p i c t e d . For example, although t h e i r presence c o n t r i b u t e s to the balance of the composition i n the engraved v e r s i o n of Minerva Repressing the Fury of A c h i l l e s , the two stan d i n g f i g u r e s on the r e a r l e f t do not seem to be at a l l a f f e c t e d by A c h i l l e s ' f u r y . S i m i l a r l y , the seated f i g u r e nearest A c h i l l e s i s gazing b l a n k l y i n t o space. Yet Flaxman's agglomerative process was not i n v a r i a b l y suc-c e s s f u l . When most s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d i t allowed him to i n t e g r a t e f i g u r e s i n t o an a t t r a c t i v e composition. In Nausicaa  Throwing the B a l l , Odyssey 10 ( F i g u r e 45), f o r example, the f i g u r e s are arranged to present a balanced but v a r i e d composition i n which a l l the f i g u r e s are i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i o n . By c o n t r a s t , The S i r e n s , Odyssey 19 ( F i g u r e 46) has the appearance of two u n r e l a t e d scenes p l a c e d together on the same p l a t e . On the l e f t the three s i r e n s s i t amidst the bones of t h e i r v i c t i m s and on the r i g h t U l y s s e s i s being lashed to the mast of h i s boat. T h i s composition i s one of the l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l of a l l the designs because i n order to balance a grouping of three f i g u r e s with a s h i p and a crew Flaxman was f o r c e d to d e p i c t the l a t t e r i n a much s m a l l e r s c a l e . According to the c o n v e n t i o n a l system of p e r s p e c t i v e a viewer would assume that the boat was i n the f a r d i s t a n c e . Flaxman's r i g o r o u s attempt t o exclude the three dimensional i n h i s other Homer designs makes The S i r e n s p l a t e seem out of p l a c e i n the s e r i e s . 63 Although the f i r s t e d i t i o n s of the Homer engravings had only l i n e r e f e r e n c e s to the t e x t s of Pope and Homer, the 1805 Longman e d i t i o n i n c l u d e d the passages from Pope and the viewer was l e f t to i n f e r t h a t t h i s t e x t was r i g o u r o u s l y f o l l o w e d . Yet many v a r i a t i o n s from both the v e r s i o n s of Homer and Pope do occur. The Homeric t e x t , f o r example, c l e a r l y i m p l i e s t h a t there were only two S i r e n s (12:167). Flaxman i n s t e a d d e p i c t e d t h r e e . He a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d a group of three f i g u r e s presented a more s a t i s f a c t o r y e f f e c t as i t r e c u r s i n h i s d e p i c t i o n s of the Daughters of Pandarus, Odyssey 29 ( F i g u r e 47) and i n Penelope C a r r y i n g the Bow of U l y s s e s to the S u i t o r s Odyssey 30 ( F i g u r e 48). Flaxman was not above a l t e r i n g s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . For I l i a d 24, Ajax Defending the Greek Ships a g a i n s t the T r o j a n s ( F i g u r e 49) the t e x t reads: ' F u l l Twelve the B o l d e s t , i n a Moment F e l l , Sent by great Ajax to the shades of H e l l . ' Pope's Homers I l i a d B15 L i n e 904 Some 48 l i n e s b e f o r e Pope had set the scene with the l i n e 'No room to p o i s e the lance or bend the bow' suggesting that the a r c h e r at Ajax's back i s Flaxman's c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the b a t t l e , added as a u s e f u l component i n the c o m p o s i t i o n a l balance of h i s d e s i g n . A t h i r d i n s t a n c e of Flaxman's a l t e r a t i o n of the t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n appears i n I l i a d 22 showing the c h a r i o t of Neptune R i s i n g from the Sea drawn by f o u r horses r a t h e r than the two i n d i c a t e d by Homer ( F i g u r e 50). Pope d i d not s p e c i f y t h e i r number. 64 While t a k i n g care with the compositions of the Homer designs, Flaxman was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n making them a p p e a l i n g to the people i n Rome and at home i n England who were a c q u i r i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l books. Dora Wiebenson has suggested t h a t an 'obvious way f o r an a r t i s t to l i n k h i s own work with archaeo-l o g i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . . . w a s to i m i t a t e t h e i r t e c h n i q u e . ' 2 4 The use of l i n e engraving, common i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p u b l i c -a t i o n s , seems to have been not o n l y a source f o r technique but f o r s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . Items such as p i e c e s of f u r n i t u r e seem to have been i n s p i r e d by examples found on a n c i e n t p o t t e r y and s c u l p t u r e or, perhaps more l i k e l y , the engravings made of such a n t i q u i t i e s . David Irwin has thus a s s o c i a t e d , the c a r t and composition of Odyssey 11, U l y s s e s F o l l o w i n g the Car of Nausicaa ( F i g u r e 51) with a p l a t e from S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton's C o l l e c t i o n  of Vases... of 1791 ( F i g u r e 52). I t i s u n l i k e l y t h at an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l book such as Hamilton's C o l l e c t i o n of Vases would have s u p p l i e d Flaxman with the i n s p i r a -t i o n f o r h i s v e r s i o n of Hector's Body Dragged at the Car of  A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 36 ( F i g u r e 38). The t h r e e - q u a r t e r p o s i t i o n of the c h a r i o t , i t s r e a r p l a r f o r m , and the e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n of Hector's l e g s do not appear s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n any known a n c i e n t work.25 They do appear, however, i n both P i e t r o T e s t a ' s 17th Century engraved A c h i l l e s Dragging Hector and Gavin Hamilton's p a i n t i n g A c h i l l e s Dragging Hector's 3ody around the Walls of T r o y . 2 6 ( F i g u r e 53) The l a t t e r work was most commonly known through the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a 1766 engraving by Domenico Cunego. 65 As the Flaxmans lodged i n h i s house while they were i n Rome, i t seems more than p o s s i b l e t h a t Flaxman was f a m i l i a r with the c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e t a i l s of the work. 2 7 H i s main task was to reduce i t to a form c o n s i s t a n t with the r e s t of the Homer s e r i e s . He d i d so by d r a s t i c a l l y r educing d e t a i l , most n o t a b l y i n the background, t u r n i n g A c h i l l e s to d r i v e the c h a r i o t ( n e c e s s i -t a t e d by the e l i m i n a t i o n of the d r i v e r ) and r e p o s i t i o n i n g of the c h a r i o t to present more of a s i d e view. Of much g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t than p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s i s Flaxman's a d a p t a t i o n of elements of the l i n e engraving technique to s u i t h i s own purpose. A d e v i c e f r e q u e n t l y encountered i n archaeo-l o g i c a l books i l l u s t r a t e d with l i n e engravings i s h a t c h i n g , t h a t i s c l o s e l y spaced p a r a l l e l l i n e s , such as those i n F i g u r e 54 an i l l u s t r a t i o n from Spence's Polymetis of 1747. Here the h o r i z o n t a l h a t c h i n g p r o v i d e s a background. Flaxman had long used the technique i n a s i m i l a r manner i n sketches, i n c l u d i n g the s e l f p o r t r a i t ( F i g u r e 55) done some 15 years b e f o r e the Homer de s i g n s . But i n the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s the h a t c h i n g i s used i n a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner. In I l i a d 31, T h e t i s  B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s ( F i g u r e 1), f o r example, the h a t c h i n g i s put to three d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t purposes. I t r e p r e s e n t s the s t r u c t u r e of the l e g of the bed, d e f i n e s p e r s -p e c t i v e by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the bedding l i e s f a r t h e r back i n the p i c t u r e space than A c h i l l e s l e g and, by e x t e n s i o n , that the l e g s of the mourner st a n d i n g behind the bed are i n f a c t behind i t , and f i n a l l y as a c o m p o s i t i o n a l a i d by p a r t i a l l y 66 f i l l i n g the v o i d under the bed. These techniques to i n d i c a t e volume, p e r s p e c t i v e and to accomplish a more s u c c e s s f u l com-p o s i t i o n , are repeated with f u r t h e r v a r i a t i o n s elsewhere. In I l i a d 14, The Meeting of Hector and Andromache, a s t a i r c a s e i s i m p l i e d by h o r i z o n t a l h a t c h i n g which n e a t l y o f f s e t the v e r t i c a l i t y of the nanny's r a t h e r columnar dress ( F i g u r e 56). In I l i a d 6, J u p i t e r Sending the E v i l Dream to Agamemnon ( F i g u r e 57) and 38 I r i s A d v i s e s Priam to o b t a i n the Body of Hector ( F i g u r e 58) Flaxman has d e f i n e d the shape of the heavens with curved h a t c h i n g and i n I l i a d I I , Otus and E p h i a l t e s H o l d i n g Mars  C a p t i v e ( F i g u r e 59) he has, with but a few l i n e s , c r e a t e d s e a t s f o r Otus and E p h i a l t e s so that they are not l e f t i n mid-space. At the same time no d i s t r a c t i n g background d e t a i l i s i n t r o d u c e d . In I l i a d 29, T h e t i s and Eurynome R e c e i v i n g the  I n f a n t Vulcan ( F i g u r e 28) areas are covered with h a t c h i n g a p p a r e n t l y with the purpose of b a l a n c i n g the compositions without any more f i g u r e s or s t r u c t u r e s . 67 NOTES TO THE TEXT CHAPTER I I I 1 G e r a l d B e n t l e y , The E a r l y Engravings of Flaxman's C l a s s i c a l  Designs (New York, 1964), pp. 17-18. " BM Add. MSS 39780 f . 197. 2 10 12 Irwin, op. c i t . , p.68 3 F r i t s Lugts, Les Marques de C o l l e c t i o n s (the Hague, 1956) entry 2248. 4 George Smith, The D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography (Oxford, 1938), e n t r y f o r F r a n c i s Hare-Naylor. 5 Gentlemen's Magazine, ( J u l y 1793) p. 623. 6 G o t t h o l d Ephraim L e s s i n g , Laokoon and How the A n c i e n t s  Represented Death (London 1914), p.103. 7 I b i d , p.107. 8 I b i d , p.104. 9 Alexander Pope, The P o e t i c a l Works of Alexander Pope (London, 1841) p.204). Pope, I b i d , p.364. 1 1 Homer, I l i a d , Book 22, 1.395. Homer, I l i a d , Book 23, 1.176. 1 3 Oxford C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y ed. N.G.L. Hammond and H.H. S c u l l a r d (Oxford, 1977), p.5. 1 4 For an expanded a n a l y s i s of the c h a r a c t e r of U l y s s e s and h i s appearance i n a r t works see W.B. S t a n f o r d and J.V.Luce, The Quest f o r U l y s s e s (London, .1974). 1 5 S t a n f o r d and Luce, I b i d , p.194. 1 6 T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y not Pope's a p p r o p r i a t e passage as Robert R. Wark, Drawings by John Flaxman i n the Hungtington  C o l l e c t i o n (San Marino C a l i f o r n i a , 1970) has p o i n t e d out i n h i s note f o r p l a t e 16. 1 7 B r i t i s h Museum, Add. MSS. 39784, E., f . 21, account-book entry, 1790. 68 Gentlemen's Magazine V o l 51 (1781) p. 65 p r i n t e d with f o u r i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Gentlemen's Magazine, (November, 1793), p.981. Alexander Pope, ' P o s t s c r i p t to the Odyssey' The P o e t i c a l  Works of Alexander Pope (London, 1841), p 474 Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11.103-105. Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 296. Reynolds, D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11.300-301. Dora Wiebenson, 'Subjects from Homer's I l i a d i n N e o c l a s s i c a l A r t , ' A r t B u l l e t i n , Volume 46 (1964) pp 34. Wiebenson, i b i d , p.29. Dora Wiebenson, i b i d . , r e f e r s to t h i s work as A c h i l l e s Vents h i s Rage on Hector. David Irwin, 'Gavin Hamilton A r c h a e o l o g i s t , Painter"" and D e a l e r ' A r t B u l l e t i n , Volume (1962) p.94 r e f e r s to i t by the t i t l e used here. Irwin does not mention any p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n with the T e s t a work. Irwin, 1979, op. c i t . , p.48. 69 CHAPTER IV In 1811, a f t e r reading some f a v o u r a b l e comments by German c r i t i c s r e g a r d i n g the Dante designs, Flaxman i n t i m a t e d to the t h e o l o g i a n Henry Crabb-Robinson t h a t he wished the Germans had something b e t t e r upon which to e x e r c i s e t h e i r c r i t i c a l t a l e n t s . * T h i s response was probably not simply an e x p r e s s i o n of Flaxman's modesty but r a t h e r a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i s p a r i t y between the u l t i m a t e purpose he foresaw f o r h i s l i n e drawings and the nature of the c r i t i c a l p r a i s e . He had undertaken the commissions f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s to make enough money to continue with h i s Fury of Athamas but to h i s amazement, i n a d d i t i o n to the immediate f i n a n c i a l reward, h i s l i n e i l l u s t r a t i o n s brought him c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n as an a r t i s t , s c u l p t u r a l commissions, and i n d i r e c t l y i n 1810, e l e c t i o n as P r o f e s s o r of S c u l p t u r e at the Royal Academy i n London. Moreover, the i l l u s -t r a t i o n s v/ere adopted by e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t s and students a l i k e as sources of i n s p i r a t i o n w e l l i n t o the V i c t o r i a n age. The f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y i n which Flaxman found h i m s e l f was eased with the completion of the Homer des i g n s . How e f f e c t i v e they were i n supplementing h i s income may be gauged i f the r a p i d i t y with which Flaxman drew them i s r e l a t e d to the amount of money he earned. Nancy Flaxman wrote to W i l l i a m Hayley on J u l y 22, 1793 and informed him of the completion of the engravings of a l l the I l i a d , Odyssey and Dante d e s i g n s . 2 G e r a l d B e n t l e y has suggested that the dates i n d i c a t e d i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n s of the Odyssey and I l i a d ( r e s p e c t i v e l y February 1, 1793 and June 1, 1793) probably r e c o r d when each s e t of engravings was com-70 p l e t e d . 3 By the l a t t e r date Flaxman had a l s o f i n i s h e d the 46 drawings f o r Mr. Udney. 4 Thus Flaxman had produced no fewer than 174 designs f o r engraving (28, p l u s a t i t l e page f o r the Odyssey; 32, p l u s a t i t l e p a g e f o r the I l i a d ; and 110, p l u s a t i t l e p a g e f o r the Dante) and 46 drawings r e l a t e d t o , but a p p a r e n t l y not exact c o p i e s of, the Homer designs i n about 8 months. He must have been undertaking the designs at a r a t e of about one a day. T h i s estimate i s probably c o n s e r v a t i v e . Mrs. Flaxman's l e t t e r to Hayley mentions t h a t by then the engraver's work was completed from her husband's de s i g n s . Again C o c k e r e l l recorded that Flaxman r e c a l l e d he had been p a i d 1 guinea each f o r the Dante s e r i e s of 111 d e s i g n s , and 4 Crowns each f o r the 46 Udney drawings f o r a t o t a l of no l e s s than L227 - 13 - . C o n s i d e r i n g the Flaxman's f i n a n c i a l d i f -f i c u l t i e s t h a t came as a r e s u l t of The Fury of Athamas and h i s sm a l l investment i n labour, time and m a t e r i a l s upon them, the Homer designs must have seemed i n c r e d i b l y p r o f i t a b l e . Hare-Naylor a l s o d i d moderately w e l l . He s o l d the p l a t e s f o r the I l i a d s e r i e s t o Longman f o r twice as much as the engravings ( o r i g i n a l drawings) had c o s t him i n I t a l y . Mr. Hare-Naylor made at l e a s t L100 by the books i n I t a l y b e f o r e h i s s a l e of the p l a t e s of the I l i a d ' . 5 Even though the Hare-Naylors made more money from the Homer designs than Flaxman, they remained good f r i e n d s . I n d i c a t i n g t h e i r continued c l o s e n e s s , Flaxman i n c l u d e d p o r t r a i t s of t h e i r f o u r sons i n h i s monument to the Reverend Dr. Joseph Warton executed from 1800 to 1804. 6 71 Years l a t e r when Mrs. Hare-Naylor wrote a novel, the t i t l e of which was Theodosius or the E n t h u s i a s t , she asked Flaxman to design a s e r i e s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r i t . 7 Tomaso (Thomas) P i r o l i the t h i r d of those d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the completion of the Homer commission a l s o d i d w e l l . G e r a l d B e n t l e y has suggested that i n a d d i t i o n to the income d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from the Hare-Naylor p l a t e s some of the e d i t i o n s came from unauthorized p l a t e s u l t i m a t e l y t r a c e a b l e to P i r o l i ' s shop. 8 S e v e r a l months a f t e r the Homer and Dante commissions had been completed Flaxman wrote to Hayley that the purpose of the engravings was to show 'how any s t o r y may be represented i n a s e r i e s of compositions on p r i n c i p l e s of the a n c i e n t s , of which as soon as I r e t u r n to England I i n t e n d t o g i v e specimens i n scupture of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s , i n groups of b a s - r e l i e f s , s u i t e d to a l l purposes of sacred and c i v i l a r c h i t e c t u r e . ' 9 Flaxman's immediate aim was to f u l f i l Hare-Naylor's commission by r e p r e -s e n t i n g the I l i a d and Odyssey i n a s e r i e s of compositions. But, i n h i s own mind, the designs were to perform at l e a s t two subsequent f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , they were, i n essence, to serve as working drawings f o r a s c u l p t o r (Flaxman h i m s e l f as i t happened) t o t r a n s l a t e i n t o another a r t i s t i c medium. They were thus a k i n to Flaxman's designs f o r Wedgwood. Second, the r e s u l t a n t b a s - r e l i e f s were to e s t a b l i s h Flaxman as an a r t i s t amongst people who would purchase s c u l p t e d v e r s i o n s of the 72 images f o r t h e i r houses or i n s t i t u t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s i n which they had the ch o i c e of d e c o r a t i v e elements. In s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o Flaxman's emphasis on the design's f u t u r e u s e f u l n e s s , was t h e i r c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n . Where Robert Adam hoped h i s Ruins of S p a l a t r o would promise 'an Age of P e r f e c t i o n ' , 1 0 J.C. F i o r i l l o thought Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s ushered i n that age. He wrote 'a s h i n i n g s t a r has r i s e n i n England's a r t i s t i c heaven. May h i s (Flaxman's) a r r i v a l announce the dawn of a marvellous p e r i o d of a r t . ' 1 1 When the a r c h i t e c t Robert Smirke saw Flaxman's c l a s s i c a l designs he too immediately made an a s s o c i a t i o n between the l i n e engravings and the l i n e drawings of a n c i e n t Greek a r t . Although he thought Flaxman's works had a 'forced s i m p l i c i t y ' , t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , he suggested, was 'very proper to the designs when t r e a t e d a f t e r the manner of antique d e s i g n s . ' 1 2 Goethe made analogous o b s e r v a t i o n s i n h i s 1799 a r t i c l e which d e a l t l a r g e l y with Flaxman's Dante drawings. He d e s c r i b e d Flaxman's economy of means i n the Dante drawings as 'naivety' and commented on h i s ' g i f t of adopting the innocence of the o l d e r I t a l i a n S c h o o l . ' 1 3 Flaxman's f r i e n d George Romney was d e l i g h t e d to r e p o r t that the Homer engravings were ' o u t l i n e s without shadow, but i n the s t y l e of a n c i e n t a r t . They are simple, grand, and pure... They look as i f they had been made i n the age, when Homer w r o t e . ' 1 4 The v a l i d i t y of Flaxman's p l a c e i n d i s c u s s i o n s of a n c i e n t a r t was questioned on the b a s i s of the q u a l i t y of the engraved 73 l i n e by George Cumberland i n h i s Thoughts on o u t l i n e s c u l p t u r e ,  and the system t h a t guided the a n c i e n t a r t i s t s i n composing  t h e i r f i g u r e s and groups i n 1796. He mentioned 'the very t a s t e f u l Homer and Aeschylus by Mr. Flaxman' and the then r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton's C o l l e c t i o n of Engravings ... of h i s second c o l l e c t i o n but c r i t i c i z e d the engravings i n the l a t t e r because they had ' o u t l i n e s t h i c k and t h i n a l t e r -n a t e l y ' and not the u n i f o r m l y t h i c k l i n e s he had c o r r e c t l y observed on a n c i e n t vases. The l a s t Hamilton volume, he wrote, '... seems to have given the death's blow to a l l hope of ever s e e i n g a f a i t h f u l t r a c i n g of any o u t l i n e design on c o p p e r p l a t e ' . Cumberland upheld the view t h a t to be t r u l y i n the a n c i e n t s t y l e l i n e width should not vary. In h i s (Cumberland's) o p i n i o n , Flaxman had missed t h i s most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a n c i e n t drawing.15 P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s were a l s o c r i t i c i z e d f o r too c l o s e l y resembling a n c i e n t a r t . The d i a r i s t Joseph F a r i n g t o n wrote i n December 1795 that the designs were ' s t r i c t l y formed on the Greek model... each circumstance being dopied from some a u t h o r i t y . ' 1 6 In January 1797 he recorded t h a t the E n g l i s h p a i n t e r John Hoppner b e l i e v e d that the designs 'were a l l borrowed and p u r l o i n e d from a v a r i e t y of t h i n g s which he (Flaxman) has seen. He (Flaxman) has nothing o r i g i n a l about him'.17 indeed the r a t h e r obvious correspondence of Flaxman's U l y s s e s f o l l o w i n g the Car of Nausecaa Odyssey 11 and one from Hamilton's C o l l e c t i o n of Engravings has a l r e a d y been noted. 74 When comparing Flaxman's o u t l i n e s and A.J. Ca r s t e n ' s l i n e i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o Les Argonautes (1799) C a r s t e n ' s engraver Koch wrote t h a t as t h i s work was more ' p a i n t e r l y ' than Flaxman's i t would be p r e f e r r e d by connoisseurs ( F i g u r e 60).18 Goethe more c o r r e c t l y suggested t h a t Flaxman's c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d designs had made Flaxman 'the i d o l of a l l the d i l e t t a n t e . ' 1 9 Having been nominated t h e i r i d o l Flaxman might have expected the d i l e t t a n t e to make him t h e i r most sought a f t e r i l l u s t r a t o r . Instead commissions a r i s i n g as a d i r e c t of the engraved designs seem to have been few. Prompted by the g e n e r a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c e a r l y acceptance of the Homer and Dante designs he p u b l i s h e d , i n 1795, Compositions from the Trag e d i e s of Aeschylus with Tomaso P i r o l i engraving the 30 p l a t e s . The simple l i n e Flaxman used f o r c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d compositions was a s s o c i a t e d with him to the extent t h a t i n at l e a s t one i n s t a n c e he l o s t a commission. In 1804 i t was suggested that he i l l u s t r a t e S i r Walter S c o t t ' s Lay of the L o s t M i n s t r e l . S c o t t d e c l i n e d to engage Flaxman, reasoning t h a t he was 'too c l a s s i c a l to stoop to body f o r t h my G o t h i c b o r d e r e r s ' who might resemble 'the antique of Homer's heroes r a t h e r than the i r o n race of S a l -vator',20 Had i t been o f f e r e d Flaxman may have d e c l i n e d such a commission. In 1807 Hayley was only a b l e t o persuade Flaxman to i l l u s t r a t e h i s e d i t i o n of M i l t o n ' s L a t i n poems because he was a c l o s e p e r s o n a l f r i e n d . Flaxman p r o t e s t e d t h a t : 'I have a l r e a d y s t a t e d my o b j e c t i o n s to make designs f o r the d e c o r a t i o n of p r i n t e d books - that I never have made any f o r such purposes t h a t i t i s a branch of a r t i n which I am not l i k e l y to succeed f o r want of p r a c t i c e , and the p r o d u c t i o n s i n which w i l l be regarded with a j e a l o u s eye by those to whom that department belongs'.21 Flaxman c l e a r l y had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n a c a r e e r as a book i l l u s t r a t o r . When he p u b l i s h e d h i s s e r i e s of Compositions  from the Works and Days and Theogony of Hesiod i n 1817 the ch o i c e s of s u b j e c t s and the smal l income from t h e i r s a l e were h i s . Rather than p u r s u i n g commissions f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n upon the Flaxmans' r e t u r n to England i n 1794, he r e e s t a b l i s h e d h i s p r a c t i c e as a s c u l p t o r hoping f o r g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n than h i s i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s had r e c e i v e d seven years b e f o r e . His ambition was to c a p i t a l i z e on h i s designs by t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o stone. T h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y suggested to Lord B r i s t o l t h a t r e l i e f s based on the Homer designs would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d e c o r a t i n g the Rotunda of Ickworth House, which was to house the Fury of Athamas. I r o n i c a l l y , however, the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n of the r e l i e f s was not accomplished by Flaxman but by the C a r a b e l l i b r o t h e r s i n 1800 and 1803. S i m i l a r l y , when, i n 1809, Flaxman designed anew a f r i e z e on the s u b j e c t s of Anc i e n t and Modern Drama f o r Covent Garden Theatre the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n of the r e l i e f s was accomplished by John C h a r l e s R o s s i , protege' of i t s a r c h i t e c t Robert Smirke. As he worked, R o s s i i s r e p o r t e d to have spoken 'of the l i t t l e power Flaxman has i n working upon marble of stone. H i s power i s c o n f i n e d t o de s i g n i n g and modelling'.22 T h i s view was somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e . 76 Long b e f o r e 1809 Flaxman had proven h i m s e l f more than j u s t a d esigner and modeller. H i s major work the monument f o r the tomb of W i l l i a m , f i r s t E a r l of M a n s f i e l d ( F i g u r e 21) had been i n s t a l l e d i n Westminster Abbey i n 1801. The Fury of Athamas upon which he had pinned h i s hopes f o r r e c o g n i t i o n was v i r t u a l l y unknown. I t had been captured by French troops and f o l l o w i n g i t s e v entual i n s t a l l a t i o n i n Lord B r i s t o l ' s country house ( a f t e r h i s death, as i t happened) remained out of the view of the general p u b l i c . Moreover, i t was never engraved. T y p i c a l l y , however, h i s f i r s t p r o j e c t s a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to London had been more modest than e i t h e r of these. The monument to Mrs. Mary Blackshaw (Mary Lushington) ( F i g u r e 61) f o r example was begun i n 1798 and completed the f o l l o w i n g year. I t i s not, a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n of a Homer design i n t o stone and y e t , when con s i d e r e d i n t h e i r context, v a r i o u s of the elements are f a m i l i a r : the frame surrounding the f i g u r e s i s formed with a wide moulding comprised of c o n c e n t r i c a r c s r e m i n i s c e n t of the a r c i n g p a r a l l e l l i n e h a t c h i n g Flaxman used to r e p r e s e n t the heavens i n I l i a d 6, J u p i t e r Sending the E v i l Dream to Agamemnon ( F i g u r e 57);, the g r i e v i n g f i g u r e p o s i t i o n e d over the l i d of a sarcophagus r e c a l l s A c h i l l e s i n a semiprone p o s i t i o n over the dead P a t r o c l u s i n I l i a d 31, T h e t i s B r i n g i n g the Armour to A c h i l l e s ( F i g u r e 1); the f i g u r e s are disposed i n a manner that c r e a t e s a composition resembling Odyssey 7, Penelope's Dream ( F i g u r e 62);and the winged angel i s analogous to the Minerva f i g u r e with d r a p e r i e s a f l u t t e r to i n d i c a t e f l i g h t . For t h i s new composition, rendered 77 as a bas r e l i e f , Flaxman was not r e q u i r e d to study l i v e models, contemporary or a n c i e n t works or engravings from them. H i s own c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d designs p r o v i d e d the components. Once p u b l i s h e d as engravings, the designs were no longer Flaxman's p r i v a t e quarry f o r f i g u r a l m o t i f s . They f e l l r a t h e r i n t o the catagory of p a t t e r n books, a k i n to Hamilton's C o l l e c t i o n  of Vases ... or the engraved sources Wedgwood kept f o r the i n s p i r a t i o n of h i s a r t i s t s . 2 3 The s u i t a b i l i t y of Flaxman's designs f o r a d a p t a t i o n i n t o new works was r e c o g n i z e d by a r t i s t s of a l l ages. The young German p a i n t e r P h i l i p Otto Runge even suggested t h a t now that he had Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s he need no longer r e f e r to c o p i e s of E t r u s c a n vases f o r i n s p i r a t i o n . 2 4 Flaxman's Leucothea P r e s e r v i n g U l y s s e s , Odyssey 9 ( F i g u r e 63) has been suggested as a p o s s i b l e source f o r the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n Runge's Morning ( F i g u r e 64).25 with the p e r s p e c t i v e of an e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t Jacques L o u i s David was r e p o r t e d to have s a i d somewhat p r o p h e t i c a l l y of the then newly p u b l i s h e d Aeschylus and Homer desi g n s , "Cet ouvrage f e r a f a i r e des tableaux."26 David h i m s e l f proved h i s own f o r e s i g h t . In a sketchbook (now i n the Mus£e des Beaux-Arts i n L i l l e ) f i l l e d i n the 1790's he worked out c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e t a i l s f o r h i s Les Sabines.27 p o r t h i s work ( F i g u r e 65) he drew f i g u r e s of a w a r r i o r ( F i g u r e 66) which are v a r i a t i o n s of the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r ( A c h i l l e s ) i n Flaxman's design from I l i a d 33, A c h i l l e s Contending with the  R i v e r s ( F i g u r e 30). S i m i l a r l y , the composition f o r Les Sabines was drawn from the F i g h t f o r the Body of P a t r o c l u s I l i a d 26 78 ( F i g u r e 67). David e l a b o r a t e d the image by adding many i n d i v i d u a l combatants to the soon to c l a s h armies and by p r o v i d i n g an a r c h i t e c t u r a l background. David's Les Sabines, based upon components taken from the Homer engravings, a p p a r e n t l y i n t r i g u e d the s c u l p t o r as the f i n i s h e d scheme was to reappear i n a subsequent Flaxman d e s i g n . In 1810 Flaxman began work on the design of a S h i e l d of  A c h i l l e s t o be drawn from the d e s c r i p t i o n given by Homer i n Book XVIII of the I l i a d . 2 7 Design alone took e i g h t years, i n p a r t at l e a s t , because of the care Flaxman took i n r e l a t i n g v i s u a l image to t e x t . Included was a r a t h e r two dimensional v e r s i o n of David's b a t t l e scene drawn f i r s t on a s t r a i g h t ground l i n e ( F i g u r e 68) and then f i t t e d to the c i r c u l a r format of the s h i e l d ( F i g u r e 69). For twenty-four drawings of d e t a i l s and f i v e models i n c l u d i n g the f i n a l one the f i r m of R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and R u n d e l l , goldsmiths t o r o y a l t y , p a i d Flaxman 600 g u i n e a s . 2 8 The s i l v e r - g i l t o r i g i n a l was purchased by King George IV ( i n c e l e b r a t i o n of h i s s u c c e s s i o n to the throne i n 1820) and s i l v e r v e r s i o n s by the Duke of York (now i n the Huntington A r t G a l l e r y i n San Marino), the Duke of Northumberland and the E a r l of Lonsdale. Each s h i e l d c o n tained over 600 ounces of s i l v e r and represented many hours of work of Ru n d e l l s i l v e r smiths. There are a l s o p l a s t e r and bronze v e r s i o n s . In h i s biography Cunningham r e c o r d s that Flaxman was ' j u s t l y proud' of t h i s 'magnificent' p i e c e which was 'considered by many as one of the a r t i s t ' s most s u c c e s s f u l w o r k s . ' 2 9 79 To r e t u r n to the theme of the i n f l u e n c e of Flaxman's engravings on French a r t i s t s , Sarah Symmons contends t h a t , " I t was i n France that h i s work provoked the most f r u i t f u l i m i t a t i o n and r e s e a r c h throughout the n i n e t e e n t h century. From David to Degas Flaxman's o u t l i n e s r e t a i n e d t h e i r importance and the a r t i s t h i m s e l f was always an o b j e c t of admiration."30 one such was F r a n c o i s Rude who was commissioned, d u r i n g h i s e x i l e a f t e r Waterloo, to the decorate the e x t e r i o r of the Chateau de Tervueren i n B r u s s e l s . 3 1 As a s c u l p t o r h i m s e l f he r e a l i z e d the p o t e n t i a l of Flaxman's l i n e engravings f o r t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o bas r e l i e f s . H i s A c h i l l e s d e p l o r e 1'enterrement de B r i s e i s ( F i g u r e 70) was d e r i v e d from the Departure of B r i s e i s from the Tent of A c h i l l e s ( F i g u r e 3 5 ) ( I l i a d 3 ) . A p r e p a r a t o r y sketch f o r the r e l i e f c l e a r l y shows that while i n s p i r e d by Flaxman's work Rude d i d not t r a c e h i s f i g u r e s but r a t h e r chose to c r e a t e anew adopting s i m i l a r poses and gestures and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a v i s u a l means a k i n to Flaxman's l i n e ( F i g u r e 71). In a d d i t i o n , by r e a r r a n g i n g the f i g u r e s and drawing c l o s e r them together, Rude was able to e l i m i n a t e the apparent d i v i s i o n of the l e f t and r i g h t s i d e s of the o r i g i n a l i n which Flaxman had l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y u n i t e d the s i d e s by adding h o r i z o n t a l h a t c h i n g . I f the r e l i e f was Rude's, the f i g u r e s and v i s u a l means Rude used to e s t a b l i s h h i s c o n c e p t i o n were Flaxman's. The second a r t i s t , Antoine Gros, concentrated not on a l t e r i n g Flaxman's compositions to f i t h i s own purpose but r a t h e r on i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s . 3 2 In h i s sketchbooks Gros f o l l o w e d 80 a procedure s i m i l a r t o that of Flaxman by assembling on a s i n g l e sheet i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s from a v a r i e t y of sources. However, i n s t e a d of adopting the work of a v a r i e t y of other a r t i s t s Gros drew f i g u r e s with some p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y from a number of the Homer des i g n s . F i g u r e 72 f o r example d i s p l a y s f i v e f i g u r e s t r a c e d from Flaxman's Odyssey s e r i e s . A l l f i v e are s t a n d i n g , draped f i g u r e s with heads bowed forward. S i m i l a r l y i n f i g u r e 73. Gros has accumulated three g e s t u r i n g f i g u r e s with f l u t t e r i n g drapery. The c o n t r a s t between these s t u d i e s of types and Gros's standard means of p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s d r a m a t i c a l l y demonstrated i n F i g u r e 74 where one of a s e r i e s of seated f i g u r e s i s rendered on a page below a remarkably vigourous shaded study of a horse. These l i n e drawings would seem to have been t r a c e d with great care i n an e f f o r t to f i x impressions of p a r t i c u l a r types of f i g u r e s i n Gros' mind without h i s r e s o r t i n g t o time consuming s t u d i e s of l i v e models or other a r t i s t s works. The t h i r d French a r t i s t a s s o c i a t e d with Flaxman's work was, of course, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.33 H i s p e r s o n a l l i b r a r y as preserved i n the Mus£e Ingres i n Montauban c o n t a i n s s i x of the p u b l i s h e d works of Flaxman i n c l u d i n g the i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o the I l i a d , Odyssey, and D i v i n e Comedy. From these Ingres drew i n s p i r a t i o n . Soon a f t e r the t u r n of the e i g h t e e n t h century he had been c o n s i d e r i n g a new work J u p i t e r and T h e t i s . The concept he s e t t l e d upon and developed i n t o the f i n a l work ( F i g u r e 75) appeared soon a f t e r 1805 as d i d c o i n c i d e n t a l l y a new e d i t i o n of the Homer engravings p u b l i s h e d i n London by 81 Longman. To supplement the o r i g i n a l 34, f i v e new designs by Flaxman had been added i n c l u d i n g T h e t i s E n t r e a t i n g J u p i t e r to  Honor A c h i l l e s ( I l i a d 5) ( F i g u r e 76). Symmons has i n f e r r e d from the resemblance of Flaxman's and Ingres' s u p p l i a n t T h e t i s f i g u r e s , with sinuous necks and heads t i l t e d back, that Ingres probably a c q u i r e d one of these new Longman Odyssey's and drew h i s T h e t i s from i t . To complete the composition Ingres c o n t r a s t e d t h i s s o f t , contoured T h e t i s f i g u r e with a more muscular, angular, and dominating male f i g u r e analogous to J u p i t e r i n The C o u n c i l  of the Gods, I l i a d 9 ( F i g u r e 77). Ingres' own hard edge s t y l e may a l s o have d e r i v e d from h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s . 3 4 In h i s methodical p r o d u c t i o n of a new p a i n t i n g Ingres f r e q u e n t l y made notes about h i s a t t i t u d e s toward i t . Of T h e t i s ' appearance he wrote: 'La beaute s' a s s o c i e a l a jeunesse...La gorge des d e e s e s 3 5 l a nature de d e s s i n pour b l a n c ' 3 6 and d i r e c t l y to the p o i n t 'La beaute dans l e s ouvrages de l ' a r t e s t l a premiere chose [,] e l l e d o i t dominer sur t o u t [ ; ] l a c o u l e u r blanche e s t a d o p t e e comme l a p l u s b e l l e pour l e s a n c i e n s [ . ] ' 3 7 The very whiteness upon which Ingres f i x e d h i s a t t e n t i o n and which he b e l i e v e d most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the s u b j e c t i s perhaps the most conspicuous q u a l i t y of Flaxman's engraved de s i g n s . The E n g l i s h a r t i s t d e f i n e d h i s f i g u r e s on the white f i e l d of the p i c t u r e with t h i n b l a c k l i n e s . Ingres rendered h i s f i g u r e s by p a i n t i n g them i n l i g h t , c o n s i s t a n t tones on a c o n t r a s t i n g ground a p p a r e n t l y so h i s p a i n t i n g s would g i v e a comparable impression of p r e c i s i o n . 82 The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of the two a r t i s t s were c o n s i d e r e d i n L ' A r t i s t e i n 1833. Flaxman's Dante, Homer, and Aeschylus were s a i d to possess: "...une grande purete; une grande f i n e s s e , une t r e s grande s o i n . Nul d e s s i n p l u s que c e l u i de Flaxman n ' exige absolument toutes ces qualit£s; l a s6v£rite' des l i g n e s , l a s i m p l i c i t y des contours font l e grand c a r a c t e r e de ses compositions; l a moindre a l t e r a t i o n de ces graves et purs p r o f i l s en f e r a i t de r i d i c u l e s s i l h o u e t t e s d' ombres c h i n o i s . " 3 8 Having p l a c e d the c o n s t r a i n t upon the use of Flaxman's designs - t h a t i f they are s u b j e c t e d to the l e a s t a l t e r a t i o n they become r i d i c u l o u s s i l h o u e t t e s - l i t t l e wonder that when Flaxman's use of l i n e and Ingres' use of c o l o u r are compared Flaxman was upheld as having the b e t t e r i n s t i n c t s . The w r i t e r noted : "Ingres, dont l e genie n'est pas sans de nombreux r a p p o r t s avec l e s i e n , a compris a u s s i de meme q u ' i l n' a v a i t r i e n a demeler avec l a c o u l e u r ; mais i l n' a pas eu l e bon i n s t i n c t , comrae Flaxman, de renoncer k l a p e i n t u r e et de s' en t e n i r au d e s s i n , au bas - r e l i e f , k l a s t a t u a i r e . " 3 y As much as p r a i s i n g Flaxman, the author i m p l i e s that the s c u l p t o r ' s method of d e s i g n i n g with l i n e was best a p p l i e d to bas r e l i e f or s t a t u t o r y . Ingres, the p a i n t e r , was to show h i s agreement many years l a t e r . In the year Flaxman d i e d , 1826, Ingres r e c e i v e d a commission f o r h i s f i r s t v e r s i o n of L'Apotheose d'Homere. At t h i s time he must have been somewhat ambivalent i n h i s f e e l i n g s about the s c u l p t o r ' s importance. Although i t was c o n s i d e r e d f o r i n c l u s i o n , Flaxman's p o r t r a i t does not appear i n t h i s work. Only a f t e r 83 many years r e f l e c t i o n on h i s own work d i d Ingres i n c l u d e Flaxman i n a second work on the same theme Homere D 6 i f i 6 . T h i s semi-a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l work was completed only two years b e f o r e the p a i n t e r ' s death i n 1867. In i t were p o r t r a i t s of those people Ingres judged to have c o n t r i b u t e d to the continued p o p u l a r i t y of Homer and thus to the c r e d i b i l i t y of h i s s u b j e c t . The personages i n c l u d e d Longinus, 1st Century A.D. author of On the  Sublime a work which threw r e a l l i g h t on what c o n s t i t u t e d l i t e r a r y g reatness, M m e D a c i e r t r a n s l a t o r of Homer i n t o French, and Flaxman the a r t i s t whose designs had p r o v i d e d readers with images to complement the Homeric t e x t s . The only v i s u a l works Ingres presented as r e c o g n i z a b l e s p e c i f i c sources i n Homere  D£if± 6 are Flaxman's c l a s s i c a l o u t l i n e s adapted to form the f r i e z e of the b u i l d i n g i n the background ( F i g u r e 78). As a r e s u l t of the r e c o g n i t i o n he r e c e i v e d when he r e t u r n e d home to England, Flaxman found h i m s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n to be of d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e over more, p a r t i c u l a r l y young, a r t i s t s than he was on the c o n t i n e n t , where he was known almost e x c l u s i v e l y through the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i s engraved designs. In 1797 he was e l e c t e d a s s o c i a t e of the Royal Academy and three years l a t e r a f u l l Royal Academician. He was i n v i t e d to g i v e evidence to a House of Commons Committee c o n s i d e r i n g the purchase of the E l g i n m a r b l e s . 4 0 In 1810 John Flaxman R.A. became the Academy's f i r s t P r o f e s s o r of S c u l p t u r e , 4 ! which r e q u i r e d him to present s i x l e c t u r e s a year. 84 John Flaxman's L e c t u r e s on S c u l p t u r e ... As d e l i v e r e d  b e f o r e the P r e s i d e n t and Members of the Royal Academy, 4 2 p u b l i s h e d i n 1829 g i v e h i s p e r s p e c t i v e s on a r t , the a c q u i s i t i o n of a r t i s t i c s k i l l s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new works. "We must a v a i l o u r s e l v e s of the s t u d i e s and p r a c t i c e of the most c e l e b r a t e d a r t i s t s , ' 4 3 he wrote. H i s own s t u d i e s of the a n c i e n t works with which h i s contemporaries had a s s o c i a t e d with h i s own o u t l i n e i l l u s t r a t i o n s had l e d him to b e l i e v e that the crudeness of a n c i e n t s c u l p t u r e or b a r b a r i c s c u l p t u r e was a t t r i b u t a b l e to a l a c k of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i n the form of anatomy, geometry, mathematics, p r o p o r t i o n e t c . 4 4 The d e f i c i e n c i e s of these e a r l i e s t works were r e s o l v e d through the a p p l i c a t i o n of the two s c i e n c e s a r i t h m e t i c and geometry: 'by a r i t h m e t i c , the p r o p o r t i o n s of the human f i g u r e and other animals are reckoned, and the q u a n t i t i e s of bodies, s u p e r f i c i e s , or l i g h t and shade a s c e r t a i n e d ; geometry g i v e s l i n e s and diagrams f o r the motions, o u t l i n e , and drapery of the f i g u r e , r e g u l a t e d by the harmony of agreeable p r o p o r t i o n s , or the o p p o s i t i o n of c o n t r a s t * . 4 5 For i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s he r e c a l l e d a d i a l o g u e of S o c r a t e s where he notes that the p h i l o s o p h e r and P a r r h a s i u s agree that 'the good and e v i l q u a l i t i e s of the s o u l may be represented i n the f i g u r e of man by p a i n t i n g ' . 4 6 Subsequently he expressed the p r i n c i p l e i n h i s own words: 'Expression d i s t i n g u i s h e s the s p e c i e s of a c t i o n i n the whole and i n a l l the p a r t s ; i n the f a c e s , f i g u r e s , limbes ( s i c ) , and e x t r e m i t i e s ' . 4 7 When assembling i n t o a new composition f i g u r e s c r e a t e d with every f e a t u r e c o n t r i b u t i n g to an e x p r e s s i o n 85 of the c h a r a c t e r ' s s o u l the a r t i s t should again be m i n d f u l of a n c i e n t a r t : 'The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of G r e c i a n composition, i n the best ages, are s i m p l i c i t y and d i s t i n c t n e s s ... Where the s t o r y does not r e q u i r e much a c t i o n , i t i s t o l d by g e n t l e movements, and the f i g u r e s , whether grouped or s i n g l e , have a s u f f i c i e n t p o r t i o n of p l a i n back-ground l e f t about them to show the general l i n e s with the forms of the limbs and d r a p e r i e s p e r f e c t l y i n t e l l i g i b l e . ' 4 8 For the p r o d u c t i o n of a new work the i n s t a n t d e p i c t i n g 'every a c t i o n i s more p e r f e c t as i t comprehends an i n d i c a t i o n of the past, with a c e r t a i n t y of the end, i n the moment c h o s e n ' . 4 9 Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to h i s intended purpose f o r the Homer designs i s a comment on basso r e l i e v o . He wrote, 'The s p e c i e s of s c u l p t u r e i s not intended to be seen i n many views l i k e the e n t i r e group; but i t has t h i s advantage, that more groups then one may be on the same back-ground, and sometimes a s u c c e s s i o n of events i n the same s t o r y ; a g r e a t e r f o r c e i s given to harmony, or c o n t r a s t of l i n e s by the number of groups and f i g u r e s as w e l l as the p r o j e c t i o n of t h e i r shadows.' 5 0 The c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m Flaxman accrued from the i l l u s t r a t i o n s was not maintained i n England, being r e p l a c e d d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e by a r e p u t a t i o n as a s c u l p t o r . To f o l l o w G e r a l d B e n t l e y ' s f i g u r e s only 656 c o p i e s of the Longman Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s were s o l d between 1805 and 1828. 51 By the l a t t e r p a r t of the 19th Century a l l Flaxman's works were reviewed almost a p o l o g e t i c a l l y . For example, E.S. Roscoe wrote, '[Flaxman's] works appeal to the 86 c u l t u r e d minds of a very s m a l l number ...'52 ^ the tu r n of the 20th century Flaxman's v i s u a l means of i l l u s t r a t i o n had been reduced t o the form s u i t a b l e f o r cartoons such as the one by P h i l May represented by F i g u r e 79. When compared with Flaxman's designs of a century b e f o r e the l i n e engraving, heavy d r a p e r i e s , p a r a l l e l h a t c h i n g , minimal background presence of p h y s i c a l types r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l s are f a m i l i a r but Flaxman's s e r i o u s i n t e n t has been r e p l a c e d by s o c i a l s a t i r e . 87 NOTES TO THE TEXT CHAPTER IV 1. Henry Crabb-Robinson, D i a r i e s , V o l . I 17th January 1811. 2. Mrs. Flaxman to Hayley Rome 22 J u l y 1793 F i t z w i l l i a m Museum, Flaxman l e t t e r box no.3. 3. G e r a l d E. Ben t l e y J r . , The E a r l y Engravings of Flaxman's  C l a s s i c a l Designs, (New York, 1964), p. 31 4. I b i d . p. 18 fo o t n o t e 8 notes that Flaxman recorded "Sent by Hawkins McKinnon & Com: to Mr. Udney 46 drawings from the I l i a d & Odyssey at 4 Crowns each 184 — " i n h i s Account book f o r 1792-1794 ( B r i t i s h Museum, Add. Mss 39784 F, f . 32) 5. C h a r l e s Robert C o c k e r e l l , D i a r i e s . Manuscript i n R.I.B.A. Drawings C o l l e c t i o n . 27 November 1824. 6. David Irwin, John Flaxman: 1755-1826 (London, 1979), p.138. 7. George Smith, The D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography (Oxford, 1938), entry f o r F r a n c i s Hare-Naylor. 8. B e n t l e y , op. c i t . , pp. 13-14, 31. 9. Flaxman to Hayley Rome 26 October 1793. MSS. F i t z w i l l i a m Museum, Flaxman l e t t e r - b o x no.4. 10. Robert Adam, Ruins of the p a l a c e of the Emperor D i o c l e t i a n  at S p a l a t r o i n Dalmatia (London, 1764), p. i v . 11. J.D. F i o r i l l o , G e s c h i c h t e der zeichnender Kunste (Gottingen 1798-1808), V, p.851. In Irwin, op. c i t . , p.67. 12. F a r i n g t o n , D i a r y , unpublished entry , 19 December 1795. In Irwin, op. c i t . , 84. 13. Goethe, op. c i t . , p.245. 14. W i l l i a m Hayley, The L i f e of George Romney, (London, 1809), p.203. 15. Irwin, op. c i t . , p.84. 16. F a r i n g t o n , D i a r y , unpublished entry , 19 December 1795. In Irwin, op. c i t . , 84. 88 17. F a r i n g t o n , D i a r y , e d i t . G r e i g , I, p.184, 12 January 1797. In Irwin, op. c i t . , 84. 18. Koch l e t t e r , dated Rome 16 January 1799, i n Otto R. von L u t t e r o i t t i , J.A. Koch ( B e r l i n , 1940), p.142. 19. Goethe, op. c i t . , p.245. 20. S i r Walter S c o t t , L e t t e r s , e d i t H.J.C. G r i e r s o n (London, 1932-1936), I, pp.226-227. 21. L e t t e r Flaxman to Hayley, London, 6 November 1807. B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MSS. 39780, f.98. 22. F a r i n g t o n , D i a r y unpublished e n t r y 19 J u l y 1809 i n Irwin, op. c i t . , p.172. 23. David Irwin, N e o c l a s s i c a l Design: Industry plunders A n t i q u i t y , A p o l l o , XCVI, 1972, pp.289ff. 24. P h i l l i p Otto Runge: H i n t e r l a s s e n S c h r i f t e n , Hamburg (1840), V o l . II p. 31. Runge to h i s b r o t h e r D a n i e l , 23 August 1800. 25 Bindman, op. c i t . , p.177. 26. Quoted Jeanne Doin 'John Flaxman ( I ) ' , Gazette de Beaux-Arts, V [1911], 4me pe r i o d e , p.233. 27. B r i a n Ivon-Jones, 'The A c h i l l e s S i l v e r - g i l t S h i e l d ' , A p o l l o ns 97 [ A p r i l 1973] p.447. 28. B r i t i s h Museum, Add. MSS. 39783 a volume c o n t a i n i n g c o r r e s -pondence of Maria Denman f281 i n Robert R. Work B r i t i s h  S i l v e r i n the Huntington C o l l e c t i o n (San Marino C a l i f o r n i a , 1978) number 58. 29. A l l a n Cunningham L i v e s of the Most eminent B r i t i s h P a i n t e r s  S c u l p t o r s and A r c h i t e c t s 2nd e d i t i o n , 6 v o l s . London 1830-3 i n Irwin, op. c i t . , p.196. 30. Sarah Symmons, 'French c o p i e s a f t e r Flaxman's O u t l i n e s ' B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, 115 [Sept 1973] pp.591-599. T h i s passage p.596. 31. Now destroyed. I b i d . , p.595. 32. I b i d . , p.596. 33. Sarah Symmons, 'J.A.D. Ingres: The apothe o s i s of Flaxman' B u r l i n g t o n Magazine v o l 121 [November 1979] pp.721-725. 34. I b i d . , p.722. 89 35. Quoted by D a n i e l T e r n o i s , Ingres, ( P e t i t P a l a i s , P a r i s [1967-1968]), p.76, No. 51 i n Symmons, i b i d . , p.722. 36. Montaubon, Mus6e Ingres, Inv. No. 8671786. i n Symmons, i b i d . , p.722. 37. Montaubon, Mus6e Ingres, Inv. No. 8671793. i n Symmons, i b i d . , p.722. 38. L'Oeuvre Complet de John Flaxman,' L ' A r t i s t e , Tome V. 2 1 e l i v r a i s o n [1833], p.260. 39. I b i d . p.260. 40. P u b l i s h e d as: Report from the S e l e c t Committee of the House of Commons on the E a r l of E l g i n ' s C o l l e c t i o n e t c I London, 1816 J. Flaxman's evidence pp.70-80. 41. Sidney C. Hutchison, The H i s t o r y of the Royal Academy  1768-1968 [London 1968], p.233. 42. John Flaxman, L e c t u r e on S c u l p t u r e ... As d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e  the P r e s i d e n t and Members of the Royal Academy. With a  b r i e f memoir of the author. London, 1829. L a t e r p u b l i s h e d as John Flaxman, L e c t u r e s on S c u l p t u r e ... Second e d i t i o n . To which are now f i r s t added, an i n t r o d u c t o r y l e c t u r e and  two addresses to the Royal Academy on the death of T. Banks,  i n 1805, and A. Canova, i n 1822, with and Address on the  death of Flaxman by S i r R. Westmacott. London, 1838. New e d i t i o n London, G. B e l l and sons, 1881. 43. I b i d . , (1881), P-215. 44. I b i d . , (1881), P- l O l f f . 45. I b i d . , (1881), P- 160. 46. I b i d . , (1881), P-133. 47. I b i d . , (1881), p. 151. 48. I b i d . , (1881), P-157. 49. I b i d . , (1881), P. 151. 50. I b i d . , (1881), P-153. 51. G e r a l d Bentley op . c i t . , 52. E.S. Roscoe, 'The Career and Works of Flaxman' Magazine of  A r t V4 [1881], p.368. 90 A plaque on the house where P h i l i p W i l l i a m May was born reads: "A great b l a c k and white a r t i s t ... A f e l l o w of i n f i n i t e j e s t " . H i s s t y l e ranged from l i n e t o h e a v i l y shaded f i g u r e s . See David C u p p l e d i t c h , P h i l May, The  A r t i s t and H i s Wit (London, 1981), p.125. 91 CHAPTER V Having examined the i n t e l l e c t u a l context, h i s t o r y and i n f l u e n c e of the Homer designs, i t i s necessary to a p p r a i s e Flaxman's achievement i n producing a s e r i e s of images t h a t to t h i s day r e t a i n t h e i r c a p t i v a t i n g f r e s h n e s s and v i g o u r . L u c i d l y conceived and u n c l u t t e r e d by s u p e r f l u o u s d e t a i l , the engravings not only i l l u m i n a t e Homer and h i s s t o r i e s , but a l s o e x p l o r e the nature of man. Indeed, they seem to be documents r e c o r d i n g a s o c i e t y with an o b j e c t i v e , s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n t h a t i s f a r removed from the a n c i e n t d e c o r a t i v e a r t by which they were p a r t l y i n s p i r e d . Instead the l i n e engravings form a compendium of the Homeric e p i c s and, i n the s p i r i t of i n t e l l e c t u a l enquiry t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d 18th Century thought, seemingly present the essence of humanity without the d i s t r a c t i o n of i t s m a t e r i a l substance. John Flaxman's 1792 Homer designs embodied h i s experience accumulated d u r i n g h i s f i r s t 15 years i n h i s f a t h e r s ' c a s t and model shop, f o u r years at the Royal Academy, 12 years as a designer f o r J o s i a h Wedgwood (a l e a d e r i n the development of i n d u s t r i a l methods of mass p r o d u c t i o n ) , and f i v e years study i n I t a l y . D e s p i t e the prominence of commercial c o n s t r i c t i o n s c r i t i c i s m of the engravings has c entred on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the work of a n c i e n t and contemporary a r t i s t s . That i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n , however, overlooks h i s more p r o s a i c and p r a c t i c a l approach. While i n Wedgwood's employ, Flaxman had developed h i s l i n e a r s t y l e as both a means of c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , and of t e c h n i c a l communication to the i n d u s t r i a l i s t and h i s p o t t e r s , 92 p a r a l l e l i n g the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d use of drawing/engraving i n the 18th Century as the medium f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g e s s e n t i a l i d e a s . I t i s i n t h i s context that Flaxman's Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s e s s e n t i a l l y belong, having been completed r a p i d l y by an accom-p l i s h e d i n d u s t r i a l d e signer and intended f o r t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o o ther a r t i s t i c media. Flaxman's g o a l , as he i n d i c a t e d to Hayley, was to 'show how any s t o r y may be represented i n a s e r i e s of compositions on p r i n c i p l e s of the a n c i e n t s . ' 1 The e x p r e s s i o n 'on p r i n c i p l e s of the a n c i e n t s ' d i d not p r e c l u d e the i n c l u s i o n of anything t h a t c o u l d be adapted to present an appearance a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the Homeric e p i c s . H i s a d a p t a t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s were many: , a l t e r a t i o n s of the focus and d e t a i l of the s t o r i e s , i n c l u s i o n of c o m p o s i t i o n a l schemes unknown to Homer's time; novel d e v i c e s i n h i g h a r t such as the h o r i z o n t a l h a t c h i n g (more u s u a l l y employed i n 18th Century books of engravings of a n c i e n t a r t ) ; t a k i n g of 'short c u t s ' such as the e x c l u s i o n of h e a v i l y decorated d r a p e r i e s (even though a n c i e n t vases o f t e n show i t ) ; and, l a s t but not l e a s t , s e l e c t i o n of the engraving process, a mass p r o d u c t i o n method, i t s e l f unknown i n Homer's time. C l e a r l y , t o Flaxman, "on p r i n c p l e s of the a n c i e n t s " d i d not mean d e t a i l e d r e p r o d u c t i o n of a n c i e n t compositions. He was n e i t h e r simply adopting a n c i e n t or e a r l y I t a l i a n a r t as models nor attempting to c r e a t e a s e r i e s of images c o n t r i v e d to be i n d i s t i n g u s h a b l e from a n c i e n t work. Runge, commenting i n a l e t t e r of 1800, observed, 'My God, I have never seen t h i s k i n d of t h i n g b e f o r e 93 i n my l i f e ; the drawings on E t r u s c a n vases completely p a l e by comparison'. 2 indeed, the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s were q u i t e u n l i k e the E t r u s c a n designs, i n no s m a l l p a r t because Flaxman had employed the methods and p r i n c i p l e s u t i l i z e d by h i s own contemporaries f o r the c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n of e s s e n t i a l i d e a s . By comparison, i n the s c u l p t u r a l s i d e of h i s p r a c t i c e Flaxman c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d the d i f f e r e n t purposes to which shaded p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and l i n e diagrams should be put. The conceptual scheme f o r a monument to the poet W i l l i a m C o l l i n s i n F i g u r e 22 c o n t a i n s a study i n pen and ink and wash of the f i g u r e s to be represented i n a bas r e l i e f , and a l i n e drawing i n pen and ink without shadow. At the top i s a p i c t u r e , 'a g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n . . . capable of suggesting a mental image' 3 of the f i n i s h e d r e s u l t . At the bottom i s a diagram, 'an i l l u s -t r a t i v e f i g u r e g i v i n g an o u t l i n e or general scheme of an o b j e c t and i t s v a r i o u s p a r t s . ' 4 The d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n s t r u c t i v e . As the notes on the sheet d e s c r i b e , the top, with i t s e n l i v e n i n g d e t a i l , and shading was i n c l u d e d to g i v e h i s patrons a good id e a of what the f i n i s h e d r e l i e f would look l i k e and what each f i g u r e would r e p r e s e n t . By c o n t r a s t , the lower drawing, done i n Flaxman's own l i n e a r shorthand, shows only the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the work. U n l i k e the r e n d e r i n g at the top of the sheet the bottom sketch i s only s u g g e s t i v e , l e a v i n g the p r o v i s i o n of d e t a i l to the i m a g i n a t i o n of the viewer. In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , Flaxman's Homer designs do not convey s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the viewers of them to c r e a t e 94 a mental image of c h a r a c t e r s he r e p r e s e n t s . Whereas Reynolds, f o r example, p o r t r a y e d people who had a c t u a l l y been seated b e f o r e him, n e i t h e r Flaxman nor anyone e l s e of h i s time had ever seen the people or gods d e s c r i b e d by Homer. The p o r t r a y a l of Homer's c h a r a c t e r s thus n e c e s s i t a t e d the use of d e t a i l s not from the t e x t s but r a t h e r from the a r t i s t ' s e x perience. Yet, Flaxman d i d not p r o v i d e d e t a i l . H i s d e p i c t i o n s were only s u g g e s t i v e , the f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n being l e f t to the i m a g i n a t i o n of the viewer. By e x t e n s i o n , i t would be i m p o s s i b l e f o r any viewer to r e c o n s t r u c t Homer's s t o r i e s by s t u d y i n g Flaxman's v i s u a l images. S t r i c t l y speaking Flaxman f a i l e d i n h i s attempt to 'show how any s t o r y ( i n p a r t i c u l a r the I l i a d and Odyssey) may be represented i n a s e r i e s of c o m p o s i t i o n s . . . ' 5 And y e t , as Reynolds noted, Homer was p a r t of 'the u s u a l course of r e a d i n g . ' For those a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with the s t o r i e s , l i t e r a t e people, Flaxman's engraved designs c o u l d become a p l e a s a n t d i v e r s i o n as a k i n d of s e c u l a r Book of Hours. The images d i s p l a y , as the c a p t i o n s i n d i c a t e , A c h i l l e s ' f u r y , Penelope c o n f r o n t i n g the s u i t o r s , Argus' death or the King of the L e s t r i g e n s k i l l i n g a man, and the informed viewer i s s t i m u l a t e d to r e c a l l the t e x t u a l context. To a 20th century viewer, the d e p i c t i o n of events that o c c u r r e d t w e n t y - f i v e hundred years ago might seem to be pure escapism, a k i n to t a k i n g a s t r o l l through a great E n g l i s h N e o - C l a s s i c a l garden such as Stourhead with i t s c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d topography and a r c h i t e c t u r e ( F i g u r e 4 ) . But escapism, 95 a 20th Century word, i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with a c t i v i t i e s t h a t seem f r i v o l o u s or u n r e a l . I t s a p p l i c a t i o n here would not r e f l e c t a l a t e 18th Century p o i n t of view. For 18th Century observers, Homer was being s t u d i e d as a model f o r contemporary s o c i e t y . Robert Wood had w r i t t e n of Homer that 'whatever h i s pl a n of i n s t r u c t i o n , e i t h e r moral or p o l i t i c a l , might have been ( f o r t o deny that he had any would be h i g h l y unreasonable), h i s ch o i c e of c h a r a c t e r s f o r the purpose never c a r r i e d him beyond Nature, and h i s own experience of l i f e . ' 6 Homer demonstrated a moral p o s i t i o n by i n c l u d i n g such c h a r a c t e r s as the ever f a i t h f u l Penelope. He even opened the s t o r y of the I l i a d by r e c o u n t i n g how a plague had b e f a l l e n the Greeks because t h e i r k i n g , Agamemnon, had re f u s e d to g i v e up the p r i e s t Chryses' daughter f o r ransom and thus offended the plague causing god A p o l l o . When c o n s i d e r i n g the I l i a d and Odyssey as p o l i t i c a l models, a reader cannot but n o t i c e that throughout both t a l e s of war, v i o l e n c e and upheaval the s t r u c t u r e of Homeric s o c i e t y remained secure. Gods always ranked be f o r e k i n g s , k i n g s b e f o r e heroes and heroes be f o r e o r d i n a r y men. U l y s s e s , the g r e a t e s t Homeric hero, the exemplar f o r a l l men, p r e v a i l s by overcoming the u p s t a r t s u i t o r s and r e s t o r i n g the o l d ord e r . I t i s of i n t e r e s t that i n Flaxman's i l l u s t r a t i o n s Gods are t y p i c a l l y d e p i c t e d p h y s i c a l l y above ki n g s who are, i n t u r n , above heroes who are, i n t u r n , shown above common men. In Homeric s o c i e t y human r e l a t i o n s h i p s are simple and d i r e c t and i t s h i e r a r c h i e s are maintained and f r e q u e n t l y demonstrated. Flaxman's designs 96 r e f l e c t these p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of Homeric s o c i e t y . Had he l i v e d longer Wood might have regarded the engraved books of Flaxman's designs as v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of Homer's moral and p o l i t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . The evidence f o r Flaxman having i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d a p o l i t i c a l statement i n the Homer designs can only be regarded as c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . I t has been observed t h a t he showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s i n the 1790's 7 but i t would be i n c o r r e c t t o assume t h a t he was p o l i t i c a l l y unaware. In h i s own i n v e n t o r y of p e r s o n a l . i t e m s taken to Rome he noted t h a t "amongst the Books are none e i t h e r R e l i g o u s ( s i c ) or P o l i t i c a l " . 8 These e x c l u s i o n s may simply r e p r e s e n t the prudent removal of m a t e r i a l which might have been c o n s i d e r e d c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n the f o r e i g n lands he was about to v i s i t . However, by 1794, as the Flaxmans prepared to leave Rome, h o l d i n g c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be dangerous. France was i n the midst of a r e v o l u t i o n a r y war that was a c t u a l l y accomplishing what the T r o j a n war had f a i l e d to a t t a i n , namely, the overthrow of the very s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . The Flaxmans thus chose to a v o i d even the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c c i d e n t a l l y s t r a y i n g i n t o the main areas of c o n f l i c t by l e a v i n g I t a l y v i a Venice and t r a v e l l i n g north through Innsbruck, Augsburg and K a s s e l . 9 Flaxman was only to t r a v e l again i n France, b r i e f l y . In 1802 he v i s i t e d P a r i s t o see the works of a r t Napoleon had l o o t e d from conquered c o u n t r i e s . During t h a t v i s i t he had the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet David, but Flaxman r e f u s e d 97 f e e l i n g t h a t , as a r e s u l t of h i s p a r t i n the R e v o l u t i o n , the Frenchman's hands had been "dyed beyond p u r i f i c a t i o n . " 1 0 By the time Flaxman had f i n i s h e d the Homer designs, h i s o b j e c t i v e s f o r them were much more mundane than as instruments of p o l i t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . In l a t e 1793 he i n t i m a t e d i n a l e t t e r to h i s c l o s e f r i e n d Hayley that he intended to e x p l o i t the designs i n the form of " s c u l p t u r e of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s " . 1 1 T h i s suggests t h a t , as he worked on them, Flaxman came to c o n c e i v e of the Homer designs as working drawings to be used not only by an engraver to t r a n s l a t e i n t o h i s chosen medium but by Flaxman h i m s e l f to t r a n s l a t e i n t o a v a r i e t y of s c u l p t u r a l forms. Some of the designs were indeed rendered i n other media but t y p i c a l l y by other a r t i s t s . I t would appear that Flaxman had not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t once p u b l i s h e d as l i n e engravings the i l l u s t r a t i o n s c o u l d be as u s e f u l a source of i n s p i r a t i o n by other a r t i s t s as he had hoped they would be f o r him. I t i s p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t the a c t u a l works t h a t so a t t r a c t e d these other a r t i s t s were executed not by Flaxman but by a s e r i e s of engravers. In the 1805 Longman e d i t i o n 1 2 f o u r engravers are represented: Tomaso P i r o l i , the engraver of the f i r s t e d i t i o n s , James Neagle, James Parker and W i l l i a m Blake who engraved the Flaxman compositions newly c r e a t e d f o r the 1805 e d i t i o n . The engraver of each image i s i d e n t i f i e d at the lower r i g h t hand corner of the p l a t e . The Blake engravings o f f e r much g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n l i n e width, extending from the use of dotted l i n e s f o r some d e t a i l s of musculature ( I l i a d 2, F i g u r e 98 37) to heavy ragged l i n e s f o r h o r i z o n t a l h a t c h i n g . He has a l s o represented shadow u s i n g not h o r i z o n t a l h a t c h i n g but a l i n e whose width i s s e v e r a l times that of the narrowest. Neagle and Parker together completely re-engraved the Odyssey f o r the 1805 Longman e d i t i o n and Parker engraved three of the new designs f o r the I l i a d . Both men used v a r i a t i o n s i n l i n e width comparable to Blake's I l i a d a d d i t i o n s . Although the e f f e c t achieved by Blake and to a l e s s e r extent by Neagle and Parker i s perhaps more s u b t l e , even p r e t t y , i t was not as a r c h e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t as P i r o l i ' s . The l i n e s of engraving from P i r o l i ' s s t u d i o maintained a more constant width. He and h i s a s s o c i a t e s were e i t h e r more c o n s e r v a t i v e or perhaps more conscious of the p o t e n t i a l p l a c e of the Flaxman Homer designs i n a l i b r a r y of contemporary a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e x t s . L i n e drawing was, indeed, i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the a n c i e n t s but i t was a l s o the v i s u a l language of c h o i c e i n the 18th Century f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n of e s s e n t i a l i d e a s , f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n a wide v a r i e t y of f i e l d s i n c l u d i n g a r t , t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s . T h i s had been noted by Hogarth i n h i s A n a l y s i s of Beauty p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e f e r e n c e t o the use of l i n e t o diagram mathematical problems.13 Flaxman h i m s e l f saw l i n e i n a s i m i l a r context when he wrote 'geometry g i v e s l i n e s and diagrams f o r the motion, o u t l i n e and drapery of the f i g u r e ...'14 Once mass produced as engravings, the form i n which they were most widely known and i n f l u e n t i a l , Flaxman's o u t l i n e s were at once removed i n k i n d from one-off a r t i s t i c 99 works or diagrams. Those 2 l a t t e r r e q u i r e d p e r s o n a l study, but, by v i r t u e of t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n as engravings, the Homer designs c o u l d become instruments of i n s p i r a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n of e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t s and students a l i k e without the n e c e s s i t y of examining the o r i g i n a l drawings. The use of the Homer designs as a means of a c q u i r i n g a r t i s t i c s k i l l s p l a c e d them i n the category of books of i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with a n c i e n t work q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r c r e d i b i l i t y and once an a r t i s t such as David demonstrated t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y i n the p r o d u c t i o n of new works they a l s o became an e s s e n t i a l a d d i t i o n t o the s t u d i o s of h i s s t u d e n t s . During the p e r i o d between the l a t e 1790's when David c r e a t e d Les Sabines and 1865, when Ingres as a mature p a i n t e r used Flaxman's designs as sources of imagery f o r h i s Homere  D e i f i ^ , t here had been a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the way l i n e engravings were viewed. Even though Les Sabines was based upon h i s own work Flaxman a p p a r e n t l y found i t s composition and d e t a i l s u f f i c i e n t l y f r e s h and v i g o r o u s to use them as the b a s i s of h i s own design f o r the S h i e l d of A c h i l l e s of 1810 to 1818. Some 50 years l a t e r when Ingres used the Homer designs to form the background of h i s Homere Delfl6 they had become a p a r t of the f o l k imagery, c r e a t e d i n an age beyond the memory of working a r t i s t s , and now forming not a b a s i s f o r new work but r a t h e r p r o v i d i n g images s u i t a b l e f o r the background. By u s i n g them, Ingres s y m b o l i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d the c r e d i b i l i t y of h i s s u b j e c t 100 and of h i m s e l f , an a r t i s t s whose t r a i n i n g was based i n the n e o - c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . When a r t i s t s such as David, Ingres, Rude and Gros began to use the Homer designs to c r e a t e new works, the images were f u l f i l l i n g a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of an o b j e c t i v e o f t e n expressed throughout Flaxman;s l i f e t i m e : t h a t e f f o r t should be d i r e c t e d toward the c u l t i v a t i o n of s o c i e t y . The engravings d i d , as Wedgwood hoped f o r h i s own work, d i f f u s e "a good t a s t e through the a r t s " by the "power of m u l t i p l y i n g c o p i e s of f i n e t h i n g s " . 1 5 A f t e r Flaxman's death, the E n g l i s h p a i n t e r G.F. Watts (1817-1904) was to suggest that the w a l l s of s c h o o l s be adorned with the o u t l i n e s f o r the betterment of young s t u d e n t s . 1 6 In 1927 W i l l i a m George Constable ended h i s biography of Flaxman with the wish that a r t i s t s and manufacturers might be brought as c l o s e together as they had been when Flaxman worked f o r Wedgwood. 1 7 The same might be s a i d of the Homer d e s i g n s . In h i s own l e c t u r e s b e f o r e the Royal Academy Flaxman was to note some years a f t e r the completion of the Homer designs t h a t i n a n c i e n t Greece p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e had been ' s t u d i e d by the n o b l e s t and best educated persons; they were improved by the accumulation of s c i e n c e ; they were employed to e x c i t e and c e l e b r a t e v i r t u e and e x c e l l e n c e ; and, f i n a l l y , to e x a l t the mind of the beholder to the contemplation of d i v i n e q u a l i t i e s and a t t r i b u t e s . ' 1 8 i n Flaxman's mind, works of a r t i n major forms were to e l e v a t e the t a s t e of the 'noblest and best educated persons'. The I l i a d and Odyssey were, of course, being s t u d i e d 101 i n Flaxman's time f o r v i r t u a l l y the same reasons. Thus, to best e f f e c t an a m e l i o r a t i o n of t a s t e , the episodes from Homer's e p i c s , then acknowledged the g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y works of the a n c i e n t world, should have been d e p i c t e d i n p a i n t i n g s or s c u l p -t u r e s , the h i g h e s t forms of v i s u a l a r t of the a n c i e n t and contemprorary world. The form used, simple l i n e , was however, fundamentally u n l i k e these v i s u a l forms. In the context of a n c i e n t a r t simple l i n e was most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the c r a f t t r a d i t i o n s of Greek red and b l a c k f i g u r e p o t t e r y . P i e c e s of t h i s p o t t e r y were intended f o r everyday domestic use r a t h e r than f o r profound contemplation or i n t e l l e c t u a l improvement. Flaxman h i m s e l f had become i n t i m a t e l y f a m i l i a r with the l i n e form d u r i n g the years he submitted designs to Wedgwood ( F i g u r e 6 ) . These drawings were never intended f o r profound contemplation but r a t h e r f o r the shop use of Wedgwood's p o t t e r s . In h i s Homer designs Flaxman combined a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l form of a n c i e n t c r a f t and contemporary i n d u s t r i a l t r a d i t i o n s and unwit-t i n g l y f u r t h e r e d the c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s of high a r t s . T h i s i d e a of u n i t i n g the t r a d i t i o n s of c r a f t and the o b j e c t i v e s of high a r t that Flaxman e x h i b i t e d i n the Homer designs was to reappear as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e i n the 19th and 20th C e n t u r i e s . A pamphlet p u b l i s h e d i n 1919 e n t i t l e d Program  of the S t a t e Bauhaus i n Weimar s e t s out the o b j e c t i v e s of the Bauhaus Sc h o o l . I t reads i n p a r t : "Art comes i n t o being above a l l methods; i t cannot be taught as such, although the c r a f t can. A r c h i t e c t s , p a i n t e r s , s c u l p t o r s are craftsmen i n the 102 o r i g i n a l sense of the word; consequently a l l students are expected to a c q u i r e a thorough t r a i n i n g i n the workshops and on the p r a c t i c e and work s i t e s , s i n c e t h i s i s the i n d i s p e n s a b l e b a s i s of a l l c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y " . 1 9 The w o r k s i t e s c i t e d were those e n v i s i o n e d by the new d i r e c t o r of the s c h o o l , Walter Gropius. He had formulated the c u r r i c u l u m to s t r e s s the search f o r s o l u t i o n s t o contemporary problems i n such areas as housing, urban p l a n n i n g , and h i g h - q u a l i t y , u t i l i t a r i a n mass-production. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the s o l u t i o n s were to u n i t e the fundamentals of c r a f t t r a d i t i o n with a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e , i n p a r t i c u l a r an a m e l i o r a t i o n of l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n post World War I Germany. Although not planned beforehand, Flaxman's path to the a r t i s t i c competence that he d i s p l a y e d i n the Homer designs p a r a l l e l e d the Bauhaus c u r r i c u l u m . He was 37 years o l d when he undertook the commission. Of those years, the f i r s t 15 had been spent i n h i s f a t h e r ' s shop where he l e a r n e d the p r i n c i p l e s of m o d e l l i n g and s c u l p t u r e . The products of the shop were made to the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of a c l i e n t e l e t h a t i n c l u d e d the s c u l p t o r s R o u b i l l i a c and Scheemakers. He progressed to a more formal t r a i n i n g at the Royal Academy where i t was impressed upon the students t h a t i t was the "wish of the genuine p a i n t e r [to] improve mankind".20 From the time of h i s graduation from the Royal Academy i n 1775 u n t i l 1792 when he began the Homer i l l u s -t r a t i o n s he had worked f o r Wedgwood (from 1775 to 1787 almost e x c l u s i v e l y ) . The i n d u s t r i a l i s t had expressed a wish "to d i f f u s e a good t a s t e through the a r t s " by the s a l e of h i s 103 m a s s - d i s t r i b u t e d p r o d u c t s ; ^ 1 however, i t i s d o u b t f u l that i t was Flaxman's i d e a l i s m that made him a t t r a c t i v e to Wedgwood. When Wedgwood wrote to h i s p a r t n e r B e n t l e y t h a t he was "gla d Flaxman i s as v a l u a b l e an a r t i s t " — as he soon proved be — there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of what q u a l i t i e s prompted the p r a i s e . 2 2 Yet, the v a r i e d nature of the work he was doing f o r Wedgwood suggests an answer. Flaxman was exe c u t i n g with equal f a c i l i t y , p o r t r a i t s from l i f e (such as of Mrs Siddons ( F i g u r e 12)), designs based upon the antique (such as The Crowning of  a K i t h a r i s t ( F i g u r e 14)), and o r i g i n a l designs to f i l l a p a r t i c u l a r commission (The Manufacturer's Arms ( F i g u r e 6 f o r example)). He was v a l u a b l e because he co u l d f u n c t i o n e q u a l l y w e l l as an a r t i s t or as a modeller. He was m o d e l l i n g with the eye of an accomplished a r t i s t , and, perhaps more important, he was c r e a t i n g designs i n a form t h a t c o u l d be r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d by the craftsmen who were making the moulds which formed the c l a y components t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d Jasperware. With Flaxman's designs no i n t e r m e d i a t e r e n d e r i n g s were necessary between a r t i s t ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n and shop use. Co n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t might be expended r e n d e r i n g an a r t i s t ' s concept i n t o working drawings f o r the use of a craftsman i n a shop. Such i s demonstrated by the a c t i v i t i e s of R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and R u n d e l l , the f i r m of s i l v e r s m i t h s , from whom Flaxman r e c e i v e d the commission f o r the S h i e l d of A c h i l l e s and whose smiths executed v a r i o u s other of h i s d e s i g n s . 2 3 F i g u r e 80 re p r e s e n t s a design (now i n the B r i t i s h Museum) f o r a wine-cooler 104 by Flaxman's Royal Academy classmate and long time f r i e n d Thomas S t o t h a r d . 2 4 I t i s an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c sketch that i n c l u d e s comparatively l i t t l e d e t a i l . In an album of s i l v e r p l a t e designs i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t museum i s a r e n d e r i n g ( F i g u r e 81) a f t e r the S t o t h a r d o r i g i n a l . I t was prepared f o r Rundell B r i d g e and R u n d e l l probably by one of t h e i r employees who was w e l l acquainted with s i l v e r s m i t h i n g . 2 5 The draughtsman has transformed the o r i g i n a l concept by s e t t i n g down more p r e c i s e l y the d e t a i l s t h a t were to cover the f i n i s h e d p i e c e . O r i g i n a l designs were a l s o produced by R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and R u n d e l l . In an e f f o r t to o b t a i n complete c l a r i t y of concepts, designs were rendered i n a s t i l l more p r e c i s e manner. F i g u r e 82 r e p r e s e n t s another design f o r a wine c o o l e r perhaps a f t e r W i l l i a m Theed R.A. 2 6 head of the Rundell design department. I t was c r e a t e d e x p r e s s l y f o r the use of the s i l v e r s m i t h s themselves and a c c o r d i n g l y was reduced to simple pen l i n e without any shading. While c l a r i t y i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the o u t l i n e s of f i g u r e s and animals i n the r e l i e f and f l o r a l forms beneath the rim was s t r e s s e d , p e r s p e c t i v e was compromised to a degree c l e a r l y e v i d e n t when the design i s compared with the f i n i s h e d c o o l e r ( F i g u r e 83). In s i l v e r , the r e l i e f covers the curved s u r f a c e and the extreme l e f t and r i g h t are not v i s i b l e from a s i n g l e view p o i n t . On paper i t appeared to have been a p p l i e d to a f l a t p a n e l . More drawings to c l a r i f y the p o i n t that a f l a t d e s i gn was to be a p p l i e d to a curved s u r f a c e were c l e a r l y unnecessary vbecause the convention of the two-dimensional l i n e 105 drawing conveyed s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the modeller or s i l v e r s m i t h to produce a f i n i s h e d t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l p i e c e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Flaxman's designs f o r Jasperware, the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s and s i l v e r w a r e were s i m i l a r i n t h e i r common purpose. None were c r e a t e d to be a f i n i s h e d work i n i t s e l f but to be i n t e r p r e t e d and rendered i n another medium. The t e c h n i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o d u c t i o n and s a l e of the u l t i m a t e form were to be s o l v e d by someone e l s e , or, i n the case of bas r e l i e f s , by Flaxman, i n the c a p a c i t y of a s c u l p t o r at some u n s p e c i f i e d time i n the f u t u r e . To be most u s e f u l f o r the p o t t e r , engraver or s i l v e r s m i t h h i s designs needed to be presented i n a form which s p e c i f i e d d e t a i l c l e a r l y and unambiguously so t h a t as l i t t l e a d a p t a t i o n as p o s s i b l e was r e q u i r e d . The problems a s s o c i a t e d with p r e s e n t i n g l i n e drawings on f l a t sheets f o r r e n d e r i n g on curved o b j e c t s had long been known to Flaxman through h i s work f o r Wedgwood. Although the sample of designs executed by h i s hand and d e l i v e r e d to Wedgwood i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y s m a l l , 2 7 i t i s nonetheless s i g n i f i c a n t . F i g u r e 6, drawn while Flaxman was s t i l l i n Wedgwood's employ, shows both t h a t the designer was s u b m i t t i n g work to the i n d u s t r i a l i s t i n a s t y l e which foreshadowed t h a t of the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and a l s o that the design Wedgwood was a c c e p t i n g from h i s a r t i s t was c o n s i s t e n t with i n d u s t r i a l shop drawing i n use through the p e r i o d . I f , as Constable i m p l i e s , Flaxman c o n s t i t u t e d the b r i d g e between the a r t s and i n d u s t r y i t would seem that the t r a f f i c of i d e a s flowed through him i n both d i r e c t i o n s . Flaxman 106 took to Wedgwood h i s s k i l l as a modeller, h i s knowledge of an c i e n t work, and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to design i n a manner t h a t c o u l d be adapted i n t o . p r o d u c t s r e m i n i s c e n t of a n c i e n t work. Wedgwood's design requirements f o r c e d Flaxman to take back a s t y l e of g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that c o u l d be a p p l i e d with equal f a c i l i t y to the manufacture of Jasperware, engravings and s i l v e r p l a t e . Flaxman's f r i e n d C o c k e r e l l wrote e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y of the i l l u s t r a t i o n that they are "the works by which he w i l l l i v e ... c l e a r l y the f r u i t of Flaxman's l i f e as an a r t i s t are those works."28 S t r i c t l y speaking Flaxman never d i d transform the Homer i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t o the s c u l p t u r e he envisaged and thus d i d not achieve the d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n of a r t i s t as "one who c u l t i v a t e s one of the f i n e a r t s , which p l e a s e by p e r f e c t i o n of execution".29 j n f a c t , f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Homer commission, the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n of the designs, he f u l f i l l the d e f i n i t i o n of a designer r a t h e r than an a r t i s t : "one who makes an a r t i s t i c design or p l a n of c o n s t r u c t i o n : s p e c i f i c a l l y one who makes designs or p a t t e r n s f o r the manufacturer or co n s t r u c t o r " . 3 0 I f Flaxman's Homeric i l l u s t r a t i o n s are con s i d e r e d only from the standpoint of h i s contemporaries, that i s , i n the context of what they regarded as the g r e a t e s t of human s o c i e t i e s , the a s s o c i a t i o n with a n c i e n t a r t i s i n e v i t a b l e . But i t i s only when the l i n e drawings are con s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t of h i s s t a t e d purpose f o r them — the p r e l i m i n a r y stage i n the p r o d u c t i o n 107 of s c u l p t u r a l works i n a form a k i n to i n d u s t r i a l drawings s u i t a b l e f o r submission to Wedgwood or R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and Rundell — t h a t h i s r e a c t i o n to h i s contemporaries' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and p r a i s e can be e x p l a i n e d . H a i l e d as c a p t u r i n g the essence of a n c i e n t work, Flaxman r e g r e t t e d t h a t the c r i t i c s were j u d g i n g h i s c r e a t i v i t y on the b a s i s of a p r o j e c t never f u l l y r e a l i z e d . 108 Footnotes Chapter 5 MSS F i t z w i l l i a m Museum, Flaxman l e t t e r - b o x no. 4, Flaxman to Hayley, Rome, 26 October 1793. P.O. Runge, H l n t e r l a s s e n e S c h r l f t e n (Hamburg 1841), I, p. 54. The S h o r t e r Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y ed C.T. Onions (Oxford, 1975) v.II p.1580 no. 4. I b i d V.I p.539, no.2. See note 1 Chapter V. Robert Wood, An Essay on the O r i g i n a l Genius of Homer (1769; New York, 1971), p.298. Hugh Honour, N e o c l a s s i c i s m (Harmondsworth, 1968), p.71. Meteyard, op. c i t . , p. 506 i n c l u d e s a copy of t h i s i n v e n -t o r y . I t l i s t s as w e l l as p e r s o n a l e f f e c t s "Some C l a s s i c a l Books" and a r t i s t s ' s u p p l i e s . Irwin, op. c i t . , p. 224 fn73, notes "Augsburg f o r example i s mentioned i n B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MS. 39781, f . 382, unnamed correspondent to Mrs. Flaxman (4 November 1794) and K a s s e l i n same volume, f . 386, Mrs. G. Hare-Naylor to Mrs Flaxman, 8 November 1794." Honour, op. c i t . , p.71. Flaxman to Hayley Rome 26 October 1793. Reproduced by Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s as Flaxman's I l l u s t r a t i o n s  t o Homer (New York, 1977) with an i n t r o d u c t i o n and commentary by Robert E s s i c k and J e n i j o y La B e l l e . W i l l i a m Hogarth, A n a l y s i s of Beauty (London, 1753), p.37. John Flaxman, L e c t u r e s on S c u l p t u r e (London, 1881) p.160. Noted by David Irwin, John Flaxman 1755-1826 (London, 1979), p. 19. George F r e d e r i c Watts, Works (1912), V o l . I l l , p. 109. W.G. Constable, op. c i t . , p.77. Flaxman, op. c i t . , 1881, p.179. 109 Hans Wingler, Graphic Work From the Bauhaus (London, 1965), p. 18. Reynolds D i s c o u r s e I I I , 11. 23-26. See note 15 above. Wedgwood to Bent l e y , 14 January 1775. Quoted by Meteyard, op. c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 321. See Chapter IV note. A l s o Mary Henderson, "The B e r e s f o r d Hope S i l v e r " A p o l l o ns 99 January 1974 pp.34-37, wherein the B e r e s f o r d Cup i s a t t r i b u t e d to Flaxman; John F. Hayward, "Run d e l l , B r i d g e and Ru n d e l l , A u r i f i c e s Regis P a r t I " Antiques 99 (June 1971), pp. 860-865, P a r t II Antiques 100 ( J u l y 1971), pp.110-115; N.M. Penzer, "Some Royal P l a t e of the Regency by Paul S t o r r " , A p o l l o 62 September 1955 p.66 has s p e c i f i c data on Flaxman's T h e o c r i t u s Cup and C h a r l e s Oman, "A Problem of A r t i s t i c R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : The f i r m of R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and R u n d e l l " , A p o l l o ns 83 (March 1966) pp.174-183, which d i s c u s s e s R u n d e l l , B r i d g e and Rund e l l working methods as they r e l a t e to an ablum of s i l v e r p l a t e designs (now i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum) t i t l e d Designs f o r p l a t e by John Flaxman, e t c . Sto t h a r d ' s s i l v e r designs i n c l u d e d The W e l l i n g t o n S h i e l d . C h a r l e s Oman, E n g l i s h S i l v e r s m i t h s ' Work (London, 1965) reproduces S t o t h a r d ' s design i n l i n e ( P l a t e 205) and i n c l u d e s a photograph of the s h i e l d ( P l a t e 206). Oman, o p . c i t . , p.80. Bryan's D i c t i o n a r y pf P a i n t e r s and Engravers ed. George C. Williamson (London, 1921), V o l . V p.164 notes t h a t W i l l i a m Theed 1764-1817 was a great f r i e n d of Flaxman, submitted designs to Wedgwood and from 1803 worked f o r Run d e l l and Brid g e " f o r whom he prepared the drawings t h a t the engravers might work on t h e i r p l a t e . " A l i s o n K e l l y , The St o r y of Wedgwood (London, 1975) r e l a t e s t h a t i n 1828 Wedgwood's 'stock of ware, o l d moulds and models was s o l d f o r L16,000' p.51. There may have been Flaxman drawings amongst t h i s m a t e r i a l but more l i k e l y when moulds or models were made from a design the drawings were simply d i s c a r d e d . C.R. C o c k e r e l l , D i a r i e s , 27th November 1824. The S h o r t e r Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y ed. C.T. Onions (Oxford, 1975) V. I p . I l l n o . I I I . 1. I b i d . , p.528 no.2. 110 Selected Bibliography T i t l e s f o r Works Centering on Flaxman Books Bindman, David, John Flaxman, London: Thames and Hudson, 1979 which i s the E n g l i s h e d i t i o n of Hofmann, Werner, David Bindman et a l . John Flaxman Mythologie und I n d u s t r i e Hamburg, 1979. C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, Catalogue of the small but v a l u a b l e  L i b r a r y of Books ... of John Flaxman, Esq., R.A. D e c , London, 12 June 1828. C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, Catalogue of a v a l u a b l e assemblage  of Engravings by a n c i e n t and modern Masters •.. the  p r o p e r t y of the l a t e John Flaxman, Esq., R.A. D e c , London, 1 J u l y 1828. C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, Maria Denman Sal e Catalogue, London, 1862. C h r i s t i e , Manson and Woods, Catalogue of the remaining Works of John Flaxman, R.A., London, 26 A p r i l 1876. Constable, W.G., John Flaxman, 1775-1826, London: U n i v e r s i t y of London Press L t d . , 1927. Flaxman, John, 1755-1826, Oeuvre de Flaxman (compositions g r a v i e s par R e V e i l ) , P a r i s : R e v e i l , 1836. NC 1115 F64 1835 Flaxman, John, Homer Hesiod Aeschylus, London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, 1805-1831. Flaxman, John, Compositions by John Flaxman RA from the Poem of Dante A l i g h i e r i , C o n t a i n i n g H e l l , Purgatory and P a r a d i s e , London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, 1807. Flaxman, John, Compositions From the Tra g e d i e s of Aeschylus Designed by John Flaxman, Engraved by Thomas P i r o l i , The o r i g i n a l drawings i n the p o s s e s s i o n of ths ( s i c ) Countess Dowager Spencer Rome, 1793. Flaxman, John, The I l i a d of Homer engraved from compositions of John Flexman, London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, 1805. Irwin, David, John Flaxman, 1755-1826, London, C a s s e l l L t d . , 1979. i l l Wark, Robert R., Drawings by John Flaxman i n the Huntington C o l l e c t i o n , San Marino C a l i f : Henry E. Huntington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y , 1970. NC 242 F57 W3 1970 Whinney Margaret and Rupert Gunnis, The C o l l e c t i o n of Models  by John Flaxman R.A. at U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , London: a catalogue and i n t r o d u c t i o n . London, 1967. A r t i c l e s B e n t l e y , G e r a l d Eddes, "Notes on the E a r l y E d i t i o n s of F l a x -man's C l a s s i c a l Designs," B u l l e t i n of the New York P u b l i c  L i b r a r y V o l . 68 May 1964 no.5 pp. 277-307, 361-388. ( P u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y as The E a r l y Engravings of F l a x - man's C l a s s i c a l Designs New York: The New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 1964). Z 881 N4 Cameron, R., "Flaxman et Wedgwood," O e i l , #53 May 1959 pp.48-55. Nl 04 Croft-Murray E., "An Account Book of John Flaxman R.A.," Walpole S o c i e t y Vol.28 [1939-1940] pp.51-101. Nl W3 Gaunt, W i l l i a m , "A Set of Drawings by John Flaxman," Con- n o i s e u r , Bd 153 1963 S 250-254. Nl C75 G i l l o w , Norah, "Some Flaxman Drawings at York," Preview, XXVI Apr., 1973 pp.915-19. n l B95 Irwin, David, "Flaxman: I t a l i a n J o u r n a l s and Correspondence," B u r l i n g t o n Mag. Cl[1959] pp.212-17. Roscoe, E.S., "The Career and Works of Flaxman," Magazine of  A r t , V4 (1881). Nl M22 Symmons, Sarah, "French Copies a f t e r Flaxman's O u t l i n e s , " B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, V o l . 115 Sept. 1973. Nl B95 Symmons, Sarah, "J.A.D. Ingres: the ap o t h e o s i s of Flaxman," B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, V o l . 121 Nov. 1979. Nl B95 112 Symmons, Sarah, "The S p i r i t of Despair: Patronage, P r i m i t i v i s m and the A r t of John Flaxman," B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, V o l . 117 Oct. 1975. Nl B95 Teniswood, C.F., "Flaxman as Designer," The A r t J o u r n a l , 1872. Nl A5 Teniswood, C.F., "Memorials of Flaxman," The A r t J o u r n a l , 1867 & 1868. Nl A5 Thomas, John, "John Flaxman, R.A.," J o u r n a l of the Royal  S o c i e t y of A r t s , CIV, 1955. AP 4 R7 Watson, F r a n c i s , "Flaxman: the B i c e n t e n a r y of an E n g l i s h Neo-C l a s s i c i s t , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, Bd 118 Sept. 1955. NA 1 A69 Whinney, Margaret, "Flaxman and the Ei g h t e e n t h Century," J o u r n a l of the Warburg and Co u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , Vol.19 J u l y 1956 pp.269-282. N 1 L65 Wick, P e t e r , A. "Flaxman as a Draughtsman," Proceedings of the Wedgwood I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seminar. Bd 3, 1958. W i l l i a m , I o l o A. "An I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of some e a r l y drawings by John Flaxman," B u r l i n g t o n Magazine, C H , 1960, pp.246-250. Nl B95 T i t l e s f o r the Central Issues Books Adam, Robert (1728-1792), The works i n A r c h i t e c t u r e of Robert  and James Adam, Londres: Aax d£pens des auteurs, 1778-1822. NA 997 A4 A4 1778a Adam, Robert, Ruins of the pal a c e of the Emperor D i o c l e t i a n at  S p a l a t r o , London: P r i n t e d f o r the Author, 1764. NA 320 A5 A g o s t i n i , Leonardo, Le gemme a n t i c h e f i g u r a t e , Roma: G.B. B r u s s o t t i , 1686. NK 5565 A3 113 Bland, David, A h i s t o r y of Book I l l u s t r a t i o n , London: Faber and Faber, 1958. NC 960 B62 Boase, T.S.R., E n g l i s h A r t 1800-1870, Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1959. N 6761 09 Bolgar, R.R., The C l a s s i c a l H e r i t a g e and I t s B e n e f i c i a r i e s , New York, Evanston and London: Harper Torchbooks, 1964. CB 245 B 63 B o l t o n , A r t h u r Thomas, The A r c h i t e c t u r e of Robert and James  Adam, (1758-1794) London: Country L i f e , 1922. NA 997 A4 B6 V 1-2 Booker, Peter J e f f r e y , A H i s t o r y of E n g i n e e r i n g Drawing, London: Chatto and Windus, 1963. T 353 B69 1963 Burke, Edmund 1729?-1797, A P h i l o s o p h i c a l I n q u i r y i n t o the Sublime and the B e a u t i f u l , New York: Garland Pub., IU71. N 62 B8 1759a Burke, Joseph, E n g l i s h A r t 1714-1800, Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1976. N 6761 09 V.9 Buten, Harry M., Wedgwood and A r t i s t s , Merion, P e n n s y l v a n i a : Buten Museum of Wedgwood, 1960. NK 4335 B73 Cumberland, George, Thoughts and O u t l i n e , S c u l p t u r e and the System that guided the A n c i e n t A r t i s t s i n Composing t h e i r  F i g u r e s and Groups, London, 1796. D e l i e b , E r i c , The Great S i l v e r Manufactory, Matthew Boulton and the Birmingham s i l v e r s m i t h s , 1760-1790. London: S t u d i o V i s t a P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. NK 7143 D425 1971 Duff, W., 1732-1815, An Essay on O r i g i n a l Genius, 1767. G a i n e s v i l l e F l a . : S c h o l a r s ' F a c s i m i l e s and R e p r i n t s , 1964. BF 412 D78 1767a Du Fresnoy, C h a r l e s Alphonse, The A r t of P a i n t i n g , t r a n s , by W i l l i a m Mason with annotations by S i r Joshua Reynolds, D u b l i n : P r i n t e d f o r a Whitestone et a l . , 1783. ND 1130 D8 1783 114 F a r r a r , Lady K a t h e r i n e Euphemia ( E d i t . ) . L e t t e r s of J o s i a h  Wedgwood, 3 Volumes, London: Women's P r i n t i n g S o c i e t y , 1903-1906. F i n e r Ann and George Savage, The S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of J o s i a h  Wedgwood, London: Cory, Adams and MacKay, 1965. NK 4335 W4 F r i e d l a n d e r , Walter, David to D e l a c r o i x , Cambridge, Mass.: 1952. ND 547 F75 Gerard, Alexander (1728-1795), An Essay on Genius, New York: Garland Pub., 1970. BF 412 G5 1774a Hamilton, S i r W i l l i a m 1730-1803, C o l l e c t i o n of engravings from a n c i e n t vases mostly of pure Greek workmanship d i s c o v e r e d ... i n 1789-90. Naples: W. T i s c h b e i n , 1791-95. NK 4624 H25 V . l - 3 Hawley, Henry, Neo- C l a s s i e i s m , S t y l e and M o t i f with an essay by R6my G. S a i s s e l i n C l e v e l a n d : the C l e v e l a n d Museum of A r t , 1964. N 6410 H34 Hayley, W i l l i a m , The L i f e of George Romoney Esq., London: T. Payne, 1809. ND 497 R7 H4 1809 FAD M0RG Hi b b e r t , C h r i s t o p h e r , The Grand Tour, London: Weidenfeld and N i c o l s o n , 1969. D 907 H56 1969 HIghet, G i l b e r t , The C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n , N.Y. and London: Oxford U Pr e s s , 1949. PN 883 H5 1949 Hutchison, Sidney, C , The H i s t o r y of the Royal Academy 1768- 1968, London: Chapman and H a l l , 1968. N 1100 H78 1968 Irwin, David, E n g l i s h N e o c l a s i c a l A r t , Greenwich C o n n e c t i c u t : New York Graphic S o c i e t y , 1966. N 6766 17 J e w i t t , L. Lewellynn, L i f e of J o s i a h Wedgwood, London: V i r t u e B r o t h e r s and Co., 1865. NK 4210 W4 J6 1865 115 Johansen, K. F r i i s , The I l i a d i n E a r l y Greek A r t , Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1967. NK a4646 F713 1967 K e l l y , A l i s o n , The S t o r y of Wedgwood, London: Faber and Faber, 1962. NK 4335 KA 1962 K l i n g e n d e r , F r a n c i s D., A r t and the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n E d i t e d and Revised by A r t h u r E l t o n , Chatham England: W i n i f r e d K l i n g e n d e r and Evely n , Adams and MacKay L t d , 1968. N 8218 1968 Luce, J.V., Homer and the Homeric Age, London: Thames and Hudson, 1975. PA 4037 L68 1975 L e s s i n g , G o t t h o l d Ephraim, Laokoon and How the A n c i e n t s Repre-sented Death (1766), London: G B e l l and Sons L t d . , 1914. N 64 L7 1914 Mankowitz, Wolf, Wedgwood, New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1953. NK 4335 M3 1953 Mead, W i l l i a m Edward, The Grand Tour i n the 18th Century, Boston and New York! Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1914. D 917 M4 1914 Meteyard, E l i z a 1816-1879, The L i f e of J o s i a h Wedgwood, from h i s p r i v a t e correspondence and f a m i l y papers 77~. London: Hurst and B l a c k e t t , 1865-66. NK 4210 W4 M6 1865 Mulder, John R., The Temple of the Mind: Education and L i t e r a r y Taste i n Seventeen-Century England, New York: Pegasus Backgrounds i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , Western P u b l i s h i n g Company, Inc., 1935. PR 438 T3 M84 1969 Northcote, James Esq. R.A., The L i f e of S i r Joshua Reynolds, London: Henry Colburn, 1818. ND 497 R4 N8 1818 Oman, C h a r l e s , E n g l i s h S i l v e r s m i t h s ' Work, London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1965. NK 7143 V492 1965 116 P r e s s l y , Nancy L., The F u s e l i C i r c l e i n Rome, E a r l y Romantic A r t of the 1770's, New Haven C o n n e c t i c u t : Y a l e Center f o r B r i t i s h A r t , 1979. R e i l l y , Robin and George Savage, Wedgwood - the P o r t r a i t  M e d a l l i o n s , London: B a r r i e and Jen k i n s L t d . , 1973. NK 4335 R454 1973 Rosenblum, Robert, Transformations i n La t e E i g h t e e n t h Century A r t , P r i n c e t o n , 1967. Sharpe, W i l l i a m 1724-1783, A d i s s e r t a t i o n Upon Genius, 1755, Delmar N.Y.: S c h o l a r ' s F a c s i m i l e s and R e p r i n t s , 1973. BF 412 S45 1755a Smith, J.T., Nol l e k e n s and H i s Times, 2 V o l s , London, 1828, E d i t . W. Whitten London, 1920. Spence, Joseph 1699-1768, Polymetus New York: Garland Pub., 1971. N S613 S7 1755a S t a n f o r d , W.B. and J.V. Luce, The Quest f o r U l y s s e s , London: Phaidon Press L i m i t e d , 1974. NX 652 D3 S72 1974 S t i l l m a n , Damie, The D e c o r a t i v e Work of Robert Adam, London: Ale c T i r a n t i , 1966. NK 1535 A3 S8 S t u a r t , James and N i c h o l a s Revett, The A n t i q u i t i e s of Athens, London: John Haberkorn, 1762; The A n t i q u i t i e s of Athens  V o l . I I , London: John N i c h o l s , 1787; The A n t i q u i t i e s of  Athens V o l . I I I , London: John N i c h o l s , 1794. ( A l l three volumes r e p u b l i s h e d New York and London: Benjamin Blom, 1968). NA 280 S913 Swarbrick, John, Robert Adam and h i s B r o t h e r s , London: B.T. B a t s f o r d , 1915. NA 997 A4 S85 Reynolds, S i r Joshua, D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , Robert R. Wark (e d . ) , San Marino C a l i f o r n i a : Henry E. Huntington, L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y , 1959. Whitney, L o i s , P r i m i t i v i s m and the Idea of Progress i n E n g l i s h Popular L i t e r a t u r e of the E i g h t e e n t h Century. B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1934. PR 448 P7 W5 117 Wood, Robert 1717-1771, An Essay on the O r i g i n a l Genius of  Homer, New York: Garland Pub., 1971. PA 4037 A2 W7 1775a Young, Edward 1683-1765, C o n j e c t u r e s on O r i g i n a l Composition, 1759, New York: Garland Pub., 1970. PR 3664 C43 R4 1970:3 Yarwood, Doreen, Robert Adam, London: J.M. Dent and Sons L t d . , 1970. NA 997 A4 Y3 1970b A r t i c l e s Crookshank, Anne, "The Drawings of George Romney," B u r l i n g t o n  Magazine, 99 February 1957. Nl B95 Irwin, David, "Gavin Hamilton: A r c h a e o l o g i s t , P a i n t e r , and De a l e r , " A r t B u l l e t i n , LCIV June, 1962 pp.87-102. Nl A4 Praz, Mario, "Herculaneum and European T a s t e , " American Magazine  of A r t , Dec. 1939. Spencer, T.J.B., "Robert Wood and the Problem of Troy i n the Ei g h t e e n t h Century," J o u r n a l of the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d  I n s t i t u t e , 1957 pp.75-105. Nl L65 Thomas J . Wedgwood ceramic p o r t r a i t s , Connoisseur, 98: 29-35 JI*36. Nl C75 Watson, F r a n c i s , "Canova and the E n g l i s h , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Review, 122 Sept. 1955. NA 1 A69 Wiebenson, Dora, "Subjects from Homer's I l i a d i n N e o - C l a s s i c a l A r t , " A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . XLVI March 1964 pp23-37. Nl A4 Wind, Edgar, "Borrowed A t t i t u d e s i n Reynolds and Hogarth," J o u r n a l of the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e , Vol.2 (1938-1939). Nl L65 118 T i t l e s f o r S p e c i f i c Peripheral Issues Books E i t n e r , Lorenz, N e o c l a s s i c i s m and Romanticism, 1750-1850, Sources and Documents Vol.1 Enlightenment/Revolution, Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l Inc., 1970. N 6425 N4 E35 1970 V . l Hammelmann, Hanns, e d i t e d and completed by TSR Boase, Book I l l u s t r a t o r s i n Eighteenth-Century England, New Haven and London: Ya l e U. Press, 1975. NC 978 H28 1975 Hurd, R i c h a r d Bp of Worcester 1720-1808, L e t t e r s on C h i v a l r y  and Romance, 1762, New York: Garland Pub., 1971. PN 56 C53 H8 1962a Knight, Douglas, Pope and the H e r o i c T r a d i t i o n , A C r i t i c a l Study of h i s I l i a d , New Haven: Ya l e U. P r e s s , 1951. PA 4025 A2 P65 1951 Lees-Milne, James, The Age of Adam, London et a l . : BT B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1947. NA 997 A4 L4 Malcolmson, Robert W., Popular R e c r e a t i o n s i n E n g l i s h S o c i e t y , Cambridge: Cambridge U. P r e s s , 1973. DA 485 M217 1973 C2 v Panofsky, Dora and Erwin, Pandora's Box; The Changing Aspects  of a M y t h i c a l Symbol, New York: Pantheon Books Inc., 1956. N 7760 P e l l e s , G e r a l i n e , A r t A r t i s t s and S o c i e t y , O r i g i n of a Modern Dilemma, P a i n t i n g i n England and France, 1750-1850, Englewood C l i f f s N.J., 1963. ND 466 P4 Penny, N i c h o l a s , Church Monuments i n Romantic England, New Haven and London: Ya l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. NB 1860 P44 1977 Physick, John, Designs f o r E n g l i s h S c u l p t u r e 1680-1860, London: Her Magjesty's S t a t i o n e r y o f f i c e , 1969. NB 464 P45 1969 P i r a n e s i , G i o v a nni B a t t i s t a , II Teateo d'Ercolano, Roma, n e l l a Stamperia Salmoni, 1783. N 5775 P57 119 Plumb, J.H., The P u r s u i t of Happiness, A View of L i f e i n Georgian England, New Haven: Y a l e Center f o r B r i t i s h A r t , 1977. N 6766 P58 1977 P r e s s l y , W i l l i a m L., James Barry the A r t i s t as Hero, London: Tate G a l l e r y P u b l i c a t i o n s Department, 1983. N 6797 B38 P72 1983 Pyke, E . J . , A B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of Wax M o d e l l e r s , Oxford: at the Clarendon P r e s s , 1973. NK 9580 P939 1973 Ray, Gordon N., The I l l u s t r a t i o n and the Book i n England from  1790 to 1914, New York: the P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y , 1976. NC 978 R37 1976 Redgrove, Samuel, A D i c t i o n a r y of A r t i s t s of the E n g l i s h  S chool, London: G. B e l l and Sons, 1878. N 6796 R45 1878 Rowe, Robert, Adam S i l v e r 1765-1795, London: Faber and Faber, 1965. NK 71A43 R6 1965 S l y t h e , R. Margaret, The A r t of I l l u s t r a t i o n , 1750-1900, London: The L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1970. NC 960 S59 1970 Steegman, John, V i c t o r i a n Taste, A Study of the A r t s and A r c h i t e c t u r e from 1830 to 1870, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons L t d , 1970. N 6767 S8 1970 Steegman, John, The Rule of Taste, London: MacMillan and Co. L i m i t e d , 1936. N 6766 S7 Rothenberg, Jacob, The A c q u i s i t i o n and R e a c t i o n t o the E l g i n  Masrbles, New York: Garland P u b l i s h e r s , 1977. NB 92 Warton, Joseph, An Essay on the Genius and W r i t i n g of Pope  (1757), New York: Garland P u b l i s h e r s , 1970. Wark, Robert R., B r i t i s h S i l v e r i n the Huntington C o l l e c t i o n , San Marino: Huntington L i b r a r y , 1978. NK 7143 H45 1978 120 Watson, J . Steven, The Reign of George I I I , 1760-1815, Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1960. DA 505 W2 Waterhouse, E l l i s Kirkham, Three Decades of B r i t i s h A r t , 1740- 1770, P h i l a d e l p h i a : American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1965. N 6766 W3 Weinglass, David H. (ed), The C o l l e c t e d E n g l i s h L e t t e r s of Henry F r e s e l i , Millwood N.Y. et a l . : Kraus I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1987. ND 853 F85 A3 1982 Whinney, Margaret, S c u l p t u r e i n B r i t a i n 1530 to 1830, Har-mondsworth: Penguin books Inc., 1964. NB 464 W5 Wilson, John, The P a i n t i n g of the P a s s i o n s i n Theory, P r a c - t i c e , and C r i t i c i s m i n L a t e r 18th Century France, Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n Iowa, U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. ND 548 W 54 1981 A r t i c l e s Craven, W. " H o r a t i o Greenough's Statue of Washington and P h i d i a s ' Olympian Zeus," A r t Q u a r t e r l y , Vol.26 #4 (1963) p.435. Nl A63 F r i e d l a n d e r , Walter, "Notes on the A r t of W i l l i a m Blake A Romantic M y s t i c Completely E x h i b i t e d . " A r t News, 18 Feb. 1939. Gombrich, E.H., "Debate on P r i m i t i v i s m i n A n c i e n t R h e t o r i c , " J o u r n a l of the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , V o l . 29, 1966, pp.24-38. Nl L65 V.29 Knowlson, James R., The Ideas of Gesture as a U n i v e r s a l Language i n the XVIIth and XVIII C e n t u r i e s , J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y  of Ideas, 26, 1965. B l J54 V.26 Rogerson, Brewster, "The A r t of P a i n t i n g the P a s s i o n s , " J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas, 14, 1953. B l J54 V.14. Schorsch, A n i t a , "Mourning A r t : A N e o c l a s s i c a l R e f l e c t i o n i n America," American A r t J o u r n a l , V o l . V I I I . 121 Smart, A l a s t a i r , "Dramatic Gesture and E x p r e s s i o n i n the Age of Hogarth and Reynolds," A p o l l o , 1965. Nl A255 V81/82 Snodgrass, A.M., " H i s t o r i c a l Homerica S o c i e t y , " J o u r n a l of  H e l l e n i c S t u d i e s , V o l . 94, 1974. DF 10 J8 Uphaus, Robert W. "The Ideology of Reynolds D i s c o u r s e s on A r t , " Eighteenth-Century S t u d i e s , V o l . 12 #1, F a l l 1978. W i l l s , G e o f f r e y , " E a r l y Signs of N e o - C l a s s i c i s m and the Gout Grec," A p o l l o , Vol.96 Oct. 1972. Nl A255 122 124 3a S o s i a s P a i n t e r Red-Figure cup i n t e r i o r A c h i l l e s and P a t r o c l u s 3b S o s i a s P a i n t e r Red-Figure cup e x t e r i o r I n t r o d u c t i o n of H e r a c l e s to Olympus 125 126 5 W i l l i a m S u t h e r l a n d : The S h i p - B u i l d e r ' s A s s i s t a n t or  Marine A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1755, P l a t e I I I S e c t i o n of a Ship. 6 The M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s Arms, 1784. The T r u s t e e s o f t h e Wedgwood Museum, B a r l a s t o n . S t a f f s . 128 7 John Flaxman, th e e l d e r : A r c h i t e c t u r e , M a r b l e , Lord Barnard, Raby C a s t l e , Durham. 117.7 cms h i g h . 129 8a Ann R u s s e l l and her son Henry : monument Died 1780-81. A l l S a i n t s , Lydd, Kent. 8b A f i g u r e from The Tower of the Winds i n Athens. Depicted i n James S t u a r t and N i c h o l a s Revett: The A n t i q u i t i e s of Ajthens, 1762, V o l . I, Chapter I I I , P l a t e XVII. 130 9 B a r b a r a B o u r c h i e r : monument. D i e d 1784. S t Mary, Newent, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e . 131 1 1 R e v e r a n d Thomas and Mrs. B a l l : monument, 1784-86 C h i c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l . 132 Mrs. Siddons : Jasperware p o r t r a i t , after Flaxman's model of 1782. Flaxman's own design for the Chessmen. Probably 1783. Later executed i n Jasperware by Wedgwood. 133 The Crowning o f a K i t h a r i s t . E n g r a v i n g from D 1 H a n c a r v i l l e C a b i n e t o f the Hon. W i l l i a m H a m i l t o n , 1 7 6 6 - 6 7 , V o l . 3 . 134 135 S i g n o r e l l i : B a t t l e of the Nudes ( d e t a i l ) Duomo, O r v i e t o . 136 20 Fury of Athamas, 1790-1794. Marble, 208.5 cms. h i g h . 137 138 22 W i l l i a m C o l l i n s : monument: design: d e t a i l . Pen and ink and wash, 39.5 x 27 cms. (whole sheet) 139 140 24 A u r o r a v i s i t i n g Cephalus on Mount I d a , 1739-90. M a r b l e , 184 cms. h i g h . H e r c u l e s and Hebe, 1792. P l a s t e r , c o l o u r e d , 190.5 cms. h i g h . 142 27 M i n e r v a R e p r e s s i n g t h e F u r y of A c h i l l e s . P r e l i m i n a r y p e n c i l , ink, and brown wash. 22.9 x 27 cm. Huntington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y . 143 28 T h e t i s and Eurynome R e c e i v i n g the I n f a n t V u l c a n . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 29. 1IB SAID, AND ON THK CHIlii' IH'.S03n>S AMAIN, INCIU'.ASH WITIr GOKJ', AND SWlli.l.lNC, WITH Till'. SI.AIS. 30 A c h i l l e s C o n t e n d i n g w i t h the R i v e r s . Engraving a f t Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 33. 31 The F u n e r a l P i l e of P a t r o c l u s Engraving a f t e r Flaxman' by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 35. 32 King of the L e s t r l g e n s S e i z i n g One of the Companions of U l y s s e s . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 15. Odysily Plate 26 ULYSSES 1- HIS D O G . j 33 U l y s s e s and H i s Dog. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James | Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 26. 149 OiVstjtUttn ,< ULYSSKS TKKREFIKD BY THE GHOSTS. 34 U l y s s e s T e r r e f i e d ( s i c ) by the Ghosts. Engraving' a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 17. 35 36 The Embassy t o A c h i l l e s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 18. W T I I I . K H . w . r iTNSMi - : . vrn i> A I T K A R D T H K U I . I T r a u x r , K L A D I : , M I X K R V A S W I F T !ir.SCEM>Pft I' l lOM A l l O V K . Ibgw't lUmnt lliul I  llinf His. 37 M i n e r v a R e p r e s s i n g the F u r y o f A c h i l l e s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by W i l l i a m Blake. I l i a d 1805, P l a t e 2. Hector's Body Dragged a t the Car of A c h i l l e s . Engravin a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 36. Iliad Piatt 34 A N D R O M A C H E F A I N T I N G O N T H E W A L L . 39 Andromache F a i n t i n g on the Wall. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 34. Odjuty PUlt 31 U J . Y S S K S I C I I - M U G T H K S U I T O R S . I—1 (JI HA8TK It RKTLTOT, ULYS8KB MADK B K l ' I . Y , WniLK YET TH* AVXILIAlt 8 I U T T 3 THIS HASH SWTl.Y. 4 0 U l y s s e s K i l l i n g the S u i t o r s Engraving a f t e r Flaxman James Neagle. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 31. by Two p r e l i m i n a r y drawings f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the Fury  of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l (top) : ink over p e n c i l (bottom) sheet 26.7 x 21 cm. Huntington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y . 157 P r e l i m i n a r y d r a w i n g (lower) f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the  Fury of A c h i l l e s I l i a d 2. Ink over p e n c i l . Sheet 25.4 x 20.7 cm. Hungtington L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y . 158 P r e l i m i n a r y drawing (lower) f o r Minerva Repressing the Fury  of A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. P e n c i l , p a r t i a l l y erased. 159 44 P r e l i m i n a r y drawing f o r Minerva R e p r e s s i n g the Fury of  A c h i l l e s , I l i a d 2. Ink over p e n c i l . 8.8 x 13.6 cm. 160 F O K T U F R O M UKH SNOWY HAND NAUSICAA T I I K E W , TlfK YARIOVB B A M . ,TIIK H A L L KKKO.VKOUS K L E W . IWpn aow'l n^rOry II-*- L w L5J. N a u s i c a a T h r o w i n g the B a l l . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Pa r k e r . Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 10. Odjjsty PUtt 19 THE S I K K N S . 46 The S i r e n s . E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 19. WINOIJ HAIU'IES S N A T C I l f l T i l ' UNOL'ARUBJ* C 1 I A K O K A W A Y . VnjV. llnrri CMyfln B. 3<1. I.iar f»3 . The H a r p i e s G o i n g t o S e i z e the Daughters of Pandarus. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey—1805 P l a t e 29. 48 P e n e l o p e C a r r y i n g the Bow of U l y s s e s t o the S u i t o r s . Engraving a f t e r Flaxxman by James Neagle. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 30. AJAX DEFENDING THE GKEF.K SHIPS AGAINST THE TROJANS. IU1.1. TWKLYK TJIK HOI.OUST. IN A MOMT.NT FELL, SKNT 1)1 GHKAT AJAX TO THE SHADES Of UELL. 49 A j a x D e f e n d i n g t h e Greek S h i p s a g a i n s t the T r o j a n s . ! E n g r a v i n g a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, j P l a t e 24. 50 Neptune R i s i n g from the Sea. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 22. I 51 i U l y s s e s F o l l o w i n g the Car of Nausicaa. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 11. 52 P l a t e from S i r W i l l i a m Hamilton, C o l l e c t i o n of Vases, I, 1791. 53 A c h i l l e s Dragging Hector's Body around the Walls of Troy Engraving by Domenico Cunego, 1766, a f t e r a p a i n t i n g by Gavin Hamilton. 168 170 56 The M e e t i n g of H e c t o r and Andromache. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by James Parker. I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 14. 57 J u p i t e r Sending the E v i l Dream to Agamemnon. Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 6. Wat Plan 38 i 5 8 59 Otus and E p h i a l t e s Holding Mars C a p t i v e . Engraving a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e The Voyage of the A r g o n a u t s 1799 One of 24 d e s i g n s engraved by Joseph Koch a f t e r d r a w i n g s by Asmus J a c o b C a r s t e n s . Mrs. Mary Blackshaw (Mary L u s h i n g t o n ) : monument. 1798-99. S t . Mary Lewisham, Kent. — " 175 63 L e u c o t h e a P r e s e r v i n g U l y s s e s Engraved a f t e r Flaxman by James Neagle. Odyssey, 1805, P l a t e 9. 178 179 W a r r i o r s , by Jacques-Louis David. From sketchbook. (Musee des Beaux-Arts, L i l l e . ) 180 Plan 26 THE FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF fATROCLCS. T H E T R O J A N S SK1ZK T I I K S L A I N 67 F i g h t f o r the Body of P a t r o c l u s Engraving a f t e r Flaxman ! by Thomas P i r o l i . I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 26. I 6 8a The S h i e l d o f A c h i l l e s : d r a w i n g . (Henry E. H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y and A r t G a l l e r y , San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a ) 182 S h i e l d of A c h i l l e s , 1821. S i l v e r g i l t , 94 cms diameter. Executed a f t e r Flaxman by P h i l i p R u n d e l l . 183 70 A c h i l l e d e p l o r e 1 ' e n t e r r e m e n t de B r i s e i s . by F r a n c o i s Rude. P l a s t e r r e l i e f (Mus6e Rude, D i j o n ) . A c h i l l e d e p l o r e 1 ' e n t e r r e m e n t de B r i s e i s . by F r a n c o i s R u d e ^ Pen and ink, 21.5 by 37 cm. (Musc§e des Beaux-Arts, Study a f t e r Flaxman's Odyssey, by A n t o i n e G r o s . From sketchbook, R.F. 29955, f.28v. Pen and brown i n k o v e r c h a l k , 16.3 by 22.5 cm. ( C a b i n e t des Dessins Mus6e du Louv r e ) . 185 7 3 Study a f t e r Flaxman's Odyssey, by A n t o i n e Gros. From sketchbook, R.F.29955, f . 2 8 . Pen and brown i n k o v e r c h a l k , 1 6 . 3 by 2 2 . 5 cm. ( C a b i n e t des D e s s i n s , Musee du Louvre.) 186 S t u d i e s of Horses, and study a f t e r a p l a t e from Flaxman's Odyssey, by Antoine Gros. From sketchbook, R.F. 29955, f . 2 0 . Pen and brown i n k over chalk, 16.3 by 22.5 cm. (Cabinet des De s s i n s , Musee du Louvre) 187 75 J u p i t e r and T h e t i s by J-A-D Ingres, P e n c i l , 32.5 by 24.2 cm (Mus£e Ingres, Montauban). 188 WadPUtei T H E T I S E N T R E A T I N G JUPITER T O H O N O R A C H I L L E S . TIH'S THETIS BI'OKK B I T J O V E IS S I M t N C E IIK1.I) T H E S A d l E l ) C O l T S r i L S OF HIS 11RIIAST COSCKAI/IJ . T h e t i s I n t r e a t i n g J u p i t e r t o Honor A c h i l l e s Engraved a f t e r Flaxman by W i l l i a m Blake. I l i a d . 1805. P l a t e 5. 77 The C o u n c i l of the Gods Engraved a f t e r Flaxman by Thomas P i r o l i , , I l i a d , 1805, P l a t e 9. 191 'I T e l l You, I Know the World' by P h i l May i n F. B e r k e l e y Smith, In London Town London 1907. 192 Design f o r a w i n e - c o o l e r by Thomas S t o t h a r d R.A. Pen and Wash, 25.4 x 20.3 cm. B r i t i s h Museum. 1' Design f o r a wine-cooler (perhaps a f t e r W i l l i a m Theed, R.A. 1764-1817), Pen drawing, 26.7 x 24.7 cm. 194 83a Wine-cooler, maker's mark of Paul Storr (1771-1844), London Hall-mark for 1809. S i l v e r g i l t , height 35.56 cm. C o l l e c t i o n of the Marquess of Ormonde. 83b De ta i l of wine-cooler i n 83a. 195 

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