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The marching rule : a Christian revolution in the Solomon Islands Fulbright, Timothy Calhoun 1986

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THE MARCHING RULE Christian Revolution in the Solomon Islands by TIMOTHY CALHOUN FULBRIGHT B.A., Reed College, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o-f Anthropology) We accept this thesis con-forming . to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1986 CJ Copyright Timothy C. Fuibright, 1986 in In presenting t h i s thes is i n p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thes i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representat ives . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permiss ion. Department of Anthropology The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e October 15, 1986 DE-6 (3/81) Abs t rac t T h i s t h e s i s r e c o n s i d e r s , in the l i g h t of new ev idence r e c e n t l y made a v a i l a b l e , the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l movements subsumed as 'March ing R u l e ' that occur red in the B r i t i s h Solomon I s l ands P r o t e c t o r a t e du r ing the pe r i od 1939-53. Par t I, h i s t o r i c a l , c o n s i d e r s the development o-f these movements. The need -for an ind igenous p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n by means o-f which the di-f-ferences between governed and governors might be r e s o l v e d was - f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d by an A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y , Rev. F a l l owes. He taught a new model f o r s e l f - r u l e , and h i s ideas and i n s p i r a t i o n were w ide l y propagated through the cen t ra l Solomons. World War II i n t roduced a p e r i o d of l i m i n a l i t y i n which l o c a l r i v a l r i e s were submerged in new u n i t i e s . The American servicemen l e g i t i m a t e d a model of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, and i n s p i r e d new r e l i g i o u s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e a s . I s l ande rs then e l abo ra ted new governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n a g loba l model of t h i r d - w o r l d development, bounded by R o o s e v e l t ' Four Freedoms, the ideo logy of S o c i a l Gospel ism and the i dea l of r e c o n c i l i n g p a g a n / C h r i s t i a n d i f f e r e n c e s under ' C h r i s t i a n Kas tom. ' Par t I I , e t h n o g r a p h i c a l , c o n s i d e r s M a l a i t a n C h r i s t i a n i t y , t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p and f o l 1 o w e r s h i p , and the impact of new k i nds o-f l e a d e r s h i p growing out o-f m iss ion o r g a n i z a t i o n or imposed by the c o l o n i a l government. The South Sea E v a n g e l i c a l M i s s i o n p o l i c y o-f complete i n d i g e n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d conve r t s to who l l y abandon former ways. The m iss ion p rov ided -1 i . te racy, a key to a v a r i e t y of modern iza t ions the B i b l e , a complete 'handbook f o r l i v i n g ' ; and the no t ion of an i n c i p i e n t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , a community of God that was expressed m y s t i c a l l y but which was to be c rea ted on ear th in advance of the m i l l e n n i u m . Par t I I I draws together these themes, c o n s i d e r i n g key ind igenous March ing Rule documents in a semi o t i c a n a l y s i s . The war was i n t e r p r e t e d as the end of the o l d d i s p e n s a t i o n , the Americans as b r i n g i n g a new wor ld o r d e r . The s o c i a l program i s addressed as a l o g o s , and the new image of a moral man, the C h r i s t i a n American serv iceman, emerges as the ethos of the movement. I t s emotional f ounda t i on , pa thos . was based on e t h n i c i t y and masinoa. b ro therhood, which was a l s o the weakness of the Marching R u l e . Rather than the form of ' i r r a t i o n a l ' Cargoism imputed by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t ime, March ing Rule emerges as a C h r i s t i a n r e v o l u t i o n aimed not to f o r c i b l y overthrow the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but at the c r e a t i o n of a means of t a l k i n g w i th i t and conve r t i ng i t to something new. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o-f Tab les v i i Or thooraphy. v i i i Maps ix General I n t roduc t i on 1 The problem o-f the Marching Rule 1 In t roduc to ry t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s 16 Rhe to r i c and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e 18 S t r u c t u r e s o-f change 22 PART I. HISTORICAL APPROACH TO THE MARCHING RULE In t roduc t i on 25 Chapter 1. The B r i t i s h Solomon I s l ands P r o t e c t o r a t e 28 The format ion and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the P r o t e c t o r a t e . . . . 28 The P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s N a t i v e P o l i c y 33 The P r o t e c t o r a t e and the M i s s i o n s 39 Chapter 2 . P r e c u r s o r s of the Marching, R u l e . 47 The F a l l owes Movement, 1939 47 The N a t i v e Cour ts and C o u n c i l s Experiment 51 Chapter 3 . The Marchino Rule Movements 67 Summer, 1942 through S p r i n g , 1947 67 J u l y 1947 through January 1953 88 - v -Chapter 4 . The Development o-f Government 's A n a l y s i s 188 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s a n a l y s i s to J u l y 1947 188 Cargo 189 Summary and Conc lus ion 125 PART I I . ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH TO THE MARCHING RULE In t roduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . 142 Chapter 5 . S o c i a l O rgan i za t i on 146 Mal a i tan t r a d i t i o n s o-f l e a d e r s h i p 155 Indigenous l e a d e r s h i p and the March ing Rule . . . 168 Pagan Concepts o-f the Sacred 163 Chapter 6 . D o c t r i n a l O r i g i n s o-f the SSEM 168 D o c t r i n a l elements of E v a n g e l i c a l Fundamentalism 178 F lo rence Young and the Queensland Kanaka M i s s i o n 177 Chapter 7. M i l l e n a r i a n Fu tu r i sm : the S o c i a l Gospel e x t e n s i o n . . 185 The Federa l Counc i l i n Amer ica 188 From a M i s s i o n Album 195 Chapter 8 . The South Seas E v a n o e l i c a l M i s s i o n on M a l a i t a . . . . 283 The Problem of SSEM C h r i s t i a n i t y 283 The SSEM s o c i a l p o l i c y 287 - v i -Chapter 9 . I n d i g e n i z a t i o n of the Church 224 The Kwara'ae and Ma lu 'u E v a n g e l i c a l s 224 Organ i za t i on of the i n d i g e n i z e d church 235 I n d i g e n i z a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l D i a g n o s t i c s 247 Summary and Conc lus ion 255 PART I I I . THE RHETORIC OF THE MARCHING RULE 265 The Logos of S o c i a l Gospel ism 269 The Ethos of the C h r i s t i a n serviceman 277 The Pathos of 'Mas inga Lo" 282 The March ing Rule in comparat ive context 289 Appendices 363 B i b l iooraphv 316 LIST O F TABLES - v i i -FTab le 1 N a t i v e Court Cases , Nor th M a l a i t a 1946-44 58 Tab le 2 F o u i — y e a r Summary, N a t i v e Court Cases 59 Tab le 3 Four -year Summary, N a t i v e Court Issues 62 Tab le 4 C o n t r i b u t i o n s to SSEM from USA and Canada. 192 Tab le 5 S e l e c t e d SSEM Budget I terns 213 Or thoQraphy There i s no s tandard or thography -for Mal a i tan languages, hence there are d i f f e r e n c e s in the s p e l l i n g of v a r i o u s ind igenous lexemes. Footnotes are p rov ided at the bottom of pages f o r the convenience of the r eade r , to c i t e the most important fo i1 owing i s a r e f e r e n c e s and s u b s i d i a r y p o i n t s . The l i s t of a b b r e v i a t i o n s used in the t e x t : BSIP B r i t i s h Solomon I s l ands P r o t e c t o r a t e DC D i s t r i c t Commissioner DO D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r MM Melanes ian M i s s i o n (Ang l i can) QKM Queensland Kanaka M i s s i o n RC Res ident Commissioner RD R e l i g i o u s D iscourse SDA Seventh Day A d v e n t i s t SILC Solomon I s l a n d e r s Labor Corps (1942-44) SSEM South Sea E v a n g e l i c a l M i s s i o n . NPHC Western P a c i f i c High Commission - i x -/ MALAITA <^~^XManaoba Ii. \ M . % .V^ JCwailabeii C Suobo V^ Tokwa ZK -^MaVwanu "PL SHOWING SOME OF THE PLACES MENTIONED IN THE TEXT -..Adogege , feSuMou Fouabu\ Oola / Fiu/ t all, v Auki% -z. o -z-I - • <2- O ir> a "33 j /fwfl/ Harbour y O ) 'NgongoTilo Is. S 0 U 7 W /%C/f/C O C f ^ A / N \Sinalagu •jUro Ii. Arairau Onepusu*^^^u Waistsi Harbour'* Rohinof i' Wairokai' tAotov^Jakatqka Bay Mowko o ylTarapaino i Villages >. Artificial Islands 5 0 5' 10 15 30 km I I 1 J 1 h Wal ado Rake "\So'a Malaita — villages, missions and government posts. The maps were produced in the Department of Geography, University of Auckland, by courtesy of Dr Roger McLean. (Laracy 1983) l 1 General I n t roduc t i on In t h i s t h e s i s I present a s tudy o-f an ind igenous popular movement -for s o c i a l reform and p o l i t i c a l development. Al though p rophe t i c cargoism has long been s t u d i e d as though i t c o n s t i t u t e d the t y p i c a l Melanes ian s o c i a l movement, the e x i s t e n c e of more c l e a r l y p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d movements, such as the P a l i a u movement of the A d m i r a l t i e s , the Tommy Kabu movement of Papua, and the March ing Rule of the cen t ra l Solomon I s l a n d s , have l i k e w i s e been no ted . T h i s t h e s i s pursues the m i l l e n a r i a n o r i g i n of the Marching R u l e , f i n d i n g i t l a r g e l y the product of the i n d i g e n i z a t i o n of Fundamenta l is t C h r i s t i a n i t y . The Problem of the Marchino Rule From about the midd le of 1946 to 1952 the B r i t i s h Solomon I s l ands P r o t e c t o r a t e , economica l l y weakened by the e f f e c t s of World War I I , was shaken by a s e r i e s of non -v i o l en t n a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e s , centered on the i s l a n d of M a l a i t a , which cha l l enged d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y the l e g i t i m a c y and competency of i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The name 'March ing R u l e ' i s taken from one of these i n i t i a t i v e s . The etymology of the name 'March ing R u l e ' i s i t s e l f p rob l ema t i c . Kees ing and Laracy both contend that the name was an a n g l i c i z a t i o n of masinoa C A r e ' a r e f o r ' b ro the rhood ' ) - 2 -and t h e y term t h e movement ' M a s i n g a R u l e ' o r ' M a a s i n a R u l e , ' r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e i n d i g e n e s t h e m s e l v e s u s e d t h e terms ' M a r c h i n g R u l e ' , 'Mercy R u l e ' and ' M a s i n g a R u l e ' , each o-f w h i c h h a s d i f f e r e n t s e n s e s . ' M a r c h i n g ' r e - f l e c t s t h e m i l i t a r i s t i c r i t u a l and h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a d o p t e d by t h e movement, w h i l e 'Mercy' and ' M a s i n g a ' r e - f l e c t t h e e m o t i o n a l c o m p l e x i o n o-f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h s u s t a i n e d t h e movement's m i l l e n a r i a n momentum. Each d e s c r i b e s one -facet o-f t h e e v e n t s e n g e n d e r e d d u r i n g t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d , and none a r e h e r e e l e v a t e d a s b e i n g t h e ' e m i c l y ' c o r r e c t way i n w h i c h t h e movement's a d h e r e n t ' s v i e w e d t h e m s e l v e s . A s names o-f a p o p u l a r movement, each emerged a l o n g w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r M a r c h i n g R u l e dogmas, b e l i e f s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . I w i l l u s e t h e term ' M a r c h i n g R u l e ' t o d e n o t e a h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d o f w i d e s p r e a d change marked by a new p o p u l a r i d e o l o g y , a p a t t e r n o f p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , a c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f i d e a s and t h e o r i e s i n t o d i s c o u r s e and a c t i o n s p e c u l i a r t o t h e t i m e s . T h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d embraced n o t one movement, but s e v e r a l . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e C h a i r and R u l e movement <1939), t h e N a t i v e C o u n c i l Movement o t h e r w i s e known a s t h e ' M a r c h i n g R u l e , ' t h e 'Mercy R u l e ' o r ' M a s i n g a L o ' ( 1 9 4 3 - 4 7 ) , B e l a m a t a g a ' s Freedom Movement <1948-49), and S i s i l i ' s F e d e r a l C o u n c i l Movement ( 1 9 4 9 - 5 1 ) . M a r c h i n g - 3 -R u l e was a l s o t h e g e n e r a t i v e - f a c t o r i n t h e C h u r c h C o u n c i l o-f S o u t h M a l a ( 1 9 4 9 - p r e s e n t ? ) , t h e Remnant C h u r c h ( 1955-present?> , t h e Moro Movement o-f G u a d a l c a n a l < 1956-66?) and D o l i a s i ' s Custom Movement ( 1 9 6 3 - 6 5 ) , w i t h w h i c h I w i l l n o t d e a l . M a r c h i n g R u l e a l s o embraces t h e - f i r s t o r g a n i z e d i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r d i s p u t e o-f c o n t e m p o r a r y M e l a n e s i a , t h e • f i r s t s u c c e s s - f u l e-f-fort t o i n s t i t u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government i n t h e Solomons, t h e - f i r s t i n d i g e n o u s p l a n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t t o be c a r r i e d out by a r o u t i n i z e d b u r e a u c r a c y , and t h e f i r s t c o m i n g t o terms between C h r i s t i a n s and p a g a n s on t h e b a s i s o f s h a r e d e t h n i c i t y . T h e s e s e v e r a l themes can come t o g e t h e r under t h e head o f t h e ' M a r c h i n g R u l e ' n o t a s t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f a h y p o s t a t i z e d s o c i a l movement, but a s l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t s e p a r a t e d e r i v a t i o n s f r o m a " p r i m a r y p r o c e s s " D t h a t i s s u e d f r o m t h e 1 i m i n a l i t v o f war. w h i c h t h e i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p e v e n t u a l l y came t o name t h e ' M a r c h i n g R u l e . ' The a r g u m e n t s o f t h e t h e s i s a r e f o u n d e d on d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e . I w i s h t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e p h a s e s o f M a r c h i n g R u l e m a t e r i a l s . F i r s t t h e r e a r e a number o f c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s who were more o r l e s s e y e - w i t n e s s e s and whose 1 V i c t o r T u r n e r (1974) Dramas. F i e l d s and M e t a p h o r s p. 118-111. - 4 -p e r s p e c t i v e was more or l e s s c o n s i s t e n t w i th that o-f the contemporary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n a l y s i s . T h i s i n c l u d e s the c o n t r a s t i n g accounts of C y r i l Belshaw and C o l i n H. A l l a n , whose p u b l i c a t i o n s were l a r g e l y the sum t o ta l o-f the pr imary sources a v a i l a b l e to the second phase o-f comparat ive t rea tments , as we l l as a l a rge body o-f unpub l ished papers , government r e p o r t s and memoranda -from v a r i o u s o-f-f icers and cadets in the - f i e l d , i n c l u d i n g a seldom re fe renced a n a l y s i s by W . J . Ma rquand . 3 ) The second phase i s marked by a wide c o l l e c t i o n of works which mention the Marching Rule r e l a t i v e to Melanes ian cargo c u l t s , and more b r o a d l y , to mi 11enar ianisms in g e n e r a l . Peter Worsley and I .C . J a r v i e made b road ly comparat ive e f f o r t s w i th sus ta i ned 4) a t t e n t i o n to the Marching R u l e . They were concerned w i th d e r i v i n g r e d u c t i v e exp lana t i ons of movement phenomena 2 C y r i l Belshaw <1947) "Na t i ve P o l i t i c s in the Solomon I s l a n d s . " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s 26<2), pp 187-93. ( A p r i l 21 , 1948) "The Postwar Solomon I s l a n d s . " Far Eas tern Survey . pp. 95 -98 . <1958) I s l a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n in the Southwest P a c i f i c . C o l i n A l l a n (1951) "Marching R u l e : a N a t i v i s t i c Cu l t of the B r i t i s h Solomon I s l a n d s . " Corona. 3 (3) :93-188 3 W . J . Marquand (1949-58) . Community Development in the B r i t i s h Solomon I s l ands P r o t e c t o r a t e , w i th p a r t i c u l a r r e fe rence to the Marching Rule Movement on the i s l a n d of M a l a i t a . Unpubl ished papers d e l i v e r e d at the Second Devonshire Course , U n i v e r s i t y of London. V ide CO 537, Western P a c i f i c R e g i s t r y of Supplementary Correspondence, P u b l i c Records O f f i c e , Kew. London. 4 Peter Worsley (1968) The Trumpet S h a l l Sound. A study of ' C a r o o ' C u l t s in M e l a n e s i a . Schocken Books, N .Y . (second e d i t i o n ) . I .C . J a r v i e (1964) The Revo lu t i on  in An th ropo looy . Humani t ies P r e s s , N .Y . - 5 -in general and used ethnographic m a t e r i a l s in a manner that sought deduc t i ve v e r i f i c a t i o n o-f t h e i r synop t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s . A l s o i nc luded in t h i s phase i s Glynn Cochrane 's monograph, the - f i r s t attempt to t rea t the Marching Rule in d e t a i l , the f i r s t to i nco rpo ra te o r i g i n a l f i e l dwork (conducted du r ing an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tour of duty in nor th M a l a i t a ) , and the l a s t to adopt a comparat ive a p p r o a c h . ^ T n e t h i r d and on-go ing phase of research i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a t u rn ing away from comparat ive s t u d i e s . T h i s pe r i od i s marked by a lengthy and welcome a r t i c l e by Roger K e e s i n g , * ^ and by the p u b l i c a t i o n in at f i r s t a t r i c k l e , then a f l o o d , of o r i g i n a l March ing Rule documents, cu lm ina t i ng in 1983 w i th Hugh L a r a c y ' s P a c i f i c P r o t e s t , the p r i n c i p a l source fo r my documentary ev idence . Today the March ing Rule s tands as one of the most thoroughly documented ind igenous movements of M e l a n e s i a , a s i t u a t i o n which demands t h e o r e t i c a l re -assessment , c h a l l e n g i n g as i t does the unders tand ings g leaned dur ing the f i r s t 5 Glynn Cochrane (1976) B io Men and Caroo C u l t s . Clarendon P r e s s , Ox fo rd . 6 Roger M. K e e s i n g , (1978-9) " P o l i t i c o - R e l i g i o u s Movements and A n t i c o l o n i a l i s m on M a l a i t a : Maasina Rule in H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . " P t . I, Oceania 48 :241 -61 ; P t . I I , Oceania 49 :46 -73 . O r i g i n a l t y p e s c r i p t . - 6 -and s e c o n d p h a s e s o-f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y . Two p o i n t s must be m e n t i o n e d on t h e d i r e c t i o n t h i s s c h o l a r s h i p h a s t a k e n o v e r a g e n e r a t i o n o-f work. A l l a n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h e - f i r s t p h a s e r e f l e c t e d t h e o f f i c i a l c o l o n i a l a n a l y s i s by p r o v i d i n g l o g i c a l c o h e r e n c e t o a t h e o r y w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' k n owledge of c a r g o c u l t o u t b r e a k s i n New G u i n e a . B e l s h a w , however, s t r e s s e s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s l i m i t e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l b a c k g r o u n d and t h e i m p o s s i b l e l o g i s t i c and c o m m u n i c a t i o n f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a c t e d t o b l i n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h Solomon I s l a n d e r s had p s y c h o l o g i c a l y p r e p a r e d t h e m s e l v e s f o r s e l f - r u l e and hampered D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s f r o m r e s p o n d i n g a s c r e a t i v e l y a s t h e y m i g h t h a ve w i s h e d . G e n e r a l l y , t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s moved away f r o m t h e ' i r r a t i o n a l ' o r ' c a r g o c u l t ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o w a r d a f u l l e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e movement, t h e e m p h a s i s o f B e l s h a w and W o r s l e y . But c a r g o e l e m e n t s were u n d o u b t e d l y p r e s e n t i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , and t h e y have y e t t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . S e c o n d , w i t h each new c o n t r i b u t i o n on t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , t h e r o l e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y becomes e n l a r g e d , and a t th e same t i m e more complex. A g r e a t many o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s were drawn f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e S o u t h Sea - 7 -E v a n g e l i c a l M i s s i o n (SSEM), but t h i s by i t s e l f e x p l a i n s n o t h i n g . A l l a n and C o c h r a n e e m p h a s i z e t h e -fact t h a t t h e w h i t e m i s s i o n a r i e s were r e j e c t e d by t h e l e a d e r s h i p ; t h e movement i n t h e i r v i e w was c o n s e r v a t i v e and aimed a t r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o-f t r a d i t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , T i p p e t t h a s s t a t e d t h a t r e l i g i o n was n o t a b a s i c d r i v e i n t h i s movement. 7 5 K e e s i n g subsumes 8) t h e i s s u e o-f r e l i g i o n u nder a m a t e r i a l i s t t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y . The SSEM c o n t r i b u t e d c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , b ut C h r i s t i a n i t y was i m p o r t a n t m o s t l y i n l e n d i n g p a r t o f t h e " m y t h i c o - r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l i s m and f a n t a s y , w i t h m i l l e n a r i a n o v e r t o n e s " w h i c h " c l o a k e d " t h e movement, w h i c h was a t h e a r t r a t i o n a l i s t i c and stemmed f r o m g r o w i n g " c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( i d e m : 5 3 ) . L a r a c y ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e c a u s e s him t o d i r e c t us t o examine t h e r o l e o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e w h i c h he s t a t e s " l e d " t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . I t " h e i g h t e n e d t h e i s l a n d e r s ' s e n s e o f t h e i r own w o r t h , w h i l e t h e network o f m i s s i o n t e a c h e r s who p r o v i d e d much o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p and means 7 A l l a n R. T i p p e t t , 1967. Solomon I s l a n d s C h r i s t i a n i t y : a s t u d y i n o rowth and o b s t r u c t i o n . L u t t e r w o r t h , London:284. 8 "I b e l i e v e t h a t r e l i g i o u s i d e o l o g i e s d e a l w i t h and d e r i v e f r o m c o n f 1 i c t s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s , a s w e l l a s t h e e x i s t e n t i a l p a r a d o x e s o f d e a t h , u l t i m a t e o r i g i n s and t h e l i k e . And t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d , r o o t e d i n c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o t h e r c l e a v a g e s i n s o c i e t y . In t h i s r e s p e c t my p e r s p e c t i v e i s e s s e n t i a l l y M a r x i s t " ( K e e s i n g 1978/9 t . s . p . 5 2 ) . o-f c o m m u n i c a t i o n g a v e t h e movement s t a y i n g power on M a l a i t a " . A n a l y s i s o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , he c o n t e n d s , "must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e C h r i s t i a n i d e o l o g y t h a t s u f f u s e d t h e movemen t .... I t i s c l e a r t h a t L a r a c y c a l l s -for a d d r e s s i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a s an i d e o l o g i c a l r e a l m w o r t h y o-f i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y . However, L a r a c y himsel-f d o e s not g i v e u s a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o-f < 1) t h e d o c t r i n a l n a t u r e o f M a l a i t a n C h r i s t i a n i t y , nor d o e s he comment on <2) hew t h a t d o c t r i n e may have e v o l v e d and d e v e l o p e d s i n c e t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f m i s s i o n p r e s e n c e . W h i l e a s s e r t i n g t h a t C h r i s t i a n i d e o l o g y " l e d " t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , he d o e s not p u r s u e <3) by what p a t h t h a t may have o c c u r e d o r why, o r (4) why o t h e r m i s s i o n i z e d a r e a s o f t h e Solomons had l i t t l e t o do w i t h M a r c h i n g R u l e . T h e s e a r e t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s f o r w h i c h I w i l l u n d e r t a k e t o d e v e l o p some e x p l a n a t i o n s T h i s d i r e c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r e a l m , e x a m i n e d i n t e r m s o f s t r u c t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e , has been o n l y r e c e n t l y p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r t a k e t h a n k s t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t o f new d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e t h a t g i v e s us i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i g e n o u s r a t i o c i n a t i o n s . 9 Hugh L a r a c y <1983) P a c i f i c P r o t e s t . T h e MAASINA RULE  Movement. Solomon I s l a n d s . 1944-1952. I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e S o u t h P a c i f i c . S u v a . p.180, 187. I-f the Marching Rule must be app rec ia ted as an ind igenous l i n i t i a t e d pe r i od o-f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l development, i t must a l s o be a p p r e c i a t e d , Laracy s t a t e s , "as a l i t e r a r y outburs t i n which Solomon I s l ande rs spoke o-f and -for themselves (Laracy 1983:7) . The p u b l i c a t i o n o-f ind igenous Marching Rule w r i t i n g s , and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e l evan t C o l o n i a l O f f i c e r e c o r d s , together o f f e r both an oppor tun i t y and a cha l l enge to an thopo log ica l method, and I must address here the use which I propose to make of these newly a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s . The w r i t i n g s of the ind igenous i n t e l l e c t u a l s present a cha l l enge to an th ropo log i ca l method. T r a d i t i o n a l l y concerned w i th d e s c r i b i n g and account ing fo r p r e h i s t o r i c or contemporary c u l t u r a l arrangements of u s u a l l y n o n - l i t e r a t e peop les , an th ropo log i ca l theory has not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y addressed how to deal w i th o r i g i n a l w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s . However, S m i t h ' s d i s c u s s i o n of "documentary r e a l i t y " from a s o c i o l o g y of knowledge p e r s p e c t i v e i s a use fu l po in t f a s f o r depa r tu re . She examines the r e f e r r e n t i a l t e x t u a l i t y of the bu reauc ra t i c mode of document p r o d u c t i o n , s t a t i n g that " the c a t e g o r i e s , cod ing procedures and conceptual 18 Dorothy Smith (1974) , The S o c i a l Cons t ruc t i on of Documentary R e a l i t y . S o c i o l o g i c a l Inqu i ry 44(4) :257-267. - 18 -order sanc t i oned -for use in the context of formal o r g a n i z a t i o n are a l i n g u i s t i c and methodolog ica l s p e c i f i c a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l (or p r o f e s s i o n a l ) s t r u c t u r e s of r e l evance " ( idem:265) . Because documentary f a c t s "a re cons t ruc ted in a context of t e l l i n g , " the p roduc t ion of documents must be understood as o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n a speech act framework as we l l as that of the bu reauc ra t i zed ' m o t i v e ' of d i s c o u r s e . Her no t ion of "document t ime" r e f e r s not to ' t i m e ' s ar row' but to the t ime less a u t h o r i t y of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Document t ime beg ins at " tha t c r u c i a l po in t at which much i f not every t race of what has gone i n t o the making of that account i s o b l i t e r a t e d and what remains i s on ly the text . . . . " < idem;260) . The d i s c u r s i v e a u t h o r i t y of the tex t c o n s t i t u t e s what Smith terms " a k i nd of ' o r g a n i z a t i o n a l . o u s n e s s ' . " Smith deve lops a model of what I w i l l term a ' s t a t i s t d i s c o u r s e . ' She g e n e r a l i z e s from the bu reauc ra t i zed mode of document p roduc t ion to the media t ion of a l l exper ience by r e c e i v e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . She conc ludes that "our 'knowledge ' i s thus i d e o l o g i c a l in the sense that t h i s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p reserves concept ions and means of d e s c r i p t i o n which represent the wor ld as i t i s f o r those who r u l e i t , ra the r than i t i s f o r those who are r u l e d " < idem:267) . - 11 -S m i t h d o e s n o t d i s c u s s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t u s o-f documents p r o d u c e d o u t s i d e t h e s t a t i s t c o n t e x t o f r e f e r e n t i a l t e x t u a l i t y , t h e s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n o f ' f a c t s . ' The documents w i t h w h i c h we must work i n c l u d e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , memoranda, l i s t s and r o s t e r s , c o u r t t e s t i m o n y , p l a n s , and m a n i f e s t o s o f i n d i g e n o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l s who had an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m o t i v e , whose t e x t p r o d u c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s aimed t o p r o d u c e new r e a l i t y r a t h e r than t h e r e p l i c a t i o n o f "documentary r e a l i t y . " T he M a r c h i n g R u l e d i s c o u r s e emerges f r o m a m o t i v e o f moral c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n s , l e g i t i m a c y and r a t i o c i n a t i o n s o f t h e s t a t i s t d i s c o u r s e , d e c o n s t r u c t i n g i t and a s s e r t i n g i n i t s p l a c e a new s y s t e m o f moral r e l a t i o n s h i p s , new i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s and new r u l e s f o r l i v i n g . T h e o p p o r t u n i t y a f f o r d e d by t h e newly a v a i l a b l e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e i s t w o - f o l d . T h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f new i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s r a t i o c i n a t i o n s w h i c h d r o v e t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s i n i t i a t i v e s o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d , and h e n c e , i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d i s c u r s i v e s t r u c t u r e o f mi 1 1 e n a r i a n i s m . Such an o p p o r t u n i t y r a r e l y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t o t h e a n a l y s t o f m i l l e n a r i a n movements i n M e l a n e s i a , w h i c h have g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d among p e o p l e s u n a b l e t o r e c o r d t h e i r t h o u g h t s i n w r i t i n g and f o r whom l i t e r a c y was s o metimes p a r t o f t h e C a r g o t h e y hoped p e r h a p s t o a t t a i n t h r o u g h t h e enactment - 12 -of new r i t u a l . The Marching Rule stemmed from an ethnographic situ a t i o n in which widespread l i t e r a c y was attained at an early date, because l i t e r a c y was required of the converts of the SSEM in order that they might "feed themselves" on Holy Scripture. The impact of l i t e r a c y on the Marching Rule period i s an untreated and fundamental problem in li g h t of the documentary evidence. Together with d e c l a s s i f i e d administrative records, the writings also present the opportunity of a new, close h i s t o r i c a l reconstruction of key Marching Rule events and milestones, which i s s i m i l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to attain for other P a c i f i c social movements whose h i s t o r i e s are necessarily reconstructed from informants' and administrators' r e c o l l e c t i o n s , and without the benefit of an extensive corpus of orig i n a l documents. The relevance of such a close h i s t o r i c a l reconstruction to t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y anthropological inquiry w i l l soon be apparent, for one can observe the development of the s t a t i s t discourse of the colonial o f f i c i a l s and the indigenous, Marching Rule discourse as p a r a l l e l processes which together determined the developing Marching Rule events. The nature of the documentary evidence i t s e l f demands that a h i s t o r i c a l approach be undertaken, at least i n i t i a l l y . My interest in reconstructing some features of the history of the Marching Rule in the f i r s t d i v i s i o n of the thesis i s not pu re l y i d i o g r a p h i c but i s presented toward a nomothetic end, and thus , i s c l o s e r to the o v e r a l l program o-f the p r o f e s s i o n a l an th ropo log i s t ra the r than h i s t o r i a n . The m i l l e n a r i a n movement shares w i th the gener ic s o c i a l drama a q u a l i t y of be ing a " f a s t p r o c e s s , " in V i c t o r T u r n e r ' s ph rase , whose comparat ive study i s not amenable to s t a t i s t i c a l or atemporal models , but which r e q u i r e s many extended case s t u d i e s <1967). My aim i s to develop and extend some of T u r n e r ' s ideas on d i a c h r o n i c s t r u c t u r e s and the genera t i ve p r o p e r t i e s of the encounter between i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and l i m i n a l i t y , the negat ion of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . I am i n t e r e s t e d in what i s termed ' s o c i a l d i a g n o s t i c s , ' which I d e f i n e as the process by which persons understand and seek to shape the course of t h e i r exper ience through the p roduc t ion of d i s c o u r s e acco rd ing to c u l t u r a l l y r e c e i v e d semi o t i c codes and h e u r i s t i c r u l e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The March ing Rule d i s c o u r s e was dominated by a pa t te rn of s o c i a l d i a g n o s t i c s f u r n i s h e d by E v a n g e l i c a l B i b l i c a l l i t e r a l i s m , the development and i n d i g e n i z a t i o n of which w i l l r e c e i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n in the second d i v i s i o n of the t h e s i s . A most important e f f e c t of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o r i g i n a l March ing Rule w r i t i n g s i s that t h i s s tudy , a l though based on l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h , nonethe less makes use o-f primary materials. As such, they are used in a manner appropriate to primary materials, with thick description and -frequent quotation, and consequently, a very detailed overall treatment. Because of the "open-text" quality of the corpus of indigenous writings, that i s , a quality of textuality unencumbered by what Cl i f ford terms a "privileged authorial s tandpoint ," 1 0 the "literary outburst" of the Marching Rule intel lectuals provides a basis for perhaps continual new scholarly reinterpretations, which my own findings wil l hopefully provoke. This thesis is organized into ten substantive chapters divided into three general divis ions. In the f i r s t , I take a historical approach to the Marching Rule period, in which I advance a new pol i t i ca l interpretation of the movement to make sense of the l i terature's themes of mass hysteria versus rationalism, Cargoism versus po l i t i ca l revolution, Christ ianity versus class consciousness. The second division takes an ethnological approach which features the origins and nature of Malaitan Christ ianity and i t s evolution into the doctrines promulgated by the Marching Rule intel lectuals . The third discusses how 11 James Cl i f ford (1988), Fieldwork, Reciprocity and the Making of Ethnographic Texts. Man 17:518-533. the movement was propagated and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by the s e m i o t i c p r o p e r t i e s o-f i t s r h e t o r i c , and concludes with some o b s e r v a t i o n s on the comparative v a l u e o-f the Marchin Rule i n the context o-f a Turner's and o t h e r s ' general t h e o r i e s on processual -forms and redemptive r e l i g i o n s . - 16 -INTRODUCTORY THEORETICAL ISSUES T h i s i s not a t h e s i s on the anthropology o-f r e l i g i o n , the s e m i o t i c s o-f r h e t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , or a l l p o s s i b l e sources o-f s o c i a l change. In d i r e c t i n g us to examine the r o l e o-f r e l i g i o n in the March ing R u l e , however, Laracy n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s us in t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s regard ing the general r o l e o-f r e l i g i o n in s o c i e t y , long a cen t ra l problem o-f an th ropo logy . The corpus o-f documentary ev idence r e q u i r e s an e x p l i c i t approach to r h e t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s that i s c o n s i s t e n t w i th an th ropo log i ca l ra the r than s e m i o t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s . And, an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o-f an i s s u e w i th respec t to s o c i a l change, the general th rus t o-f the study o-f m i l l e n a r i a n movements, i s a l s o p e r t i n e n t . Some comments which can on ly be presented as assumptions about t h i s p rob lemat ic are now in o rde r . R e l i g i o n i s a s o c i a l phenomenon. T r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s cosmology i n v o l v e s the e x i s t e n c e o-f non-human agenc ies and powers which are respons ive to human communication and which act on the wor ld o r d e r , and so extends the pa t te rn o-f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s beyond those of i t s l i v i n g members. As S k o r u p s k i , a p h i l o s o p h e r , s t a t e s , r e l i g i o u s r i t e s are " s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i th a u t h o r i t a t i v e or powerful be ings w i t h i n the a c t o r ' s s o c i a l f i e l d , and t h e i r s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are in l a rge par t due to the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e s e b e i n g s a r e t h o u g h t t o have." Beyond e x t e n d i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e s a c r e d , r e l i g i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s a c o s m o l o g y o r w o r l d - v i e w w h i c h makes s e n s e t o man's c a p a c i t y and need f o r r a t i o n a l knowing; an image o f t h e moral man w h i c h i s a r e f e r e n c e model f o r e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l comportment; and i n i t s e x p r e s s i v e and s y m b o l i c a s p e c t , t h e f o r m s i n w h i c h e m o t i o n s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d and 13) a f f e c t i v e s u p p o r t g i v e n t o i n d i v i d u a l s u nder s t r e s s . T h e s c o r r e s p o n d t o some t r a d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s o f r h e t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , 1 Q Q O S . e t h o s and p a t h o s w h i c h w i l l f r a m e t h e c o n c l u d i n g d i s c u s s i o n on t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e d i s c o u r s e . When t h e members o f a community engage i n r e l i g i o u s b e h a v i o r , an o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e u s e o f p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e termed r e l i g i o u s d i s c o u r s e . R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r e a l m i n t h e main r e q u i r e s r e s e a r c h 12 John S k o r u p s k i , Symbol and T h e o r y . A p h i l o s o p h i c a l  s t u d y o f t h e o r i e s o f r e l i o i o n i n s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o q y . C a m b r i d g e P r e s s , 1976:164-6. 13 C f . C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ( 1 9 6 3 ) , R e l i g i o n a s a C u l t u r a l S y s t e m . C h a p t e r 1 ijn Max Gl uckman and F r e d Eggan ( e d s . ) , T h e A n t h r o p o l O Q V o f R e l i o i o n . ASAO Monograph s e r i e s . 14 f o r a f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f t h e l o g i c o f r e l i g i o n , s e e J.M. B o c h e n s k i , O.P. (1965) T h e L o g i c o f R e l i g i o n . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , NY. - 18 -i n t o r e l i g i o u s d i s c o u r s e . Much r e l i g i o u s d i s c o u r s e in the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n concerns communication w i th Sod. But much d i scou rse a l s o occurs as communication between men about t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i th respec t to God and H i s i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s t h i s l a t t e r - f i e ld of r e l i g i o u s d i scou rse which i s of i n t e r e s t to u s . My t h e o r e t i c a l o b j e c t i v e , r e l a t i v e to the i d e o l o g i c a l r ea lm , i s to orasp the use of that  rea lm, i n c l u d i n g the produc t ion of r e l i o i o u s d i s c o u r s e ,  in the context of a c t i o n s . Rhe to r i c and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e In Umberto E c o ' s theory of s e m i o t i c s , labor i s expended in s i gn p r o d u c t i o n , an a c t i v i t y that f a l l s under the heading of r h e t o r i c . 1 5 : > E c o ' s theory in forms the general a t t i t u d e of my approach ra the r than a ready-made method of a n a l y s i s . Eco s t a t e s that contemporary r h e t o r i c a l theory " c o n s i d e r s the pe rsuas i ve d i s c o u r s e not as a s u b t l e f raudu len t procedure but as a technique of ' r e a s o n a b l e ' human i n t e r a c t i o n , c o n t r o l l e d by doubt and e x p l i c i t l y sub jec t to many e x t r a - l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s " < i dem:278) . In a s i m i l a r v e i n , c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s i n c l u d i n g A r i s t o t l e understood r h e t o r i c to 15 Umberto Eco <1976), A Theory of S e m i o t i c s . Ind iana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , B loomington. p. 276. - 19 -be a " s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d -form o-f reason ing" ( idem:277) . Rhe to r i c was understood a s t r u c t u r e d process o-f i n q u i r y in which the re l evan t - factors o-f a problem of p r a c t i c e are brought f o r t h in order that a reasoned d e c i s i o n may be made. Rhe to r i c i s thus d i s t i n c t i v e l y moral in f u n c t i o n , a framework f o r the produc t ion of d i s cou rse openly viewed as d i r e c t e d toward the p e r f e c t i o n of human nature and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , not toward persuas ion ' a t any c o s t ' . The a t t i t u d e or mot ive from which r h e t o r i c i s s u e s i s marked by i t s moral p u r p o s e . * ^ The March ing Rule can be viewed as the product of an ind igenous p rocess of r h e t o r i c . The methodolog ica l focus of the t h e s i s must go beyond the dimensions of 1 Q Q O S . ethos and pathos as co i nc i den t elements of p e r s u a s i o n , to cons ider t h e i r f u l l d imensions in c o n s t r a i n i n g the ind igenous pe rcep t ion of moral problems, the Judgements on which produced the Marching Rule d o c t r i n e s . A r i s t o t l e c l o s e l y l i n k e d the process of r h e t o r i c w i th d e l i b e r a t i o n in the po1 i s . D e l i b e r a t i o n in p u b l i c f u r t h e r s moral enqu i ry and " the exchange of moral p e r s p e c t i v e s , and thus to e s t a b l i s h a common moral p e r s p e c t i v e upon 16 Chr i s tophe r Ry le Johnstone (1980) . "An A r i s t o t e l i a n T r i l o g y : E t h i c s , Rhe to r i c and P o l i t i c s in the Search f o r Moral T r u t h . " Ph i losophy and R h e t o r i c . 13(4 ) :1 -24 . - 20 -w h i c h a l l c o o p e r a t i v e b e h a v i o r can be b a s e d " ( J o h n s t o n e i b i d . : 1 6 ) . E v e r y m oral community s u p p o r t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t s t r u c t u r e and r e g u l a t e c o n f l i c t t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e . From a l a n g u a g e - c e n t e r e d p e r s p e c t i v e , p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n s o f a r a s t h e y s t r u c t u r e and c o n s t r a i n t h e p a t t e r n o f p o l i t i c a l u t t e r a n c e s , i . e . , u t t e r a n c e s t h a t r e f e r t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m o ral u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t o p r o b l e m s o f p u b l i c c o n d u c t . The i n s t i t u t i o n manages d i s p u t e s by c o n s t r a i n i n g them w i t h i n f o r m a l i z e d p r o c e d u r e s i n w h i c h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e made e x p l i c i t i n an e x p l i c i t o r g a n i z i n g framework t h r o u g h w h i c h a d j u s t m e n t s . . . 17) i n power r e l a t i o n s can o c c u r . P o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , w h a t e v e r e l s e t h e y may be, a r e a l s o d i s c u r s i v e s t r u c t u r e s , and a s s u c h a r e among t h e l i n g u i s t i c p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o m o ral community, f o r t h e y s t i p u l a t e how a c t o r s may l e g i t i m a t e l y engage t h e m s e l v e s i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s t h a t a r e embedded i n l o c a l l y bounded norms o f i n t e g r i t y . In t h e c o l o n i a l a m b i ence o f t h e BSIP, t h e r e was no d i s c u r s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r m a n aging i n t e r - r a c i a l p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e . T h e r e was no way i n w h i c h n a t i v e M e l a n e s i a n s 17 Some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s who h a v e d i s c u s s e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n l i k e t e r m s i n c l u d e : Kenelm B u r r i d g e <1957), " D i s p u t i n g i n T a n g u " . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o o i s t . 59 ( 5 ) . M a u r i c e B l o c h , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " and Raymond F i r t h , " S p e e ch-making and A u t h o r i t y i n T i k o p i a " , i n M a u r c e B l o c h , <ed.) <1975), P o l i t i c a l Language  and O r a t o r y i n T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t y . A c a d e m i c P r e s s , L o n d o n . An a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w i s t a k e n by R o b e r t P a i n e <ed.), P o l i t i c a l l y S p e a k i n g . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s  o f R h e t o r i c . S o c i a l and Economic P a p e r s No. 10, I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l and Economic R e s e a r c h , M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w f o u n d l a n d , S t . J o h n s . 1981:5. - 21 -and Europeans could meet and de l iberate on problems with amity, as existed in the t r a d i t i o n a l soc ia l arrangements o-f each separate ly . There were two moral communities, each with i t s own pattern o-f r h e t o r i c . The r e l a t i o n between them o-f dominance and subjugation, a product i-f not the aim o-f paci-f i ca t ion , was -founded on -force. Though sustained by codes o-f behavior such as sa lu t ing a d i s t r i c t o-f-ficer, such codes were not primary and normative but were the mere outward signs of a s i tua t ion dominated by the norms of mastery and obedience. Given the statement that every moral community supports a p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n for managing c o n f l i c t s through language, the c o n f l i c t between moral communities may take the form of creat ing or pos i t ing an i n s t i t u t i o n through which moral equal i ty may be a c t u a l i z e d . If we rephrase our statement on moral communities and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , we can derive the b icondi t ional sentence, 'There i s a moral community i f and only i f there i s an i n s t i t u t i o n that manages c o n f l i c t through language.' A great deal i s yet to be remarked on how an underlying dr ive for a new moral order resu l ted in the s p e c i f i c shape of events of the Marching Rule per iod , which was dominated by the issue of inventing and i n i t i a t i n g just such an i n s t i t u t i o n . - 22 -S t r u c t u r e s o-f c h a n o e L i k e some o t h e r s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , V i c t o r T u r n e r e m p h a s i z e s t h e r o l e o-f - f o r m a l i z a t i o n i n m a n aging c o n - f l i c t . . . . „ .. 18) s i t u a t i o n s . He w r i t e s , T h e g r a d i e n t o-f - f o r m a l i t y may e x t e n d -from t h e mere d i s p l a y o-f e t i q u e t t e and p r o p r i e t y , t h r o u g h c e r e m o n i a l a c t i o n , t o t h e - f u l l - b l o w n r i t u a l i z a t i on o-f b e h a v i o r . Even when s i t u a t i o n s d e v e l o p s p o n t a n e o u s l y , o u t o-f q u a r r e l s o r c e l e b r a t i o n s , t h e y r a p i d l y a c q u i r e a • f o r m a l i z e d o r s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r . Most a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have o b s e r v e d t h a t , i n t h e c o u r s e o-f v i l l a g e q u a r r e l s , t h e c o n t e n d i n g - f a c t i o n s draw a p a r t , c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r r a n k s , and d e v e l o p spokesmen who p r e s e n t t h e i r c a s e s i n t e r m s o-f a r h e t o r i c t h a t i s c u l t u r a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d . T u r n e r ' s e a r l y work l e a v e s us bere-ft o-f any t h e o r y o-f how c o n - f l i c t s a r e r e s o l v e d i n t h e a b s e n c e o-f " c u l t u r a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d " p r o c e d u r e s i n a s i t u a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n g m o r a l c o m m u n i t i e s s u c h a s t h a t w h i c h e n g e n d e r e d t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . In a l a t e r w o r k , 1 9 > T u r n e r a d v a n c e d a ' s o c i a l drama' model o f p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s t o e x p l a i n how a p o l i t i c a l 18 i_n S c h w a r t z , T u r n e r and Tuden <1966), P o l i t i c a l An t h r o p o l oqy: 241. 19 V i c t o r T u r n e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Dramas. F i e l d s and M e t a p h o r s . - 23 -• f i e l d s u c h a s a c o l o n i a l o r d e r may move i n t o a new f i e l d m arked by a r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r , t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s o f <i) b r e a c h o f n o r m - g o v e r n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (2) m o u n t i n g c r i s i s , <3> r e d r e s s i v e a c t i o n s , (4) r e i n t e g r a t i o n < idem:41) . T u r n e r n o t e s t h a t t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s t o have c o n t i n u i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e cornmun i t a s r e l e a s e d by a p r i m a r y p r o c e s s . Communitas i s n o t s i m p l y a n o t h e r term f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s , a l t h o u g h p e r h a p s i t i s f o r t h e 'numinous' i n R u d o l f O t t o ' s phenomenology. Communitas i s d e f i n e d a s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e "bonds w h i c h u n i t e " w h i c h a r e o f a h i g h e r o r d e r than t h o s e o f " r e g u l a t e d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l g r o u p s " i n c l u d i n g r o u t i n i z e d r e l i g i o n s ( 1 9 7 4 : 4 5 ) . The p r i m a r y p r o c e s s i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h : ... a r i s e s f r o m deep human need s f o r more d i r e c t and e g a l i t a r i a n ways o f knowing and e x p e r i e n c i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , n e e d s w h i c h have been f r u s t r a t e d or p e r v e r t e d by t h o s e s e c o n d a r y p r o c e s s e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e h o m e o s t a t i c f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e (idem:111) . T u r n e r i n v i t e d c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n o f h i s f o u r - s t a g e m o d e l . He e x h o r t s t h e a n a l y s t o f t h i s t y p e o f movement t o " n o t l i m i t o n e ' s e n q u i r y t o a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , but t o l o o k f o r t h e g r o u n d s f o r a c t i o n i n g e n e r i c communitas." In o t h e r w o r d s , T u r n e r u r g e s us t o l o o k f o r t h e f a c t o r s of c h a n g e w h i c h p r o c e e d not f r o m t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p r o p e r t i e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but w h i c h p r o c e e d f r o m t h e - 24 -e n c o u n t e r between s t r u c t u r e and a n t i - s t r u c t u r e , o u t o-f w h i c h t h e s e c o n d a r y o r d e r i n g s o-f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d a r e remade o v e r t h e c o u r s e o-f a s o c i a l drama. " H i s t o r y r e p e a t s t h e deep myths o-f c u l t u r e , g e n e r a t e d i n g r e a t s o c i a l c r i s e s a t t u r n i n g p o i n t s o f change" < i d e m : 1 2 2 ) . A s Kenelm B u r r i d g e s t a t e s , "what we know more f a m i l i a r l y a s r e v o l u t i o n s a r e i n f a c t w r i t t e n o r programmed i n t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e E u r o p e a n c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . T h a t i s , mi 1 1 e n n i a l i s m s ( a n d s o , l a t e r , w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t , r e v o l u t i o n s ) a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . " ^ ' * What we must be c o n c e r n e d w i t h i s t h e n a t u r e o f s u c h " i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e i r method o f p r o p a g a t i o n t o n o n - E u r o p e a n s e t t i n g s . F u n d a m e n t a l i s t C h r i s t i a n i t y i n M a l a i t a i n t r o d u c e d a new s t r a t e g y o f d i s c o u r s e p r o d u c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e B i b l e had u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h was u s e d by t h e SSEM and i t s c o n v e r t s t o d e c o n s t r u c t t h e pagan o r d e r , and u l t i m a t e l y , t h e c o l o n i a l o r d e r i t s e l f u n der t h e banner o f t h e M a r c h i n g Ru 1 e. - 25 -PART I . HISTORICAL APPROACH TO THE MARCHING RULE In t r o d u c t i on E r i c W olf s t a t e s t h a t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e E u r o p e a n w o r k i n g 21) c l a s s e s and o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s i s one h i s t o r y . "The t r a j e c t o r i e s o f t h e ' p e o p l e w i t h o u t h i s t o r y ' on v a r i o u s c o n t i n e n t s o f t h e g l o b e d o v e t a i l and c o n v e r g e w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r m a t r i x c r e a t e d by E u r o p e a n e x p a n s i o n and t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n " < i d e m : 3 5 5 ) . Much o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , he s t a t e s , can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e g r e a t movements o f l a b o r and t h e economic r e l a t i o n s w h i c h s u c h movements made m a n i f e s t . T h r e e s u c h m i g r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d o v e r t h e c e n t u r y : a r a p i d growth o f E u r o p e a n u r b a n c e n t e r s , t h e movement o f f i f t y m i l l i o n E u r o p e a n s t o o t h e r c o n t i n e n t s i n c l u d i n g t h i r t y - t w o m i l l i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and f i n a l l y , i n a number o f movements o f n o n - E u r o p e a n c o n t r a c t l a b o r e r s i n t h e c o l o n i a l w o r l d . T h e l a t t e r l a b o r m i g r a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e movements o f t h e west A f r i c a n s t o t h e c o t t o n f i e l d s o f t h e a n t e - b e l l u m s o u t h e r n U.S., o f B a n t u i n t o t h e m i n e s o f s o u t h e r n A f r i c a , 28 K.O.L. B u r r i d g e (1985) "Mi 1 1 e n n i a l i s m s and t h e R e c r e a t i o n o f H i s t o r y . " I_n B r u c e L i n c o l n <ed) , R e l i o i o n . R e b e l l i o n .  R e v o l u t i o n . M a c m i l l a n : 222 21 E u r o p e and t h e P e o p l e W i t h o u t H i s t o r y o-f C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s i n t o - f i e l d s and l a b o r gangs t h r o u g h o u t A f r i c a , S o u t h e a s t A s i a and N o r t h A m e r i c a , o-f s o u t h e r n E u r o p e a n s i n t o S o u t h A m e r i c a , and o-f some 46,387 ( A l l a n 1958) M e l a n e s i a n s p r e d o m i n a n t l y -from t h e New H e b r i d e s and t h e Solomon I s l a n d s i n t o t h e c a n e - f i e l d s o f Q u e e n s l a n d . O r i g i n s were i r r e l e v a n t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f m i g r a t i o n and f o r e i g n employment e x c e p t i n s o f a r a s t h e y e n a b l e d t h e w o r k e r t o e n t e r i n t o t h e r e q u i s i t e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e modes o f p r o d u c t i o n . T h e r e he u n l e a r n e d and l e a r n e d c u l t u r e f r o m p e o p l e and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , w h i c h e v e r y w h e r e p r o d u c e d a w i d e r c u l t u r a l u n i t y t h r o u g h t h e c o n t i n u a l r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a p i t a l - 1 a b o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l t h o u g h s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s v i e w e d t h e new l a b o r e r s a s t h e s o u r c e o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s e v e r a n c e f r o m c u l t u r a l r o o t s , i t d i d n o t i n v o l v e l o o k i n g a t them "as s o c i a l a c t o r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t , r e s p o n d i n g t o new c o n d i t i o n s " (Wolf i b i d : 3 5 4 ) . In t h i s d i v i s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s w h i c h I have headed "The H i s t o r i c a l A p p r o a c h t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e " I aim t o r e c o v e r a moment o f h i s t o r y o f a ' p e o p l e w i t h o u t h i s t o r y ' by a d v a n c i n g an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d o c u m e n t a r y l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d . T h e M e l a n e s i a n p e o p l e , who were v i e w e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a s s o u r c e s o f l a b o r f o r p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e , u nder t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f i n d i g e n o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l s , - 27 -i n d e e d a c t e d ' i n t h e i r own r i g h t . ' T h e y made t h r o u g h t h e i r w o rds and a c t i o n s , a h i s t o r y whose f u l l and c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t i n g can o n l y be an i d e a l t o w a r d w h i c h a c a d e m i c s c h o l a r s h i p can s t r i v e . From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d i n 193? t h r o u g h t o i t s r e s t i v e c o n c l u s i o n i n J a n u a r y 1953, a p o l i t i c a l movement was s u s t a i n e d by a s i n g l e i d e a l p r i n c i p l e h e l d i n t h e m i n d s o f i t s l e a d e r s w i t h u n u s u a l t e n a c i t y and c l a r i t y — t h e n e e d f o r a new n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . Over t h e c o u r s e o f t h e e n s u i n g s o c i a l dramas, t h i s i d e a was u s e d t o d e r i v e d i f f e r e n t p l a n s o r a l g o r i t h m s d e f i n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s i n numerous f o r m s . Each a t t e m p t s h a r e d two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t was a f o r m o f r e p u b l i c a n government, and i t was c l e a r l y v a l i d a t e d by r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . T h e s e i n c i p i e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s m i r r o r e d and n e g a t e d t h o s e o f c o l o n i a l g o v ernment: t h e c o l o n i a l o r d e r was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; i t r u l e d a g a i n s t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e . And, b e c a u s e Government's s u p p o s e d C h r i s t i a n n a t u r e was u n d e r s t o o d a s a sham a f t e r t h e war, i t was i n v a l i d f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y , t h a t i s , a s i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n d i g e n e s o f t h e S o u t h Sea E v a n g e l i c a l M i s s i o n . - 28 -C h a p t e r 1. T h e B r i t i s h Solomon I s l a n d s P r o t e c t o r a t e T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s some b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l on t h e c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n p r i o r t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d . I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o-f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e g o v ernment, i t s n a t i v e p o l i c y , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n and t h e SSEM. The -formation and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o-f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e T h e modern h i s t o r y o-f s o u t h e r n M e l a n e s i a b e g i n s between t h e y e a r s 1863 and 1891, t h e p e r i o d o f t h e l a b o r t r a f f i c between t h e i s l a n d s and t h e Q u e e n s l a n d s u g a r p l a n t a t i o n s . Most r e c r u i t s came f r o m t h e New H e b r i d e s , but t h e y i n c l u d e d some 15,080 Solomon I s l a n d e r s , p e r h a p s t h r e e - q u a r t e r s f r o m M a l a i t a , o f w h i c h o v e r e i g h t y p e r c e n t were pagans < H i l l i a r d 1974:41). W.G. I v e n s s t a t e s t h a t "one i s s a f e i n e s t i m a t i n g " t h a t h a l f o f t h o s e who went a b r o a d d i e d t h e r e ( I v e n s 1936:42). The l a b o r r e c r u i t i n g , i n l o c a l c i r c l e s commonly known a s ' b l a c k b i r d i n g , ' o c c u r e d w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n o r c o n t r o l u n t i l 1872 when t h e t h e P a c i f i c I s l a n d e r s P r o t e c t i o n A c t was e n a c t e d . D e s p i t e t h e s q u a l i d c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h s u r r o u n d e d t h e l a b o r t r a f f i c , w h i c h c a u s e s i t s l i t e r a t u r e t o be l i s t e d under t h e h e a d i n g o f ' s l a v e r y ' i n T a y l o r ' s c o mpendious P a c i f i c B i b l i o o r a p h v . t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o go t o Q u e e n s l a n d was a g r e a t a t t r a c t i o n - 2.9 -t o t h e n a t i v e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o v e r t h e g r o u p commenced i n 1875 when a H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r -for t h e W e s t e r n P a c i f i c , h e a d q u a r t e r e d i n F i j i , was a p p o i n t e d w i t h M a g i s t e r i a l powers o v e r B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . N a v a l commanders were a p p o i n t e d d e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r s and t h e i r s p o r a d i c p a t r o l s t h r o u g h t h e Solomons and New H e b r i d e s t o en-force t h e K i n g ' s Law d i s c o u r a g e d t h e most f l a g r a n t a b u s e s . In 1885 t h e Q u e e n s l a n d l e g i s l a t u r e , r e s p o n d i n g t o p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , o u t l a w e d t h e l a b o r t r a f f i c w h i c h however was resumed under s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l s i n 1891 d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n . In 1901 t h e Commonwealth government d e c i d e d t h a t no f u r t h e r r e c r u i t m e n t w o u l d o c c u r a f t e r 1904, and f o u r y e a r s l a t e r t h e l a s t o f t h e M e l a n e s i a n l a b o r e r s were r e p a t r i a t e d t o t h e i r home i s l a n d s . The n a t i v e s were n o t a n x i o u s t o r e t u r n . A c c o r d i n g t o A l l a n , y o u t h s a f t e r w a r d s p l e a d e d t o be a l l o w e d t o go back t o Q u e e n s l a n d ( A l l a n 1 9 5 0 : C h . l , n. 6 ) . J a c k M a l a y t a , a Q u e e n s l a n d l a b o r e r and s t u d e n t i n an A n g l i c a n Q u e e n s l a n d b i b l e s c h o o l , w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p e a l i n 1901: I w r i t e t o you i n t h e name of a l l my c o u n t r y m e n , f o r we h e a r some news s a y i n g t h a t t h e w h i t e p e o p l e want t o s e n d a l l t h e b o y s o u t o f Q u e e n s l a n d . Can you t e l l me i f t h i s i s r e a l l y t r u e ? B e c a u s e t h e w h i t e p e o p l e d i d b r i n g us t o t h e i r c o u n t r y : and t h a t was a good day f o r u s , f o r h e r e we d i d l e a r n much t h a t was good. / We have worked w e l l i n t h i s l a n d f o r t h e w h i t e p e o p l e ; t h e n why do t h e y want t o t u r n us o u t ? I do n o t s a y a l l b o y s have a l w a y s been good; but where i s t h e l a n d i n w h i c h a l l men a r e good? / I am o n l y a p o o r S o u t h Sea boy, and may be I do not know much; but i f w h i t e p e o p l e know t h e t r u e God, a s we have been t a u g h t by them, how can t h e y t h i n k t h a t r i g h t , t o s e n d us back i n t o a l a n d - f u l l o-f s i n , where i s a l w a y s - f i g h t i n g , where l i f e i s n e v e r s a f e , where t h e r e c a n ' t be s c h o o l s f o r many y e a r s y e t , no c h u r c h t o p r a i s e God i n , and more than a l l , where we s h a l 1 be c u t o f f f r o m g o i n g — 1 i k e we do h e r e — t o t h e H o l y Communion? / T h e r e a r e many h u n d r e d s of us C h r i s t i a n s , and t o be s e n t back t o our I s l a n d w i l l mean d e a t h f o r u s , b e c a u s e our I s l a n d i s y e t f u l l o f s i n . / ... A r e t h e r e no k i n d h e a r t s among C h r i s t i a n w h i t e p e o p l e who, f o r t h e l o v e o f our one God, w i l l s t a n d by us and h e l p us i n t h i s our t r o u b l e , s o t h a t we may s t a y i n p e a c e where we can have our s c h o o l and c h u r c h and s e r v e God ...7 ( L a r a c y 1983:44). B o t h c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t and C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n f o l l o w e d t h e l a b o r f o r c e back t o t h e Solomons. P e a s a n t c o c o n u t c u l t i v a t i o n was i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e New G e o r g i a g r o u p . L e v e r s , t h e l a r g e s t c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e Solomons and one o f t h e f i r s t rnul t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , began p l a n t a t i o n s on t h e R u s s e l l s and G u a d a l c a n a l . O t h e r f i r m s i n c l u d e d B u r n s P h i l i p and Company, p l a n t e r s and s h i p p e r s , and t h e Young b r o t h e r s o f Q u e e n s l a n d , who a t t e m p t e d t o e x t e n d t h e i r F a i r y m e a d Sugar Company i n t e r e s t s i n t o Solomons c o c o n u t c u l t i v a t i o n . L a b o r c o n d i t i o n s on t h e i s l a n d p l a n t a t i o n s were much h a r s h e r than t h e y had been i n Q u e e n s l a n d . Nor d i d t h e p l a n t a t i o n s o f f e r u r b a n a t t r a c t i o n s . T h e y were t h e s i t e s o f no permanent E u r o p e a n commitments. H i g h bush f a m i l i e s - 31 -and c o a s t a l middlemen d r o v e h a r d e r b a r g a i n s -for r e c r u i t s . A l t h o u g h p l a n t e r s had -found t h a t t h e y c o u l d grow p r a c t i c a l l y a n y t h i n g i n t h e Solomons, i n c l u d i n g f o r example r u b b e r , v a n i l l a , s i s a l , and c o c o a , t h e r e was a c h r o n i c s h o r t a g e o-f a d e q u a t e l a b o r . S a i d a f o r m e r p l a n t e r , "we were f o r c e d 22) back w i l l y - n i l l y i n t o c o p r a p r o d u c t i o n . " C o p r a p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e l e a s t l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e o f t h e t r o p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . A l l a n s u m marizes t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e e a r l y l a b o r t r a d e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. T h e guns b r o u g h t t o t h e i s l a n d e r s i n c r e a s e d i n d i g e n o u s w a r f a r e and made i t more l e t h a l i n c h a r a c t e r . R e p a t r i a t e s b r o u g h t back c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e s t o t h e i s l a n d s . C u l t u r a l l y , t h e r e was new d i s r e s p e c t f o r t h e g e r o n t o c r a c y and d e f e r r e d m a r r i a g e s . And " f i n a l l y , most i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e f u t u r e o f M a l a i t a , " F l o r e n c e Young b r o u g h t h e r Q u e e n s l a n d Kanaka M i s s i o n t o M a l a i t a i n i t s new c l o t h e s , t h e S o u t h Sea E v a n g e l i c a l M i s s i o n . C o c o n u t s were s a i d t o grow b e t t e r i n t h e Solomons than anywhere e l s e i n t h e w o r l d ( K e e s i n g and C o r r i s , 1988:30), a l t h o u g h m o u n t a i n o u s M a l a i t a h e l d l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t s e l f b e c o m i n g a c e n t r e o f c o p r a p r o d u c t i o n . However, 22 i n . Roger K e e s i n g and P e t e r C o r r i s < 1980) L i o h t n i n o M e e t s t h e West Wind. Th e M a l a i t a M a s s a c r e . M e l b o u r n e , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . t h e - f o r t u n e s t h a t s u p p o s e d l y a w a i t e d assumed a p l a c e i n a myth o-f t h e s o u t h P a c i - f i c w h i c h , t o some e x t e n t , i n f l u e n c e d e v e r y E u r o p e a n who came t o i t s s h o r e s . A s i d e f r o m a p r o m i s e o-f w e a l t h -founded on c h e a p l a b o r , t h e r e was -for government o f f i c e r s " t h e l u r e , e n s h r i n e d i n a h u n d r e d b o o k s , o f r u l i n g r o m a n t i c t r o p i c a l o u t p o s t s , " < idem:27) and i t was due t o t h i s myth t h a t t h e y , p e r h a p s , e n a c t e d " p r e t e n s i o n s o f h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s than t h e y e n j o y e d a t home" ( i d e m ) . T h e r e was an e l a b o r a t e c o d e o f d r e s s and comportment among t h e w h i t e s a t T u l a g i , t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e c a p i t a l o f t h e 1920s, w h i c h Ian H o b g i n r e c a l l e d was " a l l v e r y , v e r y pukka" ( i d e m : 3 0 ) . F o r t h e w h i t e m i s s i o n a r i e s , who f o r m e d one q u a r t e r o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e 1920s, t h e myth o f b r i n g i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f C h r i s t i a n community t o t h e h e a t h e n c o n s t i t u t e d a romance o f i t s own . Government's p r i m a r y d u t y was t o b r i n g a b o u t law and o r d e r . Arms, l i q u o r and l a n d d i s p o s a l a l l came under i t s e a r l y c o n t r o l . A u k i d i s t r i c t s t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d on M a l a i t a i n 1909 and D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r B e l l , who had an i n f l a m m a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y and who made p a c i f i c a t i o n o f M a l a i t a a p e r s o n a l c r u s a d e , came on d u t y t h e r e i n 1915. Government r u l e t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t i m e i n t o t h e t w e n t i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o A l l a n , was " s e v e r e l y d i r e c t . " - 33 -The P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s n a t i v e p o l i c y A l l a n s t a t e s , " i t was ... v i r t u a l l y i n e v i t a b l e t h a t n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d be p a t t e r n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o-f l a r g e - s c a l e i n t e r e s t s p r o d u c i n g a t r o p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t w h i c h p r o b a b l y more than any o t h e r h a s been s u b j e c t t o t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f f r e e - w o r l d p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s " ( A l I a n 1958:17). Government's s o c i a l p o l i c y was a l m o s t e n t i r e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h r e e i n t e r l o c k i n g i s s u e s , p a c i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s w a r f a r e , stemming t h e d e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d s , and b u i l d i n g s u c h i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a s was r e q u i r e d t o a s s u r e a c o n t i n u i n g s u p p l y o f p l a n t a t i o n l a b o r . L i k e t h e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n New G u i n e a , t h e p r o t e c t o r a t e government s o u g h t t o tax t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e . T h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h i s was not s i m p l y and s t a r k l y t o c r e a t e a demand f o r money and t h e r e b y s t i m u l a t e 2 3 ) l a b o r r e c r u i t i n g , b u t stemmed f r o m two p u r e l y b u r e a u c r a t i c i n c e n t i v e s : f i r s t , demanding and r e c e i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s power o f c o m p u l s i o n , w h i c h was t h e e v i d e n c e o f p a c i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d o f t h e c o l o n i a l s by t h e i r homeland 23 A s P e t e r L a w r e n c e a s s e r t s was t h e c a s e f o r New G u i n e a , where headmen r e c e i v e d 18X o f t h e tax f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Road B e l o n o C a r o o . M a n c h e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . p. 43. - 34 -s u p e r i o r s ; and s e c o n d , p r o c u r i n g r e v e n u e -from t h e p l a n t a t i o n s , w h i c h was t h e i r o n l y means o-f p a y i n g e x p e n s e s . "The more t h e government manages t o e x i s t upon t h e r e v e n u e s o f t h e p l a n t a t i o n s , and t h e l e s s upon c h a r i t y f r o m t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, t h e more e f f i c i e n t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d " (Marquand 1949/58:48). T h e i m p o s i t i o n o f tax r e q u i r e d b o t h a c e n s u s and a m i n i m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The f i r s t N a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e g u l a t i o n was e n a c t e d i n 1922 and a u t h o r i z e d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t by D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s o f c o n s t a b l e s , v i l l a g e headmen and d i s t r i c t headmen, t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h was t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c h a i n o f command between government and t h e w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d p o p u l a t i o n s . The i n h e r e n t p r o b l e m s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f 'government c h i e f s ' i n t h e Solomons was w e l l known by c o n t e m p o r a r y admi n i s t r a t o r s . In most c a s e s t h e e x t r e m e c o m p l e x i t y o f n a t i v e s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f i x i t y o f m e a n i n g w h i c h c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t s g i v e t o t h e term ' c h i e f c a u s e d many t o be e l e v a t e d t o t h e s e p o s t s n o t f o r t h e i r s t a t u s i n t h e community but r a t h e r f o r t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o speak E n g l i s h and t o behave i n a g l i b and c o n f i d e n t manner i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f E u r o p e a n s ( A l l a n 1958:19). However on M a l a i t a , t h e r e were two o u t s t a n d i n g D i s t r i c t Headmen, M a e k a l i a t M a l u ' u i n t h e n o r t h , and H o a s i h a u i n e a s t ' A r e ' A r e t o t h e s o u t h , whose l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s e x t e n d e d b e y o n d m e r e l y p r o p a g a t i n g government o r d e r s , i n f o r m i n g on o t h e r s and g a t h e r i n g t h e p e o p l e a t t h e c o a s t a l - 35 -tax h o u s e s on t h e o c c a s i o n o-f t h e D i s t r i c O f f i c e r s ' y e a r l y c o l 1ec t i o n. P r i c e s o f c o p r a were h i g h i n t h e 1920s. Tax was a p p l i e d t o M a l a i t a f i r s t i n 1924. T h e D.O.'s had powers of l e n i e n c y , and c o u l d g r a n t w i d e e x c e p t i o n s . The tax c o l e c t e d was 5/ t o £1 p e r m a l e aged 16 t h r o u g h 60. The f i r s t tax was c o l l e c t e d w i t h o u t p r o b l e m s , but d i f f i c u l t i e s w ere e n c o u n t e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Tax was c o l l e c t e d w i t h o u t i n c i d e n t i n 1926 but i n 1927 t h e r e was r e s i s t a n c e c u l m i n a t i n g i n an i n c i d e n t i n w h i c h D.O. B e l l and h i s p a r t y were k i l l e d by t h e Kwaio. T h e e n s u i n g e v e n t s a r e r e c o u n t e d by K e e s i n g and C o r r i s <1980). Tax was known t o be a b u r d e n t o t h e n a t i v e s o f Papua a t t h i s t i m e , but t h e r e , s a i d an anonymous w r i t e r i n t h e Sydney p a p e r s f o l l o w i n g t h e i n c i d e n t , " a l l t h e head money i s s p e n t d i r e c t l y upon t h e p e o p l e i n e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c a l s e r v i c e , e t c . " An A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y f r o m t h e A u k i a r e a commented t h a t " t h e c r o w n i n g t r o u b l e was t h e t a x . The n a t i v e s s a i d t h e y r e c e i v e d no b e n e f i t f r o m i t and c o u l d n o t s e e why t h e y s h o u l d be f o r c e d t o pay i t . " T he m i s s i o n a r y -a n t h r o p o l o g i s t W.G. I v e n s c o n c u r r e d . He s a i d t h a t £12,000 had been c o l l e c t e d i n t h e Solomons, m o s t l y f r o m M a l a i t a n s , and t h e n a t i v e s " c o n s i d e r e d t h e y were e n t i t l e d t o some r e t u r n " ( K e e s i n g and C o r r i s , 1980:191). S i r H.C. M o o r h ouse, who h e aded a c o m m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o-f t h e B e l l i n c i d e n t , s t a t e d t h a t t h e government headman s y s t e m was "an a r t i f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e [ t h a t 3 had been s u p e r i m p o s e d on - f o u n d a t i o n s i l l — f i t t e d t o b e a r t h e w e i g h t " < i_n A l l a n 1958:1?) . M oorhouse was " a p p a l l e d " a t t h e p r o b l e m o-f " g r a f t i n g a f o r m o f i n d i r e c t r u l e on t h e M e l a n e s i a n a u t h o r i t y s y s t e m " and r e f e r r e d t o t h e s e c u l a r s t r e n g t h o f t h e SSEM m i s s i o n t e a c h e r s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n ( A l l a n 1958:22). The E n g l i s h Committee o f t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n , whose r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were c o n s u l t e d by t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f o l l o w i n g t h e B e l l i n c i d e n t , a d v o c a t e d m a k i n g t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e a Crown C o l o n y , a p r o p o s a l l o n g s o u g h t a f t e r by t h e p l a n t e r s . The Committee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r g u e d t h a t i t w o u l d make f o r more e f f i c i e n t government and e n a b l e r e t u r n i n g head tax r e v e n u e s t o t h e p e o p l e i n t h e f o r m o f i m p r o v e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . T h e t o t a l r e v e n u e was £ 1 7 , 5 8 8 , o f w h i c h £18,860 was c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e i s l a n d e r s , and i n l i g h t o f t h i s , " t h e r e s h o u l d be 'more v i s i b l e s i g n s o f i m p r o v e d c o n d i t i o n s , ' w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t o f m e d i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l work f o r t h e i s l a n d e r s ' b e n e f i t " <i_n H i l l i a r d 1974:108). B i s h o p S t e w a r d was o p p o s e d t o t h e Crown C o l o n y i d e a , and i t was t h e r e a f t e r d r o p p e d . Th e w o r l d d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930s was a c u t e l y f e l t - 37 -i n t h e S o l omon I s l a n d s . A l l a n - f u r n i s h e s t h e - f o l l o w i n g - f i g u r e s on t h e d e c l i n e i n v a l u e o-f c o p r a ( 1 9 5 8 : 2 2 ) . In 1926-7, 22,316 t o n s was e x p o r t e d w i t h a v a l u e o-f £ 4 1 1 , 5 9 7 . By 1934-5, 18,893 t o n s -fetched o n l y £ 5 4 , 8 1 3 . P l a n t a t i o n l a b o r e r s had t h e i r wages r e d u c e d . L e v e r s i n 1933 s o u g h t t o s u b s t i t u t e m a i z e -for r i c e i n t h e i r w o r k e r s ' d i e t s , b u t t h e e n s u i n g d i s c o n t e n t " h a l t e d p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o p e r a t i o n s " (Stau-f-fer 1956:316). The n a t i v e s e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t d i - f - f i c u l t y i n p a y i n g t h e he a d tax d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s . Economic c o n d i t i o n s on M a l a i t a , whence e i g h t y p e r c e n t o-f t h e i s l a n d p l a n t a t i o n l a b o r e r s were drawn, were g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r i n t h e n o r t h than i n t h e s o u t h . But i n t h e n o r t h t e n s i o n c o n t i n u e d between t h e pagan c o m m u n i t i e s and t h e new C h r i s t i a n s e t t l e m e n t s . A s p a r t o-f g o v e r n m e n t ' s campaign a g a i n s t t h e ' d e p o p u l a t i o n ' t h o u g h t due t o ' c u l t u r a l - f a t i g u e ' b r o u g h t on by p a c i f i c a t i o n and t h e C h r i s t i a n s u p p r e s s i o n o-f o l d c u s t o m s , government t h e r e was g i v i n g g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n t o c u s t o m law, w h i c h w o u l d b r i n g i t i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n v i l l a g e t e a c h e r s . But t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s r o l e i n p r o t e c t i n g n a t i v e c u s t o m was hampered by l i m i t e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . Among t h e ' A r e ' A r e p e o p l e i n th e s o u t h , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n m o r t u a r y f e a s t i n g , a t a t i m e a t w h i c h t h e r e was " s e r i o u s s t a r v a t i o n and i l l n e s s " , and " t h e government made e f f o r t s t o p e r s u a d e t h e p e o p l e - 38 -t o l i m i t t h e s i z e and number o-f t h e f e a s t s t o p r e v e n t t h e c o n s t a n t e conomic d r a i n o f r e s o u r c e s " ( A l l a n 1958:24). I t i s o b v i o u s f r o m t h e f o r e g o i n g t h a t t h e r e were many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o n f l i c t s between t h e E u r o p e a n s and t h e n a t i v e s . A s e a r l y a s 1987 and 1912, C h r i s t i a n M a l a i t a n s s u b m i t t e d p e t i t i o n s t o K i n g Edward V I I and t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r , t h e n a t u r a l i s t C M . W o o d f o r d , on a number o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e s . T h e w r i t e r s u r g e d government t o "opent [ s i c . ] up A u s t r a l i a n Q u e e n s l a n d a g a i n " where t h e y s a i d " t r e a t m e n t t h e r e i s a l o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m h e r e , " and r e q u e s t e d b e t t e r f o o d and h i g h e r wages. T h e y a l s o a d v a n c e d an i m a g i n a t i v e p l a n whereby p l a n t a t i o n w o r k e r s were t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a c o l l e c t i o n f u n d " f o r t o h e l p i n g t h e e and t h e b i s h o p s f o r t h e P o o r e r and t h e n a k e d n e s s ... t r y t o B r i n g up our n a t i o n i n t o t h e c i v i l i s a t i o n s t a t e s " ( L a r a c y 1983:45-48). T h e s e e a r l y e x p r e s s i o n s o f g r i e v a n c e were s y m p t o m a t i c o f a d e v e l o p i n g c r i s i s , b u t t h e y f e l l l a r g e l y on d e a f e a r s . The m i s s i o n a r y - l i n g u i s t C h a r l e s Fox s a i d t h a t "members o f t h e Government were n e v e r i n t i m a t e w i t h t h e p e o p l e o v e r whom t h e y r u l e d and n e v e r won t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s " (jjn Hi 1 H a r d 1974:118). E q u a l l y o b v i o u s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n was t h e a b s e n c e o f any d i s c u r s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r m a naging i n t e r - r a c i a l - 39 -p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e . T h e r e was no way i n w h i c h n a t i v e M e l a n e s i a n s and E u r o p e a n s c o u l d meet and d i s c u s s p r o b l e m s w i t h a m i t y , a s e x i s t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o-f each s e p a r a t e l y . The S o u t h P a c i f i c and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e BSIP was low on t h e l i s t o f d e s i r a b l e C o l o n i a l S e r v i c e p o s t i n g s . C i v i l s e r v a n t s p r e f e r r e d a s s i g n m e n t i n I n d i a o r A f r i c a , where t h e r e was o p p o r t u n i t y f o r h u n t i n g , a l a r g e r E u r o p e a n c o n t i n g e n t , and more p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g n o t i c e d f o r k n i g h t h o o d s and o t h e r h o n o r s . E u r o p e a n s ' h e a l t h i n t h e BSIP was u n i v e r s a l l y p o o r ; n e a r l y e v e r y o n e had m a l a r i a l f e v e r , t o t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s o f w h i c h was added t h o s e o f q u i n i n e , and t h e c u m u l a t i v e w e a k e n i n g o f immunity b r o u g h t on o t h e r o t h e r i l l n e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g b l a c k w a t e r f e v e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e d e a t h r a t e among m i s s i o n a r i e s , p l a n t e r s and government p e r s o n n e l was h i g h ( K e e s i n g and C o r r i s 1988:29). The P r o t e c t o r a t e and t h e M i s s i o n s Among t h e e a r l i e s t E u r o p e a n i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i s l a n d s was t h a t o f t h e A n g l i c a n M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n , w h i c h was f o u n d e d i n 1856 and w h i c h by 1982 had c e n t e r s on N g g e l a , Y s a b e l and M a l a i t a a t A t a ' a and S a ' a . B o t h D a v i d Hi 1 H a r d and Hugh L a r a c y a r e h i s t o r i a n s who have w r i t t e n e x t e n s i v e l y on Solomons m i s s i o n s , and upon t h e i r work I must n e c e s s a r i l y r e l y -for i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e m i s s i o n s and t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e g o v ernment. Hi 1 H a r d s t a t e s t h a t r e l a t i o n between t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n and t h e c o l o n i a l government was c emented by c l o s e p e r s o n a l and q u a s i - o f f i c i a l t i e s . He - f i n d s t h a t t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n p l a y e d upon i m p e r i a l themes i n i t s homeland p u b l i c i t y l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h u r g e d t h e v i e w t h a t b r i n g i n g C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n t o t h e i s l a n d e r s complemented t h e work o-f g o v e r m e n t , i n w h i c h "we o-f t h e B r i t i s h r a c e a r e , c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l 24) w e l d i n g t h e s c a t t e r e d r a c e s i n t o one.... " T h e e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s , who p r i o r t o p a c i f i c a t i o n had f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s f o r c e d i n t o t h e r o l e o f a r b i t e r s o f n a t i v e d i s p u t e s , welcomed 25) r e l i e f f r o m s u c h d u t i e s by t h e new D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s . But i f i n d e e d t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d saw t h e m s e l v e s a t t i m e s a s f u r t h e r i n g s t a t e e x p a n s i o n , t h e y a l s o a c t e d t o m e l i o r a t e some o f t h e most o b v i o u s 24 D a v i d H i l l i a r d <1974) " C o l o n i a l i s m and C h r i s t i a n i t y : t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n i n t h e Solomon I s l a n d s . " J o u r n a l  o f P a c i f i c H i s t o r y . 9:93-116. p. 182. 25 "The law w h i c h t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r a d m i n i s t e r e d was i n t h e o r y t h e l e g a l c o d e o f E n g l a n d e x c e p t f o r c e r t a i n m a t t e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y c o v e r e d by o r d i n a n c e s i s s u e d by t h e P a c i f i c O r d e r i n C o u n c i l o f 1893 by t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r t h e W e s t e r n P a c i f i c . The b u l k o f t h e s e l a t t e r r e f e r e d t o t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f t h e s u p p l y o f ammunition and i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r t o t h e n a t i v e s and t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e i r e n g a g i n g i n employment by E u r o p e a n s . " Ian H o g b i n (1944) " N a t i v e C o u r t s and C o u n c i l s i n t h e Solomon I s l a n d s " O c e a n i a 14:268. - 41 -p r o b l e m s b r o u g h t by c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o l o c a l p e o p l e s . In t h e 1920s t h e l e a d e r s h i p o-f t h e m i s s i o n came t o s e e i t s e l - f a s t h e ' c o n s c i e n c e ' o-f t h e p r o t e c t o r a t e < H i l l i a r d 1974:102). T h e l a c k o-f a common b a s i s -for d i s c u s s i n g j o i n t c o n c e r n s between t h e c o l o n i a l s and t h e n a t i v e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by i t s a t t e m p t t o p o s i t i o n i t s e l f a s s u c h an a g e n c y , a s t h e m e d i a t o r between t h e p r o t e c t o r a t e government and i t s s u b j e c t s . A s d e v e l o p e d by B i s h o p John S t e w a r d and o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e 1920s, t h e m i s s i o n came t o v i e w i t s d u t y a s " t o e x p l a i n t h e one t o t h e o t h e r 'whatever c a u s e s o f f r i c t i o n a r e b r o u g h t t o our n o t i c e ' , t r a n s l a t i n g t h e v i e w s o f e a c h p a r t y ' w i t h o u t any e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n ' , and t h e r e b y r e t a i n i n g t h e t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e o f b o t h " < H i l l i a r d 1974:102). S t e w a r d c r i t i c i z e d t h e t a x a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n o f 1920 " f o r i t s f o r c e d l a b o r i m p l i c a t i o n s and f o r i t s f a i l u r e t o a p p l y t h e f u n d s t h u s c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e i s l a n d e r s ' t o t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f t h e i r c o n d i t i o n ' " ( H i l l i a r d 1974:102), a l t h o u g h t h e m i s s i o n e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i e s c e d and u r g e d i t s p a r i s o n e r s t o a c c e p t t h e head tax ' w i t h good c h e e r ' ( H i l l i a r d 1974:163). S t e w a r d o p p o s e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f c h a r g i n g n a t i v e s h i g h e r p r i c e s t han w h i t e s f o r " i n c e n t i v e t r a d e g o o d s " , and i n h i s c a p a c i t y a s a member o f t h e p r o t e c t o r a t e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l ( t h e o n l y m i s s i o n t o be s o h o n o r e d ) , S t e w a r d " l e d t h e a t t a c k " on - 42 -a p r o p o s e d N a t i v e Code w h i c h c o n t a i n e d s u c h S S E M - i n s p i r e d r e g u l a t i o n s a s p r o h i b i t i o n o-f n a t i v e u s e o f t o b a c c o and b e t e l . T h i s was an e x t e n s i o n o f B i s h o p P a t t e s o n ' s r a t h e r d i s i n g e n u o u s p o l i c y t h a t "when t h e p e o p l e become C h r i s t i a n s t h e y w i l l d e c i d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h c u s t o m s a r e e v i l and must be g i v e n up." However, m a j o r n a t i v e p o l i c y c o n f l i c t s between t h e A n g l i c a n s and government were r a r e ; t h e y m a i n l y i n v o l v e d q u e s t i o n s o f d i v o r c e and m a r r i a g e , and w h e t h e r t h e government c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y k e e p t h e P o l y n e s i a n o u t l i e r s o f Rennel and B e l l o n a f r e e f r o m m i s s i o n a c c e s s ( w h i c h i t c o u l d n o t ) . To Hi 1 H a r d ' s q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e government saw i t s e l f a s f u i I f i l l i n g a r e l i g i o u s m i s s i o n , t h e r e i s p e r h a p s a c l e a r e r answer than t h e i m p e r i a l i s m o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . T h e p r o t e c t o r a t e s a n c t i o n e d " n o t C h r i s t i a n dogma but C h r i s t i a n c o n d u c t a s a s o c i a l and moral b a s i s f o r th e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f B r i t i s h government" ( H i l l i a r d 1974:166). A l t h o u g h t h e ' s p h e r e s o f i n f l u e n c e ' p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t e d by W o o d f o r d , w h i c h d i v i d e d up t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e among t h e 27) f i v e m i s s i o n s , r e c o g n i z e d no f a v o r i t e s among them, 26 Fox 1967:31 i_n H a r o l d R o s s , " C o m p e t i t i o n f o r Baegu S o u l s : M i s s i o n R i v a l r y on M a l a i t a , S . I . " James A. B o u t i l i e r e t a l , <eds.) . M i s s i o n . C h u r c h and S e c t i n O c e a n i a . ASAO Monograph No. 6. U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , Ann A r b o r 1978:175. 27 M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n , M a r i s t C a t h o l i c , S o u t h S ea E v a n g e l i c a l M i s s i o n , S e v e n t h Day A d v e n t i s t and M e t h o d i s t , t h e l a t t e r i n a c t i v e i n t h e c e n t r a l S olomons. t h e A n g l i c a n s -found t h e m s e l v e s i n a p o s i t i o n o-f u n o - f - f i c i a l p r i v i l e g e o v e r t h e o t h e r m i s s i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o - f i n a n c e , n a v a l t r a n s p o r t , n o n - o - f - f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , and -for i t s E n g l i s h Committee, t h e c a p a b i l i t y o-f d i r e c t l y a p p r o a c h i n g t h e C o l o n i a l O-f-fice. T h u s i t was n ot an i n a c c u r a t e judgement on t h e p a r t o-f t h e i s l a n d e r s t h a t M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n and Government were c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r m i s s i o n s , t h a t t h e y "were m e r e l y d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s o f t h e same m y s t e r i o u s w h i t e a u t h o r i t y . " C o n v e r t s p r a y e d f o r t h e k i n g , t h e head o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d , and e v e r y o n e , m i s s i o n a r i e s i n c l u d e d , t u r n e d o ut f o r a day o f f e s t i v i t i e s , s p o r t and f i r e w o r k s on t h e o c c a s i o n o f a mo n a r c h ' s J u b i l e e o r a c c e s s i o n ( H i l l i a r d 1974:186; c f . Z o l e v e k e 1983). The g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n a r i e s and government o f f i c i a l s was c l o s e , a s w o u l d be between any c o u n t r y m e n o f common u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s o r i g i n s under h a r s h l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s f a r f r o m - t h e homeland. When f r i c t i o n a r o s e between t h e A n g l i c a n s and t h e government i t was o v e r t h e i r r e l a t i v e s t a t u s i n t h e e y e s o f t h e i s l a n d e r s . C h r i s t i a n i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y u nder t h e i n d i g e n o u s p r o s e l y t i z i n g o f t h e SSEM t e a c h e r s , became s o p o p u l a r d u r i n g t h e 1928s and 1938s t h a t by t h e t i m e o f t h e J a p a n e s e war " w e l l o v e r t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was e i t h e r b a p t i z e d o r r e s i d e n t i n a C h r i s t i a n v i l l a g e 0 ( H i l l i a r d 1974:118)- T h e m i s s i o n a r i e s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s , l i v e d l o c a l l y and may have o b t a i n e d a s m a t t e r i n g o r b e t t e r o f n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . The i s l a n d e r s t r u s t e d them o v e r o t h e r w h i t e men. " I t i s c l e a r " H i l l i a r d s t a t e s , " t h a t by t h e 1938s t h e m i s s i o n s were no l o n g e r seen by t h e government a s a u s e f u l means o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l but a s t h r e a t s t o i t s l e g i t i m a t e p r e s t i g e " <1974:111). T h e p r e s t i g e s t r u g g l e between government o f f i c e r s and m i s s i o n p e r s o n n e l was u n f o r t u n a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b o t h m i s s i o n s and government f o r e g o i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o engage i n j o i n t v e n t u r e s . T he m i s s i o n s f e a r e d l o s s o f autonomy, t h e government f e a r e d t h a t t h e m i s s i o n s w o u l d u s e f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r b a c k i n g f o r s e c t a r i a n e n d s o r t h e i r f u r t h e r a g g r a n d i z e m e n t . So s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e e d r u g s , m a t e r n i t y and c h i l d w e l f a r e work and e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h were w e l l underway i n New G u i n e a , f o r example, were s l o w t o make an i m p a c t on t h e Solomon I s l a n d e r s . T o t a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e i n 1937-38 was o n l y £ 5 4 < H i l l i a r d 1974:111). Government were w e l l aware o f i n c r e a s i n g l y v o c a l demands f o r s c h o o l s , m a i n l y f o r t e c h n i c a l and t r a d e - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n but a c t u a l p r o g r a m s n e v e r g o t beyond t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e u n t i l a f t e r t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d . W i t h r e g a r d t o g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r - 45 -m i s s i o n s , n o n - A n g l i c a n s were " o u t s i d e r s " a c c o r d i n g t o H i l l i a r d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o w i t h t h e SSEM. The annual r e p o r t o-f t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n f o r 1988 r e f e r s t o t h e e v a n g e l i c a l s a s " d i s s e n t i n i t s b a r e s t and c r u d e s t f o r m . " A C a t h o l i c p r i e s t d e s c r i b e d t h e SSEM a s "a s t r a n g e c u l t , w i t h h a r d l y any r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , w i t h o u t a d e f i n i t e name" ( H i l l i a r d 1969:49). T h e i r p i o u s b e a r i n g , B i b l i c a l l i t e r a l i s m and p o l i c y o f r e q u i r i n g c o n v e r t s t o make a t o t a l b r e a k w i t h pagan c u l t u r e were r e g a r d e d a s l u n a t i c . I f H i l l i a r d can p o i n t t o d e v e l o p i n g c o n f l i c t between t h e A n g l i c a n s and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e ' l i t t l e t h e o c r a c i e s ' e s t a b l i s h e d by i n d i g e n o u s SSEM t e a c h e r s must have c o n s t i t u t e d i n t h e i r v i e w a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s c o n f l i c t had been s i m m e r i n g f o r d e c a d e s . A s E d g e - P a r t i n g t o n , t h e f i r s t M a l a i t a D.O. w r o t e , l o n g b e f o r e B e l l ' s r e g i m e , I f t h e S.S.E. M i s s i o n t a u g h t t h e i r b o y s t o have a l i t t l e more r e s p e c t f o r t h e Government, i n s t e a d o f p a c k i n g t h e i r h e a d s f u l l o f t r a s h w h i c h t h e y do not u n d e r s t a n d , t h e y w o u l d be d o i n g some good <_in_ L i c h t e n b e r k , u n p u b l i s h e d t . s . p. 4 5 ) . The same s e n t i m e n t i s p e r h a p s l e s s t r e n c h a n t l y e x p r e s s e d by C o l i n A l l a n , who p r e p a r e d a c r i t i c a l a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e SSEM i n 1951: T h e t e a c h e r s were t a u g h t t h a t t h e y must have c o m p l e t e a u t h o r i t y and i n d e p e n d e n c e when t h e y went t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t s t a t i o n s . ... t h e y were t a u g h t t h a t a l l 1 i f e was d e v o t e d t o God; t h a t n o t h i n g but God m a t t e r e d . ... s o t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t was t h e i r d u t y and t a s k t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s and d i c t a t e i n e v e r y r e s p e c t o-f v i l l a g e and d i s t r i c t l i - f e <j_n L i c h t e n b e r k , u n p u b l i s h e d t . s . p.45) - 47 -C h a p t e r 2. P r e c u r s o r s o-f t h e M a r c h i n o R u l e  The F a l l owes Movement. 1939 The h i s t o r y o-f m i s s i o n s o-f-fers many i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h • f i e l d w o r k e r s have come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h m i s s i o n b o a r d s and r e l i g i o u s s u p e r i o r s o v e r s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s o f n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e C h u r c h ' s l e g i t i m a t e r o l e i n s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c a f f a i r s . A t l e a s t two s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e Solomons i d e n t i f i e d s o s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e i s l a n d e r s t h a t t h e y were t o p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . A C a t h o l i c p r i e s t a t G u a d a l c a n a l , R i n a l d o P a v a s e , came i n t o d i s p u t e w i t h h i s b i s h o p i n 1933 o v e r n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s and was r e c a l l e d t o E u r o p e . H i s c a t e c h i s t s c h o o l , one of whose p u p i l s was a young Matthew B e l a m a t a g a , was c l o s e d . F o r t h e n e x t t h r e e y e a r s t h e p e o p l e o f t h e d i s t r i c t " b o y c o t t e d t h e m i s s i o n " < L a r a c y 1980:156). R i c h a r d F a l l owes w i l l a l s o t a k e a p l a c e i n t h i s r o s t e r a s a m i s s i o n a r y who s t o o d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e 'whole man,' and whose a c t i v e commitment t o t h i s C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n made him a s r e s p o n s i b l e a s any o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l f o r i n s t i g a t i n g t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d . An E n g l i s h m a n e d u c a t e d a t C a m b r i d g e , F a l l owes was a p r i e s t i n London b e f o r e he j o i n e d t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n . - 48 -He was s t a t i o n e d on S a n t a Y s a b e l i n 1929. F a l l owes became c o n v i n c e d " t h a t t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e government was u n j u s t l y n e g l e c t i n g t h e w e l f a r e o-f i t s M e l a n e s i a n s u b j e c t s i n -favor 28) o-f t h e w h i t e c o m m e r c i a l community." He a l s o a b h o r r e d t h e l a c k o-f l a y C h r i s t i a n i t y among t h e C o l o n i a l o - f - f i c i a l s , s u c h t h a t e x c e p t i o n s were w o r t h n o t e . " I t i s s o n i c e t o have a D i s t r i c t O-f-ficer who comes t o c h u r c h " F a l l o w e s 29) w r o t e i n 1933 when a s y m p a t h e t i c o-f-ficer a r r i v e d on Y s a b e l . F a l l o w e s showed an e a r l y a t t e n t i o n t o i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g . In 1931 he i n s t i t u t e d t h e o f f i c e o-f " c h u r c h c h i e f , " an i n d i v i d u a l e l e c t e d by t h e p e o p l e o f a v i l l a g e and c o m m i s s i o n e d by l o c a l p r i e s t s t o s u p e r i n t e n d t h e s o c i a l p r o g r a m s o f t h e l o c a l c h u r c h e s , and a s w e l l , t o r e p o r t c a s e s o f " i m m o r a l i t y " ( H i l l i a r d 1978:282). The c h u r c h c h i e f s came i n t o f r i c t i o n w i t h g o v e r n m e n t - a p p o i n t e d a u t h o r i t i e s . A government c o n s t a b l e c o m p l a i n e d , "Some s a y m i s s i o n headman i s number one i n t h e p l a c e and some s a y government headman i s number one ... p e o p l e a r e a s k i n g who i s b o s s ... K i n g G e o r g e or A r c h b i s h o p ? " 28 D a v i d H i l l i a r d ( 1 9 7 8 ) . God's G e n t l e m e n : A H i s t o r y  o f t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n . 1849-1942. U n i v e r s i t y o f Q u e e n s l a n d P r e s s , p. 203. 29 D a v i d H i l l i a r d ( 1 9 7 4 ) . " C o l o n i a l i s m and C h r i s t i a n i t y : T he M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n i n t h e Solomon I s l a n d s " . J o u r n a l  o f P a c i f i c H i s t o r y 9:93-116. T h e r e was no c h u r c h i n T u l a g i u n t i l 1938, a l t h o u g h C. o f E. s e r v i c e s were o c c a s i o n a l l y h e l d i n t h e c o u r t - h o u s e t h e r e ( p . 106) . ( H i l l i a r d 1978:282). F a i 1 owes e x h a u s t e d h i m s e l f and l e f t t h e M i s s i o n i n 1935. But he r e t u r n e d t o S a n t a Y s a b e l i n 1938, u n c o m m i s s i o n e d by t h e B i s h o p , where he i n s p i r e d t h e n a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p t o h o l d a m e e t i n g w h i c h he c a l l e d a " p a r l i a m e n t " t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s o f common c o n c e r n . A c c o r d i n t o H i l l i a r d , F a l l o w e s " m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t was h i s d u t y a s a p r i e s t t o engage i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c a u s e o f a j u s t s o c i e t y , t h e kingdom o f God on e a r t h " ( H i l l i a r d 1978:283). I t i s no e x a g g e r a t i o n t o s a y t h a t F a l l o w e s had t h e c o m p l e t e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e n a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . P a r l i a m e n t a r y r u l e s were i n s t i t u t e d t o r e g u l a t e d e b a t e a t h i s s u g g e s t i o n , a l o n g w i t h an e l e c t e d S p e a k e r and a S p e a k e r ' s C h a i r . F a l l owes's p a r l i a m e n t a r y movement became known a s t h e C h a i r and R u l e . A t l e a s t t h r e e and p o s s i b l y more n a t i v e a s s e m b l i e s were h e l d on Y s a b e l and N g g e l a , a t w h i c h A n g l i c a n t e a c h e r s , c h u r c h c h i e f s , and n a t i v e c l e r g y took a p r o m i n e n t o r g a n i z i n g r o l e . A t t h e N g g e l a m e e t i n g , p a r t i c i p a n t s came f r o m a s f a r a s Y s a b e l , M a l a i t a and G u a d a l c a n a l . A d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e C h a i r and R u l e h a s n e v e r been p u b l i s h e d . Roger K e e s i n g , n o t i n g t h a t F a l l o w e s ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was " i n d e e d c o n s i d e r a b l e " , p u b l i s h e d an e y e w i t n e s s a c c o u n t by one o f t h e l a s t M a r c h i n g R u l e C h i e f s , A n i f e l o , r e c o r d e d i n 1979. A n i f e l o r e c a l l s - 5 8 -F a l l o w e s ' s w ords a t t h e m e e t i n g i n T u l a g i : T o d a y , t h e work you a r e t o do i s t o c h o o s e some p e o p l e , c h o o s e some p e o p l e t o r e p r e s e n t you a s c h i e f s ( a l a f a) . C h i e f s who w i l l be i n c h a r g e o f y o u r d i s t r i c t s ( f a n u a ) . T h e y a r e t o b e g i n t o s e t t h i n g s up f o r y o u . / We w h i t e p e o p l e w i l l d e c e i v e y o u . We w i l l put up p e o p l e t o r e p r e s e n t y o u . But t h o s e p e o p l e we put up w i l l d i v e r t you away f r o m a d i f f e r e n t C k i n d o f 3 government, and you w i l l grow up w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r i a l government o f A u s t r a l i a . T h a t ' s no good! / The t h i n g we a r e t o do i s put up p e o p l e f o r y o u , t o be i n c h a r g e o f y o u , f o r y o u r c u s t o m s and f o r y o u r l a n d . F o r y o u r ways, y o u r c o u n t r y , y o u r l i v i n g . God r a i s e d us up on e a r t h , p u t us h e r e on e a r t h , and s p r e a d us a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . / You p e o p l e who a r e w o r k i n g w i t h t h e government, who know t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s l a w s — when you go back t o y o u r home p l a c e s , i t s up t o you t o s t a r t t h i s good work. The E u r o p e a n s w i l l t a k e y o u r l a n d , and d e c e i v e y o u , i f you d o n ' t o r g a n i z e y o u r s e l v e s . / I f t h e government h e a r s about what I am t e l l i n g y o u , t h e y ' l l s e n d me back t o E n g l a n d and won't l e t me come back — but i t s s o m e t h i n g f o r you t o do. I ' v e done my p a r t . You t a k e i t back w i t h y o u , t o G u a d a l c a n a l , and M a l a i t a , and h e r e a t Gel a, and work w i t h i t y o u r s e l v e s . I have g i v e n ^oy t h e k e y . You w i l l have t o b u i l d i t y o u r s e l v e s . " F a l l o w e s was i n d e e d d e p o r t e d a f t e r t h e N g g e l a m e e t i n g on t h e n e x t a v a i l a b l e s t e a m e r . H i l l i a r d s t a t e s t h a t none o f t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n a r i e s e x c e p t f o r C h a r l e s Fox s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h h i s g o a l o f c r e a t i n g a permanent n a t i v e a s s e m b l y . F a l l o w e s ' s d e p o r t a t i o n by a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t comment by B i s h o p B a d d e l e y . W h i t e m i s s i o n a r i e s of t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d had a p p a r e n t l y f o r g o t t e n B i s h o p 30 Roger M. K e e s i n g ( 1 9 8 0 ) . " A n t e c e d e n t s o f M a a s i n a R u l e : some f u r t h e r n o t e s " . J o u r n a l o f P a c i f i c H i s t o r y . 15 ( 2 ) : 1 0 2 - 1 0 7 . ( K e e s i n g ' s p a r a n t h e t i c a l comments removed) - 51 -S t e w a r d ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e 1928s on t h e n a t i v e s ' b e h a l f . B e f o r e d e p o r t a t i o n , F a l l o w e s p r e s e n t e d a n a t i v e p e t i t i o n t o t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r , a l o n g w i t h a S t a t e m e n t and l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s a u t h o r e d by John Palmer P i d o c k e , n a t i v e C h i e f o f N g g e l a , w h i c h F a l l o w e s had t r a n s l a t e d . T h e s e documents i n c l u d e d s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t s on economic m a t t e r s , i n c l u d i n g a demand f o r a p l a n t a t i o n wage o f £ 1 2 p e r month. The government became a l a r m e d when t h e s e demands s p r e a d t o o t h e r i s l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g San C r i s t o v a l , one h u n d r e d m i l e s away. C y r i l B e l s h a w o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e C h a i r and R u l e was "a p r i m i t i v e , a b o r t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n , c o n s t i t u t i n g no danger t o t h e government, not w a r r a n t i n g r e p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s , and even c a p a b l e o f b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s had i t been h a n d l e d by e n l i g h t e n e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 0 ( B e l s h a w 1947:189-98). But t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e movement d i d not go t o t a l l y u n r e c o g n i z e d by c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s . T he movement was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s p l a n s f o r i n d i r e c t r u l e by i n s t i t u t i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l N a t i v e C o u r t s and C o u n c i l s on some i s l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g N g g e l a and a t Malu'u i n n o r t h M a l a i t a . The N a t i v e C o u r t s and C o u n c i l s E x p e r i m e n t T h e M o o r h o u s e r e p o r t o f 1929 on t h e B e l l i n c i d e n t had u r g e d t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e g overnment, when a p p o i n t i n g government - 52 headmen, t o g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o s e c u r i n g men w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l b a c k i n g and t o " t a k e g r e a t e r p a i n s t o a l l o w an i n d i r e c t t r a d i t i o n a l l y — f o u n d e d e l e m e n t i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " <Healy 1964:198). E x p e r i m e n t s w i t h i n d i r e c t r u l e i n E a s t A f r i c a d u r i n g t h e 1938s i n v o l v e d r e s t o r i n g " t r i b a l c h i e f s " t o power. But on M a l a i t a t h e l o c a l a n a l o g o-f t h e A f r i c a n c h i e f was n o n - e x i s t e n t . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s p r e v e n t e d them f r o m d e v e l o p i n g a c l e a r r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o b l e m . I t was u n d e r s t o o d t h a t ' b i g man' p o l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e n o r t h w e s t e r i s l a n d s i n c l u d i n g most o f t h e i s l a n d o f M a l a i t a , w h i c h h e l d o v e r h a l f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e BSIP. But i t was a l s o t h o u g h t t h a t s u r v i v i n g e l e m e n t s o f h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f t a i n s h i p s t i l l o b t a i n e d on t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n i s l a n d s i n c l u d i n g San C r i s t o v a l , Ulawa, S m a l l M a l a i t a and i n Lau Lagoon on n o r t h M a l a i t a , w h i c h were h e l d t o be more s i m i l a r t o t h e P o l y n e s i a n p o l i t i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t than t o t h o s e o f A u s t r a l i a n M e l a n e s i a . The presumed p r e s e n c e o f h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f t a i n s h i p , even a s a f a i n t ' s u r v i v a l ' , r a t i o n a l i z e d a p p l y i n g t h e A f r i c a n N a t i v e A u t h o r i t y s y s t e m t o t h e n a t i v e p o l i c y p r o b l e m s o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e . When c o p r a p r i c e s began r e t u r n i n g t o normal i n t h e l a t e 1930s, w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f p a c i f i c a t i o n l a r g e l y b e h i n d them, o f f i c i a l s began t h i n k i n g about more s o p h i s t i c a t e d n a t i v e government i n s t i t u t i o n s . Ian H o g b i n i n 1939 came out s t r o n g l y i n -favor o f n a t i v e c o u n c i l s and c o u r t s a s "a r e t u r n t o t h e s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e p a s t " (in, H e a l y , 1964:199). D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s i n c l u d i n g M a r c h a n t on N g g e l a , T r e n c h on G u a d a l c a n a l and o t h e r s e l s e w h e r e e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h n a t i v e c o u r t s y s t e m s on a t r i a l b a s i s f r o m 1948 t h r o u g h 1942. T h e y were s e t i n t o s t a t u t e w i t h t h e S p e c i a l R e g u l a t i o n f o r N a t i v e C o u r t s i n 1942. N a t i v e C o u n c i l s on t h e E a s t A f r i c a n model were i n s t i t u t e d i n 1944. B oth i n s t i t u t i o n s , however, were under t o t a l b o y c o t t by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e by 1947. The 1942 e n a b l i n g R e g u l a t i o n a l l o w e d t h e D i s t r i c t Headman t o s i t a s P r e s i d e n t o f a n a t i v e c o u r t , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f community h e a d s , " e l d e r s " , s e l e c t e d by t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r on t h e a d v i c e o f t h e D i s t r i c t Headman, w h i c h were t o " r e p r e s e n t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and m a i n t a i n o r d e r w i t h i n t h e i r own g r o u p s . " Government i n s t r u c t i o n s were t o be p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e g r o u p o f e l d e r s r a t h e r than s i m p l y t h r o u g h t h e headman a s b e f o r e . T h e v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s were t o a d v i s e t h e D i s t r i c t Headman "on a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t e d t o t h e r u n n i n g o f t h e s u b d i s t r i c t " ( H o g b i n 1944:261). A s o f 1944, no w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s were i s s u e d t o g u i d e t h e s e n a t i v e o f f i c i a l s a p a r t f r o m a document p r e p a r e d by D.O. M a j o r T r e n c h f o r t h e u s e o f t h e n a t i v e s o f G u a d a l c a n a l . However, n o t h i n g i s s a i d a bout t h e s e l e c t i o n o-f t h e e l d e r s e x c e p t t h a t t h e y must be "men o-f s t a n d i n g i n t h e community (-for example, h e a d s o f l i n e s ) " ( i d e m ; 272) . The e l d e r s were t o g i v e a d v i c e t o t h e D i s t r i c t Headman, whose d e c i s i o n was f i n a l . In m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s , however, t h e headman s h o u l d "pay due r e g a r d t o t h e a d v i c e o f o t h e r members of t h e c o u r t . " T h e n a t i v e c o u r t was a u t h o r i z e d t o h e a r c r i m i n a l , c i v i l and c u s t o m c a s e s , but m a j o r c r i m e s s u c h a s murder, r a p e and i n c e s t were t o be c o n t i n u e d t o be b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r . T h e n a t i v e c o u r t " i s e n t r u s t e d w i t h a l l m a t t e r s w h i c h can be a d e q u a t e l y p u n i s h e d by a f i n e o f up t o £ 5 o r i m p r i s o n m e n t o f up t o one month." C i v i l c a s e s were l i m i t e d t o p r o p e r t y d i s p u t e s o f v a l u e under £ 1 0 . O t h e r w i s e , t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r had j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h e r e was no a p p e a l f o r d e c i s i o n s made by t h e n a t i v e c o u r t on n a t i v e c u s t om, but any p e r s o n f o u n d g u i l t y o f a c r i m e or c i v i l o f f e n s e c o u l d a p p e a l t o t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r f o r a new t r i a l . D i s t r i c t Headmen were a u t h o r i z e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own g a o l s , a l t h o u g h none had a s o f H o g b i n ' s w r i t i n g . In n o r t h M a l a i t a , t h e f i r s t government c o u n c i l and n a t i v e c o u r t e l d e r s were a p p o i n t e d i n 1940. T h e r e were p r o b l e m s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g w i t h a p p o i n t i n g C h r i s t i a n ' e l d e r s , ' f o r t h e r e was a s t r o n g d i s i n c e n t i v e f o r C h r i s t i a n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e government c o u r t s . A s H o g b i n w r i t e s , " t h e C h r i s t i a n s e x p r e s s r e s e n t m e n t ... a t h a v i n g someone p i c k e d o u t and s e t above them." Many o-f t h e new C h r i s t i a n ' e l d e r s ' even a s k e d t o be r e l i e v e d o-f t h e i r c o u r t d u t i e s . H o g b i n - f e l t t h a t one o-f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s u c c e s s o-f t h e n a t i v e c o u r t s and c o u n c i l s e x p e r i m e n t was f r e e i n g n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n -from t h e undue i n f l u e n c e o f t h e SSEM. T h e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o b j e c t e d t o t h e c o u r t s b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e t h e r e o f pagan e l d e r s . " I t i s w h o l l y i m p r o p e r , t h e y m a i n t a i n , f o r a C h r i s t i a n t o be t r i e d by a n y t h i n g b u t a C h r i s t i a n t r i b u n a l " < idem:267) D i s t r i c t Headman M a e k a l i , who w o u l d r e m a i n a s t a u n c h opponen o f M a s i n g a R u l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s , s t a t e d : Among t h e h e a t h e n s e a c h p l a c e p o s s e s s e d a l e a d e r w i t h power, power w h i c h had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e gov e r n m e n t . H i s p e o p l e had o b e y e d him l o n g b e f o r e t h e t h o u g h t o f a p p o i n t i n g e l d e r s o c c u r e d t o anyone, and, a s t h e y were s t i l l o b e y i n g him, a l l I had t o do was t o t e l l o u t h i s name. But i n t h e d i s t r i c t s where t h e i n h a b i t a n t s were C h r i s t i a n s nobody was o b e y e d . You know q u i t e w e l l w i t h o u t my s a y i n g i t a g a i n t h a t C h r i s t i a n s d o n ' t h o l d f e a s t s , and t h a t w i t h o u t f e a s t s we c a n ' t h a v e l e a d e r s . So h e r e on t h e c o a s t n e a r t h e m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s t h e r e was no one t o g i v e o r d e r s . Why i f anybody had t r i e d t o t e l l h i s n e i g h b o r s what t o do, t h e y ' d s t a r t l a u g h i n g a t him o r t o l d him t o mi n d h i s own b u s i n e s s (idem:262) . were Both p a gans no t i n t e n d e d and C h r i s t i a n s knew t h a t t h e t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d i e s ; c o u r t s " t h e c o u r t - 56 -d o e s n ' t [ s i c ] b e l o n g t o u s : we n e v e r had c o u r t s be-fore: i t s a g o v e r n m e n t ' s a f f a i r " s t a t e d M a e k a l i < i dem: 266) . M o r e o v e r , t h e n a t i v e s o-f n o r t h M a l a i t a " r e g a r d e d t h e w h o l e l e g a l s y s t e m , w i t h i t s m a g i s t r a t e , c o u r t room and a d v o c a t e s , a s c o m p l e t e l y a l i e n " < idem: 261) . The s u b - d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l o-f e l d e r s o f n o r t h M a l a i t a i n 1944 was e v e n l y d i v i d e d between pagan and C h r i s t i a n members, w h i c h numbered r e s p e c t i v e l y t h i r t y - t h r e e and t h i r t y - t w o . A f t e r m e e t i n g t o d i s c u s s government i n s t r u c t i o n s and o r d e r s f r o m M a e k a l i , t h e n a t i v e c o u n c i l r e s o l v e d i t s e l f i n t o t h e n a t i v e c o u r t , c o n d u c t o f w h i c h was o r d e r l y and b a s e d on t h e M a g i s t r a t e ' s p r o c e d u r e s . A s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e n a t i v e c o u r t s w i t h r e g a r d t o c u s t o m law i n f r a c t i o n s was t h a t d e l i b e r a t i o n was g o v e r n e d by a w r i t t e n l i s t o f i n f r a c t i o n s and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e n a l t i e s . A s Hogbin w r i t e s , " t o p r e v e n t argument i n n a t i v e c u s t o m a r y c a s e s t h e e l d e r s were some t i m e ago p e r s u a d e d t o d e c i d e what were t o be r e g a r d e d a s o f f e n s e s and how much c o m p e n s a t i o n s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o e a c h " ( 1 9 4 4 : 2 6 3 ) . The p r e c e d e n t e s t a b l i s h e d by n a t i v e c o u r t e l d e r s t o a g r e e t o c o d i f y c u s t o m law c a n n o t go u n n o t i c e d i n l i g h t o f i t s v a s t e x t e n s i o n d u r i n g t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . However, s u c h " c o d i f i c a t i o n " was n o t w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t o f i t s own i n u n w r i t t e n n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , o f f e n s e s n o t e s c a l a t i n g t o b l o o d r e t r i b u t i o n c o u l d be s e t t l e d by p a y i n g ta-ful i a e i n c o m p e n s a t i o n . Among t h e F a t a l a k a o f n o r t h M a l a i t a i n 1958, " a l l knew t o a n i c e t y t h e fa"ambu o r c o m p e n s a t i o n 31) t o be p a i d f o r d i f f e r e n t t r a n s g r e s s i o n s . " The Malu'u N a t i v e C o u r t s had f o u r y e a r s o f a c t i v i t y and H o g b i n p u b l i s h e d a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f i t s w o r k i n g s i n J u n e , 1944. H i s t a b l e o f c o u r t c a s e d a t a o v e r f o u r 32) y e a r s i s summarized i n T a b l e 1. be l o w . 31 T. R u s s e l l <1958) "The F a t a l e k a o f M a l a i t a " . O c e a n i a . 1 1 ( 1 ) : 1 - 1 3 . p.11. R u s s e l l w o u l d be H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r t h e W e s t e r n P a c i f i c i n 1978. The e t h n o g r a p h e r p r o d u c e s f r o m h i s i n f o r m a n t s ' t e s t i m o n y a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n t h e same s t y l e a s t h a t f o r t h e T o a b a i t a o f th e M a lu'u a r e a , b ut t h e y d i f f e r on some p o i n t s . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t R u s s e l l ' s l i s t o r i g i n a t e d w i t h M a r c h i n g R u l e . 32 Ian Hogbin (1944) " N a t i v e C o u n c i l s and N a t i v e C o u r t s i n t h e Solomon I s l a n d s . " O c e a n i a 1 5 ( 4 ) : 2 5 7 - 2 8 3 . T ime p e r i o d I . i s 12 months f r o m 6. 1948 t h r o u g h 6. 1941; I I . 11 months f r o m 7. 1941 t h r o u g h 6. 1942; I I I . 8 months f r o m 7. 1942 t h r o u g h 5. 1943 (no c o u r t was h e l d A u g u s t - O c t o b e r b e c a u s e o f J a p a n e s e i n v a s i o n ) IV. 4 months f r o m 7. 1943 t h r o u g h 18. 1943. - 58 -TABLE 1. N a t i v e C o u r t C a s e s . N o r t h M a l a i t a 1946-44 ( H o g b i n 1944) Time S i t t i n g s Elders Cases dismissed Cases brought by Pagans (Christians) Present CRIMES CIVIL CUSTOM MISC. TOTAL ave. (rain/max) I. 8 38 (18/36) 7 2 (1) 1 (3) 13 (1) 8 (1) 16 (7) II. ie 48 (32/42) 21 2 (8) 28 (8) 28 (4) 8 (2) 32 (22) III. 8 46 (42/52) 12 7 (27) 9 (23) 11 (6) 1 (3) 28 (5?) IV. 3 41 n.a. 8 2 (5) 2 U) 3 (8) 8 (8) 7 (11) TOT. 29 48 13 (42) 32 (48) 47 (11) 1 (6) 93 (99) 192 T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s u b - d i s t r i c t was about 2,566, and t h e r a t i o o f p a gans t o C h r i s t i a n s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y two t o t h r e e < idem:262. 2 4 7 ) . Most e v i d e n t i n t h e numbers of e l d e r s p r e s e n t a t c o u r t s e s s i o n s i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t i m e p e r i o d s I . t h r o u g h I I I . Pagans b r o u g h t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e c a s e s i n t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f t h e c o u r t ' s a c t i v i t i e s but were o u t s t r i p p e d by a l m o s t two t o one by C h r i s t i a n c a s e s i n t h e t h i r d y e a r . Even though p e r i o d IV. c o v e r s o n l y a h a l f - y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n s , t h e t o t a l number o f c a s e s was o n l y about o n e - f i f t h o f t h o s e h e a r d i n t h e p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a - 59 -s u b s t a n t i a l d r o p i n g e n e r a l c o u r t a c t i v i t y , a l t h o u g h b o t h p a g a ns and C h r i s t i a n s were a p p a r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n r o u g h l y t h e same p r o p o r t i o n a s d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s - f u l l p e r i o d . T h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a r a h a c o u n c i l s were not o p e r a t i n g a t t h i s t i m e , s o one e x p l a n a t i o n -for t h e d e c l i n i n g c a s e s i n t h e summer o-f 1943 may be a g e n e r a l d i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e s e t t l e m e n t s b e i n g b r o u g h t by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n . T he - f o u r - y e a r summary o-f c o u r t c a s e s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 2. below. T h e pagan p r o p e n s i t y t o b r i n g c u s t o m c a s e s t o c o u r t i s e v i d e n t , w h i l e t h e C h r i s t i a n s had an e q u a l p r e f e r e n c e t o b r i n g c r i m i n a l c h a r g e s . TABLE 2. F o u r - y e a r Summary. N a t i v e C o u r t C a s e s ( H o g b i n 1944) Cases brought by Pagans Christians Total ** = 16.83 p ( .85 T h e s e d a t a may be m i s l e a d i n g , -for t h e y c o n v e y t h e i d e a t h a t p a g a ns and C h r i s t i a n s had d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y t o b r i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f d i s p u t e t o c o u r t . J u s t o v e r h a l f t h e c r i m i n a l CRIMES CIVIL CUSTOM TOTAL 13 32 47 92 42 48 11 93 55 72 58 J85 - 60 -c a s e s b r o u g h t by C h r i s t i a n s c o n c e r n e d " D i s o b e y i n g O r d e r s I s s u e d by an E l d e r , " w h i l e a l m o s t h a l f t h e n a t i v e custom c a s e s b r o u g h t by p a g a n s were " C l a i m s f o r C o m p e n s a t i o n on A c c o u n t o f B r e a c h e s o f C e r e m o n i a l R e s t r i c t i o n s . " Such r e s t r i c t i o n s e x t e n d e d t o m o r t u a r y o b s e r v a n c e s , f e m a l e p o l l u t i o n , and r i t u a l s e c l u s i o n , and r e v e a l a c o n c e r n f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t a t i v e c o d e s o f pagan s o c i a l comportment. The C h r i s t i a n s were f r e e f r o m s u c h c o d e s , a l t h o u g h t h e c o u r t d a t a show t h a t t h e y had a c r i s i s o f a u t h o r i t y o f t h e i r own. T h i s i n t r o d u c e s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e c a s e s b r o u g h t by C h r i s t i a n s and p a g ans were s u b s t a n t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t o r w h e t h e r , b e c a u s e of t h e g r a f t i n g o f n a t i v e c u s t o m a r y law upon a s y s t e m e s s e n t i a l l y E n g l i s h i n c o m p l e x i o n , t h e a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between pagan and C h r i s t i a n c o u r t a c t i v i t y s i m p l y r e s u l t e d f r o m Government's s y s t e m o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t h e C h r i s t i a n u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e l e g a l i t y o f c u s t o m law. To b e g i n t o f o r m u l a t e an answer I want t o r e - o r d e r t h e d a t a and s e e w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e i n f a c t s u b s t a n t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s . I w i l l go f o r w a r d i n t i m e and e x t r a c t f r o m A l l a n ' s c u r s o r y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e custom c o d i f i c a t i o n t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e ( f u t u r e ) M a r c h i n g R u l e c u s t o m i s s u e s . Then I w i l l r e - g r o u p H o g b i n ' s d a t a i n t o - 61 -t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e c a t e g o r i e s and -formulate a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h a t t h e r e was e s s e n t i a l l y no di-f-ference i n t h e s u b s t a n c e o-f c a s e s b r o u g h t by C h r i s t i a n s and p a g a n s . A l l a n s t a t e s < 1956:42-3) t h a t t h e c u s t o m c o d i - f i c a t i o n a d d r e s s e d s p e c i - f i c t o p i c s w h i c h I have g r o u p e d i n t h r e e c o n v e n i e n t g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : Sex and M a r r i a o e : s i n g l e women, s u i t o r s , w i v e s , s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e , m e n s t r u a t i o n , c h i l d b i r t h . A u t h o r i t y o-f A n c e s t o r s : s w e a r i n g and c o m p e n s a t i o n , s a c r e d o b j e c t s and s i t e s , r e s p e c t f o r t h e dead, c e m e t e r i e s , g r a v e d i g g i n g , p r i e s t s . P r o p e r t y : g a r d e n i n g , l a n d o w n e r s h i p , l a n d u s e , p i g h u s b a n d r y T h e t y p e s o f c o u r t c a s e s <with E n g l i s h law c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) a r e e a s i l y g r o u p e d i n terms o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e c a t e g o r i e s : Sex and M a r r i a o e : a t t e m p t e d r a p e ( c r i m e ) , w i f e b e a t i n g ( c r i m e ) , c l a i m s f o r d e b t m a i n l y b r i d e - p r i c e ( c i v i l ) , c l a i m s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n on a c c o u n t o f s e d u c t i o n ( c u s t o m ) , c l a i m s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n on a c c o u n t o f a w i f e ' s f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e p e r m i s s i o n t o go v i s i t i n g f r o m h u s b a n d ( c u s t o m ) , n e g l e c t o f k i n s h i p o b l i g a t i o n s ( c u s t o m ) . A u t h o r i t y : t h e f t ( c r i m e ) , b r e a c h e s o f h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s ( c r i m e ) , d i s o b e y i n g an e l d e r ( c r i m e ) , s l a n d e r ( c i v i l ) , c l a i m s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n on a c c o u n t o f b r e a c h e s o f c e r e m o n i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s ( c u s t o m ) , c l a i m s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n on a c c o u n t o f c e r e m o n i a l i n s u l t s ( c u s t o m ) . - 62 -P r o p e r t v : d i s p u t e s a b o u t l a n d o r o t h e r p r o p e r t y ( c i v i l ) , c l a i m s -for damages when a p i g d e s t r o y e d a g a r d e n (c i v i 1 ) . T h e d a t a i s r e - g r o u p e d i n T a b l e 3 below. I n s p e c t i o n shows t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t y p e s o f i s s u e s on w h i c h p a gans o r C h r i s t i a n s b r o u g h t c o u r t c a s e s . T h e * 2 s t a t i s t i c f o r b o t h T a b l e s 2 and 3 b e a r o u t t h e h y p o t h e s i s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o u r t c a s e s i n T a b l e 3 do e s not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e v a l u e s one w o u l d e x p e c t i f t h e d a t a were r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d . T h e r e was t h u s no a s s o c i a t i o n between b e i n g pagan o r C h r i s t i a n and b r i n g i n g a c e r t a i n t y p e o f c o u r t c a s e , e x c e p t i n s o f a r a s t h a t c a s e f e l l under t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s s y s t e m o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e d a t a do r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e f r o m e x p e c t e d v a l u e s . TABLE 3. F o u r - y e a r Summary. N a t i v e C o u r t I s s u e s ( H o g b i n ' s D a t a G r o u p e d by M a r c h i n g R u l e Custom C a t e g o r i e s a f t e r A l l a n 1958) Cases brought by SEX tt MARRIAGE AUTHORITY PROPERTY TOTAL Pagans 34 47 11 92 Christians 38 15 93 Total ** = 1.31 p ) .18 72 87 26 185 - 63 -None o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e s c h o l a r s h as p u b l i s h e d an a n a l y s i s o-f t h e s e n a t i v e c o u r t d a t a . T h i s a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u p p o r t i v e o-f my g e n e r a l t h e s i s t h a t t h e u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v e o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was t o b u i l d a new i n d i g e n o u s p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n . T he a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s some b a s i s f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e pagans and C h r i s t i a n s had a t l e a s t t h r e e b r o a d p r o b l e m s i n common: t h e management o f d i s p u t e s i n t h e a r e a s o f s e x , m a r r i a g e and k i n s h i p ; c l a r i f y i n g t h e b a s i s o f c i v i l a u t h o r i t y ; and p r o t e c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y r i g h t s ; w h i c h were n o t o n l y t o f r a m e t h e i s s u e s a d d r e s s e d by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e but a c t u a l l y f r a m e d t h e c a s e s b r o u g h t t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l n a t i v e c o u r t s i n t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e emergency. T h e s e common c o n c e r n s p r o v i d e d one i n g r e d i e n t f o r t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f pagans and C h r i s t i a n s t h a t o c c u r e d o v e r t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d . W i t h agreement on t h e framework o f n a t i v e p o l i c y p r o b l e m s , t h e o n l y d i s a g r e e m e n t was w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Among t h e p a g a n s , t h e n a t i v e c o u r t s ' r e s p e c t f o r n a t i v e c u s t o m i n p r i n c i p l e was welcomed, but t h e p e n a l t i e s under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n were r e g a r d e d a s a l m o s t i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . T h e c r i m e o f a d u l t e r y , f o r example, was p u n i s h e d by a few months s p e n t i n g a o l , w h e r e a s i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i t h ad meant d e a t h f o r b o t h p a r t i e s . C a s e s o f murder - 64 -and r a p e w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y went t o t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r •for a d j u d i c a t i o n a s c r i m e s c o u l d be v i e w e d a s c i v i l under t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m , i f t h e i n j u r e d p a r t y o r h i s f a m i l y a g r e e d t o a c c e p t t a f u 1 i a e c o m p e n s a t i o n . Imprisonment or a f i n e i n E n g l i s h money f o r s u c h o f f e n s e s t h u s l e f t a d i s p u t e u n s e t t l e d and e n c o u r a g e d f e e l i n g s o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h a t t h e government d i d not e n f o r c e n a t i v e c u s t o m j u d g e m e n t s i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among t h e p a g a n s . T e a c h e r s d i d n o t s e r v e a s e l d e r s , and government e f f e c t i v e l y i n t r o d u c e d a s o u r c e o f d i v i s i o n i n t o t h e C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s between s e c u l a r and s a c r e d a u t h o r i t y . T he e l d e r s were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e , b u t were v i e w e d a s government a g e n t s who h e l d t h e i r a u t h o r i t y by v i r t u e o f government, n o t p o p u l a r , b a c k i n g . T h i s H o gbin i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e c r u c i a l p r o b l e m , o f "how t o make t h e C h r i s t i a n E l d e r s i n d e p e n d e n t o f e x t e r n a l b a c k i n g " ( H o g b i n 1944:269). T h e c a s e s t h e y b r o u g h t f o r d i s o b e d i a n c e o f t h e i r o r d e r s and H o g b i n ' s t e s t i m o n y on t h e l a c k o f r e s p e c t f o r them among t h e C h r i s t i a n v i l l a g e r s a t t e s t s t o t h e c r i s i s o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e C h r i s t i a n s e t t l e m e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y o f t h e e l d e r s , b o t h pagan and C h r i s t i a n , r e s t e d u l t i m a t e l y upon t h e K i n g , pagan e l d e r s ( a s M a e k a l i t e s t i f i e s ) a l s o had t r a d i t i o n a l s a c r e d b a c k i n g , w h i c h means b a c k i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e terms o-f t h e a q a l o ( a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s ) . T h e C h r i s t i a n e l d e r s had no s u c h s p i r i t u a l b a c k i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a d i c a l b i b l i c a l -fundamentalism o f t h e SSEM, where a u t h o r i t y was v e s t e d i n each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t . However t h e i n d i g e n o u s t e a c h e r s , a s i n t e r p r e t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s , c l a i m e d v a l i d a t i o n by God o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . R e c a l l i n g A l l a n ' s w ords ( q u o t e d a b o v e ) , t h e y " c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t was t h e i r d u t y and t a s k t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s and d i c t a t e i n e v e r y r e s p e c t o f v i l l a g e and d i s t r i c t l i f e . " T h e m i s s i o n ' s s t r e n g t h r e l a t i v e t o government was i t s a b i l i t y t o make t h e c l a i m o f r e l i g i o u s l e g i t i m a t i o n , w h i c h was s e e m i n g l y v a l i d a t e d by t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e power o f t h e a k a l o i n pagan d i s t r i c t s e v i d e n c e d by s i c k n e s s and poor g a r d e n s . P a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' a b i l i t y t o draw pagans i n t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was due t o t h e p a g a n s ' a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l autonomy f o u n d e d upon s p i r i t u a l power. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e n a t i v e c o u n c i l i n s t i t u t i o n , H o g b i n p r o v i d e s no n u m e r i c a l d a t a . But i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e e l d e r s , l i m i t e d a s t h e y were t o r e n d e r i n g a d v i c e , had l i t t l e e x e c u t i v e power. A l l r e s o l u t i o n s were s u b j e c t t o t h e v e t o power o f f i r s t , t h e D i s t r i c t Headman and s e c o n d , - 66 -t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r t h r o u g h t h e D i s t r i c t O-f-ficer. Marquand s t a t e s t h a t " I t t h e r e - f o r e became t h e c u s t o m i n t h e Government l o c a l c o u n c i l s -for t h e headman and h i s c i r c l e o-f - f r i e n d s t o make a d e c i s i o n and t o d i s r e g a r d any d i s a g r e e m e n t t h e r e may have been" (Marquand 1949/58:43-4). A s w i l l be s e e n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l government n a t i v e c o u r t s and c o u n c i l s c o n t a i n e d an i n s t i t u t i o n a l de-fect t h a t b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e b o y c o t t and t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n i n t h e i r s t e a d o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e c o u r t s and c o u n c i l s w h i c h were l i k e them i n e v e r y r e s p e c t but two: t h e ' M a r c h i n g R u l e ' i n s t i t u t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o-f t h e i s l a n d e r s , and, a s s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e y e n j o y e d r e l i g i o u s o r c u s t o m v a l i d a t i o n . - 67 -C h a p t e r 3 . The M a r c h i n o R u l e Movements  Summer 1942 t h r o u g h S p r i n g 1947 S i x months a f t e r h e r dawn a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r b o r , J a p a n b r o u g h t h e r war -for c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r y t o t h e c e n t r a l S o l o m o n s . By May 1942 t h e enemy had o c c u p i e d T u l a g i , t h e s e a t o-f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e g o v ernment. A s t h e E u r o p e a n s e v a c u a t e d , B e l s h a w (1947) r e c a l l s t h e c e l e b r a t o r y a t t i t u d e o-f t h e n a t i v e s . Houses were l o o t e d and law b o o k s were b u r n t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y w o u l d not be • f i r m l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d -for a n o t h e r t e n y e a r s . From t h e t o p o-f M a l a i t a h i l l , n a t i v e p e o p l e s w i t n e s s e d s i x g r e a t n a v a l and a i r b a t t l e s between t h e U.S. S i x t h F l e e t and t h e J a p a n e s e , and numerous b l o o d y l a n d i n g o p e r a t i o n s , b e f o r e U.S. f o r c e s took c o n t r o l o f G u a d a l c a n a l and F l o r i d a i n A u g u s t . T h e J a p a n e s e sweep t h r o u g h t h e P a c i f i c t o w a r d t h e New H e b r i d e s and New Z e a l a n d was h a l t e d . From t h i s t i m e t h r o u g h 1944, t h e i s l a n d s were u s e d a s a s t a g i n g a r e a f o r t h o u s a n d s o f a l l i e d t r o o p s bound f o r t h e w e s t e r n Solomons and t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . A h a s t i l y - m u s t e r e d Solomon I s l a n d s D e f e n s e F o r c e , composed o f E u r o p e a n s , n a t i v e p o l i c e and 689 n a t i v e r e c r u i t s was e n g a g e d i n combat, r e s c u e and c o a s t - w a t c h i n g d u t i e s . The Solomon I s l a n d s L a b o u r C o r p s ( S I L O was c o n s t i t u t e d o-f a b o u t two t h o u s a n d n a t i v e s under B r i t i s h command on a c o n t r a c t l a b o u r b a s i s . N a t i v e s r e c e i v e d a pound s t e r l i n g p e r month and a d a i l y r a t i o n b a s e d on l o c a l s t a n d a r d s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e B r i t i s h , who s u b m i t t e d t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s t o t h e U.S. q u a r t e r m a s t e r s , who r e q u i s i t i o n e d U.S. s u p p l y d e p o t s . T h e r a t i o n was one pound o-f r i c e , a q u a r t e r - p o u n d each o-f t i n n e d c o r n e d bee-f and s a l m o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o a C u b i s c u i t s , t e a , s u g a r and t o b a c c o . When t h e r i c e r a t i o n was r e d u c e d by a q u a r t e r i n 1945, " t h e e n s u i n g d i s c o n t e n t 3 s p e e d i l y -forced t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o-f t h e e a r l i e r a l l o w a n c e . " S I L C were engaged i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f w a r e h o u s e s and l i v i n g q u a r t e r s (some b u i l t i n t h e n a t i v e s t y l e ) , s t e v e d o r i n g o r d n a n c e and s u p p l i e s , and c u l t i v a t i n g t h e C o r p s ' l a r g e f a r m a t I l u whose p r o d u c e went t o men i n h o s p i t a l . Among th e A m e r i c a n f o r c e s was t h e S e c o n d B a t a l l i o n o f t h e 2 4 t h I n f a n t r y , t h e P a c i f i c ' s o n l y N e g r o u n i t commanded by w h i t e o f f i c e r s , w h i c h was i n i t i a l l y e ngaged i n l a b o r d e t a i l s , o p e r a t i n g a t r u c k company, w i r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and m o s q u i t o c o n t r o l o p e r a t i o n s b e f o r e m o v i n g t o B o u g a i n v i l l e , where i n J a n u a r y , 1944 A m e r i c a n b l a c k s f i r s t saw f r o n t l i n e 33 A l v i n D. S t a u f f e r ( 1 9 5 6 ) . The Q u a r t e r m a s t e r C o r p s :  O p e r a t i o n s i n t h e war a o a i n s t J a p a n . V o l 6, P t . 2-3 o f T he U.S. Army i n W o r l d War I I . Department o f t h e Army. p. 317. - 69 -34) a c t i o n . Solomon I s l a n d e r s had f o u r t y p e s o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n s e r v i c e m e n . F i r s t , t h e y d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s a s s c o u t s i n combat and i n r e s c u e e f f o r t s . J a c o b V o u z a o f t h e Tadhimboko p e o p l e o f G u a d a l c a n a l , 35) l o n g n o t e d by t h e E u r o p e a n s a s an o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r w a s a r e c o g n i z e d war h e r o . He w o u l d become t h e G u a d a l c a n a l l e a d e r o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s were not r e s e r v e d i n t h e i r p r a i s e f o r t h e i s l a n d e r s ' m i l i t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n . C o c h r a n e s t a t e s t h a t t h e n a t i v e s "knew t h a t t h e y were b e t t e r s o l d i e r s than t h e A m e r i c a n s " ( 1 9 7 1 : 9 5 ) . On M a l a i t a , downed f l y e r s were r e s c u e d , g i v e n m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t and r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r u n i t s by SSEM members, who were r e w a r d e d by a i r d r o p s o f m e d i c i n e s , c a n d y , m a g a z i n e s and b o o t s . C o l i n A l l a n l i s t s t h r e e o t h e r f o r m s o f c o n t a c t , t h r o u g h 34 U l y s s e s L e e , 1956. The Employment o f N e o r o T r o o p s . V o l 8. P t . 8 o f T h e U.S. Army i n W o r l d War I I . Department o f t h e Army. p. 497-8. 35 H e c t o r M a c Q u a r i e , 1945. V o u z a and t h e Solomon I s l a n d s . L o n don: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z . 36 A l i s o n G r i f f i t h s , 1977. F i r e i n t h e I s l a n d s . The  A c t s o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t i n t h e Solomons. H a r o l d Shaw P u b l i s h e r s , Wheaton I l l i n o i s , p. 133-4. - 70 -t h e S I L C , i n c a s u a l l a b o r -for A m e r i c a n u n i t s -for w h i c h t h e n a t i v e s c o u l d e a r n a s much a s £ 1 2 per month, and - f i n a l l y , d e s p i t e r e g u l a t i o n s a g a i n s t - f r a t e r n i z a t i o n , i n p e r v a s i v e in-formal c o n t a c t s and t h e - f r i e n d s h i p s w h i c h e n s u e d . C o c h r a n e s t a t e s t h a t t h e n a t i v e s "-for t h e - f i r s t t i m e were a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h E u r o p e a n s " ( 1971:84; c-f. L a r a c y 1983:16). The A m e r i c a n s n a t u r a l l y e x p r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s i n e x c h a n g e i d i o m s , a s w e l l a s i n common w o r s h i p , g u i t a r p l a y i n g , s p o r t , and s h o w i n g t h e 37) n a t i v e s o v e r a i r p l a n e s and o t h e r e q u i p m e n t . E a r l y i n t h e war, t h e B r i t i s h h ad o r d e r e d t h e n a t i v e s t o p l a n t more -food, and l a r g e g a r d e n s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t a l l t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r s ( C o c h r a n e 1971:84). But l o c a l p r o c u r e m e n t o-f t r o p i c a l p r o d u c t s i n c l u d i n g b a n a n a s , p i n e a p p l e s , c o c o n u t s , lemons and l i m e s was n e v e r i m p o r t a n t a s a s o u r c e o f m i l i t a r y s u p p l y . N a t i v e p r o d u c e and s o u v e n i e r i t e m s s u c h a s p l a i t e d armbands, i n l a i d w a l k i n g s t i c k s and o t h e r h a n d i c r a f t s were e x c h a n g e d f o r money and p e r s o n a l i t e m s i n c l u d i n g t o b a c c o , p i p e s , t w i n e , f i s h i n g e q u i p m e n t , p o c k e t k n i v e s , s o a p , combs, m i r r o r s , p e r f u m e and b r i g h t l y c o l o r e d c a l i c o r a t h e r t h an f o o d , t h e p r i m a r y M e l a n e s i a n measure 37 On t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e w e s t e r n Solomons, s e e G i d e o n Z o l e v e k e ( 1 9 8 8 ) . Z o l e v e k e . A  Man f r o m C h o i s e u l . I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c S t u d i e s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e S o u t h P a c i f i c , S u v a . p. 25. - 71 -o-f weal th . Most commentators d i s c u s s t h e impact o-f t h e war i n terms o-f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s hock a-f-forded by t h e s c a l e o-f t h e h o s t i l i t i e s and d e s t r u c t i o n , t h e enormous q u a n t i t i e s o-f s u p p l i e s , and t h e - f r i e n d l i n e s s o-f t h e A m e r i c a n s e r v i c e m e n . A s t h e t h e a t e r o-f b a t t l e a d v a n c e d i n t o t h e w e s t e r n i s l a n d s o-f t h e g r o u p , t h e i m p a c t s o-f t h e s t a g i n g a r e a c an most u s e f u l l y be u n d e r s t o o d a s g i v i n g t h e n a t i v e s e x p o s u r e t o a new l e v e l o f t h e complex economy. I t was n o t s o much t h e p r e s e n c e o f m a t e r i a l equipment and w e a l t h a s t h e e v i d e n c e of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power w h i c h i m p r e s s e d t h e M e l a n e s i a n s . W a r e h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s , m a c h i n e s h o p s , c o n s t r u c t i o n e q u i p m e n t , t h e PX, l a u n d r i e s , k i c h e n s , m o v i e s , m a g a z i n e s , b o x i n g r i n g s , a h i g h l y complex d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r — v i r t u a l l y t h e e n t i r e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i a l l i f e — was p r e s e n t b e c a u s e o f a sudden enormous o r g a n i z a t i o n a l commitment w h i c h t h e n a t i v e s i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g f o r t h e i r own l i b e r a t i o n . But a l m o s t a s s u d d e n l y a s i t was c r e a t e d , t h e commitment was w i t h d r a w n and made r e d u n d a n t as t h e war p r o g r e s s e d . T h e s e r v i c e m e n w o u l d soon be l e a v i n g . T h e B r i t i s h w ere s t i l l i n c h a r g e . The d i s c o n t e n t s u g g e s t e d by t h e b u r n i n g o f l e g a l b o o k s i n T u l a g i i n 1942, w h i c h s i g n i f i e d t o t h e B r i t i s h an a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t t h e i r r u l e o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e , - 71 a -Photo: Bainlvalu, Gorabau v i l l a g e Sunday Services of U.S.A. Troops on Guadalcanal, 1943. (Courtesy, U.S. Marine Corps) became more evident during 1944 and 1945. Some natives re-fused to -fight in B r i t i s h units. Vouza, somewhat of a labor boss on Guadalcanal, was dismissed -from the SILC •for threatening to withhold r e c r u i t s unless wages were increased. Some public meetings were held at which i t was demanded that the Americans must replace the B r i t i s h . And large sums o-f money, perhaps as much as $5,688, were raised -for the American Red Cross, sums which were turned over to the B r i t i s h . Twice the American Commander was c a l l e d upon to assure native emissaries, one including a twenty—four year old Malaitan named Nori, that there was no p o s s i b i l i t y that Americans would assume control o-f the Protectorate a-fter the war. * * * One o-f the int e r e s t i n g -features of the Marching Rule i s the lengthy periods of 'incubation' that interleave the major events. It was three years after the Chair  and Rule before war enveloped the Solomons, and i t was not u n t i l two years later (February, 1944) that a c t i v i s t s in west and east 'Are'are began to promote the Native  Cou n c i1 Movemen t or NCM. A l i k e Nono'ohimae, an i n f l u e n t i a l pagan man from the 'Are'Are people in south Malaita, was among those - 73 who attended Fallowes's Nggela meeting in 1939. At the outbreak o-f war, he was stranded along with many others on plantations in the western islands < CO 537/2458 p. 57). Alike made his way back -from the Russells, and in September 1943 returned to his v i l lage at Arirau, where he did exactly as Fallowes had suggested. Among the earliest documents is this note: This council started by Nono'ohimae on 9/18/43 at Arairau. He cal l out -for that nine Araha o-f d i s tr i c t of Arairau. And ask nine Alaha to get permission for let him to work this council meeting between them and the peoples (Laracy 1983:85). The araha of 'Are'Are society were "people who by their acts bring peace and prosperity to their hamlet and the surrounding region." De Coppet translates araha as peace-master Among 'Are'Are, and indeed throughout Malaita, subsistence act iv i t i es and much of daily l i f e was dependent upon mourning r i tua ls and mortuary feasting. Two types of 'Are'Are leaders were recognized, 'murderers' and araha. "The peace-masters in many ways were locked into the structure of a l l ceremonial exchanges and at the same time tied to his counterpart, the murderer" (idem:191)• The quotations above suggest a theme which runs consistently through 38 Daniel De Coppet (1981). "The Life-Giving Death." Mortality and Famil ia l i ty . Academic Press. - 74 -the Marching Rule p e r i o d , a l e g i t i m a t i o n o-f s e c u l a r a c t i o n s by r e l i g i o u s , or as i t would come to be unders tood, 'Cus tom' a u t h o r i t y . A l i k e secured "pe rm iss i on " -from the peace-masters •for h i s work, which was to be "between them and the p e o p l e s . " The - f i r s t counc i l which documented i t s a c t i v i t i e s was he ld at Takataka Bay. T h i s meet ing o-f twelve Al aha in October , 1944 repo r ted to A l i k e that they - fu l l y supported the "Mercy Ru le " and t h a t , w i th the concurrence o-f l o c a l government appo in ted o - f - f i c i a l s , they had "put" Waiparo as "head over the custom, a l s o the whole counsel o-f Takataka" (Laracy 1983:85) . Waiparo would "be ve ry w i l l i n g to obey A l i k e in every th ing because he l i s t e n -for A l i c to do what he s a i d about the custom." The counc i l o-f Takataka a l s o expressed a s t rong d e s i r e to avo id v i o l e n c e , a theme a l s o recu r ren t throughout the documentary l i t e r a t u r e . "We not enemy o-f any people or Doctor or M i s s i o n or anywhere count ry at a l l . We may been ve ry b r o t h e r . " The i s s u e o-f land a l i e n a t i o n i s s i m i l a r l y prominent . "But every a laha not a l l o w i n g people to s t i l l t h e i r ground. They have to pay Csic3 I f any people wanted any th ing on our ground they w i l l get permiss ion from our head c h i e f A l i c over t h i s whole p l ace <hanua paina) .° F i n a l l y there i s a ques t ion about o r i g i n s and custom. They urged every - 75 -a l a h a t o r e c o r d g e n e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i n v o k e d a new f o r m o-f r e l i g i o u s v a l i d a t i o n o-f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n , t h e m i s s i o n . "They a l l b e l i e v e what t h e m i s s i o n [ s a i d ] . E v e r y a l a h a f i n d out f r o m m i s s i o n some l e s s o n t o l d them t h a t God w a n t e d e v e r y o n e t o be h e a d f o r t h e i r own i s l a n d and man must l i v e t o p l e a s e him." E l s e w h e r e i n t h e s o u t h , t h e government d i s t r i c t headman H o a s i h a o , who had a l s o a t t e n d e d F a l l o w e s ' s m e e t i n g s i n 1939, j o i n e d w i t h Nono'ohimae t o p r omote t h e N a t i v e C o u n c i l  Movement. The f i r s t c o n t i n g e n t o f S I L C v e t e r a n s r e t u r n e d t o A t a a i n n o r t h M a l a i t a i n F e b r u a r y , 1944, where t h e y soon came i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h government headmen, r e f u s i n g t o c a r r y o u t o r d e r s and b o y c o t t i n g t h e new government N a t i v e C o u n c i l . K a b i n i , who e a r l i e r had c o l l e c t e d money f o r t h e A m e r i c a n Red C r o s s among t h e S I L C , p r o p a g a t e d t h e new i d e a s i n t h e n o r t h . Now A m e r i c a n f l a g s were r a i s e d a t Suaba and A l a g e g e . More money was c o l l e c t e d . L a r a c y s t a t e s t h a t A l i k e j o i n e d t h e S I L C sometime i n 1944, but by O c t o b e r o f t h a t y e a r , he was on " p a t r o l " f r o m Onepusu <the SSEM h e a d q u a r t e r s ) down t h r o u g h S m a l l M a l a , c o n d u c t i n g " L e v e l M e e t i n g s " i n c h u r c h e s and men's h o u s e s and p r o m o t i n g t h e " C o u n c i l o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . " T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s was " t h a t t h e m i n d s o f t h e p e o p l e were t o be l e v e l e d and made t h e same as each o t h e r " - 76 -( p r o s e c u t i o n ' s t e s t i m o n y ; L a r a c y 1983:125). H i s i d e a s were embraced by t h e u n u s u a l l y l i t e r a t e and r e s p e c t e d SSEM t e a c h e r T i m o t i S i o s i ( T i m o t h y George) o-f S m a l l M a l a , b o r n i n Q u e e n s l a n d i n 1885, who w o u l d be e l e c t e d Head C h i e f o f ' A r e ' A r e and S m a l l M a l a i n F e b r u a r y , 1945 ( P r o s e c u t i o n ' s t e s t i m o n y , in. L a r a c y 1983:126) and was t h u s t h e o l d e s t o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s . M e a n w h i l e , N o r i , whose c 1 a s s i f i c a t o r y f a t h e r had a t t e n d e d F a l l o w e s ' s p a r l i a m e n t i n 1939, had a l s o r e t u r n e d f r o m t h e S I L C . He q u i c k l y assumed an a c t i v e o r g a n i z i n g r o l e . T h r o u g h o u t 1944 t h e movement s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t M a l a i t a , and a c i r c l e o f l e a d e r s h i p d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d p r o m i n e n t SSEM and pagan l e a d e r s . A c o u r i e r s e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s h i p owners o f A t a a and F u n a f o u between T a e and t h e Lau s p e a k e r s a t Walade i n S m a l l M a l a , w h i c h may have f u r t h e r e d c o n t a c t s w i t h Ulawa and Marau Sound a t G u a d a l c a n a l a s w e l l (D.O. F o r s t e r , 1946. i n L a r a c y 1983:89-91). By December 1945, what had been s e p a r a t e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e n o r t h and s o u t h o f t h e i s l a n d , F a l l o w e s ' s i n s t i g a t i o n and common S I L C e x p e r i e n c e n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , became r a t h e r l o o s e l y u n i t e d by a b i d f o r power by t h e s o u t h e r n e r s o v e r t h e n o r t h . A f t e r N o r i ' s p a t r o l t h r o u g h t h e n o r t h , T i m o t i S i o s i and N o r i t o g e t h e r i s s u e d a " f i r s t O r d e r " f o r b i d d i n g i s l a n d e r s t o r e c r u i t f o r t h e p l a n t a t i o n s . T h e y s a i d , "We have p l e n t y work y e t on o u r D i s t r i c t s o t h i s i s l a n d must keep t a p u f r o m any company a t a l l " ( L a r a c y 1983:88-9). An i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f what h a s been termed t h i s " s t r i k e o r d e r " i s t h a t a p p a r e n t l y v e r y l i t t l e , i f any, p l a n t a t i o n r e c r u i t i n g was a c t u a l l y o c c u r i n g . A l m o s t a y e a r l a t e r H e c t o r M a c q u a r i e w o u l d w r i t e f o r t h e PIM, "No a t t e m p t has been made t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e BSI p l a n t i n g i n d u s t r y , and t h e r e a r e v e r y few E u r o p e a n s i n t h e g r o u p 39) now. T h e r e a r e no s t o r e s — n o t even C h i n e s e t r a d e r s . . . " The s i t u a t i o n i s ambiguous w i t h r e g a r d t o n o n - p l a n t a t i o n l a b o r . The o r d e r had no a p p a r e n t e f f e c t on r e c r u i t m e n t f o r government p r o j e c t s . A y e a r a f t e r t h e f i r s t o r d e r , i n November, 1946, f o r t y l a b o r e r s f r o m M a l a i t a were w o r k i n g a t H o n i a r a , t h e new P r o t e c t o r a t e c a p i t a l , and f i f t y more r e c r u i t e d f o r government work i n F e b r u a r y , 1947 (C0537/2449 p. 49, 49A; and c f . L a r a c y 1983:25). M a l a i t a n s were a l s o w o r k i n g f o r t h e m i s s i o n s and t h e m i s s i o n h o s p i t a l s . A w i t n e s s f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n , however, a s s e r t s t h a t T i m o t h y G e o r g e had e x t e n d e d t h e o r d e r t o government and m i s s i o n s a s w e l l , s a y i n g t h a t " i t was f o r b i d d e n f o r anyone t o go t o work f o r t h e E u r o p e a n s " 39 H e c t o r M a c Q u a r i e , 1946. " ' M a s i n g a L o ' A n t i - B r i t i s h N a t i v e Movement i n S w e e p i n g Over Solomons." P a c i f i c  I s l a n d s M o n t h l y . O c t o b e r , 1946. 1 7 ( 3 ) : 7 . - 78 -u n t i l t h e t w e l v e - p o u n d wage had been won ( L a r a c y 1983:128). Y e t t h r o u g h o u t t h e movement d u r i n g 1944, 1945 and 1946 t h e 'Mercy R u l e r s ' s t o u t l y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e y were not a g a i n s t , a s t h e y put i t t i m e and t i m e a g a i n , t h e Government's Laws, t h e D o c t o r ' s Laws and t h e M i s s i o n ' s Laws ( c f . documents C3, C8, C I S , D3, E2, HI i n L a r a c y 1983). I t was n o t u n t i l M a rch 17, 1947 t h a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p u s e d t h e word " s t r i k e " ; a l t h o u g h n o t " g e n e r a l s t r i k e " a s L a r a c y s t a t e s (1983:25) s i n c e i t "would n o t i n c l u d e p e o p l e w o r k i n g -for h o s p i t a l s and m i s s i o n s " ( R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s R e p o r t on P o l i t i c a l  D e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e . CO 537/2449 p. 135-139). The o r d e r o-f December, 1945, s e r v e d i t s p u r p o s e o f u n i f y i n g t h e movement a t l e a s t p r o v i s i o n a l l y a r o u n d T i m o t h y G e o r g e and N o r i , and a t t h e same t i m e was p o l i t i c a l l y s a f e f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t t h a t t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s e conomic s t a g n a t i o n r e n d e r e d i t p r a c t i c a l l y moot. But a ' s t r i k e ' h a s a dynamic o f i t s own t h a t w o u l d seem t o l e a d i n e x o r a b l y t o c o n f l i c t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s e t t l e m e n t . The f i r s t o r d e r had c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a t went b e y o n d i t s b e i n g an a s s e r t i o n of i n t e r p r e t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p o l i c i e s , t h e l a y i n g down o f a tabu and b u i l d i n g t h e p u b l i c image t h a t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e had l e a d e r s who were a c t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e l y on t h e p e o p l e ' s b e h a l f . The f i r s t o r d e r a s s e r t s a g e n e r a l w i l l f o r t h e r e - a l l o c a t i o n o f l a b o r r e s o u r c e s f r o m t h e "company" t o n a t i v e s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n s e n s u s o p i n i o n , p e r h a p s t h e o n l y one p o s s i b l e , e x c e p t •for t h e g e n e r a l n o t i o n o-f a new g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n t o s e t t l e i s s u e s o f c u s t om, on w h i c h t h e p e o p l e c o u l d e a s i l y a g r e e . I t was r i g h t t h a t M a l a i t a n l a b o r , r a t h e r than b e i n g d i r e c t e d o u t w a r d t o t h e p l a n t a t i o n s and t h e t r a d e s t o r e s , w o u l d be d i r e c t e d i n w a r d t o w a r d t h e n e e d s o f n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h was c o n s i s t e n t l y v i e w e d a s n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r r i n g a l o n g s i d e t h e work o f Government, M i s s i o n and D o c t o r . December 1945 t h r o u g h e a r l y 1947 must be r e g a r d e d a s an i n t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p h a s e d u r i n g w h i c h p e o p l e a c t i v a t e d t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e s o c i a l a g e n d a . From t h e b e g i n n i n t h e y t r i e d t o grow more f o o d and c o n s t r u c t e d new communal g a r d e n s a s l a r g e a s t e n t o f i f t e e n a c r e s , as w e l l a s c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s c o n t a i n i n g between t w e n t y and a h u n d r e d h o u s e s ( A l l a n 1958:44-47). T h e y c o n d u c t e d b o t h mass and i n camera m e e t i n g s , d i v i d e d t h e i s l a n d i n t o n i n e e t h n i c d i s t r i c t s , d e v e l o p e d a h i e r a r c h y o f c h i e f s and l e a d e r s w i t h a c c o m p a n y i n g m i l i t a r i s t i c r i t u a l s , and e n f o r c e d what seems t o be a new d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r , a l b e i t one s e e m i n g l y i n w h i c h e v e r y woman was a p r i v a t e and e v e r y o n e e l s e a s p e c i a l i z e d noncom. In l a t e December, 1946, t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s c a l l e d a m e e t i n g o f 5,888 n a t i v e s a t t h e government s t a t i o n a t - 80 -A u k i , where t h e y demanded a minimum wage o-f £ 1 2 per month. Government r e p l i e d t o a m a n i f e s t o t h a t t h e g o a l s o f t h e movement were n o t i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h i t s own. T h i s was t h e t i m e between t h e t r a d e w i n d s e a s o n s , and t h e r e was much n a t i v e s e a t r a f f i c . T he movement q u i c k l y s p r e a d t o a d j a c e n t i s l a n d s . A t S a n t a Ana, San C r i s t o b a l , where t h e SSEM was s t r o n g , a v a r i a n t on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g theme was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f f o r m a l a s s e m b l y a r e a s c a l l e d " r i n g s " , w i t h r a i s e d p l a t f o r m s where s p e a k e r s a d d r e s s e d t h e crowd, o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , where a p e r s o n b e i n g p u n i s h e d f o r h i s s i n was made t o s i t i n p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n ( L a r a c y 1983:25). The i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g o b j e c t i v e o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was not s i m p l y a g e n e r a l i d e a , but was a l w a y s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n d e t a i l . T he c a p t u r e d n a t i v e document t i t l e d " C o n f e r e n c e o f A r a h a " ( L a r a c y 1983:140-143) i s a d e t a i l e d p l a n , even an a l g o r i t h m , f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . Each A r a h a was t o have an a d v i s o r and a l t e r n a t e , s e l e c t e d by " t h e p e o p l e . " T h e y were t o work i n f r i e n d s h i p t o g e t h e r . T h e y were t o b u i l d a m e e t i n g h o u s e i n w h i c h t o h o l d t h e i r 40) d e l i b e r a t i o n s . 40 T h e s e h o u s e s , C o l i n A l l a n s t a t e s , were l i k e t h e beu o r men's h o u s e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , b u t t h e y were f u r n i s h e d l i k e a government c o u n c i l h o u s e . T h e y "became t h e c e n t e r o f M a r c h i n g R u l e c u l t u r e . " H e r e were c o n d u c t e d c e r e m o n i a l s t o welcome h i g h M a r c h i n g R u l e L e a d e r s , f e a s t i n g and d a n c i n g , e x c h a n g e of p o l i t i c a l v i e w s and t h e l a t e s t news, and where c e n s u s was t a k e n and t h e £1 M a r c h i n g R u l e head tax c o l l e c t e d ( A l l a n 1950:47). - 81 -F a l l o w e s ' s i n - f l u e n c e i s shown i n t h e c a r e - f u l d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e r o l e o f t h e C o u n c i l ' s C h a i r m a n , and r u l e s r e g u l a t i n g m e e t i n g s i n c l u d i n g t i m e l i m i t s on d e b a t e . The c o u n c i l a l s o l i s t e d f i v e s u b j e c t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h o u t l i n e d t h e body o f d o c t r i n e w h i c h t h e y f e l t was n e c e s s a r y f o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t , headed T r u e R u l e s . E d u c a t i o n . H e a l t h . Economy. S o c i a l . T h e a d v e n t o f C h r i s t i a n Kastom a s a u n i f y i n g d o c t r i n e between p a g a n s and C h r i s t i a n s i s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e c l e a r l y e n u n c i a t e d : But most o f a l 1 we must keep t h e ten Commandments of God w h i c h a r e w e l l r e s p e c t i n our Customs by our a n c e s t o r s , who a l t h o u g h t h e y may have b r o k e n them, have p r e s e r v e d them by w ords o f mouth w h i c h i s c a l l e d T r a d i t i o n . ( L a r a c y 1983:141). The M a r c h i n g R u l e had p r o m i n e n t n a t i v e c r i t i c s . A s e a r l y a s J a n u a r y , 1946, Timmy K a k a l u a e o f Lau Lagoon s p l i t w i t h h i s b r o t h e r E n g l e s i o v e r t h e movement and q u i t h i s j o b a s Head M a r c h i n g R u l e C h i e f f o r N o r t h M a l a i t a . L a r a c y r e m a r k s t h a t he f o u n d " t h e new l e a d e r s thrown up by M a a s i n a R u l e a s u p s t a r t s , a s w e l l a s f i n d i n g t h e i r a m b i t i o n s n a i v e and t h e c e r e m o n i a l o f t h e movement d i s t a s t e f u l " ( 1 9 8 3 : 2 7 ) . H o g b i n ' s i n f o r m a n t and government headman, M a e k a l i o f M a l u ' u , was a v i g o r o u s o p p o n e n t . Most C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d members a l s o f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s among t h e ' o u t s , ' a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o u t s t a n d i n g v a r i a t i o n s and e x c e p t i o n s . The p r i m a r y e l e m e n t o-f d i s s e n t was n o t g e n e r a t e d by t h e o p p o s i t i o n , who -for t h e most p a r t had d e v e l o p e d p r o f i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h o r d e r , but by r a d i c a l e l e m e n t s who d i s p u t e d t h e s t e a d y c o u r s e w h i c h t h e l e a d e r s h i p t h o u g h t i t was t a k i n g . T he d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a s i t w o u l d d e v e l o p c o n c e r n t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n c e o f a g e n e r a l n o t i o n among some f o r a g e n u i n e " g e n e r a l s t r i k e " and a g r o w i n g d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f o t h e r s t o r e t u r n t o t h e p l a n t a t i o n s and e a r n money. The M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s h i p was f a c e d w i t h b a l a n c i n g t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , a s w e l l a s many o t h e r s . T a k a t a k a C o u n c i l ' s s e c o n d documented r e p o r t d a t e d J u n e 1946, was c r i t i c a l o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p and, a s w e l l , g i v e s u s some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o b l e m s f a c e d by men low e r i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e h i e r a r c h y o f c h i e f s . T h e y w r i t e , " T h i s t i m e t h e w h o l e c o u n c i l t h e y been s e e t h e M.R. i t seems t o be under t h e D i s t r i c t o f f i c e r , now t h e n i n e w a n t e d t o g e t p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e L e a d e r s o f t h i s c o u n c i l , t o show them any r o a d s p e r e a d l y f r o m t h e B r i t i s h man. ... But j u s t now e v e r y c h i e f s o f t h e s e n i n e c o u n c i l s t h e y s a y Government and N o r i t h e y b l o c k l o n g M.R. t h e y s a y f e a s t i s f i n i s h e d .... now t h e y t h i n k t h i s M.R. f o r R u l e t h e i r p e o p l e and t h e i r g r o u n d , s o t h e been west l o a t s o f money f o r t h i s m e e t i n g . I f anyone s p o i l o r b l o c k t h i s m e e t i n g o f M.R. t h e y must change t h e money and t h e f o o d we 41 c f . N i c h o l a s P e t e r s o n <1965-6). "The C h u r c h C o u n c i l o f S o u t h M a l a : A L e g i t i m i z e d f o r m o f M a s i n g a R u l e . " O c e a n i a . 36:214-38. - 8 3 -s p e n t e d -for t h i s M.R. b e c a u s e you N o r i you been s a y t h i s m e e t i n g n o t g o i n g t o c o v e r anyone. But j u s t now we j u s t s e e N o r i he t u r n i t t o Government. ... B e c a u s e t h e i r own i s l a n d n o t s t a n d y e t ( L a r a c y 1983:93). Much o-f t h e memoranda and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e p u b l i s h e d by L a r a c y c o n t a i n s r e p o r t s on money r a i s e d and i n v e n t o r i e s o-f p o t a t o s , t a r o and o t h e r -food. T h e r e t i n u e s a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e c h i e f s had t o be f e d . T h e l a r g e g a t h e r i n g s o f t h o u s a n d s o f p e o p l e had t o be f e d . Now, t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p gave f e a s t s , and t h e p a t t e r n o f M a r c h i n g R u l e f e a s t i n g b e h a v i o r i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s t r a d i t i o n . T h e l i n e c h i e f s went i n t o d e b t t o b u i l d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y upon t h i s t r a d i t i o n , and c o u n t e d on t h e g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e communal g a r d e n s l a t e r t o make up t h e d i f f e r e n c e . Two N a t i v e C o u n c i l s a c t i v e a r o u n d T a k a t a k a Bay by December, 1946, had t o g e t h e r s p e n t o v e r £ 3 , 8 8 0 : " l o t s o f money t o buy f o o d s s u c h a s t a r o s , yams, pana, c o c o n u t f r u i t s , p i g s , c a n o e s , g a r d e n s and h o u s e s " ( L a r a c y 1983:101). By J a n u a r y 1947, N e l s o n K e f u , F u l l C h i e f under Head C h i e f o f Kwara'Ae S h a d r a c h J o e , was w a r n i n g l e a d e r s i n t h e n o r t h and s o u t h t h a t a t t h e n e x t m e e t i n g o f t h e Head C h i e f s " t h e r e i s not much f o o d f o r t h e common p e o p l e t o come. ... T h a t m e e t i n g i s f o r t h o s e Head C h i e f s and t h o s e F u l l C h i e f s and t h o s e headmen o n l y . " He w r o t e t o N o r i , s a y i n g " O n l y you t h e Head C h i e f dont p r i n g any of y o u r b o y s , b e c a u s e no f o o d . F o o d o n l y f o r n i n e need" - 84 -< L a r a c y 1983:186, 189). L e a d e r s h i p r e a l i z e d i n e a r l y 1947 t h a t i t c o u l d no l o n g e r s u s t a i n t h e s c a l e o f m e e t i n g s t o w h i c h t h e p e o p l e had grown a c c u s t o m e d , and d e c i d e d t o c o n d u c t a " l a s t M a r c h i n g R u l e m e e t i n g " w i t h t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r a t A u k i . T h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s h i p met w i t h t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r on March 17th. R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r N o e l was s u r p r i s e d when t h e y e x p r e s s e d an i n t e n t i o n t o e x t e n d t h e ' s t r i k e ' f o r a t w e l v e - p o u n d wage f r o m p l a n t a t i o n t o government 42) r e c r u i t m e n t a t a mass m e e t i n g a t A u k i t o b e g i n J u n e 38. T h e l e a d e r s h i p , and p a r t i c u l a r l y N o r i , were p e r s u a d e d a g a i n s t d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e . However, when government l a t e r l e a r n e d t h a t S a r g e a n t - M a j o r S i p o l a t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s a s s i s t a n t i n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s Armed C o n s t a b u l a r y s u p p o r t e d t h e i d e a o f a s t r i k e , t h e y became a l a r m e d t h a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p was no l o n g e r i n c o n t r o l o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e d e v e l o p m e n t s . On June 38, s e v e n t h o u s a n d n a t i v e s f r o m M a l a i t a , Ulawa, San C r i s t o b a l and G u a d a l c a n a l g a t h e r e d a t t h e D i s t r i c t H e a d q u a r t e r s a t A u k i . T h e a m i a b l e a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h had p r e v a i l e d a t t h e December m e e t i n g d a r k e n e d . M a l a i t a D.C. 42 The l e a d e r s h i p a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t "any f u n d s f o u n d s u r p l u s f r o m tax c o l l e c t i o n s s h o u l d be i n v e s t e d i n some i n t e r e s t - b e a r i n g s e c u r i t y , and t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be p a i d t o t h e C o u n c i l and n o t t o t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e g o v ernment." R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s R e p o r t on P o l i t i c a l  D e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e . CO 537/2449 p. 135-139 - 85 -M a j o r S a n d e r s was t o l d t h a t t h e p e o p l e i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own c o u r t s under t h e A l a h a and w o u l d have n o t h i n g more t o do w i t h t h e government N a t i v e C o u r t s and C o u n c i l s . S a n d e r s r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d be i l l e g a l . Marquand, a c a d e t o f f i c e r , r e c a l l s t h e e n s u i n g d r a m a t i c e x c h a n g e : "'The M a r c h i n g R u l e w i l l f i n i s h now. T h a t i s my o r d e r . ' The p e o p l e s t o o d up and o p e n l y d e f i e d him, s a y i n g 'The M a r c h i n g R u l e w i l l n o t f i n i s h . ' T he government were f l a b b e r g a s t e d " (Marquand, 1949/50). N e l s o n K e f u , p e r h a p s t h e S t . J u s t e o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , made a b i g show by a d d r e s s i n g t h e crowds i n an i n f l a m m a t o r y manner. S a n d e r s and h i s p o l i c e l e f t a b r u p t l y . Then K e f u s a i d , " H u r r a h ! You me w i n government now!" ( p r o s e c u t i o n ' s t e s t i m o n y , J_n L a r a c y 1983:140). S a n d e r s , a s e a s o n e d o f f i c e r w i t h t e n y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e BSIP, most c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t d e s e r v e h i s s u p e r i o r s ' o p i n i o n o f h a v i n g m i s h a n d l e d t h e J u n e 30 m e e t i n g . I t was t h e f i r s t w i n d any had o f t h e g r a v i t y o f what a p p e a r e d t o be an i m p e n d i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e . The ' M a r c h i n g R u l e ' l e a d e r s h i p ' s p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n t r o l l i n g t h e movement became e v i d e n t . A c l a s s i f i e d memorandum by t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r d a t e d J u l y 26 194? f r o m t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f i l e s a t Downing S t r e e t , n o t p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l i t e r a t u r e , c a s t s l i g h t on t h e s i t u a t i o n . I t r e c o r d s a c o n v e r s a t i o n - 86 -between Mr. P a l m e r o f L e v e r s ( L e v e r s P a c i f i c P l a n t a t i o n s ) on a m e e t i n g h e l d w i t h N o r i and A l i k e t h e p r e v i o u s day. N o r i "had o n l y 9 b o y s r e a d y , and n o t 50 a s p r o m i s e d . " Palmer termed A l i k e " t h e r e a l b r a i n b e h i n d t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e movement. He t o l d me t h a t he c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y a g r e e t o b o y s l e a v i n g M a l a i t a a s t h e y were u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d t h e r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g t h e i r v i l l a g e s and g a r d e n s . " When Palmer began p r e p a r a t i o n s t o r e t u r n t o h i s v e s s e l , N o r i a s k e d t o come a b o a r d and s a i d t h a t "he was a f r a i d t h a t i f he r e m a i n e d on t h e b e a c h , he w o u l d be k i l l e d . " Once a b o a r d , N o r i r e c o u n t e d s e r i o u s t r o u b l e a t t h e J u ne 30 m e e t i n g . T h e Kwaio c o n t i n g e n t , " h a v i n g s t a y e d on t h e o u t s k i r t s o f A u k i f o r two d a y s w i t h o u t f o o d , became v e r y c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r l e a d e r s , whom t h e y a c c u s e d o f mismanagement, n e g l e c t , and s o on." T r o u b l e was a v e r t e d by t h e e f f o r t s o f T i m o t h y G e o r g e and A l i k e . L a t e r A l i k e came a b o a r d a l s o , and t h e p a r l e y c o n t i n u e d . Palmer c o n c l u d e d t h a t : The t e n M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s were a f r a i d t o l e t n a t i v e s l e a v e M a l a i t a , b e c a u s e t h i s was an a d m i s s i o n o f t h e i r f a i l u r e a s l e a d e r s , w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n 43 E r n i e Palmer had more e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i s l a n d e r s than p e r h a p s any o f t h e o f f i c i a l s . In h i s l a t e t e e n s when he began r e c r u i t i n g on M a l a i t a i n t h e 1920s, he was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e e a r l y tax c o l l e c t i o n p r o b l e m s and knew D.O. B e l l . P almer was i n t e r v i e w e d by Roger K e e s i n g f o r a book c o - a u t h o r e d w i t h P e t e r C o r r i s , 1980. t h e p e o p l e b e c o m i n g a n g r y , and m i g h t r e s u l t i n t r i b a l s t r i -f e. " A p p r e c i a t i n g , t h e r e - f o r e , t h a t t h e t e n l e a d e r s o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e were -forced t o hang t o g e t h e r , " Palmer s t r u c k an a g r e e m e n t , s u b j e c t t o t h e R.C.'s c o n c u r r e n c e , t h a t he w o u l d r e t u r n t o M a l a i t a a t t h e end o-f A u g u s t , and r e o p e n d i s c u s s i o n s , and then t a k e t h e t e n M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s a r o u n d t h e i s l a n d a b o a r d t h e r e c r u i t i n g v e s s e l . "A l o t o-f t h e y o u n g e r men ... I am c o n v i n c e d , want t o l e a v e t h e i s l a n d and work." T h i s a c t i o n , o f c o u r s e , w o u l d have been tantamount t o r e c o g n i z i n g t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p R.C. N o e l w r o t e , "I f u l l y a p p r o v e o f h i s p r o p o s a l " but n o t e d t h a t i t o f n e c e s s i t y w o u l d be "a p a t i e n t e n d e a v o r " < CO 537/2458 p. 5 6 - 7 ) . E v e n t s , however, were t o overwhelm t h i s r u d i m e n t a r y e f f o r t a t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , w h i c h K e e s i n g c l a i m s c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e g e n e r a l aim o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e movement ( K e e s i n g 1978/78). Government c o n t i n u e d t o be a c t i v e l y r e s i s t e d . On M a l a i t a and i n o t h e r i s l a n d s , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of M a r c h i n g R u l e c o u r t s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g r o w i n g M a r c h i n g R u l e e m p h a s i s on C h r i s t i a n Kastom and w i t h k e e p i n g c o u r t f i n e s w i t h i n t h e community, became t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e . A R e u t e r s d i s p a t c h f r o m l a t e J u l y , h e a d l i n e d " M a l a i t a n s a t t a c k G u a d a l c a n a l w i t h war c a n o e s and b l o w p i p e s [ s i c 3 . " - 88 -i s w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g . T h e n a t i v e s were s a i d t o have " d e c l a r e d war" on t h e B r i t i s h a t G u a d a l c a n a l . S i n c e t h e end o-f t h e war, t h e o n l y t r a n s p o r t t o t h e i s l a n d was t h e 280 - t o n K u r i m a r o o u t o-f F i j i , and p l a n t e r s were r e p o r t e d t o be u n a b l e t o o b t a i n -food t o r e c r u i t l a b o r . A l t h o u g h t h e n a t i v e s on G u a d a l c a n a l had r e c e i v e d - f l o u r and r i c e d i s b u r s e m e n t s , t h e Mal a i t a n s were " s t i l l on c o c o n u t s and - f i s h . " P l a n t a t i o n owner L . F . G i l l C a u - f - f i e l d was q u o t e d , " t h e n a t i v e s a r e v e r y s h o r t o-f -food and i-f a n y t h i n g happened t h e B r i t i s h government w o u l d be t o blame." T h e r e i s s u r e l y no b a s i s t o C o c h r a n e ' s c l a i m t h a t " t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y Cthe M a r c h i n g R u l e r s ] were su- f - f e r i n g -from -food s h o r t a g e s " <1971:153). In J u l y 1947, Brown J u l u m a n a s p r e a d t h e word t o Y s a b e l and Nggel a -for U o u z a o-f G u a d a l c a n a l , where he s a i d , a s r e c a l l e d i n t e s t i m o n y f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n <l_aracy 1983:124): T h i s i s t h e t h i r d w o r l d war. T h i s w o r l d war i s t o f r e e e v e r y c o u n t r y , i s l a n d and e v e r y b o d y h a s t o f o l l o w h i s own w i l l and t o g e t h i s own r u l e s . From now on, do n o t t h i n k s o much about t h e E n g l i s h money t h a t h a s an image o f t h e K i n g on i t , b u t l o o k t o w a r d s t h e A m e r i c a n money w h i c h h a s on i t , ' I n God We T r u s t ' . " J u l y 1947 t h r o u g h J a n u a r y 1953 In a memorandum t o t h e R.C. d a t e d J u l y 31 1947, M a l a i t a D.C. D a v i e s w r o t e , " I t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t - 89 -Ju n e 30 was a m i l e s t o n e i n t h e h i s t o r y o-f p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s on M a l a i t a . " G overnment's p o i n t on t h e i l l e g a l i t y o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e c o u r t s was b e i n g " d e l i b e r a t e l y m i s r e p r e s e n t e d " and many s u c h c o u r t s were i n - f u l l s w i n g . He w r o t e t h a t b o t h c a d e t s Marquand and Cameron, back -from t o u r s i n n o r t h M a l a i t a , " s t a t e d t h a t s u - f - f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e had been s e c u r e d t o e n a b l e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o-f a t l e a s t one i l l e g a l c o u r t -o-f - f i v e members." On A u g u s t 6, summons t o a t t e n d a p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g on c h a r g e s b r o u g h t by Cameron were p r e s e n t e d t o s i x men on t h e n o r t h - w e s t c o a s t o f t h e i s l a n d . M e a n w h i l e t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r t h e W e s t e r n P a c i f i c w r o t e t o t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e s t a t i n g t h a t a l l wage r a t e s were b e i n g r e v i e w e d . He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e s "have no c l e a r i d e a o f t h e t r u e f u n c t i o n s o f a n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r how i t s h o u l d d e v e l o p " <30 A u g u s t 1947, W.P.C.H, PRO). Government had had "a l o n g t a l k w i t h V o u z a , " who a c c e p t e d an i n v i t a t i o n t o go t o F i j i t o i n s p e c t government o p e r a t i o n s , an i n v i t a t i o n l a t e r e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r l e a d e r s on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . When t h e s i x men summoned f a i l e d t o a p p e a r , government i n i t i a t e d P h a s e II o f O p e r a t i o n De-Louse, w h i c h r o u n d e d them up on A u g u s t 31, 1947. A t t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r s t a r r e s t s , T i m o t h y G e o r g e was a t t e n d i n g an SSEM t e a c h e r s ' c o n f e r e n c e a t R a d e f a s u , - 99 -n e a r A u k i . H e r e some o p p o n e n t s o-f M a r c h i n g R u l e a l l e g e d l y mocked him, s a y i n g o-f t h e a r r e s t s , " T h i s i s t h e p r o m i s e d C a r g o " ( p r o s e c u t i o n ' s t e s t i m o n y , i_n L a r a c y 1983:133). In September, t h e key members o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s h i p were t a k e n i n t o c u s t o d y under t h e watch-ful guns o-f t h e 44) d e s t r o y e r HMS C o n t e s t and t h e s u b m a r i n e HMS Amphion. In a r a d i o b r o a d c a s t on t h e eve o-f t h e A u g u s t 31 a r r e s t s , t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r s t a t e d , " t h o s e who have been o r w i l l be a r r e s t e d have s o u g h t t o e s t a b l i s h an o r g a n i z e d t e r r o r i s m and r o b b e r y o-f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e by a s y s t e m o-f i l l e g a l p o l i c e , s p i e s and c o u r t s . . . . " ( L a r a c y 1983:178). In December a l t o g e t h e r 33 were t r i e d and 26 -found g u i l t y o-f b e c o m i n g "members o-f an U n l a w f u l S o c i e t y or C l u b known a s M a r c h i n g R u l e ...." N o r i and t h e Head C h i e f s were s e n t e n c e d t o t h e maximum s i x y e a r s e n t e n c e on V a l e n t i n e ' s Day, 1948, and were i m p r i s o n e d a t G i z a , i n t h e w e s t e r n i s l a n d s . N e l s o n K e f u drew a f i v e y e a r term f o r h i s p a r t a t t h e J u n e 30 m e e t i n g . W.J. Marquand, an e y e w i t n e s s o f t h e movement d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , r e c o u n t s t h a t " a f t e r t h e c h i e f s were a r r e s t e d t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e c o n t i n u e d w i t h o u t them, and t h e p e o p l e 44 PIM 1 8 ( 3 ) , O c t o b e r 1947. p. 71. T h e commander of t h e Amphion. H.C. Gowan, o b s e r v e d t h r o u g h h i s s p y g l a s s a b a n n e r on s h o r e w h i c h r e a d " M a r x i s t Law"; h i s u n g u a r d e d r e m a r k s t o t h e M e l b o u r n e Dai 1v Mai 1 on 9/19/47, w i d e l y p i c k e d up i n t h e B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n p r e s s , c a u s e d c o n s t e r n a t i o n i n t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e . ( P u b l i c R e c o r d O f f i c e ) - 91 -demanded t h e i r r e l e a s e . T h i s w o u l d n o t have happened i f t h e y had been u n p o p u l a r b u l l i e s " <1949/50:38). But on one p o i n t Marquand g i v e s an a c c o u n t t h a t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h ( M a l a i t a D.C.) D a v i e s ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ( s e e above) when he s t a t e s t h a t "when t h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e o-f o b t a i n i n g e v i d e n c e o-f t h e o p e r a t i o n o-f t h e s e c o u r t s , i n o r d e r t o p r o v e o v e r t a c t s by some o-f t h e l e a d e r s , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t i t -from e i t h e r w i t n e s s e s or -from p e r s o n s who had been c o n v i c t e d i n them, none o-f whom v o l u n t a r i l y c o m p l a i n e d " ( 1 9 4 9 / 5 0 : 4 3 ) . In some p a r t s o-f t h e i s l a n d t h e movement l o s t v i s i b l e s t e a m . F. Phebe, wi-fe o-f Heber Hedl ey t h e -former Head Chie-f o-f F a t a l a k a w r o t e i n 1948, ... our g a r d e n nobody w o r k i n g on them now on a c c o u n t t h a t mysel-f c a n ' t work on a b i g g a r d e n l i k e t h i s . A t p r e s e n t no d u t y d o i n g h i s d u t y . Now e v e r y t h i n g messed up nobody l o o k s a f t e r t h e -farm o r work i n t h e -farm. T h e r e i s no c o n t r o l o-f t h e v i l l a g e t o o . T h e y ' l l w a i t when you comes back then t h e y ' l l t e l l you a l l s o r t s o-f l i e s (i_n L a r a c y 1983:111). P e o p l e were l e a v i n g t h e communal v i l l a g e s and r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r bush h a m l e t s . A l i k e Nono'ohimae c o n t i n u e d t o e x e r c i s e some d i r e c t i o n •from p r i s o n . In an e n c o u r a g i n g l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o t h e A r a h a o-f ' A r e ' A r e s m u g g l e d -from G i z a he t r i e s t o c l a r i - f y t h e p r i o r i t i e s . " I t i s p r o f i t a b l e t o us t h a t our n a t i v e c u s t o m s and laws s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d and I want t h e A r a h a - 92 -t o i n q u i r e c a r e - F u l l y i n t o i t g o i n g i n t o a l l t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f our c u s t o m s and when t h e y a r e r i g h t t o put them i n a book t o be k e p t u n t i l t h i s w o r l d i s c l e a r . " The ' M a r c h i n g R u l e ' must have two h o u s e s , "one f o r d i s c u s s i o n s and t h e s e c o n d f o r c o u r t . " T h e y were t o c o n d u c t a c e n s u s , but o n l y i f t h e y were wel1 underway w i t h t h e custom b o o k s , w h i c h were t o be w r i t t e n b o t h i n n a t i v e l a n g u a g e and i n E n g l i s h . T h e y were a l s o t o c o n t i n u e t h e f a r m s . He s t a t e s , " t h i s i s t i m e f o r work" (government t r a n s l a t i o n , j_n L a r a c y 1983:112). Matthew B e l a m a t a g a , an e a r l y p r o p o n e n t o f M a r c h i n g R u l e , was i n j a i l on c h a r g e s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e movement i n 1947. He was r e l e a s e d i n 1948, whereupon he a s c e n d e d t o a p o s i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p and i n i t a t e d t h e "Freedom Movement." B e l a m a t a g a ' s movement was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h he termed t h e "Development S o c i e t y f o r N a t i v e R a c e s : " The aim o f t h i s m e e t i n g i s t o t r y and h e l p t h e n a t i v e s o f t h i s i s l a n d i n t o a b e t t e r way o f l i v i n g f r o m now onwards. A l s o t o r e v i v e t h e ways o f our a n c e s t o r s , who d i d n o t s p e n d d a y s i d l i n g . T h e r e a r e t h r e e main t h i n g s t o d i s c u s s i n t h i s m e e t i n g : - (1) t h e o l d c u s t o m s (2) Money c o l l e c t i o n (3) G a r d e n i n g . T h e c h i e f s were t o g a t h e r and c h o o s e a " R e p r e s e n t a t i v e " t o r u l e o v e r a t h o u s a n d o r f i f t e e n h u n d r e d p e o p l e . - 93 -The R e p r e s e n t a t i v e h a s n o t h i n g t o do w i t h h o l d i n g c o u r t s . He l e a v e s t h a t t o Government c h i e - f s o n l y . I f someone commits an o f f e n s e c o n t r a r y t o n a t i v e c u s t o m s . A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e m e r e l y t a l k e d t o o f f e n d e r p r o p e r l y . T h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e c a l l s a m e e t i n g o f t h e c l e v e r c h i e v s and t h e p e o p l e t o d i s c u s s t h i n g s o f t h e v i 1 1 a g e . . . Money c o l l e c t i o n i s t o be k e p t and t o be s p e n t on t h i n g s f o r common u s e o f a l l t h e p e o p l e . ... t o o l s and s c h o o l f e e s . . . . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s g a r d e n i s t o h e l p t h o s e who have no f o o d o r v i s i t o r s and s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . . . . The l e a d e r s a r e t o work i n b r o t h e r l y manner. T h e y a r e t o a c t t o g e t h e r i n a l l t h e i r w o r k s and w i t h t h e i r k n o w l e d g e . T h e y must n o t h a t e anybody e i t h e r b l a c k or anybody e l s e . T h e y must c o m f o r t anyone who a r e i n n e e d i n d a nger i n t h e m e e t i n g . T h e y must know r u l e s o f t h e i r work and t h e y must d e v e l o p e d and show t h e new l i f e f o r e v e r . T h e y must c a r r y o u t t h i s work R e s p e c t f u l l y and m e r c i f u l l y . T h e y must show r e s p e c t w i t h r e g a r d t o Government Law and M i s s i o n . . . e q u a l w i t h t e a c h e r s ... o t h e r w i s e t h e i r work w i l l be 1ed a s t r a y and s p o i l t h e i r name. ... <i_n L a r a c y 1983:158-60). B e l a m a t a g a was p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d by R o o s e v e l t ' s i d e a s f o r a new w o r l d o r d e r b a s e d on t h e Four Freedoms, Freedoms w h i c h a l s o had been q u o t e d t o t h e j u d g e by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e (NCM) l e a d e r s on t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e i r t r i a l . B e l a m a t a g a e c h o e d Brown J u l u m a n a when he w r o t e , "... t h e main o b j e c t o f t h e w o r l d war II i s t h a t a l l men s h o u l d be f r e e . E v e r y b o d i e s have t h e same r i g h t t o make s p e e c h e s and do h i s own r e l i g i o n ... T h i s i s t h e P r o m i s e T h e w o r l d war II h a s f o u g h t t o f r e e e v e r y b o d i e s . E v e r y body has t h e same w r i g h t t o do a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own f r e e w i l l < L a r a c y 1983:158-160). B e l a m a t a g a and f o u r o t h e r s were i m p r i s o n e d i n F e b r u a r y , - 94 -1949. Government were -faced w i t h a new p r o b l e m i n 1948. F e n c e s and w a t c h - t o w e r s had been e r e c t e d a r o u n d t h e p r o m i n e n t communal v i l l a g e s , and t h e movement's m i l i t a r y a s p e c t s were a p p a r e n t l y b e i n g i n t e n s i f i e d . The P r o t e c t o r a t e l e g a l a d v i s o r s t a t e d i n A u g u s t 1948, " t h e l a n d on w h i c h t h e v i l l a g e s and e n c l o s u r e s a r e e r e c t e d i s p r i v a t e l a n d and c o n s e q u e n t l y any removal o-f t h e e n c l o s u r e s by government e x c e p t a s a u t h o r i z e d by law amounts t o a t r e s p a s s . " But t h e government went ahead i n O p e r a t i o n s J e r i c h o and O r e s t e s and removed t h e b a r r i c a d e s . I-f t h e p e o p l e d i d not do i t t h e m s e l v e s t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s , w i t h t h e i r C h o i s e u l e s e and F i j i a n p o l i c e , r a z e d t h e v i l l a g e b e f o r e s u l l e n o n l o o k e r s . In J u n e , 1949, 258 were a r r e s t e d on Ulawa. A t S a n t a Ana, 144 were a r r e s t e d o u t o f a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 389. A l t o g e t h e r , o v e r two t h o u s a n d p r i s o n e r s were i n c u s t o d y i n t h e summer of 1949. A t A u k i s t a t i o n , a t h o u s a n d p r i s o n e r s were h e l d . Marquand r e c a l l s , T he p r i s o n f a c i l i t i e s b e i n g i n a d e q u a t e f o r s u c h numbers, t h e o v e r f l o w were o f t e n b i l l e t e d i n o r d i n a r y h o u s e s , and s o m etimes u n g u a r d e d ; and y e t t h e y made no a t t e m p t t o e s c a p e . T h e y worked, armed w i t h p i c k s and s h o v e l s , i n gangs o f up t o f i f t y and sometimes more, g u a r d e d by one w a r d e r , g e n e r a l l y i n s u f f i c i e n t l y t r a i n e d , armed w i t h a t r u n c h e o n . T h e y worked h a r d and c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y w i t h o u t c o m p l a i n t . . . . When b e i n g a r r e s t e d i n l a r g e numbers i n t h e v i l l a g e s , t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e was f a u l t l e s s and t h e a r r e s t s were n o t i c e a b l e f o r t h e l a c k o f , even v e r b a l , r e s i s t a n c e ; and t h e men went t o g a o l f o r p o l i t i c a l o f f e n s e s w i t h a c l e a r c o n s c i e n c e , b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e y had done n o t h i n g t o j u s t i f y t h i s t r e a t m e n t by t h e Government and d e t e r m i n e d t o show t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l w i t h d i g n i f i e d p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e (Marquand i b i d . : 3 8 ) . The l a s t o f t h e A m e r i c a n f o r c e s l e f t t h e i s l a n d s i n O c t o b e r 1949. I t was about t h i s t i m e t h a t A r i e l S i s i l i g e n e r a t e d new momentum i n t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d under t h e banner o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l Movement. In December, 1949, 2,208 p e o p l e met w i t h D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r Masterman at A u k i , where t h e y demanded t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e n i n e Head C h i e f s , r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e c o u r t s , and r e c o g n i t i o n f o r a Head C h i e f o v e r t h e w h o l e i s l a n d o f M a l a i t a . Government r e s p o n d e d w i t h demands of i t s own, f o r c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h c e n s u s and r e s u m i n g t a x , and i n t e n s i f i e d a l e a f l e t campaign ( c f . L a r a c y 1983:187-190). S i s i l i h e l p e d b u i l d t h e r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e c e n s u s and t a x . S i s i l i ' s F e d e r a l C o u n c i l , l i k e i t s f o r e r u n n e r s t h e Freedom Movement, t h e N a t i v e C o u n c i l Movement and t h e C h a i r and R u l e , was f o u n d e d on t h e b a s i c n o t i o n t h a t a new n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n was n e e d e d . S i m i l a r t o B e l a m a t a g a and t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e Head C h i e f s , t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l was i n s p i r e d by " F o ur Freedoms was w r i t t e n by F.D. R o o s i b e l t " and t h e " Peace aims was w r i t t e n by F.D. R o o s i b e l t and W.S. C h u r c h i l l . " T h e s e " f o u n d a t i o n s " - 96 -s e t t h e c o n t e x t -for -formation o-f t h e " F e d e r a l C o u n c i l h e l d a t W a s h i n g t o n D.C. ... New Y o r k Cand3 P h i l a d e l p h i a i n U.S.A." Now t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a p u z z l e i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h can e a s i l y be c l e a r e d . L a r a c y s t a t e s t h a t "no ' F e d e r a l C o u n c i l ' i s r e c o r d e d i n A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y " <1983:172). However, t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l t h a t S i s i l i r e f e r s t o was t h e p o p u l a r name o-f t h e " F e d e r a l C o u n c i l o-f t h e C h u r c h e s o-f C h r i s t i n A m e r i c a " -founded a t New Y o r k i n 1905 and whose - f i r s t g e n e r a l m e e t i n g was h e l d a t P h i l a d e l p h i a i n 1908. The W a s h i n g t o n m e e t i n g S i s i l i r e f e r s t o may be one h e l d i n 1887 by t h e E v a n g e l i c a l A l l i a n c e under i t s new f u l l - t i m e g e n e r a l s e c r e t a r y , J o s i a h S t r o n g , t h e f i r s t " g e n e r a l C h r i s t i a n c o n f e r e n c e " i n A m e r i c a on t h e c h u r c h ' s r o l e i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e . The A l l i a n c e u r g e d t h a t , t o a l l s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , " a p p l i e d C h r i s t i a n i t y " was t h e s o l u t i o n . The a l l i a n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a new e c u m e n i c a l movement w h i c h was t h e d i r e c t i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e U.S. F e d e r a l ^ ^ , ^ . , , ^ 45) C o u n c i l , t o be f o u n d e d e i g h t e e n y e a r s l a t e r . T h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l was a c t i v e on s o c i a l i s s u e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y u n t i l i t j o i n e d w i t h t h e W o r l d C o u n c i l o f C h u r c h e s f o l l o w i n g 45 John A. H u t c h i s o n <1941) We A r e Not D i v i d e d . A C r i t i c a l  and H i s t o r i c a l S t u d y o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l o f t h e  C h u r c h e s o f C h r i s t i n A m e r i c a . Round T a b l e P r e s s , I n c . , New Y o r k . p p 17, 34-38. - 97 -W o r l d War I I . Known g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a l g o s p e l ism, t h i s l o n g - l i v e d e c u m e n i c a l movement, a t t i m e s m i l l e n a r i a n i n t o n e , h a s l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d by h i s t o r i a n s a s t h e most p o t e n t modern i n f l u e n c e on t h e P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h i n N o r t h 46) A m e r i c a . I w i l l a d d r e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f S i s i l i ' s j o i n i n g i n t h i s A m e r i c a n t r a d i t i o n o f l i b e r a l P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n t h e f i n a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . By A p r i l 1958, g o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t e m p t s t o c o l l e c t tax and c o n d u c t c e n s u s was a t a s t a l e m a t e and t h e e f f o r t was abandoned <BSIP 1949-56 A n n u a l R e p o r t , p. 3 9 ) . Government r e l e a s e d t h e n i n e f o r m e r Head C h i e f s i n J une on p r o m i s e of t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . In O c t o b e r government announced i t s i n t e n t i o n o f i n a u g u r a t i n g D i s t r i c t N a t i v e C o u n c i l s t o r e p l a c e t h e l o c a l S u b - D i s t r i c t N a t i v e C o u n c i l s under b o y c o t t s i n c e 1947, and t o g i v e them more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power. D e s p i t e t h e s e a c t i o n s , S i s i l i c o n t i n u e d t o p r e s s f o r a M a l a i t a - w i d e c o u n c i l , s a y i n g t h a t t h e " w h i t e government" ha s imposed " t a x e s t o them w i t h o u t t h e i r c o n s e n t . " In December S i s i l i i s s u e d what' i s p e r h a p s t h e most e n i g m a t i c of a l l t h e documents p r o d u c e d by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e M a l a i t a D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h was an e x a c t 46 c f . R i c h a r d H o f s t a d t e r <1955) The Age o f Reform. K n o p f , New Y o r k . - 98 -c o p y o-f t h e A m e r i c a n D e c l a r a t i o n o-f I n d e p e n d e n c e : "The unanimous d e c l a r a t i o n o-f t h e s e v e n C h i e - f s , u n i t e d d i s t r i c t o-f M a l a i t a . In c o n g r e s s , December 21, 1958 . . . ." ( L a r a c y 1983:172) . By J a n u a r y 1951, t h e l a b o r q u e s t i o n was moot. Mages had been r a i s e d , a t l e a s t t o £ 2 per month w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l £ 3 / 6 w o r t h o-f j o b b e n e f i t s , and t h e BSIP r e p o r t e d t h a t " l a b o r was now - f r e e l y r e c r u i t i n g " and t h a t c o p r a p r o d u c t i o n had been d o u b l e d s i n c e 1948. The u n d e r l y i n g p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o-f t h e movement were not a m e l i o r a t e d , however. S i s i l i was t r i e d -for t r e a s o n i n F e b r u a r y and s e n t e n c e d t o t w e l v e y e a r s , r e d u c e d t o t h r e e y e a r s i n September. Th e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l c o n t i n u e d t o meet, now under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o-f A n a e - f o l o , Roger K e e s i n g ' s i n f o r m a n t q u o t e d above w i t h r e s p e c t t o R i c h a r d F a l l o w e s ' s words i n 1939. L i k e t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s o f t h e N a t i v e C o u n c i l Movement. t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l members a l s o met n e a r t h e D i s t r i c t H e a d q u a r t e r s a t A u k i . T h e p r e s s u r e s t h e y b r o u g h t were s o g r e a t t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i s l a n d - w i d e c o u n c i l p r e c e d e d i t s e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . U l t i m a t e l y i t was a g r e e d t h a t a new c o u n c i l o f 41 members w o u l d i n c l u d e o n l y t e n o f f i c i a l n o m i n e e s , t h a t i t w o u l d have i t s own f l a g f o r t h e i s l a n d , and t h a t any ' b i g man' i t n o m i n a t e d w o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d a s P r e s i d e n t i f he took a s i m p l e o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e , w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s n o m i n a t i o n t o t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . 47 A.M. H e a l y ( 1 9 6 4 ) . " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h Solomon I s l a n d s . " J o u r n a l o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n O v e r s e a s . 5 ( 3 ) : 1 9 4 - 2 0 4 . p. 202. - 99 -The Mal a i t a n s r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o-f t h e i r P r e s i d e n t s i t t i n g on t h e a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l , "an i n d i c a t i o n o-f c o n t i n u i n g s e p a r a t i s m . " T h e P r e s i d e n t was t o be p r e s e n t e d w i t h ta-fu 1 i a e by a l l t h e ' l i n e s ' o-f t h e i s l a n d , and t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t o-f t h e c o u n c i l "would be t o make 'good laws about c u s t o m ' -for t h e p e o p l e " ( H e a l y 1964:202). In J a n u a r y 1953, t h e Hi g h C o m m i s s i o n e r -for t h e W e s t e r n P a c i f i c " took o v e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y •for t h e d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o-f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e -from t h e A c t i n g R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r " and e s t a b l i s h e d h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s a t H o n i a r a ( C o l o n i a l O f f i c e L i s t , 1953). When t h e M a l a i t a C o u n c i l opened i n J a n u a r y 1953, i t was a c c o m p a n i e d by e l a b o r a t e p e a c e - m a k i n g c e r e m o n i a l s ( C o c h r a n e 1971). A s H e a l y s t a t e s , " i t marked t h e c o n f e r r i n g o f o f f i c i a l f o r m and s t a t u s on a u n i t y w h i c h t h e M a l a i t a n s had a c h i e v e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s " ( H e a l y 1964:262-3). W i t h i n t w e n t y months t h e C o u n c i l had s u b m i t t e d s i x t y - s i x r e s o l u t i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r . -100 -C h a p t e r 4. T h e Development o f Government's A n a l y s i s No s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n o-f t h e s c a l e o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e can be a n a l y z e d i n i s o l a t i o n -from t h e o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s e w h i c h i t e n g e n d e r e d , f o r t h a t r e s p o n s e s h a r e s w i t h t h e n a t i v e s " i n i t i a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e v e n t s a s t h e y were t o u n f o l d . The M a r c h i n g R u l e r e s u l t e d f r o m a complex c o m m u n i c a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between E u r o p e a n s and M e l a n e s i a n s , whose s e p a r a t e e f f o r t s t oward d e v e l o p i n g a s a t i s f y i n g s y n o p t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n were i n f l u e n c e d by each o t h e r . None o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e s c h o l a r s h a s g i v e n a s u s t a i n e d t r e a t m e n t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r o b l e m s , nor have t h e y a d d r e s s e d t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e phenomenon o c c u r i n g between t h e M a r c h i n g 48) R u l e r s and t h e g o v e r n m e n t . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s A n a l y s i s t o J u l y 1947 F o r t h e most p a r t , t h e BSIP a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were i n t h e d a r k c o n c e r n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e e x c e p t t h r o u g h t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h n a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , and r e l i e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n , w h i c h t h e y had no g r o u n d s t o q u e s t i o n , 48 t h e s u b j e c t / o b j e c t c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y i n h i g h - e n e r g y p h y s i c s known a s t h e o b s e r v e r e f f e c t <cf. N e i l s Bohr 1928. "The Quantum P o s t u l a t e and t h e R e c e n t Development o f A t o m i c T h e o r y " . Supplement t o " N a t u r e " . V o l 121, A p r i l 14, 1928.) h a s an a n a l o g u e i n a l l s e m i o t i c phenomena. I t h a s been s t u d i e d i n s e v e r a l f o r m s . Some e t h o l o g i s t s term t h e phenomenon t h e " C l e v e r Hans E f f e c t ( c f . Thomas Sebeok 1979). M a r g a r e t Mead and G r e g o r y B a t e s o n s t u d i e d i t i n t h e m o t h e r - c h i l d c o m m u n i c a t i o n d y a d i n B a l i w h i c h l e d t o t h e d o u b l e - b i n d t h e o r y o f s c h i z o p h r e n i a ( B a t e s o n 1942). -101 ~ t h a t t h e s e men had t h e s u p p o r t o-f t h e i r p e o p l e . I n d e e d , what w o u l d be more a g r e e a b l e t o government than t h e emergence o-f l e a d e r s w i t h t h e b a c k i n g o f t h e i s l a n d e r s a s a w h o l e ? S i n c e t h e e a r l y 1920s government had been " c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n c e r n e d t o d i s c o v e r an a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e on w h i c h c o u l d be b u i l t t h e d e l i c a t e s y s t e m o f i n d i r e c t r u l e " ( A l l a n 1950:32). The d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s u b - d i s t r i c t c o u r t s and c o u n c i l s had r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e l d e r s c o u l d n o t s u s t a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p e o p l e . N o n e t h e l e s s t h e government v i e w e d t h e s u b - d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l s a s a s o l i d i b e g i n n i n g i n s e l f - r u l e . In 1946, an E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r was a p p o i n t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h u s c o n t i n u i n g g o v e r n m e n t ' s pre-war p l a n s w h i l e a d d r e s s i n g a s e n s i t i v e a r e a o f n a t i v e c o n c e r n s . But o v e r s h a d o w i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s were t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n e s , t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s w a r - r a v a g e d p l a n t a t i o n economy. Government was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d t o resume c o p r a p r o d u c t i o n and r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h a t e f f e c t f r o m London ( CO 8 5 6 / 6 ) . A s o f 1948, c o c o n u t c u l t i v a t i o n was o n l y 1.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e pre-war a c r e a g e . Government b u d g e t e d f o r a d e f i c i t and c a l l e d f o r a G r a n t i n A i d o f £70 1,953 i n i t s e s t i m a t e s f o r 1 9 4 7 - 8 . 4 9 > 49 F o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s economic s i t u a t i o n , s e e C y r i l B e l s h a w , "The P o s t w a r Solomon I s l a n d s . " F a r E a s t e r n S u r v e y A p r i l 21, 1948:95-98. -162 -However, Government o f f i c i a l s were u n e a s y a t t h e p o t e n t i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o-f t h e demand -for a £ 1 2 wage, t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o-f i n t e r e s t i n p u r c h a s i n g w e s t e r n t r a d e g o o d s w h i c h s u s t a i n e d t h e ' s t r i k e ' , and a t t h e " r a t h e r s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e " o v e r t h e r a n k - a n d — f i 1 e s u p p o r t e r s o-f t h e movement. R.C. Noel r e p o r t e d t o F i j i t h a t " t h e i r c l a i m -for £ 1 2 a month i s n o t s e r i o u s a s s u c h — I am i n c l i n e d t o r e a d i n t o i t a - f i g u r e w h i c h t h e y -feel no e m p l o y e r o-f l a b o u r w i l l pay, and a s a r e s u l t t h e y can keep t h e i r p e o p l e i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s , p l a n t i n g a l l t h e -food w h i c h t h e y n e e d . T h e weakness i s t h a t t h e y c a n n o t and do not p l a n f o r an e x p o r t s o a s t o e a r n money w i t h w h i c h t o pay f o r t h e i m p o r t s w h i c h t h e y r e q u i r e . " N o e l f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r t y p e r s o n s had been c o n v i c t e d on M a l a i t a f o r i l l e g a l d r i l l i n g , w h i c h "has s o b e r e d t h e l e a d e r s t h e r e on t h a t s c o r e . . . . I s h a l l n o t t o l e r a t e S t o r m T r o o p e r s i n t h e Solomons!" (Noel t o S i r A l e x a n d e r Grantham < F i j i ) , 30 November 1946. CO 537/2449 p. 149-50). Th e p o s i t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e r s d i d n o t go u n n o t i c e d . The M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s , w r o t e S i r A l e x a n d e r Grantham < F i j i ) t o S i r C h a r l e s J e f f r i e s ( C o l o n i a l O f f i c e ) i n December, "seem t o be g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e p e o p l e , and b e l i e v e i n s e l f - h e l p . What t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s t o do i s t o g u i d e i t a l o n g -103 -t h e p r o p e r l i n e s " <C0 537/2449 p. 148). In t h e S p r i n g o-f 1947 government was p r e p a r e d t o work w i t h t h e l e a d e r s h i p t o w a r d a m u t u a l l y accommodative s o l u t i o n t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e . The o n l y p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m seems t o be t h e i r commitment t o t h e e x i s t i n g s u b - d i s t r i c t c o u r t s and c o u n c i l s i n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e m a i n t e n a n c e t h e r e o-f -firm government g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h i t s D i s t r i c t Headmen. The P r o t e c t o r a t e ' s A nnual R e p o r t -for 1946 s t a t e s t h a t : T h e -formation o-f [ S u b - D i s t r i c t ] v i l l a g e C o u n c i l s i n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e r e p r e s e n t s a p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p . C o u n c i l s o-f -family g r o u p s and c h u r c h C o u n c i l s have e x i s t e d -for many y e a r s : i n t h e l i g h t o-f e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d t h e r e i n , t h e r e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e men w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h m a t t e r s t h a t c o n c e r n p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , however l i m i t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t may be. The a b i l i t y w i t h w h i c h a c t i v e M a r c h i n g R u l e C o m m i t t e e s have been d i r e c t e d c o n f i r m s t h i s , and s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t h a t t h e t i m e h a s now come when t h e n a t i v e r i g h t l y s e e k s some medium f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s o p i n i o n s , a t l e a s t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p u b l i c a f f a i r s o f h i s " s u b - d i s t r i c t " . ... A t p r e s e n t d e l e g a t e s a r e a p p o i n t e d t o t h e [ M a r c h i n g R u l e ] C o u n c i l s by p u b l i c a c c l a m a t i o n , one o r two t o each v i l l a g e ; b ut h e r e and t h e r e we have i n s t a n c e s where t h e y e l e c t a ' L e a d e r ' whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o l e a d t h e d e l e g a t e s i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s <C0 856/5) . The December A u k i m e e t i n g o f 5,000 i s l a n d e r s e n c o u r a g e d government t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e momentum of t h e movement was u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p . The H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r r e p o r t e d t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s i n J a n u a r y t h a t " t h e m e e t i n g was an a m i c a b l e one and t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h r o u g h o u t was f r i e n d l y . The l e a d e r s a t t h e -104 -m e e t i n g in-formed t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r o-f t h e i r a ims and o b j e c t s ... i n a d d i t i o n t h e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t t h e Government i n i t s m e d i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n s . T h e y a l s o e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t -for t h e m i s s i o n s . T h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r t o l d them t h a t t h e s e were t h e a i m s o-f Government, t h a t Government, by s e t t i n g up N a t i v e C o u n c i l s and C o u r t s , was a l r e a d y d o i n g t h a t . . . ." T h e "-fundamental aim i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and wel-fare o f t h e p e o p l e , who, t h e l e a d e r s c o n s i d e r , s h o u l d have a g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own a f f a i r s , a t any r a t e i n m i n o r m a t t e r s . T h e s e a r e a d m i r a b l e a i m s , and a r e i n f a c t t h e p o l i c y o f Government" <C0 537/2449. p . l A t a P r o t e c t o r a t e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l m e e t i n g e a r l y i n 1947, R.C. Noe l s t a t e d : T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s movement i s s u b v e r s i v e . I t p r o f e s s e s t o be o p p o s e d t o e x p l o i t a t i o n by t h e w h i t e man, and aims e v e n t u a l l y a t s e c u r i n g c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l by t h e n a t i v e s o f t h e s e i s l a n d s o f a l l f o r m s o f c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e and t h e Government o f t h e c o u n t r y . T h e r e a r e e x t r e m i s t s i n t h i s movement, but t h e p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t m o d e r a t e c o u n s e l s s t i l l h o l d t h e p r e v a i l i n g i n f l u e n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e t h e i r n e x t Committee m e e t i n g i s t o be c a l l e d on 19th F e b r u a r y , and i s t o be c o n v e n e d a t Abu, n e a r A u k i , i n o r d e r t o s u i t t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r a s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Government ( M i n u t e s o f t h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . CO 8 5 6 / 6 ) . -185 -Government t r i e d t o e n c o u r a g e a r e s u m p t i o n o-f r e c r u i t i n g w i t h t h e a r g u m e n t s t h a t i t w o u l d e n a b l e p u r c h a s e o-f t h e 50) i n c e n t i v e t r a d e g o o d s , and t h a t i t w o u l d be an o u t l e t •for m a r r i a g e a b l e men -for whom, b e c a u s e o-f t h e p r e d o m i n a t e l y m a l e sex r a t i o , t h e r e were no women, and t h a t M a l a i t a n l a b o r was an a s s e t " i n a s s i s t i n g w o r l d a s w e l l a s l o c a l r e c o v e r y . " The government were s u p p o r t i v e o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e communal -farms p r o j e c t s , but e x p r e s s e d t h e r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e new v i l l a g e s s h o u l d n o t be s i t e d i n a r e a s u n s u i t e d t o h e a l t h or t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o-f s t a p l e s < t a r o i s a h i g h - b u s h p r o d u c t ) , but "so -far t h i s h a s not o c c u r r e d . " Government a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o-f i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a r a h a s y s t e m i n t o i t s schemes -for i n d i r e c t r u l e a l o n g t h e l i n e s o-f t h e A f r i c a n C l a n C o u r t . However, g o v e r n m e n t ' s l i m i t e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l knowledge w o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h i n k i n g a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . A s M a l a i t a D.C. D a v i e s w r o t e t o N o e l , I f e e l t h a t a s f a r a s t h e N o r t h i s c o n c e r n e d t h e r e i s n o t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e A l a h a s y s t e m h a s any h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s , nor any r o o t s i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I t i s i n e f f e c t an a r t i f i c i a l 50 "... g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e p e o p l e do not want money as t h e y h a v e e v e r y t h i n g t h e y want f o r n o t h i n g T e m p t i n g g o o d s i n t h e Government s t o r e s a r e shunned a l t h o u g h a number o f p e o p l e h a v e t h e money t o buy. T h e w i l l i n g n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a l l p a i d t h e i r pound t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e f u n d s and c o n t r i b u t e d t o c o l l e c t i o n s f o r t h e A m e r i c a n Red C r o s s , shows t h a t money i s a v a i l a b l e , T he Government T r e a s u r y i s a l w a y s c o m p l a i n i n g o f t h e way t h a t money d i s a p p e a r s i n t o M a l a i t a . The M a r c h i n g R u l e even made i t law t h a t t h e i r p e o p l e were n o t t o t r a d e i n E u r o p e a n g o o d s , and a l 1 s t o r e s s e l l i n g t h e s e goods were b o y c o t t e d " (Marquand 1949/50:31), -106 -g r a f t i n g o-f a s o c i a l s y s t e m e x c l u s i v e t o S m a l l M a l a i t a and p o s s i b l y A r i a r i < CO 537/2450, pp. 5 8 - 9 ) . T h u s i t i s c l e a r t h a t up u n t i l J u l y , 1947 government was p r e p a r e d t o c o n s i d e r c h a n g e s i n i t s n a t i v e p o l i c y and a l s o p r e p a r e d t o work w i t h t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s h i p , a s R.C. N o e l ' s a c c o u n t o-f t h e P a l m e r m e e t i n g d i r e c t l y a t t e s t s . A l l t h i s c h a n g e d i n J u l y . Government came t o v i e w t h e d e v e l o p i n g s i t u a t i o n a s out o-f l e a d e r s h i p ' s c o n t r o l . T h e r e a f t e r a s t h e y w i t h d r e w t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o work w i t h t h e l e a d e r s h i p , t h e l a s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a m u t u a l l y a c commodative s o l u t i o n a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e s l i p p e d away. E x t r e m i s t e l e m e n t s had s e i z e d t h e momentum a f t e r t h e J u n e 30 m e e t i n g . The M a r c h i n g R u l e had o p e n l y d e f i e d t h e B r i t i s h and s e t up i t s own shadow government. A g e n e r a l s t r i k e was p e r h a p s imminent. A n o t h e r mass m e e t i n g was r u m o r e d p l a n n e d f o r September. By t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e r a d i c a l s t h e c o l o n i a l s were e x c l u d e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g M a r c h i n g R u l e d i s c o u r s e . By summer t h e y were even more i n t h e d a r k a b o u t t h e movement than when d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h t h e Head C h i e f s . Government had o n l y one c o u r s e r e m a i n i n g t o i t , t h a t o f f o r c e . A l l a n ' s summary o f t h e movement s t r e s s e s a number of p o i n t s , one o f w h i c h i s t h e s e c r e c y w h i c h e n v e l o p e d t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . I t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g a i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . A s t h e H i g h C o m m i s s i o n e r w r o t e t o h i s s u p e r i o r i n J a n u a r y , "I was s t r u c k by t h e -fact t h a t m i s s i o n a r i e s and p l a n t e r s , w i t h whom I s p o k e , had much l e s s knowledge o r a p p r e c i a t i o n o-f t h e movement than had t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " (CO 537 / 2 4 4 9 ) . The M a r c h i n g R u l e had o p e r a t e d u n d e r g r o u n d f o r i t s f i r s t two y e a r s . A s l a t e a s A u g u s t 1958, t h e B i s h o p o f M e l a n e s i a Rev. Caul ton termed t h e movement "a s o r t o f s e c r e t s o c i e t y , and o u t s i d e r s know l i t t l e o f what i s g o i n g on" (PIM A u g u s t 1958:77,79). In t h i s complex and h i g h l y u n c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t a new a n a l y s i s o f e v e n t s d e v e l o p e d t o w h i c h I w i l l now t u r n . -188 C a r o o F o r t h e n e x t - f i v e y e a r s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o-f t h e BSIP was d o m i n a t e d by t h e p r o b l e m o-f how t o e x p l a i n and r e s p o n d t o t h e a c u t e c h a l l e n g e o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e t o t h e l e g i t i m a c y o-f i t s p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . F a c e d w i t h what a p p e a r e d a s an imminent c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i s i s , t h e u r g e n c y o-f t h e s i t u a t i o n a s i t a p p e a r e d t o government demanded an a c t i o n - o r i e n t a n a l y s i s . From a b o u t S p r i n g 1947, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e v e l o p e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was u l t i m a t e l y c a s t -from t h e same m o l d a s i r r a t i o n a l c u l t i c o u t b r e a k s e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e W e s t e r n Solomons and New G u i n e a , u n d e r s t o o d as r e a c t i v e and p a l l i a t i v e mass phenomena r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s and i m p a c t s o-f w e s t e r n i z a t i o n . The term " c a r g o c u l t " a s a p r o p e r name f o r s u c h movements was y e t t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e v o c a b u l a r y . 1 do n o t w i s h t o r e i t e r a t e why i t was i n c o r r e c t t o v i e w t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a s a c a r g o c u l t , a p o i n t a d d r e s s e d most f o r c e f u l l y by Roger K e e s i n g ( 1 9 7 8 - 9 ) , but t o u n c o v e r how t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n came t o d o m i n a t e t h e o f f i c i a l a n a l y s i s and o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , t o f i n d i t s way i n t o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . I h y p o t h e s i z e a new s o u r c e f o r t h e C a r g o i s t e l e m e n t s t h a t were u n d e n i a b l y p r e s e n t i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e but •for w h i c h K e e s i n g i s u n a b l e t o g i v e a s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c o u n t . K e e s i n g p o s i t s a d i f f u s i o n o f C a r g o i s r n t h r o u g h t h e s o u t h P a c i f i c " p l a n t a t i o n c u l t u r e " a s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n . But t h e d i f f u s i o n i s t e x p l i c a n s c a n n o t a c c o u n t f o r why C a r g o i s r n o f a l l o t h e r s u p p o s a l s and s t o r i e s o c c u r i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , why t h e w o r l d l y M a l a i t a n s s h o u l d have g i v e n any c r e d e n c e a t a l l t o t h e myth-dreams p r o m u l g a t e d by p e o p l e s even f u r t h e r a t t h e p e r i p h e r y than t h e y , or why he v i e w s C a r g o i s r n a s " u n i m p o r t a n t and p e r i p h e r a l " t o t h e main t h r u s t o f t h e movement and why A l l a n and o t h e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t was o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t I a d v a n c e f o u n d e d on t h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e , i s t h a t t h i s new s o u r c e was t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s own c o n t e m p o r a r y a n a l y s i s w h i c h f o u n d i t s way i n t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e dramas a f t e r J u l y 1947. T h i s i s p e r h a p s a d r a m a t i c a s s e r t i o n , b ut i t can be a t l e a s t p r o v i s i o n a l l y s u s t a i n e d by t h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e w h i c h I have e x a m i n e d . T h e r e i s a c u r i o u s a b s e n c e o f any i n d i g e n o u s d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e f r o m 1909 t h r o u g h 1946 t h a t C a r g o i s r n was p r e s e n t i n t h e t h o u g h t s o f M a l a i t a n s A t any e x t e n t , t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s new t h e o r y c o u l d not e x p l a i i why t h e e v e n t u a l outcome o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was a new p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n on M a l a i t a — t h e M a l a i t a C o u n c i l - u e — whose s t r u c t u r e was a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y i n a c c o r d , a s I have shown i n C h a p t e r 3, w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t a m b i t i o n s o-f t h e n a t i v e M e l a n e s i a n s . T h e mass h y s t e r i a e x p l i c a n s p r o v i d e d a c o n v e n i e n t s t r u c t u r e w i t h w h i c h t h e E u r o p e a n s t h o u g h t t h e m s e l v e s f a m i l i a r enough t o c a r r y o u t a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n : s u p p r e s s i o n of t h e l e a d e r s , d i v i s i o n o f t h e f o l l o w e r s , and t h e d i s m i s s i n g o f t h e ' r h e t o r i c ' o f t h e movement on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s u p p o s e d i r r a t i o n a l i t y o f i t s o r i g i n s . T h e o v e r t l y p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was s u b l i m a t e d by t h e s e a c t i o n s . F o r t h e BSIP a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , what had been c a u s e d by "a l o s s o f f a i t h i n us" became c a u s e d by an e n v y f o r t h e w h i t e man's w e a l t h , power and p o s i t i o n ( A l l a n 1950). In t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f m i l l e n a r i a n d e b a t e and r i t u a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s a p p a r e n t c o n c e r n f o r ' C a r g o ' was not u n n o t i c e d . My h y p o t h e s i s i s f a l s i f i a b l e i f and o n l y i f p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e can be f o u n d w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t C a r g o i s t d o c t r i n e s were p r e s e n t b e f o r e S p r i n g 1947; c o n s e q u e n t l i t i s ' p r o v i s i o n a l ' t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t my a c c e s s t o d o c u m e n t a r y s o u r c e s i s o b v i o u s l y not c o m p l e t e . L e t us now t r a c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s new a n a l y s i s i n t h e s t a t i s t d i s c o u r s e o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was an i r r a t i o n a l c u l t i c o u t b r e a k d epended on a metaphor o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l - I l l -d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s was most a p p a r e n t i n t h e c l a s s i c a n a l y s i s o-f t h e V a i l a l a Madness by t h e government a n t h r o p o l o g i s t •for New G u i n e a , F.E. W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 2 3 ) . The mass h y s t e r i a t h e o r y and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o-f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , demanded a s t r a t e g y o f s e m i o s i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t was g o v e r n e d by a s e a r c h -for r e l e v a n t symptoms, s u c h a s i r r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , - f a n t a s t i c r u m o r s , m y s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o r b i z a r r e r i t u a l s , and most o-f a l l , t h e ' C a r g o ' . The term ' s o c i a l d i a g n o s t i c s ' r e f e r s t o t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e p a r t i e s a s t h e y b o t h t r i e d t o make s e n s e o-f and d i r e c t t h e c o u r s e o-f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . In t h e R e p o r t on P o l i t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e <March 1947, PRO 5 3 7 / 2 4 4 9 ) , R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r Noel r e c o u n t s h i s s e p a r a t e m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e "Managing Committee" and w i t h 23 D i s t r i c t Headmen a t A u k i . "The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n w h i c h I g a i n e d -from t h i s m e e t i n g was t h a t members were u n w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n t o r e a s o n , m e r e l y s e e k i n g o p p o r t u n i t y -for i n t e r v i e w i n g me i n o r d e r t o make c l e a r t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s . . . . " He s a y s - f u r t h e r t h a t " t h e y have p r e a c h e d t h e i r p r o p a g a n d a i n s u c h a manner t h a t i n a c c e p t i n g M a r c h i n g R u l e , t h e c o n v e r t s have a l m o s t a d o p t e d a new r e l i g i o n . " A t t h i s t i m e , C a d e t O f f i c e r C o l i n A l l a n was s t a t i o n e d i n t h e w e s t e r n i s l a n d s o f t h e g r o u p . He r e p o r t e d t h e s p r e a d t h e r e o f t h e wage demand o f £ 1 2 per -112 -month. Noe l c o n t i n u e s , "Mr. A l l a n p o i n t s o u t , however, t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g on B o u g a i n v i l l e , t h e news o-f w h i c h i s bound t o t r a v e l , and i s a l s o l i k e l y t o i n - f l u e n c e t h e c o u r s e o-f e v e n t s h e r e . " The B o u g a i n v i l l e e v e n t s s u r r o u n d e d t h e l i b e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o-f war damage c o m p e n s a t i o n . N a t i v e s r e c e i v e d 19/- p e r c o c o n u t damaged. Q u o t i n g A l l a n , N o e l s t a t e s , " A l r e a d y q u e s t i o n s about c o m p e n s a t i o n a r e b e i n g a s k e d i n V e l 1 a L a v e l l a , and w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g p a s s a g e o-f m i s s i o n v e s s e l s between t h i s P r o t e c t o r a t e and Papua, New G u i n e a , i t w i l l n o t be l o n g be-fore t h e g l a d t i d i n g s w i l l be s p r e a d i n g e a s t t h r o u g h t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e , b r i n g i n g w i t h i t p r o m i s e o-f w e a l t h s u c h a s was n e v e r i m a g i n e d , even when t h e d o l l a r was a t t h e peak o f i t s p o p u l a r i t y . " Now, an e x p e c t a t i o n o-f war damage c o m p e n s a t i o n i s a l t o g e t h e r a b s e n t i n t h e i n d i g e n o u s M a r c h i n g R u l e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e , nor w o u l d one e x p e c t i t t o a f f e c t Mal a i t a n s , whose i s l a n d had not s u f f e r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f b a t t l e and where p e a s a n t c o c o n u t c u l t i v a t i o n was not p r a c t i c e d t o any c o m m e r c i a l e x t e n t . I t must a l s o be o b s e r v e d how d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i c c a r g o i s m and t h e e v e n t s on B o u g a i n v i l l e were f r o m one a n o t h e r . I t i s s a f e t o s a y , i n c o n s e q u e n c e , t h a t t h e o o n l y movement o f t h e s e i d e a s e a s t , j u d g i n g by t h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e , was w i t h C o l i n A l l a n a s he r e t u r n e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a d q u a r t e r s a t H o n i a r a . M e a n w h i l e , M a l a i t a D.C. D a v i e s was a l s o r e p o r t i n g c u r i o u s e v e n t s t o t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r . M a l a i t a was r i f e w i t h r u m o r s o-f A m e r i c a n s t o come. An SSEM man e n v i s i o n e d t h a t t h e end o-f t h e w o r l d w o u l d o c c u r A p r i l 6 t h . T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e k i l l i n g o-f p i g s and p u l l i n g o-f g a r d e n s t o p r e p a r e a b i g -feast w h i c h , however, had been p l a n n e d "-for a l o n g t i m e " ( L a r a c y 1983:159-51). H a r d news was s o r a r e t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s e i z e d upon e v e r y w i l d rumor a s s y m p t o m a t i c o-f g r e a t e r and more w i d e s p r e a d d e v e l o p m e n t s . But s t i l l t h e n o t i o n o-f w i d e s p r e a d c a r g o i s m was d i - f - f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n . A t an A d v i s o r y Committee m e e t i n g i n l a t e 1947, Noel r e p o r t e d on t h e A u g u s t a r r e s t s and s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o-f t h e movement's t a k e o v e r by e x t r e m i s t s . One w o u l d ask who a r e t h e s e e x t r e m i s t l e a d e r s ? T h e y i n c l u d e men who have a s t o u n d e d o - f - f i c i a l s and m i s s i o n a r i e s — who have known them -for v e r y many y e a r s — by t h e i r r e c e n t e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o n d u c t . Some o-f them a r e , I u n d e r s t o o d , t h e l a s t p e o p l e one w o u l d have s u s p e c t e d o-f a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o - f l o u t t h e law. Noel a t t h a t t i m e makes no m e n t i o n o-f e i t h e r mass h y s t e r i a o r C a r g o i s m ( M i n u t e s o f t h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . 1947. PRO 856/6) . A t a l a t e r A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l m e e t i n g a f t e r t h e t r i a l and s e n t e n c i n g o f t h e Head C h i e f s , N o e l r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e " c o n t i n u e s t o s t r i v e t o wreck e f f o r t s t o w a r d s t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ... p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e i s t h e l a t e s t method o f o p p o s i t i o n a s a p p r o v e d -114 -by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s . " F o r t h e - f i r s t t i m e c l a s s i c C a r g o i s r n e n t e r s t h e o - f - f i c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n : " t h e y a r e buoyed up by f a i r y t a l e s o f f r e e c a r g o coming t o t h o s e who go t o where M a r c h i n g R u l e a d v i s e s them t o l i v e ..." ( M i n u t e s  o f t h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . 1948, CO 8 5 6 / 6 ) . The c h r o n o l o g y o f g o v e r n m e n t ' s a n a l y s i s i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n news m e d i a r e p o r t s . U n t i l p r i n t i n g N o e l ' s r e m a r k s above i n March 1949, t h e P a c i f i c I s l a n d M o n t h l y had r e p o r t e d no mass h y s t e r i a or C a r g o i s r n . The movement was c o n s i s t e n t l y p o r t r a y e d a s p o l i t i c a l and o p p o s e d t o B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m , sometimes l i n k e d t o t h e " a c t i v i t i e s o f Communist a g e n t s . " By 1950 t h e c a r g o c u l t e x p l i c a n s had been f u l l y f o r m u l a t e d . T h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d d e t a i l s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i s i s w ere submerged and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n f l a t t e n e d . T he P r o t e c t o r a t e A n n u a l R e p o r t f o r 1949 and 1950 s t a t e d t h a t M a r c h i n g R u l e " f r o m t h e o u t s e t " c o u p l e d i t s c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l i d e a s w i t h "a p o l i c y o f f o s t e r i n g rumours of a p a r a d i s e t o come ...." -115 -The most p e r s i s t e n t l y b e l i e v e d myth was t h a t on a g i v e n day l a r g e s h i p s w o u l d a r r i v e l a d e n w i t h m a t e r i a l g o o d s , w h i c h w o u l d be d e l i v e r e d t o t h e p e o p l e as •free g i - f t s by a n o t h e r w o r l d power, a s a r e w a r d -for b e i n g a d h e r e n t s o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e ( C o l o n i a l R e p o r t s . BSIP. 1949-1958 p. 3 7 ) . O l d hands i n t h e Solomons took up t h e c a u s e . In a 1947 l e t t e r , e x t r a c t s f r o m w h i c h were p r i n t e d by t h e PIM i n J u n e 1950, S a n t a Ana p l a n t a t i o n owner Henry Kuper r e c a l l e d , "The movement became v e r y a n t i - G o v e r n r n e n t and assumed l a r g e d i m e n s i o n s , and t h e c h a r a c t e r o-f a t r u e C a r g o C u l t . Mass h y s t e r i a s e t i n . T h i n g s l i k e t h a t , w i t h a p r i m i t i v e M e l a n e s i a n , become d a n g e r o u s , and m i g h t have l e d t o b l o o d s h e d . I t was a g r e a t r e l ie-f t o a l l o f u s , o u t i n t h e o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s , when H i s Honour, t h e R e s i d e n t C o m m i s s i o n e r , o r d e r e d t h e a r r e s t o f a l l r i n g - l e a d e r s . " The B i s h o p o f M e l a n e s i a , Rev. Caul t o n , was more g u a r d e d a b o u t t h e t h e o r y . He s t a t e s , " i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e a g i t a t i o n i n t h e Solomons i s l i n k e d up w i t h s i m i l a r and more s e r i o u s d i s o r d e r s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e P a c i f i c and t h e F a r E a s t . T h a t i s n o t e a s y t o p r o v e , but M a r c h i n g r u l e i s c e r t a i n l y s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e w o r l d - w i d e u n r e s t of t h e p r e s e n t day" (PIM A u g u s t 1950:77-79). The c h a n n e l o f t r a n s m i s s i o n o f C a r g o i s r n f r o m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t h e i n d i g e n e s was t h r o u g h c o n t e m p o r a r y government i n f o r m a n t s who were c l o s e l y q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t what t h e y knew o f t h e movement. T h e s e men who came f o r w a r d t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h government were c r e d i t e d w i t h more knowledge than p e r h a p s t h e y i n -fact had, w h i c h was a-fter a l l , a l o n g - s t a n d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m w i t h r e s p e c t t o w o r k i n g w i t h n a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . But t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s h i p may a l s o have a c t i v e l y -fed d i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e government, w h i c h was a l s o a l o n g - s t a n d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m . The p r e s e n c e o-f a new -framework o-f m i l l e n a r i a n r h e t o r i c i s s t r i k i n g l y a t t e s t e d t o by. Marquand's e x t r a o r d i n a r y s t a t e m e n t t h a t " t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s 'came t o an ag r e e m e n t ' w i t h t h e a n c e s t o r d e v i l s , t h a t l i e s t o l d , even on h e a t h e n o a t h , -for t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , w o u l d be f o r g i v e n " <1949/50:43). A s government p r e p a r e d i t s c a s e a g a i n s t t h e Head C h i e f s , t h e c a r g o c u l t e x p l i c a n s was i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d a s p r o s e c u t i o n b a s e d i t s c a s e on a l l e g e d e x t o r t i o n and t e r r o r i s m . None o f t h e p r o s e c u t i o n ' s c a s e e v i d e n c e p u b l i s h e d by L a r a c y m e n t i o n s C a r g o i s m . T h e o n l y s u c h e v i d e n c e was a s t a t e m e n t made a month a f t e r t h e t r i a l , and added t o t h e c o u r t r e c o r d s , by one Thomas L e o , an A n g l i c a n c a t e c h i s t . H i s r e m a r k s a r e n o t e w o r t h y b e c a u s e o f t h e e x t r a v a o a n c e o f t h e C a r g o i s m t o w h i c h t h e y a t t e s t . He s t a t e s t h a t some a s s o c i a t e s t o l d him t h a t " N o r i and Nono'ohimae's b i o p o i n t was t h e ' C a r g o ' t h a t w o u l d come. The money w h i c h had been c o l l e c t e d was t o be u s e d t o g i v e t o t h e A m e r i c a n s , s o t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n s w o u l d b r i n o a oood b i o carcto f o r them" ( e m p h a s i s s u p p l i e d , L a r a c y 1983:127). T h e r e i s ample e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i s l a n d e r s i n v i t e d t h e A m e r i c a n s t o r u l e o v e r them, and t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n s w o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e i s l a n d s was i n d e e d w i d e s p r e a d , a l t h o u g h h a r d l y m i l l e n i a l i n i t s e l f . And t o term t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s and e l e m e n t s o f t h e complex economy w h i c h w o u l d accompany them a s i n 1942, as e l e m e n t s o f C a r g o i s r n i s t o c o n f l a t e ' c a r g o ' w i t h ' C a r g o ' as Kenelm B u r r i d g e p u t s i t , and i t i s ' C a r g o ' w h i c h i s b e i n g c l a i m e d a s t h e u n d e r l y i n g g o a l o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a t t h i s t i m e . S i m i l a r comments c o u l d be made about mass h y s t e r i a , f a n t a s y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , w h i c h under t h e c o l o n i a l s ' s o c i a l d i a g n o s t i c s c o u l d be e a s i l y c o n f u s e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l p a s s i on. I must a l s o show t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t K e e s i n g and A l l a n have p u b l i s h e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r e - M a r c h i n g R u l e c a r g o i s r n among M a l a i t a n s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n t h e c l a i m t h a t M a r c h i n g R u l e was an e x t e n s i o n and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f pre-war c u l t i s m , o r , a s L a r a c y s t a t e s , " t h a t ' c a r g o ' e x p e c t a t i o n s were p r e s e n t i n t h e movement f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n " ( 1 9 8 3 : 3 3 ) . A key p i e c e o f t e s t i m o n i a l e v i d e n c e on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r e - M a r c h i n g R u l e C a r g o i s r n , p u b l i s h e d by K e e s i n g , i s a 1939 Kwaio c u l t s u r r o u n d i n g an f e m a l e a n c e s t r a l g h o s t , w h i c h p r e d i c t e d t h e c o m i n g o f A m e r i c a n s and t h e -118 -d e s t r u c t i o n o-f T u l a g i , but i t i s e n i g m a t i c on t h e i s s u e o-f C a r g o . The 1939 c u l t b u i l t m e e t i n g v i l l a g e s w i t h p a l i s a d e s and - f l a g p o l e s -for t h e f l a g s t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n s w o u l d b r i n g . In t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , r e c o r d e d i n 1978, K e e s i n g p r o b e s t w i c e w hether t h e A m e r i c a n s were e x p e c t e d t o b r i n g a n y t h i n g w i t h them e x c e p t a f l a g , t o w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a n t s t a t e s "we were t o l d [ b y t h e a n c e s s t r e s s , c a l l e d a bu1u3 t h a t ' t h e y ' l l g i v e you money and a l l s o r t s o f good t h i n g s . ' 5 ° In l i g h t o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t p o l i t i c a l e m p h a s i s o f most o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t , t h e one p e r h a p s r e l u c t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o C a r g o i s r a t h e r p a l e e v i d e n c e i n d e e d f o r i n d i g e n o u s Mal a i t a n C a r g o s i r n , and a t any r a t e , i s not documented p r i o r t o J u l y 1947. K e e s i n g ' s i n f o r m a n t ' s r e m a r k s a r e s i m i l a r , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f e m a l e a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s p e a k i n g w i t h t h e v o i c e s o f men, t o a n o t h e r a c c o u n t o f a bu1u c u l t p u b l i s h e d by A l l a n , w h i c h a l s o a l l e g e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r e - M a r c h i n g R u l e C a r g o i s m . However d e s p i t e t h e i r s h o r t c o m i n g s i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e two a c c o u n t s do not even c o r r o b o r a t e each o t h e r . What s e a l e d t h e r e a l i t y o f a C a r g o myth l y i n g a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e movement f o r C o l i n A l l a n was a c o n v e r s a t i o n 51 Roger M. K e e s i n g <1980). " A n t e c e d e n t s o f M a a s i n a R u l e : some f u r t h e r n o t e s . " J o u r n a l o f P a c i f i c H i s t o r y 1 5 ( 2 ) : 1 0 2 - 1 0 7 ; p. 107. h e l d w i t h D a v i d Dausabea, Government Headman o-f Kwara'ae, and s t o u t M a r c h i n g R u l e o p p o n e n t . Dausobea was a " c l o s e a d v i s e r -for t h e government" between 1958 and 1952, and w o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h himsel-f i n h e l p i n g t o b r i n g t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l and t h e government t o agreement i n 1953. A l l a n s t a t e s t h a t " i n t h e c o u r s e o-f e n d l e s s t a l k s , d i s c u s s i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h Dausobea, i t one day emerged f o r him [ s i c 3 and i n d e e d f o r Kwara'ae, t h e r e was n o t h i n g new i n t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a t g r a s s r o o t s . I t had a l l happened b e f o r e . " Then Dausabea p r o d u c e d two s t o r i e s a b o u t bu1u c u l t s , w h i c h a s p u b l i s h e d a r e "word f o r word as Dausabea t o l d i t . T h e i d i o m i s h i s . No one e l s e was p r e s e n t when t h e t a l e s were t o l d ...." The s t o r i e s a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n an a p p e n d i x t o t h e t h e s i s . An e v e n t o c c u r e d sometime i n t h e 1880's. T h e r e was a woman who s a n g a l l t h e t i m e , who f o r t o l d t h a t t h e dead w o u l d r e t u r n . I f anyone w i s h e d t o s e e t h e i r l o v e d o n e s t h e y were t o b u i l d f o u r c l e a r r o a d s f r o m each d i r e c t i o n t o h e r hut and b r i n g t a r o s f o r t h e a n c e s t o r s t o e a t . The p e o p l e o b e y e d h e r but t h e a n c e s t o r s a l w a y s p o s t p o n e d t h e i r c o m i n g . Then t h e r e was a g r e a t s i c k n e s s and a l l t h e p e o p l e o f t h e a r e a d i e d o u t . Then an e v e n t o c c u r e d a r o u n d 1917 when a bu1u s p i r i t began m a k i n g r e v e l a t i o n s t o a man who c a l l e d h i m s e l f B u l u n o a s a . The bu1u e n a b l e d -128 -s o r c e r y d i a g n o s i s and B u l u n o a s a ' s - f o l l o w e r s soon w o r s h i p e d i t a s a s o u r c e o-f power. T h e bu 1 u e v e n t u a l l y p r o m i s e d 52) " p l e n t y o-f d i - f - f e r e n t moneys, r i - f l e s , c a r t r i d g e s , e t c . " The b u1 u c u l t i s t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o b u i l d c a n o e s and a l o n g , s t o n e whar-f w h i c h s t i l l s t a n d s t o d a y a t Naonausa, f o r t h e u s e o-f t h e d e a d . L i ch t e n b e r k , whose u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r on e a r l y Kwara'ae C h r i s t i a n i t y d i s c u s s e s t h e b u1 u c u l t s a t l e n g t h , s t a t e s t h a t t h e bu 1 u was a s o u r c e o-f power -for e c o n o m i c p u r s u i t s s u c h a s - f i s h i n g and n e g o t i a t i n g t h e p r i c e s o-f -foods p u r c h a s e d -for f e a s t s , but w h e t h e r t h e a n c e s t o r s "were e x p e c t e d t o u n l o a d g i f t s f o r t h e l i v i n g a t t h e w h a r f i s u n c l e a r " < L i c h t e n b e r k , i b i d . : 2 4 ) . E v e n t u a l l y t h e p e o p l e grew d i s i l l u s i o n e d . T h e y became s i c k and began t o d i e . T h e s u r v i v o r s j o i n e d t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . Now, t h e s e b u1 u s t o r i e s a r e s o p r o t o t y p i c a l 1 y New G u i n e a n i n t h e i r g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n t h e M a l a i t a n i n t e r i o r d u r i n g c u l t i c o u t b r e a k s d u r i n g t h e 1880s, 1920s and 1930s w o u l d i n d e e d be a s t r i k i n g c o m p a r a t i v e datum i f t h e i r C a r g o i s t n a t u r e c o u l d be c o r r o b o r a t e d by o t h e r e v i d e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e t u r n o f t h e a n c e s t o r s i s a key e l e m e n t o f C a r g o i s m , t h e s e s t o r i e s do not e s t a b l i s h 52 C o l i n A l l a n <1974). "XI Some M a r c h i n g R u l e S t o r i e s . J o u r n a l o f P a c i f i c H i s t o r y 9 ( 2 ) : 1 8 2 - 4 . -121 -w i t h o u t doubt t h a t t h e c u l t i s t s b e l i e v e d C a r g o w o u l d come upon t h e i r e n a c t m e n t o-f new r i t u a l . The bu 1 u c u l t s a r e most p r o p e r l y d e s c r i b e d a s new s y n c r e t i c C h r i s t i a n ' s c h o o l s ' , and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 9. But h e r e i t must be n o t e d t h a t N o r t h c o t e Deck, who e x p e r i e n c e d f i r s t hand bu1u c u l t i s m i n t h e 1920s makes no m e n t i o n w h a t e v e r o f any C a r g o i s t e l e m e n t i n e i t h e r t h e i r d o c t r i n e or r i t u a l . One o t h e r f e a t u r e o f D a u s a b e a ' s bu1u s t o r i e s c a n n o t e s c a p e o u r i n s p e c t i o n , and t h a t i s t h e i r d i s c u r s i v e ' f u l l n e s s . ' A f t e r a l l , i t was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C a r g o i s t r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e w h i c h was t h e e x e g e s i s t o w a r d w h i c h A l l a n , i f n o t Government's d i s c o u r s e i n g e n e r a l , was s t r i v i n g . Nor i s i t e a s y t o s e e j u s t what i n t h e s e s t o r i e s p e r m i t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t " I t had a l l happened b e f o r e , " w i t h o u t h a v i n g a t h e o r y o f C a r g o i s r n a l r e a d y i n mind w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . I t must be made e m p h a t i c a l l y c l e a r t h a t I do n o t c o n c l u d e t h a t A l l a n c o n s c i o u s l y g u i d e d h i s i n f o r m a n t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e b u l u . A l l a n and D ausabea were b o t h w o r k i n g t o w a r d t h e same p r o b l e m a s a c o m m u n i c a t i v e d y a d . The s i t u a t i o n i s w e l l - k n o w n i n s e m i o t i c s t u d i e s a s t h e ' C l e v e r Hans' phenomenon, and f a l l a c i e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e n r e s u l t f r o m s e e k i n g i n t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f a message (Dausabea) what s h o u l d be l o o k e d f o r i n t h e s o u r c e ( A l l a n ) . -122 -The n a t u r e o-f t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a s o c i a l i n - f e r i o r r e p e a t s t h e u n c o n s c i o u s l y t r a n s m i t t e d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s o-f a s o c i a l s u p e r i o r back t o t h a t s u p e r i o r , h e n c e m u t u a l l y v a l i d a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b a s i s o-f t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r s ' 5 d i s c o u r s e i s an a l m o s t u n t o u c h e d p r o b l e m i n s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . T h r e e a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s on t h i s t o p i c must be made. C y r i l B e l s h a w , who a s a D i s t r i c t O-f-ficer was an o b s e r v e r o-f d e v e l o p i n g e v e n t s on Nggel a and Ulawa, r e p o r t e d - f i r s t on t h e movement i n J u n e , 1 9 4 7 , 5 4 > i n w h i c h he made r e a s o n e d and s y m p a t h e t i c j u d g e m e n t s about b o t h t h e C h a i r and R u l e , a s q u o t e d above i n C h a p t e r 2, and a b o u t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . A t t h i s t i m e t h e movement a p p e a r e d t o B e l s h a w a s b a s i c a l l y e c o n o m i c . P o l i t i c a l l y , i t s o u g h t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o-f power i n l e a d e r s h i p who were m o s t l y " e i t h e r -former e m p l o y e e s o-f t h e government o r r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s " < 1947: 191) . He a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e t o h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h " t h e most - f a n t a s t i c rumours" and "envy and h a t r e d -for t h e w h i t e man," b u t makes no m e n t i o n o-f C a r g o i s r n among 53 T h i s i s n o t t h e c h e s t n u t o-f an i n f o r m a n t m i s l e a d i n g t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , but i s c l o s e r t o t h e phenomenon d i s c u s s e d by B a t e s o n (1958) i n terms o f l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . 54 " N a t i v e P o l i t i c s i n t h e Solomon I s l a n d s . " P a c i f i c  A f f a i r s 28<2): 187-193. -123 -t h e n a t i v e s . W h i l e t h e movement " a p p e a r s t o be h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l , i t r e s t s on a - f o u n d a t i o n o-f s o u n d r e a s o n i n g and most welcome a m b i t i o n s f o r a h i g h e r economic and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s " <1947:192). G l y n n C o c h r a n e (1971) who a n a l y z e s M a r c h i n g R u l e C a r g o i s m on t h e New G u i n e a m o d e l , and who u s e s myth d a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Elema p e o p l e s t h e r e , makes no m e n t i o n o f p r e - M a r c h i n g R u l e C a r g o i s m on M a l a i t a . Such a c o n c l u s i o n , i f i t r e s t e d on a n y t h i n g more s u b s t a n t i v e than t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d a n a l y s i s and t h e t e s t i m o n y f u r n i s h e d l a t e r by K e e s i n g and A l l a n d i s c u s s e d a bove, w o u l d s u r e l y have been i n c l u d e d i n h i s argument. And t h i r d , even i f t h e bu1u c u l t s d i d have e l e m e n t s o f C a r g o i s m , t h e r e i s no i n d i g e n o u s d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e w h i c h l i n k s them d i r e c t l y t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . None o f t h e o t h e r p u b l i s h e d i n d i g e n o u s documents c o n t a i n s any r e f e r e n c e t o a n y t h i n g l i k e a bu1u. In c o n c l u s i o n , I have shown how g o v e r n m e n t ' s a n a l y s i s e v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d i n r e s p o n s e not o n l y t o t h e e v e n t s i n i t i a t e d by t h e i n d i g e n e s , but o u t o f b u r e a u c r a t i c i n c e n t i v e s o f i t s own, and how t h i s a n a l y s i s h e l p e d i n f l u e n c e how t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was p e r c e i v e d by even t h e n a t i v e M e l a n e s i a n s . My h y p o t h e s i s t h a t Government was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e C a r g o i s m o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e i s p r o v i s i o n a l l y s u s t a i n e d by t h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e -124 -t o w h i c h I have r e f e r r e d , and I have shown t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e p u b l i s h e d t o d a t e on p r e - M a r c h i n g R u l e c u l t i s m c a n n o t be a c c e p t e d a s c o n c l u s i v e s u p p o r t -for t h e n o t i o n t h a t C a r g o i s m was i n d i g e n o u s on M a l a i t a . C a r g o i s m i n M a r c h i n g R u l e was a p r o d u c t o-f u n c e r t a i n t y , a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f e v e n t s w h i c h were p e r p l e x i n g n o t i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s , but w i t h r e s p e c t t o a p r o p e r c o u r s e o f government r e s p o n s e . In t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s f i r s t d i v i s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s , I w i l l summarize what t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e s e f o u r c h a p t e r s s a y about t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , w h i c h , t h a n k s t o t h e new d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e , must be now s e e n a s v a s t l y more complex than t h a t w h i c h s u s t a i n e d t h e c o m p a r a t i v e t r e a t m e n t s o f W o r s l e y , J a r v i e , C o c h r a n e and W i l s o n , among o t h e r s . PART I . HISTORICAL APPROACH TO THE MARCHING RULE Summary and C o n c l u s i o n In t h e Solomon I s l a n d s o f t h e 1938s t h e r e were two moral c o m m u n i t i e s whose r e l a t i o n s h i p was t h a t o-f s u p e r o r d i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , and t h e r e was no common l i n g u i s t i c i n s t i t u t i o n t o -form t h e b a s i s -for p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . However t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s , n e c e s s a r i l y bound t o g e t h e r i n a common - f u t u r e , s t r o v e t o - f i n d some b a s i s o-f a c h i e v i n g a g r e a t e r harmony. I s l a n d e r s p e t i t i o n e d -for a v o i c e i n n a t i v e p o l i c y -for t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i m p r o v e d i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s , and a p p e a l e d t o t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y o-f t h e w h i t e p e o p l e -for u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T he a b s e n c e o-f an e - f - f e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l -format -for t h e s e t t l e m e n t o-f n a t i v e p o l i c y i s s u e s and o t h e r p r o b l e m s o-f c o l o n i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e M e l a n e s i a n M i s s i o n ' s e f f o r t s under B i s h o p S t e w a r d i n t h e 1928s t o f i l l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l gap. Once f o r c e d p a c i f i c a t i o n h ad been a c h i e v e d , government s t r o v e t o l e s s e n i t s r e l i a n c e on f o r c e by s t r e n g t h e n i n g i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i On t h e e v e o f t h e war, r e c o g n i z i n g t h e weakness o f t h e government headman s y s t e m and t h e i s l a n d e r s ' r e c e p t i v i t y t o t h e Rev. F a l l o w e s ' s f r e s h i d e a s , government s o u g h t t o implement i t s l o n g - s t a n d i n g a m b i t i o n s f o r i n d i r e c t r u l e by a t t e m p t i n g t o b u i l d a n a t i v e c o u r t s and c o u n c i l s i n s t i t u t i o n by w h i c h t h i s c o u l d be e f f e c t e d . G o vernment's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n s a t t h i s t i m e was s u p p o r t i v e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t C h r i s t i a n c o n v e r s i o n s u p p o r t e d a mode o f s o c i a l comportment t h a t was c o n d u c i v e t o i t s a i m s . T h e s e aims were t h r e e , t o s e c u r e p a c i f i c a t i o n , p r e s e r v e i n o f f e n s i v e e l e m e n t s o f c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o stem d e p o p u l a t i o n , and e n c o u r a g e t h o s e v a l u e s w h i c h f u r t h e r e d b r i n g i n g M a l a i t a n s i n t o t h e r e q u i s i t e p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l a g r i c u l t u r e . Government' i n t e r e s t was i n t h e p r o p e r c o n d u c t o f 'Sunday C h r i s t i a n s , ' r a t h e r than i n t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y o f deep b e l i e f and d a i l y g u i d a n c e a s i t was d e v e l o p i n g among t h e i s l a n d e r s , and w h i c h i t s t r o n g l y d i s t r u s t e d . The p o p u l a r i t y o f C h r i s t i a n i t y among t h e i s l a n d e r s b r o u g h t t h e government i n t o p r e s t i g e c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n d i g e n o u s C h r i s t i a n v i l l a g e t e a c h e r s . In i t s e f f o r t t o b u i l d a new s e c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n , government a p p o i n t m e n t o f e l d e r s f r o m t h e C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s s e t i n m o t i o n a d i v i s i o n among t h e C h r i s t i a n s , what I have termed a c r i s i s o f a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h had t o be r e s o l v e d . -127 -War i n i t i a t e d a p e r i o d o-f l i m i n a l i t y i n t h e h i s t o r y o-f t h e Solomon I s l a n d s . War d e s t r o y e d o l d s o c i a l and economic r e l a t i o n s and c r e a t e d new o n e s . Some r e m a r k s o-f Max Weber a r e h e r e i n s t r u c t i v e : War t h e r e b y makes f o r an u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y d e v o t e d and s a c r i - f i c i a l community among t h e c o m b a t a n t s and r e l e a s e s an a c t i v e mass c o m p a s s i o n and l o v e -for t h o s e who a r e i n n e e d . And, a s a mass phenomenon, t h e s e • f e e l i n g s b r e a k down a l l t h e n a t u r a l l y g i v e n b a r r i e r s o f a s s o c i a t i o n ( 1 9 4 6 : 3 3 5 ) . In t h i s r e l a x a t i o n o-f s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g combat, and i n t h e i r warm r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n s , many o-f whom had e x p e r i e n c e d o r were t o e x p e r i e n c e h o s t i l i t i e s -for t h e f i r s t t i m e , n a t i v e M e l a n e s i a n s a c h i e v e d a c o n f i r m a t i o n , t h e e m p i r i c a l p r o o f r e q u i r e d o f a m i l l e n a r i a n c r e e d , o f t h e i r m o r al w o r t h i n e s s f o r s e l f - r u l e and f o r a s h a r e i n th e f u l l b e n e f i t s o f t h e complex economy. The M e l a n e s i a n s p a s s e d f r o m t h e l i m i n a l i t y o f war i n t o t h e p o s t - w a r e r a a s new men, but t h e B r i t i s h d i d n o t . The p r o b l e m s w h i c h c o n f r o n t e d t h e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a f t e r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of i t s economy were u n p r e c e d e n t e d and a l m o s t i n s u r m o u n t a b l e . B r i t a i n ' s mood, h a v i n g n a r r o w l y e s c a p e d m i l i t a r y d e f e a t , c a l l e d f o r n o t h i n g f u r t h e r than a r e t u r n t o pre-war n o r m a l i t y . We may l i s t among t h e p r o b l e m s i n f l u e n c i n g g o v e r n m e n t ' s a n a l y s i s a t t h e t i m e t h e s t r o n g d e s i r e t o a c h i e v e h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s w i t h -128 -t h e i s l a n d e r s , w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e them t o s t i m u l a t e r e b u i l d i n g t h e c o p r a i n d u s t r y , i t s s o u r c e o f head tax r e v e n u e and i t s o n l y c h a n c e o f r e d u c i n g i t s enormous g r a n t s - i n - a i d r e q u e s t s ; i t s o f f i c i a l s ' g e n e r a l d e s i r e t o a p p e a r t o F i j i and London a s b e i n g i n c o n t r o l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n o r t o f u r n i s h an e x p l i c a n s as t o why t h e y were not i n c o n t r o l ; t h e c o n t i n u a l b u r e a u c r a t i c p r e s s u r e s f o r law and o r d e r and i n d i v i d u a l p r o m o t i o n and advancement; and f i n a l l y , t h e b a r e i m p e r i a l i s m o f m a i n t a i n i n g B r i t i s h p r e s e n c e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t r o p i c a l p r o d u c t s . " ' I have n o t ' W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l t o l d t h e A m e r i c a n P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t i n 1942, 'become t h e K i n g ' s F i r s t M i n i s t e r i n o r d e r t o p r e s i d e o v e r t h e l i q u i d a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e ' " < i n L a r a c y 1983: 1) . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e new M a r c h i n g R u l e g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g was t o a d d r e s s g e n e r a l i s s u e s o f c u s t o m , i s s u e s w h i c h I showed i n C h a p t e r 2 a s b e i n g i d e n t i c a l between t h e C h r i s t i a n s and p a g a n s , t h a t i s , t h e management o f d i s p u t e s o v e r s e x , m a r r i a g e and k i n s h i p ; c l a r i f y i n g t h e b a s i s o f c i v i l a u t h o r i t y ; and p r o t e c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . But t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t between pagans and C h r i s t i a n s on t h e l e t t e r o f t h e new c u s t o m s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s t r i c t m e n s t r u a l and c h i l d b i r t h t a b o o s was a b s o l u t e l y -12? -n e c e s s a r y t o t h e p a g a n s ' c o n c e p t o-f t h e s a c r e d . The C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s were marked by a g e n e r a l r e l a x a t i o n o-f s u c h t a b o o s . Pagan w o r s h i p o-f t h e a n c e s t o r " d e v i l s " was an a b o m i n a t i o n among t h e C h r i s t i a n s . A key i s s u e seems t o have been on what b a s i s t h e C h r i s t i a n s and p a g a n s m i g h t c o n - f e d e r a t e . We w o u l d be v a s t l y m i s t a k e n , I b e l i e v e , i-f we were t o s a y t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n s and p a g a ns r e s o l v e d t h e i r d i - f - f e r e n c e s on s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s , s u c h a s a n c e s t r a l s h r i n e d e s e c r a t i o n , m e n s t r u a l s e c l u s i o n o r b r i d e - w e a l t h payments. I t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s t o c l a i m t h a t p a g a ns and C h r i s t i a n s had a c t u a l l y j o i n e d i n t o m o r al community on any b a s i s o t h e r than b e i n g i s l a n d e r s a s o p p o s e d t o E u r o p e a n s . However, s u c h a community was h e l d o u t t o them by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e d o c t r i n e as an i d e a l  p o s s i b i 1 i t v. A s s u c h , i t was r e s p o n s i b l e -for a g e n e r a l r e l a x a t i o n o-f t r a d i t i o n a l l y - f e l t t e n s i o n s and a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o-f new m o ral i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d below i n P a r t I I I . i n t e r m s o-f " e t h n i c i t y . " T h r o u g h many o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e d o m i n i o n s , s u c h a s a t Ulawa among t h e C a t h o l i c s and Makwanu among t h e p a g a n s , l o c a l c u s t o m documents were drawn up and s e t i n w r i t i n g . T h e r e was no s e n s e t h a t t h e r e was — y e t — a u n i f i e d Custom. Th e c ustom movement may a t f i r s t g l a n c e be t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a l e g a l c o d e t o t h i s p u r p o s e , but one c a n n o t s i m p l y assume t h a t t h e i n d i g e n e s had in mind anything approximating the common law which underl ies the Engl ish t r a d i t i o n o-f jur isprudence . Let us examine three Marching Rule communities and see what their notions o-f 'Custom' e n t a i l e d , in order to h ighl ight the persistence o-f d i v i s i o n within the covering mi 1 1 enarian p o l i t i c a l un i ty , <a> the north Mal ai tans o-f Makwanu, <b> the Catho l i c s at Ulawa, and <c) the people of Oau at Mara Masi ke: a) the north Malaitan authors of 'Makwanu Custom' <Laracy 1983:137) ru led that: . . . An ancestral feast and dancing ceremony i s s t r i c t l tapu. No unauthorised ordinary man or woman i s allowed to eat at th i s ceremony, for that would be to d e f i l e i t . If they ignore th i s tapu, they have to give money or go to prison . . . Swearing at another person by using h i s ancestors' names i s forbidden. The resu l t of i t wi11 be the payment of compensation by the swearer . . . b) the authors of the Cathol ic Masinga "Teaching" of Ulawa, according to which par ish ioners incurred a f ine of one pound for "worshipping other gods", f i v e s h i l l i n g s for "making someone sacred or not taking cer ta in food after someone has died", and forbade taking money for a swear (.in. Laracy 1983: 144-5) . -131 -c) The p e o p l e o f Oau who had an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o-f 'custom', who r e c o r d e d i n l e n g t h y O l d T e s t a m e n t - s t y l e g e n e a l o g i e s t h e a n c e s t o r who was r e s p o n s i b l e -for b r i n g i n g them an i t e m o-f new t e c h n o l o g y o r new i n s t i t u t i o n < L a r a c y 1983:53). T h u s t h e agreement t h a t c o n - f e d e r a t e d t h e C h r i s t i a n s and p a g a ns under t h e banner o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was not a -fundamental - f i r s t - l e v e l agreement on s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s , on t h e l e t t e r o-f 'Custom,' but a s e c o n d - l e v e l a g r e ement, o-f a g r e e i n g t o d i s a g r e e on s u c h i s s u e s . The M a r c h i n g R u l e a d d r e s s e d no i s s u e s o-f c u s t o m d i r e c t l y e x c e p t i n s o f a r a s c u s t o m ( s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e a r a h a t r a d i t i o n ) h e l p e d l e g i t i m a t e t h e s o l u t i o n t h e y a r r i v e d a t : t h e i n v e n t i o n o f a new i n s t i t u t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e BSIP i n w h i c h s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s a s r e m a i n e d c o u l d be w o r k e d o u t by t h e i n d i g e n e s t h e m s e l v e s . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e a r a h a c o u n c i l s was l e s s t h a t o f a " g e s t a p o " a s A l l a n o n c e termed i t , than t h a t o f a l o c a l d e l i b e r a t i v e body. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e movement's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t , u s i n g t h e s o c i a l drama a p p r o a c h , we must e n q u i r e what n o r m - g o v e r n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p was b r e a c h e d t h a t i n i t i a t e d t h e s o c i a l dramas o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e ? Two s u c h b r e a c h e s may be n o t e d . T h e g o v e r n a n c e o-f t h e BSIP was b a s e d on a h i e r a r c h y o-f a u t h o r i t y i n w h i c h d e c i s i o n s -flowed downward t o t h e D i s t r i c t Headmen. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e goverment a t t e m p t e d t o p r e s e r v e , though s p r e a d more w i d e l y , i n i t s a p p o i n t m e n t o-f n a t i v e c o u r t and c o u n c i l e l d e r s i n t h e e a r l y 1948s. A l t h o u g h t h e SSEM t e a c h e r s had l o n g t a k e n i t upon t h e m s e l v e s t o assume t h e p o s i t i o n o-f n a t i v e spokesmen, Rev. F a l l o w e s was t h e - f i r s t E n g l i s h m a n r e c o r d e d t o have a d v o c a t e d - f o r m a l i z i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g a bottom-up a p p r o a c h t o i n d i g e n o u s g o v e r n a n c e , by w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d by t h e p e o p l e w o u l d be: " i n c h a r g e o-f y o u , f o r y o u r c u s t o m s and -for y o u r l a n d . F o r y o u r ways, you r c o u n t r y , y o u r l i v i n g T u r n e r ' s i n s i g h t t h a t s o c i a l dramas, a s i n t h e c a s e o f Thomas B e c k e t t o r t h e H i d a l g o R e b e l l i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o m a rtyrdom, i n v o l v e t h e enactment o f a r o o t p a r a d i g m i s r e f l e c t e d a l s o i n t h i s m i s s i o n a r y ' s p e r h a p s u n c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h J e s u s C h r i s t , an i m p o r t a n t but o v e r l o o k e d f e a t u r e o f t h e t h e C h a i r and Rul e. F a l l o w e s , c h a r i s m a t i c and a u t h o r i t a t i v e , b r i n g s a new i n s t i t u t i o n t o t h e p e o p l e . He f o r t e l l s h i s e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e i s l a n d s . He i s d e p o r t e d , a s i f by P i l a t e ; h i s f o l l o w e r s a r e s u p p r e s s e d . B e f o r e t a k i n g h i s l e a v e , he c h a r g e s them t o c o n t i n u e t h e work i n h i s a b s e n c e , s a y i n g , -133 -"I have g i v e n you t h e key. You w i l l have t o b u i l d i t y o u r s e l v e s . " S u r e l y t h i s d r a m a t i z a t i o n b r o k e t h e r e l i g i o u s l e g i t i m a c y o-f t h e c o l o n i a l p a t t e r n o-f g o v e r n a n c e by i t s p r o m i s e o-f -fresh p o s s i b i l i t i e s -for l i v i n g . F a l l o w e s i n i t i a t e d a s e m i o s i c p r o c e s s t h a t was -far d e e p e r i n c u l t u r a l r e s o n a n c e s than t h a t t o w h i c h Fox a l l u d e s , when he s t a t e s t h a t " R i c h a r d F a l l o w e s was t h e p a t r o n s a i n t o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . " F a l l o w e s i n v e n t e d a meta-1anguage, an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r h e t o r i c a l -format o-f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government w h i c h took r o o t i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s o-f t h e n a t i v e M e l a n e s i a n s . The s e c o n d b r e a c h o-f a n o r m - g o v e r n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p o c c u r r e d when b o t h t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e r a d i c a l s and soon a-fterwards t h e government i t s e l - f abandoned t h e m o d e r a t e c o u r s e o-f a c t i o n s o u g h t by t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e l e a d e r s h i p . S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e ' M a r c h i n g R u l e ' had no r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r s , no i n t e r p r e t i v e spokesmen. U n t i l J u ne 38 1947, t h e government r e c o g n i z e d i-f i t d i d n o t welcome t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o-f new n a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , and s o u g h t t o work w i t h t h e Head Chie-fs t o w a r d a m u t u a l l y a c c o m o d a t i v e s o l u t i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n was c o n t i n g e n t o n l y upon c o n t i n u e d m o d e r a t i o n wi th r e s p e c t t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n . T h u s government was more than " g e n e r a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c and t o l e r a n t t o w a r d t h e movement" ( L a r a c y 1983:21, 177); t h e y -134 -did not s i t by and simply watch Marching Rule develop, but were involved in the discourse, in in-formal parleys and in attendance at the Managing Committee meetings. The causes o-f the breach are di-f-ficult to determine. There may be no explanation other than that based on the c o n f l i c t i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the men involved. There were several potential theoretical points of fracture, 'ins' vs. those marginally attached to the movement, northerners vs. southerners, Christians vs. pagans, each of which was probably involved. I, however, prefer the explanation based on personality, for the Marching Rule was able to recover i t s momentum after the arrests and after the episode of cargoism with the Freedom Movement and, after i t s suppression, the Federal Council before winning i t s representative i n s t i t u t i o n . The Kwaio dissidents were pagan. But was Nelson Kefu a pagan or a Christian? Kefu's boss, Shadrach Joe, was a senior SSEM teacher, as were most Marching Rule chiefs from north Malaita with the exception of the Lau and the Baelelea (Laracy 1983:28). Shadrach Joe was a man "of very cautious temperament" and was outshadowed by Kefu, his "more aggressive subordinate" (Laracy 1983:28). After July 1947, the movement's momentum in the north was influenced by government's unwitting injection of -135 -c a r g o i s r n i n t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e d i s c o u r s e . B e c a u s e C a r g o i s r n d o e s n o t o c c u r be-fore t h i s t i m e , I c o n c l u d e t h a t Ke-fu and o t h e r s m a i n l y i n t h e n o r t h d i a g n o s e d t h a t government a p p e a r e d t o be c o n c e r n e d about ' C a r g o , ' o-f w h i c h t h e y l e a r n e d -from i n - f o r m a t i o n p a s s e d down t h e g r a p e v i n e a s i t were and, p e r h a p s , d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e s p i e s . P e r h a p s t h i s c o n c e r n c o n c e a l e d s u b s t a n t i v e t r u t h . In i t s l e a - f l e t , "'Gammon-Talk o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e " , government had w r i t t e n i n T o a b a i t a and E n g l i s h t h a t r u m o r s o f c a r g o t o come "were l i e s " j u s t a s was t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e ' s c l a i m t h a t i t "would h e l p t h e M a l a i t a p e o p l e . " The a p p a r e n t l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f two p r o p o s i t i o n s b e i n g d e c l a r e d f a l s e , when o b v i o u s l y one was t r u e , gave c r e d e n c e t o t h e p o t e n t i a l t r u t h o f t h e o t h e r p r o p o s i t i o n : C a r g o was p o s s i b l e . On t h e s u b j e c t o f C a r g o i s r n i n t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , L a r a c y i s c a r e f u l t o n o t e t h a t " w h i l e t h e e x p e c t a t i o n of t h e a r r i v a l o f ' c a r g o ' was n e v e r a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e on M a r c h i n g R u l e t h i n k i n g o r b e h a v i o r , t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t many p e o p l e d i d n o t a c c e p t t h e p o s s i b i 1 i t v o f i t s c o m i n g .... I t was p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t c a r g o cou1d come w i t h o u t b e l i e v i n g t h a t , i n f a c t , i t wou1d o r had t o come" ( L a r a c y 1983:156). A key p o i n t t o w h i c h I have drawn a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a r g o c u l t r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n -136 -and t h e a p p e a r a n c e o-f C a r g o i s m on M a l a i t a o c c u r e d , s o •far a s t h e documents a t t e s t , a t t h e same t i m e . The r i g i d a d h e r e n c e t o t h e t e s t i m o n y o-f t h i s e v i d e n c e e n a b l e d f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p r o v i s i o n a l h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h o n l y f u t u r e s c h o l a r s h i p can a d d r e s s , t h a t g o v e r n m e n t ' s e x p l i c a n s was s u g g e s t e d t o t h e i n d i g e n e s , and i n t u r n , became f o r some M a l a i t a n s a new r o o t p a r a d i g m ( T u r n e r 1974) by w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t r a t i o c i n a t i o n s and a c t i o n s were c a r r i e d on. The C a r g o i s m o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was a r e c i p r o c a l s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n . T h e r e i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t d i s c o u r s e i s o b s e r v a b l e o c c u r i n g i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s a s w e l l , f o r w h i c h Commander Gowan o f H.M.S. Amphion p e r h a p s may s t a n d a s a t r a g i c m e t a p h o r . H i s p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t a t s o c i a l d i a g n o s t i c s , i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d i s t a n t l y s e e n l e t t e r e d b anner as p r o c l a i m i n g ' M a r x i s t Law', p r o d u c e d d i s c u r s i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s i n w h i c h M a r c h i n g R u l e w a s , l i n k e d t o t h e a c t i o n s o f communist a g e n t s , h a v i n g f u r t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e s i n t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e and 55) p e r h a p s i n W a s h i n g t o n a s w e l l — a s m a l l d r o p p e r h a p s i n t h e c o m i n g t i d a l wave o f r i g h t - w i n g h y s t e r i a o f t h e 1950s. 55 " M a r t i n L o " . T i m e M a g a z i n e . September 29, 1947. -137 -A l l a n , a s I w i l l show i n t h e - f o l l o w i n g d i v i s i o n , had a g e n u i n e l y a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r many a s p e c t s o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . But what i s e v i d e n t i n h i s t h e s i s , w r i t t e n -for Reo F o r t u n e , d o e s not come -forward i n h i s w i d e l y - q u o t e d a r t i c l e on t h e movement, - f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n t h e - f o r e i g n s e r v i c e g a z e t t e C o r o n a i n 1958 and l a t e r i n S o u t h P a c i f i c . J u l y 1951. S m i t h ' s " d o c u m e n t a r y r e a l i t y " b e g i n s w i t h t h i s a r t i c l e , i n w h i c h t h e c a r g o c u l t theme r e a c h e s a l m o s t a l l e g o r i c a l p e r f e c t i o n . The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n was f l a t t e n e d and e v e n t s r e n d e r e d i n t o what Kenelm B u r r i d g e h a s termed an " o v e r l y c o h e r e n t " e x p l a n a t i o n . F o r f u t u r e M a r c h i n g R u l e t h e o r i s t s , t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e l o s t r e s o l u t i o n , and t h e u n d e r l y i n g C h r i s t i a n n a t u r e o f t h e movement was p u s h e d f u r t h e r i n t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e i r r a t i o n a l and t h e m y s t i c a l . The d o c u m e n t a r y r e a l i t y c r e a t e d by t h e c o l o n i a l e x p l i c a n s was r e i n f o r c e d by l a b e l i n g t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e f i l e s a s ' s e c r e t ' and r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s t o them under t h e 3 8 - y e a r r u l e . K e e s i n g r e m a r k s t h a t h i s a c c e s s t o a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s was " s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d " ( 1 9 7 8 - 9 : 5 ) . T h e o f f i c i a l d o c u m e n t a r y r e a l i t y t h u s f o u n d i t s way i n t o t h e a n t h r o p o l g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . U n t i l a b o u t t h e mid-1978s t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was u n d e r s t o o d a s e i t h e r a t y p e o f c a r g o c u l t a l o n g a s u p p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l -138 -continuum ranging -from the mystical to the proto-national,ist (Worsley 1957) or one cast thoroughly in the New Guinean mold (Cochrane 1971), viewpoints which influenced comparative treatments such as by Jarvie (1963) and Brian Wilson (1971), although neither is tenable in the light o-f the recently available Marching Rule documentary and testimonial evidence. The contemporaneity o-f the cargo explicans and the cargo movement has also caused curious inconsistencies to appear in the subsequent anthropolgical analyses. Worsley states, for example, that "side by side with these orthodox po l i t i ca l developments, millenarian elements were present, though they became less and less important as time went on" (Worsley 1967:178). But Keesing and Laracy, unable to r i d themselves o-f the residual cred ib i l i ty o-f the contemporary administrative analysis, suggest in contrast that such elements become more important with time; Cargoism does not appear until after the islanders were discouraged by the movement's suppression, as a sort of outlet for dashed pol i t i ca l ambitions. What meaning does the history of the Marching Rule have for the wider context of capital is t expansion and the greater global cultural unity that ensued through the repl icat ion, among Wolf's "diverse proletarian diasporas," -139 -o-f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c modes o-f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n ? R o g e r K e e s i n g p r o v i d e s t h e b e s t e x t e n s i o n o f E r i c W o l f ' s t h e s i s i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t a p p r o a c h t o t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , i n w h i c h he s a y s t h e b a s i c theme of t h e movement was " t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f c o l o n i a l s u b j u g a t i o n and C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n . " But by t h i s , K e e s i n g d o e s not mean a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o l o n i a l o r d e r and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g C h r i s t i a n , w h i c h I t h i n k i s c l o s e r t o t h e mark, but t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n between p o l i t i c a l autonomy and imposed s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , between C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e and v a l u e d a n c e s t r a l r e l i g i o n . T h e s e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s were r e s o l v e d "by t h e emergence of a ' c l a s s ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s whereby 'Kastomu' was e x t e r n a l i z e d a s a symbol and a n t i - c o l o n i a l i s m came i n t o f o c u s . " But e s t a b l i s h i n g a u n i f i e d M a l a i t a n 'Kastom' was n e v e r more than a r e g u l a t o r y i d e a l o f t h e t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , whose m a j o r t h r u s t was, a s I have s a i d , t o w a r d t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new i n d i g e n o u s i n s t i t u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e n d e r i n g i n t o d o c u m e n t a r y f o r m o f t h e 'Kastom' had a v a r i e t y o f ways of m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f . I t a imed n o t s i m p l y t o p r e s e r v e c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , but t o r e f o r m u l a t e them t h r o u g h t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t M a l a i t a n s w ere o r i g i n a l l y d e s c e n d e d f r o m C h r i s t i a n s whose b e l i e f s had been l o s t o r f o r g o t t e n by s u b s e q u e n t a n c e s t o r s . M a r c h i n g R u l e was n o t a n t i - c o l o n i a l i n t h e s e n s e - 1 4 6 -t h a t i t r e j e c t e d - f u l l y and e n t i r e l y t h e government o f t h e E u r o p e a n s . T o t h e c o n t r a r y , M a r c h i n g R u l e -from t h e b e g i n n i n g s u s t a i n e d a p o l i c y o-f t u r n i n g o v e r t o t h e goverment -for t r i a l and judgement a l l i n c i d e n t s o-f v i o l e n t c r i m e , m u r d e r , r a p e , m a n s l a u g h t e r and a s s a u l t . In o t h e r words, t h e y w i s h e d t o keep g o v e r n m e n t ' s monopoly on l e g i t i m a t e -force i n t a c t , w h i c h t o Weber a s w e l l as many o t h e r s h a s a l w a y s been a p r i m a r y r e q u i s i t e o-f t h e p o l i t i c a l S t a t e . I-f M a l a i t a n s c o u l d not be r u l e d by t h e A m e r i c a n s , t h e y w o u l d be r u l e d by t h e B r i t i s h . T h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y o p p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o-f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e by A u s t r a l i a , -for example. W o r s l e y ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , i n v i e w o-f i t s p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e , was " p r o t o - n a t i o n a l i s t " d o e s n o t go -far enough i n t h e l i g h t o f my f i n d i n g s . R a t h e r , t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e i n t e l l e c t u a l s came t o a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w i d e r c u l t u r a l u n i t y b r o u g h t on by t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e , and e x p o s e s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f W o l f ' s t h e s i s . I t i s f a r more l i k e l y t h a t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was p r o t o - i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t r a t h e r than p r o t o - n a t i o n a l i s t . The i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l d i a g n o s t i c s a s documented a d d r e s s e d a w i d e r framework o f e x p e r i e n c e than s e n t i m e n t s o f mere n a t i o n a l i s t a s p i r a t i o n . F o r example, i n o r d e r t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h e m eaning o f t h e war, Brown J u l u m a n a , Matthew B e l a m a t a g a and A r i e l S i s i l i a l l i d e n t i f i e d - 1 4 1 -i s l a n d e r s w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l -framework w h i c h embraced a l l e t h n i c p e o p l e s a c r o s s t h e c o l o n i a l w o r l d . I t d e m o n s t r a t e s , i n - f a c t , a w o r l d - w i d e e c u m e n i c a l i s m i n w h i c h each e t h n i c g r o u p was r e s p o n s i b l e -for i t s own r u l e s o-f government w i t h i n t h e -framework o-f R o o s e v e l t ' s Four Freedoms and t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f S o c i a l G o s p e l i s m . -142 -PART 11. ETHNOGRAPHICAL APPROACH TO THE MARCHING RULE I n t r o d u c t i o n The d i - f f e r e n c e s between M a l a i t a and t h e w e s t e r n i s l a n d s o-f t h e g r o u p , where t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s n a t i v e c o u r t s and c o u n c i l s e x p e r i m e n t i n f a c t s u c c e e d e d i n e v o l v i n g i n t o i n d i g e n o u s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , and where t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e was not a s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l f o r c e , may be summarized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : t h e a b s e n c e on M a l a i t a o f p e a s a n t c o p r a p r o d u c t i o n ; i t s c o l o n i a l t r a d i t i o n o f b e i n g a l a b o r p o o l ; i t s h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y ; t h e m i s s i o n d ominance t h e r e o f t h e SSEM, t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f whose Solomons o p e r a t i o n s c o m p l e t e l y c i r c u m s c r i b e t h e a r e a s o f M a r c h i n g R u l e a c t i v i s m ; and a s w e l l , t h o s e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e a d h e r e n t s f r o m t h e p e o p l e o f n e i g h b o r i n g i s l a n d s . T h i s d i v i s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l a t t e r i s s u e s , f o r e g r o u n d i n g i s s u e s o f e t h n i c i t y , i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o v e r t h o s e o f m a t e r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s i n t h i s D i v i s i o n i s on t h e e t h n o g r a p h y o f M a l a i t a n C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h e r e l e v a n c e o f a r c h a i c s t r u c t u r e s s u c h a s g e n e a l o g i c a l s y s t e m s o r t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f l e a d e r s h i p and f o l l o w e r s h i p -143 -t o c u l t u r a l l y d i s c o n t i n u o u s e v e n t s a r i s i n g -from t h e e n c o u n t e r o-f s t r u c t u r e d i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h a n t i - s t r u c t u r e , s u c h a s t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , i s a l w a y s p r o b l e m a t i c . A n t i - s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e t e m p o r a r y n e g a t i o n o-f s p e c i f i c m o r al p r o p o s i t i o n s a t t e n d a n t t o s t r u c t u r a l m a i n t e n a n c e : i t s u s p e n d s them, and i n v o k e s ' a x i o m a t i c a l 1y' i n t h e i r s t e a d t h e " h i g h e r bonds w h i c h u n i t e " c o n t a i n e d i n communitas. However, s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n u p h o l d s t h e ' n o r m a l i t y ' o-f a b a s i c q u o t i d i a n p a t t e r n o-f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ; h e n c e i t s s t u d y may y i e l d a model o-f a s y n c h r o n i c " s o c i a l - f i e l d " ( T u r n e r 1967) w h i c h can be compared i n i t s p r e - and p o s t - m i 11 e n i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . Hence, i f T u r n e r u r g e s s t u d e n t s t o l o o k i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f g e n e r i c communitas f o r t h e s o u r c e s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e , i t i s t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e a r m a t u r e of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t we must l o o k f o r t h e s o u r c e s o f s o c i a l c o n t i n u i t y . In t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c domain, I must d i s c u s s a number o f p o i n t s . I w i l l examine t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e pagan c o n c e p t o f t h e s a c r e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e a r e a s d i r e c t l y b e a r on t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e d e v e l o p m e n t s . S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e one o f g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r i m a r y p o l i t i c a l a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h a t t h e a l a h a s y s t e m had no h i s t o r i c a l -144 -or s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l p r e c e d e n t i n n o r t h M a l a i t a . T h i s d i v i s i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o w a r d t h e g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s by f o r m u l a t i n g key e l e m e n t s o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l f i e l d t h a t was e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e p i o n e e r SSEM m i s s i o n a r i e s . I w i l l e xamine M a l a i t a n C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e m a t i c t e r m s under t h e n o t i o n s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , c o n t i n u i t i e s w i t h pagan t r a d i t i o n s , and s y n c r e t i s m . T he l a t t e r w i l l go b e y o n d c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a d j u s t m e n t s i n l a n g u a g e and r i t u a l t h a t were s u p p o r t e d by t h e SSEM m i s s i o n a r i e s , w h i c h f e l l under t h e i r c o n s c i o u s p o l i c y o f i n d i g e n i z a t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e pagan s o c i e t y . I w i s h t o f o c u s more on t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s p o l i c y i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e M a l a i t a n C h r i s t i a n ' s d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e . C o n c e i v i n g o f h i m s e l f a s h a v i n g b r o k e n t o t a l l y w i t h t h e pagan p a s t , I am i n t e r e s t e d i n what he c r e a t e d i n i t s s t e a d . T h i s i n v o l v e s a f o c u s much l i k e t h a t o f John B a r k e r ; an e t h n o g r a p h y o f a C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e must g r o u n d i t s e l f i n t h e "more g e n e r a l a d j u s t m e n t s and r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a t n o r m a l l y t a k e p l a c e i n t h e i n d i g e n o u s c o m m u n i t i e s p ( 1 9 8 5 : 2 7 ) . In o t h e r w o r ds, i t i s n o t by s t u d y i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m y o f t h e m i s s i o n i n i t s e t h n o g r a p h i c c o n t e x t , but i t s g e n e r a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s t h r o u g h d i s c o u r s e and i t s r e - o r d e r i n g o f pagan m o r a l i t i e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f d a i l y l i f e t h a t i s e t h n o l o g i c a l 1 y s i gn i f i can t . -145 -S u b s e q u e n t l y I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e d o c t r i n a l o r i g i n s o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e by e x a m i n i n g t h e m i l l e n a r i a n r o o t s o-f t h e SSEM, m a j o r - f e a t u r e s o-f Mal a i t a n C h r i s t i a n i t y , and t h e d o c t r i n e s o-f S o c i a l G o s p e l ism i n A m e r i c a and M e l a n e s i a , c o n c l u d i n g w i t h d i s c u s s i o n o-f t h e ' s o c i a l - f i e l d ' on t h e eve o-f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e p e r i o d . The i n d i g e n o u s SSEM i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n r e s p o n s e t o th e c r i s i s o-f a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , i n t h e m i d s t o-f t h e m i l l e n i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s e n g e n d e r e d by t h e l i m i n a l i t y o-f war, t u r n e d -from t h e d o c t r i n e t h a t pagan s o c i e t y was t h e e v i l r e g i m e o-f S a t a n , t o a d d r e s s what t h e y came t o s e e a s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e v i l o-f t h e w h i t e , c o l o n i a l , i n d u s t r i a l o r d e r . T h e y d e v e l o p e d a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o-f t h e s e n s e o-f ' s i n . ' T he M a r c h i n g R u l e r e s u l t e d -from t h e e x t e n s i o n -from pagan s o c i e t y t o c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y o-f key d o c t r i n a l e l e m e n t s . T h i s was due t o t h e i n d i g e n i z a t i o n o-f a p r o c e s s o-f r e a s o n i n g wed t o t h e i n n a t e mi 1 1 e n a r i a n i s m of t h e SSEM's h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s . T o d e v e l o p t h e b a s i s f o r d e t a i l i n g t h i s n o t i o n i s t h e theme c e n t r a l t o t h i s d i v i s i o n . T o t h i s end I w i l l o u t l i n e t h e p r e - M a r c h i n g R u l e s o c i a l f i e l d and t h e s o u r c e s o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h l e n t t h e i r p a r t t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l s h a p e o f t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e . -146 -C h a p t e r 5. S o c i a l G r o a n i z a t i o n ^ T h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e c u l t i v a t i o n p a t t e r n between t h e w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n i s l a n d s . T a r o and yam s l a s h and b u r n h o r t i c u l t u r e , p i g h u s b a n d r y and f i s h i n g s u p p l y t h e p e o p l e w i t h abundant f o o d . E v e r y w h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e medium o f m a t e r i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , and e v e r y w h e r e t h e f e a s t i s a f o c a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . G a r d e n i n g i s n e v e r u n d e r t a k e n w i t h r e g a r d t o i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n b e y o n d t h e minimum n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n t h e d o m e s t i c g r o u p and i t s commensal and k i n s h i p e x c h a n g e o b l i g a t i o n s , u n l e s s i t i s i n i t i a t e d by community l e a d e r s and t h e i r p l a n s f o r s p e c i f i c f e a s t i n g o c c a s i o n s f o r w h i c h f o o d w i l l be r e q u i r e d <cf. O l i v e r 1955). D e p e n d i n g on a g i v e n community, f e a s t s may o c c u r on t h e o c c a s i o n o f e i t h e r i n t e r n a l k i n s h i p l i f e - c r i s e s i n t h e s o l i d a r y p a t t e r n , o r i n t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n on t h e o c c a s i o n o f a b i g man's a s s e r t i o n o f h i s and h i s g r o u p ' s p r o d u c i v e 'renown', w h i c h i s c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e management o f i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t ( O l i v e r 1955). However, t h e Kaoka o f G u a d a l c a n a l a s w e l l a s t h e M a l a i t a n s u s e t h e o c c a s i o n o f some l i f e 56 I w o u l d l i k e t o thank Dr. C a t h e r i n e T y h u r s t f o r h e r comments and s u g g e s t i o n s on an e a r l y d r a f t o f t h i s c h a p t e r . -147 -c r i s e s t o engage i n c o m p e t i t i v e g i v i n g ( H o g b i n 1965). F e a s t i n g b e h a v i o r u n d e r w r i t e s t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f community e n e r g i e s and a c t i v i t i e s b e yond t h e minimum r e q u i r e d f o r s u b s i s t e n c e ; i t o r g a n i z e s g r o u p s by m a k i n g e x p l i c i t , i n t h e ' l a n g u a g e ' o f m a t e r i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h m a t r i f i 1 i a t i o n o b t a i n s t h r o u g h o u t g r e a t e r M e l a n e s i a w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e New G u i n e a h i g h l a n d s , m a t r i 1 i n e a l i t y i n t h e Solomons i s g e n e r a l l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l i m i t e d t o t h e e a s t e r n i s l a n d s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n s o f N g g e l a , S a n t a I s a b e l , and p a r t s o f G u a d a l c a n a l and San C r i s t o v a l . S e a b o a r d a r e a s t h a t e m p h a s i z e p a t r i f i 1 i a t i o n h ave a l s o been n o t e d , f o r example t h e u n i l i n e a l R u g a r a o f s o u t h e r n B o u g a i n v i l l e and t h e A l u I s l a n d e r s ( T h u r n w a l d 1951; O l i v e r 1955), and t h e b i l a t e r a l t o p a t r i l i n e a l s e a p e o p l e s o f M a l a i t a and UIawa ( I v e n s 1927; B e l s h a w 1958:29; Roger K e e s i n g 1966, 1967, 1971). The h i g h bush p e o p l e s o f M a l a i t a were u n i v e r s a l l y a m b i l a t e r a l i n d e s c e n t and p a t r i - v i r i 1 o c a l i n r e s i d e n c e . P a t r i f i 1 i a t i o n was e x p r e s s e d t h u s i n r e s i d e n c e and i n r e l i g i o u s s a c r i f i c e t o a n c e s t r a l a o a l o w h i c h were c o n c e i v e d i n t e r m s o f a s e g m e n t a r y l i n e a g e i s o m o r p h i c i n t i m e t o a g e o g r a p h i c p l a c e m e n t o f s a c r e d c e m e t e r y s i t e s , beu abu. w h i c h t r a c e d t h e ' h i s t o r i c a l ' m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e h i g h bush downwards, and w h i c h marked t h e d e s c e n d e n t s ' r i g h t s t o r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d . C o g n a t i c e l e m e n t s were i m p o r t a n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o l l a t e r a l r i g h t s o-f u s u - f r u c t , ' s e c o n d a r y ' j u r a l r i g h t s i n t h e a m b i l a t e r a l t o p a t r i l i n e a l r e s i d e n c e g r o u p s , and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a s s o c i a t e s t a t u s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s a c r i f i c i n g a t t h e beu abu o-f a n c e s t o r s i n m a t r i l a t e r a l s t a n d i n g . C o g n a t i c d e s c e n t s y s t e m s w i t h p a t r i f i 1 i a t i o n s i m i l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n r e s i d e n c e d e t e r m i n a t i o n a r e n o t e d a s w e l l -for C h o i s e u l <Schie-f-f 1 e r 1965:163). E v e r y w h e r e i n M e l a n e s i a k i n s h i p d i f f e r s i n e m p h a s i s a s a s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e <cf. O l i v e r 1955) a s compared t o i t s commonly r e c o g n i z e d r e g u l a t i v e r o l e i n A f r i c a <cf. B a r n e s 1962; Schwimmer 1973). In c o n t r a s t t o G u a d a l c a n a l <Hogbin) and I s a b e l ( B o g e s i ) t h e r e a r e no s h a r p l y d e f i n e d u n i l i n e a l g r o u p i n g s on M a l a i t a a s i d e f r o m t h e ' c h i e f l y s e c t i o n s ' o r ' c l a n s ' t h a t have been d e s c r i b e d b o t h i n t h e s o u t h <Ivens, C o d r i n g t o n ) and i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e n o r t h <Lau - I v e n s 1927, K o n g a s - M i r a n d a F a t a l a k a - R u s s e l l 1951). C o d r i n g t o n and I v e n s among o t h e r s a l s o f o u n d s u r v i v a l s o f t h e du a l o r g a n i z a t i o n on M a l a i t a . T h e M e l a n e s i a n p o l i t i c a l u n i t c o n s i s t e d o f a g r o u p of c o - r e s i d e n t i a l m a l e s on f r i e n d l y t e r m s who were members o f a men's c l u b h o u s e , and r e l a t i o n s between u n i t s were -149 -founded on e i t h e r ' t r a d e o r r a i d . ' L e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s d e t e r m i n a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y n e g o t i a t e d on a c a s e - b y - c a s e b a s i s between two d e t e r m i n i n g p r i n c i p l e s , p r e s c r i p t i o n t h r o u g h d e s c e n t g r o u p p o s i t i o n and s e n i o r i t y , a n d/or a c h i e v e m e n t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i n p r o d u c t i o n and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o-f w e a l t h i n t h e l o c a l g r o u p , summarized i n t e r m s o-f t h e t e n s i o n between ra n k i n a k i n g r o u p and power b a s e d on f o r c e . However, p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p h a s l o n g been an i n t r i c a t e p r o b l e m f o r M e l a n e s i a n i s t s <cf. Bronwen D o u g l a s 1979), s i n c e t h e ' a n d / o r ' r e l a t i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o f o r m u l a t e i n l o g i c a l t e r m s . Some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s <cf. B u r r i d g e , S c h i e f f l e r ) c o n s i d e r l e a d e r s h i p i n t e r m s o f management, w h i c h i n c l u d e s a s i t s l e g i t i m a t i o n a p p e a l t o v a r i o u s norms and r u l e s . A s S c h i e f f l e r w r i t e s o f C h o i s e u l , " t h e a g n a t i c g e n e o l o g i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n [ t o s u c e s s i o n o f son t o f a t h e r ' s big-man s t a t u s ] d e r i v e d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e p r i m a r i l y by m a n a g e r i a l s t a t u s " < 1965:185) .Her g e n e r a l i z e d r a n k i s s i m p l y among t h o s e g e n e r a l " s t r a t e g i c r h e t o r i c a l r e s o u r c e s " p r a g m a t i c a l l y e mployed " i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " < 1965:294). However, M e l a n e s i a n l e a d e r s h i p a l s o i n v o l v e d an e l e m e n t o f s a c r e d l e g i t i m i z a t i o n t h a t w o u l d go b eyond t h e u s u a l m a n a g e r i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . M a l a i t a n s , a s I w i l l show below, d e v e l o p e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e -150 -h y p o s t a t i z e d b i g man complex by i n s t i t u t i n g two d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e s b a s e d on g e n e a l o g i c a l and a c h i e v e d emphases r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i c h r u l e d i n t h e s o u t h , i n I v e n s ' s term, " i n d o u b l e h a r n e s s " ( I v e n s 1927). G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about w i d e r p o l i t i c a l g r o u p i n g s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o draw. T h e r e i s a l o n g - r e c o g n i z e d i n s t a b i l i t y i n M e l a n e s i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h e b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o-f t h e b i g man p o l i t y i s g i v e n by D o u g l a s O l i v e r (1955) -for s o u t h e r n B o u g a i n v i l l e , where t h e h i g h e s t r e g i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a c h i e v e d was w i t h i n some s e v e n c o m p e t i n g but i n t e r n a l l y peace-ful b i g man d o m i n i o n s . O l i v e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e p a t r i l i n e a l Rugaran i n s t i t u t i o n s were a " c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i n d y n a s t i c -form" o-f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l t e n d e n c y -for a son t o s u c c e e d t o h i s - f a t h e r ' s s t a t u s w i t h i n n e i g h b o r i n g b i g man s y s t e m s . But u n t i l t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o-f f i r e a r m s , b r o a d e r l a r g e s c a l e i n t e g r a t i o n was n o t p o s s i b l e i n M e l a n e s i a . Chowning n o t e s t h a t " v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y c o n s t a n t i s a n e g a t i v e one: t h e f a i l u r e o f M e l a n e s i a n s o c i e t i e s t o d e v e l o p complex, permanent f o r m s o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t w o u l d w e l d t o g e t h e r even t h o s e p e o p l e who have a common l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e " ( 1 9 7 7 : 4 2 ) . W r i t i n g i n 1927, I v e n s i n s i m i l a r terms n o t e s t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e M a l a i t a n h i l l p e o p l e s , t o a ' i t o l o . who b e f o r e p a c i f i c a t i o n "were n o t f r e e t o t r a v e l f a r a f i e l d , -151 -t h e i r p a s s a g e by l a n d w o u l d be b l o c k e d , and each p e o p l e c o u l d o n l y v i s i t i t s immediate n e i g h b o r s " -for p u r p o s e s o-f t r a d e and m a r r i a g e < 1927:39). But even a-fter p a c i f i c a t i o n , " t h e h i l l p e o p l e s m a i n l y c o n - f i n e t h e m s e l v e s t o movements w i t h i n t h e i r own b o r d e r s . " Now Roger K e e s i n g c o n t e n d s t h a t , p r i o r t o t h e c u l t i s m o-f t h e 1939s ( a d d r e s s e d i n C h a p t e r 9) w h i c h he c l a i m s i n f l u e n c e d t h e M a r c h i n g R u l e , " t h e f i r s t r e s p o n s e s t o E u r o p e a n i n t r u s i o n and t h e t h r e a t o f s u b j u g a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s i n v a s i o n were p o l i t i c a l and ' m i l i t a r y ' a t t a c k " <1978/79; t . s . : 2 5 ) . But t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t M a l a i t a n s were u n i f i e d i n a g e n e r a l a n t i - c o l o n i a l s e n t i m e n t i s m i s p l a c e d , a s i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e murder o f DO B e l l by t h e Kwaio i n 1927 r e f l e c t e d a w i d e s p r e a d s m o u l d e r i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o c o l o n i a l s u p p r e s s i o n . A f t e r t h e i n c i d e n t , s h o r e p e o p l e mounted "a p r o c e s s i o n o f c a n o e s ... a l l t h e way r o u n d t h e c o a s t f r o m a s f a r s o u t h a s A t a a t o show t h e i r d e t e s t a t i o n o f t h e c r i m e . " O t h e r than t h e Kwaio, " t h e r e s t o f t h e p e o p l e s , on r e c e i p t o f t h e news, c l a m o u r e d t o be a l l o w e d t o j o i n i n r e p r i s a l s , and a l l e x p r e s s e d t h e i r i n d i g n a t i o n a t