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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Stereotyping of mathematics as a male domain : a factor in females non-participation in mathematics Chappell, Vivian Marie 1986

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STEREOTYPING OF MATHEMATICS AS A MALE DOMAIN: A FACTOR I N FEMALES NON-PARTICIPATION I N MATHEMATICS By V i v i a n M a r i e C h a p p e l l B.Ed., R i v e r i n a C o l l e g e o f A d v a n c e d E d u c a t i o n , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f M a t h e m a t i c s a n d S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1986 © V i v i a n M a r i e C h a p p e l l In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October % , 1986 ABSTRACT T h e s i s S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. D a v i d F. R o b i t a i l l e The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e i n n a t u r e , and t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f e m a l e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s . D a t a f r o m t h e 1985 B.C. M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain by Gra d e 7 and 10 s t u d e n t s . F u t u r e m a t h e m a t i c s p l a n s o f Grade 10 s t u d e n t s were a l s o e x a m i n e d . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t - t e s t s a nd C h i s q u a r e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d . W h i l e i t was f o u n d t h a t m a l e s s t e r e o t y p e d m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n f e m a l e s a t b o t h g r a d e l e v e l s , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r m a l e s n o r f e m a l e s s t e r e o t y p e d m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e a t e i t h e r g r a d e l e v e l . When t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g o f Grade 10 s t u d e n t s was compared t o t h e i r f u t u r e m a t h e m a t i c s p l a n s i n G r a d e s 11 a n d 12, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g o f s t u d e n t s who p l a n n e d t o t a k e an a c a d e m i c m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e i n Grade 11 and t h o s e who p l a n n e d t o t a k e a no n - a c a d e m i c c o u r s e . When p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n G rade 12 c o u r s e s was exami n e d , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p l a n n e d t o t a k e a m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e and t h o s e who d i d n o t . i i CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i Chapter 1. BACKGROUND Review of Background L i t e r a t u r e 1 Statement of Problem 4 Hypotheses 5 O rgan i za t i on of the F o l l o w i n g Chapters 8 2 . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In t roduc t i on 9 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s in Mathematics Achievement 9 B i o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Mathematics Achievement 12 S o c i o c u l t u r a l F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Mathematics Achievement 13 P e r c e p t i o n s of Mathematics as a Male Domain 14 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s in Enro l lment 19 Summary 21 3 . METHOD OF STUDY In t roduc t i on 22 Research Design and Procedures 22 Instrument D e s c r i p t i o n 23 Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 23 i 11 S e l e c t i o n of Items fo r A n a l y s i s 24 S e l e c t i o n of Sample 28 D e s c r i p t i o n of Sample 29 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of V a r i a b l e s 29 Data Man ipu la t i on 30 4 . FINDINGS S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 32 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s of Data* Measurement of the Extent of S t e r e o t y p i n g 32 Extent of S te reo t yp i n g by Gender: Grades 7 and 10 34 Comparison of S t e r e o t y p i n g Between Grades 7 and 10 35 Future Mathematics P l a n s : Grade 10 36 Extent of S t e r e o t y p i n g : Male Data Only 39 Extent of S t e r e o t y p i n g : Female Data Only 41 Academic/Non-academic Mathematics Courses 41 P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Mathematics Courses 45 Summary of F i n d i n g s P e r t i n e n t to Each Hypothes is 48 5 . SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Research F i n d i n g s 52 R e s u l t s 52 Conc lus ions 55 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 56 Suggest ions f o r Fur ther Research 56 BIBLIOGRAPHY 58 lv LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 4.1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Composite Scores on Four Items 33 4.2 Comparison of Mean Composite Scores by Gender 35 4.3 Future Mathematics P l a n s : Course by Gender 37 4.4 S t e r e o t y p i n g by Future Mathematics P l a n s : A l l Data 38 4.5 S t e r e o t y p i n g by Future Mathematics P l a n s : Male Data 40 4.6 S t e r e o t y p i n g by Future Mathematics P l a n s : Female Data 42 4.7 Academic/Non-academic Courses by Degree of S t e r e o t y p i n g 44 4.8 P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Mathematics Courses by Degree of S t e r e o t y p i n g 47 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o thank t h e members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , Dr. D a v i d F, R o b i t a i l l e , Dr. James M. S h e r r i l l a n d Dr. L e R o i D a n i e l s f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e . I t h a s been a p l e a s u r e t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. In a d d i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o thank Dr. M a r s h a l l A r l i n f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g f o r t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s l s . I w o u l d l i k e t o thank my hus b a n d , B r i a n , f o r h i s c o n t i n u a l s u p p o r t , e n c o u r a g e m e n t and h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s ; t o q u o t e , " o f c o u r s e you can w r i t e t h i s i n f i v e weeks!" And I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o thank my d a u g h t e r s , T i f f a n y a n d P h i l i p p a , who have s u p p l i e d p r a c t i c a l i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g o f c o u r s e s and c a r e e r s , and who have s u r v i v e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f h a v i n g a mother p e r m a n e n t l y f i x e d i n f r o n t o f a computer t e r m i n a l . v i i CHAPTER ONE  BACKGROUND REVIEW OF BACKGROUND LITERATURE Women a r e p r e s e n t l y u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f i e l d o f m a t h e m a t i c s and i n m a t h e m a t i c s - r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . ( K a m l n s k i , 1982) E v i d e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a t h e m a t i c s h a s been documented a t b o t h t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e an d g r a d u a t e l e v e l s . ( E r n e s t , 1976; Fox, 1976; B e l t z n e r , Coleman, and Edwards, 1976; T o b i a s , 1978) F o r example, i n th e U n i t e d S t a t e s women c o n s t i t u t e 45% o f t h e t o t a l u n d e r g r a d u a t e p o p u l a t i o n , b u t o n l y 15% o f t h e m a j o r s i n m a t h e m a t i c s a r e women. ( T o b i a s , 1978, p.70) In Canada i n 1976, women h e l d 31% o f t h e d e g r e e s i n g e n e r a l , b u t o n l y 24% o f t h e d e g r e e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s . ( B e l t z n e r e t a l . , 1976, p. 275) B a k e r (1983) r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e - h a l f t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e m a j o r s i n s c i e n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e f e m a l e . P o s t g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s o b t a i n e d by women i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; f o r example, o n l y 10% o f d o c t o r a l d e g r e e s i n p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e a n d 23% o f d e g r e e s i n b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e were awarded t o women. Fewer g i r l s t h a n b o y s e n r o l l i n h i g h s c h o o l m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s i n B r i t a i n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. ( E r n e s t , 1976; S e l l s , 1978; Fennema, W o l l e a t , 2 P e d r o , and B e c k e r , 1981; A r m s t r o n g , 1981; P a l l a s a n d A l e x a n d e r , 1983) K e e v e s (1973) r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s f r o m t h e F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a t h e m a t i c s S t u d y t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e r e were c l e a r sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s i n most o f t h e 10 c o u n t r i e s s t u d i e d . In O n t a r i o , R a p h a e l , McLean and W a h l s t r o m (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p e r c e n t o f b o y s e n r o l l e d i n Grade 13 m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s e x c e e d e d t h a t o f g i r l s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s u l t s o f t h e 1977 a n d 1981 M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f e m a l e s were u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n most e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s a t t h e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . ( R o b i t a i l l e a n d S h e r r i l l , 1977; R o b i t a i l l e , 1981) The u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f e m a l e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s and c a r e e r s h a s been a t t r i b u t e d t o male s u p e r i o r i t y i n m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t : i . e . f e m a l e s d i d not do a s w e l l i n m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a l e s a n d t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t e n t e r m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s o r c a r e e r s i n e q u a l numbers. (Benbow an d S t a n l e y , 1982) F o u r e x t e n s i v e a s s e s s m e n t s o f a c h i e v e m e n t p e r f o r m e d between 1960 and 1980 i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r t h i s argument: P r o j e c t T a l e n t , 1960; N a t i o n a l L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d y o f M a t h e m a t i c a l A b i l i t i e s , 1962-1967; N a t i o n a l A s s e s s m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s , 1979; Women i n M a t h e m a t i c s s u r v e y , 1978. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p r o v i n c i a l M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t d a t a i n d i c a t e d s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s . ( R o b i t a i l l e and S h e r r i l l , 1977; R o b i t a i 1 l e , 1981) 3 Two broad c a t e g o r i e s of t h e o r i e s e x i s t to e x p l a i n the sex d i f f e r e n c e in mathematics achievement: one that a t t r i b u t e s the d i f f e r e n c e to b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s and one that suggests s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e . Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1974) and Benbow and Stan l e y (1980) proposed that the sex d i f f e r e n c e in mathematics achievement was a r e s u l t of males b e i n g g e n e t i c a l l y s u p e r i o r . They a t t r i b u t e d the g e n e t i c s u p e r i o r i t y to i n h e r i t e d s p a t i a l a b i l i t y . Evidence s u p p o r t i n g the sex d i f f e r e n c e in s p a t i a l a b i l i t y was r e p o r t e d by Broverman, K l a i b e r , Kobayaski, and Vogel (1968) and H a r r i s (1975). S t a f f o r d (1961) produced r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e d that s p a t i a l a b i l i t y i s i n h e r i t e d . Ernest (1976) argued that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p a t i a l a b i l i t y and mathematics achievement was not c l e a r . McGee (1979) p o i n t e d out that the d i f f e r e n c e in s p a t i a l a b i l i t y does not appear u n t i l adolescence, and may be learned r a t h e r than i n h e r i t e d . Wood (1976) and Sherman (1977a) argued ag a i n s t the b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r male s u p e r i o r i t y by q u o t i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s which reduced the sex d i f f e r e n c e in achievement. Other r e s e a r c h e r s p o i n t e d out that the small d i f f e r e n c e i n s p a t i a l a b i l i t y does not account f o r the large d i f f e r e n c e found in achievement. ( E r i c k s o n , E r i c k s o n , and Haggerty, 1980) 4 The d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e c t i n g a g e n e t i c d i f f e r e n c e i n m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y l e d many r e s e a r c h e r s t o i n v e s t i g a t e p r o b a b l e s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h may a f f e c t m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t . Fennema and Sherman (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e sex d i f f e r e n c e i n m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t d i s a p p e a r e d when d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s b a c k g r o u n d were c o n t r o l l e d . The f a i l u r e o f g i r l s t o e n r o l l i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s l e d t o t h e i r lower a c h i e v e m e n t i n m a t h e m a t i c s . Fennema a n d Sherman c o n t i n u e d t h e i r s t u d y by c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t a f f e c t g i r l s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s . F a c t o r s t h e y i d e n t i f i e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t were l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g m a t h e m a t i c s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain. The s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e a p p e a r e d t o a f f e c t r e l e v a n t a t t i t u d e s , s u c h a s m a t h e m a t i c s a n x i e t y and l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n m a t h e m a t i c s . In a l a t e r s t u d y , Fennema e t a l . ( 1981) r e p o r t e d t h a t c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain, a n d o t h e r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a t h e m a t i c s i n c r e a s e d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f g i r l s i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f women i n m a t h e m a t i c s a n d m a t h e m a t i c s - r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s a p p e a r s t o be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e low e n r o l l m e n t o f g i r l s i n h i g h s c h o o l m a t h e m a t i c s c l a s s e s . In t h e 1977 and 1981 B.C. M a t h e m a t i c s 5 A s s e s s m e n t s , l t was r e p o r t e d t h a t f ewer g i r l s t h a n b o y s e n r o l l e d i n s e n i o r m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s i n B.C. h i g h s c h o o l s . The 1985 B.C. M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t i n c l u d e d a Gender and M a t h e m a t i c s s c a l e , and q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g f u t u r e m a t h e m a t i c s p l a n s s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s a s s e s s m e n t s . U s i n g some o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e 1985 m a t h e m a t i c s a s s e s s m e n t , t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between g i r l s ' a nd b o y s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a t h e m a t i c s and t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t e n r o l l m e n t i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s . Two g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d . Do g i r l s p e r c e i v e m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e i n n a t u r e ? Do g i r l s who p e r c e i v e m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e i n n a t u r e a v o i d t h e s t u d y o f m a t h e m a t i c s when i t becomes an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t ? I f a c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d between t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e and f u t u r e m a t h e m a t i c s p l a n s i t w o u l d o f f e r d i r e c t i o n f o r p l a n s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f f e m a l e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s - r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . HYPOTHESES In o r d e r t o r e s e a r c h t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , t w e l v e h y p o t h e s e s were d e v e l o p e d . The g e n e r a l i n t e n t o f t h e f i r s t s i x h y p o t h e s e s was t o t e s t w h e t h e r m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s i n g r a d e 7 and 10 s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a m a s c u l i n e domain. F u r t h e r h y p o t h e s e s were t h e n d e v e l o p e d t o t e s t w h e t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p l a n t o t a k e a c a d e m i c m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s and t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p l a n t o t a k e n o n - a c a d e m i c c o u r s e s . F i n a l l y , h y p o t h e s e s were d e v e l o p e d t o t e s t w h e t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p l a n t o t a k e m a t h e m a t i c s i n Grade 12 when i t i s an e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t and t h o s e s t u d e n t s who do n o t p l a n t o t a k e m a t h e m a t i c s i n Grade 12. 1. M a l e s i n Grade 7 s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male doma i n. 2. F e m a l e s i n Grade 7 s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male doma i n. 3. M a l e s i n Grade 10 s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a mal e doma i n . 4. F e m a l e s i n Grade 10 s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male doma i n. 5. T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m a l e s and f e m a l e s s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain i n Grade 7. 6. T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m a l e s and f e m a l e s s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain i n Grade 10. 7 7. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between s t u d e n t s who p l a n to e n r o l l i n non-academic mathematics courses i n Grade 11 and students who plan to e n r o l l in academic mathematics courses in Grade 11. 8. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between males who p l a n to e n r o l l in non-academic mathematics courses i n Grade 11 and males who p l a n to e n r o l l in academic mathematics courses in Grade 11. 9. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between females who p l a n to e n r o l l in non-academic mathematics courses i n Grade 11 and females who p l a n to e n r o l l i n academic mathematics courses i n Grade 11. 10. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between students who p l a n to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 and s t u d e n t s who do not p l a n to e n r o l l i n a mathematics course i n Grade 12. 11. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between males who p l a n to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 and males who do not p l a n to e n r o l l i n a mathematics course in Grade 12. 8 12. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between females who p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 and females who do not p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12. ORGANIZATION OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS A rev iew of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain i s p resented in Chapter Two. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the method of s tudy , i n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s , and data m a n i p u l a t i o n , i s p resented in Chapter Three. A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s and the f i n d i n g s f o r each of the hypotheses proposed are p resen ted in Chapter Four . Chapter F i v e con ta i ns a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s and i nc l udes s e c t i o n s on i m p l i c a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study as we l l as sugges t ions f o r f u tu re r e s e a r c h . 9 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE INTRODUCTION T h i s rev iew of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i nc l udes f i v e s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s l i t e r a t u r e concerned w i th sex d i f f e r e n c e s in mathematics achievement. Next are two s e c t i o n s b r i e f l y r ev iew ing l i t e r a t u r e which p e r t a i n s to b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i th mathematics achievement. L i t e r a t u r e concerned w i th the pe rcep t i on of mathematics as a male domain i s d i s c u s s e d nex t . The l a s t s e c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e rev iew i s sex d i f f e r e n c e s in en ro l lmen t . The chapter conc ludes w i th a summary of the main t rends of research in t h i s a r e a . SEX DIFFERENCES IN MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT Four ex tens i ve assessments of mathematics achievement in the Un i ted S t a t e s a l l repor t male s u p e r i o r i t y in mathematics achievement. Jacobs (1978) rev iewed r e s u l t s ob ta ined from P r o j e c t T a l e n t , 1969, which t e s t e d achievement of s tuden ts in Grades 9 to 12. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that boys tended to do b e t t e r in mathematics than g i r l s by Grade 12. In a smal l fo l lowup study in 1975, s tuden ts in Grades 9 to 11 were t e s t e d and the r e s u l t s were 10 s i m i l a r a l though the d i f f e r e n c e between males and females had decreased . ( Jacobs , 1978, p.2) The Na t iona l Long i t ud ina l Study of Mathematical A b i l i t i e s , 1962-1967, rev iewed in Jacobs (1978) found that the sex d i f f e r e n c e favoured g i r l s at the comprehension l eve l and boys at a p p l i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s l e v e l s . The Na t i ona l Assessment of Educa t iona l P rog ress (1979) repo r ted no d i f f e r e n c e in mathematics achievement at age 9 , s l i g h t d i s p a r i t y at age 13, and by 17 the gap in achievement was more n o t i c e a b l e . Carpenter (1984) repo r ted the r e s u l t s of the 1982 N . A . E . P . and compared them to the 1978 assessment. The r e s u l t s showed v i r t u a l l y no change from 1978 to 1982. The Women in Mathematics survey (Armstrong, 1981) found boys d i d b e t t e r than g i r l s at Grade 12, p a r t i c u l a r l y in h igher order c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s in mathemat ics. A study of co l l ege -bound s tudents (Na t iona l Co l lege-Bound S e n i o r s , 1981) repo r ted males sco red s l i g h t l y h igher SAT averages in mathemat ics. Benbow and S tan ley (1982) , in t h e i r Study of Ma themat i ca l l y P recoc ious Youth (SMPY), repo r ted that in a l l s i x SMPY t a l e n t searches a la rge sex d i f f e r e n c e f avou r i ng males was found on the SAT-M, a t es t of mathematical reason ing a b i l i t y . Baker (1983) compared the SAT sco res of male and female undergraduates and found males had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h igher sco res than females . 11 In Canada s i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been found. A 1978 study of mathematics achievement of schoo l s in A l b e r t a repo r ted boys performed b e t t e r than g i r l s on a l l t o p i c s t e s t e d and the d i f f e r e n c e s became more pronounced as grade l e v e l i n c r e a s e d . Boys d i d b e t t e r on the knowledge ques t i ons and a great deal b e t t e r on comprehension and a p p l i c a t i o n . (O l son , Sawada, and S igu rdson , 1979, p . l ) Another study by G iesbrech t (1980) , of Saskatchewan secondary s t u d e n t s , produced r e s u l t s showing a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in mathematics achievement in favor of ma les . An examinat ion of raw sco res showed that males d i d b e t t e r at every grade l eve l w i th d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s i n g w i th grade 1 eve 1. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the 1977 p r o v i n c i a l Mathematics Assessment data i n d i c a t e d s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s . At Grade 8 o v e r a l l achievement of g i r l s was s i m i l a r to boys but at Grade 12 boys scored h i g h e r . ( R o b i t a i l l e and S h e r r i l l , 1977) In 1981, a second p r o v i n c i a l Mathematics Assessment was per formed. D i f f e r e n c e s in achievement were s m a l l , g e n e r a l l y in favour of boys and i n c r e a s i n g from Grade 4 to Grade 12. These d i f f e r e n c e s tended to be at the h igher c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . ( R o b i t a i l l e , 1981) The 1985 p r o v i n c i a l Mathematics Assessment a l s o repo r ted smal l achievement d i f f e r e n c e s in favour of boys . ( R o b i t a i l l e and O 'Shea, 1985) 12 In g e n e r a l , these and o ther s t u d i e s have produced s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . In elementary school there appeared to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e in mathematics achievement between boys and g i r l s . A f t e r elementary school i f there was a d i f f e r e n c e i t was in favor of boys and tended to appear in the l a s t few years of h igh s c h o o l . (Keeves, 1973; S e l l s , 1978; Maccoby and J a c k l i n , 1974; A s t i n , 1974; Wood, 1976; E r n e s t , 1976; A i k e n , 1976; Fennema and Sherman, 1977; Armstrong, 1981; Benbow and S t a n l e y , 1982; P a l l a s and A lexander , 1983) BIOLOGICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT In an attempt to e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s in mathematical achievement between boys and g i r l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y at h igher c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s , a b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s was hypo thes i zed . D i f f e r e n c e s in s p a t i a l a b i l i t y , the a b i l i t y to t rans form v i s u a l images m e n t a l l y , were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Male s u p e r i o r i t y at c e r t a i n s p a t i a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n tasks was repo r ted by S t a f f o r d (1961) , Maccoby and J a c k l i n (1974) , Hyde, G e i r i n g e r , and Yen (1975) , Ernest (1976) and H a r r i s (1975) . Broverman et a l . (1968) a t t r i b u t e d t h i s d i f f e r e n c e in s p a t i a l a b i l i t y to sex hormone e f f e c t s . Restak (1979) a t t r i b u t e d the d i f f e r e n c e s to developmental d i f f e r e n c e s in b r a i n l a t e r a l i z a t i o n . S t a f f o r d (1961) repo r ted ev idence that s p a t i a l a b i l i t y i s i n h e r i t a b l e . Benbow and S tan ley (1980) a l s o repo r ted 13 r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g m a l e s h a d s u p e r i o r s p a t i a l a b i l i t y w h i c h was i n h e r i t e d . In l a t e r r e s e a r c h no d i f f e r e n c e s were r e p o r t e d between b o y s a n d g i r l s on t e s t s o f s p a t i a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n . (Fennema and Sherman 1977; Sherman 1979; A r m s t r o n g 1981; B a k e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . Murphy (1978) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s d e t e c t e d a p p e a r e d t o depend on t h e t e s t u s e d , as t h e r e s u l t s were f a r f r o m c l e a r . L e d e r (1982) and E r i c k s o n e t a l . (1980) a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e d e t e c t e d i n s p a t i a l a b i l i t y was s m a l l a n d d i d n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t . SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT V a r i o u s s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s have been r e s e a r c h e d a s a c a u s e o f t h e s e x d i f f e r e n c e i n m a t h e m a t i c s a c h i e v e m e n t . E r n e s t (1976) e x a m i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s t o m a t h e m a t i c s b u t f o u n d no s e x d i f f e r e n c e s . T o b i a s (1978) r e p o r t e d a n x i e t y a b o u t m a t h e m a t i c s was a f a c t o r i n m a t h e m a t i c s a v o i d a n c e . She a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t more f e m a l e s s u f f e r e d f r o m m a t h e m a t i c s a n x i e t y t h a n m a l e s . However T o b i a s a n d W e i s b r o d (1980) i n v e s t i g a t e d m a l e s and f e m a l e s w i t h t h e same l e v e l o f a n x i e t y and f o u n d t h a t t h e m a l e s c o n t i n u e d t o t a k e m a t h e m a t i c s w h i l e t h e f e m a l e s d i d n o t . 14 PERCEPTIONS OF MATHEMATICS AS A MALE DOMAIN Fennema et a l . (1981) hypo thes ized that the pe rcep t i on of mathematics as mascul ine may be r e s p o n s i b l e fo r the f a i l u r e of g i r l s to p a r t i c i p a t e in mathemat ics. The development of s te reo typed sex r o l e s and s te reo typed career c h o i c e s may c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s p e r c e p t i o n . The sex r o l e s te reo types which develop de f i ne males as v e r b a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y aggress ive and females as dependent, pass i ve and conforming. (Kagan, 1964; W i l l i a m s , Bennet t , and B e s t , 1975) Competence in i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic s k i l l s are a l s o cons ide red an e s s e n t i a l component of the m a l e ' s sex r o l e i d e n t i t y , but not the f e m a l e ' s . (Kagan, 1964; S t e i n and B a i l e y , 1973; Res tak , 1979) Some of the e f f e c t s of s t e r e o t y p i n g can be seen in the development of sex - t yped pe r cep t i ons of ca reer c h o i c e s . The ca ree r cho i ces of many g i r l s appear to be l i m i t e d to a narrow range of sex - s te reo t yped c a r e e r s . These can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three groups: the mother ing r o l e , i n c l u d i n g t eache r , nu rse , s o c i a l worker ; w i f e , i n c l u d i n g a s s i s t a n t , s e c r e t a r y , l abora to ry t e c h n i c i a n ; and d e c o r a t i v e , r e c e p t i o n i s t , f l i g h t a t t endan t , and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s s p e c i a l i s t . ( A s t i n , 1974; I g l i t z i n , 1977; T o b i a s , 1978; F r i e z e , 1978; Pedro , Wo11 e a t , and Fennema, 1980) 15 R e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t s e x t y p i n g o f s u b j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y between m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e ; a n d E n g l i s h and s o c i a l s t u d i e s a l s o o c c u r s . Fennema e t a l . (19 8 1 ) r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s was r e g a r d e d a s a male s u b j e c t by b o t h s e x e s . A p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r p e r c e i v i n g m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e i n n a t u r e i s t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c i a n s a s m a s c u l i n e , even i n t h e c a s e o f f e m a l e m a t h e m a t i c i a n s . E n t w h i s t l e and Duckworth (Stamp, 1979) d e s c r i b e d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s f o r m a t h e m a t i c i a n s a s i n t e l l i g e n c e , d o m i n a n c e , t o u g h - m i n d e d n e s s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and c o n t r o l . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l l r e l a t e t o t h e m a s c u l i n e s e x r o l e i d e n t i t y . Female m a t h e m a t i c i a n s a r e o f t e n s t e r e o t y p e d a s " s i x f o o t , g r e y h a i r , tweed s u i t a nd o x f o r d s " ( B a d g e r , 1981, p . 605) When m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y r a t i n g s a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y have been r e s e a r c h e d t h e r e s u l t s t e n d t o be c o n t r a d i c t o r y and d e p e n d e n t on t h e s c a l e u s e d t o measure m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i t y . He 1 son ( B a d g e r , 1981) s t u d i e d woman m a t h e m a t i c i a n s and f o u n d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t r a t e h i g h e r t h a n a v e r a g e on m e a s u r e s o f m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i t y , d o minance, a s s e r t i v e n e s s o r a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y . E l t o n and Rose (1967) r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between m a s c u l i n e i n t e r e s t s a nd h i g h m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y . Lambert (1960) f o u n d m a t h e m a t i c s m a j o r s s c o r e d a s "more f e m i n i n e " t h a n n o n - m a t h e m a t i c s m a j o r s . He too k a s e c o n d sample b e c a u s e 16 t h i s r e s u l t was s u f f i c i e n t l y s u r p r i s i n g . The r e s u l t s of h i s second sample were the same. On the other hand, M i l l s (1981) found some ev idence fo r a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between mascu l ine t r a i t s and va lues and mathematics a b i l i t y . M i l t o n (1957) a l s o repo r ted a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mascu l ine sex r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . Fur ther c l u e s to the pe rce i ved mascul ine cha rac te r of mathematics are p rov ided by the mascu l ine o r i e n t a t i o n of problems in mathematics t e s t s and tex tbooks . ( M i l t o n , 1959; Graf and R idde l 1, 1972; Leder , 1974; C h r i s t o p o l o s and Borden, 1978) M i l t o n (1959) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of a l t e r i n g the content of problems to make them l e s s app rop r i a te to the mascu l ine r o l e . H is r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d when content was made re l evan t to females , males no longer outperformed them. Leder (1982) repo r ted s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Pa ren ta l a t t i t u d e s toward mathematics as mascul ine may a f f e c t the a t t i t u d e s of c h i l d r e n . A s t i n (1974) repo r ted pa ren ts encouraged boys more o f ten than g i r l s in academic s t u d i e s . Lev ine (1976) repo r ted that pa ren ts encourage sons to study mathematics even when i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r them wh i l e g i r l s are o f ten encouraged to drop i t . The r e s u l t s of o ther s t u d i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between g i r l s ' a t t i t u d e s toward mathematics and p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward mathemat ics. ( E r n e s t , 1976; Fennema and Sherman, 1977; Stamp, 1979; Sherman, 1982; Kamlnsk l , 1982) 17 Teachers'" a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a t h e m a t i c s a l s o d e t e r m i n e p u p i l s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a t h e m a t i c s . ( B r a s s e l l , P e t r y , and B r o o k s , 1980) E r n e s t (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t 41% o f t e a c h e r s s u r v e y e d t h o u g h t b o y s d i d b e t t e r i n m a t h e m a t i c s , none t h o u g h t g i r l s d i d b e t t e r . He p r o p o s e d t h a t a P y g m a l i o n e f f e c t may be t a k i n g p l a c e ; b o y s p e r f o r m b e t t e r b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s e x p e c t them t o be b e t t e r . R o w e l l (1971) f o u n d t e n t a t i v e e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i f t e a c h e r s e x p e c t e d b o y s t o a c h i e v e more, t h e y d i d . E v i d e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f male and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n m a t h e m a t i c s c l a s s r o o m s was r e p o r t e d by Bean <1976). B e c k e r (1981) f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n t e r a c t w i t h m a l e s more t h a n f e m a l e s i n b o t h blame and p r a i s e c o n t a c t s . Fennema (1977) i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a l e s were g i v e n more o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s p o n d t o h i g h l e v e l c o g n i t i v e q u e s t i o n s . B e c k e r (1981) f o u n d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s i n d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t t e d male s t u d e n t s b o t h i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s and f u t u r e c o u r s e c h o i c e s . H e l l e r a n d P a r s o n s (1981) r e p o r t e d , however, no sex d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d i n p a t t e r n s o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i v e f e e d b a c k . Duval (1980) s t u d i e d g r a d i n g p r a c t i c e s l o o k i n g f o r a f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r b i a s a g a i n s t f e m a l e s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i f t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s t u d y o f m a t h e m a t i c s was i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f e m a l e s t h e y r e i n f o r c e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e . L e v i n e (1976) f o u n d t h a t g i r l s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r m a t h e m a t i c s s t u d i e s o n l y 18 I f t h e y e x p r e s s e d g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were f o u n d i n s t u d i e s by Thomas and S t e w a r t ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Haven ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and L u c h i n s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e i s some c o n t r a d i c t i o n between r e s u l t s o f some s t u d i e s o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . S t e i n and S m i t h e l l s (1969) p r o d u c e d e v i d e n c e t h a t s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain i s not s t r o n g u n t i l a d o l e s c e n c e . On t h e o t h e r hand, Fennema and Sherman (1977) f o u n d t h a t g i r l s s t e r e o t y p e d m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain l e s s a s t h e y became more m a t u r e . In a s t u d y by B r u s h (1979) most s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s was an a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t f o r b o t h s e x e s t o s t u d y a l t h o u g h f e m a l e s were much more adamant t h a n m a l e s . The i n f l u e n c e o f sex r o l e i d e n t i t y on a c h i e v e m e n t e f f o r t s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e x - t y p e d s u b j e c t s , m a t h e m a t i c s and E n g l i s h , was s t u d i e d by K a c z a l a ( 1 9 8 1 ) . She f o u n d t h a t s e x r o l e i d e n t i t y a f f e c t s g i r l s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m a t h e m a t i c s and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y v a l u e i t . S i m i l a r l y , L e v i n e (1976) r e p o r t e d a d e c r e a s e i n g i r l s ' i n t e r e s t i n m a t h e m a t i c s and a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n s o c i e t a l p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t women i n m a t h e m a t i c s d u r i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l y e a r s . Fox (1976) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g c o n f l i c t between t h e f e m i n i n e s e x r o l e and a c h i e v e m e n t i n m a t h e m a t i c s . Sherman (1982) f o u n d t h a t g i r l s who a t t e m p t e d 4 y e a r s o f m a t h e m a t i c s p e r c e i v e d m a t h e m a t i c s a s more o f a male 19 domain t h a n t h o s e who a t t e m p t e d l e s s m a t h e m a t i c s . She p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e g i r l s who e l e c t e d n ot t o t a k e m a t h e m a t i c s d i d s o b e c a u s e t h e y have r e s o l v e d s e x r o l e c o n f l i c t by r e n o u n c i n g a m b i t i o n . T h o s e who c o n t i n u e d i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o n t i n u e d t o p e r c e i v e i t a s a m a s c u l i n e p u r s u i t a n d c o n t i n u e d t o s u f f e r f r o m s e x r o l e c o n f l i c t . SEX DIFFERENCES IN ENROLLMENT Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n r o l l m e n t i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s have been w e l l documented. A s t u d y o f t h e m a t h e m a t i c s b a c k g r o u n d o f C a l i f o r n i a f r e s h m e n by S e l l s (1978) and r e p l i c a t e d by E r n e s t (1976) r e v e a l e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e men h a d f o u r y e a r s o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l m a t h e m a t i c s t h a n women. The 1977-78 NAEP s t u d y r e p o r t e d a t h r e e - t o - t w o r a t i o o f 17 y e a r o l d m a l e s t o 17 y e a r o l d f e m a l e s who h a d t a k e n more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s o f m a t h e m a t i c s . (NAEP 1979 p.29) G i e s e (1983) u s i n g d a t a f r o m 113 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f o r 1981/82 i n t h e s t a t e o f M i c h i g a n , f o u n d 45% o f t h e b o y s and 36% o f t h e g i r l s i n Grade 12 were s t u d y i n g m a t h e m a t i c s . Haven (1972) s u r v e y e d t h e c o l l e g e - b o u n d s t u d e n t s who too k t h e C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n B o a r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t and i n d i c a t e d 56% o f t h e g i r l s t o o k m a t h e m a t i c s i n Grade 12, a s compared t o 84% o f t h e b o y s . 20 The O n t a r i o r e s u l t s f r o m t h e S e c o n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a t h e m a t i c s S t u d y r e p o r t e d by R a p h a e l e t a l . (1984) i n d i c a t e d b o y s were e n r o l l e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s t h a n g i r l s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e 1981 M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t ( R o b i t a i l l e , 1981), r e p o r t e d t h a t f e m a l e s were u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n most e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s a t t h e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l . They c o n s t u t u t e d 40% o f t h e A l g e b r a 12 p o p u l a t i o n , 30% o f C o m p u t i n g S c i e n c e 11, 30% o f Geometry 12, 10% o f T r a d e s M a t h e m a t i c s 11 and 60% o f t h e Consumer M a t h e m a t i c s 11. The S e c o n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a t h e m a t i c s S t u d y , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( R o b i t a i l l e , O'Shea, and D i r k s , 1982) f o u n d t h a t g i r l s made up 5 1 % o f t h e Grade 12 p o p u l a t i o n b u t o n l y 43% o f t h e e n r o l l m e n t i n A l g e b r a 12. G i r l s f o r m e d 65% o f t h e g r o u p w h i c h t o o k no m a t h e m a t i c s b e y o n d Grade 10, w h i c h was t h e l a s t y e a r m a t h e m a t i c s was a c o m p u l s o r y c o u r s e a t t h a t t i m e . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u r s e e n r o l l m e n t become e v e n more p r o n o u n c e d when m a t h e m a t i c s - r e l a t e d c o u r s e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c i e n c e A s s e s s m e n t (Hobbs, B o l d t , E r i c k s o n , Q u e l c h , and S i e b e n , 1978) f o u n d t h a t b o y s e n r o l l i n more s c i e n c e c o u r s e s t h a n g i r l s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e more g i r l s e n r o l l e d i n b i o l o g y c o u r s e s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e s e n r o l l e d i n t h e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , e g . 38% o f m a l e s and 17% o f f e m a l e s i n s e n i o r g r a d e s a r e e n r o l l e d i n s e n i o r p h y s i c s c o u r s e s . 21 SUMMARY Male and f e m a l e sex r o l e i d e n t i t i e s d e v e l o p e a r l y . C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e s e x r o l e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s e x e s . Most g i r l s s e e t h e p o s s i b l e r o l e s f o r women a s l i m i t e d t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : w i f e , m other and d e c o r a t i o n . Many c a r e e r s a r e s e e n a s n o t s e x - a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f e m a l e s and m a t h e m a t i c s i s one o f t h e s e . M a t h e m a t i c s i s p e r c e i v e d a s m a s c u l i n e i n n a t u r e , a s a r e m a t h e m a t i c i a n s . T h e r e a r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s a t t i t u d e . The f a m i l y and s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s communicate d i f f e r e n t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s t o b o y s and g i r l s t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . P a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and p e e r s i n f l u e n c e g i r l s t o p e r c e i v e m a t h e m a t i c s a s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b o y s . T h e s e a t t i t u d e s c o n t r i b u t e t o c o n f l i c t between g i r l s ' w i s h e s t o a c h i e v e a c a d e m i c a l l y , and t h e i r d e s i r e t o c o n f o r m t o t h e f e m i n i n e sex r o l e . E v i d e n c e e x i s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e more b o y s e n r o l l e d i n m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s t h a n g i r l s . B oys t e n d t o t a k e more m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s and m a t h e m a t i c s - r e l a t e d c o u r s e s t h a n g i r l s i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e h a s been r e p o r t e d i n B r i t a i n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and a l s o i n Canada. 22 C H A P T E R T H R E E METHOD OF STUDY INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s research study was to exp lo re the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s ' pe r cep t i ons of mathematics as mascu l ine in nature and t h e i r f u tu re p l ans to e n r o l l in mathematics c o u r s e s . In May 1985, the B r i t i s h Columbia Mathemat ics Assessment was admin is te red to a l l Grade 4 , 7 and 10 s tuden ts in B r i t i s h Columbia , and a 10% sample of Grade 8 ' s . Some of the data c o l l e c t e d from the assessment were used as the b a s i s f o r t h i s s tudy . RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES An attempt was made to d i s c o v e r and c l a r i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as mascu l ine by g i r l s and boys , and fu tu re p l a n s to e n r o l l in mathematics courses in Grades 11 and 12. D i f f e r e n c e s in the s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics by males and females in Grades 7 and 10 were examined. Future mathematics p l ans of Grade 10 s tuden ts were a l s o examined. INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION The p u r p o s e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t was t o p r o v i d e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h f a c t u a l and c u r r e n t I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s . The a s s e s s m e n t i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r f o r m s (Form Q, Form R, Form S, and Form T) f o r e a c h g r a d e l e v e l . O n l y t h e d a t a f r o m Form S, f o r G r a d e s 7 a n d 10, were u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s i n c e Form S i n c l u d e d t h e Gender and M a t h e m a t i c s s c a l e . Form R i n c l u d e d S c a l e R, t i t l e d M a t h e m a t i c s i n S c h o o l , and Form T i n c l u d e d S c a l e T, t i t l e d C a l c u l a t o r s and C o m p u t e r s . Form Q i n c l u d e d o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on how s t u d e n t s a p p r o a c h measurement a n d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g q u e s t i o n s . Form S c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e s e c t i o n s , a 1 5 - i t e m a t t i t u d e s c a l e , 16 i t e m s c o n c e r n i n g s t u d e n t b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , and a 5 0 - i t e m a c h i e v e m e n t s u r v e y . TEST ADMINISTRATION Between May 21-24, 1985, e a c h s t u d e n t i n G r a d e s 4, 7 an d 10, w r o t e one o f t h e f o r m s o f t h e 1985 M a t h e m a t i c s A s s e s s m e n t . Form Q was d i s t r i b u t e d on t h e b a s i s o f one p e r c l a s s o r one f o r e v e r y 25 s t u d e n t s . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d Form R, Form S, o r Form T i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l numbers. The f o r m s were o r d e r e d R, S, T, R, S, T... f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l s . 24 SELECTION OF ITEMS FOR ANALYSIS The Gender and M a t h e m a t i c s s c a l e i n Form S c o n t a i n e d 15 i t e m s . The i t e m s a r e l i s t e d b e l o w . 1. Men make b e t t e r s c i e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s t h a n women. 2. G i r l s have more n a t u r a l a b i l i t y i n m a t h e m a t i c s t h a n b o y s . 3. Boys n e e d t o know more m a t h e m a t i c s t h a n g i r l s . 4. A woman n e e d s a c a r e e r J u s t a s much a s a man d o e s . 5. My f a t h e r e n j o y s d o i n g m a t h e m a t i c s . 6. My mother e n j o y s d o i n g m a t h e m a t i c s . 7. My f a t h e r i s u s u a l l y a b l e t o h e l p me w i t h my m a t h e m a t i c s homework i f I ask him t o h e l p . 8. My mother i s u s u a l l y a b l e t o h e l p me w i t h my m a t h e m a t i c s homework i f I ask h e r t o h e l p . 9. My mother t h i n k s t h a t l e a r n i n g m a t h e m a t i c s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r me. 10. My f a t h e r t h i n k s t h a t l e a r n i n g m a t h e m a t i c s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r me. 11. My f a t h e r w a n t s me t o do w e l l i n m a t h e m a t i c s . 12. My mother w a n t s me t o do w e l l i n m a t h e m a t i c s . 13. G i r l s c a n do b e t t e r t h a n b o y s i n m a t h e m a t i c s . 14. My mother i s u s u a l l y v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g me w i t h m a t h e m a t i c s . 15. My f a t h e r i s u s u a l l y v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g me w i t h m a t h e m a t i c s . 25 Of t h e 15 i t e m s , s i x were n o t c o n s i d e r e d f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s . The o m i t t e d i t e m s were q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g p a r e n t a l enjoyment o f m a t h e m a t i c s , p a r e n t a l a b i l i t y t o a s s i s t w i t h m a t h e m a t i c s homework and p a r e n t a l d e s i r e f o r s t u d e n t t o do w e l l i n m a t h e m a t i c s . The n i n e i t e m s s e l e c t e d ( 1 , 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, a n d 15) were e x a m i n e d . I t was f e l t t h a t f i v e o f t h e i t e m s s e l e c t e d d i d n o t f i t w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e n i n e s e l e c t e d i t e m s was c o n d u c t e d t o p r o v i d e s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e a u t h o r ' s h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t t h e r e b e i n g more t h a n one f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e n i n e i t e m s . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was u s e d t o s e a r c h f o r c l u s t e r s o f i t e m s w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r . The f o u r i t e m s 1, 2, 3 a n d 13, c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e t o w a r d m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r a s one f a c t o r w i t h an E i g e n v a l u e o f 1.37 f o r Grade 7 and an E i g e n v a l u e o f 1.21 f o r G rade 10. Items 14 and 15 a l s o g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r w i t h an E i g e n v a l u e o f 1.57 f o r b o t h Grade 7 and Grade 10. I t was f e l t t h a t t h e s e i t e m s were n o t r e l a t e d t o measurement o f s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain and s i n c e t h e y d i d n o t g r o u p w i t h t h e o t h e r i t e m s t h e s e were e x c l u d e d f r o m f u r t h e r d a t a a n a l y s i s . Items 9 and 10 were e x c l u d e d on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e y d i d n o t s h a r e any s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m u n a l i t y w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e d a t a ; t h a t i s t h e y d i d n o t g r o u p w i t h 26 any o ther i tems. Moreover, i tems 9 and 10 were a t tempt ing to measure the s t u d e n t s ' pe rcep t i on of t h e i r mothers ' and f a t h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s to mathematics ra the r than pe r cep t i ons of mathematics as a male domain. Item four was exc luded s i n c e i t was not mathematics s p e c i f i c . The four i tems s e l e c t e d from Sca le S were 1, 2 , 3 , and 13. These items were used as c r i t e r i a f o r a n a l y s i s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics by s tudents in Grades 7 and 10. The ques t i ons r e q u i r e d that the student choose one of the f o l l o w i n g f i v e responses on a L i k e r t s c a l e : S t rong l y D i s a g r e e , D i sag ree , Undec ided, Agree, and S t rong l y Agree. In the second s e c t i o n of Form S, Student Background In fo rma t ion , ques t ions 10 and 11 were des igned to i n v e s t i g a t e the fu tu re mathematics p l ans of s t uden t s . The two ques t i ons are as f o l l o w s : 10. Which mathematics courses do you p lan to take in Grade 11? (Mark a l l that a p p l y . ) A. None B. Math 10 C. A lgebra 11 D. Trades Math 11 E. Bus iness and Consumer Math 11 F. Computer Sc ience 11 G. A lgeb ra 12 H. Geometry 12 I. P r o b a b i l i t y and S t a t i s t i c s 12 27 11. Which mathematics courses do you p lan to take in Grade 12. (Mark a l l that a p p l y . ) A . None B. A lgebra 11 C. Trades Math 11 D. Bus iness and Consumer Math 11 E. Computer Sc ience 11 F. A lgebra 12 G. Geometry 12 H. P r o b a b i l i t y and S t a t i s t i c s 12 For Grade 11 mathematics courses s tudents had n ine c h o i c e s and cou ld i n d i c a t e more than one. Students had e igh t c h o i c e s of Grade 12 mathematics courses and aga in cou ld choose more than one. For those s tudents e n r o l l e d in Grade 10 in 1984-85 and p o t e n t i a l l y g radua t ing in 1986-87, a Grade 11 mathematics course i s necessary to meet g radua t ion requ i rements , but may be taken in Grade 11 or Grade 12. I f they completed a Grade 11 course by the end of Grade 11, then Grade 12 i s the on ly year in the B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c school system in which enro l lment in mathematics i s o p t i o n a l . Sec t i on 3 of Sca le S was the 50- i tem achievement su rvey . Data from the achievement survey were not used in t h i s s tudy . 28 SELECTION OF SAMPLE The Educat iona l Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia (ERIBC) was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t es t d i s t r i b u t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n , mark ing , and cod ing of responses . Approx imate ly 28 000 Grade 7 s tuden ts p a r t i c i p a t e d in the assessment and about 2800 cases were s e l e c t e d randomly as the sample f o r t h i s s tudy . More than 24 000 Grade 10 s tuden ts p a r t i c i p a t e d , and approx imate ly 2400 cases were randomly s e l e c t e d . The Form S ( d i s t r i b u t e d to approx imate ly o n e - t h i r d of the s tuden ts ) data were separa ted from the other da ta and p l a c e d in a computer f i l e f o r data a n a l y s i s . The sample s i z e was 859 Grade 1 0 ' s and 822 Grade 7 ' s . In some s c h o o l s , in some school d i s t r i c t s , Sca le S had not been completed or s tuden ts had been urged not to f i l l i n the responses to those i tems. T h i s occur red because c e r t a i n members of the teach ing p r o f e s s i o n f e l t that ques t i ons concern ing gender might promote the development of s t e r e o t y p i n g in s t uden t s . T h i s l ed to the e x i s t e n c e of cases where none or on ly a few of the Sca le S responses had been completed. These cases were de le ted as the data were be ing p l a c e d in the computer f i l e . There were approx imate ly 30-50 such cases In each of Grades 7 and 10. Cases which were incomplete were a l s o de le ted s i n c e i t was necessary to ob ta in responses f o r a l l four ques t i ons which were to be used in the s tudy . 29 DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE The f i n a l sample f o r Grade 7 c o n s i s t e d of 709 c a s e s . S ince a l l Grade 7 s tuden ts in B r i t i s h Columbia wrote the Mathematics Assessment, and the 10% sample of Grade 7 s tuden ts which ERIBC coded on tape was randomly chosen, these s u b j e c t s cou ld be s a i d to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole popu la t i on of Grade 7 / s in B r i t i s h Columbia . The f i n a l sample f o r Grade 10 c o n s i s t e d of 698 c a s e s . Approx imate ly 24 000 Grade 10 s tuden ts completed the Mathematics Assessment and again ERIBC coded a 10% random sample on the computer tape . The cases who had completed Sca le S were removed from the main f i l e and p l aced in a data f i l e . The sample was cons ide red r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l popu la t i on of Grade 10 s tuden ts . IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES V a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r the study were: the degree to which female and male s tuden ts s te reo type mathematics as a male domain, and the type and number of mathematics courses the s tuden ts p lanned to e n r o l l i n f o r Grades 11 and 12. Degree of s t e r e o t y p i n g was i d e n t i f i e d as a separa te v a r i a b l e f o r each of the four i tems c o n s i d e r e d . A composite score on the four i tems was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each student from the L l k e r t s c a l e . 30 S ince i t was p o s s i b l e f o r s tuden ts to choose more than one course f o r Grade 11 and f o r Grade 12, i t was necessary to cons ide r each mathematics course in which the s tudent p lanned to e n r o l l as a separa te v a r i a b l e . For the sake of b r e v i t y , the f o l l o w i n g courses w i l l be r e f e r r e d to by the b racke ted a b b r e v i a t i o n : Mathematics 10 <MA 10) , A lgeb ra 11 <AL 11) , Trades Mathematics 11 <TM 11) , Bus iness and Consumer Mathematics 11 <BCM 11) , Computer Sc ience 11 (CSC 11) , A lgeb ra 12 <AL 12) , Geometry 12 (GEO 12) , P r o b a b i l i t y and S t a t i s t i c s 12 (PS 12) . DATA MANIPULATION The responses to the four 1 terns on the Gender and Mathematics Sca le from Form S were recoded from the 5 -po in t s c a l e of agreement-disagreement i n t o a 3 -po ln t s c a l e . " S t r o n g l y D isagree" and "D isagree" were coded " 1 " as a general i n d i c a t i o n of lack of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain. "Undecided" was coded "2 " as n e u t r a l , and " S t r o n g l y Agree" and "Agree" were coded " 3 " as a general i n d i c a t i o n of some s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain. Items 2 and 13 were recoded in reverse so that a score of 3 , f o r a l l four i tems, i n d i c a t e d s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as mascu l i ne . In the Student Background In format ion s e c t i o n each of the n ine c h o i c e s of courses f o r Grade 11 and each of the e igh t c h o i c e s of courses f o r Grade 12 was de f i ned as a 31 separa te v a r i a b l e . The responses were coded as 1 i n d i c a t i n g the course had been chosen, and 2 i n d i c a t i n g the course had not been chosen. 32 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS STATISTICAL PROCEDURES The present chapter c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n of procedures used f o r data m a n i p u l a t i o n , measurement of the s t e r e o t y p i n g and fu tu re mathematics p l a n s . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s of f u tu re mathematics p l ans by comparison of academic w i th non-academic courses in Grade 11 and a comparison of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n in mathematics courses in Grade 12. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA: MEASUREMENT OF THE EXTENT OF STEREOTYPING A composite score f o r each student was c a l c u l a t e d on the four i tems to g ive an i n d i c a t i o n of the extent to which each student s te reo typed mathematics as mascu l i ne . These sco res ranged from 4 to 12. In order to l i m i t the number of sco res to be d i s c u s s e d and g i ve an i n d i c a t i o n of the general t rend of s t e r e o t y p i n g the composite sco res were c a t e g o r i z e d i n to a 5 po in t s c a l e . The sco res were c a t e g o r i z e d u s i n g r e s u l t s from frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s produced f o r Grade 7 and Grade 10. The r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d in Table 4 . 1 . A f t e r examining the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the d e c i s i o n was made to r a te composite 33 s c o r e s so that sco res of 4 and 5 became 1, 6 and 7 became 2 , 8 became 3 , 9 and 10 became 4 , and 11 and 12 became 5. T h i s recod ing meant that sco res of 1 or 2 i n d i c a t e d a lack of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as mascu l i ne , a score of 3 would be neu t ra l and sco res or 4 or 5 i n d i c a t e d some s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as mascu l i ne . Table 4.1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Composite Scores on Four I tems. Grade 7 10 Composi te Score Frequency Percent Frequency Percent 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 10 20 90 110 335 81 45 14 4 1 3 13 16 47 11 6 2 1 10 15 91 95 308 75 70 20 14 1 2 13 14 44 11 10 3 2 To ta l 709 698 34 EXTENT OF STEREOTYPING BY GENDER: GRADES 7 AND 10 A t - t e s t was performed on the composite sco res of males and females to e s t a b l i s h whether there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the extent to which males and females s te reo typed mathematics as mascu l i ne . The means of the composite sco res were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the Grade. 7 c a s e s . The mean composite score of the males was 3 .06 . The males d i d not s te reo type mathematics as mascu l i ne . The mean f o r the females was 2 . 6 3 , s l i g h t l y l e s s than n e u t r a l . When a t - t e s t was performed on the means there was found to be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g by males and females . (See Table 4 .2) Al though the d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes was s i g n i f i c a n t , n e i t h e r sex s te reo typed mathematics as mascu l i ne . The means of the composite sco res of the Grade 10 cases were c a l c u l a t e d . The mean composite score of the males was 3 .27 , the fema les ' mean score was 2 . 6 2 . When a t - t e s t was performed on the d a t a , the d i f f e r e n c e was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d in Table 4 . 2 . 35 Table 4 .2 Comparison of Mean Composite Scores bv Gender Group n Mean Standard Devi at ion t - v a l u e Grade 7 Mal es 381 3.06 0 .9 6 .98* Females 328 2.63 0.8 Grade 10 Males 377 3,27 0 .9 10.14* Fema1es 321 2.62 0.8 *p<.001 COMPARISON OF STEREOTYPING BETWEEN GRADES 7 AND 10 The means of the composite sco res of the d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s were compared to examine changes in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of males and females from Grades 7 to 10. The mean of the females in Grade 7 was 2.63 and in Grade 10 2 . 6 2 . There was no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e in means. The mean of the males in Grade 7 was 3.06 and In Grade 10, 3 .27 . The extent to which males s te reo typed mathematics as mascu l ine had inc reased very s l i g h t l y from Grade 7 to Grade 10. (see Table 4 .2 ) 36 FUTURE MATHEMATICS PLANS: GRADE 10 The Grade 10 t es t instrument i nc luded ques t i ons concern ing f u tu re mathematics p l a n s . Students had i n d i c a t e d which mathematics courses they p lanned to take in Grades 11 and 12. A t ab l e was cons t ruc ted to i l l u s t r a t e the numbers and percentages of g i r l s and boys who p lanned to take each of the mathematics courses (or no mathematics) in Grades 11 and 12. (see Table 4 .3) The composite sco res f o r the four a t t i t u d e i tems were compared w i th the fu tu re mathematics p l ans of the Grade 10 s tuden ts u s i n g a Chi square t es t to f i n d out i f there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in the s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics between those s tuden ts who p lanned to take a p a r t i c u l a r mathematics course and those who d i d not p lan to take i t . A separa te t e s t was performed on each of the c h o i c e s f o r mathematics courses in Grades 11 and 12. These were not combined because many s tuden ts i n d i c a t e d that they p lanned to take more than one mathematics course In Grade 11. A comparison of a l l d a t a , both male and female , was performed f i r s t to f i n d out i f there was a general t rend in the s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics by s tuden ts who chose p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e s . The d i f f e r e n c e in s t e r e o t y p i n g f o r each course was ana lyzed u s i n g a Chi square t e s t . The r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d in Table 4 . 4 . 37 Table 4 .3 Future M a t h e m a t i c s P l a n s : Course bv Gender Ma1e Fema1e Course n % of males n % of females Grade Eleven Courses None 10 3 15 5 MA 10 20 5 12 4 AL 11 241 64 210 65 TM 11 87 23 27 8 BCM 11 35 9 63 20 CSC 11 66 18 36 11 AL 12 9 2 9 3 GEO 12 6 2 2 1 PS 12 3 1 0 0 Grade Twelve Courses None 81 22 83 26 AL 11 23 6 16 5 TM 11 25 7 8 3 BCM 11 24 6 27 8 CSC 11 16 4 15 5 AL 12 207 55 176 55 GEO 12 40 11 27 8 PS 12 18 5 8 3 38 Table 4.4 S t e r e o t y p i n g bv Future Mathematics P l a n s : A] ] Data Course n % X 2 p Grade Eleven Courses None 25 4 2 .5 0.64 MA 10 32 5 1.7 0.80 AL 11 451 65 4 .5 0.34 TM 11 114 16 6 .5 0.17 BCM 11 98 14 3.7 0.45 CSC 11 102 15 10.1 0 .04* AL 12 18 3 5.2 0.27 GEO 12 8 1 2 .8 0.60 PS 12 3 1 8.4 0.08 Grade Twelve Courses None 164 24 3.0 0.55 AL 11 39 6 4 .5 0.34 TM 11 33 5 3.4 0.49 BCM 11 51 8 7.0 0.14 CSC 11 31 5 5.1 0.28 AL 12 383 55 3.2 0.52 GEO 12 67 10 3.6 0.47 PS 12 26 4 3.0 0.56 *p<0.05 39 Of the s tudents choos ing the v a r i o u s Grade 11 c o u r s e s , on ly those who i n d i c a t e d CSC 11 d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as mascu l ine when compared to those not p l a n n i n g to e n r o l l in t h i s cou rse . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in the s t e r e o t y p i n g between those who planned to take a course and those who d i d not f o r any of the Grade 12 c h o i c e s . EXTENT OF STEREOTYPING: MALE DATA ONLY The extent of the d i f f e r e n c e in s t e r e o t y p i n g of males who p lanned on e n r o l l i n g in the v a r i o u s mathematics courses was then ana lyzed u s i n g a Chi square t e s t . The r e s u l t s are compi led in Table 4 . 5 . The d i f f e r e n c e in s t e r e o t y p i n g fo r each course was ana lyzed w i th a Chi square t e s t . Those males who p lanned on e n r o l l i n g in AL 11 in Grade 11 s te reo typed mathematics as a male domain s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than those who d i d not p lan on e n r o l l i n g in AL 11. Those males who p lanned on e n r o l l i n g in TM 11 s te reo typed mathematics as a mascu l ine domain s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than those who d i d not p lan on e n r o l l i n g in t h i s cou rse . For Grade 12 course c h o i c e s , those s tuden ts who p lanned on e n r o l l i n g in PS 12 s te reo typed mathematics s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than those s tudents who d i d not p lan on e n r o l l i n g in PS 12. T h i s d i d not i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e t rend however, because there were on ly 3 s tuden ts in the sample. 40 Table 4 .5 S t e r e o t y p i n g bv Future Mathematics P l a n s ; Male Data Course n % X 2 P Grade Eleven Courses None 10 3 4 .3 0.37 MA 10 20 6 1.7 0.80 AL 11 241 64 11.8 0 . 02 * TM 11 87 23 12.0 0 . 02* BCM 11 35 9 2 .5 0.64 CSC 11 66 18 9.2 0.06 AL 12 9 2 4 .6 0.33 GEO 12 6 2 1.7 0.81 PS 12 3 1 17.8 0 . 0 0 1 * * Grade Twelve Courses None 81 22 2 .6 0.62 AL 11 23 6 3.1 0.54 TM 11 25 7 1.3 0.86 BCM 11 24 6 3 .3 0.51 CSC 11 16 4 5.1 0.28 AL 12 207 54 4 .3 0.37 GEO 12 40 11 4.1 0.39 PS 12 18 5 5 .3 0.26 *p<0.05 **p<0.01 41 EXTENT OF STEREOTYPINGJ FEMALE DATA ONLY A Chi square tes t was used to ana lyze whether there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics between those females who p lanned to e n r o l l in a mathematics course and those who d i d no t . The r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d in Table 4 . 6 . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in the ex tent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as mascul ine in nature between those who chose a course and those who d i d no t , f o r any of the course c h o i c e s in Grades 11 and 12. ACADEMIC/NON-ACADEMIC MATHEMATICS COURSES An a n a l y s i s of the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of s tuden ts who e l e c t e d to take an academic mathematics course in Grade 11 and those s tudents who e l e c t e d to take a non-academic course in Grade 11 was c a r r i e d ou t . The term "academic course" was used to r e f e r to AL 11 which i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y programs. "Non-academic courses" was used to r e f e r to TM 11 and BCM 11. A l l s tuden ts shou ld have chosen a Grade 11 or 12 mathematics course u n l e s s they were p r e s e n t l y t a k i n g a Grade 11 course but were r e g i s t e r e d In Grade 10, or were on a s p e c i a l program. Most s t u d e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , would have chosen AL 11, TM 11 or BCM 11. By scann ing the data f i l e f o r Grade 10 s tuden ts i t was found that most m u l t i p l e c h o i c e s in Grade 11 were 42 Table 4 .6 S t e r e o t y p i n g by F u t u r e M a t h e m a t i c s P l a n s : F e m a l e D a t a Course n % X 2 P Grade Eleven Courses None 15 5 5 .5 .24 MA 10 12 4 1.3 .86 AL 11 210 65 6 .9 .14 TM 11 27 8 2.4 .66 BCM 11 63 20 6.1 .19 CSC 11 36 11 0.2 1 .00 AL 12 9 3 5.0 .29 GEO 12 2 1 3 .3 .52 PS 12 0 0 — — Grade Twelve Courses None 83 26 7.2 .13 AL 11 16 5 1.5 .83 TM 11 8 3 3 .5 .48 BCM 11 27 8 3.0 .55 CSC 11 15 5 3.1 .54 AL 12 176 55 2 .7 .61 GEO 12 27 8 3.4 .49 PS 12 8 3 2 .6 .62 43 s tuden ts who e l e c t e d to take MA 10 and one of the Grade 11 mathematics s u b j e c t s in Grade 11, perhaps in an e f f o r t to ca tch up, and s tudents who had chosen one of the three p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned, and CSC 11. Of the 698 s t u d e n t s , on ly 17 had chosen combinat ions such as AL 11 and BCM 11, or TM 11 and AL 11. For the purposes of examining fu tu re mathematics p l a n s from the comparison of academic, non-academic c o u r s e s , these 17 s tuden ts were d e l e t e d , s i n c e t h e i r e f f e c t s tended to negate one another . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that these m u l t i p l e responses might be e r r o r s because of the c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of t a k i n g both an academic and a non-academic mathematics course in Grade 11. A t - t e s t was performed in order to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics and d i f f e r e n t mathematics p l a n s in Grade 11. Separate t e s t s were run on a l l the d a t a , female data on ly and male data o n l y . The r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d in Table 4 . 7 . A l l d a t a , male data and female data were compared u s i n g a t - t e s t . When a l l the data were combined i t was found that those who planned to e n r o l l in an academic mathematics course d i d not s te reo type d i f f e r e n t l y than those who p lanned to take a non-academic cou rse . The mean of those who p lanned to take an academic course was 2.98 ( n e u t r a l ) , and the mean of those who p lanned to take a non-academic course was 3 .04 . 44 Table 4 .7 Academic/Non-academlc Courses bv Degree of S t e r e o t y p i n g Group n Mean t - v a l u e p A l l Data Academic 424 2.98 0.71 0.48 Non-academic 106 3.04 Male Data Academic 227 3.33 Non-academic 80 3.15 Female Data Academic 197 2.55 Non-academic 26 2.69 1.51 0.13 0.95 0.34 The data were then separa ted and ana lyzed f o r males and females . When the male data were t e s t e d fo r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e those who chose academic courses had a mean of 3 . 3 3 ; those who chose non-academic, 3 .15 . The d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . For the female d a t a , the mean of those who chose an academic course was 2 . 5 5 . The mean f o r those who chose non-academic courses was 2 . 6 9 . The d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . , 45 PARTICIPATION IN MATHEMATICS COURSES A comparison was made of the s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics between those s t u d e n t s who planned to e n r o l l i n AL 12 or GEO 12, and those students who planned to take no mathematics course i n Grade 12. The data f i l e was scanned in order to t e s t the assumption that i f students planned to e n r o l l i n more than one Grade 12 mathematics course they would e n r o l l i n AL 12, and one or two of GEO 12 and PS 12. If they chose only one Grade 12 mathematics course they would choose AL 12 or GEO 12. Scanning the data supported t h i s assumption. Only 3 s t u d e n t s planned to take PS 12 as t h e i r only Grade 12 mathematics course. One hundred and s i x t y s t udents chose no mathematics course w h i l e 392 chose AL 12, or GEO 12, or AL 12 and GEO 12. The data were a l s o scanned i n order to gather i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g those s t u d e n t s who appear to be f o l l o w i n g an a c c e l e r a t e d program of mathematics enrollment In order to maximize t h e i r mathematical experience. For example, some students i n semestered s c h o o l s were t a k i n g AL 11 and AL 12 in Grade 11, and GEO 12 and PS 12 in Grade 12. The t - t e s t performed to analyze Grade 12 c h o i c e s would not c o n t a i n data from these s t u d e n t s . A scan of the data r e v e a l e d only 3 students i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Given the small number, there would be no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t i f they were l e f t out of the sample. 46 A t - t e s t was performed on the data comparing the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g w i th mathematics p l ans fo r Grade 12. The r e s u l t s are l i s t e d in t ab l e 4 . 8 . When a l l the data were used , the mean of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was 2 .96 , the mean of the p a r t i c i p a n t s was a l s o 2 .96 . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . When the data from males were thus compared those s tuden ts who d i d not p lan to take a mathematics course in Grade 12 had a mean of 3 . 1 9 , wh i l e those who d i d had a mean of 3 .29 . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . The female data when ana lyzed d i s p l a y e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . The mean of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was 2 .73 and the mean of the p a r t i c i p a n t s was 2 .56 . T h i s r e s u l t was not s i g n i f i c a n t but due to chance a l o n e . 47 Table 4 .8 P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Mathematics Courses bv Degree of S t e r e o t y p i n g n Mean t - v a l u e A l l data N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s 160 2.96 .04 0.97 P a r t i c i p a n t s 372 2.96 Male data N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s 80 3.19 P a r t i c i p a n t s 203 3.29 0 .9 0.37 Female data N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s 80 2 .73 P a r t i c i p a n t s 169 2.56 1.6 0.10 48 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS PERTINENT TO EACH HYPOTHESIS Hypothes is #1. Males in Grade 7 s te reo type mathematics as a male domain. R e s u l t s . Males in Grade 7 do not s te reo type mathematics as a ma1e doma i n. Hypothes is #2. Females in Grade 7 s te reo type mathematics as a male domain. R e s u l t s . Females in Grade 7 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain. Hypothes is #3. Males in Grade 10 s te reo type mathematics as a ma1e doma i n . R e s u l t s . Males in Grade 10 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain. Hypothes is #4. Females in Grade 10 s te reo type mathematics as a male domain. R e s u l t s . Females in Grade 10 do not s te reo type mathematics as a ma1e doma i n. Hypothes is #5. There Is no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent to which males and females s te reo type mathematics as a male domain in Grade 7. 49 R e s u l t s . The extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain by females in Grade 7 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics by males in Grade 7. Hypothes is #6. There Is no d i f f e r e n c e in the ex tent to which males and females s te reo type mathematics as a male domain in Grade 10. R e s u l t s . The extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain by females in Grade 10 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics by males in Grade 10. Hypothes is #7. There no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between s tuden ts who p lan to e n r o l l in non-academic mathematics courses in Grade 11 and s tuden ts who p lan to e n r o l l in academic mathematics courses in Grade 11. Resu1 ts . Students who p lan to e n r o l l in non-academic mathematics courses in Grade 11 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain d i f f e r e n t l y than s tuden ts who p lan to e n r o l l In academic mathematics courses in Grade 11. 50 Hypothes is #8. There no d i f f e r e n c e In the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between males who p lan to e n r o l l In non-academic mathematics courses in Grade 11 and males who p lan to e n r o l l In academic mathematics courses in Grade 1.1. R e s u l t s . Males who p lan to e n r o l l in non-academic mathematics courses In Grade 11 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain d i f f e r e n t l y than males who p lan to e n r o l l in academic mathematics courses in Grade 11. Hypothes is #9. There no d i f f e r e n c e In the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between females who p lan to e n r o l l In non-academic mathematics courses In Grade 11 and females who p lan to e n r o l l in academic mathematics courses In Grade 11. R e s u l t s . Females who p lan to e n r o l l in non-academic mathematics courses in Grade 11 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain d i f f e r e n t l y than females who p lan to e n r o l l In academic mathematics courses in Grade 11. Hypothes is #10 There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between s tuden ts who p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 and s tuden ts who do not p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12. 51 R e s u l t s . Students who p lan to e n r o l l In a mathematics course in Grade 12 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain d i f f e r e n t l y than s tuden ts who do not p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12. Hypothes is #11 There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between males who p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 and males who do not p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12. R e s u l t s . Males who p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain d i f f e r e n t l y than males who do not p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12. Hypothes is #12 There i s no d i f f e r e n c e in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male domain between females who p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 and females who do not p lan to e n r o l l In a mathematics course in Grade 12. R e s u l t s . Females who p lan to e n r o l l in a mathematics course in Grade 12 do not s te reo type mathematics as a male domain d i f f e r e n t l y than females who do not p lan to e n r o l l i n a mathematics course in Grade 12. 52 CHAPTER FIVE  SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION RESEARCH FINDINGS The purpose of the research was to exp lo re the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics as a male or female domain by both male and female s tuden ts in Grades 7 and 10 In B r i t i s h Co lumbia , and the extent and nature of the Grade 11 and Grade 12 mathematics p l a n s of the Grade 10 s t uden t s . In the r e s e a r c h , a p o r t i o n of the data fo r Grades 7 and 10 from the 1985 B .C . Mathematics Assessment was a n a l y z e d . The extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g was measured u s i n g the responses to four i tems on an a t t i t u d e s c a l e . Future mathematics p l a n s were assessed on the b a s i s of s tudent responses to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e used were the t - t e s t and the Chi square t e s t . RESULTS Males d i d not s te reo type mathematics as a mascu l ine domain at e i t h e r Grade 7 or 10. The mean of the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g was neu t ra l at both grade l e v e l s . Females d i d not s te reo type mathematics as mascu l ine at e i t h e r grade 53 l e v e l . The mean o f t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g was s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n n e u t r a l a t b o t h g r a d e l e v e l s . T h e s e r e s u l t s c o n t r a d i c t f i n d i n g s by Fennema e t a l . (1981) and S t e i n and S m i t h e l l s (1969) w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s was r e g a r d e d a s m a s c u l i n e by b o t h s e x e s . A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r sex s t r o n g l y s t e r e o t y p e d m a t h e m a t i c s a s e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g between m a l e s and f e m a l e s , a t b o t h Grade 7 and 10. F e m a l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s l i k e l y t o s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e t h a n m a l e s i n G r a d e s 7 and 10. The mean o f t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g f o r m a l e s i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y f r o m Grade 7 t o Grade 10. The mean o f t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g f o r f e m a l e s was i d e n t i c a l f o r b o t h Grade 7 and 10, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f Fennema and Sherman (1977) t h a t g i r l s s t e r e o t y p e m a t h e m a t i c s a s a male domain l e s s a s t h e y become more m a t u r e . When f u t u r e m a t h e m a t i c s p l a n s o f Grade 10 s t u d e n t s f o r G r a d e s 11 a n d 12 were c o n s i d e r e d , few d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x t e n t o f s t e r e o t y p i n g were f o u n d . When a l l d a t a were c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who c h o s e CSC 11 a s compared t o t h o s e who d i d not c h o o s e CSC 11. When t h e male d a t a a l o n e were c o n s i d e r e d , t h o s e m a l e s who c h o s e AL 11 s t e r e o t y p e d m a t h e m a t i c s a s m a s c u l i n e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n t h o s e m a l e s who d i d n o t c h o o s e AL 11. T h o s e m a l e s who 54 chose TM 11 s te reo typed mathematics as mascu l ine s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than those males who d i d not choose TM 11. When the female data were cons ide red a l o n e , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between those who chose a p a r t i c u l a r course and those who d i d no t . O v e r a l l , a l though there were a few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , there was no genera l t rend in the s t e r e o t y p i n g of s tuden ts who chose a course over those who d i d not choose the same cou rse . The second area of research i nvo l ved two compar isons. The f i r s t comparison was between the s tuden ts who e n r o l l e d in academic courses and non-academic courses in Grade 11. The data were cons ide red again in three separa te groups, a l l d a t a , male data and female d a t a . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s in the extent of s t e r e o t y p i n g by s tuden ts who chose an academic course and those who chose a non-academic cou rse . The d i f f e r e n c e s which occur red were the r e s u l t of chance a l o n e . The second comparison was between s tuden ts who p lanned to e n r o l l and s tuden ts who d i d not p lan to e n r o l l in a Grade 12 mathematics cou rse . When o v e r a l l data of p lanned p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a Grade 12 course were examined, no d i f f e r e n c e in s t e r e o t y p i n g was de tec ted between those who p lanned to e n r o l l in a Grade 12 course and those who d i d no t . When the data were separa ted i n to male and female , s i m i l a r r e s u l t s o c c u r r e d . T h i s f i n d i n g c o n t r a d i c t s those of Sherman (1982) , that g i r l s who attempt more mathematics 55 s te reo type mathematics as mascu l ine to a g rea te r extent than those who do no t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the ex tent of s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics measured and fu tu re mathematics p l ans of males and females . CONCLUSIONS Students in B .C . s c h o o l s do not appear to cons ide r mathematics a mascu l ine domain. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that s t e r e o t y p i n g of mathematics in J u n i o r h igh school i s g e n e r a l l y not e v i d e n t . I f any th i ng , g i r l s tend to cons ide r mathematics l e s s of a mascu l ine p u r s u i t , and these a t t i t u d e s do not change as g i r l s become more mature. Boys cons ide r mathematics as an app rop r i a te p u r s u i t f o r both s e x e s . With respec t to s t e r e o t y p i n g mathematics as mascu l ine there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s tudents who p lanned to take academic courses and those s tuden ts who p lanned to take non-academic c o u r s e s . S i m i l a r l y there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s tudents who p lanned to take a mathematics course when i t became an e l e c t i v e sub jec t and those who d i d no t . S tudents in B r i t i s h Columbia h igh s c h o o l s appear to view mathematics as a p u r s u i t equa l l y s u i t a b l e to both males and females . They do not appear to sex type mathematics as a mascu l ine domain. 56 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY One o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n s one o f t h e measurement t o o l s , t h e f o u r i t e m s on t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e . T h e s e i t e m s may not be m e a s u r i n g s t e r e o t y p i n g o f m a t h e m a t i c s a s a c c u r a t e l y a s d e s i r e d . When a n s w e r i n g a s c a l e d q u e s t i o n w i t h p o s s i b l e h i g h f a c e v a l i d i t y s u c h a s t h i s , b o t h g i r l s a nd b o y s may r e s p o n d w i t h what t h e y b e l i e v e a r e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a n s w e r s s i n c e t h e m e d i a and o t h e r s o u r c e s c o n t i n u a l l y p r o v i d e t h e message t h a t f e m a l e s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l t o m a l e s . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h e x i s t between what m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s s t u d e n t s p l a n t o e n r o l l i n , a n d t h e i r a c t u a l e n r o l l m e n t . The 1981 a s s e s s m e n t i n d i c a t e d many fe w e r g i r l s t h a n b o y s e n r o l l e d i n Grade 12. I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare how many o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t s who p l a n t o t a k e A l g e b r a 12 o r Geometry 12 a c t u a l l y do s o . SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH At a t i m e when t h e m a t h e m a t i c s c u r r i c u l u m , K-12, i s b e i n g r e v i s e d , i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o l o o k a t t h e m a t e r i a l s and c u r r i c u l u m b e i n g w r i t t e n f o r e v i d e n c e o f s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . R e s e a r c h h a s shown t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e have been a t t e m p t s by p u b l i s h e r s t o d i s p l a y e q u a l numbers o f men and women o r u s e g e n d e r n o n - s p e c i f i c t e r m s , 57 these do not reduce sex ro le s tereotyping of career opportuni t ies unless men and women are shown in cross sex appropriate r o l e s . 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