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Tanizaki Junʼichirō and the art of storytelling Pham, Thien Truong 1985

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TANIZAKI AND  THE  ART  JUN'ICHIRO  OF  STORYTELLING  by  THIEN B . S c ,  A  THESIS THE  TRUONG  PHAM  University  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS  Quebec,  PARTIAL FOR  MASTER  of  OF  THE  1975  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF  GRADUATE  Department  We  accept to  this  of  STUDIES  Asian  thesis  the required  as  Studies  conforming  standard  i  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  February  ©  Thien  Truong  1985  Pham,  1985  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  ASIAN  STUDIES  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  E-6  (3/81)  March  5,  1985  ABSTRACT  This  thesis  deals  Tanizaki  Jun'ichiro.  p r o l i f i c  writer  of  that  works  ation  are and  enhances  the  quality  view,  both  games  are  f i c t i o n a l to  be  the  special major  the  that  reader are  characterizes flows  a  l i f e  The  a  this  of  simple  perspective  way  to  a  the  single  ate  goal  maze  is  of  of  make  Art  in  and  the  result An  bring  i s  A  and  analysed  "Shisei"  i s  in now  viewpoints  hypnotizing reader  the  share  of  his  into  world  short  where  marred in  the  and  lines trademark.  to  Chapter  Two.  a  climax The  abandoned, are  reader.  l u r i n g  style  brought  that  view.  story  art  sensuous  four  f u l l  remarkably  the  meant  that  Tanizaki's  i s  are  Though  between  become  Tanizaki's  fabulous  s k i l l  atmosphere  beauty  of  dreams  Tanizaki's  early  succeeds  author's  beauty,  this  debut.  d'etre.  w i l l  and  the  this  turn  forces  of  string  g l o r i f i c -  the  analysis  Tanizaki's  tale  a  r e a l i t y  opposing  b r i l l i a n t  multiple of  also  Transplanting  raison  that  purpose to  than  "Shisei"  which  the  and  his  art  to  i l l u s i o n  i s  this  century  which  l i v e l y  force  "Shunkinsho"  which, game.  f a i r y - t a l e  only  theme  a  blocks  examines  flaws,  the  half  building  rather  of  excellence,  the  heart  marks  into  a  hopefully  One  technical  beauty  in  i n  l i f e  art  g l o r i f i c a t i o n in  s t o r y t e l l i n g .  w i l l  Chapter  by  in  par  over  This  existence.  s k i l l  "Shisei"  for  and  v i r t u a l l y  reader's  works  of  dream  universe  human  s t o r y t e l l i n g  esthete  beauty.  complementary  govern into  a  the  essentially dedicated  art  and  An  produced  of  i s  with  i i  giving  there  for  The  ultim-  passion  and  i i i  devotion  of  monogatari generate  an  style  the  dream  in  which  also  a  skirt  the  illusions  thorny  are  issue  but  ro;jin  n i k k i ,  for the  in  his  casual  are  placed  structural  starts proudly This  be  with  of  i s  of  a  why  and  through  and  of  the  to  how  a  tale  create  and  this  story  in  to  Incest  i s  consciously  crowning  Everything now  brought art  novel, the  into  focus.  motifs  overwhelming this  the  author's  the  four to  Tanizaki  and so  author  erotic  that  the l i f e  l a s t  story. force  tour-de-force  fame.  works  shed  i s  that  throughout  embody  attempt  helps  devices.  diary,  the  and  game.  seems  maintained  "Shisei"  an  name  Tanizaki's  consolidates  thesis,  treatment  i s  The  ukihashi,"  well-calculated points  s p i r i t  considered  question  at  balance  game-playing  which  form  no  f u l l  Four.  Ideal.  narrative.  ambition  Tanizaki  writing  the  novella  the  "Yume  various  Chapter  of  this  for  Man's  the  Futen  of  of  with  given  with  scenes  can  deals  is  pursuit  needed  sensuality.  dreams  subject  the  feature  problem  Using  that  a  the  stands  A  Three  and  perpetuate  i s  in  ambiguity  Chapter of  a r t i s t  some  that  are  l i g h t  fascinates  the  on  examined, the  reader.  Supervisor  iv  TABLE  OP  CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER  ONE  "Shisei":  CHAPTER  TWO  "Shunkinsho":  CHAPTER  THREE  "Yume  no  a  b r i l l i a n t a r t  POUR  and beauty.  .  .  .  .  22  .  .  .  44  ukihashi": l i f e  CHAPTER  debut  Puten ro.jin  as a  dream  67  game  89  nikki:  l i f e  as a  CONCLUSION  116  NOTES  120  BIBLIOGRAPHY  134  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  wish  to  express  Professor  Kinya  ment  thesis  both  this  my d e e p  Tsuruta,  My  gratitude  of  whom  could i s  edited  without  never  also  gratitude  due t o  my t h e s i s  my  supervisor,  whose  constant  encourage-  been  written.  have  to  Su Ann and  with  s o much  Lisanne, care.  1 TANIZAKI AND  THE  JUN*ICHIRO  ART  OP  STORYTELLING  INTRODUCTION  is  a  Ito in  Tanizaki  J u n ' i c h i r o ^  towering  figure  S e i jf these  (1905-1969)  contemporary  only of  that  i s  \%  style  escape  i s  Yukio  :S  this  surely  writing  i s  3^J\  (1903-1971) today's  Naoya  i  ^  %.  f o r a r t  that  are weighty  not much  influence  c r i t i c  said  that  writers  Fukada  as  could  f a r hardly  giants,  (1883-1971) and angle,  (1925-1970)  reflects  i n the face  of  Mishima on  social  achievements  to  huge  behind,  The  a different  Tanizaki's enough  "T^i  a  impressive  t h e two l i t e r a r y Jit  Prom  /fxli  passion  of  our  create  by the  once  young  importance  from  he l e f t  but also  l i t e r a t u r e .  h i s  writer  on h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  the influence  Ji  Japanese  Tanizaki  of  (1886-1965)  evaluates  would  value,  concerned,  t i p the scale  upheaval  i n half i n  Tanizaki's  a  favor  a r t . ^ However,  In  l a s t i n g  ^~  concludes  century  i t  the bulk  J u n ' i c h i r o .  undaunted  of  of  Shiga  Tanizaki  and  of  3  from  namely,  we r e m o v e d  (oki na kukyo)."  he exerted  Kyuya as  "If  l i t e r a t u r e ,  because  which  i ^ f — &f  i n contemporary  ^ terms:  emptiness  ^  Tanizaki's  a way, Tanizaki  mischievous talents  prodigy  and at  i s  works  also  invite  controversial.  who f a s c i n a t e s  t h e same  time  harsh  comments.  T h e man i s l i k e  us with  shocks' us with  a  h i s incredible h i s so-called  2  abnormal just lot  a  skilled  to  other  behaviour.  craftsman  embarrass words,  ually.  serious  Tanizaki  While  denounces  the  Haruo  lack  of  surface  Konosuke  j|  zaki's  use  who  much  writers  and  nothing  philosophy  as  a  abnormal  to  him  see  in  say  and  with  readers  to  offer  sort  that  of  him  alike.  us  In  i n t e l l e c t -  l i e s  under  an  "charlatanism,"^  (1890-1971)  material  to  a  (1892-1964)  f\  1l  of  c r i t i c i z e  without  has  Sato  interesting P  Those  Hinatsu  attacks  cover  up  Tani-  his  otherwise  5 banal  narration.  zaki' s  own  novelist that the  brother  of  note,  "there way  of  are  to  Tanizaki l y ,  to  great gawa  took  to  whose  content  about  be  in  in  /')  $  plot  forms,  a  few  are  has  has  less  they  well  can  simple  Tanizakifs  On  hand,  other  ^|  months  polemic  This  before  that  consequenthe  takes  with  (1892-1927)  reveals.  be  reason and  heated  in  J u n ' i c h i r o ' s . " at  the  a  comments  directed  the  Tani-  himself  i n t e l l e c t u a l  his  t  structure  1927,  as  than  for  an  find  S e i j i  writing  1928),  career to  also  detractors.  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y .  Ryunosuke  committed  his  we  (1890-1971),  ^  criticisms  cared  interest  place  enough,  fctf  a r t i s t s  entire  never  of  few  (up  his  write  subject  among  these  writings  applied  S e i j i  i n t e l l e c t u a l  Although early  Curiously  Akuta-  on  famous  the  debate  Akutagawa  suicide.  According  to  Akutagawa,  novels  tructed  plots  and  interesting  popular  taste  are  not  "pure  with  stories  carefully  that  l i t e r a t u r e "  appeal  (jun  consto  bungaku)  the  3  because of  they  are  l i t e r a t u r e ,  which only  is  by  are  a  his  a r t i s t i c  rest the  of  his  he  of  answer  clear  that  not  as  rely  conceptual reader's  to  to In  a  and  The  formless.  with  As  a  l i f e  result,  (hanashinonai  l i f e  that  mission  d i r e c t l y  story  of  this  which a  and  thus,  Tanizaki  of  to  the i t  a  true  was  the  target  a  His and  s e n s i t i v i t y .  of  and  through  the  lectual  content,  l i k e  the  with  a  pretending  to we  know  creative  words  voice.  take  but  insight  ideology  meaningful  beautiful  along  this  author's  deep how  into  Tanizaki's  contemplation  own,  success  projects  reaches  philosophical their  i s  well-structured  appeal  We  is  a  song  l i s t e n  they  may  in  novelhis  writer and  an  the  devoid an  of  insight  rendered  a l l ,  i n t e l -  themes by  with  a  are  woman  rapture,  message,  become  this  of  be  delivered  their  a  beyond  humanistic  would  a  confer  them  in  the  as  roots  After  to  of  plot  wonderfully  even  interest  light  do  power.  and of  they  the  f u l f i l l e d . as  far  the  works  by  insofar  mission  Tanizaki's  on  framework  the  mission  and  for  believes  supported  The  story,  divulges  f a i t h f u l  Tanizaki  universe  a  attack  remains  novel.  t e l l  may,  story.  he  reader,  solely  personal  nutshell,  f i c t i o n a l  is  fascinates  interesting  a l l  deal  story-like  i t  beauty  argues,  Be does  to  r e f l e c t i o n  made  l i f e .  architectural  story  a  concept  creation  i s t ,  is  r e a l i t y .  critique.  Tanizaki's an  from  unorganized  true  He  removed  declares,  without  l i t e r a t u r e . of  he  nature  novels  hanashi)  far  but  without  4  that  vocal  carries in  the  t i f u l  enhancement.  the  words  case  of  It  into  our  Tanizaki,  thesis  w i l l  pretation,  t o ••'find  Four  works  major  beginning  with  Tattooer," Futen  Old  %i  ^7  is  of  his  answer been  maiden  and  of  that  What  then,  this  beau-  they  art  by to  In  this  with  works  of  textual  crucial the  his  his  career,  l i f e  and  a  ^  their  to  have  more  t i e s ,  we  shall  f i r s t  and  works  before of  and  the  view  glimpse  proceeding  to  prominent  no  1959),  author  themes of  the  of  in  throughout  his  v i s i o n — a l s o  a  "Yume  Dreams,"  diverse  consistent—  interdependence.  present  this  of  sample  comprehensive  a  Tanizaki.  consistent  his  of  "Shunkinsho"  1933)  represent  eloquent and  of  ("The  tour-de-force  i s  Bridge  novellas  most  an  order  world  question.  *^'J  l a s t  there  inter-  analysis,  "Shisei"  Shunkin,"  adequately  techniques,  secret  of  for  success  between,  popular  contain  and  way  (Diary  Portrait  most  four  narrative  the  voice  minds.  equivalent  ("The  writing  l i f e  and  chosen  ending  1961). ("A  the  A l l  of  the  beautiful  n i k k i  Man, Pj/  an  ukihashi"  his  hearts  attempt,  have  1910)  r o j i n  Mad  that  the  voice? This  two  is  However, these  into  proper-  Tanizaki's  exploration  novelist.  in  of  5  busy  Tanizaki  was  d i s t r i c t  of  "born  in  1886  downtown  in  Nihonbashi,  Tokyo.  The  date  an  was  old  July  24  and, (My  Childhood  hottest  summers  to  see  he  suffered  in  hot  man  a  connection keenly  had  accounted attempts  and  poverty.  the  on  zaki  the  too  poor  himself Seki  a  turns  of his  his  mother  .7  preparing  and In  Seki  of  comfort  This business  family who  to  appeared  time,  family,  was  and  situation.  years  father  that  family  his  the  the  and  the  meals  (at  be  proud  of  could  image  that  Indeed,  a  ("The explains:  later  fact  thus Tani-  days  mother  a  when, and  which  mother  disaster).  career.  dreams.  a l l  beauty  the  seemed  devoted  pampered  handle  his  the  the  business.  prosperous  his  servants,  all-pervasive  writing  i n  a  of  prints)  of  tremendous  was  famous  a  to  his  one  himself  and  found  failures  a  of  fact  conducting  led  as  Tanizaki  and  (color  i l l - s u i t e d  In.any.case, and  in  Seki,  known  Sogoro  continual  daughter  hire  took  was  cold  s k i l l  remembered  to  was  this  father  nishikie  herself s t i l l  from  mother  well-protected found  between  consequently  His  i t  recorded.  His  l i t t l e  for  1955),  ever  weather.  but  often  Years,  Tanizaki  idolized short Pace  she  her  essay of  a  as  had  cast  the upon  cherished the  entitled  Woman,"  her  every  Eternal "Onna  1923),  long-lasting son's memory  Woman no  kao"  Tanizaki  of  6  If I say sublime, I think that here i t should include something e t e r n a l . I n my d r e a m s , often mother's silhouette appears. Not of her l a s t moments, b u t i t seems t o be t h e f a c e o f hers when I was s e v e n o r e i g h t — s h e was y o u n g and beautiful. T h i s g i v e s me t h e m o s t s u b l i m e feeling.  As at  home  nurse ten  a  child,  and  had  to  years  that  yet  was  known  extremely  shy  out  accompany  old.  l i t t l e  Tanizaki  This  by  he  perfectly  f e l t  was  also  Both ary of  the  to  name  play  taught School  might  and,with  be  his  an  deepened  to  his  their  for  part  his  pave  the as to  ,  that  a  future  at  great  along,  with  Inaba  in  young  as  As  and  a  lad  result, the  to It  him  teacher  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a monthly c i r c u l a t i o n z a s s h i ) b y t h e name o f G - a k u s e i kurabu  age  the  Inaba  Tanizaki of  twelve,  magazine  Club).  the  family  Tanizaki  aspects  Fukuda  gave  when he (kairan  his  l i t e r a l l y at  Element-  man.  does  Nogawa  writer o  l i f e .  a l l  l i t e r a r y  whom  Seikichi,  Sakamoto  his  By  fact good  the  assume,  wet  almost  the  started  (Students'  was  Tanizaki's  for  teacher  His  a  interest  l i t e r a t u r e . career  to  teacher,  way a  he  u n t i l  came  in  wayward  house.  due  years  special  destiny  become  writer's  Zan'ei  quite  u n t i l  school  Another  during  be  the  less  liked  exaggeration  love  or  important  Kiyoto inspiration  more  ease.  of  school  Nogawa  helped  achieve  not  of  at an  to  never  Tanizaki  culture,they  f i n a l l y  was  Tanizaki  teacher  him  to  time  Tanizaki  attended  had  gone  bankrupt.  found  work  as  a  To  l i v e - i n  Hibiya support  tutor  in  Middle  School,  his  education,  the  house  of  a  7  restaurant f i r s t a  owner,  taste  r e l a t i v e  maid.  of  This  dismissed are  of  to  the  love  from  one  of  study  he  he  a f f a i r  the  who was  early  was  with  working  discovered of  later  works  Meanwhile,  also  Traces  years  experienced  infatuated  soon  house.  five  Japanese  eventually  became  owner,  his  importance. to  love:  reappear  1912),  where  i n  this  Fukuko,  there  and  both  Atsumono  some  length  Tanizaki  went  to  and  a  were love  (The  Tokyo  determined  as  i l l - f a t e d  of  l i t e r a t u r e ,  the  of  Stew, minor  University  to  become  i n  the  an  author. To  be  Tanizaki This  sure,  the  f i r s t  issue  of  the  writer  most i s  b r i l l i a n t  important  1910,  short  when story  he  he  &  was  one  of  welcome  from  the  c r i t i c s ,  name  in  l i t e r a r y  word  about era The  the is  the  Japanese  l i f e .  concepts  and  the  with  l i t e r a r y  "Shisei."  the  November  once  Japan  and a l l  (bundan).  At  atmosphere  magazine  received  for  In  affected the  movements  While  Emile  Zola  already  nineteenth  that  a  this  of  warm  establishing  toward  swept  his  juncture,  the  century,  the the  every  country  was  Naturalism  Meiji  domain,  the  Japan  on  the  v i r t u a l l y  l i t e r a r y  followers,  behind. was  l i t e r a r y  end  a  of  the  order.  steps  the  founders)  c a t a c l y s m i c changes in  of  in  of  fa  circles  in  incurred  case  published  appeared  (a  Meiji  l i f e  Shinshicho  #f  which  year  Restoration aspect of  Western  and,  as  i s  confused  in  Europe  Japanese  the  waves  i n s p i r e d by  wane  of  and  a  few  Flaubert by  l i t e r a t i  often  the i n  and end 1910  8  were  s t i l l  under  i t s  all-embracing influence.  the  dreamless,  the  n a t u r a l i s t i c works  people  who,  fantasy  after  and  It  stark  turned  out  race  i n  the  next  chapter,  and  that  art  and  gloom  casts  Kafu^C  l a t e r of  over  younger  half  a  What  Kafu to  /TITV  ("The  ("Youth," on  the  "almost his  The  i n  mere  three  f i r s t  one  of  and  shall  a  the  of  where of  d'etre  fan-  colors, and  where  leader f i r s t  of  to  which  the  recognize  J u n ' i c h i r o ' s year  the  l i t e r a r y  career  was  to  for  bloom  come.  i n  Tanizaki's and  1910)  early  include and  enough  works,  seems  to  apply  entire  as  Seidensticker puts  J u n ' i c h i r o ,  his  elements own  opus--a  words,  Tanizaki's that  well  comment  1886-1965."^ i n  "Kirin" 4  A)  l a t t e r ' s Prof.  which  " S h i s e i , "  "Shonen"  ,  Nagai  a  forward  i n  destiny.  "Mr.. Tanizaki  career  whom  see  bungaku  a  to  member  sort  human  then  among  thrust  i n  Japanese  rainbow  path  essential i n  a  the  strangely  i s ,  the  on  U n i c o m , "  "Tanizaki  we  raison  handful  prophetic,"  as  only  to  the  true  the  Mita  found  a  of  into  c r i t i q u e  the heart  are  was  inherent  l i f e .  was  tale  mingled  protege,  to  of  at  " S h i s e i , "  f a i r y  helped  1911),  whole  essay  merates  a  way  Tanizaki  His  century  amounted  Shintoist  (1879-1959),  talent.  d e f i n i t e l y  atmosphere  disappointed  a  movement,  published  his  a  are  /SL  a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t  Works"  i s  shadow  1^  Tanizaki's  are  respect.  beauty  no  are  that  esthetics  where  dreary  soon  a l l ,  esthetics  the  tasy  and  However,  i t  Kafu  i n enu-  w r i t i n g .  Tanizaki  "has  9  a  mysterious  fear  quality  (nikutai  comes  by  way  (shinpi  kyofu). of  It  reaction  yugen)  is  an  from  produced  intense  by  carnal  pleasure  mortification  of  that  the  10 f l e s h . "  The  work  is  what  b a f f l i n g ,  is  required  a  a  second  thorough  'urban  l i t e r a t u r e '  of  a a  which,  further,  hay-smacking  of  a  agree  for  importance  explain  smelling,  we  quality  the  to  product  unless  accept  tries  characteristic city that  good new  as  is  man. to  polished  works  i s  some-  sophisticated or  unless  and  we  refined  Shogo  pitted of  Tanizaki's  This  be  writer,  Nomura  " i s  that  the  against  the  mud-  countrified  11 n a t u r a l i s t s . " The t h i r d  feature  concerns  s t y l e .  Kafu  observes:  . . . Tanizaki's style is perfect. Now t h a t the l i t e r a r y w o r l d of modern Japan has excluded, under the pretext of l i f e , the problem of 'style' which, I think, i s an inherent element of a l l l i t e r a r y works, to present such an a r gument, I might turn myself i n t o a l a u g h i n g s t o c k f o r my f o o l i s h n e s s . 12  But of  l e t  us  Tanizaki's  resume  writing  tracing  What  with  cho  and  the  university.  the  Western  /'^ of  y a l l  his  postpone to  the  following  course  the  time-consuming  He  of  ~C\  where  whose  of  his  school,  was  calendar)  types,  d i s c u s s i o n on  the  loathing  f)  the  then  and he  only  a  quality  chapters  and  l i f e . preparation  of  Shinshi-  Tanizaki  ended  up  twenty-five  years  old  member  got  the  of  the  acquainted  common  l i n k  was  quitting (by  PAN  Society  with  a r t i s t s  that  they  used  10  a  mode  of  expression  members  included  founder  of  the  with  Tanizaki  time  when  a l l a  of  Yoshikazu  people  of in  in  Literature  Osanai  Movement and  Naturalism a l l  schools  Kataoka  a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t i c . as  Shinshicho,  and  of  was  Theater  enemies  profusion  Japanese  such  New  directions  that  or  his  Kaoru  and  Nagai  also  to  forms,  leading  h a j/R  and  seemed  to  have  Tanizaki,  co-founder  Kafu.  started  to  Introduction  Its  was  appear  which  a  from  eventually  to  had  It  to  Prof.  Contemporary  a  hard  time  13 sticking  l a b e l s .  As  Bohemian  l i f e  suited  a  of  series  strange ("The  works  feelings  D e v i l , "  "Ningyo  no  Mermaid,"  the  epithets  In  were  one  of  of  exotic  )\  "Kyofu" j^l  6)  Both  facts  we  can  say  Between  "Shisei"  (1910) and  s t o r i e s ,  could  Kathleen  stand  Merken  plays the  and  test  of  a  seemed  to  during  throughout  1922),  1913),  Laments  account or  those  his  Tanizaki  wrote  time.  but  for  years. certainly  long  Gohei  novels,  of  "diabolism"  to  few  produced  " A k u m a " /us-  ("Terror,"  Okuni  of  describing  "estheticism" i s  with  Gohei,  kind and  or  ("The  him  remained  and  ideals  "decadence,"  to  him  the  ^i.  ^%  that  as  'faf?  A/J1  attributed  led  settings  such  "estheticism,"  eagerly  he  a r t i s t i c  that  short  them  his  phenomena,  1917).  (Okuni of  or  1912),  retrospect,  the  either  nageki"  the  that  which  for  ^  'C^  scores  none  Nevertheless,  career.  of as  observes,  Tanizaki  sometimes  succeeds  in  the  creation  of  11  a s t r o n g secondary c h a r a c t e r h e r e , an a r r e s t i n g d e s c r i p t i v e passage there. A l t h o u g h many w o r k s may n o t h e o f t h e h i g h e s t c a l i b e r i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e y may o f t e n be c o n s i d e r e d i n g r o u p s by a f f i n i t i e s w h i c h c a n be h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e , in the context of T a n i z a k i ' s entire work. 14  In  the  to  Chiyoko,  an  exemplary  woman,  as  elusive of  the  can  the  yet  see  noteworthy  the  his  a r t i s t i c kind  of  ordinary  for  his  quite  at  attitude  fantasy  ation.  image  ease  of  where  he  "a  vague  of  It  with  his  away  from  could  give  the  dream,  and  His  ideal  i s  dreams  almost  who  i t s  he  usually  literature  Tanizaki  as  loved  l i f e  a r t - f o r - a r t ' s -  r e i n his  very  i f  Indeed,  i s  Naturalism  of  an  and  as  purpose.  His  free  is  embodiment  pleasure-loving  woman and  his  uses  society.  junior  an  writer  sorrow,  marriage  writing,  is  on  and  his  his  his  She  the  was  unhappy.  enriches  l i f e  and  in  him  Consequently,  remained  bulk  woman-concept  anger  led  was  v i t a l i t y .  combined  inevitably  event years  reach.  d i s s a t i s f i e d with  was  ten  Tanizaki  in  beyond  was  principle which  his  outlet  of  1916.  wife,  this  someone  ity  She  female  unlike  sake  in  beauty  created  and  a  we  nourishes  an  meantime,  to  to  proclivthe  his  dreams refusal  realm  imaginforever  to  become  15 a  r e a l i t y  this  eternal  order his  made  to  beauty  as  impart  does a  longing  longing  f i c t i o n a l This  his  an  that  aura  the  keener."  Tanizaki  of  aware,  J  needed even  of  It  was  for  his  exactly art  suffering,  in to  characters. not  mean,  constant  of  theme  course, in  that  Tanizaki's  the  unreachable  writing  i s  only  12  a  l i t e r a r y  longing  for  explored, ulous  device. her  as  women  1932),  in  1943-1948),  ideal  of  what  right  i s  an  be  "Longing  in  r o j i n  for  Tanizaki  was  thirty-two  o kouru  k i "  W"  the  with  to a  find  beauty  from  mother  image more a l l  this  and  of  writing  moment  on  i d o l .  As  a  unobtainable,  is  a  Tsumura  Woman  tantalizing of  a  D  testimony who  at  that  his  other  (Hahakoi),  in  Makioka  to  his  her  own  year  constant  i s  theme. a  more  His  or  mother  l a t e r ,  he  to  the  wrote for  Mother  blended  into  young  author  who  was  always  to  experiment  or  to  play  the  result, in  The  double  this  at  works  the  i r r e s i s t i b l e ,  role  confusing  Tanizaki's yet  female  same  l i k e  a l l  the  time  the  en-  mermaid.  ^vf  |s}  this end  died  of  and  and  singing  kuzu"  each  techniques.  was  and  voice  in  conform  inspiration  unreal  "Yoshino  man  s t i l l  Eternal  more  a l l yet  image  the  the  fab-  ("Ashikari,"  and  and  makes  chanting  1931,  the  the  new  love  be  previous  sources  of  Shunkin  of  ( "Longing  of  new  variety  the  which  woman-concept  eager  of  of  in  cluster  (The  n i k k i ,  mother"  when  1919)  consciously  yuki  deduced  a  Mother,"  works.  eternal  creation.  less  "Haha  the  " A s h i k a r i " ^  should  further  derivation  that  g l i t t e r i n g  Sasame  Futen  woman  the later  Oyu  original  may  obsession,  a  by  his  Yukiko  in  means  consciously nurtured,  adorning  Satsuko  It  is  simply  evidenced  "Shunkinsho," Sisters,  It  of  ("Arrowroot"),  synthetic the  story  ideal. marries  written The the  in  young g i r l  13  who  reminds  that for  the the  him  love  with  He  continues,  my  mother,  future, an  l i f e .  Even the  mother  my  the  woman  to  other  he  words,  that  be  the  my  wife  both  stepmother  wrote  of  his  love." who  in  are  tied the  to  me  am-  in  "Yume  mother-lover  rest  deal  of  his  d i r e c t l y  "generally mother,"  was  the  son  the  the  not  heroines  was  past  and  of  for do  yearning  i t  Similarly,  which  the  vague  of  and  Tanizaki  confesses  adolescent  woman  fate."  works  theme,  a  of  w i l l  quietly  simply  manifestation  haunt  what  the  between  i s  appearance  other  women',  of  another  mother  "was  who  'unknown thread  mother,  buddings  case,  i s  i n  in  f i r s t  relationship  which  deceased  woman',  "In  i n v i s i b l e  hangup  in  his  both  ukihashi"  with  his  the  and  are  biguous no  for  'unknown  connected  by  of  suggest  as  Donald  17 Keene dead  remarks mother Be  nal to  Nomura  as  a  with  as  now  as  i t  i s  the i s  become may,  that  another  Shogo,  young  mother  Landscapes  to"assume  image  mother  has  that  cynical  in  man, not  to  more  specific  at  a  distance,  is  occasioned  i s  was  not a  questioned. beauty1,  and by  in  her  can  case  death.  to  of  almost the  very  loss  as  i s  of the  longing  worship  no  the  mater-  according  explored.  Mother,  "Itansha  be  the  and  only  and  Although  eternal  the  inspiration.  using  However, the  Tanizaki the  only  over  consciously nurtured terms,  of  known  son  Indeed,  unfair  device.  was of  source  rather  l i t e r a r y  'unreachable also  Portraits.  new  Tanizaki  grief  be  a  i t  Tanizaki the  and  a  f i l i a l his case for In  woman  distance  kanashimi"  14  { $if& I f) ,% L^t ("S orrows  an  apparently  his  mother's  different: minds in  us  his  death,  presents  unpleasant of  the  dream  sticker  autobiographical  earthly  described  points  figuration  and  to  out,  Heretic,"  work  an  woman in  written  image  that  Tanizaki  "Haha  him  a  ill-tempered,  "Perhaps  provide  of  i t  with  took an  a  year  is  the  rather re-  encounters  k i . "  her  before  mother  f i r s t  o kouru  1917),  As  death  appropriate  Seiden-  and  trans-  object  of  18 worship." The linked in  next  with  1923.  in  that  to  his  a  the  clear:  and  change  production the  retained  It  i s  to  self-professed which  he  of  (A  Fool's  be  so  Great  and  daughter  move  out  many  to  be  can  great culture  Westernizer. be  1924),  began  a  be  to  in  only  influenced  novel  i n  one to  doubtful  thing  some always  and  after  Poe,  thus  the  nostalbeen  l i t e r a t u r e , by  is  r e s i s t  which  tastes,  written  to  responsible  feel  Not  also  is  for  had  safely  factor  better  Tanizaki  deeply but  i t  West  were  according  seemed  traditions  that  the  Earthquake  major  works,  flavor  author  a  Although  was  Kanto  which,  of  of  l i f e  the  imitation  noted  to  Tanizaki's  environment  Oscar W i l d e , In fact,  Love,  a  turned  Osaka-Kyoto  the  claimed  d e l a i r e and and women.  wife  area,  in  thirty-seven-year-old gia.  in  achievements.  indiscriminate  s t i l l  his  Kansai  later  that  event  disaster,  c r i t i c s ,  sudden  the  the  natural  Japanese  a l l  for  a  Tanizaki  evacuated many  important  a in  Beau-  manners the  Earth-  15  quake,  the  actress  heroine  Mary  Westerner, However,  Pickford  becomes  this  misgivings  about  vWest,  which  the  young  hero's  now  past  This crete almost pool ) who, of  in  ends as  her  with  the  loves  of  for  the the  in  The  fears  next  two  in  of  was  major  story,  caught  affecting  up  four  l i b e r a t i o n  to to  of  copy, a  and  this  in  a  and  c i v i l i z a t i o n  the  are  the  k i "  more  is  con-  serialized (The  Whirl-  heroine  Sonoko  the  whirlpool  characters,  of  present.  takes  retraces  homosexuality  novel  for  o kouru  the  emulating  surrender  Manji of  a  Tanizaki's  blindly  novels,  despair  the  time  nostalgia  f i n a l l y  l i k e  worship.  comfortless  1928-29.  utmost  of  "Haha  a  dichotomy  f i r s t  of  in  of  behave  ultimate  seed  Western  hero's  side  the  the  as  t i t l e .  ingredients  upheaval of  i n -  suggested  Individualism, among  message  the  seems  s u p e r f i c i a l l y w i l l  basic  to  be  only  lead  suffering.  The (Some  to  four  sexual  one  the  the  which  trained  germinates  narrator  l i f e  the  that  w i l l .  the  like  object  culminates  by  looks  destructive  simultaneously  tricate by  the  sentimental  forms  is  reveals  which  reinforced  who  and  the  story  the  soothing  Naomi,  other  Prefer  Tanizaki's between  the  novel,  Tade  Nettles),  is  masterpieces. Westernized  each  one  represented  some  exaggeration  to  by  kuu  mushi  generally It  deals  present a  with  and  beauty  emphasize  regarded  who  what  the is they  the  as  one  of  conflict  traditional described stand  for.  past,  with The  16  quiet  charm  expression of  a  past  present  is  a  of of  But  which  going  on  a  ("Return i t s e l f ,  to  that  time i n  Haruo,  opens to  At  as  that  himself  "Koten As  marital  "Koten  poet  k a i k i , "  and  as  a  her to  the beauty  might travel Other  mentioned  be more diary, works  a n d some  proof  a  some  of  tremendous  for  "Yoshino  perhaps  follow,  material of  quest  appropriately or  &  piV^  end of of  path  u  Tade  this  which  the  i s  story  involving  Kaname  l i f e ,  Chiyoko.  moment  'W  @ to  kuu  tradition  from  indicates,  to  earlier  ^  a  who  He  at  f i n a l l y  friend  Sato  novelist.  endeavors  the  'ft? /h  h i s close  writings  romantic  ^  the author's  i n Tanizaki's  This  i t s  &  situation  direction  i t i o n .  l»  footnote  t h e name  rediscover  of  i n  career,  k a i k i "  of  "yielding" a  beauty  strength  Indeed,  was c o n s i d e r i n g d i v o r c i n g by  fragile  the pull  hand.  i s a r e f l e c t i o n  1930,  exuberant  i s  the  i n Tanizaki's  t r a d i t i o n " ) .  the unhappy  Misako  different.  the upper  referred  Soseki  the  i n r e l i g i o n .  are indications have  the  a l l that  Natsume  comfort  i s  versus  the sweeping  swallow  pushed  Tanizaki  to  to  Ohisa  L o u i s e . . .  against  seek  new p e r i o d  usually  did  to  there  is  and  gone  determined  (1867-1916)  woman  the Eurasian  long  drama  mushi,  the Kyoto  a of  which  i n which of  called  a  mixture which  author  begins  a novella l y r i c a l  of  both  are based  are pure  imaginative  the  a new  the Japanese  the past kuzu,"  marks  f i c t i o n  power  and  trad-  with which  essay  or  genres. on but  historical most  consumate  are  narrative (A a  Blind blind  the  technique. Man's  Tale,  masseur  to  warring  years  While 1931)  his of  the of  1931)  f i c t i v e  the  feudal  reveals  hero  of  in  the  of  Genji  monogatari  with  the of  secrets  Musashi,  and  century,  History of  of  the  also  |H  devotion  mistress  sixteenth Secret  the  ^  i s  set  in hiwa  Lord  sexual in  Bo  of  Bushuko the  set  1"!  of  l i f e  the  of  period  turmoil.  "Ashikari" ghost  Lord  deals  beautiful  (The Musashi,  Momoku  a  is  poetic  author's  yet  another  past,  which  undertaking  effort finds  of  an  to  bring  further  (The  the  sustenance  elaborate  monogatari  back  translation  Tale  of  Gen.ji,  \ 19 11th  century) The  in  the  This  and  most  place  treats total  both  lovers  in  his  (or  behaviour, his  i n  several story  worldly  blind,  her)  own  and  Sasuke  examination  suffice  to  quite  s t i r  a  was,  say  on  at  in the  of  the one  of  c r i t i c s ,  of  of  with Since this  his  hand,  Meiji i s ,  and  that the  because  servant  nineteenth  Restoration that  figuratively,  each  with  of  her  Two  i s  self-centered worship  novella,  of  of i t s  for  devoted  "Shunkinsho" time  century  course,  extraordinary  at  and  relentless  Chapter  however,  "Shunkinsho."  the  reason  Shunkin  stage  bundan  i s  the  1936.  period  mistress  Osaka  The  in  this  physically  way:  this  work  events  indifference. are  Japanese,  between  mercantile  mistress-lover.  close  This  of  love  the  with  modern  fascinating  opinion  unusual  takes  into  i t s  to i t  a w i l l  caused publication.  l i t e r a r y  quality  18  and  on  the  other,  then-prevailing  position  a r t i s t  Tanizaki,  had  fact  in As  his  again  his  i n  1931,  years  in  1935  turned  he  had  for  esthetic  r e a l i t y  beauty  was  wrote  ("The  to  in  Night  admitted  In once by  more  ^  ftand  the  him  as  threatening,  translation u n t i l  l a s t  of  the  The  Eternal  of  his  the  1963),  model  in  a  marriage  art  into  this In  a  an  essay  ik & kit  &  many  to  elegant  Tanizaki  for  whom  respond  dreams.  yawa"  in  Matsuko, to  moments,  Ideal,  married  third  and  The  Woman  end  seemed  his  the  stream.  Tanizaki  "Setsugoan  lovingly  of  his  female  Shunkin. of  the  to  Shozo  "China  ^ •  £  to  1936),  a  the  world  Tanizaki Tale  outbreak  of of  Incident,"  to  external  futari  "fc-  no  ("The  delightful  rectangle—with  Then,  the  l i f e  indifference  h  Women,"  triangle—or  more  his  "Neko  years,  the  main  s u c c e s s f u l one.  woman  was  of  the  However-,  to  l i t e r a t u r e .  marriage  Setsugoan,"  year  -^.A  Two  middle.  at  the  this  his  age,  including  publishing  made:  ten  the  Matsuko  showed  was  a  u n t i l  old  Story  1936,  for  harmonizing  become  that  characters,  be  of  and  his  quest  l a t e r . to  challenge  pursuit  follow  have  almost  need  single  he  out  brave  proletarian  to  attempt to  i t s  implacable  personal  only  three  known  his  of of  wanted  another  divorce  his  in  never  for  l i f e ,  because  the  channeled Genji, the  Cat,  Shozo  parody  became his  which  circumstances  onna"  unconcerned  situation  of  cat  f u l l y in  love in  more  energy  P a c i f i c War  Tanizaki  the  and  into  the  occupied 1941.  19  The  war  a c t i v i t y . izing  longest  yuki, family  i n  War.  Unlike  the  is  novel  very  is the  a  has  much  Japanese  story  national  i f  they  Sasame  continued 1948,  from  the  to  when  l a s t  an  that  old  wealthy the  preserve  write Japan  i t was  of  the  belonged  devastating  banned  the  biows  the  of  to  an to  the Army,  to  process  i n  un-  the  and  the  there  events  by  secretly in  however,  destruction,  makes  was  P a c i f i c  period,  mood,  "non-contributing"  yuki  s e r i a l novel  k a i k i "  The  of  already as  started  "Koten  threat  creative  preceding  setting.  aware  Accused  effort,  in  recovering  as  the  of  the  the  his  structured of  immediately  with  feeling  past.  Tanizaki  decline  in  in  Tanizaki  elaborately  works  under  decrease  1943,  the  years  same:  appear  i t  with  a  contemporary  the  war  in  most  other  a  pervading  publish  the  tradition  retrievable  but  and  dealing  Osaka  this  witnessed  Nevertheless,  his  Sasame  years  f i n a l l y of  two  atomic  explosions. The to  have  "return ended  with  Genji,  made  Shosho  Shigemoto  of  General  already  a  to  no  1947,  to  and  "Imperial  glory  and  him;  fame,  a  the in  which  translation for  the  of  was  The  l a s t  time  By  this  time,  figure  in  "Mainichi Cultural  Award  Tanizaki,  of  of with  (The  leading  1949,  thought  Tale  /  1^49).  as  episode,  comeback  haha  Shigemoto,  In  f i r s t  b r i l l i a n t  awarded the  the  recognized  erature.  tradition"  the  "Asahi  Cultural now  an  Tanizaki  Japanese Prize"  Cultural Merit."  aging  man  Mother  l i t -  was  Prize" Bathed  of  was  i n  sixty-four,  20  was  yet  to  produce  handful  of  essays  was  K a g i jfjiify ( T h e  drama  acted  out  a  few  and  a  Key),  by  a  more  stunning  revised  translation  written  in  forty-four-year-old  Kyoto-bred  the  i n t r i c a t e  double  Tanizaki's human  vigor  sexuality  of  in  a  exploring  and  1956.  f i f t y - s i x - y e a r - o l d  his  form  works.  the  experimenting  Gen j i ,  This  erotic  and  once  inner with  a  of  professor  wife  diary,  Among  and  composed more  proves  workings fresh  in  of  modes  of  writing. The the  tireless  rigorous  high  blood  prived  of  right  had  to  of  old  and  hand  however, age.  from  of  dictate  novellas.  the  subject  of. our  analysis  the  memories his  true  manner, to  a  a  young  mother  brings  the  and  man  strange  no  immune  disease to  story,  Chapter  about  the  write.  for  de-  In  1959,  another  which  Three,  in  from  that  a  one  w i l l  be  deals  superimposed  and,  "longing  to  suffered  u k i h a s h i , "  The in  not  Tanizaki  stepmother  author's  was  strength  "Yume  famous  of  a  the  most  of  his  demands  pressure  his  Tanizaki  author,  with images  definite  mother"  theme  climax. Hereafter,  subsequent orally,  works  that  however,  Tanizaki's  i s ,  never  u n t i l by  his  health l a s t  dictation  waned.  A  to  deteriorated.  repose a  potential  were  a l l  secretary. candidate  The  written His  to  few  fame,  the  Nobel  20 Prize, U.S. never  he  Academy did  was of  wane  also Art  nominated  and  either.  as  Literature. Besides  Honorary His  revising  Member  a r t i s t i c the  of  the  v i t a l i t y  translation  21  of  Genji  Futen  for  r o j i n  (Records  of  Futen  the  third  nikki  and  a  paradoxically was  so  achievements  with  discuss  tional vigor  work  a  Again, of  nine ^  his  as  marked  t  ft  Like  old  brush to  iff,  down.  choose  on  his  (J)  • he  And  his  located  Kyoto,  shows  in  two  restless  Or  was  he  to  bring  old  s t i l l art  last  l i k e a  the  few  was  thinking  into  the  July  one  to  he  of  the  bearing  " J a k u " /fl)^  of  f i c -  i n i t i a l i n  way. the  aged  very  seventysai  no  Years," put  also  his  his  found  Temple  -  word  haru"  1965).  death.  Honen  "Ku"  time The in  atn <IJ  ("Tranquility").  resigned  way,  we  this  speak,  the  ct~>  a  of  u n t i l  had  before  f i n a l l y  Four,  "Shichijukyu  so  now  past  the  1965,  that  was  century  Seventy-nine  years  who  the  along  write  Utsugi,  realm  value  a  force  his  Chapter  half  to  could,  of  upon  i n  Utsugi  l i f e  retains  essay  compound  other man  In  works  of  ("My  stones,  (''Emptiness"), the  of  30th  never  yet  grave  grave,  The  the  d i a r i s t  himself,  back  with  continued  by  Utsugi,  old  amazingly  number  Tanizaki  tour-de-force  l i t e r a r y  "Shisei,"  great  a  author  look  the  produced,  0  extraordinary  now  s t i l l  by  l i f e  doubt  the  were  1962).  near-dead  d e t a i l  novels  t a i h e i k i  s a t i s f a c t i o n .  which  and  no  the  could  in  projected  between  end  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of and  shall  is  embodies  seventy-five  more  Kitchen,  nikki  career.  two  Daidokoro  Peaceful  ro.jin  Tanizaki's  time,  in  death?  his  to  l y i n g  l a s t  s t i l l .  moments,  CHAPTER  The bring  young  l i f e  ' l i v i n g ' minded  into  art.  And  is  a  ideal  period  fantasies also of  an  the  a  i s , of  young  secret  to  order  "create  that  passion,  tattooer  fruitless  with  one upon  years  u n t i l  "milk-white  foot  i s his  upon  the  Seikichi great to  the  the  search  the  day  he  for  catches  out  Edo,  is  years  to  use  palanquin."  Unable  to  In  Seikichi  the a  this  see  of One  has  from  other,  to  beautiful ideal  glimpse the her  two  the  woman  remains of  a  curtains  woman' of  2 departing  for  introduced.  of  beneath  It  tattoo.  pleasure  a  an  allow  f i f t y  of  and  skin  we  cultivated.  s k i l l ,  clients  a l l  idiosyncrasies  is  derive  single  combined  to  walls"  practice  ,  peeping  and  a  over  nostalgia.  moreover,  the  their  enough  within  a l l  a  art  Tokugawa  hundred  "world  and,  far  evoke  two  instance,  this  to  wherein  permitted  for  is  is  of  to  create  scheme,  and  tale  time  a  this  try  with  dominance out  to  story,  beauty,  the  with  masterpiece  several  of  does  plainly,  simple the  a  enough  terms,  i t  carry  the  period  i n f l i c t s a  to  a r t i s t ,  obsessions: he  glorify  i s o l a t i o n ,  were  midst A  For  is  setting  Keene's  them  pains  "Shisei"  close  ideal  nation  of  put  in  and  peaceful  Donald a  to  in  The  " S h i s e i , " however,  or  skilled  strength.  in  art,  purpose:  nature. need  hero  ONE  face,  his  a  longing  for  a r t i s t i c turns and  into  a  belong love.  believes to  shows  up  at  she  the  More  his  i s ,  and One  one  a l l  woman  of  more  with  may  his his  time  morning  place  as  in  a  quest,  passes  the  next  request  expect,  from  the  woman  Foot.  her  Chinese about  he  intervenes.  master:  Seikichi shows  to  destiny  g i r l  geisha the  which  passionate  f i n a l l y  her  foot,  perception  spring,  of  the  w i l l  two  picture  princess  to  be  (Hiryo),  not  in  miss  s c r o l l s ,  a  opportunity. one  languorous  tortured.  also  the  The  displaying  a  First,  depicting  pose,  other  i s  young  woman  a  famous  watching  called  he  The  a  man  Victims  "gloating  over  a  •5  heap  of  men's  corpses  l y i n g  frightened  at  the  that  i s  something  in  there  the  s c r o l l s .  cherished g i r l  drugged  drop  of  to  ink  to  (jorogumo). w i l l  look  victims" ni  of  no  As  we  "Shisei"  since just  there the  form  he  the  g i r l  to  her  l i f e :  feet."  at  the  that i s  The  same  ready  to  beautiful  pours  out  his  a  giant  of  now  that  on,  iu  otoko  i t  i s  wa,  w i l l  mina  his  omae  longof  with  spider  Seikichi,  become no  your  koyashi  da.").^" can  see,  does are  not  l i e  a in  situations  simplistic  view  of  simple  story.  the  "realism"  where  Tanizaki  a  fairy  tale,  The of  success  i t s  plot,  borrows but  the  every  blackwidow  whispers  " a l l men  women  back  soul  is  admits  the  bring  the  image  g i r l  time  resembles  upon  from  beautiful  ("Otoko  naru  to  in  her  but  Seikichi  sleep,  The so  paintings,  Now  desire  at  also  not i t s  24  magical its  wand  to  make  characterization,  Seikichi a r t i s t " with Nor  and  the  and  a l l  is  accompanying l i e  none,  as  Mushanokoji  l i f e  l i f e  literature  Futen  i t  is  the  raw  lack  death; energy  of  to  ical  for  think  of  a  a  story  but  to  presence  whelming. cessively  to  in  "In  flaws. i t  found  into  a  of  content,  in  since  successful the  that  in  of  burning  an  manifests  a  way  essentially  with turns  is  This  F i f t y  is  saves  one  tale.  major  young  in  what  last  i t  the  thoughts,  his  " S h i s e i , " man  of  Tanizaki.  sophistication  share  characters,  Nevertheless,  difference  that  "the  descriptions.  terms  throughout  quality  for  years  work,  Futen,  i t  man  f l i r t -  old  i t s e l f  with  l i f e .  The  out  invites  to  be  the  reader  pleasure  and  pain  of  phys-  force  "Shisei"  is  over-  phenomena. The  form  the  i n t e l l e c t u a l  asset  not  The  symbols  zero."  typical  be  in  Saneatsu  big  turns  is  to  n i k k i . with  a  l i e  characters,  philosophical  pervades  fact,  s t i l l  expressed with  an  in  r o j i n  ing  that  as  i t  well-rounded  harshly:  has  moreover  force  i t s  is  indeed,  and  force,  l a t e r ,  rather  more as  does  main  psychological  i t  "Shisei"  the  in  Nor  two  than  does  Tanizaki's  story  the  function  beauty,"  comments  the  happen.  since  g i r l ,  "the  the  again  there  is  things  It  of  grows  given  to  of  an  a r t i s t ' s  whom  he  w i l l  the from  the  l i f e a  l i v e l y  cult  of  unshakable  dedicate  his  in  world  of  fantasy,  beauty,  into  w i l l  create  l i f e ;  to and  the an  f i n a l l y ,  ex-  d i s t i l l e d enchantress when  25  this  life  force  seems t o b u r n  art  i s realized,  the  creature herself  conquest In that  t h e work o f  i t i s a g a i n t a k e n up and c a r r i e d i n her unquenchable t h i r s t  on b y  f o r the  o f men. the following a n a l y s i s ,  supports the t a l e  as w e l l how  out a f t e r  will  be c l o s e l y  as c o n t r o v e r s i e s w i l l  "Shisei"  the narrative  technique  examined and f l a w s  a l s o be d i s c u s s e d .  Here i s  begins:  I t was a n age when men h o n o r e d t h e n o b l e v i r t u e of f r i v o l i t y , when l i f e was n o t s u c h a h a r s h s t r u g g l e as i t i s today. 6 This invite and  i n t r o d u c t i o n performs  the reader  a double  i n t o t h e dreamland  t o r e a s s u r e him t h a t  he w i l l  function:  of a carefree  not encounter  mundane p r o b l e m s i n d i s g u i s e a l o n g t h e way. that  can honor t h e "noble v i r t u e  to past  familiar  For a world  of f r i v o l i t y "  must be  a happy w o r l d ,  and i t s p r o b l e m s ,  i f a n y , must be q u i t e  different  ours.  i s now r e l i e v e d and  from  enters the f a i r y a secret logic,  tale  The r e a d e r  a t m o s p h e r e w i t h c o n f i d e n c e and  with  p l e a s u r e o f n o t h a v i n g t o u s e common s e n s e o r  a s i t were, t o judge  importance  of t h i s  the story.  very effective  have a l o o k a t i t s o r i g i n a l  In view  of the  introduction,  l e t us  form:  K o r e wa mada h i t o b i t o ga " o r o k a " t o i u t o t o i t o k u o m o t t e i t e , y o no n a k a ga ima no yo n i h a g e s h i k u k i s h i m i a w a n a i j i b u n de a t t a . 7 The  k e y word i n t h i s  sentence  i s " o r o k a " /<j  v  , meaning  26  stupidity, pretation  foolishness, that  Many  scholars  when  people  they  lack  is  not  tion  see  be  of  taken  craze  not  only  i n f l i c t s  Another ness  by  from  a r t i s t  an w i l l  tale.  In  Edo  beautiful (Subete  because  story,  and  As is  not  should the  is  be.  ugly—a  we  the  justify art  but  which  is  also  "livingness"?  l i t e r a l  an  word  interpreta-  with  lesser  very  one—foolish-  ideal,  his  a l l  three.  Tanizaki tale  for  strong,  with  and  mono  a l l  wa  a  makes a  sentences,  concludes  de  of  the  as  single-  exemplified  " S h i s e i , "  after  sure  the  run-of-the-mill  he  describes  statement:  the  that  ugly  tsuwamono  de  his  fairy fan-  "All  the Q weak."  were a r i ,  minikui  mono  9  atta).  clear  peopled  can  times  because  the  second  foolishness  of  irony.  modern  short,  receiver,  a  the  meant  two  utsukushii  yowamono  of  i t s  also  and  take  next  were  the  pursuit  \ wa'  is  else  form  of  the  of  precisely  In The  one  inter-  tattooer.  not  the  a  f i r s t  l i t e r a l l y ,  how  upon  of  conflicts  taken  For  pains  probably  art  reader  tasized  be  "tattoo,"  the  the  criticism  quality.  without:  in  Tanizaki is  can  The  obviously  face-value.  interpretation  S e i k i c h i  a l l ,  at  mortality  viewed  minded  of  is  violent  " f r i v o l i t y . "  mass  to  a  "frivolous"  the  doomed  f r i v o l i t y .  mind  this  in  that"oroka"  meaning  to  in  engage  that  to  is  comes  or  from  with  Instead, world  the  statement,  the  world  heroes  and  v i l l a i n s  as  there  are  only  beautiful  devoid  of  morality  the as  a  of  "Shisei"  fairy  society  tale and  under-  27  stands.  In  created one  by  time  the  when  Tanizaki's idolizes cellent  words,  a r t i s t the  skin:  lurks  a  a  reader  to  f u l l y  lose  realize  the  impact  threat  imminent  the  end  the  are  we  informed  had  in  mind,  had  that  carefully  of  the  tattooing of  the  fairy this  here  tale  that  surely  an  poured  into  and  colors  dance  wherein  is  serves  world  i s  picture  i n  mind  search i s  caught of  play  an  In  Bushuko g i r l  a  of  many  to  for  the  scene  ex-  people's upon  eventually  power  and  fact  author  to  goal.  Not  g i r l ' s  an  that  u n t i l  that he  i s ,  Seikichi  already years  while  i s  the  nonbiri  creature  Tanizaki  toward  body  frustrated  That  evil  colors  white  picture  the  i n  accentuate  nonchalant,  Perhaps  i s  i n  called  reason. of in  the  hiwa,  instance,  a  a l l  this  contrasting  suspect  Edo,  part  with  the  the  important for  of  the  Woman. by  gestation.  works  of  during  glamorized  other  the  on  even  off-guard  without  of  a r t i s t ' s  Ideal  not  sight  by  nature  might  "diabolist"  pretty  in  we  process  In  prepared  and  atmosphere  a  in  and  malevolent  not  the  the  a  world  with  amorality  becomes  paint  should  moods  reader  of  Now  lines  of  a r t i s t ;  view  cheerful  spider  and  his  the  tattooing  dazzling  f l o r i d  world  ambition.  The  of  for  a  perfectly.  blackwidow  diabolic  is  henceforth,  sensuous  their  and  beautiful,  means;  i t  simplistic  purpose  the  bodies;  order  other  novelist,  his  smiling face  "shocks"  narrative  the  shocking  lovingly  seem  techniques. scene  washing  of an  the  28  enemy's of  the  can  hero's  be  where the  severed  drawn  from  probably  ever  hard  some  scene eyes  the  he  in  offers  the  best  a  can  Sasuke  The  shocking  purely  esthetic.  although  we  expect  to  revolting Tanizaki  animals  on  introduces  see do  of  himself  i s  just  out  a  not  It  no  t o i l e t  "Shunkin-  mind  from  "Shisei,"  the  fact  picture  on  expect  see  of  And  jorogumo  the  casual  makes  i t  grue-  pricking  in  one  how-  the  by  effect  to  on  reader,  blind  comes  instance  conclusion  'certain'  earth. the  the  his  nature  another  diarrhea.  makes  needle.  we  to  example:  blot  morbid  yuki,  running  persistent  try,  the  controversial  her  where  back,  Sasame but  keeps  however,  g i r l ' s  enhance  of  may  with  to  famous  Yukiko  because  sho"  serves  perversity;  beautiful  -train  his  head  the the  manner  a l l  that  the  most  in  which  more  uncanny:  l i t t l e by l i on t h e f o r m by the time this weird, its eight le g i r l ' s back.  As in  the  into  a  Japanese  which  deadly  matter  i t s  power  Japan.  century  a  which is  old  and  In  novel  fact,  a  the  Chinese  victims  of  significance  of  t t l e the t a t t o o marks began to take of a huge b l a c k - w i d o w s p i d e r ; and t h e n i g h t s k y was p a l i n g i n t o dawn malevolent c r e a t u r e had s t r e t c h e d g s to embrace the whole of the 10  f a l l  female i s term  Chinese Journey  spider  traditions. i s  seen  beauty.  to  the  a  West  deep  in a  name  web  for  has  the  some  translation: courtesan  famous  provides  roots  vicious  metaphor  i t s  lost  the  has  Its  designate  l i t e r a t u r e , to  as  Even  unfortunately used  motif  of  sixteenth-  evidence  i n  29  the by  erotic seven  guised  scene  where  beautiful  as  humans.  Sino-Japanese  the  women  11  monk  who  Thus,  culture,  turn  a  this  this  excellent  device,  ties  painting brings  after  the  man.  i t s e l f  forth  a r t i s t  "His  flesh;  and  k i c h i ' s  strange  We  is  on a r t :  cerebral Tattoo its that  and  is  a  r i f i c e  to  serves the  painting.  i t  form  his  essential:  tale  with  an  Tanizaki's the  arrogant  the a  writing would  w i l l .  he  was  S e i -  learned. is  a  former  of  is  to  personal non-  senses. that  the  of  to  what  imparts  and,  to  " S h i s e i , "  have  been i t  sac-  Ukiyoe  i s  just  owes  extent  w i l l i n g  form  Ukiyoe  "tattooer"  form,  and  put  drove  blood-red  keener  lesser  To  the  device,  as  physical  body  of  " s a d i s t i c "  author's  fleshless  message.  very  status  Tanizaki  concept  tale  scene  non-intellectual, to  at  structural  f e l t  the  the  marvel  swollen,  have  lower  human  but  the  a r t i s t ' s a  S e i k i c h i  reveals  purpose,  a r t i s t i c  even  their  we  albeit  l i v i n g  at  thematic  the  agony  that the  art,  This  most  of  a  men  d i r e c t l y  elegant  to  as  the  rather  more  aura  and,  so  a  harbinger  in  i t  shock  as  as  to  is  of a  the  they groaned, 13  that  appeals  existence i t  in  which,  described  learned  d i s -  i n . - .  would  is  delight,"  spiders  12  torturing  louder  decline  significant  outlook  lay  them,  also  His  to  seduced  well-versed  i n i t i a l  intention  himself  the  have  painter.  hidden  into  motif  is  be  dobutsu,"  Victims),  pleasure  needles  no  firmly  (The  the  of  to  -  "masho  choice  Hiryo  The  his  of  out  reader  appearance  Hsuan-Tsang  a  an i t  erotic is  l i f e l e s s  differently,  30  the  appeal  often  ("The  brief Hell  Akutagawa a  Tanizaki's  sensuous A  as  of  and  Screen," Ryunosuke of  1918)  w i l l  help  wrote  this  famous  his  in  superiority  of  L i f e .  sacrifice  end  to  his  Art  to  achieved  the  of  his  convincing  the  beloved  l i f e .  realized,  there  is  nothing  (The  might  be  said  ization a  form  youth end  of of  the  and  does,  there  i t s  gradual  to  Mishima  took  The  beauty  art;  art  great  very  l e f t  about  of  l i f e , of  since  art  is i s  l e f t  with  puts  an  once  him  but  to  but  as  putting  an  both  Akutagawa  own  peak  of  at  and  l i f e  the  i s  age,  disintegration: l i v e s  Death. ideal-  art,  supposed  for  the  whose in  and  Hell  Artist  inherent not  1918  Yoshihide,  Art  Mishima Yukio  youth  in  of  painter  the  point.  conception reader  goal  for  the  story  picture  ultimate  nothing  the  daughter's  of  is  their  The  fabulous  own  same  is  elucidate  art-for-art's-sake  succeeded  having  general,  " J i g o k u h e n it  with  b r i l l i a n t l y  after  in  sensual.  comparison  manifesto  style,  their  and writing  career). To Art  was  control  Akutagawa, almost and  suffered,"  "art  l i k e  even  a  tool  punish  observes  with  l i f e  Prof.  were which  for  never he  would  injuries  Tsuruta  in  his  compatible.  he  organize,  felt  he  analysis  of  had  14"Jigokuhen." but  lonely.  As  a  result,  Tanizaki's  cannot  be,  he  cannot  be  l i f e  seems  Akutagawa's  attitude  to  say,  without  art.  art The  i s  is  different:  without two  art  l i f e ,  sometimes  l o f t y , there  and  there  stand  side  31  by  side,  into  energizing  one,  case,  l i k e  their Thus,  "Shisei" by  a  a  free  feet  while  hand  half  him  is  with  the  g i r l ' s  they  melt  body.  In  conspicuous—almost  scenes where  his or  sometimes  moves  physically.  passage  dead"  on  "Jigokuhen"  descriptive  long  other;  spider  coexistence  charms  l a v i s h  After  the  each  "twisting  The  story  their  conceptually,  is  the  a r t i s t ' s  either  physiological.  reader  involving  the  victims  the  either  characterized  body.  human  sadism  is  given  " c o l l a p s i n g at mouth,  his  g r i t t i n g  their  1 5 teeth come way of  and to  to  screaming  another the  the  aloud  description  l y r i c a l .  lovely  as  foot  It of  i f  they  where  concerns  the  were  this  dying,"  sadistic  S e i k i c h i ' s  Ideal  we  tone  f i r s t  gives  glimpse  Woman:  To h i s s h a r p e y e , a human f o o t was as expressive as a f a c e . T h i s one was s h e e r perfection. Exquisitely chiseled toes, nails l i k e the iridescent shells along the shore at Enoshima, a p e a r l - l i k e rounded h e e l , s k i n so l u s t r o u s t h a t i t seemed b a t h e d i n the l i m p i d w a t e r s of a m o u n t a i n s p r i n g — t h i s , i n d e e d was a f o o t to be n o u r i s h e d by m e n ' s b l o o d , a f o o t t o trample on t h e i r b o d i e s . 16  As  with  contrasting  tones  are  fact,  contrasts  author's as  in  part  of  r o j i n  "Shunkinsho";  bring  Tanizaki's  favorite  Futen  Shigemoto  of  no  the haaa,  l i v e l i n e s s  colors  a l l  kinds  and  s k i l l  devices:  nikki;  master  W  and  name'  and a  readers  in  figure  writing  refined  moods,  few. of  s t o r y t e l l i n g .  strongly youth  and  the  contrasting  and  among old  the age,  servant,  as  in  grotesque,  as  in  If  anything,  Tanizaki  hardly  In  Shosho  contrasts ever  32  experience  boredom.  Some, flavor  in  however, the  might  passage  frown  quoted  at  the  above.  heavily  The  Western  preciousness  of  17 the  metaphors  indeed  verges  the  young  overly  carried  elation  author  of  what  i s  going  to  foot-fetishism,a  recurrent  topic  Japanese  among  context  of  functional ionist  both  on  be  away his  theme and  pomposity  Western  nevertheless,  purpose:  i t  of  a  serves  great  to  a r t i s t  his  shows  f i r s t  l i f e - l o n g  which  "Shisei,"  demands  by  and  obsession:  becomes  a  c r i t i c s .  the  foot  "a  favorite In  motif  emphasize whom  rev-  the  the has  a  perfect-  lovely  face  and  18 a  fine  fect  body  As his  early  of  far  works.  he  in  of  the  both  Ideal  and,  after  women  who  to  a  per-  equal  tone  has  dreams  the  l i v e d  himself figurative  "Shisei"  and  mark  style,  a  the  and  as  in  shown  at  S e i k i c h i ' s  the and  felt  generations died  in  next  that of  this  age.  scene place  "her  glamorous vast  i s  figurative  wonders,  he  the  in  def-  which  technique  however,  up  other  c o l l o q u i a l manner  narrative  scrutiny,  of  the  instance,  "Shisei"  works  intense  for  upon  in  and  Tanizaki  maturation—in  of  Woman  had  Only  is—can  frown  excessively  improved  context  the  and  that  concerned,  also  rather  when  the  was  i s  subdued  sometimes  mirrored  style  used  language  an  s a t i s f y . "  toes,  "Shunkinsho,"  change—or  result  Again  the  The  and  to  to  w i l l .  years  which  "Ashikari" inite  as  enough  head  his  l a t e r  language  the  not  beauty—from  intensity  in  were  beauty men  capital,  33  where  the  nation's  Exuberant into  sins  descriptions  and  wealth  have  a  way  awe-inspiring dimensions  tasies  i s  comfortably  Even Chinese  when  Tanizaki  characters reader  and  offers  the  in  presentation  the  at  the  of  concentrated."  magnifying  wherein  this  r e a l i t y  tale  of  fan-  home. indulges  exotic most  of  were  the  himself  d e t a i l s ,  in  he  d i f f i c u l t  sometimes  fascinating description, painting  of  the  as  Chinese  princess:  She was l e a n i n g on a b a l u s t r a d e i n a l a n g u o r o u s pose, the l o n g s k i r t of her f i g u r e d brocade r o b e t r a i l i n g h a l f w a y down a f l i g h t o f s t a i r s , her s l e n d e r body b a r e l y a b l e to support the weight of her gold crown studded w i t h coral lapis l a z u l i . In her r i g h t hand she h e l d a l a r g e wine cup, t i l t i n g i t to her l i p s as she g a z e d d o w n a t a man who w a s a b o u t t o b e tortured in the garden below. 20  The require to  reason a  bring  victim. whether royal  l a v i s h  The  poignancy  one  transcends  always to a  meet  subject  description  the  one  With  the  out  contrast  should  consort  fusion,  i s ,  or  with  the  the the  painting  glamorous wretched  of  the  scene  admire  the  f a i r y - l i k e  pity  thing  of  of  the  seems  tortured  to  become  makes  man  clear:  princess  fate  us  of  the  wonder  beauty  and,  does  in  that  of this  the con-  Art  Reality. mundane  that the  toothbrush  d e t a i l s ,  b r i l l i a n t . woman in  of  his  his  In  however, the  quest,  mouth"  Tanizaki  morning he  was  — (fusayoji  o  when  is  not  Seikichi  actually  was  "holding  kuwaenagara)  21  34  and  gazing  this  at  a  pot  down-to-earth  of  l i l i e s .  element,  Probably  both  embarrassed  translators  by  Howard  Hibbett  22 and On  Ivan the  Morris  other  simply  hand,  omitted  Matsumoto  i t  Ryozo,  in in  their  renderings.  Japanese  Literature  23 New at  and  Old,  issue  here  l i t e r a l  or  any  for  i t  use  should  two  be  in  whether whether  tale,  there  or  at  Petersen  she  faithful  not but  the  to  to a  the  text.  The  translation  should  the  toothbrush  put  i t  point  motif  be is  differently,  of  whether  a l l .  thinks  regrets,  Western  details  is  not,  Gwenn d e t a i l ,  remains  is  i t  be  "unfortunately  t r a n s l a t o r s . " ^ Tanizaki's  should  Her  there.  The  omitted  argument  is  by  the  that  mundane  works,  r a t h e r than being an u n d e r c u t t i n g of the poetic and e s t h e t i c t r a d i t i o n . . . are e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s of h i s e s t h e t i c of harmony. J u s t as p a i n and cruelty are close to beauty, and as hate is a k i n t o l o v e , so t h e mundane i s n e v e r f a r from the p o e t i c . 25  In truth. the in  the  general  Readers  scattered keeping  of  case,  Tanizaki  presence  with  Petersen  the  of  comes  indeed  the  author's  are  mundane concept  close  to  get  used  to  throughout of  beauty,  the to  his  work,  which 26  "must the of may  always  old a  smell  messy repeat  Sasame  grow  yuki  of  dish  a to  again, to  from  the  t o i l e t hint the  shock  r e a l i t i e s to  at  evoke  some  diarrhea the  reader  of  nostalgia,  erotic of  l i f e . "  of  or  fantasy,  Yukiko  out  Thus,  at  his  the  the or end  sight  i f  we of  sentimentality.  35  Mundane the  d e t a i l s ,  author's  reader  as  a  poetic  writing  f l i g h t  that  he  i s  apparently,  is  Tanizaki's  In  the  utterly  to  specific  above,  quality an  old  evocation nose. its  A  and  to  i n  out  the  conjure  up  the  "unrealism"  but  for i s  the  This  does  i s  of  a  of  not  about  which  device  the  Such,  a l l  w i l l  which  being  the  to  sensible  suggest  place  that  at  that  been  for  much of  of  "Shisei,"  both  in  precise  magical  Seikichi  the  example  sympathy  the  sug-  nostalgic  of  In  of  in  i t s  our  f a i l s  certain  atmosphere  have  motif.  of  out  between  i t  reader's  borrow  would  flaw  As  the  seem  to  mis judgment  technical  down-to-earth  on  thumb,  meeting  short  without  mention  unfortunate  clearly  hard  spite  to  down  reassure  however,  function.  t o i l e t  sore  Not  tone  craft.  themselves  f a i r y t a l e - l i k e a  author  the  i t  the  space.  a  rather  like  d e t a i l s ,  to  in  and  his  "Shisei,"  order  purpose,  and  stands  moment,  be  of  within  of  of  to  purpose.  carry  smell  would  hygienic  time  in  are  r e a l i t y  control  Mundane  toothbrush,  anything it  must  from  in  case  r e a l i z e .  n a t u r a l i s t i c , gestive  s t i l l  device,  and  the  easily  f i n a l  wand g i r l ,  overlooked  analysis,  situation. again  Kathleen  lead  us  Merken  to  another  laments  as  27 "making It  i s  excessive  when  and  in  the  reader  of  demands  Seikichi  order  to  was  anesthetic  had  prepare informed  which  he  on  the  reader's  convinced her  for  that had  the  the  "under  obtained  indulgence."  g i r l  of  tattooing his some  kimono time  his  intention,  process, was ago  a  v i a l  from  36  a  Dutch  physician."  Without d e t a i l , i t  i s  But in  the  reader  there  why?  for  Have  watching  passionate the  excusing  might  one we  the  tably  not  to  learned  men  suffer  needles?  Here,  while  as  a  the  handy  narrative i t  reveals  'sadism',  in  fact,  the  'lesser'  great  a r t i s t  nature,  men,  a r t i s t  moreover  the  for  this  why  i t  put  the  that  ludicrous  is  there.  g i r l  Seikichi  writhingly  Obviously,  to  sleep.  takes  under  interestingly,  his  is  pleasure  mncom-  the  there  is  p l i c e . fore, upon  That's the  by  thetic" could  To becomes  his  can  when  she  cannot w i l l  the  done  carry  the  i n  crux  of  a  perfect  i s  spared and  be  his  needs  the  of  art  i t  an  never a  such device although  been  this as  con-  There-  victim,  For  to  accom-  beauty.  or  sadism.  created,  although  prove  has  of  attitude  that,  to  for  attitude  This  the  being,  some  contempt  medium,  "Shisei"  'lesser'  thematic  superiority  powers  regret-  S e i k i c h i ' s  of  beings.  the  f a i l s a  that  feeling  his  in  a  time  for  r e f l e c t i n g  a r t i s t  g i r l  there  expression  the  in  as  to  is  fellow  find  suffer  have  an  by  nothing  Seikichi  have  only  generally  mysterious  consequently g i r l  f i r s t  the  believes  he  anesthetic"  for  strengthened himself  of  i t  i s as  "vial  device,  toward  cretely—unless  the  wonder  reason:  purpose:  is  author  problem. For  a  the  looked  and  reason,  the  Tanizaki  "anesprobably  better. matter  sentimental  in  one  his  step  further,  treatment  toward  Seikichi the  g i r l  even as  37  evidenced "'First  by  you  Seikichi  his  answer  must  bathe  when to  she  bring  compassionately.  'I  asks out  to  the  am a f r a i d  see  the  tattoo:  c o l o r s ' , i t  w i l l  whispered hurt,  but  29 be  brave  a  pathetic that at  "an  be  rare  of  because  victim, since a  as  is  scrolls  t r a l  p i l l a r After  out  the  against over  the  in  garden  g i r l  man "I 30  dare  of  the  the  scenery  her of  everywhere i n  Spring, The  of  her  death  are  with  important whether  scene,  aggressor  becomes  can  d i s c u s s i o n may  best  be  l e t  us  be  of  return  to  considered  the  as  there re-  pic-  the  cen-  " S h i s e i . " Chinese  a of  before somehow  where  birds is  hurts"  then  but  painting  coolly"  how  the  f u l l  down  role-reversal  victim,  secret  eyes  gesture  understanding  The  a  can  shows  sym-  i s ,  now,  which  It  that  a  question  been The  a  look  details  thought.  structure  one.  say  our  a  offers  herself,  a g g r e s s o r and 31  for  painting  tree,  for is  he  "would  These  story  roles?  end;  when  dry  who  clue  never  section  triumph.  (The  the  a  becomes  of  second  scattered a  as  "discovered  a  a  remark  has  the  ture  g i r l  of  g i r l  for  the  the  generally  reversal  served  for  serve  victim  the  help  Or  s a t i s f a c t i o n . "  they  i s ,  longer.'"  and  conclusion  that  be  to  victims  a i r  the  hand  must  his  l i t t l e  princess, 32  s e l f , " young  Seikichi woman and  her.  Men's  joy,  scenery  flutter  about  appropriately  which  r o l l s  leaning  pride  the  in  gloating  corpses looks and  t i t l e d  l i e  l i k e sing Hiryo  Victims). The  g i r l  is  now  frightened  at  the  resemblance  of  her  38  own  image  diabolic tempted is  now  her  he  with  and  the  a  This  in  the  s p l i t  many or  he  knows  the  Perfect on  her  the  legend  is  that  burdened  Satan of  (Seikichi) men  to  of  are  which  reasons,  but  a  true  Beauty  often  the  "work  man.  outand  The  the  dif-  is  both  g i r l ,  far  s i n ,  is  actually  scheme  of  wreaking  also  belongs.  be  the  not,  The  heightened of  woman  that  regarded one  author  of  as  a  the  with  more  over-emphasized.  or  a r t i s t .  is  to  art  of  sado-masochism,  attributed  of the  Seikichi can  a r t i s t  know  and  a  the  S e i k i c h i  with  in  S e i k i c h i  Tanizaki's  we  upon  Eve  of  disguise  works  weaknesses  powers  sado-masochistic  foremost,  with  the  Tanizaki's  Seikichi  wandering  that  and  f r u i t ,  ambitions—and  knows  of  snake's  awareness;  of  Because  the  Woman  b i b l i c a l in  typical  his  valid  riveted  Ideal  is  in  forbidden  personality  "isms"  less  Satan  secret  world  polarization  scene  a l l  accomplice  havoc  the  also  Adam,  being  as  Satan,  Satan,  from  ensuing  his  most  Like  ference  an  with  tempting  come!  Satan  the  attitude: Eve  reflect  l i k e  and  Seikichi  tattooing by  his  art  (that)  had  The  temporal  i s ,  scene  involving  relentless been  the  f i r s t  passion  supreme  33 effort the  of  poetic  followed tiny  by  cycle  powerful that  his  l i f e . "  description moonlight of  time  machine  cycle,  the  counter-balanced  of and  that  for  the  intense by  the  scenery  in  followed  witnesses conquest mood  of  casual  flow which  by the of  the  is  by  daylight  is  daylight  again,  birth  the  men.  of  of And  a r t i s t  rhythm  marked  at  a  most  within work  nature,  is  uncon-  39  cerned  but  from  the  face  of  i n s p i r i n g .  water the  templating hung  over  along  the  absorbed  sketched  g i r l , " her  the  his  a  morning  r i p p l i n g sat  masklike  mansion in  the  Seikichi  serene  bank i n  When  across  creation.  golden there  When  r i v e r ,  when  . . .  "the  he  the  "conmoon  bathing  the  on  trance,  radiance,"  And  "reflected  waves  in  face."  the  dreamlike  sun  the  was  houses  t o t a l l y  morning  "haze  34 began  to  thin  now  the  work  and  man  are  The best  are  expertise  servant,  which  i s  this  g i r l  and  the  coming  move  menacingly  but  a  scene.  A  speech  no  but  takes  of  painter.  a  the  inquiry uncalled  to  create  prepare l i f e  her  scene  Seikichi, empty.  Nature  of  of  for the  longer  has  forceful  on  meek  the  tone  now  of  an  of  a  the of  poet  of  geisha's  the  for,  mundane  wholesome the  a  the and  for  small  elements  esthetic  wakening  of  whose  the  legs  breath. mainly  from  has  of  details  spider,  composed  dialogue  one  Except  a  shuddering i s  The  s e n s i b i l i t y  transformation  the  heart  probably  the  to  kind  i s  with  to  with  wakening  different  i s  his  described.  conspicuously absent  The  above  somewhat  A l l  f e l t  breeze,"  ever  about  effect.  early  harmony.  scene  chosen  break  the  also  perfect  Tanizaki  " r e a l i s t i c "  in  finished, in  scenes  visual  are  . . .  tattooing  •tableau' the  out  taken  the  of  dialogue,  picture  place:  urgency  of  scrolls  S e i k i c h i ' s a  tempter's,  understanding  companion.  35 Satan to  has  face  given  his  his  destiny.  soul On  to the  the  beauty  other  hand,  and the  l e f t  g i r l ' s  Adam speech  40  is a  gaining  confidence  c l i m a c t i c scene  g i r l  is  in  complete,  creator's  which  with  prelude  which  the  to  the  conclusion,  transformation  and  even  of  the  overwhelms  her  expectations.  the  the  a  immediate,  Structurally, of  as  conclusion  g i r l ' s  alone—wait  "Shisei"  in  is  l i n e : the  is the  "How  other  divided  into  shortest  the  water  room!  I  four  one.  sections,  It  begins  s t i n g s ! . . .  hate  to  have  Leave  a  man  me  see  36 me  suffer  ity  in  l i k e  her  yesterday  command. she  is  ruthless  and  not  about  come  t h i s ! "  Right Prom  now  the  confident. without  The some  moaning  wildly  over  her  flushed  undisturbed  and  unstained:  whether adding the  the a  in  her  as  i f  she  motif  of  her  l a t e r ,  princess,  scanning  declares,  Her for is  a  The  here  that  the The  person:  ears.  agony: her  the  color  cheeks  into  to  bright  g i r l  on  any  one  is  does  the  triumph  of to  other  and  picture.  reappear,  (kachidoki)  The  than  prepared  balustrade  victims.  feet  hair  too  the  remains  wonder  of  f u l l y  toward  floating  her  erotic  paintings  the  thing  implication  the  of  fatale,  hair  l e f t  blackness  look  g i r l  however  soles  reappears,  eyes  S e i k i c h i .  white  the  scroll  potential  femme  Only  highlight  of  a  author-  timid  disheveled  reader  has  leaning song  but  the  c o l l a p s i n g to  c h e e k s . . . .  mirror.  apotheosis.  in  Chinese  foot  hour  the  l i v e ,  the  notice  metamorphosis  nightmarishly,  contrasting  redness An  for  in  we  beautiful  transformed  floor,  reflected  away  l i k e  echoes  hazy  f i r s t  the  sky,  one,  41  It is  i s  there  now  a  are  pretation.  by  three  F i r s t ,  are In  And  my  the  the  same  the  g i r l ' s  open  amazement t h i r d ,  f i r s t  can  be  a  always  desired  fatale  not an  (koyashi)  as  or  suffering  be  applied  i s , of  i f  we  recipient  the  change the  care  was  this  inter-  attitude. as  i f  g i r l ' s  who  a  taken  declaration  now  of  favorably.  she  brought  attitude  a  victim  a  certain  i t ,  then  is  by  power,  and  becomes "victim"  mishap, term  secretly wished  had  inherent  word  the  her  about  who  the  of  F i r s t ,  herself  destructive  of  however,  result  which  understand  wanting  g i r l  of  i s  this  her  attitude  without  to  taken  but  aware  Also, the  of  interpretation,  attitude  That  n e c e s s a r i l y the aggressor.  favor  the  transformation  in  femme  in  obviously,  authoritative  effort.  again:  v i c t i m ! " ) .  arguments  Seikichi's  discussion  authoritative at  no-role-reversal  secretly  the  scene?  g i r l ' s  transformation,  a  up  indications  the  Seikichi's  surprise.  ("You  to  role-reversal  There  Second,  time  or  pain,  cannot  for  the  change  is  transformation. Second, an  amazement  art  than  at  Seikichi's at  the  the  amazement  immediate  different  at  the  effectiveness  g i r l  herself.  of  his  more own  When  he  t e l l s  surely  he  i s  38 the  g i r l  already  "Your looking  sonality, This  old  forward  worthy  amazement  fears  of  can  the be  are to  gone,"  seeing  a  m i s s i o n he  likened  to  more has  that  confident  cut of  a  out  for  perher.  scientist  42  who  invents  than an  he  a  machine  expected.  aggressor  position. then,  who  This  suddenly leads  victim  as  The  answer  i s ,  is  a  victim.  he  us  the  out  i t  is  finds to  g i r l  no,  "false"  When  turns  Therefore,  a  kichi  that  the  victim  last  even  better  surprise in  point:  a  of  dominating  Is  Seikichi,  declares?  not  in  the  victim,  or  i f  points  work  not  his  the  to  at  the  ordinary you  sense.  prefer,  Hiryo  a  painting  Sei-  "voluntary" and  says:  30. "All  these  later,  men  after  w i l l  the  without  doubt,  part  S e i k i c h i  of  enjoys  does  not  know  Her  hasty  a  the  reveal  goddess  the of  or  doll  a  but  does  tremendous hardly  finds  in  the  beauty  who,  himself as  thinking 41  of  a  the  alone  a  and  your  v i c t i m s , " ^  The his  Satan-  Adam-part  lying  matter  at  of  the  fact,  creation  of  a l l . the  which  analysis,  an  that  to  remains  is  is  either  both.  Under  soul is  is  her  actually He,  mention  that  he  of  this  power  co-author:  Seikichi.  the  form never  victim,  treated.  conquering he  subtlety  mindless  "victim"  so  Not  she  the  Seikichi  the  in  often  a r t i s t ' s  of  being  in  most  depth  from  delight  woman:  l i e s  thinks  at  lacking  Bodhisattva  pleasure victim  of  but  that  f i n a l  be  himself.  somewhat  know  great  fabulous  picturing  she  a  you,"  s a d i s t i c a l l y while  plaything,  whom  She  l i t t l e  w i l l  includes  declaration  halo  to  men  for  i t .  fathomed.  is  speaks  Tanizaki's  radiant a  already  ruthless  l i v e s  "All  masochistically,  of  their  tattoo:  he  feet  does  ruin  derives  therefore, also  winner,  The  tale  concludes  threatening  v i s i o n :  tattoo,  g i r l  the  denudes  pi endently  tattooed  the  was  spider  which  is  far  ends  story  happened; a  Art  wreathed  into  the  foreboding  case,  back  the  with  reader  feeling  triumphs,  incarnation  a  of  the  an  herself caught in  a  "Shisei" The  sorrowful of  l i k e  and  gesture  ray  what the  of  w i l l  see  then  Unlike  projects reader  a  a the  her  res-  and  "Jigokuhen, boundless  of  "Jigokuhen"  for  what  has  finishes  the  tale  with  happen:  yet  in  kachidoki  Woman.  to  and  sunlight  compassion  "Shisei"  Eternal  "just  f l a m e s . " ^  future.  of  erotic  S e i k i c h i ' s request  self-contained,  v i t a l i t y the  at  with  heralding  either the  44  CHAPTER  There and  are twenty-three  "Shunkinsho"  ference  between  Although  them  view  complexity  of  added  of  years  a  between  and there  i n terms  "the a r t i s t "  simplistic  newly  (1933),  TWO  and  of  i s also  style  tale  i s  c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints,  element  which  turns  out  remain,  giving  be  the  way t o  manipulated  to  d i f -  structure.  s t i l l  gone,  (1910)  a s much  and  "the beauty"  fairy  "Shisei"  by  crucial:  a  a the  narrator. The a  story  document  l i f e  of  called  Mozuya  transitional g i r l  grows  away was  up to  person  her beyond  himself  Sasuke the  period  of  a  be a  Edo  hand  to  a  her music  h i s flame  of  Shunkin"  love  that  to  and  burn  wor-  fate  out  Sasuke,  the  beauty  fifty-seven, to  nine.  cruelty.  From  l i t t l e  t h e moment  refused  disease  her pupil  virtuoso.  the age of  gifted  for her  and  she does  the  the  i s a  the age of  i s , however,  the blind  of  an eye  known  acquire  relates  Shunkin  her egotism  everything  school, at  at  to  musician  musician,  for  leading  which  contracting  recognized  idol  blind  forever  description  shopboy  h i s eternal  of  fabulous  who a d o r e s  who h a p p e n e d  and M e i j i .  notorious  becomes  was a  of  famous  her vision  and charm,  only  ships who  scholar  "Biography  Shunkin,  destroyed  beauty The  by a  who h a d t h e m i s f o r t u n e  which She  i s told  time by  took Shunkin before  45  his  own  death  anniversary With  beautiful her  charge  of  d e t a i l ,  the  family the  appearance  runs  catastrophe  that  robbed  Nukui  Sasuke,  hapless  as  himself,  at  into  a t t i c  where  he  slept  and  then  dark  closet  somehow  to  found0out  a r t i s t i c  pregnant.  and  moreover,  insistence. for  of  came  biguous of  refused  kettle  baby  became  His  to  to  be  name  in  lovely took  a  his  in  the  pitch-  study  moved  by  was  the  teacher.  and  noticed.  even  at  subsequently  born  and  a  She  person  Sasuke,  boy's  This  sixteen  the  to  samisen  of  secret  his  work  put  her  alone  her  to  servant  turned  began  marry  by  parents,  Shunkin  was  company  Shunkin  refused  was  a  parents'  l i v e  with  sneaked of  was into  music  house  her.  relationship  t h i r t y - s i x ,  enemy  noise.  made  to  the  of  come  smuggling  practising  figure  she  just  young  by  in  Shunkin's  her  But  by  u n t i l  Shunkin  involved  her  parents'  was  sent  adoption.  her  to  on  in  The  Shunkin out  went  change  was  out  and  had  the  f i r s t  the  determination,  relationship curious  isolate  the  follows:  apprentice,  talent,  music  fellow-workers,  as  Fascinated  learning the  who  an  g i r l .  musical  on  death. plot  business  and  coincidehtally  the  eyes,  of  eighty-three,  Shunkin's  more  After  for  at  teacher  and  They  Sasuke, never  continued  again her  struck  bedroom  scalding water  on  at  her  one  then  married  u n t i l by  nineteen,  twenty-three, and  Shunkin,  face.  and  this at  disaster: night  moved  the  an  age  unknown  poured  Shunkin  am-  a  suffered  46  severely that  from  Sasuke  the  burn  would  see  but her  even  more  ruined  so,  beauty  from when  the the  thought wound -t  healed. was  "I'll  Sasuke's Then,  pierced and  intact  quiet  with  his  thus  make  I never  answer  to  Shunkin's  determination  with  a  beautiful  u n t i l  reportedly-  that  the  eyes  the  sure  his  needle. image  death.  praised  by  of He  of  priest  a  your  face,"  tearful  d i s t r e s s .  martyr,  Sasuke  became  Shunkin  Sasuke's  a  see  t o t a l l y  was  blind  preserved  self-immolation  as  "very  nearly  was  the  act  2 of  a  s a i n t , "  to  the  with  readers:  his A  story  and  the  story  ends  "Would  you  ladies  opinion?"  definite has  ("Dokusha  "No"  f a i l e d  to  for  overwhelming  success  the  answer  to  to  i t .  This  induced of  the  be  chapter reader  of  wa  shuko  would  reader.  positive  devoted  to  sympathize  question  gentlemen  "Shunkinsho"  rather  is  to  shoken  the  a  and  answer  impress  the  seems  an  with  that  ya")  the  However,  given  over  years,^  or  the  agree  seraruru  mean  the  something  finding  with  addressed  out  close  what  has  unusual  sacrifice  how  two  Sasuke. To  main  begin  with,  characters  peaceful  are  grounds  of  l e t  us  have  a  introduced: a  temple,  look very  they  at  the  simply,  l i e  side  on  by  the side 5  "in  their  Likewise, by  the  take  the  us  to of  sleep,  vague  narrator's  long  informs  eternal  be  bound  curiosity  search  for  s a t i s f i e d :  the  unusual  by in  a  mysterious  the  reader's  Shunkin's without  grave  mind does  suspense,  relationship  fate."  between  the the  aroused not narrator two  47  musicians. stones  are  attitudes we  seem  plot ing at  Even  in  l i f e .  know  the  toward  the  along  of  In  their  this  everything  characters.  Shunkin's  ately  respective  indicative  to  and  the  couple  grave the  top  of  their  we  ought  to  know  the  Sasuke's  I  and  section  indeed,  about  the  narrator's  revealed:  moment,  tomb-  positions  introductory  also  a  of  relative  Moreover,  i s  for  sizes  ran  f e e l -  "After  kneeling  hand  affection-  my  stone,"  he  said  much  in  r e f l e c t -  ively. It of  i s  clear  expectation  then,  for  that  the  reader.  before  him  a  love  story,  a  story  that  does  love  of  excitement  J u l i e t ,  for  trigued  by  Sasuke  is  not  tragedy  instance. the  i t  precisely  wanted  to  this  impart  to  and  feeling the  kogo"  to  Portrait  Shunkin'",  Portrait  of  Shunkin1,  mind  to  find  was  a  now  though  i t  i s ,  but  promise  tradition  i§  the  form  yet  of  he  i s  ^  one  that  i t  as k ^/ 1  he ff^  concern would  s t i l l  great  deal  of  Romeo  and  somewhat  i n -  Shunkin  and  husband-wife,  sounds  r e a l .  that  t3P  in  his  ("Postscript I  wrote  uppermost  convey  And  Tanizaki  confessed  "When  1934):  way  a  between  r e a l i t y  reader,  "Shunkinsho of  has  master-pupil,  essay 'A  he  relationship  incredible  the  knows  to  the  not  Nevertheless,  multiple  is  seem  in  is  He  uncommon  (mistress-servant,  lovers); i t  or  there  the  in  *A my  greatest  7 feeling  of  This the  r e a l i t y . " "feeling  presence  of  the  of  r e a l i t y , "  "I"  narrator,  i t  turns a  out,  l i t e r a r y  i s  due  device  to that  48  Tanizaki "Koten  favours  k a i k i "  perfection. harsh  view  i n  period.  on  the  t e l l i n g  s k i l l  in  the  novel  the  the  most  this  of  s u c c e s s f u l works  "Shunkinsho,"  i t  who of  the  author's  novella.  He  has  this  Shunkin way  v i s i t  and  to  of  Sasuke  impress  'I' i s  the  to has  a  story-  to  the the  the  Tanizaki's  by  the  in  used  impressed  with  effective  i s  Mitsuo  otherwise  graves  his  " i n t e l l e c t u a l content"  i s  at  of  In  Nakamura  writing,  "Opening  most  say: narrator  simplest  reader  with  and  the  g actual  existence  The  point,  story,  meaning  or  the  not  narrator t i v e l y  of  however, that  reader  i s  there  casual  characters  and  to  him,  and  we  shall  As  his  to  of  shall  ciously  run  Sasuke's Prom  be  in  convinced  down  our  The  introduces  the  two  The  f i n a l l y  sympathetic  hands  realness.  he  affection reader  i s  f a l l  into  more  reasoning  mind  lead  Shunkin's  "affectionately  them  his  cunning  l i s t e n  to  to  c o n f l i c t -  the  grave along  to  his  just  are  inclined  with  us  where,  for now  we  readers  temple,  before  i t s  whether  decep-  the  Buddhist  but  "true"  The  l a t e r ,  that  a  purpose.  unveiled  our  of  is  this  which  his  i t  happened,  see  us  that  kneel  actually  f u l f i l l  numbs  bring  whether  to  interpretations  we  he  not  begins  ing  grounds  i s  thus  the  to  people."  s i n c e r i t y .  him  goal:  more  can  even  of  trap.  i t  manner  evidence trust  these  ultimate  burial l i k e  and the  him,  unconstop  of  stone." the  next  s e c t i o n where  the  "Biography  of  Shunkin"  49  comes  into  play,  we  are  narrator's  sincerity:  might  well  have  "one  hardly  exuberant  been  knows  praise  he  yet  cautions  written  how on  offered  much  by  of  us  to  proof  that  Sasuke,  i t  Shunkin's  more  of  the  and  the  document  therefore  believe."  q  To  the  " a r i s t o c r a t i c grace  and  10 beauty" his  found  reserved  taken  the  in  the  impression  same  year  photograph  motif  and  because  Sasuke  Shunkin—and that  w i l l  ograph  "Biography,"  not  remain  shows  a  a  Sasuke  i s  a  of  an  himself  i s  the  Shunkin  in  faded  excellent  this  their  beautiful  he  i t  photograph  of  became  l i n k  image  whose inner  lady  tones  a  beauty  without  The  the  reader  s t i l l - l o v e l y  i s  v i s i o n .  with  Shunkin,  blind.  between of  down  destroyed—  The  "any  misty  real  phot-  i n d i v i d -  11 u a l i t y , " raised  and  to  the  yet  in  a  immortal  discreet status  manner,  of  the  she  is  merciful  subtly  goddess  Kannon. The  "real"  talent  and  shaped  by  i l l - w i l l , keeps was  to  her at  the  poison  warning closer  cruelty.  i s to  us  only  his  Her  Sasuke  love  fact,  violent  to  take  that  toward  inasmuch  for  the  too  others."  as  we  mixture  by  a  i s  which  are can  unconditional defenseless  over  The  of  the  human narrator  Shunkin  effect  in  devotion beauty.  charm,  because  brought sense  of  presumably  hint  seriously,  grief 12  we  a  character  view,  his  paradoxically  the  is  aggravated  Sasuke's  time  mind  that  in  not  "unreasonableness" protective  in  blindness, least  warning  not  Shunkin,  "this  seemed  of  this  one  step  his  very  of This  his w i l l  50  also t i c  serve scene  shock  as  even  to  a  i s  Shunkin  is  us  her  with  compassion However, we  as  basically  we  f i r s t a  one  she  saw  up'  for  her  i s do  things  would  unaged  and  also  remain  she  f i r s t  accident.  and  voice,  a  "mating,"  as  Therefore  she  without  To  eyes  same  as  they  never  seen  Sasuke  part  love  with  Sasuke  apparently  and,  l a t e r ,  a  regret.  are,  in  and  love  with  turns  away  her  as  we  fairness,  whom,  that  know  is  inner  world,  people we  must  before a  the hand  convenient;  "animality."  the  i s  a  has  her  a l l ,  f i r s t  of  'growing  above  him,  i s  "sees"  than  at  our  Shunkin  and  her  l i f e .  symptoms. a l l  In  of  frightens  more  of  in  Morality  to  and  known  no  also  are,  toward  the  shut,  nor  is  puzzle,  arouses  mature  including Sasuke,  i s  makes  of  outside.  i t  were,  a  a  subconscious  went  r e a l i t i e s  her,  as  awareness  innately  comforting  being  of  the she  her  g i r l  the  helpful,  pregnancy hint  has  with  temper  often  roots  that  remains  physiological process  the  unchanged,  remember,  a  climac-  comes  sometimes  more  blind  world  her  the  the  mind  The  simply  the  attitude  that  but  the  body  before  with  upon  in  child.  the  to  keep  whereas  patient  judge  voluptuous  nine-year-old  nothing  to  of  stoical  behaviour  ponder  order  outbursts  her  mental  erratic  i n  should  a  Shunkin  animal-like, as  of  self-immolation  calamity,  touching  l i k e  understanding  readers.  occasional  word,  as  the  gruesome  second  Her  strong  "beauty  his  to  sympathetic  her  mystery.  use  clue  where  Until a  a  age  of  carries baby  fifteen her  without  v i r t u a l l y  non-  51  existent are  in  simply  observed It  a  world  viewed  or is  the  blind  Shunkin  allows  Without  degree  imagine  the  total  of  swollen  who  being  ferent  l i v e s her  to  ized  to  point  no  more  than  herself  the  in  sing  fore  are  always  viously lovely  in  refers voice  handicap  to  reminds  he  would  be  Shunkin  gives  a  in  is  is  stripped  of  her.  of  trained  the  presence in dim  a  of  dark  world).  i t s her  around  for  of  art  the with  of  (a  fact they  and that sing,  a  internali t  is  nightingales  Shunkin  beings  When  dif-  is  and  a  with  a  nightingales  human  to  to  humanity:  Moreover,  cage  us  state  larks  a  kick  from  purest  concept  prizes  capable  i s o l a t i o n ,  abstract  Shunkin  is  possible  viewed  the  the  explore  Likewise,  mental  symbolizes  hard sharp  only  Yet  to  that  of  presupposes  the  her  to  r e a l i t i e s  woman  i t  occupation.  housed  game,  space  that  self  the  adulthood  creation  beautiful  own  her  image  not  ample  in  humans  w i l l  a  two  The  instance.  that  the  the  for  i t  of  child's  cheek,  whom  coincidence  author  conduct  Shunkin  a r t i s t  a  case.  permanently  born  the  the  where  sole  angle,  of  between  morbidity,  scene  complications  w i l l .  physical  absorption  person art  in  her  certain  at  interesting  extremes  Sasuke's  rules  discrepancy an  of.  the  rejected  Shunkin  the  the  as  makes  a l l  where  sees  that thereobtheir  you  of the t r a n q u i l charm of a s e c l u d e d r a v i n e — a r u s t l i n g s t r e a m murmurs t o y o u , clouds of c h e r r y b l o s s o m s f l o a t up b e f o r e y o u r eyes. Blossoms and mist a l i k e are w i t h i n that song, a n d we f o r g e t t h a t we a r e s t i l l i n the dusty  52  city. This here too i s  lectures  Shunkin  in  she  which That  him,  and  is  is  most  the  In  far the  hero  an  the  allows  of  in  It  absolute, musical  the  to  and  whose  which  can  can  of  the  appeal f u l l y  is  worship  of  the  person  a  two be  the  of  compensated  social  and  male  in  characters  abjectly  than  and  (themselves)."  Shunkin  is  But  while  Shunkin  is  very  image  of  that the by  him his  l i m i t extreme  to  a  his  hard  a  self-made  succumb  idol of  thus  the  to  predisposes art  the  express  reach  "submit  of  a l l  elsewhere  numerous  devotion  abject. the  to  qualities  import  as  nobleman  room  found  char-  Ideal.  of of  the  test-case  dignity plenty  beautiful  Shunkin, a  divine  something  the  preclude  Sasuke's  aware  is  for  For  most  to  lesser  the  of  pursuit  Seidensticker,  of  i t s  able  among  is  herself.  there  ill-educated  hardly  of  in  that  moment  Shunkin.  considered  these  Sasuke  be  in  the  s e n s i t i v i t y  only  be  art  art  extremisms  loyalty  perhaps,  him  admit  lowly,  even  that  prodigy,  makes  go  being  true  powerful  This  a  sees  Tanizaki  that  words  Sasuke  can  Sasuke,  works,  the  is  a  and  In  how  l i f e - l o n g  surrounding  degree  absolutely  a r t i s t  of  of  of  And  high-spirited  symbol  the  can  story,  themselves.  Tanizaki's  his  a  a  w i l l  Sasuke  humility  highest  he  in  incarnation  with  a r t i s t  conventions  who,  in  creation  of  to  readers  P a r a l l e l  acterization how  pupils  undoubtedly  quasi-religious woman.  her  appears  Shunkin  form,  to  i s where a r t r i v a l s n a t u r e . the s e c r e t of music, 13  to  symbolizes. own work  talent, that,  53  being the  a  shopboy,  humility  conscious  of  he a  i s  servant  a r t i s t  can  n i f i e d "  conduct.  In  Sasuke,  Tanizaki  types  of  While  art  toward  far  psychology novella, offered  we of  the by  view  a  glance  at  of  the  structure of  of  the  and  and  what  Shunkin  feature  the  Prof. the  of  style  i n  of  f i r s t  some  The  the  In  order  characters.  emphasized  by  the  omission  and  lack  of  clear  Below  i s  how  of  the  in  this  perceptions to  l e t  have  us  take  "Shunkinsho." Takehiko  story  the  on  i s ,  only  story,  to  in the  This  implies  the  who his  other  own  voice. (both  ambiguity  is  ab-  and  hand,  " t e l l s "  voices  useless  an  description  On  narrator  of  tends  humanity.  reason  objective  way  type  l i g h t  are  known  monogatari-narrative  kaiwa). a  and  self-made.  toward  the  Shunkin  the  shed  the  of  to  occasionally gives  graphically:  of  of  "undig-  and  Sasuke  Noguchi  byosha  happens  Sasuke's  monogatari-narrative  existence  15  to  and  inner)  a  type  s e l f -  two  the  Sasuke.  d i s t i n c t i o n between  there  voice  attempted  this  to  (kakkan  reader  second  a  the  prodigy  d'etre,  structure  dialogue i s  the  of  with  narrator-interpreter.  influenced  sence  the  Shunkin  According the  and  for  dealing  Therefore,  that  characterizations  raison  have  our  better  the  with.  with  accountable  actually  "real"  a  be  unfamiliar combined  namely,  their  loftiness  So  which  is  a r t i s t s , i s  not  the His outer further  subject-pronouns  punctuation.  Prof.  Noguchi  describes  the  structure  54  s o s h i j i ;  j i ;  Narrator  Narrator  comments  (Narrator's outer voice)  t e l l s narrationin-thenarration  /VJ  kokoro; Character's inner voice  One  Sentence  (Omission  The deal  with  us  here  i s  which  is  c r i t i c s i t  was  subject-pronouns  core  but  defect,  answer  from  kinsho  kogo"  time but  Tanizaki (1934),  of  w i l l  right  part,  conspicuously the  j  structure  style,  the  at a  of  sentence  we  lack of clear punctuation  now  the  had  in  what  is  of  In  had  long  the  to  same  persons)  later  when  interest  inner  "Shunkinsho."  waited  himself. he  discussed  publication  not  manyfold  "character's  absent i t s  be  —^>  voice," Many  commented obtain essay  to  that an  "Shun-  wrote:  I n r e s p o n s e t o t h o s e who s a y t h a t I h a v e failed to d e s c r i b e what Shunkin or Sasuke are r e a l l y thinking, I would l i k e to counter with the question: "Why i s i t n e c e s s a r y t o d e s c r i b e w h a t they are thinking? Don't you understand their thoughts anyway from what I have w r i t t e n ? " 16  In  retrospect,  i t  is  precisely  because  Tanizaki  55  spares  us  chology comes ters  the  that  so  out  us  their  wooden  depth  of  their  a  feelings  acters'  the  main  that  of  presence offered lacks  of by  the  various  move  of  the  as  they  de  the  aro  wraps In  this  about,  the  foggy  and  not  unlike eyes  that  cannot  f u l l y  perceive.  Strangely, the  cleverly  presents  us  is  story  the  f i r s t  objective  i . e .  with  by  couple the  in  the  and  These  narrator  most  us  char-  the  extreme  be-  unreliable. by  the by  frequent the  viewpoints deliberately  play, l i k e  i t s  a  very-  shroud  sightless  puppets,  uncertainties  the  a  fathom.  story  .joruri  the  a  cannot  or  of  Sasuke's,  judgment,  a  chanter  second,  glow  believable.  concocted  "Biography," own  i t  of  perfor-  "betray  f i r s t  the  charac-  skepticism i s  atmosphere,  closed  are  and  he-  emotions,  to  t e l l  with  story  blind  their  make  i t  two  the  seem  psy-  and  joruri  mortals  While  description around  the  puppets'  not  form,  behind  that  a  "Biography")  conceal we  would  does  sources.  positive  mystery.  lovers  (the  pathos  watch  c o n f l i c t i n g interpretations  uncertainty of  We  ordinary  through  uncertain  in  much  interprets  source  use  so  Sasuke's  performance,  us  we  but  skepticism runs  and  we  joruri  t h r i l l  His  the  a  as  "Shunkinsho"  thinking,  Shunkin  moving.  description  faces  in  of  gains  drama  i n  clear  narrator  cause  story  Although  gives  The  the  mysteriously  act  mance.  description  seem  to  happiness  "Shunkinsho"  uncertainties who  very  view  then  counters  then  makes  i t  appeal  of  often the  with  his  to  other  56  verbal  reports.  Shigisawa  Teru,  intimately. has  subtly  the  scale  on  his  to  bring  of  Sasuke.  witness this  side  confirm  who  because  Sumie  "How  from  the  couple  source,  in  in  Jones  Tanizaki  order  most  points  Tanizaki  comes  knew  weight  Sasuke's  as  one  l i v i n g  significant  essay  a l l ,  the  so  And  is  exactly  reader  perhaps,  wants:  that  heavenly and  that  confused  unconsciously  knows  important  t i p  cases,  and  Teru's  heighten  r i g h t l y  Disarms  to  the  observes  the  in  Intellectual  1 7  After  the  a  passion,"  excellent  right,  l i v i n g  Sasuke's  tone  Reader."  most  creating  added  "merely  her  a  In  reports of  The  he  could  happiness  claims  after  be  his  narrator  wants:  the  pathetic  figure  to  is  also  what  the  convinced  that  Sasuke  simply that  the  back  that  to  what  close  the  his  blind  loss  of  eyes  reader is  and  virtuoso  dream  of  alone  sight:  . . . ( T ) h i s w o r l d became a P a r a d i s e , and I seem t o be d w e l l i n g i n t h e cup of a l o t u s flower, t o g e t h e r w i t h my t e a c h e r . I t was n o t u n t i l I was b l i n d t h a t I f u l l y understood (her) true beauty, or r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d the smoothness and glamor of her l i m b s and the sweetness of her v o i c e . . . 18  The  narrator,  different forgets the  cold  appears, ful  however,  opinions  himself  for  and  frontier leaving  circumstance,  his  gets  between the as  does own  him  than  purpose.  involved.  reader when  more  just  manipulate  Sometimes  When  he  gets  and  the  "Biography"  under  the  spell  Sasuke  told  of  Shunkin:  the  he involved, disforce-  57  "I h a v e gone b l i n d , I s h a l l never see your f a c e a g a i n as l o n g as I l i v e . " A l l Shunkin r e p l i e d was: "Really, Sasuke?" She s a t t h e r e a l o n g w h i l e , sunk i n thought. Never before or s i n c e d i d Sasuke experience s u c h h a p p i n e s s as d u r i n g t h o s e moments of silence. 19  Or  further,  reason  when  why  he  Sasuke  had  made  his  own  narrator eyes.  this  because  by  notized  into  maze  uncertainties  of  This nificant zaki  the  of  a  and  moment  sudden,  ings, her  he  i s  has  has  now  known  impudent  suffering  yet  they  do  they  teach  not might  just we  the  a  this be  endured And  is  the It  is  breed  as  if  TaniIt  humiliation  the  have  understand person of  A l l  away  Shunkin,  ignored  out  say.  melted  (at  with  the  human  suffering.  cruelty  sig-  A l l  humiliation  a  the  to  of  make  by  tempted  taste  to  hyp-  alone.  far  person  with  forgiven,  most  moment  beautiful  and  i t  way.  so  Ritaro)  saw  whim  the  said:  20  been  has  necessarily even  along  novella.  might  he  already  fact,  for  far  that  pupil  in  simply  readily  narrator's  tears.  nightingale  i f  to  vindicated.  so  as  is  noble  weeping.  has  entire  truth,  grateful  and  times  of  scene  the  the  Shunkin  reader  scene  the  Sasuke  suffering  pampered  in  the  encountered  "Shunkinsho"  moment  Shunkin's  of  surrendering  her  embraced,  imagination  the  e l e c t r i f y i n g  wrote  is  time,  to  blind,  lovers  describes  But  this  explained  himself  "Sasuke!" And the b l i n d  The  had  f e e l -  the  hands  Humiliation  human more  l i f e ;  human.  bitterness  At  and  vindictiveness.  severe  lessons  in  effect  on  a  her,  obviously,  is  Therefore,  Shunkin's catalyst  nothing  l i f e  is  else  in  order  might  needed.  but  the  that  have The  very  the  a  two  beneficial  catalyst,  act  of  Sasuke's  sacrifice. It  may  not  selfless  act,  Sasuke  that  has  been  so  time  in  just  a  for  her hand  being  between her  Shunkin  and  voice,  are  "the  a  this  the  and  For  human  imparted  to  lacking knows  that  to  Shunkin  in  that  the For  Sasuke  i s  happiness time  that  her.  blindness  f i r s t  say  i s  can  i n  her  f i r s t  more an  a  this  humanity the  not be  by  than  excuse  true  l i f e ,  feeling  indeed,  tears. on,  we  Instead,  bitterness  ultimate  exaggeration  that  the  moment  idiosyncrasies. tasting  has  l i f e ,  lovers.  From  an  p i t i f u l l y  inhuman,  tears  be  mastery  the  of of  hear  more  narrator  l i f e her  no  has  of  suggests  helped  a r t . "  He  Shunkin's  her  that  attain  continues:  B o t h i n l o v e and i n a r t she must have d i s c o v e r e d undreamed-of ecstasies. Teru says that Shunkin u s e d t o p l a y t h e s a m i s e n f o r h o u r s on e n d , w h i l e ' Sasuke sat b e s i d e h e r , h i s head bowed, l i s t e n i n g in rapture. Often the p u p i l s marvel at the subtle tones that f i l t e r e d to t h e i r ears from t h e i n n e r r o o m , w h i s p e r i n g among t h e m s e l v e s that t h i s must be no o r d i n a r y i n s t r u m e n t . 21  We  have  considered injuries  he  mentioned  art had  almost  i n as  suffered.  Chapter a  tool The in  to  One  punish  early his  that  Akutagawa l i f e  romantic  famous  art  e m , "  for Izumi  story 1910),  the Kyoka "Uta offered  59  a  more  soothing  r i f i c a t i o n  of  suggest  even  ing  an  power  sentially feels and as  no  the  is  ible  to  most  to  happiness their  world  was  might  "because  art i t  eyes  on  of  way  that  in  of  art  that  to  l i v e  "art  Nonetheless,  is  one:  enough  to  men. seems  to  and  l i f e  and  in  Sasuke's  to  be  describe  r e a l i t i e s ,  blind  es-  Tanizaki  disillusionment  were  to  heal-  powerful  blindness  attempting  a  dealing  the  us  as  noted  most  pu-  seems  possible.  the  external  cause;  he  art  "Shunkinsho"  union  from  of  begins  generates  story a  to  and  the  Tanizaki  Thereafter,  also  in  noted a  both  is  for  Tanizaki's  theories  i t  that  shielded  of  harmonious  be  agent  view  is  a r t i s t s .  of  for  It  story  passions  device  are  and  story,  the  an  heart-warming  last  effect  as  "Shunkinsho,"  expound  the  also  closing  lovers  art  art  sorrows.  the  art  a l l  perfect  utmost  i t  in  b l i s s f u l  It  By  need  last  justify  a  is  of  In  more  human  with  l i f e " the  g u i l t .  for  "Shunkinsho"  concept  can the  the  produce. blind  that  the  v i s -  exclamation  that  we  that  experienced  22 a  happiness  hear  the  Gertrude  ordinary  echo in  Symphony,  of  the  Gide's  1925):  is  we  from  that  being  within.  truly  Gide  illusionment  are  the  as  have  French  of far  end  the as  once  to  we the  Pastorale eyes  author  prevented  aware  goes at  the  who  know,"  words  Symphonie  "Those  What  never  Pasteur's  La  happiness." simply  people  by  her  l e t  blind  (The not  own  visual  happiness g i r l  eyesight  is  g i r l  know  Gide  the  to  Pastoral  Andre  our  natural to  do  seem  die  their  means  here  faculty  that of  exists dis-  restored,  60  when and  she yet  sees "the  that  the  human  day  is  forehead  clearer,  i s  so  the  sky  vaster,  much "bonier"  than  she  24 has  imagined. Tanizaki  period.  wrote  Momoku  those  years.  ional  source  of  shadows  i s  to  l i v e  dark  in  monogatari  The  of  "Shunkinsho"  theme  (1931)  of  rooms,  but  one.  Braise  t i t l e And  in  "our  from  the  and  of  cut  created  i t  they  a  "Koten a  not  be  long  forced beauty  beauty's  which,  the  beauty  off  the  brightness  placed  elegance  toward  essay  of  tradit-  discover  to  world  a  of  ancestors,  to  shadows  k a i k i "  product  mysterious  came  1934),a  dedicated  ancestors  above  depths  i s  also may  the  presently  Shadows,"  indicates,  while  land  of  the  " , . . ( 0 ) u r  i n s h aII d2 5 ows, u l t i m a t e l y to guide mused T a n i z a k i in ends, ("In  was  blindness  inspiration,  d e f i n i t e l y  during  of  as  the  shadows. on  shadows,  the  and  woman,  marking  her  placed  Shunkin  in  far the  26 whitest of  of  beings,"  relentless  even  more  darkness  remote  "Shisei,"  once  There  to  certainly  know  the  of  the  sight  forefront.  tions  or  pleasure  and  be  make  untouchable.  The  Eternal  that  that  why  Tanizaki  another  he  reason  of  blindness.  i s  a  automatically "Shunkinsho"  incurs.  the  blind  a  world  beauty  Woman  in  reappears.  theme  allusions i t  would  again,  might  attracted  lack  Tanizaki  involving From  very  physical  brings indeed the  Readers  the  Shunkin's  of  Tanizaki  writer,  sense  abounds  t a c t i l e  was  of in  sense  and  touch  the to  descripand  c a r e s s i n g the  the rough  61  bark  of  an  Sasuke's  old  plum  tree  passionate  pliant  l i m b s . . . t h e  where  bodily  contacts  When  Shunkin,  the  dressed  her  reminiscence  soft,  obscene.  with  reader  are  of i s  her  to  skin  into  a  or  world  described without  informs  bathed  hands,  smooth  l u l l e d  lovingly  narrator  her,  delicate  her;  us  that  Sasuke  and  that  "in  being massaged  the  nude,  27 her a  body  mild  the  was  envy  same  for  time  long  worship  zaki  seems  flesh  and We  the He  unexpectedly the  we for  to  be  skin,  have  also  classics, most  extreme  luck  the  the  i d o l .  art  lovely  w i l l  pointed of  shadows by  e s p e c i a l l y the  and  the  the  and  of  is  at  his  l i f e -  Tani-  support  of  appeal. inherited  Japanese style  monogatari,  feel  again,  Tanizaki  peculiar  Genji  motive  i n i t i a l  that  we  Sasuke  without  from  the  of  Time  i t s  above  a l l  hidden  that  lose  out  impressed  intriguing  good  understand  t e l l i n g us  appreciation was  voluptuous,"  t r a d i t i o n .  of and  the found  i t  because,  as everyone knows, i t i s hard to d i s t i n g u i s h dialogue from narrative i n the rainy-night passage of " H a h a k i g i " i n G e n j i , and hard to k n o w who s t a r t s t a l k i n g w h e r e , b u t t h e beauty of Japanese p r o s e i s most a p p a r e n t i n s u c h passages. 28  That  i s  exactly  blending  dialogue  of  that  one we  words i s just  glance  and  gives  ' t e l l i n g '  what  him  back  Tanizaki  narrative  the a at  reader story,  does  in  seamlessly the  and  Noguchi's  "Shunkinsho," into  a  impression that not  depicting  graphical  i t .  flow someIf  interpretation  62  of  the  that of  monogatari-narrative  the  them  are  between a  sentences  in  structure,  "Shunkinsho"  unusually  long,  d e s c r i p t i o n and  with  pronouns  are  is  inherent  it  has  a  missing. to  the  the  text;  in  out  by  narrator  the  To  have  sentences, c r i t i c  l e t  Hatano  trouble  to  words, to  idea us  provide  of  to  «//x  7  and  most of  of  domly ory  from  the  section,  tence. is  1953).  The  s t i l l  the  same  sentence  feeling  string  of  s t a t i s t i c s  the  part  average  shortest  number  sentence  than  the  method  on  story  amounts  of  we  a  to  232  l i k e  i t  of  of  "Sakka  by  through  only  narrator  from  the as  that  no  the  reader.  taken  Japanese  the  bunsho  shinri"  psychology  words  count  l a i d  "Shunkinsho"fs  is  85  ran-  introductper  35  words,  of  32  Naoya.  of  taken  "Shunkinsho"'s of  to  sen-  which  words The  using  longest  words. or  not,  one  many a  trap  sentences  Shiga  " b r e a t h l e s s n e s s " as  thoughts  ambiguity  helpless  has  id  contains  average  "Shunkinsho,"  the  the  twenty-five  narrative  shifting our  On  longer  Whether a  29  in  the  ( " S t y l i s t i c writers,"  i s  subject-  more  length  essay  there  subject-pronouns  the  /U  most  punctuation  when  but  part  see  model:  cases,  confuse  9  his  the  adding  is  shall  l i t t l e  language,  i t  about  in  i n  further  refer  Kanji  very  omission  function  other  an  The  Japanese  particular  f i t  conversation,  narration-in-the-narration,  we  long  try  to  perspective  to  layers  trustful  we  sentences  of but  generate  follow  the  another,  information, unreliable  with guide,  who  i s  also,  or  who  dark.  At  the  behind  to  submerge  fantasies, are  an  end,  l i t t l e  integral  pretends the  to  breathless  himself  in  suspecting  part  be  of  the  also,  groping  reader  the  leaves  translucent  that  those  elaborate  long  trap  in  the  his  logic  world  of  sentences  in  which  he  f a l l s . We  may  effect  in  l i g h t ,  half  the  now  himself.  with  bring  who  ambiguity structure  with  i n t e l l e c t u a l off-guard  and  this  labyrinth  of  with  might  be  side,  kneeling  surprised  tombstone  When to  other  the  find  at  dark-half  and  the  out,  which  to  con-  simply  are  "disarm  points  out. walks  the  grave  and  into  self-abandon,  bewitched,  at  Another  s k i l l -  language  viewpoints  with  by  author  Tanizaki  in  Jones  f i r s t  himself  created  Japanese  reader  comes  Shunkin's  affection.  than  objectivity  the  captivating  half  narrative  Sumie  he  the  most  atmosphere  accounts  as  the  atmosphere,  of  i l l u s i o n s ,  before  with  no  of  confused,  jpassion.  from  apparent  reader,"  Once  later  is  this  interpretations, together  that  i l l u s o r y  about  the  intricate  juggled the  magician,  To  f l i c t i n g  derives  factual-half  combines an  conclude  "Shunkinsho"  narrator  f u l l y  safely  he  narrator's stroking  "victim  of  Sasuke'  Tanizaki's  30 t r i c k s , "  again  There how  are  ation? on  the  to  quote  Sumie  remains  however  we  to  take  the  It  i s  a  most  fundamental  one  very  disturbing  Jones.  act  last of  question  fear  of  problem Sasuke's because  mankind:  to  deal  with:  self-immoli t  the  touches fear  of  64  physical  pain.  ordinary  men  especially  but  area  the  of  legendary. gouged  only  anguish heroes  can  can  of  heroes' The  out  the  his  human  warrior own  The  body,  emotions  when  coped  in  many  was  by  being  the  destined  narrator so  most  pain, most  to  instances,  the  "he  with  physical  eyes  seem  Kagekiyo,  eyes  he  handle  s e l f - i n f l i c t e d pain.  sensitive brunt  Mental  take  real  t e l l s  touched  by  and us,  the  31 magnanimity is  Oedipus  his  of  his  destroying  involuntary  command are  pity  a  man  is  what  willed  and  His  i s  Keene  courageous  secretly  wonder  we  would  capable  of a  Sasuke's  committing  as  his  haunted the  reader;  through  our  call  That  of  is  such  for  his  act our  same  the  only  words,  for  having  f a i l e d  sense  also  dictates  stand  to  the  past  thirty  years,"  reader  only  lose  since  the  Sasuke's  eyes,  Tanizaki  this  the  timely  the  blindness.  i s  to  lovely  But  equal;  he "weak-  bothers own  us.  weakness;  circumstances, for  i t  i s  solution, he  does  face 33  i t  clear  short as  Shunkin,  action.  sees  being  heroes  ease.  protect  his  as  f i g u r e , "  determination;  and  providing  his  offsets  own  In  our  for acts  men  at  abject  why  under  the  i s  than  "an  somehow  whether,  superhuman  because  less  example  repentance  conscience  shinju.  cannot  (him)  and  Another  of  These  i s  esthetic  Sasuke  s i n .  would 32  act  out  self-immolation  self-punishment  but  v i s i o n  undoubtedly  we  that  us,  negative."  be  Yoritomo."  admiration;  above  Sasuke Donald  his  incestuous  and  supposedly  as  archenemy  Just  "that  has  neither  can  Shunkin  kind-to  both  by  65  •Timely' "Biography" "By  some  began  is  indeed  whieh  strange  to  suffer  gives turn  from  a l t o g e t h e r . T h e uncertainties too  in  miraculous  to  thus  corroborating  to  A with  the few  the  miracle pages  with  We  precisely  stems  fear,  without This  different want  a  to  wont  his  to  to  Ideal,  details lenge  is  It  of  that  the  by  laying  the most  seems  seems  perhaps his  afraid of  but  a  own out  a r t i s t ' s readers  out  that  rather,  back  ghosts,  meticulously  wish  novella.  As  our  fascinOur  takes  on  does  in a l l  scene  as  i f  the  as  which  just he  contains Tanizaki  pursuit  the  they  a  not  perversity,  s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , secretly  prepared  fear.  Tanizaki  self-challenge,  f a l -  stories  author's  determination  being  pain.  the  the  Teru,  fascinated.  of  that  voices  surgical  ghost  sheer  is  deliberately  with  scene  the  this  and  the  physical  the  of  of  with  eye-piercing  reader  It  depicted  is  sight a l l  from  enough  comes  h o r r i f i e d ,  fear  truth  mystery  Tanizaki  reflects  meaning.  test  happy  own  the  or  i s  fascinated  where  do.  reader  are  also  information the  by  event:  Sasuke  his  that  the  the  weeks  dazed  realizes  that  they our  though  trust of  lost  narrator  more  another  few  soon  idea  on  doubt,  shock  message,  wanted  from  and  even  scene,  are  because  ation  is  look  c h i l d r e n who  a  by  l a t e r ,  eye-piercing  precision.  within  The  as  we  fate,  true.  the  i f  account  s t i l l  the  i t ,  simple  story,  supported  However,  take  of  for  very  reader,  be  opinion,  a  word  cataracts,  the  same  s i f i e d .  the  of  t e r r i f y i n g i s  would  a  chal-  never  have  66  to  meet. It  In  follows  spite  of  decision, remain, it  is  a l l  the  as  challenge, himself.  were,  to not  It  our  the  scene  admiration  eye-piercing  i t  meant  that  is  be  a  only very  because  to  the  l i k e l y  for  scene  shocking  so,  disturbs  conscience.  Sasuke's  appropriate  i t s e l f  w i l l  experience. i t  author, an  our  But  symbolizes but  a  also  impossible  forever  to  probably l i f e - l o n g the  reader  challenge.  CHAPTER  The  work  "poetic" hashi,"  at  the  author  and  The in  the  i s  key  various  examined  glance.  Both  poem  before now  forms:  of  some  as  crawling  centipede...  that  i s  existence,  by  twist  w i l l .  In  of  seriously  on  tury.  i t s  last  detail;  There,  landscape  over  mandarins  i s  a  a  stream,  solemnly  dreams  w i l l  a  stand  the  l a s t  as  the  and  Within  they  form by  Tanizaki  to  or  mood  of  the  dreams,  female  breast,  yet  ghastly  as  great  vanish,  the  the  sickly.  vast  and  ukiof  set  dream,  some  the  no  dreamland  and  tender  as  Bridge  novella  a  force seems  dream sometimes  of  human  to  dwell  create  and  perpetuate  time  early  twentieth  grave. and  the  v i l l a  i t s  "Yume  aged  milk,  garden,  within  t i t l e ,  i s  capacity  Kyoto  qualified  Floating  the  sometimes  the  be  story  u k i h a s h i , "  setting,  with  bridge  no  beyond  place  The  and  man's  dreams—even The  mother's  fate  "Yume  starts  the  as  human  "The  enters  as  a  as  he  may  the  seventy-three,  element  sweet  that  some a  here  l i t e r a l l y means  reader who  be  f i r s t  which  Dreams," for  to  THREE  by i s  as  name  minutely  main pair  the  gate of  i f  materialize,  ward  "Heron's  described  which  stone to  of  faces  figures off  undisturbed  the by  a of  to  cenNest" the  stone Korean  intruders. external  68  r e a l i t i e s ,  l i k e  a  haunted  castle  where  ghosts  freely  wander. The two  main  mothers.  memoir, the  that  take  seen  through  that  he  other  not  not  As  recall when who  by  A l l  the  wife; to  i n  but  bygone  experiences.  main  acts as  in  an  r e l i v e  by  game  the i s  the  Genji  death in  a  of way  tastes  and  Tadasu  but  the  father's  share  the  name  narrator one  who  manner  her  predeces-  as  l a t e r ,  is  the  love  perpetrated  motherless  for  bridge  his  l i n k i n g  f i r s t  mother,  resembles  against l i f e .  game" each The  game.  in  which  father  t a c t i c i a n ;  the  dream  the  a  other,  son  deceased  the  not  died stepmother  hinted.  play  of  cannot  sadly  "dream  determined  learn  once  the  cool,  soon  his  "a  i t  of  the  real  comfort  create  shall  are  alongside  smouldering  impermanence a  to  events  through  young  same  or  f u l l e s t  mothers  realizes  effort  ukihashi"  participants  against  the  Prince  call  name  up  and  Nest  hears,  His  in  to  we  to  grows  words,  as  but  i s  the  Heron's  smells,  the  son,  twenty-five, A l l  relived  he  his  of  mother—his  Tadasu  of  are  two  a  reminiscence,  age  eyes,  fact,  f i r s t  of  departed.  also  the  of  four—and  metaphorically  the  the  other  no  and  matter  d r e a m . . . , "  "Yume  days  father,  boundary  sees,  Triggered of  the  a  the  a l l  only  t h i s ,  to  have  of  sort  at  man's  father  also  a  young  a  was  is son  within  deliberately  and  the  three  clearly  he  sor.  story  mentioned;  Chinu.  composed  the  The  sensory  is  by  place  touches. his  The  written  when  is  cast  Let the  but who  plot us three  instead devises  stepmother  69  is  a  conscientious  confers a  game  to  the  would  knowingly, and  Each  player,  whether on  how  won  or  require. then  we  i n game  is  l i k e l y  l o s t .  In  this  is  bothered  instead  every that the  the main  gate  philosophical established Then, beauty rator  of i s  won  and  way, or  lost  that  along  conscious of  i s  beauty,  passion  plays  more  state  and  un-  of  the  addiction.  perfect; w i l l  but  depend  largely  by  did  i t  the  a l l of  i s  the  derive w i l l  be  past.  intend much  from  the  outcome  of  energy  the  i s  Nest  a l l  the  well  as  a l l  can  we  truly  and  while  the  game,  re-creating  in  this  leaving  ordinary the  be  Tanizaki  to  also  story,  to  game  that  It  i t  pleasure  clear  a r t i s t i c  approach  as  how  ultimate  his  not  sense outside  quests  moral  for  conventions  society. only  "Yume  no  then,  ukihashi."  excellent  agent  the  absence  of  rational  ses  operate  at  f u l l  ing  scene  involving  up  a  own  can  Heron's  and  an  i n  charm  f i r s t  and  important  sense,  meaning  by  at  Tanizaki  should  of  up  players  moment  reader  son  her  her  excitement  more  been  is  devotes  single  or  with  i t .  What  playing. hardly  The  that  the  the  ends  has  perceive  who,  grows  his  satisfaction  but  a l l  eventually  the  It  game  but  game  player  to  Young  Tadasu  bring  out  thinking,  capacity.  An  Tadasu  his  and  appreciate  a l l  the  example f i r s t  The f a i n t s c e n t o f h e r h a i r , i n a c h i g n o n , w a f t e d i n t o my  as  this  the  nar-  beauty.  five is  the  human  the  In sen-  follow-  mother:  w h i c h was n o s t r i l s .  done  70  S e e k i n g o u t h e r n i p p l e s w i t h my m o u t h , I played w i t h them l i k e an i n f a n t , t o o k t h e m b e t w e e n my l i p s , r a n my t o n g u e o v e r them... W h e n I u s e d my t o n g u e a s h a r d a s I c o u l d , l i c k i n g her n i p p l e s and p r e s s i n g around them, the m i l k flowed out n i c e l y . The m i n g l e d s c e n t s of her h a i r and m i l k hovered t h e r e i n her bosom, a r o u n d my f a c e . As d a r k as i t w a s , I c o u l d s t i l l dimly see her white b r e a s t s . 2 This tinged  poetic  with  childhood times no  eros  (Western  the  i n i t e l y sents  the  the  along  Tanizaki  such  as  amai  blurred  This f u l l y  the  for  the  of  grasp  the  suckling  the  of  and  to  this  further  he,  i s  thus  kept  stepmother,  has  breast, lost  and  a  i s  past  i s  i t  def-  repre-  white  dream  disappears  sensual with  writer  qualifiers  hono.jiroi  for  the  bosom.  of  experience,  that  world  meaning  the  the  dimly  takes  be  charmer's  modern  understands  Tadasu  sekai)  to  his  in  and  a  breast-feeding  "sweet,  milk  of  everyone  abstract of  innocence  people  when  i s  eight-year-old  dreamland  to  It  mother's  retrieve  than  no  death.  image  of  the  young  the  yume  taste  the  the  beautiful  Tadasu,  aware  the  in  child  For  world,  an  scene  say,  and  breast.  depict  crucial  For  to  to  protagonist  upon  mother  dream  mother-and-child  unknown  to  mother's  v i s i o n  blessing  Needless  honojiroi  his  a  alike)  between  (amai  of  Japanese  mother's  l i k e  to  and  whole  with  i t s  v i r t u a l l y  common. l i n k  world"^  has  memory  longer  that  description  the  in  mind  i f  actions  for  they  with  dream  or  child  who  sucked  to  recovered  and  the  dream  her  more breasts  passion.  game  milk.  r e l i v e  even  given with  center  without  means  are  between a l l  stepmother,  deliberately  we  The  continues.  71  In  this  enchanted of  not  only  (Mother's)  that the  age  of  the  into  (its)  rhythm  of  beautiful  came  his  would feet  feet"  thought  "how  have  "to  be  with  nestle no  and  nature  from its  (Sasuke's) is  the  own.  devoid More  owner  It  writing  the  is  of  that  other  with  tips  also  by  any  event  the  water  and  to  then  s p i l l by  windows,"  he  the  seductive  lullabies Mother  around  for  f i s h  is  well-known.  her  dumpling-  which  i f  him,  dangling  " l i t t l e  the  at  penetrated  notice  of  Even  stream  be  a  the  any  7  and  that  palm." of  jewel-like  blood,"  foot"  in  he  our  the  pond  woman's  scene  only  viewpoint;  words,  the  foot  "Shunkinsho,"  foot  reveals too,  i s  not also  motif  the  enjoys  instance  i t  enough  connotation. i t  was  -  in  the  she  foot  that  big  sexual  the  foot  "Shisei,"  just  But  foot:  In  "was  importantly,  probably  worshipper's In  would  the  were  were  fancy  at  shuttered  sight  i s  buds  with  sings  They  his  men's  l i t t l e  lovely.  pleasures. zaki's  by  "dainty  of  pond.  acquainted  ukihashi"  pure  the  into  would  she  Tadasu  perceptions.  up  my  sense when  i t  but  dreams  foot-fetishism  nourished  into  f i l l  beyond  voice  caught  l i t t l e  down  my  young  p l a y f u l l y . . . . " ^  been  the  far  pleasant  gliding  slowly "often  the  h i s ,  sensory  peer  register  which  "firm  his  hearing  in  Tanizaki's we  and  Mother's  vision  l i k e  mortar  of  breasts,"^  would  clack,  As  those  f u l l  he  pond,  distant  dreamland  impress  water  r e c a l l s .  his  to  four,  -the  by  soft,  happens  watch it  exclusive  in  here  a  i n  "Yume  It  i s  true sensuous  a l l  perceived has  Tanisolely  meaning  does  to  not  of  72  have  a  thematic  rather  plays  a  function part  in  as  the  is  usually  subtle  expected,  but  characterization  of  Mother. To  strengthen  provides  us  ceptional  with  s k i l l  with  another.  tasy  leads  looking  When  Father  the  in  the  leaves"  they  are,  mother  slippery,  the  next  scene,  playful memory  in  his  she  says:  "But  the  way  one  him,  that  one  some  soup  Tanizaki  brought  f i s h  day.  are  thin,  called  i t  That's  his  fan-  slippery-  he  asks  Mother  nenunawa."  junsai  sound  the  ex-  experience  called  nenunawa  by  Tadasu's  When  doesn't is?  about  in  "long,  "That's  they  immediately  sensuous  gliding  of  t e l l s  protests  just  revelation,  associating  The  to  what  this  nowadays,  long  name  and  for  i t  in  q a l l  the  old  Her pery" sets  is  another  her  apart  man  that  that gives  his  of  that her  stories,  who  either  To  the  i t has  so,  i t  alone. may  may  seem  given  his  be  Tadasu  too is  as  a  fabulous  i t  to  the  be  the  to  When  again  as  the  pleasure  obviously  Consequently,  the  hints  their  be  more  than  hints.  only  a  hu-  assume  adolescent,  of  in  reader.  sensual. and  that  women  character  far-fetched  child  s l i p -  untouchable,  might  female  also  and  i n c l i n a t i o n  ethereal,  unfamiliar  not  "long  sensuous  otherwise  stepmother to  sounds  differently,  heretofore  breasts  relationship  put  author  eighteen-year-old not  word  evidence  sensuous  her  a  many  said  the  to  the  dimension,  Having  know."  from  unfeeling.  time  you  attachment  Tanizaki's or  poems,  she an i s  sexual  It  is  now  that  "quasi-incestuous  we  face  a  variation"  serious of  issue:  Tanizaki's  the  hahakoi  10 as  Prof.  even  further,  (boshi the  Seidensticker  spell  commenting  sokan)  hahakoi of  and  the  taboo, the  does  (the  of  story,  whether  table  t a l e .  "incest"  i t In  label  the  give  concrete  of  lesser  our  of  i t  works  case not  not  of  in  for we  of  Shogo  pierced  through  from  the  "Yume  Ito  in  the  ultimate  of  i s  an  morality  such an  unforget-  u k i h a s h i , " novella  one  i t s  legitimately  hardly  might  mentions  hundred  the never  f i f t y  although 1911)  L i t t l e  Ueda  are  dealt  Makoto,  Tanizaki's  in  with his  concepts  thoroughly.  Modern  Writers,  and  ideas  of  art  and  l i f e  words  "Yume  no  u k i h a s h i . "  13 even.uttering  the  many or  Kingdom,"  S i m i l a r l y ,  Japanese  To  this  and  ("Youth," ("A  i f  l i t e r a t u r e .  writings,  @9  of  universal  i t s  no  the  evaluation  Japanese  Sei  a  instance,  the  almost  ~ f c 3-  almost  become  Tanizaki's  ~  concern,  12 1918),  goes  incest"  for  " S h o n e n " /\j  okoku"  main  might  removed,  throughout on  being  ever  deserves  such as  "kind  having  our  even  have  example,  criticisms  a  "liberated  Oedipus, i t  could  place  Nomura  consideration because  Incest  were  the  story  "Chiisana  now  not  problems  were  occupy  beautiful  i s  i t . i s  author  self-punishment),  doubt  pages  are  i t s e l f .  but  i t  -  1 1  deserves  art  hero's  a  old,  themes  create  that  the  implications.  work  incest  of  taboo."  issue  serious  that  theme  Although incest  formulates  theme,  Prof.  examines without  74  Those same  who  comment  uneasiness.  mainly that  with  she  the  has  beginning  the  Kathleen narrative  to  of  on  c l a r i f y  her  work  also  Merken,  for  technique  the  analysis  case  that  experience example,  of  "Yume,"  somehow  i t  is  not  the  deals hut  feels  by  stating  "a  tale  in  of  the  inces-  14 tuous  love."  planation. out  to  Unfortunately, On  the  Tanizaki's  other  she  hand,  defense.  offers  Gwenn  She  no  further  Petersen  goes  exstraight  says:  The r e a d e r who r e g a r d s t h i s s t o r y a s a n example of T a n i z a k i ' s 'strange' interests is ignoring the t r a d i t i o n . For the r e l a t i o n s h i p of boy and stepmother i s but another v e r s i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l theme, one f o u n d i n The T a l e of Genji i t s e l f . The r e a d e r . . . should remember the w o r l d of G e n j i , i n which the Shining One f a t h e r e d an e x q u i s i t e l y b e a u t i f u l son by h i s father's concubine Fujitsubo ( t h a t i s , by h i s stepmother...). 15  What that ing  the  we  incest  deduce theme  from  is  discussion attempts  also his  conscious powers  hahakoi there with  i s  a  this  blend  he  should  issue  us  are  into  images  two one  that  from  words,  the  with  engineered  his  of  follow-  himself  everything  i s in  well-known  author  we  is  also  knows  In  order  to  must  f i r s t  closely  the  characters  deal  i n -  Mother.  mothers through  done  cross.  adequately,  The  Tanizaki  has  incest  never  attitudes  disturbing.  and  relationships  begin  c r i t i c s '  prove  problem  other  mutual  Let  to  In  thorny  There  the  the  indeed  dissociate  l i n e  the  volved.  posing  to  of  theme.  examine  l y  can  in the  by  actuality, clever  the  but  device  father  in  they of  order  gradual-  super-imto  confuse  75  the  son.  ception and  of  word  as  in  two  play  the  koto  same i s  whether be  old  he  i n  Tadasu  i n .  did  When  not  very  the  have  dangle same  son  f i r s t  "the  Tanizaki's  double  role  their  pose,  slippery  r e a l l y  he  with  con-  as  mother  Introduction.  smoothly i s  her  would  long,  that  out  i n  the  the  those  carried  taken  Chinu,  for  keeping  Woman  mothers  l u l l a b y  young  in  discussed in  the  nenunawa  fact  Eternal  Thus,  scheme  to  i s  the  lover,  pond,  the  This  the  the  same  leaves,  and  sing  so  well.  that  i t  taken  in  had  glimpse  a  in  use  knows  except  feet  or  The  i s  doubtful  only  impression that  pretends  of  the  here  second  indeed  16 was  the  reincarnation  of  my  mother."  And  yet  he  was 17  captivated which  by  surely  "her was  indefinable  an  a  p r i o r i  attractiveness  condition  for  and  the  charm,"  scheme  to  work. A how  he  male would  elementary but as  reader  below  be  school. the  as  a  who  to  become  operates to the  create son's  a  would  child  f u l l  The  surface,  Tadasu  is his  t i l t .  necessarily  generate  iveness  charm,"  by  a  when  our  sexual  t e l l  already  he  was  beautiful  attraction  us.  i s  Thus,  the  lovely  the  to i t . this  the  the  Mother  only  second  Chinu,  but  elaborate  her  manner,  of  game  effort  reinforces does  "indefinable  game  woman  dream  father's  of  Without  work,  toward  say,  image  at  same  That  to  innocent;  the  before  eight, his  i n  even  i s  are  or in  certainly  instincts  drawn  seven  teacher  stepmother  super-imposed  attachment  and  recall  attracted  psychologists  i s  would  illusions  not attractmight  76  even  turn  out  That  does  aware  of  doubled him  to  the  burdens  not  his the  his  be  a  d i s i l l u s i o n .  mean,  t r i c k .  with play  to  however,  His  r e a l  affection game  young  with  mind,  confused,  at  after  a l l ,  confusion  how  he  u n t i l can an  can the  see  is  continue age  that  active  of  force  sometimes  the  that  she  i s  only  one  mother  appears  for  the  again  in  Shigemoto  no  Mother  i n  "Yume  device  to  channel  original  on  of  indeed,  the  the  ciousness maker,  an  no  game.  i n  the  found  to  l e v e l .  purpose:  that  breast  embarrassment?  We  dead,  Sometimes  s t i l l she  players  "Haha  o kouru  k i "  then  author,  again  super-imposed undeniably figure  back  a  together  Mother  and  the  plays  i s  Eternal  maternal  i s  stepmother's  the  i s  be But  for  The  ukihashi"  i s  over-  Yet  (1931),  mother  undoubtedly he  three  mind,  (19491.  predisposes  although  the  time  one  his  a l i b i .  his  second  his  without  binds  dead  subconscious  serves  dream  kuzu"  haha  a  always  the  times  mother,  characterization  son,  faces  at  i s  an  there who  (1919), in  Shoshb"  image  of  excellent  into  her  shape.  The the  in  f i r s t  "Yoshino  at  Tadasu for  This  suckling at  f i r s t  in  the  zeal.  thirteen,  the  role  s p i r i t u a l and  this  least  longing  for  and  truly  that  other  same  within  hand,  coin, the  and  by  a l l  i s  to  create  of  or  same  means  a  the  father  might two  man.  be  dreamer.  dreams  and  said  different The  see  in  to  that  i s  a  greatest they  to  resemble  levels  father His  r e l a t i o n  of  two  cons-  dreamdesire,  l a s t ,  even  77  beyond have ced is  death.  i n  them  the  a  banker). game,'  Tadasu, i s  the  and  arrangement  (Incidentally,  That  but  his  planning  calculated determination  stockbroker.  the  It  His  i s  without  not the  ambitious  to  we  say  that  sensuous  scheme  child's  passions  r e s u l t ,  among  would  that  are  of  of  things  an  informed he  does of  look  a  l i k e  out  that  not  instincts  flesh  experienhe  enjoy  young skeleton.  the  father's  dream. As  a  alliances mother, gle,  form  or  a l l  just  there  continue,  i s at  social  show  aware  of  his  shall  only  the  never  know  her  to  so.  ond  marriage)  obstruct  being  a  memoir,  mysteries  w i l l  the  i s  to  story this  idea  in  the  thing  father,  of  this  characters,  the  image  middle.  that  The  at  counts:  a l l as  costs  we  s p i r i t .  As  proceeds  background  of  the  account  for  sure the  infant  the  away  might  dream  keep  l a t e r .  We  but  "Yume  the  shall  Suffice  i t  to  say  a  of  dream  cleverly  his  also  and  mind  chance now  the  we  sec-  with presence  ukihashi"  abound  have  is  i s  Takeshi's  reader's  the  instructed  (born  no  i s  although  actually  that  ignore  he  Chinu  t r i a n dream  to  modify  adoption,  questions  haunting  finished.  for  the  as  Okane,  Takeshi  suppose  game  unanswered  he  f i r s t  expect,  to  t a c i t  this  means  soon  second  nurse  whether  smuggled We  of  the  let  might  he  the  of  three  Within  i l l n e s s ,  reasons.  would  with  And  Next, i s  three  costs.  proof  through  do  one  fatal  Thus,  unclear  Mother,  mores.  to  revealed  triangle,  a l l  f i r s t  game.  a  the  that  unsolved long to  after  return the  78  revelation for  our  are  no  of  the  discussion. longer  between  become  so  Prom  identity  this  moment  i s  on,  very the  important  two  mothers  one.  "Perhaps tion  stepmother's  he my  had  reason  to  real  mother  and  closely  linked  i n  want  my  my  to  sever  the  stepmother,  mind,"  the  connec-  who  had  narrator  re-  1 ft fleets.-  The  the  event.  second  chances  upon  milking  her  gives  him  breasts  a  we  that One  cious dead  has  the  effort mother  "your  to by  done  must  attitude.  between  man  The  truth  The  dream  the  new  i s  him  of  again  herself to  mother"  before. had  her  (mae  The  P a v i l l i o n ,  with  She  her  scene, an  upon  eighteen,  away).  f u l l  this  time  adolescent.  another  She from  no  too the  while  mystery  with  preparation  i s  now  a  in  the  cons-  of  to  the  Tadasu,  something  speculates  do  i s  image  talking  to  relationship  makes  okasan),  narrator  something  mental  and  now  sent  suckling  however.  referring  mother-and-child  been  passion i s  ponders  unsolved.  separate  have The  sexual  he  Silk-Tree  tempts  another  clear,  previous  never  father  is  has  as  Tadasu  the  milk,  behaviour  remains  thing  her  witness  with  in  (Takeshi  of  clearer  afternoon,  stepmother  stepmother's  story  as  his  glass  and  becomes  One  breasts  overwhelmed The  reason  her  that  his  change  ready:  transformed  she  of  the  into  one  woman. f i n a l l y  to  mission,  be  comes  carried  that  i s ,  on to  out and take  at  the  father's  Tadasu care  of  i s  deathbed.  charged  his  with  stepmother  and  give  name  her  Chinu  and  ukihashi. to  both  the  We  l i f e  l i f e  repeated  As  a  has or  is  as  shed  to  Father's  He  i s  to  tually The  father's  l u c i d i t y that  name  make  her,  has  a  l a s t i s  i s  i s  is  story dream  i s  his  fancy  s t i l l  child, move  he  has  to i s  i n  not  he  has  spent  quite  l a s t of  his  his about:  Chinu  her  years  to  deal  is  Father's  w i l l ,  of  what  scene. and  i t  even-  away.  ruthless  Paradoxically,  forgotten  of That's  the  send  Now  free  with.  enters  touch  and  e a r l i e r .  her  to  has  i n i t i a l  attractiveness  for  a  as  his  case,  second  resume  also  i t  his  dreams  daughter,  according  in  two  the  ten  society  ambiguous  the  any  refers  dream.  to  love  here  no.  i t  reveals  society  thinks  relationships.  this  transfer  Tanizaki  informed  Tsuneko,  his  as  the  Yume  essentially  to  Mother  phrase  Chinu  i s  In  concerned,  frightening.  has  unnatural, reader  the  calling  content  that  illusions?  gardener's  incestuous To  the  that  Tanizaki  about  less  he  i s  the  marry  i f  realize  insistance,  there  Sawako,  l i n k  "indefinable  captivated  when  to  whose  had  the  that  he  of  charm"  but  Is  image  woman  dies,  over  the  the  g u i l t ,  man.  bridge  form:  with  he  with  Tadasu  and  assume  able  what  father  no...ukihashi  dying  does  effort  The  over  Yume  been  dealing  far  already  but  phrase  human  love.  reasonably  of  he  together  entire  the  can  mind  that  his  repeating  mothers  foggy  moment  a l l  i s  a  of  love  employs  that former  the  from  an  to  son  ingenious.device:  second  geisha.  father  Chinu, In  the  whose  real  cultural  80  fabric  of  the  traditional  geisha  is  not  a  is  that  she  presence  i s  of  a  s t i l l  author  The  exclusive  broken. the  woman. slowly  man  another  his  of  has  crept  way  to  the  incest  The  can  f i r s t ,  i t  hovers  on  the  could  the  prepared  so  force  the  return  There  as  from  be;  the  young  "Yume  the  men. images  in  now to  remind another  Mother  i l l u s i o n  "nightmarish  story:  author's  culmination  misinterpretation,  is  the  been no  What  they  and  his  see  Tanizaki using  a  took  various  the  c r i t i c s  oedipal  the  In  driving  the  sexual  stepmother  hahakoi  i n -  carefully  in  of  his  and  their  complex.  as  stepmother,  keeps  actually  def-  the  is  longer  mother  that by  mother,  some  in  r e a l i t y ;  has i s  with  scenes  with  and  passion.  Tadasu  seen  real  image  the  have  the  P a v i l l i o n ,  Mother  issue  suckling  i l l u s i o n  of  the  we  of  ukihashi"  disguise  contrary,  is  a l l ,  new-born  second,  no  between  the  the  man's  relationship for  three  involving  Silk-Tree that  to  are  border  interpretations  is  two  1 9  we  in  after  that  the  pregnancy.  r e a l i t y  feel  fact  mother  Tadasu  giving  in  two  and  is  In  simply  Mother  stepmother  a  implied  Tsuneko's  disappears,  nocent  this  device:  being  men.  are  the  to  ideas.  incest  son  distance  between  that  and  the  for  begins  story.  away  entertainer  father  element  but  reader  Now  l a s t ,  an  further  love  new  The  f a n c i e s . "  inite  uses  A  young  to  society,  profession;  geisha,  Likewise, the  lowly  Japanese  a  perverse  other  theme. pains  On to  words, the avoid  means—either  81  by  characters'  to  put  grows  a  distance  up.  The  consider It being  actions  or  by  between  story,  authorial  the  then,  two  i s  stepmother-and-son  mothers  relationship  from  the  above  that  liberated  from  the  taboo  as  might  ignore  tions,  or  shock.the  "there  i s  a  l i n e  morality,  reader  one  not  only  boy  i f  we  incestuous.  Nomura  is  far  Shogo on  grotesque to  the  Tanizaki  trample  with  ought  as  incestuous  follows  Tanizaki  arrangement—  cross,"  from  claims.  social  conven-  devices;  but  as  he  made  the  20 narrator the  mother  Futen  been  image  in  in  a  as  or  assured  crossed  "The  Bridge  who  evaluation  i s  of  i s ,  remove  neither  repeating  f i r s t uses  the an of  and  them  obstacle the  reader  for  looks surely  a  and  that  matter  of  author  once  to  old  the  elusive  as  the  Eternal  fact, more  in  protagonist  she  Shigemoto  Dreams,"  be  conformist  what  solely  no  has  ever  haha.  Mother  undisturbed  nor  everyone  for  an  that  has  the  has by  the  Tanizaki's beauty  in  i s  seems  only  disappointed,  to  know,  with  sharp  an  harmful indeed  f i c t i o n a l the  revolutionary.  appreciation  proved  There  a  a r t i s t  discussion i s  novella. in  w i l l  comes  foremost,  foregoing  psycho-pathology who  aged  Shosho  of  a  insinuations.  r i s k  Therefore,  story  ethereal k i "  As  the She  rest  Tanizaki  to  to  (1961).  o kouru  Tanizaki  senses,  story.  can  incestuous  the  the  returns  dream,  "Haha  reader  safely  At  in  ro.-jin n i k k i  Utsugi  The  observe  for  the  l i f e .  attempt to  no  the  room  world,  psychic  of  depth  and of  i n t r i n s i c  for a the  82  beauty  of  "Yume  no  ukihashi"  on  surface,  or  in  the  same  metaphor  as  the  the  is  a i r ,  t i t l e ,  conversely so  we  to  might  to  be  found  speak.  To  use  call  a  "floating"  i t  the  beauty. A  beauty  that  what  occurs  vaguely  floats in  retrievable  past;  memory  vanished  of  a  ukihashi"  points  heart:  feeling  a  childhood  to  place  i t s  in  has  our  in  where  reader mood  a  of  old  the  we  by  may  burning the past  begins  in  union  between  is  named  so  a  Even  Although  I  a  that  is  for  un-  the  poignant  "Yume  so  dear  human  l i f e  and  r e a l i t y  we  tend  memories  of  the  because  he  corresponds  no to  our  from  every  Understandably  enough,  to  take  past  and  offers  to  is  prepared  with  Just  lingering the  vision  the  and  man.  night  as  the  that  the l a t t e r ' s  echo  herons  seldom  Heron's often  occasionally  actually  of  seen  not  a  bell  of  Nest,  a  for  alighted come  them,  of  to  have  the  poetic instance, in  i t s  swooping I  as  enhance  journey  born  come  s k i l l ,  fragrance  narrator's  herons  does  consumate  dream-like- atmosphere  now,  is  another  the  in  moment  nostalgic  temple,  nature  have  this  the  "because  garden.  i t s e l f  pervades  that  Tanizaki.  and of  from  yearn  detail  every  to  regret.  It  from  sacredness  which  vision  say,  chance.  incense  that  success l i e s ,  and  to  Every  beautiful  we  within  nostalgia  escape  nostalgic  expect  in  instant  when  significance.  most  reverie  carries  loss  age  one  mind  dream.  of  own  our  this  Tanizaki's  Needless about  to  occasional  refuge is  i t  from  down.  often  83  heard  their The  Heron's It  i s  long,  shallow Nest  i s  linked  strident stream  in  poetic  name  of  the  that  flows  l i k e w i s e not  with  r i c h  cry."  the  Kamo  that  any  River,  allusions.  woods  just  Even  past  a  the  ordinary  gate  his  name  house  element  i s  and  of  stream.  geographical  Tadasu's  surround  main  also  the  the  Shimogamo  22 Shrine. device but  to  has  tural  amuse  the  history  l o c i ,  the  of  setting  rator's  profound  is  power  On  on  due of  i t s  a  level  hazy  f a i l i n g  a  i t  While  serves  to  i t  house  and  i t s  fur-  image  of  Mother,  but  solemn witness  f i r s t  turns  deaths  mother,  three  have  different  as  have  suggested,  to  way,  affecting place,  father  and  in  the  trigger  the  i t s  by  to  of the  stepmother.  the  dream  the  the happy  dwellers.  involving  plot.  that  substantial  reminder  take  functions i s  one  haziness  produced  a  three  than  is  a  as  the  more  surroundings  stands  grounds,  narHis  memory,  take  the  to  c h i l d h o o d home.  sorrowful  that  open  his  a  moments  in  to  i s  It  i t s  depiction  i s  show  Nest  by.  cul-  hand  meticulous  of  Heron's  the  and  great  In  cessively  we  Tadasu's  exaggerated.  the  the  Tanizaki  bamboo  movement  in  capital  i l l u s i o n .  gone sad  to  of  embedded  a  castle.  find  one  simply  staccato  ancient  lent  attachment  offsets  presence  and  least  remembrance  not  days  might  not  i t s  deeply  The  dream  i s  with  own,  have  somewhat  at  thermore  i t s  Kyoto.  his  readers  i t s e l f  grown-ups  of  of  debate,  clear  mortar  indeed,  creation Some  of  water  tradition  genius the  a  The  The  sucA l l  f i r s t ,  game,  the  84  second  to  It  i s  is  caused  test  worth  Tanizaki,  i t s  noting  another  in  his  to  Nest  excursion  to  search  of  his  of  novella  wrote  "Yume  ghost  story.  defined  woman  there  is  that  It the  take  no  A l l  and  in  a and  turns  reader's  out  indicated  e a r l i e r  "Yume"  to  related,  s k i l l  unfortunately reduced  to  a  quality  w i l l  the  almost  ghost  above the  this  Except  for  an  the  major  softer  Tanizaki  version  there: an  a  of  person,  There a  is  a  well-  intelligent  beloved  is  in  events  boundary.  are  there  sense  a l i v e . this in  The  brought  also  account  also  begin  of  a  but beau-  intrigue,  sense  to  mystery  reason  analysis, every  mere  occasionally  a  structure,  a l l  child.  a l l ,  sensory  implies  of  centipede.  narrator  a  that  of  mystery  t a l e .  that  in  as  the  the  i t s  a l l .  already  by  location,  perceptive  found  in  within  i t  Nest  has  plot  important.  Takeshi,  remote  Heron's  pages:  of  end  stepmother's)  manner,  early  ingredients  the  wonderfully  masterful  w i l l  a  interest  be  casual  to  (the  of  undertaken  place  the  death  viewpoint  ukihashi"  through  i s  the  half-brother  death  runs  in  third  dweller  ubiquitously  landlord,  t i f u l  reader  the  third  of  Shizuichino,  mansion  taciturn  kind  from  i s  the  and  deceptively  the  Therefore,  the  that  by  introduced  Heron's  v i a b i l i t y  that  single  back  to  expression. that of  past  wane.  experience  events, As  the  beauty  of  of  past  a  by  the  have  the  the  author's  indication story  i t s  result,  uninspiring  we  keeps  as  This  whenever  what  i s ,  moment l i f e  is  is  distinctive the  passages  reader which  85  are  there  simply  sometimes would  for  d i f f i c u l t  enhance  actually  the  weaken  instance,  somehow  for  the to  damages  of  The  much the  sake,  determine  beauty  i t .  is  plot's  the  whether  long  of  and  essentially  indeed their  fleeting  account  too  and  the  i t  presence  moments  or  father's  i t s  would  sickness,  c l i n i c a l  dream-like  is  aspect  effect  of  the  novella. To  compensate  Tanizaki  provides  for the  this  almost  reader  with  challenges  the  l a t t e r ' s  right  the  beginning  from  signed  by  narrator What  Chinu.  T i l l  the  nor  the  reader  arouses  our  curiosity  Konoe  style  of  some  detective with  find  calligraphy  poem  of  out  even  the  which  story,  her  probably  of  starts  Dreams"  neither  mother  is  he  Mystery  "Bridge  which more  defect,  entertainment:  i n s t i n c t .  the  end  unavoidable  the  wrote  i t .  thick,  "reveals  fleshy some-  23 thing  of  neither of  the  the  seal  personality." narrator  stepmother's  scene. zling  her  Similarly, as  his  l a s t  the  in  The  most  ingenious  feeling  the  violent  death  l i f e .  Tadasu  The  "the  know  the  of  the  the  story,  real  motive  Silk-Tree  thinking  is  bridge...of  It  an  stroke,  is  as  in  the  was  i f  put  the  P a v i l l i o n  also  as  dreams,"  her  is  author,  shock  died, on  however,  reader's  electric  stepmother  suspects  in  end  puzthat  mystery.  decline as  the  reader  father's  words,  fate  death.  the  behaviour  his  mother's  to  nor  T i l l  to  by  step-  i n t u i t i v e l y  interest,  bitten body  the  devised  this  jolt  the  story  back  by  centipede  that  a  Sawako  during  a  86  massage this  session.  might  Tadasu's him  to  w i l l  be  of  never  his  know  most in  his  however,  he  is  work. the  This  truth  course, myself are  never  the  of  to  lure  the  the  it  place  before,  Let  us  Takeshi  for  or  case,  good  excuse  for  reader,  as  usual,  accompanied  by  the  the  answer. to  do  narrator the  Sometimes  the  detective  deliberately reader  true:  falsehood  or  distortion.  the  I  with  is  t r u t h . . . "  anything  untrue,  his  do  and  "Of allow  But  there  "although  sets  brain  hides  not  neither  narrator  wracking  realize  take  the a  there  or  r e a l l y  his  a  do  I  the  over  sexual  stepmother?  after  the  I  write  bait numerous  would  be  rather  there  could  be  further  the  be  the  chronological  that year  could  our the  landmark.  stepmother was  there  death?  simple,  narrator's  born  is  not  gives in  i s ,  does  If but  i t i f  implications.  information  suspicion  He  relationship  If  father's  things  instance,  piece  as  himself  and  before  place  shall  a  any  here  into  narrator  took  we  by  Tantalizing  is  after,  to  as  an  t r u t h , t h e  place  try  is  find  when  write  took  we  In  baffled  to  t e l l i n g  example:  Takeshi,  accident  questions.  between take  to  the  The  record  reader  frustrating For  I  even  certainly whole  a l l  him.  that  freak  serves  reader  attempt  slightest  limits  least  the  happens  a l l  a  truth.  l e f t  from  the  the  be  intention.  wife.  cases,  narrator  might  criminal  suspicion at  divorce  In  This  son.  If  together,  groundless. b i r t h  May.  to  Earlier  in  i t  87  January, Then  the  i t  was  noticed  a  narrator l a s t  "learned  autumn  (the  in  state  change  the  that  Mother  previous of  his  was  year)  pregnant."  "that  health  and  Father  went  to  to  say: 27  2 6 be  examined  by  "I  must  you  and  ask  Father Now  to  l e t  us  and  that  intercourse by  also  months  nine  is  for  clever  hint  be  our  journey  to  the  more  the  end  obviously effort,  a  in  Tale  her  this  purpose.  boy?  the  Tadasu  second a  to  be  search  of  Chinu  is  to  what  "Yume  no  u k i h a s h i " and  In  i s  Kaoru's  brother, I  keep  t e l l s  not  only  him  us  here  sad  that the  to  asks: beside  can  but  in  you  the  be  seen  there back i s  i s  a l l  at  divorced. and  dream.  last  "Have me  he  the  Ukifune,  Tanizaki  but  memento,  the  thematic,  l e t t e r  Kaoru  a  which  Tadasu's  child  and  perpetuate  is  Genji  dead  her  course,  Similarly, the  more  are  May,  Takeshi  bring  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , effort  of  no  There  and Of  l a s t  then  correct,  g u i l t . to  was  precise date,  fact,  of  own  sense  for  vain  contextual. by  on  then  Tanizaki's The  there,  a  any  be  Mother,  period.  give  by  and  me."  could  suspicious.  to  in  told  there  September  gestation  proves  on  this  i n t e r c o u r s e . . . "  autumn  Father  l a s t  had  you've  time  not  reason  i s  sexual as  rather  between  Shizuichino  when  Takeshi  is  doctor  l a s t  that  between  suspicion  motivated  do  that  from  natural  from  " I ' l l  January  enough  might If  as  a  The  r e f r a i n  assume  pregnancy  stand  Kato."  accepted:  September, sexual  Dr.  l i n k  This between  chapter  of  also delivered forgotten  memory  of  one  who  88  disappeared." The game and  to the  vanished the  end.  only  disappeared  in  The  mansion  haunted  survivor  dream.  l i v e s  Takeshi new  substitute  who  source  can  on  of  replace  "Yume"  in  Heron's  the  looks  exactly  dream  the  Nest  aftermath  comfort, a  brought  but i s  l i k e how  what  dream i s  of  a  Mother  long we  sold,  a l l  i s  a want  know. The  himself. dream as  an  who  narrator's  dream to  one  a  i s  answer Not not  woman's  might  too just  easily  long, a  breast.  he  vague  have  would  come l i k e l y  longing:  i t  from say; i s  as  the  author  because  a  substantial  89  Dreams actually five,  often  i s .  has  make  Tanizaki  found  that  he  t r i e s  much  of  i t  an  to  into  Man,  of  "Yume  1961), no  Futen kept  by  a  his  notes. Utsugi's and  of  The  To  the  harsher the  age  t h i s .  less  It  harsh  comical,  n i k k i  l e f t  the  than of  i s as  though  comedy.  r o j i n  having  body  be  t h r i l l  of  his  with  to  i s ,  man  which  days  compared the  for  popular  diary,  main  year.  enjoy  at  Futen  report,  off  time  a  n i k k i  old  diary  f i f t y - f i v e  however,  r e a l i t y  after  his  breaks  same  of i n  r o j i n  nurse's  seem  i t  seventynot  so  much  that  he  turns  without  the  That  i s  what  (Diary  of  a  nebulous  we  Mad  dreamland  ukihashi."  sick  comprised  r e a l i t y  something  experience  "Old  POUR  antidote  make  light-heartedness shall  CHAPTER  of  doctor's  record,  the  one  long  novel with  i s ,  and  i s but  barely  novel  his  dated 18th  one a  diary i s  from daughter's  course,  November  existence,  lifetime  and  entry  It  a  extracts  of  represents  l i f e .  The  three  an  dated  that  Utsugi's  a  indicates,  seventy-seven.  starts  his  t i t l e  by  of  the  the  followed  exact,  of  as  Old  June of  16th  the  hundred  short  Utsugi  and  span  of  seems  to  survives  at  end. Old  besieged  Utsugi with  is  high  indeed blood  physically very pressure,  sick.  neuralgia  and  He has  i s  90  trouble and  walking.  scheming as  lookout with  for  that  right  daughter-in-law  then  becomes  in-law of  old  and  man's  and  What  self-irony The last  this  man  fate  between  the  be  the  but  watered by  an  of  in  women.  She  adoration.  The  infatuation  of  down  the  waywardness  the  tragic by  the  turns  plot an  daughter-  extraordinary often  on  his  stunning  wherein  -  provided  form  taste  his  alert  always  is  and  absurd  madness  draws  the  "outsiders." make  text  Utsugi's  diary  formal the  The  the It only  The  on  aspect comic  w i l l  out  line  i s  and  between  and  except  to  to  be  the  for  written  purpose.  katakana  The  the  the  should gives  be the  sixteen  added  reason  the for  noted  smooth,  commonplace  date  in for  instead month  this  for  might  the  passing each of  be  infor-  world world  lines that  of  much the  of  16—trans-  reader's that  of  moreover,  entry  June  the  hira-  contrast  secret  underneath  the  in  serious-looking katakana,  self-mockery  (e.g. has  katakana,  done  imagination  humorous.  original  i n  extracts—which  certainly  s t i f f ,  man's  venience).  drama  written  three  i s  Hibbett  of  devious  gracefully  is  old  lator  his a  in  he  as  disguise.  the  more  object  to  hiragana  to  s t i l l youth  beauty  apparently  i n  i s  demanding  seems  mal  seems  home  whose  overcome  novel  This  his  death  in  mind  mischievous  his  with  is  part—the  gana.  in  to  his  Conveniently,  divine  results  lurking  l i v e .  the  around  impotent  a  Satsuko,  correspond  evolves  of  excitement.  excitement  greatly  However,  i t  con-  gives  91  the is  impression renewed  notion the  of  at  tool  i n  throw  about and  tern  of  old  by  physical of  his  to  the  the  longer  a l l  the  i s  in  almost  f i l l i n g is  a  in  type,  zaki's image  and is  are  although  i t  i s  that  more  reminds  linear one  of  author them  mood.  are  at pat-  characterization often  interrupted The  written  that  entries  d a i l y .  the  inserted  these  to  This  throughout  one  not  in  his  passion  only he  does.  He and  in  spite  Shunkin are  individuals Sumie  and  often "that  Jones  the  imaginative  effective  the  always  not  to  most  treatment.  i s  as  a  work  between  usually  contain  interest.  diary,  his  i s  not  which  his  of  the  maintained  disdain  impressive  the  his  medical  utmost  so  to  suits  with  as  events  disconnect  however,  just  ambition,"  of  allows  fantasy  entries  of  It  according  routine  balance  characters of  becomes  casually,  sexual  everything  daughters  genre  perfectly  lengths  ones,  extreme  that  Tanizaki.  and  elements  He  inexorably  them  shorter  Balance,  year  of  whose  varying  due  daily  instead  thoughts  pain  Nevertheless,  of  intervals  diary  hands  man  flow  time.  behaviour  an  are  of  rearrange  of  temporal  and  formless the  w i l l  a  short  month  passing The  of  the  he  to  for  Sasuke  that  turn  his  spend  aching are  of  capture What  Utsugi  into  and  hours  arm.  a  Utsugi Tani-  certain  his  makes  Tanizaki  but  wife  types.  projection to  fortes.  Satsuko,  treat can  his  observes. i s  Utsugi's  can  happens  reader  powers  of  of  creative Utsugi  employs an  a l l  extra-  92  ordinary For  character  example,  as  Utsugi  breaks  to  sickbed  his  Perhaps is  to  start  gives or  us  l i f e  a  without  unfeeling  down  the  a  the  glimpse  i n are  as  ming.  Those  method  of  the The  important who  when  is  play  toward  (entry  use  when  The  physical  women's  his  v i s i t to  him  basic  grandson  d i a r i s t ' s  to  his  his  beginning.  general.  actors  he  stealthy  best  from  as  crying  for  sacrificing  of  October  entry,  attitude  roles  comes  examining  f i r s t  their  family,  Keisuke  appearance  as  humanity.  diary  June  16,  toward  art,  of  Kabuki  talent  interest  a  19).  the at  him  perforthe  most,  2 although  "not  old  man  who  who  knows  without Utsugi  i s  how  stage."  candidly to  a  man  aspects  of  best  them.  of  related  attracted  them  for  r e a l i t y .  i s  l i f e  His  comfortable and,  single  pretense  even  Perhaps  presence  effect In with  moreover,  and  the  feminine  with  his to  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s appear  opposing  to an  make  the  onnagata  person as  and  words,  impotency a  an  illusions  other both  of  beauty  of  seems  experience  naturalness.  and  in  to  soothing  matter-of-factly with  feel  the  who  human  We  enjoy  mistaking is  tioned  off  is  of  vain  men-  his  as  is  age,  vanity  i t s e l f . Nevertheless, of  his  aged  in  sexual  learn  gradually woman  that  difference  counterparts  adventure.  adventure cinating  the  at  Satsuko  i s  Prom takes  the  that the  accompanies  Utsugi  and  most  he  is  s t i l l  interested  June  17  entry  on,  place,  center.  between  In  inevitably the  Utsugi  f i r s t and  with  this a  entry,  his  wife  faswe to  the  93  theater.  Her  inkling ation  of  is  name  her  is  incredible  immediately  we  and  s k i l l f u l l y — l e a d s us he  thrown  ends  role  followed  and  before  are  mentioned  off-guard  the  casually in  by  the  entry:  to  the  i f  he  have  This  musing  author  what  "Even  we  story.  Utsugi's  u n t i l  back  and  inform-  on  acting  determinedly—  has  you're  no  in  mind  impotent  you  •5  have  a  kind  In  Futen  in  using  is  not  i t  needs  the  of  art  an  sex r o j i n ,  motifs  abstract the  force  c r i t i c s  dismiss  but  Sei  is  Utsugi  in  sexual  l i t t l e  In  the  a l i v e .  the  scattered  Religious  an  a r t i s t  toward drawing art  to  the  But  say  that  drawing end  l i f e  of  as  a  to  indeed  For  this  concerned 19  and  entry, food  crude of  his  art.  starts  from  and  vice  It  is  the  is  versa  the that  an  ideal  in  case,  Old  declares  things  It  keep  distance  not  writing of a  energizing  by  the  might  becomes  that  that  throughout  r e a l i t i e s he  the  many  the  given  his  been  i n t e l l e c t u a l  two  handy.  existence,  from  the  motifs  in  Tanizaki  this  is  philosophy,  as  bluntly  r e a l i t y  come  beauty  he  are  art  reason,  Whatever  about  which  always  sex  art  suggested:  without  consider  genius  him,  Sex,  has  writer  For  often  skin.  philosophy.^  also  Tanizaki's  have  and  l i f e ,  that  this  symbols  we  writing.  presence  beauty  versus  of  June  stimulation^  as  flesh  Tanizaki  a  witness  embellish r e a l i t y .  of  his  i t s e l f  him  mistake  in  shall  concept,  counters  seems  problem.  to  element  driving  l i f e  we  support  essential  Ito  l i f e . "  story. be  a  career l i f e  as  but  " r e a l i s t " effect  characterizes  of  Tani-  94  zaki's  works  longevity, In of  the  this  is  than  more  point  alive the  sexual  is  with  very  a  self-portrait  necessarily  beyond  the  entry  entertaining.  It  is  profoundly  alive  at  any  not  to  stay  there  may  he  for  and  might  are  just  last  things  each  worth  one  of  food.  If  be  thing  the  the  being  adventure  even  is  much  The  youthful  his  writing.  Without n i k k i  do  energy.  fantasy  fantasy  in  to  to  because  things  and  something  key  end  is  has  Utsugi  ro,jin  Tanizaki's to  l i f e  himself.  Futen  refuses  The  in  sense,  author  of  perhaps  both  biography, ing  and  of  cost,  for  comes  that  that  November  to  stay Whatever  Utsugi,  keeps  18  l i f e - i n s p i r i n g .  for.  to  auto-  understand-  but  l i v i n g  us,  worst  our  an  they  worst, him  are  sexual  a l i v e ,  as  5  insinuated It  is  scene.  in  Nurse  in  the  Her  she on  dispenses the  bag  costs  receives  the  plum  the  family  June  to  sauce goes  over  for  she a  the  what  or  thousand  has  of  her  smeared  restaurant  in  this  sexual  requests.  leftover  that  from  s t i n g i l y  twenty  the  to  her  Satsuko  understand  gets  return  of  that  coiblusion between  she  Utsugi,  importance  that  Utsugi  in  Report.  entry  "I  the  What  favors  17  l i n e ,  reveals  father-in-law.^ material  June  f i r s t  deliberately  Sasaki's  enters  Father her  her  collusion  is  stimulation  For  an  yen  for  that  depending  imported  hand-  instance,  dish  around the  means,"  and  generously,  hamo  the  along  with  untidily  when  Ginza  (entry  18). The  contrast  with  his  wife's  perfectly  neat  leftovers  makes  Satsuko's  a l l  the  more  erotic  to  Utsugi.  "Maybe  7 she is  did not  i t  on  the  purpose,"  food  that  hidden  excitement  i d o l .  Utsugi  making  but  the  especially The is  stands  he  stirred no  by  longer  they  motif  old  r e a l l y  pleasures  when  food  always  is  the  involve  a  sign  of  very  well  that  not  momentous  happiness  created  by  even  illusions  to  use.  entries  that  whenever  he  surira)  with  Satsuko,  his  the  r i s k  of  and  again,  dying. Utsugi  in  l e t  has  i t  he  i t  the with  of  s t i l l  his  lovecan  enjoy  It  Utsugi  In  i s has  he  later  t h r i l l e r " extreme more  (pinki  even  favors  disregard  i n -  the  short, in  foo  under-  different  follows  "erotic  total  Sharing  destroy  i l l u s i o n .  an  in  with  l u c i d i t y  Satsuko  complies  act  meaning.  enjoyment  Again,  the  although  does  he  good  of  and  tentions,  puts  rather  connected  senses  r i c h  Satsuko  w i l l  Indeed,  Satsuko.  affection,  simply  but  anything  the  i s  muses.  wants,  capable  of  here  man  for  at to  ask  his  family. These What and  Utsugi a  with  both  death  in A l l are  relentlessly above  them  Satsuko  instants  constantly  foreboding  however. of  b l i s s f u l  oh  whose  the  of  death.  June  19  through built  into  The  pages  the the  pedestal,  beauty  is  in  fact  his  rather  c l i n i c a l  reader  entry.  the  reminding a  faces  are  They  gets w i l l  acquainted  s i c k n e s s and  reader  of  the  i s  of  a  stop  the  there  shadow  the  r e a l i t y .  fortunately,  possesses  condition  not  infrastructure  rare.  novel,  Standing dazzling  l i f e - g i v i n g  power  of  96  a  Bodhisattva. In  "Yume  details l i k e the  of  no  the  father's  atmosphere contrary,  ukihashi,"  the  story.  they  are  a  physical  ments  has  puncture October spends the  with  the  for  of  Be  that  to  endure  it  less  at  times  as  ying.  He  someone  singing  Satsuko  at  a  i t  the  "The  in  times  beauty,  stands his  for  passion  masochism...  scene  of  and  we  that in for  more  It  represent  in  by  the  a  beauty  she  the  hero  cannot  frightens  idea  u n t i l  him  i t  ac-  his  last  moments,  with  naturally,  with  and  two  to  are  less  make  i t  beauty  his  motifs  the  end  l i f e ,  importantly,  his  t e r r i f -  eternal w i l l  of  almost  writing: and  they  make  contains  art  he  to  These  his  acu-  overcome  courage,  Dawn"  come  treat-  to  moments  be  device,  (entry  inspires  abstract how  death. when  Satsuko  and  on  '  knows  Art  nikki,  sling  embodied  with  at  dream-  medical  device,  different.  an  Moon  side.  even  is  is  Utsugi  c l i m a c t i c scene  Tanizaki  his  his  . while  Death  is  the  experiment  only  c l i n i c a l  technical  exciting  can  turn  suffering  pictures  many  in  may,  since  arrives,  in  i t  painful.  companions  that  a  various  thematic  p r i n c i p l e .  tually  nified  which  physical  but  a  r e a l i t y  l i f e  female  As  damage  Glisson's  the  the  ro.jin  As  the  the  offset  Satsuko.  harshness  Futen  Xylocaine-injection to  that  somehow  In  and  endure—from  the  said  necessity.  suffering  21)—serve  passion of  to  to  have  sickness  of  Utsugi's he  we  the  be  diary  everything worship  his his  mag-  that  for  foot-fetishism, boundless  97  v i t a l i t y  that  had  century  before  growing  vigor.  The two  Old  Utsugi  him  see  sofa on  finds  her  lap  a  and  from  flowed  contact  characters  feet.  peeled  forth  s t i l l  bodily  principal  and  my  and  f i r s t  the  gushed  in  his  that is  "Shisei" veins  takes  noted  a  with  ever-  place  in  the  June  opportunity  "She  stretched  both  legs  out  nylons  to  show  me.  I  her  toes  in  her  clasped  each  of  ask  between  good  off  to  half  20  Satsuko  my  to  on  put  entry. l e t  the her  hand,  feet  one  o  by  one,"  noting  the  here:  Utsugi's in a  this  is  l i t t l e  and  the  scenes  pense.  deserve  scroll that  i s  a  the  scenes  taste,  erotic up  gradually  however,  there  a  far  in  of  as  the  the  force  with  Satsuko's  sexuality  sense  effect  scene few  and  developed  involving  for  are  Hardly  as  foot  worth  touch  return  extension  preliminary  above  of of  touch. sus-  and  elements  the  that  attention.  end  of  exist two  but  which,  are  of  feet.  of  the  diarist  woman's  sense  series  there  29.  the  soon  a l l  October  of  things  w i l l  of  an  Two  they  of  there other  the  b u i l t  ones  our  at  for  in  Between  First  pleasure  sense  are  subsequent  relates.  scene,  change  concerned,  The  the  the  rapture  slight  foot  d i a r i s t  They from  intentionally  to  the  three  being  the  June  a l l  in  20  along  written  entry. of  entries  sound  authorial  share  poem  quotations  found  may an  i s  l i k e  poetry for a  viewpoint, with  We  other  on  the  shall in  they art  notice  this  September  casual  hanging  note are  motifs  novel, 3  and  by  the  there and  98  religious  imagery.  ponsibility an  aura  wise  of  be  to  produce  esthetic  treated  terspersed moments,  as  those  so  purifying  that  by  r e a l i t y .  In  Utsugi's  pain  from  sexual  In in  a  paper  Japanese i n  that  art  the  makers. and  Satsuko  the  structural to  of  a  story  perverted  devices  reader they  divert  the  to  to  impart  might  otherIn-  t h r i l l i n g  feels  deadly  res-  eroticism. and  be  and  that  appear  hardly  seem  narrative  balance  symbolic  so  refreshing,  weighed  there  to  tension  down  ease  that  arises  stimulation. presented held  in  create  a  at at  1984,  motifs  and  of  suffering  fact,  Summer  They  part  physical  Studies  Columbia  a  case  the  and  i s  elegance a  between  a l l  the  This  the the  Nitobe-Ohira University  Conference  of  B r i t i s h  Mr.  Hagiwara  Takao  Futen  function  "chiefly  distance  secondly  f i r s t l y  between  this  suggested as  between  world  distance-  Utsugi  and  the  other  q world." that  The  Utsugi's  reason  for  this  relationship  distancing,  with  Satsuko  he  argues,  "tends  to  i s  become  10 very his to  intimate feeling  destroy  are  there  level ates  of our  clever i s ,  i n  to  of  view  novel  thus  with  the  idea  style  observation  because,  in  death The  esthetic  use i s  of  relationship  Hagiwara's  whose  vulgar,"  mystery.  double  Tanizaki's  careful  even  poignant  this  art.  that  function  and  i t s  elevate  refined  a  raw,  "content" some  without  subtle  and  of  art  are  Kathleen  also  to  motifs  l i k e l y  Merken's  that  tends,  art  view  deceptively we  and  motifs the corrobor-  i s  -  quite  casual. to  miss  words,  That i t s  99  "it  (the  author  use  of  art  directing  motifs)  the  i s  reader's  rendered  without  attention  to  the  his  ideas  or  11 his  techniques." The  second  element  Utsugi's  musing  on  masochistic fascinated out  to  women  define  slender  feminine  confession by  legs  his and  that  he  delicate  "more  (him)  Woman:  attention  Linked  i s  cause  Ideal  our  beauty.  that  who  catches  to  p a i n , "  be  his  attracted,  more  Utsugi  beautiful,  feet  with  is  with  sure,  but  sets  white, with  a  13 face  that  reveals  face  that  he  inal  in  Les  another  "a  finds  in  of  Simone  Diaboliques,  notorious  cludes:  streak  cruelty,"  Signoret  who  or  in  Takahashi  murderess  in  early  "Sometimes  I  think  I  would  the plays Oden,  Meiji. be  kind the  of crim-  again  Utsugi  happier  i f  con-  a  woman  14 l i k e  Oden It  manage  turned  sounds to  come  different and  has  the  July  how  she  12 i s  entry,  ("You  of  fun!");  hand. As  I  she  ecstasy, And  looked  we  yet  I  into  to  found  see  this  a l l  people  how  when the  f e l t  "an  also  f e l t  Satsuko's  but  her the  Utsugi  dream,  something  sarcastic;  excited and  thinking  "groomed"  shocks  get  me."  close  has  s p i t e f u l ,  sports  to  rather He  k i l l  wishful  deliberately  how  akin  to  l i k e  way.  l i a r ;  the  up  in  in  Satsuko  i s  of a  bit  of  violent  her  passion  for  you  see  blood.  That's  Utsugi,  in  excruciating pain acute  malicious  sense face  In  Satsuko:  with  masochist  an  s l i g h t l y  direction.  side  she  a  Oden  that  dark how  of  in  does  in  of the  my  a  a  part moment  l e f t  pleasure. pain—and  100  the  pleasure—become  a r t i s t years as  Seikichi  in  weighing  much  on  passion  Another  in  Utsugi's  "healthy"  love  food  night, to  when  sleep  hands  i s  in  him  "While  somehow  i t  when  he  ate  ates  the  a  take  place  short,  takes  unlocked  so  separate  sessions,  at  by  the  f i r s t  shower  Next,  in  crouching  that  the  the  a  she  curtains  and  by  and,  her  store  his  her  allowing  (August l i t t l e  toes  him  me  a n t i c i p -  in  the  26,  July  28  11.  a  to  we  door in  three  fantasies, between  kiss  see  his  a l l  story  Then,  exposed  him  they  the  i n .  sexual  for long  leaving  in  to  also  July  make  11),  s l y l y  had  for  back  man  certainly  for  sneak  she  but  scenes,  To  place  rejected  i t  August  while can  he  her  i t  his  One  As  old  give  and  bathroom  man  23).  coldly  entries  wipe  down  not  of  explains  takes  excited  in  indulges  entry  July  i n  him  third  Satsuko  dish,  which,  impression  impotency.  is  with  scene  his  pleasure  shower  old  bedtime  which  why  bathroom.  s t i l l  f i f t y  heart.  our  i s  the  but  with  and  the  i t ,  l e t t i n g  the  a  (entry  between,  them  Utsugi's  Satsuko  of  away,  at  that  break  call  in  is  described  small  might  spite  leftover  t h r i l l  and,  taste  request  of  Satsuko's  scenes  We  us  young i s  The  again,  shoulders  Adalin,  His  following  of  bedroom  you're  reminds  great  with  in  of  mouth-to-mouth?"  back  strengthens  Sasaki  p i l l s  intense."  now  interest  sense  Utsugi's  two  suggests:  of  sex  Nurse  is  eternally  t r i v i a l ,  and  more  decrepit  his  element  i t  and  "Shisei" his  although  for  more  her  the  mouth,  old  l e g . man  suckling  101  rapturously. These ro.jin  n i k k i  Kagi But  erotic the  scenes  label  of  (The  Key,  1955),  while  Kagi  sustains  story, that  Futen  turns  reader  might  scenes  be  probably  a  some  serious  the  by  six  earned  into  the  years  mood  reader  almost  aroused  what  "semi-pornographic,"  written  entertains  the  are  Futen  along  e a r l i e r .  throughout  with  i t s  with  the  ironic  caricatures.  "strip-tease"  tone  While  effect  the of  17 a  " f l i c k e r  or  a  leg  of  a  half-veiled  gynecological laugh old  at  the  a  that  evokes  examination, pathetic  knee"  he  between the  is  kneeling  the  intimacy  even  more  figure  of  curtains,  of  a  inclined  the  to  lecherous  man. "Waves  me;  shoulder,  pains  of as  terror, violent  excitement, as  a  heart  pleasure  attack  surged  gripped  within  my  c h e s t . . . , "  18 Utsugi  notes.  pressure panics  The  shoots  in  the  s i l e n t ,  Satsuko  does  self  k i l l e d  This Together involving minutes, the  k i l l  by  her  erotic  a  story.  structurally  dangerous  of  a  alarming.  level  plausible  another  form  This  him  as  is  the  while  cause. to  his  wishes,  one  however  does  described  in  he  not the  Nurse old  end.  If  w i l l  culminating  point  of  this  peak  marks  the  a l l  August  over  through  l e t  k i l l  lasts  halfway  blood  The  session that  nearly  speaking,  he  His  i r r e s i s t i b l e temptation  t h r i l l e r  "necking"  they  a  is  " s t o i c a l l y " resigned  not  with  to  absence  remains  be  up  consequence  Sasaki man Odenhim-  the  same.  Utsugi. 18  entry,  twenty  erotica the  diary  end  of  a  in and, series  102  of  physical  wake,  we  find  physical t i c  contacts  peak  Futen  r o j i n  peaks  (the  functions  in of  one  r e l a t i v e l y  the  and  entry,  in  the  gone  and  d i a r i s t  recorded the  nostalgia.  his  speculations  psyche journey  the  w i l l to  Even  Kyoto i n  his  a r t i s the  shall  the  19  entry  on)  i s  found  in  two  elab-  end.  there  second  Karuizawa  i t s e l f assumes hand,  September  and  the  reach i n  in  to  brings  reminiscence  present. soon  goes  autumn  crickets on  space  other  the  Utsugi's  chirping  and  in  in  that  the  early  the  past  t r i p  t r i p On  of  i s  a  half  of  larger  in  meaning.  movement  Kyoto  subplot. i s  that  the  more  different  We  note the  to  having  with  to  deeper  casts  as  interesting  makes  i t s  pattern,  to  August  The  plot  related.  In  forms  come  about  the  that  we  (from  f i r s t  surge  when  that  when  time  i s  a  higher)  mutually  point  of  exposed  considered  direction  Sasaki.  a  are  this  i t  in  Nurse  of  on  way,  shift  The  which  be  by  scene  terms  second  Along  scope  In  Satsuko.  reverie,  climactic  novel.  and  seized  indeed  but  diary  to  f i n a l l y ,  another the  given  may  further  the  and  Utsugi  n i k k i  orate  marked  Utsugi  anguish  impulses  second  an  between  in  his  is  t r i v i a l  f i r s t  entry.  with of  i t his  nurse's  in  time  the  future  in  the  space-time  ideal  movement  i t  in i s  melancholy childhood  amidst to  of  the  Utsugi's  form  burial  Utsugi  and  leads  women  of  and  fore-  movement  arms  20  importance  Summer  between  travel  an  but  the 3  August  Satsuko  narrative  The  of  with  the  differences  search  the  of  his  spacial  place.  never  seems  103  to  be  uprooted  however for  p i t i f u l  comical  with  from  the  or  art  motifs,  the  author—to  The  chirping  his  at  poetic  that  the  goes  on  came  from  another  makes  the  world  cricket  and  chirp  is  on  person.  The  diary  by  he  sound  memory  of  realization  of is  his  own one  fascination:  he  to  completely  some-  not  whistling a b i l i t y  heard  his  reaction of  detachment.  overtones.  upon  the  along  extension,  the  nostalgic  novel  efficient  with  triggers  fact  this  this  highly  thought  contrary,  with  as  abruptly  in  in  r e a l i t y ,  self-mockery,  Utsugi's  the  Utsugi's  4)  with  ends  fact  used  himself  Utsugi  depicted  of  d i a r i s t — o r ,  September  experimenting  what  and  but  often  regarded  be  Interestingly,  d i s i l l u s i o n  is  can  however  c r i c k e t ' s  matter  satire,  allow  (entry  mood  breathing.  is  the  a  Irony,  the  childhood  This  of  view  dawn  early  that  of  As  r i d i c u l o u s ,  effect.  distance-makers  where  r e a l i t y .  noise  as  i f  laugh  at  himself  devoid  of  i t  grimness  s e l f - p i t y . To  i l l u s t r a t e  piece  of  Kawabata  seems  appropriate.  this  point,  Yasunari  a  comparison  i'J  Nemureru  ill  with  a  master-  (1899-1972)  ffy  bi.jo  (House  \ 19 of  Sleeping  sexual than house  Beauties,  urge.  Utsugi, that  The  drugged-to-sleep he  spends  memories,  with his  protagonist  s t i l l  caters  also  1969)  potent, to  the  g i r l s .  those dreams,  needs  various his  Eguchi  but  The  deals  starts of  story  is  with  ten  an  old  years  younger  frequenting  impotent  old  describes  slumbering  beauties,  f r u s t r a t i o n s . . .  In  a  men  the  this  man's  secret with  nights his esoteric  104  setting,  the  r e a l i s t i c . among in  Unlike  mortals,  his  Eguchi  and  fabulous  mirror is  of  Whereas  age.  to  Futen  tragedy  humorous  view  no  narrative kind  of  writing  might  superbly-  be  a  image is  genius into  expect,  rare of  specimen  an  old  man  imbued  with  that  verges  pathos  fantasy  of  a  "She  old  man's  the  part  one—including  presents  bijo  makes  integral  mumbles,  The a  is  to  faithful  we  nikki  Nemureru  ultimate  an  seems  the  sexual  As  Eguchi  has a  the  transformed  psychological r e f l e c t i o n  watch.  r o j i n  in  of  of  who  Kawabata's tale  old  painful  age  is  s e l f - p i t y ,  depression.  this  Utsugi,  declining years.  bitterness on  characterization  the  himself.  calls  age  Mrs.  totally is  l i f e ,  world  of  a  an  Of  a  and  the  old  Utsugi  daughter gossip,  as  Utsugi's  stage  comedy.  drama.  almost  Futen,  amusing  his  Yutani  treated  in  human  different  spares  Kugako,  but  he  when  i t  20 comes  to  Haruhisa, high dog a  gossiping who  either  in  Leslie:  certain  is  a i r  she  also  can  Satsuko's  Utsugi's  "Leslie's of  hold  opinion features  n o b i l i t y .  her  own."  lover, when are  Perhaps  is  His not  compared  nephew  rated with  a r i s t o c r a t i c , he  is  more  very her  he  has  handsome  21 than  that  rather  idol  Satsuko  is  negroid-looking not  three-million-yen  immune.  jewel,  Haruhisa."  After  Satsuko  having  returns,  Even  bought the  old  his  the man  22 remarks, "like a triumphant general." But the e x h i l i r a t i n g i s d e f i n i t e l y h i s own d e s c r i p t i o n : 23 a chimpanzee would have been better-looking."  most "Even  105  What not as  of i t  the  old  reader  age,  should  looming  in  existence great  hut  be,  the  and  on  l i f e .  l i f e  an  Utsugi's Life  as  every  urgent of  should  be  noted  however  funny.  He  can  be  deadly  serious  October  22  and  23  reveal  a  himself  dreaded  diarist  17  whose  occasional  in  to  him,  bruised him  the  survival.  more Utsugi  extraordinary. of  his  of  a  sense  his  truth  of  a  of  far, role  i s  his  have  as  of  Satsuko modern  sounds the  he  is  a  a  as  death  Utsugi's i n  has of  in  a  i f  Utsugi of  an  Viewed  woman,  the  of  the  the  suffering  back  by  the  for  now,  the  he  is  secret  combination and  beauty. the  does,  match  takes  humanity  time  dominated  presence.  Utsiigi  same  art  he  to  These  bring  fight  happy for  debating  of  fact,  exclusively  Satsuko  for  insanity.  the  course equal  Entries  rushed  courageous  i s  always  face  perceive  at  is. not  half  glimpse  we  and  fascinating  Oriental  l i f e  dispelled  to  second  passion  found  Satsuko.  be  i s ,  of  Utsugi,  discovered  d i a r i s t ,  has  to  times.  brink  more  Everyman  and  mirror,  With  day  Utsugi  (Satsuko the  The  we  humour i t  that  terization eyes,  As  to  admire  is  at  The  l i f e - i n s p i r i n g attitude  So In  we  that  seriousness,  reader.  i t .  remaining  another  heart  of  makes  frightened  us  almost  a  actually  convincing reason  gives  moments  the  a  i s  humour.  experiment.  entry  leads  closer  find  injection  November  Tokyo)  to.  diary i t  meaning,  sense  with  as  Utsugi  his  It  by  of  in  background,  takes  part  finds  in  but  the  from The  novel. the  characUtsugi's  very  epitome  tremendous  106  pleasure West  in  brought  B r i t i s h fights  and  look  having  to  which  Upon  character  Satsuko  knows  know  play  of  often  who the  l a i d  any  other  out  by  two  ation. obtain  as  Satsuko every  about  how  to  to of  has  try  the  for  a  outsmart  October  9  and  working  of  give  five  days  he  has  bed-ridden.  would  induce  Satsuko  into  giving  and  a  do  interis  than  in  carried determin-  both  try  to  Sometimes does,  their us  We  but  personality.  clear  idea  minds.  has  brain  be-  self  is  Utsmgi of  com-  to  the  intrigue.  l i t t l e w i l l  in  equal  other,  the  their  his  charm-  more  us  More  and  hand  wracks  of  ways.  interplay  Utsugi's  s t i l l  exotic  father-in-law,  inner  in  he  lead  their  pain  fering,  would  an  much  but  The  been  a  whom,  power  each  a  13  is  that  in  both  sometimes  reveals  this  blend  benefit.  from  hand,  is  work  this  equal  can  A l l  lecherous  reader's  they  boxing  way  a  would  hero,  Tanizaki's,  t r i c k  inner  Satsuko  things  the  as  a  innocence.  with  of  watching  rather  described  manipulate  and  upper  but  the  driving  publicly.  woman,  make to  to  as  the  clothes,  appearance  up  characters  much  the  put  heroine  winning  Entries  her  which  matter-of-fact  b l i s s f u l  starts  Both  a  be  freedom  c i v i l i z a t i o n :  examination,  to  work  in  best  of  almost  Western  than  bare  i t s  lover  and  closer  Having  for  a  aspect  European  not  might  l i e v e .  not  a  however,  haughtiness  plex  with  wearing  natural  manner  material  along  car,  performed  ing  the  been  intense  While  for him  so  a a  in  bed  subterfuge real  that sufthat  mouth-to-  107  mouth he  "I  schemes.^  pain of  k i s s .  so  that  action  point  would At  f i r s t ,  Satsuko  arrives,  that  his  scream he  would  his  thinks pity  hand  screams  tearfully, of  him,  It  a  c h i l d , "  shamming  extreme  but  actually  "Satsu!  l i k e  when  the  hurts  him  hurts!"  are  moment  to  the  perfectly  25 r e a l . of  What  an  old  "Tears nose, it  follows  man  in  streamed s a l i v a  wasn't  an  the  i s  a  grips  down  my  parody  of  of  second-childhood  cheeks,  dribbled  from  act,  instant  the  his  my  the  the  snivel  mouth. I  pathetic  I  ran  c r i s i s .  from  r e a l l y  screamed  condition  my  howled—  "Satsu!"  I  had 2 6  become  a  naughty,  Satsuko's  unruly  reaction  extraordinary.  It  ing,  understanding  that  most  silence  at  the  man  moment for  of  the  w i l l ,  match an  i n  equal  than  when  i s  r e a l l y  crazy  i f  i t  i s  her  quite  females  Therefore,  in  usually true  match  Utsugi.  Tanizaki  loves  a  l i f e ;  of  time  confident,  short  or  i s  lead  also  i s  i s  of  i s  not  only  child"  Satsuko  her  of  idio-  uneasy  sure  whether  pretending.  in  that  to  i t  their  men  by  Utsugi  has  found  This  uncovers  Utsugi's  writing  strong  where  the  an  equal  that  Satsuko  has  For  him,  playing  i s  i t s e l f .  the  nose.  true  l i f e  i s  charm-  the  a l l  moment  Tanizaki's  playing. i t  This  spite  Satsuko  that  i t  in  i s  a  notes.  "unruly  vulnerability  rare  is  in  Utsugi  this  significant  Satsuko,  way  i s  outset  time  same  reader  the  deed  beautiful  subdue  the  there  perplexity  again,"  i n t e l l i g e n t .  the  S t i l l ,  f i r s t  a  to  at  and  impresses  syncrasies.  old  i s  child  Without  found  more play,  108  humanity ants  would  forever  survival. who  are  busying  His  the  readily  plays  an  old  to  some  in  and  to  also  tremendous  delight  And  naturally,  the  not  to  they  the  us  know  of  is  a l i t y  such  each  and  of  Sasaki As  he  along  two  game  an  with  or  an  he  eventually in  As  (1928)  from  effort.  no  an  decidedly  derives  The  that  costs  of  characters  he  game  "Yume  task  Nettles  man,  erotic  of  another.  Prefer old  army  boring  calculated  game  other  that  k i l l s  "was  now  to and  in  the  gives  him  his  l i f e .  ukihashi"  is  of  Utsugi-Satsuko  equal  well,  talent.  every  hut  then  bound  they  leads the  are us  to  Since  move  anticipation,  which  Utsugi,  travels the  actually  couple  the  their to  the  surprise  by  o r i g i n surprise  second  baffles  one  other.  12th,  in  odd  players  observation  Satsuko,  confesses  the  perfectly  novel,  November and  l i n e ,  chess  This  the  nearly On  but  susceptible  other.  climax  plays  dream  same  each  opponent is  the  throng  Some  his  huge  forgotten.  Along reminds  in  a  satisfaction  justify  Kagi  of  Hardly  the  him  be  sort  to  with  therefore  mind.  man  seems  professor  reduced  father-in-law  comes  game  in  be  themselves  stories  engaged  example,  the  probably  in  to  Kyoto  November  the  the  10  principal  company to  of  choose  entry, object  Nurse  his  having of  my  grave. Satsuko  t r i p . 27  Looking Thus, during  for  on  a  the  the  burial train  v i s i t ,  place  and the  at  was the  scheming  something hotel old  where man  of  a  they  attempts  pretext." are one  to  stay  move  109  after  another  Then,  while  grave,  of  to  l i e  This  impulse  as We  its  i s  zaki  has  with of  side,  a  a  to  no  to  be  quote  the  using  to  his  idea:  on  could  decision  a v a i l .  suit  Bodhisattva  image," his  to  fascinating  "Nothing  to  but  tombstone  tombstone,  now  closely in  one  thought  of of  his  better diary.  have  Buddha's  Satsuko's  sums  up  have  been  passionate  i t s  whole  of  favorable  "In  for  foot-  specific  posterous rather  to  divine  i s  of not  prepare in  art to the  restore mad  for  analysis,  on  one  Old His  be  the  Utsugi frenzy  but, viewed  author's  Lippit  has  this  significant role the  a r t i s t  restore  himself the  a  also  Tani-  he  ridiculous  Noriko  plays  of  every-  of  feet.  can  Commenting beauty,  to  i t  In  F i r s t ,  image  Satsuko's be  devices  almost  for. the  art.may  l i g h t .  case  e a r l i e r  of  in  self-parody,  endeavor  effort  a r t i s t  view  career.  confirms  known  in  footprint-carving  l i t e r a r y  entire  and  dabbing  (Tanizaki),  grotesque  indicated  day  t r i f l i n g work intent  his  scene,  The  best  he  the  this  book.  the in  out  the  examine the  works  to' s a y :  but  her  his  quest,  the  his  of  up  image  leads  importance  unusual  In  on  stroke,  more  (his)  f i n a l l y  ever  such a  a  the  that  beside in  comes  under  d e f i n i t e l y  spending for  design  his  model.  masterful  brings  by  Satsuko's?  buried  shall  idea  not  carved  utmost  thing  suddenly  why  than  Satsuko the  engraving  tombstone,  Footprint  keep  studying  Utsugi  instead  print  to  the  sense Utsugi, sense  Nirvana. art  of  and  of As  in  l i f e . "  his  pre-  l i f e , we  beauty,  have his  110  inseparable Next, nowhere when  companions, Tanizaki's  as  well  Utsugi  w i l l  follow  masochism  expressed  imagines  as  in  Satsuko's  him  to  the  grave.  and  foot-fetishism  the  following  footprint  on  are  paragraph,  his  tombstone:  W h e n s h e t r e a d s o n my g r a v e a n d f e e l s a s i f s h e ' s t r a m p l i n g on t h a t d o t i n g o l d man's bones, my s p i r i t w i l l s t i l l b e a l i v e , f e e l i n g t h e whole weight of her body, feeling pain, feeling the f i n e - g r a i n e d v e l v e t y smoothness of the s o l e of her f e e t . . . Between sobs I would scream: "It hurts! It h u r t s ! . . . Even though i t h u r t s , I'm happy—I've n e v e r b e e n more h a p p y , I'm.much, much h a p p i e r t h a n when I was a l i v e ! . . . T r a m p l e harder! Harder!" 30  The  apotheosis  culminating  point.  of  the  "My  Eternal  only  Woman  also  conceivable  reaches  d i v i n i t y  is  i t s Sat-  31 suko," this In  Utsugi  point  the  Satsuko  reader's  Satsuko Takao  confesses. no  mere  observation  represents  cleverly  is  In  both  points  a  out  the  man's  human—she  however,  goddess in  old  the  is  also  and same  a  fancy, a  at  demon  paper  at  Bodhisattva. this  point,  as  Hagiwara  mentioned  earlier: I f we c o m p a r e , a s U t s u g i h i m s e l f d o e s , Satsuko's madonna-like q u a l i t y to the Bodhisattva Seishi, we c a n a s s o c i a t e h e r d a r k , d e s t r u c t i v e nature to K a l i , the dark ancient Indian goddess, the archetypal t e r r i b l e mother, who d a n c e s her cosmic dance of d e s t r u c t i o n and p r o c r e a t i o n upon the corpse of her consort V i s h n u . 32  Glancing now  pinpoint  novel.  back the  Although  at  the  f i r s t  difference they  are  climactic  between  equally  the  scene,  two  exciting,  peaks the  we of  can the  bathroom  111  scenes  are  and  a  as  actually  result,  thematic  a  build-up  they  are  importance.  In  not the  the  manipulator,  rationing  old  man.  the  of  the  But  situation,  creative s t i l l his  time.  The  enjoying  l i f e  l i f e  ugly  ceases  one  a  elevates It  purify  time  a  energy  in  i t  the  peak game  i s a  but  and  Satsuko  favors  to  is the  scene,  Utsugi  is  master  every  minute  of  his  a  the  carried  game,  scenes,  sexual  shows  playful second  away  the  reach.  of  by  threat  analogy,  overwhelms day  surprise  Tanizaki of  the  r e l i g i o n .  for  and  without  mundane  highest  Utsugi  peak  his of  to  form,  displays  own  passion.  death  becomes  Satsuko.  i s  To  her  second  and  at  the  flee  our  Satsuko's  responsible  for  back  the  proves  chess-playing i n i t i a t i v e —  to  escape  within  however,  foot-dabbing  to  in  represents  Paradise  to  is  same  tremendous  eroticism' return  second  climax  the  eroticism  Tantric  of  the  supernatural,  performance  the  move—the  causes  one of  deals  whereas  the  Undoubtedly  degree  climax  almost  f i r s t  degree  bring  warning.  that  f i r s t  created  single-minded  surprise  her  move  i f  'highest  much his  most  the  transcendental,  the  effort  Utsugi's too  a  as  Utsugi's  his  viewpoint,  vulgarity  form  author's  next  be  i t s  to  that  the  be  in  looks  hinted  i t s e l f  to  a  he  thematic  eroticism  l e v e l . to  her  intensity  scene  r e a l i t y .  From with  as to  out  foot-dabbing  in  bathroom  savouring  f i r s t as  the  equal  foot-dabbing  freely  vulnerability  When an  in  for  is  old  Tokyo in  the  turn  man's  a  112  collapse. In as  a  the  l a s t  entry  Bodhisattva-Kali  mation. part  We  of  the  may  Satsuko's  to  this  as  redirect  his  Eternal  f l i g h t  and  Old  Utsugi  His  diary  with  scene  he  rage.  arrives  at  the  18),  the  undergoes  of  steaming as  complex  consider  author  manifestation  (November  image  another  subtle  t r i c k  the  reader  to  This  rushes  Tokyo  the  train  on  the  to  the  ultimate  happens  hack  relates  Satsuko  transfor-  a  Woman.  of  after  Tokyo  subsequent  station:  I fumed and f r e t t e d so much t h e y were a t w i t ' s end w i t h m e — u n t i l I f e l t a s o f t hand n e s t l i n g i n mine. The hand was Satsuko's. "Now F a t h e r , y o u ' d b e t t e r d o a s I say!" I q u i e t e d down o b e d i e n t l y , and the chair s t a r t e d moving at once. 33  Anyone to  the  West  malicious  who  has  w i l l  Monkey  read  the  certainly  famous  Chinese  remember  terrorizes  the  the  novel  episode  Heavenly  Court  their  Journey  when and  the  f i n a l l y  34 gets  captured  ko ' s  soft  alone at the  hand  knows  the  the  a  shadow  lotus  the  same  and  for  everyone  Bodhisattva  on  and  her  palm.  has  From  fantasy,  platform,  dangling  Buddha's  moment.  man's  eyes, dim  i t  right  old  by  she  In  conquering  the is  else's image  now  herself.  The  breast,  a  crown,  with  her  sake, a in  Kali w i l l  with  case,  power.  of  even  Satsuko-Bodhisattva "wearing  Utsugi's  Satsuko has  used  i t  Bodhisattva  in  the  reader's  aspect  becomes  ascend  jeweled  heavenly  Satsu-  robe  upon  her  streamers fluttering  3S in  the  Eternal  wind." Woman  This that  is  the  Tanizaki  l i f e - g i v i n g ultimately  image  wants  us  of to  the see.  113  Utsugi's over to  yet.  the  the In  reader  his  a  three  physical d i a r i s t  .with  sexual  the  that  Notes  give  Utsugi's a  who  has  back  mental  sanity.  Again,  of  "common"  world  the  The  one  decidedly as  saying,  watching Utsugi keep the  them  case  with  v i s i o n  of  a  survival,  scholars.  attitude the  While  the in  At head  i s  end, f u l l  her  are  most  they i n  remain  however,  to  Japanese  c l i n i c a l  that Itsuko's  we  of  can  about  sense  his that  Utsugi  is  true  which  in  vague,  now  have  water. us  rise  c r i t i c s  i s  quotes  daydreams,  with  gives  a  account  Itsuko  never  playing  w i l l  reader  general.  It  i l l u s i o n s ,  dreams  the  represent  i n  of  p o o l . . . . " or  of  understanding  the  man."  a r t i s t .  doubts  might  offer  l i g h t  perception  a r t i s t  to  in  reduced  but  she  ukihashi";  he  of  to  Clinical  the  had  i f  mermaid  alone,  is  not  touch  old  trace  as  that  no  patient  common  holds  closest  his  "mad  footprints,  dreams, But  manner  Katsumi's  no  i s  finishing  entertained  the  toward  on  a  novel  Satsuko's  man's  "Yume  form  Utsugi's among  with  a l i v e .  curvacious sublime  work  the  the  is  Utsugi  J o k i c h i .  old  Dr.  humanity,  her  comes  son  "The  l i v e s  him  who  his  and  of  There  usually  bewilderment,  view  far  at  some  give  suffering  so  hints  obsession with  certain  a  adventures.  world  him  Report as  but  tongue-in-cheek  different  seen  possibly  "rational"  a  here, that  predicament.  humorous  case  in  Sasaki's i s  off  extracts  t o t a l l y  Utsugi  his  breaks  function  Nurse  Record, of  The  story  both  diary  him just  that turn  as  is  the For  this  humans.  to  controversy  express  a  114  favorable  opinion,  hesitate.  Donald  is  a  captivating  Probably of  the  this  old  Western  Keene, book,  was  man,  their  for  was  one,  marred  because the  thinks  only  the  one  counterparts  by  subject  that  the  logical  seem  "(Futen)  weak  ending.  ending,  Tanizaki  to  the at  death  this  stage  •37 of  his  l i f e  could  is  harsher  sticker  not  treat  in  his  with  humor."  comments.  He  Edward  Seiden-  says:  The o l d man o u g h t t o d i e a n d d o e s n o t , and the n o v e l f a l l s to p i e c e s at the p o i n t where h i s d i a r y g i v e s way t o t h e d i a r i e s and notebooks of those around h i m . . . There are c l e v e r t r i c k s a t t h e end of t h e book, but they are only t r i c k s , a n d t h e n o v e l i s k i l l e d t h a t t h e o l d man may l i v e . 38  It  becomes  l i t e r a r y so  that  obvious  c r i t i c i s m , Futen  that  the  r o j i n  death  nikki  status  p o s s i b i l i t y  of  to  interpretation.  an  instance,  i t  not  only  not  immortalizes crowning may  be  be his  novel  a  into  cane, of  to  just his  a  the to  issue, From  legend.  If  w i l l  fear  on  swimming a  i d o l .  l i v e  a on  at  beautiful  try  contrary,  Tanizaki's  Count  women.  comparison Dracula, He  w i l l  leaning  heavily  fleeting  glimpse  of  might  no  survival  pool,  That  for  viewpoint  frivolous l i k e  is  least  the  turned  called  there  Utsugi's on  Western  the  symbolic  but  has  might  of  is  While  that  story,  man  achieved  we a  standards  old  have  survival  catch  eternal  the  argued  the  Utsugi of  the  be  k i l l His  shadow  tottering  shape  i t .  allowed,  casting  might  of  tragi-comedy.  s e t t l i n g  for  does  a  normal  could  "dignified"  offer  of  by  well  be  the a l l  soon  on lovely he  can  115  do. As  But long  his as  incredible v i t a l i t y  he  his  undaunted  a l l  his  who  have  It  i s  self  male  l i v e s ,  presence.  i f  reader's  for  art  and  has  Tanizaki's  stories,  author's  l i f e ,  crystallized  i n  the  towering  figure of  mind,  i s the  beauty,  and  who,  into  dream, It  interesting  Tanizaki looks  i t  game.  Tanizaki  who  turn  a  the  and  i s  i f  the  for  who  at i f  the l i f e  l i f e  i s  Tanizaki  himself  and  a  vindicated  the  It  at  with  of  eye,  derously  reckon  Utsugi  other  bay.  end  the  amused  a  in  way,  to  at  suffer  an  into  a  have  her  to  with  it  w i l l  keep  made  Utsugi.  the  been  toward  emerges,  persona  In  counterparts  usually  as  Satsuko  w i l l  that has  woman's  w i l l a  is  not  not  a  who his  his  w i l l  w i l l  l i f e  reader.  in  him  dream,  game,  makes  his  passion  around a  true  remain  great  world  whims.  turn  won-  116  CONCLUSION  Both author  dream  on  July  and 30,  game 1965,  thought  "considerably  exactly  the  same  died  day  the  more of  with day  the  Edward  important"  1912,  passing  when  of  the  Seidensticker  for  literature  Emperor  Meiji  for  man  than  passed  i  away.  Along  Donald  Keene  with  our  deep  considers  regret  "to  have  there  is  been  the  the  whom  finest  modern  p Japanese secret for of  n o v e l i s t , "  appeal  over the  by  half  a  which  tributed  to  our  Tanizaki  century.  foregoing  an  This  analyses  and  understanding  urge  had has  to  held been  this  the  readers the  hopefully of  unravel  captive  chief  goal  have  con-  they  great—but  controv-  ersial—author. It for we  seems  almost have  the  or  content.  on  two  form The  proven  concern  with  in  stories an  exotic  surrounding  in  strike  the  in  as  who  those  dislike who  Introduction,  excessive  general,  and  his  works  examined  precisely and us  his as  because  lack  of  extremely as  lack in  in  "Shunkinsho,"  admire  of  of  him.  so As  mainly  with  i n t e l l e c t u a l thesis  have  Tanizaki's  i n t e l l e c t u a l captivating.  an  do  is  concern  this  "Shisei," or  him,  Tanizaki  his  environment as  those  points:  that  plots  that  reasons  in  four  clearly  his  same  presented  c r i t i c i z e d plots,  curious  or  a  content, Whether  traditional  exclusive  dreamland  117  as  in  "Yume  setting  as  no in  to  engage  the  or  tales,  as  products can  of  Futen  he  world  Tanizaki's a  reader  is  listener l y ,  he  mity his  a  of  with  his  polemic  that  It  on  story  the  feeling  poses  the  reader  his  of  of  reader of  to  or  This  l i s t e n i n g yield  to  a  the  two have  non-cerebral  almost  instantly:  appeal the  l i e s  reader's  t a c t i l i t y . infantile Tanizaki's of  a  the  without  author's  reader  to  creations  and  characters, self.  we  never thus  in  in  the  perceive  a  differentconfor-  expressed the  peculiar  the  that  to  in  author.  predis-  emotions of  Tanizaki's  through  the  takes  reader  and  At  the  that  finds  to  core  d i r e c t l y  area  of  truthful  himl i v e s  of  this affects  gusto-  outgrow  passion  f i l t e r  effect  unconsciously  the  seem  this  in  sources  sorrows.  especially  i t  toward  and  sensuousness  sensations  as  the  wholesome  we  i t  put  appeal  and  Curiously,  to  pass  warning,  simple:  with  story  pleasures  senses,  erotic  original  writes  prime  this  their  fact  in  i n s t i n c t i v e l y  i n t e l l e c t ,  through  is  experiences  the  the  the  explains  not  among  f a i l s  s t o r i e s —  which  writing,  does  self  his  depicting  i t  of  never  works—are  into  mind,  instead  undeniably  Since  his  author  Akutagawa.  the  is  appeal.  Tanizaki  principle The  conception  closeness  contemporary-  because  call  fantasy  narrative  with  sensations,  to  l i s t e n e r .  a  n i k k i ,  a  pleasure.  constantly  t e l l s  again,  interest  prefers  with  or  r o j i n  reader's  a  retreat  ukihashi,"  these  that  two  moves  r e f l e c t i o n  118  Tanizaki's an  elusive  ness  that  ethereal flows and  a  force  makes  of  his  that  structural an  upon  which  into  balance  interesting  Tanizaki's  and  l i v e l y  expressions,  manipulate in  the  hand,  other  i l l u s i o n s .  the  results  in  and  reader  nikki  uses  fancy,  toned It  Tanizaki  a  to  mind.  say,  helplessly  the  casual into  enhanced  by  by  a  world  the the  detached  consciously  of  view  of  to  a  the  l i f e  is  unway,  together  foundation While  refined a  style  narrator  to  create  ukihashi,"  create  on  further  manipulation both  the  narrator  Finally,  diary  Futen  writing  playground art  grasp  wonders.  order no  firm  and  employs  wherein  secret  by  a  double  use  fact--confirmed  wrote  of  to  of  that  solid  trapped.  form  this  fortunate  and  "Yume  this  a  works  in  illusions  reader  down is  u t i l i z e s  are  a  proof  viewpoints  pursuit  works.  "Shunkinsho"  dream-filled  off-guard  man's l y  a  in  energy,  appeal  shows  reader's  Needles^  energy  techninues  form  both  s e l f - s a c r i f i c e  career,  his  this  time  unrelenting  perhaps in  of  sensuous-  same  suffering,  they  "Shisei"  multiple  illusions  the  and  secret  work  this  pursuit  this  the  a r t i s t i c  sustain  maiden  ro.jin  an  plot,  at  Tanizaki's  narrative  his  the  defies  i n t e l l e c t u a l vacuum  with  to  Woman  Throughout  of  around  Beneath  trademark,  variety  theme—the  built  Eternal  translated  the A  force  death.  mistakably f i l l s  the  also  corporeal.  l i f e  is  consistent  beauty—is  and  even  most  motifs  to  of but  lure  an  old  clever-  r e a l i t y . author  entertain  the  himself—that reader.  119  Calling long  himself  mission with  result  Is  he  work  the It  an  a  i s  to  of  an  devotion  without  and  outstanding  prior  that  the  authority  Northrop  i s  Tanizaki  f i t t i n g  Criticism:  tains  s t o r y t e l l e r ,  fascinating l i t e r a r y  acknowledged  ding of  a  Frye,  Four to  r e a l i t y - p r i n c i p l e  what is  that  l i f e -  The  can  only  writer. word  should  l i t e r a r y  author  Essays,  this  pretense.  heritage  l a s t  in  pursued  of  "In  the  come  criticism.  from Accor-  famous  book  Anatomy  l i t e r a t u r e ,  what  enter-  instructs,  subordinate  or, to  as  the  we  may  say,  the  pleasure-prin-  •5  c i p l e . " just  for  This  statement  Tanizaki.  seems  to  have  been  formulated  120  NOTES  INTRODUCTION  1  Ito  (Tokyo:  S e i , "Tanizaki  Shinchosha,  J u n ' i c h i r o , "  1973),  v o l . XX,  i n  p.  Ito  S e i  — Zenshu  8.  p See Shincho  Hatano  Kanji,  "Sakka  editions,  Bunsho  s h i n r i g a k u nyumon  Shinchosha, ^ in  1953),  v o l . I l l , Chapter  Mishima Yukio,  Mishima Yukio  (Tokyo: ^  See Edward  ^  ^  ^  1950),  pp.  1966),  Fukuda (Tokyo: ^  1886-1965,"  1  1 2  1  ^  G.  Rokko  124.  pp.  J u n ' i c h i r o ,  (1966),  bungaku  445-455.  p.  262.  (Tokyo:  Asahi  Sentimental  v o l . 3 5 , no 4,  Zenshu  (Tokyo:  Chuo  J u n ' i c h i r o — h i t o  1966),  p.  Denki: 1972),  Kataoka,  483.  Koronsha,  21  Denki,  sakuhin  J u n ' i c h i r o ,  (1966),  Tanizaki p.  to  20.  "Tanizaki  Nipponica,  Shogo,  p.  My t r a n s l a t i o n .  Tanizaki  Shuppah,  Yoshikazu  21  t s u i t e , "  et a l .  p.  b y S e i d e n s t i c k e r i n same  Shogo,  See Nomura  Shoichi  "Tanizaki's  Seidensticker,  Translated 1 .  n i  "Tanizaki  Nipponica,  shoin,  Monumenta  Nomura (Tokyo:  Kiyoto,  Shimizu Edward  p.  159.  138-139.  Jun'ichiro  v o l . XXII,  (Tokyo:  p.  v o l . XXXII,  Tanizaki  Fowler,  Monumenta  Tanizaki  Saeki  Nipponica,  Konosuke,  2,  s h i n r i , "  Jun'ichiro  Seidensticker,  See Edward  Education,"  Ed.  1975),  Monumenta  Hinatsu  Shinbunsha,  "Tanizaki  Zenshu.  Shinchosha,  1886-1965,"  no bunsho  p.  253.  My t r a n s l a t i o n .  164.  Introduction  essay, —  Jun'ichiro  164. p.  253.  My t r a n s l a t i o n . to  Contemporary  121  Japanese  Literature  (Tokyo:  Introduction...  1939),  .  Kokusai  bunka  shinkokai,  :  14Kathleen Tanizaki p.  1979,  Merken,  J u n ' i c h i r o , "  "Evolution  Diss.  of  a  University  Narrative  A r t i s t :  of  B r i t i s h  Columbia  Some  Prefer  Nettles.  5.  15 Edward By  Tanizaki  Seidensticker,  J u n ' i c h i r o ,  (New  t r a n s . , York:  Knopf,  1955),  p.  37.  1 fs Anthony History  of  Knopf,  the  1982),  Chambers, Lord  p.  of  t r a n s . ,  Musashi  "Arrowroot"  in  Arrowroot  (New  and  The  Secret  York:  175.  17  Donald  and  Portraits  p.  175.  Keene, (Palo  Edward 1886-1965,"  "Tanizaki  Alto:  Kodansha  Seidensticker,  Monumenta  J u n ' i c h i r o , "  21  Landscapes  International,  "Tanizaki  Nipponica,  in  1971),  J u n ' i c h i r o ,  (1966),  p.  256.  1Q Murasaki Genji, of  11th  this  century).  great  sticker.  Shikibu,  novel  The  There  by  former  Modern  Library,  Knopf,  1976).  Genji are  Arthur  is  1960);  monogatari two  Waley  published and  the  by  (The  English and  l a t t e r  by  of  translations  Edward  (New  Tale  Seiden-  York: (New  The York:  20 This ground  that  nomination there  works  at  Water  (Honolulu:  p.  50.  that  was  time. The  however  not See  was  enough Gwenn  d i s q u a l i f i e d on  translation  Petersen,  University  Press  of  The  on  Tanizaki's  Moon  Hawaii,  the  in  the  1979),  122  CHAPTER  ONE  A l l works  discussed  lations "The  quotations  of  i n  Howard  Tattooer,"  1963),  p.  this  in  163.  5  I b i d . ,  p.  165.  ^  Tanizaki v o l . See  I,  are  This  from  Tales  translated the  trans-  comes  (New  from  York:  Knopf,  Zenshu,  — Ito S e i ,  Chuo  _ J u n ' i c h i r o , "  "Tanizaki  Shinchosha,  1973),  Hibbett,  v o l .  t r a n s . , -  Tanizaki  (Tokyo:  Koronsha,  70.  7 o  taken  quotation  Japanese  Jun'ichiro p.  Howard  6  Tanizaki's  162. p.  (Tokyo:  four  thesis  Seven  I b i d . ,  5  the  Hibbett.  2  1966),  from  p.  63.  My  Howard  Hibbett's  p.  "The  Zenshu  Sei  8.  Tattooer,"  p.  160.  —  Jun'ichiro  I b i d . ,  XX,  _ Ito  in  Zenshu,  v o l .  I,  p.  63.  translation.  q and  strength  were  one"  translation: (p.  160)  seems  "Everywhere  beauty  to  point.  miss  the  10  11  Howard  Hibbett,  Original Wu-Ch'eng-en Journey by  the  scene  to  Chinese  (circa  the  West  University c a n be  t r a n s . ,  found  t i t l e :  pp.  167-168.  Hsi  Yu  Chi,  1500-circa  1582).  The  is  Anthony  C.  of in  done  by  Chicago v o l .  Press  I l l ,  in  72  by  translation Yu,  1980.  Chapter  written  of  published This  erotic  the  trans-  l a t i o n .  12 1 5  —  _  T a n i z a k i J u n ' i c h i r o Zenshu, v o l . I, p. Howard H i b b e t t , t r a n s . , "The T a t t o o e r , "  70. p.  162.  123  1A to  the  Swann  Kinya  Tsuruta,  "The  Modern  Japanese  Short  and  1982),  Kinya  p.  1  ^  Tsuruta  Hell  Screen,"  Story,  (Tokyo:  in  edited  Waseda  Approaches  by  Thomas  University  E.  Press,  13.  Tanizaki  Jun'ichiro  Zenshu,  v o l .  I,  p.  64.  My  translation. 16 Howard  Hibbett,  t r a n s . ,  p.  163.  17 Even perfection" niku was  no a  has  translated for  hogyoku  jewel  Zenshu,  the  de  made  v o l .  I,  original, a t t a , "  out p.  of  Hibbett,  1 9  I b i d . ,  p.  164.  2  I b i d . ,  p.  165.  21  "This  "Kare  which  precious  was  totte  means,  "To  flesh."  t r a n s . ,  p.  sheer  wa  totoki  him,  (her  Tanizaki  foot)  Jun'ichiro  162.  — J u n ' i c h i r o Zenshu,  Tanizaki  n i  one  65.  Howard  0  l i n e ,  v o l .  I,  p.  65.  pp Ivan Stories  (Tokyo: 2  ^  Shadows," 1  t r a n s . ,  (Rutland,  Vermont  Matsumoto  Ryozo,  Hokuseido Gwenn  (Honolulu: 2 5  Morris,  1961),  Petersen,  University  Press  I b i d . ,  p.  Edward  Seidensticker,  by  Modern  Tuttle,  Literature p.  110.  The  Moon  of  in  Hawaii,  Japanese  1962),  p.  New  and  the  Water  1979),  p.  87.  Old  58.  59.  Tanizaki  (1954), p. 49. 2 7 Kathleen  i n  Tokyo:  Japanese  Press,  Boardman  The  and  "Tattoo,"  t r a n s . ,  J u n ' i c h i r o .  Merken,  "In  Japan  "Evolution  of  Praise  of  Quarterly, a  Narrative  A r t i s t :  124  Tanizaki 1979,  J u n ' i c h i r o , "  p.  Diss.  of  B r i t i s h  Columbia  14. Howard  Hibbett,  9  I b i d . ,  p.  168.  3 0  I b i d . ,  p.  162.  2  University  trans.,  p.  166.  31 Kathleen conclusion, is  (now)  "the  for  triumph  of  complete."  J u n ' i c h i r o , " Story,  Merken,  p.  in  See  example, the  victim  Kathleen  Approaches  to  states  the  over  Merken, Modern  that her  in  the  creator  "Tanizaki Japanese  Short  325.  32 Howard I b i d . ,  3 3  Hibbett, p. 168.  trans.,  p.  165.  34A l l from  Howard  167,  168. 35  the  quotations  Hibbett,  "Giving t i f u l , "  says  me  the  trans.,  your  g i r l .  Howard  Hibbett,  7  I b i d . ,  p.  169.  3 8  I b i d . ,  p.  168.  3 9  I b i d . ,  p.  166.  4  I b i d . ,  p.  168.  3  0  in  soul  this  paragraph  are  taken  "The  Tattooer,"  pp.  166,  must  have  Howard  Hibbett,  made  me  trans.,  trans.,  p.  169.  in  kuu  mushi,  very p.  beau168.  A 1  ^  As  sticker, 1965), 4 2  Kaname  trans.,  p.  muses Some  Tade  Prefer  Nettles  (New  101.  Howard  Hibbett,  trans.,  p.  169.  Edward York:  SeidenKnopf,  125  CHAPTER  TWO  A  Howard in  Seven  Japanese  2  I b i d . ,  3  Tanizaki  1966),  script  to  'A  Tanizaki's no 4 ,  ^  Kawade  Portrait  of  Shunkin,"  Knopf,  1963),  (Tokyo:  Chuo  p.  73.  My  of  to  translation.  i t s popularity the screen  i n the  at  with least  Introduction  Shunkin',"  kogo,"  Koronsha,  to  the five  times.  "Post-  h i s translation  Monumenta  general  Nipponica,  of v o l .  457.  I b i d . ,  p.  Jones  p.  6.  1952), i n  trans.,  Tanizaki  p.  191.  East  Jun'ichiro  The  "How T a n i z a k i  Hibbett,  "Postscript  to  'A  Por-  466.  Mitsuo,  Literature  Howard  p.  6.  Shunkin',"  Shobo,  trans.,  Chambers,  Nakamura  Reader," ^  adapted  Hibbett,  Sumie  Zenshu,  beside  Howard  of 8  by  555.  Chambers,  Anthony t r a i t  p.  "Shunkinsho p.  Portrait  (New Y o r k :  Jun'ichiro"  H.  "A  84.  has been  Anthony  trans.,  Tales  "Shunkinsho,"  reader,  35,  p.  v o l . XIII, ^  See  Hibbett,  Disarms  and West,  trans.,  1 0  I b i d . ,  p.  8.  1 1  I b i d . ,  p.  8.  1 2  I b i d . ,  p.  11.  1 3  I b i d . ,  p.  52.  ^  Edward  Seidensticker,  sentence  p.  18  Ron i s  the  (1974),  (Tokyo:  translated  Intellectual p.  328.  8.  "Tanizaki  Jun'ichiro,  126  1886-1965,"  Monumenta  Nipponica,  21  (1966),  p.  254.  15 Noguchi. Takehiko, Japanese  Literature  Columbia,  teaching  Seminar  in  material  the  for  University  the  of  Modern  B r i t i s h  1982-83.  16 The  Tanizaki J ' I c h i r o Zenshu, passage i s t r a n s l a t e d by Donald  and  Portraits,  p.  v o l . XXI, Keene, i n  p. 86. Landscapes  182.  17 Sumie Reader,"  p.  Jones,  "How  Tanizaki  Disarms  the  Intellectual  323.  18 Roy Shunkin,"  Humpherson  in  Hokuseido,  and  Ashikari  1936),  and  p.  Hajime the  Okita,  Story  of  "The  Story  Shunkin  of  (Tokyo:  164.  19 Howard  Hibbett,  0  I b i d . ,  p.  76.  2 1  I b i d . ,  p.  81-82.  2 2  I b i d . ,  p.  81.  2  23  p.  74.  * Andre  Gallimard, 2 4  trans.,  Gide,  1925),  La  p.  Symphonie  48.  120.  My  I b i d . ,  p.  My  Edward  Seidensticker,  Pastorale  (Paris:  translation.  translation.  25  Shadows," 2 6  Japan  Quarterly,  I b i d . ,  p.  Howard  Hibbett,  1  trans., (Oct/Dec  "In  Praise  1954),  p.  of 49.  50.  27  Anthony Portrait 29  of  trans.,  Chambers,  Shunkin',"  p.  p.  trans., 462.  45. "Postscript  to  'A  — — Hatano K a n j i , " S a k k a no bunsho s h i n r i , " Shincho e d i t i o n s , Bunsho s h i n r i g a k u nyumon, v o l . I l l , Chapter 2,  127  (Tokyo:  Shinchosha,  1953),  p.  161.  30 Sumie Reader,"  p.  Jones,  "How  Tanizaki  Disarms  the  Intellectual  325.  31 J  Howard  Hibbett,  Donald  Keene,  trans.,  32 and p.  Portraits  (Palo  "Tanizaki  Alto:  p.  74.  — J u n ' i c h i r o , "  Kodansha  3 4  Howard  Hibbett,  I b i d . ,  p.  69.  trans.,  p.  Landscapes  International,  172. 33  in  75.  1971),  128  CHAPTER  THREE  1 Quote  borrowed  Japanese  Tales  part,  v i .  p.  from  Howard  (New Y o r k :  Hibbett,  Knopf,  1963),  i n  Seven  Introduction  2 Howard in  Seven  Hibbett,  Japanese  t r a n s . ,  Tales,  p.  "The  Bridge  of  Dreams,"  106.  3  I b i d . ,  p.  109.  4  I b i d . ,  p.  119.  5  I b i d . ,  p.  107.  6  I b i d . ,  p.  105.  7  Howard  Hibbett,  t r a n s . ,  "The T a t t o o e r , "  Howard  Hibbett,  t r a n s . ,  "A  Hibbett,  t r a n s . ,  "The  p.  163.  Q  pp.  Howard  105. • 10  Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r , 1886-1965," Monumenta N i p p o n i c 11 — Nomura Shogo, T a n i z a k i (Tokyo: Rokko shuppan, 1974), 12 — See I t o S e i , " T a n i z a k i Zenshu  (Tokyo:  Shinchosha,  Bridge  Shunkin,"  of  Dreams,"  — "Tanizaki J u n ' i c h i r o , a , 21 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 2 5 9 . J u n ' i c h i r o no s a k u h i n p. 211. My t r a n s l a t i o n . — J u n ' i c h i r o , " i n Ito S e i  1973),  v o l . XX,  pp.  13  Modern  8-150.  See  Ueda  Japanese  (Stanford, pp.  of  44-45. ^  p.  Portrait  Makoto, Writers  C a l i f o r n i a :  "Tanizaki  J u n ' i c h i r o , "  and the Nature Stanford  of  i n  Literature  University  Press,  54-84. 1 4  Kathleen  Merken,  "The  Bridge  of  Dreams,"  i n  1976),  129  Approaches Thomas  E.  to  the  Swann  University  Modern  Japanese  and Kinya  Press,  1982),  Short  Tsuruta p.  Story,  (Tokyo:  edited  by  Waseda  333.  1s Gwenn  Boardman  Petersen,  ( H o n o l1 u6 l u : The U n i v e r s i t y Howard H i b b e t t p.  The  Press  of  Moon  i n the  Hawaii,  1979),  Water p.  73.  113. 17 18 19 20 21 22  I b i d . ,  p.  114.  I b i d . ,  p.  141.  I b i d . ,  p.  141.  I b i d . ,  p.  140.  I b i d . ,  p.  97.  Howard  Hibbett  translation. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 (New  Howard  Hibbett,  I b i d . ,  P.  140.  I b i d . ,  P-  124.  I b i d . ,  P.  137.  I b i d . ,  P.  138.  I b i d . ,  P.  139.  Edward  Seidensticker,  York:  Knopf,  1976),  trans.,  p.  p.  97.  trans., 1089.  The  Tale  of  Genji  130  CHAPTER  POUR  1 Suraie Reader,"  Jones,  "How T a n i z a k i  Literature  East  Disarms  and West.  18  the  (1974),  Intellectual p.  321.  2 Howard (New  York:  Hibbett,  Knopf,  trans.,  1965),  p.  Diary  of  a  Mad O l d Man  4.  •5  I b i d . , See I t o  4  Zenshu  p.  p.  5.  S e i ,  (Tokyo:  "Tanizaki  Shinchosha,  Howard  Hibbett,  ^  I b i d . ,  p.  6.  7  I b i d . ,  p.  10.  8  I b i d . ,  p.  20.  J u n ' i c h i r o , " 1973),  trans.,  i n  v o l . XX,  Diary  of  a  Ito  pp.  S e i  8-150.  Mad O l d M a n ,  163.  9 Hagiwara Distance  and Symbolism  Mountain) paper  and Futen  presented  Studies 1984,  Takao,  p. 1 0  at  at  "The Case i n Yama  ro.jin  nikki  of  no  Two  oto  the University  of  (The  (Diary  the Nitobe-Ohira  Old  of  Playboys: Sound  a  Mad O l d  Conference  B r i t i s h  of  Columbia  i n i n  the Man),"  Japanese Summer  24. I b i d . ,  p.  29.  11 Kathleen Tanizaki 1979,  1 2p . 13 14  Merken,  J u n ' i c h i r o , " 171. Howard  Hibbett,  Ibid  p.  27.  p.  28.  Ibid  • >  "Evolution  Diss.  of  University  trans  p.  26.  a of  Narrative B r i t i s h  Artist: Columbia  131  15 16 17 18  Ibid.,  p.  34.  I b i d . ,  p.  41.  I b i d . ,  p.  48.  I b i d . ,  p.  68.  19 Kawabata Yasunari  Zenshu  pp.  233-319.  ker  as  House  of  22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Modern  Shinchosha, is  Sleeping 1969). Hibbett,  translated Beauties  trans.,  b i j o , "  in  1969),  v o l .  by  Edward  (Japan:  Diary  of  Kawabata XI, Seidenstic-  Kodansha a  Mad  Old  Man,  I b i d . ,  P.  97.  I b i d . ,  P-  75.  I b i d . ,  P.  101.  I b i d . ,  P.  108.  I b i d . ,  P.  112.  I b i d . ,  P.  113.  I b i d . ,  P.  132.  I b i d . ,  P-  144.  Noriko  Mizuta  Japanese  Lippit,  Literature  Reality  (New  and  York:  Fiction  M.E-.  Sharpe,  in 1980),  92-93. 30 31 5 2  p.  work  "Nemureru  86. 21  pp.  (Tokyo:  The  I n t e r n2 0 ational, Howard p.  Yasunari,  Howard  Hibbett,  I b i d . ,  p.  Hagiwara  trans.,  p.  155.  144. Takao,  "The  Case  of  Two  19. 3 3  Howard  Hibbett,  trans.,  p.  161.  Old  Playboys,"  132  Original Wu-Ch'eng-en Journey by  the  scene  to  Chinese  (circa  the  West  University can  be  Hsi  Yu  Chi,  1500-circa  1582).  The  i s  Anthony  C.  of  found  t i t l e :  done  by  Chicago  in  v o l .  Press  I l l ,  in  Yu,  7  by  translation  1980.  Chapter  written  published This  of  exciting  the  translation.  35 p.  Howard  Hibbett,  I b i d . ,  p.  Donald  Keene,  trans.,  Diary  of  a  Mad  Old  Man,  147. 3 6  177.  37  _  and  Portraits  p.  184.  (Palo  "Tanizaki  Alto:  J u n ' i c h i r o , "  Kodansha  in  Landscapes  International,  38  — Edward  1886-1965."  Seidensticker,  Monumenta  "Tanizaki  Nipponica,  21  Jun'ichiro,  (1966),  p.  264.  1971),  133  CONCLUSION  -i  Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r ,  "Tanizaki  1886-1965," Monumenta Nipponica, 21  _  Jun'ichiro,  (1966), p.  249.  o  Donald Keene, " T a n i z a k i and  P o r t r a i t s (Palo A l t o :  p.  185.  J u n ' i c h i r o , " i n Landscapes  Kodansha I n t e r n a t i o n a l ,  Northrop Prye, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : (Princeton:  Princeton  1971),  Four Essays  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p.  75.  134  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Chambers, Anthony, t r a n s .  " P o s t s c r i p t to  of S h u n k i n ' . "  By T a n i z a k i  N i p p o n i c a , 35,  No.  . and  The  Jun'ichiro.  By T a n i z a k i  Monumenta  of the L o r d of Musashi  Jun'ichiro.  "Longing f o r Mother."  Jun'ichiro.  Also Afterword "Tanizaki's  Education."  Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , 35,  Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m :  Princeton:  Princeton  4  t o sakuhln $ Tokyo:  fF  M  ^>  ^ ^  %\  Vol. I l l ,  4,  I  •  m  nyumon  Knopf,  ^  \f  Sa  v  \L> V  New  ~T  /\  '1  159-166.  York:  Old Man.  Knopf,  By  1965.  By T a n i z a k i  Jun'ichiro.  1963. Tanizaki  .  .  Shincho e d i t i o n s .  D i a r y of a Mad  H i n a t s u , Konosuke. ")C  I  "Sakka no bunsho s h i n r i . "  Seven Japanese T a l e s .  York:  tfTj  K  .  Jun'ichiro.  1957.  1966.  Chapter 2, p p .  Tanizaki  Q  No.  Jun'ichiro—hito  if  4 &L  Howard, t r a n s .  ^_ ____ ^  -  f  Bunsho s h i n r i g a k u  7  Tanizaki  Pour E s s a y s .  Tanizaki  Shimizu shoin,  Hatano, K a n j i . ^  New  By  Sentimental  University Press,  4% /v  Fukuda,Kiyoto.  mm  York:  467-483.  Frye, Northrop.  Hibbett,  New  1982.  F o w l e r , Edward, t r a n s .  pp.  Portrait  457-466.  Secret History  Arrowroot.  Knopf,  4, pp.  'A  Tokyo:  A s a h i Shimbunsha,  bungaku 1950.  135  Humpherson, the  Roy and Hajime  Story  Tokyo: Ito,  Ito  Jun'ichiro"  1973.  Literature  pp.  —  V o l .  XX.  8-150.  Disarms  East  £  the  and West,  Intellectual 18  (1974),  321-329.  and  "Tanizaki  Portraits:  Palo 1971,  Alto,  J u n ' i c h i r o . "  Appreciations  California:  pp.  Noriko  Mizuta.  "Evolution  J u n ' i c h i r o . "  Columbia  1979.  and F i c t i o n  of  21  ni  tsuite"  £  In  Mishima  Yukio  Ed.  Saeki  Shoichi  ^  Diss.  jPl  Shinchosha,  .  h  o  1975,  U  " ~  et  pp.  445-455.  a l .  Tanizaki .  d<®  ron  of  B r i t i s h  Jun'ichiro -C  f  .  ^  "f^  Takehiko.  1980.  A r t i s t :  "Tanizaki  jjii  i&  Modern  Sharpe,  University  ~kf  Zenshu ^4.  M.E.  i n  a Narrative  J? fclL %^  Yukio.  Noguchi,  Culture.  International,  New Y o r k :  Tanizaki  Tokyo:  Landscapes  Japanese  Kodansha  Reality  Literature.  Kathleen.  Mishima,  of  In  171-185.  Japanese Merken,  and  Jun'ichiro.  .  "How T a n i z a k i  Donald.  Lippit,  "Tanizaki  Shinchosha,  Reader."  Keene,  By T a n i z a k i  Ashikari  S e i Zenshu  Sumie.  pp.  trans.  1936. .  $L  Tokyo: Jones,  Shunkin.  Hokuseido,  S e i . In  of  Okita,  Tokyo:  V o l .  XXXII.  Jun'ichiro Chuo  koronsha,  1970. Nomura,  Shogo.  d  .  Denki:  Tanizaki  Jun'ichiro  136  Tokyo: shuppan,  1972. Tanizaki  Jun'ichiro Tokyo:  Petersen,  Gwenn  Boardman.  Honolulu:  The  Seidensticker, 1965."  G.  Monumenta  Japan  Tokyo:  Zenshu  Chuo  the  Modern  and  Kinya. Tsuruta.  Ueda,  Makoto. of  Yu,  Anthony en.  "The  C ,  Hell  Japanese  Jun'ichiro,  1886-  (1966),  pp.  of  Shadow;."  1,  No.  1  249-265. By  Tanizaki  (1954),  .  Tanizaki  1966-68. Screen."  Short Tokyo:  In  Story.  Approaches  Ed.  Waseda  Thomas  to  E.  University  Swann Press,  11-19. Modern  Literature.  University  1979.  ^"^J yPsH  koronsha,  Kinya.  pp.  Water.  Hawaii,  ~~ £ f ^  Tsuruta,  1982,  1974.  '  J u n ' i c h i r o . %  Jun'ichiro  the  of  21  Quarterly,  sakuhin shuppan,  in  Press  Praise  46-52.  Tanizaki,  Moon  Nipponica, "In  no  Rokko  "Tanizaki  trans.  Jun'ichiro.  The  University  Edward  ,  pp.  Rokko  Japanese Stanford,  Press,  1976.  trans.  Journey  Chicago:  The  Writers  and  the  C a l i f o r n i a :  to  University  the of  Nature  Stanford  West. Chicago  By  Wu  Press,  Ch'eng1980.  


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