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Mending the web : a thematic study of Xu Dishan’s fiction Bailey, Catherine Diana Alison 1985

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MENDING THE WEB: A THEMATIC STUDY OF XU DISHAN'S FICTION By CATHERINE DIANA ALISON BAILEY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1977 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department o f A s i a n  Studies)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1984  ° C a t h e r i n e Diana A l i s o n B a i l e y , 1984  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this for  an  available  that  in  partial  advanced degree  Columbia,  I  agree  for  understood  that  financial  by  his  or  reference  and  study.  I  extensive  her  shall  V6T 1Y3  DE-6 (3/81)  by  the  publication  not  be  allowed  Columbia  of  make  further this  thesis  head o f  representatives.  o  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada  copying of  granted  the  University shall  permission.  Department  the  Library  copying or  gain  at  of  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e or  fulfilment  that  permission for  department  for  thesis  It  this  without  my  is thesis my  written  i i  Abstract This  thesis  Twentieth  Century  (1894-1941). reference the  to the  to  a  His  the  personal whole  work  web  importance - h e was  on  of  modern  China.  working  for  a  the  Chinese  synthesis and  based  on  Western  duty  giveness  and  and,  universal  Xu s  stress  1  him  out  from  who  advocated  try  to  Xu,  a  on  the  provide  wholesale  true  of  to and  to  Xu  mend  promoted than  the  stresssed  the  framework  a moderator  searching  rooted  values  his  social  in  both  upheld  charity  and  in  for-  solutions  iconoclastic change.  comparative  background  from  contemporary  show  spiritual  and  his  solution  oneself.  historical  to  a  given  The  calmly,  an  relation  of  - one must f o l l o w one' s c o n s c i e n c e ,  personal  majority  a  a  changing  rather  values  traditions.  responsibility  a b o v e a l l be  work  He  within  once  attempt  salvation  society.  Huasheng)  in a  for  h i s own  early  indication  values  his  the  i s at  an  search  In  change  h i s f i c t i o n are uncompromising  he  and  of  (Luo  Web,"  a r e f o r m e r , not a r e v o l u t i o n a r y ,  for  accept  -  individual  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of of  Xu  modest  society  work  Dishan the  by  his  and  Xu  the  spiritual  represents a  solutions  scale  story  placed  of  of  "Mending  specific he  study  writer  t i t l e ,  dislocation  broken  thematic  Chinese  The  importance  world.  is a  writers  In  contemporaries Chapter  ideological which and  to the  marks  One,  context  examine times  I  for  him  in  in  which  a  sense  lived. The  value  Xu  placed  on  a  unifying  framework,  or  i i i of  order  where  to  I  discuss  mythopoeic I  look  and  replace his  the  message of  his  for  inform  quest  of  i s made  quest  modes w h i c h  at  analysis  chaos,  which  stories, and  values  i n Chapter  and  the  influence  concentrating  "A  Daughter's  his  I  examine  emphasis  an  on  a  affirmation  for  particular  the  structure  primarily  Heart"  influence  strongly  of  life  of  moral  and  Christianity vision  the  and  an  on  an  based  on  his  individual's  on  Northrop  Xu's  work,  search  for  potentiality  goodness. In  Chapter  Three  fate  in relation  acts  in his  coincidence  is  concept  responsible  Xu  believed o f an  have  acts  of  coincidence  small,  and  actions.  A  or  individual  work,  test  a  motif  good.  vital  providing  a  A  which  element  whereby  an  strong  framework  in  this  individual accordingly.  to  make  moral  for  The  a testing  t o work w i t h i n g i v e n  f o r the  and  for action.  responsibility  still  life  thus provides  requital,  has  to  the  limits grammar  judging  the  characters.  Chapter  Four  I look  t o embody h i s p h i l o s o p h y represent  the  attitude  f o r h i s o r h e r a c t i o n s and i s j u d g e d  an  Xu's  Xu's  c a t a l y s t and  baoying  influence  of h i s In  a  of  unknown f a t e , b u t  an  informs  h i s use  characters'  is  best  analyse  makes t h e w o r l d  for  the  to  I  s t o r i e s as  ground  to  the  and  In  e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f t h e "monomyths" o f J o s e p h C a m p b e l l and Frye.  Two,  romance  much o f h i s w o r k .  themes  "Yuguan"  apparent  Xu's  ideals  a t Xu's  of l i f e . in  their  use  of  Women l i k e most  female  protagonists  Yuguan and  specific  form,  Chuntao  embodying  iv that and  sense  offering  vision  of l i f e  In Xu's  an  equally  o f human  as i t c o u l d  spiritual  values  was  His fiction  themes  touch  on  i s deeply  moral  formation  to that  almost  a  among  was  o f t h e human  advocated  change, but s t r e s s e d  ually,  through  scale,  before  was m o d e s t  being  a  yet profound,  c a n be and f i l l e d  ideas  and for a  h i s con-  radical social  trans-  framework.  i n the  innate  f o r the better.  i tmust f i r s t  transformed. with  that  as were  the development of self-knowledge, the world  of  searching  believing  t o change that  of  the e x i s t i n g  solutions,  and  Xu's c o n c e r n  writers  fiction He  within  in  of h i s contemporaries  unique  dominate.  t o work  f o r personal  optomistic  of morality  f o ra purpose.  d i d not suggest  but rather  looked  capacity  b u t he  work  i n orientation  to the d i s l o c a t i o n of h i s society,  temporaries,  t o Xu's an  the role  i s primarily  and messages  central  be.  I  H i s work  so  potentiality,  engaged i n w r i t i n g f i c t i o n  solution  He  and hope  interesting contrast  period. his  models  the conclusion  fiction.  offers  for  of affirmation  hope.  come  He  individ-  on a  modest  His solution  Table of  Contents  Abstract  i  v±  Acknowledgements Chapter  One:  Introduction: Chapter  28  F a t e and S y n c h r o n i c i t y  S p r i n g P e a c h t o Autumn Chrysanthemum: Women i n X u D i s h a n ' s F i c t i o n  70  102  Five: The C o n s o l i n g P l o t  132  One:  Xu D i s h a n : Appendix  1  Four:  Conclusion: Appendix  Tales  Dark Road: L i f e ,  From  Chapter  F o u r t h Movement and Xu D i s h a n  Three:  The Chapter  T h e May  Two:  A Traveller's  Chapter  i  A Brief  Biography  139  Two:  Glossary FB io bo lt in oo gt re as p h y  149 153 203  Acknowledgements Firstly Duke  like  years me I  on one o f t h e t r a i l s would  also  like  f o r her inspired  I  also  am  support  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  Chao  his  t o t h a n k my a d v i s o r P r o f e s s o r  f o r a l l h i s generous  two set  I would  advice  very  f o r t h e word f o r Xu  teaching  and s y m p a t h e t i c  my  the  "mythopoesis"  last which  and  gratitude to Professor unfailing  to Professor help  over  Dishan.  t o express  grateful  I am i n d e b t e d  and guidance  Michael  d u r i n g my  generosity.  Pulleyblank time  f o r  a l l  a t U.B.C.  t o t h e A s i a n S t u d i e s D e p a r t m e n t a t U.B.C. f o r  g e n e r o u s l y p r o v i d i n g me w i t h f u n d i n g a n d a p l e a s a n t a n d s u p p o r t i v e environment Lastly, for  f o r study. but not l e a s t ,  a l l h i s wise  could  shortcomings  I  take  t o thank  Andrew L a r i g a k i s  and f o r " s y n c h r o n i c i t y . "  n o t have been w r i t t e n w i t h o u t Naturally  and  counsel  I wish  full  t o be found  thesis  h i s support.  responsibility i n this  This  thesis.  f o r a l l errors  Chapter One:  Introduction:  The Hay Fourth Movement and Xu Dishan There  i s a tendency  among p e o p l e  writing  about  t h e May  F o u r t h p e r i o d t o r e f e r t o a "May F o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n " 1 , c h a r a c t e r izing turn  that generation of the Twentieth  o f men  and women who were b o r n  c e n t u r y , grew up d u r i n g t h e e a r l y  o f t h e R e p u b l i c , became a c t i v e at  the time  been u n t i l i n both  Dishan  made  attempt  2  ( 1 8 9 4 - 1 9 4 1 ) was a member  him u n i q u e l y  an o v e r v i e w  ificance, present  Dishan than  different.  particularly  On fits  simply  into  In t h i s  the category  chronologically,  for discussion i n later  I shall o f May  chapter  front,  as i t were,  of this  generation, others I  shall  movement and i t s s i g n -  on t h e c u l t u r a l  picture,  the basis  of that  and y e t p o s s e s s i n g  o f t h e May F o u r t h  a composite  writer.  o r have  r e c e n t l y i n p o s i t i o n s o f power and i n f l u e n c e  s h a r i n g many o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that  years  and p o l i t i c a l l y  movement and a r e s t i l l  t h e P.R.C. and T a i w a n .  Xu  intellectually  o f t h e May F o u r t h very  at the  and t r y t o  o f a May  then  Fourth  and e s t a b l i s h  Fourth  e x a m i n e how Xu writer, certain  other themes  chapters.  The May F o u r t h Movement d e r i v e s i t s name f r o m a d e m o n s t r a t i o n staged 1919  by B e i j i n g  i n protest  students against  and p r o f e s s o r s  the government's  o n May  Fourth,  acquiescence  in  J a p a n ' s T w e n t y - o n e Demands and t h e V e r s a i l l e s ' T r e a t y ' s Shandong resolution.3 protests  The i n c i d e n t g a l v a n i z e d a s e r i e s o f  and a c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e p r o f o u n d l y 1  country-wide  anti-imperialist  in  nature  and  stimulated  already  incipient  n a t i o n a l i s m , the d e s i r e f o r modernization, reforms of  the  felt of  and  today the  and  late  include  the  i t s antecedents  rise  of  of  of  the  of  traditional  it  values,6  to  an  responsible  for  the  i n the v e r n a c u l a r encompasses  a  wide  many o f w h i c h h a d for  China's  opinions  expression therefore  of  coincided  new  cultural  Furth were  of  of  The  efforts  contributions  movements,  decline a  new  ideas  the the  and  rebirth  rejection  intelligentsia,  and  the  stimulus  cultural  movement  a  modern  literature  Movement,  therefore,  truly  May  Fourth  trends,  defines being  already  with  and  movement  Westernization.^ scholar  the  activities  e a r l i e r a n t e c e d e n t s and  and gave  which  and  was  thought,  tremendous i m p l i c a t i o n s  part extra  i t s links  than  as  a  dynamic  rather  the  something  the with  of  an  prior  to  static  a  reform a or  was  process.  drive  tradition  new  a  in  movement  evolving  movement more as radically  as  The  impetus classic  movement,  than  sentiments.8  against  to characterize  tendencies"  i t  moulded,  held  transitional  It  one  creation  of  reform  s t i l l  future.  Charlotte which  existent  range  the  effects  are  (Nationalist Party),  Western  language.?  The  chief  labour  emergence of  of  already  to  Its  Party,  the  dominance  back  5  and  Guomindang  Communist  increasing  date  towards  intellectual  i t s reverberations  century.  student  the  Chinese  gave  manifold,  Nineteenth  organization  the  were  s o c i a l and  anti-traditionalism.4  increasing  movement  trends  for  a  and  for  trends  led  "culmination different.10  It  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  and  the  significance  underplayed,  the dominant  of  the  May  in  the  rise  towards  has  as  she  it  as  had  of  and  entered  the  and  aspirations."13 t h e May  antecedents,  of  at  phenomenon  the  May  trends  there between  Fourth  China's  tradition,  May  were,  very  and  their  Fourth  the t r a d i t i o n  stuck  in  China  defines  the world a  which  movement  who  hopes,  given  case  i n the and  replace  at while  totally  great during  the  within  while  products  manner  i t with  end  recog-  t o work  phrase,  impatient  a  active  older generation,  generation,  visions  i t s historical  predecessors  attempted  that  Chinese  f o r seeing  became  of  has  Meisner  considered  i n L i n Yu-sheng's  them,  march  Republic  change  new  be  change,  still  seeking  to reject  to  strong  The  i c o n o c l a s t s , 15  the  name  h e r and  rise  the generation  problems,  the  i t s role  and t h e minds o f modern  radical  century.  to  People's  Maurice  upon  been  conflicts  and  enormous  movement c a n n o t  i s a  and  party  directed against  giving  movement  The  of  has  Marxism-Leninism  emphasis  the  world.  impinged  heralding  t r a d i t i o n . 14 that  t u r n i n g points-l-  debates  given  of  time  was  large,  Fourth  the Nineteenth  nizing  a  the doors of China  world  the  Communist  modern  and  the  differences  earlier  qualifications,  that  China  of  founding  these  to  new  of  has  Chinese  the  movement  opened  If  out  to represent  'opened'  truly  role  movement  the  Despite come  "a  the  ideology  Fourth  1949  China.12  of  as a p i v o t a l  p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e emergence o f  as  and  been regarded  the of  conscious typical  to  alternatives  usually  based  science of a  and  modern  on  Western  democracy,  Western  and  intellectuals f i l l  the  active  describes  i t as,  it  a  and  spirit  had  century with  the  lost.  ways  pendence  of nor  new,  not  become  imperialist and  confidence  since to  despite  a  been  they the  members  the  of  the  and  nation.  half  Attempts  successful in powers succeeded 1911  waiting in  to  cut  improving  revolution  and  the  a  to  desire  tradition.  dethrone  and  also  to  during her  replace  said,  jettison  China."18  and  dynastic  the  Nineteenth  confrontation world  view  and  to  elite  reform China her the  gain and  from up  was  systems had  Nineteenth and  "The  tradition  save  values  the  freeing  by  to  Chinese  at  "isms",  discarded  the  aspects  e n r i c h China  for  attempt  intellectual of  demand  movement,  to  traditional  latter  strengthen  as  in  source  the  d e c l i n e and The  on  of  He  discredited  powers.  the  tradition  i t s Confucian  internal  to  of  civilization  greatly  China's  imperialist had  primarily  and  account  m o v e m e n t . . . was  be  numerous  rejection  fervent  stress  the  point  culture."I?  modern  of  up  the o l d stagnant new  the  Concerned  searching  had  a  with  shattered  for  of  tradition,  rule,  of  taken  important and  to  the  movement  their  vast  completely  create  The  by  "a  fundamentals  basic  the  Fourth  believed  direction;  in his  the very with  in  May  symptomatic  examined,  left  Tse-tung,  The  they is  China's  creeds  vacuum  Chow  which  p o w e r , 16  r e - e v a l u a t i o n of  ideologies  models.  been  century her  inde-  revolution the  like  internal  presence a  melon,  situation,  establishment  of  the  Republic.  The  division  pattern  of  and  demands  the  other The  the  of  China  gentry-led for  armies  Chinese  powers were s o u r c e s  within given not  i n i t i a l l y  the to  the  outlast  the  that  stages  of  repudiation  of  and  opposition  were  remain  the  most  v i c t o r y of  Chow and  after  movement and the  as  a  May  their  in May  the  "dividing  line  Fourth  rejection  phenomenon  of  as  world  from  era."  history."23  consciously  2 1  marking  rejected  factions  cohesiveness did  the  for  desire  encroachment  in  in  -  the  a  rise  and  the  the  was  change" ^ 2  characterizes  intellectual, China  previous  the  which  became  movement as of that  Confucian  May  tradition  colorful  historical  history  Fourth with  from  characterizes  "a u n i q u e  Chinese  marks  iconoclasm,  most  Yu-sheng  the  significant  generation  "the  in  cultural  [which]  phenomenon o f  Lin  2 2  argues  "fundamental  p e r h a p s the most  perspective  the  was  He  modern  And  off  Fourth  Lin  there  sociopolitical  of  movement."  the  factors  Fourth  patriotism  imperialist  that  line  history  t h e i c o n o c l a s m o f t h e May phenomenon  May  the by  and  humiliation.  the  that  movement.  tradition,  the  off  others,  Japanese  and  treatyl^,  to  and  counterparts  of  and  the  C.C.P.  Fourth  i n i t i a t i o n o f a new  the  movement  significant  intellectual  the  true  the  considers  sociopolitical  factor  the  Tse-tung  thorough  China  the  by  sparked  the  unity  eventual  Guofan  discontent  i t is  national to  Zeng  following  a l l potentially divisive  While  early  of  great  united  movement.  warlords  territory  of  n a t i o n a l i s t sentiments  incident  by  as  well  intellectuals a  totalistic  iconoclasm  ironically  classical  Confucian  intellectual-moral priority  mode  factor  responsible  gentsia  gave  priority  meant  that  rejected  and v a l u e s from  argues  in  China,  which  the  vital  function  with for  that  t h e May change"  which  had held  linked  all  between the  an  t o modern linking  traces  change.  societies  of Social  a r e marked  with  They  Darwinism  the  and m o d e r n i t y  of achieving  a  future.  mode o f t h i n k i n g stress  on  coupled "ideology  of the Universal  Kingship  Chinese  tradition.  by  a s an  and c u l t u r a l  could  of  In general,  t o the Confucian  order  They  strongly  intellectuals  not consider  t o t h e new b e c a u s e  of that  possibility  order.  holism  system  o f t h e human c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r m i n d , view  change  had t o be  monistic  the past  back  t o be  intelli-  or cultural  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  the p o l i t i c a l  tradition  iconoclasm  the tradition  equally  and t h e c o l l a p s e  the tradition aspects  t o monism  total:  together, predisposed  totalistic from  with  the cultural he  t h e most  Ideas a r e fundamental  a new i n t e l l e c t u a l  Fourth  2 7  considers  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  change.  tendency  elements  Lin  and  2  traditional  transitional  and t h e "power  a p p r o a c h " ^ whereby Chinese  h a d t o be  and r e p l a c e d  thoughts changes  change  the  Fourth  to cultural  the traditional  "a p o s t -  stressed  He  5  f o r May  over s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and economic and  2  by  which  2 4  o f t h e mind  ideas."  "cultural-intellectual  influenced  of thinking"  function  of fundamental  crucial the  and d e c i s i v e l y  a  a  sharp  and i n t h e p r o c e s s "creative  seek  transition  they consciously made  to  rejected dichotomy rejected  transformation  of  f  ' Chinese t r a d i t i o n " . 2 8 However, Fourth  L i n stresses  intellectual  that  thought  was  traditional  mode  of thinking  and  even  today.29  persists  rejection the  and u n c o n s c i o u s  instability  that  s c i o u s n e s s ."30 favour  and  moral  and,  totalism  call  values  was  t h e breakdown  thinking  people,  were  completely.31  seem  the  a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m o f t h e May F o u r t h  belief  Confucianists. his  training  weapon that  traditional Lu Xun,  to reject  certain  iconoclastic Fourth  A s t r o n g sense o f n a t i o n a l  i t s total  smooth a c c e p t a n c e  on  intellectual  f o r c e o f t h e May  tradition  The  fundamentally  Secondly,  the  for totally  con-  particularly  to require a p o s i t i v e  r a t h e r than  marks  of Chinese  of the  unable  and n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e d r i v i n g  would  conscious  f o r Westernization i n  tradition  movement, made u n e a s y b e d f e l l o w s . identity  between  "the c r i s i s  Fourth  I b e l i e v e , Xu D i s h a n ,  traditional  imbalance  the  maintained  r e t e n t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n  survived  and c e r t a i n  o f May  different,  F i r s t l y , many t r a d i t i o n a l e l e m e n t s ,  values,  framework  radically  This  of the d i s c r e d i t e d  shaky ground.  the content  was u n c o n s c i o u s l y  L i n terms  The May  while  r e - e v a l u a t i o n of  rejection.  Furthermore,  movement d i d n o t make  of foreign ideology.  i n t h e power  of ideas  was n o t l i m i t e d  to  L u Xun i s famous f o r h i s d e c i s i o n t o abandon i n medicine  and t a k e  i n attacking the i l l s  was C h i n a .  T h e May  up h i s p e n t o a c t a s a  besetting the diseased  Fourth  a l l , t o "Save C h i n a " a n d , g i v e n t h e i r  generation  organism  wanted,  above  cultural-intellectualistic  mode  of thought,  through  changing  concludes  because  felt  that  t h e May  Fourth  revolution  i t was  based  on  i t precipitated  transformation,  1905  The  been  i t was  was  the major  t h a t many  but  a  l i t e r a t i  they  had  strong  this  sense  Lee  with  May  given  a  of  intellectual  "of primary  awakening  and  intellectuals."  system  Fourth  3 2  Twentieth  had ended i n  and g o v e r n m e n t movement  strata  change  i n  that  had  saw  a  politics  "literature  intellectuals"33 through  Goldman's  words  a  >  literary  May  Fourth  against their Confucian heritage,  i t because  responsibility  they  believed  to lead."34  and t h e l i t e r a t u r e  that They  produced  as had  during  this.  suggests  that  t h e May  s o much a t t e n t i o n  t h e New  "an  that  the fact  about  In Merle  of mission  not have a t t r a c t e d linked  The  to bring  part  period reflects Leo  was  examination intellectuals  "were r e b e l l i n g  were  Tse-tung  intellectual  l e d by  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l  seek  they  a  between  revolution.  intellectuals  Chow  sense,  profession of the traditional  should  achieved  essentially  intellectual  i t was  not surprising,  cultural  was  be  had begun t o emerge i n t h e e a r l y  involvement  and  or  a mainly  temporarily severed.  renewed  only  f o r [the]...task of modernization,  old imperial  and t h e l i n k s  movement  the assumption  and because  A new i n t e l l i g e n t s i a century.  could  i n the broad  changes were a p r e r e q u i s i t e because  this  t h e minds o f t h e Chinese people.  that  intellectual  many  Incident  would  had i t n o t been so c l o s e l y  C u l t u r e movement  i m p o r t a n c e . " 35  Fourth  i n which  Chen  Duxiu  New  Literature  a n d Hu  S h i had  b e e n p r e s s i n g s i n c e 1 9 1 6 f o r a new l i t e r a r y m o v e m e n t . Chinese the  was  vernacular  sively in  claimed  and  not  (baihua)  fiction  until  Madman"  dead  While  prior  1918, w i t h  language  to  t h e New  a  of  the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a to write i n i t .  in  student  began the  the spread papers  using  May  officially  as  the primary  was  the argument  later for  by  used Qu  being  a  by  that May  Qiubai, 'mule'  a  acceptable  1921  Fourth  g  hybrid  Yat-sen  n  been  after  accepted while  for i t s adoption education, was  critic of  u  Ironically,  intellectuals  a  i t s use  written  i t had  f a c i l i t a t e  leading Marxist  language,  f o r members  through  f o r pushing  i t would  "Diary  T h e May F o u r t h I n c i d e n t  6  language.38  motivations  used  movement, i t  o f Lu Xun's  i n h i s articles by  aggres-  had been  the country.37  and  the national  of  3  t h e use of  pushed  Culture  the vernacular  throughout  Incident  one  vernacular  of  socially  the vernacular  Fourth  was b e i n g  the publication  i t became  and  the vernacular  of  facilitated  that  a  in literature  effectively.  popular  was  t o be  Classical  the  c r i t i c i z e d  and  ideologue,  classical  sayings  and  f o r e i g n words t o t a l l y u n f a m i l i a r t o i t s supposed  audience.39  (It  h a s t o be remembered t h a t o v e r  population  was  illiterate  the  use of  Butterfly the  former  privileged the  latter,  at this  time.)  the vernacular fiction enjoyed  however,  May  f a r wider  m i n o r i t y who  read  with  Perry  4 0  Link  i n the popular  pre-dated a  80% of the Chinese  Fourth  audience  and wrote  i t s sense  May  points  Mandarin  out  that  Ducks  and  literature. than  the  Fourth  of mission  While limited,  literature,  and  emphasis  on  serious  tide  of  messages,  nationalism  The  May  student  began  t o take  engendered  Fourth  movement  and  Studies  in  and p l a y e d  1921  and  the  rising  the Sino-Japanese the formation  of The  war.41  numerous two  most  s o c i e t i e s , the Association f o r  the Creation a major  with  organizations.  influential  Literary  by  saw  s o c i e t i e s and l i t e r a r y  significant  precedence  role  i n t h e 1920's.  Society,  were  both  i n expressing  formed  and d i r e c t i n g  literary  currents  Studies,  o f w h i c h X u D i s h a n was o n e o f t w e l v e f o u n d i n g m e m b e r s ,  others  o f whom  included  and  Pingbo,  a l l major  on  Yu  January  4th 1921.  4 2  Mao  The A s s o c i a t i o n  Dun,  May  Zheng  Fourth  Zhenduo,  some  under  Mao  A week l a t e r  o f t h e most  period.  Dun's  important  Zhou  f i g u r e s , was the Short  ( X i a o s h u o Yuebao) , once an e s t a b l i s h e d B u t t e r f l y appeared  f o rLiterary  the Association's  and  fiction  the early  of  t h e revamped  1)  To e n c o u r a g e  manifesto  magazine unity  published  three  among  began  of  3) t o e s t a b l i s h a u n i o n  The  manifesto  labor,  May  2)  which  also  of writers.44 stated  and a form o f l a b o r  Association  advocated  very  that,  Fourth  magazine.  i n the f i r s t  out :  knowledge  translation)  Zhou Zuoren "Literature  significant  issue  laid  t o advance  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y of foreign countries through extensive  this  publishing  p r i n c i p l e s were  writers;  magazine  publication,43  A l l Xu D i s h a n ' s e a r l y w o r k s a p p e a r e d i n t h i s  In  and  inaugurated  Story  editorship of  Zuoren  drafted  i s a  form  f o r humanity."45  ' A r t f o r L i f e ' s Sake'  o r , i n Chow's  w o r d s , "a l i t e r a t u r e b a s e d on i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m . " 6 4  In  fact,  the definition  of  this  "amorphous  truism"  4  7  was  decidedly in  vague  their  the  and  Association  opinions.48  Zhou  'Art f o r Life's  role  of  t h e human  over  beauty,  Sake' being  ascribing  members  Zuoren,  slogan,  were  not  the major  put stress  i n literature  to literature  uniform  advocate  on  of  the c e n t r a l  and advocated the moral  'Truth'  function  of  promoting c e r t a i n i d e a l s and tending  to undervalue the aesthetic  element.49  novelist  also  deeply  humanity society, and  Mao  Dun,  concerned  from  linked  realism  with  fact,  associated  of not ' L i f e '  fiction  should  humanity  at large.  exception  (and  image  succeeded  Nineteenth associated  with  disguise. that  emphasize later  5  members  works  of  their  he  have  mirror  self  and l e s s  that  true  realist  models,  objective  name  experiences  the accolade  concepts  to write based  were  this  In fact, from  perhaps  most  i n i t s later 5  romantic,  was  fiction  corroborates  many  accounts  attempt  but that  became  that  with  Dun  Sake' s c h o o l  naturalism. 1  earned  Mao  of  thoughts  subjective  d i d consciously  Tse-tung  and  a  were more w i t h a  of the Association  realism  be  s o much a s t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l  European  Chow  and  Leo Lee argues  writing  t h e ' A r tf o rL i f e ' s 0  literature  the Association's  i t were  i n writing)  century  was  o f an o m n i s c i e n t ,  Lee suggests  i n that  c r i t i c ,  a wide range o f events,  and n a t u r a l i s m , with  and  between  t h o u g h t s , and t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n s  the  out  while  i n general  individualistic  in  that  the viewpoint  In  of  the l i n k  objectively recording  narrator.  and  with  and b e l i e v e d  actions  writers  t h e famous  on  writers  romantics  but  points  period d i d Xu  Dishan's  P.R.C.  critics  that  he  was  moving  his  premature  the  Association  an  5  to  3  China, to  the l i t e r a t u r e  as  "an  the  the  logical  to realism  terms  prior  to  the contributions  of  were  to give  as an h o n o r a b l e , theories  describes  professional  and  school,  function  of protest  of  and  of  and  into  to give  of exposing  blood  voca-  literature  the l i t e r a t u r e  'literature  literature  voice  society's  this  period  tears',  of the Chinese  which  intelligentsia  5 4  other  Creation  broad  and t h e moral  the s p i r i t  The  n  Western  Tse-tung  time."  j  2  road  of the r e a l i s t  indigenous  reflected  5  position  introduce  Chow  the correct  f o r L i t e r a r y Studies  particularly  ills.  of  death.  unprecedented  t i o n ,  on  'spirit'  Society,  of  which  the was  time  was  t o undergo  romanticism, a  series  m e t a m o r p h o s e s , was i t s p r i m a r y a d v o c a t e .  of  and ideo-  Their  slogan,  the Association  to set  0  'Art  f o r Art's  Sake',  up  i t s own  in  1921 by a g r o u p  Society  opposing  rejected  had  one,  prompted  ' A r t f o r L i f e ' s Sake'.  of writers  studying  utilitarian  notions  promoted t h e development and d i s c o v e r y of  beauty  of  personal  in  1925 t h e members  ized, and that and  and  f e e l i n g s . "  adopting  later,  perfection 5  and  an  After  5  of the Society  firstly  the slogan  the r o l e of  an i d e a l i s t i c ,  literature. ^ 5  of art's  the  Creation  function  and  of the s e l f ,  the pursuit  "unrestricted  expression  t h e May  Thirtieth  Incident  became i n c r e a s i n g l y of 'revolutionary  'proletarian literature',  they preserved  i n Japan,  Established  b u t Qu  Qiubai  radical-  literature' maintained  romantic a t t i t u d e t o Marxism  Yu  Dafu,  Society,  a  once  major  wrote  writer  that,  F o u r t h movement l a y , f i r s t personality."  of Modern  revolution  i n Twentieth  against  "the g r e a t e s t  romantic  ritualization  Chinese  i n that  structuring  emphasis  sincerity,  and  the release of individual s u b j e c t i v e human Lee  believes  of  likens  of  i t "represented  l i f e .  a  past  or  i t sn a t i v e  Both  ushered  demands  the total  imagination  i n short, the  movement  i n China  plunges  experience  self-assertive  t r a d i t i o n , " i n both  release  the individual i n order  5  9  and  the throes  the state  cano o f l o v e .  energies  for  love, truth  tive,  spirits  and beauty,  individual  of  against which, love,  convention  of subjective  life  ecstatic  on a v e r i t a b l e  released through  the  volPro-  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e s e a r c h  and t h e p r i m a r y  sentiment.  at the  and p h y s i c a l  of frenzied,  generation lived  methean and D i o n y s i a n  individual  efforts  the r e s t r i c t i o n s  into  infused  Dionysianism,  a b a n d o n . " 6 0 T h e May F o u r t h The d y n a m i c  primacy  was  i n rebellion  spiritual  from  to attain  in a  5  potentialities  force  reaction  and e n e r g i e s . " * *  the romantic  human  orthodoxy  "with  and  of  century  schematization,  passion,  energies  sentiments  literary  to the Nineteenth  spontaneity,  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and  realization  May  Romantic  the  by two d y n a m i c s p i r i t s : P r o m e t h e a n i s m , w h i c h " g l o r i f i e s bravery,  the  b o o k , The  of order, reason,  new  of  on  Writers,  century China  tradition  and  the Creation  of a l l , i n the discovery of individual  movement  the c l a s s i c  with  success  Leo Lee, i n h i s s t i m u l a t i n g  5 7  Generation  European  associated  I t must  be  e m p h a s i s on s u b j e c s t r e s s e d , however,  that by  the pre-eminence  of  t h e e n d o f t h e May  nation-state  and  a  the individual  Fourth  move  period  was  losing  ground  to a desire for a  to popular  rather  than  strong  individual  action. The all of  romantic  t h e May  Fourth  alienation  from  society  and r a p i d  and  Lee  dreams  change.  The  i s convinced Utopian  Thus  generation  totalistic  iconoclasm  Another May  appears  i n  transformed, outlook  i n them  times  i s alienated  o f h i s o r h e r own i n which  nearly  (unsung)  the  never  present "remedied  so p r e v a l e n t  the tendency  among  towards  d e s c r i b e d by L i n Yu-sheng.  significant  Fourth  coloured  individual  dreams  the romantic  predisposed  asserts  outlook,  i s destroyed or completely  piecemeal".61 that  which  generation's  h i sor her society,  greatness  on  ethos  writers  factor  was  i n the romantic  their  role  as  "unlikely  influence heroes".62  In much o f t h e i r e a r l y , a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , c o n f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e the  writers  became  reading public. of  their  their  heroes,  and t h e heroes  As t h e m o s t s e n s i t i v e  and a r t i c u l a t e  generation  they  own  reflected  and e x p r e s s e d  d r e a m s a n d p a i n o f t h o u s a n d s who i n t u r n f e l t identification Lang by  gives  details  h i s devoted  advice he  with  of letters  readers,  sent  tread.63  radicalize  The w r i t e r s ' a  generation.  spokesmen  o f Ba  emotional Jin,  to the anarchist  alternately  asking  on t h e p a t h  Vogel  wrote,  Olga  writer  f o r support they  i n f l u e n c e was e n o r m o u s Ezra  their  the thoughts,  a strong  In her biography  o r c h i d i n g Ba J i n i f he w a v e r e d  should  helped  them.  of  and felt they  "Perhaps  nothing,  except  foreign  Chinese nationalism Their "to  deep do  sense  to  replace  r i d  of  mission,  literature  65  China  them  with  had  itself,  n  of  urge,  stop  feudal  to  awaken  and,  Vogel  asserts,  helped  create  base  for  strong  modern  nation."66  did  help  that  politicize  The  majority  backgrounds  them  and  the  They  were  workers  about  the  points  at  intellectuals  their  became  own  and  the  was  cause  They  was  paid  the  did  and  to  an  problems  ideological not  provide but  they  to  their  on  between espouse.  peasants with  and  them,  of  writing  this  period  literature,  in  between  alienated  the  p r o l e t a r i a t . ) 6 7 The  were not  W r i t e r s a d m i r e d and Shelley,  of  theories  commentator  the  gentry  and  to  identify  'rickshaw'  of  elite  e n o r m o u s gap  lives  intermediaries  world  Tolstoy,  people  claimed  the  that  (One  an  Fourth generation  Rousseau,  They  considered  function  w i t h whom many o f t h e May  after  They  spiritual,  they  truly  working c l a s s .  i t ,  systems  impoverishment  not  the  put  international  could  class. to  and  w r i t e r s come f r o m  describing  lip-service  Writers."64  Dafu  Chinese  "the  stir  contemporaries.  whose  they  to  nationalism.  writer's  Fourth  home  working  men  May  and  downtrodden, there  ironically  rickshaw  the  despite  because the  not  people  not  internal  their  of  and,  sympathy f o r the  despite  is  Yu  values  of  solutions  as  at  more  Fourth  alternatives.  function  China's  t  o  old  Western  a  the  awareness  a  did  t h a n t h e w o r k s o f t h e May  something",  wished  invasion  identified  Rolland  modelled and  which  heroes  themselves themselves  others.  Leo  Lee of  sees  a  progression  the emotional,  from  passive  book  t o an  Lord  George  They  d i d not admire  Lord  Byron  Gordon  of  i s m . 68 T h i s  Caroline to fight  progression  a  strong  writers  affinity. should  Lamb,  a new  It i s ironic  heroic still  role  they  give  persists  represents  generation and  The mission moral the  a  remain  national  not write  way  t o an  who  consciousness."  literary"  i n the late  7  2  ,  a  To  Thirtieth Hsia's  leftists o f May  felt Fourth more  identify  true conviction. generation  became  destroyed  by  certain  t h a t t h e May  helped  national-  apparently  any  and  outcast  could not  Fourth  a  know"  extent Fourth  their  movement  the writers of shape  the  "a deep  that  social  7 0  of this meant  they  with  of freedom  legends  of l i t e r a t u r e  case  create.  symbol  whom  outsiders  i n the sense  preoccupation  than  heroes:  help  to  i n T.A.  t h e work  L e o L e e t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e May  society  outcast.  t h e May  emerged, with  hero,  towards a c t i o n  that  For  new  social  dangerous  after  l i t e r a t u r e with which  romantic  dynamic  the turn  hero  which  doomed  Goethe's  but the romantic  proletariat",69  could  of  f o r the cause of Greek  and  true,  they  and  and  generation  eventually  truly proletarian  rebel  bad  admiration  Werther  the active,  coincides with  In time  "the mythified  sentimental  Young  poet,  t h e "mad,  Lady  i n 1925.  with  Byron,  b e i n g made b y t h e May F o u r t h  term,  hero,  identification  who d e f i e d h i s c o u n t r y  Incident  the early  "moral  that  standards  situation  Twenties  elite"  that  onwards.  7  1  with  tended became The  the social t o be  "more  increasingly  eclecticism  of  t h e May  Fourth  criticism  movement, c o u p l e d  based  on  achievements. literature  Despite  its  compelling creativity  of  so  good. and  I t was  a new  Despite free  of  time  literary their  literature 7  as  at  as w e l l  a  literary  "hybrid"  Birch,  outside  at  once  by  certain  reveal but  an  radically with  replaced  flat  good  in  a  a  bad  tendency as  possibly  realism is  with  and  realism,  which  the past  were  great  predecessor  and  and  older  towards a  more  why  descendant.  stage.  these by  May 7 5  not  totally Fourth  foreign i n -  literature  While  being marked  literature to  the  romance-style return  does  future,  fiction:  to d i d a c t i c i s m .  didacticism i s into  particular May  Fourth  Fourth  The  content.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t have  of people  easily  and  literature,  t h e way  moralistic  d i f f e r e n c e between and  a  be  a n a l y s i s of pre-  Fourth  that of  and  i s the d i v i s i o n  adopted  May  opened  models  characters  explains  Chinese  realism  to  techniques  t h a t May F o u r t h  transitional features  new  and  i n his thoughtful  a  new  individualism  been  While  and  i t had  themes  native  and  the imagination  h e r i t a g e a n d May  of  mainstream of  anomaly  links  the  the  Fourth  relevance  time  with  literary  May  writers could  a n d p o s t - May F o u r t h f i c t i o n , c o n c l u d e s stands  that  a s new  iconoclasm rich  much  to capture  youth  literary  uneven  for i t s social  experimentation  of t h e i r  Cyril  3  both  language,  emerges  limitations  in fact,  of  conscious  themselves  fluences.  these  the educated a  the absence of a  a e s t h e t i c grounds, created  i s significant  many  with  most  present  various  types,  elements writers,  literature significant  7 4  of  there  and i t s change  from  the past  was  the dropping  of the story-teller  mode  t h e " i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new a u t h o r i a l p e r s o n a , t h e ' I - n a r r a t o r often  with  author of  of a  close  autobiographical  trend.  7  Linked  7  sense o f purpose,  taboo,  the  subjects  women,  There  with  this  and t h e use o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  memorable, r e a l i s t i c  of  identification  L u Xun, Ba J i n and Yu Dafu b e i n g  this  style  a  were  characters  entered  began  the role  predominant  into  mode w a s  anti-heroes  such  to  literature  the semantic  criticism  While  could  Nineteenth  by  committed  May  of  the o l d society,  effect  have been century  Fourth  philosophies  Fokkema  in  a society  with  world  the turmoil  of Twentieth  an  emphasis  transvaluation  many w a y s t h e f u n c t i o n literature  as a  significant  to writers  of social  gave  criticism  when  realism  anxious  was  t o expose  i n his article  view,  century  with  espoused the  i l l s  on L u Xun  into the literature  could  achievable  n o t be m a i n t a i n e d  China  of values  where  there  and action.80  i n romantic  o f new w o r l d s  coping  and  7  of the writer  creator  7  presence  of o b j e c t i v e , detached observation, a secure  life. **  dangerous. ^  argues  in  on  of  the introduction  whose  t h a t r e a l i s m c o u l d n o t be i n t e g r a t e d e n t i r e l y because i t s i d e a l  previously  techniques,  with  critical  writers  gallery  sex, the status  madman,  1  the  seriousness,  a n d new,  t h e u s e o f new  as Lu Xun s  7  individual A  A new  discussed  tragic-ironic,  of  explicit  emerged.  ", ^  examples  strong  exploration.  of the family,  explorations  a  the literature  t o be  with  the major  was  1  and  and  and myths  was i  n  symbolist  seemed  a potential cultural  more  vacuum  created were  by  the r e j e c t i o n  perhaps  still  tied  unprecedented  future  they  to  both  helped  iconoclast,  mission  middle. was  the  to  a  Critics  tend  or  of  they  the  Dionysian  realist  school?  and  and  were  or  the  Was  of  i t puts  inevitably,  with  of  the  the  him  conversion  on  traditional  his  realist  his  to  in to  the  work  values in his  not  a  May  works  problems? camp  such  two  language  as  Fourth  particularly  in  terms  movement,  He of  but  and  school the  family  rejection  the mould.  Fourth  a  and  Did  was  his  of  writer  periods:  does not belong philosophy,  knew  many  of  but  an  early  enthusiastic  as,  perhaps,  importance  many  Sake'.  creative  past.  the  Studies  his  feeling  the in  in  'Art f o r L i f e ' s  into  iconoclast  o t h e r s he f i t s  May  or  concerned  for Literary  trend of  Christianity,  absolutist  the  the  hero  l i e somewhere  Association  vernacular  not  typical  and  totalistic  romantic  China's  seems  realist  divide  the  his  modern  China"?  to  of  cultural  also  he a  r o m a n t i c s t a g e and a l a t e r more r e a l i s t i c one.82 H i s adoption  writers  tradition  Was  exposing  romantic  member  linked  p a s t , but  terms  clothing  stand i n a l lthis?  past  the  answer, As  the  Fourth  create.  the  " t o save  The  Xu  of  attacking  belong  realist  Promethean  critic  with he  a  t r a d i t i o n . 8 1 May  in  in  Where d o e s Xu D i s h a n  sharp  the  romanticists  iconoclasts and  of  he  implies Xu  use does  placed he  was  Dishan  was  r e s p e c t s , but to the he  i t s major  in  mainstream,  was  active  in  participants  well,  and  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be  While  sharing  the  of  elite  significance. gentry  background  of  many  of  h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and t h e i r t y p i c a l  impoverishment,  certain  Born  rather and  aspects than  spent  on  more and  a  flavour the  any  to  studying  profound  of  or  May  before  in  Japan, on  at  h i s work,  that  time.  quality  trend,  Fourth  Europe  in  in  Taiwan  S.E.  attending  but  giving  Asia  Yanjing  has  Xu  and  his  s t i l l  firmly  Mao  Dun  discuss  Xu  the r i g h t Joseph in  road.  Lau  device  of  his  of  work.  o f f o n d e x a s p e r a t i o n f o r a wayward  said  his  that  work  iconoclastic  have remarked  in  his  works.86  in  his early  works,  on  to  accuse  of dealing  The  unique  Xu  does  d e s c r i p t i o n of contemporary  him  the  ambivalent  his  assessment  in  eventually  8 4  has  that  earlier  him  an  by  on  independence  puts had  exotic  remarked  Dun's t o n e , and t h e h o p e t h a t he w i l l  prevalent  critics  i n an  America,  i t an  Dun  to  an e l e m e n t  North  Mao  of  writer.83  or  people  c o l l e a g u e i n Mao  or  Burma  characterized  seems t o be  Other  travelled  Dishan,  There  the  had  apart.  Xu  two  time  him  towards  using  join  he  in  impact  unique  faction  attitude  set  mainland,  teaching  quite  category  by  life  neither-here-not-there  of  his  his  H i s t r a v e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e was u n u s u a l i n a g e n e r a t i o n  used had  the  time  University.  of  Dishan not  was  seem  rejection  to  of  the s i n g u l a r  an be  the  lack  Southeast  for their  i n fantasy  and  time,  for  influenced tradition.85  of  p r o b l e m s and i s s u e s , exotic  anomaly  discussion  particularly  Asian  have  unreality,  led  settings critics  unconnected  as  they  China. by  were  with  the events  Certainly  8 7  political  of  their  of  the whole  except  Their  problems  and  the development  Mao  Dun  is  receive  philosophy  n o t depend  b u t on of  their  an  the thread  struggle  sea  again,  Toiling the  sea might  divulge  His  'web-mending'  of  c o m p r o m i s e . 91  in  t h e web  be  replaced.  taking  of l i f e  web  as  one  that  Lao  He  life float  on  go  and does  philosophic  i t comes,  never  where  face  the "The  knowing  what  again him  acceptance  used  story  story  that  d i d not f i t into  has  acquiescence  repairing  not suggest  and the  i t and go  o u t and  brought on  together  individual  i n h i s early Zhu"),  l i f e .  discussed  He  total  must be p a t c h e d  concentrates  be  the  9  has  of  to fate  o r d o . ^ I n t h e same which  solutions  the buffeting  follow.  should  divers  Wang  found  will  not advocate  philosophy  characters'  life  day  ("Zhui  to a spider's  upheaval  Xu's s t o r i e s  i n h i s work  just  does  the pearl  fate  His  he  each  Spider"  untouched  philosophy  attitude  i n the chapters  like  century  transformation  on t o d e s p i t e  Xu's  i t , b u t must  the  personally  linking  hold  fate.88  w i l l s . 8 9 However,  but  upon  of the sea t o describe  control  largely  as any s o c i a l  individual  he espoused  detail  metaphor  cannot it  of l i f e  greater  the  from  seem  i n a s much  the ideals h i s characters  they  in  that  of Twentieth  l i v e s go on r e g a r d l e s s a n d t h e r e s o l u t i o n  does  society  said  trends  h i s characters  events,  a f f e c t s anyone.  and  he  likens  and  again.  accusations the  breaks  t h e web  should  of  adversity,  the  prevailing  mood  of  struggle  Merchant's  Wife"  Spider", deal  both  with  for  perspective has  social  of  these  their  of  a  in  old  at  last,  the  She  who  in  define the  Xu's  this  deals  name,  earns  the  the as  direct  she  Hsia  earns  writing  or  as  wrote  sorrow another  of  sorting  him  their  not  i t comes  chided to  a  Xu's  choice  scrap  paper  is  her "what  memorable  trois  and  like  psychological in  the  best  is  enough  a l l i n t r o s p e c t i v e : we or  and  he  However,  p e r s o n a l i t y , but at  the  critics  really  It  more  of  praise:  not  for  the  fiction.  menage  source  P.R.C.  and  a  the  life.94  is  critic  heroine  of  and  acceptance  are  r e a l i s t i c .  development  that  own  realist  simple  bemoaning  and  contrast  character  truly  is  fate,  course  explore  approval  collecting  main  Toiling  between  Chuntao,  her  establishment  character  rebelling C.T.  of  life  in  work.  view,  to  "The  from  years  characters  l i f e ,  heroine  blows  i t s unquestioning  later  by  "The  nature's  of  in  d i f f e r e n t . 9 2 A mainland  his  characters  with  distance  failure  in  to  of  in  distinctions  early  s  straightforward,  little  never  H i  work  unusual  a  Xiguan  Shangjie  part  real  Xu's  goal  for  status  no  and  lives  their  i t as  attitude for  in  Beijing  and  like  tremendous  seem q u i t e  set  same  Fu")  from  determination  woman  very  a  people the  Chuntao's of  can  this  of  class  for  seen  problems.93  of her  are  problems  resolute  for  there  Women  suffer  accepting  they  lack  story  whom  when  criticized  of  to  of  that  joy,  defiance.  ("Shangren  i t by  believing and  and  way  for most see  anguish. possible,  fate. distinguished  [Xu  Dishan]  from His  h i s contemporaries Buddhist  personal all  salvation Fourth  and more  h i s characters of China.  seek  Mao  was h i s l a s t ,  development  a in  woman  reason  of slow  a heroine  woman,  Peach  a  even an  Autumn  insurgencies  describes  i t as a minor  CT. of  Hsia  t h e modern  spiritual  convert f o r  f o r her son.  expressed  Chuntao,  whose  to write  name  Yuguan  9 7  F u j i a n have  through t h e hope  enough  and t h e n e g a t i v e  mention  values  Christian  progress  i n Southern o r even  the  Christian  Chrysanthemum.  element  i t s publication  Xu's w o r k .  than  and l o v e ,  and i m p r e s s i v e  about  Dun  May  between  forspiritual  education  Mao  not the  searching  unselfish  Xu would  stronger  but the Christian  Communist  truly  awakening. that  an  personal  typical  of charity  novella a  of  Xu as a  s t i l l  becomes  concerned  salvation,  H i s most p o w e r f u l  who  prevented  of  questions  and a search  of getting  the mid-Thirties  Spring  He w a s l e s s  personal  "Yuguan" , a  g r a d u a l l y becomes  process  about  to  of a  practical  Yuguan  religion  9  pervade n e a r l y a l l h i sworks.  the  i n comparative  i d e o l o g i e s , ^ b u t t h e themes  p o p u l i s t humanitarianism  work  lifelong  with  work,  9 5  and  Dun d e s c r i b e d  i n h i s early  preoccupation."  conversion  i n f l u e n c e on h i s work. issues  eclectic  different  Christian  and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t  political  morality;  of  background,  had a major  with  was h i s r e l i g i o u s  means  i s that  references apparently  i n t h e P.R.C.  Hsia  masterpiece,  compelling  a reappraisal  t h a t Xu D i s h a n  ignores  the conventions  to give  i t t h e freedom  9 8  has s a i d short  story  i n "Yuguan"  of  a  lack The  romance  and  that  of dialogue  and  the i n t r i c a t e  word  Chinese Many  chuanqi,  relating  fiction,  i s often  o f Xu's s t o r i e s  action, ters.  technique  He  often  beliefs chapter  and  used  resemble  has a moral  I shall  Xu's work  mythical  and  despite  of X u . "  t h e name  f o r early-  Xu's  or romances,  work.100 with  and almost a l l e g o r i c a l t o make  and H s i a  much  characbelieves  f a b l e t o embody h i s s p i r i t u a l  i s t h e a n s w e r . 101  In the  t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e romance  suggest  the  so beloved  to describe  point  "Yuguan"  discuss  plots  fables  f o r the perfect  that  works,  the marvellous,  incredible coincidences,  he was s e a r c h i n g  to  this  that  h i s use of both  themes h e l p s g i v e s t r u c t u r e t o h i s s e a r c h  next mode  romance  and  for spiritual  values.  The romantic false work  traditional  division  and  schools  realist  dichotomy, has been earlier  and  h i s later  some  his  him a  ones  mainly  could  inability  rather  falling  unique,  to settle  hesitant,  sad a r t i c l e  Fourth seen  into  writers  t o be  into  and  into  largely  s t r a d d l i n g the two.  romantic  considered  who c o n s i d e r e d  t o be  writers  r e a l i s t i c . 1°2  be  May  c a n be  as both  and o f s o m e t h i n g  critics  for In  works  stories  apparent  most  described  his  streams,  with  of  realist,  the f i r s t  a  Xu's with  category  However,  elements  of  both  overlap  i n h i s work  and  as a m i x t u r e one  mode  of both.  worried  Xu's  some  of  i t i n d i c a t i v e of h i sc l a s s background irresolute by  h i s wife  and  even  written  negative.103 i n  November,  1979,  (when  orthodox  Wei  Jingsheng  P.R.C.  nihilistic  and  on  vague,  t r i a l ) ,  she  follows  describes  his  ideology  humanism.  She  and  a  negative  and  those  and  a t t a c k t h e e x p l o i t a t i v e c l a s s e s as r e a l i s t i c , b u t  out  the  of  a  class  standpoint  contradictions  critically  on  manifested  the  in  and  examples  f o l l o w very  who  wrote  preface  in  1952  on  Xu  was  that  the  activities to  his  in  later  contemporary to  expose  use  of  this  I  shall  work  style  of  Dishan's he  Xu's  work  calm  and  Kong  for  Chinese  patriotic  Xu in  Hong  to  was  examine  compassion  in  a  and  preoccupations.  a  of  Xu's  work  Both  5  the  Yang  people"  figures  writing.  the  later  strong,  collection 0  part  role  There  the  use  of as  for  of  played  by  His the  ideals  few  use  of  Fei),  and  are  the  the more  "Yuguan". women  Fourth  and  tradition.  protagonists are  of which  anti-heroes  point  description  Director  heroines  responsibility are  ironic  claim  and  increased  women  critic  patriotic  them m e n t i o n  May  a  wife  War,  characters  he  published  his  characters  the  embodying of  in  of  chapter.  sense  Pacific  (such  memorable  Xu's  through  the  Neither  and  life  terminology  Gang,  1  remark  on  Her  4  point  to  Yang  during  much  on  of  intellectuals  very  0  people  to  those  s e t t i n g s , the  most  1  as  criticizes  fails  goes  wife.  i t s maturity  exploitative  realistic  a  he  She  first  closely  mainland.  "returning  because  ordinary  p e s s i m i s t i c outlook  to his  to  describe  society.  unhappy,  i n a memorial  a  that  the  categorizes  works  lack  unique,  Xu  on  his  his  as  line  was  in  courageous,  self-knowledge, are in  his his  major works,  something and  innocence  the a  unusual  cruelty  for  of  of  the  his  fate  they  as  are  and  the  journeys,  evil  of  Xu  going  Dishan's through  instead  stand  of  their  Lu  web  characters crisis  to  the  chapter  that  c e r t a i n o f Xu's by  Campbell  The  romantic,  the  literary  an  appearance  no  sense  Xu's While since  of  works not  explore,  characters.  expanded  scene Xu  are  very  things  does  from  inspired  the  circular and  transformed.  the  s t r u c t u r e of  is a  happen  Fourth  work,  detached that  he  an  period  and  even or  in  their  rarely then  there  narrator does  not  of  true  know  and  calmness  reader  The  readers  here.  Xu  stands  mainstream.  As  one  is  realism, does  objective distance  the  makes  distanced, dispassionate.  meditative  leaves  exploded  introspection.  and  that i s e f f e c t i v e i n emphasizing but  Frye.  ' I - n a r r a t o r ' who  detached,  l o o k i n g on f r o m t h e s i d e l i n e s .  not  do, life  resolution  Northrop  involvement  maintain  There  May  Dishan's  omniscient,  preoccupations  does  on  to  offer  taking  embark  analyze  upon by  i n the  personal  always  about h i s w r i t i n g  ation  and  spiritually  shall  not  anti-heroes  life  personal  individualistic  deep  the  he  and  in  are  there  I  contrast  s t o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n to the quest-myth e x t r a p o l a t e d  Joseph  onto  follows  simplicity  T h e y do 1  of  r e t u r n i n g to the s t a r t of t h e i r journey In  in  Xun s  often  a  the  out  others.  s o c i e t y as  too busy mending  i t comes.  and  characters  devastating criticism  for  time,  his  ultimately  other  alone  critic  and  says,  May  his  measuredness spiritual  uninvolved,  intense emotional by  from  not  identific-  Fourth  outside, reading  writers detached  Xu  Dishan  is cup  rather of  like  green  listening  t o an  tea steaming  by  o l d monk t e l l i n g  your  side,  an  glowing and the r a i n b e a t i n g down o u t s i d e . 6 1 0  tales,  incense  a  burner  Chapter  Two  A Traveller's  "I by  Tales  m u s t c r e a t e a s y s t e m o r be e n s l a v ' d another Man's" W i l l i a m B l a k e , J e r u s a l e m , I , 10 1  "But I m y s e l f s u f f e r from c a r r y i n g these old ghosts, which I cannot cast o f f , and t h u s o f t e n f e e l a s t i f l i n g weight... Because I f e e l t h a t I a l s o o f t e n have these hateful thoughts contained in books w r i t t e n by t h e a n c i e n t s . " L u Xun 2  Early of  Twentieth  massive  and  d e s t r o y e d and was  an  that  Century  China  dislocating  was  a  change,  country  with  the  a host of i d e o l o g i e s w a i t i n g to f i l l  eclectic,  c h a o t i c p e r i o d , and  the  fragmentation  and  alienation  of  The  responses  the  May  generation  the  were  varied.  hermit's  fought  an  l i f e ;  Some,  like  others,  3  ideological  fighters  and  others  free  the  political  of  Fourth  battle  withdrew, and  Zhou  like to but  "save  a  symbolized  as  a  this  whole. changing into  brother  Xun,  able  Some to  be  Lu  became totally  psychological ramifications the nascent  of  beginnings  new. Lin  of  It  retreated  China".  n o n e was  t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f an o l d w o r l d o r d e r and of  famous  to  order  iconoclasm  elite  country  Zuoren,  his  process  the vacuum.  totalistic  the  of  the  the  traditional  c h a r a c t e r i z e d members o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  world  in  Yu-sheng b e l i e v e s the c r i s i s  t h a t g e n e r a t i o n t o be  one  f a c e d by t h e  of consciousness,  28  intellectuals  f o r they  rejected  the in  tradition a  discussion  archetypes the of a  outright  past  on  which  must  while being  the  importance  help  be  to  linked  psychic dislocation. kind  of  oriented to  rootless  preserve  with  the  of  suggestions  reflecting  to  the  of  Tragedy,  it  May  among  the  historical  the  "Man  equally  hunger  a  thirst  our  antiquities. our  a mythic  that  allowed system,  complete  desire  only to  is  easily  and  deny better  source the  brings  past  solution  off  outright would  alienation  i s  seem  to to  of  nature  past.  i f  not  of  the  by  from  encourage a  But  7  of the  identity  l i e in  great  totalistically  the  be  countless  i t s replacement  - the weight  problems  roots, our  of  Birth  womb?"^  monistic  from  common  famished  knowledge;  accepted  alienation remains  or  for  be  of Lu Xun's g h o s t s cast  a b o u t us  for  the  for  is  interest-  i n The  does  home, t h e m y t h i c  suggests  helplessly  stands  What  clutching  consuming  longer  speaking,  Nietzsche myth,  sense  no  knowledge  frantically  dig  paradox not  for  a  place,  The s a m e s y n d r o m e ,  5  must  signify,  holistic  practically  that  take  succumbs  of  remote  cultural  being  stripped  tradition  involving  A  into  Jung,  suggests  does not  today, and  C.G.  4  prevent  by  most  Yu-sheng  Confucian  To  to  p e r i o d , i s noted  of myth, of  Lin  home"  comes  and,  eclectic  pasts  cultures,  loss  the  Fourth  a l l his  other  identity,  link-up  consciousness  i t .  acknowledging  present  "If this  susceptible to psychic epidemics."  among  of  by  to the p a s t , a consciousness which  a l l manner  ingly  shaped  an and the  tradition  the  "mythical  in  i t s wake.  rootlessness.  flexible  mix  of  past to  and p r e s e n t ,  progress.  There  a  total  a  compromise  the  rejection  modern  possible, by  Xu  own  He  a  h i s own  universal  "almost  time."8  his Xu's  last  and  goes  pure  and as such  Lewis  on  moral  C.T.  further  race  has  universal application."9  A deeply on  religious  comparative  with  strong  special  that  1  0  drowned o f Xu  Xu  and h i s work. has  spiritual  with  a  he  category  Dishan  leanings.  a  a  on  level  of  culture  whose  message  life  was c e n t r e d  converted  an  an  of  His Christianity  and d i d n o t p r e c l u d e  made  assessment  t h e bounds  was  flood  article  this  of writer  small,  values f o r  "by a c h i e v i n g  transcended  validity  i n the  that  man w h o s e i n t e l l e c t u a l  theology,  Buddhist  order  rare  and Western  nonetheless  agrees  to say that,  and  as h i s "mythical  i n h i s perceptive  "Yuguan",  way,  to create h i s  synthesis  to recover  e x p l o r a t i o n , he  to enter  said  of  synthesis i s  i n himself  at a  Hsia  elements  the Chinese  has been  Robinson,  story,  taking  to i t -  personal  attempt  b u t i t was  endeavour  major  both  a  minor,  i n both  them  application,  unique  i n a  of conduct,  Xu's attempt  history.  Such  which  i s neither  adherence  the valuable  sustained  values rooted  venture  recent  code  from  way w h i c h  nor total  between  a  the base  third  achieved,  and embodying  wider  personal  fora  as  the tradition.  made  i s possible that  for  of  and  f o r i t was  traditions It  i s need  of the past  world  system,  the source  or synthesis  Dishan.  source"  taking  Christian was  understanding  of a or  acceptance of testify  that  Christian never  teaching to  i t not  regret.12  a  h i s or duty  An  conscience  and  calmly  and  with  direction  and  his  characters  display  manifests to  true  to  an  their  the  live  and  in  with  a  act  in  A  their  1 1  and  refer  to  his  determination could  the  should  uncom-  same  always  no-one  themes be  and  a  love  a  actions  influence Some  for  forgiveness.  a l l obstacles take  totally  accountable. and  false  and  thus  step  through  and  the  true events  can  actions w i l l  held  cause  same s e n s e o f  While  charity  few  the  thyself,  that  stories  patience  despite  to  responsibly, accepting  be  great  way  the  his  as  up  of  others Others remain  must  take  resolution  of  story. qualities man  pen-name  he  act  live  strong  individual  will  itself  themselves.  The in  the  patience.  they  for  and  or  to  Several  t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and  ideal  responsibility  attempt  need.  infused  again.  its  on  in  H i s many o b i t u a r i e s  neighbour  Throughout  fate,  hold  anyone  works are  s h a p e t h e i r own  which  thy  compromise  and  her  love  countenance  integrity.  again  religions.  conscious  to  help  to  His  promising occur  made  smiling  behind  and  he  refused  gentle,  to  t h e ways o f o t h e r  a  himself. "Luo  on  the  major one's  promoted A  modest,  Huasheng"  humble,  wrote  follow  Xu  useful  the aim own  peanut of  l i f e . is  1  3  The  that should  and  not  his  fiction  unassuming  (peanut)  life  nature  in  to  man,  message  to  strive  he  signify of  appearances be  be to  were  of be  his an  are use.  present  took  the  desire  early  to  essay  unimportant One  something  should else.  In  o t h e r words,  one  must had  be  practical  man,  Xu  of  as  spider's  a  but  life i t can  prepared web  order, Xu's  for  search  One  Mark  a  time  mending  of  this  Xu  "In  a  web  1  solution  His  the  for  Dishan's  on  disintegrating  break  ,  must  image  spider's  at  inform  of  a  Xu's  which  work  to  vision  to  his  desire live.  work  his  for  It is that  represents a of  be  i s  modest  society  -  web.  was  the  role  creation writing of  such  i s to of  as  make  sense  another  literature  i n the turmoil  society  simple,  individual  dislocation  he  China caught  The  on  artistic  Although  1 5  an  4  to  t o mend a b r o k e n  motivation chaos.  to  i s sure  i t hints  system  A good,  straightforward  and  i t .  for  chapter.  S c h o r e r ' s comment  for  The  repaired,  thematic  attempt  of  web.  supporting structure  for a  own  out  a  of  focus  his  spend  be  to oneself.  optimistic,  s u g g e s t i v e one,  use  the  always  to  is a  a  an  true  has  place, validity  of massive  this,  change.  before  i t  can  p r o c e e d w i t h o t h e r b u s i n e s s , l i t e r a t u r e must become t h e  explicit  agent  of  of  coherence."^  writing use  of  about  to  the  of  his  James work  that,  of  giving  immense  panorama  of  f u t i l i t y  a  a  history."  "system" , a and  sense  of  1 7  Like  a  contemporary  Joyce,  ordering,  organization provide  in  Eliot,  of  contemporary need  another,  mythology  controlling,  T.S.  Joyce  says  order  in a  the  constant  " i t i s simply a shape and or  and  way  of  significance  anarchy  B l a k e , Xu  personal mythology  expression to  of  Xu's  which  his  values  and  chaotic  world.  To  which Dishan  could  had give  beliefs come  is  and  closer  to  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  be  useful  t o examine  temperament To  in  about  on  Northrop  Their  Xu's  C T .  Frye  work  cannot  and Joseph  can a c t as  assessing  i s to talk  topic  Xu  Dishan's  embody h i s v i s i o n o f t h e g o o d The  word  "myth"  much d e b a t e , c e n t r e d definition. 3 archetypal  comment  speaks  with  the  emotive  myth  became myth  that  as a  an  Philip  Rahv  states,  Barthes,  The  and on  the  ,  1 9  and any  contributions criticism. insights"20 fable  to  2 2 a n c  }  h  a  excited  s  tradition t h e same  and  2  some  t o be  tend  and  Fourth  leaning  i s reassuring  classes  view  2 8  fits  iconoclasm.  i n i t s stability,  o f change  which  the f u t u r e . " "Myth  The  period27  the Marxist  towards  of  persua-  polemical.26  of the upper  writes,  indication of  Frye,  t h e May  i n producing  images  Advocates  are equally  powerhouse  theme,  i n primordial  t o myth.  determinism  "Myth  controversial , but  gives  4  Northrop  intellectual  i s that  o f myth and t h e v a l i d i t y  ascribed  critics  a Marxist  into  custom  voices"  c o n t r o l l i n g device  history  word  speaks  a n t i - t r a d i t i o n a l i s m " of  neatly  whereas  protean  particularly  f o r many  " by  life."21  "whoever  reverberations  obsessed.25  "radical  myth  f o r the perfect  are complex  thousand  criticism,  sively  of  a  about  "suggestive  on t h e n a t u r e  criticism  Jung's  was  l a r g e l y around i t s f u n c t i o n a l o r t h e o l o g i c a l  Questions  2  of  i s a  Xu  to archetypal  of  "quest  that  i t would  1 8  ignore  Campbell  sources  entailed,  comment  romances."  romance  either  "system"  Hsia's  a w r i t e r of  talk  discussion of  o f what  has  2  destroys 9  Roland  the task  of  giving  a  historical  intention  a  natural  making contingency  appear e t e r n a l .  that  ideology."30  of bourgeois  period had  would  to free  values  i n order  in  which  it  before  alone,  Mann  always a  continues sense this  archetypes to the or all  prove  and  an  Y  that  find  i t i s this  man  find  the ultimate  unity  images  of  a  collective  the world  stand  to  their  antiquity  before  man's  trod  taking  China.32  life  "was  He  i n a  But i t i s j u s t  i s the life  as myth."33  of l i f e ;  self-awareness,  only  o  r  through  sanction,  function  p  ascribed  conto  objectionable.35  profound  i t s myths.  to  of  i n traditional  sanctifying  who  debt  precedents  i s the legitamization life  repetition"  wished  archaizing attitude.  has had a  and  they  traditional  those  their  Gasset's  the antique  reanimation  critics  "sacred  rejecting  Ortega  that  a  Jung's theory of a c o l l e c t i v e unconscious  world  over  cites  saying  t h a t many  Fourth  felt  and  individualists  n o t unknown  i n i t does  C.G.  Fourth  syndrome  as  they  o u t f o r him by  for historical  s e c r a t i o n ." 3 4 myth  May  as  searched  " t h e myth  and  l i f e  i s "marked  reanimation,  life  Mann, it  a  path  Mann  by  i sexactly  o f t h e May  of the a r c h a i z i n g past  of the past  ancestors.  The r a d i c a l s assessment  described  him".3!  free  this  Now t h i s p r o c e s s  and  to progress.  man's  action,  with  themselves  Thomas  who  agree  justification,  i n f l u e n c e on i n diversity  Jung  defines  nature  and u n i v e r s a l  thinkers  they  believe  archetypes  which  occur  as c o n s t i t u e n t s o f myths  as  seeking shapes "forms  practically  and a t t h e same  time  as  autochthonous  origin."36 is -  a  And  again,  f i g u r e - be  that  deeply  influenced  ascribing  myth  at  once  Myths  i s freely  Jung,  a broad  t o make  and  that  meaning  organizing experience  value  or a  Joseph  this  on  defines  by w h i c h  life;  f o r experience  nature  i n  terms  we c o n t i n u a l l y to  gives that  and merely  the  metaphysical'.  ourselves.  philosophical i s , which  Without  i s chaotic, fragmentary  by  figures.38  myth  intelligible  ordinary  Campbell,  and d i v e r s i t y  and y e t  that  appears  definition  the universality  image  process  Essentially,  discussion  our experience  archetype,  mythological  approachable,  of  being,  beyond  are "the instrument  to the facts  or  expressed.  definition,  i s a large, controlling  image,  unconscious  o f h i s t o r y and  a t t r i b u t e s t o these  functional  he w r i t e s ,  A myth  goes  of  figure."37  i n h i s stimulating  requires  struggle  human  i n the course  o f m y t h , i n w h i c h he a r g u e s of  a  mythological  by  spiritual  Schorer,  daemon,  fantasy  i t i s a  products  "the primordial  recurs  creative  therefore,  Mark  i t a  constantly  wherever  individual  such  has  images,  phenomenal."39  As a May F o u r t h a c t i v i s t a c c u s e d o f b e i n g " a n t i - C o n f u c i a n , " Xu the in  Dishan  helped  thematic Christian,  sought order  some out of  dismantle  system  traceable  Buddhist kind  of  chaos.  the o l d traditional in his fiction,  and C h i n e s e organizing Through  roots,  principle  order,  with  0  but  i t s echoes  suggests to create  the aesthetic  4  choice  that  he  another of the  r o m a n c e a n d m y t h i c a l modes a s u n i f y i n g s t r u c t u r e s he e n d e a v o u r e d t o make s e n s e o f a d i s i n t e g r a t i n g w o r l d  and c r e a t e  a meaningful  pattern the  to support  structural  from  h i s beliefs.  core  folktale,  i t brings  t h e sense  of  t h e c r e a t u r e , man's  on  his  that  common life  way o r f a i l  i s never  t r a v e l l i n g , but i tshould  spiritual  suggests  knowledge by and by  journey  Xiguan,  that  different  reasons,  is  identical.  of  an e r r i n g  of  sorts  of  trust. In  and  Xiguan  husband. home  quest  return  too  transformed,  goals. journey The  i s t h e one  journey  because  he  motif  i s  much  of  spent  Yuguan's  by Lewis  growth  journeys  Toiling  travelled Shangjie when  charted  similar  b u t t h e calm  Bird"  personal  Robinson,  towards  that  are  Spider,"  are  transcendence a  troubled  journeyed  t o an  h e r husband  ("Mingming  title,  motivated  they  road  self-  undertaken  i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e same  "The  again  "The M i n g m i n g  a  The  the merchant's wife of  a  as p h y s i c a l t r a v e l l i n g .  i t reflects  heroine  centres  be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e j o u r n e y  i s s k i l l f u l l y  i n her creator.43  Shangjie,  literary  exhausted."42 perhaps  the epic  work  represents  the marvellous  i n Xu's work,  as  aspect  a s a q u e s t . "41  life  some  descended  other  Dishan's  i n their  of t h e s o u l i s as s i g n i f i c a n t  who  but a  any  as a whole,  o f Xu  on j o u r n e y s ;  a l l fictions,  than  not only  values,  "Romance i s  directly  o f h i s own  that  embark  lose their  formula very  vision  quest  for spiritual  "Of  his  a  characters  others  closer  s t r u c t u r e o f . much  the quest,  search  us  of f i c t i o n , considered  unifying  states,  of a l l f i c t i o n : being  to  The  Frye  achieve  in  search  island  haven  repents  Niao") Minming  h i s lack  strolls  in  a  strange  in  Taoist  tales,  by  walking  hand  lead  garden,  them t o a c o u n t r y  father. son; ^  Mr  adopted t r a i l  ,  of  a  something  "From  merely  a  the urgent actual  are  always  Jung  longing  never  d i Gua  This  slight,  Xing")  have  both  describe  a  Both  i t s goal, i n "A  her  his long-lost follows  the  i s  endless  h i s  search  Curtis  Adkins  chuanqi  tales,  the journey an  and change  that  4  9  i s never expression underlies  traveling...  are restless.  seek where  Single  place  story  setting  to find  of  but rather  of  Heart"  of h i s foster  by  i n Tang  will  Heroes  Traveling,  o f a s p i r a t i o n , o f an u n s a t i s f i e d  longer  single,  they  that  There  4 8  cited  experience  takes  1  much  t h e same  river.  5  anecdotal  Conrad's  Both  lined  finds  quest  to find  of view,  space,  image  of the action  Jiao  Joseph  i s an  lake  fruitlessly  Cirlot,  t r a v e l e r s , i n that  that  Much  and  a  symbolic  f o r discovery  movement  a  admires.  perhaps  point  through  desire  observes,  man  of the quest-myth  passage  the  he  unattainable.  a spiritual  s u f f e r i n g comes  f o r the parents  woman  found  I n "A D a u g h t e r ' s  4 4  o u t on  Yet another  stories,  h i s discussion  states,  sets  from into  i n the attempt  mysterious  i n Xu's  freedom  death.  searches  4 7  the dream-worlds  her lover  beyond  dies  of  that  with  Linzhi  man  daughter.  movement  of  4 5  Dongye  another  4  in  and l e a r n s i n hand  ("Nu' e r X i n " ) ,  for  reminiscent  on  shares  and more -  small  Star  o f t h e Sea" ("Hai  board  are travellers'  ships  certain poetic  the Malaysian boat's  i t may."50  boats.  details  "The  down  with  Lagoon".  peninsular  journey tales,  and  a  -  5 2  and  forest-  describing  the  sad  fate  o f men  travelling story his  who  and adds  tell  slight  story  t o another  man  i tt o h i s store of experience.  i s more h a u n t i n g ,  brother  their  f o r an  telling  the tale  obsessive  i n comparison,  an  love,  early  who i s  The C o n r a d  o f a man who  while  piece  by  betrayed  Xu's s t o r y a  writer  seems  not yet  mature. The story  same  o f "The M e r c h a n t ' s  the  narrator  her  tale  then  "traveller's  whom  has  disappeared  the  narrator  deserted  rotting there.  5 3  and no-one  reaches  absent  narrative.  with  from  we  a l l traces  that  being  absent  and  husband When  the' house  i f i t had  a window  been  he c a n s e e  anyone  be  straight-forward, a  slightly  living  life  5 5  a  outside historical  world, tale  Rip van  i s  Winkle,  disappeared.  that  "chuanqi"  quality  different  like  have  unreality  detached  i f Xiguan's  so long,  as having  or "fabulous"  t h e i r sense of being  he f i n d s  how c o u l d  wondering  o f a magic  described  marvellous  enter  of h e r former  intrusion  through  The  has gone.  as  to  At t h e end o f h e r husband  he  looking  and asks  o f f balance,  that  work  weeds,  Xiguan's  o r i f she has been  this  where  the  her story  i n neither.  o l d home  Peering  true  is  first  over  scene b r i n g s an a i r o f mystery and u n r e a l i t y  Suddenly  a r e thrown  knows  hangs  tells ship.  her find  Xiguan's  f o r years.  This f i n a l  Xiguan  i s successful  ancestral tablets  formerly  and  He  atmosphere  on board  to help  and o v e r r u n  uninhabited  Wife".  she meets  he p r o m i s e s  h e r mother.  tale"  I t  has l e d t o Xu's element  to  i t ,  5  4  that gives h i s stories time,  i n some u n i v e r s a l  time. In  "The P h o e n i x  Feng"),56 home  by  setting Zufeng of  a  in  her lover.  are unreal romance  worth  past  sanctuary  and  remains  setting  unhappy  in  an u n c o m f o r t a b l e  it  i s an  bandit  by  from  king's  insisting,  that  Zufeng  place  reversion  to  finally  f o r t r e s s .  like  a  fairy  first  prove h i s  Despite  h i s rather  r o l e as bandit,  references  lover  the boundaries  to flee  Zufeng  maintains  and t r i e s  t o do h e r w i l l .  to the f a l l  o f t h e Manchus  to criminality,  i n i t s blend  between  the world  limbo.  Like  piece  and h e r  "A  and s u f f e r s  of  real  this  and  o f romance Single  from  Star  and  story  unreal. reality  of the Sea"  an u n c e r t a i n t y  d i s a p p e a r s as Xu grows more c o n f i d e n t  that  i n the handling  h i s material. Xu  and  Dishan  h a s been  as approaching  such di  uneasily  and t h e  i s o l a t e d f o r e s t s and a  Luan  leaving her  garden  story enters  h i s beloved  unsatisfactory  hovers  gradually  task,  i n a  a name f o r h i m s e l f .  from  It  of  a  and h i s f u t u r e  early  of  into  Heluan  are forced  her chastity  the historical  Zufeng's  begins  i n deep,  ("Huan C h a o  i s tricked  pastoral.  fastnesses  courtly distance  Despite  story  They  t o h e r by making  unsavoury  Heluan,  remains  preserves  princess  i t s Nest"  f i g u r e s and t h e i r  the mountain  tale  Changed  The  world.  seeking  Heluan  a  the heroine,  throughout  place,  that  as  realism  "In Director  described  variously  i n hislater  Fei's  Reception  K e t i n g l i " ) and " S t r e e t c o r n e r "  as a  works. Room"  ("Jietou  5 7  "romantic"  While  stories  ("Zai F e i Zongli  X i a n g Wei Z h i L u n l i " )  fit  the c r i t i c a l  irony  or r e a l i s t  critics,  attempts  fail  i t i s r e a l i z e d that  when  stories  up  fiction  until  a  element  out,  to  as  the  well  didactic  verbal  be  only  i n degree  like  -  Prose  included  romances Romance  to  Frye,  away  the  source  bone-structure  to  of  that  outweigh  Zola  or story  folktales  or the  links are  of  and  told,  as  with  have  ways in  "types  fabulous, or  same  which  function  of  in  folktale, about  gods  entertainment, them Tales.  folktales.  the  what  tales,  and C h a u c e r ' s  spectrum,  is "displaced"  but  posit  the  Hsia  n e g l i g i b l e , f o r among  comedies  impulse  above.  Fables  9  stories  function  considerations. first  5  The  5 8  as C T .  levels  he  6 2  of  a  ,  be  the  literatures.  He  realist  "When  according  or the furthest  believes  s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e of  our  i s being  on  myth  social  other  Dreiser,  as  Shakespeare's  realism  two  tell  major  noted  the fabulous,  Myths  of  Christian  tradition.  from  discounted  piece  fairy  "romance".  and  mode  writing  roots,  morals  P.R.C.  realist  been  and  the mythical  but f o r him r e a l i s m  from  suggests  Chinese  ,  a  already  i n Buddhist  have s t r o n g  and  as  fables, their  authority.  should  be  Hsia  has  by  overall  his final  identifies  but  be  that  Frye 6 1  admired  stubbornly  point  societal structures; not  was  CT.  stories differ of  an  they  and  should  and  syncretic  experience"  mythical  he  by  found  Northrop  which  into  i n h i s work  purpose  behavior.60 of  h i s death  stories are rather  points as  f i thim  i s characterized  "chuanqi" Xu's  to  pattern  we  to  work  start  tends  to  i s to ask, not  what  i s being  about  said  read kind the  society  the  story  temporaries his  society  outside even to  Xu  Dishan  -  the  is reflecting."63  his  stories  realm  when  they  rarely  of  gain  Unlike  reflected  tell  or  another  many  overtly  kind  of  topicality  in  a  verisimilitude  certain  particular historical  e v e n t s as  of  i t s most  his  con-  criticized  tale  and  limited  are  sense,  by  references  i n " Y u g u a n " o r "A  Daughter's  Heart." The how  to  by  story live  life  following  reality,  Xu  a  tells and  one's  reality  conceivable,  i s of  take  human,  responsibility  conscience. made  what  universal  His  marvellous  i s possible,  for  reality  fragments  journey  the  at  known  fullest  that  "A a  hero region  of  from  the  what  the  and  quest-myth  the  The  quest,  forth  a  of  i s .  6  the The  4  of the marvellous  "monomyth"  passage of  the  from  Hero  of  the  hero  decisive  mysterious  b o o n s on h i s f e l l o w m a n . "  6 7  with  can the  s u p e r n a t u r a l wonder:  encountered back  of  i n h i s book,  ventures  heightened  that  6 5  lies  romance.  the  monomyth,  of  actions  wrote  be  of  fabulous  forces  the  the power  Joseph  diversity Faces.  as  common  i s won:  with  and  up  spirit  in  Thousand  summed  world  victory  adventure  a  human  comes  mammoth d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y  theme  Campbell's  quest-myth,  analysis  r e p r e s e n t e d by  Campbell's of  the  t h e h e a r t of most  The as  as  he  than  journeys of h i s c h a r a c t e r s are l i k e  one's is a  because  rather  values,  6 6  follows: day  into  are  there  hero  comes  to  bestow  More b r i e f l y , b u t more s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  he d e s c r i b e s i t a s , to  separation  some s o u r c e o f p o w e r , a n d Both  a  "A  Campbell  mythical  which  hero's  involve  hero  and  returns  a  give  "standard or  path",69  h a v e b o t h shown what p l a c e t h i s literature.  attempt  to  stories  closely  and  that  quest all  finds  i t s most  outline  this  the  which  of  the  romance  traditional I  Xu  shall  Dishan's  "standard  mode  the  Wilhelm  follows  two  of  passage  Hellmut  that  of  pattern  and  from  path"  i n which  frequent expression are present  the  the  hero,  origin  her  youthful Eden  play  an  or  and  the  a  The  journey  important part.  seen  in  follows  as  the  nearly  comes  imagery  beginning and  the  theme  of  One  into a l a b y r i n t h i n e world or  call  to  and  the  in of  which the  a  the  a  birth  new.  The  q u e s t i o n of the  story.  and  sets  off  involves  ' b e l l y of the whale',  "a  his The  beautiful  comes,  adventures  trials  on  symbolized  of  adventure hero  i s  a mythological  First  7 2  flood  the  major  that  i s innocent, pastoral  involuntarily,  involving  by  mysterious  the hero fall.  be  journeys.  cycle  i s often  the  path  must  accompanied  old  world of before  and  i s usually  identity  voluntarily quest,  an  hero's  humbler  often  of  the  scale  f o r much  death  hero's  of  archetypal  prototype  -  of  the  de  holds i n  analysis  structure  follows  rites  A d k i n s and  quest-myth  the  the  -the  of  h i s work.  grand,  or  In  1  that  elements  The  of  show  7  descriptions  journey  Curtis  penetration  return."68  detailed  spiral  t r a n s c e n d e n t .70  Chinese  the world, a  a life-enhancing  Frye  circular  from  and a  either on  the  trials descent  world-wide  womb  image".  form  of  of  a  The  7 3  break  identity.  hero  descent  i n consciousness  follows,  "death"  the  hero  s t i l l  continues  she  i s now  remembrance,  growing  freedom,  i s s t i l l  transformation.  by  recognition  this the of but  ordeal  as  a  movement  achieves  i n which  the hardest  task  " t h e boon  stages  of  that  of  a  7 8  was  Xu  nadir  and  with  undergoes  sexual  union  again  to return  enlightenment,  identity  restores the world." withdrawal  an  Frye  7 6  following  major  has  'inner  l i f e ' " .  8  1  the single-minded  of the evolution  Yuguan, goal  a  young  of wanting  to  to the world,  story  widow  her son  posits  the  quest  "mystery". and  of the  own  or  i s found;  piece"  "reflection  a  expansion  "a s m a l l  and a  The  7 4  Frye c h a r a c t e r i z e s  7  0  i s of  provides  been d e s c r i b e d as h i s " s p i r i t u a l t e s t a m e n t " ^ , 8  or  t o the hero's u l t i m a t e  and up  last  he  identity,  often  of a l l i s the return  Dishan's  while  now  real  i n w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e i s "comprehended" and no l o n g e r a "Yuguan"  and  trials,  power  h i s or her lost  of contemplative  of the  enchantment."  often  down  death  imagery  the father-creator.  The h e r o  7 5  consciousness  bringing two  by  reaches  confusion  re-birth,  one's  benign  i s rewarded,  cyclical  creator.  now  and  of  as n e c e s s a r y  hero  some  of a dragon-battle.  the breaking  a r e seen  The  o r mimic  predominant  but a  i n i t s wake  growing  the road  or discovery  perilous,  and t h e t r i a l s  along  The  and  a  i s f o l l o w e d by  ascending.  "escape,  supreme  and  sometimes as t h e r e s u l t  hero's  aid,  brings  Occasionally the real  The  road  often  with  7 7  i t has master-  author's one s o n ,  t o become  an  official  and  hood.  To  moves  based  with a  she to  as  i t  is  for  C h r i s t i a n convert, Her  on  the  desire  her  son  and  to  obtain  at  with  and  and  her  gains  her  this  the  again  and  and  becomes  to  the  estranged is  Yuguan's p a t h . husband,  ghosts  of  of  of  and  provoke  a  attracted  all  night  long.  she  room.  In  time  of  her  the  man  several  Unable  morning  she close  with  of  prepared yet  she  crisis  of that  to to she  Christian difference  inner no  her  friend  Chen L i a n ,  sleep,  Xingguan.  sleep  to  Xingguan's in  chants  fitfully,  i s convinced  cross  convinced  she  she  discovers  Staying is  that  travels  coincidences  she  doubts  doubt  later  belief.  caretaker,  manages  The  On  Chen  is  wide.  crisis.  which  in  beliefs  devout  in  a  of  a  left  crisis  and  inner  this  are  to  husband first  being  we  first  Bible  is  her  her  the  living.  is  and  encounter  her  a  self-knowledge  f a r and  first  in  It  conviction  again  the  are  missionary  a s p i r a t i o n s , and so.  Her  marks  house  reputation  show  will  discovery  superficial,  with  her  she  eventually  is  nor  towards  work sends her  meets be  do  widow-  story.  outer  conflict  to  journey  1  her m i s s i o n a r y  stressed  others  Yuguan s  theme o f  between  customs  and  free  herself  Chinese  exhorts  a  provide odds  chaste  brother-in-law  conversion  Christianity,  her  her  Xingguan,  understand  up  is  her  not  Yuguan  old  of  does  the  This  attentions  identity  identity  is  i n memory o f  outer  give  and  the  arch  her  continually  is  a  an  Christian herself.  education Thus  erect  escape  in  becomes  then  the that from  disturbed  that  Chinese  ghosts she  will  prays  that  first  comes  later  marries  along  worst  trials  of her identity  the road  selfishness  the respect  what  life  was  o f Changes among t h e  as a Chinese  of her development. daughters  and h y p o c r i s y  woman  and compliments  idea  when  a r e seen  of one's  Her  path,  Although  missionary  A jealous at To  their Yuguan  friends  s h e was  she was, i n f a c t ,  t o marry  Chen  her daughter-in-law  son goes  having  and  a n d e n j o y i n g p o s t h u m o u s fame a f t e r w a r d ,  decides  once again  Yuguan's  ( t h eother  with her daughter-in-law.  a l labout.  the heavenly  h e r , Yuguan  Yuguan  from  and i t b r i n g s her  h e r d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w was i n f l u e n c i n g h e r s o n t o b e  this  that  night  i s i n full abroad  Lian,  dies  supposedly  looking f o r  a w o r l d l y p a t h t h a t w o u l d t a k e h e r t o t h e same e n d " .  to  home  t h a t s h e i s a l s o more t h a n a r i c e - C h r i s t i a n  i n her relationship  treading  o f The Book  fearful  o f Yuguan's  relatives while living, was  and ensures  a copy  dark,  her return  and s o l d by Yuguan's b r o t h e r - i n - l a w ) .  Yuguan's  "having  tablets  one o f Xingguan's  been kidnapped mother,  a n d on  foremost.  The r e a l i z a t i o n  son  The  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  texts  carried  her Bible.  i s the f i r s t  closer  Chinese  on s h e always  with  ghosts  fear  to her ancestral  time  along  only  8 3  Convinced  disrespectful  only  abandoning  i n childbirth  and  charge. t o study  w o r k b u t i t i s made q u i t e  and Yuguan clear  continues her  that i ti s a fraud.  When c a u g h t o u t i n a r g u m e n t w i t h l o c a l s c h o o l - t e a c h e r s q u e s t i o n i n g her  beliefs,  she i s a t a l o s s  t o know what  to say.  " I t would  be  an  exaggeration  was  shaken  not  have  never  any  In  been  fact,  work.  She  give  a  style  whole.  The  narration  help  dark  to  marking  peaceful  and  this  mount.  Taken  captive give  with  them  to  them.  by  her  by  many  her  spiritual As  own  shock  belly  of  and  preaching  She  i s confidently able sins  ready  to  offer  peak  when  nearby  and  church.  and  She  is  the  insurgents,  back  gentle  story  that and  as  of  the  is  the  totally  Her  old  is  is  at  as  gains  to  convinced  self  receives  courage  her  wave  into of  flock  realize  the  intent  out  from  on  lambs, or confidence into  and  of her  calm.  rape  lions  of now  reaches  sanctuary  power  to  preach  i f coming  soldiers  held  first  the other c a p t i v e s to remain  The  to  she  increasingly  re-born,  transformed  leads  troubles  persuaded  unbelieving  She  her  Reluctant  finally  to persuade  comes  of  daughter-in-law  becomes  protection. Yuguan  The  lend a sympathetic  whale.  are  came  4  hypocrisy  she  encourages  they  8  believe  missionary  son]  l i f e . "  converts.  she  the  to  had  story.  so  and  own  their  selfish  a i d , she  does  [her  did  She  i n her  typical  communist  exhortations.  traumatic  Campbell's  she  asked  faith she  s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d honesty  Yuguan's  prisoner of  i s  her  with.  was  until  of  because  begin  she  time  the  of  to  comfortable  and  to her  death  occasions,  interested  passage  undercut  the  foundation  what  really  s i d e of Yuguan's n a t u r e  After  its  as  not  just  light  the  foundation  humour  understanding  a  was  of  that  embarrassing  clear  she  was  her  dead-pan a  such  say  religious  really  in.  to  on  to  in  a  efficacy  of  her  preaching,  towards her  real  but  belief.  permanently  She  of  i s now  Xingguan's Yuguan  at  on  the  the  start  of  her  journey  path  towards  grandson  becomes  ascending  daughter-in-law  she  becomes  her  life  bowls  to at  amends." persona Her  she  and of  in  of  a  her  for  seller  Finally  strived that  conscious  a  instead  Yuguan's  long  memorial  within  self  and  hero  out  outer of  spiritual  and  persona  legend,  aware  only  to  "take she  selves that  are  our  of  the  the  off  are  should  be  truly  transformation by  into last  uses  one view  whole of  not  mended  meaning  of  to  unite  the  outer  her  inner  rewards  I t no in  her  which matters she  existence,,  reward.  i s of  Her  conflicting  of  identity.  Yuguan  for  memory;  her  merging  harmony  longer  religious is  beliefs.  into  t h e d i s c o v e r y o f two  the. c o n s e q u e n t  does  make  earthly  built  likening  and  brought  unimportant.  8 5  mask  i s able with  son  relapse"  she  true  her  this.  her  hypocrisy,  who  new than  of  "final  china  a  other  with  which  t o l e a d a humble and  her  is  in  missionary  enlightenment i s represented selves  of  time  conflicting  f o r so  none  faith  conscious  first  dedicated  a  with  be  relationship  s e l f i s h n e s s and  the  a  her  to  home  i n the darkness of her  For  becomes  strives  nadir  resolves  of  her  Yuguan  she  formerly she  Only  life 8 6  returns  daughter.  missionary  that  son  her  out  home.  Christian  her  as  turns  aware a  continues  who  the  and  as  and  wife,  other  reaches  believe  trials  crippled  foreign-educated  to  i s only  creator. Yuguan's road  as  she  her 8 7  her  inner Like  a  waving  from has  the  ship  Lian,  to  Yuguan's sets  out  to  for  is  be  to  life  both  to  him  Xu's of  is possible  been  a  shall  boon  that  response  d e s c r i b e d as  final  from  final  words,  "Whosoever  monomyth  shall  lose  his  the  reader  which  senses  shapes  a  harking  back  traditional  "momentary",  to  Chinese  a  that  i t is  character's their  fate.  the  tradition  hero  to  events  capacity  to  "respond  t h e n e e d s o f t h e moment"89 and c h a n g e a p p r o a c h e s  and  attitudes  closely  to  the  adventures  romance h e r o ' s that  bombard  response  him.  to the  Frye  This corresponds external  contrasts  o f t h e r o m a n c e mode t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l  of  found  causality" plot  -  "'given  in realism these  where  the  characters,  what  events  this  characteristic  the  she  informing  Campbell's  a c c o r d i n g to the p r e s s u r e s of a p a r t i c u l a r time.  and  The  as  it."88  was the  husband,  desire  friend. and  She  task represents  selfish  her  quest.  Xingguan's  character controlling  Xu of  This  apotheosis  events  a  her  finding  to  stories,  than  on  her.  find  external  rather  The  to  freedom  back  earlier  her  task of  in Christ's  sake,  series  here.  the  Yuguan's  found  response  has  bring  f o r my In  return  carry  transcendent  motif  It  will  t a k e n upon h e r s e l f  Chen  the  that  typical  "technique  characters will  define  happen?  '"90  Many o f X u ' s  p r o t a g o n i s t s s h a r e the t r a d i t i o n a l h e r o ' s momentary  capacity  they  it  comes  and  Daughter's of  events  float  adjusting Heart",  that  i s  befalls  on  the  sea-currents, taking  accordingly. able her,  to  Linzhi,  adjust  always  heroine  swiftly  managing,  life  to  of  as "A  the  chain  somehow,  until  the  very  end, t o t u r n  Yuguan  i s rather  individual  who  certainly it  as  mature in  have  and  an  a sense,  the  the  impact  f o r much to  defines romance  wish-fulfilment of  h e r own  character  decision  "The  different,  creates  h e r own  actions  her adventures  fairy  reassurance,  what  alter  the  h e r own  dream". or  External  but  they  do  befalls  h e r , and  direction  of  restored  It  might  and  of  be  ingredient  the  of  not  describes as A  9 2  "fable-like  romance  9 3  of ,  l i f e  but  elements  happy e n d i n g . "  "Yuguan" a romance, a l b e i t dimensional, construct character  she  of  does  good  i s f a r from  heroes are conceived to  perfection.  or  a  state  and  of  not bad  "a  forms  to the  can  ending  of  CT.  9 4  the Hsia,  l i f e - l i k e . f i ti n t o  9  5  a  characters.  straightforward.  journey  self-knowledge.  provides  as  ending  before.  i s a  o f t h e romance  complex  i n contrast,  simple She  considers  romance  and  from to  Both  Robinson  the  i s not one-  Romance  them  world,,  and  develops  brings  vital  realistic,  plot  Yuguan  of  temporarily,  continue  t h e happy  ending  transcendence  of i n terms of a journey  Their  a  She,  t h e happy  happy  i n t h e w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t dreams  the  f o r her  l i f e .  L e w i s R o b i n s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t "Yuguan" i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y despite  shape  she makes  her  a l lliterary  comedy  man."  cycle  "manipulated"  an  factors  i s responsible  t h e sense t h a t t h e s t a t u s quo, d i s r u p t e d  is  much  plot.  divine  tragedy  i s very  She  Campbell  9 1  f o r she  life,  does.  of  advantage.  conflicts.  her  i s nearest  tale  universal  on  to her  ideal  and  her  mythical  imperfection  enlightenment and  Hsia  stress  Yuguan's  spiritual  transcendence  and b o t h  believe  Xu  was  m a k i n g an i m p o r t a n t and u n i v e r s a l p o i n t a b o u t human s p i r i t u a l i t y and  h i s own  Walcutt  search  suggests  self-knowledge  f o r "disinterested  that  a  of development.  suggests  transcendence elements provides and  instead  9 7  individual  towards  and t h e f i n a l  of a return  story  task  of a f f i r m a t i o n , t o an i d y l l i c  modes.  world  growth  "stubbornly  jealousies  thoroughly  believable.  The a r g u m e n t s  sense.  Her f e a r s  by  her daughter-in-law,  is  realistic.  of  romance.  desired.  Chinese".98  feet,  s h e uses, t o  justify  supplanted  of her s t o r y  The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e p l o t ,  mind, i s  d i s a p p r o v a l make  and v e r y n a t u r a l .  framework  with  her black  and c a l c u l a t i n g  o f abandonment, o f b e i n g  The s t r u c t u r a l  Tightness  of her p e r s o n a l i t y ,  of C h r i s t i a n  are typical  ending  self-knowledge,  narrow  her maternal  great  The h a p p y  as i s t h e shape o f  towards  Yuguan, w i t h h e r l o n g  i n the face  a l l echo  universally  i s universal,  of her gradual  worship  a  her s p i r i t u a l  of the s t o r y ' s  umbrella,  ancestor  towards  she s e t s h e r s e l f  and romance  self-knowledge  realistic.  mystery,  undergoing  working  i t s s t r e s s on t h e s t r o n g l y C h i n e s e e l e m e n t s is  i s  self-knowledge,  her s t o r y , b u t she n o n e t h e l e s s remains The  a  of s e l f .  journey  a sense  remains  Yuguan's c h a r a c t e r i s n o t s t a t i c  a real  o f t h e myth  Yuguan's  towards  h i s or her i n d i v i d u a l i t y  s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d sense Yuguan's  of a quest  a c h a r a c t e r by d e f a u l t  because  but  Charles  i n the depiction  undefined process  goodness".96  Yuguan i s that  the extraordinary  c o i n c i d e n c e s and t h e happy e n d i n g a r e a l l The  affirmation  a c h i e v e d by  universal validity  In  perhaps  ironic more  contrast  truly  akin  d o e s n o t h a v e a happy e n d i n g . for  Linzhi,  the story's  quest  fails  gives  a potentially  romance return air pure the  and  tale,  she  and  to the i d e a l  slightly  heroes  a world  u n d e r l i n e s the  t o "Yuguan", to the pure  "A  i s doomed tragic  youthful  t o wander  twist  the r e s u l t i n g  romance  with  t o an lack  of s i m p l i f i e d  and  no  linear  structure  of the  one  encompasses  i n which It is  a vision  an i d y l l i c , p a s t o r a l p l a c e w i t h f o u n t a i n s and g a r d e n s , and w i s e o l d men. 1-00  -  an u n e a s y  the heroines b e a u t i f u l . "  morality  Xu  typical  of a f f i r m a t i o n  the c y c l i c a l  Her  Thus  otherwise  The romance w o r l d i s an i d e a l i z e d and  mode,  heroine.  forever.  world - gives the story  are brave  Daughter's  T h e r e i s no s p i r i t u a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e  perennially  incongruous  romance.  t h e happy e n d i n g  o f Yuguan's j o u r n e y o f t h e s o u l .  somewhat  Heart",  t r u e romance e l e m e n t s .  of  children  i t i s a world of adventure, a " s e n s a t i o n a l "  w o r l d where e v e n t p i l e s upon e v e n t i n a s e r i e s o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s episodes.!01 tional series  Chinese of  narrative  events.1-02  She t u m b l e s the  piaks notes a s i m i l a r a e s t h e t i c s t r e s s i n t r a d i -  headlong  on  the " d o v e - t a i 1 ing"  Linzhi's  story  f r o m one awkward  only  connecting thread being  her l i f e ,  the quest f o r her f a t h e r .  The  story  begins  i n true  is full situation  the quest  dramatic  of of  episodic adventure.  into that  fashion.  another, dominates  A  Manchu  official The  prepares  scene  that  of  frustrating  her  the  quest  She  Her  illusion  i s h e r own,  journey,  dream-like  "Reality  fire  end  described.  'once  the  o l d e r a and  thrust  out  into  to  leave  begin  the  except  the  happily  ever  collisions  to  identity  with  i s a  s t a n c e s . "104 "Most  t o mix  reality  identity, is  aware  most  and of  heroic  concealed fate her upon  her  romance  a  quest.  touch  of  with  with  a  figures  who  b t  mystery  to  tyranny is a a  romance  her  u  and  are  they  and  the  these  form  of  to  return circum-  alienation.  the  state  of  it."105  does  not  share  often  the  victims  ignorance gives  within  lived  adventures,  her  of  her  the  the  Linzhi with  family  of  family's  reason  s t r e s s e s the importance  identity  readily  from  she are  only  i s "existence  'and  of  return  departure  something  D o u g l a s McOmber  individual's  "Identity"  i n romance  happily,  origin,  the  of  illusion.  i n between  the  age  road  of the  circumstances,  from  i d e n t i t i e s , 106  adds  an  external  begin  the  where  and  subsequent  happens  release  end  begin become  i s an o r d e r o f e x i s t e n c e most  What  Illusion  romances  to  golden  along  definition  this  symbolic  world  f o r i t s ending,  t i m e ' , and  after.'  or  i n  the  idyllic,  journey  follows Frye's  f o r romance  a  the  blood-bath  motif  of  tendency  upon  collapses.  The  (a r e c u r r i n g  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e word " i d e n t i t y " . " before  the dynasty  f o r a f a m i l y she b e l i e v e s t o have  and  trials.  as  simply  a  i s forced  childhood  world's  by  the heroine,  immortal. of  both  suicide  and  followed  marks  "birth" her  i s starkly  ensues,  story)  for loyal  Xu  for  placed  context,  and  while  McOmber  it  does  seem  to  the idealized  t h r u s t . !07  as  By  sometimes i f Linzhi's  world  t h e end  of  identified  with  of finding  In and  1  0  from  i s very  which  the story,  with  closely  s h e was however,  the quest  too  f a r ,  linked  so  rudely  she becomes  per se, rather  than  her family.  the confusion  two b r o t h e r s ,  h i s argument  identity  family  increasingly the goal  stretches  following Linzhi  8  the murders  escapes  death  o f h e r mother  at her father's  hand by h i d i n g i n a t r e e and t h e n s l i p p i n g o u t o f t h e b e l e a g u e r e d city  o f Guangzhou u n n o t i c e d .  from  killing  Buddhist  himself  monk,  to  a  of  the story  he  does  can  path  be  we  lose  sight  to allow  earlier  deeds.  with a  streams  meanwhile,  begins  world  no  by  Until  1 0 9  sense  h i m an  use of  innocently  of nature.  She  are benign she leaves  world,  and b e a u t i f u l . this  untroubled  i n p l a y and ends i n f e a r .  to  untouched  A stroll  i n  cottage  Briefly  Linzhi  the forests  In her desire place  he  redress  to his idyllic  where  end  parallel  too i s taken  him and h i s grand-daughter, Y i g u . Arcadian  and  on  a n d , when  of c e r t a i n t y that  opportunity  h e r home  man  the very  father,  the author's  wanders  who b r i n g s  pastoral,  family  the distraught  of Linzhi's  i t i s with  scenes  live  leads  redemption.  and  b y a n o l d man  t h e m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f an o l d  who  except  enters  her  spiritual  an u n t h r e a t e n i n g  hand to  the guide  reappear,  L i n z h i , in  through  identified,  images his  of  Meanwhile her f a t h e r i s prevented  and  to  find  on a j o u r n e y  that  i n a gentle,  forested  valley  becomes a dark,  kidnapped  demonic  scene  by mountain-dwelling  n a i v e l y b e l i e v e s t o be immortal  when the two g i r l s a r e  outlaws  whom L i n z h i  at f i r s t ,  e m i s s a r i e s from her f a m i l y .  She and Yigu develop a growing rapport with t h e i r c a p t o r s who  decide  t o g i v e up t h e i r  Dissatisfied  with  outlaw  the f a t e  decreed  life  t o become  soldiers.  f o r her as serving-maid  to one of them, the e v e r - r e s o u r c e f u l L i n z h i escapes only  t o be t r i c k e d  into  joining  a wandering  band  alone,HO o f quacks  and acrobats whom she b e l i e v e s w i l l take her back t o Guangzhou. L i n z h i ' s sojourn with outlaws and her wanderings with t r a v e l l i n g performers "green  have a magical  world"  a i r t o them r e m i n i s c e n t of Frye's  ( o r greenwood),  a dream w o r l d  into  and  out  of which romance c h a r a c t e r s s l i p . H - 1 A f t e r s e v e r a l years of wandering L i n z h i and her companions finally there  do indeed Linzhi  i s kidnapped  an unscrupulous man. acquaintance with  approach Guangzhou, but before  Linzhi  again  and made the wife of  The c o i n c i d e n t a l appearance of an ex-bandit  who happens  the chaos caused  gives  once  she reaches  t o work  by an a t t a c k  the opportunity  f o r h e r husband, on t h e c i t y ,  t o escape.  d e s t r o y s the p l a c e she has l e f t .  While  coupled  once more,  Once again  a fire  w a i t i n g at the t r a i n  s t a t i o n with other refugees from the c i t y she b r i e f l y  encounters  an o l d monk whom she i s l a t e r convinced must be her f a t h e r . On friend who  Linzhi's Yigu,  arrival  now m a r r i e d  has become  eminently  i n Guangzhou  she t r a c e s h e r  old  t o one o f t h e e r s t w h i l e b a n d i t s r e s p e c t a b l e and p o w e r f u l .  Yigu  has  become  and  uses  find  her  husband,  steadfast  romance  world  fashionable  -  She  Linzhi  dresses  b u t , much  to her quest.  friend's  continuing  the assault well-meant  her  search,  of returning  One  of  and  worldly  now  focussed  him  in  the f a i r y  who  her father  as  meat  Lear's her  salt  Cordelia,  violent  maintaining  a n d was she  Unfortunately with  her father  identify an  final  means  him  the  i s not  i n their  within failed  next saving  lives  of her family that  and  while  i t sc a n c e l l i n g  out.  cottage,  now  him as  much  like  despite  to her  a l l her  King  goal,  trials. reunited  because,  before  she can  t h e o l d monk  by  putting  One l e v e l  dies  out the  in  third  t o ensure h i s i d e n t i t y eternally  writing  who  two  levels  i s the tale  says  unsure  of  t h e monk w a s .  i s the story Frye  She  t o be  and e x a c t l y  the other  on  desire  t o remain  was  insists  father  steadfast  Her f a i l u r e  Xu  ignores  Like the princess  to her  encounter,  "A D a u g h t e r ' s H e a r t " . quest,  her  innocent  t h e o l d monk.  she loved  holds  f u l f i l l e d  i s doomed  i s possible  and  her t r u t h , through  of the story.  Linzhi  whereabout It  deed  fire  that  She  s i x phases  f o r her pains,  loyal  f o r Linzhi,  a c t of redemption,  and  remains  her integrity,  on  to  Linzhi  Linzhi  1 1 2  wears  hopes  of the  i n peace.  rejected  abandonment.  and  t o t h e o l d man's  lives  told  she  Frye's  advice  out their  loves  of  of experience."  with  up  integrity  abandoned, t o l i v e tale  everything  to her exasperation,  i s "the maintaining  against  dreams  and  i s foreign.  her a  remains of  elegant  that  of  story  of Linzhi's  of her  father's  "the  complete  form  o f t h e romance  i s clearly  a complete form has three journey  and  struggle, hero the  main stages:  the preliminary  usually  some  1  story  While  3  spiritual  struggle,  resembles  the successful  Frye  d i e , and  "dialectical"  1  1  4  ,  takes  enemies were  through  developing  Yuguan's  enemies,  mellowed  products in-law  and  was  perceived  her.  with  Anni,  deep  introspection  herself  a  same  the second  was  herself,  and  two  conflicting  role  of  i n the  o f t h e romance  of her  that  father's  more  closely  the hero  coincidental  Like  and h i s f i n a l  of  her  imagining.  true  Yuguan cause an  of  was  able  Yuguan, heroic  brother-in-law primarily  t h e enemy  the  daughter-  i s how  Yuguan  I t i s only t o admit  battle  her external  either  of her relationship  of c o n f l i c t .  inner  be  destruction.  Her f i r s t  because that  to  a n d h i s enemy.  nullified,  daughter-in-law.  that  halves  t h e romance  i n o l d age, were  threat  s h e won  i n t o harmony.  or  i s largely  the primary  was  was h i m s e l f  jealous  really The  of  the exception  reformed  only  story  and q u i c k l y  friendship  o f h e r own  form  between  ephemeral  with  the  quest.  conflict  Linzhi's  crucial  either  the dominant  the unwritten  the central  a  such  the exaltation  r e - b i r t h and a p o t h e o s i s  believes  and  the  i n which  and h e r a d v e n t u r e s match c e r t a i n elements i t i s possibly  self  adventures;  battle  must  Linzhi  pattern,  who  of  quest  the stage of the perilous  minor  kind  or h i s foe, or both, hero." !  the successful  after  that  Yuguan s  enemy  1  by  bringing  persona  and  of Linzhi's  a c t represents  she  the inner  father  the completion  of  his struggle  existence  prior  journey  gains the  a  above. of  with  her  the  quest  a  her  as  are  from her  of  remains boat  always.  sits  uneasily  affirmation. must her  always identity  There  i s no  committed  in his  which  to  last  stands  in  her no  to  the  and  the  fate  with  who  her  her  grows  own  making  ephemeral, and  like  In  "A  on  a  Her wander  to  like  the  form  i s bound  who so  resolution,  readily  i s  that  will  closely no  the  to  a  affirmation  undeveloped,  from  to  family  watches  carries small  she  for Linzhi  with  tragedy  laughter  herself,  that  herself.  c l o u d s she she  her  identi-  problems  homeless  find  the  reunited  t o change  Linzhi's  of  be  i s human,  given  never  to  distanced  hope  Heart"  personality,  not d e v e l o p Yuguan's  acts  fruitless  more  tragedy and  because  Yuguan  who  story's  i s tragic  the coloured  Daughter's  recurring  meetings  understand  and  the  remains  i s too  plight.  immortals  unchanging  exists,  reader  of  bungled  singleminded desire  longer  she  enclose the  and  her  as  shape  despite  her  but  scene  the  serve  ways  tale. though  Guangzhou  some  problem  i s i n c o m p l e t e , even  L i n z h i does not grow, she does  someone  the  the  unfinished,  identify  largely  Linzhi  In  that  self-awareness,  fiable,  in  clouds  fire  i t i s by  family  really  he  unresolved, a  i s unfinished,  return  remains  child-like.  to  the  and  father.  dominated  crimes  her c i r c l e  hope  journey  escape  structure,  of  watching  Her  images  with  kind  boat  the  remains  continues to travel,  she on  redress  t o monk-hood.  Linzhi's She  to  child  and who  because has and  lost. her  unresolved father  who  In the  character completes  of  true  sympathy.  It  i s hex*  the q u e s t .  h i s moving  knowledge  precludes  testament  sorrow's  to  the  power,  "De  bitter  end  of  Profundis",  love  Oscar  and  Wilde  d e s c r i b e s J e s u s C h r i s t as " t h e p a l p i t a t i n g c e n t r e o f r o m a n c e " who  "more  than  anyone  else  in  h i s t o r y . . .wakes  temper o f wonder t o w h i c h  Romance a l w a y s  fairy  "The  and  tales,  "The  values of  particularly  Selfish  such  as  charity  individuals  tragic, and  Giant",  and  toward  despairing  a  state  tive  who  same  time  cannot  Wilde extremes" viewpoint essences  lyrical  f o r a cause  i n which  Christian the  growth  There  reality  i s denied.  that  beauty  chronicle  of  seems f u t i l e fairy  tale  of a  are  intrudes  "The  Love,  but  single,  and a  a  clarification  life's  through  experiences.  He  Night-  tiny  at  the  bird's  y e t i s supreme.  way  F r y e , the  new  prophet  of  W i l d e as " t h e h e r a l d o f a new  the  age  a  used  modern l i f e i n a f o r m remote f r o m r e a l i t y " . that  with  Prince"  to  "mediate  the  o f r e a l i t y and a r t , o f f e r i n g as i t does a d i s t a n c i n g  and of  Happy  transcendence.  of l i f e  the  c o n s i d e r e d the  1 1 9  and  that  Wilde's  1 1 6  the nature of  love  us  i s b i t t e r i n i t s a t t a c k on t h e u n i m a g i n a -  appreciate  i t is a  martyrdom  1 1 8  of  i n some  the l o n g e d - f o r a f f i r m a t i o n  i n g a l e and t h e R o s e "  with  selfless  moments  appeals."  Young K i n g " , "The  deal  1 1 7  in  1 1 5  reduction the  1 2  romance  0  form  to  to  bare  "mirror  i t i s unsurprising genre,  in literature"  1 2 1  should  hail  f o r Wilde's  witty of  yet deeply-felt  life  essay  includes  or  magic  of  facts"  of  a  b e a u t i f u l , haunting  and t h e r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n  that  A r t provides.  that  He  represents  the mysterious  into  Chinese  Zhou  Zuoren  Chinese tales  i n the f i r s t translated  i n 1921.  i n the Chinese  literary  into  the vernacular.  "The  Nightingale  i sprobable  despite  their  standable subtle  specifically  and p e r s u a s i v e that  try  t o emulate  the  complex  they  the moral  and a p p e a l i n g  suggestive  were  moral  are infused  world  translated century.  into  classical  of this  and  "curious"  writers  2  5  Wilde's ,  notes  translated  s t o r i e s were  apparently  well  explored  Giant"  by a l l  Xu Dishan's  through  underWilde's I ti s  who  should  two f a i r y - t a l e s Wilde's  notions  1 2 6  stories,  genre.  convert  of Oscar  the traditional  groups.  w e r e made  audience  be a C h r i s t i a n  a n d "The  i n these  use of the f a i r y - t a l e  While  1  other  t o be  C h r i s t i a n nature,  v i s i o n and beauty with  were  "The S e l f i s h  issues  mode  3  versions  to a foreign  i t should him.  2  Prince"  received  touch  picture  of the Twentieth  Western  and t h e Rose",  that  a contrasting 1  of  o f wonder  of the realist  and plays  H i s most p o p u l a r  and they  f o r freedom  B o n n i e M c D o u g a l l , who f i n d s  1 2 4  he was o n e o f t h e f i r s t  Prince",  anti-realist  the " c h i l l i n g  A r t .  "The Happy  that  Happy  by  decades  separation  of t h e element  attacks  tales  i n 1909 a n d v e r n a c u l a r  appeared  status  fairy  This  1 2 2  the invasion  delights given  Wilde's  f o r the  plea  "The K i n g d o m o f Romance" a n d p a i n t s  Oscar  It  argument  a n d A r t i n "The Decay o f L y i n g " .  imagination  into  critical  lack  stories,  o f good  and  evil  and  have a c e r t a i n charm of  their  own.  B o t h Xu D i s h a n ' s f a i r y - t a l e s w e r e p u b l i s h e d books  series  in  1941,  the  Lantern"  ("Ying  Deng") ,  elements  of  hero's  of  a  the  prince  of  a  the  defeated  a  gem-encrusted,  a  earlier red  "The  discovered  jewel  lantern.  the  magic  Shwe  Dagon  place  the  enemy  daughter. falls her  pagoda walls  in  p r i c k s her intruder together  in  In  a  love  and  on  the  k i l l  p o n d e r o u s h u m o u r we  of  into  a  tells  the  tale  into  same d e v i c e  a  jewel  on  There  1 2 8  the  is  however,  no  by  prince pressing  within in his  which  opens  a  wall  of  magic  merely  a  the story  sequence  heroine  his  here The  cavity  inside  in  room  the  her.  The  The of  informed  is of  princess  as  princess,  royal the that  door the  garden hiding  theme he  heart.  only hero  stands  over later  mysterious long  With  serving  to  the  catch the spend  off  King's  furthermore,  pair  the  carried the  Beauty  t o s t a y awake and  matters  are  the  Sleeping  sleeping  apartments.  talking  many  lantern.  prince  placed  f i n g e r i n order i n her  has  represented  a i r , the  lantern,  the  twist  to  two,  prince.  with  with  "Firefly  carried  f a s c i n a t i n g dream  Rangoon.  The  7  It  gold  the  pressing  the  deposed  kingdom  intending  by  of  lantern  used  a  2  l a n t e r n ' s s e c r e t s by  door  fairy-tale  garden  f o r the The  In  1  the  being  horse  the  a  of  theme.  massive  of  opened  a  earlier  Trojan  one  Bird".  story  a  behind  a  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Xu  into  the  which  Mingming  lends  in  d i e d .  country  palace  had  he  journey  conqueror's marvellous  year  in a children's  a  maids  nights certain become  suspicious laid  out  is  garments  f o r w a s h i n g and  amounts after  when  of  food  dark.  and  time  the  cast  into  a  and  has  her,  demands  that  eat.  In  searches  the  reward  arrives  and  demands  entry.  At  judging  but by  and  princess  he  princess  apartments  after  princess  external enlists  asks  to  and  any at  goes  the  for  the  aid.  As  the  a  which  the  imprisoned  same  cave  where  disoriented is the by  the  the  a  The an  until  of  and  of  a  the  they with  secret  glow  t h e m on  on  he  princess,  final  prince.  see  He  her  is  a  faithful the  lantern  thousand  -  fireflies  -  in  of rags  friend  reveals  for  which  his  curing  and  connection into  the  completely  approaching. who  has  the  immediately  friend  has  i t can  and  One  of  light  that  cure  importance  the  companions,  to  the  l i e helpless  great  desperate  to  lantern,  prince  decline  inclined  reward  throws  a  disguised  on  the  from  owns.  princess  homily  prince  someone  he  palace  the  into  fashion  low  appearances,  given  water  treasure  swift  her  be  fairy-tale  first a  by  and  arouses the k i n g ' s s u s p i c i o n s because of the l a n t e r n ' s with  are  indelicate  her  discovered  The  of  friends  him,  are  high  prince's  identity  a  enter  guarded  true  the  not  no-one  cave  escaped.  King  offering  lovers  pitch-black  to  the  ignore  to  when t h e p r i n c e s s o r d e r s m o s t  young  ever  refuses  father  unsuited  1 2 9  In  no-one  most  It  discovered  only  come  to  be l i t rescue  raft. party  decides  underground  river  to  go  which  further  into  eventually  the  leads  cave, them  borne out  to  a  pool  is  within  welcomed  with  by  an army  the  prince  The  balance  images  during  and t h e f u t u r e  war-time,  of light  it  right  this  destroying  o f an  figure The  who  story  the hero's into  teaches  farming them  the Southern  this  episode  talents. her  aunt,  dyes  and  inner entire  story  and  people  of t h e Miao  of  i n learning  The  with  i s punctuated  by  whose  sole  second  with  story,  i t s pastoral  a fertility-goddess good  harvests.  o f Shen  girl  Congwen,  whose  s e e h e r as  her obvious also  Her p a t i e n t  villagers  tainted beauty  talent  the villagers'  industry  and by  and  of the  the frivolous  i s dancing.  songs  by  of vegetable  win her the love of Yingu,  parents  ill-treated  the properties  the exception  the chief  h i s bride,  preoccupations.130  g i r l ,  gradually  With  conquering  The s u p e r s t i t i o u s  of weaving.  beauty  order.  with  tales  cave-village  t h e young  solace  the skills  village,  and  represents  love  and p l a n t  her despite  Undeterred, finds  return  i s t h e name o f a n o r p h a n  shun  and  mode.  Xu, had s p i r i t u a l  Fuj i a n  and  and outer  daughter  surrenders,  perhaps  fairy-tale,  t o weave  i s reminiscent  Jinniang  story  triumphant  were k i l l e d by a b o l t o f l i g h t n i n g . in  river  i s ensured.  of peace  the fairy-tale  early  a w r i t e r who, l i k e Tao  King  He  v i a the  the darkness,  J i n n i a n g " , i s more myth t h a n  vision  country.  returns  The  f o r the restoration  and  "Tao  the King.  i s restored  despair fits  and then  own  and p r i n c e s s marry, b r i n g i n g about peace and harmony.  desire  its  of the prince's  the populace  t o defeat  Written Xu's  the borders  i n praise  The of  Jinniang  and  against  increasingly the  jealous  place  only  Yingu  who  that  too  happy  a  her  time  Jinniang's  storm  the  and  young  Yingu  grows  departure  until  the  from  "Tao  she  of  the  of  the  and  fundamentally  patience  and  of  vanity  is  at  an  all-wise  once  the  seer.  In  teach  There  fire,  of  lightning.  once to  ask  does,  fire  aunt  is  sent  and  wisely  vision with  conflict the  of  an  the  of  Dishan's  of  power  expression  negative  orphan  well  blend  between  figure  become  and  strange  and  Xu  the  tale,  nature-goddess  story  in  mountains.  a  an  strike  i n t o the a  of  discovered  return  ruling  people  ill-treated  died  Yingu's  and  is  Her to  combines  goodness  this  have  her  curious  The  It  again.  withdraws a  drowns Y i n g u  village  she  in  until  a  shape  the  laughter  is  the  Christian-based  poor,  s k i l l s .  to  comes  primitive  greed.  descends  so  weaving-shed  the  industrious  and  her  skills  the  This  over  Jinniang's  Jinniang  she  v i o l e n t which  elements  desperate  destroys  of  is  a  secret  and  bolt  finally  by  a  and  villagers  Jinniang"  pastoral  learn  to  industry  withdrawn  chief.  day  a  mountain  down a g a i n  village  douses  women  has  to  intervention  with  distraught  village  her  which  dead  Jinniang the  the of  the  summoned  loved.  of  full  into  wants  be  Divine  father  that  she  might  fire.  up  knows u n t i l  overpowers  enormous  the  unnaturally  engineers  away  maidens  jealousy  the  she  young  brief  goes  pretends  she  the  by  and  Not  village. Jinniang  in  Yingu.  of  simple  influence Jinniang  fairy-tale  and  belief  the  in  possibility its  o f women's  ultimate.  transcendent  Jinniang  i s the mythic  the world a f t e r a s e r i e s of t r i a l s to  offer  the  h e r boon  land  teachings,  the Biblical  is  b y no means t h e s o l e  is  the major  this  mode  Narnian  on  Despite  c a n b e no d o u b t  that  Xiguan,  Xiguan  was  given  Christian  through  i t had a  genre, i t  literature  and  mention  conduct  toward  Wife"  Christian  t o a genuine  and  belief.132  the  Christian  believer.  Shangjie  Spider" find solace at different  are the only  of Christianity, as  accident  message.  stories  defined  both  Yuguan undergoes a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  h e r h u s b a n d i n "The T o i l i n g  specific  other  years,131  I t i s no  and f r i e n d s h i p by  a "rice-bowl" Christian  three  i n  Lewis'  influence  o f "The M e r c h a n t ' s  missionary Elizabeth i nIndia.  These  mythos  t o C.S.  strong  o f h i s work.  journey  support  i n the Christian  her  in Pilgrim's Progress, the a l l e g o r i c a l  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  of  to continue  of Western  legends  the heroine  account  times  i s restored,  t h e a s s e r t i o n by Xu's w i f e  Yuguan s h o u l d f i n d comfort  and  able  withdrawal  t h a t Xu had abandoned C h r i s t i a n i t y i nh i s l a t e r  both  from  to  returns  i n the romance  much  t h e message and t h e p a t t e r n  that  who  done.  influence  informing  to  balance  and s p e c i f i c a l l y  the Arthurian  tales.  critics there  from  force  Once  and t h e people  she withdraws, her task  While  hero  i s carried  and a c o n t e m p l a t i v e  t o humanity.  prospering,  wisdom  loving  ones  o f X u ' s t o make  but the Christian  thy neighbour  as  mode  thyself  i s  present  i n the  "Chuntao".  The  in  various  in  a peaceful  to  story  and  her  spiritual  s i t gently  former  pace  of  appearance The life  and  threat and  and  her  i n the  the  she must obey  them  through.  Chuntao's  tiny  lost  represents have  but  still  the  and  charity.  sit  once  the dictates  Their same, At  more  the  under  lives  to  after  her  lover  husband  can  find  opening  return  day's  by  end  of  the  the  melon  story  reshaped  now  the  a  frame  legless  to  of  their  problem  and  discuss  in  certainty  that  simple  Chuntao  the  and  the o l d rhythm, Chuntao's  in  relaxed,  disruption  resolve  the  Their  shattered  is a  and  of  events  garden.  husband,  peace  scene  of her conscience  resume  enhanced  begins  alienation  t h e i r own t e r m s , b u t i t i s C h u n t a o ' s q u i e t , r e s p o n s i b l e that  appear  Spider"  Shangjie  the  i s abruptly  a l l three  Fall  in  abandon.  in their  he  the  and  l e a v e when t h e a b r u p t  that  discussing  life of  to  Dongye  Toiling  I t i s only  company  frame  Mr.  intensifies  heroine  they  beggar.  "The  thief  force  the  of the melon  the  -  Eden  transformation  other's  contented  simple  of  husband.  i n each as  shade  images  injured  "Chuntao"  comfort  good,  i n h i s work  t h e g a r d e n s h e was In  by  an  her a  the  g a r d e n w h i c h S h a n g j i e must  of  undergoes  of  biblical  guises  appearance between  story  carries  transformed confidence her  lover  the  day's  events. Despite Dun  Points  not  impinge -  i t s setting  out,  in old Beijing,  i s nostalgically  i t rarely  does  "Chuntao",  un-urban.133  i n Xu's  work,  The  despite  as  city the  Mao does  urban  settings has  a  of  some  pastoral  worlds ideal  of to  and  Dun  manifested  it  his  him two  his  the to  the of  that  "Yuguan"  journey  from  a  testament  Xu's  later  Room"  and  exclusively  his  inhabit  the  Frye's  peaceful  Chinese  runs -  Xu's  a  time their love  muddled  Their for  "religion",  Dusk"  human  spirit."136  Carefree  Flower"  "In (" Wu  nature,  a  wife the  moral  Director Hua")  stemming  Hun  own  society.  unifying  Throughout  thread  f o r the  which  his  has  embodiment of  work  strong love  and  as  Hou"), Robinson  Christianity message,  anger  , but  a  of  spiritual  Fei's  as  which  sake  universal  A  You  whether  Lewis  of  goal  developed  ("Huang  vision  of  as  for  i t s writer's  sceptical  such  dead  father.135  emcompasses  works  his  which  ultimate  own  living  f o r her  him  characters  which  the  the  to  his  for  "After  represents  side  about  continue in  Christian in  quest  two  garden  infuses Reception  i t is  i t does  a d i s t a s t e f o r the d i f f e r e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of personal in  work  demonic.134  sceptical  belief  ironic "A  to  search  believes  "a  same  life,  daughters  a  doubts  consuming  or L i n z h i ' s obsessive  genuine  and  creator's  had  early  strength  young  a  Xu  at  Huai's  to  Overall  characters  idyllic  their  in  that  the  stories.  renewal.  philosophy  Guan  gives  and  suggests  but  own  be  feel  itself  life;  their  later  return  affirmation  of  his  romance,  is  Mao  of  not from  corruption  whole  Christian goodness.  however overtones  67  The  same  contemporary share  search  of  many  defines  Xu's,  the  C.S.  Lewis  similarities.  Both  work  of  a  slightly  (1898-1963). were  The  converted  Xu's  record  growth of  provides which his  towards  faith  his conversion. an e x p l i c i t  was  in  i t remains  C.S.  allegorical  reluctant,  intellect,  and  gradual  The  Lewis,  the  on  two  re-telling  only  the  apparent  other  of  Ireland their  arrived  and  and  Pilgrim's  lives  Taiwan.  Both  away  their  at Oxford  been  there  for a  met,  however,  from  strongly  debated  Regress.137  the mainly  theological  by  the  Missionary  c o l l e g e (Magdalen) in  1929.139  Both  They  inferiority,140  fictional  -  theme  the  of  1924  years.  C.S.  It  since  while  men  while  work the  major  spiritual  shares  quest  their  and was  and  had  characters and  Dishan already  that  they  studied  was  sponsored  at a  different  towards and  are  women  spiritual  female,  some  serene confidence.  two  important  the  use  of  most  He b e c a m e a C h r i s t i a n  attitude  calm  Xu  Dishan  i n women's i n t e l l e c t u a l  Xu's of  Lewis  College  were  mainlands  When  Xu  within  spent  i s unlikely  Society,138 Lewis  in  who  birth-places.  Mansfield  differ  high levels  Their  scholars  and as y e t u n c o n v e r t e d .  - Lewis tended to b e l i e v e  achieving  of  particularly  at  London  were  i n t h e autumn of number  hand,  d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s c o n v e r s i o n ,  b o r n on i s l a n d s w i t h an a m b i g u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r -  men  Christians,  but i t i s o n l y s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t "Yuguan" r e p r e s e n t s a of  younger  the  characteristics mythopoeic  r o m a n c e mode t o e m b o d y a m o r a l , n o n - s e c u l a r v i s i o n . 1 4 1  or  A  medieval  m y t h , c . S . questions life in  of  L e w i s was  concerning ordinary  modern  4  comes  at  ducks  overhead  insights,  inadequate  human  soul  was  given  -  and  nay,  fiction  was  values.  a meaning  "that  Lewis' represent  He  llels  to  for  the  enjoy be  the  h i s most  of  and  The  4  9  understanding  of  final  net  the  thought  was  as  that  and  we  i n any on  the  transformed  but  false  that  "the  something his  belief  to  convey  way."  attempt  dominates  These  Lewis  world  lion,  4 5  For  4 6  patterns  the  wild  fully  catch  other  of  never  expanding  mythic  Asian,  is  given."I  whereby  journey-theme  desire  enlightenment  object  Desire",  sound  romance.I  the  sustained  c h a r a c t e r s r e t u r n from t h e i r quests  his  the  awareness  i t as a "Sweet  hearing  end  and  beyond  mythic  of  evocative  conveyed  of h i s f a i t h . I  Christ.  -  c h i l d r e n ' s books  popular  of  theme  expressing  allegory  theological  something  lack  imagined a  and  and  or longing which i s n o s t a l g i c  some  really  c a n n o t be  series  clarification  the  for  used  an  not  even  "only  forum  moments  to  cannot  a  7  made  of  central  reading  i n s i g h t s are  moral  Lewis describes  4 4  momentary  4  and  a l l e g o r y , romance  with  existence  The  3  diverse or  on  preoccupied  the  forward-looking.I  else",!  wrote  "sehnsucht" , a yearning  which  his  who  experience  times.I  d e f i n e d by yet  scholar  to  1 4 8  of set  Narnia out  has  many  the  books  and  o f l o v e , s e l f l e s s n e s s and f o r g i v e n e s s .  a  paraand  closer to Narnia  an  is  a  p a s t o r a l w o r l d f i n a l l y r e c r e a t e d i n a more p e r f e c t l i k e n e s s o f i t s e l f i n t h e f i n a l a p o c a l y p t i c t a l e , "The d e r g o n e i t s own  journey  Last B a t t l e" .  t o w a r d s t r a n s c e n d e n c e and  I t has  un-  transformation.  Xu  Dishan's  Christian and  than  themes.  work, Lewis',  As  a  and  dislocation,  was  uneven  pattern in  same. he  The  held  between of  belief in  that  search.  and  literary of  his  preoccupations  working  under  the  whereby  provided  of  of  with  beliefs.  the  a  possible  in  work  ideas  reappear  system  the  his  overall  the  Concerned  mixture  an  beliefs  h i s work,  him  that is  similar  underlying  framework  his  there  a  transformation  unsurprising  Nonetheless  specifically-  remain net  in  to  with  the which  mediate questions  actual",150  find  selfless  used  his  work  to  give  expression  to  that  hopeful  Through  his  use  c e r t a i n elements  of  the  romance  he  own  forms  search  context and  he and  which myth  of was to  able put  draws and  to  himself  deeply  gives  give  love  a  promise  the of  goodness  structure  firmly  on  and  the  to  archetype  hope.  and  i t is possible  mythopoeic  work  of  writer  work,  and  and  dimension  life,  and  his  ideas, art  many  perhaps  fragmented.  forms  life,  "the  is  structural  his  shares  sustained  which included major s o c i a l  i t  informing  different  less  short-story  of complex pressures  and  while  within  "deep  to a  his  wider  springs"  affirmation  1 5  1  and  C h a p t e r Three The Dark Road: L i f e , F a t e and S y n c h r o n i c i t y l " A l l t h e phenomena o f t h e u n i v e r s e , o r , t o be more e x a c t , o f t h e u n i v e r s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l s e n t i e n t b e i n g , are t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of h i s mind. Whenever he a c t s , speaks, o r even t h i n k s , h i s mind i s doing something, and t h a t s o m e t h i n g must p r o d u c e i t s r e s u l t s , no m a t t e r how f a r i n t o t h e f u t u r e . The r e s u l t i s t h e r e t r i b u t i o n of t h e Karma. The Karma i s t h e c a u s e and i t s r e t r i b u t i o n the e f f e c t . The b e i n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s made up o f a c h a i n o f causes and e f f e c t . " 2  "This  In the  t o t h i n e own s e l f  "Blossoms on a W i t h e r e d  elderly  lover  above a l l ,  widow  Yungu  f o r h e r own  mistakes  missing  by a c c i d e n t a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s , her  to their  had  loved  for  the first  time  so long  time  f o r family  causes  the death  fate.  A l u c k l e s s peasant  dies  i n prison  flee  a woman r e v o l u t i o n a r y b e a r i n g  been  other A  years  mistakenly  by  t o , Zhineng, 7  than  woman  4  shelter  an  t h e man  returning  at Spring  she home  Festival,  Home" ironic  taking  money  the turmoil of a besieged  Xiansheng") ,  Hua"),  ("Gui  the  Tu"),  accident  from  city.  5  of  i n "The E y e s o f t h e Law" ("Fa Y a n " )  of  ("Dongye  she i s given  i n "The Road  they  resemblance  none  before.  as  a  both  Later  of her daughter  after  ("Gu Y a n g S h e n g  t h e k i n d l y Z h u c o u p l e , who i n t r o d u c e  i n twelve  reunions,  3  the son of her l o n g - l o s t  son.  brother-in-law,  and l o s t  Poplar"  be t r u e . "  6  h i s wife The  corpse  t h e s a m e name a s , a n d s h a r i n g  Mr. Dongye's  prompts  executed.  70  wife  i n "Mr. Dongye"  him t o b e l i e v e  Zhineng  has  Linzhi, existence  in  "A  Daughter's  g i v e n meaning  by  Heart",  her  search  leads  8  f o r her  a  tumbleweed  father.  After  a s e r i e s o f a d v e n t u r e s and u n e x p e c t e d r e u n i o n s w i t h o l d f r i e n d s , she  finally  encounters  inexorably Yuguan's first  towards  son  wife  meets  dear The they  friend  used  known  of  constant  of  bringing  and  in  the  laws  a  world  of  mosaic  the  at  people first  with  the  like  these  the  In  are  image  of  his  unaware  of  the  most  obvious the  events and of  active  a  of  a  time  are  not  of  her  a law  similar through  of  connections  kaleidoscope to  thus  arrive  rearrangements,  together."1°  posited an -  two  describe  which  could  at  also  that  l i f e be  -  of his  outside  the  image  in  spite  takes  care  Schopenhauer,  connected  individual's  a  configuration  k a l e i d o s c o p e , which,  like  of  -  seriality  i n the u n i v e r s e which l i e s  cosmic and  unique  coincidence.  or  objective!!  becomes  illustrations  "We  in  9  sister  physics.  and  drawn  "Yuguan",  m i s s i n g husband  examples  Dishan's work:  space  world,  events  i f  unknowingly  the p o s t - E i g h t e e n t h century view  of  as  thread.  long-lost  young  for the  shufflings  physical  chains  both  for a-causal  of  the  marries  on,  of a p r i n c i p l e  against  unknown  Kammerer, a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h  affinity,  the  an  accidentally,  the mother of Yuguan's d a u g h t e r s - i n - l a w .  theme i n Xu  together  vision  by  lovers  represent  account  coming  go  twice,  herself  Xingguan,  merely  Paul to  almost  could  recurring  and  Yuguan  and  l i s t  him  i n America;  connection. friends  him  fighting  causality  rules  but  independent  the  subjective  brought  together  at  times The of  b y t h e same e v e n t link  was  by and  Jung,  life  future  of  disagreed  Life,  events  coined  meaning  'chance'  probability figure."! through cannot  be  h i s work  a-causal  modulated  inter-related  Fate.13  For Jung,  the  unconscious.  events  and by  linked  would  of  on  a  of  state  -  i s "an u n e x p e c t e d  kind,  the apparent t h e known  complex  a  given  meaning  physical  This ...  degree  by an  connective  causality.  "Synchronicity  appear  represent  this  across  by  series  so m e a n i n g f u l l y  means  own  of  them, chance  "law",  principle  the  of im-  significance behind  causal  that  astronomical  laws  S y n c h r o n i c i t y , Jung's  of a certain  which  h a d come  have t o be e x p r e s s e d  effect. based  Jung  connected  occurrence  his denial  subjective It  as  and  i s  problem  explanation  l a y i n the depths of the  "were  number  psyche.16  events  which  explained  and  occurrence  of  Coincidences  5  nonetheless  the  are created  everything  to describe  that would  their  cause  belies  term  Schopenhauer's  of beings  are arranged  the course  coincidences  their  or  new  compelling  - synchronicity.14  In of  a  t h e same  with  whereby  secret of the coincidence He  occurrence  events".12  and a l l l e v e l s  the Will  simultaneously.  "the simultaneous  f a s c i n a t e d by  the coincidence,  that  t h e two c h a i n s  the coincidence,  c a u s a l l y unconnected Carl  of  linking  i s  which  principle  i s  simultaneous  p s y c h i c s t a t e w i t h one o r more e x t e r n a l  as meaningful  parallels  and, i n c e r t a i n content  which  cases,  t o t h e momentary vice  i s directly  or  versa."17 indirectly  connected the  when  ordinary  some  objective  psychic  external  state."  1  o f sudden death,  state  a meaningful  a  to create  cause  incomprehensible  Arthur city,20  and of  of  the  law of  oneness,  events", whereby  2 3  2  or  are part  agencies.  of a greater  fall  into same  life"  life's  source.  design.  You  gives  synchroni-  "modern  derivatives  unity  unity",  i s mutually the  uses  t h e image  can choose be c o n t e n t  Spider"  of  "the  t o make  yet a l l linked  your with  own  pattern,  your  you and work w i t h i n r e c o g n i z e d  Tendency" without  r e l a t e d and kaleidoscope from  kaleidoscope  the point i n a weave  l o t , accept  limits.  and  "confluential  together  of  towards  philosophy  "Integrative  are brought  of a l l  For Koestler,  2 1  o f much  f o r the  configurations but a l l are created  are manifold  web, b u t y o u must  of  synchronicity  "fundamental  The p a t t e r n s  i n h i s "The T o i l i n g  2 5  a  Everything  Xu  patterns  1 9  to account  causality."  psychic  has, f o r Jung,  theory  t o be  overall  events  whole.  different  the normal  or i n K o e s t l e r ' s term,  o f an  2 4  such  believes  unity-in-variety,  part  of  towards  Coincidences,  experience,  i n the fundamental  mechanical  pseudo-causal  physical  seriality  with  terms.  Jung's  He  coincides  that  explanation  belief  i s progressing  2  in intellectual  wider  transcending  religion.  the  a  the archetypal  science  arrangement  the coincidence.  Kammerer's  things,  links with  K o e s t l e r , unhappy w i t h  attempted  phenomenon  A critical  8  as a p r e m o n i t i o n  event  that  greater your  what  own life  The the  same  of  or  The  Book  which  had  a  Yi Jing,  lation  of  of Jung's the  sense  of  cyclical  of  change  movement motion  which  that  from  in  an  integrated  is  paradoxically  is  given expression through  his  father  his  own  son's  The  sun  rises,  in  which  before  sets  meaningful nature  The  role  is  not  of  h i s own course  of  describes  self-contained  of a  which  bowing  father  and  with  the a  is a  which  stability  son  There  instead  course  and  before receives  reappear. fixed  course  constancy  sense  a  concept  is  dynamic  change  and  point,  Western  fixed  the  again.  order  The  he  in a  within  "within  set  the  of  within  order  man  position  of  the  constancy  in  [man] a  out  and  beyond  to recognize these l i m i t s  in  the  guarantee of  of  subjection  responsibility." of  i s not  position  considerably  duration  first  takes  limits  i s also  events  i t i s h i s task  guaranteeing  concept  p l a c e s him  fate, of  the  a  of  seasons  individual  humanity  small:  image  becomes  rises  a  but  concept  events...provides  action.  of  the  development  i t s starting  future  The  the  trans-  limits.  of  and  as  relationships, 2 7  Wilhelm's  on  encompass  i s related,  the  Jing to  the  The  and  "principle flow  to  i n turn  everything  within  But  he  homage.  freedom  to  of  dynamic.  provides  and  past  system  change  The  the  not  pervades  Hellmut Wilhelm  2 6  Y i  returns  does  Richard  influence  the  progress  the  Changes,  profound  of  ebb  variety-in-unity  theory of s y n c h r o n i c i t y .  concept  flowing  manifold  to his and  ebb  and  merely  flow master  intervene own remain  2 8  in  sphere. within  o,  them."29  The  individual  and  c a n work  are  s e t and developments  with  change w h i l e The  while in  same  working  Xu's b r i e f  of  t o make  must  random  essay  an  impact,  paradoxical  Xu's ambivalent  its  exposition.  y e t must  the  vast,  ship and  The  after  beyond.  within  He  Kong  be  Shan  around  into them  hopelessly,  go on t h e s e a .  b o u n d l e s s waves, and o u r l i m i t e d  make  no  at sea limits  we  c a n do  of  t h e w a v e s ' ,"  the he  other  i s hold  on  passengers  "'Row? T h a t ' s said,  one's  easy  'When  choice  The  the  Yu.  they  -  i n the small  In  that -  and were  despair  appears  3 1  presumably  this  i ti s  i s  given  Xu  since  a  friend  travelling  a s he  surveys  and t h e s l o w l y  sinking  count  lose  boat  concedes of w i l l .  follow  seems  within  and w i l l - p o w e r  narrator  and  a l l freedom  f o rnothing  abilities  h i s friend  current  collection  against  and freedom  to our lives  b u t , when  asks him t o help  "I  at a l l ' . "  along  limits  fate  "'People We  change  going  with  personal,  these  being  of  awareness."30  Ling  struggled  The n a r r a t o r ,  waves  impression  live  towards  i s giving  says  hope when t h e y  by  given  t h e s h i p on w h i c h  friend  boundless  made  of flowing  are predominantly  on a l i f e - b o a t  capsized.  image  attitude  and  are  be  events with  and j o t t i n g s ,  vignettes  responsibility  "The S e a " , ( H a i ) , i n h i s e a r l y  inescapable  these  of  but the patterns  t o influence events essay,  a sense  can only  "confronting  notes  clearest  have  " ' A l l  the tossing  ready  with  that  to  infect  h i s despair,  row. enough t o do, b u t where t o ? '  something  like  this  happens  a t s e a , no-one  knows  what  wherever  t o do. the  None  sea  of  might  us  can  take  escape  us,  floating  but, despite  aimlessly  that,  l e t us  row f o r a l l we're w o r t h ! ' " 3 2 The we  must  theme  analogy  alone,  i n Xu's  work.  inevitable  but  still  for  the  good  are  actions  have  through  genre  functions  an  must  take  the conscious  to  h i s moral  used  them  they  were  at  cause  a  useful  not  an acknowledgement o f l i f e ' s who  i n both  a  accepting limits,  universe  i s  action  and  where  past  future,  and  f o r those  actions.  the  i t has  romance  the  same  use of the  coincidence  device  give  to  i n exotic  lands,  w i t h c h a n c e s and unreal  device  and  the  has  influence  chain  and  or  in his fiction  provide  Xu's  where  literary  which  recurrent  an  effect,  common  traveller  were  has  i n a  Xu's  on  within given  and  fiction  and  Conrad,  road  individual  she  present  i s very  frequently a  an  responsibility  of A  or  together  i s "overladen  f o r him  once  he  i n Xu's work.  vision.  too  dark  her a c t i o n s .  traditional  aware t h a t l i f e  Coincidences  that  the  motif  choice  that  of operating  linked on  i t holds  a  o f an unknown f a t e by  where  impact  Chinese  is  well  one,  coincidence  and  believed  h i s or  closely  individual The  He  t o ensure  moral  result,  the sea or  uncertain of the f u t u r e , i s a  restrictions  working  profoundly  to  t o make t h e b e s t  the  each  life  travel  responsibility  a  of  Xu  far-fetched -  a  was  trifles."33  for that.  to link  shape  story  For  he him  together  g r e a t e r s c o p e and meaning t o a c h a r a c t e r ' s a c t i o n s ,  travelled  i n the  inherent same  strangeness.  regions  as  Xu,  Joseph believed  l i f e , t o be f u l l  of mystery.  being  pigeon-holed  world  of the l i v i n g  as  i t i s ; marvels  and  intelligence  justify  the  use  confines  of a  i t , so that  Citing her to  whom  no  realist  of  avoiding  things "  gives  of Jane  Eyre's  at the other  would  1  In a  in  Thomas  5  happened  discussion  Hardy's  The R e t u r n  from  Frye  device. that  of the role  to to  the coincidence  tends  c o n t r o l t h e i r own f a t e . their  lack  introduced frailty!"  7  6  The d e f e a t s  in  the light  to  the qualities  4  we  with  a  played  the  small.  that  convention say such  would by  and  family  stresses  often  nobody  to  believe  coincidence  Charles  Walcutt  represented  the characters'  ability  The c h a r a c t e r s s h r i n k i n p r o p o r t i o n  of control.  and s t r e s s e d 3  3  as  "The  of the Native,  to diminish  3  Rochester  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e apparent power o f e x t e r n a l f o r c e s by  almost  participating  described  Northrop  i n a book,  emotions  narrowing  those  flight  i s so strong  our  state."  end o f England  use t h i s  coincidence  be  mysteries  i t would  while  to only  can t r u l y  said, "the  and  upon  resist  acknowledgement  of l i f e  tale  the world  as, ' i f this  marvels  acting  to  he  as an enchanted  she i s i n t i m a t e l y bound,  i t .  3  of l i f e  particular  writer  or realist,  so i n e x p l i c a b l e that  and s t r a n g e n e s s  meeting  i n an a t t e m p t  enough  the coincidence  the story  chance  romantic  and m y s t e r i e s  i n ways  of  uncertainty  a  contains  the conception  The  in  as  Writing  "Perhaps  t o make  the coincidences  the tragedy  are  l e s s d u e t o human  of Hardy's c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e i n t e r p r e t e d  of coincidence, inherent  so that  they  "appear  i n the characters  and  less  due  therefore  more  due  to  tragic  is  not  blaming  of  the  "blame"  Xu,  in  flaws  in  the  coincidence, from h i s  contrast,  universe.  but  rather  characters." uses  the  using  coincidence  Yungu w i t h  to  complete  of  a  lost  her  son  story  by  a  sundered  by  incidence  i n Xu's  The  Unable and he  to  find  spending  i t .  i s punished  on  of  ling.  he  His  "redeemed of  a  new  of  her  to  come  Anni's it  is  discharge  from  fire  by  daughter-in-law  to  first  terms  only  the  wife  with  soon  for  the  major  his  examined  role  that  lovers the  for  co-  action.  money  is  chance  of of  test  own  a  replacement  does  by  rationalizes  action  so  mistake.  keeping  i t  fault  and  redress  the  at  3 9  given  family  some  establish plot  coming-together  steals  he  take  represents  c a t a l y s t and  this  is  Linzhi,  "one  identity  would  owner, It  his and  son's  a  to  t a k i n g a b u n d l e t h r u s t at him  father  killing  which  i s as  accordingly.  Linzhi' s act  the  the  tradition,  unknowingly  i n innocence,  allowing  and  short,  While the c o i n c i d e n t a l  lover simply  joy,  step-son  work  who  old  with  hide-bound  peasant  at f i r s t  her  i t to  reactions are  i n a m o r a l c o n t e x t and j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g l y . of  in  3 8  t w i s t s i n w h i c h a c h a r a c t e r ' s a c t i o n s and  reunion  Hardy,  an  when  a  opportunity fire  unknown from  sin  f i r e . " whom  to  4  0  only  represents  herself.  breaks each  to out  other,  on  the  are  ship  travel-  and  error"  lies  For  Yuguan  the  she  knows  is  the  an  opportunity  a  She  test  and  decides  in  appearance  not  to her  mother X i n g g u a n b e c a u s e she  cause  unpleasantness.41  Anni's  being  sister  to is  reveal  convinced  domination  of  Yuguan's son,  resented  paralleling  i n her  understanding Similarly,  first  of  her  redress  plans  sets him  the  own  off alone  her she  at  of to  end  back to Xingguan.  helps  Xingguan's perform  once had  the  domination Yuguan  self-preoccupation  knowledge  allows  imagined  daughter-in-law,  her  whereabouts  the  of  husband's  a  truly  to marry her  and  story  Yuguan  so  towards  an  hypocrisy. identity  selfless  him  herself.  to  find  him  act  to  Thus  she  and  As t h e l i n k b i n d i n g a c h a i n o f  and  bring  connections  t o g e t h e r , Yuguan a c c i d e n t a l l y become p r i v y t o k n o w l e d g e a f f e c t i n g others. that  I t i s how  she  i s t h r o w n on  her  preoccupations. to  establish  Yuguan the  look the  in  place  to  the  the  in  a  the  realist,  coincidence  to  coincidence i t s own  world  The  aid  that  of  and  even  realistic  of  a  can  the  overall of  take  a  that 4  his  would While  2  Hsia's  motifs,  tragic  liberties  convention  lards  i t must  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l elements  the  design  allow  actions.  fiction."  such  romance has  and  her  Xu's  thus  r e s e r v a t i o n on  of  vital in  and  identities  validity  light  opportunity  "unashamedly  implies a certain  represent  an  dilemma  redress  Xu  the  d e s i r e s that are  provide  mistaken  piece  author  i s part  terms.  and  moral  finally  and  aesthetic  romance Rex.  and  "Yuguan"  remembered t h a t t h e y  than  on  act  "unashamedly"  as  Oedipus  the  of  intimate  coincidences  of  word  part be  out  to  motivations  coincidences  closed,  says  with  own  The  chance  Hsia story  a  d e a l s w i t h t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n and  of  genre  such  far greater in the  that  the  freedom  use  work. m u s t be  as  of  As  the such,  accepted  Coincidences  play  an  important  part  i n the  of t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese s t o r i e s .  C u r t i s Adkins,  of  their  Tang  them  chuanqi  "'the result  product the  tales  of  notes  of suppressed  synchronicity"  characters.  coincidences,  The  4  which  3  presence  i n traditional  of  i nhis discussion  presence  desires  structure  and  considers  or conflict'  influence  the actions  the fantastic,  Chinese  fiction  or the  was  of  including  a  limitation  f o r J o h n B i s h o p who t r a c e s a " d i s t u r b i n g . . . m i n g l i n g o f n a t u r a l i s m and at  supernaturalism odds  the  with  whether  of  life.  has  whether  into  or  a  to treat  seen  judgement  The  of a  in  Xu's  work.  as  f o r X u much Every  events.  F o r Feng later,  human  as a  true  mirror  literature  realism.  fiction,  up f o r Frye  4 5  activity  the reactions same  stress  and  morals  a c t ... h a d a m o r a l  including  coincidences,  n o t on t h e m a r v e l s  " i t was  at  plunging  and n o t h e l d  and  the moral  Menglong  by  Chinese  Ming  forces  The  right  genre.  i n late  b u t on  which i s  4  i t s conventions,  of Western  f o r t h e romance  The s t r e s s was  to those  context  the standards  i n themselves,  concerned  move.  i t s own  describing  disbelief  that  4  t o know  i n question  argues  supernatural  process  characters. events  within  case  need  and a c c e p t i n g  t h e work  f a n t a s t i c elements  predestination, part  world  i n reply,  against  makes a s i m i l a r  apparent  narrative"  o r not t o suspend  fantasy  Idema,  t o be  t h e same  the reader's  beginning  headlong  within  of a  were  story's  or  far-fetched  of  the  i s  people  noticeable  h i s contemporaries, which  made  the  world  significance,resulting  in  an  automatic  of  retribution  is  an  and or  important Buddhism  requital,  had  a  Shan  deals  Ling  Buddhist  she  Yu.  His with  School,  to  to  to  her  and  herself  and  longing  for  embracing a  a  No  joined  her. to  spirit  off  death  are  a of  of  less  adventure,  Their  birds  very  longs to  a branch,  s o u l s f l y on, The  is  on  to  bring  exaltation rare  in  be  able  up  his  of  to  Xu's to  young  at  Jialing  who  ties,  exalted  garden  to  -  he  seen  to  fiction.  Guan  Huai  In  wife,  the  drowns  the  a  lies  in but  a l l but  world  death beyond.  likeness,  her  dream.  remain  better  on  motives  into  their of  world,  insists  of  what  the  father  she  goes  see  escape  dead  her  Jialing's  discarded bodies  daughters.  Burmese  with  who  is tired  earthly  his  implies  a  before  as  join  life  leave  i n the magic garden  death  Bird",  paradisical  Just  lover  curious  only their  Xu's  collection  concerned  M i n m i n g a c c e p t s h i s company b e c a u s e she has twinned  that  persuading  behind.  her  a  on  Mingming  student  determines  her  impact  "The  longer  U n l i k e Minming,  shuck  of  by  base,  there i n another existence,  preoccupation she  process  i t s Karmic  the essay  belief  glimpse  there.  marriage,  i s  accompanying  in  story,  heroine,  i t s suffering,  she  with  powerful  Buddhist  the  return  over-riding  ties  the  catches  formerly  its  and  first  This  4 6  vision.  T o l d t h a t she once l i v e d  longs  agree  moral  profound  Minming,  i n a dream.  baoying,  i n h i s e a r l y s t o r i e s and  specifically  suffering.  retribution".  4 7  theme i n Xu's  work, p a r t i c u l a r l y Kong  inevitable  4 8  behind.  existence  "After  Dusk"  remains  alive  "The  Mingming  Bird"  Xu  argues  consolation understood form  f o r the affirmation  of death.  Even  i s shared  i n which  present. simply  The and  by  both  heroine,  without  Despite stoic The  hardship  calmness events  which her  again,  than  the  Bird"  i ti s  i n some  other  escape  necessary "Sir,  i s no  a l l human  of  o f mind  adversity a  hope  words,  the past  real  with  a  of her narration. remote  as a  dream  Doing  b u t on  the present  h e r transcendence  one 4  9  Christianity,  and an e d u c a t i o n ,  Buddhist  binding  distinction  i t i s joyful;  and hope  as i f  interest.  life  through  and  distinctly  desire  matters.  i s painful,  other  are past,  t o r i s e above p a i n and j o y .  there  have  of  with  are  story  almost  s h e h a d no p e r s o n a l  and support  peace  have  the ties  influences  unreal.  her with  emotions  Merchant's  the n a r r a t o r her  i n the style  tells  comfort  acceptance  "The  and B u d d h i s t  she deals  that i s reflected  provides calm  i n which  she  "The M i n g m i n g  embellishment,  betrayal  of which  about  story,  tells  emotional  and  has found  mundane  of  live  next  Xiguan,  strangely, vividly, She  Xu's  Christian  she were n a r r a t i n g e v e n t s  it  Mingming  i s a remote, dream-like q u a l i t y  which  Wife,"  you  will  rather  a n d i n some o t h e r p l a c e .  Bird"  in  i n "The  t h a t t h e two l o v e r s  There  and  of l i f e  flavour.  to the world  She t e l l s  between  j o y and i s hard,  at the time  something  i s filled  To i ti s  suffering but  pain,  but  f o r the future are j o y f u l .  when  happens,  i t i s pleasurable. with  of  the narrator,  something  reflection,  but  In  memories Yesterday,  when I t o l d I  laid  but  look  running  So  don't  in  a  the  what had  i t a l l out  i f I  sold,  you  wider  a  she  her  desire  could  of  run  to  away  Thus  husband,  has  the  best  of  life  inspires  one  in the  finds  her  Ahuya's  attitude  a  where she  fate  house  that  i n her  fellow  wives  to  that  denies  suffers  near  did  her,  It is a  sins  extend  the  to a not  young  5 1  pure  Christian  her  but  to  the  i t  accept  best  not  f o r the  compassion  for faults  for  l o t .  r e f l e c t s Xu's  pity  trials, attitude  she  hesitate  Despite  blamed  The  several  made  but  to  Ahuya.  leads  heart  mother  widowhood.  i s prepared  household,  She  house,  T h e i r g e n e r o s i t y of s p i r i t  social  her  things  equanimity  i n store"  opportunity arose.  whose  with  she  Ahuya's  education.  space  5 2  f o r her of  from  in a  now;  things.  see  laissez-faire  fate  settle  should  through a  self-improvement  Honna,  previous  to  happening  to the Muslim  what  escape  time  she  whom  of  because  separation, being  accepts  b r i n g s her  "see  pain,  i n a l l these  you  she  sale  felt  the  i s joy  a mixture  further  when  child-widow  to Honna.  her for  of  her  unhappiness  into  by  b r i n g s her  after  offer  a  her  copes  watches  that  their  of  of  -  instead  5 0  equanimity  she  community  to  me;  you  i f i t were  there  d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o make  chance  is  for  perspective."  which  as  i t a l l myself  f o r c o n n i v i n g i n her  whereby and  you  etc., -  sorry  Xiguan's with  on  away,  disappearance  forgive  before  back  feel  h a p p e n e d t o me,  her  own  unfortunate from  Honna's  Xiguan  shows  same  sympathy  own  criticism  woman l o c k e d  of her  making.  5 3  Xiguan's here  and  afloat  there  a  events  that  shaped  what she  had.  anger.  his  action  be  believed.  beliefs  on  his  are  is  in  later  i n what  particular  the  stories  "The  Toiling  through. two  life,  "The  that  expressed  and  life  1922. works  through they  the  say.  Spider",  the  as  have  Mingming  Bird"  dimension island.  Shangjie,  to a world  an  keep  control  best  one that  e x p o s i t i o n of i n "The  she  over could  and  day  with  i t has  Xu's  to  early  Spider",  philosophizing  attitudes  to  life  inter-actions rather  maturity  Xu's  repent  Toiling  specific  illustrate  has  his  and  to  he  press allows  philosophy.  In  tendencies  win  didactic  w r i t t e n a f a b l e , o r more p r o p e r l y v e h i c l e s f o r h i s own  exotic  and  "The  setting,  Merchant's  a  slightly  contains  beliefs.  i t also Wife"  Thecalm, i n d i f ferent  adds  that only  to  w r i t e r ' s e a r l y urgency  explicit  to  will  certainty  actions  however,  s t o r y he  the  tossed  calm, f o r g i v i n g a t t i t u d e  husband  less  mellows to  managing little  characters'  The  5 4  themselves  heroine,  made  found  is  languorous , dream-like q u a l i t y . of  but  explicit  their  message  story  has  craft,  mundane l e v e l s o f r e c r i m i n a t i o n  i s t o be  where  small  She  such  There  a  s t i l l  her  her  with  prolonged  In t h i s  third  with  her  of  but  s t r e n g t h and  f a b l e s , which act  The  waves,  harbour.  faith  f a t e or  reflected  than  Her  Her  most  published in  safe  that  f a r she has t r a n s c e n d e d  and  The  like  strong  find  r e v e a l how  a  by  is  and  the of  journey  the  same  saintliness  detached,  a g a r d e n and  shares  a  unreal tropical  The of  unreality persists with  Shangjie's  husband,  and  bitter,  his  ill-treatment  name  (Kewang)  Before  he  garden and  he  return  first  has  Xu  opens  transformation Changsun  Kewang's  enigmatic,  like  a  i t represents  of  human  nature  embark  of  the  minor  change  of  pastor  accept  a  of to  hope,  heart,  belief  i n the  to later  change  for  the  and  "A  character.  The  in a  which  s t o r y o f "The the  dialogue  Daughter's fate  of L i f e " . "I  am  The  like  story  third-hand,  is  can  choose  the  web  And  when  will  fundamental  capacity  better,  to  spider  to  the  voice  transcend  i t breaks,  is  spin  his  web,  but  to  attack  questioned,  lot.  The  "Great S p i r i t and  open be  for  tells  him  must  gives to  end  by An  5 6  and  again be  the  spin  through  "Great  wherever  mended  one  of L i f e "  my  the  the  fate  i t must  be  l i f e "  one's  oneself.  expressed  of  and  fragile,  not  of  and  whole are  web."  must  scope  the  spider  be  left  enshrined  at  where  of  the hope  same i m a g e i s r e i t e r a t e d  a  and  T o i l i n g Spider" begins with a poem-prologue  major messages of  between a  their  himself  f a t e through the e x e r c i s e of a w i l l i n g n e s s to transform The  His  change.  find  the  the  repent  of  on  told  in  to  Shangjie  speculation  male  hostile  Christianity.  journey  As  redemption  Formerly  5 5  L i n z h i ' s f a t h e r , but  Xu's to  on  magical  local  possibility  trail  that of  in  and  open-ended.  up of  the  whole-heartedly  to  his story i s left  Heart",  the  almost  Kewang.  by  Shangjie  implies  can  he  Changsun  i s persuaded of  the  Shangjie. individual he  spins,  easily  broken.  and  content spider  Spirit  this with  "the  whatever  he  task one's  kaleidolikes.  When  the spider  another for  kaleidoscope,  h i s greediness  things life of  as  they  coloured  At  "Go  glass", of  5  "one weaves whole,  spider  spider  A  sexual  love  very  suitable  sharp  from  had than  calm  leave  garden  b u t t o do  of  "fragments at  another  web  at the  whether  i tto  so!"  i t  nature."  i s left  i s 5 8  uninhabited  so because  "he was  5 9  p u r i t y o r an u n t o u c h e d  name  true  f o r a woman a  n  c  more  it".61  to oneself.  woman,  come w i t h through  j  totally  Changsun  love  certain  has "never t o have  away  think  felt  little i s like  fortune  criterion  "I often himself  immaculate-  For her, "love  f o r paring  Kewang,  formality,  who  believes  Her u l t i m a t e  s o m e o n e who d o e s n o t l o v e A  with  Mrs. S h i her  pattern;  of a household.  axe, used  establishing be  these t o look  i t s web, d o i n g  f o r anyone",60  a  should  him  within thespider's fable i s thestory of Shangjie,  on t h e l i f e  for  own  Shangjie's  mending  bearing very  content  to her friend  one's  w h o s e name i m p l i e s e s t i m a b l e ness.  be  chides  of the spider's  one c a n o n l y  and h a d no c h o i c e  Enclosed  by  i s no need  to illustrate  fora  of Life"  must  of shape  of the story  o r remains  and asks f o r  f o r a l l the arrangements  t h e metaphor  that,  Spirit  sees  7  t h e end o f t h e s t o r y  save  now,  and t h e r e  l i f e . "  he  h i m he  uses  belief broken  and t e l l s  the illusion  Shangjie close  the patterns  the "Great  are.  are given  kaleidoscope  a  rejects  than  i s that  love  one  received  i s false."62 and u n s h a k a b l e ,  h e r husband  t o somewhere  i n name  i n Southeast  Shangjie rather Asia.  Through  a  conversation  she has w i t h  M r s . S h i we  t h i n g s a r e not going w e l l between t h e c o u p l e . her  t o be  stayed  away f r o m  bordering the  for  her,  I  o r how  told  The  a  never  however  I ever  their  should  sentiments  to mist use  t h e mole  that  infuse  past  own  she  events  f o r g i v e Changsun, in a  dream,  i s there  long  are of says, since  i n mentioning  no  not  the stars  and  at  should  ants  never why  importance  this  or p r a i s e . tried  not  public  to  him?"  "Chuntao" ,  i s t h a t an Like  doubting  understand  pity  have  story  6 6  and  reiterates  and l o v e r t o i g n o r e  conscience.  seek  repentance  and  the later  other  6 4  people's  me,  nothing  how  crickets  others  wanted  to  Mrs. S h i  I just  I can face  menage b e c a u s e a l l t h a t m a t t e r s  follow their  believes  me.  enough."  treat  tells  t o me  I f I can f o r g i v e others,  Chuntao urges h e r husband of  that and  asked  people  reckoning.  same  above  doubts  almost  and c a r e s  matter  has  expression  She  arise  of her husband's  a c t i o n s , nor have  make  so  gives  h e r and c a s t i n g h e r o f f ,  " I have  accept  he  and  a confidence  story.  as they  and t h a t ' s good  when  first  " I t doesn't  6 3  i n heavens  injuring  theme.  situations  of myself,  earth below,  this  Christian  With  that  Changsun b e l i e v e s  fellow  i n anger.  dominate  me  a  Shangjie  opinions.  planets  Later,  my  that  ashamed  with  t h e house  criticize  be  affair  arrogance  others'  the  an  she d e a l s w i t h  people  on  on  beliefs  that  to  having  learn  6 5  where  criticism individual  Xiguan,  Shangjie  a n d , when  asked  "Ah, t h i n g s  of the past  are  like  dispersed  i n illusion,  so  what  them  again?"  6 7  A l lthree  women,  Xiguan, the  Shangjie  courage  their  their  Shangjie's  garden  she  convictions  fate  can  be  a l l come  mists  first  explains  avoid  nothing we  of  Chuntao, have the  courage  and  the  and  go  conversation  that  and  she  likens  determined  from  the  into  mist-locked will  a l l ,  believes l i f e  to  beyond  boundless  the  a  with  what  forced  to  is 7 0  by  to  It  this  is  deals  of  and  joyful  finds  work go  her  belief  that  the  web  is  to  follow  the  must way  out  live  was  just  like  the  dangers  as  should  be  be  distance.  "Ay,  the  boundless  along a -  that  "beclouded,  interests  you,  about,  for  you  are  going  helps  her  prevail  when,  refuge  is  not  i t comes,  daily  mended, b e c a u s e  "After  a  sort  overcome  and  that  on her  blows  equanimity. watches  experiences life  by  both  stolid  office  lived,  of  treating  equally  Their  where  path.  pearl-merchant's day.  try  s h e stresses  life  finds  an  to  the  She  with  the  confirm  should i s her  the  go  on,  l o t , that  are.  those  moments  diving of  she 7  every  always  that  Tuba. !  events a  or  a  in  fog  in  uncertain  spirit  life  life  things  "During  of  -  Shi  in  certain  concerned  leave,  with  in  pearldivers  be  to  island  travel  Mrs.  walking  m i s t s . "68  however  there  but  fate  on,  Changsun  Malayan  jf  go  plight,  She  alone,  i t impossible  mists,  boundless  p a t h . "69  want  forward?"  the  stand  courage  o n e m i g h t a s w e l l g i v e up i f a f r a i d o f w a l k i n g  you  to  conscience. In  and  and  the  for sea  there  pearls the  she in  whole  often the  day  sea.  thought A  through,  that  diver but  he  life  braved could  never But As  know  this she  each  watched she  was  the  was  not  she  s t i l l  same  had  one  one  best  brief  of  that the  in  which  in  a  the  can, you  they  have  experience you  a  must  can;  her  7  journey  dive  -  and  use  might  insects, even  what  be  can  watches Live  urge.  " I f you  voice,  sing  a  depths  this  earth i t  obtained,  the  "The  sea  every  the  Toiling  uses to  a  this  grasp attain  A  point  your  have  life  tears,  i f you task,  the  might;  life,  measure  of  i s made  in  Zan"),  7 5  ghosts  utmost  l e t them  have  fulfil  person's  p r o c e s s i o n of to  and  flower  a l l of a  her  life  "Ghost-Song"("Gui singing  lack  worm-eaten  beautiful.  same  Spider" and  in  "Although  s t i l l  road  illustrate  i s given  w i t h a l l your  utmost; have  a  on  broken,  cannot  The  7 4  vignette  graveyard.  the  i t .  i f someone  rewards."  the  uncertainty  one  i t is s t i l l  he  way.  what she  Shangjie  3  of  i n any  2  beautiful,  accept  curious  i f you  7  get.  Although  into  r e g a r d l e s s of  f a t e .  life  would  within  much and  to  life  incomplete,  i t to  how  lot."  on,  intact  narrator  moonlit  her  he  pearl-divers.  turn  one's  one's  and  and  her  go  that  beauty  what  undermine  see  her  possible  i f i t i s  just  the p r i m a r y message of  s t i l l  is like  life's  a l l  over  that  the  but  h a l f d e s t r o y e d by  the  to  take  must  half  belief  if  to  obscure,  even  or  searching blindly  work  of  control  you  the  pattern  of  fate  not  men  came  was  that  is  could  that  is  make  as  much  i n her power t o c o n t r o l  The  rose,  how  those  soon  because  ahead  sure  impression  day  day,  for  while  pour  down;  i f you  suffer,  feelings,  bestow  i t completely.  And  t h e n when y o u a r e t i r e d a n d go t o r e s t , y o u w i l l All by  experience  the suffering that "The  be  i s an a f f i r m a t i o n o f l i f e ,  true  Toiling t o one's  Shangjie their  nature  consequent  itself,  and  into  that  poison  h e r own  i s and  she  same o c c a s i o n  point  about b e l i e f .  Worthington,  Communion. such as  as  we  He  hers  that  United of  him  rituals  who  He t e l l s  beliefs.  unchanging  cow,  into  a  snake.  turns She  has r e f u s e d  and  confident  She  the knows  her nature.  Mr. S h i makes a  On  similar  that the local Christian  of himself  and t h e m i n i s t e r ,  her permission  be  milk,  ignores  change  her to disregard  h i s cannot  i s  not -  Shangjie  and  to water,  bound  to attend  this by  because  ritual:  i n a l l our actions,  Holy faith  "As  long  that  i s a l l  affiliated  to the  7 8  Zhuling,  a  Christian minister  Church t o w h i c h Xu b e l o n g e d , d e s c r i b e d as  i n one's  otherwise.  the opposition  urges  one must  think  - will  our conscience  counts." Zhang  7 7  and  follow  a  h e r f r i e n d ' s husband  community, d e s p i t e Mr.  by  enhanced  d i f f e r e n t natures  belief by  or  7 6  i s that  i s irreproachable  of those cannot  message  of  fortune!"  endure.  confidence  drunk  drunk  behaviour  what  on  when  when  remarks  other  the existence  but which,  despite  and o t h e r s ,  and have  influence  poisonous  the  Spider"'s  compares  in  Shangjie,  have  dissatisfied  of the Church. that  with  Xu i n h i s o b i t u a r y  the traditional  He w a s a d e m o c r a t who  and  believed  Christ's divinity  but  i n the p e r f e c t i o n of h i s moral  doctrines  "wanted  l a y not i n h i s holy conduct.  and  freedom" origins  The s i g n i f i c a n c e  of  Christ's  in  the miracles  from For  life  t h e dead,  l a y not i n h i s immaculate he p e r f o r m e d ,  but i n the excellence  Xu, C h r i s t ' s forgiveness  that  walking  on water  this  attitude with  shared "His  morality  be.  I f the only  are  worth  and  thing  a  forgiving  supreme spirit  atonement  t o have  moral  or taking  work.  "How  discovered,  their each  enforced other  reap  legless 8  Despite  and t h e c o n t e n t m e n t  Christ, should  'Her s i n s  i t would  have  For Xu, C h r i s t  0  love  object  f o r humanity  of worship.  repentance.  The  f o r one's  (baoying)  -  human  theme  actions  runs  i f I  husband  and begging,  parting. ^  8  Xu  7 9  morality  whose  I be c o n s i d e r e d  of her erstwhile  of  had been,  i t . "  miracle  thousand.  s o much,'  responsibility  Xu's  has  said  said  requires  ye sow, ye s h a l l could  character.  wrote  what  made h i m a w o r t h y  of sins  Chuntao  who  just  exemplar  which  asks  the five  she loved  that  you?"  of h i s moral  Wilde  he h a d e v e r  dying  Forgiveness of  Oscar  h e r because  while  represented  or feeding  nor  i n h i sresurrection  o f s i n s was a much g r e a t e r  i s a l l sympathy,  forgiven  been  n o r even  conception,  -  through rejected  L i Mao whom s h e  several  their  years  lack  she has found  after  of love f o r  with  h e r new  l o v e r L i u Xianggao, Chuntao f e e l s a s t r o n g sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards h e r c r i p p l e d husband to  turn  develops love and  h i m away. t h e same  t h e husband from  whom  and cannot f i n d  i t i nh e rc o n s c i e n c e  Zhineng, Mr. Dongye's w i f e sense joined  of responsibility  i n "Mr. Dongye",  as she learns  t o her i n a marriage  she has been  parted  of  f o rseveral  to  convenience years  while  she  studied  while  in  abroad  with  her  and  and  the  wife's Mr.  had  husband.  stubborn  While  Europe.  Dongye  returned  nature  is  change  had  However,  good  story  She  full Mr.  in  of  misgivings  unexpectedly  heart  remains  deeply-felt  Dongye's  ostensibly  of  a  about  that  blissful  Mr.  anguish The  quite  as  she  captures  Dongye's  the  opportunity  a  a  he  ground, is  the  to  for  long,  atone  despite  Mr.  to  Dongye,  be  so  that  badly  l i f e .  for  He  by  his  love i t  story  his  from  pain is  to an  and given  crowd  recover execution  onlookers the  never  indifference.  attempting  mocking  his  of  that  Zhineng  previous  angered  is  interest.  Zhineng's  wife  him.  sake.  when  while  of  had  her  her  , fond i n d i f f e r e n c e  rambling  comes  innocence  throughout  lover for his  character,  scene  injured  crippled  this  fully  believes  i s  her  living  i t s main  ignorance  imagination  Quixotic  powerful  body  up  r e s o l u t i o n of  Mr.  In  gives  about  Dongye,  w i f e ' s f e e l i n g s w h i c h r a n g e f r o m an e x a s p e r a t e d to  affair  eccentric made  provides  love  that with  he his  compassionate but u l t i m a t e l y i n e f f e c t i v e gesture of s t r a i g h t e n i n g out  the  tumbled,  broken  bodies  tionaries  and  Attempting  t o c a r r y away t h e c o r p s e  his lack him  way of for  i s  covering  blocked  human dead.  by  their  of  stripped  bare  and  butcher's  shop.82  The  his  left  he  crowd  rescue  like  executed  nakedness  the  with  women  revolu-  white  cloth.  b e l i e v e s t o be  s o l d i e r s whom  compassion. After  the  he set  harangues upon  corpses  slaughtered  him are  beasts  Zhineng's, for  their  and  leave  once  again  outside  a  When Z h i n e n g her  ex-lover's  Dongye. who  She  warns  returns  life  i s prevented  her that  climbs  upstairs.  entering  comfort  of  must  to preserve  to confess  a l l t o Mr.  doing  so by a  i s t o o weak  The l a s t  of caring  attempt  the release  her husband's  responsibility for  from  Mr. Dongye  Thwarted  slowly  an a b o r t i v e  she i s anxious  confession.  her  from  bedroom,  be f o r g o t t e n  friend  t o bear  such  she sought,  image  f o r him.  family  Zhineng  of the story  ready  H e r own  i n her duty  to take anguish  shows on t h e  and  t o him.  a  need  She makes  atonement. In  stark,  inhabited of  to  against  "The  a hopeless  out of the pattern  atonement  some  degree  she must  o f Lu Xun's  make  fate,  a  chase,  redeemed  snow-bound s i l e n t  f o rthe story  f o r that  haunting  a l l Xu's work  joyless her path The  death  a c t .  Year's  first  first  seen  t o be  and t h e f i n a l the bleakest except  she has  a  chosen  t h e way s h e d i d .  part  of  the story  of hopelessness.  sitting  degenerates  no e s c a p e  once  to  Sacrifice",83  that  This i s perhaps  seems  she hoped  Reminiscent  episodes  f o r t h e u n f o r t u n a t e woman  and a c t s  description  f o r there  o f a woman's  and d e g r a d a t i o n , and  "A New  by t h e opening  world  outskirts  t h e a c t by which  of despair  scene o f death.  garden  t h e snow-bound  R o a d Home" i s a p o t e n t i a l l y p o w e r f u l s t o r y  into  of  to the sunlit  provides a harsh backdrop  break  the  contrast  by most o f Xu's c h a r a c t e r s ,  Beijing  struggle  sombre  lost  i s a  clear-cut,  The woman,  i n thought  on a bench  never  pitiless  named, i s  i n t h e house  of a  a  Granny  Wang  procuress  women to  waiting  the  for over  debt  to  runs  work  Only  twenty  Granny  a  side.  for  celebrate.  sat a  on  who  It  i s almost  have  she  left,  waiting  she  agency  New  has  no  to  sitting  to  be  of  acts  and  the  their there  hired  hope  and  Year  a l l returned  is  days,  Wang  hired-help  other  families as  and  as  she  has  accumulating  paying  off.  Urged  b y Wang t o do s o m e t h i n g t h e woman b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y  desperate.  She  had  to  her  s o l d i e r husband,  left  her  care  of  left  destitute,  pistol  her  and  home  parents-in-law.  two  a  no  hope  save  for  bullets.  servant  only is  of  the  its of  scene  absurdity alone,  Xu  paints  that  can  be  the  woman  face-cloth,  frozen  the  pan  water  room a  and  lot  gave  whiter.  her She  army  She  woman  thin  f i t the i s the  a  greatcoat, her  is  had  to  on  as  the face  opened  a  is  simple  that her  she  was  hat,  a  winter  rise  when  evening,  a  bed-fellow  and  effective  almost  strokes  when d e s p a i r  a  by  good  small  an  board,  stove. a  tells  the  possessions  hopes  work  a  to  i n the  no o t h e r her  that  inspired  stiff  warm  most p o w e r f u l  swift,  plumbed  died  follow  bill.  picture  in  daughter  husband  Briefly  a  not  follows  outlining  hot  her  kept  job.  for  does  that  coat  before  young  w h e n Wang c r u d e l y  her  of  a  asking  she  story.  pathos,  Left  and  old  the p i s t o l .  dashed again  required  an  years  her  After  The  finding  comes  t o be  The  of  twelve  entrusting  and no-one w a n t e d t o buy and  village  She scrub wooden  comic the  in  depths  dictates action. idea.  and  "She  dipped  went  back  until box  took i t to  i t by  the  in her  looked kang  and  took  She  h a d no p o w d e r ,  of a  out a  the box. hairpin  and  a  She  and  Now  outside Spring room  wet  blackened  adequately  left  out of  and  some and  powdered  at  a  piece  couplet. dust  pass  She  o f f the  i t s d y e on  dust  with  some  her temples  and  eyebrows.  She c o n s i d e r e d  the l i f e  powder,  to  tore  coal  with  her face,  beginning  smeared  the coal  hair.  and  grubby  r e d paper  and wiped  better.  t h e box  surreptiously  Festival  her  i n the corners  rather  f o r s h e was  the hair  on  t o comb  She t h e n  She m i x e d  much  take  specks  the r e d paper  and l i p s .  she looked  teeth  the things  h e r hand.  t o t h e main  cheeks  o i l  went  She  f o r some  lighten,  newly-posted  lampshade.  some  out the remaining  her heart  returned  her  took  i t out onto  muster. off  She  missing  save  scraped  shook  feeling  comb  she c o u l d  hair  quite  of a  " b e d - w a r m e r " . "84  Granny  i s written  i n the original  without  Wang d i s a g r e e s . The  passage  adornment, fective. her  out  T h e woman's  h e r hope  when last, hope,  she  which  up  i s extraordinarily  a  grey  soon  and h e r o i l y  room.  They  freeze  stiff  informed  she  i s denied  nothing  her into  market.  to the grubbiness  resort  c a n do  find  and cheeks  i s harshly  desperate and  would  contrast  and t h e c h i l l  conjured  desperation persuades  figure  on h e r mouth  i n harsh  powder of  b u t t h e image  scarecrow  smears  above  black  of  believing crude hair  and hard  like  i s too old. She  home  red stand  her white  are the bright  her.  but return  The  e f -  face  banners  her tears The  i s left  woman's without  empty-handed.  And  therein  lies  her tragedy,  to  her daughter  of  events  has  so  that  road, woman  in  i n her fate.  and  clothes.  jerkiness  grey-white  and it  h e r on t h e t r a i l  From  to return  difficult  narrows  The s u d d e n finery  landscape.  A young  snow-bound  appearance into  of a town  the  second  t h e young takes  custody,  woman  of  on t h e speed  a s t h e woman i s p u r s u e d  across  discovers the shivering and s e t s  o f f i n pursuit threateningly  l e a p s on t o t h e donkey and whips  thefallen  i s the thief  allowing  Unluckily  corpse j u s t as a policeman  A s t u b b o r n , s t u p i d man, t h e p o l i c e m e n  man  could  M e a n w h i l e a n o t h e r man d i s c o v e r s t h e a b a n d o n e d  h i m he r e a c h e s  on t h e s c e n e .  brings  and, disguised  y o u n g woman a n d a l s o s e t s o f f i n p u r s u i t o f t h e t h i e f . for  young  her daughter  T e r r i f i e d , t h e woman w a v e s h e r p i s t o l She t h e n  isolated,  t o a dark,  I f only  the robbery  old  who b e c o m e  hurrying  man  pistol  a r e those  now o n t h e s t o r y movie  into a gallop.  she  to her  and  leads to action  of a silent  shoots him dead.  that  h e r husband's  and h a t , s h e r e l i e v e s  woman m o m e n t s a f t e r  on a d o n k e y .  her to return  discovery  i n the landscape  The t h o u g h t  possessions.  young  her road  The s c e n e  i n bridal  her greatcoat  her  making  decides  o f c o l o u r and t e m p t a t i o n .  such  starting  t o pawn  t h e woman  and s i l e n t .  dressed  shock  have  falls,  attempt  the only figures  gloomy  gift,  to her horrified  hopeless  Snow  enmeshed  a  a  a  forbids  child.  pay o f f her debt,  village.  a  leads  her only  After to  without  that  robbed  f o rher pride  and murderer  t h e woman t i m e  i s convinced  and takes  t o g e t away.  arrives  him  into  97 The to  woman  examine  abandons  t h e donkey  her plunder.  and h i d e s  She d i s c o v e r s a  i n a  graveyard  familiar  looking  b r a c e l e t and r e c o g n i z e s i t as one she had l e f t w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r all  those  years  before.  act  had l e d t o a p p a l l i n g  is  n o t o f t h e man  of  being  In h o r r o r she r e a l i z e s consequences.  she has k i l l e d  She d e c i d e s  to return  Her f i r s t  thought  but of t h e embarrassment  d i s c o v e r e d as t h e t h i e f  sessions.  her desperate  o f h e r own d a u g h t e r ' s t o t h e scene  pos-  of the crime,  abandon h e rd i s g u i s e and p r e t e n d t o d i s c o v e r the goods a c c i d e n t a l ly.  On  arrival  however,  she finds  t h e r e , l y i n g p r o s t r a t e i n t h e snow. the  young  handed. by  When  again cap  police  arrive  by a s t r a n g e  both  than  her definitely Fear  Fire-crackers  s t i l l  return  as h e r  emptydaughter  of discovery silences  celebrating  t h e New  silver  her  Year  snow  can  falls,  silently.  younger  have  rather  i n t h e d i s t a n c e and a l l around  endlessly,  greeted  identifies  woman  Scared of her mother-in-law,  herself  on h e r f o o t .  of grief.  heard  the  had k i l l e d  T h e woman  a birthmark  cries be  woman  t h e young  on  sight.  o n e , snow  t h e scene  t h e next  A middle-aged  practically  day they a r e  woman  burying  lies  them  holding  both.  died  o f stab-wounds,  and t h e younger  dressed  i n her finery:  her peach-coloured  gown,  blue  and r e d embroidered  shoes  a l l  with  a peacock  neatly  i n place.  coat.  T h e men  silent  and confused.  feather  woman  They  i s once  F u r t h e r o f f l i e an o l d army h a t a n d a g r e a t -  stand  looking  at this  scene  f o r some  time,  "The lengths far  The of  Home"  i s someone  does  injury  Road  bitter,  grinding,  pride  her daughter  rather  than  a  F o r Xu  straits  question:  allowed  poverty  and a n x i e t y n o t t o l o s e  drive  her to desperate  starvation  that  motivates  that  i t s h o u l d be h e r d a u g h t e r  of a  face  How theft,  reason,,  i n the  eyes  I t i s  this  h e r and i t i s f o r t h i s i n Xu's moral  who i s t h e v i c t i m  are tightly  t o go?  action.  I t i s inevitable  and e f f e c t  t o what  justify  i t i s n o t enough  she i s punished.  cause  moral  hopeless  that  for  hard,  i n desperate  and murder?  woman's  poses  bound  universe  of her action,  together  there.  I t  i s n o t chance c o i n c i d e n c e b u t an e f f e c t c l o s e t o Jung's s y n c h r o n i city  where  action given her  dark  unconscious  a t the very t o t h e woman  arms  as  moment  the hopelessness  of  her punishment.  "The  grey Road  else  approaches  some  degree  her i n death  Hers  was a c r u e l ,  background Home"  i s Xu  i t marks  turning  of  The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h m o r a l  Three  Doctors"  new  cynical  ("San B o s h i " ) ,  nature  w o r l d where  darkest this  are infused  note  acknowledgement  of false  point ,  anger.  i s a  this  her i n  bright  hope a g a i n s t  reality.  written  there  after  a  stark  Dishan's  the hopelessness  and h o l d  and t h e harsh  banners  of harsh  f o r an  The o p p o r t u n i t y  i s an  of her situation  stories  but  requital  i t i s performed.  colours stood out temptingly l i k e the c h i l l  bring  t o l a y out her daughter  she j o i n e d  of  forces  woman's  -  nothing  story.  f o r several  with  a  Carefree  such  To  of the  strong  accountability  i n stories "A  work  moral  continues, a s t h e "The  Flower"  and t h e  earlier  "In Director  Fei's  Reception  Room."  These  8 5  three  s t o r i e s r e p r e s e n t the c l o s e s t Xu ever approached t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n of  c r i t i c a l  realism  but  the overall  the  important  Some c r i t i c s and  s o common  impression  exceptions  their  slightly  sweetness.  mark  them  which  in  t h e "The L i b e r a t o r "  he  harangues  slavery  with G i l l s " China  images  redeem these A earlier  new  technically most  a s "The M e r c h a n t ' s  has been o f an  years  likened to  olive,  strange  an  as  element enters  a  stories sense  The p i l e d - u p m i l k  ("Jiefangzhe") search  crowd; who  he  8  8  falls  who h o l d s  way  policeman  carries  f o r a woman  of  bottles  foolish the  the o l d inventor  the world  from  and p r o v i d e  indifferent  before;  are typical  i n the later  and t h e v a l i a n t ,  ( " T i eYu D i S a i " )  stories  works  remain  works.  home  h i m on h i s f r u s t r a t e d  these  i s slight.  b u t soon r i p e n i n g i n t o a memorable  images  the earlier  in  saving  with  but fundamentally  6  which  out as Xu's h a n d i w o r k  Mr. Dongye's  of  8  after-taste  idiosyncratic  furnishing  virtual  stories,  8 7  with  Fish  Spider"  sun-filled  continuity  with  thrust,  bitter at first,  Enough to  by h i s l a t e r  charm o f s t o r i e s such  and "The T o i l i n g  lingering,  and  contempararies,  o f "Yuguan" and "Chuntao",  realist  o f them l a c k t h e u n u s u a l  the  given  h i s  c o n s i d e r Xu's l a t e r works t o be h i s b e s t  approve  Wife"  amongst  a  lamb  freed  from  i n "The  Iron  o n t o h i s dreams  around  h i s ears  o f Xu's e c c e n t r i c v i s i o n  - a l l  and  help  mediocrity.  o f humour  conspicuously  h i s later  stories  as  absent a  from  by-product  Xu's of  100 their  ironic  Doctors"  cynicism.  Used  and " I n D i r e c t o r  to great Fei's  effect  Reception  i n "The  Room"  to  Three  deflate  the p r e t e n s i o n s and expose t h ev e n i a l i t y o f the major c h a r a c t e r s , Xu's in  s e n s e o f humour r e a c h e s the story  works of  point  o f "Yuguan". t o an  t h e messages  however,  i t s most mature and g e n t l e f l o w e r i n g The a b s e n c e  earnest  they  t h e message  desire  were  meant  i s equally  g e n t l e humour h e l p s t o u n d e r c u t character  and p r o v i d e  a  of  Xu's v i s i o n  in  h i s other  lack. of  goodness  Yuguan she a  Both  and  of l i f e . later  women made  undergoes  attains  simple,  stand  to  atone  negative  while  the full  depth  impact  the  destruction of a l l that  because  flowering  confidence  the earlier memorable  Chuntao  on t h o s e  missing stories examples  and compassion.  of development  who k n o w s  remains  before  throughout  h e r own m i n d .  Yuguan profound  c l o s e t o h e r and  seeks  Chuntao f o l l o w s t h e d i c t a t e s of  i n a l l t h i n g s even  improve  powerful,  t h a t h e r a c t i o n s have had a  conscience  to  omnipresent  expression of affirmation.  process  woman  her  a c c e p t what l i f e  "Yuguan",  by self-knowledge  f o r her selfishness.  to  In  out as s o l i d ,  self-knowledge,  sometimes  t o convey.  represent  complex  comes t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  importance  and more  and a  powerful  good-hearted  the  They have a s e r e n e  works  a  to stress  t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f Yuguan's  deeper  "Yuguan"  i n h i s early  serious, but the  more s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g , "Chuntao"  o f humour  i f these  she holds  dear.  might  bring  about  Both  women  learn  h a s g i v e n them a n d t o work a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e  themselves  and t h e l i v e s  of those  around  them.  101  Both  women  importance and  by  of personal  accepting  offer  rich  their  predecessor  of  of l i f e  what  than  existing life  pattern  By b e i n g  of moral  of the values  Shangjie.  as i t i s .  one i s g i v e n .  not advocate  rather the  the imperatives  of Xu's b e l i e f  They There  true  to  conscience,  change.  the salvation  less  represent  a  one  be mended,  accepting  women subtly  compelling  kaleidoscope framework,  h i s contemporaries  Xu  He s o u g h t p e r s o n a l s o l u t i o n s  of China.  s t r u c t u r e but advocated  should while  wholesale  Unlike  themselves  expressed  i s only  i nthe  both  and one must work f o r change w i t h i n a l i m i t e d  accepting did  salvation.  confirmation  affirmation of l i f e  a r e t h e embodiment  He  rather  not replaced,  the continuity  d i d not that  rebuilt  o f change.  question t h e web to a  new  Chapter Four From S p r i n g Peach t o Autumn Chrysanthemum: Women i n Xu Dishan*s  1  Fiction.  "Man i s l e a s t h i m s e l f w h e n h e t a l k s i n his own p e r s o n . G i v e h i m a mask and he w i l l t e l l y o u t h e t r u t h . " Oscar Wilde 2  " P e r h a p s a mind t h a t i s p u r e l y masculine c a n n o t c r e a t e , any more t h a n a mind that is purely feminine." V i r g i n i a Woolf 3  "'I in  didn't  the house,  A Huan. and  to hire  n o r was  day I used  "Cheng  Huan  said,  men  can produce  breast  you  t h e s t o r y o f Meng "Cheng  Huan  died,  himself,  a  are incapable  'Did you have  'I only milk  replied,  leaving  and s u r e  a  my  work  f o r me  wet-nurse  to  of raising t o feed  milk  smiled  those  days  that  I  children  her  f o r me  feed  myself.'  to  drink,  could  a  suck  my  nipples  however hard  to  I tried,  was  brother.  He  flowed said,  i f a  widower." see  Huan,  He  N  and  A  So  but  sometimes  haven't  I  told  ' I was  f i l i a l  wanted  could  never  such  son  whenever  102  a  son  whose  to feed  him  from h i s b r e a s t s . '  f i l i a l  i f I  I was  milk,  4  'Yes.  baby  thought  cow's  too...  enough m i l k  Huai  "chaste  had  Jingxiu?'  "Guan  but  to hire  t o do a l l I c o u l d  asked,  Huai  her  t o do  1  "Guan  mother  someone  I willing  I d o n ' t b e l i e v e men  so every  Daddy?  want  a  bookworm i n  could  I held  do  i t , so  A  Huan  I l e t  produce  any  milk,  successful'."  5  The to  rueful  breast-feed  the  image  of a  an  Huai , a  idiosyncratic  widower  with  from  evening  after and  playing  become  believe  to  within see I  dead  We  symbol  Huai  i n this  to believe  it,  watching  over  she walked  them  world.  On t h e  coped  him, obsessing him, first  later  I hope  that  see him at her that  the grave body.  than  "'I  mine,  and  When  h e r body  and I t a l k  I go lying  a l l .  to i tjust  i s hiding  as  when  and n o t t r u l y he  i s alone.  i n h i s room and he  him that When  he  her essence hears  chamber.  8  persuades i s within  windchimes  of her ankle-bracelets  bridal  I  7  everywhere  sits  with  o f t h e sound i n their  rural  reminisces t oh i s  greater  h i swife  her presence  daughters  as  i n  existence,  are everywhere.  room.'"  that  his  reminded  Guan  lives  of her transmuted  itself,  A stone bust of her likeness  is  We  6  i t .  o u t o f t h e g r a v e - s t o n e , b u t because  believes  and f e e l s  haunts  grown  Dusk"  t h e r e a n d how h e  learn  her face  as the grave  t o you here  Huai  came  still  has already  rise  one, g i v i n g  salvage  daughters,  Guan  i t i s not because  i twill  Guan  place  h i s guitar.  her voice,  h e r body  talk  helps  i s a l l pervasive.  f o r him a  her grave  attempting  They l e a d a p a s t o r a l , i s o l a t e d  His wife  h e r body  stronger;  which  o n how h e a n d h i s w i f e  her presence  has  twist  takes  her death.  grave,  i s a charming  the turbulence of the outside  the story  daughters  fruitlessly  semi-autobiographical"After  two young  s e c l u s i o n near the sea. remote  man  h i smotherless child  otherwise sentimental  (1921)  young  he  tinkling  H e r s u r n a m e was  Shan,  104 meaning object is  "mountain" he  thinks  charged  entire  with  story  unfulfilled  causes is  She  rare  f i l l s  none  f i c t i o n . the  butt  those of the  gallery  women Men  3  critical  early  all-embracing,  t o be r e u n i t e d  and senses; to lull  at night  i n this:  He  C T . Hsia  the Chinese .  emerging  are rare  female  early  not alone  comments  characters"  Twentieth  stories 1  i t "altogether  and enslavement female  i n modern  i n modern C h i n e s e  decades  of  male  women  years of the next witnessed a profound  than  given  over the  should 1  or  tradition  that,  fiction."  the Nineteenth  Chinese  haunting  fitting  than  Ailing's  individuals  Fourth  of Chinese  characters  on t h e  century  are less  T h e May  4  l i f e  i n Xu's work  was  p o r t r a y e d a s weak  sisters.  made  she  h i m t o s l e e p . She  o f h i s own  characters  and t h e i r  fiction  final  of  a s h i s women.  dominate  wronged  f a r more  image  and indeed t h e  0  From L u Xun's X i a n g l i n Sao t o Zhang  outraged humanity The  male  are often  brutalization  pointed  This  9  preoccupation with  o f memorable  of satire,  of their  millenia, for  1  a  she obsesses.  embodiment  writers  Chinese f i c t i o n . 1 2 Qiqiao,  1  an a c h i n g l o n g i n g  and wind-chimes  Major  Fourth  sense  h i s thoughts  i s as memorable  May  of her.  forXu,  heavy  had "a p e c u l i a r  1  he s e e s  T h e d e a d woman ' s p r e s e n c e p e r v a d e s e v e r y t h i n g  as t h e p o t e n t i a l  "astounding  Cao  eroticism  she dominates,  Dishan  philosophy."!  among  an  the crickets  Xu  and  and thus  i s obsessed with  everywhere,  woman  o f mountains  desire.  her.  and whenever  has a p e r v a s i v e ,  and Guan H u a i with  or " h i l l " ,  stand  5  century change  and t h e  i n Chinese  105 attitudes was  t o women.  one o f t h e f i r s t  of  footbinding  Education mothers a  The r e f o r m e r  would  was f o r t h e o v e r a l l  raise  world.  increasingly  roles  was  established  the  vote  a  1  and  impetus  from  workers  The May  women  there  a n d women's  from  their object  The t r e n d  of o l d values  l i f e  and  women some  became  with became  playing  After the Republic  1 8  action  demanded f o r better  provided  a  l i m i t e d women's  renewed  activities  a significant  political  opposing the t r a d i t i o n a l  status.  families  associating  women  and t h e r i g h t  of public  concern  together  later  an  issue  before  of  Chinese  women  day, there into  seeking  marriage  both  comrades. o f women  were  Men  2 1  often  a n d women privately  While  i n China that  family  independence  to education  c a n be no doubt  the world  encompassed  regarding  and s u p p o r t .  s e t i n and t h e s t a t u s  to this  iconoclasm  and customs  Young  fetters  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f women's  towards  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , and as p o l i t i c a l  would  educated  of dealing  sphere,  strike  grew up an i n c r e a s e d  i n China.  rejection  began  since  1 6  2 0  position  the  capable  movement  f o rpreviously  1919 onwards  thepast  the  issue,  of suffragettes  began  Fourth  t h e custom  of the nation.  of upper-class  number  Among y o u n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s of  strength  sons  (1858-1927)  debilitating  i n the political  growing  conditions.  9  Youwei  i n t h e 1911 r e v o l u t i o n .  a n d women  greater  educated A minority  1 7  active  significant  factor.  how  f o r women b e c a m e a n i m p o r t a n t  modern  and  to stress  Kang  reaction remains  t h e emergence  had f a r - r e a c h i n g  and  very  106 profound and, of  consequences.22  f o r a while their  modern caused the of  by  main  Dishan's rarely  female  the  o l d society's  conscious  statements  specifically society  play  a  held  j  o f women  from both  the i n t e n t i o n of endorsing r i g h t - t h i n k i n g person  He c o n t r a s t s  a  equal  Buddhist  emphasizes  and hopes  stance monk that  that  towards  he  must  make  on  the greatest  of  fiction  a  victims  vilifying  he was the  deeply  obviously  h i s p u b l i c and religious,  stresses  systems  quotes  Buddhist  long  that  i n which series of  and B i b l i c a l  texts,  them b u t i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n  would  fail  to reject Paul's  a l l religions  women.26  As  past.23  a l e c t u r e on  C h r i s t ' s a t t i t u d e t o women w i t h  depreciation more  n  He  not  no  and by  t o women  views  that  by  a r e male-dominated role.25  of a  that  That  clear  women  secondary  system.  by t h e m a j o r i t y  the object  i s made  negative with  of suffering  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  o f women.  attitudes  and r e l i g i o n  t o dominate  are not t r a d i t i o n a l  of concern.24  Buddhist,  came  symbol  and d e s t r o y i n g  with  stage  imagination  the heroines  characters  he  the  the  opposed  class  become  stories  i n which  past  educated  issues  onto  of the traditional  treatment  o f women's  regard  women  wrote  They  were t h e major  t o exposing  he  private  they  therefore  and  high  compatriots.  and v o c a l  should  had burst  to capture  v i c t i m s o f an o p p r e s s i v e  dedicated  Xu  were  the backwardness  they  largely  male  because  t h e young  that  at least,  educated  fiction  Women  Discussing  t h e road  will  them.  inflexible develop  a  the sacrifices  to enlightenment  o f a l l i s t o abandon  Xu  sexual  107 life, of  f o r the happiness  the opposite Xu's  of  comes  i s filled  o f essays,  Kong  images  Shan  Ling  marriage,  including  companionship  and p i e c e s  mourning  describe  waiting mad  f o rher lover,  with  the death  husband, many  I n one e s s a y  2 9  e l u s i v e , untouchable  have become a b r i l l i a n t you  float  sink  between road. you  a  making  rock;  me  float  treated  at length  Ren") i n which  her  naive  last knows  even of  i n my  how  forgotten  he r e c o r d s  wisdom.  a  woman  T h e man who c a n n o t  i f h i s mind  a l l souls.'"  3  he be  i s untroubled, 2  I t seems  to a  that  darting  " A h ! Woman! Y o u Sometimes  a  fallen  "Who  of  that  hoping  that  and  recalling  women  i s s t i l l Xu agreed  or  woman  I s S h e ? " ("Ren  eludes  able  you  leaf  of the elusive  as s a y i n g ,  love  become  sweetheart and  the direction  piece  will  girl  see you; sometimes  woman  h i s wife  Other  2 8  disillusioned  day by t h e p o o l ,  I n a moving  close  young  o f memory!'  The theme  3 0  of  a woman  and a  y o u a r e under  a mysterious  3  to love  me  a  a woman  i n Xu's 1934 s t o r y  admirer. ^  illness  'pool  letting  b u t I have  Fei  love  he l i k e n s  think  up a g a i n . "  couples,  her childhood  A l l I c a n do i s s i t each will  is  to the surface,  down,  wife,  wife  vignettes  death.  and u n a t t a i n a b l e .  fish  His early  scenes  h i s wife's  a vain  meeting  someone  Yu, contains  of a barren  o f h e r son,  with  o f women.  idyllic  newly-married  a n o l d woman  others.  fish,  the anguish  living  incomparable.27  with  h i s first  essays  from  s e x i s , he b e l i e v e s ,  fiction  collection  that  "Only  confuses  h i s wife's i fa  t o know or rejects t h e most with  man  how t o them, stupid  h i s wife's  108  words on  forhis fiction  how  high  a  regard  he  placed  women. While  are  reveals  also  tragic  positive  a  images  few n e g a t i v e  action,  chapter.  lifestyles Carefree selfish  also  come  Flower", woman  around her.  Home"  the tale  whose  The  has already  been  of criminal  d r i v e n by  desperation,  M o d e r n women d e v o t e d  under  attack,  blisteringly  corruption  taints  t o Western s o i n "The  Yellow,33  of Jacqueline  there  examples.  Her c h o i c e  f a r she might have been  marks h e r o u t f o r punishment.  h i s work,  ambiguous  i n "The Road  i n the preceding  however  dominate  or morally  e n d o f t h e woman  discussed  o f women  the lives  a  venal,  of  those  R i c h , western-educated andprofoundly m a t e r i a l i s t i c ,  she  i s very  much t h e c a r e f r e e f l o w e r o f t h e t i t l e .  her  ancestral shrine  her  t w o women  She  has a  Spanish  The  mayor,  charmed  her  a  t o make way f o r a s w i m m i n g  servants,  sinecure  drawn  lover  by  and a  i t s glamour, husband  persuades  pool  i n which  later  drown.  i n the countryside.  by h e r e x p e n s i v e l y - g o w n e d  and l a t e r  She d e s t r o y s  beauty,  her t o launder  gives  large  sums  o f money o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y .  By t h e t i m e t h e c r i m e i s d i s c o v e r e d  she  t o Europe  and  i s long  gone,  sailing  l e a v i n g h e r husband The  emotion  anger  that  t o face  infuses  f o r Xu, whose There  to  but i ti s also  h i s anger,  corruption  seems  o f an urban e l i t e  her foreign  lover  the music.  "The C a r e f r e e  stories  detachment.  with  generally  t o be  a  Flower"  i s a  maintain  strong  a  patriotic  rare  serene element  a bitterness f o rthe destructive who i g n o r e  their  country's  plight.  Jacqueline  Yellow  careless  sails  away  of her nation's  as a s e r i e s o f l e t t e r s , to  Chinese  the  fact  women  that their  through  stories  does of  requital for  bombings,  piece,  written  Western  do t e n d  t o forget  but hates  their  roots  i t i s Xu t h e p a t r i o t  as these  and h i s high  him attacking  those  Interestingly, despite defines  education,  much  h i s most  who  biting,  who s p e a k s  regard  f o r women  break  h i s rules  the moral  o f h i s work,  grammar  t h e men  ironic  and  of  a n d women  and o c c a s i o n a l l y  They r e m a i n  unaffected  unconcerned.35  Xu's  his  negative  fiction.  strong,  confident  somehow  or bad. like  widower  Fish  with  becomes  Guan  Gills"  Even  grows  failures, those  Jialing Huai  protagonists  I n marked they  weak,  Bird",  a  significant  insignificant  i n stature.  as an a f t e r t h o u g h t .  Mr.  diminishment.  i n "The Mingming  t o go t h e r e .  Jialing  Mr. Dongye  this  positive Dongye,  L e i i n "The  I s i s s h e who d r e a m s  are  dependent,  decidedly  i n "The Mingming  to  i n  emasculated  debilitated,  and t h e o l d i n v e n t o r  suffer  contrast  are often  who a r e g i v e n  w o r l d a n d i t i s s h e who d e c i d e s almost  are the exception  of h i s female  areproblematic;  increasingly  Minming  o f women  and v i r t u o u s .  feminized,  features, the  images  The m a j o r i t y  male c h a r a c t e r s  absent  her  enemy  In another  i n d i c t m e n t s , do n o t make a m e n d s .  These  as  such  whom h e r e s e r v e s  and  who  a  own c u l t u r e . 3 4  that  humourous  or  receiving  not prevent  conduct.  fate.  the f i r s t  t h e w r i t e r s t r e s s e s he h a s no o b j e c t i o n  s o many  despise  amidst  Iron  Jialing Bird"  of another accompanies  i s an e c c e n t r i c  ill-adapted leads  f o r ordinary  him into  dependent  upon  her.  celibate,  The widower  vowing  never  h i s life's  morbid  memory  o f h i s dead  wife  a  he  life's  rescue  work  The  strange,  man  for  men;  with  h i spains;  There  not  choosing  concerned  with  their  and motley  an e l u s i v e  so much  responses  with  the causes of t h e i r with  Mingming  Bird"  her  f o rJialing  a  love  sorcerer  parade a  Minming  to prevent  for  the  f o r the time  attempting  lamb;  a dying  woman  wives  husband; prisoner;  and beaten  a n d men who  up  die.  3  6  a l l h i s men a r e f l a w e d . protagonists,  the hardship  Xu  was  they  underwent  as  were  not free  d i d not write  s u f f e r i n g b u t t o s h o w how  transcended fights  to  continues:  of a legless  shadow  i t - Xu however  o r even  only  The l i s t  t o i t . H i s heroines  to  coped  river.  as h i s major  -  duals  f a r from  who h a s  Mr. L e i , i s o l dand  i s drowned  their  i n Xu's world;  women  anxiously  nursing  suffering expose  he  of a  men who a b a n d o n  a r e no h e r o e s In  when  a policeman  obsessed  lives  to  any acknowledgement o f h i s t a l e n t s .  t h e depths  inexorable  has chosen  t h e woman  He  inventor,  economically  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s inventions  i s wasted  i t from  dependent a  sees  Huai  to replace  and waits  her.  No-one  Guan  obsession.  he h a s n e v e r been g i v e n  His  a  can join  failure.  and  h i s naivete  As t h e s t o r y ends he i s l e f t p h y s i c a l l y  become  when  a n d c r i p p l e d when  on h i s w i f e , j u s t a s p r e v i o u s l y he h a d been  dependent remain  danger.  life  suffering.  her father's  and a n g r i l y  exposes  i t by magic.  of  them  indivi-  I n t h e "The opposition  h i s scheme  Shangjie  from  to with  i s wrongfully  accused  of  adultery  home  until  her  left  alone  by  a  living.  find venal  her  and  enough  to  fellow  her  companions  fate  was  love  in  to  return  too  a monk o f to  Yu, her  there weak  My  her  integrity  A  when She a  of  a  Yin'er  father's the  too  of  a  minor  to  forfeit  The  woman i n "The  Fei  succeeds and  a  in  has  and  when  protect  her  her  Moli""  is  misdemeanour  to  to  make  her defy  family tells  addicted  maintain her  their  R o a d Home" f i n d s no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t  and  husband  his  parents-in-law for  forced  Liberator",  fights to  reject  grandmother  because  "The  widow,  enforced  a servant to a m i s t r e s s  wishes  she  unhappy  to  Zumu")  tradition  g i r l  now  amongst  young  "Zhilan  minor  life  figure  factory  Director  profit  by  to  selfish  society  Wodi  a  her  hidebound  young  only  for  and  how  honorary  Reading  Xiangji  home  rest  Xu's  on  off  whose  Yungu,  because  upon her.  earn  difficulties  v i l l a g e r and her  is  3 7  Poplar",  rescues  Moli"  own  and  sex.  fellow  sets  Living  her  h a r d c h i l d h o o d as  3 8  concubine.  of  to  re-married  generous  and  Xiguan  she  child-widow  Old  who  Bangxiu,  opium.  an  her  harem.  her  child  abroad  the  Grandmother  for  and  how  Despite  chastity  of  to  pressure.  on  Muslim  learns  result  travels  reaches  a  her  mistaken.  prosperous,  Honna,  man  code of  "Zhilan  remains is  the  "Thinking  ("Du  for  leave  is  he  him  into  be.  advances  of  strict  her  can  direct  the  of  to  he  when  him  Xiguan  "Blossoms  suffers  a  wives  the  news  sell  compassion  In  the  husband no  forced  realizes  discovers  her  found  is  husband  When  him,  and  son's  her fifth  decide sake.  prostitution  to  support  and  murder.  decides it  herself,  but her failure  Yuguan,  to follow  left  alone  tradition  after  h e r husband's  and r e m a i n  a  chaste  death,  widow, f o r  w a s t h e o n l y w a y f o r a woman t o g a i n s o m e m e a s u r e o f r e n o w n .  After  a  whom  long  struggle t o support  a l l h e r hopes  demanding mother-in-law,  and  alienation  r a t h e r than  Each o f these in  a  system  stories,  mother...", are of  lives,  way  i n which  the  Dishan  overtake  undoubtedly  but of minor they  cope  the i l l s  these  their  wrote  of h i s society.  and  theme.  a  the that  woman  stark  destroyed  by  traditional  her.  3  9  Sao's  story  Rou S h i attempted  that  writers  were  the plight  making  the point,  of Chinese  women  women  overall.  When  to Xu  the primary  he d e s c r i b e d  point of her journey a  tragic  superstition. he v i l i f i e d t h e same  a very was  as  the direction  with  s u c c e s s f u l l y b e c a u s e m o r e s e n t i m e n t a l l y , i n "A Both  women  Grand-  he was on o c c a s i o n  Lu Xun p a i n t e d  power o f X i a n g l i n  killed  In a l l these  lives  stories  i t marked t h e s t a r t i n g  of  caught  i n comparison  although  a woman's s u f f e r i n g not the major  a r e women,  influencing  with  o n e , a n d he r a r e l y  of exposing  they  importance  was n o t a p o l e m i c a l w r i t e r ,  didactic  aim  because  of division  and comfort.  and d e s t r u c t i v e .  that  issues,  their  support  a jealous  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f " T h i n k i n g o f my  the events  secondary  l i e , she becomes  offering  i s harsh  however, w i t h  h e r s o n ,i n  p e r p e t u a t i n g a system  women s u f f e r  that  and educate  and a m b i t i o n s  and  a  there leads her t o robbery  vision Through  t h e system thing,  less  Slave-Mother".  persuasive  terrible  4 0  point,  indeed, and  113 that  in  only  a radical  Both  Xianglin  creators' of  f a t e - they  and they  salvation  lies  personal  s o l u t i o n s were  based  on a w h o l e s a l e  T h e s e women  could  i s one o f exposure,  save  them  no  individually,  that  felt  drastic  change.  Xu  Dishan's  often to  of a  answer and  -  Xiguan a  part,  They  calmly  achieving tiny  father's  nature,  i s part  t o save  has more  opposition  to  Jialing,  She  finds  save  the o l dsociety Xianglin symbols  little  t o her marriage  as a  her solution  future  this  of the  solutions,  relationship f o r a For  larger  Shangjie  them  than  strength  can only  i s  that.  from i t , influence  struggles against her and grows  companion  outside  Saos,  pattern, but i t  to offer  Minming  designed  personal  a l l a d v e r s i t y and draw  of the world.  their  to  China.  which  -  f o r t h e need f o r  of l i f e ' s  a private transcendence  corner  bear  alone  were  more  generation  their  transformation  of h i s contemporaries  f o r l i f e accept  no  because  hope  to  are powerful  which  the world,  suffering  be  i n contrast, find  desire  t o change  Fourth  stories  Their  I t i s too late  of destroying  would They  women,  spiritual  only  a  there  b y t h e May  the driving  powerless  this  of education.  but t h e i r  Slave-Mothers.  urgency  are  power  not achieve  d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e cause  more  this.  hope.  their  t o ensure  rectify  a r e w e i g h e d down b y a n a n c i e n t  a r e h e l p l e s s , without  role  and  could  beyond  society.  inspire  i n t h e system  Sao and t h e Slave-Mother  the face of their  tradition of  change  indifferent  i n the world world.41  beyond.  Yungu,  i n a  114 fairy-tale  ending,  a blissful scholar  and  o l d age, despite  with  The  a stubborn  Xu  realism  comes  in  desperation punished,  her  becoming  her  second  a  and  too attains  gives  However,  her personal  and b e n e f i t  others.  and  her journey  a personal  radical  by  social  knowledge. Of Reading the in a  marriage  the  face  Like  one.  but  a  Xu's and  stories, Moli"",  the story  through  of family  differences  family  pressures. between  movement roads  "Thinking  of  closest  and  Western  and  prevents with  ambitions  and  Xiguan,  her to was  which reach  hard-won  transformation and  marks  towards  no  self-  to follow. My  Grandmother  t o an  attack  on  of  weakness i n  p r e f a c e Xu  Chinese  on  incident  the destruction  individual  In the long  made  criticized  Based on a t r u e  criticizes pride  enables  attainable  many  t o terms  The s p i r i t u a l  comes  by  action,  h e r own  her solution  gradual  i s the  transcendence  also  Chinese family system.  family,  of  Shangjie  spiritual  However,  espoused  comes  she r e a l i z e s  i s one o f t h e h a r d e s t  "Zhilan  traditional  of  solution  of her story  Yuguan  i s not easily  change  Hers  a l l  h i s own  the  Yuguan  allowed  of a reclusive  i s implicitly  ambiguity  peace, but which  out  achieved  her choice  of change.  level  and  of her story  literature  hypocritical. a  part  by p r i d e ,  d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w when  selfish  she  the early  the moral  symbol  lover  Home" h a s n o h o p e o f a n y  and m o t i v a t e d and  her  granny.  t o the exposure  h i s contemporaries.  were  village  of  of  and  with  the unlikely coupling  woman i n " T h e R o a d  the stark  closest  i s reunited  discusses  attitudes  to  115 love. and  Western  love  i s horizontal,  p o s s i b l e anywhere.  the  generations  seen  -  i n relation  fiction  rarely  naturalness  is  t o be s e p a r a t e d Having  love  own  Xu's  this,  divided  household  He  connubial  contends  love  with  envisaged  possible  Xu then  goes  loyalties.  strict  mourning.  the wife  h i s family's  The  distraught  weak  live  a  young  The  son.  wife  given  They  finds  personal  The h u s b a n d  bed.  who  wife  of  dominates  a  period  of  out of a l l proportion f a t h e r , as proud i s of  hers.,  apart  until  forcibly  secretly and they  of  unfiliality,  but t h e husband i s therefore  can  never  again.  distance.  death  f i l i a l  he r e v e a l s  young  during  the accusations  meet  Chinese  how  In this  thoughtless  a r e kept  his sister  and r e q u e s t i n g  defies  f o r a  the sister-in-law  couple  vegetarian  openly  as  of  the context  on t o d e s c r i b e  frivolously  Chinese  4 2  home b y h e r s t u b b o r n  honour  t o oppose  together  The  are only  that  within  tragedy  The i n c i d e n t i s b l o w n  she, i r o n i c a l l y ,  miscarries  woman  any degree  her sister-in-law  behaving  i s whisked  of  after  offends  by  and  and couples  from h i s o r h e r f a m i l y .  grandfather  the  too  to the family.  The g r e a t e s t  said  love  can prove d e s t r u c t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a l s .  his  and  i t i s f i l i a l  f o r i t i s always  the family.  o n man  Chinese l o v e i sv e r t i c a l and encompasses  describes  of  based  i n Buddhism,  her husband  retreats into  his sister  His wife  solace  only  when  makes h i m p r o m i s e  to maintain h i s studies  summoned t o marry  becoming a  chaste  and  finally  to h i s wife's her personal  116 maid  and  in  real  grandmother. The  her  by  to  wife  in  this  and  his  is  and  is  imbued  that  failure  dying  in  The  essay  4 3  wife  one  of  written  after  with  strong  emotion  Xu  was  a  does  by  expressing  The  death-bed  not  have  because the  at  the  the  a  brief,  careless  of  scene simple  story  f a t e of the  as  feeling,  which  at  Columbia  from  the  took  place  of  Xu  in  their  the  discusses  the  describes  University.  r e s t r a i n t Xu eighty  uses  years  The to  i t  story.  through  c u l t u r e and  and  My  use  at  a  is  successful  of  "Farewell"  sense of  a  describe  previously.  family  of  long  The  to  feel is  discursive Western  i s undertaking  distancing an  pride  distance  between he  While  destroyed  impossible  research  second  grief  emotions  distance.  differences  the  deeply  Grandmother"  stubborn  A  power  feelings  same less  immediacy  is written  individual  achieved  Eastern  whole  interlude  immediately  and  heart-felt  given  of  anguish.  "Thinking  rebellious  engaged  in  a  in  death  widower's  The  4 4  husband's  the  young c o u p l e i s t r a g i c , t h e i r m a r r i a g e  completely  preface  a bereft  early because  to his  young  understand.  Xu's  obviously  gave e x p r e s s i o n  Xu's  ordering  i s moving  p e r v a d e " A f t e r Dusk" i n a r a t h e r more e x t e n d e d and attempt  becomes  was  describing to  maid  found  vignette.  essay  the  selfless,  d e a t h and  another  child's  a  It  the  so  also  emotion.  his wife's  and  of  ("Biehua"),  s i m p l i c i t y of  a f f e c t e d by  this,  image  "Farewell"  first the  does  re-marry  i t s genuine  his  he  idealized  husband  essays, of  time  actual  effect  stems  event  which  reader  receives  117 the  impression  given,  perhaps  fresh been  t o Xu taught  breaks  of  Taiwan.  he  and a l s o  the bare  dealt  with  or  comes  I n t h e same v e i n  t h e husband's lived  i n a  all  other  the  courage  yet  know  failure  country  kinds  and  t o oppose  how  The  love  " i t wasn't  that  i t . "  4  sketches,  the to  explain because  placed  he  when  customs  was  above  didn't  but that  Ultimately  6  have  impulses  on  was  longer  reason f o r  interrupts  the e t h i c a l code,  t o oppose  brief  h i s sister  f i l i a l  no  are  would  third  information  he t w i c e  where  he  Xu's d i d a c t i c  to defy  that,  remain  depth.  from  i t was  generation  The c h a r a c t e r s  emotion  of the story  anecdote  a  the s t o r y - l i n e to give 4 5  outlines  as a f a m i l y  of distance  he  that  because  l i t t l e  sense  only  to revere.  revealing the  that  have  he  d i d not  the story  remains  anecdotal. Despite these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t h i s story remains i n t e r e s t i n g for  the sidelight  f i l i a l of a  love,  stubborn man  c h i l d .  compromise love,  between  since  necessity  to that  I n some  7  family  he  f o r each  a  likens  the love  and c h i l d , i s a  sense  the v e r t i c a l  this  and  marital  each  parent  and  vision  horizontal  r e a l i z a t i o n of and  to marital  to the destructive  of a parent  strange  i t implies  of both  Xu's a t t i t u d e  A t one p o i n t  and v u l n e r a b l e , 4  on  h i s opposition  pride.  a n d woman  nurturing a  and  i t throws  ties,  and  effects between mutually each  i s  provides angles  the validity unified  a of  and  i n one  relationship. "Chuntao"  represents  another  form o f attack  on t h e t r a d i -  tional  family  variation.  system  f o r i n some s e n s e s  Chuntao,  (the  Spring  t i t l e ) , i s a n i n d e p e n d e n t woman who and  has  managed  virtually  as  survive  unscathed.  when f l e e i n g the  to  her  country  Separated  village  until  companion,  colleague  and  after is  at  a  day's  immediate  waste  paper  straw  hat  as  she  her,  and  we  somehow  beautiful In  a  There  is  an  unstated  a t t h e d o o r by her  meals.  you  not  are  to  proletariat consider  call  me  status  setting,  idealistic  a  a. t r o i s .  menage  no  more  of  5  ending 0  is  Told  to  her  be  big  of  told  than  in detail. reversal  4  Chuntao's  4 9  be  popular  Xu's  and in  "wife"  best,  a  simple,  large teeth  anymore  about  Shangjie  whose  8  is  objects,  mainland  despite  unorthodox  a  of  white  independence with  image  basket by  Chuntao  she  imhome  the  w o r k s w i t h i n t h e h o u s e and her  lover,  struck  but  obscured flash  erstwhile  returns  simply, a  working  an  is  Chuntao  night  wandered  began  note  times  one  she  becomes  alive  role  calls  to  she  carries  need  described  story  who  face  h a v e made h e r  this  of  attack,  Here  when  She  far  wife."  unsettled  husband  an  tantalizing  case  he  of  described  her  X i a n g g a o , who When  her  of  independent  is  catch  features  vagaries  opening  back,  is  livelihood  i n t i m e i s j o i n e d by  An  She  she  h a s c r e a t e d h e r own  eve  effective. her  chapter's  Xianggao,  story's  smiles.  for  Liu  work.  on  but  and  of  subversive  this  Beijing.  dependent. the  Peach  from  the  reaching  travelling  who  on  a waste-paper c o l l e c t o r  mediately  the  i t posits a  greeted prepares "I and  told her  critics  the  idyllic  establishment  straightforward  of style  with to  judicious  a u t h o r i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , much  l e a r n about Chuntao and h e r l i f e i s gained  and  plainly  narrated  Chuntao's They  spend  frame of  and  her long  quality of  then  about  gentle  sexual. when  begging  him  with  there  Li  and Mao  this  massages There  scene  that  rhythms  rings  almost  under  that  She  seems  true,  which life  i s not  a t the thought  that  i t s  h i m home  badly  legless  and  tells  to her that  she has not  am  must  she  actually s t i l l  no-one's  people  a i r  explicitly  L i Mao,  therefore I  with  are disrupted  takes  "No,  melon  erotic  so n a t u r a l  they  replies,  their  matter-of-fact  Discovering  that  idyllic.  strains  h e r l o n g - l o s t husband  says  She  i s aghast  come  the  very  of their  Xianggao.  wife.  we  conversation  her to relieve i s a  i n the streets.  L i Mao  gently  and a f u l f i l m e n t  discovers  with  through  i s content,  chatting  work.  the honesty  re-married, man  Xianggao  The g e n t l e  and  Xianggao  evenings  contentment  Chuntao  lives  with  day's  what  passages.  life  their  of  be  w i f e . "51  would  consider  him a c u c k o l d , b u t Chuntao ' s r e s p o n s e , g i v e n w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y and  openness t y p i c a l  should about  worry people  nothing out  I do  that  separated  about like  from  together  home  from  a  such  an  accusation  him and h e r .  can disgrace  theirs  been  to her, i s that only  was  an  you  arranged  " I ' m my i n any marriage  i t s i n c e p t i o n , whereas f o r several  sense  of  years.  She  the rich  and  powerful  , f o r no-one own  person  way." and  5 2  that  cares  now  She  points  they  she and Xianggao had  brought  and  were had  L i Mao  o b l i g a t i o n and d i d n o t r e j e c t him as  120 a  husband  because  Xianggao. she  he was  She s u g g e s t s  had been  c r i p p l e d , but because that  considering  they  finding  a l l live a  third  she  loved  together  helper  since  f o r some  time. The The  three  o f them  live  together  men a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e t h e q u e s t i o n  apparently reasserts men  life  h e r independence  and f o r a  i n her plans.  was n o t i d e a l ,  sharing  one k a n g .  common"  because  5 3  men  Here  find  up  them,  they  stop  other is  " I cannot  considering  people's  the very  one's  a  value. her with their  confidence  alienating  code  She w i l l  confident  5  emphasis  has great  simple  5  faith  her, after independence  an  like  public  them  are not  very  the primitive When  4  t h e two  and a  insists  and t o  ignore  opinion  sense  her conscience carries  without  simple  woman  o f h e r own and i n time  t h e t w o men  both  I f  i s negligible.  Tightness,  strong  - L i Mao b y a t t e m p t i n g  messages  to oneself.  She i s a  i n t e r l u d e where  Chuntao  and  story's  true  i n h e r own  i n herself  5  of  that"  of this  on b e i n g  not a c t against  t o comment  the three  of a wife  arrogance.  o f honour  t h e two  rights.  just  One  at least  her t o Xianggao,  h e r i n terms  i s irreproachable  accompanying  with  giving  be a r r a n g e d  opinions.  strong  conduct  Chuntao an  an agreement  Chuntao  t o abandon  men  time.  plans.  societies  i t hard  of  ownership,  Xu i n t e r v e n e s  "Polyandrous  o f p a t r i a r c h a l and u x o r i a l  tells  time  especially with  ideology draw  o f Chuntao's  unaware o f t h e i n c o n g r u i t y o f t h e i r  acquiesce  that  f o ra period  attempt  along  to assert  s u i c i d e and Xianggao  121 by  leaving.  Chuntao  home, u n a b l e t o l i v e Chuntao's with  is  her. and  When feels  bonds  and  -  their  return  wife.  They  be  compromise Chuntao  t o the country  small  garden  your w i f e . "  i n mutual  Somehow  artificial  it  was  gives can  cope  without  fidence;  being  by  a  unfaltering with  life  of the household  takes  over.  word.  Chuntao  In the  the story  final  began,  so  transformed and e n l a r g e d ,  "Don't  call  with  polemical.  C h i n e s e male picture  and s u p p o r t s  and because  acknowledged  her  me  "wife",  I'm  not  She i s h e r s e l f .  5 6  written an  family  decide  " C h u n t a o " i s i n many w a y s a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y t a l e , feminist  the  a n d L i Mao t h e  again  head  where  they have c o m p l e t e d t h e i r c i r c l e her say t o Xianggao,  t o go  once  has t h e l a s t  She t o o  as  together  L i Mao  i n the  has nowhere  at the centre  i s t o be  only  needs  separated.  men  i s dealt  he  and t h e i r  The  But Chuntao  just  he  are tied  cannot  Xianggao  set i n their  hear  returns  h e r work.  love  1  child.  i n the city  scene,  we  with  dependent  I f they  that  a  she does  i t i s because  and  reach  which  i s revealed  Xianggao s  to her.  established,  fate  needs  returns  bound  o f them  permanent  is  he  with  of affection  three is  She  and Xianggao  a t Xianggao's departure  Her v u l n e r a b i l i t y  inefficiency  dependent.  L i Mao  without her.  depression  delicately.  unusual  rescues  while  of  Extraordinary i n t h e 1930s;  an  because  because i t  i n d e p e n d e n t woman  herself  the feelings  understanding  explicitly  and o t h e r s of  and sympathy,  with  t h e t w o men  who conare  i t i s Chuntao's  122 will  that  wins  in  the  on  each  is  crippled  out.  revelation other  becomes  an  and and  him  conscience  His  reappearance  cannot  be  part  dependence  and and  provider,  their  the  implicit  the  centre  ends but  feelings  Her  independence  f o r Xianggao  but  to  he  of  i t be  A spider  cannot survive  Mao  Dun  heroines of  the  a  wrote  i n that past,  Chuntao,  family,  i s not  of  she  adrift  with  the  companions  Chuntao  a  the  strength  that  reject  She  f o r Xu  Xu's  who  "Autumn  would  be  even  she  came  and  of  that  Chuntao  i s  i s her  own  by  Dishan  her  placed  framework,  system  of  was  unlike  Xu's  own  life.  of  choose  stronger  Chrysanthemum"  useful.  a  "The  war, her  g o e s on t o hope t h a t Xu w o u l d one day c r e a t e themum"  their  emotionally  i t .  -  him.  by  undermined  or  turmoil to  have  belief.  web.  determined her in  he  t h e warmth o f X i a n g g a o ' s  emphasized,  without  but  i s also  both  Mao  selfhood  g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e on s e l f - r e l i a n c y w i t h i n a s u p p o r t i v e whether  L i  To  created  lives.  p e r s o n , b u t a t t h e same t i m e s h e n e e d s companionship.  dependent  acknowledgement  their  comes  provider,  her  acceptance  of  ways  Chuntao's  Chuntao,  i s an  story  business.  allowed loose  on  the  f o r shame.  small  i s dependent  his return  an  cause  traditional  have  dependent  of  a l l i n some  undermined  up  He  are  a  of  not  ties  triumph  i s no  have  would  i s also  economically,  they this  separation.  Xianggao  final  that  would  her  enforced  that  important  abandoned  the  The  Chuntao  becomes  own  fate."  a 5  7  new He  an "Autumn C h r y s a n -  than h i s "Spring into  other  being  as  Peach."  Yuguan,  5 8  but  123 this  achievement  for,  while  in  part  Yuguan  from  credited  went  without  also  acknowledgement  made h e r own f a t e ,  her adoption  from  Mao Dun  her strength  of Christianity,  an a l i e n  comes  and d i s -  religion.  After  "Chuntao"  Xu's remaining  of  women.  The  A s s a s s i n ( X i o n g S h o u ) , w r i t t e n i n 1939 a n d 1940 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  I n two p l a y s ,  presents  settings. Hong  urges  An  I n T h e Woman  a Chinese  by  In  patriotic  hero  heroine  resourceful  expose  Chinese make l i f e  worth. wife  p o s i t i v e images ( N u Guo S h i )  play  of t h e hero  and  with  nationalistic  Xu reworked  t h e woman's i s a  an o l d s t o r y  role. ! 6  loyal  wife  two unsavoury  a l i e n a t i o n from bizarre  o f h e r husband's  Xue Rengui  of h i s country.  at arousing  i n that  students  and abandon h i s  the invaders  aimed  and rather  f o r female  and h e r s e l f  to fight  friendship  h i s younger way,  6 2  The Song disturbed characters brother.  s h e manages t o  friends  and prove h i s  I n a p o s t s c r i p t Xu d e s c r i b e s  h e r as a model  and hopes  sweeter  written  o f The A s s a s s i n  the veniality  brother's  Patriot  the wife  0  t o stress  h i s subsequent a  6  i t i s unusual  h e r husband's  and  Patriot,  h i smother  f o rh i s father  explicitly  dynasty  T h e Woman  University,  him t o leave  sentiments, of  9  e x a m p l e s o f s t r o n g , r e s o u r c e f u l women i n h i s t o r i c a l  Kong  mourning  5  a l l have very  the exception  "The I r o n  at  G i l l s " ,  with  of  he  Fish with  works,  that  for a l l .  6  3  others  follow  h e r example  to  In the  a  nice  princess  prison Tao  and  twist  who  rescues  a  the prince  alone  Cinderella  who  She  and  the  becomes  from  a  Tao J i n n i a n g  Where  Jinniang  i t i s  h i s dark,  i n "The  beloved  Firefly  watery  Lantern."  o f t h e same  name,  eccentric  earth-goddess.  Queen,  i s set i n opposition  o f woman. Tao  around  fairy-tale  and a Demeter f i g u r e , t h e l o n e l y ,  wandering  prince.  traditional  the heroine of the f a i r y - t a l e  i s both a Persephone  is  the  n o t t h e o t h e r way  Jinniang,  child  on  with  no  help  She  from  to a stereotyped dark  a  image  i s g o l d , h e r enemy, Y i n g u , i s s i l v e r .  i s honest,  industrious  and  pure,  6  4  Yingu  i s f r i v o l o u s , consumed w i t h j e a l o u s y , v i c i o u s , l a z y and p l e a s u r e loving.  Yingu  committing of  her  a  heinous  people,  weaving is  i s obliterated  until  the epitome  dark  crime.  teaching the of  time a  Tao  them  s u p e r n a t u r a l agency Jinniang  the  comes  golden  a  skills  f o r her  pastoral  lives of  to  dream  on,  after  beloved  husbandry  leave and  them.  Yingu  and She  i s her  shadow. In Yuguan  and  her story  it  into  Robinson  t h e shadow i s o f how  herself makes  parallels  or  so  ating a  reflects  when  the  of  work  6 6  To  fiction  struggle  she overcomes h e r dark she  a strong case  honesty." piece  and t h e l i g h t  that  h i s h e r o i n e w i t h h i s own  to  by  Xu's soul  becomes  own  i n question  and  that  l i f e .  6  5  autobiographical invite  can  p i t f a l l s ,  stand  very  and  absorbs  at  peace.  Yuguan's  i n a rare display of  impute i s to  inner  side  whole  f o r the idea  f o r dominance  well  Xu  story  "endowed  self-illuminmotivations particularly i n i t s own  125 right,67 and,  but this  more  particularly,  his  philosophy  and  Tao J i n n i a n g  his  beliefs  creator,  i s not the f i r s t  time  h i s women  of life.  Xiguan,  are a l l the mouthpieces  and i d e a l s .  telling  them  Behind what  each  The  choose  question  disguises?  to say.  of  Chinese  In a  of  female  poetry,  but very  rare  poet  within  are usually  courtly  love  poetry  a  decoration totally  choose h i s d i s g u i s e s ,  grew  dependent  centuries up  upon  convention  character. the male's  are l o s t and f a l l i n t o melancholy.  During  A.D.) a  i n which  one i n poetic  f o r any genuine  literary  limits.  with  character  The  t o emerge  and  images  The male  type  created  the Southern tradition  a l l women,  i n erotic, courtly  outweighed  particular  The  fiction.  t o allow  an e s t a b l i s h e d  (5th-6th  of rank, were d e s c r i b e d and  their  concludes  a n d u n r e a l i s t i c .69  conventionalized  period  of  on t h e  i s an a n c i e n t  feeling  idealized  t o present  certain  Dynasties  persona  i s t o o o l d and strong  tended  discussion  philosophy?  i n Chinese  of autobiographical  women  stands  f o r h i s preoccupation  of h i s l i f e  literary  element  or the actors  they r a t h e r than any male  a  convention  Chuntao  why d i d X u c h o o s e h i s  i s the reason  t h e embodiment  adopting  Minming,  t o disappear."68  C h i n e s e women a n d why s h o u l d become  express  i n f i c t i o n , Wayne B o o t h  remains then:  What  to  one o f them  t h a t , " t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r c a n t o some e x t e n t can never  his fiction  characters,  Shangjie,  problem of the author's voice  he  Xu used  of  regardless  terms where appearance Women  love,  are  depicted  without  i t they  Their world i s claustrophobic,  isolated love and  and male-centred.  and l i f e doomed  upon  dream and  a woman."  because  with wanderlust. where  beauty  beautiful  while  "some  " i n  spell  a n d was  and  submissive  Virginia  real  i s that  life  s o many b o o k s on  "have  from  confer fleeting  are  filled  sigh  life-giving  male.  burned  beacons  of the  fallen  from  woman's  read,  b y men h a v e b e e n  that  seems  "women  7 2  some  have  hardly  that  like  7 1  words,  could  of her husband."  t h e anger  longingly  thebeginning of t i m e , "  inspired  she could  she concludes  7 4  a n d men  sun-like,  i n literature"  the property  commenting  works,  to  i s a malaise,  captives  Woolf,  o f t h e most  thoughts  lips,  " i s seen  i s transient  a l l t h e works o f a l l t h e poets  most p r o f o u n d  it  Love  7 0  h o p e l e s s l y f o rt h e g l o r i o u s ,  but,  lover  The i m a g i n e d w o r l d i s an e x t r e m e w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t  "Women", w r o t e in  The  scarcely  Asking  7 3  written  about  women  t o l i e behind  have  served  a l l  why  these these  c e n t u r i e s as l o o k i n g - g l a s s e s p o s s e s s i n g t h e magic and d e l i c i o u s power s i z e . "  of reflecting 7  Simone to  In her analysis  5  de B e a u v o i r  female  "Woman  to  7  a  Other  being  i s t h e Other be  the Other,  o f male similar  posits  who i s a t o n c e i n whom  limited, who  o f man  at twice  writers*  comparison,  who  lets  a male foreign  the subject opposes  herself  and t h e r e i n  o f women  likening  dominant  women  contemplates Subject  and  and h i s a p o t h e o s i s . transcends  him without be  i t s natural  images  t h e male, N a r c i s s u s - l i k e ,  De B e a u v o i r  6  i s t h e Other  without she  uses  " t h e m i r r o r i n which  himself." the  the figure  taken  himself  denying  without  she i s so necessary  7 7  him;  ceasing t o man's  happiness did  and t o h i s triumph  not exist,  her."78  p  poetry,  seen  o  that  i t c a n be s a i d  men w o u l d h a v e t o i n v e n t Woolf  r  a n d de B e a u v o i r  through  male  eyes  her...  i f she  They d i d  t h e woman  becomes  that  Woman,  invent  of fiction  and  the myth,  the  archetype. The  magnifying  mirror  role  of fictionalized  Woman i s b u t  one  l a y e r o f a s u b t l e , c h a l l e n g i n g a n d a m b i g u o u s game w i t h  and  mirrors.  A male w r i t e r ' s m a s q u e r a d e  suggests several layers of motivation adopt  a  female  persona,  a c e r t a i n emotional to  traditional  of  freedom  literature are  very  female form  voice  rarely,  of  or vice  tells  once  lends  i n May  Fourth  a madman's  diary  to give  and therefore  memorable and p o w e r f u l  are  There  author  unsuited  i s a  accompanied  adopting  Xu D i s h a n  i n the case  outside  8 0  uses of a  the author's  fiction.  sense I ti s  the I-narrator woman,  image o f o u t r a g e  Xiguan,  The  adoption  experience  to opinions  8 2  i t , there  first-person  L u Xun used  expression  dangerous.  a  narrator.  the  while  i s  device  that  T h e madman's  a c t s a s a p r o t e c t i v e mask, s h i e l d i n g t h e a u t h o r a  person,  excitement.  that  her story to the real  apparently  who  t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a new C h i n e s e  authors  versa.81  unknown  subversive  which  o f male  and only  Writers  ideas or f e e l i n g s  of the male.  and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  a persona  not  expectations  t o note that despite  who i n f a c t of  freedom t o express  few examples  i n the f i r s t  persona  The f e m a l e mask c a n g i v e a m a l e  or exploration  interesting  and meaning.  particularly  e n g a g e d i n a d a r i n g game.  of a female  7 9  masks  were  persona  providing  and d e s p a i r .  128 While emotions, male if  the status thefictional  authors  wrote  ever attempted  form.  o f women  They  provoked  r e s p o n s e was d i f f e r e n t .  about  women  and t h e i r  similar  Modern  plight,  Chinese  they  t o assume t h e f e m a l e mask i n i t s most  d i d not play  themselves.  i n China  They  Narcissus,  d i d not feel  intimate  nor d i d they  anger  about  rarely  disguise  women  b u tf o r  women a n d y e t w h i l e s y m p a t h i z i n g w i t h t h e m t h e y d i d n o t i d e n t i f y with in  them  too closely.  a woman's  and  replace  place,  Chinese  third-person  and  their  fiction  or with  of i t played  about  but they  t o imagine  d i d not take  themselves  the final  step  them.  Modern  much  They_attempted  enlist  a male  a  plight.  about  I-narrator  significant The t r a g e d i e s  our sympathies  women, e i t h e r  role  i nthe  i s plentiful,  i n educating  which  are primarily  told  batter those  our  and  people emotions  o f women  rather  t h a n men.  There  seems  t o be a g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l range  allowed  to  fiction  about  women, f o r i n g e n e r a l t h e May F o u r t h  fiction  concerning  women  i s sadder  because  it  i s one o f t h e f i r s t  had or  turned  their  idealized.  the  women's  Chinese too Thus  a  documentary,  a  attention  issue  must  have  like  complex  terrible,  large  to a  perhaps  number  subject  of thinking  hitherto  and t h e i c o n o c l a s t i c had a p o w e r f u l  and t h e p a i n  allow  story  times  The newness  writers  real,to  and more  they  fictional  disguises  "The S l a v e - M o t h e r "  f o r i t was w r i t t e n t o e x p o s e  reads  ignored nature of  impact  d e s c r i b e seems  men  on  young  too fresh, to  almost  intrude. like  a  and v i l i f y an a b h o r r e n t  129 system. The  women  victims.  Dishan's  Vulnerable,  their  control  vary,  their  they  i n Xu  certainly,  b u t n o t weak  characters  a l l represent  fiction  are not  to outside  or without  hope.  and circumstances  facets  of  f a i l ,  self-knowledge  runs for  through their  o f an i d e n t i c a l  always the he  by  i sdifficult  men  to give  t h e same  that Henry  also  sense  comes  James,  "experience  from  who  firstly  also  of others.  and i n d i v i d u a l ,  without most  a  experience  To t a l k  through  as was  belief  saying  clearly  i n that  i n  c h o o s e women  liberation  female  just  his  self-knowledge.  t h e romance  used  Their  pressures  y e t humble,  t o h i sb e l i e f s .  using  liberated...,  disencumbered."83  are responsible  I t goes  of freedom,  imperative identity  t o k n o w why h e s h o u l d  expression  true  Some s u c c e e d ,  and o u t s i d e  towards  but  : t o be  the goal  are manifested  o f Yuguan's j o u r n e y  stories  of  an u n c o m p r o m i s i n g ,  and they  Their  ideal  f o r that  a r e personal  of h i s actions.  had doubts ,  than  H i s women  to events  beyond  stressing the  towards  and then  response  Tightness  It  be  conduct  shaped  charting  and t h e journey  t o dilemmas  Dishan's  the thread  Xu's work.  own  solutions Xu  b u t always  forces  are different,  to o n e s e l f and f o l l o w t h e guidance o f c o n s c i e n c e . others  traditional  rather  One r e a s o n from  mode,  constraint,  something  personas , described disengaged, another's  might  that as,  disembroiled, voice,  another  p e r s o n a , s u g g e s t s detachment, t h e c u r i o u s paradox o f an i n v o l v e d bystander,  a participating  spectator.  In this  way  experience  130 of  an i n t e n s e l y  and  personal  transformed  so that  general.  This  necessary  distance  A of  more  women  interests. strong of  conveys  knight's  essentially a  Dante's  summit  A  emerge  Keith  suggests  spiritually  image  o f woman  paradigm human  o n whom  that  c a n be  and  sense  flawed,  represent  8  Thus  4  i n courtly  seen  image"  Xu's  of the role of  women  the medieval love  poetry  t o which t h e  perfection  and beauty  as t h e symbol  Gardner  an  suggests  of the Beatrice  "test of authenticity i n himself."  found  represents t o model  often  the portrayal  "exalted  John  are  to their they  He their  i s d i f f e r e n t from  effect".  c a n be  with  decision  that  question  inclination. closely  calm  that  on t h e  his fiction  of spiritual  potentiality.  trend  a  of h i s lady  who  Dishan the  May, i n a d i s c u s s i o n  "exemplary  Beatrice  by  contrast  a quality  a moral m i r r o r , Dante's similar  from  i n great  The p a r a d i g m  o f human  feminist  revealing  idealization  male a s p i r e d .  was  an  centres  and i d e n t i f i e d  who  i n fiction,  i n d i v i d u a l and more  and f o r Xu  I t i s possible  of himself.  always  is  regard  brothers.  task  d i s t i l l e d  women.  was a  own w h o l e n e s s  women  was  i n high  filtered,  less  suggestion  Xu D i s h a n  t o be a t t a i n e d ,  vision of  came f r o m  T h e women  weakened ideal  i s the writer's  and c o n f i d e n t ,  their  c a n be  i t becomes  speculative  identity.  held  nature  an  i n Xu's f i c t i o n ideal  behaviour  t o which and a  8 5  whereby t h e to aspire,  symbol  a  embodying  possibilities. Jung  suggests  that  each  psyche  has a male  or  female  component sex.  within  rule  in  archetypal  to  the creative  Whore.  sense  i s different  from  the  individual's  The anima, t h e f e m a l e p a r t o f a male p s y c h e , i s c o n s i d e r e d  8 6  to  the  i t that  levels  images  o f woman,  The c r e a t i v e  of wholeness,  the realization  o f t h e mind  and m a n i f e s t s  the Mother,  use of t h e anima  a unity  which  brings  of self-knowledge.  itself  t h e Goddess and helps  towards  a  an i n d i v i d u a l  closer  A balance  c a n be  8 7  a c h i e v e d between male and female elements t o c r e a t e a f u l f i l l e d , completed  circle  Perhaps, is has  before  identity.  as Coleridge  androgynous. t o take  of  8 8  place  suggests,  Virginia  Woolf  i n t h e mind  the act of creation  wrote,  between  o p p o s i t e s h a s t o be c o n s u m m a t e d . "  we  see that  of  opposites.  that  8 9  creative  "Some  a n d t h e man Some  i n Xu D i s h a n ' s  working  mind  collaboration  t h e woman  c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d .  of  consummation,  the truly  towards  a  marriage fiction marriage  Conclusion:  The C o n s o l i n g  Plot  1  "Conflicts or r i v a l r i e s and t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n , p r i d e and i t s f a t e , estrangement and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , revenge and forgiveness, quests and searches rewarded o r unrewarded, abidingness versus change, love and i t s proof - these a r e among t h e c o n s t a n t s , t h e t h e m e s o f t h e s t o r y . " 2  The mind,, t h a t ocean where each kind D o e s s t r a i g h t i t s own r e s e m b l a n c e f i n d ; Yet i t creates, transcending these, Far other worlds, and other seas, A n n i h i l a t i n g a l l t h a t ' s made To a green thought i n a green shade. Andrew M a r v e l l , "The  main  tradition  "...treats  t h e work  form  work  of a  approach anything,  otherwise: feeling  t o hope  will Xu  influence "The t a s k  feeling that  i n turn  the sole  b u t must moral  and  love  morality  not advocate stand  pleasure  people  i s inseparable  of "the  believed  of  one's  t o adopt  from  i s t o make [ t h e ] n e i g h b o u r . . . the  o f a l l men."  expression  132  aloof,  4th generation,  l i f e  5  of these them  D i s h a n , w r i t i n g on c r e a t i v i t y and c r i t i c i s m  that  utilitarian  Tolstoy,  and t h e i n s t i n c t  the f i c t i o n a l  i n the  4  f o r a r t to accomplish  persuade  this  a r t should  Sontag,  made  of the consciousness".  on t h e May  of brotherhood  customary on  gratification  important  that  Susan  being  opposes  judgements,  offering  writes  statement  Sontag  3  instead  moral  neutral,  intelligent an  of a r t as a  arguing  n o r make  sublimely  of c r i t i c i s m , "  of a r t . "  to art,  The G a r d e n  He  goes  feelings  i n real  life.  i n 1921, s t r e s s e d  which  i n i t s  turn  is  one  two  of  being  the three  wisdom and b e a u t y .  immorality, be  i t must  prompted  that  an  one, of  issue  raising  This  debate  splitting who  i t does  into  of  "pragmatic"  aesthetic In on  Chinese  emphasis  on  tendency  that, and  "A  1 0  species  literature  failures i s ,  have  i s a on  and  In r e a l i t y ,  those  8  generation,  camps: who  those  believed  the strong  tradition  and  powerful  the role  of l i t e r a t u r e  the past  nature  function.  o f t h e May F o u r t h opposing  complex  the  any  theory  of  ,  M.H.  as e x t r i n s i c ,  the functions man,  t o be  comprehensively;  another  of  will  9  often  the as  a  weapon  undermined  purely  considerations.  h i s discussion  unite  work  questions  Sake",  t h e 1 9 t h Century Abrams d e f i n e s with  which extend a r t beyond i t s e l f . to  A  literary  against  the use of p o e t r y  Sake  other  a reader  i n fiction  two o s t e n s i b l y  "Art f o r Art's  the struggle  the  that  o f h i s own  role  the writers  " A r t f o r L i f e ' s Sake".  in  soul.  not i t should  in  contemporary  a way  fundamental  or  occupied them  literature,  7  whether  advocated  h i s own  of morality's  as  a r t and  i n such  i n d i v i d u a l aware  Xu, b e a u t i f u l . The  of  Even i f a w r i t e r were t o d e s c r i b e  6  be done  t o examine  c a n make  for  "treasures"  a n d many must  he  must  and  good,  the A r t f o rL i f e ' s  and s o c i a l  implications  reformer", must  believed  1 2  imagine  put himself  the pains  h i s own.  debate  S h e l l e y , "who w a n t e d i n t e n s e l y  1  of poet  greatly  others;  become  1  moral  Romantic  intensely  i n the place  and t h e p l e a s u r e s  The g r e a t  instrument  of  of h i s of  moral  good by  i s the  imagination;  a c t i n g upon the  than  instructive  affections, sense,  Dishan The  cause." -  same in  his  or  Art  1 3  1  the  be  strengthens  imagination,  to  the  effect  sensitizing  rather  and and  purifies  adds  spirit  preface  to  for his  art  is  stressed  collection  of  but  of  his  own  experiences  and  what  the  transient  use  to  of  art,  to  offer  those in  he  those  in  at  heart  depressed  have  To  While  to  imperative  darkness and  value,  of  a  1  to  a  to  be  of  light,  to  relieve Like  5  for  a l l men."  maintain  conceding  wishes  s p i r i t s .  extrinsic  physician  say.  nonetheless  sick  "a  Keats  poet  but  readers,  medicine  believed  a  sage;  mingling and  of  through  the  balance is  between not  with  integrity  two. his  easy  moral  is  steadfast f i r s t  and  quest  should  humanist,  efficacy  f o r , as  1 7  Xu  1 8  moral  can  only  Frye  Dishan's vision,  emerge  work an  to  foremost  give a  expression  fiction  of  is  ideas.  his  the  seriousa  imbued  subtle through  idea  H i s work to  and  suggests,  from  informing  s t r u c t u r e s h i s w o r k and g i v e s him h i s t h e m e s . his  those  art  /A  for  1 6  quality  i t s full  nature  s u f f e r i n g of  he  is  his  provide  the  understands  l i t e r a t u r e must a v o i d o v e r t d i d a c t i s m w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g ness,  Xu  views,  h e a r t who  to  by  a r g u e s t h a t he i s n o t w r i t i n g a b o u t s o c i o l o g y ,  philosophy  has  to  stories,  i n t h e h o p e t h a t he w i l l t o u c h a s y m p a t h e t i c he  the  4  1933 He  administers  should  efficacious role  Liberator.  morality  poetry  "whatever  enlarges  is useful."  The  and  that  represents values  Since  he  and chose  135 the  v e h i c l e of  fiction  to  t h a t he m u s t b e j u d g e d . must  be  unique  must m o r a l  to  Xu's  be  stories  and  the  for  values  was  both  The  " I t i s not  enclosed  coincidence limits the  the  of  expanding  the  paradigmatic values, which  gives As  a  characters vignettes  work  universe are  the  major  by  prevailing  with  how  vehicle  of  literary  both  The  l i f e  quest  and  his  small  historical  from  the  focus  society  inwards at  his  by  of  rather  large,  theme and  2 0  time,  testing  but  virtually  stress  on  outward-reaching  on  fiction,  well  thought"  to  common  resonance  significance.  concentrated into  outside  with an  tales.  representing  his  archetypal  coupled  old  i n h a b i t , made  stories  a l l d i c t a t e d by  reveal  "green  an  of  1 9  so  writes: i t i s himself."  encompass  of  resonance,  upheld.  defined  writer  archetype"  personal,  being  His  to  use  i t universal  as  that  his  a w r i t e r who  moral  single  his  and  a  structure  he  distraction  themes.  characters,  imbues  of  of  outwards  same t i m e  values  that  new  gives  characters  sense  possibility moral  i t i s as  re-telling  s u b j e c t a man  his  the  ideas,  theme  the  fictional  the  world and  central  than  of  system  organizational principle  fiction.  at  oft-used  journey-theme  his  an  an  more t h a n  dominant  his  J u s t a s t h e " s i g n a t u r e on an  give  fiction  express  he  his  his was  the  distillation  s t r u c t u r e s , modes  themes.  His  brief  able  to  reduce  choice  of  the  and  his  his  ideas,  fashion,  genre's q u i n t e s s e n t i a l r o l e  i d e a s , on  of  while is  an  partly  early  a l l to  short  and  a  story  influenced  acknowledgement  intensification.  of  Xu  did  not  affirmation clear-cut. of  the  of  life  to so  present often  to  spirit.  The  perfection,  "the  moving  self-knowledge.  towards  his  Individually, lightly  that vital  negative  images,  Xiguan,  optimistic  Xu  models  had  no  vision  "his  to  of  t o be  the  always  them, 3  but  the  the  an  people  in  a t t a i n e d , but  ground"  the  be.  right  still  of  they offer women  represents of  hope,  Their  a an  stories  their resolutions  completely  and  2 4  2 2  sketched  progress  embodiment  i t could  to suggest  or  Some  Yuguan  pos-  symbols"  but  2  journey  ideal  often flawed  s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d nor on  on  potentiality.  i t i s as  a  "ascending  particularly  life  ideals  feet  point  are  positive,  for  d e s c r i b e p e r f e c t i o n but it,  is  work  suggests  concentrates  dominates human  and  journey,  means  of  others  expressions of by  nor  in his  theme  characters  story  Chuntao  paradigmatic  are  found  h i s characters are  their  represent  are  be  romance  and  like  perfect world,  quest  sibilities"21  so  a  R a t h e r , he w r o t e o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , o f t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y  human  towards  try  did  not  the p o s s i b i l i t y direction  i d y l l i c . attempt  of  and  to  to  attaining give  them  stream  with  hope. Xu's  writing  has  been  l i k e n e d to  a  gentle  t h e c o o l f r e s h c l a r i t y o f s p r i n g w a t e r y e t h a v i n g an profundity.  2  5  He  writes  simply  and  calmly,  unfathomable evincing  strong emotions save a stubborn  commitment t o p e r s o n a l  and  revealing a  unselfish  detachment  goodness,  typical  to  and  the  romance  genre.  serene, 2 6  few  integrity dream-like  Xiguan's  cool  objective telling of  sentiment  of  Xu's  to  or  style  free  his  the  themes  the  values  deeply  o f h e r own personal  stories  to  stand  committed,  There the  is  a  quality  the  sustained  memorable  of  of  t h e man  in  the  simple whole -  an  his  his  his  uneven,  be  an  his  treated  however, he  was  from  his  Xu's  detached  his  stubborn  to  stream  simple  work  with  work  offers  depths.  always as  for  Xu's  a  whole  deeply great  an  While  attaining remains  important  insight  and  simplicity. a l l his  work  simple  fiction,  centre.  to the goodness  giving  He  ripening  i s  a  is  the  humble  l o w l y p e a n u t and in  a l l .  A  i t significance, writer  pleasure  of  integrity  who  moral  vision  depth  and  requires  discovering  believed  varied, individual,  u n i v e r s a l quest  beneath  for  a  re-reading  e x t e r i o r s u b t l e l a y e r s t h a t emerge t o c r e a t e an the  allowed  personal.  not  arena  and  emerges  while  clear  i t s profoundly  distance  which  straight-forwardness  i t provides to  to  distinction.  d e t a c h m e n t more  reflection  Since,  those  commitment  "Yuguan",  a  controlling  personality  is  interference  attachment  are  unfathomable  of  a  untrammelled.  likened himself  slowly  up  work  his  fiction  potential for  focussing the  of  through  who  and  w i t h no  represents  sentimental  deceptive  questions  Shining  informs  to  power  illuminating  set  i t c o h e r e n c e and  because  spiritual  for  a  He  singular  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  an  in  makes t h a t  paradox  effective  alone  balance  individuality  and  from  endorsed  gives  involvement,  in miniature.  corpus which gives style  troubled tale,  the  allusive  values.  138  Writing  a t a t i m e when a w h o l e g e n e r a t i o n o f  was q u e s t i o n i n g v a l u e s , r e - a s s e s s i n g o r r e j e c t i n g and  laying  stands  stress  out like  Concerned were  with  held  a  sense  A  deeply  a  of  As  order  and  a  new,  he  presented a  by  social  yet  man  when  own  vision  ation.  His i s a  a  o f hope  sense  His  signature  of a  of b e l i e f  rapidly  their  2 8  world  own  began  safe  to  changing  him were  i n which  closed,  give  world.  in his fiction h i s characters set of  beliefs.  crumbled  around  to take  shape,  universe  s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and a sense fiction,  he  sceptics  untouched  i n which h i s characters tread  framework  i s unique.  examination,  of the o l d society  consoling  i n a  Dishan  idiosyncratic.  he p r o m o t e d  universe  different  towards  system  a l l around  "religion",  vastly  and  irreverent  religion,  moral  disintegration  unique paths  unique  7  unsettled,  to established  to their  2  or maintain a  t h e v a l u e s and systems  him  tree",  Xu  v a l u e s i n a n e r a when a l l a l l e g i a n c e s  t o an  defined  the tradition  of the individual,  f o r v i g o r o u s and  religious  strongly on  lone  to create  hostile  held  "a  spiritual  up  attempted  or  on t h e p r i m a c y  intellectuals  offering  o f uncompromising  of  familiar affirm-  comfort  and  integrity.  Appendix I Xu  A B r i e f Biography*  Dishan:  "He b r o u g h t s i n c e r i t y t o t h e m a k i n g a n d m a i n t a i n a n c e of t h e f r i e n d s h i p s he deemed w o r t h y o f c u l t i v a t i n g . He b r o u g h t s i n c e r i t y t o t h e a n a l y s i s a n d m a n a g e m e n t of a l l problems s u r r o u n d i n g him. He b r o u g h t s i n c e r i t y to t h e e x p l o r a t i o n and p o n d e r i n g o f a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o l a r s h i p i n w h i c h he s p e c i a l i z e d . Sincerity was M r . X u ' s g r e a t e s t characteristic." 2  Childhood and Xu 1894  Dishan  was  i n Tainan,  born  Taiwan.  m i l k name S h u c h o u . 1890),  a  poet,  mother's War  became  out  head  He was  was  and  of  a  L i u Yongfu's  lines  and  defeat earliest with of  Qing  and  their  mainland  the  4  Flag  from  which  the  Ming  dynasty.  Xu  of  t h  February  Zankun  being 6  the  i n Longxi  and  flee  had  They  (Zhangzhou)  139  39.  Xu  to  Xu's  4  Nanying  the by  Taiwan.  family  moved  (Jinshi,  Japanese bad  resistance  through  his  Sino-Japanese  Hampered  5  flight.  a n c e s t o r s had  The  resisting  carried Xu  then  Taiwan.  Chinese  to  The  was  occupied  Army.  had  possessions i n their settle  was  1894  organization  family  refugees.  r c  who  August  Japanese  i s of  3 * or  name  patriot  In  Black  Xu  memories  to  given  incompetence,  the  fleeing  either  and  local  under  3  t h e f o u r t h son o f Xu N a n y i n g  Wu.  the  (1894-1917)  His  scholar  surname  broke  on  Youth  One  streets to  supply  met  with  of  Xu's  crowded  abandon  returned to  i n Fujian Taiwan  most the  province,  during  the  Xu before under  lived  i n Singapore  returning  to  an  official  Xu  had  the  family in  Nanying  Qing.  tutor  1903  In  Wu  and  become 1896  X i a n t a n g and  was  replaced  and  Ni  lessons  with  him  Yusheng.  broad  that  two  and of  Xu's habit and by  something  memories  i n "A  the  1904  the  Xu  Nanying  Zhendao His  Xu  attended moved  Suihuan  back  to  became  Xu's  friend  Suihuan  of a tree  moved  English  and  the  wrote  reformer  progressive  around  i n the family and  his  garden  being rescued in a  Yangjiang  different  Han  head  at  some  her 1910.  Guangdong  Xu  attended  to  study  of  the  under Xiamen  Gongsan became t h e  Classics  missionary  in  continuing  became  in  there.  at  this  his brothers.  and  until  School  once  centre  appeared  to  while  Zanshu  Ni died  Guangzhou  an  Guangzhou  episodes  School with  with  from  of  school  studying  English  variety  Heart".  brother  began  died  explaining  the  f o r the  appointed magistrate  I n 1906  the  a  Xu  of  Baiyun mountain  family  primary  Tongmenhui. tutor.  Xu  was  elder  on  These  8  Daughter's  In  Ni.  lost  account  under  7  i n the branches  becoming  disciples  which might  childhood  woodcutter.  when  been  brothers.  of once  guise  had  of h i s knowledge.  o f t h e Xu  of hiding  a  range  his tutors  Kang Y o u w e i , tendencies  flexible  1897  Wu  had  towards  years  in  until  Xu  o f t u t o r s a n d s c h o o l i n g w h i c h m i g h t g o some way the  f o r two  i n Guangzhou  started  studied  by  Bangkok  point  time  I n 1907 Xu  and  his  family also family  began  studying  d o c t o r whose s m a l l  daughter  untimely death. His  second  Xu  graduated  eldest  brother,  9  141 Shuren, the  joined  third  brother,  The Xu  1911  family.  appointed work 60  he  e t c . "The  Xu  there  1  the  This  published December  1915  in  Fujian.  In  a biography  to  return  and for  said  to  Xu  became  a  daughter,  Normal  included  later in  0  hardship but Xu  was  the  briefly  Dishan  teaching  the  to  School,  fictional  which  began  earning  handicrafts aeroplanes  appearance  old  of  the  engaged in  Fanxin,  i n Burma t o  Mingming  he  at  inventor  His  the  War  Chinese  as  in Lei  to  China  Fujian  London  in  to  i n 1918,  or  communities  unable  point from  work  during  Burma,  in  Xu  Cantonese  South-east  Asia  1 2  They end  first  school  interpreter  L i n Yuesen,  the  his  middle  some  to  Chinese  Sumatra  there At  an  party.  1915. at  One.  a  returned  for  died  at  write  Southern  travelling  briefly  to  He  left  Hongnan and  while  to  a Chinese-English  father  World  teach  there  Bird."  joined  Nationalist  family,  Second  experiences  Zhang  have worked  nascent  Taiwanese  1916  in  economic  1  (Lungu),  i n c o n s t r u c t i n g model  a  taught  perhaps  Fujianese the  "The  because  period,  skill  his  and  of  art.  county.  t o Rangoon  Society.  on  is  study  Shuwu  inventions.  on  story,  Missionary  to  and  Longxi  duties  Gills",  his  drew  to  makes  went  in  this  His  With  Xu  He  army  his magistracy,  provincial  hobby  Fish  1913  school.  resigned  Republic  models of  In  to Japan  considerable  Iron  builds  the  month.  had 1  went  Nanying  at  a  revolutionary  r e v o l u t i o n brought  by  yuan  for  the  of  the  daughter  married the  in  year.  of  1918 1 3  In  another and 1917  had Xu  142 received in  funding  the  from  literature  known as  the  London  department  of  Xu  Dishan  when  he  first  gown  he  had  small  was  Yanjing  to  study  University  (then  students  at  himself,  beard  which  He was  1 4  e c c e n t r i c by  studying  designed  goatee  (1917-1922)  considered  began  "Shakespeare". Fellow  Society  Huiwen U n i v e r s i t y ) .  Student Days  a  Missionary  fellow  Yanjing.  had  He  others  a l s o k n o w n a s "Mr.  to  i n Xu  his  only  habit  f i t for  the  o u t w e i g h e d by and  his  of  eating poor).  nickname  him  Zhenren).  - his  In  1 6  (steamed  time  corn  these  the  languages.  May  Fourth  1 5  devotion  appearance  bread  deemed  i d i o s y n c r a c i e s were  h i s s m i l i n g g e n i a l i t y , warm c h a r a c t e r ,  talent for  When  wotou  long and  to studying, p a r t i c u l a r l y Sanskrit, his idiosyncratic and  a hair  True" (Xu  eccentricities  students  wore  shoulder-length  prompted  noted three  his  generosity  1 7  movement  began  in  1919  Xu  was  very  a c t i v e , g i v i n g s p e e c h e s , m a r c h i n g and a c t i n g as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  various  schools.  freedom  and  journal  Xin  (his  Its  Shehui  funding  aims  believed  humanism.  room-mate  Qizhi,  He  were  (New  and  In  close  1 9  Xin  1919  Shehui  Qu  came  from  the  new was  a  he  Qu  evils  of  s o c i e t y by ordered  of  the  the  old  peaceful to  found  Zheng  Shiying  branch  democratic  helped  Qiubai,  associate),  disclose  to e s t a b l i s h a democratic methods."  November  Society), with  f o r which "to  in egalitarianism,  cease  a  Zhenduo  and  Geng  Y.M.C.A. society  and  1 8  and  practical  publication  143 in  April  until  1920 and r e v i v e d  funding  briefly  was w i t h d r a w n  under  t h e name  and i t f o l d e d  after  L'Humanite the  second  issue. After his  wife  died,  graduating and daughter  an  outlet  event  beginning  and  entered  which  members which  he  in  the Association's Short  Story),  graduated  as  a  at  Yanjing  teaching  the Chinese Late  and  time.  after  he  helped  suggests  to Yanjing  perhaps  spurred  by  on J a n u a r y  he began  publishing  magazine,  Mao  Fourth, 1921,  Dun.  fiction  Xiaoshuo  Yuebao  The p e r i o d  between  creative. i n 1922 and began  Zuoren  work  University.  and Yu  Pingbo  there While  modernize  d e p a r t m e n t o f w h i c h he h a d h a d a v e r y l o w o p i n i o n . 1 2  f o r Columbia  Xie Bingying.  society  returned  there,  and a t Pingmin  Zhou  i n 1922, financed  left  He  he  Studies  Yanjing  assistant  Some  Association f o r Literary  important  from  him.  founding  this  edited  on  He w a s o n e o f t h e t w e l v e  t o 1924 was o n e o f X u ' s m o s t Xu  Xu  Shortly  effect  h i s wife  through, the w r i t i n g  o f f i c i a l meeting  Beijing.  1921  2 0  of the influential  had i t s f i r s t  came  of Religion  death.  in  (The  felt  to Fujian to bring  i n Shanghai  profound  at this  the School  Xu went  En r o u t e  had a  t o do  by h i s w i f e ' s  Yanjing  north.  f o r the grief  was  on  from  t o which that they  by  t h e London  University  Bing  with  X i n had been  Xu had b e l o n g e d had an  affair.  Missionary  Liang  2  2  S h i q i u , Bing X i n  a member  at Yanjing  Society,  of a  and one  literary observer  144  Years Abroad Xu  studied  comparative  a M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s on To  Manichaeism."  found  l i f e  of  1924  of  a  at  to  at  of  the  once  bookworm been  l i f e .  2  was  went He  own  in had  read  at  R.K  Relating that  the  status  of  study,  from  and  Oxford.  t r a n s l a t i o n of  a  meeting  Evans, at  he  autumn  Sanskrit  degree  English  wrote  the  programme  any  at  remarked Oxford  that  and  to  he  that,  stay  at  had  during  the  manuscripts  incorporated  became  the  Opium at  the  them  friend  on  2 5  his  Religions  Imperial  College,  to  Oxford  a  War  his  mentor  and  2 8  study of  Lao  (Lao  de  Zheng  Xiaoshuo  Yuebao.  Xu  i n Lao  shared  customs.  It  to  would  be  so,  bookworm  of  Zheng folk  She, Old  Zhenduo  he  would  a l l his  Zhenduo  of who  literature. living  Zhang's  i n t e r e s t i n g to  being  portions  then  for  of  Sino-English  memorized for  She's n o v e l  Zhexue)  as  do  also researched  recommended Lao  Zhang  reputation  i f allowed  Bodleian  into  and  the  L o n d o n , and  and  and  Qifang  philosophy,  A p a r t f r o m h i s s t u d i e s , he  7  Dunhuang  Xu  an  his professor,  willing  relations  later  which  and  his  receive  prepared  Ye  2 4  He he  friend  Oxford.  pursuing  not  Columbia  2 6  Xu  have  shallow,  Indian  Taoism  E m p i r e by  London.  a  on  his  College,  did  at  Certain Chinese Texts  religion,  Oxford  research  told  student"  anthropology. While  He  2 3  Mansfield  included  religion  Study of  Columbia  "special  which  "A  (1922-1926)  She's l a c k of e n t h u s i a s m f o r E n g l i s h  9  in  Philosophy  publication know  2  how  in  much  landladies  In Lao  Zhu,  1926 to  1925  Xu  Xu's  (The left  study  f i r s t  Toiling  England  and  S a n s k r i t and  short  story  Spider),  was  returned  Buddhism  Beijing Xu  returned  Buddhism  at  to  this  publication.  the  School  philosophy In  1928  of at  he  teach  He  and  Religion  went  on  at  preparing as  while  an  field  his  was  en  route  trip  researching  History  concurrently  to  Taoism  teaching  Shanghai  a l s o t r a n s l a t e d twenty-one Bengali  of  professor  anthropology  D a n j i a p e o p l e w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s o r s and He  He  assistant  U n i v e r s i t y and  a  stopping  October  India.  Yanjing.  worked  Beijing  China,  In  Wang  (1927-1935)  time  for  Zhui  published.  to  in  collection,  at  to  in  Indian Qinghua.  research  the  students  from  Yanjing.30  folktales  for  Commercial  Press. I n 1928 from the  the  h e met  National  mathematics  On  May  First  an  upper  to  professor  history into and son  Zhou S i s o n g ,  at  at  the  they  school  Normal  He  c o l l e c t e d photos  surname.  Xu  was  on  taught and  Beijing.  earning  planned and  good  given  terms  put  Xu  most  of  for  i t .  in  his  from Hubei.  teaching was  at  promoted He  taught  his  efforts  Chinese  costume  3  h i s maternal  with  graduated 1928  a month.  h i s t o r y of  pictures  b o r n and  began 1930  yuan  in  briefly  she In  360  a  She  University  U n i v e r s i t y and  work.  was  and  married in  Yanjing,  Zhou L i n g s o n g  Normal  department  1929  middle  research  Beijing  his future wife.  1  In  1931  his  grandfather's  father-in-law  and  146 they  spent In  in  their  1933  Xu  his  During  i n Taiwan  of  by  the Japanese.  to  free  At  visited  Tagore,  His  He  Xu  3 3  the  continued  there.  his  Qiubai  failed.  He  exploring  time  he  relatives  spent  and  his  friends  prison the  in Fujian,  year  he  went  studies  Yanji  to  was  in  Indian  visit  born  his  this  Hong Kong  had  were  confiscated  but to  attempting  the  attempt  India  earlier  where  grave  he  translated.  p h i l o s o p h y and  father's  his  distributing  of a p r e s s u r e group  a  with  and  was  part  which  University  days  poems,  of  went  ten  father's  from end  temples.32  year a t Zhongshan  some o f w h o s e p o e t r y h e  also  daughter  this  visiting  collection  Qu  hours  spent a s a b b a t i c a l  Guangdong.  wife  leisure  Sanskrit  in  Sumatra.  year.  (1935-1941)  I n 1 9 3 5 X u was d i s m i s s e d f r o m Y a n j i n g b e c a u s e o f a d i f f e r e n c e of  opinion  s i t y .  3  with Xu  4  John  was  Leighton Stuart,  persuaded  by  Hu  t h e head  Shi  to  of  the  Univer-  accept  the  post  of  d e a n o f t h e C h i n e s e L i t e r a t u r e d e p a r t m e n t a t Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y , becoming post at  the second  there.  3  Chinese to hold  The  5  Chinese  t h i s t i m e a n d H o n g K o n g was  but  i n the  the  department  activity  seven  as  and  y e a r s Xu  department  traditional  considered a cultural  back-water,  spent  t h e r e he  the  completely  Hong Kong became a v i t a l  people  necessity  was  fled  for  academic  very  the  Japanese.  modernizing the Chinese department of  such a p r e s t i g i o u s  reform  in  re-vamped  centre of Xu's  cultural  dedication  to  and h i s p a s s i o n a t e a d v o c a t i o n the  Chinese  writing  system  147 reveal in  how  t h e May Xu  Kong. also  much  he  Fourth  was  s t i l l  from  involved  and  personal  of  a Sanskrit  active  teaching  in a  wide  was  with  a  research  Hu  which  and  Latin,  included The  the  he  strode  in  patriotic  Chiang  last  out  against  the  beginning later future  was  that  he  Burmese  of  at  unity  He  sent  with  Some  inclination  a  this  to  languages English. makes  writes  become  on  that  active  i n 1941  and  but  to speculate  French,  particularly  believe  to the l e f t ,  Beihong  time  telegram  t h e C.C.P.  observers  i t i s impossible  of  His wife time  friendly  Xu  mortality,  this  efforts,  being  and o f c o u r s e  his l i f e .  h i s study  urging  of  numerous  Japanese,  at  was  activities  anti-war  store  displayed  intimations  Japanese.  year  impressive  Xu  he  compilation  Lanfang,  read  Hong  to  resistance  this since  was  the  he  died  his putative  affiliations.  It he  time  energy  work  the  circles,  In h i s spare  organizations.  o f Xu's  that  in cultural  t o an  in  a n a c t i v e member o f  Mei  years  h i s time  included  Dun,  had  of  Kai-shek  espoused  extra-curricular  which  Greek, Arabic,  two  of  He w a s  as  adding  i f he  in  he  administrative  Mao  incredible  wonder  beliefs  those concerned with  figure such  Yuezhi.  German  one  leading  and  work,  dictionary.  luminaries  and  the  throughout  range  committees, p a r t i c u l a r l y and  to  movement.  extremely  Apart  held  Xu  i s perhaps driving Dishan  unsurprising,  given  himself  i n the  last  two  should  d i e so  suddenly  the degree years of  a  of  to  which  his  l i f e ,  heart-attack  on  August people a as  F o u r t h 1941 a t t h e p r e m a t u r e attended  wreath. well  his funeral  Memorial  a s Hong  Kong.  services The  t e s t a m e n t t o Xu's p o p u l a r i t y with  which  h e was  age o f 49.  service. were  volume  held  Over a  Song  Qingling  i n Southeast  of obituaries  sent Asia  i s impressive  and t h e deep a f f e c t i o n and  regarded.36  thousand  respect  149  Appendix I I Glossary Ahuya Ai  Jiushi  Xingfa  Ai  L i u X i Zhang  Anni Bangxiu Baoying Biehua Changsun Chen  Kewang  Lian  Chang  Huan  Chuangzao  d i San  he J i a n c h a n g  Bao di Si Yi  Chuanqi Chun  di  Linye  4*  Chuntao Da  Zhong J i  Dan Daojiao  Shi  Dongye X i a n s h e n g Du " Z h i l a n y u M o l i " Y i n ' e r X i a n g j i W o d i Zumu Fa  Yan  Fanxin Fu  J i Mixin  Gu  Yang  d i Yanjiu  Sheng  Hua  150 Guan  Huai  Gui  Tu  Gui  Zan  Guocui  yu Guoxue  Hai Hai  Jiao  d i Gua  Xing  •jfyfiViU^k  Heluan Honna Huan Chao L u a n H u a n g Hun  Hou  Jiaduolin  Yiluo  Feng  Jialing Jiefangzhe Jietou Kong  Xiang  Shan  Wei Z h i L u n l i  Ling  Yu  Ik  Lei Li  Mao  Lin  Yuesen  Linzhi Liu  Xianggao  Luo  Huasheng  Mei  d i Laoyu  Meng  Jingxiu  Mingming  Niao  Minming Ni  Wei Shenmo Bu L a i  Nu'er  ~^tJU^  Xin  _^-rJ3<jr  NU Guo S h i Pu Ren  F e i Ren  San  Boshi  Shan  ^  Shangji e Shangren  Fu  Shi Shuchou  <fe^^-  Sui Tao  #(L4N^  Jinniang  <4k&%J  T i e Yu Di S a i Tuba  ^J*  Wanwu Z h i Mu Wei  Chao  Wodi  Zhui  Jian  s t r ^  J^J^:  ^ci  Tongnian  Worthington Wotou  Wo X i a n g Wofa Wu  jJ£ rfi.  Toudi  You  Zhi Youjian  Hua  Xiang  X i a n g q u d i Kuangyan Xiao Xiaoshuo  ^ y^  Yuebao  0  8  nt  Xiguan Xin  Shehui  Xingguan Xiong  Shou  Xu  Dishan  Xu  Nanying  Xue  -if  Rengui  Yang  Gang  Yan j i Yigu Ying  Deng  Yingu You Yuan Yu  Furen  Yuguan Yungu Zai  Fei Zongli  Zai  Hui  di Ketingli  Zankun Zhineng Zhou  Lingzhong  Zhou  Sisong  Zhui  Wang L a o  Zufeng  Zhu  ^  Footnotes to See  Appenix I f o r a b r i e f biography of Xu  See, of  f o r example, Leo Modern  Chinese  University Merle  Press,  Goldman,  pp.145-6, t h e May  Press,  in  O u - f a n L e e ' s The  Writers,  1977)  Goldman,  or  Vogel  fictionalized  by  be  accounts their in  "The  to as  and  of  Ezra  diverse  Literature  Mass.,  a May  a  and  this  of  University  semi-autobio-  early  May  the  life....  Fourth  rather  as  and  hazardous  China,  these  similarities Leo  in  in Lee,  Fourth W r i t e r s " i n , Benjamin the  May  University  tongue-in-cheek  literary  153  classics  education."  The 1911  qualities  modern  personal  early  the  However  personal  dynamic  Harvard  Fourth  "The  memorizing  strikingly to  "The  Fourth Writers",  before  e d . , R e f l e c t i o n s on  gives  Harvard  Vogel,  schooling  about  R o m a n t i c T e m p e r o f May  69-84,  story"  generalize  reflect  (Cambridge, pp.  Mass.,  s i m i l a r childhood experiences.  their  reciting  responses  Schwartz,  Generation  Chinese  states,  accounts  other t e x t s reomote from d a i l y  country  and  ed. , Modern  pp.145-159.  revolution  a  p.4,  S o c i a l R o l e o f t h e May  w r i t e r s began  may  (Cambridge,  introduction,  w r i t e r s recount remarkably  it  Romantic  Fourth E r a , (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard  graphical  future  Dishan  1973).  U n l i k e l y H e r o e s : The  in  introduction  figure,  Fourth  Movement,  Press, "typical p.71.  1972), life-  154 3.  Charlotte in,  Furth,  Schwartz,  Movement, Press, 4.  Chow,  5.  Furth,  "May  p.59;  and  (Stanford,  1967)  Fourth  i n  Chow  History",  Tse-tung,  California,  The  Stanford  pp.59-68, May  Fourth  University  p.5.  p . l . i n Schwartz,  p.59, argues  that  the ideas  expressed  d u r i n g t h e May F o u r t h M o v e m e n t " h a d b e e n p o i n e e r e d b e f o r e " , particularly 6.  Chow,  p.13,  was  "...the  the  need  Chinese  8.  Furth,  9.  Ibid,  10.  Schwartz,  11.  Ibid,  p.13.  12.  Ibid,  p.10.  13.  Maurice  14.  first  of  the  time  May  Chinese  complete  Fourth  Movement  that  i t  intellectuals  recognized  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  traditional  civilization."  Goldman,  in  1898-1912.  says  for a  7.  and  from  p . l and p.7,  i n Schwartz,  i n Goldman,  ed.  p.59.  p.59. introduction,  Meisner,  "Cultural  Internationalism , Schwartz,  Schwartz, generation  i n t h e May  looked  Western  Fu,  In  Iconoclasm,  Nationalism,  F o u r t h Movement",  of  ed., p.5, w r i t e s  for compatabilities  strains  Search  p.10.  pp.14-22  p.17.  i n Schwartz,  and  i n Schwartz,  of  Wealth  thought. and  In  Power,  that  the previous  between h i s study (Cambridge,  Chinese of  Yen  Mass.,  H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967) he p o i n t s o u t t h e s i m i l i a r -  155 ities  Yen  Spencer 15.  Fu  found  and Taoism,  between  the philosophy  of  Herbert  pp.50-52.  L i n Y u - s h e n g , The C r i s i s o f C h i n e s e C o n s c i o u s n e s s : Anti-traditionalism University  of Wisconsin Press,  16.  Chow,  17.  I b i d , p.14.  18.  Ibid,  19.  Furth,  20.  Chow,  p.361.  21.  Ibid,  p.361.  22.  Ibid,  p.358.  23.  L i n Yu-sheng,  Era  (Madison,  1979).  p.358. i n Schwartz, p.18.  "Radical  and t h e F u t u r e  Iconoclasm  of Chinese  i n t h e May  Liberalism",  Fourth  pp.23-58,  Schwartz, p.26.  24.  I b i d , p.42.  25.  I b i d , p.37.  26.  Ibid,  p . 2 9 . "The i n t e l l i g e n t s i a b e l i e v e d  priorty  of cultural  political  i n the necessary  and i n t e l l e c t u a l change  and economic changes and not v i c e  27.  I b i d , p.27.  28.  I b i d , p.56.  29.  Ibid, not  Fourth  p.358.  Period in,  i n t h e May  Radical  p . 4 3 . "May  Fourth  r e a l l y modernized  30.  L i n , The C r i s i s  31.  Ibid,  p.154,  iconoclastic  or modernized  of Chinese  on L u Xun.  over  social,  versa."  intellectuals  enough."  Consciousness.  were  156 32.  Chow,  p.358.  33.  Ibid,  p.270.  34.  Goldman,  35.  L e e , i n Schwartz, p.69.  36.  Perry pp.  i n Goldman,  Link,  "Traditional-style  325-349,  i n Goldman,  contribution Chen to  Duxiu  o f May was  venture  to i t . "  37.  Chow,  p.278  38.  Ibid,  p.279.  39.  Paul  Influence  of  Marxist  Ch' u  40.  Chow, p . 9 .  41.  Link,  42.  Chow, p . 2 8 3 ;  43.  Lee,p.11.  44.  I b i d , p.12.  45.  Chow,  p.284.  46.  Ibid,  p.284.  47.  Lee, p.20.  48.  Ibid,  49.  Marian  i n Goldman,  says,  "...the  opinion  Literary  Press,  such  that  Fiction",  a s Hu  vernacular  Ch'iu-pai,  of California  Urban  leaders  not to create  Pickowicz,  Popular  p.346,  Fourth  t h e audacious  stoop  University  ed., p.5.  S h i and  fiction  the e l i t e  Theory  landmark  should  i n China:  (Berkeley,  but  The  California,  1981) p.108.  p.337.  Lee, p.11.  pp.19-20. Galik,  Criticism,  The  Genesis  (London, Curzon  of Modern Press,  Chinese  1980) pp.19-21.  Literary  157 50.  Lee, pp.20-21.  51.  Chow,  52.  Yang Xu  p.285. Gang,  i n her preface  Dishan's  Shudian,  works,  Xu  t o t h e 1952  Dishan  Xuanji,  collection  (Beijing,  of  Kaiming  1952) pp.7-15.  53.  Lee, p.12.  54.  Chow,  55.  Chow, p . 2 8 7 ; L e e , p . 2 1 .  56.  Pickowicz,  57.  Lee, p.263.  58.  Ibid,  p.292.  59.  Ibid,  p.292.  60.  Ibid,  pp.292-293.  61.  Ibid,  p.295.  62.  Vogel,  63.  Olga  p.285.  p.117.  i n Goldman,  Lang,  Harvard  Pa Chin  pp.145-159. and h i s W r i t i n g s ,  University  Press,  i n Goldman,  p.156.  (Cambridge,  Mass.,  1967) p.166, 169.  64.  Vogel,  65.  L e e , p.250.  66.  Vogel,  67.  E. P e r r y L i n k J r . , M a n d a r i n D u c k s a n d B u t t e r f l i e s , ( B e r k e l e y ,  i n Goldman,  California,  University  68.  L e e , pp.289-292.  69.  T.A.  Hsia,  pp. 153-154.  The  Gate  of California  of Darkness,  Press,  (Seattle  1981)  and  p.2.  London,  U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) p . 7 1 , "The Phenomenon of  Chiang  Kuang-tz'u",  " T h e May  Fourth  movement  brought  158 forth  a  number  egos a g a i n s t strength class  society,  t o o puny  of  whose  society  interests  70.  Chow, p . 3 6 5 .  71.  Vogel,  72.  Ibid,  73.  Goldman,  74.  Cyril  who  pitted  a n d when t h e y f o u n d t h e i r  —  proletariat,  identified  their  extolled  with  p.154.  i n Goldman,  Birch,  76.  Birch,  77.  Michael  "Change  ed., p.11. and C o n t i n u i t y  i n , Goldman,  i n Chinese  that  i n Goldman, Egan,  pp.390-391, 395.  "Sinking"  "Yu  Dafu  and  fallacy  subjective  has been  "Yu h a s s u f f e r e d  The  author,  work." p.312. ironical  Yu Dafu  a  case  p.315,  which  of mistaken has been  or narrative  i n Goldman,  p.390.  made  suggests Yu's work  because  the story  of  "truly  and this  identity. confused  persona,  Egan c o n s i d e r s t h a t Y u was i n f a c t mode  Modern  autobiographical  the person,  author,  p.315. Birch,  and  to  to consider  misinterpreted  (p.311.)  the implied  the Transition  i n , Goldman,  intentional  t o be  Yu's work  with  Literature",  p.390.  pp.309-324  i t i s an  real  Fiction",  i n Goldman, p.92.  Literature",  an  one  own."  Douwe F o u k k e m a , " L u X u n : T h e I m p a c t o f R u s s i a n  that  individual  they  the mythified  their  p.152.  pp.89-101,  78.  youths  f o r the contest,  they  i n Goldman,  pp.385-404, 75.  of rebellious  of the  employing modern",  159 79.  Foukkema,  i n Goldman, p.99.  80.  Ibid,  81.  I b i d , p.96.  82.  Cai Yizhong,  p.92,  p.96.  "Xu D i s h a n  de  Zuopin,"  i n , Cai,  N a i ' a n dao Xu Zhimo, p p . 1 2 3 - 1 2 7 , ( T a i b e i , Q i n g l i u 1972) p.126. p.127. Zuopin  Y a n j i u " , pp.3-11  (1970)  (originally  pp.39-47) 83.  Also,  Mao  Daxue  85.  Remarks  86.  Mao D u n , p . 1 3 5 .  87.  The  massacre  revolution  in  sets  seems  of British  Heart",  the story  i t s own  i n , Le  1969),  Daiyun  Zuopin, p. 138, ( B e i j i n g ,  Columbia,  Chinese  i n Guangzhou  b u t , as  been rather  literature  Spring, 1983.  after  o f f t h e sequence o f events  t o have  i n Xu's s t o r y ,  i n h i s other  used  primarily  than  having  t h e 1911  as a  any  stories, device to  significance  right.  88 .  Mao D u n , p . 1 3 6 .  89.  " H a i "("Sea"),  one  of h i s brief  Shan L i n g Y u , ( S h a n g h a i , C o m m e r c i a l 90.  (October  vol.2,  1980).  o f Manchus  Daughter's  initiate  Zuojia  made a t a c o l l o q u i u m o n m o d e r n  the University  this  nos.2-3,  Lun" , pp. 133-144,  Chubanshe,  Mao D u n , p . 1 4 2 .  "A  Ziliaoji,  q u o t i n g Mao D u n , p . 7 .  84.  at  i n , Xu Dishan  Mao D u n L u n X i a n d a i  Beijing  Chubanshe,  P a n W e i c h e n g e t a l , "Xu D i s h a n  i n Huaieng,  Dun, L u o Huasheng  ed.,  Cong S h i  vignettes  from  Kong  P r e s s , 1935) pp.32-33.  " T h e T o i l i n g S p i d e r " , ( " Z h u i Wang L a o Z h u " ) f i r s t  published  160 in  Xiaoshuo  Yuebao,  in  Xu D i s h a n ,  pp.117-135, 91.  Yang Gang,  92.  Xiguan, Fu")  (Hong Kong, J o i n t  see  the  heroine  published  1982),  Yang Gang,  94.  Ibid,  95.  C.T.  (1922);  Publishing  reprinted  Co.,  1982.)  p.129.  (1921); r e p r i n t e d  93.  no.2,  p.8.  first  Co.,  vol.13,  of  "A  Merchant's  i n Xiaoshuo  i n Xu D i s h a n  pp.103-116,  see  Wife",  Yuebao,  ("Shangren  Vol.12,  (Hong Kong, J o i n t  no.  4,  Publishing  p.116.  p.8.  pp.11-12. Hsia,  Haven  The  History  of  Modern  and London, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y  96.  Mao  Dun,  97.  Ibid,  98.  H s i a , C.T.,  99.  Ibid,  100.  See,  Chinese  Fiction,(New  P r e s s , 1971)  p.84.  p.138.  p.142. p.88.  p.88. f o r example,  Yang  Gang,  p.13;  Zhao  Cong,  Luo Huasheng  de Xu D i s h a n " , p p . 1 - 2 i n , Xu D i s h a n  Vol.2,  Zhou  p.2;  Xueyuan  Sisong  ed. , Zhongguo  (Chongqing,  Sichuan  101.  Hsia, History,  102.  Pan Weicheng  103.  Zhou S i s o n g , p.225,  104.  Ibid,  105.  Yang  (Xu's Xiandai  Renmin  wife) Zuojia  Chubanshe,  "Biming Ziliaoji,  i n , Xuzhou  Shifan  Zhuanlie,  (Shang)  1981)  p.227.  pp.87-88.  et a l , p.11. p.228.  p.227. Gang;  Zhou  Sisong  p.225.  In  strong  contrast  to  161 the Xu  tone  of  Yang  i s emotional,  his  generosity,  Yang  Gang,  Gang  eds;  Zhuidao  Pan  Weicheng  Xu  1952  personal  enormous  Zhuidao  (Hong Kong, G u o j i 106.  very  "Zhuinian  Wenhuajie  hui ,  Gang's  Xu Xu  preface, and  energy  Dishan  Dishan  of  obituary praise  of for  conscientiousness.  Xiansheng",  Xiansheng Xiansheng  Shangye Yinwugong,  et a l , p.11.  full  and  Dishan  her  1941)  Da  i n ,  Quan  Hui  Choubei  Jinian  Tekan,  pp.28-30.  Footnotes t o Chapter Two  1.  William The  Blake,  I , 10, quoted  M i r r o r a n d t h e Lamp: R o m a n t i c  Tradition,  (New Y o r k ,  2.  Lu Xun, quoted  3.  Marian  Galik,  (Wiesbaden, 4.  Jerusalem  Mao  Franz  analysis  Tun  & C ,  Abrams,  and t h e C r i t i c a l 1958) p.296.  p.156, n.2.  and Modern  Steiner Verlag and Chapter  of this  Theory  Norton  by L i n , C r i s i s ,  See, L i n , C r i s i s , an  W.W.  i n , M.H.  crisis'  Literary  Criticism,  GMBH, 1 9 6 9 ) p . 6 2 . One  of this  impact  on  thesis f o r  t h e May  Fourth  generation. 5.  C.G. J u n g a n d C. K e r e n y i , E s s a y s On a S c i e n c e o f M y t h o l o g y , transl. XXII,  6.  by  R.F.C.  Pantheon  Books,  Friedrich Nietzsche, of Morals, t r a n s l .  7.  Hull,  and  Co. I n c . ,  1887  respectively.  L i n , Crisis. and of  p.155.  York,  Bollingen  o f Tragedy  and The G e n e a l o g y  b y F r a n c i s G o l f f i n g , (New Y o r k ,  1956) p.137.  See  First  i n particular  published  Chapter  cultural-intellectualistic  and second  generation  mode  predisposition, a monistic  of thinking.  approach, its  with  extreme  When  the  i t s monistic  by t h e p r e s s u r e  162  Doubleday 1872 and  I I I , p p . 26-55 approach  of the Chinese  l i g e n t s i a was d e c i s i v e l y m o l d e d b y a d e e p - s e a t e d , Chinese  Series  1949) p.106. The B i r t h  "...the  the f i r s t  (New  and  intel-  traditional  intellectualistic  cultural-intellecturalistic character,  was  of sociopolitical  pushed  to  realities  163 in China after holistic clasts  mode o f t h i n k i n g ,  C.T.  9.  Lewis  t o be r e j e c t e d  Hsia, S.  History,  an  by which  perceived the Chinese  totality 8.  1911, i t e v o l v e d i n t o  intellectualistic-  t h e May  tradition  as  Fourth iconoan  organismic  i n toto."(p.55).  p.84.  Robinson,  "  "Yu-kuan":  The  Spiritual  Testament  o f Hsu T i - s h a n " , Tamkang R e v i e w , V o l . V I I I , no.2 ( O c t . 1977) pp. 10.  147-167;  See  Robinson,  Christianity,  Xu  Dishan - Jiaoshou eds, Zhuidao  "Ji  Huasheng  Luo  See  (1970),  The See,  Zhou  Wodi  Quan  Gang  Yige  Xu  Dishan",  Huasheng  in,  Kong  1935),  of  Zhang  Huiyi",  Xu D i s h a n  Xu's  Zhuling,  pp.  13-14,  Xiansheng. i n , Xu  attitude "Duiyu  i n , Quan  L i n Guanghao,  Dishan  Z i l i a o j i  Yang Gang,  " Z h u i n i a n Xu  Lingzhong,  (Xu's s o n ) , p r e f a c e  Tongnian  ...  and V o l s . l  Luo  eds;  (My  (pseud,  Shan  Zhuidao  Ling  f o r Xu Yu,  Dishan  Childhood), 1941)  Xu  and 2 o f Xu D i s h a n  Luo  Kong,  pp.11-12.  Dishan  Xiansheng,  Ziliaoji.  Dishan),  (Shanghai,  (Hong  to  "Luo  Huasheng",  Commercial  Press,  pp.110-111.  14.  "The  Toiling  15.  See,  f o r e x a m p l e , T.S.  in,  Also,  Progressive Education Publishers,  passim, 13.  de  discussion  p.4.  in particular,  Huasheng,  for a  p.166.  Gang...,  Xiansheng" ;  12.  ibid,  to  Vol.1 11.  p.147.  John  W.  Spider."  Aldridge;  Eliot,  " U l y s s e s , Order  ed., C r i t i q u e s  and E s s a y s  and  Myth",  on  Modern  Fiction p.426.  1920-1951, (First  (U.S.A.  published  Ronald  i n The  Press  Dial,  Co,  Nov.  1952)  1923)  pp.424-6,  Also  Northrop  F r y e , T h e A n a t o m y o f C r i t i c i s m , (New J e r s e y , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, the 16.  1957,  order  paperback  : 1973),  o f m a t h e m a t i c s and  Mark  Schorer,  Schorer,  William  reprinted (New  "The  York,  George  f o r an  analogy  between  literature.  Necessity  Blake,  i n , Henry  p.352,  of  (Henry  Holt  A. M u r r a y  Braziller,  Myth", and  originally Co.,  L t d , 1946),  and  Mythmaking,  Appendix  pp.354-358,  ed. , Myth  1960),  from  p.357 . 17.  Eliot,  18.  C.T.  19.  Frye,  Hsia,  p.426.  History,  Anatomy,  p.85.  pp.136-137;  L i t e r a t u r e , p.223,  cited  (U.K.,  Co.  is 20.  "Ulysses",  Methuen  poetic  Stanley  and  or epic Edgar  : we  Rene  by  Gillian  L t d , 1970)  should  Hyman ,  Wellek,  "The  now  Beer, p.16,  call  Ritual  The  Theory  of  The  Romance,  "The  romance  i t "mythic"."  View  of  Myth  and  The  M y t h i c " , p . 5 2 i n , J o h n B. V i c k e r y , e d . , M y t h a n d L i t e r a t u r e , (Nebraska,  U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press,  21.  C.T.  History,  22.  Francis in,  23.  For  Hsia,  a  (U.K.,  "Myth  and  ed . , pp.139-147;  useful, Methuen  simple and  pp.47-58.  pp.87-88.  Fergusson,  Vickery,  1966)  the  Scruple",  p. 139.  summary  s e e , K.K.  Co. L t d , 1 9 7 6 ) .  M u r r a y , e d ; a n d J o s e p h P.  Literary  Also,  Ruthven, Myth, Vickery,  S t r e l k a , ed., L i t e r a r y  ed;  Criticism  and  Myth,  (The P e n n s y l v a n i a State  University  Press,  1980). 24.  C.G.  Jung,  in,  The  "Relation  Portable  of Analytical  Jung,  Psychology to Poetry",  ed. Joseph  Campbell,  pp.301-322;  p.321. 25.  For c r i t i c a l  s t u d i e s of Frye's impact, see, Murray  ed. , Northrop London, W.K.  Frye  Columbia  i n Modern  University  Criticism  Press,  (New  1966),  Krieger York  and  particularly:  W i m s a t t , " N o r t h r o p F r y e : C r i t i c i s m As M y t h " , p p . 75-107  and G e o f f r e y Hartman , " G h o s t l i e r D e m a r c a t i o n s " , pp. 110-131. See  also,  Theory", the  using  much  a  o f what  he  has  of  f o r my  "The  and  While  Critical  acknowledging  criticism,  I  was  chapter  t o say about  romance  not presume  system  inspiration  h i s work  and  on romance  as  a  Meaning  Susan Wang,  drawn because  fits  t o argue  whole  i n a l l that  but he  t o be a c r u c i a l  Xu the have  writes starting  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Xu D i s h a n . Philip  Rahv,  "The M y t h  and t h e Power-  i n V i c k e r y , e d . , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 1 8 a n d W a l l a c e W.  pp.119-128. in  Poetry  f o r this  I do  h i s c r i t i c a l  See i n p a r t i c u l a r , house",  basis  so w e l l .  considerable  believe  point  certain  as  validity  "Myth,  ed., pp.51-71.  Frye  work  found  26.  i n Strelka,  Dishan's  and  Feder,  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of  into so  L i l l i a n  o f "Myth" See  Sontag  i n Modern C r i t i c i s m " ,  also, ed., A  Roland  Barthes,  Barthes  Reader,  1983) pp.93-149.  Douglas,  ibid,  "Myth  Today",  (New Y o r k ,  Hill  166 27.  Lin, Crisis.  28.  Klaus  Subtitle.  Weissenberger,  Criticism",  i n Strelka,  29.  Rahv,  30.  Barthes, i n Sontag,  31.  Thomas  i n Vickery,  Mann,  Three Decades, in,  Murray,  32.  Ibid,  33.  Ibid.  34.  Ibid.  "Mythopoeisis  e d . , pp.238-73;  p.255.  ed., p.113.  "Freud  and  the Future",  ( A l f r e d A. K n o p f  ed., pp.371-375;  from  Essays  I n c , 1937, 1941),  of  reprinted  p.371.  p.373.  See Rahv and B a r t h e s i n p a r t i c u l a r .  36.  Cited Faces,  i n , Joseph (New Y o r k ,  Campbell, Bollingen  The  Hero  Series  ed. 1949, t h i s  e d . 1961) p.18.  37.  Jung,  "Relation...",  p.319.  38.  Campbell, Hero, p.257. intended  which  have  human  history  as as  t h e human p h y s i q u e  A  Thousand Books,  Mythological figures are "controlled  statements  remained  With  X V I I , Pantheon  First  of  Literary  ed., p.111.  35.  and  i n German  of certain constant  t h e form  spiritual  throughout  and nervous  principles the  course  structure  of  itself."  39.  Schorer, i n Murray,  40.  L i Y a n q i , " Z h u i n i a n Xu D i s h a n X i a n s h e n g " , i n Quan G a n g . . . , eds.,  41.  ed., p.355.  pp.47-49; p.48.  Northrop  Frye,  The  Secular  Scripture  : A  Study  S t r u c t u r e o f Romance, ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass., H a r v a r d  of the  University  167 Press, 42.  Frye,  43.  Lewis  1976),  p.5.  Anatomy,  that  Robinson, Hsu's  evolution  of 44.  Xu  he  150,  151.  final  "I  the  "spiritual  adopted  author's  own  fully  treatment  self-confrontation) i s a  of  believe  of  awakening"  reflection  "inner-life",  Christianity  as  a  Yu-kuan  youth  to  (or,  of  the  from  the  the  time  h i s death." Dishan,  published in  p.  psychological  i n her  aptly,  time  ibid,  intriguing  culminating more  p.57.  Xu  "The  Mingming  i n Xiaoshuo  Dishan  Xuanji  Bird"  Yuebao (Hong  ("Mingming  12:1  Kong,  Niao"),  (Jan 1921); Xinyi  first  reprinted  Chubanshe,  1958)  pp. 28-48. 45.  Xu  Dishan,  published  46.  Xu D i s h a n  Xu  Dishan,  tang  Daughter's  i n W e n x u e 1:4  in  published  "A  Heart",  ("Nu'er  a n d 5, ( O c t , N o v .  Xin"),  1933);  first  reprinted  pp.162-196. "Mr.  Dongye",  ("Dongye  Xiansheng"),  i n , Luo Huasheng, J i e f a n g z h e ,  Shudian,  1933),  (Beiping,  first  Xinyun-  pp.109-171.  47.  Xu D i s h a n , "The L i b e r a t o r " , ( " J i e f a n g z h e " ) , i b i d , p p . 7 1 - 9 0 .  48.  X u D i s h a n . , "Who in  W e n x u e 2:1  I s S h e ? " , ("Ren  ( J a n . 1934);  F e i Ren") , f i r s t  published  r e p r i n t e d i n , Xu D i s h a n  Xuanji,  ( B e i j i n g , R e n m i n Wenxue C h u b a n s h e , 1 9 5 8 ) ( X i a ) p p . 1 1 4 - 1 3 0 . It  i s difficult  in  E n g l i s h , so  to  the  story's  to give I have theme  an  exact  settled  rendering  f o r one  without,  which  of this  title  approximates  i t i s hoped,  diverging  168 too 49.  g r e a t l y from  the t i t l e ' s  meaning.  "The H e r o  i n T'ang  C u r t i s P. A d k i n s , in,  Winston  L.Y. Yang  Ch'uan-ch'i  a n d C u r t i s P. A d k i n s ,  Tales",  eds. C r i t i c a l  E s s a y s On C h i n e s e F i c t i o n , ( H o n g K o n g , T h e C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y Press, lays  1980) pp. 17-46.  stress  on a p p a r e n t  particular Tang  patterns  fiction.  ch'uan-ch'i only  a  trials and  and  tend  emerges  50.  merging  goes  on  quest-theme  Ibid,  p.41.  often  use terms  truncated  appears  I t should  History  pp.87-88;  Hsu  Ti-shan  and  the Family  pattern, of  i n different  as  that  "search"  Robinson, the Search  namely, heroic  the  l i f e ,  (p.xii).  t h e same  process  version  critics  o f Xu  "quest"  to  See, f o r example, and Douglas  f o r Identity  In the Short  T'ang  of  forms.  and  p.149,  i n  emphasized  or abbreviated  i n h i s works.  and  fiction,  fiction  be n o t e d  such  themes  the  t h e e a r l i e r and l a t e r stages."  a  certain  out "that  portion  short  and  the quest-myth  short  or middle  i n Xu D i s h a n ' s  whereby  of  the universal  rewards  Adkins  of universalistic  to point  as b e f i t s  of  to neglect  the introduction  i n the use  tales,  portion  Similarly,  the  He  In  Stories  Dishan define Hsia,  McOmber,  : Individuals  of Lo  Hua  Sheng  ( 1894-1941) , D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley  51.  Ann  Arbor,  Xu  Dishan,  Gua  (1980),  University  Michigan,  Xing"),  "A  International,  (1983).  Single  first  Microfilms  Star  published  of  the Sea", ("Haijiao  i n Xiaoshuo  Yuebao  d i  14:11  169 (Nov.  1923);  Biaozhun 52.  reprinted  Chubanshe,  Joseph  i n , Xu D i s h a n ,  Chun  d i Linye,  (Tainan,  1970) pp.82-86.  Conrad,  "The  Lagoon",  first  published  1898.  In T a l e s o f U n r e s t (London , P e n g u i n Books , 1981) pp. 171-185 . 53.  Xu D i s h a n ,  54.  See Yang p.85  "The M e r c h a n t ' s W i f e " , Gang,  a n d , Zhou  Zuopin", 55.  Frye,  56.  "The  Phoenix  and B i a n  ed.,  That  Changed  Hsia,  History,  "Xu D i s h a n  He  Tade  Chao  Luan  p.238.  published  -  " 'Zhongguo Wenxue  I t s Nest",  i n Xiaoshuo Di Linye,  Xinwenxue  yanjiuhui  Also,  Yang Gang,  Preface,  o f h i s romance m a t e r i a l  h i s story with  the kind  of  realistic  that  would  fiction".  59.  I b i d , p.85.  60.  Frye,  S c r i p t u r e , p.6.  61.  Ibid,  pp.6-7.  62.  Ibid, p.41.  look  i n , Le  Yiji'  Daiyun,  pp.3-42,  the author  : he i g n o r e s  short  coincidences  Xiaoshuo  pp. 10-13.  conviction  of  X i -  p . 8 8 . " F o r once  o f t h e modern  12:5 (May  Zuojia Zuopin,  History,  lards  Yuebao  zhu zuojia",  C.T.Hsia,  conventions  ("Huan  pp.105-129.  Da  Mao D u n L u n Z h o n g g u o X i a n d a i  p.34.  the  CT.  Yiji,  pp.233-44,  r e p r i n t e d i n Chun  Dun,  Daoyan  58.  Also,  S c r i p t u r e , p.6.  1921); Mao  Sisong  p.13.  i n , Xu D i s h a n ,  Feng") , f i r s t  57.  Preface,  p.116.  has t h e completely  s t o r y and unashamedly  and m i s t a k e n  out of place  identities i n a  piece  170 63.  Ibid, that  p.41.  Geoffrey  Frye's  major  is  "the  of  Romance  of  t h e Romance  has  o f t h e demon,  i n human  tendency  method  ed., argues  As  t h e new  by  realism  criticism  the i n t r i n s i c He  i s "a  i n i t sd i r e c t  to underplay  suggested  or  imagination".  imagination  pp.110-111.  a  i n Krieger,  contribution to literary  recovery  forms",  Hartraan,  prophet  realism begins  role  topographer  and  displaced  o f Romance :  by  "The  Frye  c r i t i c a l  detaching  the  l i t e r a r y work b e i n g s t u d i e d from i t s c o n t e x t i n l i t e r a t u r e . After  that,  t h e work  may  be  discussed  i n relation  to  i t s h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l and o t h e r n o n - l i t e r a c y affinities." 64.  Frye,  "The  pp.87-97.  (Scripture, Archetypes  p.59.)  of Literature",  "Art deals  not with  i n Vickery, ed.,  the real  but with  the  conceivable". 65.  Campbell,  Hero, p.37.  66.  Ibid.  67.  Ibid,  68.  I b i d , p.35.  69.  Ibid,  p.30.  70.  Ibid,  pp.245-6;  71.  Adkins,  p.30.  Frye,  Anatomy,  "Ch'uan-Ch'i";  pp.198-202.  Hellmut  Wilhelm,  M y t h : The C a s e o f Yueh F e i ' s B i o g r a p h y " and  Denis  fornia, See  Twitchett, eds., Confucian Stanford  also,  C.T.  University  Hsia,  "The  Press,  Military  "From  Myth  to  i n , A r t h u r F.  Wright  Personalities  (Cali-  1962)  pp.146-161.  Romance  : A  Genre  171 of  Chinese  Fiction"  i n , Cyril  Birch,  ed. , Studies  in  Chinese L i t e r a r y Genres, (Berkeley, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 72.  The  1974) pp.339-390,  outline  schema  that  presented  follows by F r y e ,  73.  Campbell,  74.  Frye,  S c r i p t u r e , p.131.  75.  Ibid,  p.157.  76.  Campbell,  77.  Frye,  78.  Xu  i s a  composite  version  S c r i p t u r e , and C a m p b e l l ,  of  the  Hero.  Hero, p.3.  Hero,  p.246.  S c r i p t u r e , p.201.  Dishan,  Jian  p.360.  "Yuguan",  (1947);  eds.,  first  published  i n , Wei  Chao  r e p r i n t e d i n L i u Shaoming and Huang  Zhongguo  Xiandai  Zhong  Duan  (1919-1949) (Hong Kong, U n i o n P r e s s 79.  Robinson,  80.  CT.  81.  Robinson,  "'Yu-kuan'", p.151.  82.  Robinson,  ibid,  to  Yuguan  Pian  Zhui  Weiliang,  Xiaoshuo  Xuan  L t d , 1984)  pp.72-114.  t h e shadow  threatening  "'Yii-kuan'", p.151.  Hsia,  engulf  History,  p.88.  p.155, argues that  passion  f o r Chen  Jungian  terminology  night  Lian  and  that  i s a result has  to describe  strong  of her  suppressed  overtones  of  the  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e p r e s s e d  side. 83.  Hsii T i - s h a n by and  Cecile Leo  Novellas  (Xu D i s h a n ) , Chu-chin  Ou-fan (New  Shu  Lee, York,  "Yu-kuan" i n , Joseph  eds.,  Modern  Columbia  ("Yuguan"), t r a n s l a t e d S.M.  Lau,  Chinese  University  CT.  Hsia,  Stories Press,  and  1981)  172 pp.51-81,  p.66.  84.  Ibid,  85.  Robinson,  86.  Ibid,  p.165.  87.  Ibid,  pp.154-158.  88.  Matthew, in  89.  p.68. " • Yii-kuan• , 1 1  16,  Robinson,  Andrew  H.  25,  p. 164.  quoted  "'Yii-kuan, Plaks,  i n Campbell,  Hero,  p.236  and  p. 164.  "Chinese  Narrative  Theory:  Towards  a C r i t i c a l T h e o r y o f C h i n e s e N a r r a t i v e , " i n A n d r e w H.  Plaks,  e d ., C h i n e s e N a r r a t i v e : C r i t i c a l a n d T h e o r e t i c a l E s s a y s . Jersey:  Princeton  University  Press,  1977),  (New  pp.309-352;  p.334. 90.  Frye,  Scripture,  91.  Frye,  Anatomy,  92.  Campbell,  93.  Frye,  Anatomy,  us  true,  as  by  Hero,  p.47.  p.86. p.28. p.170.  "Happy  but as d e s i r a b l e ,  endings  and  they  do  not  impress  are brought  about  manipulation."  94.  Robinson,  95.  C.T.  96.  Ibid,  " ' Y i i - k u a n '" , p . 1 6 0 .  Hsia,  History,  p.91.  p.88.  Robinson,  '" ' Y U - k u a n ' " , p p . 1 5 1 ,  158  and  166. 97.  98.  Charles  Child  Methods  of  W a l c u t t , Man's  Characterization  University  of Minnesota  C.T.  History,  Hsia,  Press,  p.91.  Changing  Mask  i n Fiction, 1966)  p.114.  : Modes  and  (Minneapolis,  173 99. 100.  Frye,  Anatomy,  p.151.  Ibid.  101.  Frye,  S c r i p t u r e , p.47.  102.  Plaks, Chinese  103.  Frye,  Narative,  p.334.  S c r i p t u r e , pp.53-54.  104.  Ibid.  105.  Ibid,  p.54.  106.  Ibid,  p. 122.  " I n romance  a great  deal  sense,  where  the c r u c i a l  relation  between  real  t o do w i t h  the  descent  one's descent event the  theme  i n the  often  genealogical  i s the discovery  chief  has  characters  of  and  the their  parents." 107.  McOmber, The  108.  The  third  or heroine p.187. of  for  child,  as  Identity.  Linzhi  i s , i s commonly  o f f a i r y - t a l e s and romance.  -  i n the  successful  hero  undertake the quest, 109.  Perhaps s i m i l a r  110.  Frye,  convention"  111.  Frye,  Anatomy,  112.  Ibid,  p.201.  113.  Ibid,  p.187.  114.  Ibid.  i s a  i n many  f o r instance,  third  son,  or  comments  on  the  wise  old  "Houdini"  common t o r o m a n c e , p p . 1 3 3 ,  pp.182-3.  hero  Anatomy features  with  the  o r s u c c e s s f u l on h i s t h i r d  to Jung's archetypal  Scripture,  "escape  frequency,  the  See, Frye,  "A t h r e e f o l d s t r u c t u r e i s r e p e a t e d  romance  the  Search  which  third  to  attempt." man. motif 136.  and  174 115.  Oscar  Wilde,  "De  Profundis"  i n , The  Complete  Works  of  O s c a r W i l d e , ( G l a s g o w and L o n d o n , C o l l i n s , 1948) pp .873-957 , p.929. 116.  Ibid,  p.923.  117. See, W i l d e , 118.  Complete  Works.  Ibid.  1 1 9 . P h i l i p K.  C o h e n , The M o r a l V i s i o n o f O s c a r W i l d e ,  University  Press  120.  Ibid,  p.78.  121.  Frye,  Scripture,  122. O s c a r  Wilde,  I n c . 1976)  (Associated  p.79.  p.46.  "The  Decay  of  Lying"  i n Complete  Works  pp.970-992. 123.  Ibid,  pp.980,  982.  1 2 4 . B o n n i e S. M c D o u g a l l , Theories Centre 125.  Ibid.  126.  Ibid.  127.  "The  f o r East  Firefly  in  Xin  in,  Xu  first  "The  129. T h i s  Modern  China  Asian  Cultural  1:1,  Dishan  Wu"  and  3  of Western  1919-1925,  Studies,  Deng"),  Literary  (Tokyo,  1971)  1:4  Xuanji  first  published  "Tao  reprinted Jinniang",  a n d 5, ( J u l , A u g .  (1958)  The  p.64.  (Jun, J u l . 1941);  (1958) pp.221-236.  i n Xu D i s h a n Bird",  :  ("Ying  i n X i n Ertong  i s reminiscent  "Master  2  Xuanji  published  Mingming  Introduction  Lantern"  Ertong  reprinted 128.  Into  The  1941);  pp.237-246.  p.39. of  a  story  i n w h i c h "a young  man  by  Langxian  of gargantuan  entitled appetite  175 falls  in  at  the  next  in  her  cabin,  the is  boat well  hide  her  to  her  to  her  1981) See  to  131.  the  official's While  weather  sail.  By  the  Grand  cabin."  (Cambridge,  a  boat  are  i n bed  asleep  changes  and  her  father  orders  time  the  bed vast  Patrick  on  two  the  Canal.  for taking  daughter  the  the  under  parents  The and  wake,  the  i s  forced  g i r l make  bizarre  quantities  Hanan,  Mass.,  pair  The  Harvard  of  boat to  excuses  food  back  Chinese Vernacular University  Press,  pp.131-132. CT.  Hsia's One  in  introduction  story  Shen's Miao  See  an  mooring.  lover  p.xxvii. is  with  along  Story ,  130.  love  in  tale  particular  similar  to,  Lau,  vein  Hsia  to  and  "Tao  Lee,  Jinniang"  "Longzhu". Zhou  Sisong  and  p.108.  "Of  Bian  Yiji's  article,  p.236. 132.  "The at  Merchant's  school,  Wife",  Pilgrim's  a l l the  P r o g r e s s and  books  Robinson  I  Crusoe  read moved  me t h e m o s t , g i v i n g me m u c h c o m f o r t a n d e x e m p l a r y g u i d a n c e . " Yuguan Bible Yi  sets in  Jing,  the  off  on  her  final  vernacular,  which  she  quest  Pilgrim's  could  not  with  a  copy  Progress  understand.  of and  The The  ("Yuguan",  p.114.) 133.  Mao  Dun,  Wenyijie  "Lun" p.134. Bozhong  pp.9-10,  relates  building  gardens  de Xu's  Han  Suixuan, " J i Yiwei Z a i Xianggang  Ren"  i n , Xu  love  wherever  he  of  Dishan  plants  lived.  Ziliaoji  and  his  Vol.1,  habit  of  176 134.  Frye,  Scripture,  135.  Mao  136.  Robinson,  137.  In  Dun,  his  p.53.  "Lun",  pp.137-139.  *"Yii-kuan  1 1 1  introduction  ,  pp.147,  Lewis  150-1.  says  the  book  i s not  entirely  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , b u t r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of  his  personal  Regress  (U.S.  published 138.  Chen  of  states  there in 139.  Yinwu to  Xu  some  Chen's  141.  Corbin and  See, A  Press, 143.  for  Study  yu  Xianggang  zhi  Guanxi,  (Hong  He  Gongsi, P.H.  1968.  in  In  1924  d i d not  Ho  and  (See  cites  a  by  the  Principal  this  the  Principal  held  t a k e any  claimed.  1976)  the  public  status  of  examination  prefatory  material  in  H a n n a y , C.S.  Co.,  1981)  Lewis  (New  York,  Frederick  p.3.  C a r n e l l , B r i g h t S h a d o w o f R e a l i t y : C.S.  Feeling  W i l l i a m B. 142.  first  book).  Scott  the  Pilgrim's  1981,  i n May  have  Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Ibid.  The  Books,  Kenneth  arrived  Margaret Patterson  140.  Mr.  Student".  as  Lewis,  Bantam  Dingzhuang  College  that  "Special  Canada,  Dishan  written  Mansfield  C.S.  p.xvi.  Xu  Yongtai  letter  and  1933)  Jinbo,  Kong,  experience.  Intellect.  (Grand  E e r d m a n s P u b l i s h i n g Co., example, Medieval  C.S.  Lewis,  Tradition  Carnell, Bright  Shadow,  1974) The  (Oxford;  1936) pp.66,93.  Rapids, pp.83,  Allegory Oxford  Lewis  Michigan, 105,109. of  Love:  University  177 144.  I b i d , pp.14-15,  145.  Lewis,  146.  Ibid.  The  147. Hannay,  19.  Pilgrim's  C.S.Lewis,  148. C a r n e l l ,  Bright  (Toronto, 151.  Jung,  Frye,  pp.x-xiii.  p.170.  Shadow,  149. P u b l i s h e d between 150. N o r t h r o p  Regress,  p.108.  1950-1956  The  Great  Academic Press  "Relation...",  by M a c M i l l a n  Code: Canada,  p.321.  The  Bible  1982)  Books. and  p.49.  Literature,  Footnotes t o Chapter I I I  1.  For a  detailed  explanation  Synchronicity, transl. Series,  Princeton  Paperback 2.  Fung  term  s e e , C.G.  Jung,  b y R . F . C . H u l l , (New Y o r k , B o l l i n g e n  University Press,  Princeton/Bollingen  1973).  Yu-lan,  ed.,  of this  A  by Derk  Short  Bodde,  History  (New Y o r k ,  of  Chinese  The F r e e  Philosophy,  Press,  MacMillan  P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1948, f i r s t p a p e r b a c k ed., 1966), p.243. 3.  4.  William to  Laertes.  Xu  Dishan,  Sheng (Mar. 5.  Shakespeare,  "Blossoms  Hua") , 1924);  Xu D i s h a n , in  first  Xu  Dishan,  Yuebao  been  and  Home",  Poplar"  i n Xiaoshuo Xuanji,  ("Gu  1931);  Yang  Yuebao 15:3, pp.65-87.  ("Gui T u " ) , f i r s t  22:6, ( J u n .  "The  Eyes  o f t h e Law",  i n Jiefangzhe,  pp.39-54.  Despite  published  negative  Withered  Polonius  published  reprinted  i n Xu  pp. 173-185.  anthologized. not  a  published  "The Road  Xiaoshuo  published  on  A c t I , Sc. I l l ,  r e p r i n t e d i n Xu D i s h a n  Dishan Xuanji 6.  Hamlet,  comments  This  i t s peasant  i n t h e P.R.C., made  equally  ("Fa Yan") , story  about  the  the Nationalists.  7.  Xu D i s h a n ,  "Mr. Dongye".  8.  Xu D i s h a n ,  "A D a u g h t e r ' s  9.  Xu D i s h a n ,  "Yuguan".  See  above.  H e a r t " . See  See  above. 178  i s rarely  protagonist, possibly  above.  first  i thas  because  of  Communists  179 10.  Quoted  i n ,Arthur  (London, 11.  K o e s t l e r , The  P i c a d o r , Pan Books,  S y n c h r o n i c i t y , p.12.  while  the subjective  12.  Schopenhauer,  13.  Jung,  ibid,  quoted  Coincidence,  objective  only  ibid,  i s causal,  i n relation  i t . " (Citing  by Jung,  pp.12-13.  The  "exists  who e x p e r i e n c e s  of  1974) p.86.  Jung,  individual  Roots  to the  Schopenhauer).  p.12.  K o e s t l e r , The R o o t s o f C o i n c i d e n c e ,  pp.107-108. 14.  Koestler,  ibid,  synchronous into  a-causal  principle  and  Jung,  unclear  that  o f non-  "Jung  explanations  (p.99).  language,  kept  t o make t h e  Despite  Koestler's  of  which  rationality  the hypothesis  remains  coincidences,  Fortigibu  session  16.  work."  S y n c h r o n i c i t y , p.21.  appearance  of  causal  f o r coincidences  ordinary M. d e  spurious  says  "theory  r e m a r k s a n d J u n g ' s own t e n d e n c y t o u s e l o n g - w i n d e d  ofter  causes  i t as Jung's  s y n c h r o n i c i t y " and  lapsing  critical  15.  describes  Jung  a fascinating gives  including  scarab-like beetle  helped  break  (pp.22ff,  down  examples  of extratale  (p.15 n.26), during  of the  an a n a l y s i s  h i s patient's  Cartesian  a n d h i s own  experience  109ff.)  the m u l t i p l e appearance  pyschic  one.  the bizarre  and t h e plum-pudding, a  of  of the fish  K o e s t l e r , The R o o t s o f C o i n c i d e n c e ,  motif  (p.10).  p.95; Jung,  Synchroni-  c i t y , pp.25, 28. 17.  Jung,  ibid,  p.25.  phenomena w h i c h  Xu  Dishan  he e x p l o r e d  had an  at great  interest length  i n psychic  i n h i s study  180 of  planchette  Commercial mind  writing,  Press,  (p.84),  moving  he  cause  and  believed  the  power  of  could  behind  Jung,  Synchronicity,  19.  Ibid.,  20.  Koestler,  21.  Ibid.,  p.108.  22.  Ibid.,  pp.110-111.  23.  .Ibid.,  "The  26.  Jung,  The  accept  maintaining  an  that  were  spirits  phenomena  of  psychic  power,  that  were  the  (Shanghai, open the  s p i r i t - w r i t i n g telepathy  and  factors,  see  primary  p.29.  Roots  of Coincidence,  pp.  94,95,100.  p.122.  Spider",  Xu D i s h a n X u a n j i ,  Synchronicity, the  term  for Richard  27.  While  d i Yanjiu,  pp.102-3.  Toiling  used  ally  the  suggestion  18.  25.  not  instead  passim.  Ibid.  J i Mixin  1946).  pp.89  24.  Fu  p.36,  n.59.  "synchronicity"  pp.2-3.  Jung  says  i n h i s memorial  W i l h e l m (May 10, 1 9 3 0 ) , a n d r e l a t e d  to the Y i  Press,  Ibid.,  p.23  29.  Ibid.,  p.22.  30.  Ibid.,  p.34.  31.  Luo  Huasheng  address  i t specific-  Lectures  on t h e 1 C h i n g , t r a n s l .  C a r y F. B a y n e s , (New Y o r k , B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s L X I I ,  28.  first  Jing.  Hellmut Wilhelm, Eight  University  he  (Xu  1973)  by  Princeton  pp.19-23.  Dishan)  "The  Sea",  ("Hai")  i n , Kong  181 Shan L i n g 32. 33.  Yu,  32-33.  Ibid. Maupassant, Burkhart, Anchor  34.  pp.  quoted  eds.  Books,  i n , Georgianne  Storytellers  Doubleday  Joseph  Conrad,  Gillian  Beer,  and  preface  The  Co.,  to  Romance,  35.  Frye, Scripture,  36.  W a l c u t t , Man's C h a n g i n g  37.  Ibid.,  38.  Ibid.  39.  "The  and  Trask  Their  and  Art  I n c . , 1963)  "The  Charles  (New  York,  p.54.  Shadowland" , quoted  in  p.76.  p.47. Mask,  pp.169,162.  p.173.  Eyes  of  the  Law".  just  before his wife,  and  the  reason  for  ("Fa  who his  Yan").  has  He  dies  discovered  his  imprisonment,  in  prison  whereabouts  i s able  to  see  him. 40.  T.S.  Eliot,  Faber 41.  Little  Paperbacks,  Yuguan  feels  kindly  to  considers  43.  A d k i n s , "T'ang  John in,  the  rich  negligible,  CT.  44.  1959)  discovering  42.  Hsia,  Hero,  G i d d i n g , i n Four  History,  lines  204,  207,  and  spoiled  the  elderly  t o be  her  Quartets,  (London,  p.47.  Anni  would  Xingguan,  not whom  take she  mother.  p.88.  Ch'uan-ch'i  Tales",  p.41,  citing  Campbell,  Chinese  Fiction",  p.51. L.  John  Bishop, L.  (Cambridge,  "Some  Bishop ed., Mass,  Limitations  of  Studies i n Chinese  Harvard-Yenching  Literature  Institute  Series  182 XXI, 45.  Harvard  W.L.  University  Ideraa, C h i n e s e  Period,  (Leiden,  Press,  1965) pp.237-247;  Vernacular  E.J. B r i l l ,  Fiction:  1974)  Ibid.,  47.  Hanan, The C h i n e s e V e r n a c u l a r S t o r y , p . 2 6 .  48.  The p a s s a g e  i n which  and  i s reminicent of lines  Jialing  My  soul  into  like  Then  whets  And,  t i l l  Waves  Minming  sees  a  the  boughs  bird,  like  i n Andrew  and  claps  prepar'd  ed., A  does  i t sits  and  i t ss i l v e r  f o r longer  i n i t splumes  G. B . H a r r i s o n ,  herself  Marvell's  Book  glide. sings, wings, f l i g h t ,  the various  of English  light.  Poetry  (U.K.  1937) p.163.  "Suffering  and happiness  extension,  so t o achieve p e r f e c t  H.  two b i r d s  Garden:  There,  beyond  Fomative  p.52.  poem, The  49.  The  pp.xii-xiii.  46.  Penguin  p.241.  not only  Robinson,  duct ion ,  misery  The  are paired  felicity  but ordinary  Buddhist  Religion:  California,  A  finite  one must  bliss."  rise  Richard  Historical  Intro-  Dickenson  Publishing  50.  "The M e r c h a n t ' s  51.  " T h e M e r c h a n t s w i f e " , t r a n s l a t e d b y W i l l i a m H.  Nienhauser,  Co.  (Belmont,  opposites of  I n c . ,1970). p.31. Wife",  p.110.  1  in,  Lau, Hsia  and Lee e d s . ; pp.41-50; p.45.  183 52.  Ibid.  I have r e t a i n e d N i e n h a u s e r ' s u s e o f "Honna".  53.  I n "A  Single  the  ship  women that  on  Star which  f o r being the only  disagrees,  cure  saying  that and, while  men  cannot  55.  Shangjie  that  o f a l l sorrow  only  Indians  of sorrows,  and Changsun  "The T o i l i n g  57.  Ibid.,  58.  Hsia,  on  blames  and  suggests  The  narrator  do  something  the root one's  of sorrow,  wife  i st h e  (p.85). a t a l l i n "Yuguan."  are not i n fact  community has always  56.  could  To b u r y  i s , f o r e x a m p l e , no d i a l o g u e  local  them.  women w e r e i n d e e d them.  passenger  i s travelling  i s to sacrifice  do w i t h o u t  most s a c r e d There  the narrator  t h e source  like  54.  o f t h e S e a " , an I n d i a n  considered  married,  but the  them t o b e .  Spider", p . l .  p.2-3. History,  p.87.  McOmber  translates  this  rather  differently:  " A l l webs a r e s o m e t h i n g p e o p l e h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d  themselves,  and whether  can  only  "The  depend  Toiling  on  Spider,  59.  McOmber, The S e a r c h  60.  That is  Shangjie  obvious  love, Chapter  on  they  their  which  62.  Ibid.,  p.5-6.  nature."  f o rIdentity,  her sentiments Xu  or  incomplete  (p.177).  (See  p.25).  had very  Four).  "The T o i l i n g  own  p.177.  i s not the t o t a l mouthpiece  from  61.  a r e whole  Spider", p.24.  about  of her creator  the value  different  of  sexual  opinions. (See  184 63.  Ibid.,  p.3.  64.  McOmber, The S e a r c h  65.  "The T o i l i n g  Spider," p.21.  66.  Xu  "Chuntao",  Dishan,  p.124,  "The T o i l i n g  68.  McOmber, The S e a r c h  69.  "The T o i l i n g  71.  Xu  p.155.  Dishan  Xuanji,  pp.111-137;  p.132.  67.  70.  f o r Identity,  Spider", p.22. f o r Identity,  Spider",  p.153.  p.4.  Ibid. McOmber, The S e a r c h f o r I d e n t i t y , the  island  (Also  as Tuba,  "The T o i l i n g  73.  C.T.  Hsia,  Labors  History,  of a Spider",  implication  "The T o i l i n g  75.  Luo  p.85, e n t i t l e s  of  "Vain  of  Malaysia.  story  Labors"  that  optomistic  "The  Vain  t h e message  and  i s pessimistic,  that  the  allowing  o f hope.  Spider",  Huasheng,  this  but I would contend  i s fundamentally  no p o s s i b l i t y  74.  Yu,  coast  Spider", p.17.  the story  for  o f f the Northwest  Known a s D u a ) .  72.  of  p . 1 9 3 , n o t e 1, i d e n t i f i e s  p.14.  "Ghost-Song"  ("Gui Zan"),  Kong  Shan  Ling  pp.48-50; p.50.  76.  Ibid.  77.  I  concur  Search  with  McOmber's  f o r Identity,  78.  "The T o i l i n g  79.  Zhang  Spider",  Zhuling,  translation.  See McOmber,  p.91 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s  The  name.  p.14.  "Yige Huiyi",  pp.13-14.  Another  friend,  185 Ye  Qifang,  mentions  Xiansheng", first  met  Quan  Xu  at  in his  Gang . . . e d s . , a  Federation  1922.  was  Chow off  and  May  Fourth  more  students  defend  Movement,p.324). relevant  "advanced  to  a  he  In the  an  in  April  University. sparked  anti-religious including others  Cai  dissented  their  faith."  attempt  Chinese  progressive  had  Student  conference  leftists  to  Dishan  that  Yanjing  Zhou Z u o r e n and out  Xu  World's  growing  leading  came  ("Yi  University  this  ensuing  by  Christians  Christianity some  an  Xu  the  for  that  Wang J i n g w e i .  "some  (The  with  supported  Y u a n p e i and  Qinghua  mentions  furore,  movement  of  representative  Tse-tung a  at  of  pp.34-38)  conference  Christian Xu  obituary  to  make  situation,  plea",  stating  t h a t "the e s s e n c e of C h r i s t i a n i t y i s the supreme p e r s o n a l i t y of Jesus"  and  "the gospel are is  very no  that he  that C h r i s t i a n i t y  of the poor. " similar  record his  worked  of  ( I b i d . , p.326).  those  espoused  his activity  close at  to  association  Yanjing,  i s fundamentally  at with  helped  this  by  These s e n t i m e n t s Xu,  time.  Zhou  but  It is  Zuoren,  influenced  socialist,  that  there  possible  with  whom  gentleman's  dissension. 80.  Oscar Wilde,  81.  "Chuntao", of  one's  than a 82.  "Mr.  "De  Profundis",  p.133.  actions  In have  future  existence.  Dongye",  p.165-167.  Xu's an  p.931. moral impact  universe in  this  the  results  l i f e  rather  186 83.  Both  stories  present  hopelessness, Lu  Xun's  senses  ground  story  a  stark  down  h a s much  by  "The Road  85.  Xu D i s h a n ,  Home",  poverty  greater  f a r more e f f e c t i v e l y  84.  vision  than  o f a woman's and despa-ir,  force  "The Road  Home."  p.176.  "The T h r e e D o c t o r s "  pp.17-30;  "A  pp.  91-107  and " I n D i r e c t o r  Fei  Zonglidi  Hsia,  Carefree  ( "San B o s h i " ) , i n J i e f a n g z h e ,  Flower",  Ketingli"),  a  History,  Fei's  first  p.85, considers  considerable  Weicheng  ("Wu  You  Hua") ,  Pan Weicheng  88.  Xu D i s h a n ,  (1947);  improvement  ibid,  Reception  Room" ( " Z a i  published  i n Xiaoshuo  the Jiefangzhe  technically.  pp.1-15. collection  See a l s o  Pan  e t a l . pp.7-9.  87.  first  but  and haunts the  Yuebao 19:11 (Nov. 1928); r e p r i n t e d i n J i e f a n g z h e , 86.  utter  et a l .p.11.  "The I r o n  published  F i s h With  Gills",  (posthumously)  r e p r i n t e d i n Xu D i s h a n  ( " T i eYu D i S a i " ) ,  i n Wei  Xuanji  Chao  Zhui  pp. 138-153.  Jian  Footnotes t o Chapter IV  1.  Mao  Dun,  2.  O s c a r W i l d e , q u o t e d by Anne R o b i n s o n T a y l o r , M a l e N o v e l i s t s and  Their  New 3.  York,  Co.  to 5.  A  L t d , 1934)  he  The  For  trace  this  o u t who  Xuanji  Similar  Own  pp.112-116  and  (Harcourt,  p.  nor  might  Brace  have  n.3, I  (July  writes  been  able  1921);  published  reprinted  in  Xu  p.57.  Shan  the  193,  be.  elements are  Ling  Yu  latter  a  present  : "Farewell"  "Love's Tide Overflows" In  (Troy,  p.2.  ( " H u a n g Hun H o u " ) , f i r s t  12:7  pp.49-64;  i n Kong  young  i n  two  ("Biehua")  ("Ai L i u X i  Zhang")  widower  unable  i s  h i d e h i s g r i e f f r o m h i s y o u n g c h i l d , who c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d  its  meaning.  a young  Xu's  daughter, Dusk",  first  wife  died  i n  1920,  leaving  Fanxin.  7.  "After  8.  Ibid,  9.  McOmber,  The  Search  name  the  objects  of  story,  Meng J i n g x i u  vignettes  to  One's  1981)  Identity,  autobiographical  pp.117-120.  Co.  Masquerades  p.171.  X i a o s h u o Yuebao  Dishan  of  Search  cannot  find  : Literary  Room  Xu D i s h a n , " A f t e r Dusk", in  6.  Voices  Whitson Publishing  Woolf,  McOmber, that  p.142.  Female The  Virginia and  4.  "Lun",  p.60.  p.58.  and  the  maternal  for Identity,  speculates  i t conjures  could  breast"  (p.88.) 187  up  be  Similarly,  that "a her  her  symbol grave  188 mound, i f t h e 10.  In  traditional  "Chuntao",  and  there  air  about  Xianggao  i s  a  nightly  gently  erotic  this  event.  is  fundamentally  denied  of  L i  Mao's  that  three  "Yuguan", great  of  them  Yuguan's  w i t h Chen L i a n , but  Robinson,  12.  C.T.  Hsia,  Chuntao  massage,  yet  very  one  kang  is  are  they are complicated her  of  not  the  nature  her  clear  ideal.  hinted  at  first  by h e r  professed  tension  i t i s made  d e s c r i p t i o n of  with  sexual  because  feelings  a  matter-of-fact  for  nonetheless  sharing  "'Yu-kuan'",  breast.  potential  but  the  resemble a  gives  expression  sexual  confrontation  11.  A  injuries,  discretion in  first  shape, could  In with  meeting  simultaneous  faith.  p.149.  Int roduct ion,  in  Lau,  Hsia  and  Lee,  eds.,  p.xxiv. 13.  For and  14. 15. 16.  t r a n s l a t i o n s of Lee  C.T.  these  stories  see  the  Lau,  Hsia  anthology.  Hsia,  Introduction,  p.xiv.  Ibid. Elizabeth Croll, Routledge  and  Kegan P a u l ,  17.  Ibid,  p.46.  18.  Ibid,  pp.61,  19.  Ibid,  pp.72-3.  20.  C h o w , The  21.  Ibid.,  p.258.  22.  Croll,  Feminism,  May  F e m i n i s m and  Socialism i n China,  1978)  p.45.  Movement,  p.258.  (London,  62.  Fourth Croll,  Feminism,  p.150-1  -  the  p.90. 1927  reaction  encompassed  189 the  killings  than  that  great  stress  can  be  o f young  they  o n women's r o l e that  d u r i n g the war y e a r s .  23.  often  had c u t t h e i r  no doubt  post-1949  women  reveals  an  unacknowledged  as  special  cases  f o r no o t h e r  hair.  Mao  Zedong  i n the revolution  their  support  was a  reason laid  and t h e r e  useful  factor  T h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Women's F e d e r a t i o n a  p a r a d o x i c a l concern  recognition  rather  than  I t should  be noted  that  important  women w r i t e r s ,  that  f o r women a n d  women  are  treated  as equals.  d e s p i t e t h e emergence men s t i l l  dominated  of certain  the literary  scene. 24.  He t o o k rather  the step of giving than  sons.  He o n c e  w i f e would  spend  and  more  her  university  di 25.  h i s own  h i s o n l y son h i s w i f e ' s surname  because  remarked  to a  h i s father-in-law friend  that  l e s s time looking a f t e r  working  f o r society,  education;  he w i s h e d h i s  t h e i r two c h i l d r e n  because  (Zhang  s h e was  Ying,  "Xu  Xu D i s h a n ,  "Zongjiao  d i Funuguan"  S h u i n i u Chubanshe,  , i n Guocui  1966) pp.35-52;  Xiansheng  Yu Guoxue  p.37, p.52.  26.  Ibid,  27.  I b i d , p.50.  28.  S e e f o r e x a m p l e , "The S m i l e " , ( " X i a o " ) p p . 6 - 7 ;  p.45, p.52.  ("Xiang") p.10 and "Wish" "The F o o l i s h You  wasting  W e i d a de R e n g e " ) , Quan G a n g . . . e d s . , p p . 4 1 - 4 3 ; p . 4 2 .  (Taibei,  29.  h a d no  Come?"  Woman",  "Fragrance"  ("Yuan") p p . 1 1 - 1 2 .  ("Yu F u r e n " )  ( " N i Wei Shenmo  pp.14-46;  "Why  Don't  Bu L a i ? " ) p p . 2 9 - 3 1 ;  "Love  190 Is  a  Punishment",  Mother "The  of a  Prison  "Meeting  ("Ai Jiushi  Myriad  Things"  of Beauty",  Again",  Xingfa")  ("Wanwu  pp.39-40;  Z h i Mu")  ("Mei d i Laoyu")  ( " Z a iH u i " ) pp.85-88.  "The  pp.51-54;  pp.77-79 and This  last i s  a r a t h e r more s u c c e s s f u l and r e a l i s t i c v e r s i o n o f c h i l d h o o d friends  re-meeting  Withered  Poplar."  30.  " I Am T h i n k i n g "  31.  "Who  I s She?"  i s an open-ended  underline  never  appears  her  the clumsier  "Blossoms  on  a  ("Wo X i a n g " ) K o n g S h a n L i n g Y u , p p . 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 .  which  telephone,  than  story  the mysterious i n person.  her admirer  i n different  nature  of  i s heard  enigmatic  she leaves  ambiguities  o f t h e woman  Her voice  catches  roles,  full  a  who  on t h e  glimpses  scented  of  powder  c o m p a c t a s t h e o n l y p h y s i c a l memory o f h e r s e l f a n d d i s a p p e a r s without  e x p l a i n i n g h e r many  32.  Kong  Shan L i n g  33.  McOmber,  Caroline  only  vaguely  insists 34.  Yu, "Farewell",  The S e a r c h  name  ("Biehua")  pp.112-116.  f o r I d e n t i t y , p.17, gives  Yellow.  Both  approximate  on b e i n g  See a l s o ,  guises.  Caroline  and  her the  Jacqueline  t o " J i a d u o l i n Y i l u o " , as she  called.  " L e t t e r s That  Cannot  Be S e n t  Anywhere",  ("Wufa  T o u d i Z h i Y o u j i a n " ) Xu D i s h a n X u a n j i (1958) ( X i a ) pp. 155-158, i n w h i c h he c r i t i c i z e s 35.  Director abashed. qualms  a woman f o r h e r c a r e f r e e  F e i continues Jacqueline  being  h i s nefarious,  Yellow  escapes  the difficulties  lifestyle.  corrupt abroad,  of returning  life  un-  her  only  to  China  191 if  she were  Doctors  (holders  concerned, after but 36.  In as  38.  playing  "Chuntao";  doctorates)  Two  skim  of  the  through  rejects h i s fashionalbe  temporarily  game  she  Three  life  un-  girlfriend  required  of him,  upset. "The  i s She?",  Liberator";  "The  Merchant's  "The  Eyes  Wife"  and  are  just  Spider" e t c .  "Farewell",  This  foreigner.  the academic  "Who  Toiling  good"  a  "Mr. Dongye";  t h e La-w";  "The  of  the third  she i s only  of  37.  t o marry  Xu  as boys,  passage  tells  t o wonder  to  the current  that  "girls  p.113.  (p.73)  me  h i s wife  i s rather  i f i t s presence trend  unusual  was more  of exposure  f o r Xu,  t o pay  literature  leading  lip-service  than  anything  else. 39. 40. 41.  See t r a n s l a t i o n  and Lee  anthology."  comment  on  Ibid. Zhou and  Sisong  and  undergo  s a y i t was  Bian, Xu  and  Bian  anti-religious  Jialing  42.  i n Lau, Hsia  establishment  the anti-feudal  struggle  Minming  i n their  fight  f o r the freedom  popular  story  with  a  readers.  and  to  love  (Zhou  and  p.237).  Dishan,  Zumu" f i r s t reprinted Zhiqing) , Yiqiao  Y i j i  de  " Du  'Zhilan  published i n Xu  Zuopin",  Moli'  Yin'er  i n X i a o s h u o Yuebao  Dishan  "Qinqing  Yu  Yu  pp. 136-148. Aiqing  -  i n X i n Wenxue  de  15:5 (May  See  Mantan  Xiangqi  CT. Xu  Wodi 1924);  Hsia ( X i a  Dishan,  Chuantong,  Gu  (Taibei,  192 S h i b a o Wenhua C h u b a n S h i y e Y o u x i a n G o n g s i , ( 1 9 8 2 ) p p . 1 5 1 - 1 8 3 , for  a  for  Identity,  in  discussion  Xu's  of  takes  fiction  Kong  Shan L i n g  Yu  44.  Kong  Shan L i n g  Yu  45.  The most n o t i c e a b l e story-line  gives  a  Jialing scene  the problem  McOmber,  of family  and  individual  "Ailiu  Xizhang"  pp.117-120.  i n s t a n c e o f Xu's tendency t o i n "The  Mingming  description  of  an  B i r d " , where  instrument  as  of  lovers  the  few  when  the  interrupt  she  cite  references  on  the provenance of  ( S e e Xu D i s h a n X u a n j i p .34) . from h i s l a t e r 46.  "Thinking  47.  Ibid.  48.  "The  Toiling  Shangjie -  o f My  The  are alone  and  p.7.  (McOmber  Changsun  49.  "Chuntao", p.111.  50.  Yang  51.  "Chuntao", p.123.  52.  Lbid.,  Gang,  Preface,  p.124.  instrument.  Grandmother...", p.145.  i s traditional,  an a n g r y  the  intervenes  This scholar ' s habit disappears  The with  language used t o her  Kewang  p.11.  describe  "jade-white  p.156), her willow-leaf  peachy l i p s and d i s h e v e l l e d h a i r . of  by  work.  Spider",  shaped nose  used  he  dances.  t h e a t m o s p h e r e s n a p s l i k e a b r o k e n s t r i n g when Xu to  Search  of h i s t h e s i s .  accompanying Minming  i s one  The  pp.112-116.  comes  precise while  story.  as t h e m a j o r theme  43.  the  this  onion"  eyebrows,  S i m i l a r l y , the description  follows  tradition  (p.10).  193 53.  The p r o b l e m in  this  of sexual  story  precludes  since  "Chuntao",  55.  Ibid,  pp.131-132.  56.  Ibid,  p.137.  57.  Mao D u n , " L u n " , Ibid.  59.  There  L i Mao's  does  not really  physical  h i s assertion of marital  54.  58.  jealousy  state  arise  presumably  rights.  p.130.  p.142.  a r e no m a j o r  female  characters  a t a l l i n "Iron  Fish". 60.  T h e Woman (Xia)  Patriot  ( N u Guo S h i ) ,  pp.277-292.  (January  Shou), i b i d , pp.293-326. sary  Xu Dishan  1939);  (originally  e d i t i o n o f Yuzhou Feng magazine  Xuanji  (1958)  The A s s a s s i n  (Xiong  i n t h e 100th (1940).  61.  S e e X u ' s p o s t s c r i p t t o T h e Woman P a t r i o t p . 2 9 2 .  62.  She d r e s s e s places  she  dog's  i toutside  friends' of  up a  her front  loyalty.  i tand report i s able  carcase  When  a s a human  door  they  t h e apparent  anniver-  to test  refuse corpse  t o prove t o h e rhusband t h a t  corpse and  her husband' s  t o help  dispose  to the authorities they a r e worthless  friends. 63.  The A s s a s s i n , the  postscript,  p. 326.  One  hopes  not to  letter!  64.  J i nof Jinniang  65.  C.T. H s i a , rather  i sgold,  i nLau, Hsia  frustratingly  the Y i n of Yingu  i s silver.  and Lee, eds., Anthology,  (because he does n o t c i t e  suggests  h i s source  194 of  information)  mother,  that  "according  Yuguan  Robinson,  "'Yu-kuan'",  67.  See, f o r example, Egan's  68.  Wayne  University 69.  The  The  introduction Jade  Birrell,  71.  Ibid.  de  i n her  Press,  York,  Alfred  W o o l f , A Room,  73.  Ibid,  p.75.  74.  Ibid,  pp.44,  75.  Ibid,  p.60.  76.  De  77.  Ibid,  78.  Ibid.  Beauvoir,  of  Xu's  on Yu D a f u , p . 3 1 1 . Fiction,  1961) owes  (Chicago,  The  p.20. much  translation  of  t o Anne New  Birrell's  Songs  and Unwin,  From  A  1982).  p.14. Beauvoir,  relation  Sex,  72.  writing  to  A.  and  K n o p f , 1957)  male  literary  "woman i s d e f i n e d  man".  translated  on  Simone ed.  by  de  H.M.  exclu-  Beauvoir, Parshley,  p.143.  p.74.  49.  The  Second Sex,  p.185.  p.186.  79.  Taylor,  80.  I n an of  of  t o women, r e m a r k s t h a t  Second  (New  Songs,  Simone  sively  article  follows  her  portrait  research".(p.40).  (London, George A l l e n  New  attitudes  The  to  Terrace  70.  that  a  p.151.  Rhetoric  of Chicago  discussion  be  t o some r e c e n t  66.  Booth,  might  Masquerade,  article  captivity  introduction  on  p.3.  a variation  stories, of  a  of the pioneering  Annette  female  voice  Kolodny into  a  tradition  describes male  the  narrative.  195 She  suggests  this  to  the growing  new  importance  roving  while the Lens in and  placed  t h e male  The  dominant  women  double  Difference  status  A  quo  Feminist  ideas through the  Exercise  Abel,  The H a r v e s t e r  than  narrative  "Turning  i n Elizabeth  (U.K.,  and t h e  o f new  Kolodny,  Captivity':  Criticism",  expression  agriculture rather  Annette  'The P a n t h e r  Sexual  of pioneering  on s t a t i c  narrative.  Practical  to give  f o r the introduction  maintaining  on  able  and e x p l o r i n g .  allowed  major  was  acceptance  hunting  framework  voice  Writing  Press,  1982)  pp.159-175. 81.  In t h e L a u , Hsia one  82.  the 83.  device  by Beer,  i s only  Ling  Talk"  ("Xiangqu  Yu pp. 102-105  Xu  The Romance,  p.16  (Preface  (1877)). o f Women  The M a c M i l l a n  Fortress  have  between  Press  i n Narrative  Ltd,  Press,  similar  1975),  role,  Literature,  1981) pp.3-4.  i s elevated  i n order  suggests  being  t h e human a n d s o m e t h i n g  human draw  a  uses  hypocrisy.  Wesley  K o r t , N a r r a t i v e Elements and R e l i g i o u s Meanings  women  can  cited  May, C h a r a c t e r s  delphia,  the  I n "Mad  o f a madman t o e x p o s e  James,  (London,  Shan  there  Wife".  p.92.  i n Kong  The A m e r i c a n  Keith  A.  i n Goldman,  Kuangyan")  Henry to  84.  e x a m p l e - "The M e r c h a n t ' s  Foukkema di  and L e e , e d s . Anthology  "a p o i n t  more  and expanded  t o endure."  that  (p.45).  than  of human  o r from  (Phila-  Faulkner's transition by  which  which i t  196 85.  86.  John  Gardner,  Inc,  1978) p.34.  Jung, "The  cited  might  because that  process  work  would  Moral  has a  arises  from  that  f o r their  case  t h e anima  Elements,  feminine  animus,  and v i c e  Taylor,  Masquerade  88.  Coleridge  89.  Woolf,  cited  remains  p.181.  -  creative to  create  t o accept  Yang  concept  an i n t e r e s t i n g  A Room, p . 1 7 1 .  we  By e x t e n s i o n  I t i s hard  pp.4-5.  by Woolf,  and t h e  depths  or unable  position . 87.  p.65, wrote,  quality,  but the Y i nwithin  versa  Books,  are totally  an anima.  i s true,  Basic  t h e unconscious  e i t h e r ' women  t h e y do n o t have  either  (New Y o r k ,  t h e realm of t h e mothers."  seem  except  Fiction,  Kort , Narrative  s a y , from  beings  of  by  creative  creative  it  On  pro-  Footnotes t o the  1.  2.  3.  Frank  Kermode,  Press,  1967)  Elizabeth  Bowen,  "Rx  quoted  i n Trask  and  Susan  Sontag,  "On  Other  Essays,  pp.15-36.; 4.  Ibid.,  5.  Leo  Xu  "What  Ibid.,  8.  Oscar  Wilde,  (M.H.  Abrams,  York,  Oxford  a  Story  in  York,  Worth  the  Telling",  Storytellers,  Against  Dell  p.35.  Interpretation  Publishing  Co.,  1961).  A r t " , quoted  i n Gardner,  On  Moral  di  San  12:7  Bao  (1921)  he  Jianchang  pp.28-33;  di  Si  p.29.  p.29.  the  f o r one, The  believed  Mirror  Critical  I n c . , 1958;  and  Tradition first  a r t t o be the  (New  published  quite  Lamp:  Romantic  York,  W.W.  Oxford  useless. Theory  Norton  University  and  Press,  p.328.)  James and  Is  "Chuangzuo  7.  1953)  For  Style", (New  (New  p.31.  B u r k h a r t , eds.  i n Xiaoshuo Yuebao  Co.,  Ending,  p.26.  Dishan,  and  an  p.21.  Tolstoy,  Yi",  of  p.24.  Fiction,  9.  Sense  University  and  6.  The  Conclusion  Y.  L i u , Chinese  London,  Chapter  The  6 passim,  10.  Abrams, M i r r o r ,  11.  Ibid.,  p.330.  12.  Ibid.,  p.331.  Theories of  University pp.106-116.  pp.  326-335.  197  of  Literature,  Chicago  Press,  (Chicago 1975),  198 13.  Ibid.,  14.  Ibid.,  quoted  similar  t o Sontag's  and  quoted  p.332. p.332.  "On  Xu D i s h a n ,  16.  Abrams, M i r r o r ,  17.  Booth,  real  To  deal  may  be  18.  Northrop  subject  not  performing  a  sensibility  "moral"  task.  ( J i e f a n g z h e ) pp.1-2.  "...to that  about that  step  show  that  author's  h i s subjects are h i s artistic,  i s i n some  toward  an  writing  vital  success.  way  important  well ,  but i t  sufficient."  Frye,  "The  Road  of Excess",  i n Northrop  Frye,  K n i g h t and o t h e r s , Myth and Symbol: C r i t i c a l Approaches Applications,  "If  literature  injure  Ruthven,  itself",  (N.P.,  i f i t ceases  Myth,  A  i s didactic,  i t s own  archetype  20.  a  and  to  Art enlivens  are  p.329.  l i t t l e  necessary  integrity;  19.  very  with  certainly  L.C.  quoted  a r e s e r i o u s and  says  sentiments  p.25).  R h e t o r i c , p.386,  a  these  p r e f a c e t o The L i b e r a t o r ,  intentions or  that  thereby  Style",  15.  is  belief  consciousness,  (Sontag,  Essentially  Bison  Book,  i t tends  wholly  t o be  n.d.)  pp.3-20;  to injure  i t s own  didactic,  i t tends  seriousness." (p.14). citing  i s much  Fiedler,  more  "the signature  important  than  the  on  an  archetype  p.77.  S e a n O ' F a o l a i n , T h e S h o r t S t o r y , (New Y o r k , T h e D e v i n - A d a i r Company, 1951) p . 179. personal one  enjoys  "... t h e s h o r t s t o r y i s a n e m p h a t i c a l l y  exposition. i n a  short  What story  one i s a  searches special  f o r and  what  d i s t i l l a t i o n  199 of  p e r s o n a l i t y , a unique  and  selected  subjects,  at  once  i s of value  to  h i s alone  -  to  project himself."  a  22.  Kort,  Narrative  23.  Wallcutt,  Elements,  Man's  Changing  ideas  crises  are spots  choices  by which  Mao  25.  Pan up  Dun,  rather of  citing  Xu's s t y l e :  Masks, than  You  (profound,  (See  glossary).  other and  opportunity  p.57.  "Journey  characters fire  realizes  a l . , p. 11,  Dan  a l l  temperament  Kahler,  intellectual  character  et  recognized  above  h i s perfect  use  m o t i f s . . . tend because  rather  itself."  "Dao Y a n " , i n L e , e d . , Mao  Weicheng  has  (p.30).  The Romance, p . 5 3 .  24.  that,  h i s counterpart,  Beer,  dramatize  subject  which  to the writer's  21.  to  sensibility  than  26.  Beer,  The Romance, p . 2 6 .  27.  Mao  Dun,  "Dao Y a n " , p . 3 3 .  28.  Mao  Dun,  "Lun", p.139.  and  the  (p.129).  Dun L u n , p . 3 3 .  four  characters  ( l i g h t , s i m p l e ) , Pu ( u n a d o r n e d ,  unfathomable)  the  S u i (deep,  to  sum  plain),  profound).  Footnotes t o the biography 1.  The  details  for this provided  Xu  pp.233-44,  cited  will  be  listed  Ye Q i f a n g , Quan G a n g ,  3.  In  Wodi  the  Fourth  1893. 2,  Tongnian, of  he was  born  Xu's  and  come  Sisong  mainly and  from  Bian  pp.245-256.  the  Y i j i  Other  i n  sources  footnote.  eds., p.34.  p. 15,  The  Xu  states  1894.  Search  that  Other  he  was  were  of February  "Xu D i s h a n " , i n C h e n  born  biographers  for Identity,  calculations  on t h e T h i r d  L i n Guanghao,  Zhou  February,  McOmber,  believes  by  by  2.  4.  biography  chronology Dishan,  (Appendix One)  at  p.184,  fault  and  on give note  that  1894.  Y i n g x i a n g , ed., Minguo  Wenren, ( T a i b e i , T a i w a n , Changhe C h u b a n s h e , 1977 ) pp . 112-120, p.112. 5.  Yu  Hui ,  Zhongguo  "Taiwanshengi Zuojia  1976) pp.120-135; 6.  Wodi  7.  Cited  Tongnian,  Xuanlun,  (Hong  8.  Wodi  Tongnian,  9.  Ibid,  10.  Zhou  Kong,  i n , Xiandai  Haiyang  Wenyishe,  " H u a i x i a n g Xu  Dishan",  i n , Ziliaoj i,  p.22.  p.43.  p.41. and  Bian,  t h e age  of  p.247, 90  note  i n 1982  that and  province. Wodi  Dishan",  p.121.  i n S h i Sheng, I , pp.22-24,  11.  Xu  p.6.  Vol.  at  Zuojia  Tongnian,  p.41.  200  Xu  Shuwu was  living  still  i n Kunming,  alive Yunnan  201 12.  Shi, ibid,  13.  Chen  Jinbo,  describes Fanxin  (Xu Dishan yu Xianggang z h i G u a n x i ) ,  a  controversy  lived  studied in  p.22.  with  abroad.  1927.  trained  She  her  She  as a nurse.  without  was  p u b l i c i z e d by  claimed  t o be n u r s i n g happened  to live  to  Xu,  taught  but  and  with  Zhou and B i a n ,  15.  Ye Q i f a n g ,  16.  Zhou and B i a n ,  17.  Ibid,  18.  Pickowicz,  Marxist  19.  Ibid.  "Letters  Xu by  her father Hong  the  by  at the time  The q u e s t i o n  bombing  and  Kong  front.  disputed  Dishan  later  suddenly  This  event  someone she  was  o f what  who meant  actually  pp . 234 , 249-250 .  p.35. p.234.  p.234.  In  Dishan  Xuanji  Literary That  Thought Cannot  ( X i a ) pp.155-158,  destructive  to the goal  20.  Chen  p.4.  21.  Zhou and B i a n ,  22.  Extract  Jinbo,  Luo  from  i n China,  Be Xu  t h a t t h e concept o f ends j u s t i f y i n g  in,  while  fate.  open.  14.  Yin,  later  scarred  left  at  was  Fanxin  Fanxin's Shuwu  she  work  at the front.  remains  Xu  injured  I n 1938  warning  t o have  uncle  was  returned  and  surrounding  pp.50-56,  Sent  p.21.  Anywhere,  expresses  his  (Xu  belief  t h e means i s u l t i m a t e l y  of r e v o l u t i o n ,  (pp.156-7).  p.234 L i Huiying ,  Huasheng"  Z i l i a o j i V o l . 2,  (Hong p.12.  "Bing  X i n , Wang  Kong)  Wentan,  Tongzhao,  no.255  Lu  (1966),  202 23.  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