Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Family value portrayals in journal advertising, a comparison of North American and Tamil magazine advertisements Patnaik, Vineetha 1983

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 P37.pdf [ 7.84MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096379.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096379-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096379-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096379-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096379-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096379-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096379-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096379-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096379.ris

Full Text

FAMILY VALUE PORTRAYALS IN JOURNAL ADVERTISING A COMPARISON OP NORTH AMERICAN AND TAMIL MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS VINEETHA PATNAIK M.A., Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 1979 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Department of Anthropology and Sociology, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia) We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia November 1983 © Vineetha Patnaik, 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f ANTtf#0t°Ot- 0 GiV • The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The term ' c u l t u r e ' i s g e n e r a l l y used by a n t h r o p o l -o g i s t s t o d e s c r i b e t r a d i t i o n s i n a l i v e s o c i a l m i l i e u . However, the concept i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r domains such as a d v e r t i s i n g , a r t , c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y b o o k s and the l i k e . T h e r e f o r e , they too are e l i g i b l e f o r b e i n g q u a l i t a -t i v e l y a n a l y s e d and i n t e r p r e t e d f o r t h e i r c u l t u r a l and s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o demon-s t r a t e t h a t such an a p p l i c a t i o n t o a d v e r t i s i n g i s appro-p r i a t e , and t h a t i t can y i e l d i n t e r e s t i n g , i n s i g h t f u l r e s u l t s . For t h i s purpose, a comp a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of f a m i l y v a l u e p o r t r a y a l s i n N o r t h American and Ta m i l maga-z i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s has been u n d e r t a k e n . The d a t a f o r t h i s s tudy was drawn from the main d a t a base of the A d v e r t i s i n g A r c h i v e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The o r i g i n a l sample however was not used as i t s t o o d . Based on o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f f a m i l y and i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , two sub-samples were formed. O p e r a t i o n a l l y , a f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t was t h a t which t e x t u a l l y , v i s u a l l y or i n t o t a l d e p i c t e d a f a m i l y scene or a f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p based on o b j e c t i v e i n d i c e s l i k e the presence of wedding r i n g , c h i l d r e n , f a m i l y r i t u a l s and/or e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s i n the t e x t . An i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e -ment, on the o t h e r hand, was any a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t t e x t u a l l y , or v i s u a l l y , or i n t o t a l d e p i c t e d an i n d i v i d u a l , i i i other than i n the capacity of a f a m i l y member. The persons could be concerned about t h e i r own s e l f , wishing or t r y i n g to groom themselves, or making any other e x p l i c i t or symbo-l i c p o r t r a y a l of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Prom t h i s l i s t , one product was chosen f o r s e l e c t i v e study from each of the f o l l o w i n g product c a t e g o r i e s ; Domestic Durables, Domestic Consumables, Personal Consumables, Personal Care and Services. A product example was drawn from each of the decades 1905-1975 f o r the North American sample, and i n the case of the Tamil advertisements, from the nineteen seventies only. The e a r l i e r decades were used only for the purposes of background i n q u i r y . The i n depth a n a l y s i s was based only on the Personal Care and Services c l a s s advertisements of the seventies. Three expectations, gathered from w r i t t e n sources were set out at the beginning of the study. They were tha t : 1. The North American sample would contain more i n d i v i d u a l oriented advertisements whereas the Tamil sample would have a higher proportion of f a m i l y o r i e n t e d ones; 2. Extended f a m i l y p o r t r a y a l s would be minimal i n both samples, but that they would be e s p e c i a l l y rare i n the North American one; and i v 3- R o l e p o r t r a y a l s i n b o t h samples would be s i m i l a r . Man would be t h e economic p r o v i d e r and woman, a homemaker, shown as engaged i n d o m e s t i c work and c h i l d c a r e . The o b s e r v a t i o n s g a t h e r e d were v e r y s u p p o r t i v e o f e x p e c t a t i o n ( 1 ) . T h i s was l a t e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e u s e o f C h i - s q u a r e t e s t i n g . As r e g a r d s e x p e c t a t i o n ( 2 ) , t h e ex t e n d e d f a m i l y p o r t r a y a l s were so few i n b o t h samples t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t be compared s t a t i s t i c a l l y . E x p e c t a t i o n ( 3 ) , was a l s o c o n f i r m e d , a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e emphases a c c o r d e d sex r o l e s were d e t e c t e d between t h e two c u l t u r e s c o n c e r n e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s how a d v e r t i s e m e n t s do, i n f a c t , p r o v i d e a r i c h s o u r c e o f c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . However, i t i s c a u t i o n e d t h a t c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o u r d e p i c t e d seems t o be t h e e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r ; i t need not be a c t u a l o r e m p i r i c a l l y n o r m a t i v e . A l s o , t h e d a t a u s e d was drawn from a l i m i t e d c a t e g o r y o f j o u r n a l s , namely, f a m i l y and women's t y p e m a g a z i n e s . V TABLE OP CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OP CONTENTS v LIST OP TABLES v i i LIST OF GRAPHS v i i i LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i i i I . INTRODUCTION 1 A d v e r t i s i n g - A Value Communication 1 E x p e c t a t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g t h e E x p l o r a t i o n 3 Data and Methodology 7 I I . THE VISUALS 12 A G e n e r a l I n q u i r y 15 Baby Pood 18 Shampoo 23 In s u r a n c e 26 De t e r g e n t 32 An I n Depth I n q u i r y 33 F a m i l y A d v e r t i s e m e n t s - B o t h Samples 33 N o r t h American I n s u r a n c e A d v e r t i s e m e n t s 38 T a m i l I n s u r a n c e A d v e r t i s e m e n t s 39 R o l e P o r t r a y a l o f Woman 41 Shampoo 44 P e r s o n a l Care P r o d u c t s 44 I I I . THE TEXT 59 Baby Pood 60 Shampoo 64 I n s u r a n c e 68 v i Page P o r t r a y a l of Woman 74 The 1 975 M a t e r i a l : Cosmetics 76 Shampoo 87 • Detergent 87 P e r s o n a l Care 89 IV. ROLE AND AGE PORTRAYALS 102 C h i l d Care 104 Domestic S e r v i c e 106 C a r i n g f o r the ' S e l f 108 Man: The F i s c a l Head 110 Man: Occupant o f Important P o s i t i o n s 111 P o r t r a y a l s o f C h i l d r e n 112 P e r s o n a l Care v e r s u s F a m i l y Care 113 Emotions v e r s u s Sense E x p e r i e n c e s 116 Woman's Employment 119 The 1 975 Samples 121 The T a m i l Cosmetics 126 V. CONCLUSION 131 E x p e c t a t i o n : 1 133 a) Baby Pood 1 33 b) Shampoo 135 c) Insurance 136 d) P e r s o n a l Care Items 137 E x p e c t a t i o n : 2 140 E x p e c t a t i o n : 3 141 APPENDIX 1.1: Sampling P l a n of the Main Data Base .. 148 APPENDIX 1.2: B a s i c s of P r o d u c t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 150 APPENDIX 2.1: Product L i s t i n g s o f the No r t h American and T a m i l Samples of the S e v e n t i e s ... 152 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 53 v i i LIST OP TABLES T a b l e Page 1 F a m i l y and I n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l samples 17 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t s f o r p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s - Decade w i s e 19 3 Number o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n v a r i o u s p r o d u c t c l a s s e s f r o m t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s amples o f t h e s e v e n t i e s 20 4 A d v e r t i s e m e n t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l samples o f t h e s e v e n t i e s : t h e sample f o r i n d e p t h a n a l y s i s ( i n a b s o l u t e numbers) 36 v i i i L I S T OF GRAPHS G r a p h Page 1 H i s t o g r a m s s h o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f F a m i l y and I n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s 17 2.1 H i s t o g r a m s s h o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f P e r s o n a l C a r e p r o d u c t c l a s s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l samples 3 4 2.2 H i s t o g r a m s s h o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f S e r v i c e s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s 3 5 i x LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS I l l u s t r a t i o n Page 1. I n s u r a n c e A d v e r t i s e m e n t 1 .1 N o r t h American 1.1.1 ' I am i n good hands' 14 1.1.2 S t a t e Farm 'Money Tree' 29 1.1.3 ' S a f e t y Lock' 30 1.1.4 'Man c o n t r o l l i n g the h u l l ' 31 1.1.5 P r u d e n t i a l I n s u r a n c e 43 1.1.6 C l o s e n e s s s y m b o l i s e d 40 1.1.7 S m a l l boy's i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y 69 1.1.8 'F a m i l y ' s independence' 71 1.1.9 'How much i n s u r a n c e i s enough?' 73 1.1.10 Save f o r t h e ' g r e a t e s t s t u d e n t o f them a l l ' 114 1 .2 T a m i l 1.2.1 L i f e I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n 42 1.2.2 'Innocent mind. Should i t worry i n f u t u r e ? ' 83 1.2.3 'I am p a y i n g h i s f e e s from now on' .. 85 1.2.4 Bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t 86 2. Baby Food A d v e r t i s e m e n t s 2.1 N o r t h American 2.1.1 'Most p a r t i c u l a r baby' 22 2.1.2 ' H i - D i d d l e d i a p e r s ' 62 2.1.3 'Babies a re our b u s i n e s s ' 63 X I l l u s t r a t i o n Page 2.1.4 'Mother c o l l e c t s h i n t s about baby c a r e ' 105 2.1.5 'Mother and baby l o o k f o r w a r d to f e e d i n g time' 107 2.2 T a m i l 2.2.1 'Feeding - a f a m i l y a f f a i r ' - T a m i l baby food a d v e r t i s e m e n t 24 3• Shampoo A d v e r t i s e m e n t s 3.1 N o r t h American 3-1.1 'Shampoo makes you glamorous' 27 3.1.2 'Shampoo t h a t b a b i e s your h a i r ' 45 3.1.3 'Shampoo t h a t s i l k e n s and s o f t e n s h a i r 66 3.1.4 'A well-groomed appearance from shampooing 67 3.2 T a m i l 3- 2.1 N i c e f a m i l y imagery i n a T a m i l shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t 25 4. P e r s o n a l Care P r o d u c t s 4.1 N o r t h American 4- 1.1 'I am a mother of two' - c o s m e t i c company a d v e r t i s e m e n t 37 4.1.2 'Woman who pampers her body' - s k i n l o t i o n 46 4.1.3 ' P r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s ' - A d v e r t i s e m e n t of a s k i n and h a i r p r o t e c t i o n agent 47 4.1.4 ' S h a r i n g of s e n s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s ' -A d v e r t i s e m e n t of a m o i s t u r i z e r 48 x i I l l u s t r a t i o n Page 4.1.5 'Closeness from a denture c l e a n s e r ' -P o l i d e n t t a b l e t s 52 4-1.6 A s p i r i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t 57 4.1.7 'Product belongs t o the f a t h e r ' s h e a r t ' - a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f an a f t e r shave .... 78 4-1.8 'A grandmother who gained a g i r l i s h f i g u r e ' - A d v e r t i s e m e n t o f d i e t p l a n . 79 4.1-9 'Everyone i s a l o t h a p p i e r w i t h me' -A d v e r t i s e m e n t of d i e t p l a n 80 4-1.10 'Is m i r r o r your enemy?' - Beauty o i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t 90 4-1.11 'Greatness to men through a cologne' -A cologne a d v e r t i s e m e n t 92 4.1.12 'Save your s m i l e ' - A dent u r e c l e a n s e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t 94 4.1-13 'Give him a moving e x p e r i e n c e ' -A cologne a d v e r t i s e m e n t 120 4.1.14 A d v e r t i s e m e n t of a bust d e v e l o p e r .... 124 4.2 T a m i l 4-2.1 'Mother's l o v e through a h a i r l o t i o n . 50 4-2.2 ' C a v i t y f i g h t i n g f a m i l y guard' -Toothpaste a d v e r t i s e m e n t 51 4.2.3 'Warmth o f mother's l o v e ' - A p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t 53 4 . 2 . 4 'Por the e n t i r e f a m i l y - A v i t a m i n t o n i c ' 55 4.2.5 ' C h i l d ' s s a f e t y i n your hands' - A v a c c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t 56 4.2.6 ' T r a d i t i o n a l l y used m e d i c i n e ' - A p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t 95 4.2.7 ' I t s h o u l d be t h e r e i n every f a m i l y ' -A p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t 96 x i i I l l u s t r a t i o n Page 4-2.8 'For the f a m i l y ? - P a i n "balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t 97 4.2.9 ' P h a r m a c e u t i c a l s a f e g u a r d w i t h l o v e ' -A v a c c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t 99 4-2.10 'Woman, t a k e c a r e y o u r s e l f - A v i t a m i n t o n i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t 117 4-2.11 Hot pack a d v e r t i s e m e n t 118 4-2.12 'Man as n a t i o n "b u i l d e r ' 123 4-2.13 'For f a i r and l o v e l y s k i n ' 127 4-2.14 'Se c r e t t h a t makes you loo k young' ... 129 5. De t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s 5.1 N o r t h American 5.1.1 'Clean wash t o p l e a s e husbands?' 75 5.1.2 Woman's r o l e p o r t r a y a l i n a d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t 88 5.1.3 'You w i l l be proud e v e r y t i m e you hang out a wash' - d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t 109 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o e x p r e s s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a l l t h o s e who have i n s p i r e d , a d v i s e d and a s s i s t e d i n the pr o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e t o extend s p e c i a l thanks t o P r o f e s s o r Brenda E.P. Beck, C h a i r -p erson o f t h e A d v i s o r y Committee f o r her guidance and com-ments d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . S p e c i a l thanks are a l s o extended t o o t h e r members o f t h e A d v i s o r y Committee P r o f e s s o r s E l v i W h i t t a k e r and R i c h a r d W. P o l l a y f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s and a s s i s t a n c e . I s p e c i a l l y acknowledge P r o f e s s o r s P o l l a y and Beck f o r p e r m i t t i n g me t o use m a t e r i a l from a p r o j e c t of the H i s t o r y o f A d v e r t i s i n g A r c h i v e s and a l s o f o r employing me as a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t i n the p r o j e c t . My thank s a re a l s o due t o P r o f e s s o r R.A. F r e e z e , A s s o c i a t e Dean, F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s , Mr. Byron H. Hender, D i r e c t o r o f Awards, P r o f e s s o r s D a vid P. A b e r l e and K a t h l e e n Gough A b e r l e , Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and Dr. A l l a n B r a i n , Department o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y f o r making a v a i l a b l e a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g s at v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f my r e s e a r c h . To t h e A b e r l e s , I owe a s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r k i n d encouragement and support i n my academic endeavour. Among my many f r i e n d s and w e l l w i s h e r s , I e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Jayaram I y e r , N i k h i l Chandra Behera, V i d y a x i v N a d k a r n i , Dr. Kamalamma P i l l a i , K a v i t h a P i l l a i and B i p i n Kumar P i l l a i f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l h e l p and a s s i s t a n c e . My i n d e b t e d n e s s t o my p a r e n t s K. N a r a y a n a Menon and B h a d r a N. Menon f o r t h e i r l o n g s t a n d i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e -ment i n my e f f o r t s c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d i n words. F i n a l l y , I acknowledge t h e g e n e r o u s and c r i t i c a l , y e t h e l p f u l , comments o f my husband S i v a n a n d a P a t n a i k a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h i s work. W i t h o u t h i s encouragement and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h i s t h e s i s would n e v e r have been c o m p l e t e d . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n f a m i l y v a l u e s dates back a v e r y l o n g time and t h e r e has been no p a u c i t y of c r o s s -c u l t u r a l , c o m p a r a t i v e f a m i l y s t u d i e s . These have been based on p r i m a r y and on secondary d a t a - f i e l d work, and c o n t e n t a n a l y s e s o f p l a y s , n o v e l s , movies and a r t t o men-t i o n a few. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , however, have n e g l e c t e d the domain o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w h i l e s t u d y i n g f a m i l y and o t h e r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h v a l u e s form a v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g . T h i s t h e s i s t r e a t s t h e j o u r n a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t as a c a r r i e r of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s t o i t s v i e w i n g a u d i e n c e . I t w i l l l o o k at v a l u e p r o f i l e s i n adver-t i s i n g from an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A d v e r t i s i n g - A V a l u e Communication In t h i s s t u d y , a d v e r t i s i n g i s seen as a form of communication. The p r o d u c t s of a d v e r t i s i n g are a t t r i b u t e d w i t h s y m b o l i c meanings the a d v e r t i s e r b e l i e v e s w i l l be m e a n i n g f u l t o persons i n the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g he wishes t o a d d r e s s . These v a l u e s are then t r a n s f e r r e d t o the a d v e r t i s e d i t e m . T h i s t r a n s f e r of v a l u e s t o a product i s t h e c r u x o f the t e c h n i q u e s the a d v e r t i s e r uses t o s e l l a s p e c i f i c s e t of merchandise. He l i t e r a l l y d e f i n e s the 2 s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p r o d u c t and t r i e s t o imbue i t w i t h p o p u l a r v a l u e s . The term " v a l u e " c o u l d be d e f i n e d i n Kluckhohn's terms as "a s e l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n towards e x p e r i e n c e , i m p l y i n g deep commitment or r e p u d i a t i o n , which i n f l u e n c e s t h e o r d e r i n g o f ' c h o i c e s ' between p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s i n a c t i o n " ( Kluckhohn; 1961: 1 8 ) . Thus, the d e s i r e t o pur-chase as w e l l as t h e a c t o f p u r c h a s i n g are m o t i v a t e d by or d e r i v e d from s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . T h e r e f o r e , a s u c c e s s -f u l a d v e r t i s e r t r a n s f e r s t h o s e v a l u e s t o t h e a d v e r t i s e d p r o d u c t . Of c o u r s e , the a d v e r t i s i n g communication i s not the " d i t t o " o f a f a c e - t o - f a c e d i a l o g u e between two or more per s o n s . The communication i s o f t e n s y m b o l i c r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t . The p r o d u c t a d v e r t i s e d o f t e n becomes a symbol of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s which would a p p e a l t o p o t e n t i a l consumers. These symbols become p a r t of the messages sent t h r o u g h a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o p o t e n t i a l consumers or " t a r g e t r e c e i v e r s " . The term t a r g e t r e c e i v e r c o u l d c r e a t e the m i s t a k e n n o t i o n o f b e i n g a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l chosen by t h e a d v e r t i s e r t o r e c e i v e the communication and hence needs d e f i n i n g . Here, by the term " t a r g e t r e c e i v e r " i s meant not a r e a l p e r s o n but an i d e a l t y p i c a l image of an i n d i v i d u a l who i s thought t o v a l u e c u l t u r a l l y expected norms and b e h a v i o u r . I n o t h e r w o r d s J a t a r g e t r e c e i v e r w i l l , i t i s hoped, t h i n k and a c t i n a c u l t u r a l l y approved manner. 3 G r a n t e d t h e above, t h i s s t u d y p r o p o s e s t h a t a d v e r -t i s e m e n t s aimed a t two d i f f e r e n t t a r g e t r e c e i v e r s b e l o n g i n g t o two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r frame and c o n t e n t . T h i s happens b e c a u s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e f l e c t t h e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e a t w h i c h t h e y a r e aimed. Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f p r o f i l e s r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y v a l u e s i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s : N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l . E x p e c t a t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g t h e E x p l o r a t i o n As e a r l y as t h e 1 9 3 0 s , p e r h a p s even e a r l i e r , t h e r e has been a c o n c e r n o v e r d i s i n t e g r a t i n g f a m i l y and b r o k e n homes i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n a s t u d y on t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n f a m i l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 1 , t h e a u t h o r remarks about e d u c a t i o n w h i c h has become t h e dominant f o r c e i n modern A m e r i c a n l i f e . " . . . . I n e d u c a t i o n , t h e f a m i l y and t h e s c h o o l e x i s t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . . . The p r e s e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , o f e d u c a t i o n , as t h e most p o t e n t o f s o c i a l f o r c e s , has r e s u l t e d i n t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and i n t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . . . . " (Thwing, 1 9 3 1 : 4 7 ) In a d d i t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n , he m e n t i o n s o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t b r o u g h t i n d i v i d u a l i s m t o p r o m i n e n c e a t t h e c o s t o f , a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y , t h e f a m i l y (Thwing, 1 9 3 1 : 4 7 - 5 2 ) . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s on t h e A m e r i c a n f a m i l y e x p r e s s more or l e s s s i m i l a r v i e w s . N i m k o f f r e m a r k s : 4 " I f we ask what i t i s t h a t g i v e s d i s t i n c t i o n or u n i queness t o t h e American f a m i l y , a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the answer can be g i v e n i n terms of one o f the dominant c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of American s o c i e t y namely, freedom... The a c c e n t on happiness i n m a r r i a g e i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n American s o c i e t y . I n d i v i d u a l i s m i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the American c r e e d o f f r e e -dom, freedom of t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o d e v e l o p h i s own t a s t e s , and t o l i v e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own p l a n . The h a p p i n e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l , more th a n the w e l f a r e o f the group, i s t h e c o n t r o l l i n g c o n s i -d e r a t i o n . The f a m i l y i s s a i d t o e x i s t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , not t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r the f a m i l y . What m a t t e r s most i s the development of the i n d i v i d u a l , sometimes at t h e expense o f group and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t . " ( N i m k o f f , 1965: 330) I n c o n t r a s t , s t u d i e s o f t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y emphasize c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y , r o l e s and a person's p l a c e v i s - a - v i s t h e l a r g e r I n d i a n s o c i e t y . The i n d i v i d u a l members of the I n d i a n f a m i l y f e e l a sense of b e l o n g i n g t o t h e i r f a m i l y as an i n s t i t u t i o n and e n t e r t a i n a c o n c e r n f o r i t s p e r p e t u a -t i o n ; t h e y p r e f e r t o s a t i s f y t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f t h e f a m i l y ; t h e y adhere t o f a m i l y norms and c o n v e n t i o n s , and they attempt t o c o - o p e r a t e i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n s (Gore, 1965; Roy 1975, and many o t h e r s ) . These g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the I n d i a n f a m i l y are e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e N o r t h and t h e South. Here the T a m i l case has been t a k e n up as a South I n d i a n r e g i o n a l example. S t u d i e s by Gore (1968), Ross (1967), Goody (1970), K a p a d i a (1966), among many o t h e r s show t h a t t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y system i s r e p l a c i n g the extended type of f a m i l y as a 5 r e s u l t o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c change, n o n e t h e l e s s t h e f a m i l y and n o t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s s t i l l t h e e s s e n t i a l f o c u s o f v a l u e s i n I n d i a n l i f e . S o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s have a f f e c t e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y s y s t e m b u t not t h e s o c i a l v a l u e o f t h e f a m i l y . R o o t e d i n s u c h l i t e r a r y i n f o r m a t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s sampled w i l l be more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d whereas t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n ones w i l l c o n t a i n a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i e n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . D e p i c t i o n s o f t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y i n I n d i a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w i l l a l s o be m i n i m a l , i t i s assumed, b e c a u s e o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e x t e n d e d f a m i l y s y s t e m now o c c u r r i n g . Where s u c h p o r t r a y a l s a r e p r e s e n t , one would e x p e c t them t o l i n k t o c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c s o c i a l r o l e s , s u c h as t h a t o f b e i n g a g r a n d m o t h e r . I n c o n t r a s t , N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w i l l c e r t a i n l y n o t c o n t a i n many p o r t r a y a l s o f t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y . When, i f a t a l l , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s do a p p e a r , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e s e w i l l be i m p e r s o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a g r a n d m o t h e r may be p r e s e n t e d as o f f e r i n g h e r c u l i n a r y e x p e r t i s e t o a h o u s e w i f e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , o r a husband may be shown t o remember h i s m o t h e r ' s c o o k i n g . S i m i l a r l y , o l d p a r e n t s m i g h t be d e p i c t e d as v i s i t i n g t h e i r s o n ' s n u c l e a r f a m i l y on a s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n , p e r h a p s even h a v i n g d i n n e r w i t h them. But a p o r t r a y a l o f d a y - t o - d a y c h i l d c a r e by 6 g r a n d p a r e n t s , a more c e n t r a l r o l e , i s e x p e c t e d t o "be a b s e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n f a m i l y e m p h a s i z e s e g a l i t a r i a n i s m w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y , i t i s n o t e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be many p o r t r a y a l s o f men i n h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s . As Gore (1965) and N i m k o f f (1965) have w r i t t e n , t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n male r o l e as t h e economic p r o v i d e r i s emph a s i z e d most o f t e n . A l s o , a l t h o u g h a g r a d u a l i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n l i f e has p r o v i d e d women w i t h g r e a t e r f reedom, a u t h o r i t y p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y have not undergone many c h a n g e s . As N i m k o f f w r i t e s : "When we c o n s i d e r how t h e money income i s managed, we n o t e t h a t t h e male head i s u s u a l l y t h e f i s c a l a g e n t i n t h e A m e r i c a n f a m i l y . . . In th e m i d d l e c l a s s , t h e husband i s t h e c h i e f manager o f t h e f a m i l y income, t h e w i f e i s t h e c h i e f p u r c h a s i n g a g e n t . She does t h e e v e r y day b u y i n g o f f o o d and c l o t h i n g . She does most o f t h e housework." (1 965: 334) T h i s i s t h e same p a t t e r n o f d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y as i n I n d i a . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f economic r o l e s , t h e T a m i l and t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n f a m i l y i n a d v e r t i s i n g a r e e x p e c t e d t o be s i m i l a r . The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s t h e d a t a samples on w h i c h t h i s s t u d y r e s t s , and t h e g e n e r a l t e c h n i q u e o f a n a l y s i s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l examine r o l e p o r t r a y a l s i n t h e s e two b o d i e s o f m a t e r i a l t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e t h r e e e x p e c t a t i o n s summarised b e l o w a r e t r u e or f a l s e : 7 ( i ) The N o r t h American sample w i l l have more i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s than family-o r i e n t e d ones, whereas th e T a m i l sample w i l l c o n t a i n more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a n i n d i v i d u a l ones; ( i i ) Extended f a m i l y p o r t r a y a l s w i l l be m i n i m a l i n b o t h samples, but most so i n t h e N o r t h American one; and ( i i i ) R o l e p o r t r a y a l s and male-female a u t h o r i t y p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y w i l l be v e r y s i m i l a r i n b o t h samples: t h e man w i l l be p o r t r a y e d as the economic p r o v i d e r and woman as a homemaker engaged i n household chores and c h i l d c a r e . Data and Methodology Both the N o r t h American and T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t samples f o r t h i s c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y have been drawn from the main d a t a base of the H i s t o r y of A d v e r t i s i n g A r c h i v e s ( U.B.C: 1981). The s a m p l i n g p l a n used on t h i s main d a t a base has been d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 1 . Prom t h i s main sample, two new sub-samples f o r t h e N o r t h American and t h e T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were formed. These were s t r u c t u r e d so as t o c o n t a i n : ' f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ' , ' i n d i v i d u a l a d ver-t i s e m e n t s ' , and 'other a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ' . Such an o r d e r i n g was based on t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . 8 O p e r a t i o n a l l y , a ' f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t ' i s t h a t a d v e r t i s e m e n t w h i c h t e x t u a l l y , v i s u a l l y , or i n t o t a l d e p i c t s a f a m i l y s c e n e , o r a f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p b a s e d on o b j e c t i v e i n d i c e s l i k e t h e p r e s e n c e o f a wedding r i n g , c h i l d r e n , f a m i l y r i t u a l s and c h o r e s , or e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e t e x t s . An ' i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t ' , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s any a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t t e x t u a l l y o r v i s u a l l y or i n t o t a l , p o r t r a y s an i n d i v i d u a l o t h e r t h a n i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y as a f a m i l y member. Such a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w i l l show p e r s o n s as c o n c e r n e d about t h e i r own s e l f , w i s h i n g or t r y i n g t o groom o r b e a u t i f y t h e m s e l v e s , or any e x p l i c i t o r s y m b o l i c p o r t r a y a l o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . A l l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t do not q u a l i f y f o r e i t h e r g r o u p a r e t o be lumped t o g e t h e r under t h e l a b e l ' o t h e r ' . A l l t h e two t h o u s a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a v a i l a b l e , and a l l t h e two h u n d r e d and f i f t y T a m i l a d v e r -t i s e m e n t s , were s o r t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e above t h r e e a d v e r t i s e m e n t c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s g e n e r a l sample t h e n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y s e d t o o b t a i n an i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r e d i n t h e two s a m p l e s . T h i s s t a t i s t i c a l s u r v e y s u p p o r t s our main e x p e c t a t i o n : t h e T a m i l sample i n d e e d has more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a n i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample has more i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d ones t h a n f a m i l y o r i e n t e d ones. As a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p , a sub-9 sample was drawn from t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample. T h i s i n v o l v e d t a k i n g one p r o d u c t e a c h f r o m each p r o d u c t c l a s s i n t h e main d a t a b a s e t o i l l u s t r a t e D o m e s t i c D u r a b l e s , D o m e s t i c Consumables, P e r s o n a l Consumables, P e r s o n a l C a r e and S e r v i c e s . A s i m i l a r s e t o f p r o d u c t s f o r 1970 a l o n e were t a k e n from t h e T a m i l sample ( A p p e n d i x 1 . 2 p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ) . The s p e c i f i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s s e l e c t e d were f o r a u t o m o b i l e s , baby f o o d , c i g a r e t t e s , d e t e r g e n t , i n s u r a n c e and shampoo. Of t h e s e , a u t o m o b i l e s and c i g a r e t t e s were not p r e s e n t a t a l l i n t h e T a m i l sample and hence, t h e y were not a n a l y s e d . A l l o t h e r p r o d u c t s formed t h e b a s e f o r t h i s b a c k g r o u n d i n q u i r y . In c o n t r a s t , o n l y t h e s u b - s e t o f a l l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f r o m 1 9 7 0 s w i t h t h i s l a r g e r g r o u p i n g was us e d f o r i n d e p t h s t u d y . Prom t h i s s u b - s a m p l e , t h e p r o d u c t c l a s s e s P e r s o n a l Care and S e r v i c e s were t a k e n up f o r e s p e c i a l l y d e t a i l e d s t u d y . (A l i s t i n g o f p r o d u c t s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s e v a r i o u s s u b - g r o u p i n g s i s p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x 3)• S t a t i s t i c a l i n q u i r y a l o n e does n o t l e n d much meaning t o a s t u d y t h a t l o o k s a t v a l u e p r o f i l e s . So a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t was i n o r d e r . In t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s , t h e v i s u a l m a t e r i a l as w e l l as t h e t e x t o f an a d v e r t i s e m e n t m e r i t e d e q u a l and s e p a r a t e a t t e n t i o n . Sometimes t h e v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n was aimed a t a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f p o t e n t i a l consumer i n t e r e s t and t h e 10 t e x t aimed a t a n o t h e r . Por i n s t a n c e , i n one i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t from t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, t h e v i s u a l image was t h a t o f a f a m i l y and h e n c e , t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t q u a l i f i e d as a f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t . But c o n s i d e r t h e t e x t ! A l o o k a t t h e c a p t i o n i t s e l f r e v e a l s an e q u a l e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on f a m i l y " i n d e p e n d e n c e " . Prom t h e T a m i l sample t o o , t h e r e a r e c a s e s where more t h a n one v a l u e a p p e a r s i n t h e t e x t and i n t h e v i s u a l s , sometimes o p p o s i n g ones. Hence, t h e v i s u a l s and t h e t e x t m e r i t s e p a r a t e and d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s w h i c h f o l l o w s i s o r g a n i s e d i n t o t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s : 1. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t h e two s a m p l e s . 2. A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t e x t u a l messages i n b o t h s a m p l e s . 3. An i n q u i r y i n t o t h e r o l e and age p o r t r a y a l s i n t h e v i s u a l s as w e l l as i n t h e t e x t . These a n a l y s e s w i l l e x p l o r e t h e v a l u e messages, t h e p a r t i c u l a r frame o f r e f e r e n c e u s e d , f o r i n s t a n c e t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y v e r s u s n u c l e a r - s u b - n u c l e a r f r a m e s o f r e f e r e n c e , i n d i v i d u a l f r a m e s o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , and v a r i o u s r o l e d e p i c t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , t h e major f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y and t h e q u e r i e s a r i s i n g out o f t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n a r e summarized. Here a g a i n , i t i s emphasized 11 t h a t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e n o t m e r e l y i n f o r m a t i v e ; t h e y a l s o s e r v e as c o m m u n i c a t o r s o f b a s i c v a l u e f r a m e s . These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t s r e f l e c t t h e g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e and t h e p a r t i c u l a r w o r l d v i e w s . The main i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e term " c u l t u r e " i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o domains o t h e r t h a n t h e l i v e s o c i a l m i l i e u , l i k e a d v e r t i s i n g , a r t , s t o r y books e t c . and t h a t s u c h a s t u d y c a n b r i n g about i n t e r e s t i n g and i n s i g h t f u l r e s u l t s . 12 CHAPTER I I THE VISUALS " S u c c e s s f u l p e r s u a s i o n through a d v e r t i s i n g c o n s i s t s o f f a r more t h a n d o i n g c l e v e r t r i c k s w i t h words. The consumer has developed a p r o t e c t i v e husk a g a i n s t mere word c l a i m s . . . But o t h e r k i n d s of symbols such as those i n i l l u s t r a t i o n communicate images so much f a s t e r w i t h f a r l e s s r e s i s t a n c e , w i t h much g r e a t e r p e r s u a s i v e n e s s . The v i s u a l symbols are not j u s t a support f o r word c l a i m s . They can c o n t r i b u t e meanings and a s s o c i a t i o n s e n t i r e l y a p a r t and of much g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . " ( P i e r r e M a r t i n e a u 1957: 13) Si n c e the above comment was made two decades ago, t h e r e have been s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a d v e r t i s i n g t h e o r y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n the t e c h n i q u e s used. The artwor k o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , n o r m a l l y t h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n of an adver-t i s e m e n t t o c a t c h the eyes o f p r o s p e c t i v e consumers, i s much emphasized now, so much so t h a t i n 1964 McLuhan was l e d t o comment: " S i n c e the advent of p i c t u r e s , the job of body copy i s as i n c i d e n t a l and l a t e n t as t h e meaning of a poem i s t o a poem, or the words of a song i s t o a song." (1964: 205) Having t h u s a t t a i n e d such s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o n v e y i n g messages t o p o t e n t i a l consumers, symbols c o n t a i n e d i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s m e r i t the t a s k o f the v i s u a l s p e c i a l and 13 e l a b o r a t e examination. T h i s chapter w i l l examine the v i s u a l content of North American and Tamil advertisements as words need not n e c e s s a r i l y be employed to provide c u l t u r a l l y meaningful a t t r i b u t e s to a product that i s being a d v e r t i s e d . Very o f t e n , powerful v i s u a l images are capable of c r e a t i n g an aura around a product of i t s w a n t - s a t i a t i n g c a p a c i t y . For i n s t a n c e , see the l i f e insurance a d v e r t i s e -ment which bears the v i s u a l o f a happy f a m i l y - a man with a woman h o l d i n g on to him from one s i d e and c a r r y i n g a boy on h i s shoulder; the woman, c l e a r l y h i s wife, i s h o l d i n g a teddy bear, and the boy, i d e n t i f i a b l y h i s son, i s wearing a T - s h i r t t h a t reads: 'I am i n goods hands'. The couple appears to be walking on beach water ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.1). From t h i s v i s u a l image, the reader gets the impres-s i o n that both the teddy bear and the c h i l d are t o t a l l y devoid of any w o r l d l y a n x i e t i e s as they t r u s t that they are safe " i n good hands" and the woman h o l d i n g on to the man appears to f e e l t h at she would not be swept o f f i n any r i s i n g , unexpected t i d e . Together, the f a m i l y appears to f e e l c o n f i d e n t t h a t they are i n the good hands of the p a r t i c u l a r insurance company b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d . The man 'shoulders' h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y without a n x i e t y or f e a r and i s c h e e r f u l . A l l t h i s i s , i m p l i c i t l y , thanks to the insurance company. T h i s advertisement without any e x p l i c i t t e x t u a l message to accompany i t , d e f i n i t e l y conveys a sense dJOJflTV* oo ecru i s - o n n e v e r h a v e t o w o i r y a b o u t ^ l i f e i n s u r a n c e a g a i n . ^ laatf-aadal K a n Tockaf mmkv mm. j . ' Tatfnfrai <tarti««• rou know ahaat jour Me I ueda • thU i W l ) diuifs. Sa. I * rou'n emart. 700*8 «Urt a We law n u a procru that e n chanfe. to*. , r w ramfly P i n Porliajr « • » ' Hat a r | yoa cn a bodfat. Tat _.• bar enough to c m yon. j ajnaaa,-. r. ana foot drikbaa until M & . / And future eafldno—U day*' ~ , aflar arriTal—ax do otra era*. - -J_ Oaaft nap than. Bay a Tatar* Purduao Prml«t» that pariodfcaOr. " eatitlai job to buy othor kmda of pennaoaat Hfe tnvuraoee without uotfacr phyateaL Or add aa AdVUtioaal Accidental Doth Benefit to tha oaa in the b a k pUa. Or bar a PuaQr . J Idcoom iTaaraw Basest that proTidai a (oaraatead monthly bMoma* for your family to a aparilWal data. «art at- Yob pay aaa>. Soayoar l  aarar b a n / i n s t a t e You're in good hand*. a»w«tT» - iVs r ~ S RSl^Ti fcjj. > i< I l l u a t r a t i o n 1 . 1 . 1 'I am in good hands' 15 o f a s s o c i a t i o n between t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s and s e c u r i t y i n i n s u r a n c e and the c u l t u r a l i d e a l s of a p a r e n t ' s r e s p o n s i b i -l i t y i n e n s u r i n g c h i l d ' s f u t u r e h a p p i n e s s or s e c u r i t y and a husband's duty t o p r o t e c t h i s w i f e . C l u e s p r o v i d e d i n the c a p t i o n s and the accompanying t e x t are o f a d d i t i o n a l h e l p i n c r e a t i n g the i m p r e s s i o n the a d v e r t i s e r wants the p o t e n -t i a l consumer t o r e c e i v e : t h a t t h e product e n a b l e s a con-sumer t o r i s e up t o c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h a t i t f u l -f i l l s c u l t u r a l l y s a n c t i o n e d wants and d e s i r e s o f a con-sumer. We are not c o n f i n i n g o u r s e l v e s s t r i c t l y t o t h e v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s a l o n e i n a n a l y s i n g t h e s e a d v e r t i s e -ments, t h e n . I n s t e a d , a d i s t i n c t i o n i s b e i n g made between the v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s and t h e l a r g e r s e t o f v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n s . The former r e f e r s t o the v i s u a l c o n t e n t a l o n e , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i n c l u d e s c l u e s from t h e c a p t i o n s and the body copy of the a d v e r t i s e m e n t , as t o how the v i s u a l s are t o be u n d e r s t o o d . The l a t t e r approach a l l o w s f o r g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A G e n e r a l I n q u i r y A g e n e r a l i n q u i r y i n t o the N o r t h American and T a m i l samples o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s was f i r s t u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a f e e l f o r the p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and o f i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h American and t h e T a m i l samples. T h i s overview c o v e r s the p e r i o d 1905 t o t h e p r e s e n t f o r t h e N o r t h American m a t e r i a l and 1975 a l o n e f o r the T a m i l sample. 16 As i s e v i d e n t f r o m Graph 1 and T a b l e 1 t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample c o n t a i n s more i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a n f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n e a c h decade e x c e p t f o r 1 9 2 5 , 1 9 4 5 and 1 9 5 5 ; t h e decade 1975 p r o v e s t o have t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f a l l and 1 9 2 5 , by c o n t r a s t , has t h e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e -ments. In t h e T a m i l sample f o r w h i c h we have a d v e r t i s e -ments from 1 9 7 5 a l o n e , t h e r e a r e f a r more f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e -ments t h a n i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . A l s o , t h e f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h i s sample a r e f a r more i n number t h a n f o r 1925 i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, t h e peak decade f o r f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h a t m a t e r i a l . T h i s g e n e r a l s u r v e y t h u s , s u p p o r t s our e x p e c t a t i o n l a i d f o r t h a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h i s s t u d y - t h a t t h e T a m i l sample would c o n t a i n more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s whereas t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample would c o n t a i n a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l o n e s . S t a t i s t i c a l l y , when t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f b o t h samples o f t h e s e v e n t i e s a r e compared, C h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r a t e o f o c c u r r e n c e o f f a m i l y s c e n e s i n t h e T a m i l s e t o f a d v e r t i s e -ments and i n t h e A m e r i c a n one. When the peak decade f o r f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample - t h e decade 1925 - was compared w i t h t h e T a m i l sample o f t h e s e v e n t i e s , s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d , t h u s p r o v i d i n g added c o n f i r m a t i o n t o E x p e c t a t i o n ( 1 ) . 17 90 ' 80 ^ Family Advertisements Q Individual Advertisements NORTH AMERICAN Family Advertisements g Individual Advertisements TAMIL 70 " 60 J S 50 c g 40 <D 30 20 10 P I f I 1 1 1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1975 G r a p h 1 H i s t o g r a m s s h o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f F a m i l y and I n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s TABLE 1: Family and I n d i v i d u a l advertisements i n the North American and Tamil samples Number o f Advertisements  Decade North American Sample Tamil Sample  Family I n d i v i d u a l Family In d i v i d u a l Advertisement Advertisement Advertisement Advertisement 1905 14 21 — 1915 28 41 — _ 1925 63 50 — _ 1935 43 44 _ — 1945 61 44 — — 1955 43 37 — — 1965 24 58 — — 1975 29 61 70 15 T o t a l 305 356 70 15 18 However, i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r g r a s p of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the two samples b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o an i n -depth a n a l y s i s o f t h e 1975 m a t e r i a l s , we s h a l l now take a f u r t h e r l o o k at the whole. One product randomly chosen from each of the product c l a s s e s (Domestic D u r a b l e s , Domes-t i c Consumables, P e r s o n a l Consumables A and B, P e r s o n a l Care and S e r v i c e s ) w i l l now be used to a n a l y s e the v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n s conveyed i n these a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . A d v e r t i s e -ments f o r a u t o m o b i l e s , baby f o o d , d e t e r g e n t , c i g a r e t t e s , shampoo, and i n s u r a n c e from the two samples were s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e v a r i o u s product c l a s s e s . S i n c e a u t o -m o b i l e s and c i g a r e t t e s do not enjoy even a s i n g l e adver-t i s e m e n t i n our T a m i l sample, however, th e s e two were l a t e r e x c l u d e d from d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s a n a l y s i s o f the s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t s once a g a i n s t r e n g t h e n s our e x p e c t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e o f the two samples, t h a t i s , the N o r t h American sample d e f i n i t e l y r e v e a l s a g r e a t e r o r i e n t a t i o n towards the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s needs whereas the T a m i l sample r e v e a l s g r e a t e r a f f i n i t y towards f a m i l y and the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y as f a m i l y members. Baby Food A d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r baby foods p r o v i d e a v e r y good example of the above o b s e r v a t i o n . I t i s an u n c o n t e s t a b l e f a c t t h a t b a b i e s everywhere, whether i n Worth America or i n T a m i l Nadu, need t o be t a k e n c a r e o f . S t i l l , i n t e r e s t -19 TABLE 2: Number of advertisements in various product classes from the North American and Tamil samples of the seventies Product category Number of Advertisements North American Tamil Domestic Durables 43 29 Domestic Consumables 21 23 Personal Consumables A 59 46 Personal Consumables B 26 03 Personal Care 38 58 Services 17 24 Personal Apparel 15 48 Miscellaneous 31 19 Total 250 250 TABLE 3: Dis t r i b u t i o n of advertisements of selected products for preliminary analysis - decade wise Product class Chosen product Number of Advertisements North American Tamil 1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 Total 1975 Domestic Durables Domestic Consumables Personal Consumables - A -Personal Consumables -B -Personal Care Services Automobile Detergent Baby Food Cigarette Shampoo Insurance 2 12 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 11 11 8 0 1 0 8 21 1 1 61 10 0 1 1 47 11 22 0 10 0 3 3 Total 3 18 17 15 34 29 35 158 19 21 i n g l y enough, even i n a baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t h e baby i s p o r t r a y e d . Here i s a "most p a r t i c u l a r baby" from t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample o f baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . The v i s u a l o f t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n v o l v e s d i f f e r e n t p o s e s o f t h e baby -he i s shown s i t t i n g a l o n e as i f he were a s e p a r a t e p e r s o n -a l i t y ; and he i s d e p i c t e d as i n an a l o o f mood, a l m o s t as i f he i s b r o o d i n g . T h i s i s c l a r i f i e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t b e n e a t h t h e photo as h i s r e f u s a l o f a n o t h e r b r a n d o f baby f o o d ; he i s e a t i n g h i s f a v o u r i t e one w i t h enjoyment; and f i n a l l y , he, t h e h e a l t h y , happy baby, i s w e l l - n o u r i s h e d on h i s f a v o u r i t e b r a n d ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 . 1 . 1 ) . T h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t , o f c o u r s e , i n v o l v e s t h e mother o f t h e baby t o o ; i t i s she who has t o p u r c h a s e t h e p r o d u c t f o r t h e baby. However, t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t does n o t d i r e c t l y t r y t o i n v o k e m o t h e r ' s c u l t u r a l l y s a n c t i o n e d need f o r n u r t u r a n c e b u t a s k s , i n s t e a d , t h a t t h e mother r e c o g n i s e s h e r b a b y ' s c u l t u r a l l y p r e f e r r e d need f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e . T h e r e i s not even a v i s u a l image o f t h e mother i n t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t . In f a c t , i n a l l t h e baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f our N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, t h e r e i s n o t even a s i n g l e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a mother or a f a t h e r f e e d i n g t h e baby; baby a l w a y s f e e d s a l o n e . I n one or two i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s where a p a r e n t or b o t h p a r e n t s a p p e a r v i s u a l l y , i t i s as p l a y i n g w i t h t h e baby and not as t a k i n g c a r e o f him. 4 S-Vt. | "[fit Weft'fiwifiaww ^DZLoy, LadiiMetb chats yfctam yon afB read th* m a d •area of m aaeoliciead boar airioaa ay Mre. Olynn C. Farter, of Fairatld. Casta, ta the M i a n • T C U p s ' i a s k i p F a a * . ^ y s e a , toner Carey Palter. h | M M year okL Ht baa ham brought aa entirely a l Ctaps'i lehy Foods. I ca* truthfully •ay lhai aa k vary ya/uculu about kia I Bat • not Ker brand of spinach, atta he ihMMulcly refuted it. aclictine he die-MoJ •pinu-h. at I'd he (rd to m-iny habiea cW. I n t a ' l nomed. H'.t Mike he al««>s eoroyaj all other «cce'_Ma, I tried an n -•I attained a |ar of Clapp* Sptnaeh, aaj aa ale it with (rami cnjoytBaat. The lame theni happened with prunes. I lasted dif-ferent bTands myself, and eaaa I could ant the different h n e t So he readily under-standable how a baby'a Lata usee oil! nick MtatathalaVaa, i of fur G i p p a bahy wee* taken a few avecLa affo on hri first birth-day. Dorset he loot healthy and tlrone? Ne arralha 30 Ida. and ta JZ tiKhn till. We far! rta all due la food, ttourrthinf foods, a W of variety, and ftavora to delicuna a baby kanal thera aH." a Weaa>Waleaa'aaSyroaaaa>a«aa> Caoavfad hebae. a We daanf ettny froke and •lailaMai abet would be exactly xsapuaa far i b eat anat •arid. For 21 * * • * * » <• —ay 'hnoataaa , J " * " * " * * (-have aaby Food! MHWaat W a a a f a a aarvo fcaaaa r a t a W aal CLAPft BABY FOODS I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.1 ' M o s t p a r t i c u l a r b a b y ' 23 I n the T a m i l sample, i n c o n t r a s t , baby food adver-t i s e m e n t s a re e s s e n t i a l l y f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . See a v i s u a l of a T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a baby food ( i l l u s t r a -t i o n 2.2.1). Here, t h e mother l o v i n g l y f e e d s her baby w h i l e t h e f a t h e r h o l d s the bowl f o r them. T h i s a d v e r t i s e -ment, no doubt, r e f l e c t s t h e e m o t i o n a l need f o r n u r t u r a n c e - a need t h a t i s h i g h l i g h t e d i n the T a m i l c u l t u r e . Shampoo In a v e r y p e r s o n a l product such as shampoo, one would expect t o f i n d no b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n the two samples. One would n a t u r a l l y expect a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n both samples t o be c e n t r e d around an i n d i v i d u a l , n o r m a l l y a female. There i s a g e n e r a l t r e n d i n a d v e r t i s i n g t o show shampoo as a beauty p r o d u c t ; women are seen as the p u r s u e r s o f beauty and men as the a d m i r e r s of bea u t y . But the T a m i l sample b e l i e s such e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n a shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t t o o , v e r y p o w e r f u l v i s u a l images o f the f a m i l y appear. There i s no p o r t r a y a l o f a woman pampering her own h a i r or beaming w i t h h a p p i n e s s over i t s s h i n e or bounce. I n s t e a d , a mother i s p o r t r a y e d as shampooing her daughter's h a i r w i t h a g r e a t sense o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i l e the f a t h e r l o o k s on w i t h a s m i l e o f a d m i r a t i o n or a f f e c t i o n . A g a i n , a r e f l e c t i o n o f l o c a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , i n t h i s c a s e , f a m i l i a l l o v e , c a r e and a p p r e c i a t i o n ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3-2.1). o D o U n e i i j & € i u 9 utA1.ia.e7 .-.uiQaAea •Vital*) QaaauA uiaatai? • fw »-«"••< * * » 9 » • t m i S C v u«uu>« la> ftri)M>u«\ a f l a l e l a e t a • a a j a a e i a t a l u a j A u i O t a a a ; §fim j | i _«aaV i • Aajaaar: s>5> a i a t i t t a a j a a.L.eJ M a r t i * . * ) * a . e * * * • > * ! « • > . a J t a a U a a g a w t | « * t * i a j ; t a a j a a a e j a t f O u i a t i L f a k i ee jaqe tgea j ia u a a Q * * ) * ) a a j a j u k a>a>a/l>iie. uialufaB, *>.M^t.eler O} 4l*1a|.*l4.i*>a. § f » * • a a j i g a .aea a a a C a a f e » > t * • a J t a t u a.awaiaa* Q . r l a a B u a i | 1 » > * • a j { * e a > » 3 a r u t J a i j r a r •aa9a0aaiCp #aftwui_a) aj*tralaauuLi.a) .'.uaQtaaat a a i a a a,aiaai u f u u i | i t u « S n a p tfaiataia. afca#aaa|ia u a a e .aa l 4( lBf . g u C u t a j . 400 t f t ra i a a a l t a u i « 6 9 a > J | 6 * .- .uaQfaei asatotaj . I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.2.1 'Feeding - a family a f f a i r ' -Tamil baby food advertisement 25 fl/W- //-JI- 7 9 *#* »*lt*.*6* §«-tW k>«<-4i«« | « M t « w l | | | tkt>« ••->-'* $-t)3*W*#4*'* *T^>V«4«kP M-b3»*5 ft*tf*»4>*uitw ^  •*» .Jut* mm*--—* cn* <*•«• mi I l l u s t r a t i o n 3-2.1 Nice family imagery i n a Tamil shampoo advertisement 26 I n the N o r t h American shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t , not s u r -p r i s i n g l y , t h e v i s u a l s t e n d t o d e p i c t an a f t e r - s h a m p o o i n g s h i n e or a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , i f not an a c t u a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l washing h i s own h a i r . Importance a t t a c h e d t o one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n t h e s e a d v e r t i s e -ments. There i s no p o r t r a y a l o f f a m i l y l o v e or c a r e or a p p r e c i a t i o n extended w i t h i n the f a m i l y . What i s r e f l e c t e d , i n s t e a d , i s t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3*1 .1 ) -I n s u r a n c e Now c o n s i d e r i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . I n the N o r t h American sample, i t i s the i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t c o n t a i n the most f a m i l y themes. Y e t , even t h e n , the v i s u a l image o f a complete n u c l e a r f a m i l y r a r e l y appears i n t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . M o s t l y , one f i n d s v i s u a l s o f a c h i l d or c h i l d r e n whose f u t u r e needs t o be s a f e g u a r d e d . O t h e r w i s e , t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t i s aimed at a man. We do not have even a s i n g l e i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t asks a woman to take a p o l i c y ; i t i s t h e man who has t o ensure her f u t u r e . One N o r t h American i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t d e p i c t s a money t r e e w i t h branches b e a r i n g money and r o o t e d i n a sack o f d o l l a r s . T h i s v i s u a l i s supposed t o s y m b o l i s e a f a m i l y s a f e l y r o o t e d i n t h e f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y o f the i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y . The a d v e r t i s e r s u c c e s s f u l l y conveys t h a t the f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n would be s t a b l e i f t h i s 27 JJo1g^JUi#.lj^-VmK Shampoo N e v e r D r i e s -i t B e a u t i f i e s ! I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.1 •Shampoo makes you glamorous' 28 p a r t i c u l a r company p o l i c y i s b o u g h t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 1 . 2 ) . A n o t h e r i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t d e p i c t s a s a f e t y l o o k . The .handle t h a t opens t h i s l o c k t o e n t e r i n t o s a f e t y i s t h e i n s u r a n c e company ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 1 . 3 ) . In y e t a n o t h e r i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f r o m t h e same sample, we g e t t h e v i s u a l d e p i c t i o n o f a man h o l d i n g t h e r o p e s o f a b u l l o c k : an image w h i c h c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e man c o n t r o l l i n g a p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r , s y m b o l i s e d i n t h e b u l l . By t a k i n g t h e p o l i c y , he g a i n s d o m i n a t i o n o v e r t h e b u l l ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.4). In a l l t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , t h e c u l t u r a l i d e a l o f f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y or s t a b i l i t y i s p o r t r a y e d . In a l l o f them, t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a man i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , a r e r e f l e c t e d . So a l s o a r e t h e c u l t u r a l l y s a n c t i o n e d d e s i r e s o f a man f o r d o m i n a t i o n and a c q u i s i t i o n . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , i n a l l t h e i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f b o t h s a m p l e s , t h e a d v e r t i s e r ' s t a r g e t i s man. He i s t h e economic p r o v i d e r o f t h e f a m i l y i n b o t h our s a m p l e s . T h i s p o r t r a y a l a l s o c o n f o r m s t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r a l r e a l i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n b o t h t h e s a m p l e s , when f a m i l y i s p i c t u r e d , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a n u c l e a r f a m i l y s c e n e c o n t a i n i n g p a r e n t s and one c h i l d a t l e a s t . In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, however, t h e r e i s no v i s u a l p o r t r a y a l o f e x t e n d e d f a m i l y a t a l l whereas t h e T a m i l sample c o n t a i n s a few s u c h c a s e s . I n t h e T a m i l sample, however, t h e woman i s c l e a r l y p o r t r a y e d as d e p e n d i n g on her husband's s u p p o r t . The 29 T o u s e (A State Farm money tree flnktt sure your fknxOy \ vest be uprooted.) ' • a m y tree. W k t i a Booty B a t b m a o ) from State F a n U h . . . A aaoeey tne ramai* a im hie, attca do&an a> pagr off (he mortftae thoold it ootlna yoa, A a a a noncy tne am be your eenrance that • L J o e l mmfly wB ahaayt have a home. Phone yoar •baa Para aaaat. See bow Kma a coate to add • t tne te yoar taiawj eiaaa. I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.2 S t a t e Farm 'Money T r e e 1 30 I aw ear etawanca, our Stat* Farm l a j i a u a a i n /*oacjr a r m * jaw MM«M»J> •joaictan at rCK*-6ofk>at ratal, far aiatanoa, torn asar now nat* -Jod aW "afca aacf aYfandao* comng§" pnttebon. Mkatnaaj aatstc aata A. tf% aaff It aw- ft** a w Marnaoaaiari r'aag' prowcaai Proscar mini tMt tor «ovr rayne and oatorajirtja aadtartou. at caaa ot la.rn.t i . . .at laaa coax. Aact aw rtoaauaaiafi Potcr atao oasti l a n than a lor o/ ocraar amaW pcaoat on eka martaL* It a Mat tame . p o d a W and Art ttaaVat ftom asur same aood Staaa Farm Camay «ia»-anra nun. • T A r r M»»f flllC AMD CASUALTY CO*P*MT . rata. Orwat. m I I a » , »mmt » » » i t i i y r j « « r - a » a»< a a y > » ^ « r i » i i ^ a fmT at»»»a»l I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.3 ' S a f e t y L o c k 1 31 " L i f e i n s u r a n c e ? I'd rather buy bulls!" I •Tfctn a MONY man showtd ma tt can tiava real cash vatua...!tita a good piaca of j raxing landT * H * d V I « U MONY mm Tamn* atwari ta lottrtv, fa kvrp dba MWTML T a • t i n . I l l do b n w r btryipg §nbn. cxMflfi hkr tiMi anajraa) n j h * up to d- t * IB tatt, «*>'rr m l f o o d rnr*xi» We po (pr bh»r f t )» *> rattfcr 1 c + w x * that idra. apaks. ! H V n aar. I ' » r rhanard n*Y id>ta abew tnaar* • n aiaKT T e a m * • a n t e n a on a t o n r " MOarr M E N CAJIC PCM * C O f U Tlrr'tr a> Jta* 1 a a n a W ^ a a ' M a a a n a . i a ' a i a a T ! * V i a » W Liar . a n - d a n W r p a r o l d » » » ^ » « ^ " « » t a a ^ H j r rVaaavawto. ^ , r « n r t h , ^ l > a p p r » d K > a a r > W h a > M O ' n r — ' " • » - - " a * - M O N Y ^< ta»*«i » " d , h * t T . «*i w v t e d mm • pro-P cV MOVV iftMrartrr. fira. K> prour t tbr am Thi -a -*•>*> tar kadi ctwat 0 br i * -JM. ihiW »-»UtA43_», M U T U A L O P N E W Y O R K Nr.TfH1tNY I tTT L-«L^ n»^ ia^  ' I T - - . 1 1 I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.4 'Man c o n t r o l l i n g the b u l l ' 32 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h American sample do not make her dependent s t a t u s e x p l i c i t . I n one i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f t h i s sample, we even f i n d a female p o r t r a y e d as w o r k i n g f o r a l i v e l i h o o d , though i t i s as a nurse and i n the same a d v e r t i s e m e n t , a man appears as d o c t o r . T h i s conforms t o a t y p i c a l theme found i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s : t h a t the man i s s u p e r i o r and t h e woman, i f she i s d e p i c t e d a t a l l , i s seen t o be i n a n u r s i n g , s e c r e t a r i a l or t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n . D e t e r g e n t D e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r o l e p o r t r a y a l s f o r women between the samples: women are m o s t l y seen t o c a r r y out household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n b o t h , t h e y do almost e v e r y t h i n g t o g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n from man. F u r t h e r -more, t h e y need the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a w e l l - k e p t home, w e l l - n o u r i s h e d husband and c h i l d r e n and a happy home. T h i s g e n e r a l s u r v e y has p r o v i d e d g r e a t s u p p o r t f o r our e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of th e s e two samples. I t a l s o r e i n f o r c e s our p r e d i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e of the frame of f a m i l y r e f e r e n c e s . Having t h u s t r a n s f o r m e d our i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t o a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , we are now ready t o embark upon a more i n depth a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i s u a l s f o r 1975 i n t h e two samples. 33 An I n D e p t h I n q u i r y From the two h u n d r e d and f i f t y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f each sample, a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t c l a s s e s . Then th e c l a s s e s " P e r s o n a l C a r e " and " S e r v i c e s " were s e p a r a t e d out t o form t h e sub-sample f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d y . Even i n t h i s T a m i l s ub-sample, a d v e r t i s e -ments f o r P e r s o n a l Care p r o d u c t s as w e l l as f o r S e r v i c e s a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d t h a n i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, on t h e o t h e r hand, has more i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n P e r s o n a l C a r e p r o d u c t s b u t not i n S e r v i c e s . F a m i l y A d v e r t i s e m e n t s - B o t h Samples In t h e T a m i l sample, good v i s u a l images o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t a p p e a r i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f shampoos, h a i r l o t i o n s , t o o t h p a s t e s , v i t a m i n t o n i c s , m e d i c i n e s , v a c c i n e s e t c . A t t r a c t i v e f a m i l y images a p p e a r o n l y i n t h e a r t w o r k o f i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and i n one o f a c o s m e t i c company f o r t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample. The N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o s m e t i c company's a d v e r t i s e m e n t v i s u a l i s e s t h e p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y among the f a m i l y members and t h e i r h a p p i n e s s a t b e i n g t o g e t h e r ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 - 1). T h i s i s t h e o n l y example f o u n d i n t h i s sample p o r t r a y i n g f a m i l y t o g e t h e r n e s s f o r i t s own s a k e . I t i s c e r t a i n l y an e x c e p t i o n i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m a t e r i a l s . T h i s t r e n d w i l l be made even c l e a r e r when t h e t e x t u a l themes a r e d i s c u s s e d . F o r t h e p r e s e n t , i t 34 G r a p h 2.1 H i s t o g r a m s s h o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f P e r s o n a l C a r e p r o d u c t ' c l a s s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s 35 n T a m i l Sample North American Sample Family Ads. I n d i v i d u a l Ads. Other Ads, Graph 2 .2 H i s t o g r a m s showing p e r c e n t a g e s of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f S e r v i c e s i n t h e N o r t h American and T a m i l samples TABLE 4: Advertisement categor izat ions i n the North American and Tamil samples o f the Seventies: The sample f o r indepth ana l y s i s ( i n absolute numbers) Product c la s s 1 Family advertisement Ind iv idua l advertisement Other advertisement T o t a l N. American Tamil N. American Tamil N. American Tamil N. American Tamil 1. Personal Care 8 28 24 25 38 58 2. Services 12 10 17 24 T o t a l 13 30 26 31 16 11 55 82 "Wi th two small chiHien,a9-5 job is out of the question. That's why I love being an Avon Representative. Im earning good money andTm there when the children need me." GiTAiwbutvx North Guuftui Call ma old fashioned I want ray bora to be mj wig d ttounnf. Ai ap ATOP Kefnm iilitiin. I raaka my •am aoon. So I have plenty of time to spend artth my faxnjry Bnraj my cam boat and navavjirar my mil l iniiai miti mrjiat flnf ftnrt TJiaTt Irrri lalliLaj DoTaTy CkT tB}' oajaV Thanta te Avon, IVo navfe acm r*»d fond frarrtta. A» I mala my rounda aa a Re«?re»enUthra, I BWCt ckBaeoa of nice pexjfate. And Avon pRhiuct* arc ao areD Uusd I fad wekxm when I a l l Bee of a l my work doeanl interfer* with my job aa 1 mother. AJ larch, that'i the meat trtrparunt •ihfarrta^af baarajin Aron ReprearrtatWav , T\nA out hoar you can become an Avon lUtlllatllUlUaV Call: cO0-325-6400*toafm or (UI in the coupon below. Avon will caD you m aoon aa pcaaihle to irararer von-cjjetTiom. -Of courae, there ia no obhfmbon. i-tin ICaruori call 800^ 42-6600) Vicki SBder'a etory interfaiad me m fillmf out thia coupon, . aTf Ta^aTajON*. ND-. ktafl to: Aran Prahaeta. Inc. P.O. Box 1325, Gcwt Natk. New York UO0 I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.1 'I am a mother of two' - cosmetic company advertisement 38 w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d s i m p l y as a v e r y good v i s u a l image of a f a m i l y f o r the N o r t h American sample. N o r t h American I n s u r a n c e A d v e r t i s e m e n t s The b e s t f a m i l y p i c t u r e i n the i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e -ments f o r the N o r t h American m a t e r i a l s i s the one d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r : t h e v i s u a l o f a c o u p l e w a l k i n g over beach water ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.1). A theme o f t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s i s v e r y c l e a r h e r e , as mentioned e a r l i e r . Another i n s u r a n c e adver-t i s e m e n t d e p i c t s a man o u t s i d e a m a t e r n i t y ward making a phone c a l l , a p p a r e n t l y t o h i s i n s u r a n c e company. Behind him, a nurse i s h o l d i n g out t h r e e f i n g e r s as though she i s announcing th e b i r t h o f t r i p l e t s , a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t makes the man, the economic p r o v i d e r as per the c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n , run f o r i n s u r a n c e . He i s b e i n g prudent i n s e e k i n g p r o t e c t i o n f o r h i s w i f e and newborns from t h i s p a r t i c u l a r company. The c u l t u r a l l y u p h e l d sense o f r a t i o n a l i t y or p r a c t i c a l i t y i s the h i g h l i g h t o f t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t . The emphasis appears t o be a b r i e f i n g as t o how t o cope w i t h now, unexpected r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and not f a m i l i a l l o v e ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.5)- Another a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h a n i c e f a m i l y p i c t u r e shows the i n s u r a n c e agent on one s i d e and on the o t h e r , a c o u p l e and two c h i l d r e n , a boy and a g i r l . T h i s image seems t o s y m b o l i s e c l o s e n e s s , h a p p i n e s s , 39 s a t i s f a c t i o n e t c . I t c o u l d be c l o s e n e s s w i t h t h e i n s u r a n c e agent or c l o s e n e s s w i t h i n the f a m i l y i t s e l f ; t h e image c e r t a i n l y i m p l i e s a f f e c t i o n , t a k i n g c l u e s from the t e x t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.6). T a m i l I n s u r a n c e A d v e r t i s e m e n t s Not many T a m i l i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p r o v i d e v i s u a l images of f a m i l y l i f e . M a i n l y t h e s e p r o v i d e company symbols, l i k e a t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n lamp b u r n i n g w i t h i t s a u r a s p r e a d i n g l i g h t a l l around. T h i s c o u l d mean the b r i g h t e n i n g up o f t h e l i v e s of people a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t or t h a t the company p r o v i d e s l i g h t f o r p r e v i o u s l y dark l i f e and so on. I n c e r t a i n o t h e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , we have t h e image o f a c h i l d l o o k i n g i n t o the f u t u r e . By d e p i c t i n g the b u r n i n g lamp, t h e s e i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s h i g h l i g h t t r a d i t i o n a l Hindu c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o the Hindu c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s , b u r n i n g lamp i s v e r y a u s p i c i o u s . I t c a r r i e s w i t h i t , the r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n of e x p r e s s i n g f a i t h i n God, w o r s h i p e t c . and the f e s t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f j o y , or p r o s -p e r i t y . The p o r t r a y a l of a c h i l d a l s o i s a r e f l e c t i o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s i n T a m i l c u l t u r e ; i d e a l l y , p a r e n t s p r o t e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s f u t u r e and a c h i l d i s expected t o be f r e e from w o r r i e s or f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . One o t h e r i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t from the T a m i l sample i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s a l i f e i n s u r a n c e example which v i s u a l l y d e p i c t s a haggard l o o k i n g f e m a l e , an o l d e r woman, a g i r l and a postman who i s d e l i v e r i n g a l e t t e r from 40 I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.6 C l o s e n e s s s y m b o l i s e d 41 t h e l i f e i n s u r a n c e c o r p o r a t i o n . The haggard l o o k i n g f e m a l e , a p p a r e n t l y widowed and w i t h a dau g h t e r , i s depend-i n g on t h e o l d e r l a d y who i s perhaps her l a t e husband's mother. The postman i s d e l i v e r i n g the i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s t h e former i s e n t i t l e d t o ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.1). T h i s example d e p i c t s t h e dependent s t a t e of the woman. Here, we a l s o have a h i n t o f the extended f a m i l y p r o v i d i n g h e l p i n ti m e s of need or d i s t r e s s . R o l e P o r t r a y a l s o f Women I n b o t h the N o r t h American and T a m i l samples, the r o l e p o r t r a y a l s o f women are more or l e s s s i m i l a r . How-ev e r , t h e r e i s perhaps a l i t t l e more economic independence a l l o w e d f o r i n t h e case o f N o r t h American women. A p o r t r a y a l of a b s o l u t e dependence on her husband f o r the Ta m i l woman d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from the p o r t r a y a l o f t h e No r t h American woman who i s sometimes d e p i c t e d as g a i n f u l l y employed. Even so, however, her employment always s u p p l e -ments her husband's income and i s s u b o r d i n a t e to h i s male-ness. Thus, i n N o r t h American a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , the female i s n e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y dependent nor c o m p l e t e l y independent. I n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r P r u d e n t i a l I n s u r a n c e , f o r example, the e a r n i n g woman i s a nurse ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.5). A s i m i l a r a d v e r t i s e m e n t , f u r t h e r m o r e , shows a c o u p l e o f women among many men. 42 9i,£liijiJJIS aftajak Sarer istai OM»tt«>uA ftataa M CkaaiaM. Qutci 5000 *>uk]a (••Mi u t a t A d t * yaa ) gpaVwat a a d a V J v a a * * * C * » > * 13 g<w&jrfl 1979 t a g * , a s aatCkti a i a a C * a l u ( # * ) «Ua l • So**'' a a v e ) «aa?iB>a>. #0* Ouaa • j f 4 « > * t * k #afl Bf j ah.iJuCk.art. 20 gwrajifl 1979 ' / a l s ^ a i n a i a»va> C* k a>a>*< a > a > M l O C k v S r c t l p i e f O a f e a a u u L i - e ) . a v a j a l • f iama O U M M «ytt4i>>Liaj. a . f a a a agpefaaa* L k ' M w i i f j fll»ai'iin'i uaalf *i*#>i.a> aiOtuiSaat. 16 duirairBI 979 M c r f d * a ? * ) * * * * * ! * * ut># ^ p r a t a a a i j a v f C f t f a i a f i i £ v f i . •aaaTliBta) a * 0 « t a i « V . « u a j . 1 i r i - T « < > « c i i t u l aTtaauuCk. 71000 a j a n e * t u M a U f j t t i e * • » « » » « # » a » a S3.OS a*>* Quictao f *•(*> • * « V ( aPaT 9CJ a.ae«ae«t #awa>*. « f a a > Oarafu A / a i k * r # « r « # r « v * V a « j « * r a nuwii OwariaaV 0 k U u L , O a « * a a r . ; bu««v SOOO «•>«>«-fj «3*»C>«J(•» -vtuqA (•WaaVf^-j a. ifrmmjth. ty**; 3i*i»a?C»»C*j tt_aaw a m *»» < * p V l | Q»« a#p*) a.*T»»L>4 . t f ' i a . M t f * if » • « -•*a»MB»W (If » a 0 t ^ a * «fa4-»4. Qp«*fi 4*1©* ? * t ( ^ a u Qtmmttmhm *m0w Oat a-w$ &M / ' i f e»«UJ^ 9 a V a * W u U U ® « tap au^iiwj-ejk QaV<^U«-0-*>B luAAWa 8 » t * * a * a > a i a T l W l . u « C « « c 3 * a * ^ « / . ^ •jiaTt6uaaH-Ph Qtm**+mr •.•faxs • AC-at afa^MaVa«ab •V^aVaQuCu. aTaf •••> • U t # f l * » U U f a V a . • a U * W # # 0«* •»**#> AkudB.aaU^l-aarf^ aU 'Aa 4Wt*U«*« ataa. • alW«^u«MJ l^#0UB aUaaH-lJaM«^«it * v | J « t aftua»«BT«) ut tSAu u £ # f «#9*>3-u ft©*it*at) >ua44wado4f>4. • aaat® J ^ i a b U U B l L . «f|aO«C^ Qft^ aS-U §M»a) ••-^•MJUCa » a a T | C ^ i M*»t . d * © * M CUM^U « 4 « a - a f l l a i Qa«t?Li4a»ta*. a&f latlLaaM £^««e»*\ *raW«rU>V O t ^ y * * * * * * * f £ Aat iyam«l_|l, 9**aV4>BaW ^ t f ^ C#(U« J a f c a - ^ i r>*ty3|fl»4 •>>flaa)l»* a A l f a t a a a O ' ftiKt&ti a . « K B « 4 a 5 a a T Uf»# afaTU•tt+kfi* »aWt4atJU*la_ a > > C » « I - » V | 0a iaW4»«>CIB. I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.1 L i f e Insurance Corporation 43 I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 1 . 5 P r u d e n t i a l I n s u r a n c e 44 Shampoo The o n l y shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample i s a f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t . Y e t , t h e v i s u a l images p r e s e n t t h e p r o d u c t c o v e r e d i n a w r e a t h . The l a y o u t f o l l o w s t h e f o r m a t o f a b i r t h announcement and t h u s i t be-comes a f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e p r o d u c t i s a "baby" o f t h e company ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 3 - 1 - 2 ) . The T a m i l sample, by c o n t r a s t , p r o v i d e s a v e r y g l a r i n g f a m i l y v i s u a l - t h e same a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ( i l l u s -t r a t i o n 3 - 2 . 1 ) . Here t h e l a b e l " f a m i l y shampoo" p l a c e d on t h e b o t t l e i s a l s o v i s i b l e . P e r s o n a l C a r e P r o d u c t s Most o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n P e r s o n a l C a r e p r o d u c t s emphasize t h e " l o o k " o f woman. I t i s a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t l o o k o r pampering o f t h e s e l f t h a t i s d e s i r e d . I n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f s k i n l o t i o n , t h e woman pampers h e r body p a r t s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 1 . 2 ) . In t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a s k i n and h a i r p r o t e c t i o n a g e n t , she c o n v e y s an a i r o f c o n f i d e n c e , k n o w i n g she i s p r o t e c t e d ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 . 3 ) . In t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a f a c i a l m o i s t u r i z e r , she i s w i t h her b e l o v e d and i s e n j o y i n g t h e s e n s e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e m o i s t u -r i z e r ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 . 4 ) . A l l t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o c u s on a need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n or a f f i l i a t i o n , b o t h o f them be-i n g c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d d e s i r e s . In t h e P e r s o n a l C a r e p r o d u c t s o f t h e T a m i l sample, by c o n t r a s t , a g r e a t many a d v e r t i s e m e n t s d e p i c t t h e c a r e o f f a m i l y members. F o r 45 1 7 5 - - ^ St 10a* 6om to- 6a£yyoar Aatr. Zro-AanfierjoarAair. 4 A \ i 4. jSr&SaMof^rinp. %ct oar-near 6a6p, 6aiy-your Aair 4 f,t^ t^j^^J'^^^^^J^^^^^^^^^ i j J Now there am thro* Q a M r e r t w l For iwrmel to dry he*, dry heir. i sr9jrrv)on.Tbeyte aft norveKtatine phtorrrwaBV and trie nrMast member of our tamtty, for deticate har. I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.2 'Shampoo that babies your hair' I l l u s t r a t i o n 4«1.2 'Woman who pampers her body* - skin l o t i o n 47 a new cosmetic science: Your* surrounded by harsh light. Chapping wind. Abrasive dirt and pollution. Heat and oir-condifioning. A total environment that damages your delicate skin and hair. But now, in an entroordinory breakthrough, Helena Rubinstein has erected The Protectors. Now you have the broadest protection avoiloble against the environment. N o w S k i n D o w f a c e s V o t o t t o r works in a completely different way to shield your skin from environmental hazards. Its ingredients form o unique protection system which, with continued use. actually keeps your skin (poking younger. Use it doily under makeup, or simply alone, and your skin will respond beautifully. You'll notice o fresher look, a smoother surface, o ' softer feel. N o w S k i n D o w H a i r P i o l o t l m . unlike conditioners and cream rinses, protects your hair from the environment that fades it. leaves fair less vulnerable to splitting, breokage, and moisture loss. Use it regularly after shampooing, ond you can e«pect reduced color fading. Added monageability, body and bounce. Another feo'ure: Hoir Protector, like Face Protector, coma ns lerments foctiques, a pure milk pro/em. to make it pH.jtabilir.ed The Protectors. New. Necessary. And so different it took a new science to make them: the science of beauty protection. S o l U r u t l l o f i g u a r a n t e e d . Use The Protectors for 21 days. If you're not completely satisfied that they're working for you, send unused portion to Helena Rubinstein, 300 Park Avenue, N.Y, N.Y 10022 ond we'll refund your money. S k i n D e w P r o t e c t o r s Helena Rubinstein I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.3 'Protection against environmental hazards' - Advertisement of a skin and hair protection agent 48 I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.4 'Sharing of sensual experiences' - Advertisement of a m o i s t u r i z e r 4 49 example, i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f h a i r l o t i o n , the mother a p p l i e s i t t o her d a u g h t e r ' s h a i r and not t o her own ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.1). I n a t o o t h p a s t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t , f u r t h e r m o r e , a c h i l d i s shown as c r y i n g about a t o o t h a c h e . Then th e mother makes him use a p a r t i c u l a r t o o t h p a s t e . Both of them are happy. The t o o t h p a s t e h e r e , t a k e s away the p a i n and b r i n g s r e l i e f . The mother, by c o n t r a s t t o the N o r t h American theme, i s not b r u s h i n g her t e e t h f o r a ' s p a r k l i n g and b r i g h t ' l o o k , but making her son use the paste i n s t e a d ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.2). The N o r t h American sample from 1975 does not c o n t a i n t o o t h p a s t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s but one can f i n d examples of d e n t u r e c l e a n s e r s . These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a g a i n r e f l e c t the N o r t h American c u l t u r a l need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n or r e c o g n i t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r P o l i d e n t t a b l e t s p o r t r a y s t h i s product as h a v i n g the c a p a c i t y t o remove dent u r e odour. The v i s u a l here d e p i c t s a man and a woman coming c l o s e r and c l o s e r u n t i l an u l t i m a t e p o i n t of near merger i s r e a c h e d . T h i s v i s u a l conveys the i d e a t h a t t h e i r coming t o g e t h e r i s the r e s u l t o f u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c l e a n s e r . I t i s as though the p e r s o n a l i t i e s , emotions and o t h e r f a c t o r s u n r e l a t e d t o the product have no r o l e i n t h i s c l o s e n e s s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1 -5)• An a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a p a i n balm i n the T a m i l sample p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g c o n t r a s t . Here, the mother a p p l i e s the balm t o her son's t h r o a t ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.3)- I n t h i s 50 eucfcr 6.<srTa}i%o @ 6 D I T n & 6 6 r o 6 O T b , <86DfJW68r f jjj^  4u«Tr*8»T «%is3*u £ 8 * " 9 9 » * * * 4fl"0u4«ff»»i»Vii_ 3u«w 3»o««%»«*r. lCI-»Sah u 3 » * 9 € T » # e S » Qpu)4-Qfj.aoSaJitjiA C u f t i A t v u>£»ff4«SgDgf. «E*jQpia«,3u unj««r 3r»«u> • a9a)f| CB>(LDUc£ f B t b A&u Qpi*>4»<u 4* «u •&•*;« S k p f t a . • • S i ; iSo«9 9e*i«tip £•>>_• SEirgiSnir SavrmmY. .a*v>f>ta «fiuOu *8(<a>«k 4«L.V -'A* • I I*. 0 » » l * « »•••. I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 -2 .1 ' M o t h e r ' s l o v e t h r o u g h a h a i r l o t i o n ' 51 •*"-«• «•*>«• «*«•>••»»•> (•*••«»• • *»»»»•» « j > h * * * ' * - » » " » • « • •••V- • • M a •••».••••«•«•• •>.•».•. it—lit*. ««>•• «•«•>••*. I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 2 . 2 ' C a v i t y f i g h t i n g f a m i l y g u a r d ' - T o o t h p a s t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t \ 52 I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.5 'Closeness from a denture cleanser' - P o l i d e n t t a b l e t s 53 I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.3 •Warmth of mother's love' - A pain balm advertisement sample, furthermore, there i s v i t a m i n t o n i c advertisement p r o v i d i n g an image of a complete f a m i l y i n the b o t t l e ; the t o n i c i s f o r each and every member ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.4). In the advertisement f o r v a c c i n e , the v i s u a l d e p i c t s a c h i l d i n s i d e a palm. He i s happy and secure ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.5). The f a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n i n the Tamil c u l t u r e i s v i s i b l e i n these advertisements. In the North American sample, however, a p a r a l l e l advertisement type shows three separate images i n a s i n g l e d i s p l a y : f i r s t , a woman alone t a k i n g out the t a b l e t ; second, a man s l e e p i n g alone, and f i n a l l y , a mother f e e l i n g the c h i l d ' s forehead f o r fever but not a c t u a l l y g i v i n g him a t a b l e t , ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1 -6). Thus, we have observed, i n our c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the v i s u a l images alone, a wide v a r i e t y of f a m i l y and i n d i v i -dual themes i n the Tamil and the North American samples r e s p e c t i v e l y . While i n the l a t t e r , "grooming" i s d i r e c t e d at one's own " s e l f " , i n the former, i t i s d i r e c t e d towards other f a m i l y members. I f i n the Tamil sample, baby f e e d i n g and shampooing are moments of intimate f a m i l y a f f a i r s , i n the North American one, the h i g h l i g h t i s on i n d i v i d u a l i t y and s e l f r e l i a n c e even i n a baby. Man being i n c o n t r o l of the f a m i l y f i n a n c e s i s the important t a r g e t i n the insurance advertisements of both samples a l i k e but the Tamil one p o r t r a y s woman's dependent s t a t u s i n a more outspoken QLnrar^<%^ti6^uj©)Lb, ; uanauia •>**a*u QUMAMI «ia u 4 « » i u £ HMiSA iA jDav f l r s * 4 a u S u t g a * * . »«»ajiuM«»uij»i. « . *«» aguua-at-i_»M L.iaU ' • u Q u f t t S a , I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 2 . 4 'For the entire family " _ A v i t a m i n tonic' ft 1 flffirr^fjiin uiypSa)u5.a3r ^ ^ n f o u j g j g j 6uiTijpaS.rB(§> 6ufTfS5)6tUIT QfflTL® UJtfJIT)©! <9i6lfl^45l &OTibiS)dr86tT Qjnt3, Si^rruSleS^i^gi uiT^arruq s a r i n - g t-aiaofltb w ( 3^0Utfliir BL0CD^I_**T i 2 i i D y i i b i T @ $fT$iT U I T l 7 U ) * * l ^ f t 6 \ J 6 i U t i € l l i 1 I Q l _ l l ft™ 4 f t i i ) Q u 6 l l f l < . M " « « ^ ^ «s-*H e.*£"?7^ Cudfj: «*-»» 8 30 Qp*. * ! ttMgwb »«* _ , u«.l2 .30 \ i - f a.-.'.' _/ »Wf«»w - T i . * « * i ^ | •+* : 3.00 g t k S , . , , , . „ . . . . . . , SuraTiur O M I I S " S i * * I 6.00 atsr. i * iS« i « *^ f« j «»>» j,«f3«ou^*"r)4*. I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 2 . 5 ' C h i l d ' s s a f e t y i n y o u r h a n d s ' - A v a c c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t 57 r-1:111 MM B A Y E R - A S P I R I N ^ t a T t a u i a ^ t a i aadta. Xo relieve tr« acnes and reduce ff*efever of • cold or nu. doctors^  recarnnend aso*»i layer tested C e a r i n a a e r a every leaona Brand for ouauy taS~j&££«£&r£"gr vou can count onBetter ajawy layer»AaO«»> Eacn aayrr Drodua nOuOo B A Y E R . TIMED RELEAS£ ASPIRJN unco* Mai auti uai lacai a M faaPare eaaifel JUco»'a.*i are cela) •rale yea Heap. Bayer* Tovjd lOeaw Aicm 1 made to work owrrme you tat* conry oncer I noun Two tablets taken Mherairyjrt(<vr»ye»auetocoidKir \toyouctniieec3.'™tr«n<ax daecacrsforuse lave-err«» you mrcaowU taoucai f i w ef a caid. To rekeve tne •des and reduce tne (ever of a endds co ld or nu. jet Orange Flavored f *nr* Chadrenl Aiprn It t ti me eaaa taoxt lize doctors recommend and <i mage wencatrtcare To relieve aches and pains of colds & flu, count on Bayer...or Bayer ...or Bayer. I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.6 A s p i r i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t 58 manner. The l a t t e r also depicts extended family care which i s a missing theme in the former. Woman's domestic role is portrayed subtly yet strongly in the visuals of both samples. So also i s the i r part in c h i l d care. Only, the North American mother i s portrayed in a more passive caring role while the Tamil mother is shown involved in a more active and intimate caring for her children. However, in general, the role portrayals are very similar in both. On the whole, the observations made from an analysis of the vi s u a l impressions have thus, reinforced a l l the three expectations raised at the beginning of th i s study. 59 CHAPTER III THE TEXT A poet cannot l e t a yellow primrose remain merely a yellow primrose; his function i s to invest i t with meanings. In the poet's eye the primrose comes to symbolise many things S i m i l a r l y , an advertising writer cannot per-mit a cake of soap to remain a cake of soap and 'nothing more'. Whatever the object for sale i s , the copywriter, l i k e the poet, must invest i t with significance so that i t be-comes symbolic of something beyond i t s e l f . (Hayakawa 1964: 262-77) Advertisements do not merely provide information regarding the i n t r i n s i c properties of a product but also bestow on i t meanings that would make a product something "beyond i t s e l f " . Hence, when a consumer buys a product, he often purchases the enhanced image an advertiser has attached to a product as well. In print advertisements, the enhancement of a product's significance can be achieved through images or through the use of words, or through an approach that uses both v i s u a l and verbal modes to communicate the entire idea but then strengthens t h i s with textual messages. Also, there are instances where a l l the image enhancement i s done in the text i t s e l f . 60 T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a n a l y s e t h e v a l u e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made i n t h e t e x t s o f t h e two sample g r o u p s o f a d v e r t i s e -ments, one, T a m i l and t h e o t h e r , N o r t h A m e r i c a n . T h i s would i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s b o t h o f c a p t i o n s and body cop y . The f i r s t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o c o n t a i n t h e dominant message and t h e s e c o n d , t h e s u b o r d i n a t e message o f each a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t u d i e d . L i k e i n t h e p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s o f v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , c a p t i o n s and body c o p i e s o f s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t s w i l l be s u r v e y e d a c r o s s a l l d e c a d e s b e f o r e an i n d e p t h a n a l y s i s o f t h e 1975 s a m p l e s a l o n e i s u n d e r t a k e n . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , our a t t e n t i o n w i l l be f o c u s s e d on t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r baby f o o d , d e t e r g e n t , shampoo and i n s u r a n c e . N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r a u t o m o b i l e s and c i g a r e t t e s have been l e f t out b e c a u s e t h e p a r a l l e l p r o d u c t s a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e T a m i l sample. Baby Food L i k e i n t h e v i s u a l s , t e x t u a l messages f o u n d i n baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample a l l f o c u s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l e i t h e r o p e n l y o r i n some s u b t l e f a s h i o n . F o r example, i n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t d e s c r i b i n g a "most p a r t i -c u l a r baby", t h e a d v e r t i s e r r e p r o d u c e s an " u n s o l i c i t e d l e t t e r " w r i t t e n by t h e b a b y ' s mother. T h i s l e t t e r s t a t e s t h a t her son who i s " j u s t one y e a r o l d " i s v e r y p a r t i c u l a r about h i s f o o d . Once she "got a n o t h e r b r a n d o f s p i n a c h and he a b s o l u t e l y r e f u s e d i t . . . . i t i s r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e 61 how a baby's keen t a s t e w i l l p i c k out what he l i k e s " . Thus, i n t h e t e x t , the a d v e r t i s e r a s s e r t s t h a t o n l y t h i s b rand o f baby foo d would a p p e a l t o a baby who has a keen sense o f t a s t e and who i s v e r y p a r t i c u l a r about h i s l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . There a r e a l s o a s s e r t i o n s as t o how t h e p r o d u c t f u l f i l l s d o c t o r s recommendations and how b a b i e s have been t h e company's " s o l e b u s i n e s s " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.1). In a n o t h e r N o r t h American baby food a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t h e baby "never f o r g e t s the goodness and f l a v o u r " of the p a r t i c u l a r brand o f p r o d u c t . I n y e t another a d v e r t i s e m e n t , the baby foo d i s not g i v e n prominence a t a l l . Here, i t i s the cheapness and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of d i a p e r s d e s i g n e d s p e c i a l l y f o r the a d v e r t i s i n g baby food company t h a t r e c e i v e s the a t t e n t i o n . The c a p t i o n r e a d s : " . . . . f i r s t time ever! T h i s i s new "at home" f a s h i o n f o r baby! Cunning! C o l o r f a s t ! H i - D i d d l e D i a p e r s . " T h i s d i a p e r i s a d v e r t i s e d as a v a i l a b l e a t a d i s c o u n t r a t e when one buys a can o f t h i s baby food ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.2). S i m i l a r l y , i n another a d v e r t i s e m e n t , the t e x t a s s e r t s t h a t the baby foo d i s " d e s i g n e d w i t h t h e baby's e a t i n g p l e a s u r e i n mind." The a d v e r t i s e m e n t a l s o s t a t e s t h a t "Babies are our b u s i n e s s . . . o u r o n l y b u s i n e s s " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.3). I n t h e T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t , baby foods become the symbol o f mother's l o v e f o r her i n f a n t ; t hey are the answer rji^tiEoe ever! This new Tat-hcme'fi*^^ i n n i n g ! "Qite-fefit! ' \ n Hi-Diddle • Deeifrned Mp«-cully for Bwift ft Company—a emart new wrap-around for your own Hi-Diddle dumpling! It's • famous Cority diaper with tu ex-clusive animal print. A wonder* faNyioft,absorbent faute diaper—-full 21 a 40* laboratory tested, eolor-faat, with esclusivs, pa ten tod foJd-lines. MEATS FOR BABIES AND JUNIORS... EGG YOLKS FOR BABIES YOUB BABY must have plenty of protein every day—and Swift's Merita for Babies are a concentrated source of protein in a form aa Jiftrwtible as milk! All 7 varieties are pre-cooked, ready to serve, v rained so fine babies can eat them when they're only 6 weeks old. Try S«vift '• Strmhsed E M Yolks far Babiee, too. 8t-*rflis*d far purity... rich in blood-building; iron. Already cooked, ready to serve right trozs the can. Use the handy order form below. Hurry, though, offer is limited. Aotv lo Gron ii ma . . . Auntie: Ever hear of s baby with too sonny diapers? Get several for the uutvat baby you know! t W *nd •»* Curitr Ht-fMddlr lite-an. for n r h fit*,-* Mikfr.1 I rftclr*» XIW in rwin aad • lahrl tV,>ui un t<«» wf Ntriha M « U for BaWta <* JHMM W M M W U Swift*. E M Yolk* ft* BaUta. I M ST ATI •m w»rf n.mn> UB** «i pi--a January 31. 1SSA, -upi** » fiKauMMT. VmH war** prcMbawd. d o> MKrtkw ntr i r l M i Allow S waaia Sv aw-y. In (~»tuda. wM) l a M *aw» M l 1* Baa ISM, IM*. Ontario ~ I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.2 ' H i - D i d d l e D i a p e r s ' 63 6 4 t o "mother's p r a y e r s " . They a l s o enable f u l l and f a s t growth of b a b i e s . I t i s as though the baby food h e l p s the mother t o convey her l o v e towards her i n f a n t . Such a d e p i c t i o n i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n a c u l t u r e where mothers are expected t o nurse t h e i r b a b i e s t i l l t h e y are c o n s i d e r e d o l d enough to be f e d on homemade s o l i d f o o d s . N u r s i n g a baby i s equated w i t h mother's l o v e f o r the baby, i n t h a t p a r t i -c u l a r w o r l d view. T h e r e f o r e , b u y i n g a commercial baby food would need more th a n mere product i n f o r m a t i o n or d i s c o u n t r a t e s . C e r t a i n l y , i f the product w i t h i t s s p e c i a l c a p a c i t y to enable baby's f a s t and f u l l growth, i s seen as a s i g n of her l o v e f o r her baby, i t might p r o v i d e an adequate i n c e n -t i v e f o r the Ta m i l mother. N o r t h American c u l t u r e e n f o r c e s no such i n h i b i t i o n s on a mother's c h o i c e of a commercial baby f o o d . In f a c t , t h i s c u l t u r e w i t h i t s emphasis on con-v e n i e n c e and an easy l i f e s t y l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i s more than f a v o u r a b l e to a product t h a t w i l l r e s t r i c t t he freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f the mother. Hence, N o r t h American baby food a d v e r t i s e m e n t s need not p r o v i d e added i n c e n t i v e s t o i t s p o t e n t i a l b u y e r s . Shampoo The shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the N o r t h American m a t e r i a l w i l l r e f l e c t the c u l t u r a l l y approved needs o f an i n d i v i d u a l f o r r e c o g n i t i o n or a f f i l i a t i o n . I n t h i s c u l t u r e , s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n and companionship are seen t o 65 enhance a person's individuality and hence, these are of great importance to the " s e l f " . In compliance with this cultural outlook, the shampoo advertisements here address the individual . The product advertised silkens an i n d i v i -dual's hair, "leaves i t bright as s i l k , soft as s i l k , smooth as s i l k - and so obedient" ( I l lustrat ion 3-1•3)-Shampoo is said to change the appearance of a person's hair . It keeps the hair and scalp healthy; besides, i t "brings out the real l i f e and lustre, giving the hair that r i ch , fresh looking, well-groomed appearance" (Il lustration 3-1.4)• The advertiser's assumption seems to be that every consumer in this culture consciously or unconsciously desires to have a well groomed appearance to rise up to the cultural expectation of having social recognition as well as a f f i l i a t i o n . There is even a North American shampoo advertisement that promises i ts user the glamour of film stars l ike Elizabeth Taylor. The advertisement which visually depicts this movie star proclaims that she uses the advertised shampoo. "It is the favourite of four out of f ive Hollywood movie stars". It is the "shampoo of America's most glamorous women". The incentive provided here is the "glamour" which could be associated with the cultural value of social recognition (I l lustration 3-1 • 1)• The Tamil shampoo advertisements in contrast, are advertised with the entire family in mind. In these examples, a shampoo acts tenderly in children's hair , 66 I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.3 'Shampoo that silkens and softens hair* 67 I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.4 'A well-groomed appearance from shampooing' 68 l e a v e s t h e h a i r of the l a d y of the house s o f t and s h i n i n g , and i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e head o f the f a m i l y as w e l l . The message conveyed i s t h a t t h e shampoo i s s u i t a b l e f o r the ' e n t i r e f a m i l y ' , y e t i t c o s t s l e s s t h a n s i m i l a r shampoos ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 - 2 - 1 ) . These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e v e a l the c u l t u r a l v a l u a t i o n o f f a m i l y l o v e a l t h o u g h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e s i r e t o have s h i n i n g h a i r i s not a l t o g e t h e r i g n o r e d . The emphasis, however, i s on f a m i l y l o v e and p r i d e i n one's f a m i l y members. These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e i n f o r c e t h e g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e i n South A s i a f o r i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e s i r e s t o be met w i t h i n the bounds of the f a m i l y . I n s u r a n c e L i k e f o r the v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , no extended f a m i l y bonds are r e f e r r e d t o i n the t e x t u a l messages t a k e n from the N o r t h American sample, r e i n f o r c i n g the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn e a r l i e r . N o r t h American i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s do c o n t a i n some f a m i l y themes, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a d v e r t i s e -ment t e x t s but t h i s m a t e r i a l does not r e f u t e our g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l themes w i l l be g i v e n prominence h e r e . Por i n s t a n c e , the a d v e r t i s e m e n t of an i n s u r a n c e company from t h i s sample d e p i c t s a boy who 'hoards' empty match boxes, used g o l f b a l l s and b u t t o n s . A p p a r e n t l y , he i s ready t o buy a s p e c i a l boy's l i f e i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 1 . 7 ) . 6 9 ' on.***,07,a,,!* • »5-/7* *»•«•»•» a s u • one iniDUa I U U a? u a a u i a t r v x t ^ The Story of the "Problem Child "Bnpty matte bona, aaaj fob* balk aid button/-^ ^ « J M J oatpeiriraf taothar. "How ha boarder 'How rant!" aud bit east calmly. Than baa ready.' T a a W r •TV Inawre rai l tUnea.** "WHIN?" Hiaaaaaperatad ' •other pkaed up a atamp album. "Sm," aud hia aunt, "with thai ipacial boy'a Km jgauraaaa pefecy. Far Viardau;' tike thia e u both harp rjufld a (Bora manly eharactar ear/ been * worth whOl ettettr -"But wa't aa really too younfT* "Who, Mom?" tha hoy bunt into tha reran. "You, dear. Tb a m about a boy'a lift uauraaet paltw * "That paye a ffy'e oolite*? Or puta him in b anaaT Vymr eat it before you era Id it cvea aovaia fiyin' and tchttaT "Who tea) year hia aatrwianarl aunt a t r l a h u l T a a Miaiaaj • . • aa't ahaoat 15. aaa haaarai wander U l u . t r . t i o n 1.1.7 5.aU b o y . s l n s u r a n o e p o U p o l i c y See an e x c e r p t from t h i s l o n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t : "Who t o l d you" (about the p o l i c y ) ? , h i s a s t o n i s h e d aunt e x c l a i m e d . "Tim M o r r i s e y . . . h e i s almost 15, and he saves r e g u l a r l y f o r h i s c o l l e g e or t o put i t i n b u s i n e s s . Heck, who wouldn't? I s n ' t i t f o r a guy's own s e l f ? " The word 'own' i s i n i t a l i c s , p r o v i d i n g t o i t a d d i t i o n a l emphasis. I n another i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t from t h e same sample, the t e x t u a l emphasis i s on f a m i l y independ-ence. The i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y a d v e r t i s e d i s s a i d t o secu r e a f a m i l y ' s independence and the peace o f mind of the i n d i v i -d u a l who purchases t h i s p o l i c y ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.8). The N o r t h American c u l t u r a l v a l u a t i o n p l a c e d on man's domin-ance, f o r him t o n a t u r a l l y d e s i r e a c q u i s i t i o n and above a l l , f o r him t o be independent, are e n f o r c e d i n the t e x t s o f t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . Even the i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s from t h i s sample do not emphasize the consumer's concern w i t h f a m i l y maintenance and s o l i d a r i t y per se. I n s t e a d , t h e f o c u s here i s d i r e c t e d towards a consumer's ' s e l f . I t i s h i s a b i l i t i e s t o cope w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as w e l l as t o s a t i s f y h i s s e l f ' s d e s i r e , t o dominate, t o a c q u i r e , and t o be independent t h a t a re p o r t r a y e d i n t h e s e t e x t u a l messages. S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s were made p e r t a i n i n g t o the v i s u a l s . Note t h e f o l l o w i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t which has the c a p t i v a t i n g c a p t i o n : •H**,Mr3«<,af, J * l a n d his fami ly ach ieve I N D E P E N D E N C E Y°u MM* y e w faaruly h»T# F W o n r a p l t . . . a * tan patiara a Tra-dara l i f t ammtam wa* ffyatt for yoa thtt will avnift r o w fami l y , fu ton if y*a aaeeid at* iWrh • prw/Tain autotriatkaliy pcorid-. caeh for .vwwaTatataV A M . when taw l u n cnrtat i - m i l * . LA* plan at www Mat tar Y e n « a d f e w wif. ww**y U>a about v a r a of aVefW4*duaf jo* wJp. m*iwi-«iw,t L r ^ b t * . -wfora. M a r * dm* to do ttwnp t^a* - « - aa** fa*. T o * travel a o n , B»T* a» •I ta* btoilj, u, riivAfB you avjor ead look . w w a f-J t* law mj • * » » you caa rTNam Aa a UMwchtfel aua f e u tek# it*r tift-r te w w f c eat lb*** par- f e w car a fu ra t pmortfj l iaMity and proper*,- eaaww; . . . aati • e a J protiiiiMi aad yoe don't rUm r o w a-uod le ta* tWaya awjld you free. ew«y eipwaai Uial eaa wammium ha tar >*JUPBI tWt eouM Kaptw tn taw of aWLiwtk. ara idnt, aW w ta* eea* " t t ty of your family navies te r.ary am without ym> Of aB tht pawpa* in your Wm. t w ran ilufU af ao aa* a*ttar t ^ M e d te cauiaw. yeu on ta**** mxtmim Laaa yow Tnvwara •^twemafive. F w ha* m t w ••• fnpaay tool effara aff mwmt e/ all the aWt*^ un>« 1W rhmitM family *a)em Y e w T n r v i a n a^r-M M o t protect ye* ta other v«yt. ta*. B a yow botm a s B r n t Set and tnito>twn aad aWfiafB. T a w * m a T r a r e k * . r a w a w i U u ' w a** fowraart ym a * l aw to arrw* your ' • ' » . ' aw* w w * af n i n d . . . wita a p n w v i LKM • a> aa* tmk yoar I r a n i taVa-wTVky dom'l yoa *M is 4*ME* wtt* aW.~a*fa>* ewjQw day warn fcft •ABlOl Ltfa • Accidnt • Gnup. tin Autrmrkik . Cmmltr • to* >' |>i eea aaaaataa* te k n t k r Ik* T re* * * * * ajeat eea • b a tar Owe* teat •rai . Ma. tpTtrajary. tra. |M»waa. faa*»ai,, p-m**! Imm af tB-w <• i*»n> '>wr r«wU> t m m wlit alwr U . > « ataa ar< ia****• mrnvrmmx mv* mith t Tran>* i t-a* far A*>w*» lawi^rij . • wj. A a>*n talk * i i a yaw Tr.»f4w» taa- -.ill aba atarlyfwai a*aiawa>at*a»*^ »lBiai m b t t w y t a i i i i * * ' I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.8 ' F a m i l y ' s independence' 72 "Some t i m e so o n , C a r o l Hansen's f i a n c e w i l l ask h i m s e l f i f he has enough l i f e i n s u r a n c e . (And how much i s enough anyway?)" Any h u s b a n d - t o - b e would t a k e t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t as d i r e c t e d a t h i m s e l f . When h i s f i a n c e a s k s him about l i f e i n s u r a n c e as she w i l l sometimes do, he c a n n o t l e t h i m s e l f down. The a d v e r t i s e m e n t g e t s t h i s message a c r o s s t o t h e r e a d e r . Men a r e h e r e s u b t l y d e f i n e d as i n t e r e s t e d i n d o m i n a t i o n , p r o -t e c t i o n and s e l f - p r i d e . Such a v a l u a t i o n o f man's needs has t h i s c u l t u r e ' s a p p r o v a l t o o . In c e r t a i n i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , t h e messages c o n v e y e d v i s u a l l y a r e r e p e a t e d by t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g t e x t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t v i s u a l l y p o r t r a y s p r o t e c t i o n b e h i n d a s a f e t y l o c k , a l s o s p e l l s i t out i n i t s t e x t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.3)- S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e P r u d e n t i a l I n s u r a n c e Company a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t h e v i s u a l d e p i c t i o n o f c o p i n g w i t h new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p r o t e c t i n g a g r o w i n g f a m i l y r e c e i v e emphasis i n t h e t e x t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.5). And t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t has t h e v i s u a l image o f a man c o n t r o l l i n g a b u l l c l a r i f i e s i t : " . . . t h e r e were p r o b l e m s f a r m l a n d c o u l d n ' t s o l v e . L i k e , how'd my w i f e pay o f f t h e m o r t -gage i f s o m e t h i n g happened t o me. What would she have t o l i v e on? R i g h t t h e n and t h e r e , we work out a program o f MONY i n s u r a n c e . F i r s t , t o p r o t e c t t h e f a r m f o r my w i f e . Then when t h e k i d s come a l o n g , t o h e l p w i t h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . . . " . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.4) 73 I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.9 'How much i n s u r a n c e i s enough?' 74 Or, i n another a d v e r t i s e m e n t : "The S t a t e Farm money t r e e makes sure t h a t your l i f e won't be u p r o o t e d . . . . I t g i v e s your home deeprooted p r o t e c t i o n " . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.2) A g a i n , t h i s i s a v e r b a l r e i t e r a t i o n o f a v i s u a l p o r t r a y a l t h a t r e i n f o r c e s the c u l t u r a l v a l u a t i o n of f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l -i t y and t h e n o t i o n t h a t one s h o u l d ensure h i s f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y . P o r t r a y a l o f Woman V i s u a l l y , t he N o r t h American i n s u r a n c e sample has not even a s i n g l e a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e s a woman's dependent s t a t u s . I n the p a r a l l e l T a m i l m a t e r i a l , however, t h e r e i s one t e x t u a l p o r t r a y a l of a dependent woman ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.1). The man who has c o n t r o l over a b u l l o c k i s op e n l y w o r r i e d about h i s w i f e . She i s t o t a l l y dependent on him t o pay o f f the mortgage. I t i s he who can h e l p her improve her f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s by t a k i n g t h e p o l i c y ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.4). De t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s show no d i f f e r e n c e i n the r o l e p o r t r a y a l o f women i n N o r t h American v e r s u s T a m i l m a t e r i a l s . T h i s i s the case b o t h f o r t e x t s as w e l l as f o r v i s u a l s . No man does t h e f a m i l y l a u n d r y , and the woman who does i t i s h o p i n g f o r her husband's a p p r e c i a t i o n . I f she does not get t h e wash w h i t e , she w i l l have to f a c e an angry husband. See the example of a N o r t h American d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5.1.1). The c a p t i o n o f t h i s 75 ( Happy husband! New Qlf with whitening, . i discovery washes his "yellowed" shirt back to ' fresh white again.. .without bleaching! I l l u s t r a t i o n 5 . 1 . 1 ' C l e a n wash t o p l e a s e h u s b a n d s ? ' 76 one i s al o n e s u f f i c i e n t t o e x e m p l i f y the theme. I t r e a d s : "Happy husband? New ' a l l ' w i t h w h i t e n i n g d i s c o v e r y washes h i s " y e l l o w e d " s h i r t back t o f r e s h w h i t e a g a i n . . . " . We s h a l l now examine the t e x t s i n the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f the 1975 samples a l o n e . The 1975 M a t e r i a l : Cosmetics Not many c o s m e t i c company a d v e r t i s e m e n t s drawn from th e N o r t h American sample were concerned w i t h f a m i l y i s s u e s . The c a p t i o n of one such a d v e r t i s e m e n t r e a d s : "With two s m a l l c h i l d r e n , a n i n e - f i v e job i s out of the q u e s t i o n . That's why I l o v e b e i n g an Avon R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I'm e a r n i n g good money and I'm t h e r e when the c h i l d r e n need me". However, i n t h e body copy, t h i s s e n t i m e n t i s f u r t h e r j u s t i f i e d t h u s : " C a l l me o l d f a s h i o n e d . I want my boys t o be r a i s e d by me - not a b a b y s i t t e r " . ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.1) T h i s does v a l u e t h e " f a m i l y bond", y e t e x p r e s s e s some r e c o g n i t i o n of p o s s i b l e ambivalence when a woman's e a r n i n g power i s a t s t a k e . Hence the term o l d f a s h i o n e d . I t can be good or bad, though the a d v e r t i s e m e n t suggests a judge-ment i n i t s f a v o u r . Another a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t q u a l i f e d as a family-a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n the N o r t h American sample i s f o r an a f t e r shave l o i t o n . Here t h e a d v e r t i s e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p r o -duct would make a p e r f e c t F a t h e r ' s Day g i f t i f the c h i l d ' s h e a r t "belongs t o daddy". Yet t h e v i s u a l image does not show a f a t h e r and c h i l d t o g e t h e r ; t h e r e i s no s h a r i n g be-tween them as persons. The i d e a p o r t r a y e d i s merely one o f g i f t g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g . A p p a r e n t l y , daddy's h e a r t b e l o n g s t o the pr o d u c t as t h e v i s u a l shows and not t o h i s c h i l d ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.7). Yet another a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t p o r t r a y s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e N o r t h American sample shows a woman who t a k e s p r i d e i n h e r s e l f . She i s "...a grandmother who gai n e d a g i r l i s h f i g u r e . . . " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1 . 8 ) . Graining a g i r l i s h f i g u r e w i l l w i n s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r a grand-mother. T h i s , as p o i n t e d out b e f o r e , i s o f c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as N o r t h American c u l t u r e approves s e l f -grooming t h a t would enhance one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y as w e l l as c o n f i d e n c e o f one's own s e l f . Another woman i n a s i m i l a r a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a f a t r e d u c t i o n p l a n o p e n l y s a y s : "...my teenage n i e c e s and nephews are now proud t o i n t r o d u c e me as t h e i r aunt. I n f a c t e v e r y -body i s a l o t h a p p i e r w i t h me...". ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.9) In t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t a f a m i l y r e c o g n i z e s a person f o r her appearance. When she says t h a t now her r e l a t i o n s are proud 78 79 th>,'*3.KU..C7.oe,-rj I never stopped eating yet I lost 107 pounds. By Catherine Dutches — aa told to Ruth L. McCarthy Al t M aoaadV I • I B M . tut d dtd»'t aa * mtfrom l A m u a * a a a l a r r tear* • / i s l am* . thing** for aura. I d idst get up Is 235 pound* by eating T V dinners. It waa meala likt cucumber* dipped ia tag and breadcrumb, and fried la but-Wr. aarvad with macaroni amothered is cheeeo. and sweetened with a daaaart l iar Bundt caka or my own data and nut roll that did it. Believe ma. whan you aat like that, it'a aaay lo get fat, aope-da i ly whan you a u n young. I waa railed on a produea b r m hi Paramuj. N J . And I (raw up worming aada by aid* with tha Sum hand*, ao 1 Warned to aat hearty aa aoon aa I could rift and lick a caka apoon. When I waa in my taena, rd gat up at five, have braakfaat of fried potatoes, ham. brand, jam and caSea. Than rd work ia the ft. Ids on til eeven- That would g i *» me juat enough time to take • bath, aat another mack and go off to achool. Whan Ti get home, Fd be hungry enough to eat tha icsba*. b a n lt'a no wander I weighed ISA panada* by th* time I waa 21. the year I max- • ried Ted — a a i i - b o u r who weighed' three pound* lent than I did. It d i d s t ; seem to bother him. though. He'* Dutch'. ass . with my Carman psiUllage, wa • bath hack t* eating Ufce than waat aa ether reason tar lhrtag I Our frieada war* all 200-pounds atom, tan. Why, anca. whan I eomplainsd •bout the shape I waa in, on* of them amid: "Doat worry, Catherine, yeur akin te eUeuhed to the limit. Now yau e n eat ail you want." And I did. Than my back began to ache, my be* rtarted to hurt from carrying all that weight, and my atomarh continually got ia the way What a meaa 1 Finally, a friend of mine amid Is "Catherine, let'atry thee* reduring-plan candies, Ayda ' . " And ah* bought m* a hot of t h * vanilla ceram*) k ind First, I read th* label on the bos to check out th* ingradienta. When I mund that Ayda eontaina vitamins and miner*]*, but no drug* — noth-ing harmful — I atmrtsd right is oa the plan with her. Then 1 remembered hearing oner during a phyaical e&am that ta burs up (at, you seed to eat th* right foods, l i s * meat and Baled* and vegetable*. To ma It was she comparing the body to s far-naee that need* proper stoking to get it to bum like it enould. Wall, oa the Ayda plan. 1 began i s atok* mine good. Instead of etuflng myaalf with starch**, aweeta and junk. I ate lika I should. Only I ate lees, bo-eauea I * anted lee* 1 took oa* or two Ayda like the direction* say. with a hot drink, and these candisa really helped curb my appetite- Why. is ai i weeks, rd lest IS pound* sa the Ayda plan And f l l tall you, when I aaw th* ecalee go-ing down, t h a n was no mora •st ing just to fill up that bag cavity ia front. People really mdat take much antics, though, aati l r d lest at pauses. That * when my cloths* looked like they were deaigaed by O m a r , the Teat ataker. sad everybody began remark-ing about my losing weight Sometimes, it'a hard eves far set to believe what* happened ate. a grand-mother who gained a gcrueh ngure at age 54 But the beat thing i* aoe, n hap-pened Thank* ta the Ayd* plan. I lost 107 pounds, yet 1 never tupped eating. And Tir* never fah better S—r eke* Tm eeare caoleWaiar ear rat • a* anaae a-aer** l*» par caaT eeeamf B E F O R E A N D A J T E B a t X A S l T R E l C T N T w After I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.8 •A grandmother who gained a g i r l i s h f i g u r e ' - Advertisement of diet plan I lost half of myself without taking diet pills. By Donna Walk**- — aa told to Ruth L. McCarthy U T k m 1 n M i nebs around, t e a w T tt inches ta l l even my favorite fat lady's ( t e n has a problem.1 knew, baeauee at X7t pounds I v o n tba largest bloomers thsy has. Ana that's tha only oars far them — bloomers — evwo though I'm of the generation thai arually refers Fart ta. tha thought of having aoth. ia f ta wear mode ma to panicky. I said ta myself: "Thia ia it! You've fat ta loot weight. Donne" Not that f woe on-awara ef a y sua before. U l a n were toe maay embarrassing reminders ia my Ufa far ma la ignore my weight. Far inataara. et my fullert f ifure, I fit aa aaufly into a tub that the water wee dammed up behind me whea 1 pulled the prog out ia front of me. And wbea I Mood up ia a ahower atoll. I couleni even band avar ta pick up a bar of tamp. iwa» trapped by a)y appetite. Aa far ereaaee. I had o n e t f i f o to work in. I washed it every aight ems every day for one whole year because it waa tha only drees that fit. 1 think I ought to mention that i chocolate and iweeta were my undo-ing. But ironically, candy ia what re-ally helped mt lot* weight Aydt* Re-ducing Plan Candy. I'd read ada about it m mtgatinf i and when I learned that Ayd* eontaina vitamins and mia-arala, but oo drugs. 1 thought maybe, at leal, Td found what 1 needed. I knew tVem peat experience that diet pilla, weekly reducing tetaiona and even a psychiatrist were not the answer for sot I t i l l e d toraething lo help curb my appetite and my eternal craving aw. I bought a o n of chocolate fudge Ayea at the drug store and started on tha plan in the fall. 1 took one or two Ayda about 15 minutaa before each meal with a hot drink, and it really . helped me cut down on what I a u . And I ate regular meala. nothing epeaal. •tight from the start, 1 had such a positive reeling about the Aydt plan, I task aa a ISO bet from my friend's Ht 'g heard me ta" bating weight far 10 yean , hut t saw ma da anything about IL So he figured it was goiag to be aa easy win. Waa be wrong1 In the end, he had to pay up. became the weight came off. Nobody really noucad it until I'd lost more than 50 pounds You sea. I hadn't bought any new clothes, so I waa hidden under a lot of baggy pants and aacky tops. Then et Easter, when Td taken off TS pounds on the Aydt plan, I turned out in e new lavender pantauit and everybody was smaasd. I waa thrilled, and mors determined than ever te stick te tha Ayda plan. I gueas, though, we never see our-selves as others do. Let sat tell you about a remark- my nophee made while I waa still losing weight He'd osen mt at his sister's wedding, wear-ing a sue 52 beige tent- months after I'd been on the Ayds plan. I apr eared et his wadding in a nxe 18 drees. He was ao shocked, he said: "Whet were you wearing the last time 1 aew yeu — your beige VolkawegeoT Funny, I knew I waa fit, but not that fat How long did it take me te lose 142 pounds on the Aydt plan? Just about a year, and now I can do things I never could before For the first time, believe it or not. I can cross my legs — libs a lady. I can also see aft of me in a mir-ror. And I can even d imh up a pool ladder without fear of breaking i t On the serious side, my teenage nieces and nephews are taow proud to introduce me ea their a ent In l a d , everybody ia a lot happier with ma. now that I'm only 37w inches around. Which makes me forever grateful far the Ayde plan. ' JVew tm l i t aoeaoj. r V a r e X Co—., tmrily ' BaTOeuT. AND A F T O ISXASUUMKNTB fete efis »••• •»«• Weight ITS lea . — I M tee I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1-9 'Everyone i s a l o t happier with me' - Advertisement of d i e t plan 81 to i n t r o d u c e h e r , t h e i m p r e s s i o n conveyed i s t h a t p r e v i o u s -l y t h ey were ashamed to acknowledge any r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r . These are j u s t some of the f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the North American sample. Now we s h a l l examine i n depth some a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o p e r s o n a l c a r e p r o d u c t s and t o s e r v i c e s f o r 1 975 -The b e s t f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n the N o r t h American i n s u r a n c e sample i s t h e one t h a t d e c l a r e s 'you are i n good hands' ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.1). T h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t c a l l s f o r wisdom on the p a r t of t h e r e a d e r : ' i f you are smart you w i l l s t a r t a l i f e i n s u r a n c e program t h a t can change you'. I t a l s o c a r r i e s a f o o t note t h a t the F a m i l y P l a n Package d e s c r i b e d i n the a d v e r t i s e m e n t i s a two parent p l a n but t h a t a one parent p o l i c y i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e . T h i s f o o t n o t e g i v e s a c l u e as t o the p r e v a l e n c e i n the wider s o c i e t y of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s at which the a d v e r t i s e m e n t i s aimed. The i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t which d e p i c t s an i n s u r -ance agent on one s i d e and a f a m i l y on the o t h e r has a l r e a d y been i n t e r p r e t e d by us as c l o s e n e s s . T h i s c l o s e -ness i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d i n the t e x t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.6). The c a p t i o n mentions t h a t the agent i s "one o f a k i n d " , t h u s g i v i n g the f a m i l y which i s t a k i n g the p o l i c y a sense o f b e l o n g i n g to the i n s u r a n c e agent and the company. The company i s ' l i k e a good n e i g h b o u r ' , always t h e r e when you need i t . The agent, l i k e a good neighbour a g a i n , can 82 p r o v i d e ' k n o w l e d g e a b l e a d v i c e and p e r s o n t o p e r s o n s e r v i c e ' . Thus t h e t e x t u a l message e x p l a i n s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c l o s e -n e s s t h a t i s v i s u a l l y d e p i c t e d . I t i s b o t h a p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y and an e m o t i o n a l i n t i m a c y . In t h e T a m i l sample f a m i l y themes a p p e a r i n t h e i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s more i n t h e t e x t t h a n i n t h e v i s u a l s . The L i f e I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t v i s u a l l y d e p i c t s e x t e n d e d f a m i l y c a r e e l a b o r a t e s t h e woman's l i f e s t o r y i n t h e t e x t : 'New L a k s h m i has t h e c o n -f i d e n c e and f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y t o manage a l o n e i n l i f e ' b e c a u s e h e r husband V i j a y who d i e d i n an a c c i d e n t had t a k e n a p o l i c y ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.1). Note t h a t t h e p o l i c y n o t o n l y e n a b l e s L a k s h m i t o manage a l o n e i n l i f e b u t a l s o p r o v i d e s h e r t h e c o n f i d e n c e t o l i v e a l o n e - a t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i t s e l f . But t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i f a woman's husband p l a n s e a r l i e r t o h e l p h e r t o cope w i t h a s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t him. In t h e T a m i l sample t h e r e a r e some bank a d v e r t i s e -ments t o o , whereas t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n does n o t have any. These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s m a n i f e s t t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a man w i l l assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the m a i n t e n a n c e o f h i s f a m i l y . One bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t r e m i n d s t h e r e a d e r o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a p a r e n t t o ' t r a n s f o r m a c h i l d ' s dream t o r e a l i t y . H i s p r o t e c t i o n i s w i t h i n y o u r embrace'. The c a p t i o n o f t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t p o s e s t h e q u e s t i o n ' I n n o c e n t mind - s h o u l d i t w o r r y i n f u t u r e ? ' ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.2). 83 9*9 • » » » * t S •«"» « 9 » « " » — • » » * « • > . * • * « 9 * < * > aetata aeraat, aerara • ftWiiaa QuftBajt OtaaC*. « » a i •a t faw aaaa y a a a a . <vi>.ja*« Mdli, mmmm taaatuw a , a a a £ a t r i a , a g a a a ^ * * * . «.*>•* (#>Mf>a * » a ua e>J0qi.4i^*a* a i a l w g M B w . • » 9 a a e . •,*••> e y t a e a a ' . t a r ' 0a<a aaaaiLSa — fiiaVftf* i*«oau<a C . * u a a j j a . CAMCUT-aOI-alM TAM I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.2 ' I n n o c e n t mind. S h o u l d i t w o r r y i n f u t u r e ? ' 84 Another bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n the Tamil sample draws out i n words a t h o u g h t f u l f a t h e r who p r o u d l y s a y s : "Prom now on, I am p a y i n g h i s c o l l e g e f e e s but he has not y e t reached k i n d e r g a r d e n . • . Here i s my l o v i n g R a h u l . . . I need not worry about h i s c o l l e g e f e e s and o t h e r expenses." ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.3) Yet another bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t d e s c r i b e s i t s scheme which ' g i v e s you money when you d e s p e r a t e l y need i t ' . Three such d e s p e r a t e needs e n v i s a g e d by the a d v e r t i s e r are son's h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , daughter's wedding and b u i l d i n g a house t o l i v e i n ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 2 . 4 ) - In the Tamil c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y t o o , t h e s e are c o n s i d e r e d major expenses f o r a f a m i l y . The c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f a f a t h e r meeting the expenses towards h i s sons' e d u c a t i o n and daughters' weddings i s w e l l - r e f l e c t e d and w e l l - r e i n f o r c e d i n the s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . I s t h e r e any f a t h e r who would not want to f u l f i l l h i s d u t i e s towards h i s c h i l d r e n ? And, i s t h e r e any man who would not want to have h i s own home? I f he i s a f a m i l y o r i e n t e d p e r s o n , i t i s a l l the more r e a s o n a b l e f o r him to d e s i r e a home of h i s own to be bequeathed to h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n . F u l f i l l i n g one's d u t i e s towards c h i l d r e n , h a v i n g one's own home, b e q u e a t h i n g p e r s o n a l l y a c q u i r e d p r o p e r t i e s t o one's own w i f e and c h i l d r e n e t c . are c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d needs and wants. 85 ' QuCufGjSj ©fiuSHi® p a r f t f f l a u i f l * gsfrgiii ^jiiuuusisflOTUjIJaj BIILSISASB). fa** • • » r>e**e. V * » « ^ » ' B J » « • * ftWButOu* ^ i S a t a a a i a t . «»e4a* »•*>. e>a*a.aa#* avaaaa. a**W*,imaaieT • *u»9«s*» O n J s e J C S t a r . aasva'cle u % a 0 < 3 y r w a * a j a * * * • *? u O j » e ssjwwvb O a i a t i f * . « » * j a v S a i u i c a a * 120 * t * * > e e « s " a S r a ^ a * a a * a « J i " O i t | | < : » f a s * «a> laaaH* eegaar-«dw«|*ee* *•>*• •»»»» Sara Saaaiaa jaa . * ea .a»<ta« g s a e a t * . a « 0 r * r * a rraj.ataY a a a r * * Of aaiai efcePtaa Q a r a a , ttH « » ' • • V # ' ( » >9a> anjua9u •**ifla#U O^uraa. # C i . t i e 3 » > » » a l a S a i * . a iOt jarapJaete w Q a r w * 4 * 4 a 3 « J u u a w a u u i Ow«a *>eae> . a u * . OiiBia aSsraae jae aagaf-a a d a a . * a c t i « a a > « g a } u 9 u i w 0 a afawS 0 « u a j 4 a a . ai01]B0Ujmj LITTU& a aiaat jigMa»d<i aveYar aja/fiajf av u f 4 4 I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.3 'I am p a y i n g h i s f e e s from now on' u n c o o n^ i i i i D i p - s> i D _ • \ ^ ' " ? « • • • « * > 0 * i S * » © • » - a j a a e a a a) at • ateB. j ) n f a i ( i w i $«fp*e ©•»•» aa? e«,a) J t « « V i ( i • « j l f j c u J a a Q u f t S g i afj^mftsaaa-Qaueai-. *3f9uio1tlt_ 9 9 0|'"t«ii • re.ae** t)a> Jimigjm.Qm.mi Cauftqwaax. j i a t i f j , Q * • £ • > * > « • 9 S 0»«"»aa»»j Jiajair Quaialfa Q*ff>a*'0 Oau^aaaar. a.fMaar aj^aa>s>9aV •arSar* i f i i j O u f l i i Cf,«*iu fuejtftSaJ. a>u<aa e«a>a«A I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.4 Bank advertisement 87 Shampoo T h e r e i s o n l y one shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample. T h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t p r o m i s e s t h e u s e r o f t h i s shampoo one o f t h e t e n d e r e s t moments she/he w i l l e v e r e x p e r i e n c e . I t a p p e a l s : " L e t our new baby baby yo u r h a i r " . U n l i k e t h e f a m i l y themes i n t h e T a m i l shampoo a d v e r t i s e -ments, t h i s N o r t h A m e r i c a n shampoo example i s n o t d i r e c t e d a t t h e consumer's f a m i l y , I t m e r e l y u s e s f a m i l y symbols t o emphasize t h e u n i q u e and s p e c i a l e x p e r i e n c e t h e consumer w i l l e n j o y as a r e s u l t o f u s i n g t h i s b r a n d o f shampoo ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 - 1 - 2 ) . The T a m i l shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t , on t h e o t h e r hand, s a y s t h e p r o d u c t i s f o r "you r c h i l d , y o u y o u r s e l f and a l s o f o r t h e head o f t h e f a m i l y " . Men a r e t h e heads o f t h e f a m i l y and women, t h e homemakers and p u r c h a s e r o f p r o d u c t s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3 . 2 . 1 ) . D e t e r g e n t A l i q u i d d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t from the N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample p r o v i d e s a good example o f a woman's r o l e p o r t r a y a l i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s i n t h i s g r o u p . The woman i n one t e x t u a l message s a y s : " I have t h e same r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s most m a r r i e d women have. I make a home f o r a husband and t h r e e c h i l d r e n . And t h a t means housework and l o t s o f d i s h e s . . . " . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5 - 1 - 2 ) T h i s p o r t r a y a l o f women's work i s t r u e o f t h e T a m i l sample as w e l l . 88 0*1, M l A , M . O e . e j a ) , m a t c h t h e i r t t h e i r a g e s ? . " • . V : ~ : r.). i. t l > * t r Age * 0 ^ M ^ -Itaot easy, it h ? Ttaey both have yrjuilg kwfc-ing hands, Nancy Macintosh, age 20, ia a teacher and hardly ever washes a dish. But Mr*. Shcrroa Sandriri, age 31, doc* loci ot* them every day. She •aye,"! han the tame rcrporajbtlitia mort roamed women hare.1 make a home for a husband and three children. And that means houeework and Iocs of dishes! That's why I take cart of my hands and use mild Ivory Liquid. 1 just know Ivory Liquid help* me keep my hands young looking.** RCId h w y I J q ^ helps [ kt^IiaiKis young ro^ Ml I l l u s t r a t i o n 5-1.2 Woman's role portrayal in a detergent advertisement 89 P e r s o n a l C a r e Most o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r P e r s o n a l Care p r o d u c t s emphasize t h e " l o o k " o f t h e woman who u s e s them as t h o u g h ' l o o k s ' a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o a woman. Most o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s c l a i m t o p r o v i d e y o u n g e r l o o k s and p r o -t e c t i o n a g a i n s t some harm. The a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a s k i n l o t i o n c l a i m s t o p r o v i d e " s o f t e r , smoother and y o u n g e r l o o k i n g s k i n " and ' s a v e s e v e r y p r e c i o u s i n c h o f y o u r s k i n ' . A c o s m e t i c company a d v e r t i s e m e n t p r o m i s e s p r o t e c t i o n f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s on your s k i n and h a i r and " a c t u a l l y k e e p s y o u r s k i n y o u n g e r l o o k i n g " and g i v e s y ou "a f r e s h e r l o o k , a smoother s u r f a c e , a s o f t e r f e e l " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 1 . 3 ) - The a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a b e a u t y o i l i s t o any woman who might t h i n k m i r r o r . i s h e r enemy: "You c o n f r o n t a c e r t a i n t r u t h i n y o u r m i r r o r . You have grown o l d e r l o o k i n g w i t h o u t r e a l i s i n g i t . . . And you a l m o s t h a t e y o u r m i r r o r f o r b e i n g so h o n e s t . . . " . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 1 . 1 0 ) The a d v e r t i s e m e n t i l l u m i n a t e s t h e A m e r i c a n women's s e n s e o f h o r r o r i n a g i n g and o f f e r s t h e p r o d u c t t h a t would " h e l p women l o o k t h e i r y o u n g e s t no m a t t e r what t h e i r age". The a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a f a c i a l m o i s t u r i z e r makes i t s use an e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e n s e s . "You c an f e e l i t , t o u c h i t , and d i s c o v e r i t . . . " . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 . 4 ) 90 t^J V s . bVbur rtTirror \bur E n e m y ? 1 , r . V«i |» tiwf Itw r«r* ad kaaa»f f-* M. Ytmi taw. r°*H mni ot i am • • • 1 aTtna. a faw r-MiTM- Y« *• mmmm \m\mm liilirt- trrilm rvMOB. IL •r**mii«i if ta Irwl | JBIWPW. T*- teMTf feet* • • Vji|>lj-»i»iblf tMMfiti »f aa l •HIMMI l«M*it-> fluxl tlut IMIBB • look ttei* TO«tit*«*t. •»» nj •> baei. La* tta tanaa**/ mmn\ km gpati "-art (bra^ r-uafi ax-m of tim-L Taw eft* tmxmfi+y mrnwy manim** a* • tpiiil |iiiiiliillr«Ti rat^ffrtatT tBfatet* bam Or. if fmu Ufca to kfi >*MaT atari U—t I I I M B I fraa r u n -n J . Oi 4* Otor #-«. >-*>a* (an • 4m—J, haatra-at gtOW, Oat tat Olarf as taw a«add|a of rJaa da*/, kratv a t wfruhnf. m>UM«V» r •»•>. Ta»i tbxmt Ve*.*. Ol^ Oawf i l u p T in«aWa»w <ajr>/ * T M mm tamtm Wmtrtrnt gimrnxm MaW-BTa, M t Ikw >m. -KWSJB fkw *a*» .**• a, aV «nW ,*w *?.| yam mnk (Mm i%m roe, ..vuai. Or wAw- ***> am-am; o-m'+frnm tmm\ ammmm. Mow* f i| i • W ay Otf mtOmvmm »WQ»WeW.WT. •VMayt-i • fait** fYcj.1 Ue*m-m—(MmtOmj* -mm -lamriir*. oMaf, ant* B-tajaieJ '*•'/*# aunaf m+s-grt*—. u wm't t4U Mat otlaW taVdlaMla, lam "afar- *BBB> yaw HaaM aaaV.) rT* a) • t^ orJtal^ laT^ a, I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-. 1.10 ' I s m i r r o r y o u r enemy?' - B e a u t y o i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t 9 1 T h i s i s an e x p e r i e n c e o f s o f t n e s s as w e l l as l i f e ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 . 4 ) . I n N o r t h American c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y , women e x p e r i e n c e a sense o f f r u s t r a t i o n and f e a r a t , l o s i n g t h e i r youth and beauty perhaps due t o the widespread t r e n d towards broken f a m i l i e s and the h i g h l y p r e v a l e n t syndrome o f " s i n g l e women". The a d v e r t i s e r s o f the N o r t h American c o s m e t i c companies o f our sample have u t i l i z e d t h i s c u l t u r a l theme i n t h e i r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . I n these a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i f woman's p e r s o n a l i t y a r i s e s from her beauty, man's i n d i v i d u -a l i t y has a l o t t o do w i t h " g r e a t n e s s " . The ad v e r t i s e m e n t of a cologne f o r men bestows g r e a t n e s s on the man who uses the p r o d u c t . I t s t e x t i s j u s t a parody: "Some men are born t o g r e a t n e s s , Some a c h i e v e g r e a t n e s s and Some have i t g i v e n to them. Old S p i c e . A c l a s s i c f r a g r a n c e , a g r e a t g i f t " . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 , . 11) I t i s a c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y t h a t man i s the s u p e r i o r of the sexes and i t i s a c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e t h a t the s u p e r i o r men sh o u l d possess i n d i v i d u a l i t y and g r e a t n e s s . The t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s of the P e r s o n a l Care product a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the Tamil sample i s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e i r v i s u a l s . They are not a l l s t r i c t l y p e r s o n a l . Tooth-paste i s a " c a v i t y - f i g h t i n g f a m i l y guard" i n t h i s sample. I t p r o t e c t s t e e t h from b a c t e r i a as w e l l as s t r e n g t h e n s I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.11 'Greatness t o men through a c o l o g n e ' - A c o l o g n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t 93 them. T h e r e f o r e , one s h o u l d buy i t f o r her f a m i l y . A l t h o u g h the N o r t h American sample has no t o o t h p a s t e adver-t i s e m e n t s , i t has some a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r denture c l e a n s e r s . One c l e a n s e r o f f e r s t o 'save your s m i l e ' ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.12) whereas another promises t o remove 'denture odour' so t h a t "you can get as c l o s e as you want" ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.5)- A g a i n , t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e f l e c t the c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d d e s i r e o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o be p l e a s i n g t o o t h e r s and t o g a i n s o c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n . A s m i l e has the c u l t u r a l c o n n o t a t i o n o f f r i e n d l i n e s s ; w i t h o u t i t , one cannot g a i n s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n . One p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n the T a m i l sample c l a i m s t h a t i t i s the t r u s t e d m e d i c i n e used by f a m i l i e s f o r over e i g h t y y e a r s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.6) and a s s e r t s t h a t i t i s a good m e d i c i n e "which must be t h e r e i n every f a m i l y " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.7). Yet another balm i s a d v e r t i s e d f o r i t s 'warmth' which s y m b o l i s e s warmth o f mother's l o v e , warmth of her hands e t c . The t e x t r e a d s : 'Rub i t i n t h e nose o f your p r e c i o u s . Nose b l o c k a g e would be removed. Rub i t on h i s c h e s t , i t would p r o v i d e r e l i e f from c o l d . . . ' ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.3). The v i t a m i n t o n i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t which has t h e v i s u a l o f a happy f a m i l y i n a b o t t l e a s s e r t s i n the t e x t t o purchase i t f o r 'your f a m i l y ' ; i t c o u l d p r o v i d e growth and e n e r g i z i n g w e l l - b e i n g f o r your f a m i l y ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.4). 94 I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 . 1 2 ' S a v e y o u r s m i l e ' - A d e n t u r e c l e a n s e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t flNV Xi-f-79- 46 «i_«<«>•«»• +f&*m *a«ciow»«» u4aj tftQftfru CkjtfJ,***** H J I H y , c4ws«A « i * M e i t . M M T I M O fj«i». « f S u u t k a > t t »(>OU) a u A g ) gu m»\mm •*r3»j u w * — v * a to stum»rm mt)t0. \_ I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 2 . 6 ' T r a d i t i o n a l l y u s e d m e d i c i n e ' - A p a i n b a l m a d v e r t i s e m e n t 96 •«.j»»tr-^  a a ) a«<a»e • ( o u * • • > » » * « a e a > a t * a * « • « • • * * •wat » t r * a a a a a . • a * » • ' « « * . ajejtaaeaa. a . . . * * * * . * •> * • | a * • *>«> .a»epa«*« * * a « e > » e > e tawa* . a * # u » r * eafffeaa • a t i s it Ci t tMau utt a>$*uaj •ana) uuekui l f j atrjie •aauaaxts aaautaj. I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.7 'It should be there i n every family' - A pain balm advertisement afalavaS, f g e r t a f a a i * . L L C a v 4»a) iu&&(>e .a } * « S » » « ( * J » » » « > # « w , 1 atifcaar *»5j i i*«T « ^ « c t a u > a i u « f f ifrrsftfju G k , « s * > M " a » w i m j , e j u s * * f a a eve»e««*) iSe aSaof aSa) elejMaatia . 4«af t4a) i t . w ( j t i t , «<(1iui<rwa >«B i e £ p i * ••«•) j » , aaawi A f S u L. \m.m — Q a e k n •fa'ajeatwti AmumSpn . « a f ' « r a } . « + -l a w i a j f jauaVaar la i e»a/arwi20 aiajaV a a W a a r a r a>e)e«y . L___ j a f i J a t g e e . a i i K L c I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 2 . 8 ' F o r t h e f a m i l y ? - P a i n b a l m a d v e r t i s e m e n t 9 8 The v a c c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t from the same sample i s a " p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s a f e g u a r d a l o n g w i t h l o v e " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 2 . 9 ) . I t i s f o r 'your c h i l d t o grow up sweet t a l k i n g and h e a l t h y ' . I n the v a c c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h the v i s u a l of a c h i l d i n s i d e palms, p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e c e i v e s more emphasis i n the t e x t . Care w i t h i n the f a m i l y , v e r y much a c u l t u r a l n o t i o n and r e a l i t y , i s the f o c u s i n a l l t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . Thus, l i k e i n the v i s u a l s , t h e t e x t s of the adver-t i s e m e n t s i n t h e T a m i l sample are more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d whereas those i n the N o r t h American sample are more i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d . I n some a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , the i d e a s s y m b o l i s e d i n the v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s are s t r e n g t h e n e d i n the t e x t whereas i n some o t h e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , t e x t a l o n e i s used t o make a s s e r t i o n s or i s used t o make an a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t a s s e r t i o n t h a n t h a t i n the v i s u a l s . However, whether i n dominant v i s u a l images or i n b o l d c a p t i o n s , i n s u b o r d i n a t e t e x t u a l messages or i n a s t r o n g t e x t u a l h e a d i n g , t h e o v e r p o w e r i n g themes i n the two samples are v e r y d i s t i n c t and d i f f e r e n t . The N o r t h American sample r e v e a l s a marked o r i e n t a t i o n toward i n d i v i d u a l themes and t h e Ta m i l sample f a v o u r s c l e a r l y f a m i l i a l one. W i t h i n t h e s e d i f f e r -i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s , however, b o t h samples en v e l o p c e r t a i n s u b t l e but s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s : b o t h samples view women as the p u r s u e r s o f bea u t y , and e s p e c i a l l y y o u t h , and men as 99 t_(o)ft@6D)LLU l3OT2fflftftSrfr <9t(tp&l Suftii Qunjiiff jfJuuiift 6jbiruSs5l(!3jB«. CuirsfifiujiT sMisfiar •LloJftSI (§j#Bffl)f5&(g gSTlblSOlSBT auTrS U(T4|4ITU6D)U «TjpA«flriTi_ gt_ru**Tfla) u)(3£^ curiisjr i_$rtDiL|i_ fflfiyiJbfrS fl)!T$H UlTlTUISrlf.SeUSU &fltflQl_L 1 0 . QfjiJ.t nar.(«plui» (PSuili.t j)sks),Q**8aT-86 ( O u r * , 8 1 0 6 4 6 ) Of t* ! ! : « a v S.JO iy£«< u«4) 11.10 a ia r LUMV : «*&v 8.00 3i«af u«<v 10.00 mmw 5 ««»•: a i t s 1.00 vy** •»•»» | flTJIT I a i i Q u o l l I 1 0 8 . • • r f u u u «»fj««»T Qsg | QvarSBr.3. ( C u . * . 3 4 7 1 6 ) . - . . • «wtw: 9 00 us«< u«4> 11.10 M f . I I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 2 . 9 ' P h a r m a c e u t i c a l s a f e g u a r d w i t h l o v e ' - A v a c c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t 100 t h e a d m i r e r s o f t h a t b e a u t y . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p o r t r a y a l o f man's dominance t o o , b o t h samples a r e a l i k e . However, t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e not v e r y s t r o n g or s t r i k i n g . I n t h e T a m i l sample, t h e ' i n d i v i d u a l ' i n t h e woman who p u r s u e s b e a u t y and y o u t h i s overshadowed by t h e p o w e r f u l p o r t r a y a l o f h e r r o l e s as w i f e and mother. T a m i l c u l t u r e does not c o n s i d e r a m a r r i e d woman's p u r s u i t o f b e a u t y as h o n o u r a b l e as t h i s m i g h t l e a d t o a n e g l e c t o f her f a m i l y . The s t r o n g c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f woman's m a r r i a g e a l s o s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind. M a r r i e d women b e a u t i f y t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e i r h u sbands' honour and p r i d e b u t n o t f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s c u l t u r e c o n s i d e r s i t a l m o s t s i n f u l f o r a m a r r i e d woman t o t r y t o g a i n p o p u l a r a p p r o v a l o f h e r b e a u t y or a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . "A mother i s not o n l y n o t supposed t o s l e e p w i t h her husband, she i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o d r e s s and behave r a t h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e l y when her son i s grown. She s h o u l d not wear any c o l o u r o t h e r t h a n w h i t e , and she must not pay t o o much a t t e n t i o n t o h e r p h y s i c a l adornment. I t does n o t become her t o a d o r n h e r s e l f "because she i s beyond t h e d e s i r e and l u s t o f men " (Roy, 1 9 3 6 : 1 3 1 - 3 2 ) . Younger g i r l s o f m a r r i a g e a b l e age, however, a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o l o o k a t t r a c t i v e as t h i s would e n a b l e them t o s e c u r e a s u i t a b l e match f o r a wedding. The N o r t h A m e r i c a n woman, on t h e o t h e r hand, does n o t f a c e any s u c h c u l t u r a l i n h i b i t i o n s i n t h e p u r s u i t o f b e a u t y . 1 She b e a u t i f i e s h e r s e l f f o r her own p r i d e and s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n . She even g a i n s c o n f i d e n c e "by d o i n g t h i s . The T a m i l male's dominance t o o , d i f f e r s from t h e N o r t h American male's dominance i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . The former p o r t r a y a l i s t i e d i n t o the c u l t u r a l concept o f f a m i l y l o v e . I t e n a b l e s man t o p r o t e c t h i s f a m i l y and ensure i t s s t a b i l i t y . The l a t t e r p o r t r a y a l , on the o t h e r hand, i s woven i n t o the c u l t u r a l concept o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . 102 CHAPTER IV ROLE AND AGE PORTRAYALS I n the modern m i d d l e c l a s s American f a m i l y , t h e i d e a l t ype i s t h e e q u a l i t a r i a n _ J i e l a t i o n s h i p between husband and w i f e . T h i s f o l l o w s l o g i -c a l l y from t h e p o s t u l a t e of freedom, f o r i f t h e w i f e i s t o be f r e e , she must be e q u a l of her husband i n power. T e c h n i c a l l y and l e g a l l y , t he husband i s the head of the household and h i s work d e t e r m i n e s t h e l e g a l p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e . ( N i m k o f f 1965: 332) The t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e t male-female r o l e p a t t e r n s i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g e x e r t a d e t e r m i n i n g i n f l u e n c e on the expected b e h a v i o u r o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y as f a m i l y members. I t i s these s o c i a l r o l e s t h a t a l s o d e f i n e t h e a u t h o r i t y p a t t e r n s i n a f a m i l y u n i t . T h e r e f o r e , the e x p e c t a t i o n s a c u l t u r e has about i t s males and females a re e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f we examine th e s e r o l e p a t t e r n s . N o r t h American c u l t u r e v a l u e s an e g a l i -t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e male and the female as an i d e a l . However, b o t h i n the f a m i l y and i n the s o c i e t y , t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y between the sexes remains merely an i d e a l . P o r , i n r e a l i t y , man has been a s s i g n e d a s u p e r i o r r o l e i n the c u l t u r e . The d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between male and female as members i n the s o c i e t y and as husband and w i f e w i t h i n the f a m i l y r e v e a l s the d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a -t i o n s the c u l t u r e has o f i t s sexes. The e x p e c t a t i o n s 103 r e g a r d i n g a s o n and d a u g h t e r and t h e p a r e n t s ' d i f f e r i n g d u t i e s t o w a r d s them a l s o p o i n t t o t h e same r e a l i t y o f s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t w i l l f u r t h e r r e v e a l t h i s r e a l i t y o f s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y : As i n a l m o s t a l l s o c i e t i e s , A m e r i c a n husbands a r e i n v a r i a b l y b r e a d w i n n e r s u n l e s s t h e y a r e h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s . . . . Husbands and w i v e s s e l d o m compete v o c a t i o n a l l y . The w i f e ' s work i s u s u a l l y more e p i s o d i c , more p o o r l y p a i d . . . I f i n t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , t h e husband i s t h e c h i e f manager o f f a m i l y income, t h e w i f e i s t h e c h i e f p u r c h a s i n g a g e n t . She does t h e e v e r y d a y b u y i n g o f f o o d and c l o t h i n g . She does most o f t h e housework. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n t h e m i d d l e c l a s s A m e r i c a n f a m i l y i s q u i t e t r a d i t i o n a l , l i k e t h a t i n most c u l t u r e s . ( N i m k o f f 1 9 6 5 : 3 3 3 - 3 4 ) T a m i l c u l t u r e i s n o t u n l i k e most c u l t u r e s i n t h i s m a t t e r o f t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . I n t h e T a m i l f a m i l y t o o , man i s t h e head and woman's p l a c e i s a t home, c a r i n g f o r h e r husband and c h i l d r e n , m a k i n g a home and d o i n g housework. I n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r , we s t a t e d our e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e r o l e p o r t r a y a l o f husband and w i f e i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would be t h e same i n b o t h N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f what-e v e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s t h e s e two f a m i l y t y p e s m i g h t e x h i b i t . E l s e w h e r e , we have o b s e r v e d t h e p o r t r a y a l o f man as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making economic p r o v i s i o n s f o r h i s f a m i l y and o f woman as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making a home 104 and c a r i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . Such p o r t r a y a l s o f d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y w h i c h g i v e man more a u t h o r i t y and c o n f i n e woman t o home a r e f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t b o t h s a m p l e s . C h i l d C a r e In our p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample o f baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , i t was shown t h a t m o t h e r s were p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g more i n v o l v e d w i t h c h i l d c a r e t h a n were f a t h e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s d i d not d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s m o t h e r s , from the v a r i o u s s u g g e s t i v e w o r d i n g s o r v i s u a l s , we e a s i l y g e t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y a r e n o n e t h e l e s s aimed a t mother. A f t e r a l l , i t i s n o r m a l l y t h e mother who makes t h e d e c i s i o n as t o w h i c h baby f o o d i s b e s t f o r t h e baby. A l t h o u g h t h e mother i s n o t shown as f e e d i n g h e r baby i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , r e a d e r s a r e made t o f e e l h er o b v i o u s p r e s e n c e d u r i n g f e e d i n g - a l t h o u g h i t may n o t be an a c t i v e one. T h i s i s done by t h e v i s u a l d e p i c t i o n o f two s l e n d e r , a p p a r e n t l y f e m i n i n e , hands t y i n g a b i b round t h e b a b y ' s neck o r by p r o d u c i n g t h e t e s t i m o n y o f a s a t i s f i e d mother - n o t f a t h e r - about t h e h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s o f t h e baby c o n c e r n e d . I n one a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t h e a d v e r t i s e r m e n t i o n s a mother o f f i v e who has c o l l e c t e d h i n t s a b o u t ' b r i n g i n g up baby' ( I l l u s t r a -t i o n 2 . 1 . 4 ) - The f a t h e r o f t h e baby does n o t have t o b o t h e r 105 HIWT* OOLLKT1B i eeOTVeTA 9 fWX when finger-play gets under way •are made Ibr hav They're great tar pinching ana i»idda «hen there's nargr a tor around. tjt f iaai i ere also greet erarcetionol toabv They help your baby learn to grab, e/asp, PMK pull and pat four baby etao eanaa to laam the difference betenwn a f f l and coed, herd aja) soft, rough and smooth. Vat, bettor toeeran than rhgera art Kan) to tad. Soaitira, ot aiiuathnau, IhU'i the bind et ttnrbtTO tjb.es lite in feed. Carbar Strained UeaU ara ticeptionalrr amaetti, inervelouslt rapist l « i ruluthre processing method makes Ihie fr-i!'blej Made from euto carefully selected armour, they're high In protein, lea in tat and f.iltd to the kilt frith truemeat raters. Than) era 1C af the nicest varieties to help praiweto . iew baby's 1 past, a l l IOU can MV7*no the nlrrcilenoa of thrjaa rake little (**fer» frith theta simple irneajiaa • Place tela object* ot various kizas and lhapei »itti.n hit reach to improve rxca.ua pasgmtnt, I'tuabiiity end latMabilrb/. • OBer en eear tot or toddler finger food! like '"**DC ruiirnai-Sneaed Cooarri ur Ce-be- Meet Micas, te improve pincMiotoing and rano-to-moutfi OD<ed<nabon. Barter TraaWen) •The starred products are brand new and bound ts Bar an enr bebft menu. l a a ell Gerber aaejr foods, they're desiened etth your baby's eating pleasure in atand. a m amy beer rejeds a daily ration af erlemin C? Because this ifraortant nutrient b) e -tugrtraa" .'.amin end cannot be stored to the boa>. All mne Gerber FruN Juicae art rich in vitamin C needed | Qojrt>esf> I" scund aurra end other K 4—aTDS* A l ts 1 tod> tnwos. One can ot err. I iTJtiL 1 one will supple babe with over • f " 1 I O C . ot the sail) datary all tsie**eu era* rear roods—to meat ya We're aroud to ter: "BabMs aw our buttnou.. r's nvtr.iioneJ twees. . a w 4WitV btnbmnl" I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 . 1 . 4 •Mother c o l l e c t s h i n t s about "baby care 1 106 about a l l t h e s e m a t t e r s ; he c a n be happy w i t h a w e l l -n o u r i s h e d , w e l l - c a r e d f o r baby. In f a c t , more t h a n t h e f a t h e r , t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r baby c a r e p r o d u c t s f o c u s on t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e b a b y ' s 'grandma' and ' a u n t y ' . These r e l a t i v e s a r e shown t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e use o f a d i a p e r d e s i g n e d s p e c i a l l y by t h e baby f o o d company " f o r t h e c u t e s t b aby t h e y know" ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 . 1.2). T h i s r e f e r e n c e t o e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members ( t h e o n l y one i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample) i s not s u g g e s t i n g a v e r y i n t i m a t e bond. The theme i s one o f g i f t g i v i n g w h i c h i s more f o r m a l t h a n i s t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h i l d c a r e f o u n d i n t h e T a m i l sample. In a n o t h e r N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t h e i d e a communicated i s t h a t i f t h e baby i s f e d on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r baby f o o d , b o t h mother and baby w i l l l o o k f o r w a r d to the f e e d i n g t i m e . T h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f f a t h e r anywhere i n t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.5)- In y e t a n o t h e r baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t , a mother t a l k s about h e r b aby's s p e c i a l t a s t e s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 . 1 . 1 ) . D o m e s t i c S e r v i c e Not o n l y c h i l d c a r e , b u t a l s o d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e i s woman's s p e c i a l t y . In d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e i s i n c l u d e d c o o k i n g as w e l l as c l e a n i n g . I n t h i s sample, we have a few images o f a woman c o o k i n g , b u t t h e r e i s no p o r t r a y a l o f t h e a c t u a l s e r v i n g o f o t h e r f a m i l y members, o r m e n t i o n o f c o o k i n g f o r them. 107 / tatty never forgets ike goodness / flavor of a Swift meat meal ^ g^p -j SiviTtis s"* (ft"* Ufminrd mrttt, you i«xu«uj to fading time. i on, hah- ' * mthui i * tm gn •*-*.. Thif ti fond. For t.ir - u * g n moir of what '*' »•••« four t » b * -CM* of mew tmri*. ^ • J ' wr»fn ro tort. Aod, irionnbc-f, mctut for bibics «ut S»irV» moti pcr\«'u*. product. Eight vAncur*. ifKluding ducket* —Pte-cool teJ. -.trained c re t in * Mrvooch. Mnc*. Utr Juruors, CD©. Alt 100* mat . uV«f i w i | r—m—S^tf:'i *srr fM f»fr t\j'ud mhomtt ""*' Swifo most precious product I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 . 1 . 5 ' M o t h e r and b a b y l o o k f o r w a r d t o f e e d i n g t i m e ' 108 In t h e d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , woman's s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n k e e p i n g the f a m i l y l i n e n c l e a n and s p a r k l i n g r e c e i v e s g r e a t emphasis. As one a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t a t e s , i t i s a " j o y " f o r t h e woman t o have her husband's work c l o t h e s and c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y c l o t h e s c l e a n . The mother f e e l s v e r y proud o f h e r c h i l d r e n ' s c l e a n c l o t h e s . The a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t a t e s : "You t o o w i l l be proud e v e r y t i m e you hang out a wash" ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5 - 1 I f "the w i f e does n o t c l e a n t h e f a m i l y wash w e l l , she w i l l have t o f a c e an a n g r y and c o m p l a i n i n g husband. So t h e h o u s e w i f e i n the N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i s shown t o be v e r y much on t h e l o o k out f o r a v o i d i n g her husband's w r a t h . A woman's d e s i r e t o p l e a s e h e r husband i s v e r y much a t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l n o t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The a c t u a l c l e a n i n g i s p o r t r a y e d a s o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o h e r . When h e r f a m i l y wear c l e a n c l o t h e s , she r e c e i v e s s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n as a good h o u s e w i f e , a good w i f e and mother. B e i n g a good h o u s e w i f e , w i f e and mother i s t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f an h o n o u r a b l e woman and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e i n f o r c e t h i s . C a r i n g f o r t h e " S e l f " A woman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y does n o t end w i t h b e i n g a good w i f e and a good mother. She a l s o has a d u t y t o h e r -s e l f t o l o o k b e a u t i f u l i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y h e r own i n n a t e d e s i r e s - a f e m i n i n e p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r b e t t e r a p p e a r a n c e . In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , a woman i s p o r t r a y e d 109 I l l u s t r a t i o n 5.1.3 •You w i l l be proud everytime you hang out a wash' - detergent advertisement 110 as not b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h her domestic r o l e s a l o n e , a p o r t r a y a l which c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h the c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y . The woman here i s p o r t r a y e d as t a k i n g c a r e t o keep h e r s e l f b e a u t i f u l and t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f from a n y t h i n g t h a t w i l l harm her good l o o k s and y o u t h . W h i l e d o i n g l a u n d r y , t h e r e -f o r e , she needs t o t a k e c a r e t o p r o t e c t the s o f t n e s s o f her hands; t h e use o f the d e t e r g e n t t h a t i s b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d would h e l p h er f u l f i l l h e r presumed d e s i r e t o r e t a i n her a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ; i t i s s a i d t o be g e n t l e on her hands, at the same time b e i n g e f f e c t i v e on her wash. Man: The F i s c a l Head I f the N o r t h American man com p l a i n s about h i s w i f e ' s l a u n d r y ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 5 . 1 . 1 ) i t i s as though he has a r i g h t t o do so. He i s , a f t e r a l l , t h e ' f i s c a l head' o f t h e f a m i l y . The i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p r o v i d e ample t e s t i -mony t o t h i s r o l e o f man. I f one i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f ' t o eve r y man, who has ever wondered how much i n s u r a n c e i s enough' ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 1 . 9 ) , a n o t h e r p o r t r a y s a husband who i s w o r r i e d about h i s w i f e : " I f something happens t o me, what would she have t o l i v e on?" I t i s an a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e i n i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o view husbands as h a v i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o l o o k a f t e r the f a m i l y f i n a n c e s and a l s o t o p l a n about the f u t u r e f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y o f t h e f a m i l y . As though t o comply w i t h the i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y w i t h i n the f a m i l y , N o r t h American 111 w i v e s a r e a l l o w e d some amount o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e s e m a t t e r s . One a d v e r t i s e m e n t a d v i s e s man: "You and your w i f e w i s e l y t a l k about ways o f s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e f a m i l y l i f e v a l u e s y ou e n j o y . . . " However, t h e w i f e ' s p a r t i c i p a -t i o n does n o t go beyond t h e w i s e t a l k ; i t i s up t o t h e ' t h o u g h t f u l man' " t o work o u t " t h e s e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 1.8). Not even a s i n g l e a d v e r t i s e m e n t p o r t r a y s woman as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e t o w a r d s h e r husband's m a i n t e n a n c e . She i s a l s o not p o r t r a y e d as h a v i n g t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y . Man's f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w a r d s h i s w i f e w i t h o u t any c o r r e s p o n d i n g economic r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y t o w a r d s him on her p a r t i s n o t an i m a g i n a r y s i t u a t i o n i n t h e a d v e r t i s i n g w o r l d . T h i s theme i s so much embedded i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i o - c u l t u r a l network t h a t i t has t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e l e g a l s y s t e m t o o . L e g a l l y , a N o r t h A m e r i c a n woman i s e l i g i b l e t o seek c o m p e n s a t i o n from h e r husband i f he d e s e r t s h e r b u t a husband i s not e n t i t l e d t o t h e same r i g h t t o demand c o m p e n s a t i o n from h i s w i f e i f she l e a v e s him. Man: O c c u p a n t o f I m p o r t a n t P o s i t i o n s Men a r e shown t o be i m p o r t a n t n ot o n l y i n e n j o y i n g f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l b u t a l s o by o c c u p y i n g i m p o r t a n t p o s i -t i o n s . They h a r d l y e v e r e n c o u n t e r any c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m women e i t h e r i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s or t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . V e r y o f t e n women a r e p o r t r a y e d as o c c u p y i n g i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n s 1 1 2 to men. In the same advertisement where man i s depicted as a doctor, woman appears as a nurse. Or i f the man i s portrayed as the 'boss', the woman i s h i s s e c r e t a r y . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , our sample does not c o n t a i n many p o r t r a y a l s of men, perhaps because women are seen as the t y p i c a l purchasers of most of the products concerned. When men are portrayed, i t i s mainly i n the insurance a d v e r t i s e -ments, a point a l s o noted b e f o r e . In the baby food adver-tisements, a f a t h e r plays with h i s c h i l d ; i n the shampoo advertisements, a man demonstrates the use of a shampoo on h i s h a i r ; i n the detergent advertisements, very few husbands appear, as e i t h e r complaining about t h e i r wives' i n e f f i c i e n c y i n c l e a n i n g c l o t h e s or as beaming with happiness over her e f f i c i e n c y i n washing them white and s p a r k l i n g c l e a n . However, to compensate f o r these sparse p o r t r a y a l s of males i n the advertisements f o r p h y s i c a l products, the more a b s t r a c t insurance advertisements focus a l l t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on them. P o r t r a y a l s of C h i l d r e n In the p o r t r a y a l of c h i l d r e n too, a s u b t l e sexual d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n can be sensed even though there are not many examples to study, s p e c i a l l y ones p o r t r a y i n g g i r l s : In the few p o r t r a y a l s a v a i l a b l e , boys are shown to be more e d u c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d . The insurance advertisements warn 113 f a t h e r s t o p l a n f o r t h e i r s o n s ' s c h o o l i n g h u t not f o r t h e i r d a u g h t e r s ' e d u c a t i o n . In one a d v e r t i s e m e n t , f a t h e r s a r e f o r e w a r n e d : •'The h i g h c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d not j e o p a r d i s e y o u r s o n 's e d u c a t i o n " ' . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 . 1 . 1 0 ) A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t , a boy ( n o t a g i r l ) i s l a b e l l e d " t h e g r e a t e s t s t u d e n t o f them all'.' G i r l s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e a l w a y s shown t o l o o k b e a u t i f u l and p r e s e n t a b l e , as f o r example, i n t h e a d v e r -t i s e m e n t f o r d e t e r g e n t where two d a u g h t e r s a p p e a r s m a r t l y d r e s s e d , t h e i r mother i s s a i d t o be proud o f t h e i r w h i t e and b r i g h t d r e s s e s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5 - 1 - 3 ) ' P e r s o n a l C a r e v e r s u s F a m i l y C a r e In t h e 1975 N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, t o o , t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y c o n t i n u e s t o p o r t r a y man as more i m p o r t a n t and t o show woman c o n f i n e d t o h e r home. L e t us r e c a l l t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a l i q u i d d e t e r g e n t d i s c u s s e d i n a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , where a woman s a y s t h a t she has t h e same r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s most m a r r i e d women have. These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t o make a home f o r a husband and c h i l d r e n , or i n o t h e r words, "housework and l o t o f d i s h e s " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5-1 - 2) . However, i n t h i s same N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g i s s u e i s not t h e woman's c o n c e r n f o r her e f f i c i e n t h o u s e k e e p i n g or c o o k i n g or c h i l d c a r e , b u t r a t h e r , t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t a l l t h i s housework may c a u s e Be geatest rtudetrt of ttem al deserves Mast Mutual prrtectiofl " -1 — »» H . l M i » ^ » W V I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.10 Save for the 'greatest student of them a l l ' 11 5 h e r b e a u t y . She i s shown t o be c l e v e r l y t a k i n g p r e c a u t i o n s t o a v o i d t h e s e harms by u s i n g t h e a d v e r t i s e d p r o d u c t . P o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e l i q u i d d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t j u s t men-t i o n e d , t h e woman p o s s e s s e s s o f t and you n g e r l o o k i n g hands i n s p i t e o f d o i n g a l l t h e housework and l o t s o f d i s h e s . L o o k i n g a l i t t l e d e e p e r , t h e d e t e r g e n t i s a c t u a l l y shown t o h e l p h e r c o v e r up h e r age. In t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t where woman i s p o r t r a y e d as a c t u a l l y c o o k i n g , i t i s n o t t o s e r v e anyone e l s e b u t h e r -s e l f . She i s t r a p p e d by h e r own a p p e t i t e and i s s u c c e s s -f u l l y on a f a t r e d u c i n g p l a n ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 .1.8). T h e r e a r e sometimes, r e f e r e n c e s t o her husband, f r i e n d s , n i e c e s and nephews b u t n e v e r a n y t h i n g about t h e p l e a s u r e o f c o o k i n g f o r them or s e r v i n g them. I n s t e a d , t h e s e r e f e r -e n c e s a r e made t o emphasize how i m p o r t a n t i t i s f o r h e r t o d i e t i n o r d e r t o win t h e i r a p p r o v a l . The T a m i l sample does not have any a d v e r t i s e m e n t a b o u t f a t r e d u c t i o n p l a n s o r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s programmes f o r women. A p a r t f r o m c o s m e t i c s , no v e r y p e r s o n a l p r o d u c t i s a d v e r t i s e d i n t h i s sample. Most o f t h e p e r s o n a l c a r e p r o d u c t s a d v e r t i s e d i n t h i s m a t e r i a l a r e v a c c i n e s , v i t a m i n t o n i c s , m e d i c i n e s , p a i n balms e t c . w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y . In an a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a v i t a m i n t o n i c , a woman i s shown as engaged i n c o o k i n g . She i s c o u g h i n g w h i l e c o o k i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t she c a n n o t e x p e c t any h e l p f r o m her husband even when she i s u n w e l l . 116 T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e c u l t u r e d i s c o u r a g e s men from d o i n g h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s : t h e y a r e t h e s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f women. T h e r e f o r e , women have t o t a k e c a r e o f t h e i r h e a l t h by u s i n g t h e v i t a m i n t o n i c a d v e r t i s e d ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 2 .10). In a n o t h e r T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t h e woman i s p o r t r a y e d as u s i n g a hot pack so t h a t she can s e r v e f o o d h o t t o her f a m i l y members ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.11). L o o k i n g a t t h e s m i l e on her f a c e , one can i m a g i n e t h e p l e a s u r e she d e r i v e s f r o m c o o k i n g f o r her f a m i l y . I t c o u l d a l s o be s a i d t h a t she i s happy t o be r e l i e v e d o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l t a s k o f warming up f o o d . She does not have t o k e e p a h u n g r y husband and c h i l d r e n w a i t i n g now t h a t she has a hot pack: she c an s e r v e them warm f o o d w i t h o u t any d e l a y . E m o t i o n s v e r s u s Sense E x p e r i e n c e s A l t h o u g h i n t h e T a m i l sample, t h e r e i s no p o r t r a y a l o f c o u p l e s s h a r i n g housework, t h e r e a r e p o r t r a y a l s o f them h a p p i l y s h a r i n g e m o t i o n s . See t h e baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 . 2 . 1 ) . Here, t h e husband i s h o l d i n g t h e bowl w h i c h i n no way r e d u c e s h i s w i f e ' s work b u t , d e f i n i t e -l y , makes t h e a l r e a d y p l e a s a n t j o b o f f e e d i n g her baby a l l t h e more e n j o y a b l e f o r h e r . T h i s i s b e c a u s e o f h e r husband's s h a r i n g o f t h e s e i n t i m a t e f e e l i n g s . W h i l e t h e T a m i l c o u p l e s h a r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s , t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o u p l e s h a r e t h e i r s e n s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . In one N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t , husband and w i f e t o g e t h e r 117 g6o(c£rr6»qpib cfflLrru Qarr&TrtflsBTjDoTiT. • fiiiTLtTutTen) ftiruiuQi6TrarL' -OIJL GsoiM Gj&iriLi ff^ituqff femnQpib - JioUdsaj. '-•I'~"Z-*«3f iiu> «s£ *c«»fji *j5ri» i_i>na u»«»4ei * * u«9 jtuaVakigi x . (feyiuBglrjihua »«ets*. $>«3ca4l u i ^fur i , u*j4s>a«as QJTUtufsK) &mfaU5V|S33TL. .... tWM* ••••MM. I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.10 'Woman, t a k e c a r e y o u r s e l f - A v i t a m i n t o n i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t 118 if ^ L T O T . AuSiio^^i &iiiaai>i>® «»^2>^JB$I t W a a u e er**2\»raan|a <a«»u u0»aja~f (J a>««5 • p i c l u * • . • aaMi ••***ra> aw «a > * v » «a *Xaa*»w* *">*-5>e<eav •**5 am. Out um a**>M«e> #-'» aa »»•» eaw- a** Sarg aarCSu*** ' • a «-«*•> »•>•**• .>>M» «*a- »•«» i.a*iV> * * * a»pfli b» • *—mtt» Jca •»*>••*• as e « c ^ * • r a a b u f a t " HotPQcl^ i t9urCQ*«ia) I * aM * gunaca a art »#->i, aV**> ty* rfi. uajianv^ZSOOL aaa> aiam^a* a aaataa « . • » * S«Lla> »Ja). CUHar2(ai40000L • I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 .2 .11 Hot pack a d v e r t i s e m e n t 119 d i s c o v e r t h e sense e x p e r i e n c e s o f a f a c i a l m o i s t u r i z e r ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 . 4 ) . Perhaps, some i n f e r e n c e can be made here o f the N o r t h American woman's b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l p o s i -t i o n . I n many c a s e s , a T a m i l woman can g i v e her husband o n l y s e l f l e s s l o v e and a f f e c t i o n a t e c a r e , w h i l e most N o r t h American women a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o g i v e g i f t s t o the men the y l o v e . I n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a woman buy a not so i n e x p e n s i v e g i f t o f a t r a v e l k i t o f c o l o g n e s f o r the man she l o v e s , the c a p a b i l i t y of most N o r t h American women to buy something f o r t h e i r men, i s b e i n g acknowledged ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 1 - 1 3 ) - I n t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t , the woman who g i v e s the man a g i f t o f c o l o g n e , i s p r o v i d i n g him not merely a colo g n e but a "moving e x p e r i e n c e " . Here the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e between emotion and e x p e r i e n c e can be seen. Woman's Employment There a re a few a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the N o r t h American sample which e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e a woman's g a i n f u l employment. But as p o i n t e d out e l s e w h e r e , a l l d e p i c t them as nur s e s or t e a c h e r s . These r o l e s c a r r y f o r w a r d the image of the female as helpmate, not dominator. However, t h e r e i s not even a s i n g l e a d v e r t i s e m e n t where T a m i l woman i s p o r t r a y e d as a w o r k i n g woman who e a r n s . There i s not one a d v e r t i s e -I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.13 •Give him a moving experience' - A cologne advertisement 1 21 ment t h a t shows a f e m a l e as s u p p l e m e n t i n g h e r husband's income, or as even e a r n i n g some money by d o i n g some j o b w h i c h does not t a k e h e r o u t s i d e o f home, l i k e s e w i n g o r k n i t t i n g . The 1975 Samples A l t h o u g h i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s , woman's p o r -t r a y a l i n d o m e s t i c r o l e s i s seen t o r e c e i v e e q u a l emphasis w i t h h e r c o n c e r n w i t h a p p e a r i n g b e a u t i f u l . But i n t h e 1975 N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , h e r d o m e s t i c r o l e s do n o t r e c e i v e much e x p l i c a t i o n a t a l l . I n s t e a d , a woman i s i n l o v e w i t h her " s e l f " . She i s pampering her body and• i s a n x i o u s about h e r " l o o k s " . Men a r e p o r t r a y e d more i n t h e i r r o l e as economic p r o v i d e r s , n ot as engaged i n p e r s o n a l c a r e or as e x p l o r i n g h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s . In an a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a d i e t p l a n , f o r example, t h e woman a d m i t s t h a t h e r husband i s a l s o o v e r w e i g h t . B u t , " i t d i d n ' t seem t o b o t h e r him", w h i l e she f a i t h f u l l y f o l l o w s t h e d i e t p l a n . Her f r i e n d who s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y f o l l o w t h i s p l a n i s a l s o a f e m a l e . No a d v e r t i s e m e n t o p e n l y p o r t r a y s men as w o r r y i n g about t h e i r l o o k s b u t one a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a c o l o g n e does s u g g e s t t h a t " g r e a t n e s s " i s a c o n c e r n f o r them. Whether i t i s " l o o k s " o r " g r e a t n e s s " t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n d i v i d u a l s , men and women a l i k e i s w i t h one's " s e l f " and t h e improvement o f s e l f - i m a g e . 1 22 In t h e T a m i l sample, however, t h e r e a r e a c o u p l e o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s where a man a p p e a r s t o be c o n c e r n e d about e n h a n c i n g h i s s t r e n g t h and h e i g h t . In t h e s e a d v e r t i s e -ments, s t r e n g t h i s e q u a t e d w i t h h e a l t h . A p e r s o n o f i l l -h e a l t h i s a n a t i o n ' s c u r s e and t h e r e f o r e , men have t o be h e a l t h y . What about t h e h e a l t h o f women? The a d v e r t i s e -ments do not t a l k about t h i s . A p p a r e n t l y , n a t i o n b u i l d i n g , as t h e c u l t u r e b e l i e v e s , i s i n t h e hands o f men and not women ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 2 . 1 2 ) . In b o t h s a m p l e s , women a r e w o r r i e d about t h e i r l o o k s . However, i n t h e T a m i l s a m p l e s , t h i s does n o t a p p e a r so g l a r i n g as t h e r e a r e many a d v e r t i s e m e n t s where m o t h e r s t r y t o make t h e i r d a u g h t e r s l o o k b e a u t i f u l ; t h e n do n o t a p p e a r t o be c o n c e r n e d about t h e i r own b e a u t y . In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, P e r s o n a l Care p r o d u c t s a r e a l l s t r i c t l y p e r s o n a l . In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, t h e woman's f i g u r e s h o u l d l o o k i t s a b s o l u t e f e m i n i n e b e s t as an a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r b u s t d e v e l o p e r p r o c l a i m s ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 1 - 1 4 ) , h e r ey e s s h o u l d be b i g and g l a m o r o u s , by t h e use o f a p a r t i c u -l a r eye shadow, h e r s k i n s h o u l d be s o f t and smooth and y o u n g e r - l o o k i n g . By t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r b e a u t y cream/ l o t i o n o r soap o r C o s m e t i c , h e r h a i r s h o u l d be f u l l o f body and b o u n c e . By t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r shampoo, she s h o u l d a p pear c o n f i d e n t . Women seem t o know t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t g i v e s them g r e a t l o o k s and p r o t e c t i o n . In t h e s e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r P e r s o n a l C a r e p r o d u c t s I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 2 . 1 2 -Man a s n a t i o n b u i l d e r ' T h e T r u t h A b o u t B u s t D e v e l o p e r s . *********** ft>rfMf^ w3*)( Arwnci Haw npwrW •twui^ab). mult* m W^«r*r *V\rfuf>-•rw far mrmt Mari EaV"» *M irja>»-twn*c4 flat k«<r*i!i>wt anal ct*at«J MI. tktptiy tiimmn* IVottam. tt hat rWufwvJ iW dnasornt, laaa a» • taijirr | M*ur*rr you"!** *'1raUHWti M*.a. Mm kv-«r*> fYfwri (asailmr af i i. 4.tmtknw*mmmiB*i I t* try Mfnati artta warm Mt*F*|' tHr itjaiiwi tonhmmt* al kwamiwa ajtwrr\«t ah* aan •»rUir**r ikr OH* I wrrUrrvTT tat n »»»anr»«, hrr Ugmtw » alar a)-* in abwttui* Irwiiwiiw ••-•i. jtai if tttta iVMiwiikt W*f ivf^im a font*, fii-rarr. •kaaaMrrr IWVHIM thaw rtvMjfwiMjAla. Satatawy mtmmm aav. ao fod^paf/tr^r Ttaf*«frira>a*f ftartf fcf^m «.rt. rhrMari leaf. Oniltfli rfaai wtitf no WOT.** irMiUtanlr aav W*a rHa#« aarr aa. ^ TVIp^MaaO •, of wo*** ao arum rutkr. airatr. tjtiajalar? ttoariinav, wr Mm that p*aaiai i i **W- hm* a. rarniOTaMa aaoa* irrjiniruj riW rXifl awfrtw 4wt^oa>»r»»m a* TT*tjy tfe aaoajt fciaaSraji at** rtjrit lag* nan* awfataaw-«a> tkaaV a*W it ir«fj»jl«) to ttr*t ** Maw fiat a**) *• •alt H-Mart EaV-i ftirajfii wita* •a OTrhcial anrrawUtar raw a rrr*M Il M aft nHwwvf ftMrrwaft afcat TW arraw t cammmmnimftttrr waiaa? a^rtafc a*W liM»»w*ai wHarfc *T* •tiwha-J aa»ar-a** aam af ifcr anaaii aajtl *. rto ravMlti «iwfcr4paaj, rtw aaw4>ari h a> aaraiiaar arttai ifcr arcsytrv aya-fr.tr t*jtou«tul gromtM m thm mtmirMfmtx mvttwJst mmm ito.aaa araafcfving--— ofrva. ta a Mffamaatii 4mgmm — ftw taat fjaal altay*af flar Dart tar **m*4 ay mraflt LaraVPfrvJ l*| a carrytJaw ^ aa'trart ftafi Catarinft* IIM at* i*t» *rmmm .ran •ar. rW lot Hy w** ktvHiMara. trjaytf y Mjf% Calf-* tV yran tmix V. ri CaV. KM pMiwkrt iW amtal r*~«i»-•fad «timft of anmat Antartj atvi htftfy ••ajTaf. afha ftar«  aTTtanrtl aVxmarar *em mm.iitmt %,tt a*W tv>«ni wtrK itw Mari Cdm Ontitkjn WW* mr 4e not Maw rfcai fft-rry »fwta. «iQ aritantr rt iijn !*<»• i*a>b« ni *\r*mm ara raaarfiwa *»t *W N**ri faV. ranvtoyr* t»*» ff\tn tWnt (W aaaai ra) t aaariitw rkat rfawaaayattiaya Taar f^ aatw a« W.awfa. naatli, if the \U* taW IWairi -V.> aar mwmtfmrr *mr mtm fmr m^»h- ~ *••» aarrr tVIif fc W *• aaaw. •* f*j*. ••*»•"-tf arW rW Mari Ur* IW^aar t>«v4a»vr jftaJ Ce>arw tar a»>K r». •tali ,aua>r«]ia)Ti«a^ <(M f-aatw as Mark Um aaW vaajf mmmwy mil av aroawaarfy rt^WaaWtf TVp*»i.a»?T<tW nlnf Vt* rara><r»rht faj^ loari \ t i t * Calari Otrx #4riajatr 1*ai ftw*A*^r a Wf.ia>ia rattrw of t.t<r»Miawa»i fafh-JiutRjrfaJ l*y p*nitjgrray*i .h*rt> faw*ra araJ aHI* voa a««rrir lamr tr> trat faaa irmarkuWr m i ffcayii ftv%wttt awairawaj "raajlri a»W r*a» •«*«*** fWMati tmm SkX9*Vi BACK CUAlAKTvX Wrlh tftj. wafalallBJal- at a> a»aii>li .a»NWiVMit.[aTa Tai irlofir wna tt* t-jHwatav aavJ aiii^MaHy mnwjm irmhai of artm*a«| fla»  ttnaMyiaia •waut. kaa «4aM aa Marie EJen r o i . i u O a « i i M l»lra*rWtTalJi KfallMlwa, mm-l t«V> I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.14 Advertisement of a bust developer 125 t h e h i g h l i g h t i s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e r n f o r p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e . These p o r t r a y a l s o f t e n show women as b e i n g on t h e i r g u a r d . Many p r o d u c t s a r e p u r c h a s e d , i t i s i m p l i e d , t o a v o i d harm. E s p e c i a l l y when t h e p o r t r a y a l i s o f women who a r e m i d d l e aged or n e a r i n g m i d d l e age, t h i s seems t o be t h e theme. C o n s i d e r the c o s m e t i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t where t h e m i r r o r i s t h e woman's enemy. I t r e a d s t h u s : "...you go a l o n g f o r y e a r s n ot b e i n g t h e l e a s t b i t c o n c e r n e d about how you would l o o k . You f e e l young and a l i v e . L i f e i s g o i n g w e l l . Then one m o r n i n g , y ou c o n f r o n t a c e r t a i n t r u t h i n y o u r m i r r o r . You've grown o l d e r l o o k i n g w i t h o u t r e a l i s i n g i t and you a l m o s t h a t e y o u r m i r r o r f o r b e i n g so h o n e s t . " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4- -1 .10) T h i s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e i n s e c u r i t y o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n women when t h e y a r e a g i n g i s p e r h a p s , a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f b r o k e n homes i n t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y . When f a m i l i e s a r e t h u s f a c e d w i t h s u c h a t r e n d t o w a r d s t h e i r b r e a k i n g up, l e a d i n g t o t h e i r f e a r e d n e a r - e x t i n c t i o n , women who a r e c u l t u r a l l y e x p e c t e d t o need t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f f a m i l y l i f e , a r e t o f e e l u n s t a b l e . I t i s i m p l i e d t h a t , t h e y overcome t h i s a n x i e t y by t r y i n g t o enhance t h e i r s e l f - i m a g e . Most c o s m e t i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample p o r t r a y a m i d d l e aged woman who i s no more young and who "needs" t o be "younger l o o k i n g " . One a d v e r -t i s e m e n t f o r a s k i n l o t i o n , f o r example, c o n v e y s t h e message t h a t you s h o u l d s t a r t s a v i n g y o u r s k i n b e c a u s e i t i s y o u r s k i n . By a p p l y i n g t h e l o t i o n t o " c h a p p e d , d r y , c r a c k e d s k i n " , you c o u l d make i t " s o f t e r , s m oother, y o u n g e r l o o k i n g " ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1 - 2 ) . A n o t h e r m e n t i o n s t h e i d e a o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d w h i c h can damage d e l i c a t e s k i n and h a i r . The p r o d u c t i n t h i s , i s " t h e b r o a d e s t p r o t e c t i o n a v a i l a b l e a g a i n s t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . " W i t h c o n t i n u e d u s e , t h i s p r o d u c t " a c t u a l l y k e e p s y o u r s k i n y o u n g e r " ( I l l u s t r a -t i o n 4 . 1 . 3 ) . An o l d e r woman, f o r example, i s d e p i c t e d i n an a d v e r -t i s e m e n t f o r a f a l s e t e e t h c l e a n s e r . T h i s a s k s : " D i d you l o o s e y o u r s m i l e a f t e r you g o t y o u r d e n t u r e s ? " T h i s ques-t i o n i s a l s o s u g g e s t i v e o f a l l t h e harms o f l o o s i n g a s m i l e . I t i s a l m o s t as t h o u g h one may l o s e a l l one's f r i e n d s b e c a u s e o f h a v i n g l o s t a s m i l e . The message i s t h a t a s m i l e i s s y m b o l i c o f f r i e n d l i n e s s . And t h e r e f o r e , one i s t a k i n g t h e c h a n c e o f b e c o m i n g an u n f r i e n d l y p e r s o n i n t h e eyes o f o t h e r s . A g a i n , a v a l u e c o n c e p t i s b e i n g a d v a n c ed t h r o u g h t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 . 1 - 1 2 ) . The T a m i l C o s m e t i c s In t h e T a m i l m a t e r i a l , i n c o n t r a s t , t h e c o s m e t i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e aimed a t y o u n g e r g i r l s . One a d v e r t i s e -ment p r o c l a i m s : "We have d i s c o v e r e d t h e s e c r e t o f n a t u r e . " The s e c r e t i n t h e cream would make t h e u s e r ' s s k i n " f a i r and l o v e l y " ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 2 . 1 3 ) - A n o t h e r one t o o i s r e v e a l i n g a s e c r e t : "The s e c r e t o f G-okul i s t h a t i t makes 127 ~ f u£<r»«dtir r««au<* «pirQO«»»irturiil' £*Ifi$1&(&li, .•.•ui JtaanL v o i d it&iai* j*put|i#i|j, •.•iiaaV §}MtC/k ui«j»fuut»v. . . . /.du* Aoa-il VeJOX. tQltjfiAr Ooimtu^ffiminpfi Malt) qflsIcA- * -«• * fc*u (^^#a>». jOuijj* faatl .fiaaiitSaiSu J * * * u«Qt)ftflcl* ... •vdiaSa a a - w t f i ) ug»»rm. uifiiCaaT. .'.Out j-aaru a>eJa8 a^itatou Aauutia>ik. •MJIV g - . wu g*i*a>a»ai 4m—* •>•*• a i * * * * . •*wia>'u>.»BTi I l l u s t r a t i o n 4 - 2 . 1 3 ' F o r f a i r and l o v e l y s k i n ' 1 28 you l o o k young" ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.14). L o o k i n g young, t h u s , i s a major c o n c e r n of the N o r t h American woman and the Tamil woman a l i k e i n the s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . But, the concept a p p l i e s t o a somewhat d i f f e r e n t age group. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e o f the Tamil sample i s i n accordance w i t h the s t r o n g c u l t u r a l c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t i s unbecoming of women past a p a r t i c u l a r age group to show i n t e r e s t i n b e a u t i f y i n g t hemselves and worst of a l l , t o d e s i r e f o r y o u t h . Younger g i r l s , at the same t i m e , a re expected to t r y and l o o k t h e i r b e s t so as t o be more d e s i r a b l e f o r a s u i t a b l e match i n m a r r i a g e . Women are a l l o w e d to appear b e a u t i f u l f o r t h e p r i d e o f t h e i r husbands, but not f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . Even t h e n , because o f t h e c u l t u r a l h i g h -l i g h t s on woman's domestic d u t i e s l i k e c o o k i n g and the c a r e of f a m i l y members, t h i s b e a u t i f i c a t i o n i s not v e r y open. U n l i k e the N o r t h American sample, the T a m i l c o s m e t i c p r o d u c t s a d v e r t i s e d are not seen t o be e x c l u s i v e l y f o r women. For i n s t a n c e , shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the Ta m i l sample suggest t h e i r use f o r each f a m i l y member. A shampoo i s s a i d t o be s u i t a b l e f o r her and f o r the head of the f a m i l y . These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s are aimed at the woman who s h o u l d purchase the product f o r her f a m i l y ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3-2.1 ) . In the 1975 N o r t h American sample, we do not have enough p o r t r a y a l s o f c h i l d r e n t o make any o b s e r v a t i o n 6R)fIrJML6i)aiL U6i]Lita6ir ISI QPfifSeiDIT BuptejD6DT. *paaMaii Qu»«9»*.«« garki M B * *ai(U«s B*»#u«>—8aa«ja>. * " e * •»•«•>.••> »f>rr. •.••vi..)**. StaoflOwtQia .ptAopis .oft I X ^ J I l d D . . I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.14 S e c r e t t h a t makes you l o o k young 130 r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s e x u a l r o l e s . But i n the T a m i l sample, t h e r e are a few a d v e r t i s e m e n t s which p o i n t towards the s e x u a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d f o r a d u l t s . I n t h e T a m i l i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , a f a t h e r i s shown as s a v i n g money f o r h i s son's e d u c a t i o n or p o r t r a y e d as t a k i n g p r i d e i n h i m s e l f about s a v i n g up f o r h i s son's f u t u r e . There i s no mention a t a l l o f e d u c a t i n g a daughter. Sons are expected not o n l y t o be educated but a l s o to grow up s t r o n g and h e a l t h y . G i r l s , on the o t h e r hand, are shown t o be b e a u t i f u l . Mothers a p p l y l o t i o n on t h e i r d a u g h t e r s ' h a i r or are seen t o use shampoo on t h e i r h a i r but not on t h e i r sons. I t i s d a u g h t e r s who are d i c t a t e d by the c u l t u r e t o l o o k b e a u t i f u l . Sons, on the o t h e r hand, s h o u l d be i n t e l l i g e n t and s t r o n g and not n e c e s s a r i l y , v e r y a t t r a c t i v e . Thus, the r o l e p o r t r a y a l s i n the N o r t h American and - T a m i l samples a r e not c o n t r a d i c t o r y a l t h o u g h t h e r e may be d i f f e r i n g emphasis r e g a r d i n g the r o l e s . The N o r t h American sample has a g r e a t e r o r i e n t a t i o n towards the i n d i v i d u a l but makes c o n c e s s i o n s t o a woman's t r a d i t i o n a l domestic r o l e s . The T a m i l sample, on t h e c o n t r a r y , has a g r e a t e r o r i e n t a -t i o n towards the f a m i l y , h i g h l i g h t i n g her f a m i l y l o v e and her i n v o l v e m e n t i n d o m e s t i c d u t i e s and a t the same t i m e , u n d e r p l a y i n g her p u r s u i t of beauty. 131 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This study t r e a t e d advertisements as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . I t f o l l o w s t h e r e f o r e , that advertisements of s i m i l a r products, but aimed at d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s , vary a c c o r d i n g to the v a r i a t i o n s i n the values of these c u l t u r e s . Granted t h i s , here i t was proposed that advertisements are r i c h sources of c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . To e x p l i c a t e t h i s f u r t h e r , the value p o r t r a y a l s , e s p e c i a l l y the f a m i l y value p o r t r a y a l s , i n the magazine advertisements of two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s , North America and I n d i a (Tamil Nadu) were examined. Based on l i t e r a r y i n f o r m a t i o n about the f a m i l y i n North America and I n d i a three e x p e c t a t i o n s arose r e g a r d i n g the two c u l t u r e s . These expectations formed the l o c i i of t h i s r e s e a r c h . They were: 1. Tamil advertisements w i l l be more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d than i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d where as North American ones w i l l be more i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d than f a m i l y o r i e n t e d ; 2. Extended f a m i l y d e p i c t i o n s w i l l be minimal i n both samples and more so i n the North American advertisements; and 132 3- The r o l e p o r t r a y a l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e m a l e - f e m a l e a u t h o r i t y p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y w i l l he v e r y s i m i l a r i n b o t h s a m p l e s : man w i l l be t h e e c o n o -mic p r o v i d e r and woman, t h e homemaker who w i l l be engaged i n h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s and c h i l d c a r e . From the main d a t a b a s e o f t h e H i s t o r y o f A d v e r t i s i n g A r c h i v e s , two s u b - s a m p l e s were c h o s e n 1) f o r a p r e l i m i n a r y i n q u i r y , and 2 ) f o r i n d e p t h a n a l y s i s . The f o r m e r i n c l u d e d c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t s from a l l t h e e i g h t d e c a d e s 1905 t o 1 9 7 5 - These were baby f o o d , d e t e r g e n t , i n s u r a n c e and shampoo. The l a t t e r w h i c h i n c l u d e d a l l t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f r o m t h e two p r o d u c t c l a s s e s " P e r s o n a l C a r e " and " S e r v i c e s " was drawn from t h e 1 9 7 0's decade o n l y . On t h e b a s i s o f o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , ' f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ' , ' i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ' and ' o t h e r ' a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d f i r s t . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n p r o v i d e d d e f i n i t e s u p p o r t f o r t h e major p r e d i c t i o n ( 1 ) . T a m i l sample had more f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s whereas t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample had more i n d i v i d u a l ones. However, i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y sample, where a d v e r t i s e m e n t s from more t h a n one decade were a n a l y s e d , t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r d e c a d e s were shown t o have t h e most f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . T h e r e -f o r e a s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t was i n o r d e r . A C h i - s q u a r e c a l c u -l a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e s e t h r e e e x c e p t i o n a l d e c a d e s , t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample d i d show a d e f i n i t e t i l t t o w a r d s i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s 1 3 3 whereas t h e T a m i l sample on t h e o t h e r hand, was i n d e f i n i t e f a v o u r o f f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . In t h e s t u d y o f v a l u e p r o f i l e s , a s t a t i s t i c a l i n q u i r y a l o n e i s not m e a n i n g f u l . So a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t was a l s o made. In d o i n g t h i s , b o t h v i s u a l s and t h e t e x t o f an a d v e r t i s e m e n t were c a r e -f u l l y a n a l y s e d . Such an a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r a l l t h e t h r e e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t i n i t i a l l y g u i d e d t h i s i n q u i r y . E x p e c t a t i o n ( 1 ) (a) Baby Food Even b a b i e s a r e p o r t r a y e d i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample as h a v i n g g r e a t i n d i v i d u a l i t y . In t h e baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f t h i s sample, as t h e p u r c h a s e r o f t h e p r o d u c t , t h e mother o f t h e baby i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r i g n o r e d . Y e t h e r p r e s e n c e i s not v e r y g l a r i n g e i t h e r . She n e v e r f e e d s h e r baby: baby a l w a y s f e e d s a l o n e , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y and i n d e p e n d e n c e . B a b i e s a r e a l s o d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g most p a r t i c u l a r , h a v i n g a k e e n s e n s e o f t a s t e , r e f u s i n g b r a n d s t h e y do not f a v o u r and a l s o as not f o r g e t t i n g t h e g o o d n e s s and f l a v o u r o f t h e i r f a v o u r i t e b r a n d o f p r o d u c t . Sometimes t h e p r o d u c t i s even t a n g e n t i a l i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t , more i m p o r t a n c e b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o v a r i o u s c o n c e s s i o n s o r b e n e f i t s o f b u y i n g t h e p r o d u c t . The baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h i s sample a r e v e r y open about t h e c o m m e r c i a l a s p e c t o f t h e p r o d u c t . 134 Most of them d e c l a r e : " B a b i e s are our s o l e b u s i n e s s " . The T a m i l sample of baby food a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , i n con-t r a s t , c o n s i d e r a b l y u n d e r p l a y s the f a c t t h a t baby food i s a commercial p r o d u c t . Here, baby food becomes a symbol of mother's l o v e f o r her i n f a n t and an answer t o her p r a y e r s . I t i s f o r the f u l l and f a s t growth o f b a b i e s . I n t h i s sample, baby food a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a s s u r e mothers t h a t t h e use o f the product f o r the baby i n f a c t , would be an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r l o v e f o r t h e i r i n f a n t s r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a l a c k o f i t . P o r t r a y a l of mothers a c t u a l l y f e e d i n g baby food t o t h e i r i n f a n t s a l s o appear i n t h i s sample. Whereas N o r t h American a d v e r t i s e m e n t s urge mothers t o r e c o g n i s e t h e i r b a b i e s ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y and t h e i r c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d need f o r independence, T a m i l ones r e f l e c t and r e i n f o r c e p a r e n t s ' l o v e f o r t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . Baby food as a commercial product r e c e i v e s easy welcome i n the N o r t h American c u l t u r e perhaps because t h i s e n a b l e s mothers t o have more freedom. Hence t h i s product i s seen t o be e q u a l l y good f o r b o t h mothers' and b a b i e s ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y . In T a m i l c u l t u r e , however, t h i s i s not the case. Here, use of baby food needs more c o a x i n g t h a n mere product i n f o r m a t i o n or the c o m p a r a t i v e commercial b e n e f i t s of the brand of baby food b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t T a m i l c u l t u r e e x p e c t s mothers t o nurse t h e i r b a b i e s u n t i l t h e y a r e ready t o be i n t r o d u c e d t o home-made s o l i d f o o d s . In such a c u l t u r a l ' s e t t i n g , i t i s but n a t u r a l t h a t 135 t h e product i s i n t r o d u c e d wrapped i n the dominant c u l t u r a l symbol of f a m i l y l o v e and p o r t r a y a l s of s t r o n g m o t h e r - c h i l d bonds. (b) Shampoo N o r t h American shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a l s o r e v e a l an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e " s e l f " . The c u l t u r a l v a l u a -t i o n s of s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n , a f f i l i a t i o n and p o p u l a r i t y a l s o a re advanced i n t h e s e shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . There, shampoo i s a v e r y p e r s o n a l product which s i l k e n s h a i r , s o f t e n s i t , makes i t o b e d i e n t and g i v e s i t a well-groomed appearance. I t even t u r n s i t s u s e r glamorous. The v a l u e c o n c e p t s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y , c o ncern w i t h t h e s e l f , one's own bea u t y , glamour and the l i k e , become v e r y e v i d e n t i n these N o r t h American a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . I n the T a m i l sample, on the o t h e r hand, shampoo be-comes a f a m i l y p r o d u c t . I t i s a d v e r t i s e d as b e i n g g e n t l e on c h i l d r e n ' s h a i r , good f o r the woman and a l s o f o r the head o f t h e f a m i l y . The l a b e l f a m i l y shampoo a l s o appears on the b o t t l e i n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t . A mother i s shown i n the a c t o f shampooing her daughter's h a i r w h i l e the f a t h e r watches them, t h e r e b y making shampooing a f a m i l y a f f a i r , r a t h e r t h a n a p e r s o n a l one. These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s d e f i n i t e -l y p o r t r a y a c u l t u r a l c o n c e r n w i t h f a m i l y l o v e whereas i n the N o r t h American shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , f a m i l y l o v e does not appear even as a s u b t l e theme. In the former c u l t u r e 1 36 where t r a d i t i o n a l herbal methods of cleansing hair are popular, for instance, using crushed hibiscus leaves, the dominant c u l t u r a l value - family love - i s seen to be most important in the shampoo advertisements. (c) Insurance It i s in the insurance advertisements that the North American sample enjoys the most family oriented material. But even then, many individual themes appear. In con-formity with North American c u l t u r a l norms, a man's domin-ance and his desire for acquis i t i o n receive more importance here than does his family love or care for his family members. Even in an advertisement of a special boy's l i f e insurance, concern about " s e l f " i s the predominant theme. The boy i s shown as asking: "'Isn't i t (the policy) for a guy's own ;7self'''? " These advertisements reveal a b e l i e f in the North American male's concern with r a t i o n a l i t y or p r a c t i c a l i t y by showing a man how to protect his wife and children, or to cope with new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The visuals in these symbolise man's domination, f i n a n c i a l security, dependability of the insurance company and so on. The visuals in the Tamil insurance advertisements mostly provide company symbols alone. One such symbol i s a burning lamp. A burning lamp i s very auspicious according to t r a d i t i o n a l Hindu b e l i e f s . It carries with i t the re l i g i o u s connotations of b e l i e f in God, worship etc. as 137 w e l l as t h e f e s t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f j o y , p r o s p e r i t y , l i f e e t c . The t e x t u a l messages, however, a r e i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f man's r o l e . They p o r t r a y man as a c q u i s i t i v e , husbands as d e s i r i n g dominance and f a t h e r s as b e i n g l o v i n g o r d u t i f u l t o w a r d s t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . One i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t h e r e e q u a t e s man's b u y i n g a p o l i c y w i t h h i s f u l f i l l i n g o f h i s c h i l d ' s dreams, a n o t h e r p o r t r a y s him as c a r i n g f o r h i s s o n ' s f u t u r e , y e t a n o t h e r one shows a f a t h e r s a v i n g up f o r h i s s o n ' s c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n even b e f o r e he i s o l d enough t o s t a r t s c h o o l i n g . Even i n t h e few bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t a p p e a r i n t h i s sample, p a r e n t s ' l o v e f o r o f f s p r i n g and t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w a r d s t h e l a t t e r a r e t h e main v a l u e c o n c e p t s u s e d . (d) P e r s o n a l C a r e Items A d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f P e r s o n a l C a r e i t e m s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample c l e a r l y e mphasize " s e l f " . Here, t h e c o n -c e r n i s t h e " l o o k " o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , m o s t l y o f t h e woman u s i n g t h e a d v e r t i s e d p r o d u c t . Most o f t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s show women as pa m p e r i n g t h e m s e l v e s . In t h e c o s m e t i c a d v e r -t i s e m e n t s , t h e woman i s shown as pampering h e r body p a r t s , as h a v i n g an a i r o f c o n f i d e n c e , o r as w i t h h e r b e l o v e d , e n j o y i n g t h e s e n s u a l e x p e r i e n c e d e r i v e d from u s i n g a p r o d u c t . A l l t h e s e e q u a l l y r e f l e c t t h e woman's i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h h e r " s e l f " . A l l o f them d e p i c t t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e p l a c e d on s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n , a f f i l i a t i o n , and harm a v o i d a n c e . 138 T a m i l P e r s o n a l Care a d v e r t i s e m e n t s however, do not p o r t r a y t h e s e p r o d u c t s as s t r i c t l y p e r s o n a l . They are t o be used i n t h e c a r e o f f a m i l y members. I n the example of a h a i r l o t i o n , the v i s u a l shows a mother who a p p l i e s the l o t i o n on her d a u g h t e r ' s h a i r , r a t h e r t h a n on her own. T h i s i s the p a t t e r n t h a t was found i n the shampoo adver-t i s e m e n t s o f t h e same sample. Toothpaste a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a l s o p o r t r a y the T a m i l mother's u n s e l f i s h c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d . In one example, a mother i s p o r t r a y e d as making her son use a t o o t h p a s t e so t h a t he does not get c a v i t i e s . She does not use i t h e r s e l f t o improve the b e a u t i f u l l o o k of her own t e e t h , or f o r any o t h e r p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t such as s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n or a f f i l i a t i o n . Toothpaste becomes a " c a v i t y - f i g h t i n g f a m i l y guard" i n t h i s sample. N o r t h American den t u r e c l e a n s e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , l i k e most o t h e r p e r s o n a l c a r e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h i s sample, p o r t r a y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c u l t u r a l l y s a n c t i o n e d d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n and a f f i l i a t i o n . The c l o s e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i s p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g a c h i e v e d by the use of t h e a d v e r t i s e d p r o d u c t . The v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p and p o p u l a r i t y are a l s o d e p i c t e d i n some of them. In t h e T a m i l p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , t o o , a mother i s shown as i n v o l v e d i n the i n t i m a t e c a r e o f her c h i l d . Most o f t h e m e d i c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s here are a l s o r i c h i n 139 f a m i l y i m a g e r y . In t h e s e , p r o d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e . The s t r e s s i s l a i d on c a r i n g and l o v i n g w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . P e r h a p s t h i s t r e n d i s "because o f t h e c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l , home r e m e d i e s t o t r e a t a l l r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r a i l m e n t s and p h y s i c a l d i s c o m -f o r t s l i k e a cough, c o l d or headache, f o r w h i c h most o f t h e s e a d v e r t i s e d i t e m s a r e meant. F a m i l y i m a g e r y i s p o p u l a r i n t h e v a c c i n e and v i t a m i n t o n i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f t h i s sample t o o . One v a c c i n e i s d e s c r i b e d as a "pharmaceu-t i c a l s a f e g u a r d w i t h l o v e " . One c o u l d s a f e l y i n f e r t h a t i n t h i s c u l t u r e , t h e u s e o f w e s t e r n m e d i c i n e s needs e n c o u r a g e -ment. Mere p r o d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t enough. F a m i l y l o v e , b e i n g a dominant c u l t u r a l v a l u e , i s u s e d i n m e d i c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o e f f e c t t h i s p e r s u a s i o n . U n l i k e t h e T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , N o r t h A m e r i c a n p a i n balm or m e d i c i n e d e s c r i p t i o n s do not d e p i c t any i n t i m a t e c a r i n g between f a m i l y members. Most N o r t h A m e r i c a n m e d i -c i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p r o v i d e p r o d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n e . I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f them even t h e v i s u a l d e p i c t i o n o f p e o p l e i s a b s e n t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f w e s t e r n m e d i c i n e i n t h e A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t no v a l u e c o n c e p t s a r e u s e d t o p o p u l a r i s e them. Most f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n P e r s o n a l C a r e c a t e g o r y do not c o n t a i n i n t i m a t e f a m i l y themes. They a r e q u a l i f i e d as f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o n l y HO because of some reference to a family role. However, these are mere passing references only. The main concern in these i s also the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f . Expectation (2) In conformity with expectation ( 2 ) , extended family portrayals in both samples are very limited. In the Tamil sample, a l i f e insurance company advertisement contains a v i s u a l of an extended family relationship. This v i s u a l portrays a widowed woman and her c h i l d apparently dependent on her late husband's mother. This i s in accordance with the Tamil custom that a woman's place after marriage i s in her husband's home. There, his mother has dominance over her even when he i s a l i v e . But t h i s domination i s even greater i f he has passed away. In the North American sample where extended family relationships enter into the advertisements, they are nothing more than mere references to the extended r e l a t i o n -ship i t s e l f . No v i s u a l depiction of extended family membership i s available i n these advertisements. The textual references make no mention of family love or inte-g r i t y or even of care between extended family members. The Tamil advertisement concerns extended family care during exigencies. 141 E x p e c t a t i o n (3) E x p e c t a t i o n ( 3 ) , r e g a r d i n g r o l e p o r t r a y a l s i n t h e two sa m p l e s , a l s o r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s made o f "both s a m p l e s . Man's r o l e as t h e economic p r o v i d e r and woman's economic dependence g e t e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n b o t h c a s e s . Woman's dependence i s n ot so e x p l i c i t i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ; n e i t h e r does t h e T a m i l d e p i c t t h i s i n any s u b t l e manner. The L i f e I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n a d v e r t i s e m e n t d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i s an example o f t h e T a m i l c a s e . In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m a t e r i a l women a r e shown as s i m i l a r l y d e p e n d e n t . In one a d v e r t i s e m e n t , a husband w o r r i e s : "What w i l l my w i f e do i f s o m e t h i n g happened t o me?" These women a r e not t o t a l l y d e p e n d e n t , b u t t h e y a r e not t o t a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t e i t h e r . Women i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e a l l o w e d a l i t t l e more i n d e p e n d e n c e t h a n a r e T a m i l women; t h e f o r m e r a r e sometimes shown as n u r s e s , t e a c h e r s or s e c r e t a r i e s -whereas t h e l a t t e r do not e n j o y even a s i n g l e s u c h p o r t r a y a l o f woman's r o l e s o u t s i d e t h e home. In t h e f o r m e r c a s e women a r e a l l o w e d some amount o f d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r 142 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e c u l t u r e where l e g a l l y , a man i s h e l d r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n b u t not a woman f o r m a i n t a i n i n g her husband. Woman's p l a c e i n b o t h samples i s a t home. She has t o c a r e f o r h e r husband and c h l d r e n , make a home and do ho u s e -work. She t a k e s p l e a s u r e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . As i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , she i s happy and proud t o have h e r f a m i l y wash c l e a n ; i f she f a i l s t o do so she has t o f a c e h e r husband's a n g e r ; she does e v e r y l i t t l e t h i n g f o r h i s a p p r o v a l . She i s s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d c a r e t o o . In t h e baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m a t e r i a l m o t h e r s a r e n o t p r o m i n e n t , t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s u g g e s t i o n s a d v e r t i s e r s make t h e i r p r e s e n c e f e l t . I n t h e T a m i l sample, however, t h e mother a l w a y s d e c i d e s what i s b e s t f o r baby; she u s e s p a i n balm on h e r c h i l d , makes h e r son b r u s h h e r t e e t h , shampoos her d a u g h t e r ' s h a i r , a p p l i e s l o t i o n on i t , e t c . F a t h e r s a r e mere on-l o o k e r s i n t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . Not o n l y c h i l d c a r e , b u t a l s o d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e a r e a woman's d u t i e s . I n our samples one can f i n d a few v i s u a l s o f women c o o k i n g , b u t t h e r e i s no p o r t r a y a l o f a woman a c t u a l l y s e r v i n g o t h e r f a m i l y members. In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c a s e , a woman i s shown as c o o k i n g , b u t t h e main theme i s h e r c o n c e r n o v e r h e r w e i g h t g a i n ; she i s t r a p p e d by h e r own a p p e t i t e . I n t h e T a m i l sample t h e woman cooks 143 even when she i s c o u g h i n g . The man does not s h a r e t h e s e h o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n e i t h e r sample. In t h e T a m i l c a s e we f i n d p o r t r a y a l s o f a happy s h a r i n g o f e m o t i o n s between man and woman. The baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t , where man h o l d s t h e bowl and woman f e e d s t h e baby, i s a good example o f t h i s . He i s n o t r e d u c i n g her w o r k l o a d by h o l d i n g t h e b o w l , b u t he i s d e f i n i t e l y making i t a p l e a s a n t t a s k . In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e y s h a r e t h i s s e n s u a l e x p e r i e n c e , as t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a f a c i a l m o i s t u r i z e r r e v e a l s . The T a m i l sample has more p o r t r a y a l s o f women engaged i n d o m e s t i c d u t i e s t h a n i n p e r s o n a l c a r e . In c o n t r a s t , i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c a s e , a woman's p e r s o n a l c a r e i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n her d o m e s t i c d u t i e s . In t h e s e examples, she i s shown t o be i n l o v e w i t h h e r s e l f , she pampers h e r body, and she i s a n x i o u s about her l o o k s and y o u t h . In the T a m i l examples t o o , a woman o f t e n engages i n p e r s o n a l c a r e . But t h e s e examples do n o t seem so g l a r i n g , b e c a u s e t h e s e women a l s o a r e shown t o be d e d i c a t e d m o t h e r s engaged i n t h e b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r d a u g h t e r s . A d a u g h t e r ' s m a r r i a g e i s a m a j o r c o n c e r n f o r a T a m i l f a m i l y and t h e b e a u t y o f a b r i d e i s a c h e r i s h e d a t t r i b u t e . A h a p p i l y m a r r i e d woman w o r r i e s no more about h e r own b e a u t y , b u t o n l y about t h a t o f h er d a u g h t e r , i f she has one. Y o u t h i s a major c o n c e r n i n b o t h s a m p l e s , b u t p a r t i -c u l a r l y so i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n one. N o r t h A m e r i c a n 144 c o s m e t i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p o r t r a y o l d e r women who a r e w o r r i e d about t h e i r a g i n g . The p r o d u c t i s d e s c r i b e d as one t h a t has t h e c a p a c i t y t o c r e a t e y o u n g e r l o o k s . T a m i l c o s m e t i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , by c o n t r a s t , p o r t r a y g i r l s o f m a r r i a g e a b l e age who b e a u t i f y t h e m s e l v e s . Men a r e so r a r e l y d e p i c t e d i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f p e r s o n a l c a r e p r o d u c t s t h a t one would t h i n k t h e y a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d about t h e i r l o o k s a t a l l . In t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m a t e r i a l a woman who d i e t s s a y s t h a t h er husband i s a l s o o v e r w e i g h t b u t t h a t he i s not w o r r i e d about i t . I n t h e T a m i l c a s e , by c o n t r a s t , we have a c o u p l e o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f m e d i c i n e s aimed a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e h e i g h t and w e i g h t o f men. Here an i n c r e a s e i n h e i g h t and w e i g h t a r e e q u a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n h e a l t h . In t h e s e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , h e a l t h i s l i n k e d t o men, f u r t h e r m o r e , o n l y t h e men a r e n a t i o n b u i l d e r s . T h e r e a r e n o t many p o r t r a y a l s o f c h i l d r e n i n our sa m p l e s , b u t i n t h e few c a s e s we do have, m a l e / f e m a l e r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e c a r r i e d o v e r t o t h e p o r t r a y a l o f sons and d a u g h t e r s . I n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ask f a t h e r s i n t h e T a m i l sample t o save f o r t h e i r d a u g h t e r s ' m a r r i a g e and, i n b o t h s a m p l e s , f o r t h e i r s o n ' s e d u c a t i o n . T a m i l c a l c i u m t a b l e t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s c l a i m t h a t t h i s m e d i c i n e w i l l make boys grow " s t r o n g and h e a l t h y " and a T a m i l c o s m e t i c a d v e r -t i s e m e n t p r o m i s e s t o make g i r l s " f a i r and l o v e l y " . The b e s t s t u d e n t i n a N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t i s a boy, and d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e same sample 145 enhance t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f g i r l s by w h i t e n i n g and b r i g h t e n -i n g t h e i r d r e s s e s . Thus, a l l t h e t h r e e c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t g u i d e d t h i s s t u d y have been f u l f i l l e d . 1. The N o r t h A m e r i c a n sample c o n t a i n s more i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a n f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e -ments and t h e T a m i l sample more f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e -ments t h a n i n d i v i d u a l ones; 2 . e x t e n d e d f a m i l y p o r t r a y a l s a r e m i n i m a l i n b o t h s a m p l e s , and 3- r o l e p o r t r a y a l s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y frame a r e b a s i c a l l y t h e same i n b o t h s a m p l e s : man i s t h e economic p r o v i d e r and woman i s t h e homemaker. I t needs t o be emphasized t h a t t h e s e c u l t u r a l b e -h a v i o u r s seen r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s e two c u l t u r a l s e t s o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s do n o t l e a d t o a b e l i e f t h a t t h e y a r e t h e a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r s c u r r e n t i n t h e s e r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s . The o n l y c l a i m t h a t i s b e i n g made h e r e i s t h a t t h e s e a r e e x p e c t a t e d b e h a v i o u r s i n t h e c u l t u r e s s t u d i e d . F o r i n -s t a n c e , i t would be c o n t r a r y t o f a c t i f one assumed t h a t most A m e r i c a n women a r e mere h o u s e w i v e s and t h a t a l l who i n f a c t work, have men as t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . I n r e a l i t y , women do o c c u p y many i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s and i t i s not uncommon t o see women who a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y s u p e r i o r t o men. S i m i -l a r l y , one c a n n o t s ay t h a t a l l T a m i l women a r e c o m p l e t e l y 1 46 dependent on t h e i r h u s b a n d s . Many o f them a r e p r o f e s -s i o n a l s , t o o , and many do i n f a c t combine f a m i l y r o l e s w i t h b e i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l . L i k e w i s e , i n b o t h c u l t u r e s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a , more and more men s h a r e i n h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s and c h i l d c a r e . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t h e c a s e i n most f a m i l i e s where h o u s e w i v e s a r e w o r k i n g women. In t h e t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n , t o o , c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s a r e n o t a l w a y s f u l f i l l e d e n t i r e l y . In b o t h c u l t u r e s , t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d a u g h t e r s i s a l s o g i v e n i m p o r t a n c e . Thus a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e v e a l e x p e c t e d c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o u r s and i d e a l v a l u e s , not a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r a l norms. T h e r e i s y e t a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h a t needs t o be remembered i n a s t u d y l i k e t h i s : t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e sample. The o b s e r v a t i o n s made h e r e have been a d v e r t i s e -ments c o n t a i n e d i n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f m a g a z i n e s o n l y . I n t h i s s t u d y , f o r i n s t a n c e , some o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m a g a z i n e s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e L a d i e s Home J o u r n a l , M c C a l l s , B e t t e r Homes and G a r d e n s , Woman's Day and t h e l i k e . These c o u l d be t e rmed f a m i l y t y p e r e a d i n g or women's m a g a z i n e s . The T a m i l m a g a z i n e s r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e s i m i l a r , and c o u l d be termed as g e n e r a l or f a m i l y t y p e j o u r n a l s . These m a g a z i n e s , however, a r e not l i m i t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f r e a d e r s . A l s o , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g m a l e - f e m a l e r o l e s , f a m i l y - i n d i v i d u a l themes, e t c . a r e e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e t h e y a p p e a r i n f a m i l y t y p e m a g a z i n e s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t d e s e r v e s t o be emphasized t h a t a l t h o u g h the term " c u l t u r e " i s used by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t o d e s c r i b e t r a d i t i o n s i n a l i v e s o c i a l m i l i e u , t h e concept i e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r domains such as a d v e r t i s i n g , a r t , c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y books e t c . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y has been t o demonstrate t h a t such an a p p l i c a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e and t h a t i t can y i e l d i n t e r e s t i n g , i n s i g h t f u l r e s u l t s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t and t h a t the r e s u l t s w i l l l e a d to f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . One p o s s i b i l i t y would be t o examine th e changes i n t h e v a l u e p o r t r a y a l s over the decades i n b o t h N o r t h American and T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a g a i n s t a backdrop o f changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n the w i d e r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . 148 APPENDIX 1.1 SAMPLING PLAN OP THE MAIN DATA BASE (Prom P o l l a y R.W.: Content A n a l y s i s o f P r i n t A d v e r t i s i n g ) SAMPLING PLAN I n s t r u c t i o n s : Randomly draw f i v e ( 5 ) a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , from a randomly s e l e c t e d i s s u e , f o r each o f the 10 p e r i o d i c a l s w i t h the l a r g e s t c i r c u l a t i o n , f o r each of the y e a r 19x3, 19x4,...., 19x7, f o r each of the e i g h t decades o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Sample S i z e : 2,000 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ; 5 / i s s u e x 5 years/decade x 8 decades x 10 p e r i o d i c a l s Subsamples: 250 per decade 400 Sunday Supplements (over a l l 8 decades) 1600 Magazines Notes: Draw f i v e ads by use o f random number t a b l e s , d r awing u n t i l " h i t t i n g " a page w i t h a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . I f m u l t i p l e ads appear, a s s i g n each a s e q u e n t i a l number and draw a g a i n t o s e l e c t ad f o r sample. These sample a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w i t h p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f i n c l u -s i o n r o u g h l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to ad s i z e . One i s s u e per y e a r drawn f o r each p e r i o d i c a l t o i n s u r e e q u a l sample s i z e s f o r each of the f i v e y e a r s per decade. Use of a s i n g l e i s s u e g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s a c c e s s i o n and r e t r i e v a l . The 10 l a r g e s t c i r c u l a t i o n p e r i o d i c a l s f o r each decade were determined by c o n s u l t i n g A y e r ' s D i r e c t o r y o f P u b l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e y e a r 19x5. Only the top t e n a l s o l i s t e d i n t h e U n i o n L i s t o f S e r i a l s , and/or i n t h e h o l d i n g s o f t h e New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y and/ or L i b r a r y of Congress, Washington, D.C. were i n c l u d e d . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t l e a d to s i x media d e l e t i o n s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u b s t i t u -t i o n s over f i v e d i f f e r e n t decades. (See T a b l e of Media R e p r e s e n t e d ) . 149 MEDIA REPRESENTED T i t l e 1900's 1910'e 1920'e 1930'8 1940'B 1950'8 1960's 1970's American Magazine •American Weekly American Woman Better Homes and Gardens HA(6) 4 1 1 1 10 3 10 8 C o l l i e r s 10 6 6 Comfort 2 5 Cosmopolitan 7 10 8 •Delineator 4- 10 Family C i r c l e 6 6 •Family Weekly 8 4 Farm Journal HA(9) Gentlewoman HA (3) Good Housekeeping 10 9 Home L i f e 9 Household 8 Ladies' Home Journal 3 3 2 4 2 6 9 10 Ladies World 6 Li b e r t y 7 L i f e 5 7 Look 5 McCalls 4 7 5 4 8 4 9 Munsey's 7 National Geographic 5 •Parade 4 10? 2 Peoples Home Journal 9 HA(2) HA(6) • P i c t o r i a l Review e 5 9 Reader's Digest* 2 1 3 Saturday Evening Post 6 2 3 2 5 7 8 •This Week True Story TV Guide Woman's Day Woman's Farm Journal Woman's Home Companion Woman's Magazine Woman's World 9 7 1 2 3 1 7 NA(9) 1 5 1 6 3 3 9 Youth Companion Notes: * = Sunday Supplement; A = Reader's Digest excluded by Ayer and t h i s atudy p r i o r to 1955 as not a c a r r i e r of a d v e r t i s i n g ; NZ(x) indicates p e r i o d i c a l s not a v a i l a b l e i n DLC or NYPL or Union L i s t of S e r i a l s , where x indicates rank that would have been appropriate to Ayer's i f a v a i l a b l e . ( 150 APPENDIX 1 . 2 BASIS OP PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION (Prom Pollay's Coding, The History of Advertising Archives, U.B.C. PRODUCT (PRD2) 1 - Domestic Durables: products for household maintenance and/or operation whose consumption period is typical ly greater than a year. Examples: automobiles, bicycles, appliances, furniture, paint and wallpaper, rugs, cameras, dishes, silverware, linens, towels, car parts, tools, typewriters. 2 - Domestic Consumables: products for household maintenance and/or operation whose consumption period is typical ly expired within a year. Examples: laundry products, household cleaning and maintenance (window cleaners, waxes, and polishes), room deodorizers, kitchen convenience goods (was paper, plastic wrap), paper products (excluding Kleenex and to i le t paper), l ight bulbs, batteries. 3 - Personal Consumables A: products for ingestion by house-hold members, including pets, except for items in (5). Examples: packaged food products, beverages (non-alcoholic) , gum, candy, coffee, cooking o i l s (or substitutes), condiments, pet foods. 4 - Personal Consumables B: alcohol and tobacco products. 5 - Personal Care: products for grooming and/or health maintenance of family members, excludes apparel other than back braces, hearing aids, eyeglasses. Examples: cosmetics, patent medicines, hair and skin care, deodorants, feminine hygiene products, toothpaste, shampoo, hand and bath soaps, to i le t paper, Kleenex, weight gain/loss products ingested or not. 6 - Services: services and intangibles. Examples: hotel rooms, credit and credit cards, insurance, travellers cheques, entertainments. 151 7 - Personal Apparel: items worn, except for therapeutic e f f e c t , or the i r components. Examples: clothing, jewellery, umbrellas, shoes, accessories, f a b r i c s , yarn. 8 - Miscellaneous: consumer goods not otherwise categorized. Examples: employment, records, books, toys, writing paper, pens, o f f i c e supplies. NOTE: Rate the p r i n c i p l e product class for a family of pro-ducts, e.g. Heinz 5 7 V a r i e t i e s as 0 3 . Advertisements for catalogues should be rated according to pr i n c i p l e merchandise included in the catalogue. If this i s a highly varied assortment, code as Miscellaneous. NOTE: In the case of multi-use products, the use that i s advertised w i l l indicate into which category the product should be c l a s s i f i e d , e.g. Lysol di s i n f e c t a n t : household cleaner - " 2 " ; personal hygiene - " 5 " . 152 APPENDIX 2.1 PRODUCT LISTINGS OP THE NORTH AMERICAN AND TAMIL SAMPLES OP THE SEVENTIES I I I P e r s o n a l Care S e r v i c e s N o r t h American T a m i l N o r t h American T a m i l A f t e r shave Baby cream Accommodation A i r l i n e s A s p i r i n Beauty make-up Bloo d d o n a t i o n Bank Beauty o i l Beauty spot Communication C h i t fund Bust d e v e l o p e r Condon C r e d i t c a r d E d u c a t i o n Cologne Cosmetic E d u c a t i o n H o t e l C o n d i t i o n e r D o c t o r i n I n s u r a n c e I n s u r a n c e C o n t r a c e p t i v e Eye make-up Penny Bank L o t t e r y Cosmetic Pace cream T.V. Show T r a v e l l e r s D e n t r i c l e Pace powder V a c a t i o n cheque Deodorant H a i r remover A i r t r a v e l D e o d o r i z e r H e i g h t e n i n g D i s h soap Hot pack Drugs L o t i o n Dye M e d i c i n e Pace cream Ointment Pat r e d u c t i o n Powder p l a n Shampoo Foot d e d o r i z a t i o n Soap H a i r remover T a b l e t Hard soap T o n i c I t c h powder T o o t h p a s t e L a x a t i v e Tooth powder L i p s t i c k V a c c i n e M e d i c i n e V i t a m i n t o n i c Ointment P a i n r e l i e v e r Shampoo Shaver S k i n cream T i s s u e s V a g i n a cream BIBLIOGRAPHY 153 Ahuja, B.N. (1978). Mass Communications: P r e s s , R a d i o , ( F i l m s , A d v e r t i s i n g and Other Media w i t h S p e c i a l \ R e f e r e n c e t o I n d i a n C o n d i t i o n s . Varma B r o s , New \ D e l h i . \ Atwan R o b e r t , Donald McQuade and John ¥. W r i g h t . (1979). E d s e l s , L u c k i e s , and F r i g i d a i r e s . A d v e r t i s i n g the  American Way. D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , New York. Bauer, Raymond A. and Stephen A. G r e y s e r . (1968). Adver- t i s i n g i n America: The Consumer View. H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge Mass. B r i d g e s , W. (1965)- " F a m i l y p a t t e r n s and s o c i a l v a l u e s i n America, 1825-1875". American Q u a r t e r l y 17 ( S p r i n g ) : 3-11 . Brown, Bruce W. (1981). Images o f F a m i l y L i f e i n Magazine  A d v e r t i s i n g : 1920-1978. Praeger S p e c i a l S t u d i e s , New York. Courtney , A l i c e E. and Sarah Wernick L o c k e r t z . (1971). "A woman's p l a c e : An a n a l y s i s o f the r o l e s p o r t r a y e d by women i n magazine a d v e r t i s e m e n t s " . J o u r n a l o f  M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h 8(l):92-95-Douglas, Mary and Baron Isherwood. (1979). The World o f  Goods. B a s i c Books, New York. F i l e n e , P e t e r G. (1974). Him, Her, S e l f : Sex R o l e s i n  Modern America. New American L i b r a r y , New York. F o w l e s , J i b . (1976). Mass A d v e r t i s i n g As S o c i a l F o r e c a s t :  A Method f o r F u t u r e s R e s e a r c h . Greenwood P r e s s , West P o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t . Goffman, E r v i n g . (1979). Gender A d v e r t i s e m e n t s . Harper & Row P u b l i s h e r s , New York. Hayakawa, S.I. (1964). Language i n Thought and A c t i o n . H a r c o u r t , Brace and World, New York. K a p a d i a , K.M. (1958). M a r r i a g e & F a m i l y i n I n d i a . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New D e l h i . K i l b o u r n e , J e a n . (1977). "Images of Women i n T.V. Commer-c i a l s " i n T.V. Book e d i t e d by Judy Fireman, pp. 392-96. Workman, New York. 154 Kluckhohn, Clyde C. (1961). "The Study of Values" in Donald N. Barrett (ed.), Values in America. University of Notre Dame Press, Indiana. Komisar, Lucy. (1972). "The image of women in advertising". In Women i n Sexist Society edited by V. Gornick and B.K. Mortan. pp. 207-17. New American Library, New York. Lantz, Herman R., E.C. Snyder, M. Britton and R. Schmitt. (1968). "Pre-industrial patterns in the c o l o n i a l family in America. A content analysis of co l o n i a l magazines". American Soci o l o g i c a l Review 33(3):413-26. Lantz, Herman R., Raymond L. Schmitt and Richard Herman. (1973). The pre- i n d u s t r i a l family in America: A further examination of early magazines". American  Journal of Sociology 79(3):568-88. Levi-Strauss, Claude. (1967). Structural Anthropology, Doubleday, Garden City. Leymore, Varda Langholz. (1975). Hidden Myth: Structure  and Symbolism i n Advertising. Basic Books, New York. Mandelbaum, D.G. (1970). Society in India. Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, Berkeley. Morgan, W.L. and A.M. Leahy. (1934). "The cu l t u r a l content of general interest magazines". Journal of  Educational Psychology 25(0ctober) :530-36. Martineau, Pierre. (1957). Motivation i n Advertising. McGraw H i l l , New York. McLuhan, Marshall. (1964). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. The New American Library, Inc., New York. Nimkoff, M.F. (1934). The Family. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, New York. Nimkoff, M.F. (ed.). (1965). Comparative Family Systems. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston. Nye, F. Ivan. (1976). Role Structure and Analysis of the  Family. Sage, Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a . Real, Michael R. (1976). Mass Mediated Culture. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. 155 Roy, Manisha. (1976). B e n g a l i Women. The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicag o P r e s s , Chicago. S c h n e i d e r , Kenneth R. (1968). " W i l l o f a d v e r t i s i n g " , Prom D e s t i n y o f Change: How R e l e v a n t i s Man i n the Age o f Development. H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Win s t o n , New York, as r e p r i n t e d i n J.S. Wright and J.E. M e r t e s , ( e d s . ) . A d v e r t i s i n g ' s R o l e i n S o c i e t y . West, 1974, New York. S i n g h , D.R.. B.K. Tandon, K.M. Upadhyay and N.K. Das ( e d s . ) . (1976). A d v e r t i s i n g i n I n d i a . Punjab U n i v . P r e s s , L u d h i a n a . Thwing, C h a r l e s P r a n k l i n . (1931). American S o c i e t y . Books f o r L i b r a r i e s P r e s s , New York. Venkatesan, M. and J e a n L o s c o . 1975. "Women i n magazine ads: 1959-71". J o u r n a l o f A d v e r t i s i n g R e s e a r c h 15(5):49-45. W i l l i a m s o n , J u d i t h . (1978). Decoding A d v e r t i s e m e n t s : I d e o l o g y and Meaning i n A d v e r t i s i n g . Marion Boyars, London. Woods, S i s t e r P r a n c e s Jerome, C P . P . (1959). The American  F a m i l y System. Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r , New York. W r i g h t , John S. and John E. Mertes ( e d s . ) . (1974). A d v e r t i s i n g ' s R o l e i n S o c i e t y . West, New York. Zimmerman, C a r l e C. and T.K.N. U n n i t h a n . (1975). F a m i l y &  U t i l i z a t i o n i n t h e E a s t and the West. (With p a r t i -c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o I n d i a and the U.S.A.). Thacker & Co., L t d . , Bombay. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096379/manifest

Comment

Related Items