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Family value portrayals in journal advertising, a comparison of North American and Tamil magazine advertisements Patnaik, Vineetha 1983

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FAMILY VALUE PORTRAYALS IN JOURNAL ADVERTISING A COMPARISON OP NORTH AMERICAN AND TAMIL MAGAZINE  ADVERTISEMENTS  VINEETHA PATNAIK M.A.,  J a w a h a r l a l Nehru U n i v e r s i t y , New D e l h i 1979  A Thesis  Submitted i n P a r t i a l  F u l f i l m e n t of  the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s in The  Faculty  of Graduate  Studies  (Department o f Anthropology and The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Sociology,  Columbia)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  The  standard  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  November 1983 © Vineetha Patnaik, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of B r i t i s h it  agree t h a t for  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  be  g r a n t e d by  s h a l l not  be  ANTtf#0t°Ot-  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  of  0 GiV • Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  the  representatives. publication  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department o r  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  freely available  in partial  written  i i  ABSTRACT  The  term  'culture' i s generally  ogists to describe  used  traditions i n a live  However, t h e c o n c e p t  i s equally  Therefore, they too are e l i g i b l e  tively  a n a l y s e d and i n t e r p r e t e d  strate that  f o r being q u a l i t a -  f o r t h e i r c u l t u r a l and  The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s  i t can y i e l d  For t h i s  purpose,  family value portrayals  s t u d y i s t o demon-  data f o r t h i s  interesting, insightful  a comparative  i n North American  z i n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s has b e e n The  t o o t h e r domains  s u c h an a p p l i c a t i o n t o a d v e r t i s i n g i s a p p r o -  p r i a t e , and t h a t results.  milieu.  s t o r y b o o k s and t h e  like.  symbolic content.  anthropol-  social  applicable  s u c h as a d v e r t i s i n g , a r t , c h i l d r e n ' s  by  a n a l y s i s of and T a m i l maga-  undertaken.  s t u d y was drawn f r o m  t h e main d a t a  base o f t h e A d v e r t i s i n g A r c h i v e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British  Columbia.  as i t s t o o d . and  The o r i g i n a l  s a m p l e however was n o t u s e d  B a s e d on o p e r a t i o n a l  d e f i n i t i o n s of family  i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , two s u b - s a m p l e s were  Operationally,  a family  textually, visually  a d v e r t i s e m e n t was t h a t  or i n t o t a l  depicted  on o b j e c t i v e  which  a family  a family  r e l a t i o n s h i p based  presence  o f wedding r i n g , c h i l d r e n , f a m i l y r i t u a l s  explicit  statements  i n the t e x t .  or v i s u a l l y ,  scene or  indices l i k e the and/or  An i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e -  ment, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was any a d v e r t i s e m e n t textually,  formed.  or i n t o t a l  depicted  that  an i n d i v i d u a l ,  iii  o t h e r than i n the c a p a c i t y of a f a m i l y member.  The persons  c o u l d be concerned about t h e i r own s e l f , w i s h i n g or t r y i n g t o groom t h e m s e l v e s , or making any other e x p l i c i t or symbolic  p o r t r a y a l of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  Prom t h i s l i s t ,  one  product was chosen f o r s e l e c t i v e study from each of the f o l l o w i n g product c a t e g o r i e s ; Domestic D u r a b l e s , Domestic Consumables, Services.  P e r s o n a l Consumables, P e r s o n a l Care and  A product example was drawn from each of the  decades 1905-1975 f o r the N o r t h American sample, and i n the case of t h e T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , from the n i n e t e e n s e v e n t i e s only.  The e a r l i e r decades were used o n l y f o r the purposes  of background i n q u i r y .  The i n depth a n a l y s i s was based  o n l y on the P e r s o n a l Care and S e r v i c e s c l a s s a d v e r t i s e m e n t s of the s e v e n t i e s . Three e x p e c t a t i o n s , g a t h e r e d from w r i t t e n sources were s e t out at the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t u d y .  They were  that: 1.  The N o r t h American sample would c o n t a i n more i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s whereas the T a m i l sample would have a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of family oriented  2.  ones;  Extended f a m i l y p o r t r a y a l s would be m i n i m a l i n both samples, but t h a t they would be e s p e c i a l l y r a r e i n the N o r t h American one; and  iv  3-  Role Man  portrayals would  The  Chi-square extended they  the  emphases  two  cultures  confirmed,  i n fact,  seems or  be  similar.  a n d woman, a  i n domestic  were  very  work and  supportive of  strengthened expectation  by t h e use o f  (2), the  so few i n b o t h  statistically. certain  sex r o l e s  were  samples  that  Expectation(3),  subtle differences i n detected  between the  concerned. this  provide  study a rich  i t i s cautioned  a limited  magazines.  source  cultural  Also,  how  advertisements  of cultural  behaviour;  normative. category  illustrates  that  t o be t h e e x p e c t e d  women's t y p e  were  although  accorded  empirically  from  As r e g a r d s  portrayals  Therefore,  However,  was l a t e r  n o t be compared  also  provider  as engaged  gathered  This  testing.  family  could  would  care.  (1).  was  do,  shown  observations  expectation  samples  be t h e economic  homemaker, child  i n both  behaviour  i t need  the data  of journals,  information.  n o t be  used  namely,  depicted  was  actual drawn  f a m i l y and  V  TABLE  OP  CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OP CONTENTS  v  LIST  OP TABLES  v i i  LIST  OF GRAPHS  viii  LIST  OP ILLUSTRATIONS  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I.  II.  III.  ix xiii  INTRODUCTION  1  A d v e r t i s i n g - A Value Communication  1  Expectations Underlying the Exploration  3  D a t a and M e t h o d o l o g y  7  THE V I S U A L S  12  A General Inquiry  15  Baby Pood  18  Shampoo  23  Insurance  26  Detergent  32  An I n D e p t h I n q u i r y  33  F a m i l y A d v e r t i s e m e n t s - B o t h Samples  33  North American  38  Insurance Advertisements  Tamil Insurance Advertisements  39  R o l e P o r t r a y a l o f Woman  41  Shampoo  44  P e r s o n a l Care Products  44  THE TEXT  59  Baby Pood  60  Shampoo  64  Insurance  68  vi  Page Portrayal The  IV.  V.  o f Woman  1 975 M a t e r i a l :  74 Cosmetics  76  Shampoo  87 •  Detergent  87  P e r s o n a l Care  89  ROLE AND AGE PORTRAYALS  102  Child  Care  104  Domestic S e r v i c e  106  Caring f o r the ' S e l f  108  Man:  The F i s c a l Head  110  Man:  Occupant  111  of Important P o s i t i o n s  Portrayals of Children  112  P e r s o n a l Care v e r s u s F a m i l y Care  113  E m o t i o n s v e r s u s Sense E x p e r i e n c e s  116  Woman's Employment  119  The  121  1 975 Samples  The T a m i l C o s m e t i c s  126  CONCLUSION  131  Expectation:  1  133  a) Baby Pood  1 33  b) Shampoo  135  c) I n s u r a n c e  136  d) P e r s o n a l C a r e I t e m s  137  Expectation:  2  140  Expectation:  3  141  APPENDIX 1.1:  S a m p l i n g P l a n o f t h e M a i n D a t a Base  APPENDIX 1.2:  Basics of Product C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  150  APPENDIX 2.1:  Product L i s t i n g s o f the North American and T a m i l S a m p l e s o f t h e S e v e n t i e s ...  152  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ..  148  1 53  vii  LIST  OP  TABLES  Table  1  Page  Family the  2  3  4  and  North  Individual American  and  advertisements Tamil  in 17  samples  D i s t r i b u t i o n of selected products f o r p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s - Decade wise  19  Number o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n v a r i o u s c l a s s e s from t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and samples of the s e v e n t i e s  20  product Tamil  Advertisement c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i n the North A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s o f t h e s e v e n t i e s : the sample f o r i n depth a n a l y s i s ( i n a b s o l u t e numbers)  36  viii LIST  OF  GRAPHS  Graph  1  2.1  2.2  Page  Histograms showing percentages of F a m i l y and I n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s  17  Histograms showing percentages of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of P e r s o n a l Care product c l a s s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l samples  34  Histograms showing percentages of d i f f e r e n t categories of Services i n the North American and T a m i l samples  35  ix  LIST  OP  ILLUSTRATIONS  Illustration  Page  1.  Insurance  1 .1  North  Advertisement  American  1.1.1  ' I am i n good hands'  1.1.2  S t a t e Farm  1.1.3  ' S a f e t y Lock'  30  1.1.4  'Man c o n t r o l l i n g t h e h u l l '  31  1.1.5  Prudential  Insurance  43  1.1.6  Closeness symbolised  40  1.1.7  S m a l l boy's i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y  69  1.1.8  'Family's independence'  71  1.1.9  'How much i n s u r a n c e i s enough?'  73  1.1.10  Save f o r t h e ' g r e a t e s t s t u d e n t o f  'Money T r e e '  them a l l ' 1 .2  14 29  114  Tamil 1.2.1 1.2.2  L i f e Insurance Corporation 'Innocent mind. Should i t worry i n future?'  83  1.2.3  ' I am p a y i n g h i s f e e s f r o m now on' ..  85  1.2.4  Bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t  86  2.  Baby F o o d  2.1  North  42  Advertisements  American  2.1.1  'Most p a r t i c u l a r  baby'  22  2.1.2  'Hi-Diddle diapers'  62  2.1.3  'Babies a r e our b u s i n e s s '  63  X  Illustration  Page  2.1.4  'Mother c o l l e c t s h i n t s a b o u t b a b y c a r e '  2.1.5  'Mother and baby l o o k f o r w a r d t o feeding time'  2.2  107  Tamil 2.2.1  'Feeding - a f a m i l y a f f a i r ' baby food a d v e r t i s e m e n t  3•  Shampoo  3.1  North  - Tamil 24  Advertisements  American  3-1.1  'Shampoo makes y o u g l a m o r o u s '  27  3.1.2  'Shampoo t h a t b a b i e s y o u r  45  3.1.3  'Shampoo t h a t s i l k e n s and s o f t e n s h a i r  3.1.4  'A w e l l - g r o o m e d  appearance  hair'  66  from  shampooing 3.2  105  67  Tamil 3- 2.1  N i c e f a m i l y imagery advertisement  4.  P e r s o n a l Care  4.1  North 4- 1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3  4.1.4  i n a T a m i l shampoo 25  Products  American ' I am a m o t h e r o f two' - c o s m e t i c company a d v e r t i s e m e n t  37  'Woman who pampers h e r body' - s k i n lotion  46  'Protection against environmental h a z a r d s ' - A d v e r t i s e m e n t o f a s k i n and h a i r p r o t e c t i o n agent  47  'Sharing of sensual experiences' Advertisement of a m o i s t u r i z e r  48  xi  Illustration 4.1.5  Page 'Closeness from a denture c l e a n s e r ' Polident tablets  52  4-1.6  A s p i r i n advertisement  57  4.1.7  'Product belongs t o the f a t h e r ' s heart' - a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f an a f t e r s h a v e .... 'A g r a n d m o t h e r who g a i n e d a g i r l i s h f i g u r e ' - Advertisement of diet plan .  79  ' E v e r y o n e i s a l o t h a p p i e r w i t h me' Advertisement of diet plan  80  4-1.8 4.1-9 4-1.10 4-1.11 4.1.12 4.1-13  'Is m i r r o r your advertisement  -  enemy?' - B e a u t y o i l 90  ' G r e a t n e s s t o men t h r o u g h a c o l o g n e ' A cologne advertisement 'Save y o u r s m i l e ' advertisement  92  - A denture cleanser 94  ' G i v e him a m o v i n g e x p e r i e n c e ' A cologne advertisement  4.1.14 4.2  78  Advertisement  120  of a bust developer  ....  124  Tamil 4-2.1  'Mother's l o v e t h r o u g h a h a i r  4-2.2  'Cavity f i g h t i n g f a m i l y guard' Toothpaste advertisement 'Warmth o f m o t h e r ' s l o v e ' - A p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t  4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7  lotion  .  50 51 53  'Por t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y - A v i t a m i n tonic'  55  ' C h i l d ' s s a f e t y i n your hands' - A vaccine advertisement  56  ' T r a d i t i o n a l l y used medicine' - A p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t  95  ' I t s h o u l d be t h e r e i n e v e r y f a m i l y ' A p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t  96  -  xii  Illustration  Page  4-2.8 4.2.9 4-2.10  'For t h e f a m i l y ? - P a i n "balm advertisement  97  'Pharmaceutical safeguard with love' A vaccine advertisement  99  'Woman, t a k e c a r e y o u r s e l f tonic advertisement  - A vitamin 117  4-2.11  Hot pack a d v e r t i s e m e n t  118  4-2.12  'Man a s n a t i o n " b u i l d e r '  123  4-2.13  'For f a i r  127  4-2.14  ' S e c r e t t h a t makes y o u l o o k y o u n g '  5.  Detergent  5.1  North  and l o v e l y s k i n ' ...  129  advertisements  American  5.1.1  ' C l e a n wash t o p l e a s e h u s b a n d s ? '  75  5.1.2  Woman's r o l e p o r t r a y a l advertisement  88  5.1.3  'You w i l l be p r o u d e v e r y t i m e y o u h a n g o u t a wash' - d e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t  i n a detergent  109  xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish t o express sincere who have i n s p i r e d , a d v i s e d formulating extend  this thesis.  appreciation  and a s s i s t e d  ments d u r i n g  this  S p e c i a l thanks are also  t o o t h e r members o f t h e A d v i s o r y  assistance.  History  me t o u s e m a t e r i a l  assistant  My t h a n k s a r e a l s o Associate  Dean, F a c u l t y  Hender, D i r e c t o r  sity  of British  of Sociology  gratitude academic  i n the project.  due t o P r o f e s s o r  R.A. F r e e z e ,  of Graduate Studies,  Mr. B y r o n H.  D a v i d P. A b e r l e and  Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y ,  C o l u m b i a , and Dr. A l l a n B r a i n ,  and A n t h r o p o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r  To t h e A b e r l e s ,  f o r their kind  Univer-  Department  University for stages of  I owe a s p e c i a l d e b t o f  e n c o u r a g e m e n t and s u p p o r t i n my  endeavour.  Among my many f r i e n d s and w e l l w i s h e r s , gratitude  P o l l a y and  from a p r o j e c t o f  making a v a i l a b l e a d d i t i o n a l fundings a t v a r i o u s my r e s e a r c h .  Elvi  and a l s o f o r e m p l o y i n g  o f Awards, P r o f e s s o r s  K a t h l e e n Gough A b e r l e ,  extended  W. P o l l a y f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s and  of Advertising Archives  me a s a r e s e a r c h  Chair-  Committee P r o f e s s o r s  I s p e c i a l l y acknowledge P r o f e s s o r s  Beck f o r p e r m i t t i n g the  B r e n d a E.P. B e c k ,  C o m m i t t e e f o r h e r g u i d a n c e and com-  study.  W h i t t a k e r and R i c h a r d  i n the process of  I n p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e t o  s p e c i a l thanks t o Professor  person o f t h e Advisory  t o a l l those  t o Jayaram I y e r , N i k h i l  I e x p r e s s my  Chandra Behera,  Vidya  xiv  Nadkarni, Kumar  D r . Kamalamma  Pillai  indebtedness Menon ment  for their t o my  for their i n my  helpful, various  long  understanding,  K.  standing  c a n n o t be  I acknowledge  comments stages  special  parents  efforts  Finally,  Pillai,  o f my  of this this  Kavitha help  thesis  Menon  co-operation expressed  Bipin  and B h a d r a  never  N.  and e n c o u r a g e -  and c r i t i c a l ,  Sivananda Patnaik  Without  My  i n words.  the generous  would  and  and a s s i s t a n c e .  Narayana  husband work.  Pillai  at  h i s encouragement have  been  yet  and  completed.  1 CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  Anthropological  interest  i n f a m i l y v a l u e s d a t e s back  a v e r y l o n g t i m e and t h e r e h a s b e e n no p a u c i t y o f c r o s s cultural,  comparative  b a s e d on p r i m a r y  family studies.  and on s e c o n d a r y  These have b e e n  data - f i e l d  w o r k , and  c o n t e n t a n a l y s e s o f p l a y s , n o v e l s , m o v i e s and a r t t o ment i o n a few.  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , h o w e v e r , have n e g l e c t e d t h e  domain o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  w h i l e s t u d y i n g f a m i l y and o t h e r  c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h v a l u e s form dimension  of advertising.  advertisement  as a c a r r i e r  viewing audience. t i s i n g from  It will  a very  important  This t h e s i s t r e a t s the journal of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l values to i t s look at value p r o f i l e s  i n adver-  an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  A d v e r t i s i n g - A Value Communication In  this  communication.  s t u d y , a d v e r t i s i n g i s seen as a form o f The p r o d u c t s  of a d v e r t i s i n g are a t t r i b u t e d  w i t h s y m b o l i c meanings t h e a d v e r t i s e r b e l i e v e s w i l l meaningful wishes  t o persons  t o address.  the a d v e r t i s e d item.  be  i n t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g he  These v a l u e s a r e t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o This transfer  of values t o a product  i s the crux o f the techniques the a d v e r t i s e r uses t o s e l l specific  s e t of merchandise.  He l i t e r a l l y  defines the  a  2  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the popular  term " v a l u e "  terms as "a implying  ful  imbue i t w i t h  could  be  defined  i n Kluckhohn's experience,  deep commitment o r r e p u d i a t i o n , w h i c h of  'choices'  (Kluckhohn;  c h a s e as w e l l as t h e derived  to  s e l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n towards  ordering  action"  tries  values.  The  the  p r o d u c t and  1961:  between p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s i n 18).  act  influences  Thus, the  of purchasing  from s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .  desire to  a r e m o t i v a t e d by Therefore,  a d v e r t i s e r t r a n s f e r s those values  pur-  to the  a  or  success-  advertised  product. Of  course, the  a d v e r t i s i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s not  " d i t t o " of a f a c e - t o - f a c e persons.  The  explicit. the  b e t w e e n two  o r more  communication i s often symbolic rather  The  product advertised  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l values  consumers.  dialogue  mistaken notion the  term t a r g e t of being  o f the messages s e n t  H e r e , by  a r e a l p e r s o n but who  an  the  In other  h o p e d , t h i n k and  act  create  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and  term " t a r g e t  ideal typical  i s thought to value  behaviour.  receiver could  "target the  a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l chosen  a d v e r t i s e r to r e c e i v e the  defining.  of  which would appeal to p o t e n t i a l  These s y m b o l s become p a r t  The  than  o f t e n becomes a s y m b o l  t h r o u g h a d v e r t i s e m e n t s to p o t e n t i a l consumers or receivers".  the  culturally  words a target J  by  hence needs  r e c e i v e r " i s meant  not  image o f an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e c t e d norms receiver w i l l ,  and i t is  i n a c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o v e d manner.  3  Granted tisements to  two  the above,  aimed  distinct  and  content.  the  valuations  special  distinct  As  homes  to t h i s  the  America.  American  which  receivers  different  advertisements they  frame reflect  are aimed.  American  and  perhaps  even  earlier, and  on t h e N o r t h  the author  remarks  t h e dominant  broken American  about  force  (Thwing,  brought least  to education,  individualism  indirectly,  express  more  he m e n t i o n s  to prominence  the family  Anthropological or l e s s  of  there  i n modern  life.  addition  of  Tamil.  "....In education, t h e f a m i l y and t h e s c h o o l e x i s t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . . . The p r e s e n c e , therefore, of education, a s t h e most p o t e n t o f s o c i a l f o r c e s , has r e s u l t e d i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and i n t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e family...."  In  Of  analysis  i n the advertisements  In a study  h a s become  belonging  in their  disintegrating family  i n 1931,  adver-  Exploration  as t h e 1930s, over  that  i s a comparative  values  Underlying  published  proposes  at which  study  to family  a concern  education  be  because  North  i n North  family  happens  cultures:  early  been  will  of the culture  related  Expectations  has  This  study  different target  cultures  interest  profiles two  a t two  this  studies  1931:  other  factors  at the cost  (Thwing,  1931:  Nimkoff  that  of, at  47-52).  on t h e A m e r i c a n  s i m i l a r views.  47)  family remarks:  4 " I f we ask what i t i s t h a t g i v e s d i s t i n c t i o n or uniqueness to the American f a m i l y , a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f t h e a n s w e r c a n be g i v e n i n t e r m s o f one of the dominant c u l t u r a l v a l u e s of American s o c i e t y n a m e l y , f r e e d o m . . . The a c c e n t on h a p p i n e s s i n m a r r i a g e i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e e m p h a s i s on i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n American s o c i e t y . Individualism i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n c r e e d o f f r e e dom, f r e e d o m o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o d e v e l o p h i s own t a s t e s , and t o l i v e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own plan. The h a p p i n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , more t h a n t h e w e l f a r e of the group, i s the c o n t r o l l i n g c o n s i deration. The f a m i l y i s s a i d t o e x i s t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l , not the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the f a m i l y . What m a t t e r s most i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , s o m e t i m e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f g r o u p and general i n t e r e s t . " ( N i m k o f f , 1965: In c o n t r a s t , collective the  an  society.  family feel  norms and family  T a m i l c a s e has  emphasize  a person's place  vis-a-vis  i n d i v i d u a l members o f  t h e i r personal  Roy  1975,  i n the  N o r t h and  b e e n t a k e n up by  as  and  Indian the  many  a South Indian  in  others).  family  South.  are  Here  the  regional  G o r e (1968), R o s s ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Goody ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,  K a p a d i a ( 1 9 6 6 ) , among many o t h e r s show t h a t family  as  family  they attempt to co-operate  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  Studies  the  interests  f a m i l y ; they adhere to  ( G o r e , 1965;  applicable  example.  of the  c o n v e n t i o n s , and  These g e n e r a l equally  to s a t i s f y  confines  functions  family  e n t e r t a i n a concern f o r i t s perpetua-  they prefer  w i t h i n the  The  Indian  a sense of b e l o n g i n g to t h e i r f a m i l y  i n s t i t u t i o n and  tion;  of the  i d e n t i t y , r o l e s and  larger Indian  Indian  studies  330)  system i s r e p l a c i n g the  the  nuclear  e x t e n d e d t y p e o f f a m i l y as  a  5 result not in  of  the  socio-economic  individual is s t i l l  Indian  structure the  Socio-economic  of  family  the  is  be  more  will  in  expected  that  family  contain  such  Indian  of  a  larger  the  system  present, social  one  the  e s s e n t i a l focus changes but  not  have the  contain  family of  social  and  values  affected  North  related  to  parents family with  to to  on  them.  a  family  be  be  the  value  of  will  But  a  family  be  minimal,  i t is  the  Where  of  being  traditional such  link a  functional  his  as  will  do  cooking.  of  In  For  or  even  day-to-day  i f  rather  instance, culinary  a  husband  Similarly,  their  not  i t is  presentations  mother's  portrayal  specific  When,  appear,  o f f e r i n g her  perhaps  are  certainly  family.  America,  occasion,  extended  grandmother.  roles.  visiting  in assumed,  certain  in North  as  will  ones  portrayals  to  extended  impersonal  presented  American  extended  to  be  sampled  the  of  the  observations,  individually oriented  relationships  depicted  special  of  them  of  housewife  remember  North  advertisements  specific  may a  might  of also  that  American  these  grandmother  shown  as  portrayals  that  expertise  expect  such  the  proportion  occurring.  a l l , extended  expected  whereas  will  and  advertisements  transformation  would  many  information  Tamil  Depictions  now  roles,  contrast,  than  the  advertisements  because family  literary  oriented  advertisements.  be  system  nonetheless  family.  it  a  the  life.  Rooted  at  change,  son's having  child  may old  nuclear dinner  care  by  6  grandparents,  a more c e n t r a l  role,  i s expected  t o "be  absent. Although  the North  egalitarianism there As  will  Gore  b e many  (1965)  American most  male  often.  American authority many  within  the family  portrayals  and N i m k o f f role  Also,  life  American  changes.  o f men  (1965)  although  i n household  have  a gradual  the family  As N i m k o f f  written,  provider  that  chores.  the North  i s emphasized  i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o ni n  women w i t h  within  emphasizes  , i t i s not expected  as t h e economic  has p r o v i d e d  patterns  family  greater have  freedom,  not undergone  writes:  "When we c o n s i d e r how t h e m o n e y i n c o m e i s m a n a g e d , we n o t e t h a t t h e m a l e h e a d i s u s u a l l y the f i s c a l agent i n the American f a m i l y . . . In the middle c l a s s , t h e husband i s t h e c h i e f manager o f t h e f a m i l y income, t h e w i f e i s t h e c h i e f purchasing agent. She d o e s t h e e v e r y day b u y i n g o f food and c l o t h i n g . She d o e s m o s t o f the housework." (1 9 6 5 :  This  i s t h e same  pattern  sibility  as i n I n d i a .  economic  roles,  advertising will and  of  will  material  below  the Tamil  the data  the general  chapters  Therefore,  are expected  discuss  t o be  technique  examine  or  role  false:  of labour  and  i n the p o r t r a y a l  and t h e N o r t h  samples  to determine  are true  of division  334)  similar. on w h i c h  American  study  of analysis.  The  portrayals  i n these  i f the three  of  family  The n e x t this  respon-  in  section rests,  following two  expectations  bodies summarised  7 (i)  The  North American  individual oriented  sample w i l l  oriented  advertisements than  than i n d i v i d u a l Extended  (iii)  ones; be m i n i m a l  b u t most so i n t h e N o r t h  in  American  and  R o l e p o r t r a y a l s and  male-female  p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y w i l l in both  samples:  t h e man  t h e e c o n o m i c p r o v i d e r and engaged i n h o u s e h o l d D a t a and  will  advertisements  family portrayals w i l l  both samples, one;  family-  ones, whereas t h e T a m i l sample  c o n t a i n more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d  (ii)  h a v e more  will  authority be v e r y be  similar  portrayed  as  woman as a homemaker  chores  and  child  care.  Methodology  Both the North American samples f o r t h i s comparative  and  Tamil  advertisement  s t u d y have b e e n drawn f r o m  the  main d a t a base of the H i s t o r y of A d v e r t i s i n g A r c h i v e s (U.B.C: 1981).  The  s a m p l i n g p l a n used  b a s e has b e e n d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x s a m p l e , two  new  1.  on t h i s m a i n d a t a Prom t h i s  sub-samples f o r the North American  T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were formed.  main and  the  These were s t r u c t u r e d  as t o c o n t a i n :  'family advertisements',  'individual  t i s e m e n t s ' , and  'other advertisements'.  S u c h an o r d e r i n g  was  based  on t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s  categories.  of these  so  adver-  three  8 Operationally, advertisement depicts  which  a  'family advertisement'  textually,  a f a m i l y scene, indices  children,  family rituals  the texts.  hand,  An  portrays  an  individual  a f a m i l y member.  as  concerned  groom  about  or b e a u t i f y  portrayal qualify  Such  label  other  their  own  self,  themselves,  group  t h e two  thousand  North  tisements,  were  sorted  categories.  statistically  analysed  to which  than  these  samples.  expectation:  the  North  will  wishing  lumped  persons  or t r y i n g or  or i n  capacity  show  to  symbolic that  together  do n o t  under  and f i f t y  general  Tamil  advertisements  statistical sample than  sample ones.  survey  indeed  h a s more a  adver-  three  then  was  of the  c a t e g o r i e s appeared supports  h a s more  individual  As  sample  an i m p r e s s i o n  advertisement  This  family oriented  This  to obtain  the Tamil  American  advertisements  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e above  advertisement  oriented  in their  American  a n d a l l t h e two h u n d r e d  two  or v i s u a l l y  A l ladvertisements  available,  the  on t h e o t h e r  or any e x p l i c i t  a r e t o be  statements  'other'.  All  degree  than  advertisements  of i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  for either  textually  on  ring,  or e x p l i c i t  advertisement',  that  based  o f a wedding  and c h o r e s ,  'individual  as  the  the presence  i s any a d v e r t i s e m e n t  total,  or i n t o t a l  or a family r e l a t i o n s h i p  objective  in  like  visually,  i s that  our main  family  advertisements  individual  in  oriented  preliminary step,  and ones  a sub-  9  sample  was  drawn  involved  taking  the  data  main  Domestic and  from  one p r o d u c t  base  from  similar  Personal  from  sample.  each  Domestic  This  product  class i n  Durables,  Consumables,  were  detergent,  insurance  cigarettes  and  hence,  formed  they  with  Prom  Personal  this  Care  sub-groupings  Statistical a study  analysis this  that  o f each  qualitative text  inquiry  looks  at value  analysis,  attention. particular  Sometimes aspect  was  used  belonging  does  merited  the visual  of potential  Personal  detailed  to these  various  3)• not lend  profiles.  the visual  f o r i n depth  classes  advertisement  o f an a d v e r t i s e m e n t  products  of a l l advertisements  up f o r e s p e c i a l l y  alone  sample  inquiry.  i n Appendix  individual  automobiles  A l lother  the product  of products  i s provided  cigarettes,  at a l l i n the Tamil  grouping  taken  taken  the basis of  Of t h e s e ,  the sub-set  larger  were  advertisements  food,  background  sub-sample,  (A l i s t i n g  baby  not analysed.  for this  alone  provides  specific  not present  and S e r v i c e s were  study.  The  and shampoo.  were  this  1.2  (Appendix  contrast, only  1970s  study. Care  were  t h e base In  from  sample  f o r automobiles,  and  f o r 1970  set of products  classifications).  selected  a  each  to i l l u s t r a t e  Consumables,  the Tamil  these  the  American  Services. A  to  the North  So a was  much  meaning  qualitative i n order.  m a t e r i a l as w e l l equal  and  as  separate  p r e s e n t a t i o n was consumer  In  interest  aimed a t and t h e  10  text  aimed  at  another.  advertisement image  was  qualified text!  A  emphasis sample  ones.  family advertisement.  look  at  placed  f a m i l y and  the on  there  Hence,  follows  family are  text the  2.  A  and  this But  text  consider  different  visual  data  Tamil  value  sometimes  into  the  the  one  merit  the  equal  Prom  the  of  visual  advertisement  than  visuals,  three  the  r e v e a l s an  more  the  insurance  sample,  Therefore,  analysis  two  where  i n the  visuals  i n one  "independence".  cases  and  i s organised An  hence,  caption itself  treatment.  1.  American  as  a  a  North  of  i n the  detailed  the  instance,  that  too,  appears  from  Por  opposing  separate  analysis  and  which  sections:  presentations in  the  samples.  discussion  of  the  textual  into  the  role  messages  in  both  samples. 3.  An  inquiry  the These  analyses  particular extended  will  frame  of  as  well  explore  as  the  individual  nuclear frames  value  -  of  age  i n the  r e f e r e n c e used,  family versus  reference, these  visuals  and  messages,  for  and  Finally,  concluding chapter,  findings  of  the  study  and  the  exploration  are  summarized.  queries Here  the  frames  r e f e r e n c e , the role  the  instance  sub-nuclear  various  in  text.  advertisements, i n the  portrayals  of  content  of  depictions. the  arising  again,  i t is  major out  of  this  emphasized  11 that  advertisements  serve  as  are  communicators  not of  merely  basic  informative;  value  advertisements  for  particular  products  assumptions  the  particular  culture  world  of  views.  demonstrate to  domains  that other  advertising, can  bring  The  main the than  intention  term the  art, story  about  of  "culture" live  books  reflect and  this  the study  is equally  social e t c . and  i n t e r e s t i n g and  frames.  milieu, that  insightful  they  also  These the  general  particular is  to  applicable like  such  a  results.  study  12 CHAPTER I I  THE VISUALS  " S u c c e s s f u l persuasion through a d v e r t i s i n g c o n s i s t s o f f a r more t h a n d o i n g c l e v e r t r i c k s w i t h words. The consumer has d e v e l o p e d a p r o t e c t i v e h u s k a g a i n s t mere word c l a i m s . . . But o t h e r k i n d s o f s y m b o l s s u c h a s t h o s e i n i l l u s t r a t i o n c o m m u n i c a t e images so much f a s t e r w i t h f a r l e s s r e s i s t a n c e , w i t h much g r e a t e r persuasiveness. The v i s u a l s y m b o l s a r e n o t j u s t a s u p p o r t f o r word c l a i m s . They c a n c o n t r i b u t e m e a n i n g s and a s s o c i a t i o n s e n t i r e l y a p a r t and o f much g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . " (Pierre Martineau  1957: 13)  S i n c e t h e above comment was made two d e c a d e s a g o , t h e r e have been s i g n i f i c a n t consequently,  i n the techniques  advertisements, tisement  c h a n g e s i n a d v e r t i s i n g t h e o r y , and used.  normally the f i r s t  The a r t w o r k o f  dimension  o f an  adver-  t o c a t c h t h e eyes o f p r o s p e c t i v e consumers, i s  much e m p h a s i z e d now, s o much so t h a t i n 1964 McLuhan was led  t o comment: " S i n c e t h e a d v e n t o f p i c t u r e s , t h e j o b o f body c o p y i s a s i n c i d e n t a l and l a t e n t a s t h e m e a n i n g o f a poem i s t o a poem, o r t h e words o f a song i s t o a song." ( 1 9 6 4 : 205)  Having  thus  conveying  a t t a i n e d such  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the task o f  messages t o p o t e n t i a l  symbols c o n t a i n e d  consumers, the  i n advertisements  visual  m e r i t s p e c i a l and  13  elaborate visual  examination.  content  This chapter w i l l  o f North  American  as words need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y culturally  meaningful  advertised. of  Very  creating  capacity.  often,  and T a m i l  be employed  attributes  a product  the visual  that  reads:  appears  t o be w a l k i n g  From t h i s that  devoid safe  both  bear  " i n good  hands"  rising,  unexpected  confident that  particular  as t h e y t r u s t  that  they are  and t h e woman h o l d i n g on t o t h e man she would n o t be swept o f f i n any  tide.  Together,  the family  appears t o  t h e y a r e i n t h e good hands o f t h e  'shoulders' h i sr e s p o n s i b i l i t y A l l this  i n s u r a n c e company.  1.1.1).  are t o t a l l y  i n s u r a n c e company b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d .  cheerful.  a  The c o u p l e  (Illustration  and t h e c h i l d  o f any w o r l d l y a n x i e t i e s  to f e e l that  is  water  i s wearing  image, t h e r e a d e r g e t s t h e i m p r e s -  t h e teddy  appears  feel  on b e a c h  a boy  his wife, i s holding a  'I am i n goods h a n d s ' .  visual  advertise-  and c a r r y i n g  and t h e b o y , i d e n t i f i a b l y h i s son,  T-shirt  i s being  images a r e c a p a b l e  insurance  one s i d e  on h i s s h o u l d e r ; t h e woman, c l e a r l y  sion  that  o f a happy f a m i l y - a man w i t h  a woman h o l d i n g on t o him from  teddy bear,  to provide  of i t swant-satiating  F o r i n s t a n c e , see t h e l i f e  ment w h i c h b e a r s  advertisements  to a product  powerful v i s u a l  an a u r a a r o u n d  examine t h e  without  a n x i e t y o r f e a r and  i s , i m p l i c i t l y , thanks  This advertisement  t e x t u a l message t o accompany  The man  without  i t ,definitely  to the any e x p l i c i t  conveys  a sense  dJOJflTV* oo ecru i  s  -  o  n  never have to w o i r y about ^  life insurance a g a i n . ^ K a n Tockaf mmkv mm. j . laatf-aadal ' Tatfnfrai <tarti««• rou know ahaat jour Me I ueda • thU i W l ) diuifs. Sa. I * rou'n emart. 700*8 «Urt a We law n u a p r o c r u that e n chanfe. to*. , r w ramfly P i n Porliajr « • » ' Hat a r | yoa cn a bodfat. Tat _.• bar enough to c m yon. j ajnaaa,-. r. ana foot drikbaa until M & . / And future eafldno—U day*' ~ , aflar arriTal—ax do otra era*. - -J_ Oaaft  nap  than.  Bay a Tatar*  Purduao Prml«t» that pariodfcaOr. " eatitlai job to buy othor kmda of pennaoaat Hfe tnvuraoee without uotfacr phyateaL Or add aa AdVUtioaal Accidental Doth Benefit to tha oaa in the b a k pUa. Or bar a PuaQr . Idcoom iTaaraw Basest that proTidai a (oaraatead monthly bMoma* for your family to a aparilWal data. « a r t aaa>. Soayoar lay aarar b a n at- Yob pay  J  /instate  a»w«tT» - iV  s  You're in good hand*. r ~ S RSl^Ti  Illuatration  1.1.1  fcjj.  > i<  'I am in good hands'  15  of  a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s and  i n s u r a n c e and lity  the c u l t u r a l  i d e a l s of a parent's  i n ensuring c h i l d ' s f u t u r e happiness  husband's duty t o p r o t e c t h i s w i f e . c a p t i o n s and in  security  o r s e c u r i t y and  the accompanying t e x t are of a d d i t i o n a l  consumer t o r e c e i v e :  fills sumer. visual  culturally We  s a n c t i o n e d w a n t s and  Instead, a d i s t i n c t i o n  p r e s e n t a t i o n s and  impressions.  The  former  alone, while the l a t t e r  d e s i r e s of a  con-  to the  advertise-  the l a r g e r  set of  visual content  i n c l u d e s c l u e s from the c a p t i o n s  t h e b o d y c o p y o f t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t , as t o how  greater accuracy  con-  i s b e i n g made b e t w e e n  r e f e r s to the v i s u a l  v i s u a l s a r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d . for  poten-  that i t f u l -  p r e s e n t a t i o n s alone i n a n a l y s i n g these  the v i s u a l  help  t h a t the product enables a  are not c o n f i n i n g o u r s e l v e s s t r i c t l y  ments, t h e n .  a  Clues provided i n the  sumer t o r i s e up t o c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and  and  responsibi-  c r e a t i n g the i m p r e s s i o n the a d v e r t i s e r wants the  tial  in  The  latter  the  approach  allows  in interpretation.  A General Inquiry A general inquiry  i n t o the North American  s a m p l e s o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s was develop a f e e l and  first  f o r the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l y  Tamil  i n order  This overview  the present f o r the North American the Tamil  sample.  to  advertisements  of i n d i v i d u a l advertisements i n the North American  the Tamil samples.  for  undertaken  and  and  c o v e r s t h e p e r i o d 1905 m a t e r i a l and  1975  to  alone  16  As  i s evident  American  sample  from  c o n t a i n s more  than  family advertisements  1945  and 1 9 5 5 ;  percentage contrast, ments. ments  from  1975  ments  than  individual  advertisements for  1925  family  alone,  forth  sample whereas  survey  Statistically,  is a  occurrence ments  and  decade  1925  seventies, added  - was similar  study  i n number  than  decade f o r  our e x p e c t a t i o n  -  that  would  the  Tamil  advertisements  contain a  the characters of both Chi-square  difference  i n the American  advertisements  advertise-  the family  t h e peak  supports  sample  o f f a m i l y scenes  family  advertise-  higher  ones.  when  significant  by  advertise-  family  family oriented  s e v e n t i e s a r e compared,  there  1925,  material.  of this  American  of individual  have  Also,  sample,  thus,  c o n t a i n more  the North  proportion  the  i n that  at the outset  would  we  a r e f a r more  American  advertisements  o f a l l and  a r e f a r more  sample  the highest  of family  f o r which  f o r 1925,  except  t o have  advertisements.  in this  general  proves  North  advertisements  decade  percentage  there  1 the  Table  advertisements  sample  i n the North  This laid  i n each  has t h e g r e a t e s t  In t h e Tamil  and  individual  1975  t h e decade  of individual  1  Graph  values  between  i n the Tamil  one.  When  i n the North  suggest  the rate set of  t h e peak  American  the Tamil  sample  results  were  obtained,  thus  (1).  of  advertise-  sample  with  of  that  decade f o r  compared  confirmation to Expectation  samples  - the  of the  providing  17  90'  ^  Family Advertisements  Q  Individual Advertisements  Family Advertisements g  Individual Advertisements  NORTH AMERICAN  80  TAMIL  70 " 60  JS c  g  50  40  <D  30 20 10  PI I f 1905  Graph  1915  1  1925  1935  1  1  1945  1955  1965  1975  Histograms showing percentages o f Family and I n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l samples  TABLE 1:  F a m i l y and I n d i v i d u a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h American and T a m i l samples  Number o f A d v e r t i s e m e n t s Decade  1905 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 Total  N o r t h American Sample Family Individual Advertisement Advertisement 14 28 63 43 61  21 41 50  43 24 29  44 44 37 58 61  305  356  T a m i l Sample Family Individual Advertisement Advertisement —  —  _ _  —  _  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  70  15  70  15  1975  18 However, i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r g r a s p o f t h e characteristics depth  o f t h e two  samples b e f o r e going  a n a l y s i s o f t h e 1975  m a t e r i a l s , we  f u r t h e r l o o k at the whole. from tic  each of the product  One  product  s h a l l now randomly  c l a s s e s (Domestic  Services) w i l l  i m p r e s s i o n s conveyed  now  B,  i n these  advertisements.  i n s u r a n c e from  t h e two  to represent the v a r i o u s product mobiles  and  c i g a r e t t e s do  tisement  i n our  excluded  from  Domes-  Personal visual  Advertisecigarettes,  s a m p l e s were s e l e c t e d  classes.  Since  auto-  not e n j o y e v e n a s i n g l e  T a m i l s a m p l e , h o w e v e r , t h e s e two  adverwere  later  discussion.  This a n a l y s i s of the s t r e n g t h e n s our samples,  a  chosen  be u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e  ments f o r a u t o m o b i l e s , b a b y f o o d , d e t e r g e n t , shampoo, and  take  Durables,  C o n s u m a b l e s , P e r s o n a l C o n s u m a b l e s A and  C a r e and  i n t o an i n -  s e l e c t e d products  once  again  e x p e c t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the nature of the  t h a t i s , the N o r t h American sample  r e v e a l s a g r e a t e r o r i e n t a t i o n towards the h i s needs whereas the T a m i l t o w a r d s f a m i l y and  definitely  individual  sample r e v e a l s g r e a t e r  the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s  two  and  affinity  in their  c a p a c i t y as f a m i l y members. Baby F o o d Advertisements  f o r baby foods  e x a m p l e o f t h e above o b s e r v a t i o n . fact that babies  p r o v i d e a v e r y good I t i s an  uncontestable  everywhere, whether i n Worth America  T a m i l Nadu, need t o be  taken care of.  Still,  or i n  interest-  19  TABLE 2: Number of advertisements i n various product classes from the North American and Tamil samples of the seventies  Product category  Number of Advertisements North American  Tamil  Domestic Durables  43  29  Domestic Consumables  21  23  Personal Consumables A  59  46  Personal Consumables B  26  03  Personal Care  38  58  Services  17  24  Personal Apparel  15  48  Miscellaneous  31  19  Total  250  250  TABLE 3: D i s t r i b u t i o n of advertisements of selected products f o r preliminary a n a l y s i s - decade wise  Number o f Advertisements Product  Chosen  class  product  Domestic Durables  Automobile  Domestic Consumables  Detergent  0  Personal Consumables - A -  Baby Food  1  Personal Consumables -B -  Cigarette  0  0  8  Personal Care  Shampoo  0  1  1  Services  Insurance Total  North 1905  American  Tamil  1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975  2  12  0  0  1  0  0  0  0 3  18  7  11  Total  1975  11  8  61  0  0  1  10  10  21  47  0  1  11  3  22  3  158  19  0  1  1  17  15  34  29  35  21  ingly  enough,  American  American  is a  sample  of  the  he  i s shown  he  is  of  and  sitting he  as  of  who  has  to  aloof  is clarified  happy  product  does  the not  in this  the  visually, of  single baby;  of  our  him.  baby's i s not  North  always  i n s t a n c e s where i t i s as  her  advertisement baby  a  playing  and  In  of  parent with  on  i t is  asks,  sample,  image  In  one  parents not  of  baby  there  alone.  and  instead,  i n a l l the  a  baby  the  preferred  a visual  fact,  she  mother's  culturally  both  he  his  or  or  the  food;  a mother  feeds  i f  beneath  However,  but  American  as  finally,  too;  invoke  even  -  advertisement,  baby.  for nurturance  There  almost  o f baby  baby  t r y to  advertisement.  advertisements  isolated  care  recognises  the  baby  person-  statement  This  f o r the  directly need  mood,  enjoyment;  of  the  separate  brand  2.1.1).  visual  of  is well-nourished  purchase  independence.  feeding  baby,  mother  for  a  with  i n v o l v e s the  need  even  one  a  i n the  another  (Illustration  mother  not  of  North  North  The  poses  i n an  refusal  the  advertisements.  as  the  food  from  i s depicted  sanctioned  mother  baby"  were  This  the  portrayed.  involves different  that  the  is  i f he  his  advertisement culturally  baby  as  brand  course,  advertisement,  alone  healthy,  favourite  the  food  eating his favourite the  food  particular  baby  advertisement  photo  he,  of  "most  i s brooding.  the  i n a baby  individuality  Here  ality;  even  is  father or  two  appear as  taking  4 S-Vt. ^DZLoy,  | "[fit Weft'fiwifiaww  L a d i i M e t b chats yfctam yon afB read th* m a d •area of m aaeoliciead boar airioaa ay Mre. Olynn C . Farter, of Fairatld. Casta, ta the M i a n •TCUps'iaskipFaa*.  ^ y s e a , toner Carey Palter. h | M M year okL H t baa ham brought aa entirely a l Ctaps'i lehy Foods. I ca* truthfully •ay lhai aa k vary ya/uculu about kia  •I attained a |ar of Clapp* Sptnaeh, aaj aa ale it with (rami cnjoytBaat. The lame theni happened with prunes. I lasted different bTands myself, and eaaa I could ant the different h n e t So he readily understandable how a baby'a Lata usee oil! nick MtatathalaVaa,  I Bat • not Ker brand of spinach, atta he ihMMulcly refuted it. aclictine he dieM o J •pinu-h. at I'd he rd to m-iny habiea cW. I n t a ' l nomed. H'.t Mike he al««>s eoroyaj all other «cce'_Ma, I tried an n (  i of fur G i p p a bahy wee* taken a few avecLa affo on hri first birthday. Dorset he loot healthy and tlrone? Ne arralha 30 Ida. and ta JZ tiKhn till. We far! rta all due la food, ttourrthinf foods, a W of variety, and ftavora to delicuna a baby kanal thera aH."  a Weaa>Waleaa'aaSyroaaaa>a«aa> a We daanf ettny froke and •lailaMai abet would be exactly xsapuaa far Caoavfad hebae.  aarvo fcaaaa r a t a W aal i b eat anat •arid. For 21  * * • * * » <• —ay 'hnoataaa , J " * " * " * * (-have aaby Food!  Illustration  MHWaat W a a a f a a  2.1.1  CLAPft BABY FOODS 'Most  particular  baby'  23  I n t h e T a m i l sample, i n c o n t r a s t , baby f o o d tisements are e s s e n t i a l l y visual  family advertisements.  of a Tamil advertisement  t i o n 2.2.1).  adver-  f o r a baby f o o d  See a (illustra-  Here, t h e mother l o v i n g l y f e e d s h e r baby  w h i l e t h e f a t h e r h o l d s t h e b o w l f o r them.  This a d v e r t i s e -  ment, no d o u b t , r e f l e c t s t h e e m o t i o n a l need f o r n u r t u r a n c e - a need t h a t i s h i g h l i g h t e d  i n the Tamil  culture.  Shampoo In a very personal product expect  to find  would n a t u r a l l y  s u c h a s shampoo, one w o u l d  no b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e expect  i n t h e two s a m p l e s .  advertisements  i n both  One  s a m p l e s t o be  c e n t r e d around an i n d i v i d u a l , n o r m a l l y a f e m a l e .  There i s  a g e n e r a l t r e n d i n a d v e r t i s i n g t o show shampoo a s a b e a u t y p r o d u c t ; women a r e s e e n a s t h e p u r s u e r s as t h e a d m i r e r s such  of beauty.  expectations.  powerful v i s u a l  o f beauty  But t h e T a m i l sample  I n a shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t  images o f t h e f a m i l y a p p e a r .  and men belies  too, very T h e r e i s no  p o r t r a y a l o f a woman p a m p e r i n g h e r own h a i r o r b e a m i n g w i t h happiness  over  i t s s h i n e or bounce.  I n s t e a d , a mother i s  p o r t r a y e d as shampooing h e r daughter's  hair with a great  s e n s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i l e t h e f a t h e r l o o k s on w i t h a smile of admiration or a f f e c t i o n . local and  Again, a r e f l e c t i o n of  c u l t u r a l values, i n t h i s case, f a m i l i a l  appreciation (Illustration  3-2.1).  l o v e , care  o oUneiij&€iu D  9  utA1.ia.e7 .-.uiQaAea •Vital*) QaaauA u i a a t a i ?  • a J t a t u a.awaiaa* Q.rlaa B u a i | 1 » > * • aj{*ea>»3ar u t J a i j r a r •aa9a0aaiCp #aftwui_a) a j * t r a l a a u u L i . a ) .'.uaQtaaat a a i a a a,aiaai u f u u i ftri)M>u«\ a f l a l e l a e t a | i t u « S n a p tfaiataia. •aajaaei ataluaj AuiOtaaa; j | i _ « a a V iafca#aaa|ia u a a e . a a 4 ( l B f . • f w »-«"••< * * » 9 » •tmiSCv u«uu>«la>  §fim  • A a j a a a r : s>5> a i a t i t t a a j a a.L.eJ M a r t i * . * ) * a . e * * * • > * ! « • > . aJtaaUa a g a w t | « * t * i a j ; taajaaaej atfOuiatiLfaki eejaqetgeajia uaaQ**)*) a a j a j u k a>a>a/l>iie. uialufaB, *>.M^t.eler O} 4l*1a|.*l4.i*>a. § f » * • a a j i g a.aea a a a C a afe»>t*  I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.2.1  l  g u C u t a j . 400 tftrai a a a l t a u i «69a> J | 6 * .-.uaQfaei a s a t o t a j .  'Feeding - a family a f f a i r ' Tamil baby food advertisement  25  fl/W-  //-JI-  7 9  * # * »*lt*.*6* §«-tW k>«<-4i«« | « M t « w l | | | tkt>«  ••->-'* $t)3*W*#4*'* *T^>V«4« P M-b3»*5ft*tf*»4>*uitw^ k  •*» .Jut* mm*--—*  I l l u s t r a t i o n 3-2.1  cn* <*•«•  mi  Nice family imagery i n a Tamil shampoo advertisement  26  In the North American prisingly,  t h e v i s u a l s t e n d t o d e p i c t an  shine or a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , an i n d i v i d u a l w a s h i n g one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y ments.  shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t , n o t s u r after-shampooing  i f n o t an a c t u a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f  h i s own h a i r .  Importance  i s clearly visible  attached to  i n these  advertise-  T h e r e i s no p o r t r a y a l o f f a m i l y l o v e o r c a r e o r  a p p r e c i a t i o n extended instead,  w i t h i n the family.  What i s r e f l e c t e d ,  i s the c u l t u r a l l y defined preference f o r  individuality  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3*1 . 1 ) -  Insurance Now c o n s i d e r i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . American  In the North  sample, i t i s t h e i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t  c o n t a i n t h e most f a m i l y t h e m e s . image o f a c o m p l e t e advertisements.  Y e t , even t h e n , t h e v i s u a l  nuclear family rarely  appears  M o s t l y , one f i n d s v i s u a l s o f a c h i l d o r  c h i l d r e n whose f u t u r e n e e d s t o be s a f e g u a r d e d . the advertisement single  i s aimed a t a man.  insurance advertisement  policy;  i n these  Otherwise,  We do n o t h a v e e v e n a  t h a t a s k s a woman t o t a k e a  i t i s t h e man who h a s t o e n s u r e h e r f u t u r e .  One N o r t h A m e r i c a n  insurance advertisement  depicts a  money t r e e w i t h b r a n c h e s  b e a r i n g money and r o o t e d i n a s a c k  of d o l l a r s .  i s supposed t o s y m b o l i s e a f a m i l y  This v i s u a l  safely rooted i n the f i n a n c i a l policy.  stability  The a d v e r t i s e r s u c c e s s f u l l y  of the insurance  conveys t h a t t h e  f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n w o u l d be s t a b l e i f t h i s  27  JJo1g^JUi#.lj^-VmK  Shampoo  N e v e r D r i e s it Beautifies!  I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.1  •Shampoo makes you glamorous'  28 particular Another .handle  company  insurance that  policy  advertisement  opens  this  lock  insurance  company  insurance  advertisement  visual an a  depiction  image  which  he  of  a  could  1.1.4).  gains  In  be  them,  expectations  sanctioned Not  samples,  economic  the  portrayal  also  realities.  a  sample,  extended  family  So  such In  portrayed  the  In  also for  to  the  ropes  as  the  one  there  a l l whereas  at  In  ideal a l l of  and  acquisition.  our  He  is  of the  samples.  This  cultural when  family  least.  scene  In  visual  family  the  North  portrayal  sample  of  contains  cases. the as  Tamil  sample,  depending  on  however, her  the  husband's  of  culturally  i s man.  Tamil  the  American  samples,  i s no the  taking  advertisements  nuclear  child  By  cultural  respective  a  bullock:  controlling  North  in both  the  the  (Illustration  the  target  the  get  a  man  domination  i n both  we  portrayed.  are  The  another  of  bull.  insurance  the  yet  sample,  i n the  family  however, at  same  is  man  i t is generally  American  few  of  a man  and  is  the  conforms  parents  safety  advertisements,  Furthermore,  pictured,  containing  of  into  bull  advertiser's  provider  look.  the  stability  of  safety  i n the  over  s u r p r i s i n g l y , i n a l l the  both  is  the  interpreted  reflected.  desires  a  1.1.3).  holding  domination  a l l these  are  enter  symbolised  s e c u r i t y or  culture,  from  man  financial the  to  1.1.2).  (Illustration  depicts  (illustration  p o t e n t i a l danger,  policy,  i s bought  woman  is  support.  clearly The  a  29  T o u s e (A State Farm money tree flnktt sure your fknxOy \ vest be uprooted.) ' • a m y tree. W k t i a Booty B a t b m a o ) from State F a n U h . . .  L  A aaoeey tne ramai* a i m hie, attca do&an a> pagr off (he mortftae thoold it ootlna yoa, A a a a noncy tne a m be your eenrance that • J o e l mmfly w B ahaayt have a home. Phone yoar • b a a P a r a aaaat. See bow Kma a coate to add • t tne te yoar taiawj eiaaa.  Illustration  1.1.2  S t a t e F a r m 'Money T r e e  1  30  I a w ear etawanca, our Stat* Farm l a j i a u a a i n /*oacjr a r m * jaw MM«M»J> •joaictan at rCK*-6ofk>at ratal, far aiatanoa, torn asar now nat* -Jod aW "afca aacf aYfandao* comng§" pnttebon. Mkatnaaj aatstc aata A. tf% aaff It aw- ft** a w Marnaoaaiari r'aag' prowcaai Proscar mini tMt tor «ovr rayne and oatorajirtja a a d t a r t o u . at caaa ot l a . r n . t i . . . a t laaa coax. Aact aw rtoaauaaiafi Potcr atao oasti l a n than a lor o/ ocraar amaW pcaoat on eka martaL* It a Mat tame . p o d a W and Art ttaaVat ftom asur same aood Staaa Farm Camay «ia»-anra n u n . • T A r r M»»f flllC AMD CASUALTY CO*P*MT . r a t a . Orwat. m I I a » , »mmt » » » i t i i y r j « « - a » a»< a a y > » ^ « r i » i i ^ a fmT at»»»a»l r  Illustration  1.1.3  'Safety  Lock  1  31  1 " L i f e i n s u r a n c e ? I'd r a t h e r b u y b u l l s ! " I •Tfctn a MONY man showtd ma tt can tiavarealcash vatua...!tita a good piaca of j raxing landT * H * d V I « U M O N Y mm MWTML T a •tin.  Ill do bnwr  btryipg  V n aar. I ' » r rhanard n*Y id>ta a b e w tnaar* • n aiaKT T e a m * • a n t e n a o n a t o n r "  rattfcr 1  c + w x * that idra. !*Via»W  Liar. a n - d a n W r  Tamn* atwari ta lottrtv, fa kvrp dba anajraa) n j h * u p to d - t * IB tatt, «*>'rr m l f o o d rnr*xi» W e po (pr b h » r f t ) » * > §nbn. cxMflfi hkr tiMi H  apaks. ! parold»  M O a r r M E N CAJIC PCM * C O f U Tlrr'tr a> Jta* a a n a W ^ a a ' M a a a n a . i a ' a i a a T » » ^ » « ^ " « » t a a ^ H j r  ^,r«nrth,^l>appr»dK>aar>Wha>  -  ^< ta»*«i » " d * t T . «*i w v t e d mm • proP cV MOVV iftMrartrr. fira. K> p r o u r t tbr am T h i - a -*•>*> t a r kadi ctwat , h  0 b r i * -JM. ihiW »-»UtA43_»,  Illustration  M  M  O  M U T U A L  '  n  r  O P  1.1.4  1 Nr.TfH1tNY  L-«L^n»^ia^  I tTT  '  IT--.  1  rVaaavawto.  — '" • » - - " a *  O  N E W  Y O R K  N  'Man c o n t r o l l i n g  Y the b u l l '  32 advertisements  i n t h e North American  dependent s t a t u s e x p l i c i t . of for  this  s a m p l e , we e v e n f i n d  a livelihood,  I n one i n s u r a n c e a female  theme f o u n d  advertisement  p o r t r a y e d as working  t h o u g h i t i s as a n u r s e  a d v e r t i s e m e n t , a man a p p e a r s typical  s a m p l e do n o t make h e r  as d o c t o r .  i n advertisements:  and i n t h e same This conforms t o a  t h a t t h e man i s  s u p e r i o r and t h e woman, i f s h e i s d e p i c t e d a t a l l , i s s e e n to  be i n a n u r s i n g , s e c r e t a r i a l  or t e a c h i n g  position.  Detergent Detergent  advertisements also  t h a t t h e r e i s no b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e for  women b e t w e e n t h e s a m p l e s :  c a r r y out household almost  illustrate  i n the role  the fact portrayals  women a r e m o s t l y s e e n t o  responsibilities  i n b o t h , t h e y do  e v e r y t h i n g t o g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n f r o m man.  Further-  more, t h e y need t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a w e l l - k e p t home, w e l l - n o u r i s h e d h u s b a n d and c h i l d r e n and a happy home. T h i s g e n e r a l survey has p r o v i d e d g r e a t support f o r our  expectations regarding the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  t h e s e two s a m p l e s .  I t a l s o r e i n f o r c e s our p r e d i c t i o n  r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e frame o f f a m i l y r e f e r e n c e s . Having  thus transformed  our i n i t i a l  expectations into  a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , we a r e now r e a d y t o embark u p o n a more i n depth samples.  a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i s u a l s f o r 1975 i n t h e two  33  An  In  Depth From  Inquiry the  two  hundred  and  sample,  advertisements  were  product  classes.  the  "Services" detailed ments are  were  Then  separated  study.  Even  classified classes  out  to  in this  into  form  Tamil  Personal  Family  Care  individual products  Advertisements In  unit  more  the  appear  Tamil  Attractive insurance the  -  Both  images  American  advertisement  among  f a m i l y members  the  together found  (illustration  in this  sake.  It  sample  materials.  when  textual  the  good  for  than  sample,  individual on  the  advertisements  visual of  images  and  only  i n one  other in  visualises and  their  4.1-1).  a  i s the  lotions,  artwork  physical  of  company cosmetic  proximity  at  being  only  example  portraying family togetherness  This  themes  an  exception  trend  are  will  be  discussed.  i n the made For  for its  North  even the  family  etc.  American  happiness  This  hair  cosmetic  North the  the  vaccines  i n the of  The  of  shampoos,  medicines,  appear  is certainly  American  as  in Services.  sample.  company's  for  Samples  tonics,  advertisements  North  not  advertisements  vitamin  family  but  sample,  i n the  toothpastes,  oriented  sub-sample  Services  family oriented  has  and  well  more  American  Care"  advertise-  proportionally  North  each  sub-sample,  products  The  as  the  of  different  "Personal  Care  hand,  own  advertisements  for Personal  advertisements.  for  fifty  clearer  present, i t  34  Graph  2.1  Histograms showing percentages of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of Personal Care product ' c l a s s in t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s  35  n  Tamil  Sample  North American  F a m i l y Ads.  Graph 2.2  Individual  Ads.  Sample  O t h e r Ads,  Histograms showing percentages of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f S e r v i c e s i n t h e North American and T a m i l s a m p l e s  TABLE 4:  Advertisement c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s i n t h e N o r t h American and T a m i l o f the S e v e n t i e s : The sample f o r i n d e p t h a n a l y s i s ( i n absolute  samples  numbers)  1 Product c l a s s  Family advertisement N. American  1.  2.  Personal Care  8  Services  Total  Other advertisement  Individual advertisement  Tamil  28  N. American  24  Tamil  30  Tamil  25  10  12  13  N. American  26  31  16  11  Total N. American  Tamil  38  58  17  24  55  82  " W i t h two small chiHien,a9-5 job is out of the question. That's why I love being a n A v o n Representative. I m earning g o o d money a n d T m there when the children need me."  GiTAiwbutvx North Guuftui Call ma old fashioned I wantraybora to be mj wig d ttounnf. A i ap A T O P Kefnm iilitiin. I raaka my •am aoon. So I have plenty of time to spend artth my faxnjry Bnraj my cam boat and navavjirar my mil liniiai miti mrjiatflnfftnrtTJiaTt Irrri lalliLaj DoTaTy CkT tB}' oajaV Thanta te Avon, IVo navfe acm r*»d fond frarrtta. A» I mala my rounda aa a Re«?re»enUthra, I BWCt ckBaeoa of nice pexjfate. And Avon pRhiuct* arc ao areD Uusd I fad wekxm when I a l l Bee of a l my work doeanl interfer* with my job aa 1 mother. A J larch, that'i the meat trtrparunt •ihfarrta^af baarajin Aron ReprearrtatWav ,  T\nA out hoar you can become an Avon lUtlllatllUlUaV  Call: cO0-325-6400*toafm  or (UI in the coupon below. Avon will caD you m aoon aa pcaaihle to irararer von-cjjetTiom. Of courae, there ia no obhfmbon. itin ICaruori call 800^42-6600) Vicki SBder'a etory interfaiad me mfillmfout thia coupon, .  aTf Ta^aTajON*. ND-.  ktafl to: Aran Prahaeta. Inc. P.O. Box 1325, Gcwt Natk. New York UO0  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.1  ' I am a mother o f two' - cosmetic company a d v e r t i s e m e n t  38  will  be  considered  s i m p l y a s a v e r y good v i s u a l  image o f  a  f a m i l y f o r the North American sample. North American Insurance The  Advertisements  best f a m i l y p i c t u r e i n the insurance a d v e r t i s e -  m e n t s f o r t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m a t e r i a l s i s t h e one earlier:  the v i s u a l of a couple w a l k i n g over beach water  (Illustration c l e a r here, tisement  1.1.1).  A theme o f t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s i s v e r y  as mentioned e a r l i e r .  d e p i c t s a man  phone c a l l , him,  a nurse  a p p a r e n t l y t o h i s i n s u r a n c e company.  a special  Behind  He  of r a t i o n a l i t y advertisement.  or p r a c t i c a l i t y The  t o c o p e w i t h now,  The  the  i s being  i n s e e k i n g p r o t e c t i o n f o r h i s w i f e and company.  is  responsibility  t h e e c o n o m i c p r o v i d e r as p e r  e x p e c t a t i o n , run f o r insurance.  from t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  how  adver-  i s h o l d i n g o u t t h r e e f i n g e r s as t h o u g h she  t h a t makes t h e man,  prudent  Another insurance  o u t s i d e a m a t e r n i t y ward making a  announcing the b i r t h of t r i p l e t s ,  cultural  discussed  newborns  c u l t u r a l l y upheld  i s the h i g h l i g h t of  sense this  e m p h a s i s a p p e a r s t o be a b r i e f i n g as u n e x p e c t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  not  f a m i l i a l l o v e ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.5)-  Another  w i t h a n i c e f a m i l y p i c t u r e shows t h e  i n s u r a n c e a g e n t on  s i d e and  on t h e o t h e r , a c o u p l e  and  two  a girl.  T h i s image seems t o s y m b o l i s e  to  advertisement  c h i l d r e n , a boy closeness,  one and  happiness,  39  satisfaction  etc.  I t c o u l d be c l o s e n e s s w i t h t h e i n s u r a n c e  agent or c l o s e n e s s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y i t s e l f ; certainly  implies affection,  (Illustration  visual  t a k i n g c l u e s from t h e t e x t  1.1.6).  Tamil Insurance Not  Advertisements  many T a m i l  insurance advertisements  images o f f a m i l y l i f e .  symbols, l i k e  t h e image  a traditional  Mainly these  provide  provide  I n d i a n lamp b u r n i n g w i t h i t s  aura spreading l i g h t a l l around.  T h i s c o u l d mean t h e  b r i g h t e n i n g up o f t h e l i v e s o f people  associated with i t or  t h a t t h e company p r o v i d e s l i g h t f o r p r e v i o u s l y d a r k and  so on.  I n c e r t a i n other advertisements,  image o f a c h i l d  looking into the future.  b u r n i n g lamp, t h e s e  the r e l i g i o u s  worship perity.  e t c . and t h e f e s t i v e  connotations  The p o r t r a y a l o f a c h i l d  from w o r r i e s or f i n a n c i a l  woman, a g i r l  I t carries  with  o f j o y , or pros-  i d e a l l y , parents  protect  i s expected  t o be f r e e  responsibilities.  insurance advertisement  sample i s s i g n i f i c a n t . which v i s u a l l y  cultural  also i s a r e f l e c t i o n of  c h i l d r e n ' s f u t u r e and a c h i l d  One o t h e r  highlight  c o n n o t a t i o n o f e x p r e s s i n g f a i t h i n God,  expectations i n Tamil c u l t u r e ; their  we have t h e  According t o the Hindu  b e l i e f s , b u r n i n g lamp i s v e r y a u s p i c i o u s . it,  life  By d e p i c t i n g t h e  insurance advertisements  t r a d i t i o n a l Hindu c u l t u r e .  company  It i sa life  from t h e Tamil  insurance  example  d e p i c t s a haggard l o o k i n g female,  an o l d e r  and a p o s t m a n who i s d e l i v e r i n g a l e t t e r  from  40  Illustration  1.1.6  Closeness  symbolised  41  the l i f e female,  insurance corporation.  The h a g g a r d l o o k i n g  a p p a r e n t l y widowed and w i t h a d a u g h t e r ,  i n g on t h e o l d e r l a d y who i s p e r h a p s h e r l a t e mother.  i s depend-  husband's  The p o s t m a n i s d e l i v e r i n g t h e i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s  the former  i sentitled  to (illustration  1.2.1).  This  e x a m p l e d e p i c t s t h e d e p e n d e n t s t a t e o f t h e woman. a l s o have a h i n t o f t h e e x t e n d e d times  H e r e , we  family providing help i n  o f need o r d i s t r e s s .  R o l e P o r t r a y a l s o f Women I n b o t h t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and T a m i l s a m p l e s , t h e r o l e p o r t r a y a l s o f women a r e more o r l e s s s i m i l a r . ever, t h e r e i s perhaps a l i t t l e a l l o w e d f o r i n t h e case portrayal  more e c o n o m i c  How-  independence  o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n women.  A  o f a b s o l u t e d e p e n d e n c e on h e r h u s b a n d f o r t h e  T a m i l woman d i f f e r s  slightly  from  the portrayal of the  N o r t h A m e r i c a n woman who i s s o m e t i m e s d e p i c t e d as g a i n f u l l y employed.  E v e n s o , h o w e v e r , h e r employment a l w a y s  supple-  m e n t s h e r h u s b a n d ' s income and i s s u b o r d i n a t e t o h i s m a l e ness.  Thus, i n N o r t h American a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , t h e female  i s n e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y dependent nor c o m p l e t e l y In t h e advertisement  f o r P r u d e n t i a l Insurance,  t h e e a r n i n g woman i s a n u r s e similar  advertisement,  among many men.  independent. f o r example,  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.5).  furthermore,  A  shows a c o u p l e o f women  42  9i,£liijiJJIS  bu««v SOOO «•>«>«-fj  aftajak S a r e r i s t a i O M » t t « > u A ftataa M CkaaiaM. Q u t c i 5000 *>uk]a (••Mi u t a t A d t * y a a ) gpaVwat a a d a V J v a a * * * C*»>*  (•WaaVf^-j a . ifrmmjth.  t a g * , a s aatCkti a i a a C * a l u # * ) «Ual a a v e ) «aa?iB>a>. #0* O u a a • j f 4 « > * t * k # a f l f j ah.iJuCk.art. (  B  20 gwrajifl 1979  '  /  a l s ^ a i n a i a»va> C * > a > * < M l O C k v S r c t l p i e f OafeaauuLi-e). avajal • fiama O U M M «ytt4i>>Liaj. a.faaa agpefaaa* L k ' M w i i f j l»ai'iin'i uaalf *i*#>i.a> aiOtuiSaat. ka  (  ty**;  3i*i»a?C»»C*j tt_aaw a m  *»» < * p V l | Q»« a # p * ) a.*T»»L>4 . t f ' i a . M t f * if » • « •*a»MB»W (If » a 0 t ^ a * «fa4-»4. Qp«*fi 4*1©* ? * t ( ^ a u  13 g<w&jrfl 1979 • So**''  «3*»C>«J•» -vtuqA  a>a>  fl  Qtmmttmhm *m0w  Oat a-w$  / ' i f e»«UJ^  9aVa*WuUU®«  &M tap  au^iiwj-ejk QaV<^U«-0-*>B luAAWa 8 » t * * a * a > a i a T l W l . •jiaTt6uaaH- h Qtm**+mr •.•faxs u«C««c3*a*^«/.^ P  • AC-at  afa^MaVa«ab •V^aVaQuCu. aTaf • • • >  16 duirairBI 979  • Ut#fl*»U UfaVa. • a U * W # # 0 « * •»**#> AkudB.aaU^l-aarf^  M c r f d * a ? * ) * * * * * ! * * ut># ^ p r a t a a a i j a v f C f t f a i a f i i £ v f i . •aaaTliBta) a * 0 « t a i «V.«uaj. 1iri-T«<> « c i i t u l aTtaauuCk. 7 1 0 0 0 a j a n e * t u M a U f j t t i e * • » « » » « # » a » a S3.OS a * > * Quictao f *•(*> • * « V  4 W t * U « * « ataa. • alW«^u«MJ l^#0UB aUaaH-lJaM«^«it * v | J « t aftua»«BT«) u t t S A u u £ # f «#9*>3-u ft©*it*at) >ua44wado4f>4. • aaat® J ^ i a b U U B l L . «f|aO«C^ Qft^aS-U § M » a ) ••-^•MJUCa»aaT|C ^iM*»t.d* ©*M C U M ^ U « 4 « a - a f l l a i Qa«t?Li4a»ta*. a&f latlLaaM  nuwii £  ( aPaT 9CJ a.ae«ae«t #awa>*. « f a a > O a r a f u A/aik*r#«r « # r « v * V a « j « * r a 0kUuL, a«*aar.; O  aU'Aa  OwariaaV ^««e»*\ *raW«rU>V O t ^ y * * * * * * * f £ Aat iyam«l_|l, 9**aV4>BaW ^ t f ^ C#(U« J a f c a - ^ i r>*ty3|fl»4 •>>flaa)l»* a A l f a t a a a O ' ftiKt&ti a . « K B « 4 a 5 a a T afaTU•tt+kfi* »aWt4atJU*la_ a > > C » « I - » V | 0 a i a W 4 » « > C I B .  Uf»#  I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.1 L i f e Insurance Corporation  43  Illustration  1.1.5  Prudential  Insurance  44  Shampoo The sample  only  shampoo  i s a family advertisement.  present  the product  follows  the format  comes  tration  3-2.1).  bottle  Personal  emphasize  knowing  the "look"  beloved rizer on ing  o f woman.  of skin  4-1.2). agent,  family  visual  earlier  (illus-  placed  defined  o f the Tamil depict  Care  on  products  i s desired.  t h e woman  product  Inthe  pampers  h e r body  In the advertisement she conveys  (Illustration  of a  skin  an a i r o f c o n f i d e n c e , 4.1.3).  Inthe  m o i s t u r i z e r , she i s with her  4.1.4).  f o rrecognition  advertisements  i sa  The T a m i l  It i s a particular that  lotion,  of a facial  (Illustration  products  glaring  Personal  and i s e n j o y i n g t h e sense  culturally  3-1-2).  " f a m i l y shampoo"  American  she i s p r o t e c t e d  a need  the product  was d i s c u s s e d  of the self  protection  advertisement  i t be-  visible.  (Illustration  hair  and t h u s  Products  or pampering  parts  that  images  The l a y o u t  because  a very  the label  of the North  advertisement  and  Here  i s also  Care  Most  look  only  (illustration  advertisement  American  Yet, the visual  announcement  by c o n t r a s t , provides  t h e same  i n the North  i n a wreath.  of a birth  o f t h e company  sample,  the  covered  a family advertisement  "baby"  -  advertisement  experience  A l l these  advertisements  or a f f i l i a t i o n ,  desires. sample, the care  o f the moistu-  both  focus  o f them b e -  In the Personal  Care  by c o n t r a s t , a g r e a t o f f a m i l y members.  many For  45  1  75--^  4 A \ i  4.  St 10a* 6om to- 6a£yyoar Aatr. Zro-AanfierjoarAair.  jSr&SaMof^rinp.  j J  %ct oar-near 6a6p, 6aiy-your Aair  i  4 f,t^  t^j^^J'^^^^^J^^^^^^^^^  i sr9jrrv)on.Tbeyte aft norveKtatine phtorrrwaBV Now there am thro* Q a M r e r t w l For iwrmel to dry he*, dry heir. and trie nrMast member of our tamtty,fordeticate har.  I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.2  'Shampoo that babies your h a i r '  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4«1.2  'Woman who pampers her body* - skin lotion  47  a new cosmetic science: Your* surrounded by harsh light. Chapping wind. Abrasive dirt and pollution. Heat and oir-condifioning. A total environment that damages your delicate skin and hair. But now, in an entroordinory breakthrough, Helena Rubinstein has erected The Protectors. Now you have the broadest protection avoiloble against the environment. N o w S k i n D o w f a c e s V o t o t t o r works in a  completely different way to shield your skin from environmental hazards. Its ingredients form o unique protection system which, with continued use. actually keeps your skin (poking younger.  Use it doily under makeup, or simply alone, and your skin will respond beautifully. You'll notice o fresher look, a smoother surface, o ' softer feel. N o w S k i n D o w H a i r P i o l o t l m . unlike  conditioners and cream rinses, protects your hair from the environment that fades it. leaves fair less vulnerable to splitting, breokage, and moisture loss. Use it regularly after shampooing, ond you can e«pect reduced color fading. Added monageability, body and bounce. Another feo'ure: Hoir Protector, like Face Protector, coma ns lerments foctiques, a pure milk pro/em. to make it pH.jtabilir.ed The Protectors. New. Necessary. And so different it took a new science to make them: the science of beauty protection. SolUrutllofi guaranteed.  Use The Protectors for 21 days. If you're not completely satisfied that they're working for you, send unused portion to Helena Rubinstein, 300 Park Avenue, N.Y, N.Y 10022 ond we'll refund your money.  S k i n D e wProtectors  Helena Rubinstein  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.3 'Protection against environmental hazards' - Advertisement of a s k i n and h a i r protection agent  48  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.4  'Sharing of sensual experiences' - Advertisement o f a m o i s t u r i z e r  4  49 example, i n the a d v e r t i s e m e n t a p p l i e s i t to her daughter's (Illustration  of h a i r l o t i o n , h a i r and  the mother  not t o her  own  4-2.1).  In a toothpaste advertisement, furthermore, a i s shown a s c r y i n g a b o u t a t o o t h a c h e . makes him u s e happy.  The  relief.  a particular  Then t h e m o t h e r  toothpaste.  Both  o f them  The  m o t h e r , by  c o n t r a s t to the North  l o o k , but making her son use t h e p a s t e  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.2).  The  North American  examples of d e n t u r e  cleansers.  the N o r t h American  recognition.  For  and  instead  sample from  remove d e n t u r e  woman c o m i n g c l o s e r  The  near merger i s r e a c h e d .  This v i s u a l  coming t o g e t h e r i s the r e s u l t  An  and  a  an u l t i m a t e p o i n t o f conveys the of u s i n g a  I t i s as t h o u g h t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,  o t h e r f a c t o r s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t have no closeness  or  for Polident  v i s u a l h e r e d e p i c t s a man  closer u n t i l  cleanser.  again  as h a v i n g t h e c a p a c i t y t o  and  their  find  c u l t u r a l need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n  product  odour.  1975  can  These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  i n s t a n c e , the advertisement  tablets portrays this  brings  American  does n o t c o n t a i n t o o t h p a s t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s b u t one  reflect  are  t o o t h p a s t e h e r e , t a k e s away t h e p a i n and  theme, i s n o t b r u s h i n g h e r t e e t h f o r a ' s p a r k l i n g bright'  child  idea that  particular emotions role  and  in this  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1 - 5 ) • advertisement  f o r a p a i n balm i n the T a m i l  provides a strong contrast.  sample  Here, the mother a p p l i e s  balm t o her son's t h r o a t ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.3)-  In  the  this  50  eucfcr 6.<srTa}i%o  @6DITn&66ro6OT , b  <86DfJW68r f jjj^  4u«Tr*8»T «%is3*u  £ * " 99 »*** 8  4fl"0u4«ff»»i»Vii_ 3u«w 3»o««%»«*r. lCI-»Sah  SEirgiSnir  SavrmmY.  u 3 » * 9 € T » # e S » Qpu)4Qfj.aoSaJitjiA C u f t i A t v u>£»ff4«SgDgf. .a*v>f>ta  «E*jQpia«,3u unj««r  «fiuOu*8(<a>«k 4«L.V  3r»«u> • 9 )f| C B > ( L D U c £ f B t b A&u Qpi*>4»<u 4* «u •&•*;« a  a  Skpfta. ••Si;  iSo«9 9e*i«tip £•>>_•  Illustration  4-2.1  - ' A * • I I*. 0 » » l * « »•••.  'Mother's  love  through  a hair  lotion'  51  •*"-«• «•*>«•  «*«•>••»»•> (•*••«»• • *»»»»•» « j >  h * * * ' * - » » " » • « • •••V- • • M a •••».••••«•«•• •>.•».•. it—lit*.  ««>••  Illustration  4.2.2  «•«•>••*.  'Cavity fighting family guard' - Toothpaste advertisement  \  52  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.5  ' C l o s e n e s s from a denture - Polident tablets  cleanser'  53  Illustration  4.2.3  •Warmth of mother's love' - A pain balm advertisement  sample, f u r t h e r m o r e , providing tonic  an  image o f a c o m p l e t e  i s f o r each  In the child  and  advertisement inside  4.2.5).  display: second, the  type  first, a man  child's  He  American  dual  i n the T a m i l  4-2.4).  depicts a (illustration culture  sample, however, a  is  forehead  a l o n e , and  the  finally,  f o r f e v e r but  not  parallel  images  a woman a l o n e t a k i n g out  sleeping  Thus, we  secure  shows t h r e e s e p a r a t e  a tablet, (Illustration  visual  i s happy and  the  advertisements.  In the N o r t h advertisement  (illustration  f o r v a c c i n e , the v i s u a l  family orientation  i n these  advertisement  f a m i l y i n the b o t t l e ;  e v e r y member  a palm.  The  visible  there i s vitamin tonic  in a  single  tablet;  a mother  actually  feeling  giving  him  4-1 -6).  have o b s e r v e d ,  i n our  images a l o n e , a wide v a r i e t y  themes i n t h e T a m i l  and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o f f a m i l y and  the North  American  the  indivi-  samples  respectively.  own  While  i n the  latter,  "grooming"  "self",  i n the  former,  i t i s directed  f a m i l y members.  I f i n the T a m i l  is directed towards  at  other  sample, baby f e e d i n g  shampooing a r e moments o f i n t i m a t e f a m i l y a f f a i r s , North self  American reliance  family  one, even  the  f i n a n c e s i s the  advertisements  highlight  i n a baby.  of both  i s on  Man  important  being  target  samples a l i k e  p o r t r a y s woman's d e p e n d e n t  one's  but  i n the  individuality in control i n the the  s t a t u s i n a more  and  of  and the  insurance  Tamil  one  outspoken  QLnrar^<%^ti6^uj©)Lb, ; u a n a u i a •>**a*u QUMAMI «ia  u4«»iu£HMiSAiAjDavflr s*4au S u t g a * * .  »«»ajiuM«»uij»i. « . * « » aguuaat-i_»M L . i a U  '  •uQufttSa,  Illustration 4-2.4 "  'For the e n t i r e f a m i l y _ tonic' A  v  i  t  a  m  i  n  flffirr^fjiin  uiypSa)u5.a3r ^ ^ n f o u j g j g j 6uiTijpaS.rB(§>  6ufTfS5)6tUIT QfflTL® UJtfJIT)©! <9i6lfl^45l  &OTibiS)dr86tT Qjnt3, Si^rruSleS^i^gi uiT^arruq s a r i n - g t - a i a o f l t b w ( 3 ^ 0 U t f l i i r BL0CD^I_**T  ft  1  i 2 i i D y i i b i T @ $fT$iT U I T l 7 U ) * * l ^ f t 6 \ J 6 i U t i € l l i 1 I Q l _ l lft™4 f t i i ) e.*£"?7^  < . M " « « ^ ^ «s-*H ,  C u d f j : «*-»» 8 30 Qp*. u«.l2.30\i-f  |  •+*  I  Illustration  :  3.00 g t k S 6.00 atsr.  4.2.5  a.-.'.'  *! _/  , . , , , . „ ...... ,  ttMgwb »«* _ »Wf«»w-Ti.*«*i^ SuraTiur  OMIIS  "Si**  i * i S « i « * ^ f « j « » > » j,«f3«ou^*"r)4*.  ' C h i l d ' s safety i n your hands' - A vaccine advertisement  57  r-1:111  MM  B A Y E R -ASPIRIN  ^  BAYER.  TIMED RELEAS£ ASPIRJN unco* Mai auti uai lacai a M  taTtauia^tai  aadta. Xo relieve tr« acnes and reduceff*efeverof • cold or nu. doctors^ recarnnend aso*»i layer tested C e a r i n a a e r a every leaona Brand for ouauy taS~j&££«£&r£"gr vou can count onBetter ajawy layer»AaO«»>  faaPare eaaifel JUco»'a.*i are cela) •rale yea Heap. Bayer* Tovjd lOeaw A i c m 1 made to work owrrme you tat* conry oncer I noun Two tablets taken Mherairyjrt( vr»ye»auetocoidKir \toyouctniieec3.'™tr«n<ax <  taoucai f i w ef a caid. To rekeve tne •des and reduce tne (ever of a endds c o l d or nu. jet Orange Flavored f*nr* Chadrenl Aiprn It t ti me eaaa taoxt lize doctors recommend and <i mage wencatrtcare  Eacn aayrr Drodua nOuOodaecacrsforuse lave-err«» you mrcaowU  To relieve aches and pains of colds & flu, count on Bayer...or Bayer ...or Bayer.  Illustration  4.1.6  Aspirin  advertisement  58 manner.  The l a t t e r a l s o d e p i c t s extended f a m i l y care which  i s a m i s s i n g theme i n the former.  Woman's domestic r o l e i s  portrayed s u b t l y yet s t r o n g l y i n the v i s u a l s of both samples.  So a l s o i s t h e i r part i n c h i l d  North American mother i s portrayed  care.  Only, the  i n a more passive c a r i n g  r o l e while the Tamil mother i s shown i n v o l v e d i n a more a c t i v e and i n t i m a t e c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d r e n .  However, i n  g e n e r a l , the r o l e p o r t r a y a l s are very s i m i l a r  i n both.  the whole, the o b s e r v a t i o n s made from an a n a l y s i s of the visual  impressions  have thus, r e i n f o r c e d a l l the three  e x p e c t a t i o n s r a i s e d at the beginning  of t h i s  study.  On  59 CHAPTER I I I  THE TEXT  A poet cannot l e t a yellow primrose remain merely a yellow primrose; h i s f u n c t i o n i s to i n v e s t i t with meanings. In the poet's eye the primrose comes to symbolise many things S i m i l a r l y , an a d v e r t i s i n g w r i t e r cannot permit a cake of soap to remain a cake of soap and 'nothing more'. Whatever the object f o r s a l e i s , the c o p y w r i t e r , l i k e the poet, must i n v e s t i t with s i g n i f i c a n c e so that i t becomes symbolic of something beyond i t s e l f . (Hayakawa 1964: Advertisements  do not merely  r e g a r d i n g the i n t r i n s i c  262-77)  provide i n f o r m a t i o n  p r o p e r t i e s of a product but  bestow on i t meanings that would make a product "beyond i t s e l f " . o f t e n purchases  also  something  Hence, when a consumer buys a product, the enhanced image an a d v e r t i s e r  he  has  attached to a product as w e l l . In  p r i n t advertisements, the enhancement of a  product's s i g n i f i c a n c e can be achieved through  images or  through the use of words, or through an approach  that  uses  both v i s u a l and v e r b a l modes to communicate the e n t i r e idea but then strengthens t h i s with t e x t u a l messages.  Also,  there are i n s t a n c e s where a l l the image enhancement i s done i n the t e x t  itself.  60  made  This  chapter  i n the  texts  of  Tamil  and  ments, would The  one,  i n c l u d e an  first  message  will  and  advertisement visual  For  analysis  purpose,  insurance.  are  food  attention  been  body  alone be  out  i n the  of  each of  selected an  in  undertaken.  focussed  on  shampoo  because  Tamil  of  before  is  detergent,  copy.  analysis  copies  advertisements  left  body  message  preceding  will  This  dominant  a l l decades  samples  food,  present  i n the  visuals,  advertisements  the  individual  example,  cular  baby",  letter" that about he  not  across  advertise-  and  c o n t a i n the  and  our  have  captions  i n the  1975  of  American.  subordinate  the  presentations  groups  North  of  to  Like  American  value  the  and  for  automobiles  the  parallel  sample.  Food Like  For  both  the  f o r baby  North  cigarettes  products  on  other,  surveyed  of  the  sample  considered  second,  be  advertisements  Baby  two  the  studied.  will  this  and  the  presentations, captions  products depth  analyse  analysis  be  the  will  the  his  son  who  food.  North  openly  the  i s "just  one  Once  "got  absolutely refused  i t . . . . i t  found  sample  i n some  mother. year  old"  another  an  baby  a l l focus  a  "most  parti-  "unsolicited  This  letter  i s very brand  is readily  in  subtle fashion.  describing  reproduces  baby's  she  messages  American or  advertisement  advertiser  w r i t t e n by  her  i n the  either  i n an  textual  of  states  particular spinach  understandable  and  61  how  a baby's keen t a s t e w i l l  p i c k o u t what he  likes".  Thus, i n t h e t e x t , t h e a d v e r t i s e r a s s e r t s t h a t o n l y brand  o f b a b y f o o d w o u l d a p p e a l t o a b a b y who  s e n s e o f t a s t e and who and d i s l i k e s . product  i s very p a r t i c u l a r  has a k e e n  about h i s l i k e s  T h e r e a r e a l s o a s s e r t i o n s a s t o how  fulfills  d o c t o r s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and how  h a v e b e e n t h e company's " s o l e b u s i n e s s " In another  brand  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.1).  N o r t h A m e r i c a n baby f o o d  t h e baby f o o d  of product.  advertisement,  In yet another  of the  advertisement,  i s not g i v e n prominence at a l l .  t h e c h e a p n e s s and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f d i a p e r s specially  the  babies  t h e b a b y " n e v e r f o r g e t s t h e g o o d n e s s and f l a v o u r " particular  this  Here, i t i s  designed  f o r t h e a d v e r t i s i n g baby f o o d company t h a t  receives the a t t e n t i o n .  The c a p t i o n r e a d s :  " . . . . f i r s t time ever! T h i s i s new " a t home" f a s h i o n f o r baby! Cunning! Colorfast! Hi-Diddle Diapers." T h i s d i a p e r i s a d v e r t i s e d as a v a i l a b l e a t a d i s c o u n t r a t e when one b u y s a c a n o f t h i s Similarly,  i n another  advertisement,  the baby f o o d i s " d e s i g n e d i n mind."  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.2). the t e x t a s s e r t s that  w i t h t h e baby's e a t i n g p l e a s u r e  The a d v e r t i s e m e n t  our b u s i n e s s . . . o u r In  baby f o o d  a l s o s t a t e s that "Babies  only business"  are  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.3).  t h e T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t , baby f o o d s become t h e  s y m b o l o f m o t h e r ' s l o v e f o r h e r i n f a n t ; t h e y a r e t h e answer  rji^tiEoe ever! This new Tat-hcme'fi*^^ inning!  "Qite-fefit!  '\ n  Hi-Diddle  • Deeifrned Mp«cullyforBwift ft Company—a emart new wrap-around for your own HiDiddle dumpling! It's • famous Cority diaper with tu exclusive animal print. A wonder* faNyioft,absorbent faute diaper—-full 21 a 40* laboratory tested, eolor-faat, with esclusivs, pa tentodfoJd-lines.  Use the handy order form below. Hurry, though, offer is limited. Aotv lo Gron ii ma . . . Auntie: Ever hear of s baby with too sonny diapers? Get several for the uutvat baby you know!  MEATS FOR BABIES AND JUNIORS... EGG YOLKS FOR BABIES YOUB BABY must have plenty of protein every day—and Swift's Merita for Babies are a concentrated source of protein in a form aa Jiftrwtible as milk! All 7 varieties are pre-cooked, ready to serve, v rained so fine babies can eat them when they're only 6 weeks old. Try S«vift '• Strmhsed E M Yolks far Babiee, too. 8t-*rflis*d far purity... rich in blood-building; iron. Already cooked, ready to serve right trozs the can.  I l l u s t r a t i o n 2.1.2  t W *nd •»* Curitr Ht-fMddlr lite-an. for n r h fit*,-* I rftclr*» XIW in rwin aad • lahrl tV,>ui u n t<«» wf Ntriha M « U for BaWta <* J H M M W M M W U Swift*. E M Yolk*ft*BaUta.  Mikfr.1  STATI  I M •m w»rf n.mn> UB** «i pi--a January 31. 1SSA, -upi** » fiKauMMT. VmH war** prcMbawd. d o> M K r t k w n t r i r l M i Allow S waaia Sv awy. In (~»tuda. wM) l a M *aw» M l 1* Baa ISM, IM*. Ontario ~  'Hi-Diddle Diapers'  63  64  to  "mother's p r a y e r s " .  growth  of babies.  mother t o convey depiction  They a l s o e n a b l e f u l l  I t i s as t h o u g h her l o v e towards  i s not s u r p r i s i n g  t h e baby f o o d h e l p s t h e her i n f a n t .  enough t o be f e d on homemade s o l i d equated  to  Certainly,  and f u l l  f o r t h e Tamil mother.  such i n h i b i t i o n s  baby f o o d .  p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e  North American  style  culture  i t s potential  enforces  o f the mother.  i s more  restrict  t h e freedom  Hence, N o r t h  American  b a b y f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s need n o t p r o v i d e added to  incen-  commercial  for individuals  than favourable to a product that w i l l individuality  capacity  t h i s c u l t u r e w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s on c o n -  v e n i e n c e and an e a s y l i f e  and  baby f o o d  i s seen as a s i g n o f  on a m o t h e r ' s c h o i c e o f a  In f a c t ,  parti-  i n f o r m a t i o n or discount  growth,  her l o v e f o r her baby, i t might  no  N u r s i n g a baby  i f the product w i t h i t s s p e c i a l  enable baby's f a s t  tive  foods.  Therefore, buying a commercial  need more t h a n mere p r o d u c t  rates.  they are considered o l d  w i t h mother's l o v e f o r t h e baby, i n t h a t  c u l a r world view. would  Such a  i n a c u l t u r e where m o t h e r s a r e  expected t o nurse t h e i r babies t i l l  is  and f a s t  incentives  buyers.  Shampoo The  shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e N o r t h  material w i l l  reflect  t h e c u l t u r a l l y approved  i n d i v i d u a l f o r r e c o g n i t i o n or a f f i l i a t i o n . culture,  social  American n e e d s o f an  In t h i s  r e c o g n i t i o n and c o m p a n i o n s h i p  a r e seen t o  65  enhance a person's i n d i v i d u a l i t y and great importance to the " s e l f " .  hence, these are of  In compliance with this  c u l t u r a l outlook, the shampoo advertisements the i n d i v i d u a l .  here address  The product advertised silkens an i n d i v i -  dual's h a i r , "leaves i t bright as s i l k , soft as s i l k , smooth as s i l k - and so obedient" ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3-1•3)Shampoo i s said to change the appearance of a person's hair.  It keeps the hair and scalp healthy; besides,  "brings out the real l i f e and l u s t r e ,  giving the hair that  r i c h , fresh looking, well-groomed appearance" 3-1.4)•  The advertiser's  it  (Illustration  assumption seems to be that every  consumer i n t h i s culture consciously or unconsciously desires to have a well groomed appearance to r i s e up to the c u l t u r a l expectation of having s o c i a l recognition as well as a f f i l i a t i o n .  There i s even a North American shampoo  advertisement that promises i t s user the glamour of film stars l i k e Elizabeth Taylor.  The advertisement which  v i s u a l l y depicts this movie star proclaims that she uses the advertised shampoo.  "It  is the favourite of four out  of f i v e Hollywood movie s t a r s " . America's most glamorous women".  It is the "shampoo of The incentive provided  here i s the "glamour" which could be associated with the c u l t u r a l value of s o c i a l recognition ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 3-1 • 1 ) • The Tamil shampoo advertisements  in contrast,  advertised with the entire family in mind.  are  In these  examples, a shampoo acts tenderly in c h i l d r e n ' s h a i r ,  66  I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.3  'Shampoo that s i l k e n s and softens hair*  67  I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1.4  'A well-groomed appearance from shampooing'  68 leaves and  the  hair  of the  lady  i s s u i t a b l e f o r the  message c o n v e y e d  cultural valuation desire  cultural  as  well.  a l t h o u g h the  i s not  family  altogether  love  and  the  individual's ignored.  pride  the  bounds of the  The  i n one's  These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e i n f o r c e the  within  the  l e s s t h a n s i m i l a r shampoos  p r e f e r e n c e i n South A s i a f o r i n d i v i d u a l ' s  met  The  shampoo i s s u i t a b l e f o r  of f a m i l y love  t o have s h i n i n g h a i r  f a m i l y members.  family  shining,  These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e v e a l  e m p h a s i s , h o w e v e r , i s on  t o be  the  i t costs  (Illustration 3-2-1).  h o u s e s o f t and  head o f the  i s that  'entire f a m i l y ' , yet  of the  general desires  family.  Insurance Like bonds are the  f o r the referred  v i s u a l presentations, to i n the  no  t e x t u a l messages t a k e n  N o r t h American sample, r e i n f o r c i n g the  drawn e a r l i e r . contain  expectation here.  Por  does not  refute  i n d i v i d u a l themes w i l l  instance,  the  be  a boy  m a t c h b o x e s , u s e d g o l f b a l l s and  buttons.  a s p e c i a l boy's l i f e 1.1.7).  who  do  advertise-  our  given  a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f an  company f r o m t h i s s a m p l e d e p i c t s  (Illustration  from  conclusions  themes, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  this material  that  r e a d y t o buy  family  North American insurance advertisements  some f a m i l y  ment t e x t s b u t  is  extended  general prominence  insurance  'hoards'  empty  Apparently,  insurance  policy  he  69  • a s u • one  ' on.***,07,a,,!* »5-/7* iniDUa I U U a? u a a u i  *»•«•»•» atrvx  t^  The Story of the "Problem Child "Bnpty matte bona, aaaj fob* balk aid button/^^«JMJ  oatpeiriraf  taothar. "How ha boarder 'How rant!" aud bit east calmly. Than baa ready.'  T a a W r •TV Inawre rail tUnea.** "WHIN?" Hiaaaaaperatad ' •other pkaed up a atamp album. "Sm," aud hia aunt, "with thai ipacial boy'a Km jgauraaaa pefecy. Far Viardau;' tike thia e u both harp rjufld a (Bora manly eharactar ear/ been * worth whOl ettettr "But wa't aa really too younfT* "Who, Mom?" tha hoy b u n t into tha reran. "You, dear. Tb a m about a boy'a lift uauraaet paltw * "That paye a ffy'e oolite*? Or puta him in b anaaT Vymr eat it before you era Id it cvea aovaia fiyin' and tchttaT "Who tea) y e a r hia aatrwianarl aunt a t r l a h u l T a a Miaiaaj • . • aa't ahaoat 15. aaa haaarai wander  U l u . t r . t i o n 1.1.7  5.aU  b  o  y  .  s  l  n  s  u  r  a  n  o  e  p  o  U  policy  See  an e x c e r p t from t h i s l o n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t : "Who t o l d y o u " ( a b o u t t h e p o l i c y ) ? , h i s a s t o n i s h e d aunt e x c l a i m e d . "Tim M o r r i s e y . . . h e i s a l m o s t 1 5 , and he s a v e s r e g u l a r l y f o r h i s c o l l e g e or t o put i t i n business. H e c k , who w o u l d n ' t ? Isn't i tf o r a g u y ' s own s e l f ? "  The  word  emphasis.  'own' i s i n i t a l i c s , I n another  providing to i t additional  insurance advertisement  from t h e  same s a m p l e , t h e t e x t u a l e m p h a s i s i s on f a m i l y ence.  The i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y a d v e r t i s e d i s s a i d  family's  North American  all,  this  policy  (illustration  1.1.8).  The  c u l t u r a l v a l u a t i o n p l a c e d on man's d o m i n -  f o r h i m t o n a t u r a l l y d e s i r e a c q u i s i t i o n and a b o v e f o r h i m t o be i n d e p e n d e n t ,  of these advertisements. from  t o secure a  i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h e peace o f mind o f t h e i n d i v i -  d u a l who p u r c h a s e s  ance,  independ-  are enforced i n the texts  Even t h e i n s u r a n c e  advertisements  t h i s s a m p l e do n o t e m p h a s i z e t h e c o n s u m e r ' s  w i t h f a m i l y m a i n t e n a n c e and s o l i d a r i t y the focus here  i s directed  is hisabilities  towards  per se.  t o s a t i s f y h i s s e l f ' s d e s i r e , t o dominate,  messages. visuals.  Similar  Instead,  a consumer's ' s e l f .  t o cope w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  t o be i n d e p e n d e n t  concern  It  as w e l l as  t o a c q u i r e , and  that are portrayed i n these  textual  c o n c l u s i o n s were made p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e  Note t h e f o l l o w i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t which  captivating caption:  has t h e  •H**,Mr3«<,af, J *  l a n d his family achieve  INDEPENDENCE MM* y e w faaruly h»T# -wfora. M a r * dm* to do ttwnp t ^ a * - « T o * travel a o n , B»T* a»  Y°u  F W o n r a p l t . . . a * t a n patiara a T r a - d a r a l i f t ammtam w a *  aa** fa*.  ffyatt for y o a thtt will avnift r o w f a m i l y , f u t o n if y * a aaeeid at* iWrh • prw/Tain autotriatkaliy p c o r i d - . caeh for  v.wwaTatataV  A M . when taw l u n cnrtat i - m i l * . LA* plan a t w w w Mat tar Y e n « a d f e w wif. ww**y U>a about v a r a of aVefW4*duaf ta* btoilj, u, riivAfB you avjor e a d look . w w a f - J t * law mj • * » » you caa rTNam aad y o e don't rUm r o w a-uod le t a * tWaya  t W t eouM K a p t w tn taw of aWLiwtk. a r a i d n t , a W  •I  w ta* eea*  " t t t y of your family navies te r.ary am without ym>  Of aB  t h t pawpa* in your W m .  m*iwi-«iw,t L r ^ b t * .  Y e w T n r v i a n a^r-M M o t protect ye* ta other v«yt. ta*. B a y o w botm a s B r n t Set and tnito>twn aad aWfiafB.  A a a UMwchtfel aua f e u tek# it*r tift-r te w w f c eat l b * * * par• e a J protiiiiMi  jo* wJp.  t wran  ilufU af ao a a *  f e w car a f u r a t p m o r t f j l i a M i t y and proper*,- eaaww;  ... aati  awjld you free. ew«y e i p w a a i Uial eaa wammium ha tar >*JUPBI T a w * m a T r a r e k * . r a w a w i U u ' w a**  a*ttar  fowraart ym a * l a w to a r r w * your  '•'».'  t ^ M e d te cauiaw. yeu on ta**** mxtmim Laaa y o w T n v w a r a  a w * w w * af n i n d . . . wita a p n w v i LKM • a> a a * tmk yoar  • ^ t w e m a f i v e . F w ha* m t w ••• fnpaay tool effara aff mwmt e/  I r a n i taVa-wTVky dom'l y o a *M is 4*ME* wtt* aW.~a*fa>*  all the aWt*^un>« 1W rhmitM  family *a)em  e w j Q w day warn fcft  •ABlOl  Accidnt • Gnup. tin Autrmrkik . Cmmltr • to*  L t f a •  >' |>i eea aaaaataa* te k n t k r Ik* T r e * * * * * ajeat eea • b a tar Owe* teat •rai . Ma.  tpTtraa j ry.  wlit a lrrA*>w*» faw  Imm af tB-w <• i*»n> '>wr r«wU> t m m U. > « ataa ar< ia****• mrnvrmmx mv* mith t T r a n > * i t-a* l a w i ^ r i j . • w.j A a>*n talk * i i a y a w Tr.»f4w» taa- -.ill aba atarlyfwai mb t t w y t a i i i i * * '  a*aiawa>at*a»*^»lBiai  tra. |M»waa.faa*»ai,,p-m**!  Illustration  1.1.8  'Family's independence'  72 "Some t i m e s o o n , C a r o l H a n s e n ' s f i a n c e w i l l a s k h i m s e l f i f he h a s enough l i f e i n s u r a n c e . (And how much i s e n o u g h a n y w a y ? ) "  Any  husband-to-be  at  himself.  as  she w i l l  When  here  tection has  this  advertisement  h i s fiance  asks  him about  do, he c a n n o t  this  defined  and s e l f - p r i d e .  this  conveyed  culture's certain  as i n t e r e s t e d Such  behind  (Illustration Company new  insurance The  t o the reader. i n domination,  a valuation  o f man's  advertisements,  are repeated  a safety  1.1.3)-  Men pro-  needs  family  r e c e i v e emphasis  lock,  that  that  portrays  spells  i t out i n  also  i t s  i n the Prudential  the visual  depiction  and p r o t e c t i n g  i n the text  texts.  visually  Similarly,  responsibilities  the advertisement  t h e messages  by t h e accompanying  advertisement,  with  a bull  life  directed  approval too.  coping  controlling  as  l e t h i m s e l f down.  across  instance, the advertisement  Insurance  And  message  insurance  visually  protection text  gets  subtly  In  For  take  sometimes  advertisement are  would  of  a  growing  (Illustration  1.1.5).  has t h e v i s u a l  image  of a  man  clarifies i t :  " . . . t h e r e were problems farm l a n d c o u l d n ' t solve. L i k e , how'd my w i f e p a y o f f t h e m o r t g a g e i f s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n e d t o me. What w o u l d she have t o l i v e on? R i g h t t h e n a n d t h e r e , we w o r k o u t a p r o g r a m o f MONY i n s u r a n c e . First, t o p r o t e c t t h e f a r m f o r my w i f e . T h e n when t h e k i d s come a l o n g , t o h e l p w i t h t h e i r education...".  (Illustration  1.1.4)  73  Illustration  1.1.9  'How much i n s u r a n c e i s  enough?'  74 Or,  i n another  advertisement:  "The S t a t e Farm money t r e e makes s u r e t h a t y o u r l i f e won't be u p r o o t e d . . . . I t g i v e s y o u r home deeprooted p r o t e c t i o n " . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.2) Again, t h i s that ity  i sa verbal  reiteration of a visual  portrayal  reinforces the c u l t u r a l valuation of f i n a n c i a l and t h e n o t i o n  financial  that  stabil-  one s h o u l d e n s u r e h i s f a m i l y ' s  security.  P o r t r a y a l o f Woman Visually,  t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n s u r a n c e sample has n o t  even a s i n g l e a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t woman's d e p e n d e n t s t a t u s . however, t h e r e  In the p a r a l l e l Tamil  1.2.1).  i s openly worried  about h i s w i f e .  h e r improve h e r f i n a n c i a l  (Illustration  material,  She i s t o t a l l y I t i s he who c a n  s t a t u s by t a k i n g t h e p o l i c y  1.1.4).  D e t e r g e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s show no d i f f e r e n c e r o l e p o r t r a y a l o f women i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n v e r s u s materials. visuals.  a  The man who h a s c o n t r o l o v e r a  d e p e n d e n t on h i m t o p a y o f f t h e m o r t g a g e . help  describes  i s one t e x t u a l p o r t r a y a l o f a d e p e n d e n t  woman ( i l l u s t r a t i o n bullock  explicitly  This  i n the Tamil  i s t h e c a s e b o t h f o r t e x t s as w e l l as f o r  No man d o e s t h e f a m i l y l a u n d r y ,  and t h e woman who  does i t i s h o p i n g f o r h e r husband's a p p r e c i a t i o n .  I f she  d o e s n o t g e t t h e wash w h i t e , s h e w i l l  an a n g r y  husband.  have t o f a c e  See t h e e x a m p l e o f a N o r t h A m e r i c a n  advertisement  ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5.1.1).  detergent  The c a p t i o n  of this  75  Happy husband! New Qlf with whitening, . i discovery washes his "yellowed" shirt back to ' fresh white again.. .without bleaching! (  Illustration  5.1.1  'Clean  wash  to  please  husbands?'  76 one  i s alone  sufficient  t o e x e m p l i f y t h e theme.  I t reads:  "Happy h u s b a n d ? New ' a l l ' w i t h w h i t e n i n g d i s c o v e r y washes h i s " y e l l o w e d " s h i r t b a c k t o fresh white again...". We s h a l l  now e x a m i n e t h e t e x t s i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  o f t h e 1975 s a m p l e s  alone.  The  Cosmetics  1975 M a t e r i a l : Not  the North issues.  many c o s m e t i c  company a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  A m e r i c a n s a m p l e were c o n c e r n e d The c a p t i o n o f one s u c h  drawn f r o m  with family  advertisement  reads:  " W i t h two s m a l l c h i l d r e n , a n i n e - f i v e j o b i s out o f t h e q u e s t i o n . T h a t ' s why I l o v e b e i n g an Avon R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I'm e a r n i n g good money and I'm t h e r e when t h e c h i l d r e n need me". However, i n t h e b o d y c o p y , t h i s justified  sentiment  i sfurther  thus:  " C a l l me o l d f a s h i o n e d . I want my b o y s t o be r a i s e d b y me - n o t a b a b y s i t t e r " . (illustration  4.1.1)  T h i s does v a l u e t h e " f a m i l y bond", y e t e x p r e s s e s r e c o g n i t i o n of p o s s i b l e ambivalence power i s a t s t a k e . be  Hence t h e t e r m  when a woman's  earning  o l d fashioned.  good o r b a d , t h o u g h t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t  ment i n i t s f a v o u r .  some  suggests  I t can a  judge-  Another  advertisement that qualifed  advertisement i n t h e North American shave  loiton.  d u c t would  make a p e r f e c t F a t h e r ' s Day g i f t  show a f a t h e r  and c h i l d  t w e e n them a s p e r s o n s .  child  (Illustration  relationships  gained a g i r l i s h a girlish  one o f  A p p a r e n t l y , daddy's h e a r t  4.1.7).  advertisement that portrays family  i n herself. figure..."  s a m p l e shows a woman  She i s " . . . a g r a n d m o t h e r who ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1 . 8 ) .  figure w i l l win social  Graining  r e c o g n i t i o n f o r a grand-  T h i s , as p o i n t e d out b e f o r e , i s o f c u l t u r a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e as N o r t h American grooming  image does n o t  The i d e a p o r t r a y e d i s m e r e l y  i n t h e North American  takes pride  mother.  i f the child's  t o t h e p r o d u c t a s t h e v i s u a l shows and n o t t o h i s  Yet another  who  Yet the v i s u a l  pro-  t o g e t h e r ; t h e r e i s no s h a r i n g b e -  g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g .  belongs  s a m p l e i s f o r an a f t e r  Here t h e a d v e r t i s e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s  h e a r t " b e l o n g s t o daddy".  gift  as a family-  t h a t would  c u l t u r e approves  self-  e n h a n c e one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y as w e l l a s  c o n f i d e n c e o f o n e ' s own s e l f . Another  woman i n a s i m i l a r  reduction plan openly  advertisement f o r a f a t  says:  "...my t e e n a g e n i e c e s and nephews a r e now p r o u d t o i n t r o d u c e me a s t h e i r a u n t . In fact everyb o d y i s a l o t h a p p i e r w i t h me...". ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.9) In  t h i s advertisement a f a m i l y recognizes a person f o r her  appearance.  When s h e s a y s t h a t now h e r r e l a t i o n s a r e p r o u d  78  79  th>,'*3.KU..C7.oe,-rj  I never stopped eating yet I lost 107 pounds. By Catherine Dutches — aa told to Ruth L. McCarthy bath hack t* eating Ufce t h a n waat aa ether reason tar lhrtag I Our frieada war* all 200-pounds atom, tan. Why, anca. whan I eomplainsd •bout the shape I waa i n , o n * of them amid: " D o a t worry, Catherine, yeur akin te eUeuhed to the limit. Now yau e n eat ail you want." A n d I did. T h a n my back began to ache, my be* rtarted to hurt from carrying all that weight, and my atomarh continually got i a the way What a meaa 1 F i n a l l y , a friend of mine amid Is "Catherine, let'atry thee* reduring-plan candies, A y d a ' . " And ah* bought m* a hot of t h * vanilla ceram*) k i n d First, I read t h * label on the bos to check out t h * ingradienta. When I mund that Ayda eontaina vitamins and miner*]*, but no drug* — nothing harmful — I atmrtsd right i s oa the plan with her.  Al t M aoaadV I • I B M . tut d dtd»'t a a * mtfrom l A m u a * a a a l a r r tear* • / i s l a m * . thing** for aura. I d i d s t get up Is 235 pound* by eating T V dinners. It waa meala likt cucumber* dipped i a t a g and breadcrumb, and fried l a butWr. aarvad with macaroni amothered i s cheeeo. and sweetened with a daaaart l i a r Bundt caka or my own data and nut roll that did it. Believe ma. whan you aat like that, it'a aaay lo get fat, aoped a i l y whan you a u n young. I waa railed on a produea b r m h i P a r a m u j . N J . A n d I (raw up worming aada by aid* with tha Sum hand*, ao 1 Warned to aat hearty aa aoon aa I could rift and lick a caka apoon. When I waa in my taena, rd gat up at five, have braakfaat of fried potatoes, ham. brand, jam and caSea. Than rd work ia the ft. Ids on til eeven- T h a t would g i * » me juat enough time to take • bath, aat another mack and go off to achool. Whan Ti get home, Fd be hungry enough to eat tha icsba*. b a n lt'a no wander I weighed ISA panada* by t h * time I waa 21. the year I max- • ried Ted — a a i i - b o u r who weighed' three pound* lent than I did. It d i d s t ; seem to bother him. though. He'* Dutch'. a s s . with my Carman psiUllage, wa •  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.8  antics, though, a a t i l r d lest a t pauses. T h a t * when my cloths* looked like they were d e a i g a e d by O m a r , the T e a t ataker. s a d everybody began remarking about my losing weight Sometimes, it'a hard eves far set to believe w h a t * happened ate. a grandmother who gained a gcrueh ngure at age 54 But the beat thing i* aoe, n happened T h a n k * ta the A y d * plan. I lost 107 pounds, yet 1 never tupped eating. And Tir* never fah better  S—r eke* Tm eeare c a o l e W a i a r ear rat • a* anaae a-aer** l*» par caaT eeeamf  T h e n 1 remembered hearing oner during a phyaical e&am that ta burs up (at, you seed to eat t h * right foods, l i s * meat and Baled* and vegetable*. To ma It was she comparing the body to s farnaee that need* proper stoking to get it to b u m like it enould. Wall, oa the Ayda plan. 1 began i s atok* mine good. Instead of etuflng myaalf with starch**, aweeta and junk. I ate lika I should. O n l y I ate lees, boeauea I * anted lee* 1 took o a * or two Ayda like the direction* say. with a hot drink, and these candisa really helped curb my appetite- Why. i s a i i weeks, rd lest IS pound* s a the Ayda plan A n d f l l tall you, when I aaw t h * ecalee going down, t h a n was no mora • s t i n g just to fill up that bag cavity i a front. People really m d a t take much BEFORE AND AJTEB atXASlTRElCTNTw After  •A grandmother who gained a g i r l i s h f i g u r e ' - Advertisement o f d i e t plan  I lost half of myself without taking diet pills. B y Donna Walk**- — aa told to R u t h L. M c C a r t h y  U T k m 1n M i nebs around, t e a w T tt inches t a l l even my favorite fat lady's ( t e n has a problem.1 knew, baeauee at X7t pounds I v o n tba largest bloomers thsy has. A n a that's tha only o a r s far them — bloomers — evwo though I'm of the generation thai arually refers  bating weight far 10 y e a n , hut t saw ma da anything about I L So he figured it was goiag to be aa easy win. Waa be wrong In the end, he had to pay up. became the weight came off. Nobody really noucad it until I'd lost more than 50 pounds Y o u sea. I hadn't bought any new clothes, so I waa hidden under a lot of baggy pants and aacky tops. Then et Easter, when Td taken off TS pounds on the Aydt plan, I turned out in e new lavender pantauit and everybody was smaasd. I waa thrilled, and mors determined than ever te stick te tha Ayda plan. 1  Fart ta. tha thought of having aoth. i a f ta wear mode ma to panicky. I said ta myself: "Thia ia it! You've f a t ta loot weight. D o n n e " Not that f woe o n awara ef a y s u a before. U l a n were toe maay embarrassing reminders i a my Ufa far ma l a ignore my weight. F a r inataara. et my fullert fifure, I fit aa aaufly into a tub that the water wee dammed up behind me whea 1 pulled the prog out ia front of me. A n d wbea I Mood up i a a ahower atoll. I c o u l e n i even band avar ta pick up a bar of tamp. trapped by a)y appetite.  I gueas, though, we never see ourselves as others do. Let sat tell you about a remark- my nophee made while I waa still losing weight He'd osen mt at his sister's wedding, wearing a sue 52 beige tent- months after I'd been on the Ayds plan. I apr eared et his wadding in a nxe 18 drees. H e was ao shocked, he said: "Whet were you wearing the last time 1 aew yeu — your beige VolkawegeoT F u n n y , I knew I waa f i t , but not that f a t How long did it take me te lose 142 pounds on the Aydt plan? Just about a year, and now I can do things I never could before For the first time, believe it or not. I can cross my legs — libs a lady. I can also see aft of me in a mirror. And I can even d i m h up a pool ladder without fear of breaking i t O n the serious side, my teenage nieces and nephews are aow proud to introduce me ea their aent In l a d , everybody ia a lot happier with ma. now that I'm only 37w inches around. Which makes me forever grateful far the Ayde plan. '  iwa»  Aa far ereaaee. I had o n e t f i f o to work in. I washed it every aight ems every day for one whole year because it waa tha only drees that fit. 1 think I ought to mention that i chocolate and iweeta were my undoing. But ironically, candy ia what really helped mt lot* weight A y d t * Reducing Plan Candy. I'd read ada about it m m t g a t i n f i and when I learned that A y d * eontaina vitamins and miaarala, but oo drugs. 1 thought maybe, at leal, Td found what 1 needed. I knew tVem peat experience that diet pilla, weekly reducing tetaiona and even a psychiatrist were not the answer for sot I t i l l e d toraething lo help curb my appetite and my eternal craving aw. I bought a o n of chocolate fudge Ayea at the drug store and started on tha plan in the fall. 1 took one or two Ayda about 15 minutaa before each meal with a hot drink, and it really . helped me cut down on what I a u . A n d I ate regular meala. nothing epeaal. •tight from the start, 1 had such a positive reeling about the Aydt plan, I task aa a ISO bet from my friend's H t ' g heard me t a "  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1-9  t  BaTOeuT. AND A F T O ISXASUUMKNTB  fete  »••• Weight  JVew tm l i t aoeaoj. r V a r e X Co—., tmrily  efis  •»«•  ITS lea . — I M tee  '  'Everyone i s a l o t h a p p i e r w i t h me' - Advertisement o f d i e t p l a n  81 to  i n t r o d u c e h e r , t h e i m p r e s s i o n conveyed i s t h a t p r e v i o u s -  ly  t h e y were ashamed t o a c k n o w l e d g e any r e l a t i o n s h i p  with  her. These a r e j u s t the North American  some o f t h e f a m i l y a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n  sample.  some a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  Now we s h a l l  examine i n d e p t h  p e r t a i n i n g to personal care  products  t o s e r v i c e s f o r 1 975 -  and  The  best  family advertisement  i n the North  American  i n s u r a n c e s a m p l e i s t h e one t h a t d e c l a r e s 'you a r e i n good hands'  (Illustration  1.1.1).  This advertisement  wisdom on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e a d e r : will  start  a life  calls for  ' i f you a r e smart you  i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m t h a t c a n change y o u ' .  I t a l s o c a r r i e s a f o o t note t h a t t h e F a m i l y P l a n Package described  i n the advertisement  t h a t a one p a r e n t  policy  i s a two p a r e n t  i s also available.  This footnote  g i v e s a c l u e as t o t h e p r e v a l e n c e i n t h e w i d e r single  parent f a m i l i e s at which The  ance a g e n t  The  which  d e p i c t s an i n s u r -  by u s a s c l o s e n e s s .  i s further described i n the text c a p t i o n mentions  t h a t t h e agent  company i s ' l i k e a good n e i g h b o u r ' , The a g e n t ,  like  This  close-  (Illustration  1.1.6).  i s "one o f a k i n d " ,  i s taking the p o l i c y a  b e l o n g i n g t o t h e i n s u r a n c e agent  need i t .  i s aimed.  on one s i d e and a f a m i l y on t h e o t h e r h a s  thus g i v i n g the f a m i l y which of  society of  the advertisement  insurance advertisement  a l r e a d y been i n t e r p r e t e d ness  plan but  sense  and t h e company. always  a good n e i g h b o u r  The  t h e r e when y o u a g a i n , can  82  provide  'knowledgeable  Thus  the textual  ness  that  In  message  i s visually  proximity  advice  depicted.  sample  insurance  advertisements  visuals.  The L i f e  visually  fidence  and f i n a n c i a l  because  h e r husband  a  policy  only  tion  Lakshmi  with  t o o , whereas  These  advertisements  family.  assume  One b a n k  responsibility reality. caption mind  alone  to live  itself.  the North manifest  of this  in life'  plans  - a  but also transforma-  transformation i s earlier  to help  him.  a r e some b a n k does  advertise-  n o t have any. expectation  f o r the maintenance reminds  i s w i t h i n your  i n future?'  taken  the policy not  But t h i s  poses  that  has the con-  alone  alone  to 'transform  advertisement  i t worry  Lakshmi  the cultural  advertisement  i n the  elaborates the  in life  American  responsibility  i n the  advertisement  that  without  there  as a parent  physical  i n an a c c i d e n t had  t o manage  His protection  - should  died  Note  sample  a  than  t o manage  1.2.1).  a situation  the Tamil  man w i l l  'New  i f a woman's h u s b a n d  ments  a  who  her the confidence  only  Corporation  family care  Vijay  of the close-  appear  i n the text  stability  (Illustration  t o cope In  more  i n the text:  i n the personality  possible her  story  enables  provides  f a m i l y themes  d e p i c t s extended life  I t i s both  service'.  intimacy.  Insurance  woman's  to person  explains the nature  and an e m o t i o n a l the Tamil  and p e r s o n  the reader a child's embrace'.  the question (Illustration  that  of h i s  of h i s dream t o The 'Innocent  1.2.2).  83  9*9  • » » » * t S •«"» «9»«" »—•»»* « • > . * • * «9*<*> a e t a t a aeraat, aerara • ftWiiaa QuftBajt OtaaC*. « » a i •atfaw aaaa y a a a a .  <vi>.ja*«  Mdli, mmmm taaatuw a , a a a £  atria, agaa a ^ * * * . «.*>•* (#>Mf>a * » a u a e>J0qi.4i^*a* aialwgMBw. • » a a e . •,*••> e y t a e a a '.tar' 0a<a aaaaiLSa — fiiaVftf* i*«oau<a C.*u a a j j a . 9  CAMCUT-aOI-alM TAM  Illustration  1.2.2  'Innocent  mind.  Should  i t worry  i n future?'  84 Another out  bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t  i n t h e T a m i l s a m p l e draws  i n words a t h o u g h t f u l f a t h e r who p r o u d l y s a y s : "Prom now o n , I am p a y i n g h i s c o l l e g e f e e s b u t he h a s n o t y e t r e a c h e d k i n d e r g a r d e n . • . H e r e i s my l o v i n g R a h u l . . . I need n o t w o r r y a b o u t h i s c o l l e g e f e e s and o t h e r e x p e n s e s . " 1.2.3)  (Illustration Y e t a n o t h e r bank a d v e r t i s e m e n t which  d e s c r i b e s i t s scheme  ' g i v e s y o u money when y o u d e s p e r a t e l y need i t ' .  T h r e e s u c h d e s p e r a t e n e e d s e n v i s a g e d by t h e a d v e r t i s e r a r e son's h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , daughter's house t o l i v e cultural for  i n ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.4)-  reality  a family.  The c u l t u r a l  weddings i s w e l l - r e f l e c t e d advertisements.  e d u c a t i o n and d a u g h t e r s '  and w e l l - r e i n f o r c e d  h i s children?  i n these  And, i s t h e r e any  man who w o u l d n o t want t o have h i s own home?  him  meeting  I s t h e r e any f a t h e r who w o u l d n o t want t o  h i s d u t i e s towards  family oriented  expenses  expectation of a father  h i s sons'  a  In the Tamil  t o o , these a r e c o n s i d e r e d major  the expenses towards  fulfill  w e d d i n g and b u i l d i n g  person,  I f he i s a  i t i s a l l t h e more r e a s o n a b l e f o r  t o d e s i r e a home o f h i s own t o be b e q u e a t h e d t o h i s  w i f e and c h i l d r e n .  Fulfilling  one's d u t i e s  towards  c h i l d r e n , h a v i n g one's own home, b e q u e a t h i n g p e r s o n a l l y acquired  p r o p e r t i e s t o o n e ' s own w i f e and c h i l d r e n e t c . a r e  culturally  d e f i n e d n e e d s and w a n t s .  85  ' QuCufGjSj ©fiuSHi®  par  ftfflauifl*  gsfrgiii ^jiiuuusisflOTUjIJaj BIILSISASB). fa** • • » r>e**e. V * » «^»'BJ »«•* ftWButOu* ^ i S a t a a a i a t . «»e4a* »•*>. e>a*a.aa#* avaaaa. a**W*,imaaieT • * u » 9 « s * » O n J s e J C S t a r . aasva'cle u % a 0 < 3 y r a * a j a * * * • * ? u O j » e ssjwwvb Oaiatif*. « » * j a v S a i u i c a a * 120 * t * * > e e « s " a S r a ^ a * a a * a « J i " O i t | | < : » f a s * «a> laaaH* eegaar«dw«|*ee* *•>*• •»»»» Sara S a a a i a a j a a . * ea.a»<ta« g s a e a t * . a « 0 r * r * a rraj.ataY a a a r * * Of aaiai efcePtaa Q a r a a , ttH « » ' • • V # ' ( » >9a> a n j u a 9 u •**ifla#U O^uraa. # C i . t i e 3»>»» alaSai*. aiOtjarapJaete Q a r w*4*4a 3«Juua w a u u i Ow«a *>eae> . a u * . OiiBia a S s r a a e j a e aagafa a d a a . * a c t i « aa>«g a } u 9 u i 0 a afawS 0 « u a j 4 a a . w  w  w  ai01]B0Ujmj LITTU& a aiaat jigMa»d<i aveYar aja/fiajf av u f 4 4  Illustration  1.2.3  ' I am p a y i n g h i s f e e s f r o m  now on'  u n c o on^iiiiD ip-s>iD_  " ? « • • •  « * > 0 * i S  '  -ajaaea  a a) at • ateB. j ) n f a i ( i w i aa? «,a) J t « « V i ( i  $«fp*e ©•»•»  •«  * » © • »  •\ ^  e  j l f j c u J a a Q u f t S g i afj^mftsaaaQaueai-. *3f9uio1tlt_ 9 9 0|'"t«ii • r e . a e * * t)a> Jimigjm.Qm.mi Cauftqwaax. j i a t i f j , Q * • £ • > * > « • 9 S 0»«"»aa»»j Jiajair Quaialfa Q*ff>a*'0 Oau^aaaar. a.fMaar aj^aa>s>9aV •arSar* ifiijOuflii  Cf,«*iu fuejtftSaJ. a>u<aa  I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.2.4  e«a>a«A  Bank advertisement  87 Shampoo There American this  i s only  sample.  shampoo  one shampoo  This  advertisement  one o f t h e t e n d e r e s t  experience.  I t appeals:  Unlike  t h e f a m i l y themes  ments,  this  at  North  t h e consumer's  emphasize will  (Illustration the  other  yourself heads  of  family,  I t merely  and s p e c i a l  3-1-2).  hand,  says  and a l s o  i n the Tamil  of using  the product  o f t h e f a m i l y a n d women,  products  (Illustration  brand  shampoo  of  will  ever  your  hair".  advertise-  i s not directed  f a m i l y symbols t o  experience  The T a m i l  f o r t h e head  example  this  the user  baby  shampoo  uses  i n the North  she/he  " L e t o u r new b a b y  shampoo  as a r e s u l t  promises  moments  American  the unique  enjoy  advertisement  t h e consumer o f shampoo  advertisement,  i s f o r "your  of the family". t h e homemakers  child, Men and  on  you arethe  purchaser  3.2.1).  Detergent A  liquid  American portrayal one  sample  detergent provides  in specific  textual  message  advertisement a good  cases  example  i n this  from  the North  o f a woman's  group.  role  T h e woman i n  says:  " I h a v e t h e same r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s m o s t m a r r i e d women h a v e . I make a home f o r a h u s b a n d a n d three children. And t h a t means h o u s e w o r k a n d lots of dishes...". ( I l l u s t r a t i o n 5-1-2)  This as  portrayal  well.  o f women's  work  i s true  o f the Tamil  sample  88 0*1,  M l A, M.Oe.eja),  m a t c h  t h e i r  t t h e i r  a g e s ?  ."•.V:~:  Age  r.). i.  t l > * t r  *0^M^-  Itaot easy, it h ? Ttaey both have yrjuilg kwfcing hands, Nancy Macintosh, age 20, ia a teacher and hardly ever washes a dish. But Mr*. Shcrroa Sandriri, age 31, doc* loci ot* them every day. She •aye,"! han the tame rcrporajbtlitia mort roamed women hare.1 make a homefora husband and three children. And that means houeework and Iocs of dishes! That's why I take cart of my hands and use mild Ivory Liquid. 1 just know Ivory Liquid help* me keep my hands young looking.**  RCId h w y I J q ^ helps [ kt^IiaiKis young ro^  I l l u s t r a t i o n 5-1.2  Ml  Woman's r o l e p o r t r a y a l i n a detergent advertisement  89 Personal  Care  Most  of the North  Care  products  them  as though  of  these  tection lotion looking A  emphasize  American  the "look"  'looks' are very  products against  claim  some  advertisements  important  to provide  "softer,  skin"  and ' s a v e s  every  company  environmental keeps  your  look,  a smoother  4-1.3)-  advertisement  hazards  skin  on your  younger  The a d v e r t i s e m e n t  who m i g h t  looks  smoother  inch  and h a i r  feel"  o f a beauty  and p r o -  of a  skin  o f your  protection  and g i v e s  a softer  Most  and younger  promises  skin  looking"  surface,  younger  precious  uses  t o a woman.  The a d v e r t i s e m e n t  claims  cosmetic  o f t h e woman who  to provide  harm.  f o r Personal  and  skin'. from  "actually  you "a f r e s h e r  (Illustration  o i l i s t o a n y woman  t h i n k m i r r o r . i s h e r enemy:  "You c o n f r o n t a c e r t a i n t r u t h i n y o u r m i r r o r . You have grown o l d e r l o o k i n g w i t h o u t realising i t . . . And y o u a l m o s t h a t e y o u r m i r r o r f o r b e i n g so h o n e s t . . . " .  (Illustration  The  advertisement  horror  i n aging  women l o o k  their  advertisement experience  "You  illuminates  and o f f e r s youngest  of a facial  t h e American  t h e product no m a t t e r  that  what  moisturizer  women's s e n s e would  their  makes  4-1.10)  "help  a g e " . The  i t s u s e an  o f the senses.  can f e e l  i t , touch  i t , and d i s c o v e r (Illustration  of  it...".  4.1.4)  90  t^J  Vs.  b V b u r rtTirror \bur E n e m y ? ot i am • • •  1  V«i |» tiwf Itw r«r* ad kaaa»f f-* M. Ytmi taw. r°*H•r mni **mii«i if ta Irwl | JBIWPW. T*-teMTffeet*• • 1 aTtna. a faw r-MiTM- Y« *• mmmm \m\mm liilirt- trrilm rvMOB. IL  , r .  nj • > baei. La* tta tanaa**/ mmn\ km gpati "-art (bra^ r-uafi a x-m of tim-L Taw eft* tmxmfi+y mrnwy manim** a* • tpiiil |iiiiiliillr«Ti rat^ffrtatT tBfatet* bam Or. if fmu Ufca to kfi > * M a T atari U—t I I I M B I fraa r u n - n J . Oi  4* Otor #-«.  Vji|>lj-»i»iblf > * > a * (an • 4m—J, haatra-at gtOW, tMMfiti »f aa l Oat tat Olarf as taw a«add|a of rJaa da*/, •HIMMI l«M*it-> fluxl tlut IMIBB k rattv a t wfruhnf. m>UM«V» • look ttei* TO«tit*«*t. •»» r •»•>. Ta»i tbxmt Ve*.*. Ol^Oawf  ilupT  in«aWa»w  <ajr>/ * T M mm tamtm Wmtrtrnt gimrnxm MaW-BTa, Ikw >m. -KWSJB fkw *a*» .**• a, aV «nW , * w *?.| yam mnk (Mm i%m roe, ..vuai. Or wAw- ***> a m a m ; o-m'+frnm tmm\ ammmm. M ow* f i| i • W ay Otf mtOmvmm »WQ»WeW.WT. Mt  •VMayt-i  • fait** fYcj.1 Ue*m-m—(MmtOmj* -lamriir*. oMaf, ant* B-tajaieJ ' * • ' / * # aunaf m+s-grt*—. u wm't t4U M at otlaW taVdlaMla, lam "afar- *BBB> yaw HaaM aaaV.) rT* a) • t^orJtal^laT^a, -mm  Illustration  4-. 1.10  'Is -  mirror Beauty  y o u r enemy?' oil advertisement  91  T h i s i s an e x p e r i e n c e o f s o f t n e s s as w e l l as l i f e (Illustration  4.1.4).  In North American a sense beauty  cultural  r e a l i t y , women e x p e r i e n c e  o f f r u s t r a t i o n and f e a r a t , l o s i n g perhaps  due t o t h e w i d e s p r e a d  t h e i r y o u t h and  t r e n d towards  broken  f a m i l i e s and t h e h i g h l y p r e v a l e n t syndrome o f " s i n g l e women".  The a d v e r t i s e r s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n  cosmetic  c o m p a n i e s o f o u r s a m p l e have u t i l i z e d t h i s c u l t u r a l in t h e i r advertisements.  theme  I n these advertisements i f  woman's p e r s o n a l i t y a r i s e s f r o m h e r b e a u t y , man's i n d i v i d u a l i t y h a s a l o t t o do w i t h " g r e a t n e s s " . of  The a d v e r t i s e m e n t  a c o l o g n e f o r men b e s t o w s g r e a t n e s s on t h e man who u s e s  the product.  I t s t e x t i s j u s t a parody:  "Some men a r e b o r n t o g r e a t n e s s , Some a c h i e v e g r e a t n e s s and Some have i t g i v e n t o them. Old S p i c e . A c l a s s i c f r a g r a n c e , a great (Illustration It  i sa cultural reality  gift".  4.1,. 11)  t h a t man i s t h e s u p e r i o r o f t h e  s e x e s and i t i s a c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e t h a t t h e s u p e r i o r men should possess The  i n d i v i d u a l i t y and g r e a t n e s s .  t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e P e r s o n a l Care  product  a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e T a m i l sample i s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h their visuals.  They a r e n o t a l l s t r i c t l y  personal.  paste i s a " c a v i t y - f i g h t i n g f a m i l y guard" i n t h i s It  Tooth-  sample.  p r o t e c t s t e e t h from b a c t e r i a as w e l l as s t r e n g t h e n s  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.11  ' G r e a t n e s s t o men t h r o u g h a c o l o g n e ' - A cologne advertisement  93 them.  T h e r e f o r e , one s h o u l d b u y i t f o r h e r f a m i l y .  Although the North American tisements,  s a m p l e h a s no t o o t h p a s t e  i t h a s some a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r d e n t u r e c l e a n s e r s .  One c l e a n s e r o f f e r s t o 'save y o u r 4-1.12) w h e r e a s a n o t h e r  promises  smile'  (illustration  t o remove ' d e n t u r e  so t h a t " y o u c a n g e t a s c l o s e a s y o u want" 4.1.5)-  adver-  Again, these advertisements r e f l e c t  odour'  (Illustration the  culturally  d e f i n e d d e s i r e o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o be p l e a s i n g t o o t h e r s and to  gain social  appreciation.  A s m i l e has t h e c u l t u r a l  c o n n o t a t i o n o f f r i e n d l i n e s s ; w i t h o u t i t , one c a n n o t social  recognition. One p a i n b a l m a d v e r t i s e m e n t  i n the Tamil  claims that i t i s the t r u s t e d medicine over  eighty years  i s a good m e d i c i n e (Illustration its  gain  (Illustration "which  4-2.7).  'warmth' w h i c h  used  sample  by f a m i l i e s f o r  4-2.6) and a s s e r t s t h a t i t  must be t h e r e i n e v e r y  family"  Y e t another balm i s a d v e r t i s e d f o r  s y m b o l i s e s warmth o f m o t h e r ' s  warmth o f h e r hands e t c .  The t e x t  love,  reads:  'Rub i t i n t h e n o s e o f y o u r p r e c i o u s . Nose b l o c k a g e w o u l d be removed. Rub i t on h i s c h e s t , i t would p r o v i d e r e l i e f from c o l d . . . ' (Illustration The of  v i t a m i n t o n i c advertisement which  a happy f a m i l y  purchase  i n a bottle  i t f o r 'your f a m i l y ' ;  e n e r g i z i n g w e l l - b e i n g f o r your  4.2.3). has t h e v i s u a l  asserts i n the text to i t c o u l d p r o v i d e growth family  and  ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4-2.4).  94  Illustration  4.1.12  'Save your smile' - A denture cleanser advertisement  flNV  Xi-f-79-  46  «i_«<«>•«»• +f&*m *a«ciow»«» u4aj tftQftfru CkjtfJ,***** H J I H y , c4ws«A « i * M e i t . M M T I M O fj«i». « f S u u t k a > t t »(>OU) a u A g ) gu m»\mm  •*r3»j u w * — v * a  to stum»rm  Illustration  4-2.6  mt)t0. \_  ' T r a d i t i o n a l l y used m e d i c i n e ' - A p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t  96  •«.j»»tr-^ a a ) (a«<a»e o u * •• • > » » * « a e a > • a t i s it C i t t M a u utt a>$*uaj at* a * «•«••** •ana) u u e k u i l f j atrjie •wat »tr*aaaa a. • a a u a a x t s aaautaj. • a * » • ' « « * . ajejtaaeaa. a...****. *•>*• | a * •*>«>.a»epa«*« * * a « e > » e > e t a w a * . a * # u » r * eafffeaa  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.7  ' I t should be there i n every family' - A pain balm advertisement  afalavaS, f g e r t a f a a i * . L L C a v 4»a)iu&&(>e.a} * « S » » « ( * J » » » « > # « w , 1 atifcaar * » 5 j i i * « T « ^ « c t a u > a i u « f f ifrrsftfju G k , « s * > M " a » w i m j , e j u s * * f a a e v e » e « « * ) i S e aSaof aSa) elejMaatia . 4«aft4a)it. w ( j t i t , «<(1iui<rwa «B >  ••«•)  ie£pi* j » , aaawi A f S u L. \m.m — Q a e k n •fa'ajeatwti  AmumSpn  .  «af'«ra}.«+-  lawi  ajfjauaVaarlai e»a/arwi20 aiajaV a a W a a r a r a>e)e«y. L___ jafiJatgee.  aiiKLc  Illustration  4.2.8  'For the family? advertisement  -  Pain  balm  98  The  vaccine advertisement  "pharmaceutical 4 . 2 . 9 ) .  I t i s f o r 'your  healthy'. a child  safeguard  from  t h e same s a m p l e i s a  along with love"  child  (Illustration  t o grow up s w e e t t a l k i n g and  I n the vaccine advertisement  with the v i s u a l of  i n s i d e palms, p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d  emphasis i n t h e t e x t .  r e c e i v e s more  C a r e w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y , v e r y much a  c u l t u r a l n o t i o n and r e a l i t y ,  i s the focus  i n a l l these  advertisements. Thus, l i k e tisements  i n the v i s u a l s , t h e t e x t s of the adver-  i n t h e T a m i l s a m p l e a r e more f a m i l y o r i e n t e d  whereas those  i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s a m p l e a r e more  individual oriented. symbolised  I n some a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , t h e i d e a s  i n the v i s u a l  presentations are strengthened i n  t h e t e x t w h e r e a s i n some o t h e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , t e x t  alone  i s u s e d t o make a s s e r t i o n s o r i s u s e d t o make an a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t a s s e r t i o n than that i n the v i s u a l s . whether i n dominant v i s u a l  However,  images o r i n b o l d c a p t i o n s , i n  s u b o r d i n a t e t e x t u a l messages o r i n a s t r o n g t e x t u a l the overpowering distinct  t h e m e s i n t h e two s a m p l e s a r e v e r y  and d i f f e r e n t .  The N o r t h A m e r i c a n s a m p l e r e v e a l s  a marked o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d  i n d i v i d u a l themes and t h e T a m i l  sample f a v o u r s c l e a r l y f a m i l i a l  one.  ing  samples envelop  o r i e n t a t i o n s , however, b o t h  subtle but strong s i m i l a r i t i e s : the pursuers  heading,  of beauty,  both  W i t h i n these  differ-  certain  s a m p l e s v i e w women as  and e s p e c i a l l y y o u t h , and men a s  99  t_(o)ft@6D)LLU l3OT2fflftftSrfr <9t(tp&l Suftii Qunjiiff jfJuuiift 6jbiruSs5l(!3jB«. CuirsfifiujiT sMisfiar  •LloJftSI (§j#Bffl)f5&(g gSTlblSOlSBT auTrS U(T4|4ITU6D)U  «TjpA«flriTi_ gt_ru**Tfla) u)(3£^curiisjr i_$rtDiL|i_  I  fflfiyiJbfrSfl)!T$HUlTlTUISrlf.SeUSU &fltflQl_L  1 0 . Q f j i J . t nar.(«plui» (PSuili.t j)sks),Q**8aT-86 (Our*, 810646) Oft*!! : « a v S.JO iy£«< u«4) 11.10 a i a r LUMV : « * & v 8.00 3i«af u«<v 10.00 mmw 5 ««»•: a i t s 1.00 vy** •»•»»  | I | •  Illustration  4.2.9  flTJIT I a i i Q u o l l 1 0 8 . • • r f u u u «»fj««»T Qsg QvarSBr.3. ( C u . * . 3 4 7 1 6 ) . - . . « w t w : 9 00 u s « <  u«4> 11.10 M  f  .  'Pharmaceutical safeguard with love' - A vaccine advertisement  100  the of  admirers  of that  man's d o m i n a n c e  these  similarities  Tamil  sample,  beauty of  consider as  this  honour  satisfaction. a  married  beauty  woman  husband,  colour  does n o t  as  honourable  o f her family.  considers  The s t r o n g  also  should  popular  approval  be  for their  own  i t almost  when  than  to look  a suitable The  white,  personal sinful for ofher  "because  North  any such  match  fora  American  cultural  and behave  rather  She s h o u l d  n o t wear  n o t p a y t o o much  I t does  she i s beyond  n o t become  t h e d e s i r e and  131-32).  o f marriageable attractive  to sleep with her  and s h e must  adornment.  " (Roy, 1 936: girls  to dress  h e r s o n i s grown.  herself  o f men  encouraged  n o t supposed  expected  to her physical  Younger  face  i s not only  other  t o adorn  secure  o f beauty  but not f o r their  culture  she i s a l s o  attention  lust  culture  portrayal  women b e a u t i f y t h e m s e l v e s  t o t r yt o g a i n  mother  conservatively  her  Tamil  Inthe  pursues  by t h e p o w e r f u l  o f woman's m a r r i a g e  and p r i d e  This  or s t r i k i n g .  or a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . "A  any  to a neglect  Married  However,  i n t h e woman who  and mother.  significance  to the portrayal  are alike.  strong  woman's p u r s u i t  lead  i n mind.  reference  samples  i s overshadowed  as w i f e  might  husbands'  both  a r e not very  a married  cultural kept  too,  With  the 'individual'  and y o u t h  her roles  beauty.  age, however, a r e  as t h i s  would  enable  them t o  wedding.  woman,  on t h e other  inhibitions  hand,  i n the pursuit  does n o t of  beauty.  1  She  b e a u t i f i e s h e r s e l f f o r h e r own  tion.  She The  p r i d e and  e v e n g a i n s c o n f i d e n c e "by d o i n g  self  this.  T a m i l male's dominance t o o , d i f f e r s  from  N o r t h A m e r i c a n male's dominance i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . former  portrayal i s tied  family love. ensure  into  I t e n a b l e s man  its stability.  h a n d , i s woven i n t o  The  the c u l t u r a l  concept  to protect h i s family  latter  the c u l t u r a l  portrayal, concept  satisfac  of  on t h e  the The of and other  individuality.  102 CHAPTER IV  ROLE AND AGE PORTRAYALS  I n t h e modern m i d d l e c l a s s A m e r i c a n f a m i l y , the i d e a l type i s t h e e q u a l i t a r i a n _ J i e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h u s b a n d and w i f e . This follows l o g i c a l l y from t h e p o s t u l a t e o f freedom, f o r i f t h e w i f e i s t o be f r e e , s h e must be e q u a l o f h e r h u s b a n d i n power. T e c h n i c a l l y and l e g a l l y , t h e h u s b a n d i s t h e head o f t h e h o u s e h o l d and h i s work d e t e r m i n e s t h e l e g a l p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e . ( N i m k o f f 1965: 332) The  traditionally  particular influence capacity  s e t male-female r o l e patterns  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g exert  a determining  on t h e e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r as f a m i l y members.  also define  the authority  I t i s these s o c i a l r o l e s  patterns  Therefore, the expectations and  i n a family  patterns.  that  unit.  a c u l t u r e has about i t s males  f e m a l e s a r e e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f we e x a m i n e  role  in a  these  N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e v a l u e s an e g a l i -  t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e male and t h e f e m a l e a s a n ideal. this an  However, b o t h  and i n t h e s o c i e t y ,  p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y between t h e sexes remains merely  ideal.  role  i n the family  Por, i n reality,  i n the c u l t u r e .  man h a s b e e n a s s i g n e d  a  superior  The d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b e t w e e n  m a l e and f e m a l e a s members i n t h e s o c i e t y a n d a s h u s b a n d and  wife  within  the family  reveals  t i o n s t h e c u l t u r e has o f i t s sexes.  the d i f f e r i n g The  expecta-  expectations  103  regarding  a son and daughter them  also  and t h e parents'  duties  towards  sexual  inequality.  The f o l l o w i n g  reveal  this  of sexual  reality  point  t o t h e same excerpt  differing  reality will  of  further  inequality within  the family:  As i n a l m o s t a l l s o c i e t i e s , A m e r i c a n h u s b a n d s are i n v a r i a b l y bread winners unless they a r e handicapped p e r s o n s . . . . Husbands and wives seldom compete v o c a t i o n a l l y . The w i f e ' s work i s u s u a l l y more e p i s o d i c , more p o o r l y paid... I f i n t h e middle c l a s s , t h e husband i s t h e c h i e f manager o f f a m i l y income, t h e w i f e i s t h e c h i e f purchasing agent. She does t h e e v e r y d a y b u y i n g o f food and c l o t h i n g . She d o e s most o f the housework. Essentially, the division of labour i n t h e middle c l a s s American f a m i l y i s q u i t e t r a d i t i o n a l , l i k e t h a t i n most c u l t u r e s . 1965:  (Nimkoff  Tamil matter the  culture  of the sexual  family.  woman's  In role  making  Tamil  ever  portrayal  chapter, o f husband  would  family  we h a v e  f o r making  a n d o f woman  we  i n this  man  within  i s t h e head and  housework.  stated  our e x p e c t a t i o n  and wife  i n the d i v i s i o n  these  i n both  North  that of  American  i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whattwo f a m i l y  observed  economic  as being  cultures  f o r h e r husband and  of advertisements  Elsewhere,  responsible  too,  b e t h e same  distinguishing features  exhibit. as  family  a home a n d d o i n g  an e a r l i e r  samples  most  of responsibilities  i s a t home, c a r i n g  responsibilities and  division  In the Tamil  place  children,  the  i s not unlike  333-34)  types  the portrayal  provisions  responsible  might o f man  for his  f o r making  a home  104 and of  caring  f o r the children.  responsibility  authority both  sample  a n d c o n f i n e woman  t o home  were  than  food  advertisements,  portrayed  were  directly  wordings  as b e i n g  fathers.  address  nonetheless  the  mother  we  aimed  who m a k e s  f o r t h e baby.  the decision Although  i n the North  readers  a r e made  to feel  feeding  - although  producing  the testimony  about  tying  advertisement,  who  has c o l l e c t e d 2.1.4)-  involved with  After  child  suggestive  baby  food i s  advertisements,  mother  o f t h e baby mentions  during  one.  the baby's  o f t h e baby  they  i s n o t shown a s  presence  'bringing  that  a l l , i t i s normally  as t o which  of a satisfied  about  shown  o f two s l e n d e r ,  the advertiser  The f a t h e r  that  American  a b i b round  hints  i t was  t h e mother  t h e h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s  one  American  n o t be an a c t i v e  depiction  hands  of the North  the various  her obvious  i t may  feminine,  tion  more  throughout  get the impression  a t mother.  h e r baby  -  man  the advertisements d i d  from  easily  feeding  by t h e v i s u a l  more  Although  mothers,  or v i s u a l s ,  are  done  give  are found  our p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n  o f baby  mothers  best  w i t h i n the f a m i l y which  of division  Care In  not  portrayals  samples.  Child  care  Such  apparently neck  o r by  - not father concerned.  a mother  up baby'  does  This i s  of  In five  (Illustra-  n o t have  to bother  105  HIWT* OOLLKT1B i  eeOTVeTA 9  fWX  when finger-play gets under way •are made Ibr hav They're great tar pinching ana i » i d d a «hen there's nargr a tor around. tjt f i a a i i ere also greet erarcetionol toabv They help your baby learn to grab, e/asp, PMK pull and pat four baby etao eanaa to laam the difference betenwn a f f l and coed, herd aja) soft, rough and smooth. Vat, bettor toeeran than rhgera art Kan) to t a d .  Soaitira, ot aiiuathnau, IhU'i the bind et ttnrbtTO tjb.es lite in feed. Carbar Strained UeaU ara ticeptionalrr amaetti, inervelouslt rapist l « i ruluthre processing method makes Ihie fr-i!'blej Made from euto carefully selected armour, they're high In protein, lea in tat and f.iltd to the kilt frith truemeat raters. Than) era 1C af the nicest varieties to help praiweto . iew baby's 1 past, a l l IOU can M V 7 * n o the nlrrcilenoa of thrjaa rake little (**fer» frith theta simple irneajiaa • Place tela object* ot various kizas and lhapei »itti.n hit reach to improve rxca.ua pasgmtnt, I'tuabiiity end latMabilrb/. • OBer en eear tot or toddler finger food! like '"**DC ruiirnai-Sneaed Cooarri ur Ce-be- Meet Micas, te improve pincMiotoing and rano-to-moutfi OD<ed<nabon.  Barter TraaWen)  •The starred products are brand new and bound ts Bar an enr bebft menu. l a a ell Gerber aaejr foods, they're desiened etth your baby's eating pleasure in atand.  a m amy beer rejeds a daily ration af erlemin C ? Because this ifraortant nutrient b) e -tugrtraa" .'.amin end cannot be stored to the boa>. All mne Gerber FruN Juicae art rich in vitamin C needed | Qojrt>esf> I" scund aurra end other K 4—aTDS* A l ts 1 tod> tnwos. One can ot err. I iTJtiL 1 one will supple babe with over • f " I O C . ot the sail) datary all 1  tsie**eu era* rear roods—to meat ya We're aroud to ter:  r's nvtr.iioneJ twees.  "BabMs aw our buttnou.. . a w 4WitV  Illustration 2.1.4  btnbmnl"  •Mother c o l l e c t s h i n t s about "baby c a r e  1  106  about  a l l these  nourished, father, the  baby  one  gift  In  food,  feeding  both  time.  advertisement  baby  food  Domestic  fact, care and  food  a very  care  and  i s no  baby baby  This  a  diaper  " f o r the  cutest  of  reference  i n the  formal  i s fed  North  will  (Illustration  look  of  talks  theme  the  Tamil  that  the  idea  particular  forward  father  2.1.5)-  a mother  is  i n the  to  American  The  than  on  on  These  advertisement,  mention  (Illustration  use  the  focus  'aunty'.  found  American  i f the  than  i n t i m a t e bond.  i s more  in child  well-  products  company  one  a  more  i n the  2.1.2). only  with  to  the  anywhere  In  yet  about  in  another  her  baby's  2.1.1).  Service  Not  only  child  woman's  specialty.  as  well  as  of  a woman  serving  (the  advertisement,  tastes  baby  North  There  In  interested  which  mother  this  special  be the  giving  happy  'grandma'  suggesting  i s that  be  f o r baby  (Illustration  another  communicated  them.  by  participation  sample.  baby  to  f a m i l y members i s not  can  f o r baby.  baby's  shown  know"  of  active  the  specially  extended sample)  of  are  they  he  advertisements  concern  designed  is  well-cared  the  relatives  matters;  of  cleaning. cooking, other  care, In  but  also  domestic In  but  this there  domestic  service  sample, i s no  f a m i l y members,  or  we  service  i s included have  portrayal mention  of  a  few  of  the  is cooking images actual  cooking  for  107  SiviTtis / tatty neverforgetsike goodness /flavor ofa Swift meat meal ^ g^p -j Swifo A o d , irionnbc-f, mctut for bibics «ut  s  "* (ft"* Ufminrd mrttt, you i«xu«uj to fading time.  S»irV» moti pcr\«'u*. product.  Eight vAncur*. ifKluding ducket*  i on, hah-'* mthuii*tm  — P t e - c o o l t e J . -.trained c r e t i n *  gn •*-*.. Thif ti f o n d . For  Mrvooch. Mnc*. Utr Juruors, CD©. Alt  t.ir-u* g n moir of what  100*  mat. uV«f i w i |  r—m—S^tf:'i  most  precious  product  '*' »•••« four t » b *  -CM* of mew tmri*. ^ • J ' wr»fn ro tort.  Illustration  2.1.5  *srr fM f»fr t\j'ud mhomtt  ""*'  ' M o t h e r and b a b y l o o k to feeding time'  forward  108  In  the detergent  responsibility sparkling states, work  i n keeping  receives great  i t i s a "joy"  very  proud  advertisement hang  o u t a wash"  (Illustration  and c o m p l a i n i n g  North  American  look  desire  notion  portrayed  housewife,  clean  wife  1  I  The mother  clothes.  f  i s shown  i s very  "the w i f e have  to her.  and mother.  and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  much o n  A woman's  traditional  The a c t u a l  i s the cultural  does  i nthe  wrath.  much a  you  t o f a c e an  t o be v e r y  she r e c e i v e s s o c i a l wife  The  everytime  So t h e h o u s e w i f e  importance  a good  and mother  woman  cleaning i s When h e r recognition Being  a good  expectation of  reinforce  this.  n o t end w i t h  being  f o r the "Self" A woman's  good  wife  self  to look  desires In  -  America.  clothes,  housewife,  honourable  Caring  i n North  as of secondary  wear  a good  her husband  her husband's  be p r o u d  out f o r a v o i d i n g her husband's  cultural  an  clean  she w i l l  husband.  advertisement  clothes clean.  5  well,  advertisements  to please  family  play  special  c l e a n and  t o have  "You t o o w i l l  c l e a n t h e f a m i l y wash  the  As one  of her children's  angry  as  emphasis.  f o r t h e woman  states:  woman's  the family l i n e n  c l o t h e s and c h i l d r e n ' s  feels  not  advertisements,  responsibility  and a good  beautiful  - a feminine  the North  mother.  American  does  She a l s o  i n order  has a duty  to satisfy  predilection  h e r own  f o rbetter  advertisements,  a woman  a  t o herinnate  appearance. i s portrayed  109  I l l u s t r a t i o n 5.1.3  •You w i l l be proud everytime you hang out a wash' - detergent advertisement  110  as n o t b e i n g s a t i s f i e d p o r t r a y a l which woman h e r e  w i t h her domestic  corresponds  roles alone, a  with the c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y .  i s p o r t r a y e d as t a k i n g care t o keep  herself  b e a u t i f u l and t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f f r o m a n y t h i n g t h a t harm h e r good l o o k s and y o u t h .  The  will  While doing laundry, there-  f o r e , she needs t o t a k e c a r e t o p r o t e c t t h e s o f t n e s s o f her hands; t h e use o f the d e t e r g e n t t h a t i s b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d would h e l p h e r f u l f i l l attractiveness;  h e r presumed d e s i r e t o r e t a i n h e r  i t i s s a i d t o be g e n t l e on h e r h a n d s , a t  t h e same t i m e b e i n g e f f e c t i v e on h e r wash. Man:  The F i s c a l  Head  I f the North American  man c o m p l a i n s  about h i s w i f e ' s  laundry ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 5.1.1)  i t i s a s t h o u g h he h a s a r i g h t  t o do s o .  t h e ' f i s c a l head' o f t h e  family.  He i s , a f t e r a l l ,  The i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p r o v i d e ample  mony t o t h i s r o l e o f man. addresses  itself  I f one i n s u r a n c e  testi-  advertisement  ' t o e v e r y man, who h a s e v e r w o n d e r e d how  much i n s u r a n c e i s enough'  (Illustration 1.1.9),  another  p o r t r a y s a h u s b a n d who i s w o r r i e d a b o u t h i s w i f e : " I f something It  h a p p e n s t o me, what w o u l d s h e h a v e t o l i v e o n ? "  i s an a c c e p t e d  practice i n insurance advertisements to  view husbands as h a v i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  to look  after  t h e f a m i l y f i n a n c e s and a l s o t o p l a n a b o u t t h e f u t u r e f i n a n c i a l security of the family.  As t h o u g h t o c o m p l y w i t h  the i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y w i t h i n the f a m i l y , North  American  111  wives  are allowed  matters.  wisely talk  life  values  tion  does  man'  maintenance.  situation embedded  her to  husband t h e same  she  personal  a single  Man's  American  her husband's  as having  economic  i s n o t an This  system  theme  compensation  i s s o much  network  that  Legally,  compensation  h e r b u t a husband  t o demand  respon-  imaginary  too.  t o seek  the f i n a l  responsibility  socio-cultural  i s eligible  problems  advertisement  financial  world.  participa-  i t i s up t o t h e  any c o r r e s p o n d i n g  i f he d e s e r t s right  talk;  of the legal  woman  the family  the wife's  not portrayed  i n the advertising  American  guarding  him on h e r p a r t  i n the North  "You and your  r e s p o n s i b l e towards  without  has t h e a p p r o v a l  North  of safe  Not even  authority.  towards  man:  out" these  She i s a l s o  h i swife  i n these  advises  t h e wise  as b e i n g  decision-making  of discussion  However,  " t o work  1.1.8).  woman  sibility  ways  you enjoy..."  (Illustration portrays  about  n o t go b e y o n d  'thoughtful  it  amount  One a d v e r t i s e m e n t  wife  towards  some  a from  i s not e n t i t l e d  from  h i swife i f  leaves him.  Man:  Occupant Men  financial tions.  o f Important  a r e shown control  They  women  either  often  women  t o be i m p o r t a n t  but also  hardly  Positions  ever  i n their  by o c c u p y i n g  encounter  occupations  are portrayed  not only  i n enjoying  important  posi-  any c o m p e t i t i o n or t h e i r  as occupying  from  authority.  inferior  Very  positions  1 12 t o men.  I n t h e same a d v e r t i s e m e n t  a d o c t o r , woman a p p e a r s portrayed Not portrayals typical men  as a n u r s e .  as t h e ' b o s s ' , surprisingly,  Or i f t h e man i s  t h e woman i s h i s s e c r e t a r y . our sample does n o t c o n t a i n many  o f men, p e r h a p s  purchasers  where man i s d e p i c t e d as  b e c a u s e women a r e s e e n  o f most  of the products  are portrayed, i t i s mainly noted  tisements, a father  plays with his c h i l d ;  advertisements, his  hair;  inefficiency  as e i t h e r  over  sparkling  clean.  v e r y few  about  their  all  attention  wives'  with  i n w a s h i n g them w h i t e and  o f males i n the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h e more a b s t r a c t  Portrayals  complaining  However, t o compensate  products, their  t h e u s e o f a shampoo on  advertisements,  her e f f i c i e n c y  adver-  i n t h e shampoo  i n c l e a n i n g c l o t h e s o r as b e a m i n g  happiness  When  advertise-  I n t h e baby f o o d  a man d e m o n s t r a t e s  husbands a p p e a r ,  portrayals  before.  i n the detergent  concerned.  i n the insurance  ments, a p o i n t a l s o  as t h e  insurance  f o r these  sparse  f o r physical  advertisements  focus  on them.  of Children  In t h e p o r t r a y a l differentiation  of c h i l d r e n  c a n be s e n s e d  many examples t o s t u d y , In t h e few p o r t r a y a l s education-oriented.  too, a s u b t l e sexual  even t h o u g h t h e r e a r e n o t  specially  available,  ones p o r t r a y i n g g i r l s : boys a r e shown t o be more  The i n s u r a n c e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  warn  113  fathers  to  plan  daughters'  for  their  education.  sons'  In  one  s c h o o l i n g hut  advertisement,  not  for  fathers  their are  forewarned:  •'The h i g h c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n your son's education"'.  should  not  jeopardise 1.1.10)  (Illustration  According labelled  to  the  "the  Girls, beautiful  greatest on  and for  dressed,  their  bright  Personal  portray her  mother  dresses  of man  home.  more  Let  us  says  she  women h a v e .  has  Family  to  words,  (Illustration  5-1  the  for  her  efficient  but  rather,  the  and  previous  to  look  i n the  adver-  appear  smartly  of  their  too,  the  the  to  family  white  show  to  woman c o n f i n e d  to  for  chapter,  home  issue  effect  are,  for  a  and  l o t of  i s not or  liquid a  most  and  woman  married  according  to  this  children,  dishes" same N o r t h  the  cooking  a l l this  a  where  husband  in this  sexual  continues  responsibilities  housekeeping  adverse  shown  advertisement  However,  overwhelming  proud  sample,  within  "housework  - 2) .  sample,  a  always  5-1-3)'  responsibilities make  is  Care  the  same  girl)  all'.'  example,  be  American  in a  a  daughters  to  important  the  These  advertisement, i n other  two  (not  them  are  for  i s said  recall  discussed  or  as  where  North  detergent that  hand,  responsibilities as  of  (Illustration  versus 1975  the  division  other  detergent  Care  In  the  a boy  student  presentable,  tisement  and  advertisement,  woman's or  child  housework  American concern care, may  cause  Be geatestrtudetrtofttemal deserves Mast Mutual prrtectiofl  —  "  I l l u s t r a t i o n 1.1.10  »» H . l M i  »^»WV  -1  Save f o r the 'greatest student of them a l l '  11 5  her to  beauty. avoid  She i s shown  these  instance,  harms  t o be c l e v e r l y  by u s i n g  i n the liquid  t h e woman  inspite  of doing  a l l t h e housework  Looking  a little  deeper,  her cover In  self.  cooking,  are  sometimes,  and  nephews b u t n e v e r  ences diet  about  is  or s e r v i n g  sample  Apart  medicines,  a woman  coughing expect  shown t o  i s p o r t r a y e d as  anyone  while  any h e l p  about  them.  but her-  how  4.1.8).  There  friends,  nieces  Instead,  important  n o t have  cosmetics, sample.  pain  any  refer-  advertisement  fitness  no v e r y  Most  programmes  personal  material are vaccines,  balms  e t c . which  could  i s shown  as engaged  be  even  i s that  when  care vitamin  utilized  f o ra vitamin  i n cooking.  The i m p l i c a t i o n  her husband  product  of the personal  I n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t  cooking.  these  i t i s f o rher to  family.  from  else  the pleasure of  or physical  advertised i n this  the entire  tonic,  of dishes.  approval.  does  from  advertised i n this  tonics,  woman  (Illustration  anything  f a treduction plans  products  for  plan  to win t h e i r  Tamil  women.  hands  b y h e r own a p p e t i t e a n d i s s u c c e s s -  a r e made t o e m p h a s i z e i n order  men-  looking  i s actually  r e f e r e n c e s t o her husband,  f o r them  The  for  where  i t i s not to serve  on a f a t r e d u c i n g  cooking  and l o t s  just  Por  up her age.  She i s t r a p p e d  fully  and younger  the detergent  the advertisement  actually  soft  advertisement  tioned,  help  precautions  the advertised product.  detergent  possesses  taking  She i s she cannot  she i s u n w e l l .  116  This  i s because  household women. by  chores:  another  portrayed  as u s i n g  the smile  that  from  cooking  she i s happy up f o o d .  husband  and c h i l d r e n  can serve  Emotions  versus  Although couples  happily  bowl  which makes  the  more  husband's  one  waiting  the already enjoyable  North  couple  American  food  Looking  t h e p l e a s u r e she also  a  be  said  task of  hungry  she has a hot pack: any d e l a y .  there  h i swife's  portrayal  food  o f them  advertisement  i s holding the work  but,  definite-  j o b o f f e e d i n g her baby a l l  This  i s because  intimate  couple  i s no  are portrayals  t h e husband  pleasant  share  there  See t h e baby  Here,  sharing of these  American  4-2.11).  t o keep  without  4-2.10).  she can serve  I t could  now t h a t  sample,  f o r her.  the Tamil  health  Experiences  i n the Tamil  2.2.1).  of their  of the additional  n o t have  i n no way r e d u c e s  While North  f o rher family.  s h a r i n g emotions.  ly,  so t h a t  s h a r i n g housework,  (Illustration  of  t h e woman i s  one c a n i m a g i n e  warm f o o d  Sense  care  (Illustration  She does  them  doing  advertised (Illustration  t o be r e l i e v e d  warming  she  to take  a h o t pack  on h e r f a c e ,  men f r o m  responsibility  advertisement,  t o h e r f a m i l y members  derives  of  have  tonic  Tamil  discourages  are the sole  women  the vitamin  In  at  they  Therefore,  using  hot  the culture  share  o fher  feelings. their  feelings, the  their  sensual  experiences.  advertisement,  husband  and w i f e  In  together  117  g  6o(c£rr6»qpib  cfflLrru  Qarr&TrtflsBTjDoTiT. •  fiiiTLtTutTen)ftiruiuQi6TrarL'OIJL GsoiM Gj&iriLi ff^ituqff femnQpib - JioUdsaj.  '-• '~"ZI  *«3f iiu> «s£ *c«»fji *j5ri» i_i>na u » « » 4 e i * * u«9 jtuaVakigi x  . (feyiuBglrjihua »«ets*.  $>«3ca4l u i ^ f u r i , u*j4s>a«as  QJTUtufsK) &mfaU5V|S33TL. ....  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.10  tWM* ••••MM.  'Woman, t a k e c a r e y o u r s e l f - A vitamin tonic advertisement  118  ^LTOT  if  .  AuSiio^^i &iiiaai>i>® «»^2>^JB$I t W a a u e er**2\»raan|a <a«»u u0»aja~f (J a > « « 5 • p i c l u * •.•aaMi ••***ra> aw « a > * v » «a *Xaa*»w* * " > * 5 > e < e a v  •**5 a m .  Out um a**>M«e>  #-'» aa »»•» eaw- a**  S  arg aarCSu***  ' • a «-«*•> » • > • * * • . > > M » «*a»•«» i.a*iV> * * * a»pfli b» • *—mtt» J c a •»*>••*• as e « c ^ *  HotPQcl^ i  •raabu f a t "  t9urCQ*«ia)  I  ** g unaca a art aM »#->i, aV**> ty* rfi. uajianv^ZSOOL  Illustration  4.2.11  aaa> aiam^a* a aaataa « . • » * S«Lla> »Ja).  CUHar2(ai40000L  Hot  pack  •  advertisement  119  d i s c o v e r t h e sense  experiences of a f a c i a l  (Illustration 4.1.4). here  Perhaps,  o f t h e North American  tion.  moisturizer  some i n f e r e n c e c a n be made  woman's b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l  posi-  I n many c a s e s , a T a m i l woman c a n g i v e h e r h u s b a n d  o n l y s e l f l e s s l o v e and a f f e c t i o n a t e c a r e , w h i l e most N o r t h American  women a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o g i v e g i f t s  they love.  I n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t  a n o t so i n e x p e n s i v e g i f t  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a woman b u y  o f a t r a v e l k i t o f colognes f o r  t h e man s h e l o v e s , t h e c a p a b i l i t y women t o b u y s o m e t h i n g  who  g i v e s t h e man a g i f t  merely  o f most N o r t h  f o r t h e i r men, i s b e i n g  (illustration 4-1-13) -  t o t h e men  American acknowledged  I n t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t , t h e woman o f cologne, i s p r o v i d i n g him not  a c o l o g n e b u t a "moving e x p e r i e n c e " .  s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e between emotion  Here t h e  and e x p e r i e n c e c a n be  seen. Woman's Employment There a r e a few a d v e r t i s e m e n t s sample which  explicitly  s t a t e a woman's g a i n f u l  But a s p o i n t e d o u t e l s e w h e r e , teachers. female  i n the North  American  employment.  a l l d e p i c t them a s n u r s e s o r  T h e s e r o l e s c a r r y f o r w a r d t h e image o f t h e  as helpmate,  not dominator.  However, t h e r e i s n o t  e v e n a s i n g l e a d v e r t i s e m e n t where T a m i l woman i s p o r t r a y e d a s a w o r k i n g woman who e a r n s .  T h e r e i s n o t one a d v e r t i s e -  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.1.13  •Give him a moving experience' - A cologne advertisement  1 21  ment  that  income, which  shows  a female  o r as even  does  as supplementing  earning  not take  her husband's  some money b y d o i n g  her outside  o f home,  like  some j o b sewing  or  knitting.  1975  The  Samples  Although trayal with  i n the preliminary analysis,  i n domestic  her concern  North  American  roles  with  sample  do  n o t r e c e i v e much  is  i n love  with  is  anxious  about  their  role  personal  appearing  explication  her " s e l f " .  that  her husband  didn't  seem  to bother  this  plan  portrays  is  "greatness" men  improvement  i s also  overweight.  a female.  the concern alike  and•  more i n  No  Whether  their  of self-image.  But,  that  looks  suggest  " i t  follows  they  follow  openly  b u t one  that  "greatness"  i t i s "looks" or  of the North  i s with  t h e woman  advertisement  does  I n an  she f a i t h f u l l y  who s u g g e s t s  about  f o r a cologne f o r them.  a n d women  f o r example,  him", w h i l e  men a s w o r r y i n g  a concern  a woman  her body  Men a r e p o r t r a y e d  plan,  Her f r i e n d  i s also  advertisement  Instead,  roles  p r o v i d e r s , n o t as engaged i n  f o ra diet  plan.  emphasis  her domestic  She i s p a m p e r i n g  her "looks".  admits  diet  at a l l .  por-  B u t i n t h e 1975  beautiful.  or as e x p l o r i n g h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s .  advertisement  the  to receive equal  of advertisements,  as economic  care  i s seen  woman's  one's  American  "self"  individuals,  and t h e  1 22 In  the Tamil  advertisements enhancing  sample,  where  however,  a man  appears  there  are a couple  t o be c o n c e r n e d  h i s s t r e n g t h and h e i g h t .  In these  s t r e n g t h i s equated  with  health  i s a nation's  a n d t h e r e f o r e , men  healthy. ments as  What  about  do n o t t a l k  the culture  women  about  both  However,  samples,  glaring  as t h e r e  to  make  their  to  be c o n c e r n e d  o f women?  of  have  The  Apparently,  i s i n t h e hands  women  daughters about  are worried  samples,  a r e many  sample,  A person  i l l -  t o be  advertise-  nation  o f men  building,  and n o t  4-2.12).  i n the Tamil  American  this.  believes,  (Illustration In  the health  about  advertise-  ments,  curse  health.  of  does  advertisements  look  their  Personal  this  beautiful; own b e a u t y .  Care  products  about  their  not appear where then  looks. so  mothers t r y  do n o t a p p e a r  In the North are a l l  strictly  personal. In should for  lar  look  bust  eyes  the North  i t s absolute  developer  should  or soap  bounce.  appear  North  t h e woman's  best  be s o f t  her hair  American  them  seem  great  looks  advertisements  advertisement  4-1-14), her particu-  and smooth and  By t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r  Women  figure  by t h e use o f a  should  By t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r  gives  as an  (Illustration  should  or Cosmetic,  confident.  product  feminine  proclaims  her skin  younger-looking.  and  sample,  be b i g and g l a m o r o u s ,  eye shadow,  lotion  American  beauty be f u l l  shampoo,  t o know t h a t  a  o f body  she s h o u l d  particular  and p r o t e c t i o n . f o r Personal  cream/  Care  In these products  Illustration  4.2.12  -Man  as  nation  builder'  TheTruth About Bust Developers. ***********  Dart tar **m*4 ay mraflt ft>rfMf^w3*)( Arwnci H aw npwrW •twui^ab). mult* m W^«r*r *V\rfuf>•rw far mrmt Mari EaV"» *M irja >»- l*| a carrytJaw ^aa'trart ftafi LaraVPfrvJ twn*c4flatk «<r*i!i>wt anal ct*att«J MI Ca.tarinft* IIM at* i*t» *rmmm .ran tktptiy tiimmn* I Vottam. tt hat •ar. rW lot Hy w** ktvHiMara. trjaytf rWufwvJ iW dnasornt, laaa a» • taiyjirM r jf% Calf-* tV yran tmix V. ri | M*ur*rr y ou"!** *'1raUHWti M*.a. CaV. KM pMiwkrt iW amtal r**~«i»Mm kv-«r*> fYfwri (asailmr •fad « timft of anmat Antartj atvi af i i. 4.tmtknw*m miB*i htftfy ••ajTaf. afha ftar«« aTTtanrtl aVxmarar *em mm.iitmt %,tt a * W tv>«ni wtrK itw Mari Cdm Ontitkjn WW* mr 4e not Maw rfcifft-rry»fwta. «iQ ia>b« ni *\r*mm t* try Mfnati artta warm Mt*aFr*it|a'ntr rt iijn !*<»»•* W N**ri faV. tHr itjaiiwi tonhmmt* al kwamiwa araraaarfiwa*»t * r* anvtoyr* t»*» ff\tn tWnt (W aaaaira) ajtwrr\«t ah* aan •»rUir**r ikr OH ttaaariitw r kat rfawaaayattiaya I wrrUrrvTT tat n »»»anr»«, hrr Ugmtw alar a)-* in abwttui* Irwiiwiiw ••-•i. jtai if tttta iVMiwiikt W*f ivf^im afont*,fii-rarr. •kaaaMrrr IWVHIM thaT waar f^aatw a« W.awfa. naatli, rtvMjfwiMjAla. Satatawy mtmmm if the \U* taW IWairi -V.> aav. ao fod^paf/tr^r Ttaf*«frira>a*f ftaratafar mwmtfmrr *mr mtm fmr m^»h- ~ *••» fcf^m « .rt. rhrMari leaf. Oniltfli aarrr tVIiffcW *• aaaw. •* f*j*. ••*»•"rfaai wtitf no WOT.** irMiUtanlr aav W*a rHa#« aarr aa. tf arW rW Mari Ur* IW^aar t>«v4a»vr jftaJ Ce>arw tar a»>K r». •tali ,aua>r«]ia)Ti«a^<(M ^ TVIp^MaaO •, of wo*** ao arum rutkr. airatfr-.aatw as Mark Um aaW vaajf mmmwy tjtiajalar? ttoariinav, wr Mm that mil av aroawaarfy rt^WaaWtf p*aaiai i i **W- hm* a. rarniOTaMa aaoa* irrjiniruj riW rXifl awfrtw TVp*»i.a»?T<tW nlnf Vat*rara><r»rht faj^loari \ t i t * 4wt^oa>»r»»m a* TT*tjy tfe aaoajt fciaaSraji alari Otrx #4r ajatr 1*aai ftw*A*^r a at** rtjrit lag* nan* awfataaw-«a> tkaaCV a* >) ia*•rattrw of t.t<r»Miawa»i fafha * W it ir«fj»jl«)tottr*t ** MawfiatWf. ai ** •alt H-Mart EaV-iftirajfiiwita*JiutRjrfaJ l*y p*nitjgrray*i .h*rt> •aOTrhcialanrrawUtar raw a rrr*M faw*ra araJ aHI* voa a««rrir lamr tr> trat Il M aft nHwwvf ftMrrwaft afcat faaa irmarkuWr m i ffcayii ftv%wttt awairawaj "raajlri a»W r*a» •«*«*** fWMati tmm SkX9*Vi BACK CUAlAKTvX TW arraw t cammmmnimftttrr waiaa? a^rtafc a * W liM»»w*ai wHarfc *T* EJen •tiwha-J aa»ar-a** aam af ifcr anaaiMarie i aajtl *. rto ravMlti «iwfcr4paaj, rtw r o i . i u O a « i i M aaw4>ari h a> aaraiiaar arttai ifcr arcsytrv l»lra*rWtTalJi KfallMlwa, mm-l t « V > aya-fr.tr t*jtou«tul gromtM m thm mtmirMfmtx mvttwJst mmm i to.aaa araafcfving--— ofrva. ta a Mffamaatii 4mg — f tw taat fjaal altay*af flar m  I »  a  i  mm  Wrlh tftj. wafalallBJal- at a> a»aii>li .a»NWiVMit.[aTa Tai irlofir wna tt* t-jHwatav aavJ aiii^MaHy mnwjm irmhai of artm*a«| fla»» ttnaMyiaia •waut. kaa «4aM aa  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4-1.14  Advertisement of a bust developer  125  the  highlight  appearance. their to  i s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s These  guard.  avoid  Many  harm.  who  are middle  the  theme.  mirror  portrayals products  Especially aged  concern  often  show women  are purchased, when  the cosmetic  i s t h e woman's enemy.  as b e i n g on  i t i s implied,  the portrayal  or nearing middle  Consider  f o rpersonal  i s o f women  age, t h i s  seems  advertisement  I t reads  t o be  where t h e  thus:  " . . . y o u go a l o n g f o r y e a r s n o t b e i n g t h e l e a s t b i t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t how y o u w o u l d l o o k . You f e e l young and a l i v e . Life i s going well. Then one morning, y o u c o n f r o n t a c e r t a i n truth i n your m i r r o r . You've grown o l d e r looking w i t h o u t r e a l i s i n g i t and y o u a l m o s t h a t e your m i r r o r f o r b e i n g so h o n e s t . " (Illustration  This  portrayal  of the insecurity  women when  they  increasing  number  When  families  their  family  o f broken  a r e thus  life,  overcome  American  message  Most  sample  a n d who  tisement  are to feel this  f o ra skin that  you should  towards  a trend  feared  t o need  the protection of  t o enhance  advertisements aged  looking".  your  that,  their  i n the North  woman who  f o r example, saving  near-extinction,  I t i s implied  by t r y i n g  start  ofthe  such  t o be "younger  lotion,  a result  society.  to their  a middle  American  i n t h e wider  unstable.  cosmetic  portray  with  expected  anxiety  "needs"  homes  faced  are culturally  self-image.  young  i s perhaps,  b r e a k i n g up, l e a d i n g  women who  they  are aging  o f the North  4- -1 . 1 0 )  i s no more One  adver-  conveys t h e skin  because i t  is  your  cracked  skin.  By  skin",  you  looking" of  an  and  environmental The  available  product  tion  4.1.3). An  tisement loose  is  false  smile  also  suggestive  of  friends  because  one in  smile  eyes  advanced  The  Tamil In  of  The and  chance  the  your  "chapped,  got  is  your  one a  This  protection  in  may  an  value  This  you  quesa  a l l one's  The  becoming  adver-  "Did  loosing  lose  of  an  asks:  of  use,  (Illustra-  dentures?"  smile.  advertisement  skin  depicted  friendliness.  a  delicate  continued  of  Again,  idea  younger"  harms  younger  the  broadest  With  skin  a l l the  lost  mentions  "the  dry,  smoother,  damage  cleanser.  though  having  others.  through  message  And  therefore,  unfriendly concept  is  person  is  being 4.1-12).  (Illustration  Cosmetics the  Tamil  proclaims: secret lovely"  revealing  as  symbolic  the  advertisements ment  of  is  is taking the  teeth you  i s almost  is  example,  after  It  can  environment."  for  a  Another  in this,  woman, f o r  to  i t "softer,  which  " a c t u a l l y keeps  smile.  a  the  lotion  - 2).  hazard  older  your  the  make  4-1  product  against  this  that  could  (illustration  hair.  tion  applying  a  in  are "We the  material, aimed have cream  at  in  contrast,  younger  the  girls.  One  advertise-  discovered  the  secret  of  would  the  user's  skin  make  (Illustration  4-2.13)-  Another  secret:  secret  G-okul  "The  cosmetic  of  one  nature."  too  i s that  "fair is  i t makes  127  ~ f u£<r»«dtir r«« u<* «pirQO«»»irturiil' a  £*Ifi$1&(&li,  •MJIV g - .  wu  .•.•ui JtaanL v o i d it&iai* j*put|i#i|j, •.•iiaaV §}MtC/k ui«j»fuut»v. ... /.du* Aoa-il VeJOX. tQltjfiAr Ooimtu^ffiminpfi Malt) qflsIcA* - « • * fc*u (^^#a>». j O u i j j * faatl .fiaaiitSaiSu J * * * u«Qt)ftflcl* •vdiaSa a a - w t f i ) ug»»rm.  ...  uifiiCaaT. .'.Out j-aaru a>eJa8 a ^ i t a t o u Aauutia>ik.  g*i*a>a»ai  4m—*  I l l u s t r a t i o n  •>•*• a i * * * * .  4-2.13  •*wia>'u>.»BTi  'For  fair  and  lovely  skin'  1 28 you  l o o k young"  ( i l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.14).  t h u s , i s a major concern t h e T a m i l woman a l i k e concept  Looking  young,  of the N o r t h American  woman and  i n these advertisements.  But, the  a p p l i e s t o a somewhat d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p .  d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e T a m i l sample i s i n accordance strong cultural  girls,  with the  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t i s u n b e c o m i n g o f women  past a p a r t i c u l a r themselves  This  age g r o u p t o show i n t e r e s t  and w o r s t  of a l l ,  i n beautifying  to d e s i r e f o r youth.  a t t h e same t i m e , a r e e x p e c t e d  Younger  t o t r y and l o o k  their  b e s t so a s t o be more d e s i r a b l e f o r a s u i t a b l e m a t c h i n marriage.  Women a r e a l l o w e d t o a p p e a r b e a u t i f u l  pride of their  husbands, but not f o r t h e i r  satisfaction.  Even t h e n , because o f t h e c u l t u r a l  lights  on woman's d o m e s t i c  duties like  o f f a m i l y members, t h i s b e a u t i f i c a t i o n U n l i k e the N o r t h American p r o d u c t s a d v e r t i s e d a r e not seen women.  is said  high-  c o o k i n g and t h e c a r e i s n o t v e r y open.  sample, t h e Tamil  cosmetic  t o be e x c l u s i v e l y f o r i n the Tamil  t h e i r u s e f o r e a c h f a m i l y member.  A shampoo  t o be s u i t a b l e f o r h e r and f o r t h e head o f t h e  family. should  own p e r s o n a l  F o r i n s t a n c e , shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  sample suggest  f o rthe  These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e aimed a t t h e woman who purchase  the product  f o r her f a m i l y  (Illustration  3-2.1 ) . I n t h e 1975 N o r t h A m e r i c a n  s a m p l e , we do n o t have  enough p o r t r a y a l s o f c h i l d r e n t o make any o b s e r v a t i o n  6R)fIrJML6i)aiL  U6i]Lita6ir ISI QPfifSeiDIT BuptejD6DT.  * " e * •»•«•>.••> »f>rr. •.••vi..)**.  StaoflOwtQia .ptAopis .oft  IX^JIldD. . *paaMaii Qu»«9»*.«« garki M B * *ai(U«s B*»#u«>—8aa«ja>.  I l l u s t r a t i o n 4.2.14  Secret  t h a t makes y o u l o o k  young  130  regarding their  sexual roles.  But  i n the Tamil  sample,  t h e r e a r e a few  advertisements  which p o i n t towards  the  sexual d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n already discussed for adults. the Tamil  insurance advertisements,  In  a f a t h e r i s shown a s  s a v i n g money f o r h i s s o n ' s e d u c a t i o n o r p o r t r a y e d a s t a k i n g p r i d e i n h i m s e l f a b o u t s a v i n g up  f o r h i s son's f u t u r e .  T h e r e i s no m e n t i o n a t a l l o f e d u c a t i n g a d a u g h t e r . are expected s t r o n g and  not  healthy.  be b e a u t i f u l . hair  o n l y t o be Girls,  sons.  a l s o t o grow  I t i s daughters  intelligent  and  up  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e shown t o daughters'  shampoo on t h e i r h a i r b u t  culture to look b e a u t i f u l . be  but  M o t h e r s a p p l y l o t i o n on t h e i r  or are seen t o use  their  educated  Sons  who  a r e d i c t a t e d by  not the  S o n s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  s t r o n g and  on  should  not n e c e s s a r i l y , v e r y  attractive. Thus, the r o l e p o r t r a y a l s i n the N o r t h American -Tamil  samples a r e not  c o n t r a d i c t o r y although  d i f f e r i n g emphasis r e g a r d i n g the r o l e s . sample has  a g r e a t e r o r i e n t a t i o n towards the  makes c o n c e s s i o n s The  The  involvement  u n d e r p l a y i n g her  North  i n domestic p u r s u i t of  d u t i e s and beauty.  be  American  individual  a greater  t i o n towards the f a m i l y , h i g h l i g h t i n g her her  t h e r e may  t o a woman's t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c  T a m i l s a m p l e , on t h e c o n t r a r y , has  and  but  roles.  orienta-  family love  and  a t t h e same t i m e ,  131 CHAPTER V  CONCLUSION  This of  study  treated  advertisements  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l values.  advertisements cultural values  of s i m i l a r products,  s e t t i n g s , vary  of these  proposed  that  I t follows  according  cultures.  To e x p l i c a t e t h i s  portrayals,  e s p e c i a l l y the family  therefore,  b u t aimed  this,  are r i c h  information.  manifestations that  at d i f f e r e n t  to the v a r i a t i o n s i n the  Granted  advertisements  as  here  sources  i t was of c u l t u r a l  f u r t h e r , the value value  portrayals,  magazine a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  o f two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l  N o r t h A m e r i c a and I n d i a  (Tamil  Based  on l i t e r a r y  N o r t h A m e r i c a and I n d i a the this  two c u l t u r e s . research. 1.  Tamil than  These  settings,  Nadu) were e x a m i n e d .  information three  i n the  about t h e f a m i l y i n  expectations  expectations  arose  regarding  formed t h e l o c i i  of  They were: advertisements w i l l individual oriented  ones w i l l  be more f a m i l y where as N o r t h  be more i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d  oriented American  than  family  oriented; 2.  Extended both  family  depictions  will  be m i n i m a l i n  s a m p l e s and more so i n t h e N o r t h  a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ; and  American  132  3-  The  role  portrayals,  authority similar mic  From Archives, inquiry, certain to  two  from was  the  2)  The two  drawn On  for  from  the  basis  advertisements provided sample  North  American  the  one  were  shown  fore  a  these did  more  to  were  have  statistical was three  show  a  "Personal  support  care.  child of  had  more  the  most  test  was  which  tilt  be  Advertising  for a preliminary The  former  eight  included 1905  decades  insurance  and  advertisements  Care"  first.  and  "Services"  major  'other' classifica-  prediction whereas  ones.  advertisements  three  'family  and  This  individual  where  very  only.  f o r the  particular  (1).  the  However, from  more  decades  family advertisements.  There-  i n order.  calcu-  indicated  e x c e p t i o n a l decades, definite  and  advertisements'  analysed,  undertaken  will  family advertisements  sample  decade  who  detergent,  distinguished  p r e l i m i n a r y sample,  than  lation  had  homemaker  1)  a l l the  decade  'individual  were  econo-  be  operational definitions,  definite  Tamil  in  of  the  i n c l u d e d a l l the  classes  1970's  will  History  chosen  food,  which  the  male-female he  analysis.  from  were baby  advertisements',  tion  products  latter  of  were  i n depth  product  the  base  sub-samples  These  shampoo.  data  chores  the  family will  man  woman, t h e  i n household  main  selected  1975-  samples:  p r o v i d e r and  the  and  p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the  i n both  engaged  especially  towards  the  A  Chi-square  that, North  individual  inspite American  of sample  advertisements  133  whereas favour  the of  In alone  family the  the  and  feeds with  babies having  the  her  a keen  sense  their even  mother  also  as  of not  favourite tangential  assigned  to  a  an  a  was  in  definite  statistical  qualitative  also  made.  In  provided  initially  inquiry  analysis doing  advertisement  analysis  The  very  about  portrayed  of  each  this,  were  care-  support  guided  sample,  of  baby  the  always of  described taste,  for a l l  this  of  In  the  inquiry.  being  the  the  either.  alone,  most  commercial  never  independence.  do  more  favour  the  of  product  importance  benefits  of buying  in this of  not  having  flavour  Sometimes  aspect  ignored.  particular,  and  advertisements  the  conformity  and  goodness  advertisement,  food  of  She  in  they  or  baby  altogether  brands  product.  American  purchaser  i s not  feeds  concessions food  as  glaring  refusing  i n the  the  North  individuality  as  forgetting  baby  baby  very  values  brand  i n the  individuality.  i s not  various  product. open  of  that  this  cultural  are  also  are  of  baby:  Babies  and  an  great  presence  the  text  Such  Even  her  hand,  (1 )  advertisements  Yet  the  expectations  as  other  profiles,  was  Food  product,  value  advertisement  Baby  sample  of  So  Expectation (a)  the  advertisements.  analysed.  three  on  meaningful.  visuals  fully  sample  study  i s not  individual both  Tamil  the  sample  product.  is  being the are  134 Most o f them d e c l a r e : The  " B a b i e s a r e our s o l e b u s i n e s s " .  T a m i l sample o f baby f o o d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , i n con-  t r a s t , c o n s i d e r a b l y underplays the fact commercial  product.  H e r e , b a b y f o o d becomes a s y m b o l o f  m o t h e r ' s l o v e f o r h e r i n f a n t and It  i s f o r the f u l l  sample, use  t h a t baby f o o d i s a  and  fast  an a n s w e r t o h e r p r a y e r s .  growth  of babies.  expression of t h e i r being a lack  love for their  of i t .  baby food t o t h e i r  be  i n f a n t s a l s o appear  in this  the  an  infants rather  than feeding  sample.  a d v e r t i s e m e n t s urge mothers t o  recognise t h e i r babies' i n d i v i d u a l i t y need f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e ,  and  their  culturally  T a m i l ones r e f l e c t  reinforce parents' love for their a commercial  would  P o r t r a y a l of mothers a c t u a l l y  Whereas N o r t h A m e r i c a n  American  this  baby food a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a s s u r e mothers t h a t  o f t h e p r o d u c t f o r t h e baby i n f a c t ,  defined  In  offspring.  and  Baby f o o d  as  p r o d u c t r e c e i v e s e a s y welcome i n t h e N o r t h  c u l t u r e perhaps  h a v e more f r e e d o m .  because t h i s enables mothers t o  Hence t h i s  p r o d u c t i s s e e n t o be  equally  good f o r b o t h m o t h e r s '  and b a b i e s ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  In Tamil  c u l t u r e , however, t h i s  i s not the case.  of baby  Here, use  f o o d n e e d s more c o a x i n g t h a n mere p r o d u c t i n f o r m a t i o n o r the comparative  commercial  food b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d .  b e n e f i t s of the brand  T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g  considering  t h a t T a m i l c u l t u r e expects mothers to nurse t h e i r u n t i l t h e y a r e r e a d y t o be foods.  of baby  babies  i n t r o d u c e d t o home-made s o l i d  In such a c u l t u r a l ' s e t t i n g ,  i t i s but n a t u r a l  that  135 the product  i s i n t r o d u c e d wrapped i n t h e dominant  cultural  s y m b o l o f f a m i l y l o v e and p o r t r a y a l s o f s t r o n g m o t h e r - c h i l d bonds. (b)  Shampoo North American  shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a l s o r e v e a l an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s concern with the " s e l f " . t i o n s of s o c i a l  The c u l t u r a l v a l u a -  recognition, a f f i l i a t i o n  and  popularity  a l s o a r e a d v a n c e d i n t h e s e shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . shampoo i s a v e r y p e r s o n a l p r o d u c t w h i c h softens i t ,  makes i t o b e d i e n t and g i v e s i t a  appearance. concepts beauty,  silkens  The v a l u e  concern w i t h the s e l f ,  g l a m o u r and t h e l i k e ,  North American  hair,  well-groomed  I t even t u r n s i t s u s e r glamorous.  of i n d i v i d u a l i t y ,  There,  one's own  become v e r y e v i d e n t i n t h e s e  advertisements.  I n t h e T a m i l s a m p l e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , shampoo b e comes a f a m i l y p r o d u c t . on c h i l d r e n ' s h a i r ,  good f o r t h e woman and a l s o f o r t h e  head o f t h e f a m i l y . on t h e b o t t l e  I t i s a d v e r t i s e d as b e i n g g e n t l e  The l a b e l f a m i l y shampoo a l s o  i n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t .  the a c t o f shampooing her daughter's  A m o t h e r i s shown i n hair while the father  w a t c h e s them, t h e r e b y m a k i n g s h a m p o o i n g a f a m i l y r a t h e r t h a n a p e r s o n a l one. ly  portray a cultural  the North American  appears  These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  affair, definite-  concern w i t h f a m i l y l o v e whereas i n  shampoo a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , f a m i l y l o v e does  n o t a p p e a r e v e n a s a s u b t l e theme.  I n the former  culture  1 36  where t r a d i t i o n a l h e r b a l methods of c l e a n s i n g h a i r are popular, f o r i n s t a n c e , u s i n g crushed h i b i s c u s l e a v e s , the dominant c u l t u r a l value - f a m i l y l o v e - i s seen to be most important (c)  i n the shampoo advertisements.  Insurance It  i s i n the insurance advertisements that the North  American sample enjoys the most f a m i l y o r i e n t e d But even then, many i n d i v i d u a l themes appear.  material. In con-  f o r m i t y with North American c u l t u r a l norms, a man's dominance and h i s d e s i r e f o r a c q u i s i t i o n r e c e i v e more  importance  here than does h i s f a m i l y l o v e or care f o r h i s f a m i l y members.  Even i n an advertisement  insurance, concern about  "self"  The boy i s shown as a s k i n g :  of a s p e c i a l boy's  life  i s the predominant theme.  "'Isn't i t (the p o l i c y ) f o r a  guy's own ;7self'''? " These advertisements r e v e a l a b e l i e f i n the North American male's concern with r a t i o n a l i t y or p r a c t i c a l i t y by showing a man how to p r o t e c t h i s wife and c h i l d r e n , or to cope with new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . i n these symbolise man's domination,  financial  The v i s u a l s security,  d e p e n d a b i l i t y of the insurance company and so on. The v i s u a l s i n the Tamil insurance mostly provide company symbols alone. b u r n i n g lamp.  advertisements  One such symbol i s a  A burning lamp i s very a u s p i c i o u s a c c o r d i n g  to t r a d i t i o n a l Hindu b e l i e f s .  I t c a r r i e s with i t the  r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s of b e l i e f  i n God, worship e t c . as  137  well  as t h e f e s t i v e  etc.  The t e x t u a l  the  cultural  connotations  messages,  expectations  acquisitive,  husbands  as  being  or d u t i f u l  insurance with him  advertisement  hisfulfilling as c a r i n g  however,  towards  here  equates  f o r h i s son's  s a v i n g up f o r h i s son's  before  he i s o l d e n o u g h  bank  love  advertisements  f o roffspring  towards  (d)  the latter  Personal  Advertisements American cern  sample  of Personal  clearly  as pampering  tisements,  t h e woman  enjoying All  Care  emphasize  the advertised product.  having  these  "self". social  themselves.  i s shown  recognition,  even  Even  i n the  sample,  concepts  items  parents'  used.  i n the North Here,  mostly  o f these  o f t h e woman advertisements  o r as w i t h derived  h e r body  from  the cultural  affiliation,  and harm  adverparts,  her beloved, using  t h e woman's i n v o l v e m e n t  depict  t h e con-  In the cosmetic  as pampering  experience  equally reflect A l l o f them  a  of responsibility  "self".  Most  an a i r o f c o n f i d e n c e , the sensual  portrays  Items  s h o w women  as  value  policy  one shows  education  in this  One  a  another  y e t another  i s the "look" of the individual,  using  offspring.  man's b u y i n g  feelings  a r e t h e main  Care  and f a t h e r s  schooling.  appear  and t h e i r  dominance  college  to start that  p o r t r a y man  dreams,  future,  with  They  their  of h i schild's  life  are i n conformity  as d e s i r i n g  father  few  prosperity,  o f man's r o l e .  as  loving  of joy,  value  a  product.  with her  placed  avoidance.  on  138  Tamil P e r s o n a l Care a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p o r t r a y these  products  as s t r i c t l y  personal.  be u s e d i n t h e c a r e o f f a m i l y members. hair  lotion,  the v i s u a l  hair,  T h i s i s t h e p a t t e r n t h a t was  They a r e  own.  i n t h e shampoo  adver-  advertisements  a l s o p o r t r a y the  Tamil  mother's u n s e l f i s h c a r i n g f o r her c h i l d .  I n one  m o t h e r i s p o r t r a y e d as m a k i n g h e r  a toothpaste  t h a t he d o e s n o t g e t c a v i t i e s .  s o n use  She  does n o t u s e  improve the b e a u t i f u l l o o k of her  own  o t h e r p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t s u c h as s o c i a l affiliation. guard"  Toothpaste  in this  any  sample. cleanser advertisements,  individual's culturally  s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n and individuals  i t herself  t e e t h , or f o r  affiliation.  in this  sanctioned The  the a d v e r t i s e d product.  The  like  sample,  desire for  closeness  i s p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g a c h i e v e d  of  by t h e use  v a l u a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p  of and  p o p u l a r i t y a r e a l s o d e p i c t e d i n some o f them. the Tamil  p a i n balm a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ,  i s shown as i n v o l v e d i n t h e Most o f t h e m e d i c i n e  t o o , a mother  i n t i m a t e care of her  advertisements  a  so  r e c o g n i t i o n or  most o t h e r p e r s o n a l c a r e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p o r t r a y an  example,  becomes a " c a v i t y - f i g h t i n g f a m i l y  North American denture  In  a  o f t h e same s a m p l e .  Toothpaste  to  to  a p p l i e s the  r a t h e r t h a n on h e r  found  not  I n t h e example o f  shows a m o t h e r who  l o t i o n on h e r d a u g h t e r ' s  tisements  h o w e v e r , do  child.  here are a l s o r i c h  in  139 family  imagery.  secondary loving the to  In  importance.  w i t h i n the  cultural treat  these, The  like  these  a d v e r t i s e d items  this  i n the  sample  tical this  cough,  vaccine  too.  safeguard culture,  ment.  Mere  love,  being  a  caring cine the  between  Family  and  vitamin  tonic  Most  this  descriptions  provide  them  even  culture, used  to  could  medicines  do  popularity  themes.  They  are  do  not  qualified  as  of  "pharmaceu-  needs  North  North  that  in  encourageFamily  in  medicine  American any  pain  intimate  American  medi-  information alone. depiction of  of  western  surprising  people  medicine  that  no  In is in  value  them.  family advertisements category  is  infer  i s used  depict  visual  popularise  Care  not Most  i t i s not  Personal  of  persuasion.  product  the  a  enough.  value,  discom-  advertisements as  of  remedies  most  imagery  safely  advertisements,  C o n s i d e r i n g the  are  western  f a m i l y members.  majority of  American  One  home  physical  i s described  cultural  effect  advertisements  concepts  meant.  and  i s "because  f o r which  i n f o r m a t i o n i s not  Tamil  medicine  absent. the  the  and  of  caring  trend  are  of  on  traditional,  headache,  love".  dominant to  or  this  ailments  vaccine  use  product  Unlike or  with  the  advertisements  balm  One  Perhaps  minor  cold  information i s is laid  for using  a l l relatively  forts  popular  stress  family.  preference  a  product  i n the  contain  North  American  intimate family  family advertisements  only  HO because of some r e f e r e n c e to a f a m i l y r o l e . are mere passing r e f e r e n c e s only. these  i s a l s o the i n d i v i d u a l  Expectation  However, these  The main concern i n  self.  (2)  In conformity  with e x p e c t a t i o n  ( 2 ) , extended f a m i l y  p o r t r a y a l s i n both samples are very l i m i t e d . sample, a l i f e  insurance  In the  company advertisement  v i s u a l of an extended f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p .  contains  the Tamil  dependent  This i s i n accordance with  custom that a woman's place a f t e r marriage i s i n  her husband's home. her  a  This v i s u a l  p o r t r a y s a widowed woman and her c h i l d apparently on her l a t e husband's mother.  Tamil  even when he  There, h i s mother has  is alive.  g r e a t e r i f he has  But  dominance over  t h i s domination i s even  passed away.  In the North American sample where extended f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s enter  i n t o the advertisements,  they  nothing more than mere r e f e r e n c e s to the extended ship i t s e l f .  are relation-  No v i s u a l d e p i c t i o n of extended f a m i l y  membership i s a v a i l a b l e i n these  advertisements.  The  t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s make no mention of f a m i l y love or  inte-  g r i t y or even of care between extended f a m i l y members. Tamil advertisement exigencies.  concerns extended f a m i l y care  during  The  141 (3)  Expectation  (3),  Expectation samples, made and  also  o f "both  is  received support samples.  woman's e c o n o m i c  insurance  The  Life  earlier American In  Man's  does  Insurance  i s an example  dependent,  cases.  this  but they  dependence  i n any s u b t l e  case.  manner.  discussed  In the North  as s i m i l a r l y  worries:  t o me?"  provider  advertisements;  advertisement  a husband  analyses  i n the  Woman's  American  a r e shown  happened  i n t h e two  as t h e economic  of the Tamil  m a t e r i a l women  do i f s o m e t h i n g  totally  depict  portrayals  get exemplified  i n both  Corporation  one a d v e r t i s e m e n t ,  wife  role  i n the North  the Tamil  role  i n the qualitative  dependence  advertisements  n o t so e x p l i c i t  neither  regarding  dependent.  "What  These  will  women  are not t o t a l l y  my  are  not  independent  either. Women a  little  are  more  sometimes  whereas of  i n North  independence shown  the latter  woman's r o l e s  women  American  are allowed  advertisements  than  as nurses,  teachers  do n o t e n j o y  outside some  are Tamil  even  t h e home.  amount  are allowed  women; t h e f o r m e r  or s e c r e t a r i e s  a single  such  In t h e former  of discussion  -  portrayal case  regarding  their  142  responsible reflects sible for  f o rthe maintenance  the culture  Woman's  place  She t a k e s  North  American  proud  t o have  i n both  pleasure  child  care  North  American  what  too.  f o r baby;  hair,  applies  i n these  woman's of  women  only  actually  serving  American  case,  theme by  every  responsible  advertisements  make  their  she uses  on i t , e t c .  always  through felt.  decides  on h e r c h i l d ,  her  Fathers  for  presence  p a i n balm  shampoos  little  i n the  a r e not prominent,  t h e mother  care,  but also  In our samples  cooking,  t o do s o  daughter's  a r e mere o n -  advertisements.  child  duties.  s h e i s happy and  she does  food  house-  As i n t h e  anger;  her teeth,  lotion  a home a n d do  activities.  She i s s o l e l y  however,  She h a s t o  i fshe f a i l s  advertisers  sample,  her son brush  Not  b u t n o t a woman  clean;  m a t e r i a l mothers  makes  lookers  respon-  i s a t home.  advertisements,  In t h e baby  suggestions  i s best  i n these  her husband's  f o rh i sapproval.  the Tamil  i s held  and c h i l d r e n  samples  h e r f a m i l y wash  thing  In  This  a man  a n d c h l d r e n , make  detergent  has to face  various  husbands.  her husband.  f o rh e r husband  work.  she  legally,  f o r maintaining h i swife  maintaining  care  where  of their  but there other  a woman  i s her concern  h e r own a p p e t i t e .  domestic  one c a n f i n d  i s no p o r t r a y a l  f a m i l y members. i s shown  over  In the Tamil  are a  a few v i s u a l s o f a woman  In t h e North  as c o o k i n g ,  her weight  service  gain;  sample  b u t t h e main she i s trapped  t h e woman  cooks  143  even  when  she i s coughing.  household In sharing  responsibilities the Tamil  of emotions  advertisement, baby,  hand,  The  North  shown  and  than  these also  a woman  examples a r e shown  with  about  is  a major  bride  of  no more  her daughter, Youth  cularly  making on t h e  as t h e  reveals.  care.  o f women  care  s h e pampers  h e r body,  In the Tamil  i n personal  mothers  i s more  examples, she  and y o u t h .  so g l a r i n g ,  engaged  In c o n t r a s t , i n  In these  her self,  f o r a Tamil  care. these  engaged  i n the  A daughter's  but only  women  marriage  A happily married  h e r own b e a u t y ,  But  because  f a m i l y and t h e b e a u t y  attribute.  about  feeds the  sample,  experience,  portrayals  daughters.  food  i s not reducing her  duties.  t o be d e d i c a t e d  i s a cherished  worries  sensual  her looks  do n o t seem  concern  a n d woman  American  o f t e n engages  beaut i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r  The b a b y  a woman's p e r s o n a l  her domestic  t o be i n l o v e  too,  He  i n personal  case,  o f a happy  b u t he i s d e f i n i t e l y  h a s more  duties than  she i s anxious  examples  t h e bowl  of a facial moisturizer sample  these  sample.  man a n d woman.  of this.  this  not share  portrayals  In the North  share  American  important is  task.  Tamil  domestic  the  example  they  advertisement  in  between  find  by h o l d i n g t h e bowl,  a pleasant  other  we  i n either  w h e r e man h o l d s  i s a good  workload it  case  T h e man d o e s  of a  woman  about  that  i f she has one.  i s a major  so i n t h e North  concern  i n both  American  one.  samples, North  but p a r t i -  American  144  cosmetic about has  advertisements  their  aging.  age  personal concerned material  but that  case,  with  Here  aimed  health  i s linked  nation  builders. There  i n health.  Insurance  boys  tisement best a  t o save  "strong promises  student  cosmetic  of marriageable  b o y , and d e t e r g e n t  of  American  i s also Inthe  advertisements  a r e equated  only  t h e men a r e  of children  "fair  male/female  role  o f sons and i n the  marriage Tamil  medicine  and,  in  calcium will  cosmetic  and l o v e l y " .  insurance  advertisements  i n our  ask f a t h e r s  this  of  advertisements,  education.  girls  American  and weight  daughters'  that  are not  and weight  and h e a l t h y " and a T a m i l  i n a North  i t .  to the portrayal  son's  t o make  they  of  the height  we do h a v e ,  f o rtheir  claim  about  a couple  portrayals  over  think  her husband  advertisements  f o rtheir  advertisements  grow  that  In these  b u t i n t h e few c a s e s  samples,  Tamil  In the North  t o men, f u r t h e r m o r e ,  daughters.  tablet  says  i n height  are carried  both  at a l l .  at increasing  a r e n o t many  sample  a s one t h a t  i n the advertisements  he i s n o t w o r r i e d  differences  Tamil  looks.  one would  looks  an i n c r e a s e  an i n c r e a s e  samples,  that  b y c o n t r a s t , we h a v e  medicines  men.  their  depicted  a woman who d i e t s  overweight Tamil  products  about  younger  are worried  themselves.  a r e so r a r e l y care  i s described  by c o n t r a s t , p o r t r a y g i r l s  who b e a u t i f y Men  o l d e r women who  The p r o d u c t  the capacity to create  advertisements,  of  portray  make adverThe  advertisement i s  i n t h e same  sample  145  enhance ing  the appearance  their  by w h i t e n i n g  and  brighten-  dresses.  Thus, this  of girls  study 1.  a l l the three have  been  The N o r t h  American  sample  contains  advertisements  ments  and t h e T a m i l  ments  than  extended  expectations  that  guided  fulfilled.  individual  2.  cultural  sample  individual  family  than  more  family  more  advertise-  family  advertise-  ones;  portrayals  are minimal  i n both  samples, and 3-  role  portrayals  basically economic It  needs  haviours  seen  The  stance,  current  that  i t would  most  American  fact  work,  have  these  i n these  that  made h e r e  they  men a s t h e i r  superiors.  and t h a t  to  s e e women who a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y s u p e r i o r say that  i n that  a l l who i n  In r e a l i t y ,  occupy  one c a n n o t  For  i f one assumed  housewives  the  these are  studied.  do  larly,  are  cultures.  i s that  a r e mere  positions  be-  sets of  respective  to fact  i s the  cultural  two c u l t u r a l  i n the cultures  many i m p o r t a n t  man  i s t h e homemaker.  to a belief  be c o n t r a r y  women  that  frame a r e  samples:  a n d woman  i s being  behaviours  the family  i n both  i n these  do n o t l e a d  claim  expectated  provider  reflected  behaviours  only  t h e same  t o be emphasized  advertisements actual  within  women  a n d i t i s n o t uncommon  a l l Tamil  women  t o men.  Simi-  are completely  1 46  dependent sionals, being  a  on  their  too,  and  household  In not  i n the duties  i n most  the  education  of  There  remembered  ments this  The  study,  magazines Better could The be  be  Tamil termed  readers.  roles,  instance, are  Gardens, family  magazines as  however, Also,  since  of  Ladies  or are  the  not  they  limited  observations  appear  and  or  here  themes,  been  and  only.  are  the  journals.  like.  are  in family  the  In  These  magazines. and  could  These  particular  regarding  etc.  of  McCalls,  similar,  a  to  American  women's  to  needs  advertise-  Home J o u r n a l ,  type  are  the  limitations  North  Woman's D a y  family  women.  Thus  that  magazines  the  reading  the  preferences  factor  have  some  working  in  norms.  here of  share  behaviours  the  types  with  and  men  cultures,  this:  represented  general  are  cultural  made  type  family-individual  significant  like  more  importance.  important  in certain  and  termed  magazines, of  study  roles  is certainly  both  given  profes-  cultures,  cultural  In  expected  represented  Homes  too,  i s also  observations  for  This  are  family  and  housewives  entirely.  another  in a  contained  more  actual behavioural  i s yet  them  combine  care.  children,  reveal  of  i n both  America,  where  daughters  not  in fact  child  fulfilled  values,  sample.  of  Many  Likewise,  families  advertisements  be  do  North and  treatment  always  ideal  many  professional.  especially  case  husbands.  class  male-female  especially  type  magazines.  In conclusion,  i t d e s e r v e s t o be  emphasized  that  a l t h o u g h t h e t e r m " c u l t u r e " i s u s e d by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s describe  traditions in a live  to  s o c i a l m i l i e u , the concept  e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r d o m a i n s s u c h as a d v e r t i s i n g , a r t , c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y books e t c . s t u d y has b e e n t o d e m o n s t r a t e appropriate results. original  and t h a t  The  that  i t can y i e l d  i n t e n t i o n of  s u c h an a p p l i c a t i o n i s interesting, insightful  I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s i n t e n t and t h a t t h e r e s u l t s w i l l  research i n this d i r e c t i o n .  One  lead  i n both North American  against  a backdrop  wider s o c i a l  this  to f u r t h e r  p o s s i b i l i t y would  examine t h e changes i n t h e v a l u e p o r t r a y a l s over decades  this  be  to  the  and T a m i l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  o f c h a n g e s t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e  structure.  i  148  APPENDIX  1.1  SAMPLING PLAN OP THE MAIN DATA BASE ( P r o m P o l l a y R.W.: Content A n a l y s i s of P r i n t A d v e r t i s i n g ) SAMPLING  PLAN  Instructions:  R a n d o m l y draw f i v e ( 5 ) advertisements, from a randomly s e l e c t e d i s s u e , f o r each o f t h e 10 p e r i o d i c a l s w i t h t h e l a r g e s t c i r c u l a t i o n , f o r each of the y e a r 19x3, 19x4,...., 19x7, f o r each of the e i g h t decades of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  Sample S i z e :  2,000 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ; 5 / i s s u e x 5 y e a r s / d e c a d e x 8 d e c a d e s x 10 Subsamples: 400 1600  Notes:  250  per  periodicals  decade  Sunday S u p p l e m e n t s ( o v e r a l l 8  decades)  Magazines  Draw f i v e ads by u s e o f random number t a b l e s , d r a w i n g u n t i l " h i t t i n g " a page w i t h advertisements. I f m u l t i p l e ads a p p e a r , a s s i g n e a c h a s e q u e n t i a l number and draw a g a i n t o s e l e c t ad f o r s a m p l e . These s a m p l e advertisements with p r o b a b i l i t i e s of i n c l u s i o n r o u g h l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o ad s i z e . One i s s u e p e r y e a r drawn f o r e a c h p e r i o d i c a l t o i n s u r e e q u a l sample s i z e s f o r each of the f i v e y e a r s p e r d e c a d e . Use o f a s i n g l e i s s u e g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s a c c e s s i o n and retrieval. The 10 l a r g e s t c i r c u l a t i o n p e r i o d i c a l s f o r e a c h d e c a d e were d e t e r m i n e d by consulting Ayer's D i r e c t o r y of P u b l i c a t i o n s f o r the y e a r 19x5. Only the top t e n a l s o l i s t e d i n the U n i o n L i s t of S e r i a l s , and/or i n the h o l d i n g s o f t h e New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y and/ or L i b r a r y of Congress, Washington, D.C. were i n c l u d e d . This c o n s t r a i n t l e a d to s i x m e d i a d e l e t i o n s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n s over f i v e d i f f e r e n t decades. (See T a b l e of Media R e p r e s e n t e d ) .  149  MEDIA REPRESENTED  Title American Magazine •American Weekly American Woman B e t t e r Homes and Gardens Colliers Comfort Cosmopolitan •Delineator  1900's  10 2 4-  McCalls Munsey's N a t i o n a l Geographic •Parade Peoples Home J o u r n a l • P i c t o r i a l Review Reader's D i g e s t * Saturday Evening Post  5 7  10  9 3  7  9 6  4  Farm J o u r n a l Home Companion Magazine World  1  1940'B  1950'8  1  3  10  10  6  6 4  6  9  10  5  7  8  4  9  4  10?  5 2  HA(9)  8 2  10  9  4  2  7  7  5  4  9  HA(2)  2  3  2  5  HA(6) 2  6  3  3  5  7  1 8  1  2 3  7  5  8  8  9  1  1970's  8  5  NA(9)  1960's  6  e  • T h i s Week True S t o r y TV Guide Woman's Day Woman's Woman's Woman's Woman's  10  6  L a d i e s World Liberty Life Look  1930'8  6  HA ( 3 )  3  1920'e 4 1  HA(6)  Family C i r c l e •Family Weekly Farm J o u r n a l Gentlewoman Good Housekeeping Home L i f e Household L a d i e s ' Home J o u r n a l  1910'e  3  1 7  9  1  Youth Companion Notes:  (  * = Sunday Supplement; A = Reader's Digest excluded by Ayer and t h i s atudy p r i o r t o 1955 as not a c a r r i e r o f a d v e r t i s i n g ; NZ(x) i n d i c a t e s p e r i o d i c a l s not a v a i l a b l e i n DLC or NYPL o r Union L i s t o f S e r i a l s , where x i n d i c a t e s rank t h a t would have been a p p r o p r i a t e t o Ayer's i f a v a i l a b l e .  150  APPENDIX 1 . 2 BASIS OP PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION (Prom P o l l a y ' s Coding, The History of Advertising Archives, U.B.C. PRODUCT  (PRD2)  1 - Domestic Durables: products for household maintenance and/or operation whose consumption period is t y p i c a l l y greater than a year. Examples:  automobiles, b i c y c l e s , appliances, f u r n i t u r e , paint and wallpaper, rugs, cameras, dishes, silverware, l i n e n s , towels, car parts, t o o l s , typewriters.  2 - Domestic Consumables: products for household maintenance and/or operation whose consumption period is t y p i c a l l y expired within a year. Examples:  laundry products, household cleaning and maintenance (window cleaners, waxes, and polishes), room deodorizers, kitchen convenience goods (was paper, p l a s t i c wrap), paper products (excluding Kleenex and t o i l e t paper), l i g h t bulbs, b a t t e r i e s .  3 - Personal Consumables A: products for ingestion by household members, including pets, except for items i n (5). Examples:  packaged food products, beverages (nona l c o h o l i c ) , gum, candy, coffee, cooking o i l s (or substitutes), condiments, pet foods.  4 - Personal Consumables B:  alcohol and tobacco products.  5 - Personal Care: products for grooming and/or health maintenance of family members, excludes apparel other than back braces, hearing aids, eyeglasses. Examples:  6 - Services: Examples:  cosmetics, patent medicines, hair and skin care, deodorants, feminine hygiene products, toothpaste, shampoo, hand and bath soaps, t o i l e t paper, Kleenex, weight gain/loss products ingested or not. services and intangibles. hotel rooms, credit and credit insurance, t r a v e l l e r s cheques,  cards, entertainments.  151  7 - P e r s o n a l Apparel: items worn, except e f f e c t , or t h e i r components. Examples:  c l o t h i n g , j e w e l l e r y , umbrellas, accessories, f a b r i c s , yarn.  8 - Miscellaneous: Examples:  f o r therapeutic shoes,  consumer goods not otherwise c a t e g o r i z e d .  employment, r e c o r d s , books, t o y s , w r i t i n g paper, pens, o f f i c e s u p p l i e s .  NOTE:  Rate the p r i n c i p l e product c l a s s f o r a f a m i l y of products, e.g. Heinz 5 7 V a r i e t i e s as 0 3 . Advertisements f o r catalogues should be rated a c c o r d i n g to p r i n c i p l e merchandise i n c l u d e d i n the catalogue. If this i s a h i g h l y v a r i e d assortment, code as M i s c e l l a n e o u s .  NOTE:  In the case o f multi-use products, the use that i s a d v e r t i s e d w i l l i n d i c a t e i n t o which category the product should be c l a s s i f i e d , e.g. L y s o l d i s i n f e c t a n t : household c l e a n e r - " 2 " ; p e r s o n a l hygiene - " 5 " .  152  APPENDIX 2.1 PRODUCT L I S T I N G S OP THE NORTH AMERICAN AND TAMIL SAMPLES OP THE SEVENTIES  I  II  P e r s o n a l Care  Services  North American  A f t e r shave Aspirin Beauty o i l Bust developer Cologne Conditioner Contraceptive Cosmetic Dentricle Deodorant Deodorizer D i s h soap Drugs Dye Pace cream Pat r e d u c t i o n plan Foot d e d o r i z a t i o n H a i r remover Hard soap I t c h powder Laxative Lipstick Medicine Ointment Pain r e l i e v e r Shampoo Shaver S k i n cream Tissues V a g i n a cream  Tamil  Baby cream B e a u t y make-up Beauty spot Condon Cosmetic Doctorin Eye make-up Pace cream P a c e powder H a i r remover Heightening Hot pack Lotion Medicine Ointment Powder Shampoo Soap Tablet Tonic Toothpaste T o o t h powder Vaccine Vitamin tonic  North American  Accommodation Blood donation Communication Credit card Education Insurance Penny Bank T.V. 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