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Poetry of the abyss : mid- and late-eighteenth century English poets of destitution Bergstrom, Carson Robert 1984

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\  MID-  POETRY OF THE A B Y S S : L A T E - E I G H T E E N T H CENTURY E N G L I S H OF D E S T I T U T I O N  AND  POETS  By CARSON  B.A.i  The  ROBERT  University  of B r i t i s h  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED THE  BERGSTROM  Columbiai  IN.PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  MASTER  THE  OF  DEGREE  OF  ARTS  i n THE  FACULTY  OF  GRADUATE  (Department  We  accept to  THE  this  of  UNIVERSITY  OF  May ^Carson  English)  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  Robert  STUDIES  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1934 Bergstrom  1931  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  ^AJCTL.,S//  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D  DE-6  a  (3/81)  t  e  /PcAnliS^  /O  y  /?W  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  Modern the  mid-  criticism  and  qualities  late-eighteenth  of  transition,  great  poetry.  caught  between  coldness  and  that  concept  the  the  later  and  the  because  historical infuses  redefines on  claims  an  age  of  Poets  pervading  metaphor to  mortality. Milton  and  abyss.  In  as  extends poetic  vision,  terror  plunging  on  as  into  analyses  later the  of  the the  reveal  arguments: central  metaphorical  of  role which  experiences,  and  t  in his an  based essay  a l l -  light,  vision  of  poets—John of  LOST  i n THE  several  place  then  strong  PARADISE  darkness  which  c r i t i c a l  two  their  and  and  darkness,  abyss!  the  to  with  how  argues  misreads  abyss  abyss  image  of  particular  or  the  age  deepening  thesis  rift  in  neoclassic  wrote  The  this  books  an  thesis  the  poets  of  shows  to  essentially  concerns—time, then  written  essential  of  The  needs  a  three  first  identity! and  of  thesis  preliminary  literal  the  discussion  related  the  throes  consider  the  age  poet's  not  develop  sees  bear  age"  the  belongs  warmth.  Pope —  over  which  final  Alexander  triumphs the  poetry  criticism  transition  For?",  The  the  poetry  lacks  consciousness.  Martin Heidegger's  importance  The  in which  poetic  "What. A r e  two  i t does  English  century  romantic  that  background  their  that  "transitional  expanding) poetry  finds  the  Milton  DUNCIAD  the  light play  Pope  abyss.  important of  the  features  Muse and in  These  to dark,  the  the as  poet's  i i i  struggle  with  the  science  created  belief.  After  poetry  of  for this  to Edward  force  of  the Night  landscape  no  longer  enveloped  Thomson's  an  "A  the  William  p a s t o r a 1--but the  he  themes and  the  and  To  The  e f f e c t of  l e s s space  the  late-eighteenth  the poets  without  i n the  the  of  than  in h i s  century fact,  it.  tradition.  The  battles  whirls  Sir  Isaac  science  on  to  through  James Newton"  poetry--he  delve  into  t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h  him,  shepherd  and  the  he  turns  strong  others,  but  the  to  poetic  in a d e s t i t u t e  time.  same  poetry. that  the  poetry  forms a v a l u a b l e the  he  moves  simultaneously.  forming  the  analysis  but  form--the  poets  a  imaginative  unworthy  it fails  of  the  changed m i l i e u .  new  new  conventional  Memory Of  t h e s i s argues  tradition--in  incomplete  the  light  traditional  typical  The  shows how  the  the  ground  a b y s s as  C o l l i n s shows a poet a  basic  in place  reflect  images s u r f a c e  Finally,  poetry  darkness  which  philosophical  the  however,  solidly  f i n d s that  a turn  receives  literary  with  essential qualities  personality,  and  sits  method  i d e n t i t y through  Gray  work,  reversing  Muses s i l e n c e d and  abyss.  examine  and  consciousness.  Light;  Poem S a c r e d  further  the  and  by  Young's s t y l e and  the  preliminary  a b y s s by  of  finds  difficulties  religious faith  in p o e t i c  hierarchy  details  the  Young's NIGHT THOUGHTS and l•  terror  space,  and  destitution is laid,  dominating  the  abyss!  literary  concept  of  the  part  of of  tradition abyss  the  mid-  the is  places  the  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i  Abst ract  Acknowledgements  v  1  Introduction  1  2  Backgrounds  3  Poets  of  to  the  Abyss:  Destitution:  I.  II.  Milton  Young  and  and  Collins  Pope  Thomson  and  Gray  22  52  82  4  Conclusion  118  5  Endnotes  124  6  B i b ! i ography  134  0  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  wish  to  Hatch, me, of  express  for  and  the  the  this  T.  E.  all  go  needed could  to  whose  ideas  final  that  also  Blom,  my  A I  patience  to  and  he  my a d v i s o r ,  support  has  shown,  which  Dr. he  during  Ronald  has  the  given  writing  dissertation.  develop  when  thanks  encouragement  great  Thanks and  special  to  readers,  questions  goes  and  make  two  greater  thanks i t ,  my  me  depth  to  praised go  and  on.  Lee  suggestions  and  my w i f e , me  Drs.  when  fuller  helped  me  expression.  Amanda, a  Whitehead  l i t t l e  who  prodded  praise  was  me  1  INTRODUCTION  , Edward Young's CONJECTURES ON ORIGINAL COMPOSITION begins with the remark that "we confess the f o l l i e s  of youth  without  a b l u s h ; not so, those of age."^ Without pushing the  analogy  too f a r , one could apply h i s comment  to many  e v a l u a t i o n s of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h poetry.  Critics  d e f i n e the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y as the "Age of Exuberance," and g i v i n g it  i t the f u l 1 respect and honour which  deserves, a p p r e c i a t e i t s weaknesses and f o l l i e s .  mid-century,  however, the c r i t i c s  p a t i e n c e with  its follies,  After  show l e s s and l e s s  especially  the f o l l i e s  of poetry.  Samuel Johnson, f o r example, remarks on the "mental disease of  t h i s g e n e r a t i o n " of w r i t e r s ! he f i n d s  much of the experimentation the time.2 critics mid-  call  Although  l i t t l e patience for  with form and v e r s i f i c a t i o n of  Johnson tempers h i s c r i t i c i s m ,  upon Johnson to support  their  and l a t e - e i g h t e e n t h century poetry.  later  unhappiness with Alan M c K i l l o p  claims that Johnson considered the poetry of h i s age as "silly,  a f f e c t e d and t r i v i a l , "  an o p i n i o n which gains assent  from many readers who f i n d an absence of a g u i d i n g body of p r i n c i p l e s or a e s t h e t i c d o c t r i n e s somewhat d i s c o n c e r t i n g . 3 No one poet any  expresses  a coherent,  unified  vision,  nor does  s i n g l e poet master h i s v o c a t i o n to excel above the r e s t .  2  The  period  loose  appears  collection  talents  which  poetical "these  in  motivates  a  yesteryear  times:  poets the  in  decry  period  shrine  of  great the  poet  hearts James  instructive  poetry. Reason the  and  references  to  the- q u a l i t y defend  of  will  for  past  a  the of  their  at  and  Indeed,  4  the  return  poetry  turn,  of  of  its  the  poetry,  The  the  writers at  yearning rightful  of  the  dismissing a  poets  poetry  kneeling  goes to  the  century  nature  or  strength  atmosphere  contemptuously contempt  values  prosperity;  age."  own w o r k .  every  whose  never-to-be-recovered  their  divine  of  notes,  testing  to  array  contradictory  health,  this  describes  fashion.  says  part  to  and  the for  seat  some in  men.  Thomson  the  aliens  youths,  while  with  Thomson He  most,  who  as  late-eighteenth  poetry  past,  themselves  ambivalence  mid-  Mixed  SEASONS,  an  Blom  order,  a  confusing E.  glance  of  a  As T.  and  a  temperaments,  with  confusing  conventions  the  present.  of  rebellious  although  abounds  depict  schizophrenic,  styles,  reader  backward  reveal  somewhat  postures.  simplicity,  irreverent,  themselves  and  world  fond, of  the  the  typically a  as  conflicting  confront  poets  against  of  statements  existence  as  instead  present our  poetic  the  preface  a  spirited,  presents that  of  In  this  "Altho*  there  Contempt modern  declare  of  WINTER  if  may  be  should,  seriously,  really,  a m a z i n g . D e c l a r i n g against  yet  some  that  Divine  poetry,  an  defense  of  Appearance  as  that  in  i n THE  verbose  /poetry.7,  writers, against  to  ambivalence  managed  any  Man  Art he  is,  adds,  by  of  3  denigrates It  is  "the  very  affronting  declaring down  value  for  to  once  Purity?  let  of  her  .  shall  be  and  a  darkness  and  ignorance  mankind.  After  declare  magic,  society  that  most  struck  this  to  which  s t i r r i n g  his  age  seems  instead  he  deflates  "this  happy  Period  is  not  s t i l l  writing  position the Man, World  of  has  the  prevailing  poets  and .  true at  that  who,  to  Heart."  give  which  poetry  of  needs to  poetry  an  he  work  that  Pope of  its  was  his of  " i l l u s t r i o u s on  Views  the  wintry  into  Learning,  late and  9  many  mid-  several and  Although  a  of  the  late-eighteenth  number  of  William  Thomson's  like  Joseph  Warton  and  envision  as  v i t a l ,  indeed  ontologically  a  that  saying  contemporaries, poetry  the  uneasiness  "rise  his  says  oppress  Since  8  the  Virtue,  illustrate  voice.  to  justification  stretching  Interest  let  of  and  and  anticipates  expected."  view  and  dispels  ready  to  Beneficence"  statements  moods  be  "let  enlightens,  expectations,  Thomson's  claims  .  intirely,  Thomson's  century  .  our  interesting  Power,  Letters  Futurity,  an  Thomson  equal  of  Mankind,  the-time,  provides  period.  to  ready  to  astonish:  poetry  one  from  eternal  Ignorance,  stand  remark,  but  at  when  World  Truth,  and  Poetry  always  man  antient  inveterate  flourishes  and  poetry's  surprize,  7  Politeness.  listening  fellow  her  Dumb."  and  Mankind,  the  his  to  instruct,  the  of  asserting  restored  .  Taste  After  be .  Learning,  charmed  appeals  Thomson,  will  a l l  he  Necessity,  Prejudice,  has  Milton."6  more,  of  universal  what  society,  Poetry,  then,  the  against  Moses  Soul  Collins, significant  4  force  for  genius they  man,  or  view  validity s t i l l  their  poetry  with  own  the a  To  poet's  a  large  THE  and  SEASONS  readers  despite sales  (1751),  editions  in  two  gained  wide  poem  was  fact,  retained  a  1861,  praises  it  as  searching,  "a  richness,, comments in and  both he  (1770)  that  the  England claims  that  affected a  wide  their  craft,  English  the  1  faithful  middle  in  NIGHT  A  Country  an  were him "The  Goldsmith, audience  in  as  by  1  his  Deserted of  late  looks  to  "its  Goethe  extremely and  in  the  and  distinguised 1  the  Young,  edition  boldness." *-  (1742)  and  of  THOUGHTS,  which  Goldsmith's  readers,  languages.  "charmed"  1  In  THOUGHTS  exceeding  greatly.  Written  NIGHT  to  to  these  Young's  sermon"  poems,  which  eleven  six  the  numerous  through  G i l f i l l a n ,  Germany,  and  period.  went  least  Young's  Oliver  him  the  poets--Thornson's  value  "Elegy  readership  and  these  the  Gray's  at  Ossian  and  of  to  powerful  o r i g i n a l i t y ,  maintained  many  amongst  highly  amongst  the  George  as  about  of  comments,  into  nineteenth-century.  life  entire  the  poetry  Thomson's  Edward  solid  whether  cultural  the  about  positively  acceptance  translated  worry  ambivalence  example,  years.  Moreoveri  responded  of  for  poetic  public  poetry.  Churchyard"  a  this  inc1uded--attest on  no  crowd.  wonder  the  reservations  wide  placed  in  poets'  reading  the  and  throughout  the  and  role  degree  that  ambivalence,  unabated  eightsenth-century  pottryi  from  vocation,  significant  continues  editions  sentiments  out  Despite  the  his  stands  plays  poets  echo  spokesman  of  society.  they  popular friends, Village"  course,  England.  George  5  Crabbe from  found  the  world  years,  his  Cowper  made  "The  instant of  an  "The  was  success. found  The  seems  highly  William  that  have  wide  breadth  here  and  there  the his  Village"  canon.  If  easily  value.  again,  Young's reading,  it  NIGHT and  does  Beattie's  in  time  and  the  three  met  styles,  like  poets  readers.  for  in  and  best  a  as  Minstrel"  this  a  On  poem  "The  most  Warton's  entire  period  l i t t l e  poor poetic  simply  Much  for  of  its  points  "The  one  poetry  cases.  makes  readers  moreover,  than  out  again  of  tedious  Enthusiast" to  a  the  poet's  Johnson  create  True,  much  time  maintain  examp1es—but  period,  of  of  Goldsmith's  with  example,  Joseph  (1748)  test  "Ode  eccentricities  succeed  great  century  these  produced  and  for with  of  the  poetry  Mark  the  "Elegy,"  its  poets.  stand  themselves  for  reader,  not  modern  period  century  Schoolmistress"  Few  in  and  well.  would  the  William  THE TASK  (1744),  attention—Collins'  the  not  "The  his  "The  and  widely  THOUGHTS, poems  interesting  Imagination"  among  of  neo-classic  with  late-eighteenth  acquaint  deal  As w e l l ,  mid-  being  more  success. himself  withdrew  twenty-two  as  Gray's  that  notable  of  of  poetry  reads  A good  imitates  James  one  concedes  quality,  and  to  for  he  audience  attracts  Deserted  though  late-eighteenth  number  appeal  Character,"  bother  and  j u s t i f i e d .  Poetical  rarely  for  Shenstone's  been of  similar  regarded  appreciative  fear to  a  even  publishing  name  Pleasures  Nonetheless, poet's  with  mid-  encouraged  Akenside's example,  met  and  and  respectful  Castaway."  moreover,  poetry  return a  success,  enthuse  and or  6  sing  about.  Indeed,  eighteenth-century mid-century "this the  development  did  interesting  epic  forms--it  pastoral, who  of  the  them  agrees, work  in  opportunities  the  a  the  forms  in  not  gain  much  The  most  popular  reputation position  of  history. covers stage  periods. poetic  the  neither  the to  reached  inevitable  the  society,  and,  upheavals perhaps  for  the  attention  period The  usual this in  lull  and  the  modification to  broaden  reputation  must  in  the  of  in  romantic a  and  and  literary label  transitional lack  of  transitional after  the  neo-classical  Moreover, philosophy,  importantly,  poor  peculiar  explanation,  Renaissance follows.  to  form  diversity  popular  generally  century  nor  symptoms  occurring most  Carnall,  3  poets,  overall  neo-classic  the  1  attempted  late-eighteenth  history.  indicate  examines  calls  a  adapting  the  kinds  for  age  efforts.  explanation  and  to  ode."  poetical  poets  in  the  in  these  presented  that but  while  life  of  of  sentiment."^  that  the  poets  poetry  instance,  and  their  the  argues  in  and  "new  report  worked,  period  According  an  give  these  these  literature,  heights  poetry,  by  mid-  literary  uniformity  they  this  Since  the in  which  of  novel—for  nevertheless  m u t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h  does  contends  for  that  not  he  "respect  and  work  satire,  standard  matter,  manners  to  a  noting  of  positive  their  they  the  managed  gives for  but  to  subject  freshest  novel  georgic,  generally  admires  its  the  also  while  poetry's  did  Carnal!  introduction  anthology,  extended  generation  Geoffrey  the  science,  if  one  theology, then  the  7  interpretation readers  the  apparently  argument  d i f f i c u l t i e s  to  which  explaining  away  provide  fresher  than  no  the  similar raised  poets  the  appear,  period  to  an  they  period  as  another.  source  of  the  divine  destination,  1 , 1  may  which  malaise,  he  but  the  from  way  are  unable  in  some  cause  of  the  in  pinpoint  stems far  "not  period tackled  to  talent as  by  c r i t i c s  fact,  why  the  fact,  preface  much to  it  modern  transition,  Thomson's  that  In  malaise  as  for  illuminates  Young,  exist,  feels  Yet  voice.  of  there  Although  5  age  managed.  not  no  give  on  "reasons  sense.  in  poets as  those  that,  why  stands  these  themselves  found  none  it  good  perspectives  questions and  as  makes  WINTER may  not  one the  exact  from  beneath  the  moon." 6 1  Not periods a  new  the  a l l  perspective.  mid-  and  Frye  the  the  in  Northrop  argued  of  that  stage  explanation  some  cases,  Frye,  late-eighteenth period  transitional that  find  convincing and,  interesting ago,  c r i t i c s  century  English  not  do  as  calls  the  the  go  example, "an  l i t e r a t u r e . "  dismissing  does  for  about  1  period  period  transitional out  to  forge  approaches  astonishingly 7  Quite as  some  merely  justice.  He  time  a feels  period has been u n f a i r l y t r e a t e d by t h e c r i t i c s , who have tended to see i n i t n o t h i n g but a "trans i t i o n " with a l l its poets either reacting against Pope or a n t i c i p a t i n g W o r d s w o r t h . The p e r i o d i s unhappy and t o r m e n t e d enough, however, and i t seems d o u b l y u n f a i r to reduce its most p o s i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t s to p o t e n t i a l Romanticism. It i s t r u e that the poets of t h i s age were r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t the A u g u s t a n s , but in view of the fact t h e y d i d not know t h a t the R o m a n t i c movement was t o s u c c e e d t h e m , it seems  3  better to look at them r a t h e r as a t t e m p t i n g to put E n g l i s h p o e t r y b a c k on R e n a i s s a n c e r a i l s .  1  Frye's  comment  notion  of  poetic  observers, and  our  a l l  one,  Frye  that  a  century."  1  or  new  new  change  to  a  change  reflected in  in'the  the  myths  in  in  which of  literature,"  a  inform  an  relationship  vision the  of  poet  with  his  myths  living  on  the  between  relationship  with  much  torment.  of  his  the  which  do  a  poet  cohesive  Spenser  edge past  of and  poetic  and  this  and  present  tradition  kind  rather  sees  than  occurring is,  Dominant  and  in  the  belief  man's  mid-  re-work  and  and  coherent  re-form  poetic  However,  s e n s i b i l i t y , alters  his  gives  the  cultural  inclusive  "explains"  and  the  some  that  Milton. new  of  comes  movements  Before could  to  Frye  r e a l i t y . 2 0  from  or  i t s e l f ,  literature,"  v i t a l i z i n g  the  part  primarily  environment.  into as  and a  latter  which  which  s e n s i b i l i t y  p o l i t i c a l  construct  century,  r e a l i t y ,  discontinuity  provide  imaginary  late-eighteenth inherited  culture  most  history,  s e n s i b i l i t y  or  of  exists  of  the  change  structures  rift  literature  ideas,  course,  structure,  of  beliefs,  "informing  myths,  his  structure  like  the  eighteenth-century  literary  consciousness—Romant icism--"refers of  not.abandon  Frye,  kind  around  This  9  gap  "a  literature  does  the  including  that  he  altogether.  profound  argues  but  between  history,  Western  eighteenth  sense,  transitions  modern  past.  into  good  recognizes  modern  separates the.  makes  3  for the  basic rise  to  9  Thus,  a  recurrent  Tate-eighteenth himself age  century  facing  considers  works?  in  the his  the  own  ranks  ladder—even  if  the  one, of  Milton,  were  his  content  "shows  a  learned, abounds for  that  to  larg'e he in  master  and,  Or  Collins' Bow'rs" are  no  emerges, latter of  fear of  his  measure his  and  the  sense  of  past*  inferior  to  with  poetic  down  his the not  this  attitude.  "was  a  of  his  that  Collins'  comments  evaluates his  his  own  i t .  Carnal"! «  devoted  contemporaries  and  and  "what  who  style,  he  however,  work  poetry  for  disciple"  figures,  his  this  previous  merit  poetry,  about  of  poetic  of  independence"  finds  A poet  do  Collins  of  poet's  case  own."21  such,  and  in  his  terms  fears of  the  wanting:  trembling Feet his g u i d i n g Steps pu.rsue: I n v a i n - - S u c h B l i s s t o One a l o n e Of a l l the S o n s o f S o u l was k n o w n , And H e a v ' n , and F a n c y , k i n d r e d P o w ' r s , H a v e now o ' e r t u r n ' d th' inspiring Bow'rs, c u r t a i n ' d c l o s e such Scene from e v ' r y future V i e w .  that  he  has  tradition,  contemporary as  we  said  half  of  the  Collins'  mid-  the  unlike  f u t u r e . H e  My  of  well  model  although  disparaging  as  vastly  throughout  i m i t a t e . M i l t o n ' s metres,  made  poetry's  poetic  comparison  facts  poetry,  runs  concerns  his  himself  p r o v i d e s - a; g o o d  argues  of  poetry  inevitable he  which  poetry  mirror  forefathers,  Collins  theme,  poets  been as who  earlier, century.  experience  in  due  cut  well  off as  reach in  from  the  the  other  We w i l l course.  poets return For  2  "inspiring  feeling  Milton's  2  that  there  stature, throughout to  now,  a  the  discussion  let  us  note  a  1 0  further  example.  tradition Poesy" and  forms  Gray  self-conscious stanza,  Gray  possesses  divine,  "daring Thus  produces  if  courage  far,  we  poetry  of  both  written  provides the at  who  have  marked  an  studies—one  rift by  Bloom—explore  in  with  of  The  Bate's  by  explains  Johnson  in  by  an  the  great at  the  Rambler  Bate the  inherent  the  final  time  poetry:  "Oh!  now?"23 himself  as  of  for  past  c r i t i c a l and  Three  and  two  poet's  study  poetry exemplary  by  Harold  evolving  enriching  our  a l l  creative  acts.  OF THE PAST  AND THE  ENGLISH  main  in  period  self-conscious  history.  THE BURDEN Bate's  his  time  In  see  sense  opportunity  same  Shakespeare  transitional  introspective,  gamble  i t s e l f .  this  acumen  of  not  of  lyre.  obvious  Jackson  of  the  thee  does  to  Progress  his  at  spirit  Wakes  that  literary  Walter  appreciation  POET  seen  "The  influence.  the  relationship  while  of  awakens  excellent  personality,  t i t l e  the  Gray  literary  admits  writing  S p i r i t /  This  poet's a  awaken  the  greatness  and  poet  of  Gray's  Dryden's  inadequacy,  S p i r i t "  of  the  Dryden  any  to  health  theme  of  daring  self-consciousness. poetic  to  awareness  his  and  discussing  turns  what  of  history  central  wonders  the  Convinced the  the  (1757). A f t e r  Milton,  Lyre  The  thesis  builds  on  a  comment  #86:  The b u r t h e n of government is increased upon p r i n c e s by t h e v i r t u e s o f t h e i r immediate predecessors. It i s , i n d e e d , always dangerous to be p l a c e d in a s t a t e of u n a v o i d a b l e comparison w i t h e x c e l l e n c e , and the danger is s t i l l greater when that excellence is consecrated by d e a t h . . . . He that succeeds a celebrated writer, has the same  11  d i f f i c u l t i e s While  Bate's  history, poets  he  thesis argues  experienced  famous  battle  early  in  richness  the of  a  overwhelming mid-century have write  over  wealth  of  In  CONJECTURES  the  They  our  engross  ourselves*  their  a b i l i t i e s ,  they  intimidate  thus  under  the  sources  and us  the of  Dante,  for  with  past  great  the  bury means  and  Given  the  our  for  sense  because  a  the  only  he  a r t i s t i c greatness. that  intimidate. due  in  inspection  favour  our  their  poet  that  argues  and  of  of  the  he  value,  value  further  strength."26  that  l i t t l e  that  exert  the  moreover,  prevent  splendour our  of  judgement  the  equally  Pope  greatness,  sees  the  Shakespeare,  Dryden,  prejudice, so  his  imaginative  room  to  his  COMPOSITION,  and  lessen  originality  or  The  raged  after  poetry  example, l i t t l e  which  poet  of  possibility,  engross,  so  own  original  prejudice  diffidence  transcending  of  poets.  Horace—and  literary  the  century  attention  the  such  attention,  they  and  V i r g i l ,  ON O R I G I N A L  examples  called  reminders  his  throughout  previous  Moderns  poets.25  leaves  "illustrious  the  later  seen?  Young, past  and  like  of  something  remote.  than  tradition,  considered  seemed  poets  late-eighteenth  example,  figures  already  to  forefathers—Chaucer,  pressure poet  and  constant  English  influence  strong  of  for  burden  burden  ancestors--Homer,  a  his  mid-  Ancients  poetic  As w e l l ,  might  this  heavier  the  Milton.  we  that  receives  authoritative  as  encounter.21  extends  century, the  mid-century classical  of  to  own 5  and  renown,  Young must  of  sees  search  originality  and that  for will  combat,  the  antidotepoet..  "great  to  The  because  inferiority"  despair, "great  the  however,  no  longer  imaginative  enough  to  wherever  turns,  the  before  him.  Collins, other his  exalts  poetic  of  qualifies  counter  poetic  opening  up  psyche  of  dialogue  an the  a  past.  Bate  "somehow in  some  of-the  way  such  poet  the  "the  that  than  debate  use  identity that  a  such  or  from  poet•of  finds  of  this  raises  underlying  sense  to  that  so  his  the  to  the  deeply  attempts a  to.  solution the  by  human this  poet  lives  felt  that  attain  in  and  3  '  fact,  this  in  an  /was, power  for  th  Bate was  anxiety  age  wa  u  period  This  he  (or  3  a  the  questions  during a r t . "  of  admired."  vocation!  own  develops  scope  important  anxiety his  of  d i s t i n c t l y  burden  period  attain)  of  as  often  the  forbidden  feeling  influence  within  poet  powerless  he  a l l  Bate ' c a l l s  increasingly  that  above  Romantic  earlier  . "^S  the  because  to  Collins.  the  later  stands  p a s t . "29  however,  a  old  with  dialogue  the  of  imagination  present  of  of  relation a  the  validity  the  a r t i s t ' s  deeper  Romantic  poetry  Naturally,  argues  The  Bate,  being  earlier  about  of  or  powers  the  out  to  becoming  sees  growing  "creative  notes  escape  the  o r i g i n a l i t y :  poet  imaginative  Bate  with  of  for  precisely  enough  occurs  and  past  sense  the  o r i g i n a l i t y  "active  occurs  strong  of  The-  a: " c a - t c h - 2 2 "  sources  cannot  despair.  According negative  he  forefathers.  g l o r i f i c a t i o n poetic  but  or  poetry.27  poetry  experience  the. Fancy  faculties,  the  spectre  similar  A  of  seems  find  present  creates  inferiority"  poet  he  of  of  go  1 3  declining of  a r t i s t i c  hopelessness  remains  for  the  values.  He  because  it  poet  do:  to  develops  seems he  that  can  a  pervasive  feeling  l i t t l e  or  longer  lay  claim  INFLUENCE  and  A MAP OF  no  nothing to  a  vocation. Harold MISREADING  Bloom's  THE ANXIETY  explore  similar  studies,  however,  mid-  late-eighteenth  he  and  c a l l s  with  "strong  the  poets  even from  Nonetheless, differs Bate. a  in  our  his  school  of  ancillary His  wrestle  with  death."32 merit  analysis of  theory  merits  as  c r i t i c s  the  involve  what  figures  strong eyes,  few  i f  appellation. discussion  burden  poetic  Bloom's  to  "major  Bloom's  n  Bate.  relation  their  this  the  of  "anxiety"  j  of  studies  defines  period  his  those  whom he  evaluation  As w e l l ,  small  the  Bloom's  an  to  century.  to  to  themes  only  poets"  persistence  precursors, any  bear  OF  of  the  because past  development in  he  from  has  spawned  eighteenth-century  studies. In history  THE ANXIETY and  poetic  OF  INFLUENCE  influence  go  Bloom hand  declares  in  that  poetic  hand:  Poetic history . . . i s h e l d to be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from p o e t i c i n f l u e n c e , since s t r o n g ; p o e t s make t h a t h i s t o r y by m i s r e a d i n g one another, so as to c l e a r i m a g i n a t i v e space for themse1ves.33  In the  order  to  major  clear  figure  space, or  tradition.  In  fact,  incarnation  results  the  poet  must  figures  who  Bloom  states  from  poetic  come  dominate bluntly  to  his that  i n f 1uence."34  terms  with  literary "poetic Incarnation  14  means  that  the  poet  Nevertheless, poet i c  the  i dent i t y  further  poet  The  involves  literary  creation  needs "need  them  original,  3  overcome Bate  to  within  not  his  burden  claim  that  it.36  neither  the  necessarily  of  leads  1  to  was  really  picture  emerges  this  period,  emerges  nor  which  reflected  in  the  to  illuminate  those  of  poets  period  of  of  our  Bate  the  writing  without  often  it  poet  Bloom  with  it: the  makes  may  goes  the  which  and  of  the  beyond  solution  Carnal!  anxiety  Bloom  poet's  the  Frye:  influence  mid-  and  poetry  helped  profound of  In  dilemmas during  and  that  the  work  poets  his  No  poets of  of  the  dilemma  poet as  essentially  writers  transition.  how  mid-  changes,  image  later  to  the  period.  poet's  their  of  this of  No  the  fact,  the  failed  them.  understand  shows  relationship  tradition  understanding  transition.  and  complex  the  it us  lull  therefore,  a  carries  the  creates  experienced.  poetry.  seeks  deepen  how  nor  poetic  century  how  helps  past  that  cause,"  agrees  his  necessarily  vaguely  itself  Bloom  the  discusses of  therefore  that  appropriating  original;  whatever  the.  undergoing  neither  not  burden  work  late-eighteenth  tradition  less  argues  century  the  poets  this  place  that  precursor.  knows  process, take  claims  "from the  burden  Although  must,  Bate  cannot  Bloom  though  Ostensibly,  Tate-eighteenth  and  make  Whereas  5  creative  and  his  himself  i nf 1 uence—and  entire  anxiety.  appropriates  incarnates  from  history  precursor  b e t t e r . "  who  results  anxiety.  more  successfully  and  We  responded  not  therefore to  this  15  We poetry  need born  approach age, the  to in  the  this  from  experience  age  we  will  often  goes of  poets  the  mid-  a  record  the  the  of  that  wrote  in  in  of  the  which  the  it  because  But  what,  one- f i n d of  the  Poetry  it?  abyss in  the an  a  after  the  a l l ,  to  abounds  it in  appeal  from,  of  in  combination  of  a l l  three,  the  mid-  his  they  and a  and this  large  obscures and  hence  and which  precursors  and  p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  abyss. the  abyss?  First,  poet  respectively, emotional  i t ,  struggle,  references  an  To  poetry  the  complex  to  of  abyss,  age.  poetry's  it?  a  an  power' of  with  the  the  insufficiently  the  and  of  despair  primary  in  circumstances,  achievement  of  Indeed,  define  accomplish  throes  the  constitutes  one  we  expresses  that  abyss  of  definite  is  of  about  a  century  of  struggle  must  accomplishments  depths  the  we to  If  noticed,  poetry  poet's  sense  reacts  abyss  age.  surprising  in  reading  importantly,  that  i f  anxiety  his  general  vision  analogy,  of  and  on  of  his  How c a n  depending  notion,  of  most  occurs.  important  much  BELONGS  importance  intensifies  the  which  the  unobtrusiveness of  foremost,  written  century  occurs  or  for  and  important  late-eighteenth  produces  a  approach  late-eighteenth  poetry  much  appreciation poetry  poets  most  and  They  underlies  degree, an  the  of  destitution. abyss  and,  unnoticed,  One  left  poetry age  recognize  valued. of  the  valid  First  as  that  of  a  r i f t .  poetry  emerges  this  establish  and to  may a  state, or  a  in  Where  poet  conceives  personal  the  abyss,  develop  his  geographical an  abstract  other  does  ways  ways. and  1 6  peculiar  to  Thomson,  for  which  only  possesses poet  the  example,  a  great  the  see  to  indicates  "The  Bard,"  the  and  same  with  and  layering  responds i t ,  help  to  later,  mind the  poetry.  problems  created  In the  abyss  needs  a  in  i t .  At  poem  but  emerge i t :  commonplaces poet's  abyss  and  formulates  example,  through and  the Pope  Their by  the  and a  to  abyss,  and  abyss for  (and  of  he  of  Gray's  to  the  the  abyss  in  images,  confrontation  a  light,  great  complex  loss,  number  of  interweaving a  metaphoric as  a  imaginative  poet  vision  late-eighteenth  Milton  and  Pope  to  shall  at  crucial  stages  attitudes  towards  the  the.  as  abyss  produces  the  yet  a  we  work  in  of  reference  turn  later  expedite)  late-eighteenth  frame  his  an  we  into  Moreover,  looked  respective  explicate  mid-  own.  as  develops  M i d - and  use  end  establishes  the  poets.  the  each  The  strength,  abyss,  darkness,  commonplaces.  poet,"  leaps  indeed,  secrets  great  reacts  from  a l l  to  context,  the  sure,  and  Young,  over  be  poet,  "strong  abyss.  the  Gray  contains  without  of  identity,  other  a  the  in  define  repercussions  order  to  which  help  Milton  their  important  remains  another  for  them  both  of  Both  abyss  mind,  triumph  poet,  these  affects  guide  he  poetic  poets,  to  time,  of  of  he  century  in  as  mortality,  structure  of  No  and  "conventional" and  terrors  themes  abyss  the  unravel?  poet-persona  manner  the  pain,  that  the  that  to  seems  dies.  metaphors,  say  experience.  imaginative  the  later,  also  abyss  own  strength  succumbs  shall  poet's  the  century from  a  see  number  of  poets. analysis poetry,  which  to  of one  examine  1 7  the  poetry.  Poets  Martin  For,"  Heidegger,  discusses  eighteenth-century far  the  in  concept  German  the  purview  nineteenth  and  twentieth-century  does  allow a  provide  us  to  positive  us  manner.  and  essay,  which  Wine" as  the  central  Holderlin  asks  destitute  time?"  word  begins (PLT. "the  p.  The  which  began  that to  for  of  with  by  the;  gods.  related  and  meaning  the  end  the  Rilke,  late-eighteenth  of a  is  "defined  "default  of  God"  god  appears  of  the  gods  thus  A s we  carry poets  shall  important of  on  an  see,  the  age  night,  The  which  of  Christ"  (PLT.  of  argues  god's  failure  That  bringing the as  p.  god-deaths  91).  metaphorical  destitution.  a  defines  era  gods"  that  his  in  event—marks  earth  means  defines  for  death  (PLT. p.  no  essay.  Heidegger by  of  Holderlin  the  Dionysos.  Heidegger's  poets  era,  in  poem  number  sequence  age  end  are  a  historical day  which  century  this  s a c r i f i c i a l  completes and  in  Christian  the  for  explores  what  but  Holderlin's  impetus  raised  world  of  Christ  91).  cognates  notably  Heidegger,  and  death—a  Holderlin  (PLT. p.  understanding  to  death, The  poets,  concepts  late  ranges  late  and  Are  on  include  already  According  the  essay  suggests,  Herakles  Holderlin  f a l l i n g , " night"  of  Heidegger's  the  "and  the  based  Friedrich  question:  "What  abyss  terms  provides  ones  entitled  to  and  from  appearance  of  C h r i s t ' s  the  as  death  arrive,  after  7  The  beginning  91).  3  "the  91).  line  the  study  key  mid-  t i t l e  to  the  "time"  with  the A  this  some  (1800)  questions  the  with  approach  "Bread  of  essay  of  poetry.  beyond  he  an  is, word  "Night "the  is  world's  darkness, weight terms  do  and  for not  18  merely  refer  earth's  to  the  cycles!  time  they  of  help  day  or  define  to  an  the  rotation  onto-poetic  of  the  structure  of  mind. The sense  of  "default  of  pain  loss,  particular, itself  the  denies  leads  toward  found  it,  "divine  and  God  part  "becomes  poet, no  of  destitute"  the gain in  denotes No  solid  faith.  may  faith  the  ways:  92).  or  age  it  abyss,"  it  obscurity,  not  the  insight,  to  the an  age  the  And,  meaning  of  when  of As  for  the  the  (PLT. p.  go  to  time  Heidegger 92).  such  of  the  ground"  to  found  either  that  is,  long  as  the  of  God  and  characterizes  he  man  god,  which  can  man,  which  absence  age  as  union  displays  upon  with  alert  91).  abyss"  arrive"  to  Because  default  lighter,  presence.  conceals  the  exists  thus, or  God  complete  ground  darker  God's  when  "the  Hanging  become in  that,  and  listens.  in  a  Bate  way  however,  (PLT. p.  "hangs,  gives  that  as  to  world  disjunction  man  recognize  time  argues  a  one  more  uncertainty,  belief  no  ever  Heidegger  p.  between  time,  feels  time,  failure the  In  existence  The  Light  poet's  process  human  end.  experience!  to  the  The  exists,  fail  i t ,  that  the  mortality.  historical  illuminates  91).  human  and  "god's  accordingly,  rift  the  The  men  describes  (PLT.  belief  longer  longer  the  the  teleological  (PLT. p.  everyday;  about  that  destitute. no  intensifies  helplessness  basic  valid,  god  The  despair  most  some  of  feels  the  radiance"  invalidates  the  man  the  darkness.  speaks  poet  becomes  means; that  poet,  and  God," moreover,  lose  man's  way! faith  age  or  "hangs  man's vision.  19  Nonetheless! time" to  faced  escape  world's and  a  with  i t .  night,  endured"  abyss must  will  more  identity  in  Most cannot  notes  the  of  abyss  than  anything  for  into  93),  act  reaching  abyss  which  can  the  less  Hence  and  for  the  death,  Indeed,  the  to  discovers  marks "the  the  the  and  "the marks  and holy"  only in  traces  a  so  as  the  experienced  realizes  that  the  knowing  that  he  it  92).  Reaching  before  a l l  other  the  way  into  the  sense  of  and  foremost,  anxious  a l l  true  the  the the  abyss  back  94).  to  However,  the  part  gods"  his  between  of  this  notes 93),  own  life  primary that  "the  including  the  abyss,  he  and  "comes  to  (PLT. p.  of  of  it  existence.  fact,  godhead,  p.  mortality,  rift  explores  remarks" the  fact  (PLT. p.  fugitive  does  the his  he  Yet  poet's  revelation  poet  nor  Thus  (PLT.  the  mortal  in  him.  daring. i t ,  about  illuminates  a  as  foreboding'  for  men,  mortals"  dispels  everything"  of  other  no  poet,  When  world  described  remarks  (PLT. p.  be  such  of  poet's  Heidegger,  lead  age  the  exist.  that  the  must  be  or  abyss  traces  away  creates  than  underlying  godhead.  turn  poet  (PLT. p.  "sooner  which  abyss  cannot  holds  way  know  the  without  dialectic abyss  truth  cannot  approaches  poet,  first  the  in  "in  the  illuminate  dangerous  mortality.  poet  world  else,  the  abyss  reveals,  the  time.  to  the  into  any  God  exploration  seeks  abyss"  destitute  that  When he  the  poet  the  92).  disappear,  governs  the  Heidegger  importantly,  reaches  appear  abyss»  into  a  wait  an  the  necessity  (PLT. p.  not  "reach  abyss,  strict  to the  93).  the  These  realm  poet's  of  anguish  20  and  dejection  traces  in  an  during abyss  this  which  i11umination,  but  mortality.  searches  use  He  Heidegger's  night"  poetry, abyss  abyss a  century  force  in  obscure, of  the  best  known  in  poems  the  mid-  and- t h e  key to  the  results  the  vision  of  footsteps  experience  for  the  seeks  to  for  source  godlessness divine  darkness  of  and  radiance) £f\is7  of  in  of  both  content  the  mid-  to  world's  for  some  his  respond  the  abyss,  Pope  the  " A Poem  the  Sacred  PERSIAN  minor  poems.  how  importance century  require  confront  changes.  and  THOUGHTS,  represent  the  experiences  importance  Pope  to  Collins'  century  confrontations  abyss  NIGHT  not  way  The  sometimes  Thomson's  important  form.  Each  poet  the  of  abyss  time.  and  and  do  within  late-eighteenth  Young's  Gray's  late-eighteenth  fully  and  and  study  Newton," of  force  although  canon:  exploring  their the  essential  this  several  Milton  Milton of  he  the  an  except  poet's  and  and  more  Both  back  interesting,  Isaac  before  in  establish  their  Sir  shows  mid-  passages  poetry.  a  destitution  in  own  the  of  late-eighteenth  However, concept  poetry  chosen  ODES,  and  inspires  of  in  of  of  way  "amidst  Indeed,  works  and  these  the  poems  ECLOGUES  a  provides  his  constitutes  number  Memory  for  which  places.  most  to-the  a  only  because  92). thus  emerges  not  occurs  reveals  terms,  (PLT. p.  The  also  time  the from  way  this  poetry,  discussion of  the  the  Milton  mid-century  who  and on  in  show follow  Pope the  order  to  and  they  poets  certain  abyss  abyss,  differ,  The  of  because how in  21  relationship  of  the  poet  Whereas  Milton,  for  example,  poet  mid-century  of  directly" other,  to  relationship  with  such  a  Milton  change and  important Milton to  some  our  his  show  aspects the  the  of  later  through  in  and  ever the  Most  their  he  Pope.  so  do  poet's  abyss,  the  importantly,  markedly.  the  of  abyss  when  the  of  example  image  of  his  Muse.  invocations  to  the  Muse  invokes  the  reaction poets  to  of  an  concept  Muse  to of  important  the the  his  of Both  when  divine  the  respond  the  requires  alliance:  aid  in poet's  aspects  One  the  abyss  the  many  tradition.  Establishing thus  presence  poetic  later  quite  engages  primary  Pope's and  changes  confronts  changes,  the  this  r i f t .  arguments  Milton  to  Muse,  status.  if  literary  relates  equivocation,  the- M u s e ' s  abyss  rift  actively  reveals  ways.  the  Pope  c a l l s  contain  he  obscure  relationship  the  rarely  instead,  more  to  powers  displays change abyss  excursion  in for  22  BACKGROUNDS  More  than  pervasive  this  Milton's  influence  publication.  and  LOST  could  justified  accomplishes of* t h e  about  the  Milton  great  only  in  and  Milton's  be  out  of  as  importantly, as  a  being  formed  an  Johnson  faith.  with  of  plan!  so 3  of  darkness no  a* s h o r t F i r s t ,  shares  a  part on  man  of  by  the  a  solid  saw  his  it  in  the  He  writes  confidently.  lofty  and  steady  order  out  of  gloom.  owes  much  sketch and  which  divine ground as  of  to  his  his  perhaps  God's  age  poet.  creating  heritage  favored  that  Milton  century  "a  its  says,  significant  and  for  great  Johnson  But  8  and  doubt  its  comprehensive  and  notes.,  here.  God  Renaissance  boldness  As  a  its reasons  openly  capable  9  and  especially  relationship  3  confidence  important  it  exerts  of  success."  does  dispelling  Milton  design  LOST  number  devices?  more, d a r i n g  himself"  place  a  energy.  "a  by  he  Renaissance" heritage, not  following  and  poetic  AND POPE  PARADISE  Ta t e - e i g h t e e n t h  abyss—and  confidence  periods  imaginative  m i d - and  poetry,  theme  of  something  MILTON  obviously,  encompasses  possessed,  disorder  are,  its  PARADISE  eyes  the  manipulation  intellectual  be  other  on  There  influence:  masterful  TO T H E A B Y S S :  age  most  envisioned  benevolence. plan of one  would  and  he  science of  light  man  Man based and and  his  23  truth—the been  shrugged  potential A  theories  and of  were  that  held;  in  of  " a l l  over  distance  new  something greatest the  at  universe  abstract, such  a  is 4  God  to  their  cold, "old  and  4  2  had  one  science,  way  guarantees  placed saw and  God his  say  becoming  daily  lives,  impersonal  Nobodaddy."  less  deity.  evidence  a  the  the  an  in  and  good  deal  universe  omnipotence."  benevolence,  if  less  life  ordering  that  God's  occurs  and  time,  as  exhibited  such  as  and  by  universe  felt  theories  made  mathematics.  Men  to  Machine  4 1  especially  inconceivable expanding  incomprehensible,  partly  point  stated  could of  the  Grew  who  mark  can  Kepler, space  of  Nehem.iah  Great  Pascal,  of  .  God  botanist  as  0  age  the  responsive  the  Man  f l i e s . "  one  in  no  Mathematics  change, and  however,  conception  taken  perceptible  his  this  Galileo,  which  new  in  benevolent  laws  abstractions  "known"  had  divine  existence,  these  hand. " the  man's  considered  man  man.  of  for  of  first  immeasurable  darkness  promised  of  universe  from  world  period  perception  Nature  greatest  the  new  medieval  man's  example,  But" o m n i p o t e n c e when  a  vision  Copernicus,  £ G o d ' sCT  the  and  reasons  for  For  anxiety  "is  As  Many  universe.  occultist  beatific,  altering  concern  1682  last  this  of  death. the  at  the  frightening  plan.  -  of  man.  replaced  universal  which  off  for  more  slowly  the:  darkness  Pope  except later  because  in  sees  "Mystery  God were  receding  personal benevolent, Blake  into  will  the that to from  and an later  call  24  God, but  more  having wheel  of and  course,  remained  the  more  was  as  started  the  through  its  universal  motion  his  in  place  Renaissance  dramatically.  a  sense  most  altered,  Poems  God's  life  Moreover, happens faith  i f  so  many  that  mortal  leads  God  to the  offers  suffering.  and  excellent  examples  of  justifies  believes  in  the  the  vision  mankind  Miranda  Ben  says,  change quite  "Wonder,"  "The  World"  earth  and  the  to  poet  as  short,  goodness  of  the  new  dark  as  for  and  How How  he  universe—and  of  provides  medieval  She  past  declares  to  wonder!  many g o o d l y c r e a t u r e s beauteous mankind i s !  "Man,"  Renaissance  Prospero: O,  a  because  THE TEMPEST,  world."  that  provide  the  existence  its  mankind?  maintains  A l l Gone"  of  from  express  recompense  death  play,  George  perfection.  "To H e a v e n " In  of  in  melancholic,  Have  of  himself.  holy,  salvation "They  last  "brave  poems,  universe  confidence  turns  faith.  and  emerging a  the  Jonson's  such  ultimate  Shakespeare's  as  eternal  pain  himself. of  mood  Vaughan's  "Death,"  of  a  once  perspective  this  the  the  maker,  conception  Traherne's  display  realm  poet's  of  felt  upon  Renaissance  Herbert's  poet  shining  the  man's  Vaughan's  poems  the  the  who,  watches  demonstrate  Thomas  Henry  cause  As  image  example,  like  these  simply  his  creator,  first  changed  writings  Tight  even  in  and  and  a  motions.  so  for  their  importantly,  earthly  plan  "Vanity,"  of  now  appointed  writers, as  seen  machine,  God's  perspective,  Herbert's  he  divine  are there here! 0 b r a v e new w o r l d ,  a into,  25  That Man  possesses  Miranda  as  a  Renaissance  has  man,  science  support  positive  David in  a  of  God" with  energy  and  to  carry  of  the  which  is  that  continually  uninterrupted  never the  the  body." *' 4  In  or  exists  or,  nature  which  it  links  the  man and  the  the  but  the  is  of  the  is  follows or  God'  he  sees,  leads  to  a  God.  He  full  universal ever  apprised  limits  to  argues,  another  force  in  an  which from  in  fact,  anything the  in  us  qualities  conviction  regards  is  bold  uncertainty  possesses  He  are  sensible  and  to  too  concealed  only  man  the  He  4  sees  that  of  narrow 4  a  world  "everything  Hume  which  of  in  precursors.  universe  entirely  any  new  sufficiently  power  laws  qualities.  brave  theory  operations." of  the  an  Rochester  divine  the  of  universe  and  Being  one. o b j e c t  in  man  him  a  reason  and  similarly,  "this  to  "scenes  mind  and  that  Supreme  its  short,  the  nature  that  say  promise  universe.  Renaissance  who  the  in  itself  in  man  the  where  the  regarded  his  machine  between  view  also  human  relationship  of  one  his  succession'  discovers  order,  strikes  For  the  over  the  whole  place.  nature  with  shifting,  world  Swift  of  confined  furthermore,  executes  of  the  like  argument  conviction  ^  Writers  from  operation  4  holds  image  philosophers  weakness it  and  however,  example,  the  and  earth  overall  light  those  the  animal  for  i n ' t !  wonderful  beauty  light.  different  counters  of his  man's  Hume,  grace,  then,  writers,  emphasize  and  miraculous,  paradise  less  people  beauty  earthly  Later  such  and of  the  nothing that in  notion  God his of  the  26  soul—the finds the  divine  no  spirit  "principle  union  of  philosophy  soul  whose  in  i n roan — a s a l l  with  of  fiction.  nature  body."46  early  a  English  more  Hume voices  Indeed,  he  mysterious  than  completes  a  belong  Bacon  to  sceptical and  Hobbes . In  short,  from  the  early  eighteenth-century,  a  between  occurs.  the  God  abyss  and  man  begins  to  to  "assert  Eternal  to  men."47  Milton  needed  to  ordered  hear  part  re-affirm, the  fall  of  a  an  ambiguity  of  how  man  may  man  to  (I. with  history.  Milton's  important  purpose.  and  man,  forces  with  man  see  that  his  proper  to  human  man  1.  "There's  no  1),  as  God  re-evaluate  his  cripples  relationship  notes,  to  to  the  allow  God.  the  no contrary,  "First  hierarchy  Milton  regardless of  in  however,  our Biblical  serves  between  himself,  basic  an God  Milton  with  God,  desire  to  thus  in  contains  structures  relationship man's  a l l ,  an  to  providence  inscribed  justify  age  was  needed  declaration  on  God  his  age  Man's  strategy,  of  The  should  God.  of  justified ,  After  relationship  reversing  asking  pride  to  Milton  rhetorical By  Milton's  ways  men  as  intention  was  justification?  ways  a  the  LOST  its  the  special  clarifying.  his  God,  that  plan  actions  PARADISE  justify  Providence."  Yet  separation  announces  And  eternal  God's  require  justify  Disobedience"  poem  the  or  writes  belived  that  needs  feel,  should  relationship  The  sparrow."48  reproach, needs  God's  Hamlet,  which  Milton  obviously  to  disjunction  Providence,/  "Eternal  like  of  widen.  that  of  sense  Renaissance  forces  and  to  accept man  to  27  seek h i s true h u m i l i t y . Moreover, i f one comment that  the poet  illumination  of man  ground  and God's ways, then M i l t o n ' s ambiguous  and God  attention  marks the widening he attempts point  clarifies  Milton  he sees becoming obscure,  and  between man  and God  even  i t . M i l t o n ' s courage  at t h i s  critical  c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s stance throughout  as Johnson  takes a  to the " r e v e r s a l " of the h i e r a r c h y , he  of the r i f t  to c l o s e  itself.  in order to i l l u m i n a t e the primal  of a r e l a t i o n s h i p which  by drawing  Heidegger's  sees h i s sacred task as the  pronouncement suddenly stand between man  recalls  says" and as M i l t o n  establishes his identity  as  the e n t i r e poem,  invokes h i s Muse, he  and c o n f i d e n c e in the face of the  abyss, a c o n f i d e n c e which  we  a l r e a d y noted mid-  and  l a t e - e i g h t e e n t h century poets were incapable of m a i n t a i n i n g about  their  own  work.  Milton confidently 1. 6) as  the one  i d e n t i f i e s h i s "Heav'nly  Muse" ( 1 .  who  didst inspire That Shepherd, who f i r s t taught the chosen Seed, In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and E a r t h Rose out of Chaos. (1.11.7-10)  That  i s , Mi 11on s Muse shares God's powers, or even 1  i s God  h i m s e l f , and  the poet whose Muse possesses the power to  dispel  and c r e a t e order shares in the same power.  chaos  M i l t o n does not choose voice—capriciously!  h i s Muse--the i n s p i r a t i o n  But  for h i s  he bases h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Muse  on a well-thought out b e l i e f  that  God's word w i l l  the t e r r o r  triumph  over  only a s o l i d  f a i t h in  of the abyss.  28  Indeed,  as  even  his  poetic  For  example,  Nature  Is  because of  of  may  for  nothing  an  of  by  To  gods"  (11.  to  PARADISE  mind  Chaos,"  and  his  ignorance  responds  asserting  eternal  that  plan.  benevolent  to  until  the  "new"  God s t i l l  eye  falls  The  laws  of  of  are  his  God's a  error  only  "perishing  in  no  over  way the  measure  reason  maintains  essential later  in  lowest  oneness PARADISE  depth  of  Milton's vision an  that  evolves  of  upon/ Milton  the the  man  who  world's "be  cannot  Man e r r s  which  of  alter  cast  down  to  11).  God's with  a  33-34).  early  poetry  thus  indicates  recognition the  that  imagination,  w i l l ,  that  the one  38-41 )  this like  terrify  (11.  of  in  universe  universe  creation  abyss"  essential'aspect  him  (1.  the  by  "Rose  imprisons  grasp  the  a  will  he  LOST,  from  which count  has f i x e d the s c a l e s of fate w i t h sure b a l a n c e and commanded e v e r y i n dividual t h i n g i n the cosmos to hold to i t s course: f o r e v e r . (11. Milton  error  nature  hours"  conceptions  laws  the  ways.  world  "That  into  written which  abyss.  poem  acts  argument  watches  because  man  comprehend  changing  Latin  develops  the  own/  justify  the  Milton  its  that  an  to  can  that  operation  continual  the  early  make  "those  LOST  his  of  the  shows,  confronting  6-8).  3-10),  that  his  dare  through  (11.  in  by  Old Age"  mind  compared  in  abyss  Milton  the/  poetry  voice,  argues  insane  adamant"  supposing  his  Subject  discover  reassert  out  Milton  Not  man  eternal  earliest  identity,  "His  those  his  him  his  abyss which  Satan in  the/  poetic constitutes expresses  29  a  central  Milton  experience  also  abyss.  First  reference abyss of  shows  point,  in  his  cosmos  his  not  associates  with  an  the  itself  keep  it  a b i l i t y  to  invocation  a  fixed  but  of  plunges  the  poem's the  radiance  the  PARADISE  that  of  the  the  in  i f  of  lies  the  abyss  while  and  in  his  fails the  Milton's affirming  world.  to  he  man:  man of  fact,  the  which  Milton  terrors  says  Milton's  darkness,  in  Milton  the  direction  mind  which,  illuminates  LOST,  Hell,  and  the  distinct  Finally,  into  power,  the  everything  Death,  cosmos  of  situates  boundaries  abyss  of  only  two  plan.  geographical  structure  him  always  a  helps  abyss.  terror  terror  not  the  sort  universal  which  Sin,  between a  the  delineate  the  the  locale,  because can  of  over  abyss—such  part  portray  to  he  forms  Part-of  a  evil—Chaos,  lighted,  divine  it  speak,  the  analogy  abyss.  that  to  vision  triumphs  Second,  and  develops  to  so  change,  forth—forms  mind  he  gives  narrative. do  man's  imagination,  realms--Heaven  so  how  he  t  in  In  the  Muse:  Instruct me, f o r Thou k n o w ' s t j Thou from the first Wast p r e s e n t , and w i t h m i g h t y wings outspread D o v e - l i k e s a t s t b r o o d i n g on t h e v a s t Abyss And m a d ' s t it pregnant: W h a t i n me i s dark I l l u m i n e , what. i s . l o w r a i s e and support.  ( I . 1 1 . 12-23) Milton  admits  that  he  needs  this  important  juncture  poem  involve  descent  the  way  out.  a  And,  declares,  the  part  which  over  as  abyss he  in into  the also  must  the the  divine poem:  the  forms attain  Books  abyss  metaphor a  of  Muse  and  to I  an  darkness  part  mastery  of  the  before  aid  to  him  III  of  at the  exploration in  the  poet's he  of  passage mind,  ascends  a to  30  Light. the  Most  abyss  importantly,  into  imagination God,  triumphant  leads  "Almighty  Thus,  after  Milton  him  to  Power"  the  turns  art. the  (I.  a  confrontation  poet  godhead,  1.  invocation  As  his  whose  Milton  with  strong  possesses,  44),  power  to  confront  Milton  hurls  Satan  like  e v i l .  headlong flaming from t h ' E t h e r e a l Sky W i t h h i d e o u s r u i n and c o m b u s t i o n down To b o t t o m l e s s p e r d i t i o n , t h e r e to dwell In A d a m a n t i n e C h a i n s and p e n a l Fire. ( 1 . 1 . In  this  one  defined 63). and  by  act "No  Milton  that  abyss  because,  because  within  as  the  rather  leads  He i d e g g e r  into  to  the  says,  abyss  Satan  in  order  explore  the  way  account  Milton  to  out  the  eschatol'ogy,  of  part  one  belongs  qualities  dangerous  task  of  and  similar Satan's the  to  for  indeed,  in  1. "holds  some  into  before  finds  way  the  a l l  the  traces  strength  "courage  say,  derives  never  to  as  from  submit  to He  "the  off  the  so If  one  Milton's and  rather,  Satan  or  in  in  Blake  abyss.  dons  man.  plays  requires  mark  and,  fellow  party?  the  Milton  abyss  his  Milton  which  that  Satan  not  exploring those  the  Satan's  what  others.  which  Satan  place  (I.  abyss  poet,  there  made  which  heed to  be  it  understand  qualities  the  a  godhead.  of  into  visible"  follows  and  can  shows  darkness,  the  light,  he  argument  that  Will"  Hell,  itself?  of  darkness  an  overall  the  here  realm  fact,  takes  to  but  the  In  doing,  do,  Tight  reaches  Tea d i n g ' t o  fixes  everything,"  holds  mask  light,  begins  remarks  others,  Milton  45-48 )  Bloom  one  needs  succeed  at  requires from  a l l  unconquerable  yield  (1.  11.  31  106-108). the.  Milton,  terrors  Will"  to  of  of  the  remain  course,  abyss,  firm  in  must  and. he  his  never needs  belief  in  "submit an  or  yield"  to  "unconquerable  God's  eternal  goodness. The. a n a l o g y develops "sooner 93). the  even than  After task  Satan ,  further. other  the  of  between  Satan  Heidegger  mortals,"  great  seeking  and  the  poet's  t e l l s  explores  us  the  that  in  Hell,  only  escape  from  the  abyss.  in  the  abyss  councils  an  task,  fact,  poet,  (PLT.  Satan  p.  shoulders  Satan,  only  sha1 1 tempt w i t h w a n d ' r i n g feet The dark unbottom'd. i n f i n i t e Abyss And through the p a l p a b l e obscure f i n d out H i s u n c o u t h way, or s p r e a d h i s a e r y flight Upborne with i n d e f a t i g a b l e wings Over the vast abrupt. (II.  Even the  i f  the  journey  way  out  of  Hell  because  he  seeks  same  pains  as  way/  And h a r d ,  433-434).  of  only  and,  remains (II.  him  11. When  he  that  meets  out  in  the  The  of  also  Hell i f  it  danger, poet,  knows  leads  one  absolute.  if  less/  Light.  dangers,  Night,"  even  with  men,  even  further  "unessential  being"  fallen  Moreover,  s o l i d , ground.,exists  a l l  abounds  that  up  to  ascends  threaten: When  he  escapes  his  Than  unknown  dangers  Satan  who  feels  "long  is  the  absolute  him  stands "with  present and  404-409)  light"  from  Satan  threatens  1 1.  (II.  the the 11.  abyss  onto  security on  the  utter  danger as  dares  hard  edge  loss  of  "what escape?"  440-444). Satan four  "Explores  important  his  solitary  figures:  Sin,  flight" Death,  (II.  Chaos,  1. and  633),  32  Night.  Each  figure  understanding  the  toward  accepting  before  hs  can  understand a  Death,  of  forces  man  fallen  nature.  Sad  pivotal  to  Sin  makes  given  of  aware  comprehension soon  "Th infernal 1  develops which speak,  a  the  profound out  the  (II.  open  image  before  Pascalian  plan!  poet Sin  and  the  11.  and  of  the  of  which of  Hell and  and  the  fear  consciousness human  to  between  f a l l ,  a  faces  sin and,  these  two  and  God.  through them.  deep"  describes  of  fuller  man  abyss  of  limitations  fatal  hoary  his  opens  Chaos  way  abyss.  which  entire  He  Death  811-812)  pass  them.  and  Key,/  Death  "the  indeed,  fatal  between  the  step  "the  and  of  a  must  fact  holds  The  the  relationship  the  eternal  s p i r i t u a l  concerning  Sin,  marks  knowledge  wide  abyss:  figure  the  Death,  mortality  the  eschatology  Hell.  r  of  figure.  ll-881)  i s  of  Satan,  doors,"  through  woe"  necessarily  as  spreads  of  into  argument  of  abyss,  limitations  (II.  that  each  Milton's  our  one  aspect  God's  each  mother  a l l  pain,  in  of  of  the  over  his  plunges  one  of  an  mortality,  Sin,  traces  As  is  accept  Milton's:  i n i t i a l  out  doors"  ever-lasting  justice  place  course,  "Th* i n f e r n a 1  thus  the  triumph  instrument  Chaos.  significance  climb  and  occupy  illuminates  Milton  (II.  the  1.  abyss,  891) so  to  eyes: a  dark  I l l i m i t a b l e Ocean without bound. Without d i m e n s i o n , where length, h i ght h , And time and p l a c e are lost.  breadth,  and  (II.  891-894)  11.  33  Two  entities  Ancestors and  rule  of N a t u r e "  ( I I . 11.  Night, uni11uminated  vision  i t lacks  imagine  the  presents  Milton  vision  possesses  God  because,  fixed  the  as a poet  that  "God  (IT.  1.  he  certainty  of c o u r s e ,  produces, since  the e t e r n a l  faith He  secure  and  Chaos  the  he  and  of God's  N i g h t , and  terrors  of  vast  as  i n God's b e n e v o l e n c e  dares  can  the u n i v e r s e  power  r e a l m of Chaos and  destroys  the  abyss  i n h i s . c o n c e p t i o n of h i s p o e t i c God  lights  guard  by  h i s way. special  He  feels  grace"  II of PARADISE LOST e s t a b l i s h  to M i l t o n ' s o v e r a l l h a n d l i n g of  of v i s i o n  Tate-eighteenth  poets  can  chaos  invocation,  which  he  secure  the  poet  which  creates order. appealed  of h i s mind, the m e d i a r y  Later  a number spans  to the Muse  the  mid-  and  precisely  of  with  of  which  easel  initial  to " i l l u m i n e "  to h i s e x p l o r a t i o n  for  t h i n g s at  worlds  From h i s  primacy  Moreover,  indicates  revere Milton  He  the  design.  possesses.  accomplishes  only marvel.  and  poetic  the m a t e r i a l  century poets  reason. Milton  through  of  Chaos  terrifies  for Milton,  good A n g e l s  I and  confident  darkness  which  divine him  of  1033).  the a b y s s  dispels  realm  Milton,  a vision  order  Chaos,  radiance, provides a  hope.  such  The  But,  knows t h a t  and  Books  later  divine  and  of the a b y s s .  character,  this  894-895).  powerfully.  shows, a r e s o l u t e  terror  his  which  s e r v e to remind  design:  the  purpose  terror  that  ultimately Death  by  N i g h t / And  of a g o d l e s s u n i v e r s e , a v i s i o n  because  of  the d e e p - - " e 1 d e s t  the  the  abyss  of S a t a n , M i l t o n ' s i m a g i n a t i v e e n e r g y  he  34  prevails facti and  over  Milton  himself  dangers.  pointed as  they  out  however,  He  it  finds  magnificent  Throughout the  came  Milton, task. most  a l l  closer  needs  in  dangers  the  to  books,  which  beset  both  strength  invocation in  first  in  Satan  Light.  greater  apostrophes  the  the  to  to  BOOK  f u l f i l l  III, one  English  his of  the  language:  i Hail Holy Light, o f f s p r i n g of Heav'n first-born, Or o f t h * E t e r n a l C o e t e r n a l beam May I e x p r e s s t h e e u n b l a m ' d ? s i n c e God i s Light And never but in unapproached Light Dwelt from E t e r n i t y , dwelt then in thee, B r i g h t e f f l u e n c e of b r i g h t essence increate.  (III. The  equation  which  Milton  S t i l l ,  it  of  makes  seems  question—"May a l l ,  could  who,  reaching  creates  God's  godhead, hold about  so  God,  and  be  blamed?  the  After i f  a l l ,  as  poet  innocuous He  may  himself  he  must  of  a  saw  but  with  as  like  of  his  God's  question  he  nears and  poe*.  expresses  appropriate  the  statement  He  his  in  creation  significant  question  God,  earlier,  anxiety  a  one  presumptuous  Light,  as  a  after  asks  poet,  appropriate  course,  Nativity."  what,  nature  appear  about  of  sounding  cannot,  the  approaching  arguments  we  order,  i n v o c a t i o n makes  a  as  illuminate  in  With  the  point  opens  however,  that  Milton,  actions  conception  succeed  realization.  his  the  sees  establishes  Bloom's  then  his  to  same  invocation  Milton,  abyss,  chaos.  doing that  Milton's to  unblam'd?"  abyss  true,  that  thee  the  and  C h r i s t ' s  of  I express  into  eyes.  Morning the  into  fear  the  that  of  a  re-affirms  peculiar  Milton  in  Light  "On The  out  and  betrays  in  order  descends ways,  God and  11. 1-6)  knows  precursor, this  God,  and  so  35  he  moderates  and,  most  God  as  that  positive  Thamyris,  Light,  it in  most the  external 47') ,  him  yet  mind.  he  c a l l s So  to  emphasizing man  needs  sing  they  won that  the  Thus,  upon the  and  statements  mortal  of  man God.  Phineus  were  inspires  inwardly,  to  rather  of  thou  a l l ,  of notes  like  where  the  cannot  his  the man  real  abyss,  "see"  Knowledge  illuminate  truth  experienced  darkness,  "Book  always  Milton  They  Milton  limited  it  the  renown.  the  and  because  teaches  glory  although  Light  his  Light  greatest  nature,  much  the  Tiresias,  because  of  encomiastic  p r i n c i p l e which  explains,  world  through  by  that  Homer,  blind,  Milton  needs  1 .  says  inspires  himself,  lies  He  a  and  position  importantly,  existence. acts  his  the  fair"  (III.  mind:  Celestial  Light  S h i n e i n w a r d , and the mind t h r o u g h a l l her powers Irradiate, there plant eyes, a l l mist from thence Purge and d i s p e r s e , that I may s e e a n d tell Of t h i n g s i n v i s i b l e t o m o r t a l sight. (III. After "Th'  this  Almighty  confidently of  call  the.  to  Light  Father  ascends  abyss,  a  Milton's  from to  poet  above"  Heaven,  whose  poem  moves  (III.  to  1.  56).  triumphing  over  imagination  dares  11.  the That the  the  51-55)  home  of  is,  he  terrors universe  itself. Milton's role' in  the  of  essay,  this  triumph  basic  unnecessary.  design  further The  development  of  identity  the  in  over  the  of  abyss  of  and  important  abyss:  the  it?  thus  PARADISE  analysis  most  face  the  the  LOST. examples  points  way  plays  he  great  stem  For  a  central  the  purposes  are from  establishes confidence  Milton's his which  he  36  maintains  throughout;  establishes identity. to  the  with  his  Milton  godhead  destitute.  age  .  .  or  among  relationship order.to  clearly  an  us,  no  age  to  of  do  help  "default  through  could  some  he  define of  the  s t i l l  ages  that  God";  abyss.  say  wherein  that God  remarkable  his the  The  track  time  "the  is  good  poetic  is  present  manifestly  to  our  church  state."49 Milton's  power  to  Although they  they  after  Milton,  the  abyss  the  godhead  an  important  to  m i d - and  example, poetry  most  work  which  will  in. t h i s  in  written  the  abyss.  the  m i d - and  and  confusing  at  of  the  the  the  r i f t .  poets  find  abyss,  which  a  hidden  from  clear  First,  Milton,  evolution  and  of  century  he  the  the  traces Pope,  abyss, he  he  to  a  and merits  approaches  abyss  poetry.  containing  later,  hence  be  escaped?  view. the  that  should  for  result,  contain  become  it  Milton  available  as  study.  from  imagination's  of  century  cannot  Tate-eighteenth  presents  terror  and,  and  ways,  differently  strong  strategies  obscure  reasons  step  and  difficulties  always  become in  the  terrors  poetic  position  quite  the  faced  not  poet  several  abyss  darkness  to  late-eighteenth  the  do  special  attests  overcome  that  for  the  m i d - and  cannot  "strong"  poetry  dispel  added  a  in  Milton  i s ' t o . .us  down  Muse  shines  yet  come  the  experiences  not  .  and  the  provides  from  Milton  THE DUNCIAD,  for  a  particularly  instructive  vision  of  a  point  poet  longer  contain  Second,  Pope's  when  presence  late-eighteenth manner.  He  a  century  enjoyed  a  can  hangs in  a  no  over  the  poets  sometimes  reputation  as  one  of  strange of  37  England's Pope  greatest  poets.  Johnson)  where  i s poetry  be n o t a p o e t ,  Johnson Pope's other  qualifies  h i s statements  excellence poets  degree.  before  Johnson  constitutes  i n almost  says:  a poet"  cold  and knowledge  some  hesitation,  Warburton  claims  that  to  a l l mankind,"  of  h i s prof ession."52  high  enough.  failure: to hold to  illuminate Pope  to  darkness  example, Pope the  existence  poetry,  to a vision This  at bay. poetic  Young's In Pope's part  Pope's  authoritatively  which  judgement i s  shall  a t t h e head not s o a r i n g  s e e , was h i s Truth" bears  powers speaks  fails  necessary  ON C R I T I C I S M , f o r Throughout  t h e ESSAY,  and a s s e r t s truth.  i n a l l h i s works.  and not h i s s k i l l ,  he  exploring  a l l the virtues  confidence.  with  he i s s u p e r i o r  with  development  H i s ESSAY  which  must,  ZPop^7  Pope  greater  Similarly,  of d i v i n e  possesses  of poetry  however,  charges  despite  which  excelled,  "not think  p r o b l e m , a s we  demonstrates h i s poetic  speaks  in  Young  apparently  exudes  without  " w h e r e i n Pope  the abyss.  because keep  fast  power  t o Dryden."51  b u t he d o e s  Pope's  in a  . . . the superiority  be a l l o w e d that  that  Yet  characteristic,  one q u a l i t y  quality  inert  that,  poetical  "Of g e n i u s ,  asks: " i f  t o be f o u n d ? " 5 0  and f i n d s  every  him possess  f o r example,  I n d e e d , he  Pope's  reveals  hisfaith in  attitude  to  the basis f o r  dissatisfaction. WINDSOR  FOREST,  relationship leads Muse  f o r example,  to poetry  emerges,  to the d e s t i t u t i o n  i n WINDSOR  FOREST  a clear  of  a relationship  of l a t e r  bears  vision  poets.  which  First,  no r e s e m b l a n c e t o  38  Milton's. a  His  encomium  conventional  first  began  manner  writing  to  Granville  which,  the  given  poem  when  understandable.  His  youthful  no  his  poetic  anxiety  adapts  about  conventions  continuing  value  strengthens energy on.  and  his  of  asserts  poetic  providing  Pope's  vision  his  at  the  ever  he  his  vision  his  firm  by  creates ever  beginning  Pope  was  of  and  a  sure,  shows  easy  way  For  WINDSOR  •  r  Pope  youthful  ground in  example,  Pope  in  affirms,  his  creation. ecstatic  belief  "That  through  Nature  belief  Windsor vision  build  poetry  a  Pope  long, in Song. ( i i . 7 - 8 )  this  Milton  to  FOREST:  •  carries  young  tradition  his  T h e G r o v e s o f E d e n , v a n i s h ' d now so L i v e i n D e s c r i p t i o n , and Took g r e e n •  he  the  the  re-creates  real.  he  be  in  firm  that  in  seems  belief  directing  Muses  sixteen,  to The  the  claims  but  Indeed,  imagination  new,  forth  exuberance,  tradition.  imagination  life  that  tradition.  indicates  of  calls  of  in  Forest a  Is  the  Not  entire  the  poem.  Subject  eternal  forms  nature  the  To  order  the  Old Age,"  of  backdrop  Like  a l l  for  Pope's  which  Not C h a o s - l i k e t o g e t h e r c r u s h ' d and bruis'd, But as the W o r l d , h a r m o n i o u s l y confus'd: Where Order i n V a r i e t y we see, And w h e r e , tho' a l l things differ, a l l agree. (11.13-16) Earl  R.  Wasserman  tradition any  of  disorder  which argues  he  that  Pope  CONCORDIA  DISCORS,"  which  sees  cannot  that  notes  man  comprehend.  "Order  is  forms 5 3  Heav'n's  In  inherits that a  is,  part  Pope of  AN ESSAY  first  law"  "the  a  entire affirms  greater  that order  ON M A N , P o p e and  that " A l l  3 9  Naturer's; d : t f f renc& 49-56).- Wasserman the  time-J  which  many  optimism one: Age. exudes  in  itself  Sound the  laws  past"  Waste"  says,  l i g h t . "  5  of  Elements  Tyrant  a  Christian  escape;,  the  and  to  the- c o u n t r y 43-44). yet  and  hopes-  Pope's as  a  triumphant  from  escape  or  his  the'  from  of  dark  the  changes  early  Society  history."55  explained  "A  strain  the  c e n t u r i e s , " ^  seemed  become  age  of  eighteenth-century  these  The  but  glooms  laws —  p o l i t i c a l  r e l i e f  Gothic  fogs  heed  to  Forest.  England,  becomes  inspiring  contends,  England's  tyrannies  with the  workings  when  dreamy  he  of  notes  Desart,  and  eighteenth-century, with.excessive  the  provides and  he  new place  as now  Olympus.  "Attends  i t a  the  one  a  "ev'n  pagan  the  and  history  flows  through  metaphor and  Windsor  of  with  for a l l imagination,  Forest,  wanders  Duties  as  his  a l l poetry  where  when  Mixing  completes  Forest, of  history  times,  52).  Thames  source a  a  (1.  River  early  dismal  myth,  Windsor  bower,  reflects,  and  sway'd"  imagery  apostrophe  wood,  pays  characterizes  succession  an  of  optimism  f r i g h t e n Pope  early  universe,  11.  6  Pope  Windsor  the  divine  "not  his  (IV. the  the  nation,  abyss,  a-nd:  "the  (11.  had  the  no  notes,  nature —  "in- Ages  Willey  an  of  mirrors  experiences  barbarism  Pope  gloomy  for  mysterious  freed of  had He  peace"  sure>»- p o r t r a y s  relief  universe.  that a  and  the. poem  be  Willey  a  how  darkness,  " a * s e n s e * of  ignorance  to  deeper.  ;  Basil  living  felt  poem,-  trace- of  As  shows  Englishmen  goes  no  of  the-  keeps- a l l Nature-' s  through  the  Wise  Pope the and  40  Good" poem  (1.  250).  beyond  At  its  this  p o l i t i c a l  accordingly.  Pope's  to  his  reflect  into  the  on  however, he  Home"  into He  that  (1. The a  with  because  claims  theme  he  he  he  and to  sees  can  the  in  of  the  theme  tone  plea  his  Death  the  a  Region,  the  he  calls  man  that  man  look  essential  does as  of  changes  poetic!  his  heavens  "Survey  the  more  man  godhead.  expands  and  becomes  speaks  the  Pope  aspect,  mortality,  heavens,  relationship  point  not  terrify  comforting and  Pope,  home:  confess  her  25S). effect  sacred  imagines  of  Pope's  paradise  himself  vision  vivified  walking  transforms by  the  through  Windsor  poetry  the  now  of  Forest  past  poets.  consecrated  forest.: I." seem- t h r o ' c o n s e c r a t e d Walks to rove, I hear soft. M u s i c k dye a l o n g the Grove: L e d b y t h e S o u n d I" r o a m f r o m S h a d e t o Shade, By- G o d - l i k e P o e t s V e n e r a b l e m a d e . " ' ( 1 1. 267-270) However, Cowley  Pope's  and  Heav'nly  Shades If  a  Denham,  Voice"  a» p a s t o r a . T  question,  realizes  that  relentless  stopp'd  277),  sing  no  England.  strung/  late-eighteenth  it  would  have Pope  finds  a  more  Pope, w o n d e r s  or  s t i l l  he  Fate  (!.,  But  when  "Since  Cowley  resignation. England,  changes  convention,  where  mid-  mood  His  produced affirms voice  "Who now  living  century  in  Harp?"  poet  immediate  that  amongst  poetry the  had  their  shall  Invoking charm  (11. posed  despair s t i l l  both  the  279-280). Pope's and  lives  in  living:  But h a r k ! the Groves r e j o i c e , the F o r e s t rings! A r e t h e s e r e v i v ' d ? or i s i t GRANVILLE sings? ' T i s y o u r s , my L o r d , to b l e s s our s o f t Retreats,  41  And c a l l To p a i n t To c r o w n .  .  the Muses to t h e i r a n c i e n t Seats! anew the f 1 o w ' r y S y l v a n Scenes, the F o r e s t s w i t h Immortal Greens. (11. 231-236)  .  Through  the  living  link  its  "ancient  to  earth! voice-  indeed, of  voice  Pope  of  seat"  Granville, and  asserts  poetry  maintains  that  maintains  the  light  of  God  Granville's  voice  is  the  thoughts of Gods b r i n g the scenes  l e t GRANVILLE'S of opening fate  verse recite, to light. (11.  voice  light that; of  on he  the  of the  future.  reveal  Such  a  such  talent  427)  to  his  prophecy,  the  eternal task  mantle  for  that  to  a  bold  he  so with his  a  says, yet 7  godhead.  the  had  stand he  Young And  if  of  apply  failure  much  doubled  one  means  Pope, a  deserves  shines  poet's  task to  inherent  refuses  Pope  in  more to  and,  requires  God's  man  plan.  claims  "humble  don  a  assure  however,  preferred  among his  his  which  contends  notes,  425-426)  the  Muse"  no (1.  poet's  thus,  undermines  Muses.  detractors,  and  "we  he  career  as- p a r t  truth  Muse.  obviously  the  which  preferring  which  Pope's  man,  and  Granville!  potential,  5  sees  of  identity  POPE." .  Pope  himself,  preference  HOMER,  expressly  that  persona.  Young  Pope  future  requires  Throughout  poetic:  as  providence  "alliance"  this  on  prophecy: The And  The  its  failure talents  lessened obliged our  that  examines  them  the  "humble  Edward  Young,  to to  his for  their powers  his  obligation, Pope  does  several  assume  of  not  full  full as  a us  giving soar  Pope's  viewed  his  giving by  Muse"  to  poet.  As  an us  a  the  invocations,  42  one  sees  him  and  Muse,  discarding  relying  inspiration. becomes  marks  Pope's  that  the  God  Milton's the  poem,  abyss  Whereas  and  encompasses man's  human,  not  divine  Thus,  at  with 1. Pope  relationships  an  in  Muse  to  St.  not  breaks his  divine  Muse--and  in  offers  inspiration  of  his  one  of  poetical so  for  doing his  secrets  God  to  of  man.  landscape  which  t e l l s  reader  his  that  the  traditional  Instead, him:  he  vision  ESSAY,  he  of  the  most  of  task,  for  from  God"  his  nature, his  and (I.  1.  enduring  tradition--the that  calls  human  philosopher,  "Oracle  small  calls  emerges  the  poetic  unlike  u t i l i z e  his  says  ways  own  "guide,  from  the  ESSAY,  the  in  to  his  support  the  LOST  beyond  Milton.  Indeed,  John,  of  Pope  not  did and  end  390),  Hell,  "vindicate  unravel  of  similar  Pope's  ways  anything  as  light. the  the  poetry.  PARADISE  sounds to  Pope's  example  to  poet  throws  later  good  poem  to  poetry  for  of  of  study.  debt  however,  does  guide  a  a  imaginative  and  grasp  his  this  intends  justify  moreover,  John  12).  not  Heaven  St.  (IV.  sure,  attempt  friend  friend"  Pope's  will  the  of  owes  16)5  to  friendship  be  cannot  notes  poem of  sources  development  (EOM. p.  invocation  Pope  The  relationship  which  ON M A N p r o v i d e s  develops  Pope,  light  c r i t i c a l  to  both  vision  c i r c l e .  as  context  the  thereby  Milton  divine  In  intent  Man"  not  of  a  Pope,  to  human,  AN ESSAY  stated  traditional  circle  withdrawal.  Milton's. of  The  smaller.  withdrawal  Pope's  on  the  the and  poet  Muse as  no we  and  his  longer shall  see,  43  Pope's "Muse" does not ESSAY opens with  go unnoticed  Pope's c a l l  by  later  poets.  The  to St. John to  Awake, my S t . John! leave a l l meaner things To low ambition, and the p r i d e of Kings. Let us ( s i n c e L i f e can l i t t l e more supply Than just to look about us and to die) E x p a t i a t e f r e e o'er a l l t h i s scene of Man. (I. The  movement and  searching  the tone d i f f e r  the  invocation  i n d i c a t e s the change in p o e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s . and  appears as an  respect  for h i s p o e t i c past,  i n t r i g u i n g and  1-5)  from M i l t o n ' s a c t i v e ,  p o e t i c in PARADISE LOST, and  admiration  11.  Given Pope's t h i s movement *  p e r p l e x i n g a c t , but  it fits  Pope's concerns in the poem. He wants to show that man but  a small  part of the e n t i r e u n i v e r s e ;  hence,  he  emphasizes man's r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n in the o v e r a l l t h i n g s and (1. 35).  c a l l s man's d e s i r e to know a l l as Man,  " t r a c e him  in /ft i sT  Pope's d o c t r i n e  not that  "The  bliss  becomes impossible  (1.  32).  of Man"  in f a c t , presents  should  183-189), a b e l i e f  "the c i r c l e mark'd by Heaven" ( I . to h o l d .  That  i s , man  Pope's v i s i o n ,  than b r i g h t e n s man's sojourn  epistle,  Because  means that man  in h i s image because such i n s i g h t  l i m i t e d mental powers.  rather  "Presumptuous"  leads to an obvious dilemma.  the earth r e p r e s e n t s  " t r a c e " God his  that  own"  "act or think beyond mankind" ( I . 11.  1. 86)  scheme of  i f he wants to d i s c o v e r God's ways, should  only  Pope i n s i s t s  forms  the  l i e s beyond  in s h o r t , darkens  on e a r t h .  image of man  cannot  The  second  hanging between  44  an  unknowable  sorts—which  Hell man  and  can  an  unknowable  neither  fathom  Heaven--in nor  an  abyss  of  escape:  Know t h e n thyself, presume not God to scan? The p r o p e r study of Mankind i s Man. P l a c ' d on t h i s isthmus of a middle state, A B e i n g d a r k l y w i s e , and r u d e l y great: W i t h t o o much k n o w l e d g e f o r the S c e p t i c side, W i t h t o o much w e a k n e s s for the S t o i c ' s pride. He h a n g s between. ( II . 11. 1-7) Despite and  the  oxymorons  moderate  ESSAY  the  espoused  Consequent 1y, publish make it  "The  the  "of  a  pay'd  Man  the  ESSAY,  following  of  up  Pope's  of  Hope  however,  like  T'enjoy,  the to  ESSAY  those  that  that  the  in  is by  to  order  who  to  suspected 5  "The  9  that  "God  obey"  (11.  17-20).  arguing  that  the  acquiescence,  the  to  LOST,  I m m o r t a l i t y . " ^  claims  harmonize  compelled  Naturalism.'"  "religious  and  to  argued  felt  PARADISE  position  of  Pope  clear and  fail)  determinism."58  after  Fate  affirms,  receives,/  quarters  notes,  ESSAY  towards  (but  "blind  Prayer"  the  principle  full  of  War b u r t o n  Universal  sums  confidence the  as  attempt  certain  doctrine  Prayer"  Warburton  to  a  tendency  when  enforces  vision,  meaning  Universal  which  ESSAY  is  ESSAY  and  Pope's works  Argument on  the  p r i n c i p l e s : Of Man i n t h e a b s t r a c t . — I . T h a t we c a n judge only w i t h regard t o OUR S Y S T E M , being ignorant of the RELATIONS of systems and things, Ver,17,&c. I I T h a t Man i s not to be deemed imperfect, but a B e i n g s u i t e d to his P L A C E a n d RANK i n t h e c r e a t i o n , agreeable to t h e G E N E R A L ORDER o f t h i n g s , and conformable t o ENDS and R E L A T I O N S to him unknown. (P.503)  45  True,  Pope  Love"  which,  ordered,  the  him  to  God's  at  the  system  whose  causes  "conformable  short,  by  were  no  they  could  illuminates  central ESSAY man  role  in  that  he  can  his;conception although he  sees  the. less  he  godhead. faith For  paints who  places  Tittle  a  wants  "Shut,  serve  causes and  argues  beyond  man  about  the  universal  the  philosophical which  light  to  AN: ESSAY man's  dark,  ON M A N . I n  is  know  man's  God.  in  seems  man  ESSAY. from  plays  and  divine  a In AN  poetry  teaches  optimistic,  but  ill-founded;  ultimate  may  career  between  heavens.  remains  God's  that  Pope's  the  that  FOREST,  poetry  only,  Pope  potential  his. f a i t h  as  to  apparent  scheme  occurs  WINDSOR  and  relationship  readers  the  therefore,  existence,  light  in  a  unknown."  many  walks  in  grasp,  tight-rope  Pope  in  knows lives  him  sanguine  lies  man  man's to  an  difference  argument  that  RELATIONS  forms  The  salvation:  of  find  passes,  benevolence,  his he  his  puts  way less  to and  mankind..  example,  in  the  particularly only  shut  of  Pope  ENDS  7-8).  Milton's  end.  p o s s i b i l i t y And,  in  promise  11.  chain  above ,  ESSAY,  never of  and  a l l  "the  the  man's  ON M A N , t h e  (III.  here  free-will  to  and  as  wrote  from  FOREST  Being  Pope  approve and  to  time  so  passage  WINDSOR light  the  longer  determinism A  relations  of  below  universe  statement  appeal  awaits  Chain  "Combining a l l  Pope's  Milton's  In  Great  benevolent  between  what  sees  the  to  shut  door,  "Epistle  vivid  image  himself good  off  John!  to  Dr.  of  a  from  Arbuthnot"  man  tired  the  fatigued,  mad I  of  Pope society,  world:  said"  (1.  1).  46  Pope  characterizes  Bedlam, years  or  Parnassus,  before,  version  the  of  the  THE DUNCIAD  begin  Martinus  Scriblerus  to  restoration  ministry  of  imperial  seat  DUNCIAD  as  saw  from  Again,  to  the  their  (1.  the  WINDSOR  place  4).  where " A l l  Moreover,  two  Pope's  first  Darkness,  chaos,  and  states,  of  to  Chaos in  the  landscape.  the  FOREST  As  poem  t e l l s  and  Night,  by  the  removal  p o l i t e W o r l d . "  movement  invocation  a  Arbuthnot,"  daughter,  City  as  imaginative  poem  reign  completes  Pope's  Dr  the  the  the  earlier,  out"  appeared.  of  of  outside  let  dominate  Dulness  later we  is  "Epistle  dullness  "the  world  toward  6  of the  of  her Pope's  1  darkness  which,  began.  proves  most  instructive.  Pope  says: The M i g h t y M o t h e r , and her S o n , The Smi t h f i e l d Muses to the ear I sing.  who b r i n g s of Kings,  (I. The  bluntness  satire,  fact,  this  underlines  explores DUNCIAD  of  the  in  descends  into  Pope  trumpet  his  poetic  reached  its  level  by  fellow  does  offering man  to  of  no  the  his  like  faith.  Milton, Instead,  destitution, out  danger  of  of  of  the  the  the  i n THE  abyss--and from  reveals the  abyss, time.  He  THE DUNCIAD,  emerge  why  the  task.  consciously  works.  he  1-3)  heightening  Pope's  and  previous  darkness  not,  way  of  seriously  the.  of  while  importance  more  any  there..  and  the  abyss  than  statement,  11.  the how  darkness he  alerts  in  remains abyss the  to  time  spreads, his  47  The  first  desolation of  as  Qulness  stanzas already  of  Book  well  I  indicate  advanced.  that  Pope  Pope  calls  on  sees the  muses  to S a y , how t h e G o d d e s s b a d e B r i t a n n i a And p o u r ' d her S p i r i t o'er the land  sleep, and deep. ( 1 . 1 1 .  The  danger  exists,  as  never  dies"  place  in  that  dulness  Pope  well  (I.  the  universe.  1.  spread  knows,  genesis  Pope  will  18).  over  because  of  any  the  "born  An e t e r n a l  presents  Christian/Mi Ttonic  power,  mythological  her  a  genealogy  land  Goddess, she  a  Dulness  takes  her  of  the  familiar  cosmology:  (I. significance  between  the  Reason  and  advent  of  because  it  Pope>. of  c i v i l i z a t i o n .  quality  his  of  in  writing  they  that,  they  a  the  preface  the  on  writers debase  time  Pope,  is,  the  with  source  the  the  continuous form  the  sustain Grub  destroy  WINTER  express  of  Learning,  of  moreover, and  9-16)  light  learning.  language to  11.  relationship  dulness  create  attacks  such  of  For  provides  s a t i r i c  because  the  and' w r i t i n g ,  learning:  statements the  reading,  that  in  overthrows  dulness,  fears  lies  lines.  order  Language  His  darkness  lines  last  and  dispels  medium  Thomson's  and  writing  basic  spread  the  c i v i l i z e d  for  from  of  first  power  stem  always  ordering  in  7-8)  In eldest time, e'er m o r t a l s w r i t or read, E ' e r P a l l a s i s s u ' d from the T h u n d ' r e r ' s head, Dulness o'er a l l possess'd her a n c i e n t right, Daughter of Chaos and e t e r n a l Night: Fate in their dotage this fair Ideot gave, Gross- as her s i r e , and as her mother grave, Labor i o u s , h e a v y , b u s y , b o l d , and blind, She r u l ' d , i n n a t i v e A n a r c h y , the mind.  .  The  the  Street  hacks  1earning--they and  learning.  about  similar  the  low  concerns.  43 Pope  sees  his  whole  cloud-compelling "native  serve  Queen"  Pope's  (I.  1.  gathering  Dulness  darkness,  and  descriptions Firmly  relaxing  79)  who  in  he of  the  together  illustrates battles  how  grasp  the  these of  the  against  ruled  only  for  their  neither  form  nor  content  saves  through  the  eyes  the  expresses  graphica11V  his  in  work,  these  appalling  the  madness  "poets"  Dulness,  of  of  darkness  notable  seen  vigilance  the  "the  mind  in  anarchy."  Thus, who  Age  Queen  of  of  the  his  of  Street  wits  coming  s a t i r i c  write,  poets  level  them.  Grub  and  create.  produce  works  workmanship?  Pope's  description,  Dulness  herself,  contempt:  • Here she b e h o l d s the Chaos dark and de e p , Where nameless S o m e t h i n g s i n t h e i r causes sleep, T i l l g e n i a l J a c o b , or a warm T h i r d day, Call f o r t h each mass, a Poem, or a P l a y : -.. H o w h i n t s , l i k e spawn, s c a r c e q u i c k i n embryo l i e , How n e w b o r n n o n s e n s e first is taught to c r y , Maggots h a l f - f o r m ' d i n rhyme e x a c t l y meet, and l e a r n to c r a w l upon p o e t i c feet. ( I . 11. 55-62) A worthy  candidate,  each  vying  for  the  finds  his  inspiration,  comes  from  a- w r i t e r , does  not  crown.  his hints  even  debts",, Pope,  wit  Pope and he  parades  describes why  writes  writes  in  he  before how  an  one  writes:  because abyss  Dulness, of  his  he of  each  these  poets  inspiration  needs  money.  s p i r i t  which  Such he  recognize:  S i n k i n g from thought to thought, a vast profound! Plung'd for his sense, b u t f o u n d no b o t t o m there, Yet w r o t e and f l o u n d e r ' d o n , i n mere despair. ( I . 11. 118-120)  49  Reaching uncover only  the  traces  "vast  of  the  profound,"  godhead  "Nonsense  precipitate"  The  remains  efforts most the  into  abyss of  the  telling wits  abyss  to  a  dive  wholly  into  (I.  Grub  occurs  to  does  writer,  not  but  uni11uminated  when  these  abyss,  yields  122).  Street  Fleetditch,  appropriate  this  1.  mystery,  diabolical  escapades  for  the  a a  crew,  and  challenge s a t i r i c  writers.  by  the  one  of  goes  the  out  for  symbol  of  the  First,  Oldmixon  stands, And M i l o - l i k e s u r v e y s h i s arms and hands? Then s i g h i n g , thus, " A n d am I n o w threescore? Ah w h y , ye G o d s ! s h o u l d two and two make four?" He s a i d , a n d c l i m b ' d a s t r a n d e d lighter's height, Shot to the b l a c k a b y s s , and p l u n g ' d d o w n - r i g h t . The S e n i o r ' s judgement a l l the crowd a d m i r e , Who b u t t o s i n k t h e d e e p e r , rose the higher. ( 1 1 . 1 1. 2 8 3 - 2 9 0 ) Smedley  follows,  "buoys  up  of  sabler  the  instant,  results.  "token"  from  the  significance  fail  to  meet  the.'problem poetry  the of  merely  presents  a  abyss,  to  notes  that  sources gambling  and  age  appears  to  to  Grub lead  vice,  the  s p i r i t . abyss?  most  means  to  an  what  he  sees  learning,  to  truth,  a of  Street to  of  of  the  image  in  the  Others  not  one  writers godhead,  degeneracy  and  end.  short,  of  happening  to  dulness.  he  not the  with a  they  they  meet  ways:  Pope's  attend,  token  follow  fact,  and  and  understand  In  in  no  winning  superficial  but  follows  bears  of  poverty  the  He  capable  of  challenge,  l i g h t : /  appears  and  his  Another  296-297).  abyss,  poetry,  and  to  11.  No w r i t e r  clear  which  (II.  provides  the  disappears.  returns  stream"  similar  the  dives: deep,  satire to  the  astutely to  the  gods  of  50 Books III and farther  and  IV extend  the p o s s i b i l i t y  the power of Dulness that  a valid  poetry might  to b a t t l e the dulness grows i n c r e a s i n g l y dimmer. counsels her f o l l o w e r s to i n s t i t u t e spreading dulness, throughout  the land.  First  them to "be proud, be s e l f i s h ,  1  The  Dulness  and  foremost,  and be d u l l "  (IV.  f o u r t h book, which Pope added i n 1 742,  the presence of dulness well beyond the e a r l i e r Dulness r u l e s a l l . development  emerge  the best methods for  she t e l l s 582)".  even  extends  books:  Pope i n t e n s i f i e s the drama of t h i s  by opening Book IV with an impassioned  plea for  a. 1 i 11 le 1 ight : Yet, yet a moment, one dim Ray of l i g h t Indulge, dread Chaos, and e t e r n a l Night! Of darkness v i s i b l e so much be l e n t , As ha.Tf to shew, h a l f v e i l , the deep I n t e n t . (IV. 11. Yet Pope c a n n o t f i g h t  o f f the s u p e r i o r power of Dulness, and  she ascends her throne. Chains,/And 21-22).  Beneath  her "Science groans in  Wit dreads E x i l e , P e n a l t i e s , and Pains (IV. 11.  Dulness. f i n a l l y  overpowers  the f o r c e s of Light  for Pope the age not only "hangs in the abyss," plunged  into  1-4)  it.  and  i t has  Pope manages to stand o u t s i d e the  d e s t i t u t i o n - because  he sees i t c l e a r l y  enough, but he no  longer possesses the s t r e n g t h necessary to maintain a p o e t i c vision  i n the face of powerful f o e s .  In the l a s t  stanza of  the poem, Pope c a t a l o g u e s the powers f o r c i n g a r t i n t o silence. present  The  final  thirty  l i n e s of the poem, although they  a formidable q u o t a t i o n , bear r e p e a t i n g because  d e s c r i b e Pope's f i n a l In v a i n ,  vision e x p l i c i t l y  and e l o q u e n t l y :  in v a i n - - t h e a 11-composing Hour  they  51  Resistless falls: The Muse obeys the Pow'r. She comes! she comes! the s a b l e Throne b e h o l d Of N i g h t P r i m e v a l , and o f C h a o s o l d ! Before her, Fancy's gilded clouds decay, And a l l i t s v a r y i n g R a i n - b o w s d i e away. Wit shoots in vain i t s momentary fires, The meteor drops, and i n a f l a s h expires. As one by o n e , at d r e a d M e d e a ' s strain, The s i c k ' n i n g s t a r s fade o f f t h ' e t h e r e a l plain; As A r g u s ' e y e s by H e r m e s ' wand opprest, C l o s ' d one by one t o e v e r l a s t i n g rest? Thus at her felt approach, and s e c r e t might, Art after A r t goes out, and a l l i s N i g h t . See s k u l k i n g T r u t h to her o l d C a v e r n fled, Mountains of C a s u i s t r y heap'd o'er her head! Phi 1 osophy, that l e a n ' d on H e a v ' n before, S h r i n k s to her second c a u s e , a n d i s no m o r e . P h y s i c of M e t a p h y s i c begs defence, And M e t a p h y s i c c a l l s f o r a i d on Sense! See M y s t e r y to M a t h e m a t i c s f l y ! In.vain! they gaze, t u r n g i d d y , r a v e , and die. R e l i g i o n b l u s h i n g v e i l s her s a c r e d fires, And unawares M o r a l i t y expires. Nor p u b l i c F l a m e , nor p r i v a t e , dares to shine! Nor human S p a r k i s l e f t , nor G l i m p s e d i v i n e ! Lo! thy dread Empire, Chaos! is restored! Light dies before thy u n c r e a t i n g word: Thy hand, g r e a t A n a r c h ! l e t s the c u r t a i n f a l l ! And U n i v e r s a l D a r k n e s s b u r i e s A l l . ( I V . 11. 6 2 7 - 6 5 6 )  52  POETS  YOUNG  between  end the  of  THE DUNCIAD  Enlightenment  late-eighteenth Indeed, either it  the  off  envelops from  traces  of  darkness works  century  "Universal  closes  escape  the  the  darkness  god  marks  his  imagination  the  earth  burden  century  of  end  of  poet  poet's  the  past  confronts or  the  fear  It  something  shining mind.  which  that  of  they  the  the  never  the  more  nothing  Frye's  says, in  the  doing  good  divine  light  across  of  of  faith  between  and  than  the  earth  anxiety  mid-  age,  wholly  disappearance  abyss  and  light  coming  unseIfconscious  the  the  Heidegger  the  mid-  destitution.  obliterated"  The  the  involve  the  displaces  time,  walks  Thus,  like  that  separation  marks  of  poets  well-nigh  heals  It  which  a  poet's  Heaven.  forefathers involves  the  clear  age  the  No g o d  forever  and  to  state,  of  the  such  "are  95).  the  as  competely At  a  beyond.  Darkness"  so  and  and  abyss  godhead  church  provides  off  abyss.  (PLT. p.  for  death,  the  them  the,  the  DESTITUTION  AND THOMSON  The  or  OF  life  the that  and  influence  and  late-eighteenth the  remains  disjunction  fear to of  of  be  poetic  written.  the  myths  53 which  structure  society's  disjunction  takes  awareness.  Indeed,  manifests  itself  place  writings  indicates  the  of  pain  to  Ian  Watt,  the  which  tradition  suggests  Richardson  longer human  that  "did  legend  found  Watrt's  as  not  too  extreme  ana l y s i s ,  as  his  The  his  of  the  way  while  his  comments  Thus,  presents were and  not  actively  the  in  to  involved  a in  The  deeply  poetic  both  reflect  to  were on  an  important  a  of  too  He  from  of  Defoe,  to  and  they  WILD  stems  from  environment.  light,  the  such  makes  he as  philosophical  developing  of  with  problem,  passive  find  issue  argument  their  no  barometer  probably  take  the  replace  mythology,  because  Watt's  changing  sees,  reality,"  JONATHAN  define  the  arbiter  would  respond  to  to  likely to  argues  particulars  r e a l i s t i c  doubt,  He  experience  Fielding,  plots  the  "analogous  realism."62  literature"  help a f a r  felt  reality.  emphasis  Tike  would  writers  merely  time  ultimate  shortcoming  the. w r i t e r s  responding  the  no  of which  eighteenth-century.  preface  clear.^4 view  basic  and  level  time  of  the  century  attention  principles  Fielding,  3  sense  draws  their  previous  the  novel  individual  the  take  universal  nature.^  comment  for  novelists  or  new  of  and  the  philosophic  "a. t e n d e n c y  collective:  a  universals  of  separation. of  the  changes  characterizes  history,  in  primal  but  self-consciousness  poets  rise  example,  reality,  late-eighteenth  and  this  of  personal,  and the  the  occurring  of  moreover,  and  for  literary  rejection  that  accomodate  development that  mid-  and  a  extreme  discontinuity  experimentation struggle  at  the  in  conception  new  i f  they  tradition  temperament  54 themselves. time  was  world,  The  to  but  literary  most  establish to  concern  not  an  only  re-establish  tradition"  relationship  pressing  while  he  his  needed  renewing  for  the  identity  in  relationship to  preserve  imaginative  poet a  this  changing  with  the  at  his  fundamental  vigour  and  creative  vision. Edward presents  one  develop In  the  Young's  a  of  T H E . C O M P L A I N T : , OR N I G H T  the  personal  most  spirited  vision  during  same  year  that  THE  DUNCIAD  with  its  the  first  and  Immortality."  time and  book  with tone:  vision Tine,  moves and  the:  poem  man's  vision  expresses  of  his  fear  imagery  and  lamenting  tone,  and  "immorality," commentary  i t ,  the  the  in  Young  "On L i f e ,  of  his  experience.  a  wide  of  a yet  the  of  for  the  exults  most  in  and  profundity  examine  the  development  of  expend  decrying  Young's  "Romanticism,"  "melancholy."  indicates  their  6  5  The  inability  read  of the  God poem  Young's the  overall  energies "wor1d1iness,"  shrillness to  on  he  on  of  c r i t i c s  a  subjects.  vision  most  or  their  of  science  commentators  depth  His  way; a  the  example,  new  fascinating  of  metaphors,  space  range  Night, of  Death,  destitution  imagery,  in  of  published  his  heaven  to  period.  version  and  effects  and: d o u b t ,  than  t i t l e d  image  the  final  book,  covers  the  with  to  Surprisingly,  appreciate Rather  acumen,  abyss  of  his  explores  immortality  immorta 1ity.  vision.  poem  itself  grappling  and  attempts  transitional  fourth  complexity  the  development  him  to  poem  His  from  the  shows  fail  his  vigorous  this  published  important  considerable express  Young's  and:  of  Pope  and  THOUGHTS  of  Young's  the poetry  55 as  poetry  era.  distinct  This  middle  of  praise.  was the  In  and  not  relevant  always  the  to  case.  nineteenth-century,  his  edition  of  a  particular At  least  Young's G i l f i l l a n  1861,  historical  as  late  as  the  poem  received  says  about  high  Young's  poem: The s u b j e c t o f t h i s w o n d e r f u l s t r a i n was one which, i n i t s n o v e l t y , d i g n i t y , and depth, c h a l l e n g e d the very h i g h e s t e x e r c i s e of the very highest f a c u l t i e s ? and had Young r i s e n to the f u l l height of his great argument, he h a d become the g r e a t e s t of a l l p o e t s . 6 6 However,  since  sympathetic "some  of  men."67 due  a  G i l f i l l a n ' s  ear's.  Few w o u l d  his  passages  |\j  would  o r  first-class  repetitions  jar?  time,  are  many  argue,  His  moreover,  that  argumentation,  the  emotional  excess  confuse  readers.  in  faults  of  magnitude  poetic  Young  managed  should  remember  serially. chapter? and  the  tone  nine  to  of  the  them.  His  their  own.  diction,  poem.  their  particular  lines  are  times  as  were  first  them  earlier  Johnson,  not  that  from to  of  for  admiring  says  not  each  spoke  to  the abound  how  S t i l l ,  one  the the  new themes, an instance, design NIGHT  "exactness, be  his  published  to  of  and  and  wonders did.  praise  and  appears  he  that of  the  forward  while  excellence  at  one  poetry  Johnson  language  deserves  poem  readers  reminded  does,  punctuation,  that  NIGHTS  few  subordination  The  looked  the  labours  profuse  many  readers  Young's  derive  copiousness?  the  moved  relevant  deplore  THOUGHTS  that  as  repetitions  themes  experience  overall  reach  Young's  these  could  to  such  in  heavy  suspended  found  G i l f i l l a n  Young  diction the  has  as  unsurpassed  argue  poet.  Young  regarded:  but the  and  55  power  is  in  the  magnificence  .  Young's destitution somewhere perhaps, aspect  the  .  of  vast  poem,  as  the  the  deep  of  a  primal  his  night"  Young  displays  about  man's  t i t l e  the  in  Heidegger  complex  a  and  and  scepticism  declares  eternal  much  of- t h e  about  confidence,  method sees to  belongs  his  task  show,  to as  his one  seems  sure,  does  power  of  lacks  the  to  not  poetry  abrupt  move  with  to  dispel  despair, certitude 1  reversals, poem  to  features we  emerges.  the  and  hope,  God  and  these  the  God  the  the  essential  For  the  purposes  expresses  in  but  Unless  we  experience this  of  his  if  poetry, faith  a l l to  act,  joy the  be  in  because  an  he  attempts  even  argument--from  of  creates  Because  Milton's  one  fear,  he  he  and  such  the  the  man,  Young's  for  of  attitudes  arguments,  as  with  darkness,  another  assurance  poem.  miss  he  and  doubt—represent of  struggles  abroad,  necessary and  powerful  destitution.  remains  same  every  contradictions  of  desolation  mood  nadir  through  in  his  from  darkness  faith  otherwise.  unity of  "amidst  re-uniting  indicate  reversals  Young  following  that  poem  often  Pope,  life,  the  presents  and  place  of  the  very  he  one  a  diversity."63  contradictory  experience  imaginative  interesting  in  of  ultimately,  evidence  his  difficulty  of  Struggling  In  is  announces  its  well,  or  often  u n i v e r s e . , — Y o u n g - ' s; j u g g l i n g  much  personal  93).  there  endless  from  says,  p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  anxiety,  and  as  Milton  (PLT. p.  whole  indicates,  abyss,  darkness;  unlike  as  the  He w r i t e s  experience  darkness,  in  extent  time.  inside  However,  world's  and  .  of  in  voice.  whole,  the he  but  to  most  appreciate  these  from  which  the  close  look  essay,  a  57  at  "Night  and  F i r s t "  concerns,  up  nicely  from  imagery  heavenly  of  of  cosmology,  desolation. addresses poet  For  power  for urge  and  as  upon  fellow  men  to  desolation:  do  grace w i l l  of to  resting.  shine  to  transmit  pitying  deeper  To  at  to  sums  as to  from  1.  of  rest"  the  darkness  of  his  world.  In  this  lighten  metaphoric appreciation  opaque and  use of  to of the  of  nature" (I.  of  a  11.  and and  that  her  one  divine the  God's power  of  Young  11.  trust,  41-42).  the  at  his  solution  asking  only  as  any  beauty,  thee,  mind,  Light,  value  virtues  find  to  of  Night  Young  destitution,  Milton  cheer"  of  like  declares  (I.  like  qualities  the  Then,  to  f l i e s  seeks,  Night  poem,  He  attempts  others  darkened  of  strength,  44)  which  provide  her  action.  (I. he  Her  feature  born  6  describes  disorder.  poetry  goddess." ^  her.  while  of  the  Milton  positive  beginning  he  upon  In  and  Night  Young  his  a  metaphors  calls  Night.  chaos  Night  the  "sable  while  "Through  ray,/  Young's a  give  method  quite  controlling  illustrations  "My s o u l ,  into  topography  appeals  encomiums  night"  . . .  illuminate  attempts  on  ..  basic  Consolation"  Milton  positive  nothing  treasure/  Instead  to  double  his  symbolizes  Muse,  toward  "This  her  his his  during  his  his  inspiration him  "The  Whereas  represents  example,  Night  Young's  mental  Pope's,  Young  provocative  calling  pleads  and  Night  contrast,  and  clear or  charts  likewise.  course,  in  make  Night  poetry  Light,  Young,  powerful  last  Milton  of  to  vision.  differ  Muse  Pope,  his  the  Young's  different  and  and  Young's  Since  and  suffices  many  asks  least  that  Night "one  41-45). Muse  device  builds than  the  58  c r i t i c s draws  might  his  entire  at  imaginative  poem  inspiration  to  his  reflections.  from  7)  must  "short  indeed  dreams, sleep  achieving  Young  awareness,  the  of  pain"  solace  for  his  sleep no  (I.  not,  of  rest 1.  the  he  from  mind  wake  adds  grave"  untroubled  14).  troubled  "who  the  more"  8).  pain:  in  vision  1  his  " ' t i s  finds  of  (I.  His  disturb  however,  (I.  Hamlet-like  1.  Young, his  repose"  with  men,  Young  "Wretchedi  no  (I.  day's  with  1).  d i s t u r b '.d  his  the  begins 1.  Milton  grounds  provides  (I.  and  As  Young  poem  Sleep"  those  infest  it  The  usual)  but  capable.  Light>  Night:  that  happy,  provide  change  (as  dreams  unlike  of  "balmy  thinks  be  " i f  and  from  vision  he  3-6).  energy  Young  his  of  wakens  suspect  on  incapable  11.  first  only some  Night  because  Night, Even i n the Is sunshine  zenith to the  of her colour  dark domain, o f my fate. (I.  Early man  in  can  often,  the:  poem," t h e n ,  draw  to  himself  however,  he  Young even  declares  hints  during that  at a  he  11.15-17) the  comfort  destitute  feels  both  which  time!  as  despair  and  hope . Young, b a l a n c e s of- d e s o l a t i o n joy,  a  deep  e x p l i c i t l y  hints  and  For  the  seems  great:  does  the  somehow  with  intrudes  he  occurred.  joy  complexities  distress  although poem  and  the  that  some  example,  very,  about  not  at  universe to  stop,  one  itself as  i f  it,  he  "made  Nature  sensation  moments  experience,  "default  point  dual  During  his  state  of  this  s k i l l .  into  sort  of  his of  and  mood God"  pause"  herself  no  early  in  has  intimates a  of  that  (I.  1.  longer  24)  59 possesses the w i l l and  he welcomes i t because  to an end.  be soon  then h i s pain w i l l  come  ( I . 1. 23), he says, so " l e t  fulfill'd"/  lose no more" ( I . 11. 21-27).  Milton's  Young sees the apocalypse  at least  "Creation sleeps"  her prophecy can  to c o n t i n u e .  Fate! drop the c u r t a i n ? I Young does not  call  "holy L i g h t " to save him at t h i s moment, nor does  he: voice- a- desire- to do so.. Young's r e f l e c t i o n s b r i n g him q u i c k l y c r i s i s , , and he approaches s u g g e s t i v e way. and  inspiration  ground  of f a i t h  silence.  his c r i s i s  He a s s e r t s that  to a moment of  in a novel  and  the human mind draws order  from ancient Night: man  builds a solid  only by c r e a t i n g out of darkness  and  Young says: Silence, and darkness: solemn s i s t e r s ! twins From ancient Night, who nurse the tender thought To reason, and on reason b u i l d r e s o l v e " (That column of true majesty in man), . A s s i s t me: I w i l l thank you in the grave. :.';.-.(I., 1 1. 29-32)  " S i l e n c e and. darkness," not holy L i g h t , f l i g h t / Primeval S i l e n c e "  ( I . 1. 36-37),  "didst  put to  a c c o r d i n g to Young,  and he sees them as a p p r o p r i a t e powers of i n s p i r a t i o n d u r i n g an age of Night..  In f a c t , Young adds that  combined f o r c e of these two darkness s t r u c k / That reversal  i t was  the  powers "whose word from  spark, the sun"  (1. 11. 3 9-40).  of powers here turns the e p i c t r a d i t i o n  a r i s e s out of Chaos and  darkness, the image works.  When the poet c r e a t e s a  inspires  him.  The  upside  down, but s i n c e order f i r s t  space for h i m s e l f , he does so because  solid  the darkness  lighted first  so  After  e s t a b l i s h i n g , a: bond- w i t h  confident  enough  theme e n t a i l s  to  confront  reflections  and: love..  Heidegger  abyss,  poet  as  the  does  the  of  destitute  time  their  mortality  own  eniamatic, been the  learned. nature  of  pain,  death  d e s t i t u t e , because  within  which  in  96-97). hrs  age  progress, day  a  whisper  to  Man,  such  of  death  Although themselves, each  death  growing he  men  says,  will  around  and most  age* hangs  the*  says  aware and  to  realm  and  the  not  "great  and  "NIGHT." A d m i t t e d l y ,  point  Several  Young's o b s e s s i v e ,  critics  to  of  melancholic,  to  (PLT. of  hope  life  and each  thoughts;/ 135-136).  a l l of  the  his  which  A  NIGHT  comprehend  the  reader.  repeat  perspect ive  poem a  of  is  together  simply  repetition  experience.  has. not-  withdraws  f e e l i n g s to  the  of  the  Love  ( I . 11.  struggle  valuable the  into  a l l his  T h u s , most  his  a  more opaque as  a sigh"  Young's  during  questions"  a facade  buries  do.  men,  destitution  belong  Young's a r g u m e n t s  a. c h a n g i n g  that  for  capable  being  t h i c k e r and "here  in  unconcea 1 edness  of  love  behind  transmit  of  the  love. This  NIGHT THOUGHTS makes r e a d i n g  of  pain,  remains* v e i l e d ' .  hopes w i t h o u t  THOUGHTS r e v o l v e role  that  concealed  facade  Celestial  and  knows t h a t  remain  passes.  inters  and  Young  hardly  He  This  immortality,  remains a mystery  . . . lacks  itself  pp.  the  love.  of pain  time  pain  death,  . . . . Death withdraws  mystery The  are  feels,  theme: m o r t a l i t y .  when  death  parin and  "mortals  Th&  timet that  leafns that  nature  h i s main  on  argues  h i s Muse- Young  embellishes occurs  in  the  difficult  the  repetition  diseased  as  personality.  part The  61  repetition, thematic  however,  concerns  emotional  and  of  vision to  one  than  needs,  in  fact,  argumentation, urgency  and  problem  of  a  comment  defends  a  of  the  strong  by  Lorenzo  himself  to  MIGHT  he his  change  form  repetition of  in  his  of  an  younger a  larger  social  over  way  and  he  learn  over  lives.  virtue.  He The  "natural"  provides  a  Young  fact,  and  while  imitates  tries  to  sense  in  arguments  the  of  raises  perhaps  strident  Lorenzo  a  a  the  realism.  himself,  both  express Young  and  THOUGHTS,  poem  generation, the  about  the  to  must  design  addresses  realize.  force  repetition  The  Young  follows  and  overall  structurally  that  rest  the  testimony,  c r i t i c s  the  to  poern.  allows  Lorenzo  like  dialogue,  thus  which  most  convince  the  subjective  man--Lorenzo--and dialogue,  belongs  the  answer  to  and  c r i t i c s :  D o s t a s k , L o r e n z o , why so w a r m l y press'd By r e p e t i t i o n h a m m e r ' d on t h i n e ear, The thought of death? That thought i s the machine The g r a n d m a c h i n e , t h a t h e a v e s us f r o m the dust, And r e a r s us i n t o men. That t h o u g h t , plied home, Will soon reduce the g h a s t l y precipice O'er-hanging hell, will soften the descent, And g e n t l y s l o p e our p a s s a g e to the grave. (V. 11. 633-639) Everything says  which  Young,  because  s1eep-in-1ife . shall, the  like  things Young  mortality example, any  surrounds  Young  needs  god,  inspire"  in  life  which  produces  both  considers  understanding  of  that  (III.  awaken  however,  that  1.  him  "The  to  and  man  his  his  man  of  to  of  death  reflect  on  mortality.  harmful  because,  repetition,  thought  309)  contemplation  mortality  from  awakening  positive  the  deserves  awakening  believes  a  sees,  he  man  mortality  to  his  effects.  time  For  necessary  potentially,  time  to  52  leads man  one  and  t o l l ,  an  understanding  divinity.  the  "the 1.  to  voice  solemn  57-58).  Young  of  Thus,  go  (I.  1.  57).  man,  for  it  emerges  take  no  note  man  counts  him  in  an  suffers, he  the  Yet  note  time,  in  time/  But  hours,  cannot  of  fathom  its  that,  him of  he  when to  "As  time,  from  its  abyss.  an  he  argues,  a  relative  Time  spoke"  sense  of  1.  wise  loss."  55-56). and  in  "We As  behind  line.  Man  experience says  (I.  terrifies  before  t o l l s ,  bell  feels  "Is  also  infinite  the  he  angel  (I.  stretches  his  and  if  as  between  hears  him  loss"  unknowable, from  he  recognizes,  eternity  a l l ,  relationship  consciousness  unfathomable, most  the  whispers  through  taking  man"  of  hints  divinity  sound"  of  of  time;  Young,  t h e k n e l l o f my d e p a r t e d hours: Where are t h e y ? W i t h the y e a r s beyond the flood. It i s the s i g n a l t h a t demands despatch: H o w m u c h i s t o b e d o n e ? My h o p e s a n d fears Start up a l a r m ' d , a n d o ' e r l i f e ' s narrow verge L o o k down - on w h a t ? a f a t h o m l e s s abyss! A dread e t e r n i t y ! how s u r e l y m i n e ! And c a n e t e r n i t y b e l o n g to me, Poor pensioner on t h e b o u n t i e s o f an hour? (I. Time  therefore  awakens  him  makes  to  the  an  down  into  an  abyss.  look  into  the  one  values," Young and  asks  daily  insight  abyss,  "conscious and  in  that learn  equilibrium  self-conscious  realization  limitations,  makes  man  which  Young's a of  stressing man that  which  he  the  Young  which  the  to  his  in  fact,  and in  values  it  looking  Brown  man argues  r e l a t i v i t y  which  life  achieve. ^ 7  as  of  consciousness,  by  of  existence;  forces  Marshall  place  55-67)  mortal  describes  vicissitudes  strives  own  variability  time's  appraise  his  method,  method the  of  of  11.  he  destroy  lives the  to  S3  The of  a l l  r e l a t i v i t y  experience.  Pope's  AN ESSAY  experience  and  of In  time, a  in  fact,  leads  passage  which  obviously  ON M A N , Y o u n g finds  it  examines  contradictory  the  to a  r e l a t i v i t y owes  nature  and  much  of  to  human  enigmatic:  Distinguish'd link in being's endless chain! Midway from n o t h i n g to the Deity! A beam e t h e r e a l , s u l l i e d and absorb'd! Though s u l l i e d and d i s h o n o u r ' d , s t i l l divine! Dim m i n i a t u r e of g r e a t n e s s absolute! An h e i r of g l o r y ! a f r a i l c h i l d of dust! Helpless immortal! insect infinite!  A worm! a god! (I .  Young's  reaction  greatly  from  chain"  that  which  seemingly  to  the  of  infinite."  Young's  possibility  of  sense  of  often  finds  Pope:  locates  anywhere",  image  man from  here  the  Great Chain  from  "Helpless like  potential,  hopelessness.  the  "Midway  vision,  great  of  Chain forms  immortal"  but  Confronted  it with  as  is,  "insect out  easily  the  "endless  that  to  holds  74-31 )  differs an  nothing,"  Pope's,  11.  the  leads  abyss,  to  a  Young  himself Alternately transported and a l a r m ' d ! W h a t c a n p r e s e r v e my l i f e , or what destroy? An a n g e l ' s arm c a n ' t s n a t c h me f r o m t h e grave! Legions of angels c a n ' t c o n f i n e me there. (I.  He  seems  fear  and  Young—he realizes of  caught  a  web  absurdity. will that  eternity  moment.  in  He  or  die. he  Time, As  for  cannot  that  insecurity,  or  "'Tis  awakened  however,  reveals  the  of  solve  infinity,  says  of  at  rest the  past  he  one  time's  riddles  least  1 1. only  to  certainty  enigmas,  through  cannot  conjecture!  37-90 )  do  a l l  a so  to  Young  vision at  things  the rise  64  in  proof"  nature  (I.  of  pain  stems  of  life  on  from  things  and  death.  experience  as  develops  vision  pain, this  a  love,  and  argument. pain  of  exists  He  of  existence, beyond  a  loved  lost"  (I.  Young  declares  1.  his  one:  he  107)?  even  as  shows  l i f e .  Dismissing  the  his  ones.  His  vision  the  not  poem  of  Young  between illuminate  interesting man  that  a  endures place  means  loss  earthly  that  r e l a t i v i t y  in  does  mortal  their  his  earth-bound  an  him  pain.  for  loved  relationship he  the  of  reason  of  man  Immortality  then  wall  admits  point  provides  soul  "Why  this  although  that,  mortal  loses  and  an  on  essential  fully,  claims  At  the  death  into  remains' a  Young  the  impresses  the  behind  loss.  him  time.  doubt  dilemma,  of  lock  Pain  death,  relationship  of  memories  as  of  concealed  pain  past  much  problem  emotional  the  his  of  The  stays  Young's  (  centers  memories  91).  existence  Indeed doubt,  1.  life  of  that  deplore as  the bliss  one  that an  never  are  not  illusion,  that  A l l ,  a l l  on  earth  is  shadow,  a l l  beyond  Is substance" the r e v e r s e is Folly's creed: How s o l i d a l l , w h e r e c h a n g e s h a l l be no m o r e ! (I. 11. 120-122) Death of  frees  Gods,  drawing Young The  on  in  a  the  later  overcomes world  and  allows  transport!  0  darkest  man  and  wisdom of  asserts  the  problem  "where  of  man's 1 1.  of  pain, and  "spring  to  (I.  133-134).  II.  Christian  (IX.  time,  to  man"  his  that  enigmas"  him  poetical  "immortality 104-1 05) love,  pain,  and  l i f e /  alone  death  chance,  life  Indeed,  tradition.  o f . l i f e .  and  The  can  solve/  Man when and  he death,  lives  65  expire"  (I.  lies  man's  in  qualities However, which  11.  of  and  needs  Young  to  nature:  but  he  his  mood  Such  belief  in  a  earlier  of  time  infinity  are  mortality. immortal  abyss)  hangs  a  he  over  world  lives the  solution  abruptly  denounces  and  and  of  in  the  "abyss,  out.  consolation,  dreams  ravages  the  the  achieving  He  the  those  remains:  changes  reversals.  immortality.  not  way  to  to  eternity  beyond  said  close  his  and  lies  find  seems  famous  simple  which  solution  problem  describes  world,  his  immortal  central  mortal  dilemma,  The  immortality  the  Young  he  145).  and  his  he  he  He  his  effects  vision  admits,  wishes.  to  one  of  a  too  of  stems  from  states:  N i g h t - v i s i o n s may b e f r i e n d (as sung above): Our w a k i n g dreams a r e f a t a l . How I dream'd Of t h i n g s impossible! ( c o u l d s l e e p do more?) ( 1 . 1 1 . 1 6 3 - 1 65 ) Young of  finds  death?  toll  .  .  he .  /  nightingale, provide terror as  he  a  does  Young's  "Each  after  of  Young  dream of  Starting  scythe"  not,  poignant  dreams  knowing  says,  problem  his  convincing  of  enormous  that  the I  moment  woke"  death  11.  has  death,  1.  172-173).  (I.  thought" He  and  (1.1. cannot  185)  emulous/  the  nature  vision of  death's  each  to  the moment;  Of  of  death  Keats'  fails  escape  its  The  fantasy  Like  owns  sickle,  a  "at  potentially  193-194).  reveal  includes  of  consolation.  moment  a l l ,  immortality  "ghostly  that  (I.  of  Time's  immortality or  solve  the  pain. confronts  manner.  He  this  seemingly  struggles  to  inexplicable  understand  the  point  in  death  of  a  three:  loved  "peculiar  ones  and  rancour"  miseries,  and  "endless  is  expresses  <I.  terrors the  of  of  everyday  disinherited  of  its  power  God.  For  holds  to  day" at  Young,  the  (I.  1.  him with  a  promise  in  of  holy  a  Y o u n g . ' s *med i t a t i o n s enigma?  his  mood  to  asks,  change,  (I.  1.  l i f e :  when  Why  should  when  135).  man, "man,  Young  promising  to  and  413-423).  S t i l l ,  man's  explains  life  relative and  and  finds  immortal./ 1 1.  central  Young  man  A l l men  on  this  The his  problem  of  dies  certain  limitation God  think  a l l  event  which  existence,  He of  should make  his  of  turn him  death,  (I.  thought" average  11.  aspect  again  of  to  himself  themselves"  man  aware  the  experience  thinks  only  seems  man  human  but  man,  his  a  turns  pessimism  never  the  some  "he  s t i l l  after  with  a l l  same"  a l l  mortal,  Night  413),  that  loses  d i v i n i t y .  life,  the  learns.  deserts  enigma  buries  because  men  and  only  the-course  then  Man  himself  his  man  profound  1.  image  Light  God.  a  which  "God's  the  the  that  The  when  raise  (I.  behaviour.  mortality  of  to  throughout  feels  is,  with  here  out  as  time,  more  man!  forsakes  sees  he. c o n c e r n  sketches  subjective  that  s p i r i t  and  re-resolves?  4 2 4 - 4 2.5).  reflection  fool  283).  existence,  " A l l promise"  change  "Resolves?  of  claim  destruction  That  mortality  more  1.  death's l i f e ' s  Young's  Young  reunion  on  list  (I.  destitute  turns  and: m i s a n t h r o p y . Young  a  of  and  245).  the  poet  long  i l l s " death  center  over  support  existence?  the  f i l l  the  confusion  A  to  human  l i f e ,  characterize  tha>tv p a r i n- l i a s  211 ) .  follows  list  meaning1essness  1.  his  (I.  towards of makes  the him  shun  67  the  q u e s t i o n of  central  death  doctrine  will  of  live  forever?  about  As  than  Believing  his mortal  his soul.  Young makes t h i s  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  What makes more: s e n s e  forgets of  more.  of h i s p h i l o s o p h y , and  deep a p p r e c i a t i o n mind.  even  Young  life  says  each  himself and  later  i n so d o i n g structures  that  man  immortal,  thus  insight  foregoes  i n the  a-.  shows  of  the  believes each the  a:  he  man safety  poem:  Te»TT mer some- god! my g u a r d i a n a n g e l ! t e l l , What t h u s i n f a t u a t e s ? what enchantment p l a n t s The phantom of an age ' t w i x t us, and D e a t h A l r e a d y at t h e d o o r ? He k n o c k s , we h e a r , And: y e t we. w i l l not h e a r . What m a i l d e f e n d s Our u n t o u c h ' d h e a r t s ? what m i r a c l e t u r n s o f f The p o i n t e d t h o u g h t , w h i c h f r o m a t h o u s a n d q u i v e r s Is d a i l y d a r t e d , and i s d a i l y shunn'd? W# s t a n d , as i n a b a t t l e , t h r o n g s on t h r o n g s A r o u n d us f a l l i n g " wounded o f t o u r s e l v e s ! Though b l e e d i n g w i t h our wounds, i m m o r t a l still! We see T i m e ' s f u r r o w s on a n o t h e r ' s brow, And D e a t h i n t r e n c h ' d , p r e p a r i n g h i s a s s a u l t ; How few t h e m s e l v e s , i n t h a t j u s t m i r r o r , s e e , Or, seeing,, draw t h e i r i n f e r e n c e as s t r o n g ! T h e r e , d e a t h i s c e r t a i n ? d o u b t f u l h e r e : he must, And s o o n ; we may, w i t h i n an age, e x p i r e . Though g r e y our h e a d s , our t h o u g h t s and aims a r e green. (IV. In  short,  learn  from  thought the  says  Young,  time  of  and  death"  thought  because  death,  ( I . 1.  of d e a t h ,  he  man  "So  i n human h e a r t s  When man  ushers  616-633)  r e f u s e s to r e f l e c t  dies  432).  11.  i n the  no  longer  darkness  and the  entertains  of  the  abyss. Near a unified ascend  t h e end poetic  from  necessity  of  of  "Night  vision  the a b y s s ,  First"  Young  s t r o n g enough and  his poetry.  he And,  debate  seems no  to e n a b l e both  although  he  closer  him  to  the q u a l i t y c l a i m s that  and he  to  68  writes 11.  "with  441-442),  First, then  Young  he  fire  his  of  his  talent,  true  Young  passage,  Earlier  we  saw  e x p l i c i t l y doing  so  his  fire"  underlies  the  godhead! and  the  the  to  of  real  failed  maintain,  immortal  capture  the  poetic  genius  a  poet  of  raptures,  of  His the  some  of  Pope.  but  here  reason  last  to  but  feature  Pope,  failing.  despair  melodies!  discusses  towards  (I.  cheer.  A striking he  gloom"  his  As  their  when  main  Pope  failed  vision  450).  emerges  of  to  Milton.  "roll  to  to  fails  ambivalence  much  eighteenth-century.  truth  1.  sullen  l i t t l e  needs  and  can  Pope's  the  he  he  however, Young's  he  The  listens  poetry  Homer  (I.  identifies  one  When  that  cheer/  contain  no  own  reads  feels  Young's  that  poetry. he  their  to  ruminations  that  soul,  catch  melody,  declares  admits  essence  not  wakeful  he  for  half  of  to  pursue  the  track  to  for  Young,  the  light  of  man.  Young  says  that  Pope  made M a e o n i d e s o u r o w n . Man t o o he s u n g : i m m o r t a l man I s i n g , " O f t b u r s t s my s o n g b e y o n d t h e b o u n d s o f life! What, now, but i m m o r t a l i t y , can please? O h a d he p r e s s d h i s t h e m e , p u r s u ' d the track, Which opens out of d a r k n e s s into day! 0 had h e , m o u n t e d on h i s w i n g o f fire, S o a r ' d where I s i n k , and sung i m m o r t a l man! How h a d i t b l e s s ' d m a n k i n d , a n d r e s c u ' d me! (I. 11. 453-461) 1  A  more  with be  succinct  the  mid-  evaluation  and  of  Pope's  late-eighteenth  peculiar  century  relationship  cannot,  perhaps,  found. Young,  himself  from  "solutions"  however, despair, to  his  realizes and  that  much  dilemma,  a l l  of of  he the  must  try  poem  provides  which  he  to  rescue  undercuts  various for  69  one  reason  vision must  he  poet gods"  him  that,  even  the  to  means  "NIGHT"  Young  notes,  as  with  age  pains  has  Because a- p o s i t i v e , to  reverse  the  by  man's  time,  ambiguous Song  the  first  At  "NIGHT,"  song./  to  soothe"  (IX.  the  opening  of  of  the  Song 11.  "The  conventional  dark,  reversal  but, to  interesting  try  as  light. aspects  d i f f i c u l t i e s  which  thinking!  the  the  ninth  This of  new  his  our  exists  £man'sj  the  the  r  traces ninth  singing.  chases  "the  pains!  one. m i g h t of  the  presenting Young  might,  he  "failure" poetry  science  "Night"  he  (PLT.  man  continue  soothes  pain.  he  to  asserts  are"  to  of  link  poetry,  over  keeps  that  note,  light  l i f e ' s  his  that  lingers  beginning  the  fugitive  mortals  s t i l l  and  whatever  Consolation"  hierarchy  for  argues,  the  statement  he  and  14-15).  structural over  poet  Heidegger  "the  of  night,  language,  s t i l l  word  a  darkest  of  mortality.  singers's  serious  the  in  his  in  as  preserves  his. wi11ingness  such  most  song  and  that  trace  declares  a  reversal  the  failure  Heidegger  96).  consolation  total  to  God,  language.  poetic a  Even  times,  poet's  this  apparent  (PLT. p.  even  primacy  song.  destitute  The  in  moments  a  is  holy"  and  this  importantly,  other  nature,  during  land.  at  The  man  his  most  singing,  94).  "there  destitute  He  "attend,  He  because  Despite  poetic  than  between  calls  96).  his  so  (PLT. p.  remains  of  sing  more  must  another.  understands,  s t i l l  perhaps  p.  or  on  expect  Young  poem a  and  never  assert  attempts  manages  presents  because  confronts  such  traditional  indeed  presented  Young  begins  to  one  it  a of  shows poetic  the  new  the the  70  sc.ience»  and  tries  assert  to  despite: his  a. u n i v e r s e  where  place,  whirls  but  the  logic  faith  the:  earth  through  God,  Young's  metaphorical  even'  clearly  delimited.  world  in  "everything  is  of  no  longer  unbounded world  no  Marshall  when  ascends  towards  Light,  Night  becomes  a  every  step.  topography? darkness, ef f or t .  indeed,  Yoifng  sits  needs  as  the  nothing  the  to  that  In  its around  in  or  Young's  absolute; A c c o r d i ng;l y ,  7 1  Night  surrounds  mark  of  to  quit  attempts  Night  in  somewhere  finds  permanent he  laws,  universe.  solidly  space  nothing-, f i x e d : . , "  even  ordered  Brown  is; i n  universal  longer'remains.static  intermediate,  flux,  new  a. d i v i n e l y  everything; Young  the  support  even him  at  realm  of  his  him  the in  his  final  He. s a y s : Canst thou, 0 Night! i n d u l g e - one l a b o u r more? O n e l a b o u r m o r e i n d u l g e ! t h e n s l e e p , my s t r a i n ! T i l l , h a p l y , w a k ' d by R a p h a e l ' s g o l d e n lyre, Where n i g h t , d e a t h , age, care, c r i m e , and s o r r o w , cease; To bear a p a r t in everlasting lays! Though f a r , far higher set, in aim, I trust, Symphonious to t h i s humble p r e l u d e here. ( IX .  The  invocation  Muse. in  the  real the  At  one  next  desire abyss,  moment he  to  Milton,  (IX.  the  reflecting  exploration  of  1.  that find  it  1016)  attitude  him with  was  only  a  plumbed  order  to  climb  in  him  Young to  God"  (IX.  he,  throws  the 1.  remains vision 1007).  aside.the  the  out  but  Muse,  his  depths  of  firm  his  power,  surrogate  he  20-26 )  toward  creative  Light:  however,  Night,  curious  inspires  Milton,  inspir'd" glass  Young's  it  claims  being like  Unlike  reveals  1 1.  of  i t . that  "Night  "That  nature  After  his  terrors  of  the  is  new  71  science  and  (IX.  1049),  1.  garden the  of  declares  the  engulfs  absolute  one  without  and  error  1116-1117).  enabling  Confusion in  envision  this  himself radiant  as  i f  scale"  (IX.  11.  immortality,  "the  sees  climbing  himself  (IX.  into  T l .  godhead where  lustre  because  proud  godhead,  joy  of  the  describing  (IX.  "Rove  that,  1.  1108),  for  (IX.  God's  Young's  ever,  1.  "Stupendous  book  imagination,  clearly  he  waking  a  from  "the  than  if  he  had  1710-1712) goal  of  to  Of  next  He  loves  declares God,  fails"  of  vision  language  as  poet a  healing  voice  one,  a  Young last  Godhead" access  to  the  admission,  As  affirms  the  to  finds  more  For  and  "the  finds  1860),  he  set/  2218).  which  he  expresses  and  1.  he  climbing  Heavens  approach  "Love  1.  experience? the  of  and  nature  (IX.  that  and  (IX.  by the  a l l "  strong,/  independence, sleep  steps  light  rapturous  his  of  of  Young's  voice  declaration  beams  Science  the  between  to  that  science  affirms  here"  bodies  "open'd"  by  he  unconfus'd"  God more  up  great  2242-2245).  his  fact,  1674-1675)  after  ascent"  ripens  celestial  clearly  comprehension's  but  disorder  "the  Light.  Indeed,  man's  wild  1.  to  upon  "Night's  "a  rove?/  (IX.  him  describes  see  as  sees  about  'Tis  1106-1107),  astrology"  firmament  brought  thought;/  other  true  Young  1.  the  "a  the  1042).  universe  human  Night,  wisdom"  1.  to  (IX.  might  planets  called  a l l  imagines  (IX.  the  defeat"  whereas the  of  adherence  which  Deity"  conception  "quite  of  one  his  he and  the of  approaches more  the  relationship divinity,  blessing:  72  What w o r d s a r e t h e s e - - a n d did t h e y come from heav'n? A n d w e r e the.y s p o k e t o man? t o g u i I t y man? this? What, a r e a l l m y s t e r i e s t o l o v e 1 i k e The songs o f a n g e l s , a l l the melod i e s Of c h o r a l g o d s , a r e w a f t e d in the sound 5 H e a l and e x h i l a r a t e the b r o k e n hea rt 5 night. Though p l u n g ' d , b e f o r e , in h o r r o r s dark as R i c h p r e . l i b a t i o n of consummate joy i N o r w a i t we d i s s o l u t i o n t o b e blest . ( IX . 11. 2365-2373) Young  draws  abyss  of  the  death  everlasting security,  blessings and  joy.  he  He  of  world.  farewell  Night,  experiences,  a  us,  his  which  Young  soul!  he  him his  he  unity-of  with  lives  saves  as  himself a  with from  across  vision  imaginative  declares  asserting  to  heart  this  because  complete  My  divinity  achieves  death,  meaningless to  nurtures  t e l l s  consciousness  of  so  of  confidence  and  the the  terror  readiness  does  the  that  to  of  a  say  he  now  soul :  henceforth,  in  sweetest  union  join  The* t w o s u p p o r t s o f h u m a n happiness, Which some, e r r o n e o u s , t h i n k can never meet; True t a s t e of l i f e , and c o n s t a n t thought of death! The thought of death, sole victor of i t s dread! (IX. 11. 2381-2385) Young  argues  that  this  state  consciousness  of  the  just  over  of  the  abyss  the  affirms my  fear its  small  philospher!  knowledge  of  revelation divine/  necessity  the  of  Glides  2422-2425).  the  to is  truth"  man?  mind only  because  vision. hell?/ (IX.  truth,  swift  of  into  a  the  he  'Tis  man's  the  He  11.  belongs just  says  to  nothing  heart of  the  triumphs it  and  Lorenzo: but  opens  the  man  confronts  2407-2408).  bosom  to  "what,  the  full  After  this  up  just"  and  "the  (IX.  11.  ray  73  Young's however, Night.  final  never  and  reversal reverse  reigns" of  seems  wisdom  requires  to  and  the  Young  God's  for  and  echo  of  the  lines  nice  irony:  vision  Young's provides,  an  one  of  abyss.  the  he  imagery vision  THOUGHTS,  Aft e r  of  and  his  the  Milton,  the  sense  of  it  no  attainment  of  Young's  forms  live  part  with  of  God's  belongs  to  the  time  of  greatest  the  same  time,  here  world  that  hierarchy  to  provides  the a  "Universal  darkness  into  a  benevolence. even  with  Pope,  and  its  Young  original in  the  time?  a  conveys  certainly visions  of  wholly  in  night  his the  abyss.  imaginatively an  to  manner  vision'of  and  obvious  testimony  abyss  moving  sustained but  turn  and  fascinating  explores  the  really  into  to  DUNCIAD  penetrating  Milton  profoundly  lacks  to  NIGHT  to a  attempts  universal  Young  evokes  leaves  the  time  At  New  universal  not  universe  learn  night.  Pope's  of  most  appropriate  of  Pope  important  des:t i t u t i o n .  new  envisions  darkest  does  perfectly  holiest  in  Young  fits the  the  of  metaphorical  that  the  occurring  whereas  given  since  astutely  of  metaphorical  must  insight  positive  Young  power  which  man  night,  the  "Midnight,  Thus,  deepest  from  A curious  the  However,  that  b l i s s ,  conceives  occurs  it  and  where  2434).  Night,  man.  final  place  indeed,  accepts  wisdom,  Darkness,"  a  light,  itself  vision  Light  exist.  teleology.  ultimate  frees  1.  hierarchy?  longer  plan  as  (IX.  Night  the  heaven,  apocalyptic  New E a r t h  Midnight!  of  completely  Young's  Heaven  vision  emotional  defects, poetry  of  develops the  imagery True,  his  complete immediacy  and  74  desperation  born  emphasis  each man's r e l a t i o n s h i p  places  on  him  urgently without  at  honest  a critical  calls fully  destitution  of  junction  attention  to  illuminating  results  emotion.  from  Furthermore, to h i s own  for poets  l i f e ' s central them, and  he  his confusion  of  Young's  mortality the  abyss.  enigmasi  He  although  shows t h a t man's about  love, pain,  and  death. As that  a poet  a poet  poetically adrift.  responds  by  Muse—Night.  One  Heaven w i t h  age  the  keeps  the  door  of  a, p o e t r y  during  a time  In the  momentum felt  the  which  of  developing  by  to h i s sense  of  devout"  (IX.  imagination, a  new  his the  1.  love:  i n the  this  achievement.  imaginative new  science.  1852), Young  love  "not  proud  vision In  "an  counters Reason,  1.  1859).  Young w r i t e s , i n  develops  an  active,  vigorous  vision  Night.  to Heaven! as  the  scientific  eighteenth-century, of  time,  (IX.  darkest  in a l l corners  a  the  underestimate  of  set  of  e y e s of many, however, s c i e n c e d i d not  doors  and  difficulty  ramifications  heav'n"  a full  seemingly  to r e c o n c i l e  a b s t r a c t i o n s with  short,  open  him  difficulty  in a universe  source not  shows the  to a c h i e v e  appropriate  a new  more c u r i o u s than  scientific  this  should  Young's Muse a l l o w s of  to  landscape finding  Young  in trying  convincing vision  He  also  destitution,  confronts  metaphorical and  of  endeavor,  i t made  poetry  fail  movement  to  gained  i t s presence  included.  Indeed,  75  the on  power the  and  poets  significant anxiety  for  so  new  the  more  example, and  accurately  imprecise  and  of  workings  indistinct  abstractions.  s c i e n t i f i c  language  Nature's  speaking"  positive  expressions"  easiness?  bringing  a l l  plainness  as  artisans,  countrymen  s c h o l a r s . " use  of  the  natural  description  be  the  poet  falling  is  taken  s t i l l  found into  and of  his  natural a  says, way  mathematical  preferring  the  language  demands  that  that  u n i n t e l l i g i b l e be  such  real to  a  manner  the  dullest  trade,  his  Many  poets,  to  wits  splendid,  as  The  later  to  make  most  sensation."  use be  or  "frivolous  Hume  however  landscape.  of  terms,  7  in  of  the  expunged. ^  objects  of  native  the  poetry,  disrepute.  and  naked,  before  task  one- made  near  or  in  language,  close,  of  stock  master  this  Sprat  colors  inferior  done  universe  accomplished  language,  by  not  Bishop  course,  a  had  as  merchants  for  it  senses"  the  usurped  the  clear  or  as  explained  as  sciences"  " A l l the  never, paint  thought  and  affected,  into  that  can:  Locke,  2  uncouth,  introduced argues  7  they  things  roles  secrets  grandiose  less  century  only  Instead, "a  past  God's  figurative  follows  the  universe,  it  burden no  the  but a  a  century  of  explain—if  not  of  burden  traditional  of  honestly,  superstition,  produces  late-eighteenth  could  embellishments  by  the  their  science  science  late-eighteenth  M i d - and  Science vast  new  than  found  Furthermore,  the  and  interpreters  science.  without  the  pervasive  already—the  plan.  of  mid-  influence.  explainers the  of and  of  poets,  influence  of  the  lively 7  4  Thus,  language,  sure,  at  can  first  76  wrote  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y about  k n o w l e d g e and  welfare  promised  moreover,  in  precision  in d e s c r i p t i o n ,  McKillop could  describe  ever  us,  by  adherence  for  progress  scientific  scientific  a model  Nature  great  to  i n human  reasoning}  f a c t s and  its  diction offered,  poetic  more p r e c i s e l y  practice. and  j  7 5  as n  e  realistically  poet than  before. But  he  i t s scrupulous  tells  the  the  ignored  poet  the  1ong-cherished refused  to  poetic  which  hearts  the  universe of  merest  of  infinite?" adequate  science  space  i n the dilemma He  7 8  and  he  "The  eternal  fills  with  dread."  between  scientific  Inexorably, abyss,  Overall,  turns  few  could  realism  irrevocably,  h i s Muse, and  comforting,  "What  and  the  himself  to  those  ignore  poet's  the  the  new  to  provides  a  fine  i s a man  in  the  the  the  encompasses  an  emotional  a similar  spaces emotional  disjunction faith.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  a l l change.  into  describe  but  infinite  he  his  man  an  imaginative  if  fear  reduced  Pascal  of  of  laws might  time  Young w a l k s  7 7  v i s i o n of  proposition  silence  to  shivers  if  poetry's  posed  was  instead  to  and  new  asks:  only  plan,  The  plan.  no  the  sent  eternal  that  response:  tight-rope.  and  when he  finds  science  earlier,  which  cosmic  discoveries  which  expounded  accurately,  answer,  one  saw  persona  God's u n i v e r s a l  threat  we  scientific  scientific  many o b s e r v e r s .  speck the  the  As  infinite  of  of  be 1 i e f s about  consider  the  sense  danger  ident f t y .  universe  sense  c o u l d : assume a  the  77  The the.  introduction  poetry  poetry  past  between him.  of  his  and  time  present.  Critics*  for  example,  seem  categories  editor,  for  expositions  frequent  transitions  natural  "draws  no  objects  sharp  scientific  and  editor  line  adds  delight  in  the  natural  law  of  to  the  which  science  provided  excellent  c r i t i c s  Memory Of  ambivalence we  shall  discoveries affect  which  see,  after  the  about  exhibits  Newton's  h i m . " of  8  the  him.  the  one  divine  Thomson  .  has  .  .  by The and  thus  eighteenth-century  Yet  his  " A Poem  the  engendered  in  poetry.  and  these  how  complex  Sacred  To  essential  the  The  The  8  description  Newton's  more  7  and  ordered .  towards  a  hand  "expresses  perfectly  reveals  man)  told,  other."  Newton  u  readers  general, are  exact  A  his  we  the  in  into  anxiety.  the  on  time in  him  attitude  As  discoveries  emotional  stance  than  admits.  appeared  death.  him  science  interpretation poem  on  same  Newton"  new  (NOT N e w t o n  Thomson's  the  picture  Isaac  to  of  see  Thomson's  on  a. u n i v e r s e  paradigm  Thomson's  poetry,  traditional  world  often  Sir  poem  encourages  of  as  the  is. at  fit  Thomson,  8  rarely  subjects,  exposition  of  tension  that  description  Thomson's  similar  emotional us  7  between  to  particular  Nature."  vision  exploration an  the  between  that  of  evaluation  tension  c r i t i c s  s c i e n t i f i c  philosophical  his:  influence  from  a  content  t e l l s  of  inner  tension  devoid  example,  Thomson's  discloses a  his  The  He  an  science,  "favored  poet  revealed  and  modern  same  that  poetry  recognizeab1e  from  mentioned  in  May  surface  of  1728, the  barely poem  a  month  reveals  l i t t l e  78  anxiety, which  but  indicates,  ostensibly science, poet's  and  for  when  rise  and  closly,  degree  the  of  greatness  shows  how  the  Muses.  asks  sing  if  his  second  level  emerges  Although  of  and  Newton  scientist  the  the  takes  poem  new  over  the  inadvertent1y--an  Thomson  Newton  a  anxiety.  provides--perhaps  the  he  looks  high  praises  role  enough  one  a  Thomson  epicedium  to  when  begins  could  die  conventionally and  the  Muses  fail  praises:  Shall the great s o u l of Newton q u i t this earth To m i n g l e w i t h h i s s t a r s , and e v e r y M u s e , A s t o n i s h e d i n t o s i l e n c e , shun the weight Of h o n o u r s , due t o h i s i l l u s t r i o u s name?^ 1  The  Muses, of  silence"  because  not  already  the  secret  universal the  And  find  they  possess. hand  of  frame"  divine  surround  poetry  mortal  planets  to  offer  Newton  l i t t l e  The  Muses  cannot,  like  15-16).  blowing  spheres"  revelations,  unravelling  "the  task/  unequal  Accordingly, discoveries Rome"  (1.  31),  conceptions descriptions Newton's  and  stand of  great  Of  the  when  (11.  finds  them  Newton 17-18).  mysteries (IT.  Thomson  of  those  of  with  Newton's.  scheme.  Thomson  this  justness  clouds  which  "bound  the  Newton's  these  and  envisions  Greece  was  and  earlier A l l  mundane Newton  of  suns/  universe  "old  comparison  dull  "trace  Newton's  of  sound  does  18-19).  describes to  the  the  none  world  he  Until  that  the  that  Newton,  reveals  obscuring  fact,  mankind"  compares he  the  In  into  Wide-working through  Newton  away  existence. their  "Astonished  can  Providence,/  (11.  plan,  themselves  previous beside breaking  79  free all  of t h e e a r t h , e x p l o r i n g t h e a b y s s , he  shedding  light  over  passes: Then, b r e a k i n g h e n c e , he took h i s a r d e n t f l i g h t T h r o u g h t h e b l u e i n f i n i t e " and e v e r y s t a r , Which t h e c l e a r c o n c a v e of a w i n t e r ' s n i g h t P o u r s on t h e e y e , or a s t r o n o m i c tube, F a r s t r e t c h i n g , s n a t c h e s from the dark a b y s s , Or such as f u r t h e r i n s u c c e s s i v e s k i e s To f a n c y s h i n e a l o n e , at h i s a p p r o a c h B l a z e d i n t o s u n s , t h e l i v i n g c e n t r e each Of an h a r m o n i o u s s y s t e m — a l l combined, And r u l e d u n e r r i n g by t h a t s i n g l e power Which draws t h e s t o n e p r o j e c t e d t o t h e g r o u n d . ( 1 1 . 57-67)  Newton begin  finds  t h e way  to imagine  to the L i g h t  t h e new  Heavens a r e a l l h i s own" laws,  passage  to.a conception  light  Newton's r e f r a c t i v e  Consequently,  to Newton's  t h e power t o  of God's g r e a t n e s s — e v e n to M i l t o n .  Thomson  "shone u n d i s c o v e r e d " laws  "The  When compared lose  "Untwisted  can even  though t h e  goes so f a r  ( 1 . 97)  until  a l l t h e s h i n i n g robe of  (1. 98). Although  Thomson  theme, he t o u c h e s for  (1. 82).  o b v i o u s l y owes much  t o say t h a t  day"  universe.  the poets  M i l t o n ' s d e p i c t i o n s of t h e h e a v e n s  move man  as  before  poetry.  Muses  silent,  insight  the whole  f o r g e t s h i s high  eulogistic  on s u b j e c t s p o r t e n d i n g - dark declaring  Thomson  shines  t h a t Newton's  correctly  to i t s l o g i c a l  understanding  extends  laws  after  render  the depth  c o n c l u s i o n : i f the l i g h t  only  significance the  of h i s  of  Newton's d i s c o v e r i e s ,  then  p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n — S h a k e s p e a r e , M i l t o n , and Pope  included—has pressing  After  never  inadequately  questions. Poetry,  answered says  man's d e e p e s t  Thomson,  belongs  and most to a dream  80  of  "Romantic  words,  and  whether  poet  brook"  Thomson poet  tyranny  any  hoar se  schemes,  the  (1.  back  to  alone then  his  into  an  flying  Newton  to  do  only  justice  Newton's  comprehending imaginative  the in  in  a l l  an  and  image  primeval  the  abyss  with  the  fellow  figure  his  divine  whether of  any  poet  Newton.  work—can  which  the  on  task  steps  of  Satan  (1.  129), He  his  Newton  equal  darksome  which  capable  and  imagines at  way"  Newton  (himself  demands.  Newton  descending  Thomson  follow  the  the  "lights  light  scientists--those  Newton's  traces  mortals.  wildered  the  not  mortals.  gloom"  from  given  Nature.  and  Newton  fellow  wonders the  reminiscent  pictures  Historian  about  other  abyss,  he  by  scientist  his  doubts  manner  the  guide  Thus,  to  age  specious  groves  truth  to  guide/  Thomson  the  Of  Indeed,  whispering  way,"  "Deep  upwards  125-131).  radiates, can  abyss  din/  24-25).  before  over  "solitary  (11.  his  Thomson,  the  spoke  abyss  triumphs  by  in  ever in  the  "ascending"  distances, (11.  that  godhead.  exploring  names"  120)  into  scientist  of  "Dreaming  suggests  reaches  defended  included)  hints  that  of in  the  Thomson  asks:  who c a n n u m b e r up h i s l a b o u r s ? who H i si h i g h d i s c o v e r i e s s i n g ? W h e n b u t a f e w Of the d e e p - s t u d y i n g race can s t r e t c h their minds To w h a t he k n e w . (11. 132-135) No  poet  can  sing  "deep-studying," about about  subjects life.  Newton's  numbers,  since  sings  "fancy's  lighter  which  in  amuse  but  do  not  poetry,  offer  no  thought" valid  longer (1.  truths  135)  81  Thus,  at  the  end  of  the  poem  Thomson  asks  that  Newton l o o k w i t h p i t y down On h u m a n k i n d , a f r a i l erroneous race! Exalt the s p i r i t of a downward w o r l d ! O'er thy dejected country chief preside, A n d be h e r G e n i u s c a l l e d ! (11.198-202)  The  poem  tones,  a l l  of  of  the  poem,  an  truth all  significantly,  not  subject expect  ends,  more"  it  remains  ( 1 ., 2 0 8 ) ,  Indeed,  the  for his  paean  Granville,  provide him  to  abyss of  than  further appears  before Thus,  Thomson seems Newton the  the  poet  no  traditional  to  to  ever, as  the  longer subject  a  sing  deep  of  poetic  the  matter,  shall  despair  of  unlike  Pope's  way  full  f a i l s  to  inspires  out  of  the  conception  less  certain  Newton. of  a  source in  to  destitute of  which  indeed,  right both  his  appears  no  Milton  prophecy  worse,  be  which  the  and,  that  s p i r i t .  Thomson,  jeopardy  he  "time  of  of  claims  which  about  the  vision  one  endeavor"  deserves  the  might  vision,  poet,  the  one  confidence  voice  despairing stated  Thomson  until  characteristic  recognize aware  the  For  the  Moreover,  sustaining  than  manner'  wait  as  to  follow When  evince, a  almost  Whereas  to  lacksr.that  identity  to  death.  "Lycidas."  a  began  dimly  places  is  Newton  darker  a  ascribed  come.  inspiration.  he in  of  with  his.  f a i l s  but  him words  end  Thomson  himself,,  not  consolation  at  be  subdued,  consolation  does  displays to  can  Newton's  u p - l i f t i n g  revealed,  that  which  in  by  his  sorrow.  his  work  showing  illuminate  distances  time,  the  He  on  that  his  poet  from  82  his  most  poet 's  important  role,  eighteenth from  the  in  its  century  burden  source  of  social  context.  poet,  anxiety  his  tradition  from  anxiety  of  succession  Thomson  finds  the  their  devolves,  the  at  the  end  "progress" that The  the  century an  of  poet:  exploration  introspective  II'.  COLLINS  poets  one  express  Collins,  and  relationship  he  urgent Bate  than  the  Unlike  and  again  mid-century  end  with  explore  forces his  manifest  in  no  longer  the  mid-  of  When  flow  conviction in  England.  late-eighteenth his  the  optimism  many  the  to  he  century  the  self-conscious  character ist ic  "natural"  Pope's  and  relationship the  the  Bloom.  as  only an  silence,"  and  deepens.  not  suffers  and  into  poetry,  inspiration  poetry  by  late-  suffers  past,  the  tradition,  and  period.  AND GRAY  William provides  of  the  negates  m i d - and  time  the; M u s e s  to  of  and  words,  more  FOREST,  after  The  "Astonished  silence  WINDSOR  sources  silence  Muses  desertion  poems  of  presented  Muses'  of  other  and  alienation  announces  in  inspiration  Collins' of  its  the few to  introspection  more  interesting  central expend  poetic  pervades  as  concerns much  Being.  his  aspects.  of  the  energy Collins,  time  poetry  Indeed, as  it  few  clearly  questioning as  and  were,  as  their maps  out  83  his  quest  modern  for  poetic  c r i t i c s  Character,"  in  comment  about  poet  of  his  adds  that  remains  of  fact, him.  most  with,  an  Milton.  Indeed,  to  but  of  "Ode."  In  fact,  sources  which  anxiety.  the  its  abyss,  writing  but  the  of  his we  PERSIAN  we  "Ode,"  of  explores and  about  lively  the  debate  Collins of  his  full  subject  matter,  lies  particular to  outside  order  need  ECLOGUES.  see  to  to  interest despair why of  a  a  his  often well  lies as  comprehend  examine  it  Collins i t ,  over  draws,  as  Our  PRECIOUS  ones,  extent  to  influence  failing  essay.  Sherwin  Sherwin's  argument  the  j  indebtedness  biblical  which  a n c  Smart,"  debate,  want  In  the  Wasserman  a  other  Original  anxiety  spawned on  of  the  remains  v i s i b l e . "  destitution,  has  underline  this  As w e l l ,  "darkness  Collins'  of  R.  "no  obsessively  Collins'  theory,  complex  that  by,  on  Collins'  sources  Collins'  approaches  destitution. the  "Ode"  most  purview  Collins  and  exact  However,  outside  enters  the  of  c r i t i c a l  C o l l i n s , "32  era  analysis  Earl  the  exception  an  especially  presumably  consider  how  as: w e l l ,  most  does, to  of  particulars.  interest ing  or  in  Bloom's  vagaries  an  proper  poet  of  than  fascinates  Poetical  contends  possible  his  applying  develops  the  most  more  discussion  sources  "  the  which  the  rarely-distinguished  Collins'  8 4  to  us  quest  On  Sherwin  offers  much  the  minutest  S.  "with  elaborate  explores  its  Paul  a  "Ode  birth  inventive  Basing  develops  his  gives  generation  "the  Genius."83  BANE  Collins"  Collins,  concerned  self-identity,  more  poet  of  never  stranger the  in  to  nature  experience  of  of  84  Collins  published  same  year  Pope's  True,  he  spoke  "contemptuously  form  his  first  substantial  what  Collins  reason ODES,  as  he  was  wrote  w i l l  his  DUNCIAD  trying them,  remain  his  First,  example  of  orientalist  as  a  writer  in  included  many  the  abounds  East  images  wild  of  and  versification speaking,  .  by  poetry,"  but  attention  in  local,  the  to  an  an  age  offered  rationality  and  poetry."88  According  and  diction  in  the  eighteenth  Richard Pope's  third "an  omnipresent  PASTORALS.  escape social  pastoral,"  Specifically,  they of  the  the  ECLOGUES,  generally  matter  the  of into  English  special  literary explains from  tone  most a  because,  poetry  and  merits  the of  Lonsdale,  "obey  the  elements  hardly  argument  Roger  ECLOGUES  century  Wendorf.89  to  the  by  an  appropriated,  subject  characterized  as  in  the  which  correct,  exotic  ECLOGUES  explained,  with  the the  admired  language  Collins  the  readers  the  of  the  in  are  "the  they  understand  interest  MAGAZINE  achievement  ^  with  thoughts  extend  t  u  particularly  popular  Second,  D  ECLOGUES,  the  8 6  THOUGHTS.  we  the  deal  figures  introduction  such  unless  with  Collins'  1742--the  later,85  provides  poetry  harmonious."  experimentation.87 ECLOGUES  .  and  in  NIGHT  them"  works,  poem  bold  .  of  Critics  GENTLEMAN'S  "the  managed  pastoral  the  which  the  Young's  later  ways.  ECOLOGUES  achieve  obscure.  eighteenth-century,  and  work,  to  several  the  PERSIAN  of  point  Collins  that  inhibiting  much  Augustan  however, the  the  both  style  conventions  supported borrows  of  by  freely  from  35  From  such  remarkable  accounts  about  the  development  of  requires  analysis  each  of  an  which  ECLOGUES  in  structural Collins' the  to  imitate  a  akin  life,  simply  one  on  two  writing of  time-scheme the  organized a  daily  the  importance  theme,  development  time-scheme pastorals  "is  "are  Collins' organic  entirely  and  Collins'  time-scheme  one  future  which  his to  sees  blocks.  Wendorf  l i t t l e  a  to  plan, one  which  emphasizes  a  no  than  for  one  more  experience  his  Pope  PASTORALS Collins  to  tone,  Pope's  the  that  Collins' since  Collins  ECLOGUES,  appreciation  of  follows  encompasses  relative  of  argues  fullness  the  desire  eschews  significantly,  continuous  farther  an  a  each  while  in  sense  sub-heading  However,  virtues  that  Whereas  into  by  obvious  his  as  narrative,  Christian"  Pope's  in  solely  man's  the  show  to  PASTORALS  secular."30  add  of  light,  time-schemes  time.  levels,  Collins  ECLOGUES  however,  several  response not  pastoral  time-cycle,  present,  time,  the  Christian  time-scheme. natural  and  the  poem,  level  time-scheme  essentially  distinctions  or  a  the  related  proper  hourly  of  in  reference  asserts-traditional Wendorf's  but  First,  in  in  emphasizes  a  The  one  as  nothing  illuminate  eighteenth-century  traditional  with  their  forefather.  seems  significance  On  time,  the  eclogue  the  develops  of  and  help  separate  in  the  there  vision.  canon.  seen  incorporates  part  to  poetic  Collins  poetic  to  poem,  establish  details,  seasonal  closely  as  the  destitution  Pope's  daily  helps  the  ECLOGUES  Collins'  early  of  of  of  time,  experience  end  of  a  day.  an  past, while of His  36  ECLOGUES  move  midnight.: in  the  night.  desert,  from world  each  and  first  figure,  the  poet-shepherd  radiant  Morn,"that  Collins  pictures of  truth  who  1.  teaches  11),  l i f e . 9), to  Collins  the  Shepherd surest  virtuous  the  (I.  young  significant  ground the  of  importance he  seems  on  to  (I.  of  In  other  of  love  confidence  (I.  of  verge  and  the  1  1.  1)  and  "Swains"  foundations  of  the  virtuous  in  himself"  as  "Wise  9-10). What  Groves  also  nor  modesty,  that  "These  68).  are  of  teaches  early  vision.  figure,  like  Young,  the  that  love  follow  He that  Selim's reveals  with  a  the as  the  cornerstone  Collins  relationship  revealing  as  Selim,  as  to  Virtues  matter  chooses  virtue  how  bestow,  meekness.  the  subject  1.  Morals  Streams  Conventional  choice  sees  pity,  (I.  (I.  Informing  Selim  an  godhead.  central  of  9  power,  echoes  man's  "The  radiance.  surprisingly,  he  valley,  during  on  his  ends  conventional  advice  1.  at  and  a  His  words, to  a  divine  track  Maids"  poet-shepherd  the  of of  the  chastity,  virtue—and  holy.  poet  11.11-12).  Collins'  aspect  conventional  time  Selim  audience  Love"  sounds,  a  find,/  not  light  sings  11.  tells  advice  Selim  (I.  path,  to  Selim.  the  end  respectively.  Maid" to  in  to  setting:  " songs., c o n v e y ' d /  Mind"  lead  changes  his  virtues:  must  them  begins  that  Christian his  keeps  evening  introduces  a  "Persian  Bliss  innocent  as  to  Collins  at  describes  and. o b s e r v e s  "that a  he  is,  Selim  young  creates  ECLOGUE  eclogue  Addressing  midday  mountain  the  oracle  to  Collins  Finallyi  forest,  In  morning  sees the  the  gods,  relationship.  of  and As  87  Heidegger or  the.  time  In this  told  produce  a  first he  as  cannot  himself. Collins poetry  The  the  past  clings  its  to  beloved  the  in  of  vision to  of  a  full  vision  in  to  poets.  his  feelings  in  his  the  love  out  the  this  past  tense--Se1im s 1  of  One  wishes  for  the  ends  in  its  the  in  love,  suggestion.  Age  good  of  to  about  Golden  the  of  to  "Ode  world  the  faith  sure,  of  awareness  revelation  in  eclogue  a  nature  vague  Keats  bears  with  the  a  develop  Unlike  represent  be  shows  fact,  past,  they  Co 1 1 i n s ,  his  reveal  destitution.  Collins  short  first the  to  however,  validate  because  to  truth. happy  so  stops  the  belongs  bliss  not,  eclogue,  writes  and  in  needs  convincing vision. Collins  he  poet  eclogue  does  Psyche," i f  a  continues  the  need!  us<  innocence virtues  itself?  inherent  of  one  unity  first  eclogue  on  eastern  Legends  say  and a  note: Thus  sung  the  Swain,  and  The M a i d s of Bagdat v e r i f y ' d the L a y : Dear to the P l a i n s , t h e V i r t u e s came a l o n g , The S h e p h e r d s lov'd, and S e l i m b l e s s ' d h i s S o n g . (I. But  the  implies  happiness that:  his  v irtuous  bliss.  The  second  camel-driver "to  follow  womb  of  England  eclogue  who  leaves  when  its  bliss,  the  the.  past, such  a  and  Collins  state  of  the  story  his  and  beloved  Zara  (II.  1. 32).  He  Trade"  sun  the  home  shines  area.  its  of  Hassan,  brightest  Having  comfort  of  lived  "Schiraz  in  love  recounts  greatest behind  to  enjoys  far-fatiguing  symbolically, illuminates  belongs  11.  no  way  and  a midday  leaves, and  his 1  at  69-73)  life  Walls"  in  the (II.  33  11.  14),  he  ventures  desert.  Away  o'er  boundless  the  sorrow  wild"  "dreary of  Death"  hears 42)  a  for  gold  and  the  quest  the  earthly  of  of  worries  human  to  near  the  image the  Voice  his  pain  familiar Peace,  Analogically,  the  new  here  "private  simple of  and  the  vices/  wisdom,  constant  second  The  public  the faith  eclogue,  the  human  in  daily  time,  mirrors for a  Collins do  not  pay  conceptions  virtues"  Hassan  search  Although  new  his  (II.  science  nature  wisdom  Collins'  the  and  infects  the  second  search  optimism  that  Song"  as  Hassan's  yearnings.  "Dread  to  he  Pleasure's  the  The  the  where  symbolized  of  the  forlorn.  "without."32  deeper  from  and  materialism  philosophies  in  terrain  paradise  man's  away  Lost  poem,  Horror  desp'rate  separation.  world or  the  silent  experiences  lost  s i l v e r .  a  folly.  Young's  man  of  "With  metaphorical  Like of  "in  and  of  world,  lead  end  of  1),  material  paradise,  to  in  the  darkness  moves  Hassan  similar  rejects  nature,  live  an  1.  eighteenth-century  that  society,  46)  and  materialistic  attention  (II.  the he  laments  1.  in  love  THOUGHTS.  "gentle  for  spirit  us  presents  the  11)  66)  into  and  Waste"  (II.  NIGHT  however,  home  1.  1.  locates  eclogue  1.  (II.  Young's  man,  (II.  Desarts"  imagery of  from  blindly  that  view  allows  world. learns  of  of a  man  Thus, that  he  must Go t e a c h Recalled  In  this  of  the  sense,  my h e a r t t o by W i s d o m ' s  Collins'  second  love its painf u 1 v o i c e and Z a r a ' s ( II . eclogue  well-known eighteenth-century  presents  vision  of  fears, tears. 1 1 . 8 3 - 84 ) a  reversal  an  economic  89  as  Utopia  Pope  course,  writes  reasons  to  for  the  evening.  Collins allows  an  the  as  produces  so  royal  youth,  accomplished "richer  he  Scenes  is,  to  his  for  gold to  belong Collins  to  those  effects  spiritual  to  speak  a  to  his  in  the  the  three  makes  eclogues  Collins  song  plea  wishes a  she  Song,/  to  over  the  And sought  from  the  Plain"  Pow'r  and  Love"  Collins'  a  world  "marriage" figures  of  the  of  of  also  (III.  material the  Abra. 1.  1.  29) 34),  This to that search  expect  Abbas'  city  man  whose  pursuits. material  Abbas.  a  and  Hassan's  new  of  Abbas,  vales  (III.  the  the  Flocks"  woo  might  type  and  to  echoes we  between Abra  readers  land.  the  order  and  distrust  represents the  in  "golden"  eclogue,  for  like  "willing  her  word  and  express.  existence?  "bore  golden  However,  conventional  tends  floats  love.  thematica11y,  23-24)  of  third  lovers  of  11.  Abbas  the  during  two  her  second  and  moralizing  Selim,  The  search  desert.  forest  (III.  f u l f i l l  philosophies.  a  blind  direct  pastoral  of  the  eclogue,  blissful  court.  in  first  follows  "heard  groves"  in  Collins  her  s p i r i t u a l  place  portrait  while  the  to  which  11)  see  of  similar  attention  moral  1.  a  for  of  the  (ITT.  men  Goldsmith,  vision  the  a  Village"  into  the  FOREST.  romanticized  links  poet-shepherd  echoing  to  it  the  WINDSOR  Both  takes  image  doing,  pattern—lives  court-  leading  less  overall  in  Collins.  eclogue  pays  Abra--again,  earlier  of  idealized,  In  which,  Deserted  "The  Similar  here  i t s e l f .  his  wealth  third  presents  it  those  material The  presents  Abbas  affairs However,  and  the  succumbs  90  to  the  song  her  to  his  let  "Love  Collins power in  of  worldly delight  senses,  over  the  jeopardy.  Fear  the  In science,  to  poetry  temptation  while  position.  Thus  as  Spring  "shepherd's  the  men  that  which Abra  often  peaceful  puts  "knew  (III.  science  the the  brings  counsels  reign"  new  and  Abra  to  1.  36).  holds  real  forces  of  Monarch,  poetry  and  with  26). in  the  maintain  to  follow  the  the  of  home  Flow'rs"  care,/  AfaraJ  Abbas  poetry  innocence,  11.41-43).  "the  of  reducing  with  (III.  nature,  its  to  Plains  leaves  "marriage"  and  returns  the  (111. 11. 53-54) of  that  innocence"  importantly,  bliss  were,  moderating  renew'd  fact,  Abbas  succeed  Abra  in  with  1.  must  Collins,  and  of  says  (III.  order  it  minds He  obey'd"  court. thee,  as  heri  poetess/orac1e , marries  in  resisting materialist inspiration  and  keeps  Abbas,  Abra's  her  of  arms, the  "oft  most  And Thorns  revitalizes  and  State" amidst  world  of  the the  heart: Oft to the Shades and l o w - r o o f Or s o u g h t the Vale where f i r s t f i r ' d,' A Russet Mantle, l i k e a Swain, And thought o f C r o w n s and. b u s y  'd Cots r e t i r ' d , his Heart was h e wo r e , C o u r t s no (III.  Collins is,  as In  triumph  describes  a  life  as  " b . l e s t " ( I.I I .  11.  59),  1.  55-58) that  holy. the  third  over  "marriage" the  such  more.  the  makes  importance  of  eclogue  Collins'  destitution a  powerful human  love  of plea as  i d y l l i c  the to  time. his  primary  vision Indeed,  fellow for  appears  the  men  to  the to  affirm  foundation  91  of  a  peaceful,  ordered  regardless  of  courageous  poetic  Collins  sees  eclogues They  identity capable  a  inhuman.  to  world  in  diction  and  the  this  one in  revelation  the-  scheme  revelation settings, toward time the  a  as  as  Collins  radical  third  tries  catches  to  one  no  to  shore the  dark  to  which  needs  his  seem  of  the couched  in  forefather  in  fourth of  No  this  lack  The  symbolic  the  poem, at  fragile  tone  in  the  such that of  lead the  same  world.  optimistic  despairing  out  considering  dark,  of  first  round  vision.  and  that  the  to  c i v i l i z a t i o n  i d y l l i c ,  and  unaware.  up  secures  vision  the  scheme and  Collins  an  need.  surprise.  time  maintain  poetry  poetic  however, light  to  level  naive  moment  Tight  from  the  a  expect  from  the  the  sustained  occurs,  less  change  eclogue  eclogue  of  of  ecstatic  as  to  Collins.  against  identity.  forces  exotic,  style  come, a s  well  world  an  and  moves  should  action  might  an  forces,  three  young  action  which  a  which  first  trying  poetic  imaginative  steady  ones  of  the  up  while  imagination  human  point,  positive time  his  this  eclogues,  preceding  sense  mysterious  solves  Given  powers,  the  for  shoring  takes  forces  Thus,  purpose  eclogue,  vision,  superior  offensive.  a  third  i d y l l i c  against  speak,  reducing  secure  three  so  obscure  At  seemingly  the  The  and  particular  against of  stand  destructive  and  create  romantic  on a  attempt,  immature  the  as  serve  potentially  to  its  society.  tone the  S t i l l , of  the  fourth  92  The  fourth  significantly, figures--"two The  eclogue  third  eclogue Collins  Brother  begins  eclogues,  a  takes  place  at  defines  the  two  Shepherds"  in  a  (IV.  setting  place  of  midnight  and,  principal 1.  7)--as  reminiscent  h o l i n e s s , and  of  fugitives. the  first  and  light:  In f a i r C i r c a s s i a , where to Love inclin'd, E a c h S w a i n was b l e s t , f o r e v ' r y M a i d was kind! (IV. Then  the  tone  shifts  desolation  pervades  of  two.  eclogue  Agib, in  rather  terror  "that  s t i l l  haunt  Midnight"  echoes  and  landscape.  ravag'd  Plains  side? o f  a  similar  language  seat  of  Agib  wicked Agib  of  his  "Ode  seek  they  on a  feel  "Blessings  tempt  the  the  "with  Tartar  as  Ruin  to  3).  of  their  "awful  and a  "Wide  rest  on  the  describes  -r  in  near  to  speak.  f l i g h t . (IV.  in  Hand" destroy,  31),  (IV. and  1.  w  o  the  Because 1.  t  n e  God"  Sword"  to  but  Character,"  enough  his  The  r e f u g e . 33 to  during  none,  leave  find  Poetical  flee  present  Collins  close  "Fix'd  And  imagery  9)  secure  of  invades  home, flight  fugitives  place  refuge  1.  and  THE DUNCIAD  which  the;  cause  describes  1.  mountain,  power  and  (IV.  The  (IV.  desert  Secander  reigns,/  1-2)  and  dreary  blissful  both  the  the  Tartar  their  tone  as  the  shepherds,  Midnight  them  significance  misery  f u g i t i v e s t a k e  lines  Valleys"  in  explains  Circassia's  awful  last  symbolically  divine  The  of  echoing  two  freely  Collins'  mountain.  special  the  Behind  and  sense  twiTight"P1a ins"  the  similar  shepherds  when  the  THOUGHTS,  holds  now  leaving  Hour,  a  landscape,  distraction.  Wretches,  NIGHT  the  Only  than  and  abruptly:  11.  fair the 25).  stedfast  93  to  undo,"  64-66). work  and In  they  that  their  them  from  the  in  at  the  the  the  the  Lord" third  which  Far  off  Malice  represents of  now  (IV.  (IV.  1.  eclogue  malice. his  those  (IV.  32), grown  these  e x p l i c i t l y laments  sounds  old,  Instead,  of  Secander  who  he  does  like  knows  remains  forget  the  Agib  men  grown  reasons  why  they  reveals  end  of  the  "Ye  Georgian  appeals of  the  which  Indolence  saw his  tale  Collins'  of  enjoy  swains  of  1.  plea the  for  trade  after  conflict, up  at  Collins'  the  Tartar to  the  men  oblivious  resign'd,  danger  wealth,  and  the the  of  Georgia,  his  a  his  which  progressive,  35-38)  soon  but  in  lobbied  poem context  direction  taking,  gave  the to  the the  the  he  clearly  Ostensibly,  meant  fate.  near  speech  surface,  allegory  a l l ,  11.  dialogue  over  similar  Mind:  state.  generation.  an  after  forces  the  England  of  blissful  directs On  his  pleasure  this  concern  presents  and  on  of  59).  Russian  with  their  suddenly  eighteenth-century  peers  lined  he  (IV.  poemVand  drive  action  indolent  significance  when  Swains"  the  whole  directs the  eclogue  to  he  the  defend  state:  thoughtless  that  the  not  Soft Dreams of Love and P l e a s u r e soothe 'Midst fair Sultanas lost in idle Joy, No W a r s a l a r m h i m , a n d no F e a r s annoy. CIV. Collins  which  Whereas  states  26).  1.  forces  elements  he  1.  led"  culture.  destructive  besets in  by  powers  Land"  Tartar's  danger  or  ECLOGUES,  "our  "Persian of  Tartar  c i v i l i z i n g  deform  youth  incited  the  hinted  earlier  that  royal  the  only  forces  to  short,  against  Collins  "By Lust  9  rise for  mercantilist  to  alert  England's  4  to  conflict  aggressive side.  94  Collins for  an  likely  considered  aggressive  science,  the  the  predominant  imperialist  mercantilist  England  theorists,  as  forces a l l  the  the  p o l i t i c a l  realists,  a l l  opposition  art  and  light  truth.  Collins "the  sees  Waste  points  in  "times  are  and  s p i r i t u a l  of  War"  "The  (IV.  altered?  this  the  at  the  countering  the  in  moment  fourth  his  disappears rise  to  his  poem  itself  he  later  of  he  f a i l s :  in  identity.  finds  his  final  form.  task  in  fragile  on  his  the  ECLOGUES  forgotten  picks  up  Usurp  in  these  plainly  train/  the  that the  land  him,  destroying  all?  he  or  effecting  a  of  Collins,  find  refuge  incapable  the  the  any  on  level  eyes  the  poem  taking  a  failure  he  not who  in  values  number  does  before  himself  a  Pope  but  although  where  however  malevolent  of  this  only  sure,  eclogue,  ECLOGUES,  young  be  absolute  one  crumbling  to  third  the  feels  a l l , of  in  the  after  incapable  PASTORALS,  hears  was,  effectively  Unlike  ediface  Collins  and  being  Undoubtedly,  for  works  succeed,  his  new  in  seems  re-affirm  contempt  Unfortunately,  pursues  vision  completely.  certainly  poetic  In  states  c a r e e r — he  power.  to  levels.  his  and  unfeeling  feels  lasting  a b i l i t y  almost  emerge  Goldsmith  Village"  his  despair  manages  weak  60).  time—Collins  of  the  1.  values  the  swain."95  reconciliation a  and  poetic  trade's  moment  twenty-one  and  Deserted  dispossess At  love,  one:  materialist  philosophers, to  agitating  gave the  of  yearns  to  establish confidently  humbly,  Collins  it  takes  powers  even moving  behind  pursued,  unable  stand  fighting  or  to  95  back.  Like  "thro'  the  This  to  tried  but  failure, The  brings  birth  failed one  the  do.  Nor  understand  his  more: p a r t i c u l a r y  the  d e s t i t ut i on  gestation  of  the  without his  the  of  the  Both  Spenser  pastoral  poetry.  Shakespeare  pastoral  vision,  mode  expression  of  important  ways  the  of  realm  careers  Even  poetic  Frye as  the  shows  pastoral  and  while  secure  pastoral  greater  by  Johnson  maturity,  the  and  what  "Ode  writer  On  on  ECLOGUES.  The  lead  he  this  The  ODES,  One  attempt  owes  vision.  or  its  impress  directly  pastoral  Milton  s e n s i b i l i t y .  towards  the  eclogue  pastoral  OF P O P E ,  analysis.  Collins,  and  contains  LIFE  real  time,  poetry  his  every  the;  later  poet,  poetry.  later  of  young  our  appreciating  the  their  the  of  than  began  For  and  H i l l s ,  understanding  almost  writing  tradition.  as  head  Moon-light  ECLOGUES  later  example, their  his  upon to  ODES.  choice  time-honoured  of  the  without  which  of  the  level  in  "discover"  experience  turned  73-74).  second  Collins  Character,"  Collins' a  the  11.  failure  of  to  Collins  Wide, o ' e r  (IV.  to  to  analyses  ECLOGUES, Collins?  us  image  can  to  Night/  Collins'  an  Poetical  Collins  of  fugitives,  Flight"  ignore  devise  two  Dews  £hisj  renew'd  cannot  his  and  mode  Pope,  for  writing  pastorals,  important  vestiges  also  in  develops works  the  notes mode  directs It  with  ANATOMY in  of  the  him  a  of  young  contains  much the  elaborate  OF  through  #36  first  and  in  step  conventional 9  8  poet  within  a  CRITICISM.  experience.  the  and  and  Rambler  marks  allowing path  an  follows  i  n  towards it  the  96  essential  dialectic  imaginative  union  identity  and  pastoral  vision,  a l l ,  path,  abyss.  Hence  tradition,  path  for  which  its  mind,  leads  loss,  dispossession,  with  the  understand poet,  we  detail"  what  must  the  The  notes  and  the  the  and  of  a  V i r g i l ' s  basic f i r s t  life  the  and  to  of  him  examine  Hardin  -  describes  strangely  a r e . "  9  states  the  poet  order  to  as  a  in  of  young  greater  form. says,  follows  a  predicament.  explores  9  seeing  the  transience,  psychological eclogue  greater  the paradox of the s i m p l e l i f e in a c i v i l i z a t i o n d o m i n a t e d by t h e " c i t y " : on t h e one h a n d leisure, time for f r i e n d s h i p and c r e a t i v e life, access to • the: s i m p l e p r o v i s i o n s o f n a t u r e ; on t h e other, the dependency implicit, in a complex c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h o w n e r s h i p o f r e a l e s t a t e , wage l a b o r , dispossession, exile, and separation.  '  V i r g i l  of  In  7  pastoral  F.  to  Virgilian  provides 9  a  through  idealizing  it  common  pursue  leads  meant  the  Richard  through  to  struggles.  moment  his  successful  experiences  ECLOGUES a  A  natural  and  the  grounds  world.  necessity  greater  for  poet  strength  death,  pastoral,  that  in  experience,  especially  "progress"  movement  the  innocence  Collins'  usual  of  and the.  the  through  for  pause  usual  standard Hardin  poet  strength  with  pastoral,  a l l  the  of  nurtured  poet  the  which  vision  one  the a  innocence  through  mature  provides  poetic  of  enough,  these  the  best  men  of  of  as  basic  men  nobility  one  inhabitants  shepherds.  shepherds  Instead.,  9  the  as  Pope  "shepherds  should  imagine  of  at  this  them  at  the  and  sophistication  some  this  warns  followed  employment,"  8  city,  against day a  that  really  time is,  employed  in  "when as the  97  most  important  pastoral  such  life,  inherent so  a  blissful  actual  in  in  serves  to  "conclude  with  Arcadia being or  that  freezing  impure  fugitive,  usually  the  to  remote  soldier  city — his  his  only  currents notes  not of  human  with  drama  of  pathos  only  appear  moves  to  according  says,  live  from "It  is  happy  among  while  occupies  his  begins but  a  nature  scene  to  the a  Hardin, green  shepherd  the  coarse,  the  but  order  with  human  2  city.  occasionally a  rural  is Africans  place."TO in  of  fading  p a r a d i s e — and  and  a  thirsting  North,  happiness  and  despair  departure  to  details  eclogue  original  The. r e t r e a t  difference:  opposites.  shepherd  the: c o u n t r y . ties  and  Now,  their  nonetheless, a  bliss.  r e a l i s t i c the  presents—the  the  vision,  the  no  the  of  Hardin  driven  barbarian  original  leaves  in  makes  eclogues,  imminent  Virgil  uprooted,  of  first  Moreover,  1  and  Misery  Virgilian an  relaxation  possibiity  V i r g i l ' s  The  0  the  then,  establish  life.  to  I n i t i a l l y ,  exists  devoid  despair.  1  ever  state,  human  Accordingly,  promotes  state  relation  w o r l d . "  tasks.TOO  city-state  whether the  of  -r  n e  The poet,  retreats  to  re-establishes  the faith.  essential Hardin  that After flight, the p a s t o r a l e x p e r i e n c e requires illumination: in touch with nature, man i s i n structed i n her ways, a l w a y s opposed to the a r t i f i c i a l way o f t h e c i t y or c o u r t f r o m w h i c h he has fled. This instruction will a l l o w the i n i t i a t e to live well in his complex world after leaving his pastoral retreat. In the f i n a l stage of the exper i e n c e , A r c a d i a h a v i n g been a b a n d o n e d or destroyed the p a s t o r a l i n i t i a t e f i n d s peace and simplicity  98  embodied Milton  ends  desire  to  Michael, in  "Lycidas"  return he  LOST  of  world  to  the  of  the of  1  0  through  the  his  faith  peace.  narrative.  failure  achieve  his  Collins  the  pastoral  The  shepherds  poet-shepherdto  The.second camel-trader  mode,  a l l so  vision  speak,  that,  the in  external  to  notes  also  of  paradise  bower,  his  he  have  left  his  begins  accordingly, Virtues  presents  Hassan,  several  a  in  simple p o l i t i c a l  form  seeking  and  a  help  first  backdrop  warns must  another trade  the  the  normal  establish to  example, in  the  realm  outside  to  the  of city.  The  remain  Love"  distortion: freely,  he  his  barbarian.  to  as  Collins'  explain  For  maids  lead  the  conventions  eclogue  the  true  interesting  sequence to  a  apply  of  identity.  the  be  subverts  number  city  that  to  not  distortions  poetic  the  him  does  Collins  The  situates  eclogue  a  vested  a  pastoral  against  which  and  mediary  invading  show  and  tradition,  i d y l l ,  "the  the  Hardin  will  he  distorting  from  to  ECLOGUES  F i r s t ,  alienation  of  peaceful  human  the  within,"  inner  of  faith  4  surface.  develops  renewed  and  the  3  n  culmination  conventionally,  sequence,  i  "complexities  pastoral  pastoral  faithful  of  one's  Collins'  the  conventions  although  note  "paradise  grounds  poem.  Although  anomalies  se1f.  i m p e r i a l i s m , " elements  Collins'  student  the  invade  products  and  a  the  city,  the  eclogues,  were  strife  as  which  threaten  V i r g i l ' s  the  protecting  circumstances and  to  on  describes  PARADISE  capable  within  leaves  (I.  1.  58).  the love  and  99  peace  only  t  After  to experience  suffering deprivation  resolves  to leave  material  pleasures  satisfying. Zara's  He  Tears"  The  instruction however, nature  Collins  back  world: aims  As  i n t h e Song  of  of  The  opens i s , one  re-firing  characteristic task  1  0  7  of  and  1  8  returns  of t h i s  with  that  pattern  pastoral  uses  attempts  the Song,  and  empirical  a marriage  nature  and  with  In a l l of t h i s  man's  and  so  which  human  writer.  forth--by  displays  Because  the attempt  of  daily  the fundamental Collins  as  and  to a Christian basis  marriages,  as  for Collins'  the material  governs  h i s heart  city.  of the emotional  of both  t h e way  to  to enrich h i s  Collins  8  natural  eclogue,  of the  the basis  eclogue  involves  In this  of periodic  a marriage  of the pastoral mainly  the patterns  i t , the biblical  "the claims  p o l i t i c s ,  C h r i s t i a n i t y .  writer's  voice,  calls  of Solomon  provides  innocence  that  life--business, continually  he  sufficiently  Eversole  the depth  sees  to effect  but also  l i f e ,  dispel,  f o r greater  of the state  and p r i n c e .  at satisfying  social  pattern  regardless  of experience.  society,"  a  Eversole  world  Richard  t o t h e Song  earlier,  spiritual  cannot  by W i s d o m ' s  exploring  to extend  of shepherd  said  separation.  already  to the city.105  creates  i n order  exemp1ified.  he  life  "Recall'd  Collins  occur  discussion.  to a  which  and r e t u r n  goes  fears  of  ( I I .11. 8 4 ) .  Collins-  Moreover,  union  returns  despair  of searching  to return  sees  which  and  the folly  third, eclogue,  "exquisite,"  we  the acute  virtues a  trait  the pastoral  to r e - e s t a b l i s h  1 00  the  c i t y ' s  original  pursues  the  eclogue  tries  found  in In  path  expounds preface  in of  integral  his how  of  of  (p.  moreover,  his  of  ideal that  only  whilst  favorite  Abbas  means,  course,  youth  who,  Lover's  aspect  it  he  was  Monarch,  Myrtle,  to  with  n  third  e  state  seems  the  sees  at  merchant  the  0  Abbas"  "the  Hands  Father  of  fatal the  (p.  3).  of  the  third, eclogue  Abra  the  poetess-shepherd, Crown"  as  (III.  a  himself of  the  the  "author"  the  Warrior's  claims  Collins  in  the  establishes  Collins  8  vision. the  and  Carpets  celebrat ing  Great  an  troubling  symbolizes  a; D i s t e m p e r  in  1  and  "died engag'd  "a  enrich  about  of  as  the  to  Silks  pastoral  added  becomes  one  poem.  Business the  on  confused  after  E C L O G U E EL?  "as  the  Haney-Peritz's  she  the  in  takes  and  discover  occurs  married  y  8  Collins  account  device  trouble of  which  hands  poem  what  his  s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  Abbas  the  Collins' of  his  Janice  concerns  made  he  really  c i v i l i z e d  vision  mere  no  £the  he- c a n that  a  over  them  man  peaceful  into  of  creates  2-3).  pastoral  j u s t i c e . "TO  fictional  poem.  L e a r n i n g , " as ' w e l l  c i v i l i z e d ,  ECLOGUES  his  of  anxiety  had  the  social  social  came  that  thematic  or the  the  the  this  who  Persians"  Parts,  of  "received  "the  of  values,  eclogue.  poem  doubles"  Merchant, with  the  Her  overall he  first,  beyond  misfounded.  that  establish  ECLOGUES,  aspect  discussion  the  to  "virtue  context  significance  series  of  V i r g i l ' s the  c i v i l i z e d  adds,  of in  the those  Victories The  name  People" the  and,  royal  wears 1.  of  63).  "The  101  The  fourth  grimmer  view  normal  of  of  presents  the  the  Circassia" seek  a  the  final  argues  the.  back  to  for  the  1),  blessed  refuge.  Virgil  the  hand,  fugitives,  the  first  in  the  part  two  renders in  but  to  leads  lead  to  future  of  no  the  their  the  bliss,  flight  from  Moreover,  radically.  transitory "not  despair.  to  Hardin  joy,"  bring  For  to  the  the  "fair  c i v i l i z e d  Elysium."110  return  at f i r s t ,  narrative.  differ  to  greater  offers  his  attempts him  of  presents  "sense  general  not  much  the  belongs  from  city  of  poems a  fourth,  a  given  really  fleeing  the  tradition  other  shepherds  develops  indeed,  sequence,  Virgil  Arcadia,  earlier,  fourth  images  that  that  in  saw  the  mountain  barbarian  we  structure,  1.  (IV.  as  p o s s i b i l i t i e s !  fugitive  the  the  man's  pastoral  beginning  to  eclogue,  and  man  Collins,  on  Collins' c i v i l i z e d  ci t y. The  distortion  indicates well  a  a  ease  to  death:  a  argues,  his  Collins  the  the  a  bridge  looked  to  of  the  pastoral  alienation explore  anxiety tries  to  his over  from  time  askance  bridge and at  fear  of  the  the  the  to  blocked.  pastoral man  poetic  felt  a  his  tradition? failure,  the  poetic of  poetry  precursors  maturity, Collins,  No m y t h  The  Collins  brotherhood  which  abyss.  in  poetic  achieving  one  identity.  eighteenth-century  the  innocence  spanned  the  movement  from  enter  threshold,  movement  way  continuum  fact,  ODES  time-honored  to  finds  the  reveal  identity. over  deepening  before,  ECLOGUES  of  from  used life  however,  arises  to  grant  eighteenth-century, myth.  himself  As  Sherwin  separated  from  in  102  previous p a s t . "  1  Milton  1  history: Earlier  1  "knew  classical  past,"  notes  the  that  paradise  a  but  is  temps a  Sherwin hand,  "lacks  enable  him  ancient  and  more  existence."  of  pastoral,  mercantilist  unless  of  FOREST. either. and  vulgar  Newton  of  harsh  groves  finds  by  himself  the  of  world  he  hoarse  split  off  cannot seems  death,  The  3  takes  gulf  that  hardly  of  the  it  up  time. other  would purify  to  have  suited  that  did  ethos  not  the  much  he 1  1  ^  "Dreaming (1.  it  as poem  oblivious  120).  past  the  tradition  Thomson's  lies  the  value  dismisses  nicely:  brook"  like  pastoral  poet  from  the  eighteenth-century  disgusting . "  pastoral  the  magic  OF M I L T O N  reality, the  past  the  past,  on  He  1  a  4  ridicules  LIFE  therefore  describes  demands  whispering  and  1  1  artist,  supported  literary  his  1  enough,  it  Johnson in  the  bridges  forms.  ethos  course  The,  in  g u l f . "  Enlightenment  naturally  into  Hartman  movement,  a  refined  out  myth  over  Enlightenment or  the  the  Geoffrey  very  luxuriates  the  RASSELAS,  short,  bridges  because  tradition  the  its  myths  England,  on  greater  translate with  WAS  and  especially  bond  2  1 1  past  Shakespeare,  not  a  the  discontinuity--winter,  outmoded  progressive,  "easy,  a  to' s p e a k , the  did  myth.  subsume  The  in  of  to  purified  WINDSOR  so  that  a  of  artist  present, argues  use  that  past,  created  perdu—and  series  the  distance  they  meant  Spenser,  from  mediates  pr e - E n 1 i ght enment. the  that  because  "myth  lost,  like  distance  imaginative  narrative,  into  Enlightenment  writers  their  "discontinuity" through  "The  and  to  in Collins, the  in  1 03  security might, the  which  he  gulf  cannot  a  cannot of  poetical  of  vivify  myth,  time,  succeed  i n i t i a t i o n  continuity  lost  without  through  rite  no  the  thought  the  longer  offers.  and  thus  light.  The  ritual grants  of  the  the  he  Try stands  young  poet  he before  Collins  shepherd,  young  as  for  the  passage  into  manhood. i :  After poetry, almost  as  failure  the  midnight  solely  midnight vision, As  the  poetry  approaches, and  the  Heidegger  towards  a  more  says,  the  (PLT. p  .94).  obtain  glimpses  of  (I.  47),  abyss  1.  even  as  a  the  of  he  the  metaphor  the  in  the  midnight,  prevail"  of  the  farther feels  abyss a  indicates,  abyss  world's  of  the who  through  "this  opaque  experience  does  of  not  his  time.  destitute  Young  region  from  draws  unlike  defined  nearer  the  night  does  becomes  the  recedes  destitution  the  Collins'  Indeed,  exclusively  Thus,  as  stage  the  the  "closer  the  last  ECLOGUES,  destitution.  more  of  PERSIAN  manages  the  of  to nature"  cosmos  appear  in  a  poet  or  Collins'  poetry. Even  so,  Collins'  abyss.  The  as  ECLOGUES:  the  this  study  define that  lies  his  sense  before  time's  reveal  will  the  interesting  in  most  the  of  the  strategies nature  "can  be  destitution  must  have  The  of  the  poet  statement  a  not  him  however,  anyone  vocation 94).  ODES,  ODES  poetic  certainly  made  question applies  much of  Collins  poet the  as  aspect  poetry. a  true  receive  which  of  truly  as  whole for in  such  the  ODES  employs  an  being him"  Collins'  the  attention  Heidegger in  of  for to  remarks  age,  the  and  (PLT. case:  p. the  1 04  question for  of  poetry  himself,  poetry" His  and  Collins dares  ODES—and  not  Character"--show Collins  obsesses  chooses  him.  By m a k i n g  "gatherfsj  in  "the  venture  with  just  the  him an  "Ode  daring  apt  poetry  epigraph  the  a  question  (PLT.  of p.  133).  Poetical  venture  from  a  nature  language"  On T h e  such  poetry  with  Pindar  language.  for  his  ODES:  W o u l d I c o u l d f i n d me w o r d s , a s I m o v e o n w a r d as a b e a r e r of good g i f t s i n the Muse's c a r , would I m i g h t be a t t e n d e d by D a r i n g a n d by all-embracing Power. 1  C o l l i n s ' , search in  the  nature  gifts." of  the  the he  will  ODES  identity,  never  write  Collins  opens  "Mercy"  with  of  poetry,  constituting; development  ODES.  the: of  grounds  qualities  act  will  the  an  attempt  and  as  In  odes  he  order  poetical  argues  he  to  comprehend  despair For  "Pity,"  Collins  as a  to  the  in  the  and  gather  this  his  "good  the  nature  problem  knowing  of  that  reason  his  poetic  the  ODES, of  framework  to  "Simplicity," each  understand  the  elements  Collins'  Wendorf  nature a  of  basic  notes,  forms  identity  in  personification  drama  the  "Fear,"  appropriate  character,  achieving  establishing  the  to  produce  confronts  consider  figures,  that  desire  "Daring."  for  must  to  poetry.  apostrophe  for  which  he. b a t t l e s  discovering  and  his  appellation  psychological for  whole  announces  "strong"  these  strategy  Wendorf  the  a  an  character,  personification.  of  as  the  central  "words"  poetry,  deserve  essence  6  for  of  poetic  poet's  ODES  and  The  1  "lies  at  providing  emotional of  or  dramatic  a the  the  heart  the moral  1 05  confrontation absorbed  or  virtues bliss as  one  the  poet,  like  reads  that  the  personification the  whole  and  personifying himself, deity he  human  to  poets  were  trying  place., to air of  of  poetic  as  to  and  in  Friend  charm and  structure  which  each  a  part  man  tries  gods  a  necessary  relies  of  his of  and  divinity. this  is  where  the  again.  He  "Ode  Pity"  poet  dares  Frye  r a i l s spirit  once  can  the  Much  century  the  earth  each mind,  what  Renaissance  on  as  above  calling  heart  to- v e r i f y  home  but and  and  by  to  on  purposes,  late-eighteenth on  city!  each  outside  (perhaps  back  and  pastoral  heart  then,  that  and  peace  both-projecting  virtue!  him  speak,  once  or  ruling  more,  breathe  most  in a the  difficult  acts.  sympathy,  Pity,  so  a  that  states  with  imagination  example, "the  each  mid-  the  to  poetic  By  and  become  put  offers  dwe 1 1 ,  For  sooth  He  to  mind  conventional  that  become  Thus. C o l l i n s  identity  divine;, truth:  a l l  Pity  says  Collins'  of  ultimately  c i v i l i z e d  clear  strategy.  to  lead  the  becomes  man; b e f o r e ,  he  which  state  are  qualities  in  qualities  his  when  body.  a  for  earth  means  the  it  deifies  like; Renaissance:  These  7  enjoyed,  "daring"  reintegrates  again),  1  qualities  character.  not  Collins  down  1  ODES,  poetical  radical  these  virtues  forms  personification a  which  infused.."  for  much  in  man  the of  man's  hides  Collins  Man a s s i g n *d" -whose "frantic  compassion holds  to  a  a l l  Woe"  belong  c i v i l i z e d  within  (11. to  himself,  "balmy  1—3).  the  society  speaks  Hands"  Pity,  basic  emotional  together:  incapable  of  of  without breaking  1 06  through  his  light.  As  fear the Pity  the  who  that as  he  will  ignorance  power  ignorance. Greeks  and  which  deserves gave  build  her  a  the  down  worship  gods  this  of  homes,  shrine  world  of  state  a l l  he  of  men.  Collins  where,  c i v i l i z e d  Hence,  like  promises  hopes,  he  Pity  may  live  we 1 1 : T h e r e l e t me In Dreams of Allow'd  Similarly, Fear  Collins:  inspires  Aeschylus  might well  the  and to  "seekrs7  find  sound" when  he  wishes trag.ic  to  thy  (11.  He  also  temp'rate  "To  with  imagination  51-52).  says:  dwell  Thee  of  we  Where  a  21)  because  like  Simplicity  extends  build  (1.  writers  tells  Vale:/  Collins  Fear  oft this  roseate  that  Zh is7 to  Reed  Mercy  Bow'r"  he  as  (1.  " v • /•. \ • . . To  time, with  oft, r e t i r ' d by D a y , Passion melt away, w i t h Thee to dwell. (11. 37-39)  Shakespeare.  25).  in  breaks  the  their  into  live  a  a  continuity  each  the  with  now  he  seeks  and  poetically  to  for  of  poetic  means seems  each  bridge  a  to  age. the  populate  life.  gulf  of  of  kinship  with  the  qualities  "Ode  Fear"  sees  it  and  world  renewing found past a  with  of  itself impossible  with more  myth" personal  through  the  basic  "personification our  f o r t h . "  the  it  tries,  stresses  as  continuity  argues,  bodies  Fear  a  mode,  Collins  the  knowing,  of  the  poetic  As Wendorf  way  Collins  imagine  Collins  thinking.  our  to  to  capable  more: p r i m a l  valid  personification,  provides  which  generation,  ECLOGUES  s p i r i t s  "god"  spirit  natural 1  1  8  Thus,  who  in  "most  the  1 07  possest/  The  64-65).  He  "to  the  read  Fear he  will  asks  never In  his  never  only  with  Collins  knows  carry  far  and  cleared  for  himself,  retreats,  as  a  term,  and  success  Collins  in  a  to both  which  he  the  same  by  "Bread  and  full  point  of  comes  that,  that  if  to  feel,"  a  primal  his  vision  such  to  its  the  "incarnate" an  1  1  as  essential  achieves. poetic  Wine."  It  Yet  9  a  reaches  which  he  to of  has  sees  seeing  first  which  bears  He  poet ,  the  However,  Collins  feature  In law  finish.  Martha  ODES.  to  vision.  opening  which  the  close  poetic  from  movement  most  misses  lives  outlines  in  Collins  retreats  failure  Bloom's the  then  strength  doubt.  into the  the  £Shakespeare7  like  imagination, poetic  (11.  promising  Without  so  its&lf  him  69-71).  break-through to  grant  53-54),  once  personifications  a  to  Breast"  (11.  beyond  seems  repeat ing  (11.  but  Fear  Shakespear's Pow'r"  old"  ZTiimJ  the  move  achieving he  of  of  "Dark  Visions  dwell"  experience  Seat  the  "Teach  "will  can  sacred  Collins' use  his  poetry  place,  Holderlin  quoting:  One t h i n g s t a n d s f i r m : w h e t h e r i t be n e a r noon Or c l o s e t o m i d n i g h t , a m e a s u r e e v e r endures, Common t o a l l ? y e t t o e a c h h i s own i s allotted, too, E a c h o f us g o e s t o w a r d and r e a c h e s t h e place t h a t he can. P.  (PLT. Collins  writes  according  development,  and  law  when  produces  remains cannot  where reach  he the  he he  to  reveals  such the  expresses  stands. great  a  of  psychic his  Moreover,  poetic  law  poetic  tension  desire  to  because  heights  95)  go he  necessary  which  such  beyond, fears to  that  a  but he  maintain  1 08. the  light  many  of  seems The  of  his  divine  radiance  contemporaries,  capable  Poetical  of  on  earth,  that  asserting  real  no  the B a r d , presuming  poet  poetic  C h a r a c t e r " ' C o 11ins  Where i s Its high  Collins  worries,  writing  power.  at  In  like  the  the  time  "Ode  On  asks: whose Hopes  Soul can avow?  now  (11.51-52) This but  line,  receives  rarely  lines the  which  one  show  do  to  age — and  they  place which  Col Tins  a  good  note  Collins'  for  c o n t a i ns  find  a  voice  poet  lives  Work  for- H i m d e s i g n ' d "  "who  he  in. the  the  or  that  generalized as  far  as  concern  he  succeeds Indeed, poetical  knows,  unless those  his he  poets the  senses  lines  for  his  that  his  struggling he  to  asks  i f  b l i n d , /  This  53-54)?  Collins  recognizes  world's  "good  gifts"  However, write  night, which  his  great  all' poetry.  his he  poetry In  this  work  that  becomes to  goes  to  a  hallow'd  hopes  anxiety  than  The  poetry  abyss,  moreover,  that  a  possesses  a  same  qualities  which  cannot  assimilated  mediation  of  be  Fancy.  strong  true  he  character the  for  light  attention. of  follow,  Rapture  the  not  different  Because  across:  c r i t i c s ,  immediately  a  importance  for  from  offer  beyond  a  way,  he  reaches  can.  Collins  without  (TT.  the  he. w i l l  call  with  opening, epigraph..  fear  often  matter  during  holy,  in  carry  thinks,  writes  "hallow'd"  can  which  future.  important  which  attention  anxiety  the  the  of  lines  so  evaluat ing  poetry  because  the  c r i t i c s  perhaps,  deal  poet  never  imagination  form  Collins  the  or  essence  into  heart  says  that  Fancy. of and  he  the mind feels  1 09  Pity  "by  Scene"  Fancy's  of  Fear's  (11.  3-4).  As  that  a  dwelling poetry,  to  doubt  his  how  his  basic just  develop  difficulty  The  of  awe  "Ode  a  poetic  also  on  of  On T h e  Milton  Poetical  the  essential  Early  the  "Ode."  do  state.  The  write  warmly  the in  his  approach true  pure,  of  a l l  job. the  but  ECLOGUES the  ODES  words,  v i r t ues—wh i ch rarely god's at  come gift  once  of  stanza  of  the  together  in  can  "feel  the  exist  says  of  on  Collins'  that  Fancy,  any  individual.  as  one a  state  the  most  not  course, insecurity.  the  qualities  of  unmix'd"  "Ode,"  Gift"--the  essence  in  the  character—and  Character,"  "God-like  form  or  and  the  no show  (11. other  he  His  appreciation  poetical  and  that  To few t h e G o d - l i k e G i f t assigns, To g i r d t h e i r b l e s t prophetic Loins, And gaze her v i s i o n s w i l d , and f e e l u n m i x ' d F1ame!  In  the  Simplicity,"  most  score,  Veil"  Pope.  statement  Collins  to  from  or  imagines  Numbers  this  a  he  to  identity  stem  ODES,  cannot  feels  unreal  the  short,  "Ode  In  developing  provides in  the  in  "th'  l i f t s  each  one  cannot,  imagination  insecurites  his  Fancy  in  the  embodies  Thought,/  the  insecurities  from  says  approaches  "Fancy  (11. 2-3). C o l l i n s  possess  fed  he  genuine  "failure"  poet  gods,  as  he  through  of  strong"  not  moves  without  the  and  when  clear:  cannot,  sweetly does  is  her  only  imaginative  place  "breathe  domain  Collins  strong  implication  A i d " (1. 25),  of  poetical  pure  visionary  commentators  her  20-23)  or  character  Few m e r i t spirit  power. note,  and  In  the body  the  Collins'  final  1 1 0  vision  reaches  the  ECLOGUES,  off  from  his  its  most  almost  eloquent  to  sight.  height.  paradise,  Collins  but  says  He  finds  that  he  W i t h many a Vow f r o m H o p e ' s a My t r e m b l i n g F e e t h i s g u i d i n g In v a i n — S u c h B l i s s t o One Of a l l t h e S o n s o f S o u l was And H e a v ' n , and F a n c y , k i n d H a v e now o ' e r t u r n ' d t h ' ins Or c u r t a i n ' d c l o s e s u c h S c e n e V i ew.  reaches?  as  paradise  follows  closed  Milton:  s p i r i n g Tongue, Steps pursue? alone, known, red Pow'rs, piring Bow'ers, from e v ' r y future  (11. A  number  of  significant  statement,  points  exegeses.  True,  states  of  dwelling Milton the  fear  the  and  place  of  vain."  of  Collins  poetry  in  his  sacred  dwelling  "curtain'd as  a  the  place:  metaphor  result  all  the  conventional  same NIGHT  of  sees  THOUGHTS.  writing  the  and  tries  in  of  has  the  bower  exists  inspiring  the  Pope's Young  Collins In  which  tradition DUNCIAD,  attempts suffered short,  to the  the  go  cry  to  of  with  that  in  god  reverses govern has  course,  and  poet,  for  Collins  the  decries  effect  this  of  poet's  suffered  it  effect  or  Collins'  reconcile of  at  "in  struggle  only  itself of  where  "o'erturn'd"  home  bower  relationships  that  ECLOGUES.  the  the  Pope's  happened  True,  overturning  enter  like  been  final  familiar  to  his  70-76)  previous  THE DUNCIAD,  nature what  this  Bow'ers"  efforts,  either  the  by  inspiring  lines  over  he  has  values.  reversal,  As  his  the  from  Collins'  it  for  the  reversal  final  confusion  close."  he  that  discloses  of  exhibits  gods—"th'  finds  emerge  unclarified  insecurity.  but  vocation:  left  passage  the  dwells—he  beginning  mind  largely  points  in  in  a the  the reversal  curtaining  off  111-  the  bower  out  of  out.  from  the  bower:  Collins  because  to  the  bower  the  end  the  a  that  the  "Ode"  image  staring  into  remains  within  while  the  a  a  of the  that  the  end The  realm of  no  sacred of  the two  in  epigraph  from  modern  sense  of  Despair Thomson, thinks  c r i t i c s  the of  of  age  one  century.  W.  his  the  Thomas and  book  as  sort  Young,  confusion  of  Collins  receives his  later  on  Jones, Gray  Pope,  however, of  for  great  every  another  perplexity P.  a  anxiety,  virtually  Gray,  Thus,  creates  leaves  poetic  an  him  inspiration However,  effectively he  promises  over  which  off  term,  incomprehensible.  measure  poet  he  the set  "With  destitute for  himself  ODES.  for  or  of  song  the  Although  home  which  the  earth.  Collins'  his  f u l f i l l s the  Heidegger's  poem  shine  closing  to  poet  occurs  to  abyss,  He  light  comes  use  the  deny  Heaven's  the  land.  to  together,  entering singing  any  desolation  divinities  continue  the  does  shuts  longer  the  Vow" to thus  his  occurred. of  the  from  nor  working  god  at  Collins  in,  indicates,  r i f t .  completely  inspiration.  God" has  the  see  Fancy,"  of  collusion  precludes many  and  source  "default  either/or  cannot  View"  moreover,  means  of  future  he  adds,  "Heav'n,  access  that  "ev'ry  the  he  other  and as  of  shares  pervades  poet  the  a  attention the of  same the  poetry  Collins.  mid-  example,  "Fastidious  deal  One  time.  of hardly  poet  belonging  and  late-eighteenth  calls  L i t t l e  the  to  first  Gentleman."  the  chapter 1  2  0  Yet  11 2  Gray,  the  quiet  scholar  poetry  borrowing  deeply  imbued  worries  over  intensity much  heavily  with the  than  attention  and  taken  the  life,  says  i f  in  the  of  Gray.  for  about he  the  could  his  Dryden  Pope's.  or  easy  nor  essay  faced  through time's  not  to  high  it  published screen  surprizingly,  validity  emulate grace"  an  which  Pope  soar  Milton,  whose  writings  threw  great  circle  of  were  Gray as  "catch  poetry  feels,  like  working  artist he  verse  Gray  says  his  might Young,  match that  Shakespeare  or  inspired  by  Heaven  as  around  to  raises  as  a l l  and  has  high  light  to  an  the  poetry.  his  13),  be  "Stanzas  own  (1.  as  poets.  thought  could  so,  Dryden  Gray's  Gray  a  Bentley,  Even  neither  of  such  less  begins  as  to  Gray  will  of  He  virtues plane  no  fellow  malaise.  poetry  receive  show  his  the  Bentley's the  with  will  a  Indeed,  B e n t l e y ' s "drawings -bring  Not  strength,  a  the  age.  Collins,  posthumously  extolling  Bentley  the  which  displays,  graphic: art.  questions that,  problems  sense  conventionally, complimenting  concluding  controlled  writes  identity  Thomson,  Young,  Gray  his  poetic  the  as  example,  encomium,  of  Gray  same  Bentley"  classics,  desolation of  elegant,  Although  through  Mr.  the  an  Collins.  before  For  the  writes  from  problem  instructive the  who  and,  such,  themselves:  But  not to one i n t h i s b e n i g h t e d age Is that d i v i n e r i n s p i r a t i o n giv'n, That burns in S h a k e s p e a r ' s or i n M i l t o n ' s The pomp a n d p r o d i g a l i t y o f heav'nJ21 Of  course,  too,  but  "not  Gray,  to not  one  in  this  benighted  unlike  Pope  in  his  age"  avowal  includes that  he  page,  Gray, follows  1 13  a  humble  humbler  muse, path  displays  a  than  sure  like  Collins,  r i f t .  The  unique  way.  number  missing of  the  He the  of  Golden  sense  of  his  fate  as  a  attests  to  Gray's  in  a  earth.  daily  life.  "purple cheer  to  normal place  ruled  The  in  of  frolic  Love"  True  that  as  to  such of we  Labour,  the of  and  land War,/  measures"  the  pastoral  The it,  a  Penury,  life the  D i s e a s e , and S o r r o w ' s And D e a t h , sad r e f u g e  the  time, in  31)  the  hardly  a  the bringing  Gray  fits  man's  cedes  characterized  of  love  land,  vision  man's  fury  of  while  a  freely,  the  wrote  of  Poesy."  governed  tradition,  racks  the  corner  of  us  curb'd  poet  Arcadian  a  in  roaming  .  state  in  Although  poetic  places  over  (  the  f i l l  Progress  .  (1.  but  modesty."122  peace  shone  i d y l l i c  in  off  gods,  .  age  only  thereby  to  and  Age  41)  know  "The  the  Golden  l i f e .  of  not  lines.  tore  setting  (1.  an  fit  a  humility  primitive  time: when  17-18).  a l l .  life  a  the  born  three  Gray  in a  he  manuscript,  peculiar  natural  Lord  experience to  at  that  of  of  emendations  themes  "the  light  recognizes  runs  "some  Song  Even  Tight  story  follows this  poet  final  offered  s o n g . ... T h e  on  "Frisking  have  anxiety  the  the  description  lived  (11.  in  similar  landscape  car"  tore  words  in  pastoral  his  fact,  apparently  the  of  In  basic  pursues  Age  Milton.  he  the  c r i t i c s  with  or  that  of  manuscript  begins  honestly  Shakespeare  last  words,  Gray He  a  quite  grasp  poem,  destroying a  admits  its  by  Pain,  weeping train, from the storms of (11.  Fate! 43-45)  11  Gray  harbours,  illusions  as  about  the  does  he  attempt  with  an  ecstatic  the  world  each  man  destiny  of  Poesy," argues  the of  the  notion  that  (11.  a  mortal the  of  (11.  mediary always  of  needs  arduousness us,  of  to  the  most  Nor  men  suffer  through  in  "Elegy,"  (1.  3)  to  "homely  image  in  "The  similar out man  his  the  joys,  and  the  and  he  wants  "giv'n  in  vain  the  poet's  over  chear  the man  brightens Gray the of  the  the  goes,  man's  way,"  counsels poet  the  must  darkness  heav'nly  diminished  that  whenever  always  Native's Muse,  man,  that,  He  his  Muse  shiv'ring  aims.  "disprove"  the  declares  man,  of  eternal  considering  Gray  the to  eighteenth-century,  falls  sources  poetry's  dispel  and  respect.  task,  of  Progress  to  affirms  Muse,  view  poetry  Gray  poet.  the  men  way"  have  night  the  a l l  of  Ploughman  gods  in  poet.,  fate  the  56-57). W h e r e v e r the  common  no  existence.  Like  existence,  the  Muse  the  physical  progress:  sets  t w i 1 i g h t - g 1 o o m / To  abode"  of  give  deserves  darkness  tells  gods  with  the  affirmation  over  of  testifies,  31).  Gray  46-48).  relationship  "the  (1.  eloquently  reality  weary  developing  despair  the  gloss  his  however,  of  harsh  vision  obscure"  that  status  "Elegy"  experience.  and  Muse"  to  "plods  After  his  4  dull  through  the  therefore,  despite  attend,  breaks  as  the  Heidegger  song:  Her t r a c k , w h e r e ' e r the Goddess roves, G l o r y p u r s u e and generous Shame, Th ' u n c o n q u e r a b l e M i n d , and F r e e d o m ' s h o l y flame. (11. 6 3-65)  115  The of  phrase Satan  For  the  Milton the  "unconquerable  before poets  shows  chased  of  poetry  gave  abyss"  "Stanzas  to  longer.  The  "heard  poetic  theory  further  poet  who abyss  of  to  more"  Lyre  divine, The  case, when  to  ( T l .  he  abyss. only  "where'er  home  moved keys"  keys.  of  However,  as  Gray  breathe,  110-111) what  in  daring  appreciation to  the  comes,  he  of  gods:  the  and  England. 91)  England.  the  the  in  abyss that  Gray  Wakes  answer  of  the  solitary  any  burn" then  thee  his  must  "Upon  "secrets  in  home  to  rides  words,  S p i r i t /  (11.  argues  illuminates  that,  course,  Milton "spy"  that  to (1.  to  poet  claims  Vice"  order  no  ascends  poetry  the  the  qualifications  his  and  Shakespeare,  in  96-97).  it  "golden  of  Extasy"  "Thoughts,  dares  the  after  Bentley,"  112-113)?  takes  the  century,  track  And coward  Parnassus,  trusteeship  Mr.  Collins'  from  wonders"  (11.  no  "Oh!  poet  the  the  Shakespeare  seraph-wings  (11.  follow  tyrant-Power,/  th'  description  through  to  pomp  assumes  in  strength  way  late-eighteenth  "the  Milton  asks:  mid-and  his  Nature's  are  solitary  Milton's  roves."  unlock  of  the  his  defines  Muses  the  takes  echoes  Gray  79-80) The  of the  Goddess  when  he  Mind"  now"  reveal, flight  of  the  Muses.  take  his  way  If  as a the  through  Y e t s h a l l he m o u n t , a n d k e e p h i s way Beyond the l i m i t s of a vulgar fate, B e n e a t h t h e G o o d how f a r - - b u t far above the Great. (11.121-123) We  should  understand  in  JONATHAN  WILD:  the  the  term  great  "Great"  are  the  as  Fielding  tyrants,  defines  politicians,  it  11 6  merchants,  and so f o r t h  who  live  "Good" a r e v i r t u o u s  men- who,  argue,  the gods.  commune w i t h  In  Gray  history  of t y r a n n y  The: Bard' s o u n d s wonders about  after  as b o t h  taking  overlooking Prophet's  up t h r o u g h  hangs: o v e r  a.- deep  the abyss, chasm.  abyss,  he " w i t h a M a s t e r ' s  fire,/  Struck  t h e deep  sorrows  tyranny  oppresses the Bard  m e a s u r e s move"  belief pity, men  After  that  hopes  that  the t y r a n t ' s  and f e a r .  silence,  darkness  breeds  of the age.  d i e and Gray  the way, w i l l  heart  dispel  "think'st  breath,  has quench'd  "sanguine (1 . 1 3 3 ) .  that  However,  hand, and  hellish  " P a l e G r i e f , and echoes  moves man's that  Collins'  heart  tyranny  to f e e l oppresses  leads to the  of t r u t h  time, with  poetry  of t y r a n n y . The B a r d  yon s a n g u i n e  when  cloud,/  and  light  leading asks the  R a i s ' d by t h y  t h e Orb of d a y " ( 1 1 . 1 3 5 - 1 3 6 ) ? The B a r d  the l i g h t  cloud"  to f e e l  sees  safe-  " I n busk i n ' d  the s p i r i t  that  t h e gloom  thou,  The B a r d ,  of h i s l y r e " (11.  The a p p e a l  Gray  whom  l a n d s "On a r o c k "  i g n o r a n c e , and t h u s  declares  tyrant:  promises  Spirit"  e n g u l f s the land  poetry w i l l  o n l y p o e t r y or F a n c y  compassion,  of a Welsh  d e s c r i b i n g . Wales'  P a i n " (11. 123-129).  into  never  it..  traces a  Presumably  this  and r e c o u n t s t h e gloom w h i c h  Pleasing  the- e y e s  l i k e - t h e same " d a r i n g  21-22),  history,  Gray  i n "The P r o g r e s s of P o e s y . "  h.is way  ( 1 .. 15) w h i c h  through  The  Young and C o l l i n s  "The B a r d : A P i n d a r i c Ode" ( 1 7 5 7 ) ,  familiar Bard.  as i f t h e y were g o d s .  of t r u t h  by warming  will  soon  d i s p e l the  "the n a t i o n s with  redoubled ray"  117  Gray  ends  the  anticipate.,  given  argument,  vision  with the  a  in  "spoke, the  143-144). THE  The  the  gesture:  in  the  and  destitution  of  he of  and  the  Bard  from  s u i c i d e , t h e  of  silence  the  age.  to  image  performs  into  endless matches  the  the  ends  abyss:  height/ (11.  ending  of  quietly  symbolic  cessation  follows,  Gray  night"  Pope  striking  We  Bard's  Instead,  Whereas a  fashion.  mountain's  willing  which  the  leaping  the  plung'd this  of  world.  f i n a l i t y .  Bard  the  startling  new  brave  violence  the  a  a  headlong  power  in  direction  tide  poet's  however,  general  image  and  world,  consciousness, total  of  roaring  DUNCIAD  leaves  the  frightening  Bard  Deep  a  poenii  of  testify  to  the  11 3  CONCLUSION  The  poetry  of  it  not  although and  may  insistently  destitute  voice  of  the  center. find  as  spans  immense the  landscape  do  poetry. poetry  Too to  we  saw  and  in  not  we  the  and  and  which  for  but  often  troubling.  Bloom's  of  the  destitution,  travelling these  etched  poets with across  routes  to  c r i t i c s  simply  push  of  THE ANXIETY  value the  the  terms dread  over inhabit  this  the possess,  typical  of  place,  as  AND THE  INFLUENCE, in  we  this  may  takes  OF T H E P A S T  poetry  father,  it  poetry  work  OF  The  care.  best  serious  the  of  navigate  have  THE BURDEN  the  and  strange,  discernible  voice  which  quality  evaluates  no  whatever  Where  a  sounds  from  c r i t i c s  in  voice  must  example,  writing  that  the  one  speaks  of  places,  obscuring  fear  eloquently  us  provide  Bate's  generally  neuroses--the  to  follow  mediocre  in  readers,  landscape  always  side,  century,  readers  out  The  late-eighteenth  exciting,  transitions.  POET  move  unfamiliar  often,  earlier  analysis  when  paths  one  of  ENGLISH  c a l l s  and  experience  some  distances  pronounce  periods  the  Frye,  terrain.  Moreover,  and  poet:  Indeed,  difficult  always  For  with  ourselves  mid-  about  time.  sometimes,  the  of of  the symptoms  1 19  insignificance? Blooirii  in  of  poetry.  the  that  his  passing As  a  so  particular? Few  theory of  to  an  poetic  of  absurd  of  the  as  heart  greatest from and  poetry of  the  of  fai1ure  i t s e l f .  failure  1 , 1  written  of  the  As T.  E.  to  and  The  the  first  poets."122  take  source  other  which  argues?  times.  towards  we  deepen  our  during  an  age  transition  speaks  one  of  We  ^th&7  results  period  rectifying  understanding says  out the  c r i t i c i s m of  that  of  the  late-eighteenth  literature step  "mean  later  poetry  Blom  s t i p u l a t i o n  voice--his  eighteenth-century  treat  not  voices?  age?  understanding  his  simply  poet's  mid-  our  does  by  spawned  heed  earlier  "other"  specific  of  to  from  of  age.  23  requires  sea  a  limitations  "our  poetry  of  development  The  a  to  disciples  level.  poetry  century  l i t t l e  followers  need  the  criticism  Bloom's  in  read  adds  ideas  identity--drowns to  The  Bloom's  and  most  forth. often  of  of  images  result?  studies  and  of  in  that what  about  that  experience. A  poetry  literary  part  While  we  to The  of  may  l_OST--both  the  read  and  poet  of  the.  Dante's  forms.a  history  poetical  INFERNO  imaginative in  a  adversity  experience?  of  and the  forms the  a  goes  of  the  Without  PARADISE  a b y s s — and  marvel  those  gives  inherent  vision  it?  unappreciated.  Milton'S  significant  joyful  part  mankind.  which  time  conception  and  of  faith  destitute of  special  experience,  explorations  vicissitudes  pain  overall  a  the  great  strength  exhibit?  destitution  t r a d i t i o n , and  great  the  of  two  special in  any  part  of  does  not  at  works testimony poetry. the exist  a  1 20  without From  it.  As  Gray  In  his  similar  his  "Ode  On T h e  Pleasure  Arising  wait  h u e s o f b l i s s more br i g h t 1 y g1ow, s t i s ' d by s a b l e r t i n t s o f woe J blended form, with ar t f u l strife, strength and harmony of life. (11. 4 5 - 4 3 )  NIGHT  power  For  the  c r i t i c ,  gives  risks  gives  a  poetry  as  which  a  past  on  Newton  but  opens  of  his  the  up  a  poet space  presence.  Each  destitution learn  of  try  the  incarnation,  of  like  as  a  life  and  the  of  the  The  something  time.  In of  effect  on  of  poet  poet  of  we  and  to  when  the  that  speaks  f a l l s  leaves  into a  each  born  in  about  for  records the the  example,  finds  it,  record  poetic he  poem  feeling.  Gray,  case,  he  Thomson's  that or  of  a l l  world of  a  of  us,  between  importance  pastoral a  a  poets  Collins'  the  pain  abyss  by  a  If  rest  Collins,  faced  into  the  of  imagination  Thomson,  the  him  essentials  end  pathos  not  the  in  of  will  soul.  then  identity  for  the  initiates  and  death,  vision He  poet's  To  an  a  a  2373).  gift,  fear,  achieve  now.  1.  the  from  us  the  (IX.  ascends  importance and  and  Collins  future.  evokes  to  through  criticism  discover  no  here  sacred  sorrow,  to  joy  creation.  d i f f i c u l t i e s  teaches  the  gives  Young,  and  and  places  a l l  the  powerfully  dangers  r i f t .  in  struggles  blest"  poet  promises  a  in be  man  separates  Whether he  a  to  of  we  pain  secret  inherent  glimpse  of  to  unselfishly  experience abyss  and  of  Young  song  "dissolution  destitution the  of  for  mysterious  poet  THOUGHTS  reconciliation  healing  the  in  Vicissitude": The Cha And The  the  says  the  we  121  tradition the  closed  to  discontinuity  potential his  and  poetic  would  the  powerless  with  the  new of  of  efforts which  beginning  of  creating  the  says  eternal  through  faith?  poetic  finds  like  Robert  l i t t l e  consolation despair?  consolation  and in  of  "The  Grave?"  promise  of  joy?  s t i l l  the  a  beats  in  fails  "The  period?  the  of  it  f i l l s  Thomson's  to  conviction.  carry offer  not  despair  meaning  of  and  a  his  one  vain?  "Sonnet "in  in  On  The  vain?"  irrevocable his  pain century  When  a  poet  Christian rings the  hollow: poet.  consolation? Collins'  desperation. death?  He  refrain  "in  consolation  pain?  the  that  poetry. a  terror.  Bard"  vision  offers  battles  century?  with  and  writing  or  word.  late-eighteenth  end  likewise  the  mid-  the  one  mediates  at  saw?  of  always  Milton  great  Gray's  continuous  Milton  of  phrase  ends  instance?  s t i l l  shattering  begins: and of  so  the  over.  undercuts  Young  late-eighteenth  and  the  darkness?  Indeed?  repeats  over  the  fear  vain." and  of  of  silence  As  reality  for  not  Gray's  "in  into  power  of  how  silenced.  theme."  Blair?  soul  and  and  markers  vision  Muse  mysterious  circle  Whereas  poet  the  West"  hopelessness.  his  shows  mid-  it  Mr. Richard an  go  Muse  "High  THE DUNCIAD?  Collins Of  it  his  as  shows  s c i e n t i f i c  his  silence?  across  with  the  astonish  the  stand  Thomson  finds  he  and  contain  calls  Death  science?  space?  of  He to  ECLOGUES  time.  address  light?  to  vain."  to  his  the  power  presume  feel  t e l l s  of  identity.  never  ecstasy  him;  and  but  B l a i r ' s as  we  ECLOGUES a  For love  the  poets  remain  1 22.  concealed Yet After  and  success  a l l ,  overcome  a  to  due.  these  to  the  and  says,,  to  steadfast of  "a  the  to  we  a  holy.  late-eighteenth the  abyss,  confidently  declares  imaginative  strength, himself  abyss.  Indeed,  his  only  be  written:after  That  confidence  was  the  new  place  to  the  "Elegy"  late-eighteenth  that  for  century  lives of—a  upon  In  bought.  the  not  gods  only  poet,  Our of  but  it  when  with  God mid-  etching  of  Milton  AND H E L L  confidence  way  the  poetry  to  provides  the  Muses"  worked  could poets. humbly  dwell. midan  his  power.  earlier  the  in  through  poets  describes  Blake  by  "To The of  a  hallowed  visionary  poem  when  OF H E A V E N  his  make Collins  or  alive  the  of  writing  Tittle  Holy,"  author's  age  as  Later,  world  MARRIAGE  new of  is  not  singing,  Young  Tongue"  ground  poetry.  its  and  remains.  experiences  dearly  a  attend,  only  ironic  who,  night,  Blake's  capable  poets  of  Song  a  their  time  stand  but  them  to  aspiring  his  of  give  Collins,  of  to  We s h o u l d  listen  vision  not  aspect  greatness  simply  Gray,  century  an  issue.  inability  to  holy.  they  his  forms  the  the  us  Hope's  his  begs  personality.  should  "everything  man,  to  calls in  the  and  epitaph  poetic  Vow f r o m  to  build  "failure"  abyss  sacred  to  his  Milton!  and  sees  about  rivals  announces  Blake  speaks  as  that  over  abyss  poets  Wordsworth  poised  here  his  attend  proclaims  the  vision  of  the  traces  commitment,  of  of  thus  and  Indeed,  resolute  failure  darkness:  and  Shakespeare  or  poet  the  experience look  obscured.  and  apt  Gray's  1 23  summation making  of  more,  the of  age!  him  as  than  well, he  it  gives  him  his  due  without  deserves:  Here r e s t s h i s head upon the lap of E a r t h A Y o u t h t o F o r t u n e a n d t o Fame u n k n o w n , F a i r S c i e n c e f r o w n ' d not on h i s h u m b l e b i r t h , And M e l a n c h o l y m a r k ' d him for her own. L a r g e was h i s b o u n t y , and h i s s o u l sincere, H e a v ' n d i d a recompense as l a r g e l y send: H e g a v e t o M i s ' r y a l l he h a d , a tear, He. g a i n ' d f r o m H e a v ' n ( ' t w a s a l l he w i s h ' d ) a friend. No f a r t h e r seek h i s m e r i t s to d i s c l o s e . Or d r a w h i s f r a i l t i e s f r o m t h e i r dread abode, (There they a l i k e i n t r e m b l i n g hope repose) The bosom of h i s F a t h e r and h i s G o d . , . (11. 117-123)  ENDNOTES  Edward Young, CONJECTURES ed. Edith J . Morley (Manchester: 1 9 1 3 ) , P. 3. 1  ON O R I G I N A L COMPOSITION, The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  S a m u e l J o h n s o n , THE WORKS, Y o r k : P a f r a e t s Book Company, 2  (New  V o l . 3, RAMBLER 1903), p. 261.  Alan D. M c K i l l o p , I n t r o d . , EIGHTEENTH PROSE, 3 r d e d . , e d . L o u i s I . B r e d v o l d et York: Ronald Press, 1973), p. xxv. 3  AND New  T. E. 10, No.  4  ECS,  Blom, "Eighteenth-Century 1 (1976), p. 54.  James Thomson, THE SEASONS, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1981), p. 303. 3  5  Thomson,  SEASONS,  p.  303.  7  Thomson,  SEASONS,  p.  304.  8  Thomson,  SEASONS,  p.  304.  9  Thomson,  SEASONS,  P.  304.  ed.  154,  CENTURY POETRY a l . (1939, rpt.  Reflexive  James  No.  Poetry,"  Sambrook  E d w a r d Y o u n g , T H E C O M P L A I N T , OR N I G H T T H O U G H T S , introd., George G i l f i l l a n ( E d i n b u r g h : James N i c h o l , 1861), P. x x i i i . A l s o see Samuel J a c k s o n P r a t t , O B S E R V A T I O N S ON T H E N I G H T T H O U G H T S ON D R . Y O U N G , W I T H O C C A S I O N A L R E M A R K S ON T H E B E A U T I E S OF P O E T I C A L C O M P O S I T I O N ( L o n d o n : R i c h a r d s o n and Urquart, 1776J r p t . New Y o r k : Garland Pub., 1970), PP. 2-3. 1  0  1 25  J o h a n n W o l f g a n g v o n G o e t h e , TRUTH AND P O E T R Y : FROM MY OWN L I F E , t r a n s . J o h n O x e n f o r d ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e B e l l and Sons, 1337), I, p. 507. 1 1  12  McK i 1 1 o p ,  1  G e o f f r e y C a r n a l ! , THE M I D - E I G H T E E N T H Clarendon, 1979), p. 7.  3  (Oxford:  p.  p.  xxv.  14  Carnal 1,  1  5  Young,  CONJECTURES,  p.  21.  16  Young,  CONJECTURES,  p.  10.  Northrop S e n s i b i l i t y , " in MODERN E S S A Y S I N Oxford Univ. Pres 1  7  CENTURY,  141 .  F r y e , " t o w a r d s D e f i n i n g An Age Of EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ENGLISH L I T E R A T U R E : CRITICISM, ed. James L . C l i f f o r d (New Y o r k s, 1959), p. 312-  N o r t h r o p F r y e , F E A R F U L S Y M M E T R Y : A STUDY OF W I L L I A M BLAKE, (1947? rpt. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969), PP. 167-168. 1  3  1  9  N o r t h r o p F r y e , A STUDY OF E N G L I S H Random H o u s e , 1963), p. 4.  York:  20  Frye,  2  Carna11,  1  22 Charles  ROMANTICISM,  William Ryskamp  p.  p.  ROMANTICISM  4.  63.  Collins, (Oxford:  THE WORKS, Clarendon,  ed. R i c h a r d Wendorf and 1979), p. 34, 11. 71-76  23 Thomas G r a y , THE COMPLETE POEMS, e d . J. R. H e n d r i c k s o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1966), 112-113.  (New  H.W. Starr p. 15, 11.  Samuel Johnson, THE WORKS, V o l . 2 , RAMBLER Y o r k : P a f r a e t s Book Company, 1903), p. 138. 2  4  (New  NO.  and  36,  1 26  25 ENGLISH  W a l t e r J a c k s o n B a t e , T H E BURDEN OF T H E P A S T POET (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , P P . 2 3 - 2 5 .  26  Young,  CONJECTURES,  p.  9.  27  Young,  CONJECTURES,  p.  10.  28  Bate ,  P.  131 .  29  Bate,  p.  131  30  Bate,  P.  9.  31  Bate,  p.  95  AND T H E  32 H a r o l d B l o o m , T H E A N X I E T Y OF I N F L U E N C E : A THEORY OF POETRY (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1973), p. 5. F o r an interesting c r i t i q u e of the n o t i o n of a n x i e t y and inf1uence, see G e o f f r e y H a r t m a n , "War I n H e a v e n : A R e v i e w Of H a r l o d Bloom's 'The A n x i e t y of I n f l u e n c e : A Theory of P o e t r y , " in THE F A T E OF R E A D I N G AND OTHER E S S A Y S ( C h i c a g o : U n i v . of Chicago Press, 1975), pp. 41-56.  Un i v .  3  3  3  4  Bloom,  ANXIETY,  p.  5.  Harold B l o o m , A MAP OF M I S R E A D I N G 12 . Press, 19 7 5 ) , P  35  Bloom,  36  Bate,  ANXIETY,  P.  p.  (New  York:  Oxford  7  129  37 M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r , P O E T R Y , L A N G U A G E , THOUGHT, trans Albert Hofstader ( N e w Y o r k : Harper Colophon, 1971), p. 91. All further r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the text.  1 27  38 S a m u e l J o h n s o n , SELECTED POETRY B r a d y and W . K . Wimsatt (Berkeley: Univ. 1377), p. 404.  39  Johnson,  SELECTED,  p.  AMD P R O S E , e d . Frank of C a l i f o r n i a Press,  350.  N e h e m i a h G r e w , THE ANATOMY OF P L A N T S ( L o n d o n : 1 6 3 2 ) , quoted i n Hans E i c h n e r , "The R i s e Of M o d e r n S c i e n c e And The G e n e s i s of R o m a n t i c i s m , " PMLA, 37, V o l . 1 ( 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 8. 4  0  B l a i s e P a s c a l , PENSEES, (Harmondsworth: Penquin, 1966), 4  Alexander Univ. Press, 4  Yale  1  2  trans. p. 89.  A . J . Krailsheimer  P o p e , THE POEMS, e d . J o h n 1963), p. 800, 1. 647.  Butt  (New  Haven:  William Shakespeare, THE COMPLETE WORKS, e d . G . B . Harrison (19485 rpt. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , 1968), p. 1499, Act V, sc. i . 11. 182-185. 4  3  D a v i d H u m e , A N I N Q U I R Y C O N C E R N I N G HUMAN N A T U R E , W I T H A S U P P L E M E N T , A N A B S T R A C T O F A T R E A T I S E O F HUMAN N A T U R E , e d . C h a r l e s W. H e n d e l ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : Bobbs-Merri11, 1955), p. 82. 4  4  4  5  Hume,  P.  33.  4  8  Hume,  p.  76.  John M i l t o n , C O M P L E T E POEMS AND MAJOR P R O S E , ed. M e r r i t t Y . Hughes ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : Odyssey Press, 1957), p. 2.1 V , B k . I . 1. 2 6 . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . A l l further r e f e r e n c e s to M i l t o n are f r o m t h i s t e x t . 4  7  4  8  Shakespeare,  p.  931,  Act  V.  sc.  i i . 1.  230.  Quoted i n P a u l S. S h e r w i n , PRECIOUS BANE: COLLINS AND T H E M I L T O N I C L E G A C Y ( A u s t i n : U n i v . of Texas Press, 1377 ) , p . 4 2 . 4  8  1 28  50  Johnson,  SELECTED,  p.  559.  51  Johnson,  SELECTED,  P.  543.  52 W i l l i a m W a r b u r t o n , A N E S S A Y ON T H E G E N I U S W R I T I N G S OF POPE 2 n d e d . (London: Dodsley, 1742),  AND p. iv.  53 E a r l R . W a s s e r m a n , THE SUBTLER L A N G U A G E : CRITICAL R E A D I N G S OF N E O C L A S S I C A L AND ROMANTIC POEMS ( B a l t i m o r e : Th John Hopkins Press, 1959), p. 106.  54 B a s i l Willey, THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BACKGROUND: S T U D I E S I N THE I D E A OF NATURE I N THE THOUGHT OF THE P E R I O D ( L o n d o n , 1 940,' r p t . Boston: Beacon Press, 1961), p. 1.  55  Willey,  ?.  1.  56  Wi1 l e y ,  P.  1 .  57 Y o u n g , C O N J E C T U R E S , p. 30. For a further analysis Young's e v a l u a t i o n of Pope's p l a c e i n the t r a d i t i o n see al Isabel St. John B l i s s , EDWARD YOUNG ( N e w Y o r k : T w a y n e P u b . 1969), P. 72.  ed.  58 A l e x a n d e r P o p e , W.K. Wimsatt (1951;  S E L E C T E D P O E T R Y AND P R O S E , 2nd rpt. New Y o r k : H o l t , 1972), p.  59  pope,  SELECTED,  p.  233.  60  Pope,  SELECTED,  p.  233.  61  Pope,  SELECTED,  p.  440.  ed. 233  62 i a n W a t t , T H E R I S E OF T H E N O V E L : S T U D I E S I N D E F O E , RICHARDSON AND F I E L D I N G ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 7 , r p t . B e r k e l e y : Univ of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957), P. 14.  63  Watt,  p.  14-15.  129  54 H e n r y F i e l d i n g , JONATHAN WILD, (Harmondsworth: Penquin, 19S2), p. 29.  ed. David  Nokes  65 S e e H . M u t s c h m a n n , T H E O R I G I N AND M E A N I N G OF Y O U N G ' S N I G H T T H O U G H T S ( 1 939," r p t . F o l c r o f t : The F o l c r o f t Press, 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 4 . He q u o t e s G e o r g e E l i o t ' s c o n d e m n a t i o n of Young, and o n p . 5 he p u t s f o r w a r d h i s own n o t i o n t h a t Y o u n g suffered from "hypertrophy of the ego, a form of excessive i n d i v i d u a l i s m . " And for a r a t h e r emotional analysis of Y o u n g ' s r o m a n t i c i s m and m e l a n c h o l y see a l m o s t any page of C . V . W i c k e r , EDWARD YOUNG AND T H E F E A R OF D E A T H ( A l b u q u e r q u e : T h e U n i v . o f New M e x i c o P r e s s , 1952).  66  G f 1 f i11 an,  p.  x i x.  67  G i l f i l l a n ,  p.  xix.  68 S a m u e l Pafraets  York:  Johnson, WORKS, V o l . X I , L I F E . OF YOUNG, Book Company, 1903), p. 146.  (New  6 9 E d w a r d Y o u n g , T H E C O M P L A I N T , OR N I G H T T H O U G H T S , in trod-. , George G i 1f i H a n ( E d i n b u r g h : James N i c h o l , 1861), P. 6, 1. 1 8 . , A l l further r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear in the: text.  7  0  ( 1 978 ) ,  7  Marshall p. 248.  Brown,  1  p.  Brown,  "The  Urbane  Sublime,"  ELH,  45,  248.  Thomas S p r a t , H I S T O R Y OF THE ROYAL S O C I E T Y , ed. J a c k s o n I . Cope and H a r o l d Whitmore Jones (1953! r p t . St. Louis: Washington Univ. Press, 1966), p. 113. 7  ed.  2  J o h n L o c k e , A N E S S A Y C O N C E R N I N G HUMAN U N D E R S T A N D I N G , A . D . W o o z l e y (New Y o r k : S i g n e t , 1964), pp. 53-59. 7  3  7  4  Hume,  7  5  McK i 1 1 o p ,  p.  26.  p.  x i x .  1 30  7  6  Pasca1 ,  P.  33.  7  7  P a s c a l ,. P .  95 .  78  Bredvold,  et  a l . ,  p.  633.  79  Bredvold,  et  a l . ,  p.  639.  80 B r e d v o l d , et a l . , p . 6 3 9 . For s i m i l a r comments see a l s o James Sambrook's introd. to h i s e d i t i o n of THE SEASONS already cited, pp. x x i i - x x i v .  James. T h o m s o n , P O E T I C A L WORKS, e d . J . Logie Robertson (1908! rpt. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1971), 436, 1 1 . 1-4.. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear the text. 8  8  1  2  MILTONIC  8  3  Paul S. LEGACY  Sherwin, (Austin:  Sherwin,  P.  PRECIOUS Univ. of  BANE: Texas  3.  3.  E a r l R. Wasserman, "Collins' Ode Character," E L H , 34 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , PP. 92-115. 8  C O L L I N S AND T H E Press, 1977), p.  p. in  4  On  The  Poetical  J o s e p h W a r t o n , L I V E S OF T H E P O E T S , quoted in Richard Wendorf, W I L L I A M C O L L I N S AND E I G H T E E N T H - C E N T U R Y ENGLISH POETRY ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v . of Minnesota P r e s s , 1931), p. 71. 8  5  Roger L o n s d a l e , e d . , T H E POEMS OF THOMAS G R A Y , WILLIAM COLLINS, OLIVER GOLDSMITH, (London: Longman's, Green, 1969), p. 367. 8  6  8  7  Lonsdale,  p.  368.  8  8  Lonsda le ,  p.  363.  Lonsdale, p . 3 7 0 . See a l s o R i c h a r d W e n d o r f , WILLIAMS C O L L I N S AND E I G H T E E N T H - C E N T U R Y E N G L I S H POETRY (Minneapolis: Univ. of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1931), p. 73. 8  9  1 31  R i c h a r d Wendorf, WILLIAMS EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLISH POETRY Minnesota Press, 1981), p. 63. 9  0  "1 Charles further otherwis 9  C O L L I N S AND (Minneapolis:  Univ.  W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , T H E WORK'S, e d . R i c h a r d W e n d o r f and Ryskamp ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1979), p. 4. 1. 1 4 . A l l r e f e r e n c e s to C o l l i n s are from t h i s text, unless e indicated. /  See, for example, EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (19505 1 9 8 0 ) , P P . 21-33 and P P . 9  J . H . P l u m b , ENGLAND rpt. Harmondsworth: 105-115.  2  See ' O d e On T h e 103-109 for 9  3  of  ;•  IN THe Penquin,  S h e r w i n , p . 2 6 , and E a r l R. Wasserman, "Collins" Poetical Character,'" E L H , V o l . 34 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , P P . d i s c u s s i o n s of the i n s p i r a t i o n a l mount theme.  Wendorf makes a s i m i l a r p o i n t in his study--p. 71--without d r a w i n g an a n a l o g y b e t w e e n the ECLOGUE and Collins contemporary England. 9  4  1  9  Oliver Goldsmith, Collected Friedman (Oxford: Clarendon,  5  Arthur 63-64.  Works, 1966),  S a m u e l J o h n s o n , WORKS, V o l . I , Y o r k : P a f r a e t s Book Company, 1 9 0 3 ) , P . SELECTED, p. 544. 9  6  V o l . IV, ed. p. 239, 11.  RAMBLER NO. 3 6 , 232-238, and  R i c h a r d F . H a r d i n , "The P a s t o r a l Moment," i n S U R V I V A L S OF P A S T O R A L , e d . R i c h a r d F . H a r d i n (Laurence: U n i v . of Kansas P u b . , 1979), p. 1. 9  7  9  3  Hardin,  9  9  Pope,  1  0  0  Pope,  1  0  1  Ha r d i n ,  p.  1.  SELECTED,  SELECTED,  P.  4.  p.  p.  8.  8.  (New  1 32  102  Hardin,  P.  1•  103  Hardin,  P.  2.  104  Hardin,  p.  5.  Richard Eversole, " C o l l i n s And The End Of The Shepherd Pastoral," i n S U R V I V A L S OF P A S T O R A L S , e d . Richard F. Hardin (Laurence: U n i v . of Kansas P u b . , 1979), P. 26. 1  0  5  PP.  106  Eversole,  1  Hardin,  P.  5.  Hardin,  p.  13.  0  7  TOS  21-22.  Janice Haney-Peritz, " ' I n Quest Of M i s t a k e n Beauties': A l l e g o r i c a l I n d e t e r m i n a c y In C o l l i n s ' Poetry," ELH, V o l . 43, (1981), P. 733. 1  0  1  9  1  Hardin,  0  PP.  1-2.  111  Sherwi n,  p.  5.  2  Sherwi n,  p .  5 .  1  1  T 3 Geoffrey Hartman, 1958-1970 (New H a v e n : Y a l e  1  1  4  " 5  Sherwin,  p.  Johnson,  SELECTED,  BEYOND F O R M A L I S M : L I T E R A R Y Univ. Press, 1970), p. 15.  5.  p.  426.  Collins, in Roger L o n s d a l e , THOMAS G R A Y , W I L L I A M C O L L I N S , O L I V E R Longman's, Green, 1969), p. 414. 1  1  5  ESSAYS  e d . , THE POEMS OF GOLDSMITH, (London:  1 33  1  1  7  118  of  W e n d o r f ,.. p .  Wendorf,  p.  103.  103.  119 M a r t h a C o l l i n s . , "The Se 1 f - C o n s c i ous P o e t : The C a s e W i l l i a m C o l l i n s , " ELH, V o l . 42, (1975), PP. 366-367.  120 W i l l i a m P o w e l l J o n e s , THOMAS TRUE TRAGEDY OF AN E I G H T E E N T H - C E N T U R Y New Y o r k : R u s s e l l a n d R u s s e l l , 1965),  GRAY, SCHOLAR: THE GENTLEMAN (1937 5 r p t . p. 3.  T21 T h o m a s G r a y , T H E C O M P L E T E P O E M S , e d . H . W . S t a r r J . R. H e n d r i c k s o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1966). A l l further r e f e r e n c e s to Gray, are from t h i s , t e x t , unless otherwise indicated.  122  Lonsdale,  123  Bloom,  124  Blom,  p.  155..  MAP, p.  p.  56.  3.  and  1 34  BIBLIOGRAPHY  PRIMARY  SOURCES  Collins, William. WORKS. E d . R i c h a r d W e n d o r f and Ryskamp. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.  Charles  Goldsmith, Oliver. COLLECTED WORKS. V o l . Friedman. Oxford: Clarendon, 1966.  Arthur  Gray,  IV.  Thomas. THE COMPLETE POEMS. E d . H . W . Henderson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1966.  Ed.  Starr  and  J.R.  Johnson, Samuel. S E L E C T E D POETRY AND P R O S E . E d . F r a n k B r a d y and W . K . Wimsatt. Berke1ey: Univ. of California Press, 1977. ........... ......WORKS. Vols. I - X I . New Y o r k : P a f r a e t s B o o k Company, 1903.  Milton, John. Hughes.  Pope, ....  C O M P L E T E POEMS Indianapolis:  a n d MAJOR P R O S E . E d . Odyssey Press, 1957.  MERRITT  Y.  A l e x a n d e r . T H E POEMS OF A L E X A N D E R P O P E . E d . J o h n Butt. New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v . Press, 1963. . . S E L E C T E D POETRY AND P R O S E . 2nd e d . E d . William K. Wimsatt. 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