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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A Ministry of Culture in all but name : Canadian federal cultural policy Mitchell, Cheryl Diane 1984

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A MINISTRY OF CULTURE IN ALL BUT NAME CANADIAN FEDERAL CULTURAL POLICY By CHERYL DIANE MITCHELL B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1 9 8 2 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 ^ j^ rT) C h e r y l Diane M i t c h e l l , 1 9 8 4 -In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (.3/81) ( i i ) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines the s u b s t a n c e and p r o c e s s of Canadian f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y s i n c e 1 9 ^ 9 and s p e c u l a t e s about i t s f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n . W h i l e the substance l a c k s any comprehensive c u l t u r a l b l u e p r i n t , i t does f o c u s on s t i m u l a t i n g the s u p p l y s i d e of Canadian c u l t u r e i n major c r e a t i v e a r e a s such as the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s , b r o a d c a s t i n g and p r i n t . I n the d i s c u s s i o n , t h e paper n o t e s the f r e q u e n t use of .two p o l i c y t o o l s - the c r e a t i o n of c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s and f i s c a l i n c e n t i v e s . The framework d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e the s u p p l y s i d e of Canadian c u l t u r e has i n v o l v e d t h r e e p r o c e s s e s : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and an adherence t o the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . As t h e assignment of m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u l t u r e has moved i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t o one department, namely, the Department of Communications, Canada r e a l l y has a M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e i n a l l but name. The p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g the merger of the A r t s and C u l t u r e B ranch of t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e w i t h t h e Department of Communications has a l s o g e n e r a t e d a t e n s i o n between c u l t u r a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s . C o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e s ubstance l a c k i n g o v e r a l l comprehensiveness i s f o r e s e e n . Trends c u r r e n t l y a p p arent a l s o p o i n t t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t , "take c h a r g e " a t t i t u d e by t h e f e d e r a l Government over i t s own c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . ( i i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 The Substance ^ The Process 20 The Implications 3 6 - 1 -T h i s essay examines f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y s i n c e 1 9 4 - 9 : the s u b s t a n c e , the p r o c e s s , and the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i t s f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n . I n terms -.of s u b s t a n c e , t h e r e has not been any o v e r a l l f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , e x cept i n s o f a r as d e c i s i o n s not t o have one p o l i c y c o n s t i t u t e a p o l i c y . The Ottawa s h i p of s t a t e , w h i l e p l a y i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r r o l e , has o p e r a t e d w i t h o u t any g r a n d i o s e v i s i o n as t o what c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i s t o a c h i e v e . There have, of c o u r s e , been the u s u a l l i t a n y of r h e t o r i c a l p l e d g e s t o d e v e l o p n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y ( w i t h no a t t e n d a n t e x p l a n a t i o n about what t h i s means) and t o promote n a t i o n a l u n i t y ( w i t h the meaning of u n i t y l e f t e q u a l l y u n c l e a r ) . W h i l e a v i s i o n as t o what s h o u l d comprise the c o n t e n t of c u l t u r e ramains a b s e n t , government a c t i v i t y ' i n t h i s a r e a does appear t o have a f o c u s , namely, the s t i m u l a t i o n of the s u p p l y - s i d e of Canadian c u l t u r e . The substance of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y aims a t i n c r e a s i n g the amount of Canadian c u l t u r e a v a i l a b l e i n major c r e a t i v e a r e a s such as the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s , b r o a d c a s t i n g , and p u b l i s h i n g . The s ubstance of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i s found i n a s e r i e s of d e c i s i o n s t h a t have promoted the development of Canadian c u l t u r e i n a c o n t i n e n t enveloped by American c u l t u r a l omnipresence. The absence of one comprehensive p o l i c y i n t h i s a r e a i s u n s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h a t c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i s a l m o s t a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t e r m s . C u l t u r e i s u n s t r u c t u r e d , a n a r c h i c , and unplanned w h i l e p o l i c y i s s y s t e m a t i c , r a t i o n a l , and d e l i b e r a t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s h a r d t o measure the s u c c e s s of c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n c l e a r - c u t t e rms: the degree of - 2 -p l e a s u r e i t i n d i r e c t l y g i v e s to Canadians, how much i t deepens a sense of Canadian i d e n t i t y , and how much i t i n c r e a s e s n a t i o n a l u n i t y are a l l impossible t o measure quant i t a t i v e l y . The framework designed to s t i m u l a t e the s u p p l y - s i d e of Canadian c u l t u r e has i n v o l v e d t h r e e p r o c e s s e s : p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and an adherence t o the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e with r e s p e c t to the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . P o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n continues because the f e d e r a l Government, convinced of i t s duty to govern f o r the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , has not r e l i n q u i s h e d t o the p r o v i n c e s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l over b r o a d c a s t i n g and telecommunications. I t c o u l d v e r y w e l l be t h a t c e n t r a l i z e d c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has o f f s e t the c e n t r i f u g a l , p o s s i b l y d i s i n t e g r a t i v e , tendencies of economic d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has seen c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , p r e v i o u s l y d i s p e r s e d throughout s e v e r a l government departments, become more fo u s s e d on one department, the Department of Communications. The arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e i s f o l l o w e d i n order to give the c u l t u r a l a g encies independence from p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . The c o n c l u d i n g p a r t of the essay analyses the i m p l i c a t i o n s of trends i n f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n the f i e l d s of substance and p r o c e s s . I t notes i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t the substance and process c o n t r a d i c t one another as they move i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . The process aims a t r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and yet the substance l a c k s -3-any o v e r a l l comprehensive c u l t u r a l " b l u e p r i n t . The paper s p e c u l a t e s as t o whether t h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y t r e n d w i l l c o n t i n u e , g i v e n the merger of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e ' s A r t s and C u l t u r e Branch w i t h the Department of Communications. I t w i l l a l s o a n a l y s e the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y of an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t mode of o p e r a t i o n by the M i n i s t e r of Communications i n f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s s e t up t o be a t "arm's l e n g t h " from government. One q u e s t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y r a i s e d i s whether i n c r e a s e d i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m w i l l l e a d e v e n t u a l l y t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of a comprehensive c u l t u r a l b l u e p r i n t t h a t has been h e r e t o f o r e r e j e c t e d . The term " c u l t u r e " i s a b s t r a c t and n e b u l o u s , l e n d i n g i t s e l f t o narrow o r a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g d e f i n i t i o n s . As Be r n a r d O s t r y , t h e former A s s i s t a n t U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , s u g g e s t s , c u l t u r e i s e v e r y t h i n g : I t i s what we do and the r e a s o n why we do i t , what we w i s h and why we imagine i t , what we p e r c e i v e and how we e x p r e s s i t , how we l i v e and i n what manner we appr o a c h d e a t h . I t i s our environment and the p a t t e r n s of a d a p t a -t i o n t o i t . I t i s the way we know o u r s e l v e s and each o t h e r , i S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s would i n c l u d e the a r t s , language, e d u c a t i o n , communications, s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as UNESCO, e t h n i c i t y , c i t i z e n s h i p and n a t i v e programmes, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h , as w e l l as the g e n e r a l i z e d mores, manners, and customs of a l l the d i v e r s e groups l i v i n g i n Canada. A r e l a t i v e l y a r b i t r a r y n a r r o w i n g of the d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o make the t o p i c manageable enough t o be d e a l t w i t h i n the s h o r t space of t h i s paper. The d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e adopted here r e s t r i c t s i t s e l f t o i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y i n the c r e a t i v e and communicative a r e a s of the a r t s , b r o a d c a s t i n g , and p r i n t . T h i s i n c l u d e s f i l m , r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , l i b r a r i e s , the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s , museums, books, and magazines. The in v o l v e m e n t of the f e d e r a l Government i n the s e a r e a s has been p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h two departments, the Department of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e and the Department of Communications. I n a d d i t i o n t o the ^ a c t i v i t i e s of t h e s e departments, the e x a m i n a t i o n of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y w i l l be done t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s of two p o l i c y t o o l s used - the c r e a t i o n of a g e n c i e s and f i s c a l i n c e n t i v e s . The t e n major c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s t o be d i s c u s s e d a r e : Canada C o u n c i l , Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ( C B C ) , Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and Telecommuni-c a t i o n s Commission(CRTC), Canadian F i l m Development C o r p o r a t i o n ( C F D C ) , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board(NFB), N a t i o n a l A r t s C e ntre(NAC), N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , N a t i o n a l Museums, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , and the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada(SSHRCC) . SECTION 1 - THE SUBSTANCE S t a t e a c t i v i t y i n the development of the s u p p l y - s i d e of Canadian c u l t u r e has seen a l l t h e prime m i n i s t e r s of t h i s p e r i o d ( L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t , John D i e f e n b a k e r , L e s t e r P e a r s o n , P i e r r e E l l i o t t Trudeauy and Joe C l a r k ) s u b s c r i b e t o the -5-open, t o l e r a n t s p i r i t of L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t : n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . . . h a s been aimed a t s t r e n g t h e n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g our main c u l t u r e s w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o impose e i t h e r of them upon any Canadian. I t i s based upon the p r i n c i p l e t h a t p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e has the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n most aspects of our c u l t u r a l development. I t has p r o v i d e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s , v o l u n -t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t them w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g , however, t o c o n t r o l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s p o l i c y has a l s o i n c l u d e d the s e t t i n g up of s e v e r a l p u b l i c a g e n c i e s which were deemed e s s e n t i a l f o r the development and adequate e x p r e s s i o n of our c u l t u r a l l i f e . 2 An e x a m i n a t i o n of the s u b s t a n c e of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , however, r e v e a l s t h a t the d e s i r e of L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t t o l e t p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e have the p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Canadian c u l t u r a l development has not been f u l f i l l e d . I n s t e a d , the S t a t e has assumed an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g r o l e . I f t h e r e i s a g o l d e n , c o n t i n u i n g t h r e a d i n the m y r i a d of c r e a t i o n s of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , i t i s i n t h i s g r a d u a l l y h e i g h t e n e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e f e d e r a l Government i n Canadian c u l t u r e . T h i s s t a t e a c t i v i s m i s i n d i c a t i v e of the Canadian p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n as a whole. Graham S p r y of the Canadian Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g League c o u l d e a s i l y have been s p e a k i n g f o r more th a n the c u l t u r a l s e c t o r when he made h i s a s s e r t i o n , "the 3 s t a t e or the U n i t e d S t a t e s " . T h i s t r e n d toward i n c r e a s e d s t a t e a c t i v i s m , though, has not been a r t i c u l a t e d i n any comprehensive Canadian c u l t u r a l p o l i c y because such a t h i n g does not e x i s t . F e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the absence of c u l t u r a l b l u e p r i n t s or master p l a n s . I t -6-r e a c t s , i n an ad hoc f a s h i o n , t o problems and c r i s e s as t h e y f l a r e up i n the Canadian c u l t u r a l community. T h i s o v e r r i d i n g theme i n the substance of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y - of i n c r e a s e d ad hoc s t a t e a c t i v i s m - can be seen t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s of the p o l i c y t o o l s used by the f e d e r a l Governments. A l o n g w i t h a d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n programme, the two most f r e q u e n t l y used t o o l s have been the c r e a t i o n of c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s and f i s c a l measures (such as t a x i n c e n t i v e s ) . A f t e r a b r i e f l o o k a t the b e g i n n i n g of the development of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y and the accompanying e x p e n d i t u r e s , these t h r e e p o l i c y t o o l s w i l l be examined by d i v i d i n g the substance of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s : (1) the d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n programme i n museums, p e r f o r m i n g a r t s , f i l m , and book p u b l i s h i n g ; (2) the c r e a t i o n of t h r e e c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s - N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , and SSHRCC - t o f o s t e r r e s e a r c h and p r e s e r v e i n f o r m a t i o n ; (3) f i s c a l p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o , f i l m , and p r i n t ; and (4-) b r o a d c a s t i n g p o l i c y , as r e f l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the CBC' and CRTC. Development of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y began t o i n t e n s i f y i n 1 9 ^ 9 w i t h t h e s e t t i n g up by the f e d e r a l Government of the R o y a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s , and S c i e n c e s . I t s e t the tone f o r subsequent f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . Composed of soon-to-be Governor G e n e r a l V i n c e n t Massey, L a v a l s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t F a t h e r G e o r g e s - H e n r i Levesque, M o n t r e a l e n g i n e e r A r t h u r S u r v e y o r , and the p r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Norman Ma c k e n z i e , i t examined the s t a t e of Canadian c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the work of f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s such as the CBC, the N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , the NFB, and the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . W i t h A r t h u r S u r v e y o r d i s s e n t i n g , the R e p o r t was s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r of p u b l i c ownership and c o n t r o l of b r o a d c a s t i n g . As the a i r w a v e s b e l o n g t o the c o u n t r y as a whole, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s would have t o operat e i n such a way as t o promote the n a i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . W h i l e a s t a t e r o l e f o r Canadian c u l t u r e was d u l y r e c o g n i z e d , the Massey-Levesque Report r e f r a i n e d from recommending t h a t t h e r e be a M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e , even though i t n o t e d t h a t " i n most modern s t a t e s t h e r e a r e m i n i s t r i e s of ' f i n e a r t s * or of ' c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s ' " . I n s t e a d , i t suggested the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Canada C o u n c i l f o r the Encouragement of the A r t s , L e t t e r s , H u m a n i t i e s and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . The c o u n c i l would be, i n the phrase c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s as a whole, a t "arm's l e n g t h f r o m government. Most of the R e p o r t ' s recommendations, i n c l u d i n g t h a t of a Canada C o u n c i l , were e n a c t e d . F e d e r a l c u l t u r a l e x p e n d i t u r e s made i n response t o the recommendations of t h i s R o y a l Commission have, s i n c e t h a t t i m e , remained a t a r o u g l y c o n s t a n t p e r c e n t a g e of the f e d e r a l budget. From 1 9 5 2 t o I 98O, f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l e x p e n d i t u r e s have averaged about 2 per cen t o f the f e d e r a l budget. The range has been f r o m 1 . 5 9 per c e n t of the budget i n 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 3 (and the s t a t i s t i c s a t t h i s time i n c l u d e d r e c r e a s t i o n w i t h -8-c u l t u r e ) ^ t o 1 . 7 3 per c e n t i n I 9 6 9 - I 9 7 O t o 2 p e r cent i n 1 9 7 6 - 1 9 7 ? t o 1 . 8 p e r cent i n I 9 8 O - I 9 8 I . The CBC alone e a t s up a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s of t h e t o t a l f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . F o r example, i n I 9 8 O - I 9 8 I , the f e d e r a l Government spent $ 1 , 1 0 2 . 2 m i l l i o n o n . c u l t u r e , - o f which $ 7 3 3 . 8 ( 6 7 . 2 per c e n t ) went t o the CBC. I f we e x c l u d e the CBC from the f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s , f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l e x p e n d i t u r e s between 1 9 7 6 and I 9 8 I were 0 . 7 per c e n t of the f e d e r a l budget. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , though, t h a t a c t u a l e x p e n d i t u r e s can sometimes be l a r g e r because the CBC, the a r t s programme of the Canada C o u n c i l , the CFDC, the NAC C o r p o r a t i o n , and the NFB g e n e r a t e t h e i r own revenues t o augment t h e money g i v e n t o them by P a r l i a m e n t . S u b s t a n t i v e f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y can be seen i n the " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " programme of the f i r s t Trudeau government ( I 9 6 8 - I 9 7 2 ) . Trudeau had swept t o power u t i l i z i n g catchwords such as the " j u s t s o c i e t y " and " p a r t i c i -p a t o r y democracy", c a p t u r i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n of a p u b l i c s t i l l g l o w i n g from Expo. He and S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e G e r a r d P e l l e t i e r sensed a whole new e r a opening up i n s o c i e t y where o b s t a c l e s would be removed and a c c e s s and c r e a t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d . E s s e n t i a l l y , d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n meant g i v i n g the c i t i z e n r y g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o c u l t u r e t h r o u g h the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of \ c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s - works of a r t would be t a k e n t o the people where p o s s i b l e ( r a t h e r t h a n r e m a i n i n g i n Ottawa, f o r example) and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s companies would t r a v e l t o s m a l l communities ( i n s t e a d of j u s t t o the l a r g e c i t i e s ) . - 9 -D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n were d u l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the f e d e r a l Government's 1 9 7 0 c u l t u r a l s t a t e m e n t . S e n s i n g the main themes and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of Canada, t h e c u l t u r a l p o l i c y ' s p r i n c i p a l p l a n k s were p l u r a l i s m ( d i v e r s i t y ) , d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ( e q u a l i t y ) and i n t e r -n governmental and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n (exchange). One arm of d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e d museums. A f t e r t h e 1 9 6 8 c r e a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Museums A c t , w h i c h c o n s o l i d a t e d the c o u n t r y ' s f o u r n a t i o n a l museums ( N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s , S c i e n c e and Technology, Man, and the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y ) i n o r d e r t o r a t i o n a l i z e the o v e r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c r e a t e a h o l d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n , a N a t i o n a l Q Museums P o l i c y was announced by G e r a r d P e l l e t i e r i n 1 9 7 2 . I t l a u n c h e d a t o u r i n g programme complete w i t h museumobiles (moving c a r a v a n s ) i n o r d e r t o h e i g h t e n a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a network of s m a l l e x h i b i t i o n c e n t r e s i n remote communities. D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n were a l s o a p p l i e d t o the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s . P r i o r t o i t s P e r f o r m i n g A r t s P o l i c y , f e d e r a l Government i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h i s a r e a were c o n f i n e d t o the c r e a t i o n of two c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , the Canada C o u n c i l and the N a t i o n a l A r t s C e n t r e . The l a t t e r had been the 1 f e d e r a l Government's major c e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t and had been g i v e n the mandate t o " d e v e l o p t h e p e r f o r m i n g a r t s i n the N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l r e g i o n and t o a s s i s t the Canada C o u n c i l i n 9 the development of the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s elsewhere i n Canada". While the P e r f o r m i n g A r t s P o l i c y was r e l e a s e d i n 1 9 7 5 1 t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e de a t h of the "d and d" programme, i t s g o a l - 1 0 -of i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y echoed the o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s programme. The P e r f o r m i n g A r t s P o l i c y p l e d g e d t o improve w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r a r t i s t s and remove economic h a n d i c a p s . The P o l i c y was t o be implemented t h r o u g h changes t o the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , t a x and p e n s i o n s t a t u s of a r t i s t s , a g r e a t e r r o l e f o r the CBC and NFB, more t o u r i n g , e x t r a f u n d i n g t o t h e Canada C o u n c i l , and a b i g g e r c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e fund."*" 0 A l o n g w i t h museums and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s , f i l m was c o n s i d e r e d a u s e f u l v e h i c l e i n t h i s d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n programme. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1 9 7 2 G e r a r d P e l l e t i e r i n t r o d u c e d phase one of a N a t i o n a l F i l m P o l i c y which i n c l u d e d ( 1 ) an a d v i s o r y committee on f i l m ; ( 2 ) d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n i n the NFB; ( 3 ) a i r i n g of more NFB f i l m s on the CBC; and (k) an i n c r e a s e i n the a n n u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n t o the CFDC. 1 1 A book p u b l i s h i n g p o l i c y was a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the "d and d" programme. I n 1 9 7 2 , the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e announced a p o l i c y w h i c h had as i t s two o v e r r i d i n g g o a l s a dominant r o l e f o r the C a n a d i a n - c o n t r o l l e d p u b l i s h i n g f i r m s and adequate d i s t r i b u t i o n of C anadian w r i t i n g a c r o s s Canada. The p o l i c y i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n s t o (1) g i v e the Canada C o u n c i l more money t o a i d p u b l i s h e r s and i n c r e a s e t r a n s l a t i o n ; ( 2 ) c r e a t e a s t a n d i n g committee on p u b l i s h i n g ; and ( 3 ) p r o v i d e more money t o e x p o r t C anadian books and t o purchase books f o r 1 2 f r e e d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s Canada. { Owing t o the huge g e o g r a p h i c s i z e of the c o u n t r y and the uneven development of c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n the r e g i o n s , -11-"d and d" n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l c o s t . T h i s heavy e x p e n d i t u r e , combined w i t h the o n s l a u g h t of the r e c e s s i o n and the near d e f e a t of the Trudeau government i n 1972, s p e l l e d the end t o d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n was dead and " o n l y the i n e l e g a n t words d e m o c r a t i -z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n remained and o n l y i n the p o l i c i e s 13 of t h e N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada." As was seen i n the above s e c t i o n on the "d and d" programme, c r e a t i o n of c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s - the Canada C o u n c i l , the N a t i o n a l Museums, the N a t i o n a l A r t s C entre - i s a p o p u l a r p o l i c y t o o l of f e d e r a l Governments. Three o t h e r c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e r v e , i n a complementary f a s h i o n , the f e d e r a l Government's o b j e c t i v e of s t i m u l a t i n g the s u p p l y - s i d e of Canadian c u l t u r e . I n response t o the Massey-Levesque Report and the r e c o g n i z e d need t o p r e s e r v e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of Canada was c r e a t e d i n 1953- The N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y c o l l e c t s books, m a i n t a i n s a Canadian U n i o n C a t a l o g u e l i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l C anadian l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s , p u b l i s h e s Canadiana (the n a t i o n a l b i b l i o g r a p h y ) and c o - o r d i n a t e s the l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s of 14 government departments, b r a n c h e s , and a g e n c i e s . The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, i n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1872, was e n l a r g e d by the f e d e r a l Government i n the 1950s t o a c q u i r e and p r e s e r v e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o the h i s t o r y of Canada and t o p r o v i d e a r e c o r d s management and m i c r o f i l m i n g a d v i s o r y s e r v i e e . t o government departments and a g e n c i e s . SSHRCC was c r e a t e d i n 1978 i n r e s p o n s e t o demands f o r an - 1 2 -autonomous f u n d i n g body, s e p a r a t e f rom the Canada C o u n c i l , f o r t he h u m a n i t i e s and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o r a i s e t h e i r image and r a t i o n a l i z e r e s e a r c h programmes and s u b s i d i a r i e s . " ^ F o r f i l m , the f e d e r a l Government brought i n t o e x i s t e n c e two c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , the NFB and the CFDC. I n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 9 "to r e v i e w Government f i l m a c t i v i t i e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the war) t h e NFB's r e v i s e d 1 9 5 0 mandate d i r e c t e d i t " t o i n i t i a t e and promote the p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i l m s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , d e s i g n e d t o 17 i n t e r p r e t Canada t o Canadians and t o o t h e r n a t i o n s . " The CFDC, c r e a t e d i n 1 9 6 8 , was charg e d w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of f o s t e r i n g and pro m o t i n g the development of a f e a t u r e f i l m i n d u s t r y i n Canada. B e i n g v e r y much an in v e s t m e n t i n s t r u m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a g r a n t i n g agency, i t r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t f e d e r a l Government attempt t o a c h i e v e c u l t u r a l p o l i c y 1 8 o b j e c t i v e s by means of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . A l o n g s i d e such c r e a t i o n of c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , f e d e r a l Governments have o f t e n r e s o r t e d t o f i s c a l t o o l s as v e h i c l e s f o r a c t i o n i n the Canadian c u l t u r a l s e c t o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o b r o a d c a s t i n g , f i l m , and p r i n t . Tax i n c e n t i v e s and t a x r e l i e f have been used as s t i m u l i i n - t h e c r e a t i o n of Canadian c u l t u r e J ' s u b s i d i e s , as means t o ensure d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n b r o a d c a s t i n g , the 1 9 7 8 B i l l C - 5 8 made the c o s t of Canadian a d v e r t i s i n g i n f o r e i g n media n o n - d e d u c t i b l e . Canadian companies t h a t p l a c e d c o mmercials on American s t a t i o n s beamed i n t o Canada c o u l d no l o n g e r deduct the c o s t f o r t a x p u r p o s e s . The g o a l of B i l l C - 5 8 was t o h e l p g a i n - 1 3 -19 revenue f o r the Canaadian p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s . F u r t h e r r e l a t e d t o b r o a d c a s t i n g was the 1 9 8 3 s t r a t e g y of t h e f e d e r a l Government e n t i t l e d Towards a New N a t i o n a l 2 0 B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y . I t has seen the Government use i t s two f a v o u r i t e t o o l s - c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s and f i s c a l i n c e n t i v e s - i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . The mandate of the Canadian F i l m Development C o r p o r a t i o n was broadened t o a l l o w i t t o a d m i n i s t e r the C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t Program Develop-ment Fund. T h i s s u b s t a n t i v e i n i t i a t i v e by t h e Department of Communications i s a $35-™-illion f u n d ( s l i d i n g up t o $ 6 0 - m i l l i o n by i t s f i f t h y e a r of o p e r a t i o n ) a v a i l a b l e t o p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s t o h e l p w i t h programme c o s t s . F o r e v e r y two d o l l a r s the p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s r a i s e i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , 2 1 the f e d e r a l Government w i l l add one d o l l a r . The Memorandum of U n d e r s t a n d i n g between the. M i n i s t e r of Communications and the CFDC's Board of D i r e c t o r s s p e c i f i e s t h a t each p r o j e c t must meet Canadian c o n t e n t and p r e - p r o d u c t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n 2 2 r u l e s. When i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t phase one of the N a t i o n a l F i l m P o l i c y had not t a c k l e d the problems of p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n , the f e d e r a l Government responded w i t h t a x measures. R e a c t i n g t o the 1 9 7 ^ "Winnipeg M a n i f e s t o " of i r a t e Canadian f i l m - m a k e r s , phase two a l l o w e d them t o w r i t e o f f 1 1 5 per c e n t , i n s t e a d of j u s t 6 0 per c e n t , of t h e i r l o s s e s . The CFDC mandate was a l t e r e d t o p e r m i t i t t o put more money i n t o d i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o m o t i o n , and n e g o t i a t i o n s began w i t h the p r o v i n c e s (who have j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l -14-2 3 over t h e a t r e s ) t o h e l p d i s t r i b u t e CanadBan f i l m s . A second t a x measure was the 1 9 7 ^ amendment t o the Income Tax A c t t h a t o f f e r e d a 100 per cent w r i t e - o f f t o a l l i n v e s t o r s i n Canadian f i l m s . More t h a n the c r e a t i o n of the CFDC, t h i s c a p i t a l c o s t a l l o w a n c e p r o v i s i o n has been l a b e l l e d the s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the growth o f the Canadian f e a t u r e f i l m 25 i n d u s t r y . There was an a v a l a n c h e of c r i t i c i s m when the 1 9 8 1 F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r i n c l u d e d i n h i s budget the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t t h i s welcomed s t i m u l u s would be reduced from 100 p e r cent t o 5 0 per c e n t (the s t i p u l a t i o n was w i t h d r a w n ) . I n p r i n t , the f e d e r a l Governments have a l s o used t a x measures, as w e l l as s u b s i d i e s . The l a t t e r - i n the f o r m of a p o s t a l r a t e s u b s i d y - i s i n f a c t , next t o t h e CBC, the 26 l a r g e s t e x p e n d i t u r e made t o Canadian c u l t u r e . The f e d e r a l Governments have always been concerned w i t h a c c e s s , w i t h e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l Canadians a re "plugged i n " t o the n a t i o n a l community. The p o s t a l r a t e s u b s i d y g i v e s remote r u r a l a r e a s a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t . Canadian magazines a l s o b e n e f i t from t a x measures. I n 1956, the L i b e r a l Government imposed a 20 per cen t t a x on a d v e r t i s i n g c o n t a i n e d i n Canadian e d i t i o n s of f o r e i g n p e r i o d i c a l s . The C o n s e r v a t i v e s removed the t a x t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . From 1956 t o I976, the f e d e r a l Governments b a t t l e d w i t h the demands of Time, Reader's D i g e s t , and the Am e r i c a n Government over t a x a t i o n p o l i c y . Tax d e d u c t i o n s f o r a d v e r t i s i n g i n Canadian magazines were extended t o t h e Canadian e d i t i o n s of these two magazines. The American r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h r e a t e n e d n o t - 1 5 -t o r a t i f y the Canada-United S t a t e s Automotive Agreement i f the Canadian Government c a n c e l l e d t h i s p r o v i s i o n . The M i n i s t e r of F i n a n c e , W a l t e r Gordon, wanted t o c a l l the Americans' 27 " b l u f f but h i s v i e w was r e j e c t e d by c a b i n e t . I n 1976, though, the f e d e r a l Government, t h r o u g h S. 19 of the Income Tax A c t , c a n c e l l e d the t a x d e d u c t i o n s i n the Canadian e d i t i o n s of Time and Reader's D i g e s t i n o r d e r t o h e l p C anadian magazines. H a v i n g examined f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n the t h r e e a r e a s of the a r t s , f i l m l a n d p r i n t , a f o u r t h a r e a of s t a t e a c t i v i s m can be seen i n b r o a d c a s t i n g . Here a g a i n , t he f e d e r a l Government has e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s - the CBC and the CRTC - t o implement i t s o b j e c t i v e s , such as the time-honoured Massey-Levesque v i e w of p u b l i c ownership of the a i r w a v e s . The 1936 Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t e s t a b l i s h e d the CBC as b o t h r e g u l a t o r and p r o d u c e r , a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h l a s t e d u n t i l t he i n t r o d u c t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n i n the 1950s. By t h a t t i m e , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n over the f i n a n c i n g of the CBC. I n t r u e Canadian f a s h i o n , a r o y a l commission was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1955 t o i n v e s t i g a t e t he matter - the R o y a l 28 Commission on B r o a d c a s t i n g , c h a i r e d by R o b e r t F o w l e r . The Government r e f u s e d i t s recommendation t h a t the P a r l i a m e n -t a r y f u n d i n g of t h e CBC s h o u l d be g i v e n on a l o n g - t e r m b a s i s t o a l l o w the CBC the a b i l i t y t o engage i n l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g . Once a d u a l system of a u t h o r i t y i n b r o a d c a s t i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l a t e 1950s, f u r t h e r problems were c r e a t e d f o r t h e CBC, l e a d i n g t o y e t a n o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n •- the - 1 6 -F o w l e r A d v i s o r y Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g . A g a i n , the f e d e r a l Government r e f u s e d t h i s Committee's key recommendation -the r e i n s t i t u t i o n of a s i n g l e a u t h o r i t y over b r o a d c a s t i n g . .The Government wanted t o c o n t i n u e h a v i n g s e p a r a t e boards f o r the CBC and the r e g u l a t o r y agency, p l a c i n g the CBC under the r e g u l a t o r y agency. The CBC i s c o n c e i v e d by the f e d e r a l Government as the c e n t r a l v e h i c l e i n the development of Canadian c u l t u r e , n a t i o n a l u n i t y , and n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . The C l y n e C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee on the I m p l i c a t i o n s of Telecommunications f o r Canadian S o v e r e i g n t y s t a t e d : the CBC i s an a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the development and maintenance of a Canadian i d e n t i t y and i n the f o s t e r i n g of a r e g i o n a l 1 and n a t i o n a l -Canadian c u l t u r e t h a t i s t h e p r i n c i p a l defence of t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s o v e r e i g n t y of Canada.-' 0 As w i t h the o t h e r c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y can be seen i n the mandates. The CBC was d i r e c t e d (a) t o g i v e a b a l a n c e d s e r v i c e of i n f o r m a t i o n , e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and e n l i g h t e n m e n t f o r people of d i f f e r e n t ages, i n t e r e s t s , and t a s t e s c o v e r i n g the whole range of programming i n f a i r p r o p o r t i o n ; (b) t o be extended t o a l l p a r t s of Canada, as p u b l i c f u n d s become a v a i l a b l e ; (c) t o be i n E n g l i s h and F r e n c h , s e r v i n g the s p e c i a l needs of the g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s , and t o - c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e exchange of c u l t u r a l and r e g i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t ; (d) t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e -development of n a t i o n a l u n i t y and t o p r o v i d e f o r a c o n t i n u i n g e x p r e s s i o n of Canadian i d e n t i t y . 3 1 One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the numerous c r i t i c i s m s d i r e c t e d towards the CBC i s t h i s v e r y mandate. The f e d e r a l Government - 1 7 -has g i v e n the CBC an a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g mandate t o ensure t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y t h i n g t h i n k a b l e f o r a t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n t o b r o a d c a s t i s done. The mandate i s a r g u a b l y t o o broad, g i v e n the CBC budget and the i n t a n g i b l e n a t u r e of some of i t s t a s k s ( i n a r e a s such as Canadian i d e n t i t y and n a t i o n a l u n i t y , f o r example). One c r i t i c i s m , though, which i s not l i k e l y due t o the mandate i s the bad r e l a t i o n s h i p the CBC has w i t h two f e l l o w c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s - the NFB and the CFDC. The CBC does n ot r e a d i l y make i t s e l f a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e a i r i n g of these Canadian f i l m s . F o r example, i n 1 9 ? ^ the CBC had o n l y 32 a i r e d two of the t h e n 112 CFDC f i l m s . F o r re a s o n s t h a t w i l l become c l e a r i n the p r o c e s s s e c t i o n , t h i s s q u a b b l i n g between a g e n c i e s has been a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e because of the f e d e r a l Government's adherence t o the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e . To implement i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t the CBC and p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n s s e r v e the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , the f e d e r a l Government has e s t a b l i s h e d r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , the most r e c e n t ( 1 9 7 6 ) of w h i c h i s t h e Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s i o n and T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission. I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s powers over b r o a d c a s t i n g , the CRTC has a u t h o r i t y over f e d e r a l l y -r e g u l a t e d t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a r r i e r s such as B e l l Canada and 33 T e l e s a t Canada. W h i l e the i n i t i a l y e a r s of the CRTC were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f o r m of " s p i n e l e s s n e s s " w i t h r e g a r d t o the p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , r e c e n t y e a r s have seen the CRTC adopt a more d e f e n s i v e , n a t i o n a l i s t l i n e , e s p e c i a l l y under 34 the c h a i r m a n s h i p of P i e r r e Juneau. The b i g g e s t development -18-was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Canadian c o n t e n t quotas f o r p r i v a t e and p u b l i c Canadian r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s . I n prime t i m e , p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s must have a t l e a s t 5 0 per c e n t Canadian c o n t e n t , w i t h the CBC r e q u i r e d t o have 6 0 per c e n t a l l the t i m e . AM r a d i o must p l a y a t l e a s t 3 0 per cent Canadian music; FM r a d i o a v a r i a b l e p e r c e n t a g e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of quotas has encouraged, f o r example, the 3 5" p r o d u c t i o n of Canadian m u s i c a l , r e c o r d i n g s , and r e f l e c t s the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e the s u p p l y - s i d e of Canadian culture."... One a r e a of c o n t e n t i o n i s t h e l o o s e d e f i n i t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s C anadian c o n t e n t , a l t h o u g h a 1 Q 8 3 CRTC p o l i c y 36 statement shows movement t o a t o u g h e r d e f i n i t i o n . I f the m a j o r i t y of a r o c k group a r e C anadian, f o r example, and p l a y a f o r e i g n c o m p o s i t i o n , t h i s q u a l i f i e s as Canadian c o n t e n t . CTV's "The J u l i e Show" c l a s s i f i e d as Canadian c o n t e n t because the h o s t e s s was Canadian, even though the v a s t m a j o r i t y of 37 her g u e s t s were Amer i c a n . News programmes t h a t cover f o r e i g n p o l i t i c a l e v e n ts q u a l i f y as Canadian - t h a t the p e r s p e c t i v e i s Canadian i s good enough. S i m i l a r c o n t e n t r u l e s a p p l y t o s p o r t s b r o a d c a s t s w h i c h f e a t u r e f o r e i g n teams: t h e y a r e "Canadian c o n t e n t " as l o n g as the domestic b r o a d c a s t l i c e n c e e or p r o d u c t i o n company has " s i g n i f i c a n t p r o d u c t i o n O Q c o n t r o l and p r o v i d e s the commentators". Canadian c o n t e n t r u l e s have been u n d e r g o i n g r e v i s i o n and l a t e l y , t i g h t e n i n g as w e l l , s i n c e t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 1 9 7 ^ . -19-The r u l e s d e f i n e a Canadian as an i n d i v i d u a l who was, a t a l l r e l e v a n t t i m e s , e i t h e r a' Canadian c i t i z e n as d e f i n e d by the C i t i z e n s h i p A c t or a permanent r e s i d e n t w i t h i n the meaning of t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t , o t h e r t h a n a permanent r e s i d e n t who has o q l i v e d i n Canada f o r more t h a n f o u r y e a r s . • C e r t i f i c a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n s as Canadian i s done by the CRTC, the CFDC, and the Canadian F i l m and V i d e o t a p e C e r t i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e , the l a t t e r b e i n g p a r t of the C u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s D i r e c t o r a t e of the Department of Communications. The CRTC has proposed a point''system t o determine Canadian c o n t e n t : the programme i s Canadian if..iinisiawaEdedtat;:;leas±.,sixaout< o f t t e n p o i n t s and i f e i t h e r the d i r e c t o r , w r i t e r , or one of the 40 h i g h e s t p a i d p e r f o r m e r s i s Ca n a d i a n . The CRTC i s sometimes c r i t i c i z e d as much as the CBC,-p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t handed down i t s pay-TV d e c i s i o n i n 1981. There was o u t c r y t h a t the d e c i s i o n h u r t Canada's c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s because more t h a n one pay-TV s t a t i o n meant l e s s a v a i l a b l e c o n c e n t r a t e d revenue f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of Canadian programmes. Then CRTC chairman, John M e i s e l , i m p l i c i t l y acknowledged t h i s when he s a i d the d e c i s i o n would c r e a t e "a system c o n g e n i a l t o Canadians because i t w i l l 41 r e f l e c t t h e i r N o r t h American t a s t e s " . The s p i r i t of the r e v i s e d 1968 B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t d i d n o t l i s t as one of i t s o b j e c t i v e s t h e c u l t i v a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n of N o r t h American t a s t e s ; the o b j e c t i v e i s Canadian t a s t e s . T h i s comment by M e i s e l does n ot i m p l y a c h a n g i n g f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y but i s r a t h e r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r e f e r e n c e s o f Canadians. I t -20-i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether a l i n e o f d i s t i n c t i o n can be drawn anyway between N o r t h A m erican and Canadian t a s t e s because i f Canadians choose N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t , t h e n t h a t i s Canadian t a s t e . I f we r e g a r d c u l t u r e i n the economic terms of s u p p l y and demand, t h e n i t appears t h a t t h e s e s u b s t a n t i v e p o l i c y methods of the f e d e r a l Government have been implemented t o s t i m u l a t e the s u p p l y s i d e , on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of Canadian c u l t u r a l work would l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d 42 . . . . demand. The s u p p l y s i d e has been s t i m u l a t e d m f i l m t h r o u g h the c a p i t a l c o s t a l l o w a n c e ; i n t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o , by Canadian c o n t e n t r e g u l a t i o n s ; i n the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s , s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t s , and l i t e r a t u r e by s u b s i d i e s and g r a n t s from the Canada C o u n c i l and SSHRCC. The s t i m u l a t i o n of the s u p p l y s i d e has been done t o p r o v i d e Canadians w i t h c h o i c e . As the r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d N a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g S t r a t e g y n o t e s , c h o i c e i s m e a n i n g l e s s u n l e s s Canadians have the o p t i o n of 43 c h o o s i n g Canadian. SECTION 11 - THE PROCESS The p r o c e s s of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has i n v o l v e d the c o n t i n u e d p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the f e d e r a l Government i n b r o a d c a s t i n g and t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a t r e n d toward a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and an adherence t o the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l a n a l y z e these t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the - 2 1 -p r o c e s s . W h i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o the p r o c e s s w i t h i n the Ottawa b u r e a u c r a c y , p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o the dynamics of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The f e d e r a l Government's c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e of c e n t r a l i z e d n a t i o n -wide c o n t r o l over b r o a d c a s t i n g has l e d t o a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s t r u g g l e w i t h the p r o v i n c e s . W h i l e the c o u r t s have always u p h e l d the r o l e of the f e d e r a l Government i n l e g i s l a t i n g over b r o a d c a s t i n g , the c o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f i s u n c l e a r . ' The o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o communications i s t e l e g r a p h l i n e s , w h i c h are s p e c i f i e d i n S. 9 2 ( 1 0 ) ( a ) as coming under f e d e r a l . . . . 44 j u r i s d i c t i o n . The 1 9 3 2 d e c i s i o n of the Supreme Court of Canada t h a t r a d i o communications a r e an e x c l u s i v e l y f e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y j u r i s d i c t i o n r e m a i n s unchanged. Somewhat a n a c h r o n i s t i c a l l y , the 1 9 0 3 R a i l w a y A c t c o n t i n u e s t o g o v e r n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n Canada, d e s p i t e the massive t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d s i n c e t h a t t i m e . Between 1 9 6 9 and 1 9 8 2 , a new t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a c t has been t a b l e d t h r e e t i m e s i n the House of Commons but never p a s s e d . There has been s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t the f e d e r a l Government p r e f e r s t o l e a v e the o l d law i n p l a c e r a t h e r t h a n p o s s i b l y s u f f e r n e g a t i v e p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i -c a t i o n s of a n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b a t t l e w i t h the . 4 5 p r o v i n c e s . The f e d e r a l Government has been r e l u c t a n t t o b r i n g the p r o v i n c e s i n on the development of communications l e g i s l a t i o n . I t s 1 9 6 8 domestic communications p o l i c y e s t a b l i s h e d T e l e s a t -22-Canada as the monopoly c a r r i e r f o r a l l ? s a t e l l i t e communications 46 and r e j e c t e d any p r o v i n c i a l r o l e m t h i s a t a l l . A s e r i e s of f e d e r a l g r e e n and g r e y papers i n the 1970s and a 1975 speech by the M i n i s t e r of Communications G e r a r d P e l l e t i e r o u t l i n e d the b a s i c a t t i t u d e of t h e f e d e r a l Government! I t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of the F e d e r a l Government t o d i v e s t i t s e l f of r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g p o l i c y i n Canada... i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c t o a l l o w the f r a g m e n t a t i o n w h i c h would r e s u l t . . . i f . . . s p l i t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n were implemented...The Government i n t e n d s t o g i v e f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r i t i e s , w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g t o f u l f i l l i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y n a t i o n a l dimension...and p r o t e c t i n g the i n t e r e s t s of Canada as a whole. ^7 I n c r e a s i n g l y t h e f e d e r a l Government has been w i l l i n g t o engage i n c o n s u l t a t i o n and t o d e l e g a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s t o the p r o v i n c e s but not a n y t h i n g o f more j u r i s d i c t i o n a l . 48 s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s as i n t e r e s t i n g as i t i s p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t r e a c t i o n s t o t h i s c e n t r a l i z e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the f e d e r a l Government w i t h r e s p e c t t o communications have d i v i d e d a l o n g r e g i o n a l l i n e s . Quebec, of c o u r s e , has been f u r i o u s ; the Western p r o v i n c e s r e m a i n s u s p i c i o u s of s e d u c t i v e p r o p o s a l s f o r i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n a t i o n a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g ( v i e w i n g them as t r a p s and s u b s t i t u t e s f o r d i r e c t t r a n s f e r of l e g i s l a t i v e power); O n t a r i o has been g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t i v e . 49 of t h e f e d e r a l r o l e i n b r o a d c a s t i n g . I t can be argued t h a t the u n y i e l d i n g a t t i t u d e of the f e d e r a l Gcv ernment i g n o r e s f u n d amental p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s about the d e c e n t r a l i z e d n a t u r e -23-of Canada. On the ot h e r hand, i t can be p l a u s i b l y argued t h a t the f e d e r a l Government, o p e r a t i n g i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , sees those r e a l i t i e s a l l t o o w e l l and a t t e m p t s t o c o u n t e r a c t them. I t i s the o r i e n t a t i o n of the f e d e r a l Government t h a t w h i l e t h e r e a r e many d i s t i n c t r e g i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i n Canada, the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t d i c t a t e s a t l e a s t a modest degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n b r o a d c a s t i n g and t e l e -communications t o p r e s e r v e the o v e r a r c h i n g u n i o n . P o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n does n o t , however, e x t e n d t o the a r t s i n g e n e r a l as no attempt has been made t o q u e s t i o n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e s t o s e t up c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s t o f o s t e r l o c a l and r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n . There has been w i t h i n the f e d e r a l Government an i n c r e a s i n g degree of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . T h i s p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s g r e a t e r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m i n i s t r y of c u l t u r e . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s p r o h i b i t s t o t a l r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . One can o n l y s p e c u l a t e about t h i s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . b u t " the Trudeau/ P i t f i e l d r a t i o n a l i s t i c approach t o the b u r e a u c r a c y , and a gro w i n g d e s i r e f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n a r e amongst the most l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n s . The r a t i o n a l i s t i c a p proach a p p l i e d t o c u l t u r e and communications a t t e m p t e d t o d e a l w i t h d i f f i c u l t p o l i c y i s s u e s w i t h "a f r e s h and comprehensive government a p p a r a t u s " r a t h e r t h a n w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m m e s . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i n Ottawa has not been c y c l i c a l but r a t h e r g r a d u a l movement toward c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n -24-one department. T h i s one department, which was f o r f o u r t e e n y e a r s the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , i s now, t o an even g r e a t e r degree, the Department of Communications. The A r t s and C u l t u r e Branch of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i s no l o n g e r s e p a r a t e from Communications. C u l t u r e was d i s p e r s e d i n the 1940s and 1950s t h r o u g h many departments. To g i v e some examples, the Department of T r a n s p o r t used t o h o l d what i s now the communications p o r t f o l i o ; the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s was a sub-branch of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ; t he M i n i s t r y of N a t i o n a l Revenue det e r m i n e d C a n a d i a n c o n t e n t i n p e r i o d i c a l s and oversaw the CBC; the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n had i n i t s p o r t f o l i o c u l t u r a l a g e n i c e s such as the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y and the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . The a r t s and c u l t u r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n Communications means t h a t Canada r e a l l y has a M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e i n a l l but name. The p r o c e s s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y began i n 1963 when Prime M i n i s t e r L e s t e r P e a r s o n , r i d i n g h i g h on a campaign v i c t o r y p l e d g e of " s i x t y days of d e c i s i o n " , d e c i d e d t o t a c k l e the problem of s u p p o r t f o r the a r t s and other c u l t u r a l endeavours. P e a r s o n chose the Department of t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e as h i s v e h i c l e and t r a n s f e r r e d t o i t .many c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s : the Canada C o u n c i l , the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , N a t i o n a l Museums, N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , Board of B r o a d c a s t G o v e r n o r s , CBC, NFB, Queen's P r i n t e r , and the C e n t e n n i a l Commission ( l a t e r t o become the N a t i o n a l A r t s - 2 5 -C e n t r e ) . I t s A r t s and C u l t u r e B r a n c h was a s s i g n e d the t a s k of p r o v i d i n g a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e t o the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and development of p o l i c i e s and programmes f o r the achievement of n a t i o n a l a r t s and c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s ; t o promote e f f e c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n among the f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s i n t h e achievement of these o b j e c t i v e s ; t o a d m i n i s t e r c e r t a i n programmes d e s i g n e d i n s u p p o r t -of t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , and t o a d v i s e the Government on m a t t e r s of S t a t e p r o t o c o l . 5 1 The S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e was r e s p o n s i b l e u n t i l I98O f o r the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s - he or she would speak i n the House of Commons f o r them, approve t h e i r e s t i m a t e s but r e f r a i n f r om m e d d l i n g i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . L e g a l a d v i s o r s f o r the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e h e l d t h a t the Department was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g p o l i c y d e s p i t e c o n t r a r y c l a i m s made i n 1 9 7 8 52 by B i l l C-24. The Department was the p a r l i a m e n t a r y spokesman f o r the CBC but had no powers of d i r e c t i o n over i t , e x c e p t i n s o f a r as the m i n i s t e r c o u l d d i s a p p r o v e of i t s e s t i m a t e s . T h i s e x c e p t i o n , of c o u r s e , i s an e x t r e m e l y p o t e n t mechanism t h r o u g h .which the m i n i s t e r can e x e r t c o n s i d e r a b l e c l o u t over the d i r e c t i o n and, i n d e e d , the v e r y s u r v i v a l of the CBC. I t i s f o r the m i n i s t e r t o d e c i d e whether he or she can a f f o r d t h e p o l i t i c a l r i s k s of s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r i n g i n an agency d e s i g n e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y autonomous from the Government. The 1 9 6 9 Government O r g a n i z a t i o n A c t c r e a t e d a p o l i c y and coord inat ing 1 Department of Communications, whose t a s k s were p r e v i o u s l y h e l d by the M i n i s t e r of T r a n s p o r t and the -26-P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i n c l u d e d the telecommuni-c a t i o n s s e c t i o n of the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. I t s mandate i s t o encourage the o r d e r l y development and use of telecommuni-c a t i o n s , i n Canada by managing the use of r a d i o communications, d e v e l o p i n g p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , and c a r r y i n g out p r o -grammes i n s a t e l l i t e communications and r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h . 5 3 -The c e n t r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n , t o be e l a b o r a t e d upon l a t e r i n t h i s paper, emerged e a r l y i n the l i f e of the Department of Communications. To d e s i g n p o l i c y f o r communications equipment w i t h o u t ' t a k i n g c o n t e n t i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n was r e a l l y t o go o n l y h a l f w a y down t h e r o a d - the p r o c e s s was t a k e n c a r e of and the su b s t a n c e i g n o r e d . The 1980 r e o r g a n i -z a t i o n sought t o ad d r e s s t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The Department of Communications l o s t i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r space r e s e a r c h and development t o the S c i e n c e and Technology M i n i s t r y and was g i v e n the A r t s and C u l t u r e B r a n c h of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . W ith the Department now r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t e n c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , s u b s t a n c e i s no l o n g e r b e i n g i g n o r e d . W h i l e the merger d i d not happen u n t i l 1980, the u n i t i n g of t h e A r t s and C u l t u r e Branch i n the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e w i t h the Department of Communications was an i d e a t e n t a t i v e l y put f o r w a r d s h o r t l y a f t e r the c r e a t i o n of t h e l a t t e r Department i n 1969. Many b u r e a u c r a t s were a g a i n s t i t , though, most n o t a b l y S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e o f f i c i a l s Max Y a l d e n and Andre F o r t i e r . B oth v i e w e d a merger as too u n w i e l d y and c o n s i d e r e d c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t the e x c l u s i v e domain of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . W h i l e e v e n t u a l l y a g r e e i n g t o experiment w i t h the merger, s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a t M i c h a e l P i t f i e l d a l s o e x p r e s s e d s c e p t i c i s m : " I ' v e n ever been c o n v i n c e d t h a t s o f t w a r e and hardware need t o be m a r r i e d t h a t c l o s e l y . " ' " ^ P r e s s u r e t o marry subs t a n c e w i t h p r o c e s s a c c e l e r a t e d d e s p i t e o p p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the impetus g i v e n by the 1 9 7 8 R e p o r t of the Communications R e s e a r c h A d v i s o r y Board(CRAB). T h i s Board, c o m p r i s e d m a n i l y of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r om the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , c r i t i c i z e d the Department of Communications b o t h f o r i t s l a c k of comprehensive p l a n n i n g mechanisms and i t s f a i l u r e t o a d d r e s s q u e s t i o n s of c o n t e n t . T h e C o n s e r v a t i v e f e d e r a l Government i n 1 9 7 9 acknowledged the impending m a r r i a g e by g i v i n g one m i n i s t e r two p o r t f o l i o s , the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e and the Department of Communications. The subsequent L i b e r a l f e d e r a l Government f u r t h e r e d t h e t r e n d by f o r m a l l y r e o r g a n i z i n g the two Departments a y e a r l a t e r . U n t i l the merger o c c u r r e d , the Department of Communications was, i n the words of George G a i t , "a s e t of 57 hardware programmes m s e a r c h of a p o l i c y . " T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g the merger of the A r t s and C u l t u r e B ranch w i t h Communications has l e d t o an uneasy r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r a l ' a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i v e s . W h i l e c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e geared t o the a n a r c h i c , f r e e development of the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t ' s a e s t h e t i c or i n t e l l e c t u a l c r e a t i o n s , t e c h n o l q g i c a l ones have an i n d u s t r i a l l y p l a n n e d , mass market, m e c h a n i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . An i n d u s t r i a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o c u l t u r e can h u r t - 2 8 -the development of t h a t v e r y c u l t u r e . The uneasy r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two o b j e c t i v e s i s e x e m p l i f i e d w i t h i n the Department of Communications. The M i n i s t e r of Communications F r a n c i s Fox e x p l a i n e d the u n d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l e f o r the merger: t o ensure t h a t communications p o l i c y i s conducted w i t h the h i g h e s t c o n c e r n f o r the c u l t u r a l c o n t e n t and the c u l t u r a l i m p l i -c a t i o n s of communications t e c h n o l o g y . . . t o make the c u l t u r a l m i l i e u more s e n s i t i v e and more aware of the importance and the r a p i d i t y of t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i n the f i e l d of communications. I t i s the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s v i e w t h a t s u c h p r o g r e s s s h o u l d s e r v e more and more t o s t r e n g t h e n our c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y . 5 8 T h i s has not been the c a s e . S u b j e c t m a t t e r i s o f t e n d i v i d e d i n t o communications p o l i c y on the one haiid and c u l t u r a l p o l i c y on the o t h e r . One Department o f f i c i a l even a d m i t t e d t h a t "'we're not i n the b u s i n e s s of c u l t u r e ; we're i n the b u s i n e s s 59 of i n d u s t r y ' " . The Department's 1 9 8 3 B r o a d c a s t i n g S t r a t e g y a l s o r e v e a l s the i n d u s t r i a l o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i t s comments on p r i v a t e s e c t o r e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , e x p o r t t h r u s t s , and h i g h economic s t a k e s . Two o r g a n i z a t i o n s have v o i c e d c o n c e r n s . The Canadian Conference of the A r t s sees t h e A r t s and C u l t u r e Branch "becoming e n g u l f e d w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e and a c t i v i t i e s of the Department, of Communications and m o t i v a t e d not by ou'L c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s but by i n d u s t r i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l 6o p r i o r i t i e s " . The C D . Howe I n s t i t u t e s i m i l a r l y n o t e s t h a t the Department appears more as a s c i e n c e - b a s e d u n i t p r o m o t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of Canada's o v e r a l l i n d u s t r i a l s t r a t e g y and l e s s as a - 2 9 -c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d u n i t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r managing the instruments whereby Canadian i d e n t i t y i s shaped.6 l The t e n s i o n w i t h i n the Department of Communications has been d e s c r i b e d as " h i g h - t e c h " v e r s u s "highbrow", a t e n s i o n which has been exacerbated by what the highbrows (such as the Canadian Conference of the A r t s ) sees as a software/hardware 62 imbalance. Given i t s o r i g i n a l mandate, the Department of Communications appears b i a s e d toward equipment, a b i a s i n no s m a l l p a r t e x p l a i n e d by the worldwide a c c l a i m g i v e n to some of i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l c r e a t i o n s . T h i s b i a s has s p i l l e d over to the area of content with the establishment of a C u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s D i r e c t o r a t e w i t h i n the Department. To the highbrows, the t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n - i t s mechanization and c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n - i s i m p l i c i t i n the 64 v e r y term " c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s " . The I 9 8 I - I 9 8 2 Report of the Communications Research A d v i s o r y Board d i s a g r e e s with the highbrows on the a l l e g e d t e n s i o n between c u l t u r a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l imperatives as i t r e f u s e s to see the two as p o l a r o p p o s i t e s . W r i t i n g a p p r o v i n g l y of the merger, CRAB argues that the s c i e n t i f i c and a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e s are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as o p p o s i t e s . The r a t i o n a l versus the c r e a t i v e . But good sc i e n c e i s v e r y much a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s ; d i s c o v e r y comes from i n s i g h t more than from random exp e r i m e n t a t i o n , i n .a department where technology and a r t are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r t w i n e d , the t r a i t s common to both " c u l t u r e s " need to be made 'more e x p l i c i t . . . 65 I n sum, CRAB c o n s i d e r s the merger t o be good f o r technology - 3 0 -and a r t , p r o v i d i n g t h a t the p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s smooth i n t e g r a t i o n a t the top p o l i c y l e v e l . The F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee a l s o u p h o l d s the i d e a of a r t and t e c h n o l o g y b e i n g viewed i n complementary terms and t h e r e f o r e encourages the development of an a r t s and t e c h n o l o g y programme 66 w i t h i n the Department of Communications. T h i s t r e n d toward g r e a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has seen c o n t i n u e d adherence t o a n o t h e r key element i n the p r o c e s s - the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e . The Canadian Conference of the A r t s - h e l d t h a t t h i s p r i n c i p l e , which d e s c r i b e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the M i n i s t e r of Communications and the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s which r e p o r t t o him or h e r , i s the most p u b l i c and v i s i b l e means a v a i l a b l e t o government t o demonstrate i t s commitment t o e x c e l l e n c e and t o c o n f i r m i t s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s t a n d a r d s of e x c e l l e n c e must be d e t e r -mined by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d , n o t by p o l i t i c i a n s i n P a r l i a m e n t . 6 ? I n 1 9 7 0 , S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e G e r a r d P e l l e t i e r p l e d g e d the s u p p o r t of the f e d e r a l Government f o r the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e : I n our v i e w , t h e r e i s no a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e and a government s h o u l d not o n l y r e s p e c t the freedom of the a r t i s t and s c h o l a r , but a l s o p r o v i d e f o r the independence of p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s so t h a t the s p e c i a l -i s t s who d i r e c t them may base t h e i r a c t i o n s on p r o f e s s i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n p o l i t i c a l c r i t e r i a . 6 8 T h i s degree of independence and autonomy, otherwise.known as the l e n g t h and s t r e n g t h of t h e arm, v a r i e s f r om agency t o department, and f r o m agency t o agency. While a department - 3 1 -i s r e a l l y j u s t an e x t e n s i o n of t h e m i n i s t e r and hence s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l , , an agency i s more autonomous. The d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l become c l e a r e r i n the upcoming d i s c u s s i o n on Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s . The Massey-Levesque R e p o r t s u b s c r i b e d t o the arm's l e n g t h approach and t h e r e f o r e d i s a p p r o v e d of the i d e a of annua-13, v o t e s of money t o a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s has s i n c e been the case though - a n n u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s a r e g i v e n t o the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . Regarded as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n , t h a t rthe arm i s becoming s h o r t e r , t h i s f a c t has c r e a t e d unease i n the c u l t u r a l community. Unease deepened .with the r e l e a s e of the (Lambert) F i n a l R e p o r t of the R o y a l Commission on F i n a n c i a l Management and A c c o u n t a b i l i t y . I t s p r o p o s a l f o r m i n i s t e r s t o c o n t r o l c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s t h r o u g h " m i n i s t e r i a l d i r e c t i v e s " i s seen by some as a c h a l l e n g e t o the p o l i t i c a l freedom of the a g e n c i e s . The whole Lambert approach dismayed the c u l t u r a l community because the commitment t o f a r - r e a c h i n g , a l l -encompassing c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g and programming and the d e s i r e f o r 'sameness* i n systems f o r f e d e r a l d i r e c t i o n , c o n t r o l and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y c o u l d undermine the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . The arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e has been a d i f f i c u l t one f o r f e d e r a l Governments t o implement. Too s h o r t an arm provokes c r i t i c i s m s but t o o l o n g an arm c r e a t e s problems of i t s own. A l o n g arm r e s u l t s i n the d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s p u r s u i n g s i m i l a r g o a l s w i t h i n mandates w h i c h a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y w e l l r e l a t e d or c o o r d i n a t e d . -32-T h i s c l e a r l y l i m i t s the c a p a c i t y of any government t o pursue o v e r a l l c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , t o m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s f o r t h a t purpose and t o harmonize p o l i c i e s w i t h o t h e r l e v e l s of government. I n e s s e n c e , the arm's l e n g t h p r o c e s s a f f e c t s the substance of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . C r i t i c i s m s of a l a c k of comprehensiveness may i n f a c t be due t o the p r o c e s s i t s e l f . The arm's l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p between government and a c u l t u r a l agency depends i n p a r t on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the agency. The t y p i c a l method by w h i c h the f e d e r a l Government a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e i s t o e s t a b l i s h crown c o r p o r a t i o n s , g i v i n g them mandates t h a t a l l o w them; t o a c t i n a n o n p a r t i s a n , r e l a t i v e l y autonomous manner. A i l c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e u l t i m a t e l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o P a r l i a m e n t t h r o u g h the M i n i s t e r but the amount of c o n t r o l p l a c e d on each depends on the t y p e of c o r p o r a t i o n . There a r e t h r e e main t y p e s of c o r p o r a t i o n s : d e p a r t m e n t a l ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s u p e r v i s o r y or r e g u l a t o r y s e r v i c e s ) , agency ( q u a s i - c o m m e r c i a l t r a d i n g and s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s ) , and p r o p r i e t a r y ( f i n a n c i a l / c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n s and the s u p p l y of a p u b l i c 71 s e r v i c e ) . ' A m i n i s t e r cannot s u p e r v i s e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e budgets of p r o p r i e t a r y c o r p o r a t i o n s ; he or she can o n l y approve t h e i r c a p i t a l b u d g e t s . The m i n i s t e r can, on the o t h e r hand, e x e r t d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l over d e p a r t m e n t a l Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s . Agency c o r p o r a t i o n s must have t h e i r c a p i t a l budgets approved by C a b i n e t and t h e i r o p e r a t i n g budgets by the M i n i s t e r and the P r e s i d e n t o f the T r e a s u r y Board. -33-P r o p r i e t a r y c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e the most autonomous and d e p a r t m e n t a l ones the l e a s t . The CBC, NAC, and T e l e g l o b e Canada are p r o p r i e t a r y ; the CFDC, agency; SSHRCC and N a t i o n a l Museums, d e p a r t m e n t a l . The i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y of money g i v e s the f e d e r a l Government c o n s i d e r a b l e power over the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s - i t can i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e the s u p p l y . As the 1 9 8 2 F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee n o t e d , "rewards a re as c o e r c i v e as punishments, even i f l e s s p a i n f u l 7 2 t o t h o s e c o e r c e d " . The money t h r e a t can d i s t o r t the a c t i v i t i e s of the a g e n c i e s . F o r example, because SSHRCC must a b i d e by t h e f i n a n c i a l management r e q u i r e m e n t s of the T r e a s u r y Board, i t has been f o r c e d " t o a c c e p t an a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s t h a t d i v e r g e s i n c r e a s i n g l y from what i t s own 7 3 judgement or t h a t of i t s academic a d v i s o r s might d i c t a t e " . A n other method by whi c h an arm's l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p can be re d u c e d i s t h r o u g h the f e d e r a l Government's a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t board members f o r c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . Indeed, as the F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee and the Lambert Commission observed, "the most p o t e n t i n s t r u m e n t i n the hands of the d e s i g n a t e d M i n i s t e r or Governor i n C o u n c i l 7 4 i s t he power t o a p p o i n t and change b o a r d s " . C u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - t h a t i s , those based upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p roven a b i l i t i e s i n c u l t u r a l ..service and c r e d i b i l i t y among members of t h e c u l t u r a l community- have sometimes been overshadowed by n o n - c u l t u r a l ones. There have been s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where board memberships a r e g i v e n t o p a r t y l o y a l i s t s as r e w a r d s , c o n s o l a t i o n p r i z e s , and s t a t u s - 3 4 -symbols. ^ The CRTC i l l u s t r a t e s a c e n t r a l s t r e n g t h and weakness i n t h e f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e p r e s e r v e s the i n t e g r i t y of a n o n - p o l i t i c a l agency and y e t h i n d e r s e f f o r t s by p o l i t i c i a n s t o d e v e l o p and c o o r d i n a t e c u l t u r a l . p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s . C r e a t e d i n 1975 as a c o o r d i n a t i n g and r e g u l a t i n g body f o r the b r o a d c a s t system, the CRTC a l s o makes i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s on programme c o n t e n t , i n d u s t r y s t r u c t u r e and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new t e c h n o l o g i e s . I t has sometimes opposed C a b i n e t and c o m p l i c a t e d t h e conduct of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . F o r example, the CRTC r e f u s e d t o s a n c t i o n the 1976 Canada-Manitoba agreement on c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n . I n r e s p o n s e , the f e d e r a l Government r e t a l i a t e d by p a s s i n g B i l l C -24 i n 1978 w h i c h gave the M i n i s t e r of Communications the power t o v a r y the d e c i s i o n s of the CRTC. The 1983 B r o a d c a s t i n g S t r a t e g y has r e i t e r a t e d the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the f e d e r a l Government t o have the power t o i s s u e broad p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s t o the CRTC. I n a sense, though, the t r o u b l e s w i t h the CRTC were the f e d e r a l Government's own f a u l t . The House of Commons has been a w a s t e l a n d i n terms of f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c i e s t o d e a l w i t h b r o a d c a s t i n g and t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . N a t u r e abhors a vacuum - s orne one had t o make the d e c i s i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y the CRTC stepped i n t o do what.the House of Commons had i t s e l f a b d i c a t e d . D e s p i t e c o o r d i n a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s g e n e r a t e d by the - 3 5 -arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e and o c c a s i o n a l d e v i a t i o n s i n the a r e a s of f i n a n c i n g and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on b o a r d s , the p r i n c i p l e has been g e n e r a l l y adhered '. t o by the f e d e r a l Governments. Such adherence has l e d t o the development of a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s : the w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i s t e n t o i n t e r e s t groups. Indeed, as B e r n a r d O s t r y p o i n t s out, t h e f e d e r a l Government d e c i d e d i n 77 the 1960s t o have O r g a n i z e d " ' l o y a l o p p o s i t i o n s " . The Government s u b s i d i z e s groups t o c r i t i c i z e government, t o a d v i s e and comment, and t o p r o v i d e the M i n i s t e r w i t h c o n t a c t s i n the a r t i s t i c community. Such groups i n c l u d e the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g League, the Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Canadian Conference o f t h e A r t s . O v e r a l l , t h e n , the p r o c e s s has seen c o n t i n u e d p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n the a r e a s of b r o a d c a s t i n g and telecommuni-c a t i o n s . The t r e n d toward a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has meant g r e a t e r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . T h i s g r e a t e r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , as seen i n the l i n k i n g of c u l t u r e t o communications, has had mixed r e s u l t s . F e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has g a i n e d by the g r e a t e r c l o u t of a s t r e n g t h e n e d department. However, f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y ' s l i n k i n g t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s has g e n e r a t e d a t e n s i o n between the two and l e a v e s open t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of the l a t t e r d o m i n a t i n g the f o r m e r . L a s t l y , the arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e has been adopte d t o ensure the independence of t h e c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s from p o l i t i c a l - 3 6 -i n t e r f e r e n c e b u t , as seen i n t h e case of the CRTC, can o c c a s i o n a l l y p r o h i b i t the M i n i s t e r from i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . SECTION 111 - IMPLICATIONS The c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s e s s a y i s s p e c u l a t i v e i n n a t u r e as i t a t t e m p t s t o d etermine where f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i s h e a d i n g i n t h e a r e a s of substance and p r o c e s s . Three a s p e c t s of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y w i l l be used as i l l u s t r a t i o n s . To u n d e r s t a n d f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n terms of i t s f u t u r e r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of whether i t has been s u c c e s s f u l t o d a t e , as t h i s would i n f l u e n c e the s u r v i v a l or the c u r t a i l m e n t of p r e s e n t t r e n d s . The s t a t e d c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s of the f e d e r a l Government have been b o t h few and vague. I t would seem t h a t , i n e ssence, the o b j e c t i v e of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has been t o s t i m u l a t e the s u p p l y s i d e t o ensure t h a t Canadians have c h o i c e , t h a t t h e y have the o p t i o n of c h o o s i n g Canadian as w e l l as f o r e i g n e n t e r t a i n m e n t . The o b j e c t i v e has had t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the market r e a l i t i e s of l i v i n g n e x t door t o the American c u l t u r a l g i a n t . T h i s has been done by t h e Government t a k i n g m o d e r a t e l y d e f e n s i v e measures t o a l l o w Canadians exposure t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e . I n the words of CBC P r e s i d e n t P i e r r e Juneau, the Canadian c o n t e n t r e g u l a t i o n s were i n t r o d u c e d t o ensure t h a t Canadians can t u r n on t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n s e t s and know what c o u n t r y -37-t h e y a re i n . The o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l d e f e n s i v e n e s s of the v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s have a l s o been seen i n the c r e a t i o n of the CFDC and the s t i m u l a t i v e t a x measures. There i s c e r t a i n l y more Can a d i a n c o n t e n t on t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o t h a n i n the p r e - q u o t a days but i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether the c u l t u r a l g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e s s has h e l p e d or h i n d e r e d the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e . There i s a l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h r e s p e c t ': t o the o v e r a l l d e f i n i t i o n of Can a d i a n c o n t e n t i n the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . As mentioned e a r l i e r , t he CRTC proposed a t i g h t e r d e f i n i t i o n i n !order t o s t r e n g t h e n the development of Canadian p r o d u c t i o n s and y e t the o t h e r a g e n c i e s do not have t o adopt i t . F o r i n s t a n c e , the CFDC " w i l l t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the d e f i n i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e CRTC" but i n s i s t s t h a t i t i s "autonomous i n i t s d e c i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g 79 d e c i s i o n s on Canadian c o n t e n t " . Not o n l y does t h i s c onfuse c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e r s a t t e m p t i n g t o q u a l i f y but i t ha n d i c a p s the f e d e r a l Government's e f f o r t s t o c o - o r d i n a t e a u n i f o r m d e f i n i t i o n . The d i s a r r a y c o n t i n u e s here because of t h e independence g i v e n by the Government t o the' c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . T h i s d i s a r r a y may be pro m p t i n g the f e d e r a l Government t o s h o r t e n the arm. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n t h i s a r e a of Canadian c o n t e n t , the substance and the p r o c e s s a r e not moving t o g e t h e r i n a complementary f a s h i o n . Quotas may have been p l a c e d on t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o but -38-i n t h e f e a t u r e f i l m i n d u s t r y t h e y r e m a i n a b s e n t . The r e f u s a l by the f e d e r a l Government t o p l a c e q u o t a s on American f e a t u r e f i l m s i s s i g n i f i c a n t , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t 102 c o u n t r i e s d i d p l a c e q u otas on t h e s e f i l m s . The n a t i o n a l d e f e n s i v e n e s s m a n i f e s t e d i n some o t h e r c u l t u r a l a r e a s i s not p r e s e n t h e r e . I f the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e i s t o g i v e Canadians., the o p t i o n of g o i n g t o the t h e a t r e s t o see Can a d i a n f i l m s , i t seems-p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t the subst a n c e and p r o c e s s of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has been on the c r e a t i o n of a r t r a t h e r t h a n on i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n as w e l l . The r e l u c t a n c e of s u c c e s s i v e f e d e r a l Governments t o d e a l d e c i s i v e l y w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n problem f o r Canadian f i l m s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y seen i n t h e i r r e f u s a l t o copy the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n f o r b i d d i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n / d i s t r i b u t i o n companies w i t h 80 t h e a t r e c h a i n s . The p r o c e s s , as r e f l e c t e d i n the r e g u l a t i o n s governing _ f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n , i s i n a d e q u a t e l y d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e the s u b s t a n t i v e g o a l of e n s u r i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y of Canadian f i l m s . A t h i r d i n s t a n c e i s the p o s t a l r a t e s u b s i d y w hich, as was mentioned i n s e c t i o n one, i s the second l a r g e s t f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l e x p e n d i t u r e . T h i s s u b s i d y i s g i v e n t o f o r e i g n as w e l l as Canadian p u b l i s h e r s . F o r e i g n d i s t r i b u t o r s s i m p l y d r i v e t h e i r books and p e r i o d i c a l s over the b o r d e r t o 8 l C a n adian p o s t a l s t a t i o n s . A p o l i c y which pays handsome d i v i d e n d s t o non-Canadian p u b l i s h e r s i n s t e a d of u s i n g t h i s money f o r grants' f o r example, t o Canadian a u t h o r s , i s -39-n o t a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s i g n e d t o w h o l l y meet t h e o b j e c t i v e o f s t i m u l a t i n g t h e C a n a d i a n p e r i o d i c a l a n d book p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . T h e s e t h r e e i n s t a n c e s o f t h e s u b s t a n c e a n d p r o c e s s o f f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y n o t m o v i n g i n tandem t o a c h i e v e s t a t e d c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s p u t i n p e r s p e c t i v e t r e n d s e v i d e n t i n t h i s g o v e r n m e n t s e c t o r . One t r e n d - t h e s u b s t a n c e c o n t r a d i c t s t h e p r o c e s s - i s a c a u s e o f some o f t h e o u t l i n e d w e a k n e s s e s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . Two o t h e r t r e n d s - t h e s o f t w a r e / h a r d w a r e i m b a l a n c e ( o t h e r w i s e known a s t h e h i g h b r o w / h i g h - t e c h t e n s i o n ) - a n d t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t mode o f o p e r a t i o n by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n s - m e r i t f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . The t r e n d w h i c h h a s s e e n t h e s u b s t a n c e o f f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y c o n t r a d i c t e d b y t h e p r o c e s s i s a c t u a l l y t w o - f o l d i n n a t u r e . The f i r s t a s p e c t r e v o l v e s a r o u n d c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i t s e l f b e i n g a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t e r m s w i t h c u l t u r e b e i n g a n a r c h i c a n d p o l i c y , o r d e r l y . The s u b s t a n c e o f f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y h a s b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y o v e r a l l c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n ( a n d h e n c e m i r r o r s most c l o s e l y t h e r e a l i t y o f c u l t u r e p e r s e ) . The • s u b s t a n c e d e a l s w i t h c u l t u r e s e c t o r b y s e c t o r r a t h e r t h a n b y c u l t u r a l b l u e p r i n t . The p r o c e s s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a i m s a t r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n . The two do- n o t move i n tandem, e x c e p t -40-i n s o f a r as the arm's l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p a l l o w s c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s room t o b r e a t h e ( a l t h o u g h even t h i s e x c e p t i o n shows s i g n s of b r e a k i n g down somewhat, as w i l l be seen l a t e r ) . A t a second l e v e l , the s u b s t a n c e i s i n d i s e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the merger t h a t has o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the p r o c e s s , namely, the j o i n i n g of the A r t s and C u l t u r e Branch ( c o n t e n t ) w i t h Communications ( f o r m ) . The merger seeks t o marry t h e substance w i t h the p r o c e s s y e t t h e u n i o n of an u n t r a m m e l l e d , a n a r c h i c c u l t u r a l s u b s t a n c e w i t h an o r d e r l y , b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e s s might i n j u r e the n a t u r e of one or t h e o t h e r . The c u r r e n t M i n i s t e r of Communications F r a n c i s Fox commented on the merger u s i n g t h i s m a r r i a g e a n a l o g y : We're the o n l y c o u n t r y i n the w e s t e r n w o r l d t h a t has gone t h i s way and t h e p r o c e s s i s f a r from complete. M a r r i a g e i s t h e r i g h t word - two s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s j o i n e d t o g e t h e r a t t h e p o l i c y l e v e l . °^ But can the two e n t i t i e s be j o i n e d w i t h o u t the one s a c r i f i c i n g t o t h e o t h e r ? The merger has a l r e a d y seen a software/hardware i m b a l a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s hard t o imagine a r e t u r n t o the p r e - m a r r i a g e days even i f , i n the words of George G a i t Form w i t h o u t c o n t e n t f i t t e d i n t o a p e c u l i a r l y Canadian t r a d i t i o n : f o r many . years,, the c o u n t r y had e n j o y e d a b r o a d -c a s t i n g system unmatched anywhere f o r i t s t e c h n i c a l e x c e l l e n c e and f o r i t s . overwhelming w e i g h t of f o r e i g n programmes. ^ The p r e - m a r r i a g e days i l l u s t r a t e d a p e r c e i v e d weakness i n . : ' r a l c u i . f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l . p o l i c y and t h e r e f o r e f e d e r a l Governments w i l l l i k e l y m a i n t a i n the c u r r e n t merger. -41-A second t r e n d i n f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y - the s o f t w a r e / hardware imbalance - shows no s i g n i f i c a n t s i g n s of a b a t i n g and has both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s . f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . The imbalance i s p o s i t i v e i n t h a t a t l e a s t the m a r r i a g e has s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e c l o u t of the A r t s and C u l t u r e B r a n c h . A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i g h - t e c h g i v e s t h e highbrow's r e q u e s t s f o r f u n d i n g g r e a t e r l e g i t i m a c y as the accompanying economic b e n e f i t s can be more r e a d i l y seen. The imbalance i s n e g a t i v e i n s o f a r as i t c a r r i e s the' r e a l r i s k of the highbrows b e i n g a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y smothered by t h e h i g h - t e c h c o n s t i t u e n c y . W h i l e a c e r t a i n degree of w a r i n e s s must be p r e s e n t i n u s i n g d e t e r m i n i s t i c words, i t does appear i n e v i t a b l e t h a t , g i v e n the merger of s o f t w a r e and hardware under the u m b r e l l a of one Department, the imbalance w i l l c o n t i n u e . The s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between substance and p r o c e s s i s not one of e x a c t l y e q u a l dependence. The t e c h n o l o g i c a l equipment can e x i s t and be s o l d on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market w i t h o u t any accompanying c o n t e n t . The s u b s t a n c e , however, can r a r e l y be communicated w i t h o u t hardware a p p a r a t u s - f o r example, v i d e o a r t r e q u i r e s a computer v i d e o t e r m i n a l t o be shown. The imbalance., t h a t the highbrows p e r c e i v e appears endemic t o a Department whose r a i s o n d ' e t r e was e x c l u s i v e l y . h a r d w a r e i n o r i e n t a t i o n . G i v e n the c e n t r a l i t y of h i g h - t e c h e x p o r t s t o an e v o l v i n g Canadian i n d u s t r i a l s t r a t e g y , t o o much optimism about the -42-v i t a l i t y of a r t s and c u l t u r e w i t h i n t h e h i g h - t e c h Department of Communications appears u n w a r r a n t e d . However, the imbalance may not alw a y s be so prominent though, g i v e n the s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l w e i g h t of the A r t s and C u l t u r e B r a n c h . Most of the M i n i s t e r ' s l e t t e r s 'come from the c u l t u r a l community and hence p r o v i d e t h e M i n i s t e r w i t h the impetus t o r e c t i f y a t l e a s t some of t h a t i m b a l a n c e . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the hi g h b r o w s ' p o l i t i c a l w e i g h t w i l l l e a d t o a change i n p r o c e s s - perhaps by i n c r e a s i n g the amount of s t a f f w i t h i n t h e Department a l l o c a t e d t o the A r t s and C u l t u r e Branch ( c u r r e n t l y , t h i s Branch comprises 84 l e s s t h a n f x v e per cent of the total • Depa r t m e n t a l s t a f f ). Another p o s s i b l e method t o a l t e r t he imbalance i s t o decrease the r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o hardware and t h e r e b y i n c r e a s e the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of the o t h e r . A t h i r d t r e n d e v i d e n t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has been t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t mode of o p e r a t i o n by the Department of Communications, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the 1980 merger. S i n c e t h a t d ate, f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has m a n i f e s t e d a "take charge" a t t i t u d e t o the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . P a r a l l e l t o the i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t p r o c e s s i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the p u b l i c -c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s has been a h e i g h t e n e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o , encourage a g r e a t e r r o l e f o r the p r i v a t e , as opposed t o the p u b l i c , c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . The Government i s a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e r t i t s e l f more c l e a r l y o v er i t s own a g e n c i e s w h i l e i t p r o v i d e s s t i m u l a t i o n t o p r i v a t e s e c t o r c u l t u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s . -1+3-The w i l l i n g n e s s t o s t i m u l a t e t he p r i v a t e c u l t u r a l s e c t o r can be seen as a r e t u r n t o t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s of Prime M i n i s t e r L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t i n the 1950s t o l e t p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e be the p r i m a r y d r i v i n g c u l t u r a l f o r c e . The subsequent two decades, though, had seen a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of s t a t e c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y , w h i c h e i t h e r r e p r e s e n t e d an a b d i c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r or a r e l u c t a n c e by f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s t o t r u s t p r i v a t e c u l t u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o de v e l o p Canadian c u l t u r e . The t r e n d of the Government a t t e m p t i n g t o implement c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s t h r o u g h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r was b r i e f l y i n the l i m e l i g h t i n t h e 1960s w i t h t he c r e a t i o n of t h e CFDC but was not f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d u n t i l the 1980s. E f f o r t s t o r e s t r a i n government e x p e n d i t u r e s i n r e c e s s i o n a r y t i m e s have l e d t o t h e p i c k i n g up of t h i s t r e n d a g a i n . To c i t e an example, the r e c e n t l y announced Department of Communications p o l i c y , B u i l d i n g f o r the  F u t u r e : Towards a D i s t i n c t i v e CBC, seeks t o i n c r e a s e Canadian c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h a much g r e a t e r use of independent p r o d u c e r s . These p r o d u c e r s w i l l be f u r t h e r a s s i s t e d by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r - o r i e n t e d Canadian B r o a d c a s t Program Development Fund. G r e a t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n by the f e d e r a l Government i n i t s own c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s l e s s adherence t o t he arm's l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e . The M i n i s t e r of Communications i s now i n the p r o c e s s of g i v i n g h i m s e l f the s t a t u t o r y power t o i s s u e broad d i r e c t i v e s t o the CRTC.^ T h i s y e a r a l o n e has seen the M i n i s t e r send back s e v e r a l CRTC p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s f o r r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . B u i l d i n g f o r  the F u t u r e more c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e s the Depar tment of Communications w i t h the CBC. The Department w i l l r e a l i g n the CBC s e n i o r management f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i v e amendments t o the B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t and i t w i l l r e v i e w the CBC's p e r c e i v e d l a c k of adequate a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o P a r l i a m e n t . A t h i r d n o t a b l e a s p e c t of the CBC p o l i c y i s the power g i v e n t o the M i n i s t e r t o determine the l e a s i n g On of CBC f a c i l i t i e s t o i n d e p e n d e n t s . A l l of t h e s e moves on th e CBC send a c l e a r s i g n a l of h e i g h t e n e d i n t e r v e n t i o n i n what i s supposed t o be the most autonomous of a l l the c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , a p r o p r i e t a r y c o r p o r a t i o n . A f i n a l p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r i n t h i s a n a l y s i s of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i s whether the t r e n d s o u t l i n e d above w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l b l u e p r i n t . The o b j e c t i v e s of a Canadian c u l t u r a l b l u e p r i n t a r e v e r y h a r d t o imagine except i n the v a g u e s t of terms - t o i n c r e a s e n a t i o n a l u n i t y and deepen Canadian i d e n t i t y . These terms are so a b s t r a c t as t o be a l m o s t m e a n i n g l e s s c r i t e r i a f rom w h i c h t o measure f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . The ad hoc, s e c t o r by s e c t o r approach by the f e d e r a l Governments i s d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d and has the s u p p o r t of the most r e c e n t 88 s t u d y of c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . The f o r m u l a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l b l u e p r i n t i s u n l i k e l y , g i v e n the d i v e r s e n a t u r e - 4 5 -of Canada as a country t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e s f e d e r a l i s m , r e g i o n a l i s m , b i l i n g u a l i s m , and m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . In r e c o g n i z i n g the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of d e s i g n i n g a m o n o l i t h i c c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , f e d e r a l Governments have manifested an understanding of the country's d i v e r s i t y . Questions as t o what Canadian c u l t u r e should he comprised of are l e f t t o the a r t i s t s themselves, with the f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y focus on the p r o v i d i n g of a framework i n which these a r t i s t s can t h r i v e . - 4 6 -FOOTNOTES: B e r n a r d O s t r y , The C u l t u r a l C o n n e c t i o n : An E s s a y on C u l t u r e  and Government P o l i c y i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 68 H e r s c h e l H a r d i n , A N a t i o n Unaware: The Canadian Economic C u l t u r e , (Vancouver: J . J . Douglas L t d . , 1 9 7 4 T , p. 2 5 7 4 R o y a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , R e p o r t , (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 5 -\Frank T. P a s q u i l l and Joa n Horsman, Wood P e n n i e s : A Re p o r t on  C u l t u r a l F u n d i n g i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o : York U n i v e r s i t y Programme i n A r t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1973), P. 18 6 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, C u l t u r e S t a t i s t i c s : Government E x p e n d i t u r e s  on C u l t u r e 1976-1981, ,(Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s ) . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s a r e : Canada C o u n c i l , CBC, CRTC, CFDC, NAC, NFB, N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , N a t i o n a l Museums, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s and the A r t s and C u l t u r e B r a n c h (of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e and, as of I98O, of the Department of Communications). 7 'D. P a u l S c h a f e r , A s p e c t s of Canadian C u l t u r a l P o l i c y , ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1976), p. 25 8 I b i d . , p. 2 5 ^ F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, R e p o r t , (Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1982), p. I 8 9 . H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as FCPRC, t h i s Committee was c r e a t e d by the M i n i s t e r of Communi-c a t i o n s i n I 9 8 O t o r e v i e w c u l t u r a l p o l i c y and make recommenda-t i o n s . I t s u b m i t t e d i t s r e p o r t i n November of 1982. 1 0D.P. S c h a f e r , op. c i t . , p. 4? 1 1 I b i d . , p. 144 1 2 F . T . P a s q u i l l and J . Horsman, op. c i t . , p. 34 1-^B. O s t r y , op. c i t . , p. 118 " ^ T r e a s u r y B o a r d , The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Government of Canada 1 9 7 8 / 1 9 7 9 ,~TOttawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1979). 1 5 l b i d . . C a nadian F e d e r a t i o n f o r t h e H u m a n i t i e s , A H i s t o r y 1943-1983, (Ottawa: Canadian F e d e r a t i o n f o r the H u m a n i t i e s , I 9 8 3 ) , p. 8 17 •" • 'Tr e a s u r y Board, op. c i t . I P , " " " ' Canadian Conference of the A r t s , A S t r a t e g y f o r C u l t u r e , (Ottawa- Canadian Conference o f the A r t s , I98O), p. 146 . H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the CCA. -47-19 7 J o e l Rosenbloom, " T e n s i o n s over Communications - A Comment" i n The F u t u r e of N o r t h A m e r i c a : Canada, The U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  and Quebec N a t i o n a l i s m . Eds. E l l i o t J . Feldman and N e i l N e v i t t e . (Cambridge: C e n t e r f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1979), P. 105 2 0 Department of Communications, Towards a New N a t i o n a l  B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y , (Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1983). 21 George G a i t , " U n s c r a m b l i n g t h e F u t u r e " i n S a t u r d a y N i g h t , V o l . 98, No. 1 0 , p. 24 2 2 C a n a d i a n F i l m Development C o r p o r a t i o n , P o l i c i e s on t h e Management of t h e Canadian B r o a d c a s t Program Development Fund, (Ottawa: CFDC, 19837, p. 1 2 3D.P. S c h a f e r , op. c i t . , p. 32 24 . T r e a s u r y Board, op. c i t . 2^CCA, A S t r a t e g y f o r C u l t u r e , p. 146 P a u l A u d l e y , Canada's C u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s : B r o a d c a s t i n g ,  P u b l i s h i n g , R e c o r d i n g and F i l m . ( T o r o n t o : Canadian I n s t i t u t e f o r Economic P o l i c y , 198377 p. 67 27 'Frank W. P e e r s , " T e n s i o n s over Communications" i n The F u t u r e  of N o r t h A m e r i c a : Canada, The U n i t e d , S t a t e s , and Quebec N a t i o n a l i s m , p. 95 P. A u d l e y , op. c i t . , p. 18? 2 9 I b i d . , p. 188 30 J ( C l y n e ) C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee on t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s of T e l e -communications f o r Canadian S o v e r e i g n t y , Telecommunications and Canada, (Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1979)» P. 30 31 . T r e a s u r y Board, op. c i t . 32 J Susan Crean, Who's A f r a i d o f Can a d i a n C u l t u r e ? , (Don M i l l s : G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g , 1976T, p. H O 33 . . . J J C . C . J o h n s t o n , The Canadian R a d i o - t e l e v i s o n and Telecommuni- c a t i o n s Commission: A Study of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e , (Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , I 9 8 O ) , p. 4 -^John M e i s e l , " P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e and the P o l i t i c s of C u l t u r e " i n C a nadian J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . V l l , No. 4 , DecT 1 9 7 4 , p. 6 0 7 -^P. A u d l e y , op. c i t . , p. 168 3 6 l b i d . , p. 261 3 7 I b i d . , p. 261 3®GRTC, Proposed D e f i n i t i o n of a Canadian Programme, (Ottawa: P u b l i c N o t i c e CRTC 1983-174, 15 August 1983). -^Department of Communications, The Canadian F i l m and V i d e o t a p e  C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o c e s s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n , (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1983.), p. 7 -48-40 . . . CRTC, Proposed D e f i n i t i o n of a Canadian Programme. 41 / P. A u d l e y , op. c i t . , p . 261 42 FCPRC, D i s c u s s i o n Guide, (Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 1 3 43 Department of Communications, Towards a New N a t i o n a l : B r o a d c a s t i n g P o l i c y . 54" R. B r i a n Woodrow, Kenneth Woodside, Henry Wiseman, John B. B l a c k , C o n f l i c t over Communications P o l i c y : A Study of F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s and P u b l i c P o l i c y j ( M o n t r e a l : C D . Howe I n s t i t u t e , I98O), :p.9 ^ G . G a i t , op. c i t . , p. 2 0 46 R. B r i a n Woodrow, e t . a l . , , op,. , c i t . , p. 3 1 ^ I b i d . , p. 3 6 48 . ' °Ibid., p. 3 0 ^ 9 I b i d . , p. 41 ^°G. G a i t , op. c i t . , p. 1 5 ^ 1 B . O s t r y , op. c i t . , p. 1 2 7 5 2 I b i d . , p. 1 3 0 53 Canada Tax F o u n d a t i o n , The N a t i o n a l F i n a n c e s - An A n a l y s i s of the Revenues and E x p e n d i t u r e s of the Government of Canada 1 9 8 0 -1981^ ( T o r o n t o : P u b l i c a t i o n s Department, I98I), p. 1 9 7 G a i t , op. c i t . , p. 1 9 ^ I b i d . , p. p. 1 9 -^Department of Communications, Report of the Communications R e s e a r c h A d v i s o r y Board : 1 9 7 8 , (Ottawa : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1 9 ? « ) , PP- 8 - 9 5 ? I b i d . , p. 1 7 ^ 8CCA, More S t r a t e g y f o r C u l t u r e , (Ottawa: CCA, I 9 8 I ) , p. 3 ^ S u s a n Crean, Learned S o c i e t i e s C o n f e r e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I983 6 0CCA, More S t r a t e g y f o r C u l t u r e , p. 4 P . .Audley ,v;.;op v i e i t . ; , . .p. >123 ' 6 2 G . G a i t , op. c i t . 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O s t r y , o p . r . e i t . , p. 1 9 2 ^CCA, A S t r a t e g y f o r C u l t u r e , p. 64 ^°FCPRC, D i s c u s s i o n Guide, p. 18 ^ C a n a d a Tax F o u n d a t i o n , op. c i t . , p. 2 8 8 7 2FCPRC, R e p o r t , p . 2 8 ? 3 I b i d . , p. 3 0 ^ I b i d . , p. 4 3 ' " ' 7 5 I b i d . , p. 4 3 "^John M e i s e l and John R e i d ( M P ) , Learned S o c i e i t i e s C o n f e r e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 8 3 77 c 78, ^CCA, A S t r a t e g y f o r C u l t u r e , p . . 3 0 I b i d . , p. 1 1 5 ^ 9CFDC, P o l i c i e s on the Management of the Can a d i a n B r o a d c a s t Program Development Fund^ Cottawa: CFDC, J u l y 1 , 1 9 8 3 ) . P. 5 OA P. A u d l e y , op. c i t . , p. 244 8 l I b i d . , p. 128 8 2 G . 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