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The effects of fatty acid balancing by oil blending on performance and utilization by growing chicks Crick, Dean Calvin 1984

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THE EFFECTS OF FATTY ACID BALANCING BY OIL BLENDING ON PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION BY GROWING CHICKS By DEAN CALVIN CRICK B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o-f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o-f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con-forming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1934 ®Dean C a l v i n C r i c k , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of POULTRY SCIFNCF The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 23/12/1984 ABSTRACT The o b j e c t i v e s o-f t h i s r e s e a r c h were t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of b l e n d i n g Canbra or C a n o l a o i l w i t h o t h e r o i l s or f a t s on the n u t r i t i v e v a l u e and a u t o x i d a t i v e s t a b i l i t y of the blended o i l s , and t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g h y d r o l y z e d o i l s ( f r e e f a t t y a c i d s ) i n the s t u d y of f a t t y a c i d b a l a n c i n g . Canbra o i l ( c o n t a i n i n g 6.1% e r u c i c a c i d ) was blended with s u n f l o w e r o i l or animal l a r d 1/1 (w/w). C a n o l a o i l (0.55% e r u c i c a c i d ) was blended wi t h s u n f l o w e r o i l i n the r a t i o s 9/1, 8/2, 7/3, 6/4 and 5/5. The n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e was assayed u s i n g growing c h i c k s f e d l i p i d a t 3% i n a p r a c t i c a l d i e t d u r i n g a 4 week f e e d i n g p e r i o d . E v a l u a t i o n was made u s i n g body weight, weight g a i n , f e e d consumption, f e e d c o n v e r s i o n , f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy and i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y . R e s u l t s show t h a t Canbra o i l i s e q u i v a l e n t t o animal l a r d but s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r t o s u n f l o w e r o i l . B l e n d i n g Canbra o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l or animal l a r d improved c h i c k growth and f a t t y a c i d u t i l i z a t i o n over t h a t demonstrated by the Canbra o i l a l o n e . C a n o l a o i l was e q u i v a l e n t to s u n f l o w e r D i l and soybean o i l i n s u p p o r t i n g c h i c k growth. The 7/3 and 5/5 b l e n d s showed s y n e r g i s t i c improvement i n promoting growth, f a t t y a c i d , p r o t e i n and m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy u t i l i z a t i o n . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t C a n o l a o i l i s n u t r i t i o n a l l y e q u i v a l e n t t o e i t h e r s u n f l o w e r o i l or soybean o i l and t h a t b l e n d i n g w i t h sun-flower o i l f u r t h e r improved i t s n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e . O i l b l e n d i n g rendered no s i g n i f i c a n t d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on s t a b i l i t y . The f a t t y a c i d s of h y d r o l y z e d C a n o l a and su n f l o w e r o i l showed n u t r i t i v e performance e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t of the i n t a c t o i l s . The f a t t y a c i d s of a h y d r o l y z e d 5/5 b l e n d of C a n o l a o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l showed reduced a b s o r p t i o n of some f a t t y a c i d s and the f a t t y a c i d s of h y d r o l y z e d soybean o i l showed reduced d i e t and f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the i n t a c t o i l s . These r e s u l t s demonstrate t h a t f e e d i n g h y d r o l y z e d o i l s may be a u s e f u l method of i n v e s t i g a t i n g f a t t y a c i d b a l a n c e but more r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d i n t h i s a r e a . i i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES v i i LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i i INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 4 Fa t S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n i n P o u l t r y R a t i o n s ' 4 F a t D i g e s t i o n and A b s o r p t i o n i n P o u l t r y .6 F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n 8 E s s e n t i a l F a t t y A c i d s 10 N u t r i t i o n a l and M e t a b o l i c R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between F a t t y A c i d F a m i l i e s 11 R e l a t i v e N u t r i t i o n a l P r o p e r t i e s of Rapeseed O i l 13 Developement of Low E r u c i c A c i d Rapeseed O i l . . . 16 N u t r i t i o n a l P r o p e r t i e s of Low E r u c i c A c i d Rapeseed O i l 17 S y n e r g i s t i c E f f e c t s of B l e n d i n g O i l s 20 F r e e F a t t y A c i d s 24 P h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s of O i l 25 METHODS AND MATERIALS 27 E x p e r i m e n t a l Animals. 27 O i l s and B l e n d i n g 27 O i l H y d r o l y s i s 29 F e e d i n g Experiments.... 29 T r i a l 1 29 T r i a l 2 33 T r i a l 3 33 D i g e s t i b i l i t y 34 F e c a l c o l l e c t i o n 34 Dry m a tter. • 34 Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c a l c u l a t i o n . . . . . 35 Metabol i z a b l e Energy 35 F a t t y A c i d A n a l y s i s 36 L i p i d e x t r a c t i o n 36 T o t a l l i p i d and f a t t y a c i d determi nat i on. •. ....... 37 F a t t y a c i d d e r i v a t i z a t i o n 37 Gas l i q u i d chromatography... 38 F a t t y a c i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 39 V P h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l D e t e r m i n a t i o n s 39 Oven t e s t 39 P e r o x i d e and t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d v a l u e s 40 Smoke p o i n t 40 S t a t i s t i c s 41 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 42 T r i a l 1 Chick performance. . . . 42 Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s 44 Apparent i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n 46 T r i a l 2 C h i c k performance 49 Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s 52 Apparent m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy of the d i e t s 54 Apparent i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n 56 T r i a l 3 Chi c k performance .60 Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s 60 Apparent i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n 63 P h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l A n a l y s i s O i l s t a b i l i t y 68 Smoke p o i n t s 74 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 APPENDICES 92 A. T r i a l 4 93 B. D i e t a r y F a t t y A c i d C o m p o s i t i o n T a b l e s 96 C. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e T a b l e s . . . . . . .....99 V I LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. F a t t y A c i d Composition of L i p i d s , T r i a l 1 28 2. F a t t y A c i d Composition of O i l s , T r i a l 2... 30 3. Composition of E x p e r i m e n t a l B a s a l D i e t 32 4. E f f e c t of O i l B l e n d i n g on the Growth Performance of C h i c k s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 1 43 5. Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 1 45 6. Apparent I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 1 47 7. E f f e c t s of O i l B l e n d i n g on the Growth Performance of C h i c k s a t 4 Weeks, T r i a l 2 50 8. Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 2 53 9. Apparent M e t a b o l i z a b l e Energy of D i e t s , T r i a l 2 55 10. Apparent I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 2......57 11. E f f e c t of F r e e F a t t y A c i d s on the Growth Performance of C h i c k s a t 4 Weeks, T r i a l 3 61 12. Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 3 62 13. Apparent I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 3 64 14. P e r o x i d e v a l u e s Under A c c e l e r a t e d S t o r a g e 69 15. T h i o b a r b i t u r i c A c i d V a l u e s Under A c c e l e r a t e d Storage....72 16. O i l Smoke P o i n t 75 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. Developement D-f P e r o x i d e V a l u e s Under A c c e l e r a t e d S t o r a g e C o n d i t i o n s (70°C) 70 2. Developement of T h i o b a r b i t u r i c A c i d V a l u e s Under A c c e l e r a t e d S t o r a g e (70°C) 73 v i i i LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES T a b l e Page I. E f f e c t of O i l B l e n d i n g on the Growth Performance of C h i c k s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 4 94 I I . F a t t y A c i d Composition of D i e t s , T r i a l 1 96 I I I . F a t t y A c i d Composition of D i e t s , T r i a l 2 97 IV. F a t t y A c i d Composition of D i e t s , T r i a l 3 98 V. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Growth Parameters, T r i a l 1 99 VI. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , T r i a l 1 100 V I I . A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 1 101 V I I I . A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Growth Parameters and AMEn, T r i a l 2 102 IX. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , T r i a l 2. 103 X. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e D f I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 2 104 XI. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Grwoth Parameters, T r i a l 3....105 X I I . A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s , T r i a l 3 106 X I I I . A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 3 107 XIV. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Growth Parameters, T r i a l 4....108 V I 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author i s de e p l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. J.S. Sim -for h i s c a p a b l e guidance and a d v i c e through out the p r o g r e s s o-f t h i s t h e s i s . The d e d i c a t e d a s s i s t a n c e of the other commitee members i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. The author a l s o wishes t o acknowledge the hel p and support of h i s f e l l o w s t u d e n t s and the t e c h n i c a l s t a f f (both l a b o r a t o r y and f a r m ) . Very s p e c i a l thanks must be g i v e n t o h i s w i f e , J a n i n e , f o r her p a t i e n c e and help i n the c o u r s e of t h i s study, and to h i s p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d by the C a n o l a C o u n c i l of Canada (CUAP g r a n t « 33-6). 1 INTRODUCTION Two - f a m i l i e s of p o l y u n s a t u r a t e d -fatty a c i d s ( l i n o l e i c , omega-6} and l i n o l e n i c , omega-3) have long been r e c o g n i z e d as e s s e n t i a l -for animal and human growth and h e a l t h . S i n c e most p r o s t a g l a n d i n s a r e s y n t h e s i z e d from the omega-6 f a t t y a c i d s ( e s p e c i a l l y a r a c h i d o n i c a c i d ) and the omega-3 f a t t y a c i d s ( e s p e c i a l l y e i c o s a p e n t a e n o i c a c i d ) p l a y an important r o l e i n p r o s t a g l a n d i n r e g u l a t i o n i t seems t h a t t h e r e must be a q u a n t i t a t i v e l y optimum r a t i o between t h e s e two f a m i l i e s of f a t t y a c i d s which w i l l produce optimum growth and h e a l t h . In f a c t , t h e r e a r e c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s but once the s e r e q u i r e m e n t s have been met a b a l a n c e between thes e f a t t y a c i d s i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r t o e n a b l e c o n d i t i o n s t o be a c h i e v e d f o r c e l l u l a r e q u i l i b r i u m of p r o s t a n o i d s and membrane s t a b i l i t y (Crawford e_t al., 1982). The q u a n t i t a t i v e requirement of e s s e n t i a l f a t t y a c i d s , t h e r e f o r e , must be met w i t h an a d e q u a t e l y b a l a n c e d r a t i o of f a t t y a c i d s (Holman, 1982). Rapeseed o i l , soybean o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l a r e the major o i l p r o d u c t s i n Canada. Rapeseed and soybean o i l s a r e r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g amoung the few e d i b l e v e g e t a b l e o i l s o u r c e s which ar e r i c h i n both f a m i l i e s of e s s e n t i a l f a t t y a c i d s . However, i t has been w e l l documented t h a t f e e d i n g rapeseed o i l r e s u l t s i n decreased f e e d i n t a k e and growth i n s e v e r a l s p e c i e s (compared t o 2 soybean o i l ) . In the past t h i s has been a t t r i b u t e d t o the high c o n t e n t o-f e r u c i c a c i d i n rapeseed o i l s . R e c e n t l y , r a p i d developements i n p l a n t g e n e t i c s and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new c u l t i v a r s -for p r o d u c t i o n have reduced the e r u c i c a c i d c o n t e n t o-f the Canadian rapeseed o i l s . These new c u l t i v a r s have been d e s i g n a t e d low e r u c i c a c i d rapeseed (LEAR). The f i r s t change from rapeseed o i l t o LEAR o i l reduced the e r u c i c a c i d c o n t e n t from 20-40% t o l e s s than 5.0%. These o i l s were c o m m e r c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as Canbra o i l s . Even more r e c e n t l y t h e r e has been another movement toward the p r o d u c t i o n ( f o r consumption) of c u l t i v a r s t h a t a r e even lower i n e r u c i c a c i d c o n t e n t ( g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 2%) and a l s o low i n g l u c o s i n o l a t e s . These c u l t i v a r s have been c o m m e r c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as Canola. In s p i t e of t h i s the Canbra and C a n o l a o i l s , a l t h o u g h improved, s t i l l tend t o show low performance i n promoting animal growth r e l a t i v e t o soybean o i l . T h i s low performance has been overcome by b l e n d i n g rapeseed o i l w i t h e i t h e r animal l a r d or t a l l o w . T h i s b l e n d i n g s y n e r g i s t i c a l l y improves not o n l y the consumption of f e e d but weight g a i n and f a t u t i l i z a t i o n i n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s . T h i s has l e d t o the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t rapeseed o i l has a f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e t h a t i s inadequate f o r maximal f a t u t i l i z a t i o n . I t has a l s o been suggested t h a t the s y n e r g i s m between f a t s i s h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e and i t s e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of d i g e s t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n (Freeman, 1983). These f a c t s combined wi t h r e p o r t s t h a t i n A l g e r i a C a n o l a o i l i s blended e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h s u n f l o w e r o i l t o produce a consumer 3 p r o d u c t (SAFIA) (Cambell, 1982) l e d t o the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d h e r e i n . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s r e s e a r c h were t o compare the n u t r i t i v e q u a l i t i e s o-f d i e t a r y s u n f l o w e r o i l , soybean o i l , Canbra o i l , C a n o l a o i l , animal l a r d , b l e n d s o-f Canbra o i l and sun-flower o i l or animal l a r d and b l e n d s of C a n o l a o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l . The e f f e c t s of b l e n d i n g on the a u t o x i d a t i v e s t a b i l i t y of the b l e n d s was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . 4 LITERATURE REVIEW Fat S upplementation i n P o u l t r y R a t i o n s I t has long been thought t h a t due t o t h e i r h i g h energy d e n s i t y f a t s and o i l s (of both animal and v e g e t a b l e o r i g i n ) would be u s e f u l f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s on the u t i l i z a t i o n of f a t and o i l by p o u l t r y over the y e a r s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y conceded t h a t indeed p o u l t r y can t o l e r a t e h i gh l e v e l s of f a t i n the d i e t i f c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e met. However t h i s was not always so. Henderson and I r w i n (1940) r e p o r t e d t h a t soybean o i l was d e t r i m e n t a l t o c h i c k growth when added at l e v e l s over 10% of the d i e t . In a d d i t i o n Yacowitz (1953) r e p o r t e d t h a t s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n of 2.5 or 5.0% of c o t t o n s e e d o i l , soybean o i l or l a r d produced i n c r e a s e d growth i n b r o i l e r s but more than 10% of these f a t s i n the d i e t r e t a r d e d c h i c k growth. More r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e sheds some l i g h t on t h e s e r e s u l t s . B l e l y and March (1954, 1957) showed t h a t d i e t a r y s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h f a t i n c r e a s e d the e f f i c i e n c y of p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n . The a d d i t i o n of f a t t o d i e t s w i t h adequate p r o t e i n improved both growth and f e e d e f f i c i e n c y , but i f the p r o t e i n l e v e l i s I D W f a t s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l r e t a r d both parameters. T h i s p o i n t e d t o the f a c t t h a t the energy t o p r o t e i n r a t i o of a d i e t i s important t o the c h i c k . These r e s u l t s were c o n f i r m e d by 5 Donaldson et, aj_ (1957), S c o t t et al_, (1955) and U a i b e l (1955,1958) f o r both c h i c k e n and t u r k e y s . I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t p o u l t r y c o u l d t o l e r a t e high l e v e l s of f a t p r o v i d i n g the d i e t a r y l e v e l of p r o t e i n was a l s o i n c r e a s e d . Donaldson e£. a l . (1957) r e p o r t e d t h a t up t o 33.8% f a t can be used i n a c h i c k d i e t p r o v i d i n g an adequate e n e r g y / p r o t e i n r a t i o was m a i n t a i n e d . T h i s was c o n f i r m e d by Rand e£. al. (1958) who r e p o r t e d t h a t the c h i c k ' s t o l e r a n c e f a r f a t , per s e . i s e s s e n t i a l l y u n l i m i t e d . S e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t have been undertaken t o demonstrate the e f f e c t of a d d i t i o n of f a t s t o the d i e t s on the performance of p o u l t r y have l e d t o the g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t d i e t a r y f a t improves both f e e d e f f i c i e n c y and growth ( B i e l y and March, 1954; Donaldson et a i , 1957 5 Rand et aj., 1958} Dam efc. a l . 1959; Menge and Denton, 1961; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968; Bragg et,. aj., 1973; and Horani and S e l l , 1977). T h i s improvement i s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l of f a t added t o the d i e t and appears t o d i f f e r depending on the s o u r c e of the f a t s and o i l s (Carew e£. al., 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968; Bragg e t aj., 1973). The i n c r e a s e d d i e t a r y e f f i c i e n c y has o f t e n been a t t r i b u t e d t o the " e x t r a c a l o r i c e f f e c t " of f a t . T h i s e f f e c t was c l e a r l y demonstrated i n c h i c k e n s (Rand e_t al., 1958; Menge and Denton, 1961; and Carew e£ al., 1964). More r e c e n t l y Horani and S e l l (1977) used the term " e x t r a m e t a b o l i c e f f e c t " t o d e s c r i b e the change i n r a t i o n m e t a b o l i z a b 1 e energy (M.E.) caused by the a d d i t i o n of f a t . Leeson and Summers (1976)•proposed a h y p o t h e s i s 6 which s t i p u l a t e d the e x i s t a n c e of an i n t e r a c t i o n between the f a t t y a c i d s i n h e r e n t i n r a t i o n i n g r e d i e n t s w i t h the added f a t which r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s e d M.E. c o n t e n t of the f a t . F a t D i g e s t i o n and A b s o r p t i o n i n P o u l t r y There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i g e s t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n of f a t s between the a v i a n and the mammalian s p e c i e s except f o r the mucosal p r o d u c t s of a b s o r p t i o n and t h e i r r o u t e of t r a n s p o r t . T h e r e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n i s a c o m p i l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from Guyton (1976), G r i m i n g e r (1976) and S c o t t et a l . (1982) except where s p e c i f i c a l l y noted. By f a r the most common l i p i d c o n s t i t u e n t of a d i e t i s the t r i g l y c e r i d e p o r t i o n which makes up the m a j o r i t y of f a t s and o i l s . The f i r s t s t e p i n d i g e s t i o n of t r i g l y c e r i d e s i s the e m u l s i f i c a t i o n of the f a t by b i l e s a l t s t o p r o v i d e a l a r g e r s u r f a c e a r e a f o r the w a t e r - s o l u b l e d i g e s t i v e enzymes t o a c t upon. The c o n j u g a t e d b i l e s a l t s p o s s e s s d i s s y m e t r i c p o l a r and non-polar r e g i o n s , the p o l a r r e g i o n i s h i g h l y s o l u b l e i n water and the non-polar r e g i o n i s h i g h l y s o l u b l e i n f a t . T h e r e f o r e , b i l e s a l t s a g gregate on the s u r f a c e of f a t g l o b u l e s i n the i n t e s t i n e with the c a r b o x y l p o r t i o n of the b i l e s a l t p r o j e c t i n g outward and s o l u b l e i n the s u r r o u n d i n g f l u i d s and the s t e r o l p o r t i o n d i s s o l v e d i n the f a t . T h i s e f f e c t i v e l y d e c r e a s e s the i n t e r f a c i a l t e n s i o n of the f a t a l l o w i n g f r a g m e n t a t i o n by a g i t a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e the b i l e s a l t a c t s as a d e t e r g e n t . T h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t s i n s m a l l e r emulsion g l o b u l e s . With i n c r e a s i n g s u r f a c e a r e a due t o emulsion the a c t i v i t y of 7 the p a n c r e a t i c j u i c e i s g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d . The p a n c r e a t i c j u i c e c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l l i p o l y t i c enzymes and b i c a r b o n a t e . These enzymes i n c l u d e p a n c r e a t i c l i p a s e , c a r b o x y l i c e s t e r h y d r o l a s e and c o - l i p a s e <Borgstrom, 1977). The p a n c r e a t i c l i p a s e h y d r o l y z e s the d i e t a r y t r i g l y c e r i d e s t o an e q u i l i b r i u m m i x t u r e of t r i - , d i -and m o n o g l y c e r i d e s and f a t t y a c i d s . T h i s l i p a s e i s s p e c i f i c f o r the e s t e r bonds i n the p r i m a r y p o s i t i o n s of the g l y c e r i d e s and has a s p e c i f i c i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o f a t t y a c i d c h a i n l e n g t h and degree of s a t u r a t i o n (Morely e£. a_J., 1974). The c a r b o x y l i c e s t e r h y d r o x y l a s e h y d r o l y z e s s t e r o l e s t e r s , v i t a m i n A e s t e r s and l o n g c h a i n m o n o g l y c e r i d e s and appears t o r e q u i r e b i l e s a l t s t o be a c t i v e (Borgstrom, 1977). C o - l i p a s e i s a p o l y p e p t i d e c o - f a c t o r which f u n c t i o n s t o t a k e the l i p a s e back t o the s u b s t r a t e i n t e r f a c e i n the p r e s e n c e of b i l e s a l t s . The b i c a r b o n a t e of the p a n c r e a t i c j u i c e i s a l s o important as i t a i d s i n the r a p i d e m u l s i f i c a t i o n of f a t s by the f o r m a t i o n of soaps as r e c o g n i z e d by R o c k f o r d i n 1891 (Borgstrom, 1977). The h y d r o l y s i s of t r i g l y c e r i d e s i s a h i g h l y r e v e r s i b l e p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of m o n o g l y c e r i d e s and f r e e f a t t y a c i d s q u i c k l y b l o c k s f u r t h e r d i g e s t i o n . However, b i l e s a l t s p l a y an important r o l e i n t h e removal of m o n o g l y c e r i d e s and f a t t y a c i d s from the a r e a of f a t d i g e s t i o n through t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y t o form m i c e l l e s . These m i c e l l e s a r e s m a l l g l o b u l e s about 25 Angstroms i n diameter, composed of 20-50 m o l e c u l e s of b i l e s a l t . Because of t h e i r d i s s y m e t r i c a l p o l a r - n o n p o l a r s t r u c t u r e the s t e r o l n u c l e i of the 20-50 b i l e s a l t m o l e c u l e s aggregate t o form a s m a l l f a t g l o b u l e . T h i s a g g r e g a t i o n a l l o w s 8 the p o l a r m o l e c u l e s t o extend outward and c o v e r the e x t e r i o r of the m i c e l l e . S i n c e t h e s e a r e n e g a t i v e l y charged they a l l o w the e n t i r e m i c e l l e t o d i s s o l v e i n the p o l a r s o l u t i o n i n the a l i m e n t a r y t r a c t . The l i p i d - b i l e s a l t <mixed) m i c e l l e i s a b l e t o d i s s o l v e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amounts of non-polar compounds w i t h i n i t s i n t e r i o r . In t h i s form n o n - p o l a r , high m e l t i n g p o i n t f a t t y a c i d s , m o n o g l y c e r i d e s and o t h e r l i p i d m a t e r i a l s a r e s o l u b i l i z e d i n the aqueous phase of the i n t e s t i n a l c o n t e n t s and t r a n s p o r t e d t o the mucosal c e l l membrane (away from the s i t e of f a t d i g e s t i o n ) where they a r e absorbed. F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n When the m i c e l l e s come i n c o n t a c t w i t h the e p i t h e l i a l mucosa both the m o n o g l y c e r i d e s and f r e e f a t t y a c i d s d i f f u s e through the e p i t h e l i a l membrane. T h i s i s due t o the f a c t t h a t they a r e both h i g h l y l i p i d s o l u b l e and a c t u a l l y d i s s o l v e i n the c e l l membrane. The u n d i g e s t e d t r i g l y c e r i d e s and d i g l y c e r i d e s a r e a l s o s o l u b l e i n the c e l l membrane but a r e not h i g h l y absorbed, as they do not d i s s o l v e i n the m i c e l l e s and a r e not t r a n s p o r t e d t o the e p i t h e l i a l membrane. The p e r c e n t a g e a b s o r b a b i l i t y of f a t s or f a t t y a c i d s i s a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : (1) The c h a i n l e n g t h of the f a t t y a c i d s ( C a r r o l l , 1958; Hamilton and McDonald, 1969; Renner and H i l l , 1961bj-Ward and Marquardt, 1983); (2) the degree of u n s a t u r a t i o n ( C a r r o l l and R i c h a r d s , 1958; 9 Renner and H i l l , 1961b; Hamilton and McDonald, 1969; Whitehead and F i s h e r , 1975} A u s t r e n g e t al., 1979; K u s s a i b a t i e t a l , 1982; A t t e h and Leeson, 1983; Ward and Marquardt, 1983); (3) the p r e s e n c e or absence of e s t e r l i n k a g e s ( C a r r o l l and R i c h a r d s , 1958; Renner and H i l l , 1961a; S k l a n , 1979) a l t h o u g h t h i s has been q u e s t i o n e d (Young, 1961; Young and G a r r e t t , 1963; Young et. al., 1963) ; (4) the s p e c i - f i c arrangement of the -fatty a c i d s on the g l y c e r o l moiety of the t r i g l y c e r i d e (Fedde e£. a l . I960; Renner and H i l l , 1961a; Hamilton and McDonald, 1969; Whitehead and F i s h e r , 1975); (5) the age of the e x p e r i m e n t a l animal (Fedde e£. al, I960; Renner and H i l l , I960; Renner and H i l l , 1961b; Young et-. a l . 1963; Hakansson, 1974; Whitehead and F i s h e r , 1975; Salmon, 1977; Muztar et a l , 1981; Ward and Marquardt, 1983) a l t h o u g h t h i s may not be t r u e i n the w e a n l i n g p i g (Hamilton and McDonald, 1969); (6) the r e l a t i v e r a t i o s of f a t t y a c i d s i n the o i l or f r e e f a t t y a c i d m i x t u r e (Hopkins e i . a l , 1955; Renner and H i l l , 1961a; Young and G a r r e t t , 1963; R o c q u e l i n and L e c l e r c , 1969; Salmon, 1970; Walker e£ aj., 1970; Kramer e i . a_L, 1973; L a l l and S l i n g e r , 1973; Salmon, 1977; Chow and H o l l a n d e r , 1979; C o r i n o e t a l , 1980; Mateos and S e l l , 1981; Muztar e t al, 1981; F u l l e r and Dale, 1982; Freeman, 1983; Hulan et. a l , 1984); (7) the c o m p o s i t i o n of the d i e t s i n which the f a t s a r e f e d ( C a r r o l l and R i c h a r d s , 1958; Fedde et. a l , i960; Renner and H i l l , 1961b; Young e t a l , 1963; Hakansson, 1974; Mateos 10 and S e l l , 1981} Muztar e i . aj_, 1981} F u l l e r and Dale, 1982} Ward and Marquardt, 1983)} (8) the amount of b i l e s a l t s i n the a l i m e n t a r y t r a c t . In a d d i t i o n , i t has been shown t h a t the c h i c k e n i n t e s t i n e c o n t a i n s a f a t t y a c i d b i n d i n g p r o t e i n (Katongole and March, 1979) t h a t i n c r e a s e s w i t h age and f a t i n the d i e t (Katongole and March, I 1980) and i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n r a t s (Ockner et. a l . 1972), but the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s b i n d i n g p r o t e i n i n f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n has not y e t been demonstrated. E s s e n t i a l F a t t v A c i d s In 1929 Burr and Burr showed t h a t e x c l u s i o n of f a t from r a t d i e t s caused a d e f i c i e n c y syndrome i n which the r a t s grew n o r m a l l y f o r 4-6 months and then s u f f e r e d growth f a i l u r e and death. T h i s growth f a i l u r e was accompanied by d e r m a t i t i s . In 1930 t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s f u r t h e r demonstrated t h a t the p o l y u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s l i n o l e i c , l i n o l e n i c and a r a c h i d o n i c p o s s e s s e d a b l o p o t e n c y t h a t p r e v e n t e d the d e r m a t i t i s , growth f a i l u r e and death which was not p r e v e n t e d by a n t i x e r o p h t h a l m i a or a n t i r a c h i t i c f a c t o r s or i n d i v i d u a l s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s . These t h r e e f a t t y a c i d s have s i n c e become known as the e s s e n t i a l f a t t y a c i d s (EFA). A d i e t a r y requirement f o r the EFA has been demonstrated i n c h i c k s ( R e i s e r , 1950} B i e r i e t al_, 1956} M a c h l i n and Gordon, 1960). EFA d e f i c i e n c y i n the d i e t r e s u l t e d i n reduced growth r a t e s , e n l a r g e d l i v e r s w i t h i n c r e a s e d f a t c o n t e n t and reduced r e s i s t a n c e t o r e s p i r a t o r y i n f e c t i o n s (Hopkins et. aj_, 1963} 11 Balnave, 1970). I t i s now w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e s e symptoms are due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e EFA have important p h y s i o l o g i c a l r o l e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of c e l l u l a r membranes as w e l l as s e r v i n g as p r e c u r s o r s of the a u t o c o i d s ( p r o s t a g l a n d i n s , thromboxanes, l e u k o t r i e n e s , p r o s t a c y c l i n s and hydroperoxy f a t t y a c i d s ) . These a u t o c o i d s a r e important i n thrombocyte and p l a t e l e t f u n c t i o n , c a r d i a c f u n c t i o n and smooth muscle c o n t r a c t i o n (Holman, 1975; V ergroesen ei. aj., 1975; Murphy e i . a l . 1979; S p r e c h e r , 1983). N u t r i t i o n a l and M e t a b o l i c R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between F a t t v A c i d  F a m i 1 l e s L i p i d metabolism as w e l l as f a t a b s o r p t i o n i s a f f e c t e d by the f a t t y a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n of a d i e t . Nunn and Smed1ey-MacLean (1938) showed t h a t 5 , 8 , 1 1 - e i c o s a t r i e n o i c a c i d was d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d i n the l i v e r t i s s u e of EFA d e f i c i e n t r a t s . F u l c o and Mead (1959) showed t h a t 5 , 8 , 1 1 - e i c o s a t r i e n o i c a c i d was a m e t a b o l i t e of o l e i c a c i d . T h i s was the f i r s t e v i d e n c e of d i e t a r y and m e t a b o l i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s p e c i f i c f a t t y a c i d s . Mead (1961) suggested t h a t t h e r e were f o u r s e p a r a t e f a m i l i e s of f a t t y a c i d s t h a t were the m e t a b o l i t e s of p a l m i t o l e i c a c i d (C16:lw7), o l e i c a c i d (CIS:lw9), l i n o l e i c a c i d (C18:2w6) and l i n o l e n i c a c i d (C18:3w3) and which were not i n t e r c o n v e r t a b 1 e . T h i s c o n f i r m e d the r a d i o - i s o t o p e work of S t e i n b e r g e i . al. (1957), Klenk and Mohrhauer (1960). The l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s was reviewed by S p r e c h e r (1981). The c h i e f m e t a b o l i t e of the l i n o l e i c a c i d pathway i s a r a c h i d o n i c a c i d <5,8,11,14-20:4w6) 12 (Widmer and Hoi man, 1950; S t e i n b e r g et,, ali 1956; S p r e c h e r , 1975). The c h i e f m e t a b o l i t e of the o l e i c a c i d pathway i s e i c o s a t r i e n o i c a c i d (5,8,11-20:3w9) ( F u l c o and Mead, 19595 Sp r e c h e r , 1975; S p r e c h e r , 1981). The r a t i o of t h e s e 2 f a t t y a c i d s < t r i e n e / t e t r a e n e ) was suggested as an i n d i c a t o r of EFA d e f i c i e n c y i n humans (Hoiman, 1960). The b a s i s of t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t l i n o l e i c and o l e i c a c i d compete f o r the same 6-desaturase (Holman, 1964). When t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t amounts of l i n o l e i c a c i d i n the d i e t the c o n v e r s i o n of o l e i c a c i d t o e i c o s a t r i e n o i c a c i d i s c o m p e t i t i v e l y i n h i b i t e d k e e p i n g the t r i e n e / t e t r a e n e r a t i o low. The c h i e f p r o d u c t s of l i n o l e n i c a c i d metabolism a r e e i c o s a p e n t a e n o i c a c i d <5,8,11,14,17-20:5w3) and docosahexaenoic a c i d (4,7,10,13,16,19-22:6w3) (Widmer and Holman, 1950; S t e i n b e r g et a l . 1957; Klenk and Mohrhauer, I960; Sprecher, 1975 and 1981). Docosahexaenoic a c i d i s t h e member most o f t e n found i n land a n i m a l s w h i l e e i c o s a p e n t a e n o i c a c i d i s common i n marine mammals and f i s h ( T i n o c o et,. a l , 1979). The p r e s e n c e of members of the l i n o l e n i c a c i d pathway has 2 consequences. They are a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the c o n v e r s i o n of l i n o l e i c a c i d t o a r a c h i d o n i c a c i d ( M a c h l i n , 1962; Mohrhauer and Holman, 1963), and t hey compete f o r eye 1 oxygenase and l i p o x y g e n a s e w i t h a r a c h i d o n i c a c i d (Lands, 1975; Beare-Rogers e_t al, 1979; Needleman e i . al, 1979). T h i s c o m p e t i t i o n g i v e s r i s e t o a u t o c o i d s which have a n t a g o n i s t i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s t h a t can p o s s i b l y be m a n i p u l a t e d by a l t e r a t i o n D f d i e t a r y f a t t y a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n , which might be u s e f u l i n d e c r e a s i n g thrombic t e n d e n c i e s and 13 m y o c a r d i a l i n f a r c t s (Needleman et. aj., 1979). The p a l m i t o l e i c a c i d m e t a b o l i t e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y unimportant due t o t h e i r low r a t e s of d e s a t u r a t i o n and f a i l u r e t o form a u t o c o i d s (Sprecher, 1975, 1981). R e l a t i v e N u t r i t i o n a l P r o p e r t i e s of Rapeseed O i l I t i s w e l l known t h a t o i l s and f a t s have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e s . Given the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g l i p i d d i g e s t i o n , f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n and f a t t y a c i d metabolism i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s many r e p o r t s of v a r y i n g n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e s f o r o i l s and f a t s of s i m i l a r g r o s s e n e r g i e s . Indeed t h i s was c l e a r l y shown i n t h e review a r t i c l e of vermeersch and Vanschoubroek (1968). In Canada t h i s has l e d t o e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g rapeseed o i l (Canada's l a r g e s t o i l seed c r o p ) . Much of t h i s work was s t i m u l a t e d by Deuel e t al_ who i n 1948 demonstrated t h a t not o n l y b u t t e r - f a t but c o r n , c o t t o n s e e d , o l i v e , peanut and soybean o i l s outperformed rapeseed o i l i n r a t growth t r i a l s and i m p l i c a t e d e r u c i c a c i d i n the poor performance of t h i s o i l (Sauer and Kramer, 1983). In subsequent y e a r s t h e s e r e s u l t s were amply c o n f i r m e d i n r a t s (Alexander and Mattson, 1966; C r a i g and Beare, 1968; R o c q u e l i n and C l u z a n , 1968; Walker e i . ai., 1970; Kramer e_t aj., 1973; Z i e m l a n s k i , 1977), c h i c k e n s ( S e l l and Hodgson, 1962; Salmon, 1969b; Sheppard e t a l . 1971; C l a n d i n i n et. aj_, 1978; Hulan et aj., 1982) and i n t u r k e y s ( J o s h i and S e l l , 1964; Salmon, 1969a). In a d d i t i o n i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t rapeseed o i l depressed r a t f e e d e f f i c i e n c y r e l a t i v e t o peanut, c o r n or o l i v e o i l ( R o c q u e l i n 14 and C l u z a n , 1968) Walker e t al., 1970) and energy u t i l i z a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o c o r n and o l i v e o i l (Walker et. al, 1970). However, i n 1966 Alexander and Mattson r e p o r t e d t h a t rapeseed o i l was e n e r g e t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t t o soybean o i l and t h a t some of the " t o x i c i t y " r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r was due t o the methods of d i e t a r y p r e s e n t a t i o n . However, t h i s i s d o u b t f u l i n the c a s e s of the s t u d i e s of Rocquel i n and C l u z a n (1968) and Walker e t a l (1970). In c h i c k e n s i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t f e e d e f f i c i e n c y was depressed by rapeseed o i l r e l a t i v e t o soybean o i l (Salmon, 1969b; Hulan §_t ali 1982) and c o r n and o l i v e o i l (Walker e£. a l . 1970). As i n r a t s i t was a l s o shown t h a t rapeseed o i l reduced e n e r g e t i c e f f i c i e n c y r e l a t i v e t o c o r n and o l i v e o i l (Walker e t a l . 1970) and s u n f l o w e r o i l ( C l a n d i n i n e t al, 1978) but was e q u i v a l e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t t o soybean o i l (Salmon, 1969b) as was suggested by Alexander and Mattson (1966). The d a t a f o r t u r k e y p o u l t s i s even more c o n f u s i n g . J o s h i and S e l l (1964) r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the f e e d e f f i c i e n c y of d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g soybean o i l , s u n f l o w e r o i l , animal t a l l o w or rapeseed o i l but t h a t a t 5% i n c l u s i o n i n the d i e t the M.E. of the t o t a l d i e t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r s u n f l o w e r o i l than t h a t of the rapeseed o i l , soybean o i l or animal t a l l o w d i e t s which were e q u i v a l e n t , and t h a t at 10% i n c l u s i o n i n the d i e t the M.E. of the t o t a l d i e t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r the rapeseed o i l d i e t than was the M.E. f o r the s u n f l o w e r o i l , soybean o i l or animal t a l l o w d i e t s which were e q u i v a l e n t . However, Salmon (1969a) r e p o r t e d t h a t rapeseed 15 o i l d e pressed both f e e d and e n e r g e t i c e f f i c i e n c y a t 11 and 14 days of age but not a f t e r t h a t i n t u r k e y p o u l t s . The most c o n s i s t e n t f e a t u r e of a l l t h e s e r e p o r t s i s the reduced weight g a i n produced by f e e d i n g rapeseed o i l . T h i s has been blamed on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , which i n c l u d e : d e c r e a s e d f e e d consumption s o l e l y ( J o s h i and S e l l , 1964; Alexander and Mattson, 1966), d e c r e a s e d consumption and de c r e a s e d energy u t i l i z a t i o n due t o d i e t a r y o i l induced changes i n membrane p h o s p h o l i p i d s which i n d i c a t e d a complex dynamic mechanism a s s o c i a t i n g m i t o c h o n d r i a l s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n s due t o d i e t a r y f a t t y a c i d b a l a n c e ( C l a n d i n i n e£. al_, 1978); decreased f e e d e f f i c i e n c y due t o i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of p o o r l y absorbed e r u c i c a c i d (Hulan e t a l . 1982); and an unbalanced f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e i n rapeseed o i l which does not a l l o w maximum f a t u t i l i z a t i o n or a b s o r p t i o n ( R o c q u e l i n and C l u z a n , 1968; Walker e t aj_, 1970; Kramer et. aj., 1973). The f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e h y p o t h e s i s was a l s o s u p p o r t e d by Salmon (1969a) who r e p o r t e d t h a t growth d e p r e s s i o n of p o u l t s was not a r e s u l t of consumption, and c o u l d not be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o e r u c i c a c i d but seemed t o c o r r e s p o n d r o u g h l y w i t h the d i e t a r y c o n t e n t of s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s . In a d d i t i o n to problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth and energy u t i l i z a t i o n , i t was r e p o r t e d i n 1960 t h a t m y o c a r d i a l damage occured i n young male Sprague-Dawley r a t s f e d rapeseed o i l over l o n g p e r i o d s , however these r e s e a r c h e r s d i d not r e f e r t o e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e and l e f t the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h i s was a unique p r o p e r t y of rapeseed o i l r a t h e r than a g e n e r a l e f f e c t of high f a t d i e t s i n the rodent (Sauer and Kramer, 1983). A b d e l l a t i f and 16 V i e s (1970) r e p o r t e d t h a t -feeding rapeseed o i l (49% e r u c i c a c i d ) at 50% o-f the d i e t a r y c a l o r i e s caused r a p i d and s e v e r e -fat i n f i l t r a t i o n of the r a t myocardium. These f i n d i n g s were q u i c k l y c o n f i r m e d (Houtsmuller e£. al., 1970; Beare-Rogers et. a l . 1971; Kramer e t al, 1973). Developement of Low E r u c i c A c i d Rapeseed o i l The Canadian Food and Drug D i r e c t o r a t e had ( s i n c e 1958) no o b j e c t i o n s t o the use of rapeseed o i l i n moderate amounts i n Canadian food (Daun, 1983). However, even though no e v i d e n c e had been p r e s e n t e d i n d i c a t i n g human h e a l t h problems e x i s t e d the M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , on August 12, 1970, s t a t e d t h a t the F e d e r a l Government f e l t t h a t i t was "prudent t o a c c e l e r a t e Canada's change over t o e r u c i c a c i d f r e e rapeseed" and as a r e s u l t , by 1973, the m a j o r i t y of Canadian c r u s h i n g p l a n t s were a b l e t D produce rapeseed o i l w i t h l e v e l s of e r u c i c a c i d lower than 5% without b l e n d i n g w i t h o t h e r o i l s (Daun, 1983). T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a dichotomy of rapeseed o i l t y p e s . The v a r i e t i e s i n p r o d u c t i o n p r i o r to 1970 w i t h e r u c i c a c i d l e v e l s r a n g i n g from 20-40% became known as h i gh e r u c i c a c i d rapeseed o i l s (HEAR) and the new v a r i e t i e s (which had been developed i n Winnipeg and Saskatoon as e a r l y as I960 and 1963) became known as low e r u c i c a c i d rapeseed o i l s (LEAR) which had by d e f i n i t i o n l e s s than 5% e r u c i c a c i d , and were g i v e n the t r a d e name Canbra. In 1975 another change was i n i t i a t e d . T h i s was the change over t o newer LEAR v a r i e t i e s which had been developed and c o n t a i n e d l e s s than 5% e r u c i c a c i d ( o f t e n l e s s than 2%) and low l e v e l s of 17 g l u c o s i n o l a t e s (Daun, 1983). These v a r i e t i e s were g i v e n the t r a d e mark Canola. The major d i f f e r e n c e between the Canbra and C a n o l a o i l s was the s u l f u r l e v e l which r e f l e c t e d the d e c r e a s e i n the g l u c o s i n o l a t e s i n the C a n o l a (Daun, 1983). These changes i n the Canadian i n d u s t r y promoted c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a s of rapeseed o i l c a r d i o t o x i c i t y as w e l l as the n u t r i t i o n a l q u a l i t y of rapeseed o i l . However, t h e r e was a l s o much i n t e r e s t not o n l y i n the comparison of rapeseed o i l with o i l s of o t h e r o r i g i n s but w i t h the comparisons of HEAR w i t h LEAR. N u t r i t i o n a l P r o p e r t i e s of Low E r u c i c A c i d Rapeseed O i l Hulan et al_ (1977) r e p o r t e d no p a t h o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s i n l a y i n g hens or hooded r a t s f e d e i t h e r HEAR or LEAR. T h i s was c o n f i r m e d by V i e s e£. aj,. (1977) who c o u l d show no c a r d i o t o x i c e f f e c t s of LEAR i n monkeys, p i g s or p o u l t r y a l t h o u g h t h e r e d i d appear t o be c a r d i o t o x i c e f f e c t s i n f a s t growing s t r a i n s of r a t s . T h i s was i n agreement w i t h Kramer et a l (1977) who r e p o r t e d t h a t m y o c a r d i a l l i p i d o s i s i s m i l d or u n d e t e c t a b l e when LEAR i s f e d t o male c h i c k s , r a t s , p i g s and monkeys. However, the unbalanced f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e r e s u l t e d i n m y o c a r d i a l n e c r o s i s i n the male r a t s but not i n the o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s . These r e s u l t s were c o n f i r m e d by Kramer et a l (1979) when they observed t h a t LEAR i n t a k e does not i n c r e a s e h e a r t l e s i o n i n c i d e n c e i n C h e s t e r - B e a t t y r a t s , mice, p i g s , monkeys, ducks or c h i c k e n s r e l a t i v e t o soybean o i l .intake even though the omega-3 f a t t y a c i d s combined w i t h low l e v e l s of s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s was c a r d i o t o x i c t o male Sprague-Dawley 18 r a t s . I t i s now g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t LEAR i s not c a r d i o t o x i c (except t o r a t s ) . Other s p e c i e s d e v e l o p e h e a r t l e s i o n s t h a t a r e not g e n e r a l l y -fat r e l a t e d and seem t o have a d i f f e r e n t e t i o l o g y (Kramer and Sauer, 1983). C r a i g and Beare (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t Canbra o i l was n u t r i t i o n a l l y s u p e r i o r t o HEAR. T h i s was c o n f i r m e d f o r r a t weight g a i n by R o c q u e l i n and Cl u z a n (1968), Walker e i . a l . (1970), and Kramer e i . a l (1977). V i e s e t aj_ (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e d u c t i o n of e r u c i c a c i d c o n t e n t of rapeseed o i l s had c o n s i d e r a b l y improved i t s n u t r i t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s . Walker et. aj_ (1970) r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR produced s u p e r i o r growth i n c h i c k s and p o u l t s than d i d HEAR. T h i s was sup p o r t e d by L a l l and S l i n g e r (1973), Kramer §1 §1 (1977) ( f o r male c h i c k s ) and C l a n d l n i n e i . a_l_ (1978) ( c h i c k s ) . I t was a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR gave Improved f e e d e f f i c i e n c y over HEAR i n r a t s ( R o c q u e l i n and C l u z a n , 1968) and c h i c k s and p o u l t s ( L a l l and S l i n g e r , 1973); Hulan e i . aJL, 1982). The r e p o r t s D f energy e f f i c i e n c y of LEAR r e l a t i v e t o HEAR a r e c o n f l i c t i n g . Walker et. a l (1970) r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR was a s u p e r i o r s o u r c e of energy f o r c h i c k s , p o u l t s and r a t s but C l a n d l n i n e i . a_l_ (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t HEAR was s u p e r i o r t o LEAR f o r energy u t i l i z a t i o n . When LEAR was compared w i t h o t h e r o i l s i n terms of weight g a i n or p r o d u c t i v i t y i n r a t s i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from poppyseed o i l (Beare-Rogers g i . a l . 1979), s u n f l o w e r seed D i l (Beare-Rogers e i aj., 1979; Z i e m l a n s k i , 1977), peanut o i l ( R o c q u e l i n and C l u z a n , 1968; E n g f e l d t and B r u n i u s , 1975), o l i v e o i l or c o r n o i l (Walker e_t 19 a l . 1970), or soybean o i l ( Z i e m l a n s k i , 1977). However, Kramer et. a l <1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t c o r n o i l > soybean o i l > LEAR (1.6% e r u c i c a c i d ) > LEAR (4.3% e r u c i c a c i d ) i n r a t growth promotion when f e d at 20% of t h e d i e t . T h i s was s u p p o r t e d by Kramer et a l (1981) and Farnworth and Kramer (1983) who r e p o r t e d t h a t soybean o i l promoted s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth than LEAR (0.6% e r u c i c a c i d ) . T h i s they a t t r i b u t e t o the r e l a t i v e f a t t y a c i d p a t t e r n s of the LEAR and soybean o i l . The d a t a f o r p o u l t r y i s j u s t as c o n f l i c t i n g . Walker e£ a l (1970) r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth f o r c h i c k s or p o u l t s f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g LEAR, c o r n o i l or o l i v e o i l , and March (1977) r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y of New Hampshire c h i c k s or White Leghorn c o c k e r e l s f e d 4% rapeseed o i l or c o r n o i l or 10% rapeseed o i l or soybean o i l . However, C l a n d i n i n e_t a l (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r t o s u n f l o w e r o i l i n promoting c h i c k growth and Hulan e£. a l (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR was i n f e r i o r t o soybean o i l i n the growth promotion of c h i c k s a t 8 and 12 weeks but not a t 4 and 16 weeks. In terms of f e e d e f f i c i e n c y , Hulan e t a l (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r t o soybean o i l f o r c h i c k s , w h i l e Walker et. a l (1970) r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR was e q u i v a l e n t t o c o r n o i l and o l i v e o i l f o r c h i c k s , p o u l t s and r a t s i n terms of f e e d and energy u t i l i z a t i o n . C l a n d i n i n §_t a l (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t energy u t i l i z a t i o n was h i g h e r i n c h i c k s f e d s u n f l o w e r o i l than those f e d LEAR. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the g e n e t i c s e l e c t i o n which reduced the 20 e r u c i c a c i d c o n t e n t of rapeseed o i l a l s o improved i t s n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e . However, i t has not been c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrated whether or not LEAR i s n u t r i t i o n a l l y e q u i v a l e n t to s u n f l o w e r o i l and soybean o i l a l t h o u g h i t would seem t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n a b i l i t y t o promote weight g a i n . S y n e r g i s t i c E f f e c t s of B l e n d i n g O i l s In 1960, S i b b a l d and S l i n g e r r e p o r t e d "a s y n e r g i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between t a l l o w and undegummed soybean o i l " . These r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t a 50/50 m i x t u r e of t a l l o w and undegummed soybean o i l had a m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy of 8.41 cal/gm which was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the soybean o i l a l o n e <8.46 cal/gm) but was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the v a l u e of 6.94 cal/gm o b t a i n e d f o r the t a l l o w a l o n e . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the M.E. v a l u e s of f a t s a r e not a d d i t i v e . The combined M.E. v a l u e was h i g h e r than would be expected from the two M.E. v a l u e s of the f a t s f e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . These r e s u l t s were, c o n f i r m e d by S i b b a l d e£. aj_ (1961) who a t t r i b u t e d the synergism t o a f a c t o r or f a c t o r s i n the undegummed soybean o i l which a l l o w e d an i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n of the p a l m i t i c and s t e a r i c a c i d s i n the t a l l o w . F u r t h e r work ( S i b b a l d e t al., 1962) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s s y n ergism was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y independent of the M.E. e f f e c t s and t h a t the s y nergism between f a t s a l s o e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n c h i c k weight g a i n s and f e e d e f f i c i e n c y . The weight g a i n s of the c h i c k s f e d f a t m i x t u r e s were g r e a t e r than expected even when a d j u s t e d f o r equal f e e d i n t a k e , c a l o r i e / p r o t e i n r a t i o and c o n s t a n t M.E. c o n c e n t r a t i o n . T h i s was f u r t h e r supported by 21 Artman (1964) who a l s o r e p o r t e d s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s of b l e n d i n g t a l l o w and soybean o i l on c h i c U energy u t i l i z a t i o n and growth. S i n c e Young and G a r r e t t (1963) had shown t h a t u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the u t i l i z a t i o n of s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s i t was suggested t h a t the a b s o r b a b i l i t y of a f a t m i x t u r e was i n f l u e n c e d by i t s f a t t y a c i d c o n t e n t . Artman f e l t t h a t h i s r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d t h i s as he showed t h a t the same s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s o c c u r e d whether the r e l a t i v e l y s a t u r a t e d and u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s were s u p p l i e d both as n e u t r a l t r i g l y c e r i d e s , both as f r e e f a t t y a c i d s or as m i x t u r e s of t r i g l y c e r i d e s and f a t t y a c i d s . I t was a l s o shown t h a t the a d d i t i o n of soybean o i l t o t a l l o w y i e l d s not o n l y t h e expected high u t i l i z a t i o n of soybean o i l but t o e q u a l l y good u t i l i z a t i o n of a p o r t i o n of the t a l l o w equal i n weight t o the weight of the soybean o i l added. T h i s i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n was shown c l e a r l y by Lewis and Payne (1966) who r e p o r t e d t h a t a d d i n g 5% soybean o i l (as a p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l added d i e t a r y f a t ) t o beef t a l l o w i n c r e a s e d the t o t a l apparent f a t a b s o r p t i o n from 66% ( f o r pure beef t a l l o w ) t o 30%, adding 10% soybean o i l i n c r e a s e d t o t a l apparent f a t a b s o r p t i o n t o 85% and 20% soybean o i l i n c r e a s e d a b s o r p t i o n t o 86.0%. I t was soon shown t h a t rapeseed o i l a l s o showed s y n e r g i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s when blended w i t h animal t a l l o w i n the d i e t s of both c h i c k e n s and r a t s . In f a c t , s y n e r g i s m was shown i n energy u t i l i z a t i o n (Walker e i . al., 1970; L a l l and S l i n g e r , 1973; S l i n g e r , 1977; Muztar f t al., 1981), f a t u t i l i z a t i o n ( L a l l and S l i n g e r , 1973; S l i n g e r , 1977), and body weight g a i n ( S l i n g e r . 22 1977J Hulan e i . aj_, 1984). Hulan e i . a l . (1984) a l s o demonstrated t h a t b l e n d i n g rapeseed o i l (LEAR) w i t h animal f a t improved monetary r e t u r n s i n the b r o i l e r i n d u s t r y . However, b l e n d i n g a l l o i l s d i d not show s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . I t was even shown t h a t not a l l animal t a l l o w s showed s y n e r g i s m when blended w i t h soybean o i l ( S i b b a l d et. aj_, 1962). There was no s y n e r g i s m i n a b s o r b a b i l i t y when beef t a l l o w and pork l a r d were blended 1/1 (Fedde e i . aj., 1960), G r i f f i t h s e i a± (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t c o r n o i l and p o u l t r y g r e a s e blended (1/1) and f e d at 9% of the d i e t s i g n i f i c a n t l y depressed weight g a i n compared t o an i s o c a l o r i c o i l f r e e d i e t even though f e e d i n t a k e was s i m i l a r (each o i l f e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d body weight g a i n s ) . I t was a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t b l e n d i n g HEAR w i t h soybean o i l showed no s y n e r g i s m i n p o u l t s or c h i c k s (Salmon, 1969a, 1969b) and t h a t b l e n d i n g LEAR wit h coconut o i l or s u n f l o w e r o i l caused no s y n e r g i s m i n f a t u t i l i z a t i o n i n the r a t ( B e l l e n a n d e i . a l . 1980). I t was a l s o shown t h a t rapeseed o i l (both HEAR and LEAR) showed s y n e r g i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s when blended w i t h t a l l o w , as w e l l as, when blended w i t h the s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s ( p a l m i t i c and s t e a r i c i n p a r t i c u l a r ) f o r c h i c k s (Walker e i . a l . 1970; L a l l and S l i n g e r , 1973) and r a t s (Kramer e i . a i , 1981; and Farnworth and Kramer, 1983). Farnworth and Kramer (1983) succeeded i n showing t h a t the r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e d weight g a i n s were due t o i n c r e a s e d body c o n t e n t of both f a t and p r o t e i n . These r e s u l t s appeared t o i n d i c a t e t h a t rapeseed o i l had a f a t t y a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n which was i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r maximal 23 u t i l i z a t i o n , and t h a t o n l y r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c f a t t y a c i d p a t t e r n s were a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s has been supported by Walker et. aj. (1970), L a l l and S l i n g e r (1973), Salmon (1977), S i b b a l d and Kramer (1977), Kramer e£. a_l_ (1981), Mateos and S e l l (1981), Farnworth and Kramer (1983) and Hulan e£. a l (1984). There a r e 3 prominent hypotheses as t o the mechanism of t h e s e s y n e r g i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s . The f i r s t , proposed by Walker e£. aj. (1970), L a i 1 and S l i n g e r (1973), Salmon (1970, 1977) and Hulan e£. a l . (1984), s t a t e s t h a t b l e n d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f a t s w i l l produce a f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e which enhances f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of the lo n g c h a i n , s a t u r a t e d p a l m i t i c and s t e a r i c a c i d s . The second, proposed by Farnworth and Kramer (1983), s t a t e s t h a t as the d i e t a r y f a t t y a c i d p a t t e r n i s a l t e r e d t o resemble t h a t of the a d i p o s e t i s s u e , improved growth w i l l r e s u l t due t o reduced m e t a b o l i c load i n v o l v e d i n c o n v e r t i n g absorbed f a t t y a c i d s t o those a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a d i p o s e t i s s u e . The t h i r d , proposed by S i b b a l d and Kramer (1977), Mateos and S e l l (1981), Muztar e i . a l (1981), Dale and F u l l e r (1982) and F u l l e r and Dale (1982), s t a t e s t h a t t h e f a t s and f a t t y a c i d s i n t e r a c t t o a l l o w i n c r e a s e d f a t a b s o r p t i o n and i n c r e a s e d a b s o r p t i o n of o t h e r d i e t a r y components. T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be due t o i n c r e a s e d passage time thruogh the gut (Mateos and S e l l , 1981). Freeman,in h i s e x c e l l e n t review (1983),states t h a t s y nergism between f a t s i s h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e and i t s e x p l a i n a t i o n l i e s i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of d i g e s t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n . 24 F r e e F a t t y A c i d s I t has l o n g been understood t h a t a con-founding f a c t o r i n o i l n u t r i t i o n e xperiments has been the v a r i a b l e c o n t e n t of u n s a p o n i f i a b l e s , s t e r o i d s , and v i t a m i n s . In o r d e r t o d e a l with t h i s Hakkaralnen e£. aj. (1983) suggested f e e d i n g h y d r o l y s e d soybean o i l as a f a t s o u r c e t o study v i t a m i n E d e f i c i e n t d i e t s . They observed t h a t t h i s d i e t (with added f a t s o l u b l e v i t a m i n s ) a l l o w e d normal growth and developement of White Leghorn c h i c k s . T h i s s upported the r e s u l t s of Chen (1979) who observed t h a t f r e e f a t t y a c i d s (from hydroysed soybean o i l ) c o u l d be u t i l i z e d by r a t s which were f e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s as the s o l e s o u r c e of f a t . Chen suggested t h a t t h i s would be u s e f u l i n s t u d y i n g i n t e s t i n a l r e - e s t e r i f i c a t i o n , f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n and l i p i d metabolism as i n f l u e n c e d by d i e t a r y f a t t y a c i d s . There may, however, be problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s as C a r r o l l and R i c h a r d s (1938), Renner and H i l l (1961a), Swiss and B a y l e y (1976) and S k l a n (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t f e e d i n g f r e e f a t t y a c i d s (FFA) reduced a b s o r p t i o n of f a t t y a c i d s and t o t a l l i p i d . T h i s i s not i n agreement wit h Young (1961), Young and Artman (1961) and Artman (1964) who r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n weight g a i n s , f e e d c o n v e r s i o n or f a t or energy u t i l i z a t i o n i n c h i c k s f e d h y d r o l y z e d o i l s w i t h p r a c t i c a l d i e t s . I t was a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t a b s o r p t i o n of FFA was i n c r e a s e d by f e e d i n g i n m i x t u r e s r a t h e r than f e e d i n g s i n g l e FFAs (Young and Q a r r e t t , 1963). F e e d i n g s e m i - p u r i f i e d d i e t s as Renner and H i l l (1961b) and C a r r o l l and R i c h a r d s (1938) d i d reduces f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n 25 compared t o p r a c t i c a l d i e t s (Young et. al_, 1963). These mixed r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t would be worth r e - i n v e s t i g a t i n g the v a l u e o-f -feeding FFA t o a s s e s s t h e i r use-fulness i n s t u d y i n g -fatty a c i d a b s o r p t i o n . P h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o-f o i l I t i s w e l l known t h a t the p o l y u n s a t u r a t e d components o-f f a t s a r e o x i d i z e d more r a p i d l y than the mono-unsaturated and s a t u r a t e d components (Sonntag, 1979). I t i s t h e r e f o r e c u r i o u s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r s r e f e r e n c e d e a r l i e r d i d not i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of b l e n d i n g on the o x i d a t i v e s t a b i l i t y of f a t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as some suggested t h a t i t was e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e t o b l e n d f a t s f o r animal f e e d s . T h i s i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y done by the measurement of the c o n t e n t of such o x i d a t i o n p r o d u c t s as p e r o x i d e s , m a l o n i c d i a l d e h y d e and methyl o l e a t e h y d r o p e r o x i d e by t h e use of a n a l y s e s such as the p e r o x i d e t e s t and the t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d t e s t (Sonntag, 1979). These t e s t s a r e a p p l i e d t o o i l p r o d u c t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an a c c e l l e r a t e d o x i d a t i o n t e s t . A s i m p l e a c c e l l e r a t e d o x i d a t i o n t e s t i s t h e oven or S c h a a l t e s t , however no s t a n d a r d s have been developed f o r t h i s t e s t , t h e r e f o r e , no comparisons can be made between l a b o r a t o r i e s (Sonntag, 1979). E s k i n and F r e n k e l (1977) used t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s t o study the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of hydrogenated soybean and rapeseed (LEAR) o i l s and c o n c l u d e d t h a t l i g h t l y hydrogenated soybean o i l was o x i d a t i v e l y more s t a b l e than rapeseed o i l . The smoke p o i n t i s the temperature a t which smoking i s f i r s t 26 d e t e c t e d i n an o i l i n a l a b o r a t o r y a p p a r a t u s p r o t e c t e d from d r a f t s and p r o v i d e d w i t h i l l u m i n a t i o n . T h i s parameter i s l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by the o i l ' s degree of s a t u r a t i o n but depends on the m o l e c u l a r weight and f r e e f a t t y a c i d c o n t e n t (Formo, 1979). The Canadian Consumer (1977) r e p o r t e d smoke p o i n t s of 241°C f o r soybean o i l , 238°C f o r LEAR, and 246°C f o r s u n f l o w e r o i l . T h i s r e p o r t e d v a l u e f o r LEAR agreed w e l l w i t h the smoke p o i n t of 238°C f o r LEAR by Ackman (1983) but was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the smoke p o i n t of 218°C t h a t he r e p o r t e d f o r HEAR. However, a l l of t h e s e v a l u e s a r e w e l l above the 200°C minimum s e t by t h e Canadian government f o r f r y i n g o i l s . 27 METHODS AND MATERIALS EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS S i n g l e Comb White Leghorn c o c k e r e l s were chosen as the ex p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s f o r the 3 f e e d i n g t r i a l s . These were conducted w i t h 3 r e p l i c a t e groups of 10 b i r d s per treatm e n t , which were kept i n P e t e r s i m e b a t t e r y b r o o d e r s and p r o v i d e d with 24-hour l i g h t . The b i r d s were o b t a i n e d as day o l d c h i c k s , weighed and randomly a s s i g n e d t o treatment and cage, where they were r a i s e d f o r a p e r i o d of 4 weeks. Food and water was p r o v i d e d ad l i b i t u m . OILS AND BLENDING The l i p i d s used were c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o o d grade o i l s or l a r d i n t e n d e d f o r human consumption. The Canbra o i l , soybean o i l <Maple Leaf Soya S a l a d O i l ) and l a r d were o b t a i n e d from Canada P a c k e r s Inc. (Toronto and Vancouver). The C a n o l a and su n f l o w e r o i l s were o b t a i n e d from CSP Foods L t d . (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan). To b a l a n c e the f a t t y a c i d s l i p i d s were blended i n l a r g e g l a s s c o n t a i n e r s by s t i r r i n g f o r 15 minutes wi t h a magnetic s t i r r e r . Canbra o i l (6.1% e r u c i c a c i d ) was blended w i t h s u n f l o w e r o i l or l a r d a t a r a t i o of 50/50 (w/w) (T a b l e 1) i n T r i a l 1. Due t o the high m e l t i n g p o i n t of the l a r d i t was T a b l e 1. F a t t y A c i d Composition o-f L i p i d s , T r i a l 1. D i e t a r y F a t t y A c i d Content (per ce n t by weight) O i l ci4:o* ci6:o Ci6:i ci8:o c i 8 : i cis:2 CBO* 3.16 0.23 1.51 53.96 20.41 SFO 6.28 5.46 17.80 66.87 AL 1.21 23.57 2.47 17.68 43.13 8.13 CBO+SFO58 4.74 3.71 36.84 42.18 CBO+AL 0.60 13.27 1.33 10.14 48.49 14.12 C18:3 + C20:o* C20:i C22:o C22:i C24:o CBO 9.58 3.99 6.13 1.01 SFO 1.04 0.36 1.44 0.27 0.47 AL 1.05 1.43 0.55 0.38 0.40 CBO+SFO 5.46 2.40 1.02 3.20 0.45 CBO+AL 5.17 2.94 0.42 3.03 0.48 x T h e number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h o-f the carbon c h a i n , the number -following i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . "CBO = Canbra o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , AL = Animal l a r d . " I n d i c a t e s o i l blended 1:1 by weight. "•The v a l u e s f o r l i n o l e n i c and a r a c h i d i c a c i d s a r e combined due t o peak o v e r l a p on the 15% DEGS packed column. 29 l i q u i f i e d (50-65°C) be+ore b l e n d i n g . C a n o l a o i l (0.55% e r u c i c a c i d ) was blended w i t h graded l e v e l s o-f sun-flower o i l i n r e c i p r o c a l f a s h i o n ( T a b l e 2 ) , and 5 b l e n d s (9/1, 8/2, 7/3, 6/4, and 5/5) were s e l e c t e d f o r n u t r i t i o n a l assay i n T r i a l 2. OIL HYDROLYSIS The f r e e f a t t y a c i d s of C a n o l a o i l , s u n f l o w e r o i l , soybean o i l and a 5/5 b l e n d of C a n o l a and s u n f l o w e r o i l used i n T r i a l 3 were produced by a l c o h o l i c a l k a l i n e h y d r o l y s i s as d e s c r i b e d by Chen (1979). A m i x t u r e of 1 kg of o i l and 2 l i t r e s of 10% NaOH i n 70% e t h a n o l was a l l o w e d t o s t a n d o v e r n i g h t i n an Erlenmyer f l a s k . The s o l u t i o n was then n e u t r a l i z e d w i t h 2.5 N H»S0*» and the f a t t y a c i d l a y e r was removed and washed 6 t i m e s w i t h warm 3% NaCl. The f a t t y a c i d l a y e r was then dehydrated over anhydrous N a 2 S 0 « . FEEDING EXPERIMENTS  T r i a l 1 F i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were f o r m u l a t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e e i t h e r Canbra o i l , s u n f l o w e r o i l , animal l a r d or 1/1 (w/w) b l e n d s of Canbra o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l or animal l a r d i n t o a b a s a l d i e t ( T a b l e 3) a t 8%. These e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were a s s i g n e d randomly i n t r i p i c a t e per treatment t o 15 groups of c h i c k s f o r a 4 week f e e d i n g p e r i o d . Body weight, weight g a i n and f e e d consumption were measured weekly ( g r a m s / b i r d ) . At the end of 4 weeks f e e d c o n v e r s i o n and apparent f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y were c a l c u l a t e d and apparent l i p i d T a b l e 2. F a t t y A c i d C omposition of O i l s , T r i a l 2. O i l F a t t y A c i d Content (per cent by weight) Blend ci6 : o * C i 6 : i c i 8 : o C i 8 : i C18:2 c i 8 : 3 CAO» 4.33 2.54 60.61 19.90 7.10 9/l» 4.44 2.85 57.97 22.51 6.52 8/2 4.52 2.93 56.57 24.24 6.49 7/3 4.97 3.86 48.26 33.03 5.01 6/4 5.22 4.28 44.38 36.99 4.51 5/5 5.38 4.75 39.70 41.98 3.71 4/6 5.57 5.07 35.05 47.13 3.11 3/7 5.83 5.69 30.88 51.79 1.89 2/8 6.03 6.01 26.40 56.79 1.29 1/9 6.29 6.67 22.01 60.88 0.63 SFO 6.51 6.96 17.29 66.03 0.08 SBO 10.93 0.15 5.75 25.80 48.40 6.69 *The number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . aCA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . ' I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . Continued on next page-31 T a b l e 2 (continued) O i l F a t t y A c i d Content (per cent by weight) Blend C2o:o C20 : i C22:o C22 : i C24:o CAO 1.24 2.32 0.74 0.53 0.44 9/1 1.25 2.48 0.85 0.54 0.48 8/2 1.17 2.27 0.85 0.50 0.46 7/3 1.05 1.80 1.09 0.43 0.50 6/4 1.00 1.60 1.17 0.37 0.49 5/5 0.96 1.37 1.29 0.32 0.52 4/6 0.87 1.15 1.33 0.27 0.49 3/7 0.68 0.94 1.52 0.22 0.37 2/8 0.62 0.71 1.53 0.15 0.51 1/9 0.63 0.51 1.79 0.58 SFO 0 .59 0.29 1.71 0.54 SBO 0 .75 0.41 0.83 0.29 *The number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number -following i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . aCA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . " I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (we i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 32 T a b l e 3. Composition of E x p e r i m e n t a l B a s a l D i e t . I n g r e d i e n t P e r c e n t Ground wheat (12.5% p r o t e i n ) 59.65 Soybean meal (44.5% p r o t e i n ) 29.00 Ca l c i u m mu1tiphosphate 1.75 Limestone 0.60 V i t a m i n premix* 0.50 M i n e r a l premix* 0.50 L i p i d 8.00 C a l c u l a t e d A n a l y s i s C o n s t i t u e n t Amount Crude p r o t e i n 20.40% Crude l i p i d 9.33% M e t a b o l i z a b l e energy 2,895 k c a l / k g C a l c i u m 0.90% Phosphorus 0.70% L y s i n e 1.08% Met h i o n i n e 0.38% "•Supplies per k i l o g r a m of f e e d : V i t a m i n A, 8800 III; V i t a m i n D 3, 380 ICU; V i t a m i n E, 22 IU; V i t a m i n B 1 2 p 13.2 meg; R i b o f l a v i n , 6.6mg; C a l c i u m p a n t o t h e n a t e , 8.8 mg; N i a c i n , 22 mg; C h o l i n e c h l o r i d e , 220 mg; Amprolium, 124.9 mg; B a c i t r a c i n , 9.7mg, and San t o q u i n , 454 mg i n a co r n s t a r c h , wheat c a r r i e r . ^ S u p p l i e s per k i l o g r a m of f e e d : Mn, 55 mg; Zn, 40 mg; and Cu, 4.0 mg i n an i o d i z e d NaCl c a r r i e r . 33 a b s o r p t i o n , apparent t o t a l -fatty a c i d a b s o r p t i o n and apparent i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n were determined. T r i a l 2 E i g h t e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were f o r m u l a t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e e i t h e r C a n o l a o i l , s u n f l o w e r o i l , soybean o i l , or C a n o l a o i l and su n f l o w e r o i l blended i n the p r o p o r t i o n s 9/1, 8/2, 7/3, 6/4 and 5/3 <w/w) i n t o a b a s a l d i e t ( T a b l e 3) a t 8%. The e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were a s s i g n e d t o 24 groups of c h i c k s as d e s c r i b e d i n T r i a l 1. Body weight, weight g a i n and f e e d consumption were measured weekly ( g r a m s / b i r d ) . At the end of the 4* H week f e e d c o n v e r s i o n and apparent f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y were c a l c u l a t e d and apparent l i p i d a b s o r p t i o n , apparent t o t a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , apparent i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n and d i e t m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy were determined. Tr'Ul 3 T h i s experiment was desi g n e d t o determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of f e e d i n g h y d r o l y z e d o i l s t o e l i m i n a t e the c o n f o u n d i n g f a c t o r s of s t e r o i d s , v i t a m i n s , and t r i g l y c e r i d e s on f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n . Four e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were f o r m u l a t e d t o I n c o r p o r a t e e i t h e r the h y d r o l y z e d C a n o l a o i l , soybean o i l , sunf l o w e r o i l or a 5/3 bl e n d of C a n o l a and su n f l o w e r o i l i n t o a b a s a l d i e t ( T a b l e 3) at 8%. The e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o 12 groups of c h i c k s i n t r i p l i c a t e per treatment f o r a 4 week f e e d i n g p e r i o d . The r e s u l t s were compared wit h t h e r e s u l t s of the i n t a c t o i l s used i n T r i a l 2. Body weight, weight g a i n and f e e d consumption were measured 34 weekly ( g r a m s / b i r d ) . At the end o-f 4 weeks -feed c o n v e r s i o n and apparent f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y were c a l c u l a t e d and apparent l i p i d a b s o r p t i o n , apparent t o t a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n and apparent i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n were determined. DIGESTIBILITY A f t e r t h e 4** week of the f e e d i n g p e r i o d 4 b i r d s were randomly s e l e c t e d from each group and g i v e n a marker d i e t t o f a c i l i t a t e a t o t a l f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n i n o r d e r t o determine fee d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , apparent l i p i d a b s o r p t i o n , apparent t o t a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n and apparent i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n . F e c a l c o l l e c t i o n In a l l c a s e s the marker d i e t was the treatment d i e t t o which 0.5% f e r r i c o x i d e had been added. T h i s d i e t was p r o v i d e d f o r t w e l v e hours a f t e r which the unmarked d i e t was a g a i n p r o v i d e d f o r a p e r i o d of 24 hours d u r i n g which consumption was measured. A f t e r t h i s the marked d i e t was g i v e n a g a i n f o r another 12 hours. T h i s - r e s u l t e d i n f e c e s which c o u l d be v i s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s of f e r r i c o x i d e c o n t e n t . The b i r d s were then removed and t h e f e c e s a i r d r i e d f o r a p e r i o d of 24 hours i n t h e b r o o d e r s . The unmarked f e c e s were then manually s e p a r a t e d from the marked f e c e s and p l a c e d i n a d e s s i c a t o r . They were then ground with a m i c r o g r i n d e r and s t o r e d i n a d e s s i c a t o r . Dry matter The X dry matter of the f e c e s and f e e d was determined at the time of l i p i d e x t r a c t i o n by w eighing d u p l i c a t e samples and p l a c i n g them i n a d r y i n g oven f o r 48 hours a t 80°C, f o l l o w e d by 35 c o o l i n g f o r 5 hours i n a d e s s i c a t o r p r i o r t o d e t e r m i n i n g m o i s t u r e l o s s . A l l c a l c u l a t i o n s and r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d on a dry matter b a s i s. Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c a l c u l a t i o n The apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y o r a b s o r p t i o n of a l l n u t r i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d by the f o r m u l a : Intake - E x c r e t i o n % A b s o r p t i o n = X 100 Int a k e D i e t a r y i n t a k e of i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s was determined on the b a s i s of the a n a l y z e d f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e of the d i e t and not the o i l . These f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix B, ( T a b l e s I I , I I I and I V ) . METABOLI2ABLE ENERGY In T r i a l 2, the apparent n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d from the n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t of f e e d and f e c e s as determined by the macro K j e l d a h l method (AOAC, 1980), and the g r o s s energy of the f e e d and f e c e s was determined by oxygen bomb c a l o r i m e t r y u s i n g a P a r r Oxygen Bomb C a l o r i m e t e r . These v a l u e s were used t o c a l c u l a t e the apparent m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy ( n i t r o g e n c o r r e c t e d ) of the d i e t s as d e s c r i b e d by S i b b a l d (1979), u s i n g the f o r m u l a : [ ( F I X GEF) - ( E X GEE)3-(NR X K) AMEn/g of f e e d = FI Where NR = (FI x NF) - ( E x NE) FI = f e e d i n t a k e (g) E = e x c r e t a output (g) GEF = g r o s s energy/g of f e e d 36 GEE .= g r o s s energy/g of e x c r e t a NF = nitrogen/gram of -feed NE = nitrogen/gram of e x c r e t a K = 8.22 K c a l ( H i l l and Anderson, 1958) FATTY ACID ANALYSIS L i p i d e x t r a c t i o n L i p i d s were e x t r a c t e d by a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the method of F o l c h e£, aj. (1957). A p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 grams of homogenized sample (feed or f e c e s ) were p l a c e d i n t o Erlenmyer F l a s k s . T o t a l l i p i d s were then e x t r a c t e d o v e r n i g h t w i t h F o l c h reagent (15 ml of 2:1 v/v chloroform:methanol s o l u t i o n / g r a m of sample). In the ca s e of f e c a l samples the F o l c h reagent was a c i d i f i e d by the a d d i t i o n of 2% c o n c e n t r a t e d f o r m i c a c i d t o h y d r o l y s e soaps as d e s c r i b e d by Savary and C o n s t a n t i n (1966). The e x t r a c t was f i l t e r e d on Whatman No. 1 f i l t e r paper i n t o a graduated c y l i n d e r , washed w i t h s a l i n e s o l u t i o n and the phases a l l o w e d t o s e p a r a t e . The upper phase, c o n t a i n i n g water, methanol and water s o l u b l e m a t e r i a l was siphoned o f f and d i s c a r d e d . The lower phase of c h l o r o f o r m and l i p i d s was f u r t h e r washed wit h a c h l o r o f o r m : m e t h a n o l : s a l i n e (3:47:48 v/v) s o l u t i o n . Again, the phases were a l l o w e d t o s e p a r a t e . The f i n a l volume of the lower c h l o r o f o r m : 1 i p i d l a y e r was r e c o r d e d and the upper l a y e r siphoned o f f and d i s c a r d e d . Three a l i q u o t s of the c h l o r o f o r m l a y e r were then taken f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of % l i p i d , % t o t a l f a t t y a c i d , and p r e p a r a t i o n of methyl e s t e r s of the f a t t y a c i d s f o r Gas L i q u i d Chromatography (GLC). 37 T o t a l l i p i d and f a t t y a c i d d e t e r m i n a t i o n T o t a l l i p i d was determined by t a k i n g a 5.0 ml a l i q u o t of the c h l o r o f o r m l a y e r and p l a c i n g i t i n a t a r e d aluminum weighing d i s h , e v a p o r a t i n g i t under a stream of n i t r o g e n , and p l a c i n g i n a d r y i n g oven at 65-70° C over n i g h t . The samples were then c o o l e d i n a d e s s i c a t o r f o r 5 hours and the sample weight r e c o r d e d and % t o t a l l i p i d c a l c u l a t e d . P e r c e n t t o t a l f a t t y a c i d was determined by a m o d i f i e d AOAC (1980) method. A 10 ml a l i q u o t of the F o l c h e x t r a c t was p l a c e d i n a screw-top c u l t u r e tube (with t e f l o n l i n e d c a p s ) . T h i s sample was ev a p o r a t e d under a n i t r o g e n stream and t h e d r y l i p i d s were s a p o n i f i e d w i t h 4.0 ml 0.5 M m e t h a n o l i c KOH on a 50° C water bath over 50 minutes. Then the s o l u t i o n was e x t r a c t e d t w i c e w i t h 5 ml petroleum e t h e r t o remove the u n s a p o n i f i a b l e f r a c t i o n . The soap was then h y d r o l y z e d with 2 ml of 1 M HC1 and 1 ml d i s t i l l e d H»0 and 5 ml pet r o l e u m e t h e r was added t o the r e s u l t i n g b i p h a s i c s o l u t i o n . The s o l u t i o n was then c e n t r i f u g e d f o r 20 minutes t o pack the i n t e r f a c i a l " f l u f f " and the e t h e r l a y e r was t r a n s f e r e d t o dry, preweighed aluminum d i s h e s and t r e a t e d as d e s c r i b e d f o r t o t a l l i p i d s and % t o t a l f a t t y a c i d s was c a l c u l a t e d . F a t t y a c i d d e r l v i t i z a t i o n The methyl e s t e r s of the f a t t y a c i d s were produced by a m o d i f i e d A0CS (1980) method. Enough F o l c h e x t r a c t t o p r o v i d e 250-300 mg of l i p i d was p l a c e d i n a screw cap c u l t u r e tube. T h i s sample was e v a p o r a t e d under a n i t r o g e n stream. Then 4.0 ml of 0.5 M m e t h a n o l i c NaOH was added and the s o l u t i o n was i n c u b a t e d at 38 70°C -for 10 minutes i n a water b a t h . To t h i s s o l u t i o n 5.0 ml of 14% boron t r i f l u o r i d e was added and the cap was l o o s e l y p l a c e d on the tube and t h i s was p l a c e d back i n the water bath f o r 1 hour. At t h i s p o i n t t h e cap was t i g h t e n e d and t h e tube was p l a c e d i n an oven at 65-70° C f o r 12 hours. Then 3 ml of heptane was added and the s o l u t i o n was v i g o r o u s l y shaken and a l l o w e d t o stand u n t i l the l a y e r s s e p a r a t e d . The heptane l a y e r was then d r i e d over a 4:1 m i x t u r e of anhydrous Na aS0*:Na aC0 3 and a p o r t i o n t r a n s f e r r e d t o septum v i a l s which were s t o r e d under n i t r o g e n and r e f r i g e r a t i o n u n t i l a n a l y s i s . Gas l i q u i d chromatography The f a t t y a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e l i p i d s was determined u s i n g a V a r i a n Gas L i q u i d Chromatograph, model 3700, equipped w i t h a flame i o n i z a t i o n d e t e c t o r , 2 meter (3.18 mm i n s i d e diameter) packed column, and a V i s t a 400 d a t a p r o c e s s o r . In T r i a l 1 the s t a t i o n a r y phase used f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the l i p i d f a t t y a c i d s ( t a b l e 3) was 15% D i e t h y l e n e G l y c o l S u c c i n a t e P o l y e s t e r on Chromasorb Q (mesh s i z e 80/100 M) and the runs were temperature programed from 160-190° C w i t h an i n i t i a l time of 7 minutes, a program r a t e of 5° C/minute and a f i n a l time of 47 minutes. I n j e c t o r and d e t e c t o r temperatures were 200 and 230°c, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and t h e n i t r o g e n f l o w r a t e was 30 ml/minute. In a l l subsequent d e t e r m i n a t i o n s the p a c k i n g m a t e r i a l was 10% S i l a r 5CP ( s t a t i o n a r y phase) on Chromosorb Q (mesh s i z e 80/100). The runs were temperature programed over a temperature range of 160- 230° C, with an i n i t i a l time of 7 minutes, a program r a t e of 10 °C/minute and a f i n a l time of 26 minutes. 39 I n j e c t o r and d e t e c t o r temperatures were 250 and 300°C, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the n i t r o g e n -flow r a t e was 30 ml/minute. F a t t v a c i d i d e n t i - f i c a t i o n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o-f f a t t y a c i d s was accomplished by comparison of the chromatogram peak r e t e n t i o n times w i t h those of f a t t y a c i d s t a n d a r d s . P e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of f a t t y a c i d s were c a l c u l a t e d as the r a t i o of peak a r e a t o t o t a l chromatogram a r e a by the V i s t a 400 d a t a p r o c e s s o r . These p e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n s were l a t e r c o n v e r t e d t o p e r c e n t by weight by the f o r m u l a : % FA X MW % F a t t y A c i d by Weight = X 100 Sum of Wt of the FA P r e s e n t Where: FA = F a t t y A c i d MW =» M o l e c u l a r Weight PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DETERMINATIONS Oven t e s t The d e t e r i o r a t i o n study was modelled a f t e r a stu d y p u b l i s h e d by E s k i n and F r e n k e l , 1977. I t was conducted on 300 ml samples of o i l which were p l a c e d i n c l e a n 600 ml Pyrex b e a k e r s which c o n t a i n e d T e f l o n c o a t e d magnetic s t i r r e r s . The mouth of the beak e r s were co v e r e d with a 75 mm diameter watch g l a s s and p l a c e d i n an oven at 70°C. The bea k e r s were removed from the oven at 0, 2, 5, 8, 12, and 16 days of i n c u b a t i o n . At t h i s time the o i l was mixed wi t h the magnetic s t i r r e r s f o r 1 minute t o homogenously d i s t r i b u t e the o x i d a t i o n p r o d u c t s and t o change the i n t e r f a c e , and d u p l i c a t e samples f o r p e r o x i d e v a l u e and t h i o b a r b i t u r i c 40 a c i d v a l u e d e t e r m i n a t i o n were taUen. These samples were s t o r e d i n g l a s s s c i n t i l l a t i o n v i a l s under n i t r o g e n a t -25°C u n t i l a n a l y s i s . P e r o x i d e and t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d v a l u e s P e r o x i d e v a l u e s were determined by 0 - f - f i c i a l Method Cd 8-53 <A0CS, 1980). T h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d v a l u e s were determined by a method m o d i f i e d a f t e r S i d w e l l e t a l . 1954. O i l <3.0 grams) was weighed i n t o a screw cap tube t o which 10 ml C C l * and 10 ml t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d reagent was added. The tube was capped wit h a T e f l o n l i n e d cap and p l a c e d on a h o r i z o n t a l shaker wi t h a 3.18 cm o s c i l l a t i o n f o r 4 minutes. The aqueous l a y e r was then t r a n s f e r e d t o a t e s t tube and immersed i n a b o i l i n g water bath f o r 30 minutes. The s o l u t i o n was then c o o l e d and a p o r t i o n t r a n s f e r e d t o a c u v e t t e and the absorbancy was read at 530 nm a g a i n s t d i s t i l l e d water. Smoke p o i n t Smoke p o i n t s were determined by a m o d i f i e d O f f i c i a l Method Cc 9a-48 (A0CS, 1980). A C l e v e l a n d open f l a s h cup was f i l l e d w i t h the o i l so t h a t the top of t h e meniscus touched the f i l l i n g l i n e . I t was then p l a c e d i n a 46x51x44 cm i l l u m i n a t e d c a b i n e t and a thermometer was suspended i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n the c e n t e r of the cup with the bottom of t h e bulb about 6.35 mm from the bottom of t h e cup. The sample was then heated with a. bunsen burner so t h a t the temperature of the sample i n c r e a s e d a t about 5-6°C per minute. The smoke p o i n t was taken as the temperature i n d i c a t e d by the thermometer when the sample gave o f f a t h i n , c o n t i n u o u s stream of b l u i s h smoke. 41 STATISTICS Data -for the 3 f e e d i n g t r i a l s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e by a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and means were compared by Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t as d e s c r i b e d by S t e e l and T o r r i e (1980). P e r c e n t a g e d a t a were t r e a t e d w i t h the a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s and m i s s i n g v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d by the method recommended by S t e e l and T o r r i e (1980). 42 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION TRIAL 1 C h i c k performance The d i e t a r y o i l s used i n t h i s experiment s i g n i f i c a n t l y <P < 0.05) a f f e c t e d body weight, weight g a i n and f e e d consumption but not on f e e d c o n v e r s i o n ( T a b l e 4 ) . In terms of body weight and weight g a i n Canbra o i l was e q u i v a l e n t t o l a r d i n growth promotion but both were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) i n f e r i o r t o s u n f l o w e r o i l i n t h i s r e s p e c t . T h i s a g r e e s w i t h the r e p o r t of C l a n d i n i n e£. aj. (1978) which i n d i c a t e d t h a t LEAR (2.5% e r u c i c a c i d ) was i n f e r i o r t o s u n f l o w e r o i l i n terms of growth promotion, s t i m u l a t i o n of f e e d consumption and energy u t i l i z a t i o n . The blended o i l s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) d i f f e r e n t from the s u n f l o w e r o i l treatment i n e i t h e r f i n a l body weight or weight g a i n . However, t h e s e body weights tended t o be somewhat s m a l l e r than t hose of the s u n f l o w e r o i l f e d groups ( T a b l e 4 ) . The Canbra o i l / l a r d b l e n d showed d e f i n i t e s y n e r g i s m i n weight g a i n as has o f t e n been r e p o r t e d ( L a l l and S l i n g e r , 1973) S l i n g e r , 1977; Hulan et. aj_, 1984) . On the o t h e r hand, the Canbra o i 1 / s u n f l o w e r o i l b l e n d d i d not show any synergism i n body weight or weight g a i n as the average weight g a i n of the b i r d s was o n l y s l i g h t l y above the a r i t h m e t i c mean of the average weight g a i n s of the b i r d s i n the Canbra o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l t r e a t m e n t s . T h i s agrees w i t h the r e p o r t of B e l l e n a n d et. a l . T a b l e 4. E f f e c t of O i l B l e n d i n g on the Growth Performance of C h i c k s at 4 weeks, T r i a l 1. D i e t a r y C h i c k Performance* O i l * Body weight Weight g a i n Feed Consumed Feed C o n v e r s i o n ( g / b i r d ) ( g / b i r d ) <g/bird) <g consumed/gain) CBO 299.2* 262.0- 548.1- 2.09 SFO 322.3« 283.0= 595.8 D 2.10 AL 304.8-* 2 6 8 . 1 » & 577.7*» 2.16 CBO+SFO" 313.8*= 277.2*»= 574.6-«» 2.07 CBO+AL 319.5° 283.1"" 587. 9«a 2.08 SEM- 4.53 4.45 9.11 0.02 *CB0 = Canbra o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , AL = Animal l a r d . "Means f o l l o w e d by the same s u p e r s c r i p t are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P < 0.05). »0iIs blended 1:1. —Standard e r r o r of the mean (n = 3 ) . 44 (1980). The Canbra o i l treatment r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) l e s s f e e d consumption than any of the o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s except the Canbra o i 1 / s u n f l o w e r o i l b l e n d which was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r the Canbra o i l treatment or the o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . I n t e r e s t i n g l y t h e r e was a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between the f e e d consumption and weight g a i n s i n t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s (r=0.90). T h i s seems t o s u p p o r t the r e p o r t s of J o s h i and S e l l <1964) and Alexander and Mattson (1966) who i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e p r e s s e d f e e d consumption was the p r i m a r y cause of weight g a i n d e p r e s s i o n observed i n d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g rapeseed o i l . The f e e d c o n v e r s i o n d a t a shows no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t r e a t m e n t s . However, both blended o i l s showed a t r e n d toward s y n e r g i s t i c improvement i n f e e d c o n v e r s i o n . These r e s u l t agree with the r e s u l t s of Hulan e £ aj. (1984) who proposed t h a t the f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e of an o i l may a l t e r the metabolism of c h i c k e n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i n t e s t i n a l a b s o r p t i o n of f a t t y a c i d s . Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s The apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of f e e d and t o t a l f a t t y a c i d s demonstrated no s i g n i f i c a n t (P < 0.05) d i f f e r e n c e s between t r e a t m e n t s ( T a b l e 5 ) . The d i g e s t i b i l i t y of the t o t a l l i p i d i n the Canbra o i l treatment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) lower than i n t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s . There was a s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y of the Canbra o i 1 / s u n f l o w e r o i l b l e n d and the t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y of both b l e n d s a l s o showed t h i s t r e n d . The t o t a l f a t t y a c i d T a b l e 5. Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y Coe-f f i c i e n t s a t 4 Weeks, T r i a l D i e t a r y Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t 1 O i l Feed T o t a l l i p i d T o t a l -fatty a c i d CBO* 79.56 87.21- 89.71 SFO 79.14 89.OS" 91.76 AL 81.29 90.22«» 90.67 CBO+SFO 3 79.62 90.02 & 92.86 CBO+AL 78.83 89.39 e» 92.01 1Means -followed by the same s u p e r s c r i p t are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t <P < 0.05), a n a l y s i s was performed on t r a n s f o r m e d d a t a . aCB0 = Canbra o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , AL = Animal l a r d . " O i l s blended 1:1. 46 d i g e s t i b i l i t y a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w e l l with weight g a i n <r=0.80). These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t something o t h e r than f e e d consumption may a f f e c t the growth performance of the c h i c k s . Apparent I n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n The i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n d a t a ( T a b l e 6) agrees w e l l with the t o t a l l i p i d and t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d a t a p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r . That i s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of C 1 8 : l , C18:3 and C20:1 (which make up a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o r t i o n of the o i l ) the a b s o r p t i o n v a l u e s of the Canbra o i l a r e i n f e r i o r t o those of the sun f l o w e r o i l . The l a r d shows poor a b s o r p t i o n of C18:2 and C18:3 (87.23% and 81.55% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) but a high a b s o r p t i o n of C16:0. The high degree of a b s o r p t i o n of the C16:0 i n l a r d has been w e l l documented and i s a t t r i b u t e d t o i t s p r e f e r e n t i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the b e t a p o s i t i o n on the t r i g l y c e r i d e m o l e c u l e (Renner and H i l l , I960; Whitehead and F i s h e r , 1975). A p o s i t i v e s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e i n the a b s o r p t i o n of a l l of the i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s was seen i n both b l e n d s w i t h the o n l y e x c e p t i o n b e i n g found i n the C18:2 of the Canbra o i l / a n i m a l l a r d b l e n d . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t Canbra o i l f a t t y a c i d s a r e imbalanced f o r maximum a b s o r p t i o n as suggested by Walker e£. a l (1970), L a l l and S l i n g e r (1973) and Hulan efc. aj. (1984). These workers a l l suggested t h a t rapeseed o i l s were d e f i c i e n t i n the long c h a i n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s . While t h i s h y p o t h e s i s would e x p l a i n the sy n e r g i s m observed i n the Canbra o i l / a n i m a l l a r d b l e n d i t does not e x p l a i n the s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s of the Canbra o i l / s u n f l o w e r o i l b l e n d . Indeed Beare-Rogers (1977) 4 7 T a b l e 6. Apparent I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 1. D i e t a r y Apparent F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n 1 ( p e r cent) O i l C i 6 : o * c i s : o c i 8 : i c i s:2 CBO 3 81.08- 79.68- 92.17-* 38.40-SFO 86.41* 90.32** 90.54- 93.76* AL 91.82"= 82.58- 94.34* 87.23-CBO+SFO- 86.60* 91.55* 94.11* 93.06' CBO+AL 90.86= 92.53* 94.24* 87.36-C18:3 CBO 92.09= SFO 72.77-AL 31.55* CBO+SFO 91.27= CBO+AL 90.70= C20: 1 87.72-* 82.60* 90.35*= 93.33= 92.75*= C22: 1 87.03 93. 06 92. 69 '•Means -followed by the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05), a n a l y s i s was performed on t r a n s f o r m e d dat; z T h e number p r o c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . "CBO = Canbra o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , AL = Animal l a r d . - I n d i c a t e s o i l blended 1:1 by weight. 48 quotes R o c q u e l i n and C l u z a n as s t a t i n g t h a t the. r a t i o of s a t u r a t e d t o u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s i n an o i l i s unimportant i n u t i l i z a t i o n when the o i l c o n t a i n s more than 10% l i n o l e i c a c i d . T h i s r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y s u p p o r t s t h i s view. Canbra o i l u t i l i z a t i o n can be improved by b l e n d i n g w i t h e i t h e r l a r d ( s a t u r a t e d f a t ) or su n f l o w e r o i l ( h i g h l y u n s a t u r a t e d o i l ) . These r e s u l t s p o i n t toward a much more complex i n t e r a c t i o n of f a t t y a c i d s than was p r e v i o u s l y p o s t u l a t e d and i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a c o u l d v e r y w e l l prove p r o d u c t i v e . 49 TRIAL 2 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the f i n a l body weights of the b i r d s f e d C a n o l a o i l , s u n f l o w e r o i l or soybean o i l ( T a b l e 7 ) . T h i s a g r e e s w i t h the d a t a of March (1977) f o r c h i c k e n s and Beare-Rogers et. a l . (1979) and Z i e m l a n s k i (1977) f o r r a t s . However, C l a n d i n i n e£. aj. (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t LEAR was i n f e r i o r t o s u n f l o w e r o i l i n promoting c h i c k growth and Kramer e£. aj. (1973), Kramer e t aj. (1981) and Farnworth and Kramer (1983) r e p o r t e d t h a t soybean o i l promoted s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth than LEAR (0.6% e r u c i c a c i d ) . However, a l l b l e n d s except 8/2 and 6/4 showed s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e s i n f i n a l body weight. T h i s p a t t e r n was a l s o shown i n t h e weight g a i n s of the b i r d s ( T a b l e 7 ) . The l a r g e s t weight g a i n was demonstrated by the 7/3 b l e n d , a l t h o u g h t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) g r e a t e r than t h a t demonstrated by the C a n o l a o i l , 9/1, 6/4 and 5/5 t r e a t m e n t s i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) g r e a t e r than the weight g a i n s of e i t h e r the s u n f l o w e r or soybean o i l t r e a t m e n t s . T h i s would i n d i c a t e a r e a l improvement i n the a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t c h i c k growth over both C a n o l a o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l f e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . The weight g a i n d a t a f o r the 8/2 b l e n d appeared t o be c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than expected when compared wi t h a l l of t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s c o n t a i n i n g C a n o l a o i l . T h i s r e s u l t c o u l d not be l o g i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d except as a random event w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y of l e s s than 5%. T h e r e f o r e , another f e e d i n g t r i a l was s e t up (see appendix A) t o determine whether or not t h i s r e s u l t was r e p e a t a b l e and t o d i r e c t l y compare Canbra and 50 T a b l e 7. E f f e c t s of O i l B l e n d i n g C h i c k s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l on 2. the Growth Performance of Di e t a r y 011 C h i c k P e r f o r m a n c e 2 Body weight ( g / b i r d ) Weight g a i n ( g / b i r d ) Feed Consumed Feed C o n v e r s i o n ( g / b i r d ) (g consumed/gain) CAO* 332.l-»= 292.0-»= 599.7 2.05 9/1 3 336.5== 296.8== 604.7 2.04 8/2 308.6- 269.0- 560.2 2.08 7/3 343.1 = 303.4= 631.3 2.08 6/4 323.8- t o= 284.1«»= 604.1 2.13 5/5 332.7-*= 292.8*"= 613.7 2.10 SFO 310.4- 270.6- 575.9 2.14 SBO 314.7-*» 274.7-= 586.9 2.14 SEM- 7.29 7.21 17.08 0.03 xCAO = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l "Means f o l l o w e d by the same s u p e r s c r i p t are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P < 0.05). " I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (we i g h t / w e i g h t ) . -Standard e r r o r of the mean (n = 3 ) . 51 C a n o l a o i l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s t r i a l c o n f i r m e d the r e s u l t s of e a r l i e r t r i a l s f o r c h i c k growth s u p p o r t e d by Canbra, Canola, s u n f l o w e r , and the 7/3 b l e n d . However the weight g a i n s f o r the 8/2 blend were c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the low weight g a i n s f o r t h i s b l e n d i n T r i a l 2 were p r o b a b l y random. T a b l e 7 a l s o shows t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f e e d consumption f o r any of the t r e a t m e n t s used i n t h i s t r i a l . T h i s would seem t o c o n c r e t e l y s u p p o r t the t h e o r y t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n weight g a i n a r e due t o d i f f e r e n t n u t r i t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of the o i l s and b l e n d s . However, t h e r e was a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n <r»0.94) between f e e d consumption and weight g a i n . The c o r r e l a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e were a c t u a l consumption d i f f e r e n c e s but t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n d i d not a l l o w enough p r e c i s i o n t o d e t e c t them. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was a l s o s u p p o r t e d by the f e e d i n g t r i a l d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix A. These r e s u l t s s u p p o r t the t h e o r y t h a t consumption i s the major f a c t o r i n growth d e p r e s s i o n caused by e a r l y rapeseed o i l s ( J o s h i and S e l l , 1964; A lexander and Mattson, 1966). But i t does not e x c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y of an unbalanced f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e as shown by the s y n e r g i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s i n both f i n a l body weight and weight g a i n seen i n t h i s s t u d y . I t t h e r e f o r e appears t h a t t h e r e was an i n t e r a c t i o n between consumption and o t h e r f a c t o r s which were a l l r e l a t e d t o weight g a i n . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f e e d c o n v e r s i o n as was r e p o r t e d by J o s h i and S e l l (1964), however, Salmon (1969b) and Hulan etj, aj. (1982) r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d f e e d c o n v e r s i o n caused by rapeseed o i l compared t o soybean o i l . The v a l u e s f o r 52 t h i s parameter ranged from a high o-f 2.14 f o r both s u n f l o w e r and soybean o i l and a low of 2.04 f o r the 9/1 b l e n d w i t h the o t h e r s f a l l i n g i n between ( T a b l e 7 ) . T h i s d a t a shows a t r e n d toward improvement i n f e e d c o n v e r s i o n f o r the 9/1, 8/2 and 7/3 b l e n d s i n s p i t e of the l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s due t o o i l type were apparent. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y f o r t h e C a n o l a o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l but the soybean o i l treatment showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) h i g h e r f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y ( T a b l e 8 ) . A l l b l e n d s except 9/1 showed s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e s i n f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y when compared t o the Ca n o l a and s u n f l o w e r o i l s . The 7/3 b l e n d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n f e e d d i g e s t i o n promotion than the s u n f l o w e r o i l but was not d i f f e r e n t from the C a n o l a o i l . The o t h e r b l e n d s were not d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r the C a n o l a o i l or the s u n f l o w e r o i l i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Three of the b l e n d s (7/3, 6/4 and 5/5) had f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t of soybean o i l . T o t a l l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y of the 9/1 b l e n d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (P < 0.05) than the o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s ( T a b l e 8 ) , the reason f o r t h i s i s not r e a d i l y apparent. The t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y showed; no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t r e a t m e n t s but f o l l o w e d the same t r e n d as the f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y . Data p e r t a i n i n g t o n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n r e l a t i v e t o d i e t a r y o i l a r e a l s o summarized i n T a b l e 8. The n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n i n the C a n o l a and soybean o i l t r e a t m e n t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a l t h o u g h the soybean r e s u l t was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r . T a b l e 8. Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s at 4 WeeUs, T r i a l 2. D i e t a r y Apparent D i g e s t i b i 1 i t y C o e f f i e c e n t s 1 U 1 1 Feed T o t a l l i p i d T o t a l f a t t y a c i d N r e t e n t i o n CAO» 80.07-** 88.90= 89.31 69.40-" 9/1* 79.07- 83.84- 89.50 66.20-8/2 80.08-= 90.96= 89.33 67.34-7/3 83.95»« 92.59= 93. 15 75.07= 6/4 30.39-"= 88.94= 89. 19 67.54-S/S 81.97-== 91.70= 91.94 71.93-= SFO 79.14- 89.68= 90.43 66.75-SBO 84.17= 91.23= 91. 16 75.32= •Means f o l l o w e d - b y the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l d i f f e r e n t <P < 0.05), a n a l y s i s was performed on t r a n s f o r m e d d a t a . "CA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . " I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (we i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 54 S i m i l a r l y t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between the C a n o l a and s u n f l o w e r t r e a t m e n t s a l t h o u g h the s u n f l o w e r treatment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (P < 0.05) than the soybean o i l treatment. The blended t r e a t m e n t s show no s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s i n n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n e x c e p t i n t h e 7/3 and 5/5 b l e n d s which were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than e i t h e r the C a n o l a o i l treatment or the soybean o i l t r e a t m e n t . The 7/3 b l e n d however, was e q u i v a l e n t t o the soybean o i l w i t h n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n s of 75.07 and 75.32 per c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The above r e s u l t i s s u p p o r t e d by Farnworth and Kramer (1983) who r e p o r t e d t h a t b l e n d i n g LEAR r e s u l t e d i n improved growth, and i n c r e a s e d body f a t and p r o t e i n i n r a t s . These r e s u l t s a l s o s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t f a t s and f a t t y a c i d s i n t e r a c t t o a l l o w I ncreased f a t a b s o r p t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n of o t h e r d i e t a r y components ( S i b b a l d and Kramer, 1977; Mateos and S e l l , 1981; Muztar at. aj., 1981; D a l e and F u l l e r , 1982; F u l l e r and Dale, 1982). Apparent m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy of the d i e t s The n i t r o g e n c o r r e c t e d apparent m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy (AMEn) of t h e d i e t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 9. I t can be seen t h a t the soybean o i l d i e t had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) h i g h e r AMEn than e i t h e r the C a n o l a o i l or the s u n f l o w e r o i l d i e t s which had r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t v a l u e s . The 7/3, 6/4 and 5/5 b l e n d s a g a i n showed a s y n e r g i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h 7/3 h a v i n g the h i g h e s t AMEn, which was e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t of the soybean o i l . The r e s u l t s agree w e l l w i t h those of S e l l and Hodgson (1962) who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r a t i o n T a b l e 9. Apparent Metabol i z a b l e Energy o-f D i e t s ( N i t r o g e n C o r r e c t e d ) , T r i a l 2. O i l Type AMEn 1 (Kcal/kg) CAO a 4082.39-9/1 3 4044.85-9/2 4067.77-7/3 4 2 6 5 . l l b = 6/4 4107.52-° 5/5 4174.85-"= SFO 4097.40-SBO 4281.50= SEM- 50.93 1 Means -followed by the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t <P < 0.05). zCA0 = Ca n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . ' I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (we i g h t / w e i g h t ) . —Standard e r r o r of the means (n = 3 ) . 56 M.E. o-f c h i c k e n d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g 8% rapeseed o i l or sun-flower o i l but t h a t d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g 8% soybean o i l had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r M.E. J o s h i and S e l l (1964) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s -for t u r k e y p o u l t s a l t h o u g h i n t h i s c ase the d i e t M.E. was s i m i l a r f o r the sun f l o w e r and soybean t r e a t m e n t s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower f o r rapeseed o i l d i e t s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o r e p o r t e d by Salmon (1969a) f o r t u r k e y p o u l t s , a l t h o u g h he r e p o r t e d (1969b) no d i f f e r e n c e i n d i e t M.E. f o r c h i c k e n s f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g rapeseed o i l or soybean o i l . I t s h o u l d be noted however, t h a t o n l y Salmon r e p o r t e d the e r u c i c a c i d c o n t e n t of h i s rapeseed o i l (which was HEAR). The d i f f e r e n c e s i n AMEn found i n t h i s experiment a l s o s u p p o r t s the d a t a p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r i n which t o t a l d i e t d i g e s t i b i l i t y and n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n were improved by b l e n d i n g o i l . That i s , AMEn c o r r e l a t e s s t r o n g l y w i t h d i e t d i g e s t i b i l i t y (r=0.97), n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n (r=0.96), t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y (r«0.78) and t o t a l l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y (r=0.71), but c o r r e l a t e s p o o r l y w i t h weight g a i n (r=0.17). These c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i e t a r y f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e a f f e c t s AMEn, the a b s o r p t i o n of the t o t a l d i e t , n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n and f a t a b s o r p t i o n but t h a t f e e d consumption i s the o v e r - r i d i n g f a c t o r i n c h i c k weight g a i n . A°°apent I n d i v i d u a l f a t t v a c i d a b s o r p t i o n As can be seen i n T a b l e 10 o n l y 5 f a t t y a c i d s (C16:0, C18:2, C18.3, C20:l and C24:0) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) a f f e c t e d by the v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s . Of these f a t t y a c i d s the a b s o r p t i o n was h i g h e r i n those d e r i v e d from soybean o i l than those from Canola T a b l e 10. Apparent I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 2 D i e t a r y Apparent F a t t y A c i d A b s o r p t i o n 1 <per cent) O i l 016:0* cis:o c i s : i cis:2 cis:3 CAO" 81.99- 81.97 91.71 87.61- 92.30-* 9/1- 83.80-* 82.76 91.39 88.72- 92.01-* 8/2 83.41-* 83.21 91.27 89.10- 91.72-* 7/3 88.63= 90.62 94.50 93.03= 94.41= 6/4 81.70- 85.63 90.88 89.88-* 90.69* 5/5 86.80*= 88.58 93.07 92.63= 92.93*== SFO 85.60-*= 87.65 89.63 91.96*= 82.36-SBO 88.40= 85.70 91.40 92.32*= 93.58== 1 Means -followed by the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05), a n a l y s i s was performed on t r a n s f o r m e d da "The number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . 3CA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . — I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . C o n t i n u e d on next page-58 T a b l e 10 (continued) D i e t a r y Apparent A b s o r p t i o n (per cent) O i l C20 :o C20:i C22 :o C22:i C24 :o CAO 82.28 86.08** 72.67 77.87 75.27** 9/1 80.97 87.29** 75.75 79.19 8 1 . 8 3 * Q a 8/2 81.73 85.44* 72.38 75.73 77.16** 7/3 89.27 91.05* 85.19 85.70 86.92=« 6/4 80.32 83.91* 73.69 72.30 71.30* 5/5 85.98 88.05** 82.96 77.86 75.97** SFO 80.52 82.69- 79.82 73.27 80.26** e SBO 83.18 83.15* 74.43 88.45" 'Means -followed by the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y di-f-ferent (P<0.05), a n a l y s i s was performed on t r a n s f o r m e d data. a T h e number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . 3CA0 = Ca n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . - I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (we i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 59 o i l e xcept C20.1. When compared w i t h s u n f l o w e r o i l , the a b s o r p t i o n of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s were e q u i v a l e n t i n a l l except C18.3 and C24:0 which showed g r e a t e r a b s o r p t i o n i n the soybean o i l t r e a t m e n t . As f o r t h e comparison of t h e s u n f l o w e r o i l and C a n o l a o i l t r e a t m e n t s , t h e a b s o r p t i o n of t h e s e 5 f a t t y a c i d s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t except f o r the C18:3 which showed p a r t i c u l a r l y low a b s o r p t i o n i n the s u n f l o w e r o i l t r e a t m e n t . T h i s may have been due t o t h e high l e v e l of C18:2 i n the s u n f l o w e r o i l d i e t as t h i s f a t t y a c i d appears t o i n h i b i t the a b s o r p t i o n of C18.3 (Chow and H o l l a n d e r , 1979). The blended t r e a t m e n t s 7/3 and 5/5 showed marked s y n e r g i s t i c improvments i n i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n . A l l i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s d e r i v e d from t h e s e 2 b l e n d s except the C24.0 were as a b s o r b a b l e as t h o s e of the soybean o i l t r e a t m e n t . The s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e i n a b s o r p t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c a b l e i n the e s s e n t i a l f a t t y a c i d s (C18.2 and C18.3). B l e n d i n g the o i l s improved the a b s o r p t i o n of most of the i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the 7/3 and 5/5 b l e n d s . The r e s u l t s agree with the e a r l i e r r e p o r t s of i n c r e a s e d s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d u t i l i z a t i o n due t o b l e n d i n g (Young and G a r r e t t , 1963; Artman, 1964) and i n c r e a s e d t o t a l f a t u t i l i z a t i o n ( L a l l and S l i n g e r , 1973; S l i n g e r , 1977). 60 TRIAL 3 Ch i c k performance T h i s experiment was de s i g n e d t o compare the e f f e c t s of f e e d i n g h y d r o l y s e d o i l s w i t h t h e i r i n t a c t c o u n t e r p a r t s . T a b l e 11 shows t h a t f e e d i n g p r a c t i c a l d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g h y d r o l y z e d o i l s { f r e e f a t t y a c i d m i x t u r e s ) has no s i g n i f i c a n t (P < 0.05) e f f e c t s on body weight, weight g a i n , f e e d consumption or f e e d c o n v e r s i o n compared t o d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g i n t a c t o i l s . However, except f o r the s u n f l o w e r o i l t r e a t m e n t s , the b i r d s tended t o consume l e s s f e e d and g a i n l e s s weight (but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) when f e d h y d r o l y z e d f a t t y a c i d s . T h i s a g r e es w i t h t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d by Young (1961), Young and Artman (1961), Artman (1964) and Hakkarainen e t a l (1983) f o r c h i c k s and Chen (1979) f o r r a t s . The f e e d c o n v e r s i o n r a t i o tended to d e c r e a s e when f r e e f a t t y a c i d s were f e d t o t h e c h i c k s except i n the c a s e of the C a n o l a o i l t r e a t m e n t . However, the r e v e r s e t r e n d was r e p o r t e d by Young and Artman (1961) and Artman (1964) . Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s The d a t a i n T a b l e 12 shows t h a t f e e d i n g h y d r o l y z e d o i l had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y when compared t o i n t a c t o i l s e x c e p t i n the c a s e of the h y d r o l y z e d soybean o i l which s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) reduced the d i g e s t i b i l i t y of the d i e t . T h i s same p a t t e r n was shown i n the t o t a l l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , however another t r e n d emerged i n t h i s d a t a . A l l of the h y d r o l y z e d o i l t r e a t m e n t s were lower i n t o t a l l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y than t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t a c t o i l . These r e s u l t s agree w e l l w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t e d by Renner and H i l l 61 T a b l e 11. E f f e c t of F r e e F a t t y A c i d s on the Growth Performance of C h i c k s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 3. D i e t a r y 011 C h i c k Performance Body weight <g/bird) Weight g a i n <g/bird) Feed Consumed ( g / b i r d ) Feed C o n v e r s i o n (g consumed/gain) CAO a 332. 1 292.0 599.7 2.05 CAO FFA a 316.9 278.2 591.9 2.13 SFO 310.4 270.6 575.9 2.14 SFO FFA 320.5 281.0 582. 1 2.08 5/5- 332.7 292.8 613.7 2.10 3/3 FFA 317.a 279.6 565.8 2.02 SBO 314.7 274.7 586.9 2. 14 SBO FFA 303.6 264. 6 554.7 2.09 SEM» 9. IO 9.00 24.70 0.03 ''Means f o l l o w e d by the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t <P < 0.05). zCA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . 3CA0 FFA i n d i c a t e s f r e e f a t t y a c i d s of C a n o l a o i l . - I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 5/5 (w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . " S t a n d a r d e r r o r of the means (n=3). T a b l e 12. Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 3. D i e t a r y Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y C o e f f i e c e n t s 1 O i l Feed T o t a l l i p i d T o t a l f a t t y a c i d CAO* SO.07- 88.90* 89.31 CAO F F A 3 81.70-* 88.77* 88.49 SFO 79.14- 89.68* 90.43 SFO FFA 81.45** 88.99* 89.91 5/5- 81.95-* 91.20* 91.94 5/5 FFA 79.67- 87.70** 88.63 SBO 84.17* 91.23* 91. 16 SBO FFA 80.28- 84.21* 85. 42 'Means f o l l o w e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t <P < 0.05), d a t a . same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t a n a l y s i s was performed on transformer *CA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i 1, SBO = Soybean o i l . "CAO FFA i n d i c a t e s f r e e f a t t y a c i d s of Canola o i l . — I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 5/5 <weight/weight). 63 (1961a) and S k l a n (1979) t h a t t o t a l -fatty a c i d s -from h y d r o l y z e d soybean o i l were l e s s a b s o r b a b l e than those o-f i n t a c t o i l . However, Young (1961), r e p o r t e d t h a t -feeding h y d r o l y z e d soybean or c o r n o i l had no e f f e c t on t h e i r a b s o r b a b i l i t y . Young and Artman (1961) r e p o r t e d t h a t h y d r o l y s i s of soybean o i l or animal f a t reduced t h e i r d i g e s t i b i l i t y but not t o the degree r e p o r t e d by Renner and H i l l . Artman (1964) a l s o r e p o r t e d a t r e n d toward s l i g h t d e c r e a s e s i n the d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s of soybean o i l , t a l l o w and b l e n d s of t a l l o w when these f a t s were h y d r o l y z e d . These r e s u l t s s u p p o r t the s u n f l o w e r o i l , C a n o l a o i l and o i l b l e n d r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s experiment. The reason f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n response of the o i l t y p e s i s a t t h i s p o i n t u n c l e a r . I t appears t h a t the c h i c k ' s response t o h y d r o l y s e d o i l s may be more v a r i a b l e than t h e i r r esponse t o i n t a c t o i l s . T h i s may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and the r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment. Apparent I n d i v i d u a l f a t t v a c i d a b s o r p t i o n The h y d r o l y z e d o i l t r e a t m e n t s r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t (P < 0.05) d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a b s o r p t i o n of o n l y 4 f a t t y a c i d s . These were C18.1, C13.2, C18.3 and C24.0 (T a b l e 13). There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a b s o r p t i o n of the f a t t y a c i d s when the c h i c k s were f e d w i t h e i t h e r C a n o l a o i l or h y d r o l y z e d C anola o i l . There d i d appear to be a p a t t e r n though. A l l of the f a t t y a c i d s except the 18 carbon c h a i n ones showed s l i g h t i n c r e a s e s i n a b s o r p t i o n and the 18 carbon f a t t y a c i d s showed s l i g h t d e c r e a s e s i n the h y d r o l y z e d t r e a t m e n t s . T h i s was a l s o t r u e of the s u n f l o w e r t r e a t m e n t s with the e x c e p t i o n of C24.0 which showed a T a b l e 13. Apparent I n d i v i d u a l F a t t y A c i d D i g e s t i b i l i t y , T r i a l D i e t a r y Apparent F a t t y A c i d D i g e s t i b i 1 i t y * ( p e r c e n t ) O i l 016:0" ci8 :o c i8 : i c i s:2 C18-.3 CAO 3 81.99 81.95 91.71== 87.61- 92.30=-CAO FFA- 82.59 83.00 90.07== 87.41- 90.77=* SFO 85.60 87.65 89.63t*«= 91.96== 82.36-SFO FFA 86.76 88.27 89.25*» 90.99== 85.32-" 5/5" 86.80 88.58 93.07= 92.63= 92.93=-5/5 FFA 84.06 85.89 89.62== 89.28-= 89.54= SBO 88.40 85.70 91.40== 92.32= 93.58-SBO FFA 82.63 78.84 84.60- 86.16- 88.26== *Means -followed by the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05), a n a l y s i s was performed on t r a n s f o r m e d dat "The number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . 3CA0 = Ca n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . -FFA i n d i c a t e s f r e e f a t t y a c i d s . " I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 5/5 (w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . Continued on next page-T a b l e 13 ( c o n t i n u e d ) . D i e t a r y Apparent D i g e s t i b i l i t y (per cent) O i l C20.0 C20:l C22.0 C22:1 C24.0 CAO 82.28 86.08 72.67 77.87 75.27-= CAO FFA 84.48 86.86 79.24 82.54 88.85- b SFO 80.52 82.69 79.82 73.27 80.26-" SFO FFA 82.88 85.05 83.84 69.59 95.17= 5/5 83.98 88.05 82.96 77.86 75.60-= 3/5 FFA 83.26 85.06 81.21 73.03 82.99-= SBO 83.18 83.15 74.43 88.45= SBO FFA 76.81 77.81 71.08 71.21-lMeans -followed by the same s u p e r s c r i p t are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05), a n a l y s i s was performed on t r a n s f o r m e d dat "The number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . "CAO = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . -FFA i n d i c a t e s f r e e f a t t y a c i d s . " I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 5/5 (w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 66 s i g n i f i c a n t (P < 0.05) i n c r e a s e i n a b s o r p t i o n (80.26% i n the i n t a c t o i l and 95.17% i n the h y d r o l y z e d o i l ) . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o-f t h i s -fatty a c i d i s v e r y low i n the d i e t and o i l however, so i t may be assumed t h a t t h i s does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the o v e r a l l performance of the o i l . The 5/5 b l e n d behaved somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y than e i t h e r the C a n o l a or s u n f l o w e r o i l . T h i s blend had s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) d e p r e s s e d C18.2 and C18:3 a b s o r p t i o n when h y d r o l y z e d . The h y d r o l y z e d b l e n d showed d e p r e s s i o n i n the a b s o r p t i o n of a l l of the f a t t y a c i d s e x c e p t C24.0 (which i n c r e a s e d but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) . T h i s r e s u l t c l o s e l y resembled the soybean o i l r e s u l t s which showed t h a t h y d r o l y s i s of soybean o i l reduced the a b s o r p t i o n of a l l of the f a t t y a c i d s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) reduced the a b s o r p t i o n of the C 1 8 : l , C13:2, C18:3 and C24:0. These r e s u l t s agree wi t h those p u b l i s h e d by S k i a n (1979). But Renner and H i l l (1961a) r e p o r t e d t h a t the d e c r e a s e i n a b s o r b a b i l i t y (due t o h y d r o l y s i s ) of t h e s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s was much g r e a t e r than t h a t of the u n s a t u r a t e d f a t t y a c i d s . T h i s experiment d i d not show t h i s t r e n d . The r e a s o n s f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p a t t e r n s of a b s o r p t i o n of h y d r o l y z e d s u n f l o w e r and C a n o l a o i l v e r s u s the 5/5 b l e n d and soybean o i l a r e not c l e a r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the p o s i t i o n a l isomerism of the t r i g l y c e r i d e of the soybean o i l was r e s p o n s i b l e but t h e r e was no o t h e r e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s . A b e t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n may l i e i n the f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e of the o i l s . That i s , the f l a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e of the b l e n d mast n e a r l y matches t h a t of the soybean o i l and t h i s may i n f l u e n c e the a b s o r p t i o n . The major drawback t o t h i s e x p l a i n a t i o n comes from the o t h e r p a i r of 67 o i l s . The s u n f l o w e r and C a n o l a o i l s behave i n v e r y s i m i l a r ways when h y d r o l y z e d but t h e r e are v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e s . In any case, i t can be seen t h a t f e e d i n g h y d r o l y z e d o i l s i n p r a c t i c a l d i e t s does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t c h i c k performance or a b s o r p t i o n of d i e t or f a t except i n the case of the soybean o i l . I t a l s o appears t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n was l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by h y d r o l y s i s of the o i l except i n the c a s e s of the b l e n d and soybean o i l . T h e r e f o r e , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t h y d r o l y z e d o i l s may be u s e f u l i n the study of l i p i d a b s o r p t i o n , metabolism and f a t s o l u b l e v i t a m i n or s t e r o i d a b s o r p t i o n as suggested by Chen (1979) and Hakkarainen e £ aj_ (1983). However, more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o e x p l a i n the b e h a v i o r of the h y d r o l y z e d soybean o i l and o i l b l e n d b e f o r e t h e s e p r e p a r a t i o n s can be used i n the study of f a t t y a c i d b a l a n c e . 68 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS  O i l s t a b i l i t y Two t e s t s ( p e r o x i d e v a l u e and t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d t e s t ) were used t o a s s e s s the a u t o x i d a t i v e s t a b i l i t y of the o i l s i n the oven s t a b i l i t y t e s t . The r e s u l t s of the p e r o x i d e t e s t i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u n f l o w e r o i l was r e l a t i v e l y more o x i d i z e d than the C a n o l a o i l or the soybean o i l ( T a b l e 14). The p e r o x i d e v a l u e s of the C a n o l a and soybean o i l at day 0 were 2.OS and 5.22 mi 1 1 i e q u i v a l e n t s / 1 0 0 0 gm of o i l , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s agrees with the v a l u e s r e p o r t e d by EsUin and F r e n k e l (1977). The h i g h v a l u e of 13.01 mi 1 1 i e q u i v a l e n t s / 1 0 0 0 gm o i l o b t a i n e d f o r the s u n f l o w e r o i l and the s t r a i g h t l i n e ( F i g u r e 1) of the p l o t t e d p e r o x i d e v a l u e s over time i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s o i l was a l r e a d y p a s t i t s i n d u c t i o n p o i n t . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l of the a n t i - o x i d a n t s i n t h e o i l had been o x i d i z e d b e f o r e t h e oven t e s t was s t a r t e d . T h i s would have had l i t t l e impact on the f e e d i n g t r i a l s as O e r t e l and H a r t f i e l (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t p o u l t r y f e d e i t h e r f r e s h or o x i d i z e d o i l ( p e r o x i d e v a l u e s of 90-180 ml 1 1 i e q u i v a l e n t s / 1 0 0 0 gm o i l ) showed no d i f f e r e n c e s i n f e e d consumption, weight g a i n or f e e d e f f i c i e n c y . However t h i s h i g h p e r o x i d e v a l u e would have marked e f f e c t s on the s t a b i l i t y of the blended o i l s . B l e n d i n g the C a n o l a o i l with the r e l a t i v e l y o x i d i z e d s u n f l o w e r o i l would reduce the i n d u c t i o n p e r i o d of the C a n o l a o i l . T h e r e f o r e , one would expect t o see an i n c r e a s i n g p e r o x i d e v a l u e a t Day 0 and c o n t i n u i n g through the p e r i o d of the oven t e s t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g amounts of s u n f l o w e r o i l i n the b l e n d . T h i s t r e n d i s c l e a r l y shown i n F i g u r e 1. However, the p e r o x i d e Table 14. Peroxide Values Under A c c e l e r a t e d Storage. Oi 1 Peroxide V a l u e 1 Day 5 Day 8 Day 0 Day 2 Day 12 Day 16 CA0« 2.05+0.58 6.34+..591 16.63+0.16 30.15+.1.92 44.72i0.39 SFO 15.01+0.10 28.62+0.25 45.84+.0.72 64.59i0.49 8 9 . 1 3 i l . 8 8 5/5 3 9.11+0.15 17.07+.0.98 31.58i0.10 46.66+.0.43 6 8 . 0 0 i l . 1 5 7/3 6.24i0.44 12.05i0.33 22.85i0.90 32.91i0.82 52.33i0.08 SBO 5.22+1.01 13.28+0.87 26.27+0.18 41.29+0.52 59.23+1.88 61.20i0.37 120.68i0.58 90.45i0.28 71.44i0.91 83.19+1.04 *Mi 11 i - e q u i v a l e n t s per 1000 grams o-f o i l <i standard d e v i a t i o n ) . •CAO = Canola o i l , SFO = Sun-flower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . ' I n d i c a t e s Canola and sun-flower c i l blended 5/5 (weight/weight). 71 v a l u e of the 2 b l e n d s t e s t e d were not d r a m a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the soybean o i l over the t e s t p e r i o d . More i m p o r t a n t l y the p e r o x i d e v a l u e s f o r the b l e n d s f e l l between those of the C a n o l a o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l i n d i c a t i n g t h e r e was not a s y n e r g i s t i c d e c r e a s e i n s t a b i l i t y due t o the b l e n d i n g . The l a c k of sy n e r g i s m i n d i c a t e s t h a t b l e n d i n g does not have a s e r i o u s impact on the developement of p e r o x i d e v a l u e i n an o i l . These r e s u l t s were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d t e s t . In c o n t r a s t t o the p e r o x i d e v a l u e s the t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d v a l u e s (absorbance at 330 nm) f o r the 3 o i l s and 2 b l e n d s were i d e n t i c a l at the b e g i n n i n g of the d e t e r i o r a t i o n t e s t ( T a b l e 13). However, they showed s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the developement of t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d r e a c t i v e s u b s t a n c e s d u r i n g the t e s t ( F i g u r e 2 ) . I t can be seen t h a t the s u n f l o w e r o i l developed the t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d r e a c t i v e s u b s t a n c e s more s l o w l y and a t t a i n e d a t o t a l amount which was l e s s than t h e o t h e r o i l s i n s p i t e of b e i n g more o x i d i z e d t o b e g i n w i t h . T h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o the s m a l l amount of l i n o l e n i c a c i d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s o i l . The p a t t e r n of l e v e l of l i n o l e n i c a c i d i n the o i l was C a n o l a o i l > soybean o i l > 7/3 > 3/3 > s u n f l o w e r o i l and T a b l e 15 shows t h a t the absorbance a t 16 days r e f l e c t s t h i s same p a t t e r n . At 2 days of i n c u b a t i o n the 7/3 and 5/5 b l e n d s showed a s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e i n absorbance. The i n c r e a s e was p r o b a b l y due t o the o x i d i z e d s t a t e of the s u n f l o w e r o i l , as the degree of o x i d a t i o n i n c r e a s e d with the i n c r e a s e i n amount of s u n f l o w e r o i l i n the b l e n d . S i n c e s u n f l o w e r o i l a l o n e d i d not develope t h i s l e v e l of absorbance i t may be assumed t h a t the p e r o x i d e s added t o 72 T a b l e 15. T h i o b a r b i t u r i c A c i d V a l u e s Under A c c e l e r a t e d S t o r a g e . 2 - T h i o b a r b i t u r i c A c i d V a l u e * Oi 1 Day 0 Day 2 Day 5 Day 8 Day 16 CAO» 0.02+0.00 0.22+0.01 1.47+.0.08 1.73±0.04 1.86+0.03 SFO 0.02+0.00 0.05+0.00 0.08±0.01 0.13±0.01 0.49+0.01 5/5" 0.02+0.00 0.37+0.01 0.74+0.03 0.92+0.00 0.99+0.04 7/3 0.02+0.00 0.28+0.00 0.84+0.06 1.10+0.01 1.21+0.01 SBO 0.02+0.00 0.68±0.01 1.15+0.01 1.31+0.01 1.20±0.01 x A b s o r b a n c e at 530 nm <+_ s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ) . aCAO = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . ' I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and su n f l o w e r o i l blended 5/5 ( w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 74 the b l e n d by the sun-flower o i l hastened the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the l i n o l e n i c a c i d i n the b l e n d . T h i s hastened d e t e r i o r a t i o n was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the reduced i n d u c t i o n p e r i o d s of the b l e n d s as shown i n F i g u r e 2. D e s p i t e t h i s s y n e r g i s m t h e i n d u c t i o n p e r i o d of the b l e n d s was s t i l l g r e a t e r than t h a t shown by the soybean o i l and the t o t a l absorbance a t t a i n e d i n t h e b l e n d s was e q u i v a l e n t t o or l e s s than t h a t of the soybean o i l . The absorbances a t 16 days f o r the C a n o l a and soybean o i l s were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h o s e r e p o r t e d by E s k i n and F r e n k e l (1977), t h i s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n temperature at which the oven t e s t was conducted and the h y d r o g e n a t i o n of the soybean o i l used by those r e s e a r c h e r s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t b l e n d i n g d i d not s e r i o u s l y a l t e r the p a t t e r n s of p e r o x i d e v a l u e o r t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d v a l u e developement and, t h e r e f o r e , d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce the o x i d a t i v e s t a b i l i t y of the o i l s i n v o l v e d . Smoke p o i n t s T a b l e 16 shows t h a t a l l of the o i l s were w e l l above the Canadian government s t a n d a r d of 200°C f o r f r y i n g o i l s . The v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r the Canbra, s u n f l o w e r and soybean o i l s compare w e l l w i t h those p u b l i s h e d i n Canadian Consumer (1977), a l t h o u g h they a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6°C h i g h e r than the r e p o r t e d v a l u e s . I t can be seen t h a t the b l e n d i n g of s u n f l o w e r and C a n o l a o i l i n 5/5 and 7/3 p r o p o r t i o n s d i d not s y n e r g i s t i c a l l y change the smoke p o i n t s . T h i s was t o be expected as the smoke p o i n t i s a measure of m o l e c u l a r weight and f r e e f a t t y a c i d c o n t e n t of an o i l . There was no e v i d e n c e t h a t b l e n d i n g a l t e r s t h e s e parameters. T a b l e 16. O i l Smoke P o i n t . O i l Type Smoke P o i n t 1 ± SD* Canbra 244 +_ 1.53 Ca n o l a 247 +_ 1. 15 Sunt lower 252 +_ 0.38 Soybean 246 +_ 1.00 5/5" 249 +_ 0.58 7/3 246 +_ 0.58 'Degrees C e l s i u s . " S tandard d e v i a t i o n (n = 3 ) . " I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 5/5 (we i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 76 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The e f f e c t s of b a l a n c i n g the f a t t y a c i d p r o f i l e s of Canbra (6.1% e r u c i c a c i d ) and C a n o l a (0.55% e r u c i c a c i d ) o i l s by b l e n d i n g with o t h e r f a t s or o i l s on c h i c k performance and f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , as w e l l as, the a u t o x i d a t i v e s t a b i l i t y and smoke p o i n t of the o i l were i n v e s t i g a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of f e e d i n g f r e e f a t t y a c i d s ( h y d r o l y z e d o i l s ) t o study the e f f e c t s of f a t t y a c i d b a l a n c i n g was examined. Canbra o i l was blended w i t h e i t h e r s u n f l o w e r o i l or animal l a r d 1/1 (w/w). The C a n o l a o i l was blended w i t h s u n f l o w e r o i l i n the r a t i o s 9/1, 8/2, 7/3, 6/4 and 5/5. The n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e of the o i l s was assayed u s i n g growing c h i c k s f e d l i p i d at 8% i n a p r a c t i c a l d i e t over a 4 week f e e d i n g p e r i o d . The c r i t e r i a used f o r e v a l u a t i o n were body weight, weight g a i n , f e e d consumption, f e e d c o n v e r s i o n , f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , d i e t m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy, l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y . The e f f e c t s of d i e t a r y a d d i t i o n s of Canbra o i l , animal l a r d , s u n f l o w e r o i l , b l e n d s of Canbra o i l w i t h animal l a r d or s u n f l o w e r o i l , C a n o l a o i l , soybean o i l , and b l e n d s of C a n o l a o i l and s u n f l o w e r o i l on c h i c k performance and u t i l i z a t i o n were compared and d i s c u s s e d . Under the c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was observed t h a t Canbra o i l was e q u i v a l e n t t o animal l a r d and s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) i n f e r i o r t o s u n f l o w e r o i l i n the promotion of growth 77 and -feed consumption. The b l e n d s o-f Canbra o i l and animal l a r d or sun-flower o i l showed i n c r e a s e d weight g a i n and consumption over the Canbra o i l -fed a l o n e . In the case of the Canbra o i l / a n i m a l l a r d b l e n d t h i s i n c r e a s e was s y n e r g i s t i c . There were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n f e e d c o n v e r s i o n , f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y or t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y between thes e t r e a t m e n t s . Canbra o i l was s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.0S) i n f e r i o r t o the o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s i n l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t both b l e n d s e x i b i t e d a s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e i n l i p i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s of the Canbra o i l and animal l a r d g e n e r a l l y were l e s s a b s o r b a b l e than those of the s u n f l o w e r o i l . B l e n d i n g Canbra o i l w i t h e i t h e r animal l a r d or s u n f l o w e r o i l caused s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e s i n the a b s o r b a b i l i t y of the m a j o r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s . C a n o l a o i l , s u n f l o w e r o i l and soybean o i l were determined t o be e q u i v a l e n t i n the promotion of weight g a i n and f e e d consumption. A l l of the b l e n d s of C a n o l a and s u n f l o w e r o i l except the 8/2 and 6/4 b l e n d s showed s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e s i n body weight. The l a r g e s t weight g a i n was demonstrated by the 7/3 b l e n d and t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.03) g r e a t e r than the weight g a i n s promoted by e i t h e r the sun f l o w e r o i l or the soybean o i l . The f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y of the soybean o i l treatment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y <P < 0.03) h i g h e r than t h a t of the C a n o l a o i l or s u n f l o w e r o i l t r e a t m e n t s . However, the synergism i n fee d d i g e s t i b i l i t y shown by the 7/3, 6/4 and 5/3 b l e n d s r a i s e d t h i s parameter t o a l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t t o the d i g e s t i b i l i t y shown i n the soybean o i l t r e a t m e n t . T h i s p a t t e r n was a l s o shown i n n i t r o g e n 78 r e t e n t i o n and apparent m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy of the d i e t s w i t h the 5/3 and 7/3 b l e n d s c o n s i s t a n t l y p e r f o r m i n g the b e s t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f e e d c o n v e r s i o n or t o t a l f a t t y a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t y between any of these t r e a t m e n t s . In terms of i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s those d e r i v e d from C a n o l a o i l g e n e r a l l y were l e s s a b s o r b a b l e than those d e r i v e d from the soybean o i l . The 7/3 and 5/5 b l e n d s showed s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e s i n the a b s o r p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s t o a l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t t o or e x c e e d i n g v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r the f a t t y a c i d s of soybean o i l . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the e s s e n t i a l f a t t y a c i d s . The a u t o x i d a t l v e s t a b i l i t y of the o i l s and b l e n d s was as s e s s e d by d e t e r m i n i n g p e r o x i d e v a l u e s and t h i o b a r b i t u r i c a c i d v a l u e s over time i n an oven t e s t . R e s u l t s showed t h a t b l e n d i n g had no s e r i o u s d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on o i l s t a b i l i t y . T h i s was a l s o t r u e of the smoke p o i n t s . . S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn from t h e s e r e s u l t s . F a t t y a c i d b a l a n c i n g of Canbra o i l by b l e n d i n g w i t h e i t h e r animal l a r d ( s a t u r a t e d f a t ) or su n f l o w e r o i l ( u n s a t u r a t e d o i l ) improves c h i c k weight g a i n , f e e d consumption, l i p i d a b s o r p t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n . F a t t y a c i d b a l a n c i n g of C a n o l a o i l with s u n f l o w e r o i l improves c h i c k weight g a i n , f e e d d i g e s t i b i l i t y , n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e d i e t a r y apparent m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy compared t o C a n o l a o i l or s u n f l o w e r o i l f e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . T h i s was most n o t i c a b l e f o r the 5/3 and 7/3 <w/w) b l e n d s . The h i g h degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between weight g a i n and f e e d consumption shown i n a l l c a s e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n ad. 1ibiturn f e e d i n g , f e e d consumption 79 i s t h e most important -factor i n c h i c U weight g a i n . The - f e a s i b i l i t y of -feeding h y d r o l y z e d o i l s ( f r e e f a t t y a c i d m i x t u r e s ) was assayed by f e e d i n g h y d r o l y z e d C a n o l a o i l , s u n f l o w e r o i l , soybean o i l and a 5/5 b l e n d of C a n o l a and s u n f l o w e r o i l or the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t a c t o i l s a t 8% of a p r a c t i c a l d i e t . C r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n of performance were t h e same as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . R e s u l t s showed t h a t h y d r o l y z e d C a n o l a and s u n f l o w e r o i l were e q u i v a l e n t t o the i n t a c t o i l s i n n u t r i t i v e performance. The h y d r o l y z e d b l e n d was e q u i v a l e n t t o the i n t a c t b l e n d i n growth promotion, f e e d consumption, f e e d c o n v e r s i o n and l i p i d a b s o r p t i o n but showed s i g n i f i c a n t (P < 0.05) r e d u c t i o n i n the a b s o r b a b i l i t y of some i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d s . H y d r o l y z e d soybean o i l w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g the same growth i n c h i c k s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05) reduced d i e t and f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t f e e d i n g h y d r o l y z e d o i l s may be a u s e f u l t o o l i n the study of f a t t y a c i d b a l a n c e but t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o e l u c i d a t e the reduced a b s o r b a b i l i t y shown by the h y d r o l y z e d b l e n d and soybean o i l . 80 BIBLIOGRAPHY A b d e l l a t i f , A.M.M. and R.O. V i e s , 1970. 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F i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were f o r m u l a t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e e i t h e r Canbra o i l <6.1% e r u c i c a c i d ) , C a n o l a o i l (0.55% e r u c i c a c i d ) , s u n f l o w e r o i l or b l e n d s of C a n o l a and s u n f l o w e r o i l a t the r a t i o s 8/2 and 7/3 (w/w) i n t o a b a s a l d i e t ( T a b l e 3 ) . Ex p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s a s s i g n e d at random i n t r i p l i c a t e t o 15 c h i c k groups over a 4 week f e e d i n g p e r i o d as d e s c r i b e d i n T r i a l s 1 and 2. In t h i s experiment o n l y body weight, weight g a i n , f e e d consumption and f e e d c o n v e r s i o n were measured. P r i o r t o s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s the d a t a was combined wit h t h a t of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g t r e a t m e n t s i n T r i a l s .1 and 2, t h i s r e s u l t e d i n 6 r e p l i c a t e s per treatment and an i n c r e a s e i n s t a t i s t i c a l p r e c 1 s i o n . R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n I t can be seen t h a t C a n o l a o i l i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P <0.05) s u p e r i o r t o both Canbra o i l and su n f l o w e r o i l i n promoting weight g a i n ( T a b l e I ) . The d a t a a l s o shows t h a t t h e r e i s a marked In c r e a s e i n the f i n a l body weight and weight g a i n of the 8/2 bl e n d over those r e p o r t e d i n T r i a l 2. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the 8/2 bl e n d and the C a n o l a o i l i n promotion of weight g a i n . The 7/3 bl e n d i s s u p e r i o r t o the o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , a l t h o u g h i t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y 94 T a b l e I. E f f e c t of O i l B l e n d i n g on the Growth Performance of C h i c k s at 4 Weeks, T r i a l 4. D i e t a r y C h i c k Performance* O i l Body weight Weight g a i n Feed Consumed Feed C o n v e r s i o n <g/bird) <g/bird) <g/bird) <g consumed/gain) CAO* 331.6-* 293.9* 598.0*= 2.04 8/2 3 319.0*= 281.4-* 577.3-*= 2.05 7/3 335.0* 297.6* 608.7= 2.05 SFO 311.7-* 274.2- 573.6-* 2.10 CBO 302.0- 265.9- 554.0- 2.08 SEM- 3.16 5.28 10.83 0.03 'Means not f o l l o w e d by the same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t <P < 0.05). *CA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , CBO = Canbra D i l l ' I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 8/2 (w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . -Standard e r r o r of the mean <n =3). 95 s u p e r i o r t o the C a n o l a o i l . However i t shows a d e f i n i t e t r e n d i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n which s u p p o r t s the r e s u l t s of T r i a l 2. I t can be conc l u d e d t h a t the 7/3 b l e n d shows a p o s i t i v e s y n e r g i s t i c i n c r e a s e i n weight g a i n . T a b l e I a l s o shows t h a t the same p a t t e r n can be observed i n t o t a l f e e d consumption. The consumption of f e e d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y <P < 0.05) g r e a t e r i n the C a n o l a o i l treatment than i n the Canbra o i l treatment. Even though the s u n f l o w e r o i l treatment showed l e s s consumption than the C a n o l a o i l treatment t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The 7/3 b l e n d treatment showed a t r e n d toward h i g h e r consumption than the C a n o l a o i l c o n f i r m i n g the r e s u l t s of T r i a l 2. In t h i s experiment the c o r r e l a t i o n between weight g a i n and f e e d consumption was h i g h e r than t h a t shown i n T r i a l s 1 and 2 (r=»0.99). T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n a i 1 lbiturn f e e d i n g consumption i s a f f e c t e d by b l e n d i n g o i l and t h a t t h i s i s a major f a c t o r i n the weight g a i n of the c h i c k s . As i n T r i a l s 1 and 2 f e e d c o n v e r s i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between t r e a t m e n t s . T a b l e I I . F a t t y A c i d Composition o-f D i e t s , T r i a l 1. D i e t a r y F a t t y A c i d Content (per cent by weight) O i l C14:0* C16.0 C16.1 C18.0 C18:1 C18.2 CBO" 5.51 1.96 49.69 25.80 SFO 7.94 5.21 18.71 63.37 AL 0.86 21.29 2.22 14.36 40.74 15.40 CBO+SFO" 6.71 3.69 35.94 45.51 CBO+AL 0.45 13.63 1.23 8.50 44.35 20.45 C18:3 C20.0 C20.1 C22.0 C22". 1 C24.0 CBO 8.38 0.72 3.37 4.56 SFO 1.32 0.46 0.74 1.18 0.50 0.38 AL 1.85 0.34 1.33 0.31 CBO+SFO 5.22 0.65 2.11 0.77 2.55 0.31 CBO+AL 5.05 0.52 2.24 0.22 2.24 l T h e number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number -following i n d i c a t e s the number o-f double bonds p r e s e n t . "CBO = Canbra o i l , SFO =» Sunflower o i l , AL = Animal l a r d . " I n d i c a t e s o i l blended 1:1 by weight. T a b l e I I I . F a t t y A c i d C omposition of D i e t s , T r i a l 2. D i e t a r y F a t t y A c i d Content (per cent by weight) O i l c i 4 : o 1 c i 6 : o C16.1 c i 8 : o C i 8 : i C18:2 CAO* 6.97 0.17 2.38 51.38 27.23 9/1' 7.06 0.16 2.63 47.79 31.39 8/2 0.12 7.38 0.15 2.90 44.44 34.69 7/3 0.21 7.39 0.14 3.19 41.01 38.53 6/4 7.06 0.13 3.34 37.89 42.78 5/5 7.66 0.11 3.74 33.99 46.59 SFO 8.57 5.13 16.77 66.52 SBO 11.53 0.11 4.26 23.37 51.29 C18:3 C20 :o C20:i C22 :o C22:i C24 :o CAO 7.61 1.08 2.09 0.44 0.38 0.26 9/1 7.02 0.90 1.97 0.50 0.37 0.21 8/2 6.39 1.02 1.83 0.54 0.34 0.20 7/3 5.73 1.00 1.69 0.61 0.33 0.19 6/4 5.26 0.96 1.50 0.66 0.28 0.15 5/5 4.63 0.89 1.35 0.66 0.24 0.13 SFO 0.93 0.33 0.33 0.97 0.17 0.29 SBO 7.23 0.79 0.73 0.49 0.20 'The number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . zCA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . ' I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 9/1 (we i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 98 T a b l e IV. F a t t y A c i d Composition of D i e t s , T r i a l 3. D i e t a r y F a t t y A c i d Content (per c e n t by weight) O i l . C14.0 1 C16.0 C16.1 C18.0 C18:1 C18.2 CAO» 6.97 0.17 2.38 51.38 27.23 CAO F F A 3 6.42 0.16 2.51 52.88 25.94 SFO 8.57 5.13 16.77 66.52 SFO FFA 8.37 5.79 17.11 65.36 5/5* 7.66 0.11 3.74 33.99 46.59 5/5 FFA 7.40 0.10 4.01 35.01 45.40 SBO 11.53 0.11 4.26 23.37 51.29 SBO FFA 11.75 0.09 4.65 23.75 50.13 C18.3 C20:0 C20:l C22.0 C22.1 C24.0 CAO 7.61 1.08 2.09 0.44 0.38 0.26 CAO FFA 7.10 1.21 2.38 0.60 0.49 0.33 SFO 0.93 0.33 0.33 0.97 0.17 0.29 SFO FFA 0.81 0.39 0.36 1.25 0.19 0.37 5/5 4.63 0.89 1.35 0.66 0.24 0.13 5/3 FFA 4.30 0.98 1.45 0.87 0.30 0.17 SBO 7.23 0.79 0.73 0.49 0.20 SBO FFA 7.08 0.84 0.76 0.60 0.13 0.23 4 T h e number p r e c e e d i n g the c o l o n i n d i c a t e s the l e n g t h of the carbon c h a i n , the number f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t e s the number of double bonds p r e s e n t . 2CA0 = C a n o l a o i l , SFO = Sunflower o i l , SBO = Soybean o i l . 3 F F A i n d i c a t e s f r e e f a t t y a c i d s . - I n d i c a t e s C a n o l a and Sunflower o i l blended 5/5 (w e i g h t / w e i g h t ) . 99 Table V. A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of growth parameters, T r i a l 1. Parameter Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS Fx Body weight 4 10 285. 79 54.06 5. 29* Weight g a i n 4 10 291. 12 51.63 5. 64*-Feed consumption 4 10 986. 11 223.16 4. 42* Feed c o n v e r s i o n 4 10 0. 0037 0.0019 1. 92 ' L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, ** = 1%. 100 T a b l e VI. A n a l y s i s o-f v a r i a n c e o-f d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , T r i a l 1. Parameter Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F* Feed 4 10 1.36 0.91 1.50 L i p i d 4 10 3.48 0.44 7.87"« T o t a l f a t t y a c i d 4 10 4.52 2.11 2.14 ' L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, ** » 1%, d a t a was t r e a t e d w i t h a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . 101 T a b l e V I I . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 1. F a t t y a c i d Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F 1 C16:0 4 10 39.61 2.28 17.38** C18.0 4 10 75.31 6.71 11.22** C18.1 4 10 9.89 1.78 5.54* C18:2 4 10 29.84 1.55 19.22** C18C3 4 10 131.39 1.63 80.65*' C20I1 4 10 43.47 6.06 7.18* C22.1 2 6 31.12 10.22 3.05 ' L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, ** = 1%, d a t a was t r e a t e d w i t h a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . T a b l e V I I I . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r growth parameters and AMEn, T r i a l 2. Parameter Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F 1 Body weight 7 16 495.03 159.39 3. 11* Weight g a i n 7 16 496.15 155.85 3. 18* Feed consumption 7 16 1490.01 875.60 1.70 Feed c o n v e r s i o n 7 16 0.0043 0.0023 1.87 AMEn 7 16 24577.30 7781.61 3. 16* 'L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, ** = 1%. 103 T a b l e IX. A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , T r i a l 2. Parameter Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F 1 Feed 7 L i p i d 7 T o t a l f a t t y a c i d 7 N i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n 7 16 16 16 16 6.78 16.73 13.09 16.33 2.48 2.74* 3.66 4.57* 8.43 1.79 3.18 2.64-1 ' L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e • * • 3%, * • =» 1%, d a t a was t r e a t e d w i t h a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . 104 T a b l e X. A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 2. F a t t y a c i d Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F 1 C16:0 7 16 14.71 3.81 3.86* C18.0 7 16 18.96 10.22 1.85 C18: 1 7 16 7.35 2.73 2.70 C18:2 7 16 12. 16 1.97 6.18** C18:3 7 16 35.29 1.61 21.87** C20:o 7 16 19. 12 9.85 1.94 C20: i 7 16 16.99 5.70 2.98* C22!0 7 16 33.69 21.97 1.53 C22: 1 6 14 29.80 14.93 2.00 C24:0 7 1.6 55.41 11.53 4.81** ' L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, • * = 1%, d a t a was t r e a t e d w i t h a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . 105 Ta b l e XI. A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of growth parameters, T r i a l 3. Parameter Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F* Body weight 7 16 297.50 248.23 1.20 Weight g a i n 7 16 279.85 242.86 1. 15 Feed consumption 7 16 1562.10 1829.77 0.85 Feed c o n v e r s i o n 7 16 0.0050 0.0027 1.84 ' L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, =» 1%. 106 T a b l e X I I . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , T r i a l 3. Parameter Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F 1 Feed 7 16 4.38 1.32 3.33* L i p i d 7 16 11.09 3.47 3.20* T o t a l f a t t y a c i d 7 16 9.61 3.833 2.51 ' L e v e l D f s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, * * = 1%, d a t a was t r e a t e d w i t h a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . 107 T a b l e X I I I . A n a l y s i s o-f v a r i a n c e o-f i n d i v i d u a l f a t t y a c i d a b s o r p t i o n , T r i a l 3. F a t t y a c i d Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F* C16:0 7 16 10.87 5.16 2. 10 C18.0 7 16 21.70 10.43 2.08 C18: 1 7 16 15.59 3.43 4.54** C18:2 7 16 17.22 2.21 7.81** C18.3 7 16 37.66 2.21 17.02** C20:o 7 16 11.82 10.66 1.11 C20: l 7 16 17. 10 7.50 2.28 C22:0 7 16 32.05 20.78 1.54 C22: 1 3 12 24.40 12.60 1.94 C24:0 7 16 184.14 35.79 5.15** ' L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * = 5%, ** => 1%, d a t a was t r e a t e d w i t h a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . 108 T a b l e . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r growth parameters, T r i a l 4. Parameter Treatment df E r r o r df Treatment MS E r r o r MS F X Body weight 4 25 1131.34 159.49 7. 09*~ Weight g a i n 4 25 1055.73 167.58 6. 30*" Feed consumption 4 25 2761.31 704.18 3. 92~ Feed c o n v e r s i o n 4 25 0.0040 0.0018 2. 27 'L e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e * i . 5 % , 

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