UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Mavis Gallant’s short fiction : history and memory in the light of imagination Besner, Neil Kalman 1983

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MAVIS GALLANT'S SHORT F I C T I O N : HISTORY AND MEMORY IN THE LIGHT OF IMAGINATION by NEIL KALMAN BESNER B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1983 ( c ) N e i l Kalman B e s n e r , 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 A b s t r a c t S i n c e 1944, M a v i s G a l l a n t has p u b l i s h e d o v e r one h u n d r e d s h o r t s t o r i e s . H e r p o s i t i o n as C a n a d a ' s f o r e m o s t e x p a t r i a t e w r i t e r i s s u b -sumed i n h e r i m p o r t a n c e as a m a j o r s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r o f t h e p o s t w a r e r a : I c l a i m t h a t h e r s t o r i e s e n a c t t h e d i s t o r t i o n s o f h i s t o r y a n d memory c a u s e d by t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , a n d p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l s o f t h e s e c o n d w o r l d war. Her s t o r i e s d e p a r t f r o m t h e i r r e a l i s t g r o u n d t o r e g i s t e r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y t h e s e f i s s u r e s i n t i m e ; s t y l e a n d s t r u c t u r e t e a c h r e a d e r s t o d i s c e r n G a l l a n t ' s theme i n t h e f o r m s o f c h a r a c t e r s ' r e t u r n s t o and e v a s i o n s o f t h e p a s t . As G a l l a n t t r a c e s t h e s e r e t u r n s t o moments i n memory and h i s t o r y , h e r f i c t i o n m o d u l a t e s between a p p a r e n t d o c u m e n t a r y r e a l i s m a n d t r a n s p a r e n t i m p r e s s i o n i s m , between s c r u p u l o u s l y a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f ,a h i s t o r i c a l w o r l d and r e f l e x i v e commentary on memory's p r o c e s s e s o f i n v e n t i o n . T h e s t r u c t u r e o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n f o r m u l a t e s c h a r a c t e r s ' r e t u r n s t o m i s s e d moments o f i n s i g h t , r e t u r n s w h i c h i m p l y t i m e ' s f r a c t u r e d p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r c i r c u l a r e d d i e s between p r e s e n t a n d p a s t . S t u d y i n g G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , I t r a c e i n C h a p t e r s One t h r o u g h F i v e t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a b r o k e n d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n h i s t o r y and memory w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h c h a r a c t e r s f l e e i n g f r o m h i s t o r y ' s r e p o r t s i n t o memory's f i c t i o n s . T h i s d i a l o g u e d e v e l o p s as p o s t w a r h i s t o r y swamps memory, s t r a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n an a t t e n u a t e d p r e s e n t t e n s e , and i t c u l m i n a t e s i i i n c h a r a c t e r s ' r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s t o r y ' s moment as memory's home. In C h a p t e r F i v e , I e x a m i n e how t h e s e d i a l o g u e s between memory and h i s t o r y r e s o l v e t h e m s e l v e s i n G a l l a n t ' s L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s . I show how t h e s e l i n e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t u n d e r s c o r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , i n p o i n t o f v i e w , t r e a t m e n t o f t i m e , and c r e a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r , and how t h e s t o r i e s ' s e t t i n g s e v o k e an o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n N o r t h A m e r i c a n and E u r o p e a n v i s i o n s o f h i s t o r y . In C h a p t e r S i x , t h e s e a n a l y s e s l e a d t o a c o n c l u d i n g s t u d y o f i m a g i n a t i o n i n G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s as a l i g h t w h i c h i l l u m i n a t e s t h e c o n -v e r g e n c e o f h i s t o r y w i t h memory, e n a b l i n g c h a r a c t e r s t o i m a g i n e a home-c o m i n g i n t i m e . G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s i n v i t e r e a d e r s t o c o n s i d e r t h e ways i n w h i c h memory's o b j e c t i v e p o r t r a i t s and s u b j e c t i v e i n v e n t i o n s d e v e l o p i n t o comments on t h e w r i t e r ' s a r t o f c a l l i n g t h e p a s t i n t o b e i n g . T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s . i v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s . , . v CHAPTER I R e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s Canon 1 CHAPTER I I T h e O t h e r P a r i s : Memory's F i c t i o n s A g a i n s t H i s t o r y ' s R e p o r t s . . . . . 31 CHAPTER I I I My H e a r t I s B r o k e n : G h o s t s i n Memory's M i r r o r s , H e a r t b r e a k i n Memory's V o i c e . 84 CHAPTER IV The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n : The " C o r r u p t i o n o f Memory," t h e " I n t e r f e r e n c e " o f H i s t o r y . . . . . . . . . . 126 CHAPTER V The L i g h t o f I m a g i n a t i o n : H i s t o r y ' s Moment, Memory's Home 178 CHAPTER VI Home T r u t h s : T he D i s t r i c t s o f I m a g i n a t i o n . . . . . . 223 APPENDIX B i b l i o g r a p h y o f Works By and A b o u t M a v i s G a l l a n t . . 244 BIBLIOGRAPHY 271 A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w i s h t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r B i l l New f o r h i s c o n s t a n t g u i d a n c e i n a l l t h e s t a g e s o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n . He was u n s t i n t i n g l y g e n e r o u s w i t h h i s t i m e , and h i s t h e o r e t i c a l c o u n s e l and p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e were i n d i s p e n s a b l e . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r R o n a l d H a t c h f o r h i s a l w a y s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and f o r h i s i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e v e l o p i n g an a p p r o a c h t o G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . P r o f e s s o r L a u r i e R i c o u was v e r y h e l p f u l a t t h e p r o j e c t ' s b e g i n n i n g s , and P r o f e s s o r D o n a l d S t e p h e n s k i n d l y c o n s e n t e d t o r e a d and c r i t i c i z e t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n i n i t s l a t e r s t a g e s . I a l s o w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , w h i c h g r a n t e d me d o c t o r a l f e l l o w s h i p s i n 1979-1980 and 1 9 8 1 - 1 982, and o f t h e E n g l i s h d e p a r t m e n t , w h i c h p r o v i d e d me w i t h t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p s i n 1 978-1979 a n d 1982-1983. v 1 CHAPTER I Reading Ga l l an t ' s Canon From 1944 un t i l the l a te 1 970's, Mayis. G a l l a n t ' s career developed qu ie t l y but s t e a d i l y . Her f i r s t two published short s t o r i e s , "Good Morning and Goodbye" and "Three Br ick Wal ls , " appeared in 1944 in Preview;^ in 1944, Ga l lant a lso began work as a j o u r n a l i s t for the Montreal Standard. Over the next six years , she wrote over s i x ty feature a r t i c l e s for the Standard, as well as photo - s tor ie s , reviews, capt ions , and (from October 1947 to June 1949) a weekly column about r ad io , "On the A i r . " Gal lant published another short s tory , "A Wonderful Country," in the Standard in 1946; she l e f t Montreal and the Standard in 1950 to t ry and make a l i v i n g 3 and a l i f e wr i t ing f i c t i o n in Europe. In 1951 Northern Review published "The Flowers of Spr ing , " and "Madel ine 's Birthday" became the f i r s t of Ga l l an t ' s s t o r i e s to appear in the New Yorker, which has been publ i sh ing her s to r i e s regu l a r l y ever s ince. To date, Gal lant has published some ninety-seven s to r ie s and two nove l l a s , most of them appearing f i r s t in the New Yorker.^ She has also wr i t ten two novels, Green Water, Green Sky (1959), and A F a i r l y Good Time (1970), and four groups of her s to r i e s have been published as books: The Other Par is (1956), My Heart Is Broken (1964), The Pegnitz Junction (1973), and From the F i f teenth D i s t r i c t (1979). The s ix "L innet Muir s t o r i e s " form an important f i f t h group, comprising one t h i r d of Ga l l an t ' s l a t e s t c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s , Home Truths, which won 5 her the Governor-General 's award for f i c t i o n in 1981. 2 The history of c r i t i c a l attention to Gallant in Canada is a l l too quickly t o l d . The f i r s t a r t i c l e on Ga l lant ' s f i c t i o n , a study of her three "novels" by Peter Stevens, appeared in 1973. Douglas Malcolm completed his Master's thes i s , "The Theme of Ex i le in Mavis Ga l lant ' s F i c t i o n , " in 1975, and has since published a comprehensive bibliography of works by and about Ga l l an t . 7 In 1978, an issue of Canadian F ic t ion Magazine was devoted to Gal lant, with an interview by Geoff Hancock, a r t i c l e s by Robertson Davies, George Woodcock, and Ronald Hatch, and an updated o version of Malcolm's bibliography. This CFM issue remains the s ingle most valuable source of material on Gal lant. Hancock's interview, although his questions and comments are not always as productive as they might be, is s t i l l the most wide-ranging and informative discussion with Gallant to 9 date. In addit ion to Ronald Hatch's four other a r t i c l e s on Gal lant, there i s Grazia Mer ler ' s book, Mavis Gal lant: Narrative Patterns and  Devices (1978), a very recent a r t i c l e on My Heart Is Broken by David O'Rourke, a scatter ing of reviews and interviews, and entries on Gallant in several surveys of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . ^ One can only speculate on what th i s paucity of c r i t i c a l discussion indicates about Ga l lant ' s f i c t i o n or about the Canadian c r i t i c a l community. Perhaps the d i f f i c u l t y has been that Gallant writes stor ies which re s i s t interpretat ion almost successful ly. After prais ing her, as most reviewers do, as a f ine " r e a l i s t , " and for her f a i t h f u l , exacting t ranscr ipt ions of se t t ing , her precise rendit ions of the nuances of cu l tura l surrounds, her f ine ear for dialogue and her sharp eye for d e t a i l , interpretat ion has come to a dead end .^ Close readings of Ga l lant ' s stor ies can bog down in a mass of d e t a i l s , a l l s i g n i f i c an t , none representative. Thematic in terpretat ion , which usually begins by c a l l i n g attention to Ga l lant ' s 3 r e c u r r i n g f o c u s on e x i l e s , e x p a t r i a t e s , and r e f u g e e s , a d r i f t i n E u r o p e a n p e n s i o n s , v i l l a s , and h o t e l s , l e a v e s t o o many u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t 12 f o r m i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . The f o r m o f G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s r e f l e c t s h e r f i c t i o n ' s t e n d e n c y t o r e t u r n t o moments o f p o t e n t i a l i n s i g h t — r e a d e r s ' and c h a r a c t e r s 1 - - m o m e n t s w h i c h m i g h t r e s t r u c t u r e t h e " s i t u a t i o n " i n w h i c h 13 G a l l a n t s a y s m ost o f h e r s t o r i e s b e g i n . R e v i e w i n g From t h e F i f t e e n t h D i s t r i c t , V. S. P r i t c h e t t c a l l s G a l l a n t a " c i r c l i n g s t o r y t e l l e r " ; G a l l a n t h e r s e l f comments t o G e o f f H a n c o c k on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f many o f h e r s t o r i e s : 14 "The s t o r y b u i l d s a r o u n d i t s c e n t r e , r a t h e r l i k e a s n a i l . " The c e n t r e o f a G a l l a n t s t o r y t y p i c a l l y c o n s i s t s , n o t o n l y o f a " l o c k e d s i t u a t i o n , " b u t a l s o o f a moment o f p o t e n t i a l r e v e l a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e r e v e l a t o r y moments, h o w e v e r , i s o f t e n m i s s e d by c h a r a c t e r s e n g a g e d i n a m a n y - v o i c e d d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e p a s t . T h e s e d i a l o g u e s a r e m o s t o f t e n b r o k e n , c u t s h o r t , i n t e r r u p t e d , as memory r e a c h e s f o r l a n g u a g e s w i t h w h i c h t o t r a n s c r i b e , r e o r d e r o r r e c r e a t e h i s t o r y e v a d e d , o r h i s t o r y e n c o u n t e r e d . One l i n e o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n r u n s f r o m e a r l y s t o r i e s w i t h c h a r a c t e r s who*, i n r e t r e a t f r o m h i s t o r y , m i s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e moments e n t i r e l y ; t o c h a r a c t e r s d i m l y a w a re t h a t s u c h moments a r e " t a k i n g p l a c e " i n t i m e ; t o c h a r a c t e r s who t e l l s t o r i e s w h i c h e x p l o r e t h e p o t e n t i a l r e v e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s e moments. T h i s l i n e o f d e v e l o p m e n t c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s , i n w h i c h L i n n e t r e c r e a t e s l i v i n g moments w i t h i n memory and w i t h i n h i s t o r y . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i v e j o u r n e y f o r r e a d e r s o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n i n v o l v e s c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l r e v e l a t i o n s i n h e r i n g i n t h e s e moments. R e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n a l s o demands t h a t we a t t e n d t o c h a r a c -t e r s ' m i s s e d moments o f i n s i g h t , d i a l o g u e , a n d c o n t a c t , a n d t h a t we r e a d t h e s e moments a s t h e c a u s a l e l e m e n t s o f " p l o t , " r e p l a c i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l 4 c o n c e p t o f p l o t a s a l i n e a r c h a i n o f e v e n t s l i n k e d by c a u s e and e f f e c t . R e a d i n g t h e s t o r i e s i n t h i s manner i s l e s s a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e t h a n o f n e c e s s i t y . G a l l a n t ' s n a r r a t o r s r a r e l y a n n o u n c e a theme, p r o n o u n c e a t r u t h , o r s i g n a l a m e a n i n g t h r o u g h a n y b u t t h e m o s t i n d i r e c t and o b l i q u e a v e n u e s . The r e a d e r w i s h i n g t o t a k e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e r e v e n g e on G a l l a n t ' s a r t w i l l be f r u s t r a t e d by l a b y r i n t h s o f p a r t i c u l a r s w h i c h do n o t e a s i l y l e a d t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n i n v i t e s r e a d e r s t o r e t u r n t o i t s s u r f a c e s , t o a t t e n d f i r s t t o G a l l a n t ' s s t y l e . And s t y l e , G a l l a n t s u g g e s t s , i s m a r r i e d t o t h e w h o l e , t o f i c t i o n a l f o r m : " S t y l e i s i n s e p a -r a b l e f r o m s t r u c t u r e , p a r t o f t h e c o n f o r m a t i o n o f w h a t e v e r t h e a u t h o r has G a l l a n t has been w r i t i n g i m p o r t a n t s h o r t f i c t i o n s i n c e t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n - f i f t i e s , e v e n i f w i d e s p r e a d r e c o g n i t i o n i n C anada began o n l y a f t e r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f From t h e F i f t e e n t h D i s t r i c t , h e r f i n e s t book o f 1 ft s t o r i e s t o d a t e . As G a l l a n t e x p l a i n s i n h e r i m p o r t a n t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Home T r u t h s , s h e was w r i t i n g f i c t i o n w h i l e w o r k i n g on t h e S t a n d a r d and b e f o r e , and s h e has c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e n o n f i c t i o n t h r o u g h o u t h e r c a r e e r J 7 T h i s f a c t i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e one o f t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s u r f a c e o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n has a l w a y s been i t s d o c u m e n t a r y , r e p o r t o r i a l t o n e , i t s a p p a r e n t l y o b j e c t i v e , d e t a c h e d p o i n t o f v i e w . G a l l a n t has w r i t t e n two m a j o r p i e c e s o f n o n f i c t i o n s i n c e l e a v i n g t h e S t a n d a r d : h e r t w o - p a r t "The E v e n t s i n May: A P a r i s N o t e b o o k " ( 1 9 6 8 ) , w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e New Y o r k e r , and h e r l o n g i n t r o d u c t o r y e s s a y t o t h e G a b r i e l l e R u s s i e r  A f f a i r , p u b l i s h e d i n 1971. She has a l s o w r i t t e n a number o f r e v i e w s f o r t h e New Y o r k T i m e s Book R e v i e w , a s w e l l e s s a y s on F r a n c e and F r e n c h c u s t o m s , 5 a r c h i t e c t u r e , and l i t e r a r y f a s h i o n s f o r t h e A t l a n t i c and t h e New Y o r k e r . She has been w o r k i n g f o r t h e l a s t e i g h t y e a r s on what p r o m i s e s t o be h e r m o s t i m p o r t a n t n o n f i c t i o n a l work', a b o o k - l e n g t h h i s t o r y , now n e a r com-p l e t i o n , o f t h e D r e y f u s a f f a i r . G a l l a n t ' s S t a n d a r d work r a n g e s o v e r a w i d e v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s . G a l l a n t h e r s e l f p r o p o s e d t h e s u b j e c t s f o r some o f t h e a r t i c l e s ; o t h e r t o p i c s were a s s i g n e d by h e r e d i t o r s . Some o f t h e f e a t u r e s , w r i t t e n f o r . a g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e , o b v i o u s l y r e v e a l v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t G a l l a n t ' s own i n t e r e s t i n o r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t o p i c a t h and. Her a r t i c l e " F r e u d o r D o u b l e T a l k , " f o r e x a m p l e , i s a s i m p l i f i e d , g e n e r a l i z e d r e p o r t on b a s i c F r e u d i a n t e n e t s ; G a l l a n t h e r s e l f , r a i s e d f o r a t i m e by a New Y o r k p s y c h i a -t r i s t who had been a n a l y z e d by F r e u d and had a l s o been h i s a s s i s t a n t , was 1 9 d e e p l y i n t e r e s t e d i n F r e u d i a n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s a t one s t a g e i n h e r l i f e . I n o t h e r a r t i c l e s , G a l l a n t ' s comments on h e r s u b j e c t s a r e more r e v e a l i n g , g i v i n g us a t t h e v e r y l e a s t a s e n s e o f h e r e n c y c l o p a e d i c r a n g e o f i n t e r e s t s . T h e s e i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e more t h a n a p a s s i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h E n g l i s h and F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n w r i t i n g : G a l l a n t w r o t e f e a t u r e s f o r t h e S t a n d a r d on Hugh M a c L e n n a n , D o r o t h y D uncan, W. 0. M i t c h e l l , P a u l H i e b e r t , R o g e r L e m e l i n , 20 L o u i s Hemon, and G a b r i e l l e Roy. F o r h e r p h o t o - s t o r y on Roy's The T i n F l u t e , a n o v e l s h e a d m i r e d v e r y much, s h e had a c t o r s s t a g e s e t s c e n e s f r o m 21 t h e book i n M o n t r e a l ' s S t . - H e n r i d i s t r i c t , Roy's o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g . She w r o t e s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s on w a r - b r i d e s , on r e f u g e e s , i m m i g r a n t s , on d i s -p l a c e d p e o p l e i n an a l i e n c u l t u r e - - t h e k i n d s o f f i g u r e s who p o p u l a t e many 22 G a l l a n t s t o r i e s . She w r o t e s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s and s h o r t e r a r t i c l e s on t h e power p o l i t i c s w i t h i n f a m i l i e s , a theme w h i c h was t o become i m p o r t a n t 23 i n many o f h e r s t o r i e s . H er w e e k l y "On The A i r " c o l u m n s p r o v i d e a r u n n i n g commentary on t h e a t m o s p h e r e and p r o g r a m m i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e 6 CBC, on r a d i o s o a p o p e r a ( p r e d i c t a b l y , a b £ t e n o i r e o f G a l l a n t ' s ) , on r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g p r a c t i c e s , on t h e g e n e r a l l y p o o r q u a l i t y o f r a d i o comedy. O c c a s i o n a l l y , G a l l a n t w i l l a l s o r e f l e c t on p l o t , c h a r a c t e r , d i a l o g u e , and f i c t i o n , t h r o w i n g l i g h t on h e r own p r a c t i c e s as a w r i t e r . C ommenting, f o r e x a m p l e , on a S a t u r d a y n i g h t p r o g r a m , " C a n a d i a n S h o r t S t o r i e s , " G a l l a n t w r i t e s : [ I ] t g i v e s t h e w r i t e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f h e a r i n g r a t h e r t h a n s e e i n g h i s work, w h i c h c a n be a v a l u a b l e l e s s o n . T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g r e l e n t l e s s a b o u t a s t o r y r e a d a l o u d . L a c k o f r h y t h m , v a g u e n e s s and f a u l t y c h a r a c -t e r i z a t i o n a r e g l a r i n g l y o b v i o u s b e c a u s e y o u c a n ' t s k i p and y o u c a n ' t r e r e a d . ,24 In o t h e r c o l u m n s , G a l l a n t t a k e s i n c i s i v e and s h a r p - t o n g u e d m e a s u r e o f C a n a d i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . S c o f f i n g a t a p r o g r a m c a l l e d " C r i t i c a l l y S p e a k i n g , " f o r e x a m p l e , G a l l a n t p r e s e n t s h e r v i e w o f C a n a d i a n c r i t i c i s m c i r c a 1949: In v o i c e and o p i n i o n s m o s t o f t h e s p e a k e r s v a r y f r o m t h e a c a d e m i c g r o a n t o t h e p e t u l a n t w h i n e . O v e r e v e r y -t h i n g t h e y s a y , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e book c r i t i c s , l i e s t h a t t e r r i b l y [ s i c ] p a l l o f C a n a d i a n l i t e r a r y p e d a n t r y , t h a t f e e l i n g t h a t t h e s p e a k e r has r e a d a l l t h e b a c k i s s u e s o f P a r t i s a n Revue [ s i c ] and i s j u s t as s m a r t as a n y o n e e l s e , s e e ? 25 P a n n i n g an a l b u m o f r e c o r d s , " I Can H e a r I t Now," G a l l a n t c o m p l a i n s o f r e v i e w e r s who f a i l t o m e n t i o n t h e " o v e r b e a r i n g commentary" by Edward Murrow a s he i n t e r r u p t s s p e e c h e s by C h u r c h i l l and S t a l i n ; Murrow, w r i t e s G a l l a n t , becomes " e m b a r r a s s i n g l y e m o t i o n a l a b o u t e v e n t s w h i c h have enough e m o t i o n a l v a l u e i n t h e m s e l v e s t o g e t by w i t h o u t a d j e c t i v e s . " G a l l a n t ' s own f i c t i o n a l i d i o m g a i n s much o f i t ' s i n t e n s i t y f r o m c o m p r e s s i o n and r e s t r a i n t ; a l m o s t f o r t y y e a r s l a t e r , s h e comments a g a i n on h e r w a r i n e s s 7 o f a d j e c t i v e s , r e c a l l i n g t h e manner i n w h i c h she t r i e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e f i r s t p i c t u r e s o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps s e n t t o t h e S t a n d a r d a f t e r t h e wa r . She t e l l s G e o f f Hancock t h a t she had d e c i d e d t h a t a d j e c t i v e s wou ld b l u r t h e p i c t u r e s ' s i g n i f i c a n c e , and so t h e r e "must be no d e s c r i p t i v e words i n t h i s , no a d j e c t i v e s . N o t h i n g l i k e ' h o r r o r , ' ' h o r r i f y i n g ' because 27 what t h e p i c t u r e s a r e s a y i n g i s s t r o n g e r and l o u d e r . " G a l l a n t ' s s en se t h a t l i t e r a r y fo rm must accommodate t h e l e s s f o r m a l p a t t e r n s o f r e a l p e o p l e ' s " c a s e h i s t o r i e s " emerges i n a n o t h e r "On The A i r " c o l u m n . D e s c r i b i n g Len P e t e r s o n ' s r a d i o p l a y s , b r o a d c a s t on " I n S e a r c h o f O u r s e l v e s , " she w r i t e s : A l t h o u g h t h e s e s h o r t dramas d e a l w i t h e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , t h e y a r e no t r e l e n t l e s s . They combine humour w i t h i n s i g h t , d e t a i l s w h i c h d e t r a c t f rom t h e o c c a s i o n a l g r i m n e s s . U n l i k e t h e o r d i n a r y r a d i o p l a y , t h e y d o n ' t come t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f i c t i o n a l c l i m a x . A f t e r a l l , t h e p e o p l e p o r t r a y e d he re a r e r e a l and t h e i r s t o r i e s a r e c a s e h i s t o r i e s . Real p rob lems do no t a lway s r e s o l v e t h e m s e l v e s t i d i l y , and i f t h e s t o r i e s somet imes seem i n c o m p l e t e i t i s because t h e y a r e t r u e . 28 One o f t h e most s t r i k i n g q u a l i t i e s o f G a l l a n t ' s s t y l e i s her g i f t f o r v i v i d and t e l l i n g s i m i l e . D e s c r i b i n g t h e poor q u a l i t y o f t h e v o i c e s on a soap o p e r a p roduced i n Canada , she c o m p l a i n s i n one o f her "On The A i r " c o l u m n s : "And as f o r t h e a c t o r s , I d o n ' t know what happens t o t h e s e u s u a l l y c a p a b l e p e o p l e . . . . The re i s so much c h o k i n g and g a s p i n g t h a t 29 i t ' s l i k e t u n i n g i n on an a q u a r i u m . " G a l l a n t ' s work w i t h t h e S t a n d a r d i s i m p o r t a n t , no t so much f o r t h e t h e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n s between j o u r n a l i s m and f i c t i o n as f o r c o n n e c t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o G a l l a n t ' s manner , s t y l e , and f o r m , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e forms 30 r e p o r t s t a k e i n her f i c t i o n . These f o r m a l c o n n e c t i o n s p r o v i d e i n s i g h t 8 i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n f r o m i t s d o c u m e n t a r y , t r a n s c r i p -t i v e , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l edge t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x , r e f l e x i v e s t o r i e s o f t h e s e v e n t i e s . G a l l a n t ' s e a r l y work on t h e S t a n d a r d shows how s h a r p an e y e f o r d e t a i l s h e had i n h e r e a r l y t w e n t i e s ; h e r t a l e n t s a s an e x a c t i n g t r a n s c r i b e r o f s e t t i n g , d i a l o g u e , and a t m o s p h e r e i n f o r m many o f h e r s t o r i e s , e a r l y and l a t e . On f i r s t r e a d i n g , t h e d o m i n a n t mode o f G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s a p p e a r s t o be d o c u m e n t a r y r e a l i s m ; b u t a t t h e same t i m e a s G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s r e p o r t on c h a r a c t e r s f r a m e d i n h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g s , t h e y a l s o r e f l e c t on t h e k i n d s o f f i c t i o n s c h a r a c t e r s f o r m u l a t e as t h e y e n c o u n t e r h i s t o r y ' s s e t t i n g s , as t h e y d i s c o v e r t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n h i s t o r y . In G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n , t h e o b j e c t i v e f o r c e o f t h e p a s t as h i s t o r y o p p r e s s e s h e r c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t o o much " o t h e r , " t o o much w o r l d , w h i l e t h e p a s t ( a s f o r m u l a t e d by s u b j e c t i v e memory, a p a r t f r o m h i s t o r y ) e n f o l d s them w i t h i n t o o much s e l f . Her s t o r i e s , b e g i n n i n g a t l e a s t a s e a r l y a s "The O t h e r P a r i s " ( 1 9 5 3 ) , i n v i t e r e a d e r s t o l i s t e n t o c h a r a c t e r s ' i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x d i a l o g u e s w i t h t i m e . T h e s e i n t e r r u p t e d d i a l o g u e s b e t w e e n memory and h i s t o r y s h a p e memory's f i c t i o n s i n t o r e t r e a t s f r o m h i s t o r y ' s f a c t s i n e a r l y s t o r i e s ; i n t h e s t o r i e s o f The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , t h i s d i a l o g u e i n c r e a s i n g l y becomes h i s t o r y ' s m o n o l o g u e , s i l e n c i n g o r e r a d i c a t i n g memory; i n l a t e r s t o r i e s , t h e o p p o s i t i o n r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n a m o mentary c o n v e r g e n c e , a communion o f memory w i t h h i s t o r y , s e l f w i t h w o r l d , an i l l u m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e d by N e t t a A s h e r ' s " l i g h t o f i m a g i n a t i o n " i n "The Moslem W i f e " ( 1 9 7 2 ) and e n a c t e d i n t h e L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s . T h e s e l a t e r r e p o r t s on i m a g i n a t i o n c a n be r e a d more c o n s i s t e n t l y on s e v e r a l l e v e l s t h a n c a n t h e f l a t t e r s t o r i e s o f t h e f i f t i e s , b u t t h e f o c u s o f t h e L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s on memory, h i s t o r y , f i c t i o n , a nd i m a g i n a t i o n t a k e s us b a c k t o "The O t h e r P a r i s " and i t s r e p o r t on C a r o l F r a z i e r ' s b r o k e n d i a l o g u e w i t h t i m e . 9 The m o s t u s e f u l s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n i s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l o n e , u s i n g h e r bo o k s o f s t o r i e s as c u m u l a t i v e p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e . By t h e t i m e The O t h e r P a r i s a p p e a r e d i n 1956, G a l l a n t had 31 p u b l i s h e d e i g h t e e n s t o r i e s , s i x o f w h i c h r e m a i n u n c o l l e c t e d . T h e s e s t o r i e s , a l l s e t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , p r o v i d e r e a d e r s w i t h e a r l y v e r s i o n s o f some o f G a l l a n t ' s r e c u r r i n g themes and f o r m s . "Good M o r n i n g a nd Goodbye" and " T h r e e B r i c k W a l l s " ( 1 9 4 4 ) a r e l i n k e d s t o r i e s w h i c h d e f i n e a t y p i c a l G a l l a n t f i g u r e ' s s e n s a t i o n o f b e i n g f o r e i g n a n d v o i c e l e s s , s i l e n c e d by 32 what p a s s e s among c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e "home" c u l t u r e as d i a l o g u e . P a u l , a y o u n g J e w i s h - G e r m a n i m m i g r a n t , i s d o u b l y e s t r a n g e d f r o m t h e T r e n n a n s , t h e f a m i l y t h a t has t a k e n c a r e o f him d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f h i s N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n i t i a t i o n . The s t o r y r e p o r t s on P a u l ' s l a s t d a y w i t h them, a d a y on w h i c h t h e o n l y words P a u l s a y s a r e " g o o d m o r n i n g " and " g o o d b y e , " i r o n i c a l l y f r e e i n g h i m s e l f i n t o a s i l e n c e b e y o n d t h e f a m i l y ' s i n a n e d i a -l o g u e s . " T h r e e B r i c k W a l l s " f o l l o w s P a u l t o h i s new " f r e e d o m " i n t h e s i l e n c e a n d a n o n y m i t y o f a b o a r d i n g h o u s e i n a w o r k i n g c l a s s d i s t r i c t o f an u n i d e n t i f i e d b i g c i t y . B o t h s t o r i e s , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e s e c o n d o n e , a r e b a r e , s t a r k , and f l a t , a n d b o t h t a k e as t h e i r c r u c i a l moment a b r e a k i n t h e o r d e r e d b u t s t e r i l e p a t t e r n s o f P a u l ' s l i f e . T h e s e moments, t y p i c a l i n G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s , b o t h p r o m i s e a n d t h r e a t e n : t h e y p r o m i s e a b r e a k f r o m t h e s t i f l i n g p a t t e r n s w h i c h have i m p r i s o n e d P a u l i n a s i l e n t b u t o r d e r e d i s o l a t i o n , b u t t h e y a l s o t h r e a t e n him w i t h t h e "vacuum" w h i c h t h e a b s e n c e o f a p a t t e r n , o f o r d e r , w i l l c o n f e r : He had l e a r n e d i n h i s l i f e o f many c h a n g e s n e v e r t o s a y " T h i s i s t h e l a s t t i m e I w a l k down t h e s e s t a i r s t o b r e a k f a s t " a nd " T h i s i s t h e l a s t t i m e I s a y "Good M o r n i n g . " B u t i t was t h e r e , t h e s e n s e o f e n d i n g , and t h e s l i p p i n g i n t o t h e vacuum t h a t l i e s b e t w e e n t h e p a t t e r n s i n a l i f e . 33 10 In l a t e r s t o r i e s , G a l l a n t d r a m a t i z e s t h e s e moments i n s t e a d o f ex-p l a i n i n g them; b u t a s i m i l a r s e n s e t o P a u l ' s i n t h i s s t o r y , t h a t t h e o r d e r e d p a t t e r n s o f a s t e r i l e a nd i s o l a t e d e x p a t r i a t i o n become p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e " s e n s e o f e n d i n g " w h i c h t h r e a t e n s t o d i s r u p t e v e n t h a t b a r e minimum o f r o u t i n e and h a b i t , i n f o r m s many o f G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s . Many s t o r i e s d r a m a t i z e moments s i m i l a r t o t h i s o n e o f P a u l ' s , as he d e s c e n d s t h e s t a i r s on t h e l a s t m o r n i n g i n what has b e e n an a l i e n h o u s e h o l d ; many s t o r i e s a l s o s t u d y , i n t h e i r e v o c a t i o n s o f t h e s e moments, an i r o n i c a b s e n c e o f communi-c a t i o n , s e t t i n g t h e s u s t a i n e d c h a t t e r o f a f a m i l y o r o f a c u l t u r e o v e r a g a i n s t t h e s i l e n c e o f an e m b a t t l e d i n d i v i d u a l g r o p i n g f o r w ords w i t h w h i c h t o d e f i n e h i m s e l f . P a u l , e a r l y i n h i s s t a y w i t h t h e T r e n n a n s , t r i e s t o f i n d t h e w ords w i t h w h i c h t o e x p l a i n h i s l i f e t o them: he w a n t s them t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s " g r e a t b u r d e n , " t h e r e d " J " s t a m p e d on h i s p a s s p o r t . " T h i s i s i n my l i f e , a c e r t a i n t h i n g , " he s a y s , b u t t h e " g r o p e d - f o r c l u m s y E n g l i s h words r e c e d e d a g a i n , and he f a l t e r e d " ( 2 ) . U n a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e c a u s e s o f h i s s e n s e o f o t h e r n e s s , P a u l s i n k s " i n t o a w e l l o f s i l e n c e " ( 2 ) . S e t o v e r a g a i n s t t h e p o t e n t i a l l y m e a n i n g f u l l a n g u a g e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h i s s i l e n c e i s t h e p o i n t l e s s n o i s e o f t h e f a m i l y ' s i n c e s s a n t t a l k i n g : I t t a l k e d , t h i s f a m i l y . Even when t h e h o u s e was empty, t h e rooms were a r t i c u l a t e ." . . . T h e y s a i d e v e r y t h i n g a n d k e p t n o t h i n g b a c k . T h e y s c r a p e d t h e d a y o f i t s d o i n g e v e r y n i g h t a t t h e d i n n e r t a b l e . A t b r e a k f a s t , t h e y d i s c u s s e d t h e i r d r e a m s , and e a c h t o l d how he had s l e p t . E v e r y h e a d a c h e , e a c h a n g e r , e v e r y r e a c t i o n , was b r o k e n down i n t o words a n d p h r a s e s and e x c l a m a t i o n s . ( 1 ) 34 P a u l ' s s e n s e o f f r e e d o m i n s i l e n c e i s i r o n i c , b u t so i s t h e f a m i l y ' s s e n s e o f e n g a g e m e n t a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h c h a t t e r . The g o v e r n i n g i m p r e s s i o n i n t h e s e f i r s t two s t o r i e s i s o f e s t r a n g e -11 ment, e n t r a p m e n t , and s i l e n c e , b u t P a u l ' s s i l e n c e i s a l s o a s a n c t u a r y , a r e f u g e . T h e s e p o r t r a i t s o f P a u l r e p r e s e n t G a l l a n t ' s f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o s t u d y a r e f u g e e ' s i n n e r l i f e ; "Good M o r n i n g a n d Goodbye" i s t h e more s u c c e s s f u l o f t h e two s t o r i e s b e c a u s e i t d e f i n e s P a u l ' s i s o l a t i o n more p a r t i c u l a r l y a g a i n s t t h e community o f t a l k e r s he l i v e s w i t h . A l t h o u g h i t i s t h e w e a k e s t o f t h e s e e a r l y s t o r i e s , "A W o n d e r f u l C o u n t r y " ( 1 9 4 6 ) i s an i n s t r u c t i v e f a i l u r e . I t s c e n t r a l o p p o s i t i o n i s betwe e n an i n a r t i c u l a t e H u n g a r i a n i m m i g r a n t l o o k i n g f o r a h o u s e t o r e n t i n M o n t r e a l e a r l y i n t h e w a r , and t h e mundane, m i d d l e - a g e d c o u p l e he r e n t s f r o m . H i s i n a r t i c u l a t e n e s s s t e m s f r o m h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h E n g l i s h , t h e i r s f r o m a l i f e s p e n t l e a r n i n g t o s u p p r e s s e s s e n t i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r , a j u n i o r a s s i s t a n t i n a r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e , m e d i a t e s between h e r c l i e n t a n d t h e c o u p l e , s h i f t i n g f r o m a d e t e r m i n e d l y n e u t r a l s t a n c e t o i n c r e a s e d s y m p a t h y f o r t h e H u n g a r i a n , who, d e s p i t e h i s n e a r t o t a l i n -a r t i c u l a t e n e s s , f i n a l l y e x c l a i m s i n d e l i g h t o v e r an e g g b e a t e r i n t h e 35 k i t c h e n : "'Madam' . . . . 'What a w o n d e r f u l c o u n t r y . ' " The H u n g a r i a n ' s a b i l i t y t o m a r v e l s p o n t a n e o u s l y a t t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l gew-gaw e n l i s t s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s y m p a t h y , w h i l e s h e i s h o r r i f i e d t h a t t h e woman f r o m whom he i s r e n t i n g t h e h o u s e c a n o n l y m u t t e r a t h e r , i n p a s s i n g ("so l o w I c o u l d h a r d l y h e a r " ) , "'I'm g o i n g i n t o t h e h o s p i t a l and my h u s b a n d ' s t a k i n g a f u r n i s h e d room . . . . F i f t y - f i f t y c h a n c e ' " ( 8 ) . T he d i s t i n c t i o n a p p a l s t h e n a r r a t o r , who r e f l e c t s , " I f y o u f e e l a w f u l , . . . why d o n ' t y o u s c r e a m and c r y ? " , b u t d e c i d e s t h a t " t h e r e was no p o i n t i n s a y i n g i t " t o t h e 3 6 woman ( 8 ) . T he s t o r y ' s power l i e s i n t h i s c e n t r a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e H u n g a r i a n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a r t i c u l a t e e v e n t h e m o s t t r i v i a l o f e n t h u s i a s m s a n d t h e i n g r a i n e d r e t i c e n c e o f t h e woman and h e r h u s b a n d . The s t o r y ' s w e a k n e s s e s l i e w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a n x i e t y t o e x p l a i n t h i s 12 po int to the reader , to revea l i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s to ry demonstrates G a l l a n t ' s emerging powers o f d e s c r i p t i o n , but i t a l so shows how her form i s weakened by d i f f u s e e xp l ana t i on . Two passages from the s t o r y demon-s t r a t e the d i s t i n c t i o n and show in which d i r e c t i o n G a l l a n t ' s form develops. F i r s t , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s e t t i n g , e a r l y i n the s t o r y . The na r r a to r i s t a k i ng the Hungarian to see the house: The t a x i stopped i n f r o n t o f a small b r i c k duplex on one o f those semi-suburban s t r e e t s . There was a small lawn, ye l l ow from the August sun, and a b i c y c l e l ean ing aga in s t the porch. A l l the shades were down, as though the tenants had l e f t f o r the summer. The s t r e e t was s t i l l and f l a t , edged wi th telephone po les . (4) This passage shows G a l l a n t ' s eye f o r t e l 1 i n g d e t a i l , as we l l as the form of her r e p o r t o r i a l s u r f ace . The f l a t , d e c l a r a t i v e a s s e r t i o n s sketch a sharp ly v i s u a l i z e d , reported p i c t u r e , whose d e t a i l r evea l s a r i d i t y , r e c l u s i o n , s t i l l n e s s , and a l a ck o f depth, or shadow, a l ack o f r e l i e f . G a l l a n t develops t h i s k ind o f r epo r t i n t o a form which more than any other c h a r a c t e r i z e s her f i c t i o n ' s powers to render s i g n i f i c a n c e through d e t a i l , w i thout comment, w i thout e xp l ana t i on . But i n t h i s e a r l y s t o r y , G a l l a n t does not a l l ow t h i s k ind o f r epo r t to stand f o r i t s e l f . Her na r r a to r w i l l a l so step back and e xp l a i n e f f e c t s which would stand be t te r on t h e i r own. As the woman takes the Hungarian on an i temized tour o f her home, the na r r a to r pauses to r e f l e c t : The Hungarian looked a l i t t l e pu z z l ed , but h i s smi le was amiable as ever . I wished f o r the f i r s t time I had made more e f f o r t to know him. The four o f us were so d i s o r gan i zed i n tha t room, i t would have been n i ce to have f e l t some u n i t y . (8) This kind o f passage, w i th i t s r e l i a n c e on fuzzy g e n e r a l i t i e s and ab s t r a c t 13 r e f l e c t i o n s t o i n s t r u c t t h e r e a d e r i n how t o r e a d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s c e n e b e i n g d e s c r i b e d , i s u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f G a l l a n t ' s n a r r a t i v e . P a s s a g e s o f s t r a i g h t e x p o s i t i o n v a n i s h a s h e r f i c t i o n d e v e l o p s , o r modu-l a t e i n t o i r o n i c c ommentary f r o m n a r r a t o r s who n a r r a t e l e s s t o e x p l a i n t h e i r own r e a c t i o n s ( o r p r e s c r i b e r e a d e r s ' r e s p o n s e s ) t h a n t o c r e a t e t e l l i n g i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s t h e y r e p o r t o n . A c h a r a c t e r v e r y much l i k e P a u l , and w i t h t h e same name, r e a p p e a r s i n a m i n o r r o l e i n " M a d e l i n e ' s B i r t h d a y " ( 1 9 5 1 ) . B u t t h e i s o l a t e d f i g u r e i n t h i s s t o r y i s M a d e l i n e , who f i n d s h e r s e l f on h e r s e v e n t e e n t h b i r t h d a y a t t h e summer h o u s e o f a f r i e n d o f h e r m o t h e r ' s . She d o e s n ' t want t o be t h e r e , and s h e d e e p l y o f f e n d s h e r h o s t e s s and a n t a g o n i s t , M r s . T r a c y , by c r y i n g on what s h o u l d be a f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n . The s t o r y t u r n s on t h e o p p o s i t i o n G a l l a n t c r e a t e s b e t w e e n M r s . T r a c y ' s t i g h t l y d e f i n e d s e n s e o f s o c i a l o r d e r , r o u t i n e , and h a b i t , and M a d e l i n e ' s s p o n t a n e o u s and u n s e t t l i n g u n h a p p i n e s s , w h i c h m o m e n t a r i l y i s o l a t e s M r s . T r a c y i n h e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s e e t h a t e v e r y o n e b e h a v e s p r e d i c t a b l y . M r s . T r a c y ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s t h r e a t e n i n g moment, t h i s r u p t u r e i n h e r c o n c e p t i o n o f r o u t i n e r e a c t i o n s t o " h a p p y " e v e n t s l i k e b i r t h d a y s , i s s k i l l f u l l y h a n d l e d i n t h e m o s t power-f u l e n d i n g i n G a l l a n t ' s u n c o l l e c t e d e a r l y f i c t i o n . M r s . T r a c y t e l l s h e r d a u g h t e r A l l i e : "'My summers h a v e a l w a y s been so p e r f e c t , e v e r s i n c e I was 37 a c h i l d ' " ; s h e t h e n b u r s t s i n t o t e a r s and r u n s o u t t o t h e g a r d e n , where s h e makes a g e s t u r e t o w a r d r e e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c a r e f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d o r d e r w h i c h M a d e l i n e has d i s r u p t e d . P a u l w a t c h e s f r o m a window as M r s . T r a c y " s t o p p e d a n d b e n t down t o p u l l t h r e e o r f o u r b i t s o f w i l d g r a s s f r o m a f l o w e r b e d . T h e n s h e w i p e d h e r e y e s w i t h h e r hands and w a l k e d c a l m l y b a c k t o t h e h o u s e " ( 2 4 ) . I t i s M r s . T r a c y , w i t h h e r i n v i o l a b l e s e n s e t h a t l i f e i s o r d e r l y and t h a t p e o p l e i n h e r h o u s e must be happy on t h e i r b i r t h d a y s , 14 who c a r r i e s t h e d a y . She t e l l s h e r d a u g h t e r : " ' I c o u l d b e l i e v e I was t h e o n l y p e r s o n who had e n j o y e d b e i n g h e r e t h i s summer. B u t I know i t i s n ' t r e a s o n a b l e . " ' ( 2 4 ) . G a l l a n t s e l e c t s a f i n e o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e f o r M r s . T r a c y ' s r e - o r d e r i n g o f h e r s t a t e o f m i n d i n t h e image o f h e r r e -o r d e r i n g h e r g a r d e n ; t h e b r i e f e x p l a n a t o r y i n t r u s i o n i s t h e o n l y f l a w i n an o t h e r w i s e m a s t e r f u l e n d i n g : "She h a d , i n f a c t , p u t t h e i d e a o u t o f h e r head w h i l e p u l l i n g g r a s s f r o m t h e g a r d e n " - - t h e i d e a t h a t s h e was t h e o n l y p e r s o n e n j o y i n g h e r summer. The r e a d e r d o e s n o t need t o be t o l d t o make t h i s c o n n e c t i o n between an image and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . L a t e r s t o r i e s i n s t r u c t r e a d e r s more s u b t l y . T h e s e e a r l y s t o r i e s s u g g e s t t h e s c o p e o f G a l l a n t ' s themes and t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n w h i c h h e r f o r m d e v e l o p s . B a l a n c i n g s i l e n c e w i t h l a n g u a g e , i n a r t i c u l a t e n e s s w i t h a r t i c u l a t e n e s s , s h e c o n t i n u e s t o s t u d y r e f u g e e s , e x p a t r i a t e s , a n d e x i l e s , a l t h o u g h as s h e b e g i n s t o s e t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n p o s t w a r E u r o p e , an e m e r g i n g f i c t i o n a b o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a n v e r s u s E u r o p e a n v e r s i o n s o f h i s t o r y e v o l v e s , e l a b o r a t e d t h r o u g h G a l l a n t ' s d e v e l o p i n g e x p l o r a t i o n o f memory's i n t e r r u p t e d d i a l o g u e s w i t h t h e p a s t . She a l s o c o n t i n u e s t o d e v e l o p a f o r m i n w h i c h r e p o r t s become c e n t r a l , n a r r a t o r s ' v o i c e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f l e c t e d w i t h i r o n y , and t e l l i n g d e t a i l i n -c r e a s i n g l y r e p l a c e s e x p o s i t o r y , e x p l a n a t o r y i n t r u s i o n s . G a l l a n t 1 s two n o v e l s , G r e e n W a t e r , G r e e n S k y and A F a i r l y Good T i m e , a r e b e s t r e a d as i l l u m i n a t i o n s o f h e r s h o r t f i c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r 38 way a r o u n d . L i k e C h e k h o v , K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d , and A l i c e Munro, G a l l a n t i s a p u r e s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r - - u n l i k e D. H. L a w r e n c e , M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e , o r M a r g a r e t A t w o o d , f o r e x a m p l e . Her s t o r i e s a r e f i c t i o n s o f r e v e l a t i o n 15 r a t h e r t h a n d o c u m e n t a r y a c c o u n t s o f l i f e , b r i n g i n g h e r c l o s e r i n s p i r i t t o M a n s f i e l d t h a n t o a more p u r e l y d o c u m e n t a r y w r i t e r l i k e Norman L e v i n e . D i s c u s s i o n s o f G a l l a n t ' s f o r m , h o w e v e r , r u n i n t o t h e same p r o b l e m t h a t m ost d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s h o r t s t o r y f o r m has had t o c o n t e n d w i t h : t h e s h o r t s t o r y ' s s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e n o v e l . A t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t h e s h o r t s t o r y u s u a l l y p r o c e e d e i t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h i t a s an o f f s p r i n g o f t h e n o v e l , o r t o wean i t away f r o m i t s " p a r e n t " g e n r e by e s t a b l i s h i n g m a j o r 39 f o r m a l , t h e m a t i c , o r s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s . The m o s t u s e f u l d e f i n i t i o n o f s h o r t s t o r y f o r m , f o r G a l l a n t a s w e l l as f o r o t h e r modern s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r s , may w e l l be modal r a t h e r t h a n e x c l u s i v e l y g e n e r i c . I n " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y : I m p r e s s i o n i s m and Form," S u z a n n e F e r g u s o n a t t e m p t s t o 40 d e f i n e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i m p r e s s i o n i s m on t h e modern s h o r t s t o r y . She a r g u e s t h a t t h e m odern s h o r t s t o r y d i f f e r s more m a r k e d l y f r o m i t s V i c t o r i a n a n t e c e d e n t s t h a n d o e s t h e m odern n o v e l : h e r s t r a t e g y i s t o i d e n t i f y s e v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f modern f i c t i o n , a nd t h e n t o show how t h e s e s e v e n " i m p r e s s i o n i s t " q u a l i t i e s i n f o r m t h e modern s h o r t s t o r y more d i s t i n c t i v e l y t h a n t h e y ' d o t h e m odern n o v e l . G e n e r a l l y , F e r g u s o n ' s d i s c u s s i o n i s u s e f u l i n i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a m i d d l e modal g r o u n d - - i m p r e s s i o n i s m - - l o c a t e d between r e a l i s m and p o s t -m o d e r n i s m . F e r g u s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t modern f i c t i o n moved b e y o n d r e a l i s m i n t o i m p r e s s i o n i s m when w r i t e r s l o s t f a i t h i n and so t u r n e d away f r o m t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e v i a o b j e c t i v e t r a n s c r i p t i o n , v i a p u r e m i m e s i s ; t h e y t u r n e d t o w a r d e m p h a s i s on t h e " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e as^ 41 e x p e r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . " F e r g u s o n s e e s t h i s s h i f t c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t u r n i n p h i l o s o p h y away f r o m p o s i t i v i s m t o w a r d p h e n o m e n o l o g y , a r g u i n g t h a t t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e s e e m i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r s ( a s o p p o s e d t o t h e " o b j e c t i v e " p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y by r e l i a b l e n a r r a t o r s ) i s " i n e x t r i -16 c a b l y r e l a t e d " t o t h e t e c h n i c a l s h i f t i n modern f i c t i o n t o w a r d " l i m i t i n g 42 and f o r e g r o u n d i n g o f p o i n t o f v i e w . " B u i l d i n g on t h i s p e r c e p t i o n , F e r g u s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s h o r t s t o r y , " b e c a u s e i t has f e w e r ' o p t i o n a l ' n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s i n i t s s t r u c t u r a l s l o t s , m a n i f e s t s i t s f o r m a l a l l e g i a n c e s 43 t o i m p r e s s i o n i s m e v e n more o b v i o u s l y t h a n d o e s t h e n o v e l . " B e y o n d t h e s e g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s (many o f w h i c h a p p l y p e r i p h e r a l l y t o m o d e r n i s m a s w e l l as t o F e r g u s o n ' s more p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s on i m p r e s s i o n -i s m ) F e r g u s o n c o n t r i b u t e s f o u r s p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h a r e more d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o d i s c u s s i o n o f G a l l a n t ' s f o r m . T h r e e o f t h e s e a r e among F e r g u s o n ' s s e v e n c a t e g o r i e s : t h e " r e j e c t i o n o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e o r d e r i n g " ; " f o r m a l a n d s t y l i s t i c economy"; and " t h e f o r e g r o u n d i n g o f 44 s t y l e . " F e r g u s o n c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e " d e - e m p h a s i s o f t h e o r d e r l y u n f o l d i n g o f an a c t i o n t h r o u g h t i m e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e m e r g e n c e o f ' e p i p h a n y ' as an o r d e r i n g d e v i c e . " She s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h e modern s h o r t s t o r y , "we f r e q u e n t l y s e e o n l y o n e s u c h p r i v i l e g e d moment, w h i c h t a k e s t h e p l a c e 45 o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l ' t u r n i n g p o i n t , ' t h e c l i m a x o f t h e p l o t . " In G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n , t h e s e moments f i g u r e a s p o i n t s a t w h i c h a c h a r a c t e r , i n t h e " l i g h t o f i m a g i n a t i o n , " m i g h t d i s c o v e r t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f t i m e , moments when memory a r t i c u l a t e s a l a n g u a g e w h i c h c a n e n t e r i n t o d i a l o g u e w i t h h i s t o r y . T h r o u g h o u t G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n , t h e s e moments f l i c k e r w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f v o i c e d i s c o v e r i n g l a n g u a g e , o f s e l f d i s c o v e r i n g g h o s t l y p r e s e n c e . T h e s e a r e a l s o t h e moments w h i c h o r d e r t i m e i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n ; h e r s t o r i e s c o n f o r m t o F e r g u s o n ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e modern s h o r t s t o r y i n t h a t t h e y "seem t o d i s d a i n t e m p o r a l o r d e r b u t c o v e r t l y 46 r e m i n d us how t i m e - b o u n d we a r e . " F e r g u s o n ' s s e c o n d c a t e g o r y , f o r m a l and s t y l i s t i c economy, we have a l r e a d y s e e n t o be t h e s t r o n g e s t q u a l i t y i n G a l l a n t ' s e a r l y s t o r i e s a n d as 17 a c o n c e r n s h e e x p r e s s e d as a j o u r n a l i s t w i t h t h e S t a n d a r d . G a l l a n t has commented t h a t m ost o f h e r work i s c u t t i n g , p a r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n t o 47 e s s e n t i a l s . H e r f i c t i o n a l i d i o m r e l i e s on nouns and v e r b s t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h r o u g h c o m p r e s s i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n on a d j e c t i v a l o r a d v e r b i a l e x p a n s i o n a n d o r n a m e n t a t i o n . As f a r as t h e f o r e g r o u n d i n g o f s t y l e i s c o n c e r n e d , F e r g u s o n a v e r s t h a t i m p r e s s i o n i s t f i c t i o n " f o r e g r o u n d s s t y l e i n t h e e m p h a s i s on r h y t h m i c p r o s e , e x a c t d i c t i o n , and a h i g h 48 r e l i a n c e on f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m i l e and m e t a p h o r . " G a l l a n t r e l i e s more h e a v i l y on s i m i l e t h a n on m e t a p h o r , and t h e l a n g u a g e o f h e r s t o r i e s , a l t h o u g h i t c e r t a i n l y shows h e r c o n c e r n f o r " e x a c t d i c t i o n , " i s more r e p o r t o r i a l t h a n r h y t h m i c . G a l l a n t ' s l a n g u a g e i s s u r g i c a l l y p r e c i s e : t h i s p r e c i s i o n , a q u a l i t y w h i c h F e r g u s o n s u g g e s t s marks a l l i m p r e s s i o n i s t 49 w r i t e r s ' s t y l e , i s G a l l a n t ' s " s i g n a t u r e . " W i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f A l i c e Munro, t h e r e i s no c o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n n o v e l i s t o r s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r who a p p r o a c h e s G a l l a n t as a s t y l i s t . B u t i f G a l l a n t ' s s t y l e m o l d s t h e s u r f a c e s , t h e s t r u c t u r e s , and t h e s u b s t a n c e , o r " c o n t e n t " o f h e r s t o r i e s i n t o a b r i l l i a n t l y p o l i s h e d " c o n -f o r m a t i o n , " i t a l s o c h a l l e n g e s r e a d e r s ' a t t e m p t s t o i n t e r p r e t h e r s t o r i e s , t o f i n d what F e r g u s o n r e f e r s t o as t h e " ' s t o r i n e s s ' e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e 50 o f t e n o b s c u r e s y s t e m t h e a u t h o r p r o v i d e s . " I t i s i n t h i s s e n s e t h a t G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s r e v e a l o r c o n c e a l n o t h i n g b u t t h e s u r f a c e s t h e m s e l v e s . As R o l a n d B a r t h e s w o u l d s a y , h e r t e x t s a r e composed o f "a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a y e r s ( o r l e v e l s , o r s y s t e m s ) , whose body c o n t a i n s , f i n a l l y no h e a r t , no k e r n e l , no s e c r e t , no i r r e d u c i b l e p r i n c i p l e , n o t h i n g e x c e p t t h e i n f i n i t y o f i t s own e n v e l o p e s — w h i c h e n v e l o p n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e u n i t y o f i t s 51 own s u r f a c e s . " F e r g u s o n c o n c l u d e s by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e i m p r e s s i o n i s t s h o r t s t o r y o f f e r s r e a d e r s a c o m p l e x a d v e n t u r e i n r e a d i n g , t h e o u t c o m e o f 18 w h i c h i s n o t " t r u t h " b u t a p r o p o s i t i o n "whose v a l i d i t y r e m a i n s c o n d i t i o n a l and imp! i c i t " : I n t h e m o d e r n , i m p r e s s i o n i s t s h o r t s t o r y , i n w h i c h p l o t i s f r e q u e n t l y s u p p r e s s e d , i n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n i s o f t e n a c h i e v e d by h a v i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s p e r c e i v e s o m e t h i n g o r somebody " o t h e r " r a t h e r t h a n a c t i n g o r b e i n g t h e m s e l v e s d e s c r i b e d by an i m p l i e d a u t h o r , i n w h i c h s e t t i n g may d i s p l a c e e v e n t , and i n w h i c h t h e v e r y s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e s o r f i g u r a t i v e l a n g u a g e may i m p l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s n o t o t h e r w i s e e x p r e s s e d , t h e r e a d e r s ' a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e a theme i s p a r a m o u n t t o t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e work a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e g e n r e , " s t o r y . " O d d l y , t h i s k i n d o f n a r r a t i v e , whose m o s t t y p i c a l e p i s t e m o l o g y a s s u m e s t h e p r i v a c y o f t r u t h i n i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i -e n c e , becomes t h e g e n r e i n w h i c h t h e r e a d e r s ' a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e m e - - t h e s t a t e m e n t o f an i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n — i s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i -a t i n g i t f r o m o t h e r k i n d s o f n a r r a t i v e . The m o r a l i s no l o n g e r an e a s i l y a b s t r a c t a b l e t r u i s m v e r i f i e d by an i m p l i e d a u t h o r , b u t a c o m p l e x and h a r d l y won p r o p o s i t i o n whose v a l i d i t y r e m a i n s c o n d i t i o n a l and i m p l i c i t , u n c o n f i r m e d by t h e a u t h o r i a l v o i c e , g i v i n g t h e s t o r y b o t h " u n i t y o f e f f e c t " and a c e r t a i n v a g u e n e s s o r m y s t e r y . 52„ F o r F e r g u s o n , t h e p r o c e s s e s o f i m p r e s s i o n i s t f i c t i o n c u l m i n a t e i n a c h a l l e n g e t o r e a d e r s t o r e a d , r a t h e r t h a n i n a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s ' s e l f - d i s c o v e r i e s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n s t r u c t i v e f o r r e a d e r s o f G a l l a n t ' s s h o r t s t o r i e s . F e r g u s o n comments: " I t i s o f t e n t h e r e a d e r , r a t h e r t h a n t h e c h a r a c t e r , who must d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t we c a n n o t know a n y t h i n g f o r c e r t a i n , t h a t t h e p r o c e s s e s we f o l l o w i n s e a r c h o f 53 t r u t h may y i e l d o n l y f i c t i o n s . " G a l l a n t ' s s h o r t s t o r i e s i n v i t e r e a d e r s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y , and t o r e a d t h e i m a g i -n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n o f f i c t i o n s w h i c h may be " o n l y " f i c t i o n s , b u t w h i c h e n a b l e c h a r a c t e r s and r e a d e r s t o f i c t i o n a l i z e l i f e t h r o u g h a r t , r e a l i z i n g t h e h i g h e s t f u n c t i o n o f i m a g i n a t i o n . 19 In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h G a l l a n t f o r T e l e s c o p e , F l e t c h e r M a r k l e a s k s h e r t o p l a y f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i m , w i t h some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . R e s p o n d i n g , t o h i s c u e , " T o l s t o i , " G a l l a n t s a y s : " ' T h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f w r i t e r s t o me, t h e T o l s t o i and t h e D o s t o e v s k i . You c a n p u t e v e r y 54 w r i t e r i n t o t h e T o l s t o i o r D o s t o e v s k i s i d e . T o l s t o i i s my s i d e . 1 " R e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s , one c a n p r o f i t a b l y r a n g e a s e r i e s o f o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e ( o r " c l a s s i c a l " and " r o m a n t i c " ) o p p o s i t i o n s u n d e r " T o l s t o i " a n d " D o s t o e v s k i , " o p p o s i t i o n s s u c h as h i s t o r y a n d memory, r e p o r t and r e f l e c t i o n : t h e s e a r e t h e p o l e s b e t w e e n w h i c h G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n s e t s c h a r a c t e r s ' a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e t h e d i a l e c t i c b e t w e e n s e l f and w o r l d . When G a l l a n t i d e n t i f i e s h e r s e l f a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e T o l s t o i s c h o o l , s h e a d v e r t i s e s t h e d i r e c t i o n h e r c h a r a c t e r s must t a k e i n o r d e r t o r e s o l v e t h i s d i a l e c t i c . T h e y f i n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n n o t i n r o m a n t i c a s s e r t i o n s o f t h e s u p r e m a c y o f p r i v a t e s e l f h o o d , o r i n t h e v a l i d i t y o f memory u n i n f o r m e d by h i s t o r y , b u t by a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e c o n t i n g e n c y o f h i s t o r y a n d t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s t o r i c a l s e l f h o o d . In e x p l o r i n g t h e c o n n e c t i o n s and t h e r u p t u r e s b etween p a s t a n d p r e s e n t , G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n t e a c h e s r e a d e r s how and where h i s t o r y a n d memory s p e a k w i t h e a c h o t h e r , and s u g g e s t s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h d i a l o g u e s f o r r e a d e r s , c h a r a c t e r s , a n d c u l t u r e s . R e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s w i t h a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e d i a l o g u e s b e t w e e n h i s t o r y a n d memory r e q u i r e s t h a t we a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t h e r f i c t i o n d e p a r t s f r o m i t s r e a l i s t g r o u n d . D i s c u s s i o n s o f d e p a r t u r e s f r o m r e a l i s m , h o w e v e r , l i k e d i s c u s s i o n s o f r e a l i s m i t s e l f , f a c e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h h a v e a l w a y s a t t e n d e d t h e t e r m . N o r t h r o p F r y e q u o t e s t h i s " i n e p t t e r m " when he u s e s i t i n Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m t o show h i s d i s t a s t e f o r i t , a n d I a n W a t t 55 p o i n t s o u t t h e p r o b l e m s t h e t e r m has i n h e r i t e d f r o m p h i l o s o p h y . C o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s a r e wary o f t h e t e r m ' s i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t r e a l i s t 20 t e x t s a r e r e f e r e n t i a l , t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t , t r a n s c r i b e , c o p y , d o c u m e n t t h e w o r l d b e y o n d t h e words o f t h e t e x t , t h a t t h e y h a v e a s u b j e c t b e y o n d t h e m s e l v e s . B u t no a d e q u a t e r e a d i n g o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n c a n d i s p e n s e w i t h h e r s t o r i e s ' f o u n d a t i o n s i n t h e r e a l i s t mode. A l m o s t e v e r y s t o r y G a l l a n t has 56 w r i t t e n i s d e m o n s t r a b l y r e a l i s t a s w e l l a s i m p r e s s i o n i s t . B u t h e r s t o r i e s c r e a t e w o r l d s as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t them, d e p a r t i n g f r o m t h e mimet-ic g r o u n d o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e a l i s t t e x t t o i n c o r p o r a t e h e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n i n t o t h e t w i n f o r c e s o f t i m e , f o r c e s w h i c h h e r c h a r a c t e r s e n c o u n t e r , e x p l o i t , and s u f f e r p r i v a t e l y , t h r o u g h memory, and s o c i a l l y , a s h i s t o r y . G a l l a n t ' s f o r m u l a t i o n s o f h e r c h a r a c t e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f t i m e l e a d t o w a r d h e r s t o r i e s ' i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t r e f l e c t i o n s on i m a g i n a t i o n . Her s t o r i e s demand t h a t r e a d e r s r e c o g n i z e t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f c h a r a c t e r s who make v a r i o u s k i n d s o f f i c t i o n s o u t o f t h e i r s e n s e o f t i m e : f i c t i o n s w h i c h , i r o n i c a l l y , f l e e h i s t o r y t h r o u g h memory, f i c t i o n s - - a n d m e m o r i e s — w h i c h a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y p a r a l y z e d by h i s t o r y ; a n d f i c t i o n s w h i c h e n g a g e h i s t o r y when c h a r a c t e r s b e g i n t o l i v e w i t h i n b o t h memory and h i s t o r y , by i m a g i n i n g t h e i r c o n v e r g e n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t , i n t h e " l i g h t o f i m a g i n a t i o n " w h i c h w o u l d i l l u m i n a t e s e l f a n d w o r l d w i t h i n t i m e . G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s a r e b e s t s e r v e d , n o t by t a k i n g them h o s t a g e s f o r w a r r i n g c r i t i c a l camps, one o f w h i c h a n n o u n c e s an end t o m i m e t i c t h e o r i e s o f f i c t i o n , a s s u m i n g t h a t m i m e s i s i s a d e a d i s s u e ( r e a d s t r u c t u r a l i s t , p o s t r u c t u r a l i s t , d e c o n s t r u c t i v e ) , t h e o t h e r a d v o c a t i n g m o r e - f o r m a l i s t -t h a n - t h o u a d h e r e n c e t o n e w - c r i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s ( r e a d r e a c t i o n a r y , r e t r o -57 g r a d e , h u m a n i s t ) . R a t h e r , G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s s h o u l d be r e a d a s e x p l o -r a t i o n s o f t h e powers o f r e a l i s m t o r e a c h b e y o n d i t s e l f , t o u r g e a r e a d i n g 21 o f f i c t i o n as m i m e s i s and a s c r e a t i o n . Read as r e a l i s t a nd i m p r e s s i o n i s t t e x t s , G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s as f i c t i o n s w h i c h o p p o s e h i s t o r y , t r a d i t i o n , a n d c u l t u r e t o i n d i v i d u a l s ' v a r i o u s a r t s o f r e m e m b e r i n g . H i s t o r y ' s t h e s i s and memory's a n t i t h e s i s c o n v e r g e i n i m a g i n a t i o n ' s s y n -t h e s i s , and i m a g i n a t i o n ' s " l i g h t " i l l u m i n a t e s G a l l a n t ' s f i g u r e s ' home-c o m i n g w i t h i n t i m e . G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s e x p r e s s a r t ' s p o t e n t i a l t o f i g u r e i m a g i n a t i o n ' s f i c t i o n s , n o t a s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p o s t - m o d e r n i s t games, b u t a s t h e f i c t i o n s t h r o u g h w h i c h c h a r a c t e r s c r e a t e s e l v e s and s e l f - s h a p e d l i v e s i n an h i s t o r i c a l w o r l d . G a l l a n t ' s r e p o r t s on t h e w o r l d d e v e l o p i n t o r e p o r t s on t h e s h a p e and s h a p i n g o f i m a g i n a t i o n ; i n t h i s s e n s e , s t r u c t u r a l i s m ' s c l a i m f o r t h e n o v e l , n o t as m i m e s i s , b u t as a r e f l e c t i o n on how we "make s e n s e , " as an e n a c t m e n t o f t h e a d v e n t u r e o f m a k i n g s e n s e , i s a v a l u a b l e c l a i m f o r r e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . 5 8 V a l u a b l e , b u t n o t p r e - e m p t i v e : G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n e n g a g e s r e a d e r s i n w ords and w o r l d , c r e a t i o n and m i m e s i s . In a r e c e n t a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "What I s S t y l e ? " ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 ) , G a l l a n t comments on what s h e s e e s as f i c t i o n ' s c e n t r a l l y t e m p o r a l p u r p o s e : S t y l e i s i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m s t r u c t u r e , p a r t o f t h e c o n f o r m a t i o n o f w h a t e v e r t h e a u t h o r has t o s a y . What he s a y s - - t h i s i s what f i c t i o n i s a b o u t - - i s t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e and t h a t n o t h i n g l a s t s . A g a i n s t t h e s u s t a i n e d t i c k o f a w a t c h , f i c t i o n t a k e s t h e m e a s u r e o f a l i f e , a s e a s o n , a l o o k e x c h a n g e d , t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t , d e s i r e as b r i e f a s a d r e a m , t h e g r i e f a n d t e r r o r t h a t a f t e r c h i l d h o o d we c e a s e t o e x p r e s s . The l i f e , t h e l o o k , t h e g r i e f a r e w i t h o u t p e r m a n e n c e . The w a t c h c o n t i n u e s t o t i c k when t h e s t o r y s t o p s . 59 T h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t " s o m e t h i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e and t h a t n o t h i n g l a s t s " i s a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a r e a d i n g o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . Her s t o r i e s , as h e r comment s u g g e s t s , p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o human t i m e and i n t o t h e power 22 o f f i c t i o n a l , i m a g i n a t i v e p r e s e n c e t o i l l u m i n a t e a c t u a l t r a n s i e n c e and t h e t r a n s i e n c e o f a c t u a l i t y . G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s show r e a d e r s how c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i z e t h e i n e v i t a b l e t i c k i n g o f t h e w a t c h by t e l l i n g them^ s e l v e s s t o r i e s a b o u t t i m e . In e m p h a s i z i n g f i c t i o n ' s c o m p u l s i o n t o t e l l t i m e , t o r e v e a l t h a t " s o m e t h i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e , " G a l l a n t p o i n t s t o h e r own f i c t i o n ' s r e c r e a t i o n o f t i m e , e v e n a s s h e o s t e n s i b l y d i s c u s s e s " s t y l e . " H e r s t o r i e s t a k e up t i m e as t h e i r theme and e n a c t t i m e as f o r m , as t h e f o r m s o f h e r c h a r a c t e r s ' e v a s i o n s , a d v a n c e s , r e t r e a t s , a nd e n -c o u n t e r s w i t h memory and h i s t o r y . R e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s c a n o n , we s p e a k p a r t s i n t h i s s t u t t e r i n g d i a l o g u e w i t h t i m e . H e r s t o r i e s i n v i t e r e a d e r s t o d i s c o v e r t h e ways i n w h i c h memory and h i s t o r y , i n t h e l i g h t o f i m a g i -n a t i o n , i l l u m i n a t e t h e p r e s e n t , by r e a l i z i n g t h e p a s t . 23 N o t e s P r e v i e w , No. 22 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 4 4 ) , pp. 1-3, 4-6. The b i b l i o g r a p h y a t t a c h e d t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n r e c o r d s b o t h f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n a n d s u b s e -q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e s o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n a n d n o n f i c t i o n . See t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y f o r a r e c o r d o f G a l l a n t ' s S t a n d a r d j o u r n a l i s m . 3 The q u e s t i o n o f why G a l l a n t l e f t Canada f o r E u r o p e has f a s c i n a t e d h e r i n t e r v i e w e r s . S he t e l l s Graeme G i b s o n t h a t s h e " a l w a y s had E u r o p e i n m i n d . I f e l t t h e war a s s o m e t h i n g v e r y c l a u s t r o p h o b i c . . . . I g o t o u t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a b e c a u s e o f t h e w h o l e E i s e n h o w e r m e n t a l i t y . . . oh i t ' s so s t u p i d , p o l i t i c a l and m a t e r i a l i s t i c . . . s o m e t h i n g a w f u l l y w r o n g . " She a l s o t e l l s G i b s o n t h a t s h e went t o E u r o p e b e c a u s e s h e knew s h e w o u l d n e v e r m a r r y a g a i n , and t h a t i n A n g l o - S a x o n c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g E n g l a n d , a woman c o u l d n o t . l i v e a l o n e ( A n t h o l o g y , CBC R a d i o , 31 A u g u s t 1 9 7 4 ) . G a l l a n t t e l l s E a r l B e a t t i e t h a t s h e i s " v e r y E u r o p e a n - m i n d e d , " a nd "grew up v e r y E u r o p e a n - m i n d e d , " had " a l w a y s w a n t e d t o come" t o E u r o p e . She s a y s s h e i s " n o t so s u r e " t h a t s h e w o u l d have c o n t i n u e d w r i t i n g had s h e s t a y e d i n C a n a d a . She d i s t i n g u i s h e s C anada f r o m E u r o p e , r e m a r k i n g o f Canada t h a t s h e ' s " n e v e r been i n a c o u n t r y w here t h e r e was so much gap betwe e n r e a l i t y a n d dream . . . t h e p e o p l e ' s l i v e s d i d n ' t m a t c h up t o what t h e y seem t o t h i n k t h e y were a nd t h e p e o p l e i n v e n t t h i n g s o r t h e y i n v e n t b a c k g r o u n d s o r t h e y i n v e n t f a m i l i e s . Canada i s a f a s c i n a t i n g p l a c e . . . i n Ca n a d a y o u move f r o m H a l i f a x t o V a n c o u v e r and s u d d e n l y y o u r f a t h e r was s o m e t h i n g e l s e , y o u r m o t h e r was s o m e t h i n g e l s e . " I n E u r o p e , G a l l a n t s a y s , "you c a n ' t i n v e n t , " b e c a u s e " e v e r y o n e knows t o o much" ( A n t h o l o g y , 24 May 1 9 6 9 ) . To S u s a n L e s l i e , s h e s a y s t h a t s h e "wanted t o s e e i f [ s h e ] c o u l d l i v e on [ h e r ] w r i t i n g " ( A u d i e n c e , CBC R a d i o , 6 F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 2 ) . H e r i n t e r v i e w w i t h G e o f f H a n c o c k b e g i n s w i t h t h e same q u e s t i o n : H a n c o c k : What a t t r a c t s y o u t o P a r i s ? I s i t t h e l i g h t ? T h e s e n s e o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s a n d s e c u r i t y P a r i s i a n s h a v e ? G a l l a n t : No. When I l e f t C a nada I was l o o k i n g f o r a p l a c e w h ere I c o u l d l i v e on my own t e r m s . T h a t may s o u n d V e r y pompous, b u t i t ' s t r u e . I f i t had t u r n e d o u t t o be M a d r i d , I 'd have s t a y e d i n M a d r i d . I f o u n d P a r i s t h e m o s t open c i t y , t h e one t h a t l e a v e s y o u a l o n e m o s t , t h e one where y o u c a n l i v e e x a c t l y a s y o u l i k e . I t ' s v e r y m a l l e a b l e . L o n d o n i s t o o l a r g e . Rome i n t h e 1 950's was p r o v i n c i a l . ( C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n M a g a z i n e , No. 28 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 2 0 ) . 24 M o s t r e c e n t l y , W i l l i a m F r e n c h has l i n k e d G a l l a n t w i t h E l i z a b e t h S m a r t as b e l o n g i n g t o " t h e g e n e r a t i o n f o r whom e x i l e was a v e r y r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e , " s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s p h a s e i n C a n a d i a n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y i s o v e r ("Rewards a t home end t h e e r a o f t h e l i t e r a r y e x i l e , " G l o b e and M a i l , 1 J u n e 1982, p. 1 0 ) . 4 G a l l a n t ' s n o v e l l a "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " and h e r " s h o r t n o v e l , " " I t s Image on t h e M i r r o r " f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n T h e P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n a n d My  H e a r t i s B r o k e n r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l t h o u g h From t h e F i f t e e n t h D i s t r i c t i s s u b t i t l e d "A N o v e l l a a n d E i g h t S h o r t S t o r i e s , " t h e r e i s no a g r e e m e n t a s t o w h i c h o f t h e s t o r i e s i s t h e n o v e l l a . F o u r a r e c a n d i d a t e s : "The F o u r S e a s o n s , " "The Moslem W i f e , " "The R e m i s s i o n , " and " P o t t e r . " B u t as Graham Good has shown i n " N o t e s on t h e N o v e l l a " ( N o v e l [ S p r i n g 1 9 7 7 ] , 1 9 7 - 2 1 1 ) , t h e t e r m " n o v e l l a " h as meant d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n E n g l i s h , S p a n i s h , I t a l i a n , F r e n c h , a n d German l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and c r i t i c i s m ; Good p r o p o s e s t h a t we c o l l a p s e t h e two t e r m s m o s t o f t e n o p p o s e d t o t h e n o v e l - - n o v e l l a and s h o r t s t o r y - - i n t o o n e , " n o v e l l a » • s i n c e t h e s e two f o r m s s h a r e so many s i m i l a r i t i e s . To d e s c r i b e G a l l a n t ' s s h o r t f i c t i o n , I am u s i n g t h e t e r m " s t o r y . " G a l l a n t has a l s o p u b l i s h e d s t o r i e s i n Charm, T e x a s Q u a r t e r l y , S o u t h e r n R e v i e w , H a r p e r ' s B a z a a r , C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n  M a g a z i n e , T a m a r a c k R e v i e w , a nd E s q u i r e . S ee B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r d e t a i l s . 5 I am d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n c o l l e c t i o n s and books o f s t o r i e s . The End o f t h e W o r l d a n d O t h e r S t o r i e s ( 1 9 7 4 ) and Home T r u t h s ( s u b t i t l e d " S e l e c t e d C a n a d i a n S t o r i e s " ) a r e c o l l e c t i o n s , a l t h o u g h Home T r u t h s i s s u p p o s e d l y u n i f i e d by t h e s t o r i e s ' C a n a d i a n s e t t i n g s . I t i s more h e l p -f u l t o r e a d t h e L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s as d e v e l o p i n g f r o m t h e s t o r i e s o f The O t h e r P a r i s , My H e a r t I s B r o k e n , The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , and From t h e  F i f t e e n t h D i s t r i c t t h a n t o r e a d them as " C a n a d i a n " s t o r i e s . ^ " P e r i l s o f C o m p a s s i o n , " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 56 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 61-70. S t e v e n s s t u d i e s G r e e n W a t e r , G r e e n S k y , " I t s Image on t h e M i r r o r , " and A F a i r l y Good T i m e . " I t s Image on t h e M i r r o r " was p u b l i s h e d as p a r t o f My_ H e a r t I s B r o k e n . 7 M a l c o l m ' s t h e s i s was c o m p l e t e d a t C a r l e t o n i n J a n u a r y , 1975. The f i r s t v e r s i o n o f M a l c o l m ' s b i b l i o g r a p h y was p u b l i s h e d as "An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y o f Works By and A b o u t M a v i s G a l l a n t " i n E s s a y s on C a n a d i a n  W r i t i n g , No. 6 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 7 ) , pp. 32-52. The b i b l i o g r a p h y a t t a c h e d t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o r r e c t s , u p d a t e s , and ad d s t o t h i s d a t a . g C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n M a g a z i n e , No. 28 ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 9 See b i b l i o g r a p h y f o r o t h e r i n t e r v i e w s . See b i b l i o g r a p h y . 25 Woodcock and H a t c h a r e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s r u l e . Woodcock s t u d i e s t h e r e l a t i o n s b etween memory, i m a g i n a t i o n , and a r t i f i c e i n h i s CFM a r t i c l e ; H a t c h t a k e s as h i s p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e t h e t h e s i s t h a t " [ T J a k e n a s a w h o l e , G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n o f f e r s a d e v a s t a t i n g c r i t i q u e o f l i b e r a l humanism, d e v a s t a t i n g , p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e a c c o u n t i s a l s o s y m p a t h e t i c . " S e e "Memory, I m a g i n a t i o n , A r t i f i c e : T h e L a t e S h o r t F i c t i o n o f M a v i s G a l l a n t , " pp. 7 4 - 9 1 ; "The T h r e e S t a g e s o f M a v i s G a l l a n t ' s S h o r t F i c t i o n , " p. 93. 12 O t h e r k i n d s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h a t by G r a z i a M e r l e r , who s t u d i e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f G a l l a n t ' s n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s , o p e n w i t h s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s . I n h e r i n t r o d u c t i o n , M e r l e r , f o r e x a m p l e , w r i t e s t h a t " c h a r a c t e r s a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s f o r e i g n e r s , t r a v e l l e r s o r g u e s t s , o r t h e y f e e l a s i f t h e y were l i t e r a l l y o r m e t a p h o r i c a l l y f o r e i g n , u p r o o t e d , t r a n s i e n t . " M a v i s G a l l a n t : N a r r a t i v e P a t t e r n s and D e v i c e s ( O t t a w a : The Tecumseh P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 2. 13 G a l l a n t comments t o H a n c o c k : "A s t o r y u s u a l l y b e g i n s , f o r me, w i t h p e o p l e s e e n i n a s i t u a t i o n , l i k e t h a t . ( L o c k s f i n g e r s t o g e t h e r . ) T h e k n o t e i t h e r r e l a x e s o r becomes l o c k e d i n a n o t h e r way." C a n a d i a n  F i c t i o n M a g a z i n e , No. 28 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 4 5 . 14 CFM, p. 4 5 . 1 5 "What Is S t y l e ? " i n C a n a d i a n Forum, V o l . 62, No. 721 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 6. 1 ft G a l l a n t ' s f a v o u r i t e among h e r b o o k s i s The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n . 1 7 In "An I n t r o d u c t i o n , " G a l l a n t w r i t e s : " I w r o t e " T e a " ["Thank You F o r t h e L o v e l y T e a " ] i n New Y o r k , when I was e i g h t e e n , and t h e o t h e r s [ " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l " a nd "Up N o r t h " ] i n t h e f o r t i e s , when I was w o r k i n g on T h e S t a n d a r d i n M o n t r e a l . " (Home T r u t h s , p. x i x ) . I Q " T h i n g s O v e r l o o k e d B e f o r e " ( p p . 9 - 8 5 ) ; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n t h e New Y o r k e r as "The A n n a l s o f J u s t i c e . " S e e b i b l i o g r a p h y . 1 9 T h e a r t i c l e a p p e a r e d i n S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , M a r c h 29, 1 9 4 7 , pp. 3, 14. G a l l a n t t e l l s F l e t c h e r M a r k l e : " I was b r o u g h t up p a r t l y by a p s y c h i a t r i s t who was an a s s i s t a n t o f F r e u d - - h a d been a n a l y z e d by F r e u d . " She s a y s t h a t F r e u d was " g o s p e l " f o r h e r a t c e r t a i n p e r i o d s i n h e r l i f e , t h a t s h e "went t h r o u g h a g r e a t p e r i o d o f F r e u d " and t h o u g h t o f h i s work " a l m o s t l i k e a c o d e . " ( T e l e s c o p e , C h a n n e l ' 6 , T o r o n t o , 22 J a n u a r y 1 9 6 9 ) . 26 20 "Duncan & M a c L e n n a n : W r i t e r s , " R o t o g r a v u r e , 9 J u n e 1945, pp. 16-19; "On t h e A i r , " 9 A p r i l 1949, p. 13; " S a r a h o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , " S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 17 A p r i l 1948, pp. 7, 14, 17; "The Town B e l o w , " S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 17 J u l y 1948, pp. 11, 15; " M a r i a C h a p d e l a i n e , " R o t o g r a v u r e , 13 J a n u a r y 1945, pp. 6, 8, 9-11; " C a n a d i a n S t o r y , " R o t o -g r a v u r e , 2 M a r c h 1946, pp. 3-6, 8-9. 21 W h i l e w o r k i n g f o r t h e S t a n d a r d , G a l l a n t h e r s e l f went t o l i v e i n S a i n t - H e n r i so t h a t s h e w o u l d be i n a F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g d i s t r i c t o f M o n t r e a l . ( T e l e p h o n e i n v e r v i e w w i t h a S t a n d a r d c o l l e a g u e o f G a l l a n t ' s , M o n t r e a l , 7 November 1 9 8 1 ) . 22 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , " R e p o r t on a R e p a t , " R o t o g r a v u r e , 28 J u l y 1945, pp. 2-6, 8-9; " T h e s e A r e t h e F i r s t I m p r e s s i o n s t h e War B r i d e s Formed o f C a n a d a , " R o t o g r a v u r e , 13 O c t o b e r 1945, pp. 4-6, 8-9; " D o n ' t C a l l Me War B r i d e , " S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 2 M a r c h 1946, pp. 5, 13; "DP T e s t C a s e - - A F a i l u r e , " S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 28 A u g u s t 1948, pp. 3, 1 6 - 1 7 , 22; " I D o n ' t C r y Anymore," S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 22 A p r i l 1950, pp. 5, 14, 28; " R e p o r t on a R e p a t , P a r t I I , " R o t o g r a v u r e , 29 J u l y 1950, pp. 16-17. 23 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , " B r i n g i n g Up Baby," S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 8 F e b r u a r y 1947, pp. 4-5; " P r o b l e m C h i l d r e n , " R o t o g r a v u r e , 25 O c t o b e r 1947, pp. 1 6 - 1 7 , 19-20; " Y o u r C h i l d L o o k s A t You," S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 18 December 1948, pp. 3-4. "On t h e A i r , " 21 F e b r u a r y 1948, p. 4. "On t h e A i r , " 26 M a r c h 1949, p. 7. "On t h e A i r , " 22 J a n u a r y 1949, p. 5. H a n c o c k CFM i n t e r v i e w , p. 39. "On t h e A i r , " 5 M a r c h 1 9 4 9 , p. 4. "On t h e A i r , " 22 May 1948, p. 5. In s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r e p o r t s a r e an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n , I do n o t i n t e n d t o a r g u e t h a t r e p o r t s a r e c e n t r a l , w h i c h i s H e l m u t B o n h e i m ' s c o n t e n t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n b etween f i c t i o n a l modes and r e p o r t s . B o n h e i m w r i t e s : " R e p o r t . . . i s t h e e s s e n t i a l mode o f f i c t i o n , a l t h o u g h e v e n h e r e t h e h o n o u r s must be s h a r e d w i t h t h e j o u r n a l i s t a nd t h e h i s t o r i a n . " B o n h e i m , The N a r r a t i v e Modes: T e c h n i q u e s  o f t h e S h o r t S t o r y ( C a m b r i d g e : D. S. B r e w e r , B o y d e l l & B r e w e r , 1 9 8 2 ) , pp. 9-10. 27 "Good M o r n i n g and Goodbye" ( 1 9 4 4 ) ; " T h r e e B r i c k W a l l s " ( 1 9 4 4 ) ; "A W o n d e r f u l C o u n t r y " ( 1 9 4 6 ) ; "The F l o w e r s o f S p r i n g ( 1 9 5 0 ) ; " M a d e l i n e ' s B i r t h d a y " ( 1 9 5 1 ) ; " T h i e v e s and R a s c a l s " ( 1 9 5 6 ) . S e e b i b l i o g r a p h y . 32 A p p a r e n t l y , G a l l a n t i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y happy w i t h t h e s e two s t o r i e s . R o b e r t W e aver, w r i t i n g i n r e p l y t o D o u g l a s M a l c o l m i n 1973, comments: "She p u b l i s h e d one s m a l l e a r l y s t o r y e i t h e r i n P r e v i e w o r F i r s t S t a t e m e n t [ s i c ] j u s t b e f o r e l e a v i n g M o n t r e a l , b u t i n a l e t t e r t o me a b o u t a y e a r ago s h e s a i d t h a t s h e w o u l d t a k e i t as a k i n d n e s s i f I i g n o r e d t h a t a f f a i r . " A t t h a t t i m e ? Weaver was c o m p i l i n g The End o f t h e W o r l d  and O t h e r S t o r i e s . ("The Theme o f E x i l e i n M a v i s G a l l a n t ' s F i c t i o n , " p. 124TT -33 "Good M o r n i n g a n d Goodbye," P r e v i e w , No. 22 (December 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 2. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s s t o r y a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 34 G a l l a n t comments t o G e o f f H a n c o c k on c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n f a m i l i e s : "Some p e o p l e a r e q u i e t a n d some p e o p l e n e v e r s h u t up. C o m m u n i c a t i o n i s q u i t e o t h e r . I n t h a t s e n s e a l l f a m i l i e s a r e t h e same." CFM i n t e r v i e w , p. 23. 35 "A W o n d e r f u l C o u n t r y , " S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e , 14 December 1946, pp. 4, 8. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s s t o r y a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 3 6 T h e woman's a t t i t u d e i s one w h i c h r e s u r f a c e s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . C a n a d i a n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r r e t i c e n c e , t h e i r s t i f f u p p e r l i p : c o mpare L i n n e t M u i r ' s r e f l e c t i o n s on i m p a s s i v i t y i n " I n Y o u t h I s P l e a s u r e " ( 1 9 7 5 ) : Now, o f c o u r s e t h e r e i s much t o be s a i d on t h e o t h e r s i d e : p e o p l e who do n o t d i s p l a y what t h e y f e e l have p r a c t i c a l a d v a n t a g e s . T h e y c a n go away t o be k i l l e d as i f t h e y d i d n ' t m i n d ; t h e y c a n s e e t h e i r s o n s o f f t o war w i t h o u t a b l ink..,. T h e i r u p b r i n g i n g i s i n t e n d e d f o r a c r i s i s . B u t i t i s m u r d e r i n e v e r y d a y l i f e — t r u l y " m u r d e r . The d e a d o f h e a r t and s p i r i t l i t t e r t h e l a n d s c a p e . Home T r u t h s , pp. 2 2 7 - 2 28. 37 " M a d e l i n e ' s B i r t h d a y , " The New Y o r k e r , 1 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 1 , pp. 20-24. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s s t o r y a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . G r e e n W a t e r , G r e e n S k y f i r s t a p p e a r e d as t h r e e s t o r i e s i n t h e New Y o r k e r : " G r e e n W a t e r , G r e e n Sky" (27 J u n e 1 9 5 9 ) ; " T r a v e l l e r s M u s t Be C o n t e n t " (11 J u l y 1 9 5 9 ) ; and " A u g u s t " (29 A u g u s t 1 9 5 9 ) . G a l l a n t 28 p u b l i s h e d o n e p a r t o f A F a i r l y Good T i m e , "The A c c i d e n t , " as a s h o r t s t o r y i n t h e New Y o r k e r ( 2 8 O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 ) , and p u b l i s h e d a n o t h e r s t o r y , " I n T r a n s i t " i n t h e New Y o r k e r (14 A u g u s t 1965) w h i c h s h e d e c i d e d n o t t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t h e n o v e l . 39 S u z a n n e C. F e r g u s o n s u m m a r i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f some o f t h e s e a t t e m p t s i n t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f h e r a r t i c l e , " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y : I m p r e s s i o n i s m a n d Form": T h a t t h e r e i s no l a r g e and d i s t i n g u i s h e d c o r p u s o f s h o r t s t o r y t h e o r y b e c a u s e t h e s h o r t s t o r y d o e s n o t e x i s t as a d i s c r e t e a n d i n d e p e n d e n t g e n r e i s a h y p o -t h e s i s — r e p u g n a n t t o many, o f c o u r s e — t h a t o u g h t t o be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y on o c c a s i o n , i f o n l y t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h e p e r s p e c t i v e t h e h y p o t h e s i s p r o v i d e s . " I n t u i t i o n " o r e v e n " e x p e r i e n c e " may t e l l us t h a t t h e " s h o r t s t o r y " e x i s t s , b u t d e f i n i n g i t has p r o v e n s u r p r i s i n g l y r e s i s t a n t t o c r i t i c a l e f f o r t . . . . S h o r t s t o r i e s a r e d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f u n i t y ( P o e , B r a n d e r M a t t h e w s , and o t h e r s ) , t e c h n i q u e s o f p l o t c o m p r e s s i o n ( A . L. B a d e r , Norman F r i e d m a n , L. A. G. S t r o n g ) , c h a n g e o r r e v e l a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r ( T h e o d o r e S t r o u d ) , s u b j e c t ( F r a n k O ' C o n n o r ) , t o n e ( G o r d i m e r ) , " l y r i c i s m " ( M o r a v i a ) , b u t t h e r e i s no s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r c l u s t e r o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t t h e c r i t i c s a g r e e a b s o l u t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s h o r t s t o r y f r o m o t h e r f i c t i o n s . M odern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , V o l . 28, No. 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 13. Mary L o u i s e P r a t t , i n h e r a r t i c l e , "The S h o r t S t o r y : The Long a nd t h e S h o r t o f I t , " a r g u e s c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t t h e s h o r t s t o r y d o e s n o t i n f a c t e x i s t as a d i s c r e t e a n d i n d e p e n d e n t g e n r e . P o e t i c s , V o l . 10, Nos. 2/3 ( J u n e 1 9 8 1 ) , 175-194. F e r g u s o n , " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y . " 41 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " P- 15. 42 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " P- 15. 43 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " P- 15. 44 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " PP . 14-15 45 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " P- 20. 46 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " P- 20. 29 G a l l a n t comments: "Some s t o r i e s h a v e b e e n c u t down a l m o s t f r o m n o v e l l e n g t h . M P o t t e r " w a s n e a r l y a n o v e l . M o s t o f my work i s c u t t i n g . " CFM i n t e r v i e w , p. 49. H " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " p. 21. 4 9 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " p. 21. 5 0 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " p. 23. " S t y l e a n d I t s Image," i n L i t e r a r y S t y l e : A Symposium. Ed . and t r a n s , ( i n p a r t ) by Seymour Chatman ( L o n d o n & New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 10. 52 53 54 55 " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " p. 2 3 . " D e f i n i n g t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " p. 16. T e l e s c o p e ( C h a n n e l 6, T o r o n t o ) , 29 J a n u a r y 1969. F r y e ' s comment comes i n h i s " T h i r d E s s a y : A r c h e t y p a l C r i t i c i s m : T h e o r y o f M y t h s " : " T h i r d , we have t h e t e n d e n c y o f ' r e a l i s m ' (my d i s t a s t e f o r t h i s i n e p t t e r m i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e q u o t a t i o n m a r k s ) t o t h r o w t h e e m p h a s i s on c o n t e n t a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n on t h e s h a p e o f t h e s t o r y . " Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m : F o u r E s s a y s ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 140. W a t t d i s c u s s e s t h e t e n e t s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i s m i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f The R i s e o f t h e  N o v e l , " R e a l i s m and t h e N o v e l Form"; W a t t s u m m a r i z e s : Th e g e n e r a l t e m p e r o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i s m has been c r i t i c a l , a n t i - t r a d i t i o n a l , and i n n o v a t i n g ; i t s m ethod has been t h e s t u d y o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t o r , who, i d e a l l y a t l e a s t , i s f r e e f r o m t h e body o f p a s t a s s u m p t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s ; and i t has g i v e n a p e c u l i a r i m p o r t a n c e t o s e m a n t i c s , t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o r r e -s p o n d e n c e between words and r e a l i t y . The R i s e o f t h e N o v e l ( L o n d o n : C h a t t o & W i n d u s , 1957; r p t . P e n g u i n , 1 977T7~p. 13. 56 " R e a l i s t , " a t l e a s t , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t h e r s t o r i e s a r e " f o u n d e d on e x p e r i e n c e , " as s h e p u t s i t : H a n c o c k : A l l y o u r s t o r i e s have a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n i n a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . 30 G a l l a n t : E s s e n t i a l l y . A l l w ork, u n l e s s i t i s S u r r e a l i s t o r D a d a i s t o r G o t h i c i s i n e v i t a b l y f o u n d e d on e x p e r i e n c e . CFM i n t e r v i e w , pp. 50-51. 57 In " C u l t u r e , C r i t i c i s m a n d U n r e a l i t y , " G e r a l d G r a f f d r a w s up a w i t t y a l i g n m e n t o f o p p o s i t i o n s i n t h i s d e b a t e , c a l l i n g h i s c r e a t i o n a " r h e t o r i c a l s c o r e c a f d " f o r t h e " melodrama" t h e two camps t a k e p a r t s i n : Bad r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t e x t as d e t e r m i n a t e o b j e c t b o u n d a r i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s d o c i l i t y , h a b i t t r u t h as c o r r e s p o n d e n c e m e a n i n g a s " p r o d u c t " Good c r e a t i o n t e x t a s o p e n , i n d e t e r -m i n a t e " i n v i t a t i o n " v o y a g e s i n t o t h e u n f o r e -s e e n r i s k t r u t h as i n v e n t i o n , f i c t i o n m e a n i n g a s " p r o c e s s " C h a p t e r One o f L i t e r a t u r e A g a i n s t I t s e l f : L i t e r a r y I d e a s i n M o dern S o c i e t y ( C h i c a g o and L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 23. ^ J o n a t h a n C u l l e r , f o r e x a m p l e , d e s c r i b e s s t r u c t u r a l i s m ' s s h i f t away f r o m m i m e t i c t h e o r y as f o l l o w s : By f o c u s s i n g on t h e ways i n w h i c h i t [ t h e n o v e l ] c o m p l i e s w i t h and r e s i s t s o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s , i t s moments o f o r d e r and d i s o r d e r , i t s i n t e r p l a y o f r e c o g n i t i o n and d i s l o c a t i o n , i t o p e n s t h e way f o r a t h e o r y o f t h e n o v e l w h i c h w o u l d be an a c c o u n t o f t h e p l e a s u r e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s o f r e a d i n g . In p l a c e o f t h e n o v e l as m i m e s i s we have t h e n o v e l a s a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h p l a y s w i t h d i f f e r e n t modes o f o r d e r i n g and e n a b l e s t h e r e a d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how he makes s e n s e o f t h e w o r l d . S t r u c t u r a l i s t P o e t i c s : S t r u c t u r a l i s m , L i n g u i s t i e s a n d t h e S t u d y o f  L i t e r a t u r e ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n - P a u l , 1975, r p t . 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 238. "What I s S t y l e ? " i n C a n a d i a n Forum, V o l . 67, No. 721 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 6. 31 CHAPTER II The Other P a r i s : Memory's F i c t i o n s Aga ins t H i s t o r y ' s Reports The t i t l e s t o r y of G a l l a n t ' s f i r s t book, The Other Pa r i s (1956), opens up f i s s u r e s between memory and h i s t o r y , between s e l f ' s f i c t i o n s and w o r l d ' s f a c t s , and between G a l l a n t ' s "North Amer ica" and G a l l a n t ' s "Europe. " These d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , these ruptures r i d d l e the su r face and s t r u c t u r e o f many o f G a l l a n t ' s key s t o r i e s , beginning w i th "The Other P a r i s " and ending f o r the time being wi th the " L i n n e t Muir s t o r i e s . " ^ In "The Other P a r i s , " G a l l a n t ' s f i n e s t and most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e a r l y s t o r y , memory f l e e s from h i s t o r y , s e l f f l e e s from w o r l d , North America f l e e s from Europe as Carol F r a z i e r f i nd s a postwar Pa r i s that threatens her a h i s t o r i c a l v i s i o n . As the na r r a to r of "The Other P a r i s " makes p a i n f u l l y c l e a r , we must read C a r o l ' s " r e s o l u t i o n " o f the p o l a r i t i e s of her double v i s i o n i r o n i c a l l y : Carol makes a f i c t i o n , through memory, which a l l ows her to r e t r e a t i n t o a comfortab ly p r i v a t e , p r i v i l e g e d s e l f -hood. Along w i t h t h i s f i r s t express ion o f the broken d ia logue between memory and h i s t o r y , the s t o r i e s o f The Other Pa r i s begin to de f i ne a l l o f G a l l a n t ' s major themes and forms. There are s t o r i e s which dramat ize the s ub t l e but a l so savage b a t t l e s w i t h i n f a m i l i e s ("About Geneva") ; p o l i t i c a l s t o r i e s ("Senor P i nedo " ) ; s t o r i e s which b r i ng domestic codes o f conduct i n t o sharp focus by d i s p l a c i n g cha rac te r s i n a l i e n s e t t i n g s , most o f ten Europe ("The P i c n i c " ) ; and reminiscences w i th l i g h t , comic 32 r e s o l u t i o n s ("Wing's C h i p s , " "The D e c e p t i o n s o f M a r i e - B l a n c h e " ) . T h e s e a r e m e t i c u l o u s l y d o c u m e n t a r y s t o r i e s - - s t o r i e s w h i c h r e c o r d a c l o s e l y o b s e r v e d s u r f a c e o f d e t a i l s , o f a t m o s p h e r e and s e t t i n g , w i t h o u t s h a d i n g i n t o f o r m s l i k e t h e ' m e m o i r , t h e p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e , o r t h e e s s a y . M o s t o f t h e n a r r a t o r s i n The O t h e r P a r i s a r e i r o n i c and d e t a c h e d . T h e y t a k e up an o b j e c t i v e , d i s p a s s i o n a t e s t a n c e , f r a m i n g c h a r a c t e r s i n s e t t i n g s , e s t a b l i s h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . T h e y o b s e r v e and r e c o r d a c t i o n , i n -v i t i n g r e a d e r s t o d e c o d e c h a r a c t e r , t o i n f e r m o t i v a t i o n . When f i r s t -p e r s o n n a r r a t o r s remember, t h e y r e p o r t t h e i r m e m o r i e s , r a t h e r t h a n r e f l e c t on memory's p r o c e s s o r m e a n i n g . As G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n d e v e l o p s , r e p o r t e r s and d o c u m e n t a r y r e p o r t s , n a r r a t o r s and c o o l l y i r o n i c n a r r a t i o n e v o l v e i n t o more i n v e n t i v e , r e f l e c t i v e , r e f l e x i v e s t r u c t u r e s , i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y r a i s i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , n a r r a t i v e t r u t h , memory, h i s t o r y , and t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n - . o r r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p a s t . T h i s p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t b e g i n s m o s t c l e a r l y w i t h "The O t h e r P a r i s . " R e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , we a r r i v e a t t h e L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s and r e - r e a d "The O t h e r P a r i s " as t h e key s t o r y among G a l l a n t ' s e a r l y s t o r i e s , t h e s t o r y w h i c h m o s t u r g e n t l y i n v i t e s us t o c o n s i d e r t h e f u n c t i o n s o f memory, h i s t o r y , i m a g i n a t i o n , and f i c t i o n . "The O t h e r P a r i s " ( 1 9 5 3 ) e x a m i n e s C a r o l F r a z i e r ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h h i s t o r y i n p o s t w a r P a r i s a n d h e r r e t r e a t i n t o memory's f i c t i o n s . T h e n a r r a t o r i n v i t e s us t o r e a d t h e s t o r y C a r o l t e l l s h e r s e l f a b o u t P a r i s as an e v a s i v e r o m a n t i c i z a t i o n , one w h i c h w i l l f o r m h e r " d i s a p p o i n t i n g " e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a p l e a s a n t f i c t i o n , a " c o h e r e n t p i c t u r e , a c c u r a t e b u t ... 2 u n t r u e . " C a r o l i s one o f t h e f i r s t o f G a l l a n t ' s c h a r a c t e r s t o s u f f e r 33 t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f a d o u b l e v i s i o n : "The O t h e r P a r i s " t u r n s on t h e c o u r s e o f C a r o l ' s e n g agement t o h e r A m e r i c a n b o s s , an e ngagement w h i c h has t o s u r v i v e C a r o l ' s a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e t h e c o m i c d i s t a n c e G a l l a n t s e t s up b e t w e e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f l o v e i n t h e r e a l p o s t w a r P a r i s and C a r o l ' s r o m a n t i c v i s i o n o f l o v e i n t h e P a r i s Of h e r d r e a m s . C a r o l , t w e n t y - t w o , has come t o work i n P a r i s and q u i c k l y becomes e n g a g e d t o Howard M i t c h e l l , who i s " s o b e r , o l d e n o u g h t o know h i s own m i n d , a n d a b s o l u t e l y r e l i a b l e " ( 4 ) . A y o u n g N o r t h A m e r i c a n g i r l a b r o a d , C a r o l b r i n g s t o P a r i s and h e r e n g a g e m e n t an u n w o r l d l i n e s s n u r t u r e d by t h e " h e l p f u l " p r a c t i c a l i t y o f c l a s s r o o m t a l k s : The f a c t t h a t C a r o l was n o t i n l o v e w i t h Howard M i t c h e l l d i d n o t d i s m a y h e r i n t h e l e a s t . From a s e r i e s o f h e l p f u l c o l l e g e l e c t u r e s on m a r r i a g e s h e had l e a r n e d t h a t a common i n t e r e s t , s u c h a s a l i k i n g f o r I r i s h s e t t e r s , was t h e t r u e b a s i s f o r h a p p i n e s s , and t h a t t h e i l l u s i o n o f l o v e was a b l i g h t i m p o s e d by t h e f i l m i n d u s t r y , and a l m o s t e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e h i g h r a t e o f d i v o r c e . ( 3 - 4 ) The s h a r p i r o n y h e r e e s t a b l i s h e s a f i r m c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n n a r r a t o r and r e a d e r , a c o n t r a c t w h i c h becomes more a m b i g u o u s o r d i s s o l v e s e n t i r e l y i n o t h e r s t o r i e s . The n a r r a t o r l a y s b a r e C a r o l ' s n a i v e t e " , and more g e n e r a l l y , t h e n o n s e n s i c a l l y c o m m o n s e n s i c a l w o r l d v i e w w h i c h i s h e r i n h e r i t a n c e and t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f Howard's " a b s o l u t e r e l i a b i l i t y . " The p r i c e C a r o l m ust pay f o r h e r d i s t i n c t i v e l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n b r a n d o f d e t e r m i n e d i n n o -c e n c e i s t h e r a d i c a l s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e b a n i s h e d " i l l u s i o n o f l o v e " f r o m t h e p r e c i n c t s o f t h e r e a l P a r i s , a d u l l , r a i n y c i t y w h i c h r e p e a t e d l y 4 " d i s a p p o i n t s " h e r . C a r o l b e l i e v e s t h a t l o v e w i l l grow, p l a n t l i k e , i n t h e p r o p e r e n v i r o n m e n t : " L o v e r e q u i r e d o n l y t h e r i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , l i k e a g e r a n i u m . 34 I t w o u l d w i t h e r e x p o s e d t o bad w e a t h e r o r i n d i s m a l s u r r o u n d i n g s ; i n d e e d , C a r o l r a t e d t h e c h a n c e s o f l o v e i n a c o t t a g e o r a f u r n i s h e d room a t z e r o " ( 4 ) . H e r p r a c t i c a l v e r s i o n o f l o v e r e q u i r e s an i d e a l s e t t i n g : t h e c o m i c d i s p a r i t y between h e r r o m a n t i c i z e d P a r i s a n d t h e r e a l P a r i s s h e e n c o u n t e r s d a i l y p r o v i d e s t h e s i m p l e s t o f t h e s t o r y ' s o p p o s i t i o n s . On t h i s l e v e l , t h e n a r r a t o r t r e a t s C a r o l ' s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s u n a m b i g u o u s l y . W a i t i n g f o r l o v e t o u n f o l d as i t p r o p e r l y s h o u l d , C a r o l s e a r c h e s f o r a P a r i s o f "famous p a r k s , " " r e a d a b o u t " r a t h e r t h a n l i v e d i n , i t s men c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e books o f " E n g l i s h l a d y n o v e l i s t s " ; s h e f i n d s t r a n s -p l a n t e d C o c a - C o l a s i g n s , "men who n e e d e d a h a i r c u t , " and " s h a b b y g i r l s b u n d l e d i n t o r a i n c o a t s " ( 6 - 7 ) . Howard i s a c a r i c a t u r e o f s o b r i e t y , a l m o s t t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n i m a g i n a t i o n . ^ C a r o l l o o k s and w a i t s f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l y r o m a n t i c ( a n d a t t h e same t i m e c o m f o r t a b l y m i d d l e - c l a s s ) e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h l o v e w i l l n a t u r a l l y b l o s s o m ; r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y ( a n d h y p o t h e t i c a l l y ) s h e " s i n c e r e l y i m a g i n e s " ( w h i c h i n t h i s s t o r y i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h b e l i e v -i n g ) r o m a n t i c c o n t e x t s f o r r o m a n t i c e v e n t s : I f a n y o n e had a s k e d C a r o l a t what p r e c i s e moment she f e l l i n l o v e , o r where Howard M i t c h e l l p r o p o s e d t o h e r , s h e w o u l d have i m a g i n e d , q u i t e s i n c e r e l y , a s c e n e t h a t i n v o l v e d a l l a t o n c e t h e S e i n e , moon-l i g h t , b a r r o w s o f v i o l e t s , a c a c i a s i n f l o w e r , and a c o n f u s e d , m i s t y b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e E i f f e l Tower and l i t t l e c r o o k e d s t r e e t s . ( 3 ) B u t Howard's v e r s i o n o f an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t i s , i n i t s b a n a l i t y , as c o m i c a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e as C a r o l ' s : " A c t u a l l y , he had p r o p o s e d a t l u n c h , o v e r a t u n a - f i s h s a l a d " ( 3 ) . The comedy o f C a r o l ' s e n g agement i s p l a y e d o u t a g a i n s t a b a c k g r o u n d 35 which con t inua l l y threatens to become foreground—the real postwar Pa r i s , a c i t y in which Par i s ians themselves are out of time and p l a c e . 7 Od i l e , a secretary in Ca ro l ' s o f f i c e , i s a representat ive f i g u r e , complaining to Carol over lunch about her f ami l y ' s economic dec l ine s ince the war; she "touche[s] on the present only to complain in terms of the past" ( 8 ) . Odi le sees Caro l ' s engagement to Howard as " u n o r i g i n a l " ; for much of the s to ry , she and Carol are " f r i e n d l y in an impersonal way" (7). F e l i x , O d i l e ' s young l over , completes the quartet. He is c l o ses t to Carol in age; but most removed from her by d in t of her perception of his status and c l a s s . Unemployed, without working papers, Fe l i x i s a product of the massive displacements r e su l t i n g from the war. He, ju s t as much as Od i l e , i s a " t y p i c a l " P a r i s i a n — a refugee. An t i c i pa t i ng her moment of contact with Fe l i x at the end of the s tory , Carol compares his s i t ua t i on with hers but then " los [es] t rack" in a passage through which we hear how e f f e c t i v e l y the nar ra tor ' s tonal va r i a t i ons can range: She and F e l i x , then, were c lo ser in age than he was to Od i le , or she her se l f was to Howard. When I was in schoo l , he was in schoo l , she thought. When the war stopped, we were fourteen and f i f t e e n . . . [s ic] But here she l o s t t rack , for where Carol had had a hol iday, F e l i x ' s parents had been k i l l e d . (10) Caro l ' s "ho l iday " suggests North America's ce lebrat ion of peace, but the hol iday also becomes a vacation from the more immediate e f fec t s of h i s tory in Europe, where the war has k i l l e d F e l i x ' s parents. On one l e v e l , "The Other Par i s " explores Ca ro l ' s dilemma in t ry ing to reconc i l e her ideal of romantic love with the sound, commonsensical 36 a p p r o a c h t o m a r r i a g e s h e has been t a u g h t i n h e r " h e l p f u l l e c t u r e s . " "The O t h e r P a r i s " was p u b l i s h e d i n 1953; i n 1947 G a l l a n t w r o t e an a r t i c l e f o r Q t h e S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e e n t i t l e d " I s Romance K i l l i n g Y o u r M a r r i a g e ? " G a l l a n t t h e j o u r n a l i s t r e p o r t s : A few weeks a g o , . . . t h e A m e r i c a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t M a r g a r e t Mead o f f e r e d one t h e o r y [ f o r t h e c o l l a p s e o f so many m a r r i a g e s ] . She s a i d t h a t " t h e myth o f r o m a n t i c l o v e " was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e h i g h d i v o r c e r a t e , and w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y w r e c k c i v i l i z a t i o n u n l e s s s o m e t h i n g were done a b o u t i t . 9 P e o p l e who b e l i e v e i n t h i s m y t h , w r i t e s G a l l a n t , " a r e l o o k i n g f o r some-t h i n g w h i c h d o e s n o t e x i s t " ; s h e c i t e s a n o t h e r a u t h o r i t y on t h e q u e s t i o n : E r n e s t B u r g e s s , a u t h o r o f "The F a m i l y , " r e f e r s t o i t as a " f r u i t l e s s q u e s t f o r t h e b l u e b i r d o f r o m a n c e , " a q u e s t w h i c h i s c a r r i e d on w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r b u i l d i n g s t a b l e homes o r e m o t i o n a l l y s o u n d f a m i l i e s . T h i s s o r t o f b e h a v i o u r i s n o t t h e e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y o f m o v i e s t a r s o r p e o p l e w i t h t i m e and money on t h e i r h a n d s . Our e n t i r e u p b r i n g i n g t e n d s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i d e a t h a t l o v e o c c u r s l i k e a f l a s h o f l i g h t n i n g [ c f . O d i l e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n t o t h e d r e s s m a k e r : " F e l l i n l o v e . . . . " A t f i r s t s i g h t , l e c o u p de f o u d r e . " ( 2 ) ] and t h a t m a r r i a g e i s t h e p r o p e r way t o meet i t . S i m i l a r i t y o f b a c k -g r o u n d , r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , and f u t u r e hopes a r e m e n t i o n e d b u t r a r e l y c o n s i d e r e d . ( 3 ) The o b j e c t i v e r e p o r t i n g o f t h e n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s i r o n i c r e p o r t on C a r o l ' s c o n d i t i o n . The n e w s p a p e r p i e c e p r e s e n t s t h e "myth o f r o m a n t i c l o v e " as t h e p r o b l e m and c o l l e g e l e c t u r e s a s t h e means t o d e m y t h o l o g i z e l o v e ; t h e s h o r t s t o r y r i d i c u l e s t h i s s i m p l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l by i r o n i c a l l y r e f e r r i n g t o C a r o l ' s " h e l p f u l " c l a s s e s on m a r r i a g e . G a l l a n t c r e a t e s i n C a r o l a c h a r a c t e r who l i v e s t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n t h e S t a n d a r d a r t i c l e : 37 In f ac t , as far as modern l i f e i s concerned, Burgess c a l l s the way we l i v e "the unique attempt in the new world of America to reconci le the romantic impulse with family welfare." Romance, he explains, "was kept apart from marriage in the old world because of i t s seeming incompat ib i l i ty with any prudent consider-ation of family i n te re s t s . " (3) Because Carol brings th i s new world romantic impulse to postwar Par i s , she must t ry to l i v e in both worlds at once. She does so by imagining that romantic love w i l l blossom in a comfortable, sensible environment; her attempted synthesis of i r reconc i l ab le opposites, which f a i l s , comments on the essential incompat ib i l i ty of the two impulses described in the Standard a r t i c l e . "The Other Par is " opens with Carol hoping to rea l i ze her v i s ion in the world; i t ends with her adopting Howard's "prudent consideration" of comfort and s t a b i l i t y . Through amused irony, the narrator conveys to the reader, over Carol ' s head, the f u t i l i t y of her attempt to reconci le her romantic Paris with postwar Par is . The general ized, objective discussion of the myth of romantic love in the Standard a r t i c l e contrasts sharply with the narrator ' s i ron ic commentary in "The Other Par i s . " To close the distance between the myth of romantic love and " fami ly welfare" and combat the r i s i n g divorce rates, Gallant reports in the Standard, "colleges in the US are giving courses" ( 3 ) . The cycle of broken marriages producing unhappy chi ldren who are themselves more l i k e l y to divorce the i r future mates "should be stopped by education and in s t ruct ion—not after the marriage, but long before" ( 2 2 ) . A Canadian p sych ia t r i s t , reports' Gal lant, "suggests . . . the teaching of human re lat ions in the classroom, which i s now being done on an experimental scale in Toronto" ( 2 2 ) . Throughout the Standard " a r t i c l e , author i t ies are quoted without a trace of irony: as Gallant 38 has r e m a r k e d i n an i n t e r v i e w , i r o n y i s a l u x u r y n e w s p a p e r w r i t e r s c a n n o t a f f o r d . ^ So " D r . B a r u c h S i l v e r m a n , who d i r e c t s t h e M e n t a l H y g i e n e I n s t i t u t e , s a y s t h a t t h e r o m a n t i c i d e a i s a ' f a l s e c o n c e p t w h i c h t h e y [ p e o p l e ] t r y t o r e v i v e now and t h e n " ' ( 2 2 ) . A g a i n , " E l i n o r B a r n s t e a d , m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l o r w i t h t h e F a m i l y W e l f a r e i n M o n t r e a l , " s u g g e s t s " q u a l i f i c a t i o n s " c o u p l e s s h o u l d have i n o r d e r t o t h i n k a b o u t g e t t i n g 0 m a r r i e d . G a l l a n t l i s t s them, a s a r e p o r t e r w o u l d have b e f o r e t h e a d v e n t o f New J o u r n a l i s m , w i t h o u t comment: (1 ) S i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s . ( 2 ) A b i l i t y t o be h a p p y , w i t h a n o r m a l l y h a p p y home p r e v i o u s l y . ( 3 ) E m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . ( 4 ) A common g o a l - - a m u t u a l l i k i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , e t c . ( 5 ) T h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f e a c h o t h e r . She b e g i n s h e r f i n a l p a r a g r a p h by d e s c r i b i n g M i s s B a r n s t e a d 1 s p o i n t s a s " r e a l s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h may n e v e r be met" ( 2 2 ) . The n a r r a t o r o f "The O t h e r P a r i s " a d o p t s a more i r o n i c p e r s p e c t i v e on s u g g e s t i o n s l i k e M i s s B a r n s t e a d ' s . "A common g o a l - - a m u t u a l l i k i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , e t c . " c o n f l a t e d w i t h t h e p l a t i t u d e s o f B a r n s t e a d ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n ( 2 ) , m i g h t w e l l have p r o v i d e d t h e raw m a t e r i a l f o r t h e a c i d s u g g e s t i o n t h a t "a common i n t e r e s t , s u c h a s a l i k i n g f o r I r i s h s e t t e r s , was t h e t r u e b a s i s f o r h a p p i n e s s . " The n a r r a t o r e d g e s and h o n e s t h e n e u t r a l t o n e o f t h e a r t i c l e , n o t o n l y by d e r i d i n g C a r o l ' s c l a s s r o o m l e s s o n s , b u t a l s o by s h a p i n g t h e t h e m e s , t h e c o n t e n t o f an a r g u m e n t , i n t o t h e f o r m o f a s t o r y . The t o n e o f t h e S t a n d a r d a r t i c l e i s n o t c o l o u r l e s s ; a t p o i n t s , h i n t s o f G a l l a n t ' s amusement a t what s h e i s r e p o r t i n g s u r f a c e s : " R o m a n t i c l o v e . . . i s s u p p o s e d t o have s t a r t e d i n t h e m i d d l e a g e s , when women were e l e v a t e d t o t h e p e d e s t a l t h e y a r e now a l l e g e d t o o c c u p y , and 39 t r o u b a d o u r s r u s h e d a b o u t s i n g i n g t h e i r p r a i s e s " ( 3 ) . The o n e o c c a s i o n on w h i c h G a l l a n t e d i t o r i a l i z e s i n t h e S t a n d a r d p i e c e i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h R o n a l d H a t c h ' s g e n e r a l c l a i m : " T a k e n as a w h o l e , G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n o f f e r s a d e v a s t a t i n g c r i t i q u e o f l i b e r a l humanism, d e v a s t a t i n g , p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e a c c o u n t i s a l s o s y m p a t h e t i c . " ^ G a l l a n t w r i t e s : Cameron a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t we a r e i n a s t a t e o f t r a n s i t i o n , and t h a t humanism w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be o u r g r e a t e s t m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e . However, t h a t has c e r t a i n l y n o t y e t a p p e a r e d on t h e h o r i z o n , a n d u n t i l i t d o e s l i t t l e has been p r e s e n t e d t o r e l i e v e t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f ro m a n c e and h o s t i l i t y many p e o p l e b r i n g i n t o m a r r i a g e . (22) I f we assume, as seems r e a s o n a b l e , t h a t G a l l a n t i s e x p r e s s i n g h e r own o p i n i o n h e r e , o r a t l e a s t c o n f i r m i n g C a m e r o n ' s , t h e n s u p p o r t f o r H a t c h ' s c l a i m comes f r o m an i n f o r m e d ( i f b i a s e d ) c o u r s e . I n "The O t h e r P a r i s , " humanism a s " o u r g r e a t e s t m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e " i s n o t v i s i b l e on a n y h o r i z o n . T h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f i t i n t h e b l e a k a n d d e s o l a t e v e r s i o n p r e s e n t e d o f P a r i s a n d P a r i s i a n s , n o r i s i t a r e d e e m i n g f o r c e i n C a r o l ' s v i s i o n , where i t a p p e a r s i n i t s m o s t p l a t i t u d i n o u s , b l a n d l y b e n e f i c e n t g u i s e - - a n d i s shown up a s s u c h . Y e t t h e s t o r y , f o r a l l i t s i m p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o c u l t u r e a n d i d e o l o g y , i s n e v e r d i d a c t i c . P o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s r a r e l y s u r f a c e a s raw c o n t e n t i n G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s . C a r o l ' s f i c t i o n a l i z i n g - - w h a t s h e i m a g i n e s , what s h e r e c o n s t r u c t s t h r o u g h memory and w i l l f i n a l l y b e l i e v e - - m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e d o u b l e c o n t e x t o f what s h e b r i n g s t o P a r i s a n d what s h e f i n d s t h e r e , and G a l l a n t ' s p y s c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m , e v i d e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , i n h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f C a r o l 1 s i n t e r i o r w o r l d , i s as p l a u s i b l e a s h e r h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i s m . B u t 40 along with these achievements in p l a u s i b i l i t y , there i s another important perspective in "The Other Pa r i s " : the narrator c a l l s our attention to Carol ' s synthesis of dream world and real world, i n v i t i ng us to read Caro l ' s storymaking as a process c lose ly l inked with the process of memory evading history. The connections between events and the i r trans-formation into i ron ic stor ies form the structure of "The Other Par i s , " so that i t s plot i s double. 12 There are four major events in the story. The story opens at Madame Germaine's, the dressmaker, who i s f i t t i n g Carol for her wedding dress. Looking out the window of the f l a t , Carol sees a dreary, unpromis-ing spring. The story then cuts away from the narrative present as the narrator f i l l s in the events of the past s ix months and describes Carol, Howard, Fe l i x , and Odile. The narrator recounts the second episode, which takes place the previous Christmas: Carol had "begged him [Howard] to take her to the carol singing in the Place VendSme" ( 1 1 ) . Predictably, th i s excursion results in one of Caro l ' s disappointments at the actual event's unromantic nature and in Howard's complaining that his feet are co ld. Then, near the end of winter, Odile inv i tes Carol and Howard to her s i s t e r Martine 's r e c i t a l . Carol i s excited at the prospect of f i n a l l y gaining entrance to her romantic Par i s , but again, r e a l i t y disap-points. She rea l i zes that her conception of Paris and what she actua l ly encounters are i r r econc i l ab le , that v i s ion and version w i l l not coalesce. Returning to the narrative present, we rejo in Carol and Odi le, who have jus t l e f t Madame Germaine's f l a t . Odile persuades Carol , against her w i l l , to v i s i t Fe l i x . They walk to F e l i x ' s disreputable Left-Bank apartment; Carol, i l l at ease, i s l e f t alone with Fel ix when Odile un-ceremoniously f a l l s asleep on the bed. Fe l ix escorts Carol to the Metro, 41 where i n a f i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n t h e y come t o g e t h e r b r i e f l y a nd t h e n p a r t f o r g o o d . T h e s e a r e t h e s t o r y ' s f o u r p r i n c i p a l e v e n t s . T h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s i s s e c o n d a r y ; more v i t a l i s t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e e i t h e r as o c c a s i o n s f o r s t o r y t e l l i n g , o r as t h e f a c t u a l b a s e s f o r s t o r i e s , o r as t h e a t r e s , s t a g e s f o r t h e m e l o d r a m a t i c c o l l i s i o n o f two s p e c t a c l e s . T h i s s e t o f o p p o s i t i o n s between e v e n t s and t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n s p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t o r e a d t h e s t o r y , a c o n t e x t w h i c h meshes w i t h t h e s e t o f o p p o s i t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e r e a l P a r i s and C a r o l ' s m o o n l i t f a n t a s i e s . The o p e n i n g s c e n e p r o v i d e s O d i l e w i t h an o c c a s i o n t o t e l l t h e d r e s s -maker t h e s t o r y o f C a r o l ' s e n g a g e m e n t t o Howard. C a r o l h e r s e l f i s d e t a c h e d ; t h e r e i s " e v i d e n t l y no c o n v e r s a t i o n t o be had" w i t h h e r ( 2 ) . O d i l e ' s e x c h a n g e w i t h t h e d r e s s m a k e r i s a m e l o d r a m a t i c e x c e r p t f r o m a modern f a i r y - t a l e : " j u s t imagine'. M i s s F r a z i e r came t o P a r i s t o work l a s t a utumn, and f e l l i n l o v e w i t h t h e head o f h e r d e p a r t m e n t . " "Non 1." Madame G e r m a i n e r e c o i l e d , a s i f no o t h e r c l i e n t had e v e r b r o u g h t o f f s u c h an e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h i n g . " F e l l i n l o v e w i t h Mr. M i t c h e l l , " s a i d O d i l e , n o d d i n g . " A t f i r s t s i g h t , - l e - c o u p de f o u d r e . " " A t f i r s t s i g h t ? " s a i d t h e d r e s s m a k e r . She l o o k e d f o n d l y a t C a r o l . " S o m e t h i n g no one w o u l d have e x p e c t e d , " s a i d O d i l e . " A l t h o u g h Mr. M i t c h e l l i s c h a r m i n g . C h a r m i n g . " " I t h i n k we o u g h t t o go," s a i d C a r o l - ! ( 2 ) O d i l e m i l d l y p r o t e s t s as t h e y w a l k away ('"I d i d n ' t s a y a n y t h i n g t h a t w a s n ' t t r u e . . . i t ' s s u c h a w o n d e r f u l s t o r y . . . . I t was t e r r i b l y r o m a n t i c " [ 2 - 3 ] ) ; b u t " I t p e n e t r a t e d a t l a s t t h a t O d i l e was m a k i n g f u n 42 o f h e r " ( 3 ) . C a r o l f i n d s O d i l e ' s " s l i g h t i r o n y " p e r p l e x i n g , as s h e s h o u l d . C a r o l i s t h e s u b j e c t / o b j e c t o f a s t o r y , O d i l e t h e n a r r a t o r , Madame G e r m a i n e t h e a c t i v e r e a d e r . The e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n O d i l e and Madame G e r m a i n e m i r r o r s o r r e f l e c t s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l a r g e r s t o r y , i n w h i c h a k n o w i n g and i r o n i c n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s C a r o l t o r e a d e r s who a r e b e i n g t a u g h t how t o r e a d C a r o l ' s c h a r a c t e r , a n d s o how t o r e a d t h e s t o r y . I n t h i s o p e n i n g d i a l o g u e , O d i l e t r a n s f o r m s C a r o l ' s a c t u a l e ngagement ( o v e r t u n a - f i s h s a l a d ) i n t o an i r o n i c a l l y r o m a n t i c ( " u n o r i g i n a l " [ 1 ] ) s t o r y . O d i l e m o d u l a t e s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s h a r p e r i r o n i e s ; h e r m i n o r - k e y v a r i a t i o n s on t h e m a j o r theme b e g i n - t h e p r o c e s s o f t e a c h i n g us how t o r e a d t h e l a r g e r s t o r y i n w h i c h sh e h e r s e l f t a k e s a p a r t . The n e x t " s t o r y " has more c o m p l e x i m p l i c a t i o n s . C a r o l g o e s t o t h e c a r o l s i n g i n g a t t h e P l a c e Vend^me h o p i n g t o f i n d t h e raw c o n t e n t f o r a "warm memory": H e r e , sh e i m a g i n e d , w i t h t h e g e n t l e f a l l o f snow and t h e s m a l l , r o s y c h o i r b o y s s i n g i n g between l i g h t e d C h r i s t m a s t r e e s , s h e w o u l d f i n d s o m e t h i n g — a warm memory t h a t w o u l d , l a t e r , b r i n g h e r c l o s e r t o Howard, a g l i m p s e o f t h e P a r i s o t h e r p e o p l e l i k e d . ( 1 1 - 1 2 ) I n s t e a d o f snow t h e r e i s r a i n ; t h e s i n g e r s a r e " t e s t i n g v o i c e l e y e l s f o r a b r o a d c a s t " ; t h e w h o l e " s c e n e " i s an empty m e d i a e v e n t : "Newspaper p h o t o g r a p h e r s d r i f t e d on t h e r i m o f t h e c r o w d , a n d t h e f l a r e s t h a t l i t t h e s c e n e f o r a n e w s r e e l c a m e r a blew a c r i d smoke i n t h e i r f a c e s " ( 1 2 ) . C a r o l i s " p l a i n t i v e w i t h d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , " b u t s h e s a l v a g e s a p i e c e o f m i s t l e t o e w h i c h , by a s e r i e s o f s e n t i m e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , makes h e r f e e l s o r r y f o r P a r i s a n d f o r F e l i x . B u t h e r s o r r o w i s o r c h e s t r a t e d , m e l o -d r a m a t i c , a s t h e n a r r a t o r makes c l e a r w i t h t h i s s i m i l e : "Her t h r o a t 43 w ent warm, l i k e t h e p r e l u d e t o a r u s h o f t e a r s " (13). C a r o l and Howard go on t o f i n i s h t h e e v e n i n g w i t h f r i e n d s , f o r whom Howard "made an a m u s i n g s t o r y o u t o f t h e i r a d v e n t u r e i n t h e P l a c e Vendome" ( 1 3 ) . In t h e s t o r y ' s c e n t r a l p a s s a g e , t h e n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s C a r o l ' s i n s i g h t upon h e a r i n g Howard's v e r s i o n o f t h e i r m i s a d v e n t u r e : She r e a l i z e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t s o m e t h i n g c o u l d be p e r f e c t l y a c c u r a t e b u t u n t r u t h f u l - - t h e y had n o t f o u n d a n y p a r t o f t h a t e v e n i n g f u n n y - - a n d t h a t t h i s m i g h t c o v e r more a r e a s o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h e o c c a s i o n a l a m u s i n g s t o r y . She l o o k e d a t Howard t h o u g h t f u l l y , as i f s h e had l e a r n e d s o m e t h i n g o f v a l u e . ( 1 3 ) C a r o l has l e a r n e d s o m e t h i n g o f v a l u e . Howard makes an u n c o m f o r t a b l e , f l a t e x p e r i e n c e , a " d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , " i n t o an a m u s i n g s t o r y ; C a r o l w i l l b e g i n t o r e c r e a t e h e r f i n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h F e l i x - - a n d more g e n e r a l l y , h e r w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e o f P a r i s , i n c l u d i n g h e r e n g a g e m e n t — i n t o a warm and c o h e r e n t f i c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f memory, u n i n h i b i t e d by h i s t o r y . J o n a t h a n C u l l e r , d i s c u s s i n g p l o t i n J o y c e ' s s h o r t s t o r y " E v e l i n e , " s p e a k s o f i d e n t i f y i n g a " k e r n e l " o f p l o t and t h e n a w a i t i n g a " s t r u c t u r -a l l y more i m p o r t a n t k e r n e l " ; i n " E v e l i n e , " he s u g g e s t s , t h e f i r s t k e r n e l i s " m u s i n g " : " . . . we know t h a t m u s i n g i t s e l f w i l l n o t f o u n d a s t o r y b u t must be r e l a t e d t o a c e n t r a l p r o b l e m , d e c i s i o n o r a c t i o n on w h i c h 13 t h e c h a r a c t e r i s m u s i n g . " In "The O t h e r P a r i s , " t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m o r d e c i s i o n C a r o l i s c o n t e m p l a t i n g i s t w o - f o l d . On one l e v e l , s h e must d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o c o n t i n u e w i t h h e r e ngagement o r t o b r e a k i t o f f . The n a r r a t o r a l l u d e s t o t h i s d e c i s i o n d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g C a r o l ' s c e n t r a l " i n s i g h t " : " T e m p o r a r i l y , s h e p u t t h e q u e s t i o n o f f a l l i n g i n l o v e t o one s i d e . P a r i s was n o t t h e p l a c e , s h e t h o u g h t ; p e r h a p s i t had b e e n , f i f t y 44 y e a r s a g o , o r w h e n e v e r i t was t h a t p e o p l e w r o t e a l l t h e s o n g s . I t d i d n o t o c c u r t o h e r t o b r e a k h e r e n g a g e m e n t " ( 1 3 ) . We r e a d the s t o r y on t h i s l e v e l t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e w i l l f i n a l l y b r e a k o f f t h e e n g a g e m e n t ; b u t a l s o , b e c a u s e o f t h e s t o r i e s c r e a t e d a r o u n d t h i s p l o t l i n e , we r e a d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c u r i o s i t y on a n o t h e r l e v e l . The c e n t r a l e nigma becomes t h e q u e s t i o n o f how C a r o l w i l l a p p l y h e r l e s s o n -how and i f s h e w i l l f o l l o w O d i l e and Howard's l e a d s i n m a k i n g s t o r i e s . C u l l e r w r i t e s : "The g o a l s t o w a r d s w h i c h one moves i n s y n t h e s i z i n g a p l o t a r e , o f c o u r s e , n o t i o n s o f t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e " ; when we s y n t h e s i z e t h e p l o t o f "The O t h e r P a r i s , " we a r t i c u l a t e a theme w h i c h has a s much t o do w i t h t h e c o u r s e o f C a r o l ' s engagement as w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t t r a n s -14 f o r m a t i o n s , t h e s t o r i e s a b o u t C a r o l ' s e n g a g e m e n t . B e f o r e C a r o l ' s f i n a l e n c o u n t e r w i t h F e l i x , G a l l a n t i n t e r p o s e s M a r t i n e ' s r e c i t a l , an i m p o r t a n t s c e n e on s e v e r a l c o u n t s . I n t h i s s e t p i e c e , s p a c e d o f f f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e t e x t t o i n d i c a t e i t s d r a m a t i c ( a n d m e l o d r a m a t i c ) s i g n i f i c a n c e , two l e v e l s o f m a k e - b e l i e v e c l a s h i n an " o r d i n a r y , s h a b b y t h e a t r e , " w h i l e o u t s i d e t h e r a i n comes down as e v e r . C a r o l ' s f a n t a s i e s a b o u t t h e c o n c e r t and i t s c a c h e t , o f c o u r s e , a r e s h a t t e r e d . H e r e as e l s e w h e r e , P a r i s i a n s , l i k e t h e t h e a t r e i t s e l f , a r e " s h a b b y " ( 1 7 ) . A t t h i s p o i n t , C a r o l has n o t y e t f u l l y g r a s p e d t h e a r t o f m a k i n g a m u s i n g s t o r i e s o u t o f d i s a p p o i n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . I n s t e a d , s h e c o m p e n s a t e s f o r h e r g r o w i n g d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h a f a n t a s y o f h e r 1 5 own t o c o u n t e r t h e t h i n s p e c t a c l e o f M a r t i n e ' s r e c i t a l . B u t t h e sym-b o l i c c o l l a p s e o f t h e t h e a t r e i t s e l f i n t r u d e s upon h e r f a n t a s y : She s e t t l e d b a c k and began f u r n i s h i n g i n h e r m i n d t h e a p a r t m e n t t h e y w o u l d have i n C h i c a g o . . . . C a r o l had j u s t f i n i s h e d p a p e r i n g a bedroom g r e e n 45 and w h i t e when M a r t i n e w a l k e d o n s t a g e , w i t h h e r v i o l i n . A t t h e same moment, a p i e c e o f p l a s t e r b e a r i n g t h e p a i n t e d plump f o o t o f a nymph d e t a c h e d i t s e l f f r o m t h e c e i l i n g and c r a s h e d i n t o t h e a i s l e , j u s t m i s s i n g Howard's h e a d . ( 1 6 ) The c u l t u r a l f u r n i s h i n g s t h a t a r e t h e s e t t i n g f o r M a r t i n e ' s a s p i r a t i o n s a r e c r u m b l i n g l i k e t h e s t a t u a r y , p a r t o f an a g e t h a t i s s u d d e n l y a s f a r p a s t as t h e a g e o f plump p l a s t e r nymphs o r " J . S. B a c h , " t h e name on a p o s t e r i n t h e empty l o b b y . M a r t i n e a n d h e r f a m i l y , l i k e C a r o l , a r e p l a y i n g r o l e s i n a rundown t h e a t r e ; t h e p l a y o f C a r o l ' s m e n t a l c l o s e t drama a g a i n s t t h e s h a m b l e s o f M a r t i n e ' s r e c i t a l shows them b o t h up as i n a d e q u a t e d r a m a s , p r i v a t e t h e a t r e s f r o m t h e p a s t o r i n t h e p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e . H e r e t o o , a s i n t h e f i n a l s c e n e , F e l i x f i g u r e s a s C a r o l ' s t r u e c o m p a n i o n . In t h e t h e a t r e he s m i l e s a t h e r "much t o o f a m i l i a r l y " ; o u t -s i d e i n t h e r a i n , he t e l l s C a r o l t h a t t h e y a r e t w i n f o r e i g n e r s , e x c l u d e d f r o m O d i l e ' s f a m i l y c i r c l e a f t e r t h e c o n c e r t ( 1 6 , 1 9 ) . C a r o l ' s o u t b u r s t t o Howard a t t h i s p o i n t i s d i r e c t e d b o t h a g a i n s t F e l i x and a g a i n s t " t h e way e v e r y t h i n g i s h e r e - - o l d a n d r o t t e n a n d f a l l i n g down." And Howard's i n a b i l i t y t o t h i n k f i g u r a t i v e l y i s n i c e l y c a p t u r e d i n h i s r e s p o n s e : '"You mean t h a t c h u n k o f c e i l i n g ? ' " ( 1 8 ) . T h i s m i d w i n t e r r e t r o s p e c t i v e , n a r r a t e d between t h e two s c e n e s a t t h e d r e s s m a k e r ' s , f i l l s i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a r o l a n d o f O d i l e , so t h a t when t h e y emerge f r o m t h e d r e s s m a k e r ' s , t h e y come o u t a s much more s u b s t a n t i a l f i g u r e s t h a n t h e y were o n e moment ( a n d t w e l v e p a g e s ) e a r l i e r . So i t i s n o t i n c o n g r u o u s t h a t as s h e l o o k s o u t t h e window, C a r o l s e e s no s i g n o f s p r i n g , a n d y e t a moment l a t e r s h e a g r e e s w i t h O d i l e t h a t w i n t e r i s f i n a l l y o v e r . I n d e e d , t h e w h o l e f i n a l s c e n e i s c h a r g e d w i t h s i g n i f i -46 c a n c e w h i c h has a c c r u e d f r o m i n t e r v e n i n g e p i s o d e s . Nuances o f d e s c r i p t i o n and d i a l o g u e r e c a l l e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n s , e a r l i e r d i a l o g u e . C a r o l ' s " s i n c e r e l y i m a g i n e d " p r o p o s a l s c e n e , f o r e x a m p l e , "a s c e n e t h a t i n v o l v e d a l l a t o n c e t h e S e i n e , m o o n l i g h t , b a r r o w s o f v i o l e t s . . . and a c o n -f u s e d , m i s t y b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e E i f f e l Tower and l i t t l e c r o o k e d s t r e e t s , " i r o n i c a l l y e c h o e s t h r o u g h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d F e l i x l i v e s i n , w h i c h C a r o l " d i d n o t l i k e t h e l o o k o f " : T h e y c r o s s e d t h e b o u l e v a r d and a few c r o o k e d , n a r r o w s t r e e t s f i l l e d w i t h c u r b s i d e b a r r o w s and m a r k e t i n g c r o w d s . I t was a s e c t i o n o f P a r i s C a r o l had n o t s e e n ; a l t h o u g h i t was on t h e L e f t Bank, i t was n o t p r e t t y , n o t p i c t u r e s q u e . ( 2 2 ) What i s p i c t u r e s q u e i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n makes C a r o l u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e w o r l d . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , i t i s F e l i x ' s n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h a t m o s t c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s C a r o l ' s p i c t u r e - p o s t c a r d . P a r i s , j u s t a s i t i s F e l i x h i m s e l f who comes c l o s e s t t o t o u c h i n g C a r o l . H e r e a s e l s e w h e r e , l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s e t t i n g c a l l us b a c k t o e a r l i e r s c e n e s . By i r o n i c a l l y r e a l i z i n g one o f C a r o l ' s " s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d " v i s i o n s , G a l l a n t shows us t h e p r o c e s s C a r o l u n d e r g o e s o f a v o i d i n g an e d u c a t i o n . We r e a d o f C a r o l ' s d i s c o m f o r t i n F e l i x ' s d i n g y , u n t i d y room, h e r " b r e a t h l e s s . . . e m b a r r a s s m e n t " when i t becomes c l e a r t o h e r t h a t F e l i x and O d i l e a r e l o v e r s ; i m m e d i a t e l y we r e c a l l t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n : " i n d e e d , C a r o l r a t e d t h e c h a n c e s o f l o v e i n a c o t t a g e o r f u r n i s h e d room a t z e r o " ( 4 ) . Now a l l o f t h e e a r l i e r s u g g e s t i o n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n C a r o l and F e l i x c o n v e r g e , and t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f h e r e n g a g e m e n t t o Howard r e s u r f a c e s as s h e r e f l e c t s on t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f F e l i x a n d O d i l e . I t i s t o o much f o r C a r o l t o b e l i e v e t h a t l o v e c a n be a r e a l i t y f o r t h i s 47 p a i r i n t h i s "slummy q u a r t e r . " S t a n d i n g w i t h F e l i x a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e M e t r o , s h e e x p e r i e n c e s a f l e e t i n g s e n s e " t h a t s h e had a t l a s t o p e n e d t h e r i g h t d o o r " as s h e h o l d s F e l i x ' s h a nd, b u t a t o n c e s h e r e s p o n d s by c o r r e c t i n g h e r i n t u i t i o n , w i t h d r a w i n g , and r e s p o n d i n g t o F e l i x " w i t h c o l d s h y n e s s " i n t h e i d i o m s h e has l e a r n e d f r o m Howard: What she and Howard had was b e t t e r . No one c o u l d p o i n t t o them, o r c r i t i c i z e them, o r h u m i l i a t e them by o f f e r i n g t o h e l p . She w i t h d r e w h e r hand and s a i d w i t h c o l d s h y n e s s , "Thank y o u f o r t h e c o f f e e , F e l i x . " "Oh t h a t . " He w a t c h e d h e r go up t h e s t e p s t o t h e M e t r o , a n d t h e n he w a l k e d away. ( 2 9 ) C a r o l has l e a r n e d t o t a k e r e f u g e i n Howard's l i t e r a l - m i n d e d r e s p o n s e s , " p e r s i s t e n t l y m i s s i n g t h e p o i n t " ( 1 8 - 1 9 ) . To t h a n k F e l i x f o r t h e c o f f e e i s a l s o t o d e n y a n y r e a l c o n t a c t w i t h h i m , t o r e p l y i n t h e same v e i n a s Howard's r e p e a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e w e a t h e r , h i s c o l d f e e t , o r t h e " chunk o f c e i l i n g " ( 1 8 ) . C a r o l ' s a n t i s e p t i c p o l i t e n e s s t o F e l i x s t e r i l i z e s t h e i m m e d i a t e s t i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t — s o much so t h a t s h e s e e s h e r s e l f i n "a l i t t l e s c e n e , " w i t h 'the g e n t l e , n o s t a l g i c a i r o f s o m e t h i n g p a s t " — a s i t w e r e , m a k i n g f i c t i o n s , m a k i n g m e m o r i e s o u t o f e x p e r i e n c e on t h e s p o t ( 2 9 ) . Her warm m e m o r i e s o f P a r i s , b e g i n n i n g a t t h i s p o i n t , i n h e r p r e s e n t e x p e r i -e n c e o f P a r i s , w i l l s o o n b l u r t h e s h a r p c o n t o u r s o f h e r " d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s " : " S o o n , s h e s e n s e d , t h e c o m f o r t i n g v i s i o n o f P a r i s as she. had o n c e i m a g i n e d i t w o u l d o v e r l a p t h e r e a l i t y " ( 3 0 ) . T h e c l o s i n g p a s s a g e , w i t h i t s e c h o e s o f Howard's " p e r f e c t l y a c c u r a t e b u t u n t r u t h f u l " s t o r y m a k i n g , i r o n i c a l l y r e s o l v e s t h e t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n r e a l i s m a n d r o m a n c e , f r a g m e n t e d e x p e r i e n c e and c o h e r e n t f i c t i o n : 48 She w o u l d f o r g e t t h e r a i n a nd h e r u n s h a r e d c o n f u s i o n a n d l o n e l i n e s s , and remember i n s t e a d t h e P a r i s o f f i l m s , t h e s t r e e t lamps w i t h t h e i r t i n s e l i c i c l e s , t h e f u n n y c o n c e r t h a l l where t h e c e i l i n g c o l l a p s e d , a n d t h e r e w o u l d be, a t l a s t , a c o h e r e n t p i c t u r e , a c c u r a t e b u t u n t r u e . The memory o f F e l i x a nd O d i l e and a l l t h e i r d i s t a s t e f u l s t r a n g e n e s s w o u l d s l i p away; f o r " l o v e " s h e w o u l d t h i n k , o n c e more, " P a r i s , " a n d , a f t e r a w h i l e , h a p p i l y m a r r i e d , m e r c i f u l l y r e m o v e d i n t i m e , s h e w o u l d remember i t and d e s c r i b e i t a n d f i n a l l y b e l i e v e i t as i t had n e v e r been a t a l l . ( 3 0 ) C a r o l ' s memory w i l l be s e l e c t i v e l y c r e a t i v e ; s h e w i l l f o r g e t a s much as s h e r emembers. The d e l i b e r a t e , m e s m e r i z i n g p h r a s i n g o f t h e f i n a l s e n t e n c e b e g i n s t h e p r o c e s s o f s o o t h i n g and l u l l i n g a nd s m o o t h i n g away t h e h a r s h -n e s s o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e , t r a n s f o r m i n g i t i n t o t h e f a i t h f u l r e c i t a t i o n o f a v a g u e , c o m f o r t i n g m e m o r y — a memory w h i c h w i l l be p e r f e c t l y i n a c c u r a t e t o e x p e r i e n c e , p e r f e c t l y t r u e t o C a r o l ' s f o n d l y h e l d v i s i o n . Commenting on t h i s p a s s a g e , R o n a l d H a t c h w r i t e s : "The p i l i n g up o f p h r a s e upon p h r a s e e c h o e s t i m e ' s e f f e c t on t h e m i n d , p i l i n g up new e x p e r i e n c e s on t h e m e m o r i e s o f P a r i s , g r a d u a l l y e a s i n g t h e p a i n o f l o s t p o t e n t i a l . " ^ W i t h o u t w i s h i n g s i m p l y t o be c l e v e r , one m i g h t b u i l d on H a t c h ' s i n s i g h t by r e v e r s i n g h i s t e r m s : C a r o l i s a l r e a d y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p i l i n g up new m e m o r i e s on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f P a r i s . F o r C a r o l , t h e a g e n c y o f memory i m p o s e s f o r m and so c r e a t e s m e a n i n g , b u t i r o n i c a l l y , t h e m e a n i n g s h e c r e a t e s d e n i e s h i s t o r y — d e n i e s t h e r e a l i t y o f p o s t w a r P a r i s , o f " F e l i x " a nd O d i l e . Much l i k e a w r i t e r r e c r e a t i n g t h e p a s t , C a r o l f o r m s a c o h e r e n t s t o r y o u t o f i n c o h e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e , b u t s h e d o e s so by s u p p r e s s i n g h i s t o r y i n o r d e r t o make memory a more c o m f o r t a b l e home. One m i g h t d e s c r i b e t h e w r i t e r ' s r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p a s t — a p r o c e s s w h i c h L i n n e t M u i r e x p l o r e s as t h e theme o f h e r s t o r i e s — a s an a r t w h i c h l o o s e l y 49 f o l l o w s t h e s e q u e n c e o f C a r o l ' s " a r t " ; f i r s t t h e w r i t e r remembers ( " i t " — s u b j e c t , c o n t e n t , e v e n t , e x p e r i e n c e , s e n s a t i o n ) , t h e n d e s c r i b e s ( s h a p e s , f o r m s , s t r u c t u r e s , p a t t e r n s — t u r n i n g t h e s e nouns i n t o v e r b s , t u r n i n g s t a t i c c o n t e n t i n t o f u n c t i o n a l f o r m ) and f i n a l l y b e l i e v e s ( t h e r e s u l t o f " s i n c e r e l y i m a g i n i n g " ) . B u t C a r o l ' s s t o r y w i l l be an e v a s i o n , a r e t r e a t , and C a r o l i s j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g l y t h r o u g h o u t "The O t h e r P a r i s . W i t h t h e l a r g e r f r a m e w o r k o f t h e s t o r y i n p e r s p e c t i v e , we c a n t u r n b r i e f l y t o d e t a i l s o f l a n g u a g e . I n d i v i d u a l w o r d s , s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s , e v e n s h o r t d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s r e c u r i n c o n t e x t s w h i c h r e i n f o r c e t h e s t o r y ' s s t r u c t u r e . A s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f s e n t e n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , b e a r i n g on t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f C a r o l ' s d o u b l e p e r s p e c t i v e , i s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f h y p o t h e t i c a l and s u b j u n c t i v e c l a u s e s , many o f them i n t r o -d u c e d by "as i f . " A t t h e d r e s s m a k e r ' s , " O d i l e l o o k e d r e g r e t f u l l y , a s i f 18 s h e had more t o s a y , " , f o r e x a m p l e — a s s h e d o e s . C a r o l i s n e v e r q u i t e s u r e a b o u t d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n a p p e a r a n c e s and r e a l i t i e s ; u n t i l s h e r e a l i z e s t h a t O d i l e i s m a k i n g f u n o f h e r i n t h i s f i r s t s c e n e , s h e r e a c t s "as i f " O d i l e ' s s t o r y were a p e r f e c t l y a c c u r a t e , t r u t h f u l a c c o u n t . A t a more b a s i c l e v e l , t h e a d j e c t i v e " p r e t t y " i s r e p e a t e d l y u s e d t o s i g n i f y s u p e r f i c i a l l y o b s e r v e d a p p e a r a n c e . Howard's f r i e n d s t e l l him t h a t C a r o l i s " o b v i o u s l y i n l o v e w i t h him" and t h i s i s " p r e t t y t o s e e " ( 6 ) ; t h e p i e c e o f m i s t l e t o e t h a t f a l l s f r o m a P l a c e VendSme s t r e e t l a m p l o o k s " p r e t t y , and r a t h e r p o o r " ( 1 2 ) . L a t e i n t h e s t o r y O d i l e t e l l s F e l i x t h a t C a r o l ' s w e d d i n g d r e s s ( " w h i t e w i t h w h i t e f l o w e r s " ; O d i l e e a r l i e r c a l l s i t a " r u b b i s h o f l a c e " [ 1 ] ) , i s " v e r y p r e t t y " ( 2 3 ) . C a r o l f i n d s F e l i x ' s n e i g h b o u r h o o d " n o t p r e t t y , n o t p i c t u r e s q u e " ; and f i n a l l y , s h e w a n t s " s o m e t h i n g p r e t t y i n h e r hand t o t a k e away t h e memory o f t h e room and t h e A r a b s and t h e d r e a r y c a f e s and t h e m e s s y a f f a i r s o f F e l i x and O d i l e " ( 2 9 ) . 50 So s h e buys v i o l e t s , r e c a l l i n g two e a r l i e r o c c a s i o n s — o n e , h e r i m a g i n e d p r o p o s a l s c e n e w i t h i t s " b a r r o w s o f v i o l e t s , " t h e o t h e r , one o f h e r " d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s " : " ( t h e Parma v i o l e t s s h e had b o u g h t t h a t were f r a u d u l e n t l y c u t and b o u n d , so t h a t t h e y d i e d i n a m i n u t e ) " ( 1 9 ) . S a u s s u r e a n l i n g u i s t i c s a r g u e s t h a t l a n g u a g e s i g n i f i e s by d i f f e r e n c e b etween t e r m s r a t h e r t h a n by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w o r l d b e y o n d l a n g u a g e ; we c o u l d make a s t r o n g c a s e f o r t h e m e a n i n g o f "The O t h e r P a r i s " , e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n c e , t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n two key w o r d s , " p r e t t y " and " s h a b b y , " b o t h s i g n i f y i n g q u a l i t i e s o f a p p e a r a n c e t o C a r o l . The s t r e n g t h s o f "The O t h e r P a r i s " a s r e a l i s t f i c t i o n r e s u l t f r o m t h e d o c u m e n t a r y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p o s t w a r P a r i s and i t s c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l ; t h e s e c u l t u r a l q u a l i t i e s i n h e r e i n t a n g i b l e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s h a b b i l y - d r e s s e d P a r i s i a n s , g l o o m y r e s t a u r a n t s , t h e a t r e s , a p a r t m e n t s , a nd o f c o u r s e t h e p e r p e t u a l d r i z z l e , w h i c h i s so p e r v a s i v e t h a t i t b e g i n s t o seem f i g u r a t i v e . T h e s e a s p e c t s o f s e t t i n g f o r m t h e b a c k g r o u n d a nd f o r e g r o u n d f o r C a r o l ' s t r i a l s . The r e f l e x i v e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s t o r y b e g i n w i t h t h e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o c h a r a c t e r s ' s t o r i e s a b o u t C a r o l ' s e n g agement and end w i t h t h e s h a r p l y i r o n i c f o c u s on C a r o l ' s a r t o f memory. T h e a g e n c y o f memory i s a p o w e r f u l a n d r e c u r r i n g f o r c e i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . I n "The O t h e r P a r i s , " memory i s t h e means by w h i c h C a r o l t r a n s f o r m s p o t e n t i a l l y e d u c a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a c o m f o r t -i n g l u l l a b y . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e s t o r y i s an a c c o u n t o f an a m b i g u o u s i n i t i a t i o n , one w h i c h i s a l s o a r e t r e a t — a r e c u r r i n g theme i n G a l l a n t ' s 1 9 f i c t i o n . A n o t h e r y o u n g woman's a m b i g u o u s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o h i s t o r y c o n s t i t u t e s t h e theme o f "Autumn Day" ( 1 9 5 5 ) . C a r o l F r a z i e r has many a f f i n i t i e s w i t h 51 C i s s y , t h e s t o r y ' s f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r . B o t h y o u n g women a r e a d r i f t i n p o s t w a r E u r o p e : t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s a r e s u s t a i n e d l a r g e l y by t h e p r o s p e c t o f m a r r i a g e , o r i n C i s s y ' s c a s e , t h e f a c t o f h e r m a r r i a g e — a f a c t s h e i s u n a b l e t o c o m p r e h e n d . B o t h p a s s t h r o u g h a t e n t a t i v e , a m b i g u o u s i n i t i a t i o n w h i c h p r e p a r e s them, n o t f o r e m e r g e n c e f r o m s e l f i n t o w o r l d , b u t f o r s u b -m e r s i o n i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e s and c o m f o r t a b l y f u r n i s h e d a p a r t m e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . B o t h women's dreams o f a r o m a n t i c i d e a l r e a l i z e d i n t h e w o r l d t a k e t a n g i b l e f o r m s . C a r o l ' s i s t h e " o t h e r " P a r i s , w h i c h n e v e r q u i t e m a t e r i a l i z e s ; C i s s y ' s i s an A m e r i c a n o p e r a s i n g e r , D o r o t h y W est, who s t a y s f o r a week a t ' t h e A u s t r i a n f a r m h o u s e where C i s s y a nd h e r army hu s b a n d W a l t a r e b o a r d i n g . C i s s y , t o o , i s d i s a p p o i n t e d ; s h e r e c e i v e s W e s t 's n o t e i n v i t i n g h e r t o l u n c h a d a y l a t e a n d f i n d s t h e s i n g e r ' s room empty. B u t C i s s y , more t h a n C a r o l , l e a r n s a b o u t t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t t h e end o f t h e s t o r y t h a t l i f e d o e s n o t q u i t e r e s o l v e i t s e l f i n t o n e a t c a t e g o r i e s . She r e f l e c t s : " Y o u r g i r l -hood d o e s n ' t v a n i s h o v e r n i g h t . I know, now, what a l o t o f w a v e r i n g g o e s o n , how y o u s t e p f o r w a r d a nd b a c k a g a i n . The f r o n t i e r i s i n v i s i b l e ; 20 s o m e t i m e s y o u ' r e o v e r w i t h o u t k n o w i n g i t . " And a l t h o u g h s h e f i n a l l y r e a s s u r e s h e r s e l f , a s d o e s C a r o l , t h e a s s e r t i v e r h y t h m s o f h e r f i n a l d e c l a r a t i o n s r e f l e c t h e r l e s s s o o t h i n g a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f m a r r i a g e and o f e x p e r i e n c e i n g e n e r a l : " W e ' l l be a l l r i g h t , " I e c h o e d t o W a l t , a nd I r e p e a t e d i t t o m y s e l f , o v e r a nd o v e r , " I ' l l be a l l r i g h t ; w e ' l l be a l l r i g h t . " B u t we're n o t s a f e y e t , I t h o u g h t , l o o k i n g a t my h u s b a n d — t h i s s t r a n g e r , mute, h e l p l e s s , f u m b l i n g , e n c l o s e d . Oh, we're n o t s a f e . N o t by a l o n g s h o t . B u t w e ' l l be a l l r i g h t . T a k e my word f o r i t . W e ' l l be a l l r i g h t . (53) 52 C i s s y e m erges more f u l l y t h a n C a r o l , f i n a l l y ; W a l t becomes t h e c h i l d , ex-p e r i e n c i n g a w o r l d s i m i l a r t o C a r o l ' s " u n s h a r e d c o n f u s i o n and l o n e l i n e s s . " R e a d i n g "The O t h e r P a r i s " o v e r a g a i n s t "Autumn Day" c o n v e y s a c l e a r e r s e n s e b o t h o f t h e m e a n i n g s o f C a r o l ' s e x p e r i e n c e and o f how G a l l a n t t r e a t s t h e theme o f i n i t i a t i o n . B o t h s t o r i e s t e s t i n n o c e n c e by s u b j e c t i n g i t t o ex-p e r i e n c e , w i t h O l d W o r l d , p o s t w a r s e t t i n g s p r o v i d i n g an u n f a m i l i a r , d e s o -l a t e d r e a l i t y a g a i n s t w h i c h C a r o l and C i s s y d e p l o y t h e v i g o u r o f i m a g i n a t i o n a n d w i n h i g h l y a m b i g u o u s v i c t o r i e s . The f o c u s on d o c u m e n t a r y v e r s i o n s and r o m a n t i c v i s i o n s , on t h e c o n -f l i c t s b e t w e e n h i s t o r y a n d memory, i s n o t a l w a y s a s s h a r p a s i t i s i n "The O t h e r P a r i s . " In s e v e r a l e a r l y s t o r i e s , n a r r a t o r s t r a n s c r i b e s e t t i n g s w i t h o u t e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s h a p i n g p r o c e s s o f memory o r o f i m a g i -n a t i o n . A r t i f i c e i s m u t e d , more c o n s p i c u o u s i n i t s a p p a r e n t a b s e n c e . The s h a p i n g o f a c t u a l i t y g o e s u n n o t i c e d - - s o much so t h a t G a l l a n t ' s e d i t o r s a n d b i b l i o g r a p h e r s d i s a g r e e o v e r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s e s t o r i e s a r e more p r o p e r -l y e s s a y s , and t h e r e i s r e c u r r i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n b etween 21 t h e two f o r m s i n G a l l a n t ' s work. T h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t c o n f i r m s t h e power-f u l r e f e r e n t i a l i m p u l s e i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . The m e d i a t i n g , f o r m i n g , r e f l e x i v e p a t t e r n s o f a r t i f i c e s h a p e c o n t e n t i n t o f o r m — i r o n i c a l l y — b e f o r e o u r e y e s i n "The O t h e r P a r i s " ; t h i s s h a p i n g p r o c e s s i s l e s s a p -p a r e n t i n s t o r i e s l i k e "Wing's C h i p s " ( 1 9 5 4 ) , "The D e c e p t i o n s o f M a r i e -B l a n c h e " (1 9 5 3 ) , "SeTfor Pi'nedo" (1 9 5 4 ) , and "When We Were N e a r l y Young" ( 1 9 6 0 ) . In t h e s e s t o r i e s , t h e d i a l e c t i c b e t w e e n memory and h i s t o r y s u b -m e r g e s , and G a l l a n t ' s d o c u m e n t a r y , r e p o r t o r i a l t a l e n t s a r e l e s s a m b i g u o u s , l e s s q u a l i f i e d by a c h a r a c t e r ' s own a t t e m p t s t o t e l l a s t o r y . A f i r s t -53 p e r s o n n a r r a t o r remembers w i t h o u t commenting on t h e s h a p i n g f o r c e o f memory; t h e s t o r i e s r e a d as r e m i n i s c e n c e s w i t h a p o i n t . The keen i r o n i e s o f "The O t h e r P a r i s " m o d u l a t e i n t o l i g h t e r t o n e s . We r e a d c h a r a c t e r s more o b j e c t i v e l y , b e c a u s e o f t h e more d e l i b e r a t e f o r e g r o u n d i n g o f s e t t i n g ; we r e a d them as c r e a t i o n s , as r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o c i e t i e s . T h e s e s t o r i e s a r e a t t h e o b j e c t i v e , t r a n s c r i p t i v e , d o c u m e n t a r y edge o f G a l l a n t ' s r e p e r t o i r e . In them, G a l l a n t s h a p e s h e r " f a i t h t o a c t u a l i t y " n o t by " a b s o l u t e a r t i f i c e , " b u t by m i n i m a l a r t i f i c e - - a s i m p l e , c h r o n o -l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e l i n e , a nd a n a r r a t o r a t o n c e d e t a c h e d e nough t o o b s e r v e 22 and e n g a g e d e nough t o comment on s o c i a l r i t u a l s i n t h e i r s e t t i n g s . "The D e c e p t i o n s o f M a r i e - B l a n c h e " and "Wing's C h i p s " a r e b o t h s e t i n Q u e b e c , t h e f o r m e r i n E a s t - e n d M o n t r e a l , t h e l a t t e r i n an unnamed F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n town i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r s p e n t a summer w i t h h e r f a t h e r 23 when s h e was a " l i t t l e g i r l o f s e v e n o r e i g h t . " B o t h s t o r i e s o pen by a t o n c e l o c a t i n g t h e s e t t i n g a n d d i s t a n c i n g t h e n a r r a t o r f r o m h e r r e p o r t on t h e p a s t . The n a r r a t o r t h e n r e i n t r o d u c e s h e r s e l f i n t o t h e p a s t a s s h e remembers i t ; i n "The D e c e p t i o n s o f M a r i e - B l a n c h e " s h e n e v e r becomes more t h a n a d e t a c h e d ( i f amused) o b s e r v e r , b u t i n "Wing's C h i p s " s h e m e r g e s w i t h h e r y o u n g e r p r e d e c e s s o r t o become h e r f a t h e r ' s y o u n g d a u g h t e r a g a i n . U n l i k e t h e L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s , i n w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s o f r e m e m b e r i n g i s e x p l i c i t l y p a r t o f t h e s t o r i e s ' t heme, a s u b j e c t t o be e x p l o r e d and commented on e v e n w h i l e i t i s t h e c e n t r a l t e c h n i q u e b e i n g e m p l o y e d t o t e l l t h e s t o r y , t h e d e v i c e o f c o n f l a t i n g an o l d e r n a r r a t o r w i t h h e r y o u n g e r s e l f i n "Wing's C h i p s " i s l e f t u n e x a m i n e d ; i t i s s i m p l y a c o n v e n t i o n u s e d t o e n t e r t h e s t o r y p r o p e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , we c a n s e e t h e t y p i c a l G a l l a n t c o n c e r n w i t h t h e " p i c t u r e s " o f memory i n t h e o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e s : 54 O f t e n , s i n c e I grew u p , I have t r i e d t o remember t h e name o f t h e F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n town where I l i v e d f o r a summer w i t h my f a t h e r when I was a l i t t l e g i r l o f s e v e n o r e i g h t . S o m e t i m e s , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h a town, I have t h o u g h t I r e c o g n i z e d i t , b u t some d e t a i l i s a l w a y s wrong, o r a t l e a s t f a i l s t o f i t t h e p i c t u r e i n my memory. 24 The n a r r a t o r t h e n q u i c k l y s h i f t s f r o m h e r f o c u s on t h e p r o c e s s o f memory t o a d d r e s s t h e more e x p l i c i t l y s o c i a l themes o f "Wing's C h i p s " : t h e d i v i s i o n s b e t w e e n F r e n c h C a t h o l i c s and E n g l i s h P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h e s m a l l t o w n , and t h e u n i v e r s a l d i s t r u s t a n d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h e r f a t h e r , a p a i n t e r , who a s s u c h i s s u s p e c t , l e s s t h a n g a i n f u l l y e m p l o y e d , l e s s d u t i -f u l l y a b r e a d w i n n e r t h a n he s h o u l d be by r i g h t s . The s t o r y n e a t l y and c o m i c a l l y r e s o l v e s , f o r F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h a l i k e , t h e p e r c e i v e d c o n f l i c t b etween p r o f i t a b l e l a b o u r and e s o t e r i c f o o l i s h n e s s , a n d r e a s s u r e s t h e d a u g h t e r o f h e r f a t h e r ' s w o r t h : t h e Wing f a m i l y , C h i n e s e o w n e r s o f t h e l o c a l f i s h - a n d - c h i p s t o r e , c o m m i s s i o n h e r f a t h e r t o p a i n t t h e s i g n f r o m w h i c h t h e s t o r y t a k e s i t s t i t l e . T he g i r l becomes " h y s t e r i c a l l y p r o u d " o f t h e s i g n , a n d , " f o r q u i t e t h e f i r s t t i m e , " o f h e r f a t h e r : T h e r e i t was, "Wing's C h i p s , " p r o o f t h a t my f a t h e r was an o r d i n a r y w o r k i n g m a n j u s t 1 i k e a n y b o d y e l s e , and I p o i n t e d i t o u t t o as many p e o p l e a s I c o u l d , b o t h E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h , u n t i l t h e summer e n d e d a n d we went away. ( 1 5 1 ) 25 G a l l a n t i n v e r t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t , i n w h i c h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a s a r t i s t i s t h e f o c u s , o f t e n f o r m i n g a n d c o m m e n t i n g o n t h e l a r g e r f i c t i o n . She a p p r o a c h e s t h e c o n f l i c t 1 i g h t h e a r t e d l y f r o m o u t s i d e , f r o m t h e s o c i a l p o i n t o f v i e w ; t h e d a u g h t e r - n a r r a t o r s t a n d s a t a p o i n t b e t w e e n h e r f a t h e r ' s p r i v a t e w o r l d a n d t h e v i l l a g e r s ' p u b l i c o n e , s e e i n g him b o t h a s a f a m i l y member and t h r o u g h t h e v i l l a g e r s ' e y e s . 55 The s h a r p - e y e d o l d e r n a r r a t o r ' s c u t t i n g s o c i a l c o mmentary, as s h e d i s s e c t s t h e v i l l a g e r s ' p r e j u d i c e s a n d s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s , i s s o f t e n e d by t h e s t o r y ' s c o m i c r e s o l u t i o n , w h i c h r e c o n c i l e s t h e demands o f t h e w o r k a d a y w o r l d w i t h t h e demands o f a r t by i n t e r p o s i n g a c o m m e r c i a l p a i n t i n g . S o c i a l c o m m e n t a r y i s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d ; t h e s t o r y ' s s t r e n g t h l i e s i n i t s f u n n y r e p o r t on a s o c i e t y i n i t s s e t t i n g , r a t h e r t h a n i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v a t i o n . "The D e c e p t i o n s o f M a r i e - B l a n c h e " i s a n o t h e r good e a r l y e x a m p l e o f G a l l a n t ' s t a l e n t s a s a s h a r p - e y e d , c o m i c w r i t e r , a d o c u m e n t a r y r e a l i s t . T he f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r r e m a i n s d e t a c h e d t h r o u g h o u t ; s h e b e g i n s t h e s t o r y i n h e r own p r e s e n t , i d e n t i f y i n g h e r s e l f as an o b s e r v e r , p l a c i n g h e r s e l f i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s t o r y s h e i s a b o u t t o t e l l , and a d v e r t i s i n g h e r amused d e t a c h m e n t : M a r i e - B l a n c h e w r o t e f r o m Canada a few d a y s ago t o s a y t h a t s h e was e n g a g e d a g a i n . . . . The r e m i n d e r o f h e r e n g a g e m e n t i s , f o r me, o n l y a r e m i n d e r o f h e r d e c e p t i o n s . When I l i v e d w i t h M a r i e - B l a n c h e and h e r m o t h e r i n M o n t r e a l d u r i n g t h e war, I saw t h e r i s e a nd f a l l o f t h r e e l o v e a f f a i r s i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e . M a r i e - B l a n c h e i s d e c e p t i o n - p r o n e t h e way some p e o p l e keep bumping t h e i r h e a d s o r s p r a i n i n g t h e i r a n k l e s . 26 The n a r r a t o r , an E n g l i s h - P r o t e s t a n t i n a F r e n c h - C a t h o l i c h o u s e h o l d , o b s e r v e s and r e p o r t s on M a r i e - B l a n c h e ' s r e p e a t e d r i t u a l o f e n g agement and d i s e n g a g e m e n t a s s u i t o r a f t e r s u i t o r r e t r a c t s h i s vows f o l l o w i n g a c l o s e l y - s u p e r v i s e d c o u r t s h i p . The Dumard a p a r t m e n t i s on a s t r e e t w here "a F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n p a r i s h m e r g e d w i t h a J e w i s h d i s t r i c t , f u l l o f k o s h e r meat m a r k e t s and d i n g y s h o p s " ( 1 2 6 ) . " I n h e r p e r i p a t e t i c c a r e e r a s a s a l e s g i r l , " t h e r e f o r e , " M a r i e - B l a n c h e had o f t e n w o r k e d f o r Jews and a s a 56 r e s u l t s h e s p o k e a s i n g u l a r k i n d o f E n g l i s h , w i t h a F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n a c c e n t a n d a Y i d d i s h l i l t " ( 1 2 6 ) . The d e l i g h t f u l mix o f i d i o m s p r e p a r e s us f o r t h e e n d i n g : M a r i e - B l a n c h e d i s m i s s e s h e r l a t e s t s u i t o r , a f a r m e r more i n l o v e w i t h h i s h o r s e , V i c t o r i n e , t h a n w i t h h e r , by h a n d i n g him h i s s n a p s h o t s o f V i c t o r i n e and " a d d r e s s i n g him i n h e r p e r f e c t E n g l i s h . . . 'To h e a c h ' i s own, M o n s i e u r D a n c e r e a u ' " ( 1 4 0 ) . Her m o t h e r i n v o k e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i s m i s s a l , a c h o r u s r e p e a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y ("II a un g r a n d d e f a u t " [ 1 4 0 ] ) , b u t M a r i e - B l a n c h e c u t s h e r o f f w i t h m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a s p e r i t y : " ' D e f a u t be damned . . . . 'He's j u s t l i k e t h e r e s t o f them, n o t h i n g b u t a b i g s c h l e m i e T " ( 1 4 0 ) . 2 7 The p l o t o f t h i s s t o r y c o n s i s t s o f M a r i e - B l a n c h e ' s d e c e p t i o n s , c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y r e c o u n t e d ; c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n f i n e d t o c o m i c a l d e t a i l s o f a p p e a r a n c e ( M a r i e - B l a n c h e , f o r e x a m p l e e m u l a t e s S h i r l e y T e m p l e ) , and t h e n a r r a t o r h e r s e l f , unnamed, draws l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o h e r own i n t e r e s t i n o r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e s t o r y s h e t e l l s . She r e m a i n s an o b s e r v e r , a b o a r d e r who e n t e r s a l i t t l e way i n t o t h e Dumard's l i v e s and comments f r o m a d o u b l e p e r s p e c t i v e , f o c u s s i n g b o t h on t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l m i l i e u w h i c h M a r i e - B l a n c h e ' s s u i t o r s b e l o n g t o and on t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y o f t h e F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n f a m i l y s h e l i v e s w i t h . " S e n o r Pin'edo" and "When We Were N e a r l y Young" a r e s t o r i e s w h i c h 28 r e p o r t on p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a b r o a d . G a l l a n t ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s , t h e c o r o l l a r y o f h e r s h a r p c u r i o s i t y a b o u t h e r own, i n f o r m s b o t h s t o r i e s . As as t h e c a s e w i t h "The D e c e p t i o n s o f M a r i e - B l a n c h e , " t h e n a r r a t o r o f " S e n o r P i n e d o " i s a s h a r p o b s e r v e r , a r e p o r t e r f r e e f r o m e d i t o r i a l c o n s t r a i n t s , f r e e t o e d i t t o n e , t o s t y l e c o n t e n t f o r h e r own more i n d i r e c t f i c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . She i s , a g a i n , 57 b o t h d e t a c h e d f r o m and e n g a g e d w i t h t h e s o c i e t y s h e o b s e r v e s . The o p e n i n g l o c a t e s t h e n a r r a t o r a t a p o i n t n i c e l y b a l a n c e d b e t w e e n p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e s e t t i n g s : " B e c a u s e t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o s e p a r a t e o u r rooms b u t t h e t h i n n e s t o f p l a s t e r p a r t i t i o n s , i t s o m e t i m e s seemed as i f t h e P i n e d o s — S e n o r , S e n o r a , a n d b a b y J o s e M a r f a - - a n d I w e r e r e a l l y l i v i n g 29 t o g e t h e r . " The n a r r a t o r ' s r e p o r t s on t h e P i n e d o f a m i l y ' s p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s b a l a n c e w i t h h e r commentary on t h e P i n e d o s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y o f t h e p e n s i o n . She s c r u t i n i z e s t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r i o r s o f t h e p e n s i o n — t h e communal d i n i n g room, t h e P i n e d o ' s b e d -room, t h e f a d e d s e p i a e t c h i n g o f F r a n c o i n t h e e n t r a n c e h a l 1 - - r e p o r t i n g on f u r n i s h i n g s i n s h a r p , r e v e a l i n g d e t a i l . She s e t s t h e P i n e d o f a m i l y and t h e o t h e r b o a r d e r s among t a n g i b l e a r t i f a c t s w h i c h , l i k e t h e Dumard's f u r n i s h i n g s , c o m m u n i c a t e a c u l t u r a l c o d e f a r more e x p l i c i t l y t h a n d i r e c t 30 ( a n d so more a b s t r a c t ) s o c i a l c ommentary. A t t h e same t i m e , s h e d e s -c r i b e s t h e s e n s i b i l i t y o f t h e S p a n i s h c ommunity a s a c r o w d g a t h e r s i n t h e p e n s i o n c o u r t y a r d t o w a t c h o v e r t h e v i c t i m o f an a c c i d e n t . The i mage h e r e p r e p a r e s f o r t h e s t o r y ' s c l o s i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e S p a n i s h t e m p e r a m e n t : T h e c o u r t y a r d s u d d e n l y r e s e m b l e d t h e a r e n a o f a b u l l r i n g . T h e r e was t h e same h a r s h d i v i s i o n o f T i g h t a n d shadow, a s i f a l i n e had been d r a w n , h i g h on t h e o p p o s i t e w a l l . T h e f a c e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a o f sun were w h i t e and e x p r e s s i o n l e s s , w i t h t h a t c u r i o u s O r i e n t a l b l a n k n e s s t h a t s o m e t i m e s e n v e l o p s t h e w h o l e a r e n a d u r i n g moments o f g r e a t e s t e m o t i o n . ( 213 ) S e n o r P i n e d o ' s p o r t r a i t i s d o u b l e . He i s a " S p a n i s h h u s b a n d and f a t h e r , and h i s w o r d , by t r a d i t i o n , was l a w " ( 2 0 2 ) . He i s a l s o a c i v i l s e r v a n t — f o r him, h i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t i d e n t i t y — a p a t r i o t who v o l u n t e e r e d 58 at seventeen to f i g h t w i th the Whites, a pa s s i ona te l y p o l i t i c i z e d f i g u r e who d i s t r i b u t e s government pamphlets around the pension d inner t a b l e . In h i s double r o l e as l o v i n g f a the r and b l i n d l y committed servant of the s t a t e , Pinedo embodies the s t o r y ' s c e n t r a l i r o n y : when a ne ighbour ' s c h i l d i s crushed by an e l e v a t o r ' s b l o c k - and - t a c k l e assembly, P inedo, i n h i s happiest moment, proc la ims to the gathered crowd that the c h i l d w i l l q u a l i f y f o r a pens ion: "'I guarantee i t ! ' Senor Pinedo s a i d . He leaned over the r a i l i n g and c lo sed h i s f i s t l i k e an o r a t o r , a leader . . . . 'I guarantee i t . . . I work i n the o f f i c e o f pen s i on s ' " (216). The na r r a to r draws a t t e n t i o n to technocrat P inedo ' s " c h i l d l i k e " f a i t h i n h i s adopted p o l i t i c a l cause as she eavesdrops on h i s conver sat ion w i th h i s w i f e f o l l o w -ing the a c c i den t . F i n a l l y , she presents Pinedo i n pub l i c a ga i n , so that the s t o r y ends w i th h i s double p o r t r a i t exposed i n succes s ion . Through Pinedo, the na r r a to r evokes a na t i ona l temperament in i t s i n d i v i d u a l i n -c a r n a t i o n ; her c l o s i n g suggest ion o f the turmoi l beneath the t enan t s ' s i l e n t su r face calm conf i rms her own ob se r ve r ' s s ta tus and her uneasiness as witness to a s pec tac l e a t once i n t e n s e l y personal and i n t e n s e l y , omi-nously p o l i t i c a l : Through the p a r t i t i o n I heard him t e l l i n g h is w i fe tha t he had much to do that week, a s o c i a l p r o j e c t connected w i th the hurt c h i l d . In h is happiness, he sounded almost c h i l d l i k e h imse l f , conv inced, as he must convince o t h e r s , o f the t r u t h and good f a i t h of the movement to which he had devoted his l i f e and i n which he must cont inue to b e l i e v e . L a t e r , I heard him repeat ing the same th ing to the pension tenants . . . . There was no r e p l y . . . . I cou ld not have s a i d whether the s i l e n c e was owing to r e spec t , d e l i g h t , apathy, or a sudden fu ry or some other emotion so great tha t on ly s i l e n c e cou ld con ta in i t . (216) As these c l o s i n g paragraphs show, the na r r a to r has keen i n s i g h t i n t o the 59 e s s e n t i a l v o l a t i l i t y o f t h e S p a n i s h c h a r a c t e r u n d e r F r a n c o , a v o l a t i l i t y m asked by an a m b i g u o u s " s i l e n c e " and r i g i d l y o b s e r v e d s o c i a l d e c o r u m . When P i n e d o p r o c l a i m s h i s c h i l d l i k e r e v e r e n c e f o r t h e p a t r i a r c h a l s t a t e t o h i s f e l l o w b o a r d e r s , t h e y a r e , i f n o t e q u a l l y r e v e r e n t , p o l i t i c e n ough t o be p r o p e r l y d e f e r e n t i a l . G a l l a n t b r i n g s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d o u b l e p e r -s p e c t i v e t o a p o i n t i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f P i n e d o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c c i d e n t , an i n c i d e n t w h i c h a l l o w s h e r t o move e f f e c t i v e l y f r o m p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t t o g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l s e n s i b i l i t y . " S e n b r P i n e d o " i s a r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e e a r l y e x a m p l e o f G a l l a n t ' s power t o c o m m u n i c a t e an a c u t e l y f a m i l i a r s e n s e o f f o r e i g n c o n d u c t , p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e , i n f o r e i g n s e t t i n g s . The r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f t h e S p a n i s h C i v i l War, t h e c o n t i n u i n g ( i f f a d e d ) p r e s e n c e o f F r a n c o , t h e c o m p l e x S p a n i s h a t t i t u d e t o w a r d a u t h o r i t y — s h e v i v i d l y e v o k e s t h i s c u l t u r a l s u r r o u n d t h r o u g h c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n o f s e t t i n g . "SeTior P i n e d o , " w i t h i t s s c r u t i n y o f t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p u l s e g o v e r n i n g P i n e d o ' s p e r s o n a l c o n d u c t , a n t i c i p a t e s t h e more c o m p l e x , w i d e - r a n g i n g a n a l y s e s o f F a s c i s m ' s " s m a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n p e o p l e " i n G a l l a n t ' s German s t o r i e s i n The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) . "When We Were N e a r l y Young," a l s o s e t i n M a d r i d , r e t u r n s b r i e f l y t o a p e n s i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e one i n "SeiTor P i n e d o , " b u t p a s s e s i t o v e r q u i c k l y b e c a u s e t h e m a i n f o c u s i s on t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f o u r " n e a r l y y o u n g " p e o p l e , t h r e e S p a n i a r d s ( C a r l o s , P a b l o , a n d P i l a r ) a n d t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n 31 n a r r a t o r . A g a i n , t h e n a r r a t o r i s b o t h o u t s i d e r and i n s i d e r ; t h e i r common d e n o m i n a t o r i s t h e f o u r f r i e n d s ' s h a r e d p o v e r t y , w h i l e what f i n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s h e r f r o m them i s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s t a t u s as a f o r e i g n e r , f r e e t o l e a v e M a d r i d f o r e v e r when h e r l o n g - a w a i t e d money f r o m home a r r i v e s . The s t o r y t r a n s c e n d s good j o u r n a l i s m , t r a n s f o r m i n g r e p o r t i n t o r e p r e s e n -60 t a t i o n ; e v e n i n t h i s , a r g u a b l y t h e f l a t t e s t o f G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s , t h e t y p i c a l c o n c e r n w i t h t i m e and memory i s b r o a c h e d i n t h e c l o s i n g p a r a -g r a p h : I d o n ' t know what became o f them, o r what t h e y were l i k e when t h e i r t h i r t i e t h y e a r came . . . . E v e n t u a l l y t h e y were c a u g h t , f o r me, n o t by t i m e b u t by t h e f r e e z -i n g o f memory. And when I l o o k e d i n t h e d i a r y I had k e p t d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d a l l I c o u l d f i n d was d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e w e a t h e r . 32 I f memory c a n c r e a t e warm a n d c o h e r e n t p i c t u r e s t o c o m f o r t C a r o l F r a z i e r , i t c a n a l s o f r e e z e i n t o c o l d f a c t . T h i s n a r r a t o r , more t h a n L i n n e t M u i r , s p e a k s i n t h e c a s u a l , a n e c d o t a l t o n e o f t h e memoir, a t o n e s h a r p e n e d by L i n n e t ' s more u r g e n t demands f o r c o h e r e n c e and i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m h e r m e m o r i e s . The n a r r a t o r o f "When We Were N e a r l y Young" a l s o r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between a u t o b i o g r a p h y , f i c t i o n , and " t r u e " memory, an e x p l i c i t c o n c e r n i n t h e L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s and an i m p l i c i t 33 c o n c e r n i n o t h e r s . The i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n i s n o t b e t w e e n e s s a y s , c o n t e n t , and o b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s on one h a n d , f i c t i o n s , f o r m , and s u b j e c t i v e v o i c e s on t h e o t h e r ; t h e q u e s t i o n i s n o t one o f k i n d b u t o f f u n c t i o n . The p r o b l e m w i t h e s s a y i s t i c w r i t e r s o f f i c t i o n a r i s e s when -t h e i r e s s a y s i n t r u d e i n t h e i r f i c t i o n s , v i t i a t i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l l y f i c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f a n o v e l , f o r e x a m p l e , w i t h p a t e n t l y ( a n d u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y ) non-f i c t i o n a l f r a g m e n t s , s p o k e n e i t h e r by o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r s o r m o u t h p i e c e c h a r a c t e r s . B u t t h i s . p r o b l e m , w h i c h i s a f o r m a l p r o b l e m , d o e s n o t a r i s e i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . R a t h e r , h e r s t o r i e s d e v e l o p d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e w o r l d s t o w h i c h t h e y r e f e r — c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s . A t o n e edge o f h e r grammar, words seem t o r e p o r t on w o r l d , r e s u l t i n g i n a 61 powerful s o c i a l t e x t . At the other edge (at the end of "The Other P a r i s , f o r example), language enacts imag ina t i ve process , so t ha t we read the meaning o f C a r o l ' s evas ion o f h i s t o r y i n the rhythm of the n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f C a r o l ' s s t a t e o f mind. Although none of the remaining s t o r i e s i n The Other Pa r i s i s as powerful as the t i t l e s t o r y , taken together they complement "The Other P a r i s " by sha rp l y d e p i c t i n g a l i n k e d s e r i e s o f d i s s o c i a t i o n s between past and present . S i x o f the seven remaining s t o r i e s are set i n Europe; one, 34 "The Legacy," i s set in Mont rea l . ' The focus i n these s t o r i e s ranges from the evocat ion o f c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l r i f t s opened up across the postwar European landscape ( r i f t s on ly d imly pe rce i ved , a t a remove, by North Americans) to e xp l o r a t i on s o f the r i f t s between gener-a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the d i s t ance s between c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . At one extreme, a s t o r y l i k e "The P i c n i c " ( 1 9 5 2 - - o r i g i n a l l y e n t i t l e d "Before the B a t t l e " ) c o m i c a l l y repor t s on the mannered dance o f an American army f am i l y ( the M a r s h a l l s l ) i n postwar France, anxious to p lease t h e i r French land lady and t h e i r host country a t a b i c u l t u r a l p i c n i c the American brass 35 •'-has planned f o r " t he most t y p i c a l l y French town" they can f i n d . At the other end o f the book ' s range, "About Geneva" (1955) i s G a l l a n t ' s f i n e s t and most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e a r l y s t o r y about the impasses between c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . This s t o r y demonstrates how G a l l a n t can use a more muted i r ony to l e s s comic ends. More impo r t an t l y , "About Geneva" demon-s t r a t e s how sk i rmishes between c h i l d r e n and adu l t s i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n teach readers to con s t r u c t another , r e l a t e d broken d i a l o gue . The " i n t e r -rupted d ia logues o f the deaf" i n G a l l a n t ' s f a m i l i e s c o n s t i t u t e p r i v a t e 62 analogues to the broken dialogues between memory and h i s tory and across 36 cont inents . In "About Geneva," as in many other s t o r i e s , t h i s separation is enacted as the distance between adu l t s ' reports and c h i l d r e n ' s invent ions , between adu l t s ' demands for r e l i a b l e witnesses and c h i l d r e n ' s needs for imaginative recons t ruc t ion . The important connection between "The Other Par i s " and "About Geneva" l i e s in the r e l a t i o n between Carol F r a z i e r ' s evasions of h i s t o r y ' s facts and the Geneva adu l t s ' evasions of c h i l d r e n ' s f i c t i o n s ; both s to r ie s chart the distances created by missed moments of communication, moments which readers must construct in order to a r t i c u l a t e these s t o r i e s ' p l o t s . The family of "About Geneva" f i gh t s sma l l - sca le bat t les in which combatants speak to each other by acc ident , in between orders and r e f u s a l s , r e to r t s and subterfuges. The reports of the two ch i l d ren to the i r mother "about" Geneva comment on the emotional p o l i t i c s of the family as much as on Geneva i t s e l f . Like so many other Ga l lant s to r ie s about ch i l d ren and adu l t s , "About Geneva" sets c h i l d r e n ' s f an ta s i e s , c h i l d r e n ' s dreams and invent ions, over against parents ' ru les and codes of conduct. Just as the shape of Carol F r a z i e r ' s "other" Par i s comments on the impl i ca t ions of her storymaking, the various " c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n s " of Geneva in th i s story comment on the dramatic tensions created by the family s t ructure as both ch i ld ren and adults manoeuvre toward revea l ing or conceal ing them-37 selves through various stratagems. Dramatical ly compressed into a small space and a b r i e f t ime, "About Geneva" reads l i k e a short one-act play. Its se t t ing is c l aus t rophob ic , a "standard seasonal Nice meuble," the s i t t i n g room "hung with dark en-38 gravings of ca thedra l s . " The rented f l a t i s "Granny's" winter r e t r e a t , shared with her recent l y divorced daughter and her two c h i l d r e n . The 63 c h i l d r e n have j u s t returned from t h e i r f i r s t v i s i t w i th t h e i r f a the r and h i s new l o ve r i n Geneva. Only the c h i l d r e n , C o l i n and U r s u l a , are named: the important i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r adu l t s i n t h i s s t o r y i s t h e i r r e l a t i o n to each other w i t h i n the f am i l y h i e r a r c h y - - " f a t h e r , " "mother, " "Granny" — p o s i t i o n s of power i n a corporate s t r u c t u r e r a the r than names which confer i d e n t i t i e s . Granny 's ma t r i a r cha l power over her three charges i s ev ident from the opening l i n e s : "Granny was w a i t i n g a t the door of the apartment. She looked s m a l l , l o n e l y , and p a t i e n t , and at the s i g h t of her the c h i l d -ren and t h e i r mother f e l t i n s t a n t l y g u i l t y " (190). The tens ions i n the f am i l y c rea te a drama verg ing on melodrama; Granny 's o l d wor ld p r o p r i e t y c lashes w i th her g r a n d c h i l d r e n ' s conduct, and the mother, who " a t t h i r t y -f o u r , had s e t t l e d i n t o a permanent, a n x i o u s - l o o k i n g , semi - you th fu lne s s , " t ransmi t s these tens ions both ways (192). The e s s e n t i a l l y p r i v a t e nature of Granny 's t hea t re announces i t s e l f i n the performance w i th which she welcomes her c h i l d and g randch i ld ren home: " D a r l i n g s , " sa id Granny, very low. "Home a ga i n . " She s t re t ched out her arms to U r s u l a , but then , seeing the t a x i d r i v e r , who had c a r r i e d the c h i l d r e n ' s bags up the s t a i r s , she drew back. A f t e r he had gone she repeated the ges tu re , t u rn ing t h i s t ime to C o l i n , as i f U r s u l a ' s cue had been i r r e v o c a b l y missed. (190) As i n "The Other P a r i s , " d e t a i l s o f language r e f e r us to l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e s o f meaning. Granny 's qu i t e c l i n i c a l concern f o r her g randch i ld ren shows i n the empty t h e a t r i c a l i t y of her " repeated gestures " and her a s s i gn ing of " cues , " and a l so i n the p rec i s e impe r sona l i t y of the verbs which des-c r i b e her a c t i o n s . She d r a m a t i c a l l y laments C o l i n ' s h a i r c u t , which has shorn him o f h i s ch i l dhood ; " r e l e a s i n g " him, she cont inues to complain to 64 h i s m o t h e r . Her manner o f t e a c h i n g p r o p e r p o s t u r e t o U r s u l a i s t o " n i c e l y c a u s e " h e r t o s i t c o r r e c t l y : "She s l u m p e d on h e r s p i n e ( a h a b i t G r a n n y had j u s t n i c e l y c a u s e d h e r t o g e t o v e r b e f o r e t h e d e p a r t u r e t o G e n e v a ) " ( 1 9 3 ) . G r a n n y ' s m a n i p u l a t i v e c o n t r o l " j u s t n i c e l y c a u s e s " t h e t e n s i o n s - w h i c h s t r u c t u r e t h e dramas o f r e v e l a t i o n and c o n c e a l m e n t o v e r w h i c h s h e p r e s i d e s . The m a i n t e x t o f t h e d r a m a , a t e x t w h i c h h e r d a u g h t e r has w a r n e d G r a n n y n o t t o a n n o u n c e o p e n l y , e x a m i n e s t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e i r f a t h e r ' s new r e l a t i o n s h i p i n G e n e v a . The s u b t e x t , w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f t h e a d u l t s ' p u r p o s e f u l l y i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h t o t h e i r r e a l i n t e r e s t , a p p e a r s t o be t h e m a i n f o c u s o f t h e s t o r y , i s f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d t h r o u g h a b l a n d and i n d i r e c t p l o y : " D i d y o u go b o a t i n g , U r s u l a ? " s a i d G r a n n y , n o t c o u n t i n g t h i s as a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n . "When I v i s i t e d G e n e v a , as a g i r l , we went b o a t i n g on t h e l a k e . " She w e n t on a b o u t w h i t e w a t e r b i r d s , a p a r a s o l , a b o a t h e a p e d w i t h c o l o r e d c u s h i o n s . ( 1 9 2 ) Thus b e g i n s one l i n e o f t h e f a m i l y ' s " d i a l o g u e o f t h e d e a f , " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 39 o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n f a m i l i e s i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . G r a n n y "goes o n " a b o u t a r e m o t e p a s t , f o r e i g n t o h e r g r a n d c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e . Her memory a p p a r e n t l y d o e s n o t h i n g t o c l e a r t h e a i r f o r a f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v i s i t ; a c t u a l l y , h o w e v e r , s u b t e x t d o e s comment on t e x t . The l a n g u a g e s o f i n d i r e c t i o n and c o n c e a l m e n t t h a t i n t e r r u p t r a t h e r t h a n c o n v e y communi-c a t i o n b e t w e e n a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n do n o t c o m p l e t e l y b l o c k o f f d i a l o g u e ; t h e c h i l d r e n do_ c o m m u n i c a t e s o m e t h i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r a c c o u n t s " a b o u t " G e n e v a . G e n e v a ' s a p p e a r a n c e s a n n o u n c e two r e a l i t i e s - - t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a s t h e y b e g i n t o grow up, t o c o n c e i v e i d e n t i t i e s b e y o n d t h e i r ' s t a t u s a s f a m i l y members, and t h e i m p l i e d d e t a i l s o f t h e i r f a t h e r ' s 65 new 1 i f e . U r s u l a c a r r i e s on t h e d i a l o g u e i n i t i a t e d by G r a n n y ' s g a m b i t by s p o n t a n e o u s l y c r o s s i n g t e x t s t o p r o c l a i m t h a t h e r f a t h e r ' s new l o v e r i s " n o t a good m a nager" ( 1 9 3 ) . B u t a f t e r r e p o r t i n g t o h e r v e r y a t t e n t i v e a d u l t a u d i e n c e a b o u t t h i s m a n a g e r i a l i n c o m p e t e n c e , s h e c r o s s e s l a n g u a g e s 40 a g a i n t o a n n o u n c e a more i m p o r t a n t r e v e l a t i o n . Geneva i s t h e p l a c e i n w h i c h sh e has begun t o w r i t e a p l a y , e n c o u r a g e d by t h e Geneva a d u l t s . She q u o t e s one l i n e t o h e r N i c e a u d i e n c e : "'The G r a n d Duke e n t e r s and s e e s T a t i a n a a l l i n g o l d ' " ( 1 9 4 ) . The Geneva a d u l t s have t o l d h e r " i t was t h e b e s t t h i n g t h e y ' d e v e r h e a r d a n y w h e r e " ; b u t a l t h o u g h t h e women a r e g r a t i f i e d t h a t U r s u l a a p p e a r s t o have i n h e r i t e d h e r f a t h e r ' s i m a g i -n a t i o n , t h e y have no r e a l r e g a r d f o r i t s f i c t i o n s . A g a i n , d e t a i l s o f l a n g u a g e r e i n f o r c e t h e s e n s e o f t h e m o t h e r ' s d i s t r u s t o f i m a g i n a t i o n . ' " I t ' s l o v e l y d e a r ' . . . . ' I t s o u n d s l i k e a l o v e l y p l a y ' " s h e s a y s ; "'Were t h e y l o v e l y , t h e s w a n s ? ' " s h e a s k s C o l i n a f t e r he has a n n o u n c e d h i s image o f Geneva ( 1 9 5 , 1 9 8 ) . ^ C o l i n ' s s i l e n t r e s p o n s e s i g n a l s t h e t r u t h a b o u t h i s m o t h e r ' s comments: " b u t t h e q u e s t i o n b o r e no r e l a t i o n t o a n y t h i n g he had s e e n . He s a i d n o t h i n g " ( 1 9 8 ) . R e a d e r s a l s o l e a r n t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i o n s a r e s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l , t u r n i n g b a c k on t h e c r e a t o r s a s much a s o p e n i n g o u t i n t o t h e w o r l d . U r s u l a ' s r o m a n t i c v i s i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , i s a l m o s t t o t a l l y s e l f - c e n t r e d , so t h a t t h e c r e a t i n g s u b -j e c t i v e s e l f i s a l s o i t s own s e n t i m e n t a l o b j e c t : " E v e r s i n c e s h e had s t a r t e d 'The G r a n d Duke' s h e c o u l d n o t t h i n k o f h e r own p e r s o n w i t h o u t b e i n g s o r r y . F o r no r e a s o n a t a l l , now, h e r e y e s f i l l e d w i t h t e a r s o f 4? s e l f - p i t y " ( 1 9 5 ) . B e f o r e C o l i n a n n o u n c e s h i s d i s t i l l a t i o n o f G e n e v a , an i m p o r t a n t i n t e r l u d e c r o s s e s t e x t s a g a i n , s h i f t i n g r e a d e r s ' a t t e n t i o n f r o m c h i l d r e n 66 t o a d u l t s . T h e m o t h e r , o f f e r i n g U r s u l a t h e u s e o f h e r w r i t i n g d e s k , w h i c h has a k e y , d r a w s a t e l l i n g d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n h e r d a u g h t e r a n d h e r s e l f . U r s u l a s t i l l has a " s e c r e t , " b u t h e r m o t h e r , a l l f o r m s o f r o m a n c e gone o u t o f h e r l i f e , h as no e s s e n t i a l m e a n i n g t o c o n c e a l o r r e v e a l , e i t h e r i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p o r i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n : " I d o n ' t need a k e y , " s a i d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m o t h e r , l a c i n g h e r f i n g e r s t i g h t l y a r o u n d h e r k n e e s . "I'm n o t w r i t i n g a p l a y , o r a n y t h i n g e l s e I want k e p t s e c r e t . N o t a n y more." ( 1 9 5 ) She i s a n a m e l e s s c h i l d r e n ' s m o t h e r , l i v i n g w i t h G r a n n y i n o t h e r p e o p l e ' s f u r n i s h e d f l a t s , c a u g h t between h e r c h i l d r e n ' s e v e n t u a l d e p a r t u r e ( s i g -n a l l e d by t h e i r f i r s t c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n s o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d ) and h e r m o t h e r ' s f a m i l y t h e a t r e . She i s a c e n t r e w i t h o u t s u b s t a n c e , t h e m i d d l e g e n e r a t i o n d i v o r c e d f r o m i t s p o t e n t i a l m e a n i n g . C o l i n ' s v e r s i o n o f Geneva i s more p a i n t e r l y t h a n n a r r a t i v e , more an image t h a n t h e s e e d s o f a s t o r y . In r e s p o n s e t o G r a n n y ' s q u e s t i o n a b o u t h i s w a l k s i n G e n e v a , C o l i n r e c a l l s an i m a g e : " I f e d t h e swans," C o l i n s u d d e n l y s h o u t e d . T h e r e , he had t o l d a b o u t G e n e v a . He s a t up and k i c k e d h i s h e e l s on t h e c a r p e t as i f t h e n o i s e w o u l d drown o u t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f what he had r e v e a l e d . As he s a i d i t , t h e image became s t a t i c : a g r a y s k y , a g r a y l a k e , and a swan w o n d e r f u l l y t u r n i n g u p s i d e down w i t h t h e b l a c k r u b b e r f e e t s h o w i n g a b o v e t h e w a t e r . H i s f a t h e r was n o t i n t h e p i c t u r e a t a l l : n e i t h e r was s h e . B u t Geneva was f i x e d f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e : g r a y , l a k e , swan. (.196) The swan a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e image i s m a g i c a l l y , m e m o r a b l y a swan a t t h e moment o f i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o an i m a g i n e d swan, " w o n d e r f u l " i n i t s m o d a l i t y . C o l i n p u r p o s e f u l l y , e m p h a t i c a l l y e d i t s o u t a d u l t s ; t h e y w i l l n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e m a g i c o f s e l e c t i v e memory; he w i l l s i m p l y r e f u s e 67 t o r e c o r d h i s f a t h e r ' s new r e l a t i o n s h i p . J u s t a s " g r a y , l a k e , swan" has f i x e d Geneva f o r C o l i n , U r s u l a , t h e m o t h e r t h i n k s , "was t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h h e r s e l f . E v e r y t h i n g a b o u t t h e t r i p , i n t h e e n d , w o u l d c r y s t a l l i z e a r o u n d T a t i a n a and t h e G r a n d Duke. A l r e a d y , U r s u l a was T a t i a n a " ( 1 9 6 ) . B e c a u s e t h e y h a v e t h e i r own s e c r e t s t o c r e a t e and c o n v e y , n e i t h e r c h i l d c a n t e l l h e r a n y t h i n g a b o u t h e r f a i l e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . The l i n e b e t w e e n f i c t i o n a l i z i n g a nd l y i n g , t h e n a r r a t o r s u g g e s t s , i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a d u l t s t o draw; G r a n n y and h e r d a u g h t e r c a n n o t d i s t i n g u i s h o n e f r o m t h e o t h e r . I n G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s , " i n v e n t i o n " i s a t e r m w h i c h s i g n i f i e s l y i n g o r i m a g i n i n g , d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t : H a v i n g d e l i v e r e d h i s s e c r e t he had n o t h i n g more t o t e l l . He began t o i n v e n t . " I was s i c k on t h e p l a n e , " he s a i d , b u t U r s u l a a t o n c e s a i d t h a t t h i s was a l i e , a n d he l a y down a g a i n , h u m i l i a t e d . . . . "He n e v e r o n c e c r i e d i n G e n e v a , " U r s u l a s a i d . B u t by t h e one s i m p l e a c t o f c r e a t i n g T a t i a n a and t h e G r a n d Duke, s h e had r e m o v e d h e r s e l f f r o m t h e r a n k s o f r e l i a b l e w i t n e s s e s . ( 1 9 6 - 1 9 7 ) 4 3 I f U r s u l a c a n w r i t e a p l a y , t h e n s h e c a n n o t be r e l i e d upon t o t e l l t h e l i t e r a l t r u t h a b o u t a n y t h i n g . T h e a d u l t s c a n n o t r e c o n c i l e d r e a m i n g and w i t n e s s i n g , l i t e r a r y a nd l i t e r a l t r u t h , a l t h o u g h U r s u l a shows s h e i s c a p a b l e o f b o t h . The m o t h e r r e a l i z e s , t o o , t h a t C o l i n i s a n o t h e r un-r e l i a b l e n a r r a t o r , a n o t h e r s e p a r a t e k e e p e r o f s e c r e t s . She c a n n o t e v e n d e c i d e w h e t h e r o r n o t C o l i n was a c t u a l l y s i c k on t h e p l a n e ; G r a n n y , o v e r U r s u l a ' s p r o t e s t a t i o n s t o t h e c o n t r a r y , a s s e r t s t h a t he was: ' " T h a t , a t l e a s t , i s a f a c t ' " ( 1 9 8 ) . The m o t h e r i s l e f t l o o k i n g f o r r e l i a b l e w i t -n e s s e s , u n a b l e t o e n t e r i n t o t h e s p i r i t o f h e r c h i l d r e n ' s v i s i o n s . She w a nts C o l i n t o make a s t o r y o u t o f h i s s t a t i c i m a g e , a n a r r a t i v e b e g i n n i n g w i t h " t h e l a k e , t h e b o a t s , t h e swan" and e n d i n g w i t h "why h e r h u s b a n d had l e f t h e r " ( 1 9 8 ) . 68 The c h i l d r e n ' s d i s t i l l a t i o n s o f Geneva f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r l y t o C a r o l ' s v i s i o n o f P a r i s . C a r o l ' s v i s i o n r e f r a c t s p o s t w a r P a r i s i n t o a c i t y w h i c h w i l l c o n f o r m t o h e r d r e a m - c i t y ; i n " A b o u t G e n e v a , " t h e c h i l d r e n r e s p o n d t o c o n f l i c t i n g demands by " c r y s t a l l i z i n g " G e n e v a , s i d e s t e p p i n g t h e i r m o t h e r ' s demand t h a t t h e y be w i t n e s s e s , s t o l i d s t a t i s t i c i a n s o f e x p e r i e n c e . " A b o u t G e n e v a " e x p l o r e s t h e l o n e l i n e s s and a n x i e t y o f a woman whose " s e c r e t l i f e " i s h o l l o w e d o u t by t h e empty t h e a t r i c s o f p r o p r i e t y -p r o p r i e t y w i t h o u t a s u b t e x t , a p p e a r a n c e w i t h o u t much r e a l i t y . A n o t h e r e a r l y s t o r y a b o u t t h e t e n s i o n s between c h i l d r e n ' s dreams and a d u l t s ' r u l e s i l l u s t r a t e s o n c e a g a i n how G a l l a n t f i c t i o n a l i z e s t h e f a m i l y i n t o a t h e a t r e i n w h i c h t h e p l a y e r s a c t p a r t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s c r i p t s . I n " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l " ( 1 9 5 9 ) , s h e b e g i n s w i t h a Grimm's f a i r y t a l e and s h a p e s i t i n t o a f i c t i o n i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n ' s f a n t a s i e s , d r e a m s , and m e m o r i e s o f dreams b l e n d e e r i l y w i t h t h e s t r i c t u r e s o f f a m i l y and w i t h a d u l t r u l e s o f c o n d u c t . G a l l a n t ' s i d e a f o r h e r v e r s i o n o f t h i s f a i r y t a l e m i g h t have had i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n an a r t i c l e s h e w r o t e f o r t h e S t a n d a r d M a g a z i n e i n J u n e , 1946. " G i v e t h e K i d a G o r y S t o r y " o u t l i n e s t h e p e r e n n i a l d e b a t e among a d u l t s a n d e d u c a t o r s o v e r w h e t h e r f a i r y t a l e s c a n do p s y c h o l o g i c a l harm 44 t o c h i l d r e n by d i s t o r t i n g t h e i r s e n s e o f r e a l i t y . G a l l a n t r e p o r t s on a d u l t s who r e a d t h e i r own a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e i n t o f a i r y t a l e s and d e c i d e t h e s t o r i e s w i l l t e r r i f y t h e i r c h i l d r e n . One g r o u p o f p r o g r e s s i v e e d u -c a t o r s f e e l s t h a t a d u l t s , b o r e d w i t h t h e i r own l i v e s , w i s h f u l l y p r e s e n t t h e f a i r y t a l e w o r l d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n a s t h e r e a l o n e ; a n o t h e r g r o u p b e l i e v e s c h i l d r e n ' s " s t r o n g s e n s e o f j u s t i c e " i s s e r v e d by t h e o f t e n g o r y e n d i n g s o f f a i r y t a l e s . G a l l a n t s u g g e s t s t h a t a " b a l a n c e d a t t i t u d e " s u c h as t h a t e x p r e s s e d a t one M o n t r e a l s c h o o l w o u l d be "by f a r t h e 69 w i s e s t " : "The t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t s m a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have a good b a s i s 45 o f r e a l i s m b e f o r e t h e y d i p i n t o f a n t a s y . " G a l l a n t o b j e c t i v e l y s y n t h e s i z e s h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and p r e s e n t s a b a l a n c e d a c c o u n t o f t h e d e b a t e , b u t h e r t o n e s u g g e s t s h e r own i n t e r e s t i n t h e i n t e r p l a y between r e a l and i m a g i n e d w o r l d s . She d e s r i b e s h e r s a m p l i n g o f f a i r y t a l e s ("some o f t h e p a s s a g e s have a P o e - l i k e h o r r o r " ) and t h e n q u o t e s a p a s s a g e f r o m Grimm's " J o r i n d a and J o r i n g e l " : 'Her s o n g e n d e d i n a m o u r n f u l c r y . An owl w i t h f i e r y e y e s f l e w t h r e e t i m e s r o u n d them, and t h r e e t i m e s s c r e a m e d . . . [ s i c ] J o r i n d e l c o u l d n o t move; he s t o o d f i x e d as a s t o n e , and c o u l d n e i t h e r weep, n o r s p e a k , n o r s t i r hand o r f o o t . And now t h e s u n went down; t h e g l o o m y n i g h t came, t h e owl f l e w i n t o a b u s h ; and a moment a f t e r t h e o l d f a i r y came f o r t h , p a l e and m e a g e r , w i t h s t a r i n g e y e s . . . .' [ s i c ] 46 She comments: " I t ' s a b e a u t i f u l p i e c e o f w r i t i n g ; f o r an a d u l t , t h a t i s . " The f a i r y t a l e G a l l a n t has drawn on i s a c l a s s i c , p o p u l a r e nough t o h ave been r e p r i n t e d i n a s e p a r a t e i l l u s t r a t e d e d i t i o n as r e c e n t l y as 47 1978. The p l o t i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d : J o r i n d a and J o r i n g e l wander i n t o t h e woods, s t r a y i n g t o o n e a r t o t h e w i t c h ' s c a s t l e . The w i t c h t r a n s f o r m s J o r i n d a i n t o a n i g h t i n g a l e a n d c a r r i e s h e r o f f ; J o r i n g e l i s r o o t e d t o t h e s p o t u n t i l t h e moon comes o u t . F o r months he p i n e s f o r J o r i n d a , u n t i l he d r eams o f f r e e i n g h e r w i t h a " r e d , r e d f l o w e r " ; w a k i n g he f i n d s s u c h a f l o w e r , f r e e s J o r i n d a and t h o u s a n d s o f o t h e r m a i d e n s , and makes t h e w i t c h p o w e r l e s s . He and J o r i n d a l i v e h a p p i l y e v e r a f t e r . G a l l a n t ' s " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l " i s a n y t h i n g b u t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . In i t s r e v e r s a l s o f t h e o r i g i n a l t a l e and i t s d e l i b e r a t e b l u r r i n g o f t h e l i n e b e t w e e n a d u l t s ' a n d c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d s , i t p r e s e n t s c o m p l e x i n t e r -p r e t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s . B e c a u s e t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e so d i s t o r t e d by t h e 70 n a r r a t i v e medium t h e y a r e immersed i n , what emerges i s t h e f e e l i n g t h a t G a l l a n t has s e t o u t t o show t h e c o n n e c t i o n s a n d n o t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s b etween f a i r y t a l e a n d r e a l i t y , b l u r r i n g t h e l i n e s o f d e m a r c a t i o n t h r o u g h h e r u s e o f an " e n c h a n t e d " n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e w h i c h a t o n c e c r e a t e s t h e f a i r y t a l e a m b i a n c e and u n d e r c u t s i t . T h e s t o r y r u n s a l o n g two p l o t l i n e s , o n e , an a c c o u n t o f a j a d e d a d u l t s o c i e t y o f f i v e g a t h e r e d a t a l a k e s h o r e summer c o t t a g e i n Q u e b e c , t h e o t h e r , t h e s t o r y o f a y o u n g g i r l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h two b o y s , h e r v i s i t i n g c o u s i n , B r a d l e y , and F r e d d y , a F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n who has " n i n e 48 b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , b u t d o e s n ' t know where t h e y a r e . " The p l o t l i n e s m erge and c r o s s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s , t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n a l w a y s s h a d e d , b l u r r e d by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t o n e and s t a n c e . The o p e n i n g r e p l a c e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f a i r y - t a l e b e g i n n i n g by r e p l a c i n g " o n c e upon a t i m e " w i t h e v e n t s n a r r a t e d i n t h e i m m e d i a t e p r e s e n t t e n s e : A summer n i g h t : a l l n i g h t l o n g someone has been l e a r n i n g t h e C h a r l e s t o n . " I ' v e g o t i t ' . " t h e d a n c e r c r i e s . " I ' v e g o t i t , e v e r y b o d y . W a t c h me, n o w l " B u t no one i s w a t c h i n g . . . . Young I r m g a r d wakes up w i t h h e r b r a i d s undone and h e r thumb i n h e r mouth. She has been d r e a m i n g a b o u t h e r c o u s i n B r a d l e y ; a b o u t an o l d s i d e w a l k w i t h r i b b o n g r a s s g r o w i n g i n t h e c r a c k s . " I ' v e g o t i t , " c r i e d t h e w i t c h who had c a p t u r e d J o r i n d a , and s h e r e a c h e d o u t so a s t o c a t c h J o r i n d e l a n d c h a n g e him i n t o a b i r d . ( 3 8 ) The c o m f o r t a b l y d i s t a n t e n c h a n t m e n t o f l o n g ago a n d f a r away becomes t h e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e s e n t e n c h a n t m e n t o f h e r e and now. B u t " h e r e and now" c o n s t i t u t e two w o r l d s , one e n c h a n t e d , one a c t u a l . T h e y i n f o r m e a c h o t h e r , j u s t as M r s . B l o o d w o r t h ' s c r y , u n h e a r d by t h e a d u l t s , s u r f a c e s i n I r m g a r d ' s d r e a m , t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a w i t c h ' s c r y o f t r i u m p h . The a d u l t w o r l d i s t h e m u t e d , b u t f i n a l l y a l l - p o w e r f u l s e t t i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s 71 r e l a t i o n s , a s e t t i n g w h i c h i s as m a n n e r e d and mundane as t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i s f a b u l o u s . M r s . B l o o d w o r t h , t h e d a n c e r , i s more a f a i r y - t a l e f i g u r i n e t h a n an a d u l t f i g u r e , " h e r f e e t i n s a t i n s h o e s " ; s h e s p e a k s t o c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a l i k e i n a s t i l t e d , a f f e c t e d i d i o m : ' " I s i t r e a l l y y o u , my s w e e t p e t ? ' " s h e a s k s I r m g a r d ; ' " D a r l i n g p e t , may I a l w a y s s t a y ? ' " s h e s o b s t o I r m g a r d ' s m o t h e r ( 3 8 ) . B u t s h e , l i k e I r m g a r d ' s F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n bonne  d ' e n f a n t , G e r m a i n e , and t h e v e r y E n g l i s h c o o k , M r s . Queen, comes f r o m a s p e c i f i c a l l y l o c a t e d a d u l t w o r l d . " T h e r e i s p r o h i b i t i o n where M r s . B l o o d w o r t h comes f r o m " t h e n a r r a t o r t e l l s u s ; t h e d i c t i o n and s y n t a x a r e a l m o s t c h i l d i s h , a b i t b r e a t h l e s s w i t h w o n d e r , b u t t h e v o i c e c o n v e y s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r e a l w o r l d . T h i s d e l i b e r a t e c l a s h o f m e s s a g e w i t h medium r e f l e c t s t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f f a i r y - t a l e wonder w i t h h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g a n d e n a c t s t h e t e n s i o n s between p a r e n t s ' r u l e s and c h i l d r e n ' s d r e a m s . E v e n M r s . B l o o d w o r t h ' s v o c a b u l a r y i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y A m e r i c a n : t h e n a r r a t o r d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n I r m g a r d ' s w o r d , " g a l l e r y , " and " v e r a n d a , " a s " M r s . B l o o d w o r t h w o u l d s a y " ( 3 8 ) . A t a n o t h e r p o i n t , t h e n a r r a t o r assumes t h e L i l l i p u t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e o f a c h i l d g a z i n g up a t an a d u l t : I r m g a r d , s p o t t i n g M r s . B l o o d w o r t h a s l e e p i n a hammock, " i n -s p e c t s h e r up a n d down, f r o m r i g h t t o l e f t . I t i s n ' t e v e r y m o r n i n g o f t h e y e a r t h a t y o u f i n d a l a r g e p e r s o n h e l p l e s s l y a s l e e p " ( 3 8 ) . The p o r t r a i t s o f t h e o t h e r a d u l t s a r e a l s o f r a m e d i n l a r g e r c u l t u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s . In t h e k i t c h e n , G e r m a i n e , "who d o e s n o t u n d e r -s t a n d one word o f E n g l i s h , " d r i n k s t e a w i t h M r s . Queen, who i s " c e r t a i n l y n o t g o i n g t o l e a r n a n y F r e n c h " ( 3 8 ) . G e r m a i n e i s c a l m and u n c r i t i c a l t h r o u g h o u t , g i v i n g I r m g a r d " u n m e a s u r e d l o v e " a l t h o u g h t h e y b o t h know "a s e p a r a t i o n i s n e a r " ; r e g a l M r s . Queen i s t h e E m p i r e i n c a r n a t e , u n h a p p y 72 i n a p l a c e "where t h e w o r k i n g p e o p l e a r e . a s t a l l as a n y o n e e l s e " ; when s h e was " i n t e r v i e w i n g I r m g a r d ' s m o t h e r , t o s e e i f I r m g a r d ' s m o t h e r w o u l d d o , s h e s a i d s h e had n e v e r t a k e n t o t h e p l a c e and c o u l d n ' t p r o m i s e a t h i n g " ( 3 8 ) . B r a d l e y , I r m g a r d ' s t e n - y e a r - o l d c o u s i n , i s an A m e r i c a n f r o m B o s t o n , who c o n s e q u e n t l y m i s u n d e r s t a n d s I r m g a r d ' s m o t h e r ' s comment ("'what a l i t t l e s t o c k b r o k e r B r a d l e y i s ' " [ 4 0 ] ) ; he i s " r a i s e d i n a d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e down t h e r e i n B o s t o n " ( 4 0 ) . I n d e e d , C a n a d a , w i t h i t s a l l e g e d l y i n d e t e r m i n a t e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r ( a n d i n between s e a s o n s , a t t h e t a i l end o f summer), i s an a p t l o c a l e f o r an a d u l t f a i r y t a l e , e s p e c i a l l y one i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d p r i n c e s s / w i t c h ( f o r I r m g a r d i s b o t h ) i s t h e p r o d u c t o f s e v e r a l n a t i o n s : I r m g a r d s a y s s h e i s " ' E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n o n l y I t a l k F r e n c h and I'm German d e s c e n t on one s i d e ' " ( 3 9 ) . I t i s o n l y C a n a d i a n s , t h e i r n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y a l w a y s i n q u e s t i o n , who m u s t e x p l a i n t h e i r o r i g i n s i n t h i s way: B r a d l e y , t h e n a r r a t o r , r e m a r k s i n a p a r e n t h e t i c a l a s i d e " ( . . . i s A m e r i c a n , and t h a t d o e s . B u t i n Canada y o u have t o keep s a y i n g what y o u a r e . ) " ( 3 9 ) . A l l o f t h i s commentary p r e s e n t s t h e a d u l t w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e f a i r y t a l e i s s e t ; b u t b e c a u s e t h e n a r r a t o r i s a b i t e l f i n , a b i t t o o i n g e n u o u s , and b e c a u s e t h e c h i l d r e n a r e t h e m s e l v e s so a d u l t , so much t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ' n o t i o n s o f c l a s s a nd r u l e s o f c o n d u c t , t h e a d u l t w o r l d becomes more m a r v e l o u s t h a n a c t u a l , a s e t t i n g t o be w o n d e r e d a t and t h e n r i d i c u l e d a t t h e end o f t h e s t o r y . The t h r e e c h i l d r e n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r m a t r i a n g l e : I r m g a r d b e g i n s t h e summer w i t h F r e d d y , d r o p s him f o r B r a d l e y , and t h e n t r i e s t o r e -e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h F r e d d y when B r a d l e y l e a v e s . B u t h e r s p e l l has b e e n b r o k e n : F r e d d y "had d i s c o v e r e d he c o u l d do w i t h o u t h e r " ( 4 0 - 4 1 ) . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p had been m a g i c a l ; a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , F r e d d y and I r m g a r d 73 c o u l d " r e a d e a c h o t h e r ' s t h o u g h t s . When F r e d d y wants t o s p e a k , I r m g a r d t e l l s him what he w a n t s t o s a y , and F r e d d y s t a n d s t h e r e , mute a s an a n i m a l , g r a v e , n o d d i n g a t e a s e " ( 3 9 - 4 0 ) . Her f r i e n d s h i p w i t h him t r a n s -s c e n d s t h e i r v a s t s o c i a l a n d c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s ; s h e b e w i t c h e s him, and he d e f e r s . B r a d l e y , u n l i k e F r e d d y , "has n e v e r had a v i s i o n , " b u t he has "no t r o u b l e e x p l a i n i n g a n y t h i n g " ( 4 0 ) . In b e t r a y i n g F r e d d y f o r B r a d l e y , I r m g a r d b e g i n s t o c l o s e h e r s e l f o u t o f h e r c h i l d h o o d and i t s m a g i c . She i s aware o f t h e b e t r a y a l , b u t s h e i s a l s o h e r m o t h e r ' s d a u g h t e r , and so s h e i s u n d e r h e r more p o w e r f u l s p e l l : I r m g a r d s t a n d s by h e r m o t h e r ' s c h a i r ; f o r t h e m o t h e r i s t h e m i r r o r , and e v e r y t h i n g i s r e f l e c t e d o r d a r k e n e d , g i v e n l i f e o r d i s m i s s e d , i n t h e p i c t u r e h e r m o t h e r r e t u r n s . The l a k e , t h e h o u s e , t h e summer, t h e r e a s o n f o r d o i n g one t h i n g i n s t e a d o f a n o t h e r a r e r e f l e c t e d h e r e , e x p l a i n e d , c l a r i f i e d . I f t h e m i r r o r b r e a k s , e v e r y -t h i n g w i l l b r e a k , t o o . ( 4 1 ) B e w i t c h e d a s s h e i s , I r m g a r d remembers h e r o p e n i n g dream a n d , much l i k e C o l i n s h o u t i n g o u t h i s image i n " A b o u t G e n e v a , " a n n o u n c e s h e r image a t t h e b r e a k f a s t t a b l e . The dream i n v o l v e s s e n d i n g F r e d d y i n t o t h e woods, where " s o m e t h i n g i s w a i t i n g " f o r him, " t h e d i s a s t e r , t h e w o r s t t h i n g " ( 4 1 ) . T h i s " d i s a s t e r " l i n k s up w i t h I r m g a r d s e n d i n g F r e d d y away e a r l i e r i n t h e summer; b u t h e r g u i l t i s l e f t u n a r t i c u l a t e d , and F r e d d y ' s d i s a s t e r i s l e f t unnamed. I r m g a r d s i m p l y "grows r e d i n t h e f a c e and s a y s l o u d l y , 'I remember my d r e a m . F r e d d y went on a m e s s a g e and g o t l o s t . ' " Her p a r e n t s make a new r u l e on t h e s p o t : "no dreams a t b r e a k f a s t " ( 4 1 ) . B u t a s t h e n a r r a t o r p o i n t s o u t i n t h e c l o s i n g p a r a g r a p h , r u l e s w h i c h g o v e r n c o n d u c t by d e n y i n g dreams a r e empty, c h i l d i s h games: Her f a t h e r c h e e r s up. N o t h i n g c h e e r s them up so f a s t a s a new r u l e , f o r when i t comes t o m a k i n g r u l e s , t h e y a r e a s bad a s c h i l d r e n . You s h o u l d s e e them a t c r o q u e t . ( 4 1 ) 74 P e r h a p s b e c a u s e f o r o n c e sh e has w o r k e d t o o c l o s e t o an i d e a , t h e s t o r y i s n o t one o f G a l l a n t ' s b e s t ^ ; b u t " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l , " l i k e " A b o u t G e n e v a , " a r t i c u l a t e s t h e t e n s i o n between r e p o r t s and dreams and b e t w e e n i r o n i c p o r t r a i t s and c h i l d l i k e i n v e n t i o n s . The s t o r y ' s m o s t s t r i k i n g q u a l i t y i s t h e m a g i c a l a t m o s p h e r e c r e a t e d by t h e " w o n d e r i n g " n a r r a t o r ; b u t a t p o i n t s t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l " s u f f e r f r o m i m m e r s i o n i n t h i s m a g i c a l medium, as i f d i s t o r t e d , s e e n t h r o u g h g l a s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l " and " A b o u t G e n e v a " s h o u l d be r e a d a s c o m p l e m e n t a r y e a r l y s t o r i e s w h i c h show us t h e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n d i a l o g u e s b r o k e n a c r o s s t i m e ( a n d b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s and c o n t i n e n t s ) and d i a l o g u e s b r o k e n b e t w e e n g e n e r a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n f a m i l i e s . T h e s e t e n s i o n s f i n d f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s we r e a d between w i t n e s s e s , a u d i t o r s o f h i s t o r y ' s r e p o r t s , and d r e a m e r s , c r e a t o r s o f memory's f i c t i o n s . The s t o r i e s o f The O t h e r P a r i s e s t a b l i s h e a r l y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e a d i n g G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n w i t h a t t e n t i o n t o b r e a k s i n d i a l o g u e and t o t h e moments w h i c h h e l p r e a d e r s t o c o n s t r u c t h e r s t o r i e s ' p l o t s . As we r e a d d e t a c h e d i r o n y o v e r a g a i n s t e n g a g e d i n v e n t i o n , r e p o r t s o v e r a g a i n s t f i c t i o n s , we a l s o l e a r n t o r e a d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e t t i n g i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n . A l w a y s , t h e m e t i c u l o u s a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l e v o k e s a d e n s e c u l t u r a l s u r r o u n d . The c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f d e t a i l s i n t h e i n t e r i o r s o f a p a r t m e n t s , o f p e n s i o n s , k i t c h e n s , d i n i n g r o o ms, h a l l w a y s , b a l c o n i e s , c r e a t e a c u l t u r a l a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h i n h e r e s i n t a n g i b l e t h i n g s , so t h a t c u l t u r e i t s e l f b e g i n s t o seem t a n g i b l e , t a k i n g s u b s t a n c e f r o m i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d . The c o n c r e t e i s a l w a y s e v o c a t i v e ; 75 B a r t h e s w o u l d s a y , t h e more c o n c r e t e , t h e more e v o c a t i v e . J U In t h e s t o r i e s o f My H e a r t I s B r o k e n , t h e o b s e r v a n t , d e t a c h e d n a r r a t o r ' s e y e t y p i c a l o f The O t h e r P a r i s b e g i n s t o e v o l v e i n t o an " I " t h a t r e f l e c t s on i t s r e p o r t s . R e p o r t s on c h a r a c t e r s i n c l o s e l y o b s e r v e d s e t t i n g s e v o l v e i n t o c h a r a c t e r s ' f i r s t - p e r s o n r e p o r t s on t h e i r manner o f s e e i n g , a n d c h a r a c t e r s ' m e m o r i e s become s u b j e c t s as w e l l a s o b j e c t s , r e c r e a t i o n s as w e l l a s r e c o l l e c t i o n s . From t h e b e g i n n i n g , " r e a l i s m " i n G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n d e p l o y s t h e t a c t i c s o f m i m e s i s , p l a u s i b i l i t y , and v e r i s i m i l i t u d e as means t o an e n d : The O t h e r P a r i s i n v i t e s r e a d e r s t o r e a d s t o r i e s as^ r f t h e y w ere r e p o r t s , and t h e n demands t h a t we w a t c h and s e e w here and how i m a g i n a t i o n b e g i n s i t s work. N o t e s The L i n n e t M u i r s t o r i e s a r e a g r o u p o f s i x i n t e r l o c k i n g s t o r i e s , a l l n a r r a t e d by L i n n e t i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n . The f i r s t f i v e a p p e a r e d i n The New Y o r k e r b e t w e e n November, 1975 and J u n e , 1977; t h e s i x t h a p p e a r e d i n C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n M a g a z i n e , No. 28 ( 1 9 7 8 ) . See b i b l i o g r a p h y a t t a c h e d t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . 2 "The O t h e r P a r i s , " i n The O t h e r P a r i s ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 30. A l l s u b s e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s s t o r y a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . "The O t h e r P a r i s " o r i g i n a l l y a p p e a r e d i n The New Y o r k e r , 11 A p r i l 1953, pp. 27-36. When a s t o r y has been c o l l e c t e d , I have u s e d t h e f i r s t A m e r i c a n e d i t i o n f o r r e f e r e n c e s . The b i b l i o g r a p h y a t t a c h e d t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n r e c o r d s b o t h f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e s o f G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n a nd n o n f i c t i o n . 3 A s t o r y l i k e " J o r i n d a and J o r i n d e l , " f o r e x a m p l e , i s t o l d i n t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e by a n a r r a t o r a d d r e s s i n g a f a m i l i a r " y o u "