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Informal argumentation : toward a unified foundation for teaching composition King, Amanda T. 1983

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INFORMAL ARGUMENTATION: TOWARD A UNIFIED FOUNDATION FOR TEACHING COMPOSITION By Amanda T. K i n g B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1983 ©Amanda T. K i n g , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of English  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 1?, 1983 i i Abstract Since the b i r t h of composition teaching i n the nineteenth century, classroom emphasis has been on the " p r a c t i c a l " task of ensuring that students be able to apply w r i t i n g s k i l l s . Yet to have students p r a c t i s e s k i l l s f o r t h e i r own sake i s u l t i m a t e l y to neglect the e t h i c a l r a t i o n a l e behind w r i t i n g : to communicate not only information but also opinion. The o v e r a l l purpose of any composition class should be to show students that writing s k i l l s are a v i t a l l i n k between themselves as i n d i v i d u a l s and the world of humanistic issues. Perhaps the worst e f f e c t of the " s k i l l s only" approach to composition (that i s , when i n s t r u c t i o n a l a ttention i s focused on forms and models above a l l else) i s that writing ceases to be a u n i f i e d , organic process of creating and shaping ideas and opinions. Recently, both r h e t o r i c i a n s and composition t h e o r i s t s have proposed frameworks c o n s i s t i n g of sets of u n i f i e d p r i n c i p l e s ; however, few such frameworks have been applied systematically to teaching w r i t i n g . The r a t i o n a l e behind t h i s paper i s to address the problem of reintroducing e t h i c a l content to the w r i t i n g class by r e s t o r i n g a measure of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y to "opinionable" w r i t i n g . One way of working towards t h i s goal i s to adopt an informal argumentative framework for teaching composition: that i s , a set of p r i n c i p l e s and strategies that acknowledges the opinionable nature of v i r t u a l l y a l l prose and that systematically guides a writer towards discovering opinions and supporting ideas through induction and synthesis of information. The main purpose of t h i s paper, therefore, i s to discover the t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of informal argumentation, primarily by t r a c i n g the development of exposition and argument as forms, kinds, and aims of w r i t i n g from the eighteenth century u n t i l the present. Chapter One explores the o r i g i n s of exposition and i t s roots i n the New Logic of Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon, and John Locke. Adam Smith and George C a m p b e l l , two e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r h e t o r i c i a n s , r e a l i z e d t h a t r h e t o r i c — t h e a r t of c o m m u n i c a t i o n — a l s o needed t o a d o p t , a t l e a s t p a r t l y , t h e new s c i e n t i f i c methods w h i c h t h e e m p i r i c i s t s w i e l d e d so s u c c e s s f u l l y ; o t h e r w i s e r h e t o r i c w o u l d be u n a b l e t o communicate s c i e n t i f i c m a t t e r s . S m i t h ' s p r i n c i p l e s of c l a r i t y , p r e c i s i o n , o b j e c t i v i t y , and s i m p l i c i t y o f d i c t i o n a r e t h e c o r n e r s t o n e s of e x p o s i t i o n ; y e t he a l s o emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e of communicating h u m a n i s t i c i s s u e s a c c u r a t e l y and h o n e s t l y . C a m p b e l l , f o r h i s p a r t , e q u i p p e d r h e t o r i c w i t h a p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n i n w h i c h p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s one p a r t of an o r g a n i c d i s c o u r s e i n w h i c h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p a s s i o n t o g e t h e r g i v e r i s e t o t r u t h . Thus, t h e l o g i c o f s y n t h e s i s and i n d u c t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s e e t h i c a l c o n c e r n s were u n i t e d i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r h e t o r i c . These p r i n c i p l e s g e n e r a l l y f a i l e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s i t i o n and r h e t o r i c t e x t s , as C h a p t e r Two shows. A s u r v e y of t e x t s from t h e 1850's t o t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y t r a c e s t h e g r a d u a l c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r l o s s of t h e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e f o u n d a t i o n s w h i c h S m i t h and C a m p b e l l d e l i n e a t e d . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e t e x t s emphasize p r a c t i c a l i t y and ease o f t e a c h i n g t h r o u g h r u l e and model; th e i m i t a t i o n s of t e x t s w h i c h p r e s e n t a t h e o r e t i c a l o r e t h i c a l framework t e n d t o s t r e s s t h e p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s . C h a p t e r T h r e e , w h i c h examines t e x t s p u b l i s h e d from 1917 t o 1968, r e v e a l s t h a t the l o s s o f an i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e f o u n d a t i o n f o r u n i f y i n g d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s c o n t i n u e s w e l l i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . By the 1930's, e x p o s i t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r has become th e aim, o c c a s i o n , and form o f d i s c o u r s e most emphasized i n c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s r o o m s ; argument has been r e l e g a t e d t o t h e c o l l e g e d e b a t i n g team; and p e r s u a s i o n , because of i t s r e l i a n c e on emotions r a t h e r t h a n f a c t s , has l o s t v i r t u a l l y a l l r e s p e c t i b i l i t y . A f t e r 1969, a y e a r h e r a l d i n g a w i d e s p r e a d awareness of t h e r o l e o f r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y i n c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g , argument and p e r s u a s i o n b e g i n t o r e g a i n t h e i r l o s t ground i n t h e w r i t i n g c l a s s r o o m . C h a p t e r F o u r d e s c r i b e s how i v c u r r e n t t h e o r i s t s ( S t e p h e n T o u l m i n , Chaim P e r e l m a n , R i c h a r d Young, James K i n n e a v y and F r a n k D'Angelo, t o name t h e major ones) v i e w t h e r o l e o f argument and of i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n u n i f y i n g e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h i s paper a t t e m p t s t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n — " T o what e x t e n t have c u r r e n t c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s a d o p t e d i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s ? " A s u r v e y o f f o u r t e e n t e x t s p u b l i s h e d between 1969 and 1983 r e v e a l s t h a t s e v e r a l o f t h e most p o p u l a r and l o n g - l i v e d adhere t o t h e same e x p o s i t i o n - a r g u m e n t -p e r s u a s i o n model as d i d t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s o f t h e 1890's. O t h e r s , however, have a d o p t e d some i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s ( s u c h as t h e e t h i c a l s t a n c e w h i c h p o s i t s w r i t i n g as a v e h i c l e o f o p i n i o n about i s s u e s , o r t h e v i e w o f i n v e n t i o n as a p r i m a r i l y i n d u c t i v e / s y n t h e s i z i n g p r o c e s s ) . T h i s c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s , i n t h e form o f a c l a s s r o o m o u t l i n e , f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a freshman E n g l i s h c l a s s w h i c h combines c o m p o s i t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e . Such an a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g w i l l h e l p f u l f i l l one o f t h e prime g o a l s o f a w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t o r : p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s n o t o n l y w i t h s k i l l s , b u t w i t h a v i t a l c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e w o r l d o f e t h i c a l p u r p o s e s . V Table of Contents Abstract 11 Table of Contents . . v Introduction 1 I. The Foundations of Informal Argumentation 3 I I . Foundations Lost 20 I I I . Precepts Without P r i n c i p l e s 45 IV. Rediscovering Informal Argumentation 67 V. Informal Argumentation and Teaching Composition 84 Appendix A 103 Appendix B 104 Bibliography 106 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 One of t h e most s e r i o u s f a u l t s i n t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l i s a g e n e r a l f a i l u r e on t h e p a r t o f i n s t r u c t o r s and t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s t o i n c o r p o r a t e an o v e r a l l , u n i f i e d r a t i o n a l e o r purpose f o r l e a r n i n g w r i t i n g s k i l l s . S i n c e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c o m p o s i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n has emphasized t h e " p r a c t i c a l " i d e a of making s u r e s t u d e n t s a b s o r b and a p p l y v a r i o u s s k i l l s . I n d o i n g s o , c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g has d i v o r c e d s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e e t h i c a l r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d a l l w r i t i n g : t o communicate, w i t h a minimum of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h a t w h i c h t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s i s good, t r u e , o r n e c e s s a r y f o r c h a n g i n g some e x i s t i n g s t a t e . H a v i n g Johnny produce a p i e c e o f e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g , and t h e n a p i e c e of a r g u m e n t a t i v e w r i t i n g , and n e x t a s h o r t passage of d e s c r i p t i v e w r i t i n g , and so on, j u s t f o r t h e sake of e x e r c i s i n g t h e s e s k i l l s , i s o f t e n f u t i l e i n t h e l o n g r u n . I t o n l y s e r v e s t o show Johnny t h a t w r i t i n g i s r e a l l y as m e c h a n i c a l and m e a n i n g l e s s as he'd a l w a y s s u s p e c t e d , and t h u s t o h a s t e n t h e day t h a t he not o n l y c a n ' t w r i t e , b u t won't. P e r h a p s he c a n ' t w r i t e because no one has h i n t e d why he s h o u l d t r y : w r i t i n g w i l l h e l p connect h im (as n o t h i n g e l s e r e a l l y can) t o t h e h u m a n i s t i c w o r l d o f e t h i c a l p u r p o s e s . N o t h i n g d i s r u p t s t h e l i n k between l e a r n i n g w r i t i n g s k i l l s and s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e s k i l l s more t h a n t h e t e a c h i n g o f the s o - c a l l e d "modes" of d i s c o u r s e w h i c h f o c u s e s i n s t r u c t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n on forms o f d i s c o u r s e above a l l e l s e . When e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e t a u g h t as mere s k i l l s , i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s a l i k e f a i l t o acknowledge t h a t e v e r y a s p e c t of w r i t i n g i s u n i f i e d . We a r e o n l y now r e a l l y b e g i n n i n g t o see t h i s p r o b l e m i n a l l i t s e n o r m i t y and e r r o r . However, b a s i n g our c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s e s on a common framework f o r d i s c o u r s e i s a d i r e c t means of w o r k i n g towards c o r r e c t i n g t h e e r r o r . A l t h o u g h many frameworks u n i t i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f d i s c o u r s e have been pro p o s e d by r h e t o r i c i a n s and c o m p o s i t i o n 2 t h e o r i s t s , v e r y few have been w i d e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n p r a c t i s e . T h i s p a per, t h e n , has two main p u r p o s e s . The f i r s t i s t o e x p l o r e the o r i g i n s of the development m a i n l y of e x p o s i t o r y and a r g u m e n t a t i v e w r i t i n g , and t h e second i s t o show t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g t h o s e forms of w r i t i n g can c o n s t i t u t e a framework f o r a l l p r o s e , a framework I c a l l i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n . I d e f i n e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n as a p r o c e s s of d i s c o v e r i n g o p i n i o n s i n d u c t i v e l y : a w r i t e r g a t h e r s p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; forms such "common s e n s e " r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e p i e c e s as c o m p a r i s o n , c o n t r a s t , a n a l o g y , d e f i n i t i o n , t i m e sequence, e n u m e r a t i o n , and a n a l y s i s ; t h e n s y n t h e s i z e s a t h e s i s o r o p i n i o n f r o m t h e s e . C e n t r a l t o i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n i s t h e i d e a t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l p i e c e s o f p r o s e a r e o p i n i o n a b l e i n n a t u r e , and t h a t t h e p r o c e s s d e f i n e d above i s a l s o a means of d i s c o v e r i n g , a n a l y z i n g , and p r e s e n t i n g one's own o p i n i o n s i n w r i t i n g : o f r e a l i z i n g , i n e f f e c t , t h a t w r i t i n g i s n o t j u s t a t o o l f o r c o n v e y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . My f i r s t c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s p r i m a r i l y t h e o r i g i n s and p r i n c i p l e s of e x p o s i t i o n up t o t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The second and t h i r d c h a p t e r s w i l l t r a c e t h e development of e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n as "forms of d i s c o u r s e " i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t h e e a r l y t o m i d - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between them i n t e x t s r e s u l t s f rom a g e n e r a l f a i l u r e t o put i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s i n t o p r a c t i c e . C h a p t e r F o u r w i l l examine s e v e r a l modern t h e o r i e s about argument and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t e a c h i n g c o m p o s i t i o n , w h i l e t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l e v a l u a t e r e c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t of how t h e y t r e a t e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n and w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h an o u t l i n e p r o p o s i n g how we can t e a c h w r i t i n g f r o m an i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e f o u n d a t i o n . I . The F o u n d a t i o n s of I n f o r m a l A r g u m e n t a t i o n 3 To t r a c e t h e development of e x p o s i t i o n , we need f i r s t t o l o o k a t how and why r h e t o r i c i a n s (Adam S m i t h and George C a m p b e l l , s p e c i f i c a l l y ) r e s p o nded t o t h e need, c r i t i c a l by t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f o r ways of communicating new knowledge g a i n e d t h r o u g h e m p i r i c a l methods t o q u i c k l y - e x p a n d i n g l e a r n e d and g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e s . ^ E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e s e two f i g u r e s were t h e f i r s t t o a t t e m p t t o p e r f e c t e m p i r i c a l methods f o r r h e t o r i c . We s h a l l see how S m i t h ' s n a r r a t i v e and d i d a c t i c d i s c o u r s e , and C a m p b e l l ' s s y s t e m r o o t e d i n m e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , l i n k w r i t i n g w i t h r e a s o n ; t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of and c o n n e c t i o n s between f a c t s form the arguments by w h i c h one b o t h c r e a t e s and p r o v e s a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o r p r i n c i p l e . No one would deny t h a t t h i s s o r t o f r e a s o n i n g i s of major i m p o r t a n c e i n modern e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g . S m i t h and C a m p b e l l a t t e m p t e d t o r e a n i m a t e r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e w i t h new t o o l s o f r e a s o n i n g t h a t , i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , had a l r e a d y become de r i g e u r f o r t h e s c i e n c e s . A v e r y b r i e f l o o k a t t h e s t a t e of l o g i c and r h e t o r i c b e f o r e t h e b i r t h o f t h e New L o g i c w i l l h i g h l i g h t how f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e means of i n q u i r y changed i n s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y . Up u n t i l t h e m i d d l e of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r h e t o r i c i a n s as w e l l as l o g i c i a n s r e l i e d m a i n l y on d e d u c t i v e o r s c h o l a s t i c r e a s o n i n g t o a r r i v e a t t r u t h ; t h e emphasis i n i n q u i r y was on t h e p r o p e r c o n c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n of propo-s i t i o n s , and t h e i r a n a l y s i s a g a i n s t e s t a b l i s h e d t r u t h s t o p r o v e t h e i r v e r a c i t y . A f t e r 1555, P e t e r Ramus's i n c i s i v e r e m o v a l o f i n v e n t i o n and arrangement from r h e t o r i c t o t h e r e a l m of l o g i c a c c o m p l i s h e d two t h i n g s : i t s i m p l i f i e d l o g i c but d i d n o t change i t s s c h o l a s t i c emphasis, and i t l e f t r h e t o r i c w i t h s t y l e , memory, and d e l i v e r y o n l y , s k i l l s w i t h l i t t l e s u b s t a n c e t o s u p p o r t them.2 R h e t o r i c was n o t t o be r e u n i t e d w i t h a method of r e a s o n i n g u n t i l a f t e r the r a p i d b i r t h and b u r g e o n i n g of t h e new l o g i c o f Rene D e s c a r t e s , F r a n c i s Bacon, and 4 J o h n L o c k e . By t h i s t i m e , i t had become i m p e r a t i v e t h a t r h e t o r i c r e s p o n d t o and be a b l e t o w i e l d t h i s new l o g i c ; i t s o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e would have been t o l o s e a l t o g e t h e r i t s r e m a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e i n t h e a r e a o f e t h i c s . However, b e f o r e e x a m i n i n g how S m i t h and C a m p b e l l r e c o g n i z e d t h i s need, we must n o t e w h i c h a s p e c t s of t h e new l o g i c t h e y saw as most i m p o r t a n t t o r h e t o r i c . The o l d l o g i c , o r s c h o l a s t i c i s m , saw t r u t h as d i s c o v e r a b l e c h i e f l y t h r o u g h t h e t e s t i n g o f new p r o p o s i t i o n s a g a i n s t e s t a b l i s h e d ones. D e s c a r t e s , Bacon, and L o c k e ( g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as t h e " i n v e n t o r s " of t h e new l o g i c and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s t o i n q u i r y ) d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s y s t e m a t i c e x a m i n a t i o n of one's own e x p e r i e n c e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d i n g t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of p r o p o s i t i o n s was t h e s o l e means o f d i s c o v e r i n g new knowledge. Rene D e s c a r t e s ' D i s c o u r s e on Method (1637) was i n t e n d e d t o e x p r e s s one man's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s c h o l a s t i c l o g i c , and P a r t Two c o n t a i n s one o f h i s s t r o n g e s t s t a t e m e n t s on t h i s s u b j e c t : - ' . . . b u i l d i n g s p l a n n e d and e x e c u t e d by a s i n g l e a r c h i t e c t a r e u s u a l l y more b e a u t i f u l and b e t t e r p r o p o r t i o n e d t h a n t h o s e w h i c h o t h e r s have a t t e m p t e d t o improve. . . .Thus I came t o t h i n k t h a t t h e s c i e n c e s f ound i n books, a t l e a s t t h o s e whose r e a s o n i n g s a r e made up m a i n l y o f p l a u s i b l e arguments and y i e l d no d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , b u i l t up, as t h e y a r e , l i t t l e by l i t t l e , f r om t h e o p i n i o n s of many d i f f e r e n t c o n t r i b u t o r s , do n o t g e t so n ear t h e t r u t h as t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n i n g s w h i c h a man o f good s e n s e , making use of h i s n a t u r a l powers, can c a r r y o u t . . . D e s c a r t e s proposed an a l t e r a t i v e t o t h e numerous p r e c e p t s o f s c h o l a s t i c l o g i c , b u t emphasized t h a t h i s " f o u r r u l e s f o r r e a s o n i n g " a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y s u i t e d t o a l l i n t e l l i g e n c e s . H i s modest hope, a i r e d i n P a r t One, was t h a t t h i s method " w i l l be of some use t o some p e o p l e . " The f i r s t r u l e i s " t o a c c e p t n o t h i n g as t r u e w h i c h I d i d n o t e v i d e n t l y know t o be s u c h " ; h i s second r e q u i r e s t h e d i v i s i o n i n t o p a r t s , o r a n a l y s i s , of a p r o b l e m "as may be r e q u i r e d f o r i t s adequate s o l u t i o n " ; the t h i r d c a l l s f o r a r r a n g i n g t h o u g h t s i n an o r d e r b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e s i m p l e s t , and b u i l d i n g up t o t h e more complex; and t h e f o u r t h , " t o make enu m e r a t i o n s so c o m p l e t e , and r e v i e w s so g e n e r a l , t h a t I s h o u l d be a s s u r e d of 5 o m i t t i n g n o t h i n g . " F o r t h e purpose o f e x a m i n i n g r h e t o r i c ' s l a t e r a d o p t i o n o f t h e new l o g i c , t h e c r i t i c a l r u l e i s t h e t h i r d : a method o f i n q u i r y c a l l i n g i n l a r g e p a r t f o r i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g . T h i s r u l e can be s a i d t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e b a s i c f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e new l o g i c and, c o n c e r n i n g w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e , a c o r n e r s t o n e o f i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n . Not much e a r l i e r t h a n D e s c a r t e s , F r a n c i s Bacon had w r i t t e n The D i g n i t y and  Advancement of L e a r n i n g ( 1 6 0 5 ) , e s s e n t i a l l y a propaganda p i e c e f o r James I e x t o l l i n g t h e v a l u e o f p h i l o s o p h y and t h e s c i e n c e s and t h e need f o r f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n t o them. Bacon c o n t r i b u t e d as much t o t h e C a r t e s i a n f o u n d a t i o n , as he d i d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a new u n i v e r s a l method o f i n q u i r y . C r i t i c i z i n g e x i s t i n g methods of i n q u i r y and c a l l i n g f o r a new one, Bacon promoted i n The  Advancement of L e a r n i n g h i s own novum organum as t h e " g e n u i n e . . .method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g n a t u r e " — n o C a r t e s i a n p r e t e n s i o n s o f modesty e i t h e r i n t e n d e d o r f o r t h c o m i n g . ^ Bacon a l l o w e d t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n c e "might be j u s t l y formed by t h e common i n d u c t i o n , o r by sense and e x p e r i e n c e . . . t h e r e i s everywhere a n e c e s s i t y f o r e m p l o y i n g a ge n u i n e and c o r r e c t i n d u c t i o n , as w e l l i n t h e more g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , as i n t h e i n f e r i o r p r o p o s i t i o n s " (Book F i v e , Ch. 2 ) . F o r Bacon, n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , o r " t h e works and a r t s o f n a t u r e , " s u p p l i e d t h e b e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r such a method of g a i n i n g new knowledge. He saw n a t u r a l h i s t o r y as "a c o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s f o r a j u s t and s o l i d i n d u c t i o n , whereon p h i l o s o p h y i s t o be grounded" (Book Two, Ch. 3 ) . We can now see t h a t Bacon was not i n t e r e s t e d m e r e l y i n p r o p o s i n g new l o g i c f o r c e r t a i n i s o l a t e d , p e r s e v e r i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e s ; anyone w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s , he c h a l l e n g e d , must make use o f i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , t h e f r u i t " o f t h e mind o f i t s own n a t u r a l m o t i o n " (Book F i v e , Ch. 2 ) : t h e u n i v e r s a l means by w h i c h a l l men s h o u l d d i s c o v e r a l l t r u t h s . 6 We s h o u l d a l s o n o t e t h a t Bacon saw t h e need f o r b r o a d e n i n g t h e scope o f r h e t o r i c , a l t h o u g h h i s s u g g e s t i o n s were n o t t a k e n up u n t i l t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F i r s t , he e s t a b l i s h e d r h e t o r i c a s a g e n e r a l a r t o f co m m u n i c a t i o n , n o t m e r e l y l i m i t e d t o p e r s u a s i o n ; second, he l a i d groundwork f o r t h e f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y t h a t C a m p b e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y , w o u l d see as c e n t r a l t o d i s c o u r s e . Bacon th e p s y c h o l o g i s t d i v i d e d t h e mind i n t o compartments: t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e a s o n of w h i c h l o g i c t r e a t s ; and t h e a p p e t i t e , a f f e c t i o n s , and w i l l w i t h w h i c h e t h i c s d e a l s . He says Reason t r a n s m i t s s e l e c t and approved n o t i o n s t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n b e f o r e t h e d e c r e e i s e x e c u t e d : f o r i m a g i n a t i o n a l w a y s p r e c e d e s and e x c i t e s v o l u n t a r y m o t i o n s , and i s t h e r e f o r e a common i n s t r u m e n t , b o t h t o t h e r e a s o n and t h e w i l l . . .(Book F i v e , Ch. 1 ) . A t t h e same t i m e , Bacon t h e r h e t o r i c i a n saw t h a t a r t as "but t o a p p l y and recommend t h e d i c t a t e s o f r e a s o n t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o e x c i t e t h e a f f e c t i o n s and w i l l , " o r t o " f i l l t h e i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h s u c h o b s e r v a t i o n s and images as may a s s i s t r e a s o n , and not o v e r t h r o w i t " (Book S i x , Ch. 3 ) . I t was f o r t h a t r e a s o n p r i m a r i l y t h a t Bacon i n d i g n a n t l y r e f u t e d P l a t o ' s c l a i m i n t h e G o r g i a s t h a t r h e t o r i c , l i k e c o o k e r y , i s mere f l a t t e r y . He i n s t e a d c o n c e i v e d o f r h e t o r i c as a v e h i c l e f o r communication o f a l l k i n d s , f u e l e d ( i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t ) w i t h t h e a r t o f r e a s o n i n g I n d u c t i v e l y . Bacon a l s o emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h u s a l s o l a y i n g e s s e n t i a l groundwork f o r S m i t h ' s p r i n c i p l e s o f o b j e c t i v i t y and f a c t u a l i t y i n d i s c o u r s e : h a l l m a r k s o f modern e x p o s i t i o n . Y e t n o t even t h e bounteous Advancement of L e a r n i n g enumerates p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h c o u l d h e l p s p e a k e r s o r w r i t e r s communicate t h e m a t e r i a l w h i c h Bacon i n s i s t e d b e l o n g e d t o r h e t o r i c . R h e t o r i c as a p o t e n t i a l v e h i c l e f o r communicating t r u t h was s t i l l a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t , and John L o c k e ' s E s s a y C o n c e r n i n g Human U n d e r s t a n d i n g (1690) c o n t i n u e d t o b u i l d on t h i s c o n s t r u c t by f o c u s i n g i n d e t a i l on t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e mind, and t h e o r i g i n s and development o f i d e a s t h r o u g h i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g . P e r h a p s , t o o , S m i t h and Campbell owe t h e i r g r e a t e s t debt t o 7 t h i s work. F o r L o c k e ' s a n a l y s i s of t h e mind paved t h e way f o r S m i t h ' s a n a l y s e s o f t h o s e o b j e c t s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e mind and how t h e y do s o , and C a m p b e l l ' s v i e w s on how c e r t a i n ways o f t h i n k i n g a r e m a n i f e s t e d i n v a r i o u s ends o f d i s c o u r s e . F i r s t and f u n d a m e n t a l l y , L o c k e r e j e c t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t a l l humans a r e b o r n knowing c e r t a i n u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s , p r e s e n t i n g what was t h e n d e v a s t a t i n g p r o o f : "Are t h e r e n o t whole n a t i o n s . . .amongst whom i s n o t t o be f o u n d so much as t h e n o t i o n s o f a d e i t y , w i t h o u t w h i c h i t i s h a r d t o i m a g i n e any l a w o r r u l e o f o u r a c t i o n s o r p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ? " ^ L o c k e n o t o n l y s a n c t i o n e d t h e C a r t e s i a n v i e w t h a t a l l new knowledge i s founded on e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n , but a l s o c h i p p e d away f u r t h e r a t t h e c r u m b l i n g f o u n d a t i o n o f s c h o l a s t i c and s y l l o g i s t i c l o g i c . F o r m o r a l l a w s , L o c k e d e m o n s t r a t e d , as w e l l as our way of a c q u i r i n g knowledge, a r e founded i n d u c t i v e l y . The o l d l o g i c i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r f o r m i n g such l a w s ; i t can o n l y r a t i o n a l i z e them. (Nor was L o c k e t h e l a s t p h i l o s o p h e r / r h e t o r -i c i a n t o condemn th e s y l l o g i s m as a f o r m o f r e a s o n i n g . C a m p b e l l would echo t h i s a t t a c k a c e n t u r y l a t e r . ) " A l l knowledge," L o c k e s t a t e d , " i s founded on and u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e s i t s e l f f r o m e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n employed e i t h e r about e x t e r n a l s e n s i b l e o b j e c t s , or t h e i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n s of our minds p e r c e i v e d by o u r s e l v e s " ( S e c t i o n 1 7 ) . E x t e r n a l o b j e c t s ( s e n s a t i o n s ) and t h e i n t e r n a l sense make up t h e e n t i r e t y of L o c k e ' s " s i m p l e i d e a s " ; t h e s e i d e a s , p r o c e s s e d by t h e f a c u l t i e s of p e r c e p t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , d i s c e r n m e n t , d e n o m i n a t i o n , and c o m p a r i s o n t h r o u g h e x t e n s i o n ( d e g r e e ) and number, i n t u r n g e n e r a t e a l l new knowledge. Not c o n t e n t t o s a y , l i k e D e s c a r t e s , t h a t one has t h e o p t i o n of r e a s o n i n g c o n s c i o u s l y i n an i n d u c t i v e way, L o c k e assumed t h a t a l l n o r m a l humans must r e a s o n i n d u c t i v e l y by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e s . T h i s n a t u r a l r e a s o n i n g p r o g r e s s e s from s e n s a t i o n s , t o s i m p l e i d e a s , t o c o l l e c t i o n s of s i m p l e i d e a s , t o r e l a t i o n s between s i m p l e i d e a s , and t h e n t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o r " t r u t h s . " 8 Locke's conception of the r e l a t i o n s between simple ideas has i t s antecedents i n A r i s t o t l e ' s common topoi. Degree, cause and e f f e c t , and time are, f o r Locke, "places" located i n the mind, tools to help process sense data. He c a l l e d such r e l a t i o n s "complex ideas." Again, we can see how t h i s view of mental l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s broadens into a view of them that includes t h e i r s p e c i f i c uses as ways of r e l a t i n g ideas i n w r i t i n g . In f a c t , one of the many benevolent by-products of Locke's work was h i s inadvertent returning of the topoi to rhetoric's domain: inadvertent because Locke was not s p e c i f i c a l l y a r h e t o r i c i a n . But he recognized the f a c t that humans must not only make sense of t h e i r own ideas, but also communicate them to others i n ways that help imbue them with meaning. Among these ways, or patterns, i s d e f i n i t i o n (denomination) of simple and complex ideas, bringing about "affirmations" of those ideas (Section 63). Denomination serves both to name our own experiences and ideas, and to name those we communicate to others through the use of language. Locke expressed a fundamental problem of language philosophy when he stated that the names "that stand for complex ideas are f u l l of uncertainty" (Section 63), a problem become paradox by the f a c t that our only way of communicating complex ideas i s to name or define them. Yet Locke hoped that a man could form a "perfect" complex idea, "and such a man may speak properly, define p e r f e c t l y and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , and by defining give a perfect account of the nature of that sort of things" (Section 87a). Such a perfect d e f i n i t i o n would have to r e l y on flawless inductive reasoning, a condition he and others believed not to be impossible to f u l f i l l within the realm of science. Adam Smith, p a r t i c u l a r l y , t r i e d to infuse r h e t o r i c with t h i s kind of l o g i c and thus help speakers and writers communicate not only s c i e n t i f i c but e t h i c a l issues as "properly" and " p e r f e c t l y " as Locke could wish. Wilbur Samuel Howell, analyzing Smith's work, divides h i s lectures (given i n Edinburgh from 1748-50) into two general categories: communication, wherein r h e t o r i c becomes the " t h e o r e t i c a l instrument" for a l l communication of ideas; and 9 forms o f d i s c o u r s e , o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e " s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f a l l t h e d i s -c o u r s e s w h i c h i d e a s p r o d u c e . W h e n one can t h i n k o f d i s c o u r s e as c o m m u n i c a t i v e , and o f i t s forms as t h e v e h i c l e s by w h i c h communications move from w r i t e r t o r e a d e r , t h e n an e q u a l s i m p l i c i t y o f s t y l e , t h o u g h t , and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a d i s c o u r s e n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s , a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o S m i t h . Smith's L e c t u r e s on R h e t o r i c and B e l l e s L e t t r e s e x e m p l i f y t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f s i m p l i c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a r r a t i v e , t h e d i d a c t i c , and t h e o r a t o r i c a l forms o f d i s c o u r s e . ^ Over them r e i g n s one g e n e r a l r u l e : "Every d i s c o u r s e p r o p o s e s e i t h e r b a r e l y t o r e l a t e some f a c t o r t o p r o v e some p r o p o s i t i o n " ( 5 8 ) . The n a r r a t i v e o r h i s t o r i c a l form, though, d i f f e r s f r o m t h e d i d a c t i c and o r a t o r i c a l by v i r t u e o f c o n t a i n i n g m e r e l y t h e p r o p o s i t i o n and not the p r o o f : "the h i s t o r i a n . . . a c t s as i f he were an I m p a r t i a l n a r r a t o r o f t h e f a c t s " ( 3 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o S m i t h , n a r r a t i v e w r i t i n g seeks m e r e l y t o i n s t r u c t the r e a d e r , t o l a y out f a c t s i n p a r t i c u l a r ways: e x t e r n a l f a c t s o r o b j e c t s , o r t h o s e w h i c h t a k e p l a c e i n our minds (and we see L o c k e ' s i n f l u e n c e o v e r S m i t h ' s ways of d e a l i n g w i t h o b j e c t s ) . E x t e r n a l f a c t s must be d e s c r i b e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n -d i r e c t l y , t h e l a t t e r by t h e e f f e c t t h e y have on t h o s e who p e r c e i v e them; w h i l e i n t e r n a l f a c t s , much more d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e d i r e c t l y , s h o u l d i n s t e a d be a t t r i b u t e d t o d e s c r i b e d e x t e r n a l c a u s e s o r i n t e r n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s ( 5 8 - 6 2 ) . What t h i s means f o r d i s c o u r s e i s t h a t a l l f o r m s , even p o e t r y , a r e founded f i r s t on t h i s t r e a t m e n t o f f a c t s ; t o at t e m p t t o d e l i n e a t e t h e forms as d i f f e r i n g i n t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c becomes i n t h i s l i g h t a f u t i l e e x e r c i s e , o r so S m i t h i m p l i e s . Of c o u r s e , t h e absence i n h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g o f what S m i t h c a l l s " p r o o f " i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d i f f e r i n g aims and o c c a s i o n s , between t h i s f o r m o f w r i t i n g and t h e o t h e r s . Y e t S m i t h n e v e r d e f i n e s e x a c t l y what he means by " p r o o f . " We can assume, though, t h a t i t f i r s t r e l a t e s c l o s e l y t o t h e degree o f b i a s o r emo t i o n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e e v i d e n c e i n a d i s c o u r s e , e i t h e r f o r good o r i l l . F o r S m i t h a l s o s t a t e s t h a t a h i s t o r i a n " s e t s h i m s e l f up t o compare t h e 10 e v i d e n c e t h a t i s b r o u g h t f o r t h e p r o o f . . .assuming t h e c h a r a c t e r of a d i d a c t i c w r i t e r " f r o m t i m e t o t i m e ( 8 5 ) . Because t h e c o n c e p t o f e v i d e n c e , o r f a c t s , u n d e r l i e s a l l forms of w r i t i n g f o r S m i t h , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e f a c t s ( p r o o f ) d e t e r m i n e s whether a p i e c e of w r i t i n g i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y n a r r a t i v e , d i d a c t i c , o r o r a t o r i c a l . A w r i t e r , t h e n , changes t h e arrangement o f f a c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e aim and o c c a s i o n o f t h e d i s c o u r s e I n q u e s t i o n . Smith's d i d a c t i c w r i t i n g " p u t s f o r t h arguments i n t h e i r t r u e l i g h t , . . .the arguments t h e m s e l v e s a r e c o n v i n c i n g " ( 5 8 ) . I have a l r e a d y shown how b o t h n a r r a t i v e and d i d a c t i c d i s c o u r s e depend on a f o u n d a t i o n of f a c t s f o r t h e i r s t r u c t u r e . The aim of i n s t r u c t i n g t h e r e a d e r l i n k s t h e s e two forms as w e l l , f o r S m i t h s t a t e s t h a t b o t h forms s h a r e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r end. I n f a c t , " t h e r u l e s we have a l r e a d y g i v e n w i t h r e g a r d t o n a r r a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n w i l l , w i t h a few a l t e r a t i o n s , be e a s i l y accommodated t o t h i s s p e c i e s [ d i d a c t i c ] a l s o " ( 1 1 3 ) . One o f t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f p r o o f o r some degree o f b i a s ; t h e p r o o f may e i t h e r be a " s t r i c t one, a p p l i e d t o our r e a s o n and sound judgement," f o r d i d a c t i c d i s c o u r s e , o r one w h i c h by a f f e c t i n g t h e p a s s i o n s "persuades us a t any r a t e " ( 8 4 - 5 ) . S m i t h i s c a r e f u l t o emphasize t h e " o b j e c t i v e " n a t u r e o f d i d a c t i c p r o s e , however: When th e d e s i g n i s t o s e t t h e c a s e i n t h e c l e a r e s t l i g h t , t o g i v e e v e r y argument i t s due f o r c e , and by t h i s means pers u a d e us no f u r t h e r t h a n our u n b i a s s e d judgement i s c o n v i n c e d , t h a t i s n o t to make use of t h e o r a t o r i c a l s t y l e ( 8 4 ) . Y e t S m i t h may have g r u d g i n g l y a d m i t t e d t h a t even t h e most u n e m o t i o n a l p r o o f c o n t a i n s some b i a s because c e r t a i n f a c t s have been s e l e c t e d by t h e w r i t e r f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n o v e r o t h e r f a c t s (an i d e a w h i c h would w a i t f o r Chaim P e r e l m a n t o d e v e l o p more f u l l y i n The New R h e t o r i c , 1 9 6 9 ) . H i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e forms seems a l m o s t u n n e c e s s a r y when t h e i r g r e a t e s t d i s t i n c t i o n i s between degrees of o v e r t p e r s u a s i o n . And n e i t h e r t h e n a r r a t i v e n o r t h e d i d a c t i c f o r m s , though t h e y a r e a r g u m e n t a t i v e i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y t r e a t of f a c t s and t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n , 11 are ov e r t l y persuasive. By that c r i t e r i o n the two forms are s t r u c t u r a l l y linked. Fundamental to Smith's treatment of d i d a c t i c discourse i s the theme of s i m p l i c i t y , both of structure and s t y l e (he uses the terms "form" and " s t y l e " interchangeably). He c a l l s the d i d a c t i c "more simple than ei t h e r d e l i b e r a t i v e or j u d i c i a l " discourse i n terms of structure (136), and lays out two possible ways of arranging i t . The more inductive A r i s t o t e l i a n method involves the discussion of several subjects and the giving of a p r i n c i p l e f o r each phenomenon, whereas the Newtonian method lays down c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s , "primary or proved, i n the beginning, from whence we account f o r several phenomena, connecting a l l together." The l a t t e r , says Smith, i s "undoubtedly the most p h i l o s o p h i c a l . . . va s t l y more ingenious and more engaging than the other" (139-40). Here we can note an overt attempt to f u r n i s h d i d a c t i c and narrative discourse with c e r t a i n tools used by the new l o g i c : the aim and occasion Smith has i n mind i s s c i e n t i f i c communication. Smith's forms of wr i t i n g were h i s response to the new, "more simple," l o g i c of the times, a l o g i c of synthesis rather than primarily of a n a l y s i s , as Howell puts i t (563). Both the narrative and d i d a c t i c forms represent basic ways of thinking about and st r u c t u r i n g prose; they are not merely s k i l l s replacing a theory, but manifestations of a theory. In short, Smith's na r r a t i v e discourse i s s t i l l the foundation, i n many respects, f o r modern expository w r i t i n g : enumeration and d e s c r i p t i o n of objects or facts; o b j e c t i v i t y ; unity through time, place, and cause and e f f e c t ; and s i m p l i c i t y of d i c t i o n . Yet Smith's concept of d i d a c t i c discourse l i n k s "objective" and highly s p e c i a l i z e d exposition to more argumentative, or more general, aims and occasions f o r discourse. Given that Smith saw narrative discourse as a non-persuasive form well suited for transmitting facts to a learned audience, then we can also see Smith acknowledg-ing, through d i d a c t i c discourse, the need f o r a les s s p e c i a l i z e d , more f l e x i b l e form to communicate both fac t s and t h e i r humanistic contexts to audiences needing 12 t o be c o n v i n c e d as w e l l as i n f o r m e d . S m i t h n e v e r i n t e n d e d t h a t v a r i o u s a i m s , o c c a s i o n s , and arrangments of f a c t s i n d i s c o u r s e s h o u l d d e g e n e r a t e i n t o d i s c r e t e s k i l l s o f w r i t i n g . E v e n Campbell's more u n i f i e d p h i l o s o p h y o f r h e t o r i c , w h i c h would i n i t s r e s p o n s e t o t h e new l o g i c so g r e a t l y complement and u p h o l d S m i t h ' s p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , was l a t e r t o be m i s a p p l i e d i n a s i m i l a r way. But u n l i k e S m i t h , who makes a p o i n t o f p a r i n g r h e t o r i c down, a l m o s t R a m u s - l i k e , t o a b a r e minimum of p r a c t i c a l p r e c e p t s , George C a m p b e l l emphasized a more h o l i s t i c t h e o r y of r h e t o r i c . ^ One of t h e p r i m e p u r p o s e s o f h i s P h i l o s o p h y o f R h e t o r i c (1776) was t o e s t a b l i s h r h e t o r i c , o r e l o q u e n c e , as " i n d e e d t h e grand a r t o f communication, n o t o f i d e a s o n l y , but of s e n t i m e n t s , p a s s i o n s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and p u r p o s e s . " ^ C a m p b e l l saw how c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e human mind c o u l d g i v e r i s e t o c e r t a i n ways and k i n d s o f co m m u n i c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , he saw e l o q u e n c e as an a r t , b o t h " p o l i t e " and " u s e f u l " ( x l i x ) , w h i c h " i s founded i n s c i e n c e . . . .There i s . . .a n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n between t h e s c i e n c e s and t h e a r t s " ( x l v ) . E l o q u e n c e , i n C a m p b e l l ' s system, g i v e n a l o g i c and a methodology based on t h a t o f t h e new l o g i c , would t h e n l i n k t h e a r t s and s c i e n c e s by o p e n i n g up co m m u n i c a t i o n of a l l t h o u g h t s p e r t a i n i n g t o a l l d i s c i p l i n e s . Such was Ca m p b e l l ' s dream. He saw as v i t a l l y n e c e s s a r y , t h e n , t h e s y s t e m i z a t i o n o f e l o q u e n c e , i t s p r i n c i p l e s f u l l y e x p l a i n e d i n terms of " t h e s c i e n c e of man" o r human n a t u r e . Not c o n t e n t m e r e l y t o e x p l o r e " p r a c t i c a l r h e t o r i c , " C a m p b e l l c o n d u c t e d a l o g i c a l , i n d e e d s c i e n t i f i c , i n q u i r y i n t o what i t i s t h a t g i v e s r i s e t o s u c h c o n c e p t s , o r what c a u s e s d i f f e r i n g ways and forms of w r i t i n g . Of f i r s t i m p o r t a n c e t o us i s C a m p b e l l ' s v i e w of any d i s c o u r s e as a l i v i n g t h i n g , an o r g a n c o n s t a n t l y g r o w i n g and c h a n g i n g , depending on t h e w r i t e r ' s p u r p o s e o r "end." These ends, a c c o r d i n g t o C a m p b e l l , a r e f o u r : t o e n l i g h t e n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o p l e a s e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , t o move t h e p a s s i o n s , and t o i n f l u e n c e t h e w i l l ; any d i s c o u r s e can i n c o r p o r a t e more t h a n one end, but o n l y one w i l l 13 emerge as p r i n c i p a l . L i n k i n g t h e s e ends i s a h i e r a r c h y o f m e n t a l f a c u l t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s , each " p r e c e d i n g s p e c i e s " g i v i n g r i s e t o t h e n e x t h i g h e s t , so t h a t "knowledge. . . f u r n i s h e t h m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e f a n c y ; the f a n c y c u l l s , compounds, and, by h e r mimic a r t , d i s p o s e s t h e s e m a t e r i a l s so as t h e a f f e c t t h e p a s s i o n s ; t h e p a s s i o n s a r e t h e n a t u r a l s p u r s t o v o l i t i o n o r a c t i o n " ( p . 2 ) . However o v e r s i m p l i f i e d h i s (and o t h e r f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g i s t s ' ) p i c t u r e o f t h e mind may be, C a m p b e l l c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e s , as d i d h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s D a v i d Hume and D a v i d H a r t l e y , t h e i m p o r t a n c e of l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i v e s o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e mind, and of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o emotions f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c o n v i n c i n g o r p e r s u a d i n g an a u d i e n c e . ^ U n d e r s t a n d i n g , s a y s C a m p b e l l , b e g i n s w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s , o r " t h o s e t h i n g s . . . f r o m w h i c h a l l of our knowledge of f a c t i s g e n e r a t e d . " N e x t , we a c q u i r e knowledge more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y by " d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r s " and t h e n by i n f e r e n c e f r o m p a r t i c u l a r s t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e . C a m p b e l l ' s debt t o L o c k e ' s development of i d e a s f o r t h e p urposes of communication i s o b v i o u s h e r e . A l s o , l i k e S m i t h , C a m p b e l l sees o u r p e r c e p t i o n and m e n t a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f o b j e c t s o r f a c t s as a c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e i n w r i t i n g , a g a i n a c k n o w l e d g i n g r h e t o r i c ' s need f o r a s c i e n t i f i c , p r i m a r i l y i n d u c t i v e , method f o r s p e a k i n g and w r i t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , f o r C a m p b e l l , e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r l i e s l o g i c a l r h e t o r i c a l p r o o f and s u p p l i e s m a t e r i a l s needed t o c o n v i n c e and p e r s u a d e an a u d i e n c e . I n f e r e n c e s o r i d e a s t h u s formed must, however, c o n n e c t t o each o t h e r i n o r d e r t o make sense b o t h t o t h e w r i t e r and t o t h e a u d i e n c e . C a m p b e l l enumerates r e s e m b l a n c e , c o n t i g u i t y of t i m e , and c a u s a t i o n as t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l k i n d s o f c o n n e c t i o n s between p e r c e p t i o n s ( w i t h c a u s a t i o n r e l a t i n g t h r o u g h i n f e r e n c e most d i r e c t l y t o e x p e r i e n c e — x x i i - x x i i i ) . Making c l e a r c o n n e c t i o n s between p e r c e p t i o n s and i d e a s c o n s t i t u t e s f o r C a m p b e l l t h e c h i e f means o f a p p e a l i n g p r i m a r i l y b u t n o t s o l e l y t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( x x i x ) , f o r a p p e a l i n g t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s o n l y t h e f i r s t s t e p i n v i r t u a l l y a l l k i n d s of d i s c o u r s e , C a m p b e l l e m p h a s i z e s . O n l y one aim f o r 14 d i s c o u r s e " d i s d a i n s a l l a s s i s t a n c e w h a t e v e r f r o m t h e f a n c y . . . m a t h e m a t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n " ( 2 - 3 ) . A l l o t h e r aims l a c k t h a t extreme k i n d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h makes i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e w r i t e r t o i n s t i l l a t l e a s t some degree o f c o n v i c t i o n i n t h e a u d i e n c e . To do s o , a w r i t e r t u r n s t o e x p e r i e n c e , a n a l o g y , t e s t i m o n y , o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f c hances ( a g a i n , r e f i n e m e n t s of t h e t o p o i ) , and f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s makes l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s between d i s c r e t e i d e a s . A l s o , i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e a u d i e n c e ' s sense of judgment, one must c o n n e c t t h e d e s i r e d c o n d u c t of t h e a u d i e n c e t o t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r d e s i r e s ( 2 7 5 ) . I n o t h e r words, C a m p b e l l acknowledges t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e aim of c o n v i c t i o n i n v i r t u a l l y a l l d i s c o u r s e , and acknowledges t h e w r i t e r ' s need t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s aim. C o n v i c t i o n i s t h e "avowed p u r p o s e " o f d i s c o u r s e a d d r e s s e d t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h a t i n f l u e n c i n g t h e w i l l ; the l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s b u i l d i n g c o n v i c t i o n a p p l y e q u a l l y t o b o t h . I n t h i s sense c o n v i c t i o n , f o r C a m p b e l l , appears synonymous w i t h argument or t h e t r e a t m e n t of f a c t s . C l e a r l y , C a m p b e l l i s t h e f i r s t r h e t o r i c i a n t o propose i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n as a s t r u c t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r g e n e r a l aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e . F o r he t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c h o i c e o f f a c t s and t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between them; t h e awareness of how aim and o c c a s i o n d e t e r m i n e t h e s e c h o i c e s ; and t h e b u i l d i n g of a t h e s i s by i n d u c t i o n and i n f e r e n c e . T h i s p r o c e s s — i n v o l v i n g d i s c o u r s e as a v e h i c l e w h i c h must p r o v e some new d i s c o v e r y — a l s o forms t h e l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r C a m p b e l l ' s ends of d i s c o u r s e , and f o r h i s e n t i r e p h i l o s o p h y of r h e t o r i c . To g a i n " b a r e l y t h e a s s e n t o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g " i s n o t n e a r l y as I m p o r t a n t f r o m a m o r a l s t a n d p o i n t as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e w i l l t o a c t i o n o r r e a d i n e s s f o r a c t i o n ( 5 - 6 ) . I n f o r m i n g an a u d i e n c e may be a l l v e r y w e l l , C a m p b e l l i m p l i e s , but " i n o r d e r t o c o n v i n c e me by t h e s e arguments, t h e y must be u n d e r s t o o d . . . a t t e n d e d t o . . .remembered by me. . .They may, as i t were, be f e l t " ( 7 3 - 4 ) . I n p r a c t i s e , v e r y l i t t l e d i s c o u r s e i s unaccompanied by what C a m p b e l l c a l l s v i v a c i t y , r e a s o n c o n j o i n e d w i t h f e e l i n g t o p r o d u c e b e l i e f . Thus, 15 a f o r m o f r e a s o n i n g based on e x p e r i e n c e , i n f e r e n c e , and i n d u c t i o n , b l e n d e d w i t h e m o t i o n , " c o n s t i t u t e s t h a t vehemence o f c o n t e n t i o n , t o w h i c h t h e g r e a t e s t e x p l o i t s o f e l o q u e n c e ought d o u b t l e s s t o be a s c r i b e d . . . .Thus p a s s i o n i s t h e mover t o a c t i o n , r e a s o n I s the g u i d e " ( 7 7 - 8 ) . Bacon's i n f l u e n c e i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g h e r e i n t h a t r e a s o n and p a s s i o n a r e seen as complementary, n o t c o n t r a -d i c t o r y , i n r h e t o r i c . C a m p b e l l ' s u n i t y o f r e a s o n and p a s s i o n , o f t r u t h and goodness, combined w i t h i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g f r o m p e r c e p t i o n s t o c o n n e c t e d i d e a s , c o n s t i t u t e s f o r r h e t o r i c a r e u n i o n w i t h l o g i c and e t h i c a l p u r p o s e . ^ I n terms o f c o m p o s i t i o n , C a m p b e l l does n o t p r e s e n t us w i t h as c l e a r - c u t a s e t of p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s as does S m i t h . But h i s methodology i s c l e a r l y f l e x i b l e enough t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y w r i t i n g t h a t a p p e a l s p r i m a r i l y t o a s p e c i a l i z e d , l e a r n e d a u d i e n c e , but a l s o t o a l e s s k n o w l e d g e a b l e o r more s c e p t i c a l one. I n o t h e r words, he e x t e n d s i n t o t h e r e a l m o f e v e r y d a y c o m m unication a l o g i c t h a t a p p l i e s t o " e v e r y d a y " s i t u a t i o n s , and p r o p o s e s t h i s p r i m a r i l y i n d u c t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r a l l p r o s e . I have named t h i s s t r u c t u r e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n . T h a t t h i s s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d f o r m t h e base f o r our modern e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n i s t h e argument t o w h i c h I w i l l d e v o t e t h e r e s t o f t h i s p a p e r . I n a d i f f e r e n t , more o r d e r l y u n i v e r s e t h a n t h i s , we might have seen t h e r h e t o r i c o f S m i t h and C a m p b e l l , b o l s t e r e d by t h e new l o g i c o f D e s c a r t e s , Bacon, and L o c k e , i n s p i r i n g a permanent f o u n d a t i o n o f i n d u c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s f o r a l l p r o s e , l i n k i n g and u n d e r l y i n g i t s d i f f e r i n g aims and o c c a s i o n s w i t h a common s t r u c t u r e based on i n f o r m a l l o g i c . The f a c t t h a t c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n s t e a d emphasized w r i t i n g as a s e t of d i s p a r a t e s k i l l s w i t h l i t t l e o r no sense o f a common f o u n d a t i o n t o them i s due a t l e a s t p a r t l y t o t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y . I n C a m p b e l l ' s time i t was c o n c e i v e d as a u n i f i e d p i c t u r e o f t h e mind's o p e r a t i o n s ; by t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t had become a way o f c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e mind, such as 16 w r i t i n g , and had p a s s e d t h e z e n i t h o f i t s p o p u l a r i t y . Even l o n g a f t e r i t had c e a s e d t o be i n vogue, t h i s n e a t , c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d v i e w o f t h e mind l e n t i t s e l f a l l t o o e a s i l y t o a breakdown o f C a m p b e l l ' s (and l a t e r A l e x a n d e r B a i n ' s ) f o u n d a t i o n s i n t o f o r m u l a e i n t e n d e d f o r f e e d i n g t o rows of b o r e d c o m p o s i t i o n s t u d e n t s f o r t h e n e x t c e n t u r y and a h a l f t o come. 17 ^1 w i l l n o t d i s c u s s t h e c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s s e p a r a t e l y , because c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n s o f t h e forms o f w r i t i n g , and o f p o e t i c s , n e c e s s a r i l y do not t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p o s t - R e n a i s s a n c e s h i f t towards e m p i r i c a l r e a s o n i n g , w h i c h demanded new p r o s e s t r u c t u r e s . However, some c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s appear i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s , t h e major ones u n d o u b t e d l y b e i n g what W i l b u r Samuel H o w e l l d e s c r i b e s as " t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n i n h e r i t a n c e i n l o g i c , " and t h e New C i c e r o n i a n movement o f 1700 t o 1759. H o w e l l ( i n E i g h t e e n t h  C e n t u r y B r i t i s h L o g i c and R h e t o r i c ; see f o o t n o t e 6 f o r f u l l c i t a t i o n ) d e s c r i b e s t h e a t t e m p t s o f s e v e r a l " p e r i p a t e t i c s , " i n f l u e n t i a l up u n t i l 1825, t o " r e s t o r e t h e l o g i c of A r i s t o t l e t o i t s former pre-eminence i n e d u c a t i o n and l e a r n i n g " ( 1 3 ) . T h i s a l s o c o n s t i t u t e d a r e b e l l i o n o f s o r t s a g a i n s t P e t e r Ramus's s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e f o r m s . George C a m p b e l l ' s vehement a t t a c k on t h e s y l l o g i s m i n The P h i l o s o p h y of R h e t o r i c u n d e r s c o r e s t h e c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e o f A r i s t o t e l i a n l o g i c as a method o f i n q u i r y t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The New C i c e r o n i a n s , more c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a n w i t h l o g i c , e x e m p l i f i e d even i n t h e i r r e f o r m s a d e s i r e t o r e s t o r e t o r h e t o r i c a c o n c e r n w i t h i t s c l a s s i c a l r o l e as t h e a r t of communication. I n l a r g e p a r t because of t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o mmunicative powers o f r h e t o r i c began t o reawaken. 2 W i l b u r Samuel H o w e l l , i n h i s L o g i c and R h e t o r i c i n E n g l a n d , 1550-1700 (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l I n c . , 1 9 6 1 ) , emphasizes t h a t a l t h o u g h Ramus r e f o r m e d t h e r u l e s o f l o g i c , he d i d not i n t r o d u c e any new c o n c e p t s , o r change the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e of s c h o l a s t i c i s m e x c e p t f o r e l i m i n a t i n g some o f i t s r e d u n d a n c i e s . A f t e r Ramism d i e d out i n E n g l a n d a c e n t u r y o r so a f t e r i t was i n t r o d u c e d , t h e z e a l f o r s i m p l i f y i n g t h e a r t s remained a l i v e , f o r t h e New C i c e r o n i a n s saw f i t t o p are down C i c e r o ' s p l a c e s o r a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a s s e m b l i n g p r o o f , and t h u s h e l p e d f u r t h e r t o r e d u c e t h e s t a t u s o f r h e t o r i c a l i n v e n t i o n i n t h e minds o f e d u c a t o r s . I n s h o r t , what w i t h one w e l l meaning r e f o r m a f t e r a n o t h e r , r h e t o r i c underwent a p e r i o d of a l m o s t two hundred y e a r s — f r o m Ramus u n t i l Adam S m i t h — d u r i n g w h i c h i t had l i t t l e t o b o a s t of but s k i l l s fragmented from t h e o r y . Nor was t h i s t h e l a s t t i m e such would be t h e c a s e i n r h e t o r i c ' s h i s t o r y ; l a t e n i n e t e e n t h - a n d e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g e x e m p l i f i e d t h e i n a d e q u a c y f o r w r i t i n g o f s k i l l s whose t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e had been f o r g o t t e n . ^Norman Kemp S m i t h , D e s c a r t e s ' P h i l o s o p h i c a l W r i t i n g s (London: M a c m i l l a n & Co., L t d . , 1 9 5 2 ) , P a r t Two. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d i n s h o r t form p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y i n t h e t e x t . ^ F r a n c i s Bacon, Advancement of L e a r n i n g and Novum Organum, r e v i s e d e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : The C o l o n i a l P r e s s , 1 900), Book F i v e , Ch. 4. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d i n s h o r t f o r m p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y i n t h e t e x t . ^John L o c k e , An E s s a y C o n c e r n i n g t h e U n d e r s t a n d i n g , Knowledge, O p i n i o n and  A s s e n t , B e n j a m i n Rand, ed. (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 1 ) , S e c t i o n 4. T h i s i s an e d i t i o n of t h e d r a f t o f L o c k e ' s E s s a y C o n c e r n i n g Human  U n d e r s t a n d i n g . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d i n s h o r t f o r m p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y i n t h e t e x t . 6 W i l b u r Samuel H o w e l l , E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y B r i t i s h L o g i c and R h e t o r i c ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 971), p. 548. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . 7Adam S m i t h , L e c t u r e s on R h e t o r i c and B e l l e s L e t t r e s , J o h n M. L o t h i a n , ed. 18 ( C a r b o n d a l e : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 971), p. x v i i . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . I n L e c t u r e 21, S m i t h n o t e s t h a t a h i s t o r y and a h i s t o r i c a l poem d i f f e r i n fo r m o n l y , and l a y s down what he sees as t h e end of p o e t r y : " I t i s e v i d e n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a u t h o r ' s d e s i g n i n w r i t i n g [ p o e t r y ] i s t o amuse u s . . .amusement and e n t e r t a i n m e n t [ i s ] t h e c h i e f d e s i g n o f t h e p o e t " ( 1 1 3 - 1 4 ) . S m i t h ' s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g n a r r a t i v e w r i t i n g , s u c h as u n i t y o f t i m e and p l a c e and c h a r a c t e r d e s c r i p t i o n , a p p l y t o p o e t r y as w e l l . Thus, t o S m i t h , t h e l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s of p o e t r y c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e o f n a r r a t i v e w r i t i n g ; o n l y t h e ends d i f f e r . % t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s no d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n between Smith's L e c t u r e s and C a m p b e l l ' s P h i l o s o p h y o f R h e t o r i c . However, Hugh B l a i r based much o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o r h i s L e c t u r e s on R h e t o r i c and B e l l e s L e t t r e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e t i t l e ) on S m i t h ' s work; and C a m p b e l l , who c o r r e s p o n d e d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h B l a i r , would l i k e l y have been a c q u a i n t e d w i t h S m ith's l e c t u r e s even b e f o r e t h e y were p u b l i s h e d i n 1762. ^George C a m p b e l l , The P h i l o s o p h y o f R h e t o r i c , L l o y d F. B i t z e r , ed. ( C a r b o n d a l e : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. x l i x . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . l O c a m p b e l l i s i n d e b t e d h e r e t o Hume and H a r t l e y f o r t h e i r i d e a s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among p e r c e p t i o n s , i d e a s , p a s s i o n s , t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , and t h e w i l l . I n A T r e a t i s e o f Human N a t u r e ( 1 7 3 9 ) , o f w h i c h P a r t T h r e e i s d e v o t e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e w i l l and " d i r e c t " p a s s i o n s , Hume a f f i r m s "from e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t o ur a c t i o n s have a c o n s t a n t u n i o n w i t h o ur m o t i v e s , t e m p e r s , and c i r c u m s t a n c e s " ( D a v i d Hume: The P h i l o s p h i c a l Works, Thomas H i l l G r e e n and Thomas Hodge G r o s e , e d s . , V o l . I I , S c i e n t i a V e r l a g A a l e n , 1964, p. 18 2 ) . U n i o n between a c t i o n s o f t h e mind, and t h e I n f e r e n c e s t h u s e s t a b l i s h e d , a r e " n a t u r a l and n e c e s s a r y " ; i n f a c t , what Hume c a l l s m o r a l e v i d e n c e i s " n o t h i n g b u t a c o n c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f men. . . n a t u r a l and m o r a l e v i d e n c e . . .are o f t h e same n a t u r e , and d e r i v ' d f r o m t h e same p r i n c i p l e s " ( 1 8 6 - 7 ) . From t h e r e , Hume shows t h a t , because human a c t i o n s stem f r o m t h e n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n s o f t h e mind, human i m p u l s e s t o a c t i o n o r p a s s i o n s subsume r e a s o n as "a m o t i v e t o any a c t i o n o f t h e w i l l " ( 1 9 3 ) . "Reason a l o n e can n e v e r produce any a c t i o n , o r g i v e r i s e t o v o l i t i o n , " he emphasizes ( 1 9 4 ) ; y e t g i v e n t h a t a l l a c t i o n s a r i s e o ut o f n e c e s s i t y , p a s s i o n s "can n e v e r , i n any s e n s e , be c a l l e d u n r e a s o n a b l e " ( 1 9 6 ) . The f a c u l t y o f i m a g i n a t i o n c l o s e l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e p a s s i o n s as w e l l , i n t h a t by p r o d u c i n g I n t h e mind "a p a r t i c u l a r and d e t e r m i n a t e i d e a . . . [ a p a s s i o n ] o p e r a t e s on t h e w i l l w i t h more v i o l e n c e " ( 2 0 3 - 4 ) . " N o t h i n g , " Hume s a y s , " i s more c a p a b l e o f i n f u s i n g any p a s s i o n i n t o t h e mind, t h a n e l o q u e n c e , by w h i c h o b j e c t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i r s t r o n g e s t and most l i v e l y c o l o u r s " ( 2 0 4 ) . T h e r e f o r e , e l o q u e n c e p l a y s a major r o l e i n moving t h e p a s s i o n s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e w i l l . From t h i s , C a m p b e l l d e r i v e s h i s i d e a o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v i v a c i t y i n c o n v i n c i n g an a u d i e n c e . D a v i d H a r t l e y , i n h i s O b s e r v a t i o n s on Man ( 1 7 4 9 ) , p r e s e n t s d o c t r i n e s w h i c h , as he s a y s , a r e " t a k e n f r o m t h e H i n t s " o f Newton and L o c k e c o n c e r n i n g s e n s a t i o n , m o t i o n , and a s s o c i a t i o n o f i d e a s ( D a v i d H a r t l e y , O b s e r v a t i o n s on man, h i s frame,  h i s d u t y , and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s , V o l . I , New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 1971, p. 5 ) . I n t h e second s e c t i o n o f V o l . I , H a r t l e y shows t h a t s i m p l e i d e a s p l u s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f p l a c e , t i m e , and r e s e m b l a n c e , a r e t h e mind's way o f t r y i n g t o r e t a i n " c o p i e s " o f t h e " I m p r e s s i o n s ( s e n s a t i o n s ) made on t h e Eye and E a r " ( 5 6 ) . He f u r t h e r o b s e r v e s , "And i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t , t h a t , i f a s i n g l e S e n s a t i o n can l e a v e a p e r c e p t i b l e E f f e c t , T r a c e , o r V e s t i g e , f o r a s h o r t t i m e , a 19 s u f f i c i e n t R e p e t i t i o n o f a S e n s a t i o n may l e a v e a p e r c e p t i b l e E f f e c t o f t h e same k i n d , but o f a more permanent n a t u r e , i . e . an I d e a " ( 5 7 ) . Thus, f o r H a r t l e y , r e s e m b l a n c e i n p a r t i c u l a r produces v i v i d i d e a s , a concept w h i c h C a m p b e l l i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t o h i s r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y . ^ - C a m p b e l l ' s u n i t y o f r e a s o n and p a s s i o n , t r u t h and goodness o r i g i n a t e s w i t h F r a n c i s Bacon's c o n c e p t o f t h e r o l e and scope o f r h e t o r i c — " t o a p p l y and recommend t h e d i c t a t e s o f r e a s o n t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . " C l e a r l y , C a m p b e l l sees v i v a c i t y as a f o r c e w h i c h l i n k s l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e w i t h e t h i c a l p urpose: a g o a l met p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e s p e a k e r o r w r i t e r i s engaged i n p e r s u a s i o n f o r t h e good of h i s a u d i e n c e . I I . F o u n d a t i o n s L o s t 20 By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y had been r e -e q u i p p e d w i t h an e f f e c t i v e method o f l o g i c a l i n q u i r y a d a p t e d f r o m t h e New L o g i c and f r o m t h e s t u d y o f human n a t u r e . I have shown how Adam S m i t h ' s and George Campbell's t h e o r i e s f o r m a f o u n d a t i o n o r framework f o r d i s c o u r s e , a framework I c a l l i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n , w h i c h acknowledges t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l p r o s e seeks i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y t o e s t a b l i s h p r o o f . I n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n t h e n g u i d e s w r i t e r s t o i n q u i r e i n t o a s u b j e c t i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e y b u i l d f r o m s i m p l e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o complex s y n t h e s e s o f them t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s p r i m a r i l y o f i n d u c t i o n . S m i t h augmented t h i s framework w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c l a r i t y and s i m p l i c i t y o f d i c t i o n as w e l l as o b j e c t i v i t y , o r c o n c e r n w i t h f a c t s . I n d o i n g s o , he not o n l y founded what we c a l l e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g b u t a l s o , i m p l i c i t l y , l i n k e d s c i e n t i f i c and h i s t o r i c a l d i s c o u r s e t o t h e aim of c o n v i n c i n g g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e s of i t s v a l i d i t y . C a m p b e l l , f o r h i s p a r t j combined i n d u c t i v e l o g i c and p s y c h o l o g y . F o r him, r e a s o n and p a s s i o n , t r u t h and goodness, s e r v e d t o r e u n i t e r h e t o r i c w i t h e t h i c a l p u r p o s e . C l e a r l y , b o t h men th o u g h t o f e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n as t h e o f f s p r i n g o f i n d u c t i v e l o g i c and e t h i c s . I t was a t t h a t p o i n t , n e a r t h e end of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h a t r h e t o r i c had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o b e g i n anew t h e t a s k o f i n q u i r i n g i n t o t h e r e a l m o f e t h i c s n o t o n l y on a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , b u t a l s o a t the l e v e l of t e a c h i n g c o m munication. The s t a g e was s e t f o r s t u d e n t s t o be t a u g h t t o v i e w d i s c o u r s e h o l i s t i c a l l y o r , I n o t h e r words, t o see t h a t a l l t h e s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e stem from t h e e t h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n t h a t communication n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e s human n a t u r e i n t o a c c o u n t by d e a l i n g c o n s t a n t l y w i t h t h e o p i n i o n a b l e , u s i n g i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e methods o f i n q u i r y . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i d n o t f u l f i l l t h i s p r o m i s e . Contemporary s t u d e n t s 21 of r h e t o r i c and c o m p o s i t i o n t h e o r y l o o k a t t h i s c e n t u r y as a t i m e of f r a g m e n t a t i o n , when t h e o r i e s of d i s c o u r s e f i n a l l y f e l l away fr o m pedagogy. Nowhere i s t h i s more o b v i o u s t h a n i n t h e way c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s o f t h i s t i m e t r e a t e d e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n . I n d e e d , we owe t h e e x i s t e n c e of the modern "modes" o f d i s c o u r s e m a i n l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n can be s e p a r a t e d i n t o f o r m u l a e as r e a d i l y as t h e y can be u n i t e d . T h i s f o r m u l a r i z a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t f r o m t h e movement i n c o l l e g e s toward a more p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h encouraged a t t h e same t i m e t h e detachment of t h e t h e o r y o f f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y f r o m I t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n d i s c o u r s e . ( C a m p b e l l had a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i t s s i s t e r t h e o r y o f a s s o c i a t i o n i s m ; f o r him, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e ends o f d i s c o u r s e were l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . ) P a r a d o x i c a l l y , even as f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y became l e s s and l e s s f a s h i o n a b l e , r h e t o r i c a l pedagogy c o n t i n u e d t o t r e a t d i s c o u r s e as i f i t s s t r u c t u r e s and g o a l s s p r a n g o u r o f s e p a r a t e compartments o f t h e mind. The theme f o r my e x a m i n a t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e x t s of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s d i v i s i o n — t h e p e d a g o g i c a l t e n d e n c y t o d i s t i n g u i s h " e l e m e n t s " of d i s c o u r s e from each o t h e r . My aim i s t o see what happens t o e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n d u r i n g t h i s t i m e ; i n o t h e r words, what pu r p o s e s and s t r u c t u r e s a r e r e l e g a t e d t o each? I n o r d e r t o show how t h e tendency t o s e p a r a t e e x p o s i t i o n from argument, and argument f r o m p e r s u a s i o n , became more pronounced i n c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s up t h r o u g h t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , I w i l l f i r s t l o o k a t R i c h a r d W hately ( 1 8 2 8 ) , and t h e n examine r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e x t s p r i m a r i l y from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada up t o 1906. R i c h a r d W h a t e l y ' s E l e m e n t s of R h e t o r i c (1828) s e r v e d as a d e f i n i t i v e " p r a c t i c a l r h e t o r i c " up u n t i l t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and c o n t i n u e d t o i n f l u e n c e many t e x t book w r i t e r s a f t e r t h e 1850's. G r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by A r i s t o t l e ' s and C a m p b e l l ' s v i e w s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o g i c and r h e t o r i c , 22 W h a t e l y r e j e c t e d b o t h t h e "narrow v i e w " of r h e t o r i c as o n l y p e r s u a s i v e o r o r n a m e n t a l , as w e l l as t h e o v e r l y b r o a d v i e w of i t as " a l l c o m p o s i t i o n i n p r o s e . I p r o p o s e , " he s t a t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , " t o t r e a t o f A r g u m e n t a t i v e C o m p o s i t i o n , g e n e r a l l y , and e x c l u s i v e l y ; c o n s i d e r i n g R h e t o r i c . . .as an o f f - s h o o t f r o m L o g i c . . . W h a t e l y hoped n o t o n l y t o broaden t h e scope of c l a s s r o o m r h e t o r i c but a l s o t o r e d r e s s what he saw as C a mpbell's " g r e a t d e f e c t . . . h i s i g n o r a n c e and u t t e r m i s c o n c e p t i o n of t h e n a t u r e and o b j e c t o f L o g i c " ( 9 ) . W h a t e l y p r o v i d e s i n h i s t e x t a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of how p r o p o s i t i o n s and v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f arguments form t h e b a s i s o f r e a s o n i n g i n a r g u m e n t a t i v e and p e r s u a s i v e d i s c o u r s e . I n t h i s s e n s e , he u n i f i e s d i s c o u r s e , f o r l i k e S m i t h and C a m p b e l l , he examines argument and p e r s u a s i o n and f i n d s t h a t d e g r e e o f b i a s o r e m o t i o n i s t h e main d i f f e r e n c e between them; t h e i r l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e o t h e r w i s e s i m i l a r . " I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Argument must be, i n most c a s e s a t l e a s t , t h e b a s i s of P e r s u a s i o n , " he w r i t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n . L a t e r , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of p e r s u a s i o n , W hately e l a b o r a t e s on t h i s theme of u n i t y : P e r s u a s i o n [ i s ] t h e a r t o f i n f l u e n c i n g t h e W i l l . . . i n o r d e r t h a t t h e W i l l may be i n f l u e n c e d , two t h i n g s a r e r e q u i s i t e ; v i z . 1. t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d O b j e c t s h o u l d appear d e s i r a b l e ; and 2. t h a t t h e Means s u g g e s t e d s h o u l d be p r o v e d t o be c o n d u c i v e t o the a t t a i n m e n t of t h a t o b j e c t ; and t h i s l a s t , e v i d e n t l y must depend on a p r o c e s s of R e a s o n i n g . . . . P e r s u a s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , depends on, f i r s t , Argument, ( t o p r o v e t h e e x p e d i e n c y o f t h e Means proposed) and s e c o n d l y , what i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d E x h o r t a -t i o n , i e . t h e e x c i t e m e n t of men t o adopt t h o s e Means. . .(117-118). W h a t e l y , l i k e S m i t h a l m o s t a c e n t u r y e a r l i e r , r e f u s e s t o e l a b o r a t e on " r u l e s " of p e r s u a s i o n ; f o r W h a t e l y , t h e s e r u l e s have a l r e a d y been s t a t e d and form t h e b a s i s of c o n v i c t i o n , "an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f P e r s u a s i o n " ( 1 1 7 ) . T h i s i s one means by w h i c h Whately a l m o s t f u s e s argument and p e r s u a s i o n ' s u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and even, t o an e x t e n t , t h e i r aims: f o r t h e aim of p e r s u a s i o n (moving one t o a c t i o n ) p r e s u p p o s e s c o n v i c t i o n ( a d h e r e n c e t o a c o n c e p t t i e d i n w i t h t h a t a c t i o n ) , c e r t a i n l y a c c o r d i n g t o W h a t e l y , S m i t h , and C a m p b e l l . 23 W h a t e l y has subsumed t h e aims of e x p o s i t i o n i n t o argument, a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t arguments o r p r o o f s may " g i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n t o a c a n d i d mind, and convey i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h o s e who a r e ready t o r e c e i v e i t , " as w e l l as " t o c o m p e l l t h e a s s e n t , o r s i l e n c e t h e o b j e c t i o n s , of an opponent" ( 7 0 - 7 1 ) . Y e t W h a t e l y ' s t r e a t m e n t of r h e t o r i c as a r g u m e n t a t i v e i n a f o r m a l l o g i c a l s ense o n l y s e r v e s i n t h e l o n g r u n t o n a rrow r h e t o r i c ' s scope. H i s d e f i n i t i o n o f r h e t o r i c d i c t a t e s t h a t he o v e r l o o k many o f t h o s e a s p e c t s o f e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g w h i c h S m i t h t r e a t e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r i n g o f d e s c r i p t i o n and n a r r a t i o n . A l s o , t h e l i n e between W h a t e l y ' s f o r m a l t r e a t m e n t of argument, and h i s more c l a s s i c a l v i e w of p e r s u a s i o n , i s not a t a l l a f i n e one. I n f a c t he a d m i t s a gap between r e a s o n i n g and p a s s i o n on t h e b a s i s of aim and s t r u c t u r e : When engaged i n r e a s o n i n g . . .our p u r p o s e n o t o n l y need n o t be c o n c e a l e d , but may. . . w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o t h e e f f e c t , be d i s t i n c t l y d e c l a r e d . . .even when th e f e e l i n g s we w i s h t o e x c i t e a r e such as ought t o o p e r a t e , s t i l l o u r purpose and d r i f t s h o u l d be. . .not o p e n l y d e c l a r e d . . . T h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e forms a remark-a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n between [ p e r s u a s i o n ] and A r g u m e n t a t i o n ( 1 2 9 - 3 0 ) . Two t h i n g s a r e e v i d e n t i n W h a t e l y ' s t e x t . F i r s t , he i m p l i e s t h a t , s i n c e r h e t o r i c i s r o o t e d i n l o g i c , r h e t o r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n t e n d s t o be a r g u m e n t a t i v e by n a t u r e ( b r o a d e n i n g immensely t h e scope of a r g u m e n t ) . Second, he d e m o n s t r a t e s the dependency o f what he sees as i m p o r t a n t aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e on a f o u n d a t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d w h o l l y of f o r m a l l o g i c . I n t h e o r y , t h i s f o u n d a t i o n u n i t e s i n s t r u c t i v e , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , and p e r s u a s i v e aims and o c c a s i o n s ( t h o u g h a g a i n , i n s t r u c t i v e d i s c o u r s e s e eks i m p l i c i t l y t o c o n v i n c e as w e l l ) . However, Wha t e l y ' s main weakness i s t h a t , u n l i k e A r i s t o t l e , he p i n s h i s hopes f o r r h e t o r i c e n t i r e l y on f o r m a l l o g i c , d e p e n d i n g on i t o n l y t o f o r m t h e framework f r o m w h i c h t o b u i l d d i s c o u r s e . Such a framework can o n l y , as we s h a l l see, s e r v e e v e n t u a l l y t o s e t argument a p a r t f r o m o t h e r aims and o c c a s i o n s . A f t e r t h e 1820's, c l a s s i f y i n g d i s c o u r s e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p u r p o s e and ways o f a c h i e v i n g i t , r a t h e r t h a n by t h e form i t t o o k on paper ( s u c h as a l e t t e r o r 2 4 n a r r a t i o n ) began s l o w l y t o appear i n t e x t s . 2 i n f a c t , by t h e 1850's i t was q u i t e n o r m a l f o r t e x t book w r i t e r s t o t r y t o do two t h i n g s a t once: c l a s s i f y t y p e s and aims of d i s c o u r s e t o a i d i n t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n , and a t t e m p t t o r e d r e s s what t h e y saw as problems c r e a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e a r e a s of r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y v e r s u s p r a c t i c e . Henry Day was one such w r i t e r . I n h i s E l e m e n t s of t h e A r t o f R h e t o r i c ( 1 8 5 0 ) , Day a t t e m p t e d t o r e i n t r o d u c e i n v e n t i o n t o r h e t o r i c , t o "reduce t o a more e x a c t system" t h e e l e m e n t s o f d i s c o u r s e " i n c o n f o r m i t y t o s t r i c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , " and emphasize p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n r h e t o r i c "as an a r t , and not m e r e l y as a s c i e n c e . H e b e g i n s by s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z i n g W h a tely f o r n o t redeeming r h e t o r i c f r o m " t h e s h a c k l e s and embarrassments o f t h a t v i e w w h i c h c o n f i n e s i t t o mere a r g u m e n t a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n , o r the a r t of p r o d u c i n g B e l i e f " ( P r e f a c e , v ) . I n s t e a d , Day i n t e n d s t o c o v e r " t h e e n t i r e f i e l d o f pure d i s c o u r s e , " and s t a r t s by a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e o b j e c t s o r immediate ends o f a l l " p r o p e r " d i s c o u r s e : e x p l a n a t i o n , c o n v i c t i o n , e x c i t a t i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n . He e x p l a i n s h i s c h o i c e s i n t h i s passage: The p r o c e s s by w h i c h a new c o n c e p t i o n i s pro d u c e d , i s by E x p l a n a t i o n ; t h a t by w h i c h a new judgement i s p r o d u c e d , i s by C o n v i c t i o n ; a change i n the s e n s i b i l i t i e s i s e f f e c t e d by the p r o c e s s o f E x c i t a t i o n ; and i n t h e W i l l , by t h a t o f P e r -s u a s i o n ( 4 2 ) . The h i e r a r c h y Day g i v e s i s s i m i l a r t o C a m p b e l l ' s , though Day does n o t emphasize a s s o c i a t i o n s between t h e s e ends. He chooses r a t h e r t o emphasize t h e i r d i f f e r i n g s t r u c t u r e s , t h e i r " s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r " and "immediate end" ( 3 2 ) . T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t he f a i l s t o show how a few b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s c a n u n i f y d i s c o u r s e ; he a d o p t s , f o r example, t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n v i e w t h a t a l l c o m p o s i t i o n s can be r e d u c e d t o e s s e n t i a l l y two p a r t s , t h e p r o p o s i t i o n and t h e d i s c u s s i o n , an i n t r o d u c t i o n and p e r o r a t i o n b e i n g o p t i o n a l f o r Day ( 4 5 ) . However, he makes a p o i n t o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e o b j e c t s and, i m p l i c i t l y , t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e s f rom each o t h e r . I n e x p l a n a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Day, t h e o b j e c t o f d i s c o u r s e i s t o 25 i n f o r m o r i n s t r u c t , " t o l e a d t o a new c o n c e p t i o n o r n o t i o n , o r t o m o d i f y one a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g i n t h e mind. . .The o b j e c t o f e x p l a n a t o r y d i s c o u r s e i s some o b j e c t o r t r u t h t o be p e r c e i v e d " ( 5 1 - 2 ) . I n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o f e x p l a n a t i o n a r e n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s , e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , and c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t ; h e r e , Day r e i n c o r p o r a t e s many o f S m i t h ' s p r i n c i p l e s , and e x p l a i n s t h e i r uses i n e x p l a n a t o r y w r i t i n g . Y e t when Day d i s c u s s e s c o n v i c t i o n ( o r c o n f i r m a t i o n , as he a l s o c a l l s i t ) , t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s v a n i s h , and i n s t e a d we see t h e e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between e x p l a n a t i o n and co n -f i r m a t i o n . W h i l e b o t h p r o c e s s e s a d d r e s s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the f o r m e r seeks t o produce a new o r d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n , t h e l a t t e r , a new o r d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f o r judgement ( 8 6 ) . The p r o c e s s o f c o n f i r m a t i o n r e s t s , l i k e W h a t e l y ' s , on a f o r m a l l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e : i n c l u d i n g a c a r e f u l d i v i s i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r o o f s , t o p i c s , r e f u t a t i o n s , and arrangements of m a t e r i a l . What Day has done i s c r e a t e two d i f f e r e n t forms o f d i s c o u r s e a d d r e s s i n g t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . One i s based on f o r m a l l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e I n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n o f S m i t h , C a m p b e l l , and t h e New L o g i c i a n s of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Where do t h e s e two forms merge? P e r s u a s i o n i s perhaps one p l a c e . A l t h o u g h Day i s o l a t e s p e r s u a s i o n as he does t h e o t h e r ends o f d i s c o u r s e , he emphasizes t h a t i t " a d m i t s a l l t h e p r o c e s s e s b e f o r e d e s c r i b e d o f e x p l a n a t i o n , c o n v i c t i o n , and e x c i t a t i o n , " t h u s l i n k i n g t h e " d i f f e r e n t , s p e c i f i c " ends o f d i s c o u r s e . As Day e x p l a i n s i t : "One w i l l need t o e x p l a i n m o t i v e s , c o n v i n c e t h e judgement. . .move p a s s i o n s . . .but a l l t h e s e p r o c e s s e s must be i n t r o d u c e d o n l y i n e n t i r e s u b s e r v i a n c y t o t h a t e n d — t h e moving of t h e w i l l " ( 1 5 3 ) . C l e a r l y , Day i s e c h o i n g C a m p b e l l , who shows how t h e ends o f d i s c o u r s e can i n t e r r e l a t e f o r t h a t n o b l e s t p u r p o s e : t h e moving of t h e w i l l t o a c t i o n . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e n , Day has a l s o u n i f i e d d i f f e r e n t w r i t i n g p r o c e s s e s 26 under p e r s u a s i o n , w h i c h becomes th e s o l e o c c a s i o n f o r w r i t i n g when one may ( i n a d d i t i o n t o p e r s u a s i v e t e c h n i q u e s ) c o n s c i o u s l y use e x p o s i t o r y t e c h n i q u e s f o r e x p l a i n i n g a c o n c e p t , and a r g u m e n t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s f o r i n d u c i n g a new b e l i e f . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Day overshadowed t h i s p o t e n t i a l l y h o l i s t i c v i e w of d i s c o u r s e w i t h t h e "mental s c i e n c e " of the t i m e s , t h e b e l i e f t h a t " t h e mind a d d r e s s e d may be i n e i t h e r one of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s " c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , e m o t i o n a l , and a c t i v e f a c u l t i e s ( 1 5 1 ) . The r e s u l t o f t h i s b e l i e f i s t h a t two d i f f e r e n t forms a d d r e s s i n g t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e c r e a t e d i n t h i s t e x t , and we see a c o n f l i c t between what Day says about p e r s u a s i o n and how d i s c o u r s e aims and o c c a s i o n s become, n o t s y n t h e s i z e d t h r o u g h p e r s u a s i o n , but l a i d o u t s e p a r a t e l y . T h i s c o n f l i c t between t h e w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s c a n be u n i f i e d and t h e a c t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s one t h a t r e c u r s a number of t i m e s i n n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e x t s , and c o n s t i t u t e s t h e i r m ajor f l a w . A t e x t t h a t r e f l e c t s c o n c e r n f o r how t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l i e t h e domain o f r h e t o r i c i s M.B. Hope's The P r i n c e t o n T e x t Book o f R h e t o r i c ( 1 8 5 9 ) . Hope s e t s f o r t h " t h e u l t i m a t e grounds o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f arguments. . . i n s t i l l c l e a r , more f o r c i b l e , and r e a d i l y remembered r e l a t i o n s , " and emphasizes (as d i d Day) p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s of c o m p o s i t i o n . ^ Hope s t a t e s on page one t h a t r h e t o r i c s h o u l d c l a s s i f y and s i m p l i f y t h e laws of human n a t u r e u n d e r l y i n g " t h e phenomena w h i c h i t i s the o b j e c t o f R h e t o r i c t o a c c o u n t f o r . . . c o n v i c t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n , " t h u s r e t u r n i n g b r o a d l y t o W h a t e l y ' s d e f i n i t i o n of r h e t o r i c ' s scope w h i c h Day so c r i t i c i z e d . Hope t h e n d i f f e r e n t i a t e s c l e a r l y between c o n v i c t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n : The f o r m e r [ c o n v i c t i o n ] i s an e f f e c t upon t h e u n d e r s t a n d -i n g — t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l o r l o g i c a l f a c u l t i e s — t h e l a t t e r , ( p e r -s u a s i o n ) i s an e f f e c t upon t h e w i l l , p r o d u c i n g a change e i t h -e r of c h a r a c t e r , o r c o n d u c t ( 2 ) . One i m p o r t a n t way i n w h i c h t h i s t e x t d i f f e r s f r o m W h a t e l y ' s i s Hope's t r e a t m e n t o f c o n v i c t i o n . I n f l u e n c e d by F r a n z Theremin's E l o q u e n c e A V i r t u e , Hope sees the whole r h e t o r i c a l p r o c e s s , an a r g u m e n t a t i v e one, as d e s i g n e d t o convey t r u t h t o a n o t h e r mind.-* An e t h i c a l v i e w p o i n t c o l o r s not o n l y Hope's d i s c u s s i o n o f i m p a s s i o n e d d i s c o u r s e b u t a l s o h i s d e f i n i t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n : " t h e s t a t e m e n t o f an i n t e r m e d i a t e o r m i d d l e term" whose f u n c t i o n i s t o l e t t h e mind pass " i n t h e way of p r o o f , from known t o unknown t r u t h " ( 7 ) . Hope's d e f i n i t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t because a " t r u t h " t h u s p r o v e n i s l i k e l y t o be narrow i n scope and a p p l i c a t i o n : f o r example, " t r u t h s " p r o v e n u s i n g t h e f o r e n s i c o r c o u r t r o o m a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s t o become so p o p u l a r i n l a t e r d ecades. Hope a l s o d i f f e r s f r o m W h a t e l y by d i s c u s s i n g and e x p l a i n i n g n a r r a t i v e , d e s c r i p t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l , e x e m p l i f i c a t o r y , and c o m p a r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i n h i s s e c t i o n on c o n v i c t i o n , though Hope s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e s t h e s e p r o c e s s e s t o t h e end o f i n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h he c a l l s a t y p e o f c o n v i c t i o n . Y e t Hope s t i l l e quates a c t u a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c ; i n h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p r o o f s , t h e l e s s s t r u c t u r e d p r o o f s by example, s i g n , a n a l o g y , and i n d u c t i o n come n e a r t h e bottom o f h i s h i e r a r c h y . Hope r e l a t e s c o n v i c t i o n t o p e r s u a s i o n i n t h e f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g i s t s ' sense t h a t t h e p a s s i o n s put c o n v i c t i o n s i n t o a c t i o n , but adds, " W h i l e p e r s u a s i o n i s thus c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from c o n v i c t i o n , i n t h e o r y , i t i s n o t l e s s d i s t i n c t i n e x p e r i e n c e and f a c t " ( 7 7 ) . He t h u s s a n c t i o n e d t h e g r o w i n g p r a c t i c a l emphasis on d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between aims as w e l l as s t r u c t u r e s i n d i s c o u r s e , a case o f t h e o r y becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d e t a c h e d f r o m p r a c t i c e . T h i s p r a c t i c a l emphasis found a p o w e r f u l a l l y i n S c o t t i s h e d u c a t o r A l e x a n d e r B a i n ' s v i e w o f r h e t o r i c as e s s e n t i a l l y s t y l i s t i c , s e t t i n g an i m p o r t a n t p r e c e d e n t f o r d i v i s i o n of d i s c o u r s e i n t o t h e f o u r forms o r "modes" f o r ease o f t e a c h i n g . Y e t we have now seen t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e i n t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s and s t r u c t u r e s began l o n g b e f o r e 1866, when B a i n ' s E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n and  R h e t o r i c was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n B r i t a i n . 28 B a i n was an a s s o c i a t i o n i s t . U n l i k e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e x t book w r i t e r s a t t h a t t i m e , he o v e r t l y a l l i e d h i m s e l f n o t o n l y w i t h W h ately and Hugh B l a i r , but e s p e c i a l l y w i t h C a m p b e l l , and t h e r e f o r e p e r c e i v e d l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s between h i s modes of d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n . * * B a i n ' s h a n d l i n g of t h e modes i s a l s o , i n some ways, r e m i n i s c e n t of S m i t h ' s methodology. L i k e S m i t h , he m e n t i o n s e x p o s i t i o n o n l y a f t e r an a n a l y s i s o f d e s c r i p t i o n and n a r r a t i o n , and shows how e x p o s i t i o n i s based on " t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l f a c t s . " B a i n shows how f a c t s can be c l a s s i f i e d , e x p r e s s e d as a g e n e r a l l a w , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h o t h e r s , b r o k e n down i n t o c o n s t i t u e n t n o t i o n s , and d e a l t w i t h t h r o u g h example and i l l u s t r a t i o n , t hus i n d u c t i v e l y b u i l d i n g t o w a r d s complex i d e a s . These a r e methods b o t h S m i t h and C a m p b e l l saw as i n t e g r a l p a r t s of w r i t i n g , and B a i n ' s t r e a t m e n t r e f l e c t s h i s own v i e w of t h e i m p o r t a n c e of a s s o c i a t i n g t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s w i t h t h e i r s t y l i s t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . Moreover, B a i n shows t h a t n a r r a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n , f o r a l l forms o f d i s c o u r s e but most p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p o s i t i o n , i s a b l e t o " s o f t e n t h e r i g o u r s of s c i e n t i f i c e x p o s i t i o n by e l e m e n t s of more p e r v a d i n g human i n t e r e s t , " t o acknowledge " t h e f e e l i n g s t o u c h e d by t h e s p e c i a l o b j e c t s of s c i e n c e as o b j e c t s of s e n s e " ( 1 6 1 ) . C l e a r l y , B a i n i s t r y i n g t o draw t o g e t h e r p r i n c i p l e s o f d i s c o u r s e so t h a t t h e y u n d e r l i e a l l d i f f e r e n t aims and o c c a s i o n s ; he sees (as d i d C a m p b e l l ) e x p e r i e n c e as e s s e n t i a l i n c u l t i v a t i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y f a c t s on w h i c h t o base a p i e c e o f w r i t i n g . By t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , r e t e n t i v e n e s s , and agreement ( w h i c h f o r an a s s o c i a t i o n i s t cement a l l t hought p r o c e s s e s ) , B a i n a r g u e s t h a t h i s modes m a n i f e s t s i m i l a r l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s — a t l e a s t a t t h e s t y l i s t i c l e v e l . P e r h a p s more t h a n any o t h e r t e x t book w r i t e r a t t h a t t i m e , B a i n s t r o v e t o u n i f y a l l a s p e c t s o f d i s c o u r s e by i l l u m i n a t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s more t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s between them t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i o n i s m . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , why d i d B a i n become a c a t a l y s t o f d i v i s i o n and f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n d i s c o u r s e r a t h e r t h a n t h e g r e a t " u n i f i e r " ? F i r s t , h i s modes of d i s c o u r s e c o u l d be b o t h e a s i l y remembered and n e a t l y packaged f o r c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s e s ( l a t e r , B a i n ' s own work became more f o r m a l i z e d ; see f o o t n o t e 6 ) . P r i m a r i l y because o f t h i s f o r m a l i z a t i o n , B a i n ' s t e x t c i r c u l a t e d w i d e l y t h r o u g h o u t G r e a t B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and was soon f o l l o w e d by r e p r i n t i n g s and h o s t s of i m i t a t i o n s . E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c was r e p r i n t e d each y e a r f r o m 1866 t o 1872, t h e n f i v e more t i m e s u n t i l 1886, and e l e v e n A m e r i c a n e d i t i o n s came out as opposed t o o n l y f o u r i n B r i t a i n . I n s h o r t , t h e v e r y p o p u l a r i t y of B a i n ' s t e x t s e r v e d t o o b s c u r e , i n t h e l o n g r u n , B a i n ' s more complex t h e o r e t i c a l base and i n s t e a d h a s t e n e d t h e c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of h i s "modes." S e c o n d l y , B a i n ' s t r e a t m e n t o f argument, though a t f i r s t more u n i f e d s t r u c t u r a l l y t h a n W h a t e l y ' s , e v e n t u a l l y descends i n t o f o r m a l i z a t i o n . Argument, t o B a i n , i s " e x p o s i t i o n by p r o o f . . . p a r t o f p e r s u a s i o n " ( 1 6 5 - 6 ) . A l t h o u g h one can use argument i n e x p o s i t i o n o r p e r s u a s i o n , p r o o f s t h e m s e l v e s a r e r e s o l v a b l e i n t o a l l e g a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r i t y o r d i s s i m i l a r i t y . . . . t h e f a c t s o r p r i n c i p l e s adduced must be a d m i t t e d , and s u f f i c i e n t l y b e l i e v e d i n , by t h e h e a r e r s . . . S e c o n d l y , a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y must be a d m i t t e d t o h o l d between t h e f a c t s o r p r i n c i p l e s adduced and t h e p o i n t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d . (187-8) C l e a r l y , a r g u m e n t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e forms t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r e x p o s i t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n i n t h i s t r e a t m e n t ( t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e x p o s i t i o n and argument b e i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f p r o o f ) , but t h e d e t a i l e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s f o r m a l l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f argument w h i c h B a i n g i v e s o b s c u r e s t h i s l i n k . L i k e W h a t e l y , B a i n d i s t i n g u i s h e s argument and p e r s u a s i o n by t h e degree of p a t h o s p r e s e n t I n e a c h . " A l l P e r s u a s i o n supposes t h a t t h e r e a r e some f e e l i n g s o r human s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s t o work upon. I n Argument, no a t t e m p t i s made t o h e i g h t e n o r d i m i n i s h t h e f e e l i n g s t h e m s e l v e s ; i t i s c o n s i d e r e d o n l y how t o b r i n g a c a s e under them" ( 2 0 0 ) . One can base p e r s u a s i o n on "the modes of s i m p l e c o m m unication" ( d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n ) , on argument, o r on t h e f e e l i n g s ; B a i n adds t h a t p e r s u a s i o n " i s a i d e d by a l l t h e a r t s t h a t can s t r e n g t h e n 30 t h e bonds t h a t cement i d e a s i n t h e mind" s u c h as t h e f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h . Thus B a i n sees p e r s u a s i o n as b o t h t h e s y n t h e s i s o f a l l s t r u c t u r e s and modes of p r o s e , and as a v i t a l l i n k t o p o e t i c s ( 1 8 4 - 6 ) . Argument i n B a i n ' s scheme, t h e n , r e p r e s e n t s t h e l o g i c a l s i d e of d i s c o u r s e , t h a t w h i c h can l e n d d i s c o u r s e coherence i n t h e minds o f an i n t e l l i g e n t a u d i e n c e . C l e a r l y , B a i n d i d n o t i n t e n d t h a t argument be i s o l a t e d , o r t h a t t h e modes, e l e m e n t s , o r aims of d i s c o u r s e be i s o l a t e d f r o m each o t h e r . Y e t h i s work l e n t c r e d e n c e t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r s t a n c e t h a t d i s c o u r s e , r e f l e c t i n g r h e t o r i c ' s d e c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n w i t h t h e communication o f t h a t w h i c h i s p r o b a b l e , s h o u l d be b r o k e n i n t o f r a g m e n t s — t o accommodate e a s i l y t h e l e a r n i n g of s k i l l s needed t o communicate t h a t w h i c h i s seen as f a c t u a l . Up u n t i l and s h o r t l y a f t e r 1866, c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t book w r i t e r s and t h e o r i s t s a l i k e had v a c i l l a t e d between f o r e g r o u n d i n g argument o r p e r s u a s i o n as t h e aim of r h e t o r i c — t o an e x t e n t a l s o r e f l e c t i n g t h e c o n f l i c t between v a l u e s ( p e r s u a s i o n ) and f a c t s ( a r g u m e n t ) . Most were a b l e t o p r o v i d e some s o r t o f t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o r r a t i o n a l e , e i t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , e t h i c a l , o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , f o r t h e i r c h o i c e . I n t h e l a t t e r decades o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s w r i t t e n i n r e s p o n s e t o i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r p r a c t i c a l c o l l e g e l e v e l w r i t i n g c o u r s e s ( I n c l u d i n g Day's and Hope's) began t o emphasize " s k i l l s " as t h e i r aim. I n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t of e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n , c e r t a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e x t s of t h e 1870's and 1880's e x e m p l i f y t h e c o n t e s t between t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g as a s e r i e s o f f a c t - c o m m u n i c a t i n g s k i l l s , o r t r e a t i n g w r i t i n g as t h e e x t e n s i o n of a r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y encompassing " r e a s o n and p a s s i o n , t r u t h and goodness" as w e l l . George P. Quackenbos's Advanced C o u r s e of C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1854, had t r e a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , argument, and s p e c u l a t i o n as " c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s " o f d i s c o u r s e i n g e n e r a l . Says K i t z h a b e r of Quackenbos, "He d i d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between argument and p e r s u a s i o n " ( 1 9 6 - 7 ) . I n t h e e d i t i o n 31 r e v i s e d by J o h n Quackenbos i n 1884, k i n d s o f p r o s e a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d n o t by aim but s t r i c t l y by form: l e t t e r s , n a r r a t i v e s , f i c t i o n , e s s a y s , t h e s e s ( a r g u m e n t a t i v e d i s c o u r s e s ) , and o r a t i o n s . 7 " A l l t h e p a r t s o f c o m p o s i t i o n " a r e now d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , argument, e x p o s i t i o n , and s p e c u l a t i o n (381). Quackenbos t h e n drew c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s between e x p o s i t i o n and argument, w i t h a b e l l e t t r i s t i c f o c u s i n mind ( s ee f o o t n o t e 1): e x p o s i t i o n e x p l a i n s an a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n s , d e f i n e s t e r m s , and p r e s e n t s d o c t r i n e s o r p r i n c i p l e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , w h i l e argument i s " t h e s t a t e m e n t o f r e a s o n s f o r o r a g a i n s t a p r o p o s i t i o n , made w i t h t h e v i e w o f i n d u c i n g b e l i e f i n o t h e r s " (354). However, he sees p e r s u a s i o n as p a r t o f argument ( q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o B a i n ) , f o r i n a t h e s i s , one " l a y s down a p r o p o s i t i o n , and endeavors t o persuade o t h e r s t h a t i t i s t r u e " (385-6). Quackenbos's s h a r p e s t d i v i s i o n , t h e n , i s between t h e aim o f e x p o s i t i o n and t h a t o f a r g u m e n t / p e r s u a s i o n , and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f r h e t o r i c ' s f u n c t i o n p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h i s s p l i t . F o r Quackenbos, r h e t o r i c " e n a b l e s us t o d i s c e r n f a u l t s and b e a u t i e s i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s o f o t h e r s ; and . . . i t t e a c h e s us t o e x p r e s s and e m b e l l i s h our own t h o u g h t s , so as t o produce t h e most f o r c i b l e i m p r e s s i o n " (154). I n s h o r t , t h i s t e x t bases i t s d i s t i n c t i o n between e x p o s i t i o n and argument on t h e b e l l e t r i s t i c c o n c e p t o f r h e t o r i c as s t y l i s t i c s — t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g , n o t u n i f y i n g , u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s f o r aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e . The S c i e n c e o f R h e t o r i c (1877) by D a v i d J . H i l l b e g i n s , on t h e o t h e r hand, by p l a c i n g a l l d i s c o u r s e and a l l p u r p o s e s f o r i t under a s e t o f " l a w s " : t h o s e o f "Mind, I d e a , and Form. . .the r e l a t i o n between thought and i t s e x p r e s s i o n . " ^ L i k e W h a t e l y , H i l l sees t h e f u c t i o n s of d i s c o u r s e as p r i m a r i l y a r g u m e n t a t i v e , " p r o d u c i n g some change i n t h e mind a d d r e s s e d . " But H i l l adds "whatever t h i s change be, i t i s produced by i d e a s . . . . R h e t o r i c i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s c i e n c e of the laws o f e f f e c t i v e d i s c o u r s e " (37). I n d e e d , l i k e C a m p b e l l , H i l l i n s i s t s on a 32 r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o g i c , w h i c h " g i v e s us t h e t e s t o f arguments," and r h e t o r i c , w h i c h l e t s us " c o n f i r m (them) t o t h e mind o f a n o t h e r " ( 1 0 7 ) . H i l l ' s t r e a t m e n t o f e x p o s i t i o n and argument ( d e a l t w i t h under "Laws of I d e a " ) i s r o o t e d i n an a n a l y s i s o f t y p e s , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f , and r e l a t i o n s among " p a r t s " o r t h i n g s . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h i s t r e a t m e n t seems t o o f f e r a u n i f i e d way o f l o o k i n g a t d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e — a movement, i n t h e t r u e L o c k e i a n t r a d i t i o n , f r om s i m p l e t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y more complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among i d e a s . But H i l l o b s c u r e s t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when he comes t o d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r a c t i c e o f e x p o s i t i o n and argument. The aim of e x p o s i t i o n , he s a y s , " c o n s i s t s i n s u c h an a n a l y s i s o f a g e n e r a l term as w i l l make c l e a r t o t h e mind t h e g e n e r a l n o t i o n o f w h i c h i t i s t h e s i g n " ( 9 5 ) . One may i n c r e a s e c o m p rehension of a n o t i o n t h r o u g h d e f i n i t i o n ; e x t e n d t h e n o t i o n t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s o r d i v i s i o n ; o r e x p l a i n i t t h r o u g h i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r n o t i o n s (example, c o m p a r i s o n , cause and e f f e c t ) . However, argument ( w h i c h H i l l sees as r e l a t i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s t o c o n c l u s i o n s ) r e c e i v e s t h e now u s u a l f o r m a l t r e a t m e n t i n v o l v i n g a f u l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e t y p e s and n a t u r e o f v a r i o u s arguments. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g i t s dense d e f i n i t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n h e r e i s once a g a i n i n f o r m a l l y a r g u m e n t a t i v e . L i k e Day, H i l l has c r e a t e d a scheme i n w h i c h c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a s t i c l o g i c p r o v i d e s t h e s t r u c t u r e f o r argument, w h i l e i n d u c t i v e , s y n t h e t i c l o g i c p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r , s e p a r a t e s t r u c t u r e — e x p o s i t i o n . ^ Few, i f any, of t h e c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s examined so f a r have p r e s e n t e d any p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h have n o t appeared e a r l i e r i n r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y i n some form o r a n o t h e r . One w r i t e r , J . S c o t t C l a r k , a d m i t s i n A  P r a c t i c a l R h e t o r i c f o r I n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n and R e v i s i o n (1886) t h a t he i n t r o d u c e s "few new p r i n c i p l e s , " b o r r o w i n g e x t e n s i v e l y f r o m A r i s t o t l e , B l a i r , C a m p b e l l , W h a t e l y , B a i n , Quackenbos, H i l l , and o t h e r s . 1 0 C l a r k d i v i d e s d i s c o u r s e i n t o t h e forms of d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , o r a t o r y , and i n t e r e s t i n g l y , p e r s u a s i o n r a t h e r t h a n argument. E x p o s i t i o n i s " t h e s t a t e m e n t 33 and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f some a b s t r a c t o r g e n e r a l theme," and C l a r k s p e c i f i c a l l y warns t h e s t u d e n t t o " a v o i d c o n f o u n d i n g i t w i t h o t h e r f o r m s " ( 2 8 3 - 4 ) . I n t h i s sense t h e " p r a c t i c a l i t y " o f t h e t e x t i s a measure o f how e a s i l y one can d i s t i n g u i s h t h e forms o f d i s c o u r s e f r o m each o t h e r . I n a n o t h e r sense, C l a r k i s c o n c e r n e d about t h e a n a l y s i s and c r i t i c i s m o f l i t e r a r y w o r k s , f o r he c i t e s c h a r a c t e r s k e t c h e s , book r e v i e w s , and p l o t summaries as pri m e examples of e x p o s i t i o n on w h i c h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ought t o f o c u s . P e r s u a s i o n r e c e i v e s a f a m i l i a r d e f i n i t i o n from C l a r k : " t h a t f o r m of c o m p o s i t i o n d e s i g n e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e b e l i e f and t h e con d u c t o f men a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i l l o f t h e w r i t e r . " He adds Of a l l the forms o f c o m p o s i t i o n , t h i s i s d o u b t l e s s t h e most i m p o r t a n t . . . .One may seldom f e e l i t n e c e s s a r y t o engage i n f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n , , n a r r a t i o n , o r e x p o s i t i o n ; b u t t h e r e i s h a r d -l y an A m e r i c a n c i t i z e n whose i n t e r e s t s do n o t o f t e n depend upon h i s a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e b e l i e f and conduct o f h i s a s s o c i -a t e s ( 2 8 8 ) . U n l i k e many o t h e r t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s , s u c h as Quackenbos, C l a r k sees argument as a s e c o n d a r y p a r t o f p e r s u a s i o n . Thus he c o n c u r s w i t h B a i n t h a t argument i s d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e t h a t " t h e means p r o p o s e d . . .be p r o v e d t o be c o n d u c i v e t o [t h e ] end" ( 2 8 9 ) . And as f o r the m a t e r i a l w i t h w h i c h arguments a r e formed, C l a r k says t h i s : "The w r i t e r must t h i n k , " f a l l back on h i s own knowledge ( 2 8 8 ) . Though C l a r k ' s t r e a t m e n t o f argument i s r e f r e s h i n g l y d e v o i d o f f o r m a l l o g i c , and though he s t a t e s i t s l i n k w i t h p e r s u a s i o n , he r e p e a t s Quackenbos's and H i l l ' s r e f u s a l t o l i n k argument t o e x p o s i t i o n . C l a r k ' s r e a s o n f o r t h i s c h o i c e has a l r e a d y been quoted h e r e ; " f o r m a l " e x p o s i t i o n has l i t t l e t o do w i t h an A m e r i c a n c i t i z e n ' s p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . I n t h i s t e x t , e x p o s i t i o n i s t h e i s o l a t e d f o r m , m a i n l y because C l a r k e q u a t e s i t not w i t h e v e r y d a y d i s c o u r s e b u t w i t h b e l l e - l e t t r e s . By c o n t r a s t , Theodore W. Hunt i n The P r i n c i p l e s o f W r i t t e n D i s c o u r s e ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1884) t a k e s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o r h e t o r i c and c o m p o s i t i o n 34 t e a c h i n g . H i s aim i s t o " e s t a b l i s h g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s . . . [ f o r ] when p r e c e p t s a r e . . . p r e s s e d i n p l a c e o f o r g a n i c p r i n c i p l e s , t h e e n t i r e a r t [ o f d i s c o u r s e ] d escends t o t h e l e v e l o f p e d a n t r y and i s n o t w o r t h y o f t h e d e v o t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n t m i n d s . " 1 1 Hunt i n t e n d s t o " r e v e a l t h e b a s i s o f d i s c o u r s e i n a t r u e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e mind," and y e t n o t n e g l e c t l a n g u a g e , l i t e r a t u r e , a p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f t h e w o r l d , o r t h e "mo r a l elements i n d i s c o u r s e " — a t r u l y awesome t a s k f o r any t e x t b o o k . Hunt c r i t i c i z e s W h a t e l y f i r s t ( a s e e m i n g l y p o p u l a r p a s t i m e ) f o r c o l l a p s i n g l o g i c and r h e t o r i c t o g e t h e r ( 1 2 ) . H i s r e t a l i a t i o n i s t o d i v i d e d i s c o u r s e i n t o t y p e s on t h e b a s i s o f "Human Powers of I n t e l l e c t , F e e l i n g s , and W i l l " ; t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s l a n t y i e l d s e x p o s i t i o n and argument f o r t h e i n t e l l e c t , and p e r s u a s i o n f o r t h e w i l l , w i t h e m o t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e p r e c e d i n g p e r s u a s i o n i n t h i s scheme ( 2 0 8 - 9 ) . ( A g a i n , we have seen how C a m p b e l l , Day, and H i l l have a l r e a d y used t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e i n t h e i r own work s . ) F o r H u n t , e x p o s i t i o n ' s " s o l e o f f i c e i s t o i n s t r u c t . . . .As i t s i m p l y aims t o e s t a b l i s h t h e meaning and not t h e t r u t h o f a p r o p o s i t i o n , i t has no p l a c e f o r t h e c o n v i n c i n g and p e r s u a s i v e . " Y e t Hunt emphasizes t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n " i s t h e b a s i s o f c o n v i c t i o n , i m p r e s s i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n " ( 2 2 4 - 6 ) . L i k e C a m p b e l l , Hunt b e l i e v e s t h a t one cannot persuade w i t h o u t e n s u r i n g t h a t an a u d i e n c e u n d e r s t a n d s a c o n c e p t f i r s t , and t h i s f o u n d a t i o n o f f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y a c c o u n t s f o r Hunt's s e e m i n g l y m e c h a n i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e "human powers." Hunt c l a r i f i e s h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p o s i t i o n and argument " i n t h a t t h e f i r s t t h i n g i n argument i s t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f ter m s , and i n t h a t o f t e n t h e b e s t way of e x p l a i n i n g an i d e a i s t o p r o v e i t " ( 2 2 4 - 6 ) . He t h e n d i s c u s s e s a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o o f , t r e a t i n g i t b o t h f o r m a l l y and f r o m t h e v i e w -p o i n t o f what he c a l l s t h e " T o p i c a l A r t , " o r i n f o r m a l p r o o f s . H i s e t h i c a l s t a n c e , t h a t t h e w r i t e r must c o n s i d e r human v a l u e s , c o l o r s t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ; d e f i n i t i o n s , p r o o f s , t o p i c s a r e l i n k e d by e t h i c a l p urpose ( 2 2 7 - 5 5 ) . Y e t Hunt 35 d e n i e s t h a t argument " i s e q u i v a l e n t i n i t s p r o v i n c e and p u r p o r t t o d i s c o u r s e i t s e l f . . . . T h i s v i e w o f t h e s c i e n c e i s u n d o u b t e d l y extreme and m i s l e a d i n g . H e i n s i s t s t h a t argument " i s b u t one among o t h e r s , " and t h a t , i f he had t o choose a f o r m t o subsume a l l o t h e r s , i t would be p e r s u a s i o n ( 2 2 6 - 7 ) . P e r s u a s i o n , t o Hunt, i n c l u d e s t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e s o f e m o t i o n , immediacy., and e t h i c a l p u r p o s e : i n t h i s s e n s e , he r e i t e r a t e s C a m p b e l l and B a i n . Hunt had come c l o s e r t h a n many t e x t book w r i t e r s a t t h i s t i m e t o r e u n i t i n g p u r p o s e s f o r w r i t i n g w i t h a common u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e f o r them, p e r s u a s i o n b e i n g a f o c a l p o i n t f o r e x p l a n a t i o n , p r o o f , and e t h i c a l / e m o t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The p r o b l e m w i t h Hunt, however, l i e s w i t h a c o n f l i c t i n t h e t e x t between h i s h o l i s t i c t h e o r y o f r h e t o r i c based on "a t r u e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e mind," and h i s i n s i s t e n c e on d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e aims and o c c a s i o n s o f d i s c o u r s e f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s . E x p o s i t i o n , a l o n e i n i t s vacuum o f h a v i n g "no p l a c e f o r t h e c o n v i n c i n g and p e r s u a s i v e , " r e f l e c t s Hunt's i m p l i c i t r e l i a n c e on a d y i n g f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y . Y e t Hunt was one o f a s t u b b o r n b r e e d o f r h e t o r i c i a n s who r e a l i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u p p o r t i n g p r a c t i c a l p r e c e p t s w i t h a t l e a s t some s o r t o f t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n . By t h e 1890's, t h i s f o u n d a t i o n was s w i f t l y d i s a p p e a r i n g f r o m t e x t s . E x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n — r e f l e c t i n g t h e gro w i n g t r i u m p h o f f o r m u l a o v e r p h i l o s o p h y i n t e a c h i n g c o m p o s i t i o n — b e g a n t h e i r f i n a l metamorphoses d u r i n g t h i s decade i n t o d i s c r e t e "forms" o r " t y p e s " o f d i s c o u r s e . A b r i e f l o o k a t some t e x t s used i n t h e e a r l y 1890's shows t h a t o n l y a few t a t t e r s o f f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y s t i l l c l u n g t o c o m p o s i t i o n t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g e x p o s i t i o n from argument. J o h n G.R. M c E l r o y ' s The S t r u c t u r e o f E n g l i s h P r o s e ( s i x t h e d i t i o n 1890) e x e m p l i f i e s t h e k i n d o f t e x t t h a t e q u a t e d forms o f d i s c o u r s e w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , f e e l i n g s , and w i l l . R e p e a t i n g many e a r l i e r i d e a s , M c E l r o y d e f i n e s argument as d e a l i n g w i t h judgments, p e r s u a s i o n as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e w i l l , and " e x p l a n a t i o n " as s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e n a t u r e o f t e r m s — d e f i n i n g them. " I n p r a c t i c e , 36 t h e p r o c e s s e s o f E x p l a n a t i o n and Argument, e t c . c a n n e v e r be c a r r i e d on s t r i c t l y a l o n e , " M c E l r o y a d m i t s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i f one i n s e r t s " e x p l a n a t i o n s between t h e p a r t s o f an argument, t h e two may be l i n k e d . " 1 - * I n t e r e s t i n g l y , p e r s u a s i o n " i n v o l v e s E x p l a n a t i o n , Argument, and E x c i t a t i o n " i n o r d e r t o be " f a i r and j u d i c i o u s " ; he echoes Hunt h e r e ( 3 2 5 ) . S t i l l , e x p o s i t i o n and argument r e m a i n i s o l a t e d from each o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l l y i n t h i s t e x t . W a l t e r S c o t t D a l g l e i s h , however, a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p o s i t i o n and argument. H i s I n t r o d u c t o r y Text-Book of  E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n ( w h i c h e n j o y e d t w e l v e E d i n b u r g h p r i n t i n g s and f o u r by A & W M a c K i n l a y of H a l i f a x , N.S. up u n t i l 1893) p r e s e n t e d e x p o s i t i o n but n o t a r g u m e n t a t i o n as a f o r m o f d i s c o u r s e . Argument, s a i d D a l g l e i s h , c o n s t i t u t e s one o f two t y p e s o f e x p o s i t o r y c o m p o s i t i o n , and has as i t s end t h e " p r o d u c t i o n of b e l i e f . " A w r i t e r must p r e s e n t e i t h e r a p r o p o s i t i o n , o r a t e r m , and t h e n p r o v e i t ( 7 1 - 3 ) . Here we see argument subsumed w i t h e x p o s i t i o n and b o l s t e r e d w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c as t h e method o f p r o o f , w h i l e "common sens e " r e l a t i o n s h i p as w e l l as e m o t i o n a l / e t h i c a l p r o o f s r e c e i v e l i t t l e r e a l a t t e n t i o n . I n o t h e r words, p e r s u a s i o n (and t h e w o r l d o f o p i n i o n ) i s i g n o r e d . I f one c o u l d p o i n t t o any p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e f o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of f o r m a l l o g i c a l argument i n t e x t s a t t h i s t i m e , i t would p r o b a b l y be t h e work o f George P. B a k e r of H a r v a r d . An a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r of E n g l i s h , he was t h e f i r s t t e x t book w r i t e r t o d e v e l o p a s y s t e m a t i c c o u r s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r g u m e n t a t i o n and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n d e b a t e . The w e l l - k n o w n " b r i e f " o r f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e o u t l i n e was h i s c r e a t i o n , and h i s P r i n c i p l e s o f A r g u m e n t a t i o n , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1895, e n j o y e d r e p r i n t i n g s up t o as l a t e as 1925. G e n e r a t i o n s o f b u d d i n g l a w y e r s l e a r n e d t h e i r " f o r e n s i c s " f r o m B a k e r ' s c o u r s e s and t e x t s . Such was H a r v a r d ' s p r e s t i g e t h a t t h e B a ker system q u i c k l y became w i d e s p r e a d ; t h i s t r e n d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e "detachment" o f i n f o r m a l methods o f argument i n c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s and t h e i r g r a d u a l r e p l a c e m e n t w i t h an i s o l a t e d b l o c k of f o r m a l 37 l o g i c a l methods o f r e a s o n i n g . Many t e x t book w r i t e r s , however, i n s i s t e d on argument's l i n k w i t h e x p o s i t i o n , even i f t h e y w eren't a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l i n k o r t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d i t s e x i s t e n c e . A r l o B a t e s , i n T a l k s on W r i t i n g E n g l i s h (1896) s a i d , " I t must be e v i d e n t t o anyone t h a t Argument i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h E x p o s i t i o n . . . s i n c e i f a t r u t h i s c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h i t i s l i k e l y t o c a r r y c o n v i c t i o n w i t h i t . " H i s d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t " i n E x p o s i t i o n t h e w r i t e r d e c l a r e s ; i n Argument he d e f e n d s , " and h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f o r m a l p r o o f s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s " d e f e n s e " c o u l d a l m o s t have been w r i t t e n by B a k e r . F i n a l l y , and v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y , B a t e s r e j e c t s p e r s u a s i o n as h a v i n g no p l a c e among t h e forms o f d i s c o u r s e . " P e r s u a s i o n , i n t h e s t r i c t sense of t h e term, i s o f c o u r s e not a k i n d of c o m p o s i t i o n , but a q u a l i t y of s t y l e , " K i t z h a b e r (211) q u o t e s B a t e s as e m p h a s i z i n g . B a i n ' s work had a t l a s t been c a r r i e d t o a l o g i c a l end, though Hunt ( f o r one) would have shuddered t o t h i n k t h a t h i s v e h i c l e f o r communicating v a l u e s c o u l d be r e d u c e d t o mere s t y l i s t i c e m b e l l i s h m e n t o f " f a c t s . " E l l a s J . MacEwan, i n The E s s e n t i a l s o f A r g u m e n t a t i o n (1898) saw a r e a l need f o r m i x i n g s t u d e n t s ' t e c h n i c a l a p p r o a c h t o w r i t i n g w i t h t h e l i t e r a r y . " A c t i n g on t h i s c o n v i c t i o n [ t h e w r i t e r ] made th e l a s t two y e a r s ' work I n E n g l i s h c o m p o s i t i o n — s p e e c h e s , e s s a y s , d i s c u s s i o n s — l a r g e l y a r g u m e n t a t i v e " ( 1 ) . I m p l i c i t h e r e i s an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e a r g u m e n t a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s b e s t s u i t e d t o communicating b o t h " f a c t s " and v a l u e s . MacEwan d e a l t w i t h argument d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , r e c o g n i z i n g purpose and o c c a s i o n as t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f whether an argument s h o u l d be f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l . He a l s o saw a l i n k between argument, e x p o s i t i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n : "However d i s t i n c t f r o m p e r s u a s i o n e x p o s i t i o n and a r g u m e n t a t i o n a r e i n t h e o r y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o keep them s e p a r a t e i n p r a c t i c e " ( 1 ) , an u n i n t e n t i o n a l and p o i g n a n t r e m i n d e r o f t h e gap between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e by t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y . He c o n t i n u e s — " O n e may w i s h i n 38 t h e same a d d r e s s t o i n f o r m , t o c o n v i n c e , t o a r o u s e , t o e x p l a i n a f a c t , t o e s t a b l i s h a t r u t h , o r t o I n f l u e n c e an a c t i o n " ( 1 - 2 ) . MacEwan c l e a r l y d i d n o t see d i s c o u r s e as d i v i d e d i n t o f o r m s , modes, o r t y p e s . R a t h e r , he tended t o p l a c e a l l methods o f r e l a t i n g i d e a s under a g e n e r a l h e a d i n g w h i c h c o u l d be c a l l e d " p e r s u a s i v e w r i t i n g , " l e a v i n g room t o communicate v a l u e s and o p i n i o n s as w e l l as f a c t s . MacEwan, however, c o u l d not r e c o n c i l e t h e c o n f l i c t among e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n as b e i n g d i f f e r e n t i n t h e o r y and s i m i l a r i n p r a c t i c e . He was f o r c e d t o admit t h a t some s o r t o f u n i t y among them e x i s t s because of t h e d i r e c t i o n he t o o k i n h i s t e x t , u n i t i n g d i s c o u r s e t h r o u g h p u r p o s e and o c c a s i o n — even though t h e f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y - b a s e d t e x t s k e p t i n s i s t i n g on s e p a r a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, J o h n Genung was a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r h i s t e x t , P r a c t i c a l E l e m e n t s o f R h e t o r i c ( 1 8 9 9 ) , a t e x t based on r h e t o r i c a l i n v e n t i o n , not f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y . One o f t h e l a s t a u t h o r s t o p r e s e n t f i v e forms i n s t e a d of f o u r ( p e r s u a s i o n as w e l l as a rgument), Genung saw forms o f d i s c o u r s e as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e i n v e n t i o n a l p r o c e s s . C e r t a i n "mental a p t i t u d e s " c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the arrangement o f m a t e r i a l a c c o r d i n g t o a w r i t e r ' s p u r p o s e . " A r g u m e n t a t i o n , " he s t a t e d , "may d e a l e i t h e r w i t h i d e a s ( v a l u e s ) o r w i t h f a c t , t h a t i s , e i t h e r w i t h t r u t h g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o n o t i o n s , s u c h as a r e t h e s u b j e c t s o f e x p o s i t i o n , o r w i t h i n d i v i d u a l and p a r t i c u l a r t r u t h s , such as a r e t h e s u b j e c t s of n a r r a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n " ( 4 0 7 - 8 ) . Genung chose t o i n q u i r e "how r e a s o n i n g can be a d a p t e d t o c l e a r and e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f t h o u g h t , and what forms of argument a r e most u s e f u l and p r e v a l e n t i n o r d i n a r y ( a s opposed t o p u r e l y f o r e n s i c ) l i t e r a r y t a s k s " ( 4 0 7 - 8 ) . He d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t o p o i c o n s t i t u t e d " t h e s i m p l e and n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s of t h e t h o u g h t " I n d i s c o u r s e ( 2 4 5 ) , and saw argument as d e m o n s t r a t i n g t r u t h t h r o u g h e x p l o i t i n g t h e v a r i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ( c r e a t e d t h r o u g h e x p o s i t i o n ) between i d e a s and f a c t s . P e r s u a s i o n , meanwhile, communicated " p r a c t i c a l , p e r s o n a l t r u t h s , 39 i m p u l s e " ( 4 4 7 ) . T h i s t r e a t m e n t of d i s c o u r s e i n d u c t i v e l y t r a c e s a w r i t e r ' s p r o g r e s s from o b s e r v a t i o n ( d e s c r i p t i o n and n a r r a t i o n ) t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ( e x p o s i t i o n ) t o communicating t h e s e t o an a u d i e n c e (argument and p e r s u a s i o n ) . As s u c h , Genung's t e x t comes c l o s e s t i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y of o t h e r s i n t h e 1890's t o a v i e w o f p r o s e as based on I n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n , one whereby i n d u c t i v e i n q u i r y i n t o a s u b j e c t c r e a t e s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ( s y n t h e s e s ) and t h e o r d e r o f i d e a s . I n g r e a t c o n t r a s t , F r e d e r i c k H. Sykes's E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n (1900) e x e m p l i f e s t h e f o r m u l a r i z a t i o n o f argument and o f d i s c o u r s e . F i r s t p u b l i s h e d by Copp C l a r k of T o r o n t o , t h e t e x t l i s t s t h e s t a n d a r d f o u r "modes," w i t h argument d e f i n e d as " i n t e n d e d t o c o n v i n c e one o f t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f a s t a t e m e n t " and d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h f o r m a l i n d u c t i o n , d e d u c t i o n , t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , and p r o o f s . A b r i e f r e f e r e n c e n o t e s t h a t "arguments t h a t a p p e a l t o our sympathy" a r e "of t h e n a t u r e o f p e r s u a s i o n , " but t h i s t e x t sees forms of d i s c o u r s e as c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e i n n a t u r e , f u n c t i o n , and s t r u c t u r e . E v e n e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g , w h i c h o t h e r t e x t s a p p l i e d t o a v a r i e t y of o c c a s i o n s , i s more o r l e s s l i m i t e d h e r e t o t o p i c s s u c h as "Making Peanut B r i t t l e " ( 1 9 9 ) . C e r t a i n l y t h i s t e x t i s " e l e m e n t a r y , " but I t s t r e a t m e n t of d i s c o u r s e was i n t e n d e d t o f o r m a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n f o r l a t e r c o l l e g e c o u r s e s , w h i c h would c o n t i n u e t o emphasize the d i f f e r e n c e between d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s o r t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d o f e v e r y d a y o°pinion. C o n t i n u i n g t h i s t r e n d was G.R. C a r p e n t e r ' s E l e m e n t s of R h e t o r i c and E n g l i s h  C o m p o s i t i o n ( 1 8 9 9 ) , a l s o i n t e n d e d f o r h i g h s c h o o l s . " W r i t i n g t h a t a t t e m p t s t o c o n v i n c e t h e r e a d e r by l o g i c a l p r o o f , we c a l l argument; w r i t i n g t h a t a t t e m p t s t o i n d u c e t h e r e a d e r t o do s o m e t h i n g , we c a l l p e r s u a s i o n " ( 1 0 7 ) . Such t o o l s as the p r o p o s i t i o n , f o r m a l p r o o f s , and t h e n o w - u b i q u i t o u s b r i e f r e c e i v e t h e b u l k o f C a r p e n t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i n h i s c h a p t e r on argument. On t h e p e n u l t i m a t e page he adds p r o v o c a t i v e l y t h a t " p e r s u a s i o n p a r t a k e s of t h e n a t u r e o f b o t h argument and 40 e x p o s i t i o n . . . p a r t l y t o c o n v i n c e . . . p a r t l y t o i n d u c e " (107) but f a i l s t o go i n t o d e t a i l . The r e a d e r i s l e f t w i t h s e p a r a t e "chunks" o f d i s c o u r s e w h i c h a r e somehow d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d , b u t , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h e w r i t i n g c o u r s e , c a n be t a k e n as d i s c r e t e . By t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y , e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n had s e t t l e d i n t o r e a d i l y remembered, easy t o t e a c h , " p r a c t i c a l " modes. E x p o s i t i o n , d e s i g n e d t o i n s t r u c t , made use o f i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e c o n c e p t s s u c h as d e f i n i t i o n , c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t , e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , and o c c a s i o n a l l y n a r r a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of f a c t s and e v e n t s . But i t had l o s t t h a t a b i l i t y ( s o c e n t r a l t o S m i t h ' s and C a m p b e l l ' s p h i l o s o p h i e s ) t o be a b l e t o " p r e a c h t o t h e u n c o n v e r t e d . " That t a s k now f e l l t o a r g u m e n t a t i o n , and u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a l s o t o f o r m a l l o g i c . As a r e s u l t of t h i s f o c u s on f o r m a l r e a s o n i n g , argument was now t h e f o r m of d i s c o u r s e l e a s t l i k e l y t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e s , and most l i k e l y t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e c o u r t r o o m and t h e d e b a t i n g t a b l e . Though p e r s u a s i o n r e t a i n e d i t s a n c i e n t aim of i n d u c i n g an a u d i e n c e t o some s o r t o f a c t i o n , t h e means by w h i c h i t d i d so had become m a i n l y e m o t i o n a l — b u t e m o t i o n , d i s t r u s t e d by s t u d e n t s of " f a c t , " tended t o f a d e i n t o s t y l i s t i c s ( a s i n A r l o B a t e s ' t e x t ) , o r more commonly, was subsumed i n t o argument as " s p e c i a l i z e d " o r a t o r y . As w i l l become a p p a r e n t i n my l o o k a t t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s , t h e t r e a t m e n t o f e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n c o n t i n u e s t o be a f r a g m e n t e d one, a t l e a s t up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e 1960's. Submerged and smothered by i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , on communication o f " f a c t s " i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n as a v e h i c l e f o r communicating v a l u e s d i s a p p e a r e d f o r a l o n g , d r y p e r i o d i n t h e h i s t o r y of c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g . Some of i t s p r i n c i p l e s o c c a s i o n a l l y emerged i n t r e a t m e n t s o f e x p o s i t i o n . However, t h e l i f e b l o o d o f r h e t o r i c , o p i n i o n a b l e d i s c o u r s e , c o n t i n u e d t o d r a i n s t e a d i l y out of c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few decades o f t h i s c e n t u r y . I t i s e x t r e m e l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a l s o , t h a t t h i s p e r i o d ( t h e 1890's t o the 1960's) c o r r e s p o n d s b o t h t o a n o t i c e a b l e l o s s o f r h e t o r i c ' s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and of i t s s t a t u s as a means f o r d i a l o g u e about e t h i c a l p u r p o s e s . 42 ^ A l e x a n d e r B a i n , E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c : A Manual (London: Longmans, G r e e n , and Co., 1 8 6 6 ) . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n the t e x t . I n 1887, B a i n ' s r e v i s e d E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c was p u b l i s h e d . The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s t e x t , " I n t e l l e c t u a l Q u a l i t i e s of S t y l e , " e l i m i n a t e d t h e " s o - c a l l e d k i n d s of c o m p o s i t i o n " i n o r d e r t o f o c u s on " o t h e r c o n n e x i o n s " ( v i ) : t h e forms of l i t e r a r y a r t . H e r e , B a i n emphasized o b s e r v a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and c r i t i c i s m o f works (233) and how s t y l e c a r r i e s i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s . I n e f f e c t , he u n i f i e d d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r a l l y t h r o u g h what he had e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d t o ( i n 1866) as " t h e bonds t h a t cement i d e a s i n t h e mind." ^George P. Quackenbos, Advanced C o u r s e of C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c : A  S e r i e s o f P r a c t i c a l L e s s o n s , r e v i s e d by J o h n D. Quackenbos (New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n Book Company, 1 8 8 4 ) , p. 355. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . 8 D a v i d J . H i l l , The S c i e n c e of R h e t o r i c : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Laws o f  E f f e c t i v e D i s c o u r s e (New Y o r k : S h e l d o n & Company, 1877). A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . ^ I n h i s l a t e r t e x t , The E l e m e n t s o f R h e t o r i c and C o m p o s i t i o n : A Text-Book  f o r S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , new e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : S h e l d o n & Company, 1886), H i l l a g a i n u n i t e d grammar and l o g i c w i t h r h e t o r i c , " t o add t o c o r r e c t n e s s and c o n c i s e n e s s such f o r c e and a t t e n t i v e n e s s as t o make our t h o u g h t s c l e a r and i n t e r e s t i n g . " He d i d n o t m e n t i o n modes o r forms o f d i s c o u r s e . I n s t e a d , H i l l wanted t h e l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d w r i t e r t o m a s t e r what was b a s i c a l l y an i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f i r s t . " F a c t s , I l l u s t r a t i o n s , o r arguments" a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the d i s c u s s i o n i n a p i e c e of w r i t i n g , he s a i d , and went on t o show how one c o u l d a r r a n g e t h e s e e i t h e r a n a l y t i c a l l y o r s y n t h e t i c a l l y ( 1 6 - 2 2 ) . 1 0 J . S c o t t C l a r k , A P r a c t i c a l R h e t o r i c f o r I n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h  C o m p o s i t i o n and R e v i s i o n i n C o l l e g e s and I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s (New Y o r k : Henry H o l t and Company, 1 8 8 6 ) , p. v i i . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n the t e x t . ^ T h e o d o r e W. Hunt, The P r i n c i p l e s o f W r i t t e n D i s c o u r s e , second e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : A.C. A r m s t r o n g and Son, 1 886), pp. 8-11. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number I n t h e t e x t . l ^ H unt was, of c o u r s e , r i g h t g i v e n t h a t argument was i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g e q u a t e d w i t h a f o r m a l l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e whose o n l y g o a l , i t seemed, was t o s h a r p e n s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o f e r r e t out f a l l a c i e s and f a c t s . O b v i o u s l y Hunt d i d n o t w i s h t o see a l l o f r h e t o r i c r e d u c e d t o t h i s k i n d o f s o p h i s t r y . l ^ H e r e , i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , i s an a n n o t a t e d l i s t o f c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s I examined p u b l i s h e d between 1890 and 1906: J o h n G.R. M c E l r o y , The S t r u c t u r e o f E n g l i s h P r o s e : A Manual o f C o m p o s i t i o n  and R h e t o r i c , s i x t h e d i t i o n ( T o r o n t o : Rose P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 8 9 0 ) . I n a s e n s e , t h i s t e x t e x e m p l i f i e s t h e a l r e a d y wide gap between r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n c o l l e g e s by t h e 1890's. I n h i s p r e f a c e , M c E l r o y says t h a t he i n t e n d s t o d e v o t e most space i n h i s book t o s t y l e , because q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o i n v e n t i o n " a r e l a r g e l y t h e o r e t i c a l " and not o f c o n c e r n t o "younger c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . " S t y l i s t i c c o n c e r n s s u c h as grammar, v o c a b u l a r y , s e n t e n c i n g , and o t h e r " q u a l i t i e s " t a k e up o v e r 230 pages of t h i s 336-page t e x t . M c E l r o y bases h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f i n v e n t i o n and arrangement on what a r e e s s e n t i a l l y A r i s t o t e l i a n t o p o i , but as p r o m i s e d , t h e a i m s , o c c a s i o n s , and s t r u c t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e g e t s h o r t s h r i f t . 43 ^ R i c h a r d W h a t e l y , E l e m e n t s o f R h e t o r i c ( B o s t o n : James Munroe and Company, 1 8 5 1 ) , p. 5. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . W h a t e l y ' s a t t e m p t t o equate a r g u m e n t a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h r h e t o r i c i t s e l f r e f l e c t e d h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t r h e t o r i c and l o g i c be r e u n i t e d i n pedagogy. H i s t e x t , t h e n , p l a c e s r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h i n one f o r m a l l o g i c a l framework, and t h i s i s why E l e m e n t s o f R h e t o r i c i s one of t h e v e r y few " c o r n e r s t o n e " t e x t s t h a t does n o t d i v i d e d i s c o u r s e i n t o s e p a r a t e f o r m s . W h a t e l y ' s r e j e c t i o n o f r h e t o r i c as o r n a m e n t a l i s i t s e l f a s t a t e m e n t f o r a u n i f i e d t h e o r y o f r h e t o r i c , because t h e o r n a m e n t a l o r b e l l e t r i s t i c movement c o n c e i v e d o f r h e t o r i c as t h e a r t w h i c h aims s o l e l y t o c u l t i v a t e t a s t e and form s t y l e . L a r g e l y n e g l e c t i n g i n v e n t i o and d i s p o s i t i o , t h e b e l l e t r i s t i c movement f o c u s e d on t h e canons o f e l o c u t i o and p r o n u n t i a t i o . S t u d y i n g t a s t e , s t y l e ( i n c l u d i n g schemes and t r o p e s ) , and e l o q u e n c e , and c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g works f o r t h e s e . t r a i t s , was and s t i l l i s thought t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r w r i t i n g t h e i r own c o m p o s i t i o n s and l e a r n i n g t o a p p r e c i a t e e x c e l l e n c e i n o t h e r s ' w r i t i n g . One o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e b e l l e t r i s t i c movement was Hugh B l a i r , whose L e c t u r e s on  R h e t o r i c and B e l l e s L e t t r e s (1783) l a i d down what was i n e f f e c t a d e t a i l e d c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s ; i t was h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n c o l l e g e s t h r o u g h o u t much of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b o t h i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The b e l l e t r i s t i c movement was a c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h e l a t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e U.S., of E n g l i s h departments dominated by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m and c o m p o s i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r h e t o r i c i n i t s c l a s s i c a l s e n s e . ^A.R. K i t z h a b e r , i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n " R h e t o r i c i n A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e s , 1850-1900" ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Wa s h i n g t o n , 1953) m e n t i o n s Samuel Newman as one of t h e f i r s t t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o d i v i d e d i s c o u r s e i n t o forms a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r aims and s t r u c t u r e s , not t h e i r l i t e r a r y t y p e . Newman, i n h i s P r a c t i c a l  System o f R h e t o r i c (1827) c i t e d d i d a c t i c , p e r s u a s i v e , and a r g u m e n t a t i v e f o r m s , and d i s t i n g u i s h e d p e r s u a s i o n and argument i n t h a t t h e f o r m e r i n d u c e s a c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e w i l l , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r o n l y c o n v i n c e s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( K i t z h a b e r , 1 9 5 - 6 ) . ^Henry W. Day, E l e m e n t s o f t h e A r t o f R h e t o r i c : Adapted f o r Use i n C o l l e g e s and Academies, and f o r P r i v a t e S t u d y , f o u r t h e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : A.S. B a r n e s and B u r r , 1 8 6 6 ) . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . I s h o u l d add t h a t Whately and Day were b o t h a i m i n g t o p r o v i d e c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g w i t h a p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n , but t o o k e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s . ^M.B. Hope, The P r i n c e t o n T e x t Book i n R h e t o r i c ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: Jo h n T. R o b i n s o n , 1 8 5 9 ) . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n the t e x t . ^ F r a n z Theremin, E l o q u e n c e A V i r t u e : An O u t l i n e o f a S y s t e m a t i c R h e t o r i c , t r a n s . W i l l i a m T. Shedd ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : S m i t h , E n g l i s h and Co., 1 8 5 9 ) . I s h o u l d p o i n t out t h a t Shedd's t r a n s l a t i o n was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1844. " E l o q u e n c e , " as The r e m i n s t a t e s i n h i s second c h a p t e r , "seeks t o s e p a r a t e t h e t r u e from t h e f a l s e , and t o s a t i s f y t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g by argument." H e r e , Theremin o b l i q u e l y shows how e x p o s i t i o n and argument can be l i n k e d s t r u c t u r a l l y t h r o u g h t h e i r i n f u s i o n w i t h e t h i c a l p u r p o s e . Theremin's v i e w o f t h e r o l e o f argument, j o i n i n g e x p l a n a t i o n t o p e r s u a s i o n , i n s p i r e d Hope's comment t h a t d u r i n g i m p a s s i o n e d d i s c o u r s e r h e t o r i c becomes "an e t h i c a l power, r u l i n g o v e r t h e f r e e s p i r i t o f man." 44 W a l t e r S c o t t D a l g l e i s h , I n t r o d u c t o r y Text-Book of E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n , r e v . e d i t i o n ( H a l i f a x : A & W M a c K i n l a y , 1 893). The terms n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and e x p o s i t i o n come i n t o t h i s l i t t l e handbook under t h e h e a d i n g "The S t r u c t u r e o f P a r a g r a p h s . " I n h i s Advanced Text-Book o f E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n , i n P r o s e and  V e r s e , p u b l i s h e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , D a l g l e i s h b r i n g s i n " p r o s e themes" w h i c h a r e based on n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and e x p o s i t i o n . He d i v i d e s e x p o s i t i o n i n t o " d i s c u r s i v e " and " a r g u m e n t a t i v e " k i n d s ; the l a t t e r borrows i t s t e c h n i q u e s f r o m W h a t e l y ' s f o r m a l l o g i c and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m t h e c l a s s i c a l f i v e - p a r t s p e e c h . A r l o B a t e s , T a l k s on W r i t i n g E n g l i s h : F i r s t S e r i e s (Cambridge, Mass.: The R i v e r s i d e P r e s s , 1 8 9 6 ) . B a t e s ' l e c t u r e s p r o g r e s s f r o m p r i n c i p l e s o f d i c t i o n and " q u a l i t y " t o e x p o s i t i o n , argument, d e s c r i p t i o n , and n a r r a t i o n , and f i n a l l y t o c h a r a c t e r , p u r p o s e , and c r i t i c i s m . H i s f o c u s i s w i t h o u t doubt a b e l l e t r i s t i c one. E l i a s J . MacEwan, The E s s e n t i a l s o f A r g u m e n t a t i o n ( B o s t o n : D.C. Heath and Co., 1 8 9 3 ) . MacEwan f i r s t s a ys o f h i s s t u d e n t s a t Kalamazoo's a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e "They had n o t t i m e t o s t u d y a l l t h e n i c e t i e s o f l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n . " F o r MacEwan, r h e t o r i c i s i m p l i c i t l y t h e s t u d y of argument and p e r s u a s i o n r a t h e r t h a n of b e l l e - l e t t r e s . H i s t e x t t r e a t s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , k i n d s of e v i d e n c e , and c l a s s e s o f argument i n some d e t a i l , and p r o v i d e s background on b o t h f o r m a l l o g i c a l argument as w e l l as argument based on "use, f o r c e , and s o u r c e . " C e r t a i n l y f o r m a l l o g i c a l argument does n o t i n any way dominate t h i s t e x t . J o h n F. Genung, The P r a c t i c a l E l e m e n t s o f R h e t o r i c ( B o s t o n : G i n n and Company, 1899). Genung d e a l s f i r s t w i t h s t y l e ( d i c t i o n and f i g u r e s of s p e e c h ) , t h e n moves on t o s y n t a x and grammar. I n h i s s e c t i o n on " I n v e n t i o n , " Genung t i e s t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o d e s c r i p t i o n ( o b j e c t s ) , n a r r a t i o n ( e v e n t s ) , e x p o s i t i o n ( g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ) , a r g u m e n t a t i o n ( t r u t h s ) , and p e r s u a s i o n ( p r a c t i c a l i s s u e s ) . He t h e r e f o r e d e a l s n o t so much w i t h forms o f d i s c o u r s e as he does w i t h what F r a n k D'Angelo would c a l l " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s . " H i s o r g a n i c t r e a t m e n t o f d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s , u n i f i e d t h r o u g h how we i n t e r p r e t our e x p e r i e n c e s , o b v i o u s l y has i t s a n t e c e d e n t s i n t h e New L o g i c and i n Adam S m i t h ' s L e c t u r e s , but i s u n i q u e f o r i t s p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . F r e d e r i c k Henry S y k e s , E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n ( T o r o n t o : The Copp C l a r k Company L t d . , 1 9 0 2 ) . Sykes t r e a t s n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , and argument ( w h i c h i n c l u d e s p e r s u a s i o n ) as d i s c r e t e u n i t s o f d i s c o u r s e , each c h a p t e r peppered w i t h i t s own e x e r c i s e s and l e s s o n s on grammar and s t y l e . G.R. C a r p e n t e r , E l e m e n t s o f R h e t o r i c and E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n : F i r s t and  Second H i g h S c h o o l C o u r s e s (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1 9 0 6 ) , p. 107. I n t h e F i r s t H i g h S c h o o l C o u r s e , C a r p e n t e r l o o k s a t s u c h g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s as d i c t i o n , s e n t e n c i n g , c l e a r n e s s , f o r c e , and e l e g a n c e . The Second H i g h S c h o o l C o u r s e f o c u s e s on d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , argument and p e r s u a s i o n , and v e r s e , a l l r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on r u l e s and e x e r c i s e s . I I I . P r e c e p t s W i t h o u t P r i n c i p l e s 45 E v e n t h e most f o r m u l a i c n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s tended t o base t h e i r t r e a t m e n t s o f d i s c o u r s e on some k i n d o f r a t i o n a l e , s u c h as t h e t h e o r y o f f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y . Y e t , l o n g a f t e r t h e 1890's, when t h i s t h e o r y began t o l o s e i t s s t a t u s as t h e key t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p l o r i n g t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s i n p h i l o s o p h y , p s y c h o l o g y , and e s p e c i a l l y r h e t o r i c , c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s g e n e r a l l y r e t a i n e d as a t e a c h i n g framework t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t d i s c o u r s e aims and s t r u c t u r e s c o r r e s p o n d t o d i s t i n c t a r e a s o f t h e mind: t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e f e e l i n g s , and the w i l l . The pro b l e m w i t h t h i s v i e w , however, was t h a t i t l e n t i t s e l f a l l t oo e a s i l y t o a f o c u s on d i s c o u r s e as h a v i n g d i s c r e t e f o r m s — a p r o b l e m e x a c e r b a t e d by the l o s s o f any t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r such a v i e w . By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h i s t e a c h i n g framework ( w h i c h was v i r t u a l l y a l l t h a t remained o f f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y i n r h e t o r i c ) dominated c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g and would f o r decades t o come. The d e a r t h o f a new t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e r e s u l t i n g r u l e s and models s o l i d i f i e d t h e s t e r e o t y p e s o f e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n . By t h e 1920's, p e r s u a s i o n was equated w i t h e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l s , argument w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c a l a p p e a l s , and e x p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e c l e a r , o b j e c t i v e e l u c i d a t i o n o f f a c t s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s g r o w i n g emphasis i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y on e x p o s i t i o n as t h e p r i m e v e h i c l e f o r communicating " f a c t s " and " i n f o r m a t i o n , " as " o b j e c t i v e " and t h e r e f o r e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v a l i d , has i t s a n t e c e d e n t s i n Adam S m i t h ' s n a r r a t i v e and d i d a c t i c forms o f w r i t i n g . But t h i s modern descendent l a c k s S m i t h ' s , and George C a m p b e l l ' s , e t h i c a l s t a n c e on t h e r o l e o f n a r r a t i v e and d i d a c t i c w r i t i n g as communicating n o t j u s t f a c t s , but what i s good as w e l l as t r u e . T h i s i s one r e a s o n why e x p o s i t i o n t r e a t e d as a "mode o f d i s c o u r s e " f a l l s f a r s h o r t o f encompassing i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n ( t h e s y n t h e s i s of p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o t h e s e s o r d i s c o v e r i e s ) f i r s t l a i d down by t h e New L o g i c i a n s and, f o r r h e t o r i c a l 46 t h e o r y , by S m i t h and C a m p b e l l . W i t h o u t t h e c o n n e c t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h argument and p e r s u a s i o n (as w e l l as n a r r a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n ) w h i c h S m i t h and Cam p b e l l d e l i n e a t e d , e x p o s i t i o n ' s p l a c e as p a r t o f t h e e n t i r e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e framework was l o s t . A l t h o u g h t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t books do q u i t e o f t e n s t a t e t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t between such forms of w r i t i n g as e x p o s i t i o n and argument, o r argument and p e r s u a s i o n , t h e y s t i l l t e n d t o r a t i o n a l i z e s u c h c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e o l d f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y adage t h a t "one needs t o u n d e r s t a n d s o m e t h i n g b e f o r e b e i n g c o n v i n c e d . " Thus, e x p o s i t i o n has i t s own r u l e s and s t r u c t u r e s t o h e l p b r i n g about u n d e r s t a n d i n g and o n l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I n the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e x t s I w i l l be e x a m i n i n g h e r e , e x p o s i t i o n i s u s u a l l y a l l i e d w i t h d e f i n i t i o n and a n a l y s i s . Argument i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h such s t r u c t u r e s as the s y l l o g i s m and t h e f o r e n s i c b r i e f , and i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h cause and e f f e c t , a n a l o g y , t e s t i m o n y , and c i r c u m s t a n c e . F i n a l l y , p e r s u a s i o n i s r a r e l y d e v e l o p e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s a r e argument and e x p o s i t i o n , but i s r a t h e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l s and sometimes a s p e c t s o f w r i t i n g " s t y l e " such as t h e f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h . But i n t h e u t i l i t a r i a n h i e r a r c h y o f t h e forms of d i s c o u r s e , e x p o s i t i o n comes f i r s t i n u s e f u l n e s s and t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n c e ; i t s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the " s p e c i a l s k i l l s " o f argument o r p e r s u a s i o n a r e g i v e n s h o r t s h r i f t . I n e f f e c t , t h e t y p i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t p u b l i s h e d i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y t e n d s t o be t h e epitome o f pedagogy w i t h o u t t h e o r y . Even t h e works o f such f i g u r e s as Wayne B o o t h , K e n n e t h B u r k e , and R i c h a r d Weaver, who r e v i v i f i e d r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y t h r o u g h t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o r e d e f i n e and r e s t r u c t u r e r h e t o r i c ' s r o l e i n human a f f a i r s , f a i l e d t o i n f l u e n c e c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g t o any g r e a t degree b e f o r e t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . 1 W h i l e r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r i s t s a f t e r t h e 1930's began once more t o acknowledge n o t o n l y l o g o s b u t e t h o s and pa t h o s i n e v e r y d a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t book w r i t e r s c o n t i n u e d t o b u i l d t h e i r c l a s s e s on l o g o s o n l y , a l o g o s f r a g m e n t e d i n t o d i s c r e t e e l e m e n t s . 47 My e x a m i n a t i o n of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e x t s r e v e a l s a p e d a g o g i c a l tendency t o d i v i d e e l ements of d i s c o u r s e from each o t h e r . The f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t e x t s , c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d f r o m W o r l d War I t o t h e mid-1960's, i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s same d i v i s i o n : d i s s o c i a t i o n between th e aims and s t r u c t u r e s of e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n , c r e a t i n g and p e r p e t u a t i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l vacuum i n c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g . Forms of d i s c o u r s e were f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o m p o s i t i o n b e f o r e 1920; i n f a c t , v i r t u a l l y a l l t e x t s p u b l i s h e d a f t e r 1910 were modeled on t h e e x p o s i t i o n -a r g u m e n t - d e s c r i p t i o n - n a r r a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . ^ G e r h a r d R. Lomer and M a r g a r e t Ashmun's The S t u d y and P r a c t i s e of W r i t i n g E n g l i s h (1917) p r e s e n t e d a d e v i a n t n i n e forms of d i s c o u r s e , o f w h i c h e x p o s i t i o n and argument were but two.^ E x p o s i t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s ' d e f i n i t i o n , can be used " t o l a y a f o u n d a t i o n f o r o r t o a s s i s t d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , o r argument" ( 2 4 2 ) . I n o t h e r words, s t a t e Lomer and Ashmun, e x p o s i t i o n as t h e " e x p l a n a t i o n o f a term, i d e a s , c o n c e p t i o n . . . o b j e c t . . . w i t h t h e purpose o f making any of them c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d " ( 2 4 1 ) , seldom s t a n d s on i t s own i n p r a c t i c e . T h e i r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how a r g u m e n t a t i o n works d e v e l o p s f u r t h e r t h i s i d e a o f e x p o s i t i o n ' s l a r g e r o l e i n d i s c o u r s e : A r g u m e n t a t i o n has c o n s t a n t use f o r e x p o s i t i o n . . . . I t d i f f e r s f r om mere e x p o s i t i o n i n h a v i n g a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m . E x p o s i t i o n seeks t o make th e unknown known; a r g u m e n t a t i o n t r i e s t o remove u n c e r t a i n t y and u n b e l i e f . . . .(254-5) Y e t h e r e a r e echoes o f a paradox u n e a r t h e d I n a number o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e x t s . ^ W h i l e seeming t o r e a l i z e t h a t d i s c o u r s e can be b u i l t on one common f o u n d a t i o n , Lomer and Ashmun s t i l l c o n c e i v e d of e x p o s i t i o n and argument as two e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s and p a t t e r n s , as most t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s had been d o i n g f o r decades. Thus, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between argument and e x p o s i t i o n became l a r g e l y o b s c u r e d i n p r a c t i c e , and " p r a c t i c e " i s what t h e i r t e x t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h . Lomer and Ashmun a l s o f o l l o w an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t h i n making p e r s u a s i o n a 48 p a r t of argument, f o r argument t o them n o t o n l y p r o v e s something and a n t i c i p a t e s o b j e c t i o n s ( w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e t a s k o f f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n ) but a l s o " c o n v i n c e s a r e a d e r o r an a u d i e n c e t h a t some s t a t e m e n t i s t r u e and t h a t some s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e o r a c t i o n i s a d v i s a b l e o r n e c e s s a r y " ( 2 5 4 ) . T h i s i s a l s o the t a s k of p e r s u a s i o n . Lomer and Ashmun's t e x t i s f a i r l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e way e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n were b e i n g t r e a t e d a t t h i s t i m e . By c o n t r a s t , however, C h a r l e s S e a r s B a l d w i n , i n C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n ( 1 9 1 7 ) , l a s h e d o u t a t t h e u s u a l d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between argument and p e r s u a s i o n : t h e l o g i c v e r s u s emotion d i c h o t o m y . ( B a l d w i n had f e l t t h e same way i n 1902, K i t z h a b e r n o t e s . ^ ) C o l l e g e  C o m p o s i t i o n , p u b l i s h e d a t t h e t i m e B a l d w i n was on t h e v e r g e o f a bandoning c o m p o s i t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s , a t t a c k e d what he saw as t h e " o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n " o f p o p u l a r t r e a t m e n t s o f argument and p e r s u a s i o n : ^ "We a r e n o t so c r u d e l y t w o f o l d t h a t i t i s e a s y t o f i n d f e e l i n g w i t h o u t r e a s o n , o r r e a s o n w i t h o u t f e e l i n g . " 7 A l s o r e j e c t i n g t h e f o u r modes, he saw d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s as " o v e r l a p p i n g , " w h e r e i n " i n f o r m a t i o n passes o v e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n , d i s c u s s i o n i n t o p e r s u a s i o n . " Most i m p o r t a n t l y , B a l d w i n does n o t subsume p e r s u a s i o n i n t o argument; i n s t e a d he expands p e r s u a s i o n , b r i n g s i t o u t of h i d i n g , t o c o v e r " i n t h e l a r g e s t s e n s e . . .the whole f i e l d o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of i d e a s , o r o f r h e t o r i c as u n d e r s t o o d by t h e a n c i e n t s " ( 9 3 ) . Argument, f o r B a l d w i n , i s a l w a y s " p a r t of p e r s u a s i o n . . . e s s e n t i a l l y t h e g i v i n g o f r e a s o n s f o r o r a g a i n s t a p r o p o s i t i o n " ( 9 4 - 5 ) , and e x p o s i t i o n , i n c l u d e d w i t h argument under t h e s e c t i o n on d i s c u s s i o n , i s a l m o s t a l w a y s p a r t o f argument and f o c u s e s on t h e g a t h e r i n g and p r e s e n t i n g of f a c t s . I n t h i s t e x t , B a l d w i n has t a k e n g i a n t s t e p s towards u n i f y i n g d i s c o u r s e under t h e banner of c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y . I n d e e d , as w i t h S m i t h and C a m p b e l l , o n l y t h e degree t o w h i c h a d i s c o u r s e "moves men" d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i n f o r m a t i v e f r o m 49 d i s c u r s i v e , and d i s c u r s i v e f r o m p e r s u a s i v e w r i t i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h i s e x a m i n a t i o n of argument as " t h e commonest means of p e r s u a s i o n . . . u s u a l l y o r a l " (133) s e r v e s o n l y t o d i s s o c i a t e i t f r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n / d i s c u s s i o n / p e r s u a s i o n p r o c e s s because he t r e a t s i t i n t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m a l manner: t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s , e v i d e n c e , l o g i c a l , p r o c e s s e s s u c h as t h e s y l l o g i s m and t h e enthymeme, and t h e f o r e n s i c b r i e f . L i k e D a v i d J . H i l l and Henry Day b e f o r e him, B a l d w i n has i n a d v e r t e n t l y c r e a t e d two b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s f o r p r o s e : one l a r g e l y i n d u c t i v e and c o v e r i n g most aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e ; and t h e o t h e r f o r m a l , l a r g e l y d e d u c t i v e , and t o o " s p e c i a l i z e d " f o r most aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r w r i t i n g . Y e t t h e c o n t r a s t between B a l d w i n ' s t r e a t m e n t of d i s c o u r s e and t h a t i n t e x t s l e s s t h a n a decade l a t e r i s q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e . T e x t s o f t h e 1920's e x e m p l i f y what R o b e r t J . Connors c a l l s t h e " r e i g n of t h e modes," a t i m e when I n terms o f new i n s i g h t s , t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o m p o s i t i o n was f r o z e n i n i t s t r a c k s . . .and d e s p i t e a few n o v e l t r e a t m e n t s and u p - t o - d a t e a p p e a r a n c e s , I cannot f i n d a s i n g l e t e x t t h a t i s n o t d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e a u t h o r s of t h e [ e i g h t e e n ] n i n e t i e s ( 4 4 9 ) . Nor c o u l d I . The E l e m e n t s o f C o m p o s i t i o n (1925) by Henry S. Canby and John B. Opdyke d e f i n e s e x p o s i t i o n as "an e x p l a n a t i o n o f . . . a n y t h i n g , i n d e e d , t h a t has t o be made c l e a r , " and argument as "an a t t e m p t t o p r o v e o r d i s p r o v e t h e c l a i m of a s t a t e m e n t . . . t o c o n v i n c e o r persuade a n o t h e r mind o f t h e t r u t h o f a g i v e n p r o p o s i t i o n , " p e r s u a s i o n i t s e l f h i d d e n away a g a i n under argument.** We see a b a s i c p r e c e p t of f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y i n t h i s passage: E x p o s i t i o n a p p e a l s t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t does n o t a p p e a l p r i m a r i l y t o t h e w i l l o r t h e f e e l i n g s o r t h e imag-i n a t i o n . I t s p u r p o s e i s t o make c l e a r . . . .the b a s i c laws of c l e a r n e s s a r e t h e laws of e x p o s i t i o n ( 3 8 1 ) . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n causes t r o u b l e f o r t h e a u t h o r s when t h e y l a t e r i n s i s t t h a t argument, a l s o , a p p e a l s t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o c o n v i n c i n g o r 50 p e r s u a d i n g someone, and t h a t i t s aim " i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e dynamic use of o t h e r forms o f d i s c o u r s e " ( 5 8 2 ) . F o r t h i s t e x t has c a r e f u l l y s e t up s e p a r a t e aims and s t r u c t u r e s f o r d i s c o u r s e , o n l y t o a s s e r t t h a t t h e y a r e i n some way u n i f i e d . Of c o u r s e , t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n shows c l e a r l y how i n a d e q u a t e the s e p a r a t e forms a r e as a way of t e a c h i n g c o m p o s i t i o n m e a n i n g f u l l y when t h o s e forms l a c k t h e o r e t i c a l s u p p o r t . As i f t o make up f o r t h e i r momentary b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e modes pedagogy, though, Canby and Opdyke t r e a t argument as a h i g h l y f o r m a l , f o r e n s i c s y s t e m o f p r o p o s i t i o n s , p r o o f s , and b r i e f s . They a r e back on t h a t f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y o f s e p a r a t e s t r u c t u r e s f o r d i s c o u r s e w h e r e i n argument i s as s p e c i a l i z e d and as f a r removed from e x p o s i t i o n as p o s s i b l e . Howard B. G r o s e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f e x p o s i t i o n : " t o i n f o r m , t o make c l e a r , o r e x p l a i n " a l s o s e r v e s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t f r o m o t h e r d i s c o u r s e . ^ H i s 1926 t e x t C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n ( p r i n t e d o n l y once) d e s c r i b e s e x p o s i t i o n as c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e f i n i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and p r o c e s s ( t h e l a s t two b e i n g p r i m a r i l y what o t h e r t e x t s c a l l e d " e x p o s i t o r y " d e s c r i p t i o n and n a r r a t i o n ) . Y e t t a k e n o t e o f t h i s passage: Argument i s t h a t t y p e o f w r i t i n g i n w h i c h t h e i n t e n t i o n I s t o c o n v i n c e o r p e r s u a d e . I t s f u n d a m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s a r e d e f i n -i t i o n and d i v i s i o n ; and i n form i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h f r o m e x p o s i t i o n . (166) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , G rose i s n o t making a c a s e h e r e f o r a common framework f o r e x p o s i t i o n and argument i n c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g ; i n s t e a d he has become t r a p p e d i n t h e same paradox as Lomer and Ashmun. He c a n g e t out of i t o n l y by i n v o k i n g t h e s a c r e d name o f p r a c t i c a l i t y : But f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e need be no s e r i o u s c o n f u s i o n , because argument, as we s h a l l use t h e term, i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h m a t t e r s about w h i c h t h e r e i s an e v i d e n t and u n m i s t a k a b l e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n . (166) What G r o s e ends up d o i n g i s d i v i d i n g argument i n t o two c l a s s e s . The f i r s t " s e e k s t o i n f l u e n c e t h o u g h t a l o n e , " and t h e second " t o i n f l u e n c e t h o u g h t and p r o d u c e a c t i o n " ( 2 2 4 ) . The f i r s t i s t r e a t e d f u n d a m e n t a l l y as e x p o s i t i o n ( G r o s e n e v e r does j u s t i f y why, t h e r e f o r e , a s e p a r a t e t y p e c a l l e d " e x p o s i t i o n " i s needed) w h i l e t h e second i s t r e a t e d as i f i t were debate: t h e b r i e f , p r o p o s i t i o n s , and p r o o f t h r o u g h t e s t i m o n y , c i r c u m s t a n c e , a n a l o g y , c a u s e , and e f f e c t . P e r s u a s i o n (mentioned b r i e f l y as a n o t h e r t y p e o f argument) c a n ' t be l e a r n e d i n t e x t books, G r o s e s t a t e s , because i t i s so c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h human n a t u r e . W h i l e t h e f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g i s t r h e t o r i c i a n s had a t t e m p t e d t o show how d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s r e f l e c t a s p e c t s of human n a t u r e , t h e t e x t book w r i t e r s of t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y d e c i d e d t h a t human n a t u r e (and by i m p l i c a t i o n o p i n i o n ) was b e t t e r l e f t f o r t h e s p e c i a l i s t s . Two o t h e r t e x t s , b o t h p r i n t e d i n 1929, a l s o d e s e r v e b r i e f m e n t i o n . E f f e c t i v e E n g l i s h , by J.R. and V.B. H u l b e r t , based i t s s e c t i o n on argument d i r e c t l y on George P. B a k e r ' s o r i g i n a l b r i e f f o r m a t i n t r o d u c e d f i r s t i n 1895. E x p o s i t i o n , a p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n , c o u l d a l s o s e r v e as p a r t of f o r m a l argument, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e H u l b e r t s . I n e f f e c t t h e a u t h o r s p l a c e d e x p o s i t i o n below argument i n i m p o r t a n c e ; l i k e W h a t e l y , t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t a s ystem o f f o r m a l argument c o u l d t e a c h s t u d e n t s " t h e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h u n d e r l i e s a l l s u c c e s s f u l i n f o r m a l argument and much e x p o s i t i o n . " 1 0 However, t h e i r t y p e s of d i s c o u r s e remained s e p a r a t e d b o t h i n aim and s t r u c t u r e . I n o t h e r words, t h e y f a i l e d t o show how, e x a c t l y , f o r m a l argument r e l a t e s t o o t h e r forms o f d i s c o u r s e . Y e t Raymond W. Pence's C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n (1929; r e p r i n t e d i n 1930) i g n o r e d argument a l t o g e t h e r . I t r e c e i v e s , l i t e r a l l y , a f o o t n o t e i n w h i c h Pence, e x p l a i n i n g t h e development o f t h e " e x p o s i t o r y - a r g u m e n t a t i v e " p a r a g r a p h , s a y s , "No good p u r p o s e w i l l be s e r v e d i n t r y i n g t o draw any d i s t i n c t i o n h e r e between e x p o s i t i o n and a r g u m e n t a t i o n . " 1 1 E x p o s i t i o n subsumes argument c o m p l e t e l y , and p e r s u a s i o n d i s a p p e a r s i n t h i s t e x t . E v e n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e t o o l o f f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n , Pence sees as one o f t h e " p r i n c i p a l m a t e r i a l s " of 52 e x p o s i t i o n . I n a s e n s e , d i s c o u r s e i s c e r t a i n l y u n i f i e d h e r e , y e t t h e a u t h o r d e v e l o p s t h i s t e x t on t h e b a s i s t h a t a l l " n o n - i m a g i n a t i v e " w r i t i n g aims t o make something c l e a r , t o e x p l a i n , h e r a l d i n g t h e h o s t s o f e x p o s i t o r y - w r i t i n g - o n l y t e x t s t o appear i n t h e 1930's and 40's. I n s h o r t , Canby and Opdyke, G r o s e , t h e H u l b e r t s , and Pence a l l e x e m p l i f y t h e s t r u g g l e t o b u r y any " c o n f u s i n g " s i g n s o f a t h e o r e t i c a l u n i f y i n g framework f o r d i s c o u r s e under t h e c o m f o r t i n g p r a c t i c a l i t y and ease of t e a c h i n g t h e s e p a r a t e f o r m s . The 1930's was a t i m e when t h e "modes o f d i s c o u r s e " began t o l o o s e n t h e i r s t r a n g l e h o l d on c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g , but t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few s i g n s t h a t t e x t s i n t r o d u c e d a common s t r u c t u r a l framework i n t h e i r p l a c e . Dana 0. Je n s e n ' s Modern C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c (1935) c i t e s t h r e e p u r p o s e s f o r d i s c o u r s e : t o communicate f a c t s , e x p r e s s o p i n i o n s , o r n a r r a t e i n c i d e n t s . ^ I n t h e second p a r t o f t h e t e x t , t h e r e s u l t i n g " f o r m s " a r e b r o k e n down i n t o e x p o s i t i o n ( f a c t u a l , o p i n i o n a t e d , p e r s o n a l ) ; e x p o s i t i o n ( t h e r e s e a r c h p a p e r ) ; e x p o s i t i o n ( t h e p r e c i s , d e f i n i t i o n , c r i t i c a l r e v i e w ) ; n a r r a t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , d e s c r i p t i o n . The a u t h o r s c a u t i o n t h a t Few themes a r e w h o l l y n a r r a t i v e , d e s c r i p t i v e , e x p o s i t o r y , o r a r g u m e n t a t i v e . . . .But t h e s t u d e n t . . .must s e t t l e on none u n t i l he has t h o r o u g h l y t e s t e d t h e f i t n e s s o f a l l f o r h i s p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e ( 2 0 ) . L i k e t h e freshman c h e m i s t r y s t u d e n t who d i p s l i t m u s paper i n t o v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s t o see i t t u r n c o l o r , t h e s t u d e n t u s i n g Modern C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c was r e q u i r e d t o t r y out t h e forms s e p a r a t e l y t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h b e s t s u i t e d t h e theme t o be w r i t t e n . Y e t t h i s t e x t a t t e m p t s t o move a r g u m e n t a t i v e d i s c o u r s e c l o s e r t o e x p o s i t i o n i n s t r u c t u r e by c a l l i n g argument " o p i n i n a t e d " e x p o s i t i o n , w h e r e i n a w r i t e r s h i f t s h e r emphasis "from t h e f a c t s t o what t h e w r i t e r t h i n k s about the f a c t s " ( 1 8 0 ) . But t h e a u t h o r s p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g u i d e t h a t r e l i e s , l i k e 53 i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n , f a i r l y h e a v i l y on t h e use o f examples t o c o n v i n c e a r e a d e r . But t h i s g l i m p s e o f i n f o r m a l argument i s more t a n t a l i z i n g t h a n u s e f u l i n u n i f y i n g d i s c o u r s e , f o r t h e t e x t f o c u s e s on how t o w r i t e p i e c e s " f o r t h e one p r i m a r y purpose o f e x p l a i n i n g " ( 1 8 0 ) . I n e f f e c t , t h i s t e x t i g n o r e s t h e w o r l d o f o p i n i o n and i s s u e s , and i n s t e a d t e a c h e s t h e w r i t i n g o f " f a c t u a l " p i e c e s . A n o t h e r 1935 t e x t , P u r p o s i v e P r o s e ; S e l e c t i o n s i n E x p o s i t i o n , b e g i n s more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y : " A l l t h a t you w r i t e ( o r speak) f a l l s i n t o one o f f o u r 'forms o f d i s c o u r s e . ' " ^ A b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f each f o l l o w s . A r g u m e n t a t i o n ' s purpose i s c o n v i c t i o n "as t o t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h a t , o r as t o t h e t r u t h o f t h i s , and so f o r t h " (argument has a g a i n subsumed p e r s u a s i o n h e r e ) . However, t h e a u t h o r s choose n o t t o d e a l w i t h argument, w h i c h t h e y equate w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c , because i t i s "almost u n i v e r s a l l y t a u g h t nowadays n o t i n c l a s s e s i n E n g l i s h c o m p o s i t i o n but i n c l a s s e s of p u b l i c s p e a k i n g " — a r e v e a l i n g summary o f t h e l o w l y s t a t e o f argument and p e r s u a s i o n i n c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g . I n s t e a d , aware o f t h e demand f o r i t , t h e a u t h o r s f o c u s on e x p o s i t i o n , d e f i n i n g i t as t h a t f o r m w h i c h "aims t o make c l e a r " p r i m a r i l y by d e f i n i t i o n and a n a l y s i s . C l e a r l y , t h i s t e x t as w e l l as J e n s e n ' s e x e m p l i f i e s a g r o w i n g " s c i e n t i s m i c " c o n c e p t t h a t a c l e a r , u n b i a s e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f a c t s i s more t r u s t w o r t h y and more c o r r e c t t h a n w r i t i n g t h a t t a k e s an e t h i c a l s t a n d . One o f t h e few C a n a d i a n c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s i n use a t t h i s t i m e was M. D o r o t h y Mawdsley and M a r j o r i e Leeming's Modern C o m p o s i t i o n f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and  C o l l e g i a t e s ( 1 9 3 5 ) . B o t h f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e a u t h o r s p r e s e n t e d modes o f d i s c o u r s e o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s s u c h as u n i t y ( n a r r a t i o n ) , c o h e r e n c e and emphasis ( d e s c r i p t i o n ) , and arrangement ( e x p o s i t i o n ) . The s e c t i o n on argument a t t h e end of t h e t e x t was i n t e n d e d " c h i e f l y as an a i d i n s c h o o l d e b a t i n g " ; though t h e a u t h o r s admit o f t h e " c l o s e r e l a t i o n " o f argument t o e x p o s i t i o n , t h e y do n o t d i s c u s s i t . 1 ^ T h i s t e x t has no new t r e a t m e n t s o f d i s c o u r s e , i n s t e a d c h o o s i n g t h e p o p u l a r o p t i o n o f e m p h a s i z i n g e x p o s i t i o n a t t h e 54 expense o f argument and p e r s u a s i o n . E a r l i e r we saw e v i d e n c e t h a t many t e x t s sense a u n i t y between e x p o s i t i o n and argument I n t h e o r y w h i l e i n p r a c t i c e t h e y r e m a i n s e p a r a t e . C h a r l e s H. Raymond's A Book of E n g l i s h (1936) r e p e a t s t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l i d e a . " E x p o s i t i o n and argument go hand i n hand i n o r d i n a r y speech and c o m p o s i t i o n , " he s t a t e s . N ext we a r e g i v e n d e f i n i t i o n s o f e x p o s i t i o n and argument l i t t l e changed s i n c e 1 8 9 0 : ^ E x p o s i t i o n e x p l a i n s s o m e t h i n g . . . .Argument c o n s i s t s i n g i v i n g r e a s o n s t o show t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y of a p r o p o s i t i o n . I t s purpose i s t o c o n v i n c e a p e r s o n o f a way o f b e l i e f o r t o persuade him t o a c t i o n . E x e r c i s e t o p i c s f o r themes i n t h i s t e x t a r e of t h e "how t o " t y p e f o r e x p o s i t i o n and t h e " s h o u l d be" t y p e f o r argument, r e i n f o r c i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n between t h e two of aim and s t r u c t u r e . What we see i n t e x t s i n t h e 1930's i s a s t r u g g l e f o r d o m i n a t i o n between e x p o s i t i o n ( b o t h I n i t s " p u r e " f o r m as e x p l a n a t o r y d i s c o u r s e and as " o p i n i o n a b l e " ) and t h e modes pedagogy, o r a l l forms as e q u a l i n u s e f u l n e s s but as s e p a r a t e i n aim and s t r u c t u r e . Those t e x t s t h a t s t i l l u s e t h e modes t e n d t o r e t a i n t h e same f o r m a t s and methods as e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , o r even t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Those t h a t f o c u s on e x p o s i t i o n g e n e r a l l y do so a t t h e expense of argument and p e r s u a s i o n , r e f u s i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e w o r l d o f o p i n i o n . N e i t h e r s i d e o p e r a t e s under a t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e . S t r a n g e l y enough, t h e U.B.C. l i b r a r y ' s s u p p l y o f s u p e r a n n u a t e d c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s l a c k s m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e l a t e 1930's t h r o u g h most o f t h e 1940's, f o r c i n g me t o i n f e r ( b e s i d e s n o t i n g W o r l d War Two's d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s ) t h a t c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s e s a t U.B.C. d u r i n g t h i s t i m e used o l d e r t e x t s because t h e y were s t i l l p e r c e i v e d as p e d a g o g i c a l l y v a l i d . One, Fundamentals o f Good W r i t i n g ( 1 9 4 9 ) , m e n t i o n s what we now c a l l t h e "communications t r i a n g l e " : medium, s u b j e c t , and o c c a s i o n , g i v i n g d i s c o u r s e an o v e r a l l p u r p o s e . Y e t , t h i s i s a t e x t i n t r a n s i t i o n as w e l l , f o r i t s t i l l f o c u s e s on " f o u r k i n d s o f d i s c o u r s e " w h i c h i n t h i s c a s e r e f l e c t f o u r b a s i c i n t e n t i o n s o f a w r i t e r . A u t h o r s C l e a n t h B r o o k s and R o b e r t 55 Perm Warren a r e s t i l l v e r y much c e n t e r e d i n s e p a r a t e d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s , as i s p l a i n t o see i n t h i s passage: 1*' Though most w r i t i n g i n v o l v e s a m i x t u r e o f t h e k i n d s o f d i s c o u r s e , we can b e s t s t u d y them i n i s o l a t i o n . . . . I t i s o n l y a f t e r one u n d e r s t a n d s t h e k i n d s o f d i s c o u r s e i n a pure form t h a t one can make them work t o g e t h e r t o g i v e u n i t y t o a l a r g e r d i s c o u r s e . E x p o s i t i o n and argument i n t h i s t e x t r e c e i v e s t a n d a r d t r e a t m e n t s : e x p o s i t i o n " e x p l a i n s o r c l a r i f i e s a s u b j e c t [and] i s t h e most common k i n d o f w r i t i n g " ( 3 8 ) , d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , and o t h e r i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s l i k e c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a n a l y s i s and d e f i n i t i o n a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i s t o f ways of d e v e l o p i n g an e x p o s i t o r y p i e c e . Argument, however, a p p e a l s " o n l y " t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i s "used t o make t h e a u d i e n c e t h i n k o r a c t as t h e a r g u e r d e s i r e s " ( 1 2 5 ) . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , argument " i m p l i e s c o n f l i c t " ( 1 3 1 ) , an i d e a t h a t w i l l r e s u r f a c e i n t h e 1950's because o f argument's l o n g i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m as d e b a t e . I t s methods of development i n c l u d e t h e u s u a l ones: t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , t e s t i m o n y , a n a l o g y , t h e s y l l o g i s m , and t h e b r i e f . As we have seen b e f o r e , e x p o s i t i o n and argument c o n s t i t u t e h e r e f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l argument. The a u t h o r s h i n t a t common means of development, but m a i n t a i n s e p a r a t e forms f o r th e a r t i f i c i a l p u r p o s e o f s t u d y i n g them i n " i s o l a t i o n " and f o r t h e immediate purpose a l s o o f e m p h a s i z i n g f a c t u a l , n o n - c o n t e n t i o u s w r i t i n g . The s e p a r a t i o n o f e x p o s i t i o n and argument i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n Do n a l d D a v i d s o n ' s A m e r i c a n C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c ( t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n o f w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 5 3 ) . I n as c i r c u l a r a d e f i n i t i o n as one c o u l d e v e r w i s h t o s ee, the a u t h o r e x p l a i n s e x p o s i t i o n as " W r i t i n g t h a t t e n d s toward e x p o s i t i o n , even though i t may not be pure e x p o s i t i o n . E x p o s i t i o n by now, a p p a r e n t l y , needs no e l a b o r a t i o n . "Argument," D a v i d s o n c o n t i n u e s , " w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y appear when i t i s p r o p e r t o s u p p o r t an o p i n i o n , " b u t e x p o s i t i o n i s "by f a r " t h e most p r e v a l e n t f o r m , he adds. He echoes o t h e r t e x t book w r i t e r s by l a y i n g out 56 c l e a r l y exposition's i s o l a t e d purpose as "to explain rather than to describe, r e l a t e , or convince" (45). Yet argument, f o r him, contains d e f i n i t i o n and analysis, "which are expository i n nature" (45). Davidson never r e a l l y develops t h i s idea of argument's expository nature, but rather shows how argument develops through the syllogism, inductive and deductive l o g i c , use of evidence, and a "rather simple plan" he c a l l s the " a r t i c l e of opinion," which i s e s s e n t i a l l y the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l scheme for arranging discourse (507-8). Persuasion, i n t h i s "simple plan," has disappeared, except for a very b r i e f mention as being part of argument. A Canadian text, A Handbook of Composition (1953), i s aimed mainly at t e c h n i c a l w r i t e r s . Neither argument nor persuasion i s dealt with here; the focus i s on exposition as "writing which has as i t chief purpose the making of an explanation or the passing on of i n f o r m a t i o n . O n e sample theme topic i s "How To Dig An Indian Well" for simple exposition; for "objective/impersonal and persuasive" topics, more "formal" exposition was necessary. "Although argument i s sometimes c l a s s i f i e d as a separate form of w r i t i n g , we s h a l l consider i t as exposition. . .an explanation of the writer's views presented to persuade the reader" (43-4). However, the author deals with discourse on a formal basis only, not making any attempt to show s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y . Such texts r e f l e c t the then p r e v a i l i n g school of thought that good w r i t i n g i s simply a c r a f t — c o m b i n i n g c e r t a i n rules and structures to produce c l e a r and f a c t u a l prose. The 1950's was a period when composition texts began to p r o l i f e r a t e . In the i n t e r e s t s of p r a c t i c a l i t y , only a few of them w i l l be examined i n any d e t a i l as representatives of t h e i r time. Yet two things about these texts stand out: a general adherence to teaching writing through d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the "pure" forms of discourse from each other, and t h e i r emphasis on the c r a f t of w r i t i n g f a c t s . A 1955 text, Expository Prose: An A n a l y t i c Approach, aims not so much at teaching expository w r i t i n g as helping a student understand better the expository prose 57 " h i s t e a c h e r s . . . e x p e c t h i m t o be a b l e t o r e a d . " 1 ^ E x p o s i t i o n i s d e f i n e d v e r y b r o a d l y a t f i r s t as " t h e p l a i n l a n g u a g e i n w h i c h men communicate w i t h one a n o t h e r , " t h e n more n a r r o w l y as " c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e why of t h i n g s . " S p e c i f i c methods o f development i n c l u d e d e f i n i t i o n , p r o o f , and a n a l y s i s ; f i n a l l y , t h e t e x t s p e l l s out i t s r a t i o n a l e f o r s e p a r a t i n g e x p o s i t i o n f r o m o t h e r forms: " I t i s by v i r t u e of i t s b e i n g e x p l a n a t o r y t h a t e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e d i f f e r s f r o m o t h e r k i n d s of p r o s e " ( 1 - 2 ) . T h i s t e x t i s t y p i c a l i n i t s i n s i s t e n c e on s e p a r a t i n g e x p o s i t i o n and p u r i f y i n g i t f r o m c o n t a m i n a t i o n by o t h e r f o r m s , and t h u s e l e v a t i n g i t t o the s t a t u s o f n o t o n l y t h e most p r a c t i c a l a i m and o c c a s i o n f o r w r i t i n g , b u t i n e f f e c t t h e o n l y one r e a l l y w o r t h l e a r n i n g i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . S i m i l a r l y , R i c h a r d M. Weaver's t e x t , C o m p o s i t i o n : A C o u r s e i n W r i t i n g and  R h e t o r i c (1957) has a b r o a d c o mmunicative p r e m i s e : " E d u c a t i o n and communication t o g e t h e r c o m p r i s e t h e a r t o f s a y i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s w o r t h w h i l e i n ways t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e c a n u n d e r s t a n d . W e a v e r , t h e o n l y major r h e t o r i c a l s c h o l a r o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y o t h e r t h a n B a l d w i n t o v e n t u r e i n t o t e x t book w r i t i n g , n o n e t h e l e s s t o o k t h e f o u r forms a p p r o a c h . T h e r e had, however, been a change i n t e x t book w r i t e r s ' v i e w s o f t h e forms o v e r t h e l a s t decade, e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f communications t h e o r y ; by t h e mid-50's t e x t s p r e s e n t e d forms as r e f l e c t i n g f o u r b a s i c i n t e n t i o n s o f a w r i t e r . The modes o f d i s c o u r s e were now metamorphosing i n t o p u r p o s e s f o r d i s c o u r s e and t h e i r methods of d evelopment. Y e t , I emphasize t h a t t h e s e p u r p o s e s were s t i l l k e p t l a r g e l y s e p a r a t e , and R i c h a r d Weaver r e i n f o r c e d s e p a r a t i o n w i t h s t a t e m e n t s i n h i s t e x t s u c h as t h i s : "Though most w r i t i n g i n v o l v e s a m i x t u r e o f t h e k i n d s of d i s c o u r e , we c a n b e s t s t u d y them i n i s o l a t i o n . " I n Weaver's t e x t , e x p o s i t i o n i s t h e k i n d o f d i s c o u r s e t h a t " e x p l a i n s a s u b j e c t . . . t o make t h e r e a d e r u n d e r s t a n d " (26-8) t h r o u g h t h e use of d e f i n i t i o n and a n a l y s i s . A r g u m e n t a t i o n , however, i s " d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e o t h e r t h r e e forms i n t h a t i t s f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v e " ( 2 6 - 8 ) ; h e r e , Weaver b o t h broadens and 58 narrows t h e scope of argument: The methods o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n a r e a body o f s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a n a l y z e d p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h must be f o l l o w e d s t r i c t l y t o y i e l d a c o r r e c t r e s u l t . . . . A r g u m e n t a t i o n . . .embraces t h e f i e l d i n w h i c h men d e l i b e r a t e about c h o i c e s , and t h e r e f o r e i t demands a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o g i c and r h e t o r i c ( 2 6 - 8 ) . The f i r s t s e n t e n c e i s a s u r p r i s i n g one f r o m a man who g e n t l y d e r i d e d " s c i e n c e " as one of t h e age's " u l t i m a t e t e r m s , " f o r h e r e we see argument a g a i n narrowed down t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s o f s c h o o l d e b a t e . Y e t t h e second s e n t e n c e widens argument i n t o t h e f i e l d o f human a f f a i r s ; t h e r h e t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e i s v y i n g f o r a p l a c e above t h e r i g i d h i e r a r c h y o f d i s c o u r s e forms and f o r m u l a e . One more t h i n g s h o u l d be s a i d about Weaver's t e x t . I t , a t l e a s t , t r i e s t o r a t i o n a l i z e i t s use o f t h e f o u r forms o f d i s c o u r s e : . . . t h e r e i s enough i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e f o u r forms t o j u s t i f y l e a r n i n g them. . . . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e forms o f d i s -c o u r s e a r e i m p o r t a n t t o o l s o f a n a l y s i s ( 2 8 - 9 ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t r e v e a l s t h a t t h e f o u r forms o f d i s c o u r s e were s t i l l h e a v i l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n c o m p o s i t i o n pedagogy as l a t e as t h e mid 1950's. H a c k e t t ' s U n d e r s t a n d i n g and B e i n g U n d e r s t o o d ( 1 9 5 7 ) , as i t s t i t l e i m p l i e s , i s a " c o m m u n i c a t i v e " t e x t , but i t d e v e l o p s t h i s p r e m i s e : "good c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s l o g i c a l . " 2 1 Such " b a s i c e l e m e n t s " o f communication as e v i d e n c e , l o g i c , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s k i l l s o f a n a l y s i s f o r m t h e main f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s t e x t , w h i c h a l s o p u t s o r a l p e r s u a s i o n and argument under a " s p e c i a l " c a t e g o r y . The t e x t s t a t e s i n i t s l o g i c c h a p t e r t h a t "we f r e q u e n t l y a r e n o t t h i n k i n g a c c u r a t e l y and h o n e s t l y when we use e m o t i o n a l d e v i c e s t o t r y t o i n c r e a s e our i n f l u e n c e o v e r o t h e r s . " Good c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t r i e s t o " h a r n e s s " e m o t i o n and " r e l a t e " i t t o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ( 1 0 5 ) ; o b v i o u s l y p e r s u a s i o n can be u n t r u s t w o r t h y , and even argument i s c a r e f u l l y c o n f i n e d i n i t s scope t o a p p e a l s t h r o u g h r e a s o n i n g and e v i d e n c e ( 4 7 9 - 8 0 ) . The i m p l i c i t message i n t h i s t e x t f a i n t l y echoes Adam S m i t h ' s p r e m i s e t h a t n a r r a t i v e and d i d a c t i c d i s c o u r s e s h o u l d 59 be as s p a r i n g o f t h e emotions as p o s s i b l e , b u t t h i s t e x t o v e r l o o k s , as S m i t h does n o t , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a d i s c o u r s e o f o p i n i o n . The emphasis o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g and B e i n g U n d e r s t o o d i s , a g a i n , more on " f a c t s " t h a n on what Wayne B o o t h would c a l l "good r e a s o n s " ( s e e f o o t n o t e 1 ) , f o r t h e r e a r e t w e l v e r e f e r e n c e s t o f a c t s and t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e i n d e x , but o n l y one r e f e r e n c e t o o p i n i o n , t h a t b e i n g i n t h e " s p e c i a l " argument s e c t i o n . One more t e x t o f t h e 1950's d e s e r v e s a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n : P h i l i p L . G e r b e r ' s E f f e c t i v e E n g l i s h ( 1 9 5 9 ) . I t b e g i n s by l i s t i n g seven p u r p o s e s f o r w r i t i n g , t h r e e of w h i c h r e l a t e t o c o n v i n c i n g o r p e r s u a d i n g a r e a d e r . 2 2 G e r b e r s t a y s away f r o m t h e f o u r forms ( h i s seven purposes a r e a i d s f o r f o c u s i n g on a t o p i c ) ; n o n e t h e l e s s , he draws s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n s between e x p o s i t o r y and a r g u m e n t a t i v e p u r p o s e s . A l t h o u g h e x p o s i t i o n s e r v e s t o work towards " e n l i g h t e n m e n t , s o l u t i o n , and m u t u a l d e c i s i o n , " t h r o u g h use of i n f o r m a l methods o f development ( s e e f o o t n o t e 2 2 ) , argument "by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , e x c l u d e s a l l v i e w p o i n t s but t h a t h e l d by t h e a r g u e r " ( 9 7 ) : I t i n v o l v e s t h e d i r e c t c l a s h of d i v e r g e n t v i e w p o i n t s . I t i n v o l v e s c o n t e n t i o n between two o p p o s i n g f a c t i o n s , t h e s t r o n g advocacy o f f o r - a n d - a g a i n s t p o s i t i o n s . Thus, argument b e g i n s when d i s c u s s i o n ends ( 9 7 ) . What G e r b e r has i n mind i s argument as d e b a t e , as c o u r t r o o m p y r o t e c h n i c s : t h e p o p u l a r v i e w o f argument as i n d e e d a " s p e c i a l i z e d " s k i l l . C l e a r l y , many o f t h e "new" c o m m u n i c a t i o n and purpose t e x t s , w h i c h were s l o w l y making t h e i r way i n t o c o m p o s i t i o n ' s t e r r i t o r y i n t h e 1950's, p e r s i s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g e x p o s i t i o n from argument and p e r s u a s i o n , i f n o t by t y p e o r form, t h e n by purpose and s t i l l t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by s t r u c t u r e . G e r b e r ' s t r e a t m e n t of argument h a r k e n s back t o George P. B a k e r ' s 1895 v i e w s . I n f a c t , i n h i s t e x t , argument i s as d i s s o c i a t e d f r o m c o m p o s i t i o n as i t was i n t h e 1920's. A number of 1960's t e x t s s t i l l s h a r e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Thomas C a i n ' s 60 Common Sense About W r i t i n g (1967) u n i f i e s d i s c o u r s e under a c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l scheme of i n v e n t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g t h e t o p o i ) , d i s p o s i t i o n , e x p r e s s i o n , and r e v i s i o n , but c e n t e r s on e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g . Argument becomes " t h e d e f e n s i b l e p o r t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s u b j e c t " o f a p i e c e o f w r i t i n g , and p e r s u a s i o n t y p i c a l l y goes u n m e n t i o n e d . 2 ^ A r t h u r H o o l e ' s The Fundamentals o f C l e a r W r i t i n g ( 1 9 6 7 ) , a C a n a d i a n t e x t , a l s o f o c u s e s on e x p o s i t i o n , " c l e a r and e f f e c t i v e w r i t i n g , " t h r o u g h a r e v i e w of s e n t e n c i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n , b a s i c theme w r i t i n g , d i c t i o n , t h e p r e c i s , and t h e b u s i n e s s l e t t e r . L i k e A Handbook o f C o m p o s i t i o n ( 1 9 5 3 ) , t h i s t e x t i s , more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , a manual on two o r t h r e e e x p o s i t o r y " f o r m s . " These t e x t s i m p l i c i t l y see w r i t i n g as an e x e r c i s e i n e m p i r i c i s m , whereby i f s t u d e n t s can c o r r e c t l y j u g g l e s e t s of "common sens e " r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s , t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o p r o d u c e c l e a r and u n b i a s e d p r o s e . The e m p i r i c i s m of t h e New L o g i c i a n s a l s o r e s t e d on an e t h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n — t h a t o f t h e s e a r c h f o r t r u t h , a p r o b i n g i n t o e x i s t i n g s t a t e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c h a n g i n g them. But t h e e m p i r i c i s m of c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s l i k e t h e s e r e s t s on t h e narrow p l a n k of " s c i e n t i s m . " A good example o f such e m p i r i c i s m u n d e r l i e s Modern Communication  E f f e c t i v e n e s s ( 1 9 6 3 ) , a t e x t w h i c h o s t e n s i b l y l o o k s o n l y a t e x p o s i t i o n , but imbues i t w i t h an a r g u m e n t a t i v e f o u n d a t i o n . "We need f o r m a l l o g i c when we e x p r e s s our s e r i o u s i d e a s i n l a n g u a g e , " s a y s a u t h o r Lawrence D. Brennan ( 3 1 ) , and t h e n bases t h e development of d i s c o u r s e on d e d u c t i o n , i n d u c t i o n , p r o p o s i t i o n s , and t h e s y l l o g i s m ( 3 1 - 6 2 ) . Here we see f o r m a l argument d e t a c h e d f r o m " e v e r y d a y " r e a s o n i n g so t h a t "our minds w i l l have a n i c e r e g a r d f o r p r e c i s i o n of t hought i n a l l o f our c o m m u n i c a t i o n " ( 6 4 - 5 ) . R a t h e r l i k e R i c h a r d W h a t e l y and t h e H u l b e r t s i n E f f e c t i v e E n g l i s h (1929) Brennan sees f o r m a l l o g i c as a framework on w h i c h t o b u i l d a l l " s u c c e s s f u l " ( t h a t i s , o b j e c t i v e and f a c t u a l ) p i e c e s o f w r i t i n g , but t h e l o g i c he p r o p o s e s does n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r o b a b i l i t i e s , f o r w h i c h i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n t r i e s t o a c c o u n t . C o m p l e t i n g t h i s l o o k a t c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s f r o m W o r l d War I t o t h e mid 1960's i s Kane and P e t e r s ' A P r a c t i c a l R h e t o r i c o f E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e ( 1 9 6 6 ) , i n w h i c h the a u t h o r s d e f i n e r h e t o r i c a s " t h e s t u d y of how t o employ words f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . " E x p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i v e w r i t i n g d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h e x p l a n a t i o n ( d e f i n i t i o n ) and a n a l y s i s : i t "probes and expands" and t h u s ca n i n c o r p o r a t e " i n f o r m a t i v e " d e s c r i p t i o n and n a r r a t i o n as w e l l ( 2 2 - 3 ) . P e r s u a s i o n i s b r i e f l y m e n tioned as " a t t e m p t s t o change t h e c o n v i c t i o n s . . . t o a l t e r our v a l u e s o r a t t i t u d e s , " and argument, subsumed by p e r s u a s i o n , " t r i e s t o r e s t r i c t e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l as r i g o r o u s l y as p o s s i b l e and n e v e r s u b s t i t u t e s i t f o r l o g i c o r e v i d e n c e " ( 2 4 ) . A g a i n , a t e x t has succeeded i n s e p a r a t i n g p u rposes and s t r u c t u r e s f o r d i s c o u r s e f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s . One s t r u c t u r e , e x p o s i t i o n , i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l l o g i c and e n j o y s t h e r o l e of " e n l a r g i n g our e x p e r i e n c e . " The o t h e r , a r g u m e n t / p e r s u a s i o n , i s e i t h e r r i g i d l y f o r m a l and l e e c h e d of e m o t i o n , o r i s c o e r c i v e , w h e e d l i n g , u n f a c t u a l , and t h e r e f o r e i m p l i c i t l y u n t r u s t w o r t h y . My p o i n t i n e x a m i n i n g ways i n w h i c h t h e s e c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s t r e a t e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e how r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s u c h t r e a t m e n t s have changed between 1917 and 1968, and how l i t t l e t h e i r l a c k of a t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e d i f f e r s f rom a s i m i l a r l a c k i n l a t e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e x t s . I t i s t r u e t h a t e x p o s i t i o n and argument, p a r t i c u l a r l y , e v o l v e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e f r o m s t r u c t u r e s w i t h no t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e o t h e r t h a n a f o r g o t t e n f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y , t o s t r u c t u r e s g e n e r a t e d by a w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t i o n s . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , we have seen how t e x t s w r i t t e n as r e c e n t l y as t h e 1960's n o t o n l y p e r s i s t i n u s i n g t h e o l d "modes" terms f o r d i s c o u r s e , but a l s o t e n d t o d i s s o c i a t e p u r p o s e s and s t r u c t u r e s f r o m each o t h e r f o r two main r e a s o n s : i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of p r a c t i c a l i t y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , and i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s t h a t w r i t i n g p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e s t h e h o n i n g o f t h o s e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o produce f a c t . The s t a t u s o f e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n by t h e l a t e 1960's 62 r e f l e c t s t h e a t t e m p t s s i n c e t h e 1890's t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among them. E x p o s i t i o n by t h e l a t e 1960's i s e quated w i t h s u c h p r i n c i p l e s as c l a r i t y , o b j e c t i v i t y , r a t i o n a l i t y : i n o t h e r words, w i t h a l l good, e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Argument a t t h e same ti m e has d w i n d l e d t o a s h o r t c h a p t e r o r a few pages on f o r m a l l o g i c — i t s p u r p o s e sometimes c o i n c i d i n g w i t h e x p o s i t i o n ' s , but i t s s t r u c t u r e u s u a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i n f o r m a l one g i v e n f o r e x p o s i t i o n . I n s t e a d , argument i s i n a l i m b o somewhere between f a c t and o p i n i o n . P e r s u a s i o n i s l o w e s t o f a l l , i t s o p i n i o n a t e d e m o t i o n a l i s m and " d e v i c e s , " and above a l l i t s p u r p o s e , deemed a t w o r s t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s e r i o u s p r o s e w r i t i n g , and a t b e s t an i n t e r e s t i n g e x e r c i s e f o r s t u d e n t s , who a r e a f t e r w a r d s e x p e c t e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on g a t h e r i n g and e f f e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t i n g f a c t s . Two f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s now a r i s e f r o m t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n , q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o how we t e a c h c o m p o s i t i o n t o d a y . F i r s t , have t e x t book w r i t e r s s i n c e t h e 1960's t r i e d t o u n i f y e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n — t o d i s c o v e r p r i n c i p l e s t h e y have i n common w h i c h c o u l d f o r m a t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g beyond t h a t of w r i t i n g as a p r a c t i c a l s k i l l ? Second, c o u l d t h e i n f o r m a l , i n d u c t i v e a r g u m e n t a t i o n of D e s c a r t e s , Bacon, L o c k e , S m i t h , and C a m p b e l l p r o v i d e s u c h a r a t i o n a l e ? I don't t h i n k we can s i m p l y assume t h a t no one t e a c h e s s e p a r a t e forms o r s t r u c t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e t o d a y , o r t h a t no t e x t now p u b l i s h e d i n c o r p o r a t e s them. Such an i d e e f i x e does n o t d i e w i t h o u t a s t r u g g l e . 63 ^ R i c h a r d Weaver, i n Language i s Sermonic ( 1 9 7 0 ) , a s s e r t e d t h a t language b o t h imposes o r d e r and i m p a r t s v a l u e s t h r o u g h i t s power t o name o r d e f i n e . He a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t t h e r h e t o r i c i a n ' s m o r a l commitment t o , and e t h i c a l u s e o f , d e f i n i t i o n s o r " u l t i m a t e t e r m s " o r d e r s h i s w o r l d and t h o s e o f h i s s t u d e n t s — s u c h h i e r a r c h i e s s e r v i n g t o " i n t e r p r e t t h e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y . " K e n n e t h B u r k e , a u t h o r o f such works as A Grammar of M o t i v e s ( 1 9 4 5 ) , A  R h e t o r i c o f M o t i v e s ( 1 9 5 0 ) , and Language as S y m b o l i c A c t i o n ( 1 9 6 6 ) , b e l i e v e s t h a t l a n g u a g e i s n e c e s s a r i l y s y m b o l i c ; t h a t l a n g u a g e i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f terms t h a t shape w h o l l y our range o f o b s e r v a t i o n ; and t h a t any a c t o f naming ( I d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s a d i v i s i o n and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e i n a h i e r a r c h y o f v a l u e s . R h e t o r i c becomes f o r B u r k e "a s y m b o l i c means of i n d u c i n g c o o p e r a t i o n i n b e i n g s t h a t by n a t u r e r e s p o n d t o symbol s . . .[and] an a c t t h a t can pr o v e o p p o s i t e s . " B u r k e ' s D r a m a t i s t i c P e n t a d — a c t , s c e n e , a g e n t , agency, p u r p o s e — i s a v e h i c l e f o r a n a l y z i n g m o t i v e s o r r e a c t i o n s t o the s y m b o l i c power of l a n g u a g e . Wayne B o o t h , i n Modern Dogma and t h e R h e t o r i c o f A s s e n t ( 1 9 7 4 ) , t r i e s t o d i s m a n t l e t h e "modern dogma" of b e l i e f i n h a r d f a c t s v e r s u s s o f t f a i t h ; of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge v e r s u s no knowledge; o f th o u g h t v e r s u s f e e l i n g s . He b e l i e v e s i n a p h i l o s o p h y i n w h i c h " f a c t s " become a n y t h i n g we t h i n k a r e "good r e a s o n s , " o r a n y t h i n g we i n t e n d as t r u t h . R h e t o r i c becomes t h e v e h i c l e i n w h i c h we e x p l o r e m u t u a l l y our v a l u e s and t r u t h s . None o f t h e s e a u t h o r s , though a l l had been l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d as r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r i s t s b e f o r e t h e 1960's, g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d any of t h e pre-1960's t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s whose works I have examined i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I s h o u l d a l s o add, i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h a t t h e s e c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s a r e q u i t e l i t e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y , f o r I fo u n d them m o l d e r i n g on t h e s h e l v e s o f the main l i b r a r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : a g r a v e y a r d f o r o n c e - p o p u l a r and now l o n g - f o r g o t t e n t e x t s . 2 R o b e r t J . Connors, "The R i s e and F a l l o f t h e Modes of D i s c o u r s e , " CCC 32 (December 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 448. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be c i t e d p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y i n the t e x t by page number. ^G e r h a r d R. Lomer and M a r g a r e t Ashmun, The Study and P r a c t i s e o f W r i t i n g  E n g l i s h (Cambridge, Mass.: The R i v e r s i d e P r e s s , 1 9 17). T h i s t e x t c o v e r s g r a m m a t i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s , " s t e p s i n theme w r i t i n g , " t h e n forms o f d i s c o u r s e : d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n , a r g u m e n t a t i o n , b i o g r a p h y , n a r r a t i o n , s h o r t s t o r i e s , drama, and l e t t e r s . ^ E l i a s J . MacEwan's The E s s e n t i a l s o f A r g u m e n t a t i o n (1898) and Theodore W. Hunt's The P r i n c i p l e s o f W r i t t e n D i s c o u r s e (1884) e x e m p l i f y t h i s paradox: the need f o r a r a t i o n a l e t o u n i f y d i s c o u r s e , a r a t i o n a l e communicated p o o r l y t h r o u g h t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g as a s e r i e s o f l a r g e l y s e p a r a t e s k i l l s . (See Ch. 2, f o o t n o t e s 11 and 13 f o r f u l l c i t a t i o n s . ) 5 A l b e r t R. K i t z h a b e r , " R h e t o r i c i n A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e s , 1850-1900," u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r a t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Wash i n g t o n , 1953) p. 208. *>I am i n d e b t e d t o R o b e r t J . Connors', L i s a E d e 's, and A n d r e a L u n s f o r d ' s a r t i c l e "The R e v i v a l o f R h e t o r i c i n A m e r i c a : A B r i e f H i s t o r i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n " i n E s s a y s on C l a s s i c a l R h e t o r i c and Modern D i s c o u r s e ( C a r b o n d a l e : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983) f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about C h a r l e s S e a r s B a l d w i n . ^ C h a r l e s S e a r s B a l d w i n , C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n (New Y o r k : Longmans, Green & Co., 1 9 1 7 ) , p. 93-4. B a l d w i n d i v i d e s h i s t e x t i n t o two p a r t s , d e a l i n g f i r s t 64 w i t h t h e " C o m p o s i t i o n of I d e a s " i n i n f o r m a t i v e , d i s c u r s i v e , and p e r s u a s i v e d i s c o u r s e , and t h e n w i t h t h e " C o m p o s i t i o n o f Images" i n d e s c r i p t i v e , n a r r a t i v e , and d r a m a t i c d i s c o u r s e . B a l d w i n n o t o n l y moves away fr o m t h e f o u r modes, but i n f a c t i n t h i s t e x t "forms of d i s c o u r s e " as s u c h do n o t r e a l l y e x i s t . The degree o f I n f o r m a t i v e , d i s c u r s i v e , and p e r s u a s i v e e l e m e n t s p r e s e n t i n a d i s c o u r s e d e t e r m i n e s i t s t y p e . % e n r y S. Canby and John B. Opdyke, The E l e m e n t s o f C o m p o s i t i o n , r e v i s e d , (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1 9 2 5 ) , p. 379. T h i s t e x t b e g i n s w i t h word usage, s p e l l i n g , e t c . , t h e n d e a l s w i t h s e n t e n c i n g , p a r a g r a p h i n g , t h e t r i a d o f u n i t y - c o h e r e n c e - e m p h a s i s , and f i n a l l y t h e "ends" o f d i s c o u r s e : e x p o s i t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and argument. ^Howard B. G r o s e , C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n (New Y o r k : S c o t t , Foresman and Co., 1 9 2 6 ) , p. 105. T h i s a u t h o r i n c l u d e s i n v e n t i o n i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f d i s c o u r s e , b e g i n n i n g h i s t e x t w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f f i n d i n g a s u b j e c t and g a t h e r i n g , s e l e c t i n g , and a r r a n g i n g m a t e r i a l . The second h a l f f o c u s e s on " t y p e s " of c o m p o s i t i o n : e x p o s i t i o n , argument, d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n . The t e x t f i n i s h e s w i t h a s e c t i o n on d i c t i o n and s e n t e n c i n g . 1 0 J . R . and V.B. H u l b e r t , E f f e c t i v e E n g l i s h ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 ) , p. 217. T h e i r t y p e s o f d i s c o u r s e a r e d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and l e t t e r w r i t i n g . ^Raymond W. P e n c e , C o l l e g e C o m p o s i t i o n (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1 9 2 9 ) , p. 26. He t r e a t s two k i n d s o f w r i t i n g , e x p o s i t o r y and i m a g i n a t i v e , because t o him a l l w r i t i n g has as i t s main o b j e c t e i t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n o r " t h e s t i r r i n g o f t h e e m o t i o n s " ( 7 9 ) . l 2 D a n a 0. J e n s e n , M o r e l l R. S c h m i t z , and Henry F. Thoma, Modern  C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c (New Y o r k : Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 3. T h i s t e x t a l s o t r e a t s t o p i c s e l e c t i o n and p l a n n i n g , p a r a g r a p h i n g , u n i t y and c o h e r e n c e , s e n t e n c i n g , and t h e n t h e " t h r e e f o r m s " o f w r i t i n g : f a c t u a l , o p i n i o n a t e d , n a r r a t i v e . S t y l e and d i c t i o n come l a s t . 13James F. F u l l i n g t o n , R o b e r t S. Newdick, and J . H a r o l d W i l s o n , P u r p o s i v e P r o s e : S e l e c t i o n s i n E x p o s i t i o n (D.C. H e a t h and Company, 1935), p. 3. The a u t h o r s ' aim i s t o p r e s e n t "models o f s p e c i f i c v a r i e t i e s o f problems i n c o m p o s i t i o n , " f o c u s i n g on e x p o s i t i o n as t h e most " p u r p o s i v e " p r o s e form, a f o r m d e v e l o p e d m a i n l y by d e f i n i t i o n and a n a l y s i s . l ^ M . D o r o t h y Mawdsley and M a r j o r i e H. Leeming, Modern C o m p o s i t i o n f o r  H i g h S c h o o l and C o l l e g i a t e s ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1 9 3 5 ) , pp. i x , 425. l ^ C h a r l e s H a r l o w Raymond, A Book of E n g l i s h ( B o s t o n : G i n n and Company, 19 3 6 ) , pp. 401-2. l ^ C l e a n t h B r o o k s and R o b e r t Penn Warren, Fundamentals o f Good W r i t i n g (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company, 1 9 4 9 ) , p. 31. T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a modes t e x t , w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e modes b e i n g t h a t t h e y r e f l e c t s t a n d a r d i n t e n t i o n s f o r n o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . P a r a g r a p h i n g , s e n t e n c i n g , d i c t i o n , rhythm, metaphor a r e i n c l u d e d ; t h e a u t h o r s emphasize r e p e a t e d l y t h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f f o r m and c o n t e n t i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s on s t y l e . 65 ^ D o n a l d D a v i s i o n , A m e r i c a n C o m p o s i t i o n and R h e t o r i c , t h i r d ed. (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 45. He s t r u c t u r e s h i s t e x t on t h e f o u r forms o f d i s c o u r s e , and i n t e r e s t i n g l y , a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between c o m p o s i t i o n ( s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n ) and r h e t o r i c ( p e r s u a s i o n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) , u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y showing how wide t h e r i f t was t h e n between r h e t o r i c and c o m p o s i t i o n . ^ D o u g l a s M . Brown, A Handbook o f C o m p o s i t i o n ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L t d . , 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 43. Brown's forms o f d i s c o u r s e a r e n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , t h e r e p o r t , and t h e p r e c i s . ^ I . J . K a p s t e i n , E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e : An A n a l y t i c a l A p p r o a c h (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company, 1955). T h i s i s r e a l l y a t e x t about how a w r i t e r ' s p urpose can s u p p l y t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e f o r an e x p o s i t o r y s t y l e , and how one can u n d e r s t a n d e x p o s i t i o n ' s s t r u c t u r e s t h r o u g h a n a l y z i n g models o f i t . 2 0 R i c h a r d M. Weaver, C o m p o s i t i o n : A Course i n W r i t i n g and R h e t o r i c (New Y o r k : Henry H o l t and Company, 1957), p. i x . Weaver b e g i n s w i t h "problems of c o m p o s i t i o n " s u c h as f i n d i n g and l i m i t i n g a s u b j e c t , and o r d e r i n g and c l a r i f y i n g m a t e r i a l , a l s o i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l t o p o i i n h i s t e x t . H i s f o u r " t r a d i t i o n a l " k i n d s o f d i s c o u r s e a r e e x p o s i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , and a r g u m e n t a t i o n , each of w h i c h he d i s c u s s e s i n d e t a i l . The r e s t o f h i s t e x t f o c u s e s on s e n t e n c i n g , p a r a g r a p h i n g , d i c t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and usage. I was, perhaps i l l o g i c a l l y , d i s a p p o i n t e d a t f i r s t t h a t one o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r h e t o r i c i a n s had a n t i - c l i m a c t i c a l l y b u i l t h i s t e x t around t h e f o u r forms of d i s c o u r s e . T hat seemed t o me t o be t a k i n g an easy p a t h , c o n t r a r y t o t h e s p i r i t o f r h e t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u n d - b r e a k i n g . Y e t Weaver does t r y t o r a t i o n a l i z e h i s use o f t h e f o u r f o r m s , and a l s o s t r u c t u r e s h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e x p o s i t i o n and argument on t h e same e t h i c a l / p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n as t h a t d i s c u s s e d t h r o u g h o u t Language i s S e r m o n i c . D e f i n i t i o n , t h e a c t o f naming and o r d e r i n g , comes f i r s t on Weaver's l i s t f o r ways t o d e v e l o p e x p o s i t i o n ; and a r g u m e n t a t i o n , he s a y s , must i n c o r p o r a t e one's " h o n e s t l y c o n c e i v e d " v i e w s . 21-Hackett, e t a l . , U n d e r s t a n d and B e i n g U n d e r s t o o d (New Y o r k : Longmans, Gr e e n and Co., 1 9 5 7 ) . T h i s t e x t b r i e f l y m e n t i o n s t h e f o u r forms o f n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , and a r g u m e n t a t i o n , and shows how one a d a p t s each f o r m t o one's p u r p o s e . Y e t t h i s t e x t ' s main aim i s t o show how l o g i c h e l p s d e v e l o p p r i m a r i l y e x p o s i t o r y d i s c o u r s e . 2 2 P h i l i p L. G e r b e r , E f f e c t i v e E n g l i s h (New Y o r k : Random House, 1959), pp. 19-20. H i s g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s f o r w r i t i n g a r e t o i n f o r m , e x p l a i n , e n t e r t a i n , i m p r e s s , c o n v i n c e , p e r s u a d e , and a c t u a t e . F o r G e r b e r , d i s c o u r s e i s d e v e l o p e d g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l means such as d e f i n i t i o n , example, cause and e f f e c t , c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t , and a n a l o g y , and a l s o t h r o u g h " s p e c i a l i z e d " means such as a r g u m e n t a t i o n , o r a l s p e e c h , and r e s e a r c h . The t e x t a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e h i s t o r y of t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , v o c a b u l a r y , r e a d i n g , and grammar. 2-*Here i s an a n n o t a t e d l i s t , i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , o f t h e 1960's t e x t s I examined: Lawrence D. Brennan, Modern Communication E f f e c t i v e n e s s (Englewood C l i f f s , N .J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 3 ) . T h i s t e x t c e n t e r s on e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g and makes use o f a f o r m a l l o g i c a l framework f o r d e v e l o p i n g i t . J o s e p h i n e J . C u r t o , W r i t i n g W i t h U n d e r s t a n d i n g (Columbus, O h i o : C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l Books, I n c . , 1 9 66). She d i s t i n g u i s h e s between argument and p e r s u a s i o n i n 66 t h i s way: "An argument i s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h we r e a c h c o n c l u s i o n s ; p e r s u a s i o n i s g e t t i n g o t h e r s t o a c c e p t t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s . The l o g i c a l argument i s j u s t one of t h e methods o f p e r s u a s i o n " ( 1 7 1 ) . But C u r t o f a i l s t o b r i d g e t h e s t r u c t u r a l gap she l e a v e s between f o r m a l argument and i n f o r m a l p e r s u a s i o n . Thomas S. Kane and L e o n a r d J . P e t e r s , A P r a c t i c a l R h e t o r i c o f E x p o s i t o r y  P r o s e (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) . A f t e r o u t l i n i n g t h e k i n d s of d i s c o u r s e ( e x p o s i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n ) and d e t a i l i n g e x p o s i t o r y p r o c e s s e s , s t y l e s , and p u r p o s e s , t h e a u t h o r s d e a l w i t h i n v e n t i o n , how to w r i t e " t h e e s s a y , " and t h e n s e n t e n c i n g , p a r a g r a p h i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n , and d i c t i o n . The emphasis i n t h i s t e x t i s d e f i n i t e l y on s t y l e . Thomas H. C a i n , Common Sense About W r i t i n g (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 7 ) . The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e about t h i s t e x t i s i t s use of a c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l framework f o r d e v e l o p i n g e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g . A r t h u r H. H o o l e , The Fundamentals o f C l e a r W r i t i n g ( T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company of Canada, L t d . , 1967). T h i s i s b a s i c a l l y a usage and t e c h n i c a l w r i t i n g manual, f o c u s i n g on t h e p r e c i s , t h e b u s i n e s s l e t t e r , and e x p o s i t o r y themes. R o b e r t Gunning, The T e c h n i q u e o f C l e a r W r i t i n g , r e v i s e d ed. (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1968). N a r r o w i n g e x p o s i t i o n t o o n l y one of i t s components, c l a r i t y , Gunning's aim i s t o i n c r e a s e r e a d a b i l i t y i n w r i t i n g t h r o u g h a d h e r e n c e t o t e n p r i n c i p l e s — a m o n g them c l e a r d i c t i o n and s e n t e n c i n g , v a r i e t y , and " t y i n g i n t o y o u r r e a d e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e . " He f o c u s e s on b u s i n e s s , l e g a l , t e c h n i c a l , and j o u r n a l i s t i c w r i t i n g . I V . R e d i s c o v e r i n g I n f o r m a l A r g u m e n t a t i o n 67 We have seen how, fr o m t h e 1920's t o t h e 1960's, c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s remained g e n e r a l l y f i x a t e d on a v i e w t h a t e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n c o u l d and s h o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s . Theory had d e s e r t e d t h e co m p o s i -t i o n c l a s s r o o m ; p r a c t i c a l i t y t o o k i t s p l a c e . The dominance o f e x p o s i t i o n i n t e x t s a f t e r t h e 1920's r e f l e c t s c l e a r l y i t s s t a t u s as t h e most p r a c t i c a l , f a c t u a l , and a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g f o r m o f w r i t i n g , w h i l e t h e low s t a t u s o f argument and p e r s u a s i o n i n d i c a t e s c o m p o s i t i o n ' s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t b e f o r e t h e 1960's i n the o p i n i o n a b l e . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e two b a s i c t o o l s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an o p i n i o n o r i s s u e — t h e i n d u c t i o n and s y n t h e s i s o f i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n — r e m a i n e d l a r g e l y b u r i e d under t h e r o t e r u l e s and models f o r w r i t i n g w h i c h were a l l t h a t r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y ' s r e c e d i n g t i d e had l e f t f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o m p o s i t i o n . However, 1969 c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t h e y e a r t h e t i d e t u r n e d . ^ S i n c e t h e n , s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s have been made t o r e d r e s s wrongs and t o p r o v i d e c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s l a c k i n g t h r o u g h o u t much o f i t s s h o r t h i s t o r y . I t i s n o t my i n t e n t t o d e t a i l t h e m y r i a d ways i n w h i c h t h i s r h e t o r i c a l r e n a i s s a n c e has begun t o b r i n g c o m p o s i t i o n and r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y t o g e t h e r , f o r d u r i n g t h e p a s t decade and a h a l f , most r h e t o r i c i a n s have acknowledged t h i s l i n k , i f n o t a c t u a l l y p r o p o s e d p e d a g o g i e s . By t h e same t o k e n , c o m p o s i t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f t h e need t o t u r n t o t h e o r y t o s u p p o r t t h e i r t e a c h i n g methods ( s e e f o o t n o t e 1 ) . I n r h e t o r i c t e x t s , i n works on r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y , i n j o u r n a l s , and a t c o n f e r e n c e s , r h e t o r i c and c o m p o s i t i o n a r e a t l a s t r e o c c u p y i n g t h a t b r o a d , m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y r e a l m i n w h i c h w r i t i n g i s d e f i n e d as a p r o c e s s o f m u t u a l d i s c o v e r y , a way o f e x p l o r i n g human n a t u r e , and a means o f b r i n g i n g about changes i n s o c i e t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s u c h a v i e w o f w r i t i n g has y e t t o make i t s way i n t o t h e g e n e r a l t e a c h i n g o f c o m p o s i t i o n i n many N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . 68 I n much d a i l y p r a c t i c e , p e d a g o g i e s based on d i s c o u r s e as h a v i n g s e p a r a t e s t r u c t u r e s , as r u l e s w i t h o u t a r a t i o n a l e , s t i l l dominate freshman c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . I have shown t h a t up u n t i l t h e 1960's most c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s tended t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e and f o r m u l a r i z e e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n p r i m a r i l y f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s ; t o d a y , many p o p u l a r t e x t s s t i l l c a r r y on t h i s " t r a d i t i o n . " One o f the i s s u e s I w i l l d e a l w i t h i n t h e s e l a s t two c h a p t e r s , i n f a c t , i s t h e e x t e n t and b r e a d t h o f t h e gap between c u r r e n t c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s ' t r e a t m e n t s o f d i s c o u r s e aims and f o r m s , and c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s on u n i f y i n g d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s c h a p t e r , t h e n , w i l l examine s e v e r a l c o n t e m p o r a r y r h e t o r i c i a n s ' a t t e m p t s t o d e v i s e u n i f y i n g frameworks, ones l a r g e l y dependent on a r g u m e n t a t i v e f o u n d a t i o n s . C h a p t e r F i v e w i l l show t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a number o f p o p u l a r t e x t s s t i l l adhere t o t h e " c u r r e n t - t r a d i t i o n a l " a p p r o a c h t o d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s , though a t t h e same t i m e I w i l l l o o k a t some r e c e n t t e x t s w h i c h t r y t o l i n k t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e t o u n i f y d i s c o u r s e . I w i l l c o n c l u d e by s u g g e s t i n g how a c o m p o s i t i o n i n s t r u c t o r might a p p l y t h e s e u n i f y i n g i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s t o t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g , and w i l l i n d i c a t e how such an a p p r o a c h works toward u n i f y i n g d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s on a p e d a g o g i c a l as w e l l as a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l . D i s c o u r s e t h e o r i s t s s i n c e t h e 1960's have begun t o l o o k a t a r g u m e n t a t i o n as h a v i n g n o t o n l y an " e v e r y d a y " l o g i c b u t a l s o e t h i c a l p u r p o s e s beyond t h a t of s y m b o l i c a l l y d e s t r o y i n g an opponent. I n o t h e r words, argument i s b e g i n n i n g t o r e g a i n t h e m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r i t t o b u i l d n o t o n l y p e r s u a s i v e but e x p o s i t o r y d i s c o u r s e . C h i e f among t h e g r o w i n g numbers o f r h e t o r i c i a n s and c o m p o s i t i o n t h e o r i s t s who have r e c e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o l i n k i n g a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s t o d i s c o u r s e a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : Stephen T o u l m i n , Chaim P e r e l m a n , R i c h a r d Young, A l t o n B e c k e r , James K i n n e a v y , and F r a n k D'Angelo. I w i l l b r i e f l y d i s c u s s how each sees argument's p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d o f d i s c o u r s e , and how each c a n be seen as w o r k i n g towards u n i f y i n g argument w i t h e x p o s i t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n . 69 A p i o n e e r of i n q u i r y i n t o " e v e r y d a y " l o g i c , Stephen T o u l m i n i n The Uses of  Argument (1958) examines how "problems about l o g i c . . . a p p l y i n p r a c t i c e , and what c o n n e c t i o n t h e y have w i t h t h e canons and methods we use when, i n e v e r y d a y l i f e , we a c t u a l l y a s s e s s t h e soundness, s t r e n g t h , and c o n c l u s i v e n e s s of a r g u m e n t s . " 2 L o g i c , i n s t e a d of a system o f s p e c i a l i z e d r u l e s and methods, becomes i n e f f e c t a h e u r i s t i c a b l e t o h e l p us d i s c o v e r how and why we know when the c l a i m s we make a r e sound. T o u l m i n s a y s t h a t argument i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y " j u s t i f i c a t o r y , " a c l a i m he s u p p o r t s by showing t h a t argument r e s t s on a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e composed o f d a t a , c l a i m s , w a r r a n t s , and q u a l i f i e r s : i n o t h e r words, any " e v e r y d a y " argument makes a c l a i m o f some s o r t and needs d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h a t c l a i m . O f t e n , t h a t d a t a must be backed up by i n f o r m a t i o n t o show t h e i r v a l i d i t y ( t h e w a r r a n t ) , and f i n a l l y , t h e c l a i m a t t i m e s must be q u a l i f i e d . I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s s t r u c t u r e , T o u l m i n i s a l s o r e j e c t i n g t h e s c h o l a s t i c "minor p r e m i s e ; m a j o r p r e m i s e ; j3£ c o n c l u s i o n " o r c a t e g o r i c a l / s y l l o g i s t i c p a t t e r n ( 9 6 ) . I n s t e a d , the d a t a - w a r r a n t - c l a i m - q u a l i f i e r s t r u c t u r e broadens t h e scope o f argument by g r e a t l y i n c r e a s i n g i t s a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h i s s u e s and s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e a t once more " e v e r y d a y , " but a t t h e same t i m e more complex and m u l t i - f a c e t e d , t h a n t h e s t y l i z e d o c c a s i o n s o f argument found i n d e b a t e o r t h e c o u r t r o o m . C l e a r l y , T o u l m i n ' s c l a i m and d a t a c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e "bare bones" r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an e x p o s i t o r y p i e c e ( a s A r i s t o t l e , S m i t h , and C a m p b e l l a l s o i n d i c a t e d ) , w h i l e h i s w a r r a n t and q u a l i f i e r a c c o u n t f o r f u r t h e r n e c e s s a r y s t e p s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i n s t i l l i n g c o n v i c t i o n i n an a u d i e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , a d a t a - c l a i m -w a r r a n t - q u a l i f i e r s t r u c t u r e can p o t e n t i a l l y encompass e x p o s i t o r y , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , o r p e r s u a s i v e aims and o c c a s i o n s w i t h r e l a t i v e e a s e . I n f a c t , T o u l m i n i m p l i e s s t r o n g l y t h a t t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s r o o t e d i n an i n d u c t i v e p r o c e s s w h e r e i n t h e d a t a and i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y d e c i d e t h e r e s t o f t h e d i s c o u r s e ' s s t r u c t u r e ( 9 9 - 1 0 0 ) . L i k e S m i t h ' s p r o c e s s o f e x p a n s i o n f r o m n a r r a t i v e t o d i d a c t i c w r i t i n g , and C a m p b e l l ' s o v e r l a p p i n g "ends," T o u l m i n ' s s t r u c t u r e a c c o u n t s f o r any p i e c e of 70 w r i t i n g w h i c h r e l i e s on d a t a t o s u p p o r t a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n : i n o t h e r words, most aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r p r o s e w r i t i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o m p o s i t i o n o f such a t h e o r y a r e , I t h i n k , c l e a r : d a t a and t h e l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s between them and a t h e s i s s t a t e m e n t u n d e r l i e a l m o s t a l l p r o s e . T h i s c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e forms one of t h e c o r n e r s t o n e s o f i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n . Thus, T o u l m i n has l a i d b a r e an immense and l a r g e l y u n c h a r t e d r e a l m f o r t e a c h i n g c o m p o s i t i o n , t h a t o f v i e w i n g d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s on the b a s i s o f u s e o f d a t a and t h e i r s y n t h e s i s i n t o a c l a i m o r t h e s i s . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t much work w i t h T o u l m i n ' s s t r u c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o c o m p o s i t i o n has so f a r been l i m i t e d t o a r g u m e n t a t i o n a l o n e o r t o s u c h f i e l d s as s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g (see f o o t n o t e 2 ) . By c o n t r a s t , b o t h P e r e l m a n and O l b r e c h t s - T y t e c a ' s t r e a t i s e The New R h e t o r i c (1969) and Young, B e c k e r , and P i k e ' s R h e t o r i c : D i s c o v e r y and Change (1970) not o n l y broaden t h e r o l e and scope o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n , as does T o u l m i n , but a l s o r e l a t e i t i n some degree t o o t h e r aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e . The New  R h e t o r i c e s t a b l i s h e s i t s e l f w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c , i m m e d i a t e l y r e i n t r o d u c i n g two c o n c e p t s b a s i c t o c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y . F i r s t , argument by i t s v e r y n a t u r e must d e a l w i t h " t h e c r e d i b l e , t h e p l a u s i b l e , t h e p r o b a b l e . " Second, t h e s t u d y o f a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o o f s s h o u l d f o c u s on t o what e x t e n t t h e y s e c u r e t h e "adherence" o f an a u d i e n c e . ^ P r o o f s , p r o p o s i t i o n s , r e l e g a t e d s i n c e Ramus and D e s c a r t e s t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e i r " c o n f o r m i t y w i t h f a c t s , " have r e c e i v e d no s y s t e m a t i c a t t e n t i o n o u t s i d e f o r m a l l o g i c , o r i n a r e a s where humans c o n s t a n t l y o p e r a t e , P e r e l m a n c h a r g e s . I n e f f e c t , h i s book aims t o u n t a n g l e t h i s p a r a d o x . A new r h e t o r i c a l l o w i n g methods o f p r o o f once a g a i n t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e o p i n i o n a b l e ( o r t h e adherence of an a u d i e n c e t o t h e o p i n i o n of a s p e a k e r o r w r i t e r ) w i l l h e l p r e s o l v e t h i s s p l i t between h a r d l o g i c and " t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h e l u d e c a l c u l a t i o n " ( 2 - 4 ) . A r g u m e n t a t i o n , " t h e s t u d y o f d i s c u r s i v e t e c h n i q u e s a l l o w i n g us t o i n d u c e o r 71 t o i n c r e a s e t h e mind's adherence t o t h e t h e s e s p r e s e n t e d f o r i t s a s s e n t " ( 4 ) , becomes Pe r e l m a n ' s v e h i c l e by w h i c h r h e t o r i c r e - e n t e r s e v e r y d a y d i s c u s s i o n , d e l i b e r a t i o n , and i n q u i r y . J u s t as C a m p b e l l b e l i e v e d t h a t " l o g i c t h e r e f o r e f o r g e s t h e arms t h a t e l o q u e n c e t e a c h e t h us t o w i e l d , " P e r e l m a n s e e s d i s c u r s i v e t e c h n i q u e s as t h e t o o l s " t h a t w i l l acknowledge t h e use of r e a s o n i n d i r e c t i n g o u r own a c t i o n s and i n f l u e n c i n g t h o s e o f o t h e r s " ( 3 ) . Argument, t h e n , t a k e s supreme p l a c e i n P e r e l m a n ' s r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y ; he assumes t h a t w i t h o u t t h e o p i n i o n a b l e , w i t h o u t t h a t degree o f p r o b a b i l i t y o r u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y r h e t o r i c ' s domain, t h e n argument cannot e x i s t . P e r e l m a n ' s e n t i r e t r e a t i s e d e m o n s t r a t e s how a r g u m e n t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s work on t h e mind t o s e c u r e i t s adherence t o a t h e s i s . I w i l l l o o k i n p a r t i c u l a r a t what P e r e l m a n says about d a t a and t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o argument and a r g u m e n t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , s i n c e t h e s e a r e o f p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i n r e l a t i o n t o how t h e y can a p p l y t o e x p o s i t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n . Opening h i s s e c t i o n on d a t a and t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o argument i s t h e q u e s t i o n — a r e arguments s e p a r a t e f r o m d a t a ? P e r e l m a n ' s answer i s t h a t , i n a g i v e n argument, one chooses what becomes d a t a and what becomes argument. A w r i t e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o s e l e c t and i s o l a t e c e r t a i n elements r a t h e r t h a n o t h e r s endows t h o s e e l e m e n t s w i t h " p r e s e n c e , an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n a r g u m e n t a t i o n ( a c t i n g ) d i r e c t l y on our s e n s i b i l i t y " ( 1 1 6 ) . Those elements c o n s t i t u t i n g d a t a become so because " t h e r e seems t o be an agreement. . . c o n s i d e r e d t o be u n i v o c a l and u n d i s p u t e d " t h a t t h e s e elements a r e d a t a ( 1 2 1 ) , and p r e s e n c e has i n f l u e n c e d t h a t agreement. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t about d a t a i s t h e i r e x p a n s i o n o r , p e r h a p s , d i f f u s i o n i n t o what P e r e l m a n c a l l s n o t i o n s . Here e x e m p l i f i e d i s the o v e r a l l " f a c t s / v a l u e s " p a t t e r n on w h i c h The New R h e t o r i c i s s t r u c t u r e d . N o t i o n s a r e a b s t r a c t i o n s s u c h as h o n o r , j u s t i c e , m o r a l i t y w h i c h a r e p l a s t i c because they have no f i x e d meaning, but a r e a t t a c h e d t o more c o n c r e t e c o n t e x t s and c o n v e n t i o n s , j u s t as p r e s u m p t i o n s a r e a t t a c h e d t o t r u t h s o r f a c t s i n a g i v e n argument. Perelman's d e f i n i t i o n o f n o t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , r e l a t e s v e r y s t r o n g l y t o h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s : . . . i t i s p r e c i s e l y because t h e n o t i o n s used i n a r g u m e n t a t i o n a r e n o t u n i v o c a l and have no f i x e d meaning t h a t w i l l n o t change t h a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f an a r g u m e n t a t i o n a r e n o t b i n d i n g . (132) I n o t h e r words, argument can ne v e r e s t a b l i s h " f a c t s " because o f t h i s c o n c e p t o f p l a s t i c i t y — t h e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e s t u f f w i t h w h i c h argument must d e a l . P r e s e n c e and p l a s t i c i t y u n d e r l i e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n , w h i c h i n t u r n u n d e r l i e s e x p o s i t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n . An e x p o s i t o r y o r a p e r s u a s i v e p i e c e o f w r i t i n g , g i v e n a s i m i l a r p u r p o s e and o c c a s i o n , w i l l use e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same e l e m e n t s , and b o t h a u t h o r s t h e n assume t h e i r a u d i e n c e s a g r e e t h a t t h e s e elements a r e d a t a . However, t h e e x p o s i t o r y w r i t e r presumes t h a t t h e b u l k o f t h e s e d a t a c o n s t i t u t e f a c t s o r t r u t h s f o r h e r a u d i e n c e , w h i l e t h e p e r s u a s i v e w r i t e r expands d a t a i n t o n o t i o n s , w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o v a l u e s , i n o r d e r t o b r i n g f o r t h a t r u t h . B o t h S m i t h and C a m p b e l l sensed t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n when t h e y saw e x p o s i t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e degree o f p a t h o s i n v o l v e d . The b a s i c elements t h a t make up d a t a , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e same d a t a can become p r e s u m p t i o n s o r n o t i o n s , c o n s t i t u t e s t h e a r g u m e n t a t i v e n a t u r e o f d i s c o u r s e i n g e n e r a l , a c c o r d i n g t o P e r e l m a n . The t e c h n i q u e s o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n w h i c h P e r e l m a n e x p l a i n s a r e t o o many and complex t o d e a l w i t h h e r e , but t h e y s e r v e t o e l a b o r a t e on t h i s a r g u m e n t a t i v e n a t u r e , o r t o " e s t a b l i s h t h e s t r u c t u r e " o f a p a r t i c u l a r " r e a l i t y " enmeshing a w r i t e r and a u d i e n c e . Among t h o s e t e c h n i q u e s he d i s c u s s e s a r e argument t h r o u g h the p a r t i c u l a r c a s e ( o r use o f examples and i l l u s t r a t i o n s ) ; argument by a n a l o g y and metaphor; and argument by " d i s s o c i a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s . " C l e a r l y , a l l t h r e e c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s o - c a l l e d methods o f development g i v e n i n t e x t s f o r b o t h e x p o s i t i o n and argument. F o r example, argument t h r o u g h t h e p a r t i c u l a r case c o v e r s d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , example, i l l u s t r a t i o n , and e n u m e r a t i o n . Argument by a n a l o g y makes use o f c o m p a r i s o n , c o n t r a s t , and cause and e f f e c t ( t h r o u g h 73 s i m i l i t u d e ) . F i n a l l y , argument by d i s s o c i a t i o n i n v o l v e s d e f i n i t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and p a r t i t i o n , a l t h o u g h d i s s o c i a t i o n can be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d a t a as w e l l . ^ P e r e l m a n ' s t h e o r y o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n shows us a c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g , f l u i d w o r l d l i k e t h a t of t h e s i n g l e - c e l l e d c r e a t u r e s we see under a m i c r o s c o p e : c e l l s b r e a k i n g a p a r t , m e r g i n g , n e v e r r e m a i n i n g t h e same. T h i s f l u i d i t y , r e i t e r a t e d i n h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , s t r e n g t h , a m p l i t u d e , and o r d e r o f arguments, t a k e s us f u l l c i r c l e t o h i s f i r s t b a s i c p r e m i s e : t h a t t h e k i n d s , s t a r t i n g p o i n t s , and t e c h n i q u e s of argument a s p e a k e r o r w r i t e r uses depend u l t i m a t e l y on t h e n a t u r e of t h e a u d i e n c e b e i n g a d d r e s s e d . T h i s p r e m i s e u n d e r l i e s t h e aims and o c c a s i o n s o f e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n , and i n t h a t c o n c r e t e s e n s e , u n i f i e s them. B o t h The New R h e t o r i c and R h e t o r i c : D i s c o v e r y and Change work t o u p h o l d t h i s p r e m i s e . Y e t t h e i r v i e w s on t h e r o l e and scope o f argument c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e works.^ On t h e one hand, P e r e l m a n does n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n equate argument w i t h t h e e n t i r e w o r k i n g s of r h e t o r i c . On t h e o t h e r hand, Young, B e c k e r , and P i k e b o t h broaden and l i m i t t h e r o l e and scope o f argument. F i r s t , r e j e c t i n g what t h e y c l a i m i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f r h e t o r i c as " s k i l l f u l v e r b a l c o e r c i o n " ( 8 ) , and r e j e c t i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l aim o f " c o n t r o l " of one human b e i n g o v e r a n o t h e r ( 7), t h e a u t h o r s a r e t h e n a b l e t o b r o a d e n t h e scope of a r g u m e n t a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o i n c l u d e any a t t e m p t s t o g a i n c o o p e r a t i o n . T h e i r use o f R o g e r i a n argument, w h e r e i n t h e a r g u e r " i d e n t i f i e s " w i t h h i s "opponent") as a major t e c h n i q u e , i l l u s t r a t e s how argument c a n become a more f l e x i b l e , n o n - h o s t i l e , h u m a n i t a r i a n way o f a c h i e v i n g c l o s e n e s s between d i f f e r i n g minds. However, Young, B e c k e r , and P i k e l i m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o g e n e r a l o u t l i n e s o f a r g u m e n t a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s — o u t l i n e s w h i c h do n o t i l l u s t r a t e c l e a r l y t h e p r o c e s s e s one may go t h r o u g h t o g a i n an a u d i e n c e ' s " a d h e r e n c e . " I n e f f e c t , t h e a u t h o r s r e j e c t t h e i d e a t h a t d r a w i n g even i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d a t a 7 4 constitutes a cooperative strategy. Their one concession to argumentative processes i s a discussion of "reconstructing a reader's image of himself" (230-35). Since reconstructing a reader's image involves convincing him through " i r r e f u t a b l e evidence," the authors f e e l that t r a d i t i o n a l argument i s the best strategy to use to f u l f i l l t h i s i n t e n t i o n . They focus only on deductive, s p e c i f i c a l l y c a t e g o r i c a l , argument and include discussion of the syllogism and enthymeme because they provide a writer with "patterns f o r organizing the statements i n your message c l e a r l y and persuasively" (231-32). For Young, Becker, and Pike, such t r a d i t i o n a l argument i s simply one means (and, they add, a f a i r l y l i m i t i n g one) of organizing material i n a piece of w r i t i n g . I t should be noted that the authors make one attempt to f i t t h i s kind of argument into the other intentions of a writer that they d e s c r i b e — t h a t i s , through the organizational h e u r i s t i c s they propose both for reconstructing and expanding a reader's image. Reconstruction involves e s t a b l i s h i n g a major and minor premise and backing them with a u t h o r i t i e s ; expansion replaces t h i s s ection with "thesis and explanation," r e t a i n i n g the introduction, background, and conclusion sections. Expanding a reader's image i s to the authors a less contentious, l e s s p o t e n t i a l l y threatening i n t e n t i o n with a less formalized organizational h e u r i s t i c ; i t i s , i n e f f e c t , expository w r i t i n g . In Rhetoric: Discovery and Change, Young, Becker, and Pike phase exposition i n t o argument and persuasion but only on the basis of s t r a t e g i e s , not l o g i c a l structure. The authors do not d e t a i l informal argumentative processes themselves, but discuss the differences between t r a d i t i o n a l versus Rogerian organization. Yet Young, Becker, and Pike are a l l i e d with Perelman, and with Campbell, i n implying that basic data remain the same during a writer's s h i f t from exposition to persuasion. Governing a l l writing choices, according to Young, Becker, and Pike, i s s o c i a l cooperation, or communicating shared values, both sublime and ordinary. Smith had i n s i s t e d on the importance i n discourse of 75 t h e s p e a k e r o r w r i t e r ' s h o n e s t c o n c e p t i o n o f t r u t h and of i t s c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n s i m p l e , e q u a l l y h o n e s t t e r m s . Young, B e c k e r , and P i k e ' s " e x p a n s i o n o f a r e a d e r ' s image" c o r r e s p o n d s r o u g h l y t o t h i s v i e w , w h i l e t h e y a l s o s h a r e C ampbell's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t r e a s o n , e m o t i o n , t r u t h , and goodness c o n s t i t u t e an e t h i c a l framework f o r c o m munication. B o t h R h e t o r i c ; D i s c o v e r y and Change and The New R h e t o r i c h e r a l d t h e s l o w emergence of argument f r o m t h e narrow c o n f i n e s of f o r e n s i c s and debate i n t o a p o s i t i o n whereby i t can become no t o n l y a t h e o r e t i c a l but e v e n t u a l l y a p r a c t i c a l u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e f o r most aims and o c c a s i o n s of d i s c o u r s e . What t h i s means f o r t e a c h i n g c o m p o s i t i o n i s an i n f u s i o n o f an e t h i c a l framework f o r c l a s s r o o m w r i t i n g t h r o u g h a s i n g l e b a s i c s e t of common p r i n c i p l e s , as opposed t o many d i s c r e t e p r e c e p t s . A l s o p r o p o s i n g a u n i f y i n g framework i s James K i n n e a v y ' s A T h e o r y of  D i s c o u r s e ; The Aims o f D i s c o u r s e ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The framework h e r e c o n s i s t s o f the e s s e n t i a l l y A r i s t o t e l i a n communications t r i a n g l e of t e x t , a u d i e n c e , and r e a l i t y ; a w r i t e r ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e t r i a n g l e d e t e r m i n e s t h e a i m s , l o g i c , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s t y l e of a d i s c o u r s e . K i n n e a v y d i v i d e s t h e aims i n t o what he sees as dominant uses o f l a n g u a g e , t h e s e b e i n g r e f e r e n t i a l , p e r s u a s i v e , l i t e r a r y , and e x p r e s s i v e . I w i l l e x p l o r e b r i e f l y t h e l o g i c and o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e f e r e n t i a l d i s c o u r s e , and t h e l o g i c of p e r s u a s i v e d i s c o u r s e , i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e y s h a r e a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . K i n n e a v y f i r s t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s r e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e f r o m t h e o t h e r t h r e e i n t h i s manner: . . . ' r e f e r e n c e ' can be b e s t u n d e r s t o o d as c o m p r i s i n g s c i e n t i f i c , i n f o r m a t i v e , and e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . . . . ' r e f e r e n c e ' d i s c o u r s e , t h e r e f o r e , c o m p r i s e s t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s of d i c o u r s e and e x c l u d e s p e r s u a s i v e , l i t e r a r y , and e x p r e s s i v e d i s c o u r s e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e l a t t e r i n c l u d e much r e f e r e n c e t o r e a l i t y , b u t t h e r e f e r e n c e t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s s e c o n d a r y i n each c a s e , whereas i n r e -f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e i t i s p r i m a r y . ^ 76 I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e l o g i c o f r e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e , K i n n e a v y a l s o makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e v a r i o u s a ims, a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e " d i f f e r e n t l o g i c s " f o r e a c h . R e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e "has i t s v a r i o u s l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e s , and t h e y a r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e s o - c a l l e d ' r h e t o r i c a l p r o o f s ' w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e l o g i c o f p e r s u a s i o n " ( 1 0 7 ) . The l o g i c K i n n e a v y proposes f o r s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e encompasses a f o r m a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e n a t u r e and r u l e s o f b o t h i n d u c t i o n and d e d u c t i o n as w e l l as of f a c t u a l i t y (and t h e use of t r u e - f a l s e p r o p o s i t i o n s ) . F o r t h a t k i n d o f r e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e he c a l l s " i n f o r m a t i v e , " he c i t e s t h e more tenuous n o t i o n s o f com p r e h e n s i v e n e s s and " s u r p r i s e v a l u e . " A t h i r d k i n d o f r e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e , t h e " e x p l o r a t o r y , " has " i l l o g i c a l " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as K i n n e a v y p u t s i t ; i n f a c t t h e sample a n a l y s i s he g i v e s f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y e s s a y i n c l u d e s s u c h i n f o r m a l p r o c e s s e s as "happy medium" l o g i c o r s y n t h e s i s o f t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s , and i n d u c t i o n s "of a r a t h e r i n f o r m a l o r common sense v a r i e t y " p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ( 1 4 7 - 4 8 ) . C l e a r l y , K i n n e a v y i s l e s s c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e — a n d y e t , t h e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s i t u s e s , c e n t e r i n g on i n d u c t i o n and s y n t h e s i s , a r e t h o s e s t u d e n t s most f r e q u e n t l y use i n c l a s s r o o m w r i t i n g . E x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e , l i k e Adam S m i t h ' s d i d a c t i c d i s c o u r s e , c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y b r i d g e t h e s c i e n t i f i c and o p i n i o n a b l e , but K i n n e a v y does not e x p l o r e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . K i n n e a v y a l s o p r o p o s e s d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s f o r t h e t h r e e t y p e s of r e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e . These a r e , b r i e f l y , o r g a n i z a t i o n by d e d u c t i o n and i n d u c t i o n f o r s c i e n t i f i c ; by f a c t u a l / s u p r i s e v a l u e and co m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s f o r i n f o r m a t i v e ; and f o r e x p l o r a t o r y , a s o r t o f d i a l e c t i c a l p a t t e r n encompassing e v e r y t h i n g f r o m debate t o e x p o s i n g and r e s o l v i n g " c r i s e s . " Y e t he t a k e s t o o easy a p a t h by r e v e r t i n g t o an a n a l y s i s o f P l a t o n i c d i a l o g u e f o r e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . I t i s s i m p l y u n r e a l i s t i c i n t h e l i g h t o f c u r r e n t aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e ( e n c o m p a s s i n g e v e r y t h i n g from i n v e s t i g a t i v e j o u r n a l i s m t o l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m ) t o c o n t e n d t h a t d i a l e c t i c forms i t s most common l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e ; d i a l e c t i c may be a t o o l o f a n a l y s i s , but n o t o f i n v e n t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l s o , i n o r d e r t o t e a c h t h i s k i n d o f s t r u c t u r e , one would be f o r c e d t o l i m i t e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e e s s e n t i a l l y t o d e b a t e , as K i n n e a v y does, and n o t emphasize i t s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p o t e n t i a l . I t i s a p i t y t h a t K i n n e a v y d o e s n ' t t r y t o s e t up an o r i g i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l model f o r e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e , o r t i e i t t o any o t h e r p a t t e r n s o r p r o c e s s e s . He has i n s t e a d a t t a c h e d t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s and p a t t e r n s t o two t y p e s of r e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e whose aims and o c c a s i o n s a r e more l i m i t e d t h a n t h o s e o f e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e . Y e t he a t t e m p t s t o r e l a t e some a s p e c t s o f r e f e r e n c e d i s c o u r s e , d i s c o u r s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i n some way t o t h e l o g i c o f p e r s u a s i v e d i s c o u r s e , o r t h a t c o n c e r n e d w i t h a u d i e n c e . K i n n e a v y bases t h i s s e c t i o n on p e r s u a s i v e l o g i c on t h e c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c a l l o g i c as o u t l i n e d i n A r i s t o t l e ' s R h e t o r i c ^ and f o c u s e s on e t h o s , p a t h o s , and l o g o s , t h e l a t t e r a l s o c a l l e d " t h e s e e m i n g l y r a t i o n a l . " B u t "what happens t o i n f o r m a t i o n when i t i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a p e r s u a s i v e document?" K i n n e a v y a s k s ( 2 5 3 ) — a q u e s t i o n s i m i l a r t o Perelman's r e g a r d i n g d a t a . K i n n e a v y ' s answer acknowledges a " s c i e n t l s m i c " d i s t r u s t o f t h e o p i n i o n a b l e : " F a c t s " i n p e r s u a s i o n a r e put t o work t o pr o v e a s c i e n -t i f i c t h e s i s . The f a c t s w h i c h c o u l d do a d i s s e r v i c e t o t h e cause must be e i t h e r c o n c e a l e d o r m i n i m i z e d . . . .When f a c t s have been m i n i m i z e d o r c o n c e a l e d o r m a g n i f i e d out of p r o p o r -t i o n , t h e r e s u l t i s a l a c k o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , t h e second component o f i d e a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( 2 5 3 - 5 4 ) . On p e r s u a s i o n and e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c o u r s e , K i n n e a v y c i t e s f o r e n s i c e x a m i n a t i o n and c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n as "ample e v i d e n c e o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f e x p l o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s i n p e r s u a s i o n " ( 2 5 5 ) . Y e t h e r e we have o n l y two r a t h e r l i m i t e d and l i m i t i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h two a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g aims o f d i s c o u r s e , r e f e r e n t i a l and p e r s u a s i v e , can b l e n d : propaganda, and t h e c o u r t r o o m . D e s p i t e K i n n e a v y ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t p e r s u a s i o n ' s s t a t u s be e l e v a t e d , i t seems t h a t d i s c o u r s e 78 e m p h a s i z i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r s t i l l has l i t t l e use f o r t h e r e a l m o f o p i n i o n i n t h i s work; a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s , i n f o r m a l o r o t h e r w i s e , do n o t a c t as a u n i f y i n g framework f o r d i s c o u r s e h e r e . I n e f f e c t , A Theory o f D i s c o u r s e : The Aims of  D i s c o u r s e encourages t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f e x p o s i t o r y , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , and p e r s u a s i v e s t r u c t u r e s f r o m a t e a c h i n g p o i n t o f v i e w . 7 F r a n k D'Angelo's A C o n c e p t u a l T h e o r y o f R h e t o r i c (1975) t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o u n i f y i n g d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r a l l y . To D'Angelo, a l m o s t a l l d i s c o u r s e i n c o r p o r a t e s " c o n c e p t u a l p a t t e r n s " s u c h as d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , c o m p a r i s o n , c o n t r a s t , a n a l o g y , cause and e f f e c t , p a r t i t i o n , and e n u m e r a t i o n . ^ Not o n l y a r e t h e s e p a t t e r n s " s y m b o l i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f u n d e r l y i n g t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s " ( 2 0 ) , but a c c o r d i n g t o D'Angelo t h e y t i e i n w i t h t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c and t r a d i t i o n a l l o g i c as w e l l as w i t h t h e " l a w s " o f c l a s s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n t h e o r y ( C a m p b e l l ' s and B a i n ' s c o n t i g u i t y , s i m i l i t u d e , r e p e t i t i o n , and a s s o c i a t i o n ) . What D'Angelo i s a t t e m p t i n g t o do h e r e i s n o t o n l y u n i f y d i s c o u r s e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s , b u t a l s o endow s e e m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t w i t h a common t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e . The t i e h e r e w i t h i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n i s t h a t D'Angelo's p a t t e r n s c o n s t i t u t e a s o r t o f " e v e r y d a y " l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , f l e x i b l e enough t o encompass v i r t u a l l y a l l d i s c o u r s e aims and o c c a s i o n s . "They a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d dynamic o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . . .and n o t m e r e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l , s t a t i c p a t t e r n s , " D'Angelo emphasizes ( 5 7 - 8 ) . By d i v i d i n g arrangement o f d i s c o u r s e i n t o t h r e e t y p e s — l o g i c a l , p r o g r e s s i v e , and r e p e t i t i v e — a m d l i s t i n g t h e p a t t e r n s t h a t can make up ea c h , D'Angelo c l e a r l y i m p l i e s t h a t no one p a t t e r n a d h e r e s t o any one aim or o c c a s i o n . Of t h e r h e t o r i c i a n s I have examined h e r e , D'Angelo comes c l o s e s t t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r b u i l d i n g d i s c o u r s e f r o m a l l -e ncompassing, i n f o r m a l l y l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S h o r t l y , when I l o o k a t some r e c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s , I w i l l a l s o examine D'Angelo's P r o c e s s and Thought i n Composition )second ed., 1980) with an eye toward evaluating how he applies h i s conceptual theory to pedagogy. Other composition t h e o r i s t s , as w e l l as i n s t r u c t o r s , have recently begun exploring argument's r e l a t i o n s h i p both to other aims and occasions for discourse and to formal versus "everyday" l o g i c . ^ The authors I surveyed i n various r h e t o r i c and composition journals recognize a difference between "formal" and "informal" argumentation, but are divided about which kind should be taught i n composition classes. J . Woods and Douglas Walton, reviewing two l o g i c and w r i t i n g texts i n Rhetoric Society Quarterly (1976), are not against informal l o g i c or argumentation, but deplore i t s popular treatment as a loose association of mere "common sense homilies." Gerald Levin, i n h i s a r t i c l e "On Freshman Composition and L o g i c a l Thinking" (1977), advocates a more systematic informal l o g i c with some emphasis on t r a d i t i o n a l l o g i c , while David S. Kaufer and C h r i s t i n e M. Neuwirth's "Integrating Formal Logic and the New Rhetoric" (1983) suggests, as the t i t l e implies, that formal l o g i c a l as well as " r h e t o r i c a l l y acceptable methods" should be combined i n the writing c l a s s . Another text reviewer, David Lumsden, complains that Robert J . Fogelin's Understanding  Arguments neglects the task of helping students work out "the broad structure" of an argument i n i t s emphasis on "speech acts and p r a g m a t i c s . " S t i l l others, l i k e Andrea Lunsford i n " A r i s t o t e l i a n vs. Rogerian Argument: A Reassessment" (1979) and Jeanne Fahnestock and Marie Secor i n "Teaching Argument: A Theory of Types" (1983) would l i k e to see c l a s s i c a l argumentative structures form the foundation for teaching argument i n writing courses: Lunsford l i n k s Rogerian to A r i s t o t e l i a n methods, and Fahnestock and Secor propose a "rhetorical/generative method" of teaching argument wherein students combine c a t e g o r i c a l and causal arguments into more complex evaluations and proposals. These l a s t three authors, as w e l l as Levin i n p a r t i c u l a r , c l e a r a pathway for exposition, argument, and persuasion being taught as aims and occasions for w r i t i n g which stem from a 8 0 common syst e m of i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . * u My f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h a t f u r n i s h i n g c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s i s s t i l l a p r o j e c t i n I t s p r o t o t y p e s t a t e , j u d g i n g by t h e a p p r o a c h e s of a number o f p o p u l a r t e x t s . However, i t i s e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t a s m a l l group of t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s sees t h e l i n k between e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n as t o o o b v i o u s t o pass o v e r , and we s h a l l see how t h e s e w r i t e r s move toward an i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e s e aims and o c c a s i o n s . 81 ^ S i n c e 1969, major r h e t o r i c i a n s have d e v o t e d an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e l a t i o n between r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n . These t h e o r i s t s i n c l u d e R i c h a r d Young ( t h e r e l a t i o n between i n v e n t i o n as a h e u r i s t i c and c o m p o s i t i o n ) ; James K i n n e a v y ( a s t r u c t u r a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e forms o f w r i t i n g ) ; F r a n k D'Angelo ( t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n t o p o i as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s i n w r i t i n g ) ; W. Ross Winterowd (whose work has s y n t h e s i z e d v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s and p e d a g o g i e s ) ; a n d t o an e x t e n t , Chaim P e r e l m a n (who pays some a t t e n t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a r g u m e n t a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s i n d i s c o u r s e ) . T h i s i s o n l y t o name a few contemporary r h e t o r i c i a n s whose work has e i t h e r become p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l a f t e r 1969, o r whose major work was p u b l i s h e d a f t e r t h a t d a t e . Some t e x t book a u t h o r s who have b u i l t t h e i r work on a t h e o r e t i c a l b a ckground and whose t e x t s have a c h i e v e d a c e r t a i n p o p u l a r i t y i n c l u d e J a n i c e L a u e r ( K i n n e a v y ' s and Young's t h e o r i e s a p p l i e d ) ; F r a n k D'Angelo ( h i s c o n c e p t u a l t h e o r y a p p l i e d ) ; Maxine H a i r s t o n (D'Angelo's and Young's t h e o r i e s ) ; R i c h a r d Young, A l t o n B e c k e r , and Kenneth P i k e ; S t e p h e n T o u l m i n (who c o - a u t h o r e d a t e x t on i n t r o d u c t o r y r e a s o n i n g ) ; and J a c q u e l i n e B e r k e (whose t e x t u s e s t h e t o p o i as a h e u r i s t i c f o r w r i t i n g ) . Of c o u r s e , b e f o r e 1969, r h e t o r i c i a n s s u c h as Wayne B o o t h , K e n n e t h P i k e , R i c h a r d Ohmann, D o u g l a s E h n i n g e r , and Edward P . J . C o r b e t t were e x p l o r i n g t h e l i n k between r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n . However, I see 1969 as t h e b e g i n n i n g of a much more w i d e s p r e a d awareness of r h e t o r i c ' s r o l e i n c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g t h a n had e x i s t e d b e f o r e . ^Stephen E d e l s t o n T o u l m i n , The Uses o f Argument (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 1. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . T o u l m i n ' s i n f l u e n c e i n c o m p o s i t i o n seems e x e m p l i f i e d by s u c h a r t i c l e s as James F. S t r a t m a n ' s " T e a c h i n g W r i t t e n Argument: The S i g n i f i c a n c e of T o u l m i n ' s L a y o u t f o r S e n t e n c e Combining" i n C o l l e g e E n g l i s h 44 (November 1982), 718-733. S t r a t m a n e x p l o r e s how T o u l m i n ' s l a y o u t m i g h t be u s e f u l l y a d a p t e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g of a r g u m e n t a t i v e s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g e x e r c i s e s . However, a t t h e 6 4 t h A n n u a l Speech Communication A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g , T o u l m i n and two o t h e r s p e a k e r s r e p o r t e d on " A l t e r n a t i v e P h i l o s o p h i c a l G r o u n d i n g s f o r L o o k i n g a t A r g u m e n t a t i o n as a Way o f Knowing," e m p h a s i z i n g a need t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l i m i t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l r h e t o r i c a l and l o g i c a l m o d e l s . ( T h i s s e minar i s r e p o r t e d i n The R h e t o r i c S o c i e t y Q u a r t e r l y , V I I I (Summer 19 7 8 ) , 114-15.) ^Chaim P e r e l m a n and L. O l b r e c h t s - T y t e c a , The New R h e t o r i c : A T r e a t i s e on  A r g u m e n t a t i o n , J o h n W i l k i n s o n and P u r c e l l Weaver, t r a n s . ( N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y of N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1 969), p. 1. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . ^Perelman's d i s s o c i a t i o n s e v e r s t i e s between s i n g l e n o t i o n s o r c o n c e p t i o n s c o m p r i s e d o f u n i t i e s o f e l e m e n t s , t h e elements t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g p r o p e r l y l i n k e d t o each o t h e r ( 4 1 1 - 1 2 ) . What i s so p o w e r f u l about d i s s o c i a t i o n i s t h a t i t r e c o n s t r u c t s r e a l i t y , r emodels i t , and i n d o i n g so i n t r o d u c e s new c o n c e p t s o r n o t i o n s , w h i c h a r e t h e m s e l v e s perhaps d i s s o c i a t e d l a t e r . The f u n d a m e n t a l u n i t s f o r d i s s o c i a t i o n a r e " p h i l o s o p h i c a l p a i r s , " p r i m o r d i a l p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e v a l u e s , though P e r e l m a n d i s c u s s e s o t h e r d i s s o c i a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as u s i n g " d i s q u a l i f y i n g " p r e f i x e s , making s u b s t i t u t i o n s , and even s i m p l y e s t a b l i s h i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f n o t i o n s . ^ R i c h a r d E. Young, A l t o n L. B e c k e r , and Kenneth L. P i k e , R h e t o r i c :  D i s c o v e r y and Change (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 171. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . 82 P e r e l m a n ' s and Young, B e c k e r , and P i k e ' s works d i f f e r p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h a t t h e l a t t e r a u t h o r s t a k e a d e c i d e d l y e t h i c a l s t a n c e i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f r h e t o r i c , whereas P e r e l m a n i s more u t i l i t a r i a n : he l o o k s a t r h e t o r i c n o t from t h e v i e w p o i n t o f what i t s h o u l d do i n s o c i e t y , b u t what i t a c t u a l l y does. 6james L. K i n n e a v y , A The o r y o f D i s c o u r s e : The Aims o f D i s c o u r s e (Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1971), p. 77. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . K i n n e a v y d e p l o r e s t h e use of t h e te r m " e x p o s i t i o n " f o r i n f o r m a t i v e o r s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e , b e c a u s e , as he p u t s i t , " i t f o s t e r s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t o n l y l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g i s c r e a t i v e . . . i t c o n f u s e s a mode of d i s c o u r s e w i t h an aim of d i s c o u r s e . " ( 7 9 ) . ^ K i n n e a v y ' s work has been w i d e l y i n f l u e n t i a l , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f new c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s s u c h as F o u r W o r l d s o f W r i t i n g . The most l i k e l y r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t K i n n e a v y p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r t h e " f o u r f o r m s " o f w r i t i n g p e r se; no l o n g e r must i n s t r u c t o r s t e a c h them by r o t e , b u t c a n d e l v e i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e s , t h e l o g i c , b e h i n d each as p r e s e n t e d by K i n n e a v y . F o u r W o r l d o f  W r i t i n g a d o p t s h i s use o f terms such as " i n f o r m a t i v e " w r i t i n g r a t h e r t h a n " e x p o s i t o r y " w r i t i n g , f o r c e r t a i n l y K i n n e a v y ' s b r e a k i n g - u p o f e x p o s i t i o n i n t o f i n e r c a t e g o r i e s does bro a d e n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f an aim t h a t p r e v i o u s l y had done l i t t l e but " p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n . " I n h i s a r t i c l e "A Theory o f D i s c o u r s e : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e " i n CCC, 33 (May 1 9 8 2 ) , 196-201, J o h n D. O'Banion d e s c r i b e s K i n n e a v y ' s c a t e g o r i e s as " s t a t i c " and h i s a p p r o a c h as " t o o c l o s e l y t i e d t o l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t o be h e l p f u l i n c o m p o s i t i o n . " My own e v a l u a t i o n o f K i n n e a v y ' s f a i l u r e t o u n i f y d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s (beyond t h e e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l b u t b r o a d " t r i a n g l e " ) i s r e f l e c t e d i n O'Banion's c o m m e n t — " K i n n e a v y ' s r e f u s a l t o d e a l w i t h p r o c e s s i n o r d e r t o t r e a t s t a t i c t e x t s . . . r e s u l t s i n an u n f o r t u n a t e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e k i n d s o f d i s c o u r s e . . . .he ends up w i t h s e l f - i m p o s e d l i m i t a t i o n s . " ^ F r a n k J . D'Angelo, A C o n c e p t u a l T h e o r y o f R h e t o r i c ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: W i n t h r o p , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 34. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . D'Angelo adds t h a t when t h e s e t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s a r e embedded i n s e n t e n c e s , "We c a l l them a s p e c t s o f s t y l e . When t h e y a r e embedded i n p a r a g r a p h s and extended u n i t s o f d i s c o u r s e , we c a l l them a s p e c t s o f s t r u c t u r e . " I n o t h e r words, t h e y encompass a l l l e v e l s and a s p e c t s o f w r i t i n g . ^The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s e x p l o r e a s p e c t s o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n and l o g i c and pedagogy r e l a t i n g t o them. I have l i s t e d them h e r e s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e most r e c e n t : D a v i d S. K a u f e r and C h r i s t i n e M. N e u w i r t h , " I n t e g r a t i n g F o r m a l L o g i c and t h e New R h e t o r i c : A F o u r - S t a g e H e u r i s t i c " i n CE, 45 ( A p r i l 1 9 8 3 ) , 380-389. Jeanne F a h n e s t o c k and M a r i e S e c o r , " T e a c h i n g Argument: A T h e o r y o f Types" i n CCC, 34 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 3 ) , 20-30. D a v i d Lumsden, "Book Reviews: U n d e r s t a n d i n g Arguments: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o  I n f o r m a l L o g i c by R o b e r t J . F o g e l i n , and An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o R e a s o n i n g by Stephen T o u l m i n , R i c h a r d R i e k e , and A l l a n J a n i k " i n R h e t o r i c S o c i e t y Q u a r t e r l y , I X ( F a l l 1 9 7 9 ), 211-214. Andrea A. L u n s f o r d , " A r i s t o t e l i a n v s . R o g e r i a n Argument: A Reassessment" i n CCC, 30 (May 1979) 146-151. G e r a l d L e v i n , "On Freshman C o m p o s i t i o n and L o g i c a l T h i n k i n g " i n CCC, 28 (December 1977) 359-364. 83 J . Woods and D o u g l a s W a l t o n , "Book Re v i e w s : W i t h Good Reason by M o r r i s E n g e l , and L o g i c and Contemporary R h e t o r i c by Howard Kahane" i n R h e t o r i c S o c i e t y  Q u a r t e r l y , V I (Summer 1976), 50-52. * u 0 t h e r t e x t s w h i c h t r e a t i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s argument, e x p o s i t i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n as h a v i n g common s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s based on i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d a t a i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : B e r k e ' s Twenty Q u e s t i o n s f o r  t h e W r i t e r ( t h e l o g i c u sed h e r e i s t h a t o f t h e t o p o i ) ; H a i r s t o n ' s A Contemporary  R h e t o r i c ( w h i c h poses methods of development o r " c o n c e p t u a l p a t t e r n s " as a u n i f y i n g f o u n d a t i o n f o r d i s c o u r s e ) ; and S k w i r e ' s W r i t i n g W i t h a T h e s i s ( which t a k e s t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n v i e w t h a t d i s c o u r s e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t w o - p a r t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h can be e l a b o r a t e d o n ) . See Ch. 5, f o o t n o t e 2 f o r f u l l c i t a t i o n s . V. I n f o r m a l A r g u m e n t a t i o n and T e a c h i n g C o m p o s i t i o n 84 A l t h o u g h t h e l a s t decade has been a t i m e when r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and w r i t i n g have grown toward a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , a marked i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y s t i l l e x i s t s between what James A. B e r l i n c a l l s " t h e new r h e t o r i c " o f s y n t h e s i s and u n i f i c a t i o n , and t h e fragmented " c u r r e n t - t r a d i t i o n a l r h e t o r i c " w h i c h , he s a y s , s t i l l " c l e a r l y d ominates t h i n k i n g about w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o d a y . " ^ Nowhere i s t h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n more o b v i o u s t h a n i n many o f t o d a y ' s most w i d e l y u s e d and h i g h l y t o u t e d freshman c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s , w h i c h p e r s i s t i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n , u s i n g a l m o s t t h e same c r i t e r i a as t h e i r t u r n - o f - t h e -c e n t u r y a n t e c e d e n t s . I n f a c t , out of t h e f o u r t e e n post-1970 t e x t s I s u r v e y e d , I f o u n d t h a t s i x c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s on t h e b a s i s , m a i n l y , of p u rpose; t h a t f i v e m e n t i o n some c o m m o n a l i t i e s between e x p o s i t i o n and argument; and t h a t o n l y t h r e e c l e a r l y t r y t o p r o v i d e e i t h e r an a r g u m e n t a t i v e o r i n f o r m a l l y l o g i c a l framework f o r t e a c h i n g w r i t i n g . P e r h a p s n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s i x t e x t s w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e e x p o s i t o r y , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , and p e r s u a s i v e s t r u c t u r e s t h e most ar e u n i v e r s a l l y - k n o w n " b i b l e s " o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s r o o m . 2 One n o t i c e a b l e and n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y new t r e n d i n t h e s e t e x t s i s t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n of argument o r o p i n i o n a b l e w r i t i n g f r o m " t h e b a s i c e s s a y . " The  P r e n t i c e - H a l l Handbook f o r W r i t e r s ( s e v e n t h e d i t i o n , 1978) e f f e c t i v e l y s p l i t s w r i t i n g i n t o t h e b a s i c e x p o s i t o r y e s s a y and t h e e s s a y of o p i n i o n by d e v o t i n g t o t h e l a t t e r an i s o l a t e d c h a p t e r on l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u c h as d e f i n i t i o n , example, and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as w e l l as d i s c u s s i o n o f e t h o s and t h e f a l l a c i e s . Such a t r e a t m e n t c o n t r a d i c t s t h e t e x t ' s e a r l i e r a s s e r t i o n t h a t argument can be a p a r t o f "the whole c o m p o s i t i o n . " S i m i l a r l y , The L i t t l e , Brown Handbook (1980) d e v o t e s i t s s e c t i o n on " D e v e l o p i n g An E s s a y " t o e x p o s i t i o n , w h i c h i n t h i s t e x t i s w r i t i n g whose p r i m a r y purpos e i s t o "expose i n f o r m a t i o n " ( 2 - 3 ) , w h i l e a s e p a r a t e 85 c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s argument, l o g i c , and f a l l a c i e s . T h i s t r e a t m e n t seems t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e t e x t ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t " I n a way, a l l w r i t i n g i s a r g u i n g . " The H e a t h Handbook o f C o m p o s i t i o n ( t e n t h e d i t i o n , 1981) d e d i c a t e s i t s e l f t o " e x p o s i t o r y / a c a d e m i c w r i t i n g " o n l y , but i t i n c l u d e s a c h a p t e r on " R e a s o n i n g , " w h i c h t h e c a r e f u l s t u d e n t may f i n d p l a c e d between " D i c t i o n / W o r d S e l e c t i o n " and "The R e s e a r c h P a p e r . " T h i s t e x t i s o l a t e s argument t o an even g r e a t e r degree by d e f i n i n g i t as "any two s t a t e m e n t s c o n n e c t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t one i s drawn f r o m t h e o t h e r , " t h e r e b y e m p h a s i z i n g a more f o r m a l l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t w h i c h , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , r e m a i n s u n c o n n e c t e d t o e x p o s i t i o n ( 2 8 7 - 3 1 0 ) . L i k e w i s e , The  C a n a d i a n W r i t e r ' s Handbook (1980) m e n t i o n s argument o n l y under " D i c t i o n : weak g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s " and p e r p e t u a t e s t h e s p l i t between f a c t and o p i n i o n by a d d i n g , " I n an argument. . . f a c t would c a r r y more w e i g h t t h a n mere o p i n i o n " ( 2 6 0 ) . O p i n i o n , a l o n g w i t h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , becomes a s t y l i s t i c ornament i n The New  S t r a t e g y of S t y l e ( 1 9 7 8 ) , when d i s c u s s i o n o f e x p o s i t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n c e n t e r s on p a r a g r a p h models. F o r an e x p o s i t o r y p u r p o s e , t h e w r i t e r i s a d v i s e d t o i n t r o d u c e t h e t o p i c s e n t e n c e f i r s t ; f o r p e r s u a s i o n , she may l e a d up t o i t i n d u c t i v e l y . The i m p l i c i t argument i n t h e l a t t e r t h r e e t e x t s , t h e n , i s t h i s : t h a t n o t o n l y i n t e n t i o n but t h e v e h i c l e f o r t h e i n t e n t i o n can be " p a s t e d on" t o a p i e c e of w r i t i n g a t t h e l e x i c a l o r s y n t a c t i c l e v e l , as s e p a r a t e s t r u c t u r e s . J u s t as I n t h e 1940's and 50's when " e x p o s i t i o n o n l y " t e x t s were i n vogue, t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e s t h e same i m p l i c i t emphasis i n many c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s t o d a y . I n The M a c m i l l a n Handbook of E n g l i s h ( s e v e n t h e d i t i o n , 1 9 8 2 ) , e x p o s i t i o n , a r g u m e n t a t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , and d e s c r i p t i o n a r e f i r s t g i v e n as " f o u r w i d e l y a c c e p t e d p urposes o r aims of t h e e s s a y , " t h e f i r s t two c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m each o t h e r i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e emphasis on e x p o s i t i o n : W r i t e r s who seek t o i n f o r m o r e x p l a i n w i l l p r e s e n t f a c t s and i d e a s t o t h e i r r e a d e r s . . . . W r i t e r s who seek t o c o n v i n c e w i l l e n l i s t t h e a i d o f t e c h n i q u e s used i n a r g u m e n t a t i o n ( 8 - 9 ) . 86 A g a i n , t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f "The Task of W r i t i n g " i s e x p l i c i t l y t h a t o f t h e t a s k o f w r i t i n g e x p o s i t o r y , " f a c t u a l " p i e c e s , w h i l e p e r s u a s i o n (used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h argument) comes under "Problems o f Composing." I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s t e x t a l s o d e s c r i b e s e x p o s i t i o n as "a p e r s o n a l e f f o r t t o c o n v i n c e y o u r r e a d e r s t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n i s sound" ( 5 ) , t h e n l a t e r combines argument and p e r s u a s i o n as a t a s k demanding " t h a t t h e w r i t e r t a k e a p o s i t i o n , s t a t e a t h e s i s t o be a r g u e d . . . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i c t a t e s o f r e a s o n and l o g i c " ( 2 0 0 - 1 ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s a cue f o r a n o t h e r example of s p l i t t i n g f a c t and o p i n i o n , e x p o s i t i o n and argument: f o r h e r e , a r g u m e n t / p e r s u a s i o n i s equated w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c and c l a s s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n even as e x p o s i t i o n f o c u s e s on more I n f o r m a l l o g i c . T e x t s l i k e t h i s , and t h e f i v e o t h e r s I have d e s c r i b e d so f a r , a r e a s k i n g t h e s t u d e n t as w e l l as t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o t a k e a " b a s i c e x p o s i t o r y " framework and somehow f i t an a r g u m e n t a t i v e one i n t o o r o n t o i t a t need, a t a s k f o r w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t , and t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n s t r u c t o r i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e i l l - p r e p a r e d t o c a r r y out s u c c e s s f u l l y . T e x t s t h a t a t t e m p t more c l e a r l y t o o u t l i n e c o m m o n a l i t i e s between f a c t u a l and o p i n i o n a b l e w r i t i n g i n c l u d e J a c q u e l i n e B e r k e * s Twenty Q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e W r i t e r (1981) and Maxine H a i r s t o n ' s A Contemporary R h e t o r i c ( t h i r d e d i t i o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . B e r k e sees argument as t h e l a s t o f a s e r i e s o f twenty q u e s t i o n s f o r m i n g an i n v e n t i o n a l h e u r i s t i c f o r t h e w r i t e r : "What c a s e can be made f o r o r a g a i n s t X ? " B e r k e says t h i s : I n t r y i n g t o b u i l d a c a s e , we move beyond p l a i n expo-s i t i o n i n t o t h e more a c t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e r e a l m o f a r -g u m e n t a t i o n . . .w h e r e i n t h e a r g u e r t r i e s n o t o n l y t o e x -p l a i n but t o d e f e n d o r r e f u t e what l o g i c i a n s c a l l a p r o -p o s i t i o n . . . .(306) C l e a r l y , B e r k e s e e s and makes e v i d e n t an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between w r i t i n g b o t h w i t h and w i t h o u t an o v e r t a r g u m e n t a t i v e "edge," e c h o i n g i n p a r t t h e C a m p b e l l i a n i d e a t h a t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g must be engaged b e f o r e t h e w i l l . B e r k e a l s o n o t e s t h a t argument makes f r e e use of t h e i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g : d e f i n i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , c o m p a r i s o n , and so on ( 3 0 7 ) . However, she 87 t r e a t s k i n d s o f arguments as e s s e n t i a l l y s p e c i a l w r i t i n g t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h s e r v e t o p r o v e p r o p o s i t i o n s , c r e a t i n g a g a i n a s p l i t between argument as p a r t o f a l m o s t a l l w r i t i n g aims and o c c a s i o n s , and argument as a s e p a r a t e s k i l l o f w r i t i n g . H a i r s t o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, embraces argument as t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t of t h e r h e t o r i c a l s q u a r e o f argument, p u r p o s e , a u d i e n c e , and p e r s o n a . F o r H a i r s t o n , argument p r o v i d e s "a s u b s t a n t i a l and w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d base on w h i c h t o b u i l d " ( 8 7 ) . Argument, e x p o s i t i o n , and p e r s u a s i o n i n t h i s scheme a r e u n i t e d ("arguments i n c l u d e e x p o s i t o r y as w e l l as p e r s u a s i v e p r o s e " ( 2 6 6 ) t h r o u g h what H a i r s t o n , b o r r o w i n g f r o m D'Angelo, c a l l s " t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s " o f argument and e x p o s i t i o n : d e f i n i t i o n , i n d u c t i o n , d e d u c t i o n , cause and e f f e c t , and c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , u n l i k e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n handbooks, H a i r s t o n does n o t draw a l i n e between e x p o s i t o r y "methods of development" and g e n e r a l k i n d s o f argument. The o n l y r e a l b r e a k i n t h i s u n i f i c a t i o n o f e x p o s i t i o n and argument t h r o u g h what a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e t o p o l o c c u r s i n c h a p t e r s t e n and e l e v e n , w h e r e i n H a i r s t o n d i s c u s s e s " l o g i c a l argument": i n c l u d i n g s y l l o g i s m s and f a l l a c i e s . I t i s as i f no one i s q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t w r i t e r s can argue a t h e s i s w i t h o u t knowing t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a s y l l o g i s m — a n e v e n t w h i c h o c c u r s much more o f t e n t h a n n o t i n p r a c t i c e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t even i n t e x t s e m p h a s i z i n g i n f o r m a l l o g i c , a c o n f l i c t c a n e x i s t between t h a t and a more f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n . E a r l i e r I examined F r a n k D'Angelo's A C o n c e p t u a l T h e o r y o f D i s c o u r s e i n terms o f how he u n i f i e s d i s c o u r s e i n t h e o r y t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l l o g i c . I n h i s t e x t P r o c e s s and  Thought i n C o m p o s i t i o n ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ) , D'Angelo a t t e m p t s t o t r a n s l a t e h i s t h e o r y i n t o pedagogy. B a s i c a l l y , he b u i l d s h i s pedagogy on t h e common groundwork of t h e " p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t " o r t h e s y n t a g m a t i c and p a r a d i g m a t i c s t r u c t u r e s on w h i c h he m a i n t a i n s a l l w r i t i n g i s based.^ Y e t , " P e r s u a s i o n as an Aim" i s s t i l l e q u a t e d h e r e w i t h t h e s y l l o g i s m and t h e enthymeme, w i t h a f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e h a v i n g l i t t l e i n common w i t h t h e o t h e r s . A r g u m e n t a t i o n (subsumed by p e r s u a s i o n ) 88 a l s o r e c e i v e s a t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n : " t he g i v i n g o f r e a s o n s t o s u p p o r t t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f a p r o p o s i t i o n . . . .Reasoning i s t h i n k i n g i n a c o n n e c t e d , l o g i c a l manner by i n d u c t i o n o r d e d u c t i o n " ( 2 4 1 ) . W h i l e D'Angelo c e r t a i n l y shows how argument o r r e a s o n i n g can and does make use o f i n f o r m a l l o g i c ( c h a p t e r e i g h t ) , he l a t e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t a w e l l p l a n n e d argument w i l l use " t h e d e d u c t i v e sequence," e n a b l i n g t h e w r i t e r t o " a n a l y z e t h e p r o p o s i t i o n c a r e f u l l y and t o p i c k out t h e f a c t s t h a t w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e w i t h t h e r e a d e r " ( 2 9 6 ) . A g a i n , we see argument not as a s t r u c t u r a l framework f o r d i s c o u r s e , but as a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s k i l l : i n D'Angelo's c a s e , as a t o o l o f a n a l y s i s more t h a n p r o d u c t i o n . W r i t i n g W i t h a T h e s i s ( t h i r d e d i t i o n , 1982) by D a v i d S k w i r e i s i n some ways s i m i l a r t o D'Angelo's t e x t . The a u t h o r d i v i d e s t h e t e x t i n t o c h a p t e r s based on d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f development ( a g a i n , d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e t o p o i ) , w h i l e a r g u m e n t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a f i n a l , i s o l a t e d c h a p t e r . S k w i r e does s a y , " T h i s whole book has been about a r g u m e n t a t i o n " (237) and encourages s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t o f o r m a t h e s i s and p r o v e i t u s i n g i n f o r m a l l o g i c — a p r o c e s s he equates w i t h a r g u m e n t a t i o n i t s e l f . N o n e t h e l e s s , l i k e B e r k e and H a i r s t o n as w e l l , he f e e l s i t n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e t h i s s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r on i n d u c t i o n , d e d u c t i o n , t h e s y l l o g i s m , and a few l o g i c a l f a l l a c i e s . One q u e s t i o n t o a s k about t h i s t e x t , t h e n , i s — i f t h e whole book has been about a r g u m e n t a t i o n , why i s s u c h a c h a p t e r n e c e s s a r y ? F i n a l l y , a l s o f a l l i n g i n t o my c a t e g o r y o f t e x t s w h i c h m e n t i o n c o m m o n a l i t i e s between e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n , i s J o h n F. P a r k e r ' s The P r o c e s s of  W r i t i n g ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P a r k e r s t a t e s t h a t e x p o s i t i o n can be d i v i d e d i n t o " i n f o r m a t i v e " o r " p e r s u a s i v e " because " a n y t h i n g you say o r w r i t e has an a r g u m e n t a t i v e edge." I n a d d i t i o n , P a r k e r encourages t h e use o f t h e i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l methods o f development as w e l l as " s p e c i f i c e v i d e n c e , a c c u r a t e examples" f o r c o n v i n c i n g an a u d i e n c e ( C h a p t e r s S i x , S e v e n ) . However, P a r k e r d e f i n e s and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s f o r s t u d e n t s "a p u r e l y a r g u m e n t a t i v e e s s a y " and "pure e x p o s i t i o n " a t a l m o s t t h e same 89 t i m e he emphasizes t h e i r c o m m o n a l i t i e s ; a r e a d e r o f t h i s t e x t m i g h t be e x c u s e d f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between them a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . Such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f o r t h e sake of a v o i d i n g " c o n f u s i o n " s e r v e s o n l y i n t h e l o n g r u n t o t e l l s t u d e n t s t h a t " o p i n i o n " and " f a c t " a r e s e p a r a t e and d e a l w i t h s e p a r a t e methods and m a t e r i a l s , when ( a s P e r e l m a n i m p l i e s ) t h e y s p r i n g f r o m t h e common ground of what we p e r c e i v e as d a t a and how we r e l a t e them. We can r e a l i s t i c a l l y c o n c l u d e , t h e n , t h a t a good many o f t o d a y ' s p o p u l a r c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s h i n t b r o a d l y t h a t d i f f e r e n t aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e must i n c o r p o r a t e s e p a r a t e s t r u c t u r e s and s e p a r a t e r u l e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s a v i e w t h a t c o m p o s i t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s s i n c e t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y have t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , but a v i e w t h a t t h e o r i s t s a r e now r e a l i z i n g i s h a r m f u l . F o r i f n o t h i n g e l s e , t h e s e p a r a t i o n of t h e a r g u m e n t a t i v e "edge" from d i s c o u r s e w h i c h p u r p o r t s t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i m p l i e s t o s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n of o p i n i o n i s n o t o n l y i n f e r i o r t o e x p o s i t i o n , b u t f o r a l l t h a t a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s e r i e s of t r i c k s r e q u i r i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y t y p e s of r e a s o n i n g . That i s n o t t h e message i n s t r u c t o r s s h o u l d be g i v i n g s t u d e n t s , i m p l i c t l y o r o t h e r w i s e . I s t a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f C h a p t e r One t h a t one o f t h e r e a s o n s Johnny c a n ' t w r i t e i s because no one has g i v e n him s u f f i c i e n t m o t i v a t i o n t o do so beyond th e m e c h a n i c a l one o f m a s t e r i n g r u l e s and t e c h n i q u e s t o a c h i e v e some n e b u l o u s f u t u r e " s u c c e s s . " To r e d u c e a r g u m e n t a t i o n t o y e t a n o t h e r s e t o f d i s c r e t e s k i l l s has s e r v e d , and w i l l s e r v e , o n l y t o s t i f l e any i n t e r e s t on Johnny's p a r t i n t h e w o r l d o f o p i n i o n and e v e r y d a y p r o b a b i l i t i e s : i n o t h e r words, i n t h e w o r l d of e t h i c a l i s s u e s . W h i l e modern c o m p o s i t i o n t h e o r i s t s a r e now s e a r c h i n g f o r ways t o r e c o n c i l e a r g u m e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e c o m munication of " f a c t s " i n t h e w r i t i n g c l a s s r o o m , we have seen t h a t many c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s s t i l l r e f l e c t t h e n i n e t e e n t h -and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o n c e p t i o n t h a t something w h i c h i s v e r i f i a b l e e m p i r -i c a l l y i s b e t t e r , more u s e f u l , t h a n s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s open t o doubt o r change. 90 To p e r p e t u a t e t h i s c o n c e p t i o n i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m once and f o r a l l as a l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e . I posed t h i s q u e s t i o n a t the end o f C h a p t e r Three: c o u l d t h e i n f o r m a l , i n d u c t i v e a r g u m e n t a t i o n stemming f r o m D e s c a r t e s , Bacon, L o c k e , S m i t h , and C a m p b e l l p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e aims and o c c a s i o n s o f w r i t i n g ? C e r t a i n l y a number of t h e o r i s t s , among them P e r e l m a n , have condemned the C a r t e s i a n r u l e s o f r e a s o n i n g as o r i g i n a t i n g t h e s p l i t between f a c t and o p i n i o n , and as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e d o w n f a l l o f p r o b a b i l i t y as a v a l i d f i e l d of s t u d y . Y e t we must keep i n mind t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e b e h i n d t h e New L o g i c i a n s ' methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and t h e b e l i e f t h a t o n l y f a c t s a r e good: t h e New L o g i c i a n s were r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t t h e i d e a t h a t t r u t h s a r e ready made and t h a t new e x p e r i e n c e s must be t e s t e d a g a i n s t them, and p r o p o s e d i n s t e a d t h a t t h e s y n t h e s i s of new e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r c e p t i o n s c o u l d be, t h e m s e l v e s , t r u t h s . The works of S m i t h and C a mpbell i n t h a t l i g h t c o n s t i t u t e two major a t t e m p t s t o e q u i p an i n v e n t i o n l e s s r h e t o r i c w i t h t h i s new l o g i c , t o b r i n g t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t r u t h s w i t h i n the g r a s p o f t h e spoken and w r i t t e n word. And i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind t h a t t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' s g r o w i n g emphasis on t h e i m p o r t a n c e of f a c t s h e l p e d t o c a s e - h a r d e n what had been "new" l o g i c i n t o a ready-made t r u t h a l l of i t s e l f . I have d e s c r i b e d i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n as a w r i t i n g p r o c e d u r e t h a t d i r e c t s w r i t e r s t o i n q u i r e i n t o a s u b j e c t i n such a way t h a t t h e y b u i l d f r o m s i m p l e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o s y n t h e s e s of them, by c r e a t i n g l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e p i e c e s . The l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o m p r i s e what c o u l d be c a l l e d "common s e n s e " ways o f v i e w i n g and making sense o f e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e y a r e n o t h i n g new: A r i s t o t e l i a n t o p o i , "methods of development," D'Angelo's and H a i r s t o n ' s " p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t . " I w i l l g i v e t h r e e examples o f c o m p o s i t i o n t e x t s w h i c h c l e a r l y t r y t o p r o v i d e a s o r t o f i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e framework f o r t e a c h i n g d i s c o u r s e . ^ Then, t o c o n c l u d e t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l s u g g e s t how an 91 i n s t r u c t o r , armed w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e t h a t a l l w r i t i n g i s an a c t o f b u i l d i n g t owards a t r u t h , m i ght use i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F i r s t , W i l l i a m J . B r a n d t ' s The R h e t o r i c o f A r g u m e n t a t i o n (1970) p r o v i d e s a comp r e h e n s i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f how e x p o s i t i o n , argument, and p e r s u a s i o n can s h a r e common ground: T r a d i t i o n a l l y . . . d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e ( e x p o s i t i o n ) d i d n o t aim a t m e r e l y g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; i t s o b j e c t was t o persuade t h e r e a d e r t o some s o r t o f e x p l i c i t judgment. A judgment i n v o l v e s n o t one te r m b u t two, and t h e y must be c o n n e c t e d t o each o t h e r i n a way t h a t i s u l t i m a t e l y l o g i c a l ( 2 2 ) . F o r B r a n d t , a r g u m e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e s a s t r u c t u r a l framework f o r n o n - i m a g i n a t i v e d i s c o u r s e . H i s most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n , t h o u g h , toward e s t a b l i s h i n g an i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r d i s c o u r s e l i e s , i r o n i c a l l y , i n h i s s l i g h t l y u n f l a t t e r i n g a n a l y s i s o f r e p o r t o r i a l ( e x p o s i t o r y ) w r i t i n g : "a b a s t a r d form o f w r i t i n g because i t borrows s t r u c t u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s h a p h a z a r d l y from o t h e r k i n d s o f w r i t i n g " ( 2 5 9 ) . ( T h i s s t a t e m e n t a l s o r e f e r s o b l i q u e l y t o S m i t h ' s c r e a t i o n o f d i d a c t i c and n a r r a t i v e w r i t i n g . ) I n r e p o r t o r i a l w r i t i n g , B r a n d t s a y s , t h e w r i t e r must n e v e r t h e l e s s t a k e a p e r s u a s i v e , e t h i c a l , a n a l o g i c a l , o r e x p e r i e n t i a l s t a n c e and s e t up "pseudo" l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s ( I would say "common sens e " c o n n e c t i o n s ) t o communicate t h i s s t a n c e . These c o n n e c t i o n s n o t o n l y t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h e f o r m a l l o g i c a l ones p r e s e n t i n t r a d i t i o n a l argument, but a r e a l s o more a c c e s s i b l e t o a g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e ( o r , as P e r e l m a n might s a y , more l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n t h e a u d i e n c e ' s adherence t o t h e argument i n q u e s t i o n ) . " R e p o r t o r i a l w r i t i n g , " says B r a n d t , " i s a c t u a l l y a k i n d o f p s e u d o - a r g u m e n t a t i o n " ( 2 3 ) . T h e r e b y , he e s t a b l i s h e s n o t o n l y t h e r e l a t i o n o f " f a c t u a l " t o " o p i n i o n a b l e " w r i t i n g , but a l s o t h e i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s b o t h s h a r e . L e s s t h e o r e t i c a l i n i t s a p p r o a c h t o d i s c o u r s e i s F o u r W o r l d s o f W r i t i n g ( 1 9 8 1 ) , w h i c h c l a s s i f i e s d i s c o u r s e i n t o t h e f o u r " c o n t e x t s " L a u e r and h e r c o -a u t h o r s f e e l a r e most r e l e v a n t t o s t u d e n t s ' needs: p r i v a t e ( e x p r e s s i v e ) , p u b l i c ( p e r s u a s i v e ) , and t h e c o l l e g e and w o r k i n g w o r l d s ( e x p o s i t o r y ) . "The c h a p t e r s 92 move a s t u d e n t from t h e e x p r e s s i v e p a p e r t o t h e e x p o s i t o r y , f r o m t h e i n w a r d t o t h e o u t w a r d , b o t h i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r and a u d i e n c e " ( x v i ) . I n t h i s t e x t , t h e p e r s u a s i v e aim i n c o r p o r a t e s a r g u m e n t a t i o n , and a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o o f s and i n f o r m a l r e a s o n i n g , o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , and o f s t y l e i n a r g u m e n t a t i o n , ( 1 2 7 - 1 4 3 ) , a t no t i m e i s argument f o r m a l i z e d o r i s o l a t e d . F o u r W o r l d s o f W r i t i n g a l s o l i n k s e x p o s i t i o n t o argument b o t h t h r o u g h i n d u c t i o n o r d e d u c t i o n "which the p e r s u a s i v e aim a l s o u s e s " (196) and t h r o u g h t h e d e s c r i p t i v e , c l a s s i f i c a t o r y , o r e v a l u a t i v e modes f o r d e v e l o p i n g an i d e a ; t h e e v a l u a t i v e mode i s a l s o l i n k e d t o p e r s u a s i o n ( 2 8 2 ) . A l l aims and t y p e s o f d i s c o u r s e i n t h i s t e x t a r e l i n k e d , as w e l l , by a g e n e r a l h e u r i s t i c based on t h e tagmemic m a t r i x i n R h e t o r i c : D i s c o v e r y  and Change. S t u d e n t s t r y out d i f f e r e n t l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o v e r and o v e r a g a i n t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t , l i n k i n g them t o a l l f o u r c o n t e x t s o f w r i t i n g . Though n o t as i n n o v a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l l y as B r a n d t ' s t e x t , F o u r W o r l d s o f  W r i t i n g c l e a r l y s t r i v e s t o base a t l e a s t some aims and o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s c o u r s e on a s t r u c t u r e making use o f i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s , w h i c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y when r e p e a t e d , h e l p s t u d e n t s a r r i v e i n d u c t i v e l y a t d i s c o v e r i e s o f t r u t h s . F i n a l l y , i n W r i t i n g and L o g i c ( 1 9 8 2 ) , G e r a l d L e v i n e s t a b l i s h e s i n f o r m a l l o g i c o r methods o f development as t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f e x p o s i t o r y and a r g u m e n t a t i v e w r i t i n g . " E x p o s i t i o n p r e s e n t s and e x p l a i n s f a c t s and i d e a s , whereas argument uses t h e s e as e v i d e n c e f o r c o n c l u s i o n s , " (9) L e v i n s t a t e s as h i s v i e w o f t h e l i n k between t h e two. F o r L e v i n , s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r e x p o s i t i o n and a r g u m e n t a t i o n o r i g i n a t e i n p a r a g r a p h s t r u c t u r e s and i n c l u d e d e f i n i t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , cause and e f f e c t , c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t , a n a l o g y , and e x a m p l e — a f a m i l i a r a s s o r t m e n t ( 1 1 - 1 2 ) . He l a t e r r e i n t r o d u c e s t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s , a l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s t o see s p e c i f i c l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i d e a s , and a l s o combines them w i t h o u t l i n e s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e of e x p o s i t o r y and a r g u m e n t a t i v e e s s a y s . A l t h o u g h he d e v o t e s two c h a p t e r s t o i n d u c t i v e and d e d u c t i v e e s s a y s , L e v i n c e n t e r s t h e b u l k o f h i s a t t e n t i o n on 93 i n f o r m a l l o g i c , and l a t e r , on a d e t a i l e d l o o k a t argument and a u d i e n c e . Thus, even more e x p l i c i t l y t h a n F o u r W o r l d s of W r i t i n g , W r i t i n g and L o g i c shows w r i t e r s how e x p o s i t i o n and a r g u m e n t a t i o n can be b u i l t on a common, l a r g e l y i n f o r m a l l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n . I n C h a p t e r One, I showed how t h e new l o g i c p r o v i d e d a method o f i n q u i r y w h i c h S m i t h and C a m p b e l l saw c o u l d a p p l y t o t h e a r t of c o m m u n i c a t i o n as w e l l as t o t h e s c i e n c e s . B o t h r h e t o r i c i a n s a p proached communication d i f f e r e n t l y , S m i t h u s i n g p r i n c i p l e s f r o m t h e new l o g i c s u c h as c l a r i t y , s i m p l i c i t y , and a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n o f o b j e c t s , and C a m p b e l l a p p l y i n g t o r h e t o r i c L o c k e ' s and Hume's c o n c e p t s o f l o g i c a l m e n t a l c o n n e c t i v e s between o b j e c t s as w e l l as Bacon's u n i t y of r e a s o n , e m o t i o n , and e t h i c s . The s y n t h e s i s o f b o t h t h e s e approaches y i e l d s a common l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l s t r u c t u r e f o r p r o s e , a s t r u c t u r e I have been c a l l i n g i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n . I t s p r i n c i p l e s a r e t h e s e : (1) A l l p r o s e seeks e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y t o show t h e v a l i d i t y o f a c e n t r a l i d e a ( o r c l a i m , t h e s i s ) . C a m p b e l l s t r e s s e d t h a t a l l d i s c o u r s e e x c e p t m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o o f must i n c l u d e c o n v i c t i o n of t h i s s o r t , w h i l e P e r e l m a n has shown how and t o what e x t e n t t h e o p i n i o n a b l e dominates e v e r y d a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n . (2) A l l p r o s e can be v i e w e d as a "package" of p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e v a l i d i t y o r t r u t h o f t h e c e n t r a l i d e a t h e w r i t e r w i s h e s t o p r e s e n t t o an a u d i e n c e . A r i s t o t l e was t h e f i r s t t o s t a t e t h a t any g i v e n communication b r e a k s down u l t i m a t e l y t o a t w o - p a r t " t h e s i s and p r o o f " s t r u c t u r e . S m i t h ' s n a r r a t i v e w r i t i n g was a b l e a t any t i m e t o t a k e on s u c h a s t r u c t u r e , c o n v e r t i n g " f a c t s " i n t o " e v i d e n c e " a t need. And Perelman's c o n c e p t o f " a d h e r e n c e " imbues a l l d i s c o u r s e , even p o e t i c s , w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p r e s s i n g some t r u t h ; any p r o s e i n v o l v i n g any degree of p r o b a b i l i t y by t h i s t o k e n p r e s e n t s a c l a i m and e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t i t , an a s s e r t i o n e c h o i n g T o u l m i n ' s argument as w e l l . (3) The l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f u l f i l l two main f u n c t i o n s i n a p i e c e o f p r o s e : f r o m t h e i r s y n t h e s i s a w r i t e r c a n 94 d i s c o v e r o r i n v e n t a c e n t r a l i d e a , and f r o m t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e a d e r may more r e a d i l y s h a r e t h e w r i t e r ' s d i s c o v e r y and be c o n v i n c e d o f i t s v a l i d i t y . L o c k e was one of t h e f i r s t p h i l o s o p h e r s t o see t h i n k i n g (and by e x t e n s i o n d i s c o u r s e ) as a p r o c e s s j o i n i n g " s i m p l e " p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o "complex" s y n t h e s e s of them. S m i t h began h i s L e c t u r e s w i t h a n a l y s e s o f " s i m p l e " o b j e c t s , t h e n showed how t h e p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n c o u l d be s y n t h e s i z e d i n t o more complex w r i t i n g such as d i d a c t i c . C a m p b e l l and B a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s e d p r i n c i p l e s of a s s o c i a t i o n and i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e u b i q u i t o u s i n d i s c o u r s e . And r e c e n t l y , t h e o r i s t s s u c h as D'Angelo have equated t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n t o p o i as w e l l as a s s o c i a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s w i t h an u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n d i s c o u r s e as l o g i c a l s y n t h e t i c c o n n e c t i o n s : t h e i n d u c t i v e " t h r e a d " w e a v i n g a l l a s p e c t s of t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s i n t o one b a s i c p a t t e r n . C l e a r l y , i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n as a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t r e c o g i z e s t h e o p i n i o n a b l e n a t u r e of d i s c o u r s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o s e , by a l l o w i n g w r i t e r s t o s y n t h e s i z e n o t o n l y a c e n t r a l o p i n i o n but a l s o t h e i d e a s needed t o show t h a t t h e o p i n i o n i s t r u e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n i s r i c h e r s o i l f o r freshman c o m p o s i t i o n t h a n i s any pedagogy based o n l y on t h e m a s t e r y o f a good s t y l e , adequate s k i l l s , o r t h e achievement o f " s u c c e s s . " I n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n a l s o emphasizes s k i l l s , but goes beyond m e r e l y t h e m a s t e r y of them, f o r i t s r a t i o n a l e i s t o r e v i t a l i z e Johnny's awareness of w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n as a f o r c e c a p a b l e o f c h a n g i n g h i s l i f e and t h e l i v e s o f o t h e r s . I n o t h e r words, i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n r e i n t r o d u c e s e t h i c a l c o n t e n t t o c o m p o s i t i o n t e a c h i n g . F o r t e a c h i n g freshman E n g l i s h , and p a r t i c u l a r l y a combined c o m p o s i t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e c o u r s e , I p r o p o s e t h e f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e w h i c h p u t s i n t o p r a c t i c e b o t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n . T h i s o u t l i n e i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be a comprehensive pedagogy, but s i m p l y a s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s s u g g e s t i n g how a c o m p o s i t i o n i n s t r u c t o r may h e l p s t u d e n t s d i s c o v e r r e a s o n a b l e o p i n i o n s about i s s u e s and t r a n s f o r m t h e s e o p i n i o n s i n t o p r o s e . 95 A. The o p i n l o n a b l e n a t u r e o f p r o s e D u r i n g t h e f i r s t two weeks of c l a s s , I use a s i m p l e v e r s i o n of James K i n n e a v y ' s t r i a n g l e t o e x p l a i n t h e most i m p o r t a n t components o f a p i e c e o f p r o s e : c o n t e x t ( o r " r e a l w o r l d " ) ; w r i t e r ; a u d i e n c e ; and w i t h i n t h e t r i a n g l e , message. I n my d i s c u s s i o n of t h e message I e x p l a i n t h a t i t not o n l y i n c l u d e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n s and v a r i o u s s k i l l s o f w r i t i n g , but a l s o " t h e w r i t e r ' s purpose i n a c o n c r e t e f o r m , o r t h e common sense arrangement of a l l t h e i d e a s and f a c t s used t o s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r o p i n i o n , " b o t h p u r p o s e and o p i n i o n b e i n g k e y t e r m s . I emphasize from t h e o u t s e t o f t h e c o u r s e t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l n o t be d e a l i n g w i t h p u r e l y " i n f o r m a t i o n a l " w r i t i n g , t h a t i n f a c t t h e o v e r a l l p u r p o s e o f v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g t h e y r e a d and w r i t e w i l l be t o show t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r o p i n i o n i s v a l i d . A f t e r t h i s o v e r v i e w , we b e g i n e x a m i n i n g p r o s e s e l e c t i o n s i n terms of what I c a l l " i m p l i c i t " and " e x p l i c i t " o p i n i o n : i n o t h e r words, does t h e w r i t e r a c t u a l l y s t a t e t h e purpose as an o p i n i o n and t h e n back i t up ( e x p l i c i t ) , o r do we have t o " r e a d between t h e l i n e s " t o f i n d a c e n t r a l o p i n i o n ( i m p l i c i t ) ? Our c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n r e v o l v e s around t h e f o l l o w i n g s o r t s of q u e s t i o n s : ( a ) Does t h e p i e c e c o n t a i n a s t a t e d c e n t r a l p u r p o s e , and i s t h i s purpose o p i n i o n a b l e — a n a t t e m p t t o c o n v i n c e us o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s open t o argument? (b) I f t h e p i e c e does n o t p r e s e n t an e x p l i c i t o p i n i o n , t h e n what i m p l i e d b e l i e f s and o p i n i o n s does t h e w r i t e r h o l d ? ( c ) Does t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e w r i t e r uses c o n v i n c e us t h a t t h e c e n t r a l o p i n i o n , whether s t a t e d o r i m p l i e d , i s a t r u t h ? What I'm e m p h a s i z i n g h e r e i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e o p i n l o n a b l e n a t u r e of p r o s e and t h e metamorphosis o f o p i n i o n i n t o t r u t h , as w e l l as r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e aims and o c c a s i o n s o f w r i t i n g t h a t t e n d t o c o n t a i n e i t h e r e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t c e n t r a l o p i n i o n s . Soon, s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o a n a l y z e a v a r i e t y o f p i e c e s i n terms of 96 degrees o f o p i n i o n and t y p e s o f c e n t r a l i d e a s and p u r p o s e s . C e r t a i n l y we do n o t m i s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d i s c u s s t h e i r own r e a c t i o n s t o i s s u e s and o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e r e a d i n g s , as w e l l as t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o t h e w r i t e r ' s degree o f b i a s . I d i s c u s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e and t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s t o i s s u e s as b e i n g s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r f o r m i n g r e a s o n a b l e o p i n i o n s and g a t h e r i n g e v i d e n c e f o r t h e i r own w r i t i n g . B. D e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n B e g i n n i n g i n t h e second week of t h e c o u r s e , we c o v e r b a s i c w r i t i n g s k i l l s and common c o n v e n t i o n s i n r o u g h l y t h i s o r d e r : ( a ) s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e : from b a s i c t o complex, i n c l u d i n g p u n c t u a t i o n ; (b) a d d i n g and embedding i n f o r m a t i o n i n s e n t e n c e s ; s e n t e n c e c o m b i n i n g ; ( c ) t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r a n s i t i o n s as means of r e l a t i n g i d e a s i n "common sen s e " ways. A t t h e same t i m e we a r e s t i l l r e a d i n g v a r i o u s p i e c e s o f p r o s e and, i n a d d i t i o n t o our a n a l y s e s o f e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t o p i n i o n s , s t u d e n t s a l s o b e g i n t o l o o k a t how s e n t e n c i n g and even p u n c t u a t i o n a f f e c t t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o a p i e c e and a t ways s e n t e n c i n g augments t h e message and c e n t r a l p u r p o s e . By t h e f o u r t h week we have begun e x p a n d i n g t h e n o t i o n o f "common se n s e " r e l a t i o n s between i d e a s by e x p l o r i n g i n d e t a i l t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e f i n i t i o n ( w h i c h i n c l u d e s work on d i c t i o n and w o r d i n e s s ) ; the use of examples and i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o s u p p o r t a r e a s o n a b l e o p i n i o n ; and t h e r e l a t i o n s c r e a t e d t h r o u g h c o m p a r i s o n , c o n t r a s t , a n a l o g y ( i n c l u d i n g an o v e r v i e w o f s i m i l e and me t a p h o r ) , d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n good p a r a g r a p h i n g , as w e l l as a c o n t i n u e d emphasis on t r a n s i t i o n s , r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n now. I n about t h e s e v e n t h week, s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a w r i t e r chooses v a r i o u s terms and p a t t e r n s o f s e n t e n c i n g and p a r a g r a p h i n g t o h e l p g u i d e a r e a d e r towards a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e w r i t e r ' s message. 97 Our c o n t i n u e d r e a d i n g s f o c u s now on ways w r i t e r s use d i f f e r e n t terms and g r a m m a t i c a l p a t t e r n s , and t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s on t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e w r i t e r ' s t r u t h . A l l d u r i n g our d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e u s e s of w r i t i n g s k i l l s , s t u d e n t s a r e p r a c t i s i n g t h e s e s k i l l s i n s h o r t p i e c e s w r i t t e n b o t h a t home and i n c l a s s , g r a d u a l l y b u i l d i n g up a s t o r e h o u s e o f ways t o r e l a t e i d e a s and g u i d e r e a d e r s towards a c c e p t i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n s . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e a s s i g n m e n t s , I a l s o emphasize o v e r and o v e r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g a c e n t r a l p u r p o s e o r t h e s i s , and o f b a c k i n g t h a t t h e s i s w i t h s u p p o r t i n g i d e a s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r i n ways t h a t w i l l b e s t g u i d e t h e r e a d e r . One assignment I have found b o t h u s e f u l and m e a n i n g f u l f o r s t u d e n t s ( i f a l i t t l e f r i g h t e n i n g ) i s , by about t h e t e n t h week, h a v i n g them w r i t e a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r o f t h e i r f a v o r i t e newspaper. I n t h i s p i e c e , d i r e c t e d t o an o u t s i d e a u d i e n c e , t h e y must back an o p i n i o n a b l e t h e s i s w i t h i d e a s and f a c t s l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d u s i n g t h e "common sens e " methods. T h i s assignment a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t s t e p f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d w r i t e r s ; t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r own o p i n i o n s can make a mark, however s m a l l , i n s o c i e t y . C. I n v e n t i o n and arrangement f o r i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r o s e The a s s i g n m e n t s up t o t h e n i n t h week o f t h e c o u r s e a r e s m a l l , no more t h a n 400-500 words, and t h e t o p i c a r e a s a r e g i v e n . These c o n s t r a i n t s g e n e r a l l y mean a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f i n v e n t i o n t o o e a r l y i n t h e c o u r s e has l i t t l e i m p a c t . But b e f o r e t h e l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r i s due, I i n t r o d u c e a " p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g g u i d e " w h i c h g i v e s s t u d e n t s some s y s t e m a t i c h e l p i n c r e a t i n g and f o c u s i n g t o p i c s , and a t a r r i v i n g a t a t h e s i s s t a t e m e n t . A means of d i s c o v e r i n g o p i n i o n s and s u p p o r t i n g i d e a s about g e n e r a l i s s u e s , t h e g u i d e l o o k s r o u g h l y l i k e t h i s : ( a ) G a t h e r a l l i n f o r m a t i o n you t h i n k r e l a t e s t o y o u r t o p i c . (b) R e l a t e t h e s e p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g "common s e n s e " p a t t e r n s . F o r example, you may c l a s s i f y p i e c e s under b r o a d h e a d i n g s ; d e f i n e i m p o r t a n t terms and c o n c e p t s ; compare and c o n t r a s t p i e c e s t o h e l p you draw an i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n about them; i l l u s t r a t e f a c t s o r i d e a s t h r o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n o r n a r r a t i o n ; o r draw a n a l o g i e s between y o u r f a c t s and i d e a s and some o t h e r s i t u a t i o n . 98 ( c ) D e c i d e w h i c h of t h e s e r e l a t e d i d e a s seems t o s t a n d out as most r e l e -v a n t o r e f f e c t i v e , and e x p r e s s i t as a t h e s i s s t a t e m e n t . The most e f f e c t i v e t h e s e s a r e o f t e n formed as a " c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t " complex se n t e n c e : " I f t h e government p a s s e s such-and-such a b i l l , t h e n . . . ( d ) To s u p p o r t y o u r t h e s i s , use t h e p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n you have a l r e a d y g a t h e r e d and r e l a t e d i n "common sens e " p a t t e r n s . Compose an o u t l i n e i n w h i c h t h e most i m p o r t a n t i d e a s become t o p i c s f o r p a r a g r a p h s , w i t h l e s s i m p o r t a n t i d e a s making up t h e b o d i e s o f t h e s e p a r a g r a p h s . ( e ) The c o n c l u s i o n o f y o u r p i e c e s h o u l d n o t j u s t r e s t a t e t h e t h e s i s , but a l s o answer t h e r e a d e r ' s unspoken, " F i n e , but what does t h a t mean f o r us? I go t h r o u g h t h i s g u i d e u s i n g some c u r r e n t i s s u e ( t h e government's l a t e s t b u d g e t , t u i t i o n f e e s , v i d e o games), and s t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and f o c u s i n g i t i n t o a t h e s i s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g u i d e . I recommend t h a t s t u d e n t s t r y u s i n g t h i s g u i d e t o h e l p o r g a n i z e t h e i r t h o u g h t s b e f o r e t h e y w r i t e t h e i r l e t t e r s ; I r e q u i r e them, however, t o hand i n f o r peer e v a l u a t i o n t h e i r t h e s e s and o u t l i n e s o f s u p p o r t i n g i d e a s s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e l e t t e r i s due. D. I n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i o n , c o m p o s i t i o n , and l i t e r a t u r e I n t h e combined freshman c o m p o s i t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e c o u r s e , i t i s n o t unknown f o r s t u d e n t s who o t h e r w i s e w r i t e a d e q u a t e l y about g e n e r a l i s s u e s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s t o f a i l t h e i r f i r s t a s s i g n m e n t on a l i t e r a r y work. The p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g g u i d e I have o u t l i n e d above f o r m s , I t h i n k , a w o r k a b l e b r i d g e between t h e p r i n c i p l e s of c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f w r i t i n g about l i t e r a t u r e . An o n l y s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of t h i s g u i d e l e t s s t u d e n t s e x p l o r e n o v e l s , s h o r t s t o r i e s , and p l a y s i n s y s t e m a t i c (and t h e r e f o r e perhaps c o m f o r t i n g ) y e t c r e a t i v e ways; t h i s g u i d e i s p r e s e n t e d f u l l y i n A p p e n d i x A. I n s t e a d o f d e a l i n g w i t h p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n whose s o u r c e s a r e t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s , o t h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s , o r g e n e r a l r e a d i n g s , s t u d e n t s l i m i t t h e m s e l v e s to a work such a s S h a k e s p e a r e ' s Hamlet o r T i m o t h y F i n d l e y ' s n o v e l The Wars. T h e i r f i r s t t a s k , a f t e r t h e y have r e a d t h e work, i s t o b r e a k down a c h a r a c t e r , s c e n e , o r e v e n t i n t o i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s ( p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n ) ; t h i s method c l o s e l y 99 c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e S t a g e One d e l i n e a t e d i n A p p e n d i x A. S t u d e n t s f o r m "common se n s e " r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s ( S t a g e Two), w h i c h h e l p s them f o c u s on and s y n t h e s i z e a d i s c o v e r y , framed i n a t h e s i s s e n t e n c e ( S t a g e T h r e e ) . I a s k s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n as an answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n "How does t h i s d i s c o v e r y o f y o u r s a f f e c t e i t h e r t h e c h a r a c t e r i n q u e s t i o n , o r y o u r v i e w o f some a s p e c t o f t h e work?" A p p e n d i x B shows how two s t u d e n t s p r o g r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e g u i d e f r o m g e n e r a l t o p i c s t o f o c u s e d t h e s e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l background o f t h i s g u i d e l i e s n o t o n l y i n t h e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e o f s y n t h e s i s , b u t a l s o i n Young, B e c k e r , and P i k e ' s tagmemic h e u r i s t i c , D'Angelo's p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t , and A r i s t o t l e ' s c o n c e p t of i n v e n t i o n as a h e u r i s t i c d e s i g n e d t o h e l p us g a t h e r and a r r a n g e i n f o r m a t i o n whose s o u r c e s a r e g l e a n e d f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n . I t i s n o t my i n t e n t i o n t o d i s c u s s t h e g u i d e i n d e t a i l h e r e , but I emphasize i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s f o r h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s w r i t e about l i t e r a t u r e because i t forms a l i n k between t h e a g e - o l d human v a l u e s and problems on w h i c h l i t e r a t u r e i s f u e l e d , and s t u d e n t s ' own g r o w i n g awareness of i s s u e s . To sum up, t h i s t e a c h i n g o u t l i n e embodies and p u t s i n t o p r a c t i c e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s : ( a ) t h a t t h e s y n t h e s i s o f f a c t s and i d e a s t o s u p p o r t o p i n i o n s p l a y s a major r o l e i n t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s ; ( b ) t h a t t h e main purpose o f much w r i t i n g and v i r t u a l l y a l l p r o s e i s t o show t h e v a l i d i t y o r t r u t h o f a c e n t r a l o p i n i o n ; ( c ) t h a t t o w r i t e and t o r e a d what o t h e r s have w r i t t e n i s t o t a k e p a r t i n a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s o f d i s c o v e r i n g and e x c h a n g i n g o p i n i o n s about human v a l u e s . T h i s o u t l i n e , i t s emphasis on w r i t i n g as t h e v e h i c l e by w h i c h a w r i t e r v a l i d a t e s some t r u t h , and i t s d e t a i l i n g o f t h e i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e under-100 s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s v e h i c l e , i s d e s i g n e d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s see c l e a r l y t h a t w r i t i n g i s a f o r c e w h i c h shapes and d i r e c t s o p i n i o n s as w e l l as " f a c t s . " Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t w r i t i n g can shape and d i r e c t t h e i r o p i n i o n s . F o r t h e s e i n e x p e r i e n c e d w r i t e r s , t h e c o n f u s i n g w o r l d o f human v a l u e s w i l l b e g i n t o t a k e on a more s u b s t a n t i a l form and, t h e r e f o r e , g r e a t e r meaning. F o r t e a c h i n g freshman E n g l i s h , a d a p t a t i o n of an i n f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a t i v e framework c o n s t i t u t e s a s t e p toward r e u n i t i n g s k i l l s w i t h e t h i c a l p u r p o s e . Such a s t e p i s e s s e n t i a l i f s t u d e n t w r i t e r s a r e e v e r t o v i e w t h e m s e l v e s as t h e g u a r d i a n s of v a l u e s w h i c h a r e t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t and l e g a c y . 101 ames A. B e r l i n , "Contemporary C o m p o s i t i o n : The M a j o r P e d a g o g i c a l T h e o r i e s , " CE, 44 ( 1 9 8 2 ) . B e r l i n a l s o condemns c o l l e g e r h e t o r i c f o r i t s c o n c e r n " s o l e l y w i t h t h e communication of t r u t h t h a t i s c e r t a i n and e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e — i n o t h e r words, n o t p r o b a b l i s t i c . " 2 H e r e i s a l i s t o f t h e s e p o p u l a r t e x t s , a g a i n , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e most r e c e n t . The most w e l l known a r e n o t a n n o t a t e d : J o h n F. P a r k e r , The P r o c e s s of W r i t i n g (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g t e x t t h a t combines w r i t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w i t h l a b o r a t o r y work and "workshops" on e v e r y t h i n g from grammar t o s t y l i s t i c s . The p u r p o s e s o f d i s c o u r s e P a r k e r d e a l s w i t h m a i n l y a r e t h e i n f o r m a t i v e and the p e r s u a s i v e . D a v i d S k w i r e , W r i t i n g W i t h a T h e s i s : A R h e t o r i c and R e a d e r , t h i r d e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : CBS C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 8 2 ) . As mentioned i n my t e x t , t h i s book f o l l o w s t h e " p a t t e r n s of development" f o r m a t and e s s e n t i a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e a r g u m e n t a t i v e edge o f i n f o r m a t i v e w r i t i n g . A n o t h e r name f o r t h i s book would be R o b e r t J . Connors' t e r m — a " t h e s i s " t e x t . Maxine H a i r s t o n , A Contemporary R h e t o r i c , t h i r d e d i t i o n ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1 9 8 2 ) . A comprehensive and d e t a i l e d t e x t , A Contemporary R h e t o r i c combines a number o f r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s , i n c l u d i n g D'Angelo's and, t o an e x t e n t , K i n n e a v y ' s as w e l l as some of t h e c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . Her r h e t o r i c a l " s q u a r e " i s a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e u s u a l t r i a n g l e , however, and c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t move i n i n t e g r a t i n g argument i n t o t h e r e s t o f d i s c o u r s e . R o b e r t F. W i l l s o n , J r . , J o h n M. K i e r z e k , and W. W a l k e r G i b s o n , The  M a c m i l l a n Handbook of E n g l i s h , s e v e n t h e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1982). Langdon E l s b r e e , N e l l G. A l t i z e r , and P a u l V. K e l l y , The H e a t h Handbook o f  C o m p o s i t i o n , t e n t h e d i t i o n ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: D.C. Heath and Co., 1981). J a c q u e l i n e B e r k e , Twenty Q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e W r i t e r : A R h e t o r i c w i t h  R e a d i n g s , t h i r d e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1981). B e r k e ' s twenty q u e s t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e a h e u r i s t i c , h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h what ar e e s s e n t i a l l y "methods o f development" f r o m b a s i c n a r r a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n up t o what she sees as t h e i r s y n t h e s i s o r c u l m i n a t i o n : argument. Her t r e a t m e n t of argument, though, as I've m e n t i o n e d , does n o t emphasize t h i s s y n t h e s i s . W i l l i a m E. Messenger and J a n de B r u y n , The C a n a d i a n W r i t e r ' s Handbook ( S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, L t d . , 1980). H. Ramsey F o w l e r , The L i t t l e , Brown Handbook ( T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown, and Company Canada L t d . , 1980). W i n s t o n Weathers and O t i s W i n c h e s t e r , The New S t r a t e g y o f S t y l e (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1978). G l e n n L e g g e t t , C. D a n i e l Mead, and W i l l i a m C h a r v a t , The P r e n t i c e - H a l l  Handbook f o r W r i t e r s , s e v e n t h e d i t i o n (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 7 8 ) . ^ F r a n k J . D'Angelo, P r o c e s s and Thought i n C o m p o s i t i o n , second e d i t i o n . ( C a mbridge, Mass.: W i n t h r o p P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 0 ) . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t . D'Angelo d i v i d e s h i s t e x t i n t o " p a t t e r n s of t h o u g h t " and shows how t h e s e a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e " f o u r b a s i c a i m s " of d i s c o u r s e : i n f o r m a t i v e , p e r s u a s i v e , l i t e r a r y , e x p r e s s i v e . He n o t e s how f r e q u e n t l y i n f o r m a t i v e and p e r s u a s i v e aims use t h e same t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s , such as a n a l y s i s , d e s c r i p t i o n , e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n , c o m p a r i s o n , n a r r a t i o n , p r o c e s s , and cause and e f f e c t . I n h i s f i r s t e d i t i o n , D'Angelo o m i t t e d argument e n t i r e l y , perhaps because o f i t s " f o r m a l " n a t u r e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t he does n o t a t t e m p t t o i n t e g r a t e argument w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s . 102 4 A 1 1 f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e t h r e e t e x t s w i l l be c i t e d by page number i n t h e t e x t : W i l l i a m J . B r a n d t , The R h e t o r i c o f A r g u m e n t a t i o n (The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Co. I n c . , 1 9 7 0 ) . B r a n d t and t h e o t h e r a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e t h i s t e x t as a "grammar" of a r g u m e n t a t i o n , a " d i s c i p l i n e d , s y s t e m a t i c " way o f d e s c r i b i n g what goes on i n a p e r s u a s i v e t e x t . R a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o superimpose e x i s t i n g l o g i c on argument, B r a n d t a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t r u c t u r e s b o t h o f p e r s u a s i v e and what he c a l l s r e p o r t o r i a l w r i t i n g : h e r e , a r g u m e n t a t i o n l i n k s b o t h s t r u c t u r a l l y . J a n i c e M. L a u e r e t a l . , F o u r W o r l d s o f W r i t i n g (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 8 1 ) . See comments i n my t e x t . G e r a l d L e v i n , W r i t i n g and L o g i c (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1 9 8 2 ) . See comments i n my t e x t . Appendix A THE TEXT PROBLEM SOLVING GUIDE St a g e One; LIST t h o s e ELEMENTS o f a c h a r a c t e r , e v e n t , scene t h a t a p p e a r r e l e v a n t t o y o u r g e n e r a l f o c u s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i s o l a t e and " f r e e z e " c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s , p l o t e l e m e n t s e t c . Stage Two; TRACE CHANGES and o r DIFFERENCES between t h e s e e l e m e n t s ; " u n f r e e z e " and r e l a t e them t o each o t h e r u s i n g t i m e sequence, c o n t r a s t , c o m p a r i s o n , a n a l o g y , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n . S tage T h r e e ; FIT t h e s e c h a n g i n g , d i f f e r i n g e l e m e n t s i n t o t h e BROAD BACKGROUND of the e n t i r e s c e n e , c h a p t e r , o r work. Here you a r e l o o k i n g f o r c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t : why you t h i n k c h a r a c t e r s o r e v e n t s change as t h e y do, and how t h e s e changes t i e i n w i t h i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s i n t h e work. I n f o r m a t i o n needed t o f o c u s on t h e s i s i . e . p r o c e s s o f g a t h e r i n g and s y n t h e s i z i n g Working T h e s i s T h e s i s Support Broad f o c u s Narrower f o c u s (Rough I n t r o d u c t i o n , P a r a g r a p h s ) ( i d e a s f o r a c o n c l u s i o n ) C o n c l u s i o n Complete D r a f t , R e v i s i o n s ( t y i n g t h e s i s i n t o s u p p o r t and c o n c l u s i o n ) I Good D r a f t ( b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s i s ) Stage T h r e e i s the p o i n t where you can f o r m u l a t e and r e f i n e y o u r THESIS STATEMENT; d e c i d e what i n f o r m a t i o n you have g a t h e r e d w i l l b e s t s u p p o r t y o u r t h e s i s ; and t h i n k about a b r o a d e r c o n c l u d i n g " s t a t e m e n t o f d i s c o v e r y " about c h a r a c t e r s , i s s u e s , o r t h e work as a whole. A p p e n d i x B 104 I . CINDY'S NOTES FOR AN ESSAY ON HAMLET  Broad F o c u s : A c t I , s c . i i ( t h e banquet h a l l ) S t a g e One: H a m l e t — m o u r n i n g , u n c e r t a i n , a n g r y a t t h e m a r r i a g e by t a k i n g no a c t i o n . . . . C l a u d i u s — d e t e r m i n e d , t a k e s a c t i o n , r a t i o n a l i z e s h i s own a c t i o n s , goes f o r what he wants. Narrower F o c u s : Who l i v e s a t r a g i c l i f e ? Hamlet o r C l a u d i u s ? S t a g e Two: Hamlet d e l a y s a c t i o n . . . . C l a u d i u s a c t s i m m e d i a t e l y = Hamlet's e a r l y d e a t h and C l a u d i u s ' " l a t e " d e a t h . P r o t a g o n i s t and a n t a g o n i s t . C l a u d i u s r e p e n t s but s t i c k s t o h i s g o a l . Hamlet d e l a y s h i s r e v e n g e — l a c k s a c t i o n . Stage T h r e e : C l a u d i u s would have been dead l o n g b e f o r e i f i t weren't f o r Hamlet's weakness. . . . d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s l e a d t o t h e i r d e a t h s — C l a u d i u s a c t s i m m e d i a t e l y t o k i l l Hamlet when he l e a r n s o f h i s d i s c o v e r y o f O l d Hamlet's murder. Hamlet w o u l d n ' t have d i e d i f C l a u d i u s were l e s s d e c i s i v e . W o r k i n g T h e s i s : The t r a g e d y r e v o l v e s around and a c c u m u l a t e s because o f Hamlet t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and C l a u d i u s t h e a n t a g o n i s t . S u p p o r t : C h a r a c t e r a n a l y s e s of,Hamlet and C l a u d i u s a t b e g i n n i n g and end of p l a y . W o r k i n g C o n c l u s i o n : C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f Hamlet i s t h e t r a g i c h e r o , t h e n C l a u d i u s i s the t r a g i c v i l l a i n . I I . JO-ANN'S NOTES FOR AN ESSAY ON HAMLET B r o a d F o c u s : A c t I I I , s c . i i ( C l a u d i u s a t p r a y e r ) Stage One: E m o t i o n s — H a m l e t — r e v e n g e , a n g e r , e x c i t e d , a c t i v e , s t i m u l a t e d , o b s e s s e d — e x c i t a b l e f o r a r e a s o n . C l a u d i u s — f e e l s g u i l t and re m o r s e , p r a c t i c a l , does n o t want t o g i v e up t h e f r u i t o f h i s s i n s — p o i n t o f no r e t u r n . S t a g e Two: H a m l e t — p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t p l a y , r a t i o n a l i z i n g , shown t o be c r u e l h e r e but o n l y because o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g , emotions from h i g h t o low. C l a u d i u s — c o m e s t o r e a l i z e what he has done i s e v i l (wash w h i t e as snow as i n Macbeth) but a m b i t i o n ! N a r r o w i n g F o c u s : I n A c t I I I , s c . i i , Hamlet and C l a u d i u s r e a c h a t u r n i n g p o i n t . S t a g e T h r e e : (Jo-Ann " f l e s h e d t h i s o u t " i n a rough i n t r o d u c t i o n ) Hamlet t h w a r t e d i n a t t e m p t s a t revenge because o f h i s i n a b i l i t y t o t a k e a c t i o n . C l a u d i u s s u s p e c t s Hamlet's knowledge and when he cannot w i n Hamlet o v e r , r e s o l v e s t o have him k i l l e d t o save h i s own power and a m b i t i o n — u n d o n e a t t h e end. W o r k i n g T h e s i s : A c t I I I , s c . i i i s a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e p l a y w h e r e i n b o t h Hamlet's and C l a u d i u s ' d e c i s i o n s t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r p l a n s and a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s a r e s t r e n g t h e n e d and made i n a l t e r a b l e . S u p p o r t : C h a r a c t e r a n a l y s e s w i t h i n A c t I I I , s c . I I and w i t h i n t h e f i n a l scene o f th e p l a y . 105 W o r k i n g C o n c l u s i o n : C l a u d i u s , because o f g r e e d and a r e s o l v e t o s u s t a i n h i s power, l o s e s h i s Queen r a t h e r t h a n t h e crown. T h i s , however, becomes h i s own und o i n g because Hamlet f i n a l l y f u l f i l l s h i s d u t y t o h i s f a t h e r and a t t h e same t i m e sends h i s u n c l e t o h e l l — t h e f i n a l r e s u l t o f t h e " t u r n i n g p o i n t " i n the c h a p e l . B i b l i o g r a p h y 106 C h a p t e r One Bacon, F r a n c i s . Advancement of L e a r n i n g and Novum Organum. r e v . ed. New Y o r k : The C o l o n i a l P r e s s , 1900. C a m p b e l l , George. The P h i l o s o p h y of R h e t o r i c . Ed. L l o y d F. B i t z e r . C a r b o n d a l e : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v . P r e s s , 1963. H a r t l e y , D a v i d . 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