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Nestroy taken at his word : a study of Nestroy’s language as a key to the understanding of his plays Neufeld, Alfred 1981

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NESTROY TAKEN AT HIS WORD A STUDY OF NESTROY'S LANGUAGE AS A KEY TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF HIS PLAYS by ALFRED NEUFELD B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1968 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Germanic S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s THE UNIVERSITY- OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S p r i n g , 1981 © A l f r e d N e u f e l d , 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Q^frAfd'C JTfd The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Da t e ZZ/O </•/1/ T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t . i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r I A. B i o g r a p h i c a l Background and C r i t i c a l L i t e r a t u r e 5 B. Methodology o f Approach 28 Chapter I I B a u e r l e and N e s t r o y , t h e O l d Language and the New . . . 46 C h a p t e r I I I N e s t r o y "Beim Wort genommen": S e v e r a l Unique F e a t u r e s o f N e s t r o y ' s Language 122 Chapter IV Der T a l i s m a n : A D e t a i l e d A n a l y s i s o f the Language o f T i t u s F e u e r f u c h s A. T i t u s C o n f r o n t s a P r e j u d i c i a l World (I) 180 B. T i t u s Overcomes a P r e j u d i c i a l World ( I I ) . . . . . 245 C. T i t u s * "Gluck und Ende" ( I I I ) 321 C h a p t e r V:." C o n c l u s i o n 360 N o t e s . . . ' ' 368 B i b l i o g r a p h y 378 A b s t r a c t I t i s the i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y t o examine the work o f the A u s t r i a n p l a y w r i g h t Johann Nepomuk N e s t r o y (1801-1862) t h r o u g h a c l o s e a n a l y s i s o f h i s o r i g i n a l and unique use o f language. The i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a c u r s o r y b i o g r a p h i c a l back-ground o f the a u t h o r . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f some secondary l i t e r a t u r e w hich i s o f p e r t i n e n c e t o t h i s ' . d i s -s e r t a t i o n . The c o n c l u d i n g p a r t o f the c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f the methodology o f approach employed i n t h i s t h e s i s . C h apter I I c o n s i s t s o f a comparison between N e s t r o y and A d o l f B a u e r l e (1786-1859) f a contemporary o f N e s t r o y , e q u a l l y p o p u l a r i n the "Wiener V o l k s t h e a t e r . " The p l a y s s i n g l e d o u t f o r comparison a re Die Verbannung aus dem Z a u b e r r e i c h e and Gegen T o r h e i t g i b t es-k e i n M i t t e l by N e s t r o y , and Wien, P a r i s , London und C o n s t a n t i -n o p e l and D i e Burge r i n Wien by B a u e r l e . There are a l s o numerous s u p p o r t i v e r e f e r e n c e s from o t h e r N e s t r o y p l a y s . The comparison seeks t o i d e n t i f y and examine p r i m a r i l y the fundamental d i f f e r -ences as r e f l e c t e d and m a n i f e s t e d i n N e s t r o y ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y use o f language, which c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y n o t o n l y w i t h t h a t o f B a u e r l e , but w i t h the e n t i r e f o r e g o i n g language t r a d i t i o n i n the p l a y s o f the "Wiener V o l k s t h e a t e r . " T h i s d i f f e r e n c e p r o v i d e s an a p p r o p r i a t e approach t o N e s t r o y ' s work, as i t s u g g e s t s how seve-r a l s i g n i f i c a n t themes p e r m e a t i n g h i s whole work are r e f l e c t e d i n h i s use o f language. i v The f o c u s on language c o n t i n u e s t o na r r o w i n Chapter I I I , w h i c h i n c l u d e s f i r s t l y an a n a l y s i s o f the i r o n i c use o f words and e x p r e s s i o n s as u n d e r s t o o d by the a u d i e n c e , which I c a l l "the boomerang e f f e c t . " T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by an a n a l y s i s o f the language o f S i m p l i c i u s , the p r o t a g o n i s t o f Gegen T o r h e i t  g i b t es k e i n M i t t e l . The second p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h what I c a l l "the t h u m b p r i n t i n g q u a l i t y " o f language, by analyzing the p l a y w r i g h t ' s a b i l i t y t o show how an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n s t e n d t o r e f l e c t h i s b a s i c n a t u r e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f a g i v e n c h a r a c t e r ' s language t h r o u g h o u t a whole p l a y r e v e a l s what N e s t r o y c o n s i d e r s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f human n a t u r e , namely man's b a s i c u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y . T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the language o f P e t e r and Puffmann i n Der Un-bedeutende. Chapter I I I d e v e l o p s the d i s c u s s i o n o f the boom-erang a s p e c t and t h u m b p r i n t i n g q u a l i t y o f language, as w e l l as the u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f human n a t u r e . However, what becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n an e x e g e s i s o f N e s t r o y ' s language i s the c a l c u l a t e d use and abuse o f language, as seen i n the f i g u r e o f Puffmann i n Der Unbedeutende. F o r Puffmann, who uses language i n a d e c e p t i v e manner, the d e c e p t i o n aimed a t o t h e r s becomes a web i n which he i s u l t i m a t e l y caught h i m s e l f . I n the f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e r e i s an e x p l i c a t i o n o f the l a n -guage used by T i t u s F e u e r f u c h s , who i s the p r o t a g o n i s t i n P e r  T a l i s m a n , and one o f the g r e a t masters o f language m a n i p u l a t i o n i n a l l o f N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s . T h i s f i g u r e combines t o a c e r t a i n V e x t e n t t h e l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s o f b o t h P e t e r and Puffmann. The d i s c u s s i o n not o n l y r e i t e r a t e s the dominant elements found i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , b u t seeks t o emphasize t h a t language, when no l o n g e r used as an i n s t r u m e n t o f t r u t h f u l communication, but molded o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y t o a c h i e v e a c e r t a i n i m p a c t , be-comes d e s t r u c t i v e t o i t s u s e r . I n o r d e r t o e l u c i d a t e t h i s , a l e n g t h y and d e t a i l e d t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s has been u n d e r t a k e n . An a n a l y s i s o f T i t u s F e u e r f u c h s ' r i s e and f a l l i n the s t r u c t u r e d V i e n n e s e s o c i e t y w h i c h surrounds him, shows t h a t h i s o p p o r t u -n i s t i c use o f language, which i n i t s i n i t i a l s t a g e s seemed t o be j u s t i f i a b l e as a d e f e n s i v e measure, u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s d i -r e c t l y t o a development o f d e s t r u c t i v e l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s , which t r e a t language as c o n c e a l i n g and t w i s t i n g , r a t h e r t h a n d i s -c o v e r i n g and communicating t r u t h . Thus, s c r e e n e d b e h i n d s p a r k -l i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g comedy, the p l a y w r i g h t has c o n s t r u c t e d a modern a n a l y s i s o f t h e misuse o f language, which c o n t r a d i c t s i t s v e r y purpose. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Words are m a g i c a l i n the way t h e y a f f e c t the minds of t h o s e who use them. 'A mere m a t t e r o f words', we say c o n t e m p t u o u s l y , f o r g e t t i n g t h a t words have power t o mold men's t h i n k i n g , t o c a n a l i z e t h e i r f e e l i n g s , t o d i r e c t t h e i r w i l l i n g and a c t i n g . Conduct and c h a r a c t e r are l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by the n a t u r e o f the words we c u r r e n t l y use t o d i s c u s s o u r s e l v e s and the w o r l d around us. A l d o u s H u x l e y , Words and t h e i r Meanings. I f i r s t became i n t e r e s t e d i n the t o p i c d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n upon r e a d i n g K a r l K r a u s ' s essay " N e s t r o y und d i e Nachwelt." The s e n t e n c e , " N e s t r o y i s t der e r s t e deutsche S a t i r i k e r , i n dem s i c h d i e Sprache Gedanken macht l i b e r d i e Dinge" s p a r k e d t h i s i n t e r e s t . The d i s s e r t a t i o n , i n p a r t , seeks t o i d e n t i f y p r e c i s e l y what i t i s i n N e s t r o y ' s language w h i c h makes i t comment so a s t u t e l y on t h i n g s , t h a t i s , on those t h i n g s t h e s p e a k e r seeks t o convey t h r o u g h h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e o f words. A l t h o u g h c r i t i c s o f N e s t r o y u s u a l l y comment on the l a n -guage, t h e y do n o t approach i t , as i s the case i n t h i s s t u d y , s t r i c t l y t h r o u g h t h e spoken word; namely i n a d e t a i l e d t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f s e v e r a l major r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i g u r e s from N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s , where th e attempt i s made t o emphasize how a c h a r a c t e r e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f , r a t h e r than what i t i s t h a t he e x p r e s s e s . The t i t l e o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t a k e n from t h e w r i t i n g s o f K a r l K r a u s , who, w i t h O t t o Rommel, i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the N e s t r o y R e n a i s s a n c e which began about f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r 2 h i s d e a t h . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u o t a t i o n , as w e l l as H u x l e y ' s q u o t a t i o n , were chosen because t h e y s u g g e s t i n t y p i c a l K r a u s i a n h y p e r b o l i c form the c o n c l u s i o n s t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n hopes t o draw about N e s t r o y ' s w r i t i n g s , namely, t h a t the way language i s used i n N e s t r o y i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n the meaning th e words p u r -p o r t e d l y i m p a r t . K a r l Kraus and A l d o u s H u x l e y , among o t h e r s , were of the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a s p e a k e r ' s b a s i c n a t u r e i s r e -f l e c t e d by h i s c h o i c e o f words, and t h a t t h r o u g h h i s language, the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n e v i t a b l y communicate n o t o n l y i d e a s , b u t h i m s e l f . The most p e n e t r a t i n g o f N e s t r o y ' s c r i t i c s , such as K. K r a u s , 0. Rommel and F.H. Mautner, have always u n d e r s c o r e d t h a t the c r u c i a l element i n N e s t r o y ' s w r i t i n g s i s h i s p e c u l i a r and r e -v o l u t i o n a r y use o f l a n g u a g e . 1 The aim o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l words, p h r a s e s and s e n t e n c e s , of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e r e b y attempt t o show t h a t t h i s use o f language i s the i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f N e s t r o y . However, b e f o r e such an a n a l y s i s i s u n d e r t a k e n , we w i l l t a k e a b r i e f l o o k a t the contemporary t h e a t r i c a l scene i n V i e n n a f o r the young N e s t r o y . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f language i n s e v e r a l N e s t r o y p l a y s , which w i l l t h e n be compared t o some o f the work o f A d o l f B a u e r l e , a major contemporary r i v a l of h i s . T h i s s h o u l d h e l p t o l a u n c h the d i s c u s s i o n o f the newness o f N e s t r o y ' s language. I n C h a p t e r I I I s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t com-ponents o f N e s t r o y ' s language, s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s , ar e i d e n t i f i e d and c r i t i c a l l y examined i n the language o f 3 S i m p l i c i u s , who i s the p r o t a g o n i s t i n Gegen T o r h e i t g i b t es  k e i n M i t t e l , and i n t h e language o f Puffmann and P e t e r , t h e two dominant f i g u r e s i n P e r Unbedeutende. The n e x t main s e c t i o n examines, a n a l y z e s and i n t e r p r e t s i n d e t a i l t h e language o f one o f N e s t r o y ' s g r e a t e s t c h a r a c t e r s , T i t u s F e u e r f u c h s , t h e flamboyant hero o f Der T a l i s m a n (1840). T h i s i s a work o f the mature N e s t r o y . I t i s an extended e x a m i n a t i o n because o n l y by means o f an e x e g e s i s o f T i t u s ' language can N e s t r o y ' s unique use o f language be a n a l y z e d . 7 C h a p t e r V w i l l be a s u c c i n c t summary o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . As l e n g t h does n o t p e r m i t a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of my t h e s e s i n e x t e n s o , I o f f e r an a n a l y s i s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n s . I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t t h i s s e l e c t i o n does not r e -p r e s e n t an e x c e p t i o n i n N e s t r o y ' s w r i t i n g , but the norm, and t h a t s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn on the b a s i s o f a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f h i s p l a y s . In t h e c o u r s e o f a c e n t u r y and a h a l f , the works o f N e s t r o y have e n j o y e d g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y , and s u f f e r e d g r e a t n e g l e c t . He s t a r t e d h i s c a r e e r as a s i n g e r o f c l a s s i c a l m u sic, b u t r e l a -t i v e l y soon a l s o performed s p e a k i n g r o l e s , which dominated s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . I n 1827 he wrote h i s f i r s t p l a y , and c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e , as w e l l as a c t i n h i s p l a y s , u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1862. A l t h o u g h e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r w i t h the l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the V i e n -nese t h e a t e r p a t r o n s , he had a r u n n i n g b a t t l e w i t h the c e n s o r . H i s v i e w o f the c e n s o r p e r h a p s , i s b e s t e x p r e s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t e : " E i n Zensor i s t e i n Mensch gewordener B l e i s t i f t e r " o d e r e i n 4 b l e i s t i f t g e w o r d e n e r Mensch, e i n f l e i s c h g e w o r d e n e r S t r i c h l i b e r d i e E r z e u g n i s s e des G e i s t e s , e i n K r o k o d i l , das an den U f e r n des Ideenstromes l a g e r t und v den d a r i n schwiramenden L i t e r a t e n d i e K o p f a b b e i s s t " (V, 152) . The f i r s t f i f t y years, a f t e r " h i s death saw h i s work a l l b u t f o r g o t t e n . One c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r seems t o have been th e b e l i e f t h a t h i s p l a y s c o u l d not s u c c e s s f u l l y be performed w i t h o u t N e s t r o y s t a r r i n g i n them. A second cause was p r o b a b l y the assumption t h a t t h e p l a y s c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d f a v o u r a b l y o n l y i n V i e n n a . T h i s l a t t e r cause i n p a r t i c u l a r s e v e r e l y h i n d e r e d the performances o f h i s p l a y s i n the German s p e a k i n g a r e a s o u t s i d e A u s t r i a . F i f t y y e a r s a f t e r N e s t r o y ' s d e a t h , O t t o Rommel, and e s p e c i a l l y K a r l K r a u s , r e c o g n i z e d the t i m e l e s s and u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t i e s o f N e s t r o y ' s work, and e s -poused them w i t h g r e a t e r f e r v o u r . The appearance o f 0 . Rommel's and F. B r u k n e r ' s c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n o f N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s i n 1924 a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s e v e r g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s , which i s i n d i c a t e d i n p a r t by t h e v e r y l e n g t h o f the b i b l i o g r a p h y i n the Appendix o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . 5 C h a p t e r I A. B i o g r a p h i c a l Background and C r i t i c a l L i t e r a t u r e Johann Nepomuk Eduard Ambrosius N e s t r o y was born on December 7, 1801, i n the S t e r n h o f , J o r d a n g a s s e , V i e n n a d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f F r a n c i s I I . H i s f a m i l y o r i g i n a t e d from a w e l l - t o do V i e n n e s e upper-middle-cla'ss;, f a m i l y . • 'The s m a l l C z ech town o f Komotau was the b i r t h p l a c e o f h i s f a t h e r , a. r e s p e c t a b l e law-y e r , who was a b l e t o s t u d y law i n Troppau t h r o u g h the i n t e r -v e n t i o n o f a r e l a t i v e . N e s t r o y ' s p a r e n t s m a r r i e d i n V i e n n a on October * 23, 1799. There were e i g h t c h i l d r e n , Johann b e i n g the t h i r d o l d e s t . H i s mother d i e d when he was o n l y t h i r t e e n . H i s f a t h e r was unable t o overcome the l o s s , became i n c r e a s i n g l y n e g l e c t f u l , and d i e d poor and unhappy. N e s t r o y ' s f i r s t s c h o o l was "Sankt Anna," and i t was f o l l o w e d by s t u d i e s a t the "Akademisches Gymnasium" and the "Schottengymnasium." Success a t s c h o o l was i r r e g u l a r . He showed t a l e n t , b u t was u n i n t e r e s t e d . H i s s u c c e s s a t the u n i -v e r s i t y was moderate. He seemed r e s t l e s s and i n a t t e n t i v e . I t took him f o u r y e a r s t o complete t h r e e p h i l o s o p h y c l a s s e s . I n 1820, he t r a n s f e r r e d t o the f a c u l t y o f law, b u t a f t e r o n l y two y e a r s , d i s t r a c t e d by romance and l o v e f o r m usic, t e r m i n a t e d h i s s t u d i e s and t u r n e d t o s i n g i n g . H i s s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n m u s i c , and h i s o b v i o u s t a l e n t , had shown a t a r e l a t i v e l y young age. When o n l y t h i r t e e n , he had performed a t a p i a n o c o n c e r t . Wh'en 6 s e v e n t e e n , he sang a bass s o l o i n Timotheus. On August 24, 1822, "nach b e s t a n d e n e r P r u f u n g aus dem romischen Rechte" (XV,5), he p r e m i e r e d as S a r a s t r o i n D i e Z a u b e r f l o t e a t t h e , " H o f t h e a t e r " n e x t t o the : " K a r n t n e r t o r . " S i g n i f i c a n t l y , D i e  Z a u b e r f l o t e remains the one l a s t i n g o p e r a t i c s u c c e s s from t h e "Wiener V o l k s t h e a t e r . " W i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , he performed as a s i n g e r seventeen t i m e s i n o p e r e t t a s , and t h i r t y -n i n e t i m e s i n o p e r a s . On September 7, 1823, N e s t r o y m a r r i e d M a r i a W i l h e l m i n e P h i l l i p p i n e Z w e t t e r l i n g e r . He was twenty-two, and h i s . b r i d e was n i n e t e e n . Two days l a t e r , the c o u p l e l e f t f o r Amsterdam, where N e s t r o y sang i n the German t h e a t e r . He was v e r y s u c c e s s -f u l as a s i n g e r , but i n August, 1825, the t h e a t e r was c l o s e d . B r i i n n , C z e c h o s l o v a k i a was h i s n e x t s t a t i o n . There were i n -c r e a s i n g l y more s p e a k i n g r o l e s , and he began t o e x t e m p o r i z e , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a c o l l i s i o n c o u r s e w i t h the c e n s o r , a p r o b -lem which was t o p l a g u e him f o r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e as a w r i t e r and a c t o r . He l e f t Briinn because he r e f u s e d t o submit t o the a u t h o r i t i e s and s t o p e x t e m p o r i z i n g . The n e x t s t o p was G r a z , where he met M a r i e W e i l e r , who was t o become the main woman i n h i s l i f e . She has been c a l l e d h i s l o v e r , mother, g u a r d i a n and manager o f h i s e s t a t e . The l a t t e r was r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t , s i n c e he had numerous a f f a i r s and o t h e r p a s s i o n s which were c o s t l y . I t was i n Graz i n 1827 t h a t h i s w i f e M a r i a had an a f f a i r w i t h a G r a f B a t t h a n y . She l e f t N e s t r o y and t h e i r t h r e e - y e a r - o l d son, Gustav. Yet i n 1841, when she was i n f i n a n c i a l need, he sup-7 p o r t e d h e r . However, when she i n c u r r e d d e b t s i n h i s name, he had a l e g a l d i v o r c e i n 1845. He p a i d a l i m o n y , b u t she had t o agree t o be p l a c e d under g u a r d i a n s h i p , which c o n t i n u e d u n t i l h e r d e a t h i n September, 1870. By 1827, the s p e a k i n g r o l e s were i n the m a j o r i t y , b u t even more i m p o r t a n t , from then u n t i l 1862, the y e a r o f h i s d e a t h , N e s t r o y wrote one o r more p l a y s e v e r y y e a r . H i s f i r s t p l a y , F r i e d r i c h , P r i n z von K o r s i k a , had been w r i t t e n i n about 1822. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r saw the s t a r t o f the l i f e - l o n g p a r t -n e r s h i p w i t h M a r i e W e i l e r , w i t h whom he had two c h i l d r e n , a son, K a r l A n ton, born on October 3, 1831, and a d a u g h t e r , M a r i a C e c i l i a , b o r n on A p r i l 2, 1840. Both were l e g i t i m i z e d i n Feb-r u a r y , 1858. W e i l e r , nee L a c h e r o r Lauber, was b o r n on Sep-tember 13, 1809. N e s t r o y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her was, f o r a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , a r e g u l a r m a r r i a g e . However, th e Church's s a n c t i o n s were out o f the q u e s t i o n . I n t h e i r p a r t n e r s h i p she was u n d o u b t e d l y the s t r o n g e r p a r t n e r , and, as O. Rommel n o t e s , " S i e b e h e r r s c h t e i h r e n G a t t e n , dem das Neinsagen so schwer f i e l und das G e l d so l o c k e r s a s s . . ."(XV,37). I n 1829, N e s t r o y gave h i s f i r s t g u e s t performance i n V i e n n a i n the "Theater i n der J o s e f s t a d t . " The f o l l o w i n g y e a r he performed a g a i n i n V i e n n a , t h i s t i me i n t h e " K a r n t n e r t o r T h e a t e r . " I n 1831, he a g a i n r e t u r n e d , and t h i s time s i g n e d a c o n t r a c t w i t h C a r l . A l t h o u g h v e r y s u c c e s s f u l and e x t r e m e l y a c t i v e , N e s t r o y s t i l l t ook the time t o p e r f o r m i n o t h e r German-speaking c u l -t u r a l c e n t e r s : J u l y 1841 and August 1847 i n Hamburg; September 8 1844, August 1845, J u l y 1847, J u l y 1853 i n B e r l i n ; June 1843 i n B r e s l a u (Wroclaw); September 1845 i n Munich; August and September 1847 i n F r a n k f u r t , M a i n z , Wiesbaden and o t h e r Ger-man c i t i e s (XV,204-05). When C a r l d i e d i n August 1854, N e s t r o y l e a s e d the " C a r l - T h e a t e r " and became i t s d i r e c t o r . However, the r e a l b u s i n e s s f o r c e b e h i n d N e s t r o y was M a r i e W e i l e r , as she was i n c o n t r o l o f h i s f i n a n c e s . He d i d d e a l f a i r l y w i t h the a c t o r s , but he was not a t a l l a f o r c e f u l d i r e c t o r . 0. Rommel b e l i e v e s t h i s t o be due t o h i s l a c k o f w i l l power and r e l u c -t a n c e t o make d e c i s i o n s (XV,323-24). I t was h i s a c t i n g w h i c h was u n d o u b t e d l y t h e s t r e n g t h which s u p p o r t e d N e s t r o y as a d i r e c t o r . On A p r i l 29, 1862, N e s t r o y gave h i s l a s t performance. He had r e t i r e d i n 1860, b u t s t i l l p erformed a t t i m e s . On May 16, 1862, he d i d n o t f e e l w e l l , b u t r e f u s e d t o t a k e n o t e . On the e i g h t e e n t h , h i s speech began t o s l u r . F i v e days l a t e r h i s r i g h t s i d e was p a r a l y z e d , and on the t w e n t y - f i f t h , a t e l e v e n i n the morning, he passed away i n G r a z . The f u n e r a l was i n V i e n n a on June 2, 1862. I n h i s w i l l , w h i c h was d a t e d J a n u a r y 13, 1861, a t G r a z , M a r i e W e i l e r was t h e s o l e h e i r ( " U n i v e r s a l -E r b i n " ) . He was f u l l y aware of t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e she had p l a y e d i n h i s l i f e , as i s n o t e d i n p a r t o f t h e w i l l : "Zur U n i -v e r s a l - E r b i n ernerv"*e i c h F r l . M a r i e W e i l e r , d i e t r e u e F r e u n d i n meiner Tage, welche d u r c h a u f o p f e r n d e s Wirken das M e i s t e z u r Erwerbung d i e s e s Vermogens b e y g e t r a g e n h a t , so zwar, dass i c h n i c h t zu v i e l sage, wen i c h behaupte, s i e h a t g e g r u n d e t e r e Anspruche d a r a u f a l s i c h selbst"'(XV, 620-21). Over a span o f t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s — f r o m 1827 t o 1 8 6 2 — N e s t r o y wrote e i g h t y - t h r e e p l a y s , the m a j o r i t y o f w h i c h Rommel has d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : f o u r t e e n " Z a u b e r s p i e l e , " t e n p a r o d i e s , s i x p o l i t i c a l comedies, t e n " V o l k s s t u c k e , " and t h i r t y - f i v e f a r c e s . I n t h e parody Weder  Lorbeerbaum noch B e t t e l s t a b (1835), L e i c h t , t h e h e r o , ex-p l a i n s h i s g o a l w i t h " G " f a l l e n s o l l e n meine Sachen, u n t e r h a l t e n , l a c h e n s o l l e n d'Leut, und m i r s o i l d i e G ' s c h i c h t ' a G e l d t r a -gen, dass i c h auch l a c h 1 , das i s der ganze Z w e c k " ( I I I , 3 5 5 - 5 6 ) . T h i s i s u n d o u b t e d l y a l s o p a r t o f N e s t r o y ' s aim i n w r i t i n g . The f a c t t h a t he i s supposed t o have p l a y e d o v e r e i g h t hundred r o l e s a l s o i n d i c a t e s h i s d e v o t i o n t o t h e t h e a t e r . A f t e r 1850, t h e r e was a c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f the "Vor-s t a d t t h e a t e r , " a change i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the audience and a g a i n a s t r o n g e r i n t e r v e n t i o n by the c e n s o r , as w e l l as a d e c l i n e o f t h e c r i t i c a l components, i n the " V o l k s t h e a t e r . " O p e r e t t a s were performed more and more, w h i l e the " V o l k s t h e a t e r l o s t i t s s p o n t a n e i t y and i t s a u d i e n c e . A f t e r N e s t r o y 1 s d e a t h , h i s p l a y s seemed t o be t e m p o r a r i l y f o r g o t t e n i n V i e n n a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e " B u r g t h e a t e r , " which had not p e r m i t t e d any o f h i s p l a y s t o be performed d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , d i d n o t attempt a performance u n t i l 1901, when i t p r e s e n t e d Lumpazivagabundus (1833). Even t h e n , t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e p e r f o r m a n c e s , a f t e r w h i c h th e p l a y d i s a p p e a r e d from i t s r e p e r t o i r e . I n 1913, t h i s t h e a t e r f i n a l l y a d m i t t e d N e s t r o y , and from t h a t y e a r u n t i l 1934 10 t h e r e were one hundred e i g h t y ^ f i v e - p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f f i v e comedies. Y e t from 1934 t o 1937, t h e r e was a n o t h e r n a d i r , w i t h o n l y f o u r performances i n t h e " B u r g t h e a t e r , " f o u r i n the " V o l k s t h e a t e r , " and t w e n t y - t h r e e i n t h e "Akademietheater." D u r i n g the N a z i p e r i o d from 1938 t o 1945, t h e r e was an upswing: the "Akademietheater" had e i g h t y - s e v e n p e r f o r m a n c e s , t h e " V o l k s -t h e a t e r " one hundred s e v e n t e e n , the " B u r g t h e a t e r " two hundred twenty-one, and the " B u r g e r t h e a t e r " p r e s e n t e d Nur keck (1855) t h r e e hundred f i f t y - s i x t i m e s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e N a z i s thought t h e N e s t r o y p l a y s u s e f u l , because t h e y might h e l p m o l l i f y the A u s t r i a n s . They a l s o l o o k e d upon them as a p a r t o f German f o l k l i t e r a t u r e . A t the end o f World War I I , the Communists used N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s as a medium f o r propaganda: "Whereas the N a z i s had under-s t r e s s e d N e s t r o y ' s s a t i r e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r aims, the com-m u n i s t s overemphasized h i s b i t i n g w i t t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s , and, as might be e x p e c t e d , a l l o f t h e s e p r o d u c t i o n s were h e a v i l y l a d e n w i t h communist propaganda." 1 The y e a r s 1946 t o 1951 saw a g a i n a d e c l i n e i n the p e r -formances o f N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s : t h e " V o l k s t h e a t e r " had n i n e t y -one, the "Akademietheater" one hundred t w e n t y - t h r e e , and the " B u r g t h e a t e r " had o n l y t h i r t y - n i n e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . But 1952 was d e f i n i t e l y a t u r n i n g p o i n t . S i n c e t h e n , N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s have e x p e r i e n c e d a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a r i t y i n V i e n n a and t h r o u g h o u t the German-speaking w o r l d . R e i c h e r t p o s i t s t h a t the immediate cause was the work of the g i f t e d Munich d i r e c t o r 11 A x e l von Ambesser, who h i m s e l f was a s p l e n d i d a c t o r and p l a y -w r i g h t . Ambesser had r e a d t h e e n t i r e F a c k e l and thus been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by K a r l K r a u s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r was o f c o u r s e Kraus h i m s e l f , 1874-1936, who p u b l i s h e d the F a c k e l f o r t h i r t y - s i x y e a r s , s t a r t i n g i n 1899,. K r a u s ' s aim 2 was ". . . t o expose c o r r u p t i o n wherever he found i t . " F o r K r a u s , N e s t r o y was one o f the g r e a t e s t s a t i r i s t s , one o f w o r l d s t a t u r e , and h i s own p r e d e c e s s o r i n V i e n n a . "But i t must not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t Kraus h i m s e l f was a g i f t e d s a t i -r i s t , who s h a r e d w i t h N e s t r o y n o t o n l y h i s l o v e o f words and language, b u t a l s o h i s d i s d a i n f o r t h e low moral s t a n d a r d s o f h i s t i m e , h i s p o l i t i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m , h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e s s i -3 mism and h i s s a t i r i c a l r e a c t i o n t o e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . " Kraus e x e r t e d g r e a t e r e f f o r t t o r e v i v e N e s t r o y , not o n l y by w r i t i n g about him, but a l s o t h r o u g h h i s r e a d i n g s , and by m o d e r n i z i n g two f a r c e s : D i e b e i d e n Nachtwandler (1920), and Der k o n f u s e Zauberer (1925). Undoubtedly, K r a u s 1 s e f f o r t s were e v e n t u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . Indeed, the o r i g i n a l impetus p r o -v i d e d by Kraus i s s t i l l g a i n i n g momentum. S e r i o u s and s c h o l a r l y s t u d y o f N e s t r o y ' s work d i d not b e g i n u n t i l the s t a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . A t t h a t t i m e , the n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m outweighed the p o s i t i v e . D u r i n g the f i r s t decade o f t h i s c e n t u r y , N e s t r o y was seen as l i t t l e more tha n a p r e c u r s o r o f Ludwig Anzengruber, 1839-1889, i n the f o l l o w i n g works: S t e f a n Hock, Von Raimund b i s Anzengruber, and J a c o b Z e i d l e r , D i e Grundlage von N e s t r o y s - l i t e r a r i s c h e r E i g e n -12 a r t und Weltanschauung. F u r t h e r m o r e , N e s t r o y ' s work was i n t e r -p r e t e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o the c r i t i c s ' c o ncept o f s a t i r e , w h i c h , i f seen as a d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e , would r e s u l t i n a n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . An example was W a l t e r Dohn, who i n 1912- r e f e r s t o N e s t r o y ' s s k i l l as " T a l e n t des N i e d e r r e i s s e n s , " and c a l l s 4 h i s c o u p l e t s " u n o r g a n i s c h e E i n s c h i e b s e l . " But a l s o i n 1912, f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r h i s d e a t h , K a r l Kraus and O t t o Rommel p u b l i s h e d t h e i r f i r s t w r i t i n g s on N e s t r o y , and b o t h p r e s e n t e d a much f u l l e r p i c t u r e t h a n had been a c h i e v e d so f a r : "Beide e n t w e r f e n i i b e r a l l e E i n z e l b e o b a c h t u n g e n h i n a u s e i n G e s a m t b i l d , das G e i s t und S t i l d e r Komodien N e s t r o y s zum e r s t e n -5 mai i n gebuhrender und o b j e k t i v e r Weise z u r G e l t u n g b r i n g t . " K a r l Kraus,. i n h i s ess a y " N e s t r o y und d i e Nachwelt," sees :. N e s t r o y ' s s a t i r e o r i g i n a t i n g o u t o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the language. O t t o Rommel drew the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : f i r s t l y , N e s t r o y ' s s a t i r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o the s p e c i -f i c l o c a l e o f V i e n n a , h a v i n g i n s t e a d w o r l d - w i d e a p p l i c a b i l i t y . S e c o n d l y , the comedy i n N e s t r o y ' s f a r c e s has a " d o p p e l t e n Boden." I t has more th a n one l e v e l o f meaning, and comments on much more th a n t h e s t a g e s i t u a t i o n . O t t o Rommel a l s o a s s e r t s t h a t N e s t r o y ' s " S p r a c h k u n s t " had not r e c e i v e d p r o p e r and worthy s t u d y . These e x a m i n a t i o n s by K a r l Kraus and O t t o Rommel p r o -v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r a " l i t e r a t u r w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e N e s t r o y -f o r s c h u n g , " and the growing s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n N e s t r o y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l e n g t h o f the b i b l i o g r a p h y o f the secondary l i t e r a t u r e . 13 Of the numerous books w r i t t e n about Nestroy, I have chosen the f o l l o w i n g three f o r d i s c u s s i o n , because they d e a l to a c e r t a i n extent w i t h the author's language. The books are: S. B r i l l , Die Komodie der Sprache (1967), H. H e r l e s , Nestroys Komodie ..Per Talisman" (1974). and J . Hein, S p i e l und S a t i r e i n der Komodie Nestroys (1970). B r i l l d e f i n e s h i s approach as f o l l o w s : "Gegenstand meiner Untersuchung i s t Nestroys Werk, das h e i s s t : d i e uns i i b e r l i e f e r t e n Stucke i n 7 i h r e r T e x t g e s t a l t . " More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he s t a t e s , "Dagegen s o i l meine A r b e i t a l l e i n auf den Text gehen.. . ." H e r l e s seeks to p r e s e n t an a n a l y s i s of Per Talisman, by showing i t s developmental stages from Pupeuty's B.onavent-ure and Nestroy's f i r s t d r a f t s to the f i n i s h e d p l a y . One of H e r l e s ' main con-cerns seems to be the author's " W e r k s t a t t b e r e i c h , " because he b e l i e v e s t h a t a f u l l understanding of Nestroy's work can o n l y be achieved i f the c r i t i c r e c o g n i z e s , " . . . dass Nestroys 9 Sprache i n einem Prozess entstanden i s t . " A r e s u l t of t h i s process i s a change i n the q u a l i t y of the p l a y w r i g h t ' s l a n -guage. Herles e x p l a i n s : Pie komodiantischen Elemente i n der Sprache werden k r a f t i g e r h e r a u s g e a r b e i t e t , an verschiedenen S t e l l e n w ird r h y t h m i s i e r t , i n e i n i g e n Satzen werden paro-d i s t i s c h e Bezuge eingebaut, i n anderen F a l l e n werden Pausen e i n g e l e g t , und damit i s t . den S p i e l e r n mehr Raum f u r Mimik und G e s t i k g e s c h a f f e n . Ins-gesamt werden d i e Entwurfe auf dem Weg zum f e r t i g e n Stuck t h e a t e r g e r e c h t e r gemacht, auch r h e t o r i s c h e r und im F a l l der Szene des T i t u s , i n dem er dem r e i c h e n Onkel s e i n p l o t z l i c h e s Grauwerden e r k l a r t , auch geschwatziger. Im allgemeinen gewinnen d i e 14 Entwurfe jedoch dadurch, dass Nestroy bewusst seine Sprache Bedlirfnissen des Theaters unterwirf t. " 1 0 Herles, whose book appeared seven years l a t e r than B r i l l ' s , i s c r i t i c a l of the l a t t e r for being concerned only with the f i n a l versions of Nestroy's plays, and, therefore, according to Herles, unaware of the growth of the language: "Die Quali-tatsanderungen, die .die.,Sprache Nestroys im Laufe ih r e r Her-ausbildung erfahrt, konnen sie nicht erkennen, da sie die Vorstufen nicht beobachtet haben. Sie gehen von endgultigen Gebilden aus, B r i l l noch dazu nur von tTexten ' . " 1 1 I t would appear that Herles' assertion would be v a l i d only i f a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c s p e c i f i c a l l y chose to introduce or base his argumentation on the plays' various stages of de-velopment. B r i l l c l e a r l y states that he works s t r i c t l y with the texts, not with any intermediary phase of Nestroy's lan-guage, but exclusively with the f i n a l versions. This i s also the aim of th i s thesis. I t i s , aft e r a l l , the text as we know i t today which Nestroy wanted to have performed. Furthermore, the importance the author attributed to any intermediary stage i s unknown to us. Also, one might argue, those parts which have been deleted—whatever the reason might be—Nestroy thought not to be as suitable as the text which s t i l l stands. There-fore, they would seem to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, i t would ap-pear that Herles' argument does not concern a c r i t i c . who profes-ses to be dealing s t r i c t l y with an analysis of :the text as language. 15 F u r t h e r m o r e , adherence t o H e r l e s ' p o s i t i o n would i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n an a n a l y s i s which would g r a v i t a t e towards an exa m i n a t i o n , which d e a l s w i t h the s t u d y and comparison o f the v a r i o u s d r a f t s , and thus would d e v i a t e from an a n a l y s i s of the t e x t as such. The approach t o , and g o a l o f t h i s t h e s i s i s not the s t u d y o f the v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s of t he language. I n s t e a d , i t t r i e s t o i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s w h i c h , I b e l i e v e , p r o v i d e one v a l i d key t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s . A c c o r d i n g t o B r i l l , t he fundamental n a t u r e o f N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s l i e s i n t h e i r "Sprachkomik," i n whi c h the comedy i s the r e s u l t o f the language i t s e l f . I n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "Die Sprache N e s t r o y s u n t e r dem E i n f l u s s d e r Sprachkomik," B r i l l sees N e s t r o y as u s i n g language as a "Gegenstand", " S i e Jsprache 12 w i r d konsequent a l s e i n Gegenstand g e b r a u c h t . . . ." B r i l l a grees w i t h O t t o Rommel, whom he qu o t e s : " S i n n e r f u l l t e Worte . . . haben f u r N e s t r o y s S p r a c h g e f i i h l o f f e n b a r e.twas Gegen-s t a n d l i c h e s . E r kann s i c h an i h n e n f r e u e n , kann s i e w a h l e r -i s c h und wahlend n e b e n e i n a n d e r l e g e n wie e i n A u g e n k u n s t l e r f a r b i g e S t o f f e " ( X V , 2 8 6 ) . However, B r i l l b e l i e v e s t o have gone beyond Rommel: Zwar i s t es r i c h t i g , dass N e s t r o y d i e Sprache a l s e i n e n Gegenstand handhabt; doch m i t der zum Gegen-s t a n d gemachten Sprache verh'alt es s i c h p r i n z i -p i e l l anders a l s m i t f a r b i g e n S t o f f e n , d i e i c h ,w"ahlerisch und wahlend 1 n e b e n e i n a n d e r l e g e . Die V o r s t e l l u n g e i n e s im Grunde k i n d l i c h n a i v e n Umganges mi t Sprache, w e l c h e r i n i h r schone bunte Gegen-stande s i e h t , d i e l u s t v o l l e Empfindungen zu wecken 16 vermogen, i s t k e i n angemessenes Analogen dessen, was i n der Sprachkomik N e s t r o y s w i r k l i c h v o r s i c h g e ht. Die i n i h r zum Gegenstand gemachte Sprache i s t z u g l e i c h auch d i e Aufhebung i h r e r G e g e n s t a n d l i c h k e i t . D i e s e D i a l e k t i k , d i e es im B e r e i c h f a r b i g e r S t o f f e n i c h t g i b t , wohl aber im B e r e i c h der Sprache, b l e i b t b e i 0. Rommel uner-k a n n t . " 1 3 H e r l e s t a k e s e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p o s i t i o n when he comments about Salome i n A c t I , Scene i i i , and p o i n t s o u t t h a t Salome i n her l o n e l i n e s s does n o t succumb t o d e s p a i r . I n s t e a d , she r e f l e c t s on h er s i t u a t i o n . T h i s , and h e r b a s i c i n n e r s t r e n g t h , h e l p her come t o terms w i t h the problem o f p r e j u d i c e . H e r l e s then c o n t i n u e s : Das h a t Konsequenzen f u r d i e Sprache. Salome s p r i c h t zwar n i c h t n a i v , dennoch t r e f f e n B r i l l s Thesen auf s i e n i c h t zu. B e i i h r i s t von v e r d i n g l i c h t e r Sprache n i c h t s zu s p l i r e n . S i e w i r d , a h n l i c h wie bestimmte F r a u e n - und J u n g l i n g s g e s t a l t e n S c h i l l e r s , i n e i n e r extremen S i t u a t i o n zu e i n e r p o e t i s c h e n Sprache f ' a h i g . " 1 4 H e r l e s , however, does not c o n t i n u e t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t w i t h f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the language. I n s t e a d , he t u r n s t o a com-p a r i s o n between Salome and Jeanne, her c o u n t e r p a r t i n Bonaven-t u r e . B r i l l sees i n N e s t r o y ' s language a d i a l e c t i c . Because o f t h i s " S p r a c h d i a l e k t i k , " the a u t h o r ' s p l a y s a re pregnant w i t h meaning; - "Die S t ucke s i n d n a m l i c h a n g e f i i l l t m i t Meinungen. " C e r t a i n l y t h i s i s t r u e . Y e t . i t s h o u l d a l s o be u n d e r s c o r e d t h a t the b a s i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k s f o r t h i s a r e — a t l e a s t t o a 17 l a r g e e x t e n t - - t h e m u l t i - l e v e l l e d meaning o f numerous key words and p h r a s e s , as w i l l be shown l a t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . The meanings e l i c i t e d by t h e s e key words and p h r a s e s p r o v i d e the f o u n d a t i o n f o r such broad t o p i c s as m a r r i a g e and l o v e , as w e l l as f a t e and h a p p i n e s s . As he pursues h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g i n r e f e r e n c e t o the •» 16 " E n t g e g e n s t a n d l i c h u n g der Sprache," B r i l l makes the f o l -l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : T a t s a c h l i c h bekampfen s i c h d i e F i g u r e n der Stucke m i t Worten. Das V e r h a l t e n z u e i n a n d e r i s t ,sprach-l i c h - a n t a g o n i s t i s c h 1 . G e s t a l t e n wie T i t u s F e u e r -f u c h s , S e b a s t i a n Faden, L i p s , U l t r a und andere s i n d ,Worthelden' ( n i c h t im Sinne des Sykophanten), welche d i e Sprache a l s Waffe f u h r e n , urn s i c h d u r c h -z u s e t z e n - denen das S c h l a g w o r t e i n Wort zum S c h l a g e n i s t . 1 ^ B r i l l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t i m a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e i n N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s — i n s t e a d , any h o s t i l i t y i s v e r b a l i z e d . T h i s I c o n c u r w i t h , b u t I do b e l i e v e a s i g n i f i -c a n t r e s u l t o f t h i s " h o s t i l i t y , " w hich i s a b a s i c a s p e c t o f N e s t r o y ' s use o f language, must be n o t e d a t t h i s p o i n t . Cha-r a c t e r s l i k e Puffmann and T i t u s , and D i c k k o p f i n H e i m l i c h e s  G e l d und h e i m l i c h e L i e b e (1853) , e x p e r i e n c e t h a t language used by them as a weapon a g a i n s t o t h e r s i n v a r i a b l y a c t s as a boomerang, i n t h a t i t t u r n s on them. The audience soon r e a l i z e s t h i s . The language o f the above mentioned f i g u r e s , and t h a t o f o t h e r s , d e v e l o p s i n t o a l i n g u i s t i c web, i n which the s p e a k e r s themselves a r e t r a p p e d i n the end. Thus, a l t h o u g h B r i l l n o t e s , " N e s t r o y s Sprache s p i e l t n i c h t nur m i t dem e i n z e l n e n Wort; 18 18 w i c h t i g e r noch i s t s e i n S p i e l m i t der P h r a s e , " he does n o t a n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t f o r the s p e a k e r . U l t i m a t e l y , i t must be n o t e d , t h a t t h o s e who seek t o m a n i p u l a t e language, i n o r d e r t o m a n i p u l a t e t h o s e around them, a r e themselves m a n i p u l a t e d by language. I b e l i e v e t h i s t o be a c r u c i a l message i n h e r e n t i n N e s t r o y ' s language. F.H. Mautner, i n h i s book e n t i t l e d N e s t r o y , seems t o i m p l y t h i s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , when he s t a t e s " Z w e i f a c h i s t so d i e H a l t u n g s e i n e r F i g u r e n z u r Sprache; d i e im Leben Uber l e g e n e n s p i e l e n m i t i h r - s c h e r z e n d , a n g r e i f e n d , v e r n i c h t e n d -, und s i e s p i e l t m i t den K u r z s i c h t i g e n , den 19 Dummen und S c h l e c h t e n , s i e s p i e l t ihnen mrt." J S t i l l , F.H. Mautner, t o o , does n o t make the d e f i n i t e p o i n t t h a t a l l t h o s e , not m e r e l y t h e s t u p i d , s h o r t - s i g h t e d and bad who p l a y w i t h language, become i n the end the v i c t i m s o f t h e i r own l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s . C l e v e r n e s s o r f o o l i s h n e s s seem t o be i r r e l e v a n t . N e i t h e r B r i l l nor Mautner appear t o p o i n t t h i s o u t . W i t h r e g a r d t o the d i a l e c t i c o f N e s t r o y * s language, B r i l l makes the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t , "Die E n t g e g e n s t a n d l i c h u n g der Sprache i s t e s , d i e - im S i n n e e i n e r K r a u s ' s c h e n F o r m u l i e r u n g -20 den Gedanken a b w i r f t . " T h i s a s p e c t o f N e s t r o y * s language, I b e l i e v e , i s i n d e e d s i g n i f i c a n t , and, as I w i l l demonstrate l a t e r , may be seen c o n c r e t e l y i n v a r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s , which w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r s I I I and IV. B r i l l w r i t e s f u r t h e r , "Indem n a m l i c h d i e Sprache i i b e r s i c h s e l b s t a u s s a g t , s a g t s i e , wenn s i e s p r a c h l i c h genommen w i r d , .. 21 auch uber das aus, was s i e v e r m i t t e l t , das Gemeinte." T h i s 19 seems t o i m p l y t h a t "how" something i s s a i d i s o f c r u c i a l im-p o r t a n c e i n a n a l y z i n g "what" i s s a i d . I t i s t h i s approach w h i c h I employ i n my a n a l y s i s . As a r e s u l t , I have come t o i d e n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n g u i s t i c elements as the fundamental components w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the essence o f t h e p l a y w r i g h t ' s language. Whereas B r i l l r e l a t e s a l l h i s arguments t o what he d e f i n e s as "Sprachkomik," I seek t o g a i n a g e n e r a l under-s t a n d i n g o f N e s t r o y , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h r o u g h the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the b a s i c c o n s t i t u e n t s o f h i s language. I n r e f e r e n c e t o language, one o f B r i l l ' s c e n t r a l a r g u -22 ments d e a l s w i t h what he c a l l s the " B e w u s s t h e i t der Sprache." He s a y s j "Die B e w u s s t h e i t , das h e i s s t : d e r s e l b s t r e f l e k t i e r e n d e C h a r a k t e r d er N e s t r o y s c h e n Sprache, der j e d e U n m i t t e l b a r k e i t zum Gemeinten t i l g t , i s t das e n t s c h e i d e n d e E r g e b n i s meiner 23 A n a l y s e . " B r i l l sees the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f language and i t s s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n as i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d t o the comedy, which i s i n h e r e n t t h r o u g h o u t N e s t r o y ' s works. T h i s q u a l i t y o f t h e p l a y -w r i g h t ' s language has been u n d e r s c o r e d by K a r l K r a u s , whose s t a t e m e n t s a l s o p r o v i d e d p a r t o f the impetus f o r t h i s d i s s e r -t a t i o n . T r y i n g t o go beyond B r i l l , I have a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c examples w h i c h s u p p o r t K r a u s * s a x i o m a t i c statement^ " N e s t r o y i s t der e r s t e d e utsche S a t i r i k e r , i n dem 24 s i c h d i e Sprache Gedanken macht uber d i e Dinge." The seven l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s — s o m e t i m e s i n d i v i d u a l l y , sometimes i n com-b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s — r e s u l t i n language moving beyond the a u t h o r i t y o f the s p e a k e r . I have l i t e r a l l y t a k e n t h e a u t h o r a t h i s word. 20 At t h i s time, H e r l e s ' most s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c i s m of B r i l l should be noted, namely, h i s adamant stance t h a t . l a n -guage i t s e l f does not c r e a t e language, but r a t h e r , "Das S p i e l 25 der F i g u r e n im Szenarium drangt den Autor zur Formulierung," and, "Dieser Text i s t aus der Handlung erwachsen, d i e er zuvor 2 6 im Szenarium i n s z e n i e r t h a t t e . " Furthermore, H e r l e s i n s i s t s , "Denn liber a l i e n A r b e i t e n an der Sprache, a l i e n E i n f a l l e n , 27 genugt dem Autor d i e r e i n e Sprache n i c h t . " T h i s appears to be i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to Kraus's statement, "Denn aus dem Wort s p r i n g t mir der junge Gedanke entgegen und formt ruckwirkend 28 d i e Sprache, d i e i h n schuf." H e r l e s i s convinced t h a t a l r e a d y , i n the s c e n a r i o and the d r a f t s , the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of Nestroy's s t y l e are apparent. In h i s c o n c l u s i o n , H e r l e s r e i t e r a t e s the importance of the s t a g i n g , and r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to B r i l l , "Diese Bedeutung der , I n s z e n i e r u n g 1 f u r Nestroys Werk i s t b i s h e r n i c h t gesehen worden, weder von B r i l l f u r d i e ,Genesis' der 29 Nestroyschen Sprache.. . ." I f a c r i t i c i s concerned about the genesis of Nestroy's language, then H e r l e s ' p o s i t i o n i s v a l i d . I f , however, a c r i t i c i s s t r i c t l y concerned w i t h a t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s of the d e f i n i t i v e v e r s i o n , t h i s v e r s i o n alone should be seen as e n t i r e l y adequate. In f a c t , i f one d e a l s w i t h a l l i n t e r m e d i a r y steps,; one i n e v i t a b l y analyzes a l s o those p a r t s Nestroy h i m s e l f u l t i m a t e l y r e j e c t e d . T h i s c o u l d w e l l l e a d to s p e c u l a t i o n why c e r t a i n p a r t s were d e l e t e d , and others not, which c o u l d h a r d l y c o n t r i b u t e f u r t h e r r e v e a l i n g knowledge. Although H e r l e s ' argumentation and f i n d i n g s have un-doubtedly c o n t r i b u t e d to an i n c r e a s e d understanding of Nes-t r o y ' s p l a y s , the i m p l i c a t i o n the c r i t i c makes, t h a t s t u d i e s d e a l i n g with the language must c o n s i d e r a l l stages of develop-ment i n order to be v a l i d , i s bound to r a i s e doubts. The v i -t a l i t y o f Nestroy's language, which c o n t i n u o u s l y opens up f u r t h e r d e n o t a t i o n and connotations beyond the immediate and concrete s i t u a t i o n — a s w i l l be argued i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , does not depend on an exegesis of the d i f f e r e n t developmental stages, nor upon the o r i g i n a l "Inszenierung." Instead, i t must be argued t h a t once Nestroy had formulated the f i n a l v e r s i o n , i t seemed to possess a l i f e of i t s own, which i s manifested, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , i n i t s l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s . Although my i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of B r i l l , I have gone beyond him i n c e r t a i n areas which I f e l t were s i g n i f i c a n t . In h i s book S p i e l und S a t i r e i n der Komodie Johann Nestroys, Jurgen Hein seeks to undertake, "Die Untersuchung zur S t r u k t u r 30 der Nestroyschen Komodien.. . ." He a l s o seeks t o come to terms w i t h the essence and s t r u c t u r e of Nestroy's f a r c e s . The second s e c t i o n of P a r t Two (42-74), e n t i t l e d "Die Sprache," con-t a i n s s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s b e a r i n g some rele v a n c e to my d i s s e r t a -t i o n . Hein's f i r s t p o i n t d e a l s with d i a l e c t and "Hochdeutsch", "Die verschiedenen M o g l i c h k e i t e n der Sprache zwischen D i a l e k t und Hochdeutsch werden f u r d i e Komodie und d i e C h a r a k t e r i s i e r u n g 31 i h r e r F i g u r e n nutzbar gemacht." I t would seem t h a t Hein i s f a r too gen e r a l here, p a r t i c u l a r l y when s e v e r a l paragraphs l a t e r he notes, "Die D i f f e r e n z i e r u n g In Sprachebenen vermag sowohl 22 * g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e Sehiehtungen;'wie d i e S p i e l f S h i g k e i t der 32 F i g u r e n s i c h t b a r zu machen." "Sprachebenen" may c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t such a s p e c t s as o c c u p a t i o n and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , b u t more i m p o r t a n t i s the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a c h a r a c t e r ' s b a s i c n a t u r e may be m i r r o r e d by h i s language. By t h i s I do not mean "Sprachebenen," but unique language h a b i t s and p a t t e r n s w h i c h , I b e l i e v e , a c t as a t h u m b p r i n t , t h a t i s , i n d i c a t e the s p e a k e r ' s fundamental c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s . A d i f f e r e n t f a c e t o f the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n may be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g comment by H e i n : Di e R e d e n s a r t e n geben e i n e n E i n b l i c k i n den Grad der F e h l e i n s c h ' a t z u n g der P o s s e n f i g u r e n . I n ihrem l e i t m o t i v i s c h e n A n k l i n g e n i n der Komodie s p i e g e l n s i e z u m e i s t d i e U n v e r a n d e r l i c h k e i t der F i g u r e n i n i h r e r H a l t u n g zu s i c h und der W e l t . D i e s e U n v e r -b e s s e r l i c h k e i t ' i s t e i n Grundzug der N e s t r o y s c h e n Komodie. 5 I can endorse t h i s up t o a p o i n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o " U n v e r a n d e r l i c h k e i t , " however, the c r i t i c r e - d e s i g n a t e s t h i s -as " U n v e r b e s s e r l i c h k e i t . " Thus, he makes a change t h a t c o v e r s o n l y a p a r t o f what I c o n s i d e r t o be a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t theme i n N e s t r o y ' s work. I r e f e r t o t h i s as the u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y f a c t o r , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a l l o f N e s t r o y ' s f i g u r e s , be i t S i m p l i -c i u s i n Gegen T o r h e i t g i b t es k e i n M i t t e l , o r Puffmann i n Der  Unbedeutende, o r T i t u s i n Der T a l i s m a n . When He i n s t r e s s e s " U n v e r b e s s e r l i c h k e i t , " he seems t o r e f e r o n l y t o those c h a r a c -t e r s who are i n need of "Besserung." However, I b e l i e v e t h a t 23 a f a r more fundamental c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a i s the c h a r a c t e r s ' u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y , t o which a l l must n e c e s s a r i l y succumb. F u r t h e r m o r e , and c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h i s argument, i s th e t h u m b p r i n t i n g n a t u r e o f language. J u s t as a c h a r a c t e r ' s t h u m b p r i n t remains f i x e d , so do h i s language h a b i t s . These i n t u r n r e f l e c t the u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f h i s b a s i c s e l f . I must a l s o add t h a t language h a b i t s , as I see them, a r e not m e r e l y "Redensarten" and " S p r i c h w o r t e r " — t e r m s t h a t H e i n uses-— b u t i n c l u d e , a c h a r a c t e r ' s t o t a l language use. T h i s would seem t o be i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o H e i n , who s t a t e s , "Die Sprache s t e h t s t e t s im D i e n s t k o m i s i e r e n d e r Formung und C h a r a k t e r i s t i k , s i e kann a l s o k e i n e t p s y c h o l o g i s c h g e t r e u e A b b i l d u n g i n n e r e r V o r -g'ange' der F i g u r e n l e i s t e n . " 3 4 I n Chapter I I I o f t h i s d i s s e r -t a t i o n , t h e argument i s p u t f o r t h t h a t language i n d e e d r e f l e c t s t he fundamental t r a i t s o f N e s t r o y ' s c h a r a c t e r s . There i s one f u r t h e r v iew about language e x p r e s s e d by H e i n w h i c h causes doubt, namely h i s c l a i m , " S i e vermag m i t d e r Sprache zu s p i e l e n , w e i l s i e s i e b e h e r r s c h t , und s i e kann daher 35 auch m i t denen s p i e l e n , d i e d i e Sprache n i c h t b e h e r r s c h e n . " T h i s may be t r u e o f some " Z e n t r a l f i g u r e n , " b u t c e r t a i n l y n o t a l l — T i t u s i s a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n . As shown i n Chapter IV, P a r t s Two and Three, language u l t i m a t e l y p l a y s w i t h ;those who b e l i e v e t h e y c o n t r o l i t , and t h e r e f o r e , can p l a y w i t h i t . P l a y i n g w i t h language r e a l l y means m a n i p u l a t i n g i t , u s u a l l y f o r s e l f i s h r e a s o n s . T h i s i s a l s o seen i n the case o f Puffmann, who, a l t h o u g h not a main c h a r a c t e r , c e r t a i n l y i s a master i n 24 playing with language. He i s one example of a figure who controls language, but i n the end, finds himself caught i n a l i n g u i s t i c web of his own making. I t would seem that i n Nes-troy' s plays, language—irrespective of who uses i t — h o l d s an element of danger for the speaker, because he does not r e a l l y control i t , even though he thinks he does. I t would appear to me that Hein only touches upon this aspect of language, and does not provide a f u l l analysis. Whereas Herles works with only one p a r t i c u l a r play, and whereas B r i l l states^ "Be-.• 36 schrankung auf einige wenige Stiicke i s t unumg'anglich, " F.H. Mautner, i n his book Nestroy, implies that a v a l i d under-standing of the playwright can come only from a study of a l l of his works. I t i s primarily the opening section, e n t i t l e d "Das Werk," which has relevance to my d i s s e r t a t i o n , since i t concentrates on the l i n g u i s t i c , as well as the t h e a t r i c a l elements of the plays. A c r u c i a l statement i n this part i s Mautner's emphasis on the "Wortspiel"/ "Das Wortspiel 1st die Schwelle, uber die . 3 7 man i n die G e i s t i g k e i t der Komodie Nestroys e i n t r i t t . . . ." One p a r t i c u l a r facet of the "Wortspiel" may be seen i n the following comment by Mautner/ "Nestroys typische Wortspiele sind ein Niederschlag von Nestroys immer wachem Bewusstsein 3 8 vom vielfachen Sinn eines Wortes oder einer Wendung.. . ." Although the term "Wortspiel" can well be used regarding Nes-troy's unique and revolutionary use of language, "Spie l " should not be seen as intimating merely playfulness or f r i v o l i t y of 25 language. I n s t e a d , i t r e f l e c t s the ease and s k i l l w i t h w h i c h N e s t r o y uses language, as he e l i c i t s a spectrum o f shades o f meaning from i n d i v i d u a l words and p h r a s e s , because o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n s , j u x t a p o s i t i o n s and c o n t e x t . I t i s t h i s a s p e c t w h i c h i s s t r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t my d i s s e r t a t i o n . Mautner espouses the v i e w t h a t N e s t r o y has a s p e c i a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p t o , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f words/ "Worte s i n d ihm n i c h t n e u t r a l e B e g r i f f s t r a g e r , sondern a l s g e d a n k e n s p i e g e l n d e , g e d a n k e n t r a c h t i g e , gedankenformende ,Worter' Q u e l l e , U r s p r u n g 39 des Denkens." T h i s echoes K r a u s ' s p o s i t i o n / ' "Denn aus dem Wort s p r i n g t m i r der junge Gedanke entgegen und f o r m t r i l c k -40 w i r k e n d d i e Sprache, d i e i h n s c h u f . " I n my a n a l y s i s , I sup-p o r t Mautner's a r g u m e n t a t i o n , i n t h a t I i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e s p e c i f i c , c o n c r e t e , i n d i v i d u a l l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s . One o f t h e s e d e v i c e s i s the boomerang e f f e c t o f s i n g l e words and p h r a s e s . Mautner appears t o s u s p e c t t h i s a s p e c t o f N e s t r o y ' s language, a l t h o u g h he does not d e f i n e i t s p e c i f i c a l l y ^ " N e s t r o y macht s i c h auch o f t den Spass, aus den Reden der E i n f a l t s p i n s e l , i h n e n 41 unbewusst, d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t h e r v o r l e u c h t e n zu l a s s e n . " He then quotes Spund, one o f the f i g u r e s i n Der T a l i s m a n , " . . . a b e r , wie s i e waren i n u n s e r e r F a m i l i e , haben w i r a l l e braune Haar' g'habt, l a u t e r d u n k l e K o p f , k e i n l i c h t e r Kopf zu f i n d e n . . . und der Bub' u n t e r s t e h t s i c h und kommt r o t s c h a d l e t auf d'Welt"(X,462). Here the s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f the language i s s u r e l y t h e f a c t t h a t language b e t r a y s the f o o l i s h n e s s o f the s p e a k e r — t h a t i s , the words have a boomerang e f f e c t . The 26 s p e a k e r seeks t o be c r i t i c a l o f someone e l s e , y e t the a u d i e n c e i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e s e words r e v e r t back on him, and d e v e l o p a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e t o him, i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t he aimed h i s words a t a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r . I would l i k e t o go back t o t h e Mautner q u o t a t i o n , i n w h i c h he uses the a d j e c t i v e s "gedankenspiegelnde"'gedanken-t r a c h t i g e " and "gedankenformende," because t h e y l e a d t o a f u r t h e r a s p e c t o f N e s t r o y ' s language, one t h a t Mautner does not s t r e s s . I argue, t h r o u g h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s , t h a t language evades the c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l o f the s p e a k e r , and o p e r a t e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways from t h o s e i n t e n d e d by him. Thus, as i t were, i t t a k e s on a l i f e o f i t s own,outside the c o n t r o l l i n g mind which c o n c e i v e d i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the meaning o f key e x p r e s s i o n s , as i n t e n d e d by the s p e a k e r , f r e q u e n t l y does not c o i n c i d e w i t h the meaning c o n c e i v e d i n the minds o f the s p e c t a t o r s . Mautner a l s o notes t h a t N e s t r o y p o s s e s s e s such a sen-s i t i v e and p e r c e p t i v e e a r i n r e f e r e n c e t o language- t h a t he i n v a r i a b l y i d e n t i f i e s and r i d i c u l e s t h o s e language p a t t e r n s which have l o s t t h e i r v i t a l i t y , and have, i n f a c t , become l i f e l e s s / " N e s t r o y h a t d i e e r s t a r r t e n Phrasen der g e s e l l s c h a f t -l i c h e n K o n v e r s a t i o n , der r o u t i n i e r t e n L i t e r a t u r , des M i l i t a r -ismus, des k o n v e n t i o n e l l e n Ehrenkodex, der B l i r o k r a t i e , des N a t i o n a l i s m u s immer w i e d e r m i t harmlosem G e s i c h t dem Gel'achter 42 p r e i s g e g e b e n . " I have come t o r e g a r d t h i s as one o f the b a s i c a r e a s where N e s t r o y d e p a r t s r a d i c a l l y from the o t h e r 27 w r i t e r s o f t h e Vi e n n e s e P o p u l a r T h e a t e r . I n my argument, I compare N e s t r o y ' s language t o t h a t o f A d o l f B a u e r l e , a popu-l a r contemporary a u t h o r o f N e s t r o y . I n t h i s c omparison, Nes-t r o y 's sharp d e v i a t i o n from the t r a d i t i o n a l use o f language becomes o b v i o u s , and i t may be seen as s y m b o l i c o f h i s break w i t h many t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c c e p t e d modes o f th o u g h t . R e l a t e d t o the i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h i s Mautner's f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t / " N e s t r o y s G e i s t war s a t i r i s c h gestimmt, s e i n G e f i i h l f u r s p r a c h l i c h e L e e r e und Trug a l s h'auf-43 i g e r Ausdruck i n n e r e r L e e r e und Trugs a u s s e r s t e m p f i n d l i c h . " I argue t h a t , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whether a f i g u r e i s honest and u p r i g h t , o r f a l s e and d e c e p t i v e , h i s language a c t s as a t h u m b p r i n t , and once he has spoken, h i s language p a t t e r n s t e n d t o remain f i x e d . There i s one f u r t h e r l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t n o t e d by Mautner, t o w h i c h I want t o address m y s e l f / "Die V i e l f a l t e i n a n d e r u n t e r -s t u t z e n d e r s p r a c h l i c h e r K u n s t g r i f f e auf engstem Raum macht immer w i e d e r N e s t r o y s S t i l so d i c h t , g e i s t i g und a s t h e t i s c h so 44 b e f r i e d i g e n d . " C e r t a i n l y t h i s i s t r u e . However, a n o t h e r f a c e t must be mentioned, n o t o n l y because i t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e one Mautner o b s e r v e s , but because I b e l i e v e i t t o be v e r y s i g -n i f i c a n t . T h i s d e v i c e I c a l l t h e echo o f words and p h r a s e s . Here, r e l a t e d e x p r e s s i o n s i n the t e x t s u p p o r t and b u t t r e s s each o t h e r . These f u n c t i o n not o n l y "auf engstem Raum," but i n d i f -f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e same scene, the same p l a y , and even i n d i f -f e r e n t p l a y s . Echo words c o n s t i t u t e a s o r t o f language g r i d i r o n , 28 w h i c h i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s a l l o f N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s . I n t h i s g r i d i r o n , i n d i v i d u a l echo words a r e t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k s . G e n e r a l l y , I con c u r w i t h Mautner's p o s i t i o n and f i n d i n g s . However, I s h i f t t he emphasis i n the argument, and s t r e s s f u r t h e r a s p e c t s . We now t u r n o ur a t t e n t i o n t o N e s t r o y ' s w r i t i n g , and i n t r o d u c e i t v i a t h e method o f a n a l y s i s used t h r o u g h o u t the d i s s e r t a t i o n . B. Methodology o f Approach I c h b i n der Kolumbus e i n e r neuen Methode. N e s t r o y , "Aphorismus 169." '. " N e s t r o y beim Wort .genommen" i s a s u i t a b l e motto f o r the method o f a n a l y s i s t o be employed i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . The meaning o f t h i s w o r l d view i s t o be d e r i v e d t h r o u g h an exami-n a t i o n o f N e s t r o y ' s p e c u l i a r use o f language. T h e r e f o r e , the method o f e x p r e s s i o n w i l l s e r v e as the p r i m a r y b a s i s o f a n a l y s i n t he attempt t o i d e n t i f y and e l u c i d a t e some e s s e n t i a l com-ponents o f N e s t r o y ' s language. Some o f the major l i n g u i s t i c developments t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l attempt t o d i s t i l l a r e : a) the r e v e r s a l o f t h e g i v e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " S p r i c h w o r t e r " ; b) t h e shaky f o u n d a t i o n o f words; c) t h e i n g e m i n a t i n g f e a t u r e o f p a r t i c u l a r words and p h r a s e s , and d) the tendency o f l a n -guage e v e n t u a l l y t o m a n i p u l a t e i t s m a n i p u l a t o r . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e r e i s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l i t y o f language d r i f t i n g away from the sp e a k e r ' s apparent c o n t r o l . 29 Language, be i t s i l e n t o r o r a l , i s the most i m p o r t a n t communicative form o f t h o u g h t , and, a c c o r d i n g t o K r a u s , language p r o v i d e s the impetus f o r t h o u g h t , namely, i n i t i a l t h o u g h t . However, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , thought c r e a t e s t h e language o u t o f w h i c h i t was b o r n . Kraus p o s i t s / "Denn aus dem Wort s p r i n g t m i r der junge Gedanke entgegen und f o r m t r u c k w i r k e n d 45 d i e Sprache, d i e i h n s c h u f . " I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t the sphere o f thought and language i s an e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d one, and t h a t i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o i t by l i n g u i s t s . However, i n o r d e r n o t t o go beyond the l i m i t s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s a r e made o n l y t o K r a u s . Thus, language and thought are t o t a l l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , o r , t o 46 quote Kraus a g a i n / "Sprechen und Denken s i n d e i n s . . . ." The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s o f examples o f some o f the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d e s s e n t i a l l i n g u i s t i c components, and s e r v e s as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the method of a n a l y s i s t o be a p p l i e d i n d e t a i l t h r o u g h o u t the remainder o f t h i s s t u d y . That i s , i t p r e s e n t s , as i t were, a microcosm o f what f o l l o w s i n the e n s u i n g pages. N e s t r o y " s use o f s p e c i f i c words evokes images which echo and b u t t r e s s i d e a s b r o u g h t out by o t h e r s i m i l a r words. These i d e a s might r e p r e s e n t themes, o r d e a l w i t h the n a t u r e o f a c e r -t a i n c h a r a c t e r , o r , i n f a c t , do b o t h . The f o l l o w i n g a r e two b r i e f q u o t a t i o n s from Die schlimmen Buben i n der S c h u l e (1847) . Wampl, the t e a c h e r , i s e x a m i n i n g W i l l i b a l d , t h e son o f F r a u S c h n a b e l , who i s a t the s c h o o l , and i n s i s t s t h a t her son be 30 g i v e n a p r i z e , a demand w h i c h i n f u r i a t e s Wampl. One o f the q u e s t i o n s he asks i s : "Was i s t d i e E r d e ? " ( X I I I , 2 2 4 ) . W i l l i -b a l d answers/ " E i n Himmelskorper, auf dem d i e U n g l u c k l i c h e n e i n h o l l i s c h e s Leben h a b e n " ( X I I I , 2 2 4 ) . On the one hand, i t i s q u i t e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s i s n o t the k i n d o f answer the t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t i n g , s i n c e i t i s n o t a s c i e n t i f i c one. On the o t h e r hand, even though i t i s an e v a l u a t i v e r e s p o n s e , r e f e r r i n g t o the a m b i g u i t i e s and m i s e r i e s o f human e x i s t e n c e , i t i s a f a r more p e r t i n e n t comment, from a human p o i n t o f v i e w , than one c o n s i s t i n g m e r e l y o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s . I n W i l l i b a l d ' s r e p l y , two words s t a n d o u t , because t h e y r e p r e s e n t a sharp a n t i t h e s i s ^ namely, "Himmelskorper" and " h o l l i s c h . " The term "Himmels-k o r p e r " can i n d e e d be a synonym f o r "Erde," and i f W i l l i b a l d had o n l y g i v e n i t i n answer, Wampl c o u l d n o t have f a u l t e d him, as he does now. However, the term "Himmel" i n e v i t a b l y evokes t r a d i t i o n a l t h ought p a t t e r n s — t h a t i s , images o f beauty and p e r f e c t i o n i n a l l a r e a s the human mind can i m a g i n e , and, by a s s o c i a t i o n , some a s p e c t s o f t h i s beauty and p e r f e c t i o n a re seen as s u p p o s e d l y a l s o e x i s t i n g on e a r t h , because e a r t h i s a "Himmelskorper." Such t h i n k i n g W i l l i b a l d e x p l o d e s w i t h the a d j e c t i v e " h o l l i s c h e s , " w h i c h forms a p o l a r i t y w i t h "Himmel." Thus, e x i s t e n c e on e a r t h i s a h e l l i s h one. The i n h a b i t a n t s o f the "Himmelskorper" a re r e f e r r e d t o as " U n g l i i c k l i c h e 9 " A g a i n , i n t r a d i t i o n a l t h i n k i n g , e x i s t e n c e on a "Himmelskorper," because o f the i n t i m a t i o n s p r o j e c t e d by "Himmel," s h o u l d be one marked by b l i s s and s e r e n i t y . But such t h i n k i n g , t o o , i s shown as f a l s e by the d e s i g n a t i o n "Ungluck-l i c h e . " A c c o r d i n g t o commonly a c c e p t e d b e l i e f s , t h e r e would o n l y be " U n g l u c k l i c h e " i n h e l l . I t , however, i s seen i n a d i f f e r e n t r e a l m than e a r t h . But W i l l i b a l d ' s answer p o s i t s t h a t l i f e on e a r t h , f o r which "Himmelskorper" may w e l l be a synonym, i s r e a l l y h e l l , and man i s seen as " e i n U n g l l i c k -l i c h e r . " T h i s emphasizes man's m i s e r y , and exposes the images of b l i s s and s e r e n i t y as n o n - e x i s t e n t on the s o - c a l l e d "Him-m e l s k o r p e r , " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s man's home. In the p l a v H o l l e n a n a s t (1849). some o f Wendelin's words are a s t r o n g echo o f W i l l i b a l d ' s comments above. Wendelin i s unemployed, and has no hope of f i n d i n g work. He says t o Eva, h i s mother,- "Meiner S e e l ' , i c h h a l t 1 schon auf d i e andre Welt auch n i x mehr"(V,329). But Eva admonishes him; " F r e v e l n i t , S o h n e r l , d i e andre Welt i s j a d i e b e s s ' r e W e l t " ( V , 3 2 9 ) . W e n d e l i n , however, i s adamant: "Mein G o t t , s i e kann zehnmal b e s s e r s e i n , und 's i s e r s t noch n i c h t v i e l d r a n " ( V , 3 2 9 ) . I t seems t h a t Eva and Wendelin are examples o f the " U n g l u c k l i c h e " n o t e d by W i l l i b a l d . Wendelin's f i r s t comment above, a l t h o u g h not r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h i s l i f e , n e v e r t h e l e s s c r i t i c i z e s i t s e v e r e l y , and thus echoes W i l l i b a l d ' s " h o l l i s c h e s Leben." I n t h e s t a t e m e n t , " . . . i c h h a l t ' schon auf d i e andre Welt auch n i x mehr," th e phrase "auch n i x mehr" c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the d i s d a i n f o r t h i s w o r l d o f " e i n U n g l u c k l i c h e r . " Eva con-veys the t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w , when she i n s i s t s t h a t the o t h e r w o r l d i s the b e t t e r one. Wendelin's r e t o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the 32 words, " s i e kann zehnmal b e s s e r s e i n , " r e i t e r a t e s h i s v i e w o f t h i s w o r l d as b e i n g an e x t r e m e l y m i s e r a b l e p l a c e o f e x i s t e n c e f o r man. He t h e r e b y echoes a g a i n W i l l i b a l d ' s s t a t e m e n t . But e s p e c i a l l y damning o f t h i s w o r l d i s a comment from h i s mono-l o g u e , w h i c h precedes the d i a l o g u e w i t h h i s mother. There, he la m e n t s / " I c h h a t t 1 s o l l e n gar n i e i n d' W i r k l i c h k e i t kommen . . ."(V,328). Here, the term " W i r k l i c h k e i t " d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , because i t i s synonymous, f i r s t l y , w i t h " d i e s e W e l t , " i m p l i e d when he says " d i e andre Welt," and s e c o n d l y , w i t h "Himmelskorper" w h i c h , i n t u r n , i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o " h o l l i s c h -es Leben." Thus, the n e g a t i v e images evoked by " h o l l i s c h e s Leben" a l s o r e l a t e t o " W i r k l i c h k e i t . " They are echoed by the l a t t e r term, and u l t i m a t e l y , "Himmelskorper," " U n g l u c k l i c h e n , " " h o l l i s c h e s Leben," " W i r k l i c h k e i t , " as w e l l as " d i e s e W e l t , " w h i c h i s i m p l i e d , r e v e r b e r a t e each o t h e r , t h e r e b y b u t t r e s s i n g th e t hought p r o j e c t e d by each o f t h e s e terms. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e words a r e i n a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i d e a s . Such c r e a t e d r e c i p r o c i t y , arid t h e echo words which a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t , a r e t o be found t h r o u g h o u t N e s t r o y ' s p l a y s , and are one rea s o n f o r t h e s t r o n g e f f e c t o f h i s language. I n t h i s manner, the language, s p e c i f i c a l l y key e x p r e s s i o n s and p h r a s e s , a c t s l i k e a g r i d i r o n , w i t h a l l components i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , where the i n t e r m e d i a t e spaces p r o v i d e the a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a s i n wh i c h the themes a r e d e v e l o p e d . Because o f such i n t e r r e l a t i o n s , images are evoked and r e s o n a t e d o f f d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h i s g r i d i r o n . Whenever t h i s o c c u r s , a p a r t i c u l a r theme i s f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e d . 33 Thus, N e s t r o y ' s language, as i t were, s u p p o r t s i t s e l f w i t h o u t a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t by the s p e a k e r . The audie n c e soon recog.-.'.. n i z e s t h e s e p a t t e r n s . F r e q u e n t l y , N e s t r o y uses e x p r e s s i o n s — i n d i v i d u a l words o r p h r a s e s — w h i c h p r o j e c t more th a n one meaning. Thus, t h e y p o s s e s s a p l u r i s i g n a t i o n q u a l i t y . A l -though the speaker may not be aware o f the v a r i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s , the a u d i e n c e w i l l soon come t o a n t i c i p a t e , and t o r e c o g n i z e them. The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f i n t e r c h a n g e between K e r n , Re-47 g i n e and G a b r i e l i n Der a i t e Mann m i t der jungen F r a u (1849). R e g i n e , who had been absent when Kern a r r i v e d home, e x p l a i n s where she and R e h f e l d had been/ "Wir s i n d auf den F i c h t e n h u g e l g e f a h r e n " ( V , 4 7 1 ) . Kern i n t e r r u p t s , "Auf'n F i c h t e n h u g e l ? Aha - " ( V , 4 7 2 ) . The "Aha" i n d i c a t e s a c e r t a i n amount o f s u s -p i c i o n . T h i s i s i n e v i t a b l y i n c r e a s e d by G a b r i e l ' s , "Der H e r r Baron w i r d g'wiss e i n e Uberraschung g'macht haben m i t einem Sonnenuntergang"(V,472). G a b r i e l ' s i n t e r r u p t i n g , and h i s c h o i c e o f words i n s i n u a t e t h a t Regine has been u n f a i t h f u l . The word "Uberraschung" a l s o r e l a t e s t o the f a c t t h a t Regine went out w i t h R e h f e l d , came home l a t e , and u n e x p e c t e d l y found Kern had r e t u r n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , "Uberraschung" was a l s o what Kern ex-p e r i e n c e d when he came home and found h i s w i f e had gone o u t . Thus, b o t h spouses a r e " { i b e r r a s c h t , " and u n p l e a s a n t l y so. The term " { i b e r r a s c h t " d e s c r i b e s n ot o n l y t h i s p a r t i c u l a r moment f o r Kern and h i s w i f e , b u t i s a l s o a s u c c i n c t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the tenuous r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. The t h u m b p r i n t i n g q u a l i t y o f N e s t r o y ' s language has i t s 34 b a s i s i n the K r a u s i a n n o t i o n a l r e a d y mentioned, namely, t h a t ^ language and thought are one. S i n c e language i s thought i n v e r b a l form, a r i g o r o u s , c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a p e r s o n ' s language h a b i t s must i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o a thorough under-s t a n d i n g o f h i s b a s i c n a t u r e . Such an approach t o N e s t r o y ' s work i s a p p r o p r i a t e because the q u i d d i t y o f h i s p l a y s l i e s i n t h e i r language r a t h e r t h a n i n the p l o t and a c t i o n , w h i c h were u s u a l l y borrowed, i n any c a s e . Thus, p l o t and a c t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y . Of f o r e m o s t c o n c e r n w i l l be the s p e c i f i c manner and c h o i c e o f words used by the c h a r a c -t e r s , namely, t h e i r p e c u l i a r language h a b i t s . We s h a l l t hen attempt t o show^ " . . . t h e meaning o f a l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n 48 as a f u n c t i o n o f the way i n w h i c h i t i s used by t h e s p e a k e r . " By e x a m i n i n g t h i s manner, we hope t o a r r i v e a t an e x p l a n a t i o n of N e s t r o y ' s unique q u a l i t y . Such an e x p l a n a t i o n would seem t o be more a c c u r a t e than one a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h an i n v e s t i g a -t i o n t h a t would a c c e p t language o n l y as a medium, and not as the n u c l e u s o f t h e meaning p r o j e c t e d . There e x i s t s a v e r y c l o s e and i n t r i c a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h o u g h t and language and a c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a thought i s n o t complete u n l e s s i t has been molded i n t o words, even though i n t h i s p r o c e s s , p a r t of the o r i g i n a l c o ncept may be m o d i f i e d , perhaps e n t i r e l y l o s t j " "Denken und Sprechen hangen . . . m i t e i n a n d e r notwendig z u -sammen. Die E x i s t e n z des e i n e n s e t z t d i e des arideren v o r a u s . E.s g i b t weder e i n Sprechen ohne Denken, noch e i n Denken ohne 49 Sprache." T h e r e f o r e , a p r o b i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a p a r -35 t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r ' s language h a b i t s and p a t t e r n s , i t s com-p o s i t i o n , c o n s t a n c y and v a r i a t i o n , w i l l h e l p expose h i s b a s i c n a t u r e , and, t h e r e b y , l e a d toward a m e a n i n g f u l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f them. A l l a n J a n i k and Stephen Toulmin note t h i s i n t h e i r r e c e n t book on the f o u n d a t i o n o f L . W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s l i n g u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y / "Here, i n the p l a y s o f N e s t r o y , one can u n d e r s t a n d the K r a u s i a n n o t i o n t h a t the 'language' o f t h e s a t i r i s t a t t a i n s the ' o r i g i n ' , as i t l a y s b are the moral c h a r a c t e r o f 50 t h e p e r s o n who speaks." The t h u m b p r i n t i n g by language can a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o as the s e l f - u n m a s k i n g o f a c h a r a c t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f he i s a p e r -n i c i o u s one, as i n t h e case w i t h G a b r i e l , a l r e a d y mentioned above. G a b r i e l ' s f i r s t appearance i s accompanied by the f o l -l o w i n g s t a g e d i r e c t i o n , ''in a r g e r l i c h e r Auf regung' (V, 450) . H i s o p e n i n g commentary d e a l s d i r e c t l y w i t h the m a r r i a g e o f Kern and R e g i n e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the l a t t e r ' s e x t r a - m a r i t a l a c t i -v i t i e s : Na j a , das war's Wahre, V i s i t e n machen b e i der Frau., wenn der Mann v e r r e i s t i s . I c h b i n a a l t e r D i e n e r , i c h muss j a schau'n auf mein'n H e r r n s e i n e F r a u . 's i s j a gar aus d e r W e i s 1 . Wenn e i n e e i n m a l e i n ' n Mann h a t , so i s s i e f u r d i e Mannerwelt so v i e l a l s wie gar n i c h t auf der W e l t . Aber das w o l l e n s i e n i c h t e i n s e h n , d i e G'schwufen. (V,450-51) F i r s t l y , he i s angry, which i s h i s u s u a l d i s p o s i t i o n ; s e c o n d l y , he c l e a r l y b e t r a y s h i s p o s i t i o n toward Regine s p e c i f i c a l l y , and w i v e s i n g e n e r a l . H i s f i r s t s e ntence i n t r o d u c e s doubts and s u s p i c i o n s about R e g i n e , and t h e r e b y unmasks him as a v i r u l e n t member o f t h i s h o u s e h o l d . He sees h i m s e l f as " e i n a l t e r D i e n e r , " 36 whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s t o spy on the w i f e o f h i s master, but more i m p o r t a n t i s the i n t i m a t i o n t h a t because he i s o l d , he has c e r t a i n r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s . The l a s t two s e n t e n c e s are v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t , because the p o s i t i o n he e x p r e s s e s here i s t o t a l l y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s l a t e r a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r toward T h e r e s . I t may w e l l be t h a t w ives are " f u r d i e Manner-w e l t so v i e l a l s wie gar n i c h t auf d e r W e l t , " but do o t h e r men, such as G a b r i e l , a b i d e by t h i s r u l e ? As the p l a y d e v e l o p s , R e h f e l d , and G a b r i e l h i m s e l f , i g n o r e t h i s p o s i t i o n . Thus, G a b r i e l ' s f i r s t commentary shows him t o be e x t r e m e l y c r i t i c a l toward a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r i n women. I n th e f o l l o w i n g scene, he has a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h F r a u S t r u n k , who q u e s t i o n s the amount o f work he does. He immedi-a t e l y r e t o r t s : Was i c h t u ' ? E r l a u b e n S i e m i r , i c h b i n e i n a l t e r D i e n e r ; i n der F r u h ' schau' i c h auf a l l e s , u n t e r Tags t u ' i c h w i e d e r auf a l l e s schau'n und auf d'Nacht l e g ' i c h mich n i c h t eher n i e d e r , b i s i c h n i c h t auf a l l e s g'schaut hab'. (V,452-53) He r e i t e r a t e s t h a t he i s " e i n a l t e r D i e n e r , " I m p l y i n g t h a t he s h o u l d not be e x p e c t e d t o do much. The work c o n s i s t s s o l e l y o f "schau' i c h auf a l l e s . " He i s o n l y w a t c h i n g , t h a t i s , j u s t s p y i n g t o s a t i s f y h i s c u r i o s i t y . H i s p r e s e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , i s o f no p a r t i c u l a r b e n e f i t . I n s t e a d , one might p o s i t , i t i s d e t r i m e n t a l . So f a r , G a b r i e l has unmasked h i m s e l f as one who, because o f h i s age and l o n g y e a r s of s e r v i c e i n the Kern h o u s e h o l d , b e l i e v e s t o have s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s , which a r e : spy on h i s young m i s t r e s s ; not do any work; and, say what he p l e a s e s , even t o R e g i n e . An example of the l a t t e r i s seen when he c o n f r o n t s h e r f o r n o t t r e a t i n g T h e r e s , Anton?s w i f e , as a f r i e n d . When Regine becomes angry and s a y s , " I c h w i l l n i c h t h o f f e n -," he b r e a k s i n ^ " I c h b i n e i n a l t e r D i e n e r , von m i r d a r f Ihnen n i x b e l e i d i g e n " ( V , 4 5 4 ) . Here, t o o , he h i d e s b e h i n d h i s s h i e l d o f " a l t e r D i e n e r . " But i t i s w i t h Theres t h a t G a b r i e l unmasks h i m s e l f t o an even g r e a t e r e x t e n t . Theres notes about Kern i n r e f e r e n c e t o R e g i n e : "Er i s t g l i i c k l i c h m i t i h r , w e i l s i e s e i n e L i e b ' m i t k i n d l i c h e r Verehrung l o h n t " ( V , 4 5 7 ) . But G a b r i e l i s q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t : L a r i f a r i ! Verehrung -! E r w i l l L i e b e . Lernen S i e m i r d i e a l t e n H e r r e n kennen. I c h b i n zwar nur e i n a l t e r D i e n e r — aber d i e G e f u h l e b l e i b e n s i c h g l e i c h und werden im A l t e r noch h e f t i g e r , w e i l s i e k e i n e r e c h t e E r w i d e r u n g f i n d e n ! Das i s g r a d a l s wie e i n e r , der e i n e n H e r i n g i s s t und n i x z ' t r i n k e n k r i e g t . (V,457-58) The c o n c l u d i n g sentence marks h i s f e e l i n g v e r y c l e a r l y — h e f e e l s v e r y p a s s i o n a t e , b u t no-one r e t u r n s h i s f e e l i n g s . H i s use o f t h e words " H e r i n g " and " n i x z 1 t r i n k e n k r i e g t , " under-s c o r e the s e n s u a l elements i n man, w h i c h , as he notes b e f o r e , "werden im A l t e r noch h e f t i g e r . " T h eres' o b j e c t i o n " S e i n V e r s t a n d muss j a aber doch-," he c u t s o f f w i t h ^ " I c h b i t t Ihnen, reden S i e m i r n i c h t s von V e r s t a n d ; Wein und Schnopftabak, das s i n d noch d i e e i n z i g e n B e s H n f t i g u n g s m i t t e l f u r das ewig junge H e r z " ( V , 4 5 8 ) . G a b r i e l r e j e c t s o u t r i g h t the power o f i n t e r v e n -t i o n by " V e r s t a n d . " I n s t e a d , t h e drugs o f a l c o h o l and n i c o t i n e a r e used t o calm what he c a l l s the young h e a r t , namely, the s e n s e s . 38 The words "das ewig junge Herz" r e i t e r a t e h i s f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -ment: "Aber d i e Gefiihle b l e i b e n s i c h g l e i c h und werden im A l t e r noch h e f t i g e r . 1 1 G a b r i e l has, of course, been t a l k i n g about Kern. However, t h i s i s not a proper d e s c r i p t i o n of the l a t t e r , r a t h e r a self-unmasking of the speaker, who p r o j e c t s h i s a t t i t u d e onto Kern. More important, however, G a b r i e l ' s remarks must a l s o be seen as a v e i l e d pass a t Theres. She q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t G a b r i e l , p r e t e n d i n g to t a l k about Kern, i s h i m s e l f l i k e t h a t . But the s e r v a n t o b j e c t s : Ja b e i mir i s das was anderes. Meinem Herrn l i e g t 's G 'schaft am Herzen, S t a a t s p a p i e r ' stecken ihm i n Kopf, aber b e i mir war mar Madl immer das hochste. Aber a l l e m a l haben s i c h r i e s e n g r o s s e H i n d e r n i s s e g e z e i g t . E r s t heuer hat mich eine ang'schmiert, d i e v o r i g ' s Jahr noch meine G e l i e b t e war. (V,458) He sees Kern as having more important matters on h i s mind than h i s w i f e , whereas, f o r him, g i r l s were always more important than a l l e l s e . S t i l l , t here were " r i e s e n g r o s s e H i n d e r n i s s e , " d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t " d i e Gefiihle im A l t e r noch h e f t i g e r werden," and even though the h e a r t was "ewig jung." G a b r i e l does not s p e c i f y what the " r i e s e n g r o s s e H i n d e r n i s s e " are, but they do seem to imply t h a t h i s strong:emotions and young h e a r t were perhaps not q u i t e as s t r o n g and young as he claimed them to be. His l a s t l o v e r deceived him, and chose one he d e s c r i b e s as f o l l o w s / "Und wenn S i e denjenigen saheten, wegen dem s i e mich - j a , i c h l u g ' n i c h t , aber d r e i s o l c h e macht man aus mir - und dennoch-" (V,458) . C l e a r l y , h i s l o v e r thought the other man better# 39 otherwise she would not have l e f t Gabriel. Therefore, Gab-r i e l ' s evaluation of the other i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y a l i e , and by i n s i s t i n g , , : "ich lug' nicht," he unmasks the fact that he i s l y i n g . Then the question arises as to whether he has t o l d the truth before about Kern's behaviour. This does not seem l i k e l y . Furthermore, i n the future, his veracity w i l l always be i n doubt whenever he comments on the nature and behaviour of others. Theres feels sorry for Gabriel, and does not recognize his u l t e r i o r motive when he expresses his concern about the manner i n which Regine treats her. She thanks him, saying/ "Sie meinen es gut mit mir - reichen Sie mir die Hand"(V,459). His answer i s ; "Jetzt? - (Fur sich) Er lebt ja noch"(V,459). He interprets her action as an advance, because th i s i s what he i s wishing for, and, thereby, he discloses himself again. As before, i n his comment about Kern, Gabriel, here too, pro-jects his attitude onto others, thereby unmasking himself re-peatedly through his p a r t i c u l a r choice of words, simultaneously underlining the fact that he continues to be what he i s . Theres senses something strange i n his reply, and asks/: "Was haben S' denn?" to which Gabriel answers: Skrupeln...Ihr Mann i s auf der Festung, f o l g l i c h moralisch tot, also darf sie mich moralisch lieben. Nur heiraten, das geht nicht, da miissen wir doch warten, bis er ganz tot i s . Es i s t gewiss auch mein Wunsch - aber Ihr Mann -." (V,459) Above, i t was noted that Gabriel projected his attitude onto others, but i n the opening of his quotation, the reverse occurs. 40 That i s , he a s s e r t s t h a t he has s c r u p l e s , b u t h i s commentary about R e g i n e , t h e n about K e r n , .arid now h i s a t t i t u d e toward T h e r e s , prove t h i s t o be i n c o r r e c t . T h e r e s , however, does have s c r u p l e s — i n f a c t , she i s t o t a l l y committed t o her husband, even though she has no hope of s e e i n g him f o r the n e x t f i f t e e n y e a r s . Thus, h i s c l a i m t o p o s s e s s s c r u p l e s o n l y u n d e r s c o r e s t h a t he does not have any a t a l l . G a b r i e l then c o n t i n u e s , as he n otes t o h i m s e l f j ' " I h r Mann i s t auf der F e s t u n g , f o l g l i c h m o r a l i s c h t o t . " The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he draws about Anton has a d e f i n i t e boomerang e f f e c t , i n t h a t G a b r i e l ' s p a s t remarks have been i m m o r a l — h e i s the one who i s " m o r a l i s c h t o t . " I t was a l r e a d y n o t e d t h a t he l a c k s s c r u p l e s , and now he u n w i t t i n g l y draws a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t he l a c k s m o r a l s . G a b r i e l c o n t i n u e s h i s b i z a r r e r e a s o n i n g / ".. . . f o l g l i c h i s t e r m o r a l i s c h t o t , a l s o d a r f s i e mich m o r a l i s c h l i e b e n . " Because of h i s a c t i o n s , Anton has been apprehended. T h e r e f o r e , G a b r i e l c l a i m s , Anton has a c t e d i m m o r a l l y , and i s " m o r a l i s c h t o t . " The m o r a l s t h a t condemned Anton now p e r m i t Theres t o l o v e him. A c c o r d i n g t o G a b r i e l , m a r r i a g e i s n o t p o s s i b l e " b i s e r ganz t o t i s . " By s a y i n g t h i s , he b e t r a y s h i s i m p a t i e n c e i n t h e m a t t e r , and unmasks h i s own s h o r t c o m i n g s even more. He i m m e d i a t e l y r e i t e r a t e s t h i s by c o n c l u d i n g / "Es i s t gewiss auch mein Wunsch - aber I h r Mann -." The e x p r e s s i o n "mein Wunsch" r e f e r s d i r e c t l y back t o " b i s e r ganz t o t i s . " A t t h i s p o i n t , G a b r i e l ' s b a s i c n a t u r e has been u n v e i l e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h r o u g h h i s v a r i o u s comments, i n a way t h a t has shown a d e f i n i t e 41 i n c r e a s e i n the degree o f h i s s h o r t c o m i n g s . One f u r t h e r q u o t a t i o n by G a b r i e l , t h i s one from A c t IV, w i l l n o t o n l y r e i t e r a t e h i s p a s t a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r , b u t a l s o u n d e r s c o r e h i s u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s have combined i n c o n t r i b u t i n g toward h i s h o s t i l i t y d i r e c t e d a t K e r n . He t h e n comes upon R e g i n e , F r a u S t r u n k , S p i t z , S c h r e y e r and Agathe, who a r e i n the p r o c e s s of d i s c u s s i n g Regine"s d i v o r c e from K e r n . G a b r i e l b e l i e v e s t o have damaging i n f o r m a t i o n about Kern when he a s s e r t s ; " I c h b i n e i n e r b a r m l i c h e r L i e b h a b e r , d i e Theres i s a f a l s c h e K a t z ' und der H e r r von Kern i s e i n h e i m l i c h e r S u n d e r e r " ( V , 5 0 3 ) . I n the f i r s t s t a t e m e n t , the words " e r b a r m l i c h e r L i e b h a b e r " a r e n o t e w o r t h y , because t h e y are i n -tended t o e x p l a i n h i m s e l f , b u t i n s t e a d unmask him. The ad-j e c t i v e " e r b a r m l i c h e r " shows him t o be a c o n t e m p t i b l e l o v e r , b u t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , i t a l s o conveys the meaning of him a s k i n g f o r p i t y and sympathy. He might r e c e i v e t h e l a t t e r , n o t be-cause h i s l o v e i s u n r e c i p r o c a t e d , b u t because i t i s contempt-i b l e o f him t o pursue a woman, who i s not o n l y much younger, but a l s o m a r r i e d . Because t h i s o p e ning has p o r t r a y e d him i n a bad l i g h t , t h e r e s t o f the commentary w i l l be examined c r i t i -c a l l y by the s p e c t a t o r . Theres he c a l l s a " f a l s c h e K a t z ' , " b u t the m o d i f i e r " f a l s c h e " t u r n s back on the s p e a k e r , i n t h a t i t does not des-c r i b e T h e r e s , bu t G a b r i e l . He i s " f a l s c h , " t h a t i s , i n c o r r e c t i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t she r e c i p r o c a t e d h i s f e e l i n g s toward him, even though he boasted;' " . . . i c h hab' da w i r k l i c h e i n e n schonen 42 Triumph g e f e i e r t " ( V , 4 5 9 ) . T h i s i n c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e o f the o t h e r s i s one o f h i s dominant t r a i t s , and i t i s a p p a r e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y . But he i s a l s o " f a l s c h , " i n the sense o f p e r f i d i o u s , o f whi c h h i s p r e s e n t a c t i v i t y , p a r -t i c u l a r l y h i s comment about K e r n , i s an example. S h o r t l y a f t e r b e l i e v i n g he had c e l e b r a t e d " e i n e n Triumph," he saw Theres embracing Anton, whom he m i s t o o k t o be a "L a n d k u t s c h e r . " A g a i n , he was i n c o r r e c t . I n t h e c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t , he c a l l s K e r n " e i n e n heim-l i c h e n Sunderer." Here, t o o , are s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f meaning. F i r s t l y , i t p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r example o f s e l f - u n m a s k i n g , be-cause G a b r i e l i s a " h e i m l i c h e r Sunderer," s i n c e he t r i e s t o win t h e l o v e o f Th e r e s , even though she i s m a r r i e d , and l o v e s h er husband d e a r l y . The word " h e i m l i c h e r " i s notew o r t h y , as G a b r i e l ' s endeavour i s i n d e e d a s e c r e t , e s p e c i a l l y t o Th e r e s , who i s t o t a l l y o b l i v i o u s t o t h e f a c t t h a t she i s the t a r g e t o f h i s a f f e c t i o n . S e c o n d l y , i n r e f e r e n c e t o K e r n , t h i s d e s c r i p -t i o n i s i n c o r r e c t , a t l e a s t i n as f a r as G a b r i e l i m p l i e s i t , namely, t h a t Kern i s h a v i n g an a f f a i r w i t h T h e r e s e . Y e t t h e r e i s a l s o an element o f t r u t h as i t r e l a t e s t o K e r n , because o f h i s t r e a t m e n t o f R e g i n e , upon whom he p r e t e n d s t o l a v i s h t e n d e r -ness and l o v e when i n p u b l i c , b u t t r e a t s h a r s h l y i n p r i v a t e . G a b r i e l i s , o f c o u r s e , unaware o f t h i s l a t t e r a s p e c t , even though i n d i r e c t l y h i n t i n g a t i t . T h i s i s an example o f language a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y of- the s p e a k e r . Each o f the t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s i n G a b r i e l ' s q u o t a t i o n above c o n t r i b u t e toward a f u r t h e r unmasking 43 of h i m s e l f , r e i t e r a t i n g h i s p a s t a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r , and u n d e r l i n i n g t h a t t h e s e remain c o n s t a n t . K a r l K r a u s , i n h i s e s s a y " N e s t r o y und d i e Nachwelt," p o s i t s , " N e s t r o y i s t der e r s t e deutsche S a t i r i k e r , i n dem 51 s i c h d i e Sprache Gedanken macht uber d i e Dinge." T h i s q u o t a t i o n aims a t the v e r y n u c l e u s o f N e s t r o y ' s s k i l l w i t h language and i n s i g h t i n t o the w o r k i n g s and p s y c h o l o g y o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s . The a u t h o r seems t o have been aware of h i s r e -v o l u t i o n a r y use o f language, as i n "Aphorismus 169" - .he""states, " I c h b i n der Kolumbus e i n e r neuen Methode"(XV,695). I t i s t h i s new method wh i c h i s p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r K r a u s ' s comment above. I t appears t h a t N e s t r o y ' s language f r e q u e n t l y e l u d e s the s p e a k e r ' s c o n t r o l i n terms o f the meaning(s) i t p r o j e c t s — t h a t i s , the meaning becomes m u l t i - l a y e r e d . N e s t r o y ' s s k i l l f u l con-t r o l o f the language imbues c e r t a i n words w i t h a l i f e o f t h e i r own. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y absorb and r e f l e c t meanings w i t h i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t , as t h e y p u l s a t e w i t h a l l u s i o n s and c o n n o t a t i o n s . Kraus u n d e r l i n e s t h i s p o s i t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g , " I c h b e h e r r s c h e d i e Sprache n i c h t ; a ber d i e Sprache b e h e r r s c h t mich vollkommen. S i e i s t m i r n i c h t d i e D i e n e r i n meiner Ge-danken. I c h b l e i b e i n e i n e r V e r b i n d u n g m i t i h r , aus der i c h meine Gedanken empfange, und s i e kann m i t m i r machen, was s i e 52 w i l l . I c h p a r i e r e i h r a u f s Wort." One q u o t a t i o n from the p l a y D i e P a p i e r e des T e u f e l s (1842) w i l l h e l p t o e l u c i d a t e the above s t a t e m e n t . S h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , S t o p p e l d i s c o v e r s , due t o the v i n d i c t i v e n e s s o f Eva, t h a t 44 F e d e r l e i s i n l o v e w i t h S o p h i e , h i s s t e p d a u g h t e r . A n g r i l y , he r e t o r t s , " L i e b e h i n t e r meinem Rucken!", t o which Eva s a r -d o n i c a l l y r e p l i e s / " J a , das denkt s i c h so e i n Rucken o f t gar n i c h t , was a l l ' s v o r g e h t h i n t e r s e i n e r " ( X I , 2 5 8 ) . She does n o t r e f e r t o F e d e r l e , S o p h i e , o r S t o p p e r l , nor t o S t o p p e l ' s "Ruk-ken" s p e c i f i c a l l y , but j u s t t o the word "Rucken," and imbues i t w i t h c o n s c i o u s n e s s and w i l l . There has been no a c t u a l l o v e — a l l t h a t has happened so f a r has o n l y been a f i g m e n t o f F e d e r l e ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , o f which Sophie i s c o m p l e t e l y unaware. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s s t a t e m e n t seems t o s e p a r a t e S t o p p e l , h i s s e l f , from h i s "Rucken," a l i e n a t i n g him from h i m s e l f . T h i s u n d e r l i n e s h i s h e l p l e s s n e s s i n r e f e r e n c e t o c e r t a i n a r e a s t h a t he wants t o c o n t r o l , b u t cannot. There i s no c o n t e x t u a l r e a s o n why Eva s h o u l d seek t o convey t h e s e meanings. S t i l l , t he words she chose b r i n g them o u t , i n s p i t e o f the s p e a k e r . S t o p p e l has used the i d i o m " h i n t e r meinem Rucken" i n i t s u s u a l meaning, but Eva, h i s cook, i n her d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o p u n i s h F e d e r l e ' f o r s p u r n i n g h e r , t a k e s the word "Rucken," and uses i t as i n an e x t e n s i o n t o the above mentioned i d i o m . As soon as she has spoken i t , she no l o n g e r has c o n t r o l o v e r i t , even though o n l y t h r o u g h her s a y i n g i t , "Rucken" was g i v e n l i f e . But once t h i s i n i t i a l impetus has happened, the word a c h i e v e s autonomy, and i s t h e r e b y a b l e t o p r o -j e c t more than j u s t one l e v e l o f meaning. T h i s , however, w i l l be dependent upon the word's p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t and the v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s i t w i l l evoke i n the r e a d e r o r s p e c t a t o r . The word 45 "Rucken," t h a t i s , the s i g n i s i m p o r t a n t , not the r e f e r e n t , namely, t h a t which i t s t a n d s f o r i n the p h y s i c a l o r a b s t r a c t w o r l d , i n t h i s c a s e , S t o p p e l ' s back. To r e i t e r a t e : because the word i t s e l f i s i m p o r t a n t , and because i t i s not t i e d t o the p h y s i c a l t h i n g i t s t a n d s f o r , i t i s s e e m i n g l y a b l e t o come a l i v e and convey a meaning t h a t i s beyond the i n t e n t i o n s o f the s p e a k e r . Thus, i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o the c o n v e r s a t i o n . One might say, p a r a -p h r a s i n g K r a u s , language becomes i t s own p h i l o s o p h e r . 46' C h a p t e r I I N e i n , was i c h d i e S p r i c h w o r t e r n i c h t a u s s t e h e n kann! - M i c h h a t ei n m a l e i n S p r i c h w o r t a b s c h e u l i c h a n g ' s e t z t , n'amlich das „Jung g e f r e i t , h a t niemand b e r e u t " , das w i r d s c h i e r , wenn man a l l e S p r i c h w o r t e r nach der Dummheit k l a s s i f i z i e r t , 's e r s t e Pramium k r i e g e n . Und dem S p r i c h w o r t zum T r o t z geh 1 i c h j e t z t a l s A l t e r w i e d e r auf F r e i e r s f u s s e n und i c h werd's g'wiss n i c h t bereuen. Wart' n u r , S p r i c h w o r t , d i c h b r i n g ' i c h noch ganz urn den K r e d i t . ( X I , 130) In t h i s c h a p t e r , the language o f N e s t r o y i s compared t o , and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h , t h a t o f A d o l f B a u e r l e , because the l a t t e r i s a p o p u l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e contemporary p l a y w r i g h t , who en-j o y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e , a l b e i t temporary, measure o f s u c c e s s . The purpose o f t h i s comparison i s t o u n d e r s c o r e the fundamental d i f f e r e n c e i n the use o f language, which i s symptomatic of f u r t h e r e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between N e s t r o y and o t h e r con-temporary w r i t e r s of the "Wiener V o l k s t h e a t e r . " Whereas B a u e r l e s t r e s s e s p r i m a r i l y the goodness o f the V i e n n e s e , t h e i r n a t u r e and t h e i r g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n , l i v i n g w e l l and c o n t e n t e d l y , N e s t r o y p o s i t s a pungent c r i t i c i s m o f h i s f e l l o w man. However, t h i s i s b a s i c a l l y n e i t h e r d e s t r u c t i v e , nor nocuous, as some o f N e s t r o y ' s contemporary c r i t i c s main-t a i n e d . K a r l Gutzkow (1811-1878) complained i n h i s "Wiener E i n d r u c k e " (1845) : I n V e r b i n d u n g m i t d i e s e r Wut nach e x z e n t r i s c h e n Vergnugungen kann sich auch die Biihne einen grossen T e i l der Schuld beimessen, zur Verwilderung des Volkscharakters beigetragen zu haben. Die Zwei-deutigkeit und die Selbstironisierung haben be-sonders i n den Nestroyschen Stucken einen Einfl u s s auf die untern Klassen ausgeubt, der ihnen zwei der kostbarsten Kleinode des Volkscharakters raubte^ S i t t l i c h e Grundanschauung der Dinge und glaubiges Vertrauen-g:e;gen Menschen. * Gutzkow i s accusing Nestroy of contributing toward, and causing, a decline in morals, because he f a i l s to recognize that Nestroy i s , i n fact, b a t t l i n g i t by exposing i t , and hoping that the destructive attitude and behaviour w i l l be forced to retreat. The Viennese lacked to a large extent " s i t t l i c h e Grundan-schauung der Dinge und glaubiges Vertrauen gegen Menschen," and, by portraying facets of such behaviour, Nestroy sought i t s destruction. Nestroy i n i t i a t e s a healing process, as his c r i t i c i s m r u t h l e s s l y unmasks the s e l f i s h motives of man's ac-tions in the sphere of human relationships, where the individual i s always the point of o r i g i n and nucleus of the commentary. Both Nestroy and Bauerle wrote numerous "Besserungsstucke," but, as w i l l be argued l a t e r , the characters i n these plays do not undergo an organically motivated "Besserung." Through his characters, Nestroy seeks to bring about an improvement i n the audience, and, therefore, attempts to involve the spectator seriously, whereas Bauerle, through his figures, sought p r i -2 marily, as we have seen, to e l e c t r i f y his audience. Aside from the fundamental differences i n th e i r attitude toward the nature of man, the two authors also show a d i s -s i m i l a r i t y in t h e i r view toward, and use of, language as a 48 whole, and t h a t of key terms and expressions i n p a r t i c u l a r , e.g., sayings and proverbs. Bauerle*s use of proverbs en-dorses t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l meaning, and accepts them a t face v a l u e . In Die Burger i n Wien (1813) , R e d l i c h , d e s c r i b e d i n the stage d i r e c t i o n s as " b u r g e r l i c h e r B i n d e r m e i s t e r , " s t a t e s / *• 3 ". . . nur gute Menschen konnen singen -.'*• He r e f e r s to him-s e l f and h i s f r i e n d s , who a l l b e l i e v e themselves to be "red-l i c h e Wiener Burger," and he. r e i t e r a t e s t h i s a s s e r t i o n through-out the p l a y . Moreover, the p l o t of the p l a y confirms t h i s s e l f - a s s u r a n c e . I t i s a s e l f - p r a i s i n g a t t i t u d e which Bauerle's c h a r a c t e r s seemingly need i n order to assure themselves. Damian, i n c o n t r a s t , " e i n zugrunde gegangener Tandler" i n Nestroy's Zu ebener Erde und e r s t e r Stock (1835), s t a t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y song: Am a l l e r l a n g s t e n e h r l i c h wahrt, Das Sprichwort hab" i c h o f t schon g'hort, Das Sprichwort p a s s t ftfr a l l e Leut', In jedem Stand, zu j e d e r Z e i t , Das w i l l i c h glaub'n, doch s e i ' s , wie's s e i , E i n T a n d l e r geht zugrund' d a b e i . (VI,12) His f o r t u n e s so f a r prove t h i s proverb, which i s almost a sac r e d cow, to be e n t i r e l y i n c o r r e c t . L a t e r , the f o r t u n e s of h i s r e l a t i v e s improve d r a s t i c a l l y , which i s of b e n e f i t to him, but s t i l l he remains " e i n zugrunde gegangener Ta n d l e r . " A l -though he c l a i m s to b e l i e v e i n the proverb, as the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s of the f i r s t stanza i n d i c a t e , the c o n c l u s i o n s of the f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s , even though they do not deny i t , s t i l l show the proverb to be wrong. Damian's c h o i c e of words 49 i n the f i f t h l i n e , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e n o t an open r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h i s b e l i e f , n e v e r t h e l e s s show h i s po-s i t i o n c l e a r l y — t h a t i s , h i s knowledge o f f a c t s prove the b e l i e f t o be wrong. Once the f a l s i t y o f p r o v e r b s i s e s t a b -l i s h e d , many commonly p r a c t i s e d and a c c e p t e d modes of t h o u g h t , and g e n e r a l views h e l d by s o c i e t y , w i l l a l s o be open t o sharp c r i t i c i s m . T h i s i s the g o a l o f N e s t r o y ' s use o f p r o v e r b s . I n B a u e r l e ' s language, th e meaning i s o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l , as argued i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p r o v e r b . There i s no d e v i a t i o n from the t r a d i t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x e g e s i s . One might say, i t i s t r a n s p a r e n t , and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e medium i s r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i -c a n t . I n N e s t r o y , on the o t h e r hand, the medium o f language must be seen as an i n t e g r a l component o f the t o t a l meaning t h a t i s p r o j e c t e d . Here, the p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e and use o f words must be a n a l y z e d and e v a l u a t e d , because th e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t i s s a i d might w e l l be o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t t h a n the a p parent i d e a s e x p r e s s e d by the words. I f one s u b s c r i b e s t o t h i s t e n e t , t h e r e w i l l be f r e q u e n t d i s c o v e r i e s o f s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f meaning-— not o n l y o f s t a t e m e n t s , b u t a l s o o f i n d i v i d u a l words. The r e a d e r o r v i e w e r o f N e s t r o y ' s works, i n s t e a d o f m e r e l y b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d by one meaning, may uncover a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f pene-t r a t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o human n a t u r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, B a u e r l e ' s b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s appear t o be the amusement of h i s a u d i e n c e , always w i t h i n the frame-work o f a g i v e n s o c i a l and l i n g u i s t i c o r d e r . H i s w r i t i n g s m e r e l y c o n f i r m and s a n c t i o n the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . The i n -50 e v i t a b l e r e s u l t i s , t h a t the r e a d e r o r v i e w e r need n ot be, i n f a c t , must not be, c r i t i c a l , n o t about h i m s e l f , n or about t h o s e i n h i s environment. The f o l l o w i n g a r e the c o n c l u d i n g two l i n e s from B a u e r l e ' s D i e Bu r g e r i n Wien (1813), "Es l e b e n d i e gnadigen Gas t e ! / Es l e b e n d i e Bu r g e r von Wien!" These words are t y p i -c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f B a u e r l e ' s p r a i s e and p l e a s a n t r i e s , which he l a v i s h e s on h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . C l i c h e s l i k e t he ope n i n g l i n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t he n o n - i r o n i c use o f e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e "es l e b e n , " and "gnadigen" a r e n o t o n l y m e a n i n g l e s s , b u t under-s c o r e the t o t a l absence o f a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , w h i c h i s t h e v e r y l i f e b l o o d o f N e s t r o y ' s w r i t i n g . Such w r i t i n g b e t r a y s a n a i v e and s i m p l i s t i c v i e w o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n — n a i v e , be-cause i t o b v i o u s l y i s r e l u c t a n t t o aim f o r a p e n e t r a t i n g under-s t a n d i n g , and s i m p l i s t i c , i n t h a t i t p r e s e n t s i t o n l y i n terms o f b l a c k and w h i t e , i g n o r i n g a l l the o t h e r shades w i t h w h i c h N e s t r o y c o l o u r s h i s w o r l d . F o r N e s t r o y , the human c o n d i t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a v a r i e t y o f t o n e s , and h i s w r i t i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y h i s c h o i c e o f language, may be seen as a p r i s m , which s e p a r a t e s and i d e n t i f i e s i t s many components, showing t h a t change toward the p o s i t i v e i s i m p e r a t i v e , a l t h o u g h h a r d l y p o s s i b l e . Because o f the l a t t e r , N e s t r o y was i n e v i t a b l y i n an alm o s t c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f h o s t i l i t y w i t h t h e c e n s o r . N e s t r o y i s always concerned w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s n a t u r e , and how i t shapes h i s own l i f e , and i n f l u e n c e s t h a t o f o t h e r s . B a u e r l e , however, seems t o d e a l a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n t o the s t a t e and t o s o c i e t y as a whole, w h i l e a i m i n g t o p e r p e t u a t e e x i s t i n g mores. T h e r e f o r e , the l a t t e r i l l u -m i n a t e s human n a t u r e o n l y from an e x t e r n a l p o i n t . T o l o y s k y , who i s an u p r i g h t V i e n n e s e c i t i z e n i n Die Burge r i n Wien, p r e s s e d i n t o s e r v i c e as a j a i l o r , s o l e m n l y u n d e r l i n e s t h i s , when he c o u n t e r s a p r i s o n e r ' s p e r s o n a l attempt a t b r i b e r y w i t h " E i n Wiener Bur g e r v e r k a u f t s e i n e P f l i c h t urn k e i n e n P r e i s , " and "Glauben S i e , e i n Wiener Bur g e r m i s s b r a u c h t das V e r t r a u e n , das 5 S t a a t und Menschen i n i h n s e t z t e n . . . ." I n the f i r s t q u o t a -t i o n , t he emphasis i s on " P f l i c h t , " t he c o r r e c t a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r toward s o c i e t y as a whole. The second q u o t a t i o n r e -i t e r a t e s t h i s , b u t i s more s p e c i f i c , by naming " S t a a t und Menschen," towards whom he must f u l f i l l h i s d u t y . S t a b e r l was j u s t a l i t t l e tempted. However, T o l o y s k y ' s immediate i n t e r -v e n t i o n h e l p e d S t a b e r l remain l o y a l t o h i s d u t y . C l e a r l y , the N e s t r o y a n i l l u m i n a t i o n aims a t the u l t i m a t e s o u r c e and m a i n s p r i n g o f human a c t i o n , w h i l e B a u e r l e seems t o c o n s i d e r o n l y the r e s u l t s o f human a c t i o n as t h e y a f f e c t the good name o f V i e n n a i n p a r t i c u l a r , and A u s t r i a i n g e n e r a l . He never f a i l s t o remind h i s audie n c e t o be "brave, r e d l i c h e Wiener." T h i s i s one main r e a s o n why such w r i t i n g s a r e i n d e e d " L o k a l p o s s e n , " w h i l e t h o s e o f N e s t r o y a r e u n i v e r s a l , because t h e i r q u i d d i t y i s t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f some o f the b a s i c compo-nents t h a t comprise human n a t u r e , and t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s a r e i n -dependent o f time and l o c a t i o n . I n e v i t a b l y , i n N e s t r o y , n e g a t i v e and o u t r i g h t d e s t r u c t i v e 52 c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s come t o t h e f o r e . T h e r e f o r e , the r e s u l t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e a r e a t b e s t tenuous, and a t w o r s t v i r u l e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e between husband and w i f e , and between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . As a l w a y s , i t i s i n the language used by i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s become ap p a r e n t . B a u e r l e , on t h e o t h e r hand, f o c u s e s p r i m a r i l y on the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n between t h e s u b j e c t and t h e s t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y on how t h i s i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the image o f t h e l a t t e r , w h i l e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , and how t h e s e i n t u r n a f f e c t t h o s e i n h i s immediate e n v i r o n -ment, remain o f p e r i p h e r a l i m p o r t a n c e . Thus, c o n n e c t i o n s be-tween i n d i v i d u a l s a r e n o t e x p l o r e d , o r o n l y i n a v e r y s u p e r -f i c i a l wayr-more i n the manner of g o s s i p — w h i l e e m p i r i c a l -s u p p o r t i v e arguments a r e s t u d i o u s l y evaded. B a u e r l e c o n t i n u e s t o endorse and r e i t e r a t e t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l t r e n d o f the V i e n n e s e " V o l k s t h e a t e r , " whereas N e s t r o y , who r e c o g n i z e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l human n a t u r e , i t s m o t i v e s , a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n , embarks on a d i f f e r e n t and o r i -g i n a l approach, unmasking and impugning human b e h a v i o u r , as r e -f l e c t e d t h r o u g h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s use o f language. I t i s s p e c i f i -c a l l y t h r o u g h N e s t r o y ' s i n g e n i o u s use o f language, t h a t he not o n l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s h i m s e l f from c o n t e m p o r a r i e s l i k e B a u e r l e , b u t a l s o b r i n g s t r a d i t i o n a l p o p u l a r V i e n n e s e comedy t o i t s peak and c o n c l u s i o n . These p o s i t i o n s a r e b e s t e l u c i d a t e d i n a comparison between a N e s t r o y and B a u e r l e p l a y o f c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , as i s the case : 53 w i t h B a u e r l e ' s Wien, P a r i s , London und C o n s t a n t i n o p e l (1823) and N e s t r o y ' s D i e Verbannuhg aus dem Z a u b e r r e i c h e ( 1 8 2 8 ) , w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o Gegen T O r h e i t g i b t es k e i n M i t t e l (1838), and s e v e r a l o t h e r p l a y s . The B a u e r l e p l a y p o r t r a y s t h r e e i n d i -v i d u a l s , who have d i v o r c e d themselves from t h e a c c e p t e d s o c i a l o r d e r . A s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g and magic are employed, t o have the t h r e e e r r a n t s r e a l i z e the e r r o r s o f t h e i r ways, a n d , . t h e r e -f o r e , r e c o g n i z e and submit t o the e x i s t i n g o r d e r . Thus, the p l a y i s e n t i r e l y consonant w i t h the t r a d i t i o n o f the "Zauber-s t u c k . " N e s t r o y , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s s t i l l u s i n g t h i s genre as a mold, b u t most d e f i n i t e l y n o t i n o r d e r t o show t h e con-t i n u a n c e o f e x i s t i n g b l i n d n e s s toward human s h o r t c o m i n g s . I n -s t e a d , he employs i t as a v e h i c l e t o expose the misuse o f language, w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t s f l a w s i n the s p e a k e r , and i n t u r n , c o n t r i b u t e s toward a g e n e r a l human c o n d i t i o n t h a t i s h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , n o t o n l y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , b u t s p e c i -f i c a l l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o r e l a t i o n s between p e o p l e . F o r B a u e r l e , "Besserung" i s a foregone c o n c l u s i o n , w h i l e f o r N e s t r o y , i t i s an e x t r e m e l y ambiguous and p r o b l e m a t i c p r o c e s s , which does n ot l e a d t o a r e s o l u t i o n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case i n Gegen T o r -h e i t g i b t es k e i n M i t t e l . I t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a mere f i v e y e a r s s e p a r a t e D i e Verbannung from Wien, P a r i s , London und  C o n s t a n t i n o p e l , w h i l e the o t h e r N e s t r o y p l a y was o n l y w r i t t e n f i f t e e n y e a r s a f t e r B a u e r l e ' s , y e t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Nes-t r o y and B a u e r l e i s c r u c i a l . Wien, P a r i s , London und C o n s t a n t i n o p e l opens w i t h a common-54 p l a c e r e i t e r a t i o n o f an o l d , t r a d i t i o n a l dogma: A r b e i t macht das Leben f r o h , L a s s t uns r u s t i g w i r k e n , Z i e h t h i n a u s i n s f i n s t e r e H o l z , F a l l t d i e a l t e n B i r k e n . Baut f u r bose W i n t e r z e i t Gegen Sturm und W e t t e r n Euch e i n n e t t e s Hauschen 7auf Aus den f e s t e n B r e t t e r n . Here i s the b a n a l a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t work w i l l b r i n g h a p p i n e s s and s e r e n i t y , and t h a t p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e a r e t a n t a -mount t o overcoming d i f f i c u l t i e s . A r i l l a , t h e " S c h u t z g e i s t , " who g u i d e s and c o n t r o l s the e x p e r i e n c e s o f M u f f , Wimpel and K i t t , t h e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s who a r e t o undergo a "Besserung," r e p e a t s and s t r e s s e s t h i s when she f i r s t meets Wimpel and M u f f , who a t t h a t t ime do not know he r t r u e i d e n t i t y / " M i r i s t ' s j a r e c h t ; wann 6s aber k e i n G e l d h a b t ' s , so g l a u b e t i c h , so war Q nur e i n M i t t e l . " There i s no s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m a t i c a s p e c t t h a t such an a s s e r t i o n c o n t a i n s . B oth Wimpel and Muff argue i t ' s n o t as s i m p l e as t h a t : Wimpel, a p r o d u c e r o f s t r a w h a t s , c o u n t e r s t h a t no-one wears t h e s e d u r i n g w i n t e r . Conse-q u e n t l y t h e r e i s no work f o r him, and Muff c o m p l a i n s : Und im Sommer k e i n Mensch e i n P e l z . t i b r i g e n s haben w i r auch k e i n G l u c k , es geht uns n i c h t s nach Wunsch; w i r d i i r f e n t h u n , was w i r w o l l e n , es h e i s s t h a l t n i c h t s . Es i s t v o l l i g s chad, wenn w i r was anfangen. A l l e s geht bey uns den Krebsgang - das konnen w i r nimmer a u s h a l t e n . Mein Freund z.B. i s t e i n S t r o h h u t f a b r i -k a n t , kaum ha t e r aber s e i n ' W e r k s t a t t a u f g ' r i c h t , s i n d g l e i c h 70 neben ihm a u f g e s t a n d e n , dass e r n i c h t s zu thun g'habt h a t ; und mein M e t i e r i s t gar t r a u r i g , ^ j e d e r V o g e l macht schon e i n P e l z , wann ihm k a l t i s t . C u r i o u s l y , A r i l l a does n o t have a s u g g e s t i o n . Only a f t e r t h e two have l i s t e d more o f t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , does she f i n a l l y o f f e r h e r h e l p , r e v e a l h e r s e l f , and send them on t h e i r d e s i r e d j o u r n e y t o P a r i s , London and C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . A n o t h e r example of B a u e r l e ' s b l i n d r e p r o d u c t i o n and s u p p o r t o f p r o v e r b s may be seen i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from Di e B u r g e r i n Wien (1813), where R e d l i c h n o t e s t o h i m s e l f / "Wer s e i n e K i n d e r be-wacht, h a t i h r G l i i c k b e a c h t ' t l Das i s t e i n a l t e s S p r i c h w o r t ; i c h werd's n i c h t v e r g e s s e n . h 1 " R e d l i c h has j u s t d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s d a u g h t e r , Kathchen, has a s e c r e t l o v e r , K a r l B e r g , a p o e t , who u l t i m a t e l y saves Kathchen from an e v i l f a t e . R e d l i c h i s under t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he i s a b l e t o guard h i s d a u g h t e r . T h i s may be t r u e i n the p h y s i c a l sense. However, he i s u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l h e r e motions, as i s proven i n the p l a y . The a s s e r -t i o n "hat i h r G l i i c k b e a c h t ' t " i s a l s o an i l l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n , i n t h a t l u c k i s not the r e s u l t o f a s p e c i f i c human a c t i o n . But i t i s the second sentence i n t h e q u o t a t i o n which u n d e r s c o r e s the p r o f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e between B a u e r l e and N e s t r o y . The key c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the e x p r e s s i o n " a l t e s S p r i c h w o r t , " f o r " S p r i c h w o r te" a r e i n v a r i a b l y aged. T h i s one i s p a r t i c u l a r l y o l d , and t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o R e d l i c h , one t h a t must never be f o r g o t -t e n . Here, th e customary b e l i e f s a r e endorsed and t r a n s m i t t e d . There i s n o t h i n g t h a t c o u l d f o r c e the a u d i e n c e t o r e f l e c t and q u e s t i o n . I n s t e a d , i t i s e x p e c t e d t o a c c e p t t r a d i t i o n , w hich i s f r e q u e n t l y s u p p o r t e d by commonplaces. N e s t r o y ' s p l a y Gegen T o r h e i t g i b t es k e i n M i t t e l a l s o opens w i t h a chorus about work. I n t h i s p l a y , however, the g i r l s w o r k i n g f o r Madam F o u l a r d , a " P u t z h a n d l e r i n , " a r e n o t so 56 convinced of the v i r t u e s of work: Wenn nur schon wieder Sonntag war', Die Wochentag' s i n d f a d , auf Ehr', Die Wochentag' h e i s s t ' s immer nah'n, Am Sonntag nur s p a z i e r e n gehn, V i e l z'wenig i s t f u r unsre P l a g 1 E i n Sonntag auf sechs Wochentag'. (VI,493) The f i r s t l i n e expresses the wish t h a t i t were Sunday, and then the g i r l s a s s e r t t h a t work days are d u l l , as work means t r o u b l e and drudgery. The g i r l s r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to them-s e l v e s — t h e i r argument i s based on p e r s o n a l experience, which p r o v i d e s added s t r e n g t h , whereas i n Bauerle's p l a y , the c h o i r c o n s i s t s of peasants b r i e f l y moving across the stage, while a d d r e s s i n g the audience i n a r a t h e r p a t e r n a l i s t i c manner. They assever a t e t h a t work b r i n g s happiness, but do not g i v e any sup-p o r t i v e evidence. I t i s accepted to be a x i o m a t i c . The peasant g i r l s ' second line,, " L a s s t uns r l i s t i g wirken," f o l l o w s n a t u r a l l y , i f one agrees w i t h the opening statement. The c o n c l u d i n g s i x l i n e s present r u s t i c images of h i k i n g through the f o r e s t , f e l -l i n g t r e e s , and b u i l d i n g comfortable houses i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r bad winter weather. But these images are l a c k i n g i n v i t a l i t y , because they are t r a d i t i o n a l thoughts i n threadbare language. Examples would be : " L a s s t uns r l i s t i g wirken," and "Baut . . . e i n n e t t e s Hauschen auf." Such exp r e s s i o n s b e t r a y j u s t how f i r m l y Bauerle i s embedded i n r e p e a t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . A l l i s presented i n a p l e a s a n t way. I t seems t h a t Bauerle espouses the work e t h i c as the t r a d i t i o n a l panacea f o r a l l i l l s . 57 D i e Verbannung aus dem Z a u b e r r e i c h e ( 1 8 2 8 ) i s one o f N e s t r o y ' s e a r l i e s t p l a y s , w h i c h c l e a r l y u n d e r l i n e s h i s b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e t o B a u e r l e . T h i s work opens i n t h e sphere o f t h e " Z a u b e r w e l t . " L o n g i n u s , Pumpf's t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r o l d son, has j u s t r e t u r n e d from an extended j o u r n e y , which was t o have been a c r u c i a l p a r t o f h i s e d u c a t i o n . But N o c t u r n u s , L o n g i n u s " former t e a c h e r , has a l r e a d y warned Pumpf t h a t L o n g i n u s , i n the company o f h i s s e r v a n t C r e p o n t e s , has become a "Lump." The f a t h e r must soon a g r e e , and Nocturnus i s asked t o a r r a n g e f o r L o n g i n u s ' "Besserung." T h i s i s t o c o n s i s t o f L o n g i n u s spending t h i r t y y e a r s on e a r t h as a "Lump." H i s e x p e r i e n c e s here a r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r major p a r t s , and he r e t u r n s home, s u p p o s e d l y " g e b e s s e r t , " when he . i s f i f t y - f o u r y e a r s o l d . L o n g i n u s , j u s t p r i o r t o h i s banishment t o e a r t h , has a l e n g t h y e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s "Tagesordnung," which he c o n c l u d e s w i t h j " . . . das Leben i s t doch schon"(1,15) . I t i s a commonplace t h a t might w e l l come out of a B a u e r l e p l a y . However, one s h o u l d f i r s t examine the p r e c e d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Here a r e s e v e r a l e x c e r p t s : Urn e l f Uhr s t e h t man a u f , geht i n s K a f f e e h a u s , t r i n k t L i k o r , d a r a u f e i n t i i c h t i g e s Dejeuner _a l a . F r u h s t u c k ! -Dann geht man auf d i e Promenade und l o r g n e t t i e r t d i e Madeln, zu M i t t a g h a t man k e i n e n A p p e t i t , s c h i m p f t i i b e r s E s s e n , denn nur n i c h t s i n d e r Ordnung g e n i e s s e n , das i s t gemein - t r i n k t aber hernach v i e r S c h a l e n Schwarzen, das h a l t den G e i s t wach - dann f a n g t man e i n W h i s t an, das g ' f r e u t ein'm n i c h t l a n g , denn es i s t zu s o l i d , man w a h l t e i n anderes S p i e l , und so k o k e t t i e r t man so l a n g m i t der Treffdame, b i s es Abend w i r d , dann a l l o n s ! zu den Amuren. E i n e r macht man e i n e n H e i r a t s a n t r a g , der andern schwort man ewige Treue - das i m p o n i e r t h o c h s t e n s zusammen d r e i V i e r t e l -s t unden; so kommt man s e e l e n v e r g n i i g t i n s Gasthaus zum Souper. Da geht e r s t r e c h t das wahre Gaudium an - j e d e r 58 e r z a h l t s e i n e L i e b e s v e r h ' a l t n i s s e , l u g t zehnmal mehr dazu, a l s wahr i s t , und e r z & h l t gerade von dem am m e i s t e n , was n i c h t wahr i s t . Das i s t e i n Genuss, wenn man so r e c h t a u f s c h n e i d e n kann. D a r u n t e r l e i d e t zwar der w e i b l i c h e Ruf, aber was l i e g t da d r a n , man. macht s i c h g r o s s v o r s e i n e n B r u d e r l n , und das i s t d i e Hauptsache! F i n d e t man dann noch e i n K a f f e e h a u s o f f e n , a l l o n s marsch h i n e i n und der K a f f e e s i e d e r i n so Iang g e s c h m e i c h e l t , b i s s i e auf K r e d i t e i n e n Punsch macht, wenn man auch e i n G e l d im Sack h a t ; nur n i c h t s z a h l e n , schmeckt a l l e s noch e i n m a l so g u t , wenn man's s c h u l d i g b l e i b t ! Und dann das G e f u h l , j a , das l a s s t s i c h g a r ^ n i c h t b e s c h r e i b e n , das muss man empfinden, wenn man so urn a d r e i Uhr nach Haus w a c k e l t , da f i i h l t man den wahren Lau f der N a t u r , wie s i c h d i e Erde urn d i e Achse d r e h t , denn man h a t gar k e i n e n s i c h e r e n T r i t t - g l u c k t ' s einem dann, dass man n i c h t auf der Gassen l i e g e n b l e i b t , so f ' a l l t man zu Haus neben dem B e t t n i e d e r und s c h l a f t comme  i l f a u t . - 0, V a t e r , das Leben i s t doch schon! (1,14-15) Longinu s f i n d s such a l i f e w o n d e r f u l , b u t i t proves him t o be a "Lump," as Nocturnus c a l l s him. One need not a n a l y z e the q u o t a t i o n i n d e t a i l t o r e a l i z e t h i s , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d L o n g i n u s ' c o n c l u s i o n . By u s i n g a commonplace i r o n i c a l l y , Nes-t r o y draws a t t e n t i o n t o the misuse o f such e x p r e s s i o n s i n g e n e r a l . The commonplaces appear r i d i c u l o u s , and l o s e a l l sub-s t a n c e , because t h e y are used so f r e q u e n t l y , and w i t h o u t s e -r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s r e f l e c t s a broad and c o l l e c t i v e d i s -h o n e s t y , w h i c h has v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , such as e g o c e n t r i c i t y i n the i n d i v i d u a l , and t e n u i t y i n v a r i o u s human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e r e f o r e , a l l i s n o t w e l l , a p o i n t t h a t N e s t r o y c o n t i n u e s t o r e i t e r a t e . B a u e r l e , i n c o n t r a s t , a t t e m p t s t o show t h a t a l l i s w e l l , as l o n g as no-one becomes d i s s a t i s f i e d , as d i d Wimpel, Muff and K i t t . As mentioned above, N e s t r o y r e p e a t e d l y draws a t t e n t i o n t o 59 t h e f a c t t h a t human r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e f r e q u e n t l y u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y . I n D i e Verbannung aus dem Z a u b e r r e i c h e , A d o l f , t h e a c c o u n t a n t f o r E i s e n k o p f , i s e x t r e m e l y d e p r e s s e d s i n c e he believ.es.he w i l l n o t be a b l e t o marry A l b e r t i n e , the daughter o f E i s e n k o p f , and he s t a t e s / " A l b e r t i n e , b i s t du f u r mich v e r l o r e n , so j a g e i c h m i r e i n e K u g e l d u r c h den K o p f ! " ( I , 2 0 ) . To which H e i n r i c h , a s e r v a n t o f E i s e n k o p f , answers, "Sparen S i e d i e s e K u g e l , b i s S i e f i i n f J a h r e v e r h e i r a t e t s i n d , dann werden S i e s i e v i e l l e i c h t notwendig b r a u c h e n " ( I , 2 0 ) . A d o l f uses a commonplace t o e x p l a i n h i s i n t e n s e u n h a p p i n e s s , bu t H e i n r i c h uses p a r t o f the commonplace and extends i t . The key words a r e the adverbs "dann" and "notwendig," because t h e y p o i n t o u t t h a t p r e s e n t l y , m a t t e r s a r e n o t n e a r l y as s e -r i o u s as t h e y might w e l l be a f t e r f i v e y e a r s o f m a r r i a g e , a t w h i c h time t h e r e may i n d e e d be a t r u e need f o r the b u l l e t . T h i s v i e w i n t r o d u c e s an element of humour, but u n d e r l y i n g i t , i s the s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e i s u n t e n a b l e , t o the e x t e n t t h a t the o n l y s o l u t i o n i s s u i c i d e . Here i s one t y p i c a l example where N e s t r o y uses humour t o con-c e a l a grave a c c u s a t i o n l e v e l l e d n ot o n l y a t s o c i e t y , b u t a t i n d i v i d u a l s . The a u d i e n c e i s f o r c e d t o l a u g h t e r , b u t w h i l e s t i l l l a u g h i n g , i t becomes aware o f t h e s t r o n g , dark under-c u r r e n t . Such awareness s h o u l d l e a d t o c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f u n a c c e p t a b l e a t t i t u d e s . Thus, A d o l f ' s use o f a commonplace, shows, on the one hand, t h a t i t i s a p p l i e d t o s i t u a t i o n s where not s u i t a b l e . I t i s employed too f r e q u e n t l y , and t h e r e f o r e , 60 looses i t s cogency. Furthermore, i t draws attention to the problematic nature of marriage, and i n doing so, seriously questions the b l i n d acceptance of t r a d i t i o n a l modes of thought, as i t attacks the language patterns which aid the continuance of such attitudes. Nestroy implies that b l i n d adherence to t r a d i t i o n i s not only f o o l i s h , but may well lead to outright disaster. As a l -ready mentioned, Pumpf i s a rather feeble s p i r i t , who, when to l d by Nocturnus that he, as father, does not know what has become of his son, counters with/ "Als einen hoffnungsvollen Jungling hab 1 ich inn fortgeschickt - die Reisen gehoren zur Ausbildung, also wird wohl ein vollkommen ausgebildeter junger Mann aus ihm geworden sein"(I,9). Pumpfs argument i s not based on thoughtful r e f l e c t i o n — h e does not think for himself, but borrows worn-out word patterns l i k e "hoffnungvollen Jling-ling^'Reisen gehoren zur Ausbildung," and "ein vollkommener ausgebildeter junger Mann": a l l are examples of hackneyed phrases. Pumpf uses the above expressions, and assumes that they apply to Longinus. Like so many other Nestroy figures, he does not control language, because he i s not an inn