UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The contrapuntal style of Healey Willan Renwick, William Jonathan Michael 1982

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THE CONTRAPUNTAL STYLE OF HEALEY WILLAN by WILLIAM JONATHAN MICHAEL RENWICK .Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g . t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1982 © W i l l i a m J o n a t h a n M i c h a e l Renwick, 1982 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of .Music  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 8 2 A b s t r a c t H e a l e y W i l l a n w a s a C a n a d i a n c o m p o s e r w h o s u c c e e d -e d i n i n t e g r a t i n g a b r o a d r a n g e o f s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i n t o a p e r s o n a l m u s i c a l i d i o m . I t i s t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s p a p e r t o e x a m i n e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s w h i c h m a k e u p t h e u n i q u e s t y l e o f t h i s c o m p o s e r , s o a s t o p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n f o r a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f h i s w o r k . T h e f i r s t c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e v a r i e d i n f l u e n c e s o n t h e c o m p o s e r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , . a n d o u t l i n e s t h e d i f -f e r e n t s t y l e s w h i c h a f f e c t e d h i s w o r k . A d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s p e d a g o g i c a l m e t h o d s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t h i s t e a c h i n g b e a r s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l w o r k . C h a p t e r T w o b e g i n s t h e a c t u a l s t u d y o f W i l l a n ' s m u s i c b y e x a m i n i n g i n d e t a i l t w o i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e m u s i c ' s s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e : d i s s o n a n c e t r e a t m e n t a n d p a r a l l e l i s m . W i l l a n ' s t r e a t m e n t o f d i s s o n a n c e u s u a l l y f o l l o w s t h e r u l e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t w r i t i n g , b u t h e a t t e m p t s t o e x p r e s s n e w i d e a s w i t h i n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d n o r m s . W i l l a n o f t e n u s e s p a r a l l e l i s m a s a w a y o f e n r i c h i n g a b a s i c c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e , a n d t h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s a v a r i e t y o f t e x t u r e s w h i c h r e s u l t f r o m s u c h e n r i c h m e n t . T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h a s p e c t s o f t h e m u s i c w h i c h s e r v e a s r e c u r r i n g " f i n g e r p r i n t s " o f t h e c o m p o s e r . T h e s p e c i a l r e c u r r i n g f e a t u r e s t r e a t e d h e r e a r e 1 ) c o n -s e c u t i v e m i n o r c h o r d p a t t e r n s , 2 ) c h r o m a t i c a l l y b a s e d i i e p i s o d e s , 3 ) a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n o f i n i t i a l a s c e n t a n d 4 ) t h e u s e o f a c l o s i n g f o r m u l a b a s e d o n t h e G r e g o r i a n " A m e n " . F o l l o w i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s u r f a c e a s p e c t s o f W i l l a n ' s s t y l e , C h a p t e r F o u r t u r n s t o a s t u d y o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s h a r m o n i c t e c h n i q u e , a s m a n i -f e s t e d o n v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s t r u c t u r e . A n o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f W i l l a n ' s h a r m o n i c s t y l e i s h i s a v o i d a n c e o f t h e d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n , w h i c h i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d w i t h m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e s u b d o m i n a n t s i d e o f t h e h a r m o n i c s p e c t r u m . B o t h i n t h e s u r f a c e m e l o d i c p a t t e r n s a n d i n t h e l a r g e r f o r m a l d e s i g n s o f e n t i r e p i e c e s , t h i s a v o i d a n c e o f t h e d o m i n a n t i s c l e a r l y i n e v i d e n c e . T h e f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s W i l l a n ' u s e o f t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t , b o t h a s a s u r f a c e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e , a n d a s a b a s i s f o r t h e d e s i g n o f e n t i r e p i e c e s . T h e f i n a l a n a l y s e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a r i g o u r o u s c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e f o r m o f a t w o - p a r t f r a m e w o r k , a n d a h a r m o n i c p l a n w h i c h d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d s t h e d o m i n a n t i n f a v o u r o f h a r m o n i e s i n v o l v i n g t h e s u b d o m i n a n t . I t i s h o p e d t h a t b y e x a m i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f W i l l a n ' s s t y l e , t h i s s t u d y w i l l e n a b l e a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e v a l u e o f h i s w o r k . i i i William E. Benjamin Thesis Supervisor T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f Examples v L i s t o f F i g u r e s x i Acknowledgements x i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I W i l l a n ' s M u s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t 3 I I S u r f a c e S t r u c t u r e s 26 I I I P e r s o n a l E l e m e n t s 77 IV T o n a l F u n c t i o n s 100 V T w o - P a r t Framework 127 C o n c l u s i o n 153 A p p e n d i x : L o n g e r M u s i c a l Examples 155 B i b l i o g r a p h y 167 Index o f Works C i t e d 171 i v L i s t o f Examples Ex. 1.1 A l l H a i l , A l l H a i l , mm. 1-20. page 7 Ex. 1.2 Fugue i n g m i n o r , mm. 34-37. 18 Ex. 1.3 Fugue i n g m i n o r , mm. 33-35. 18 Ex. 1.4 B y r d , Ave Verum C o r p u s , mm. 33-37. 19 Ex. 1.5 W i l l a n , Ave Verum C o r p u s , mm. 38-44. 20 Ex. 2.1 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 7-8. 27 Ex. 2.2 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 45-47. 28 Ex. 2.3 L o , I n t h e Time A p p o i n t e d , mm. 19-20. 29 Ex. 2.4 L o , I n t h e Time A p p o i n t e d , mm. 31-32. 29 Ex. 2.5 F a i r i n F a c e , m. 2. 30 Ex. 2.6 O K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e , m. 8. 30 Ex. 2.7 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , mm. 34-36. 30 Ex. 2.8 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , m. 44. 31 Ex. 2.9 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 8-9. 31 Ex. 2.10 P r e s e r v e u s , 0 L o r d , m. 6. 32 Ex. 2.11 O K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e , m. 19..32 Ex. 2.12 F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 31-32. 33 Ex. 2.13a I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, 33 mm. 3-4. Ex. 2 . 1 3 b . ( u n t i t l e d ) 34 Ex. 2.14 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 1-3. 3 5 Ex. 2.15 O K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 23-24. 35 Ex. 2.16 F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 17-19. 36 Ex. 2.17 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 14-17. 36 Ex. 2.18 0 K i n g , a l l G l o r i o u s , m. 25. 37 v Ex. 2.19 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, page 37 mm. 3-4. Ex. 2.20 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 9-10. 38 Ex. 2.21 I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, 38 mm.11-12. Ex. 2.22 I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, 39 mm. 8-9. Ex. 2.23 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 7-8. 41 Ex. 2.24 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 25-26. 41 Ex. 2.25a I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, m. 31. 42 Ex. 2 . 2 5 b . ( u n t i t l e d ) 42 Ex. 2.26a R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 9-10. 43 Ex. 2 . 2 6 b . ( u n t i t l e d ) 43 Ex. 2.27a R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, 44 mm. 14-15. Ex. 2 . 2 7 b . ( u n t i t l e d ) 44 Ex. 2.28 0 K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e , 45 m. 15. Ex. 2.29a F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 24-25. 46 Ex. 2 . 2 9 b . ( u n t i t l e d ) 46 Ex. 2.30 F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 1-2. 47 Ex. 2.31a I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, m. 11. 49 Ex. 2.31b. ( u n t i t l e d ) 50 Ex. 2.31c. ( u n t i t l e d ) 50 Ex. 2.31d. ( u n t i t l e d ) 50 Ex. 2.31e. ( u n t i t l e d ) 50 Ex. 2.31f. ( u n t i t l e d ) 50 Ex. 2.32 I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, m. 5. 51 Ex. 2.3 3 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 17-18. 52 v i Ex. 2.34a B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, page 53 mm. 1-2. Ex. 2.34b. ( u n t i t l e d ) 53 Ex. 2.34c. ( u n t i t l e d ) 53 Ex. 2.35 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 16-17. 54 Ex. 2.36 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 18-19. 55 Ex. 2.37 " B e n e d i c t u s q u i v e n i t " , M i s s a B r e v i s 59 No. 4 . Ex. 2.38 S c h e r z o ( F i v e P i e c e s f o r O r g a n ) , 60 mm. 5-12. Ex. 2.39 0 K i n g , - a l l G l o r i o u s , mm • 30-32. 61 Ex. 2.40 M a t i n s , mm. 18-27. 61 Ex. 2.41a 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 1- 4. F i r s t Manu- 63 s c r i p t v e r s i o n Ex. 2.41b 0 K i n g o f G1o r y , mm. 1- 4. Second Manu- 63 s c r i p t v e r s i o n Ex. 2.41c 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 1- 4 . F i n a l , 63 p r i n t e d v e r s i o n Ex. 2.42 God i s Gone Up w i t h a S h o u t , mm. 25-28. 64 Ex. 2.43 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , mm. 43-47. 65 Ex. 2.44 Ave M a r i s S t e l l a ( F i v e P r e l u d e s on 65 P l a i n c h a n t M e l o d i e s ) , mm. 1 T 4 . Ex. 2.45 The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d , mm. 5-11. 66 Ex. 2.46 An A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s , 66 mm. 97-99. Ex. 2.47 R i n g Out, Ye C r y s t a l l S h e a r s from t h e 67 C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e , mm. 10-11. Ex. 2.48 E t e r n i t y , mm. 59-61. 67 Ex. 2.49 T h i s E n d r i s Nyght, mm. 7-13. 68 Ex. 2.50 0 T r i n i t y , Most B l e s s e d L i g h t , mm. 47-50. 69 Ex. 2.51 The S h e p h e r d s f r o m The M y s t e r y o f 7 0 B e t h l e h e m , mm. 45-47. v i i Ex. 2.52 Come, Thou B e l o v e d o f C h r i s t f r o m page 71 t h e C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e , mm. 98-100. Ex. 2.53 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , mm. 48-57. 72 Ex. 2.54 Weep You No More, Sad F o u n t a i n s , 73 mm. 44-48 Ex. 2.55 G l o r i a Deo p e r immensa s a e c u l a , mm. 60-63. 74 Ex. 2.56 Who i s She t h a t A s c e n d e t h ? , mm. 10-12. 74 Ex. 2.57 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 1-10. 75 Ex. 3.1 P r e l u d e and Fugue i n c m i n o r , mm. 5-8. 77 Ex. 3.2 D e i r d r e , A c t I , mm. 9-13. 78 Ex. 3.3 D e i r d r e , A c t I I I , mm. 1-3. 79 Ex. 3.4 D e i r d r e , A c t I I I , mm. 842-846. 79 Ex. 3.5 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , mm. 58-59. 80 Ex. 3.6 P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue No. 2, i n E m i n o r , 81 mm. 1-3. Ex. 3.7 C h r i s t i s t e r s t a n d e n , mm. 26-29. 81 Ex.. 3.8 Nun p r e i s e t a l l e , mm. 32-39 . 83 Ex. 3.9 F e s t i v a l , mm. 30-35. 84 Ex. 3.10a M a r t y r d o m , mm. 16-19. 85 Ex. 3.10b M a r t y r d o m , mm. 35-38. 85 Ex. 3.11 Nun l a s s t uns G o t t dem H e r r e n , mm. 26- 86 29, 36-41, and 52-57. Ex. 3.12 I n t e r m e z z o , mm. 1-2. 89 Ex. 3.13 Quern p a s t o r e s , mm. 1-2. 89 Ex. 3.14 Wareham, mm. 1-2. 90 Ex. 3.15 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 1-2. 90 Ex. 3.16 S c h e r z o , mm. 3 7-38. 91 Ex. 3.17 C h r i s t , whose G l o r y f i l l s t h e S k i e s , 91 mm. 1-2. v i i i Ex. 3.18 "Amen" f r o m t h e hymn Ad R e q i a s page 9 3 A g n i Dapes. Ex. 3.19 F a n t a s i e upon t h e p l a i n c h a n t "Ad Coenam 93 A g n i " , mm. 86-89. Ex. 3.20 V e r y B r e a d , Good S h e p h e r d , Tend Us, 94 mm. 32-37. Ex. 3.21 0 L o r d , Our G o v e r n o u r , mm. 44-49. 95 Ex. 3.22 F a t h e r , We P r a i s e Thee, mm. 74-78. 95 Ex. 3.23 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , mm. 62-64. 96 Ex. 3.2 4 Hosanna t o t h e Son o f D a v i d , mm. 62-68. 97 Ex. 3.25 On May M o r n i n g , mm. 39-45. 97 Ex. 3.2 6 A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e , mm. 102-106. 98 Ex. 4.1 N i c a e a , mm. 1-6. 102 Ex. 4.2 I W i l l L a y Me Down i n P e a c e , mm. 1-5. 103 Ex. 4.3 E p i l o g u e , mm. 1-4. 104 Ex. 4.4 V e r y B r e a d , Good S h e p h e r d , _ T e n d Us, 105 mm. 6-8. Ex. 4.5 F i n a l e J u b i l a n t e , mm. 1-2. 106 Ex. 4.6 Nun p r e i s e t A l l e , mm. 1-4. 107 Ex. 4.7 I n t e r l u d e f o r a E e s t i v a l , mm. 48-49. 108 Ex. 4.8 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , mm. 55-60. 112 Ex. 4.9a 0 K i n g , a l l G l o r i o u s , mm. 30-34. 113 Ex. 4.9b. ( u n t i t l e d ) 114 Ex. 4.10 A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e , mm. 39-42. 114 Ex. 4.11 E v e n s o n g , mm. 54-57. ' 115 Ex. 4.12 " S a n c t u s " , M i s s a B r e v i s No. 2, m. 12. 116 Ex. 4.13 The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d , mm. 1-11. 117 Ex. 4.14 P a r t M o t i o n i n t h e " C h o r a l e " f r o m t h e 118 A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e . i x Ex. 4.15a Har m o n i c M o t i o n i n 0 K i n g , t o page 121 Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e . Ex. 4.15b Summary o f Harmonic M o t i o n i n 0 K i n g , 122 t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e . Ex. 4.16a Harmonic M o t i o n i n B e h o l d , t h e 124 T a b e r n a c l e o f God. Ex. 4.16b Summary o f Harmonic M o t i o n i n B e h o l d , 125 t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God. Ex. 5.1 An A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s , 129 mm. 116-120. Ex. 5.2 B e n e d i c t u s and J u b i l a t e Deo, s t a n z a 3. 129 Ex. 5.3 A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e , mm. 94-96. 131 Ex. 5.4 " S a n c t u s " , M i s s a B r e v i s No. 10, 132 mm. 13-24. Ex. 5.5 F e s t i v a l , mm. 1-7. 13 3 Ex. 5.6 I b e h e l d h e r , B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, 135 mm. 29-35. Ex. 5.7 U-rbs H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , mm. 10-15. 136 Ex. 5.8 V o i c e - l e a d i n g i n R i s e up, my L o v e , my 138 F a i r One. Ex. 5.9 T w o - p a r t Framework i n R i s e up, my L o v e , 139 my F a i r One. Ex. 5.10 S u r f a c e S t r u c t u r e s o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o , 142 mm. 1-17. Ex. 5.11 F o r e g r o u n d o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o , mm. 1-17. 145 Ex. 5.12. ( u n t i t l e d ) 147 Ex. 5.13 M i d d l e g r o u n d o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o , 148 mm. 1-17. Ex. 5.14. ( u n t i t l e d ) 149 Ex. 5.15. ( u n t i t l e d ) 150 Ex. 5.16 B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o , mm. 1-17. 151 Ex. 5.17 S h e n k e r i a n U r s a t z . 151 x L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g . 4.1 Chordal A n a l y s i s of S e l e c t e d Compositions of Healey W i l l a n . F i g . 4.2 Harmonic P l a n of The S p i r i t of the  Lord, mm. 1-11. F i g . 4.3 Harmonic P l a n o f the "Chorale" from the Andante, Fugue and C h o r a l e . x i Acknowledgements I t i s w i t h a deep s e n s e o f a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a t I e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. W i l l i a m B e n j a m i n , who has c a r e f u l l y g u i d e d me i n t h i s work. I a l s o e x t e n d my t h a n k s t o t h e members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , P r o -f e s s o r s J o h n C h a p p e l l and James S c h e l l ; t o Dr. Helmut K a l l m a n n and t h e s t a f f o f t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e ; t o t h e C a n a d i a n M u s i c C e n t r e , f o r m a k i n g a v a i l a b l e many p i e c e s o f W i l l a n ' s m u s i c w h i c h a r e o u t o f p r i n t ; and t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c ompanies w h i c h have k i n d l y c o n s e n t e d t o t h e u s e o f t h e i r c o p y r i g h t e d m a t e r i a l s : B e l w i n M i l l s , B e r a n d o l M u s i c , C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House, F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s M u s i c , L e s l i e M u s i c S u p p l y , Longman, I n c . , N o v e l l o , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C.F. P e t e r s C o r p . , and G o r d o n V. Thompson L t d . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e t r u s t e e s o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . Among t h e many i n d i v i d u a l s who have p a r t i c u l a r l y a i d e d me i n t h i s work, Mary Mason comes f i r s t t o m i nd. I am a l s o a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e h e l p w h i c h A l b e r t Mahon, S i r W i l l i a m M c K i e , F r e d e r i c k Geoghegan, J o c e l y n P r i t c h a r d , and F a t h e r D o n a l d N i e l s e n have g i v e n . F i n a l l y , t o my l o v i n g p a r e n t s , who have warmly s u p p o r t e d my e n d e a v o r s , I e x t e n d most g r a t e f u l t h a n k s . x i i 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n I n l i g h t o f H e a l e y W i l l a n ' s r e c e n t c e n t e n a r y , i t i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r t o examine t h e d i s -t i n c t i v e n e s s o f W i l l a n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n as a composer. H i s i m p o r t a n c e as a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n C a n a d i a n m u s i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y as a t e a c h e r , has n e v e r been q u e s t i o n e d . He has a l w a y s been r e g a r d e d as a m a i n s t a y o f t h e C a n a d i a n m u s i c s c e n e . B u t t h e m e r i t o f .his c r e a t i v e work and t h e s c o p e o f h i s o r i g i n a l i t y have n o t a l w a y s been f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . W i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d t e c h n i q u e s o f h i s m u s i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , he was an i n n o v a t i v e composer, t r a n s c e n d i n g h i s c u l t u r a l m i l i e u by s y n t h e s i z i n g a w i d e v a r i e t y o f f o r m s and s t y l e s i n t o a c o h e s i v e p o e t i c i d i o m . H i s c o n s e r v a t i v e s t y l e and t h e i m p r e s s i o n made by t h e v o l u m i n o u s n e s s o f h i s o u t p u t have t e n d e d t o mask f o r many o b s e r v e r s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e work i s , i n f a c t , i n f o r m e d by t r u e c r e a t i v e g e n i u s . H i s c o n s i s t e n t l y w e l l c r a f t e d and modest s t y l e s u g g e s t s t h a t W i l l a n was more c r a f t s m a n t h a n a r t i s t , and i n d e e d he was a g r e a t c r a f t s m a n , f i l l i n g a vacuum i n t h e f i e l d o f l i t u r g i c a l m u s i c f o r many C h r i s t i a n denomin-a t i o n s a s , f o r example, H i n d e m i t h f i l l e d a vacuum i n -M t h e f i e l d o f chamber m u s i c . However, I i n t e n d i n t h i s work t o show t h a t b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l forms and t e x t u r e s l i e s a m u s i c w h i c h , w h i l e g r o w i n g n a t u r a l l y o u t o f m u s i c a l a n t e c e d e n t s , i s o f v e r y p e r s o n a l expression.. 7 (A number o f p e o p l e have made s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s o f W i l l a n ' s s t y l e , b u t no one, i t seems, has t a c k l e d t h e p r o b l e m o f d i s c o v e r i n g t h e e l e m e n t s w h i c h form h i s s t y l e . ) T h i s p a p e r a t t e m p t s t o r e a s s e s s t h e a r t i s t i c m e r i t s o f W i l l a n ' s work. I t t r a c e s h i s d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m r o o t s i n t h e r o m a n t i c i s m o f t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y E n g l a n d t o a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g m u s i c a l l i f e o f Canada, e x a m i n i n g i n d e t a i l t h e s u r f a c e c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e p e r s o n a l t r a i t s o f t h e composer, and, a t v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s , t h e music's h a r m o n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v o i c e - l e a d i n g p a t t e r n s . Examples i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e t e x t a r e drawn p r i m a r i l y f r o m works o f t h e composer's most c r e a t i v e " m i d d l e p e r i o d " ( c a . 1918-1940). I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s p a p e r w i l l be o f use i n l e a d i n g t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f W i l l a n ' s m u s i c v i e w e d as an a e s t h e t i c , r a t h e r t h a n a f u n c t i o n a l , c o r p u s . 3 I W i l l a n ' s M u s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t James H e a l e y W i l l a n was b o r n a t Balham, S u r r e y , n e a r London, on O c t o b e r 12, 1880. A t age f o u r he began s t u d y -i n g p i a n o w i t h h i s mo t h e r and w i t h t h e g o v e r n e s s o f t h e W i l l a n h o u s e h o l d . A t t h i s t i m e , t o o , he made h i s f i r s t a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e o r g a n , o f t e n v i s i t i n g S t . G e o r g e ' s C h u r c h , Beckenham, t o l i s t e n t o t h e o r g a n i s t p r a c t i s i n g . * A t t h e age o f e i g h t he e n t e r e d S t . S a v i o u r ' s C h o i r S c h o o l , E a s t b o u r n e , where he s t u d i e d o r g a n , p i a n o , and harmony u n d e r Dr. W a l t e r Hay S a n g s t e r , an o r g a n i s t s t e e p e d i n t h e V i c t o r i a n m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . By t h e age o f e l e v e n W i l l a n was a c c o m p a n y i n g s e r v i c e s i n t h e c h a p e l and o c c a s i o n a l l y r e h e a r s i n g t h e c h o i r . 2 W h i l e a t t h e c h o i r s c h o o l , he began t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n t h e v o i c e - l e a d i n g a s p e c t s o f m u s i c , and t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o me, t h e way t h e p a r t s were i n t e r w o v e n . I g o t r a t h e r b o r e d w i t h t h e one d i m e n s i o n a l hymn t u n e s t u f f . R a t h e r o r d i n a r y . B u t as soon as i t became c o m p l i c a t e d , c o n t r a p u n t a l , t h e n I was h a v i n g a good t i m e . I e n j o y e d i t immensely.3 A f t e r b e i n g t o l d a t one harmony l e s s o n t h a t p a r a l l e l I w i l l i a m Edward M a r w i c k , "The S a c r e d C h o r a l M u s i c o f H e a l e y W i l l a n " ( u n p u b l i s h e d D . P h i l , d i s s e r t a t i o n , D e p t . o f M u s i c , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 2. 2 J o y l i n C a m p b e l 1 - Y u k l , " H e a l e y W i l l a n : The I n d e p e n d e n t O r g a n Works" ( u n p u b l i s h e d D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , D e pt. o f M u s i c , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , 1976), p. 6. 3 A l e c Wyton, ".Reminiscences: H e a l e y W i l l a n i n a c o n v e r -s a t i o n w i t h A l e c Wyton," M u s i c , (December, 1967), p. 27. 4 f i f t h s were n o t a l l o w e d , he i m m e d i a t e l y c i t e d an example o f t h e i r u s e i n t h e s l o w movement o f B e e t h o v e n ' s F i r s t  P i a n o S o n a t a , a work he was l e a r n i n g a t t h e t i m e . 4 A f t e r l e a v i n g t h e c h o i r s c h o o l a t age f i f t e e n , W i l l a n s p e n t a y e a r a t home. He seems t o have been q u i t e i l l and c o n f i n e d t o bed f o r l e n g t h y p e r i o d s , and i t was d u r i n g t h e s e l o n g h o u r s t h a t he began t o s t u d y c o u n t e r -p o i n t i n e a r n e s t . A l t h o u g h a c c o u n t s o f h i s methods o f s t u d y a r e a t v a r i a n c e w i t h one a n o t h e r , i t seems t h a t he d e v i s e d a s y s t e m f o r t h e s t u d y o f s p e c i e s c o u n t e r p o i n t whereby a l l t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e d i a t o n i c s y s t e m c o u l d be e x p l o r e d i n an o r d e r l y manner. M a r w i c k r e p o r t s t h a t he d e v i s e d " a l l s o r t s o f c o n t r a p u n t a l c o m b i -n a t i o n s i n a l l f i v e s p e c i e s f o r any t h r e e n o t e s o f t h e s c a l e . i t w o u l d seem t h a t W i l l a n u s e d e a c h t h r e e - n o t e s u b s e t o f t h e m a j o r — and p o s s i b l y a l s o t h e m i n o r — d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n s as a c a n t u s f i r m u s a g a i n s t w h i c h he worked o u t examples i n a l l f i v e s p e c i e s , p r e s u m a b l y i n two p a r t s , w i t h t h e c o u n t e r p o i n t b o t h above and b e l o w t h e c a n t u s f i r m u s . He p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e d t h i s s o r t o f r i g o r - -ous method i n t o t h r e e and f o u r p a r t s , a l t h o u g h i t i s u n c l e a r how f a r he c a r r i e d i t . I n h i s l a t e r t e e n s , W i l l a n d e v o t e d t h e g r e a t e r p a r t ^Marwick, p. 4. The p a r a l l e l f i f t h s m e n t i o n e d a r e p r o b a b l y t h o s e w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s a t t h e s i x t h m easure. 5 I b i d . , p. 7 . 5 o f h i s t i m e t o k e y b o a r d s t u d i e s . B e c a u s e he l i v e d n e a r London he was a b l e t o s t u d y o r g a n w i t h W i l l i a m S t e v e n s o n H o y t e and p i a n o w i t h E v l y n Howard-Jones. Two o f h i s f e l l o w o r g a n s t u d e n t s i n London were G u s t a v H o i s t and L e o p o l d S t o k o w s k i . 6 A t t h e age o f s e v e n t e e n W i l l a n became an a s s o c i a t e o f t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f O r g a n i s t s , and a t n i n e t e e n he became a f e l l o w o f t h e same o r g a n -i z a t i o n . 7 B e f o r e an i n j u r y t o h i s r i g h t arm p r e c l u d e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , he had been s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c a r e e r o f a c o n c e r t p i a n i s t , i n t e n d i n g t o s p e c i a l i z e i n t h e m u s i c o f Brahms.^ D u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s i n London, W i l l a n was engaged i n a w i de r a n g e o f m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y . He s e r v e d a s o r g a n i s t - c h o i r m a s t e r f o r s e v e r a l c h u r c h e s , p r o o f r e a d f o r N o v e l l o , c o n d u c t e d t h e Wanstead C h o r a l S o c i e t y ; and d i r e c t e d t h e T h a l i a n O p e r a t i c S o c i e t y i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f G i l b e r t and S u l l i v a n o p e r e t t a s . ^ P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t i m u l a t i n g m u s i c a l l i f e o f London h e l p e d t o f o r m h i s m u s i c a l t a s t e s . He h e a r d T c h a i k o v s k y c o n d u c t , and he met N i k i s c h , t h e g r e a t German c o n d u c t o r who p r o m o t e d 6Marwick, p. 7. 7 G i l e s B r y a n t , H e a l e y W i l l a n C a t a l o g u e , (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada, 1972), p.14. 8 M a r w i c k , p. 9. ^Helmut K a l l m a n n , G i l l e s P o t v i n , K e n n e t h W i n t e r s , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f M u s i c i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1981), p.999. W i l l a n 1 s h e r o e s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n , S t r a u s s and W a g n e r . ^ ® W i l l a n ' s f a v o u r i t e c o n c e r t m u s i c was t h a t o f Brahms and E l g a r . 1 1 Of c o u r s e one o f t h e o v e r -w h e lming i n f l u e n c e s on W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e m u s i c o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h — t h e m u s i c o f S t a n f o r d , P a r r y , and a h o s t o f o t h e r c h u r c h m u s i c i a n s w i t h whose m u s i c W i l l a n came i n t o d a i l y c o n t a c t f r o m h i s e a r l i e s t y e a r s . T h i s wide r a n g e o f m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n f l u e n c e d W i l l a n ' s own e a r l y a t t e m p t s a t c o m p o s i t i o n . H i s e a r l i e s t anthems r e f l e c t m a i n l y t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n c h u r c h s t y l e , and c o n t a i n l i t t l e o f what came t o be f e a t u r e d i n h i s matu r e s t y l e . Example 1.1, t h e f i r s t page o f h i s e a r l i e s t p u b l i s h e d c o m p o s i t i o n ,(ca*. 1898), c o u l d have been w r i t t e n by any one o f many E n g l i s h c h u r c h composers o f t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . W h i l e c o n t i n u i n g t o a b s o r b l a t e - n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n f l u e n c e s , W i l l a n began t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n e a r l i e r s t y l e s o f m u s i c . He fo r m e d a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h F r a n c i s Burgess,> t h e p l a i n c h a n t s p e c i a l i s t , and i n 1910 became a member o f t h e London G r e g o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , o f w h i c h B u r g e s s was t h e d i r e c t o r . jn t h i s c a p a c i t y i O R e l t h M a c m i l l a n and J o h n B e c k w i t h , C o n t e m p o r a r y  C a n a d i a n Composers, ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p. 238. 1 ] - I b i d . , p . 238 . 1 2 B r y a n t , p. 14. Example 1.1 A L L H A I L I ALtHFfrAflLTr ( A E U C H A R I S T I C H Y M N . ) Copyr ight . KORDS AND MUSIC DEDICATED Br PEBMISSION R . A TO THE Rll>-T REV? HENRY FRANK. K n e e d -LORD BISHOP OF COLCHESTER. W o r d s b y R e v . W A L T E R / E N K S . M u s i c b y L o n d o n : HE,1 L E Y W I L L A E . C O M P O S E R S ' & AUTHORS -PRESS.L t-° s o& s z s o u r h s r r i o c D n R D W . W . C . Voice s Unison Slowly and Devotionally. e f '» " >' T • 1 " J ORGAN'; Je - su, (he A A A V\, i IT Vir_ gin born, 1% s ( a r o f ear. l y dtwn J i i J A y A I , , — r ~ t t p ^ Brightness o f 0 ' , n — f — " - p — f . [ 1 f f — \ - — V . / rA i • " ' — Sw. CJi. o r s o f t G t . - S w : - L i - J j j r T T V,; r) g — R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . 8 W i l l a n a s s i s t e d B u r g e s s i n o r g a n i z i n g and d i r e c t i n g a s e r i e s o f G r e g o r i a n F e s t i v a l s a t S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l . ^ S i r R i c h a r d T e r r y , t h e c h o i r m a s t e r o f W e s t m i n s t e r • C a t h e d r a l , a l s o i n f l u e n c e d W i l l a n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . T h r o u g h T e r r y , who was i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e d i s c o v e r y o f E n g l i s h T u d o r m u s i c and t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f i t s m a s t e r p i e c e s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i o n T u d o r C h u r c h M u s i c , W i l l a n was e x p o s e d t o a l a r g e a n d ^ i m p o r t a n t body o f R e n a i s s a n c e p o l y p h o n y . 1 4 W i l l a n had m a r r i e d G l a d y s E l l e n H a l l i n 1905 and, i n need o f f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y t o s u p p o r t a g r o w i n g f a m i l y , he a c c e p t e d t h e o f f e r o f t h e p o s i t i o n as head o f t h e o r y a t t h e R o y a l C o n s e r v a t o r y o f M u s i c i n T o r o n t o . He e m i g r a t e d t o Canada i n 1913, b r i n g i n g h i s f a m i l y o v e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , and soon f o u n d h i m s e l f v e r y much i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g m u s i c a l l i f e o f t h e c i t y . He was a p p o i n t e d o r g a n i s t o f S t . P a u l ' s A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , where an enormous o r g a n was b e i n g i n s t a l l e d i n a new c h u r c h o f c a t h e d r a l p r o p o r t i o n s . I t was t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h i s o r g a n t h a t W i l l a n had i n mind when he composed h i s l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n p i e c e s , n o t a b l y t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n ,  P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue ( 1 9 1 6 ) . 15 O t h e r a c t i v i t i e s o f 1 3 M a r w i c k , p. 10. 1 4 I b i d . I S j o y l i n C a m p b e l 1 - Y u k l , " H e a l e y W i l l a n : The I n d e -p e n d e n t O r g an Works" ( u n p u b l i s h e d D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Dept. o f M u s i c , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , 1976), p. 6. W i l l a n ' s i n t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e d t e a c h i n g m u s i c t h e o r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , b e g i n n i n g i n 1914; s e r v i n g as m u s i c a l d i r e c t o r o f t h e H a r t House T h e a t r e , 1919-1925; and c o m p o s i n g f o r t h e T o r o n t o M e n d e l s s o h n C h o i r . 1 6 W i l l a n a l s o began and d i r e c t e d i n i t s f i r s t s e a s o n t h e T o r o n t o Proms, a summer c o n c e r t s e r i e s b a s e d on t h e London P r o m s . 1 I n 1921 an e v e n t o c c u r e d w h i c h a l t e r e d t h e c o u r s e o f W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e g r e e . He was a s k e d t o s u g g e s t a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i s t a t t h e c h u r c h o f S t Mary M a g d a l e n e , and he o f f e r e d h i s own s e r v i c e s . T h i s move f r o m p e r h a p s t h e most s o u g h t a f t e r c h u r c h p o s i t i o n i n Canada t o a p o o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h u r c h meant a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n income as w e l l as l o s s o f r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f c h u r c h m u s i c . One f a c t o r p r o m p t i n g t h i s move was t h e f a c t t h a t s e r v i c e s a t S t . P a u l ' s were o f t h e low, e v a n -g e l i c a l t y p e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e h i g h , l i t u r g i c a l t y p e w h i c h W i l l a n p r e f e r r e d . A t S t . Mary M a g d a l e n e ' s , where t h e r i t u a l was o f t h e h i g h , A n g l o - C a t h o l i c v a r i e t y , W i l l a n saw t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g a c o m p l e t e m u s i c a l and l i t u r g i c a l t r a d i t i o n . I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t W i l l a n ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e began t o be i n f l u e n c e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by R e n a i s s a n c e 16Marwick, p. 19. 1 7 M a r y W i l l a n - M a s o n , L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r , The Graduate-, 'Magazine o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o A l u m n i , Volume IX, Number 1, S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1981, p. 28. 10 m u s i c . P r i o r t o t h i s t i m e o l d e r m u s i c had had l i t t l e e f f e c t on W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a l s t y l e . I n h i s f i r s t p u b l i s h -ed o r g a n p i e c e , F a n t a s i a upon t h e P l a i n c h a n t M e l o d y  "Ad Coenam A g n i " (1906), t h e h a r m o n i c i d i o m i s f i r m l y r o m a n t i c d e s p i t e t h e m u s i c ' s m e l o d i c b a s i s i n c h a n t . A t S t . M a r y ' s , s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d a c c o m p a n i e d p l a i n s o n g sung by a male c h o i r i n t h e c h a n c e l , and u n a c c o m p a n i e d p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c , g e n e r a l l y i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e , s ung by a m i x e d c h o i r i n t h e w e s t g a l l e r y . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e s e m u s i c a l - l i t u r g i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , W i l l a n w r o t e f o r t h e m i x e d c h o i r a s e r i e s o f masses and m o t e t s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e h i s most l a s t i n g a r t i s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t . De-s e r v i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r m e n t i o n a r e t h e S i x M o t e t s and t h e e l e v e n L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t s . W i t h t h e i r p o l y p h o n i c p a r t w r i t i n g , c h a n t - l i k e melody, f r e e d o m o f rhythm, and modal harmony, t h e y r e p r e s e n t what i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e ven u n i q u e , i n W i l l a n ' s mature i d i o m , and r e p r e s e n t t h e composer a t t h e h e i g h t o f h i s c r e a t i v e p owers. The move t o S t . Mary M a g d a l e n e ' s a l s o p r o v o k e d a change i n W i l l a n ' s a p p r o a c h t o o r g a n e x t e m p o r i z a t i o n . A t S t . P a u l ' s he had d e v e l o p e d a g r a n d i o s e i i m p r o v i s a t o r y s t y l e , b u t a t S t . M a r y ' s , where he i m p r o v i s e d p l a i n s o n g a c c o m paniments, i n t e r l u d e s and p o s t l u d e s , h i s s t y l e became more p e a c e f u l and r e s e r v e d , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e f i n e d and i n t r o s p e c t i v e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e A n g l o - C a t h o l i l i t u r g y . The y e a r s between t h e wars were e x t r e m e l y p r o d u c t i v e .1-1 f o r W i l l a n . I n terms o f c o m p o s i t i o n he p r o d u c e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o l i t u r g i c a l m u s i c , b o t h c o n c e r t m u s i c , in-:, e l u d i n g a f i r s t symphony, and i n c i d e n t a l m u s i c f o r t h e H a r t House T h e a t r e . V e r y a c t i v e as a p e r f o r m e r , W i l l a n was a p p o i n t e d U n i v e r s i t y O r g a n i s t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o i n 1932, a p o s i t i o n he r e t a i n e d u n t i l 1964. W i l l a n ' s c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t i n e a r l y E n g l i s h m u s i c prompted him i n 1934 t o f o r m and d i r e c t a s e c u l a r c h o i r d e v o t e d t o i t s p e r f o r m a n c e . Known as t h e T u d o r S i n g e r s , t h i s g r o u p s p e c i a l i z e d i n E l i z a b e t h a n m a d r i g a l s . D u r i n g th e S e c o nd W o r l d War t h e r a n k s o f t h e T u d o r S i n g e r s were d e p l e t e d , and t h e r e m a i n i n g members j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h t h e c h o i r o f S t . Mary M a g d a l e n e . T h i s g r o u p p e r f o r m e d u n d e r t h e name o f t h e S t . Mary M a g d a l e n e S i n g e r s , t h e i r work c u l m i n a t i n g i n two v e r y s u c c e s s f u l r e c i t a l s a t Town H a l l , New Y o r k , i n 1945 . i 8 By 1940 W i l l a n had s p e n t a l m o s t h a l f h i s l i f e i n Canada, and i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e as a C a n a d i a n composer t h e C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r -a t i o n o f f e r e d him a s e r i e s o f c o m m i s s i o n s f o r l a r g e r works: t h e r a d i o o p e r a T r a n s i t T h r o u g h F i r e ( 1 9 4 2 ) , th e p a g e a n t B r e b u f '(1943) , t h e P i a n o f o r t e C o n c e r t o i n  c m i n o r ( 1 9 4 4 ) , and t h e o p e r a D e i r d r e o f t h e Sorr o w s (1945) . A f t e r t h e war W i l l a n ' s r e p u t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o Ma r w i c k , p. 19. i'2 grow, and c o m m i s s i o n s c o n t i n u e d f r o m a wide r a n g e o f s o u r c e s . I n 1950 he f o r m e d t h e G r e g o r i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f T o r o n t o i n o r d e r t o promote p l a i n c h a n t , and w i t h h i s r e t i r e m e n t f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y i n t h a t y e a r he was a b l e t o d e v o t e more t i m e t o c o m p o s i t i o n . I n t h e same y e a r h i s l a s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e L u t h e r a n p u b l i s h i n g house C o n c o r d i a began. He was a s k e d t o w r i t e a s e r i e s o f s i x c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s , and f o l l o w i n g t h e i r s u c c e s s was u r g e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l s e t . I n t h e s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s he w r o t e f o r t h e same company e i g h t a d d i t i o n a l p r e l u d e s , a M i s s a  B r e v i s , s i x m o t e t s , t h i r t e e n anthems, s e v e n hymn-anthems, and a l a r g e volume o f m i s c e l l a n e o u s l i t u r g i c a l m u s i c . T h i s c o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C o n c o r d i a gave him f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h h i s r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s . F o l l o w i n g t h e l e a d o f C o n c o r d i a , t h e C. F. P e t e r s C o r p o r a t i o n began i n 1956 a s e r i e s o f c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e composer's d e a t h . F o r t h i s h ouse he w r o t e a t o t a l o f 139 c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s , an a c h i e v e m e n t whose i m p o r t a n c e was r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c . ^ I n a d d i t i o n , he p r o v i d e d P e t e r s w i t h two l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n works, t h e P a s s a c a g l i a i ^ W i l l i A p e l , H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c , (2nd. e d i t i o n ; C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p. 921. M e n t i o n i s h e r e made t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e o f t r a n s c r i b i n g v o l u n t a r i e s f r o m anthems, o r a t o r i o s , and i n s t r u m e n t a l works "has f o r t u n a t e l y a l m o s t v a n i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y composers o f v o l u n -t a r i e s , s u c h as H. W i l l a n , E. Thiman, and many o t h e r s . " 13 and Fugue No. 2 i n e m i n o r (1959) and t h e A n d a n t e ,  Fugue and C h o r a l e (19 6 5 ) , as w e l l as f o u r anthems, t w e n t y hymn-anthems, and a number o f m i s c e l l a n e o u s p i e c e s . I n t h e s e p o s t - w a r y e a r s W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a l s t y l e , r a t h e r t h a n d e v e l o p i n g t h e t r e n d s e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r , t o o k a more c o n s e r v a t i v e t u r n . H i s c o m p o s i t i o n s began t o t a k e on a more " c l a s s i c a l " f l a v o u r i n terms o f f o r m a l p r o p o r t i o n s and a d h e r e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s . M a r w i c k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e t r e n d was due t o t h e f a c t t h a t W i l l a n was w r i t i n g f o r c h o i r s o f l e s s a b i l i t y t h a n h i s own, and, a c c o r d i n g l y , m o d i f y i n g h i s s t y l e t o accommodate them.^O Though t h i s may have some v a l i d i t y , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t h i s p r e - w a r m o t e t s a r e no more d i f f i c u l t t o s i n g t h a n h i s l a t e r o n e s . A more l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t he was f o r c e d , t h r o u g h t h e s h e e r numbers o f c o m m i s s i o n s , t o w r i t e more q u i c k l y , r e l y i n g on h i s ' e s t a b l i s h e d c o m p o s i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . T h a t W i l l a n had l o s t none o f h i s c r e a t i v e powers a f t e r t h e war, and t h a t he was s t i l l a b l e t o w r i t e complex m u s i c , i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e P a s s a c a g l i a and  Fugue No. 2 o f 1952, a work u n d o u b t e d l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e e a r l i e r and h i g h l y a c c l a i m e d I n t r o d u c t i o n , P a s s a c a g l i a  and Fugue o f 1916. The P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue No. 2 c o n t a i n s a l l t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e e a r l i e r work i n a 2 0 M a r w i c k , pp. 69, 8G, 92, 118, 156, 158, 176, 1 9 0 f f . more compact d e s i g n o f b e t t e r p r o p o r t i o n s w h i c h n e v e r -t h e l l e s s p r o d u c e s a t l e a s t as t h r i l l i n g an e f f e c t as t h e e a r l i e r work. I n 1952 W i l l a n was h o n o u r e d by a command p e r f o r m -a n c e , b e f o r e P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h , o f h i s h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l c h o r a l work, An A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s . ?•*-P e r f o r m e d a t t h e S t . C e c i l i a ' s Day c o n c e r t , t h i s work drew t h e a t t e n t i o n o f W i l l i a m M c K i e (now S i r W i l l i a m ) , t h e o r g a n i s t o f W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey. M c K i e a s k e d W i l l a n t o compose a hommage anthem t o be p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e c o r o n a t i o n o f t h e P r i n c e s s i n 1953. A t t h e same t i m e he was c o m m i s s i o n e d by t h e C.B.C. t o w r i t e a l a r g e work f o r c h o r u s and o r c h e s t r a , t o be p e r f o r m e d on t h e n e t w o r k i n h o n o u r o f t h e c o r o n a t i o n . J une 2, 1953 was a day o f t r i u m p h f o r W i l l a n : h i s anthem 0 L o r d ,  Our G o v e r n o u r was p e r f o r m e d i n W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey w h i l e t h e C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e :was b e i n g a i r e d a c r o s s Canada. I n 1959 t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d p r o d u c e d a f i l m a b o u t W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . He i s s e e n i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s -- c o m p o s i n g , r e h e a r s i n g , and t e a c h i n g a c l a s s i n w h i c h he a p p e a r s t o i m p r o v i s e a f u g u e , i n c l u d i n g s t r e t t o and i n v e r s i o n , a t t h e p i a n o . I n f a c t , however, t h i s f u g u e had been w r i t t e n e a r l i e r by W i l l a n , and i s p u b l i s h e d as t h e Fugue i n e m i n o r . 2 l B r y a n t , p. 18. T h i s work, composed i n 1921 f o r t h e T o r o n t o M e n d e l s s o h n C h o i r , i s a l a r g e - s c a l e m o t e t f o r two c h o i r s and m y s t i c o r echo c h o i r s . T h i s u n f o r t u n a t e e p i s o d e has c a u s e d some c o n f u s i o n as t o W i l l a n ' s a c t u a l a b i l i t y as an i m p r o v i s o r . I n t h e P a r k e r T a p e s , a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h W i l l a n i n h i s l a s t y e a r s , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i n q u i r e s i n t o W i l l a n ' s a b i l i t y : P a r k e r : You were a b l e t o i m p r o v i s e f u g u e s and and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . W i 1 l a n : Wei1... P a r k e r : B u t i n t h e f i l m Man o f M u s i c you i m p r o v i s e d a whole f u g u e i n f r o n t o f a c l a s s . W i l l a n : W e l l . . , Y e s . . , I s u p p o s e I d i d . 2 2 A l t h o u g h h i s a b i l i t y as a c o n t r a p u n t a l i m p r o v i s o r may be b r o u g h t i n t o q u e s t i o n , t h e r e i s no d o u b t o f h i s s k i l l i n e v o k i n g moodssof m y s t e r y , g r a n d e u r , s e r e n -i t y and p e a c e t h r o u g h i m p r o v i s a t i o n . I n t h e f i n a l y e a r s o f h i s l i f e , W i l l a n c o m p l e t e l y r e v i s e d h i s o p e r a , D e i r d r e , t h e work he c o n s i d e r e d h i s f i n e s t , and i t r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t s t a g e p e r f o r m a n c e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o i n 1965. T h e s e y e a r s saw a s l o w d e c l i n e i n W i l l a n ' s h e a l t h , b u t a f t e r a c a t a r a c t o p e r a t i o n i n November, 1967 he managed t o f i n d t h e s t r e n g t h t o a p p e a r and d i r e c t t h e m i d n i g h t s e r v i c e a t S t . M a r y ' s , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t h i s e y e s were c o v e r e d w i t h b a n d a g e s . The b e a u t y o f h i s f i n a l i m p r o v i s a t i o n a t t h i s C h r i s t m a s Eve mass o f 1967 i s a c k n o w l e d g e d by most o f t h o s e who were p r e s e n t . I n e a r l y F e b r u a r y , 2 2 T h e P a r k e r Tapes a r e a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h W i l l a n , c o n d u c t e d by Rev. Dr. Max P a r k e r between 1963 and 1965. They a r e a v a i l a b l e a t t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada 16> 1968 he had a m i l d h e a r t a t t a c k , and on t h e 1 6 t h . o f t h a t month he d i e d i n h i s s l e e p . 2 3 T h r o u g h o u t h i s l o n g c a r e e r , W i l l a n was a c c o r d e d numerous h o n o u r s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h an h o n o u r a r y Mus. Doc. f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o i n 1920. O t h e r d e g r e e s r e c e i v e d were; an LL.D. f r o m Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 9 5 2 ) , a D. L i t t . f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a ( 1 9 5 4 ) , t h e Lambeth D o c t o r a t e , Mus. D. C a n t u a r . , c o n f e r r e d by t h e a r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y ( 1 9 5 6 ) , and a D. L i t t . f r o m M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 9 6 2 ) . 2 4 W i l l a n was made an h o n o u r a r y member o f t h e C a n a d i a n L eague o f Composers (1955), a f e l l o w o f t h e A n c i e n t Monuments S o c i e t y o f E n g l a n d ( 1 9 5 8 ) , a f e l l o w o f t h e R o y a l S c h o o l o f C h u r c h M u s i c ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and a f e l l o w o f t h e R o y a l H a m i l t o n C o l l e g e o f M u s i c ( 1 9 6 5 ) . He was awarded t h e Canada C o u n c i l M e d a l i n 1961, and was made a Companion o f t h e . O r d e r o f Canada i n 1967 . 2 5 W i l l a n ' s a c t i v i t i e s as a pedagogue h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s own t h o u g h t s as a composer and m u s i c a l t h i n k e r . As n o t e d above, h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e i n Canada c e n t r e d a r o u n d h i s t e a c h i n g d u t i e s a t t h e R o y a l C o n s e r v a t o r y o f M u s i c and l a t e r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o . W i l l a n t a u g h t b o t h t h e o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n , n u m b e r i n g among h i s 2 ^ C a m p b e l 1 - Y u k l , p. 10. The c a t a r a c t o p e r a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n Nov. 1967, n o t 1964 as ,Campbel1-Yukl s t a t e s . 2 4 B r y a n t , p. 18. 2 5 i b i d . p. 20. 1 7 s t u d e n t s many n o t a b l e C a n a d i a n composers and m u s i c o l o -g i s t s o f t h e s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n ; L o u i s Applebaum, G e r a l d B a l e s , J o h n B e c k w i t h , K i e t h B i s s e l , F r e d e r i c k C l a r k e , R o b e r t F l e m i n g , K e l s e y J o n e s , W a l t e r M a c N u t t , George Maybee, S t a n l e y O s b o r n e , C h a r l e s P e a k e r , E l d o n R a t h b u r n , G o d f r e y R i d o u t , F r e d e r i c k S i l v e s t e r , and ? 6 J o h n W e i n z w e i g , t o name a few. I n t e a c h i n g c o m p o s i t i o n , W i l l a n e n c o u r a g e d h i s s t u d e n t s t o a n a l y s e o l d m a s t e r w o r k s and t o compose p i e c e s i m i t a t i v e o f t h e i r s t y l e s . W i l l a n ' s own a b i l i t y i n t h i s a r e a i s e v i d e n c e d by c e r t a i n p i e c e s , w r i t t e n l a t e i n h i s c a r e e r , w h i c h b e a r t h e marks o f o t h e r c o m p o s e r s . E s p e c i a l l y f i n e examples a r e t o be f o u n d i n a s e r i e s o f p i e c e s w r i t t e n as i n c i d e n t a l m u s i c f o r t h e r a d i o - d r a m a B r e b u f and h i s B r e t h r e n . The c o n t r a -p u n t a l s t y l e o f Bach's D i e K u n s t d e r Fuge i s v e r y a c c u r a t e l y i m i t a t e d i n one o f t h e movements f r o m B r e b u f , t h e Fugue i n g m i n o r f o r s t r i n g s . T h i s p i e c e c o n t a i n s two r e f e r e n c e s t o i t s m o d e l . Example 1.2 i s a q u o t a t i o n o f Bach's own f u g u e s u b j e c t i n t h e 2 6 H e l m u t K a l l m a n n , G i l l e s P o t v i n , K e n n e t h W i n t e r s , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f M u s i c i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1981), p. 1000. M a c m i l l a n and B e c k w i t h , C o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n  Composers, p. 29. Helmut K a l l m a n n , C a t a l o g u e o f C a n a d i a n Composers, r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , ( C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1951), p. 213. 18 f i r s t v i o l i n , and Example 1.3 i s a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e B A C H theme i n i n v e r s i o n , B - f l a t , C, A, B - n a t u r a l , i n t h e f i n a l n o t e s o f t h e v i o l a . The m u s i c o f Bach no d o u b t had a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on W i l l a n ' s own d e v e l o p m e n t . A W i l l a n d i s c i p l e , M a r g a r e t D r y n a n r e l a t e s t h a t he l o v e d Bach, and t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l w r i t i n g i n h i s own works r e v e a l s h i s a b s o r p t i o n w i t h t h e m u s i c o f Bach and t h e composers o f t h e T u d o r p e r i o d 2 ? Norman G a r y J o h n s o n o b s e r v e s t h a t i n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s e s W i l l a n r e q u i r e d h i s s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y Bach's use o f c o u n t e r p o i n t c l o s e l y and t o compose works o f t h e i r own, making use o f t h e same c o n t r a p u n t a l d e v i c e s . 2 8 Example 1.2 Fugue i n g m i n o r , mm. 3 4-37. P f—, 1— — | f, P 1 ? r R e p r o d u c e E s t a t e o f d by H e a l ' perm ay W f-iss i l l ic ai — 3n o f i . H — t h e Example 1.3 Fugue i n g m i n o r , mm. 33-35. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f the E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . ^ M a r g a r e t D r y n a n , A T r i b u t e t o H e a l e y W i l l a n , ( T o r o n t o : R o y a l C a n a d i a n C o l l e g e o f O r g a n i s t s , 1979), p. 7. 2 8 N o r m a n G a r y J o h n s o n , " H e a l e y W i l l a n 1880-1968," The A m e r i c a n O r g a n i s t , O c t o b e r , 1980, p. 34. 19 The m o t e t Ave Verum C o r p u s , a l s o f r o m t h e c y c l e B r e b u f , shows t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e T u d o r composer W i l l i a m B y r d , whose own m o t e t Ave Verum C o r p u s o b v i o u s -l y s e r v e s as a m o d e l . Examples 1.4 and 1.5 e x h i b i t t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f s t y l e between t h e two p i e c e s , b o t h i n g m i n o r . I n e a c h example t h e s o p r a n o i s answered by t h e o t h e r v o i c e s , and b o t h make us e o f m i n o r s e c o n d s f o r e x p r e s s i v e e f f e c t . I n Example 1.4, f r o m B y r d 1 s m o t e t , t h e m i n o r s e c o n d s o c c u r between t h e D and E - f l a t o f t h e a l t o , t h e B - f l a t and A o f t h e s o p r a n o , and t h e C and B, and G and F - s h a r p , o f t h e t e n o r . I n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a s s a g e o f W i l l a n 1 s work, Example 1.5, t h e m i n o r s e c o n d s a r e f o u n d between t h e G and A - f l a t , and t h e B and C, o f t h e s o p r a n o , t h e G and A - f l a t o f Example 1.4 B y r d , Ave Verum C o r p u s , mm. 33-37. frtfU- 1 - 1 1 i "T4—r~ mi-M. 0 V 1 P d 1 — j — 0 1 p' -i — I—c e —c v -0 J e -—i—1 - a - rn-tt. ^ , r 4 = eif, -irn c - * — f • - e> 0 J e -= F — = — : ] ^ — = 1 = 4 = i * r r 1 0 U-1 > 1 1 \f < i— f M - e, i f ni 1 ^ - & d — 1—o— ±4 — —J ' — i 1— - mi-™. 0 <W- c\t, 0 f«-«;0 J e -20 Example 1.5 W i l l a n , Ave Verum C o r p u s , mm. 38-44. _ j • 3 h « i p <? ii $>po - T)€. ft> 1 1 d— 0 — 1 — i — Do—(j. clvl-eif, 0 - Y f 1 - € , —F < -1—F-—f 9' J J 1 — TIC, 0 p," tig, 0 P • i — ?g c—i e, 0 1fcTl c 3 -b_c—c iv 3 0 P L/TV -* - * . 0 If *f 1 — - 1 ^ C i * , 0 f 4j %^ o J f 11 -*e. 0 eU — 0 p' - e , 0 Je — 0 Copyright 1948 by Fre d e r i c k H a r r i s Music. Reproduced by permission. t h e a l t o , t h e C and B o f t h e t e n o r , and t h e G and A - f l a t o f t h e b a s s . The m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f t h e m o t i v e s , a r i s e and f a l l , i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n b o t h examples. The s t y l e s o f R e g e r , E l g a r , Brahms, Rachmaninov, and Debussy a r e a l s o c l e a r l y i n e v i d e n c e i n c e r t a i n p i e c e s o f W i l l a n ' s work. Any d o u b t t h a t W i l l a n was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a b i l i t y t o i m i t a t e o t h e r composer's s t y l e s s h o u l d be d i s p e l l e d by s t u d y i n g a g r o u p o f p i e c e s w r i t t e n f o r a f r i e n d o f h i s , R e v e r e n d Dr. Car m i n o de C a t a n z a r o . T h e s e s m a l l c o n t r a p u n t a l p i e c e s -- v e r s e t s and v e r s i c l e s -- l i s t e d among t h e V a r i a o f W i l l a n ' s o u t p u t a r e m u s i c a l j o k e s , and i t c a n be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g n o t e s t h a t t h e y were c o n s c i o u s l y composed i n i m i t a t i o n o f Bach, B y r d , and o t h e r s . y W i l l a n ' s t e a c h i n g o f c o m p o s i t i o n was n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o s t y l i s t i c i m i t a t i o n . He was w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n o p e n l y t o new i d e a s p u t f o r t h by h i s s t u d e n t s w h i l e he was t e a c h i n g them b a s i c c o m p o s i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e . R o b e r t F l e m i n g t e l l s us any "new" i d e a . . . was d i s c u s s e d w i t h o u t b i a s and p u t t h r o u g h t h e m i c r o s c o p e o f h i s a l l - s e e i n g - e y e . When s u c h a s e s s i o n was o v e r t h e young s t u d e n t knew p r e c i s e -l y why h i s i d e a s were good o r bad f r o m a t e c h n i c a l v i e w p o i n t and t h e a e s t h e t i c s were a m a t t e r o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s c o n s c i e n c e f r o m t h i s p o i n t onward.30 Some o f W i l l a n ' s t h o u g h t s c o n c e r n i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c a l a e s t h e t i c s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e r e p o r t s o f h i s f o r m e r s t u d e n t s , and t h e s e i d e a s r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g W i l l a n ' s a p p r o a c h t o c o m p o s i t i o n . M a r w i c k r e p o r t s t h a t W i l l a n s a i d a l l m u s i c s h o u l d have sh a p e , d e s i g n , and m e l o d i c c o n t e n t . I f t h e s e a r e n o t t o be f o u n d i n any m u s i c , w h e t h e r i t be a n c i e n t o r modern, Dr. W i l l a n has no i n t e r e s t i n i t . 3 1 G e r a l d B a l e s s t a t e s t h a t as a t e a c h e r W i l l a n i m p r e s s e d him most by h i s " p h i l o s o p h y o f economy o f m a t e r i a l s com-b i n e d w i t h an a c u t e s e n s e o f f o r m and b a l a n c e . "32 j _ n h i s t e a c h i n g , r a t h e r t h a n p r e s s i n g on h i s s t u d e n t s a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e , " h i s t a s k , o f w h i c h he was u t t e r l y 2 9 H o l o g r a p h s o f t h e s e p i e c e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e H e a l e y W i l l a n C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada. 3C>Marwick, p. 199 3 l L o u i s e McCready, C a n a d i a n P o r t r a i t s : Famous  M u s i c i a n s , ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e I r w i n , 1957), p. 133. 3 2 C a m p b e l l - Y u k l , p. 16. 22 c o n v i n c e d , was t o i m p a r t . . . a t e c h n i q u e . I f i t s ounded r i g h t t o h i s s t u d e n t s , t h e n i t was r i g h t . " 3 3 i n w i l l a n ' s own m u s i c , as I hope t o show, t h i s p r e d e l i c t i o n f o r economy o f m a t e r i a l s and t h i s s e n s e o f f o r m and b a l a n c e combine t o p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n f o r a h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e . W i l l a n i s o f t e n t h o u g h t o f as an " o l d f o g e y " when i t comes t o c o m p o s i t i o n , b u t i t must be remembered t h a t h i s m u s i c a l t r a i n i n g was v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e by 1900. H i s most c r e a t i v e p e r i o d , d u r i n g w h i c h he e v o l v e d h i s d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e , c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s . W i l l a n has n o t a l w a y s been c o n s i d e r e d o l d f a s h i o n e d ; A u g u s t u s B r i d l e , i n a 1929 s u r v e y o f C a n a d i a n c o m p o s e r s , d e s c r i b e d W i l l a n ' s c o m p o s i t i o n as " i n t h e modern s t y l e , b u t w i t h t r u e r e g a r d f o r f o r m , m e l o d i c l i n e , and i n t e l l i g i b l e harmony,"34 s u r e l y a d e s c r i p t i o n o f w h i c h W i l l a n c o u l d be p r o u d . Commenting on h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , W i l l a n s a i d : " S t r a v i n s k y i s a g r e a t composer, b u t h i s m u s i c h a s n ' t s e t t l e d y e t . " 3 5 ; "Debussy was t h e most o r i g i n a l composer 3 3 Q o d f r e y R i d o u t , " H e a l e y W i l l a n " , The C a n a d i a n  M u s i c J o u r n a l , V o l . I l l ( S p r i n g , 1959), p. 13. 3 4 A u g u s t u s B r i d l e , "Who W r i t e s Our M u s i c ? " , MacLeans M a g a z i n e , (December 15, 1929), p. 20. 3 5 K i l d a r e Dobbs, "Canada's I m p i s h Dean o f Composers", S t a r Weekly M a g a z i n e , (December 22, 1962), p. 6. who e v e r l i v e d . " J f c > ; and " T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g l a s t i n g i n f u n n y n o i s e s . " 3 7 . T h e s e comments show t h a t he r e c o g n i z e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f two o f t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e composers o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , and t h a t he f e l t t h a t modern t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d add t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n s i n a m e a n i n g f u l way, r a t h e r t h a n c o m p l e t e l y s u p e r c e d i n g them. W i l l a n ' s method o f t e a c h i n g m u s i c t h e o r y , as r e c o r d -ed by h i s f o r m e r s t u d e n t s , o f f e r s f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o h i s a c t i v i t i e s as a composer. Many o f t h e s e s o u r c e s m e n t i o n h i s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e a b i l i t y t o w r i t e f l u e n t t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t , an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f h i s own t e c h n i q u e . He c a l l e d c o u n t e r p o i n t t h e l o g i c o f m u s i c , and p r o p o s e d as h i s e p i t a p h : "He p r e a c h e d t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t and nobody b e l i e v e d him. 1 , 3 8 F o r W i l l a n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s o p r a n o melody and t h e b a s s l i n e were o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e , and we s h a l l see l a t e r how h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s r e f l e c t t h i s way o f t h i n k i n g t o a r e m a r k a b l e d e g r e e . T h a t he was p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p a r a l l e l f i f t h s c an be s u p p o r t e d by a s p e c t s o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y as r e p o r t e d by :two o b s e r v e r s ' who worked w i t h him. 36The P a r k e r Tapes (1963-1965), N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada. 3 7 H u g h Thompson, " S t i l l i n Tune a t 84", The G l o b e  M a g a z i n e , ( O c t o b e r 17, 1964), p. 5. 3 8 G o d f r e y R i d o u t , " H e a l e y W i l l a n , " M u s i c a n a d a , V o l . X L I I , ( S p r i n g , 1980), p. 6. 24 G i l e s B r y a n t , h i s s u c c e s s o r a t S t . Mary M a g d a l e n e ' s , d e s c r i b e s t h e " f e r o c i t y " w i t h w h i c h he marked t h e p a r a l l e l f i f t h s i n h i s copy o f The Cambridge Hymnal, (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), a modern hymnal w h i c h p a y s l i t t l e r e g a r d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c o u n t e r - ' p o i n t . 3 9 M a r g a r e t D r y n a n m e n t i o n s t h a t he c o n s i s t e n t l y f e r r e t e d o u t c o n s e c u t i v e f i f t h s i n h i s s t u d e n t s ' work.40 P a r a l l e l i s m p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n W i l l a n ' s s t y l e , and t h e e x p l a n a t i o n he gave f o r h i s own u s e o f p a r a l l e l f i f t h s was: "You c a n b r e a k t h e r u l e s f o r a s p e c i a l e f f e c t , b u t you have t o know t h e r u l e s b e f o r e y ou c a n b r e a k t h e m . " 4 1 L o r n e Watson, r e c o l l e c t i n g h i s harmony c l a s s , p r o v i d e s some r e v e a l i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a l t h o u g h t : W i l l a n ' s t e a c h i n g o f harmony and c o u n t e r p o i n t --one i n d i v i s i b l e s u b j e c t w i t h him -- was c o m p l e t e l y f a s c i n a t i n g . K i s ' i n s i s t e n c e on s i m p l i f y i n g a l l p r o g r e s s i o n s t o a b s o l u t e b a s i c s o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n two o r t h r e e m e asures o f c h r o m a t i c c h o r d s b e i n g r e d u c e d t o a s i m p l e V - I p r o g r e s s i o n . Such t h i n k i n g p r e p a r e d one f o r a n a l y s i s a l a S c h e n k e r . H i s un-c o m p l i c a t e d t e a c h i n g e n c o u r a g e d s i m p l i c i t y . 4 2 H i s u s e o f t h e word i n s i s t e n c e i n t h i s p a s s a g e i n d i c a t e s 3 9 c i l e s B r y a n t , " H e a l e y W i l l a n -- A P e r s o n a l V iew," The M u s i c S c e n e , No. 311 ( J a n - F e b , 1980), p. 14. 4 0 D r y n a n , p. 6. 4 1 I b i d < 4 2 L o r n e Watson, "The H e a l e y W i l l a n C e n t e n n i a l " , J o u r n a l o f t h e C a n a d i a n F e d e r a t i o n o f M u s i c T e a c h e r s  A s s o c i a t i o n s , X X X I I I , No. 3, (A u g u s t , 1980), p. 8. 25 t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f r e d u c t i o n t o u n d e r l y i n g l e v e l s was v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o W i l l a n . The i s s u e s w h i c h a r o s e i n W i l l a n ' s t e a c h i n g o f m u s i c t h e o r y a r e t h e v e r y ones w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s own m u s i c . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n d e a l s w i t h p a r a l l e l i s m , h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e , and t w o - p a r t framework i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c , w i t h f r e q u e n t r e c o u r s e t o r e d u c t i o n as a way o f e x p l a i n -i n g e a c h o f t h e s e a s p e c t s o f h i s s t y l e i n g r e a t e r d e p t h . 26 I I Surface S t r u c t u r e s Both on the s u r f a c e and a t the deeper l e v e l s of i t s s t r u c t u r e , W i l l a n ' s music e x h i b i t s s t r o n g l y d i s t i n g u i s h -i n g s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s chapter w i l l e x p l o r e some of these t r a i t s i n t h e i r s u r f a c e l e v e l manifest;-, a t i o n s . W i l l a n ' s i n d i v i d u a l , o f t e n unique approaches to the use of the common c o n t r a p u n t a l devices w i l l be d i s c u s s e d here, and h i s i n t e r e s t i n g use of p a r a l l e l i s m w i l l be t r e a t e d as w e l l , both d i s c u s s i o n s s e r v i n g as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s s t y l e and as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the a n a l y t i c a l s t u d i e s which f o l l o w . Dissonance Treatment W i l l a n makes use of a l l the t r a d i t i o n a l types of dissonance, and the f o l l o w i n g pages d i s c u s s h i s own p a r t i c u l a r use of dissonance -- p a s s i n g tones ( a b b r e v i -ated to "p" i n the examples), neighbour tones o r aux-i l i a r i e s (n), suspensions ( s ) , appoggiaturas (app), a n t i c i p a t i o n s ( a n t ) , cambiatas (cam), escape tones o r echappees ( e t ) , and pedal p o i n t s (pp) -- i l l u s t r a t e d by examples from the works of W i l l a n ' s middle p e r i o d . T h i s study begins with simple examples of dissonances o c c u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n groups, and continues with examples of a more complex nature, i n v o l v i n g v a r i o u s types of dissonance a c t i n g c o n c u r r e n t l y . Examples of dissonance are drawn from the f i r s t ten of the 27 e l e v e n L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t s (1928-1935). (The f i n a l m o t e t o f t h e s e r i e s , Who i s She t h a t A s c e n d e t h (1937) , i s c a s t i n a s t y l e l e s s t y p i c a l o f W i l l a n ' s m i d d l e p e r i o d . I t p r e s e n t s a f r e e r , more " c o n t e m p o r a r y " s t y l e . ) T h e s e m o t e t s , w r i t t e n ; , a t t h e h e i g h t o f h i s c r e a t i v e powers 1, d e m o n s t r a t e t h e g r e a t e s t f r e e d o m o f p a r t m o t i o n w h i l e s t i l l , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , a d h e r i n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t r a p u n t a l r u l e s . P a s s i n g t o n e s and n e i g h b o u r t o n e s S i m p l e p a s s i n g t o n e s o c c u r v e r y commonly i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f p a s s i n g t o n e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d i n h i s m u s i c w h i c h a r e o f i n t e r e s t : t h e f r e e p a s s i n g t o n e and t h e p a s s i n g c h o r d . Example 2.1 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 7-8. Example 2.1 c o n t a i n s a f r e e p a s s i n g t o n e where t h e t e n o r moves f r o m E - f l a t t h r o u g h F t o A - f l a t . E mphasis on t h e F i n t h e t e n o r , combined w i t h r e s o l u t i o n by s k i p , g i v e s t h e F a q u a s i - h a r m o n i c s t a b i l i t y . The C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . M a r w i c k , p. 27. 28 e f f e c t i s c l o s e t o t h a t o f an F m i n o r s e v e n t h c h o r d , w h i l e t h e a c t u a l harmony i s an A - f l a t c h o r d . On t h e s e c o n d h a l f - n o t e o f Example 2.2, an A m a j o r t r i a d i s u s e d as a p a s s i n g c h o r d . The p r e c e d i n g ' F - s h a r p i n t h e a l t o i s a p a s s i n g n o t e w h i c h c o n n e c t s t h e p r i m a r y t r i a d , G, w i t h t h e p a s s i n g t r i a d . The u s e o f m u l t i p l e p a s s i n g t o n e s c r e a t e s t h e smooth, s t e p p e d q u a l i t y w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f W i l l a n ' s s t y l e . I n t h i s example t h e l a r g e s t m e l o d i c i n t e r v a l i n any v o i c e i s t h e m a j o r s e c o n d . Example 2.2 Q K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 4 5-47. p 3m m C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . W i l l a n makes e x t e n s i v e use o f n e i g h b o u r s i n ways w h i c h go b e y o n d t h e norm o f mere d e c o r a t i v e o rnament. H i s n e i g h b o u r t o n e s o f t e n have v o i c e - l e a d i n g f u n c t i o n s and become e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e m u s i c . I n Example 2.3 t h e n e i g h b o u r t o n e , C, c a u s e s a d i s s o n a n c e t o o c c u r between t h e s o p r a n o and a l t o . A l t h o u g h t h e d i s s o n a n c e r e s o l v e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f o l l o w i n g measure, W i l l a n t r e a t s t h e s o p r a n o B - f l a t as a s o r t o f s u s p e n s i o n w h i c h r e s o l v e s when t h e s o p r a n o r e a c h e s A. The n e i g h b o u r i s t r e a t e d by W i l l a n as a h a r m o n i c note i n r e l a t i o n to the soprano, causing the B - f l a t to become u n s t a b l e . Example 2.4 shows another arrange-ment of the same p a t t e r n , but i n t h i s case the r e s o l u t i o n of the tenor i n v o l v e s a cambiata f i g u r e . Example 2.3 Lo, In the Time Appointed, mm. 19-20 m If C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.4 Lo, In the Time Appointed, mm. 31-32 C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.5 shows a t y p i c a l i n s t a n c e of three concurrent neighbours i n c o n t r a r y motion, c r e a t i n g a harsh dissonance of a minor n i n t h and a major seventh on the second beat. In Example 2.6, W i l l a n ' s use of a neighbour chord c r e a t e s a f i v e - t o n e s o n o r i t y . Here the a l t o F, being a t h i r d away from i t s o r i g i n a l note, i s not a neighbour but a consonant harmonization of the two ot h e r neighbours. 30 Example 2.5 F a i r i n F a c e , m. 2. C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.6 0 K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do, L i v e , m. 8. C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.7 shows a r a r e u s e o f n e i g h b o u r s w h i c h a c t on t h e same p i t c h , D, b u t w h i c h a r e o u t o f s t e p r h y t h m i c a l l y . When t h e t e n o r r e s o l v e s i t s n e i g h b o u r i n g E b a c k t o D, t h e s o p r a n o moves t o i t s n e i g h b o u r , E. The s o p r a n o and t e n o r exchange p i t c h c l a s s e s , e l e v a t i n g t h e a u x i l i a r y , E, a l m o s t t o t h e s t a t u s o f a h a r m o n i c t o n e . .7 H o d i e , C h r i s l tus n a t u s e s t , mm, 34 \r v • p f A A YH - 1 m  A C o p y r i g h t 1935 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.8 shows t h e u s e o f n e i g h b o u r s i n f o u r v o i c e s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . On t h e f o u r t h e i g h t h - n o t e o f t h i s example t h e u s e o f f o u r n e i g h b o u r s c r e a t e s a d i s s o n a n t n e i g h b o u r i n g c h o r d . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f F - s h a r p a g a i n s t E i n t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s g i v e s t h e n e i g h b o u r c h o r d an e x t r a i m p e t u s t o r e s o l v e . Example 2.9 shows a s i m i l a r n e i g h b o u r c h o r d o f f o u r n o t e s w h i c h i s p r o l o n g e d so t h a t i t assumes t h e s t a t u s o f a h a r m o n i c e l e m e n t as w e l l as t h a t o f a v o i c e l e a d i n g e l e m e n t . Example 2.8 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , m. 4 4 n C o p y r i g h t 1935 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.9 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 8-9 i t C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 32 S u s p e n s i o n s W i l l a n u s e s s u s p e n s i o n s i n a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t -i n g ways. Example 2.10 i s a s i m p l e s u s p e n s i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a modal c a d e n c e , and Example 2.11 i s an i n v e r t e d s u s p e n s i o n -- one w h i c h r e s o l v e s upwards r a t h e r t h a n downwards. The n o r m a l r e s o l u t i o n h e r e w o u l d be F, b u t W i l l a n has u s e d A - f l a t i n s t e a d , b r i n g i n g a b o u t a smoother m e l o d i c l i n e i n t h e t e n o r . T h i s s u s p e n s i o n , as w e l l as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e r h y t h m i c v a r i e t y o f t h e p a s s a g e , a l s o a v o i d s p a r a l l e l f i f t h s between t h e i n n e r v o i c e s . Example 2.10 P r e s e r v e u s , 0 L o r d , m. 6. IB P C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.11 0 K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e , m. 19 r—r. C o p y r i g h t 1931 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . The d o u b l e s u s p e n s i o n o c c u r s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c , o f t e n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . Example 2.12 i s h a r m o n i c a l l y unambiguous, b e c a u s e t h e s u s p e n s i o n s o c c u r i n t h e i n n e r v o i c e s . Here t h e suspend-ed n o t e s become d i s s o n a n c e s when t h e b a s s c a u s e s a h a r m o n i c m o t i o n i n i t s move t o A. Example 2.12 F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 31-32. \ — i T i S = ' ' l a s f C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . I t i s no r m a l f o r t h e u p p e r n o t e s t o f o r m s u s p e n -s i o n s o v e r t h e b a s s , b u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e , Example 2.13a,the u p p e r m o s t n o t e , C - s h a r p , i s t h e h a r m o n i c n o t e , and t h e l o w e r n o t e s a r e s u s p e n d e d . U n t i l t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e l o w e r v o i c e s o c c u r s , t h e C - s h a r p sounds l i k e an a p p o g g i a t u r a w h i c h m i g h t r e s o l v e a c c o r d i n g t o Example Example 2.13a I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, mm. 3-4 C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . , 34 2.13b. B e c a u s e t h e n o n - h a r m o n i c t o n e s outnumber t h e h a r m o n i c t o n e s , and b e c a u s e t h e o n l y h a r m o n i c t o n e i s t h e u p p e r n o t e , t h e n o n - h a r m o n i c t o n e s sound l i k e h a r m o n i c t o n e s u n t i l t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d . Example 2.13b. H The u s e o f m u l t i p l e s u s p e n s i o n s has t h e e f f e c t o f b l u r r i n g t h e h a r m o n i c m o t i o n so t h a t t h e change f r o m one c h o r d t o a n o t h e r becomes a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s . (The r e v e r b e r a n t a c o u s t i c s o f c h u r c h e s , where t h e s e m o t e t s a r e u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d , n a t u r a l l y r e i n f o r c e t h i s e f f e c t . ) I n Example 2.14 t h e a p p a r e n t s u s p e n s i o n o f C i n t h e t e n o r , w h i c h w o u l d n o r m a l l y r e s o l v e t o B, i s d i s s o l v e d when t h e D i n t h e a l t o r i s e s t o E and t h e b a s s n o t e c h a n ges t o C. The a l t o D a t f i r s t sounds l i k e a h a r m o n i c t o n e , b u t i t i s a c t u a l l y a p r e p a r e d a p p o g g i a t u r a . The t e n o r C no l o n g e r needs r e s o l u t i o n when i t i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e b a s s C. Example 2.15 i n c l u d e s a s u s p e n s i o n i n t h e l o w e s t v o i c e . The f i r s t C - s h a r p i n t h e b a s s i s a l o w e r n e i g h b o u r , b u t t h e s e c o n d i s t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e 35 Example 2.14 B e h o l d , t h e Tabernacl-e o f God, mm. 1-3 E E E ^ E E -6-1 C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . s u s p e n d e d D. B e c a u s e o f t h e m e l o d i c c o n t e x t o f t h e b a s s l i n e and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u s p e n s i o n o c c u r s i n t h e low r a n g e o f t h e l o w e s t v o i c e , t h e l e a d i n g t o n e e f f e c t o f t h e C - s h a r p i s weakened. The C - s h a r p i n t h e s e c o n d measure sounds v e r y much l i k e a l o w e r n e i g h b o u r , w h i c h i t i s i n t h e f i r s t m easure. (The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l e a d i n g t o n e i n W i l l a n " s m u s i c i s f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . ) Example 2.15 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 23-24 f 0 n s C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.16 shows a c h a i n o f s u s p e n s i o n s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c a d e n t i a l f i g u r e . I t i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f a R e n a i s s a n c e c a d e n t i a l f i g u r e i n i t s use o f s u s -p e n s i o n s and s t e p w i s e r e s o l u t i o n , b u t n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h R e n a i s s a n c e norms a r e t h e h e l d n o t e , F - s h a r p , i n t h e s o p r a n o , and t h e a b s e n c e o f a r a i s e d l e a d i n g t o n e , A - s h a r p , i n t h e t e n o r w h i c h p r o d u c e s a neo-modal e f f e c t , a t y p i c a l o f W i l l a n ' s m i d d l e p e r i o d . S u s p e n s i o n s a r e u s e d h e r e t o a v o i d t h e p a r a l l e l f i f t h s i n what w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be a s i m p l e p r o g r e s s i o n o f s i x t h -c h o r d s . Example 2.16 F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 17-19. 5 f e 7 T" T¥* f f f f J. C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.17 i s a s u s p e n s i o n c h a i n i n f i v e v o i c e s , t r e a t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y . E a c h s u s p e n s i o n i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a l o w e r n e i g h b o u r i n a manner r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e B a r o q u e p o l y p o n i c s t y l e . Example 2.17 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 14-17. M J i i i S s r — p - — - r r < = 1 i 9 — 1 p r ^ - e — 5 — » - a -„ hp' t\p g #=; C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 37 A p p o g g i a t u r a s I n h i s v o c a l w r i t i n g , W i l l a n u s e s a l a r g e number o f b o t h p r e p a r e d and u n p r e p a r e d a p p o g g i a t u r a s . T h e s e a r e n o r m a l l y r e s o l v e d downwards a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e y r i s e . Example 2.18 i n c l u d e s a s i m p l e p r e p a r e d a p p o g g i a -t u r a w i t h a f a l l i n g r e s o l u t i o n . The a p p o g g i a t u r a i s u s e d h e r e p r i m a r i l y t o a v o i d p a r a l l e l f i f t h s . Example 2.18 0 K i n g a l l G l o r i o u s , m. 25 m r r Lr f ' app» I -hi J J J I C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.19 shows two a p p o g g i a t u r a s a t o n c e , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e p r e p a r e d . A l t h o u g h t h e a l t o ap-p o g g i a t u r a i s made by way o f a l e a p , t h e A - f l a t i s p r e p a r e d i n t h e s o p r a n o v o i c e . 1 J- — J- MI (Sp v b 4 a r m 4^ mm. 3-4 C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 38 I n W i l l a n ' s u s a g e , a p p o g g i a t u r a s i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n u s u a l l y c o n v e r g e on an o c t a v e o r a u n i s o n . I n Example 2.20, t h e a p p o g g i a t u r a s i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n a r e u n p r e p a r e d , b u t t h e d i s s o n a n t p i t c h c l a s s e s a r e b o t h p r e s e n t i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h o r d . Example 2.20 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 9-10. 3 'app app C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.21 i s u n u s u a l i n t h e m u s i c o f W i l l a n b e c a u s e t h e f a l l i n g r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e two f i n a l a p p o g g i a t u r a s c r e a t e p a r a l l e l f i f t h s . As w i l l be s e e n , W i l l a n n o r m a l l y does n o t use p a r a l l e l f i f t h s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f d i s s o n a n c e r e s o l u t i o n , u s i n g them i n s t e a d as c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n c e s where t h e v o i c e -Example 2.21 I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, mm. 11-app a p p a p p ,app . app C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . l e a d i n g i s l e s s n o t i c e a b l e . I n t h i s example t h e p a r a l l e l f i f t h s a r e o b s c u r e d t o some d e g r e e by t h e o p p o s i n g m o t i o n o f t h e t e n o r v o i c e . I n Example 2.22, rhythm and a c c e n t p l a y an imr p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d i s s o n a n c e , I f t h e b a r l i n e i s u n d e r s t o o d t o i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e -l y s t r o n g p o i n t , t h e s e c o n d C - s h a r p i n t h e a l t o and t h e A i n t h e t e n o r can be h e a r d as a p p o g g i a t u r a s --a c c e n t e d n o n - h a r m o n i c t o n e s — w h i c h r e s o l v e upwards t o D - s h a r p and B. However, i f t h e f i r s t b e a t o f t h e measure i s n o t a c c e n t e d t h e C - s h a r p and A sound l i k e p a s s i n g t o n e s c o n n e c t i n g B and G - s h a r p w i t h D - s h a r p and B. The r o l e o f t h e C - s h a r p and A i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a f f e c t t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e h a r m o n i c t o n e , G - s h a r p , i n t h e s o p r a n o . A s - i n Examples 2.3 and 2.4, t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f G - s h a r p and A a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e measure c a u s e s t h e s o p r a n o G - s h a r p t o d e s c e n d t o F - s h a r p , even t h o u g h t h e d i s s o n a n c e h a s by t h i s t i m e been r e s o l v e d . The a u r a l e f f e c t i s Example 2.2 2 I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, mm. 8-9. C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 40 t h a t t h e C - s h a r p and A a r e h e a r d as h a r m o n i c t o n e s w h i l e t h e G - s h a r p i s h e a r d as a s u s p e n s i o n . The a m b i g u i t i e s o f h a r m o n i c and n o n - h a r m o n i c f u n c t i o n , b r o u g h t a b o u t t h r o u g h , o r i t s e l f r e s u l t i n g i n , de-l i b e r a t e o b s c u r i n g o f t h e m e t r i c a l p u l s e as i n d i c a t e d by t h e b a r l i n e s , l e n d a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n t i n u o u s f l o w . t o W i l l a n ' s m u s i c . The t r i p l e a p p o g g i a t u r a i s u s e d f a i r l y f r e q u e n t -l y by W i l l a n , • Example 2.21 above i n c l u d e s an i n s t a n c e o f t h r e e c o n c u r r e n t a p p o g g i a t u r a s , b o t h r i s i n g and f a l l i n g , t o an E m a j o r c h o r d . The u s e o f a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f d i s s o n a n t t o c o n s o n a n t n o t e s p r o d u c e s an ambiguous h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e : c h o r d s a r e b l u r r e d i n t o one a n o t h e r ; one c h o r d b e g i n s w h i l e a n o t h e r i s s t i l l s o u n d i n g , and t h e n t h e new c h o r d emerges f u l l y , p r o v i d e d t h a t a n o t h e r c h o r d has n o t begun t o c a s t a b l u r r i n g f o r e s h a d o w . Example 2.23 c o n t a i n s a s u c c e s s i o n o f t r i p l e a p p o g g i a t u r a s r e s o l v i n g downwards i n s i x t h - c h o r d s , and p r o v i d e s an example o f t h e b l u r r i n g e f f e c t j u s t m e n t i o n e d . H e r e , e i t h e r t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e f o u r t h q u a r t e r o f t h e f i r s t measure c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e F m i n o r c h o r d . By l a b e l l i n g t h e l o w e r n o t e s as a p p o g g i a t u r a s , one s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e F m i n o r c h o r d b e g i n s on t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e m e asure. However, i t m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t t h e A - f l a t i n t h e s o p r a n o i s a c t u a l l y an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e F minor chord which appears on the f o u r t h beat. Example 2.23 Rise up, my Love, my F a i r One, mm. 7-8. app app C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.2 4 shows W i l l a n ' s use of appoggiaturas i n the context of a modal cadence i n s i x v o i c e s . In music of the e i g h t e e n t h century the c a d e n t i a l appoggia-t u r a chord i s normally a delayed dominant over a-.tonic bass note. W i l l a n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n of the appoggiatura chord to a modal cadence s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e s s i x t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h century d e v i c e s i n a novel e f f e c t . Example 2.2 4 Rise up, my Love, my F a i r One, mm. 2 5-2 6. C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 42 A n t i c i p a t i o n s W i l l a n ' s use of a n t i c i p a t i o n s , although i n f r e q u e n t , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s of i n t e r e s t . Examples 2.25 and 2.26 c o n t a i n a n t i c i p a t i o n s i n the context of a t h r e e - a g a i n s t -two arrangement. In the f i r s t of these, the length of a n t i c i p a t i o n of the C-sharp i n the soprano i s very s l i g h t — o n l y a t r i p l e t e i g h t h - n o t e . The f o l l o w -i n g D-sharp i s a neighbour to C-sharp. This a n t i c i p a t i o n g i v e s a sense of f l u i d i t y to the music, again by b l u r -r i n g the p r e c i s e p o i n t of harmonic movement. Example 2.25b, a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the passage, i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the m a t e r i a l of the second beat i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a s s i n g motion between the f i r s t and t h i r d beats. Example 2.25a I beheld her B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, m. 31. a n t C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.2 5b. 4 3 I n Example 2.26a, t h e t e n o r G - f l a t i s an a n t i -c i p a t i o n w h i c h s t a n d s f o r an u n d e r l y i n g , ^ r e t a i n e d A - f l a t . However, t h e use o f s i x t h - c h o r d s i n t h e l o w e r v o i c e s c a u s e s t h e G - f l a t t o sound l i k e a h a r -m onic t o n e r a t h e r t h a n l i k e an a n t i c i p a t i o n . Example 2.26b i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m o t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e G - f l a t i n t h e s o p r a n o i s d e l a y e d i n i t s m o t i o n t o A - f l a t , a m o t i o n w h i c h w o u l d n o r m a l l y o c c u r a t t h e t i m e t h e l o w e r p a r t s b e g i n t h e i r d e s c e n t . Example 2.26a R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 9-10. C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.26b Example 2.27a i n c l u d e s an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f more e x t e n d e d d u r a t i o n . The a n t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a l t o sounds v e r y much l i k e a c h o r d a l e l e m e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e p a r a l l e l t h i r d r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t p e r t a i n s between t h e u p p e r 44 v o i c e s . I n Example 2.27b, a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r e s s i o n , t h e D - f l a t does n o t o c c u r u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d measure. A c o n f u s i n g e l e m e n t i n Example 2.27a i s t h a t , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e D, t h e C o f t h e t e n o r sounds l i k e an a p p o g g i a t u r a r a t h e r t h a n l i k e t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o u r , B - f l a t . As t h e s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n i l l u s t r a t e s , t h i s r e s o l u t i o n i s a c t u a l l y p a r t o f a s i x t h - c h o r d movement. A l t h o u g h t h e C sounds l i k e t h e n o n - h a r m o n i c t o n e , i s i s a c t u a l l y t h e D - f l a t w h i c h i s d i s s o n a n t . Example 2.27a R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r - O n e , mm. 14-15. C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.27b. C a m b i a t a s and e s c a p e t o n e s B o t h c a m b i a t a s and e s c a p e t o n e s a r e r a r e i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c . H i s r e l u c t a n c e t o make use o f them i s p o s s i b l y due t o t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e s e f i g u r e s t o b r e a k up smooth m e l o d i c l i n e s by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d e c o r a t i v e l e a p s . The s o p r a n o v o i c e o f Example 2.28 c o n t a i n s a c a m b i a t a , D - f l a t , w h i c h c i r c u m v e n t s p a r a l l e l f i f t h s between t h e o u t e r v o i c e s , and w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s t h e s o n o r i t y o n - t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r - n o t e , i n t o . a s e v e n t h c h o r d . . ; _ " Example 2.28 0 K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e , m. 15 C o p y r i g h t 1931 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.29a i n c l u d e s an e s c a p e t o n e i n t h e a l t o v o i c e , t h e m i d d l e e l e m e n t i n t h e m e l o d i c f i g u r e F - s h a r p E, G - s h a r p . However, i n terms o f s t u c t u r a l v o i c e -l e a d i n g , t h e E r e p r e s e n t s a p a s s i n g m o t i o n between t h e a l t o F - s h a r p and t h e t e n o r D - s h a r p . Example 2.29b, a v o i d e d by W i l l a n b e c a u s e o f t h e p a r a l l e l f i f t h s and b e c a u s e t h e t e x t u r e t h i n s t o o n l y t h r e e r e a l p a r t s , shows a more n a t u r a l r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e v o i c e s . Example 2.29a F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 24-25, C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.29b. \9*i*t J J j=| r A P e d a l p o i n t W i l l a n u s e s p e d a l p o i n t i n two d i s t i n c t ways: as a n o n - f u n c t i o n a l t e x t u r a l d e v i c e o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n , and t o e x p r e s s a d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n o f e x t e n d e d d u r a t i o n . I n Example 2.30 t h e t e n o r has a b r i e f p e d a l p o i n t w h i c h i s d i s s o n a n t t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g harmony f o r o n l y one b e a t . The e f f e c t i s as i f t h e t e n o r had f a i l e d t o move t o an A on t h e t h i r d b e a t . S u b s t i t u t i n g an A f o r t h e B a t t h i s p o i n t c l a r i f i e s t h e harmony, b u t t h e t e n o r m elody becomes r e p e t i t i o u s , w h i l e s u b s t i t u t i n g a C - s h a r p r e s u l t s i n p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s . I n o t h e r words, v o i c e - l e a d i n g r e a s o n s were t h e b a s i s o f W i l l a n ' s de-c i s i o n t o l e a v e t h e t e n o r on B as a n o n - f u n c t i o n a l 47 p e d a l . S h o r t p e d a l p o i n t s o f t h i s t y p e a r e u s u a l i n W i l l a n ' s v o c a l w r i t i n g . The e x t e n d e d p e d a l p o i n t w i t h a d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n i s n o t n o r m a l l y f o u n d i n t h e v o c a l m u s i c . However, i t i s s t a n d a r d i n t h e l o n g e r works f o r o r g a n , and i n t h e s e i t a l w a y s o c c u r s as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e f i n a l r e t u r n t o t h e t o n i c key. Two f i n e examples may be f o u n d : i n a v e r y e a r l y o r g a n work, t h e P r e l u d e  and Fugue i n c m i n o r (1 9 0 8 ) , and i n a much l a t e r one, t h e P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue No. 2 i n e m i n o r (19 59) . I n t h e f i r s t t h e p e d a l p o i n t l a s t s f o r t w e n t y - t h r e e m e a sures w h i l e t h e u p p e r v o i c e s p r e s e n t a s e r i e s o f s e q u e n c e s c u l m i n a t i n g i n a t r i p l e s t r e t t o o f t h e p r i n c i p a l f u g u e s u b j e c t i n v e r y c l o s e f o r m a t i o n . I n t h e s e c o n d i n s t a n c e t h e p e d a l p o i n t l a s t s o n l y s e v e n m e a s u r e s , i n w h i c h W i l l a n r e i n t r o d u c e s t h e p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s c o u n t e r s u b j e c t . 2 c a m p b e l 1 - Y u k l c a l l s t h i s c o u n t e r s u b j e c t t h e t h i r d s u b j e c t o f what she terms a t r i p l e f u g u e . I n f a c t , how e v e r , i t i s t h e c o u n t e r s u b j e c t , a c c o m p a n y i n g b o t h p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s . See C a m p b e l 1 - Y u k l , pp. 160, 162-16 Example 2.30 F a i r i n F a c e , mm. 1-2 C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 48 Combinations of dissonances The f o l l o w i n g examples are intended to be not an exhaustive c o l l e c t i o n , but a sampling of the ways i n which W i l l a n uses a v a r i e t y of dissonances together. The e f f e c t of m u l t i p l e dissonances i n a textu r e i s u s u a l l y one of ambiguity, and i t oft e n becomes d i f f i -c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h between harmonic and non-harmonic tones. A p r o f u s i o n of dissonances a r i s e s n a t u r a l l y i n a thoroughly contrapuntal s t y l e where h o r i z o n t a l , mel-odic t h i n k i n g predominates, but i t should not be f o r -gotten that counterpoint i s as much a matter of rhythm as i t i s one of p i t c h . In W i l l a n ' s vocal music, the accentual plan of each voice i s l a r g e l y determined by i t s r e n d i t i o n of the t e x t , and the metric impression conceived by the ensemble as a whole i s f r e q u e n t l y u n c e r t a i n . As we have seen, t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e s the ambiguous e f f e c t of the p i t c h e s thems s e l v e s . 3 3ln the L i t u r g i c a l Motets, W i l l a n developed a n o t a t i o n a l d e v i c e , the wavy bar : l i n e , intended to guide s i n g e r s i n performance without connoting m e t r i c a l accents i n the normal way. (This i d e a may have been d e r i v e d from p l a i n c h a n t i n which rhythm i s dependent s o l e l y on the s t r e s s o f the words.) There i s , o f course, some q u e s t i o n as to whether a performer's conception of the musical flow i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d by t h i s simple n o t a t i o n a l expedient, but i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t many composers have used d o t t e d l i n e s ..to i n d i c a t e important but u n s t r e s s e d s i m u l t a n e i t i e s . A f t e r completion of the L i t u r g i c a l Motets, W i l l a n d i d not use wavy bar l i n e s again, although there were oc c a s i o n s when he d i d use do t t e d bar l i n e s . (See Come, Thou Beloved of C h r i s t (1953).) A n o t h e r p o i n t w o r t h b e a r i n g i n mind i s t h a t W i l l a n ' s u s e o f p a r a l l e l i s m i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o h i s u s e o f d i s s o n a n c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , as some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g examples show, and as w i l l become c l e a r below, t h e m e l o d i c d r i v e o f s t r e a m s o f p a r a l l e l m o t i o n o v e r r i d e s t h e u s u a l p r i n c i p l e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n and p r o p e r r e s o l u t i o n o f d i s s o n a n c e . I n Example 2.31a t h e a l t o i s i n d i c a t e d as h a v i n g a s u s p e n s i o n w h i l e t h e t e n o r and b a s s have p a s s i n g t o n e s . The r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e a l t o t a k e s p l a c e w h i l e t h e t e n o r and b a s s a r e p a s s i n g , so t h a t t h e h a r m o n i c t o n e , G - s h a r p i n t h e a l t o , i s h e a r d as a d i s s o n a n t s e v e n t h above t h e b a s s . The f o l l o w i n g g r o u p o f examples Example 2.31a I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, m. 11. C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . r e v e a l s t h e u n d e r l y i n g m o t i o n o f t h i s p h r a s e . Example 2.31b shows t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e : a r i s i n g m o t i o n i n t h e b a s s h a r m o n i z e d by a n e i g h b o u r i n g m o t i o n i n t h e s o p r a n o . Example 2.31c shows t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s , t h e a l t o i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n t o t h e b a s s , and t h e t e n o r i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s w i t h t h e b a s s . The i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s t e n o r l i n e c a u s e s p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s 50 Example 2.31b. ' * » Example 2.31c. i > : Example 2.31d. SSE - # — % * * - » -0 Example 2.31e. , V t J , , J . ^ t a f i a Example 2 . 3 I f , r , ' l V I I ' between t h e s o p r a n o and t e n o r , p r o m p t i n g f u r t h e r e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p a s s a g e . Example 2.31d i n c l u d e s an e x t r a r i s i n g m o t i o n i n t h e l o w e r v o i c e s , w h i c h a l l o w s t h e t e n o r t o d e s c e n d t o C - s h a r p , e l i m i n a t i n g t h e p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s . I n Example 2.31e, t h e a l t o b e g i n s on F - s h a r p i n s t e a d o f A, so t h a t t h e t h i r d o f t h e f i r s t c h o r d w i l l n o t be d o u b l e d , b u t i t q u i c k l y moves 51 t o A t o a v o i d p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s withr-the b a s s . The s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e A i n t h e a l t o i s i n t r o d u c e d s o t h a t t h e i m p l i e d o c t a v e s , F - s h a r p t o G - s h a r p between t h e a l t o and b a s s , w i l l be o b s c u r e d t h r o u g h r h y t h m i c d i s p l a c e m e n t . Example 2.31f shows t h e a d d i t i o n o f a d e l a y i n t h e f i n a l F - s h a r p c h o r d by t h e u s e o f an a p p o g g i a t u r a c h o r d . The f i n a l s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , Example 2.31a, i n t r o d u c e s m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l i n t h e t e n o r and s o p r a n o : a m e l o d i c r e p e t i t i o n o f B, C - s h a r p , D - s h a r p , E i n i m i t a t i o n . The s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a s s a g e i s r e v e a l e d t o be a l o g i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d e x t e n s i o n o f a s i m p l e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e , d i s s o n a n c e s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d p r i m a r i l y f o r f u n c t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n d e c o r a t i v e r e a s o n s . The r e m a i n i n g examples i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e n o t a n a l y s e d i n ext r e m e d e t a i l . R a t h e r , d i f f e r e n t com-b i n a t i o n s o f d i s s o n a n c e a r e p o i n t e d o u t , as a r e f e a t u r e s w h i c h make e a c h e x c e r p t r e m a r k a b l e . I n Example 2.32 t h e two l o w e r v o i c e s e a c h move Example 2.3 2 I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, m. 5. C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 52 t h r o u g h t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e d i s s o n a n c e s , an a n t i c i p a t i o n , a n e i g h b o u r , and an a p p o g g i a t u r a , b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a h a r m o n i c n o t e . P a r a l l e l i s m i n t h e l o w e r p a r t s h e l p s t o s u p p o r t t h i s e x t e n d e d u s e o f n o n - h a r m o n i c t o n e s . Example 2.33 p r e s e n t s a v a r i e t y o f d i s s o n a n c e s w h i c h combine t o p r o d u c e a t h i c k , d i s s o n a n t t e x t u r e . The most i n t e r e s t i n g e l e m e n t i n t h i s example i s t h e t e n o r A - f l a t , w h i c h i s marked as an a p p o g g i a t u r a , b u t w h i c h a p p e a r s t o r e s o l v e by l e a p t o t h e F. I n f a c t t h e A - f l a t , i n terms o f v o i c e - l e a d i n g , r e s o l v e s upwards t o B - f l a t w h i l e t h e c h o r d t o n e F i s added b e l o w . I n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e A - f l a t sounds l i k e a s e v e n t h , a c h o r d t o n e i n a B - f l a t c h o r d . However, a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f A - n a t u r a l f o r t h e A - f l a t r e v e a l s t h e t r u e v o i c e -l e a d i n g r e s o l u t i o n t o B - f l a t . The c h o r d t h e n a p p e a r s c l e a r l y as an F s e v e n t h - c h o r d o v e r a B - f l a t b a s s . W i l l a n ' s use o f A - f l a t r a t h e r t h a n A - n a t u r a l o b s c u r e s t h e e s s e n t i a l d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e a p p o g g i a t u r a Example 2.3 3 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm. 17-18 app fappl f ' U m r r r d a p p J J f r C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 53 c h o r d . Example 2.34a i s a p a s s a g e i n w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between h a r m o n i c and n o n - h a r m o n i c t o n e s i s d i f f i c u l t . Example 2.34b shows t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o u r - v o i c e t e x t u r e w h i c h i n c l u d e s p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s between s o p r a n o and t e n o r v o i c e s . W i l l a n removes t h i s p a r a l l e l i s m by m o v i n g t h e t e n o r f i r s t t o D, and by s u s p e n d i n g t h e t e n o r o v e r t h e change o f harmony, as i n Example 2.34c. I n t h e f i n a l f o r m , Example 2.34a, a c o n f u s i n g e l e m e n t , t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f E i n t h e a l t o , i s a d d e d , t o p r e s e r v e t h e f o u r - v o i c e t e x t u r e , g i v i n g t h e i n n e r p a r t s t h e s e m b l a n c e o f one p a r a l l e l s t r e a m . A l t h o u g h t h e i n n e r v o i c e s move i n tandem, t h e i r f u n c t i o n s d i f f e r , t h e Example 2.34a B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 1-2. I t i, Infant g ijp f a p p C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.3 4b. Example 2.3 4c. ^ a a l t o F b e i n g an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d c h o r d , w h i l e t h e t e n o r D i s a s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e f i r s t c h o r d . W h i l e t h e i r f u n c t i o n s d i f f e r , t h e y sound as one, so t h a t t h e a l t o F t e n d s t o sound l i k e a s u s p e n s i o n , r a t h e r t h a n an a n t i c i p a t i o n . Example 2.35 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e f f e c t o f a s u s p e n s i o n combined w i t h p a s s i n g t o n e s . The s u s p e n s i o n o c c u r s i n t h e s o p r a n o , and a t i t s p o i n t o f r e s o l u t i o n t h e t e n o r and b a s s b e g i n a d e s c e n d i n g p a s s i n g m o t i o n , so t h a t a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e v o i c e s d e s c e n d at.-.once i n p a r a l l e l s i x - f o u r - c h o r d s . B e c a u s e t h e s i x - f o u r - c h o r d i s r e l a t i v e -l y c o n s o n a n t , and b e c a u s e t h e s o p r a n o p a s s e s t h r o u g h i t s i n i t i a l n o t e , C, a g a i n a f t e r t h e B - f l a t , t h e s o p r a n o B - f l a t sounds l i k e a n e i g h b o u r , r a t h e r t h a n l i k e t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f a s u s p e n s i o n . Example 2.3 5 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 16-17. •3 U £3 P * f r r r r P C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . The f i n a l example o f d i s s o n a n c e t r e a t m e n t , Example 2.36, i s i n s i x p a r t s , and i n v o l v e s p a r a l l e l i s m t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . The u p p e r v o i c e s move f r o m a c o n s o n a n t A - f l a t t r i a d t h r o u g h a p a s s i n g G m i n o r t r i a d t o an F m i n o r t r i a d whose r o o t i s a d i s s o n a n t f o u r t h above t h e b a s s . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e l o w e r v o i c e s b e g i n a r i s i n g p a s s i n g m o t i o n up t o G and E - f l a t , a d i s s o n a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a l t o F. T h i s d i s s o n a n c e c a u s e s t h e a l t o t o make a n e i g h b o u r i n g m o t i o n t o G b e f o r e i t s f i n a l g o a l , E - f l a t , i s r e a c h e d . The s o p r a n o has a n o t a c a m b i a t a m o t i o n w h i c h h a r m o n i z e s w i t h t h e d e s c e n d -i n g p a s s i n g t o n e s o f t h e l o w e r v o i c e s , and t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t h r e e u p p e r v o i c e s has an e s c a p e t o n e , B - f l a t , b e f o r e i t p r o c e e d s t o G. As a p o i n t o f s t y l e , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t W i l l a n h e r e a c c e p t s p a r a l l e l f i f t h s i n t h e u p p e r v o i c e s b u t u s e s t h e n o t a c a m b i a t a i n t h e s o p r a n o t o a v o i d p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s w i t h t h e t e n o r . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e s o p r a n o and t e n o r b e l o n g t o s e p a r a t e , i n d e p e n d e n t s t r e a m s o f m o t i o n . P a r a l l e l -i s m between s e p a r a t e s t r e a m s w o u l d t e n d t o d i m i n i s h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f o p p o s i t i o n between them. Example 2.3 6 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, mm. 18-19. n o t a c a m b i a t a -t-i—fHr-n —i g e t ~t ' O 1) C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . P a r a l l e l i s m W i l l a n ' s s t y l e i s p e r m e a t e d by p a r a l l e l i s m i n t h r e e ways: 1) As we have s e e n , p a r a l l e l i s m i s i m p o r t a n t i n W i l l a n ' s c o n t r a p u n t a l t e c h n i q u e , where i t i s u s e d t o f i l l o u t t h e harmony and t o s u p p o r t non-h a r m o n i c t o n e s . 2) As an e l e m e n t o f t e x t u r e , p a r a l l e l -i s m i s p r e s e n t i n t h e f o r m o f s t r e a m s o f p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . (In t h i s c o n t e x t , a s t r e a m o f m o t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a d i s t i n c t m e l o d i c l i n e o r g r o u p o f l i n e s , w h i c h f u n c t i o n s as a u n i t i n terms o f melody and rhythm.) T h i s t y p e o f p a r a l l e l i s m i s f o c u s e d on h e r e . 3) P a r a l l e l i s m i s a l s o u s e d as a f e a t u r e o f d e e p e r - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e , as w i l l be s e e n i n C h a p t e r F i v e . I n s t r e a m s o f two o r more v o i c e s , W i l l a n u s u a l l y employs d i a t o n i c p a r a l l e l i s m -- t h a t i n w h i c h t h e i n t e r -v a l s between p a r a l l e l l i n e s a r e m o d i f i e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e o p e r a t i v e d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n . F o r example, a m e l o d i c s t r e a m i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s w o u l d a l t e r n a t e between m a j o r and m i n o r t h i r d s i n t h e manner o f gyme1. W i l l a n a l s o u s e s c h r o m a t i c p a r a l l e l i s m , i n w h i c h e x a c t i n t e r v a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e p r e s e r v e d , and i n a d d i t i o n , h y b r i d s o f t h e two t y p e s o c c u r , i n w h i c h a c e r t a i n amount o f c h r o m a t i c p a r a l l e l i s m i s p r e s e n t i n a p r e -v a i l i n g d i a t o n i c t y p e . The most u s u a l o f t h e s u r f a c e t e x t u r e s i n p a r a l l e l s t r e a m s i s t h a t i n w h i c h two d i s i n c t and o p p o s e d s t r e a m s a r e p r e s e n t . F o u r - p a r t c o n t r a p u n t a l w r i t i n g c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s u r f a c e o f W i l l a n ' s a r t b u t , as was p o i n t e d o u t above, he " p r e a c h e d " t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t , i n t h e f o r m o f a s t r u c t u r a l framework c o n s i s t i n g o f a m e l o d i c l i n e , u s u a l l y f o u n d i n t h e s o p r a n o , and a b a s s l i n e . I n t h i s s o r t o f a r r a n g e m e n t t h e m i d d l e p a r t s a r e t h o u g h t o f e i t h e r as i n d e p e n d e n t m e l o d i c l i n e s added t o t h e p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e t o f i l l i t o u t , o r as p a r a l l e l l i n e s a ppended t o e i t h e r t h e s o p r a n o o r b a s s m e l o d i e s . W h i l e r e s o r t i n g m o s t ' o f t e n t o s t r u c t u r e s I n two s t r e a m s W i l l a n d i d make use o f a p a t t e r n i n w h i c h t h r e e d i s t i n c t s t r e a m s o f m o t i o n o c c u r . The n o r m a l f o r m o f t h i s t y p e i s t h a t i n w h i c h t h e s o p r a n o and b a s s have i n d e p e n d e n t m e l o d i c s t r e a m s , w h i l e t h e a l t o and t e n o r f o r m a t h i r d , c o n t r a s t i n g s t r e a m o f p a r a l l e l m o t i o n and h a r m o n i c s u p p o r t . The t e x t u r e i s l i k e t h a t o f a t r i o , b u t u s i n g f o u r v o i c e s i n s t e a d o f t h r e e . The o t h e r t e x t u r a l a p p r o a c h t o p a r a l l e l i s m w h i c h W i l l a n u s e s i s d e r i v e d f r o m h i s s t u d y o f p l a i n c h a n t and a n c i e n t m u s i c . T h i s t y p e i n v o l v e s p a r a l l e l i s m i n a l l t h e v o i c e s a t o n c e , r e s u l t i n g i n o n l y one m e l o d i c s t r e a m . T h i s s t y l e r e s e m b l e s b o t h organum and t h e f a u x b o u r d o n s t y l e o f t h e o l d E n g l i s h m a s t e r s . The f o l l o w i n g p ages s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examine W i l l a n ' s t e c h n i q u e o f c o m p o s i t i o n u s i n g p a r a l l e l s t r e a m s o f m o t i o n . T w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t , expanded by p a r a l l e l i s m , t a k e s t h e f o l l o w i n g forms i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c : 1 ) an u p p e r 58 v o i c e s u p p o r t e d by two l o w e r ones i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n ; 2) two u p p e r v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n s u p p o r t e d by one l o w e r v o i c e ; 3) an u p p e r v o i c e s u p p o r t e d by t h r e e l o w e r v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n ; 4) t h r e e u p p e r v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n a c c o m p a n i e d by an i n d e p e n d e n t l o w e r v o i c e ; 5) two u p p e r v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n accom-p a n i e d by t w o . l o w e r v o i c e s , a l s o i n p a r a l l e l - m o t i o n ; and 6) s o p r a n o a r i . t e n o r i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n a c c o m p a n i e d by a l t o and b a s s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . W i l l a n does n o t make use o f t h e one r e m a i n i n g f o r m : h i g h e s t and l o w e s t v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n , w i t h t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s s u p p l y i n g an o p p o s i n g c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r e a m . Of c o u r s e , t h i s l a s t m e n t i o n e d f o r m i s n o t u s e d by W i l l a n b e c a u s e i t v i o l a t e s h i s c o n c e p t o f a t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t between u p p e r and l o w e r v o i c e s . I n f a c t , t h e o n l y i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h t h e h i g h e s t and l o w e s t v o i c e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n i s when t h e h i g h e s t v o i c e d o u b l e s t h e l o w e s t a t t h e o c t a v e . T h i s p r o c e d u r e (see f o r example An A p o s t r o p h e  t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s ( 1 9 2 1 ) , mm. 6 f f . ) i s r e a l l y an o r c h e s t r a t i o n . An o c t a v e d o u b l i n g f o r an e f f e c t o f b r i l l i a n c e , i t i s no more a c a s e o f p a r a l l e l o c t a v e s t h a n , f o r example, t h e o c t a v e d o u b l i n g o f f i r s t and s e c o n d v i o l i n s i n an o r c h e s t r a l s c o r e . When w r i t i n g f o r t h r e e v o i c e s , W i l l a n a l m o s t h a b i t -u a l l y u s e s a s o p r a n o melody a c c o m p a n i e d by two l o w e r v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . A good example o f t h i s o c c u r s i n t h e " B e h e d i c t u s . q u i v e n i t " o f M i s s a B r e v i s No. 4 (1934), Example 2.37. A f t e r an i m i t a t i v e o p e n i n g , t h e l o w e r two v o i c e s move i n p a r a l l e l d i a t o n i c t h i r d s t o t h e end o f t h e p i e c e . The same a p p r o a c h c a n be f o u n d i n t h e " B e n e d i c t u s q u i v e n i t " o f M i s s a B r e v i s No. 1 ( 1 9 2 8 ) , t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f t h e "Agnus D e i " o f M i s s a B r e v i s  No. 5- ( 1 9 3 5 ) , and t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e c a r o l , Here  a r e We i n B e t h l e h e m ( 1 9 2 9 ) . The two m o t e t s f o r t h r e e v o i c e s , 0 S a v i n g V i c t i m and Look Down, 0 L o r d ( 1 9 3 5 ) , a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y composed i n t h i s s t y l e . Many o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n s i n c l u d e l a r g e o r s m a l l s e c t i o n s o f s i m i l a r d e s i g n . Example 2.37 " B e n e d i c t u s q u i v e n i t " o f M i s s a B r e v i s No. 4. m • • f j f f i f t * I r r r r —1 1 l-H a = H = I = f = N I I I i f f * ~ ° i r —0—J—* •f-P^ F~ * J— rr~ -P—v— 1 r r . j \ ^ v 1 1 1 j-= M = = r = 4 r=F •ir T # 1 C o p y r i g h t 1934 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . L e s s common i s t h e t e x t u r e i n w h i c h t h e s o p r a n o m e lody i s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n w i t h an i n n e r v o i c e , accom-p a n i e d by an i n d e p e n d e n t b a s s - l i n e . However, examples o f t h i s t y p e do o c c u r . The b e s t o f t h e s e i s p r o b a b l y t h e 60 "A" s e c t i o n of the Scherzo from F i v e P i e c e s f o r Organ (1957-58). A few measures of' t h i s chromatic p a r a l l e l i s m are reproduced i n Example 2.38. Example 2.38 Scherzo (Five P i e c e s f o r Organ), mm. 5-12. C o p y r i g h t 1959 by BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . Expansion of the ;basic t e x t u r e of two streams from three i n t o f o u r v o i c e s r e s u l t s i n a denser polyphony. T h i s s t y l e normally takes these forms: 1) the soprano or the bass has.-a counter melody to p a r a l l e l s i x - t h r e e or s i x - f o u r chord motion i n the o t h e r p a r t s ; 2) the two upper v o i c e s form one stream and the two lower v o i c e s form a counter stream; 3) o f soprano and tenor form one stream and a l t o and bass form the o t h e r . Example 2.39 0 King, a l l G l o r i o u s , mm. 30-32 J i r 1 n)'* -r f r r r r J J o rrfrr 1 1 ^ r r 1 1 C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.40 Matins, mm.. 18-27. 1 g ff J J> J~J 1 <vfl P x»— f f^, J f L r r r r - F , i ji n -^-1 f — J : • _p V [ j J J J f 1 W- ' i ' ' <f C o p y r i g h t 1965 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.39 shows a s o p r a n o melody h a r m o n i z e d by t h r e e l o w e r v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . T h i s t e x t u r e i s n e v e r c o n t i n u e d f o r l o n g p e r i o d s , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i m b a l a n c e i n f o r c e s between t h e s t r e a m s . Examples 2.40 and 2.41 d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i n v e r s i o n o f t h e above t e x t u r e , i n w h i c h t h e u p p e r melody, a s t r e a m o f t h r e e v o i c e s , i s a c c o m p a n i e d by an i n d e p e n d e n t b a s s l i n e . W i l l a n does n o t h e s i t a t e t o u s e t h i s t e x t u r e f o r e x t e n s i v e s e c t i o n s , b e c a u s e t h e b a s s c a n b a l a n c e t h e u p p e r t h r e e v o i c e s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . Example 2.41, w h i c h shows t h r e e s t a g e s o f W i l l a n ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s , i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . T h r e e s u c c e s s i v e v e r s i o n s o f t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e m o t e t O K i n g o f G l o r y (1929) a r e p r e s e n t e d . Example 2.41a g i v e s t h e e a r l i e s t m a n u s c r i p t v e r s i o n , i n w h i c h t h e u p p e r v o i c e s move c o n s i s t e n t l y i n p a r a l l e l s i x - t h r e e c h o r d s . N ote t h a t i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t v e r s i o n s , f r o m a l a t e r s k e t c h and f r o m t h e p u b l i s h e d work, t h e c o n t o u r s o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d , w h i l e t h e d e t a i l o f t h e i n n e r v o i c e s i s a l t e r e d t o g i v e a s e m b l a n c e o f m e l o d i c i n d e p e n d e n c e t o t h e a l t o and t e n o r . The s i m p l e p a r a l l e l i s m o f t h e f i r s t s k e t c h becomes d i s g u i s e d by t h e c r o s s i n g o f t h e a l t o and t e n o r v o i c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e m u s i c i s no l o n g e r s t r i c t l y i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n , t h e u n d e r l y i n g p l a n o f t h e p h r a s e r e m a i n s a t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t between s o p r a n o and b a s s , w i t h t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s i n m o t i o n p a r a l l e l t o t h e s o p r a n o . 63 Example 2.41a 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 1-4 F i r s t M a n u s c r i p t • V e r s i o n J \ j 5= T T T T J j J J -r r n • J j J J -R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . Example 2.41b 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 1-4 S e c o nd M a n u s c r i p t V e r s i o n r t r r*--j j J i -f r r r •j j j i ^ f - r r 1 ' r r 1 p r r 11 R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . Example 2.41c 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , mm. 1-4. F i n a l , P r i n t e d V e r s i o n r J J J J " - J J J 1 F * = - = i -» J i i \ •rrr r " J . - J - J J . ~p * j j . i r f ' f r J t p 1 « — " f r 'f r r ' I C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . i R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 2.42 e x h i b i t s p a r a l l e l i s m i n w h i c h t h e u p p e r v o i c e s f o r m one s t r e a m and t h e l o w e r v o i c e s f o r m a n o t h e r . T h i s i s a common t e x t u r e i n W i l l a n ' s w r i t i n g , and i t i s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t t e x t u r e i n t h e p i e c e s R e g i n a  C o e l i L e t a r e (1928) and T y r l e , T y r l o w , T y r l e , T y r l o w ( 1 9 2 8 ) , b o t h w r i t t e n f o r women's v o i c e s , a c a p p e l l a . Example 2.42 God i s Gone Up w i t h a Sh o u t , mm. 25-28. C o p y r i g h t 1960 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. t, R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . More u n u s u a l i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t e x t u r e i n a more c h r o m a t i c c o n t e x t , as se e n i n Example 2.43. Here t h e two s t r e a m s o f m o t i o n move i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n . The u p p e r v o i c e s e x p r e s s an u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n o f m i n o r t h i r d s m o v i n g up by a l t e r n a t i n g h a l f - a n d w h o l e - s t e p s , w h i l e t h e l o w e r v o i c e s o u t l i n e a w h o l e - t o n e s c a l e i n d e s c e n d i n g m a j o r t h i r d s as a r e s u l t o f r a p i d l y f l u c t u a t i n g d i a t o n i c i s m . 4 A f i n a l example o f p a r a l l e l i s m o f two u p p e r p a r t s a g a i n s t two l o w e r p a r t s , Example 2.44 i s f r o m t h e o p e n i n g m e a s u r e s o f t h e o r g a n p i e c e Ave M a r i s S t e l l a (1951).. The p a r a l l e l i s m o c c u r s o v e r a b a s s p e d a l , and i s i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e t h e two s t r e a m s a r e i n s i m i l a r 4 w i l l a n d i d n o t o f t e n u s e t h e w h o l e - t o n e s c a l e , b u t e f f e c t i v e examples do o c c u r . O t h e r p i e c e s w h i c h i n c l u d e w h o l e - t o n e t e c h n i q u e s a r e U r b s H i e r u s a l e m B e a t a ( 1 9 5 1 ) , The Dead (19 1 7 ) , and V e x i l l a R e g i s ( 1 9 5 1 ) . 65 Example 2.43 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , mm. 43-47. r i IL Z \r±> — ^ - — i — i — i I-J j i j II ! f f 4 = l 1 ! 1 C o p y r i g h t 1935 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . r a t h e r t h a n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n . One s t r e a m r i s e s s l o w l y i n s i x t h s , t h e o t h e r q u i c k l y i n t h i r d s . Example 2.44 Ave M a r i s S t e l l a ( F i v e P r e l u d e s on P l a i n c h a n t M e l o d i e s ) , mm. 1-4. 1^—r 1'--9 -o 0 \ V H»—1 9 •* • u r r 1 n C o p y r i g h t 1951 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . P a r a l l e l i s m i n w h i c h t h e s o p r a n o and t e n o r a r e l i n k e d , as a r e t h e a l t o and b a s s , i s i n f r e q u e n t l y en-c o u n t e r e d , u s u a l l y t a k i n g t h e f o r m o f a s e q u e n c e . Example 2.45, f r o m t h e m o t e t The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d ( 1 9 5 1 ) , p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e b u t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n s t a n c e o f t h i s t e x t u r a l t y p e . 66 Example 2.45 The S p i r i t of the Lord, mm. 5.11 f f r - r r i t r f C o p y r i g h t 1951 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . P a r a l l e l i s m i n two streams i s q u i t e common i n W i l l a n ' s v o c a l music f o r more than f o u r p a r t s . In h i s f i v e - p a r t music the usual arrangement i s f o r the upper three v o i c e s to form one stream while the lower two v o i c e s form another, as Examples 2.46 and 2.47 i l l u s -t r a t e . Example 2.46 i s composed of two melismas s u r -rounding a C - f l a t chord. The upper v o i c e s execute a t u r n , w h ile the lower v o i c e s have a.neighbouring motion. Example 2.47 i s of the same b a s i c d e sign, but here the melodies are more adventurous. Example 2.46 An Apostrophe to the Heavenly Hosts, mm. 97-99 C o p y r i g h t 1952 by F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 67 Example 2.47 Ring Out, Ye C r y s t a l 1 Spbears from the Coronation S u i t e , mm. 10-11. — H j 1 J »— ; if 3 " 4 hf ft J L I L P J — —' . C o p y r i g h t 1953 by BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . In s i x v o i c e s , p a r a l l e l i s m i n two streams u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of the upper three v o i c e s i n one stream and the lower three v o i c e s i n the other, an expansion of the f i v e - v o i c e t e x t u r e j u s t d e s c r i b e d . Example 2.48 i s demonstrative of the s t y l e . Note t h a t each of the streams i n c l u d e s o n l y p e r f e c t f i f t h s i n the o u t e r v o i c e s , while the i n n e r voices a l t e r n a t e s between major and minor t h i r d s , the whole remaining w i t h i n the d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n . Because of the l i m i t e d c o n t r a p u n t a l Example 2.48 E t e r n i t y , mm. 59-61. 1^, f f s 1 rt r i r : M } i . . - i — 1—1 \ C o p y r i g h t 1931 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t h i s s t y l e i s r e s t r i c t e d to s h o r t time-spans i n W i l l a n ' s music. In t h i s p i e c e the 68 e x c e r p t i s marked con e x u l t a z i o n e and forms the climax of the work. P a r a l l e l i s m i n three separate streams i s common i n W i l l a n ' s music, and i t occurs i n f o u r v o i c e s when only two are i n p a r a l l e l motion. The o v e r a l l t e x t u r e i s t h a t of a . t r i o — m e l o d y , • counter melody, and b a s s -with one stream f i l l e d out through p a r a l l e l i s m . In the c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s the i n n e r v o i c e s are o f t e n i n p a r a l l e l motion, as i n Example 2.49. Here Example 2.49 T h i s E n d r i s Nyght, mm. 7-13. j j j= j j J j i =i= [ 3 j J^J 71 '(ft ff-tf r ft ft ^ t M T r t ' ^ T - L z r J f mm _L2!— '— 1 r P ^ J ^ t J i - t r P r V -0 J — c • f i f T t f f r r r r ' = | 7 v\ — —P -J—i -—0 C o p y r i g h t 1957 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 69 the soprano and bass are i n long note v a l u e s , while the i n n e r p a r t s are predominantly i n eighth-note motion i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s , harmonizing the outer v o i c e s . W i l l a n was e v i d e n t l y very fond of t h i s t e x t u r e and, because of i t s s u i t a b i l i t y to the organ, where the melody would be on one manual, the accompaniment of two p a r t s on another manual, and the bass i n the p e d a l s , i t was probably used a good deal by W i l l a n i n improv-i s i n g c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s . The Prologue on Ascension (1956) i s i n t h i s t e x t u r e f o r the f i r s t t h i r t y - e i g h t of i t s f o r t y - n i n e measures. Example 2.50 shows a t h r e e - p a r t t e x t u r e i n which the lower v o i c e s are i n p a r a l l e l motion a g a i n s t independent upper v o i c e s . T h i s t e x t u r e i s n e i t h e r as common, nor as extended i n use, as the preceding one. The soprano and a l t o on separate melodies cannot succ e s s -f u l l y balance the stream of t h i r d s i n the lower v o i c e s , so the use of the t e x t u r e i s l i m i t e d . l A « k J J J f 4 H * 9^ -6 J — 1 ^ , HUH . 1 , ft r r j ^ L ?%f 7 r = ; T — \ ^ = r r f - n - : C o p y r i g h t 192 5 by N o v e l l o & Co. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . 70 A f i n a l example o f p a r a l l e l i s m i n s e p a r a t e s t r e a m s i s t a k e n f r o m t h e c a n t a t a The M y s t e r y o f B e t h l e h e m ( 1 9 2 3 ) . Example 2.51 c o n t a i n s a s e c t i o n o f m u s i c w h i c h u s e s f o u r d i s t i n c t s t r e a m s : a melody i n t h e s o p r a n o , a c a n o n i c i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s melody a t t h e s e v e n t h i n t h e oboe, an i n d e p e n d e n t b a s s - l i n e , and a h a r m o n i c accom-p a n i m e n t i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s i n t h e a l t o v o i c e s . T h i s t e x t u r e i s c o n t i n u e d f o r t e n m e a s u r e s , and i t i s i n t e r -e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e p a r a l l e l i s m o c c u r s a g a i n i n t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g a l t o v o i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n i n a melody . o r b a s s - l i n e . Example 2.51 The S h e p h e r d s f r o m The M y s t e r y  o f B e t h l e h e m , mm. 45-47 1 ^ 1 1 o = id  v -#^^-T-T =t=»= 1 1 —1 — | — r i r " j j j - i — s — -8 —f-— ^ « • • \jL&LU r r r 1—h-^ — i — r ( —1—1—1—1— — _ — j — » ' x 9 J. 9 '* r f T : ' t* i $ — i — — i j H -f } 1 / *m * /-C o p y r i g h t 1951 R e p r o d u c e d by by H.W.Gray Co. p e r m i s s i o n o f B e l w i n Mi -4 i i 1—-V—^ d . s C o r p . 71 Example 2.52 i l l u s t r a t e s the simple nature of a p a r a l l e l i s m d e r i v e d from organum, u s i n g a consonant e i g h t - f i v e - t h r e e chord to harmonize the c h a n t - l i k e soprano melody. An aspect of the music not d e r i v e d from p a r a l l e l organum i s th a t the i n n e r v o i c e s f o l l o w the steps of the mode, r a t h e r than being i n t e r v a l i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t with the soprano. As a r e s u l t , some chords are major, some minor, depending on the s c a l e degree of the melody. Example 2.52 Come, Thou Beloved of C h r i s t from • the Coronation S u i t e , mm. 98-100. _ \ ) J> } ) J ' } i ) J ^ = g^BCg p« wm« tjcu mev-cy end V • i J t , i ' ^ d * d • d t A * \ M ? r ' r h — -/-$ f—l—¥—' <,T5 v r _4_J " |. I J r f | r r ' ' j r r r r > e + c . _ J — =  ^JL d 1 • „ r T • — r r ^ r — — i 7 — = / * i ' 7 C o p y r i g h t Reproducec ' ' ' I ' - C f f 1 1953 by BMI Cana 1 by p e r m i s s i o n o — ? — 3a. f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . An e x t e n s i o n of t h i s s t y l e i s found i n the L i t u r -g i c a l Motet Hodie, C h r i s t u s natus e s t (1935) . The exc e r p t from t h i s work, g i v e n as Example 2.53, i s once again a passage of p a r a l l e l motion based on a simple melody of l i m i t e d range. However, i n t h i s example the p a r a l l e l i s m i s i n t e r v a l i c a l l y a c c urate i n the v o i c e s sounding the f i f t h s of the chord, but o n l y d i a t o n i c a l l y a c c u r a t e i n the v o i c e sounding the t h i r d s . Although D - f l a t i s found i n the soprano melody, D - n a t u r a l , the d i a t o n i c t h i r d of the chord, .occurs i n the a l t o . Example 2.53 Hodie, C h r i s t u s natus e s t , mm. 48-57. y f ft ft l r r r f j h i * L I JuJ J i De - o eel - - - - sis - H p f o el — - - y(« r . r r r r f —0-4 ' * 4 4 4 Iii j j j ^ A l - i e -Pe - e j f : if u 'jS&SSSl r f i r r r r >e - - o. ft I* - r i . C o p y r i g h t 1935 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . The part-song Weep You No More Sad Fountains (1929) p r o v i d e s i n s t a n c e s of the second technique xn mentioned above, i n which p a r a l l e l motion i s based on a d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t y . Example 2.54, which quotes the work's f i n a l measures, shows W i l l a n ' s use of p a r a l l e l s i x - f o u r - t h r e e chords. As i n Example 2.52, the har-monic i n t e r v a l s of the chords are d i a t o n i c r a t h e r than exact. The c l o s e , on an u n r e s o l v e d dissonance, i s most unusual i n the music of W i l l a n , but i s e f f e c t i v e here i n connection with the f i n a l word of the t e x t , " s l e e p -i n g " . T h i s p i e c e i s one of W i l l a n ' s most experimental, u s i n g p a r a l l e l i s m and chromaticism f r e e l y , remaining t o n a l but c l o s i n g on a dissonance.5 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i t was w r i t t e n i n 1929, the middle of W i l l a n ' s most c r e a t i v e p e r i o d . The work was f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1979, i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the composer's centenary. Example 2.5 4 Weep You ;No .More Sad Fountains, mm. 44-48 a i i j *z- m TVrrr 7s r r r r C o p y r i g h t 1979 by C h a n t e c l a i r M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . I t was noted above t h a t W i l l a n t y p i c a l l y took a d i a t o n i c approach to p a r a l l e l w r i t i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s work does o f f e r examples of a l i t e r a l , chromatic approach. Example 2.55 e x h i b i t s c h r o m a t i c a l l y descending dominant seventh chords i n f i v e p a r t s . The seventh of the chord i s taken by the bass i n a independent melodic l i n e , and the upper v o i c e s c r o s s p a r t s to preserve some independence and to avoid p a r a l l e l f i f t h s and octaves between v o i c e s . ^The f o l l o w i n g p i e c e s are a l s o e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h e i r use of a d i s s o n a n t ending: A S o f t L i g h t from a S t a b l e  Door (1948), Here Are We i n Bethlehem (1929), and F a i r  i n Face (1928). 7 4 Example 2.55 G l o r i a Deo per immensa s a e c u l a , mm. 60-63. f mm P L - 4 i-3= C o p y r i g h t 1952 by W e s t e r n M u s i c Co. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f L e s l i e M u s i c S u p p l y . Example 2.56, from the f i n a l L i t u r g i c a l Motet, Who i s She t h a t Ascendeth?(1937), i s a h i g h l y chromatic passage i n p a r a l l e l motion. I t i s comprised of p a r a l l e l major t r i a d s over an independent b a s s - l i n e . The i n t e r -a c t i o n of the two streams r e s u l t s i n v a r i o u s seventh chords and d i s s o n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s motet, w r i t t e n j u s t two years a f t e r the part-song Weep You No More,  Sad Fountains (see Example 2.54), re p r e s e n t s W i l l a n ' s v o c a l w r i t i n g a t i t s most chromatic. Example 2.56 Who i s She t h a t Ascendeth?, mm. 10-12. C o p y r i g h t 1937 by C a r l F i s c h e r . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f C h a n t e c l a i r M u s i c . Having surveyed the v a r i o u s types of p a r a l l e l i s m used by W i l l a n , t h i s chapter w i l l conclude withj.a look a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p a r a l l e l i s m over the course of a s i n g l e passage. Example 2.57 demonstrates the use of a v a r i e t y of types of p a r a l l e l i s m smoothly connected to one another. In t h i s example there are from; two to fo u r independent streams of motion a t any one time. Example 2.57 R i s e up, my Love, my F a i r One, mm. 1-10. C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . At the b e g i n n i n g of the p i e c e there are three streams, the lower v o i c e s being i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s . The v o i c e s become t o t a l l y independent i n the second measure, but by the end of t h i s measure the upper three v o i c e s begin to form, a stream. In the middle of the t h i r d measure the tenor switches from the upper stream to the lower and, as the cadence i n measure 5 i s approached, t h e p a r t s assume a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . I n t h e s e c o n d p h r a s e ( b e g i n n i n g a f t e r t h e r e s t ) t h e v o i c e s d i v i d e i n t o an u p p e r and a l o w e r s t r e a m . A t measure 7 t h e a l t o s h i f t s t o t h e l o w e r s t r e a m , where i t r e m a i n s u n t i l t h e f i n a l measure o f t h e example, i n w h i c h b o t h t h e a l t o and t e n o r s h i f t t o t h e u p p e r s t r e a m . The s u b t l e t y o f d e s i g n and f l e x i b i l i t y o f a p p r e a e h w h i c h a r e e v i d e n t h e r e t y p i f y t h e m u s i c o f W i l l a n ' s m i d d l e p e r i o d , a v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f w h i c h makes use o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p a r a l l e l i s m . Of c o u r s e t h e r e a r e p i e c e s o f a c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r a p u n t a l n a t u r e i n W i l l a n ' s o u t p u t , s u c h as 0 How Sweet, 0 L o r d and L e t Us W o r s h i p  and F a l l Down, b o t h f r o m t h e S i x M o t e t s ( 1 9 2 4 ) , and t h e f u g u e f r o m t h e m o t e t G l o r i a Deo p e r immensa s a e c u l a (1950) where p a r a l l e l i s m i s t h e e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e norm, b u t i t i s W i l l a n ' s u s e o f p a r a l l e l i s m i n c r e a t i v e ways w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s so much o f h i s m u s i c . 7 7 I I I P e r s o n a l E l e m e n t s T h e r e a r e f o u r main p e r s o n a l t r a i t s i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c w h i c h a c t as f i n g e r p r i n t s o f t h e composer: 1) t h e u s e o f c o n s e c u t i v e m i n o r c h o r d s , 2) t h e use o f e p i s o d e s b a s e d on d e s c e n d i n g c h r o m a t i c s c a l e s , 3) t h e use o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t i a l a s c e n t a t t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f a c o m p o s i t i o n o f s e c t i o n , and 4) t h e use o f a c l o s i n g f o r m u l a b a s e d on t h e c h a n t melody u s e d i n s i n g -i n g "Amen" a t t h e end o f G r e g o r i a n hymns. C o n s e c u t i v e m i n o r c h o r d s W i l l a n ' s use o f c o n s e c u t i v e m i n o r c h o r d s , u s u a l l y i n a c h r o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r , i s e v i d e n t i n a wide r a n g e o f m u s i c f r o m a l l s t a g e s o f h i s c a r e e r , One o f t h e e a r l i e s t o c c u r r e n c e s o f c o n s e c u t i v e m i n o r c h o r d s i s i n t h e P r e l u d e and Fugue i n c m i n o r ( 1 9 0 8 ) . Example 3.1 P r e l u d e and Fugue i n c m i n o r , mm. 5-8. ^ J - ^ 9 f H | a P p n » . *S ft C o p y r i g h t 1909 by N o v e l l o & Co. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . 7 8 Example 3.1 shows a s e q u e n t i a l p a s s a g e o f m i n o r c h o r d s o v e r a c h r o m a t i c a l l y d e s c e n d i n g b a s s . A l t h o u g h m a j o r c h o r d s a r e p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f e s c a p e t o n e s i n t h e u p p e r v o i c e (m. 2 b e a t 2, m. 3 b e a t 2, and m. 4 b e a t 2 ) , t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s t h a t o f a c h r o m a t i c d e s c e n t i n p a r a l l e l m i n o r c h o r d s . W i l l a n n o r m a l l y u s e s m i n o r c h o r d - c h a i n s and s e -qu e n c e s f o r d r a m a t i c e f f e c t . C o u p l e d w i t h c h r o m a t i c d e s c e n t t h e y evoke a s e n s e o f t r a g e d y and i n t e n s e drama w h i c h r e c u r s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s l a t e r p e r i o d . I n h i s o p e r a D e i r d r e (1943), he u s e s o s t i n a t o p a t t e r n s o f m i n o r c h o r d s t o p o r t r a y t h e p e r v a d i n g a t m o s p h e r e o f gloom and i m p e n d i n g doom. Example 3.2 i s t a k e n f r o m t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e o p e r a , j u s t a f t e r t h e o p e n i n g theme i s p l a y e d u n a c c o m p a n i e d . T h i s o s t i n a t o s e t s t h e mood f o r . t h e ominous o p e n i n g l i n e s : Blow low, r e d wi n d f r o m t h e e a s t , Blow w i t h y o u r t i d i n g s o f e v i l , F o r i t i s you has t h e t e r r o r o f v o i c e , I t i s you has t h e s p l e n d o u r o f coming. Example 3.2 D e i r d r e , A c t I , "mm..;- 9-13 . C o p y r i g h t 1972 by B e r a n d o l M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 7 9 Example 3.3 i s t a k e n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t h i r d a c t . I t i s a s i m p l e b u t e f f e c t i v e o s t i n a t o , a g a i n b u i l t on a c h r o m a t i c , r a t h e r t h a n d i a t o n i c , s u c c e s s i o n o f m i n o r c h o r d s . Example 3.3 D e i r d r e , A c t I I I , mm. 1-3. , J£ m C o p y r i g h t 1972 by B e r a n d o l M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 3.4 shows t h e o s t i n a t o o f t h e f i n a l c h o r u s , " I t i s t h e c u r s e o f t h e gods on C o n o c h a r " , w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e t r a g i c l o v e - d e a t h s c e n e . Example 3.4 D e i r d r e , A c t I I I , mm. 842-846 9i r C o p y r i g h t 1972 by B e r a n d o l M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 80 W i l l a n u s e d m i n o r c h o r d s d r a m a t i c a l l y i n l a t e r c o m p o s i t i o n s f o r o r g a n , n o t a b l y i n t h e p r o c e s s i o n a l , U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a ( 1 9 5 1 ) , and i n t h e P a s s a c a g l i a  and Fugue No. 2 ( 1 9 5 9 ) . U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a i s a p r e l u d e b a s e d on t h e Sarum O f f i c e Hymn melody "Urbs B e a t a " , u s e d i n t h e h i g h l y d r a m a t i c l i t u r g y o f t h e D e d i c a t i o n F e s t i v a l . Example 3.5 c o m p r i s e s a s u c c e s s i o n o f m i n o r c h o r d s w h i c h forms a s e q u e n c e o f t w o - c h o r d p a t t e r n s d e s c e n d i n g by m a j o r t h i r d s . P a s s i n g t o n e s i n t h e b a s s r e s u l t i n a w h o l e - t o n e s c a l e i n t h a t v o i c e . Example 3.5 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , mm. 58-59. i a C o p y r i g h t 1951 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 3.6, t h e memorable o p e n i n g o f t h e P a s s a -c a g l i a and Fugue No. 2, p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e , t h i s t i m e as an i n t r o d u c t o r y , a t -t e n t i o n a r o u s i n g d e v i c e . Here t h e t h i r d c h o r d i s m a j o r , a d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e s t r i c t u s e o f m i n o r c h o r d s i n e a r l i e r e x a m p l e s . T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i s b a s e d on a c h r o m a t i c d e s c e n t i n t h e u p p e r v o i c e . 81 Example 3.6 P a s s a c a q l i a and Fugue No. 2, i n E m i n o r , mm. 1 C o p y r i g h t 1959 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . A f i n a l example o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s f r o m t h e c h o r a l e p r e l u d e C h r i s t i s t e r s t a n d e n ( 1 9 5 8 ) . S i g n i -f i c a n t l y , t h i s p r e l u d e i s b a s e d on a hymn f o r E a s t e r , a g a i n a d r a m a t i c p o i n t i n t h e l i t u r g y . Example 3.7 shows a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h i s p i e c e , t h r o u g h o u t w h i c h m i n o r c h o r d s a r e u s e d i n a d r a m a t i c f a s h i o n . A g a i n t h e p r o g r e s s i o n i s b a s e d on a c h r o m a t i c d e s c e n t i n t h e s o p r a n o . Example 3.7 Chr Must b g = i s t i s t e r s t a n c #8 i en, mn I j b„ i . 26-29 . _ (y 1 \ * F T r —1 1 ( W — l l 4 4 M - ftMf ^. --* u—-» i—1 4—|—n V n . J & J i* .# # " — t = — i - 1 — l —f — - . - \\>4 7#J*V'[f p - — C o p y r i g h t 1958 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 82 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t W i l l a n n e v e r w r o t e c h r o -m a t i c s e q u e n c e s o f m i n o r c h o r d s , s u c h as t h e ones d e s c r i b e d above, f o r v o i c e s , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e s u c h p r o g r e s s i o n s a r e e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o s i n g i n t u n e . E p i s o d e s b a s e d on d e s c e n d i n g c h r o m a t i c s c a l e s I n W i l l a n ' s l a t e r c r e a t i v e p e r i o d , f r o m 1950 t o h i s d e a t h , t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y number o f c o m m i s s i o n s f o r c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s l e d him t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s t y l e . G e n e r a l l y t h e s e p i e c e s a r e i n a f o u r - p a r t c o n t r a p u n t a l t e x t u r e o f t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v o i c e s b a s e d on m o t i v e s f r o m t h e c h o r a l e t u n e , and one v o i c e p r e s e n t i n g s u c c e s s i v e p h r a s e s o f t h e t u n e s e p a r a t e s by s h o r t i n t e r l u d e s . As a means o f b r i n g i n g h a r m o n i c v a r i e t y t o t h e o f t e n l i m i t i n g c h o r a l e t u n e s , W i l l a n b e g an t o b a s e h i s e p i s o d i c m a t e r i a l ( t h e m a t e r i a l between c h o r a l e p h r a s e s ) on d e s c e n d i n g c h r o m a t i c s c a l e s , w h i c h f o r m t h e b a s i s o f c h r o m a t i c s e q u e n c e s . W i l l a n had u s e d d e s c e n d i n g c h r o m a t i c b a s s l i n e s i n h i s e a r l i e s t o r g a n p i e c e s , t h e P r e l u d e .-.and Fugue i n c m i n o r (1908) (see Example 3 . 1 ) , t h e P r e l u d e and Fugue i n b m i n o r ( 1 9 0 9 ) , and t h e E p i l o g u e ( 1 9 0 9 ) , b u t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r u s e as f o u n d a t i o n s o f e p i s o d i c m a t e r i a l d i d n o t o c c u r u n t i l much l a t e r . The c h o r a l e p r e l u d e Nun p r e i s e t a l l e (1950) i n c l u d e s a p a s s a g e b a s e d on a d e s c e n d i n g c h r o m a t i c l i n e as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c h o r a l e , p h r a s e 83 w h i c h f o l l o w s . The d e s c e n t f r o m G t o D - f l a t i n t h e b a s s i s h a r m o n i z e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f c h r o m a t i c c h o r d s , and t h e t e x t u r e a c t i v a t e d by a r i s i n g m o t i v e - . i n e i g h t h - n o t e s . Example 3.8 Nun p r e i s e t a l l e , mm. 32-39. r | t * = Hrl * 1 * \ — * — f — } — ^ F F *f-t— r f— V r * — ->-f t r ff * t- -tj * t-bfcc: * > — — *H— 1 — -4-. \rm 4 1 = — z —\r • • » i f i w 1 > t 1 t 3 \^\ 1 — 1 * \= — f — n . * ft. T- 4 — * -+~ f*\ t -A J H - £ • 1 £ — ^r, w ;—-is—. i - i — J 11 *4r a 1 * w — ^ — A — C o p y r i g h t 1950 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 3.9 i n c l u d e s a s i m i l a r c h r o m a t i c d e s c e n t , t h i s t i m e a r r i v i n g a t t h e d o m i n a n t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a-.restatement o f t h e o p e n i n g m a t e r i a l . The u p p e r v o i c e s a r e i n a f r e e , i m i t a t i v e c o u n t e r p o i n t , a g a i n u s i n g c h o m a t i c c h o r d s t o h a r m o n i z e w i t h t h e b a s s . 84 Example 3.9 F e s t i v a l , mm. 30-35. -V 1 ' s U C o p y r i g h t 1954 by F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . The c h o r a l e p r e l u d e M a r t y r d o m (1957) i n c l u d e s two i n s t a n c e s o f c h r o m a t i c m o t i o n w h i c h c l e a r l y s e r v e t o f i l l t h e i n t e r l u d e s between s u c c e s s i v e p h r a s e s o f t h e c h o r a l e melody. Example 3.10a o c c u r s between t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d p h r a s e s o f t h e melody, and Example 3.10b o c c u r s between t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h p h r a s e s . (Between t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d p h r a s e s t h e r e i s an e p i s o d e o f d i a t o n i c c h a r a c t e r . ) The two c h r o m a t i c e p i -s o d e s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o e a c h o t h e r and so a t t a i n t h e s t a t u s o f s e c o n d a r y t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l . 85 Example 3.10a M a r t y r d o m , mm. 16-19. l i t r r r r = ^ 4 ^ 1 F A J K ,— M.— -< « — i — n f *-J-*CJLT r r -T» } ^ < ' ^ J — i — i — ) - i i r r f f f ^ r r 11 Example 3.10b M a r t y r d o m , mm. 35-38. nil f f — F • r f r — -1—L—1 C o p y r i g h t 1957 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . W i l l a n ' s use o f c h r o m a t i c e p i s o d e s was f u l l y e x t e n d e d by 1958, when t h e c h o r a l e p r e l u d e Nun l a s s t  uns G o t t dem He-rren was w r i t t e n . I n t h i s p i e c e t h e r e i s a c h r o m a t i c e p i s o d e between e a c h p a i r o f c h o r a l e p h r a s e s . I n Example 3.11, w h i c h shows t h e t h r e e e p i s o d e s , t h e c h r o m a t i c b a s e l i n e s c o n t a i n i r r e g u l a r -i t i e s o f m o t i o n -- whole s t e p s and upward m o t i o n s --86 Example 3.11 Nun l a s s t uns Gott dem Herren, mm. 26-29, 36-41, and 52-57. i t — — — J»JJ ..J U r if v "r 7 «f t I — n J J | J » ^ f b # . — * — ,» r r r t f » K 1 J ' — A P I V f ^ f — r \ i f _ r ^ » r * f ft _ 1 I — L | — 1 1 f t ^ — ;— - 1 1 J 1 t J a r \ \ fff V C o p y r i g h t 1958 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 87 w h i c h p r o v i d e v a r i e t y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h c an e a s i l y r e s u l t i n f o r m a l i z e d p a t t e r n s and r e p e t i t i v e c h o r d m o t i o n s . The u p p e r v o i c e s a r e n e v e r t r e a t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y i n t h i s example, as i s u s u a l l y t h e c a s e i n Ba r o q u e e p i s o d e s . R a t h e r , t h e y a r e i n f r e e c o u n t e r p o i n t o f t h e same s t y l e as i s f o u n d i n t h e f r e e p a r t s a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e c h o r a l e p h r a s e s . T h i s c o n t i n u i t y o f d e s i g n , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e h a r m o n i c v a r i e t y o f t h e e p i s o d e s , c r e a t e s a f i n e b a l a n c e o f u n i t y and d i v e r s i t y . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s t y l e w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s an e l e m e n t o f c h r o m a t i c i s m i n t o a n o n - m o d u l a t i n g compos-i t i o n f u n c t i o n s v i t a l l y i n m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e m u s i c . W i l l a n b i n d s t h e two e l e m e n t s o f d i a t o n i c i s m i n t h e c h o r a l e melody and c h r o m a t i c i s m i n t h e e p i s o d e s by t h e u s e o f a c o n t i n u o u s , f r e e , b u t m o t i v i c a l l y r e l a t e d c o u n t e r p o i n t i n t h e r e m a i n i n g v o i c e s . O t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n s w h i c h make use o f s e q u e n c e s . b a s e d on a d e s c e n d i n g c h r o m a t i c l i n e a r e t h e c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s B r i s t o l ( 1 9 5 7 ) , T u n b r i d g e (1958), and A Rouen  C h u r c h M e l o d y ( 1 9 5 8 ) . I n i t i a l a s c e n t The i n i t i a l a s c e n t w h i c h i s f o u n d i n many o f W i l l a n ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s b e a r s an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s e m b l a n c e 88 t o S c h e n k e r ' s A n s t i e g . 1 S c h e n k e r ' s i n i t i a l a s c e n t may be d e s c r i b e d asi'an a r p e g g i a t i o n o f t h e t o n i c t r i a d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p i e c e , o f t e n f i l l e d o u t t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s c a l e s t e p s , e n d i n g on t h e f i r s t t o n e o f t h e U r l i n i e . W i l l a n ' s i n i t i a l a s c e n t s a r e a l s o b a s e d on a r p e g g i a t i o n o f t h e t o n i c t r i a d , sometimes f i l l e d i n w i t h s c a l e s t e p s , b u t t h e i r h i g h e s t p o i n t o f a r r i v a l i s n o r m a l l y f o l l o w e d d i r e c t l y by a d e s c e n t , u s u a l l y by s t e p . The i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i n i t i a l a s c e n t as W i l l a n u s e d i t a r e i t s a p p e a r a n c e on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e m u s i c r a t h e r t h a n i n d e e p e r s t r u c t u r e s s u c h as S c h e n k e r had i n mind, and i t s a v o i d a n c e o f t h e l e a d i n g t o n e i n t h e r i s e t o t h e t o n i c . The f o l l o w i n g examples o f i n i t i a l a s c e n t a r e drawn f r o m s e v e r a l o f W i l l a n ' s p i e c e s . E a c h example r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p i e c e o r s e c t i o n . Example 3.12 i n c l u d e s an i n i t i a l a s c e n t i n t h e s o p r a n o v o i c e , i t s \ u s u a l i l o c a t i o n . i n W i 1 l a n ' s m u s i c . A A A I t b e g i n s on 3 and r i s e s t h r o u g h 4 and 5 b e f o r e l e a p i n g up t o t h e t o n i c and i m m e d i a t e l y d e s c e n d i n g . Examples 3.13 and 3.14 i l l u s t r a t e v e r y s i m i l a r a s c e n t s f r o m two c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s . I n e a c h c a s e t h e a s c e n t s c o n t a i n e v e r w i d e n i n g i n t e r v a l s -- s e c o n d s , a t h i r d , and a f o u r t h -- w h i c h c r e a t e a s e n s e o f 1 H e i n r i c h S c h e n k e r , F r e e C o m p o s i t i o n (Der F r e i e  S a t z ) t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by E r n s t O s t e r (New Y o r k : Longman, 1979), p. 45 f f . 8 9 Example 3.12 I n t e r m e z z o , mm. 1-2 1 3 / g f f t / % — — L . 1/ < f *t c -C o p y r i g h t 1959 by BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . Example: 3.13 Quern p a s t o r e s , mm. 1-2 1 ^ 4 y L f *^ 3 ^ = 1 1 11 C o p y r i g h t 1950 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . b u i l d i n g i n t e n s i t y i n t h e p h r a s e . Among W i l l a n ' s most e f f e c t i v e u s e s o f an i n i t i a l a s c e n t i s t h a t f o u n d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One ( 1 9 2 9 ) . Example 3.15 shows t h e s o p r a n o a s c e n t t o F, f o l l o w e d by a s e c o n d a s c e n t i n t h e t e n o r , measure 2, i m i t a t i n g t h e s o p r a n o and r i s i n g t o G - f l a t , a s e m i t o n e above t h e s o p r a n o ' s 90 Example 3.14 Wareham, mm. 1-2. » M y ~ - f — g f y * ? * i — F— ft * 3  f—. 4 -C o p y r i g h t 1957 by C F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . a s c e n t , d i s r e g a r d i n g o c t a v e p l a c e m e n t . T h i s p a s s a g e b e a u t i f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e o p e n i n g words o f t h e m o t e t , " R i s e up, my L o v e " . E a c h o f t h e s e a s c e n t s i s f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y by a s t e p w i s e d e s c e n t , a r e l e a s e o f t h e e n e r g y b u i l t : u p i n t h e a s c e n t . Example 3.15 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, mm.' 1-2. Jh b iH , i J P=^=< • • , . t P r I f r r I C o p y r i g h t 1929 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Two f i n a l examples o f i n i t i a l a s c e n t show t h e composer b o r r o w i n g f r o m h i m s e l f , e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y . I n e a c h c a s e t h e h a r m o n i z a t i o n i s t h e same, and b o t h a r e i n t h e same k e y . I n t h e s e A A a s c e n t s , t h e m o t i o n i s f r o m 3 t o 3, and a g a i n t h e l e a d i 91 t o n e i s a v o i d e d , Example 3.16 S c h e r z o , mm. 37-38. Tin 1 — = t = e = * = f « f > f / ir '—1—1 7% j j j --I L — . C o p y r i g h t 1959 by BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . Example 3.17 C h r i s t , whose G l o r y f i l l s t h e S k i e s , mm. 1-2 1.. ,j. C o p y r i g h t 1950 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . O t h e r p i e c e s w h i c h i n c l u d e an i n i t i a l a s c e n t i n some f o r m o r o t h e r , b u t a l w a y s i n t h e s o p r a n o v o i c e , a r e : C h r i s t h a t h i a G a r d e n (1 9 4 0 ) , S i n g A l l e l u i a F o r t h ( 1 9 4 0 ) , S i n g we T r i u m p h a n t Songs (19 5 0 ) , M a t i n s f o r o r g a n ( 1 9 6 1 ) , and t h e hymn-anthem L o r d o f a l l H o p e f u l -n e s s (1966) . / 92 "Amen" c l o s i n g f o r m u l a T h r o u g h h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n b o t h d r a m a t i c and s a c r e d m u s i c , W i l l a n became w e l l aware o f t h e t h e a t r i c a l and d r a m a t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e l i t u r g y . I n a s h o r t p a m p h l e t he d e s c r i b e s t h e r o l e o f l i t u r g i c a l m u s i c i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g words: The o r g a n i s t , upon whose s h o u l d e r s l i e s t h e main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p e r f o r m a n c e , s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t t h e m u s i c o f t h e s e r v i c e i s i n r e a l i t y t h e i n c i d e n t -a l m u s i c o f a g r e a t drama, and t h a t i t s h o u l d i n no way o b s c u r e t h e i n t e n t i o n o r impede t h e movement. 2 The "Amen" and " G l o r i a P a t r i " c o n c l u d i n g f o r m u l a s w h i c h a r t i c u l a t e a l i t u r g i c a l o f f i c e must have s u g g e s t e d t o him t h e i d e a o f d e v e l o p i n g a f o r m u l a f o r b o t h o r g a n and c h o r a l m u s i c w h i c h w o u l d a c t t o p u n c t u a t e t h e m u s i c a l ^ p o r t i o n s o f t h e l i t u r g y i n a co m p l e m e n t a r y way. The m u s i c o f t h e "Amen" i s u n i q u e i n G r e g o r i a n l i t e r a t u r e b e c a u s e i t a l w a y s embodies t h e same t u n e , w h i c h e v e r mode i s u s e d . ( I n c o n t r a s t , t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n t m e lody f o r t h e " G l o r i a P a t r i " i n e a c h o f t h e modes.) Example 3.18, t h e "Amen" f r o m t h e hymn Ad R e g i a s A g n i Dapes,3 shows t h e i n v a r i a b l e f o r m o f t h e A A A A A " A m e n " — a m o t i o n o f 1,2,1,7,1. W h i l e c o m p o s i n g :his f i r s t p u b l i s h e d o r g a n p i e c e , t h e F a n t a s i e upon t h e p l a i n c h a n t "Ad Coenam A g n i " , ( 1 9 0 6 ) , 2 H e a l e y W i l l a n "What's wrong w i t h c h u r c h m u s i c i n Canada" Cap and Gown ( 1 9 5 9 ) . - ^ L i b e r U s u a l i s , ( T o u r n a i , B e l g i u m : D e s c l e e & Co., 1961) , p. 813 . o r p o s s i b l y w h i l e i m p r o v i s i n g , W i l l a n h i t upon t h e i d e a o f u s i n g t h i s m e l o d i c f o r m u l a as a way o f r o u n d i n g o f f a c o m p o s i t i o n . I t i s a most e f f e c t i v e f o r m u l a , Example 3.18 "Amen"from t h e hymn Ad R e g i a s A g n i Dapes. * * * b o t h i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e ' l i t u r g y , and f o r p u r e l y m u s i c a l r e a s o n s . The w e a v i n g a b o u t t h e t o n i c g i v e s an a s s u r a n c e o f a r r i v a l a t t h e l a t t e r , a n d , i n i t s u s e o f s u p e r t o n i c and l e a d i n g t o n e s , i t i s t h e m e l o d i c c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e h a r m o n i c m o t i o n I , I V , I , V , I . I n Example 3.19 t h e "Amen" melody i s u s e d as a co d a a f t e r t h e t o n i c a r r i v a l , i n much t h e same way t h a t an "Amen" i s appended t o a p l a i n c h a n t hymn. Example 3.19 F a n t a s i e upon t h e p l a i n c h a n t  "Ad Coenam A g n i " , mm. 86-89. C o p y r i g h t 1906 by N o v e l l o & Co. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . The f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e "Amen" f o r m u l a i n W i l l a n ' s v o c a l m u s i c seems t o be i n t h e t h i r d o f t h e S i x M o t e t s , V e r y B r e a d , Good S h e p h e r d , Tend Us (1924) , s i g n i f i c a n t l y one o f t h e f i r s t l i t u r g i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s t o be p u b l i s h e d a f t e r h i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o S t . Mary M a g d a l e n e ' s . Example 3.20, c o n t a i n i n g t h e f i n a l m e a s u r e s o f t h i s m o t e t , e x h i b i t s t h e "Amen" m e l i s m a i n t h e s o p r a n o v o i c e . However, t h e m e l i s m a i s p r e -s e n t e d on t h e d o m i n a n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e t o n i c , an o c c u r r e n c e w h i c h became q u i t e commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h W i l l a n ' s u s e o f t h i s m o t i v e . I n t h i s example t h e "Amen" i s n o t a c o d a o r an appendage, b u t t h e t r u e c l o s e o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . The b a s s r e a c h e s .the t o n i c o n l y when t h e l a s t n o t e o f t h e "Amen" melody i s a t t a i n e d i n t h e s o p r a n o . Example 3.20 V e r y B r e a d , Good S h e p h e r d , C T e n d Us, mm. 32-37 •11 r r C o p y r i g h t 1924 by H.W.Gray Co. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e l w i n M i l l s C o r p . Example 3.21 shows a s e t t i n g o f t h e same m e l i s m a , t h i s t i m e a c t u a l l y sung t o t h e word "Amen". Here t h e h i g h e s t n o t e s o f t h e o r g a n c o n t a i n t h e f o r m u l a , w h i l e t h e c h o i r s i n g s "Amen" b e n e a t h . The whole t a k e s p l a c e o v e r a t o n i c p e d a l , g i v i n g a s e n s e t h a t t h i s i s a c o d e t t a . Example 3.21 0 Lord, Our Governour. mm. 4 4-49. C o p y r i g h t 1953 by N o v e l l o & Co. Re p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . Example 3.22 shows an "Amen" formula i n .the soprano, harmonized by an i n t e r e s t i n g s u c c e s s i o n of chords. The [ i fo - 1—~—^"—f €>• ft* - • ^ f r n ? r 9 J - —O ' / l i — 1  J p % i j j i 1 1 1 j J = t = — s — 21 f I ' iT'l <J- » J i —0^ ,y*-»J J o * - p r r r r r r f r » p a -—o-' r — > i r -C o p y r i g h t 1958 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . s u p e r t o n i c i s harmonized by the s u c c e s s i o n I I , f l a t -V I I , and the f o l l o w i n g , medial t o n i c i s harmonized by IV, r a t h e r than I s i x - f o u r . Example 3.23 i s s i m i l a r to Example 3.21 i n t h a t the melisma occurs on the dominant p i t c h , over a t o n i c p e d a l . T h i s example e x h i b i t s a f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r r e n t phenomenon i n W i l l a n ' s music: the use of a penultimate chord comprised of both dominant and subdominant elements. In t h i s case the penultimate chord c o n t a i n s a VII t r i a d i n the upper v o i c e s and a IV s i x - f o u r t r i a d i n the lower v o i c e s . Example 3.23 Hodie, C h f i s t u s natus e s t , mm. 6 2-64. h i j " r f l - f h . 4 i f r C o p y r i g h t 1935 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 3.24, from a l a t e motet, Hosanna to the  Son of David (1951), i s i n t e r e s t i n g because of i t s use A A A of the chromatic form of the m e l i s m a — 1 / f l a t - 2 , 1, A A sharp-7, l - - g i v i n g r a s o r t , of N e a p o l i t a n f l a v o u r to both the melodic l i n e and the harmony. Again the use of both dominant and subdominant elements i s e v i d e n t i n the penultimate chord. 97 Example 3.2 4 Hosanna to the Son of David, mm. 6 2-68 C o p y r i g h t 1952 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 3.25, from the part-song On May Morning (1950), shows t h a t W i l l a n a l s o i n t r o d u c e d the "Amen" formula i n t o s e c u l a r music, presumably because he sensed the formula's i n h e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n of f i n a l i t y a p a r t from i t s l i t u r g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n . Here the melisma i s i n an e n t i r e l y d i a t o n i c s e t t i n g . '0 Example 3.25 On May Morning, mm. 3 9-45 f r f f t U J C o p y r i g h t 1950 by BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . 98 The f i n a l example o f W i l l a n ' s "Amen" c l o s i n g f o r m u l a i s f r o m a l a t e o r g a n work, t h e A n d a n t e , Fugue  and C h o r a l e ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Here t h e m e l i s m a i s h a r m o n i z e d by a p r i m a r y IV t o I p r o g r e s s i o n , s e e n i n t h e l a s t t h r e e m e asures o f Example 3.26. The d o m i n a n t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y weakened by t h e a b s e n c e o f a r a i s e d l e a d i n g t o n e , by p l a c e m e n t on a weak b e a t , and by t h e use o f a t o n i c f o u r - t h r e e a p p o g g i a t u r a . I n t h i s example W i l l a n combines t h e "Amen" w i t h s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e p r i m a r y m o t i v e o f t h e whole c o m p o s i t i o n - ^ C - s h a r p , D - s h a r p , G - s h a r p - - i n the. l o w e r v o i c e s . • I t i s f i t t i n g t h a t t h i s p i e c e c o n c l u d e s w i t h an "Amen" coda b e c a u s e t h e l a s t movement i s a c h o r a l e , a homo-p h o n i c movement r e m e n i s c e n t o f a hymn. Example 3.2 6 A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e , mm. 102-106. C o p y r i g h t 1965 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Some o t h e r p i e c e s w h i c h i n c l u d e "Amen" c l o s e s a r e : t h e o r g a n p i e c e s .Aeterna C h r i s t i munera (1951) and C h r i s t e , Redemptor omnium (195 1 ) , b o t h b a s e d on p l a i n c h a n t 99 . hymn t u n e s , and t h e anthems B e f o r e .the E n d i n g o f t h e  Day (19 3 7) , S i n g We T r i u m p h a n t Songs (1950) , A P r a y e r  o f R e j o i c i n g ( 1 9 5 3 ) , I s a i a h , M i g h t y S e e r ( 1 9 5 4 ) , L i f t  Up Y o u r Heads, Ye M i g h t y G a t e s ( 1 9 5 0 ) , and 0 T r i n i t y o f  B l e s s e d L i g h t (19 6 1 ) . 100 IV T o n a l F u n c t i o n s The i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s i n d i -c a t e t h a t W i l l a n ' s m u s i c i s f i r m l y b a s e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s o f h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n and v o i c e l e a d i n g . However, t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t s o f h i s h a r m o n i c s t y l e w h i c h t e l l i n g l y a f f e c t t h e m u s i c ' s t o n a l q u a l i t i e s . P r e e m i n e n t among t h e s e , and t h e r e f o r e o f s i g n a l i m p o r t a n c e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r "sound", i s t h e s u p r e s s i o n o f t h a t dynamic f o r c e com-p r i s e d o f i n t e r r e l a t e d u p p e r - f i f t h and l e a d i n g t o n e f u n c t i o n s , w h o s e - a c t i o n i n t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d , o r i m p l i e s , t h e t o n i c . The l a c k o f t h i s dynamic f o r c e , w h i c h p r o d u c e s t h e c e n t r a l h a r m o n i c m o t i o n s o f "common p r a c t i c e " m u s i c , g i v e s W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a c e r t a i n i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c and m y s t i c a l q u a l i t y . I n s t e a d o f r e l y i n g on t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f d o m i n a n t and t o n i c f u n c t i o n s , W i l l a n a c h i e v e s m o t i o n t h r o u g h m e l o d i c d i r e c t i o n o f t h e v o i c e s , p h r ase, s t r u c t u r e , and f o r m a l d e s i g n . The l e a d i n g t o n e f u n c t i o n , c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t h e m e l o d i c component o f t h e d r i v e t o t h e t o n i c , i s a v o i d e d by W i l l a n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: 1) a v o i d i n g t h e s e v e n t h d e g r e e , 2) u s i n g t h e l e a d i n g t o n e i n p a r a l l e l c o n t e x t s , i n w h i c h i t s dynamic f o r c e i s s u p r e s s e d i n t h e o v e r a l l m o t i o n o f a p a r a l l e l s t r e a m , 3) r e s o l v i n g t h e s e v e n t h d e g r e e i n a f a l l i n g r a t h e r t h a n a r i s i n g manner, 4) a r t i f i c i a l l y f l a t t e n i n g , t h e l e a d i n g t o n e a t c r u c i a l 101 p o i n t s , and 5) u s i n g modal s c a l e s w h i c h n a t u r a l l y i n c l u d e a f l a t t e n e d r a t h e r t h a n a r a i s e d s e v e n t h d e g r e e . In C h a p t e r Two we have s e e n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p a r a l l e l m o t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e l e a d i n g t o n e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y i t s s t r e n g t h , i s subsumed i n t h e o v e r r i d i n g m o t i o n o f a / p a r a l l e l s t r e a m . I n Example 2.39 t h e C - s h a r p s n e v e r r e a l i z e t h e i r f u n c t i o n as l e a d -i n g t o n e s b e c a u s e o f t h e o v e r a l l m o t i o n o f t h e t h r e e l o w e r v o i c e s . I n Example 2.41 t h e C - s h a r p l e a d i n g t o n e s o f t h e l o w e r t h r e e v o i c e s a r e , w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n , a g a i n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n s o f a l a r g e r s t r e a m o r , i n t h e b a s s , i n a d e s c e n d i n g m o t i o n . (The f i n a l C - s h a r p i n t h e b a s s does r i s e i n d e p e n d e n t l y to D. However, h e r e t h e t e n o r d o u b l e s t h e l e a d i n g t o n e an o c t a v e h i g h e r , r e m o v i n g some o f i t s dynamic f o r c e . W i l l a n b r e a k s t h e r u l e a b o u t d o u b l i n g t h e l e a d i n g t o n e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own d i c t u m : "You c a n b r e a k t h e r u l e s f o r a s p e c i a l e f f e c t " . - 1 - ) P r i m e examples o f t h e a v o i d a n c e o f t h e s e v e n t h d e g r e e o c c u r i n W i l l a n ' s i n i t i a l a s c e n t s , w h i c h o f t e n r i s e t o t h e t o n i c and i n v a r i a b l y o m i t t h e l e a d i n g t o n e . Examples 3.15, 3.16, and 3.17 i n c l u d e upward m o t i o n s i n w h i c h a s k i p o c c u r s between t h e s i x t h and e i g h t h s c a l e d e g r e e s . Of c o u r s e , i n t h e d e s c e n d i n g p a s s a g e s w h i c h u s u a l l y f o l l o w t h e s e i n i t i a l a s c e n t s t h e l e a d i n g t o n e i s l-Drynan, p. 6. 102 o f t e n i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e i t does n o t e x p r e s s i t s r i s i n g v e c t o r f u n c t i o n . ( M o t i v e s w h i c h s k i p t h e l e a d i n g t o n e i n a s c e n t . b u t u s e i t i n d e s c e n t p e r v a d e W i l l a n ' s m u s i c . Examples 2.1-8, 2.32, and 2.54 f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n . ) One way i n w h i c h W i l l a n r e d u c e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e v e n t h s c a l e d e g r e e w i t h o u t o m i t t i n g i t a l -t o g e t h e r i s t o u s e i t o n l y i n t h e l o w e r v o i c e s , l e a v i n g t h e s o p r a n o o n l y s i x d i a t o n i c melody n o t e s . He o f t e n makes use o f t h i s a p p r o a c h f o r q u i t e e x t e n s i v e s e c t i o n s Example 4.1 N i c a e a , mm. 1-6. — ' — - * - r i ? tyji^ 1**" \ f r 7=f^'-: i * l i r r-**T — ^ t i f is . n r — a : \Qf » * f— m - == F f fit f If 1""^ C o p y r i g h t 1960 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 103 A of music. Example 4.1 i n c l u d e s no i n s t a n c e of 7 i n the upper v o i c e u n t i l the l a s t measure, where i t a c t s merely as an unaccented neighbour. The lower v o i c e s A i n c l u d e nine i n s t a n c e s of 7, none of which r e s o l v e s upwards, and none of which expresses the l e a d i n g tone A A A A f u n c t i o n . The motion 8 - 7 i s common here, but 7 - 8 i s absent. T o n a l i t y i s maintained p r i m a r i l y through use of the d i a t o n i c c o l l e c t i o n and through r e p e t i t i o n of important p i t c h e s . Example 4.2 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s avoidance of the l e a d i n g tone f u n c t i o n . Here again, the soprano has a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t i a l ascent and co n t a i n s no l e a d i n g A tones. Each of the lower v o i c e s has i n s t a n c e s of 7, but a l l of these progress by descent. Example 4.2 I W i l l Lay Me Down i n Peace, mm. 1-5 f t r ft rrtr i l l C o p y r i g h t 1950 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Using the n a t u r a l minor s c a l e i s an obvious way of a v o i d i n g the r a i s e d l e a d i n g tone. Example 4.3 shows A W i l l a n ' s use of ..this s c a l e . Indeed, the f i r s t 7 i n the soprano i s a r a i s e d l e a d i n g tone, but here i t a c t s only as a l o c a l a r p e g g i a t i o n of E. The f o l l o w i n g C's, 104 w h i c h a r e o f more s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p h r a s e , a r e n a t u r a l . I n t h e m o t i o n t o w a r d s D a t t h e end o f t h e p h r a s e , W i l l a n u s e s t h e n a t u r a l m i n o r s c a l e i n b o t h t h e d e s c e n d i n g s o p r a n o l i n e and t h e r i s i n g b a s s l i n e , d e v i a t i n g f r o m t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l use o f t h e a s c e n d -i n g f o r m o f .the m e l o d i c m i n o r i n a r i s i n g f i g u r e . Example 4.3 E p i l o g u e , mm. 1-4. > i j 4 y ,» f ? 1 9 9 > $ t i l * 1 / -}-hb 1—I-1 1 • J U f i n , , 1 i pi J i ) —w C o p y r i g h t 1909 by N o v e l l o & Co. Re p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f H e a l e y W i l l As w e l l as a v o i d i n g t h e l e a d i n g t o n e f u n c t i o n by u s i n g t h e m i n o r mode, W i l l a n makes use o f t h e e c c l e s i -a s t i c a l modes t o a l i m i t e d d e g r e e , and o n l y i n p i e c e s a c t u a l l y b a s e d on G r e g o r i a n m e l o d i e s , s u c h as t h e c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s Ave M a r i s S t e l l a ( 1950), C h r i s t e , Redemptor  Omnium (1950), and I s t e C o n f e s s o r ( 1 9 5 8 ) , t h e M i s s a  B r e v i s No. 7, 0 W e s t r o n Wynde (193 6 ) , and t h e modal s e r v i c e m u s i c . Example 2.44 i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f W i l l a n ' s modal s t y l e . The l e a d i n g t o n e f u n c t i o n i s a b s e n t due A A t o t h e n a t u r e o f mode I , so t h e m o t i o n 7 - 8 i s f r e e l y 1 0 5 u s e d h e r e w i t h o u t i t s n o r m a l h a r m o n i c i m p l i c a t i o n . Example 4.4 d e m o n s t r a t e s W i l l a n ' s use o f t h e f l a t t e n e d s e v e n t h d e g r e e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f m a j o r t o n a l i t y . Here t h e s o p r a n o has A - f l a t when a s c e n d i n g and t h e s c a l e - c o n f o r m i n g A - n a t u r a l when d e s c e n d i n g . W i l l a n ' s h a r m o n i z a t i o n o f t h i s p a s s a g e i s d e s i g n e d t o accomodate t h e c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n s w i t h as much c o n t i n u i t y o f t e x t u r e as p o s s i b l e . The i d e a o f f l a t t e n i n g t h e s e v e n t h on a s c e n t and r a i s i n g i t on d e s c e n t i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e m e l o d i c m i n o r c o n s t r u c t , i n w h i c h s c a l e d e g r e e s a r e r a i s e d on a s c e n t and l o w e r e d on d e s c e n t . Example 4.4 V e r y B r e a d , Good S h e p h e r d , Tend Us, mm. 6-8. I n h i s a v o i d a n c e o f t h e l e a d i n g t o n e f u n c t i o n i n t h e m a j o r mode, W i l l a n o f t e n seems t o h a r k back t o t h e modal p r i n c i p l e t e r m e d f a s u p r a l a . T h i s i n v o l v e s t h e u s e o f a f l a t t e n e d s e v e n t h s c a l e d e g r e e as an a d d i t i o n a l m e lody n o t e t o t h e modal h e x a c h o r d o f t h e f i r s t s i x s c a l e d e g r e e s . T h i s s e v e n t h d e g r e e i s b o r r o w e d f r o m the m o l l e h e x a c h o r d b a s e d on t h e s u b d o m i n a n t , and i s u s e d as an a u x i l i a r y p i t c h i n t h e n a t u r a l h e x a c h o r d . C o p y r i g h t 1 9 2 4 b y H.W.Gray C o . R e p r o d u c e d b y p e r m i s s i o n o f B e l w i n M i l l s C o r p . 106 I t i s o f s i g n a l i m p o r t a n c e t h a t t h e f l a t t e n e d s e v e n t h i s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e s u b d o m i n a n t h e x a c h o r d , r e l a t i n g as i t does W i l l a n ' s m e l o d i c p a t t e r n s t o h i s h e i g h t e n i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s u b d o m i n a n t and w e a k e n i n g o f t h e d o m i n a n t , as w i l l be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s . 2 Example 4.5 shows W i l l a n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f f a s u p r a l a . Here t h e r a n g e o f t h e melody i s f r o m t h e t o n i c , A, t o t h e s e v e n t h , G - n a t u r a l , t h e l a t t e r f o r m i n g t h e m e l o d i c apex. W h i l e u s i n g t h e f l a t t e n e d s e v e n t h , W i l l a n h a r m o n i z e s t h e melody w i t h a s i m p l e I - V - I p r o g r e s s s i o n , t h e r e b y c o m b i n i n g an a s p e c t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l t o n a l i t y w i t h one o f an e a r l i e r , modal a p p r o a c h . Example 4.5 F i n a l e J u b i l a n t e , mm. 1-2. liP^ I -j I, L:jfJ>» f 1 M M > *P r J / » t u 'VtfjT *•—=-1\ 1 | _ 4 ^ ^ - a ^ £ --6-C o p y r i g h t 19 59 by BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . ^ F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f f a s u p r a l a , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o : A l l a i r e , G a s t o n G., The T h e o r y o f Hexa-c h o r d s , S o l m i z a t i o n , and t h e Modal System, ( A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f M u s i c o l o g y , M u s i c o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s and Docu-ments, No. 24, 197 2.) 107 Example 4.6 a g a i n shows t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f f a - s u p r a - i a . Here t h e s o p r a n o a s c e n d s f r o m t h e t o n i c t o t h e s e v e n t h d e g r e e , w h i c h i s f l a t t e n e d . , The harmony i s a g a i n a s i m p l e I - V - I p r o g r e s s i o n , w i t h a m i n o r i n s t e a d o f a m a j o r d o m i n a n t . Example 4.6 Nun p r e i s e t A l l e , mm. 1-4. pu > i. C o p y r i g h t 1951 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House, R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . I n t h e o r c h e s t r a l p i e c e I n t e r l u d e f o r a F e s t i v a l , f r o m t h e C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e ( 1 9 5 3 ) , W i l l a n l o w e r s t h e l e a d i n g t o n e by a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e . Example 4.7, t h e "Horn C a l l " , shows an u p p e r melody h a r m o n i z e d i n a s e m i - d i a t o n i c p a r a l l e l i s m o f r o o t p o s i t i o n t r i a d s : t h e f i f t h s a r e p e r f e c t w h i l e t h e i m p e r f e c t i n t e r v a l , t h e t h i r d , i s m a j o r o r m i n o r , d e p e n d i n g on t h e s c a l e d e g r e e i n v o l v e d . The u s e o f s t r i c t p a r a l l e l f i f t h s f o r c e s t h e s e v e n t h d e g r e e t o be f l a t t e n e d , a v o i d i n g t h e " i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a t r i t o n e i n t h e o u t e r v o i c e s and t h e 1 0 8 l e a d i n g t o n e f u n c t i o n o f t h e C . E x a m p l e 4 . 7 I n t e r l u d e f o r a F e s t i v a l , m m . 4 8 - 4 9 . : K1'1'!- fTljLJTlili r q i U C o p y r i g h t 1964 by BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . I n a d d i t i o n t o a v o i d i n g t h e l e a d i n g t o n e . f u n c t i o n , W i l l a n h a s a c o m p l e m e n t a r y t e n d e n c y t o a v o i d t h e d o m i n a n t t r i a d i n c h o r d a l p r o g r e s s i o n s , f a v o u r i n g c h o r d s o n t h e s u b d o m i n a n t s i d e o f t h e h a r m o n i c s p e c t r u m . W i l l i a m M a r w i c k , i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n o n W i l l a n ' s s a c r e d c h o r a l m u s i c , h a s p r o d u c e d s o m e s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g W i l l a n ' s a v o i d a n c e o f t h e d o m i n a n t t r i a d . F i g u r e 4 . 1 p r e s e n t s f i v e a n a l y s e s f r o m M a r w i c k ' s w o r k w h i c h p o i n t u p a d e g r e e o f d e - e m p h a s i s o f t h e d o m i n a n t . F o r e a c h o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s a n a l y s e d , r e s u l t s a r e t a b u l a t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h e n u m b e r s a n d p e r c e n t a g e s o f e a c h c h o r d ( t o n i c , s u p e r t o n i c , m e d i a n t , e t c . ) f o u n d i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . T h e f i v e e x a m p l e s o f F i g u r e 4 . 1 h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e l o w p r o p o r t i o n o f d o m i n a n t c h o r d s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s W i l l a n ' s s t y l e . T o b e s u r e , o n e m a y f i n d n u m e r o u s c o m p o s i t i o n s i n h i s o e u v r e w h e r e t h e d o m i n a n t t r i a d i s v e r y m u c h i n e v i d e n c e . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , t h e m a r k e d a b s e n c e o f t h i s t r i a d , e s p e c i a l l y 1 0 9 a t c r u c i a l a r t i c u l a t i v e p o i n t s i n s o m a n y o f h i s w o r k s , i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r t i c u l a r t o W i l l a n ' s s t y l e . F i g u r e 4 . 1 C h o r d a l A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d C o m p o s i t i o n s o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . C h o r d N u m b e r o f O c c u r r e n c e s P e r c e n t a g e o f O c c u r r e n c e s 1 ) M i s s a B r e v i s N o . 1 0 , " S a n c t u s " ( 1 9 4 8 ) . I 2 7 3 7 . 5 I I 4 5 . 5 I I I 4 5 . 5 I V 7 9 . 8 V 2 2 . 8 V I 1 4 1 9 . 4 V I I 1 4 1 9 . 4 2 ) V e r y B r e a d , G o o d S h e p h e r d , T e n d U s ( I 5 3 3 2 . 5 I I 1 0 6 . 1 I I I 1 9 1 1 . 7 I V 2 6 1 6 . 0 V 1 7 1 0 . 4 V I 1 4 8 . 6 V I I 2 4 1 4 . 7 3 M a r w i c k , p p . 6 5 , 7 1 , 7 5 , 7 8 , a n d 8 9 . ( O n l y t h e t o t a l n u m b e r s o f o c c u r r e n c e s o f e a c h c h o r d a r e i n c l u d e d h e r e , r a t h e r t h a n c o m p l e t e b r e a k d o w n s o f e a c h i n t o t r i a d s , s e v e n t h s , n i n t h s , a n d a l t e r e d c h o r d s . T h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o M a r w i c k ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , T h e S a c r e d C h o r a l  M u s i c o f H e a l e y W i l l a n , f o r m o r e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . 110 F i g u r e 4.1 -- C o n t i n u e d C h o r d Number o f O c c u r r e n c e s P e r c e n t a g e o f O c c u r r e n c e s 3) Behold> t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God ( 1 9 3 3 ) . I 89 36.8 I I 31 12.8 I I I 18 7.4 IV 51 21.1 V 22 9 .1 VI 26 10.7 V I I 5 2.1 4) The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d ( 1 9 5 1 ) . I 46 25.6 I I 32 17.8 I I I 13 7.2 IV 31 17.2 V 22 12.2 VI 2 0 11.1 V I I 16 8.9 5) M a g n i f i c a t and Nunc D i m i t t i s , Tone I I , Solemn, V e r s e S i x o f t h e M a g n i f i c a t . I 13 31.7 I I 4 9.8 I I I 6 14.9 IV 9 21.9 V 2 4.9 VI 4 9.8 V I I 3 7.3 I l l I n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n F i g u r e 4.1 a r e t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t o n i c c h o r d s and s u b d o m i n a n t c h o r d s . The r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s o f c h o r d s seem t o have a f a i r l y e v e n r p r o p o r t i o h a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . S u p e r t o n i c , m e d i a n t , and s u b m e d i a n t c h o r d s , as w e l l as c h o r d s b u i l t on t h e n o r m a l l y l o w e r e d s e v e n t h d e g r e e a r e a l l w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d . More c e n t r a l t o a s t u d y o f W i l l a n ' s s t y l e t h a n a s u p e r f i c i a l l i s t i n g o f c h o r d a l p r o p o r t i o n s i s a r r i v i n g a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e ways i n w h i c h he a v o i d s t h e d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n : he a b s e n t s i t f r o m i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s , t h o u g h h a r m o n i c e l i s i o n , and t h r o u g h r e t r o g r e s s i o n a t i m p o r t a n t c a d e n c e s , and weakens i t t h r o u g h z t h e u s e o f a m i n o r , r a t h e r t h a n a m a j o r d o m i n a n t c h o r d . (Of c o u r s e , W i l l a n c a n make v e r y e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h e d o m i n a n t and o f t e n d o e s , n o t a b l y i n t h e d o m i n a n t p e d a l s w h i c h a r e so common i n h i s f u g a l w r i t i n g . ) O f t e n t h e s u b d o m i n a n t i s g i v e n an i m p o r t a n t r o l e , i n p l a c e o f t h e do m i n a n t , as w i l l be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s . Example 4.8 shows a c a d e n c e i n G m i n o r w h i c h a v o i d s t h e d o m i n a n t e n t i r e l y , and i n v o l v e s a c o m p e n s a t o r y i n f l a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s u b d o m i n a n t . The whole o f t h i s example i s i n e f f e c t a p r o l o n g a t i o n o f IV, b e g i n n i n g i n t h e s e c o n d measure, where t h e r e i s a d e c e p t i v e modal c a d e n c e , V I I - IV. The s u b d o m i n a n t i s p r o l o n g e d t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g measures- i n a s c a l e w i s e d e s c e n t 112 f o l l o w e d by a w h o l e - t o n e d e s c e n t i n t h e b a s s , w h i c h f i n a l l y a r r i v e s on t h e t o n i c i n t h e f i f t h measure o f t h e example. The f i n a l m easures c o n t a i n a I - f l a t - I I 6 -I p r o g r e s s i o n , o r n a m e n t e d by a s u s p e n s i o n i n the. s o p r a n o , The f l a t - I I 6 s u b s t i t u t e s f o r a more c o n v e n t i o n a l IV c h o r d , and t h e p r o g r e s s i o n s e r v e s t o b r i n g b a c k a s e n s e o f t h e t o n a l i t y a f t e r t h e c h r o m a t i c p a s s a g e i n t h e f o u r t h measure. The d o m i n a n t has no p l a c e i n t h e e n t i r e p a s s a g e . Example 4.8 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , mm. 5 5-60. 'nfi4-$£—i—i— H - m > £•--f f y $ j f i -»-*- t 1 \ > t 4 : j-t-i  1 1 1 i 'f H c — 1 — } — h C o p y r i g h t 1951 by Oxfc R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s : J * J >rd U n i v e r s i .on. .9^ ^ t y P r e s s -— C M — u i 113 Example 4.9a a g a i n d e m o n s t r a t e s a l a c k o f d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . The B m i n o r t o n i c t r i a d i s a p p r o a c h e d i n t h e t h i r d measure t h r o u g h a t r i a d b u i l t on t h e n a t u r a l s e v e n t h s c a l e d e g r e e . The i m p o r t a n t c h o r d s l e a d i n g up t o t h i s c a d e n c e a r e IV and I V 7 , o c c u r r i n g on t h e f i r s t , t h i r d , and f i f t h i q u a r t e r s o f t h e t h i r d m e a sure. I n t h i s p a s s a g e t h e d o m i n a n t p i t c h o c c u r s o n l y as a member o f t h e t o n i c and m e d i a n t c h o r d s . Example 4.9a 0 K i n g , a l l G l o r i o u s " , mm. 30-34 r r frU i i f f f r f •a C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . The f i n a l m e a s ures o f t h i s example a r e i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e t h e m o t i o n ends n o t on t h e t o n i c , a s one m i g h t e x p e c t , b u t on a s u b d o m i n a n t t r i a d , c l o s i n g t h e p i e c e on E. Example 4.9b shows an a l t e r n a t e e n d i n g t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n , e n d i n g on t h e t o n i c . T h i s i s p u t f o r t h o n l y by way o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h W i l l a n ' s e n d i n g , and n o t as a s u g g e s t e d r e v i s i o n . I t shows what f o r W i l l a n w o u l d have been "common p r a c t i c e " - - w h a t he m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o have done, and what he e l e c t e d n o t t o do i n t h i s c a s e . 114 Example 4.9b. S ^ T T — 1 1 i feat, J —o -o Example 4.10 shows another way i n which W i l l a n i m a g i n a t i v e l y avoids the dominant at an important s t r u c t u r a l p o i n t i n h i s music. T h i s cadence, I -IV7,sharp-3 - • I , i n C-sharp minor, i n v o l v e s an unusual use of the major-minor seventh-chord on the subdominant. T h i s cadence may be seen e i t h e r as a p l a g a l cadence i n v o l v i n g chromatic a l t e r a t i o n , or as a d e c e p t i v e cadence having B major, the dominant of the r e l a t i v e major, as i t s expected r e s o l u t i o n . The cadence combines Example 4.10 Andante, Fugue and Chorale, mm. 39T42. .0- it' m it f *V v i — 1 — j m v c > 3 = ™ C o p y r i g h t 1965 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 115 t h e v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s o f an a u t h e n t i c c a d e n c e ( t h e m a j o r - m i n o r s e v e n t h ) , w i t h t h e h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n o f a p l a g a l c a d e n c e . I t s u g g e s t s an a u t h e n t i c c a d e n c e by i t s sound, b u t . i t a v o i d s t h e d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . Example 4.11, t h e f i n a l c a d e n c e o f t h e o r g a n p i e c e E v e n s o n g (1961), p r o v i d e s a c l e a r example o f e l i s i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t . An a u t h e n t i c c a d e n c e c o u l d be v e r y n a t u r a l l y p r o d u c e d h e r e by i n s e r t i n g a d o m i n a n t c h o r d between t h e p e n u l t i m a t e and f i n a l c h o r d s o f t h e example. W i t h i t s o m i s s i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n , t h e m u s i c o f t h i s example r e l i e s on s t r o n g m e l o d i c p r o g r e s s i o n s i n t h e o u t e r v o i c e s f o r i t s f i r m ' c a d e n t i a l e f f e c t and c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e t o n a l i t y . Example 4.11 E v e n s o n g , mm. 54-57. C o p y r i g h t 1961 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . R e t r o g r e s s i o n , t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f n o r m a l h a r m o n i c movement by r e v e r s a l , i s y e t a n o t h e r means by w h i c h W i l l a n a v o i d s t h e d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . I n Example 4.12,' a c a d e n c e f r o m t h e " S a n c t u s " o f M i s s a B r e v i s No. 2 (1932), t h e t o n i c t r i a d , F m i n o r , i s a p p r o a c h e d t h r o u g h a c y c l e o f r i s i n g f i f t h s — D - f l a t , A - f l a t ( 6 ) , E - f l a t , B - f l a t , and F - - a d i s t i n c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o a c a d e n c e t h r o u g h d e s c e n d i n g f i f t h s . ( E l s e w h e r e , n o t a b l y i n e p i s o d i c m a t e r i a l , W i l l a n does make e f f e c t i v e u s e o f d e s c e n d i n g f i f t h c y c l e s , b u t a g a i n , i t i s h i s d e v i a t i o n f r o m common p r a c t i c e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e u n i q u e a s p e c t o f h i s s t y l e . Example 4.12 " S a n c t u s " , • M i s s a B r e v i s No. 2, m... 12. i i ' - i J J J - J J [1? -r f r r C o p y r i g h t 1932 by C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . As w e l l as a v o i d i n g t h e d o m i n a n t i n s u p e r f i c i a l ways, W i l l a n o f t e n a v o i d s t h e d o m i n a n t i n t h e l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e s o f h i s m u s i c . The f o l l o w i n g examples demon-s t r a t e t h e ways i n w h i c h h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d p r o l o n g a t i o n s o f t h e d o m i n a n t . Example 4.13, t h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n o f t h e m o t e t The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d ( 1 9 5 1 ) , shows a p a s s a g e w h i c h i s o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d t h e t o n i c and s u b d o m i n a n t a r e a s , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t . F i g u r e 4.2 o u t l i n e s t h e harmony o f t h i s example. Example 4.13 The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d , mm. 1-11. fa T ^ J J J » i» r f t-j j j-n i*/f =-» t = f r * * f r r f=-l/ v - r r 1 'p r r1 1*=^ 1 r r r i 4 - — C o p y r i g h t 1951 by C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . F i g u r e 4.2 Harmonic P l a n o f The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d , mm. 1-11. M e a s u r e : 1 2 3 4 5 6 C h o r d : I IV I IV I IV I IV # Background" Harmony: \ I V_ 10. I l l V I I IV I IV As c a n be s e e n f r o m Example 4.13 and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g f i g u r e , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s p h r a s e i s I - IV - I , w i t h 118 no a p p a r e n t d o m i n a n t i n e i t h e r o f t h e r e p r e s e n t e d l e v e l s o f s t r u c t u r e . ( I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s o p e n i n g p a s s a g e , t h e f u g u e w h i c h c o n c l u d e s t h e p i e c e , l i k e a l l o f W i l l a n ' s f u g u e s , u s e s t h e t o n i c - d o m i n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p as a p r i m a r y h a r m o n i c framework, t h e r e b y c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l norms o f f u g a l w r i t i n g . ) The " C h o r a l e " o f t h e A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e (1965) i s a n o t h e r p a s s a g e i n w h i c h W i l l a n weakens t h e r o l e o f t h e d o m i n a n t as a s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t . Example 4.14 summarizes t h e h a r m o n i c m o t i o n o f t h e c h o r a l e , and F i g u r e 4.3 shows t h e u n d e r l y i n g h a r m o n i c p l a n . Example 4.14 P a r t M o t i o n i n t h e " C h o r a l e " f r o m t h e A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e . ( I V X N V * 5 (Coda) I V I I V V IV -0—0 0-I V N 6 V l l i I I V # V I T # ( V ) -\s ^ +WS . 0_ > _ ^ = \ * 0 ' 0 — 1 * \0 ^ ^ ' 0 r -m 0 -m j * 0 * 1 a = - i 0 1 —*—^w*— • . ^ — *—« 0 — I V V I I f f 119 F i g u r e 4.3 Harmonic P l a n o f t h e " C h o r a l e " f r o m t h e A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e P h r a s e : 1 2 3 4 5 (Coda) Harmony: I I V IV V I I IV I IV (V) I # # # # B a c k g r o u n d Harmony: \ / \ / \ / I IV I A f t e r m o v i n g t o a h a l f c a d e n c e on V# (end o f p h r a s e t w o ) , t h e m u s i c p r o c e e d s t o IV and t h e n c e t o IV o f IV. The r e t u r n t o t h e t o n i c i s v i a t h e s u b d o m i n a n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e d o m i n a n t . I n t h e s t r u c t u r e as a w h o l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e d o m i n a n t i s n o t w i t h o u t some w e i g h t , b u t t h e s u b d o m i n a n t has t h e p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r a l r o l e b e c a u s e i t p r e d o m i n a t e s i n t h e l o n g a p p r o a c h t o t h e f i n a l t o n i c . The c o d a i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . The f a c t t h a t i t i s b a s e d o n _ t h e "Amen" m o t i v e was n o t e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . (See Example 3.26.) As w e l l as i n t r o d u c i n g t h e "Amen", t h e main f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o d a i s t o s h i f t t h e mode o f t h e t o n i c f r o m m i n o r t o m a j o r . T h i s i s a c -c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h a I - I V , s h a r p - V , n a t u r a l - I -sharp p r o g r e s s i o n , i n w h i c h t h e A - s h a r p o f t h e IV c h o r d l e a d s t h e E o f t h e f o l l o w i n g I c h o r d t o be r a i s e d . ( I f an E - n a t u r a l were u s e d h e r e , a h a r s h c r o s s - r e l a t i o n w o u l d 120 r e s u l t between A - s h a r p and E - n a t u r a l . ) The p e n u l t i m a t e c h o r d , V - n a t u r a l , i s o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e h e r e b e c a u s e o f i t s m e t r i c l o c a t i o n on a weak b e a t , and b e c a u s e i t l a c k s a r a i s e d l e a d i n g t o n e . I t seems o n l y t o be a b r i d g e , l i n k i n g t h e s u b d o m i n a n t and t o n i c as a harmony f o r t h e B melody n o t e o f t h e "Amen" m o t i v e . 0 K i n g , To Whom A l l T h i n g s Do L i v e (1931), t h e e i g h t h o f t h e L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t s i s a p r i m e example o f W i l l a n ' s u s e o f t h e s u b d o m i n a n t r e g i o n a t a deep l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r e . Example 4.15a g i v e s a s k e t c h o f t h e h a r m o n i c a c t i v i t y i n t h i s m o t e t , and Example 4.15b summarizes t h e m o t i o n o f t h e p i e c e . (The e n t i r e c o m p o s i t i o n i s r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . ) I m p o r t a n t p i t c h e s i n t h e o u t e r v o i c e s , a r e n o t a t e d u s i n g w h i t e n o t e h e a d s and stem s . W i l l a n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l i a n c e on a c l e a r l i n e a r scheme, t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , i s e v i d e n t h e r e . F o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be f o c u s e d on t h e Roman numerals, w h i c h d e s c r i b e t h e h a r m o n i c t r a j e c t o r y . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t t h e p r i m a r y r e g i o n o f m o d u l a t i o n i s t h e s u b d o m i n a n t , ex-t e n d i n g f r o m measure 16 t o measure 23. T h i s r e g i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n modal t e r m s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , B - f l a t m i n o r i s t o n i c i z e d i n measure 16 by an A - f l a t m i n o r -s e v e n t h - c h o r d ( n a t u r a l - V I I , f l a t - 7 ) , and t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e B - f l a t c a d e n c e i n measure 23 i s l o c a l l y f r o m a 121 Example 4.15a Harmonic M o t i o n i n 0 K i n g , To Whom A l l T h i n g s Do L i v e . m. 1 2 5 7 9 (arp . ) 11 12 13 5 15 16 18 i ^ ^ _ _ r F-: I V IV I IV 19 b l l V I I 7 I I<j IV B H V§ I i v ' j i Gfr: V I 7 VI3 v^ I V 22 23 4 I 26 I V ( P h r y g i a n ) 29 30 31 32 33 * 1 — ^ — u # ' . ' ' A r-T J * -m * V . • — 4> * ° * — *- —. ^  F-: B>-: VI G b : I V I I I V ( P h r y g i a n ) IVL IV I b l| V V V I I IV L Coda 34 3 5 (7) (1) ?^\}--f ,—v—-F-: 1 IV V I * »l 1 I 122 Example 4.15b Summary o f Harmonic M o t i o n i n 0 K i n g , To Whom A l l T h i n g s Do L i v e . F-: I IV ( I I I ) IV I (VII) (V) ( P h r y g i a n ) kj t) m i n o r s u b d o m i n a n t t r i a d and, i n a more l o n g r a n g e s e n s e , f r o m t h e n a t u r a l - V I I , f l a t - 3 harmony o f measure 19. I n o t h e r words, IV a p p e a r s h e r e i n a P h r y g i a n g u i s e . P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i s t h e f a c t t h a t l o c a l d o m i n a n t - t o n i c r e l a t i o n s p l a y a l m o s t no r o l e i n t h e o p e n i n g o r c l o s i n g t o n a l r e g i o n s o r , as noted,- i n t h e m e d i a l s u b d o m i n a n t r e g i o n . O n l y i n two p l a c e s a r e s u c h r e l a t i o n s i n e v i d e n c e . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s i n m e asures 18 and 19, where a l o c a l V - I o c c u r s i n t h e p a s s i n g t o n a l i t y o f G - f l a t , and t h e o t h e r i n s t a n c e o c c u r s i n t h e c o d a , where a s i m p l e I - I V , s h a r p - 3 - V , s h a r p - 3 - I , s h a r p - 3 c a d e n c e i s appended; a s u r p r i s i n g l y p l a i n c l o s e t o a c l o s e l y k n i t work. Example 4.15b summarizes t h e b a s i c h a r -monic m o t i o n , I - I V - I i n t h e b a s s , and i n t h e u p p e r v o i c e , t h e o p e n i n g a r p e g g i a t i o n and t h e d e s c e n d i n g U r l i n i e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e p r i m a r y m e l o d i c m o t i o n o f 123 t h e p i e c e . Example 4.16, an a n a l y s i s o f B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e  o f God (193 3 ) , shows t h e h a r m o n i c framework o f a n o t h e r p i e c e i n w h i c h W i l l a n c r e a t i v e l y a v o i d s p r o l o n g a t i o n s o f t h e d o m i n a n t . ( T h i s p i e c e i s r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . ) The main a r e a s o f m o d u l a t i o n , s e e n i n Example 4.16b, a r e IV and I I I . I t i s common p r a c t i c e t o m o d u l a t e t o t h e r e l a t i v e m a j o r , b u t W i l l a n accom-p l i s h e s t h i s i n an u n u s u a l way w h i c h masks t h e b a s i c d e s i g n . The r e l a t i v e m a j o r , I I I i s a p p r o a c h e d t h r o u g h IV and f l a t - V H , f l a t - 3 , t h e l a t t e r i t s m i n o r d o m i n a n t . I l l i t s e l f a r r i v e s i n measure 28 as a f i r s t i n v e r s i o n m i n o r c h o r d , p r e c e d e d • by i t s own s u b d o m i n a n t . O n l y a f t e r B - f l a t m i n o r i s e s t a b l i s h e d does W i l l a n move t o t h e m a j o r mode o f t h e r e l a t i v e k e y . A g a i n , t h e r e t u r n t o I i n measure 47 i s made d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h I I I , r a t h e r t h a n by way o f a d o m i n a n t . I m p o r t a n t d o m i n a n t s do o c c u r i n t h i s p i e c e (see m e asures 12 and 3 6 ) , b u t t h e s e a r e l o c a l c a d e n t i a l f e a t u r e s . The d o m i n a n t i s n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e p l a g a l c l o s e . The N e a p o l i t a n c h o r d p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i s p i e c e . As a way o f l i n k i n g t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s , W i l l a n u s e s t h e N e a p o l i t a n as a m o t i v i c s o n o r i t y i n measures 7, 18, and 57, and he u s e s t h e N e a p o l i t a n n o t e , A - f l a t , as a v e r y i m p o r t a n t m e l o d i c p i t c h i n b o t h t h e 124 Example 4416a Harmonic M o t i o n i n B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God. 125 a s c e n t t o B - f l a t (m. 2 4 ) , and t h e d e s c e n t b a c k t o G ( ra . 5 7 ) . The apex o f t h e melody i n Example 4.16b i s f o r m e d by t h e N e a p o l i t a n n o t e o f t h e r e l a t i v e , B - f l a t . W h i l e W i l l a n does f o l l o w s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e i n m o d u l a t i n g t o t h e r e l a t i v e m a j o r , t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i s somewhat masked by t h e i n t e r v e n i n g k e y s , I V and V I I . Here a g a i n t h e d o m i n a n t i s o n l y o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e . : Example 4.16b Summary o f Harmonic M o t i o n i n B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God. m.l 20 24 26 31 36 37 47 57 60 G - : I IV I I I6 . I I I 6 X I C - : I I V * K B : V 16 N6 V 16 I |l | I I I 1 I IV I I I I T h i s c h a p t e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f W i l l a n ' s h a r m o n i c s t y l e : a v o i d a n c e o f t h e l e a d i n g t o n e and d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f l o w e r e d melody n o t e s , s u c h as t h e s u c h as t h e f a - s u p r a -A l a and t h e P h r y g i a n o r N e a p o l i t a n f l a t - 2 , and s u b d o m i a n t h a r m o n i e s and t o n a l r e g i o n s . C h a p t e r F i v e d i s c u s s e s 126 W i l l a n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n t r a p u n t a l - m e l o d i c t e c h -n i q u e b a s e d on a t w o - p a r t v o i c e - l e a d i n g framework w h i c h a c t s a t v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s . 127 V T w o - P a r t Framework In t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r o f t h e p r e s e n t work t h e u s e o f p a r a l l e l s t r e a m s o f m o t i o n was d i s c u s s e d . I t was shown t h a t W i l l a n o f t e n made use o f a two-p a r t s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f o p p o s i n g s t r e a m s o f p a r a l l e l m o t i o n , and t h a t he l e s s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t h r e e s t r e a m s o r a s i n g l e s t r e a m of, p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r expands t h e r o l e o f t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c t o i n c l u d e i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o s t r u c -t u r a l l e v e l s w h i c h l i e b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e o f h i s m u s i c . Example 2.2 p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h , as v o i c e s i n a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h l i e s j u s t b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e , t h e s o p r a n o and b a s s have p r i m a r y r o l e s , f o r m i n g a s t r u c t u r a l t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t . A l t h o u g h t h e i n n e r v o i c e s do n o t r e p r e s e n t a s t r i c t p a r a l l e l m o t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s o p r a n o , t h e y do move gen-e r a l l y i n t h e same s t r e a m o f m o t i o n as t h e s o p r a n o . T h e s e i n n e r v o i c e s a r e somewhat i n d e p e n d e n t on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e m u s i c , b u t a t a s l i g h t l y d e e p e r l e v e l t h e y b e l o n g t o t h e u p p e r s t r e a m o f m o t i o n . Example 2.31 was d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n terms o f i t s c o n t r a p u n t a l s t y l e , b u t i t i s a l s o o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e sake o f i t s t w o - p a r t s t r u c t u r e . Example 2.31b shows t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x c e r p t t o be a t w o - p a r t framework o f s o p r a n o and b a s s v o i c e s , w h i l e 128 t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s , 2.31c t h r o u g h 2.3 I f , show how t h i s b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i s d e v e l o p e d i n t o , and masked by, a s u r f a c e t e x t u r e . Example 5.1 r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i n a l m easures o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f An A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s ( 1 9 2 1 ) . T h i s s i m p l e e x c e r p t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e s o r t o f • t w o - p a r t framework w h i c h so f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r s i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c . ( T h i s e x c e r p t i s a n o t h e r "Amen" f o r m -u l a , and i t i s sung t o t h e word "Amen" by one m y s t i c c h o i r and answered a n t i p h o n a l l y by another.- 1-) The e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e o f t h i s p a s s a g e i s t h e c o n t r a r y m o t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s . The i n n e r v o i c e s f i l l o u t t h e harmony i n p a r a l l e l l i n e s appended t o t h e f r a m i n g v o i c e s . F u r t h e r examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e W i l l a n ' s u s e o f t h e t w o - p a r t s t r u c t u r a l framework a t -'-Evidently W i l l a n was f o n d o f u s i n g m y s t i c c h o i r s --s m a l l c h o r a l g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e main body o f a c h o i r --f o r echo e f f e c t s , o f t e n i n v o l v i n g t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e word " A l l e l u i a " . The m y s t i c c h o r u s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a n g e l i c c h o i r i s n o t W i l l a n ' s own i n v e n t i o n . • I t d a t e s b a c k a t l e a s t t o 1903, t h e y e a r i n w h i c h E l g a r ' s o r a t o r i o The A p o s t l e s was f i r s t p r o d u c e d a t t h e B i r -mingham M u s i c F e s t i v a l . I n t h i s p i e c e a m y s t i c c h o r u s o f h i g h v o i c e s i s u s e d , i t s m u s i c s e t t o t h e word " A l l e -l u i a " i n t h e same g e n e r a l s t y l e as i s f o u n d i n W i l l a n ' s m y s t i c c h o r u s e s . I t seems more t h a n l i k e l y t h a t W i l l a n was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , b o t h b e c a u s e he p r o o f r e a d f o r N o v e l l o , E l g a r ' s p u b l i s h i n g f i r m , and i n v i e w o f h i s deep a d m i r a t i o n f o r E l g a r ' s m u s i c . I n a d d i t i o n t o A n . A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s , W i l l a n u s e d a m y s t i c c h o r u s i n I n t h e H e a v e n l y Kingdom (1924), w h i c h t i t l e a l o n e s u g g e s t s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n g e l i c c h o i r s ; S i n g We T r i u m p h a n t Songs ( 1 9 5 0 ) ; O S i n g U n t o t h e L o r d  a New Song (19 5 6 ) ; and Ye S h a l l Know t h a t t h e L o r d  w i l l Come (1967) . d e e p e r l e v e l s o f h i s m u s i c . Example 5.1 An A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s , mm. 116-120. - i - J J J 1 <s -5 W W Jp» •r r r r mm • 4  f : y L ^ (  -X 1—I 4 LS (yP P M  - f t — j - = mm mm 4 r • C o p y r i g h t 1952 by F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Example 5.2, a s e c t i o n o f t h e B e n e d i c t u s and J u b i - l a t e Deo (1953), i s t y p i c a l o f W i l l a n ' s f o u r - p a r t a c a p p e l l a w r i t i n g . Here t h e s o p r a n o and b a s s a r e gen-Example 5.2 B e n e d i c t u s and J u b i l a t e Deo, s.tanza 3. C o p y r i g h t 1953 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . 130 e r a l l y i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e o u t e r v o i c e s a r e i n o b l i q u e m o t i o n , b u t i n t h i s as i n many o t h e r examples t h e y a r e n e v e r i n s i m i l a r o r p a r a l l e l m o t i o n . The i n n e r v o i c e s e i t h e r p r o v i d e h a r m o n i c f i l l e r o r a r e p a r t o f a stream' o f . m o t i o n w i t h one o f "the "outer s t r e a m s . Example 4.13 o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r a g a i n p o i n t s up t h e p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n by W i l l a n t o t h e two o u t e r , f r a m i n g v o i c e s . Here t h e o n l y p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e o u t e r v o i c e s move i n s i m i l a r m o t i o n i s i n measure 4, t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e c a d e n c e , where t h e h a r m o n i c d r i v e o v e r r i d e s t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s . The i n n e r v o i c e s move g e n e r a l l y i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n w i t h t h e o u t e r v o i c e s , a l t h o u g h i n t h i s example t h e t e n o r and s o p r a n o a r e o f t e n p a i r e d , as a r e t h e a l t o and b a s s . The " C h o r a l e " f r o m t h e A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e ( 1 9 6 5 ) , a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , i s a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f W i l l a n ' s u s e o f t h e s o p r a n o and b a s s as p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e s u r f a c e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e m u s i c . Example 5.3 shows t h e f i r s t two p h r a s e s o f t h e " C h o r a l e " , as w e l l as t h e i m p r o v i s a t o r y monody w h i c h c o n n e c t s them. As i n t h e p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e s , t h e s o p r a n o and b a s s a r e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n . ( I n t h i s example t h e r e i s one e x c e p t i o n , t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e s e c o n d c h o r d o f 131 the second c h o r a l e phrase, i n which both outer v o i c e s descend.) Again the i n n e r v o i c e s p r o v i d e harmonic support and move g e n e r a l l y , but not s t r i c t l y , i n p a r a l l e l motion with the soprano. Example 5.3 Andante, Fugue and Chorale, mm. 94-96. I? lull # » C o p y r i g h t 19 65 by C . F . P e t e r s C o r p . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Homophonic t e x t u r e s , such as those i n the examples d i s c u s s e d thus f a r i n t h i s chapter, most d i r e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e the fundamental o p p o s i t i o n of soprano and bass i n W i l l a n ' s music, but, as we s h a l l see, the concept of a two-part framework continues to be per-132 t i n e n t i n t h e r e a l m o f h i s p o l y p h o n i c m u s i c . Example 5.4, t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e " S a n c t u s " f r o m M i s s a B r e v i s No. 10 (1948), i s somewhat more p o l y p h o n i c t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e s . Here a g a i n t h e p r i m a r y r o l e s a r e g i v e n t o t h e o u t e r p a r t s w h i c h work i n o p p o s i t i o n t o one a n o t h e r , one d e s c e n d i n g w h i l e t h e o t h e r r e m a i n s s t a t i o n a r y , o r b o t h m oving i n c o n t r a r y , m o t i o n . I n t h e l a t e r m easures o f t h e example, as t h e t e x t u r e becomes more homophonic, t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s becomes more appa-r e n t . Example 5.4 " S a n c t u s " f r o m M i s s a B r e v i s No. 10, mm. 13-24. . t i 1 J n -Pf. —7 i n i J . J t * . - / =F=M= J4—i—f— »bf ^-C o p y r i g h t 1948 by H.W.Gray Co. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e l w i n M i l l s C o r p . One m i g h t n o t e t h a t t h i s p a s s a g e i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n t h e key o f G, t h e d o m i n a n t key o f t h e p i e c e . How-1 3 3 e v e r , t h e s o p r a n o melody r a n g e s f r o m t h e t e m p o r a r y t o n i c , G, t o t h e f l a t t e n e d s e v e n t h above i t , making t h e l o c a l d o m i n a n t , D, a m i n o r c h o r d . O t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g h a r m o n i c f e a t u r e s i n t h i s e x c e r p t a r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f B - f l a t , w h i c h removes some o f t h e d o m i n a n t q u a l i t y o f t h e G c h o r d i t s e l f , and t h e s t e p w i s e b a s s m o t i o n t o t h e f i n a l c a d e n c e , p r e c l u d i n g a V - I c a d e n c e i n G. I n Example 5.5, t h e o p e n i n g p h r a s e o f t h e o r g a n Example 5.5 F e s t i v a l , mm. 1-7. —t— f r ' : IS J 1 1 [ — 4 — i i m 0 ' , f 0 : =i E mm f 3: C o p y r i g h t 1954 by F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s M u s i c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . p i e c e F e s t i v a l ( 1 9 5 4 ) , t h e o u t e r v o i c e s have a r e a l r h y t h m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m one a n o t h e r . T h e i r p h r a s e s o v e r l a p i n s t e a d o f b e i n g s y n c h r o n o u s , b u t t h e o p p o s i n g m o t i o n o f the o u t e r v o i c e s i s n e v e r t h e l e s s m a i n t a i n e d , e x c e p t f o r a few s c a t t e r e d i n s t a n c e s . As u s u a l t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s f i l l o u t t h e harmony, a d d i n g m e l o d i c t u r n s h e r e and t h e r e , as i n t h e a l t o v o i c e s o f measures 5 and 6, t o g i v e a s e m b l a n c e o f i n d e p e n d e n t m o t i o n . . The t h i r d L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t , I B e h e l d Her, B e a u t i f u l  as a Dove (19 2 8 ) , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e u s e o f a t w o - p a r t framework a t a s u r f a c e l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . Example 5.6, p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i n a l m easures o f t h e m o t e t , shows an abundance o f c o n t r a r y and o p p o s i n g m o t i o n between t h e o u t e r v o i c e s . The i n n e r v o i c e s a g a i n f i n d t h e i r r o l e m a i n l y as v o i c e s o f p a r a l l e l s t r e a m s appended t o one o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s . I n t h e t h i r d measure o f t h e example a l l t h e v o i c e s p r o c e e d f o r a s h o r t t i m e i n p a r a l l e l m o t i o n , b u t h e r e t h e d i s s o n a n c e o f t h e p a r t s i n some measure compensates f o r t h e l a c k o f c o n t r a r y m o t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i n g a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f t e n s i o n between t h e v o i c e s . The l o w e r v o i c e s f o r m a p a r a l l e l s t r e a m f o r t h i s e n t i r e measure, w h i l e t h e u p p e r v o i c e , r e m a i n s t o some d e g r e e i n d e p e n d e n t : a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e measure t h e s o p r a n o i s i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n t o t h e o t h e r s ; t h e n i t d e s c e n d s , f o r m i n g s e v e n t h d i s s o n a n c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g s i x t h - c h o r d s below; f i n a l l y 135 i t b e g i n s t o move a g a i n i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n t o t h e l o w e r s t r e a m . A d e g r e e o f o p p o s i t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e o u t e r v o i c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p a s s a g e . ( T h i s measure i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two, p. 42.) The f o l l o w i n g m e a sures o f t h e example p r e s e n t a much l e s s ambiguous o p p o s i t i o n o f o u t e r v o i c e s . Example 5.6 I B e h e l d Her, B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, mm. 2 9-35. " 0 ^ . §—f— J * J ) / \ \ r r f r ^ j > j ^ j J j J BE C o p y r i g h t 1928 by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . A f i n a l example o f t h e u s e o f a t w o - p a r t framework as a s u r f a c e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e , Example 5.7 f r o m t h e c h o r a l e p r e l u d e U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a ( 1 9 5 1 ) , shows W i l l a n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e same t e c h n i q u e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a h i g h l y c h r o m a t i c t e x t u r e . Here a g a i n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n t r a r y m o t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s i s s u p p o r t e d by l o o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t r e a m s o f i n n e r v o i c e s . Example 5.7 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , mm. 10-15. Nf if — ? , i 4= rf* km • f t 1 i m —1 L_ f— u If C o p y r i g h t 1951. by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n . Sometimes t h e i n n e r v o i c e s have m e t r i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s ( e i g h t h - n o t e s ) w h i c h g i v e them a s emblance o f i n d e p e n d -e n t m e l o d i c . m o t i o n , b u t t h e s e a r e o n l y l o c a l phenomena o f t e x t u r a l r a t h e r t h a n s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . (One may n o t e h e r e a g a i n t h e u s e o f m i n o r c h o r d s f o r d r a m a t i c e f f e c t as d i c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , and t h e a b s e n c e o f l e a d i n g t o n e and d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . ) 137 Two f i n a l a n a l y s e s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e b o t h W i l l a n ' s a v o i d a n c e o f t h e d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n and h i s use o f t w o - p a r t framework a t d e e p e r l e v e l s o f m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The f i f t h L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t , R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r  One (1929) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f W i l l a n ' s m i d d l e p e r i o d , and t h e I n t e r m e z z o f r o m F i v e P i e c e s f o r Organ (1959) e x h i b i t s h i s l a t e r s t y l e . I n e a c h p i e c e b o t h t w o - p a r t framework and a v o i d a n c e o f t h e d o m i n a n t a r e f u n d a -m e n t a l t o s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y . ( B o t h p i e c e s a r e r e p r o -d u c e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . ) Examples 5.8 and 5.9 p r e s e n t s u c c e s s i v e s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s o f R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e use o f t w o - p a r t framework as a b a s i s o f t h e h a r m o n i c t e x t u r e . I n t h e s e examples t h e two o p p o s i n g s t r e a m s a r e shown by t h e u s e o f two s t a f f s , one f o r e a c h s t r e a m . P h r a s e s a r e marked by s l u r s and c e r t a i n p r o l o n g a t i o n s , i n v o l v i n g r e t e n t i o n .of s t r u c t u r a l t o n e s , by b r o k e n t i e s . S t r a i g h t l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h e m o t i o n o f v o i c e s f r o m one s t r e a m t o a n o t h e r , and e s s e n t i a l h a r m o n i e s a r e n o t e d b e l o w t h e d i a g r a m s . Example 5.9 somewhat r e d u c e s t h e m a t e r i a l o f Example 5.8, t h r o u g h r e m o v a l o f p r o l o n g -a t i o n s and n e i g h b o u r i n g m o t i o n s . W i l l a n e m p h a s i s e s t h e d u a l i t y o f t h e o p p o s i n g s t r e a m s by t h e use o f m i r r o r i n v e r s i o n s , as i n m easures 4 and 5, where t h e l o w e r - . v o i c e s a r e a d i r e c t m i r r o r o f t h e u p p e r v o i c e s . 138 Example 5.8 Voice-Leading i n Rise up, my Love, my F a i r One. 139 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 5 2 6 2 9 b v - n — * — * — * — * — » — # — * — t f i Jt-— .— -—* a V — * 0— ii Bb-: 1 7 1 X 7 I V 7 " III 1 X 6 I n t h e f o l l o w i n g two m e asures t h e two s t r e a m s a g a i n o p e r a t e i n m i r r o r i n v e r s i o n , t h e u p p e r s t r e a m a s c e n d i n g by s t e p w h i l e t h e l o w e r s t r e a m d e s c e n d s , a l s o by s t e p . Two a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t e x t u r e i n t h i s p i e c e a r e t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e i n n e r v o i c e s s h i f t f r o m one s t r e a m t o a n o t h e r , a f f o r d i n g much v a r i e t y o f 140 t e x t u r e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e t w o - p a r t framework, and t h e u s e o f an open f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e u p p e r s t r e a m , a r e f r e s h i n g c o n t r a s t , i n m e asures 12 and 13. Here t h e u p p e r s t r e a m spans v e r t i c a l t e n t h s r a t h e r t h a n t h e more u s u a l f i f t h s and s i x t h s . Example 5.9 e m p h a s i s e s t h e e s s e n t i a l d u a l i t y o f t h e o p p o s i n g s t r e a m s w h i c h g e n e r a l l y move i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n i n t h i s m i d d l e g r o u n d l e v e l . F o r example, t h e o p e n i n g f o u r m e a sures c l e a r l y e x p r e s s a m i r r o r - l i k e f o r m a t i o n o f o p p o s i n g s t r e a m s , e x p a n d i n g and c o n t r a c t i n g . I n t h e s e c o n d p h r a s e , c o n t i n u i n g t o measure 10, t h e m i r r o r f o r m a t i o n i s c a r r i e d on more a t t h e s u r f a c e , b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e a g a i n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e m i r r o r -l i k e o p p o s i t i o n o f s t r e a m s , m o v i n g from 117 t o VI (measures 1 1 - 1 8 ) . I n t h i s . p i e c e t h e d o m i n a n t t r i a d i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t as a s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t . W i l l a n a v o i d s t h e l e a d i n g t o n e , . a n d d i r e c t s h a r m o n i c m o t i o n t o c h o r d s w h i c h s t a n d i n a p l a g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e t o n i c . The most i m p o r t a n t s e c o n d a r y harmony i n t h i s p i e c e i s 117, w h i c h a p p e a r s b o t h i n p r o l o n g a t i o n (measures 3-10), and as a r e c u r r i n g c h o r d o f a r t i c u l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e (measures 2, 11, 21, 23, 25, and 2 8 ) . T h i s c h o r d may be t h o u g h t o f as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e d o m i n a n t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s p i e c e . I n t r a d i t i o n a l h a r m o n i c p r a c t i c e 117 s e r v e s as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e d o m i n a n t ; i n t h i s 141 p i e c e i t i m p l i e s a d o m i n a n t w h i c h n e v e r a p p e a r s . P r o l o n g a t i o n s o f 117 t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l d o m i n a n t p r o l o n g a t i o n s , as i n t h e s e c o n d p h r a s e o f t h e p i e c e , m e asures 6-10, where a p r o l o n g a t i o n i s -i n d i c a t e d by beamed p i t c h e s i n t h e o u t e r v o i c e s . I n t e r i o r c a d e n c e s i n t h i s p i e c e a r e t o t h e r e l a t i v e m i n o r , r a t h e r t h a n t h e d o m i n a n t . The l a c k o f modu-l a t i o n t o , o r t o n i c i z a t i o n o f , any o f t h e s e c o n d a r y h a r m o n i c g o a l s g i v e s a f e e l i n g o f m o d a l i t y t o t h e work. The f i n a l c a d e n c e , f o r m e d by t h e p r o g r e s s i o n I I , f o u r - t h r e e - I , has a s t r o n g p l a g a l q u a l i t y . T h i s m u s i c i s p u r e l y d i a t o n i c and s t r o n g l y t o n a l , b u t i t s harmony does n o t f o l l o w t h e I - V - I p a r a d i g m . The I n t e r m e z z o i s a s i m p l e y e t h i g h l y r e f i n e d work w h i c h v e r y c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i d e a s c o n c e r n ' i n g t w o - p a r t framework s e t f o r t h a b o v e . The work i s i n t e r n a r y f o r m , and t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e p i e c e o n l y , t h a t i s , o f m e asures 1 t o 17. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t t h e o u t e r v o i c e s a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e m u s i c . A l t h o u g h t h i s s u r f a c e i s a c o n t r a p u n t a l t e x t u r e o f two t o f o u r s t r e a m s o f m o t i o n , a t d e e p e r l e v e l s t h e p i e c e c a n be s e e n t o c o n s i s t , i n i t s e n t i r e t y , o f two s t r e a m s . Example 5.10 shows t h e s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e 142 143 f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o . L a r g e w h i t e n o t e s i n d i c a t e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l m o t i o n w n i c h o c c u r s i n t h e s o p r a n o and b a s s v o i c e s . T h e s e w h i t e n o t e s a r e beamed t o i n d i c a t e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m o t i o n o f t h e s e i m p o r t a n t v o i c e s . L a r g e b l a c k n o t e s i n d i c a t e s e c o n d a r y p r o g r e s s i o n s : a r p e g g i a t i o n s , " r e i t e r a t i o n s •, and s i g n i f i c a n t n e i g h b o u r -i n g o r p a s s i n g m o t i o n s . A l l t h e s m a l l b l a c k n o t e s i n d i c a t e e b e l l i s h i n g m a t e r i a l w h i c h i s o n l y o f s i g n -i f i c a n c e on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s - i n -c l u d e s a l l l o c a l n e i g h b o u r i n g f u n c t i o n s , a p p o g g i a t u r a s , e s c a p e t o n e s , and so on. N o t e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e n o t p r e s e n t on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e m u s i c i n t h e s p e c i f i e d o c t a v e s , b u t a r e i m p l i e d by t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e v o i c e s . T h e i r d e r i v a t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e use o f v e r t i c a l t i e s , c o n n e c t i n g p r e s e n t e d p i t c h e s . t o t h e i r i m p l i e d o c t a v e p o s i t i o n s . Example 5.10 c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e s o p r a n o A A l i n e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e d e s c e n t s , 8 - 3 , A A A A 6 - 3 , 6 - 1 , f o l l o w i n g an i n i t i a l u p s w i n g w h i c h o c c u r s as a s u r f a c e f e a t u r e o f t h e work. B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o f u r t h e r l e v e l s o f s t r u c t u r e , two i n t e r e s t i n g s e c o n d a r y m o t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The f i r s t - o f t h e s e i s a r i s i n g m o t i o n i n s i x t h s , w h i c h o c c u r s i n t h e i n n e r v o i c e s i n m e asures 7 and 8. I t i s an a s c e n t i n t h e a l t o f r o m E - s h a r p t o A, and i n t h e t e n o r f r o m G - s h a r p t o C - s h a r p , t h e i m p o r t a n t 144 p i t c h e s b e i n g d e n o t e d by l a r g e b l a c k n o t e s . T h i s m o t i o n s u p p o r t s a l i t e r a l p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e t o n e s , e x t e n d i n g t h e C - s h a r p i n t h e s o p r a n o , a r r i v e d a t i n measure 7, t o measure 9. The f o u r n o t e a s c e n d i n g m o t i o n s o f t h e i n n e r v o i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g s c a l a r , a r e c o m p r i s e d o f s u c c e s s i v e a s c e n d i n g t h i r d s and de-s c e n d i n g s e c o n d s , as i f t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d n o t e s o f t h e s e r i e s were e x c h a n g e d . (Example 5.12 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e " n o r m a l " p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s m o t i o n . ) I n t h e two p r e v i o u s m e a s u r e s , 5 and 6, t h e o t h e r secondary*, m o t i o n o c c u r s , i l l u s t r a t e d on a t h i r d s t a f f i n s q u a r e b r a c k e t s . T h i s i s : a ' l o c a l d e s c e n t o f t h e i n n e r v o i c e s i n s i x t h s , b a l a n c i n g t h e s u c c e e d i n g a s c e n t i n s i x t h s . A l t h o u g h t h e m o t i o n p r e s e n t e d on t h e t h i r d s t a f f , , d e s c e n d i n g f r o m D and F - s h a r p t o F - s h a r p and A, i s a u d i b l e , i t i s o n l y o f l o c a l i m p o r t a n c e , t h e r e a l s t r u c t u r a l p i t c h e s o f t h e s e m e asures b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n t h e u p p e r s t a f f s o f t h e s e c o n d s y s t e m . Example 5.11 c l a r i f i e s t h e e s s e n t i a l m o t i o n s o f t h e p i e c e by r e m o v i n g a l l t h e l o c a l e m b e l l i s h m e n t s i n d i c a t e d by s m a l l b l a c k n o t e s . The two s e c o n d a r y m o t i o n s m e n t i o n e d above a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e t h i r d s t a f f o f t h e s e c o n d s y s t e m . I m p o r t a n t p r o l o n g a t i o n s a r e a l s o f o u n d i n m e asures 9 - 1 0 and 12 - 13. T h e s e two a r e once a g a i n p a i r e d , as were t h e i n n e r m o t i o n s o f measures 5 - 8. Here 146 p r o l o n g a t i o n s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f a l o c a l s c a l a r d e s c e n t i n t h e s o p r a n o , m i r r o r e d by a s t e p - w i s e a s c e n t i n t h e b a s s , t h e s o p r a n o d e s c e n d i n g a f o u r t h w h i l e t h e b a s s a s c e n d s a f i f t h . T h i s m o t i o n i s f o l l o w e d d i r e c t l y by a m o t i o n b a c k t o t h e p r i m a r y n o t e s , o f . p r o l o n g a t i o n i n e a c h c a s e . E a c h p r o l o n g a t i o n i s marked by b r o k e n t i e s w h i c h c o n n e c t t h e n o t e s b e i n g , r e t a i n e d , and e a c h f o r m s a m i n i a t u r e I - V - I m o t i o n , t h e f i r s t on t h e s u b d o m i n a n t , and t h e s e c o n d on t h e s u p e r t o n i c . The p r o l o n g a t i o n i n measures 14 - 15 i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g d i a g r a m , Example 5.10. I t t a k e s t h e f o r m o f an exchange o f p i t c h e s E and C - s h a r p i n t h e o u t e r v o i c e s , marked by c r o s s i n g l i n e s . I n Example 5.11 t h i s m o t i o n i s g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d t o a s i m p l e r e a r r a n g e -ment o f t h e C - s h a r p m i n o r c h o r d , f r o m r o o t p o s i t i o n t o f i r s t i n v e r s i o n , f a c i l i t a t i n g a downward o c t a v e t r a n s f e r d u r i n g t h e b a s s m o t i o n f r o m C - s h a r p t o D. Example 5.12 p r e s e n t s t h e same n o t e s as t h e p r e v i o u s example, b u t h e r e t h e b a r l i n e s have been removed, w h i l e c h o r d symbols have been added t o i n d i -c a t e t h e e s s e n t i a l h a r m o n i c m o t i o n . I n measures 7 - 9 t h e n o t e o r d e r o f t h e i n n e r v o i c e s has been c h a n g e d , i n o r d e r t o c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g m o t i o n , a s i m p l e a s c e n t i n s i x t h s . A l t h o u g h s e c o n d a r y d o m i n a n t s do o c c u r i n t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n s o f measures 9 - 1 0 and 12 - 13, i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t no d o m i n a n t o c c u r s a t 147 Example 5.12 d e e p e r s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s . A t t h i s s t a g e t h e m i d d l e g r o u n d m o t i o n b e g i n s t o emerge as a s e r i e s o f u p p e r v o i c e d e s c e n t s , f o r m i n g a s t r e a m o f s i x t h - c h o r d s w i t h t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s , and h a r m o n i z e d by an i n d e p e n d e n t b a s s l i n e . I n Example 5.13 t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n s have been r e -moved, l e a v i n g o n l y t h e p r i m a r y o u t e r v o i c e m o t i o n s and t h e s u p p o r t i n g harmony o f t h e i n n e r v o i c e s . T h r e e 148 Example 5.13 M i d d l e g r o u n d o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o , mm. 1-17. A: I VI IV 117 I . ( H 6 ) main d e s c e n d i n g p h r a s e s can be s e e n i n t h e s o p r a n o , c o m p l e t i n g an e n t i r e o c t a v e d e s c e n t f r o m A t o A. The main b a s s m o t i o n i s A - F - s h a r p - D - B - A, t h e D b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d up an o c t a v e b e f o r e m oving t o B. On t h i s l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r e , t h e p i e c e a p p e a r s as a t w o - p a r t c o u n t e r p o i n t , c o n s i s t i n g o f ' t h r e e .upper v o i c e s i n p a r a l l e l s i x t h - c h o r d s a g a i n s t t h e b a s s . As t h e f i n a l c a d e n c e i s a p p r o a c h e d , t h i s o b b l i g o i s r e l a x e d , and t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s s w i t c h t o t h e l o w e r s t r e a m f o r t h e f i n a l c a d e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n i n measures 16 and 17. Example 5.14 i s a f u r t h e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i a g r a m . Here t h e t e n o r has been r a i s e d an o c t a v e , i l l u s t r a t i n g c l e a r l y t h e p a r a l l e l f o r m a t i o n o f t h e u p p e r v o i c e s . The b a s s n o t e s have a l s o been r a i s e d an o c t a v e , as f a r as measure 12, s h o w i n g t h e m o t i o n o f t h e b a s s t o c l e a r l y be an o c t a v e d e s c e n t , A - F - s h a r p - D - B - A. The t h r e e p r i m a r y u p p e r s t r e a m d e s c e n t s now a p p e a r s u p p o r t e d by t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e -bass 149 Example 5.14 A: I V I 116 11.7 • I n o t e s , A, F - s h a r p , and D. M e a s u r e s 9 t o 15 a p p e a r as a p r o l o n g a t i o n o f 116, and t h e f i n a l c a d e n c e i s 117 -I . The p r o l o n g a t i o n o f 116 i s o u t l i n e d i n t h e s o p r a n o melody ( F - s h a r p - D - B ), - t h e b a s s m o t i o n ( D -B - D ) , and t h e c h o r d s w h i c h s u p p o r t t h e s e n o t e s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e s u p e r t o n i c t r i a d s . Example 5.15 o u t l i n e s t h e m o t i o n o f t h e o u t e r v o i c e s : t h e r e a r e t h r e e d e s c e n t s o f t h e s o p r a n o , e a c h s u p p o r t e d by a s i n g l e b a s s n o t e ( s u c c e s s i v e l y A, F - s h a r p , and D ) , and a f i n a l c a d e n c e . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e s i g n i f i -c a n c e o f t h e i n i t i a l C - s h a r p a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s o p r a n o l i n e becomes c l e a r . I t i s t h e f i r s t n o t e o f t h e i n i t i a l a s c e n t , t h e f i r s t m elody n o t e o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n , and t h e f i r s t n o t e o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d A A A f u n d a m e n t a l l i n e , 3 - 2 - 1 . The C - s h a r p w h i c h b e g i n s t h e i n i t i a l u p s w i n g i s p r o l o n g e d o v e r a I c h o r d t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t s o p r a n o d e s c e n t f r o m A t o C - s h a r p . I n t h e s e c o n d p h r a s e t h e C - s h a r p i s a g a i n p r o l o n g e d as p a r t o f a VI c h o r d , and serves' a g a i n as t h e f i n a l n o t e o f 150 Example 5.15 A 3 p— - ^ 1 * 1 c . — r _ ^ _ w ^ , — A; I VI 116 117 j t h e s e c o n d s o p r a n o d e s c e n t , F - s h a r p - C - s h a r p . However, when t h e b a s s d e s c e n d s a n o t h e r t h i r d , t o D, t h e C - s h a r p i n t h e s o p r a n o becomes a d i s s o n a n t s e v e n t h above t h e b a s s . T h i s d i s s o n a n c e i s r e s o l v e d i n measure 15, where t h e s o p r a n o f i n a l l y d e s c e n d s t o B. From h e r e t h e c a d e n c e t o I i s a s i m p l e and f a i r l y d i r e c t m o t i o n , a l t h o u g h W i l l a n c h o o s e s t o make a n o t h e r t h i r d d e s c e n t i n t h e b a s s , r e s u l t i n g i n a 117 - I c a d e n c e . (Compare t h e f i n a l m e a s u r e s o f R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, w h i c h a l s o ends with-.a 117 - I cade n c e . ) The i n i t i a l a s c e n t , as w e l l as b e i n g a s u r f a c e f i n g e r p r i n t o f t h e composer, i s s t r u c t u r a l l y a l i n k between two o r g a n i z -a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f t h e s o p r a n o l i n e - - t h e f u n d a m e n t a l A A A 3 - 2 - 1 l i n e , and t h e s e r i e s o f t h r e e m i d d l e g r o u n d d e s c e n t s . Example 5.16 summarizes t h e e s s e n t i a l m o t i o n o f t h e t w o - p a r t .framework o f t h i s p i e c e : a s t e p w i s e d e s c e n t i n t h e s o p r a n o h a r m o n i z e d by t h e t o n i c , s u b -do m i n a n t , and t o n i c i n t h e b a s s . I have i n c l u d e d t h e A A 2 1 151 Example 5.16 B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o , mm. 1-17. ~~ A A ~A 3 2 1 o t h e r f u n d a m e n t a l b a s s n o t e s , t h e t h i r d - d i v i d e r s F - s h a r p and B o f t h e p r e v i o u s example, as w e l l as a d d i n g a h y p o t h e t i c a l m i d d l e v o i c e w h i c h c o m p l e t e s t h e h a r m o n i e s . T h i s e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e d i a g r a m r e p r e -s e n t s t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p i e c e , a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h i s n e v e r t h e l e s s v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f W i l l a n ' s work. The u l t i m a t e b a c k g r o u n d d i a g r a m and i t s d e r i v a t i o n f r o m ' s u c c e e d i n g c l e a r l y d e f i n e d s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f i n t e g r i t y i n W i l l a n ' s work. I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t Example 5.16 b e a r s a v e r y c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e S c h e n k e r i a n U r s a t z , Example 5.17. 2 The s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between t h e two Example 5.17 S h e n k e r i a n . U r s a t z . A A A 3 2 1 ' ' H e i n r i c h S c h e n k e r , F r e e C o m p o s i t i o n (Der F r e i e S a t z ) , t r a n s . arid e d . by E r n s t O s t e r , (New Y o r k : Longman I n c , 1979>, F i g u r e 1. . i s f o u n d i n t h e p r i m a r y d e s c e n t o f t h e u p p e r v o i c e , A A A 3 - 2 - 1 . The o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e f u n d a -A A A m e n t a l b a s s l i n e , S c h e n k e r ' s b e i n g 1 - 5 - 1 , and A A A W i l l a n ' s 1 - 4 - 1 . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two f u n d a m e n t a l a p p r o a c h e s t o h a r m o n i z a t i o n o f t h e u r l i n i e r e v e a l s t h e v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c : t h e a v o i d a n c e o f d o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . W h i l e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s s e c t i o n o f W i l l a n ' s I n t e r m e z z o c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d e s i g n o f even t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s wo r k s , i t does i l l u m i n a t e b o t h h i s h i g h l e v e l o f a t t a i n m e n t i n l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f m u s i c , and h i s f u n d a m e n t a l d i v e r g e n c e f r o m t r a d i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d o m i n a n t as a p r i m a r y p o l e o f h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e . 153 C o n c l u s i o n H e a l e y W i l l a n s u c c e e d e d i n i n t e g r a t i n g many f a c e t s o f h i s m u s i c a l b a c k g r o u n d — a n i n t i m a t e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l A n g l i c a n m u s i c , a l o v e o f Brahms, and a l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n p l a i n s o n g and R e n a i s s a n c e p o l y p h o n y c r e a t i n g a s t y l e o f c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h i s p e r h a p s a h y b r i d , b u t w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s i s u n i q u e and s i g n i f i c a n t The m e l o d i c c u r v e s o f p l a i n c h a n t s u g g e s t e d h i s own m e l o d i c s h a p e s , t h e m o d a l i t y o f R e n a i s s a n c e m u s i c c o n t r i b u t e d t o h i s p e r s o n a l h a r m o n i c s e n s i t i v i t y and c o n t r a p u n t a l t e c h n i q u e , and t h e s o n o r i t i e s o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y R o m a n t i c i s m n e v e r c e a s e d t o a f f e c t him. The s y n t h e s i s o f a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s , m e d i a t e d by h i s own s e n s i t i v i t y t o h i s m a t e r i a l , y i e l d e d a v e r y p e r s o n a l m u s i c w i t h much g r a c e o f d e s i g n . The b u l k o f h i s p u b l i s h e d o u t p u t , d e s i g n e d f o r p e r f o r m a n c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be h e a r d i n c h u r c h s e t t i n g s . How-e v e r , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f W i l l a n ' s work i s d e s t i n e d f o r r e p e a t e d p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e . The L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y I b e h e l d h e r  B e a u t i f u l as a Dove, F a i r i n F a c e , R i s e up, my L o v e ,  my F a i r One, and H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t , a r e o f t e n h e a r d i n r e c i t a l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e l a r g e m o t e t s , An  A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s , and G l o r i a Deo p e r  immensa s a e c u l a a r e f r e q u e n t l y p e r f o r m e d . O n l y a 154 h a n d f u l o f t h e o r g a n works a p p e a r on r e c i t a l p r o g r a m s , s u c h as t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue, and a few o f t h e c h o r a l e p r e l u d e s , a l t h o u g h many o f t h e works a r e u s e d r e g u l a r l y as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l . A l -t h o u g h W i l l a n ' s o p e r a , D e i r d r e , i s b o t h o f h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as Canada's f i r s t f u l l - l e n g t h o p e r a , and o f m u s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as t h e work W i l l a n c o n s i d e r e d h i s b e s t , t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n m o u n t i n g a p r o d u c t i o n o f s u c h a work make i t seem d o u b t f u l t h a t i t w i l l e v e r be p e r f o r m e d a g a i n . I t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t t h e l i s t o f works w h i c h c o n t i n u e t o be p e r f o r m e d i s u n r e a s o n a b l y s h o r t , and t h a t -many f i n e works r e m a i n u n j u s t i f i a b l y n e g l e c t e d , f o r example, t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d p a r t - s o n g Weep You  No. More Sad F o u n t a i n s , , and t h e P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue  No. 2. U l t i m a t e l y , however, W i l l a n ' s p o p u l a r i t y s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o s e r v e as an i n d e x o f t h e w o r t h o f h i s a r t i s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t . O n l y by way o f c o n s c i e n t i o u s and i n f o r m e d a n a l y s i s i s i t p o s s i b l e t o p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e h i s s t a t u r e . ' I t i s hoped t h a t by e x a m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f W i l l a n ' s c o n t r a p u n t a l m a s t e r y , p a r t i c u l a r -l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s management o f t h e t w o - p a r t framework as a b a s i s o f v o i c e - l e a d i n g , p a r a l l e l i s m , and f o r m , t h i s s t u d y has e n a b l e d a more c o n v i n c i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f h i s l a s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o m u s i c . 155 A p p e n d i x L o n g e r M u s i c a l Examples T h i s a p p e n d i x c o n t a i n s t h e m u s i c o f 0 K i n g , t o  Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e , B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God, R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One, and t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e I n t e r m e z z o , p i e c e s w h i c h a r e a n a l y s e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e t e x t . E r r o r s i n t h e p r i n t e d m u s i c a r e as f o l l o w s : 0 K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e mm. 19 - 20: The s l u r i n t h e p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d c o n n e c t t h e t i e d s o p r a n o G's n o t t h e a l t o . mm. 20 - 21: The t e n o r B - f l a t s i n t h e p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d be t i e d . m. 21: The p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d have G - f l a t i n t h e a l t o , n o t G - n a t u r a l . B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God mm. 2 - 3 : The p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d have t i e s f o r t h e s o p r a n o , t e n o r , and b a s s I n o t e s . mm. 51 - 52: The s o p r a n o G i n t h e p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d be t i e d . R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One mm. 8 - 9 : The a l t o s h o u l d be t i e d i n t h e p i a n o s c o r e . mm. 12 - 13: The s o p r a n o s h o u l d be s l u r r e d f r o m F t o D - f l a t . m. 13: The b a s s s l u r s h o u l d end on E - f l a t , n o t F. m. 19: On t h e t h i r d q u a r t e r a l t o I I s h o u l d have B - f l a t , n o t C. m. 27: So p r a n o I s h o u l d have a h a l f - n o t e , n o t a whole n o t e . 156 2 C M . 352 In Memoi• iam Lynnwood Farnam Words from Liturgical Sources 8. O King, to Whom all Things do Live (For Funerals) Solenne (J r 1 2 0 ) Tenor Bass H E A L E Y W ILLAN whom Piano l (For \ rehearsal j only) \ / r f r r j - J J r . r r —1» ^ — J>poco cresc. CC Copyright MCMXXXI by Carl Fischer Inc., A'ew York International Copyright Secured Printed I n t h * USA. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . 157 158 shine up - on them, O Lord, for end up - on them, 0 Lord, ; for end less 26078-8 159 CM427 Dedicated to Leo Sowerby And Written for the Hundredth Anniversary Festival of the Church of St. James, Chicago Price .30 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f G o d Words from Antiphons of the Feast of Dedication Slow (about J.69) P. n — v — r o ~ Soprano Alto Tenor B a s s Piano (For rehearsal only) Be - hold, r p=££.r * H E A L E Y W I L L A N \PP . J J J U R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . 160 I 1 6 1 26627-4 162 163 5. Rise up, my Love, my Fair One (Easter, or Feasts of Our Lady) Ronp of Solomon i j SOPRANO H E A L E Y W I L L A N In free rhythm. J z about MB ALTO TENOR BASS For rehearsal only T R i s e , up, my love, my fair one, and come a-way; tor Copyright by Oxford University Press, New YorV, 1920 Printed in U. S.A. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 164 • J ' " i "i^ ni t h e f l o w e r s a p - p e a r _ cres, _ u p - o n t h e J I I . I t h e ( l o w e r s a p - p e a r rres. u p • o n t h e e a r t h ; t h e t i m e o ! t h e s i n g • l n g o f b i r d s I s c o m e - , a Rise up, my love, my fair one - 8 165 166 Intermezzo Andante sostenuto cJ=ca.72) 9 HEALEY W I L L A N MANUALS n : Q r r r r : L T T 10 J 1 i * * — ^ 1 Ch. TO/ f f f " J 1 +- r ffp — : C Copyright M C M L 1 X B M I C A N A D A L I M I T E D , 16 G o u l d St. Toronto 2 , O n » International Copyright Secured A l l Rights Reserved Including Public' Performance for Profit R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l M u s i c . 167 B i b l i o g r a p h y The H e a l e y W i l l a n C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada i s t h e m a i n c o l l e c t i o n o f documents r e l a t i n g t o t h e composer. 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D r a m a t i c M u s i c 27 T r a n s i t T h r o u g h F i r e ( 1 9 4 2 ) , 11 29 B r e b u f ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 11, 17, 19 Ave Verum C o r p u s , 19-20 Fugue i n g m i n o r , 17 30 D e i r d r e ( o r i g i n a l l y D e i r d r e o f t h e Sorrows) (1943-4 5 ) , 11, 15, 78, 79, 154 V o c a l M u s i c w i t h I n s t r u m e n t a l Ensemble 56 0 L o r d , Our G o v e r n o u r ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 14, 95 57 C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e (1952), 14, 67, 71, 107 R i n g Out Ye C r y s t a l 1 S p h e a r s , 67 I n t e r m e z z o , 107, 108 Come, Thou B e l o v e d o f C h r i s t , 48, 71 O r c h e s t r a and Band M u s i c 70 Symphony No. 1 i n d m i n o r (1936), 11 76 P i a n o f o r t e C o n c e r t o i n c m i n o r (1944), 11 Chamber M u s i c 105 Fugue i n g m i n o r ( 1 9 4 7 ) , 17 Organ M u s i c 144 F a n t a s i a upon t h e P l a i n c h a n t M e l o d y "Ad coenam a g n i " ( 1 9 0 6 ? ) , 10, 92, 93 145 E p i l o g u e ( 1 9 0 9 ) , 8 2 , 104 172 146 P r e l u d e and Eugue i n c m i n o r (19 0 9 ) , 47, 77, 82 147 P r e l u d e and Fugue i n b m i n o r (19 0 9 ) , 82 149 I n t r o d u c t i o n , P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue (19 1 6 ) , 8, 13, 1 5 4 155 S i x C h o r a l e P r e l u d e s , S e t I (1 9 5 0 ) , 12 1 Quern P a s t o r e s , 89 156 S i x C h o r a l e P r e l u d e s , S e t I I (1951) , 12 1 Nun p r e i s e t A l l e , 82, 83, 107 6 V e x i l l a R e g i s , 64 157 F i v e P r e l u d e s on P l a i n c h a n t M e l o d i e s (1950) 1 A e t e r n e C h r i s t i Munera, 98 2 C h r i s t e , Redemptor omnium, 98, 104 4 Ave m a r i s s t e l l a , 64, 65, 104 5 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , 64, 80, 112, 135-136 158 I n t e r l u d e f o r a F e s t i v a l ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 107, 108 161 T h r e e P i e c e s (1954) 3 F e s t i v a l , 84, 133, 134 168 P r o l o g u e on " A s c e n s i o n " (1956), 69 173 Ten Hymn P r e l u d e s , S e t I I (1957) 1 Wareham, 90 5 T h i s E n d r i s N y g h t , 68 8 B r i s t o l , .87 9 Ma r t y r d o m , 84, 85 174 Ten Hymn P r e l u d e s , S e t I I I (1958) 3 I s t e C o n f e s s o r , 104 4 T u n b r i d g e , 87 7 C h r i s t i s t E r s t a n d e n , 81 8 A Rouen C h u r c h M e l o d y , 87 10 Nun l a s s t uns G o t t dem H e r r e n , 85, 86 177 F i v e P i e c e s f o r Organ (1957-1958), 60 3 I n t e r m e z z o , 89, 137, 141, 152 4 S c h e r z o , 60, 91 5 F i n a l e J u b i l a n t e , 106 178 P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue No. 2, i n E m i n o r (19 5 9 ) , 12, 13, 47, 80, 81, 154 179 Fugue i n e m i n o r ( 1 9 5 9 ? ) , 14 180 36 S h o r t P r e l u d e s and P o s t l u d e s on Well-known Hymn Tun e s , S e t I 7 N i c a e a , 102 173 183 Two p i e c e s f o r Organ (1961) 1 M a t i n s , 61, 91 2 E v e n s o n g , 115 184 A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 13, 98, 114, 118, 119, 130-131 Masses 216 M i s s a B r e v i s No. 1 i n E - f l a t m a j o r (1928), 59 217 M i s s a B r e v i s No. 2 i n f m i n o r ( 1 9 3 0 ) , 116 219 M i s s a B r e v i s No. 4 i n E m a j o r (1 9 3 4 ) , 58, 59 220 M i s s a B r e v i s No. 5 i n f - s h a r p m i n o r (1935), 59 222 M i s s a B r e v i s No. 7 i n g m i n o r "O W e s t r o n Wyride" ( 1 9 3 6 ) , 104 225 M i s s a B r e v i s No. 10 i n c m i n o r and m a j o r (1 9 4 8 ) , 109, 132-133 C a n t i c l e s 251 B e n e d i c t u s and J u b i l a t e Deo ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 129 276 M a g n i f i c a t and Nunc D i m i t t i s , Tones I1-2 and I I I - 4 ( 1 9 3 0 ) , 110 M o t e t s 302 The Dead (19 1 7 ) , 64 303-308 S i x M o t e t s ( 1 9 2 4 ) , 10, 76 305 V e r y B r e a d , Good S h e p h e r d , Tend Us, 94, 105, 109 3 07 0 How Sweet, O L o r d , 7 6 308 L e t Us W o r s h i p and F a l l Down, 76 309 O T r i n i t y , M o s t B l e s s e d L i g h t ( 1 9 2 5 ) , 69 310-320 E l e v e n L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t s (1928-1937), 10, 27, 48, 153 310 P r e s e r v e Us, O L o r d (1928), 32 311 O K i n g , A l l G l o r i i o u s ( 1 9 2 8 ) , 37, 61, 113 312 I b e h e l d h e r B e a u t i f u l as a Dove (1928), 33, 38, 39, 42, 49, 51, 134, 135, 153 313 F a i r i n F a c e ( 1 9 2 8 ) , 30, 33, 36, 46, 47, 73, 153 174 314 R i s e up, my L o v e , my F a i r One (1929), 37, 41, 43, 44, 52, 75, 89, 90, 137-141, 150, 153 315 0 K i n g o f G l o r y ( 1 9 2 9 ) , 28, 31, 35, 36, 62, 63 316 L o, I n t h e Time A p p o i n t e d ( 1 9 2 9 ) , 29 317 0 K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s do L i v e ( 1 9 3 1 ) , 30, 32, 45, 120-122 318 B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God (1933), 27, 35, 38, 53, 54, 55, 110, 123-125 319 H o d i e , C h r i s t u s n a t u s e s t (1935)., 30, 31, 65, 71, 72, 96, 153 320 Who i s She t h a t A s c e n d e t h ? ( 1 9 3 7 ) , 27, 74 321 0 S a v i n g V i c t i m ( 1 9 3 5 ) , 59 322 Look Down, O L o r d ( 1 9 3 5 ) , 59 328 Ave Verum C o r p u s (1 9 4 3 ) , 19, 20 331 I W i l l L a y Me Down i n Pe a c e (1949), 103 335 Hosanna t o t h e Son o f D a v i d (1951), 96, 97 336 The S p i r i t o f t h e L o r d ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 65, 66, 110, 116, R i n g Out, Ye C r y s t a l l S p h e a r s ( 1 9 5 3 ) , s e e 57 Anthems 341 A l l H a i l , A l l H a i l ( 1 8 9 8 ) , 6, 7 351 S i n g A l l e l u i a F o r t h i n Duteous P r a i s e (1940) , 91 352 C h r i s t H a t h a G a r d e n (1 9 4 0 ) , 91 355 S i n g We T r i u m p h a n t Songs ( 1 9 5 0 ) , 91, 99, 128 357 A P r a y e r o f R e j o i c i n g ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 99 358 0 L o r d , Our G o v e r n o u r (1 9 5 2 ) , 14, 95 Come, Thou B e l o v e d o f C h r i s t ( see 57) 359 I s a i a h , M i g h t y S e e r ( 1 9 5 4 ) , 99 363 0 S i n g I n t o t h e L o r d a New Song (19 5 6 ) , 128 364 Ye S h a l l Know t h a t t h e L o r d W i l l Come (195 7 ) , 128 175 373 God i s Gone Up w i t h a S h o u t ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 64 380 I n t h e H e a v e n l y Kingdom (19 2 4 ) , 128 Hymn-Anthems 385 B e f o r e t h e E n d i n g o f t h e Day ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 99 388 L i f t Up Y o u r Heads, Ye M i g h t y G a t e s ( 1 9 5 0 ) , 99 391 C h r i s t , Whose G l o r y F i l l s t h e S k i e s ( 1 9 5 0 ) , 91 396 F a t h e r , We P r a i s e Thee (19 5 8 ) , 95 404 S t . V e n a t i u s (0 T r i n i t y o f B l e s s e d L i g h t ) ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 99 413 L o r d o f a l l H o p e f u l n e s s ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 91 C a r o l s 426 R e g i n a c o e l i l e t a r e ( 1 9 2 8 ) , 64 427 T y r l e , T y r l o w , T y r l e , T y r l o w ( 1 9 2 8 ) , 64 428 Here A r e We i n B e t h l e h e m ( 1 9 2 9 ) , 59, 73 432 A S o f t L i g h t From a S t a b l e Door (19 4 8 ) , 73 M i s c e l a n e o u s S a c r e d M u s i c 584 An A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e H e a v e n l y H o s t s ( 1 9 2 1 ) , 14, 58, 66, 128-129, 153 585 The M y s t e r y o f B e t h l e h e m ( 1 9 2 3 ) , 70 593 G l o r i a Deo p e r immensa s a e c u l a ( 1 9 5 0 ) , 74, 76, 153 S e c u l a r C h o r a l M u s i c 635 Weep You No More Sad F o u n t a i n s (1929), 72-74, 154 641 E t e r n i t y ( 1 9 3 1 ) , 67 656 On May M o r n i n g (1950) , 97 V a r i a 772-775 V e r s e t s and V e r s i c l e s , 20 772 V e r s e t p o u r l ' o r g u e ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 20 773 V e r s i c l e and R e s p o n s e , 20 176 774 Imprimatur n i h i l o b s t a t ( i n C major), 20 775 Imprimatur n i h i l o b s t a t ( i n c minor), 20 

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