UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The contrapuntal style of Healey Willan Renwick, William Jonathan Michael 1982

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THE  CONTRAPUNTAL  S T Y L E OF H E A L E Y W I L L A N  by WILLIAM  JONATHAN  .Mus., T h e U n i v e r s i t y  A  THESIS THE  M I C H A E L RENWICK  of British  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL  Columbia,  FULFILMENT  19  OF  R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF MASTER  OF  MUSIC  in THE  FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  DEPARTMENT  We  accept .to  THE  this  thesis  W i l l i a m Jonathan  as  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  March  ©  OF M U S I C  the required  UNIVERSITY  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1982  Michael  Renwick,  1982  In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission  f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written  permission.  Department of .Music The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date  March  19,  1982  A b s t r a c t  Healey ed  i n  i n t e g r a t i n g  i s t i c s  i n t o  of  t h i s  up  the  a  W i l l a n  a  h i s  s t y l e f o r  f i r s t  s t y l e s  a  of  t h i s  composer  of  who  s t y l i s t i c  i d i o m .  v a r i o u s  b e t t e r  I t  the  o b j e c t  which  so  a p p r e c i a t i o n  succeedc h a r a c t e r -  i s  elements  composer,  examining  m u s i c ' s  i n  p a r a l l e l i s m . the  attempts W i l l a n b a s i c  o f t e n  The  of  r u l e s  s p e c i a l  s e c u t i v e  of  express uses  as  of  make  to  the  p r o v i d e value  of  chapter  r e c u r r i n g  minor  chord  of  a s a and  deals  p a t t e r n s ,  way  w i t h  i i  music  the and u s u a l l y but  he  e s t a b l i s h e d  of  e n r i c h i n g  chapter  from  t r e a t e d 2)  of  w r i t i n g ,  such  of here  norms. a  examines enrichment.  aspects  " f i n g e r p r i n t s "  f e a t u r e s  W i l l a n ' s  t r e a t m e n t  t h i s  r e s u l t  work.  of  the  of  t e a c h i n g  dissonance  p a r t  d i f -  d i s c u s s i o n  aspects  w i t h i n  s t r u c t u r e , which  the  h i s  study  dissonance  p a r a l l e l i s m  r e c u r r i n g  A  t h a t  i m p o r t a n t  ideas  i n f l u e n c e s  o u t l i n e s  work.  a c t u a l  t r e a t m e n t  new  v a r i e d  c o m p o s i t i o n a l  t r a d i t i o n a l  t e x t u r e s  as  the two  W i l l a n ' s  and  h i s  h i s  s t r u c t u r e :  f o l l o w i n g  serve  to  d e t a i l  .  the  i l l u s t r a t e s  begins  c o n t r a p u n t a l  v a r i e t y  which  to  methods  Two  w i t h  a f f e c t e d  r e l a t i o n  surface  f o l l o w s  deals  development,  which  close  Chapter  The  a  range  musical  chapter  pedagogical  bears  a  broad  examine  composer's  f e r e n t  by  Canadian  work.  the  h i s  to  unique  The on  a  a  personal  paper  f o u n d a t i o n  was  of  the are  c h r o m a t i c a l l y  the  music  composer. 1)  con-  based  episodes, and  4)  3)  the  a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  use  Gregorian  of  study  of  of  f e s t e d  of  the  t h i s  W i l l a n ' s  the  on  f e a t u r e  from  the  Both  the  formal  avoidance  use  of  of  the  f i n a l  e n t i r e  the  The  and  f i n a l  W i l l a n ' s  of  the  value  t h a t  s t y l e , of  of  h i s  basis  the  by  as  i n  f o r  m a n i -  replaced  w i t h  harmonic  p i e c e s ,  as  a  p a t t e r n s  and  i n  t h i s  evidence.  discusses  W i l l a n '  a  organiz  surface  the  design  i l l u s t r a t e  c o n t r a p u n t a l  framework,  the  t h i s  both  to  avoidance  the  t h e s i s  surface  o u t s t a n d i n g  h i s  melodic  analyses  avoids  i n v o l v i n g  hoped  a  r i g o u r o u s  d e l i b e r a t e l y  of  t h i s  as  t w o - p a r t  i s  side  c l e a r l y  of  An  o f t e n  i s  a  I t  i s  dominant  the  harmonies  which  i s  e n t i r e  a  of  s t y l e  c o u n t e r p o i n t ,  p i e c e s .  t e c h n i q u e ,  of  of  of  ascent  the  turns  s t r u c t u r e .  surface  combination  which  on  v a r i o u s  Four  designs  p r o c e d u r e ,  form  of  harmonic  chapter  t w o - p a r t  a t i o n a l  i n i t i a l  based  the  Chapter  subdominant  i n  of  harmonic  f u n c t i o n ,  spectrum. l a r g e r  s t y l e ,  l e v e l s  W i l l a n ' s  dominant  The  formula  d i s c u s s i o n  composer's  v a r i o u s  of  m a t e r i a l  c l o s i n g  of  "Amen".  F o l l o w i n g aspects  a  p a t t e r n  of  the  s t r u c t u r e  and  a  dominant  i n  harmonic  i n p l a n  f a v o u r  subdominant.  examining study  w i l l  s i g n i f i c a n t enable  an  aspects assessment  work.  i i i  William E. Benjamin Thesis Supervisor  Table  of Contents  Abstract  i i  List  o f Examples  List  of Figures  v x i  Acknowledgements  x i i  Introduction I  Willan's  II  Surface  III IV V  Musical  Development  Structures  Personal Tonal  1  26  Elements  77  Functions  Two-Part  100  Framework  127  Conclusion Appendix:  153 Longer Musical  Examples  Bibliography Index  3  o f Works  155 167  Cited  171  iv  List  o f Examples  Ex.  1.1 A l l H a i l ,  A l l Hail,  mm.  Ex.  1.2 F u g u e  i n g minor,  mm.  34-37.  18  Ex.  1.3 F u g u e  i n g minor,  mm.  33-35.  18  Ex.  1.4 B y r d ,  A v e Verum  Ex.  1.5 W i l l a n ,  A v e Verum  Ex.  2.1 B e h o l d ,  theTabernacle  Ex.  2.2 0 K i n g  Ex.  2.3 L o , I n t h e T i m e A p p o i n t e d ,  mm.  19-20.  29  Ex.  2.4 L o , I n t h e T i m e A p p o i n t e d ,  mm.  31-32.  29  Ex.  2.5 F a i r  Ex.  2.6 O K i n g ,  Ex.  2.7 H o d i e ,  Christus  natus  e s t , mm.  Ex.  2.8 H o d i e ,  Christus  natus  e s t , m.  Ex.  2.9 0 K i n g  o f G l o r y , mm.  Ex.  2.10 P r e s e r v e u s , 0 L o r d ,  Ex.  2.11 O K i n g ,  Ex.  2.12 F a i r  Ex.  2.13a I b e h e l d mm. 3 - 4 .  Ex.  2.13b.(untitled)  Ex.  2.14 B e h o l d ,  Ex.  2.15 O K i n g  Ex.  2.16 F a i r  Ex.  2.17 0 K i n g  Ex.  2.18 0 K i n g , a l l  Corpus,  m.  t o Whom  page 7  33-37.  mm.  20  7-8.  27  45-47.  28  2.  30 do L i v e ,  m.  34-36.  30 30  44.  31 31  6.  a l l Things  mm.  m. 8.  8-9.  32 do L i v e ,  m.  19..32  31-32.  herBeautiful  33 a s a Dove,  33  34  t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f G o d , mm. o f G l o r y , mm.  i n Face,  19  38-44.  o f G o d , mm.  a l l Things  t o Whom  i n Face,  mm.  Corpus,  o f G l o r y , mm.  i n Face,  1-20.  mm.  23-24.  17-19.  o f G l o r y , mm. Glorious, v  1-3.  35 35 36  14-17.  36  m.  37  25.  Ex.  2.19 mm.  R i s e up, 3-4.  my  Ex.  2.20  Behold,  Ex.  2.21 I b e h e l d mm.11-12.  her Beautiful  as  a Dove,  38  Ex.  2.22 mm.  I beheld 8-9.  her Beautiful  as a Dove,  39  Ex.  2.23  Rise  up,  my  Love,  my  Fair  One,  mm.  7-8.  41  Ex.  2.24  Rise  up,  my  Love,  my  Fair  One,  mm.  25-26.  41  Ex.  2.25a  m.  42  Ex.  2.25b.(untitled)  Ex.  2.26a  Ex.  2.26b.(untitled)  Ex.  2.27a R i s e up, mm. 14-15.  Ex.  2.27b.(untitled)  Ex.  2.28 0 K i n g , m. 1 5 .  Ex.  2.29a  Ex.  2.29b.(untitled)  Ex.  2.30  Ex.  2.31a  Ex.  2.31b.  (untitled)  50  Ex.  2.31c.  (untitled)  50  Ex.  2.31d.  (untitled)  50  Ex.  2.31e.  (untitled)  50  Ex.  2.31f.  (untitled)  50  Ex.  2.32  Ex.  2.3 3 R i s e  Fair  Fair  up,  my  Love,  as  mm.  9-10.  a Dove,  31.  37  38  my  Fair  One,  mm.  9-10.  43 43  my  Love,  my  Fair  One,  44  44  mm.  do  Live,  45  24-25.  46 46  mm.  1-2.  her Beautiful  her Beautiful my  page  o f God,  t o Whom a l l T h i n g s  I beheld  One,  42  i n Face,  up,  Fair  her Beautiful  i n Face,  I beheld  my  the Tabernacle  I beheld  Rise  Love,  Love,  my vi  47 as a Dove,  as  Fair  a Dove, One,  mm.  m.  m.  11.  49  5.  51  17-18.  52  Ex.  2.34a B e h o l d , mm. 1-2.  the Tabernacle  Ex.  2.34b.  (untitled)  53  Ex.  2.34c.  (untitled)  53  Ex.  2.35  Behold,  the Tabernacle  o f God,  mm.  16-17.  54  Ex.  2.36  Behold,  the Tabernacle  o f God,  mm.  18-19.  55  Ex.  2.37 No.  "Benedictus 4 .  Ex.  2.38 mm.  Scherzo 5-12.  Ex.  2.39  0  Ex.  2.40  Matins,  Ex.  2.41a 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , script version  mm.  1- 4.  First  Ex.  2 . 4 1 b 0 K i n g o f G1o r y , script version  mm.  1- 4.  Second  Ex.  2.41c 0 K i n g o f G l o r y , printed version  mm.  1- 4 . F i n a l ,  Ex.  2.42  God  Ex.  2.43  Hodie,  Ex.  2.44 A v e M a r i s S t e l l a (Five Preludes P l a i n c h a n t M e l o d i e s ) , mm. 1 T 4 .  Ex.  2.45  The  Ex.  2.46 mm.  An A p o s t r o p h e 97-99.  Ex.  2.47 R i n g O u t , Y e C r y s t a l l S h e a r s C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e , mm. 10-11.  Ex.  2.48  Eternity,  Ex.  2.49  This  Ex.  2.50  0  Ex.  2.51 T h e S h e p h e r d s f r o m B e t h l e h e m , mm. 45-47.  qui venit" ,  (Five  Pieces  i s Gone  Brevis  Up  with  a  Shout,  61  e s t , mm.  mm.  Manu-  mm.  Manu-  25-28.  on  63  5-11.  65  66  Hosts,  from  64  65  the  59-61.  66  67  67 7-13.  Blessed Light, The M y s t e r y  vii  63  63  43-47.  to the Heavenly  Most  59  60  mm • 3 0 - 3 2 .  of the Lord,  mm.  53  61  E n d r i s N y g h t , mm.  Trinity,  Missa  18-27.  C h r i s t u s natus  Spirit  page  f o r Organ),  King,-all Glorious, mm.  o f God,  68 mm. of  47-50.  69 70  Ex.  2.52 the  Come, T h o u Coronation  Beloved of C h r i s t from S u i t e , mm. 98-100.  Ex.  2.53  Hodie,  Ex.  2.54 mm.  Weep Y o u 44-48  Ex.  2.55  Gloria  Ex.  2.56  Who  Ex.  2.57  Rise  Ex.  3.1  Prelude  Ex.  3.2  Deirdre,  A c t I , mm.  Ex.  3.3  Deirdre,  A c t I I I , mm.  1-3.  79  Ex.  3.4  Deirdre,  A c t I I I , mm.  842-846.  79  Ex.  3.5  Urbs  Ex.  3.6 P a s s a c a g l i a mm. 1-3.  Ex.  3.7  Christ  Ex..  3.8  Nun  Ex.  3.9  Festival,  Ex.  3.10a  M a r t y r d o m , mm.  16-19.  85  Ex.  3.10b  M a r t y r d o m , mm.  35-38.  85  Ex.  3.11 29,  Nun l a s s t u n s G o t t 36-41, and 52-57.  Ex.  3.12  Intermezzo,  Ex.  3.13  Quern p a s t o r e s ,  Ex.  3.14  W a r e h a m , mm.  Ex.  3.15  Rise  Ex.  3.16  Scherzo,  Ex.  3.17 mm.  Christ, 1-2.  Christus natus No  Deo  i s She up,  More,  that  my  and Fugue  beata,  alle,  my mm.  One,  mm.  mm.  10-12. mm.  mm.  1-10. 5-8.  58-59.  No.  2,  mm.  26-29.  i n E minor,  77  81  81 83 84  Herren,  mm.  26-  1-2.  86  89  1-2.  89  1-2. Love,  75  80  32-39 .  dem  mm.  74  78  30-35.  mm.  72  60-63. 74  9-13.  i s terstanden,  up,  Fair  71  73  mm.  mm.  i n c minor,  and Fugue  mm.  saecula,  Ascendeth?,  Love,  Hierusalem  48-57.  Sad F o u n t a i n s ,  p e r immensa  my  preiset  e s t , mm.  page  90 my  Fair  One,  mm.  1-2.  3 7-38.  whose G l o r y  90 91  fills  viii  the Skies,  91  Ex.  3.18 "Amen" f r o m A g n i Dapes.  Ex.  3.19 F a n t a s i e u p o n t h e p l a i n c h a n t A g n i " , mm. 86-89.  Ex.  3.20 V e r y B r e a d , mm. 32-37.  Ex.  3.21 0 L o r d ,  Our Governour,  Ex.  3.22 F a t h e r ,  We  Ex.  3.23 H o d i e ,  Ex.  3.2 4 H o s a n n a  Ex.  3.25 On M a y M o r n i n g ,  Ex.  3.2 6 A n d a n t e , F u g u e  Ex.  4.1 N i c a e a ,  Ex.  4.2  Ex.  4.3 E p i l o g u e ,  Ex.  4.4 V e r y B r e a d , mm. 6-8.  Ex.  4.5 F i n a l e  Ex.  4.6 N u n p r e i s e t  Ex.  4.7  Ex.  4.8 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m  Ex.  4.9a 0 K i n g ,  Ex.  4.9b.  Ex.  4.10 A n d a n t e , F u g u e  Ex.  4.11 E v e n s o n g , mm.  Ex.  4.12  Ex.  4.13 T h e S p i r i t  Ex.  4.14 P a r t Andante,  I Will  t h e hymn A d R e q i a s  Good  mm.  44-49.  T h e e , mm.  natus  mm.  39-45.  mm.  mm.  102-106.  i n Peace,  mm.  1-5.  1-4.  97  98  103 104  Shepherd,_Tend Us,  Alle,  96  102  Down  Good  94  97  and Chorale,  Jubilante,  Interlude  62-68.  1-6.  L a y Me  93  95  62-64.  mm.  93  95  74-78.  e s t , mm.  t o t h e Son o f D a v i d ,  mm.  "Ad Coenam  Shepherd, Tend Us,  Praise  Christus  page  105  mm.  1-2.  106  mm.  1-4.  107  fora Eestival,  mm.  48-49.  108  beata,  mm.  55-60.  112  a l lGlorious,  mm.  30-34.  113  (untitled)  "Sanctus",  114 and Chorale , 54-57.  Missa  mm.  39-42.  '  Brevis  of the Lord,  115 No.  2, m.  mm.  1-11.  Motion i n the "Chorale" Fugue and C h o r a l e . ix  114  from  12.  116 117  the  118  Ex.  4.15a Harmonic M o t i o n i n 0 K i n g , Whom a l l T h i n g s d o L i v e .  to  Ex.  4 . 1 5 b Summary o f H a r m o n i c M o t i o n t o Whom a l l T h i n g s d o L i v e .  i n 0 King,  122  Ex.  4.16a Harmonic M o t i o n T a b e r n a c l e o f God.  the  124  Ex.  4 . 1 6 b Summary o f H a r m o n i c the T a b e r n a c l e o f God.  i n Behold,  125  Ex.  5.1 A n A p o s t r o p h e mm. 1 1 6 - 1 2 0 .  Ex.  5.2 B e n e d i c t u s  Ex.  5.3 A n d a n t e ,  Ex.  5.4 " S a n c t u s " , mm. 1 3 - 2 4 .  Ex.  5.5 F e s t i v a l ,  Ex.  5.6 I b e h e l d mm. 2 9 - 3 5 .  Ex.  5.7 U-rbs  Ex.  5.8 V o i c e - l e a d i n g F a i r One.  Ex.  5.9 T w o - p a r t F r a m e w o r k my F a i r O n e .  Ex.  5.10 S u r f a c e S t r u c t u r e s mm. 1 - 1 7 .  Ex.  5.11 F o r e g r o u n d  Ex.  5.12. ( u n t i t l e d )  Ex.  5.13 M i d d l e g r o u n d mm. 1 - 1 7 .  Ex.  5.14. ( u n t i t l e d )  149  Ex.  5.15. ( u n t i t l e d )  150  Ex.  5.16 B a c k g r o u n d  o f t h e Intermezzo,  Ex.  5.17 S h e n k e r i a n  Ursatz.  i n Behold,  Motion  t o t h eHeavenly  and J u b i l a t e  Fugue  mm.  Hosts,  D e o , s t a n z a 3.  a n d C h o r a l e , mm. Missa  p a g e 121  Brevis  94-96.  No. 10,  1-7.  129 131 132  13 3  her, Beautiful  Hierusalem  129  beata,  a s a Dove,  mm.  135  10-15.  i n R i s e u p , my L o v e ,  136 my  138  i n R i s e u p , my L o v e ,  139  o f the Intermezzo,  142  o f the Intermezzo,  mm.  1 - 1 7 . 145 147  o f the Intermezzo,  mm.  148  1-17. 151 151  x  List  of Figures  Fig.  4.1 C h o r d a l A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d Compositions of Healey W i l l a n .  Fig.  4.2 H a r m o n i c P l a n o f The S p i r i t L o r d , mm. 1-11.  Fig.  4.3 H a r m o n i c P l a n o f t h e " C h o r a l e " t h e A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e .  xi  o f the from  Acknowledgements  It  i s with  express has my  my  thanks  to  the to  the  and  Music  of  aided I  am  me  in  also  the  William  and  Father  Finally, my  to  music  their  Berandol  the  for  their  willing  Mary Mason of  the  Frederick Nielsen  my  I  V.  have comes which  Geoghegan,  extend  xii  making are  out  have  Leslie University  Thompson of  the  Ltd.  Estate  particularly first  to  Albert Jocelyn  mind. Mahon, Pritchard,  given.  loving parents,  endeavors,  their  cooperation.  help  have  for  Concordia  Oxford  trustees  i n d i v i d u a l s who  work,  Helmut  which  Music,  Gordon  thank  Pro-  copyrighted  Novello,  and  for  Music,  Harris  Dr.  which  companies  of  extend  Library  Centre,  to  McKie, Donald  National  Willan's  Inc.,  also  to  I  who  committee,  Schell;  Music  use  I  thesis  following  appreciative  Sir  supported  of  Corp.,  many  this  the  Frederick  like  the  my  that  Benjamin,  work.  James  of  Longman,  Willan  Among  and  appreciation  this  of  Mills,  Peters  also  Healey  to  House,  C.F.  would  the  Belwin  Supply,  Press, I  to  consented  Publishing  in  of  William  Canadian  of  materials:  me  staff  many p i e c e s  kindly  Dr.  members  available print;  sense  to  Chappell  and  assistance;  guided the  John  Kallmann  deep  gratitude  carefully  fessors  a  who  most  have  warmly  grateful  thanks.  1  Introduction  In it  light  i s the  importance  has  always  work  and  the  been  fully  milieu  by  styles  into  the  mask  i n f o r m e d by  he  Willan  was  field  a  the  great  of  ations  was  as,  f o r example, of  chamber  However, the  I  creative  not  always of  the  of  his  he  cultural  forms  and  i m p r e s s i o n made have  tended  extent to which creative  and  modest  Hindemith  His  and in  Christian filled  work  suggests  artist,  a vacuum  f o r many  the  genius. style  to  indeed  the denomin-  a vacuum  i n -M  music.  intend  surface  have  the  framework  the  craftsman than  music  music,  idiom.  craftsman, f i l l i n g  liturgical  field  beneath  more  of  o f .his  variety  and  true  crafted  composer.  questioned.  a mainstay  his output  observers the  well  been  transcending  a wide  of  a  dis-  h i s musical background,  style  voluminousness  consistently  never  Within the  cohesive poetic  conservative  the  i n Canadian  the m e r i t  composer,  synthesizing  is, in fact,  as  his originality  techniques of  f o r many  that  But  centenary,  to examine  figure  r e g a r d e d as  of  recent  contribution  t e a c h e r , has  scope  a  paper  leading  scene.  innovative  His  this  appreciated.  established  by  a  a  been  music  an  as  as  Canadian  was  of  Willan's  of Willan's  particularly He  Healey  purpose  tinctiveness His  of  of  in this  work  traditional  to  show  forms  and  that textures  lies  a music  musical  of  Willan's  the  while  antecedents,  (A n u m b e r of  which,  people style,  problem  of  growing  i s of have but  very  made  no  personal  i t seems,  the  of  expression..  superficial  one,  discovering  n a t u r a l l y out  elements  7  examinations has  tackled  which  form  his  style.) This merits from  paper  of  attempts  Willan's  roots  in  England  to  musical  life  work.  of  Canada,  and,  at  various  Examples  illustrating  works  the  of  in  the  developing  in detail  are  of  levels,  drawn  creative  the  traits  voice-leading  text  most  development  turn-of-the-century  personal  and  artistic  his  structural  the  composer's  the  surface the  the  music's  patterns.  primarily  "middle  leading Willan's  i s hoped to  an  music  functional,  that  this  understanding viewed corpus.  as  an  paper of  will  the  be  of  use  in  significance  of  aesthetic, rather  from  period"  1918-1940). It  a  traces  examining  s t r u c t u r e , the  characteristics  (ca.  It  romanticism  harmonic  of  reassess  active participation  contrapuntal composer,  the  to  than  3 I  James London, ing  Healey  with  Church,  h i s mother At this  with  under  Dr. Walter  Victorian was  take  and  musical  accompanying  rehearsing to  where  tradition.  the choir.2  visiting  St. Saviour's  organ,  piano,  an o r g a n i s t  near  study-  of the  his first  S t . George's  to the organist  practising.* Choir  School,  and harmony steeped  i n the  By t h e age o f e l e v e n  Willan  and  a t the choir  i n the voice-leading  importance  he b e g a n  the governess  i n the chapel  While  Surrey,  t o o , h e made  often  Hay S a n g s t e r ,  services  a t Balham,  A t age f o u r  he e n t e r e d  he s t u d i e d  an i n t e r e s t  their  born  time,  to listen  t h e age o f e i g h t  Development  and w i t h  the organ,  Beckenham,  Eastbourne,  was  12, 1 8 8 0 .  household.  acquaintance  At  Willan  on O c t o b e r  piano  Willan  Willan's Musical  i n musical  occasionally s c h o o l , he  aspects  of  began  music,  composition.  I t w a s i n t e r e s t i n g t o me, t h e w a y t h e p a r t s w e r e interwoven. I g o t r a t h e r bored w i t h t h e one d i m e n s i o n a l hymn t u n e s t u f f . Rather ordinary. B u t as soon as i t became c o m p l i c a t e d , c o n t r a p u n t a l , t h e n I was h a v i n g a good time. I e n j o y e d i t immensely.3 After  of of  being  told  a t one harmony  lesson  that  parallel  I w i l l i a m E d w a r d M a r w i c k , "The S a c r e d C h o r a l M u s i c Healey W i l l a n " (unpublished D . P h i l , d i s s e r t a t i o n , Dept. M u s i c , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 2.  J o y l i n Campbel1-Yukl, "Healey W i l l a n : The Independent O r g a n W o r k s " ( u n p u b l i s h e d D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , D e p t . o f M u s i c , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 6. 2  3 A l e c Wyton, ".Reminiscences: H e a l e y W i l l a n i n a convers a t i o n w i t h A l e c Wyton," M u s i c , (December, 1967), p . 27.  4 fifths of  were  their  Piano  not  use  Willan i l l  in  Sonata, After  during  the  a work  a  year  confined these  point  i n earnest.  study  are  at  a  whereby  a l l the  for  with  explored  reports  that  he  devised  nations  in a l l five  of  diatonic worked two  the  parts,  cantus  —  study  of  a  f o r any  cantus  counterpoint probably  ous  method  into  how  f a r he  carried i t .  his  three  later  teens,  ^ M a r w i c k , p . 4. probably those which s i x t h measure.  5 Ibid.,  p.  7.  and  study  used  firmus species, both  Willan  parts,  i t  counter-  i t seems  of  that  he  counterpoint of  the  notes each the  diatonic  Marwick  of  combithe  three-note minor  against  —  which  presumably  above this  and sort  although  devoted  was  h i s methods  three  continued  four  and  quite  contrapuntal  possibly also  with  He  been  o r d e r l y manner.  in a l l five  the  to  First  time.4  have  species  that Willan  as  to  of  of  example  fifteen,  possibilities  i n an  and  age  another,  examples  firmus.  In  began  " a l l sorts  seem  collections  out  one  species  major  he  the  periods,  accounts  contrapuntal  be  seems  an  Beethoven's  at  lengthy  that  f o r the  would  school  home. He  hours  of  cited  learning at  choir  could  subset  movement  Although  system  s c a l e . i t  immediately  was  bed  variance  devised  system  he  at  to  long  he  slow  l e a v i n g the  spent  and  allowed,  the  in  below of  the  rigor--  i t is  greater  he  unclear  part  The p a r a l l e l f i f t h s m e n t i o n e d a r e occur i n the middle v o i c e s at the  5  of  his  time  London Hoyte  he  was  and  fellow  to  able  piano  organ  Leopold  keyboard  Stokowski.6 an  and  nineteen  career  of  in  music  a  in  he  an  had  of  the  a wide  range  Novello,  conducted Thalian  and  to  for  the  Operatic  Sullivan  his  musical  heard  tastes.  6Marwick,  the  p.  G i l e s Bryant, National L i b r a r y of Marwick,  arm  organ-  precluded  the  the  specialize  p.  He  great  churches, Choral  Society  of  Willan  in  He  served proofread  Society;  the  London  helped  conductor  to  in  form  conduct, who  and  production  Participation  Tchaikovsky  German  was  and  promoted  7.  7  8  and  Organists,  same  to  his  Willan  activity.  several  operettas.^ life  Nikisch,  of  interested in  i n London,  Wanstead  stimulating musical  met  right  near  Stevenson  Hoist  of  the  intending  musical  the  he  his  Two  seventeen  College  seriously  of  for  Gilbert  William  Gustav  f e l l o w of  e a r l y years  organist-choirmaster  of  a  lived  Brahms.^  these  the  of  Royal  pianist,  as  directed  were  age  injury been  with  he  Howard-Jones.  the  became  Because  organ  i n London  of  concert  During engaged  he  Before  possibility,  Evlyn  At  associate  ization. 7  the  with  study  students  became at  to  studies.  Healey W i l l a n Catalogue, Canada, 1972), p.14.  (Ottawa:  9.  ^Helmut Kallmann, G i l l e s P o t v i n , Kenneth Winters, E n c y c l o p e d i a of Music i n Canada, (Toronto: University of Toronto P r e s s , 1981), p.999.  Willan s  heroes  1  and  Wagner.^®  that  Willan's  o f Brahms  whelming the  i n contemporary  music  favourite  and E l g a r .  1  concert  Of c o u r s e  1  of the Anglican  and a host Willan  Church  of other  came  into  —  church  daily  Strauss  music  development  the music  musicians  contact  was  one o f t h e o v e r -  i n f l u e n c e s on W i l l a n ' s m u s i c a l  music  Parry,  composition,  from  was  of Stanford,  with  whose  his earliest  years. This Willan's anthems and  wide own  early  reflect  contain  mature  range  published  of  the century. While  influences,  became of  Burgess,> a member  He  to take  formed  of h i s earliest  have  composers  been  written  of the turn  late-nineteenth-century an i n t e r e s t  the plainchant s p e c i a l i s t ,  was  style,  i nh i s  in earlier  a close association  o f t h e London  Burgess  His earliest  church  page  could  E n g l i s h church  W i l l a n began  influenced  t o be f e a t u r e d  1.1, t h e f i r s t  c o n t i n u i n g t o absorb  o f music.  which  came  Victorian  c o m p o s i t i o n ,(ca*. 1 8 9 8 ) ,  a n y o n e o f many  Francis  experience  a t composition.  the late  o f what  Example  by  styles  attempts  mainly  little  style.  of musical  with  a n d i n 1910  Gregorian Association,  the director.  j  n  this  capacity  i O R e l t h Macmillan and John Beckwith, Contemporary Canadian Composers, (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p . 238. 1 ]  1 2  - I b i d . , p . 238 . Bryant,  p . 14.  Example 1.1  ALL  H A I L I ALtHFfrAflLTr (A  E U C H A R I S T  IC  HYMN.)  KORDS AND MUSIC DEDICATED Br PEBMISSION TO THE Rll>-T REV? HENRY FRANK. LORD BISHOP OF COLCHESTER.  Copyright.  R  W o r d s by Rev.WALTER  Music /ENKS.  London:  COMPOSERS'&  Voice s  f  Unison  .  Knee  HE,1 L E Y  AUTHORS PRESS.L -° s o & s z s o u r h s r r i o c D n -  t  Slowly and Devotionally. '» " > ' T •1  A  d by WILLAE.  RDW.W.C.  e "  ORGAN';  Je - su, (heVir_ gin born, 1 % A A A J i J  V\,  0'  J  V./  rA  i  i •  i  IT  '  Sw. CJi. o r soft G t . - S w : -Li-  ( a r o f ear. l y dtwn A y  n — f — " - p — f  , "  s  —  J  j j  r  .[  T  A 1  T  Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n Estate of Healey W i l l a n .  I, ,  f f —\-—  V,; r)  of  —r~ttp^ Brightness o f  the  g —  8 Willan  assisted  series  of Gregorian  Sir  Richard  Terry,  Cathedral,  also  Terry,  who  was  Tudor  music  the  i n organizing  the choirmaster  influenced  large  development.  i n the rediscovery  e d i t i o n Tudor  Cathedral.^  o f Westminster •  Willan's  and t h e p u b l i c a t i o n  to a  and d i r e c t i n g a  Festivals at St. Paul's  involved  historical  exposed  Burgess  of  Through  English  of i t s masterpieces i n  Church  and^important  Music,  body  of  Willan  was  Renaissance  polyphony. 4 1  Willan need  of financial  he  accepted  at  the Royal  emigrated the  He was where  his  security  Conservatory  t o Canada year,  organ  that  large-scale  1 3  of Music  and soon  organ  of cathedral  Passacaglia  Hall  organ  p.  musical  10.  as head  life  being  Other  1  4  theory He over i n much  of the  city.  Anglican  I t was  notably  ( 1 9 1 6 ) . 15  of  very  installed  had i n mind  pieces,  family,  h i s family  of St. Paul's  was  Willan  a growing  himself  proportions.  and Fugue  Marwick,  found  i n 1905 a n d , i n  i n Toronto.  i n 1913, b r i n g i n g  organist  an enormous  this  Ellen  to support  i n the developing  appointed  church  Gladys  the o f f e r of the p o s i t i o n  following  involved  of  had m a r r i e d  in a  the  when the  he  Church, new  resources composed  Introduction,  activities  of  Ibid.  I S j o y l i n Campbel1-Yukl, "Healey W i l l a n : The I n d e pendent Organ Works" ( u n p u b l i s h e d D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , D e p t . o f M u s i c , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 6.  Willan's the as  i n this  University musical  and  began  Proms,  of  musical  asked  organist  offered most  occured  development  after  neighbourhood  church  church  income  as w e l l  as l o s s  church  music.  One  that  gelical which the  services  type,  Willan  ritual  Willan  It began  was  at this  from  16Marwick,  Proms.  the  were  high,  a n d he  perhaps  the  to a  poor  reduction i n  move was t h e  o f t h e low, liturgical  a  evan-  type  Magdalene's,  of developing  of  where  variety, complete  tradition. that  Willan's compositional  to a large  extent  by  style  Renaissance  p . 19.  Mary Willan-Mason, L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r , The Graduate-, 'Magazine o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Alumni, V o l u m e I X , N u m b e r 1, S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1 9 8 1 , p . 2 8 . 1 7  1  the course of  i n the f i e l d  this  A t S t . Mary  time  t o be i n f l u e n c e d  the Toronto  Magdalene,  was o f t h e h i g h , A n g l o - C a t h o l i c  and l i t u r g i c a l  Willan  f o r the position  a significant  a t S t . Paul's  saw t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  musical  season  i n Canada  of recognition  preferred.  Choir.16  t o an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e g r e e .  position  than  1919-1925;  altered  f a c t o r prompting  rather  Theatre,  which  T h i s move  meant  serving  on t h e London  o f S t Mary  services.  theory a t  based  a replacement  a t the church  sought  fact  i n i t s first  to suggest  h i s own  House  i n 1914;  Mendelssohn  concert series  1921 a n e v e n t  Willan's He w a s  of the Hart  and d i r e c t e d  t e a c h i n g music  beginning  f o r the Toronto  a summer  In  included  of Toronto,  director  composing  also  period  10 music.  Prior  effect ed  on  organ  "Ad  this  Willan's piece,  St.  sung  by  a  male  polyphonic sung  by  with for  the  the  style.  upon the  choir  the  choir  in  mixed  choir a  series  constitute  h i s most  serving  of  particular  mention  eleven  Liturgical  Motets.  the part  harmony,  they  artistic  unique,in  composer The  at  Willan's  the  move  height  to  St.  change  in Willan's  At  Paul's  he  but  St.  St.  style,  at  represent  are  accompaniments,  of  his  had  where  i n t e r l u d e s and  a  which  Motets  Deand  polyphonic of  and  rhythm,  and  characteristic represent  the  powers. also  provoked  a  extemporization.  grandioseiimprovisatory he  improvised  postludes,  became more  peaceful  refined  i n t r o s p e c t i v e atmosphere  and  and  organ  wrote  motets  i s most  creative  developed  Mary's,  Six  idiom,  to  Willan  their  Mary Magdalene's  approach  keeping  achievement.  freedom  what  style,  In  and  the  With  mature  chant. plainsong  gallery.  masses  w r i t i n g , c h a n t - l i k e melody,  modal even  lasting  in  firmly  unaccompanied  traditions, of  is  Renaissance  west  musical-liturgical  publish-  Melody  accompanied  i n the  the  idiom  and  little  first  basis  chancel,  generally  had  Plainchant  melodic  included  music,  his  harmonic  music's  in  had  In  the  services  a mixed  these  o l d e r music  musical  (1906),  despite  Mary's,  time  Fantasia  Coenam A g n i "  romantic At  to  reserved,  plainsong  his  i n keeping of  the  style with  the  Anglo-Catholi  liturgy. The  years  between  the  wars  were  extremely  productive  .1-1 for  Willan.  addition eluding Hart was  I n terms  o f c o m p o s i t i o n he p r o d u c e d , i n  to l i t u r g i c a l a first  House  music,  symphony,  Theatre.  Toronto  active  he  Willan's  continuing  prompted  h i m i n 1934 t o f o r m  this the  interest  group  specialized  Second  World  War  retained  Known  i n Elizabethan  a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g members  the  o f S t . Mary  under  t h e name o f t h e S t . M a r y  work  culminating  Town  Hall, By  offered  works: the c  had spent  composer  the radio  pageant minor  Brebuf  (1944),  opera  i  a secular  joined  Singers,  Magdalene  During  Singers forces  group  were  with  performed  Singers, recitals  their at  8  almost  half  o f h i s growing  Transit  his life  in  importance  Broadcasting Corpor-  o f commissions Through  Deirdre  f o r larger  Fire  '(1943) , t h e P i a n o f o r t e  and t h e o p e r a  choir  madrigals.  This  the Canadian  him a s e r i e s  music  successful  i n 1945 .  and i n r e c o g n i t i o n  a Canadian  ation  York,  1940 W i l l a n  Canada, as  New  i n two v e r y  of  English  o f the Tudor  Magdalene.  Willan  1964.  as t h e Tudor  depleted, choir  f o rthe  until  and d i r e c t  the ranks  music  a t the University  i n early  to i t s performance.  m u s i c , in-:,  as a p e r f o r m e r ,  Organist  i n 1932, a p o s i t i o n  devoted  concert  and i n c i d e n t a l  Very  appointed University  both  (1942),  Concerto i n  of the  Sorrows  (1945) . After  t h e war W i l l a n ' s  Marwick,  p . 19.  reputation  continued to  i'2 grow,  and  commissions  sources. of  In  Toronto  retirement to  devote In  the  the  same  a  This  time  a  his  series success  set.  In  company  began  which  continued  house  he  wrote  achievement Harvard  house of  Peters  with  two  relationship  was  Concordia  urged  to  began.  continue  anthems,  miscellaneous  through lead  of  1956 the of  with his  able  He  a  of  composer's  a  the  was  organ  for  Missa  music.  gave  him  years. C.  F.  Peters  commissions death.  recognized In  an  hymn-anthems,  For  chorale preludes,  Music.^  large-scale  seven  retirement  and  wrote  Concordia  series  139  he  was  with  liturgical  Concordia,  importance of  his  with  six chorale preludes,  thirteen  total  Dictionary  he  preludes,  in  whose  was  year  additional  until a  i n that  eight  stability  Corporation  with  lasting  continuing relationship  the  p l a i n c h a n t , and  years  of  of  Association  succeeding  volume  Following  Gregorian  range  the  s i x motets,  financial  a wide  composition.  publishing  their  large  promote  to  same y e a r  to write  Brevis, and  university  the  from  the  from  the  additional  formed to  more  following  he  i n order  Lutheran  asked  1950  continued  addition, works,  in he  this an  the provided  the P a s s a c a g l i a  i ^ W i l l i Apel, Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music, (2nd. e d i t i o n ; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 9 2 1 . M e n t i o n i s h e r e made t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e of t r a n s c r i b i n g v o l u n t a r i e s from anthems, o r a t o r i o s , and i n s t r u m e n t a l w o r k s "has f o r t u n a t e l y a l m o s t v a n i s h e d through the e f f o r t s of contemporary composers of v o l u n t a r i e s , s u c h a s H. W i l l a n , E . T h i m a n , a n d many o t h e r s . "  13 and  Fugue  Fugue  No.  and  twenty  2  in  e  Chorale  minor  (19 6 5 ) ,  hymn-anthems,  and  (1959) as  a  and  the  Andante, anthems,  well  as  four  number  of  miscellaneous  pieces. In  these  post-war  years  rather  than  developing  took  more  conservative  to  a  take  formal  on  the  suggests fact  ability style  than  to  no  more the  this  own,  i t should  more  sheer on  That after  the  complex Fugue  numbers  be  Willan war,  earlier  2  and  Fugue  contains  of  and  of  is  sing is  that  1916.  lost  a  none  he  was  work  may  pre-war  in  forced,  write  of  8G,  quickly,  powers  write  superior  No.  work  in  156,  and to  the  Passacaglia  Fugue  earlier  118,  more  to  Introduction,  92,  A  through  Passacaglia  and  some  ones.  creative  undoubtedly  the  his  patterns.  able  the  less  motets  was  still  of  have  later  his  due  modifying  this  to  patterns.  was  his  Passacaglia  interest  69,  of  began  of  choirs  compositional  acclaimed The  pp.  he  terms  trend  for  his  than  demonstrated  1952,  a l l the  that  earlier,  established  Though  commissions,  that  highly  20 arwick, M  had  in  accordingly,  noted to  to  writing  his 'established  music,  No.  of  was  style,  compositions  flavour  them.^O  difficult  His  conservative  and,  l i k e l y explanation  relying  and  his  turn.  musical  established  adherence  Willan  accommodate  validity, are  and  that  that  trends  "classical"  proportions  Marwick to  a more  the  Willan's  158,  2 a  176,  190ff.  more  compact  th elless the  produces  earlier In  ance,  1952  work,  Performed  the to  the  at  organist compose  was  work  Willan  An the  day  a hommage of  Our  Governour  the  Coronation  of  1959  a  by  the  fact,  by  Willan,  which an  never-  effect  the  was  as  the  and  this  he and  fugue  i s published  June  aired across Board  as  been  the  2, 0  Lord,  Abbey  while  Canada.  the  written  Fugue  the  1953  a  film in a and  improvise  inversion, at  time  on  i s seen  to  the  large  rehearsing,  appears  had  a  produced He  composing,  same  performed  i n Westminster  Film  Willan  during  the  h i s anthem  activities.  i n which  asked  to write  t o be  work  S i r William),  McKie  At  successful  this  performed  C.B.C.  being  s i t u a t i o n s --  however,  (now  coronation.  National  musical  class  t o be  perform-  H o s t s . ?•*-  concert,  Abbey.  performed :  Heavenly  Day  for Willan:  S u i t e was  command  his highly  McKie  orchestra,  of  a  i n 1953.  the  including stretto  In  the two  to  anthem  triumph  Willan's  teaching fugue,  and  by  E l i z a b e t h , of  the P r i n c e s s  a  of  thrilling  honoured  of Westminster  was  variety  as  St. Cecilia's  i n honour  In  was  Apostrophe  commissioned  network  least  Princess  f o r chorus  about  at  proportions  attention of William  coronation he  of better  work.  before  choral  drew  design  in e  a  piano. earlier minor.  2 l B r y a n t , p . 18. T h i s w o r k , c o m p o s e d i n 1921 f o r Toronto Mendelssohn C h o i r , i s a l a r g e - s c a l e motet f o r c h o i r s and m y s t i c o r echo c h o i r s .  This to  unfortunate  Willan's  Parker his  actual  Tapes,  last  episode  a  ability  series  years,  has  the  of  caused  as  an  some  improvisor.  interviews  interviewer  confusion  with  In  the  Willan  inquires  into  as  in  Willan's  ability: Parker: and t h i n g s  You like  Wi1lan:  were a b l e that.  to  improvise  Willan: Although  Well..,  his  may  be  his  skill  ity  and  ability  brought  into  as  through  revised  his  opera,  finest,  and  i t received  decline  operation strength  years  St.  Mary's,  with  of  in Willan's  bandages.  The  at  this  Christmas  by  most  of  those  who  in  improvised  2  2  improvisor doubt  of  grandeur,  health, he  fact  beauty mass were  Willan  work  he  stage  1965.  direct  the  Eve  did.  i s no  life,  the  1967  and  despite  I  mystery,  its first  Toronto  appear  there  his  Deirdre,  i n November, to  suppose  you  seren-  improvisation.  final  U n i v e r s i t y of  Music  contrapuntal  moodssof  the  slow  a  I  question,  i n evoking  peace  Yes..,  In  the  and  Wei1...  Parker: B u t i n t h e f i l m Man of whole fugue i n f r o n t of a c l a s s .  a  fugues  that  to  years a  saw  find  his  were  his  final  of  1967  is  at a  the  service  eyes  his  cataract  midnight  of  present.  performance  after  managed the  considered  These  but  completely  at  covered  improvisation  acknowledged In  early  February,  T h e Parker Tapes are a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s w i t h W i l l a n , c o n d u c t e d by Rev. D r . Max P a r k e r b e t w e e n 1963 and 1965. They are a v a i l a b l e a t the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of Canada 2 2  16> 1968  he  had  that  month  a mild he  heart  died  Throughout  in his  his  numerous  honours,  from  University  the  received a  D.  were;  Litt.  Lambeth  of  Toronto  LL.D.  the  McMaster  of  from  Willan  D.  University  an  in  the  16th.  was  accorded  honourary  1920.  Queen's  University  Canterbury  on  of  (1956),  (1962).  a  Willan  2 4  D.  made  member  of  the  Canadian  (1955),  a  fellow  of  the  A n c i e n t Monuments  England  (1958),  Music  (1963),  College  of  Council  Medal  and  Music in  Order o f Canada  Willan's his  own  noted around of  of  fellow  (1965). 1961,  2  a  and  both  theory  at and  the was  was  as  a  composer  his professional  later  Royal  awarded a  the  from an  Composers Society  School  Royal  made  of  the  of  of  Church  Hamilton the  Canada  Companion  of  the.  5  activities as  of  and  1967 .  the  He  his teaching duties  Music  taught  a  in  thoughts  above,  fellow  League  by  Litt.  was  (1952),  (1954),  conferred  and  Doc.  degrees  University  Manitoba  Cantuar.,  Mus.  Other  honourary  a  of  sleep.23  long career,  D o c t o r a t e , Mus.  archbishop  and  beginning with  an  from  attack,  the  at  pedagogue and  musical  life the  help  University  composition,  of  illustrate  thinker.  i n Canada Royal  to  As  centred  Conservatory Toronto.  numbering  Willan  among  his  ^Campbel1-Yukl, p . 10. The c a t a r a c t o p e r a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n Nov. 1 9 6 7 , n o t 1964 a s , C a m p b e l 1 - Y u k l s t a t e s . 2  2 4  Bryant,  p.  18.  2  5ibid.  p.  20.  17  students gists  many n o t a b l e  Canadian  of the succeeding  Gerald  Bales,  Clarke, George  John  Robert Maybee,  Rathburn,  composers  generation;  Beckwith,  Kieth  Fleming,  Kelsey  Stanley  Osborne,  Godfrey  Ridout,  and  Louis  Applebaum,  Bissel,  Jones,  Frederick  Walter  Charles  Frederick  musicolo-  MacNutt,  Peaker,  Silvester,  Eldon and  ?6 John  Weinzweig, In  teaching  students pieces in  to analyse  area  i s evidenced which  composers.  Especially  in  of pieces  the  radio-drama  puntal  style  accurately Brebuf, contains is  a n d t o compose Willan's  bear  t h e marks  examples  own  pieces, of  other  as i n c i d e n t a l  Die Kunst  d e r Fuge  o f Bach's  f o rstrings.  t o i t s model. own  fugue  The  contra-  i s very from  This  Example  subject  found  music f o r  i n one o f t h e movements  i n g minor  ability  written  a r e t o be  and h i s B r e t h r e n .  two r e f e r e n c e s  a quotation  encouraged h i s  by c e r t a i n  written  o f Bach's  t h e Fugue  styles.  fine  Brebuf  imitated  Willan  o l d masterworks  of their  i n h i s career,  a series  a few.  composition,  imitative  this  late  t o name  piece 1.2  i nthe  H e l m u t Kallmann, Gilles P o t v i n , Kenneth Winters, E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Music i n Canada, (Toronto: University o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1981), p. 1000. 2 6  Macmillan and Beckwith, Composers, p. 29.  Contemporary  Helmut Kallmann, Catalogue r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , C o r p o r a t i o n , 1951), p. 213.  Canadian  o f Canadian Composers, (Canadian Broadcasting  18 first  violin,  B A C H  theme  in  the  final  no  doubt  had  development. relates  and  Example  1.3  in inversion, notes  of  is a  B-flat,  the v i o l a .  a profound influence A Willan  statement of  disciple,  C,  The on  A,  B-natural,  music  of  Willan's  Margaret  the  Bach own  Drynan  that  he l o v e d B a c h , a n d t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l w r i t i n g i n h i s own w o r k s r e v e a l s h i s a b s o r p t i o n w i t h t h e m u s i c o f Bach and the composers o f the Tudor p e r i o d ? 2  Norman  Gary  Johnson  observes  that  in h i s composition classes Willan required his s t u d e n t s t o study Bach's use o f c o u n t e r p o i n t c l o s e l y a n d t o c o m p o s e w o r k s o f t h e i r own, m a k i n g u s e o f t h e same c o n t r a p u n t a l d e v i c e s . 2 8  Example  1.2  r  Fugue  P  i n g minor,  f—,  '  1— — |  f-  f,  —  R e p r o d u c e d b y perm iss ic 3n E s t a t e o f H e a l ay W i l l ai i .  Example  1.3  Fugue  P  H of  mm.  33-35.  the  to Healey Willan, of Organists, 1979),  N o r m a n Gary J o h n s o n , " H e a l e y W i l l a n 1880-1968," A m e r i c a n O r g a n i s t , O c t o b e r , 1980, p . 34. 2 8  The  ?  —  i n g minor,  Tribute College  1  3 4-37.  the  R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f Estate of Healey Willan.  ^ M a r g a r e t Drynan, A (Toronto: Royal Canadian p . 7.  mm.  19 The  motet  Ave  Verum  Brebuf,  shows  the  William  Byrd,  whose  ly  s e r v e s as  the  g minor.  influence own  In  of  the  other voices,  for  expressive  example and  seconds  of  alto,  B-flat  and  B,  and  G  corresponding  and  the  minor  seconds  and  the  and  B  Example  frtfU-  1.4  mi-M. V  ^  a —  of  the  P  0  1  found  —  j  - mi-™.  the  r 1 d  1 -irn  \f  G  and  1—o—  I—c  mm.  —c  v 0  f • -  e  1.5,  A-flat, of  33-37.  "T —r~ 4  Je  -  0  Je-  =F—=— ] :  fM - e,  <  0 <W- c\t,  the  the  >  -*—  i—  and  —i—1  c  ±4  E-flat  A-flat  e  i—  and  and  Corpus,  p' -  U—  D  Example G  by  1  In  the  in  Byrd s  soprano,  work,  eif,  1 > 1  the  tenor.  the  both  seconds  from  i  4=  ^ , r  &  1.4,  Verum  1  —  i*r  of minor  the  0  0  1^-  of  exhibit  i s answered  1  - rn-tt. = 1 = 4 =  pieces,  soprano,  d  obvious-  two  between  Ave  Corpus  the  soprano  of  composer  1.5  1  Byrd,  1-11  A  cycle  and  o c c u r between and  the  1.4  of Willan s  are  C,  Verum  Example  F-sharp,  passage  from  Tudor  make u s e  In  the minor  C  Ave  the  both  effect.  the  the  between  motet, the  also  Examples  style  each  of  motet  a model.  similarity  Corpus,  —  0  —J  if  ' —i  f«-«;0 Je -  ni 1—  20 Example  1.5 W i l l a n ,  _ j•  $> o  0  - T)€.  9'  J  J  1  1  tig,  p," *  - * .  0  *f -  If  Ci*,  e,  —  3  -b_c—c iv  0  1 Tl  0  f  0  L/TV -  11  f  o J  %^  3  P  fc  1^  1  —  Pi  c—i c  ?g  •  0  38-44.  f  1  0  — TIC,  mm.  i p <? ii h« -1—F-—f - Y —F 1-€, <  0  clvl-eif,  —1—i—  Corpus,  3  d— Do—(j.  p  ft>  Ave Verum  4j  -*e. 0  the  alto,  eU —  the C and B o f t h e tenor,  of the bass.  a  and f a l l , i s very  The and  styles  Debussy Willan's  in  the a b i l i t y  be  dispelled friend  These --  notes  similar  o f Reger,  small  work.  Any doubt  to imitate  by s t u d y i n g  contrapuntal  among t h e V a r i a  they  were  i n both  of the motives, examples.  Brahms,  Rachmaninov,  i n evidence  in certain  that  was  other a group  Willan  composer's of pieces  Dr. Carmino pieces  consciously  de  from  pieces  interested  styles  should  written f o r  Catanzaro.  -- v e r s e t s  of Willan's  and i t c a n be a s c e r t a i n e d that  0  and t h e G and  contour  Elgar,  clearly  o f h i s , Reverend  listed  jokes,  The m e l o d i c  are also  of  a  Je —  0  C o p y r i g h t 1948 by F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s M u s i c . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  A-flat rise  p' - e ,  0  and  output  versicles  are musical  the accompanying  composed  i n imitation of  Bach,  Byrd,  and  Willan's  others.  teaching  of  to  stylistic  imitation.  to  new  put  ideas  teaching Fleming  them tells  forth  basic  y  composition He  by  was  his  was  willing  students  compositional  not  to  restricted  listen  while  he  technique.  openly was  Robert  us  a n y "new" i d e a . . . was d i s c u s s e d w i t h o u t b i a s a n d put through the microscope of h i s a l l - s e e i n g - eye. When s u c h a s e s s i o n was o v e r t h e y o u n g s t u d e n t k n e w p r e c i s e l y why h i s i d e a s were good o r bad from a t e c h n i c a l v i e w p o i n t and t h e a e s t h e t i c s were a m a t t e r o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s c o n s c i e n c e from t h i s p o i n t onward.30 Some o f musical former  Willan's  thoughts  a e s t h e t i c s can students,  underlying reports  and  be  found  these  Willan's  i n the  ideas  approach  that Willan  concerning  to  contemporary  reports  reflect  the  composition.  of  his  values Marwick  said  a l l m u s i c s h o u l d have shape, d e s i g n , and melodic content. I f t h e s e a r e n o t t o be f o u n d i n any m u s i c , w h e t h e r i t be a n c i e n t o r m o d e r n , D r . W i l l a n has no interest in it.31 Gerald him  most  bined his  Bales by  with  states that his  an  teaching,  particular  as  "philosophy  acute  sense  rather  style,  than  of  a  teacher  of  economy  form  and  p r e s s i n g on  "his task,  of  which  Willan of  impressed  materials  b a l a n c e . "32 his he  j_  students was  comn  a  utterly  29Holographs of these p i e c e s are c o n t a i n e d i n the Healey W i l l a n C o l l e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of Canada. 3C>Marwick,  p.  199  3 l L o u i s e McCready, Canadian P o r t r a i t s : Famous Musicians, (Toronto: C l a r k e I r w i n , 1957), p. 133. 3 2  Campbell-Yukl,  p.  16.  22 convinced, right own  to  was his  music,  to  impart...a  students,  as  I  hope  then  technique. i t was  to  show, this  this  materials  and  combine  to  provide  foundation  for  thought  as  Willan it  comes  musical  His  most  i s often  training  creative  distinctive  style,  fashioned;  Augustus  composers,  described  line, of  and  which  of a  form  yet."35;  during with  in  Willan's  his  great  true  integrated  a  when  remembered  that  he  by  1900.  evolved  twenties considered  1929  survey  composition  regard  for  a  Canadian  "in  form,  surely  old  of  as  his  and  been  the  melodic description  proud.  composer, was  but  the  Willan  his  most  said:  music  hasn't  original  composer  " H e a l e y W i l l a n " , The Canadian ( S p r i n g , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 13.  3 4 A u g u s t u s B r i d l e , "Who W r i t e s Our M a c L e a n s M a g a z i n e , ( D e c e m b e r 15, 1 9 2 9 ) ,  Star  balance  fogey"  complete  contemporaries,  "Debussy  Ridout, Vol.Ill  be  the  harmony,"34 be  "old  which  always  Bridle,  with  on  is a  33Qodfrey Journal,  3 5  willan's  n  and  highly  an  i t must  virtually  not  could  Commenting  Music  has  but  Willan  settled  was  intelligible  "Stravinsky  sense  of  coincides  Willan  style,  but  period,  thirties.  modern  i  style.  to composition,  his  sounded  predeliction for  of  compositional  i t  right."33  economy  a  If  Music?", p. 20.  K  i l d a r e Dobbs, Weekly Magazine,  "Canada's (December  I m p i s h Dean o f Composers", 22, 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 6.  who  ever  funny the of  lived."  ;  noises."37.  significance the  "There's  These two  add  way,  nothing  comments of  century,  should  meaningful  and  of  twentieth  techniques a  J f c >  to  the and  the  r a t h e r than  show  most that  lasting  that  he  recognized  progressive he  felt  established  in  composers  that  modern  traditions  completely  in  superceding  them. Willan's ed  by  his  his  former  activities  mention  his  two-part  line how  students,  as  Many  an  important  were  He  called  as  his  and  of  remarkable That  "He  believed  between  primary  the  reflect  and  this  can as  was  the  see  thinking  be  supported  r e p o r t e d by  Parker  Tapes  by :  two  aspects  of  with his  o b s e r v e r s ' who  (1963-1965),  bass  later to  a  parallel  professional worked  with  National Library  at  G o d f r e y Ridout, "Healey W i l l a n , " X L I I , ( S p r i n g , 1980), p. 6. 3 8  Vol.  music,  Willan,  and  shall  of  p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned  H u g h Thompson, " S t i l l i n Tune M a g a z i n e , ( O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 5. 3 7  we  own  two-part  melody  way  of  For  1 , 3 8  fluent  his  logic  preached  soprano  importance,  of  into  sources  to write  the  record-  insights  these  part  him.  as  degree. he  36The Canada.  epitaph:  of  ability  counterpoint  nobody  compositions  activity  composer.  theory,  further  counterpoint,  relationship  fifths  a  offers  the  proposed  his  teaching music  on  counterpoint the  of  insistence  technique. and  method  84",  The  Globe  Musicanada,  him.  of  24 Giles  Bryant,  describes parallel  the "ferocity" fifths  (Cambridge which  point.39  regard  Margaret  Drynan  out consecutive  Parallelism and  i n h i s copy  little  plays  was:  effect, break  Lorne provides  he m a r k e d t h e  o f The Cambridge 1967),  mentions fifths  he g a v e  b u t you have  Magdalene's,  t o know  Hymnal,  a modern  to the principles  "You c a n b r e a k  them."  which  an i m p o r t a n t  the explanation  fifths  a t S t . Mary  with  University Press,  pays  ferreted  h i s successor  that  hymnal  of  counter-'  he c o n s i s t e n t l y  i n h i s students' role  i n Willan's  f o r h i s own the rules  use of  fora  work.40 style, parallel  special  the rules before  you can  4 1  Watson,  some  recollecting  revealing insights  h i s harmony into  class,  Willan's  musical  thought: W i l l a n ' s t e a c h i n g o f harmony and c o u n t e r p o i n t -o n e i n d i v i s i b l e s u b j e c t w i t h h i m - - was completely fascinating. K i s ' i n s i s t e n c e on s i m p l i f y i n g a l l progressions to absolute basics often resulted i n two o r t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f c h r o m a t i c c h o r d s b e i n g reduced to a simple V-I progression. Such t h i n k i n g p r e p a r e d one f o r a n a l y s i s a l a Schenker. H i s uncomplicated teaching encouraged s i m p l i c i t y . 4 2 His  use o f t h e word  The  39ciles Bryant, M u s i c S c e n e , No. 4 0  Drynan,  p . 6.  insistence i n this  passage  indicates  "Healey W i l l a n -- A P e r s o n a l 311 ( J a n - F e b , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 1 4 . 4 1  I  b  i  d  View,"  <  L o r n e W a t s o n , "The H e a l e y W i l l a n C e n t e n n i a l " , Journal o f the Canadian Federation of Music Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n s , X X X I I I , N o . 3, ( A u g u s t , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 8. 4 2  25 that  the  very  important The  music an  process to  issues  theory  of  reduction  understanding  the of  arose very  his  in Willan's  ones  own  music.  discussion  language,  and  two-part  framework  frequent  recourse  to  ing  each  of  these  deals  which  following  with  underlying  levels  was  Willan.  which  are  to  aspects  with  his  of  central  to  are  Accordingly,  the  p a r a l l e l i s m , harmonic in Willan's  reduction of  teaching  as  style  a way in  music, of  explain-  greater  depth.  26 II  Both  Surface Structures  on t h e s u r f a c e and a t t h e d e e p e r  s t r u c t u r e , W i l l a n ' s music e x h i b i t s ing  stylistic  characteristics.  some o f t h e s e ations.  traits  i n their  Willan's individual,  levels  strongly  of i t s  distinguish-  This chapter w i l l  explore  surface level  manifest;-,  o f t e n unique  approaches  t o t h e u s e o f t h e common c o n t r a p u n t a l d e v i c e s w i l l discussed will  here,  and h i s i n t e r e s t i n g  be t r e a t e d  introduction analytical  as w e l l ,  to h i s style  s t u d i e s which  both  use o f p a r a l l e l i s m  discussions serving  follow.  Treatment  W i l l a n makes u s e o f a l l t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  particular ated  use o f dissonance  (n), suspensions  anticipations echappees ( e t ) , by  examples This  occuring  types o f  and t h e f o l l o w i n g pages d i s c u s s h i s own -- p a s s i n g t o n e s  t o "p" i n t h e e x a m p l e s ) ,  iliaries  as an  and as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e  Dissonance  dissonance,  be  (ant),  neighbour  (s), appoggiaturas  cambiatas  and p e d a l p o i n t s  from  (cam), e s c a p e (pp) --  individually  simple  types o f dissonance  acting  a r e drawn from  (app), tones o r  period.  examples o f d i s s o n a n c e s  and i n g r o u p s ,  examples o f a more complex n a t u r e ,  o r aux-  illustrated  t h e works o f W i l l a n ' s m i d d l e  study begins with  of dissonance  tones  (abbrevi-  and c o n t i n u e s  involving  concurrently. the f i r s t  with  various  Examples  ten of the  27 eleven motet is  Liturgical of  cast  the  Motets  series,  in a  style  I t presents  style.)  These  creative  powers  of  part  Passing  to  of  which  are  passing  Example  and  still,  tones  In  tone  of  Willan's  more  written;, at  neighbour  passing  of  freer,  the  with  the  few  freedom  rules.  very  commonly are  free  two  types  in his  passing  in  music  tone  and  the  chord.  2.1  Example tenor  Behold,  2.1  moves  Emphasis  on  by  gives  skip,  his  tones  the  Tabernacle  of  C o p y r i g h t 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  the  of  exceptions,  contrapuntal  occur  the  (1937) ,  middle  height  greatest  f r e q u e n t l y found  interest:  final  "contemporary"  addition, there  less  (The  that Ascendeth  typical  traditional  music.  passing  i s She  demonstrate  while  tones  Willan's  1,  the  Simple  a  motets,  motion  adhering  Who  less  period.  (1928-1935).  the  Marwick,  contains from F  the  p.  E-flat  i n the F  27.  a  a  free  F  to  combined  quasi-harmonic  mm.  7-8.  Inc.  passing  through  tenor,  God,  tone  where  A-flat. with  resolution  stability.  The  28 effect while  i s close the  On triad in  the  alto  triad,  G,  passing is  actual  of  harmony  as  an  F minor  i s an  with  tones  the  passing triad.  c r e a t e s the  melodic  The  which  of  i n any  an  use  stepped In  voice  A  major  preceding'  connects  Willan's style.  interval  2.2,  The  smooth,  chord,  chord.  Example  chord.  i s a p a s s i n g note  seventh  A-flat  half-note of  a passing  characteristic  largest  that  second  i s used  the  to  the  of  F-sharp primary  multiple  quality this  which  example  i s the  the  major  second.  Example  2.2  Q  King  of  G l o r y , mm.  4 5-47.  m  p  3m C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Willan which  go  makes  beyond  His  neighbour  and  become  2.3  the  occur  of A.  the  Willan  norm  of  often  C,  soprano  of  mere  have  elements  tone,  resolves  suspension The  tones  essential  between  measure,  the  neighbour  dissonance  e x t e n s i v e use  neighbours  voice-leading i n the a  treats  the  soprano  i s treated  when by  In  Although  beginning  neighbour  music.  alto.  the  resolves  functions  dissonance  at  which  i n ways  d e c o r a t i v e ornament.  causes and  Press.  of  the  B-flat the  Willan  as  a  to the  following a  soprano as  Example  sort reaches  harmonic  note  in relation  to the soprano,  t o become u n s t a b l e .  Example  ment o f t h e same p a t t e r n , of  the tenor i n v o l v e s Example  2.4  c a u s i n g the B - f l a t shows a n o t h e r  but i n t h i s  a cambiata  case  arrange-  the r e s o l u t i o n  figure.  2.3 L o , I n t h e Time A p p o i n t e d ,  mm.  19-20  If m C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  2.4  L o , I n t h e Time A p p o i n t e d ,  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  2.5  shows a t y p i c a l  concurrent neighbours  the second  a neighbour the a l t o is  beat.  i n c o n t r a r y motion,  I n Example  not a neighbour  t h e two o t h e r  creating seventh  2.6, W i l l a n ' s u s e o f  away from  but a consonant  neighbours.  31-32  Press.  and a m a j o r  chord creates a f i v e - t o n e  F, b e i n g a t h i r d  mm.  instance of three  a harsh dissonance of a minor n i n t h on  Press,  sonority.  i t soriginal  Here note,  harmonization of  30 Example  2.5  Fair  i n Face,  m.  2.  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  2.6  0 King,  t o Whom a l l T h i n g s  do, L i v e ,  m.  8.  C o p y r i g h t 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example act  2.7  o n t h e same p i t c h ,  rhythmically. E  shows a r a r e  back  t o D,  When  D,  The  soprano  the  auxiliary,  and t e n o r  -  1  are out of  resolves  pitch  which step  i t s neighbouring  t o i t sneighbour,  E.  classes, elevating  to the status  C h r i s lt u s  \r v • p f AA YH  moves  exchange  E, almost  .7 H o d i e ,  but which  the tenor  the soprano  use of neighbours  natus e s t ,  o f a harmonic  mm,  A m  C o p y r i g h t 1935 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  34  tone.  Example  shows  voices  in  fourth  eighth-note  neighbours The  a  of  creates  gives  resolve. four  the  context  a  notes of  of  this  leading  element.  the  a  an  use  E  in  extra  similar  element  Hodie,  motion.  against  i s prolonged  harmonic  2.8  neighbours  in  the  of  four  chord. the  middle  impetus  neighbour  2.9  0  i t assumes  as  well  as  that  est,  m.  natus  by C a r l F i s c h e r , permission.  King  of  Glory,  Inc.  mm.  8-9  by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y permission.  Press.  i t Copyright 1929 R e p r o d u c e d by  chord  that  n  Example  to  so  Christus  Copyright 1935 R e p r o d u c e d by  four  On  neighbouring  chord  shows  a  Example  of  example  F-sharp  2.9  which  use  parallel  neighbour  Example  status  voice  the  the  dissonant  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of  voices  of  the  2.8  of  44  32 Suspensions Willan ing  ways.  context  of  inverted than F, a as  uses  Example  2.10  a modal  cadence,  suspension  downwards.  but  Willan  smoother well  passage,  suspensions  as  --  The  has  melodic  is a  one  normal  used line  avoids  variety  simple and  of  interest-  suspension  Example  which  2.11  resolves  resolution  A-flat  in  is  the  parallel  tenor.  here  fifths  an rather  would  This  rhythmic  the  upwards  instead, bringing  i n the  c o n t r i b u t i n g to  also  in a  be  about  suspension,  variety  between  of  the  the  inner  voices.  Example  2.10  Preserve  IB  us,  0  Lord,  m.  6.  P  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by permission.  Example  2.11  0  King,  to  Whom a l l T h i n g s  do  r—r.  C o p y r i g h t 1931 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Inc.  Live,  m.  19  The  double  suspension  Willan's  music,  often  Example  2.12  suspensions ed  notes  harmonic  occurs  quite  i n the context  frequently i n  of parallel  i s h a r m o n i c a l l y unambiguous, occur  i n the inner voices.  become d i s s o n a n c e s  when  motion  t o A.  i n i t s move  Example  2.12 F a i r  i n Face,  \ — i i  a s  S =  '  mm.  sions  i s normal  over  2.13a,the and  the bass, uppermost  the lower  notes  of  the lower  an  appoggiatura  Example  f o r the upper  'l  C-sharp,  which  2.13a I b e h e l d  might  suspenda  Press.  suspen-  case,  Example  i s the harmonic  are suspended.  voices occurs,  causes  t o form  but i n the following note,  the  f  T  notes  the  31-32.  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  It  because  Here  the bass  motion.  Until  the C-sharp resolve  her Beautiful  the  note,  resolution  sounds  like  a c c o r d i n g t o Example  as a Dove,  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n . ,  mm.  3-4  34 2.13b.  Because  harmonic the  the non-harmonic  tones,  upper  harmonic  and because  note, tones  tones  the only  the non-harmonic until  their  harmonic  tones  resolution  Example  outnumber t h e  sound  tone i s like  i s perceived.  2.13b.  H The  use of m u l t i p l e  blurring one  suspensions  the harmonic  motion  to another  becomes  chord  reverberant  acoustics  are  performed,  usually In  the  Example  2.14  tenor, which when  bass  note  changes  like  a harmonic  appoggiatura. when  voice.  normally  C no  rises  C-sharp  b u t the second  (The motets  this  effect.)  of C i n  t o B, i s t o E and the  D at first a  l o n g e r needs  by t h e bass  includes  these  suspension  but i t i s actually  The t e n o r  2.15  where  resolve  The a l t o  from  process.  reinforce  the apparent  t o C.  tone,  The f i r s t  neighbour,  naturally  of  t h e change  a gradual  the D i n the alto  i t i s supported Example  so t h a t  of churches,  would  dissolved  has t h e e f f e c t  sounds  prepared resolution  C.  a suspension i n the bass  i n the  i s a  i s the resolution  lowest  lower of the  35 Example  2.14  Behold,  the  Tabernacl-e  of  God,  C o p y r i g h t 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Inc.  mm.  1-3  EEE^EE -6-1  suspended  D.  Because  bass  and  the  the  line low  effect the  range of  the  second  of  of  fact the  that  melodic the  lowest  C-sharp  measure  the  suspension  voice,  the  i s weakened.  sounds  very  context  the  occurs  leading  The  much  of  tone  C-sharp  like  a  in  lower  neighbour, which i t i s i n the f i r s t  measure.  significance  i n W i l l a n " s music  fully  of  the  leading  tone  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  Example  2.15  0  in  (The is  Four.)  King  of  G l o r y , mm.  23-24  f 0 n  s  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example context of  of  a  2.16  cadential  a Renaissance  pensions  and  shows  a  figure.  cadential  stepwise  chain  of  Press.  suspensions  in  the  I t i s reminiscent  figure  resolution,  i n i t s use  of  but  keeping  not  in  sus-  with in  Renaissance  the  tone,  norms  soprano, A-sharp,  and  are  used  would  here  the  i n the  effect, atypical  of  to  otherwise  are  the  absence  tenor  avoid a  the  of  which  Willan's  be  held  note, a  raised  produces  middle  leading a  period.  parallel  simple  F-sharp,  fifths  progression  of  neo-modal Suspensions  in  what  sixth-  chords .  Example  2.16  Fair  i n Face,  5fe  7 T¥*  mm.  T"  f f  17-19.  f J.  f  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  2.17  is a  suspension  treated  sequentially.  a  lower  neighbour  i n a manner  Baroque  polyponic  style.  Example  2.17  Each  0  chain  suspension  King  in  Glory,  mm.  of  i  1  r  i  —  p  -  —  #=  -e— —»-a 5  1  p  9 —  s  S  M J  i  the  14-17.  -rr<= i  voices,  i s decorated  reminiscent  of  five  r  ^  -„ hp'  t\p  g  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  ;  with  37  Appoggiaturas In of  both  are  his vocal writing, prepared  normally  cases  W i l l a n uses  and unprepared  r e s o l v e d downwards  i n which Example  they  2.18  with  a  falling  used  here  primarily  Example  large  number  appoggiaturas.  These  although  resolution. to avoid  2.18  0 King  prepared  m -hi  o f which  poggiatura prepared  shows  two  are prepared.  i s made b y way  i n the soprano  25  Lr f app»  I  J J  J  I Press.  appoggiaturas Although  of a  leap,  a t once,  the a l t o  ap-  the A - f l a t  i s  voice.  mm.  (S v b 4 p  i s  fifths.  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  both  some  appoggia-  a l l G l o r i o u s , m.  '  2.19  are  The a p p o g g i a t u r a  parallel  r r  Example  there  rise.  includes a simple  tura  a  1 J- —  J-  MI  4^ arm  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Press.  3-4  38 In motion In  W i l l a n ' s usage, usually  Example  are  converge  2.20,  unprepared,  both  present  Example  the but  i n the  2.20  appoggiaturas on  an  octave  appoggiaturas the  or  a  the  unison.  in contrary  dissonant pitch  previous  Behold,  in contrary  motion  classes  are  chord.  Tabernacle  of  God,  mm.  9-10.  3 'app  app C o p y r i g h t 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example because  the  2.21  falling  appoggiaturas seen, in  i s unusual  resolutions  create parallel  Willan normally  the  context  instead  as  Example  2.21  i n the  of  does  I beheld  not  use  the  Beautiful  of  two As  where  as  a  Willan  final will  parallel  resolution,  consonances  her  music  fifths.  dissonance  consecutive  of  Inc.  fifths  using the  p  p  app  Dove,  ,app .  app C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  them  voice-  app  a  be  Press.  mm.  11-  leading  i s less  noticeable.  In  this  to  some d e g r e e  parallel  fifths  are  opposing  motion  of  In  Example  portant  role  i n the  the  ly  strong point, A  to  line  i n the  accented  measure  i s not  passing  tones  and  The  of  the  B.  by  the  harmonic  A  beginning  G-sharp has  by  Example  to this  be  and  2.4,  descend time  2.2 2 I  fact  to  heard  tones  the  tone,  2.3  the  can  —  the  connecting B of  accent of  as  first  C-sharp  and  G-sharp and  they  G-sharp,  A  the  measure  to  F-sharp,  her  alto  and  with  causes  even The  Beautiful  of  D-sharp  further the  stability  the  aural  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  a  As-in  G-sharp  though  as  the like  soprano. of  --  upwards  sound  is  i n the  of  beheld  imr  relative-  beat A  affect  concurrence  resolved.  a  resolve  i f the  C-sharp  an  appoggiaturas  the  been  the  dissonance,  i n the  which  and  that  by  play  indicate  C-sharp  However,  Examples at  second  accented  role  complicated  and  interpretation  the  the  voice.  i s understood  tenor  and  tenor rhythm  non-harmonic  D-sharp  B.  the  2.22,  If  the  bar  obscured  example  soprano  the  dissonance  effect  Dove,  Press.  and  mm.  is  8-9.  40 that  the  while  C-sharp  the  G-sharp  ambiguities brought  by  the  and  lines,  triple  of  proportion an  ambiguous  into  one  still  •  E major  another;  one  and  that  blurring  foreshadow.  provides  another  2.23  mentioned.  quarter of  as  beginning  lower  the  F minor  measure. in  the  notes  either the of  as  chord  However,  soprano  de-  indicated  continuous  the  new has  the  not  the  on  i t might  measure  is actually  be an  a  rising large  produces blurred  another  begun  to  is  fully,  cast  a  triple  in sixth-chords,  second  the  of  emerges  blurring  F minor  an  both  are  while  chord  effect  quarter of can  chord.  appoggiaturas, begins  notes  succession of  the  first  use  chords  downwards of  frequent-  includes  The  begins  contains a  Here,  the  as  appoggiaturas,  consonant  chord  example  fourth the  in,  fairly  above  chord.  chord  resolving an  2.21  structure:  then  provided  and  i s used  concurrent  dissonant to  appoggiaturas  pulse  characteristic  Example  an  sounding,  The  function,  resulting  metrical  a  tones  suspension.  itself  the  harmonic  music.  harmonic  Example  or  a  as  non-harmonic  appoggiatura  to  of  as  and  lend  three  falling,  heard  i s heard  through,  Willan,  instance  are  harmonic  Willan's  The by  A  obscuring of  bar  flow.to  ly  of  about  liberate  and  one  second argued  just the  be  understood  By  labelling  suggests  that  quarter of that  anticipation  the of  the  A-flat the  F m i n o r c h o r d w h i c h a p p e a r s on Example  2.23  R i s e up,  my  the  L o v e , my  fourth  beat.  F a i r One,  mm.  app  7-8.  app  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example in  the  2.2 4 shows W i l l a n ' s use  context  chord  bass note. chord  appoggiaturas  o f a modal c a d e n c e i n s i x v o i c e s .  music of the e i g h t e e n t h tura  of  i s normally  century  the  a delayed  Willan's application  cadential  In  appoggia-  d o m i n a n t o v e r a-.tonic of the  appoggiatura  t o a modal c a d e n c e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e s  sixteenth  and  eighteenth  century  devices  in a  novel  effect. Example  2.2 4 R i s e up,  my  L o v e , my  F a i r One,  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  mm.  2 5-2 6.  42  Anticipations W i l l a n ' s use is  n e v e r t h e l e s s of  contain two of  of a n t i c i p a t i o n s ,  anticipations  arrangement. anticipation  very ing  slight  —  i n the  In the of the  fluidity  2.25  the  of these, i n the  the  eighth-note.  to C-sharp.  This  to the music,  second beat  a p a s s i n g m o t i o n between t h e  Example  2.25a I b e h e l d  first  as  The  follow-  anticipation blur-  Example  illustrates essentially  third  beats.  a Dove, m.  ant  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example 2.2 5b.  2.26  length  a g a i n by  is  and  her B e a u t i f u l  and  soprano i s  of the passage,  m a t e r i a l of the  infrequent,  of a t h r e e - a g a i n s t -  t h e p r e c i s e p o i n t o f h a r m o n i c movement.  2.25b, a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n that  context  C-sharp  only a t r i p l e t  a sense of  Examples  first  D-sharp i s a neighbour  gives ring  interest.  although  31.  43  In  Example  2.26a,  cipation  which  stands  A-flat.  However,  the  rather  2.26b  is a  simplification  to  A-flat,  time  the  Example  the  than  lower  2.26a  up,  my  very third  much  duration. like  a  The  chordal  relationship  that  harExample  demonstrating in  normally  occur  i t s motion at  the  descent.  my  Fair  by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y permission.  an  a  i s delayed  Love,  2.27a i n c l u d e s  the  like  motion,  their  Example  extended  the  would  begin  sound  in  anticipation.  soprano  C o p y r i g h t 1929 R e p r o d u c e d by  Example  to  an  of  which  parts  Rise  G-flat like  the  a motion  anti-  sixth-chords  of  tone  in  i s an  use  monic  G-flat  G-flat  underlying,^retained  voices  the  tenor  f o r an  lower  that  causes  the  One,  mm.  9-10.  Press.  2.26b  anticipation  anticipation  in  of  the  element  because  of  pertains  between  the  more  alto the  sounds parallel  upper  44 voices.  In Example  progression, beginning in C  like  the D - f l a t  of the second  Example of  2.27b,  2.27a  the tenor  the resolution  simplified  does  version  simplification not occur  measure.  i s that,  sounds  a  like  an  illustrates,  of a  C  like  the non-harmonic  the  D-flat  Example  which  2.27a  the  this  the  rather  B-flat.  than  As  resolution  s i x t h - c h o r d movement. tone,  element  t o t h e D,  appoggiatura  of the neighbour,  part  until  confusing  in relation  actually sounds  A  of the  the  is  Although  is is  the  actually  i s dissonant.  Rise  up,  my  L o v e , my  Fair-One,  mm.  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  2.27b.  14-15.  Cambiatas  and  Both Willan's is  of  cambiatas music.  possibly  break  up  escape  the  leaps. a  fifths  transforms into.a  to  rare  t o make u s e of  by  these  the  E,  leading,  introduction  cambiata,  D-flat,  which  circumvents  between  King,  the  outer voices,  on-the  alto  F-sharp  avoided  by  because  the  shows  2.29a i n c l u d e s  _  element  E  Willan  a more  the  and  natural  of  do  thins  the  tone  i n the figure  motion  of  the  15  alto F-sharp  voicebetween  Example  three  m.  Inc.  parallel  to only  resolution  Live,  stuctural  a passing  of  which  "  i n the melodic  t e n o r D-sharp.  because  texture  escape  i n terms  represents  and  an  Example  second q u a r t e r - n o t e ,  t o Whom a l l T h i n g s  However,  the  to  of  the middle  G-sharp.  them  figures  C o p y r i g h t 1931 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  voice,  of  voice  chord..;  Example  in  soprano  seventh  0  lines  are  The  sonority  2.28  tones  tendency  the  Example  escape  reluctance  smooth m e l o d i c  contains  parallel  and  His  due  decorative  2.28  tones  2.29b,  fifths  real  the  and  parts,  voices.  Example  2.29a  Fair  i n Face,  mm.  24-25,  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  \9*i*t J  2.29b.  J  j=| r A  Pedal  point Willan  as  pedal  a non-functional  and In  to express Example  which one  the  2.30  The  tenor  at this  distinct  ways:  textural  device  of short  duration,  the tenor  voice-leading  point  pedal  beat.  were  the tenor  had f a i l e d  t h e harmony, while  octaves.  the basis on B  f o r only to  S u b s t i t u t i n g an A f o r  repetitious,  in parallel  duration.  point  harmony  i f the tenor  clarifies  reasons  to leave  has a b r i e f  i s as  the t h i r d  results  f u n c t i o n of extended  to the surrounding  m e l o d y becomes  C-sharp  cision  i n two  effect  t o an A on B  point  a dominant  i s dissonant  beat.  move  a  uses  as a  but the  substituting In other  of Willan's  words, de-  non-functional  47 pedal.  Short  Willan's  pedal  vocal  points  2.30  Fair  C o p y r i g h t 1928 R e p r o d u c e d by  extended  is  not  it  i s standard  in  these  final  normally  in  may  be  and  Fugue  the  Passacaglia  In  the  found  to  found: in  first  measures  the  in  a  and  the  subject  works  f o r organ,  No.  point  upper  Willan  with  Two  and 2  fine  its  i n e minor  present  triple  pedal  point  reintroduces  for  the  the  Prelude  later  one,  (19 59) .  twenty-three a  stretto  close  and  examples  work,  for  function  However,  i n a much  lasts  i n very the  dominant  preparation  voices  in a  subject  i n which  a  e a r l y organ  Fugue  instance  together  longer as  a  Press.  music.  (1908),  fugue  measures,  in  1-2  vocal  very  principal  mm.  the  pedal  the  i n Face,  t o n i c key.  c minor  while  second  usual  with  occurs  culminating  the  are  point  in  the  sequences  In  type  by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y permission.  pedal  i t always  return  this  writing.  Example  The  of  series of  of  the  formation. lasts the  only  seven  principal  countersubject.  2campbel1-Yukl c a l l s t h i s c o u n t e r s u b j e c t the t h i r d s u b j e c t o f what she terms a t r i p l e f u g u e . In f a c t , how ever, i t i s the c o u n t e r s u b j e c t , accompanying both principal subjects. S e e C a m p b e l 1 - Y u k l , p p . 160, 162-16  48 Combinations o f d i s s o n a n c e s The f o l l o w i n g examples are i n t e n d e d t o be n o t an e x h a u s t i v e c o l l e c t i o n , b u t a s a m p l i n g o f the ways i n which W i l l a n uses a v a r i e t y o f d i s s o n a n c e s t o g e t h e r . The e f f e c t o f m u l t i p l e d i s s o n a n c e s i n a t e x t u r e i s u s u a l l y one o f a m b i g u i t y , and i t o f t e n becomes d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between harmonic and non-harmonic tones. A p r o f u s i o n of dissonances a r i s e s n a t u r a l l y i n a t h o r o u g h l y c o n t r a p u n t a l s t y l e where h o r i z o n t a l , melo d i c t h i n k i n g p r e d o m i n a t e s , b u t i t s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t c o u n t e r p o i n t i s as much a m a t t e r o f rhythm as i t i s one o f p i t c h .  I n W i l l a n ' s v o c a l music, t h e  a c c e n t u a l p l a n o f each v o i c e i s l a r g e l y determined by i t s r e n d i t i o n o f the t e x t , and the m e t r i c i m p r e s s i o n c o n c e i v e d by the ensemble uncertain.  as a whole i s f r e q u e n t l y  As we have seen, t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y g r e a t l y  i n t e n s i f i e s the ambiguous e f f e c t o f the p i t c h e s thems selves.  3  3ln the L i t u r g i c a l Motets, W i l l a n developed a n o t a t i o n a l d e v i c e , t h e wavy b a r : l i n e , i n t e n d e d t o g u i d e singers i n performance without connoting m e t r i c a l accents i n t h e n o r m a l way. ( T h i s i d e a may have been d e r i v e d f r o m p l a i n c h a n t i n w h i c h rhythm i s d e p e n d e n t s o l e l y on t h e s t r e s s o f t h e words.) T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , some q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r a p e r f o r m e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e m u s i c a l f l o w i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d by t h i s s i m p l e n o t a t i o n a l e x p e d i e n t , b u t i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t many composers have u s e d d o t t e d l i n e s ..to i n d i c a t e i m p o r t a n t but u n s t r e s s e d s i m u l t a n e i t i e s . A f t e r completion of the L i t u r g i c a l M o t e t s , W i l l a n d i d n o t u s e wavy b a r l i n e s a g a i n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were o c c a s i o n s when he d i d u s e d o t t e d b a r lines. (See Come, Thou B e l o v e d o f C h r i s t (1953).)  Another Willan's to  use  h i s use  the  of  of  the  overrides proper  Example  suspension  tones.  The  tenor  tone,  show,  the  bass  G-sharp above  the  Example  2.31a  I  and  as  of  of  2.31b the  the  shows  alto  bass  of  the  soprano.  alto,  beheld  middle and  the  basic  Example  voices, tenor  inclusion  of  the  her  bass  have  takes  so  that  i s heard  The  of clear motion  and  as  by  2.31c alto  a  tenor  as  Beautiful  place the  a  as  of  this a  shows  the  while  harmonic  dissonant  a  of  examples  Dove,  m.  phrase.  Example  motion  motion  in  of  the  i n contrary motion  to  the  line  with  causes  the  bass.  parallel  in  the  addition  thirds  11.  Press.  rising  neighbouring  having  passing  f o l l o w i n g group  structure:  in parallel this  become  preparation  alto  passing,  bass.  harmonized  some  is indicated  and  underlying motion the  related  parallel  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  reveals  as  will  streams  tenor  are  i n the  seventh  of  the  resolution  and  that  dissonance.  2.31a  while  is  is significantly  principles  of  i n mind  Specifically,  drive  usual  resolution  In  the  dissonance.  melodic the  bearing  parallelism  f o l l o w i n g examples  below,  a  p o i n t worth  bass, The  octaves  50 Example  Example  2.31b.  2.31c.  ' *»  Example  i  Example  2.31d.  SSE  , V t  >  :  2.31e.  J , , J  .  ^  -#—%**-»0  t  Example  r , ' l  between  the soprano  expansion extra the  rising  F-sharp  first  prompting  Example  motion  lower  octaves.  chord w i l l  to C-sharp,  In Example  instead  o f A,  n o t be  so  i  a  V I I '  tenor,  i n the  f  2.3If,  the passage.  tenor to descend  parallel on  of  and  a  2.31d  voices,  doubled,  includes which  eliminating  2.31e,  that  furthere  the a l t o  the t h i r d but  an  allows  the begins  of the  i t quickly  moves  51 to  A  to avoid  suspension the  parallel  of the A  and bass,  displacement. a  delay  will  F-sharp  Example  Example  chord.  2.31a,  in  the tenor  B,  C-sharp,  The f i n a l  and soprano: D-sharp,  developed  extension  dissonances  being  rather  decorative  The  which  make In  Example  detail.  o f dissonance each  Example  excerpt 2.32  2.3 2 I b e h e l d  material  repetition  of  The s u r f a c e t o be a  underlying  logically  structure,  f o r functional  reasons.  examples  i n extreme  binations  i s revealed  structure, related  introduced primarily  remaining  analysed  surface  a melodic  o f a simple  of  by t h e u s e o f an  E i n imitation.  of the passage  rhythmic  the addition  introduces motivically  structure  than  chord  that  between t h e  through  2 . 3 1 f shows  F-sharp  The  i s introduced so  t o G-sharp  be o b s c u r e d  i n the final  appoggiatura  withr-the b a s s .  i n the alto  implied octaves,  alto  octaves  i n this  section  Rather,  are pointed  arenot  different  com-  o u t , as a r e f e a t u r e s  remarkable.  t h e two l o w e r  her Beautiful  voices  each  as a Dove,  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Press.  move  m.  5.  52 through  three  a  neighbour,  a  harmonic  helps  to  consecutive and  an  note.  dissonances,  appoggiatura,  Parallelism  support  this  anticipation,  before  i n the  extended  an  use  arriving  lower  of  at  parts  non-harmonic  tones. Example which The  2.33  combine  most  presents  to  produce  interesting  tenor  A-flat,  which  which  appears  to  the  A-flat,  to  B-flat  In  this  chord of  r e s o l v e by  context  the  A-flat  B-flat  f o r the  resolution  clearly  as  an  use  of  essential  Example  F  is  leap  to  the  F  F.  i s added  sounds  chord.  like  In  dominant  then  B-flat  A-natural  function  the  my  Love,  my  Fair  fappl  f'  r r  f  a p p  J  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  appears  bass. obscures  appoggiatura  One,  mm.  U  d  a  substitution  r a t h e r than of  upwards  seventh,  app  r  fact  true voice-  chord a  but  below.  a  r e v e a l s the  over  A-flat  a  However,  seventh-chord  m  the  appoggiatura,  The  up,  example  an  B-flat.  2.3 3 R i s e  texture.  as  tone  A-flat  to  dissonances  voice-leading, resolves  chord  leading  the  of  of  dissonant  in this  i s marked  the  in a  thick,  element  i n terms  A-natural  Willan's  a  while  tone  a variety  J  r  Press.  17-18  53 chord. Example  2.34a  i s a passage i n which  between  harmonic and  Example  2.34b  shows  non-harmonic the underlying  which  includes  parallel  tenor  voices.  Willan  moving over  the tenor  the change  the  a n t i c i p a t i o n of E  the  four-voice  Example  t o D,  and by  move  2.34a,  giving  parallel  i n tandem,  2.34a  Behold,  I  as a  p a r a l l e l i s m by suspending  the inner  2.3 4 b .  ^ a  parts  the  the  differ,  inner the  mm.  fapp  Inc.  Example  In  preserve  ijp  g  tenor  element,  o f God,  Copyright 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , Reproduced by permission.  Example  2.34c.  Although  functions  Infant i,  the  i s added,to  the Tabernacle  t  texture  s o p r a n o and  confusing  stream.  their  difficult.  i n Example  i n the a l t o ,  texture,  o f one  between  this  form, Example  i s  four-voice  removes  o f harmony,  final  voices  octaves  first  the  semblance  tones  differentiation  2.3 4 c .  1-2.  alto  F  being  while  the  While  their  that  the  rather  an  tenor  than  the  F  an  Example  in  D  tends  all  three  suspension  begin of  to  sound  second  of  they  illustrates  passing  soprano,  bass  the  the  first  sound  like  a  chord,  as  chord.  one,  and a  tones.  at  suspension,  the  effect  The  suspension  i t s p o i n t of  descending  these  voices  of  suspension occurs  resolution  p a s s i n g motion,  descend  a  at.-.once  the  so  in  parallel  Because  the  six-four-chord is  ly  because  the  soprano  its  initial  soprano like  and  note,  B-flat  the  Example  C,  again  sounds  resolution  2.3 5 B e h o l d ,  like  of  a  the  after a  the  passes  relative-  through  B-flat,  neighbour,  tenor  that  six-four-chords. consonant,  so  anticipation.  2.35  with  and  is a  of  functions differ,  alto  combined  anticipation  the  rather  than  suspension.  Tabernacle  of  God,  mm.  16-17.  •3 U £3  Pf  * r  r  r  r  P C o p y r i g h t 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  The 2.36, a  example  i s i n six parts,  large  A-flat  final  extent. triad  The  through  of and  upper  dissonance  Inc.  treatment,  involves parallelism v o i c e s move  a passing  G minor  from triad  a  Example to consonant  to  an  F  minor  the  bass.  rising in  nota  of  this  passing to  t o make  final  whose  At  relation  alto  ing  triad  goal,  the  before  lower  to G F.  and  This  i s reached.  of  i t proceeds  This  the  t o G.  As  that  E-flat,  avoid  separate, independent between  the  character  the  opposition  2.3 6 B e h o l d ,  the  uses  has  and  the  middle  of  tone,  B-flat,  style,  i t is  accepts  parallel  nota  cambiata  tend  the  tenor belong  of motion. to  Paralleldiminish  them.  Tabernacle of nota  a  descend-  and  between  the  before i t s  octaves with  would  God,  mm.  cambiata  -t-i—fHr-n —i  dissonance  the  the  soprano  streams  a  a  with  escape  here  parallel  begin  soprano  a point  but  separate streams of  to G  voices, an  above  dissonance causes  The  Willan  voices  i s because  ism  lower  fourth  voices  harmonizes  has  upper to  which  voices  to note  soprano  Example  the  up  alto  upper  in  to  the  tones  i n the  tenor.  motion  motion  fifths the  point  E-flat,  three  interesting  i s a dissonant  a neighbouring motion  cambiata passing  root  get  ~t  '  1)  O C o p y r i g h t 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Inc.  18-19.  Parallelism Willan's three  ways:  important it  is  is  a  to  (In  as  This  of  type  structure,  the  is as  stream  between  major  of  vailing The streams are  be  and  two  diatonic most  present.  of  lines,  which  melody  a  and  on  feature  in  or  more -are  in  Five. Willan  in  For  to  preserved,  the  inter-  preserve  example,  a  alternate  manner  parallelism,  usually  which  would the  3)  deeper-level  modified  thirds  thirds  here.  voices, that  rhythm.)  of  Chapter  collection.  types  of  gyme1.  i n which  and  in  occur,  in  which  a  parallelism  is  present  exact  addition,  certain in  a  pre-  type.  usual  that  group  as  are  parallel consists  focused  chromatic  parallel-  motion  seen  minor  of  non-  of  is  parallel  support  stream  of  lines  where  texture,  streams  or  parallelism  in  the  a  terms  diatonic  uses  of  line  two  chromatic  is  of  form  relationships of  element  used  parallel  melodic  hybrids  in  of  diatonic  also  an  to  in  is  technique, and  context,  will  streams  interval  the  also  parallelism  harmony  parallelism  operative  amount  in  seen,  parallelism  the  As  melodic  between  Willan  have  by  contrapuntal  2)  a unit  Parallelism  employs  we  out  this  distinct  functions  vals  f i l l  present  In  As  tones.  motion. of  1)  i s permeated  in Willan's  used  harmonic ism  style  of  the  i n which  Four-part  surface  two  textures  d i s i n c t and  contrapuntal  in  parallel  opposed  writing  streams  constitutes  the  surface  above, form  "preached"  two-part  a  structural  framework  usually  In  this  of  either  sort  primary  found of  as  independent to  to either  While  i n the  resorting  d i d make u s e  is  that  i n which  the  melodic  streams,  while  support. four  The  voices The  Willan ancient the This  style  style  of The  technique  of  following  alto  a  melodic line.  parts  are  added  to  thought the  parallel  lines  melodies.  bass and  that  three  form  of  have  and  of  a  streams  distinct  this  type  independent  t e n o r form  motion  approach from  a  third,  harmonic  trio,  but  type  both  pages  to p a r a l l e l i s m  h i s study  involves  of  using  organum  one  and  which  plainchant  parallelism  i n only  the  and  ina l l  melodic  stream.  fauxbourdon  masters. systematically  composition using  counterpoint, forms  the  three.  old English  following  of  i n which  and  resulting  resembles  Two-part the  of  a t once,  in  out  a bass  as  normal  i s like  i s derived  the  The  the  other textural  voices  or  o r bass  of p a r a l l e l  This  lines  a pattern  soprano  texture  music.  and  the middle  i t out,  occur.  instead  uses  consisting  soprano  of  of motion  stream  pointed  m o s t ' o f t e n t o s t r u c t u r e s I n two  streams  contrasting  was  counterpoint,  melodic  f i l l  the  as  soprano,  arrangement  structure  appended  Willan  a r t but,  he  of  line,  of Willan's  parallel  expanded  i n Willan's  by  music:  examine  Willan's  streams  of  motion.  parallelism, 1)  an  upper  takes  58 voice 2)  s u p p o r t e d by  two  upper  lower  voice;  lower  voices  in  parallel  voice;  5)  panied 6)  in  and of  the to  of  a  octave.  the  This  Heavenly  brilliance,  An  i n an  the  uses  a  are  octave  does  and  lower  accom-  voices  Willan  because  mm.  voices  in  the  upper  parallel  doubling  of  first  the  lowest An  effect  of  and  parallel at  Apostrophe  6ff.) i s really f o r an  an  last  i n which  consistently doubles  make  i t violates  between  instance  not  supplying  course, this  and  by  lowest  (see f o r example  an of  octaves  and  than,  second  score.  melody  motion.  voices,  Willan  accompanied  voices  in parallel  in  "Behedictus.qui venit"  the  voices  accompanied  case  f o r three  soprano  Of  voice  a  upper  motion  Willan  doubling  more  orchestral  motion  only  (1921),  octave  When w r i t i n g ually  the  procedure  i t i s no  example,  by  highest  Hosts  independent  counterpoint  lowest voices  i s when  violins  fact,  an  the middle  used  three  three  highest  stream.  one  i n parallel- motion;  form:  with  s u p p o r t e d by  in parallel also  motion;  4)  motion.  two-part  In  by  in parallel  i s not  orchestration.  for  voices  remaining  form  and  motion;  in parallel  voices.  the  s u p p o r t e d by  voice  voices,  motion,  concept  motion  upper  accompanied  ari.tenor  in parallel  motion  upper  one  ones  in parallel  contrapuntal  mentioned  lower  in parallel  two.lower  the  highest  an  motion  parallel  lower  3)  bass  opposing  his  voices  two  soprano  alto use  by  two  A  good  by  example  of Missa  almost two of  Brevis  habit-  lower this No.  occurs 4  (1934),  Example two of  2.37.  After  v o i c e s move the  middle  No.  5- ( 1 9 3 5 ) ,  are  We  same  venit"  section and  of  0  almost  other  Saving  design.  Example  2.37  jffift*  and  •  The  two  Look  or  venit"  r  —0—J—*  i r•f-P^ r  J—  —1  \ ^v  common  i s the  Many  1  1  r  is in parallel  panied  by  an  independent  bass-line.  type  do  occur.  best  The  B r e v i s No.  a  r l-H  rr~  j-  i n which  melody  this  sections of  = M = 1  with  of  an  three  style.  -P—v—  texture  motion  for  Here  (1935),  I I I  = H = I  = r = 4  T#  Inc.  the  soprano  inner voice, However,  these  4.  = f = N  r=F •ir  C o p y r i g h t 1934 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Less  carol,  of Missa  F~  j  Brevis  Lord  small  1  the  (1928),  Missa  motets  r  end  in  1  the  r  1  .  *  of  in this  include large  qui  of  lower the  found  Down, 0  f  I  iff*~°  Dei"  section  composed  "Benedictus  be  to  B r e v i s No.  "Agnus  (1929).  the  thirds  can  Missa  first  exclusively  similar  •  of  Victim  compositions  m  opening,  approach  the  the  i n Bethlehem  voices, are  The  qui  the  imitative  in parallel diatonic  piece.  "Benedictus  an  accom-  examples  i s probably  the  of  1  60  "A"  s e c t i o n o f the Scherzo from F i v e P i e c e s f o r Organ  (1957-58).  A few m e a s u r e s of' t h i s  a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n Example Example  2.38  Scherzo  chromatic  2.38.  ( F i v e P i e c e s f o r O r g a n ) , mm.  C o p y r i g h t 1959 b y BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l  E x p a n s i o n o f t h e ; b a s i c t e x t u r e o f two from t h r e e i n t o This  style  four voices  results  streams  1) t h e  o r t h e b a s s has.-a c o u n t e r melody t o p a r a l l e l  two  upper  chord motion  voices  i n the o t h e r p a r t s ;  f o r m one  form a c o u n t e r stream;  3)  s t r e a m and  t h e two  o f soprano  and  5-12.  Music.  i n a denser  n o r m a l l y takes these forms:  or six-four  parallelism  polyphony. soprano  six-three 2)  the  lower  voices  t e n o r form  one s t r e a m  and a l t o  Example  and b a s s  2.39  0 King,  form the o t h e r . a l l Glorious,  i  J  r  f r r r r  -  n)'*  r  1 g ff J  J> J~J 1  <vfl P -^-1  x»— f — J_p :  •  2.40  mm..  J  V  ^  r r  1  1  Press.  18-27.  f  f f^,  1  rrfrr 1 1  Matins,  30-32  J J o  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  mm.  Lr r  rr-F [ j J JJ f  , i W-  ji  1  ' <f  C o p y r i g h t 1965 b y C . F . P e t e r s Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Corp.  n  ' i'  Example  2.39  lower  voices  three is  never  of  the  imbalance  the  above  stream bass  of  line.  for  in  2.40  for extensive  balance  the  compositional Three O  King  of  Glory  gives  the  upper  voices  chords. a  Note  later  hesitate  voices  i s of of  are  the  the  from  subsequent  the  motion,  the  two-part the  the  the  first  the  music  voices  plan  i n which  the  six-three  versions,  from  detail  to  alto  give and  of  a  tenor  the  semblance  tenor.  becomes  longer  between  i n motion  2.41a  the  and  i s no  underlying  counterpoint  middle  Example  while  sketch  alto  motet  unchanged,  is altered the  the  contours  voices  of  of  the  inner  to  Willan's  work,  the  independence  can  published  of  surface  of  consistently in parallel in  independent  interest.  opening  version,  a  well.  stages  presented.  manuscript  and  of  three  particular  remain  crossing  reasonably  shows  voices  the  an  bass  outer  of  by  the  the  parallelism  melody,  s e c t i o n s , because  of  melodic  upper  inversion  this  (1929)  that  sketch  the  use  versions  move  the  because  streams.  demonstrate  not  which  earliest  probably  the  by  texture  to  process,  successive  between  harmonized This  i s accompanied  three  2.41,  motion.  i n which  does  texture  melody  periods,  2.41  voices,  Willan  Example  long  and  upper  soprano  forces  texture,  three  a  in parallel  continued  Examples of  shows  The  strictly phrase  soprano  parallel  and to  simple  disguised  voices.  by  Although in  parallel  remains bass,  the  of  a  with  soprano.  the  63 Example  2.41a  First  0  King  of  Glory,  T  T  J  \  T  r rj n  j  T J  •J  J-  2.41b  Second  0  King  J J -  of  Manuscript  5=  j  R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f Estate of Healey W i l l a n .  i^f-r  the  Glory,  r t r r*- f r r r -j j J i - •j j j ' rr p  1  2.41c  Final,  0  J  - J  Jt p  J  J  J "  J  1«—  C o p y r i g h t 1929 R e p r o d u c e d by  another.  King  of  Printed  r J  voices  r  1  11  mm.  1-4.  Version F * = - = i -  » J i i \  •rrr r "J.  -J-  J  ~p  j  j  r  f  .i ' f r  J .  *  "  f r 'f r r  'I i  by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . permission.  exhibits parallelism  form  one  is a  r  the  Glory,  2.42  This  1-4  1  r  Example  upper  mm.  Version  R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f Estate of Healey W i l l a n .  Example  1-4  Manuscript•Version  J  Example  mm.  stream  common  and  the  texture  i n which  lower  the  voices  in Willan's  form  writing,  and  i t i s the predominant  Coeli  Letare  (1928),  both  Example  (1928)  texture i n the pieces  and T y r l e ,  written  Tyrlow,  Tyrle,  f o r women's v o i c e s ,  2.42 G o d i s G o n e  Up w i t h  a  unusual  of  this  in  Example  move an  i n W i l l a n ' s music  t e x t u r e i n a more 2.43.  i n contrary  Here  a Shout,  underlying pattern  alternating  half-and  voices  outline  thirds  as a r e s u l t  A  final  opening  measures  scale  The p a r a l l e l i s m  i s interesting  t  ,  while  seen  motion express up b y  the lower  i n descending  major  diatonicism.4  o f two u p p e r  parts  2.44 i s f r o m t h e  p i e c e Ave M a r i s  occurs  because  as  moving  fluctuating  Example  o f the organ  of  voices  of parallelism  parts,  25-28.  House.  context,  thirds  whole-steps,  of rapidly  example  two l o w e r  and  o f minor  a whole-tone  against  (1951)..  chromatic  The upper  mm.  i s the application  t h e two s t r e a m s  motion.  Tyrlow  cappella.  C o p y r i g h t 1960 b y C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  More  Regina  over  a bass  t h e two s t r e a m s  Stella  pedal, are i n similar  4 w i l l a n d i d n o t o f t e n use the whole-tone scale, b u t e f f e c t i v e e x a m p l e s do o c c u r . Other p i e c e s which i n c l u d e whole-tone t e c h n i q u e s a r e Urbs H i e r u s a l e m Beata (1951), The Dead (1917), a n d V e x i l l a R e g i s (1951).  65 Example  2.43  Hodie,  C h r i s t u s natus  r i IL  !ff4= 1  in  !  Z\r±>  I-J  — ^  1  than  sixths,  contrary motion. the  Example on  other  2.44  One  quickly in  Ave  Maris  Inc.  stream  Stella  (Five  Plainchant Melodies),  mm.  r  slowly  Preludes 1-4.  H»—1  0 V  \  •*  •  rises  thirds.  -9 -o  u  43-47.  l  C o p y r i g h t 1935 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  rather  e s t , mm.  - — i — i — i  9  1^—r '1  r  1  n C o p y r i g h t 1951 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Parallelism linked,  as  countered,  are  the  alto  2.45,  from  (1951),  provides  of  textural  a  the  soprano  bass,  the  motet  simple  type.  the  and  usually taking  Example  this  i n which  but  tenor  are  is infrequently  form The  and  of  a  Spirit  en-  sequence. of  the  characteristic  Lord  instance  j  i  j  II  66 Example  2.45  The  Spirit  r - r r  o f t h e L o r d , mm.  5.11  r  f f  i t  f  C o p y r i g h t 1951 b y C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Parallelism Willan's  v o c a l music  five-part  music  three voices voices trate.  i n two  streams  the u s u a l arrangement  t o f o r m one  2.46  a turn, while the  lower v o i c e s 2.47  and  i s composed o f two  chord.  Example  2.46  The  upper  2.47  melismas  voices  i s o f t h e same b a s i c adventurous.  Example  to the Heavenly  An A p o s t r o p h e  upper two  illussur-  execute  have a . n e i g h b o u r i n g  h e r e t h e m e l o d i e s a r e more 2.46  In h i s  i s f o r the  stream w h i l e the lower  f o r m a n o t h e r , as Examples Example  common i n  f o r more t h a n f o u r p a r t s .  rounding a C - f l a t  motion.  i s quite  House.  C o p y r i g h t 1952 b y F r e d e r i c k R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Harris  design, but  H o s t s , mm.  Music.  97-99  67 Example  2.47  Ring  from the  Ye  Coronation  1 J  »—  Out,  — H j if 3 4  S u i t e , mm.  "  ;  hf  Crystal1  Spbears 10-11.  —'  JLILPJ—  ft  C o p y r i g h t 1953 b y BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l  In  six voices, parallelism  consists  of  lower t h r e e five-voice  the  upper three  voices texture  demonstrative of  i n the  i n two  voices  other,  style.  an  the  s t r e a m and the  Example 2.48  is  Note t h a t e a c h o f i n the  t h e whole r e m a i n i n g  collection.  Because of  Example  1^,  f  M}  i  2.48  f  s  rt  ..-i—  outer  this  59-61.  r  \  by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y permission.  is restricted  music.  and  diatonic  r i  1—1  In  voices,  contrapuntal  E t e r n i t y , mm.  style  in Willan's  limited  the  1  C o p y r i g h t 1931 R e p r o d u c e d by  possibilities,  the  within  this  Press.  to  short  piece  the  the  i n n e r v o i c e s a l t e r n a t e s between m a j o r  minor t h i r d s ,  time-spans  streams u s u a l l y  expansion of  streams i n c l u d e s o n l y p e r f e c t f i f t h s while  Music.  i n one  just described.  the  .  the  :  68 excerpt of  the  i s marked con  in Willan's  is  two  that  with  one  of  i n three  music,  are  and  a  filled  chorale  in parallel  j  f  forms t h e  climax  '(ft  s t r e a m s i s common  i n f o u r v o i c e s when  motion.  The  . t r i o — m e l o d y , • counter out  as  the  overall  inner voices  r  ft ft  j  bass-  parallelism.  i n Example  J  j = jj  texture  m e l o d y , and  i  ^  are  2.49.  T h i s E n d r i s N y g h t , mm.  j  ff-tf  through  preludes  motion,  Example 2.49  J  separate  i t occurs  in parallel  stream  In the often  and  work.  Parallelism  only  exultazione  Here 7-13.  J^J  j  =i= [ 3  Trt'^T-Lzr t M  _L2!—  71  '—  1  r  P^J  mm  -0 ^  7  J—  c  t J i - t r P r V  •fif v\  T t f  f r r  —  r  r'=|  —P-J—i -  —0 C o p y r i g h t 1957 R e p r o d u c e d by  by C . F . P e t e r s permission.  Corp.  69 the  s o p r a n o and  bass are  the  inner parts  are predominantly  in parallel  thirds,  i n long note v a l u e s ,  harmonizing  W i l l a n was  e v i d e n t l y very  because of  its suitability  m e l o d y w o u l d be two it  parts was  ising  on  on  probably chorale  preludes.  The  texture  voices.  texture  and,  o r g a n , where  manual, the  by  bass  i n the  Willan  P r o l o g u e on  f o r the  the  accompaniment  the  u s e d a good d e a l  2.50  lower v o i c e s  common, n o r  first  shows a t h r e e - p a r t are  as  in parallel  extended  s o p r a n o and  fully so  this  to the  independent upper v o i c e s .  The  of  outer  motion  in  of pedals,  improv-  Ascension thirty-eight  i t s f o r t y - n i n e measures. Example  the  i n eighth-note  the  a n o t h e r m a n u a l , and  (1956) i s i n t h i s of  one  fond  while  the  balance use  of  alto  This  i n use,  on  separate  the  stream of  the  texture  motion texture as  the  i n which  against i s neither  preceding  i n the  J  ft  r  ?%f  7  r  j  r  J f ^  L  ;  4  H  T  —  *  success-  lower v o i c e s ,  limited.  ^  l A « k J  as one.  melodies cannot  thirds  is  texture  9^  ^  =  -6  J —  HUH  r  f  = Co. the E s t a t e  of  .  1  1  \  C o p y r i g h t 192 5 b y N o v e l l o & R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f  ,  Healey  r  -  n  -  :  Willan.  ,  70 A is  final  taken  Example four  example  from 2.51  the  oboe,  parallelism  cantata  contains  distinct  canonic  of  a  of  Mystery  section  streams:  imitation  The  melody  an  independent  bass-line,  paniment  in parallel  thirds  texture esting the or  of  that  accompanying  the  alto  at  seventh  the  and  a harmonic alto  parallelism  a in  the  accom-  voices. and  (1923).  uses  soprano,  i n the  voices,  which  i n the  i s c o n t i n u e d f o r ten measures, to note  streams  Bethlehem  of music  a melody  this  i n separate  This  i t is  inter-  occurs again i n  rather  than  i n a melody .  bass-line.  Example  2.51  The  of  id  v  Shepherds  Bethlehem,  mm.  1 1 —1  #^^-T-T  / *m  *  =  —  —  »  Copyright Reproduced  /-  i  —  j  -8  r  i  j  j  r "  —  •  ^  «  —fr (  ^  r r r 1—h-  Mystery  45-47  — | —  -i—s  \jL&LU  The  1 o  1^1 =t=»=  -  from  — _ ' t*  —1—1—1—1— ' x 9 J. 9 '* r f  T :  1951 b y H.W.Gray C o . by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e l w i n  -4  -f  Mi i i s  —  j  — i $ — i  ——ijH } 1 1—-V—^ d . Corp.  •  71 Example  2.52 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s i m p l e n a t u r e o f  a parallelism  derived  f r o m organum, u s i n g a c o n s o n a n t  eight-five-three  chord t o harmonize  the chant-like  soprano melody.  An a s p e c t o f t h e m u s i c  not derived  f r o m p a r a l l e l organum i s t h a t  the inner voices  the  than b e i n g i n t e r v a l i c a l l y  s t e p s o f t h e mode, r a t h e r  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the soprano. are  major,  of  some m i n o r ,  As a r e s u l t ,  depending  follow  some c h o r d s  on t h e s c a l e  degree  the melody.  Example  2.52 Come, Thou B e l o v e d o f C h r i s t the  C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e , mm. _  g^BCg  p« wm«  V  tjcu mev-cy end iJt  98-100.  J> } ) J ' } i ) ^ d * d• d t A  )  '  ,  <,T5 v r _4_J  -/-$ f—l—¥—'  \  i  •  from •  "  M  ?  r  r '  r 'r ' j r  J ^ = *  \  h  —  r r  r >  e+c.  ^JL  |. I  d 1  *  r  f  |  _J  7  —  7  — '  '  '  I  '  -  C  f  f  ?  —  1  C o p y r i g h t 1953 b y BMI C a n a 3 a . R e p r o d u c e c 1 b y p e r m i s s i o n of B e r a n d o l  An gical  again  extension of this  Motet  excerpt  =  •  —rr^r—— i '  —  i  •„r T /  J  style  Hodie, C h r i s t u s  Music.  i s found i n the L i t u r -  n a t u s e s t (1935) .  The  f r o m t h i s work, g i v e n a s Example 2.53, i s o n c e  a passage  o f p a r a l l e l motion  melody o f l i m i t e d  range.  b a s e d on a s i m p l e  However, i n t h i s  example t h e  =  parallelism  is intervalically  a c c u r a t e i n the v o i c e s  sounding  the f i f t h s  accurate  i n the v o i c e sounding  D-flat  i s found  diatonic  third  Example  of the chord, but o n l y the t h i r d s .  i n the soprano  o f t h e c h o r d , .occurs i n t h e  2.53  f ft ft l  Hodie,  r r ol — e  -  H  Although  melody, D - n a t u r a l , the  Christus  natus  r f - - y(«  alto.  e s t , mm.  j  y  diatonically  h i *  48-57.  L I JuJ J i  De - o  eel  pf  -  -  -  r.rr  —0-  -  r r Al-ie-  Iii  4 ' * 4 4 4 Pe - e j  f  :  if u  ft I* - r i .  j j j ^ >e - - o.  'jS&SSSl r  i r  f  r  r  r  C o p y r i g h t 1935 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  The  p a r t - s o n g Weep You  No  More  (1929) p r o v i d e s i n s t a n c e s o f t h e mentioned  Inc.  Sad  second  above, i n w h i c h p a r a l l e l  Fountains t e c h n i q u e xn  motion  a dissonant sonority.  Example  work's f i n a l  shows W i l l a n ' s use  measures,  six-four-three monic i n t e r v a l s  chords.  As  The  close,  on  unusual  i n the music  which quotes  i n Example  o f the chords  exact.  2.54,  i s based  of  2.52,  are d i a t o n i c  but  the  parallel the  har-  rather  an u n r e s o l v e d d i s s o n a n c e , of W i l l a n ,  on  is effective  than  i s most here  sis  f  in  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the f i n a l  ing".  T h i s p i e c e i s one  using parallelism  and  tonal  on  that  but c l o s i n g i t was  written  1979,  a dissonance.5 i n 1929, The  remaining  It is significant  the middle of W i l l a n ' s  work was  f i n a l l y published  i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e composer's  Example 2.5 4 Weep Y o u ;No .More  i i  j *z  "sleep-  o f W i l l a n ' s most e x p e r i m e n t a l ,  chromaticism f r e e l y ,  most c r e a t i v e p e r i o d . in  word o f t h e t e x t ,  centenary.  Sad F o u n t a i n s , mm.  44-48  a  m  7  TVrrr  s  r rr r C o p y r i g h t 1979 b y C h a n t e c l a i r R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  I t was a diatonic  n o t e d above t h a t W i l l a n approach  h i s work does o f f e r approach.  Example  to p a r a l l e l  2.55  t h e c h o r d i s t a k e n by and  the upper  independence between  and  typically  writing.  exhibits in five  the bass  voices  took  Nevertheless,  examples o f a l i t e r a l ,  dominant s e v e n t h chords  line,  Music.  chromatic  chromatically parts.  The  descending  seventh  i n a independent  cross parts  to avoid p a r a l l e l  of  melodic  t o p r e s e r v e some  fifths  and  octaves  voices.  ^The f o l l o w i n g p i e c e s a r e a l s o e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h e i r use o f a d i s s o n a n t e n d i n g : A S o f t L i g h t from a S t a b l e Door ( 1 9 4 8 ) , Here A r e We i n B e t h l e h e m (1929), and F a i r i n Face (1928).  74 Example  2.55  Gloria  Deo  p e r immensa s a e c u l a , mm.  60-63.  3=  f  mm 4  P L -  i-  C o p y r i g h t 1952 b y W e s t e r n M u s i c C o . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f L e s l i e M u s i c  Example Who  i s She  passage major  2.56,  from the f i n a l  that Ascendeth?(1937),  in parallel  triads  motion.  Supply.  Liturgical i s a highly  streams  results  relationships.  just  t h e p a r t - s o n g Weep You  Sad F o u n t a i n s (see Example vocal writing  Example  2.54),  parallel  The  i n various  c h o r d s and d i s s o n a n t years a f t e r  chromatic  I t i s comprised of  o v e r an i n d e p e n d e n t b a s s - l i n e .  a c t i o n o f t h e two  two  Motet,  seventh  T h i s motet, No  represents  inter-  written  More,  Willan's  a t i t s most c h r o m a t i c .  2.56  Who  i s She  t h a t A s c e n d e t h ? , mm.  C o p y r i g h t 1937 b y C a r l F i s c h e r . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f C h a n t e c l a i r  Music.  10-12.  Having  surveyed the v a r i o u s  u s e d by W i l l a n ,  this  chapter w i l l  look a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  a single  passage.  of a v a r i e t y t o one  2.57  2.57  smoothly  my  of motion  L o v e , my  a t any  streams, The  the b e g i n n i n g o f the p i e c e  become t o t a l l y  m e a s u r e , b u t by  time.  mm.  1-10.  there are three  independent  i n the  thirds. second  t h e end o f t h i s measure t h e u p p e r  v o i c e s b e g i n t o form, a s t r e a m .  In the middle of  t h i r d measure t h e t e n o r s w i t c h e s f r o m t h e u p p e r t o t h e l o w e r and,  as t h e c a d e n c e  to  Press.  the lower v o i c e s b e i n g i n p a r a l l e l  voices  use  connected  one  F a i r One,  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  At  the  example t h e r e a r e from; two  streams  R i s e up,  over the course  demonstrates  of types of p a r a l l e l i s m  four independent  parallelism  c o n c l u d e withj.a  of p a r a l l e l i s m  Example  another. In t h i s  Example  types of  i n measure 5 i s  three the  stream approached,  the  parts  the  second  divide 7  the  the  alto  which  an  final  to  of  a very  use  of  various  types  are  pieces  and  Fall  as  0  to  of  where  parallelism  i s the  i t i s Willan's characterizes  use so  upper  flexibility  Lord  per  exception  much  of  his  of  Of  and  both  of  appreaeh  Willan's  course  makes there  nature  in  L e t Us  Worship  (1924),  immensa rather  of parallelism  i t remains  of which  Six Motets Deo  measure  stream.  contrapuntal  the  At  In  voices  i n which  the music  0  the  where  proportion  Sweet,  Gloria  rest)  stream.  parallelism.  from  the motet  the  example,  the  typify  independence.  stream,  the  large  How  Down, b o t h  from  which  lower  of a consciously  fugue  but  the  here  period,  such  lower  d e s i g n and  middle  output,  a  of  of  after  and  tenor shift  evident  degree  (beginning  measure  subtlety  are  greater  upper  shifts  and  The  a  phrase  into alto  until the  assume  and  saecula  than  the  in creative  music.  Willan's  the (1950) norm,  ways  77  III  There music the  are  which  use  of  Personal  f o u r main  act  as  fingerprints  episodes  based  use  characteristic  of  ning  a  of  a  closing ing  "Amen"  at  Consecutive  in  a wide  One  the  chords  the  Example  3.1  ^  9  of  of  2)  use  at 4)  on  the  chant  melody  of  Gregorian  hymns.  the the  1) of  scales,  ascent and  the  section,  consecutive minor to  from  each  3)  the  beginuse  used  of  in  and  and  Fugue  chords,  other,  a l l stages  occurrences  Prelude  Prelude  J-  composer:  of  music  earliest  i s i n the  the  chromatic  initial  relationship  range  of  in Willan's  sing-  of  Fugue  is  of  evident  his  consecutive i n c minor  i n c minor,  usually  mm.  career, minor  (1908).  5-8.  ^  f  a  chords  use  chromatic  of  end  minor  Willan's a  based  traits  chords,  descending  composition  formula  in  personal  consecutive minor on  Elements  H| a  P p n »  .  *S  C o p y r i g h t 1909 b y N o v e l l o & C o . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f the E s t a t e o f  ft  Healey  Willan.  78  Example over  shows  descending  are produced  the upper  beat  a sequential  a chromatically  chords in  3.1  through  voice  descent  in parallel  Willan  effect minor  normally  quences  f o r dramatic  descent  they  evoke  Deirdre  chords  doom.  of  the opera,  just  after  unaccompanied.  This  ominous  lines:  opening  Blow low, Blow w i t h For i t i s I t i s you  Example  3.2  3 beat of a  tones  2, a n d m.  4  chromatic  chord-chains with  tragedy  3.2  ostinato  sets  In h i s  from theme  t h e mood  o f gloom and the opening i s played for.the  r e d wind from the e a s t , your tidings of e v i l , you has t h e t e r r o r o f v o i c e , has t h e s p l e n d o u r o f coming.  D e i r d r e , A c t I , "mm..;- 9-13 .  C o p y r i g h t 1972 b y B e r a n d o l Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  drama  p a t t e r n s o f minor  atmosphere  the opening  chromatic  period.  ostinato  i s taken  and s e -  and i n t e n s e  i n his later  he u s e s  Example  major  Coupled  to portray the pervading  impending of  (1943),  Although  i s that  minor  a sense  opera  bass.  2, m.  effect.  recurs particularly  chords  chords.  uses  which  of minor  the use o f escape  (m. 2 b e a t  2), the overall  passage  Music.  79  Example  3.3  i s taken  third  act.  I t i s a  again  built  on  succession  from  simple  but effective  a chromatic,  of minor  Example  ,  the beginning  rather  than  3.4  "It  i s the curse  the  tragic  3.3  diatonic,  Deirdre,  m  A c t I I I , mm.  1-3.  J£  shows  love-death  3.4  Music.  the o s t i n a t o of the f i n a l  o f t h e gods  Example  ostinato,  chords.  C o p y r i g h t 1972 b y B e r a n d o l R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example  of the  on Conochar",  which  chorus, follows  scene.  Deirdre,  A c t I I I , mm.  842-846  r 9i C o p y r i g h t 1972 b y B e r a n d o l Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Music.  80 Willan  used  compositions Urbs and  No.  based  Beata",  used  of  minor  in  the  the  (1951),  which  descending  bass  result  Example  3.5  dramatic  liturgy  3.5  forms  sequence  major  is a  thirds.  Hierusalem  of  "Urbs  of  comprises  i n a whole-tone  Urbs  beata  Hymn m e l o d y  Example  by  later  processional,  Hierusalem  a  in  i n the P a s s a c a g l i a  Office  highly  Festival.  i n the  and  Urbs  Sarum  i n the  dramatically  notably  (1959).  on  chords  patterns  beata  2  prelude  Dedication  chords  f o r organ,  Hierusalem Fugue  minor  a  the succession  two-chord  Passing  scale  tones  in that  beata,  mm.  voice.  58-59.  a  i  C o p y r i g h t 1951 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example caglia of  and  this  in  Fugue  the No.  technique,  tention major,  3.6,  memorable 2,  this  arousing device. a  deviation  earlier  chromatic  from  examples. descent  opening  provides time  as  Here the  of  another an  the  strict  the  instance  introductory, third use  of  chord minor  T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i s based  i n the  upper  Passa-  voice.  at-  is chords on  a  81 Example  3.6  Passacaqlia  and  Fugue  No.  2,  C o p y r i g h t 1959 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  A  final  chorale  example  of  prelude Christ  ficantly,  this  prelude  again  a dramatic  shows  a  minor  chords  small  progression  point  portion  technique  i s from  (1958).  i s based  hymn  i n the this  on  a  liturgy. piece,  i n a dramatic on  a  chromatic  mm.  1  Corp.  i s t erstanden  of  are used i s based  this  i n E minor,  the  Signi-  f o r Easter,  Example  throughout fashion. descent  3.7 which  Again  the  i n the  soprano.  Example  3.7  Chr i s t  Must g = (y  b  1  \  *F  #8  T  —1 1  »  i s t e r s t a n c en,  i  b„  1  J & J i* .# #  26-29 .  —ll44M  - ftMf — n t = — i (W  1  7#J*V'[f p- — \\>4 Vn.  — - . -  j  r  i— 4—|— —f  I  mni .  "—  C o p y r i g h t 1958 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Corp.  _  ^. -* —u  l  82 It matic  should  sequences  described  Episodes  death,  for  chorale  later  preludes  of  pieces  three  o f t h e tune  As  a means  episodic  material  on  descending  bass  Prelude  Epilogue of The a  chorale  passage  based  preparation  Generally texture from the  successive interludes.  v a r i e t y to the often began  t o base h i s  between  s c a l e s , which had used  (1908)  i n b minor  but their  prelude  commissions  by s h o r t  Willan  i n c minor  episodic material  1950 t o  on m o t i v e s  in his earliest  and Fugue  (1909),  from  presenting  Willan  lines  P r e l u d e .-.and F u g u e  scales  style.  based  harmonic  chromatic  chromatic  such  i n tune.  contrapuntal  (the material  sequences.  to sing  number o f  separates  tunes,  chromatic  the  voices  of bringing  chorale  because  chromatic  prelude  and one v o i c e  limiting  chro-  l e d him t o the development o f  independent  phrases  wrote  as t h e ones  difficult  are i n a four-part  tune,  such  creative period,  chorale  chorale  never  presumably  the extraordinary  characteristic  these  f o r voices,  on d e s c e n d i n g  Willan's  his  Willan  chords,  are extremely  based  In  that  of minor  above,  progressions  a  be n o t e d  of  descending pieces,  the  (see Example 3 . 1 ) , and t h e  use as  until  Nun p r e i s e t a l l e  f o r the presentation  phrases)  the basis  organ  particular  on a d e s c e n d i n g  form  (1909),  d i d not occur  chorale  much  (1950)  chromatic of the  foundations later.  includes  line  as a  chorale,phrase  83 which bass the  follows.  The d e s c e n t  i s harmonized texture  r  G to D-flat  a variety  3.8  *=  |  Nun p r e i s e t  Hrl * V *  r  motive-.in  alle,  r  *H—  1 1  t  *  f  »  w  n  bfcc:  \^\  1  3  +~  1  T-  . * w  —*-  4  f*\  *  1  time  arriving  a-.restatement  - i — a  a t the dominant  chords  imitative  *  1  Publishing  a similar  of the opening  i n a free,  chomatic  includes  w  descent,  i n preparation f o r  material.  with  J  — ^ — A —  House.  chromatic  counterpoint,  t o harmonize  —  i  C o p y r i g h t 1950 b y C o n c o r d i a Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  3.9  £  H- £ •  ;—-is—.  Example  \rm 4 — f —  J  -A  t  *4r  are  \=  1  —  ft.  ^r,  this  t-  ff-4-  1  t  it  >—  -tj  t-  >  *  *  .  i  •  •  — z  32-39.  f  —  —\r  =  eighth-notes.  f—}—  * — ->-  f—  f-t—  mm.  chords, and  1\ — * —  r ^ F —F  i n the  of chromatic  a c t i v a t e d by a r i s i n g  Example  * t  with  from  The upper again  the bass.  using  voices  11  84 Example  3.9  Festival,  mm.  30-35.  -V  C o p y r i g h t 1954 b y F r e d e r i c k R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  The two to the  chorale  instances f i l l  and  3.10b  occurs  sodes the  of chromatic  melody.  first  episode  Martyrdom motion  the i n t e r l u d e s between  chorale  (Between  prelude  second  phrases  between  the second of diatonic  are very  status  of  Example  secondary  to each  includes  occurs  o f the melody, and  serve  phrases  of  between  the  and  fourth  phrases  character.)  similar  (1957)  which c l e a r l y  3.10a  third  Music.  successive  the t h i r d and  Harris  ' s U  1  Example  phrases.  there  i s an  The  two  chromatic  other  and  so  thematic  material.  attain  epi-  85 Example  f  *-J-  <'  mm.  16-19.  *CJLT r r i  J — i — i — ) -  3.10b  Martyrdom,  nil  mm.  < « — i —  1  A  F  ^  Example  Martyrdom,  ^  r r r r= ^ 4  lit  ^  3.10a  J  K  i r  r  f  T» ^r  f  35-38.  f — F• r  f  f  f r —  -1—L—1  C o p y r i g h t 1957 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Willan's extended  by  uns  dem  is  Gott a  1958,  In  episodes,  the  of  of  chromatic  when  He-rren  chromatic  phrases.  ities  use  the  was  episode  Example  chromatic  motion  --  whole  chorale  written. between  3.11,  which  base  was  prelude  fully Nun  lasst  In  this  piece  each  pair  of  shows  lines  steps  Corp.  episodes  and  the  contain upward  n  M.— -  ,—  there  chorale  three irregularmotions  --  } r  11  86 Example 3.11  Nun  mm.  lasst  uns G o t t dem  26-29, 36-41, and  Herren,  52-57.  it  —  —  J»JJ ..J 7  «f  —  U  r  if  v  "r  t  I  J  nJ  API  f b # . — * —,» r r r t f »  K r  ^  Vf^f—  1  J  \i  | J  '  —  f  _r  » r * f ft _  I—L|  —1  1  J  1  tJ  a  1  ;— -  f t ^ — r  \\  ff  f  C o p y r i g h t 1958 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  V Corp.  11  —  »  ^  87 which  provide  which  can e a s i l y  repetitive treated the  the  result  free  motions.  The u p p e r  i n this  i n Baroque  episodes.  parts  accompanying  continuity  variety unity  The element  of design,  example,  of chromaticism  music.  into  Willan binds  with  the use of a continuous, free,  counterpoint  compositions a descending  Bristol  The Willan's  which  and chromaticism  i n the remaining  Melody  Initial  phrases. the harmonic balance  of  which  compos-  interest i n of diatonicism  i n the episodes  but motivically  related  voices. make  chromatic  (1957),  i n t r o d u c e s an  t h e two e l e m e n t s  by  Church  as i s found i n  i n maintaining  t h e c h o r a l e melody  preludes  arei n  a non-modulating  in  on  they  the chorale  of a style  functions vitally  based  as i s u s u a l l y  Rather,  coupled  a r e never  diversity.  development  Other  technique  voices  of the episodes,creates a fine  and  ition  of a  i n f o r m a l i z e d p a t t e r n s and  c o u n t e r p o i n t o f t h e same s t y l e  This  the  chord  i n the context  sequentially  case  free  variety  use o f  line  Tunbridge  sequences.  are the chorale  (1958),  and A  Rouen  (1958).  ascent initial  ascent  compositions  which  bears  i s found  i n many o f  an i n t e r e s t i n g  resemblance  88 to  Schenker's  may  be  triad  Anstieg.1  described at  the  asi'an  beginning  through  the  use  tone  of  the  Urlinie.  also  based  filled  on  of  arrival  by  step.  The  as  Willan  used  of  the  as  Schenker  The drawn  represents  had  soprano  of  in  the  in  the  their  to  rise  examples of  the  on  up  to  tonic  3  and  from  ascents  contain and  two  a  the  structures  such the  are  tonic.  Each  piece  or  initial  through  immediately and  3.14  chorale ever  example  section. ascent  in  fourth  --  4  and  5 before  leaping  In  very  similar  each  case  i n t e r v a l s -create  a  the  seconds,  sense  H e i n r i c h S c h e n k e r , F r e e C o m p o s i t i o n (Der S a t z ) t r a n s l a t e d a n d e d i t e d b y E r n s t O s t e r (New L o n g m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 45 f f . 1  music.  descending.  preludes.  which  the  A  illustrate  widening  ascent  of  pieces.  an  descent,  surface  Willan's  rises  and  3.13  ascents  third,  a  initial  on  A  begins  a  the  by  point  ascent  includes  sometimes  highest  initial  a  are  triad,  of  of  out first  i t s \ u s u a l i l o c a t i o n .in Wi1lan's  It  Examples  the  i t s avoidance  A  the  tonic  ascents  directly of  ascent  filled  on  tonic  deeper  the  beginning  voice,  often  i t s appearance  than  the  initial  followed  and  3.12  of  ending  but  i n mind,  several  Example  steps,  steps,  i t are  following  from  piece,  i n d i v i d u a l aspects  rather  tone  a  Willan's  i s normally  music  of  scale  scale  initial  arpeggiation  arpeggiation  in with  leading  of  Schenker's  of  Freie York:  usually  89  Example  3.12  Intermezzo,  1 3 / g / %  1/  f  —  f  t  —  mm.  1-2  L  .  *t c -  <f  C o p y r i g h t 1959 b y BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l  E x a m p l e : 3.13  Quern  pastores,  Music.  mm.  1-2  1 ^ 4  y  *^  f  L  3  ^  =  1  1  11  C o p y r i g h t 1950 b y C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  building  intensity  i n the  phrase.  most  effective  Among W i l l a n ' s ascent Motet 3.15  found  at  Rise  up,  my  shows  the  soprano  ascent and  i s that  i n the  rising  Love,  tenor,  to G-flat,  the my  of  beginning of Fair  One  a s c e n t t o F,  measure a  uses  2,  semitone  House.  an  the  initial Liturgical  (1929).  Example  followed  by  imitating above  the  the  a  second  soprano  soprano's  90 Example  »  3.14  Wareham,  y~  M  g f y* * ?3 * * ft  mm.  1-2.  — F—  -  f  —  i f—.  4 -  C o p y r i g h t 1957 b y C F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  ascent,  disregarding octave  beautifully "Rise  illustrates  u p , my  immediately energy  Love".  3.15  placement.  the opening  This  passage  words  o f the motet, i s followed  Each  of these  ascents  by a s t e p w i s e  descent,  a release of the  built:up i n the  Example  Corp.  Rise  Jh iH, b  • • , .  ascent.  u p , my  i  Love,  my  Fair  O n e , mm.'  1-2.  J P=^=< P  r  If  t  rr I  C o p y r i g h t 1929 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Two composer or the  final  examples  borrowing  unconsciously. same,  from  of i n i t i a l himself,  In each  and both  case  the motion  either  i s from  show t h e  consciously  the harmonization  a r e i n t h e same A  ascents,  ascent  key.  In  i s  these  A  3 t o 3, a n d a g a i n  the  leadi  91 tone  is  avoided,  Example  3.16  Scherzo,  mm.  37-38.  = t = e = * =  Tin  /  1  ir  —  '—1—1  7%  j  j  j  f  «f>f  -I  L  —  -  .  C o p y r i g h t 1959 b y BMI Canada. Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l  Example  3.17  Christ,  whose  Glory  fills  1..  some are:  form  ness  or  Christ  (1940), organ  p i e c e s which other, but hathia  S i n g we  (1961), (1966) .  include always  Garden  Triumphant  and  the  the  Skies,  mm.  ,j.  C o p y r i g h t 1950 b y C o n c o r d i a Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Other  Music.  an  Publishing  initial  i n the  (1940), Songs  hymn-anthem  House.  ascent  soprano  voice,  Sing A l l e l u i a  (1950), Lord  of  in  Matins  Forth for  a l l Hopeful-  1-2  / "Amen"  closing  Through music,  dramatic he  became w e l l  i n both  aware  the role  dramatic  and  sacred  of the theatrical  aspects of the liturgy.  describes  ing  formula  his activities  Willan  92  In a short  of liturgical  music  and  pamphlet  i n the follow-  words:  The o r g a n i s t , upon whose s h o u l d e r s l i e s t h e m a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f performance, should r e a l i z e that the music o f the s e r v i c e i s i n r e a l i t y the i n c i d e n t a l m u s i c o f a g r e a t drama, a n d t h a t i t s h o u l d i n no way o b s c u r e t h e i n t e n t i o n o r i m p e d e t h e m o v e m e n t . 2  The  "Amen"  which to and  and " G l o r i a  articulate  him the idea choral  musical  literature  different  melody  While the  motion  of  composing  Fantasie  upon  embodies  A  way.  t h e same there  from  tune,  i s a  i n each  of the  t h e hymn A d form  of the  A  1,2,1,7,1.  :his f i r s t  published  the plainchant  (Tournai,  organ  piece,  "Ad Coenam A g n i " ,  H e a l e y W i l l a n "What's w r o n g Canada" C a p a n d Gown ( 1 9 5 9 ) . 2  -^Liber U s u a l i s , 1961) , p . 813 .  organ  i n Gregorian  the invariable A  suggested  f o r both  Patri"  3 . 1 8 , t h e "Amen"  A  have  i n a complementary  i s unique  f o r the "Gloria  A  "Amen"—a  must  (In contrast,  Dapes,3 s h o w s  formulas  a c t to punctuate the  i t always  i s used.  Example Agni  would  of the liturgy  because mode  Regias  which  o f t h e "Amen"  whichever  modes.)  office  of developing a formula  music  music  concluding  a liturgical  ^portions  The  Patri"  with  Belgium:  (1906),  church music i n  Desclee  & Co.,  or  possibly  of  using  off  while  this  i m p r o v i s i n g , W i l l a n h i t upon  melodic  a composition.  Example  3.18  formula  a s a way  I t i s a most  "Amen"from  of  the idea  rounding  effective  t h e hymn A d R e g i a s  formula,  Agni  Dapes.  * * *  both  i n i t s relationship  purely gives its  musical  an a s s u r a n c e  In coda  counterpart Example  after  "Amen"  the tonic i s appended  about  t h e "Amen" arrival,  the tonic  at the latter,  and l e a d i n g tones,  melody  i n much  to a plainchant  3.19 F a n t a s i e  "Ad  and f o r  upon  Coenam A g n i " ,  mm.  and,in  i t i s the  o f the harmonic motion  3.19  Example  The weaving  of arrival  use o f supertonic  melodic  an  reasons.  to the'liturgy,  I,IV,I,V,I.  i s used  as a  t h e same way  that  hymn.  the plainchant 86-89.  C o p y r i g h t 1906 b y N o v e l l o & C o . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e o f Healey  Willan.  The  first  appearance  Willan's  vocal  music  Six  Motets,  Very  significantly to  Magdalene's.  in  "Amen"  Good  voice.  which  i s n o t a coda  exhibits  rather quite  motive.  attained  Example  t o S t . Mary  note  the f i n a l  commonly  The bass  3.20 V e r y  Example  the over  an  associated  with  example t h e but the true  r e a c h e s .the t o n i c  o f t h e "Amen"  melody i s  Bread,  Good  Shepherd,CTend  time  choir  3.21 shows  actually  notes  sung  a setting  32-37  "Amen"  pedal,  contain  beneath.  giving  Corp.  o f t h e same  t o t h e word  o f the organ  sings  a tonic  U s , mm.  r r  C o p y r i g h t 1924 b y H.W.Gray C o . Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n o f Belwin M i l l s  highest  i s pre-  i n the soprano.  •11  this  melisma  the tonic,  In this  (1924) ,  compositions  the melisma  than  of the  Us  t h e "Amen"  o r an appendage,  of the composition. the last  Tend  liturgical  However,  became  use o f t h i s  when  Shepherd,  3.20, c o n t a i n i n g  motet,  formula i n  t o be i n t h e t h i r d  h i s appointment  on t h e dominant  Willan's  only  after  of this  occurrence  close  Bread,  Example  the soprano  sented  seems  one o f t h e f i r s t  be p u b l i s h e d  measures  o f t h e "Amen"  "Amen".  Here t h e  the formula, while  The whole  a sense  melisma,  that  takes  this  i s a  place  codetta. Example  3.21 0 L o r d ,  Copyright Reproduced  Example  1953 b y N o v e l l o by p e r m i s s i o n  O u r G o v e r n o u r . mm.  & Co. o f t h eEstate  -  ^f  i— i j  Jp%  i  j  r  r  1  1  ,y*-»J J o *-p  succession  Willan.  i n .the s o p r a n o ,  o f chords.  r  j  J  r  r  9  n  1  ?  r  = t = —  1  J s  — 21  f  iT'l r  The  €>•  1—~—^"—f  ft* - • / l  o f Healey  3.22 shows an "Amen" f o r m u l a  h a r m o n i z e d b y an i n t e r e s t i n g  [ifo  4 4-49.  r  I  -  —O '  '  » J i —0^  <J-  a -  p  —o-  f r» '  r—  C o p y r i g h t 1958 b y C . F . P e t e r s Reproduced by permission.  > Corp.  ir-  supertonic VII, by  and  IV,  i s harmonized  the f o l l o w i n g ,  rather  than I  Example 3.23  This  the s u c c e s s i o n I I ,  medial  i s similar  elements. a VII  triad  triad  i n the  Example  lower  t h e use o f a p e n u l t i m a t e  voices  and  Chfistus  subdominant  a IV  natus  j "  i  of David  e s t , mm.  Inc.  f r o m a l a t e m o t e t , Hosanna t o  (1951),  i s interesting  because  the c h r o m a t i c form A  sharp-7, both  A  flat-2,  A  1,  A  l--giving  the m e l o d i c  r  a  line  o f b o t h d o m i n a n t and in  o f the m e l i s m a — 1 /  the  o f i t s use  A  of  6 2-64.  f  C o p y r i g h t 1935 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Son  six-four  r f l - f h . r  4  Example 3.24,  recurrent  voices.  Hodie,  h i  tonic  case the penultimate chord c o n t a i n s  i n the upper  3.23  i n that  over a  a frequently  o f b o t h d o m i n a n t and  In t h i s  harmonized  the dominant p i t c h ,  example e x h i b i t s  comprised  is  t o Example 3.21  phenomenon i n W i l l a n ' s m u s i c : chord  tonic  flat-  six-four.  t h e m e l i s m a o c c u r s on pedal.  by  s o r t , of Neapolitan flavour  to  and  use  t h e harmony.  Again  subdominant elements  the p e n u l t i m a t e c h o r d .  the  i s evident  97 Example 3.2 4 Hosanna t o t h e Son  C o p y r i g h t 1952 b y C o n c o r d i a R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example 3.25,  from  shows t h a t W i l l a n  formula  into  apart  from  its liturgical  Example 3.25  On  diatonic  "Amen"  because  implication.  May  Morning  i n t r o d u c e d the  presumably  of  Here  he finality  the  setting.  Morning,  mm.  3 9-45  f r ff t U J  C o p y r i g h t 1950 b y BMI Canada. Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l  6 2-68  House.  May  inherent implication  m e l i s m a i s i n an e n t i r e l y  '0  also  s e c u l a r music,  the formula's  Publishing  t h e p a r t - s o n g On  (1950),  sensed  o f D a v i d , mm.  Music.  98 The formula and by  final i s from  Chorale  tone,  of  Willan  the primary  C-sharp, It  because  phonic  3.26.  weakened  four-three combines motive  D-sharp,  i s fitting  coda  the Andante,  the last  appoggiatura.  piece  3.2 6 A n d a n t e ,  Christe,  pieces  .Aeterna  Redemptor  omnium  raised  and by t h e this  statements  composition-^  the. l o w e r  voices. •  concludes  with  movement i s a c h o r a l e ,  an  "Amen"  a homo-  o f a hymn.  Fugue  Some o t h e r p i e c e s w h i c h organ  of a  In  t h e "Amen" w i t h  a n d C h o r a l e , mm.  C o p y r i g h t 1965 b y C . F . P e t e r s Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  the  i n the last  The dominant i s  o f t h e whole  this  Fugue  i s harmonized  o n a weak b e a t ,  G-sharp--in  that  closing  by t h e absence  movement r e m e n i s c e n t  Example  work,  the melisma  by placement  of a tonic  example  Here  o f Example  characteristically  use  organ  IV t o I p r o g r e s s i o n , seen  measures  leading  o f W i l l a n ' s "Amen"  a late  (1965).  a primary  three  example  include  102-106.  Corp.  "Amen"  Christi  munera  (1951),  both  closes are:  (1951) a n d  based  on  plainchant  99 . hymn Day  tunes,  and  (19 3 7) ,  of  Rejoicing  Up  Your  Blessed  Sing  anthems  We  (1953),  Heads, Light  the  Ye  Triumphant Isaiah,  Mighty  (19 6 1 ) .  B e f o r e .the E n d i n g Songs  Mighty  Gates  (1950) , A  Seer  (1950),  of  (1954),  and  0  the Prayer Lift  Trinity  of  100 IV  The cate  illustrations  that  Willan's  o f harmonic  However,  there  harmonic  s t y l e which  of  signal  "sound", prised  which  among  these,  of that  of his  and  therefore  to h i s p a r t i c u l a r  dynamic  i n traditional  the tonic.  produces  relying  gives  and m y s t i c a l  on t h e o p p o s i t i o n achieves  voices,  motion  force  melodic  leading component  Willan  degree,  of a parallel  degree  in a falling  force  rather  3)  than  a  functions,  d i r e c t i o n of the design.  1) a v o i d i n g in parallel  the  i s avoided the seventh contexts,  i n the o v e r a l l  resolving a rising  f l a t t e n i n g , the leading  certain  of  and t o n i c  to the tonic,  tone  dynamic  motions of  music  i s supressed  stream,  i s directed  conventionally  ways:  the leading  motion  artificially  and formal  tone  Instead  melodic  com-  of this  harmonic  o f dominant  of the drive  i t s dynamic  lack  Willan's  function,  i n the following  2) u s i n g  which  tone  music  quality.  through  phrase, s t r u c t u r e ,  The  The  the central  p r a c t i c e " music,  impressionistic  in  aspects  a f f e c t the music's  i n contributing  whose-action  or implies,  "common  by  leading.  o f i n t e r r e l a t e d u p p e r - f i f t h and l e a d i n g  toward,  Willan  Preeminent  indi-  i n traditional  and v o i c e  fundamental  tellingly  i s the supression  functions,  force,  progression  importance  chapters  i s f i r m l y based  are certain  qualities.  Functions  i n the preceding  music  concepts  tonal  Tonal  tone  the seventh manner, at  4)  crucial  101 points,  and  include  a  In  the  flattened  and  ing  the  voices.  tones  of  stream  to  D.  an  octave  Willan  a  to  Prime degree to  a  degrees. usually  2.41  rule  bass  some o f  "You  Example as  rise  three  leading only  one  motions  of motion.  independently  the  leading  i t s dynamic  can  lead-  force.  leading  break  tone  the  tone rules  1  3.15,  of  and  3.16,  occurs course,  follow  l-Drynan,  in  descending  d o u b l i n g the  dictum:  leading  effect".- -)  tonic  Of  in a  does  In  the  C-sharp  tenor doubles  about  of  in parallel  bass,  of  the  function  are, with  the  avoidance  in Willan's i n i t i a l  skip  stream.  motion  the  of  degree.  i s subsumed  their  overall  removing  examples  the  the  seventh  independence  realize  i n the  naturally  various types  a/parallel  i n the  h i s own  occur  Examples which  the  special  of  the  here  higher,  according  seen  incorporated  C-sharp  breaks  raised  a  three voices  or,  However,  than  the  Example  lower  again  final  rise  In  the  exception,  of  which  i t s strength,  never  because  lower  for  motion  scales  have  consequently  tones  (The  we  i n which  C-sharps  larger  rather  Two  motion  overriding  2.39  a  u s i n g modal  Chapter  parallel tone,  5)  these  p.  6.  invariably and  3.17  between i n the initial  of  seventh  a s c e n t s , which omit  the  include  the  the  and  descending ascents  leading  upward  sixth  tone.  motions  eighth  passages  the  often  leading  in  scale which tone  is  102 often  included  vector in  function.  ascent.but  Examples One of  because  the  makes  which  a n d 2.54  i n which scale  Willan degree  only  use o f t h i s  mm.  music.  pattern.) importance  omitting  f o r quite  tone  i t a l -  voices,  notes.  leaving  He  extensive  often sections  1-6.  —'—-*-ri?  tyji^  * l i r^ t i f  i  1**" \ f r 7=f^'\Qf » * f—  :  m  the  melody  Nicaea,  Willan's  this  i n the lower  approach  4.1  follow  i t s rising  the leading  pervade  reduces  six diatonic  Example  skip  without  i s to use i t only  soprano  not express  use i t i n descent  the seventh  together  (Motives  2.1-8, 2 . 3 2 , way  i t does  -  r-**T  —. n  r—a  == F ffitf If ""^ 1  Copyright 1960 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by permission.  Corp.  is :  103 of  music.  the  Example  A  4.1 i n c l u d e s no i n s t a n c e o f 7 i n  upper v o i c e u n t i l  merely  t h e l a s t m e a s u r e , where i t a c t s  as an u n a c c e n t e d n e i g h b o u r .  The l o w e r  voices  A  i n c l u d e n i n e i n s t a n c e s o f 7, none o f w h i c h upwards, and none o f w h i c h A  function. is  The m o t i o n  absent.  Tonality  use o f t h e d i a t o n i c of  Example  4.2 a l s o  tone A  A  8 - 7 i s common h e r e , b u t 7 - 8  collection  pitches.  and t h r o u g h  illustrates  tone f u n c t i o n .  a characteristic  expresses the leading A  i s maintained p r i m a r i l y  important  leading  resolves  through  repetition  avoidance of the  Here a g a i n , t h e s o p r a n o has  initial  a s c e n t and c o n t a i n s no l e a d i n g A  tones. but  E a c h o f t h e l o w e r v o i c e s has i n s t a n c e s  a l l o f t h e s e p r o g r e s s by d e s c e n t . Example 4.2 I W i l l L a y Me Down i n P e a c e ,  o f 7, mm.  1-5  rrtr f t  r  ill  ft  C o p y r i g h t 1950 b y C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Using of  avoiding  the n a t u r a l minor the r a i s e d  scale  leading  House.  i s an o b v i o u s way  tone.  Example  4.3 shows A  Willan's the only  u s e o f ..this s c a l e .  soprano  i s a raised  as a l o c a l  Indeed,  leading  arpeggiation  the f i r s t  7in  tone, b u t here i t acts  o f E.  The f o l l o w i n g C ' s ,  104 which  a r e o f more s i g n i f i c a n c e  phrase, end in  of the phrase, both  line, ing  are natural.  In the motion  Willan  the descending  deviating  form  from  > i  uses  minor  4.3  1  9> $  using  well  astical  modes  to a  based  preludes  Ave M a r i s  (1950),  Brevis  No.  service modal to  style.  the nature  figure.  4  1  i  i  the leading  limited  pi  J  i  )  Stella  and I s t e  Example  —w  o f mode  (1950),  Confessor Wynde  The l e a d i n g  Will  function  by  makes u s e o f t h e e c c l e s i -  degree,  2.44  o f Healey  tone  and o n l y  on G r e g o r i a n m e l o d i e s ,  7, 0 W e s t r o n  music.  bass  1-4.  , ,1  mode, W i l l a n  actually  Omnium  scale  /  by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e E s t a t e  as a v o i d i n g  the minor  minor  1909 b y N o v e l l o & C o .  Reproduced  As  n  • J  Copyright  i n a rising  t i l * U f  1—I-  1  D a t the  and the r i s i n g  E p i l o g u e , mm.  j  ? 1  -}-hb  line  of the  the c o n v e n t i o n a l use o f the ascend-  9  y,» f  towards  the natural  soprano  o f .the m e l o d i c  Example  to the structure  such  Christe, (1958),  (193 6 ) ,  i n pieces as t h e c h o r a l e Redemptor  the Missa  and t h e modal  i s representative  tone  function  I , so the motion  of Willan's  i s absent A  A  due  7 - 8 i s freely  105  used  here  without  Example flattened Here  i t s normal  4.4  demonstrates  seventh  degree  the soprano  scale-conforming  has A - f l a t A-natural  of this  the  alterations  texture  ascent and r a i s i n g  to  the melodic raised  Example  when when  minor  with  a s much  Very  i t on d e s c e n t  Bread,  Good  the  major  modal use  scale  used  often  principle  termed  f a supra  note  t o t h e modal  degrees.  molle  seventh  This  hexachord  as an a u x i l i a r y  seems  scale  based pitch  the seventh  scale  Tend  Mills  tone  to hark  la.  This  degree  hexachord  seventh  of  degrees  on descent.  of the leading  Willan  continuity  i n which  Shepherd,  mode,  of a flattened  melody  the  h i s avoidance  t o accomodate  i s antithetical  C o p y r i g h t 1924 b y H.W.Gray C o . Reproduced by permission o f Belwin  In  Willan's  of flattening  construct,  tonality.  a s c e n d i n g and t h e descending.  on a s c e n t and lowered  4.4  use o f the  i s designed  The i d e a  on  are  Willan's  passage  as p o s s i b l e .  implication.  i n the c o n t e x t o f major  harmonization chromatic  harmonic  degree  U s , mm.  Corp.  function i n back  to the  involves the  as an  additional  of the f i r s t s i x i s borrowed  on t h e subdominant, i n the natural  6-8.  from  and i s  hexachord.  106 It  i s of  is  borrowed  as  i t does  of  the  the  signal from  importance  dominant,  principle from  latter  as 4.5  of  the  simple  I  aspect  of  subdominant  of will  A,  the  flattened  hexachord,  patterns to  relating  his heightening  and  seen  following  la. to  Willan  seventh  subdominant i n the  Here  the  melodic  seventh, -  be  the  weakening  shows W i l l a n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n  tonic,  - V  the  fa supra  forming  flattened  modal  the  that  Willan's melodic  Example  is  importance  the  range  seventh,  apex.  the  I progresssion, thereby  conventional tonality  with  the  using  melody  with  combining of  the  the  melody  one  2  the  G-natural,  While  harmonizes  pages.  of  of  of  an  a  an earlier,  approach.  Example  4.5  Finale  Jubilante,  >  L:jfJ>» f 1M M / »t u  liP^  mm.  I  *P  r  1\  1  'VtfjT *•—=-  4^^-  -6-  C o p y r i g h t 19 59 b y BMI Canada. R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e r a n d o l  a  1-2.  -j I, J  | _  ^£-  Music.  ^For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of f a supra l a , the reader is referred to : A l l a i r e , G a s t o n G., T h e T h e o r y o f H e x a c h o r d s , S o l m i z a t i o n , and t h e M o d a l System, (American I n s t i t u t e o f M u s i c o l o g y , M u s i c o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s and Docum e n t s , No. 24, 197 2.)  107 Example supra-ia. to  the  is  again  4.6  Here  seventh  instead  a  again the  I  a major  Example  pu  soprano  degree,  simple  of  -  from  leading "Horn  ascends  which V  -  a p p l i c a t i o n of  is  I  from  the  flattened.,  progression,  fa-  tonic The  with  harmony  a  minor  4.6  Nun  preiset Alle,  mm.  1-4.  > i.  the  the  the  dominant.  Copyright 1951 R e p r o d u c e d by  In  shows  by C o n c o r d i a permission.  orchestral  Coronation tone  by  Call",  Suite  another  shows  semi-diatonic  piece  an  Interlude  (1953),  upper  fifths  are  perfect  the  third,  i s major  degree  involved.  forces  the  The  seventh  the " i m p l i c a t i o n s  or  of  while minor, use  of  degree a  the  Festival,  lowers  the  parallel  outer  in  a  interval,  flattened,  t r i t o n e i n the  the  triads:  imperfect on  the  4.7,  position  strict be  a  harmonized  depending  to  for  Example  melody root  House,  Willan  technique.  p a r a l l e l i s m of  the  Publishing  scale fifths avoiding  voices  and  the  108  l e a d i n g  tone  f u n c t i o n  Example  4.7  the  I n t e r l u d e  C.  f o r  Copyright  I n W i l l a n  a d d i t i o n has  dominant chords  a  1964  on  by  to  by  BMI  a v o i d i n g  the  i n  chordal  music,  i n  has  h i s  side  produced  presents  f i v e  each  up  of  a  the  degree  i n d i c a t i n g  each  ( t o n i c ,  chord  the  t o n e . f u n c t i o n ,  avoid  of  the  f a v o u r i n g  harmonic  the  t r i a d .  M a r w i c k ' s  de-emphasis  of  analysed, and  sacred  evidence  dominant  from  numbers  spectrum.  on W i l l a n ' s  s t a t i s t i c a l  of  s u p e r t o n i c ,  the  the  work  dominant.  r e s u l t s  are  percentages  mediant,  e t c . )  of  found  c o m p o s i t i o n .  The  f i v e  i n d i c a t e  which  the  analyses  compositions  t a b u l a t e d ,  of  some  Figure  p o i n t  to  d i s s e r t a t i o n  avoidance  4.1  l e a d i n g  tendency  W i l l a n ' s  to  48-49.  Music.  p r o g r e s s i o n s ,  subdominant  Marwick,  of Berandol  the  concerning  i n  mm.  Canada.  permission  complementary  t r i a d  W i l l i a m  For  F e s t i v a l ,  11  Reproduced  which  a  K''!- fTljLJTlili r q i U  :  c h o r a l  of  examples  the  low  c h a r a c t e r i z e s  may  f i n d  the  dominant  t h e l e s s ,  numerous  the  of  F i g u r e  p r o p o r t i o n W i l l a n ' s  marked  i s  very  absence  of  have  i n  been  dominant  s t y l e .  compositions  t r i a d  4.1  To  h i s  much  i n  of  t h i s  be  chords sure,  oeuvre  evidence. t r i a d ,  s e l e c t e d  one  where Nevere s p e c i a l l y  109  a t  c r u c i a l  i s  a  a r t i c u l a t i v e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  p o i n t s  i n  so  p a r t i c u l a r  to  W i l l a n ' s  Figure  A n a l y s i s  of  Selected  Chord  Number  of  Occurrences  Missa  B r e v i s  I  No.  of  h i s  Compositions  s t y l e .  10,  of  Healey  of  Occurrences  "Sanctus"  (1948). 37 . 5  I I  4  5.5  I I I  4  5.5  IV  7  9.8  V  2  2.8  VI  14  19.4  V I I  14  19 . 4  Very  Bread,  Good  Shepherd,  Tend  Us  (  I  53  I I  10  I I I  19  11.7  IV  26  16.0  V  17  10 . 4  VI  14  8.6  V I I  24  14 . 7  3  t o t a l here, t r i a d s i s r e f Music  M a r w i c k , numbers r a t h e r t , sevent e r r e d to of Heale  W i l l a n .  Percentage  27  2)  works,  4.1  Chordal  1)  many  32.5 6 . 1  pp. 65, 7 1 , 75, 78, and 89. (Only of occurrences of each chord are i n c han complete breakdowns of each i n t o hs, n i n t h s , and a l t e r e d chords. The M a r w i c k ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , The Sacred y W i l l a n , f o r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t  the l u d e d reader Choral i o n .  110  Figure Chord  Number  3)  4.1  --  Continued  of Occurrences  Behold>  the Tabernacle  Percentage  o f God  of  (1933).  I  89  36.8  II  31  12.8  III  18  7.4  IV  51  21.1  V  22  9 .1  VI  26  10.7  5  2.1  VII  4)  The  Spirit  of  the Lord  (1951).  I  46  25.6  II  32  17.8  III  13  7.2  IV  31  17.2  V  22  12.2  VI  20  11.1  VII  16  8.9  5) I  Occurrences  M a g n i f i c a t and Nunc D i m i t t i s , Tone I I , Solemn, Verse S i x of the M a g n i f i c a t . 13  31.7  II  4  9.8  III  6  14.9  IV  9  21.9  V  2  4.9  VI  4  9.8  VII  3  7.3  Ill Interesting in  Figure  tonic  4.1  chords  classes  and subdominant  of chords  well  degree  though at  central  function:  harmonic  use (Of  course,  dominant which  dominant,  inflation this in  modal  be seen shows  cadence,  through  very  notably  style  seventh  than  a  entirely,  measure,  important  points,  retrogression  dominant  effective  chord.  use o f the  i n the dominant writing.) role,  pedals  Often the  i n place  of the  pages.  i n G minor  which  and i n v o l v e s a  o f the subdominant.  compensatory  The whole o f  a p r o l o n g a t i o n o f IV, b e g i n n i n g  where  VII - IV.  the following  he a v o i d s t h e  i n the following  a cadence  i s i n effect  the second  chords,  i t throughzthe  a major  an i m p o r t a n t  of the role  example  i t from  i n h i s fugal  i s given  the dominant  lowered  i n which  and weakens  r a t h e r than  4.8  evenrproportiohal  and submediant  and through  W i l l a n c a n make  Example avoids  o f t h e ways  cadences,  as w i l l  remaining  of chordal proportions i s arriving  and o f t e n does,  subdominant  a fairly  of Willan's  he a b s e n t s  a r e s o common  The  represented.  elision,  o f a minor,  contained  proportions of  on t h e n o r m a l l y  to a study  listing  important  chords.  t o have  built  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  dominant  large  Supertonic, mediant,  are a l l well  superficial at  seem  as chords  More  o f the information  are the r e l a t i v e l y  distribution. as  aspects  there  i s a  deceptive  The subdominant  i s prolonged  measures- i n a s c a l e w i s e  descent  112  followed finally the I  a whole-tone  arrives  example.  flat-II6  chord,  on  The  progression,  The  of  by  the tonic final  i n the bass,which  i n the f i f t h  measures  ornamented  contain  and t h e p r o g r e s s i o n after  measure.  measure o f a I - flat-II6  by a s u s p e n s i o n  s u b s t i t u t e s f o r a more  the t o n a l i t y  fourth  descent  serves  The d o m i n a n t  i n the. s o p r a n o ,  conventional  t o b r i n g back  the chromatic  -  passage  h a s no p l a c e  IV a  sense  i n the i n the  entire  passage.  Example  4.8  Urbs  Hierusalem  'nfi4-$£—i—i— -»-*f  j-t-i  1  f y $ j 1  1  H  i  f  'f  c  i\  t  beata,  5 5-60.  H-  1  m  >  £•--  4  >t  J  mm.  :  — 1 — } — h  * J  .9^  C o p y r i g h t 1951 b y O x f c>rd U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d b y p e r m i s s :.on.  ^ Press  —  C  M  i  —  u  113  Example function. third  through  scale  to this  first, In  The B minor  measure  seventh up  4.9a a g a i n  member  tonic  cadence  triad  a triad  degree.  third,  this  demonstrates  built  Example  chords  leading  a r e I V and I V 7 , o c c u r r i n g on t h e  r  of the third  pitch  and mediant  4.9a 0 K i n g ,  r  i n the  on t h e n a t u r a l  The i m p o r t a n t  the dominant  of the tonic  lack o f dominant  i s approached  and f i f t h i q u a r t e r s  passage  a  occurs  only  as a  chords.  a l l G l o r i o u s " , mm.  ii  frU  measure.  30-34  f  •a  f fr f C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  The  final  measures  because  the motion  expect,  b u t on a subdominant  on  E.  Example  composition, only not  b y way  have  expected in  ending  this  t o have case.  an a l t e r n a t e  with  revision.  "common done,  are interesting  triad, closing the piece  on t h e t o n i c .  o f comparison  been  example  n o t on t h e t o n i c , a s one m i g h t  4.9b s h o w s  as a s u g g e s t e d  would  ends  of this  Press.  This  Willan's  ending  i s put forth ending,  I t shows what  practice"--what and what  to the  he  he e l e c t e d  and  f o rWillan might  be  n o t t o do  114 Example S ^ T T — 1  feat,  —o -o  4.10  imaginatively  shows a n o t h e r way  avoids  point  IV7,sharp-3  -•I,  c a d e n c e may  involving cadence major,  i n which  i n h i s music.  This  i n C-sharp minor,  be  seen e i t h e r  h a v i n g B major,  involves  o r as a  the dominant  jmv  Andante,  cadence  deceptive  of the The  an u n u s u a l subdominant.  as a p l a g a l  as i t s e x p e c t e d r e s o l u t i o n .  4.10  cadence, I -  s e v e n t h - c h o r d on t h e  chromatic a l t e r a t i o n ,  Example  Willan  t h e dominant a t an i m p o r t a n t  use o f the major-minor This  i  1  J  Example  structural  4.9b.  relative  cadence  combines  39T42.  Fugue and C h o r a l e , mm.  f  .0-  it'  m  it  c > 3  =  C o p y r i g h t 1965 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  ™  Corp.  v  i  *V —  1  —  115  the  vertical  sonorities  o f an a u t h e n t i c  cadence (the  major-minor  seventh),  with  of  a plagal  cadence.  I t s u g g e s t s an a u t h e n t i c  by  i t ssound, Example  piece  but.it  avoids  o f the dominant.  be  naturally  chord  between With  the  of this  progressions effect  An  produced  a clear  authentic  here  i t s omission  example cadence  by i n s e r t i n g  o f the dominant on s t r o n g  i n the outer  voices  f o r i t s firm  expression  4.11  of the  Evensong,  mm.  the contradiction  by r e v e r s a l ,  could  a  dominant  function,  melodic 'cadential  tonality.  C o p y r i g h t 1961 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Retrogression,  of  chords of the  relies  Example  movement  function.  example  and c l e a r  cadence  of the organ  the p e n u l t i m a t e and f i n a l  example. music  cadence  (1961), p r o v i d e s  elision  progression  the dominant  4.11, t h e f i n a l  Evensong  very  the harmonic  54-57.  Corp.  o f normal  i s y e t a n o t h e r means  by  harmonic  which  Willan a  avoids  cadence  from  the  tonic  of  rising  and  F--a  to  use  F minor,  fifths — distinct  unique  from  aspect  A-flat  4.12,'  Brevis  2  No.  through  a  (6), E-flat,  material,  fifths.  Willan  cycles,  common p r a c t i c e  cycle  approach  (Elsewhere,  does  make e f f e c t i v e  but again, which  (1932),  B-flat,  to the conventional  descending  fifth  I n Example  i s approached  D-flat,  through  of descending  of Missa  contrast  i n episodic  deviation  function.  the "Sanctus"  triad,  a cadence  notably  the dominant  i t i shis  constitutes  the  of h i s style.  Example  4.12  "Sanctus",•Missa  i  i  J  [1?  '  -  - r rf  No.  2, m... 1 2 .  i  J-J  J  Brevis  J  r  C o p y r i g h t 1932 b y C a r l F i s c h e r , I n c . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  As ways,  well  Willan  structures strate to  is  often  t h e ways  avoid  avoids  i n which  prolongations  Spirit  the dominant  o f h i s music.  Example The  as a v o i d i n g  4.13,  organized  around  the dominant The  following  superficial  i n the  larger  examples  h i s compositions  demon-  are designed  o f the dominant.  the opening  of the Lord  in  (1951),  the tonic  section shows  o f the motet  a passage  and subdominant  which areas,  to the  the e x c l u s i o n of harmony  of  Example  the dominant.  this  4.13  Figure  4.2  outlines  example.  The  Spirit  of  the Lord,  mm.  1-11.  T ^  » »i r f i*/f  t=fr  J J  J  fa  t-j j j-n  f  * *  rr  f=-  =-» l / - r 'pr r r 1 * = ^ r r r i v  1  1  C o p y r i g h t 1951 b y C o n c o r d i a R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Figure Harmonic  Plan  o f The  1  Publishing  4 - —  House.  4.2  Spirit  of  the Lord,  mm.  1-11.  Measure: 1  2  3  4  IV  I  IV  5  6  10.  Chord: I  I  IV #  I  IV  I  V_  B a c k g r o u n d " Harmony: \  As  can  be  seen  from Example  figure,  the  structure of  this  Ill  VII  IV  I  IV  4.13  and  phrase i s I  the - IV  accompanying -  I,  with  118  no  apparent dominant  of  structure.  the  fugue  (In c o n t r a s t  which  uses  primary  harmonic  is the  the  traditional The  norms  as  a  summarizes  the  Figure  shows  Example  of  of  (  opening like  i n which  Willan  structural  passage,  a l l of  Fugue  motion  of  and  weakens  element.  the u n d e r l y i n g  as  0  m  0 m  IV  r -  *  1  X  Willan's a  the  Chorale  the  role  Example chorale,  harmonic  0_ *  > 0 -  '  j  *  0  and  _ ^ = \1 0 —  *  from  \0  —*—^w*— .  •  ^  a  =-i  N  0  V*  1  IV IV  (Coda)  I  IV#  VIT#  (V)  —  0 —  IV  0-  V l l i  ^  *—«  5  N6  the  ^  IV  IV  of  plan.  I  -0—0  (1965)  4.14  4.14 P a r t M o t i o n i n t h e " C h o r a l e " Andante, Fugue and C h o r a l e .  +WS  levels  writing.)  the Andante,  harmonic  ^  '  represented  thereby conforming to  fugal  . -\s  to this  framework,  another passage  4.3  the  tonic-dominant relationship  "Chorale"  dominant  of  concludes the piece,  fugues,  the  in either  V  VIIff  119  Figure  4.3  Harmonic P l a n o f the " C h o r a l e " from A n d a n t e , Fugue and C h o r a l e  the  Phrase: 1  2  3  4  5  (Coda)  Harmony: I  I  V IV VII # # Harmony:  Background  \  /  I  After phrase IV  of  IV.  rather  than  therefore, the it  return  the the  dominant  predominates coda  i s based  Three.  i s of  the main  mode o f  the  complished  through  a  I  i n which  the  following  E-natural  the  were  long  3.26.)  from  used  on IV  V# and  of  minor -  here,  to  subdominant  as  a  whole,  some w e i g h t ,  to  was  well  the  the The  noted as  coda  IV,sharp  fact  i s to  of  tonic. that  Chapter  shift  This  the  IV  raised.  the the  i s ac-  - V,natural  t o be  a harsh  final  in  but  because  introducing  to major.  chord  thence  structure  interest.  the A-sharp I  of  i s v i a the  approach  As  (end  structural role  "Amen" m o t i v e  progression, E of  the  primary  function  tonic  to  tonic  In  special  Example  "Amen",  cadence  the  I #  /  i s not without  the  i n the  on_the  (See  to  (V)  I  proceeds  dominant.  has  IV #  \  to a half  the music  subdominant  The it  IV  The  I  /  \  moving  two),  IV  -  I -sharp  chord  leads  ( I f an  cross-relation  would  120  result  between  A-sharp  chord,  V-natural,  i s of secondary  because  of i t s metric  because  i t lacks  only tonic  as a harmony  "Amen"  motive. King,  eighth of  level the  and stems.  motet,  of the piece.  voices,are Willan's  here.  F o r the time  be  focused  o n t h e Roman  is  expressed  minor  B-flat  being,  terms.  i n measure  Important  using  white reliance  attention  chapter, should  describe the  i s t h e subdominant, 23.  This  Specifically,  ex-  region B-flat  16 b y a n A - f l a t  (natural-VII,flat-7),  cadence  4.15b  be c l e a r t h a t t h e  16 t o m e a s u r e  i s t o n i c i z e d i n measure  seventh-chord the  i n modal  of  of the next  numerals, which  of modulation  measure  a sketch  characteristic  I t should  deep  and Example  notated  evident  from  at a  i n the Appendix.)  is  tending  example  (The e n t i r e  scheme, t h e s u b j e c t  region  (1931), t h e  region  linear  primary  of the  i s a prime  a clear  trajectory.  note  Do L i v e  on  harmonic  and  I t seems  4.15a g i v e s  i n this  i s reproduced  i n the outer  noteheads  Motets  Example  the motion  composition pitches  tone.  use o f the subdominant  activity  here  t h e subdominant and  T o Whom A l l T h i n g s  harmonic  penultimate  importance  f o r the B melody  of structure.  summarizes  leading  linking  of the L i t u r g i c a l  Willan's  The  l o c a t i o n o n a weak b e a t ,  a raised  t o be a b r i d g e ,  0  and E - n a t u r a l . )  minor-  and t h e approach t o  23 i s l o c a l l y  from  a  121 Example  m.  1  4.15a Harmonic M o t i o n i n 0 K i n g , A l l T h i n g s Do L i v e .  2  5  7  11  9  12  I  V  IV  I  bll  IV  VII  I<j  IV  BH  V§  I  j 29  26  23  I  7  I  IV 22  19  16  15  18  5 r  ( i a r p .. )) ^ ^ _ _  F-:  13  T o Whom  i  30  iv' VI  3^ v  Gfr: V I IV(Phrygian) 31 32 33 7  4 *  1  — —  ^  #  u  r-T  — F-: B>-: Gb:  VI I  VII  IV  b  J  '  .  *  4> * V  IVL I  V  l|  L  IV(Phrygian) 34  Coda  ?^\}-F-:  35 (7)  (1)  ,—v—-  f  1  IV  *  I  V  »l  I 1  '  '  -m  °  *  —  VII  *- . ^ —  IV  A V .  *  •  122  Example  4.15b  F-:  minor  from  In  guise. local role  I  IV (III) (Phrygian)  subdominant  sense, 19.  Summary o f H a r m o n i c M o t i o n i n 0 T o Whom A l l T h i n g s Do L i v e .  the  IV  Particularly  important  i n the  -  in  two  V  -  the  simple  these  I  -  work.  monic voice,  Urlinie  the  i n the  I  -IV-  opening  which  tonal  I  Phrygian  fact  that  almost  no  region.  Only The  and  a  19,  where  -  plain  coda,  close  bass, and  of  a  a  cadence closely  the  basic  and  i n the  the  primary  to  G-flat,  where  I,sharp-3  summarizes  the  measure  regions or,  i n the  arpeggiation  constitutes  of  passing tonality  i n the  range  i n evidence.  - V,sharp-3  4.15b  long  in a  play  18  (V) t)  harmony  here  relations  surprisingly  Example  motion,  more  subdominant  instance occurs  a  (VII)  i s the  closing  i s i n measures  IV,sharp-3  appended;  knit  or  such  I occurs  other  appears  relations  medial  places are  local  is  tonic  opening  noted,- i n t h e  of  in a  o t h e r words,  dominant  first  and,  I  natural-VII,flat-3  as  and  triad  IV kj  King,  harupper  descending  melodic  motion  of  123  the  piece. Example  of  God  piece of  (1933), i n which  Example  modulate  plishes  Willan  creatively  I l litself  inversion  subdominant. does  Willan  key.  Only move  Again,  directly  measures  features.  chord,  accom-  the basic  preceded  than  28 a s a  • b y i t s own  minor  mode  through  i t s minor  i s established  of the relative  t o I i n measure  dominants  47 i s made  b y way o f a  do o c c u r  12 a n d 3 6 ) , b u t t h e s e  The dominant  masks  i n measure  B-flat  III, rather  practice  but Willan  the latter  t o the major  through  seen i n  I I I i s approached  arrives  another  i nthe  I t i s common  way w h i c h  ,  after  of  avoids prolongations  major,  major,  the return  Important (see  minor  framework  of modulation,  i n an unusual  flat-3  the Tabernacle  i s reproduced  a r e IV and I I I .  flat-VH,  dominant.  piece  areas  The r e l a t i v e  and  first  (This  to the relative  this  design. IV  the harmonic  The main  4.16b,  o f Behold,  shows  the dominant.  Appendix.)  to  4.16, a n a n a l y s i s  i n this  piece  are local  i s not present  dominant.  cadential  i n the plagal  close. The this  Neapolitan  piece.  Willan  uses  measures A-flat,  7,  chord  plays  A s a way o f l i n k i n g  an i m p o r t a n t the various  role i n sections,  t h e N e a p o l i t a n as a m o t i v i c s o n o r i t y i n 18, a n d 57, a n d he u s e s  as a v e r y  important  melodic  the Neapolitan pitch  note,  i n both the  124 Example  4416a H a r m o n i c Tabernacle  Motion i n Behold, o f God.  the  125  ascent (ra.  to B - f l a t  57).  formed  by  the  Neapolitan note does  to  relative  and  secondary  the  the  melody  follow  of  Here  major,  again  descent  back  i n Example the  to  relative,  the  this by  aspect  the  G  4.16b  is  B-flat.  standard procedure  i s somewhat masked VII.  in  of  intervening  dominant  i s only  of  importance.:  Example  4.16b Summary o f H a r m o n i c M o t i o n B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God.  20  m.l  G-: I C-: B :  This  24  IV I  I  features  the  Willan  structure IV  of  and  apex  modulating  keys,  24),  The  While  the  (m.  |l  I  IV V IV  chapter of  | I  26  31  III6. * 16 N6  tone  and  lowered  melody  illustrates  dominant  notes,  V  37  47  III6  X  16  III  W i l l a n ' s harmonic  leading  36  such  the  style:  the  60  K  I  I  1  I  most  functions as  I  57  in  significant avoidance  i n favour  such  as  the  of  the  of fa-supra-  A  la  and  the  harmonies  Phrygian and  tonal  or Neapolitan f l a t - 2 , regions.  Chapter  Five  and  subdomiant  discusses  126 Willan's  characteristic  nique  based  which  acts  on at  a  contrapuntal-melodic  two-part  various  voice-leading  structural  levels.  tech-  framework  127  In use It  part  second  chapter of  shown  three This  structure  streams  a  music  levels  which  Example voices  surface, forming  2.2  in a the  a  inner  often  that  single the  to  role  structure  do  bass  to  erally  i n the  stream  inner  surface they  of  voices  belong  to  the  the  shows  sake  the  two-part  the  just  to  of  of motion  as  2.31  was  of  stream  Although parallel  do  move  the  discussed  style,  but  i t s two-part  underlying framework  of  soprano  on  the  level  motion.  in detail  in  terms  i t i s also  of  interest  structure.  structure  gen-  soprano.  independent  of  the  roles,  strict they  music.  which,  beneath  counterpoint.  soprano,  struc-  his  in  primary  a  used  motion.  instance  have  streams  counterpoint  surface  lies  somewhat  upper  i t s contrapuntal  for  a  are  two-  frequently  the music, but a t a s l i g h t l y deeper  Example of  same  the  a  opposing  two-part  represent  in relation  of  of, p a r a l l e l  simple  two-part not  of  the  discussed.  i t s application  which  and  structural  was  less  of  l i e beneath  motion  These  he  include  soprano  p r e s e n t work  made u s e  stream  provides a  voices  the  consisting  and  c h a p t e r expands  tural  the  or  Framework  of motion  Willan  motion,  Willan's  as  streams  that  surface  parallel  in  Two-Part  of p a r a l l e l was  of  the  V  of  the  and  Example  excerpt to  bass  voices,  2.31b be while  128  the  following  how  this  by,  a surface  basic  Example first  examples,  section  structure  framework  Willan's  music.  f i l l  simple  (This  and answered  Willan's  show and masked  voices.  demonstrates  so f r e q u e n t l y  excerpt  of the outer  the sort  of •  "Amen"  form-  mystic  b y another.- -)  The  1  of this  passage  voices.  examples  use of the two-part  Hosts  "Amen" b y o n e  in parallel  Further  of the  recurs i n  i s another  antiphonally  structural feature motion  measures  t o the Heavenly  t o t h e word  o u t t h e harmony  framing  excerpt  which  and i t i s sung  contrary  into,  the f i n a l  o f An A p o s t r o p h e  two-part  essential  i s developed  5.1 r e p r e s e n t s  This  choir  2.3 I f ,  texture.  (1921).  ula,  2.31c t h r o u g h  lines will  i sthe  The i n n e r  voices  appended  to the  illustrate  s t r u c t u r a l framework a t  - ' - E v i d e n t l y W i l l a n was f o n d o f u s i n g m y s t i c c h o i r s - s m a l l c h o r a l groups w i t h i n t h e main body o f a c h o i r -f o r echo e f f e c t s , o f t e n i n v o l v i n g t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e word " A l l e l u i a " . The m y s t i c c h o r u s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a n g e l i c c h o i r i s n o t W i l l a n ' s own i n v e n t i o n . • I t d a t e s b a c k a t l e a s t t o 1903, t h e y e a r i n w h i c h E l g a r ' s o r a t o r i o T h e A p o s t l e s was f i r s t p r o d u c e d a t t h e B i r mingham M u s i c F e s t i v a l . In this piece a mystic chorus o f h i g h v o i c e s i s used, i t s music s e t t o t h e word "Allel u i a " i n t h e same g e n e r a l s t y l e a s i s f o u n d i n W i l l a n ' s mystic choruses. I t seems more t h a n l i k e l y t h a t W i l l a n was f a m i l i a r with this composition, b o t h b e c a u s e he p r o o f r e a d f o rN o v e l l o , E l g a r ' s p u b l i s h i n g f i r m , and i n view o f h i s deep a d m i r a t i o n f o r Elgar's music. In a d d i t i o n t o An.Apostrophe t o the Heavenly Hosts, W i l l a n used a m y s t i c chorus i n I n t h e Heavenly Kingdom (1924), which t i t l e alone suggests the presence o f a n g e l i c c h o i r s ; S i n g We T r i u m p h a n t S o n g s ( 1 9 5 0 ) ; O S i n g U n t o t h e L o r d a New S o n g (19 5 6 ) ; a n d Y e S h a l l Know t h a t t h e L o r d w i l l Come ( 1 9 6 7 ) .  deeper  levels  Example  5.1  of  An  music.  Apostrophe  -  yL^  his  i-  to  the  Heavenly  J J JJp» W  116-120.  <s  4  f  mm •  -X  (  mm.  -5  1  •r r r r W  Hosts,  :  4  1—I  LS  (yP  P  -ft —j-=  M  mm  mm  4  C o p y r i g h t 1952 b y F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Example late  Deo  cappella Example  5.2,  (1953), writing. 5.2  a  s e c t i o n of  is typical Here  Benedictus  the and  of  the  Jubilate  and Deo,  •  Music.  Benedictus  Willan's  soprano  r  and  Jubi-  four-part bass  are  s.tanza  C o p y r i g h t 1953 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  a gen-  3.  130 erally  i n contrary  voices  are i n oblique  other  examples  motion. filler  or are part  Example up  the prime  outer, the  they  The i n n e r  o f "the " o u t e r  Occasionally  motion,  but i n this  are never voices  i n similar  either  importance  given  voices.  voices  move  Here  the only  i n similar  overrides  the contrapuntal  outer  voices.  as  The i n n e r  motion  also  another  instance  first  from  where  move  points  t o t h e two a t which  i s i n measure  the  harmonic  opposition  of the  generally i n  voices,  although  are often  the Andante,  i n  paired,  o f the music.  Example  o f the "Chorale",  monody w h i c h  entirely  i n contrary  one e x c e p t i o n ,  and  chapter,  Chorale i s  use o f t h e soprano and  elements  examples,  Fugue  i n the previous  structural  previous  is  one  again  point  motion  and soprano  of Willan's  two p h r a s e s  improvisatory  voices  the outer  discussed  as p r i m a r y  construction  with  and b a s s .  "Chorale"  (1965),  bass  with  the tenor  are the alto The  parallel  harmonic  chapter  by W i l l a n  drive  example  provide  4.13 o f t h e p r e v i o u s  t o t h e cadence,  this  a s i n many or  o f a stream' of. m o t i o n  4, t h e a p p r o a c h  parallel  the outer  streams.  framing  outer  motion.  connects  the soprano motion.  the approach  i n the surface 5.3  shows t h e  as w e l l them.  and bass (In this  as t h e As i n t h e  are almost example  t o the second  there  chord  of  131 the  second c h o r a l e phrase, i n which  descend.)  Again the i n n e r v o i c e s p r o v i d e harmonic  s u p p o r t and move g e n e r a l l y , parallel  both outer voices  motion w i t h the  Example  5.3  but not s t r i c t l y ,  in  soprano.  Andante,  I?  Fugue and C h o r a l e , mm.  94-96.  lull #»  C o p y r i g h t 19 65 b y C . F . P e t e r s R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  Homophonic t e x t u r e s , discussed illustrate  thus f a r i n t h i s the fundamental  bass i n W i l l a n ' s music,  Corp.  s u c h as t h o s e i n t h e c h a p t e r , most opposition  b u t , as we  examples  directly  of soprano  shall  and  see, the  c o n c e p t o f a t w o - p a r t framework c o n t i n u e s t o be p e r -  132  tinent  i n the  Example from  Missa  the  the  roles  the  other  the  as  10  section  (1948),  given  remains  the  opposition  second  t o one  contrary, motion.  example,  his polyphonic  previous  are  in opposition  while in  than  primary  work  5.4,  of  B r e v i s No.  polyphonic the  realm  to  the  later  t e x t u r e becomes of  the  outer  the  examples.  "Sanctus"  one  again  parts  which  descending  or  both  measures  more  more  Here  outer  another,  the  of  i s somewhat  stationary,  In  music.  moving of  the  homophonic,  v o i c e s becomes more  appa-  rent .  Example  5.4  "Sanctus"  .  from  Missa  in t  —7  -Pf. -/  »f  B r e v i s No.  J  1  C o p y r i g h t 1948 b y H.W.Gray C o . R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f B e l w i n  One in  the  might  key  of  mm.  13-24.  n i  J4—i—f—  t * .  =F=M=  ^-  b  i  10,  note G,  the  that  this  dominant  passage key  of  Mills  is the  Corp.  essentially piece.  How-  J .  J  133  ever,  the  tonic, local  soprano  G,  to  the  dominant,  harmonic  B-flat,  of  the  G  to  the  final  In  D,  which  chord  a minor in this  removes  itself,  5.5,  from  above  i t , making  chord.  Other  interesting  some o f the  the  the  dominant  a V  - I  phrase  Festival,  mm.  the  introduction  stepwise bass  the opening  5.5  temporary  seventh  precluding  Example  the  excerpt are  and  cadence,  Example  ranges  flattened  features  of  melody  quality motion  cadence of  the  in  G.  organ  1-7.  —t— f r '  J  1  i  [  1  i  m 0 —  4  —  :  IS  :  '  , f  0  E  =i  mm  3:  C o p y r i g h t 1954 b y F r e d e r i c k Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  Harris  Music.  f  piece  Festival  rhythmic overlap  (1954),  independence instead  o f the outer  except  fora  middle  voices here  5 a n d 6,  as  third  framework  an the  outer  role to  of contrary  as v o i c e s  motion,  some m e a s u r e  between  the voices.  The  of the in  lower  kind  voices  f o r this  entire  measure,  t o some  degree  independent:  t h e measure others; relation  the soprano  then  while  of  to the continuing  forming  shows  between their  appended measure  of the  time i n  of the parts of  contrary  tension  form  a  parallel  the upper a t the  i s i n contrary  i t descends,  Example  find  streams  f o r the lack  a different  remains  again  f o r a short  substituting  Beautiful  two-part  motion  the dissonance  compensates  motion. .  Her,  In the third  proceed  but here  o f measures  o f the motet,  voices  motion,  stream  voices  and opposing  voices.  the  melodic  the use of a  of parallel  a l l the voices  As u s u a l  I Beheld  measures  phrases  maintained,  of organization.  The i n n e r  one o f t h e o u t e r  parallel  level  the f i n a l  voices.  mainly  example  in  illustrates  real  but the opposing  of independent  Motet,  a  Their  adding  as i n t h e a l t o  at a surface  presenting  instances.  o u t t h e harmony,  Liturgical  have  i s nevertheless  a semblance  (1928),  abundance  synchronous,  voices  and t h e r e ,  a Dove  5.6,  f i l l  voices  one a n o t h e r .  few s c a t t e r e d  to give  The  from  of being  motion  turns  the outer  beginning  motion  seventh  sixth-chords  voice,  to  dissonances  below;  finally  135  it  begins  lower in  t o move  stream.  the outer  measure The  A  i s also  5.6  "  of opposition  opposition  I Beheld  of outer  j  J  passage.  j  Two,  *  J  \\  as  final  example  )  the  fundamental  supported  by  of a highly  r r f r  procedure,  ^  2 9-35.  j  Press.  o f t h e same  chromatic  parallel  5.7  beata  (1951),  technique i n  texture.  of the outer  streams  framework  Example  Hierusalem  c o n t r a r y motion  loosely  mm.  /  o f the use o f a two-part  shows W i l l a n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n context  much  BE  the chorale p r e l u d e U r b s  the  a  as a Dove,  J  a surface organizational  from  p . 42.)  present  C o p y r i g h t 1928 b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Reproduced by p e r m i s s i o n .  A  (This  voices.  Her, B e a u t i f u l  J  to the  i s maintained  o f t h e example  0 ^. §—f—  ^  this  discussed i n Chapter  measures  ambiguous  Example  degree  i n c o n t r a r y motion  voices throughout  following  less  again  Here  again  voices i s  of inner  voices.  >j  Example  5.7  Urbs  —?  4= i  if  1  beata,  —1  L_  inner  (eighth-notes)  f—  ent of may  melodic.motion, textural note  rather  here  voices  which  again  give but  than the  have them  these  Four.)  tone  and  metrical a  use  are  dominant  of  Press.  subdivisions  semblance only  structural  e f f e c t as d i c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r leading  • f t  u  C o p y r i g h t 1951. b y O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n .  the  10-15.  rf*  m If  Sometimes  mm.  km  ,  i  Nf  Hierusalem  functions  local  independphenomena  significance.  minor  Three,  of  chords and  the  for  (One dramatic  absence  discussed in  of  Chapter  137  Two  final  avoidance two-part  of  analyses w i l l  the  dominant  framework  The  fifth  One  (1929)  and  the  Liturgical  from  later  and  mental  structural  avoidance  i n the  the  of  use  texture. are  In  Straight stream below  the  the  5.9  my  and  Love,  of  by  two  slurs  indicate  Example  middle  f o r Organ piece  Fair period,  (1959)  both are  my  Fair  two-part  funda-  are  as  the  repro-  two  and  essential  Example  one  t o n e s , by of  harmonies  inversions, are  a  as  i n measures  direct  mirror  by  4 and of  the  stream.  broken from  are  somewhat  streams  streams  voices  Willan  opposing  harmonic  prolongations,  neighbouring motions. the  the  f o r each  removal  of  5.8,  5.9  of  opposing  certain  the motion  structural  exemplifying  a basis  staffs, and  One,  through  lower-.voices  structure. my  present successive  examples  diagrams. of  Love,  (Both p i e c e s  framework  use  another,  duality  mirror  these  lines  the  my  dominant  r e t e n t i o n .of s t r u c t u r a l  to  material ations  up,  are marked  involving  the  unity.  and  two-part  shown by  Phrases  5.8  Rise  of  each  of  of musical  up,  Pieces  Willan's  h i s use  of Willan's  In  of  both  Appendix.)  Examples levels  Rise  Five  style.  framework  duced  Motet,  and  levels  i s representative  his  to  function  a t deeper  Intermezzo  exhibits  demonstrate  ties. one  noted  reduces  the  of prolongemphasises  the 5,  use  of  where  upper  the  voices.  138 Example  5.8  Voice-Leading  i n R i s e up,  my  L o v e , my  Fair  One.  139  t  f  the  by  following  Two  additional  are  the  from  one  two  in mirror  step while  1X6  IV7"  17  operate  29  Jt-  i  III  1X7  In  26  — . — — * V— * 0—  bv-n—*—*—*—*—»—#—*—  Bb-:  25  23  22  21  20  the  measures  inversion, lower  points  to  the  stream  two upper  streams stream  descends,  concerning texture  frequency with which stream  the  another,  the  inner  affording  also  again ascending by  step.  in this  piece  voices much  shift  variety  of  a ii  140  texture  within  the  and  use  an  a  the  of  refreshing  upper more  spans  fifths  Example the  four  formation the  but  (measures In absent  The  a  streams,  phrase,  express  Here  than  the  phrase  on  in  the  a  at  and  contracting.  the  10,  moving  from  the  surface,  again demonstrates  streams,  the  mirror-like  to measure  more  of  contrary  example,  expanding  continuing  the  dominant  structural  element.  directs  triad  the  117  as  a  (measures thought of  appears  both  recurring 2, of  11,  to  mirrorVI  as  this  s e r v e s as  a  23,  25,  In  a preparation  avoids  and  f o r the  traditional  the  chords  tonic.  in this  28).  f o r the  to  the  piece  (measures  articulative  substitute  piece.  to  harmony  of  conspicuously  motion  in prolongation  chord  21,  is  Willan  harmonic  important secondary  and  context  13.  duality  move For  stand i n a p l a g a l relationship  which  117  level.  opposing  tone,.and  117,  be  and  stream,  11-18).  as  most  upper  essential  generally  clearly  t h i s .piece  leading which  which  the  measures  of  12  framework,  sixths.  middleground  opposition  two-part  tenths rather  emphasises  following  the  i n measures  formation i s carried  the  like  of  second  mirror  and  of  formation f o r the  vertical  streams  in this  opening  In  5.9  opposing  motion  open  contrast,  stream usual  limitations  is 3-10),  importance  This  chord  dominant harmonic  dominant;  in  may the  practice in  this  141  piece  i t implies  Prolongations dominant the  a  of  dominant  117  take  prolongations,  piece,  indicated  measures by  Interior  cadences  as  than  lation  to, or  tonicization  work.  The  music  does  The  ing in  which  ternary first  follow  strong  by  - V  simple  section of  the  piece  the  voices surface  surface  is a  streams  of motion,  be  to  Example  of  the music.  at deeper  5.10  the  ideas The  that at  concern' work  of  levels  two the  surface  is  i s of  i s , of the in  outset contrary  Although  i n i t s e n t i r e t y , of  shows  refined  discussion  noted  This  paradigm.  the  only,  texture  the  t o n a l , but i t s  are overwhelmingly  contrapuntal  consist,  be  to  progression  above.  following  modu-  secondary  yet highly  set forth  of  quality.  - I  illustrates  I t should  the  plagal  is -  relative  lack  the  strongly I  the  of  of  voices.  of modality  the  17.  to The  and  outer  on  is a  clearly  form,  are  formed  the  phrase  outer  any  feeling  a  framework  that  seen  has  of,  traditional  second  i n the  d i a t o n i c and  very  1 to  motion  I,  not  measures the  a  of  dominant.  cadence,  Intermezzo  two-part  the  -  i s purely  harmony  work  gives  final  II,four-three  the  appears.  a prolongation  piece  rather  goals  i n the  pitches  in this  never  place  where  minor,  harmonic  the  6-10,  beamed  which  to  four  piece two  this  can  streams.  structure  of  the  142  143  first  section  indicate soprano to  the and  or  the  Large  ificance  on  the  a l l local  escape  tones,  octaves,  are  ties,  connecting  as  a  A  of  The  first-of  three  progressions:  music  the  notes  i n the  the  pitches.to  sign-  This-in-  appoggiaturas,  progress by  neighbour-  of  i n brackets  illustrates  are  not  specified  of  use  the of  their  voices.  vertical  implied  that  the A  successive descents,  ascent  an  to  is a  soprano A  8 - 3 ,  from  alto  G-sharp  to  upswing  which  occurs  work.  further  levels  motions  will  rising  inner voices i n the  initial  the  secondary  these  i n the  tenor  clearly  proceeding  interesting  the  presented  i s only  beamed  important  black  functions,  Notes the  these  composition.  indicated  feature of  two  an  are  following  surface Before  is  on.  are  secondary  small  the  A  6 - 1 ,  occurs  the  in  significant  m a t e r i a l which  so  5.10  consists  6-3,  A l l the  of  notes  positions.  Example  A  motion  indicate  i m p l i e d by  derivations  A  of  surface of  Their  line  notes  neighbouring  and  the  but  white  surface of  cludes  on  These  " r e i t e r a t i o n s •, a n d  ebellishing  present  occurs  notes  passing motions.  white  wnich  direction black  Large  motion  voices.  indicate  octave  Intermezzo.  fundamental  arpeggiations, ing  the  bass  indicate  voices.  of  motion  i n measures  from  E-sharp  C-sharp,  the  be  of  structure,  discussed.  in sixths, 7  and  t o A,  8. and  important  which It in  144  pitches  being  supports tones, in  a  literal  measure  7,  of  the  inner of  as  the  "normal"  two  p r e v i o u s measures,  This  in  balancing  sixths,  Although  the  descending audible,  from  the  upper  indicated  by  small  mentioned  above  were  a  thirds  local  the  In  the  in  square  inner in  third  voices  sixths.  staff,,  importance,  the  a l l the  the  secondary*,  and  the  of  illustrates  F-sharp  second  de-  notes  staff  the  scalar,  and  third  succeeding ascent  A,  is  real  being presented  system.  essential  local  black notes.  are  being  other  of  at  ascending  5.12  third  to  voice  of  embellishments  The  p r e s e n t i n the  motions  two  secondary  third  staff  of  motions the  system.  Important  as  the  motion  arrived  motion.)  descent  clarifies  removing  note  and  these measures  of  by  9-10  on  F-sharp  of  piece  second  6,  p r e s e n t e d on  of  staffs 5.11  the  and  pitches  Example the  D  i t i s only  structural in  5 and  is:a'local  motion  this  outer  than  (Example  occurs, illustrated  brackets.  rather  of  This  soprano,  four  second  exchanged.  presentation  the  ascending  i f the  series  of  The  voices,  the  motion  black notes.  i n the  9.  successive  seconds, were  large  C-sharp  to measure  comprised  scending  by  prolongation  extending the  motions are  denoted  and the  12  prolongations are -  13.  inner  These  motions  two  also  are  found  once  o f measures  5  i n measures  again  paired,  -  Here  8.  146  prolongations in  are constructed  the soprano,  bass,  the soprano  ascends  a  a motion each  mirrored  case.  This  motion  to the primary  Each  connect  forms  a miniature I - V  subdominant, The in  the notes  o f an exchange  voices,  marked  by  motion  ment  o f the C-sharp  first  inversion,  during  the bass  Example  example,  removed,  while  the in a  the e s s e n t i a l note  order to clearly simple  do  occur  12  -  from  15  voices their  be s e e n t h a t  i s  root  to  illustrated  i n the outer 5.11  been  position  octave  to  transfer  D.  notes  as t h e have  added  been to  indi-  In measures  has been  motion,  secondary  o f measures no d o m i n a n t  7 - 9  changed,  underlying  Although  i n the prolongations  on t h e  I t takes the  a downward  have  indicate  ties  to a simple rearrange-  motion.  ascent i n sixths.  13, i t w i l l  -  the bar lines  harmonic  by  each  I n Example  C-sharp  symbols  order of the inner  and  5.10.  p r e s e n t s t h e same  chord  by b r o k e n  E and C-sharp  chord,  but here  directly  supertonic.  lines.  from  the bass  the f i r s t  14  simplified  minor  motion  5.12  the  Example  facilitating  previous  cate  on  of pitches  i s greatly  while  i s marked  i n measures  crossing  this  descent  notes, o f . p r o l o n g a t i o n i n  - I motion,  the p r e c e d i n g diagram,  form  fourth  being,retained,  and t h e second  prolongation  scalar  i s followed  prolongation  which  local  by a s t e p - w i s e a s c e n t i n t h e  descending a  fifth. back  of a  9 - 1 0  dominants and  occurs at  147  Example  deeper  structural  motion  begins  descents, middle  to  levels. emerge  forming  voices,  a  and  as  stream  5.12  At  this  a  series  of  harmonized  stage of  the  upper  sixth-chords by  an  middleground voice  with  independent  the bass  line. In moved, and  the  Example leaving  5.13 only  the the  p r o l o n g a t i o n s have primary  s u p p o r t i n g harmony  of  outer voice  the  inner  been  re-  motions  voices.  Three  148  Example  A:  5.13  Middleground  I descending  completing main  bass  being On  an  phrases  entire  motion  level  two-part  of  up  As  final and  16  17.  Example preceding octave,  of  the  5.14  the  voices.  the  - F-sharp now  as  bass  - D  - B  appear  the  f a r as to  - A.  t o A.  - B  A  - A,  appears  against  the  this  the  B. a  bass.  obbligo the  an  been  have  12,  is  lower  i n measures  of  formation  also  showing  octave  three primary  the  raised  parallel  notes  s u p p o r t e d by  D  as  simplification  be  The  the to  I  o f ' t h r e e .upper  measure  The  from  t e n o r has  bass  clearly  soprano,  piece  clearly  The  i n the  progression  further  Here  1-17.  117  switch to  cadential  is a  mm.  b e f o r e moving  voices  illustrating  upper  descents  D  i s approached,  final  r a i s e d an o c t a v e ,  A  -  sixth-chords  diagram.  an  of  descent  octave  the middle  f o r the  motion  seen  - F-sharp an  cadence  stream and  be  counterpoint, consisting  in parallel  relaxed,  can  structure,  voices the  Intermezzo,  IV (H6)  octave  is A  transferred  this  the  VI  . main  of  been the  descent, upper  three successive  stream -bass  149  Example  A:  I  notes, a  A,  F-sharp,  o f 116,  ( F-sharp  - D),  of  and  which  voices:  and  by  a single  of the i n i t i a l  soprano  line  initial  becomes ascent,  composition,  fundamental  line,  the  initial  upswing  the  first  second of  a VI  the motion  bass  soprano  phrase chord,  note  cadence.  i s 117  i n the  soprano  motion these  -  (D  -  notes,a l l  of the outer  of the soprano,  (successively  At this  point  A,  the  each F-sharp,  signifi-  C-sharp  a t the beginning of the  clear.  I t i s the f i r s t  the f i r s t  and the f i r s t A  as  triads.  outlines  D), and a f i n a l  cance  support  there are three descents  supported  cadence  i s outlined  which  11.7 • I  9 t o 15 a p p e a r  - B ), - t h e b a s s  the chords  5.15  Measures  o f 116  - D  116  and the f i n a l  are supertonic  Example  the  a n d D.  The p r o l o n g a t i o n  melody B  VI  prolongation  I.  5.14  A  melody  note  note  of the  note  of  of the  background  A  3 - 2 - 1 .  The  i s prolonged  descent  the C-sharp  from  A  C-sharp over  which  a I chord  to C-sharp.  i s again prolonged  and serves' a g a i n  as t h e f i n a l  begins through  In the as  part  note  of  150  Example  5.15 A  A  A  2  3  1  .  c  p—  —  I  A;  the  in  the soprano  where the  This  the bass,  which  also  ascent,  ational A  A  chooses  resulting  measures ends  as w e l l  composer,  descends  to I i s a simple  Willan  final  a dissonant  finally  117  t o D,  seventh  t o B.  However,  the C-sharp above t h e  i n measure  and f a i r l y  t o make  15,  From  here  direct  another  third  motion, descent  i n a 117 - I c a d e n c e .  of Rise  u p , my  Love,  my  w i t h - . a 117 - I c a d e n c e . ) as b e i n g a s u r f a c e  i s structurally  levels  ,—  - C-sharp.  third,  dissonance i s resolved  cadence  the  descent, F-sharp  becomes  the soprano  although in  soprano  ^  w  116  the bass descends another  bass.  r_^_  VI  second  when  -^1*1  a  link  o f the soprano  (Compare  Fair The  initial  fingerprint  between  line--the  two  One,  of the  organiz-  fundamental  A  3 - 2 - 1  line,  and t h e s e r i e s  of three  middleground  descents. Example the  5.16  summarizes  t w o - p a r t .framework  descent  i n the soprano  dominant,  and t o n i c  the essential  of this  piece:  harmonized  i n the bass.  a  motion  stepwise  by t h e t o n i c , I have  of  sub-  included the  j  151  Example  5.16  Background ~~  other  fundamental  F-sharp adding the  and  clearly degree It  Example  diagram  2  middle  the  be  which  structure  resemblance  5.17.  2  The  to  striking  Example  5.17  A  3  ''Heinrich t r a n s . arid e d . F i g u r e 1. .  as  completes  the  repre-  piece,  The  a  ultimate  from'succeeding  illustrates  the  high  work.  Example  the  well  nevertheless  work.  levels  in Willan's  of  is  i t s derivation  that  as  simple diagram  of Willan's  observed  1-17.  third-dividers  voice  extremely  and  mm.  ~A 1  notes,  structural  integrity  will  close  A  3  Intermezzo,  simple composition which  defined of  A  fundamental  characteristic  background  the  p r e v i o u s example,  This  the most  relatively  very  the  a hypothetical  harmonies.  sents  very  B of  bass  of  5.16  Schenkerian similarity  bears  a  Ursatz,  between  the  two  Shenkerian.Ursatz. A  2  A  1  Schenker, Free Composition b y E r n s t O s t e r , (New Y o r k :  (Der F r e i e S a t z ) , Longman I n c , 1979>,  is A  found A  i n the primary descent o f the upper  3 - 2 - 1 .  The o b v i o u s  difference  lies A  mental  bass A  Willan's  very  music:  structuring  1 - 5 - 1 ,  o f t h e two  o f dominant  the fundamental  Intermezzo  illuminate  both  cannot  the majority h i s high  o f music,  tradition  funda-  A  and  fundamental  to harmonization of the u r l i n i e  o f even  dominant  being  Comparison  the avoidance  Willan's  from  Schenker's  i n the A  A  important distinguishing  While  design  line, A  1 - 4 - 1 .  approaches the  voice,  A  with  trait  i n Willan's  function.  structure be  of this  considered  o f h i s works,  level  as a p r i m a r y p o l e  the  section  i t does logical  divergence  to the importance o f harmonic  of  fundamental  of attainment i n  and h i s fundamental  respect  reveals  of the  structure.  153 Conclusion  Healey of  h i s musical  with a  Willan  hybrid, The  but which  nevertheless  curves  shapes,  with The  bulk  ever, work The  grace  Liturgical  Fair  heard  likely  immensa  mediated  i n church  music  of  and  nineteenth  him.  The  b y h i s own  a very  personal  Fair  designed f o r  settings.  public  i n Face,  How-  of Willan's  performance. I beheld her  Rise  C h r i s t u s natus  In addition,  services,  a fraction  particularly  to the Heavenly  saecula  h i s own  to affect  religious  that only  Motets,  i n recital.  significant  sensitivity  output,  with  f o r repeated  as a Dove,  a  of design.  One, a n d H o d i e ,  Apostrophe  ceased  factors,  t o be h e a r d  i s destined  Beautiful my  never  of his published  i t seems  and  of Renaissance harmonic  polyphony  i s perhaps  and the s o n o r i t i e s  i n connection  continue  o f Brahms, and  i s unique  to h i s material, yielded much  performance will  technique,  o f a l l these  sensitivity music  the modality  Romanticism  synthesis  love  which  facets  familiarity  o f p l a i n c h a n t suggested  to h i s personal  contrapuntal  a  many  and Renaissance  of composition  contributed  century  i n plainsong  a style  melodic  melodic  intimate  A n g l i c a n music,  interest  creating  i n integrating  background—an  traditional  lively  succeeded  u p , my  Love,  est, are often  the large motets,  Hosts,  and G l o r i a  are f r e q u e n t l y performed.  An  Deo p e r  Only  a  154 handful such few  o f the organ  as t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , of the chorale  works  a r e used  though  musical  his  best,  be  performed It  first  involved i t seem  that  t o be p e r f o r m e d  of  that  works  remain  the l i s t  o f works  i s unreasonably  unjustifiably  No.  2.  Ultimately,  not  be a l l o w e d  however,  to serve  achievement.  Only  analysis  and  informed  his  s t a t u r e . ' I t i s hoped  and  extent  Willan's  that  contrapuntal  should  of the worth  ofhis  conscientious to properly the  mastery,  evaluate nature  particular-  of the two-part  framework  as a b a s i s  of voice-leading,  and  this  has enabled  of h i s lasting  You  and Fugue  by examining  t o h i s management  study  Weep  popularity  b y way o f  i s i tpossible  of Willan's  reference  part-song  as an i n d e x  and t h a t -  neglected, f o r  and the P a s s a c a g l i a  documentation  ever  which  short,  Sad Fountains,,  form,  production i tw i l l  No. M o r e  with  and  considered  a  mentioned  ly  opera,  Willan  doubtful  A l -  historical  full-length  example, t h e p r e v i o u s l y  artistic  of the  material.  i n mounting  and a  again.  c a n be a r g u e d  fine  many  i s both  as t h e work  programs,  and Fugue,  although  Deirdre,  as Canada's  a w o r k make  continue many  opera,  the costs  such  on r e c i t a l  Passacaglia  preludes,  significance  of  appear  r e g u l a r l y as t e a c h i n g  Willan's  significance of  works  a more  parallelism, convincing  contributions  t o music.  155 Appendix Longer  This  appendix  Whom  a l l Things  Rise  u p , my L o v e ,  in  the text.  King,  themusic  a l l Things  o f 0 King, t o  the Tabernacle  o f God,  One, a n d t h e f i r s t  section  which  i n detail  are analysed  music  a r e as f o l l o w s :  do L i v e  mm.  19 - 2 0 : T h e s l u r i n t h e p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d c o n n e c t t h e t i e d s o p r a n o G's n o t t h e a l t o .  mm.  20 - 2 1 : T h e t e n o r s h o u l d be t i e d .  m.  Behold,  Rise  pieces  i n theprinted  t o Whom  Examples  Behold,  my F a i r  the Intermezzo,  0  contains  do L i v e ,  of  Errors  Musical  B-flats  21: The p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d the a l t o , n o t G - n a t u r a l . the Tabernacle  i n the piano  have  score  G-flat i n  o f God  mm.  2 - 3 : The p i a n o s c o r e s h o u l d have t i e s f o r the soprano, tenor, and bass I notes.  mm.  51 - 5 2 : T h e s o p r a n o s h o u l d be t i e d .  u p , my L o v e ,  my F a i r The a l t o  score  One  mm.  8 - 9 :  mm.  12 - 1 3 : T h e s o p r a n o to D-flat. slur  G i n thepiano  should  be t i e d  should  m.  13: T h e b a s s  should  m.  1 9 : On t h e t h i r d q u a r t e r B - f l a t , n o t C.  m.  27: Soprano I s h o u l d whole note.  have  i n thepiano  be s l u r r e d  from  score. F  end on E - f l a t ,  n o t F.  alto  have  I I should  a half-note,  nota  156  2  C M . 352  In  Memoi• iam  Lynnwood  Farnam  8. O King, to Whom all Things do Live (For Funerals)  Words f r o m Liturgical  Sources HEALEY  Solenne (J r 1 2 0 )  WILLAN  Tenor Bass whom  Piano (For rehearsal only)  l \  j  /  r  \  f  j-  r r J J  —1»  ^ —  r .  J>poco  CC  Copyright  MCMXXXI  by Carl  International  Reproduced  by  Fischer  Copyright  permission  of  Inc.,  A'ew  York  Fischer,  cresc.  Printed I n t h * USA.  Secured  Carl  r r  Inc.  157  158  up  shine  26078-8  - on  up -  on  them,  O  Lord,  for  end  them,  0  Lord,  for  end  ;  less  159  Price .30  Dedicated to Leo Sowerby And Written for the Hundredth Anniversary Festival of the Church of St. James, Chicago  CM427  B e h o l d , the Tabernacle of  God  Words from Antiphons of the Feast of Dedication  HEALEY WILLAN  Slow (about J.69) Soprano  n—v—ro  ~  P.  Alto Tenor  Bass  Be - hold,  Piano  r p=££.r *  (For rehearsal only)  Reproduced  by p e r m i s s i o n  \PP  of Carl  .  Fischer,  J J J U  Inc.  160  I  161  26627-4  162  163  5. Rise up, my Love, my Fair One (Easter, or Feasts of Our Lady) Ronp of Solomon ij  In free rhythm. J z about  HEALEY WILLAN  MB  SOPRANO  ALTO  TENOR  BASS T R i s e ,  up, my  love,  my  fair  one, and  come  a-way;  tor  For rehearsal only  Copyright by Oxford University Press, New YorV, 1920  Reproduced  by  permission of  Oxford  University  Printed in U. S.A.  Press.  164  •J'"i  "i^ni the  flowers  ap  cres,  -  pear_  up  -  on  the  _  J I t h e ( l o w e r s ap - pear  up  •  I . I on  the  rres.  earth; the  time  Rise up, my love, my fair one - 8  o!  the  sing  •  lng  of  birds  Is  come-,  a  165  166  Intermezzo  9  HEALEY W I L L A N  Andante sostenuto cJ=ca.72)  MANUALS  1 i  LTT n:Q  r r  rr :  10  +- r p ff  * * —  ^  J  1  Ch.  TO/ f ff" J  1  — :  C Copyright M C M L 1 X B M I C A N A D A L I M I T E D , 16 G o u l d St. Toronto 2 , O n » International Copyright Secured A l l Rights Reserved Including Public' Performance for Profit  Reproduced  by  permission  of Berandol  Music.  167 Bibliography  The H e a l e y W i l l a n C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada i s the main c o l l e c t i o n o f documents r e l a t i n g to the composer. I t includes original musical c o m p o s i t i o n s i n m a n u s c r i p t and p u b l i s h e d form, correspondence, programs, c l i p p i n g s , papers dealing with v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n which W i l l a n p a r t i c i p a t e d , drafts of speeches, l e c t u r e s , e t c . , published a r t i c l e s , 46 unpublished biographical impressions of Willan written b y f r i e n d s a n d c o l l e a g u e s i n 1960, d i p l o m a s , d e g r e e s , medals, and p h o t o g r a p h s . Included i n this collection are the Parker Tapes, a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s of Healey W i l l a n c o n d u c t e d b y t h e R e v . D r . Max P a r k e r b e t w e e n 1963 a n d 1 9 6 5 , a n d W i l l a n ' s l i b r a r y o f m o r e t h a n 350 p u b l i s h e d volumes of music. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i s s e l e c t i v e , b u t an e x h a u s t i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y may b e f o u n d i n t h e H e a l e y W i l l a n C a t a l o g u e .  Amtmann, W i l l y . Macmillan,  Music i n Canada. T o r o n t o : C a n a d a L t d . , 1975.  A u s t i n , W i l l i a m . Music i n the Y o r k : N o r t o n , 19 6 6 .  Twentieth  Collier-  Century.  New  B e c k w i t h , J o h n , and M a c m i l l a n , K e i t h , , ed. Contemporary C a n a d i a n C o m p o s e r s . T o r o n t o : The B r y a n t P r e s s , L t d . , 1975. B e c k w i t h , J o h n . " H e a l e y W i l l a n : t h e man a n d h i s m u s i c . " T h e C a n a d i a n F o r u m V o l . 5 2 , No. 623 (December, 1972): 32-34. B r a d l e y , Ian L. Canadiana. Bradley, Ian V o l . 1. 1977  A Selected Bibliography of Musical T o r o n t o : G.L.C. P u b l i s h e r s , L t d . , 1976.  L. T w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Canadian Composers, A g i n c o u r t , O n t a r i o : G.L.C. P u b l i s h e r s , L t d . ,  B r i d l e , A u g u s t u s . "Who W r i t e s Our M a g a z i n e , D e c e m b e r 15, 1 9 2 9 ,  Music?" p . 20.  B r y a n t , G i l e s . " C h o r a l Works o f H e a l e y A m e r i c a n O r g a n i s t , O c t o b e r , 1980, Bryant, Giles. The M u s i c  MacLean's  Willan." p. 42.  "Healey W i l l a n — a personal S c e n e 311 (January-February,  The  view." 1980):  6.  Bryant, G i l e s . "Healey W i l l a n : A Plea for his Lesser Known W o r k s . " M u s i c a n a d a 42 ( S p r i n g , 1 9 8 0 ) : 1 7 - 1 9 .  168 Bryant, G i l e s . Healey W i l l a n Catalogue. Ottawa: L i b r a r y o f Canada, 1972.  National  Campbel1-Yukl, Joylin. "Healey W i l l a n : The Independent O r g a n Works." D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Missouri, 1976. Campbel1-Yukl, Joylin. "Willan's Introduction, c a g l i a and Fugue." The A m e r i c a n O r g a n i s t , 1980, p . 39.  PassaOctober,  Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . Canadian Biographies: a r t i s t s , a u t h o r s , and m u s i c i a n s . O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n Library Association, 1952. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation I n t e r n a t i o n a l Service. T h i r t y - f o u r B i o g r a p h i e s o f Canadian Composers. Reprint St. C l a i r Shores, Michigan: Scholarly Press, 1972. C a n a d i a n M u s i c C e n t r e . C a n a d i a n Chamber C a n a d i a n M u s i c C e n t r e , 1980. Canadian Music Centre. Canadian Choral Canadian Music Centre, 1978.  Music.  Music.  Canadian Music Centre. Canadian Keyboard C a n a d i a n M u s i c C e n t r e , 1971.  Toronto:  Toronto:  Music.  Toronto:  Canadian Music Centre. Canadian Music f o r Orchestra. Toronto: Canadian Music Centre, 1976. Canadian Music Centre. Canadian Vocal Canadian Music Centre, 1976. Canadian Music Centre. Catalogue Unpublished Canadian Music. Centre, 1970.  Music.  Toronto:  of Microfilms of Toronto: Canadian  Music  Canadian Music L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . A b i o - b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l f i n d i n g l i s t of Canadian m u s i c i a n s . Ottawa: Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1961. Cowell, Henry. "Current C h r o n i c l e (review of C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e ) . " M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 40(January, 1954):59. Die  M u s i k i n G e s c h i c h t e und Gegenwart . H r s g . von Blume. K a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1967.  F.  Dobbs, K i l d a r e . "Canada's i m p i s h dean o f composers." S t a r w e e k l y M a g a z i n e , D e c e m b e r 22, 1962.  169 Encyclopedia 1970 .  Canadiana.  George, Graham. assess the C u l t u r e 16  Ottawa:  Grolier  " C a n a d a ' s M u s i c - 1955, q u a l i t y of contemporary (March, 1955): 51-65.  Society  of  Canada,  an a t t e m p t t o composition."  H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c . E d i t e d by W i l l i r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d . Cambridge, Mass.: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972. p . 921. Kallmann, Helmut, ed. C a t a l o g u e o f Canadian r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n . T o r o n t o : B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1952.  A p e l . 2nd. Harvard  ed.  Composers, Canadian  K a l l m a n n , H e l m u t , P o t v i n , G i l l e s , ari;d W i n t e r s , K e n n e t h , e d . E n c y c l o p e d i a o:f M u s i c i n C a n a d a . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1981. J o h n s o n , N o r m a n G. " H e a l e y W i l l a n 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 6 8 : O r g a n W o r k s of Healey W i l l a n . " American O r g a n i s t , October, 1980. J o h n s o n , N o r m a n G. " H e a l e y W i l l a n : h i s l i f e and i n f l u e n c e s i m p o r t a n t t o h i s m u s i c . " D.M.A. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Southern B a p t i s t T h e o l o g i c a l Seminary, 1979. La  M u s i c a G u i d o M. G a t t i , e d . T o r i n o : editrice torinese, 1971.  Unione  tipografico-  Macmillan, S i r Ernest C , ed. Music i n Canada. University of Toronto Press, 1955.  Toronto:  M a r w i c k , W i l l i a m E . "The S a c r e d C h o r a l M u s i c o f H e a l e y W i l l a n . " P h . D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , M i c h i g a n S t a t e University, 1970. McCoy, Guy, e d . Musicians.  P o r t r a i t s of the World's Best-known Philadelphia: Presser, 1946.  M c C r e a d y , L o u i s e G. F a m o u s M u s i c i a n s : M a c M i l l a n , Johnson, P e l l e t i e r , W i l l a n . Toronto: Clarke, 1957 . New  Grove D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s , e d . Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980.  Palk,  H e l e n " T h e M u s i c Makers." T h e B o o k o f A c h i e v e m e n t . T o r o n t o : J.M.Dent, 1951.  P r o c t e r , G e o r g e A. C a n a d i a n M u s i c Century. Toronto: University  of of  Irwin,  Stanley  Canadian  the Twentieth Toronto Press,  1980.  170 R i d o u t , Godfrey. "Healey Willan." 3 ( S p r i n g 1959): 4-14. Ridout, Godfrey. 1980):4. Riemann, Ross,  "Healey  Hugo. M u s i k  Malcolm ed. mid-century.  Willan."  Canadian  Musicanada  Lexikon. Mainz:Schott,  Journal  42  (Spring  1961.  A r t s i n Canada: a s t o c k - t a k i n g Toronto: Macmillan, 1959.  Routley, E r i k . Twentieth Century Church Oxford University Press, 1964. Royal  Music  Music.  at  New  York:  Canadian C o l l e g e of O r g a n i s t s . A Tribute to Healey W i l l a n . Royal Canadian C o l l e g e of O r g a n i s t s , Spring, 1979.  S c h a e f e r , R. M u r r a y . "The L i m i t s o f N a t i o n a l i s m i n C a n a d i a n M u s i c . " T a m a r a c k R e v i e w 18 ( W i n t e r , 1 9 6 1 ) : 71-78. S c h o l e s , P e r c y A. O x f o r d C o m p a n i o n t o M u s i c . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970.  10th.  ed.  Thompson, O s c a r , ed. I n t e r n a t i o n a l C y c l o p e d i a o f M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s . 1 0 t h . e d . L o n d o n : Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1975. W a l l e r , A d r i a n . "A M e r r y O l d W i l l a n Named H e a l e y . " The R e a d e r ' s D i g e s t , O c t o b e r , 1980, p . 84. Walter, A r n o l d ed. University of  Aspects Toronto  o f Music i n Canada. Press, 1969.  Toronto:  W a t s o n , L o m e . "The H e a l e y W i l l a n C e n t e n n i a l . " C a n a d i a n Federation of Music Teacher's A s s o c i a t i o n s Newsletter V o l . 3 3 , No. 3. ( A u g u s t , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 8. Who's Who i n Canada. Press, 1966.  V o l . 10.  Toronto:  Trans-Canada  W i l l a n , H e a l e y . "What's Wrong w i t h C h u r c h C a p a n d Gown, 1 9 5 9 , p p . 112-114. W i l l a n , Healey. "William Byrd Canadian Review of Music 1943): 8-9.  Music  in  Canada."  (1543-1623): C h o r a l Work." and A r t 2 (August-September,  Wyton, A l e c . " R e m i n i s c e n c e s : H e a l e y s a t i o n - w i t h A l e c Wyton." M u s i c  Willan in a 1(December,  conver1967): 24-27.  171 Index  This of  index,  o f Works  intended  to  references to p a r t i c u l a r  Willan,  lists  is  ordered  of  the  a l l works  referred  to  Willan  Transit  Through  Fire  (1942),  30  Deirdre  (originally  Vocal Lord,  78,  Music  Our  with  Deirdre of 79,  Instrumental  C o r o n a t i o n S u i t e ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 14, 67, 7 1 , R i n g O u t Ye C r y s t a l 1 S p h e a r s , 67 I n t e r m e z z o , 107, 108 Beloved  Orchestra No.  76  Pianoforte  Fugue  (1952),  of and  Concerto  i n g minor  Band  and  plan  Ensemble  95  48,  (1936),  107  71  11  (1944),  11  Music 17  Music  144  F a n t a s i a upon the P l a i n c h a n t Melody a g n i " ( 1 9 0 6 ? ) , 10, 9 2 , 93  145  Epilogue  (1909),82,  (1943-  Music  i n c minor  (1947),  Organ  14,  Christ,  1 i n d minor  Chamber 105  the  Sorrows)  0  Symphony  text,  154  with  Governour  the  56  70  Healey  11  57  Come, T h o u  of  Music  B r e b u f ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 11, 17, 19 Ave Verum C o r p u s , 19-20 Fugue i n g minor, 17  15,  location  Catalogue.  29  11,  the  i n the  numerically i n accordance  Healey  45),  facilitate compositions  Dramatic 27  Cited  104  "Ad  coenam  172 146  Prelude  and Eugue  i n c minor  (1909),  4 7 , 7 7 , 82  147  Prelude  and Fugue  i n b minor  (1909),  82  149  I n t r o d u c t i o n , P a s s a c a g l i a and Fugue  (1916),  155  S i x Chorale Preludes, 1 Quern P a s t o r e s , 89  12  156  S i x C h o r a l e P r e l u d e s , S e t I I ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 12 1 N u n p r e i s e t A l l e , 8 2 , 8 3 , 107 6 V e x i l l a R e g i s , 64  157  F i v e Preludes on P l a i n c h a n t Melodies (1950) 1 A e t e r n e C h r i s t i M u n e r a , 98 2 C h r i s t e , R e d e m p t o r o m n i u m , 9 8 , 104 4 A v e m a r i s s t e l l a , 6 4 , 6 5 , 104 5 U r b s H i e r u s a l e m b e a t a , 64, 80, 112, 135-136  158  Interlude f o ra F e s t i v a l  161  Three  Pieces  3 Festival,  (1950),  (1952),  1 0 7 , 108  (1954) 8 4 , 1 3 3 , 134  168  Prologue  173  T e n Hymn P r e l u d e s ,  174  Set I  8,  on " A s c e n s i o n "  (1956),  Set II  69  (1957)  1 W a r e h a m , 90 5 T h i s E n d r i s N y g h t , 68 8 B r i s t o l , .87 9 M a r t y r d o m , 8 4 , 85 T e n Hymn P r e l u d e s , S e t I I I ( 1 9 5 8 ) 3 I s t e C o n f e s s o r , 104 4 T u n b r i d g e , 87 7 C h r i s t i s t E r s t a n d e n , 81 8 A R o u e n C h u r c h M e l o d y , 87 10 N u n l a s s t u n s G o t t dem H e r r e n ,  8 5 , 86  177  F i v e P i e c e s f o rOrgan (1957-1958), 3 Intermezzo, 8 9 , 1 3 7 , 1 4 1 , 152 4 S c h e r z o , 6 0 , 91 5 F i n a l e J u b i l a n t e , 106  178  P a s s a c a g l i a a n d F u g u e N o . 2, i n E m i n o r 12, 1 3 , 4 7 , 8 0 , 8 1 , 154  179  Fugue  180  36 S h o r t P r e l u d e s a n d P o s t l u d e s Hymn T u n e s , S e t I 7 N i c a e a , 102  i n e minor  (1959?),  60  (1959),  14 on Well-known  13,  1 5 4  173 183  Two p i e c e s f o r O r g a n 1 M a t i n s , 6 1 , 91 2 Evensong, 115  184  Andante, 118,  Fugue  119,  and  (1961)  Chorale  (1965),  13,  98,  114,  130-131 Masses  216  Missa  Brevis  No.  1 in E-flat  217  Missa  Brevis  No.  2  i n f minor  (1930),  116  219  Missa  Brevis  No.  4 i n E major  (1934),  58,  220  Missa  Brevis  No.  5  i n f-sharp minor  222  M i s s a B r e v i s No. (1936), 104  7  i n g minor  225  Missa 109,  10  B r e v i s No. 132-133  major  "O  i n c minor  (1928),  59  (1935),  Westron  and  59  59  Wyride"  major  (1948),  Canticles 251  Benedictus  and  276  M a g n i f i c a t and (1930), 110  Jubilate Nunc  Deo  (1953),  Dimittis,  Tones  129 I1-2  and  III-4  Motets 302  The  303-308 305  Very  3 07  0  308  Let  309  O  Dead  (1917),  Six Motets Bread,  How Us  310-320  O  Worship  Trinity,  (1924),  Good  Sweet,  64  Shepherd,  Lord, and  Most  Preserve  311  O  312  I beheld 3 9 , 42,  313  Fair  King,  Us,  O  Fall  i n Face  Tend  Down,  Lord  94,  Motets  (1928),  (1925),  105,  109  33,  10,  27,  32  (1928),  30,  69  (1928-1937),  37,  B e a u t i f u l as a Dove 51, 134, 135, 153 (1928),  Us,  76  Blessed Light  A l l Gloriious her 49,  76  76  Eleven L i t u r g i c a l  310  10,  36,  61,  113  (1928),  33,  38,  46,  73,  153  47,  48,  153  174 314  R i s e u p , my 44,  Love,  my  Fair  One  (1929),  52, 75, 89, 90, 137-141,  0 King  316  L o , I n t h e Time  317  0 K i n g , t o Whom a l l T h i n g s 32, 45, 120-122  318  B e h o l d , t h e T a b e r n a c l e o f God 53, 5 4 , 5 5 , 1 1 0 , 1 2 3 - 1 2 5  319  Hodie,  2 8 , 3 1 , 3 5 , 3 6 , 6 2 , 63  Appointed  Christus  natus  (1929),  29  do L i v e  (1931),  (1933),  e s t (1935).,  30,  27, 35, 38,  30, 31, 65, 71,  9 6 , 153  320  Who  321  0 Saving  322  Look  328  Ave Verum  331  I Will  335  Hosanna  336  The S p i r i t  Ring  (1929),  1 5 0 , 153  315  72,  of Glory  37, 41, 43,  i s She t h a t  Ascendeth?  Victim  (1935),  Down, O L o r d Corpus  L a y Me  2 7 , 74  59  (1935), (1943),  Down  (1937),  59 1 9 , 20  i n Peace  (1949),  103  t o t h e Son o f D a v i d  (1951),  9 6 , 97  of the Lord  O u t , Ye C r y s t a l l  (1951),  Sphears  65, 66, 110, 116,  (1953),  s e e 57  Anthems 341  A l l Hail,  351  Sing A l l e l u i a  352  Christ  355  S i n g We  357  A Prayer  358  0 Lord,  Come,  Thou  A l l Hail  Hath  (1898),  Forth  i n Duteous  a Garden  Triumphant  6, 7  (1940),  Songs  Praise  91  (1950),  9 1 , 9 9 , 128  of Rejoicing  (1953),  99  Our Governour  (1952),  14, 95  Beloved  359  Isaiah,  Mighty  363  0 Sing Into  364  Ye S h a l l  of Christ Seer  the Lord  Know  that  ( 1 9 4 0 ) , 91  ( s e e 57)  (1954),  99  a New  Song  the Lord Will  (1956), Come  128  (1957),  128  175 373  God  380  In  i s Gone the  Up  with  Heavenly  a  Shout  Kingdom  (1960),  (1924),  64  128  Hymn-Anthems 385  Before  the  388  Lift  391  Christ,  396  F a t h e r , We  404  St. Venatius  413  Lord  Up  Ending  Your  Heads,  Whose  of  of  the Ye  Day  Mighty  Glory F i l l s  Praise  (1938),  Thee  the  Gates  (1950),  99  Skies  (1950),  91  (1958),  (0 T r i n i t y  of  a l l Hopefulness  99  95  Blessed Light)  (1966),  (1961),  91  Carols 426  Regina  coeli  427  Tyrle,  Tyrlow,  428  Here  432  A  Are  Soft  We  letare  (1928),  Tyrle,  Tyrlow  i n Bethlehem  Light  From  a  An  Apostrophe  58,  66,  585  The  593  Gloria  to  the  128-129,  Mystery Deo  of  Weep Y o u  641  Eternity  656  On  May  No  Sacred  Heavenly  immensa  More  (1931),  Morning  V e r s e t s and  772  V e r s e t pour  773  Versicle  and  73  (1948),  73  Music Hosts  Sad  (1923),  saecula Choral  (1921),  14,  Fountains  67  (1950) ,  97  Versicles,  l'orgue  (1957),  Response,  20  70  (1950),  74,  76,  153  Music  Varia 772-775  59,  64  153  Secular 635  (1929),  Bethlehem  per  (1928),  S t a b l e Door  Miscelaneous 584  64  20 20  (1929),  72-74,  154  99  176 774  Imprimatur  nihil  obstat  (in C major),  20  775  Imprimatur  nihil  obstat  ( i n c minor),  20  

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