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The concept of action in the works of J.M.R. Lenz Pope, Timothy Fairfax 1980

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THE CONCEPT OF ACTION IN THE WORKS OF J.M.R. LENZ  by  TIMOTHY FAIRFAX POPE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Oxford, 1970 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Germanic  Studies)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1980 (c) Timothy F a i r f a x Pope, 1980  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  Library  I further for  scholarly  by h i s of  agree  this  written  thesis at  it  purposes  for  freely  permission  It  is  financial  for  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  Germanic of  British  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  of  of  Columbia,  British  gain  by  shall  Studies Columbia  for  extensive the  understood  permission.  Department  fulfilment  available  may be g r a n t e d  representatives. thesis  partial  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  in  requirements  reference copying  Head o f  that  not  the  of  I agree and this  be a l l o w e d  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  without  my  ABSTRACT  Lenz's concept of a c t i o n : Handeln, i s a p e r v a s i v e i d e a i n his  writings  scholarship  and has  an obvious p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n h i s l i f e . tended to f o l l o w Goethe and  of Lenz i n seeing and  Lenz  other contemporaries  Lenz's a c t i v i s m i n p r a c t i c e as mere i n t r i g u e ,  as a mere o b s e s s i o n when i t was  commended i n theory. S c h o l a r s  have, at the most, looked f o r o r i g i n s f o r h i s views, or changes i n them, but have g e n e r a l l y and  declined  to take them as the  coherent statement t h a t they were intended to be.  serious  This  study  views Lenz's ideas on a c t i o n as a coherent whole t h a t amounts to a c r e d i b l e p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e worth studying  f o r i t s own  sake,  and w i t h i t s p a r a l l e l s i n modern psychotherapy. Lenz's views are i n s e p a r a b l e e t de  Belles L e t t r e s — t h e  from the S o c i e t e  i d e n t i t y of which we  de  Philosophie  f i n d i t necessary  to c l a r i f y - - because they were expressed i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s s o c i e t y and  for i t s benefit.  I t s t u r g i d s p i r i t was  Lenz to urge i t s members to a c t i o n . contrary,  one  stands apart  Most Lenz s c h o l a r s  of the s o c i e t y ' s members: Johann D a n i e l from the others i n i n f l u e n c i n g and  poet i n h i s t h i n k i n g . works out h i s own  p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  the  Salzmann,  encouraging  t h e o l o g i c a l system of Berlichingen  the model f o r powerful, spontaneous, a l t r u i s t i c e x p r e s s i n g the  to  the  Responding warmly to Salzmann's ideas Lenz  through a c t i o n , i n which Goethe's GStz von  and  what provoked  freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l .  action,  salvation  stands  as  creating  iii  Lenz's deepest i n t e r e s t , though, i s not i n moral g i a n t s and t h e i r exemplary a c t i o n , but i n o r d i n a r y humanity and the s o t e r i o l o g y of any a c t i o n .  I t i s man's c a l l i n g to develop  m o r a l l y by l e a r n i n g from the consequences o f h i s a c t i o n s . Whether good or bad, a c t i o n i s the b a s i s f o r moral d i s c o v e r y , growth and s a l v a t i o n ; as such i t i s a sacred e x p r e s s i o n o f one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y and beyond the reach of judgmental m o r a l i s i n g by others.  As l i t e r a r y - c r i t i c Lenz defends Werther  N i c o l a i ' s parody, a r g u i n g t h a t Werther's l i f e had t h i s sacramental q u a l i t y .  against precisely  The s p o n t a n e i t y o f Werther's  actions  was matched by h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o take moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them, and to l e a r n from them. Freedom of a c t i o n i s freedom to make mistakes and to p r o f i t from those mistakes: t h i s , t o Lenz, i s the g o s p e l of C h r i s t . the  At  h e a r t of i t i s the i d e a of metanoia, which i s the new menta-  lity,  the l o f t i e r p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t comes about through the per-  formance of a c t i o n t h a t i s f o l l o w e d by moral e v a l u a t i o n . Metanoia means not the p i e t i s t i c d w e l l i n g on past f a i l u r e s and past wrongdoing, i m p l i e d by the German e q u i v a l e n t Bufie, but the sense of freedom to t u r n those f a i l u r e s to account. Lenz's f i r s t major drama: Per Hofmeister, b r i n g s the i d e a of  metanoia to bear on the f a l l i b l e nature of human l i f e .  The  p l a y concerns not so much the cause o f the f a m i l y tragedy: o s t e n s i b l y the h i r i n g of a p r i v a t e t u t o r , as the way  i n which  t h a t tragedy i s overcome by moral renewal and by the j o y of b e l i e v i n g t h a t the c u r s e of the past i s outweighed by the i n f i n i t e  iv  p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the f u t u r e . In Die Soldaten,  the p a i n f u l and saddening consequences o f  e r r i n g a c t i o n are b a r e l y overcome.  But though blame f o r the  d i s a s t e r i s l a i d a t s o c i e t y ' s door, i t i s again the i n d i v i d u a l that i s morally responsible.  Since i t i s Marie's and Wesener's  a c t i o n s t h a t are a t f a u l t , there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r l e a r n i n g from the consequences and e x p e r i e n c i n g some degree of metanoia.  T h e i r predominant r e a c t i o n i s , however, not the j o y  of renewal but the p a i n f u l acceptance of s u f f e r i n g , which, i n Lenz's view, was one of the h i g h e s t forms of a c t i o n , with i t s own p e r s p e c t i v e of s a l v a t i o n .  Thesis Supervisor  V  CONTENTS  Page Introduction  —  Chapter One  —  Chapter Two  —  Chapter Three  Chapter Four  1 The S o c i e t e de P h i l o s o p h i e e t de B e l l e s L e t t r e s  10  The I n f l u e n c e of Johann D a n i e l Salzmann on Lenz  58  — The T h e o l o g i c a l Case f o r Lenz's Concept of A c t i o n —  98  The R e f l e c t i o n of Lenz's Theology and Moral P h i l o sophy i n h i s L i t e r a r y C r i t i c a l Writings  165  Chapter F i v e —  Metanoia i n Der Hofmeister  202  Chapter S i x —  Die Soldaten : Personal R e s p o n s i b i l i t y or S o c i a l Conditioning ?  245  Conclusion Footnotes  — —  B i b l i o g r a p h y -•  2 80 286 300  1  INTRODUCTION  "Solange man  mich n i c h t e i n e s Bessern b e l e h r t , gehe i c h auf  diesem Wege f o r t und glaube, daS es besser s e i , des HERRN W i l l e n 1 . zu  tun a l s i h n bloB zu wissen".  Such i s J.M.R. Lenz's c o n c l u s i o n  to  a paper w r i t t e n f o r d e l i v e r y to the S t r a s s b u r g S o c i e t y f o r  Philosophy and L i t e r a t u r e sometime d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1772-1774. The essay attempted t o l a y r a t i o n a l i s t i c foundations on which t o base a system of m o r a l i t y t h a t would s a t i s f y the demand, f e l t s t r o n g l y by Lenz and w i d e l y shared by h i s age, f o r a new i n human e t h i c a l a f f a i r s :  activism  f o r a s p i r a t i o n r a t h e r than contentment,  a s t r i v i n g f o r f u r t h e r improvement i n s t e a d of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h past achievements or i n d i f f e r e n c e t o p r e s e n t m e d i o c r i t y , above a l l for  p r a c t i c a l achievements r a t h e r than mere t h e o r e t i c a l  The c a l l plicit  insights.  to a c t i o n i s heard i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought, being im-  i n L e i b n i z ' s system of monadic i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as i n  Kant's e t h i c a l imperative;  i t i s heard i n the Church where, under  P i e t i s t i n f l u e n c e the s t a t i c and p a s s i v e nature of Lutheran t e a c h ing  on the i n e f f i c a c y o f human works f o r s a l v a t i o n and the need  for  " f a i t h alone" y i e l d e d to a more a c t i v e concern t o b r i n g  g i o n to bear on the p r a c t i c a l matters of everyday l i f e , heard i n the l i t e r a r y world as men  reli-  and i t i s  came, w i t h Herder, to see h i s -  t o r y as drama and drama as h i s t o r y , as the sum of what happens and what people do. The demand f o r mere knowledge to be supplemented by a c t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d throughout Lenz's w r i t i n g s , however, by v a r i o u s t h e o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l arguments, which encourage us to t r e a t  2  t h i s a l l - p e r v a s i v e i d e a as more than merely a r e f l e c t i o n o f the mood o f the times, as more than Sturm und Drang impatience w i t h the  hide-bound t r a d i t i o n s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s l i f e ,  o r the i n e v i t a b l e  r e a c t i o n t o the complacency  t h a t accompanied  the Enlightenment's  advances i n understanding.  With Lenz, a c t i o n , and the moral im-  p l i c a t i o n s and problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , are an o v e r r i d i n g concern, and one i n which the uniqueness o f Lenz's thought i s largely  t o be found.  There i s l i t t l e  i n common between Lenz's  a c t i v i s m and the u n c o n t r o l l e d , heedless behaviour o f K l i n g e r ' s or  L e i s e w i t z ' " K r a f t k e r l e " , c h a f i n g a t the l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e i r  sphere o f a c t i o n .  Lenz does not see a c t i o n merely as a way t o  deploy the c o l o s s a l e n e r g i e s o f the g e n i u s .  As Bertha Huber-  B i n d s c h e d l e r p o i n t s out i n her study o f Lenz's psychology: "In Lenz war, abgesehen von Goethe und Herder, das k r a f t g e n i a l e Streben am meisten von a l i e n Stiirmern und Drangern v e r t i e f t . Der nur a f f e k t i v e , schrankenlose Titanismus war seinem eigenen Wesen 2. fremd."  Indeed Lenz c o n s c i o u s l y r e j e c t e d such use o f one's  e n e r g i e s : "Nichts i s t aber der menschlichen Natur unwiirdiger", he says, " a l s Handlungen  d i e nach keinem Z i e l gehen"(I.483). Nor  can Lenz condone merely n e g a t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e s o c i a l cism o r s o c i a l a c t i o n .  criti-  Rather he r e j e c t s a l l a c t i o n t h a t i s not  whole-heartedly devoted t o the p r a c t i c a l improvement o f s o c i e t y or  the i n d i v i d u a l .  Thus Huber-Bindschedler sums up Lenz's unique-  ness: "Lenz begniigte s i c h aber damit h i c h t , Bestehendes  einfach  n i e d e r z u r e i B e n , sondern machte es s i c h zur groBen Aufgabe,  auch  Plane zu Reformen zu entwerfen, a l s o p r o d u c k t i v e K r i t i k zu iiben, und damit r a g t e r liber a l l e anderen k l e i n e r e n Sturmer und Dranger hinaus" (19).  3  I t i s o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t Lenz wished to reform s o c i e t y . What i s not so w e l l a p p r e c i a t e d staked  a l l h i s personal  life:  i s the extent  to which Lenz  h i s career, h i s reputation,  happiness, on the hope and b e l i e f t h a t men reformable by the l i k e s of him.  his  were reformable,  There were to be  and  reformed,  moreover, not by having t h e i r minds e n t e r t a i n e d with p r o f i t a b l e i d e a s , but by being f e e l i n g s , and  personally challenged  and  through an awakening of t h e i r moral awareness.  Ottomar Rudolf, a r r i v i n g at a f o r m u l a t i o n his  i n t h e i r hearts  book of t h i s fundamental Lenzian  i n the c o n c l u s i o n  to  purpose, too l a t e though to  make much use of i t , speaks of the poet's d e s i r e to awaken, through h i s a r t , the o r g a n i c m o r a l i t y  l y i n g dormant w i t h i n  he speaks of Lenz's b e l i e f t h a t the proof of l i t e r a t u r e was  man; in  3.  its  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n l e a d i n g the reader to a new  life.  I t i s our view, too, t h a t a c t i o n i n Lenz i s not merely a h i g h l y developed i d e a , but a l s o a way His c a l l  even a r e l i g i o n .  f o r a c t i o n a r i s e s out of the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t moral  are r e a l i s a b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l and  society alike.  work of 1771-1776 i s i t s e l f h i s own such g o a l s , his  of l i f e ,  i t is itself  way  His  goals  literary  of working t o achieve  the s o r t of a c t i o n t h a t he commends i n  t h e o r e t i c a l essays. I t has  been common to dwell on the o f t e n u n r e a l i s t i c nature  of much of Lenz's a c t i v i t y , to s t r e s s the f a i l u r e of h i s a s p i r a t i o n s , and who,  to show the f a i l u r e s to be symptomatic of an i n d i v i d u a l  l a c k i n g "Verstand", as Wieland and Lavater  n o t i c e , fought h i s b a t t l e s and  were not slow to  s t r o v e f o r h i s reforms more i n the  4  realm o f h i s own f a n t a s y than i n the r e a l world.  4.  C r i t i c s of  Lenz have been a l l too r e a d i l y i n s p i r e d by Goethe's v e r d i c t on his  former c l o s e f r i e n d t o r e s e a r c h h i s weaknesses r a t h e r than  his  s t r e n g t h s : "So h a t e r niemanden, den e r l i e b t e ,  jemals ge-  5.  n u t z t , niemanden, den e r haBte, jemals geschadet."  In the  present study we s h a l l not attempt t o evaluate the r e l e v a n c e or e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Lenz's a c t i o n , p a r t l y because t h i s has been done b e f o r e , but p a r t l y a l s o because i t i s not important  here  t h a t Lenz's ideas and a c t i v i t i e s d i d not b r i n g him p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l success. or r e l e v a n c e ;  Success i s not always a measure of value  Lenz's v i s i o n o f the world  i s not rendered  value-  l e s s merely by h i s l a c k o f those q u a l i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r and pers o n a l i t y r e q u i r e d f o r i t t o make an impact on the r e a l world w i t h which i t was concerned.  social  Lenz may w e l l have s u f f e r e d  from a l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f " D i s p r o p o r t i o n des T a l e n t s m i t dem Leben" than most poets, e s p e c i a l l y as he saw h i s t a l e n t s as u s e l e s s except i n the context o f p r a c t i c a l l i f e . o f t e n overlooked  But one t h i n g t h a t i s  i s t h a t Lenz was w e l l aware o f h i s shortcomings.  He knew t h a t h i s ideas and a s p i r a t i o n s o u t s t r i p p e d h i s power to implement them, he was aware of h i s tendency f o r h i s f a n t a s y t o form i t s own image o f r e a l i t y and supplant t h a t t r u e r image t h a t sober r e f l e c t i o n subsequently of  gave him.  I t i s because he i s aware  h i m s e l f t h a t he i s able t o g i v e l i t e r a r y shape t o such p e r s o n a l  experiences  as he r e c o r d s i n Per Waldbruder and Das Tagebuch.  In  r e a l i t y , Lenz knew h i m s e l f only too w e l l ; he had l e a r n t from h i s P i e t i s t u p b r i n g i n g to monitor h i s i n n e r l i f e ,  and had the l i t e r a r y  g i f t s to e x p l o r e them i n the o b j e c t i v e medium o f poetry and prose.  5  W h i l s t b e i n g sure, t h e r e f o r e , o f h i s s t r e n g t h s he has a r e a l i s t i c awareness  o f h i s weaknesses;  Goethe say of him:  i n Pandemonium Germanicum Lenz makes  " L e i s t e t er n i c h t s , so hat er doch groJ3 ge-  ahndet"(11.276). It  serves l i t t l e purpose, t h e r e f o r e , to d w e l l on the d i s -  crepancy i n h i s l i f e between h i s p h i l o s o p h y of a c t i o n and h i s l a c k of  p r a c t i c a l s u c c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as h i s p h i l o s o p h y takes f u l l y  i n t o account the q u e s t i o n of f a i l u r e , and o f a c t i o n done i n e r r o r and producing harmful consequences.  Our aim i s to expound h i s  i d e a s , not to c r i t i c i s e them or q u e s t i o n h i s s u i t a b i l i t y to r e present them.  What i n t e r e s t s us i s what Lenz consciously and con-  s i s t e n t l y advocates and attempts to put i n t o p r a c t i c e .  I t i s our  b e l i e f t h a t h i s views on a c t i o n t h a t were expressed over the p e r i o d 1771-1776 do form a coherent whole, and can be s t u d i e d f o r t h e i r own  sake.  T h i s approach i s i n c o n t r a s t to t h a t which sees Lenz's  o p t i m i s t i c a c t i v i s m as a s h o r t - l i v e d s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a fundamental, o v e r r i d i n g i r r a t i o n a l i s m , produced i n him by h i s P i e t i s t and f u e l l e d by h i s extreme s e n s i b i l i t y . example,  d i s c e r n s a development  Werner Wien's study, f o r  i n Lenz's thought from an  p e r i o d o f i r r a t i o n a l i s m , s t r o n g l y c o l o u r e d by P i e t i s t through a p e r i o d o f L e i b n i z i a n r a t i o n a l i s m , t o a new 6. earlier irrationalism.  upbringing  initial  asceticism, form of h i s  We c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i v i s m of t h i s  proach harmful t o a t r u e understanding of Lenz's i d e a s .  ap-  I t does  not  h e l p to see aspects of Lenz's thought merely as stages on the  way  back to i r r a t i o n a l i s m and u l t i m a t e madness.  What should be  s t r e s s e d i s what i s d e l i b e r a t e and c o n s c i o u s l y s t r i v e n a f t e r i n Lenz, not what happens when t h i n g s get out of hand, as they d i d  6  from l a t e 1776  onwards.  Development, anyway, i s d i f f i c u l t  to  t r a c e when the order of Lenz's works i s not known f o r sure,  and  when works are even m i s - i d e n t i f i e d and wrongly brought i n t o r e l a t i o n w i t h one as we  another:  an unfortunate d e f e c t of Wien's study,  s h a l l see i n chapter t h r e e below.  A study of development  n e c e s s a r i l y presupposes a c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the c h r o n o l o g i c a l order of the works concerned.  A d i f f e r e n t order would demand a  d i f f e r e n t theory of development.  With many of Lenz's w r i t i n g s  t h a t c e r t a i n t y i s , a t present, i m p o s s i b l e to achieve; and to proceed without  i t i s , with Wien, to come p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e to adopt-  i n g an order which makes b e s t sense of the theory of development a l r e a d y assumed, r a t h e r than d e r i v e a sense of development d i r e c t l y from a g i v e n o r d e r . than change, we  By n o t i n g c o n s i s t e n c y i n Lenz's thought  rather  are t h e r e f o r e on s a f e r ground, e s p e c i a l l y as the  p e r i o d o f Lenz's key w r i t i n g s covers a mere s i x y e a r s : s c a r c e l y a long enough p e r i o d to a l l o w us to t a l k of the poet's "mature" thought.  We  are f o c u s s i n g on r e c u r r e n t ideas because  these can be reasonably expected t i o n s and,  " e a r l y " or  to r e p r e s e n t fundamental c o n v i c -  j u s t as reasonably, to f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n Lenz's drama-  t i c w o r k s — t h e most v a l u a b l e items of h i s l i t e r a r y l e g a c y .  Not  t h a t the i d e a of a development or change i n the Lenz of the years 1 7 7 1 - 1 7 7 6 should be a l t o g e t h e r excluded.  There i s no doubt t h a t  Die Soldaten, as a l a t e r p l a y than Der Hofmeister, maturer poet.  We  indicates a  s h a l l comment i n our c o n c l u s i o n below on what  m a t u r i t y the p l a y r e v e a l s . T h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l analyse Lenz's n o t i o n of a c t i o n , as i t i s d i s c u s s e d i n theory, as i t i s urged on h i s l i s t e n e r s  as  7  a p r a c t i c a l o b l i g a t i o n , and essays and for et  as i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s are drawn out i n  i l l u s t r a t e d i n dramas.  His ideas were f i r s t  the b e n e f i t of a l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y : the S o c i e t e de de B e l l e s L e t t r e s i n S t r a s s b u r g  S o c i e t e ) . I t was  his  f o r the weekly s e s s i o n s of t h i s group t h a t most  dynamic philosophy.  c a s i o n i n t o impatient  even to counter  The  the  moved to s t r e s s  poet i s provoked on more than one  oc-  c r i t i c i s m of i t s p r a c t i c e s , and he begins to  a c t i v i t y i n i t s midst i n terms of a p r i v a t e m i s s i o n  to the unconverted. and  i t was  t u r g i d s p i r i t of the group t h a t Lenz was  regard h i s own  Philosophie  ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as  of Lenz's essays were produced, indeed apparently  expressed  He  complains of i t s "Schneckenmoralphilosophie",  d e c l a r e s h i s r e s o l v e "den 7.  einzustecken".  Leuten Standpunkt i h r e r R e l i g i o n  I t i s to t h i s S o c i e t e t h a t he makes the pronounce-  ment, quoted a t the beginning  of t h i s study, t h a t no amount of  t h e o r i s i n g w i l l r e p l a c e the need f o r p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n .  The  Societe  w i l l be s t u d i e d , t h e r e f o r e , as the i n i t i a l  context  as the i n i t i a l  as such a s t a r t i n g  sphere of h i s a c t i v i t y , and  p o i n t f o r the r e f o r m a t i o n  of s o c i e t y as a whole.  of Lenz's i d e a s ,  We  s h a l l show  t h a t he a l s o found i n the S o c i e t e not only a p r e t e x t and  audience,  but a l s o an important shaping i n f l u e n c e f o r h i s views i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g of one member: Johann D a n i e l Salzmann. The  con-  cept of a c t i o n w i l l then be s t u d i e d i n s p e c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l essays, beginning puts together  and  through a c t i o n . w e l l how  with the m o r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s , where Lenz expounds a system of moral growth and Being no p h i l o s o p h e r ,  unsystematically  however, and  freedom  knowing  full  h i s t h i n k i n g always proceeded, Lenz the  t h e o l o g i a n develops h i s thoughts on a c t i o n most f u l l y i n h i s theo-  8  logical treatises. The c a l l to a c t i o n i n our opening q u o t a t i o n , r e m i n i s c e n t of S t . James's "Seid aber Thater des Worts und n i c h t Horer reveals  the i d e n t i t y , t o Lenz's mind, o f m o r a l i t y  allein",  8.  and C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  and i n d i c a t e s how both of these come back down to the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of a c t i o n . tun";  R e l i g i o n i s a c t i o n : "des HERRN W i l l e n  and a c t i o n , b e i n g the p r i n c i p l e of m o r a l i t y ,  g i o n : "des HERRN W i l l e n define  the Lord's w i l l which man  some o f Lenz's w r i t i n g s morality lity,  zu t u n " .  i s also  must be a c t i v e to perform.  In  t h i s q u e s t i o n does not seem to apply.  The  of a c t i o n matters l e s s than the f a c t t h a t a c t i o n i s mora-  is religion.  He w r i t e s :  traumt habt, sondern was gut  reli-  The problem a r i s e s how we are t o  "Ihr werdet g e r i c h t e t werden, und  s e i d schon j e t z t g e r i c h t e t vor Gott, n i c h t nach dem,  sei  zu  Oder  was  i h r ge-  i h r gehandelt habt b e i L e i b e s Leben, es  bose"(I.509). His demand f o r a c t i o n a t a l l c o s t s ,  whether good o r bad, f o l l o w s Pounds: the one who  the model of C h r i s t ' s p a r a b l e of the  i s censured i s the one who  does n o t h i n g : "Nur  dem Knecht, der s e i n noch iibriges Pfund anwendet, w i r d mehr gegeben a l s er h a t — d e r andere kehr i n s Chaos zuriick, aus dem  er zur  neuen Schopfung h e r v o r h a t t e gehen konnen, vergrab es t i e f im SchweiBtuch und s t e r b e des Todes"(I.504).  But a c t i o n does pose a  problem to Lenz; he i s aware of the d i f f i c u l t y of harmonising action with morality  and w i t h happiness, and of the sometimes  t r a g i c consequences of well-meaning human a c t i o n . lief,  I t i s h i s be-  though, t h a t such consequences can be overcome by God's  grace and by repentance, understood i n the l i t e r a l Greek word: metanoia.  sense of the  9  The t h e o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f a c t i o n ,  then,  t h a t he works out i n h i s essays, and encapsulates i n the imperative:  M£TavoE*LTE  , has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Lenz's  theory, as i t i s presented i n h i s l i t e r a r y - c r i t i c a l  dramatic  writings.  There i t a l s o becomes a c r i t e r i o n by which t o defend Goethe's Werther, and by which a l s o t o judge and condemn the l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e o f C h r i s t o p h M a r t i n Wieland, whose moralism ran counter, he felt,  t o h i s n o t i o n o f f r e e a c t i o n , and whose l i g h t - h e a r t e d n e s s  discouraged moral s t r i v i n g .  The well-meaning,  though  a c t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l deserve not an urbane, compassion  erring,  i r o n i c s m i l e , but  and f o r g i v e n e s s , and the encouragement t o do b e t t e r  next time. In the dramas. Per Hofmeister and P i e Soldaten Lenz t e s t s out h i s t h e o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n . There he c r e a t e s a world i n which h i s b e l i e f i n metanoia behaviour i n r e a l l i f e ,  comes to bear on the m e d i o c r i t y o f human as h i s n a t u r a l i s t i c genius p e r c e i v e s i t .  He shows t h a t s i n c e human beings are r e s p o n s i b l e agents, t r u e happiness and f u l f i l m e n t comes by moral and s p i r i t u a l growth, a c h i e ved through the  t r i a l and e r r o r o f a c t i v e l i v i n g . For the main  c h a r a c t e r s i n these p l a y s such growth i s seen i n enhanced human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n an acceptance o f h a r d s h i p . Through t h e i r act i o n , though e r r i n g , Berg and Gustchen, Wesener and Marie l e a r n t o love and to s u f f e r . These l e s s o n s , once l e a r n t , enable  Gustchen  and her f a m i l y t o work a l t r u i s t i c a l l y on o t h e r s ' b e h a l f . Work, l o v e and s u f f e r i n g : we s h a l l b r i e f l y note i n c o n c l u s i o n how these t h r e e v a l u e s f i n d a powerful echo i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y psychology. The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f L e n z i a n " a c t i o n " have been r e d i s covered i n the contemporary therapy .  p r a c t i c e o f r e a l i t y therapy and l o g o -  10  CHAPTER The  S o c i e t e de P h i l p s o p h i e  ONE e t de B e l l e s L e t t r e s  Shortly a f t e r a r r i v i n g i n Strassburg Lenz found h i s way was  i n the Spring of  1771,  to a Kosthaus run by the Lauth s i s t e r s i n what  then the Knoblauchgasse. Here, as Goethe and J u n g - S t i l l i n g  r e c o r d , he met  a c i r c l e of ten to twenty f r i e n d s u n i t e d by  common enthusiasm f o r l i t e r a t u r e and S t i l l i n g had  contemporary thought. Jung-  belonged to t h i s T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t s i n c e 1770  to stay another year.  Herder had  doubtedly s t i l l very much present  a  and  j u s t l e f t i n person but was in spirit.  Goethe was  was un-  there,  apart from h i s v i s i t s to Sesenheim, f o r the f i r s t f o u r months of Lenz's stay, before cluded  r e t u r n i n g to F r a n k f u r t . Other Stammgaste i n -  Goethe's f r i e n d L e r s e ,  immortalised  and Meyer von Lindau, a l a t e r f r i e n d and Throughout the summer months they met religion,  language, poetry  joyment and The  i n Gotz von  correspondent of Lenz's.  over lunch,  and philosophy,  and  d i s c u s s i n g drama,  f i n d i n g immense  s t i m u l a t i o n i n a h i g h l y c r e a t i v e exchange of  group had  found i t s p r e s i d e n t  i n the actuary  Salzmann, an o l d e r f i g u r e than the others t a i n l o g i c and  order  and  I t was  once a week e x p r e s s l y  d i s c u s s i n g members' own a l s o attached  Philosophie  ideas.  Johann D a n i e l  a f i t person to main-  a l s o here t h a t Lenz l e a r n e d ,  haps through J u n g - S t i l l i n g , of another, more formal  had  en-  i n the d i s c u s s i o n s as w e l l as moderation i n  the consumption of wine.  t y t h a t met  Berlichingen,  writings.  himself  literary  f o r the purpose of reading By  persocieand  the autumn of t h a t year  he  to t h a t group, known as the S o c i e t e  de  et de B e l l e s L e t t r e s or G e s e l l s c h a f t der  schonen  Wis-  11  senschaften.  The i m p o r t a n c e o f a l l t h e s e  gatherings  c a n n o t be  overstressed.  O u t o f them came, a s d i r e c t r e s u l t s , J u n g - S t i l l i n g s  autobiography,  L e n z ' s c r i t i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s  1  H e r d e r ' s e s s a y on S h a k e s p e a r e p u b l i s h e d  i n Von deutscher  Kunst, and Salzmann's Kurze Abhandlungen.  Beyond t h e s e  essays,  A r t und specific  w o r k s t h e S t u r m u n d D r a n g movement a s a w h o l e owes much t o t h o s e formative the  and c r e a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h e K n o b l a u c h g a s s e and a t  Societe. L e n z ' s t h e o r e t i c a l e s s a y s w e r e composed f o r d e l i v e r y t o t h e  S o c i e t e ; h e r e i t was t h a t h i s i d e a s w e r e s h a p e d a n d a r t i c u l a t e d , and  t h a t he i s s u e d h i s s t i r r i n g c a l l  to action.  S o c i e t e h i s c o n v i c t i o n s would probably expressed  Without the  have remained l a r g e l y un-  and much o f h i s w o r k u n w r i t t e n .  It i svital,  then, t o  c l a r i f y w h a t t h e S o c i e t e was a n d who w e r e t h e f i g u r e s r e s p o n s i b l e for  shaping  i t , and thereby  development. until  f o r i n f l u e n c i n g Lenz's  S u r p r i s i n g l y , a good d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n has r e i g n e d 1.  the present  day on t h i s  score,  S o c i e t e ' s e x i s t e n c e has been c a l l e d ly,  intellectual  by Goethe h i m s e l f .  and on o c c a s i o n  even t h e  i n q u e s t i o n , and t h i s ,  I n Book 10 o f D i c h t u n g  strange-  u n d W a h r h e i t we  f i n d h i m n o t o n l y q u e s t i o n i n g t h a t L e n z was i n v o l v e d i n s u c h a society, but apparently existed.  q u e s t i o n i n g as w e l l whether such a s o c i e t y  T h i s i s a p u z z l i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n , when we s e e L e n z a t -  t e s t i n g so s t r o n g l y t o the S o c i e t e s 1  i m p o r t a n c e b y t h e number o f  times  he r e f e r s t o i t , a n d r e f e r s h i s w r i t i n g s a n d i d e a s  cally  to i t .  L e n z w r i t e s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n 1774 a s a p r e f a c e  Anmerkungen iiber das T h e a t e r : Erscheinung  specifi-  "Diese  to h i s  S c h r i f t ward zwei J a h r e v o r  d e r D e u t s c h e n A r t und K u n s t und des Gotz v o n B e r l i c h -  12  ingen i n einer G e s e l l s c h a f t guter  Freunde  vorgelesen"(I.329).  G o e t h e , h o w e v e r , l o o k i n g b a c k on h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h writes:  "Bei diesen  f a l l e n d , daB auSerte,.  (Anmerkungen) war  e r i n einem l a k o n i s c h e n  a l s s e i der  k e i t g e g e n das  es m i r  Lenz,  einigermaBen  Vorberichte  Inhalt dieses Aufsatzes,  sich  dahin  der mit  r e g e l m a B i g e T h e a t e r g e r i c h t e t war,  Heftig-  schon  e i n i g e n J a h r e n , a l s V o r l e s u n g , e i n e r G e s e l l s c h a f t von  auf-  vor  Literatur-  f r e u n d e n bekannt geworden,zu der  Z e i t a l s o , wo  g e s c h r i e b e n gewesen. I n L e n z e n s  StraBburger Verhaltnissen  ein literarischer  Zirkel,  den  Gotz noch  i c h n i c h t kennen s o l l t e ,  nicht schien  etwas  problematisch"(X.11). What a r e we  t o make o f G o e t h e ' s w o r d s ?  Lenz r e a l l y belonged to a l i t e r a r y c i r c l e ? r e a d h i s e s s a y t o i t i n 1771? existence world?  o f any  s o c i e t y t h a t was  Whether o r not  here the  he  i s he  Or  he  outside  c a u s e he will  Drang y e a r s ;  i t i s n o t m e r e l y t o c l e a r up  disguises to  interest  i f he  i n his claims  a f a c t u a l p o i n t , but  subsequent c o o l i n g of t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p .  s e e s L e n z as a somewhat m i s g u i d e d o p p o n e n t , and the k i n d of u n s t a b l e  s u b j e c t i v i s m t h a t he had  (X.11;571,notes 7,15).  He  the  as an  put  to bethat  Goethe  example  b e h i n d him  i s s t u n g by w h a t he  in  suggests  i s more c o n c e r n e d , h e r e , w i t h a p o r t r a y a l o f L e n z  e x p l a i n the  Werther  literary  autobiography,  There i s personal  remembers h i s S t u r m und  very  t h a t a l e r t s us  at t h i s p o i n t of h i s  accuracy.  that  really  the  o f h i s own  here t h a t Lenz i s i n e r r o r , o r even d i s h o n e s t priority,  t h a t he  questioning  e x a c t o b j e c t o f h i s q u e r y i n a way  than merely h i s t o r i c a l  querying  knows a b o u t t h e S o c i e t e , he  f a c t t h a t more i s a t s t a k e ,  t h e way  Or  I s he  sees  of in  as  13  the p r o v o c a t i v e  nature of Lenz's c l a i m to p r i o r i t y , and  the p r o v o c a t i o n  personally.  f o r h i s own  Lenz i s a f t e r a l l seeking  t h i n k i n g at Goethe's and  Goethe, f o r one,  prestige  Herder's expense,  i s not prepared to grant  i t . We  takes  and  might expect,  though, t h a t he would proceed to r e f u t e Lenz's c l a i m by  appealing  to the known f a c t s of the case: t h a t i s , by going i n t o the  cir-  cumstances under which the ideas of the Anmerkungen were r e a l l y developed, expanding on the glimpse t h a t he g i v e s us i n Book XI of Dichtung und Wahrheit, where he d e s c r i b e s  the i n s i g h t s of  Anmerkungen as a r i s i n g out of group d i s c u s s i o n at the Tischgesellschaft. there, und  "was  " W i l l jemand u n m i t t e l b a r  lunch-time  erfahren,"  he  says  i n d i e s e r lebendigen G e s e l l s c h a f t gedacht, gesprochen  verhandelt  worden, der l e s e den A u f s a t z  peare J^siciJ , i n dem  Herders iiber Shaks-  Hefte von Deutscher A r t und  Lenzens Anmerkungen iibers T h e a t e r " (IX. 494) . question  the  of Lenz's membership i n any  other  Kunst; f e r n e r  Regardless o f s o c i e t y , i t was  the almost  c e r t a i n l y a t t h i s Table S o c i e t y t h a t Herder's and Lenz's essays were born, and  Goethe c o u l d have made t h i s p o i n t .  chooses r a t h e r to q u e s t i o n  the o c c a s i o n  of p r i o r i t y i s based: t h a t i s , Lenz's belonging  the l i k e l i h o o d of  not only to the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t but a l s o to ideas were a l l e g e d to have  D e c l i n i n g to d i s c u s s the f a c t s of the case, Goethe sees  o n l y dishonesty f a c e " was pursue and own  on which Lenz's a s s e r t i o n  to q u e s t i o n  another s o c i e t y , out of which the new come.  However he  i n Lenz's c h a r a c t e r .  To him,  t h i s " l a c o n i c pre-  j u s t another i n s t a n c e of Lenz's apparent p a s s i o n a t t a c k him,  out o f Q u i x o t i c d e l u s i o n , and  p r i o r i t y on f i c t i o n a l evidence.  Was  to  to argue h i s  Goethe r i g h t to suggest  14  t h a t Lenz's p r e f a c e was  a f i c t i o n i n r a t h e r poor t a s t e ?  A c t u a l l y , i f the a n a l y s i s t h a t Theodor F r i e d r i c h made of the Anmerkungen i s c o r r e c t , Goethe was  not a l t o g e t h e r wrong to  2.  question  Lenz's c l a i m to p r i o r i t y .  But he was  the l i k e l i h o o d of h i s membership i n the l i t e r a r y by Lenz i n the p r e f a c e  to h i s essay.  The  wrong to  question  s o c i e t y mentioned  f a c t i s t h a t Goethe  was  not i n a p o s i t i o n to judge whether a l i t e r a r y  circle  of him was  circumstances i n  1771.  He  a l i k e l y p a r t of Lenz's S t r a s s b u r g left,  independent  a f t e r a l l , i n August of t h a t year, and  have seemed q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e  to him  i t must  i n r e t r o s p e c t t h a t Lenz  c o u l d e a s i l y have become a c t i v e i n a s o c i e t y t h a t autumn and ter,  and  t h a t had  c o u l d have w r i t t e n up some of the l i t e r a r y taken p l a c e i n the Table S o c i e t y before  win-  discussion  Herder's  and  Goethe's departure and which Goethe mentions i n the passage from Dichtung und Wahrheit quoted a b o v e — p r e s e n t i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l to the other of h i s We  s o c i e t y , the  then  " G e s e l l s c h a f t guter Freunde", as a paper  own. need not,  then, be l e d a s t r a y by Goethe's comments,  assume t h a t a l i t e r a r y  s o c i e t y separate from Goethe's own  g e s e l l s c h a f t never e x i s t e d .  Its existence  and  Tisch-  i s proved beyond  any  shadow of doubt by r e f e r e n c e s made to i t by other w r i t e r s than Lenz. A t t e n t i o n was  drawn to the d e c i s i v e testimony of J u n g - S t i l l i n g  i n h i s autobiography by K a r l Kochendorffer as e a r l y as 1890, a r t i c l e which,.if  i t had  much of the c o n f u s i o n  i n an  been b e t t e r known, would have prevented  t h a t has  reigned  u n t i l today about the nature  3.  of the S o c i e t e .  Although Kochendorffer i s concerned to c l a r i f y  15  t h i s o n l y i n as f a r as such c l a r i f i c a t i o n a b s o l v e s impious charge o f falsehood  and c o n f i r m s  G o e t h e o f any  h i s own  (Kochendorffer s) 1  p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t F r e n c h c u l t u r e , he d o e s p e r f o r m t h e l a s t i n g s e r v i c e o f s e p a r a t i n g much o f t h e f a c t f r o m t h e f i c t i o n rounds our understanding vities.  that  o f Goethe's and L e n z ' s S t r a s s b u r g  H i s argument f o r t h e s e p a r a t e  literary activities,  acti-  e x i s t e n c e o f Lenz's  " G e s e l l s c h a f t g u t e r Freunde" and f o r d i s s o c i a t i n g Goethe its  sur-  from  i s clinched, albeit with a slight r e -  s e r v a t i o n , b y comments J u n g - S t i l l i n g makes a b o u t t h e S o c i e t e i n a letter  to a reader  h i t h e r t o overlooked, Societe.  o f 1 7 7 9 — a l e t t e r w h i c h seems t o h a v e b e e n even by K o c h e n d o r f f e r ,  Jung w r i t e s : " A l s i c h zu  s i c h daselbst eine Anzahl der  schonen Wissenschaften  StraBfcmrg  studierte, hatte  e d l e r J i i n g l i n g e zu e i n e r G e s e l l s c h a f t zusammen g e b i l d e t , i c h g e r i e t h i n d i e s  angenehme Band u n d a r b e i t e t e f l e l B i g Dr.  i n discussions of the  m i t ihnen.  Der groSe  G. s t u d i e r t e a u c h d a s e l b s t , und ob e r s i c h g l e i c h n i c h t m i t  einlies: sehr  so e r s c h i e n e r doch z u w e i l e n  a u f , den l i e b e n . J u n g l i n g e n  know, t h e r e f o r e , o f t h i s o t h e r Dichtung  zu h e l f e n . "  rived i n Strassburg,  i t s existence.  or before  However, Lenz a r -  he j o i n e d t h e S o c i e t e , i t i s q u i t e  t h a t by t h e time Lenz j o i n e d , Goethe had l o n g s i n c e  Strassburg.  1771,  :  i s r e f e r r i n g here t o a time before  p u t t i n g i n an a p p e a r a n c e , a n d i n d e e d  indeed  Dr.. G o e t h e d i d  s o c i e t y , a n d c a n n o t be s e e n i n  u n d W a h r h e i t t o be q u e s t i o n i n g  since Jung-Stilling  likely  b e i u n s , und m u n t e r t e m i c h 4.  might a l r e a d y have  I f t h e y n e v e r met a t t h e S o c i e t e , t h e n ,  n o t h a v e known o f L e n z ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i t , although  ceased  left  G o e t h e may at least i n  b y 1774, when t h e A n m e r k u n g e n , w i t h t h e i r  provo-  16  c a t i v e prologue, were sent to Goethe f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , he would c e r t a i n l y have known. I f Goethe seemed s u r p r i s e d to hear of Lenz's membership i n the S o c i e t e as e a r l y as himself  had  1771,  t h i s i s , then, because Goethe  stopped coming by the time Lenz j o i n e d ;  i t i s not,  as Kochendorffer suggests, t h a t Goethe spurned the S o c i e t e a l together  and  assumed t h a t Lenz would have done the same.  s c h o l a r asks us to b e l i e v e , and was  This  to applaud the f a c t , t h a t i t  contempt f o r French c u l t u r e t h a t l e d Goethe to a v o i d  S o c i e t e and  to c o n s i d e r  i t inconceivable  the  t h a t the German Lenz 5.  might at a l l have wanted to have anything There i s c e r t a i n l y no f o r not  support f o r t h i s view.  j o i n i n g are not known f o r sure, but  he would have found l i t t l e to i n s p i r e him but probably r a t h e r u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d and  and  Drang s u b - c u l t u r e ,  t h a t was  ideas of the time, but contained only a few who,  Goethe's reasons i t is likely  that  i n the e n t h u s i a s t i c  dilettantish  l e c t u r e s t h a t were h e l d i n i t s midst.  Sturm und  We  should  nourished  discussions see  by the  i t as a  latest  amongst i t s y o u t h f u l members  l i k e J u n g - S t i l l i n g and Lenz, would make t h e i r  mark on the German l i t e r a r y scene. one  to do w i t h i t e i t h e r .  In comments from more than  source the S o c i e t e i s presented as a group of young  i n need of help and  thinkers  encouragement, r a t h e r than as a c r e a t i v e body 6.  from which someone l i k e Goethe might have d e r i v e d p r o f i t .  If  he p a r t i c i p a t e d at a l l i n i t , i t would have been merely i n an advisory  capacity.  i n a l i m i t e d way,  But  t h a t he d i d m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h i t , i f  i s documented i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s .  statement quoted above, mentions t h a t Dr.  G. d i d pay  Jung, i n h i s them a v i s i t  17  from time t o time, and r e l a t e s i n the same l e t t e r how the i n stalments of h i s autobiography, which he sent to the S o c i e t e as they were completed, were passed on to Goethe, who was subsequently  to s u r p r i s e Jung with t h e i r l u c r a t i v e p u b l i c a t i o n .  another i n s t a n c e , Goethe h i m s e l f w r i t e s  In  i n September 1771 t o  Roderer, no doubt the s e c r e t a r y of the group a t t h a t time, proposing  t h a t the " G e s e l l s c h a f t " put on a s p e c i a l c e l e b r a t i o n i n 7.  commemoration o f Shakespeare.  F i n a l l y Lenz, i n h i s essay  "tiber Gotz von B e r l i c h i n g e n " , f e e l s t h a t the S o c i e t e ' s l i n k s with Goethe warrant t h e i r c l a i m i n g him as one o f t h e i r own: "Gotz von B e r l i c h i n g e n " , he w r i t e s , geschrieben"(I.381-82).  "den e i n e r aus unsern M i t t e l n  R e f e r r i n g again  t o Gotz i n a l e t t e r t o  Goethe o f February 1775, he speaks o f the S o c i e t e and i t s s h o r t comings i n a way t h a t suggests t h a t Goethe knew very w e l l what he was t a l k i n g about  (Br.I.89).  What, t h e r e f o r e , was the nature o f t h i s s o c i e t y ? Lenz's involvement i n i t ?  What was  Who e l s e were c o n t r i b u t i n g members,  and how d i d Lenz r e a c t t o t h e i r ideas and t o the s p i r i t and ethos o f the S o c i e t e as a whole? t i o n s , and o f a s s e s s i n g formation  The importance o f these ques-  the p a r t t h a t the S o c i e t e played  i n the  of Lenz's i d e a s , becomes apparent as we c o n s i d e r  how  many of Lenz's t h e o r e t i c a l essays were produced f o r d e l i v e r y to it.  Apart from the Anmerkungen, the q u e s t i o n  o f whose d e l i v e r y  to the " G e s e l l s c h a f t guter Freunde" F r i e d r i c h ably  researches,  the f o l l o w i n g essays, i n c l u d i n g those t h a t are c e n t r a l t o the development o f Lenz's n o t i o n o f a c t i o n , were papers w r i t t e n f o r d e l i v e r y a t i t s weekly  sessions.  18  1) "tiber Gotz von B e r l i c h i n g e n " . Apart address:  from the formulae of  "meine werten Briider", "meine Herren! " , t h i s  a l l u d e s to a l o c a l audience f a m i l i a r to him l i t i e s of the home i n which i t gathers:  "Was  and  essay-  to the  faci-  konnte eine  schonere Voriibung zu diesem groBem S c h a u s p i e l des Lebens s e i n , a l s wenn w i r da uns  i t z t noch Hande und Fiifie gebunden s i n d ,  i n einem oder andern Zimmer unsern Gotz von B e r l i c h i n g e n , e i n e r aus unsern M i t t e l n geschrieben, fiihren versuchten.  eine groBe  den  Idee—aufzu-  Lassen S i e mich fiir d i e Ausfiihrung d i e s e s  P r o j e k t s sorgen, es s o i l gar s o v i e l S c h w i e r i g k e i t e n  n i c h t haben  a l s S i e s i c h anfangs e i n b i l d e n werden"(I.381-82).  I t i s not  known i n which house the S o c i e t e  met.  2) " V e r t e i d i g u n g der V e r t e i d i g u n g des tibersetzers der L u s t s p i e le".  T h i s essay  a l l u d e s to the weekly schedule  of meetings  h e l d by the S o c i e t e . 3) "Zweierley  uber V i r g i l s e r s t e Ekloge d. 6ten 9mbr 1773".  4) "tiber Ovid".  T h i s work c o n t a i n s e n l i g h t e n i n g h i n t s as to  the ethos of the S o c i e t e as we  can deduce i t from Lenz's  criti-  cisms of i t . 5) "Versuch tiber das e r s t e P r i n c i p i u m der Moral".  T h i s con-  t a i n s a r e f e r e n c e to an essay by Salzmann d e l i v e r e d to the S o c i e t e sometime e a r l i e r . 6) "Supplement zur Abhandlung vom und Bosen". vom  T h i s was  Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s  Gutes  d e l i v e r e d one week a f t e r h i s "Abhandlung  Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s " ,  u n f o r t u n a t e l y no longer  7) The v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of Meynungen e i n e s L a i e n .  extant.  The  whole  19  w o r k , as i t was  p u b l i s h e d i n 1775,  s e r i e s of i n d i v i d u a l 8)  i s composed o f a  long  papers.  "liber d i e Natur unsers  Geistes".  Other papers were d e l i v e r e d t o the l a t e r Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t , b u t do n o t r e f l e c t L e n z ' s c o n c e r n need not concern The  us  w i t h the i d e a of a c t i o n  here.  development of Lenz's n o t i o n of a c t i o n takes  place,  t h e r e f o r e , i n the context of t h i s S o c i e t e ' s a c t i v i t i e s . ideas d i d not evolve and to  i n a vacuum b u t  c a n o n l y p r o p e r l y be u n d e r s t o o d ,  t h a t Lenz i s d r i v i n g a t .  The  t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f p e o p l e who i d e a s , i t was delivery.  therefore, with  h e l p us  Anything  S o c i e t e was  another company.  we  leaves o f f .  f u r s Frauenzimmer" J s i c l j s p e c i f i c tendencies expected  first  were  a subject already discussed  will  Meynungen e i n e s L a i e n and  i n the S o c i e t e .  t h a t s o c i e t y members w o u l d be  by  assembled  show l a t e r i n d e t a i l ,  were a p p a r e n t l y produced t o  and  have been  r e c a p i t u l a t e s an e a r l i e r p a p e r by S a l z m a n n , p a r t l y p i c k s where t h a t essay  just  i n the  member, o r t o make a d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e t o t h e a s we  what i t  p r e t e x t f o r t h e i r development  I n a t l e a s t t h r e e i n s t a n c e s , i t w o u l d seem, t h e y  "Versuch",  re-  a f t e r a l l not  Without i t s e x i s t e n c e there would probably  The  can  h a p p e n e d t o be e x p o s e d t o L e n z ' s  t h e o c c a s i o n and  w r i t t e n e i t h e r t o e l a b o r a t e on  ideas,  reference  to understand  no o c c a s i o n t o w r i t e m o s t o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l e s s a y s place.  His  i n response to other  the d i s c u s s i o n out of which they arose.  construct of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l is  and  partly up "Ossian  counter  I t a l s o seems t o h a v e b e e n c o n t r i b u t i n g members,  and  t h a t they would a l l read a paper or a l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n i n t u r n .  20  We  know from the p r o t o c o l of the Deutsche Gese11schaft,  successor  to the S o c i e t e , t h a t t h i s was  the 10.  the custom t h e r e .  as i s most l i k e l y , the same custom p r e v a i l e d i n the  If,  earlier  S o c i e t e , t h i s e x t e r n a l pressure would have been a f u r t h e r l u s to the p r o d u c t i o n  of Lenz's works.  r e a l l y needed t h i s p r e s s u r e .  Not,  He probably  stimu-  however, t h a t  he  brought f a r more  spontaneous i n i t i a t i v e to the a c t i v i t i e s of the S o c i e t e than of the other members, as h i s t i r e l e s s labours on b e h a l f of  any  the  Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t a t t e s t , even i f he can somewhat i m p a t i e n t l y r e b e l a g a i n s t the i d e a of meeting as f r e q u e n t l y as once a week (1.473). Much l i g h t c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be shed on Lenz's ideas i f i t were known what others were w r i t i n g about i n the S o c i e t e . f o r t u n a t e l y , w h i l s t F r o i t z h e i m has  Un-  s u p p l i e d us with a complete  p r o t o c o l of the s e s s i o n s of the Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t , which notes the s u b j e c t matter of each c o n t r i b u t i o n , we r e c o r d from the f i r s t s o c i e t y , which saw 11 . Lenz's n o t i o n of a c t i o n . G e s e l l s c h a f t was  And  have no  such  the development of  by the autumn of 1775,  founded, h i s i n t e r e s t had  when the  p a r t l y turned  from  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , moral and r e l i g i o u s concern to l i t e r a r y and p o l i t i c a l matters, so there i s l i t t l e of r e l e v a n c e  to our  i n the new  socio-  society that i s  study.  However there are v a r i o u s sources from which we  can  gain  some i d e a of the s u b j e c t s t h a t were debated i n the S o c i e t e catch a glimpse of i t s s p i r i t . Lenz's own  essays and  There are f i r s t l y ,  of  l e t t e r s which c o n t a i n numerous  to h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t , r e f e r e n c e s  and  course, references  to other members, and  to  21  aspects  o f i t t h a t he disapproves  of.  l a t e d h i n t s i n other w r i t e r s , n o t a b l y  Secondly^there a r e i s o i n Jung-Stilling.  Thirdly,  some o f the w r i t i n g s o f one important c o n t r i b u t o r mentioned a l ready: Johann D a n i e l Salzmann, have s u r v i v e d , and these p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f o r d some i n s i g h t i n t o the ideas t h a t s t i m u l a t e d thinking. wichtige  Lenz's  These w r i t i n g s are h i s Kurze Abhandlungen tiber e i n i g e Gegenstande aus der R e l i g i o n s - und S i t t e n l e h r e , pub-  l i s h e d i n 1776 with Goethe's encouragement and h e l p , but f i r s t 12. d e l i v e r e d as papers to the S o c i e t e from 1772-1774.  In con-  s i d e r i n g these as a p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on the development o f Lenz's own i d e a s , we must b r i n g them i n t o r e l a t i o n with the l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Salzmann to Lenz during the summer and autumn of 1 7 7 2 — l e t t e r s  which have not s u r v i v e d but which we know some-  t h i n g about i n d i r e c t l y through Lenz's w r i t t e n r e p l i e s , and which were important i n prompting him t o t h i n k through c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i d e a s .  A study o f Salzmann, t h e r e f o r e ,  w i l l be the b e s t i n t r o d u c t i o n to the S o c i e t e as a whole, s i n c e apart from Lenz he i s the member about whom we know most  (Jung-  S t i l l i n g had l e f t as e a r l y as March 1772). The Actuary Strassburg  i s a f i g u r e who looms f a i r l y l a r g e i n Goethe's  l i f e and i s enshrined  i n h i s l a t e r memories.  of him a t second-hand from Dichtung und Wahrheit and from  We know letters  to him from Goethe, Lenz, Wagner, M i c h a e l i s and o t h e r s , and a t f i r s t - h a n d from h i s own l e t t e r s t o these correspondents and h i s 13. p u b l i s h e d essays. S e v e r a l c r i t i c s have w r i t t e n about him and h i s thought, and some have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p 14. between h i s s p i r i t u a l world and the young Goethe's. Yet no  22  attempt has y e t been made t o t r a c e the i n f l u e n c e Salzmann might have had on Lenz. the p a s s i n g  C e r t a i n l y most s t u d i e s on our poet r e f e r t o  on o f b a s i c elements o f L e i b n i z i a n philosophy t o  Lenz by the Actuary d u r i n g and  t h e i r correspondence o f the summer  autumn o f 1772, but no a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the essays  themselves, d e l i v e r e d i n 1772-1774, one o f which i s e x p r e s s l y r e f e r r e d t o by Lenz i n h i s "Versuch iiber das e r s t e  Principium  der Moral." I t i s no doubt because no a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o S a l z mann s w r i t i n g s t h a t s c h o l a r s have been content t o regard the 1  o l d e r Actuary i n a r a t h e r uncomplimentary l i g h t , even as somewhat o f a thorn  i n Lenz's f l e s h .  ion i s a confusion  A t the r o o t o f t h i s misconcept-  o f h i s r o l e i n the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t w i t h h i s  d i f f e r e n t r o l e i n the S o c i e t e . fundamental c o n f u s i o n  T h i s , i n t u r n , goes back to a  between the two s o c i e t i e s .  Scholars  that  have d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the s o c i e t i e s have nonetheless assumed t h a t what was t r u e of the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t was a l s o true of the S o c i e t e : they have jumped t o the unwarranted c o n c l u s i o n , t h a t the S o c i e t e a l s o was Salzmann's s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t i n g  that i s , Salz-  mann' s i n t e r e s t s . A g a i n i t i s probably Goethe's w r i t i n g s , along w i t h JungS t i l l i n g ' s, t h a t have encouraged t h i s misconception, although t h i s time through no d e l i b e r a t e obscurantism.  Both w r i t e r s , i n  well-known passages, d e s c r i b e Salzmann i n glowing t e r m s — i f , i n J u n g - S t i l l i n g ' s case, i n r a t h e r vague o n e s —  as the beloved and  respected p r e s i d e n t o f the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t a t the Jungfer 15. Lauths'. He i t was who s e t the tone, who kept t h i n g s w i t h i n  23  the bounds of decorum, who  encouraged h i s younger a s s o c i a t e s  i n t h e i r l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t i e s but r e s t r a i n e d them when they allowed  p a s s i o n or s e n s i b i l i t y to get the b e t t e r of them. His  philosophy,  summarised by Goethe i n a l e t t e r to Susanna von  K l e t t e n b e r g , took i t s p l a c e along with t h a t of others i n the  -  16.  d i s c u s s i o n s around the t a b l e .  L e t us note,  though, t h a t what  i s being d e s c r i b e d here i s Salzmann's r o l e i n the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t , not the S o c i e t e . was  U n l i k e the S o c i e t e , t h i s "Round T a b l e "  no l i t e r a r y c i r c l e founded f o r the express purpose of s h a r i n g  ideas.  I t became the focus f o r such a d e c i s i v e encounter of  minds p u r e l y because Goethe, Herder, Lenz, and  Jung-Stilling  happened to a r r i v e i n S t r a s s b u r g at around the same time and p a t r o n i s e the same e a t i n g - p l a c e .  T h i s , i n every  the s o c i e t y t h a t Goethe d e s c r i b e s i n Dichtung i t was  instance, i s  und Wahrheit;  and  over t h i s s o c i e t y t h a t Salzmann p r e s i d e d .  As Kochendorffer,  who  was  the f i r s t to draw a t t e n t i o n  f o r c i b l y to the c o n f u s i o n over the two c l a r i f y matters, was  to  s o c i e t i e s and  somewhat to  p o i n t e d out i n h i s a r t i c l e , the l i t e r a r y  Societe  a l r e a d y c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Table S o c i e t y by Jung-  Stilling  i n h i s autobiography.  T h i s work, w r i t t e n much sooner  a f t e r the event than Goethe's, d e f i n i t e l y speaks of a l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y : "Die G e s e l l s c h a f t der schonen Wissenschaften",  not  only  a p a r t from Goethe but a l s o a p a r t from the Table S o c i e t y p r e s i d e d over by Salzmann. then, a l i t t l e  A f t e r speaking  of the T i s c h g e s e l 1 s c h a f t , and  l a t e r , of Goethe's p r i v a t e h e l p i n a c q u a i n t i n g  him with the seminal works of l i t e r a t u r e of the time, Jung  says:  24  "Es war  auch eine G e s e l l s c h a f t junger Leute zu  StraBburg, d i e  s i c h d i e G e s e l l s c h a f t der schonen Wissenschaften nannte.  . .auch  h i e r l e r n t e er d i e schonsten Biicher und den*, j e t z i g e n Zustand der 17. schonen L i t e r a t u r i n der Welt kennen." his  other reference  above, i s Salzmann  to the S o c i e t e  N e i t h e r here nor i n  i n h i s l e t t e r of 1779  quoted  mentioned.  I t might s u r p r i s e us that J u n g - S t i l l i n g r e f e r s i n both cases to the S o c i e t e  as " G e s e l l s c h a f t der schonen Wissenschaften" and  does not use the French t i t l e :  Societe  de ^ h i l o s o p h i e  e t de B e l l e s  L e t t r e s , a l l u d e d to by Lenz, i n a l e t t e r to Goethe of February 1775, where he speaks of " S o c i e t a t " , 18. and " B e l l i t e r a t u r " .  We  "Schneckenmoralphilosophie"  are not to conclude, however, t h a t  Lenz  and Jung belonged to d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s , the one o r i e n t e d t o wards French l i t e r a t u r e , and the o t h e r towards German. d o r f f e r demonstrates  t h e i r i d e n t i t y by p o i n t i n g out t h a t  Kochenreferen-  ces to O t t , Lenz's c l o s e f r i e n d , are common to both L e n z s and J u n g - S t i l l i n g ' s comments on t h e i r s o c i e t i e s . below t h a t there i s a c l o s e resemblance  We  s h a l l also  between Lenz's and  argue Jung's  c r i t i c i s m s of t h e i r s o c i e t i e s , which confirms t h e i r i d e n t i t y and assures us of a more o b j e c t i v e impression of the ethos of t h i s one s o c i e t y .  There i s , anyway, one o c c a s i o n on which Lenz him-  s e l f uses, i n a l e t t e r to h i s f a t h e r , the t i t l e  that J u n g - S t i l l i n g  uses >(Br .1.35) . There i s no longer any cause, then, to confuse the  Societe  or " G e s e l l s c h a f t der schonen Wissenschaften" w i t h Salzmann's Table S o c i e t y . two.  Not t h a t there were no c l o s e l i n k s between the  J u n g - S t i l l i n g attended both s o c i e t i e s from 1771  until his  25  departure on March 24th 1772, and Lenz j o i n e d the S o c i e t e o n l y a few months a f t e r j o i n i n g the Table S o c i e t y .  Salzmann, as i s w e l l  known, had attended and p r e s i d e d over the Table S o c i e t y f o r many years and was a l s o to support the S o c i e t e .  But the f a c t t h a t  these t h r e e f i g u r e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n both s o c i e t i e s does not mean t h a t the l i t e r a r y was an e x t e n s i o n o f the Table S o c i e t y , c a t e r i n g to the same people, as Rosanow suggests when he w r i t e s : "Aus den Briefen  (Lenz's t o Salzmann of the summer and autumn of 1772)  e r s i e h t man schon,  daB Lenz s i c h zu d i e s e r Z e i t m i t Salzmann be-  freundet h a t t e und Stammgast an der Table d'hote war, d i e nach den Erzahlungen  Goethes i n naher Beziehung  zu dem Salzmannschen 19.  K r e i s e stand oder gar i n ihm a u f g i n g  (Dichtung und Wahrheit i x ) " .  I t would be more c o r r e c t to use the phrase  "Salzmannscher K r e i s "  with r e f e r e n c e t o the Table S o c i e t y , f o r t h a t was c l e a r l y h i s s o c i e t y , as everyone acknowledged.  I t i s by no means proven,  however, t h a t we should say the same of the S o c i e t e . The  importance  o f such a d i s t i n c t i o n becomes apparent when  s c h o l a r s , a t t r i b u t i n g the same r o l e t o Salzmann i n the S o c i e t e as he played i n the Table S o c i e t y , a l l o w Salzmann i n so doing t o be used as a scapegoat  f o r the aspects o f the S o c i e t e t h a t Lenz  c r i t i c i s e s so i m p a t i e n t l y .  Kochendorffer's a r t i c l e  dissociating  Salzmann from the o r i g i n s o f the S o c i e t e should have warned s c h o l a r s away from t h a t c o n c l u s i o n , but i n f a c t i t has not prevented the f i c t i o n o f the "Salzmannsche G e s e l l s c h a f t " from being perpetuated down t o the present day.  In almost every mention or  d i s c u s s i o n o f Lenz's S o c i e t e , i t i s r e f e r r e d t o as the "Salzmannsche G e s e l l s c h a f t " , sometimes even  cp.ite e r r o n e o u s l y as " S a l z -  26  manns Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t " .  That such a c o n f u s i o n can  still  r e i g n i n so a u t h o r i t a t i v e a work as the "Hamburger Ausgabe" of Goethe's works makes i t necessary  somewhat to labour the p o i n t  t h a t what Goethe d e s c r i b e s i n Dichtung und Wahrheit i s the Table S o c i e t y , not the S o c i e t e , and  t h a t there are no grounds  f o r a l l o t t i n g to Salzmann the same r o l e i n the l a t t e r as 20. c e r t a i n l y had  i n the former.  He was  he  c e r t a i n l y p r e s i d e n t of  the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t , which c o u l d j u s t l y be c a l l e d the " S a l z mannsche G e s e l l s c h a f t " , but with the weekly l i t e r a r y he had q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  Societe  links.  An example of the c o n f l i c t i n g accounts of the  Societe's  o r i g i n s i n s c h o l a r s w r i t i n g as r e c e n t l y as the 1960's i s seen i n A l b e r t Fuchs' p o s t f a c e to the M e t z l e r r e p r i n t of Salzmann's Kurze Abhandlungen, on the one  hand, and T i t e l and Haug's e d i -  t i o n of Lenz's s e l e c t e d works, on the other. c o n f i d e n t l y i n connection  with the supposed founder of  S o c i e t e : "Als P r e s i d e n t der von 'Gelehrten  Ubungsgesellschaft'  lungen' nur  zum  Fuchs can  write the  ihm gegriindeten und g e l e i t e t e n h a t t e Salzmann s e i n e  'Abhand-  V o r t r a g im K r e i s e von deren jungen M i t g l i e d e r n  21 . bestimmt." was  T i t e l and Haug, on the other hand, deny t h a t i t  Salzmann's s o c i e t y : "der Aktuar Salzmann s c h e i r t d e r G e s e l l -  s c h a f t , i n der er dann eine bestimmende R o l l e s p i e l t e , spater nahergetreten  zu s e i n (der f r i i h e s t d a t i e r t e s e i n e r  i n F r a n k f u r t erschienenen 22. 1772  angesetzt)".  t a n t to us as we  erst  Vortrage.  . . i s t auf den  16.  1776  Februar  T h i s q u e s t i o n of Salzmann's r o l e i s imporendeavour to assess h i s i n f l u e n c e on Lenz,  the extent to which he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ethos of  the  and  27  S o c i e t e about which Lenz l a t e r expresses c o n s i d e r a b l e  dissatis-  faction. Although not a great d e a l can be known about Salzmann s 1  r e l a t i o n s to the Sturm und Drang f i g u r e s t h a t gathered i n S t r a s s burg i n the 1770's, enough i s known f o r us to be able t o i n d i cate what i n f l u e n c e he had a t l e a s t on Goethe and Lenz. mann was an o l d e r man than a l l the o t h e r s ,  Salz-  though not q u i t e as 23.  o l d as Goethe estimates i n Dichtung und Wahrheit.  Rudolf c o r -  r e c t l y p o i n t s out Goethe's e r r o r i n p u t t i n g h i s e a r l i e r mentor i n h i s s i x t i e s a t the time of the poet's stay i n S t r a s s b u r g ; the A c t u a r y was then a c t u a l l y f o r t y - e i g h t years o f age, which, however, s e t s h i s year o f b i r t h a t 1732, not 1752 as Rudolf 24. says.  Whilst,  t h e r e f o r e , he was not q u i t e as o l d a man as i t  seemed t o Goethe l o o k i n g back, he was a much o l d e r man than any i n h i s l i t e r a r y c i r c l e , being by  Goethe's s e n i o r by 27 years,  Lenz's  29 and J u n g - S t i l l i n g ' s 'by 18. I t i s no doubt the f a c t t h a t Salzmann belonged t o an o l d e r  generation  t h a t has l e d some c r i t i c s t o imagine a l a r g e g u l f  between h i s temperament and philosophy younger a s s o c i a t e s .  of l i f e ,  and t h a t o f h i s  Fuchs, f o r example, i n making Salzmann the  i n i t i a t e r o f the S o c i e t e , makes him a t the same time f o r what Lenz d e s c r i b e s  responsible  to Goethe i n h i s l e t t e r o f February 1775  as i t s "groBmiitterlichen Gang".  Speaking o f " l e jugement que  Lenz, champion, comme Herder, de 1 a g i t a t i o n pfer.omantique du 1  ;  Sturm und Drang, porte  s u r l a 'Gelehrte  Ubungsgesellschaft',  c e r c l e de l e c t u r e e t de conferences fonde e t _longtemps par Salzmann", he w r i t e s :  le  preside  "Avec l a c o n v i c t i o n du r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e ,  28  Lenz se dechaine  contre 1 ' e s p r i t q u i y regne s e l o n l u i :  Geschnarch von B e l l e l i t t e r a t u r , wo Nesselbliiten.  nichts dahinter i s t a l s  . . s t e i f e l e i s e Schneckenmoralphilosophie, 25.  ihren groBmutterlichen  'vagues  Gang f o r t k r i e c h t " .  die  F r o i t z h e i m , be-  1  f o r e Fuchs, had g i v e n a s i m i l a r impression by the way  i n which  he had d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the Actuary Salzmann and h i s younger r e l a t i v e F r i e d r i c h R u d o l f : " N i c h t a l s o dem Salzmann, der damals (1 775) deutschen  schon miide, dem  A k t u a r i u s '•>  neuen Fluge  der  Jugend n i c h t mehr zu f o l g e n vermochte, sondern F r i e d -  r i c h Rudolf Salzmann. . . s i n d d i e unter dem P r o t o k o l l genannten und  im  'Burgerfreund  1  Namen Salzmann im  veroffentlichten  d i c h t e und Prosa-Abhandlungen zuzuerkennen". (38-39). l e d to imagine a t i r e d and t e d i o u s notary unable with the a c t i v e German youth.  We  Ge-  are  to keep up  More r e c e n t l y even than Fuchs,  G i r a r d has a l s o made Salzmann an o b j e c t of Lenz's i m p a t i e n t c r i t i c i s m by i d e n t i f y i n g him w i t h the aspects and p r a c t i c e s of the S o c i e t e which Lenz d i s l i k e s . He w r i t e s : M§me l e s r a p p o r t s q u ' i l e n t r e t i e n t avec Salzmann e t ses amis s u b i s s e n t l e s e f f e t s d'un comportement c o n t r a d i c t o i r e . Le 2 decembre 1772, Lenz e s t a c c u e i l l i comme membre d'honneur dans l a " S o c i e t e " e t remercie ses amis en termes emouvants e t quelque peu pathetiques de 1 ' a f f e c t i o n q u ' i l s l u i p o r t e n t . Mais un an p l u s t a r d , i l s ' i r r i t e du c a r a c t e r e t r o p f a m i l i e r que prennent l e s r a p p o r t s e n t r e l e s membres du c e r c l e , demande d'espacer l e s reunions e t i r o n i s e sur l e s e s p r i t s f o r t s q u i ont reclame l a s u p p r e s s i o n de tous l e s debats t h e o l o g i q u e s pour se consacrer exclusivement a une a c t i v i t e s o i - d i s a n t s c i e n t i f i q u e e t l i t t e r a i r e . En f e v r i e r 1775, dans une l e t t r e a Goethe, i l condamne l a v a n i t e du bavardage desordonne sur l a l i t t e r a t u r e e t c e l l e de l a p h i l o s o p h i e m o r a l i s a n t e e t s c l e r o s e q u i se partagent l e s faveurs des compagnons de Salzmann. 26.  29  Now the p i c t u r e i s one not o f a s o l i d a r i t y o f Lenz and the German youth a g a i n s t Salzmann, but a s o l i d a r i t y of S a l z mann and the S o c i e t e a g a i n s t Lenz.  But e i t h e r way we must ask  what j u s t i f i c a t i o n there i s i n l i n k i n g Salzmann's name with the aspects  and p r a c t i c e s o f the s o c i e t y t h a t Lenz i s concerned t o  eradicate.  C e r t a i n l y Salzmann was no longer  i n the f u l l  flight  of youth, but t h i s i s no reason t o make him r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the S o c i e t e ' s lapse i n t o tedious m o r a l i s i n g or t o assume t h a t h i s . thought and w r i t i n g s served  as a brake t o the i d e a s , imagina-  t i o n and a c t i v i t y o f one such as Lenz. T h i s assumption was a l r e a d y made by F r o i t z h e i m , h i m s e l f on Stober:  basing  "Salzmann's l i t e r a r i s c h e Leistungen  s i c h s t e t s i n demselben G l e i s e m o r a l i s c h e r  bewegten  Betrachtungen. 'Uber  d i e Wiirkungen der Gnade, d i e L i e b e , d i e Rache, uber , Tugend und L a s t e r , Gemiitsbewegungen, Neigungen und L e i d e n s c h a f ten, liber R e l i g i o n und d i e G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t i n b i i r g e r l i c h e n Ges e l l s c h a f t e n ' , so l a u t e n d i e T i t e l -I774J  s e i n e r 1772-1776  factually  vorgelesenen Abhandlungen; k e i n Wunder, wenn Lenz, d e r  nach dem Fortgang Goethes der g e i s t i g e M i t t e l p u n k t  jener G e s e l l -  s c h a f t wurde, i n einem B r i e f an Goethe im Sommer 1775 seinem Unmut uber d i e s e E i n s e i t i g k e i t l i t t e r a r i s c h e r Bestrebungen Ausdruck v e r l i e h " ( p . 2 5 ) .  As we have seen, Goethe never was the  l e a d i n g l i g h t i n the S o c i e t e , and Lenz's l e t t e r t o Goethe i s b e t t e r dated i n February 1775; but F r o i t z h e i m i s c h i e f l y wrong to assume t h a t Salzmann's s u b j e c t s would have been ones c e r t a i n to d i s p l e a s e Lenz, notably on account o f t h e i r r e c u r r e n t theme.  30  There i s no evidence f o r t h i s assumption; i t was  Lenz h i m s e l f who  harping  had  indeed i f anyone,  developed the r e p u t a t i o n f o r ever  on the same theme.  T h i s seems to be the sense of h i s  i r o n i c comments i n "Uber Ovid" concerning  the apparent con-  s p i r a c y to exclude t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of which he was s e l f so  fond(I.691).  Following  Froitzheim,  Fuchs understands Lenz to be blaming  the degeneration of the S o c i e t e on Salzmann's t e d i o u s p h i s i n g , and 1776  him-  philoso-  c a l l s the c o l l e c t i o n of essays t h a t appeared i n  a "resume de l a p h i l o s o p h i e v i l i p e n d e e par Lenz",  however to defend the essays a g a i n s t t h i s charge: "On  seeking n'a  pas  a f f a i r e au moralisme de grand'mere asthenique ;('groBmiitter l i c h e n Gang'), dont p a r l e Lenz, et c ' e s t comme en une'sorte de  plaid-  oyer a n t i c i p e q u i r e d u i t a neant un t e l reproche, un t e l cont r e s e n s , que  Salzmann e c a r t e de sa pensee l e s a f f a i s s e m e n t s 27.  v i e i l l e femme".  Fuchs goes on to r e v e a l Salzmann's thought  to be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by power and r e c t l y to such passages i n the  eine sehr s t a r k e E n e r g i e  dynamism, r e f e r r i n g Abhandlungen  k e i n schmachtiges, schwaches und muB  as:  t h a t Lenz had  und Nachdenken haben".  He  This and  A simpler  as e v i ^  explana-  not a t a l l Salzmann's p h i l o s o p h i s -  i n mind when v o i c i n g h i s c r i t i c i s m s  S o c i e t e i n t h i s l e t t e r to Goethe of 1775 ferring.  cor-  immer duldendes Miittergen, s i e 28.  dence t h a t he has misunderstood the A c t u a r y . t i o n , however, i s t h a t i t was  quite  "Die L i e b e i s t  Fuchs adduces as a defence a g a i n s t Lenz's a c c u s a t i o n ,  ing  de  of  the  to which Fuchs i s r e -  i s much more l i k e l y t h i n k i n g of other members,  p o s s i b l e f o r us a t present  to i d e n t i f y .  I t was  im-  not t h a t Lenz  was  31  branding  as s e n i l i t y what was  h i s own—he was  g u i l t y of no such "contresens"--he  not r e f e r r i n g to the Actuary But viewing  i n f a c t more a p h i l o s o p h y  at the  like  simply  was  time.  Salzmann i n t h i s way  has become an i n g r a i n e d  h a b i t , l e a d i n g Fuchs on to d e s c r i b e the Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t as not merely a successor to the S o c i e t e or even a r e f o r m a t i o n of i t , but as a competitor J-D  with i t :  " I I ne f a u t pas  confondre  Salzmann e t sa 'Gelehrte t i b u n g s g e s e l l s c h a f t ' avec F r e d e r i c -  Rodolphe Salzmann, c o u s i n de l ' A c t u a r i u s , e t l a 'Deutsche s e l l s c h a f t ' i n StraBburg  q u ' i l p r e s i d a apres  Ge-  l e depart de Lenz, 29.  fondateur,  en 1775,  de c e t t e r i v a l e du c e r c l e de J-D  Salzmann".  Lenz d i d become very c r i t i c a l of the S o c i e t e and founded G e s e l l s c h a f t to r e p l a c e i t , but not to r i v a l i t ; and, see, i t was  the  as we  shall  not a case of p i t t i n g the younger Salzmann's S o c i e t y  a g a i n s t the o l d e r s . 1  C e r t a i n l y there are important d i f f e r e n c e s  between Salzmann's thought and Lenz's,  and even g r e a t e r  diffe-  rences of temperament; y e t the i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t these were f r u i t f u l i n s t i m u l a t i n g the poet's  development r a t h e r  than  stifling i t . Contemporary t e s t i m o n i e s to the A c t u a r y ' s highly favourable.  The  c h a r a c t e r are a l l  twenty-one year o l d Goethe w r i t e s enthu-  s i a s t i c a l l y to a f e l l o w - s t u d e n t : "Der A. und  i c h , w i r werden  uns  30.  ehstens  copuliren lassen".  The month b e f o r e , he had w r i t t e n to  F r l . von K l e t t e n b e r g , e x p r e s s i n g disappointment  with the  Pietist  c o n t a c t s he had made i n S t r a s s b u r g , but making f a v o u r a b l e mention of Salzmann: "Eine andre Bekanndtschaft,  grad das W i d e r s p i e l  d i e s e r , hat mir b i s h e r n i c h t wenig genutzt.  . .Herr  von  ** e i n I d e a l  32  f u r Mosheimen und Jerusalemen, e i n Mann, der durch v i e l fahrung  mit v i e l Verstand  B l u t s womit er von  gegangen i s t ; der bey  Er-  der K a l t e  des  i e h e r d i e Welt b e t r a c h t e t hat, gefunden zu  haben g l a u b t : daB wir auf d i e s e Welt g e s e t z t s i n d besonders urn i h r n u t z l i c h zu s e i n , daB  wir uns  dazu f a h i g machen konnen,  wozu denn auch d i e R e l i g i o n etwas h i l f f t ; b a r s t e der beste how  i s t . Und  und  daB der Brauch31 .  a l l e s draus f o l g t . "  t h i s c a l l to u s e f u l a c t i v i t y was  Fuchs shows  most t i m e l y f o r Goethe,  i n v i g o r a t i n g f o r him i n the aftermath of h i s F r a n k f u r t i l l n e s s , and s t i m u l a t i n g i n c o n t r a s t to h i s experience with P i e t i s t r e 32. ligion. J u n g - S t i l l i n g notes t h a t the two were a l r e a d y "Herzensfreunde"  by the time he became acquainted 33.  Table S o c i e t y .  J u n g - S t i l l i n g was  w i t h them a t the  e q u a l l y impressed by S a l z -  mann, and both poets i n c o r p o r a t e a f f e c t i o n a t e v i g n e t t e s of Actuary  i n t o t h e i r autobiographies.  stand, seine N a c h g i e b i g k e i t , Scherz und uns  the  Goethe Writes:' "Sein Ver-  seine Wiirde, d i e er b e i allem  s e l b s t manchmal b e i k l e i n e n Ausschweifungen, d i e er  e r l a u b t e , immer zu e r h a l t e n  wufite, machten ihn der ganzen  G e s e l l s c h a f t l i e b und wert""(IX.359);and J u n g - S t i l l i n g : e i n v o r t r e f f l i c h e r StraBburger  "Noch  saB da zu T i s c h . Sein P l a t z  war  der o b e r s t e , und ware es auch h i n t e r der Thiir gewesen" (Leben, p.275). E v i d e n t l y the young men r i t y and  l e a d e r s h i p , which was  valued h i g h l y Salzmann s autho1  h i s not only on account of h i s  s e n i o r i t y , but a l s o and p a r t i c u l a r l y because of h i s combination of firmness  and  indulgence.  G i r a r d suggests t h a t  Lenz p a r t i c u l a r l y needed the f a t h e r l y support stitutif":  appealing  of t h i s  "Moraliste et philanthrope, r a t i o n a l i s t e et  "pere  sub-  croyant,  33  de t r e n t e ans p l u s age que son protege, ce c e l i b a t a i r e domine l a s i t u a t i o n ; l ' i r o n i e b i e n v e i l l a n t e a l t e r n e avec l e s c o n s e i l s j u d i c i e u x . I I e s t successivement pour Lenz un un  'aimable mentor', un  'bon S o c r a t e " ,  'medecin aimable e t doux'; Lenz-  A l c i b i a d e se soumettra v o l o n t a i r e m e n t , patiemment, a ses d e c r e t s . Pere d'adoption e t pere s p i r i t u e l , Salzmann r e u s s i t 34. dans une e n t r e p r i s e d e l i c a t e : r e t a b l i r en Lenz un We  equilibre."  s h a l l suggest below t h a t Salzmann i n f l u e n c e s Lenz  ideo-  l o g i c a l l y as w e l l as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , t h a t Lenz f i n d s i n him a powerful s t i m u l u s as w e l l as s t a b i l i t y ,  t h a t h i s ideas t h e r e f o r e  prove to be s t r o n g e r medicine than one might suppose urbane p o r t r a y a l .  from  But i t i s t r u e t h a t the Actuary was  this  the one  to whom Lenz turned f o r support d u r i n g the emotional upheaval of h i s f r i e n d s h i p with F r i e d e r i k e B r i o n i n the summer of and who  was  1772,  a b l e to wean the poet back to a more d i s c i p l i n e d  approach to h i s s t u d i e s through a broadening of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l horizon.  E x a c t l y one year b e f o r e , Goethe, a t Sesenheim, had  a l s o turned to the Actuary to express the c o n f l i c t of h i s feel-., i n g s , not a d d r e s s i n g him, as Lenz does, as a s u p e r i o r : "mein Mentor", "mein Sokrates", but v a l u i n g nonetheless h i s f r i e n d l y 35. support.  Nor,  i t would seem, were these the o n l y ones to  p r o f i t from h i s f a t h e r l y c a r e . F r o i t z h e i m sees more than mere h a b i t i n Salzmann's l o n g s t a n d i n g p a t r o n i s a t i o n of the J u n g f e r Lauths' dining-room: "Die friih verwaisten P r e d i g e r s t o c h t e r , welche eine K o s t a n s t a l t anzufangen a r i u s Salzmann, 'dem (p.14).  g e n o t i g t waren, fanden an Aktu-  V a t e r Waisen', wohlwollende U n t e r s t u t z u n g "  From Stober's account i t would seem t h a t Salzmann had a  s p e c i a l a f f e c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n and a concern f o r t h e i r educa-..'  34  tion.  36.  T h i s t o p i c was  not one t h a t he wrote any paper  however, as Rudolf t e l l s us(p.86).  on,  The n o t i o n t h a t he d i d i s  based on Stober's c o n f u s i o n of the Actuary w i t h F r i e d r i c h Rudolph Salzmann: i t was  the l a t t e r who  d e l i v e r e d a paper  the Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t on 18th J u l y 1776 F e h l e r n i n der StraBburger K i n d e r z u c h t " .  entitled  to  "Von  The Actuary's  essays were a l l of a more g e n e r a l nature, d e a l i n g w i t h  den own  fairly  broad moral and p h i l o s o p h i c a l t o p i c s , which he l e f t i t to others to extend to s p e c i f i c s o c i a l g o a l s . responded  Lenz was  t h e r e f o r e , on Goethe's comments i n h i s  l e t t e r s and autobiography,  and on Lenz's correspondence  the Actuary up to the autumn of 1772,  complimentary  T h e r e a f t e r , as we have seen, they tend t o blame him  the degeneration of the S o c i e t e t h a t i s a l l e g e d by  The reason f o r t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s found i n the way to  Lenz. they  fail  d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y the Table S o c i e t y from the S o c i e t e , and  a t t r i b u t e to Salzmann the founding and l e a d i n g of the as w e l l as the former. to  with  s c h o l a r s of Lenz and of  t h i s p e r i o d always present Salzmann i n a most  for  who  e a g e r l y to t h i s c h a l l e n g e .  Basing themselves,  light.  one  latter,  I t i s worth w h i l e t r a c i n g t h i s c o n f u s i o n  i t s origin. If  Fuchs, Rudolf and F r o i t z h e i m can make Salzmann the  p r e s i d e n t of the S o c i e t e , and r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s tone and vities,  i t i s because of August Stober's account i n h i s e a r l y 37.  r e c o r d of the Actuary's l i f e . comprise  acti-  Stober's sources, however,  l i t t l e more than the w r i t i n g s we  p o s a l today.  s t i l l have a t our  He l i s t s them a t the beginning of h i s book as  dis-  35  Dichtung und Wahrheit,  J u n g - S t i l l i n g s autobiography, Salzmann's 1  o b i t u a r y by E n g e l h a r d t , h i s l i t e r a r y remains,  including h i s  essays, l e t t e r s and papers, and a few pages o f hand-written i n formation g i v e n t o Stober by two s c h o l a r s o f the S t r a s s b u r g library.  We might  t h i n k t h a t t h e r e would be important new ma-  t e r i a l i n Salzmann's Nachlafi  (unfortunately destroyed during  the war o f 1870-71) t h a t would make Stober's account v i t a l t o our understanding of Salzmann and the S o c i e t e .  However a c l o s e  study o f the pages t h a t d e s c r i b e the S o c i e t e i n d i c a t e s very l i t t l e duced  ence:  indeed o f the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n cannot be e a s i l y de-  from Goethe's and J u n g - S t i l l i n g s w r i t i n g s alone. 1  statement,  that  f o r example, concerning Salzmann's language  The prefer-  "Die deutsche Sprache iibte e r i n Rede und S c h r i f t am  l i e b s t e n ; a l l e i n auch d i e f r a n z o s i s c h e h a t t e e r s i c h auf eine 38. f u r jene Z e i t ausgezeichnete Weise angeeignet",  i s simply  based on the evidence o f h i s w r i t t e n works and on Goethe's des c r i p t i o n , i n Book 11 o f Dichtung und Wahrheit, f i n e command o f French.  o f Salzmann's  Stober simply puts t o g e t h e r r e f e r e n c e s  from a l l h i s sources and then g i v e s a f i n a l c o l o u r i n g t o the r e s u l t i n g composite  picture.  The u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f such a c o l l a g e  becomes apparent when he d e f i n e s the S o c i e t e i t s e l f : Schon zu Anfang der s e c h z i g e r Jahre, h a t t e Salzmann eine g e l e h r t e t i b u n g s g e s e l l s c h a f t '(Footnote.: Diese G e s e l l s c h a f t f i i h r t e nach und nach v e r s c h i d e n e Namen: S t i l l i n g nennt s i e G e s e l l s c h a f t der schonen Wissenschaften, das s p a t e r von Lenz gefiihrte P r o t o k o l l : G e s e l l s c h a f t zur Ausbildung der deutschen Sprache) g e s t i f t e t , an welcher, ausser den s t u dierenden Jiinglingen der T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t , auch andere junge Manner, von des V o r s i t z e r s liebenswiirdigem Charakter und v i e l s e i t i g e n Kenntnissen angezogen, A n t h e i l nahmen. H i e r wurden n i c h t nur, durch g e m e i n s c h a f t l i c h e G e l d b e i t r a g e , d i e neuen Erscheinungen i n verschiedenen Gebieten der L i t e r a t u r a n g e s c h a f f t und von den M i t g l i e d e r n gelesen und besprochen, sondern auch eigene A r b e i t e n g e l i e f e r t und be-  36 u r t h e i l t . Niemand war g e e i g n e t e r , j u g e n d l i c h e Gemiither zu l e i t e n , a l s Salzmann. Den minder begabten, r e d l i c h Strebenden, war seine Theilnahme an i h r e n Versuchen e i n aufregender Sporn, wahrend r e i c h e r a u s g e s t a t t e t e , s i c h l e i c h t iiberschatzende Oder iiberrennende G e i s t e r , o f f t unbewuBt, von ihm i n Schranken gehalten wurden. Dabei war er n i c h t s weniger a l s e i n s t e i f e r p e d a n t i s c h e r magister docens, sondern " e i n v e r m i t t e l n d e r Obmann", man mochte sagen e i n " l u d i moderator"(p.20). The  source  of most of these comments can e a s i l y be  traced,  but what concerns us about t h i s composite p i c t u r e i s t h a t i t mixes J u n g - S t i l l i n g ' s r e f e r e n c e s to the S o c i e t e and  Goethe's  r e f e r e n c e s to Salzmann as member of the Table S o c i e t y , with the p r o t o c o l we  of the l a t e r Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t of which, as  have seen and as F r o i t z h e i m long ago p o i n t e d out,  h i m s e l f was  not even a member.  know any more than we understanding  Stober,  then,  e v i d e n t l y d i d not  do about the S o c i e t e , and had  of what he d i d know.  Salzmann  a deficient  His view of Salzmann's r o l e  as founder of the S o c i e t e i s c o n t r a d i c t e d , anyway, by what he l a t e r wrote about i t i n h i s book: Joharin G o t t f r i e d Roderer StraBburg  und  seine Freunde, and  so proves i t s e l f  von  to have been  merely an assumption on h i s p a r t , not rooted i n f a c t .  As  he  shows i n the l a t e r book, the l i t e r a r y S o c i e t e de P h i l o s o p h i e e t de B e l l e s L e t t r e s was  founded i n the 1760's by students, 39.  the encouragement of c e r t a i n u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r s . F r i e d r i c h who  student  those of the 1770's (the G e s e l l s c h a f t being  of the S o c i e t e , which i s to be i d e n t i f i e d with 40.  S o c i e t e of the p r e v i o u s decade).  second book t h a t F r i e d r i c h Rudolf students  who  It is  e s t a b l i s h e s f o r us the c o n t i n u i t y between t h i s  e a r l y s o c i e t y and re-formation  with  Stober  Salzmann was  belonged to the S o c i e t e i n the  one  '60's.  a  the  says i n h i s of  those  I f indeed  a  37  Salzmann founded  i t , would t h i s not much more l i k e l y have  been the younger? The c o n f u s i o n o f the A c t u a r y with h i s younger c o u s i n i s , however, the f i r s t of Stober's d e f i n i t e and c r i t i c a l e r r o r s , as F r o i t z h e i m p o i n t e d out.  Other e r r o r s , again p o i n t e d  out—  somewhat g l e e f u l l y — b y F r o i t z h e i m , are h i s m i s - l o c a t i o n of the Jungfer Lauths' Kosthaus i n the Kramergasse i n s t e a d of Knoblauchgasse, h i s c l a i m , when p u b l i s h i n g the p r o t o c o l of the Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t , to be u s i n g an o r i g i n a l manuscript, when he was own  o n l y u s i n g a copy, h i s a d d i t i o n to i t of headings  composition, and h i s mistaken 41 .  of h i s  d a t i n g of three of Lenz's  l e t t e r s to Salzmann. We  are l e d a s t r a y , t h e r e f o r e , i f , w i t h Fuchs, we f o l l o w  Stober i n imagining a "Gelehrte U b u n g s g e s e l l s c h a f t " phrase) founded our Actuary. ary  was  (Stober's  and p r e s i d e d over by Johann D a n i e l Salzmann,  The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t someone other than the A c t u -  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the S o c i e t e ' s genesis and development  becomes l e s s u n l i k e l y as we him to have had w i t h i t .  c o n s i d e r the l i n k s t h a t we  These date from 16th February  do know 1772  onwards: the o c c a s i o n on which he presented the f i r s t paper i n the c o l l e c t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n 1776.  From then on, the other  which we know about he d e l i v e r e d , on average, year t i l l  the summer of 1774.  were produced  papers  a t a r a t e of two  a  I t i s more than l i k e l y t h a t others  and d e l i v e r e d d u r i n g t h i s time, which were not  p u b l i s h e d with the o t h e r s , as the d e l i v e r y o f two essays to the Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t i n 1776  unpublished 42.  suggests.  This  evidence of h i s a c t i v i t y i n the S o c i e t e i s r e i n f o r c e d by r e f e r e n -  38  ces  i n Lenz t h a t i n d i c a t e Salzmann s l i n k s w i t h i t . 1  They  come d u r i n g Lenz's correspondence w i t h the A c t u a r y from June t o October 1772, to  and are c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from r e f e r e n c e s  the Table S o c i e t y ; the l a t t e r i s d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y and un-  ambiguously as the " T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t " ''(letters 9, 19), and "die  Lauth'sche G e s e l l s c h a f t "  s i s t e r s who  ( l e t t e r 16), a f t e r the Lauth  operated the d i n i n g room, and again by Lenz  several  months l a t e r , i n a l e t t e r to h i s b r o t h e r Johann C h r i s t i a n ter  39), as a company of devotees to the t r u e s c i e n c e s :  bewohn i c h e i n k l e i n Zimmer a l l e i n ,  s p e i s e t a g l i c h an  T i s c h wo e i n i g e meiner Freunde mitessen (die e i n z i g e n  (let-  "Jetzt  einem die.in  StraBburg Liebhaber der achten Wissenschaften zu seyn s i c h n i c h t 43. schamen)".  The S o c i e t e , on the o t h e r hand, he r e f e r s to sepa-  r a t e l y i n t h i s same l e t t e r his  father  the  same t i t l e  graphy.  (39) as " S o c i e t a t " and i n a l e t t e r to  (17) as "eine G e s e l l s c h a f t der schonen Wissenschaften", as the one t h a t J u n g - S t i l l i n g uses i n h i s a u t o b i o -  T h i s i s c l e a r l y the s o c i e t y t h a t Lenz i s speaking o f i n  an important l e t t e r to Salzmann o f 5th, 6th or 10th August We  s h a l l quote the passage i n f u l l  of  what Salzmann's l i n k s were w i t h the S o c i e t e , and how  1772.  as i t g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n Lenz  views i t s purpose: Wollen S i e meine l e t z t e Ubersetzung aus dem P l a u t u s l e s e n , so f o r d e r n S i e s i e unserm guten O t t ab, denn i c h glaube s c h w e r l i c h daB s i e so b a l d i n der Geseilschaft wird v o r g e l e s e n werden. S i e haben mir keine N a c h r i c h t gegeben, wie s i e mit der l e t z t e r n gegenwartig z u f r i e d e n s i n d . VernachlaBigen S i e d i e s e P f l a n z s c h u l e I h r e r V a t e r s t a d t n i c h t , t h e u r e r Freund, v i e l l e i c h t konnten w o h l t h a t i g e Baume draus gezogen werden, auf welche K i n d e s k i n d e r , d i e s i c h unter  39 ihrem Schatten f r e u t e n , dankbar s c h n i t t e n : auch d i c h hat er p f l a n z e n h e l f e n . Es s i e h t noch z i e m l i c h w i l d und t r a u r i g i n I h r e r Region a u s — a b e r der e r s t e Mensch ward i n den Garten Eden g e s e t z t um i h n zu bauen"(Br.I.28-29). Lenz i s away on h i s employers' s e r v i c e , unable to a t t e n d the meetings of the S o c i e t e i n person, but keen t o remain i n touch.  The b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s passage i s q u i t e  straightforward:  we know t h a t Lenz's Plautus t r a n s l a t i o n s were exposed t o the S o c i e t e b e f o r e being passed on by Salzmann to Goethe, who e v e n t u a l l y to have them p u b l i s h e d .  was  And O t t was a l o n g s t a n d i n g  member who p a r t i c u l a r l y sought Lenz's f r i e n d s h i p .  The second  sentence i s somewhat m y s t i f y i n g : to whom does the second " s i e " refer?  Grammatically i t should r e f e r back t o " G e s e l l s c h a f t " ,  or more c o r r e c t l y , i n view of the p l u r a l verb, to i t s members. "Mit der l e t z t e r e n " could r e f e r to the p r e v i o u s P l a u t u s t r a n s l a t i o n , i n which case Lenz i s asking how company.  i t was r e c e i v e d by the  However, on account of the "gegenwartig", i t i s more  l i k e l y t h a t "mit der l e t z t e r n " r e f e r s to " G e s e l l s c h a f t " , so t h a t Lenz i s seeming to ask how p l e a s e d everyone c u r r e n t l y i s with the S o c i e t e . it.  T h i s prompts him t o urge Salzmann not t o n e g l e c t  W h i l s t t h i s makes good sense, we have good reason to assume  t h a t Lenz i s i n f a c t i n q u i r i n g about Salzmann's own w i t h the S o c i e t e , not how  satisfaction  the others are s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t .  It  i s not uncommon i n Lenz to f i n d the p o l i t e form of the second p e r s o n a l pronoun without a c a p i t a l l e t t e r . as he was  Daunicht n o t i c e d  this  s e a r c h i n g f o r p o s s i b l e anonymous a r t i c l e s by Lenz i n  the F r a n k f u r t e r G e l e h r t e Anzeigen and T e u t s c h e r Merkur; he w r i t e s : "Sogar d i e abwechselnde K l e i n - und GroBschreibung des  40  Personalpronomens " S i e " i n der Anrede i s t e i n eigentiimliches Lenzzeichen  (Footnote:  "Vertheidigung asking  v g l . B r i e f an L a v a t e r , 44.  des Herrn Wieland" u.o.)".  a f t e r Salzmann's own  Sept. 1775,  die  That Lenz should  be  f e e l i n g s towards the S o c i e t e makes  b e t t e r sense as a prelude to h i s p l e a to Salzmann, t h a t begins in  the next sentence, not to n e g l e c t the S o c i e t e .  the f a c t t h a t Lenz has him  not heard much about i t from him  to t h i n k t h a t the A c t u a r y has  tions. t h i s was  I t seems t h a t  not been a t t e n d i n g  leads  i t s func-  Moreover the earnestness of Lenz's p l e a i n d i c a t e s t h a t no  i d l e or p o l i t e i n q u i r y .  Salzmann has  been t o t a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the S o c i e t e , and may h i n t e d t h a t he might not remain i n membership.  obviously already  not  have  A f r a i d that i t  might d i s i n t e g r a t e , Lenz s t r e s s e s t h a t more than ever i t needs the Actuary's support, and terms o f a m i s s i o n  field  t h a t i t needs to be regarded more i n  than as a p l a c e where one  expect a budding and blossoming of the That Lenz values i n November 1775,  can  already  spirit.  Salzmann's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s t i l l  when the Deutsche Gese11schaft was  evident  founded.  Lenz, to whom c r e d i t f o r the founding i s u s u a l l y given, d i d secure Salzmann's f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the new  not  society—his  name i s not i n c l u d e d i n the membership r o l l p u b l i s h e d  by  Froitz-  h e i m — b u t the s e s s i o n s were h e l d , at l e a s t i n Lenz's time, i n the Actuary's house, and to be f i r s t mar:  submitted.  i t was  to the Actuary t h a t papers were  Lenz w r i t e s  l a t e r to Salzmann from Wei-  "GruBen S i e d i e deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t " ( B r . I I . 4 2 ) , and  Actuary, o b v i o u s l y well-informed,  replies:  "Die  the  Gesellschaft  41  bestehet noch auf gutem FuB, i n den  j e t z t s i n d d i e Versammlungen b i s  Janner e i n g e s t e l l t und werden alsdann b e i Mag.  welcher indessen  Blessig,  Padagog worden i s t im K l o s t e r f o r t g e s e t z t  werden"(Br.II.63).  Since Salzmann a l s o continued  papers to the G e s e l l s c h a f t , there i s r e a l l y l i t t l e t h a t h i s involvement i n 1775-76 was he d i d p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n 1775,  any  i t was  to submit evidence  l e s s than i n 1772.  If  most l i k e l y on grounds  of i l l - h e a l t h , to which Lenz r e f e r s i n a l e t t e r of t h i s same p e r i o d , and because h i s work was to r e q u i r e the a d d i t i o n of an  beginning to be so demanding as  assistant(Br.II.45).  Both Lenz's v a l u i n g of Salzmann's support and  the  latter's  l i m i t e d a b i l i t y to l e n d i t , g i v e a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e from t y p i c a l one  t h a t has  the c o n s e r v a t i v e  come down to us, of a Lenz f r u s t r a t e d by  character  supposedly given by Salzmann to  S o c i e t e , supposedly of Salzmann's own  founding and  might have expected Lenz to a l l u d e to  r a t h e r than d e s c r i b e Vaterstadt";  and  i t simply  as  "diese P f l a n z s c h u l e  cates Lenz's sense of m i s s i o n surroundings of S t r a s s b u r g , c u l t u r a l backwater.  The  end  of the q u o t a t i o n  be  above i n d i -  f o r the S o c i e t e i n the c i t y  and  f a c t t h a t he f e e l s i t n a t u r a l to p o i n t goals to the Actuary comes more  n a t u r a l l y i f i t i s not to i t s founder and And  set  which he views as somewhat of a  out the value of the S o c i e t e ' s  speaking.  own  Ihrer  the tone i n i t , i t i s not so l i k e l y t h a t he would need to i t . The  As  this,  i f Salzmann were the l e a d i n g f i g u r e who  urged not to n e g l e c t  the  leading.  Kochendorffer a l s o shows, i f the S o c i e t e were Salzmann's achievement, one  the  the evident  l e a d e r t h a t he i s  r e s p e c t with which Lenz speaks makes  42  i t harder s t i l l  f o r us to b e l i e v e t h a t Lenz i s f r u s t r a t e d  by  Salzmann i n p a r t i c u l a r . A second tentatively  l e t t e r to Salzmann, which Freye and  date i n mid-September 1772,  ence to the Actuary's involvement  Stammler  gives a further  refer-  i n the S o c i e t e , shows Lenz's  r e a d i n e s s to accept Salzmann's judgment with r e s p e c t to other members, and h i n t s a t Lenz's c r i t i c a l stance towards them: " I s t Ihre Abhandlung schon vorgelesen? Und wie haben s i c h O t t  und  H a f f n e r das l e t z t e m a l gehalten; i c h zahle auf Ihr U r t h e i l von"  ( l e t t e r 19).  clear.  That Lenz i s r e f e r r i n g  da-  to the S o c i e t e i s  He mentions O t t i n other l e t t e r s i n connection w i t h i t ,  and the paper by Salzmann t h a t he i n q u i r e s about i s almost certainly  the one e n t i t l e d "Uber d i e Rache", and d e l i v e r e d to  the S o c i e t e on 17th September, a f a c t t h a t would c o n f i r m F r e y e / Stammler's d a t i n g of the l e t t e r .  As to the r e f e r e n c e t o O t t  and H a f f n e r , Lenz seems to be i n q u i r i n g t h e i r l a t e s t papers went.  How  up a good performance?  cannot  We  how  the d e l i v e r y of  d i d they manage?  say whether there i s any  deeper purpose i n Lenz's q u e s t i o n , but we  can take note t h a t  here he i s c o n s u l t i n g w i t h Salzmann about two At t h i s p o i n t a t l e a s t ,  Did they put  other members.  i t i s not Salzmann h i m s e l f t h a t our  poet  i s c a l l i n g into question. I f Lenz d i r e c t s  a complaint a g a i n s t any s p e c i f i c member of  the S o c i e t e , i t i s i n f a c t a g a i n s t the f i r s t of these two members mentioned.  other  There are s t r o n g e r grounds f o r viewing O t t as  a cause of Lenz's f r u s t r a t i o n than f o r seeing Salzmann i n t h i s  43  way,  although even t h i s complaint a g a i n s t O t t i s a q u i t e perso-  n a l matter,  and i s m o l l i f i e d by Lenz's o b v i o u s l y good f r i e n d s h i p  with t h i s a s s o c i a t e .  Lenz w r i t e s to Salzmann: "Ich sehe, daJ3  mein guter O t t mich n i c h t v e r s t e h t und durchaus g l a u b t , wenn i c h n i c h t l u s t i g b i n , musse i c h u n g l i i c k l i c h seyn. doch d i e s e s s c h l e c h t e Zutraun schamroth machen muB.  Benehmen S i e ihm  zu mir, welches i n der That mich  . .Ich f u r c h t e , w e i l i c h an i h n j e t z t  mehr mit lachendem Mund s c h r e i b e n kann, s e i n gar zu gutes e m p f i n d l i c h e s Herz w i r d glauben,  nicht und  i c h sey niedergeschlagen und i c h  b i n es doch niemals weniger gewesen a l s i t z t " ( l e t t e r p o s s i b l e t h a t Lenz's u n w i l l i n g n e s s to account  19).  It is  f o r h i s s t a t e of  h e a r t a t every t u r n , i s l i n k e d t o h i s complaint d i r e c t e d a t the S o c i e t e i n "Uber Ovid": "wir werden zu bekannt und f a m i l i a r mit einander, jedermann s i e h t dem  andern auf d i e F i n g e r ,  menagiert  den andern weder m i t der Feder noch mit der Zunge, dagegen  uns  eine h a l b j a h r i g e Zusammenkunft i n den gehorigen Grenzen der E n t fernung und H o f l i c h k e i t von einander e r h a l t e n wiirde, d i e w i r  uns  nun einmal von s e l b s t zu beobachten n i c h t versprechen konnen" (1.473).  In both cases, Lenz r e s i s t s too i n t i m a t e an  with h i s f e l l o w s , and i t may expected by O t t was  acquaintance  be t h a t the degree of f a m i l i a r i t y  a l s o an e x p e c t a t i o n i n the S o c i e t e as a whole.  Lenz had a l r e a d y w r i t t e n t o h i s f a t h e r r e p o r t i n g on h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n the S o c i e t e and mentioning importance  i n i t s formal r e l a t i o n s :  i t s undue l i k i n g f o r s e l f "Nach StraBburg  schicke i c h  von Z e i t zu Z e i t k l e i n e Abhandlungen an eine G e s e l l s c h a f t schonen Wissenschaften,  der  d i e mich zu ihrem E h r e n m i t g l i e d e erwahlt  44  hat, und  d i e davon mehr Aufhebens macht, a l s mir  ( l e t t e r 17). has  Such f a m i l i a r i t y i s d i s a g r e e a b l e  chosen Salzmann as h i s s o l e c o n f i d a n t ,  lieb i s t "  to Lenz,  and had  who  already  asked of the Actuary a propos h i s a f f a i r w i t h F r i e d e r i k e B r i o n : "Es  i s t gut,  Thorheit  da6  S i e meinen f r e u n d l i c h e n Ott n i c h t mit meiner  umstandlich bekannt m a c h e n " ( l e t t e r 10).  l e t t e r to Salzmann speaks of Ott's quests h i s mentor's confidence:  A further  immaturity, and  again  re-  "Zeigen S i e d i e s e S t e l l e meines  B r i e f e s n i c h t meinem guten O t t — w e n n er n i c h t noch J i i n g l i n g ware, wenn er d i e Stufe der W e i s h e i t e r s t i e g e n h a t t e , wiirde i c h tiber diesen Punkt n i c h t gegen i h n zuruckhaltend (letter  seyn"  15).  Again, t h e r e f o r e , we  are l e d to d i s s o c i a t e Salzmann from  the shortcomings of the S o c i e t e , r a t h e r than to i m p l i c a t e i n them, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t he seems to be now important and  an  him  important  c o n t r i b u t i n g member.  E x a c t l y how  influential  he  was  cannot be known.  Knowing h i s eminently l i k e a b l e c h a r a c t e r  and  h i s t a l e n t f o r i n s p i r i n g r e s t r a i n t and  decorum without  s t i f l i n g the l i v e l i n e s s of the group, we must presume t h a t i f he was  able to spare much time f o r the S o c i e t e at a l l , he would  have exerted  some i n f l u e n c e , and  F r o i t z h e i m quotes Haffner's  l e f t h i s mark.  "Akademische A n t r i t t s r e d e " as a  testimony to Salzmann's c h a r a c t e r to the S o c i e t e and  i n some way  and  social gifts.  not to the Table S o c i e t y t h a t he  (and there i s no evidence t h a t Haffner  If i t is is referring  d i d belong to the  indeed s i n c e h i s parents were i n h a b i t a n t s of S t r a s s b u r g  latter: he would  45 more l i k e l y h a v e b e e n f e d a t home), t h e n t h i s p a s s a g e d o e s g i v e us an a d d i t i o n a l g l i m p s e o f l i f e  i n i t s midst:  "An  dem  Ruder  u n s e r s F a h r z e u g e s saB e r w i e e i n S t e u e r m a n n , E i n h e i m i s c h e n Fremden d u r c h v o l l e n d e t e H u m a n i t a t ,  durch d i e ganz e i n z i g e L i e b e  und G i i t e s e i n e s C h a r a k t e r s l a n g s t b e k a n n t und ser  wie  alien teuer.Die-  l e n k t e u n s e r n L a u f , p f l e g t e uns v o r K l i p p e n z u w a r n e n  und 45.  wufite d i e s t u r m i s c h e n Wogen j u g e n d l i c h e r Gemuter zu In  c o n t r a s t to the wealth of documentation  mann s i n v o l v e m e n t 1  i n the S o c i e t e from  1772  beruhigen".  proving Salz-  o n , t h e r e i s no r e -  f e r e n c e t o h i s s u p p o r t o f i t b e f o r e t h e n . T h i s l a c k may, be due  t o t h e f a c t t h a t one  o f the key people  of  l i k e l y to refer  h i m and t o h a v e had h i s r e f e r e n c e s p r e s e r v e d — n a m e l y  was;  w r i t i n g of the p e r i o d p r i o r to h i s h u r r i e d departure i n  17 7 1 — a  time a t which  mentions  L e n z had b a r e l y a r r i v e d i n  S a l z m a n n , as we  have seen,  to  Lenz—was  h i m s e l f not y e t i n v o l v e d i n the S o c i e t e . But J u n g - S t i l l i n g yet  course,  May  Strassburg—he  i n connection w i t h the  Table  S o c i e t y and w i t h G o e t h e , b u t n o t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e S o c i e t e . Finally,  as K o c h e n d o r f f e r and F r i e d r i c h p o i n t o u t , i f t h e A c t u a r y  h a d b e e n an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e S o c i e t e i n t h e S p r i n g  and  Summer o f 1771,  he  would,  as he was  from the f o l l o w i n g y e a r on,  w i t h t h e o t h e r members, h a v e had  Jung-Stilling s 1  forthcoming marriage.  before S t i l l i n g ' s  return,  recorded i n S t i l l i n g ' s of  t o be  advance knowledge o f T h a t he d i d n o t know o f i t  seems i n d i c a t e d by G o e t h e ' s  autobiography, 46.  i t , even a f t e r the event.  profession,  h i m s e l f n o t t o h a v e known  S i n c e S a l z m a n n was  i n c l o s e and  r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h G o e t h e t h a t summer, i t i s h a r d t o  imagine  him n o t t e l l i n g  known.  h i s "Herzensfreund",  i f he h i m s e l f had  46  The evidence does not encourage us, t h e r e f o r e , to see Salzmann as the o r i g i n a t o r and c o n t i n u i n g i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the S o c i e t e i n such a way  t h a t he might be h e l d accountable f o r i t s  a l l e g e d degeneration, and t h e r e f o r e answerable  to Lenz's  cisms v o i c e d i n h i s l e t t e r to Goethe of February essay "tiber Ovid".  1775  criti-  and h i s  That Lenz i s c r i t i c a l of the S o c i e t e i s i n -  d i s p u t a b l e ; i t i s , a f t e r a l l , disbanded  i n the autumn of  Lenz being the c h i e f i n s t i g a t o r of the new But Salzmann has by now  1775,  Deutsche G e s e l l s c h a f t .  by no means faded out of the p i c t u r e .  Apart from h i s not renewing  formal membership, the A c t u a r y  was,  i n every other way,  c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h i t : l e n d i n g h i s home  as a meeting-place,  r e c e i v i n g papers d e s t i n e d f o r d e l i v e r y a t  the s e s s i o n s , and o f f e r i n g a paper of h i s own.  That Lenz e v i -  d e n t l y sought h i s c o o p e r a t i o n i n the G e s e l l s c h a f t shows the r e spect he s t i l l  had f o r him,  and i f , e v e n t u a l l y , the s e s s i o n s  switched from h i s house to von Turckheim's, 47. Lenz had l e f t for  f o r Weimar.  t h i s happened a f t e r  F i n a l l y , knowing of Goethe's r e s p e c t  Salzmann, and probably knowing t h a t he was  i n the process of  having the A c t u a r y ' s essays p u b l i s h e d , Lenz i s u n l i k e l y , i n a l e t t e r to Goethe, to r e f e r i n such derogatory terms t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y i n the S o c i e t e i f i t i s as c l e a r t o Goethe, as i t i s to F r o i t z h e i m and Fuchs,  t h a t i t i s indeed Salzmann's  a c t i v i t y t h a t Lenz has i n mind when he speaks schnarch von B e l l i t t e r a t u r , wo bliiten.  of a: "vagues  Ge-  nichts dahinter i s t a l s Nessel-  . . s t e i f e l e i s e Schneckenmoralphilosophie,  groBmtitterlichen Gang f o r t k r i e c h t " ( B r . I . 8 9 ) .  die ihren  47  What e x a c t l y t h e s e d e r o g a t o r y r e m a r k s a r e a i m e d a t , we s h a l l d i s c u s s below.  B u t w h a t e v e r t h e y mean, S a l z m a n n  u n l i k e l y t a r g e t f r o m them. in  The c h a r g e o f f a m i l i a r i t y ,  "Uber O v i d " i s , a s we h a v e s e e n , more l i k e l y  i s an levelled  aimed a t o t h e r  members t h a n a t t h e A c t u a r y , w i t h whom L e n z c h o s e t o h a v e a special relationship.  The "vagues G e s c h n a r c h v o n B e l l i t e r a t u r "  i n no way d e s c r i b e s S a l z m a n n s 1  w o r k s a s we know them, a s t h e y  deal e x c l u s i v e l y with moral philosophy.  N o t t h a t he was n o t  v e r s e d i n l i t e r a t u r e a s w e l l ; h i s l i b r a r y was one t h a t  Lenz  b o r r o w e d f r o m , a n d we r e a d t h a t F r i e d e r i k e B r i o n was happy t o read Salzmann's  c o p y o f Tom J o n e s ( B r . 1 . 6 4 ) .  Lenz a l s o  t o h i m e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y on h i s r e a d i n g o f W i n c k e l m a n n .  reports However  t h e A c t u a r y ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n was c h i e f l y w i t h p h i l o s o p h y a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s , n o t a b l y B a y l e and L e i b n i z . t o " f r a n z o s i s c h e L i q u e u r s " a few l i n e s Goethe:  "Und nun  Sturm  As t o t h e r e f e r e n c e  l a t e r i n the l e t t e r t o  i c h m i t O s s i a n s Helden h i n e i n das a l t e  E r d e n g e f u h l a u f z u w e c k e n , d a s ganz i n f r a n z o s i s c h e L i q u e u r s e v a p o r i r t w a r " , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o attach t h i s image o f d e c a d e n c e t o S a l z m a n n , who, a c c o r d i n g t o G o e t h e  i n D i c h t u n g und W a h r h e i t ,  was known r a t h e r f o r h i s f i r m n e s s i n r e s p e c t t o d r i n k i n g . S p e a k i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s o f t h e T a b l e S o c i e t y Goethe " n u r muBten s i e i h r g e w o h n l i c h e s W e i n d e p u t a t n i c h t  writes:  liberschreiten.  DaB d i e s n i c h t l e i c h t g e s c h a h w a r d i e S o r g e u n s e r e s P r a s i d e n t e n , eines Doktor Salzmann"(IX.359). There remains t h e r e f e r e n c e t o " s a n f t e l e i s e philosophie".  Froitzheim, writing  Schneckenmoral-  i n 1888, s t r e s s e s t h e p a t r i o t i c  48  and  political  aspect of Lenz's founding  schaf t , quoting at l e n g t h h i s essay  of the Deutsche  i n p r a i s e of the e x p r e s s i v e -  n e s s o f t h e German l a n g u a g e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e F r e n c h . n o t , however, conclude  t h a t L e n z had  on m o r a l p h i l o s o p h y b e c a u s e now c a l s u b j e c t s interest  him.  completely  and  i s i n d i c a t e d by  schaften".  "Von  socio-politi-  However t h a t  t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e new  this  society,  secretaryship, there continue to  on m o r a l p h i l o s o p h y , one  entitled:  may  I f t h i s were so, then Salzmann w o u l d  u n d e r L e n z ' s l e a d e r s h i p and essays  We  t u r n e d h i s back  o n l y l i t e r a r y and  n a t u r a l l y become a t a r g e t f o r h i s c r i t i c i s m . i s not the case  Gesell-  o f w h i c h was  by  be  Salzmann h i m s e l f  der G l u c k s e l i g k e i t i n b i i r g e r l i c h e n  A c e r t a i n H e r r B r e u a l s o d e l i v e r e d one:  Gesell-  "Moralische  E m p f i n d u n g e n " , arid S c h l o s s e r s p o k e o n c e on t h e s u b j e c t : " S k i z z e meiner V o r s t e l l u n g s a r t der Moral". i n the s o c i e t y ' s j o u r n a l : jects:  "Lob  zens",  and  "Der  der F r e u n d s c h a f t "  and  "Uber den  essays  published similar  W e r t h des  guten  Herwhich  the motto " G e s e l l i g k e i t , V e r t r a g l i c h k e i t , 48.  Reli-  to r e l i g i o u s questions.  f o r e , t h a t m o r a l p h i l o s o p h y as s u c h was  I t i s not,  of i t because i t i s not a l i t e r a r y or  ungen e i n e s L a y e n , i t s e l f  a n o n - l i t e r a r y and  E v i d e n t l y t h o u g h , t h e r e was  there-  t e d i o u s t o Lenz, nor  does  socio-political  s u b j e c t ; f o r the answer t o " S c h n e c k e n m o r a l p h i l o s o p h i e "  work.  sub-  i n t h e same j o u r n a l ,  g i o n " , were devoted  he c o m p l a i n  other essays  B i i r g e r f r e u n d " a r e on  s e v e r a l l e c t u r e s and  b o r e on i t s c o v e r  Two  was  Meyn-  non-socio-political  i n the S o c i e t e a great d e a l of  m e d i o c r e p h i l o s o p h i s i n g and m o r a l i s i n g , w h i c h L e n z , who  professed  n o t t o h a v e much a p t i t u d e f o r p h i l o s o p h y a t t h e b e s t o f  times,  49  found d i s a g r e e a b l e .  Whether Salzmann's papers on moral p h i l o -  sophy were ones t h a t Lenz i s l i k e l y to have found tedious question  t h a t w i l l be answered i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter,  is a nega-  t i v e l y , by a d i r e c t study of the Kurze Abhandlurigen. The  t r o u b l e w i t h the S o c i e t e was  Indeed, having e l i m i n a t e d  not Salzmann, t h e r e f o r e .  the Actuary as the cause of Lenz's  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the S o c i e t e , we  are now  i n a better posi-  t i o n to e s t a b l i s h j u s t what d i d provoke him. most of the membership, Lenz had it  ambitions f o r the group,  i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t he was  those ambitions were not being though, seems to have had  Probably u n l i k e  bound to f e e l f r u s t r a t e d when  realised.  One  other member,  s i m i l a r goals to Lenz and  s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m s of the S o c i e t e .  and  therefore  His comments enable us  understand Lenz's r e a c t i o n s more c l e a r l y .  to  Jung-Stilling, after  mentioning i n h i s autobiography the c i r c l e of f r i e n d s to which he had belonged i n 1771:  "Goethe, Lenz, Leose [ s i c i ]  l i n g machten j e t z t so einen  Z i r k e l aus,  ward, der nur empfinden kann, was  i n dem  schon und  und  Stil-  es jedem wohl  gut i s t " ,  alludes  immediately afterwards to t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s of r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n : " S t i l l i n g s Enthusiasmus f u r d i e R e l i g i o n h i n d e r t e  i h n n i c h t auch  solche Manner h e r z l i c h zu l i e b e n , d i e f r e i e r dachten a l s e r , 49.  wenn s i e nur keine S p o t t e r waren."  A l l four characters,  whilst  meeting mostly at the Table S o c i e t y , were a l s o connected with the S o c i e t e ; Lerse  and  S t i l l i n g were members a l r e a d y ,  an a s s o c i a t e , and Lenz was S t i l l i n g ' s observation, l y t o l e r a n t character  Goethe  to j o i n probably t h a t autumn  though, of the f r e e - t h i n k i n g but  was  (1771). general-  of t h i s c i r c l e i s backed up by a l a t e r  50  passage which, not being intended f o r p u b l i c consumption,  ex-  p r e s s e s more e x p l i c i t l y a c e r t a i n concern f o r h i s f r i e n d s ' s p i r i t u a l welfare.  He w r i t e s i n a l e t t e r to a reader of  1779:  Da i c h nun wuBte, wie sehr meine Freunde i n StraBburg den l e i c h t e n wizelnden f r a n z o s i s c h e n Geschmack l i e b t e n , auch wie sehr i h r Glaubensgrund i n der R e l i g i o n schwankt e , so glaubte i c h : wenn i c h ihnen meine Lebensgeschichte i n einem romantischen blumichten K l e i d e v o r l e g t e : so wiirden d i e d e u t l i c h e n FuBstapfen der g o t t l i c h e n F i i r s i c h t ihnen auf eine angenehme A r t gezeigt : s i e wiirden mit Freuden, und auch mit Nutzen l e s e n . Ich machte a l s o den T i t e l : " H e i n r i c h S t i l l i n g s Lebensgeschichte i n V o r l e s u n g en", und s c h i c k t e dann und wann e i n Stuck h i n a u f . So entstand S t i l l i n g s Jugend. Nun z e r s c h l u g s i c h d i e StraBburger G e s e l l s c h a f t , und i c h dachte an S t i l l i n g s Lebensgeschichte gar n i c h t mehr. 50. That J u n g - S t i l l i n g i s speaking t h i s time of the S o c i e t e i s c l e a r , the p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s autobiography s e r i e s of "Vorlesungen" s e l l s c h a f t " was  i n the form of a  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the "StraBburger  Ge-  indeed the S o c i e t e and not the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t ,  of which, of course, he was  a l s o a member, but a t which f r e e 51 .  d i s c u s s i o n s r a t h e r than formal papers were the order of the  day.  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , however, are the terms i n which JungS t i l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s e s the S o c i e t e . In matters of r e l i g i o n i t s members were weak i n f a i t h , and i n need of reminders Providence c o u l d s t i l l be p e r s o n a l l y experienced. l i t e r a t u r e they favoured "den Geschmack."  We  that divine  In matters of  l e i c h t e n wizelnden f r a n z o s i s c h e n  are s t r u c k by the s i m i l a r i t y t o Lenz's own  t i c i s m s of the same group of people three years l a t e r . complains of t h e i r  He  crialso  "Unglauben", and t e l l s Goethe t h a t i t was  to  counter t h i s u n b e l i e f t h a t he had w r i t t e n Meynungen e i h e s L a i e n : "Daher f i e n g i c h an  ut vates  den Leuten Standpunkt  ihrer  Religion  51  einzustecken,  das i t z t unter  viel  Schwiirigkeiten vollendet i s t ,  die Erfolge wird d i e Zeit lehren"(Br.I.89).  I t was f r o m t h e same  m o t i v e t h a t J u n g - S t i l l i n g had w r i t t e n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y ; what he  calls  "Glaubensgrund i n d e r R e l i g i o n " and Lenz c a l l s  "Stand-  p u n k t i h r e r R e l i g i o n " , i s i n b o t h c a s e s a commitment t o a c t i v e faith  i n God, w h i c h , i n J u n g - S t i l l i n g s c a s e , meant s e e k i n g  tp  1  f o l l o w God's l e a d i n g i n e v e r y d a y l i f e ,  a n d i n L e n z ' s c a s e meant  w o r k i n g a c t i v e l y f o r t h e k i n g d o m o f God o n e a r t h . d e r why t h e r e  We m i g h t won-  i s no e v i d e n c e o f a n y s p e c i a l f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n  t h e s e two members who w o u l d h a v e o v e r l a p p e d i n b o t h S o c i e t e a n d T a b l e S o c i e t y by s e v e r a l months, c o n s i d e r i n g  that they both  t e d an e v a n g e l i s t i c s t a n c e towards t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s .  Nowhere,  however, does L e n z m e n t i o n J u n g - S t i l l i n g , and t h e l a t t e r no  q u i t e a minor f i g u r e i n Strassburg  time J u n g - S t i l l i n g l e f t his  displays  s p e c i a l i n c l i n a t i o n f o r o u r p o e t a s he d o e s f o r G o e t h e .  d o u b t L e n z was s t i l l  r e l i g i o u s ideas  No  at the  i n March 1772, and had n o t y e t d e v e l o p e d  t o a p o i n t a t which t h e r e m i g h t have been  much f o r t h e t w o t o d i s c u s s .  P e r h a p s a l s o J u n g - S t i l l i n g was t o o  much o f a " K o p f h a n g e r " f o r L e n z , who was l a t e r t o u s e t h i s quial designation  adop-  collo-  o f P i e t i s t s t o r e f e r , i n annoyed terms, t o t h e  f o u n d e r s o f t h e P h i l a n t h r o p i n a t D e s s a u , who w e r e o f f e r i n g h i m a position.  I n 1772 we s t i l l  f i n d Lenz making.appeal t o t h e l e a d i n g  of Providence i n d i s c u s s i n g h i s career  prospects  with h i s father,  w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a t l e a s t some b a s i s f o r a g r e e m e n t w i t h J u n g - S t i l 52. ling.  B u t he was m o s t l i k e l y  to associate  as l i t t l e  disposed  a s G o e t h e was  any f u r t h e r w i t h P i e t i s t s and P i e t i s m — t h e s e  had  52  become too i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o n s t r i c t i n g f o r h i s l i k i n g , above a l l too remote from the arena of p r a c t i c a l l i f e  and in  society. Notwithstanding, Lenz shares one S o c i e t e with J u n g - S t i l l i n g . observation, a "flowery,  f u r t h e r o p i n i o n of  the  In the l a t t e r ' s case i t i s a mere  i n Lenz's case a c r i t i c i s m .  J u n g - S t i l l i n g aims a t  romantic" s t y l e f o r h i s autobiography, because t h a t ,  he f e e l s , would be most p l e a s i n g ten wizelnden f r a n z o s i s c h e n  to readers given  Geschmack".  to the  Lenz seems to be  f e r r i n g to the same t h i n g when he d e s c r i b e s  h i s Ossian  "leichre-  trans-  l a t i o n to Goethe as an intended c o r r e c t i v e to the i n f l u e n c e decadent French c u l t u r e : "Und h i n e i n das  nun  stiirm i c h mit Ossians Helden  a l t e Erdengefiihl i n ihnen aufzuwecken, das  franzosische  L i q u e u r s e v a p o r i r t war"(Br.I.89).  combined w i t h r e l i g i o u s u n b e l i e f , and ty and  sleepy  ganz i n  Such decadence,  a predilection for inani-  p h i l o s o p h i s i n g on moral and  literary topics, a l l  g i v e s Lenz the o v e r r i d i n g c o n v i c t i o n t h a t h i s c o l l e a g u e s to be  shaken up,  deeper regions  of  to be committed to f a i t h , to l i v e out of  need the  of t h e i r natures, d i s c a r d i n g the s u p e r f i c i a l ban-  t e r of French c u l t u r e and  g e t t i n g back to the o l d " E r d e n g e f i i h l " :  the v i t a l f o r c e s t h a t i t i s a r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n to c u l t i v a t e and  to harness f o r a l t r u i s t i c ends.  t h i s k i n d of l i v i n g was  To Lenz the key model f o r  Goethe's Gotz: "Da  konnte Gotz n i c h t  durch dringen, der beyden g l e i c h a b s p r i c h t " ,  he  laments, r e f e r -  r i n g perhaps to the e f f e c t of the p l a y i t s e l f on h i s f e l l o w c i e t y members, perhaps a l s o to the e f f e c t of h i s own  so-  diatribe  53  against un-Gdtzian l i v i n g  i n h i s e s s a y "Uber G o t z v o n  Berlich-  i n g e n " — e i t h e r way  L e n z shows he was  s p i r i t of Goethe's  h e r o h a d made no i m p a c t on anyone o t h e r t h a n  himself. of  disappointed that the  I t h a d f a i l e d t o b r e a k t h e c y c l e o f u n b e l i e f and  commitment.  B u t L e n z h a s n o t g i v e n up h o p e , b u t h a s  redoubled h i s e f f o r t s :  "DaB  w i r s a u s f i i h r e n k o n n e n was  new  lack  rather  i c h mit  g a n z e r S e e l e s t r e b e , a u f Heyd und H i i g e l D e i n e H e l d e n w i e d e r turalisiren."  Lenz wants and e x p e c t s change;  na-  Gotzian l i v i n g  be-  comes f o r h i m t h e g o a l o f r e l i g i o u s r e n e w a l , t h e means t o i t b e i n g h i s own "Ossian". his  t h e o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y  He h a d a l r e a d y l i n k e d G o t z and C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g  e s s a y on t h a t h e r o .  t i o n as t h e way the  w r i t i n g s : Meynurigen  ac-  i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d as  " E i n Mann d e r w e d e r a u f Ruhm n o c h Namen  A n s p r u c h m a c h t , d e r n i c h t s s e i n w i l l a l s was geschaftig, tatig,  in  Gotz, b e i n g a model f o r a l t r u i s t i c  of personal f u l f i l m e n t ,  L i g h t of the World:  and  er i s t .  . .immer  warmend und w o h l t u e n d w i e d i e S o n n e , a b e r  e b e n so v e r z e h r e n d e s F e u e r  [cp.Hebrews  nahe k o m m t — u n d am E n d e s e i n e s L e b e n s  12,29^, wenn man  ihm  weg auch  zu  g e h t e r u n t e r w i e d i e Sonne,  v e r g n i i g t , b e s s e r e Gegenden z u s c h a u e n , wo mehr F r e i h e i t i s t , a l s er  h i e r s i c h und den S e i n i g e n v e r s c h a f f e n k o n n t e , und l a B t  L i c h t und G l a n z h i n t e r s i c h " ( I . 3 8 1 ) .  noch  G o t z , as we h a v e s a i d , i s  a p e r f e c t i n c a r n a t i o n of the a c t i v e a l t r u i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y propounded by Salzmann. of  F o r h i s p a r t , Lenz c o n c e i v e s him i n terms  h i s t h e o l o g y , o r more c o r r e c t l y C h r i s t o l o g y , o f  altruistic  i n v o l v e m e n t , o f w h i c h more w i l l be s a i d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e b e l o w . T h e o l o g y , t h o u g h , i s one s u b j e c t o f L e n z ' s n e x t c o m p l a i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n and e t h o s o f t h e S o c i e t e .  They come  54  as a p r e l u d e t o h i s essay "tiber Ovid" and r e f l e c t something  of  the s p i r i t of the complaints expressed i n the l e t t e r to Goethe. His f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the group i n g e n e r a l i s i m p l i c i t i n the number of bones he f i n d s to p i c k , and i n the h i g h l y i r o n i c  tone  of the whole: the S o c i e t e i s attempting too much, the meetings are too f r e q u e n t , there i s too g r e a t a f a m i l i a r i t y amongst the members, the d e c i s i o n made i n h i s absence t o extend the group's a c t i v i t i e s to d i s c u s s i o n of a l l branches  of knowledge i s absurd-  l y u n r e a l i s t i c , f o r even the l i m i t e d g o a l s of the S o c i e t e w i l l never be reached anyway.  E x p l i c i t l y h i s f r u s t r a t i o n i s expres-  sed i n words c r o s s e d out i n the manuscript: " S o z i e t a t j a P f u i l 53. S o z i e t a t ! was  geht mich d i e S o z i e t a t an?"  His h e a v i e s t s a r -  casm i s r e s e r v e d , however, f o r h i s a t t a c k on the ban the S o c i e t e has imposed on t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n : A l s o nur noch e i n halbes Wort von der andern E i n r i c h t u n g , d i e wir verabredet, daB i n s k u n f t i g e auf uns und unsere Nachkommen d i e T h e o l o g i e von a l i e n unsern Vorlesungen ausgeschlossen b l e i b e n s o l l e , denn sagt mir doch, i h r l i e b e n Leute, was hat der l i e b e Gott mit unserer S o z i e t a t zu tun? Ich kann mich tiber n i c h t s mehr argern und v e r wundern, a l s wenn man i i b e r a l l heut zu Tage unsern l i e b e n Herrn Gott h i n b r i n g t , g l e i c h a l s ob der s i c h um was bektimmerte. LaB d i e Leute, d i e s i c h so schwach f i i h l e n , daB s i e i n den Bedrangnissen des Lebens i i b e r a l l nach e i n e r G o t t h e i t umsehen mussen,die ihnen ex machina zu H i l f e kommen s o i l , daB d i e meinethalben an i h r e n l i e b e n H e r r g o t t glauben, s o v i e l s i e wollcn,•aber es s c h i c k t s i c h doch meiner S e e l n i c h t , davon i n h o n e t t e r G e s e l l s c h a f t zu reden. Wir f r e i e G e i s t e r wenigstens, denen d i e Mama a l l e Morgen Essen kocht und d i e doch auch i n der Welt was e r f a h r e n haben und das Ding verstehen mussen,wie man ohne H e r r g o t t d r i n zurecht kommen kann"(I.474-75). E v i d e n t l y the l o n g s e r i e s o f papers t h a t c o n s t i t u t e Meyriungen e i n e s L a i e n , as w e l l as the s h o r t e r essays t h a t adopt the stance  55  of t h e o l o g i a n , had, i n the long run, become t e d i o u s t o the group, had become examples of those "so w i c h t i g e n und w e i t l a u f i g t e n Vorlesungen"  he a l l u d e d t o e a r l i e r , and he sees the  ban on theology as an attempt  t o s i l e n c e him.  To g e t h i s own  back he demands a r e v o c a t i o n o f the d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e s c i e n tific  t r e a t i s e s which, he argues w i t h a l l the urgency  of h i s  whimsical r h e t o r i c , would be f a r more t e d i o u s than anything hitherto.  To Lenz,  theology means u r g i n g h i s hearers t o r e -  l i g i o u s commitment: "den Leuten Standpunkt i h r e r R e l i g i o n e i n zustecken"; what i t does not mean i s a mere system o f r e l i g i o u s ideas.  Lenz's theology needs an audience, o r more c o r r e c t l y a  congregation.  L i k e J u n g - S t i l l i n g he c o n s i d e r s the S o c i e t e t o  be weak i n r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and commitment, and h i s a c t i v e r e formatory  z e a l i n i t s midst i s c h i e f l y aimed a t b r i n g i n g i t s  members back t o a c t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y as he understands ambition, o f course, i n endeavouring  second,  Lenz's  to i n f l u e n c e the S o c i e t e ,  i s u l t i m a t e l y t o i n f l u e n c e s o c i e t y as a whole. through the f i r s t  it.  I t was probably  t h a t he i n f l u e n c e d and became known i n the  i f we are t o b e l i e v e h i s c l a i m i n a l e t t e r t o h i s f a t h e r :  "Wenigstens schmeichelt mir d i e F r e u n d s c h a f t e i n e r ganzen Stadt . . .so sehr, daB i c h sehr v o r t e i l h a f t e Antrage von andern Orten wie mich duhkt m i t Recht ausgeschlagen  habe"(Br.I.142).  He be-  l i e v e d h i m s e l f i n f l u e n t i a l i n the l i m i t e d s o c i e t y o f S t r a s s b u r g , h i s ambition was t o touch s o c i e t y a t l a r g e .  Several l e t t e r s  speak o f h i s grandiose plans f o r a f f e c t i n g s o c i e t y ( L e t t e r s 66,80, 99,130), and others t e s t i f y t o h i s sense o f being i n v o l v e d i n  56  matters v i t a l to humanity as a whole:  "Seine Reisen s i n d f u r  54.  d i e Menschheit w i c h t i g " ,  i s Wieland's i r o n i c comment.  For  the time b e i n g , though, the S o c i e t e i s f o r him a c o n g r e g a t i o n which may  be persuaded to l i s t e n to him preach "ut v a t e s " , and  with which a s t a r t can perhaps be made.  Goethe's Gotz Lenz  c o n s i d e r e d as God's g i f t to Germany, and he urged: " l a B t  uns  den Charakter d i e s e s a n t i k e n deutschen Mannes e r s t mit e r h i t z t e r Seele erwagen und wenn wir i h n gut f i n d e n , uns eigen machen." The p l a y , says Lenz, may  have f a i l e d to e x e r t any i n f l u e n c e on  s o c i e t y at l a r g e , but l e t us, i n our S o c i e t e , l e a r n i t s l e s s o n s and be changed l a r g e may  i n t o Gotz's l i k e n e s s .  In t h a t way,  mankind a t  be i n s p i r e d to f o l l o w our example of G o t z i a n l i v i n g :  "dann e i n g e l a d e n a l l e s was  noch einen lebendigen Odem i n s i c h  s p u r t — d a s h e i B t K r a f t G e i s t und Leben urn m i t Nachdruck deln"(I.380-82). Another image i n a l e t t e r to Salzmann t h a t i t was  as e a r l y as 1772 t h a t Lenz envisaged t h i s  zu hanshows  exemplary  and r e f o r m a t o r y r o l e f o r the S o c i e t e : "VernachlaBigen S i e d i e s e Pflanzsschule  I h r e r V a t e r s t a d t n i c h t , theurer Freund, v i e l l e i c h t  konnten w o h l t h a t i g e Baume draus gezogen werden, auf welche K i n deskinder, d i e s i c h unter ihrem Schatten f r e u t e n , dankbar ten: auch d i c h hat er p f l a n z e n h e l f e n .  Es s i e h t noch  schnit-  ziemlich  w i l d und t r a u r i g i n I h r e r Region a u s — a b e r der e r s t e Mensch ward i n den Garten Eden g e s e t z t urn i h n zu bauen" (Br.1.28-29).  Salz-  mann, to whom Lenz appeals, i s a l r e a d y Lenz's model, s p r e a d i n g the f i r s t glimmerings of enlightenment around him, as a l e t t e r of the same p e r i o d expresses: "Wenigstens g l a n z t eine angenehme  57  Morgenrothe des Geschmacks i n StraBburg urn S i e herum"(p.46). J u s t how much dawned on Lenz as a r e s u l t of h i s acquaintance with Salzmann w i l l be documented  i n the f o l l o w i n g  chapter.  58  CHAPTER The We  Influence  TWO  of Johann D a n i e l Salzmann on Lenz  have s a i d t h a t Salzmann s essays were a l l of a  nature, d e a l i n g w i t h f a i r l y broad moral and p i c s which he goals.  general  1  l e f t i t to others  philosophical to-  to extend to s p e c i f i c  Indeed they work out a dynamic philosophy  s p i r i t u a l and  social  of  personal  i n t e l l e c t u a l development as a foundation  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a c t i v e s o c i a l involvement. j e c t s of the s i x essays range from the "Love", "Revenge", " V i r t u e and V i c e " , and  Passions"  and  finally  all  these i s the same, and  Whilst  and  the sub-  " E f f e c t s of Grace" to "Affections, Inclinations  " R e l i g i o n " , the p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g can be  stated quite b r i e f l y .  mann w r i t e s i n "Uber Tugend und L a s t e r " :  "Der  Geschopf, welches n i c h t i n a l l e m B e t r a c h t  Salz-  Mensch i s t e i n  s e l b s t a n d i g und  aber auch n i c h t auf a l i e n S e i t e n abhangig i s t .  Der  frey,  Gebrauch  oder Nichtgebrauch s e i n e r G e i s t e s k r a f t e kommt auf i h n s e l b s t an,  und  d i e s e K r a f t e vermehren s i c h durch Ubung.  daher s c h l i e B e n , der Mensch sey von durch Versuch und  dem  Wir  konnen  Schopfer bestimmt, s i c h  Ubung s e i n e r F a h i g k e i t e n ,  immer mehrere S e l b 1.  s t a n d i g k e i t , F r e y h e i t und Vollkommenheit zu  verschaffen."  Elsewhere he adds happiness to the l i s t of q u a l i t i e s man destined  to achieve and  of h i s philosophy:  enjoy, and  is  s t r e s s e s the c a r d i n a l p o i n t  t h a t i t i s f o r the b e n e f i t of mankind as a  whole t h a t these q u a l i t i e s must be achieved, not f o r man from h i s fellow-man: "Wir  behaupten h i e r f e y e r l i c h , daB  apart wir  keine andere m o r a l i s c h e GroBe der Handlungen erkennen, a l s d i e j e n i g e , welche d i e wahre GroBe und  v o r z i i g l i c h e Wurde der Mensch-  59  h e i t , nemlich d i e allgemeine F r e y h e i t , S e l b s t a n d i g k e i t , Gliicks e l i g k e i t und T h a t i g k e i t b e g u n s t i g t und b e f o r d e r t " ( p . 1 1 6 ) . These e s s e n t i a l i d e a s are developed i n every essay, and we  can  be sure t h a t they were ones t h a t Salzmann would have expressed again and again i n the open d i s c u s s i o n of the T i s c h g e s e l l s c h a f t , and f o r which, no doubt, he would have become known. a h a l f b e f o r e the f i r s t  essay was  d e l i v e r e d , we  A year and  f i n d Goethe h i g h -  l i g h t i n g the same q u a l i t i e s of the A c t u a r y ' s thought: auf d i e s e Welt g e s e t z t s i n d besonders  "daB  wir  um i h r n i i t z l i c h zu seyn,  daS wir uns dazu f a h i g machen konnen, wozu denn auch d i e R e l i 2.  gion etwas h i l f t ; u n d daB der Brauchbarste der Beste  ist."  Development of one's p e r s o n a l l i f e through a l t r u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the world around: t h i s i s the p h i l o s o p h y of  life  t h a t emerges from each essay, whatever the s p e c i f i c argument may  be.  I t i s e x p l i c i t i n the f i r s t  essay, i n which i t i s a r -  gued t h a t God's Grace operates to r e s t o r e order and harmony i n the human psyche, through the s e n s a t i o n s a man o b j e c t s around him,  r e c e i v e s from the  f o r i t i s the ordered psyche t h a t i s able  t r u l y to l o v e , to f i n d happiness and to g i v e happiness to o t h e r s . That God's Grace i s necessary f o r man  i s seen to be e v i d e n t from  the s t a t e of p e r d i t i o n i n which he f i n d s h i m s e l f , a s t a t e which c o n s i s t s i n the i n a b i l i t y to use h i s powers a r i g h t to c r e a t e e i t h e r h i s own  or o t h e r s ' happiness.  The d i s o r d e r i n h i s psyche  i s due to the atrophy of h i s powers of understanding: h i s "Verstand".  When t h i s i s r e s t o r e d to i t s r i g h t f u l r u l e over the  other powers of the s o u l and mind: over memory, i m a g i n a t i o n ,  60  s e n s i b i l i t y , p a s s i o n , and when i t i s e x e r c i s e d with energy e f f o r t , then love and g e n e r a l happiness become p o s s i b l e .  and Grace  i s d e s c r i b e d , t h e r e f o r e , as God's i n i t i a t i v e i n a process which only man  can perform, but which, through the hard work of  seek-  i n g to i n c r e a s e h i s powers of understanding, i t i s i n h i s power to perform, and indeed he must perform.  God's i n i t i a t i v e ,  con-  s i s t i n g of the i n - b u i l t mechanisms f o r i n d i v i d u a l and g e n e r a l improvement, whose o p e r a t i o n Salzmann d e s c r i b e s as God's c o n t i n u a l c r e a t i o n , i s a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l men. p l i e d to c e r t a i n men: who  I t i s not d i r e c t l y  to b e l i e v e r s , to the e l e c t , but to a l l  seek to develop t h e i r powers.  Salzmann has no use f o r su-  p e r n a t u r a l i s m , nor f o r any d e n i a l of human nature. P i e t i s t s p i r i t u a l i t y nor a s c e t i c i s m , nor indeed, s u b t l e t i e s have any p l a c e i n h i s system. a l l men,  ap-  Neither  rationalistic  The t r u t h i s c l o s e to  i t i s even common sense, and t o t a l l y immanent.  It  p l a c e s a h i g h premium on e f f o r t , a c t i o n and human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and i t s g o a l i s the happiness of i n d i v i d u a l and  society.  The s e n s u a l i s t p r i n c i p l e , which Salzmann e s t a b l i s h e s i n t h i s essay, and summarises thus: "daB  durch d i e schonen und e r -  habenen Empfindungen, d i e s i e ( s i c h t b a r e und f i i h l b a r e Gegenstande um uns herum) i n uns erregen, d i e e r s t e und vornehmste F a h i g k e i t unsers G e i s t e s , namlich der Verstand einen genugsamen Schwung e r h a l t e , m i t h i n nach und nach durch Ubung und  Bearbeitung  d i e F e r t i g k e i t e r l a n g e , e i n e s jeden Gegenstandes wahren Werth zu bestimmen und f o l g l i c h den iibrigen S e e l e n k r a f t e n i h r e wahre R i c h t ung  zu geben"(pp.24-25), he then a p p l i e s , i n the other essays,  61  to s p e c i f i c moral concepts.  He i n d i c a t e s what r o l e revenge and  p a s s i o n should p l a y , and what l o v e , v i r t u e and r e l i g i o n c o n s i s t of.  should  Love, f o r example, a r i s e s n a t u r a l l y out of our de-  pendence, f o r our p e r s o n a l development and happiness, around us, supremely on fellow-man.  on o b j e c t s  Revenge, l i k e a l l punish-  ment, c r e a t e s f e a r and works counter t o the c r e a t i o n o f h a p p i ness through  development o f one's powers, so l o v e , i n s t e a d of  revenge, must perform be a f i r m , powerful  the s e r v i c e of d e t e r r i n g e v i l , but i t must  love, f o r "die Liebe i s t kein  schmachtiges,  schwaches und immer duldendes Miittergen, s i e muB e i n e sehr ke E n e r g i e und Nachdenken haben"(p.67). c e r t a i n l y beyond men's powers a t p r e s e n t .  star-  To a c q u i r e such l o v e i s But, he asks,  "sind  deren F a h i g k e i t e n und Empfindungen n i c h t a l l e e i n e r f a s t unumschrankten Ausdehnung und Erweiterung it,  fahig?"(p.70).  To a c q u i r e  a l l t h a t i s needed i s a p p l i c a t i o n on our p a r t . V i r t u e , i n the f o u r t h essay, has t o be seen i n i t s etymolo-  g i c a l sense,  as courage o r s t r e n g t h ; i t i s the e f f o r t t h a t i s  r e q u i r e d t o d i r e c t a l l our powers t o the f u r t h e r a n c e o f g e n e r a l happiness.  V i c e , on the other hand, i s " e i n Unkraut, das von  s e l b s t wachst"(p.92).  The v i c i o u s are those who do not take the  t r o u b l e t o be v i r t u o u s .  As f o r " A f f e c t i o n s , I n c l i n a t i o n s and  P a s s i o n s , " the l a s t o f these have no p l a c e i n Salzmann's Not  thought.  t h a t they l a c k energy and s t r e n g t h , but they are m i s d i r e c t e d  energy, u p s e t t i n g the harmony of the psyche.  The other two emo-  t i o n s , however, are "an s i c h kostbare Geschenke des Himmels, urn unter den lebenden samkeit  Geschopfen das Feuer der T h a t i g k e i t und Wirk-  zu u n t e r h a l t e n " ( p . 1 0 0 ) .  62  Religion, f i n a l l y ,  i s defined  as "KenntniB, Empfindung  und Anwendung der A n s t a l t e n , welche d i e G o t t h e i t sowol i n der Schopfung a l s auch i n dem Zusammenhang der Begebenheiten zu unserer hohern E x i s t e n z und s e l b s t a n d i g e n moralischen kommnung gemacht hat"(p.150).  Vervoll-  R e l i g i o n g i v e s us the h i s t o r y  of God's p r o v i s i o n s t o h e l p man along the path of moral improvement t o p e r f e c t i o n and happiness:  such p r o v i s i o n s a r e the  r e v e l a t i o n s o f the Law, of the One God and o f e t e r n a l l i f e . l i g i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s m o t i v a t i o n and stimulus t o persevere t h i s road.  Re-  along  C h r i s t i a n dogma:-, i s only o f v a l u e i n as f a r as i t  encourages man t o s t r i v e a f t e r the t r u e end of r e l i g i o n , which i s love and happiness. The d r i v e s towards p e r f e c t i o n , happiness,  and union  the p e r f e c t i o n and happiness o u t s i d e o f o n e s e l f  with  ( l o v e ) , the sense  of man's p o t e n t i a l : the u n l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p e r f e c t i o n t h a t are open t o h i m — t h e s e are ideas Lenz has i n common with Salzmann.  But f o r both, i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f p u t t i n g such ideas  i n t o p r a c t i c e , of g e t t i n g on with the job.  To Salzmann t h i s  means a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of one's ideas and then working "mit Energ i e und Nachdruck" f o r g e n e r a l happiness.  Whilst s a l v a t i o n  comes through r a t i o n a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n , . i t does not come through mere\knowledge; the development o f "Verstand" it  leads t o v i g o r o u s , a l t r u i s t i c a c t i o n .  only has sense i f  But i n the process,  there i s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l : independence, freedom, the image o f God,  and a heightened  sense o f h i s e x i s t e n c e .  Lenz, seeking f o r  the same t h i n g s , w i l l f i n d them at least:'.in theory, i n very s i m i /  l a r ways.  I t i s the essay "tiber d i e L i e b e " which Lenz r e f e r s t o i n his  own paper "Versuch iiber das e r s t e P r i n c i p i u m  The  reference  der M o r a l " .  comes during h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense o f h i s powers, and the human beings around him.  He sees love f o r fellow-man rooted  i n the  r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t without him one's powers are u s e l e s s . on:  "Mich iiber d i e s e Materie w e i t e r  He goes  auszulassen wiirde sehr  i i b e r f l i i s s i g s e i n , da i c h S i e nur auf d i e unter Ihnen a l i e n noch unvergessene Abhandlung des Herrn Salzmann verweisen d a r f " (1.490).  The f a c t t h a t Lenz can r e f e r to the other's  essay  without needing t o name i t , and i n such terms as "unter Ihnen a l i e n noch unvergessen", may be important i n any attempt t o date Lenz's "Versuch". What we do know i s t h a t "tiber d i e L i e b e " was d e l i v e r e d on 5th March, 1772, and t h a t Lenz was absent from Strassburg  f o r most o f the summer and autumn of t h a t year. The  choice of a date f o r h i s own work, t h e r e f o r e , seems t o be e i t h e r that same s p r i n g , o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y a f t e r December 1772. However we a l s o hear t h a t he sent i n essays t o be read a t the S o c i e t e , 3.  from h i s temporary l o c a t i o n i n F o r t - L o u i s t h i s was one o f them, we cannot t e l l , t o r i c a l devices  -Whether  although the v a r i o u s  rhe-  i n t e r s p e r s e d throughout the work might i n d i c a t e 4.  t h a t Lenz intended reference,  and Landau".  t o read t h i s one h i m s e l f .  The terms o f the  t h e r e f o r e , make i t seem most l i k e l y t h a t he i s w r i -  t i n g w i t h i n a year of Salzmann's paper, p o s s i b l y w i t h i n  three  5. months. far  F o r our purposes, the p o i n t i s t h a t Lenz h i m s e l f has  from f o r g o t t e n the other's  essay, indeed he i s conscious of  64  i t s argument as he w r i t e s h i s own. and  even not u n l i k e l y , t h a t he had  as he wrote, or t h a t he had  I t i s also quite possible, Salzmann's t e x t before  r e c e n t l y re-read  i t . T h i s becomes  e v i d e n t when a comparison i s made both of the and  of the p h r a s i n g  of the two  subject-matter  essays.  Lenz's work begins by condemning the the  him  "Einheitssucht" i n  " r e p u b l i c of s c h o l a r s " : the d e s i r e to t r a c e every phenomenon  back to one  principle.  Such a p r a c t i c e can only g i v e r i s e  to  s e c t a r i a n s t r i f e as each maintains h i s p r i n c i p l e i n the face others.  Instead  of  of t h i s , Lenz argues f o r the m u l t i p l e b a s i s of  concepts such as beauty and m o r a l i t y .  To him,  morality  i s based  on the twin p r i n c i p l e s of the  " T r i e b nach Vollkommenheit"  " T r i e b nach G l u c k s e l i g k e i t " .  P e r f e c t i o n he d e f i n e s i n terms of  the consciousness of one's human powers: "Der kommenheit i s t a l s o das  ursprungliche  T r i e b nach V o l l -  Verlangen unsers Wesens,  s i c h eines immer groBern Umfanges unserer K r a f t e und bewuBt zu werden"(I.488). of the s p i r i t and without saying mer.  The  Fahigkeiten  Such human powers comprise both those  those of the body, but, says Lenz, i t goes  t h a t the l a t t e r must be  subordinated  to the  r e s u l t i n g harmony w i t h i n the psyche amounts to  h i g h e s t beauty as w e l l as the h i g h e s t good. f i n a l s t a t e i n Lenz; he has fection.  Instead,  But  t h a t i s good i s p e r f e c t i b l e , not  can be t h a t .  being  i n need of g r e a t e r p e r f e c t i o n : "Gut,  hieB b e i den  the  no room f o r the i d e a of f i n i t e per-  everything  still  for-  "good" i s no  p e r f e c t , f o r only God good, was  and  So u n - f a l i e n Adam, w h i l s t  e r s t e n Menschen, f a h i g zur Vollkommenheit, aber  noch n i c h t vollkommen, denn sonst wiirden s i e n i c h t g e f a l l e n  m.H.,  65  sein.  A l l e Geschopfe, vom  Wurm b i s zum  Seraph, miissen s i c h  vervollkommnen konnen, sonst horten s i e auf e n d l i c h e Geschopfe zu s e i n , und wiirden s i c h nach dem  Platonischen Lehrbegriff ins  unendliche  Wesen v e r l i e r e n " ( I . 4 9 0 ) .  und  allervollkommenste  In  t h i s paragraph are contained the seeds of Lenz's t h e o l o g i c a l ideas on the q u e s t i o n of o r i g i n a l s i n and human d e s t i n y . r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Adam's s t a t e as one  no longer of innocence  but of p r i m i t i v i t y , and the r e - d e f i n i n g of Adam's s i n as f i r s t necessary  step f o r him  The  the  to take i n the d i r e c t i o n of per-  f e c t i o n , autonomy and freedom of a c t i o n , are q u i t e c h a r a c t e r i s tic  of Lenz, and w i l l be developed  At t h i s p o i n t we may  i n the t h e o l o g i c a l essays.  note the dynamic framework of p e r f e c t i b i -  l i t y w i t h i n which m o r a l i t y  operates.  Lenz goes on to f i n d a t h i r d i n s t i n c t i n man, as the o t h e r s , but one performing Trieb—uns  mitzuteilen".  not so b a s i c  an a u x i l i a r y f u n c t i o n :  "Der  L i k e Salzmann's a l t r u i s t i c urge, Lenz's  i s a l s o there to encourage the development of one's powers:  "Wir  suchen a l l e F a h i g k e i t e n und K r a f t e , deren wir uns bewuBt s i n d , auch andern urn uns herum f i i h l b a r zu machen und das e i n z i g e M i t t e l , d i e s e l b e n zu entwickeln und (1.490).  eben d i e s e s i s t zu e r w e i t e r n "  There i s g r e a t s t r e s s i n Lenz, however, on the con-  sciousness of one's e x i s t e n c e and one's powers. needs h i s fellow-man not merely to develop a l s o to make him  conscious of them.  The  h i s own  individual  powers, but  Without fellow-man there i s  not only a r r e s t e d development, t h e r e i s a l s o h o r r o r : "Die die tot,  groBesten  und  meisten,  f i i r t r e f f l i c h s t e n unserer F a h i g k e i t e n l i e g e n  sobald wir aus a l l e r menschlichen G e s e l l s c h a f t f o r t g e r i s s e n  66  uns v o l l i g a l l e i n b e f i n d e n .  Daher schaudert unserer Natur f u r  n i c h s so sehr, a l s e i n e r g a n z l i c h e n Einsamkeit, w e i l alsdenn unser Gefiihl unserer F a h i g k e i t e n das k l e i n s t m o g l i c h e w i r d . Sehen S i e h i e r d i e W e i s h e i t des Schopfers, sehen S i e h i e r den Keim der L i e b e und a l l e r g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Tugenden  auf den  e r s t e n G r u n d t r i e b nach Vollkommenheit g e p f r o p f t " ( I . 4 9 0 ) .  With  the r e f e r e n c e t o l o v e , the l i n k i s e s t a b l i s h e d t o Salzmann's essay, t o which Lenz now r e f e r s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e f e r e n c e , Lenz, i n Salzmannian s t y l e , then extends h i s p r i n c i p l e o f development and awareness o f one's powers to the s p e c i f i c concept o f f r i e n d s h i p .  The only t r u e  b a s i s f o r t h i s form o f the a l t r u i s t i c i n s t i n c t i s the r e c i p r o c a l sense of p e r f e c t i o n two f r i e n d s enjoy: "Wahre F r e u n d s c h a f t beruht a l s o e i n z i g auf das w e c h s e l s e i t i g e Gefiihl unserer V o l l kommenheit, oder, um j e t z t menschlich zu reden, auf das wechsels e i t i g e Gefiihl unsers Bestrebens nach Vollkommenheit" (1. 491) . We a r e tempted t o t r a n s l a t e t h i s i n t o Sturm und Drang terms, as: t r u e f r i e n d s h i p i s only p o s s i b l e between geniuses, or when they r e l a t e as one genius t o another, as Lenz goes on t o imply: "Wahre Vollkommenheit kann a l s o niemand gehorig schatzen, a l s der sie selber b e s i t z t . " however: "Bedenken  Lenz does add a d i s c l a i m e r i n p a r e n t h e s i s ,  S i e , daB i c h h i e r von l a u t e r Idealen rede."  The ensuing d e f i n i t i o n o f happiness, the i n s t i n c t f o r which i s the second b a s i c d r i v e i n e t h i c a l man, leads Lenz to emphasise t h a t we can only be t r u l y happy when our s p i r i t s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y i n motion.  The i d e a o f r e s t , championed,  i n Lenz's view, by  Rousseau, i s not o n l y i n i m i c a l t o human p e r f e c t i b i l i t y and  67  happiness,  i t i s even a p h y s i c a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y :  "Der  Zustand  e i n e r absoluten Ruhe hat, wie d i e R h y s i k e r l e h r e n , i n unserer Welt keine S t a t t , d i e Ruhe der M a t e r i e s e l b s t i s t e i n e gengesetzte Bewegung g l e i c h e r K r a f t e , d i e s i c h unter 6. aufheben."  einander  Absolute r e s t belongs not to t h i s c r e a t e d world,  which i s c e a s e l e s s l y a c t i v e i n self-development; be imagined  entge-  i t can o n l y  i n a p l a c e where the processes of l i f e are as y e t  u n b e g u n — i n the past, t h e r e f o r e , f o r the f u t u r e holds nothing but c o n t i n u i n g development.  For the p l a c e to which r e s t must  be consicne'd, Lenz f i n d s M i l t o n ' s image of "Chaos and o l d n i g h t " the most a p p r o p r i a t e . man  Only a s t a t e of motion i s f i t t i n g f o r  with h i s dynamic d r i v e s : "Der hochste  Zustand  der Bewegung  i s t unserm Ich der angemessenste, das h e i B t d e r j e n i g e wo  Zustand,  unsere aussera.: Umstande unsere R e l a t i o n e n und S i t u a t i o n e n  so zusammenlaufen, daB wir das groBtmoglichste F e l d vor  uns  haben, unsere Vollkommenheit zu erhohen zu b e f o r d e r n und empfindbar zu machen, w e i l wir uns alsdenn das  andern  groBtmoglichstes  Vergniigen versprechen konnen, welches. e i g e n t l i c h b e i a l i e n schen i n der ganzen Welt i n dem  Men-  groBten Gefiihl unserer E x i s t e n z ,  unserer F a h i g k e i t e n , unsers S e l b s t besteht"(I.492-93).  Lenz de-  mands o n l y space and freedom to move, grow, develop, a c t and cover.  I t i s i n conformity w i t h t h i s demand t h a t he w i l l  r e f u s e the f i x e d boundaries  of a moral code.  s c r i p t i o n of c e r t a i n a c t s ,  it  dis-  later  M o r a l i t y i s no pre-  i s the a u t h o r i s a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n a f r e e process of p e r f e c t i o n . The e a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p i n terms of the d r i v e to p e r f e c t i o n i s now  matched by a d e f i n i t i o n i n s i m i l a r terms of  68  such v i c e s as voluptuousness, arrogance and a v a r i c e .  In each  case the p r a c t i c a n t f a i l s e i t h e r to develop h i s powers, or even to be aware of them.  And i n no case does he f i n d happiness..  The b e l i e f that happiness comes a c c o r d i n g to our s t r i v i n g f o r p e r f e c t i o n Lenz c a l l s f a i t h : a moral or n a t u r a l f a i t h ,  that  has always been h e l d from Enoch to the P s a l m i s t and to S o c r a t e s . I t i s , however, f a i t h i n a process which c o u l d not work without God.  With the mention of God the essay q u i t e suddenly c h a n g e s , —  b e f o r e even Lenz announces the change and as i f Lenz has only been w a i t i n g f o r t h i s moment—from t h e o l o g i c a l and r e l i g i o u s work. of f i n d i n g encouragement istic  being a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t o a  The p r i n c i p l e , j u s t  established,  i n one's p e r s o n a l development by a l t r u -  involvement i n one's neighbour's, continues to be advoca-  ted, but now not merely as an i d e a to be understood, but as an imperative to be obeyed: Horen S i e was w i r tun miissen, horen S i e es, merken S i e es, d i e s i s t der f r u c h t b a r s t e T e i l meiner P r i n c i p i e n . Wir miissen sucheri andere urn uns herum g l u c k i i c h zu machen. Nach a l i e n unsern K r a f t e n a r b e i t e n , n i c h t a l l e i n i h r e F a h i g k e i t e n zu entwickeln, sondern auch s i e i n s o l c h e Zustande zu setzen, worin s i e i h r e F a h i g k e i t e n am besten e n t w i c k e l n konnen. Wenh j e d e r d i e s e n V o r s a t z i n s i c h zur R e i f e und zum Leben kommen l a B t , so werden w i r e i n e g l i i c k l i c h e Welt haben. Jeder s o r g t bloB f u r des- andern Gliick und jeder w i r d s e l b s t g l i i c k l i c h , w e i l er urn s i c h herum Leute f i n d e t , d i e f u r das s e i n i g e sorgeri. Diese b e s t a n d i g wachsame und wirkende S o r g f a l t f i i r den Zustand meines Nebenmenschen w i r d auch das beste M i t t e l s e i n , h i e r i n d i e s e r Welt meine F a h i g k e i t e n zu e n t w i c k e l n , meine Vollkommenheit zu b e f o r d e r n " ( I . 4 9 6 ) . Lenz does not need t o be reminded t h a t t h i s v i s i o n of s o c i a l harmony i s remote from contemporary r e a l i t y , but i t o n l y needs human a c t i o n to make i t r e a l :  " F r i s c h an d i e A r b e i t , meine  69  Briider, d i e i h r Mut genug habt, Menschenfreunde  zu s e i n .  . .  s t r e b t e i n z i g und a l l e i n darnach besser zu werden und eure Nebenmenschen um euch herum n i c h t a l l e i n he's s e r , sondern auch g l i i c k l i c h zu machen!." (1. 496)  To the o b j e c t i o n t h a t such a  task i s i m p o s s i b l y d i f f i c u l t , Lenz r e p l i e s w i t h t h e o l o g i c a l arguments based on the t e a c h i n g of C h r i s t concerning the f i l m e n t of the Law,  seeking the kingdom o f God,  p o r t a n t l y , the p r o s p e c t of e t e r n a l l i f e :  ful-  and, most im-  "welch e i n Zustand  kann a l l e i n uns l i e g e n d e Menschenkrafte mehr e n t w i c k e l n , e r hohen und vervollkommnen  a l s d i e u n m i t t e l b a r e anschauende E r -  kenntnis des, der da wohnet i n einem L i c h t , da niemand zukommen kann"(I•499).  We  s h a l l examine Lenz's t h e o l o g i c a l views, as  they r e l a t e t o the concept of a c t i o n , more f u l l y i n the next chapter.  Here we  s h a l l merely note t h a t they serve to support  and c o n f i r m the dynamic p r i n c i p l e of s t r i v i n g f o r p e r f e c t i o n and consciousness o f one's powers, and l e a d up to the e v a n g e l i c a l z e a l o f the c o n c l u s i o n : "Was  h e l f e n aber d i e s e S p e k u l a t i o n e n ,  wenn s i e n i c h t ausgeiibt werden. . .Solange man  mich n i c h t e i n e s  Bessern b e l e h r t , gehe i c h auf diesem Wege f o r t und glaube, daB es besser s e i , des HERRN W i l l e n zu tun, a l s i h n bloB zu wissen." Such i s the argument o f Lenz's essay. b r i e f l y saw,  Salzmann*s,  as we  covers s i m i l a r ground; a c l o s e r comparison of the  two w i l l show how  similar.  Salzmann*s opening paragraph announ-  ces a p r o p o s i t i o n which Lenz w i l l echo: "daB Gott n i c h t s anders von uns f o r d e r e , a l s daB w i r uns d i e Miihe geben s o l l e n uns durch d i e L i e b e g l i i c k l i c h zu machen" (p-31 ). Lenz says: " i c h habe schon  .70  v o r h i n gesagt, daB i c h i n der T a t das Reich Gottes auf Erden f u r n i c h t s anders a l s das bestandige Bestreben a l l e r Menschen einander g l u c k l i c h zu machen, h a l t e " (1.497).  Salzmann goes on  to s t r e s s t h a t the nature o f love has been so misunderstood and misrepresented by p h i l o s o p h e r s and t h e o l o g i a n s , and so imp o v e r i s h e d as a p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e , t h a t i t i s h i g h time t h a t i t s t r u e s t a t u r e were recovered, and t h a t i t be seen once again t o be the sum o f a l l v i r t u e s : the essence o f the Law and the Prophets.  D e f i n i n g happiness as the modulation o f p l e a s a n t f e e l -  ings t h a t we r e c e i v e through c o n t a c t w i t h the b e a u t i e s and perf e c t i o n s o f the e x t e r n a l world, and l o v e as the r e c i p r o c a l communication of p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g , l i k e Lenz's  " T r i e b uns m i t z u -  t e i l e n " , Salzmann then l a y s g r e a t s t r e s s on the important r o l e of the world around, n o t a b l y fellow-man, u s e f u l deployment o f our own powers.  i n the development and  We need fellow-man  own self-awareness and happiness, and i t i s i n t h i s sense it  f o r our that  can be s a i d : " E i n Mensch kann i n gewissem Verstande des andern  Gott seyn"  (p.36). General happiness i s c r e a t e d when a l l men work  f o r the development o f each o t h e r ' s p e r f e c t i o n and growth, f o r then they w i l l f i n d t h e i r own development f u r t h e r e d : "Denn a l l e Schonheiten und Vollkommenheiten,  welche w i r m i t s c h o p f e r i s c h e r  K r a f t e n t w i c k e l t haben, s t r a l e n wieder auf uns zuruck!! (p. 39) . Salzmann thus s t r e s s e s a harmony o f a l t r u i s m and e n l i g h t e n e d self-interest.  To t h i s i d e a Lenz responds warmly, i t forms the  p o i n t o f c o n t a c t between the one's concern f o r l o v e and the o t h e r ' s concern f o r happiness.  The s t a t e most conducive t o l o v e ,  71  a c c o r d i n g to Salzmann, i s a l s o the s t a t e , Lenz f e e l s , i n which p e r s o n a l happiness dered psyche  can t h r i v e ; to both t h i n k e r s i t i s the o r -  t h a t c r e a t e s such a s t a t e .  of the r e l e v a n t passages to the other man.  A direct  comparison  from the two essays shows Lenz's  debt  Salzmann had s t r e s s e d the need f o r "Verstand"  to r u l e the o t h e r powers of the s o u l i f love and happiness were to be p o s s i b l e , and w r i t e s of these ordered powers: " d i e s e l b e n , i n immerwahrender Riicksicht auf den Zusammenhang des Ganzen, zu 7. entwickeln, zu erwarmen und stituting  zu e r w e i t e r n suchen".  Lenz,  sub-  "Vernunft" f o r Salzmann's "Verstand", expands t h i s t o :  "Wir s i n d a l s o nur alsdenn wahrhaft  g l i i c k l i c h , wenn wir i n einem  Zustande s i n d , i n welchem wir unsere Vollkommenheit auf d i e l e i c h t e s t e und geschwindeste  A r t b e f o r d e r n konnen, das h e i B t , i n  welchem w i r d i e F a h i g k e i t e n unsers Verstandes, unsers W i l l e n s , unserer Empfindungen, unserer Phantasie, a l l e r unserer untern S e e l e n k r a f t e , hernach  auch unserer Gliedmassen  und unsers  Kor-  pers immer mehr e n t w i c k e l n , v e r f e i n e r n und erhohen konnen und zwar i n e i n e r gewissen e i n e r gewissen  tibcreinstimmung der T e l l e zum  Ganzen, i n  Harmonie und Ordnung, welche unsere V e r n u n f t , d i e  von a l i e n V o r u r t e i l e n b e f r e i t . i s t und d i e hochste O b e r h e r r s c h a f t liber a l l e unsere iibrigen SeeTenvermogen e r h a l t e n hat, s e l b s t l e h ren wird". (1. 49 4) .  Salzmann expresses the harmony of a l t r u i s m  and  p e r s o n a l development as "der Hang unserer geiibten S e e l e , vermog dessen wir n i c h t nur unsere eigene F a h i g k e i t e n und Vollkommenh e i t e n , sondern auch d i e j e n i g e n , d i e i n unsern Mitmenschen v e r borgen  l i e g e n , immermehr zu e n t w i c k e l n , zu verschonern,  zur V o l l -  72  kommenheit des Ganzen e i n z u l e i t e n " ( p . 4 4 ) .  Lenz duly argues,  p l a c i n g a l i t t l e more emphasis on the e n l i g h t e n e d  self-interest:  "Diese bestandig wachsame und wirkende S o r g f a l t f u r den  Zustand  meines Nebenmenschen wird auch das beste M i t t e l s e i n , h i e r i n d i e s e r Welt meine F a h i g k e i t e n h e i t zu  zu entwickeln,  meine Vollkommen-  befordern"(I.496).  To draw a t t e n t i o n to s i m i l a r i t i e s of language and matter i n the two  t h i n k e r s i s , of course,  prove the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of the one  subject-  not n e c e s s a r i l y to  upon the o t h e r .  Discussion  of the phenomenology of the s o u l : the d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s of mind t h a t are produced d u r i n g the a c t s of p e r c e p t i o n and and  the v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l powers: the " S e e l e n k r a f t e " ,  must harmonise i f there i s to be t r u e i n s i g h t or t i c c r e a t i o n , was  a f a v o u r i t e occupation  the knowing, that  'genial' a r t i s -  throughout the E n l i g h -  tenment p e r i o d , an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e t h a t anyone c o u l d i n dulge i n .  The  s t r e s s on the development of human powers found  a p a r t i c u l a r l y warm response amongst the Sturm und Drang generation.  Goethe t e l l s us i n Dichtung und  Wahrheit:  Wir haben von dem gutigen Schopfer eine Menge S e e l e n k r a f t e , welchen man i h r e gehorige K u l t u r , und zwar i n den e r s t e n Jahren g l e i c h , zu geben n i c h t v e r absaumen muB, und d i e man doch weder mit Logik noch Metaphysik, L a t e i n oder G r i e c h i s c h k u l t i v i e r e n kann: w i r haben eine E i n b i l d u n g s k r a f t , der wir, wofern s i e s i c h n i c h t der e r s t e n besten V o r s t e l l u n g e n s e l b s t bemachtigen s o i l , d i e s c h i c k l i c h s t e n und schonsten B i l d e r v o r l e g e n und dadurch das Gemiit gewohnen und iiben miissen, das Schone i i b e r a l l und i n der Natur s e l b s t , unter seinen bestimmten, wahren und auch i n den f e i n e r e n Ziigen zu erkennen und zu l i e b e n . Wir haben eine Menge B e g r i f f e und allgemeine Kenntnisse n o t i g , sowohl f u r d i e Wissens c h a f t e n a l s f u r das t a g l i c h e Leben, d i e s i c h i n keinem Kompendio e r l e r n e n l a s s e n . Unsere Empfindungen, Neigungen und L e i d e n s c h a f t e n s o l l e n mit V o r t e i l e n t w i c k e l t und ger e i n i g t werden.  73 Diese bedeutende S t e l l e , welche s i c h i n der "Allgemeinen deutschen B i b l i o t h e k " v o r f a n d , war n i c h t d i e e i n z i g e i n i h r e r A r t . Von gar v i e l e n S e i t e n her o f f e n b a r t e n s i c h a h n l i c h e Grundsatze und g l e i c h e Gesinnungen. S i e machten auf uns rege J u n g l i n g e sehr groBen Eindruck (IX.353-54). We can, of course, i n c l u d e Lenz among the "rege J u n g l i n g e " t h a t read such passages with enthusiasm,  and i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t S a l z -  mann was not the o n l y one who might have i n t r o d u c e d Lenz t o such ideas.  Both h i s and the A c t u a r y ' s thought c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be  merely running p a r a l l e l a t t h i s p o i n t , without i t being a case of the one i n f l u e n c i n g the o t h e r .  Apart, however, from the h i n t  g i v e n us by Lenz's e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to Salzmann, i t becomes apparent from the c l o s e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two essays t h a t Lenz i s here c o n s c i o u s l y being l e d by Salzmann's i d e a s , s e e i n g i n them j u s t the m o r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l arguments t h a t he needed t o back up h i s t h e o l o g i c a l and r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c tions . The f u r t h e r p a r a l l e l s between the two works, then, are as f o l l o w s : both Lenz and Salzmann begin t h e i r essay w i t h a c r i t i cism o f a l l e x i s t i n g t h i n k e r s on the t o p i c : Salzmann because  they  have not understood or r e p r e s e n t e d l o v e a r i g h t , Lenz because  they  have not r e c o g n i s e d the m u l t i p l e source o f human i n i t i a t i v e : the twin p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g m o r a l i t y .  To both w r i t e r s ,  philoso-  phers shoot f a r beyond the mark; Salzmann:"Die Philosophen? j a d i e s e f i n d e n i h r e G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t n i r g e n d anders, a l s i n dem une n d l i c h GroBen und u n e n d l i c h K l e i n e n ; s i e messen l i e b e r den Himmel a l s d i e Erde, worauf s i e herum gehen"(pp.31-32); Lenz: zog s e i n e L i n i e i n d i e Spharen,  Diogenes  i n den Kot.  "Plato  . .Keinem  74  von d i e s e n Herren aber i s t es e i n g e f a l i e n , das e r s t e  Princi-  pium der Moral das summum bonum i n uns s e l b e r zu suchen"(I.4 85). Both w r i t e r s l o c a t e happiness i n the use of i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l powers, as w e l l as i n s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , Salzmann's "Empfindungen unserer eigenen E x i s t e n z " (p.35 ) , and Lenz's "Gefuhl unserer E x i s t e n z " ( I . 4 9 3 ) .  In both essays i t i s then  s t a t e d t h a t these powers ...lie-,dead when the i n d i v i d u a l i s c u t o f f from h i s neighbour; Salzmann says: "Die Menschen s i n d n i c h t bestimmt i n der Welt a l l e i n  zu l e b e n .  Unsere Sinne wiirden zu  gar n i c h t s dienen, wenn auBer uns n i c h t s ware: und unsere G e i s t e s k r a f t e l i e g e n t o d t und vergraben, b i s s i e durch d i e auBern Gegenstande.  . .belebet und auseinander g e l e g t werden"(p.35)•  and  Lenz: "Die meisten, d i e groBesten und f i i r t r e f f l i c h s t e n unserer F a h i g k e i t e n l i e g e n t o t , sobald w i r aus a l l e r menschlichen Ges e l l s c h a f t f o r t g e r i s s e n uns v o l l i g a l l e i n b e f i n d e n " ( I . 4 9 0 ) . Both essays then acknowledge the wisdom o f God i n causing love t o be bound up w i t h s o c i a l duty, p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t and happiness; Salzmann s t a t e s "daB d i e wahre L i e b e der e i n z i g e r i c h t i g e Weg zur wahren und vollkommenen G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t sey, und daB a l s o der giitige Urheber unseres Wesens unsere B e d i i r f n i s s e , unsere ten und unsere G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t ganz nahe m i t einander habe"(p.45);  Pflich-  verbunden  Lenz w r i t e s : "Sehen S i e h i e r d i e W e i s h e i t des Schop-  f e r s , sehen S i e h i e r den Keim der L i e b e und a l l e r l i c h e n Tugenden auf den e r s t e n G r u n d t r i e b nach  gesellschaft-  Vollkommenheit  gepfropft"(1.490). Both e s s a y i s t s then d i g r e s s t o c r i t i c i s e Rousseau, Salzmann because he d i s a g r e e s with the i d e a l o f p r i m i t i v i s m , which  seeks  75  to  evade unhappiness, and Lenz because he cannot accept  Rousseau's i d e a l o f r e s t . concept of r e s t . in  "Ruhe i s t Unthatigkeit"(p.61 )/ he pronounces  the next essay, which i s no mere t a u t o l o g y s i n c e  k e i t " i n Salzmann's is  Salzmann a l s o f i n d s no room f o r the  "Untatig-  system, as i n Lenz's, means decadence.  the awareness of contemporary decadence t h a t leads  a f t e r he has expounded  It  Salzmann,  the theory of l o v e , to lament a t the d i s -  crepancy between theory and c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e :  " A l l e i n wer w i r d  d i e s e n hohen Grad der L i e b e e r r e i c h e n konnen! Wir haben so v i e l e H i n d e r n i s s e zu iiberwinden! " (p. 45) an d i e A r b e i t : man muB  But, he urges, "Nur f 'risen  den Muth h i e r . n i c h t sinken l a s s e n " ( p . 4 6 ) .  Lenz, a t the same p o i n t i n h i s essay, l i k e w i s e laments: "Aber-ach  d i e s e Welt i s t keine s o l c h e Welt. . .Es i s t s c h w e r — e s i s t  unmoglich", only to echo Salzmann's very c a l l :  " F r i s c h an d i e  A r b e i t , meine Briider, d i e i h r Mut genug habt" (1.496) .  Both  essays then end by l o c a t i n g the s t r i v i n g towards happiness, l o v e and p e r f e c t i o n i n an e t e r n a l framework. not  reached i n t h i s l i f e ,  I f man's high d e s t i n y i s  the p r o s p e c t of l i f e  a f t e r death g i v e s  hope of the u l t i m a t e f u l f i l m e n t ; Salzmann speaks of the "gegriindete Hoffnung, daB d i e s e s e e l i g e B e s c h a f t i g u n g noch j e n s e i t s des Grabes f o r t d a u e r n und d i e r e i c h s t e Belohnung unserer. . . h i e r wohlangewandten  Seelen- und L e i b e s k r a f t e .  . .die niemals v e r -  siegende Q u e l l e a l l e r unserer sowol gegenwartigen a l s zukiinftigen G l u c k s e l i g k e i t s e i n werde"(p.47). to  lift  Lenz, of course, i s ever ready  the d i s c u s s i o n up to the t h e o l o g i c a l l e v e l :  "Das groBeste  und l e t z t e Motiv, das uns unsere R e l i g i o n zur Vollkommenheit g i b t , i s t d i e A u s s i c h t i n e i n ewiges Leben. . . a l s worin d i e  76  hochste G l u c k s e l i g k e i t  besteht"(I.499).  The evidence a l l p o i n t s to Lenz g i v i n g an e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n to ideas t h a t he was to  embrace.  perhaps p r e d i s p o s e d by temperament  Not o n l y d i d they p r o v i d e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r  an a c t i v i s m i n s o c i a l a f f a i r s , but they a l s o harmonised  the ob-  l i g a t i o n to a c t f o r the good o f one's neighbour w i t h the dual's d e s i r e t o l i v e out l i f e to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . him the sense t h a t i f a c t i v i s m had now l o g i c a l terms, i t was  indivi-  They gave  to be worked out i n theo-  a t l e a s t m o r a l l y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y  right.  That Lenz's thought was moulded and i n s p i r e d by Salzmann's seems apparent from our comparison of the essays.  I t w i l l not  be the o n l y time t h a t Lenz e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y embraces o t h e r s ' i d e a s , even to the p o i n t of t a k i n g over t h e i r wording.  Friedrich,  i n h i s study of Lenz's Anmerkungen ubers Theater, shows i t s "SchluBanmerkung" to be not o n l y i n agreement with Herder's essay on Shakespeare  i n Von deutscher A r t und Kunst, but a l s o modelled  i n d e t a i l on i t . "Mit dem  p r i n c i p i e l l e n Standpunkt  hat aber Lenz  auch d i e Anlage des Ganzen heriibergenommen, " F r i e d r i c h t e l l s  us,  and goes on : "Die Verwandtschaft geht aber noch w e i t e r , s i e bet r i f f t auch E i n z e l h e i t e n . "  He concludes: "So i s t a l s o d i e SchluB-  anmerkung nach I n h a l t und Form n i c h t s a l s eine v e r k l e i n e r t e ,  zum Q  T h e i l e r w e i t e r t e Nachbildung von Herders Shakespeare-Aufsatz." * Lenz e v i d e n t l y f o l l o w e d h i s models q u i t e c l o s e l y . t h a t h i s "Versuch" was  Yet to suggest  "nothing but" an i m i t a t i o n of Salzmann's  essay would be t o do i t an i n j u s t i c e .  For what seems, i n the  other case, to have been a p o l e m i c a l attempt to b r i n g h i s A rimer k-  77  ungen up to date, and y e t s t i l l  appear t o have p r i o r i t y  over  Herder on a f a i r l y t e c h n i c a l matter, i s , i n t h i s case, r a t h e r an e n t h u s i a s t i c , and acknowledged, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a t h i n k e r whose ideas were o f v i t a l  importance  would r e p e a t e d l y r e t u r n .  Moreover, Lenz makes c e r t a i n  m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o Salzmann s system, 1  t o him and to which he important  and much i s r e v e a l e d by the  differences. The c h i e f o f these i s the e x t r a emphasis p l a c e d on s e l f consciousness, t h a t was b r i e f l y noted above(p.58).  W h i l s t both  Salzmann and Lenz i d e n t i f y happiness w i t h the agreeable of  one's e x i s t e n c e , communicated by fellow-man,  such  feeling  self-con-  sciousness takes the more dynamic form, i n Lenz, o f a sense o f his  powers.  Lenz's  Salzmann's "Gefiihl unserer E x i s t e n z " i s expanded t o  "Gefiihl unserer E x i s t e n z , unserer F a h i g k e i t e n , unsers  Selbst"(I.493).  The A c t u a r y speaks o f the agreeable  feelings  t h a t come through r a t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , Lenz speaks o f the agreeable consciousness o f one's r a t i o n a l powers.  Happiness  he  d e f i n e s as the p l e a s u r e o f knowing one's p o t e n t i a l , and i t i s for  such knowledge and p l e a s u r e t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l needs h i s  neighbour:  " I s t das Gefiihl unserer F a h i g k e i t e n n i c h t das, was  unsere ganze G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t ausmacht?. . .Wahre F r e u n d s c h a f t ber u h t a l s o e i n z i g auf das w e c h s e l s e i t i g e Gefiihl unserer menheit" (1. 491) .  Vollkom-  Not o n l y happiness, though, comes from  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , but a l s o p e r f e c t i b i l i t y .  Being  such  perfectible  i s o f no use u n l e s s one i s c o n s c i o u s o f i t ; p e r f e c t i o n  cannot  come except through i n s i g h t i n t o one's p e r f e c t i b i l i t y : "Der  78  W o l l i i s t l i n g f u h l t bloB s e i n e S i n n l i c h k e i t . s c h r o c k l i c h bose werden, wenn man zu erkennen gabe, daB  but knowing who  ihm anschauend und.3ebehdi;g  er hohere F a h i g k e i t e n habe"(I.493).  the s t r i v i n g a f t e r happiness are,  Er wurde e r -  and p e r f e c t i o n , i t i s not who  you are, t h a t i s the key.  c u r r e n t decadence of man,  In you  To e x p l a i n the  Salzmann argues t h a t people do  make the e f f o r t to g i v e and to r e c e i v e happiness.  Lenz  not agrees,  but t r a c e s t h i s l a c k of e f f o r t back f u r t h e r to a g e n e r a l unawareness of the p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l the i n d i v i d u a l has and can through  effort.  Salzmann urges h i s hearers to s t r i v e f o r per-  f e c t i o n , by h o l d i n g out to them the i n c e n t i v e o f happiness s o c i a l harmony.  fulfil  and  To Lenz the bonus i n p e r f e c t i o n , ;.as;:well:.as-the  means to i t , i s the i n c r e a s e d s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the a b i l i t y apply to o n e s e l f Hamlet's meditation:" what a p i e c e of work i s The most urgent requirement consciousness to  reach.  by God,  man  man!"  i n s o c i e t y i s , then, a renewed  of the l o f t y d e s t i n y , which man  Supported  to  has the p o t e n t i a l  i s on the road to p e r f e c t i o n ,  a t t a i n a b l e by the development and e x e r c i s e of human powers: to become aware of t h i s i s to take the f i r s t it.  step towards r e a c h i n g  To a c t towards t h i s end we have to know what man  he i s capable o f . little  Sadly, we  i s accomplished  are not aware of our l o f t y  towards the p e r f e c t i o n of man  because the s i g h t s are s e t too low, h i g h e r i s not envisaged.  i s , what  and s o c i e t y  the p o s s i b i l i t y of  consciousness,  through  advancing  In the t h e o l o g i c a l essays Lenz w i l l  s t r e s s t h a t s a l v a t i o n can only come, t h e r e f o r e , through of  calling;  a higher m e n t a l i t y t h a t w i l l  a renewal transcend  79  the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the o r d i n a r y human mind; t o denote t h i s change, Lenz w i l l use the C h r i s t i a n n o t i o n o f metanoia. Does the need f o r such a change, however, i n d i c a t e a f a l l e n humanity?  Salzmann, i n h i s otherwise  of man and God, does use the J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n itial  deistic  conception  i d e a of an i n -  f a l l , whereby man, o r i g i n a l l y made i n God's image, l o s t  t h a t image, but i s d e s t i n e d now t o recover image had a r a d i c a l e f f e c t on humanity. "Strome des allgemeinen  i t . The l o s s o f the  Salzmann speaks o f the  Verderbens"(p.46): the c u r r e n t o f human  p e r v e r s i t y a g a i n s t which l o v e has s t r e n u o u s l y t o work i t s way. Lenz, more e x p l i c i t l y C h r i s t i a n than Salzmann, the d e i s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r , nonetheless  i s l e s s w i l l i n g than he t o admit t h a t  what i s c a l l e d o r i g i n a l s i n was not i n man from the day o f h i s creation.  The p e r f e c t i o n o f Adam, the image o f God, was no  u l t i m a t e p e r f e c t i o n : "Gut, m.H.,  hieS b e i den e r s t e n Menschen,  f a h i g zur Vollkommenheit, aber noch n i c h t vollkommen, denn sonst wiirden s i e n i c h t g e f a l i e n s e i n " (1. 490) .  Lenz, as we s h a l l see  from the t h e o l o g i c a l essays, was c o n s i s t e n t l y a t pains t o port r a y Adam as s u b j e c t to the same process t i o n as contemporary man. beginning  and d e s t i n y o f p e r f e c -  Indeed, s i n c e he stands  r i g h t a t the  o f human d e s t i n y , he i s f a r behifldeighteenth-century  man who, with h i s gains i n self-awareness  and independence o f  a c t i o n , must t h i n k not o f r e t u r n i n g to p r i m i t i v e Adam, but on t o a f u t u r e and higher d e s t i n y o f c o n t i n u i n g p e r f e c t i o n .  T h i s con-  c e p t i o n o f Adam does n o t a l l o w Lenz t o e n t e r t a i n the i d e a o f a radical f a l l  from man's intended  s t a t e , nor i s there i n conse-  80  quence much room f o r the i d e a o f a depraved derben").  Lenz v o i c e s h i s disagreement  p o i n t i n a l e t t e r o f October  humanity  ("Ver-  w i t h Salzmann on t h i s  1772: "Das E i n e b i t t '  n i c h t so v e r a c h t l i c h von d i e s e r Welt zu sprechen. mein Gonner, m i t a l i e n i h r e n eingeschlossenen  i c h m i r aus, S i e i s t gut,  Ubeln"(Br.I.57).  The world i s on i t s way t o p e r f e c t i o n , not back t o P a r a d i s e ; and i f p e r f e c t i b l e Adam was to progress towards t h a t g o a l , he a l s o had t o t u r n h i s back on P a r a d i s e .  U n l i k e Salzmann*s,  t h e r e f o r e , Lenz's H e i l s g e s c h i c h t c i s l i n e a r , not c i r c u l a r ; i t has t o be understood  as a g r a d u a l journey, t h a t began i n the  Garden o f Eden, towards a f u l f i l m e n t o f human d e s t i n y .  The  Actuary's concept o f r e s t o r a t i o n o f a l o s t image was too backward-looking  f o r Lenz: i t i n v o l v e d c o n f e s s i o n o f f a i l u r e and  r e n u n c i a t i o n of Adam's a c t i o n .  L a t e r , Lenz's prometheanism=~wlll  take a somewhat humbler form, but he i s c o n s i s t e n t l y to  reluctant  allow the curse of the p a s t t o t r o u b l e h i s a s p i r a t i o n s f o r  the f u t u r e . Is  t h i s understanding o f L e n z i a n theology i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n ,  t h e r e f o r e , t o the views the poet expresses t o Salzmann i n a l e t ter  o f October  Offenbarung  1772: "So v i e l i s t k l a r dabey, daB durch d i e  s e i n e r Gnade i n C h r i s t o Jesu, e r n i c h t s anders ab-  zwecken w i l l ,  a l s unsere W i e d e r h e r s t e l l u n g i n den Stand der Un-  s c h u l d , welche gleichsam d i e weiBe T a f e l i s t , welche  hernach  beschrieben werden s o l i , und aus diesem i n den Stand der Gliickseligkeit"(Br.I.53)? to  Here he seems indeed t o advocate  square one i n order t o reach f i n a l happiness.  a return  However, as we  81  s h a l l see i n the next chapter, i t i s l a t e r t h a t same month t h a t Lenz undergoes a s o r t of c o n v e r s i o n , which i s accompanied by a s l i g h t s h i f t i n h i s views. n o t i o n of "Schuld" and cal  thinking.  From t h i s time on, s t r a n g e l y , the  "Unschuld"  disappears from h i s t h e o l o g i -  The H e i l s g e s c h i c h t e t r a c e d i n the "Versuch"  responds to t h i s p o s t - c o n v e r s i o n theology, which,  cor-  incidentally,  supports the argument f o r d a t i n g the essay a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to S t r a s s b u r g i n December 1772. autumn suggests, t h i n k through  The  tone of these l e t t e r s of t h a t  anyway, t h a t they are Lenz's f i r s t attempt to  the q u e s t i o n of happiness.  He i s more s e l f - c o n -  s c i o u s about h i s p h i l o s o p h i s i n g than he seems to be i n the such",  complaining  "Ver-  of h i s i n a b i l i t y to pursue a l i n e of p h i l o -  s o p h i c a l reasoning f o r more than a few minutes and c o n f e s s i n g h i m s e l f to be a p h i l o s o p h e r manque: " i c h hasche immer nach der e r s t e n besten W a h r s c h e i n l i c h k e i t , d i e mir i n d i e Augen flimmert, und d i e l i e b e , bescheiden  nackte Wahrheit kommt dann ganz l e i s e  von h i n t e n und h a l t mir d i e Augen zu. Ideen, wo  E i n e lange Kette  e i n e d i e andere g i b t , b i s man,  r e i s t hat, d i e l e t z t e f i n d ' t und  wenn man  e i n e Weile  l e s s he does attempt i n the "Versuch"  r a t h e r than r a t i o n a l l o g i c :  sophischen Betrachtungen  diirfen n i c h t uber zwo,  wahren, sonst t h u t mir der Kopf weh.  Nonethe-  such a p h i l o s o p h i c a l j o u r -  even i f , as he f r e e l y c o n f e s s e s , the leaps i n h i s  i n d i c a t e an emotional  ge-  s i c h s e i n e s Z i e l e s freuen kann,  i s t f u r meine Seele e i n e wahre S k l a v e n k e t t e " ( B r . I . 5 6 ) .  ney,  von  thought  "Meine p h i l o -  d r e i Minuten  Aber wenn i c h einen Gegen-  stand f i i n f , zehnmal so f l u c h t i g angesehen habe, und  f i n d e , daB  er  82  noch immer da b l e i b t und mir immer besser g e f a l l t , so h a l t i c h i h n f u r wahr, und meine Empfindung f i i h r t mich d a r i n t i g e r a l s meine Schliisse" (Br. 1. 59) .  1  rich-  Lenz's b e l i e f s were a  compound of p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n s and r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s . The two were complementary, he t e l l s Salzmann i n the reporting h i s conversion: " i c h b i n j e t z t . zeugung gekommen, wie s i e mir n o t i g war, phischen, n i c h t bloB m o r a l i s c h e n . das complementum  . .zu e i n e r Uberzu e i n e r p h i l o s o -  Der t h e o l o g i s c h e Glaube i s t  unserer V e r n u n f t " ( B r . I . 6 5 ) .  I t i s i n the  s p i r i t of t h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the "Versuch" was it  i s a l s o s t a t e d : "Der  letter  w r i t t e n , where  t h e o l o g i s c h e Glaube. . . i s t , wenn i c h  mit Baumgartenschen Ausdrucken reden s o i l : Complementum irioralitatis"(1.499).  For Lenz, p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n had  same object:' the i m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t i n a l t r u i s t i c C h r i s t ' s l i f e was  the  action.  "eine lebendige Rede, oder vielmehr e i n r e -  dendes Leben, welches,  wenn wir es anschauend erkannt,  wir  n i c h t unnachgeahmt l a s s e n konnen"(I.498). Apart from the q u e s t i o n of the goodness or p e r v e r s i t y of the world, the correspondence  w i t h Salzmann b r i n g s out  d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n between the two  correspondents.  further The  Actuary f o l l o w s L e i b n i z i n adhering to the n o t i o n o f " c o n t i n u a l c r e a t i o n " , w h i l s t Lenz argues upholding of the u n i v e r s e .  f o r the B i b l i c a l d o c t r i n e of God's  The problem i n v o l v e d i s t h a t of  imagining a t i m e l e s s God working i n time. "Zum  wenigsten  Salzmann ajrgues:  i s t das Geschaft eines Augenblicks und  nachherige  U n t h a t i g k e i t i n Gott v i e l schwerer zu b e g r e i f e n , a l s i n ewiger  83  und unveranderter Ordnung fortgehende Wirksamkeit", "ein  f o r God i s  Wesen. . .welches b e i e i n e r unendlichen T h a t i g k e i t auch  u n v e r a n d e r l i c h i s t " ( p p . 10-11 )• For t h i s same reason Salzmann excludes anything other than an i n d i r e c t and n a t u r a l of  God i n the world.  working  There can be no p e r s o n a l experience o f  God's hand such as the P i e t i s t J u n g - S t i l l i n g d e s c r i b e s , no s p e c i a l favours shown by God towards c e r t a i n humans, j u s t as there c o u l d be no one a c t of c r e a t i o n i n h i s t o r y f o l l o w e d by a God  " r e s t i n g on the seventh day".  Lenz argues, on the o t h e r  hand, f o r a h i s t o r i c a l working of God, f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s u p e r - n a t u r a l , d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f God on man; f o r theism, t h e r e f o r e , not deism: fur  "nur miissen w i r das U b e r n a t i i r l i c h e n i c h t  u n n a t i i r l i c h h a l t e n , oder aus der Welt verbannen,  i n der  Gott nach einem Hohern Plane a r b e i t e t , a l s unser k u r z s i c h t i g e r s c h i e l e n d e r Verstand ubersehen  kann"(Br.I.64).  n a t u r a l theology took too l i t t l e but a l s o too l i t t l e  Salzmann's  account of the d i v i n e  mystery,  account o f the d i r e c t p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  grace, the d i r e c t working of the S p i r i t o f God i n man, pensable t o Lenz's c o n c e p t i o n of genius and g e n i a l  indis-  action.  A t h i r d p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t Lenz f e e l s h i m s e l f c l o s e r t o Shaftesbury than he f e l t Salzmann was: "Eine L i e b l i n g s i d e e haben S i e , mein Theurer, und das f r e u t mich, w e i l i c h auch eine habe. . .Die I h r i g e i s t — d i e L i e b e — u n d d i e Meinige, die  Schonheit. . .So v i e l  ge Idee i s t ,  i s t gewiB, daB d i e l e t z t e r e d i e e i n z i -  auf d i e i c h a l l e andern  zu r e d u z i e r e n suche.  es muB d i e achte Schonheit seyn, d i e auf Wahrheit  Aber  und Giite ge-  84  grundet i s t " ( B r . 1 . 5 7 - 5 8 ) .  The p r e o c c u p a t i o n with harmonising  beauty and m o r a l i t y c e r t a i n l y keeps Lenz busy f o r a w h i l e ; i n the "Versuch" he seems t o be making a comment on the s i d e t o Salzmann when, i f only f o r a moment, Lenz, t a k i n g essay on "Liebe", uses i t s argument " Schonheit ": "Es muB 1  Salzmann s 1  to make a p o i n t about  i n unserm Bestreben nach Vollkommenheit  eine gewisse Ubereinstimmung Ganzen, eine gewisse Harmonie  a l l e r unserer K r a f t e zu einem s e i n , welche e i g e n t l i c h den  wahren B e g r i f f des hochsten Schonen g i b t .  Sehen S i e nun,  daB  d i e L i n i e n des wahren Schonen und des wahren Guten im s t r e n g sten Verstande, i n einen Punkt zusammen laufen?"(I.489)  The  harmony of one's powers was Salzmann's r e c i p e f o r the s t a t e i n which love became p o s s i b l e , as w e l l as development towards perfection.  The t h e o l o g i c a l essays a l s o c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s to  the " h i g h e s t beauty" and to " s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e beauty", but the essay i n which they were no doubt most f u l l y worked out i s no longer extant.  However the d i f f e r e n c e to Salzmann's  t h i n k i n g , i m p l i e d by t h i s a e s t h e t i c concern, i s c l e a r l y g r e a t than Lenz leads us to t h i n k .  less  W h i l s t , as a poet, he i s  n a t u r a l l y concerned f o r a e s t h e t i c s , he i s a l s o very i n t e r e s t e d i n "Liebe", as h i s essays a l s o i n d i c a t e , and he can w r i t e to S a l z mann, a r t i c u l a t i n g h i s fundamental agreement w i t h him: " i c h f i i h l e eine A f f i n i t a t zu Ihnen, d i e ganz e r s c h r e c k l i c h (Br.I.58).  ist"  The many other e x p r e s s i o n s of Lenz's sense of making  common cause with Salzmann e n t i r e l y d i s p r o v e the argument,  from  t h i s same l e t t e r , t h a t Lenz i s h o s t i l e to the A c t u a r y ' s p a r t i cular interest.  D o l l i n g e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , w r i t e s : "Homme de  85  l e t t r e s jusqu'aux m o e l l e s , i l n ' a v a i t appaiamment jamais goute l e s homelies de Salzmann.  Des  1772,  i l l u i e c r i v a i t sur un  ton f r i s a n t 1'impertinence: 'Vous avez une idee f a v o r i t e e t c .  1  I I ne nous l a i s s e aucun doute sur l e sentiment que l u i i n 9.  spirait  '1'idee f a v o r i t e ' du r e s p e c t a b l e A c t u a r i u s . "  ger's view of Lenz and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Salzmann  Dollini s coloured,  u n f o r t u n a t e l y , by h i s d i s a p p r o v a l of Lenz's p r e j u d i c e i n favour of German over French.  The many l e t t e r s t h a t have s u r v i v e d be-  tween the poet and h i s mentor up to as l a t e as December  1776,  show t h a t Lenz never had anything but the h i g h e s t regard f o r Salzmann  and h i s i d e a s .  We do know t h a t Salzmann was not u n c r i t i c a l of Lenz; i t i s c l e a r from Lenz's l e t t e r s c o n f e s s i n g to h i s f r i e n d h i s l o v e f o r F r i e d e r i k e B r i o n t h a t the A c t u a r y thoroughly disapproved of the a f f a i r , as of Lenz's n e g l e c t o f h i s s t u d i e s . l i t e r a r y matter, Salzmann  And,  in a  could not approve of the language Lenz  uses i n h i s P l a u t u s t r a n s l a t i o n s . But i n the l a t t e r case Goethe h i m s e l f defended the t r a n s l a t i o n s , defending a t the same time, i n c i d e n t a l l y , h i s own  use o f p o p u l a r language i n Gotz von Ber-  l i c h i n g e n ; and i n the o t h e r case Lenz w i l l i n g l y submitted to 10. h i s f r i e n d ' s sage c o u n s e l . 1772:  He w r i t e s to h i s f a t h e r i n June  "Salzmann—o wenn i c h einen so e r f a h r e n e n liebenswiirdigen  Mentor n i c h t h i e r zur S e i t e gehabt, auf welcher K l i p p e wiirde i c h j e t z t n i c h t schon s c h i f f b r i i c h i g s i t z e n ? " (Br. 1. 23) Salzmann  always remained a k i n d r e d s p i r i t ,  To Lenz,  from 1772 when he  wrote to the A c t u a r y about S p a l d i n g : " e s macht wenigstens Ver-  86 g n u g e n z u f i n d e n , daB A n d e r e m i t u n s n a c h d e m s e l b e n  Punkt  v i s i e r e n " ( B r . I . 3 8 ) , t o 1776, when S a l z m a n n w r i t e s t o L e n z about h i s l a s t essay d e l i v e r e d a t the Deutsche  Gesellschaft,  s p e a k i n g o f i t i n a way t h a t s u g g e s t s h e was s u r e o f L e n z ' s warm a p p r o b a t i o n : "Doch i s t m e i n e l e t z t e r e o h n g e d r u c k t e A b h a n d l u n g i i b e r a l l g e m e i n e Oder g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e  gliickseligkeit  u n v e r g l e i c h l i c h g e r a t h e n u n d wenn i h r m i r g u t w o r t g e b t s o S c h i c k  ich's  euch.  S i e i s t i n d e r g e s e l l s c h a f t g e l e s e n und  sehr a p p r o b i r t worden"(Br.II.35). Throughout L e n z ' s work t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i d e a s e x p r e s s e d t h a t may i n d i c a t e S a l z m a n n ' s  i n f l u e n c e , and a t l e a s t p r o v e  t h e i r thought r a n p a r a l l e l .  Lenz's f i r s t  o f Salzmann's Sokrates!  specific  i d e a s comes i n a l e t t e r o f S e p t e m b e r  that  discussion 1772: " G u t e r  "Ohne m i c h n i c h t g a n z g l i i c k l i c h " — F i i r c h t e n S i e s i c h  d e r Siinde n i c h t , e i n e n j u n g e n M e n s c h e n s t o l z  z u machen, d e s s e n  Herz noch a l i e n P a s s i o n e n o f f e n s t e h t und d u r c h Z e i t und E r f a h r ung n u r n o c h s e h r w e n i g v e r b o l l w e r k t i s t ? Da i c h s o t i e f  i n Ihr  S y s t e m g e g u c k t , d a i c h w e i B , daB I h r e R e l i g i o n d i e G l i i c k s e l i g keit i s t — s o  konnte m i r k e i n groBeres Compliment  a l s , daB i c h i m S t a n d e s e y , m i t e t w a s I f we r e c o n s t r u c t t h e q u o t a t i o n : lich"  sein":  werden,  beizutragen"(Br.I.44-45).  "Ohne m i c h n i c h t g a n z g l i i c k -  i n t h e form i n w h i c h Salzmann  have something l i k e :  gemacht  p r o b a b l y used i t ,  "ohne d i c h k a n n i c h n i c h t g a n z  we s h o u l d gliicklich  s u r e l y a fragment o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f happiness through  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h one's f e l l o w - m a n .  T h i s i s t h e "System" ex-  p r e s s e d i n "Uber d i e L i e b e " a n d u s e d b y L e n z i n h i s " V e r s u c h " . Lenz's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e system c o n s i s t s o f f o u r all  observations,  o f w h i c h S a l z m a n n w o u l d h a v e r e s p o n d e d f a v o u r a b l y t o , b u t one  87  of  which p a r t i c u l a r l y shows Lenz's b e l i e f i n the p r a c t i c a l r e -  a l i t y and r e l e v a n c e of the system. t h a t we  can, i n t h i s world,  fulfil  His o p t i m i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n our p o t e n t i a l f o r h a p p i n e s s —  something which perhaps Salzmann was  not so sure o f — i s  filled  out by h i s emphasis i n a l a t e r l e t t e r t h a t the kingdom of i s not merely  God  an i d e a : "das Reich Gottes, wovon C h r i s t u s immer  r e d ' t , i s t n i c h t a l l e i n i n jenem Leben zu h o f f e n , denn er s e l b s t hat uns im Vaterunser beten g e l e h r t 'dein W i l l e geschehe im Himmel, wie auf Erden' . mer  Wenn' s Gliick gut i s t , b i n i c h noch im-  e i n h e i m l i c h e r Anhanger vom  t a u s e n d j a h r i g e n Reiche, wenigs-  tens glaub' i c h gewiss,  daB  der Zustand  unserer Welt n i c h t immer  d e r s e l b e b l e i b e n wird.  Und  c h r i s t l i c h - p h y s i s c h e s libel muB  immer  mehr d r i n abnehmen, wenn das M o r a l i s c h e d a r i n abnimmt"(Br.I.57). There remains,  to be sure, the problem of e v i l , which seems to  Lenz to knock down h i s house of c a r d s . i l l n e s s i s the reminder  Salzmann, whose r e c e n t  to Lenz of the problem of e v i l , has  gested a s o l u t i o n along the l i n e s of Enlightenment  sug-  theodicy:  i l l n e s s might be "das Fegfeuer unserer Tugend"(Br.I.45).  Lenz  suggests t h a t a t l e a s t i t enables us per c o n t r a r i a t o a p p r e c i a t e health. ly,  We  s h a l l f i n d t h i s l i n e of reasoning repeated f r e q u e n t -  t h a t we o n l y d i s c o v e r good by l e a r n i n g not to do bad,  m o r a l i t y i s suggested  that  to us by the consequences of immorality.  Both Salzmann and Lenz b e l i e v e t h a t the human mind, i f i t i s to be able e f f e c t i v e l y to love <(Salzmann) and to a c q u i r e freedom from determining f a c t o r s  (Lenz), must not seek to a v o i d the p a i n -  f u l aspects of e x i s t e n c e but to embrace them and overcome them:  88  "Unser G e i s t muB s t a r k genug seyn, a l l e s d i e s e s m i t gleichem Muthe zu ertragen"("Uber d i e Rache",p.67). "Denken h e i B t n i c h t v e r t a u b e n — e s h e i B t , s e i n e unangenehmen Empfindungen m i t a l l e r i h r e r Gewalt wiiten zu l a s s e n und Starke genug i n s i c h  fiihlen,  d i e Natur d i e s e r Empfindungen zu untersuchen und s i c h so uber s i e hinaus zu s e t z e n " ("liber d i e Natur unsers Geistes"; :.1.575). The d o c t r i n e o f human s t r i v i n g leads both t o r e j e c t the Lutheran dependence on God alone f o r any improvement:"(Die Religion).  A u s l e g e r der  . .laugnen gradezu, daB der Mensch etwas zu s e i n e r  Besserung beytragen konne.  Nach ihrem B e g r i f f muB Gott a l l e s  von innen und aussen bey uns thun"(Salzmann,  p.74)."Sollen wir  aber n i c h t s zu Verbesserung unsers Zustandes tun, hor i c h S i e f r a g e n . S o l l e n w i r Gott versuchen und l a u t e r Wunder von ihm e r warten?"("Versuch"1.495)  .  Man''s s a l v a t i o n depends on h i s own  e f f o r t s , and God has g i v e n him v a r i o u s means o f keeping these a l i v e ; f o r Salzmann i t i s our a f f e c t i o n s and i n c l i n a t i o n s : "Beide s i n d an s i c h kostbare Geschenke des Himmels, urn unter den lebenden Geschopfen  das Feuer der T h a t i g k e i t und Wirksamkeit zu  unterhalten"(p.100).  F o r Lenz t h i s s e r v i c e i s performed by human  concupiscence: "Die Konkupiszenz l i g k e i t notwendig,  i s t dem Menschen zur Gliickse-  e i n e Gabe Gottes. . .Die T r i e b f e d e r unserer  Handlungen i s t d i e Konkupiszenz"(I.501-2). unhappiness  lies,  The way t o v i c e and  f o r both t h i n k e r s , i n " T r a g h e i t " .  Indeed, i n -  a c t i v i t y dehumanises man, lowering him t o p r i m i t i v e ^ l e v e l s o o f c r e a t i o n ; t o Salzmann i t i s as much as "uns unter d i e andern T h i e r e herabsetzen, welche das w i i r k l i c h s i n d , was s i e seyn und  89  werden konnen"(p.152); to the i d l e , Lenz c r i e s :  "Warum w i l l s t  du zur P f l a n z e oder M i n e r a l zuriickverwesen" (1.504) ? Both condemn s p e c u l a t i o n and mere o b s e r v a t i o n : Salzmann's dictum: s o l l t e n keine bloBe Zuschauer i n der Welt seyn, a l l e m , was dem  darinnen  i s t und vorgehet,  "wir  sondern an  A n t h e i l nehmen, und  nach  MaBe unserer K r a f t e n s e l b s t handeln", w i l l be the moral of 1.1 .  Lenz's p l a y Die Freunde machen den Philosophen.  We  have sug-  gested some of the main t h e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the men:  two  a comparison of Salzmann's use of the image of a s h i p n a v i -  g a t i n g between sand-banks and r e e f s , with Lenz's use of the same image shows how  much Lenz f e l t  the need to supplement Salzmann's 12. philosophy of s e l f - h e l p with a dependence on God's grace. However both have the same a t t i t u d e towards the B i b l e , which i s "nur Geschichte 13.  der g o t t l i c h e n Offenbarungen", not r e v e l a t i o n  itself. In g e n e r a l , t h e r e f o r e , Lenz shows h i m s e l f to be w e l l - c a t e c h i s e d i n the c e n t r a l tenets of Salzmann s p h i l o s o p h y of 1  The Actuary's  life.  s c a t h i n g indictment of p a s s i o n f i n d s an echo i n  Lenz's r e s o l v e , s t a t e d i n h i s "Lebensregeln",  t h a t he must not  allow l o v e to t u r n i n t o a " s i c h wider Vernunft, 14. emporende L e i d e n s c h a f t " ;  and  Ordnung und  Gott  i t i s e n t i r e l y i n the s p i r i t of  Salzmann's advocation of t o l e r a n c e : " A l l e Dinge i n der Welt haben hundert S e i t e n und ort,  jeder Mensch hat seinen eigenen  woraus er s i e b e t r a c h t e t .  F o l g l i c h kann e i n e r n i c h t eben so  sehen wie der andere, wenn er n i c h t i n . punkt g e s t e l l t w i r d " ( p . 3 ) ,  Stand-  denselben  Gesichts-  and q u i t e i n h i s s p i r i t of p r a c t i c a l  90  utilitarianism:  "daB der Brauchbarste der beste i s t " ,  w r i t e s to h i s f a t h e r i n September 1776:  t h a t Lenz  "Die Welt i s t groB mein  V a t e r , d i e Wirkungskreise v e r s c h i e d e n . A l l e Menschen konnen n i c h t e i n e r l e y Meinungen oder v i e l l e i c h t nur e i n e r l e y A r t s i e auszudriicken haben.  So unvollkommen das was man  i n jedem Fach  der menschlichen E r k e n n t n i s modern nennt, seyn mag,  so i s t es,  wie S i e s e l b s t mir n i c h t ganz absprechen werden, jungen Leuten doch nothwendig,  s i c h h i n e i n zu s c h i c k e n , wenn s i e der Welt  brauchbar werden w o l l e n " (Br.II.37) . I t need not be denied, of course, t h a t o t h e r s c o n t r i b u t e d to moulding Lenz's thought.  He had, a f t e r a l l ,  studied  philo-  sophy under Kant at Konigsberg, and through him become acquainted w i t h the main c u r r e n t s of e i g h t e e n t h century thought, as r e p r e s e n t e d e s p e c i a l l y i n Baumgarten, whose Metaphysica was standard t e x t i n Kant's c o u r s e s , and Rousseau, g r e a t l y admired. Kaat's own  a  whom the p r o f e s s o r  p h i l o s o p h y of 1768-71 was:  "die f r e i e  E r k e n n t n i s des Menschen, s e i n e r Bestimmung, der Ursachen  und  Z i e l e s e i n e s Daseins, der ihm v e r l i e h e n e n K r a f t e und der S t e l l u n g , 15. d i e ihm d i e Natur bestimmt  hatte."  It i s interesting,  though,  t h a t w h i l s t we hear t h a t Lenz, who .apparently was known t o negl e c t l e c t u r e s as a r u l e , never missed one of Kant's, he never mentions him.  I t i s Salzmann, on the other hand,whom he addres-u  ses as h i s "Mentor",  h i s "Sokrates"; i t i s h i s i d e a s of powerful,  a c t i v e l o v e , f u l f i l m e n t of human p o t e n t i a l f o r happiness, and t i r e l e s s s o c i a l concern t h a t f i r e Lenz's enthusiasm and l e a d him to view s o c i e t y as a whole, and the S o c i e t e i n p a r t i c u l a r , as a sphere f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c a l  realisation.  91  More than h i s ideas expressed on paper, however, i t was Salzmann s p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e over h i s younger acquaintances, 1  at  a time when such i n f l u e n c e was  w i d e l y and most l a s t i n g l y f e l t .  badly needed, t h a t was  most  The malaise from which the  whole Sturm' und Drang g e n e r a t i o n s u f f e r e d i s sketched by Goethe i n Dichtung und Wahrheit. q u a l e r e i , welche, da man  He w r i t e s : "Man  kennt  jene S e l b s t -  von aufien und von andern keine Not  h a t t e , an der Tagesordnung war, G e i s t e r beunruhigte"(X.7).  und gerade d i e v o r z i i g l i c h s t e n  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s mal  du  s i e c l e he l i s t s as i n t e n s e s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , an a l l i a n c e of the s t r i c t e s t moral demands on o n e s e l f w i t h the g r e a t e s t c a r e l e s s ness and e c c e n t r i c i t y of behaviour, the u n c e r t a i n t y whether the i n n e r t u r b u l e n c e was at  to be approved  Four members  l e a s t of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n knew and corresponded with Salzmann,  not only Lenz, whom Goethe saw tured s p i r i t , Ott.  or condemned.  as a s t r i k i n g example of the t o r -  but a l s o Wagner, Goethe h i m s e l f , and Lenz's  To a l l these the Actuary was,  friend  as i t were, a p h y s i c i a n t o  t h e i r s o u l s , e x o r c i s i n g the daemon of Werther and d i r e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s to u s e f u l goals.  their  Lenz a c t u a l l y c a l l s h i s mentor "mein  s a n f t e r f r e u n d l i c h e r A r z t " ( B r . I . 3 0 ) , f o r i t was  Salzmann  who  helped him to overcome the anguish he f e l t over h i s a f f a i r w i t h F r i e d e r i k e B r i o n , and encouraged s e r i o u s l y to h i s s t u d i e s .  We  him,  s u c c e s s f u l l y , to r e t u r n  have seen how  by Salzmann s advocation of u s e f u l a c t i v i t y . 1  impressed We  Goethe  was  get a glimpse of  the s o r t of t h i n g t h a t Goethe might have heard the A c t u a r y  say,  from a passage i n the essay on "Gemuthsbewegungen, Neigungen und  92  L e i d e n s c h a f t e n " , which shows h i s a t t i t u d e towards m i s - d i r e c t e d emotional e n e r g i e s : Es i s t unlaugbar, daB s t a r k e und h e f t i g e Empfindungen, s i e mogen nun wahr oder f a l s c h seyn, auch s t a r k e und h e f t i g e Handlungeh verursachen. Es h a n d e l t a l s o e i n von L e i d e n s c h a f t e n bezwungener Mensch o f f e r s m i t v i e l e r Energ i e , seine A b s i c h t e n b r e i t e n s i c h weit aus, und s e i n e Handlungen haben machtige Folgen. A l l e i n was i s t E n e r g i e i n unsern K r a f t e n , wenn s i e n i c h t a l l e i n gleichem Grade gestimmt s i n d , wann wahre und r i c h t i g e Vernunft den ger i n g s t e n A n t h e i l daran hat; was h e l f e n A b s i c h t e n , wann wir uns e i n f a l s c h e s Z i e l v o r s t e c k e n , und was heifien groBe und machtige Folgen, wann s i e s i c h n i c h t auf d i e Vermehrung der Summe, der allgemeinen Vollkommenheit und G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t beziehen?" (p. 114) The c o r r e c t balance o f one's powers under the r u l e o f r e a s o n — not the u n b r i d l e d Sturm und Drang o f the emotions—Salzmann sees as the only c o n d i t i o n f o r a c t i v e , a l t r u i s t i c endeavour. d e s c r i b e s such love i n a c t i o n i n a passage s t r i k i n g l y  He  prophetic  not only o f Goethe's Gotz but a l s o o f Lenz's a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h a t hero expressed i n h i s paper "tiber Gotz von B e r l i c h i n g e n " .  It  i s worthwhile quoting the passage i n f u l l ,  images  s i n c e i t s main  of love as a young man, handsome and powerful, a support t o the weak and a t e r r o r t o the e v i l ,  and as the sun, warming and a n i -  mating, a r e echoed by Lenz: "Und so h a t t e n w i r denn d i e L i e b e zu einem erhabenen J i i n g l i n g a u s g e b i l d e t , welcher einen schonen, geiibten und zur Empfindung f e r t i g e n G e i s t i n einem wohlgebauten und g e s c h i c k t e n Korper t r a g t , und, durch den Ruf s e i n e r m i t Verstand g e l e i t e t e n Empfindsamkeit und unaufhaltsamen Starke des Muthes, zur erwarmenden und belebenden Sonne f u r s e i n e Freunde, s e i n e Mitbiirger, s e i n e L a n d s l e u t e und d i e ganze Menschheit, zur Stiitze der Schwachen, zum T r o s t der Elenden und U n g l i i c k l i c h e n , zum  93  Schrecken der B o s h e i t und zum g e s c h a f t i g e n Werkzeug der g o t t l i c h e n L i e b e und Gnade geworden ist".••(•pp. 43-4) . the  Lenz, f i r e d by  example Goethe has c r e a t e d of such g e n u i n e l y a l t r u i s t i c  and f u l f i l l i n g  a c t i o n , w i l l w r i t e i n 1774:  Sehen S i e da i s t der ganze Mann, immer weg g e s c h a f t i g , " t a t i g , warmend und wohltuend wie d i e Sonne, aber auch so verzehrendes Feuer, wenn man ihm zu nahe kommt--und am Ende s e i n e s Lebens geht er unter wie d i e Sonne, vergmigt, bessere Gegenden zu schauen, wo mehr F r e i h e i t i s t , a l s er h i e r s i c h und den S e i n i g e n v e r s c h a f f e n konnte, und l a B t noch L i c h t und Glanz h i n t e r s i c h . Wer so g e l e b t hat, w a h r l i c h , der hat seine Bestimmung e r f i i l l t , Gott du weiBt es wie w e i t , wie sehr, er weiB nur s o v i e l davon a l s genug i s t i h n g l i i c k l i c h zu machen. Denh was i n der Welt kann wohl uber das BewuBtsein gehen, v i e l Freud a n g e r i c h t e t zu haben(I.381). Both Goethe and Lenz seek t h a t a l t r u i s t i c way energies t h a t was  Lenz by d e v o t i n g h i m s e l f , through  w r i t i n g , t o the moral and s p i r i t u a l improvement of s o c i e t y .  Both owe much to Salzmann  f o r the r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i r  t i o n s , i n Goethe's case away from the i n t r o s p e c t i v e of  their  c l o s e d to Werther: Goethe by involvement i n  p o l i t i c a l and i n d u s t r i a l l i f e , his  of u t i l i s i n g  the p a r t i c u l a r P i e t i s t s he had met  atten-  religiosity  i n S t r a s s b u r g — s u r e l y an  unwholesome i n f l u e n c e on a g e n e r a t i o n a l r e a d y i n c l i n e d , as Goethe t o l d us i n Dichtung und Wahrheit, t o "Selbstbeobachtung" and the resulting  "undermining" of one's i n n e r l i f e — a n d  away from the s o l e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h i s own  i n Lenz's case  unhappiness.  He  r e p e a t e d l y confesses such unhappiness, but we can be sure, as sure as Lenz and a l l who would have been.  knew Salzmann, what the A c t u a r y ' s answer  Salzmann,  as a t r u e c h i l d of h i s century, p r e -  s c r i b e s d i s c i p l i n e , order, a h a r n e s s i n g and d i r e c t i n g o f human  94  e n e r g i e s , an i m p o s i t i o n on the s e l f o f r u l e s and boundaries as the p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r r e a l growth and development.  At f i r s t  Lenz responds somewhat p e t u l a n t l y t o such a course o f t r e a t ment: "Wie, mein l i e b e n s w u r d i g e r Fiihrer, i c h s o l l t e wie e i n ungezahmtes Ross a l i e n Zaum und Ziigel a b s t r e i f e n , den man mir iiberwirft?  Wofiir h a l t e n S i e mich?  einen ganz andern Zuchtmeister.  Ach j e t z t bekomm'  ich  Entfernung, E i n s a m k e i t , Noth  und Kummer, werden mir Moralen geben, d i e weit b i t t e r e r an Geschmack seyn werden, a l s d i e I h r i g e n , mein s a n f t e r Arzt' l|Br. I. 30). But a l r e a d y i n September,  freundlicher  he can w r i t e : "Ihre  weisen Rathschlage iiber e i n e n gewissen A r t i k e l meines Herzens, fang i c h an m i t E r n s t i n Ausiibung zu s e t z e n " (Br. 1. 39) .  Salz-  mann suggests u s e f u l a c t i v i t y t o Lenz i n the form o f working f o r a Law degree.  The l a t t e r , knowing  t h a t he d i d not have the  d i s p o s i t i o n t o immerse h i m s e l f i n a p r o f e s s i o n which would not allow him t o speak d i r e c t l y t o h i s fellow-men, c o n f e s s e s : "In der J u r i s p r u d e n z habe i c h nur noch eine k l e i n e Sayte i n meiner Seele aufgezogen, und d i e g i b t einen verhenkert l e i s e n Thon"(Br. 1.39).  He responds r a t h e r t o the message o f Salzmann's t h e o r e -  t i c a l essays and t o the i d e a o f working t o i n f l u e n c e  society.  Such a c t i v i t y i s the way out o f d e p r e s s i o n and i n t o a sense of p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t , j u s t as, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s essay "tiber d i e Natur unsers G e i s t e s " , i t i s the way out o f determinism i n t o freedom.  We should not, t h e r e f o r e , see a c t i v i t y i n the s o c i a l  and moral spheres as a s i g n i n Lenz o f compulsive i n s e c u r i t y , but as a v a l i d way of overcoming d e s t r u c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s i n the emo-  95  tions. it  Lenz knows t h a t he needs such a way,  and f e e l s  that  i s r i g h t f o r s o c i a l , moral, t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  reasons.  H i s o p t i m i s t i c r e s o l u t i o n s , and the development  h i s theory of a c t i o n , both encouraged  of  by h i s mentor, do g i v e  him, a c c o r d i n g l y , a v i t a l i t y t h a t w i l l  impress o t h e r s .  Kayser,  w r i t i n g to Roderer i n 1776 a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a copy o f c e r t a i n of Lenz's poems, exclaims:"0 Lenzl Lenz! Lenz! Lenz! konnt  1  ich  d i c h durch d i e Winde h e r r e i B e n l a s s e n , wenn mir so o f t K r a f t 16. und Muth und Theilnehmung  fehlt!"  And three days b e f o r e , he  had w r i t t e n to the same Roderer of Lenz: "Dank ihm f u r a l l e s , was  er an uns, an mir! t h u t .  Ich b i n mein l e b e l a n g an wenig  Menschen auf d i e s e A r t g e h e f t e t gewesen, a l s i c h schon u n s i c h t 17. bar an Lenzen."  They do not, however, d r i v e away the symp-  toms of h i s m a l a i s e ; these remain a l o n g s i d e h i s p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n s and i n p e r p e t u a l t e n s i o n w i t h them.  aspi-  I t i s no doubt f o r  t h i s reason t h a t not only Lenz h i m s e l f , but o t h e r s a l s o found Salzmann's  f r i e n d s h i p and support of l a s t i n g v a l u e .  i n g to Salzmann  Ott, writ-  i n 1780 from Vienna, and complaining o f h i s  l o n e l y l o t , says: " S i e haben r e c h t , es l i e g t F a u l h e i t i n dem Wimmern, Abscheu f i i r Anstrengung i n diesem Kleinmuth. mich bestreben d i e Wiener  zu gewinnen,  w i l l h e r z l i c h uber d i e Abwesenheit  die ich nicht  Ich w i l l liebe,  a l l e r meiner Freunde  weinen  18.  und doch Mann b l e i b e n . " Salzmann's  The passage speaks e l o q u e n t l y of  i n f l u e n c e over h i s younger f r i e n d s , and h i s approba-  t i o n of s t r e n g t h and e f f o r t .  People d i d not f i n d i n Salzmann  a  sop to t h e i r f e e l i n g s , but an earnest stimulus to overcome them  96  and bend them t o u s e f u l g o a l s .  S i m i l a r l y , Wagner w r i t e s to  Salzmann three years a f t e r t h i s : 19. gen: mich herabzustimmen."  " i c h w i l l Ihre Lehre b e h e r z i -  Salzmann's w r i t i n g s preach  s t r e n g t h and s t r i v i n g ; h i s p e r s o n a l advice, though,to those who  surrender too f r e e l y to s t r i v i n g and allow i t t o become  p a s s i o n , i s moderation. Of a l l the Sturm und Drang g e n e r a t i o n , J u n g - S t i l l i n g seems l e a s t a f f e c t e d by the Actuary.  He speaks of him i n a k i n d l y  enough way, but whether i t was because the m a l a i s e o f the time had not succeeded i n d i s r u p t i n g the s e c u r i t y of h i s C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , or whether he could not respond to Salzmann on account of the l a t t e r ' s r e l i g i o u s s c e p t i c i s m , he adds t o the vague deference of h i s l i t e r a r y p o r t r a i t of the Actuary: "Sein P l a t z war der o b e r s t e , und ware es auch h i n t e r der Thiir  gewesen,"  merely a p a s s i n g acknowledgement o f h i s s u p p o r t i v e r o l e .  The  r e f e r e n c e comes i n a l e t t e r to Lerse of 6th March 1780, i n which he reviews the f o r t u n e s of h i s former f r i e n d s from the T i s ch ge s e l l s c h a f t :  " E i n K l e e b l a t t vom L a u t h i s c h e n ehemals 1  merkwiirdigen T i s c h i s t noch i i b r i g : Goethe, Du und i c h .  Die  andern a l l e s i n d entweder—Werkeltagsmenschen oder i h r Feuer i s t schon v e r r a u c h t .  S a l z m a n n — g e h o r t n i c h t i n d i e s e Reihe, er war 20.  r u h i g e r Beobachter und Freund, i n dessen SchoS w i r s p i e l t e n . " I t was those who needed Salzmann and became p e r s o n a l l y acquaint e d w i t h him, t h a t were the ones most a f f e c t e d by him. case, as we have i n d i c a t e d , Salzmann's i n f l u e n c e was  In Lenz's  decisive.  He was a mentor both on a p e r s o n a l and on an i n t e l l e c t u a l  level.  97  Not o n l y d i d he provide s t a b i l i t y and common sense a t a time of  great i n s t a b i l i t y ,  but i t was a l s o out o f Salzmann s p h i l o 1  sophy, i n the context of the S o c i e t e , t h a t Lenz's of  a c t i v i s m arose.  philosophy  U n l i k e Salzmann, though, Lenz was no r e a l  p h i l o s o p h e r , as he f r e e l y admitted,  and f e e l i n g , as the Luthe-  ran p a s t o r ' s son t h a t he was, t h a t commitment to a c t i o n comes only through r e l i g i o u s renewal, he developed  a theology o f  a c t i o n which i t w i l l be our task i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter t o analyse.  §8  CHAPTER THREE  The T h e o l o g i c a l Case f o r Lenz's Concept of A c t i o n  Lenz had  a l r e a d y s t u d i e d theology at Konigsberg  most three y e a r s , and was examinations,  on the p o i n t of t a k i n g h i s f i n a l  when he suddenly  packed h i s bags and  town i n company with the Barons von K l e i s t . company and t h e i r completing  for a l -  the  E x a c t l y why  s e r v i c e seemed more important  a degree, he never mentions.  left  to him  W h i l s t we  find  their than him,  one year l a t e r i n S t r a s s b u r g , t a c k l i n g the r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g for Jurisprudence  i n s t e a d of completing  the theology  degree  there, he i s u n e n t h u s i a s t i c about the change, as he w r i t e s to Salzmann: " J u r i s t muB  i c h doch werden, wenn mir anders d i e  Theologie n i c h t v e r s p r i c h t mich zum ( L e t t e r 14).  zu machen"  In h i s next l e t t e r he speaks of h i s "zur andern  Natur gewordenes L i e b l i n g s s t u d i u m " we  Pabst von Rom  ( L e t t e r 15), by which, as  are t o l d i n a l e t t e r of a few weeks l a t e r , Lenz means C h r i s -  t i a n theology:  "Ich b i n a l s o j e t z t e i n guter  C h r i s t , o b l e i c h i c h k e i n orthodoxer  bin.  Kann i c h i n meiner  tJberzeugung w e i t e r kommen, so w i l l i c h dem der es weiB, daB  h o f f e i c h , niemals  probably  Gott dafiir danken,  d i e s e s das L i e b l i n g s s t u d i u m meiner Seele i s t  und ewig b l e i b e n wird"  i t s e l f was  evangelischer  ( L e t t e r 27) .  He goes on however: "Doch  P r e d i g e r zu werden."  what a t t r a c t e d him,  E v i d e n t l y the s u b j e c t  not the p r o f e s s i o n , and  this  not f o r the reason given i n a l e t t e r to h i s f a t h e r :  t h a t he found d i f f i c u l t y i n the p u l p i t  projecting his voice--  99  s i n c e to Salzmann he d e s c r i b e s Sesenheim r a t h e r  as  h i s one  sermon d e l i v e r e d  " e i n Impromptu, das  gut  at  genug a u s f i e l "  (Letter. 16).  Rather, i t i s as an informed w r i t e r t h a t  he  f e e l s himself  best equipped to speak to the world; not  as  q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o r a l , b u t as a spokesman f o r the  laity,  as such he can both speak to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and c r i t i c i s m to "die Herren Theologen". matriculate  Eventually  a  for  address  he d i d again  i n theology, t h i s time at S t r a s s b u r g u n i v e r s i t y , 1.  no doubt, as Rosanow suggests, perhaps Salzmann's, Roderer's and garding h i s career,  but  to a l l a y h i s f a t h e r ' s ,  and  Pfenninger's concerns r e -  i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t , i£ he had  not  been c a l l e d to Weimar, he would have entered the Church. his dismissal  from Weimar h i s v a r i o u s  cluded w r i t i n g and  educating, but  plans f o r a career  After in-  never p r e a c h i n g .  There i s no l a c k of documentation to support Lenz's p r o f e s s i o n t h a t theology was  h i s f a v o u r i t e study.  Besides h i s  c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g : h i s p l a y s , poems, t r a n s l a t i o n s of Plautus and  Shakespeare, and b e s i d e s h i s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , which took  the form of s e v e r a l reviews i n l i t e r a r y p e r i o d i c a l s , as w e l l papers d e l i v e r e d to the S o c i e t e ,  he maintained a  output of t h e o l o g i c a l t r e a t i s e s from the p r i v a t e  consistent discussions  w i t h Salzmann i n 1772  to the p u b l i c a t i o n of Meynungen i n  Salzmann h i m s e l f  i n "uber d i e L i e b e " ,  had,  challenged  theology", and  fail  to arouse Lenz, the  1775.  theolo-  gians to make a b e t t e r case f o r the v a l u e of a c t i v e l o v e ; a c h a l l e n g e could not  as  such  "candidate i n  the t h e o l o g i c a l works d e l i v e r e d to the  Societe  100  should be seen as a r e p l y t o t h i s c h a l l e n g e .  1773 was prob-  a b l y the year i n which theology p r e o c c u p i e d him most, and no doubt most of the essays date from then o r arose o u t o f the ideas t h a t c r y s t a l l i s e d i n t h a t year.  Daunicht suggests t h a t  a t r a c e o f t h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h theology i s perhaps Lenz's growing  felt in  f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Goethe: "Anregungen gingen ge-  niigend von beiden P a r t n e r n aus, wofiir v i e l l e i c h t d i e t h e o l o g i 2. sehen A u f s a t z e Goethes den Beweis l i e f e r n konnen."  This  s c h o l a r a l s o i d e n t i f i e s two anonymous a r t i c l e s i n the Frankf u r t e r G e l e h r t e Anzeigen o f 1773 as being from Lenz's pen, s i n c e they c l e a r l y share the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e of h i s t h e o l o g i c a l papers.  Of the f i r s t  M i t a r b e i t e r " and "Antwort"  article:  "An einen unsrer  o f 11th June, Daunicht notes: " d i e  groBe R o l l e , d i e dazu d i e r e l i g i o s e Stellungnahme hat,  zu s p i e l e n  der Hinweis auf P a u l , den der V e r f a s s e r g i b t : das a l l e s  w e i s t auf Lenz.  E r miihte s i c h d e r z e i t noch, r e l i g i o s e Ge-  dankengange i n d i e s e r Weise auf das Leben zu iibertragen" (p. 33) . Of the second a r t i c l e :  "Von der Orthodoxie" o f 16th J u l y , he  w r i t e s : "Man v e r g l e i c h e nur d i e A u f s a t z e , d i e Lenz f u r d i e StraBburger  ' S o z i e t a t ' im Jahre 1773 s c h r i e b , wie l e b h a f t , wie  s e n s i b e l , v o r f i i h l e n d und doch r e d n e r i s c h d o r t s e i n S t i l i s t . Die r e l i g i o s e A n s i c h t e n t s p r i c h t e b e n f a l l s ganz und gar der Lenzens"  (p.34).  Other a r t i c l e s which Daunicht a t t r i b u t e s t o  Lenz, such as the review o f Herder's g e s c h l e c h t s on 23rd August  filteste  Urkunde des Men-  1774, would t e s t i f y t o the c o n t i n u i n g  p r o d u c t i v i t y o f h i s " L i e b l i n g s s t u d i u m " . There are probably many more c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Lenz, Daunicht f e e l s , hidden among the many  101  anonymous a r t i c l e s of t h i s j o u r n a l , and he concludes:  "Vor  a l l e m d i e t h e o l o g i s c h e n K r i t i k e n s i n d der Beachtung wert-" (p. 46) . I t h a r d l y comes as a s u r p r i s e , t h e r e f o r e , to hear Lenz complaining i n 1775 pers.  about the S o c i e t e ' s ban on t h e o l o g i c a l  His. h i g h l y i r o n i c q u e s t i o n : "was  unserer S o z i e t a t zu tun?" the importance activities.  hat der l i e b e Gott mit  (1.474) u n d e r l i n e s h i s c o n v i c t i o n of  of the l i n k between r e l i g i o n and other  From October  pa-  1772  literary  on, when he opposed h i s key i d e a  of "Schonheit" t o Salzmann's n o t i o n of "Liebe", Lenz r e p e a t e d l y sought  to harmonise the a e s t h e t i c concern i n h i s w r i t i n g w i t h  his theological-philosophical convictions. had proposed  In the "Versuch"  he  t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a t r u l y moral mind be  "Eine gewisse Harmonie, welche e i g e n t l i c h den wahren B e g r i f f des hochsten  Schonen g i b t " , and he goes on:  "Sehen S i e nun,  daB  d i e L i n i e n des wahren Schonen und des wahren Guten im s t r e n g s t e n Verstande,  i n einen Punkt zusammen: laufen?"(1.489)  t h e o l o g i c a l essay: "Vom concerned  Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s " was  "mit der o b j e k t i v e n und  The m i s s i n g apparently  s u b j e k t i v e n Schonheit"(I.501),  an i d e a which i s b r i e f l y mentioned a t the end of the  first  "Supplement" and once i n "Stimmen des L a i e n " , as " d i e Gesetze der hochsten geordneten  o b j e k t i v e n Schonheit, oder vielmehr der von  N a t u r — d i e i n C h r i s t o Jesu r e a l i s i e r t wurden"  Gott (1.505),  and as the i m p e r a t i v e : "nur das Schone auBer uns b i s zu Gott hinaus aufzusuchen"(I.547,526). r e v e a l how  Two  o t h e r important  statements  c l o s e l y l i n k e d Lenz f e l t h i s l i t e r a r y work and h i s :.  r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s to be.  For h i s t h e o l o g i c a l magnum opus  102  he makes the impressive claim:. "Die Meynungen e i n e s Layen s i n d der Grundstein meiner ganzen Poesie, a l l e r meiner Wahr3.  h e i t , a l l meines G e f u h l s " ,  and i n a l e t t e r  to L a v a t e r of  1780 he w i s t f u l l y e x c l a i m s : "Wie nah grenzen doch o f t Geschmack und R e l i g i o n aneinander, wie nah und i n n i g s i n d s i e miteinander verbunden, wie weisen d i e F e h l e r gegen den e r s ten  so s i c h e r auf F e h l e r gegen d i e l e t z t e r e " ( B r . I I . 1 8 0 ) . We would do w e l l , t h e r e f o r e , to take the t h e o l o g i c a l  w r i t i n g s as an important statement of Lenz's b e l i e f s , not l o o k i n g a t them merely from the p o i n t o f view o f t h e i r o r i gin,  as Rudolf does when he p o i n t s out Lenz's indebtedness  to S p a l d i n g and Jerusalem; nor seeing them merely as evidence t h a t Lenz's whole l i f e was  u n d e r l a i n by a strong c u r r e n t o f • 4.  Pietist  irrationality,'  as Wien would have i t ;  but t r e a t i n g  them r a t h e r as a theology: as a system of ideas about r e v e l a t i o n , the B i b l e , the Mosaic Law, t e a c h i n g o f the New  C h r i s t , Grace and the  Testament, which are understood and exe-  geted by Lenz from the B i b l e i n such a way own  God,  coherent p i c t u r e of man,  as to p r e s e n t h i s  h i s nature and d e s t i n y .  From  what Lenz says above about h i s Meynungen, which work G i r a r d c a l l s a s y n t h e s i s of a l l h i s t h e o l o g i c a l views, we can reasonably expect t h a t the p i c t u r e of man  under God, presented here,  w i l l be r e f l e c t e d somehow i n h i s dramas and l i t e r a r y - c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s ; i t w i l l be our task i n the succeeding chapters to a s c e r t a i n how  f a r t h i s i s so.  S i n c e an attempt has a l r e a d y  been made to s y s t e m a t i s e and put i n t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r  103  the ideas presented  i n the t h e o l o g i c a l essays,  namely i n  Wien's study: "Lenzens Sturm- • und Drangdramen innerhalb s e i n e r r e l i g i o s e n Entwicklung", i t w i l l f i r s t be necessary t o p o i n t out the main d e f e c t s o f h i s approach and c o r r e c t e r r o r s he makes i n i d e n t i f y i n g and o r d e r i n g the works under study. I t was b r i e f l y announced i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n above t h a t our approach was t o f o l l o w the c o n s c i o u s l y formulated  ideas  t h a t run through Lenz's w r i t i n g s , and not i n s i s t t h a t he can only be p r o p e r l y understood i f we ignore these and regard the i r r a t i o n a l impulses as the t r u e r ones.  The l a t t e r method i s  Wien's, and numerous s t u d i e s s i n c e h i s adopt a s i m i l a r psychoa n a l y t i c a l approach which, i n some i n s t a n c e s , has l e d t o f r u i t 5. f u l observations,  but when f o l l o w e d e x c l u s i v e l y d i s t o r t s the  general o u t l i n e s o f the p i c t u r e we have o f Lenz. h i s approach thus:  Wien d e f i n e s  "Wenn w i r daher. . .einem entwicklungsmaBi-  gen F o r t s c h r i t t i n n e r h a l b d i e s e s seines r e l i g i o n s t h e o r e t h i s c h e n Denkens auf d i e Spur kommen wollen,  so werden uns das stereotype  Thema und der bewuBte Zweck d i e s e r S c h r i f t e n am wenigsten zu sagen haben.  Vielmehr miissen w i r uns an d i e u n w i l l k i i r l i c h e n  k l e i n e n Veranderungen h a l t e f i , durch d i e Lenz s e i n Thema S c h r i t t f u r S c h r i t t e i n wenig v e r r i i c k t e , wenn wieder einmal d i e vernunft i g e Theorie  seiner subjectiven Impulsivitat nicht  h a t t e , w i r werden auf das gewissermaBen  standgehalten  gerade n i c h t zum Thema  Gehorige, a b s i c h t s l o s Mitgegebene zusehen haben, kurz: I n t e r e s s e h a t n i c h t das programmatisch O b j e k t i v e , Programmwidrige, unbewuBt S u b j e k t i v e  unser  sondern das  zu b e t r e f f e n " ( p . 1 6 ) .  The  problem, as we have s a i d , i s t h a t any concept o f "entwicklungs-  104  maBiger • F o r t s c h r i t t " and " k l e i n e Veranderungen" demands f i r s t l y a c e r t a i n t y as to the c o r r e c t order o f the essays between which the development i s t o be d i s c e r n e d .  Since  there has r a t h e r been c o n f u s i o n on t h i s p o i n t , f o r which the source  can be sought e a r l i e r than Wien's t h e s i s , and s i n c e  the c o n f u s i o n has not y e t been adequately important  t o re-examine what evidence  dispelled, i t i s  there i s concerning  the  .ordering and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the t h e o l o g i c a l works,  and  to make what c o r r e c t i o n s can be made.  The second prob-  lem with Wien's approach i s t h a t a preoccupation  with  "kleine  Veranderungen" leads i n t o a study o f l e s s and l e s s t a n g i b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , so t h a t i n the end i t i s not the changes o f content tone.  t h a t count but the more and more e l u s i v e changes o f He g i v e s h i m s e l f away when he complains t h a t the  Meynungen are w r i t t e n so c l e a r l y t h a t i t i s hard tween the l i n e s :  to read be-  "gerade d i e s e Vorzuge machen nun d i e "Meyn-  ungen" f u r unsern s p e z i e l l e n Zweck: namlich j e k t i v e n , unmittelbar-spontanen  aus etwaigen sub-  AuBerungen zwischen den  Z e i l e n der o b j e k t i v e n D a r s t e l l u n g d i e Spuren e i n e s l a t e n t weiterwirkenden i r r a t i o n a l - r e l i g i o s e n Grundverlangens herauszulesen, i n ausnehmendem MaBe u n e r g i e b i g "  (p.43).  When he  comes t o "Stimmen des L a i e n " the same problem r e c u r s , i n even more acute  form.  The p a r t i c u l a r importance of t h i s work l i e s  " n i c h t im Was des Gesagten, sondern nur i n i h r e n Stimmungswerten, im Wie und Warum des Vorgebrachten"  (p.61).  This  leads him t o p o s t u l a t e the e x i s t e n c e of an e s o t e r i c meaning  105  p r i v a t e to the author, behind the e x o t e r i c sense intended f o r p u b l i c consumption; but a c l e a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n l e v e l s , he r e a d i l y  o f these two  admits, would demand a g r e a t d e a l o f the  s c h o l a r , s i n c e i t would r e q u i r e an a n a l y s i s o f "jede e i n z e l n e Bemerkung auf d i e Gefuhlstone"  (p.61).  I t i s our b e l i e f  that  i f any r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n can be gained from such a method it  i s o f l i t t l e h e l p i n c l a r i f y i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g Lenz's  s p e c i f i c message t o the Sturm und Drang g e n e r a t i o n . To d i s c o v e r the source o f one o f Wien's major e r r o r s , c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the essays, we have t o go back to B l e i ' s  edition  o f Lenz's  complete  works, p u b l i s h e d i n 1910.  There, B l e i makes the q u i t e unwarranted assumption u n t i t l e d manuscript a l i e n Lehren"  t h a t the  t h a t b e g i n s : "Welches i s t d i e e r s t e von  ( B l e i IV.31), which Rosanow had r e f e r r e d t o by  Lenz's own d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h i n the t e x t , as "Meine Lebensre6. geln", i s t o be i d e n t i f i e d with the essay Lenz read t o the S o c i e t e and f o l l o w e d w i t h three "Supplemente" and subsequently p u b l i s h e d i n 1780 i n the volume e n t i t l e d P h i l o s o p h i s c h e V o r lesungen f u r empfindsame Seelen: namely, "Vom Baum des Erkenntn i s s e s Gutes und Bosen".  But a l r e a d y Rosanow, who was the o n l y  Lenz s c h o l a r o f t h i s century to have seen a copy o f t h i s volume and t h e r e f o r e t o have read the otherwise m i s s i n g essay  "Vom  Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s " , had c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t from the "Lebensregeln" when he wrote "Lenz beriihrt h i e r v i e l e t h e o l o g i s c h e Fragen, a h n l i c h denen, d i e e r i n s e i n e r  sittlichgroBeren  H a n d s c h r i f t "Meine Lebensregeln" zu l o s e n s i c h bemiiht h a t "  106  (p.476, note 143).  Rosanow l i s t s  the contents of t h i s  col-  l e c t i o n of essays as: "Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s Gutes und Bosen"  (pages 1-14); " E r s t e s und zweites Supplement  handlung vor acht Tagen" Supplement" Erbsiinde" 72).  zur Ab-  (pages 14-28); " D r i t t e s und  letztes  (pages 29-35); appendix: " E i n i g e Z w e i f e l iiber d i e  (pages 36-50), and "Unverschamte  Sachen"  (pages 51-  I t i s c l e a r t h a t the "Baum des Erkenntnisses" was a f a r  s h o r t e r work than the "Lebensregeln", occupying the same number  of pages as the f i r s t  two supplements.  t h a t Lenz h i m s e l f gives i n the f i r s t  The d e s c r i p t i o n  supplement of h i s essay  i n no way t a l l i e s , as T i t e l and Haug were the f i r s t to p o i n t 7. out,  with the contents of the "Lebensregeln". Lenz w r i t e s :  "Ich  nannte s i e Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s Gutes und Bosen: d i e s e r  T i t e l muBte S i e befremden, da d i e Abhandlung n i c h t darauf antwortete und i c h S i e nur m i t der o b j e k t i v e n und s u b j e k t i v e n Schonheit u n t e r h i e l t , n i c h t m i t der R e c h t f e r t i g u n g Gottes, daB er den Baum unsers vermeinten Elendes i n s Paradies g e s e t z t , welches e i g e n t l i c h doch das Z i e l war nach dem Ich  i c h schoss.  hab Ihnen g e z e i g t , daB d i e Konkupiszenz, das Streben  nach V e r e i n i g u n g , den F a l l unsrer e r s t e n E l t e r n v e r u r s a c h t " (1.501).  The a e s t h e t i c concern '("objektive und  subjektive  S c h o n h e i t " ) , which i s r e f l e c t e d i n Lenz's c h o i c e of opening motto f o r the volume o f P h i l o s o p h i s c h e Vorlesungen: " A l l e i n  du  w i r s t auch d i e N a t u r / V o l l s a n f t e r Schonheit sehn--/Wohl d i r , 8.  daB du geboren b i s t " ( E w a l d von K l e i s t ) , at the end of the f i r s t  and i s p i c k e d up again  supplement, i s completely absent from  107  the "Lebensregeln".  That t h e r e i s an o v e r l a p p i n g o f s u b j e c t -  matter otherwise between t h e two works need not make us doubt t h a t they are q u i t e independent.  The "Lebensregeln" do express  doubt about o r i g i n a l s i n , and do d i s c u s s "unverschamte Sachen", but, as we s h a l l see, the same ideas r e c u r i n almost e v e r y t h i n g Lenz wrote, and i t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t we are o p t i n g f o r a study o f r e c u r r e n t r a t h e r than changing  ideas.  F i n a l l y , the case a g a i n s t i d e n t i f y i n g these two essays i s c l i n c h e d by the f a c t t h a t the t i t l e o f the one i s a c t u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i n the o t h e r .  A t one p o i n t i n the "Lebensregeln"  Lenz w r i t e s i n p a r e n t h e s i s : "siehe meine Abhandlung von der Konkupiszenz und von unverschamten Sachen"  ( B l e i IV.56).  From a  s i m i l a r p a r e n t h e s i s i n "Meine wahre P s y c h o l o g i e " i t i s c l e a r t h a t the essay on concupiscence i s the same as the "Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s " : "siehe meine Abhandlung vom Baum der E r k e n n t n i s des Guten und Bosen und der Konkupiszenz"  ( i b i d . , p.30), and  from the l i s t of contents of the P h i l o s o p h i s c h e Vorlesungen, we know t h a t the "Unverschamte Sachen" served as an appendix t o the "Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s " . T h i s e r r o r o f B l e i ' s was u n f o r t u n a t e l y not r e s t r i c t e d t o h i s e d i t i o n , but has been perpetuated i n Wien, and,, i n the 19 70s, i n Rudolf, d e s p i t e T i t e l and Haug's warning 9. t i o n o f 1966.  i n their edi-  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f o r t u n a t e i n Wien's t h e s i s ,  s i n c e i t undermines much of h i s argument and c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n the v a l u e o f h i s approach.  F i r s t of a l l , the m i s - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  o b l i g e s Wien t o see the work "Meine Lebensregeln" as an "Abhand-  108  lung",  t h a t i s , as an essay designed to be read  S o c i e t e w i t h a degree of u n i t y and such an o c c a s i o n . "es s t e . l l t s i c h . r i c h t i g e und leads him ist  The  to  evenness of tone as  . .seine S c h r i f t auch noch n i c h t a l s f o l g e -  to view the work as a very e a r l y one:  kenerlebnis  1771  und  verfaBt,  den  j e d e n f a l l s noch vor dem  Schrift Friederi-  darauf b e z i i g l i c h e n Salzmannbriefen, denn Leibnizischen  e i n g e f i i h r t , d i e h i e r noch so e i g e n t u m l i c h  unselbstandig das  (p.19),  "Die  e r s t i n diesen wird Lenz t i e f e r i n d i e Welt der Philosophie  standige  griinden w e i s t  befits  f a c t t h a t such u n i t y i s l a c k i n g , t h a t  i n s i c h geschlossene Abhandlung dar"  spatestens  the  bleibt.  vage  Auch der noch ganz p r e d i g t h a f t e  Argumentieren mit B i b e l z i t a t e n s t a t t mit auf d i e friihe E n t s t e h u n g s z e i t  hin"  und  Ton, Vernunft-  (p. 18).  It is  important f o r Wien to date the work very e a r l y s i n c e i t s cont e n t s appear to mark, f o r him,  the f i r s t  stage of Lenz's  reli-  gious development: h i s a l l e g e d r e j e c t i o n of the i n h e r i t e d P i e t i s t i c n o t i o n of r e b i r t h , and a s c e t i c r u l e s of l i f e . and  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n  c l i n c h t h i s view.  The  absence of any  before  reference  to L e i b n i z  on B i b l i c a l exegesis seem to Wien to  And  w h i l s t he does admit the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t  Lenz wrote i t at i n t e r v a l s , and "Uber  h i s acceptance, i n s t e a d , o f  t h a t other  essays, p a r t i c u l a r l y  d i e Natur unsers G e i s t e s " , might w e l l have been w r i t t e n the f i r s t was  f i n i s h e d , he does view i t as a work designed  to s u s t a i n an i n t e g r a t e d argument, so t h a t any  changes of p o s i -  t i o n w i t h i n the work w i l l be seen to be developments i n the of the argument.  He  f e e l s he has  to e x p l a i n the switches i n  logic  109  s u b j e c t and p u r p o s e between i t s v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s as  develop-  ment i n L e n z ' s t h i n k i n g , a n d s e e s g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h o s e c h a n g e s : i n t h e way, f o r e x a m p l e , " d e r K a t e c h i s m u s e r w e i t e r t sich  zum W e l t b i l d " (p. 22),.  However n o t o n l y a r e t h e " L e b e n s -  r e g e l n " n o t t h e " A b h a n d l u n g vom Baum d e s E r k e n n t n i s s e s " , b u t they  a r e n o t e v e n a n " A b h a n d l u n g " , b u t much more l i k e l y  personal  notebook, t o which Lenz c o n t r i b u t e d d i v e r s e  meditations  over a p e r i o d o f time.  more i n t i m a t e n a t u r e  than  The c o n t e n t  any o f t h e e s s a y s ,  a  personal  i s of af a r  and i t i s i n c o n -  c e i v a b l e t h a t L e n z , who, i f W i e n i s t o be b e l i e v e d , b e t r a y s h i s personal all  problems " z w i s c h e n den Z e i l e n " , s h o u l d b l u n t l y  h i sp r i v a t e r e s o l u t i o n s concerning  pline to the c r i t i c a l but  t o buy a copy o f P h i l o s o p h i s c h e  i n which, i fthe "Lebensregeln"  l u n g vom Baum d e s E r k e n n t n i s s e s " , lished.  c h a s t i t y and s e l f - d i s c i -  ear of the p u b l i c , not just i n the Societe  a l s o t o a n y o n e who c a r e d  Vorlesungen,  expose  w e r e t h e "Abhand-  they were l a t e r  t o be p u b -  The n o t e b o o k a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t s u p p o r t s o u r  conclusion: the size of w r i t i n g ,  the intensity of the ink,  change from p a r a g r a p h t o p a r a g r a p h .  S u c h a w o r k we w o u l d n o t  e x p e c t t o be a c a r e f u l l y shaped and l o g i c a l l y of w r i t i n g , nor t o r e f l e c t cal thinking.  the f u l l  The p o s s i b i l i t y  consistent piece  scope o f Lenz's p h i l o s o p h i - 5 . 1  t h e r e f o r e t h a t i t c o u l d j u s t as  e a s i l y h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n i n 1774 a s i n 1 7 7 1 , a l t h o u g h w o u l d be t h e m o s t l i k e l y that reference  date,  i s confirmed  by o u r o b s e r v a t i o n  i s made i n i t t o t h e r e a l e s s a y  k e n n t n i s s e s " ; i t c a n n o t have been b o t h  1773  "Vom Baum d e s E r -  a subsequent work and a  110  p r i o r one. 1773  And  t h a t i t must have been w r i t t e n a f t e r J a n u a r y  i s p r o v e d by  quotes, i n the  published  L e n z w r i t e s : "Was Schriftstellers  in  i n t h a t month.  i s t von  der  zu h a l t e n :  Dienst Abgotterei question  e x a c t l y , but  We  can  "Vom  "Der  Pas-  o f whom  vortrefflichen der  Baum" we  einen 10.  ist'?"  cannot answer  theological writings  a t l e a s t make a d e f i n i t e o r d e r i n g o f  Baum des  f o l l o w e d by  the  The  original title  first  t h a t Wien, f o l l o w i n g B l e i ,  seems  "Supplement zur Abhandlung  Erkenntnisses",  The  i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n them was  Indeed a l l t h a t Lenz says i n the is still  sessions,  occasions  g i c a l works.  I t was  had  sometime a f t e r and  ( o r a t l e a s t t h a t p a r t o f them i n w h i c h  t o the essay o c c u r s ) were w r i t t e n .  a position, therefore  and  supplements i n -  t h a t b o t h "Meine wahre P s y c h o l o g i e "  "Meine L e b e n s r e g e l n " the r e f e r e n c e  a week b e f o r e .  one  views  i n c o m p l e t e a g r e e m e n t w i t h w h a t he  w r i t t e n , or at l e a s t read, t h e s e two  im-  as W i e n b e l i e v e s ,  h a r d l y enough t i m e f o r a m a j o r s h i f t i n L e n z ' s r e l i g i o u s  d i c a t e s t h a t he  vor  t h e r e f o r e , was  week: t h e n o r m a l i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e  to intervene.  the  of the  "Supplemente", not, ,11.  w r i t t e n v e r y much e a r l i e r . o f o n l y one  sonst  v e r f l u c h t s e i der,  of the d a t i n g of  t o h a v e b e e n aware o f , was  a c h t Tagen".  i t was,  nennt, dessen Gegenstand C h r i s t u s  "Supplemente", a t i t l e  mediately  S t e l l e eines  'Und  t h r e e works under d i s c u s s i o n .  not  He  s c h o l a r s g e n e r a l l y date the  1772-1774.  of the  f a c t t h a t Lenz  "Lebensregeln", from Goethe's B r i e f e i n e s  t o r s , w h i c h was  The  the h i t h e r t o overlooked  r  We  a r e now  t o c o r r e c t Wien's o r d e r i n g o f the  W h i l s t he b e g i n s w i t h t h e  "Lebensregeln"  in  theolo-  and  111  p l a c e s "tiber d i e N a t u r u n s e r s G e i s t e s " and "Entwurf B r i e f e s " , a l s o , b e f o r e t h e Salzmann correspondence  eines i n the  autumn o f 1 7 7 2 , f o l l o w e d t h e n b y M e y n u n g e n, " V e r s u c h " , G o t z " , t h e "Supplemente" and f i n a l l y i s our b e l i e f  that the correspondence  "tiber  "Stimmen d e s L a y e n " , i t w i t h S a l z m a n n comes  first  o f a l l t h e t h e o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s t h a t have s u r v i v e d , t h a t t h e "Versuch" arose immediately o u t of t h i s ,  and t h a t t h e main  t h e o l o g i c a l w o r k s a l l come a f t e r t h a t i n 1 7 7 3 , n a m e l y : "Der Baum d e s E r k e n n t n i s s e s " , t h e " S u p p l e m e n t e " ,  "Lebensregeln",  f o l l o w e d l a t e r by "tiber G o t z " , and e v e n t u a l l y t h e complete Meynungen a n d "Stimmen", p u b l i s h e d i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1 7 7 5 .  This  new o r d e r p r e v e n t s u s f r o m a g r e e i n g w i t h W i e n ' s a n a l y s i s o f Lenz's  r e l i g i o u s development.  d i f f e r e n t l i n e o f development, nificant  N o t t h a t we w o u l d  suggest a  b u t t h a t s i n c e t h e r e was no  i n t e r v a l between t h e t h e o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s ,  h a v e b e e n no g r a d u a l b u t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e o r  The  "ir-  the "Lebensregeln"  was n o t a n e a r l y , i m m a t u r e d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e P i e t i s t o f h i s home b a c k g r o u n d ,  there can  development,  such as Wien s u g g e s t s , i n t h e c o n v i c t i o n s e x p r e s s e d . r a t i o n a l i s m " o f t h e phase t h a t produced  sig-  legalism  f r o m w h i c h L e n z was r e m o v e d b y h i s s t u d y  o f L e i b n i z u n d e r S a l z m a n n ' s g u i d a n c e , a n d t o w h i c h he w o u l d r e t u r n l a t e r when h i s n e w - f o u n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l o p t i m i s m b e g a n t o slip.  Rather, a l l h i s t h e o l o g i c a l preoccupations belong t o the  same c e n t r a l p e r i o d o f h i s S t r a s s b u r g d a y s , a n d r e v e a l n o t s u c cessive convictions but d i f f e r e n t aspects of a r e l i g i o u s t h a t remains  i n essence unchanged.  I f t h i s i s so, then  view these  1 12  consistent r e l i g i o u s convictions provide a firm p o i n t f o r Lenz's l i t e r a r y works.  reference  Rather than b u i l d on the  s h i f t i n g sands o f Wiens " k l e i n e Veranderungen" we p r e f e r t o base our c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these works on the rock o f "das programmatisch O b j e k t i v e " : the ideas t o which Lenz r e p e a t e d l y returns. Approaching the t h e o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s i n t h i s way, we d i s cover t h a t one o v e r r i d i n g concern governs Lenz's understanding of  Christian doctrines.  Whether he i s d e a l i n g w i t h the con-  cept o f the m e r i t s o f C h r i s t , o r i g i n a l s i n , the atonement,  Law  and Grace, f a i t h , C h r i s t ' s t e a c h i n g i n the Sermon on the Mount, the  Second Coming, e t e r n a l l i f e ,  o r the L a s t Judgement, Lenz's  concern i s t o i n t e r p r e t them i n such a way as to g i v e a primary r o l e t o human endeavour, t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a b i l i t y t p p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n h i s own s a l v a t i o n .  He i s  very s e n s i t i v e t o any t e a c h i n g t h a t o b v i a t e s human e f f o r t , and he banishes i t from h i s system.  A study of one o f the more r e -  c u r r e n t concepts: the d o c t r i n e o f C h r i s t ' s m e r i t , h i s V e r d i ens t, w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s concern, and w i l l show, moreover, t h i s matter there i s , a t bottom,  little  that in.  change o r development t o  be d i s c e r n e d from one w r i t i n g t c the next. The concept o f C h r i s t ' s m e r i t i s i n i t s e l f a complex one and has been v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d down the c e n t u r i e s . not  It is  s u r p r i s i n g i f we f i n d Lenz r e p e a t e d l y p u z z l i n g over i t s  meaning, and f e e l i n g much s u r e r about what i t does not mean, than about what i t does.  The concept o f V e r d i e n s t attempts t o formu-  113  l a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f C h r i s t ' s work: t h a t i s , h i s p e r f e c t l i f e and h i s death, and i t s r o l e i n human s a l v a t i o n . D i d C h r i s t l i v e and d i e f o r man's sake, as an example and warning? or f o r God's, as an appeasement o f d i v i n e wrath?  The . imodern  answer i s t h a t i t was both f o r man and f o r God: " C h r i s t i Leben und  Sterben d i e n t n i c h t nur zur Offenbarung der L i e b e  f u r d i e Menschen, sondern hat Wert auch f u r Gott unerlaBliches  Gottes  selbst,a l s  - M i t t e l h e i l i g e r Versohnung m i t der Menschheit. 12.  Gott  i s t i n C h r i s t i Werk auch s i c h s e l b s t gegeniiber. "  both of these aspects  Whilst  are acknowledged a t one time o r another  by Lenz, he g e n e r a l l y emphasises the f i r s t :  t h a t C h r i s t ' s work  was f o r man's sake.  i s i n h i s views i s  What f l u c t u a t i o n there  seen i n the correspondence w i t h Salzmann. In the second l e t t e r t o Salzmann i n which C h r i s t ' s V e r dienst i s discussed,  Lenz announces t h a t he w i l l remain t r u e t o  his o r i g i n a l explanation  o f i t , which i s "daB, nach dem Aus-  druck der B i b e l , a l l e b i s h e r begangenen Siinden der Menschen. auf i h n g e l e g t werden, daB e r s i e t r a g t (was kann d i e s Anderes heissen,  a l s daB a l l e iiblen Folgen der Siinde auf i h n g e l e n k t  worden?  D a r i n bestand s e i n L e i d e n ) — W i r s o l l e n nur glauben,  daB  Gott uns um s e i n e t w i l l e n gnadig sey" ( B r . I . 5 5 ) .  questions  Salzmann  t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , prompting Lenz t o r e p l y : " S i e haben  mich unrecht verstanden, wenn S i e glaubten,  ich lieBe  Gott d i e  ubeln Folgen der Siinde auf den M i t t l e r lenken, b i o s um seine strafende  Gerechtigkeit  zu b e f r i e d i g e n .  L e i b n i t z glaubt  dieses;  114  er sagt, es i s t e i n e Convenienz, lohnen und Boses zu b e s t r a f e n . b i o s urn unsertwi11en"  (p.59).  d i e i h n zwingt Gutes zu beIch denke aber, es g e s c h i e h t  C h r i s t ' s death i s now  p r o p i t i a t i o n of God but a warning to men of f u r t h e r s i n n i n g .  not a  of the consequences  Yet once again Lenz's views change, and  i n what seems to be an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the new  philosophical  bent of h i s C h r i s t i a n f a i t h accompanying h i s announcement i n l a t e October  1772:  "Ich b i n e i n C h r i s t geworden", he now  comes  c l o s e r t o agreeing w i t h L e i b n i z t h a t C h r i s t ' s death was all  f o r God's sake.  after  He goes back on h i s view t h a t " d i e Idee  e i n e s V e r d i e n s t e s , und war  es auch des vollkommensten,  wider-  s p r i c h t der allervollkommensten B a r m h e r z i g k e i t Gottes, a l s welche n i c h t braucht e r s t durch e i n V e r d i e n s t s i c h d i e Vergebung unserer Siinden gleichsam abfodern und abzwingen zu l a s s e n " (p. 66) . God being God  and e v i l - , being e v i l , any removal of s i n which  d i d not i n d i c a t e a judgement upon i t i n v o l v e d a p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n , f e e l s Lenz, evil.  and amounted to an encouragement t o  On the other hand: "diese iibeln Folgen der Siinden e i n e r  ganzen Welt, auf einen d r i t t e n Gegenstand lenken, das konnte Gott, das w i r d der Vernunft n i c h t schwer zu b e g r e i f e n , das  war  das e i n z i g e M i t t e l , Siinde zu vergeben, ohne s i e zu s t r a f e n " (p. 66) . E v i l i s a r e a l problem, and had to be d e a l t w i t h i n a r e a l not merely  symbolically.  C h r i s t ' s death, t h e r e f o r e , was  an atonement f o r s i n , not merely God  i n s u f f e r i n g w i t h man,  a demonstration  nor merely  way,  really  of the l o v e of  a warning of the m o r t a l  consequences of s i n , although i t i s s t i l l  not t o be seen  as  115  punishment.  We might t h i n k t h a t Lenz would now be s a t i s f i e d  w i t h a d o c t r i n e t h a t appealed t o him both t h e o l o g i c a l l y and philosophically.  He continues,  on o c c a s i o n ,  t o speak o f  C h r i s t as "Suhnopfer",and o f h i s s a c r i f i c i a l blood  i n a way  t h a t r e c a l l s the orthodoxy of h i s P i e t i s t u p b r i n g i n g :  "Selbst  wenn du f a l l s t , M e n s c h — i s t i h r e (der G o t t h e i t ) h i i l f r e i c h e Hand ausgestreckt, 13. gegen."  w a l l t i h r g o t t l i c h e s B l u t d i r zum Siihnopfer e n t -  The harmonising o f new-found p h i l o s o p h i c a l  con-  v i c t i o n s with the b e l i e f s he was brought up w i t h i s only apparent, however. C h r i s t ' s merit  In the long run, Lenz could not accept t h a t  consisted i n h i s s a c r i f i c i a l ,  Speaking i n "Lebensregeln" Lenz says: des  atoning  o f the O l d Testament  death.  sacrifices,  " A l l e r d i n g s waren und konnen s i e m i t a l s V o r b i l d e r  leidenden  C h r i s t u s und s e i n e r empfindsamen, l i e b e t a t i g e n  Aufopferung s e i n e r s e l b s t g e l t e n , aber n i c h t a l s s e i n e r Genugtuung, BiiBung, Ausmerzung unserer Siinden durch d i e von Gott auf i h n g e s c h i c k t e  P e i n und S t r a f e n .  Dies i s t eben der B e g r i f f ,  den  J e s a i a s w i d e r l e g t wenn e r sagt, w i r h i e l t e n i h n f u r den der  von  Gott g e s t r a f t , gemartert w a r d — a b e r n e i n , e r i s t f r e i w i l l i g  urn unsrer God  Siinde w i l l e n gestorben"  ( B l e i IV. 38).  imposed upon C h r i s t the p e n a l t y  The i d e a t h a t  f o r man's s i n , so t h a t man  might thereby be a c q u i t t e d o f h i s g u i l t , i s i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , Lenz f e e l s , w i t h the mercy of God. t h i s f o r e n s i c aspect  Orthodoxy has always t r a c e d  of C h r i s t ' s death back t o the s i n o f f e r i n g s  of the O l d Testament, and seen i n these the type of the supreme s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t f o r human s i n .  Lenz does not d i s p u t e  that  . 116  these Mosaic  s a c r i f i c e s were understood, by those who  prac-  t i s e d them, as e x p i a t i o n of s i n , but denies t h a t God had i n s t i t u t e d them f o r t h i s purpose, or indeed f o r any In  purpose.  the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Meynungen he expresses h i s doubts  t h i s s c o r e : "Sind d i e Opfer g o t t l i c h e n Ursprungs?  on  Ich weiB  n i c h t , ob dariiber schon was  g r i i n d l i c h e s i s t gesagt worden, und  doch hat d i e s e Untersuchung  den w i c h t i g s t e n E i n f l u B i n d i e  ganze G e s t a l t der R e l i g i o n , daher i s t auch d i e Lehre vom  Ver-  d i e n s t e unsers E r l o s e r s und Herrn noch immer i n so dunkelm L i c h t und so v i e l e n e i n s c h l a f e r n d e n und s c h a d l i c h e n Misdeut14. ungen a u s g e s e t z t , oder wird--gar weggeworfen!"  I f , Lenz a r -  gues, the Old Testament s a c r i f i c e s were not intended by God be understood as e x p i a t o r y , we  to  are under no o b l i g a t i o n to un-  derstand C h r i s t ' s V e r d i e n s t i n the same way.  Not t h a t the very  i d e a of blood s a c r i f i c e s has to be r e j e c t e d , f o r even i f these are  not e f f e c t i v e as s i n o f f e r i n g s , they are nonetheless a  powerful p i c t u r e of the s e r i o u s consequences ser  of e v i l :  "da d i e -  Brauch den g r o s t e n Eindruck auf d i e M o r a l i t a t und Gemiiths-  ruhe der Menschen machte; so b e h i e l t Gott s e l b s t d i e s e l b e n bey, gab ihnen g o t t l i c h e A u t o r i t a t " . ( i b i d . ) .  C h r i s t ' s death, then,  l i k e the animal s a c r i f i c e s , was meant as a warning  to man.  view i s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n Lenz, from as e a r l y as  This 1772,  when he w r i t e s t o Salzmann: "Ich denke aber, es g e s c h i e h t b i o s um u n s e r t w i l l e n , w e l l ,  (wenn) auf das m o r a l i s c h e libel k e i n  phy-  s i s c h e s Ubel, a l s eine S t r a f e f o l g t ; wir l i e b e r Boses a l s Gutes thun wiirden" (Br.1.59), to "Lebensregeln" i n 1773,  when Lenz  .11 7  says: "Die Opfer waren aber n i c h t bloBe V o r b i l d e r , sondern s i e hatten auch eigentumlichen, unraittelbaren Nutzen, dem gewisses Grausen, einen gewissen  Schrecken  Volk e i n  f u r d i e Siinde b e i z u -  b r i n g e n . . .Eben d i e s e n Nutzen hat auch z u f a l l i g e r w e i s e d i e Aufopferung Jesu Christ!'V ( B l e i IV. 38), t o March 1 774 when Lenz w r i t e s to L a v a t e r : "Ich habe e i n e S c h r i f t von Ihnen g e l e s e n d i e den T i t e l f u h r t .  . .Keine Versohnung g e s c h i e h t ohne B l u t v e r -  g i e B e n . . . . . i c h sag Ihnen n i c h t s von den schonen Sachen d i e i c h d r i n gefunden--selbst d i e Hauptidee  d i e v i e l l e i c h t manchen k a l -  ten Griibler erwarmen. . .aber mir g e f a l l t es n i c h t , daB unsern Gott w o l l e n s t e r b e n l a s s e n , w e i l es so seyn muB dem  Sie und i n  ganzen N a t u r r e i c h a l l e s Leben durch Tod e i n e s andern e r -  h a l t e n werden Wie war  muB. es, wenn wir den Tod C h r i s t i vielmehr a l s e i n Sym-  b o l und V o r b i l d von den E r f o l g e n unsrer Moransahen" (Br.I.69-70)?  und  Immoralitat  C h r i s t ' s V e r d i e n s t c o n s i s t s then, i n  the exemplary nature o f h i s death, i t i s symbolic, not demonstrating r a t h e r than performing anything.  forensic,  T h i s view Lenz  shares w i t h h i s c l o s e f r i e n d and f e l l o w - t h e o l o g i a n Roderer, w r i t e s i n a j o i n t l e t t e r with Lenz to L a v a t e r i n June "Die Opfer waren k e i n V o r b i l d auf C h r i s t u m — a b e r e i n Gegenbild der Opfer.  who  1774:  C h r i s t u s war  . .Das Leiden C h r i s t i i s t ganz und  gar  symbolisch"(Br.I.76). Why  should Lenz need to i n t e r p r e t the d o c t r i n e of C h r i s t ' s  m e r i t i n t h i s way?  His f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to V e r d i e n s t i l l u s -  t r a t e the p o i n t w i t h which we opened t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , namely:  11 8  t h a t Lenz i s c o n s t a n t l y a t p a i n s t o i n t e r p r e t C h r i s t i a n doct r i n e s i n such a way as t o allow a d e c i s i v e r o l e t o human i n i t i a t i v e i n the achievement o f h i s own happiness. w i t h the orthodox  The t r o u b l e  understanding of C h r i s t ' s m e r i t was t h a t i n  d e s c r i b i n g the s u f f e r i n g o f C h r i s t as punishment borne t o atone f o r the g u i l t o f man, and borne by C h r i s t i n s t e a d o f man, i t not only i n s i s t e d upon the f a c t o f human . d e p r a v i t y , about which Lenz a l s o has s e r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n s , as w i l l be shown below, but a l s o on the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of any human e f f o r t i n the achievement o f s a l v a t i o n .  C h r i s t alone accomplished what g u i l -  ty man c o u l d not accomplish, and man's o n l y e f f e c t i v e c i p a t i o n i n t h i s work i s "by f a i t h alone".  parti-  Lenz was t o t a l l y  i n d i s p o s e d t o accept t h i s view of man, and t h i s d o c t r i n e o f s a l v a t i o n , f o r i t seemed n e i t h e r t o encourage human e f f o r t s a t moral self-improvement,  nor even t o permit them.  Instead, the  d o c t r i n e of C h r i s t ' s m e r i t seemed an encouragement and excuse f o r doing n o t h i n g , f o r " T r a g h e i t " . lists  In the "Supplemente" Lenz  " E r g r e i f u n g des V e r d i e n s t e s C h r i s t i " along w i t h the f a l s e  and i n e f f e c t i v e responses t o C h r i s t ' s c a l l t o a c t i o n  (1.509),  and i n the "Lebensregeln" r e j e c t s the n o t i o n of C h r i s t ' s  "Ver-  d i ens t : " i n s o f e r n a l s d i e E r g r e i f u n g desselben i n einem bloB unnotigen Vertrauen auf d i e s e s V e r d i e n s t b e s t e h t , welches n i c h t a l l e i n f a l s c h , sondern  z u g l e i c h e i n sehr g e f a h r l i c h e r Irrtum,  den nur d i e menschliche T r a g h e i t und B o s a r t i g k e i t e r f i n d e n konnte"  ( B l e i IV.37).  Speaking o f the same d o c t r i n e i n the "Ver-  such", Lenz says: "Dieses legen v i e l e i h r e r F a u l h e i t zu einem  119  P o l s t e r unter und glauben das beste s e i , n i c h t s zu t u n . E r s c h r o c k l i c h e E r k i a r u n g d i e unsere ganze R e l i g i o n umwirft und der A b s i c h t Gottes gerade entgegen l a u f t "  (1.498-99).  The  d o c t r i n e i s not meant t o d i s c o u r a g e human a c t i o n , r a t h e r i t i s meant, Lenz f e e l s , t o encourage  it,  by l i b e r a t i n g man from  the p a r a l y s i n g curse of s i n f u l p a s t a c t i o n s , f r e e i n g him f o r e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n i n the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e .  Thus i n a l e t t e r  to Salzmann: "Wir s o l l e n nur glauben, daB Gott uns um s e i n e t w i l l e n gnadig sey;  d i e s s o i l uns a l s o n i c h t mehr beunruhigen,  n i c h t mehr zuriick h a l t e n an unserer Besserung m i t a l i e n K r a f t e n unserer Seele zu a r b e i t e n , w e l l das A l t e a l l e s vorbey"  (Br.I.55).  C h r i s t ' s m e r i t i s communicated p a r t i c u l a r l y through the Euchar i s t to the one who has f a i t h , e n a b l i n g and encouraging him t o achieve s p i r i t u a l and moral g o a l s : "Wenn w i r d i e s e H i i l f f s m i t t e l a l l e , d i e uns d i e Gnade darbeut, annehmen, bon c a , es s o i l dabey b l e i b e n "  (ibid.).  nicht  These g o a l s are subsequently l i s t e d as  the love and i m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t , d e v o t i o n t o God as the source of a l l t r u t h , goodness  and beauty, and doing h i s w i l l ,  which  c o n s i s t s i n : "wie e r ganz L i e b e und W o h l t h a t i g k e i t gegen das menschliche G e s c h l e c h t , so k e i n groBeres Gliick kennen, a l s Andere g l i i c k l i c h zu machen ". ( i b i d . ,p. 67) .  The "Lebensregeln"  c o n f i r m t h a t Lenz viewed the i m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t as c o n s i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y i n a l t r u i s t i c s e r v i c e : "unser ganzes Ich dem Besten des gemeinen Wesens auf.zuop.fern. mit der schonen gewissen, f e l s e n f e s t e n Hoffnung, daB w i r dabei mehr gewinnen a l s v e r l i e r e n werden, welches der e i g e n t l i c h e Glaube i s t " " ( B l e i , I V . 3 9 ) . But  120  o n l y when the curse of the p a s t has been l i f t e d to i m i t a t e C h r i s t i n t h i s way; g i v e s man  i s man  free  C h r i s t ' s death, t h e r e f o r e ,  t h i s freedom, i t s importance  l i e s not i n s a t i s f a c -  t i o n of d i v i n e wrath a g a i n s t human s i n , but s o l e l y , f o r Lenz, i n removing the impediments to human moral achievement. "Lebensregeln" summarise what we have noted about  The  Christ's  Verdierist thus f a r : Diese Genugtuung war n i c h t auf s e i t e n Gottes, denn vor Gott war s i e unnotig, w e i l Gott nach s e i n e r une n d l i c h e n und uneingeschrankten Barmherzigkeit uns unsre Siindenschuld ohne L o s e g e l d eirlaSt. Aber auf s e i t e n der Menschen war s i e notwendig, f u r i h r e Vors t e l l u n g s a r t , w e i l Gott entweder a l l e V e r b i n d l i c h k e i t zum Guten aufhebt oder unter ihnen den B e g r i f f von Belohnungen und S t r a f e n e t a b l i e r e n muBte. S i e muBten a l s o einsehen, bose s e i bose und v e r d i e n e S t r a f e , um ihnen aber j e t z t a l l e H i n d e r n i s s e zum Guten zu nehmen, a l s d i e u n t a t i g e niedergeschlagene Reue (wie Kains s e i n e ) , d i e k n e c h t i s c h e F u r c h t vor Gott, das A n g s t l i c h e , den Zwang des Gesetzes, a l l e s w e s e n t l i c h e H i n d e r n i s s e der Tugend, welche f r e i aus bloBer L i e b e , aus bloBer Wahl des Besseren w i l l ausgeiibt werden: so ward C h r i s t u s f i i r uns, uns zum besten v o l l g i i l t i g e r Biirge, Siihnopfer, daB w i r j e t z t ganz f r e i von a l l e r F u r c h t bloB aus L i e b e und eignem Herzensant r i e b das Gute wahlten und C h r i s t i B e i s p i e l a l s dem l i e b e n s w u r d i g s t e n I d e a l f o l g t e n und nachahmten"(p.48). What concerns Lenz most of a l l i s freedom to a c t i n the present, r a t h e r than paying p a s t debts.  Remorse f o r p a s t s i n , l i k e  Cain's, paralyses present a b i l i t y .  I t was  p r e c i s e l y t o remove  the need f o r remorse t h a t C h r i s t d i e d : "damit du n i c h t n o t h i g habest zu bereuen.  . .um  durch das Gefuhl von der F r e u d i g k e i t  und F r e y h e i t a l l e r Gewissensbisse .nach d i e s e n a l t e n ewigen Gesetzen  s e i n Leben ganz auszuleben. .  zu leben, ohne daB uns das .15. a l t e begangene einmal druber e i n f a l l t . " Thus the message of  1.21  Meynungen matches t h a t of "Lebensregeln", and a l s o of the earlier Versuche  "Supplemente": " i h r habt einen Gott, der miBlungene n i c h t mit dem  Tode b e s t r a f t , sondern mit Leben,  ewigem Leben, wenn s i e nur f o r t g e s e t z t werden" (I.508). morse: "Kopfhangen" as the P i e t i s t p r a c t i c e of i t was i s unacceptable t o Lenz for;, both t h e o l o g i c a l and reasons; i n a fragment  Re-  called,  practical  of h i s p l a y w r i t t e n a g a i n s t Wieland i n  the manner of A r i s t o p h a n e s : Die Wolken, he r e s e r v e s some of his  i r o n y f o r one such "Kopfhanger", the P i e t i s t woman who  overcome with remorse a t having surrendered her v i r t u e . the context, the advice given her by Socrates/Wieland:  is  In "Die  Reue i s t d i e a l l e r n i e d e r s c h l a g e n d s t e L e i d e n s c h a f t der menschl i c h e n Seele, d i e s i e a l l e r i h r e r K r a f t e benimmt und  zum  f e r n e r n Guten u n t i i c h t i g macht", i s p e r n i c i o u s , but i t i s not i n i t s e l f d i f f e r e n t from Lenz's i s t y p i c a l of Lenz's c r i t i c a l  t h e o l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n , and i t  stance towards P i e t i s t s t h a t  makes the p e n i t e n t P i e t i s t r e j e c t i t , w i t h the lament:  he  "Ewig  16.  muB of  i c h d i e s e Siinde beweinen." the main purposes  To Lenz on the c o n t r a r y , one  of C h r i s t ' s work was  to g i v e us: " d i e 17.  F r e i h e i t vor dem If  A n g e s i c h t Gottes zu handeln wie wir w o l l e n . "  the P i e t i s t has a d e f i c i e n t understanding of C h r i s t ' s  m e r i t , she a l s o has a view of s i n which Lenz cannot share.  For  i f C h r i s t d i e d t o s a t i s f y God's need t o punish s i n , then s i n must be seen as an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t God:  as s i n , t h e r e f o r e , and  not merely as f a i l u r e s w i t h r e s p e c t to o n e s e l f or to  fellow-man.  The d o c t r i n e of o r i g i n a l s i n i s one t h a t Lenz can no more accept  122  i n i t s orthodox f o r m u l a t i o n t h a t he can the d o c t r i n e of Verd i e n s t , and f o r the same reasons.  A study of r e f e r e n c e s to  Erbsunde w i l l show what Lenz's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s , and  how,  once again, i t safeguards f o r him h i s d e s i r e f o r freedom of action. L i k e t h a t o f C h r i s t ' s m e r i t , the d o c t r i n e o f o r i g i n a l s i n has been v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n the C h r i s t i a n Church, now i n terms of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to God, now  i n terms of the moral  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s by which s i n i s expressed i n the i n dividual.  In the Western Middle Ages, s i n was regarded "mehr  nach i h r e r o n t i s c h e n Z u s t a n d l i c h k e i t a l s i n der G o t t e s r e l a t i o n " , w h i l s t i n the Reformation i t was  seen "ganz i n theo-  z e n t r i s c h e r P e r s p e k t i v e a l s v e r k e h r t e s V e r h a l t n i s des Menschen 18. zu Gott."  Lenz, i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h Enlightenment ideas of  moral p e r f e c t i o n i s m , views i t i n terms of i t s moral and psychol o g i c a l e f f e c t s on man,  but as a stage o n l y , i f a necessary  one, i n the moral h i s t o r y o f man.  He never denies s i n a l t o -  gether, but he i s a t p a i n s to c a l l i t by any o t h e r name. the  correspondence w i t h Salzmann  s u l t i n g from "angeborene  o r i g i n a l s i n i s seen as r e -  T r a g h e i t " or "das bose B e i s p i e l " ,  as c o n s i s t i n g i n "der unrechtmaBige brauch der F a h i g k e i t e n "  In  (Br.I.55).  ubelubereinstimmende In the f i r s t  and Ge-  "Supplement"  i t i s a g a i n " T r a g h e i t " and a l s o "Furchtsamkeit", l e a d i n g to 19 "Ungeduld" (1.504); i n the "Stimmen " i t i s "Unbestimmtheit". A l l of these c i r c u m l o c u t i o n s emphasise t h a t Lenz saw s i n as a p a r a l y s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e f f o r t s and a b i l i t i e s ,  as he  123  w r i t e s , f o r example, i n the f i r s t  "Supplement": "So v e r s t e c k t  s i c h noch h i n t e r d i e s e Begierde nach dem A u B e r o r d e n t l i c h e n unser Erbschaden, d i e zwQ B l e i g e w i c h t e der M a t e r i e d i e unsrc ' emporstrebende V e l l e i t a t herabziehen,  T r a g h e i t und Furchtsam-  k e i t , d i e e i n e w i l l n i c h t s tun, d i e andere n i c h t s h o f f e n " ( I . 5 0 4 ) . Such p a r a l y s i s does a f f e c t man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God, as Meynungen w i l l argue, but i t s s e r i o u s n e s s l i e s above a l l i n i t s consequences w i t h i n human l i f e .  S i n i s e v i l n o t because  i t o f f e n d s a g a i n s t d i v i n e j u s t i c e , but i n so f a r as i t has "Folgen".  I t i s a p r a c t i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than  moral and s p i r i t u a l The  matter.  s e c u l a r i s a t i o n o f t h i s concept  i s shown i n the way  Lenz s e t s the q u e s t i o n o f s i n ' s o r i g i n i n t o a framework o f n a t u r a l philosophy r a t h e r than theology. "Lebensregeln"  The statement i n  t h a t Adam's F a l l was "der notwendige Gang nach  dem ewigen und e i n z i g e n Gesetz der Natur.  . .der A n s t a l t e n  Gottes" ( B l e i IV. 55)', i s e l a b o r a t e d most f u l l y i n Meynungen, where, i n the p r e f a t o r y l e t t e r , the f i c t i t i o u s clergyman l y Lenz's d e l i b e r a t e c o u n t e r p a r t t o Goethe's  (sure-  "Pastor***")  w r i t e s thus t o h i s c o l l e a g u e : S i e wissen z.B. wie sehr i c h immer am Dogma von der Erbsiinde z w e i f e l t e , und doch konnte i c h n i e d i e Sache ganz wegwerfen. I c h hab s i e immer a l s R e a l i t a t angesehn, und. . .gewiinscht, daB e i n r e d l i c h e r , e r f a h r n e r s c h a r f s i n n i g e r Mann, so weit es moglich ware, d i e Nat u r des Menschen, d i e Bestimmung a l l e r s e i n e r T r i e b e und F a h i g k e i t e n , und das V e r h a l t n i s , i n dem w i r m i t Gott und der Natur stehen, untersuchen mochte. D i e s , deucht mich, ware der Ort, davon auszugehen ware, um zu bestimmen. was Erbsiinde i s t , — d e r Name i s t f r e y l i c h  124  a r g e r l i c h . I c h meyne immer, das, was so genennt w i r d , sey zu E r r e i c h u n g unserer Bestimmung durchaus nothwendig, a l s o keine F o l g e des F a l l s , der nur p a r t i k u l a r war (p. 170-1)'.' O r i g i n a l s i n , says Lenz, i s r o o t e d i n the nature and psychology o f man, and has always been t h e r e . of  the F a l l ,  I t i s not a r e s u l t  but the F a l l was r a t h e r an i n s t a n c e o f i t .  Being b u i l t i n t o man, s i n i s t h e r e f o r e necessary f o r f u l f i l m e n t o f human d e s t i n y .  The "Laye" a c c o r d i n g l y r e p r e s e n t s  the  same view; i n t e r p r e t i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f o r i g i n a l s i n as  the  workings o f a "Weltseele" who, l i k e the d e v i l i n the  Book o f Job, cooperates w i t h God t o achieve the h i g h e r purposes of God, he concludes: " J e t z t haben S i e , wann S i e wollen,  P r i n c i p i u m f u r d i e Erbsunde, wann S i e s i e so nennen  wollen.  I c h nenne s i e Natur.  . .Die Natur h a t i h r e Zwecke,  der w a h r h a f t i g f r e y e Mensch d i e s e i n i g e n , und Vereingung d i e s e r Zwecke g i e b t das vollkommenste ing  Ganze"  (p.177).  Lay-  the blame f o r o r i g i n a l s i n on Nature i s no g n o s t i c de-  c l a r a t i o n of the e v i l n e s s o f Nature, i n Lenz's t h i n k i n g .  The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the two amounts more t o an up-grading o f sin,  than to a down-grading o f Nature.  t u r e i s inadequate on her own.  However to Lenz, Na-  She i s not e v i l ! but she i s  l i m i t e d , and man's d e s t i n y i s t o r i s e up from her t o God. Since r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God, i n whom l i e the g o a l s o f p e r f e c t i o n and happiness, i s c e n t r a l t o human d e s t i n y , s i n i s a l s o  seen  as "Vernachlassigung des V e r h a l t n i s s e s , i n welchem w i r m i t der G o t t h e i t stehen"(p.175).  But without s i n , t h e r e would be  125  no awareness  o f our r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God, o f the other-ness o f  God, and t h e r e f o r e o f the growth and development q u i r e d i f we are t o reach God.  that i s r e -  S i n i s t h e r e f o r e seen as a de-  v i c e t o g i v e man a sense o f d i r e c t i o n i n h i s e v o l u t i o n : "Die S i i n d e — d e r p h y s i s c h damit verkniipfte Tod, waren a l s o d i e e i n zigen M i t t e l , wodurch d i e G o t t h e i t i h r e n ganzen Abstand von ihm, ihm zu fiihlen geben konnte" ( i b i d . ) . To summarise, then, Lenz's view o f s i n and i t s r e l a t i o n t o human a c t i o n : f i r s t l y  i t c o n s i s t s i n an abandonment -of e f f o r t  and moral s t r i v i n g , whether l a c k o f a sense of d e s t i n y .  out o f i n d o l e n c e ,  t i m i d i t y o r the  S e c o n d l y , i t i s s e r i o u s i n so f a r  as i t has e v i l consequences, which hamper f u r t h e r a c t i v e human development;  i t was t o take care o f these consequences  C h r i s t came.  T h i r d l y , the sense o f moral g u i l t t h a t  it  that  accompanies  i s a u s e f u l device t o remind man how f a r s h o r t he i s o f the  goal o f p e r f e c t i o n a f t e r which he i s t o s t r i v e .  Lastly, origin-  a l s i n i s o l d e r than the F a l l , being Nature i t s e l f .  In the form  of concupiscence i t i s a f o r c e which, as we s h a l l see below, challenges perpetual  the a c t i v e , o r d e r i n g powers o f man and keeps them i n activity.  I f s i n , then, i s n e i t h e r g u i l t before God, nor an avoidable misfortune  f o r man, but r a t h e r a f a c t , i f a p r o b l e m a t i c a l one,  of human psychology but i n d i s p e n s a b l e  t o human moral e v o l u t i o n ,  then there i s no room f o r the orthodox i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C h r i s t ' s m e r i t as r e s t o r a t i o n o f f a l l e n Adam, nor f o r C h r i s t i a n remorse a t the e x i s t e n c e o f s i n . Lenz i s q u i t e sure about t h i s p o i n t :  1 26  "Die A b s i c h t s e i n e r Sendung  ( C h r i s t i ) war n i c h t das m e n s c h l i -  che E l e n d zu v e r b e s s e r n und wieder h e r z u s t e l l e n , wie es d i e Theologen fall  g e m e i n i g l i c h v o r s t e l l e n , und das durch Adams Siinden-  zertrummerte  i s t n i c h t wahr.  Haus gleichsam wieder zusammenzuflicken,  das  Es i s t i n Gottes Regierung durch Adams Siinden-  f a l l gar k e i n F e h l e r , keine Liicke vorgegangen, d i e hernach wieder musste r e d r e s s i e r t w e r d e n " ( B l e i I V . 5 5 ) . What, then, i s the meaning t o Lenz of the " F a l l " ?  On t h i s  matter he has w r i t t e n probably more than on any o t h e r , d e v o t i n g to  i t not o n l y much o f "Lebensregeln" and Meynungen but a l s o  the p u b l i s h e d volume c o n t a i n i n g : "Der Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s " with i t s appendices on o r i g i n a l s i n and concupiscence, and i t s supplements  d e a l i n g w i t h the importance o f God's p r o h i b i t i o n i n  the Garden o f Eden.  Although we do not have the key essay:  "Der Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s " , we know from the context i n which the r e f e r e n c e t o i t i n "Lebensregeln" occurs what Lenz's ment was.  Elaborating  argu-  on the b r i e f statement i n the e a r l i e r  "Versuch" t h a t "Gut. . .hieB b e i den e r s t e n Menschen, f a h i g zur Vollkommenheit,  aber noch n i c h t vollkommen"(I.490),  Lenz ex-  p l a i n s : "Adam und Eva waren m i t n i c h t e n im Stande der Unschuld vollkommene Menschen, das i s t n i c h t wahr, das i s t e i n iibel s c h i e f v e r s t a n d e n e r Ausdruck  der S c h r i f t , denn daB s i e nach dem  B i l d e Gottes g e s c h a f f e n waren, s c h l i e B t gar n i c h t W e i s h e i t , Heil i g k e i t und G e r e c h t i g k e i t i n s i c h , sondern bedeutet nur, daB sie  s i c h von dem T i e r durch eine v o r t e i l h a f t e r e B i l d u n g u n t e r -  schieden, i n welcher s i e f a h i g waren, Gott i n seinen Werken zu  127  erkennen,  das ganze nach dem voLlkommenen S p i e l s e i n e r harmo-  n i s c h e n V e r h a l t n i s s e einzusehen, wie G o t t " ( B l e i IV.55).  Adam  and Eve were p r i m i t i v e and l i m i t e d , not a l r e a d y complete and p e r f e c t ; they stood l i t t l e  h i g h e r than animals, d i s t i n g u i s h e d  from them by t h e i r p o t e n t i a l r a t h e r than by any a c t u a l s u p e r i o rity.  I f they were to r i s e h i g h e r , though, i t must be through  t h e i r own e f f o r t s , and by a s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e i r d e s i r e s without which there c o u l d be no m o t i v a t i o n to achieve anything.  The  Garden o f Eden p r o v i d e d t h a t s t i m u l u s t o human concupiscence, to  the d e s i r e s o f the f l e s h , g r a t i f y i n g these d e s i r e s and g i v i n g  man a sense o f p l e a s u r e i n e x i s t e n c e . not the whole purpose  Enjoyment, however, was  o f man's e x i s t e n c e , but r a t h e r a c t i o n — h e  needed the c h a l l e n g e o f the unproductive s o i l and the h a r d s h i p of  life  and,  o u t s i d e the Garden, to enable him t o deploy h i s powers  l i k e God, impose order on chaos.  Why, though, the p r o h i b i -  t i o n , and the banishment from the Garden as a punishment?  Lenz  answers: "Dieses i n eine S t r a f e i h r e r L i i s t e r n h e i t und der draus entstehenden  W o l l u s t , d i e durch e i n Verbot geweckt wurde, zu  verwandeln war eine besondere W e i s h e i t Gottes handlung  von der Konkupiszenz  (siehe meine Ab-  und von unverschamten Sachen) um  dem Menschen d i e s Geschenk s i c h aufs i n n i g s t e zu v e r e i n i g e n , das nur der Segen des Ehestandes er  zu machen, dadurch,  (Ibid.,pp.55-56).  war,, erwiinschenswerter und angenehm-  daB e r es s e i t e n , r a r und k o s t b a r machte"  Adam's d i s o b e d i e n c e was not i n t r i n s i c a l l y _  e v i l , b u t i t was good f o r him t o t h i n k i t was, f o r i n a d d i t i o n to  the reason we noted e a r l i e r i n Meynungen t h a t he thereby  128  gained a sober a p p r e c i a t i o n of God's s u p e r i o r i t y , which establ i s h e d i n him "den Ton und das r e c h t e V e r h a l t n i s , " and  the  sense of " n i c h t bloB i n d i e B r e i t e , sondern auch i n d i e Hohe empfinden"(p.175),  he a l s o l e a r n t thereby t h a t human d e s i r e ,  which i s the mainspring of human a c t i o n , i s a l l the s t r o n g e r as i t i s l e f t u n s a t i s f i e d .  The  "Supplemente", to which Lenz  d i r e c t s us, develop t h i s p o i n t and preach an a s c e t i c i s m which i s never completely absent from any of Lenz's work. What, though,  i s the meaning of Konkupiszenz,  which we  have t r a n s l a t e d as "human d e s i r e " and which must be ly resisted?  ascetical-  As a t h e o l o g i c a l term i t normally r e f e r s to the  sexual d e s i r e awakened i n Adam a f t e r h i s e a t i n g o f the f o r b i d d e n fruit.  Lenz shows a t the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t  t h a t what he had t a l k e d of i n h i s p r i o r essay was for  "Supplement" this  desire  s e x u a l union: "das Streben nach V e r e i n i g u n g " , and i n many  o t h e r passages s i r e was,  i t i s c l e a r t h a t the most p r e s s i n g form of de-  to Lenz, sexual d e s i r e .  H i s "Lebensregeln"  concen-  t r a t e h e a v i l y on p e r m i s s i b l e and i n a d m i s s i b l e conduct with r e spect t o the other sex, and i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n h i s view, any of  sexual s a t i s f a c t i o n must be "nur der Segen des  form  Ehestandes",  being even i n marriage more of a weakness than a s t r e n g t h ( B l e i IV.57).  For i n any circumstance, he f e e l s , i t i s d e s i r e  that  i s the source of s t r e n g t h and energy, not i t s g r a t i f i c a t i o n . The prominence of the sexual problem  i n Lenz may  be a reason f o r  us to conclude, with Wien, t h a t a t l e a s t the "Lebensregeln" were 20. w r i t t e n : "aus der Qual s e i n e r Pubertatsnote heraus"; however,  129  Lenz does a l s o use the term Konkupiszenz i n a more g e n e r a l sense, as d e s i r e f o r a l l t h a t b r i n g s happiness: k e i n Vergniigen bringen, ohne zuvor begehrt  "GenuB kann  zu haben.  Nur  der  Hunger kann d i e M a h l z e i t wiirzen, Koche konnen den Wert der Speisen n i c h t erhohen sondern nur den A p p e t i t unsers Magens" (1.501).  "Concupiscence", as the d e s i r e without which there  cannot be the happiness of g r a t i f i c a t i o n , becomes, as such, precious possession: Is  " d i e h e r r l i c h s t e a l l e r Gaben Gottes."  i t t h e r e f o r e a s i n ? asks Lenz, s l i p p i n g i n t o the P a u l i n e 21.  s t y l e t h a t marks t h i s supplement. f e m e ! Nur motivates  He r e p l i e s :  i h r e zu ungeduldige B e f r i e d i g u n g war man  "Das  es."  i n h i s a c t i v e s t r i v i n g f o r happiness,  T r i e b f e d e r unserer Handlungen. . .der Keim unserer I t cannot i n i t s e l f be a s i n , although gence i s .  Desire i t i s "die  Tatigkeit." indul-  A number of arguments from the f i e l d of p h y s i c s are this  should  so. Lenz b e l i e v e s t h a t man  i s d e s t i n e d f o r freedom of a c t i o n ,  not merely to enjoy h i s freedom but to use of  sei  i t s unrestrained  brought i n , i n the "Supplement", to i l l u s t r a t e why be  a  a l t r u i s m i n i m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t .  i t to perform  feats  But such freedom o n l y  be-  comes a c c e s s i b l e when the human psyche i s under a c e r t a i n t e n s i o n , namely the t e n s i o n between d e s i r e and r e s i s t a n c e to sire:  "nur b e i dem  de-  S t r e i t d i e s e r beiden entgegen wirkenden K r a f -  te konnte s i c h seine F r e i h e i t im Handeln, seine k e i t , s e i n e V e l l e i t a t auBern" (I... 502) .  D e s i r e was  Selbstwirksamfirst  aroused  by the sensual p l e a s u r e s a v a i l a b l e to Adam i n the Garden, but  130  the most e f f e c t i v e s t i m u l u s negative  decree:  o f d e s i r e was  "Thou s h a l t n o t  the  counter-force  der  ganzen N a t u r a l l e K r a f t e nur  "Alle Aktion  . ." The  prohibition  entgegen wirken."  wir erfahren  Bewegung, wo  kein  ' p r i m u s movens' und  leiderid."  " e r s t e S t o B g l e i c h s a m , den  G o t t f r e i e n Wesen gab,  i t was  the  t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d i t , t h i s was  will  d i e , and  with  God's way  i t man  Todes."  then i t w i l l  die  of saying  as a f r e e b e i n g :  I f , on  i n S t a u b und  the other  . .das  this handeln the  'vis  that  death  satisfac-  desire  itself  " i h r b e g e h r t , wiirisent, Verwesung zuriick, i h r  hand, i t s f o r c e i s r e s i s t e d ,  grow " S t u n d e f u r S t u n d e , Tag  becoming " d i e s L e b e n s f e u e r .  on:  kein  threat of  weaken i t , so t h a t e v e n t u a l l y  h o f f t n i c h t s mehr, i h r k e h r t s t e r b t des  f o r the  "in  'agens',  God's d e c r e e was  As  was  goes  'vis centrifuga' that stimulated  c e n t r i p e t a ' o f human c o n c u p i s c e n c e .  t i o n of d e s i r e w i l l  He  d i e s t a g l i c h , wo  da b l e i b t a l l e s r u h e n d und  solltenV"  God's  n e e d e d t o s e t d e s i r e i n m o t i o n , j u s t as  i s t Reaktion,  S t o B , da k e i n e  eat.  p e r f o r m e d by  f u r Tag,  in  u n s e r P r o m e t h e u s vom  Ewigkeit", Himmel 22.  brachte", The  permitting  f r e e a c t i o n and  m o r a l o f G e n e s i s 3,  and  giving divine  Lenz's a s c e t i c advice  h e a r e r s i s : " G e i s t i g e V e r g n i i g u n g e n g e s u c h t , des schafte  getotet"(I.504).  "Uberhaupt i s t ' s gut damit der  das  den  same a d v i c e  C h r i s t ' s i n c a r n a t i o n was  his  Fleisches  Ge-  zu  s i c h b i l d e n konne"; the  e n d e a v o u r : "des  G e i s t i n uns  to  i s repeated  F l e i s c h zu k a s t e i e n und  G e i s t w a c h s e n und  C h r i s t c o n s i s t s i n the t o t e n und  The  pleasure.  kreuzigen, i m i t a t i o n of  Fleisches Geschafte  w a c h s e n und  t o show men  elsewhere:  zunehmen zu l a s s e n " ,  "daB  sie hauptsachlich  zu for auf  131  d i e Welt g e s e t z t unsterblichen IV.63,67,69).  s e i e n , um i n dem GefaB i h r e s Korpers i h r e n  G e i s t zu b i l d e n , zu e r w e i t e r n ,  zu  There must c e r t a i n l y be a curbing  s i r e s o f the f l e s h , but beyond t h a t , and more  erhohen"(Blei o f the de-  importantly,  there needs t o be an a c t i v e p u r s u i t o f t h i n g s o f t h e s p i r i t . For w h i l s t the f l e s h g i v e s a fundamental stimulus life, raw  the purpose o f e x i s t e n c e  t o human  i s t o get beyond i t , beyond the  substance o f human c r e a t i o n , t o the form imparted by s p i r i t  and by m o r a l i t y .  So i t was f o r Adam and mankind w i t h him and  so i t i s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , who, l i k e Adam, has t o face h i s own Tree o f the Knowledge of Good and E v i l , but, u n l i k e Adam, l e a r n to r e s i s t the temptation to e a t o f the f r u i t of p h y s i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , being able  i n s t e a d t o s e t h i s d e s i r e on h i g h e r  t h i n g s : on moral l i v i n g , on the i m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t , on God himself.  I t i s out o f t h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t Lenz wrote h i s p r i -  vate "Lebensregeln", based on the e a r l i e r essay with i t s supplements intended f o r the p u b l i c .  And the same c o n v i c t i o n  l a t e r u n d e r l i e Meynungen and "Stimmen". put  will  As the "Rules o f L i f e "  i t : "Was i s t der Hauptgrundsatz und Regel der fortgehenden  Schopfung?  Die unaufhorliche  i n Form oder d i e unendlich  unendliche Verwandlung der M a t e r i e  fortgehende B i l d u n g  zur Form b i s zum G e i s t hinauf,  alles Materiellen  welcher d i e hochste Form i s t . "  So C h r i s t a f t e r h i s Ascension was "ganz G e i s t , ganz Aether" ( B l e i IV,54,68). At t h i s p o i n t we may stop and wonder how t h e emphasis on s p i r i t alone can be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the e a r l i e r s t r e s s l a i d on  1 32  the d e s i r e s o f the f l e s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they both seem t o be c r e d i t e d w i t h the same f u n c t i o n .  Whereas e a r l i e r ,  concupis-  cence was " d i e T r i e b f e d e r unserer Handlungen", now, Lenz says, " d i e t a t i g e K r a f t i n uns i s t unser G e i s t . " the " r u l e o f l i f e " ( B l e i IV,62,63).  As f o r human d e s i r e ,  i s now " n i c h t zu begehren, sondern  zu l i e b e n "  Powerful d e s i r e i s not now t o be met w i t h  powerful r e s t r a i n t but i s t o be transformed by the power o f the spirit  i n t o the h i g h e r impulse o f l o v e . To l e n z ' s mind, t h e r e i s  nothing wrong with concupiscence, but there i s nonetheless somet h i n g h i g h e r , t o which i t must a s p i r e .  Eventually s p i r i t ,  having  transformed the d e s i r e s o f the f l e s h , w i l l take over the motive f o r c e which they exerted, and so, under the d e v e l o p i n g r u l e o f spirit,  the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l reach a h i g h e r moral plane, g a i n i n g  freedom of w i l l and a c t i o n , and the a b i l i t y t o perform  "Hand-  lungen uber das Gesetz, uber d i e Regel des Rechts"(I.509).  Con-  cupiscence, as a source o f i n i t i a t i v e i n man, has a subordinate function only. developed it  I t was man's most p r e c i o u s p o s s e s s i o n before he  " s p i r i t " , and s i n c e then i s o v e r r u l e d by s p i r i t .  Since  i s a l s o shared by the beast, any r e t u r n t o the domination of  concupiscence i s a r e g r e s s i o n , undoing  the progress made i n de-  velopment up t o freedom, t o c r e a t i v i t y and t o God: going counter, t h e r e f o r e , t o human d e s t i n y . To summarise the argument from the p o i n t o f view of Lenz's concern to e s t a b l i s h a t h e o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a c t i o n : God, i n o r d e r t o b r i n g Adam beyond the l e v e l o f the beast, which pass i v e l y enjoys and s u f f e r s i n t o t a l s u b j e c t i o n t o i t s c o n d i t i o n ,  1 33  p l a c e d him i n a garden whose s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s were c a l c u l a t e d to  arouse h i s d e s i r e and s e t him going on the quest f o r happi-  ness. to  I f the quest was  t o be perpetuated, d e s i r e a l s o needed  be perpetuated, not s a t i s f i e d , so the order was  Thou s h a l t not e a t .  Adam's d i s r e g a r d of t h i s order was  able o n l y i n i t s h a s t i n e s s : ing  given:  human a c t i v i t y .  there were other ways of  But i t was  culpencourag-  good f o r Adam t o t h i n k he  had  done wrong, because t h i s gave him an i d e a of the d i r e c t i o n i n which he ought, indeed, to develop.  The banishment from the  garden gave him the o p p o r t u n i t y , and f o r c e d upon him the necess i t y , to become a c t i v e f o r h i s own  s u r v i v a l and  betterment.  E v e n t u a l l y , the development i n h i s p h y s i c a l l i f e velopment of h i s s p i r i t u a l l i f e , c o u l d o n l y be brought  l e d t o a de-  but t h i s , as we, .shall now  about by the g i v i n g of the  Lenz's i n t e r e s t i n the r o l e o f Law  see,  Law.  d e r i v e s from h i s acquain-  tance with the w r i t i n g s of the Gottingen o r i e n t a l i s t and  theo-  23.  l o g i a n Johann David M i c h a e l i s , with the l e t t e r s of S t . P a u l .  and with h i s own  I t i s evidenced by the c o n s i d e r -  a b l e space he devotes t o the Law Meynungen.  C l e a r l y , i f man  familiarity  i n the "Supplemente" and i n  i s g i v e n freedom of a c t i o n ,  the  e x i s t e n c e of d i v i n e law r e s t r i c t i n g t h a t a c t i o n needs to be accounted f o r .  I f we have " d i e F r e i h e i t vor dem  zu handeln wie wir w o l l e n , " how  can such apparent  be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h God's g i v i n g o f the Law? to  A n g e s i c h t Gottes  answer two q u e s t i o n s : f i r s t l y ,  antinomianism  Lenz sees the need  do laws t h a t c i r c u m s c r i b e the  sphere of human a c t i o n , p r o h i b i t i o n s t h e r e f o r e , undermine freedom  134  of a c t i o n ? itiative  Secondly, do p r e s c r i p t i v e laws destroy  and c r e a t i v i t y ?  We saw t h a t the f i r s t functioned  law, the p r o h i b i t i o n i n the Garden,  as a counter f o r c e t o the f o r c e o f human d e s i r e ,  keeping i t under t e n s i o n and not a l l o w i n g immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n .  i t to be k i l l e d by  By s t i m u l a t i n g d e s i r e : the mainspring  of a c t i o n , Law a l s o s t i m u l a t e d still  human i n -  human a c t i o n .  But a c t i o n was  l i m i t e d t o the p r o v i s i o n o f man's p h y s i c a l needs; i t ex-  pressed  "Sorge f u r seine E r h a l t u n g ,  schlechterneigung  GenuB, T a t i g k e i t , Ge-  und i n n i g s t e Vereinigung  mit seinesgleichen."  Lenz goes on: " j e t z t ging aber der G e i s t unsers e d l e r e n noch l e e r aus.  . .durch wen konnte der seine B i l d u n g  Daher muBte Moses das Gesetz g e b e n " ( B l e i of the Law was once again sical  IV.56).  t o l i m i t the e x p r e s s i o n  Teils  erhalten?  The f u n c t i o n of man's phy-  a p p e t i t e s , so t h a t room was l e f t f o r s p i r i t t o develop.  For s t i l l  i t i s s o l e l y by d e n i a l o f the f l e s h t h a t any progress  can be made towards freedom and God.  Lenz b e l i e v e s t h a t  r e l e a s e i s accompanied by a l o s s o f s p i r i t : Menschen e i g e n t l i c h das V e h i k e l  sexual  "da der Same der  i h r e r G e i s t e r i s t " (Ibid.,p.33). 24  Moreover, s a t i s f a c t i o n o f sexual destroying "Geist".  d e s i r e leads t o "Erschopfung",  the a c t i v e powers i n man t h a t are the e x p r e s s i o n o f I t was t o prevent such d i s a s t r o u s r e v e r s a l s of human  d e s t i n y t h a t the Mosaic Law was g i v e n . ly to regulate physical l i f e ,  preventing  I t s purpose was p r i m a r i anything  t h a t might  l e a d to a d i m i n u t i o n o f human powers. The great l e g i s l a t o r s : Moses, C h r i s t , and the A p o s t l e s , were t h e r e f o r e "Arzte des  135  menschlichen G e s c h l e c h t s . "  Lenz c i t e s , i n support of h i s  view, Exodus 15:26: "Denn i c h b i n der Herr, d e i n A r z t " . the laws t h a t r e g u l a t e d p h y s i c a l l i f e ,  he says: "was  anders a l s Medecin f u r L e i b und G e i s t , Verhutung tung unserer Maschine"(pp.193,198,200).  Of  ists  der Z e r r i i t -  Both p r o h i b i t i v e  and  p r e s c r i p t i v e laws were meant, a t the time, to work towards c r e a t i n g and p r e s e r v i n g c o n g e n i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r the development of s p i r i t , and with i t ,  the u n f o l d i n g of human p o t e n t i a l .  Of the two types of law, though, t h a t predominated,  argument of the second agree,  the p r o h i b i t i o n s  f o r these alone p e r m i t t e d and  f r e e a c t i o n by a r e s t r a i n t  Meynurigen  i t was  of  encouraged  p h y s i c a l d e s i r e s . Such i s the  "Supplement"—one with which the  (pp. 1 90., 191) :  Was der Baum des E r k e n n t n i s s e s im Garten, das i s t uns das Gesetz, welches v e r b i e t e t , das h e i B t , unserer Konkupiszenz d i e gehorigeri Einschrankungen zur allgemeinen Gliickseligkeit gibt. Von der A r t s i n d d i e zehn Gebote, sowohl d i e welche wir zur Norm b e i b e h a l t e n , a l s d i e dem jiidischen Volk insbesondere gegeben wurden, i m g l e i c h e n a l l e b i i r g e r l i c h e n Gesetze d i e der G e i s t der G e s e l l s c h a f t zur Beforderung i h r e s Wohlstandes erfunden und denen wir ::uns unterwerfen, so b a l d wir an diesem Wohlstande T e i l nehmen. Die Gesetze a l s o iiberhaupt s i n d d i e Ursachen a l l e r unsrer Handlungen so wie es das e r s t e Gesetz oder Verbot Gottes im Garten von der e r s t e n Handlung war, s i e s i n d aber nur d i e g e l e g e n h e i t l i c h e n n i c h t d i e wirkenden Ursachen davon, d i e l i e g e n bloB i n unserer W i l l e h s f r e i h e i t , welche durch jene nur i n Bewegung g e s e t z t w i r d . Da aber a l l e Gesetze e i g e n t l i c h nur v e r n e i n e n , Handlungen v e r b i e t e n , d i e d i e allgemeine G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t s t o r e n , so g i b t ' s e i g e n t l i c h nur z w e i e r l e i Handlungen, g e s e t z w i d r i g e , d i e dem Verbot grad entgegenlaufen, oder e t h i s c h e , d i e liber das Gesetz erhaben, d i e allgemeine G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t n i c h t nur n i c h t s t o r e n , sondern b e f o r d e r n und stufenweise erhohen, d i e s e haben e i g e n t l i c h a l l e i n i n den Augen Gottes einen Wert." (I. 505-6) . Law  g i v e s man  a minimum standard of behaviour, which he i g n o r e s  . 136  at h i s p e r i l ,  f o r t o do so would b r i n g not g u i l t but conse-  quences unpleasant to him and a d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s happiness. Rather, man exceed i t ,  w i l l see t h i s minimum standard as a c h a l l e n g e to and thus e x e r c i s e h i s freedom of w i l l and  action.  These e t h i c a l a c t i o n s t h a t exceed the b a s i c requirements o f the Law,  which can be r e c o g n i s e d by the f e e l i n g of happiness  accompanying  them, are those t h a t C h r i s t came to t e a c h — t h e y  r e p r e s e n t the "Evangelium". the a b o l i t i o n of Law  To regard the g o s p e l as r e q u i r i n g  i s no more j u s t i f i a b l e i n Lenz's mind  than i t i s i n S t . P a u l ' s , whose argument he now  f o l l o w s : "Wie?  hebt denn nun d i e s Evangelium das Gesetz auf? Das s e i f e m e . Ohne Gesetz ware k e i n Evangelium m o g l i c h — f o l g l i c h auch keine Gluckseligkeit."  Lenz's concept of freedom of a c t i o n w i l l  be d i v o r c e d from the concept of Law,  never  of obeying God's w i l l ,  of  imitating Christ.  The antinomianism o f some o f h i s statements  i s only apparent.  W h i l s t man  i s f r e e to do what he l i k e s i n  i m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t , he i s s t i l l bound t o observe the minimum standards s e t down by the Law.  Indeed these r e v e a l to him what  scope he has f o r f r e e a c t i o n : "Nur das Gesetz z e i g t uns d i e V e r h a l t n 1 s s e i n denen w i r uns b e f i n d e n , und nur d i e s e konnen Handlungen einen Wert  . und den s i e b e g l e i t e n d e n Empfindungen  e i n Vergnugen b e i l i e g e n " ( I . 5 0 7 ) . Far from t a k i n g away freedom of a c t i o n , n e g a t i v e law outl i n e s the sphere w i t h i n which f r e e a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . purpose i s not to t i e down a humanity  Its  t h a t has f r u s t r a t e d the  p l a n of God and cannot be r e l i e d upon to a c t a r i g h t ; r a t h e r i t  1 37  i n t r o d u c e s the next stage i n man's development up t o a c t i v e autonomy: "Es b i l d e t den Menschen b i s zu dem Punkte, zu leben a n f a n g t — u n d What, though, certain actions? very few. God:  da e r  darnach lal3t es i h n l a u f e n " (p. 192) .  about p r e s c r i p t i v e laws: those t h a t command As Lenz r e p e a t e d l y emphasises,  these a r e  He g i v e s o n l y one example o f a law p r e s c r i b e d by  the decree demanding the death o f any person o r beast  which sheds human b l o o d .  A l l other laws are n e g a t i v e : "miis-  sen n e g a t i v seyn, s i e zeugen uns, was w i r u n t e r l a s s e n miissen, f a l l s w i r uns n i c h t i n Schaden und Ungliick v e r w i c k e l n w o l l e n " (p.191).  When the g r e a t l e g i s l a t o r s : Moses, C h r i s t and the  A p o s t l e s appeared  t o g i v e a p o s i t i v e law, t h i s was " n i c h t s a l s  Hiilse zu einem oder dem andern n e g a t i v e n Gesetze, daB uns d i e Unterlassung d i e s e r Siinde e r l e i c h t e r t e "  (p. 192).  The reason  that p r e s c r i p t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n has no p l a c e i n God's economy i s that i t . i s  i n c o m p a t i b l e with human freedom; i f the law o r d e r s  us to perform some a c t i o n , we are ...hardly f r e e to perform i t : "Was w i r zu thun haben, kann uns k e i n Gesetzgeber v o r s c h r e i b e n , oder e r macht uns zu KIStzen und B l a c k e n , zu Maschinen und Radern, d i e herumgedreht werden miissen, w e l l s i e n i c h t von s e l ber l a u f e n konnen.  Das mag der F a l l wohl beym p o l i t i s c h e n Ge-  setzgeber seyn, der d i e Seele s e i n e r Staatsmaschine  i s t , der das  unbehelfsame Volk m i t GebiB und Zaum r e g i e r t wie e i n Knabe den Elephanten—aber  beim m o r a l i s c h e n Gesetzgeber, der freyhandelnde  s e l b s t a n d i g e Wesen b i l d e n w i l l , 1 s t e r s n i c h t und kann es n i c h t seyn." (p. 1 91.)'.  Attempts: have nonetheless been made t o p r e s c r i b e  1 38  moral a c t i o n ; Lenz enumerates,  i n h i s second  "Supplement",  c e r t a i n l e g a l i s t i c a c t i o n s , " d i e weder unser noch andrer Gliick b e f o r d e r n und a l s o l i e b e r Unta.tig.keit a l s Handlungen hei8en:..mogen (wie das Beten, F a s t e n , Almosengeben der P h a r i saer.).". (1.506)-, and sees a contemporary c o u n t e r p a r t i n "den heutigen M o r a l s y s t e m a t i k e r n .  . .die uns so schon nach  Zoll  und L i n i e n zu berechnen wissen, was r e c h t gehandelt sey, so und n i c h t anders"(p.192).  From s l a v e r y to l e g a l i s m o n l y C h r i s t  c o u l d save us, who came t o h e a l a " b i s i n d i e K n e c h t s c h a f t der Moralsysteme v e r i r r t e menschliche G e s c h l e c h t " ( p . 1 9 3 ) . J u s t as s a t i s f a c t i o n o f d e s i r e was h o s t i l e to the development  of human  p o t e n t i a l f o r a c t i o n , so moral codes are h o s t i l e to the exerc i s e of f r e e a c t i o n and run d i r e c t l y counter t o the g o s p e l o f freedom i n t r o d u c e d by C h r i s t .  How important t h i s p o i n t was t o  Lenz i s seen i n the f a c t t h a t he devotes the whole o f "Stimmen des L a i e n " to the q u e s t i o n o f moral systems.  We s h a l l  t h i s q u e s t i o n f u l l y when we d i s c u s s the "Stimmen".  discuss  The p o s i t i o n  Lenz adopts on moral codes w i l l then, i n the next chapter, be brought i n t o r e l a t i o n w i t h h i s u t t e r a n c e s concerning whether he o r any o t h e r author should aim t o propound a c e r t a i n moral t e a c h i n g i n works o f l i t e r a t u r e ;  i t w i l l be seen t h a t the view he r e -  presents i n the l i t e r a r y - c r i t i c a l essays e n t i r e l y matches t h a t expressed i n h i s t h e o l o g i c a l framework.  A t p r e s e n t , we s h a l l  note two o t h e r p o i n t s , r e p e a t e d l y emphasised by Lenz, concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f freedom, a c t i o n and m o r a l i t y .  139  Lenz has s a i d t h a t beyond the minimum standard l a i d down by the n e g a t i v e laws, there i s freedom to a c t a t w i l l . ever i n h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l framework some a c t i o n s are  How-  loftier  than others because they g i v e proof of g r e a t e r s p i r i t u a l autonomy.  How  can the b e t t e r a c t i o n s be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the  l e s s e r ones, and indeed from wrong a c t i o n s , a g a i n s t which the n e g a t i v e commands cannot e n t i r e l y p r o t e c t man?  Lenz's  em-  p h a t i c answer i s t h a t m o r a l i t y i s an experimental matter, d i s cerned, as i t were, by t r i a l and e r r o r , not by the p r i o r study of not  a code.  For, once again, r i g h t and wrong are seen by Lenz  as a b s o l u t e v a l u e s by the standards of God's j u s t i c e , but  a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r consequences to man.  Those t h a t  increase  happiness are r i g h t , those t h a t d i m i n i s h i t are wrong.  The  s t a r t i n g - p o i n t i s once again the d r i v e towards happiness, of which the Meynurigen g i v e a repeated reminder: " R e l i g i o n  soil  uns g l i i c k l i c h machen, sonst nehmen w i r s i e n i c h t an" (p. 173), and " d i e R e l i g i o n s o i l uns weder fromm noch g e l e h r t ganz machen, spndern g l i i c k l i c h " (p. 176) . das,  so muS  allein  Lenz goes on: "Und s o i l s i e  s i e empfunden werden, denn G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t b e s t e h t i n  Empfindung"(p.173).  With t h i s , the theme i s announced  that i s  developed i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Meynurigen and i s used as a b a s i s f o r the e x e g e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of Genesis. Empfindung,  Feeling:  i s Lenz's e q u i v a l e n t to the t r a d i t i o n a l  conscience.  I t monitors not g u i l t and innocence, but happiness and unhappiness.  I t i s no t r a n s i e n t movement of the psyche, but r a t h e r a  mature c o n v i c t i o n based on r e f l e c t i o n :  "Empfindungen  s i n d geord-  140  netes i n V e r h a l t n i s gebrachtes G e f i i h l ,  Gefiihl das  gewissen  V o r s t e l l u n g e n untergeordnet i s t , Gefiihl unsrer S e e l e " (p. 1 73) . F e e l i n g o f t e n needs to base i t s e l f on f a i t h , but f a i t h i s of l i t t l e use u n l e s s what i s b e l i e v e d i s a l s o f e l t : s e r wenig  zu glauben, aber das, was man  ganzen Umfang zu empfinden, empfinden"(p.174).  g l a u b t , i n seinem  a l s a l l e s zu glauben und n i c h t s zu  In the second "Supplement"  commended Empfindung  "Es i s t bes-  Lenz has  already  as the guide to good and bad a c t i o n s ;  those t h a t exceed the law "haben e i g e n t l i c h a l l e i n i n den Augen Gottes einen Wert und s i n d von ihm mit den r e i n s t e n und himml i s c h s t e n Empfindungen v e r g e s e l l s c h a f t e t worden, deren Dauer w i r i n der Tat S e l i g k e i t nennen mogen"(I.506). is  "daB man  eriV"  The  principle  Handlungen tue, d i e s o l c h e Empfindungen h e r v o r b r i n g -  But i s such f e e l i n g an i n f a l l i b l e guide to m o r a l i t y ?  Lenz f e e l s t h a t i t i s , even though i t may  be i g n o r e d : "Glaube  nur n i c h t der du das Gesetz v e r a c h t e s t , du konnest jemals wahre Empfindungen der G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t herausbringen, Dissonanz b l e i b t Dissonanz du magst d e i n Ohr noch so sehr zu uberreden suchen" (1.507). man  With such a guide to r i g h t and wrong both p r i m i t i v e  (Meynungen) and contemporary man  to a c t i n such a way their  ("Supplement") are equipped  as to f u r t h e r t h e i r own  development  towards  destiny. Man,  u s i n g h i s Empfindung,  judges from the consequences  h i s a c t i o n s whether they were good ones or not.  of  That the conse-  quences always r e f l e c t the moral nature of the a c t i o n i s one of Lenz's f i r m c o n v i c t i o n s .  I t appears to him to be the o v e r r i d i n g  p r i n c i p l e i n mankind's e a r l y h i s t o r y : "Besonders i s t es, daB i n  141  der ganzen Haushaltung Gottes m o r a l i s c h e s l i b e l , V e r l e t z u n g von  Gott e i n g e r i c h t e t e n V e r h a l t n i s s e  i n g l e i c h e n S c h r i t t e n geht"(p.178). he has  portrayed  l e s s men,  immer mit  dem  physischen  A l r e a d y i n Die  Landplagen  n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s as God's judgement on god-  j u s t as P a s t o r Lenz had  d e l i v e r e d and  published,  s e v e r a l years e a r l i e r , a sermon i n s i s t i n g t h a t the f i r e devastated the L i v o n i a n v i l l a g e of Wendeln was ment f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s ' e v i l ways. written: by God  " C h r i s t l i c h - p h y s i s c h e s tibel  that  d i v i n e punish-  To Salzmann Lenz (physical e v i l  as a warning consequence o f wrong-doing) muB  d r i n abnehmen, wenn das M o r a l i s c h e d a r i n  had  permitted immer mehr  abnimmt"(Br.I.57).  Such a f i r m b e l i e f i n the c o r r e l a t i o n between human moral and  human f a t e w i l l make i t impossible  personal  guilt  der  f o r Lenz not  life  to conclude  from the e v e n t u a l disappointment of h i s ambi-  t i o n s , which he experienced at Weimar, and  later in Livonia,  when every sphere o f f r u i t f u l a c t i v i t y seemed c l o s e d to  him.  A t t h i s stage, however, a t which a l l h i s best work i s being  ac-  complished, the b e l i e f appears to hold no problems.  A l l that  he reads i n the h i s t o r y of the p a t r i a r c h s shows him:  "daB  d i e Menschen i h r e Ideen vom  Recht und  Unrecht h i e r i n n e n  sich selber  machten—und s e l b e r machen muBten, d i e V o r s i c h t winkte ihnen nur durch d i e physischen E r f o l g e i h r e r Handlungen e i n Gesetz fur  d e r s e l b e n zu"(p.193).  So i t was  with Cain, whose anguish  f o l l o w i n g the murder of Abel i n t e r p r e t e d to him  clearly  meaning of the p h y s i c a l punishment l a i d oh him:  "Welche Empfind-  ung  von  seinern Unrecht muste d i e s e physische S t r a f e i n  the  ihm  142  zuriick l a s s e n , z u g l e i c h welche Empf indung des V e r h a l t n i s s e s , das e r v e r l e t z t h a t t e " ( p . 1 7 9 ) . s t r a c t h i s own  L i k e a l l men,  C a i n had to ab-  moral i d e a s from events; t h i s was  "die bestandi-  ge Oekonomie G o t t e s im a l t e n und neuen Testamente. . .Die G o t t h e i t hat durchaus n i e u n t e r r i c h t e n d e Wunder thun, n i e vom mel herab reden  Kim-  wollen"(p.181).  The t h r u s t of t h i s emphasis on m o r a l i t y as an e m p i r i c a l matter  i s t h a t once again i t removes r e s t r i c t i o n s on human f r e e -  dom  of a c t i o n , f o r i n i t i a l l y  The  important  i t does not matter how  a man  acts.  t h i n g i s t h a t he should a c t , because i n so doing  he w i l l l e a r n to a v o i d those a c t i o n s t h a t he d i s c o v e r s t o be wrong, and develop a h i g h e r moral sense by process of elimina-ri tion.  I f t h i s i s the way  God  intended man  t o develop,  then  c l e a r l y the F a l l can no l o n g e r be seen as a r e v e r s a l but, as Lenz sees i t , as the f i r s t  step o f d i s c o v e r y ; so w i t h every  subsequent episode i n B i b l i c a l h i s t o r y . had  I t was  l e a r n t to judge f o r h i m s e l f t h a t the second  o n l y when  man  stage i n God's  h i s t o r y of s a l v a t i o n c o u l d b e g i n : the coming of C h r i s t and i n i t i a t i o n of the Kingdom of God:  "Sehen S i e aber j e t z t d i e  W e i s h e i t Gottes n i c h t a l l e i n g e r e c h t f e r t i g t sondern  the  (das Wort i s t arm)  i n i h r e r v o l l e n H e r r l i c h k e i t — d a B er Christum den Boten  a l l e r Freude i n und auBer unsrer W e l t — e r s t da i n d i e Welt s c h i c k t e , a l s der G e i s t des Menschengeschlechts mannigfalti.ge lange Erfahrungen  sich  durch  e i n allgemeines G e s e t z — e i n e  so  z i e m l i c h e Idee von den P f l i c h t e n jedes I n d i v i d u i zur G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t des Ganzen, g e b i l d e t h a t t e " ( I . 5 0 8 ) .  Still  the p r i n c i p l e  143  i s t h a t m o r a l i t y i s only d i s c o v e r e d i n a c t i o n : "Wer  den  Willen  t u t meines V a t e r s im Himmel, der wird sehen, ob meine Lehre 25. von Gott s e t , " covery  but the main emphasis i s not now  on the  of m o r a l i t y but on l i v i n g out an i n t e n s e l i f e of a c t i o n  i n i m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t ; a switch i s made from negative tive:  "von  der negativen  t i v e n G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t des With t h i s we  to p o s i -  G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t des Gesetzes zur p o s i Evangeliums"(I.508).  reach the "Stimmen des Layen", which mark the  climax of Lenz's appeal faith.  dis-  f o r a c t i v e commitment to the C h r i s t i a n  I t i s here t h a t he seeks to counter  the r e l i g i o u s i n -  d i f f e r e n c e i n h i s f e l l o w S o c i e t y members, of which he to Goethe i n the l e t t e r of 1775  t h a t we  complained  quoted e a r l i e r .  He  a t t a c k s t h e i r "Unglauben", i f somewhat s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y (p.208), with a s t r o n g p l e a f o r f a i t h and the B i b l e , and  s e t s about the task: "den  R e l i g i o n einzustecken", Christianity.  f o r commitment to the t r u t h of  He d i s c u s s e s the importance of r e v e l a t i o n and t h a t God  are most s u b j e c t to h i s w i l l ; he d e s c r i b e s C h r i s t ' s  t h a t the g r e a t e r the submission,  existence  of e v i l , which, though i t d i m i n i s h e s man's happiness here i s unavoidable,  showing  the g r e a t e r the reward of e x a l -  t a t i o n , and urges h i s hearers not.to be put o f f by the  and  the  r e v e a l s most to  i n c a r n a t i o n as the u l t i m a t e example of obedience to God,  now,  ihrer  by reminding them of the main p o i n t s of  mode of B i b l i c a l r e v e l a t i o n , arguing those who  Leuten Standpunkt  and  does not destroy but merely holds back  f o r a while the c u r r e n t o f human happiness. the a u t h o r i t y of the e v a n g e l i s t s and  L a s t l y Lenz defends  a p o s t l e s , and  the d i v i n e  144  i n s p i r a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r o f the B i b l e .  Great s t r e s s i s l a i d ,  t h e r e f o r e , on "Dependenz von Gott"(p.204), and i t might seem t h a t under grace man i s l e s s f r e e t o l i v e out an i n t e n s e pers o n a l l i f e than under law.  However i t i s not dependence on  God t h a t d e s t r o y s human freedom, but s l a v e r y t o moral  systems,  as the second "Stimme" argues. The q u e s t i o n Lenz addresses here i s : "Kam C h r i s t u s auf die  Welt, uns e i n m o r a l i s c h System  zu l e h r e n , das h e i B t , uns i n  s e i n e r Lehre e i n m o r a l i s c h e s I d e a l e i n e s vollkommnen guten v e r standigen, a r i i g e n - - k u r z — e i n e s Extramenschen  zu geben?(p.217)"  The importance o f t h i s q u e s t i o n d e r i v e s from the urgent need for  some moral guide t o l i g h t our way through the t h i c k e t of  the  human psyche, through: "eine unendliche Menge von Begierden,  B e d i i r f n i s s e n , Charakteren, handlungen."  Sentiments, E n t s c h l u s s e n , N i c h t -  Lenz adds: "Mir s c h w i n d e l t s , wenn i c h dran denke,  daB Philosophen waren, d i e m o r a l i s c h e Systeme f u r s Ganze erfi'nden w o l l t e n . "  Taking as h i s t e x t C h r i s t ' s saying from the Ser-  mon on the Mount: "Ihr miiBt n i c h t glauben, i c h sey kommen, euer Gesetz, eure Propheten a u f z u l o s e n , sondern zu e r f i i l l e n " (p. 21 9) , he suggests t h a t C h r i s t i s here opposing a s t r a i g h t of  performance  the law not to an a b o l i t i o n o f the law but to i t s t r a n s f o r -  mation i n t o a moral system; C h r i s t came: " n i c h t .  . .euch euer  Moralsystem heraus zu d r e c h s e l n , sondern zu e r f i i l l e n , und wer's Herz dazu hat, der thue mir nach."  zu thun  The law, t h a t i s :  r i g h t a c t i o n , i s not meant to be taught but t o be done, again it  i s not a p r e s c r i p t i v e system but an o b l i g a t i o n t o a c t .  Lenz  145  g i v e s f o u r reasons why l y , t o someone who  he disapproves of moral systems.  First-  d e s i r e s to. become v i r t u o u s , a moral system  tends more t o be a discouragement than a spur.  I t paralyses  him w i t h i t s daunting demands i n s t e a d of s t i m u l a t i n g him t o do his  best.  Secondly i t tends to t u r n those who  do a s p i r e to  practise i t into hypocrites.  T h i r d l y , moral i d e a l s are, d e s i g -  ned to make i t e a s i e r f o r man  to l i v e m o r a l l y , they allow  man  to r e s t i n the l i m i t e d c o n f i n e s of the system; but, Lenz asks, " s o l l e n w i r denn ruhen, meine H e r r e n ? - - V e r f l u c h t sey d i e Ruhe und auf ewig e i n Inventarium der tauben M a t e r i e , aber w i r , d i e wir  G e i s t i n Adern f i i h l e n , ruhen nur dann, wann w i r zu noch  hoherm Schwunge neue K r a f t e sammeln, wenn w i r f r e i w i l l i g zu s i n ken scheinen, urn weit iiber den G e s i c h t s k r e i s der gewohnlichen S t e r b l i c h e n empor zu s t e i g e n " ( p . 2 2 5 ) . a c t i o n by d i s t r a c t i n g man  L a s t l y , they p a r a l y s e  from performance to e v a l u a t i o n . "Wer-  den s i e uns," Lenz asks, " n i c h t eben dadurch, da/3 s i e uns bey der  Q u a l i t a t unserer Handlungen  titat,  zu lang a u f h a l t e n , an der Quan-  an der groBern Anzahl unserer guten Handlungen  thun?" Spontaneous  Schaden  a c t i o n i s alone e f f e c t i v e ; moral e v a l u a t i o n  b e f o r e the event not only h i n d e r s a c t i o n , but a l s o b r i n g s a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t soon degenerates i n t o complacency,  ego-  t i s m and p r i d e . The c o n c l u s i o n reached, then, i n the second "Stimme" i s t.h t h a t C h r i s t cannot have come to g i v e a complete " i n v e n t o r y " of moral a c t i o n s to r i v a l t h a t of the P h a r i s e e s , nor to s e t an i d e a l example o f r i g h t a c t i o n .  F o r no moral system can take  account of the p e r p e t u a l change and development which i s man's  146  destiny.  C e r t a i n l y C h r i s t made moral demands, but t o Lenz the  question i s :  "ob s i e zusammen g e s t e l l t e i n m o r a l i s c h  System  heraus b r i n g e n , oder ob s i e nur mit F l e i B so n a c h l a s s i g hingeworfen scheinen, urn dem Menschenverstande  einen Wink zu geben,  es sey f u r f r e y e G e i s t e r , d i e i n i h r e r Wirksamkeit immer f o r t s c h r e i t e n und f o r t s c h r e i t e n s o l l e n , k e i n allgemeines M o r a l s y s tem moglich, oder wenigstens miisse es so weit und groB seyn, daB a l l e moglichen M o d i f i k a t i o n e n , wenn s i e nur nach der A n a l o g i e der angegebenen G r u n d l i n i e n gezogen s i n d , h i n e i n passen, urn das Gemahlde abwechselnd und dadurch desto anmuthiger vollkommener  zu machen?(p.227)"  Man  und  needs not a complete moral  code t o f o l l o w , but merely h i n t s to encourage him to use the resources he a l r e a d y has to a c t a c c o r d i n g to p r i n c i p l e s he knows by i n s t i n c t .  For, as the t h i r d  ready g i v e n man  "Stimme" argues, Nature has a l -  a moral system, adequate f o r h i s self-improvement,  and no other system i s necessary: "warum w o l l e n w i r aus L i e b e zum Sonderbaren, uns e i n ander System e r k l i i g e l n , a l s uns aus a l i e n Z e i t e n und Orten, aus der ganzen Natur zuwinkt.  Jeder  Mensch b r i n g t s e i n MaaB von Begierden und K r a f t e n , seine Harmon i e und Ubereinstimmung  von Begierden und K r a f t e n , s e i n M o r a l -  system mit s i c h auf d i e Welt, und nach MaaBgabe des  Gebrauchs,  deh e r von denselben macht, erhohet und v e r b e s s e r t s i c h d a s s e l b e unaufhorlich.  Wir werden a l l e gut geboren, und das bessere und  schlimmere unserer Handlungen  und unseres Zustandes hangt  l i c h von uns s e l b e r ab"(pp.229-30). and indeed Lenz now  ledig-  A Rousseauistic conclusion,  reminds h i s h e a r e r s of the " s i m p l i c i t y " of  147  n a t u r a l m o r a l i t y taught by t h a t " o b s t i n a t e Diogenes of Geneva" (p. 231').. Yet how  i s i t t h a t i f t r u e m o r a l i t y i s so " n a t u r a l " , i t  should be so w i d e l y misunderstood Why  should Rousseau's c a l l  and so w i d e l y  neglected?  f o r a r e t u r n to the s i m p l i c i t y of  nature have become, i n a phrase  t h a t again p a r o d i e s S t . P a u l :  "den Deutschen e i n A r g e r n i s und den Franzosen  eine Thorheit?"  Lenz's answer c o n t a i n s , d e s p i t e h i s g r e a t admiration f o r Rousseau, once again a disagreement with him. "Versuch", was  J u s t as, i n the  Rousseau i s chided f o r advocating Ruhe because i t  not conducive  to a c t i v e human development, so now  h i s advo-  c a t i o n o f E i n f a l t i s shown to be wanting i n t h a t i t f a i l s  to  take the g o a l o f human e x i s t e n c e i n t o account, which i s not adequately  r e v e a l e d i n Nature alone.  r e v e l a t i o n , which alone can show man  What i s needed i s d i v i n e what the law of Nature i s ,  namely: "eine F o r t s e t z u n g der Schopfung, Regeln,  nach welchen  Gott uns g e s c h a f f e n , w e i t e r ausgedehnt, nach welchen w i r  uns  i t z t s e l b e r f o r t s c h a f f e n und unsre E x i s t e n z erhohen konnen" (p.232).  J u s t as the Old Testament, which Lenz c a l l s not r e -  v e l a t i o n but the h i s t o r y o f r e v e l a t i o n s , i s a h i s t o r y o f the measures God his  took to teach and encourage man  moral self-development,  to press on w i t h  so C h r i s t ' s t e a c h i n g was  meant to  g i v e a f u r t h e r r e v e l a t i o n o f the d i r e c t i o n i n which man  was  to  develop,  and to spur him on beyond the p a r t i c u l a r stage a l r e a d y  reached,  t e a c h i n g him t h a t any  ble  with h i s d e s t i n y .  " r e s t " on the way  was  incompati:^  R e v e l a t i o n does not r e p l a c e Nature,  but  148  orientates i t .  I t g i v e s man a sense o f d i r e c t i o n and the  m o t i v a t i o n t o make p r o g r e s s . of  R e v e l a t i o n i s , then, a new way  t h i n k i n g , i t i s , i n Lenz's terminology, 'ye With the f r e q u e n t l y repeated motto:  encapsulates  tavoia.  y e T a v o e i T e  Lenz  a l l t h a t he b e l i e v e s about b a s i c human goodness,  and man's l o f t y d e s t i n y .  A l r e a d y i n the second "Supplement"  he has e x p l a i n e d h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s call  t o repentance.  He wrote t h e r e : " M e x a v o E" T E — n i c h t t u t  BuBe ;(das Wort h a t e i n boser Damon i n unser deutsches Worterbuch gebracht)  sondern v e r a n d e r t euren Sinn, erhebt  ihn"(I.508).  Basing h i m s e l f c o r r e c t l y on the r o o t meaning o f the compound Greek word, he repeats h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n the "Stimmen", s t r e s s ing  the f o r c e o f the p r e f i x :  "yexai  ye tog  iiberweg iiber  alle  eure v o r i g e n Meynungen von Vollkommenheit und G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t , iiberweg iiber euer non p l u s u l t r a ,  iiber euer I d e a l s e l b s t , und  u n a u f h o r l i c h iiberweg, so lang i h r noch w e i t e r konnt.  Das Her-  aufsehen i s t n i c h t g e f a h r l i c h , nur das Herunter  ists"  (p.227).  sehen  Repentance does not mean, he says, d w e l l i n g p e n i t e n t -  l y on p a s t s i n , l i k e the P i e t i s t woman o f D i e Wolken, thanks to God straft,  for,  "der miBlungene Versuche n i c h t m i t dem Tode be-  sondern m i t Leben, ewigem Leben, wenn s i e nur f o r t g e -  s e t z t werden," the past no longer matters, possibilities  h e l d by the f u t u r e .  but o n l y the new  What i s v i t a l  i s t o know, by  r e v e l a t i o n , t h a t man's d e s t i n y i s t o climb ever higher and t h a t he i s capable  i n h i m s e l f o f doing so.  I f Lenz needs to s t r e s s  149  t h i s message so e a r n e s t l y i t i s because he contented h i m s e l f again h i s own  f e e l s t h a t man  i n s t e a d with m e d i o c r i t y .  circumlocution  He  asks,  f o r repentance: "Ob  has  using  Christus  das  v e r g e b l i c h gesagt: Ich b i n gekommen, d i e Sunder zur Erhebung i h r e r Seele  zu Gott  zu r u f e n , n i c h t d i e Gerechten, d i e nemlich  a l l e s schon s i n d oder zu seyn glaubten, (p.227)"  was  s i e seyn s o l l e n ?  For w h i l s t C h r i s t ' s r e v e l a t i o n does no more than  c l a r i f y to our minds what i s a l r e a d y present nature i s powerless to proceed with  i n our  nature,  i t s d e s t i n y unless  this i s  p e r c e i v e d and d e l i b e r a t e l y sought by the human mind with i t s freedom to w i l l Alongside  i t s own  development or to choose to n e g l e c t i t .  Lenz's emphasis on Nature i s h i s urgent appeal to  r e s p o n s i b l e mind of man,  which must i t s e l f allow and  Nature to operate i n i t s d e s t i n e d way. to r i s e to any  higher  f i r s t conceive  of t h a t higher  The  encourage  I f the i n d i v i d u a l  fails  s t a t u r e , i t i s because h i s mind cannot l e v e l to which i t must s t r i v e .  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of our a c t i o n s and  s c a l e of our  are l i m i t e d o n l y by our a b i l i t y to conceive der s c h l e c h t e n Meynung, d i e wir von daB  the  w i r ' s n i c h t konnen"(p.231).  The  uns  achievement  of them: "Grad i n  haben, l i e g t d i e Ursach,  keynote on which t h i s essay,  then, c l o s e s i s t h a t of f a i t h : f a i t h i n o n e s e l f , f a i t h i n one's p o t e n t i a l , f a i t h i n one's l o f t y d e s t i n y . a b l e s one  I t i s f a i t h that  en-  to move mountains, not by means o f a m i r a c l e but  by  so f u r t h e r i n g one's a b i l i t y to a c t t h a t e v e n t u a l l y even the  :;.v.  g r e a t e s t a c t i o n s are w i t h i n one's competence. . I f o r i g i n a l s i n c o n s i s t s i n a l a c k of a sense of d e s t i n y , undermining any  ability  15 0  for. v i r t u o u s a c t i o n , f a i t h i s b e l i e f i n human d e s t i n y , empowering  the i n d i v i d u a l : "Glaube beschwingt,  ziindt unsere K r a f t e a l l e .  befacht, ent-  . . i s t thun" (p. 239) .  So f a i t h ,  l i k e every other a r t i c l e of Lenz's r e l i g i o n , comes down t o the p r i n c i p l e o f a c t i o n f o r the purpose o f human moral ment.  develop-  The "Lebensregeln" f u l l y share t h i s c o n v i c t i o n , de-  f i n i n g f a i t h as something  " d i e s i c h i n Taten auBert," and  going on: " d a r i n b e s t e h t d i e V o r t r e f f l i c h k e i t a l l e r Tugend und tugendhaften Handlungen, daB s i e s i c h auf Glauben  griinden, das  eben g i b t unserm G e i s t d i e Starke zu wachsen und s i c h zu b i l den b i s i n E w i g k e i t , daB w i r noch n i c h t a l l e s wissen was w i r s e i n werden, damit w i r uns desto e i f r i g e r anstrengen mehr zu werden a l s w i r s i n d .  Und wer's n i c h t glauben w i l l ,  daB Jesus  auferstanden, der l a B es b l e i b e n , es i s t n i c h t n o t i g daB e r ' s g l a u b t , wer e i n V i e h b l e i b e n w i l l ,  esto" (Blei  IV.64).  Returning t o the beast, t o M i l t o n ' s "Chaos and o l d n i g h t " , to determinism, or advancing t o d i v i n e h e i g h t s of freedom and moral s t a t u r e : these a r e the two o p t i o n s open t o man.  I f he  chooses the second he must p i t a g a i n s t the f o r c e o f i n e r t i a , o f concupiscence w i t h i t s urgent demands f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n , of subhuman nature, o f the "Weltseele", the f o r c e o f h i s f r e e human powers, a i d e d by God, e x e r c i s e d by a c t i o n , s t i m u l a t e d by a s c e t i c r e s t r a i n t o f concupiscence, developed by " G e i s t " , which i s "der prometheische  Funke", "der Hauch von Gott", and o r i e n t a t e d to-.,  wards a l t r u i s t i c  s e r v i c e : "tun, handeln, t a t i g s e i n m i t G e i s t  und L e i b wo es am meisten n u t z l i c h s e i n , H e i l b r i n g e n kann zur  151  Ehre Gottes an den Menschen  und so von Form zu Form iiber-  gehen i n s ewige Leben" ( I b i d . ,pp..61-2) .  Even Lenz's eschato-  logy i s transformed i n t o a d o c t r i n e o f f u r t h e r s t r i v i n g : the b l e s s e d as they continue on through the mansions o f God, the damned as they have t o r e t u r n by t r a n s m i g r a t i o n  of t h e i r  to the imprisonment o f another body beyond which they have an o p p o r t u n i t y  to s t r i v e .  again  The L a s t Judgement occurs  t h e r e f o r e a t every man's death, God judging Absicht  soul  him "nach s e i n e r  und nach der Anstrengung s e i n e r K r a f t e , n i c h t nach  seinem S c h i c k s a l " ( I b i d . , p . 4 3 ) ,  f o r , as the "Stimmen" re-empha-  s i s e : "Grad d i e Miihe d i e Anstrengung unserer K r a f t i s t , was uns d i e R e l i g i o n oder d i e Kunst g l i i c k l i c h zu seyn, v e r s t e h e n  lehrt"  (p.235) . We may remind o u r s e l v e s  a t t h i s p o i n t o f one p o i n t o f d i s -  agreement between Lenz and Salzmann.  The l a t t e r  questions  Lenz's f i r m c o n v i c t i o n , expressed i n one l e t t e r o f October 1772, t h a t God made good more d i f f i c u l t i n order  t o keep him a c t i v e .  on L e i b n i z i a n philosophy  f o r man t o perform than  evil  Salzmann, more c l o s e l y dependent  than Lenz, b e l i e v e s t h a t the f o r c e o f  i n e r t i a : the cause o f e v i l ,  i s weaker than the f o r c e o f a c t i v e  good, which can be r e l i e d upon t o m a i n t a i n the upper hand.  Lenz  i n s i s t s , however, t h a t there i s o n l y one f o r c e : the " v i s a c t i v a " , the  " v i s i n e r t i a e " being  no a c t u a l f o r c e but n e g l e c t o r r e s o l u -  t i o n o f the f o r c e of a c t i o n .  Since the choice  v i t y and i n e r t i a , n a t u r a l l y , Lenz f e e l s ,  i s between a c t i -  i t w i l l be a c t i v i t y :.b.  t h a t w i l l demand e f f o r t and hence be more d i f f i c u l t to perform  1 52  than n o n - a c t i v i t y setzen,  "welche i n Wirksamkeit und T h a t i g k e i t zu  a l l e m a l i n unserm B e l i e b e n  s t e h t oder nicht"(Br.I..61).  To Salzmann, the dynamic nature of human l i f e i s a given quantity: and  life  i s l i k e t h a t ; t o Lenz i t i s a moral o b l i g a t i o n  a p o t e n t i a l only.  Whereas Salzmann s t r e s s e s a c t i o n as a  means of conscious p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n a t u r a l process,  t o Lenz  the process i t s e l f cannot a t a l l operate unless man i s a c t i v e l y w i l l i n g i t . L i f e i s l i k e t h a t only i f we make i t so, only i f we f o r c e o u r s e l v e s  to expend e f f o r t , f o r " P o s i t i o i s t a l l e m a l  schwerer a l s negatio, als  n i c h t thun."  wirken schwerer a l s ruhen, thun schwerer  An e a r l i e r l e t t e r t o Salzmann r e v e a l s  that  Lenz was d i s s a t i s f i e d with the i n s u f f i c i e n t room t h a t L e i b n i z had  :  l e f t t o human freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  God's c o n t i n u i n g  To d e s c r i b e  c r e a t i o n as a c u r r e n t t h a t swept a l l along i n  i t s . i r r e s i s t i b l e course l e f t l i t t l e f o r man t o do