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The District of Chilliwack : a case study in the political process of decision making Munn, Enid Lucille 1981

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£ A THE DISTRICT OF CHILLIWACK: A CASE STUDY IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS OF DECISION MAKING by ENID LUCILE MUNN B.A., THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 E n i d L u c i l e Munn, 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 3ZL D F - f i i?/7<n i i A b s t r a c t U n d e r s t a n d i n g how government's p l a n , make d e c i s i o n s and implement p o l i c y programmes i s of v i t a l c o n c e r n to t h e p l a n n e r s who a r e e x p e c t e d to i n t e r v e n e i n s o c i e t y ' s complex p r o b l e m s and f o r m u l a t e s o l u t i o n s t h a t can be implement ed. A r e c e n t model examines p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s and i s o l a t e s f o u r f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n o u t comes: 1) t h e r o l e s p l a y e d by a c t o r s i n t h e i s s u e ; 2) the n a t u r e of the d e c i s i o n making e n v i r o n m e n t ; 3) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i s s u e ; and 4) the t y p e o f p l a n n i n g and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s u s e d . The model was used as a framework f o r e x a m i n i n g a d e c i s i o n making e p i s o d e i n the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k , w h i c h c e n t e r e d a r o u n d the i s s u e of community growth i n an a r e a t h a t had been c i r c u m s c r i b e d by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e s . The model h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c o m p r e h e n s i v e , c l a s s i c a l p l a n n i n g methods, w h i c h a r e g o a l - o r i e n t e d and f o c u s on l o n g - t e r m h o r i z o n s , a r e l i k e l y to be r e j e c t e d i n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . T h i s was c o n f i r m e d i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e , a l o n g w i t h th e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t a p r o p o s a l f o r change t h a t i s i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l , i n f l e x i b l e , and d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t i n i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s , w i l l l i k e l y be r e j e c t e d . The f a c t t h a t the C h i l l i w a c k p l a n was easy t o programme and had a l i m i t e d s c o p e o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s c o u l d not overcome i t s d r a w b a c k s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s were not u p h e l d i n t h e c a s e s t u d y . The model's framework p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l means o f e x a m i n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g why t h e p a r t i c u l a r outcome of t h e c a s e s t u d y o c c u r r e d . I t c l a r i f i e d the i n a p p r o p r i a t -n e s s o f methods and means us e d by t h e C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers and p l a n n e r s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , th e s t u d y p o i n t s out t h a t p l a n n e r s need new a p p r o a c h e s , s k i l l s and knowledge i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and w o r k a b l e s o l u t i o n s to complex s o c i e t a l p r o b l e m s . i i i PREFACE The case study f o c u s e s on the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k which i s l o c a t e d i n the F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t at the e a s t e r n extreme of B r i t i s h Columbia's F r a s e r V a l l e y . D u r i n g the p e r i o d covered by the case s t u d y , the C i t y of C h i l i w a c k amalgamated w i t h the Township of C h i l l i w a c k , i n which i t was l o c a t e d , and t o g e t h e r the two became the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k . T e c h n i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , many r e f e r e n c e s to the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k throughout the study s h o u l d have r e f e r r e d to t h i s m u n i c i p a l e n t i t y as the Township of C h i l l i w a c k , s i n c e the time frame was p r i o r to the amalgamation date. However, to s i m p l i f y the s i t u a t i o n and a v o i d the problem of s w i t c h i n g between r e f e r e n c e to the o l d township and the new d i s t r i c t , a l l r e f e r e n c e s to the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l of government were termed the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k and any r e f e r e n c e s to the c i t y l e v e l of government were termed the C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k . I n f o r m a t i o n and data c o l l e c t e d f o r the case study came from the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, Urban Programme P l a n n e r s , departments of the B.C. government, the F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , the Save the Farmland Committee, and p r i v a t e and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . i v The d a t a base c o n s t i t u t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m l e t t e r s , memorandums, r e p o r t s , s t a t i s t i c s , maps, b r o c h u r e s , b r i e f s and from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p l a n n e r s , government s t a f f , and members of t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and d e p a r t m e n t s . A map of the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k i s i n c l u d e d i n the p r e f a c e f o r the r e a d e r ' s c o n v e n i e n c e i n l o c a t i n g s p e c i f i c a r e a s of t h e d i s t r i c t and f o r c l a r i f y i n g t h e p h s y c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on the community by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t a r e t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n s u s e d r e g u l a r l y t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y : A.L.R. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e C.P.A.C. Community P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee E. L.U.C. E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t F. C.R.D. F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t L.M.O.R.P. Lower M a i n l a n d O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n O.C.P. O f f i c i a l Community P l a n vi LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1: F a r m l a n d s D i s p u t e d by C h i l l i w a c k i n the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ' s A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e P r o p o s a l Page 26 T a b l e 2: C o r r e l a t i o n s Between A c t o r s R o l e s and I m p o r t a n c e to I s s u e Page 80 T a b l e 3: S k i l l s and Knowledge Needed Urban P o l i c y Making i n t h e Page 111 v i i LIST . OF FIGURES & MAPS F i g u r e 1: F i e l d of P o s s i b l e D e c i s i o n Outcome Page 88 F i g u r e 2: C o n c e p t u a l Framework f o r A n a l y z i n g D e c i s i o n Outcomes Page 88 Map The D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k Page i i i v i i i CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER 1: THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DECISION MAKING I n t r o d u c t i o n The Study o f Community D e c i s i o n M a k i n g : An H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e The N a t u r e o f Urban P o l i c y P l a n n i n g and D e c i s i o n M aking A Model of Community D e c i s i o n Making The H y p o t h e s i s of t h e B o l a n & N u t t a l l Model - V a r i a b l e Set 3: P l a n n i n g and I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s - V a r i a b l e S e t 4: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P u b l i c I s s u e s CHAPTER 2: THE CASE STUDY: THE DISTRICT OF CHILLIWACK AND A COMMUNITY PLAN E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e i n C h i l l i w a c k E a r l y C o n f l i c t s Over t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e Boundary C h i l l i w a c k ' s Response t o t h e F i n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e P l a n C h i l l i w a c k ' s F i r s t Community P l a n : The Development P l a n 1976 C h i l l i w a c k A p p l i e s to Remove Lands From the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e S t u d i e s on Development i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s U p l a n d A r e a s M e e t i n g s Between C h i l l i w a c k and Government O f f i c i a l s C h i l l i w a c k D e v e l o p s an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n CHAPTER OUTLINE Page I I CHAPTER 3: AN EXAMINATION OF CHILLIWACK'S EARLY DECISION MAKING PROCESS I n t r o d u t i o n Page 48 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P u b l i c I s s u e s Page 49 - I d e o l o g i c a l C o n t e n t Page 49 C o s t s and B e n e f i t s Page 51 - F l e x i b i l i t y of A c t i o n Page 52 Programming A c t i o n Page 53 R i s k s and U n c e r t a i n t y Page 54 Ease of Communication Page 54 P l a n n i n g S t r a t e g i e s Page 55 A c t i o n o r I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s Page 58 Summary Page 59 C o n c l u s i o n Page 60 CHAPTER 4: THE CHILLIWACK ISSUE WITHIN THE MODEL'S FRAMEWORK The N a t u r e o f the O p p o s i n g F o r c e s Page 63 The B a s i s f o r O p p o s i t i o n Page 64 A D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e I s s u e Page 64 I d e o l o g i c a l C o n f l i c t W i t h i n t h e Community Page 66 I d e o l o g i c a l C o n f l i c t O u t s i d e t h e Community Page 69 - O p p o s i t i o n to R i s k s and U n c e r t a i n t i e s Page 72 C r i t i c i s m o f t h e P l a n n i n g Method Page 74 Summary Page 77 The R o l e of V e t o Power Page 79 The Compromise A s p e c t o f D e c i s i o n Outcomes Page 82 The B a l a n c e of D e c i s i o n Making Over Time Page 86 Summary Page 92 X CHAPTER OUTLINE Page I I I CHAPTER 5: THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING The M o d e l ' s U s e f u l l n e s s as a Case Study Framework Page 95 The H y p o t h e s e s on t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f I s s u e Page 95 The H y p o t h e s e s on P l a n n i n g and I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s Page 98 A d d i t i o n a l R e l e v a n t F a c t o r s i n t h e Model Page 102 The P l a n n i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e C h i l l i w a c k Case Study Page 105 The N a t u r e o f D e c i s i o n Making Page 105 P l a n n i n g S k i l l s R e q u i r e d i n D e c i s i o n M a king P r o c e s s e s Page 109 REFERENCES Page 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 121 1 CHAPTER 1 THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DECISION MAKING - 2 -INTRODUCTION Over the p a s t two d e c a d e s , i t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t s o c i e t y has been p l a n n i n g too much and e x p e r i e n c -i n g f a r t o o l i t t l e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p l a n s ! I n c a l c u l a b e h o u r s of t i m e and sums of money have been wasted on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p l a n s and programmes t h a t have been h a l f - h e a r t e d l y f o l l o w e d by the p o l i t i c a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s empowered to e n a c t them, or w h i c h have e v e n t u a l l y been abandoned o r s h e l v e d upon c o m p l e t i o n . As w e l l , many p l a n s have f a i l e d to p r o d u c e the d e s i r e d end r e s u l t or have a c t u a l l y had p e r n i c i o u s e f f e c t s . When p l a n s have f a i l e d to be i m p l e m e n t e d , the blame has f r e q u e n t l y been put on t h e p l a n n e r ' s i n a b i l i t y t o g e t t h r o u g h to a u t h o r i t i e s and to communicate p e r s u a s i v e l y 2 the v i r t u e s and a t t r a c t i o n s o f t h e i r p l a n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s p o s s i b l y the c a s e i n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e a l p r o b l e m may l a y e l s e w h e r e , s i n c e i t a p p e a r s t h a t even 3 some of t h e b e s t l a i d p l a n s a r e e a s i l y t h w a r t e d . The p r o b l e m seems t o l i e p a r t l y i n the m a t t e r o f governments l a c k i n g t h e w i l l to t a c k l e p r o b l e m s and to put i n t o e f f e c t the 4 knowledge and s o l u t i o n s t h a t a r e known. T h e r e a r e numerous complex p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n c r e a t i n g t h i s w i l l to i n t e r v e n e and t h e g e n e r a l i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s may be a t t r i b u t e d i n l a r g e measure t o t h e f a c t t h a t so l i t t l e i s known about t h e s e c o m p l i c a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s ? I f p l a n n i n g i s to be e f f e c t i v e , t h e n i t must be t h e p l a n n e r ' s - 3 -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e c o m p l e x i t i e s * and to h e l p c r e a t e i n government s y s t e m s , t h i s w i l l t o i n t e r v e n e . T h e r e i s a n o t h e r r e a s o n s e t f o r t h t o h e l p e x p l a i n why p l a n n i n g has been i n e f f e c t i v e and why p l a n s have f a i l e d t o be i m p l e m e n t e d . T h i s r e l a t e s to t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e c l a s s i c a l d e c i s i o n m o d e l , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t p a r t s : l ) p r e p a r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s by p l a n n e r s ; 2) a d o p t i o n of one o f t h e s e p l a n s by d e c i d e r s ; 3 ) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e c h o s e n p l a n by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; and 4) r e c y c l i n g i n f o r m -a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the r e s u l t s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o p l a n n e r s who use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to r e v i s e t h e c u r r e n t p l a n ^ John F r i e d m a n n p o i n t s out t h a t i n t h i s c l a s s i c a l m odel, p l a n s a r e made, but t h e d e c i d e r s p r o c e e d t o a c t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t i n a c c o r d w i t h any o f t h e p l a n s p r o p o s e d . T h e r e f o r e , he p r o p o s e s t h a t p l a n n i n g must move c l o s e r t o , and a c t u a l l y f u s e w i t h , a c t i o n . In o t h e r words, p l a n n e r s must n o t s i m p l y p r o d u c e p l a n s , w h i c h a r e r e a l l y j u s t i n s t r u m e n t s of a c t i o n , but r a t h e r p l a n n i n g must become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f an o r g a n i z -a t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n making and m a n a g e r i a l p r o c e s s e s , f r o m th e e a r l y c r e a t i o n of a g e n e r a l framework o f a c t i o n , t h r o u g h to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t o r programme. The d e i c i s o n making p r o c e s s has been c a l l e d t h e p i v o t a l e l e m e n t l i n k i n g knowledge and a c t i o n i n any s o c i a l system? As a r e s u l t , i t i s a key d i m e n s i o n i n p r o b l e m r e s o l u t i o n and one w h i c h f a c e s t h e p l a n n e r c o n t i n u a l l y . U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s , t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d be a p r i m e c o n c e r n o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n i f i t e x p e c t s t o e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h and a s s i s t i n t h e s o l v i n g of s o c i e t y ' s i l l s . - 4 -THE STUDY OF COMMUNITY DECISION MAKING: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: The s t u d y o f community d e c i s i o n making h a s , i n t h e p a s t , c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t o f 'power'. I n t h i s c o n t e x t , power can be c o n c e i v e d as a word w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e a c t s of i n d i v i d u a l s g o i n g about t h e b u s i n e s s o f t r y i n g t o move o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s to a c t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s g or t o o r g a n i c or i n o r g a n i c t h i n g s . These s t u d i e s o f community power have been c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e f i e l d s o f p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , s o c i o l o g y , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , p s y c h o l o g y . The p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s have had two b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s on the m a t t e r of community d e c i s i o n making, i n t h a t t h e r e has been an ' e l i t i s t ' p h i l o s o p h y and a ' p l u r a l i s t i c ' v i e w p o i n t . The e l i t i s t p h i l o s o p h y c o n t e n d s t h a t community d e c i s i o n making i s c a r r i e d o ut by a p o w e r f u l e l i t e group o f p e o p l e who p o s s e s s t h e w e a l t h , s o c i a l c l a s s , a n d p r e s t i g e i n a community's s o c i a l m i l i e u . The p l u r a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e f u t e s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a r u l i n g e l i t e o r c l a s s and, i n s t e a d , s e e s a s y s t e m where power i s s h a r e d among s e v e r a l c o m p e t i n g 9 g r o u p s . Each group w i l l have a c c e s s t o a d i f f e r e n t combin-a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s } " and w i l l have some v o i c e i n s h a p i n g s o c i a l l y b i n d i n g decisions!''" B o t h t h e e l i t i s t s and t h e p l u r a l i s t s a r g u e t h e i r c a s e f r o m what can be c o n s i d e r e d a ' s t r u c t u r a l i s t ' p o s i t i o n ; t h a t i s , t h e y a r g u e t h a t community d e c i s i o n making i s d e t e r m i n e d by an e n v i r o n m e n t a l -5-s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s made up o f s u c h f e a t u r e s as i n s t i t u t i o n s , l a w s , c l a s s l e v e l s , p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s and t h e l i k e . To u n c o v e r t h e shape and f o r m o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s t o l e a r n 12 what g o v e r n s community p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o r . The o t h e r p o s i t i o n on t h e make-up of community d e c i s i o n making i s a ' p r o c e s s ' a p p r o a c h w h i c h v i e w s s t r u c -t u r a l f e a t u r e s as m e r e l y a s t a g e f o r d e c i s i o n making e p i s o d e s . H e r e , r e l e v a n t a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n may be c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h t h e y a r e o p e r a t i n g , however, t h e y a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d by i t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , f i n a n c i a l w e a l t h and the i n f o r m a l s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o w h i c h t h e y have a c c e s s can o f t e n overcome any l i m i t a t i o n s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e n o r m a l l y imposes on t h e r o l e s o r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s t h e y p l a y . S o c i o l o g i s t s have p l a y e d as i m p o r t a n t a r o l e i n t h e s t u d y o f community power as p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s and t h e y have 13 g e n e r a l l y f a v o r e d t h e e l i t i s t v i e w . T h e i r v i e w i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to as s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r y w h i c h p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e p a t t e r n of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n a community i s t h e p r i n c i p a l , i f n o t t h e o n l y , d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e p a t t e r n o f 14 power. S t r a t i f i c a t i o n s t u d i e s a s s e r t t h a t a s i n g l e 'power e l i t e ' o f u p p e r c l a s s c i t i z e n s r u l e s community l i f e and t h a t p o l i t i c a l and c i v i c l e a d e r s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h i s - 6 -g r o u p , w h i c h r u l e s i n i t s own i t e r e s t s . I t can r e a d i l y be se e n why t h e p l u r a l i s t v i e w i s t h e p o l a r o p p o s i t e o f t h e e l i t i s t p o s i t i o n , i n t h a t power i s n o t s t a t i c and r o o t e d i n one e l i t e group b ut i s a v a r i a b l e t h a t s h i f t s w i t h t i m e and i s s h a r e d among d i f f e r e n t community gro u p s as t h e y compete f o r t h e v a r i o u s community r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e a r e many c l e a v a g e s among t h e s e p l u r a l g r o u p s and no one group c an be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e ' p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' . T h i s v i e w a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t w e a l t h , s t a t u s and a u t h o r i t y may i n f l u e n c e r o l e s and p o s i t i o n s of a c t o r s , however, t h e s e r o l e s and p o s i t i o n s may s h i f t w i t h the b a l a n c e of power among t h e grou p s as each i s c o n s t r a i n e d o r c o n s t r a i n s t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f m u t u a l group a d j u s t m e n t ^ In e f f e c t , t h e p l u r a l i s t v i e w assumes a much g r e a t e r d e g r e e of e q u a l i t y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power and a d i s p e r s e d , f r a g m e n t e d , d e c i s i o n making - 1 6 e n v i r o n m e n t . P s y c h o l o g i s t s ' s t u d i e s i n community d e c i s i o n making can r e a l l y be i d e n t i f i e d as ' p r o c e s s ' a p p r o a c h e s t o power s t u d i e s and t h i s v i e w has a l s o been a d o p t e d by b o t h p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s h t s . To c l a r i f y a l l t h e s e v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s , i t can be s a i d t h a t e l i t i s t and p l u r a l i s t p h i l o s o p h i e s a r g u e f r o m a s t r u c t u r a l i s t p o s i t i o n and t h e a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w i s l a b e l l e d a p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h t o d e c i s i o n m aking. T h i s p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h can c o n c e i v a b l y be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e community w h i c h has been u s e d by some i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s . 7 -P s y c h o l o g y ' s i n t e r e s t i n community d e c i s i o n making has been l e s s p r o m i n e n t t h a n t h a t o f t h e o t h e r two d i s c i p l i n e s and has e v o l v e d f r o m i n t e r e s t i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up o f i n f l u e n t i a l o r i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s . However, t h i s i n t e r e s t has t e n d e d to c e n t e r on n a t i o n a l l y p r o m i n e n t a c t o r s r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e a t t h e l o c a l community l e v e l ^ Beyond t h i s k i n d o f p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e a p p r o a c h , t h e r e i s an a r e a o f p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h can c o n t r i b u t e much t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g community d e c i s i o n making. T h i s i s t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f group b e h a v i o r , w h i c h can p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d i f f e r e n t forms o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t can be used i n any s o c i a l s e t t i n g . The p r o s p e c t of b e i n g a b l e t o m o d i f y b e h a v i o r , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s i n i n d i v i d u a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t i v i t e s , l e n d s t h e o r e t i c a l s u p p o r t to t h e p r o s p e c t of managing l a r g e r e n t i t i e s i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t u r b a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s towards e x p l i c i t goals'!"^ E s p e c i a l l y i n t h e v a s t amount of p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h has d e s c r i b e d f r o m a v a r i e t y o f t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s how p o l i t i c a l s y s t ems work, t h e r e has t e n d e d t o be a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i s p u t e s , r a t h e r t h a n on a t t e m p t s t o s e t f o r t h f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g community d e c i s i o n b e h a v i o r . However, t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s o f 1 c o l l e c t i v e 1 a c t i o n (as opposed to ' i n d i v i d u a l ' d e c i s i o n b e h a v i o r ) , b a s e d on t h e c o n t r a s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f e l i t i s m or s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and p l u r a l i s m , formed t h e b a s i s -8-from w h i c h c o n t e m p o r a r y b e h a v i o r a l models o f d e c i s i o n b e h a v i o r have grown. ' B e h a v i o r a l m o d e l s ' seek t o d u p l i c a t e a c t u a l r e a l - w o r l d d e c i s i o n m a k i ng, to d e s c r i b e t h e s e a c t i o n s i n models of some t y p e , and to p r e d i c t outcomes 19 i n f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s . They a r e i n c o n t r a s t to ' n o r m a t i v e m o d e l s ' w h i c h can be v i e w e d as s t a t e m e n t s o f how one s h o u l d a c t or d e c i d e i n v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and w h i c h employ p r e s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s , d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a , axioms f o r b e h a v i o r and o t h e r components of d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s . These n o r m a t i v e m o d e l s , w h i c h s p e c i f y d e s i r e a b l e forms o f d e c i s i o n b e h a v i o r b e f o r e h a n d , can be somewhat a r t i f i c i a l u n l e s s t h e r p r e s c r i p t i o n s c l o s e l y d u p l i c a t e d e c i s i o n s i t u a t -20 i o n s i n t h e r e a l w o r l d . One o f t h e e a r l i e r b e h a v i o r a l models o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n has d e s c r i b e d t h e r e a l w o r l d p o l i c y making p r o c e s s as one w h i c h i s i n c r e m e n t a l , i n t h a t the community a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e i t s c u r r e n t i l l s and p o s s i b l e r e m e d i e s and t h e n a t t a c k s t h e p r o b l e m i n s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o v e r t i m e . In t h i s c a s e , t h e a n a l y s i s i s always p a r t i a l and no a t t e m p t i s made a t s y n o p t i c or s o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f a l l p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m o r t h e i r h a r d - t o - m e a s u r e s p i l l - o v e r 21 e f f e c t s . T h i s i s t h e ' d i s j o i n t e d i n c r e m e n t a l i s t ' s t r a t e g y o f C h a r l e s L i n d b l o m and D a v i d B r a y b r o o k e and, to some e x t e n t , i t d e s c r i b e s t h e r e a l w o r l d s i t u a t i o n , where c o m m u n i t i e s move away from c r i s e s i n c r e m e n t a l l y , r a t h e r t h a n move -9-p u r p o s e f u l l y toward d e s i r e d t a r g e t s . However, t h i s model does not c o m p l e t e l y d e s c r i b e r e a l w o r l d b e h a v i o r , s i n c e t h e r e have been d e c i s i o n s made by governments and i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h have not been i n c r e m e n t a l , r e m e d i a l or s e r i a l , b u t 22 r a t h e r have f o c u s e d on p l a n n e d p a r a m e t r i c change. T h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o the s t u d y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p o l i c y making p r o c e s s e s and t h e more s p e c -i f i c m a t t e r of community d e c i s i o n making. The r e c e n t work of Roy Burke and James Heaney p r o v i d e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o v e r -v i e w of the d i v e r s e c o n c e p t u a l frameworks of the numerous 2 3 t h e o r i e s and models t h a t e x i s t . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e s on one r e c e n t b e h a v i o r a l model t h a t has been d e v e l o p e d by R i c h a r d B o l a n and Ronald N u t t a l l , w h o have drawn on t h e i r own works and t h a t of o t h e r t h e o r i s t s i n t h e f i e l d of d e c i s i o n making t h e o r y . F o r example, from F l o y d H u n t e r , R o b e r t D a h l and Edward B a n f i e l d , t h e y f o c u s on t h e ' s t r u c t u r e of i n f l u e n c e ' c o n c e p t w h i c h i s c o m p r i s e d o f t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e ( t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a community, t h e i r g o a l s and the l e g a l framework w h i c h c i r c u m s c r i b e s t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) and t h e i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e of i n f l u e n c e ( o r t h e b e h a v i o r of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e and t h e a c t i o n s t h e y t a k e i n o r d e r t h a t the e l a b o r a t e c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s of f o r m a l d e c e n t r a l -24 i z a t i o n can be overcome by i n f o r m a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e y draw from R o b e r t H o o v e r ' s s t u d y of h i s t o r i c a l s o c i a l movement and change, from John F r i e d m a n n ' s -10-a n a l y s i s o f v a r y i n g p l a n n i n g s t y l e s , f r o m B r a y b r o o k e and L i n d b l o m ' s i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h , b a s e d on t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s o f r a t i o n a l i t y i n p u b l i c p o l i c y making and from numerous o t h e r t h e o r i s t s who have p r o b e d i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . B e f o r e d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r m o d e l, a l o o k w i l l be t a k e n a t the n a t u r e o f p o l i c y making and d e c i s i o n b e h a v i o r , as d e s c r i b e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y by D e n n i s R o n d i n e l l i i n a f a i r l y r e c e n t p a p e r t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f managing u r b a n change. THE NATURE OF URBAN POLICY PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING D e n n i s R o n d i n e l l i d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e o f p o l i c y making and a l s o s u g g e s t s new a p p r o a c h e s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r p l a n n e r s i f t h e y a r e to e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h d e c i s i o n making e p i s o d e s and manage u r b a n change. He e m p h a s i z e s t h e p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s where p o l i c i e s a r e made t h r o u g h t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t among g r o u p s w i t h 2 5 v a r y i n g v a l u e s and g o a l s . In t h i s p r o c e s s , g r o u p s t h a t s t a n d to g a i n o r l o s e f r o m t h e enactment o f p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c i e s e l i c i t r e s p o n s e s from each o t h e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r d i v e r g e n t v a l u e s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r a t i o n a l i t y , c r i t e r i a , ends and means. T h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , the d e c i s i o n s and p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p o l i c y making a r e r a t i f i e d , a l t e r e d , compromised, or r e j e c t e d . The grou p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s would be p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s -11-w h i c h may have s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l , i n f o r m a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s and i n f l u e n c e r e s o u r c e s . E s s e n t i a l l y , e ach group p u r s u e s i t s own p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s and i t s own c o n c e p t i o n of what i s t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . W i t h each group f o l l o w i n g i t s own i n t e r e s t s , t h e d i f f -i c u l t y a r i s e s i n d e f i n i n g t h e p r o b l e m c o n c i s e l y , b o t h b e c a u s e p o l i c y p r o b l e m s a r e o f t e n complex to b e g i n w i t h and b e c a u s e each group t e n d s to p l a c e a d i f f e r e n t e mphasis on v a r y i n g components of t h e p r o b l e m . In t h i s way, each group t e n d s to d e f i n e t h e whole p r o b l e m i n terms of a p a r t and t h e n 2 6 m o b i l i z e s s u p p o r t f o r i t s own d e f i n i t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h no one p e r c e p t i o n o f a s o c i a l p r o b l e m i s i n h e r e n t l y more c o r r e c t t h a n any o t h e r , i t f a l l s on t h e p l a n n e r t o choose among them i n d e c i d i n g how p r e c i s e l y or b r o a d l y t o d e f i n e t h e p r o b l e m , a c c o r d i n g to T i m o t h y C a r t w r i g h t who c o n t e n d s t h a t some p e r c e p t i o n s o f a p r o b l e m can be more u s e f u l t h a n o t h e r s 27 f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . T h i s i s so b e c a u s e , f i r s t l y , t h e way i n w h i c h a p r o b l e m i s p e r c e i v e d d e t e r m i n e s t h e r a n g e of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to t h a t p r o b l e m and, s e c o n d l y , t h e way i n w h i c h a p r o b l e m i s p e r c e i v e d d e t e r m i n e s t h e k i n d o f s t r a t e g y t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i t s s o l u t i o n . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e e f f e c t i v e p l a n n e r c a p i t a l i z e s on w h a t e v e r d i s c r e t i o n he may have i n d e f i n i n g t h e p r o b l e m he i s t o h e l p s o l v e . -12-O t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s i t c s of d e c i s i o n making i n c l u d e t h e f a c t t h a t p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d , w i t h t h e b e s t c h o i c e b e i n g made a f t e r t h e d e l i b -e r a t e a n a l y s i s of t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . What a c t u a l l y happens i s t h a t t h e f i n a l p o l i c y i s d e r i v e d o ut o f compromises amongst the v a r i o u s g r o u p s ' d e s i r e d c o u r s e s of a c t i o n and t h e c h o s e n a l t e r n a t i v e ( s ) w i l l depend i n p a r t on w h i c h g r o u p s 29 a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s and on t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . In t h e p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g f i n a l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s , R o n d i n e l l i p o i n t s out t h a t n ot o n l y do the p o l i c y making p a r t i c i p a n t s have l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y to e v a l u a t e t h e o p t i o n s c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y , b u t a l s o , when t h e y a n a l y z e t h e f a c t s , i n f o r m a t i o n and s t a t i s t i c s , t h e y do i t s u b j e c t i v e l y , b a s e d on t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and i d e o l o g i c a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m i n p o l i c y making i s t h e l o n g l e a d and l a g t i m e s between t h e moment when t h e p u b l i c p e r c e i v e s t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o b l e m n e e d i n g r e c t i f y i n g and the f i n a l s t a g e when p o l i t i c i a n s and c i v i c l e a d e r s implement s o l u t i o n s . P o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s p r e c e d i n g p r o g ram i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c an t a k e y e a r s and even d e c a d e s o f d e b a t e and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n b e f o r e f i n a l p o l i c i e s a r e d e v e l o p e d . Even when a s o l u t i o n i s i m p l e m e n t e d , i n many c a s e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p o l i c y i s e f f e c t i v e i n c o r r e c t i n g t h e 30 c o n d i t i o n i t was d e s i g n e d to a m e l i o r a t e . R o n d i n e l l i ' s f i n a l p r o p o s i t o n on t h e n a t u r e of community -13-d e c i s i o n making i s t h a t p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out under c o n d i t i o n s of u n c e r t a i n t y , r i s k , i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n and p a r t i a l i g n o r a n c e of the s i t u a t i o n i n wh i c h p r o b l e m s e v o l v e , the r e s o u r c e s o f i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s and t h e e f f e c t i v e -n e s s of p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have done l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n l e g i s l a t o r s i n c o m p r e h e n s i v e p o l i c y a n a l y s i s . A MODEL OF COMMUNITY DECISION MAKING B o l a n and N u t t a l l have d e v e l o p e d a model o f community d e c i s i o n making t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e e l e m e n t s o f b o t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t and p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h e s to t h e community. As w e l l , c o m b i n a t i o n s of b o t h e l i t i s m and p l u r a l i s m can be accommodated, a c c o r d i n g to t h e a u t h o r s . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s v i e w t h e o v e r a l l p r o c e s s of g o v e r n i n g and i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s , l o o k i n g a t i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s , the i s s u e i t s e l f and t h e b r o a d e r s o c i e t a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the model can be a p p l i e d i n c o m m u n i t i e s o f a l l s i z e s , a l t h o u g h t h e c a s e s t u d i e s t h e y used were c e n t e r e d i n l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . They d e l i b -e r a t e l y s o u g h t out t h e s e l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s where t h e y c o u l d o b s e r v e the f u l l r a n g e of complex and d i v e r s e p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o r , u n l i k e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h w h i c h o f t e n t e n d e d to d w e l l on s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s , where i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s c o u l d be more r e a d i l y o b s e r v e d . -14-B o l a n and N u t t a l l b r e a k down t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t o c c u r i n community d e c i s i o n making i n t o f o u r e l e m e n t s , each of w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e f i n a l outcome i n some manner. These e l e m e n t s a r e : 1) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s ; 2) t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t s u r r o u n d s t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s ; 3) t h e k i n d o f p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a r e d e v e l o p e d to d e a l w i t h th e i s s u e ; and 4) t h e n a t u r e or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p u b l i c i s s u e a t q u e s t i o n . T h e i r q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s was c e n t e r e d on t h e f i r s t two o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n t h e i r s t u d y o f u r b a n e x p r e s s w a y s i n B o s t o n and New Y o r k , of h i g h s c h o o l r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n P i t t s b u r g h and f i n a l l y , of the c i t y of B o s t o n ' s e f f o r t to d e v e l o p a new h o s p i t a l . The l a s t two e l e m e n t s o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h were h e l d c o n s t a n t , t h a t i s , t h e n a t u r e or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p u b l i c i s s u e s and t h e k i n d of p l a n n i n g and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s employed i n t h e i s s u e . They d e v e l o p e d a number of h y p o t h e s e s on a l l o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s w h i c h p u r p o r t t o . e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h e l e m e n t and t h e f i n a l outcome of t h e i s s u e s ' d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . I t i s t h e i n t e n t of t h e p r e s e n t c a s e s t u d y t o f o c u s on t h e s e l a s t two e l e m e n t s i n t h e model as a means of u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a community d e c i s i o n making e p i s o d e t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f C h i l l i w a c k , l o c a t e d a t t h e e a s t e r n end of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s F r a s e r V a l l e y . S i n c e i t i s o f p r i m e c o n c e r n to t h e p l a n n e r t o u n d e r s t a n d and d e a l w i t h -15-p l a n n l n g and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and b e c a u s e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e a t C h i l l i w a c k was c l e a r l y an i m p o r t a n t component i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , th e p r e s e n t c a s e s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h e s e two e l e m e n t s of the B o l a n and N u t t a l l m odel. The i s s u e a t C h i l l i w a c k has been c e n t e r e d a r o u n d the d e v e l opment o f a community p l a n f o r t h e d i s t r i c t and was t o u c h e d o f f i n the e a r l y 1970's by the c r e a t i o n of t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e s (A.L.R.) i n t h e p r o v i n c e . Of p r i m a r y c o n c e r n to t h e p r e s e n t e x a m i n a t i o n i s to d i s c o v e r how t h e p l a n n i n g and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s ( B o l a n and N u t t a l l ' s V a r i a b l e Set 3) and t h e n a t u r e of t h e i s s u e ( V a r i a b l e Set 4) a f f e c t e d t h e f i n a l outcome of t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . I t i s seen t h a t t h e s e two e l e m e n t s , out o f the f o u r , a r e v a r i a b l e s t h a t p l a n n e r s may be a b l e to i n f l u e n c e more r e a d i l y i n t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n s t h a n e i t h e r the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of the a c t o r s o r t h e i r r o l e s i n t h e p o l i c y making p r o c e s s or the n a t u r e of the d e c i s i o n f i e l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e r e f o r e , e x a m i n i n g the i s s u e and t h e p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s a p p e a r s to be more r e l e v a n t to t h i s s t u d y t h a n f o c u s i n g on the r o l e s or the d e c i s i o n e n v i r o n m e n t . Where t h e s e l a t t e r two V a r i a b l e S e t s were deemed to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t i n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e , t h e y were u s e d . The n e x t s e c t i o n l o o k s a t t h e model's p o s t u l a t e s and some a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s of t h e model w h i c h were u s e f u l i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e n a t u r e of t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e s t u d y . -16-THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE BOLAN AND NUTTALL MODEL V a r i a b l e Set 3 : P l a n n i n g and I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s The model p r o p o s e s t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e manner and d e g r e e t o w h i c h a p u b l i c i s s u e i s seen and u n d e r s t o o d w i l l i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n outcome. The amount of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d , the way i t i s i n t r o d u c e d and t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n p r e s e n t i n g i t , a l l a f f e c t t h e d e c i s i o n outcomes. The h y p o t h e s e s , w h i c h a r e o u t l i n e d below, have been p a r a p h r a s e d f r o m t h e B o l a n and N u t t a l l model and s e t out i n t h e p r e s e n t manner f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e t h e p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y h y p o t h e s e s : 1 . ' P l a n n i n g p o s i t i o n ' - i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t where p l a n n i n g i s a t t a c h e d to a power c e n t r e ( r a t h e r t h a n t o i n d e p e n d e n t and a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g b o d i e s ) , i t w i l l be more i n f l u e n t i a l i n g u i d i n g p u b l i c d e c i s i o n m aking. 2. ' P l a n n i n g method' - i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t where p r o b l e m s o l v i n g i s of an i n c r e m e n t a l o r o p p o r t u n i s t i c n a t u r e ( r a t h e r t h a n o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a s s i c a l m e t h o d ) , i t i s more l i k e l y to g u i d e or d i r e c t p u b l i c a c t i o n . 3 . ' P l a n n i n g t y p e ' - i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t where p l a n n i n g d e a l s w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e , f o c u s e s on means and d e a l s w i t h s e l e c t i v e and n a r r o w l y s t r a t e g i c i n f o r m a t i o n ( r a t h e r t h a n l o o k i n g to a l o n g - t e r m t i m e h o r i z o n , b e i n g g o a l o r i e n t e d and f o c u s i n g on c o m p r e h e n s i v e and complex i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m s ) , i t i s more l i k e l y t o g u i d e a c t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a r e t h e a c t i o n o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s ' h y p o t h e s e s : 1 . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h l i t t l e d i s t u r b t h e s t a t u s quo a r e more l i k e l y t o be a d o p t e d by a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m t h a n a r e a c t i o n s d e s i g n e d to b r i n g a bout s o c i a l change by r e d i s t r i b u t i n g r e s o u r c e s and c h a n g i n g e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s ( i . e . r e a l l o c a t i n g w e a l t h o r p o w e r ) . -17-2 . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d t o change i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t e n d more toward a c t i o n t h a n programmes t h a t a t t e m p t m a s s i v e changes i n a g g r e g a t e s o c i e t a l b e h a v i o r . In e s s e n c e , t h e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s a t work w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s a r e : - e f f o r t s t o r e a l l o c a t e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s e f f o r t s t o change i n d i v i d u a l or s o c i e t a l b e h a v i o r . - e f f o r t s to change i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n z i a t i o n s V a r i a b l e Set 4: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P u b l i c I s s u e s The model p o s t u l a t e s t h a t g e n e r a l l y , p o s i t i v e a c t i o n can be e x p e c t e d where p r o p o s a l s a r e e a s i l y p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s and a r e e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y and g e n e r a l l y l i e w i t h i n a s o c i a l v a l u e or p r e f e r e n c e f i e l d . The s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s t h a t d e a l w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i s s u e a r e : 1. I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t ( i . e - b a s i c v a l u e s ) o f a p r o p o s a l f o r change does n o t c r e a t e a l o t o f c o n f l i c t by c l a s h i n g w i t h w i d e l y - h e l d v a l u e s , t h e r e w i l l be a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y toward p o s i t i v e a c t i o n ; but on t h e o t h e r hand, s h o u l d a p r o p o s a l s e r i o u s l y c o n f l i c t w i t h w i d e l y h e l d v a l u e s , t h e n t h e r e w i l l be a t e n d e n c y t o r e j e c t i t . 2 . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p r o p o s a l s t h a t i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i v e l y few p e o p l e i n a manner o f l i m i t e d i n t e n s i t y and w i t h l i m i t e d b e n e f i t s a r e more l i k e l y to be a c c e p t e d ; however, p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t i n g a l o t o f p e o p l e w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l measure o f i n t e n s i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h c o s t s and p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s a r e u s u a l l y r e j e c t e d . 3. I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p r o p o s a l s w h i c h a r e f l e x i b l e and r e v e r s i b l e and can be changed a t a l a t e r t i m e , i f p r o v e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r i n need o f m o d i f i c a t i o n , a r e more l i k e l y t o be a c c e p t e d ; t h a n p r o p o s a l s t h a t a r e i r r e v e r s i b l e o r i n f l e x i b l e o v e r t i m e ( e . g . u r b a n e x p r e s s w a y s as o p p o s e d t o s o c i a l w e l f a r e programmes.) - 1 8 -4 . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t programmes t h a t a r e to be c a r r i e d out t h r o u g h a s i n g l e agency or r e l a t i v e l y few i n d i v i d u a l s and w h i c h e n t a i l few e x t e r n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s a r e more l i k e l y to be a d o p t e d t h a n a r e p r o p o s a l s i n v o l v i n g much c o o r d i n a t i o n among a l a r g e and d i s p e r s e d number of autonomous g r o u p s i n o r d e r t o c a r r y them out - t h i s i s l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e u n c e r t -a i n t y t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l w i l l a c t u a l l y be c a r r i e d out as p r o p o s e d . 5 . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p r o p o s a l s w h i c h a r e e a s i l y p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s and w h i c h have m i n i m a l r i s k s , w i l l have p o s i t i v e d e c i s i o n s r e a c h e d on them p r o v i d i n g o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e f a v o r a b l e a l s o . Where p r o p o s a l s have h i g h r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n c o n s e q u e n c e s , p o l i t i c a l s ystems a r e more l i k e l y to h e s i t a t e to a c t . 6 . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t where an i s s u e can be c l e a r l y communicated and s u b s e q u e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e a c t o r s who w i l l d e a l w i t h i t , i t w i l l be more l i k e l y to be a c t e d upon; on t h e o t h e r hand, p r o p o s a l s and i s s u e s w h i c h ar e a b s t r a c t and r e q u i r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d powers of c o n c e p t u a l r e a s o n i n g a r e more l i k e l y to be r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t communicated w e l l . T h e r e a r e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e model w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t to u n d e r s t a n d i n g d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s and the most i m p o r t a n t to t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n c l u d e the d i m e n s i o n of time and the number and n a t u r e o f t h e d e c i s i o n making gr o u p s t h a t a c t i n an i s s u e . T h i s l a t t e r d i m e n s i o n s d e a l s w i t h the f a c t t h a t f o r any p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e t h e r e may be more t h a n one group of d e c i s i o n makers a c t i n g on t h e m a t t e r and t h e s e g r o u p s a r e not always l o c a t e d j u s t w i t h i n the community. F o r complex i s s u e s , t h e r e may be any number of n e t w o r k s of g r o u p s w h i c h o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f each o t h e r and make d e c i s i o n s on the i s s u e or p a r t s o f i t . As a r e s u l t , o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s may, a t t i m e s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t an i s s u e i n a manner n o t a n t i c i p a t e d or d e s i r e d by l o c a l d e c i s i o n makers. -19-The t i m e d i m e n s i o n i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d as a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . S i n c e t h e p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t make up d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e l o n g l e a d and l a g t i m e s , many changes can o c c u r o v e r t h e p o l i c y making p e r i o d i n knowledge r e l e v a n t to t h e i s s u e ' s r e s o l u t i o n , i n t h e g o a l s b e i n g a d v o c a t e d , i n the n a t u r e o f the a c t o r s o r group s i n v o l v e d , and i n any o t h e r number of- a r e a s t h a t can a f f e c t an i s s u e ' s f i n a l outcome. The model a l s o f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on t h e 'dependent v a r i a b l e ' , w h i c h i s the d e c i s i o n outcome. Of c o n c e r n to B o l a n and N u t t a l l i s the f a c t t h a t many community s t u d i e s see d e c i s i o n outcomes as a l l - o r - n o t h i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s . In o t h e r words, e i t h e r a p r o p o s a l was a c c e p t e d or r e j e c t e d . However, s i n c e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e r e a c h e d l a r g e l y t h r o u g h b a r g a i n i n g and n e g o t -i a t i o n , t h e y a r e u s u a l l y compromises. The model, t h e r e f o r e , s e e s b o t h means and g o a l s , w h i c h a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s of any p l a n , as l y i n g a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m . T h i s c o n t i n u o u s s c a l e a l l o w s the c h a r t i n g of the o r i g i n a l g o a l s or means i n an i s s u e i n r e l a t i o n to t h e f i n a l g o a l s or means and r a n g e s from t h e i r c o m p l e t e a c c e p t a n c e a t one extreme t o t h e i r c o m p l e t e r e j e c t i o n a t the o t h e r end. O r i g i n a l g o a l s and t h e i r means can o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f each o t h e r o v e r t h e c o u r s e of an i s s u e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t a g o a l may be u l t i m a t e l y r e t a i n e d , but i t s means i s r e j e c t e d . I t can a l s o work t h e o t h e r way, where an o r i g i n a l g o a l i s changed o r r e d e f i n e d b u t the o r i g i n a l means i s s t i l l u s e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e model a s s i s t s i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t g o a l s and means go t h r o u g h p e r i o d s of - 2 0 -c l a r i t y and a m b i g u i t y and t h a t the f i n a l outcome may o c c u r when e i t h e r o r b o t h o f them a r e c l e a r , m e r e l y u n s e t t l e d , o r c o m p l e t e l y ambiguous. I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o examine t h e s e a s p e c t s of t h e model to a s s i s t i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e s e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . In a d d i t i o n , the model's two V a r i a b l e S e t s w i l l be used as a framework f o r d e t e r m i n i n g how the n a t u r e of the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e and how t h e p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s used t o s o l v e the community's p r o b l e m s a f f e c t e d the outcome of t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . 21 CHAPTER I I THE CASE STUDY: THE DISTRICT OF CHILLIWACK AND A COMMUNITY PLAN - 2 2 -ESTABLISHING THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE IN CHILLIWACK The i s s u e s i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e s t u d y e v o l v e d out o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e by the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a government. The g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e f o r s e t t i n g up t h e s e r e s e r v e s i n v o l v e d c o - o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t s by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l D epartment of A g r i c u l t u r e , and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission. I t was the i n t e n t of t h e l e g i s l a t o r s e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e s e r v e s t h a t i n i t i a l l y each m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d to r e t a i n a f i v e y e a r s u p p l y o f l a n d out o f the A.L.R., to a l l o w f o r immediate growth i n i t s ' u r b a n a r e a . The manner i n w h i c h t h e A.L.R. b o u n d a r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n C h i l l i w a c k o c c u r r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way. The F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (F.C.R.D.), i n which C h i l l i w a c k was s i t u a t e d , r e c e i v e d from t h e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e an i n i t i a l d r a f t p r o p o s a l of the A.L.R. b o u n d a r i e s i n t h e i r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The F.C.R.D. was s u p p o s e d to make a d j u s t -ments to t h i s p l a n , i f n e c e s s a r y , b a s e d on t h e i r a r e a ' s needs and t h e n s u b m i t t h i s m o d i f i e d p l a n to t h e Land Commission f o r i t s a p p r o v a l . The F.C.R.D. a l l o w e d C h i l l i w a c k the c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m to d e f i n e t h e A.L.R. w i t h i n i t s m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s , w h i l e i t l o o k e d a f t e r a l l o t h e r a r e a s of t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The A.L.R. p l a n r e s u l t i n g f r o m the combined e f f o r t s o f the F.C.R.D. and C h i l l i w a c k went to t h e Land Commission, where a d j u s t m e n t s were made, and t h e n on to t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and -23-Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r f u r t h e r p e r u s a l . T h i s d e p a r t m e n t i n s u r e d t h e A.L.R. p l a n s d i d n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e immediate o b j e c t i v e s o f o t h e r government r e s o u r c e d e p a r t m e n t s , f o r i n s t a n c e w i t h t h e c o n c e r n s o f the F o r e s t r y D e p a r t m e n t . F i n a l l y , t h e p l a n r e c e i v e d t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t ' s E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee (E.L.U.C.) b e f o r e b e i n g r e t u r n e d t o t h e Land Commission where i t was o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as the l e g a l A.L.R. p l a n f o r t h e F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t A.L.R. p l a n was o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d December 16, 1973 and e s s e n t i a l l y f r o m t h a t t i m e up to the p r e s e n t the D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k has been s t r u g g l i n g to s o l v e a number of g r o w t h - r e l a t e d p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s i n t h e i r community. EARLY CONFLICTS OVER THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE BOUNDARY A f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ' s i n i t i a l A.L.R. p r o p o s a l , C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s i d e n t i f i e d t h i r t y - s i x a r e a s where the p r o p o s e d p l a n c o n f l i c t e d w i t h e i t h e r l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t committments o r w i t h t h e Lower M a i n l a n d O f f i c i a l 33 R e g i o n a l P l a n (L.M.O.R.P.) o b j e c t i v e s . The L.M.O.R.P. had been used by C h i l l i w a c k up to t h a t t i m e , t o g e t h e r w i t h C h i l l i w a c k ' s own z o n i n g b y l a w , as t h e community's means of d i r e c t i n g g r o w t h . -24-These t h i r t y - s i x c o n f l i c t a r e a s c o n s t i t u t e d a b o u t 2300 a c r e s and C h i l l i w a c k wanted a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2146 a c r e s o f t h i s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s and about 130 a c r e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s . The r e m a i n d e r was p l a n n e d f o r use e i t h e r as a w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n h a b i t a t o r f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . C h i l l i w a c k p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s f e l t t h a t t h e s e a r e a s were e s s e n t i a l f o r the p r o p e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f C h i l l i w a c k , t h e r e f o r e , when th e y s u b m i t t e d t h e i r A.L.R. p r o p o s a l t o t h e Land Commission (as p a r t of t h e F.D.R.D. p l a n ) t h e y r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e 2300 a c r e s be e x c l u d e d from t h e f i n a l A.L.R. p l a n . Most of t h e s e t h i r t y - s i x c o n f l i c t a r e a s had e i t h e r u r b a n or i n d u s t r i a l l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s u n d e r t h e C u r r e n t Stage Maps o f the L.M.O.R.P. T h i s document a l s o had Long Range Maps w h i c h showed t h e u r b a n a r e a s o f C h i l l i w a c k e x t e n d i n g f a r i n t o the d i s t r i c t ' s f a r m l a n d , but t h i s was o b v i o u s l y an u n a c c e p t a b l e growth p a t t e r n by Land Commission s t a n d a r d s . T h e r e f o r e , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e C u r r e n t S t a g e Maps, C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s f e l t i t was r e a s o n a b l e t h a t t h e s e t h i r t y - s i x a r e a s be a l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p f o r u r b a n u s e s . The Land Commission,however , had a d i f f e r e n t v i e w on the m a t t e r . T h e r e were o n l y s e v e n o f t h e s e t h i r t y - s i x a r e a s t h a t were d e v e l o p e d f o r u r b a n uses to t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y were l o s t to a g r i c u l t u r e f o r a l l t i m e . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g a r e a s , e i g h t were e n t i r e l y i n f a r m u s e , s e v e n t e e n were -25-p a r t l y b e i n g used f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , two were v a c a n t and t h e l a s t two were r u r a l - r e s i d e n t i a l h o l d i n g s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Land Commission to a l l o w the o u t r i g h t e x c l u s i o n o f t h e e n t i r e 2300 a c r e s , however, t h e y d i d a l l o w a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1287 . a c r e s to be e x c l u d e d and r e t a i n e d t h e r e m a i n i n g 1014 a c r e s . These t h r i t y - s i x a r e a s can r e a l l y be b r o k e n down i n t o one of t w e l v e g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l a r e a s o f C h i l l i w a c k . T a b l e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e t w e l v e a r e a s and s p e c i f i e s t h e number o f a c r e s under d i s p u t e i n each one. In o t h e r words, T a b l e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the number of a c r e s r e q u e s t e d f o r e x c l u s i o n by C h i l l i w a c k and the a c t u a l number t h a t t h e Land Commission e v e n t u a l l y e x c l u d e d . The f i r s t s i x a r e a s i n t h e T a b l e , t h a t i s , S a r d i s t h r o u g h to and i n c l u d i n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a r e a , c o n s t i t u t e t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t t h a t i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e 'urban c o r r i d o r '. I t i s t h e main expanse of u r b a n i z a t i o n w h i c h e x t e n d s from t h e b o u n d a r y of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r i n t h e n o r t h t h r o u g h t h e f o r m e r C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k and on down s o u t h i n c l u d i n g : t h e newly d e v e l o p e d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s a r o u n d t h e Vedder Road i n t e r c h a n g e ( c o n s i s -t i n g i n p a r t of the Cottonwood C o r n e r s S h o p p i n g M a l l ) ; t h e l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d u r b a n a r e a a t S a r d i s ; and f i n a l l y , V e d d e r C r o s s i n g , a t the s o u t h e r n end where the C a n a d i a n Armed F o r c e s base i s l o c a t e d . The t o t a l amount of l a n d C h i l l i w a c k wanted removed from t h e A.L.R. i n t h e u r b a n c o r r i d o r amounted t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l 2300 a c r e s , o r -26-TABLE 1 FARMLANDS DISPUTED BY CHILLIWACK IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE'S AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE PROPOSAL - A c r e s R e q u e s t e d f o r E x c l u s i o n by C h i l l i w a c k and A c r e s E x c l u d e d by t h e Commission ACRES REQUESTED ACRES REQUESTED FOR EXCLUSION BY THE BY CHILLIWACK LAND COMMISSION 1. SARDIS 246 112 2. CHILLIWACK MOUNTAIN 249 128 3. VEDDER ROAD INTERCHANGE 501 197 4. SOUTHERN URBANIZED AREA* 334 237 5. NORTHERN URBANIZED AREA** 23 23 6. FRASER RIVER AREA*** 46 15 7. MAJUBA HILL 333 333 8. RYDER LAKE AREA 234 0 9. PROMONTORY ROAD AREA 180 180 10. YARROW 52 29 11. GREENDALE 10 10 12. ROSEDALE 93 23 TOTAL ACRES 2,301 1,287 T h i s a r e a i s l o c a t e d N o r t h o f Freeway 401 and e x t e n d s N o r t h to the C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k ' s b o u n d a r y ; i t i n c l u d e s l a n d s n e a r t h e a i r p o r t . T h i s a r e a i s l o c a t e d N o r t h o f t h e C i t y o f C h i l l i w a c k ' s b o u n d a r y on F a i r f i e l d I s l a n d . *** T h i s a r e a i s l o c a t e d on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and needed f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e . -27-1399 a c r e s . The Land Commission e x c l u d e d 712 a c r e s f r o m the c o r r i d o r . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x a r e a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1, w h i c h i n c l u d e s a c r e a g e s i n the s o u t h e r n u p l a n d s of the d i s t r i c t ( i . e . Majuba H i l l , Ryder Lake and P r o m o n t o r y Road A r e a s ) , i n t h e two w e s t e r l y c o m m u n i t i e s o f G r e e n d a l e and Y arrow and i n t h e e a s t e r l y v i l l a g e o f R o s e d a l e , t h e r e had been 902 a c r e s r e q u e s t e d f o r r e l e a s e . T h e r e t h e Land Commission e x c l u d e d 575 a c r e s . When making i t s d e c i s i o n on t h e s e t h i r t y - s i x i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s o f l a n d , the Land Commission c o n s i d e r e d t h e a g r i c u l t -u r a l c a p a b i l i t y of the p r o p e r t i e s , the a d j a c e n t l a n d use p a t t e r n s and the e x i s t i n g u r b a n s e r v i c e s . Each a r e a was t r e a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and was n o t r e t a i n e d or e x c l u d e d s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s of the l a n d s ' c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t -u r a l p r o d u c t i o n n o r o n l y on i t s a f f i n i t y f o r u r b a n d e v e l o p -ment. F o r example, the Land Commission e x c l u d e d f r o m the n o r t h e r n u r b a n i z e d a r e a one h u n d r e d a c r e s o f f i n e C l a s s 2 l a n d , w h i c h i s the s e c o n d h i g h e s t r a t i n g g i v e n under t h e Canada-wide s y s t e m of c l a s s i f y i n g the c a p a b i l i t y of s o i l s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s Canada Land I n v e n t o r y System has sev e n c l a s s e s w i t h C l a s s 1 l a n d s b e i n g c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g v i r t u a l l y any common c u l t i v a t e d c r o p , from v e g e t a b l e s and b e r r i e s to g r a i n s and f o d d e r c r o p s , b e c a u s e of optimum s o i l and c l i m a t e c o m b i n a t i o n s . Each s u c c e s s i v e c l a s s i s o n l y a b l e to p r o d u c e a more r e s t r i c t e d r a n g e of c r o p s r i g h t t h r o u g h to C l a s s 7 l a n d s , w h i c h have no a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y and c o n s t i t u t e r o c k y l a n d forms or -28-s m a l l unmappable w a t e r b o d i e s . C l a s s 2 l a n d s s u c h as t h i s one h u n d r e d a c r e s would be c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g a wide r a n g e o f r e g i o n a l c r o p s , s i m i l a r t o C l a s s 1 l a n d s , o n l y w i t h some d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i e t y due to m i n o r r e s t r i c t i o n s of s o i l or c l i m a t e . A l t h o u g h t h i s was t e c h n i c a l l y some of t h e b e s t f a r m l a n d i n C h i l l i w a c k , i t was a l r e a d y sewered and was a d j a c e n t on two s i d e s to e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , i t was r e l e a s e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, the e x i s t e n c e of s e r v i c e s and a d j a c e n t u r b a n a r e a s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y g u a r a n t e e th e e x c l u s i o n of an a r e a . F o r i n s t a n c e , p r o p e r t i e s a t t h e V edder Road I n t e r c h a n g e i n t h e a r e a of t h e Cottonwood C o r n e r s S h o p p i n g C e n t r e had been i n c l u d e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y new sewer d i s t r i c t and C h i l l i w a c k wanted t h e s e l a n d s out of t h e A.L.R. f o r c o m m e r c i a l , l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s . T h i s Sewer D i s t r i c t No. 10 had been formed by t h r e e m ajor p r o p e r t y owners i n the a r e a p a r t l y to c o r r e c t s a n i t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s a t a m i l k p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t and a f r o z e n f o o d p l a n t a t t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l D epartment of H e a l t h . F r a s e r V a l l e y F r o s t e d Foods L i m i t e d and t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k P r o d u c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , i n e a r l y 1972, j o i n e d t h e S a r d i s Land and Development L i m i t e d , which had been w o r k i n g toward th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a sewerage s y s t e m and t r e a t m e n t p l a n t f o r i t s p r o p e r t i e s a r o u n d the i n t e r c h a n g e s i n c e 1967. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e sewers t o o k p l a c e m a i n l y a f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t on December 21, 1972, - 2 9 -o f t h e ' l a n d f r e e z e ' as t h e P r o v i n c i a l O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , w h i c h was t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f the Land Commission A c t , was commonly c a l l e d . The p r o p e r t i e s i n q u e s t i o n i n the Sewer D i s t r i c t had t h e main t r u n k l i n e s i n p l a c e but were n o t a l l s e r v i c e d by the i n d i v i d u a l l a t e r a l l i n e s . E s s e n t i a l l y what happened was t h a t t h e Land Commission r e f u s e d to e x c l u d e t h o s e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h had n o t been i r r e v e r s i b l y damaged f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , even though the t r u n k l i n e s were r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to some of t h e s e l a n d s . The m i l k and f o o d p l a n t s and the s h o p p i n g c e n t r e l a n d s were e x c l u d e d f r o m the A.L.R., but t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no ' s u b s t a n t i a l commencement', t h a t i s , n o p h y s i c a l work w h i c h a l t e r s the l a n d s u c h as r o a d or d r a i n a g e c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o u n d a t i o n e x c a v a t i o n s , c o n c r e t e s l a b s and s i m i l a r i m p rovements, on a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t i e s meant t h a t t h e Land Commission r e f u s e d t h e 34 e x c l u s i o n . T h i s r e f u s a l was a s e r i o u s s e t b a c k , n o t o n l y f o r t h e t h r e e p r o p e r t y owners who e x p e c t e d t o be r e l i e v e d of some of the c o s t of t h e sewerage s y s t e m when t h e t r u n k l i n e s r e a c h e d r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , but a l s o f o r C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s who saw t h i s p a r t o f t h e community as a c r i t i c a l e x p a n s i o n a r e a of v a r i o u s u s e s . In g e n e r a l , t h e Land Commission e x c l u d e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e p r o p e r t i e s r e q u e s t e d f o r r e l e a s e i n t h e a r e a n o r t h of t h e f r e e w a y , however, the o p p o s i t e was the c a s e s o u t h of t h e f r e e w a y where t h e p o l i c y was t o keep the -30-S a r d i s f a r m l a n d s i n t a c t . I n t h e s o u t h e r n u p l a n d a r e a s o f C h i l l i w a c k , t h e Commission r e l e a s e d a l l 333 a c r e s as r e q u e s t e d on Majuba H i l l , d i r e c t l y s o u t h o f Yarrow, and a l l o f t h e 180 a c r e s i n t h e P r o m o n t o r y Road a r e a f u r t h e r e a s t . However, th e Commission r e f u s e d to e x c l u d e any o f t h e 234 a c r e s i n t h e most e a s t e r l y u p l a n d a r e a o f Ryder Lake but t h e v i l l a g e a r e a s o f G r e e n d a l e , R o s e d a l e , and Yarrow were a l l a l l o w e d some f u r t h e r l a n d s f o r g r o w t h . The f i n a l r e s u l t was t h a t 1287 a c r e s were r e l e a s e d and 1014 a c r e s were r e t a i n e d by t h e Land Commission. CHILLIWACK'S RESPONSE TO THE FINAL AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE PLAN D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e Land Commission had e x c l u d e d a l m o s t 1300 a c r e s f r o m t h e l a n d r e s e r v e s p r i o r to t h e f i n a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e A.L.R. b o u n d a r i e s i n t h e a r e a , C h i l l i w a c k p l a n n e r s and e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s were v e r y u p s e t when the f i n a l p l a n was r e v e a l e d . I n the months f o l l o w i n g , C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e Rand Commission had n o t a l l o w e d t h e i r a r e a a f i v e y e a r s u p p l y o f l a n d f o r growth and, a t 35 b e s t , t h e y were g i v e n a t h r e e y e a r s u p p l y . They f e l t t h a t t h e i r own A.L.R. p r o p o s a l had been i g n o r e d by t h e Land Commission. I t was t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e Land Commission s h o u l d have h e l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g b e f o r e e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e f i n a l A.L.R. p l a n and t h e Commission's f a i l u r e t o do so meant t h a t i n c o r r e c t p r o c e d u r e s had t a k e n p l a c e . T h i s , however, was n o t t h e c a s e s i n c e t h e -31-l e g i s l a t i o n a l l o w e d f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o n l y d u r i n g t h e ti m e when each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s A.L.R. p r o p o s a l . E l e c t e d C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e A.L.R. p l a n would n o t o n l y make p l a n n i n g d i f f i c u l t f o r them, but 3 6 would s t o p growth a l t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r community. As a r e s u l t , t h e y d i s c u s s e d t h e i r l a n d dilemma w i t h t h e Land Commission. The s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t C h i l l i w a c k d e v e l o p a community p l a n w h i c h would more c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n and t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t e n v i s i o n e d f o r t h e community's f u t u r e . I t was t h e Land Commission's e x p e c t a t -i o n t h a t s u c h a p l a n would r e f l e c t t h e growth o p t i o n s f o r C h i l l i w a c k g i v e n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e A.L.R., e s p e c i a l l y 37 w i t h r e s p e c t to the h i g h e r c a p a b i l i t y v a l l e y l a n d s . I t had been p o i n t e d out to C h i l l i w a c k t h a t t h e r e were a l t e r -n a t i v e growth o p t i o n s to t h a t of b u i l d i n g on t h e e x c e l l e n t v a l l e y f a r m l a n d s , namely i n t h e s o u t h e r n u p l a n d a r e a s o f t h e community. A l t h o u g h some of t h e s e l a n d s were s t i l l i n the A.L.R., t h e y were o f a l o w e r a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y and t h e Land Commission i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n s i d e r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e s e l a n d s i f and when C h i l l i w a c k needed them f o r g r o w t h . T h i s s i t u a t i o n , o r ' l a n d c r i s i s ' was f o r c i n g C h i l l i w a c k f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e to r e a l l y t a k e an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g of t h e i r community. Up t o t h a t p o i n t i n t i m e , t h e y had depended on the L.M.O.R.P., t h e i r own b a s i c z o n i n g b y - l a w s , and t h e market p l a c e , t o d i c t a t e t h e i r community's - 3 2 -p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . T h i s was a t i m e when p o t e n t i a l l y t h e y c o u l d t a k e t h e major s t e p toward r e a l l y e x a m i n i n g t h e i r l o c a l v a l u e s , n e e d s , g o a l s , r e s o u r c e s and o p t i o n s i n o r d e r t o come up w i t h a community p l a n w h i c h r e f l e c t e d n o t o n l y t h e u n i q u e -n e s s o f t h e i r l o c a l p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c , and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , but a l s o t h e c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s towards p l a n n i n g and e n v i r o n -m e n t a l m a t t e r s t h a t were o c c u r r i n g a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s t h r o u g o u t the p r o v i n c e . CHILLIWACK'S FIRST COMMUNITY PLAN: THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1976 A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s between C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s and t h e Land Commission, i t took f i f t e e n months f o r C h i l l i w a c k t o d e v e l o p a p l a n w h i c h was c o m p l e t e d by e a r l y 1976. I t was known as the Development P l a n 1976 and was ba s e d on t h r e e f a c t o r s : t h e l a n d use p a t t e r n s a l r e a d y i n the community, t h e L.M.O.R.P., 3 8 and the 1970 C h i l l i w a c k Z o n i n g By-Law. I t was a document t h a t was p r o d u c e d by C h i l l i w a c k ' s P l a n n i n g Department and had no p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o i t s f o r m u l a t i o n . The Development P l a n f o c u s e d o n l y on the Urban C o r r i d o r of C h i l l i w a c k and was i n t e n d e d f o r u r b a n - o r i e n t e d u s e s o n l y . I t was b a s i c a l l y a l a n d use document w h i c h d e s i g n a t e d a l l l a n d s w i t h i n t h e c o r r i d o r i n t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s ; s i n g l e or m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l , c o r e c o m m e r c i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l and a i r p o r t . The P l a n n i n g Department d i d n o t a d v o c a t e u p l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t to r e p l a c e growth i n t h e v a l l e y and a c t u a l l y p o s e d a number o f r e a s o n s why t h i s was n o t a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , -33-m a i n l y r e l a t i n g to d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s . The p l a n was d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e b o t h as a l o n g - r a n g e , t h i r t y y e a r p l a n n i n g document and a l s o as a s h o r t - t e r m , t e n y e a r d e t a i l e d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . In o r d e r f o r t h e p l a n to be i m p l e m e n t e d , l a n d s would have to be removed f r o m t h e A.L.R. i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e s t a g e s : between 1976 and 1982, 585 a c r e s would have to come o u t ; from 1983 to 1990, 430 a c r e s were r e q u i r e d ; and from 1991 onward, 619 a c r e s must be removed. T h i s was a t o t a l . o f 1,634 a c r e s , o f wh i c h 1,560 a c r e s were at the time i n a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e . The Development P l a n d i d not r e f l e c t a new a p p r o a c h by the p l a n n e r s and e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s t o ward community p l a n n i n g i n C h i l l i w a c k . I t was e s s e n t i a l l y a p l a n w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e d p a s t and e x i s t i n g l a n d use p a t t e r n s a n o t h e r t h i r t y y e a r s i n t o t h e f u t u r e . I t d i d n o t d e v i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e L.M.O.R.P., w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t i t was o p e r a t i n g at a more d e t a i l e d s c a l e and t h a t i t accommodated a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t i m e s more i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n the community t h a n the L.M.O.R.P. had! CHILLIWACK APPLIES TO REMOVE LANDS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE The n e x t s t e p by C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s upon c o m p l e t i n g t h e Development P l a n , was to a p p l y to have t h e needed l a n d s removed from t h e A.L.R., or i n t h e i r words, t h e y were making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p p r o v a l of a l a n d use p l a n f o r C h i l l i w a c k o v e r t h e n e x t t h i r t y y e a r s and n o t t h e immediate r e l e a s e f r o m t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l 39 Land R e s e r v e of 1800 a c r e s o f l a n d . The f i g u r e o f 1800 a c r e s -34-V was q u o t e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e s i n c e t h e Development P l a n a r e a a c t u a l l y c o v e r e d 1834 a c r e s . I t was o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t o n l y a b o u t 1634 a c r e s o f t h i s would have t o come out o f t h e A.L.R., but t h e f i n a l f i g u r e as r e f l e c t e d i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s f i r s t e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n , r e s t e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1720 a c r e s . C h i l l i w a c k ' s f i r s t e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t went t o t h e Land Commission i n A p r i l , 1976, and t h e Mayor of C h i l l i w a c k s u p p o r t e d the r e q u e s t w i t h a number o f s t a t i s t i c s and t h e f a c t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e i r d i s t r i c t c o n t a i n e d 65,000 a c r e s and 50,000 o f t h e s e were i n the A.L.R., 3,000 were i n u n d e v e l o p a b l e s t e e p s l o p e s , and a n o t h e r 3,000 were i n I n d i a n R e s e r v e s . T h i s l e f t C h i l l i w a c k w i t h o n l y 7,200 d e v e l o p a b l e a c r e s , of w h i c h 75 p e r c e n t were u p l a n d a r e a s w i t h s t e e p e s c a r p m e n t a p p r o a c h e s and w h i c h were p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m the e x i s t i n g u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . The Mayor made i t c l e a r t h a t b o t h the I n d i a n R e s e r v e s and t h e A.L.R. p r o t r u d e d i n t o the u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a , c r e a t i n g b o t h c o s t and p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s to t h e e x t e n s i o n o f u r b a n s e r v i c e s . In a d d i t i o n , u r b a n - r u r a l c o n f l i c t s were s u p p o s e d l y h i g h where f a r m l a n d was i n t r u d i n g i n t o u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t C h i l l i w a c k was e x p e r i e n c i n g an a v e r a g e growth r a t e o f 6 p e r c e n t p e r annum, and a t t h a t r a t e , t h e r e was o n l y a t h r e e y e a r s u p p l y of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d l e f t . He d i d acknowledge t h a t t h e h i l l s i d e s were a d a p t a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s , however, t h e s e u p l a n d a r e a s c o u l d n o t accommodate c o m m e r c i a l or i n d u s t r i a l u s e s w h i c h would p l a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e d i s t r i c t ' s t a x base and growth o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ^ -35-C h i l l i w a c k 1 s e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t g e n e r a t e d much c o n c e r n b o t h i n t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s t h r o u g h o u t th e p r o v i n c e . L o c a l l y , i t c a u s e d th e c r e a t i o n o f a v o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l i n g i t s e l f t h e ' S a v e the F a r m l a n d Committee'. Formed by C h i l l i w a c k f a r m e r s and c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s , t h e group o r g a n i z e d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s to p r o t e s t the e x c l u s i o n o f t h e a r e a ' s f a r m l a n d . O t h e r p r i v a t e g r o u p s from l a b o u r , c h u r c e s and a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a l s o p r o t e s t e d C h i l l i w a c k ' s r e q u e s t . V a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l Government d e p a r t m e n t s a l s o had t o have a say i n t h e m a t t e r . The c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by a l l t h e s e g r o u p s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 4. I t was the P r o v i n c i a l Government's E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee (E.L.U.C.) t h a t d e a l t w i t h C h i l l i w a c k ' s a p p l i c a t i o n , s i n c e A.L.R. e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t s t h a t a r e made by l o c a l g o v e r n -ments a r e a d j u d i c a t e d by t h i s body and n o t t h e Land Commission. The l a t t e r makes f i n a l d e c i s i o n s i n t h e c a s e of i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u e s t i n g l a n d o u t o f the A.L.R. b u t n o t i n t h e c a s e o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s a p p l i c a t i o n , where the Land Commission can o n l y make a recommendation. When E.L.U.C. r e l e a s e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n , November 25, 1976, i t was a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f t h e Land Commission A c t f o r o n l y 16 a c r e s of t h e 1720 were e x c l u d e d . A c c o r d i n g to one newspaper w r i t e r , C h i l l i w a c k ' s Mayor was h o p p i n g mad and t a l k i n g 41 a bout s e p a r a t i n g f r o m th e r e s t o f t h e P r o v i n c e . However, i t d i d -36-not t a k e l o n g f o r C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s to r e g r o u p t h e i r f o r c e s b e c a u s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x months l a t e r t h e y a p p l i e d f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f 382 a c r e s from the A.L.R. T h i s was a toned-down v e r s i o n o f the f i r s t r e q u e s t and was a i m i n g m o s t l y a t h a v i n g t h o s e l a n d s removed w h i c h were i n Sewer D i s t r i c t No. 10. The Mayor's b r i e f to the M i n i s t e r of t h e E n v i r o n m e n t p l e a d e d C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e on t h e grounds t h a t t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e s e s e r v i c e d p r o p e r t i e s would p r o v i d e a r e a f o r a modest growth i n t h e community, t h e r e b y accommodating p l a c e s to work and e n a b l i n g the d e v e lopment of r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s on sewered l o t s , i n o r d e r to u t i l i z e the l a n d i n a more e c o n o m i c a l 42 manner t h a n was p o s s i b l e i n unsewered a r e a s . A change i n the o f f i c e of the Mayor i n November of 1977 d i d not a l t e r C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n on the A.L.R., s i n c e the new Mayor had the same view as h i s o u t g o i n g c o l l e a g u e . I t was the new Mayor's o p i n i o n t h a t even b e f o r e t h e A.L.R. was e s t a b l i s h e d , C h i l l i w a c k had p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s r e s u l t i n g from the r e s t r i c t i v e b a r r i e r s c r e a t e d by the r a i l w a y , highway, and h y d r o c o r r i d o r s w hich t r a v e r s e d the d i s t r i c t , as w e l l by the a r e a ' s I n d i a n R e s e r v e s . To him, what was a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e the A.L.R., was made worse as a c o n s e q u e n c e of i t . H i s view was t h a t a l l p l a n n i n g i n p l a c e p r i o r to t h e A.L.R. was i i • A 4 3 no l o n g e r v a l i d . D e s p i t e C h i l l i w a c k ' s s e c o n d e x c l u s i o n a t t e m p t , t h e y were u n s u c c e s s f u l . In l a t e J a n u a r y , 1978, E.L.U.C. announced the 44 r e f u s a l of the government to e x c l u d e any of t h e 382 a c r e s . -37-STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT IN CHILLIWACK'S UPLAND AREAS When E.L.U.C. r e f u s e d C h i l l i w a c k ' s f i r s t 1720 a c r e e x c l u s -i o n a p p l i c a t i o n , i t d i d c o n f i r m t h a t the P r o v i n c e was w i l l i n g to a s s i s t C h i l l i w a c k i n a s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e u r b a n s u i t a b i l i t y , d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s , and market f e a s i b i l i t y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e u p l a n d a r e a s . The Chairman o f t h e Land Commission worked w i t h the M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and H o u s i n g t o t r y and ge t the s t u d y under way q u i c k l y . The P r o v i n c e ' s R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r a n c h c a r r i e d out a d e t a i l e d r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s o f the C h i l l i w a c k M o u n t a i n , Ryder Lake and P r o m o n t o r y R i d g e a r e a s . T h i s t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the h i l l s i d e s was to s e r v e as a d a t a base i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment of C h i l l i w a c k ' s u p l a n d a r e a s . By the S p r i n g o f 1978, t h e r e p o r t c o v e r i n g s u c h a r e a s as b a s i c g e o l o g y , s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e , u n d e r g r o u n d w a t e r and c l i m a t e had been r e l e a s e d . C h i l l i w a c k M o u n t a i n and t h e Ryder Lake a r e a s were f o u n d t o be g e o l o g i c a l l y complex and v a r i a b l e , however, the g e n t l e s l o p e s were s t a b l e enough f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , ' t h o s e p a r t s o f Ryder Lake w h i c h were i n t h e A.L.R. would p r o v i d e t h e b e s t d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s . The s e c o n d p a r t of t h e p r o j e c t was t o be a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y d e s i g n e d to d e t e r m i n e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y and c o s t of d e v e l o p i n g a w o r k i n g model o r a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e s s w h i c h would e v a l u a t e the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f the u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n d s b o t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e A.L.R. I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e C h i l l i w a c k u p l a n d s and t h e l o w l a n d A.L.R. would s e r v e as a c a s e s t u d y , but t h a t t h e m e t h o d o l o g y would u l t i m a t e l y s e r v e any a r e a o f t h e -38-p r o v i n c e . The u p l a n d d a t a base can now be u s e d by C h i l l i w a c k , b ut t h e f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y a w a i t s c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s e c o n d s t a g e w h i c h i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g m o d e l . P r i o r to t h i s o f f i c i a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e u p l a n d a r e a s of C h i l l i w a c k by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government, t h e r e had been two r e p o r t s done r e s p e c t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t t h e r e . A p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y by t h e D u n h i l l Development C o r p o r a t i o n i n O c t o b e r , 1976,made a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o s t of d e v e l o p i n g 800 a c r e s o f l o w l a n d A.L.R. p r o p e r t i e s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t to t h e u r b a n c o r r i d o r and 800 a c r e s i n t h e u p l a n d s , of w h i c h 320 a c r e s were i n t h e A.L.R. and 480 a c r e s were o u t s i d e . I t was f o u n d t h a t the c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s showed o n l y a 30% to 40% d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o r o f l o w l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , a s s u m i n g a d e n s i t y of f o u r d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r a c r e i n b o t h t h e u p l a n d s and the v a l l e y . The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t to a c h i e v e the same d e v e l o p m e n t e c o n o m i c s p e r u p l a n d , as l o w l a n d u n i t , would r e q u i r e i n c r e a s i n g t h e d e n s i t y from f o u r 45 u n i t s to between 5.6 and 6.3 u n i t s p e r a c r e i n t h e u p l a n d s . C h i l l i w a c k ' s P l a n n i n g Department a l s o put t o g e t h e r a r e p o r t on h i l l s i d e d e v e l o p m e n t i n 1976. The p l a n n e r s d e a l t w i t h the u p l a n d s s t r i c t l y f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a t r u r a l d e n s i t i e s o f e i t h e r 1.25 a c r e l o t s o r 2.0 a c r e p a r c e l s . T h e i r r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g r u r a l d e n s i t i e s was t h a t h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s would r e q u i r e an u r b a n d e s i g n a t i o n on t h e L.M.O.R.P. and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of s e w e r s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t u t i l i z i n g t h e h i l l s i d e s would c o s t C h i l l i w a c k a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - t h r e e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s more t h a n accommodating t h a t -39-d e v e l o p m e n t o f the l o w l a n d s . In a d d i t i o n , u p l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t would o n l y s u p p o r t a b o u t 3,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s w i t h a p o p u l t a i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 11,000 p e o p l e . W i t h the community's e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e b e i n g i n t h e s i x p e r c e n t p e r annum r a n g e , the p l a n n e r s had d e t e r m i n e d t h a t o n l y s i x y e a r s of growth c o u l d be 46 accommodated i n t h e u p l a n d s . MEETINGS BETWEEN CHILLIWACK AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS T h r o u g h o u t 1977 and 1978, C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s met on a number of o c c a s i o n s w i t h e i t h e r the Land Commission or E.L.U.C. o f f i c i a l s , i n ord'ei to t r y and c o n v i n c e them of t h e s e r i o u s n e s s of C h i l l i w a c k ' s l a n d p r o b l e m and to t r y and n e g o t i a t e a r e a s o n a b l e s o l u t i o n . C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s s i m p l y d i d not f e e l t h a t the community was f i n a n c i a l l y c a p a b l e of s o l v i n g i t s p r o b l e m a l o n e . T h i s v i e w was s h a r e d by p e o p l e on a l l s i d e s o f the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e . The f o r m e r M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , w h o had been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c r e a t i o n o f the Land Commission A c t , had s t a t e d a t the time of C h i l l i w a c k ' s f i r s t e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t had been h i s government's i n t e n t i o n to s u b s i d i z e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y -b a s e d c o m m u n i t i e s l i k e C h i l l i w a c k , so t h e y would n o t have 47 to depend on d e v e l o p m e n t - g e n e r a t e d r e v e n u e . A spokesman -40-f o r t h e Save t h e F a r m l a n d Committee s t a t e d a t t h e time of C h i l l i w a c k ' s s e c o n d a p p l i c a t i o n , t h a t the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e was a p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e f o r w h i c h the government s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e and t h a t a f i n a n c i a l committment on t h e government's p a r t toward the A.L.R. would r e d u c e t h e t e n d e n c y of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s e e k i n g l a n d e x c l u s i o n s i n o r d e r to b u i l d a t a x base 48 to s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s . The Chairman of t h e Land Commission f e l t t h a t i f s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l was g o i n g to a c c e p t the p o l i c y of p e r s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , i t was a n e c e s s i t y to e q u a l i z e t a x a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e between t h o s e a r e a s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d 49 and t h o s e h a v i n g i n d u s t r i a l l a n d o u t s i d e the A.L.R. Even t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s s t a t e d i n e a r l y 1977 t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s whose growth p r o s p e c t s had been l i m i t e d d e s e r v e d a l l t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e government c o u l d g i v e them. D e s p i t e t a l k o f the n e c e s s i t y of the P r o v i n c i a l Government p r o v i d i n g some sound f i n a n c i a l s o l u t i o n s to p r o b l e m s s u c h as t h o s e C h i l l i w a c k was e x p e r i e n c i n g , t h e r e was l i t t l e coming C h i l l i w a c k ' s way as f a r as t h e d i s t r i c t ' s o f f i c i a l s and t h e v a r i o u s government b o d i e s had p r o v e d to be e x t r e m e l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f r o m the P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . He f e l t t h e t a l k s were more or l e s s b e i n g used by t h e government -41-d e p a r t m e n t s as a means of s i m p l y l e t t i n g C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s a i r t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s and g e t t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s o f f t h e i r c h e s t s ^ T h e r e was some b i t t e r n e s s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f t o ward t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government's t r e a t m e n t o f C h i l l i w a c k . I t was t h e o p i n i o n of t h e A s s i s t a n t P l a n n e r t h a t C h i l l i w a c k had been i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . He was q u o t e d as s a y i n g : " P e r h a p s the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t b r o u g h t o ut i n the a p p l i c a t i o n ( f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n of the 380 a c r e s ) i s t h a t i f g u i d e l i n e s to t h e Land Commission A c t were a p p l i e d to C h i l l i w a c k as t h e y were a p p l i e d e l s e w h e r e i n the p r o v i n c e , t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n and, i n d e e d , t h e o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n , would n e v e r have been needed. One i n d e e d must s u s p e c t t h a t p e r h a p s C h i l l i w a c k was s i n g l e d out f o r t h i s ^2 t r e a t m e n t b e c a u s e of p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s " . A f e e l i n g a k i n to h e l p l e s s n e s s s u r f a c e d o c c a s i o n a l l y i n v a r i o u s C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r a n g e r toward p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s , w h i c h had a f f e c t e d t h e i r community o v e r t h e y e a r s . Even b e f o r e the A.L.R., t h e r e were t h e f r a g m e n t i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e r a i l , h ighway, and h y d r o c o r r i d o r s . Then came t h e L.M.O.R.P., w h i c h had d i c t a t e d t h e community's d i r e c t i o n of development s i n c e t h e 1960's. F i n a l l y , t h e A.L.R. was d e s t r o y i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h e d growth p a t t e r n and t h i s p o l i c y r e v e r s a l was c o n s i d e r e d a u t o c r a t i c and s o m e t h i n g t h a t would 5 3 be e x p e c t e d i n a d i c t a t o r s h i p . C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s were u n d e r s t a n d a b l y d i s h e a r t e n e d by t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s , however, t h e y had n o t been i g n o r e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s and were b e i n g g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e i r dilemma. Some -42-c o n c e s s i o n s had been made i n t h e form o f m i n o r r e l e a s e s of l a n d f r o m t h e A.L.R. w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4, and the f i r s t s t a g e s of t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d . I n mid-1978 C h i l l i w a c k p o l i t i c a n s i n v i t e d t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s f r o m the Land Commission to go out and l o o k f i r s t h a n d a t t h e i r l a n d s i t u a t i o n and t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s went. The Commission body a s k e d C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s t o p r e s e n t a b a r e - b o n e s p l a n o f the l a n d s t h a t were a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l f o r community g r o w t h . T h i s was n o t an o f f i c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n to e x c l u d e f a r m l a n d s u c h as t h e p r e v i o u s two a p p l i c a t i o n s had been, b ut i t was an o f f i c i a l r e p o r t to the Land Commission on t h e 521 a c r e s t h a t C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s f e l t s h o u l d be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d f o r e v e n t u a l r e l e a s e . The r e s u l t o f t h i s exchange was t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s s a i d t h e y would g i v e f a i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s made by i n d i v i d u a l l a n d owners i n C h i l l i w a c k and would v i e w each r e q u e s t on t h e b a s i s of i t s own m e r i t s. In a d d i t i o n to t h e t a l k s , C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s were h a v i n g d u r i n g 1978 w i t h a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e t h e i r community, t h e y were b e g i n n i n g to p l a n a g a i n f r o m t h e i n s i d e t h e i r d i s t r i c t . D i s c u s s i o n s were s t a r t e d by the P l a n n i n g Department w i t h t h e C o u n c i l on the m a t t e r o f d e v e l o p i n g a community p l a n . T h i s would be an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n (O.C.P.), by w h i c h t h e y c o u l d g e t some f u n d i n g f r o m the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . - 4 3 -CHILLIWACK DEVELOPS AN OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN By O c t o b e r o f 1979, C h i l l i w a c k had r e t a i n e d a p r i v a t e p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t i n g f i r m to d e v e l o p t h e O.C.P. One o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s t a k e n by t h e C o n s u l t i n g P l a n n e r s was t h a t of r e q u e s t i n g the C o u n c i l to a p p o i n t an A d v i s o r y Committee w h i c h would work w i t h t h e c o n s u l t a n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e O.C.P. They a s k e d t h a t t e n to f i f t e e n p e o p l e be a p p o i n t e d who were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the C h i l l i w a c k P u b l i c on one or more of t h e f a c t o r s o f o c c u p a t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the community, and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t ( s u c h as r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s o r c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t i n t e r e s t s ) . The c o n s u l t a n t s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the Community P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Committee (C.P.A.C.) the C o u n c i l got t o g e t h e r , s i n c e t h e members w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p h y s i c a l expanse of the community, i n c l u d i n g a l l o f C h i l l i w a c k ' s a r e a s of u r b a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the C.P.A.C. i n c l u d e d p e o p l e i n o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h as f a r m i n g , r e a l e s t a t e , g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s , and a l s o i n c l u d e d a f o r m e r C h i l l i w a c k P l a n n i n g Committee member, a man engaged i n a f arm s u p p o r t b u s i n e s s and t h r e e women homemakers from d i s t i n c t g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . I t was the p u r p o s e of t h e C.P.A.C. to a s s i s t the c o n s u l t a n t s i n c l a r i -f y i n g C h i l l i w a c k ' s community p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . From the b e g i n n i n g i t was s t r e s s e d t o the C.P.A.C. members t h a t i n d i v i d u a l l y t h e y were to f u n n e l p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and v i e w s back t o t h e whole c o m m i t t e e , t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e C h i l l i w a c k p u b l i c to be h e a r d . - 4 4 -To f u r t h e r i n s u r e t h a t C h i l l i w a c k c i t i z e n s had an o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s t h e i r community's d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e s , a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n J u n e , 1980. T h r e e m e e t i n g s were h e l d , one e a c h i n C h i l l i w a c k C i t y , Y a rrow, and i n R o s e d a l e . Based on the v i e w s e x p r e s s e d by t h e C.P.A.C. and members of C h i l l i w a c k ' s p u b l i c a t t h e June m e e t i n g s , i t s t r o n g l y came out t h a t t h e c i t i z e n s saw C h i l l i w a c k as an a g r i c u l t u r a l community and wanted to p r o t e c t i t as s u c h . T h e r e was no d e s i r e to see t h e d i s t r i c t t u r n i n t o a commuter s a t e l l i t e of the g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a , b u t r a t h e r t h e r e was a s t r o n g d e s i r e to r e t a i n t h e l o c a l i d e n t i t y o f each o f C h i l l i w a c k ' s s m a l l u r b a n c e n t r e s and p r o t e c t t h e r u r a l l i f e - s t y l e w h ich had t y p i f i e d t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l 5 4 community. I t was becoming c l e a r f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e what C h i l l i w a c k c i t i z e n s i n g e n e r a l were t h i n k i n g . In t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y v a l u e d t h e i r f a r m i n g h e r i t a g e and wanted t o p r o t e c t a r u r a l l i f e - s t y l e , the e a r l i e r v o i c e o f t h e Save the F a r m l a n d Committee had w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d the p u b l i c v i e w . However, the c o n c e r n s of t h e p u b l i c c o v e r e d a b r o a d e r s p e c t r u m o f i s s u e s t h a n j u s t f a r m l a n d p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e r e were some v e r y r e a l economic and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s t o be a d d r e s s e d . T h e r e was t h e m a t t e r o f employment and t h e C h i l l i w a c k economy. In t h e i r d i s t r i c t , j o b s had been c o n c e n t r a t e d o v e r t h e y e a r s i n t h e two i n d u s t r i e s o f a g r i c u l t u r e and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g the m i l i t a r y b a s e ) . The t r e n d i n t h e p a s t d ecade toward - 4 5 -growth i n o n l y t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r o f C h i l l i w a c k ' s economy, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a s o f t r a d e , f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e , meant t h a t l o c a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s were becoming l e s s r a t h e r t h a n more d i v e r s i f i e d and were c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n a lower income employment s e c t o r ^ A n o t h e r m a j o r c o n c e r n i n t h e community was the m a t t e r o f r e t a i l -c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and o v e r th e months t h i s i s s u e t u r n e d out to be one of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l , even more so t h a n the m a t t e r o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ^ R e t a i l a c t i v i t y had been s h i f t i n g away from the downtown a r e a of the C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k and i n t o newer c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s such as the Cottonwood C o r n e r s S h o p p i n g C e n t r e . In a d d i t i o n , C h i l l i w a c k had an o v e r - a b u n d a n c e of r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e f o r t h e s i z e of i t s p o p u l a t i o n . The community would t h e r e f o r e have to c l a r i f y t h e d i r e c t i o n c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d t a k e o v e r th e n e x t d e c a d e . The o t h e r i s s u e s c o n c e r n e d the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the d i s t r i c t , t h e needs of a p o p u l a t i o n t h a t was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y e l d e r l y , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y w h i c h was t h e community's backbone and, of c o u r s e , th e l o n g s t a n d i n g c o n c e r n o v e r s p a c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l growth and i n d u s t r y ^ I n p u t i n t o the p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g the O.C.P. came o v e r the months n o t o n l y from th e C.P.A.C., but a l s o from C h i l l i w a c k ' s P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , the Mayor, the C o u n c i l ' s P l a n n i n g Committee, and i t s o t h e r c o m m ittees when a p p r o p r i a t e , i n d i v i d u a l c o u n c i l members, o t h e r members o f t h e p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t i n g s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s s u c h as a g r i c u l t u r e and, o f c o u r s e , t h e C o n s u l t i n g - 4 6 -P l a n n e r s . At t h e time o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e O.C.P. has been d r a f t e d w i t h i t s g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and means h a v i n g been r a t i f i e d by t h e C.P.A.C. and t h e C o u n c i l . I t must now be p r e s e n t e d t o t h e C h i l l i w a c k p u b l i c f o r t h e i r f i n a l p e r u s a l and i n p u t b e f o r e b e i n g o f f i c i a l l y a d o p t e d as the community p l a n . I t has been j u s t o v e r e i g h t y e a r s s i n c e t h e " l a n d f r e e z e 1 s t a r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a i n o f e v e n t s r e l a t e d to community p l a n n i n g i n C h i l l i w a c k . The A.L.R. s p a r k e d a l a n d c r i s i s f o r the d i s t r i c t ' s p l a n n e r s and o f f i c i a l s w h i c h pushed them i n t o a s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s t o economic and p h y s i c a l growth p r o b l e m s i n t h e i r community. The n e x t two c h a p t e r s w i l l examine the p r o c e s s o f p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n making t h a t o c c u r r e d b o t h i n s i d e t h e d i s t r i c t ' s b o u n d a r i e s and o u t s i d e of the community w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t e d t h e c o u r s e of p o l i c y making and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h a t was f o l l o w e d i n the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e . 47 CHAPTER 3 AN EXAMINATION OF CHILLIWACK'S EARLY DECISION MAKING PROCESS - 4 8 -INTRODUCTION P r i o r to e x a m i n i n g t h e c a s e s t u d y i n i t s e n t i r e t y , a b r i e f r e v i e w w i l l be made o f t h e r e l e v a n t model V a r i a b l e S e t s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i n i t i a l e v e n t o f C h i l l i w a c k p r o d u c i n g t h e Development P l a n . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y i n v i e w of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e a r l y d e c i s i o n making c a r r i e d out by the C h i l l i w a c k p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s t e n d e d t o be c o n d u c t e d as though th e i s s u e was a p u r e l y l o c a l phenomenon, even though t h e r e must have been l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e r e would be s p i l l o v e r e f f e c t s t h a t would i n f l u e n c e a r e a s beyond t h e d i s t r i c t ' s b o u n d a r i e s . F o c u s i n g on t h i s e a r l y p a r t o f t h e i s s u e w i l l p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how the C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers v i e w e d t h e i r l o c a l p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m and t h e p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . The models V a r i a b l e S e t s d e a l i n g w i t h P l a n n i n g and I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s and t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P u b l i c I s s u e s w i l l be examined, w i t h a v i e w t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g why C h i l l i w a c k was a d v o c a t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t t h e y were. A f t e r t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x a m i n i n g i n i s o l a t i o n C h i l l i w a c k ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e i r Development P l a n , t h e f o c u s w i l l be r e t u r n e d to t h e o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s and t h e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h a t t o o k p l a c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e . At t h i s p o i n t , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model w i l l a g a i n have i t s h y p o t h e s e s examined, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r model c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p o sed by B o l a n and N u t t a l l , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n outcome. -49-The f i r s t s e t of h y p o t h e s e s to be examined, w i t h r e s p e c t to C h i l l i w a c k ' s c h o i c e and p r o m o t i o n o f t h e Development P l a n 1976, i s t h e V a r i a b l e S e t d e a l i n g w i t h the a t t r i b u t e s of the i s s u e . CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC ISSUES I d e o l o g i c a l C o n t e n t The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g t o how p u b l i c agenda c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n outcomes d e a l s w i t h the i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t o f a p r o p o s a l f o r change. E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s t h e o r i z e d t h a t i f t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n f l i c t o v e r the b a s i c v a l u e s i m p l i c i t i n a p r o p o s a l , t h e r e w i l l be a t e n d e n c y toward p o s i t i v e a c t i o n on the p l a n . A l t h o u g h we know t h a t t h e r e u l t i m a t e l y was c o n f l i c t o v e r t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t of t h e Development P l a n , when i t was r e v e a l e d t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , t h e r e was o b v i o u s l y l i t t l e c o n f l i c t o v e r i t s v a l u e s a t the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . I t was p r e p a r e d by C h i l l i w a c k ' s own P l a n n i n g Department and t h e n r e v e a l e d t o the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . T h e r e was o n l y one e l e c t e d c o u n c i l m a n who was opposed to the p l a n w h i c h meant i t c o u l d be r e a d i l y a d o p t e d and p u r s u e d by the d e c i s i o n makers. The p l a n r e p r e s e n t e d a r e a l i s t i c compromise between the A.L.R. and t h e community's need f o r l a n d f o r u r b a n g r o w t h . Over a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y y e a r s the Development P l a n r e q u i r e d t h e r e m o v a l o f what was c o n s i d e r e d a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e (3%) of t h e t o t a l amount o f f a r m l a n d i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s A.L.R. -50-Th e l a n d would n o t be removed a l l a t once but i n t h r e e t e n - y e a r p h a s e s . T h i s was s e e n as a s m a l l s a c r i f i c e f o r l o c a l f a r m l a n d i n t u r n f o r an o r d e r l y and e f f i c i e n t u r b a n growth p a t t e r n , w h i c h would b o t h c o s t l e s s t o s e r v i c e and would p r o v i d e more a m e n i t i e s f o r t h e a r e a t h a n i f growth to o k p l a c e w i t h the A.L.R. i n t a c t . The main a l t e r n a t i v e to the Development P l a n was t h a t of d i r e c t i n g u r b a n growth away from t h e v a l l e y f a r m l a n d and i n t o t h e h i l l s i d e s of t h e s o u t h e r n a r e a o f t h e d i s t r i c t . T h i s was an i d e o l o g i c a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e p l a n as f a r as C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s were c o n c e r n e d . At one i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l , t h i s p r o p s a l r e p r e s e n t e d a c o m p l e t e swing away from e s t a b l i s h e d l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s i n t h e d i s t r i c t and was h e a v i l y l a d e n w i t h a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t e x p e c t e d s a c r i f i c e from t h e few f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h e many. In o t h e r words, C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s saw t h e i r community as an a r e a t h a t a l r e a d y was s t r a i n i n g to meet l o c a l f i n a n c i a l committments t h r o u g h the e x i s t i n g t a x base and a h i l l s i d e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , d e s i g n e d e s s e n t i a l l y t o p r e s e r v e v a l l e y f a r m l a n d s f o r t h e b e n e f i t of f u t u r e B.C. c i t i z e n s , would o v e r - t a x the d i s t r i c t s economic r e s o u r c e s . T h i s would happen i n a t l e a s t two ways. F i r s t l y , p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s to t h i s a r e a would be more e x p e n s i v e t o t h e community t h a n s e r v i c i n g the v a l l e y l a n d s and would mean a b u r d e n on t h e l o c a l t a x p a y e r s and, s e c o n d l y , r e v e n u e would be l o s t to t h e d i s t r i c t s i n c e i n d u s t r y c o u l d n o t be l o c a t e d i n t h e h i l l s and l o c a l d e c i s i o n -51-makers b e l i e v e d t h e r e was no l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n t h e v a l l e y f o r t h i s t y p e o f u s e . The h i g h i d e a l of p r e s e r v i n g f a r m l a n d f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , had l i t t l e a p p e a l to t h e p o l i t i c i a n s who had to d e a l w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t ' s i mmediate growth and economic p r o b l e m s . C o s t s and B e n e f i t s The s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s t h a t a r e l i k e l y to o c c u r i f a c t i o n i s t a k e n on a p a r t i c u l a r p r o p o s a l . Where p r o p o s a l s i n v o l v e a wide and b r o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , t.hey a r e more l i k e l y t o be r e j e c t e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . L o o k i n g at t h e C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e i n i t s b r o a d e s t c o n t e x t r e v e a l s t h a t the p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t o f t h e community's s i t u a t i o n was of a c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e and t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 4. However, the d e c i s i o n makers at C h i l l i w a c k v i e w e d th e Development P l a n w i t h i n a narrow community c o n t e x t , as c o u l d be e x p e c t e d , and t h e r e f o r e saw i t d i f f e r e n t l y . I t was p e r c e i v e d as a p l a n w h i c h would b e n e f i t a l l l o c a l a r e a c i t i z e n s by making t h e i r community a b e t t e r p l a n n e d and s e r v i c e d u r b a n a r e a , a l l a t a c o s t t h a t c o u l d be managed by t h e l o c a l t a x b a s e . Not o n l y would the p l a n b e n e f i t t h e u r b a n a r e a s of t h e d i s t r i c t , but i t would a l s o b e n e f i t the a g r i c u l t u r a l community by r e d u c i n g r u r a l - u r b a n c o n f l i c t s , at l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . - 5 2 -The h i l l s i d e p l a n , on t h e o t h e r hand,had l i t t l e t o recommend i t from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e C h i l l i w a c k p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s . To them, i t was a l l drawbacks and no b e n e f i t s . F o r example, the p r i c e o f h o u s i n g u n i t s t h a t c o u l d be p r o v i d e d t h e r e were seen as b e i n g beyond t h e ra n g e o f t h e m i d d l e income f a m i l i e s who were t h e main market f o r new h o u s i n g i n t h e d i s t r i c t . At the same time i t would be t h e g e n e r a l community t h a t would have to pay t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d t a x e s f o r t h e h i g h c o s t of s e r v i c i n g t h e u p l a n d a r e a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a h i l l s i d e p l a n would not accommodate i n d u s t r y and would no t be a b l e t o meet t h e t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t of a l l o w i n g i mmediate growth a r e a s f o r u r b a n e x p a n s i o n , s i n c e t h e u p l a n d s would t a k e some time to d e v e l o p f o r r e s i d e n t i a l u s es . F l e x i b i l i t y of A c t i o n T h i s p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e to the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e , s i n c e a l l p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s a r e i n f l e x i b l e and i r r e v e r s i b l e o v e r t i m e and i t i s o n l y t h o s e programmes t h a t d e a l w i t h s u c h i s s u e s as r e o r g a i n i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l or government s t r u c t u r e s o r i n t r o d u c i n g s o c i a l programmes t h a t a r e t r u l y f l e x i b l e . I t was the f a c t t h a t i r r e v e r s i b l e p h y s i c a l growth was g o i n g t o o c c u r i n f a r m i n g a r e a s i n C h i l l i w a c k t h a t was a t the h e a r t o f t h e i s s u e and w h i c h was e v e n t u a l l y o p p o s e d a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c l e v e l . However, C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers welcomed p h y s i c a l g r o w t h , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t c o u l d be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o economic -53-terms s u c h as a g r o w i n g t a x b a s e g e n e r a t e d e s p e c i a l l y by c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n . The model's h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n f l e x i b l e p l a n s a r e more l i k e l y t o be r e j e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , d i d n o t h o l d t r u e b e c a u s e the C h i l l i w a c k p o l i t i c i a n s s a n c t i o n e d t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h . Programming A c t i o n T h i s v a r i a b l e d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m of c a r r y i n g out the p r o p o s a l . The model h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t where programs i n v o l v e a g r e a t d e a l of c o - o r d i n a t i o n among d i s p e r s e d and autonomous g r o u p s , t h e y a r e l i k e l y to be r e j e c t e d . F o r C h i l l i w a c k , t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e , b e c a u s e the Development P l a n was r e l a t i v e l y e asy to r e s e a r c h and put t o g e t h e r and i t a l s o c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be c o - o r d i n a t e d and i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s . On t h e o t h e r hand, the h i l l s i d e d e v e l opment p r o p o s a l i n v o l v e d many c o m p l e x i t i e s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n would e n t a i l c o - o r d i n a t i n g a number of d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . F o r example, an u p l a n d s d e v e l o p m e n t programme would r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e t e c h n i c a l and p h y s i c a l d a t a on t h e s o u t h e r n s l o p e s , f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s of p o t e n t i a l s i t e a r e a s and e x t e n s i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government on t h e m a t t e r of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , s i n c e C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s c o u l d n o t c o n c e i v e o f b e i n g a b l e to f i n a n c e s u c h a p r o g ram a l o n e . The e x t e r n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s of f o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o p o s a l were a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t e r r e n t to the l o c a l d e c i s i o n makers. - 5 4 -R i s k s and U n c e r t a i n t y The h y p o t h e s i s h e r e s t a t e s t h a t where r i s k s a r e h i g h and c o n s e q u e n c e s u n c e r t a i n , t h e r e i s a h e s i t a n c y t o a c t . F o r t h e h i l l s i d e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n makers would p e r c e i v e i t as a r i s k y p r o p o s a l . T h e r e was a good d e a l o f u n c e r t a i n t y about th e p l a n ' s a b i l i t y t o meet C h i l l i w a c k ' s need f o r a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g , to s u p p o r t t h e p o p u l a t i o n growth e x p e c t e d i n the a r e a , or to even be c o - o r d i n a t e d and i m p l e m e n t e d . U s i n g s c a r c e t a x r e v e n e u s f o r t h i s k i n d o f p l a n was r i s k y . By c o n t r a s t , t h e Development P l a n p r o p o s e d f o r t h e v a l l e y l a n d s was v i e w e d w i t h a f e e l i n g o f c e r t a i n t y about th e c o n s e q u e n c e s . By f o l l o w i n g t h e p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n l a i d out f o r t h e n e x t 30 y e a r s , C h i l l i w a c k ' s v a r i o u s l a n d needs would be met. T h i s t i d y , p h a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t would a s s i s t t h e d i s t r i c t i n m e e t i n g a number o f community g o a l s r a n g i n g f r o m a l o c a l p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l p a r k s a l o n g w aterways. Ease of C ommunication T h i s v a r i a b l e r e l a t e s t o t h e f a c t t h a t when i s s u e s r e q u i r e a b s t r a c t powers of c o n c e p t u a l r e a s o n i n g and a r e d i f f i c u l t to communicate w e l l , t h e y a r e more l i k e l y to be r e j e c t e d t h a n i s s u e s t h a t can be c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d and u n d e r s t o o d by t h e a c t o r s who w i l l have to d e a l w i t h them. C h i l l i w a c k ' s P l a n n i n g Department put t o g e t h e r a s t r a i g h t - 5 5 -f o r w a r d p r o p o s a l t h a t employed a t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h to community d e v e l o p m e n t . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t was a p l a n t h a t f o c u s e d on c o n t r o l l i n g the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n o f f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t and was p r e s e n t e d i n the f o r m of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a s t e r l a n d use p l a n . As s u c h , i t was e a s i l y communicable to the p o l i t i c i a n s who had to d e a l w i t h i t . On t h e o t h e r hand, p u r s u i n g a h i l l s i d e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n would i n v o l v e c l a r i f y i n g s u c h i s s u e s as c o n t r o l l i n g the number of p e r s o n s moving to C h i l l i w a c k , s i n c e t h e p l a n n e r s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e h i l l s i d e s c o u l d o n l y accommodate 10 ,000 p e o p l e or a b o u t f i v e y e a r s of p o p u l a t i o n growth f o r t h e community. As w e l l , t h e r e was t h e t h o r n y i s s u e to j u s t i f y and cope w i t h r e l a t i n g to t h e h i g h e r c o s t s o f b o t h th e homes and b a s i c s e r v i c e s i n an u p l a n d growth programme. In s h o r t , the h i l l s i d e p r o p o s a l was g o i n g to be d i f f i c u l t to s o r t out and p r e s e n t c l e a r l y to t h e l o c a l d e c i s i o n makers and was u n d e r s t a n d a b y a v o i d e d as a r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r community growth. An e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l now be made of t h e model's s e c o n d V a r i a b l e Set where the h y p o t h e s e s d e a l w i t h p l a n n i n g and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . PLANNING STRATEGIES The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t e s t o ' p l a n n i n g p o s i t i o n ' i n w h i c h a t t a c h m e n t to a power c e n t e r i s t h e o r i z e d t o be more i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i r e c t i n g p u b l i c d e c i s i o n making t h a n a r e i n d e p e n d e n t and a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . C h i l l i w a c k c o u l d -56-be e x p e c t e d t o p r o c e e d i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s w i t h r e l a t i v e ease s i n c e t h e d i s t r i c t ' s p l a n n i n g p o s i t i o n was a t t a c h e d t o a power c e n t e r . In o t h e r words, p l a n n i n g came out of t h e P l a n n i n g Department w h i c h was u l t i m a t e l y a t t a c h e d and r e s p o n s i b l e to the e l e c t e d c o u n c i l or power c e n t e r . The community's p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n was, t h e r e f o r e , i n a p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h and was n o t m e r e l y i n an a d v i s o r y p o s i t i o n t h a t d i d not have much r e a l power. S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s t h e ' p l a n n i n g method' v a r i a b l e . The h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t e d to t h i s f u n c t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t h a t i s i n c r e m e n t a l o r o p p o r t u n i s t i c i n c h a r a c t e r i s more l i k e l y to g u i d e or d i r e c t p u b l i c a c t i o n , t h a n a r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a s s i c a l p l a n n i n g methods w h i c h f o c u s on i d e n t i f y i n g and q u a n t i f y i n g the i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s among the v a r i o u s s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , e t c . , s y s tems t h a t a r e o p e r a t i n g i n a community. The p l a n n i n g method c h o s e n by C h i l l i w a c k was c l a s s i c a l and c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n c h a r a c t e r and i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s among many p l a n n i n g i s s u e s or s o c i a l p r o b l e m s i n the d i s t r i c t . However, t h i s method i s q u a l i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e y d i d n o t c a r r y out any e x t e n s i v e q u a n t i f y i n g of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and, i n f a c t , some of the p l a n ' s back-up d a t a was o u t r i g h t l y e r r o n e o u s and g e n e r a l l y s l i m . In o t h e r words, C h i l l i w a c k ' s a p p r o a c h was somewhat of a h a l f - h e a r t e d c l a s s i c a l p l a n n i n g method w h i c h i d e n t i f i e d -57-the v a r i o u s i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t s y stems but f a i l e d t o q u a n t i f y t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The t h i r d v a r i a b l e u n d e r p l a n n i n g s t r a g e g i e s i s ' p l a n n i n g t y p e ' . I t i s t h e o r i z e d t h a t l o n g - t e r m , g o a l -o r i e n t e d p l a n n i n g w h i c h f o c u s e s on complex and c o m p r e h e n s i v e systems of i n f o r m a t i o n i s l e s s l i k e l y t o g u i d e p u b l i c a c t i o n , t h a n i s p l a n n i n g w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e , f o c u s e s on means and d e a l s w i t h h i g h l y s t r a t e g i c i n f o r m a t i o n . C h i l l i w a c k ' s p l a n c e r t a i n l y had a l o n g - t e r m f o c u s , a l t h o u g h t h e p l a n was d e s i g n e d to s o l v e t h e i r i mmediate growth p r o b l e m and t h e r e -f o r e a l s o had a s h o r t - t e r m f o c u s . I t was a l s o g o a l - o r i e n t e d , f o c u s i n g on the end p r o d u c t of an e f f i c i e n t l y p l a n n e d community but s t a t i n g l i t t l e about how t h e numerous g o a l s were to be a c h i e v e d . I t i s u n c l e a r about the means t o be used to a c h i e v e such g o a l s as the m i n i m i z i n g o f the u r b a n -r u r a l c o n f l i c t s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t ; b r i n g i n g i n d u s t r y to the a r e a once the Development P l a n p r o v i d e d t h e l a n d f o r t h i s u s e ; p r o v i d i n g a l o c a l p u b l i c t r a n s i t s y s t e m ; d e v e l o p i n g p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s a r o u n d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s w aterways; and t h e r e t e n t i o n o f the o l d downtown C h i l l i w a c k C i t y c o r e as t h e p r i m a r y b u s i n e s s and c u l t u r a l c e n t e r . The i m p r e s s i o n e x i s t s , t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n makers p e r c e i v e d t h a t , by a d h e r i n g to the p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , t h e s e g o a l s would somehow a u t o m a t i c a l l y be a c h i e v e d i n due c o u r s e . -58-ACTION OR INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Of p r i m a r y c o n c e r n t o t h i s v a r i a b l e i s whether o r n o t t h e a c t i o n s t r a t e g y c h o s e n would d i s t u r b t h e s t a t u s quo t o any g r e a t e x t e n t by r e d i s t r i b u t i n g r e s o u r c e s , c h a n g i n g i n d i v i d u a l o r s o c i e t a l b e h a v i o r or c h a n g i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h l i t t l e d i s t u r b the s t a t u s quo or t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d t o change i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r , r a t h e r t h a n a g g r e g a t e s o c i e t a l b e h a v i o u r , a r e more l i k e l y to be a d o p t e d by a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . The Development P l a n put f o r t h by C h i l l i w a c k was d e s i g n e d s o l e l y to m a i n t a i n th e s t a t u s quo. The p l a n took the e x i s t i n g l a n d use p a t t e r n s , r o u n d e d them out and f i l l e d them i n and t h e n a l l o c a t e d some new a r e a s f o r t h o s e uses w h i c h were s h o r t of l a n d . The Development P l a n was a c t u a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g a new p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government had t a k e n t h r o u g h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e A.L.R. b e c a u s e C h i l l i w a c k wanted to r e t u r n t o the l o n g s t a n d i n g u r b a n growth p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . C h i l l i w a c k ' s p l a n , t h e r e f o r e , d i d n o t r e q u i r e t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l b e h a v i o u r be changed n o r t h a t the d i s t r i c t ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s m o d i f y t h e i r b e h a v i o r to any s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e . The d i s t r i c t was i n t e n t on r e t u r n i n g to the s t a t u s quo t h a t had been d i s r u p t e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government and l o c a l d e c i s i o n makers p e r c e i v e d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f i n t e n s i v e h i l l s i d e d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h would f o r c e i n d i v i d u a l and o r g a n i z a i t o n a l b e h a v i o u r c h a n g e s , as a l a s t r e s o r t o p t i o n . -59-SUMMARY W i t h r e s p e c t t o how t h e C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers p e r c e i v e d t h e p u b l i c i s s u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t was seen t h a t t h e Development P l a n was i d e o l o g i c a l l y sound f o r i t was o pposed by o n l y one c o u n c i l m a n . I t r e p r e s e n t e d a l o g i c a l compromise between the extreme p o s i t i o n o f no f u r t h e r growth onto a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , w h i c h the A.L.R. d i c t a t e d , and the o p p o s i t e extreme of u n f e t t e r e d u r b a n e x p a n s i o n i n t o f a r m i n g a r e a s . The p l a n was p e r c e i v e d to be a p r o p o s a l t h a t would b e n e f i t a l l C h i l l i w a c k c i t i z e n s by p r o v i d i n g a w e l l p l a n n e d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and r e l a t e d u r b a n a m e n i t i e s at a c o s t t h a t c o u l d be bo r n by the l o c a l r e v e n u e s t r u c t u r e . T hat the p r o p o s a l was i n f l e x i b l e o v e r t i m e , s i n c e i t was p l a n n i n g i r r e v e r s i b l e p h y s i c a l g r o w t h , was a p p a r e n t l y no r e a s o n f o r the C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s to r e j e c t i t as t h e model h y p o t h e s i z e d would be the c a s e . The l o c a l d e c i s i o n makers were a c t u a l l y w e l c o m i n g p h y s i c a l g rowth, e s p e c i a l l y the k i n d t h a t a s s i s t e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y b o l s t e r i n g t h e i r t a x b a s e . F i n a l l y , t h e Development P l a n was easy to programme, a p p e a r e d to have m i n i m a l r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s f o r t h e C h i l l i w a c k a r e a , and was easy to communicate t o t h o s e who would have to d e a l w i t h i t . On t h e s e c o n d V a r i a b l e Set t h a t d e a l s w i t h p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , i t was shown t h a t the C h i l l i w a c k community was i n a good p l a n n i n g p o s i t i o n to put t o g e t h e r - 6 0 -and c a r r y out a p l a n , s i n c e t h e P l a n n i n g Department was a t t a c h e d to t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l or power c e n t e r . That the p l a n n i n g method c h o s e n was a t l e a s t i n p a r t a comprehen-s i v e c l a s s i c a l a p p r o a c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h the f a c t t h a t t h e y were p l a n n i n g w i t h a l o n g - t e r m , g o a l - o r i e n t e d f o c u s , s h o u l d have m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p l a n , a c c o r d i n g to the model. However, i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e , t h i s was n o t t r u e . F i n a l l y , the a c t i o n or i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y employed i n the C h i l l i w a c k s i t u a t i o n a t t e m p t e d to m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo and as s u c h , a c c o r d i n g to the model, i t was an a p p r o a c h t h a t would be more l i k e l y to be a d o p t e d by a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . T h i s p r o v e d to be the c a s e w i t h th e C h i l l i w a c k p o l i t i c i a n s . CONCLUSION L o o k i n g at the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e s t r i c t l y f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s d e c i s i o n makers and t h o s e p l a n n e r s who had to d e a l w i t h i t , g i v e s a f a i r l y c l e a r p i c t u r e of why t h e s e p o l i c y makers took the p o s i t i o n on t h e m a t t e r t h a t t h e y d i d . The Development P l a n t h a t t h e y p r e p a r e d and hoped to implement met, f r o m t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e , most o f t h e c r i t e r i a as o u t l i n e d i n t h e h y p o t h e s e s on i s s u e a t t r i b u t e s and t h i s would t e n d to p r o p e l t h e p r o p o s a l toward a c c e p t a n c e . Of the s i x h y p o t h e s e s , the p l a n r a t e d p o s i t i v e l y on f i v e of them. W i t h r e s p e c t t o the a c t i o n s t r a t e g y c h o s e n by t h e C h i l l i w a c k p l a n n e r s , i t was seen to be one w h i c h would l i t t l e d i s t u r b t h e s t a t u s quo, and t h e r e f o r e , i t -61-was r e a d i l y a b l e to be a d o p t e d by the p o l i t i c i a n s . The f a c t t h a t the Development P l a n was i n t h e s t y l e o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c l a s s i c a l method of p l a n n i n g , w i t h a l o n g -t erm, g o a l - o r i e n t e d f o c u s , s h o u l d have m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t i t s a c c e p t a n c e by the p o l i t i c i a n s a c c o r d i n g to t h e model. However, t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers. O v e r a l l , t h e p l a n was p e r c e i v e d p o s i t i v e l y by t h e p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s , h o w e v e r , u l t i m a t e l y i t had to be s c r u t i n i z e d by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and t h e o t h e r government b o d i e s t h a t would e v e n t u a l l y f o r m p a r t o f t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h the C h i l l i w a c k p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s a p p e a r e d to be d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s i s s u e from th e p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i t was a p u r e l y l o c a l phenomena, t h i s was n o t s o . The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l examine the c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r o s e once the p l a n was r e v e a l e d and how t h e model r e l a t e s to t h e f i n a l outcome of the i s s u e . 62 CHAPTER 4 THE CHILLIWACK ISSUE WITHIN THE MODEL'S FRAMEWORK -63-THE NATURE OF THE OPPOSING FORCES We have examined the Development P l a n i n terms of t h e model's h y p o t h e s e s o n l y from th e p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e p l a n ' s p r o p o n e n t s . O v e r a l l , i t was a s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n from t h e i r p o i n t of v i e w . However, the p l a n had not been p r e s e n t e d to the C h i l l i w a c k g e n e r a l p u b l i c at any s t a g e of i t s d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e r e was no a p p a r e n t o p p o s i t i o n to t h e p r o p o s a l , u n t i l i t was r e v e a l e d i n i t s f i n a l f orm. I t was at t h i s p o i n t t h a t the l o c a l C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n making network was expanded beyond the c o n f i n e s of the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and t h e i r p l a n n i n g s t a f f . A v e r y v o c a l o p p o s i t i o n to the p l a n a r o s e i n C h i l l i w a c k i n the form of the Save the F a r m l a n d Committee. T h e i r v o i c e was r e a l l y the o n l y l o c a l p u b l i c v i e w p o i n t t h a t got a i r e d and t h i s g r o u p , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the C h i l l i w a c k p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s , r e p r e s e n t e d a more b a l a n c e d l o c a l d e c i s i o n making network, c o n s i s t i n g of the v i e w s of b o t h the p a i d and e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h i s l o c a l u n i t of d e c i s i o n makers, made up of b o t h o p p o n e n t s and p r o p o n e n t s of the p l a n , was not the o n l y network o p e r a t i n g to a f f e c t the i s s u e . Out-s i d e of the community l a y o t h e r d e c i s i o n making n e t w o r k s which would have t h e i r i n p u t i n t o the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e . T h e r e were t h r e e k i n d s of o u t s i d e n e t w o r k s o p e r a t i n g . F i r s t l y , t h e r e were the p r i v a t e i n d e p e n d e n t g r o u p s s u c h as l a b o r , c h u r c h and a g r i -c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t r a l l i e d a g a i n s t the p l a n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e were the i n t e r d e p e n d e n t government d e p a r t m e n t s t h a t v o i c e d s t r o n g o p i n i o n s on the Development P l a n , and f i n a l l y , t h e r e was - 6 4 -E.L.U.C., t h a t autonomous committee o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n -ment's C a b i n e t t h a t would u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t t h e p l a n . These o u t s i d e d e c i s i o n making n e t w o r k s , t o g e t h e r w i t h th e o p p o s i n g f o r c e s i n the community i t s e l f , were c r i t i c a l t o the f i n a l o u t -come of the o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . W i t h the i n v o l v e -ment of t h e s e e x t e r n a l d e c i s i o n making gr o u p s and n e t w o r k s , the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e was c l e a r l y more complex t h a n a l o c a l community ma 11 e r . THE BASIS FOR OPPOSITION The main t h r u s t of o p p o s i t i o n to the Development P l a n c e n t e r e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y on the V a r i a b l e Set d e a l i n g w i t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P u b l i c I s s u e s and more s p e c i f i c a l l y on the h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e d to ' i d e o l o g y ' and to ' r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t y ' . The C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e was s t e e p e d i n c o n f l i c t o v e r the b a s i c v a l u e s i m p l i c i t i n the p r o p o s a l and t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e un-c e r t a i n t y about the v a r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s t h i s community p l a n would have on o t h e r p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s , b o t h l o c a l l y and o u t s i d e the C h i l l i w a c k a r e a . B e f o r e f o c u s i n g on the i d e o l o g i c a l con-' f l i c t s and the o t h e r p l a n n i n g i s s u e s , i t i s r e l e v a n t t o examine how v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e f i n e d the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e . A D e f i n i t i o n of t h e I s s u e The i s s u e t e n d s to c o n f i r m the p o i n t e x p r e s s e d by D e n n i s R o n d i n e l l i i n h i s p a p e r on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of u r b a n p o l i c y m aking. He p o i n t e d out t h a t few i s s u e s a r e d e f i n e d i n the same -65-way by a l l who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i c y making p r o c e s s . G e n e r -a l l y , each i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l p l a c e a d i f f e r e n t 5 8 emphasis on a d i f f e r e n t component o f the p r o b l e m . B a s i c a l l y , the two o p p o s i t e minded o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e were the Land Commission and the C h i l l i w a c k C o u n c i l . The f o r -mer r e a l l y had to d e f i n e t h e i s s u e as the p r e s e r v a t i o n of f a r m -l a n d , s i n c e i t s mandate was to p r o t e c t and p r e s e r v e the p r o v i n c e ' s s c a r c e r e s o u r c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . On the o t h e r hand, the C h i l l i w a c k C o u n c i l saw the i s s u e as community gr o w t h , s i n c e n a t u r a l l y i t was C o u n c i l ' s j o b to keep the a r e a e c o n o m i c a l l y h e a l t h y and g r o w i n g . T h e r e were o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s of the i s s u e , or r a t h e r , emphases p l a c e d on d i f f e r e n t components of the p r o -blem. F o r i n s t a n c e , the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and Hous-i n g was c o n c e r n e d about how the r e l e a s e of so many a c r e s from the A.L.R. would a f f e c t t h e demand f o r u r b a n l a n d t h r o u g h o u t the e n t i r e Lower M a i n l a n d . G e n e r a l l y , what happens i n the p r o c e s s of p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y making i s t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l group i n v o l v e d t r i e s to m o b i l i z e s u p p o r t f o r i t s own d e f i n i t i o n of the p r o b l e m . T h i s was most c l e a r w i t h r e s p e c t to the Save the F a r m l a n d Committee, w h i c h r a l l i e d s u p p o r t f o r i t s p o s i t i o n t h a t f a r m l a n d s h o u l d n ot be r e l e a s e d from the A.L.R. i n o r d e r f o r the Development P l a n to p r o c e e d . The group m o b i l i z e d s i g n i f i c a n t s u p p o r t at i t s pub-l i c m e e t i n g s , b o t h from w i t h i n and o u t s i d e C h i l l i w a c k , and made i t s v o i c e of o p p o s i t i o n t o the p l a n c l e a r l y h e a r d . The g r o u p ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the i s s u e r a n p a r a l l e l to the Land Commission's - 6 6 -p o i n t of v i e w , however, i t went f u r t h e r and i n t o t h e i s s u e of l i f e - s t y l e i n the community. Not o n l y was t h i s group c o n -c e r n e d about not d e s t r o y i n g n o n - r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s s u c h as f a r m l a n d , but i t a l s o wanted to see the c o n t i n u a n c e of C h i l l i w a c k ' s a g r a r i a n l i f e - s t y l e , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d open s p a c e , i n c r e a s i n g f a r m i n g a c t i v i t y , no p o l l u t i o n or t r a f f i c jams and t h e o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e q u a l i t y of l i f e t h a t c o u l d be e x p e r i e n c e d i n a community w i t h a s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e were d i f f e r e n t ways to d e f i n e the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e . The d i v e r g e n t emphases p l a c e d on v a r i o u s components of the p r o b l e m by p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p s were bound to make a f i n a l s o l u t i o n , t h a t was s a t i s f a c t o r y to a l l , d i f f i c u l t to a c h i e v e . H a v i n g r e v i e w e d the main d e f i n i t i o n s of the p r o b l e m , i t i s p o s s i b l e to a l i g n t h e s e p o i n t s of v i e w on the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e w i t h the h y p o t h e s e s r e s p e c t i n g the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P u b l i c I s s u e s . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , most of the o p p o n e n t s to the Development P l a n were a g a i n s t i t m a i n l y on the b a s i s of i d e o l -ogy or the f a c t of the u n c e r t a i n t y of the c o n s e q u e n c e s of the p r o p o s a l . I d e o l o g i c a l C o n f l i c t W i t h i n the Community To r e i t e r a t e the h y p o t h e s i s on how the i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t o f a p r o p o s a l f o r change i n f l u e n c e s the d e c i s i o n outcome, i t i s t h e o r i z e d t h a t i f t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n f l i c t o v e r b a s i c v a l u e s i m p l i c i t i n a p r o p o s a l , t h e r e w i l l be a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y toward p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . However, s h o u l d a p r o p o s a l s e r i o u s l y c o n f l i c t -67-w i t h w i d e l y h e l d v a l u e s , t h e n t h e r e w i l l be a t e n d e n c y toward r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d a c t i o n . The e s s e n c e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s , a c c o r d i n g to the model, t h a t c o m m u n i t i e s a r e not l i k e l y to c u t o f f w i d e l y h e l d s o c i a l v a l u e s . I t has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d how the o f f i c i a l d e c i s i o n makers i n C h i l l i w a c k v i e w e d the Development P l a n . To the p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s i t was i d e o l o g i c a l l y sound, r e p r e s e n t -i n g a r e a l i s t i c compromise between the A.L.R. and u r b a n growth. S i n c e the C h i l l i w a c k p u b l i c had not been i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l -opment of the community p l a n , t h e i r v a l u e s and i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n c e on the i s s u e had not been h e a r d by the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . I t was not u n t i l the p l a n was c o m p l e t e and p u b l i c l y u n v e i l e d t h a t i t became a b u n d a n t l y a p p a r e n t to the C h i l l i w a c k p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s t h a t t h e r e was a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n and t h a t of o t h e r c i t i z e n s i n the community. The i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s of t h e C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e c e n t e r e d a r ound B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c h a n g i n g v i e w o f l a n d use p r i o r i t i e s . Whereas the c o n c e p t had l o n g e x i s t e d t h a t f a r m l a n d s h o u l d make way f o r the v a r i o u s more i m p o r t a n t and i n t e n s i v e u r b a n u s e s , s o c i e t y ' s v i e w p o i n t was c h a n g i n g . The a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r of s o c i e t y was b e i n g g i v e n e q u a l s t a t u s w i t h , and f r e q u e n t l y p r e c e d e n c e o v e r , the u r b a n s e c t o r . The v a l u e s b e h i n d the p o s i -t i o n of C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s a c k n o w l e d g e d the o v e r r i d i n g i m p o r t a n c e of economic growth f o r the d i s t r i c t , by means of the easy p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t -r i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. Those c i t i z e n s who spoke out - 6 8 -on t h e i s s u e were not a g a i n s t d e v e l o p m e n t p e r s e , however, t h e y v a l u e d the i d e a l o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n and were adamant t h a t C h i l l i w a c k ' s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t be p r e s e r v e d i n the f u t u r e p r o c e s s o f community g r o w t h . Amongst the r a n k s of C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s , t h e r e was one v o i c e t h a t a l i g n e d w i t h the v i e w p o i n t of the Save the Farm-l a n d Committee. The d i s s e n t i n g c o u n c i l m a n had the v i e w t h a t p e o p l e have a g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be good s t e w a r d s of a l l n o n - r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s and, t h a t i n a w o r l d o f hungry p e o p l e , f a r m l a n d was too v a l u a b l e a r e s o u r c e to b u i l d on. Of a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n to him was the s t y l e o f l i f e t h a t would e x i s t i n a C h i l l i w a c k w i t h t w i c e the p o p u l a t i o n , s i n c e i t was f o r open space t h a t p e o p l e had come to the d i s t r i c t and t h e y d i d not want the c o n g e s t i o n t h a t goes a l o n g w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a -t i o n s . At the same time t h a t the c o u n c i l m a n was o b j e c t i n g to the p l a n , t h e Save the F a r m l a n d Oommittee was a l s o p r o t e s t i n g . However, i t was not known f o r c e r t a i n whether t h i s g r o u p ' s v o i c e r e p r e s e n t e d the p r e d o m i n a n t v i e w of C h i l l i w a c k ' s c i t i -z e n s , or whether the g e n e r a l p u b l i c was a c t u a l l y a l i g n e d w i t h the p o l i t i c i a n s ' v i e w p o i n t . T h i s was not to be f o u n d out u n t i l a few y e a r s l a t e r when p u b l i c i n p u t was f i n a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the community's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In the meantime, the Save the F a r m l a n d Committee, b e i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y made up o f l o c a l C h i l l i w a c k c i t i z e n s , was the o n l y community v o i c e , T h i s group e s p o u s e d the v a l u e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s a g r a r i a n l i f e - s t y l e -69-and the p o t e n t i a l a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e g o a l of i n c r e a s i n g f a r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n C h i l l i w a c k and, f i n a l l y , a t t h e l a r g e r s c a l e , the g o a l of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n f o o d p r o d u c t i o n f o r the p r o v i n c e . These were some of t h e v a l u e s t h a t t h i s g r o u p , a t l e a s t , were not w i l l i n g t o see c u t o f f . I d e o l o g i c a l C o n f l i c t O u t s i d e t h e Community O u t s i d e of the l o c a l d e c i s i o n making n e t w o r k , t h e r e were o t h e r n e t w o r k s which had a v o i c e i n the i s s u e . The Land Commis-s i o n f o r example, w h i c h s t o o d f o r the b a s i c v a l u e of p r e s e r v i n g f a r m l a n d , took the s t a n d t h a t the 1700 a c r e s w h i c h was r e q u e s t e d f o r r e m o v a l from the A.L.R. s h o u l d not come out b e c a u s e t h e s e l a n d s had a wide range of farm c r o p p i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s and were some of the b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s i n Canada. On the o t h e r hand, the Land Commission d i d have a compromise p o s i t i o n i n the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e s i n c e the Commission body would c o n s i d e r r e -moving t h e l e s s v a l u a b l e A.L.R. l a n d s i n the d i s t r i c t ' s s o u t h -e r n h i l l s i d e a r e a s i n o r d e r to a l l o w u r b a n growth on t h e s e p o o r e r c a p a b i l i t y s o i l s . These A. L . P.. l a n d s would p r o v i d e s p a c e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e lopment i n a d d i t i o n to t h o s e h i l l s i d e p r o p e r t i e s t h a t were not i n the A.L.R. O t h e r compromises by the Land Commission i n c l u d e d the recommendation t h a t 16 a c r e s of v a l l e y l a n d s be e x c l u d e d from t h e A.L.R. and the Commission's w i l l i n g n e s s to g i v e f a v o r a b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to i n d u s t r i a l p r o -p o s a l s , of s i g n i f i c a n c e to l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r e , i n a s e v e n t y a c r e a r e a o f C h i l l i w a c k . I t was the Commission's v i e w t h a t i t was -70-n e c e s s a r y to e n c o u r a g e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s to l o c a t e i n C h i l l i w a c k to s u p p o r t the farm community. T h e r e were o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a l s o c o n c e n t r a t e d on o p p o s i n g the p l a n b a s e d on the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y o f the C h i l l i w a c k l a n d s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s v i e w e d the b l a n k e t r e l e a s e of s u c h a l a r g e a c r e a g e , most of w h i c h was d e v o t e d to p r o d u c t i v e com-m e r c i a l a g r i c u l t u r e , as c o m p l e t e l y u n j u s t i f i e d . ^ ^ The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e A d v i s o r y Committee, w h i c h was made up of f a r m e r s and a c t e d i n p a r t as an a d v i s o r t o the Land Commission, s t r o n g l y recommended a g a i n s t the r e l e a s e of the l a n d even on a t h i r t y y e a r b a s i s , as t h i s q u o t e from t h e i r b r i e f to the Land Commission r e v e a l s : " I t has been s a i d many t i m e s b e f o r e t h a t C h i l l i w a c k i s l o c a t e d on the wrong p l a c e b e c a u s e the l a n d was t o o good to be put under c o n c r e t e and b l a c k t o p ; why keep d o i n g i t ? L e t us s t o p w i t h t h a t NOW b e f o r e i t i s too 61 l a t e . " I t was the F e d e r a t i o n ' s v i e w t h a t p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be done w i t h the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n s i n mind and t h a t p l a n n e r s s h o u l d a v o i d t a k i n g top q u a l i t y s o i l out of f o o d p r o d u c t i o n . These g r o u p s , w h i c h q u e s t i o n e d the i n h e r e n t v a l u e s i n the Development P l a n , a l s o had some s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m of C h i l l i w a c k ' s p a s t and p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g s e n s e and e f f o r t s . The Save the Farm-l a n d Committee condemned the community f o r h a v i n g a l l o w e d s t r i p d e v e l o p m e n t to s p r e a d out a l o n g the highways from the u r b a n c o r e and f o r h a v i n g g i v e n i n to t h e d e v e l o p e r s , who l o b b i e d o v e r the y e a r s to have a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s r e z o n e d f o r u r b a n u s e s . T h i s -71-r e s u l t e d i n a hodge-podge of s p o t z o n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t and no community p l a n n i n g , w i t h the end r e s u l t b e i n g h i g h c o s t s to the t a x p a y e r s t o s e r v i c e t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s . The group p o i n t e d out t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e s to the community f o r growth were i n -f i l l i n g , h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s and de v e l o p m e n t of the numerous a c r e s i n the d i s t r i c t ' s u p l a n d a r e a s . The B.C. I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s were c r i t i c a l of C h i l l i w a c k ' s p r o p o s a l b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r e d to be g o i n g ahead w i t h o u t t h o r o u g h p l a n n i n g of the a r e a and w i t h o u t s e r i o u s i n -v e s t i g a t i o n of development p o s s i b i l i t i e s on the l o w e r c a p a b i l -6 2 i t y l a n d s i n the v i c i n i t y . The F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e f e l t the C h i l l i w a c k C o u n c i l s h o u l d p l a n f o r h i g h d e n s i t y h o u s i n g on a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e l a n d s and s h o u l d f o c u s on d e v e l o p m e n t of the m o u n t a i n s l o p e s . T h i s group a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e was a l a r g e a r e a s o u t h of tjie d i s t r i c t ' s b o u n d a r i e s , i n the a r e a of the C u l t u s Lake P r o v i n c i a l P a r k , t h a t c o u l d s u p p o r t e x t e n s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . On the n o r t h e r l y s i d e of t h i s C o l u m b i a V a l l e y a r e a t h e r e would be 3,000 to 4,000 a c r e s of l a n d w h i c h c o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t sewer and water s y s t e m s . The C h i l l i w a c k Development P l a n was i d e o l o g i c a l l y v e r y u n p o p u l a r among grou p s b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e community, but t h i s was not the o n l y b a s i s on w h i c h o p p o s i t i o n r e s t e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was u n c e r t a i n t y about the c o n s e q u e n c e s of the p l a n and the r i s k s i n h e r e n t i n i t . -72-O p p o s i t i o n to R i s k s and U n c e r t a i n t i e s T h i s h y p o t h e s i s t h e o r i z e s t h a t u n c e r t a i n t y c l e a r l y a f f e c t s t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . B o l a n and N u t t a l l c o n t e n d t h a t t h i s i s t r u e not o n l y i n p o l i t i c a l s ystems but i n o t h e r more t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d group c i r c u m s t a n c e s as w e l l . Where r i s k s a r e h i g h and c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e u n c e r t a i n t h e r e i s a h e s i t a n c y to a c t ; however, where c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e e a s i l y p r e d i c t a b l e and r i s k s m i n i m i z e d (and a l l f a c t o r s a r e f a v o r a b l e ) , p o s i t i v e d e c i s i o n s may r e a d i l y be r e a c h e d . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 3, C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s v i e w e d t h e i r Development P l a n w i t h a f e e l -i n g of c e r t a i n t y about i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s . The p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p -ment of the community was c l e a r l y s t r u c t u r e d and l a i d out f o r the n e x t 30 y e a r s . The p o l i t i c i a n s p e r c e i v e d t h a t a d h e r e n c e to t h i s growth p a t t e r n would a l l o w the a t t a i n m e n t of a v a r i e t y of economic and s o c i a l g o a l s f o r the d i s t r i c t . D e s p i t e p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s by C h i l l i w a c k ' s d e c i s i o n makers about t h e i r p r o p o s a l , t h e r e were some government d e p a r t m e n t s t h a t e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n o v e r c o n s e q u e n c e s the Development P l a n c o u l d have. The main c o n c e r n was the impact on the demand f o r u r b a n l a n d i n the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , o f f i c i a l s i n the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f e l t t h a t the p r o p o s a l s h o u l d be examined not i n i s o l a t i o n , but i n the c o n t e x t of demand f o r l a n d f o r u r b a n p u r p o s e s t h r o u g h o u t the F r a s e r V a l l e y . T h e r e were l a n d s i n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t were e i t h e r b e i n g d e v e l -oped or were soon t o be d e v e l o p e d . These l a n d s were not i n the A.L.R. and were l o c a t e d i n v a r y i n g amounts i n A b b o t s f o r d , -73-M a t s q u i , M i s s i o n , Maple R i d g e and L a n g l e y T o w n s h i p . J u s t the p r e v i o u s y e a r , f o r example, o v e r 1 2 0 0 a c r e s had been r e d e s i g n n a t e d t o an URBAN 1 c a t e g o r y i n the Lower M a i n l a n d O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n a t M a t s q u i . T h i s community, l o c a t e d l e s s t h a n twenty m i l e s west o f C h i l l i w a c k , was m a i n l y g o i n g to use t h e l a n d f o r h o u s i n g . O f f i c i a l s i n the Department of Highways had a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of u n c e r t a i n t y about the c o n s e q u e n c e s the p r o p o s a l would have on the l i n k a g e s between the l o c a l community r o a d s y s tems and the f r e e w a y . I n c r e a s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t would mean more use of the fr e e w a y as p a r t of the u r b a n r o a d s y s t e m f o r l o c a l t r i p s , w h i c h would r e s t r i c t t h r o u g h t r a f f i c on the f r e e w a y . T h i s b e i n g the c a s e , t h e r e would be p r e s s u r e f o r a r e p l a c e m e n t highway w h i c h would have to be n e g o t i a t e d t h r o u g h I n d i a n l a n d s . Such a r e p l a c e m e n t would be v e r y c o s t l y to the p r o v i n c e i n d o l l a r s and i n l o s s o f prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , at the r a t e of about t w e n t y - f i v e a c r e s p e r m i l e . Urban d e v e l o p m e n t , however, t h a t took p l a c e i n the s o u t h e r n u p l a n d a r e a s would not g e n e r a t e too many l o c a l t r i p s on the f r e e w a y . P e r s o n n e l i n the Water R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e were v e r y c o n -c e r n e d about the p r o p o s a l b e c a u s e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the a r e a under c o n s i d e r a t i o n was i n e i t h e r the F r a s e r R i v e r f l o o d p l a i n or c o u l d be f l o o d e d by the d i s t r i c t ' s i n t e r n a l c r e e k s and s l o u g h s o r by the Vedder R i v e r i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t of the community. In some a r e a s i t was known how much l a n d f i l l would be r e q u i r e d f o r f l o o d p r o o f i n g , but i n o t h e r a r e a s i t was e x t r e m e --74-l y d i f f i c u l t to e s t i m a t e the need. F i l l i n g t h e l a n d as w e l l as o v e r c o m i n g b e a r i n g p r o b l e m s f o r b u i l d i n g s and u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e s c o u l d be e x p e n s i v e . The p r o b l e m was a r e a l f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the u r b a n growth the D e velopment P l a n would g e n e r a t e , b e c a u s e the government was even t h e n making damage payments i n the community as a r e s u l t of the p r e v i o u s w i n t e r ' s f l o o d . These i s s u e s were some of the r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s the Development P l a n g e n e r a t e d and the r e s u l t a n t c o s t s , f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r w i s e , would have to be b o r n e by b o t h the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r . C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s had b a s e d t h e i r p r o p o s a l o n l y on t h e i r p o i n t of v i e w , which to some e x t e n t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d , however, t h e r e were b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s to the p r o -p o s a l and t h e s e g e n e r a l c o n s e q u e n c e s were the f o c u s of o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . C r i t i c i s m of the P l a n n i n g Method A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a of o p p o s i t i o n to the Development P l a n f o c u s e d on the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h whether a c o m p r e h e n s i v e or i n c r e m e n t a l method of p r o b l e m s o l v i n g i s u s e d . I t was d e t e r m i n e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t C h i l l i w a c k had b a s i c a l l y used a c l a s s i c a l , c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g method w h i c h c e n t e r e d on the c r e a t i o n of a l o n g - r a n g e p h y s i c a l growth p l a n d e s i g n e d to c o n t r o l , o v e r a t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d , t h e l o c a t i o n of l a n d u ses and t h e amount of l a n d a l l o c a t e d f o r e ach use'. However, the p l a n n i n g d a t a base t h a t was p r e p a r e d and used was s l i m and -75-ques t i o n a b l e . F o r example, the P l a n n i n g Department d e v e l o p e d p o p u l a t i o n growth f i g u e s to j u s t i f y the amount of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d w h i c h was to be removed from the A.L.R. I t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the com-mu n i t y was g r o w i n g at an a v e r a g e r a t e o f 6% p e r annum and t h a t the combined p o p u l a t i o n of the d i s t r i c t and C h i l l i w a c k C i t y would have i n c r e a s e d from th e 1976 f i g u r e of 37,055 p e o p l e to 6 3 90,000 p e o p l e by the y e a r 2000. A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s 6% f i g u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t i t was b a s e d on the d i s t r i c t ' s n e t h o u s i n g g a i n from 1971 to 1976, r a t h e r t h an on the a r e a ' s a c t u a l p o p u l a t i o n growth d u r i n g t h a t t i m e . The c y c l i c a l n a t u r e of the h o u s i n g market does not p r o v i d e a p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i a b l e b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i n g a community's growth r a t e , s i n c e s h o r t term p e r i o d s of b o t h under and o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t may d i s t o r t the l o n g term p a t t e r n . T h i s was i n f a c t the c a s e f o r C h i l l i w a c k , w h i c h had a y e a r l y a v e r a g e net h o u s i n g g a i n between 1971 and 1976 of 6%. However, t h e s e h o u s i n g s t a r t s peaked d r a m a t i c a l l y i n 1976 and f e l l back to l e s s t h a n h a l f t h a t r a t e i n 1977, t h e n d r o p p e d 64 a g a i n i n 1978. By the summer of 1977 t h e r e was a p r o b l e m a t i c s t a t e of o v e r b u i l d i n g i n b o t h the h o u s i n g and c o m m e r c i a l mar-k e t s . ^ The 6% growth r a t e f i g u r e used to j u s t i f y the D e v e l o p -ment P l a n ' s p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s was d i s t o r t e d and u n r e a l i s t i c and was q u e s t i o n e d e a r l y on by the E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t . The S e c r e t a r i a t a l s o had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n p u t i n t o the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s o f the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e . I t p o i n t e d out t h a t the -76-S t a t i s t i c s Canada P r e l i m i n a r y 1976 Census d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t C h i l l i w a c k ' s a v e r a g e a n n u a l growth r a t e s i n c e 1971 had been 3.3% and t h a t , when compared to a n n u a l growth r a t e s i n o t h e r a r e a s of the F r a s e r V a l l e y , t h i s f i g u r e was m o d e r a t e . F o r example, A b b o t s f o r d was g r o w i n g a t 5% per y e a r , M i s s i o n at 6 6 8.7% and L a n g l e y at 12.7%. A n o t h e r a s p e c t of the d a t a b a s e , w h i c h l e n t doubt to the c r e d i b i l i t y of the p o s i t i o n t a k e n by the C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers, was t h a t of the amount of l a n d t h a t was i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l i n f i l l i n g . C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s c l a i m e d t h a t , when e s t a b l i s h i n g the A.L.R., the Land Commission had not a l l o w e d t h e i r community a f i v e y e a r s u p p l y of l a n d , w hich was the amount supposed to be l e f t o u t s i d e the A.L.R. around a l l u r b a n c e n t e r s to be used f o r immediate growth. At b e s t , i t was c l a i m e d , C h i l l i w a c k got a t h r e e y e a r s u p p l y . The S e c r e t a r i a t e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e would be a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 330 a c r e s needed f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n the com-mu n i t y between 1976 and 1981 a t t h e growth r a t e of 3.3%. T h i s growth c o u l d be accommodated by t h e a v a i l a b l e 650 a c r e s of v a c a n t l a n d , i n c l u d i n g b o t h non A.L.R. i n f i l l i n g p r o p e r t i e s and e x i s t i n g p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d h i l l s i d e a r e a s . A f t e r t h a t time t h e r e were the r e m a i n i n g u n d e v e l o p e d u p l a n d a r e a s t h a t c o u l d house an a d d i t i o n a l 60 y e a r s of p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . ^ A n o t h e r p o i n t on w h i c h the S e c r e t a r i a t was c r i t i c a l of C h i l l i w a c k ' s p o s i t i o n was s o m e t h i n g o f an i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n . I t r e l a t e d to C h i l l i w a c k ' s d e s i r e f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d , the p r o v i s i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t of w h i c h would b o l s t e r the com-m u n i t y ' s t a x b a s e . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t n o t a l l F r a s e r V a l l e y -77-c o m m u n i t i e s c o u l d e x p e c t t o have e x t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -ment and a t t h e time t h e r e was not a heavy demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n C h i l l i w a c k . The S e c r e t a r i a t c i t e d a phone s u r v e y , c a r -r i e d out by the I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n s S e c t i o n of t h e M i n i s t r y of Economic Development, w h i c h was d i r e c t e d a t r a i l w a y companies i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p e r s and r e a l - e s t a t e a g e n t s . I t had been f o u n d t h a t r e l a t i v e l y few e n q u i r i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m i n d u s t r i e s w i s h i n g to l o c a t e i n the Upper F r a s e r V a l l e y . In a d d i t i o n , the f a c t r e m a i n e d t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r a r e a s o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y t h a t c o u l d accommodate the d e v e l o p m e n t of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s . The p r e c e d i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e the u n s o u n d n e s s of the i d e o l o g i c a l and f a c t u a l f o u n d a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by C h i l l i w a c k p l a n -n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t t h e i r community p l a n . A l t h o u g h the P l a n n i n g Department had t a k e n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n -n i n g a p p r o a c h to t h e i r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , i t had f a i l e d to s u p p o r t the p l a n t h r o u g h even some of the most b a s i c d a t a . In t h i s s e n s e , the p l a n n i n g method used c o u l d be c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s s e r i o u s f u n d a m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n gaps and t h e s e f l a w s were f o c u s e on by o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . Summary Th e r e were c o n f l i c t s o v e r the p l a n b a s e d on i t s i d e o l o g y as e x p r e s s e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n s b o t h i n and o u t s i d e the community. The i n t e n d e d move by C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s to f u r t h e r u r b a n i z e some of t h e b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s i n Canada was u n a c c e p t a b l e -78-to many i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be a l t e r n a t i v e growth o p t i o n s f o r the a r e a . Of a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n and a f o c u s f o r c r i t i c i s m were the r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p l a n . The C h i l l i w a c k p r o p o s a l would have had r e p e r c u s s i o n s o u t s i d e the l o c a l a r e a w h i c h were not c o n s i d e r e d or a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e d e c i s i o n makers i n the com-m u n i t y . T h e r e were o t h e r F r a s e r V a l l e y c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h would have been a f f e c t e d by the r e l e a s e o f the C h i l l i w a c k l a n d s . T h e r e were a l s o f i n a n c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a -t e d to the l o c a l r o a d n e t w o r k s and the p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d evelopment i n f l o o d p l a i n a r e a s . A n o t h e r f a c t o r to be c o n -s i d e r e d was the e f f e c t on o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s ' A.L.R. l a n d s t h a t such a p r e c e d e n t - s e t t i n g r e l e a s e of f a r m l a n d would have. The g r a n t i n g of C h i l l i w a c k ' s e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t would have t e n d e d to e n c o u r a g e o t h e r a r e a s of t h e p r o v i n c e to a p p l y f o r r e l e a s e of l a n d from t h e i r A.L.R.'s. The f i n a n c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s Development P l a n s p r e a d beyond C h i l l i w a c k ' s b o r d e r s and o p p o n e n t s to t h e p l a n f o c u s e d i n on the b r o a d e r c o n -s e q u e n c e s and c o s t s of such a p r o p o s a l . T h e r e was one f i n a l government d e c i s i o n making u n i t t h a t had to a c t i n the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e and the n a t u r e and i m p o r t a n c e of the r o l e p l a y e d by the E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee of the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d . -79-THE ROLE OF VETO POWER T h i s government d e c i s i o n making u n i t was c r i t i c a l to the outcome of t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g the Development P l a n . The model can h e l p i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e t h i s a gency p l a y e d , t h e r e f o r e , a d i g r e s s i o n must be made back to the t h e o r y of B o l a n and N u t t a l l . One of the V a r i a b l e S e t s i n the model, w h i c h i s not a p r i m a r y f o c u s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y , d e a l s w i t h the r o l e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s p l a y . B o l a n and N u t t a l l d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a number of t h e s e p r o c e s s r o l e s and t h a t t h e s e r o l e s can be r a n k e d i n terms of t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e to the f i n a l outcome o f the i s s u e . U s i n g the a v e r a g e of t h e i r f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s t h e y found t h a t the s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a -t i o n s between ' i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r r o l e s ' and ' i m p o r t a n c e to the i s s u e ' went to t h e i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g the 'Veto Power' and ' M e d i a t o r ' r o l e s . The o t h e r r o l e s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n r a n k i n g s 6 8 can be seen i n T a b l e 2. I t was f o u n d i n the f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s t h a t t h o s e a c t o r s who p o s s e s s e d v e t o power were u s u a l l y i n government p o s i t i o n s . The V e t o Power r o l e , a l o n g w i t h t h e t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t r o l e w h i c h was t h a t of ' P u b l i c L e a d e r ' , were p o s i t i o n s w i t h f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y f o r g r a n t i n g o r d e n y i n g o f f i c i a l a p p r o v a l of a p r o j e c t and, t h e r e f o r e , p o s s e s s e d c e n t r a l r o l e s i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . In the model's f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s t h e s e r o l e s were p e r c e i v e d or a s c r i b e d r o l e s , r a t h e r t h a n o f f i c i a l or p r e d e t e r m i n e d r o l e s . 80 TABLE 2 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ACTOR ROLES AND IMPORTANCE TO ISSUE A f f i l -Manhat- P i t t s - iated tan Ex- burgh Hosp-A l l Inner press- High i t a l Cases Belt way Schools Center Veto Power .42 b .42 b .55 b .70 b Mediator .38 b .46 b .43 b .45 a .47 b Public Leader .35 b .49 b .30 b -.02 .66 b Community Knowledgeable .34 b .41 b .19 .33 .48 b Expert on Process .29 b .33 b .13 .56 b .38 b I n i t i a t o r .27 b .49 b -.04 .06 .61 b C o a l i t i o n Maker .20 b .36 b .13 .06 .52 b Judge .20 b . .33 b .12 -.15 .38 a Technical Expert .10 .09 .03 .20 .27 S i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0.00 at the .05 l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0.00 at the .01 l e v e l - 8 1 -T h i s r o l e of V e t o Power e x i s t e d i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e , however, i t was n o t h e l d by one i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r . R a t h e r , i t was v i r t u a l l y a p r e d e t e r m i n e d r o l e t h a t was h e l d by t h e E n v i r o n -ment and Land Use Committee. T h i s P r o v i n c i a l Government u n i t was t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t c o n c l u s i v e l y s t o p p e d a c t i o n on t h e Development P l a n . A l t h o u g h i t s o f f i c i a l a u t h o r i t y d i d n o t l i e i n g r a n t i n g or d e n y i n g d i r e c t a p p r o v a l to the community p l a n i t s e l f , i t had i n d i r e c t v e t o power o v e r the p l a n by r e f u s i n g to e x c l u d e the r e q u i r e d u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t l a n d s from the A.L.R. E.L.U.C. a l l o w e d o n l y 16 a c r e s a d j a c e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p -ment to be e x c l u d e d from the A.L.R. and r e t a i n e d a l l of the r e m a i n i n g f a r m l a n d t h a t was needed by C h i l l i w a c k to p u r s u e the Development P l a n . E.L.U.C. was of the o p i n i o n t h a t f i v e y e a r s of r e s i d e n t i a l growth c o u l d be accommodated t h r o u g h i n f i l l i n g and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l d e v e lopment c o u l d be accommodated i n the u p l a n d s . In g e n e r a l , i t was f e l t t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r r e s i -d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t e x i s t e d e l s e w h e r e i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , w i t h o u t e n c r o a c h i n g on C h i l l i w a c k ' s h i g h c a p a -b i l i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . E.L.U.C., i n r e f u s i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n to e x c l u d e t h e s e l a n d s from the A.L.R., a l s o made i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the p r o v i n c e was w i l l i n g to a s s i s t C h i l l i w a c k i n a s t u d y to d e t e r m i n e u r b a n s u i t a b i l i t y , d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s and market f e a s i b i l i t y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e u p l a n d a r e a s . In the same sen s e t h a t B o l a n and N u t t a l l d e t e r m i n e d t h e r e was a V e t o Power r o l e p l a y e d by i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s i n t h e i r f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a y e d t h i s r o l e - 8 2 -in the Chilliwack case. This role was a predetermined or o f f i c i a l role rather than one which this organization took for i t s e l f or had ascribed to i t during the decision making process. In the model, the i n d i v i d u a l actor's roles were ascribed or were perceived by other actors in the process. Bolan and N u t t a l l found that the Veto Power role holder was in a government posi-tion and in Chilliwack's case, i t was actu a l l y a government agency with formal authority to grant or deny o f f i c i a l approval. Having this power gave E.L.U.C. a central p o s i t i o n in the deci-sion making process, but the exact motivation behind E,L.U.C.'s decision cannot be known. Whether E.L.U.C. was acting solely to uphold the o f f i c i a l government posit i o n to preserve a g r i -c u l t u r a l land, as exemplified by the A.L.R., or whether i t was responding to the strong opposition forces to the Development Plan, is not known. Whatever i t s motivation, E.L.U.C. was a decisive component in the outcome of the decision making process. THE COMPROMISE ASPECT OF DECISION OUTCOMES Bolan and N u t t a l l point out in their model that past studies of community decision making episodes have tended to focus on the issue outcome in simple 'yes' or 'no' terms, that i s , a plan or proposal was either favorably decided upon or was turned down. However, i t i s pointed out that outcomes are usually the result of extended bargaining and are usually compromises of some sort and thus are not pure decisions to adopt or r e j e c t . This was the case at Chilliwack where concessions were made to the community in the years following E.L.U.C.'s r e f u s a l to exclude -83-the 1700 a c r e s f r o m t h e A.L.R. Only a few months l a t e r , E.L.U.C. a l l o w e d the r e m o v a l of e i g h t a c r e s f r o m t h e C h i l l i w a c k A.L.R. a g a i n s t t h e a d v i c e o f t h e Land Commission. T h i s p a r c e l was on a major r o a d a c c e s s n e a r the a i r p o r t and was i n t e n d e d f o r use as a new c a r d e a l e r s h i p . The a p p l i c a t i o n t o e x c l u d e t h i s l a n d was s u p p o r t e d by t h e l o c a l M.L.A. at C h i l l i w a c k who was a member of t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y w h i c h was i n power i n B.C. 69 at the t i m e . The M i n i s t e r o f the E n v i r o n m e n t a t t h e time i n d i c a t e d the d e c i s i o n was made b e c a u s e t h e s o i l was g r a v e l l y and o f l e s s e r q u a l i t y , however, the t r u t h was t h a t the l a n d was q u i t e c a p a b l e of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and had been p r o d u c i n g b a r l e y i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r s g r o w i n g s e a s o n . A l t h o u g h the C a b i n e t was a p p a r e n t l y w i l l i n g t o c a r r y on a b a r g a i n i n g and c o m p r o m i s i n g p r o c e s s w i t h C h i l l i w a c k , i t was not w i l l i n g to a l l o w the w h o l e s a l e r e l e a s e o f l a r g e t r a c t s of f a r m l a n d . Community o f f i c i a l s had made t h e i r s e c o n d e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the r e l e a s e o f some 382 a c r e s , but E.L.U.C. r e f u s e d to r e l e a s e any of t h i s l a n d from the A.L.R. I t was the hope o f t h e C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers t h a t a compromise c o u l d be r e a c h e d w h i c h would a l l o w immediate growth i n the v a l l e y l a n d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n and ar o u n d the l a n d s a f f e c t e d by the con-t r o v e r s i a l Sewer D i s t r i c t No. 10. A l t h o u g h the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i -n e t had t w i c e r e f u s e d to e x c l u d e t h e s e l a n d s , i t e v e n t u a l l y compromised and r e l e a s e d the 129 a c r e s of Sewer D i s t r i c t No. 10 t h a t was s e r v i c e d by the t r u n k l i n e s . These l a n d s were a d j a c e n t to C h i l l i w a c k ' s major s h o p p i n g c e n t e r , Cottonwood C o r n e r s , and - 8 4 -were s l a t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . A n o t h e r major compromise was r e a c h e d i n the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e , but t h i s t i m e i t was the Land Commission t h a t c o n c e d e d . T h i s c o n c e s s i o n f u r t h e r a s s i s t e d the community i n the c r i t i c a l a r e a of s e w e r i n g the d i s t r i c t , by a l l o w i n g the e x t e n s i o n of the t r u n k sewer main i n Sewer D i s t r i c t No. 10 i n t o the s o u t h e r n p a r t of C h i l l i w a c k . The sewer main would e x t e n d s o u t h f r o m the 129 a c r e s d i s c u s s e d above, t h r o u g h segments of the A.L.R., and end at t h e C a n a d i a n F o r c e s Base. In a d d i t i o n to l i n k i n g up the b a s e , t h i s main would s e r v i c e the b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s at S a r d i s and Vedder C r o s s i n g i n the s o u t h e r n segment of C h i l l i w a c k ' s u r b a n c o r r i d o r . W i t h the sewer e x t e n d i n g t h a t f a r s o u t h , the way was b e i n g paved f o r the f u t u r e e x t e n s i o n of t h i s main l i n e i n t o the s o u t h e r n h i l l s i d e a r e a s . These compromises i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e d i d not have a c l e a r c u t yes or no outcome, as the model s u g g e s t s would be a r a r e o c c u r r e n c e . E s s e n t i a l l y , the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e d i n a b a r g a i n i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n s t a g e between the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the community d e c i s i o n makers w i t h the l a t t e r making some g a i n s . The Development P l a n was f o r the most p a r t t u r n e d down, but not one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t . The c o n -c e s s i o n s made to C h i l l i w a c k were t r u e compromises by E.L.U.C. i n the a r e a of i s s u e i d e o l o g y and were n o t d e c i s i o n s t h a t were r e a c h e d b e c a u s e o f f a c t o r s such as new i n f o r m a t i o n m o d i f y i n g a d e c i s i o n maker's s t a n d . I n o t h e r words, t h e p r o p e r t i e s a t C h i l l i w a c k d i d n o t change i n c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c --85-t i o n from the t i m e of i n c l u s i o n i n the A.L.R. u n t i l t h e time of r e l e a s e by t h e C a b i n e t . C l e a r l y , t h e s e f a r m i n g a r e a s were good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s but were s a c r i f i c e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n the p r o c e s s of n e g o t i a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n making i n the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t had v e t o power i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , i t s t i l l engaged i n the p r o c e s s of compromise, whereas o t h e r g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , such as the Save the F a r m l a n d Committee were u n w i l l i n g to compromise at a l l . T h i s group c r i t i c i z e d the P r o v i n c i a l Government at e v e r y move. I t a l s o l e v i e d s u c h s e r i o u s c h a r g e s a g a i n s t C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s as c o l l u s i o n , c o n -f l i c t of i n t e r e s t and p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l p a t r o n a g e i n the a l l i a n c e of m u n i c i p a l , a u t h o r i t i e s and d e v e l o p e r s i n t h e i r p e r -s i s t e n t and c o n t i n u o u s a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the r e l e a s e of f a r m -l a n d from the A . L . R . ^ The p o s i t i o n of t h e Land Commission was e s s e n t i a l l y a no-compromise s t a n c e on the m a t t e r of r e m o v i n g l a n d s from the A.L.R., however, the Commission made c o n c e s s i o n s w h i c h were aimed at a s s i s t i n g C h i l l i w a c k i n m e e t i n g i t s growth n e e d s , w i t h o u t i r r e v e r s i b l y damaging the v a l l e y f a r m l a n d s . In c o n c l u s i o n , the model's p o i n t on the compromise a s p e c t of d e c i s i o n outcomes i s w e l l t a k e n and s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e . A l t h o u g h t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government a p p e a r e d to c o m p l e t e l y t u r n down the Development P l a n , e v e n t s i n the months f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l r e f u s a l p r o v e t h a t the government engaged w i t h the d i s t r i c t i n a p e r i o d o f e x t e n d e d b a r g a i n i n g . - 8 6 -The n e g o t i a t i o n p e r i o d saw compromises b e i n g made by E.L.U.C., r e s u l t i n g i n c o n c e s s i o n s to C h i l l i w a c k on the i s s u e . T h e r e i s one f i n a l a r e a t h a t t h e model r e c o g n i z e s as i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the d ynamics of community d e c i s i o n making and t h a t i s t h e i s s u e of t i m e . T h i s a s p e c t w i l l now be f o c u s e d on and d i s u c s s e d r e l a t i v e t o the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e . THE BALANCE OF DECISION MAKING OVER TIME A l t h o u g h the model does not e x p l i c i t l y i n v o l v e the time d i m e n s i o n , the r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s f a c t o r i s c l a r i f i e d by B o l a n and N u t t a l l and p o i n t s about how i t c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s t u d y of community d e c i s i o n making a r e made. They p o i n t out t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t r a j e c t o r y of each c a s e o v e r time can be p l o t t e d , w h i c h w i l l show how the b a l a n c e of f o r c e s t e n d i n g toward a c t i o n on a p l a n , v e r s u s t h o s e r e s i s t i n g a c t i o n , l i n e up o v e r the c o u r s e of an i s s u e . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1, p l a n s a r e made up of g o a l s to be a c h i e v e d and the means to a c h i e v e them and i n the c o u r s e o f d e c i s i o n making e i t h e r or b o t h of t h e s e e l e m e n t s may be m o d i f i e d or a d j u s t e d . As d i s c u s -sed e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , d e c i s i o n outcomes c a n n o t be v i e w e d as s i m p l e a c t s of a d o p t i o n or r e j e c t i o n of a p l a n . They a r e a c t u a l l y compromise p o s i t i o n s r e a c h e d by t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , as a r e s u l t of n e g o t i a t i o n s and sub-s e q u e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n of g o a l s and means on b o t h s i d e s . In the c o u r s e of d e c i s i o n making t h e r e a r e group f o r c e s -87-a c t i n g b o t h w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s and upon each o t h e r t o a f f e c t t h e u l t i m a t e i s s u e outcome. B o l a n and N u t t a l l b e l i e v e t h a t a t i m e t r a j e c t o r y can a s s i s t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how the b a l a n c e of f o r c e s l i n e up a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e , change o v e r t i m e , and 7 2 u l t i m a t e l y b r i n g about a d e c i s i o n outcome. F i g u r e 1 r e p r e s e n t s the b a s i c d e c i s i o n outcome f i e l d w h i c h t h e y d e v e l o p e d and i l l u s -t r a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r b a s i c q u a d r a n t s i n t o w h i c h a f i n a l outcome may f a l l . The upper r i g h t hand q u a d r a n t r e p r e s e n t s the u n q u a l i f i e d a d o p t i o n of b o t h th e o r i g i n a l g o a l s and means of an i s s u e and the l o w e r l e f t q u a d r a n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r c o m p l e t e r e j e c t i o n . The o t h e r two q u a d r a n t s i l l u s t r a t e how outcomes may r e f l e c t a r e j e c t i o n or a c c e p t a n c e o f o n l y p a r t of the o r i g i n a l 7 3 g o a l s and means. F i g u r e 2 r e p r e s e n t s a more d e t a i l e d c o n -c e p t u a l framework f o r a n a l y z i n g d e c i s i o n outcomes and i l l u s t r a t e s how the b a l a n c e of f o r c e s were a l i g n e d i n the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e and where the f i n a l d e c i s i o n outcome f e l l . The p a t h of the a rrow d e p i c t s the change i n the b a l a n c e of f o r c e s o v e r t i m e . In the i n i t i a l s t a g e s of C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e , the D e v e l o p -ment P l a n had been f o r m u l a t e d by t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , was a p p r o v e d by the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and was h e a d i n g toward the Zone o f U n q u a l i f i e d A c c e p t a n c e , as shown i n F i g u r e 2. Once the p l a n was p u b l i c i z e d , however, o p p o s i t i o n f o r c e s began to q u e s t i o n b o t h i t s g o a l s and means and t h i s p r o p e l l e d the i s s u e back i n t o t h e Zone of T o t a l A m b i g u i t y . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the f o l l o w i n g e v e n t s t o o k p l a c e : the D evelopment P l a n was s c r u t i n i z e d by government and p r i v a t e g r o u p s : E.L.U.C. r e f u s e d - 8 8 -FIGURE 1: FIELD OF POSSIBLE DECISION OUTCOMES M BA N S KD OPTED GOALS fOzSB CTEO Ado prfien G-OPi L S PkPOP TED FIGURE 2 : CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING DECISION OUTCOMES R.E~T£rCTE D Z o w ^ OP SE.PtR.CH FOR \f\LTEflK\l\TNE G O A L S ZONE OF UNQUALIFIED RerfCT/oN ZON£ OF Z O A / e O F T O T A L -ZOA/E OP V MEAA/5 A M i 3 / 6 U / T y Z O N E OF I L N Q I L A L I F I E O A C C E P T A N C E " ZOtfE OF ^EflCCH FOft |/)LT£RA/AT/V£ G O A L S ADOPTED H.EAN5 fcfJCCTEO TIME T ( t P t T E C T o p o d CH 1 L l~ I UJ F\ C>C C A S E ^ T u D i f - 8 9 -t o a l l o w t h e e x c l u s i o n of f a r m l a n d from the A.L.R.; t h e P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t and the Land Commission made c o n c e s s i o n s t o C h i l l i w a c k ; and t h e d i s t r i c t t u r n e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . The g o a l s o f t h e Development P l a n were p a r t l y a c c e p t e d and p a r t l y r e j e c t e d i n the p r o c e s s of f o r m u l a t i n g the O.C.P., and the means to a t t a i n the g o a l s were e i t h e r m o d i f i e d or were a c t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d f o r the f i r s t t i m e . Some g o a l s were d i f f e r e n t from e a r l i e r g o a l s , i n the sense t h a t t h e y were c l a r i f i e d , and o t h e r s were o u t r i g h t l y r e j e c t e d or r e p l a c e d . F o r example, the g o a l s o f c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l growth o n t o the v a l l e y f a r m l a n d s were r e j e c t e d and r e p l a c e d w i t h the g o a l s o f i n c r e a s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l den-s i t i e s and of d e v e l o p i n g the s o u t h e r n u p l a n d a r e a s , a l o n g w i t h the g o a l of r e d u c i n g c o m m e r c i a l e x p a n s i o n a l t o g e t h e r . As w e l l , the o r i g i n a l g o a l of c a r v i n g out e x p a n s i v e new t r a c t s of i n d u s -t r i a l l a n d was r e p l a c e d w i t h the g o a l of u p g r a d i n g , s e r v i c i n g and a m a l g a m a t i n g the e x i s t i n g s t o c k of i n d u s t r i a l l y - z o n e d l a n d . O t h e r g o a l s such as the e v e n t u a l p r o v i s i o n of an u r b a n t r a n s i t s y s t e m r e m a i n e d the same. What t h e s e changes meant was t h a t the i s s u e ended up i n the Zone of Means A m b i g u i t y . In o t h e r words, the f i n a l outcome was l a r g e l y s i m i l a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the o r i g i n a l g o a l s , but was s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t or ambiguous w i t h r e s p e c t to the means. The f i n a l outcome of t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the p o i n t of t h e arrow, w h i c h i s j u s t on the p o s i t i v e s i d e of the g o a l s c o n t i n u a . T h i s p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e f a c t t h a t -90-most of the o r i g i n a l g o a l s were s t i l l p r e s e n t , a l t h o u g h the main means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e s e g o a l s , by e x c l u d i n g l a r g e a c r e s of f a r m l a n d from the A.L.R., was r e j e c t e d . The a r r o w ' s t r a -j e c t o r y r e p r e s e n t s the time of t h e C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e between 1975, when the Development P l a n was s t a r t e d , and 1979, the y e a r d u r i n g w hich the O f f i c i a l Community P l a n was s t a r t e d . The s u b s e q u e n t ev e n t of d e v e l o p i n g the O.C.P. c o u l d a l s o be p l o t t e d i n the same manner, i n d i c a t i n g how t h i s segment of the i s s u e f a r e d o v e r time and what i t s e v e n t u a l outcome was. E s s e n t i a l l y , the m a t t e r o f d e v e l o p i n g the O.C.P. has moved f r o m i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the Zone of T o t a l A m b i g u i t y , t h r o u g h the phase of c l a r i f y i n g means and g o a l s and i s p r e s e n t l y h e a d i n g toward the Zone of U n q u a l i f i e d A c c e p t a n c e . The O.C.P., however, s t i l l has to be a c c e p t e d by the g e n e r a l C h i l l i w a c k p u b l i c and some r e l e v a n t P r o v i n c i a l Government d e p a r t m e n t s . The means of d e v e l o p i n g the O.C.P., used by the c o n s u l t i n g p l a n n i n g g r o u p , was more c o m p r e h e n s i v e t h a n e a r l i e r p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s . The i n v o l v e m e n t of the C.P.A.C., the C h i l l i w a c k C o u n c i l and Mayor, the P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , the C o u n c i l ' s P l a n n i n g Committee and r e l e v a n t members of the p u b l i c , i n the t w i c e m o n t h l y O.C.P. p l a n n i n g m e e t i n g s , was a f a r d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h from t h a t used i n f o r m u l a t i n g the Development P l a n 1976, where most a c t i v i t y t o o k p l a c e b e h i n d the d o o r s of the P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . The i n c l u s i o n o f the v i e w s of C h i l l i w a c k ' s c i t i z e n s r i g h t from the s t a r t o f the p r o c e s s , when p u b l i c meet-i n g s were h e l d , was the o p p o s i t e o f the 1976 method w h i c h -91-e x c l u d e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . A l t h o u g h the O.C.P. may s t i l l be r e j e c t e d , the l i k e l i h o o d of t h i s h a p p e n i n g has been r e d u c e d by i n c l u d i n g the p u b l i c i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s of p o l i c y making, where major c o n f l i c t s . i n v a l u e s , p r i o r i t i e s , g o a l s , means and ends can be worked out e a r l y on, u n l i k e the p r e v i o u s s i t u a t i o n where c o n f l i c t r e s o l u -t i o n began a f t e r the Development P l a n was u n v e i l e d . The l o n g p e r i o d of b a r g a i n i n g , n e g o t i a t i o n and c o m p r o m i s i n g t h a t f o l -lowed the r e v e l a t i o n of the 1976 p r o p o s a l i n c l u d e d o p p o s i t i o n from many o f f i c i a l b o d i e s and not j u s t the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , the b a l a n c e of f o r c e s o p p o s i n g the p l a n o u t -weighed the e f f o r t s of the p l a n ' s p r o p o n e n t s and p r o p e l l e d i t toward r e j e c t i o n . O p p o s i t i o n v o i c e d by C h i l l i w a c k c i t i z e n s a l o n e , m a i n l y t h r o u g h the a c t i v i t i e s of the Save the F a r m l a n d Committee, b r o u g h t the i s s u e to the a t t e n t i o n of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and q u i c k l y c r e a t e d a n t i - D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n f e e l i n g s . P r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h C h i l l i w a c k c i t i z e n s would l i k e l y have a v e r t e d t h i s h a r s h c o n f r o n t a t i o n s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h s e t back the P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ' s e f f o r t s and u n d o u b t e d l y harmed i t s c r e d i b i l i t y , a l o n g w i t h t h a t of C h i l l i w a c k ' s p o l i t i c i a n s , i n the eyes of the P r o v i n c i a l Government d e c i s i o n makers. F o r not o n l y were C h i l l i w a c k p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s g o i n g a g a i n s t a p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y to p r e s e r v e f a r m l a n d , but t h e y were a l s o p r o p o s i n g a p l a n n i n g programme t h a t was u n a c c e p t a b l e to many of t h e i r own c i t i z e n s . O v e r a l l , the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e t e n d s to s u p p o r t the v a l u e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of community p o l i c y making. - 9 2 -SUMMARY In the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , d i s c u s s i o n was c e n t e r e d on the t y p e s of d e c i s i o n making n e t w o r k s t h a t were o p e r a t i n g i n the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e and t h e b a s i s f o r o p p o s i t i o n to the Development P l a n d e v e l o p e d by t h e s e d e c i s i o n makers. P r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , government d e p a r t m e n t s and the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t a l l opposed the p l a n . O p p o s i t i o n was c e n t e r e d around t h r e e out of a number of f a c t o r s w h i c h the model h y p o t h e s i z e s a r e l i k e l y to a f f e c t the outcome of commun-i t y p o l i c y making. These were the i d e o l o g i c a l and v a l u e c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the p l a n , the r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s of such a p r o p o s a l and the f a c t u a l and s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s of the p l a n n i n g method. The o p p o s i t i o n to the p l a n c u l m i n a t e d when E.L.U.C. r e f u s e d to e x c l u d e f a r m l a n d from the A.L.R., w h i c h was n e c e s s a r y to the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p r o p o s a l . E.L.U.C. p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the i s s u e outcome i n t h a t t h e y h e l d a p o s i t i o n of V e t o Power and t h i s r o l e , a c c o r d i n g to the model, has been l i n k e d w i t h f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y u s u a l l y i n government p o s i t i o n s . The f i n a l outcome of the Development P l a n i s s u e was f o u n d to be, as the model s u g g e s t e d , not a c l e a r c u t yes or no d e c i s i o n . E l e m e n t s o f compromise, on t h e p a r t of t h e P r o -v i n c i a l Government toward C h i l l i w a c k , o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d of b a r g a i n i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n d u r i n g w h i c h time the d i s t r i c t c o n t i n u e d t o s t r i v e to a t t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l g o a l s . - 9 3 -F i n a l l y , i t was shown how the b a l a n c e o f f o r c e s i n d e c i s i o n making e p i s o d e s , such as t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e , can change o v e r t i m e , p r o p e l l i n g an i s s u e toward p o s i t i v e r e s o l u -t i o n one moment and t h e n f o r c i n g p l a n s or programs toward r e j e c t i o n at o t h e r t i m e s . The model p r o v i d e s a method of p l o t -t i n g the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s o v e r time and of d e t e r m i n i n g how the f i n a l g o a l s and means i n a p l a n a r e d i f f e r e n t or s i m i l a r to t h o s e h e l d i n i t i a l l y . The model's c o n c e p t u a l d i a g r a m i l l u s -t r a t e s b o t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the o r i g i n a l to the f i n a l g o a l s and means and the t r a j e c t o r y o f each c a s e o v e r t i m e . In the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e , the b a l a n c e o f f o r c e s , w h i c h were r e s i s t i n g the Development P l a n , f i n a l l y f o r c e d i t s abandonment by C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s and p l a n n e r s . 94 CHAPTER 5 THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODEL FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING -95-THE MODEL'S USEFULNESS AS A CASE STUDY FRAMEWORK In e x a m i n i n g the C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the B o l a n and N u t t a l l h y p o t h e s e s , two f o c u s e s were u s e d . A l t h o u g h B o l a n and N u t t a l l d e v e l o p e d t h e i r h y p o t h e s e s w i t h the view t o e x p l a i n i n g i s s u e outcomes, the p r e s e n t c a s e s t u d y a l s o used them t o examine i n i s o l a t i o n one segment o f the o v e r a l l i s s u e . T h i s f i r s t e x a m i n a t i o n d e a l t w i t h the e v e n t of C h i l l i w a c k f o r m u l a t i n g i t s Development P l a n and the s e c o n d f o c u s examined the e v e n t u a l outcome o f the e n t i r e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The model's h y p o t h e s e s were h e l p f u l i n a s s i s t i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of b o t h t h i s one e v e n t and the g e n e r a l i s s u e outcome. O v e r a l l , the p r e m i s e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e model were p r e d o m i n a n t l y s u p p o r t e d i n b o t h i n s t a n c e s . A c o m p a r i s o n w i l l now be made of how the v a r i o u s h y p o t h e s e s s u p p o r t e d the e v e n t o f f o r m u l a t i n g the Development P l a n and r e f l e c t e d the o v e r a l l outcome of the i s s u e . The V a r i a b l e Set d e a l i n g w i t h the n a t u r e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p u b l i c i s s u e s w i l l be e v a l u a t e d f i r s t and t h e n the V a r i a b l e Set r e g a r d i n g p l a n n i n g and i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . F i n a l l y , the o t h e r a s p e c t s of t h e model t h a t were used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l be examined. The H y p o t h e s e s on the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f I s s u e s The model had t h e o r i z e d t h a t p l a n s or programmes a r e more l i k e l y t o be a c c e p t e d t h a n r e j e c t e d i f t h e y were i d e o l o g i c a l l y n o t c o n t r o v e r s i a l , had a l i m i t e d s c o p e of b o t h c o s t s and -96-b e n e f i t s , were f l e x i b l e and r e v e r s i b l e o v e r t i m e , were e a s y t o a c c o m p l i s h ( b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y ) , were e a s i l y p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s and were e a s y to com-m u n i c a t e . To the C h i l l i w a c k p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a n n e r s , the Development P l a n was i d e o l o g i c a l l y sound, i n t h a t i t r e f l e c t e d a compromise between p r e s e r v i n g f a r m l a n d and a l l o w i n g u r b a n e x p a n s i o n . I t a l s o had no a p p a r e n t h i g h c o s t s and was p e r -c e i v e d as b e i n g b e n e f i c i a l . As w e l l , i t was e a s y t o i m p l e m e n t , u n d e r s t a n d and communicate and i t had p r e d i c t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , the a c t i o n t a k e n by the C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers i n a c c e p t i n g the Development P l a n and a t t e m p t i n g to implement i t , was the k i n d of b e h a v i o r t h a t was p r e d i c t e d i n f i v e of the s i x h y p o t h e s e s . Where the C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s d i d not f o l l o w the b e h a v i o r a n t i c i p a t e d by the model, was i n r e g a r d to the D e v e l o p -ment P l a n ' s f l e x i b i l i t y . The i d e a t h a t p r o p o s a l s a r e more l i k e l y to be a c c e p t e d i f t h e y can be m o d i f i e d or r e v e r s e d l a t e r on d i d n o t h o l d t r u e . I t must, however, be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t the i n h e r e n t n a t u r e of what th e y were d e a l i n g w i t h was i n f l e x i b l e , t h a t i s , p h y s i c a l u r b a n growth i s i r r e v e r s i b l e by i t s v e r y n a t u r e . In t h i s s e n s e the C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s c o u l d not be e x p e c t e d to oppose n a t u r a l community growth, however, t h e y d i d have the o p t i o n of t u r n i n g down the i n f l e x i b l e programme t h a t was to manage u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e i r a r e a o v e r a l o n g - r a n g e t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d . T h e r e were u n d o u b t e d l y o t h e r more f l e x i b l e means of managing C h i l l i w a c k ' s growth t h a n t h a t o f an i r r e v e r s i --97-b l e l a n d use p l a n , however, the d i s t r i c t ' s d e c i s i o n makers d i d n o t s e r i o u s l y p u r s u e o t h e r o p t i o n s . I f the C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s had been the o n l y d e c i s i o n makers a f f e c t i n g the i s s u e , the Development P l a n may p o s s i b l y have been i m p l e m e n t e d . However, i n e x a m i n i n g the i s s u e from the p o i n t of v i e w o f the o t h e r g r o u p s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d , a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s u r f a c e d and t h i s o p p o s i n g v i e w u l t i m a -t e l y a f f e c t e d the i s s u e ' s f i n a l outcome. The h y p o t h e s e s worked e q u a l l y w e l l i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e o t h e r a t t i t u d e s w h i c h a f f e c t e d the i s s u e . F o r example, i n the same way t h a t C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s v i e w e d the i n h e r e n t v a l u e s of the Development P l a n as c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t a b l e , o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o u n d th e p l a n i d e o l o g i c a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e . These p u b l i c g r o u p s and government d e p a r t m e n t s c o u l d not j u s t i f y the r e m o v a l from the A.L.R. of some of the b e s t f a r m l a n d i n a l l o f Canada. The o t h e r h y p o t h e s e s i n t h i s V a r i a b l e Set t h a t were r e l e v a n t i n v i e w i n g the p e r s -p e c t i v e s of the o p p o n e n t s i n the i s s u e were t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h the i n t e n s i t y of the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of a programme, w i t h the p l a n ' s f l e x i b i l i t y and w i t h the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of i t s c o n s e -q u e n c e s . C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s v i e w e d the p l a n as h a v i n g some b e n e f i t l o c a l l y ; i t would not u p s e t the e s t a b l i s h e d growth p a t t e r n , i t would a l l o w d e v e l o p e r s t o c o n t i n u e b u i l d i n g as b e f o r e , and i t would p e r m i t the e x p a n s i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s as the d i s t r i c t c o u l d a f f o r d them or as t h e y were r e q u i r e d . However, to the o u t s i d e r s i n the i s s u e , t h e r e were few b e n e f i t s s een i n t h e p r o p o s a l and p o t e n t i a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l e c o s t s . The - 9 8 -p l a n ' s p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s , b o t h economic and e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s p r e a d f a r beyond the d i s t r i c t ' s b o u n d a r i e s . I t was a r i s k y p r o p o s a l s i n c e not a l l of t h e s e e f f e c t s , or the scope o f t h e i r e v e n t u a l i m p a c t , c o u l d be e a s i l y p r e d i c t e d . The Development P l a n ' s e f f e c t s on u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t e l s e w h e r e i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , on C h i l l i w a c k ' s own l o c a l roadway network and on o t h e r community's a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e A.L.R.s, were o n l y some of the c o n c e r n s r a i s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p o s s i b l e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p l a n . The f i n a l two h y p o t h e s e s i n t h i s V a r i a b l e S e t , r e l a t i n g to the ease of i m p l e m e n t i n g and c o m m u n i c a t i n g a programme, were not r e l e v a n t i n a n a l y z i n g the o p p o s i t i o n ' s v i e w p o i n t . These two h y p o t h e s e s o n l y r e f l e c t e d how C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s v i e w e d the Development P l a n and i t was shown t h a t t h e y v a l u e d the p r o p o s a l on b o t h t h e s e b a s e s . The H y p o t h e s e s on P l a n n i n g and I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s ^ On t h e b a s i s of the V a r i a b l e Set d e a l i n g w i t h how p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and a c t i o n o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s a f f e c t an i s s u e , the model's h y p o t h e s e s a s s i s t e d i n c l a r i f y i n g how C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s v i e w e d t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and how the f i n a l i s s u e outcome d e v e l o p e d . The p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s h y p o t h e s e s showed t h a t C h i l l i w a c k was i n a good ' p l a n n i n g p o s i t i o n ' and, t h e r e f o r e , was r e a d i l y a b l e to c a r r y out t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e i r Development P l a n t h r o u g h t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , which was r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o t h e d i s t r i c t ' s power c e n t e r , or - 9 9 -C o u n c i l . However, C h i l l i w a c k ' s ' p l a n n i n g method' and ' p l a n -n i n g t y p e ' e v e n t u a l l y worked a g a i n s t them b e c a u s e o p p o n e n t s i n the i s s u e f o c u s e d c r i t i c i s m on t h e s e f a c t o r s . The h y p o t h e s i s on the ' p l a n n i n g method' d e a l t w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h p r o b l e m s o l v i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t ; whether i t i s by a com-p r e h e n s i v e , c l a s s i c a l method or by an i n c r e m e n t a l a p p r o a c h . The ' p l a n n i n g t y p e ' h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on whether a p r o -gramme d e a l t w i t h immediate c o n c e r n s and f o c u s e d on means and s e l e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n or whether i t had a l o n g - t e r m time h o r i z o n , was g o a l - o r i e n t e d and f o c u s e d on complex i n f o r m a t i o n sy s t ems. For the C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers, t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i v e development p r o p o s a l , w i t h i t s g o a l - o r i e n t e d f o c u s , was com-p l e t e l y a c c e p t a b l e b e c a u s e i t c o n f i r m e d p a s t d e v e l o p m e n t s t a n d -a r d s and c l a r i f i e d the d i s t r i c t ' s l a n d use p a t t e r n f o r a n o t h e r t h i r t y y e a r s i n t o the f u t u r e . However, o p p o n e n t s to the p r o -p o s a l o b j e c t e d to i t f o r p r e c i s e l y the same r e a s o n s , b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n ot condone any f u r t h e r e r o s i o n of the d i s t r i c t ' s e x c e l l e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d by u r b a n e x p a n s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the h u n d r e d s of a c r e s r e q u i r e d o v e r the p l a n ' s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p e r i o d . O p p o s i t i o n f o r c e s made i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e were i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g methods a v a i l a b l e to h e l p s o l v e C h i l l i w a c k growth n e e d s , such as the b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n of the community's e x i s t i n g u r b a n l a n d s t h r o u g h i n f i l l i n g and a l l o w i n g h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s f o r new r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e was a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y of e n c o u r a g i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s , - 1 0 0 -w h i c h c o u l d be p e r m i t t e d i n the A.L.R., as one means of s o l v i n g the d i s t r i c t ' s d e s i r e f o r r e v e n u e - p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r y and the b a s i c p r o s p e c t of b e t t e r u t i l i z i n g the e x i s t i n g a r e a s of i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned l a n d s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e was the o p t i o n of d e v e l o p i n g C h i l l i w a c k ' s p o o r e r c a p a b i l i t y l a n d s , t h e r e b y l e a v i n g the h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e s o i l s under the p r o t e c t i o n of th e A.L.R. From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the o v e r a l l i s s u e , the Development P l a n d i d n o t meet the model's c r i t e r i a as a p r o p o s a l t h a t would l i k e l y be a d o p t e d . I t had a l o n g - t e r m time frame and a s i n g l e g o a l - o r i e n t e d f o c u s t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e d on r e g u l a t i n g C h i l l i w a c k ' s p h y s i c a l g r owth. The p l a n d i d n o t d e a l w i t h means, f o r the p l a n i t s e l f was the o n l y means of r e a c h i n g t h e g o a l of growth management. Not o n l y was the p l a n c r i t i c i z e d f o r the above d e s c r i b e d r e a s o n s , but a l s o b e c a u s e of the q u e s t i o n a b l e d a t a base on w h i c h i t r e s t e d . O v e r a l l , t h e r e was s e r i o u s o p p o s i t i o n to the Development P l a n b a s e d on the p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and the y e v e n t u a l l y h e l p e d p r o p e l the p r o p o s a l to d e f e a t . The model's h y p o t h e s e s on a c t i o n or i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e a l t w i t h t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h programmes d i s t u r b t h e s t a t u s quo and f o r c e changes i n s o c i e t a l b e h a v i o r . The model c o n t e n d s t h a t a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h l i t t l e d i s t u r b the s t a t u s quo, r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e w h i c h c a u s e m a s s i v e s o c i a l change by r e d i s t r i -b u t i n g r e s o u r c e s ( i . e . w e a l t h ) and by c h a n g i n g e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s ( i . e . p o w e r ) , a r e more l i k e l y to be a d o p t e d . W i t h r e s p e c t to the a t t i t u d e of the - 1 0 1 -C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s , t h i s was t r u e b e c a u s e t h e i r p l a n was d e s i g n e d s o l e l y t o m a i n t a i n the l o n g e x i s t i n g s t a t u s quo of c o n v e r t i n g f a r m l a n d to u r b a n u s e s . In a c t u a l i t y , C h i l l i w a c k ' s d e c i s i o n makers were t r y i n t to r e t u r n to t h i s o l d s t a t u s quo w h i c h the p r o v i n c e had u p s e t by e s t a b l i s h i n g the A.L.R. The p o l i t i c i a n s were r e j e c t i n g t h i s s o c i a l change, w h i c h had r e a l l o c a t e d t h e c o n t r o l of t h e i r l a n d w e a l t h i n t o the hands of the Land Commission, and were a c t u a l l y a t t e m p t i n g to r e g a i n power o v e r t h e i r p r e c i o u s r e s o u r c e . T h e r e f o r e , as t h e model s u g g e s t e d s h o u l d be the c a s e , a s t a t u s quo o r i e n t e d p l a n was a d o p t e d by C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s . In the c a s e o f the o p p o s i t i o n f o r c e s , t h e r e was a r e j e c t i o n of the o l d s t a t u s quo and an a t t e m p t to i n s u r e t h a t t h e r e was not a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the u n a c c e p t a b l e l a n d use p a t t e r n s of the p a s t . The o p p o s i t i o n was a t t e m p t i n g to p r o t e c t the new o r d e r of l a n d use t h a t had been e s t a b l i s h e d and C h i l l i w a c k ' s d i s r u p t i v e p l a n n i n g i n t e n t i o n s were r e j e c t e d by the o t h e r g r o u p s i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . In the s e n s e t h a t C h i l l i w a c k was d i s t u r b i n g the new s t a t u s quo, t h e i r p l a n was r e j e c t e d as the model s u g g e s t e d would be the c a s e . The h y p o t h e s e s i n t h e s e V a r i a b l e S e t s were f o r the most p a r t good p r e d i c t o r s of t h e outcome of the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e s t u d y . Both the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i s s u e i t s e l f and the p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s used by the community's o f f i -c i a l s , a f f e c t e d the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n - 1 0 2 -the manner p r e d i c t e d by the h y p o t h e s e s . A d d i t i o n a l R e l e v a n t F a c t o r s i n the Model The f i r s t a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t of the model was a f a c t o r t h a t was i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e i t had i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i v e e f f e c t s on t h e outcome of the i s s u e , even though i t a r o s e from one of the o t h e r two V a r i a b l e S e t s w h i c h were not examined i n t h i s c a s e s t u d y . T h i s f a c t o r r e l a t e d to the r o l e s t h a t a r e p l a y e d i n d e c i s i o n making e p i s o d e s . B o l a n and N u t t a l l have a s c r i b e d t h e s e r o l e s to i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r c a s e s t u d i e s , however, i t was v e r y a p p a r e n t i n the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e t h a t one of the most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n t h e i r model was p l a y e d by an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The V e t o Power r o l e t h a t the E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee p l a y e d was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g about the f i n a l outcome of the i s s u e . E.L.U.C. d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y cause the end r e s u l t , s i n c e t h e r e were many o t h e r f o r c e s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n the i s s u e , but u n d o u b t e d l y some o f the v a l u e s and v i e w p o i n t s t h a t s u r f a c e d i n the p r o c e s s a f f e c t e d the f i n a l p o s i t i o n t a k e n by E.L.U.C. The s u p p o r t of E.L.U.C. was c r i t i c a l to the p o s i t i o n t a k e n by C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s s i n c e the Land Commission had been u n s y m p a t h e t i c to t h e i r v i e w p o i n t , however, the community's d e c i s i o n makers were u n a b l e to g a i n an a l l y i n t h e i r f i g h t f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r f a r m l a n d s . A l t h o u g h C h i l l i w a c k was r e p e a t e d l y m a j o r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the e x c l u s i o n of t h e i r p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t s t o r e a c h t h e i r r e f u s e d i n t h e i r l a n d s f r o m the r e s e r v e , g o a l s n e t t e d them some -103-g a i n s . T h i s f a c t i l l u s t r a t e s a s e c o n d a s p e c t b r o u g h t up by B o l a n and N u t t a l l i n t h e i r model. They p o i n t out t h a t few d e c i s i o n making e p i s o d e s end i n a c l e a r c u t ' y e s ' or 'no' p o s i -t i o n , i n t h a t a p l a n or programme i s e i t h e r e n t i r e l y r e j e c t e d or c o m p l e t e l y a c c e p t e d . Some c o n c e s s i o n s were e v e n t u a l l y g r a n t e d to the community by b o t h the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t and the Land Commission i n the form of the e x c l u s i o n of some l a n d s from the r e s e r v e , t h r o u g h government a s s i s t a n c e i n e v a l u a t i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e u p l a n d d e v elopment o p t i o n , and by the Land Commis-s i o n g r a n t i n g C h i l l i w a c k p e r m i s s i o n to r u n sewer l i n e s t h r o u g h the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . A l t h o u g h B o l a n and N u t t a l l t r e a t e d the time d i m e n s i o n i n t h e i r model i n a r a t h e r i n f o r m a l manner, t h i s f a c t o r a l s o p r o v e d to be u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g how the component f o r c e s i n the i s s u e moved i t i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s o v e r the l e n g t h of the d e c i s i o n making p e r i o d . T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e model h e l p e d e mphasize the f a c t t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , p o l i c y making e n t a i l s the s t e p s of i n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r o p o s a l , o r , i d e a l l y of i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e n g o i n g t h r o u g h n e g o t i a -t i o n s , r e e v a l u a t i o n and compromise, and f i n a l l y a t some p o i n t , making a commitment to one or a n o t h e r form of a c t i o n . I f n e c e s s a r y , a t t h i s p o i n t the whole p r o c e s s may have to b e g i n a g a i n , w h i c h i s what happened i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e . The time d i m e n s i o n a l s o c l a r i f i e d t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h o r i g i n a l g o a l s and means can be c o m p l e t e l y c hanged, or l e f t as i s , o v e r the c o u r s e of an i s s u e or t h a t e i t h e r of them can be m o d i f i e d to -104-one d e g r e e or a n o t h e r . G e n e r a l l y i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e , i t was shown t h a t the o r i g i n a l g o a l s s u r v i v e d , but t h a t t h e means f o r a c h i e v i n g them had been r e j e c t e d and t h a t new means had to be sought . As was p o i n t e d out i n C h a p t e r 1, much of the f u t u r e s u c c e s s i n s o l v i n g t h e many complex p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y i s dependent on u n d e r s t a n d i n g how we p l a n and make d e c i s i o n s and why some p l a n s work and o t h e r s do n o t . The B o l a n and N u t t a l l h y p o t h e s e s a s s i s t e d i n c l a r i f y i n g how the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s worked i n t h e C h i l l i w a c k c a s e s t u d y . T h e r e were a number of ways i n w h i c h the i d e o l o g i c a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s of the community's o f f i c i a l s h i n d e r e d t h e i r s u c c e s s i n f i n d i n g a c c e p t a b l e p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h i s h e l p e d f o r c e t h e i r d e s i r e d p r o p o s a l toward d e f e a t . Some of the f a c t o r s t h a t can be p o i n t e d out i n t h i s c a s e s t u d y a r e t h a t the C h i l l i w a c k p l a n -n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s : - d i d not at t i tud were no - d i d not n i n g ac r e su I t f a i l e d to d e v e l o p an o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u t e toward t h e i r community i n o r d e r to r e a l i s t i c a l l y seek and examine a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l s and means. d i d not r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l i n t h e i r a r e a ' s r e s o u r c e s - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r l a n d r e s o u r c e s - f o r u t i l i z a t i o n i n s o l v i n g t h e i r economic c o n c e r n s . o r i e n t e d t h e i r t h i n k i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y to e conomic m a t t e r s and f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e were s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . -105-- f a i l e d to c o n s i d e r the v i e w s of t h e community's c i t i z e n s on t h e i r own f u t u r e . - were u n a b l e to d e v e l o p a sound b a c k g r o u n d of i n f o r m a -t i o n and f a c t s on w h i c h to base a p l a n and a n a l y z e d the d a t a base t h a t was p r o d u c e d from a p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h e i r p r e c o n c e i v e d i n t e r e s t s . - d i d not r e c o g n i z e t h e n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s on t h e i r own community. - f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t r u e n a t u r e of t h e i r p l a n n i n g i s s u e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o p o s e d a s i m p l e and i n a d e q u a t e s o l u t i o n to a complex p r o b l e m . H a v i n g r e v i e w e d the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e s t u d y and the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the i s s u e and i t s d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , our a t t e n t i o n can now be f o c u s e d on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e r e s u l t s f o r p l a n n e r s and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . THE PLANNING IMPLICATIONS OF THE CHILLIWACK CASE STUDY The N a t u r e of D e c i s i o n Making I t would appear t h a t the C h i l l i w a c k d e c i s i o n makers were not p a r t i c u l a r l y u n u s u a l i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h to p o l i c y making, s i n c e t h e y d i s p l a y e d most of the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of community d e c i s i o n making b e h a v i o r t h a t have been o u t l i n e d by D e n n i s R o n d i n e l l i and w h i c h were d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 1 . The v e r y n a t u r e of t h e s e p r o c e s s t r a i t s would seem to p r e c l u d e r a t i o n a l p o l i c y making, however, t h e i r f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e r e a l l y makes them an i n t e g r a l p a r t of most p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . Recog-n i z i n g t h e i r l i m i t i n g a s p e c t s can be a f i r s t s t e p t o o v e r c o m i n g the r e s t r i c t i o n s t h e y have on d e c i s i o n m aking. Academic works su c h as t h e B o l a n and N u t t a l l model can have some p r a c t i c a l -106-v a l u e f o r p l a n n e r s i n t h e f i e l d i n a s s i s t i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i n h e r e n t n a t u r e of the p r o -c e s s e s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i r p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The f a i l u r e by p l a n n e r s to j u d g e the o u t s i d e s o c i a l , p s y c h o -l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n wh i c h t h e y a r e p l a n n i n g w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y h i n d e r t h e i r ' i n s i d e ' p l a n s . The B o l a n and N u t t a l l model p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l framework f o r a n a l y z i n g the f o r c e s at work i n the community w h i c h can a f f e c t d e c i s i o n o u t -comes i n i s s u e s w h i c h a r e a l r e a d y i n p r o g r e s s , or i n c a s e s where a m a t t e r of p l a n n i n g may become an i s s u e . E s p e c i a l l y i n the l a t t e r c a s e , p r e v e n t i v e measures may a v o i d t i m e - c o n s u m i n g c o n f l i c t s i f th e y a r e put to use e a r l y i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The model s h o u l d be a b l e to be used as a p r e d i c t i v e t o o l f o r e v a l u a t i n g how the n a t u r e of an i s s u e or a p o t e n t i a l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y w i l l l i k e l y a f f e c t the d e c i s i o n making p r o -c e s s i n a g i v e n community. Of c o u r s e , i n t h i s c a s e t h e r e must be an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the community's s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n -ment and of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and r e l e v a n t i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t make up the d e c i s i o n f i e l d i n w h i c h the i s s u e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h . B o l a n and N u t t a l l a d d r e s s t h e s e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n the o t h e r two V a r i a b l e S e t s of the model. R e t u r n i n g to the n a t u r e of d e c i s i o n making as v i e w e d by R o n d i n e l l i , the C h i l l i w a c k s t u d y p r o v i d e d c o n f i r m a t i o n of many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s p r o c e s s , s u c h as i t s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e where c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t a k e s p l a c e among g r o u p s w i t h d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s , r a t h e r t h a n where -107-p o l i c y making i s c a r r i e d out by i n t e l l e c t u a l and d e l i b e r a t i v e c h o i c e . In a d d i t i o n , d e c i s i o n making t a k e s p l a c e i n an e n v i r o n m e n t where power r e s o u r c e s a r e f r a g m e n t e d and where v a r i o u s d i s p e r s e d g r o u p s have c o n t r o l o v e r s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n -n e l , i n f o r m a t i o n , t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s and i n f l u e n c e r e s o u r c e s . W i t h each group p u r s u i n g i t s own c o n -c e p t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , complex i n t e r a c t i o n s can o c c u r at a l l s t a g e s of the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e r e v e a l e d such a f r a g m e n t e d m u l t i t u d e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , each w i t h i t s own p o i n t of l e v e r a g e t h a t was used to i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o c e s s . At t i m e s the C h i l l i w a c k o f f i c i a l s f ound them-s e l v e s a l m o s t p o w e r l e s s , as t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e i r l o c a l r e s o u r c e s were u s u r p e d by h i g h e r government l e v e l s . R o n d i n e l l i ' s p o i n t t h a t p o l i c y p r o b l e m s a r e complex, amorphous and d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e c o n c i s e l y was f a i r l y e v i d e n t i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e , where d i f f e r e n t emphases and d e f i n i t i o n s of the p r o b l e m s u r f a c e d t h r o u g h o u t the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . E v e n t u a l l y , even C h i l l i w a c k ' s o f f i c i a l s r e f o c u s e d t h e i r major c o n c e r n w i t h f a r m l a n d to t h e m a t t e r o f c o m m e r c i a l e x p a n s i o n i n the d i s t r i c t . A n o t h e r p o i n t about the l o n g l e a d and l a g t i m e s , w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and p o l i c y making, i s most e v i d e n t i n C h i l l i w a c k ' s c a s e . I f t h e community's r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d O f f i c i a l Community P l a n i s p a s s e d and r e a d y f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n by t h e end of 1981, e i g h t y e a r s w i l l have p a s s e d s i n c e t h i s community f i r s t became aware o f t h e i r l a n d -108-p r o b l e m . The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o v e r e d by R o n d i n e l l i d e a l w i t h the s t a t i s t i c s and f a c t s used i n d e c i s i o n making and how t h e y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t e ach p a r t i c i p a n t not o n l y has a l i m i t e d e v a l u a t i o n c a p a c i t y , but a l s o u s u a l l y i n t e r -p r e t s q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a s u b j e c t i v e l y t h r o u g h p r e c o n c e i v e d s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e r e s t s . Add t o t h i s the f a c t t h a t p o l i c y p l a n -n i n g i s c a r r i e d out under c o n d i t i o n s of i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n and p a r t i a l i g n o r a n c e of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s and i t becomes a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r how r i s k y and u n c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n making can be. C h i l l i w a c k ' s P l a n n i n g Department was l i m i t e d i n i t s a b i l i t y to p r o d u c e sound f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e i r d a t a b a s e , w i t h i t s e r r o r s and m i s l e a d i n g c o n c e p t u a l a r g u m e n t s , a t t e s t s to t h e f a c t t h a t s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s f r e q u e n t l y l a c k the p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d i n s o l v i n g major p r o b l e m s . C h i l l i w a c k ' s p o l i t i c i a n s r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d a p l a n t h a t a p p e a r e d to r e p r e s e n t an easy s o l u t i o n to the a r e a ' s needs and c o n s e -q u e n t l y had l i t t l e d e s i r e to s e a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s . The r e c o g n i t i o n by p l a n n e r s of t h e s e i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of community d e c i s i o n making w i l l o n l y be a mere s t a r t i n o v e r c o m i n g them or i n r e s t r i c t i n g the i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . What p l a n n e r s would seem to need under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e new s k i l l s and knowledge t o make them more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r work e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s becoming i n c r e a s -7 4 i n g l y a p p a r e n t to p l a n n i n g t h e o r i s t s t h a t t h e complex n a t u r e -109-of p o l i c y p l a n n i n g demands t h a t p l a n n e r s have s k i l l s t h a t go beyond t h o s e needed f o r r e s e a r c h , q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s and t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n making. The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s some of t h e s e knowledge and s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t p l a n n e r s need to e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h the i s s u e s t h a t a r i s e i n the complex p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e y o p e r a t e . P l a n n i n g S k i l l s R e q u i r e d i n D e c i s i o n Making P r o c e s s e s B o l a n and N u t t a l l d e f i n e the a r e a s o f s k i l l t h a t p l a n n e r s need to be t r a i n e d i n as s o c i a l p r o c e s s s k i l l s . The knowledge t h a t w i l l be r e q u i r e d w i l l c e n t e r a r o u n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g human and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r . P l a n n e r s w i l l n ot o n l y need to l o o k o u t s i d e to a community's s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l n e t w o r k s , but t h e y w i l l a l s o need to l o o k i n s i d e t h e m s e l v e s and b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how t h e i r own b e h a v i o r or a b i l i t i e s can e i t h e r h e l p or h i n d e r t h e i r s u c c e s s i n p l a n n i n g e p i s o d e s . S i n c e most of the s k i l l s t h a t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o p l a n n e r s a r e not t a u g h t i n p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r s t u d e n t s of p l a n n i n g to a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f the r e q u i r e d knowledge e l s e w h e r e , a t l e a s t u n t i l s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d as p a r t of r e g u l a r t r a i n i n g programmes. In a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g the s k i l l s , the p l a n n e r w i l l have to c a l c u l a t e the o p p o r t u n i t y of i m p l e m e n t i n g the knowledge i n any p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g e p i s o d e or j o b s i t u a t i o n . Many work s e t t i n g s s i m p l y do not a l l o w or e n c o u r a g e o t h e r t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s to p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , w h i c h i s not to say t h a t changes a r e i m p o s s i b l e to - 1 1 0 -b r i n g a b o u t , however, the p l a n n e r must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e may be b u i l t - i n r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n a j o b w h i c h may h i n d e r the use of new p l a n n i n g methods. S i n c e the p l a n n e r has t r a d i t i o n -a l l y been the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t , the o v e r s e e r o f c e r t a i n l a w s , the a d v i c e - g i v e r , the model-maker, the s t a t i s t i c i a n and a n a l y s t , and any number of o t h e r r o l e s , p o l i t i c i a n s and t h e i r s u p p o r t i n g b u r e a u c r a t s may f r e q u e n t l y n ot be r e a d y t o a c c e p t a p l a n n e r who wants to o r g a n i z e community g r o u p s , use s m a l l group d e c i s i o n making, manage r e s o u r c e c o a l i t i o n s , and the v a r i o u s o t h e r t e c h -n i q u e s of p o l i c y making i n t e r v e n t i o n . In such c a s e s , the p l a n -n e r w i l l e i t h e r have to s e l l the new a p p r o a c h or f i n d a work s e t t i n g where such s k i l l s can be put to use. R o n d i n e l l i o u t l i n e s what some of the s k i l l s and knowledge a r e a s a r e t h a t p l a n n e r s w i l l need. H i s l i s t i s shown i n T a b l e 3.^ ~* A p p l y i n g some of t h e s e s k i l l s to the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e , r e v e a l s how the d e c i s i o n makers and p l a n n e r s t h e r e d i d not come c l o s e to a v o i d i n g the t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s t h a t can a r i s e i n p l a n n i n g e p i s o d e s . Some o f t h e ' m i s s i n g ' s k i l l s and methods were b l a t a n t l y a b s e n t and o t h e r s were l e s s o b v i o u s l y s o . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t expands on some of the a s p e c t s i n T a b l e 3 and c l a r i f i e s what t h e s e s k i l l s c o u l d mean to the b e t t e r m e n t of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s : 1. A d v o c a c y and o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y - a l l o w i n g the s u c c e s s f u l i n c l u s i o n of the p u b l i c i n d e c i s i o n mak-i n g p r o c e s s e s , t h u s a v o i d i n g ' a f t e r - t h e - f a c t ' p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n . 2 . I n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n , q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s and -111-TABLE 3 SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE NEEDED IN URBAN POLICY MAKING P e r s u a s i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s C l i e n t a n a l y s i s M e d i a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n s k i l l s R e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n a b i l i t y A d v o c a c y and o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s S m a l l group d e c i s i o n making O r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r I n t r a g r o u p dynamics S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y C o a l i t i o n management E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l e x p e r i e n c e T e c h n i q u e s of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l exchange p r o c e s s e s O p p o r t u n i t y c o s t a n a l y s i s Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s and f o r e c a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s C o n t i n g e n c y A n a l y s i s P e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t i o n S i m u l a t i o n , gaming, and s t r a t e g y d e s i g n -112-f o r e c a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s - a l l o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of good d a t a on w h i c h to base p l a n n e d a c t i o n . 3. O b j e c t i v i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s - a l l o w i n g r e a l i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n s t o be drawn from b a c k g r o u n d d a t a and t h e s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s m i s s i o n o f c r i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , be i t o p t i m i s t i c or o t h e r w i s e , to p o l i t i c i a n s or the p u b l i c . 4 . P e r s u a s i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n - i n d u c i n g the a c c e p t -ance o f new a t t i t u d e s , a p p r o a c h e s and p l a n n i n g p r o -grammes . 5. R e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n a b i l i t y - a l l o w i n g the g a t h e r i n t o g e t h e r and u t i l i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l and o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l e c o n o m i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . 6. S m a l l group d e c i s i o n making - a l l o w i n g the use of group s e t t i n g s i n o r d e r to i n c l u d e t h e v i e w s and p r o p o s a l s of b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . 7. C o a l i t i o n management - a l l o w i n g the use of d i s p e r s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , g r o u p s and government d e p a r t m e n t s i n programme d e v e l o p m e n t , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and o n g o i n g management. 8. S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y - a l l o w i n g a b e t t e r b a s i c u n d e r -s t a n d i n g of community group b e h a v i o r and the s o c i a l f o r c e s w h i c h can h i n d e r o r may be used to a s s i s t d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . 9. I n t r a g r o u p dynamics - a l l o w i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l components of g r o u p s , i n o r d e r to e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e group dynamics i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . 10. I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r -the most b a s i c s k i l l s f o r the p l a n n e r t o a l l o w the c o n t i n u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o r t h a t f a c e s h e r or him a l m o s t d a i l y . The C h i l l i w a c k i s s u e was a complex and c o n t r o v e r s i a l p l a n n i n g m a t t e r w h i c h r e q u i r e d a f r e s h a p p r o a c h and open-minded a t t i t u d e to l a n d use c o n c e r n s and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . The community's p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s were u n a b l e to m u ster up -113-e i t h e r and i n s t e a d a d o p t e d the v i e w t h a t s o c i a l change c o u l d be a v o i d e d and t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g methods were a l l t h a t was needed i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . E v e n t u a l l y t h e i r a p p r o a c h was r e j e c t e d . However, t h e c o n s u l t i n g p l a n n e r s t h a t were u l t i m a t e l y h i r e d by the community to s o r t out i t ' s p l a n n i n g d i r e c t i o n , gave some p o l i c y making i n t e r v e n t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a t r y i n t h e i r d e v e lopment of the O f f i c i a l Community P l a n and have employed some i n c r e m e n t a l p l a n n i n g methods t o s o l v e the d i s t r i c t ' s l a n d and growth p r o b l e m s . Whether t h e i r a p p r o a c h w i l l r e s u l t i n the s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the O.C.P. i s y e t to be d e t e r m i n e d , but up to now t h e i r methods have a l l o w e d the community as a whole to be i n f o r m e d on the m a t t e r and i n -v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s of p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . In t h i s s e n s e a l o n e t h e r e s h o u l d be l i t t l e , i f any, o p p o s i t i o n to the p l a n at the l o c a l l e v e l , w h ich was a c o n s i d e r a b l e h i n d r a n c e to the e a r l i e r Development P l a n . In c o n c l u s i o n , the B o l a n and N u t t a l l model p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l framework f o r s t u d y i n g the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e and shed c o n -s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on why t h e i s s u e outcome came about as i t d i d . As a means f o r p l a n n e r s t o a n a l y z e e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l p l a n -n i n g i s s u e s and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s , t h e model has v a l u e . I t c o u l d be used i n an i n f o r m a l manner w i t h o u t e n t a i l i n g e x t e n -s i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w h i c h may be i m p o s s i b l e under e v e r y -day w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s or i t can be used as a r e s e a r c h t e c h n i -que i n more academic and c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s The model's p r e d o m i n a n t emphasis on the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h s u p p o r t f o r -114-p l a n n e d s o c i a l change a r i s e i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r f o r p l a n n e r s t o d a y , when t h e i r e f f o r t s a t s o l v i n g community p r o b l e m s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y under a t t a c k by the p u b l i c w h i c h has been a f f e c t e d by many p l a n n i n g programmes. I f , as the model s u g g e s t s , p l a n -n i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e u l t i m a t e l y u n a b l e to s u r v i v e the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s p l a n n i n g i s s u e s , t h e n a t t e n t i o n must be f o c u s e d more on the n a t u r e of t h i s p r o c e s s and on means of p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t h a t a r e more a c c e p t a b l e . The B o l a n and N u t t a l l model p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l framework f o r a n a l y z i n g the l i m i t i n g e f f e c t s of the p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g y used i n the C h i l l i w a c k c a s e s t u d y , and f o r c l a r i f y i n g the n a t u r e of the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s and how i t b r o u g h t the i s s u e to i t s f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n . -115-REFERENCES CHAPTER 1 1. "The C o u n c i l o f Urban Development M e e t i n g : , December 2 and 3, 1967, THE INSTITUTE OF HUMAN SCIENCES REVIEW, I , No. 1 ( W i n t e r 1967-68), p. 8, q u o t e d i n John F r i e d m a n n , "Notes on S o c i e t a l A c t i o n " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS V o l . 35, No. 5, September 1969, p. 311. 2. F r i e d m a n n , J o h n , "Notes on S o c i e t a l A c t i o n " JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, V o l . 35, No.5, September, 1969, p. 311. 3. H e r r i n g t o n , J . B r y c e PLANNING SMALLER CITIES L e x i n g t o n Books, D.C. Heath & Company: L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1979, p. 191. 4. B o l a n , R i c h a r d S. and R o n a l d L. N u t t a l l URBAN PLANNING AND POLITICS, ' L e x i n g t o n Books, D.C. Heath and Company; L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1975, p. 1 5. I b i d . 6. F r i e d m a n n , J o h n , op. c i t . p. 312 7. Burke,Roy and James P. Heaney, COLLECTIVE DECISION MAKING IN WATER RESOURCE PLANNING L e x i n g t o n Books, D.C. Heath and Company; L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1975, p. 63. 8. H u n t e r , F l o y d COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURE:A STUDY OF DECISION MAKERS C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a 1953, p. 2 9. P r e s t h u s , R o b e r t MEN AT THE TOP New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964, p. 8. 10. D a h l , R o b e r t A. WHO GOVERNS? New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961, p. 86, q u o t e d i n W i l l i a m Domhoff , WHO REALLY RULES?, T r a n s a c t i o n Books: New B r u n s w i c k , New J e r s e y , 1978, p r e f a c e page X. -116-REFERENCES 11. C o n n o l l y , W i l l i a m E. , "The C h a l l e n g e t o P l u r a l i s t T h e o r y " , i n W i l l i a m E. C o n n o l l y , e d . , THE BIAS OF PLURALISM, New Y o r k : A t h e r t o n P r e s s , 1969, p. 3., q u o t e d i n B o l a n and N u t a l l , op. c i t . p. 12 12. B o l a n and N u t a l l , op. c i t . , p. 10. 13. P r e s t h u s , Robert op. c i t . 14. P o l s b y , N e l s o n COMMUNITY POWER AND POLITICAL THEORY, New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963, p. 8 - 13. 15. C o n n o l l y , W i l l i a m , op. c i t . 16. B o l a n and N u t t a l l , op. c i t . p. 12. 17. I b i d . , p . 9 . 18. I b i d , p. 18. 19. Burke and Heaney, op. c i t . , p. 137. 20. I b i d . 21. B o l a n , R i c h a r d S., "Emerging Views of P l a n n i n g " JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 23, No. 4, J u l y , 1967, p. 239. 22. I b i d . 23. Burke and Heaney, op. c i t . 24. B o l a n , R i c h a r d , op, c i t . , p. 235. 25. R o n d i n e l l i D e n n i s , " A d j u n c t i v e P l a n n i n g and Urban Development P o l i c y " , URBAN AFFAIRS QUARTERLY, Volume 7, No.1, September, 1971, p. 20. 26. R o n d i n e l l i , D e n n i s , " U r b a n P l a n n i n g as P o l i c y A n a l y s i s : Management of Urban Change", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, V o l . 39, No. 1, J a n u a r y 1973, p. 16. 27. C a r t w r i g h t , T i m o t h y J . , " P r o b l e m s , S o l u t i o n s , and S t r a t e g i e s : A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e o f P l a n n i n g " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS Volume 39, No. 3, May 1973, p. 181. -117-REFERENCES 28. I b i d . 29. R o n d i n e l l i , D e n n i s , 1973, op. c i t . , p. 17. 30. I b i d , p. 16. 31. B o l a n and N u t t a l l , op. c i t . , p. 22-23. CHAPTER 2 32. Atamenenko, George, P l a n n e r f o r t h e B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, I n t e r v i e w c o n d u c t e d w i t h Mr. Atamenenko, J a n u a r y , 1978. 33. F r a s e r Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , BRIEF ON BY-LAW NO. 32, P r e s e n t e d a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n t h e F.C.R.D., O c t o b e r 29, 1973. 34. E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government, APPEAL HEARING FOR SARDIS LAND AND DEVELOPMENT LIMITED, V i c t o r i a , B.C. J u l y 25, 1979, p. 25. 35. W i l s o n , D a v i d , q u o t e d i n " P l a n n i n g V e r s u s M o r a l Committments", CHILLIWACK PROGRESS, J u l y 6, 1977. 36. Simpson, W.G.R., from a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by t h e Mayor t o the Deputy P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A p r i l 22, 1976. 37. Atamenenko, G e o r g e , op. c i t . 38. Hayward, R., D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g f o r t h e Township of C h i l l i w a c k , I n t e r v i e w c o n d u c t e d w i t h Mr. Hayward, F e b r u a r y 13, 1979. 39. Township o f C h i l l i w a c k , STATISTICS REGARDING PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1976, p. 4. 40. Simpson, W.G.R., op. c i t . 41. NORTH ISLAND GAZETTE ( P o r t H a r d y ) , "Bye, Bye, Simp", December 9, 1976. 42. Simpson, W.G.R., from a b r i e f t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e James A. N i e l s e n , M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government, June 14, 1977. -118-REFERENCES 43. K i e r n a n , Ken, q u o t e d i n " K i e r n a n e x p e c t s new l o n g r a n g e p l a n i n t h r e e months", CHILLIWACK PROGRESS, J a n u a r y 18, 1978. 44. VERNON DAILY NEWS, "Land H e l d " , F e b r u a r y 1, 1978. 45. D u n h i l l Development C o r p o r a t i o n , DISTRICT OF CHILLIWACK, COMPARISON OF DEVELOPMENT COSTS: LOWLAND A.L.R. AND UPLAND, O c t o b e r 26, 1976, S e c t i o n 2, p. 1. 46. Township o f C h i l l i w a c k P l a n n i n g Department, HILLSIDE DEVELOPMENT, 1976. 47. S t u p i c h , Dave, q u o t e d i n "Township mayor h i n t s a t l a n d p l a n c o n c e s s i o n " , CHILLIWACK PROGRESS May 19, 1976. 48. P i r i e , J e r r y , q u o t e d i n " C h i l l i w a c k b i d to f r e e l a n d i n f r e e z e o p p o s e d " , VANCOUVER SUN, June 29, 1977. 49. Runka, Gary, q u o t e d i n "Gary Runka t a l k s a bout C h i l l i w a c k L a n d " , CHILLIWACK PROGRESS, F e b r u a r y 16, 1977. 50. C u r t i s , Hugh, q u o t e d i n " L i m i t e d growth a r e a s ' d e s e r v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ' " , CHILLIWACK PROGRESS, March 16, 1977. 51. Hayward, R.,op. c i t . 52. W i l s o n , D a v i d , o p . c i t . 53. E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee, op. c i t . 54. Semotuk, V e r n a , C o n s u l t i n g P l a n n e r to t h e D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k , I n t e r v i e w c o n d u c t e d w i t h Ms. Semotuk August 20, 1980. 55. Urban Programme P l a n n e r s , CHILLIWACK: THE ISSUES OF DEVELOPMENT, A B r i e f p r e s e n t e d at t h e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s , J u n e , 1980. 56. Semotuk, V e r n a , C o n s u l t i n g P l a n n e r t o t h e D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k , I n t e r v i e w c o n d u c t e d w i t h Ms. Semotuk, March 16, 1981. 57. Urban Programme P l a n n e r s , COMMUNITY PLANNING FOR CHILLIWACK - STEP 1: DETERMINING THE ISSUES, B r o c h u r e p r e p a r e d J u n e , 1980. -119-REFERENCES 58. R o n d i n e l l i , D e n n i s , 1973, op. c i t . , p. 16. 59. B r y a n t , F r e d , q u o t e d i n N e a l e Adams, " C h i l l i w a c k h o l d s v i t a l key t o S o c r e d f a r m l a n d p o l i c y " , VANCOUVER SUN, May 10, 1976. 60. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s , from a l e t t e r t o t h e B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land C o m m i s s i o n , June 7 , 1976. 61. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e A d v i s o r y Committee, from a l e t t e r to t h e H o n o u r a b l e James A. N i e l s e n , M i n i s t e r of the E n v i o r n m e n t f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government, O c t o b e r 20, 1976. 62. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s , op. c i t . 63. Township o f C h i l l i w a c k P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , STATISTICS REGARDING PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1976, Summer 1976, p. 3, and R. Hayward q u o t e d i n N e a l e Adams, op. c i t . (see r e f e r e n c e 5 9 ) . 64. Urban Programme P l a n n e r s , DISTRICT OF CHILLIWACK: TABLE 5 -DWELLING UNITS CONSTRUCTION BY TYPE, 1974-80, B a c k g r o u n d d a t a f o r the O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , e a r l y 1980. 65. CHILLIWACK PROGRESS, " D e v e l o p e r s view C h i l l i w a c k ' s o v e r b u i l d i n g p r o b l e m " , J u l y 13, 1977. 66. E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t , f r o m a Memorandum to the E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee, Re: C h i l l i w a c k A p p l i c a t i o n f o r E x c l u s i o n from A.L.R. ( A p p l i c a t i o n #9 (1) 5 2 ) , November 5, 1976, p. 4. 67. I b i d . , p . 5 . 68. B o l a n and N u t t a l l , op. c i t . , p. 84 69. VANCOUVER PROVINCE, "What's t h e d i f f e r e n c e ? " March 21, 1977. 70. VANCOUVER PROVINCE, "Land d e a l i r k s f a r m s p e c i a l i s t s " , March 30, 1977. 71. VANCOUVER PROVINCE, "Probe s o u g h t i n l a n d u n f r e e z i n g b i d , " F e b r u a r y 21, 1977. -120-REFERENCES 72. B o l a n and N u t t a l l , op. c i t . , p. 36 73. I b i d , p. 135 CHAPTER 5 74. F r i e d m a n n , John, op. c i t . , p. 316-317; and H e r b e r t Gamberg, "The P r o f e s s i o n a l and P o l i c y C h o i c e s i n M i d d l e - S i z e d C i t i e s " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 32, No. 3, May 1966, p. 175-177; and D e n n i s R o n d i n e l l i , 1973, op. c i t . , p. 19-21; and B o l a n and N u t t a l l , op. c i t . , p. 147-148. 75. R o n d i n e l l i , D e n n i s , 1973, op., c i t . , p. 20. -121-BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A l t s h u l e r , A l a n A., THE CITY PLANNING PROCESS, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : I t h a c a , 1965. 2. B o l a n , R i c h a r d S., "Em e r g i n g Views of P l a n n i n g " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 23, No. 4, J u l y , 1967. 3. , "Community D e c i s i o n B e h a v i o r : The C u l t u r e o f P l a n n i n g , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 35, No. 5, September, 1969. 4. , "The S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s of the Planner',' JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 37, No. 6, Novemb e r , 19 71. 5. , and R o n a l d L. N u t t a l l , URBAN PLANNING AND POLITICS, L e x i n g t o n Books: D.C. Heath and Company, L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1975. 6. B o n j e a n , C h a r l e s M., T e r r y N. C l a r k and R o b e r t L. L i n e b e r r y , e d s . , COMMUNITY POLITICS, The F r e e P r e s s : New Y o r k , 1971. 7. B u r k e , Roy, and James P. Heaney, COLLECTIVE DECISION MAKING IN WATER RESOURCE PLANNING, L e x i n g t o n Books: D.C. Heath and Company, L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1975. 8. C a r t w r i g t h , T i m o t h y J . , " P r o b l e m s , S o l u t i o n s and S t r a t e g i e s : A C o n t r i b u t i o n to the T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e o f P l a n n i n g " JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 39, No. 3, May, 1973. 9. C l a r k , T e r r y N., ed, COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND DECISION MAKING: COMPARATIVE ANALYSES, C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g : San F r a n c i s c o , 1968. 10. C o n n o l l y , W i l l i a m E. e d., THE BIAS OF PLURALISM, A t h e r t o n P r e s s : New Y o r k , 1969. 11. D a h l , R o b e r t A. WHO GOVERNS?, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New Haven, C o n n e t i c u t , 1961. 12. D i s t r i c t of C h i l l i w a c k , OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN, December 1980. 13. Domhoff, G. W i l l i a m , WHO REALLY RULES? T r a n s a c t i o n Books: New B r u n s w i c k , New J e r s e y , 1978. 14. F r i e d m a n n , J o h n , "Notes on S o c i e t a l A c t i o n " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 35, No. 5, September 1969. -122-15. ,"The P u b l i c I n t e r e s t and Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Toward a R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of P u b l i c P h i l o s o p h y " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 39, No.1, J a n u a r y 1973. 16. , RETRACKING AMERICA, Anchor P r e s s : D o u b l e d a y , New Y o r k , 1973. 17. Gamberg, Herb e r t , "The P r o f e s s i o n a l and P o l i c y C h o i c e s i n M i d d l e - S i z e d C i t i e s " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 32, No. 3, May, 1966. 18. H e r r i n g t o n , J . B r y c e , PLANNING SMALLER C I T I E S , L e x i n g t o n Books, D.C. Heath and Company, L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1979. 19. H u n t e r , F l o y d , COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURE: A STUDY OF DECISION MAKERS, C h a p e l H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1953. 20. Mann, Lawrence D., " S t u d i e s i n Community D e c i s i o n M a k i n g " , JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 30, No. 1, F e b r u a r y 1964. 21. M i c h a e l , D o n a l d N., ON LEARNING TO PLAN AND PLANNING TO LEARN, J o s s e y - B a s s P u b l i s h e r s : San F r a n c i s c o , 1973. 22. N u t t a l l , R o n a l d L., E r w i n K. Scheuch and Chad Gordon, "On the S t r u c t u r e o f I n f l u e n c e " , T e r r y N. C l a r k , e d . , COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND DECISION MAKING: COMPARATIVE ANALYSES, C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g : San F r a n c i s c o , 1968. 23. P o l s b y , N e l s o n , COMMUNITY POWER AND POLITICAL THEORY, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New Haven, C o n n e t i c u t , 1963. 24. P r e s t h u s , R o b e r t , MEN AT THE TOP, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New Y o r k , 1964. 25. R a b i n o v i t z , F r a n c i n e , CITY POLITICS AND PLANNING, A t h e r t o n P r e s s : New Y o r k , 1969. 26. R o n d i n e l l i , D e n n i s , " A d j u n c t i v e P l a n n i n g and Urban Development P o l i c y " , URBAN AFFAIRS QUARTERLY, Volume 7, No.1, September, 1971. 27. ,"Urban P l a n n i n g as P o l i c y A n a l y s i s : Management o f Urban Change", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNERS, Volume 39, No. 1, J a n u a r y , 1973. 28. Z a l t m a n , G e r a l d , P h i l i p K o t l e r and I r a Kaufman, CREATING SOCIAL CHANGE, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n : New Y o r k , 1972. 

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