UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Western alienation and intra-regional variation : a comparative study of regional discontent in British… Wong, Daniel 1982

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WESTERN ALIENATION AND INTRA-REGIONAL VARIATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REGIONAL DISCONTENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALBERTA by DANIEL WONG B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1982 Q D a n i e l Wong, 1982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall V ancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t T h i s paper i s based upon a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . I t i s proposed t h a t t h e r e a r e fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p r o v i n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i d e o l o g i c a l , p a r t i -s a n , and c l a s s c o r r e l a t e s o f the dependent v a r i a b l e , 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 . I f such d i f f e r e n c e s a r e f o u n d , and i f t h e y c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d by s t r u c t u r -al d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e c o mmunities, then i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e phenomenon known as ' a l i e n a t i o n ' i s i n f a c t a c o l l e c t i o n o f f u n c t i o n -a l l y d i s t i n c t b e l i e f systems. An a n a l y s i s o f d a t a c o m p i l e d from two sample s u r v e y s s u g g e s t s t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s do o c c u r . W h i l e t h e r e i s some co n v e r g e n c e between t h e two communities w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p a r t i s a n c o r r e l a t e s o f a l i e n a t i o n ( i . e . , a l i e n a t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y an a n t i - L i b e r a l s e n t i m e n t i n both p r o v i n c e s ) , t h e r e a r e major d i s c r e p e n c i e s where i d e o l o g i c a l and c l a s s a n t e c e d a n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l i e n a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y a working c l a s s and ' l i b e r a l ! phenomenon, w h i l e i n A l b e r t a i t i s more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m , and i s not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s . Moreover, t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not 'washed away 1 by a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l s . The paper c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t w e s tern a l i e n a t i o n i s not a homogeneous, ' p a n - r e g i o n a l ' phenomenon, but i s r a t h e r a c o l l e c t i o n o f d i v e r s e b e l i e f systems which v a r y p e r c e p t i b l y a l o n g p r o v i n c i a l l i n e s . F i n a l l y , i t i s argued t h a t the s t u d y o f Canadian f e d e r a l i s m s t a n d s t o b e n e f i t i f g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o d i f f e r e n c e s between p r o v i n c i a l c o m m unities. 1 1 1 CONTENTS A b s t r a c t / i i C o n t e n t s / i i i T a b l e s /' i v I) I n t r o d u c t i o n / 1 I I ) Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e S t u d y o f Western A l i e n a t i o n / 3 I I I ) Western A l i e n a t i o n and t h e P a n - R e g i o n a l Community / 10 IV) A L a b y r i n t h o f B e l i e f Systems / 17 V) Data and Methodology / 19 VI) Western A l i e n a t i o n and I n t r a - R e g i o n a l V a r i a t i o n : An A n a l y s i s o f the : -. Data / 26 I d e o l o g y /26 P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n / 39 S o c i a l C l a s s /..54 V I ) ^ C o n c l u s i o n s / 65 Notes /.7.1 R e f e r e n c e s / 94 A p p e n d i c e s / 101 TABLES Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e A l i e n a t i o n S c a l e , A l b e r t a / - 2 2 Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e A l i e n a t i o n S c a l e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a / 23 Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e I d e o l o g y S c a l e , A l b e r t a / 27 Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the I d e o l o g y S c a l e , B r i t i s h C o lumbia/ 28 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by Respondent's I d e o l o g i c a l Group, B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a / 31 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by I d e o l o g y , C o n t r o l l i n g f o r F e d e r a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a / 35 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by I d e o l o g y , C o n t r o l l i n g f o r P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a / 36 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a / 43 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s o f Respondents H a v i n g L i v e d E l s e w h e r e i n Canada Compared w i t h A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s o f T o t a l Samples f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a / 46 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l L e v e l s , B r i t i s h Columbia/ 48 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l s , B r i t i s h Columbia/ 49 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l L e v e l s , A l b e r t a / 50 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l s , A l b e r t a / 51 P e r c e n t a g e o f Net V a l u e o f S e l e c t e d I n d u s t r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbi 1929-1978 and P e r c e n t a g e o f Net V a l u e o f S e l e c t e d I n d u s t r i e s i n A l b e r t a , 1929-1978/ 57 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s o f S o c i a l C l a s s Groups, B r i t i s h Columbia a A l b e r t a / 61 1. I) I n t r o d u c t i o n : x Our deeds d e t e r m i n e us as much as we d e t e r m i n e our deeds. George E l i o t Canada, l i k e a l l w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s , r e a d i l y s u r r e n d e r s t o t h e rhythms o f p o l i t i c a l f a s h i o n . In the l a t e 1800's "and t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y , the dominant theme i n , C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s was n a t i o n a l i n t e -2 g r a t i o n . In t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g World War II i t was econ-omic r e c o v e r y and s u b s e q u e n t l y , economic n a t i o n a l i s m . In more r e c e n t y e a r s , Canadian a n a l y s t s have been p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the problem o f na-t i o n a l u n i t y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the u n i t y q u e s t i o n f o c u s e s ^ upon Quebec and i t s v a r i o u s demands f o r p o l i t i c a l autonomy. However, as we move i n t o the 1980's, t h e 'Quebec p r o b l e m 1 i s c o u n t e r p o i s e d by numerous o t h e r m a n i f e s t -a t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l u n r e s t , none o f which c a p t u r e s the p o p u l a r i m a g i n a t i o n l i k e t h e d u b i o u s phenomenon o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . The s i t u a t i o n i n w e s t e r n Canada i s s a i d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a v e 3 because i t emerges from economic r a t h e r than from c u l t u r a l i s s u e s . L i k e Quebec n a t i o n a l i s m , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d synonymous w i t h s e p a r a t i s m ; f u r t h e r m o r e , i t s i d e o l o g i c a l a f f i n i t i e s s u g g e s t t o some an i n e x o r a b l e l i n k a g e w i t h r i g h t - w i n g r a d i c a l i s m . I t i s my view t h a t none o f t h e s e images c a p t u r e s t h e e s s e n c e o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , because each r e s t s upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the phenomenon..constitutes a c o h e r e n t , i n t e r n a l l y u n i f o r m b e l i e f system. T h i s a s s u m p t i o n , which o r i g i n a t e s i n a r a t h e r l o o s e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n , o b s c u r e s much o f t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s i n what i s a l a r g e and f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i v e r s e com-2. munity. In o u r r u s h t o f o r g e new e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e ' c r i s e s ' which be-s e t Canadian f e d e r a l i s m we have c r e a t e d a s u p e r f i c i a l , i f not an a r t i -f i c i a l , p i c t u r e o f t h e k i n d s o f b e h a v i o u r which d e f i n e w e s t e r n Canada as a r e g i o n a l e n t i t y . What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n t h i s r e g a r d i s o u r p r o p e n s i t y t o o v e r l o o k the s m a l l e r units' o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e , t o a p p r e -c i a t e t h e o t h e r w i s e o b v i o u s f a c t t h a t 'the west' i s an a g g l o m e r a t i o n o f d i s t i n c t c ommunities, each h a v t n g a u n i q u e p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e and conse-5 q u e n t l y , a u n i q u e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s s t a t u s w i t h i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . My o b j e c t i v e i s to d e monstrate t h a t a t one l e v e l o f . . ' i n t r a - r e g i o n a l 1 community d i s t i n c t i o n — t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l - - , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s n o t one b u t r a t h e r s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s ystems, each o f which b e a r s t h e mark o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e from which i t d e r i v e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I s h a l l compare t h r e e elements o f r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t , .. , namely, i d e o l o g y , p a r t i s a n s h i p , and s o c i a l c l a s s , i n hopes o f e s t a b l i s h -i n g t h a t a l i e n a t i o n v a r i e s by p r o v i n c e w i t h i n the r e g i o n i t s e l f . In t h e pages t h a t f o l l o w I s h a l l compare d a t a c o m p i l e d from two major/surveys.--one i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e o t h e r .in A l b e r t a - - by t e s t i n g a number o f h y p o t h e s e s i n s p i r e d by t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . The c o n c e p t u a l background a g a i n s t which t h e a n a l y s i s i s j u x t a p o s e d i s d i s c u s s e d i n Sec-t i o n s II and I I I . In S e c t i o n IV I l a y o u t t h e b a s i c assumptions and prem- . i s e s o f t h e s t u d y , w h i l e S e c t i o n V d e s c r i b e s t h e d a t a and methodology. The a n a l y s i s i t s e l f i s u n d e r t a k e n i n S e c t i o n . V I , and some o f i t s i m p l i c a -t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e C o n c l u s i o n . 3. I I ) Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Study o f Western A l i e n a t i o n : R e g i o n a l u n r e s t has been a r e c u r r i n g f e a t u r e o f w e s t e r n Canadian p o l i t i c s s i n c e the e a r l i e s t days o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n , y e t the s t u d y o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , t h a t i s , as a g e n e r a l phenomenon which l i e s somewhere between 1 2 r e g i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and a g g r e g a t e d p r o t e s t , , i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y . The c o n c e p t has y e t t o s e c u r e a t h e o r e t i c a l l y t e n a b l e framework o f a n a l y s i s , and w h i l e i t i s n o t my i n t e n t i o n t o propose an o v e r a r c h i n g t h e o r y o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n h e r e , I c o n s i d e r i t n e c e s s a r y to h i g h l i g h t some o f the c o n c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e b e f o r e t u r n i n g to the s u r v e y d a t a . F i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s w a r r a n t p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . F i r s t , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n s u f f e r s from what has i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t 3 been l a b e l e d t h e 'problem o f the dependent v a r i a b l e ' . An i n a b i l i t y to d e f i n e ' a l i e n a t i o n ' , and t o a g r e e upon the p o l i t i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c p a r a -metres o f 'the w e s t 1 as a r e g i o n a l e n t i t y , has prompted s t u d e n t s o f Canadian p o l i t i c s to become p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h " c o n s t r u c t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s o f phenomena ( r a t h e r ) t h a n . . . t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r t o be e x p l a i n e d . " ^ ' A l i e n a t i o n ' has become a euphemism f o r m y r i a d u n s p e c i f i e d and o f t e n ambi-guous r e l a t i o n s between the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s and c e n t r a l Canada. Few a n a l y s t s have been so b o l d as to c o n f r o n t the major c o n c e p t u a l q u e s t i o n s : what i s w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n ? how do we know i t e x i s t s , and how i s i t d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r forms o f p o l i t i c a l n o n - i n t e g r a t i o n ? a t what p o i n t does ' a l i e n a t i o n ' become an a c t i v e and u l t i m a t e l y s e p a r a t i s m - o r i e n t e d phenomenon, and f i n a l l y , how does a l i e n a t i o n i n one p r o v i n c e d i f f e r from 5 a l i e n a t i o n i n a n o t h e r ? Second, t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l problems o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n a r e e x a c e r b a t e d 4. by the ambiguous relationships between different analytical t r a d i t i o n s . There are at present two dominant approaches to the study of regional discontent in Canada. The f i r s t , which for simplicity's sake I shall c a l l the ' p o l i t i c a l economy' approach, sees western alienation as a social by-product of the larger disorder known as regional dependence, whose founda-tions l i e in the economic structure of c a p i t a l i s t s ocieties. The uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic resources favours some regions over others and thus creates a state of dependence between developed 'metropoles1 and underdeveloped 'hinterlands'; thus Canada i s dominated by a powerful manu-facturing 'core' in southern Ontario and, to a lesser extent, i n Quebec, while western and At l a n t i c 'peripheries' struggle to obtain measures of autonomous control over the i r own economic destinies. The f u t i l i t y of their efforts gives r i s e to feelings of resentment, persecution, and a n t i -pathy with respect to the centre. The other dominant approach, which I shall c a l l the ' p o l i t i c a l behaviour' approach, assumes that western alienation i s an a t t i t u d i n a l phenomenon which lends i t s e l f to measurement through survey research. This approach explains alienation in terms of i t s relationships with other a t t i t u d i n a l variables; regional discontent in the western provinces i s found to be.endemic among those who support the federal Progressive Con-7 8 servative party, among those who d i s l i k e Pierre Trudeau, and among g those who are not favourably disposed to French Canadians. The role of surveys in explaining western alienation has become increasingly prominent as both the mechanics of quantitative research and popular acceptance of such techniques have advanced. Indeed, the c i t a t i o n of survey results has become as much a p a r t o f a s s e s s i n g w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n as t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s an e l e m e n t o f p r e d i c t i n g e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s . 1 0 The c o n c u r r e n t predominance o f t h e s e two p e r s p e c t i v e s imposes c o n c e p t u a l l i m i t a t i o n s upon a n a l y s t s who a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h o p e r a t i o n a l i z -i n g 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' as a dependent v a r i a b l e . On the one hand, both ap-proaches a r e c o n c e r n e d w'ith t h e b e h a v i o u r o f w e s t e r n Canada as a community e s t r a n g e d from o r i n some way d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e c e n t r a l Canadian ' c o r e 1 . Both a r e b r o a d l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h , t h e manner i n which s o c i e t a l f o r c e s i n d u c e such b e h a v i o u r , and both borrow from one a n o t h e r as a means o f s t r u c t u r i n g r e s e a r c h . On the o t h e r hand, each t r a d i t i o n seeks t o e x p l a i n w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e ; t h e p o l i t i c a l economy approach emphasizes t h e dynamics o f r e g i o n a l u n r e s t i n terms o f h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i e -t a l a n t e c e d a n t s , w h i l e t h e p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r approach t y p i c a l l y s t r e s s e s s t r u c t u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l symptoms o f the phenomenon a t a g i v e n t i m e . Each t r a d i t i o n l e a d s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o f o c u s upon d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t degrees o f emphasis. F o r example, c l a s s -based a n a l y s e s a r e c e n t r a l t o many p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i s t s ' e x p l a n a t i o n s o f 11 r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t , w h i l e s t u d e n t s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r p e r s u a s i o n pay c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s a t t e n t i o n to c l a s s as an e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e . 1 ^ Such d i f f e r e n c e s o f emphasis p r o v i d e s e v e r e o b s t a c l e s t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a c l e a r , comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n , o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . T h i r d , s t u d e n t s o f Canadian, p o l i t i c s have n o t always made c l e a r 13 t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' and ' p o l i t i c a l a l i e n a t i o n ' . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t we a r e a l l bound by t h e canons o f our. p r e d e c e s s o r s ; 6. ' a l i e n a t i o n ' has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o t e r m i n o u s w i t h M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s o f l a b o u r , and use o f the c o n c e p t i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f p o l i t i c s i s a r e l a t i v e l y new development. The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a n o t h e r e x t e n d i n g v a r i a b l e -- w e s t e r n Canadian r e g i o n a l i s m -- v i r t u a l l y d i v o r c e s the i d e a from i t s p h i l o s o p h i c o r i g i n s . A c u r s o r y r e a d i n g o f the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s no n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e phenomena o f ' p o l i t i c a l a l i e n a t i o n ' and 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 . Indeed, b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t p e r s o n a l p a t h o l o g i e s such as ' p o w e r l e s s n e s s 1 , ' n o r m l e s s n e s s 1 , and 'anomie 1, l o n g c o n s i d e r e d c o r n e r s t o n e s o f p o l i t i c a l a l i e n a t i o n , a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t among 15 w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n s . W h i l e some o v e r l a p i s bound to e x i s t ( e . g . , the consummately 'anomie' w e s t e r n e r , who i s by d e f i n i t i o n e s t r a n g e d from p o l i t i c a l l i f e per s e , i s l i k e l y to be d e t a c h e d from C e n t r a l Canada as a p o l i t i c a l community as w e l l ) , I am i n g e n e r a l agreement w i t h G i b b i n s 1 a s s e r t i o n t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s something o t h e r than a r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r i c phenomenon, p o l i t i c a l a l i e n a t i o n . ^ F o u r t h , the c o m p l e x i t y o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n a f e d e r a l system confounds e f f o r t s t o f o r m u l a t e t i d y , comprehensive e x p l a n a t i o n s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a -t i o n . The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s o f Canadian government i n f l u e n c e r e g i o n a l b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h two d i s t i n c t y e t f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s . On the one hand, the f e d e r a l system g i v e s f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n to r e g i o n a l i n -t e r e s t s t h r o u g h governments which i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e the form and f o r c e o f a l i e n a t i o n among the p o p u l a t i o n s they r e p r e s e n t . A l a n C a i r n s ' o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t governments a r e i n l a r g e p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o u l d i n g t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s ^ i s no where b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d than i n the 7. b e h a v i o u r o f w e s t e r n p o l i t i c i a n s who from time to t ime e x p l o i t the r h e -t o r i c o f a l i e n a t i o n to a g g r a n d i z e p r o v i n c i a l powers v i s - a - v i s the f e d e r a l government. On the o t h e r hand, the d i s j u n c t i o n o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r ealms a f f e c t s w e s t e r n Canadians q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f governmental f o r c e s . As E l k i n s has shown, n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e s can and do c o - e x i s t i n Canada. The p r e s e n c e o f a s t r o n g r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y does no t p r e c l u d e a s e n s e o f a t t a c h m e n t to the n a t i o n as a whole; r a t h e r , m u l t i p l e l o y a l t i e s 19 complement one a n o t h e r w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d f e d e r a l community. S i m i -l a r l y , a s t r o n g sense o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n need not imply disengagement from the p o l i t i c a l n a t i o n a l i t y . E l k i n s notes e l s e w h e r e t h a t a l i e n a t i o n 2( and s u b j e c t i v e a t t a c h m e n t s t o 'Canada' as a n a t i o n a l e n t i t y a r e u n r e l a t e d , and i n d e e d D a v i d E l t o n and Roger G i b b i n s c a r r y t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n one s t e p f u r t h e r w i t h t h e i r a s s e r t i o n t h a t "At h e a r t , the w e s t e r n Canadian p o l i t i c a l 21 c u l t u r e i s f e d e r a l i s t " , t h a t i t " . . . r e p r e s e n t s a demand f o r g r e a t e r m-22 e l u s i o n i n , r a t h e r than w i t h d r a w a l f r o m , the b r o a d e r Canadian s o c i e t y . " P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e n , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s a s o u r c e o f both p o t e n t i a l d i s -u n i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n . Our i n a b i l i t y t o r e c o n c i l e one p o s s i b i l i t y w i t h the o t h e r makes a g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f the phenomenon an u n l i k e l y p r o s p e c t . F i n a l l y , w h i l e r e g i o n a l u n r e s t i n w e s t e r n Canada has a l o n g and ex-p l o s i v e h i s t o r y , the c a t c h p h r a s e , 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s l e a d s us t o wonder whether the contemporary pheno-menon i s c a s t from the same c o n c e p t u a l mold as e a r l i e r forms o f w e s t e r n d i s c o n t e n t . Howard Leeson, Saskatchewan's Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r I n t e r g o v e r n -mental A f f a i r s , s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s n o t . Leeson draws a l i n e between "the 8. o l d and new a l i e n a t i o n i n the w e s t , " " e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e o l d a l i e n a t i o n was borne o f economic trauma d u r i n g t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n , and gave r i s e to p o p u l i s m , a g r a r i a n r a d i c a l i s m , and a c o l l e c t i o n o f p r o t e s t p a r t i e s which changed the f a c e o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e t h r o u g h o u t the r e g i o n . The new a l i e n a t i o n i s s u s t a i n e d by the b e l i e f t h a t f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s p r e v e n t t h e r e g i o n from d e v e l o p i n g i t s new-found economic p o t e n t i a l t o f u l l e s t advan-t a g e . Indeed, a major f e a t u r e o f t h e new a l i e n a t i o n i s i t s p r o p u l s i o n n o t not so much by g r a s s r o o t s a g r a r i a n communities, as was t y p i c a l o f the o l d a l i e n a t i o n , but by p r o v i n c i a l governments t h e m s e l v e s , which s p u r on r e -24 g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t i n the p u r s u i t o f p r o v i n c e - b u i l d i n g a m b i t i o n s . The o l d and t h e new a l i e n a t i o n s u n d o u b t e d l y meet somewhere on a common c o n c e p t u a l p l a n e , b u t i t i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r how much t h e phenomena., o v e r l a p . S h o u l d 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 be t r e a t e d o n l y as the more r e c e n t i n c a r n a t i o n o f East-West a n t i p a t h i e s ( i . e . , t he 'new' a l i e n a t i o n ) , o r s h o u l d i t be a f f o r d e d a b r o a d e r c o n c e p t u a l sweep, such t h a t i t i n c l u d e s e a r l i e r forms o f p r o t e s t , and the e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f u n r e s t from which t h e y o r i g i n a t e ? I t i s my i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e 'new a l i e n a t i o n ' i s an o utgrowth o f t h e o l d . The a g r a r i a n , p o p u l i s t f o u n d a t i o n s o f o l d s t y l e w e s t e r n p r o t e s t how. t a k e back s e a t t o more s e c u l a r forms o f d i s c o n t e n t , which a r e s t i m u l a t e d by new-found economic w e a l t h , a more a g g r e s s i v e Quebec n a t i o n a l i s m and a p e r v a s i v e d i s r e g a r d f o r f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s . However, contemporary w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s n o t a w h o l l y i n d e p e n d e n t phenomenon. I t i s d e e p l y r o o t e d i n the memory o f p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s , and i n d e e d f e e d s upon many images and symbols whose s i g n i f i c a n c e was f a r g r e a t e r d u r i n g the G r e a t 9. D e p r e s s i o n than i n the p r e s e n t day. I t i s because w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n p e r s i s t s as a h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e t h a t many o f t h e s e images a r e c o n s i d e r e d germaine t o the 'new a l i e n a t i o n . 1 However, as we s h a l l s e e , t h e i r c ontemporary r e l e v a n c e can be q u e s t i o n e d on e m p i r i c a l g r ounds. I s h a l l use the t e r m s , 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' , ' r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t ' , and ' r e g i o n a l u n r e s t ' more o r l e s s synonymously t h r o u g h o u t t h i s e s s a y . However, the term ' p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t 1 i s r e s e r v e d f o r t h o s e a c t i v e mani-f e s t a t i o n s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n such as the farm movements and p o p u l i s t t h i r d p a r t i e s o f t h e 1930s, and the v a r i o u s s e p a r a t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the p r e s e n t day. 10. I l l ) Western A l i e n a t i o n and The Pah-Regional Community •Regions' a r e by n a t u r e r e l a t i v e e n t i t i e s . They can e x i s t o n l y i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r r e g i o n s , and c o n c o m i t a n t l y , any r e g i o n o f a p p r e c i a b l e s i z e can be reduced t o component s u b - r e g i o n s , each o f which i s f u n c t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t from t h e o t h e r s . Thus i n a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l s e n s e , w e s t e r n Canada i s n o t h i n g more than an a g g l o m e r a t i o n o f c o n t i g u o u s communities, u n i t e d by some c r i t e r i a b ut s e p a r a t e d by o t h e r s . Y e t much o f our i n a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n an e f f e c t i v e manner r e s u l t s from the i n d e t e r m i n a c y o f 'the r e g i o n 1 as a u n i t o f p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . A c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s works f a s h i o n e d by c r i t i c s , p r o p o n e n t s , and i m p a r t i a l o b s e r v e r s o f w e s t e r n r e g i o n a l i s m i n d i c a t e s the manner i n which p e r c e p t i o n s o f 'the west' v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o each a n a l y t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n . To s o c i a l and economic g e o g r a p h e r s , w e s t e r n Canada i s the sum t o t a l o f a l l f o u r p r o v i n c e s west o f O n t a r i o , s i n c e each o f t h e s e p r o v i n c e s s h a r e s a u n i q u e p o l i t i c a l and economic h i s t o r y v i s - a - v i s the f o u n d i n g p r o v i n c e s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 1 A l t e r n a t i v e l y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t r a d e and commodity s t r u c t u r e s o f each p r o v i n c e have prompted t h e B.C. Government to argue t h a t "As one moves t o the more s p e c i f i c and o p e r a t i o n a l p o l i c y l e v e l s the dichotomy between t h e p r a i r i e west and t h e p a c i f i c west becomes more and more 2 a p p a r e n t . " ' M o r e o v e r , - t o the s o c i o l o g i c a l l y minded, the v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c , and e t h n i c l i n k a g e s upon which r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s a r e b u i l t s e r v e as s o u r c e s .of both u n i t y and d i v i s i v e n e s s 3 between t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . In s h o r t , the c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f w e s t e r n Canadian r e g i o n a l i s m i s a h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e m a t t e r . N o n e t h e l e s s , a s i n g l e axiom has dominated s t u d i e s o f w e s t e r n d i s c o n t e n t f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s , namely, t h a t w e s t e r n Canada i s a p a n - r e g i o n a l community, whose i n t e r n a l d i v e r s i t y p a l e s i n t h e f a c e o f i n t e g r a t i v e f o r c e s , f o r e m o s t o f which i s a p e r v a -s i v e a n t i p a t h y toward C e n t r a l Canada. T h i s a n t i p a t h y , which i n the v e r -n a c u l a r o f contemporary a n a l y s i s i s l a b e l l e d 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 , i s s a i d t o p r o v i d e t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a homogeneous r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . The e s s e n c e o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e i s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s o c i e t a l and governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s o f each component community a r e eschewed i n f a v o u r o f a c o l l e c t i v e . u n i t y a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , a u n i t y i n s p i r e d by t h e communities' common 1 h i n t e r -4 l a n d 1 s t a t u s . W h i l e s y s t e m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n a r e ad-m i t t e d l y few, th o s e who e x p r e s s c o n c e r n f o r t h e r e g i o n ' s g r i e v a n c e s have d i s p l a y e d a r e m a r k a b l e t a l e n t f o r o v e r l o o k i n g p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e f o u r component p r o v i n c e s . A s t a t e m e n t by fo r m e r Saskatchewan P r e m i e r A l l a n B l a k e n e y , o f f e r e d a t the Annual C o n f e r e n c e o f the A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s Economic C o u n c i l i n 1976, i s a p p o s i t e : . . . d e s p i t e ( s u b s t a n t i a l ) d i f f e r e n c e s , most o f us r e g a r d t h e f o u r w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s as a d i s t i n c t r e g i o n , w i t h s h a r e d p e r c e p t i o n s , w i t h mutual c o n -c e r n s , and, i n many r e s p e c t s , w i t h common o b j e c -t i v e s . And the governments o f t h e s e f o u r p r o v i n c e s ^ have worked t o g e t h e r . . . t o promote r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . S i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s were e x p r e s s e d a t t h e Western Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s C o n f e r e n c e i n C a l g a r y d u r i n g t h e summer o f .1973. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s used the term, 'the west' as i f d e s c r i b i n g a m o n o l i t h i c body, u n i t e d i n i t s s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e f e d e r a l government and f r e e from i n t e r n a l d i v e r s i t y . Mr. Lougheed e x t o l l e d the "unique s p i r i t o f the West" w h i l e Mr. S c h r e y e r spoke o f the r e g i o n ' s "widespread c o n c e r n " f o r l o s s e s o f economic oppor-t u n i t y i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and a g r i c u l t u r e . But many w e s t e r n p o l i c y c o n c e r n s a r e l e s s w i d e s p r e a d than Mr. S c h r e y e r would have us b e l i e v e ; i n B r i t i s h Columbia o n l y 2.5% o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n i s employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e , ' 7 and i n d e e d t h e west c o a s t p r o v i n c e b e n e f i t s from many o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t a r i f f p o l i c i e s which t r a d i t i o n a l l y a g g r i e v e g P r a i r i e r e s i d e n t s . Academics too a r e i n c l i n e d t o t r e a t w e s t e r n Canada as a pan-r e g i o n a l community. P o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i a n David E. Smith uses the terms 'the w e s t 1 and 'the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s ' i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n a t l e a s t t h r e e s e p a r a t e i n q u i r i e s i n t o w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , thus under-p l a y i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r o v i n c i a l d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n 9 and n e g l e c t i n g t h e westernmost p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia a l t o g e t h e r . S i m i l a r a l l e g a t i o n s can be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t e c o n o m i s t Kenneth N o r r i e f o r h i s o t h e r w i s e i l l u m i n a t i n g a n a l y s e s o f w e s t e r n economic g r i e v a n c e s . 1 0 O b v e r s e l y , a h a n d f u l o f s c h o l a r s f o c u s s e s a t t e n t i o n upon s i n g l e p r o v i n c e s on t h e ass u m p t i o n t h a t the b e h a v i o u r o b s e r v e d t h e r e i n has g e n e r a l a p p l i c a -t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . A r e c e n t volume on t h e "Myths, R e a l i t i e s , and Dangers" o f w e s t e r n s e p a r a t i s m e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s p e r s u a s i o n , p u r p o r -t i n g t o d e a l w i t h a l i e n a t i o n as a r e g i o n a l phenomenon w h i l e i n f a c t r e s t r i c t i n g t h e scope o f i t s a n a l y s e s t o the p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . 1 1 S i m i l a r l y , George Woodcock's "Case A g a i n s t Trudeau.'s Canada" i s l e s s a t r e a t i s e on w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n than one B r i t i s h Columbian's p o l e m i c 12 a g a i n s t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c e n t r a l Canadian government. The c o n c e p t i o n o f w e s t e r n Canada as a m o n o l i t h i c r e g i o n i s n o t l i m i t e d t o e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s and p o l i t i c a l s c h o l a r s . As C l a r k e , e t a l . , d e m onstrate i n t h e i r a n a l y s e s o f F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n S u r v e y d a t a , r e s i d e n t s o f the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s a r e more l i k e l y than r e s i d e n t s o f any o t h e r r e g i o n to 13 t h i n k o f Canada i n s i m p l e East-West terms. The East-West dichotomy i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a model o f C a nadian r e g i o n a l i s m which t y p i c a l l y i g n o r e s 'the w e s t ' s 1 i n t e r n a l d i v e r s i t y . A t a more c o n s p i c u o u s l e v e l , f l e d g i n g s e p a r a t i s t groups p r o c l a i m t h a t w e s t e r n Canada's o v e r r e a c h i n g p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e r e s t s t r a n s -cend i n t r a - r e g i o n a l d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s and thus make t e r r i t o r i a l f e d e r a t i o n a v i a b l e and c o m p e l l i n g a l t e r n a t i v e t o the C a n adian C o n f e d e r a t i o n . West-Fed's 1980 b r o c h u r e , t h e f i r s t d e t a i l e d p r o m u l g a t i o n o f s e p a r a t i s t ' d o c t r i n e ' o f i t s k i n d , r e p e a t e d l y i n v o k e s p o l i t i c a l i ndependence as a 14 h a r b i n g e r o f economic w e a l t h , y e t no mention i s made o f the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f economic r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n , o f i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t r a d e r e l a t i o n s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , development s t r a t e -15 g i e s , o r r e d i s t r i b u t i v e p o l i c i e s . The s e p a r a t i s t s ' f o r t u n e s r i d e upon two major a s s u m p t i o n s about the w e s t e r n Canadian community, namely, t h a t i t i s i n t e g r a t e d and s u s t a i n e d by a p e r v a s i v e d i s r e g a r d f o r c e n t r a l Canada, and t h a t t h e r e g i o n qua r e g i o n i s t y p i f i e d by i t s v a s t p o t e n t i a l f o r economic p r o s p e r i t y . The uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f both p o l i t i c a l d i s c o n -t e n t and economic w e a l t h a r e c o n v e n i e n t l y i g n o r e d . On t h e o t h e r s i d e o f the n a t i o n a l u n i t y ' c o i n ! , the a u t h o r s o f the P e p i n - R o b a r t s R e p o r t m a i n t a i n t h a t ' r e g i o n a l i s m ' i s one o f two major c l e a v a g e s t h r e a t e n i n g C a n adian f e d e r a l i s m t o d a y . Y e t the d e f i n i t i o n o f w e s t e r n Canada o f f e r e d i n A F u t u r e T o g e t h e r i s w h o l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The a u t h o r s o p t f o r a " f o u r o r f i v e r e g i o n a p p r o a c h " t h r o u g h o u t the r e p o r t , w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s sometimes grouped t o g e t h e r as one r e g i o n and sometimes d i v i d e d i n t o two. 1^ F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t y i n g t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s t o a common ( E n g l i s h Canadian) ' p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e 1 , 1 ^ the a u t h o r s e f f e c t i v e l y i g n o r e some v e r y i m p o r t a n t elements o f i n t r a -r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y . For example, s o c i a l and economic d i f f e r e n c e s between B.C. and A l b e r t a might e x p l a i n why ( s u p e r f i c i a l l y a t l e a s t ) a l i e n a t i o n and w e s t e r n s e p a r a t i s m seem t o be s t r o n g e r i n t h e l a t t e r p r o v i n c e than i n t h e f o r m e r . Thus a n a l y s t s from v a r i o u s walks o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e seem to t h i n k o f w e s t e r n Canada as a m o n o l i t h i c e n t i t y . Mr. Trudeau h i m s e l f has made t h i s p o i n t w i t h t h e remark t h a t " t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e i n the West than t h e r e i s i n c e n t r a l Canada.. . i t ' s n o t a d i f f e r e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n b u t 19 i t ' s c e r t a i n l y a d i f f e r e n t form o f c u l t u r e than e x i s t s e l s e w h e r e . " W i t h i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e . T r a d i -t i o n a l l y , r e g i o n a l u n r e s t has been c o n s i d e r e d a consequence o f the geo-g r a p h i c , s o c i a l and economic f o r c e s which d i s t i n g u i s h the w e s t e r n Canadian p r o v i n c e s from t h e i r e a s t e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s . The n o t i o n t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s i n some way an outgrowth o f t h e s e unique f o r c e s i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y pronounced among a n a l y s t s o f p r a i r i e p o l i t i c s , many o f whom have b u i l t s t u d i e s o f r e g i o n a l p r o t e s t and a g r a r i a n p o p u l i s m on the premise t h a t "the r e g i o n ' s geography, economy and p e o p l e s e t i t a p a r t from the 20 r e s t o f the c o u n t r y . " Moreover, as 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' becomes more d e e p l y r o o t e d i n t h e language o f Canadian f e d e r a l i s m , t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a p p l i e s t o 'the West' as a l a r g e r r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia as w e l l we have se e n , both West-Fed and the a u t h o r s o f A F u t u r e T o g e t h e r g l o s s o v e r t h e i n v e t e r a t e . q u e s t i o n o f whether B.C. s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a r e g i o n a p a r t from the p r a i r i e s , and w h i l e t h e B.C. government o f f i c i a l l y propounds i t s c a s e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f the c u r r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t the p r o v i n c e i s moving toward g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the p r a i r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f e d e r a l government. Norman R u f f has argued t h a t the i s o l a t i o n i s t s t a n c e c u l t i v a t e d o v e r two decades o f ' h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d 1 l e a d e r s h i p under W.A.C. B e n n e t t has e r o d e d , and t h a t s i n c e t h e d e f e a t o f the ( e l d e r ) B e n n e t t regime i n 1972, ' f e d - b a s h i n g ' has become l e s s a l o c a l 22 than a r e g i o n a l e ndeavour. R e c e n t l y , Roger G i b b i n s has f o r m u l a t e d an a l t e r n a t i v e view o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n and w e s t e r n r e g i o n a l i s m . W h i l e he i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e p r a i r i e s , I s u s p e c t t h a t t h e argument p r e s e n t e d i n P r a i r i e ' P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y c a p t u r e s t h e e s s e n c e o f many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t as a p p l i e d t o a l l f o u r w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . Western a l i e n a t i o n i s the " d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c o r e " o f a p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e which u n i t e s and g i v e s form to a p a n - r e g i o n a l community I t " c o n s t i t u t e s a form o f a t t i t u d i n a l r e g i o n a l i s m t h a t c u t s a c r o s s and i n t e g r a t e s t h e r a t h e r d i s p a r i t e p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i e s " o f the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , and i t p e r s i s t s even where s t r u c t u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r -23 ences c o n s p i r e t o m i t i g a t e t h e r e g i o n ' s p o l i t i c a l homogeneity. Thus i n r e l a t i o n s between c o r e and h i n t e r l a n d , t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s tend t o be c o n c e i v e d o f w i t h i n t h e r u b r i c o f a p a n - r e g i o n a l community, o f a f u n c t i o n a l l y homogeneous e n t i t y bonded t o g e t h e r by an amorphous phenomenon known as 'western a l i e n a t i o n . ' But on what grounds do we a t t r i b u t e t o w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n such powers o f c o h e s i o n ? B r i t i s h Columbians a r e more l i k e l y than p r a i r i e r e s i d e n t s t o t h i n k o f t h e i r 24 p r o v i n c e as a r e g i o n i n i t s e l f ; i n A l b e r t a , a l i e n a t i o n has f o l l o w e d a ' r i g h t ' p o p u l i s t l i n e , w h i l e i n Saskatchewan i t has been a s s o c i a t e d 25 w i t h ' l e f t ' p o p u l i s m . In M a n i t o b a , a l i e n a t i o n i s more d e e p l y r o o t e d i n a h i s t o r y o f e t h n i c c o n f l i c t than a r e any o f the o t h e r westernmost 26 p r o v i n c e s . I t seems p l a u s i b l e , t h e n , t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s i t -s e l f an i n t e r n a l l y h eterogeneous phenomenon, i . e . , both i t and the ' r e g i o n a l ' p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e f o r which i t p r o v i d e s a ' d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c o r e 1 v a r i e s by p r o v i n c e . T h i s i s the theme I wish t o d e v e l o p t h r o u g h -ou t the r e m a i n d e r o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . IV) A L a b y r i n t h o f B e l i e f Systems The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t f o r a l l t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i t has s t i r r e d t h r o u g h o u t the p a s t decade, 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' i s an amor-phous c o n c e p t whose p o t e n t i a l f o r s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s has y e t t o be de-v e l o p e d i n f u l l . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a n t i p a t h y toward c e n t r a l Canada has been c o n s i d e r e d a key element o f w e s t e r n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , e i t h e r as a p r o d u c t o f s o c i e t a l f o r c e s common to a l l p a r t s o f the r e g i o n , o r as a s o u r c e o f u n i t y and s h a r e d purpose among d i s p a r i t e p r o v i n c i a l c ommunities. In b o t h f o r m u l a t i o n s i t i s assumed t h a t a l i e n a t i o n i s the s i n e qua hon o f a homo-, geneous p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e which d e f i n e s w e s t e r n Canada as a ' p a n - r e g i o n a l ' • community. Ye t n e i t h e r view has a f f o r d e d us a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f the phenomenon i t s e l f . As was p o i n t e d o u t i n S e c t i o n I I , 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' i s s t i l l s u r r o u n d e d by t h e o r e t i c a l a m b i g u i t i e s , and t h e 'problem o f the dependent v a r i a b l e ' imposes s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s upon our e f f o r t s t o s t u d y t h e c o n c e p t i n s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s i s t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s not a s i n g l e , homogeneous phenomenon, but i s r a t h e r a l a b y r i n t h o f d i v e r s e b e l i e f s y s t e m s , 1 each l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d upon a v a r i e t y o f a n t i p a t h i e s ( p r i m a r i l y p o l i t i c a l and economic) toward c e n t r a l Canada, b u t n o t bound by a p r e s c r i b e d s e t o f o r t h o d o x i e s . In C o n v e r s e ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e ' f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e 1 between the i d e a s 3 and v a l u e s which c o m p r i s e the b e l i e f s y stems. Thus much o f the a m b i g u i t y which s u r r o u n d s w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t i t i s a s i n g l e , u n i f o r m s e t o f b e l i e f s . Of c o u r s e , i t would be e q u a l l y m i s l e a d i n g t o t h i n k o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n as a c o l l e c t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t i d e a s ( i f such were the c a s e , i t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o speak o f b e ! i e f systems). W h i l e the argument p r e s e n t e d here s u g g e s t s t h a t the ' p a n - r e g i o n a l ' axiom o b s c u r e s i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e west's s u b - r e g i o n s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h c o l l e c t i v i t i e s ; i t s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be p o s s i b l e to d i s c e r n d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f b e l i e f s among v a r i o u s ' i n t r a - r e g i o n a l ' communities. In the pages which f o l l o w I s h a l l f o c u s a t t e n t i o n upon the p r o v i n c i a l communities w i t h the s u s p i c i o n t h a t the b e l i e f systems we d e s i g n a t e 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' i n one p r o v i n c e a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as t h o s e found i n a n o t h e r . Each p r o v i n c i a l community can be s a i d to posses a d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e ^ b o r n e o f unique s o c i e t a l f o r c e s and h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . To the e x t e n t t h a t r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t i s "one o f the most c o n s p i c u o u s f e a t u r e s " o f the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s , one would e x p e c t to f i n d m e a n i n g f u l p r o v i n c i a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e s o f w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n b e l i e f s y s t e m s , i . e . , i n t h o s e b e l i e f systems which c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n s t i t u t e 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' . V) Data and Methodology The following analysis i s based upon the premise that differences in provincial manifestations of 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 underscore fundamental d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between p o l i t i c a l cultures within the western Canadian region. If i t can be shown that the sociodemographic and a t t i t u d i n a l cor-relates of western alienation diverge between provinces, then two conclu-sions are possible: either.there are structural differences between the provincial communities which induce variation on the dependent variable (western a l i e n a t i o n ) , or there are deep-rooted differences in the provin-c i a l p o l i t i c a l cultures, which account for the divergence.* The impact of 'structural differences' can be tested by controlling for a variety of s o c i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and demographic variables. For exam] controlling for 'length of residence 1 (the sociodemographic variable which Gibbins finds most strongly related to western alienation) might explain why p o l i t i c a l 'conservatives' tend to be more alienated than non-conserva-2 tives in Alberta, i f i t were found that most conservatives had li v e d in the province for a long period of time. Where differences in provincial manifestations of western alienation can ,,be. attributed to structural d i s s i -m i l a r i t i e s , we may conclude that the phenomenon i s properly considered a pan-regional be l i e f system having provincial variants. I f , however, structural d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s are not responsible for such variation then perhaps we may conclude that western alienation in one province i s an i n t r i n s i c a l l y d ifferent b e l i e f system from western alienation i n another province. The data used in this study are compiled from two sample surveys c o n d u c t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o lumbia. The 1976 A l b e r t a  E l e c t o r a t e s u r v e y , a d m i n i s t e r e d under t he d i r e c t i o n o f Roger G i b b i n s i n th e s p r i n g o f 1976, p o l l e d 502 r a n d o m l y - s e l e c t e d a d u l t s on a v a r i e t y o f 3 items r e l a t i n g t o government p o l i c y and p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n the p r o v i n c e . The B.C. E l e c t i o n S u r v e y , a d m i n i s t e r e d under t he d i r e c t i o n o f Don B l a k e , D a v i d E l k i n s , and R i c h a r d J o h n s t o n , c o n s i s t s o f 1051 r a n d o m l y - s e l e c t e d r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s o f 4 May, 1979. These s u r v e y s c o n s t i t u t e , i n my o p i n i o n , t he most e f f e c t i v e 5 e x a m i n a t i o n s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n u n d e r t a k e n t o d a t e . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e y a r e i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d i e s and t h e r e f o r e a r e s u b j e c t t o s e v e r a l c a v e a t s r e s p e c t i n g c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f measurement. Some o f t h e s e c a v e a t s d e s e r v e r e c o g n i t i o n b e f o r e t he d a t a a n a l y s i s i s u n d e r t a k e n . F i r s t , t h e s u r v e y s v a r y i n g e n e r a l form and c o n t e n t . W h i l e t h e B r i t i s h Columbia s t u d y d e a l s e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h broad o r i e n t a t i o n s toward p o l i t i c a l l i f e - e f f i c a c y , t r u s t , l i k i n g and d i s l i k i n g o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i -t u t i o n s , i d e a s about p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, e t c . --the A l b e r t a s u r v e y c o n c e n t r a t e s upon more s p e c i f i c p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s : S y n c r u d e , the A l b e r t a H e r i t a g e T r u s t Fund, h o u s i n g , the e n v i r o n m e n t , t he p r o v i n c i a l O p p o s i t i o n , e t c . I f a c r u d e d i s t i n c t i o n can be made, one mi g h t d e s i g n a t e the A l b e r t a s u r v e y an extended p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l , and the B.C. s u r v e y a c a n v a s s o f p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . Second, the measures o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n d i f f e r . In a s s e s s i n g the p o l i t i c a l views o f A l b e r t a n s , I have adop t e d G i b b i n s ' i n d e x o f we s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , which i s based upon the e i g h t L i k e r t - s c a l e items l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1. The items a r e s c o r e d from one ( d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y ) to f i v e (agree strongly) and the index i s constructed by adding the scores of the eight items such that lower values indicate less intense aliena-tion and higher values more intense alienation. The B r i t i s h Columbia alienation scale consists of the seven items l i s t e d i n Table 2; responses are scored dichotomously with non-alienated responses valued at 'zero' and alienated responses at 'one.' The resulting index i s con-structed by adding the scores of the seven i t e m s / For heuristic purposes, both indices are recoded into q u a r t i l e s , so that possible scores range from 'zero' (low alienation) to 'four' (high alien a t i o n ) . Third, as i s evident in Tables 1 and 2, di f f e r e n t items make up each alienation scale. Only one pair of items -- namely, "In many ways Alberta has more in common with the United States than i t does with Eastern Canada", and "In B.C., we have more in common with Washington than with people in Ontario" -- can be considered equivalent; the remain-der vary by degree in both form and substance. Nonetheless I am convinced that taken c o l l e c t i v e l y , both sets of items constitute satisfactory measures of western alienation. Both meet g standard requirements of scale v a l i d i t y and both contain items of what have i n other surveys been considered meaningful indicators of western alienation.*^ I f systematic bias does exi s t in these indices, i t pro-bably l i e s in the surveys' emphases upon provincial rather than regional attitudes. In general, however, response bias does not appear to be a major problem. Fourth, there are also differences in some of the items used to test the three correlates of alienation with which we are concerned. TABLE 1 Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n , o f t h e A l i e n a t i o n S c a l e , . A l b e r t a : Item 1. "The economic p o l i c i e s o f the f e d e r a l government seem to h e l p Quebec and O n t a r i o a t the expense o f A l b e r t a " 2. "Because p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s depend upon Quebec and O n t a r i o f o r most o f t h e i r v o t e s A l b e r t a u s u a l l y g e t s i g n o r e d i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s " 5. "Most E a s t e r n Canadians seem t o f e e l t h a t Canada ends a t t h e G r e a t L a k e s " 6. " A l b e r t a b e n e f i t s as much from t h e i n -d u s t r i e s i n the E a s t Canada b e n e f i t s from A l b e r t a ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s such as o i l " 8. " I f one p a r t o f Canada s u f f e r s we a l l s u f f e r , and i f one r e g i o n p r o s p e r s , we a l l s h a r e i n t h e p r o s p e r i t y " ' a l i e n a t e d ' ' u n a l i e n a t e d ' DK/NA re s p o n s e % r e s p o n s e % % 1L\ 10 17 75 14 9 45 32 23 63 19 19 65 16 19 63 24 13 57 32 11 3. "During the p a s t few y e a r s the f e d e r a l government has made a g enuine e f f o r t to overcome problems o f economic d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n a g a i n s t A l b e r t a " 4. "In many ways A l b e r t a has more i n common w i t h t h e w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s than i t does w i t h E a s t e r n Canada" " I t . o f t e n seems t h a t A l b e r t a p o l i t i c i a n s a r e n o t taken s e r i o u s l y i n the E a s t . " 71 14 15 F i g u r e s may not add up to 100% because o f r o u n d i n g . D i s a g g r e g a t e d f i g u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Roger G i b b i n s , "Western A l i e n a t i o n and the A l b e r t a P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e " , i n C a r l o C a l d a r o l a , ed., S o c i e t y a nd P o l i t i c s i n  A l b e r t a , p. 147. 23. TABLE 2 Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e A l i e n a t i o n S c a l e , B r i t i s h .Columbia" • ' a l i e n a t e d ' ' u n a l i e n a t e d DK/NA Item r e s p o n s e % r e s p o n s e % % 1. "Many t h i n g s the f e d e r a l government does, p r o v i n c i a l governments would do a l o t b e t t e r " 45 47 8 2. "I d o n ' t f i n d p e o p l e from e a s t e r n Canada v e r y a t t r a c t i v e " 7 85 8 3. "The f e d e r a l government has a l l but f o r g o t t e n B.C." 26 66 7 4. "In B.C., we have more i n common w i t h p e o p l e i n Washington than w i t h p e o p l e i n O n t a r i o " 25 * o r 5 "I t h i n k o f m y s e l f as a Canadian f i r s t and a B r i t i s h Columbian s e c o n d " * 69 5. "B.C. pays more i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n than she g e t s o u t o f i t " 21 * o r 9 "On b a l a n c e , B.C. i s much b e t t e r o f f i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n t h a n o u t o f i t " * 70 6. "Ottawa i s so f a r away, ou r MP's l o s e t o u c h w i t h t h e p e o p l e who e l e c t them" 62 * o r 11 "I sometimes f e e l t h a t the f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment i s more i n t o u c h w i t h B.C. o p i n i o n than t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i s " * 27 7. " L o c a l q u e s t i o n s j u s t d o n ' t g e t the a t t e n t i o n t h e y d e s e r v e i n Ottawa" 47 * o r 8 " F r a n k l y , I'm g l a d t h a t the f e d e r a l government r e s i s t s c e r t a i n k i n d s o f l o c a l p r e s s u r e s " * 45 * - r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t o choose the s t a t e m e n t t h e y agreed w i t h more c l o s e l y For example, i n t h e A l b e r t a s u r v e y e d u c a t i o n i s measured u s i n g n i n e c a t e g o r i e s grouped by l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t , w h i l e i n the B r i t i s h Columbia s u r v e y , e d u c a t i o n i s coded a c c o r d i n g t o the number o f y e a r s the r e s p o n -dents have s p e n t i n the f o r m a l s c h o o l system. I have attempted t o m i n i m i z e such d i s c r e p a n c i e s by r e c o d i n g v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e s i n t o comparable c a t e g o r i e s . In most c a s e s t h i s poses no pro b l e m s , a l t h o u g h t h e measures o f ' i d e o l o g y ' , l i k e t h o s e o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , a r e based upon d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f i t e m s . These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . F i f t h , d a t a l i m i t a t i o n s p r o h i b i t o u r e x p l o r i n g c e r t a i n c o r r e l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n w h i c h , i n t u i t i v e l y a t l e a s t , m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e s a l i e n t . F o r example, because o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f o r m a t o f 11 the i t e m s , m e a n i n g f u l comparisons o f p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s c a n n o t be made. Nor c an e x a m i n a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n and l i k i n g o r d i s l i k i n g o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . W h i l e E l k i n s has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n ( i n B r i t i s h Columbia) i s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h 12 d i s t a s t e f o r P i e r r e T r u d e a u , l a c k o f comparable d a t a p r e c l u d e s our t e s t i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n A l b e r t a . C e r t a i n d i m e n s i o n s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n c a n n o t be compared s i m p l y because the d a t a do not p e r m i t i t . F i n a l l y , I must emphasize t h a t t h e s e a r e o n l y r e l a t i v e measures o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n ; no i n f e r e n c e s a r e i n t e n d e d w i t h r e s p e c t to the a b s o l u t e l e v e l s o f r e s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s o r f e e l i n g s ; i d e n t i c a l s c o r e s on each o f the s e p a r a t e s c a l e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the phenomena t e s t e d a r e i d e n t i c a l . These c a v e a t s a r e g i v e n c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t he f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . They a r e w e i g h t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , b u t f o r o u r p u r p o s e s , they a r e not p r o h i b i t i v e . In t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I s h a l l t e s t a number o f h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g ' i d e o l o g y ' , p a r t i s a n s h i p , and s o c i a l c l a s s t o a l i e n a t i o n , w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e major d i f -f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s and p a t t e r n s o f b e l i e f systems i n B.C. and A l b e r t a , d i f f e r e n c e s which c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n many o f the images con-v e n t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w e s t e r n d i s c o n t e n t , and which expunge the n o t i o n t h a t a l i e n a t i o n p r o v i d e s the f o u n d a t i o n o f a homogeneous, pan-r e g i o n a l b e l i e f system. 26. VI) Western Alienation arid Intra-Regional Variation: An Analysis of the Data  Ideology: The conceptual structure of an ideology varies widely and indeed has many dimensions. For our purposes, 'ideology' w i l l be taken to mean a set of bel i e f s about what the individual's relationship to democratic government and society ought to be. Tables 3 and 4 l i s t items which comprise the ideology scales for Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia, respectively. The scales are constructed in the same manner as the indices of western alienation. Responses are grouped into categories which correspond roughly to a liberal-conservative dichotomy"'' with summed scores of a l l respondents forming a continuum ranging from extreme li b e r a l i s m to extreme conservatism.; the continuum i s then broken down into three groups, which for ease of interpretation are designated ' l i b e r a l 1 , 'neutral 1, and 'conservative'. I should emphasize once again that these measures are no more than r e l a t i v e indicators of an individual's ideologi-cal status. No judgements about formal ideological preferences (e.g., Marxism, l i b e r a l i s m , fascism, anarcho-syndicalism, etc.) are implied. Two central hypotheses guide our examination of relationships between ideology and western alie n a t i o n , namely, that alienation i n Alberta i s a fundamentally conservative phenomenon, and that alienation in B r i t i s h Columbia i s not aligned with any particular ideological group. These hypotheses are inspired by several observations regarding p o l i t i c a l l i f e in the two westernmost provinces. The observation that Alberta i s a p o l i t i c a l l y conservative community 27. TABLE 3 Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the I d e o l o g y Sca'le r. A l b e r t a 0/ 0 / 0 / 10 10 to Item a g r e e d i s a g r e e DK 1. "There s h o u l d b e . l e s s r e g u l a t i o n o f p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s " 50.6 31.1 18.3 2. " A l l c i v i l s e r v a n t s s h o u l d have the r i g h t t o s t r i k e " 56.0 35.9 8.2 3. "Trade u n i o n s have become too po w e r f u l i n Canada" 83.3 9.6 7.2 4. "Canadian governments have become too i n v o l v e d i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r c i t i z e n s " 37.6 42.4 19.9 5. " A b l e - b o d i e d men who a p p l y f o r w e l f a r e s h o u l d be made t o work f o r i t " 95.0 2.6 .2.4 Governments i n Canada a r e making the t a x p a y e r pay f o r too many u n n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s " 71.9 15.5 12.5 "The f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system i n Canada i s o b s o l e t e " . 48.0 32.0 19.1 28. TABLE 4 Items Used i n C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Ideology. S c a l e , B r i t i s h Columbia % % % Item a g r e e d i s a g r e e DK 1. " A f t e r a p e r s o n has worked u n t i l he i s 65, i t i s p r o p e r f o r t h e community t o s u p p o r t him" 41.7 58.0 0.30 2. "The government ought make s u r e t h a t everyone has a d e c e n t s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g " 21.7 78.2 0.10 3. " L e t ' s f a c e i t , most unemployed p e o p l e c o u l d f i n d a j o b i f they r e a l l y wanted t o " 60.2 39.6 .0.10 4. '"Do-gooders' and ' b l e e d i n g h e a r t s ' have too much i n f l u e n c e on how government i s run t h e s e d a y s " 50.1 49.7 .0.10 5. "Why s h o u l d t h e government spend my tax d o l l a r s on s i c k p e o p l e ; my f a m i l y always put a s i d e something f o r a r a i n y day" 7.3 92.7 6. " B i g c o r p o r a t i o n s have so much power t h a t we a l s o need b i g u n i o n s " - 47.9 51.6 0.5 7. " I f I do my b e s t , i t i s o n l y r i g h t t h a t the government s h o u l d h e l p me o u t when I g e t some bad b r e a k s " 34.3 * o r 0.4 "Each i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d a c c e p t the c o n s e -quences o f t h e i r own a c t i o n s " 65.3 * * - r e s p o n d e n t s were asked to choose t h e s t a t e m e n t they a g r e e d w i t h more c l o s e l y i s n o t a t a l l new. I t i s a view propounded by p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s t s from academia, the news media, and e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l d o m a l i k e . Donald S m i l e y d e s c r i b e s A l b e r t a ' s ' i d e o l o g i c a l ' p r o c l i v i t i e s i n t h i s manner: P r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s i n A l b e r t a a r e c o n -s i d e r a b l y t o t h e ' r i g h t ' o f t h o s e which dominate th e f e d e r a l government and the governments o f the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . A l b e r t a i s c l o s e r i n time than the o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada to the i n d i v i d u a l i s m o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l f r o n t i e r and the 'new A l b e r t a 1 has been d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a f r e e - w h e e l i n g v a r i a n t o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . ^ T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by many p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s o f A l b e r t a n p o l i t i c s -- t h e p r o p e n s i t y f o r e l e c t i n g i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n -ments by overwhelming m a j o r i t i e s and f o r r e j e c t i n g the CCF/NDP o u t - o f -3 hand ; t h e c u r r e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s emphasis upon p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e as 4 the t o u c h s t o n e o f p r o v i n c i a l economic development; the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r s u p p o r t f o r r i g h t - w i n g s e p a r a t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s than e x i s t s i n 5 o t h e r w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . 'Western a l i e n a t i o n ' has t r a d i t i o n a l l y embraced p o l i t i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m i n A l b e r t a , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the r e l i g i o u s p o p u l i s m o f S o c i a l C r e d i t i n 1935, t h r o u g h to the p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n ' s ' p r a i r i e c a p i t a l i s m 1 . In c o n t r a s t , B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s a r e commonly c o n s i d e r e d c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e s between l e f t and r i g h t , between o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r and b i g b u s i n e s s , and between s o c i a l i s m and f r e e e n t e r p r i s e . However, r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t f i n d s no more a l l i e s a t one i d e o l o g i c a l p o l e than a t the o t h e r ; t h e a n t i - O t t a w a p o s t u r i n g o f an avowed f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e r l i k e W.A.C. B e n n e t t f o r two decades complemented t h e e a r l i e r r e m o n s t r a n c e s o f a T.D. P a t u l l o , whose a p p r o a c h t o f i s c a l o p e r a t i o n s was i n many ways emblematic o f a more ' l i b e r a l ' r e g i m e . Today, the y o u n g e r B e n n e t t ' s crusade for provincial rights i s rarely linked to Ideological issues while the catchphrase, 'western alienation' has never preoccupied the l e f t in B r i t i s h Columbia as i t has, for example, in Saskatchewan. In B.C. regional unrest runs behind, rather than alongside ideological cleavages.'' Relationships between ideology and western alienation are summarized in Table 5. The data support our f i r s t hypothesis quite nicely; a l i e n a -tion i s strongest among the ideologically^conservative in Alberta, and indeed, g conservative respondents make up the bulk of the provincial sample. How-ever, our second hypothesis i s not confirmed. The expected non-relation-ship between ideology and alienation in B r i t i s h Columbia i s belied by a weak yet s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t relationship in which ' l i b e r a l s ' are more alienated than 'neutrals', who are i n turn more alienated than con-servatives.. Moreover, no single ideological group dominates the B.C. sample to the extent that conservatives dominate the Alberta sample. Thus i t appears that western alienation in B.C. has a modest correlate in l i b e r a l i s m , even though no single persuasion accurately describes the ideological structure of a west coast p o l i t i c a l culture. These dis t i n c t i o n s suggest that, according to at least one indicator, western alienation consists of substantively d i s s i m i l a r b e l i e f systems, that i s , b e l i e f systems which do not transcend differences in provincial p o l i t i c a l cultures. However, we would be i l l - a d v i s e d to accept these differences at face value. Presumably, provincial boundaries do not mould bel i e f systems of themselves; instead, each community's structural p e c u l i a r i t i e s may be responsible for the observed differences in provincial manifesta-tions of western alienation. TABLE 5 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by Respondent's I d e o l o g i c a l Group, B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a BRITISH COLUMBIA L e v e l s o f A l i e n a t i o n I d e o l o g y 1 2 3 4 t o t a l mean a l i e n a t i o n 1 i b e r a l 25.2 25.2 19.5 30.2 39.2 2.55 (75) (75) (58) (90) (298) n e u t r a l 26.5 27.6 18.4 27.6 24.3 2.47 (49) (51) (34) (51) (185) c o n s e r v a t i v e 32.4 21.2 21.6 24.8 36.5 2.39 (90) (59) (60) (69) (278) P e a r s o n ' s r = 0.059 s i g n i f i c a n c e = 0.05 ALBERTA Levels, o f A l i e n a t i o n I d e o l o g y 1 2 3 4 t o t a l mean a l i e n a t i o n 1 i b e r a l 29.9 27.9 27.3 14.9 30.7 2.27 (46) (43) (42) (23) (154) n e u t r a l 14.9 33.9 28.1 23.1 24.1 2.60 (18) (41) (34) (28) (121) c o n s e r v a t i v e 15.9 24.2 31.7 28.2 45.2 2.72 (36) (55) (72) (64) (227) Pearson's r = 0.18 s i g n i f i c a n c e = 0.0000 Few o f t h e s t a n d a r d s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l s r e v e a l s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s which m o d i f y our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e o l -ogy and a l i e n a t i o n . In A l b e r t a , i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e more a l i e n a t e d t h a n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l l y n e u t r a l , and ' n e u t r a l s ' more so than ' l i b e r a l s ' f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f age, f a m i l y income, e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , l o c a t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e , and l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e p r o v i n c e . W h i l e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s become i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n some c a t e g o r i e s ( p a r t i -c u l a r l y among v a r i o u s f a m i l y income and o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ) , the o r d e r i n g o f mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s w i t h i n i d e o l o g i c a l groups i s r a r e l y a l t e r e d . S i m i l a r l y , i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, l i b e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s tend t o be most h i g h l y a l i e n a t e d even when c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . However, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e more o f t e n than n o t reduced t o s t a t i s t i c a l n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e a f t e r such c o n t r o l s have been i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , g i v e n g i v e n the r e l a t i o n s h i p ' s weakness ( r = 0.059, p<.05) a t t h e a g g r e g a t e l e v e l . N o n e t h e l e s s the o r d e r -i n g o f mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s i s once a g a i n r a r e l y d i s r u p t e d , and o f c o u r s e t h e s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n c r e a s e s wherever a c c e p t a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e Q l e v e l s a r e o b t a i n e d . W h i l e demographic f a c t o r s do l i t t l e t o e x p l a i n p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s impinge upon o r i n some way f o r g e unique l i n k -ages between t h e two v a r i a b l e s . We a r e t o l d , f o r example, t h a t c o m p e t i t t i o n f o r economic and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f key energy r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s i s a major s o u r c e o f a n t i p a t h y between Ottawa and t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , 1 0 and t h a t t h e i n d u s t r i e s ' c o n c u r r e n t o b j e c t i o n s 33. t o f e d e r a l energy p o l i c i e s and t h e i r p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r l a i s s e z - f a i r e g i v e s w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n a d i s t i n c t l y c o n s e r v a t i v e t o n e . T h i s i s s a i d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n A l b e r t a , where the predominance o f p e t r o l e u m . b u t t r e s s e s a t r a d i t i o n a l l y ' r i g h t w i n g 1 p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e and p l a c e s the p r o v i n c e a t the f o r e f r o n t o f r e g i o n a l unrest.*"'' Is t h e r e a r e l a t i o n -s h i p between o i l i n d u s t r y , a f f i l i a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m , and we s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a ? The d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s n o t . Onl y t h i r t y - s i x r e s p o n d e n t s , 12 o r 7.2% o f t h e A l b e r t a sample c l a i m t o be ' i n v o l v e d ' i n the o i l i n d u s t r y . These r e s p o n d e n t s a r e no more l i k e l y to be ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' than r e s p o n d e n t s who a r e u n a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the i n d u s t r y , and w h i l e t h e i r mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s tend t o be s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than t h o s e o f n o n - a f f i l i a t e d r e s p o n -d e n t s , t he s m a l l group s i z e r e n d e r s s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s v i r t u a l l y meaning-l e s s . T r a d e u n i o n a f f i l i a t i o n has s i m i l a r l y l i t t l e i mpact upon the i d e o l o -g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . B.C. i s the most h i g h l y u n i o n i z e d p r o v i n c e i n Canada, which i n p a r t e x p l a i n s i t s i d e o l o g i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n . J u s t o v e r t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia sample c l a i m s t r a d e u n i o n a f f i l i a t i o n , w h i l e 31% r e p o r t h a v i n g o t h e r u n i o n members i n t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s . W h i l e u n i o n members tend t o be more ' l i b e r a l ' than non-union members (a p l u r a l i t y o f u n i o n members -- 48.7% — f a l l s i n t o t h e l i b e r a l c a t e g o r y ; by c o n t r a s t , o n l y 35.8% o f non-union members a r e l i b e r a l w h i l e 39.7% a r e ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' ) , t h e r e i s no cause f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n -13 s h i p t r a n s l a t e s i n t o g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r f e e l i n g s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , though, t h e r e i s a modest r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n among non-union members, and once a g a i n i t i s t h e l i b e r a l r e s -14 pondents who seem t o be most a l i e n a t e d . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p d i s a p p e a r s among r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g no o t h e r u n i o n members i n . t h e h o u s e h o l d . Thus t r a d e u n i o n a f f i l i a t i o n does n o t appear t o be the f o r c e which s t i m u l a t e s l i n k a g e s • between i d e o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l i s m and w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n B r i -t i s h Columbia. With r e s p e c t to A l b e r t a , s m a l l group s i z e s p r e v e n t us from drawing any c l e a r c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t r a d e union a f f i l -i a t i o n , i d e o l o g y , and a l i e n a t i o n . T i e s between p o l i t i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m and a l i e n a t i o n a r e washed away among r e s p o n d e n t s who b e l o n g to u n i o n s , b u t no t among t h o s e whose 'spouses o n l y ' b e l o n g . In any e v e n t , t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y one i n t e n r e s p o n d e n t s i s u n i o n i z e d c a s t s doubt upon t h i s v a r i a b l e ' s i n f l u e n c e upon t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . P a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n may a l s o be a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g : . r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n . As mentioned above, A l b e r t a ' s p r o p e n s i t y f o r e l e c t i n g a r d e n t l y p r o v i n c i a l i s t governments has t r a d i t i o n a l l y gone 15 hand-in-hand w i t h i t s i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m . By c o n t r a s t , much o f t h e r h e t o r i c which s u s t a i n s an i d e o l o g i c a l l y ' b i p o l a r ' p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e 16 i n . B r i t i s h Columbia i s n u r t u r e d by t h e p a r t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . W h i l e a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n o f the p a r t i s a n u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n -a t i o n w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n s h o r t l y , some o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n among v a r i o u s p a r t i s a n groups w a r r a n t our a t t e n t i o n h e r e . T a b l e s 6 and 7 d e s c r i b e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r b o t h f e d e r a l and TABLE 6 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by I d e o l o g y , C o n t r o l l i n g f o r F e d e r a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a I d e o l o g y BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 i b e r a l m i d ! i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e s L i b e r a l 2.39 (71) 1.78 (55) 2.07 (82) F e d e r a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t 2.75 (64) 2.36 (44) 2.40 (99) 2.69 (109) 2.86 (43) 2.38 (39) 3.00 (2) 2.75 (4) 2.75 (4) O t h e r 3.00 (4) 1.75 (4) 1.57 (7) v a l i d c a s e s = 631 ALBERTA 1 i b e r a l m i d l i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e 1.85 (26) 2.44 (18) 1.92 (24) 2.57 (61) 2.79 (58) 2.95 (130) 2.58 (12) 2.56 (9) 2.86 (7) 2.25 (8) 2.00 (1) 3.20 (10) 1.94 (34) 2.10 (20) 2.30 (37) v a l i d c a s e s = 455 's a r e i n p a r e n t h e s e s CO TABLE 7 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by I d e o l o g y , C o n t r o l l i n g f o r P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a I d e o l o g y BRITISH COLUMBIA l i b e r a l m i d l i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e L i b e r a l 2.00 (14) 2.27 (15) 2.32 (22) P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t 2.88 (16) 1.83 (6) 1.47 (15) 2.67 (155) 2.53 (68) 2.25 (57) 2.33 (49) 2.46 (57) 2.36 (123) O t h e r 2.60 (20) 2.20 (5) 2.52 (23) v a l i d c a s e s = 645 ALBERTA 1 i b e r a l m i d l i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e 1.72 (18) 1.80 (10) 1.78 (18) 2.54 (56) 2.80 (54) 2.91 (108) 2.47 (15) 2.71 (7) 3.11 (9) 2.45 (20) 2.49 (13) 3.00 (38) 1.95 (38) 2.21 (24) 2.24 (42) v a l i d c a s e s = 470 N's a r e i n p a r e n t h e s e s CO cr. p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y s u p p o r t e r s . T u r n i n g f i r s t t o n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , one i s i m m e d i a t e l y i m p r e s s e d t h a t i n A l b e r t a s y s t e m a t i c l i n k a g e s between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n d i s a p p e a r among L i b e r a l and New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y s u p p o r t e r s and c a n , owing t o s m a l l c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s , be e f f e c t i v e l y d i s -c a r d e d among S o c i a l C r e d i t s u p p o r t e r s . Thus t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between; . i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a i s most pronounced among P r o g e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s and s u p p o r t e r s o f 'o t h e r ' p a r t i e s . However, s i n c e t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a c c o u n t . f o r o v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the v a l i d c a s e s i n the A l b e r t a sample, t he "apparent interdependence, between i d e o l o g y and p a r t -i s a n s h i p i s n o t t e r r i b l y s u r p r i s i n g . Meanwhile, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e r e v e a l e d i n the B.C. d a t a . P r e d i c t a b l y , mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s a c r o s s a l l i d e o l o g i c a l groups, a r e l o w e r among L i b e r a l s than among f o l l o w e r s o f the o t h e r n a t i o n a l p a r -t i e s ( t h e same i s t r u e i n A l b e r t a ) , , but i n no c a s e s do a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s a l i g n i n s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n w i t h c a t e g o r i e s o f i d e o l o g y . In B r i t i s h C olumbia t he i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s n o t d e t e r m i n e d by f e d e r a l p a r t i s a n s h i p . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s o b t a i n a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . In A l b e r t a the i d e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n among p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i s a n s c l o s e l y resemble t h o s e o f t h e i r f e d e r a l c o u n t e r p a r t s , i n d i c a t i n g perhaps a c o n j u n c t i o n between p a r t y a l l e g i a n c e and i d e o l o g y which c u t s a c r o s s d i s -t i n c t i o n s between t h e two l e v e l s o f government. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e p a t t e r n c o u l d s i m p l y r e f l e c t t h e u b i q u i t y o f a n t i - L i b e r a l s e n t i m e n t i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e . W h i l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i s t a s t e f o r the L i b e r a l s i s d i s t r i b u t e d more o r l e s s e v e n l y between competing p a r t i e s ( t h a t i s , P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e and New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t i e s a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l ) , S o c i a l C r e d i t and New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t i e s a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l ) , i n A l b e r t a a h i s t o r i c a l a v e r s i o n to t h e New Dem o c r a t i c P a r t y , c o u p l e d w i t h the p o l i t i c a l b a n k r u p t c y o f the S o c r e d s a t both l e v e l s 1 ^ v i r t u a l l y compels p e o p l e t o s u p p o r t the C o n s e r v a t i v e s . Indeed, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the A l b e r t a sample c o n s i d e r s i t s e l f 19 ' C o n s e r v a t i v e ' a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l than a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t o A l b e r t a v o t e r s , t h e r e i s s i m p l y no v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , where the g o v e r n i n g L i b e r a l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a major o b j e c t o f r e g i o n a l a m i m o s i t y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y among s u p p o r t e r s o f the NDP when c o n t r o l s f o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p a r e i n v o k e d . I t i s p l a u s i b l e t h e n , t h a t p a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s the c a u s a l v a r i a b l e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n on the west c o a s t . Y e t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n why t h i s s h o u l d be t h e c a s e . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t p r o v i n c i a l New Democrats.are more l i k e l y t o be i d e o l o g i c a l l y ' l i b e r a l ' than a r e s u p p o r t e r s o f o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s , t h ey do not tend to be n o t i c e a b l y more o r l e s s a l i e n a t e d t h r o u g h o u t the t h r e e i d e o l o g i c a l g r o u p s . F u r t h e r m o r e , (and t h i s w i l l become a p p a r e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f p a r t i s a n s h i p and a l i e n a t i o n ) , t h e r e a r e v e r y few s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s which e x p l a i n i n any p l a u s i b l e way why p r o v i n c i a l New Democrats s h o u l d be more l i k e l y than s u p p o r t e r s o f o t h e r p a r t i e s t o s t r u c t u r e b e l i e f s about c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n Canada a l o n g i d e o l o g i c a l l i n e s . N o n e t h e l s s : t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t f o r o u r purposes i s t h a t a l i e n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s most pronounced among i d e o l o g i c a l ' l i b e r a l s ' , and l e a s t so among i d e o l o g i c a l ' c o n s e r v a t i v e s ' , w h i l e the c o n v e r s e i s t r u e i n A l b e r t a . F u r t h e r m o r e , to the e x t e n t t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n a r e s t r u c t u r e d a l o n g p a r t i s a n l i n e s , the most s i m i l a r r e -l a t i o n s h i p s a r e f o u n d s among d i s s i m i l a r p a r t i e s . Thus t h e r e i s v i r -t u a l l y no e v i d e n c e t h a t t he i d e o l o g i c a l component o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n conforms t o a ' p a n - r e g i o n a l ' model. Of c o u r s e 'ideology';, i s o n l y one e l e -ment o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . L e t us now t u r n to a second by c o n s i d e r i n g p a r t i s a n s h i p as a s t i m u l u s i n and o f i t s e l f . P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e has been a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p and p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t i n w e s t e r n Canada. The r i s e o f p r o t e s t -o r i e n t e d t h i r d p a r t i e s d u r i n g the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n was i n l a r g e p a r t a r e a c t i o n t o t h e o l d P a r l i a m e n t a r y p a r t y system -- t o an u n r e s p o n s i v e , u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e L i b e r a l Government and an i n e f f e c t i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e 20 O p p o s i t i o n . T h i r d p a r t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a b l e t o e x p l o i t the c l a s s 21 and s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f the r u r a l communities, became synonymous w i t h p o l i t i c a l d i s c o n t e n t i n the Canadian West. Recent a n a l y s e s r e v e a l t h a t p a r t i s a n s h i p i s s t i l l an i m p o r t a n t component o f t h e w e s t e r n m a l a i s e . Working from data p r e p a r e d i n 1971, Thelma O l i v e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t s e l e c t e d ' a s p e c t s ' o f a l i e n a t i o n were most extreme among S o c i a l C r e d i t and New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y s u p p o r t e r s i n ?2 A l b e r t a . " More r e c e n t l y , both E l k i n s and G i b b i n s have found n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n and a l l e g i a n c e to the L i b e r a l P a r t y . T h a t i s , i n both B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a , and a t both l e v e l s o f government, L i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r s a r e l e s s a l i e n a t e d than s u p p o r t e r s o f o t h e r p a r t i e s . Moreover, as s t r e n g t h o f p a r t i s a n s h i p i n c r e a s e s , the i n -23 t e n s i t y o f a l i e n a t i o n among L i b e r a l s d e c l i n e s . I t a p p e a r s , t h e n , as i f the p a r t i s a n d i m e n s i o n o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a -t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f some consequence. F o r o u r p u r p o s e s , two q u e s t i o n s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n : f i r s t , a r e t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n which t r a n s c e n d p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s , o r i s t h e r e v a r i a t i o n on the dependence v a r i a b l e , 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' , w i t h i n p a r t i s a n groups? And s e c o n d , does the b i -f u r c a t i o n o f p a r t y s u p p o r t i n a f e d e r a l system i n d u c e d i f f e r e n t i a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i s a n s h i p and w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n ? P a r t i e s o f the same name may be s u b s t a n t i v e l y d i s s i m i l a r i n d i f -f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s . For example, the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia 24 has t r a d i t i o n a l l y had v e r y l i t t l e i n common w i t h i t s A l b e r t a c o u n t e r p a r t ; i n many ways the v e r y r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f the A b e r h a r t , Manning, and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e Strom regimes i n A l b e r t a was t o a g g r e g a t e and a r t i c u -25 l a t e r e g i o n a l p r o t e s t , w h i l e i n B.C., S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s f o u n d a t i o n s l i e i n r a t h e r p o l i t i c a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s than have e x i s t e d i n t h e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s . I f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n were a t r u l y p a n - r e g i o n a l phenomenon, then one would e x p e c t t o f i n d s i m i l a r l i n k a g e s between i t and the . v a r i a b l e , ' p a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ' , i n the B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a samples. I f however w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s not a p a n - r e g i o n a l phenomenon, then d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s may i n d u c e d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the r e l e v a n t b e l i e f systems t h e m s e l v e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d c r o p up between l e v e l s o f government as w e l l i f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Canadian f e d e r a l i s m has any m e a n i n g f u l im-p a c t upon r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i s a n s h i p and a l i e n a t i o n . F o r example, n e i t h e r t h e B.C. nor the A l b e r t a S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t i e s d i s -p l a y s any k i n d o f s o l i d a r i t y w i t h the n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f the same name. Indeed, i t has become common f a r e f o r o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o a c c u s e t he g o v e r n i n g S o c r e d s o f 'being i n bed' p o l i t i c a l l y w i t h t h e f e d e r a l P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . T h i s was a p p a r e n t l y one o f the f a c t o r s which prompted B r i a n Westwood t o abandon the l e a d e r s h i p o f the p r o v i n c i a l T o r i e s i n f a v o u r o f the s e p a r a t i s t Western Canadian C o n c e p t . The d i s j u n c t i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings o f the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s i s emblematic o f what S m i l e y c a l l s a ' c o n f e d e r a l ' model 27 o f C a n adian f e d e r a l i s m , and may i n d u c e v a r i a t i o n on the dependent v a r i a b l e 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' among r e s p o n d e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p a r t y s u p p o r t between l e v e l s o f government. In r e s p o n d i n g t o the q u e s t i o n s posed above, the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s t a i l o r e d t o t h r e e c e n t r a l h y p o t h e s i s . F i r s t , we w i l l f i n d d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i s a n s h i p and a l i e n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . R e c a l l i n g t h a t a l i e n a t i o n i s s t r o n g e s t among i d e o l o g i c a l l y l i b e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s on the west c o a s t , and among i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s p o n d e n t s i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e p a r t i san c o r r e l a t e s o f p r o v i n c i a l b e l i e f systems w i l l be s t r u c t u r e d i n l i k e manner; i . e . , a l i e n a t i o n w i l l be s t r o n g e s t among f o l l o w e r s o f the more ' l i b e r a l ' p a r t i e s ( p r i m a r i l y t h e N.D.P.) i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and among the more ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' p a r t i e s (namely, P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s and S o c i a l C r e d i t ) i n A l b e r t a . Second, t o the e x t e n t t h a t they a r e commonly c o n s i d e r e d both 29 ' r i g h t w i n g 1 and s u p p o r t i v e o f a t h i r d p a r t y which has r o o t s i n the ' o l d a l i e n a t i o n ' , S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t i s a n s w i l l be the most a l i e n a t e d r e s p o n d e n t s i n the A l b e r t a sample. No s i m i l a r p a t t e r n w i l l o b t a i n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , where S o c i a l C r e d i t (and i n d e e d t h i r d p a r t i e s i n 30 g e n e r a l ) has v e r y d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s . T h i r d , t h e ' c o n f e d e r a l ' s t r u c t u r e o f the Canadian p a r t y system w i l l i n d u c e v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i s a n - a l i e n a t i o n l i n k a g e s between l e v e l s o f government. We know t h a t i n both B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i s a n d i s l i k e f o r the L i b e r a l s a t both l e v e l s ; i f however r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e s among the p a r t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government, then one would ex-p e c t the p a t t e r n o f a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s t o be d i s r u p t e d . F o r example, p e o o l e who s u p p o r t both t he f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s and the A l b e r t a S o c r e d s w i l l be n e i t h e r h i g h l y a l i e n a t e d ( a s i s e x p e c t e d o f 'pure' S o c r e d s ) nor weakly a l i e n a t e d (as i s e x p e c t e d o f 'pure' L i b e r a l s ) . The b i f u r c a t i o n o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y systems c r e a t e s t e n s i o n s i n p e o p l e s ' p a r t i s a n a l l e g i a n c e s ; t h e s e t e n s i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n d u c e d i s o r d e r i n t h e p a r t i s a n s t r u c t u r e o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s a comparison o f mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s by p a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . P r e d i c t a b l y , L i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r s a r e t h e l e a s t a l i e n a t e d r e s p o n d e n t s i n both samples and a t both l e v e l s o f government. However, f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f the da t a y i e l d s some s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s , many o f which d i s c o n f i r m our f i r s t two TABLE 8 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s by F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a BRITISH COLUMBIA F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l 2.09 (217) 2.17 (53) P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e 2.61 (214) 2.51 (41) New Democrat 2.78 (199) 2.65 (290) S o c i a l C r e d i t 3.00 (11) 2.44 (241) None 2.84 (74) 2.66 (80) Cramer's V = .135 .0958 F - t e s t s i g n f f i ; e a n G e = 0.0002 0.5846 ALBERTA F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l 2.03 (68) 1.80 (46) P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e 2.82 (249) 2.78 (218) New Democrat 2.64 (28) 2.77 £31) S o c i a l C r e d i t 2.74 (19) 2.77 (71). O t h e r * 2.29 (138) 2.29 (136) Cramer's V = .186 .208 F - t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e = 0.0000 0.0000 * - Indep e n d e n t s , O t h e r s , R e f u s e d , No O p i n i o n 44. hypotheses w h i l e l e a v i n g t h e t h i r d i n some doubt. W h i l e a l i e n a t i o n i s s t r o n g e s t among P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s and S o c i a l C r e d i t e r s i n A l b e r t a , mean s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s between the non-L i b e r a l p a r t i e s a r e s m a l l enough to be c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g l e s s . S i m i l a r l y , New Democrats a r e no more a l i e n a t e d than s u p p o r t e r s o f the o t h e r non-L i b e r a l p a r t i e s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o say t h a t t h e r e i s some s i m i l a r i t y i n p a r t i s a n - a l i e n a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Canada's westernmost p r o v i n c e s . The o n l y m e a n i n g f u l s t a t e m e n t to be made about e i t h e r community i s t h a t L i b e r a l s a r e l e s s a l i e n a t e d than non-L i b e r a l s a t both l e v e l s o f government . Fu r t h e r m o r e , none o f the t h i r d p a r t i e s , i n c l u d i n g A l b e r t a ' s S o c i a l C r e d i t e l i c i t s a p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h s c o r e on a l i e n a t i o n . ( w i t h t he e x c e p t i o n o f the f e d e r a l S o c r e d s i n B.C., whose s u p p o r t -- N = 11 -- i s n e g l i g i b l e . Thus no s i n g l e p a r t i s a n group i s m a n i f e s t l y ' a l i e n a t e d 1 ; w e s t e r n d i s -c o n t e n t a p p e a r s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n t i - L i b e r a l s e n t i m e n t , b ut t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a g i v e n p a r t y i n one p r o v i n c e b e a r s any ' s p e c i a l ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , i . e . , a r e l a t i o n s h i p n o t found f o r a p a r t y o f the same name i n . t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e . The d a t a a l s o r e v e a l o n l y minor d i f f e r e n c e s on the dependent . v a r i a b l e , 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 , w i t h r e s p e c t to Canada's ' c o n f e d e r a l ' p a r t y system. D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s f o r f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s o f t h e same name a r e s l i g h t l y l a r g e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia than i n A l b e r t a . More i m p o r t a n t l y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e numbers o f r e s p o n d e n t s s u p p o r t i n g each p a r t y a t each l e v e l a r e much g r e a t e r on the west c o a s t than i n t h e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e ; one i s more l i k e l y to s u p p o r t both wings o f a g i v e n p a r t y i n A l b e r t a than i n B r i t i s h Columbia. D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e degree t o which p a r t y s y s t e m s . a r e b i f u r c a t e d may be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i n c i a l d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e p a r t i s a n c o r r e -l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . F o r example, the h i g h s c o r e (3.00) o f B r i t i s h Columbians who s u p p o r t t he f e d e r a l S o c r e d s may be s p u r i o u s owing to s m a l l numbers. By c o n t r a s t , f u l l y 241 r e s p o n d e n t s s u p p o r t S o c i a l C r e d i t a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l and the mean s c o r e on a l i e n a t i o n i s o n l y 2.44. N o n e t h e l e s s , such d i f f e r e n c e s t o n o t i n d u c e m e a n i n g f u l v a r i a t i o n among L i b e r a l s o r P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . Thus the impact o f f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e s upon r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s u n c l e a r . The p a r t i s a n s t r u c t u r e o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s u n a l t e r e d by a v a r i e t y o f s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c and a t t i t u d i n a l c o n t r o l s . W h i l e t h e r e i s modest e v i d e n c e t h a t a l i e n a t i o n i n c r e a s e s i n r e l a t i o n t o i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m among A l b e r t a S o c r e d s , and i n r e l a t i o n t o i d e o l o g i c a l 31 l i b e r a l i s m among B r i t i s h Columbia New Democrats ( e v i d e n c e w h i c h , p a r a -d o x i c a l l y , i s n o m i n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e o f our f i r s t two h y p o t h e s e s ) , the major p a t t e r n s seem to p e r s i s t -- a l i e n a t i o n i s weakest among L i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r s a t both l e v e l s i n both p r o v i n c e s , and no one p a r t y emerges as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a l i e n a t e d than the o t h e r s . One c o n t r o l which does produce i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s i s ' p l a c e o f 32 p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n c e ' . In g e n e r a l , where one l i v e d p r i o r to s e t t l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia o r A l b e r t a i s not l i k e l y to a f f e c t a g g r e g a t e r e l a t i o s h i p s between p a r t i s a n s h i p and w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . However, as T a b l e 9 d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e r e i s some d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s o f TABLE 9 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s o f Respondents Having L i v e d E l s e w h e r e i n Canada Compared With A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s o f T o t a l Samples f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a BRITISH COLUMBIA F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l l i v e d e l s e w h e r e * t o t a l sample l i v e d e l s e w h e r e * t o t a l sample L i b e r a l 1.92 (65) 2.09 (217) 1.96 (16) 2.17 (53) P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e 2.21 (73) 2.61 (214) 1.80 (10) 2.51 (41) New Democrat 2.20 (55) 2.78 (199) 2.34 (79) 2.65 (290) S o c i a l C r e d i t 2.50 (2) 3.00 (11) 2.04 (76) 2.44 (241) O t h e r 2.10 (10) 2.84 (74) 2.45 (11) 2.66 (80) * - ' l i v e d e l s e w h e r e ' r e f e r s to t h o s e who have l i v e d i n a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n c e l e a v i n g s c h o o l , r e g a r d l o f l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . ALBERTA L i b e r a l P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e New D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r F e d e r a l l i v e d e l s e w h e r e 2.19 (36) 2.76 (66) 2.57 (14) 3.00 (4) 2.07 (55) P r o v i n c i a l t o t a l sample 2.03 (68) 2.82 (249) 2.64 (28) 2.74 (19) 2.29 (138) l i v e d e l s e w h e r e 2.11 (19) 2.68 (69) 2.36 (14) 2.59 (17) 2.25 (56) t o t a l sample 1.80 (46) 2.78 (218) 2.71 (31) 2.77 (71) 2.29 (136) r e s p o n d e n t s who have l i v e d e l s e w h e r e i n Canada and the e n t i r e samples f o r each p r o v i n c e . The d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g o u t - o f -33 p r o v i n c e e x p e r i e n c e a r e l e s s a l i e n a t e d than t h o s e w i t h o u t . Thus one may s p e c u l a t e t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s n o t t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h m i g r a t i o n from o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , but i s more t y p i c a l l y an i n d i g e n o u s , c o l l e c t i o n o f b e l i e f s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n would seem to i n t e r -s e c t E l k i n s ' t h e s i s t h a t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s remain s t a b l e i n the f a c e o f w i d e s c a l e m i g r a t i o n , and i n d e e d mould the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s 34 and v a l u e s o f i n c o m i n g m i g r a n t s . The d e v i a n t s from t h i s p a t t e r n a r e A l b e r t a l i b e r a l s , whose a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s a r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r i f they have l i v e d e l s e w h e r e i n Canada. A g a i n , s m a l l numbers p r o h i b i t our drawing any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s on the b a s i s o f t h i s anomaly, a l t h o u g h a p r e l i m i n a r y ex-p l a n a t i o n might be t h a t L i b e r a l s who s e t t l e i n A l b e r t a become more a l i e n a t e d because o f t h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e l y g r e a t e r removal from the i n s t i t u -t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l power -- i . e . , g r e a t e r than t h a t o f L i b e r a l s i n most o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . C o n t r o l s f o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p a t the ' o t h e r ' l e v e l o f g o v e r n -ment (when p a r t i s a n s h i p a t one l e v e l i s d e s i g n a t e d the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) a l l o w us t o t e s t the manner i n which v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p a r t y a l l e g i -ance a f f e c t r e s p o n d e n t s ' a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c o n t r o l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 10 t h r o u g h 13. Note t h a t w h i l e most r e s p o n d e n t s s u p p o r t f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s o f the same name i n both B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a , t r a n s f e r s o f a l l e g i a n c e a r e more l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n the west c o a s t p r o v i n c e . The o n l y major s h i f t o f p a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n A l b e r t a i s found among p r o v i n c i a l S o c r e d s , 56.3% o f whom c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s TABLE 10 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between P r o v i n c i a l , a n d , F e d e r a l L e v e l s , B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n F e d e r a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n % S u p p o r t ( P a i r s o f P a r t i e s ) Mean S c o r e on A l i e n a t i o n L i b e r a l (N=49); L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 93.9 2.0 4.0 2.22 3.00 3.00 C o n s e r v a t i v e (N=40). L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 12.5 87.5 1.80 2.60 New Democrat (N=272) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 21.0 11.4 67.3 0.4 2.19 2.68 2.65 1.00 S o c i a l C r e d i t (N=216) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 33.3 58.8 2.8 4.6 0.5 2.14 2.42 2.83 2.90 1.00 'Other' i n c l u d e s s u p p o r t e r s o f r e f u s e d t o r e s p o n d . 'Independent' c a n d i d a t e s and t h o s e who TABLE 11 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l s , B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n L i b e r a l (N=190) P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * % S u p p o r t ( P a i r s o f P a r t i e s ) 24.2 2.6 30.0 37.9 5.2 Mean S c o r e on A l i e n a t i o n 2.22 1.50 2.19 2.14 2.10 L i b e r a l 0.5 3.00 C o n s e r v a t i v e 17.2 2.60 C o n s e r v a t i v e (N=203) N.D.P. 15.3 . .2.67 S o c i a l C r e d i t 62.6 .2.42 O t h e r * 4.5 . 2.33 L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e New Democrat (N=190) N.D.P. 96.3 2.65 S o c i a l C r e d i t 3.2 2.83 O t h e r * 0.5 2.33 •; L i b e r a l 9.1 4.00 C o n s e r v a t i v e S o c i a l C r e d i t ; ( N = 11) N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t 9.1 1.00 O t h e r * 81.8 1.89 * - 'Other' i n c l u d e s s u p p o r t e r s o f 'Independent' c a n d i d a t e s and t h o s e who r e f u s e d t o r e s p o n d . TABLE 12 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l L e v e l s , A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n F e d e r a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n % S u p p o r t ( P a i r s o f P a r t i e s ) Mean S c o r e on A l i e n a t i o n L i b e r a l (N= 46) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 80.4 8.7 10.9 1.73 2.00 2.20 C o n s e r v a t i v e (N=218) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 6.0 86.2 0.9 0.5 6.4 2.54 2.80 2.50 2.00 2.93 New Democrat (N= 31) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P.. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 6.5 16.1 77.4 1.00 3.60 2.67 S o c i a l C r e d i t (N=71) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 11.3 56.3 25.4 7.0 2.38 2.95 2.78 2.00 O t h e r * (N=136) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 5.9 8.8 1.5 83.8 2.50 2.67 2.50 2.23 * - 'Other' i n c l u d e s s u p p o r t e r s o f 'Independent' c a n d i d a t e s and t h o s e who r e f u s e d t o r e s p o n d . b l . TABLE 13 Combined P a r t y A l l e g i a n c e s Between F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l s , A l b e r t a F e d e r a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n % S u p p o r t ( P a i r s o f Respondents) Mean S c o r e on A l i e n a t i o n L i b e r a l (N=68) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 54.4 19.1 2.9 11.8 11.8. 1.73 2.54 1.00 2.38 2.50 C o n s e r v a t i v e (N=249) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 1.6 75.5 2.0 16.1 4.8 2.25 2.80 3.60 2.95 2.67 New Democrat (N=28) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 7.1 85.7 7.1 2.50 2.67 2.50 S o c i a l C r e d i t (N=19) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 5.3 94.7 2.78 O t h e r * (N=138) L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e N.D.P. S o c i a l C r e d i t O t h e r * 3.6 10.1 3.6 82.6 2.93 2.20 2.00 2.23 * - 'Other' i n c l u d e s s u p p o r t e r s o f 'Independent' c a n d i d a t e s and th o s e who r e f u s e d t o r e s p o n d . P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . By c o n t r a s t , one f i n d s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a g r e a t d e a l o f ' s w i t c h i n g ' between p r o v i n c i a l S o c r e d s , f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s , and f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s . I s u ggested e a r l i e r t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s among pe o p l e who s u p p o r t d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government would d e v i a t e from p a t t e r n s d i s c e r n e d i n the t o t a l samples. Y e t the da t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 10 th r o u g h 13 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s not s o . In a l m o s t a l l groups o f r e s p o n d e n t s (where numbers a r e l a r g e enough t o be m e a n i n g f u l ) , t h e o r d e r i n g o f a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s resembles p a t t e r n s o b s e r v e d i n the a g g r e g a t e samples, i . e . , L i b e r a l s a r e l e a s t a l i e n a t e d i n both p r o v i n c e s , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n between mean s c o r e s o f n o n - L i b e r a l s . The n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s found among f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where r e s p o n d e n t s who a l s o s u p p o r t the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s a r e not l e s s a l i e n a t e d than r e s p o n d e n t s who s u p p o r t some o t h e r p a r t y a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . No comparable p a t t e r n i s r e v e a l e d i n the A l b e r t a d a t a . To summarize, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s a n y t h i n g more than a n t i - L i b e r a l p a r t i s a n s h i p i n e i t h e r B r i t i s h Columbia o r A l b e r t a , and i t i s n o t the c a s e t h a t t he r e l a t i o n s h i p s . a r e h i g h l y f l u i d . I n s t e a d , a l i e n a t i o n g i v e s t h e appearance o f b e i n g a r e a s o n e d r e s p o n s e t o i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i e s . A l b e r t a mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s a r e l o w e s t among r e s p o n d e n t s who s u p p o r t t he f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s , even i f t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e a l s o S o c r e d s o r T o r i e s a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . S i m i l a r l y , B r i t i s h Columbia New Democrats who a l s o s u p p o r t the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s m a n i f e s t mean s c o r e s than New Democrats who s u p p o r t some o t h e r p a r t y a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . More i m p o r t a n t l y f o r o u r p u r p o s e s , the p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b s e r v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . a r e s i m i l a r . T h e r e a r e some d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o r d e r o f mean s c o r e s f o r n o n - L i b e r a l p a r t i s a n s , but none o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Moreover, w h i l e the s t a n d a r d c o n t r o l s f o r ' s t r u c t u r a l ' d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s ( i . e . , d i s p a r i t i e s i n t he p r o -v i n c e s ' s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c and a t t i t u d i n a l p r o f i l e s ) have l i t t l e b e a r i n g upon t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o n t r o l s f o r p a r t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a t the ' o t h e r ' l e v e l o f government r e i n f o r c e p a t t e r n s o b s e r v e d a t the a g g r e g a t e l e v e l . Thus w h i l e p r o v i n c i a l s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s d i f f e r i n t h e k i n d s o f s u p p o r t a f f o r d e d i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i e s , t h e y seem t o c o n c u r i n the manner i n which the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s a r e p e r c e i v e d . Such r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u g g e s t t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n may have a 'pan-r e g i o n a l ' q u a l i t y , a t l e a s t i n s o f a r as p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p i s con-c e r n e d . We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t t h i s i s n o t the c a s e where i d e o l o g y i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ; thus the c o m p l e x i t y o f w e s t e r n Canadian b e l i e f systems becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t . S o c i a l C l a s s : I t has been argued t h a t c l a s s c l e a v a g e s a r e l e s s s a l i e n t i n Canada 35 than i n o t h e r a n g l o - A m e r i c a n d e m o c r a c i e s , y e t a h a n d f u l o f c l a s s - b a s e d a n a l y s e s has dominated the s t u d y o f w e s t e r n r e g i o n a l u n r e s t f o r o v e r 36 t h i r t y y e a r s . S i n c e C.B. Macpherson f i r s t p u b l i s h e d h i s c l a s s i c Democracy i n A l b e r t a i n 1953, i t has been customary to t h i n k o f A l b e r t a n s o c i e t y as a " r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous" community o f i n d e p e n d e n t commodity p r o d u c e r s 37 l o c k e d i n a ' q u a s i - c o l o n i a l ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c e n t r a l C a n a d i a n c a p i t a l . Even today Macpherson's t h e o r y c o n s t i t u t e s one o f the b e s t - l o v e d t o o l s i n Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy, and i s o f t e n i n v o k e d t o e x p l a i n many o f the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f A l b e r t a n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . In c o n t r a s t , t h e r e has been a p a u c i t y o f t h e o r e t i c a l w o r k s : ; l i n k i n g r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t and s o c i a l c l a s s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, a l t h o u g h the c l a s s theme per se has not been n e g l e c t e d . Where c l a s s has been i n v o k e d to e x p l a i n p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t on the west c o a s t , i t s r o l e has been to j u s t i f y the seeming impotence o f o r g a n i z e d p r o t e s t r a t h e r than t o i l l u m i n a t e the 38 s o c i a l bases o f i t s s u p p o r t . U n l i k e A l b e r t a , B.C. i s d e f i n e d by a h i g h l y p o l a r i z e d , h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e p o l i t i c a l system p i t t i n g ' b i g b u s i n e s s ' a g a i n s t ' b i g l a b o u r ' ; the c l a s s c l e a v a g e dominates p o l i t i c a l l i f e and o s t e n -s i b l y u n d e r c u t s a g g r e g a t e d p r o t e s t , f o r which the ' r e l a t i v e homogeneity 1 o f 39 c l a s s i n t e r e s t s i s a f u n c t i o n a l p r e r e q u i s i t e . Throughout the 1950's and 1960 1 s t h e s e themes e n j o y e d a s c h o l a r l y pre-eminence based l a r g e l y upon the academic community's l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n 40 s t u d y i n g p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . Yet t h r o u g h o u t much o f t h a t p e r i o d , w e s t e r n Canada was u n d e r g o i n g major economic and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s which r e n d e r e d bb. the o l d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a n a c h r o n i s t i c . O n l y r e c e n t l y have we seen f i t t o c h a l l e n g e them i n any m e a n i n g f u l way. Examining the i n t e r n a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan i n t h e i n t e r - w a r p e r i o d , A.N. J a c k s o n has q u e s t i o n e d the a c c u r a c y o f Macpherson's t h e s i s on e m p i r i c a l g r o u n d s , p r o p o s i n g t h a t the " i n t e r n a l 41 s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the h i n t e r l a n d was not homogenous," as Macpherson had s u g g e s t e d . More i m p o r t a n t l y , a number o f contemporary s c h o l a r s have 42 d i v i n e d t h a t the q u a s i - c o l o n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s now s e r i o u s l y o u t d a t e d . A l b e r t a ' s c l a s s s t r u c t u r e i s f a r more heterogeneous today than i t was d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n ; the a g r i c u l t u r e i n d u s t r y , whose d o m i n a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l economy was the c o r n e r s t o n e o f Macpherson's a n a l y s i s , has d e c l i n e d t o the p o i n t a t which i t now a c c o u n t s f o r o n l y 12.6% o f the 43 l a b o u r f o r c e , a f a r c r y from the 5 0 % - p l u s f i g u r e s which a p p l i e d d u r i n g the p r e - S o c i a l C r e d i t e r a o f the 1920's and 1930's. In i t s p l a c e has a ppeared a booming energy r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r y , whose impact has been n o t o n l y t o make A l b e r t a one o f the c e n t r a l a c t o r s i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y r e g i o n a l -i z e d f e d e r a l system, but a l s o to e l i c i t major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the p r o v i n c e i t s e l f . I r o n i c a l l y , Macpherson's most s t r i d e n t c r i t i c s may t h e m s e l v e s have succ e e d e d i n f o r g i n g a 'monopoly o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' w i t h r e s p e c t to c l a s s p o l i t i c s . i n A l b e r t a . The p r e v a i l i n g view o f A l b e r t a p o l i t i c s i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d by John R i c h a r d s and L a r r y P r a t t i n t h e i r major work, P r a i r i e  C a p i t a l i s m . The p r o v i n c e i s now s a i d to be dominated by a dynamic, s e c u l a r m i d d l e c l a s s , c o m p r i s e d o f an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a r r i v i s t e b o u r g e o i s i e , a l a r g e body o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t e c h n i c i a n s , and a powerful b u r e a u c r a t i c e l i t e , each o f which a s s o c i a t e s i t s i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h o s e o f the energy i n d u s t r i e s , 44 which a r e v i t a l t o the p r o v i n c i a l w e a l . As i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 14, B r i t i s h Columbia too has e x p e r i e n c e d s o c i a l and economic change s i n c e t he D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , a l t h o u g h t he impact o f such change has been l e s s s e v e r e than i n A l b e r t a . Indeed, u n l i k e A l b e r t a , t he l i t e r a t u r e documenting t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s remains s p a r s e . The b u s i n e s s - l a b o u r dichotomy i s embraced w i t h l i t t l e m o d i f i c a -45 t i o n , and s t i l l no one has produced a s y n t h e t i c a n a l y s i s o f c l a s s and r e g i o n a l i s m i n the west c o a s t p r o v i n c e . P h i l i p R e s n i c k has argued t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia's ' h i n t e r l a n d c o n d i t i o n ' i n d u c e s a d i v e r g e n c e i n c l a s s p o l i t i c s , w i t h b u s i n e s s moving c l o s e r t o e a s t e r n Canadian c a p i t a l , and 46 e x p l o i t e d l a b o u r t e n d i n g toward working c l a s s r a d i c a l i s m . Y e t the r e g i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f R e s n i c k ' s M a r x i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e u n c l e a r . O r g a n i z e d l a b o u r i n B.C. has g i v e n l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n o f b e i n g more a l i e n a t e d than o t h e r g r o u p s , and as R e s n i c k p o i n t s o u t , the B.C. b o u r g e o i s i e has 47 d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e sympathy f o r Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . The p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f c l a s s and a l i e n a t i o n , w h i l e a d m i t t e d l y c o n s t r a i n e d by the unevenness o f the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , s u g g e s t t h r e e hypotheses which can be t e s t e d u s i n g the d a t a c o n s i d e r e d h e r e : f i r s t , i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l a p o r t i o n o f the A l b e r t a p o p u l a t i o n which can be d e s i g n a t e d ' p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s ' and which , f o l l o w i n g Macpherson, i s m a n i f e s t l y ' a l i e n a t e d ' . We would t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t f a r m e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o l d e r , s e l f - e m p l o y e d f a r m e r s who s u p p o r t S o c i a l C r e d i t a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , t o be more a l i e n a t e d than o t h e r 48 s o c i a l groups i n A l b e r t a . TABLE 14 P e r c e n t a g e o f Net V a l u e o f P r o d u c t i o n o f S e l e c t e d I n d u s t r i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1929-1978 INDUSTRY 1929 1931 1941 1951 1954 1957 1961 1965 1971 1974 1978 A g r i c u l t u r e 11.8 14.1 9.7 5.9 5.2 4.1 4.9 4.1 3.4 3.0 2.7 F o r e s t r y (2) 26.2 20.2 26.0 13.1 13.1 13.8 15.0 10.9 8.7 8.5 7.6 F i s h e r i e s 7.2 5.7 6.3 3.3 2.6 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.5 2.3 T r a p p i n g 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.1 - - - - - • - -M i n i n g (3) 20.6 18.2 15.9 9.9 7.1 4.8 5.0 6.5 7.8 11.5 10.6 E l e c t r i c Power 3.1 5.5 4.5 2.9 3.7 3.5 5.2 4.0 5.5 4.4 5.1 M a n u f a c t u r i n g 17.3 22.7 26.9 47.8 49.0 41.1 45.5 47.1 46.4 47.7 49.7 C o n s t r u c t i o n (1) 10.6 10.0 6.8 17.0 19.3 31.1 22.4 25.6 26.7 23.4 22.0 P e r c e n t a g e o f Net V a l u e o f P r o d u c t i o n o f S e l e c t e d I n d u s t r i e s i n A l b e r t a , 1929-1978 A g r i c u l t u r e 54, .0 55 .6 58, .3 49, .9 27 .0 19 .4 21, .2 21 .2 14 .9 15, .1 7 .7 F o r e s t r y (2) 3, .2 3 .3 2 .3 0, .9 0 .8 1 .1 1, .0 0 .3 0 .3 0, .3 0 .2 F i s h e r i e s 0, .3 0 .1 0, .2 0, .1 0 .1 0 .1 T r a p p i n g 1, .0 0 .6 0, .7 0, .2 0 .1 0 .1 0, .1 0 .1 0 .1 0, .1 0 .1 M i n i n g (3) 14, .6 14 .3 13 .1 15, .1 23 .0 26 .3 26, .5 29 .8 38 .9 49, .4 51 .5 E l e c t r i c Power 1, .9 .2 .8 2 .3 1, .7 2 .3 2 .5 3, .0 3 .0 3 .1 2, .1 2 .1 M a n u f a c t u r i n g 14, .1 14 .3 14, .8 14, .1 19 .6 21 .7 26, .5 20 .5 19 .8 15, .5 14 .4 C o n s t r u c t i o n (1) 8, .0 5 .6 5, .7 18, .0 27 .1 28 .8 28, .2 25 .1 22 .9 17, .5 24 .2 (1) = i n c l u d e s Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s b e g i n n i n g i n 1951 (2) = ' f o r e s t r y ' i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s l o g g i n g , b u c k i n g and f e l l i n g , b u n c h i n g , y a r d i n g , f o r w a r d i n g , d e c k i n g , l o a d i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( d r i v i n g , booming, s o r t i n g , t o w i n g ) , b a r k i n g m i l l s DOES NOT i n c l u d e i n t e g r a t e d o p e r a t i o n s such as lumber, v e n e e r , p a r t i c l e b o a r d , e t c . (3) = 'mining' i n c l u d e s o i l w e l l s SOURCE(S): Thomas M. S a n f o r d , The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n and  S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B r i t i s h Columbia, (Ph.D d i s s e r t a t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a , 1961), p. 46. and S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Survey o f P r o d u c t i o n , v. 37(1957), v. 4 1 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , v. 4 4 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , v. 5 0 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , v. 53(1974), and J a n u a r y , 1981(1978). Second, i n r e s p o n s e to the s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s which have been t a k i n g p l a c e i n A l b e r t a s i n c e the d i s c o v e r y o f o i l a t Leduc i n 1947, and e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the ' r e b i r t h ' o f the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n 1971, one would e x p e c t t o f i n d g r e a t e r a l i e n a t i o n among the 'upper' s t r a t a o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e , f o l l o w i n g R i c h a r d s and P r a t t , t h i s 'new m i d d l e c l a s s ' i s " f i e r c e l y l o y a l t o the p r o v i n c e as a s e m i - s o v e r e i g n p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y and d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s o f p r o v i n c e - b u i l d i n g . To the e x t e n t t h a t i t i s a l s o a w e a l t h y m i d d l e c l a s s whose p r o s p e r i t y depends upon the p r o v i n c i a l government's e x t e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l o v e r a p o l i t i c a l l y v o l a t i l e energy i n d u s t r y , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the ' i n g r o u p ' a l l e g i a n c e s which t y p i f y the p r o v i n c e - b u i l d i n g e t h o s w i l l a l s o be mani-f e s t as 'outgroup' a n t i p a t h i e s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t c e n t r a l Canada i n g e n e r a l and a g a i n s t t h e f e d e r a l government i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i r d , a s o m e w h a t . d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n o f p r o t e s t on the west c o a s t l e a d s one t o s u s p e c t t h a t B.C. a l i e n a t i o n i s not the p r e s e r v e o f a s i n g l e c l a s s , but t h a t i t a p p l i e s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y to the p r o v i n c e as a whole. Here S a n f o r d ' s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t . . . s o c i a l and economic c l e a v a g e s have been more numerous i n B.C. than i n the r e s t o f Canada, ( t h a t ) no s i n g l e commodity dominates the w e s t c o a s t p r o -v i n c e , p l a c e s most p e o p l e on the same p r o d u c e r l e v e l , o r u n i t e s them a g a i n s t a l i e n f o r c e s 'back E a s t i s a p p o s i t e , and s u g g e s t s t h a t a l i e n a t i o n t r a n s c e n d s c l a s s d i v i s i o n s . Th i n t e r n a l c l a s s c o m p e t i t i o n i m p l i c i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia's ' b i - p o l a r ' 5-1 p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e i s e x p e c t e d t o a t t e n u a t e w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n a t the a g g r e g a t e l e v e l . In a t t e m p t i n g to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the v a r i a b l e , ' s o c i a l c l a s s 1 , we a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h one o f the most i l l - d e f i n e d , i n d e t e r m i n a t e c o n c e p t s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t ' s a n a l y t i c a l r e p e r t o i r e . For the purposes o f t h i s paper I s h a l l f o l l o w c o n v e n t i o n by c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y the ' o b j e c t i v e ' i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i a l c l a s s , namely, income, o c c u p a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n . However, I do so i n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n o f the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p e r i l s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s 5 2 f o r m u l a t i o n . The s o c i a l c l a s s index i s c o n s t r u c t e d by g r o u p i n g income, o c c u p a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n s c o r e s i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , each h a v i n g v a l u e s '1', '2', o r '3', and then by a d d i n g the a d j u s t e d s c o r e s . The c u t - o f f p o i n t s f o r each o f t h e s e g r o u p i n g s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 1. The r e s u l t i n g s c a l e i s t hen r e c o d e d i n t o q u i n t i l e s t o produce an i n d e x which v a r i e s from 'one' ('lower' c l a s s ) to '5' ('upper' c l a s s ) . F r e q u e n c i e s f o r each o f t h e s e g r o u p i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix 2. C o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y , income, o c c u p a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h one a n o t h e r i n both B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a ; however, when each i s c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , some i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l v a r i a t i o n emerge. In B r i t i s h C olumbia, both o c c u p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a r e weakly r e l a t e d t o a l i e n a t i o n ( P e a r s o n ' s r = 53 -0.12 and -0.13, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; i . e . , mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s tend t o be l o w e r among r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g more y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and more ' p r e s t i -g i o u s ' o c c u p a t i o n s . There i s , however, no s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between 54 income and a l i e n a t i o n . In A l b e r t a , n e i t h e r income, nor o c c u p a t i o n , nor e d u c a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . The h i g h l y e d u c a t e d , h i g h - s a l a r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l i s as l i k e l y ( o r u n l i k e l y ) t o have a h i g h a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e as the u n s k i l l e d 55 l a b o u r e r . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h e n , t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l i e n a t i o n and the a g g r e g a t e v a r i a b l e , ' s o c i a l c l a s s ' a r e a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a l o n g p r o v i n c i a l l i n e s . As i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 15, t h e r e i s a net n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between s o c i a l c l a s s and w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, w h i l e no s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e v e a l e d i n A l b e r t a . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 15 undermine a t l e a s t two o f the t h r e e hypotheses c i t e d above. I n t e n s e f e e l i n g s o f a l i e n a t i o n a r e no more the p r e s e r v e o f t h e 'new m i d d l e c l a s s ' than o f o t h e r s o c i a l s t r a t a i n A l b e r t a . Indeed, when t h e a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s o f c l a s s '4' and c l a s s '5' r e s p o n d e n t s a r e combined ( n o t an u n r e a s o n a b l e p r o c e d u r e , s i n c e o n l y t h i r -t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s f a l l i n t o the c l a s s '5' c a t e g o r y ) , t h e r e s u l t i s a r e l a -t i v e l y low mean s c o r e o f 2.22, which s u g g e s t s t h a t perhaps m i d d l e c l a s s r e s p o n d e n t s a r e l e s s a l i e n a t e d than t h o s e f a l l i n g i n t o the 'lower' s t r a t a . F u r t h e r m o r e , n e i t h e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n the o i l i n d u s t r y nor t r a d e u n i o n mem-b e r s h i p has a major b e a r i n g upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s . I t does n o t a p p e a r , t h e n , as i f e n e r g y - r e l a t e d s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s have g i v e n r i s e t o a 'blue c h i p 1 v a r i a n t o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , 56 as a number o f contemporary o b s e r v e r s have p r o p o s e d . The d a t a a l s o s t a n d a t odds w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c l a s s and a l i e n a t i o n a r e u n r e l a t e d i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. As T a b l e 15 i n d i c a t e s , B.C. a l i e n a t i o n d e c r e a s e s as one moves through the h i g h e r s o c i a l s t r a t a ; thus not o n l y does a s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t , but i t too debars any n o t i o n t h a t r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t has a 'blue c h i p ' q u a l i t y . In B r i t i s h 61. TABLE 15 Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e s o f S o c i a l C l a s s Groups, B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a BRITISH COLUMBIA C l a s s Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e N = 5 (upper) 2.07 61 4 2.40 199 3 2.47 149 2 2.53 132 1 (Tower) 2.81 69 Number o f v a l i d c a s e s = 710 Pearson's r = -0.129 s i g n i f i c a n c e = 0.0003 ALBERTA C l a s s Mean A l i e n a t i o n S c o r e N = 5 (upper) 2.62 13 4 2.13 61 3 2.69 85 2 2.53 201 1 ( l o w e r ) 2.52 54 Number o f v a l i d c a s e s = 414 Pearson's r = 0.02 s i g n i f i c a n c e =0.3402 Columbia a t l e a s t , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s more t y p i c a l l y a p r o p e r t y o f t h e 'lower' than o f the upper c l a s s e s . As f o r o u r f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e i s o n l y s l i g h t e v i d e n c e t h a t A l b e r t a ' s s u r v i v i n g p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s i e i s more h i g h l y a l i e n a t e d than o t h e r segments o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l community. Farmers a r e i n d e e d the most a l i e n a t e d r e s p o n d e n t s i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l sample (mean score' on a l i e n a -t i o n = 2.93), and f a r m e r s who s u p p o r t the p r o v i n c i a l S o c r e d s a r e more a l i e n a t e d s t i l l (mean s c o r e = 3.29). However, t h e r e a r e too few f a s e s f o r us t o draw any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s on t h i s m a t t e r . O n l y twenty r e s p o n -d e n t s a r e farmers>and o n l y seven o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s S o c i a l C r e d i t s u p p o r t e r s . Thus the d a t a s u g g e s t major d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c l a s s bases o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , and c o i n c i d e n t a l l y c a s t s u s p i c i o n upon much o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy.. To what e x t e n t a r e such d i f f e r e n c e s a t t r i b u t a b l e to s t r u c -t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r o v i n c e s ? A f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r a number o f a t t i t u d i n a l and s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , c o r r e l a t i o n s between c l a s s and a l i e n a t i o n a r e r e d u c e d t o u n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a l l but t h r e e c a t e -g o r i e s o f r e s p o n d e n t s , namely, i d e o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l s , s u p p o r t e r s o f the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p a r t y , and r e s i d e n t s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n V ancouver. Moreover, r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the l a t t e r group become i n s i g n i f i c a n t w h e n ' m e t r o p o l i t a n 57 V a n c o u v e r 1 i s d i s a g g r e g a t e d i n t o i t s component r i d i n g s . Thus i n B r i t i s h Columbia c l a s s and a l i e n a t i o n a r e most c l e a r l y r e l a t e d among i d e o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l s and f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p a r t i s a n s . There i s , however, no necessary conjunction between the two groups. As we learned in Table 6, ideological Liberals are no more l i k e l y to sup-port the Liberal party than are ideological conservatives, and while Liberal partisans tend to f a l l into upper categories of education, occupa-t i o n , and to a lesser extent, family income, ideological l i b e r a l s are interspersed more or less indiscriminately throughout al1 socioeconomic groups. Thus i t appears as i f ideology and p o l i t i c a l partisanship are independent stimuli insofar as relationships between class and western alienation are concerned. More to the point, no such pattern of relationships turns up in the Alberta data. Indeed, none of the appropriate controls produces s i g n i -f i c ant correlations between class and alienation in the P r a i r i e province, even among groups of ideological l i b e r a l s and supporters of the Liberal 5 8 party. Thus while Albertans are less l i k e l y than B r i t i s h Columbians to be ' l i b e r a l ' in either the ideological or the partisan sense of the term, there i s l i t t l e evidence that this d i s t i n c t i o n accounts for d i f f e r e n t i a l class-alienation relationships between the two provinces. In Alberta the non-relationship between class and alienation i s ubiquitous, while in B.C. such i s not the case. Unfortunately, data limitations prevent us from exploring the sub-je c t i v e dimensions of social class in a comparative manner. While controls for subjective social c l a s s , p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y , and p o l i t i c a l trust f a i l to turn up any s i g n i f i c a n t correlations between objective class :and 5:9 alienation in B.C., the absence of comparable data in Alberta renders such controls meaningless for the purposes of our analysis. N o n e t h e l e s s t h e e v i d e n c e c i t e d here s u g g e s t s t h a t many o f the c l a s s images we have come to a s s o c i a t e w i t h w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n --' r e l a t i v e c l a s s homogeneity', 'independent commodity p r o d u c e r s ' , ' a r r i v i s t e b o u r g e o i s i e 1 , 'blue c h i p - i s m 1 - - do not p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n as a p r o v i n c i a l phenomenon. In B r i t i s h Columbia r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t i s most pronounced among lower c l a s s groups w h i l e i n A l b e r t a d i f f e r e n t d egrees o f a l i e n a t i o n a r e e q u a l l y l i k e l y to be f o u n d among a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a . These d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o be i n g r a i n e d i n the p r o v i n c e s ' unique p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s . As we have s e e n , p e o p l e s h a r i n g s i m i l a r i d e o l o g i c a l and p a r t i s a n p r o c l i v i t i e s i n each p r o v i n c e a r e d i s t r i b u t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y on t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , 'western a l i e n a t i o n ' . W h i l e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t we have 'missed' a c r u c i a l s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a b l e i s always p r e s e n t , the d a t a t e s t e d s u g g e s t t h a t d i s p a r i t i e s i n t h e c l a s s c o r r e l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n a r e imbedded i n t h e d i v e r s e h i s t o r i c a l , s y m b o l i c , and c o n d i t i o n a l f o r c e s which c o l l e c t i v e l y c o m p r i s e the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s . 6b VII C o n c l u s i o n s To r e c a p i t u l a t e , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a i s s t r o n g e s t among the i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , i s l e a s t prominent among L i b e r a l p a r t i s a n s , and does n o t have a me a n i n g f u l c o r r e l a t e i n s o c i a l c l a s s . By c o n t r a s t , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s s t r o n g e s t among the i d e o l o g i c a l l y l i b e r a l and among the 'lower' s o c i a l c l a s s e s ; as i n A l b e r t a , i t i s l e a s t prominent among s u p p o r t e r s o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y . Few o f the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s i n v o k e d t h r o u g h o u t the a n a l y s i s g i v e us cause to b e l i e v e t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s g l e a n e d i n each d a t a s e t c o n v e r g e a t some p o i n t i n the s o c i o l o g i c a l u n i v e r s e . While r e s p o n d e n t s i n both p r o v i n c e s seem to a s s o c i a t e w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n w i t h t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y , t h e r e i s on the whole l i t t l e e v i -dence t h a t ' s t r u c t u r a l 1 d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between the communities a r e r e s p o n s i -b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e v a r i o u s c o r r e l a t e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y d a t a l i m i t a t i o n s p r e c l u d e our examining c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t ( e . g . , assessments o f p a r t y l e a d e r s o r o r i e n t a t i o n s toward s p e c i f i c i s s u e s ) i n a c o m p a r a t i v e manner. However, my o b j e c t i v e here has been s i m p l y t o p o i n t o u t t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s n o t a homogeneous, p a n - r e g i o n a l phenomenon, but i s r a t h e r a c o l l e c t i o n o f m u l t i - f a c e t e d b e l i e f systems which v a r y p e r c e p t i b l y a l o n g p r o v i n c i a l (among o t h e r ) l i n e s . To the e x t e n t t h a t w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , i t i s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f the d i v e r s e p r o v i n c i a l communities from which i t i s spawned than o f the l a r g e r r e g i o n a l community to which i t o s t e n s i b l y p r o v i d e s c o n c e p t u a l o r d e r . * * * * * * * * * * * 66. Throughout t h i s e s s a y I have argued t h a t w e s t e r n d i s c o n t e n t i s a more complex phenomenon than i s commonly t h o u g h t . The p e c u l i a r c o n f i g u r a -t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s which passes f o r ' a l i e n a t i o n ' i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i f f e r s from t h a t which i s d e f i n e d by the same l a b e l i n A l b e r t a . ';This I s u s p e c t i s t r u e i n Saskatchewan and Manitoba as w e l l . L i k e a l l p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s t s , I would hope t h a t my p o i n t i s some-t h i n g more than a s i m p l e f o o t n o t e t o the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . R e g i o n a l i s m i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the a n a l y s i s o f Canadian p o l i t i c s . A b r i e f r e v i e w o f the major developments i n Canadian f e d e r a l i s m o v e r t he p a s t decade -- the Western Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s C o n f e r e n c e , t he R e p o r t o f the Task F o r c e on Canadian U n i t y , numerous d e b a t e s o v e r t he c o n t r o l o f the e n e r g y - r e l a t e d . economic ' r e n t ' 1 , v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s f o r a r e s t r u c -t u r e d f e d e r a l i s m , and o f c o u r s e t he bogey o f w e s t e r n s e p a r a t i s m -- i l l u s -t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t to which w e s t e r n Canada, as a c o l l e c t i v e e n t i t y , has come to be seen as a major p l a y e r i n the n a t i o n a l u n i t y ' c r i s i s ' . T h i s I b e l i e v e i s a p o s i t i v e e v o l u t i o n , f o r i t s t i m u l a t e s a more r e s p o n s i v e , more c r e a t i v e p o l i t y -- one which c o n c u r r e n t l y p u r s u e s u n i t y and c e l e -b r a t e s d i v e r s i t y . * A t t he same t i m e , we ought not t o become o b s e s s e d w i t h the r e g i o n a l n a t u r e o f Canadian p o l i t i c s , f o r as t h i s paper has shown, r e -g i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s can e n j o y a c o n c e p t u a l hegemony which u l t i m a t e l y p r o -motes an i n a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y . Western a l i e n a t i o n i n f a c t v a r i e s by p r o v i n c e , a l t h o u g h many s t u d e n t s o f w e s t e r n Canadian p o l i t i c s -- i n c l u d i n g p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s t h e m s e l v e s -- might have us b e l i e v e o t h e r w i s e . Of c o u r s e , t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s a r e not t o t a l l y d i s s i m i l a r , and estrangement f r o m t h e c e n t r e s o f n a t i o n a l power p r o v i d e s a p o p u l a r and common denom i n a t o r upon which p r o v i n c i a l governments can c o n g r e g a t e and, through the f o r c e o f numbers and t h e s h a r i n g o f p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s , g a t h e r s t r e n g t h 2 i n the p u r s u i t o f ' p o s i t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s ' . Thus r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t may i t s e l f be a p o w e r f u l r e s o u r c e f o r s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d p r o v i n c i a l governments. But w i t h i n t h e mass p u b l i c , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n seems to be a more complex phenomenon. In B r i t i s h C olumbia, a l i e n a t i o n i s most p r e v a l e n t among . . l i b e r a l members o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s , w h i l e i n A l b e r t a , i t t r a n s c e n d s c l a s s b o u n d a r i e s and a l i g n s w i t h a b r o a d l y - b a s e d c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . Such v a r i a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t i t may be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o speak o f 'western a l i e n a t i o n s ' than o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n as a s i n g l e , omni-p r e s e n t phenomenon. * * * * * * * * * * * * * The d a t a p r e s e n t e d . i n t h i s paper have a number o f i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f e d e r a l i s m and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e i n Canada. In c o n c l u d i n g , I s h a l l f o c u s a t t e n t i o n upon f o u r major p o i n t s . F i r s t , w e s t e r n Canada's i n t e r n a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y c o n s t i t u t e s a major impediment t o w e s t e r n s e p a r a t i s m . I f t h e r o a d t o s e c e s s i o n i s paved w i t h d e m o c r a t i c s t o n e s , t h e n p r o p o n e n t s o f the movement w i l l have a d i f f i c u l t .:. time c a p t u r i n g the p o p u l a r v o t e on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , f o r as we have see n , p e o p l e who a r e ' a l i e n a t e d ' i n one p r o v i n c i a l community a r e not n e c e s -s a r i l y t h e same as p e o p l e who a r e a l i e n a t e d i n a n o t h e r . Even i f the s e p a r a t i s t s were to i n c r e a s e t h e i r a g g r e g a t e s u p p o r t (few p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s show more than a modicum o f s u p p o r t f o r s e p a r a t i o n ) , a r e g i o n -wide mandate f o r p o l i t i c a l independence would not come e a s i l y ; the c o n -s e r v a t i v e i m p u l s e c u r r e n t l y e x p l o i t e d by a c t i v e s e p a r a t i s t s such as Gordon K e s l e r , Doug C h r i s t i e , and Elmer Knutsen may have a r i n g o f appeal i n A l b e r t a , where a c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e f i n d s a modest c o r r e -l a t e i n w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , but i t i s somewhat l e s s i n v i t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia, where by o u r e s t i m a t e w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to c o n s e r v a t i s m and i n d e e d i s t y p i c a l l y lower among c o n s e r v a t i v e s than among e i t h e r l i b e r a l s o r ' n e u t r a l s ' . S i m i l a r l y , B.C. s e p a r a t i s t s would have g r e a t e r a ppeal among ' members o f the 'lower' s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t r a t a than among the p r o v i n c i a l b o u r g e o i s i e , w h i l e A l b e r t a ' s s e p a r a t i s t s would presumably have t o p u r s u e a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n o r d e r t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s . The p r o s p e c t s o f t h i s s o r t o f s e l e c t i v e c a n v a s s i n g seem u n l i k e l y . C u r r e n t s e p a r a t i s t l e a d e r s a r e u n a b l e t o c o o r d i n a t e e f f o r t s between them-s e l v e s w i t h i n a p r o v i n c e , much l e s s between them. I f 'western s e p a r a t i s m ' i s e v e r t o g e t o f f the ground on a t r u l y r e g i o n a l b a s i s , i t s s u c c e s s e s w i l l r e p r e s e n t a m a s t e r f u l p l a y o f p o l i t i c a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and s t r a t e g y . Second, w h i l e the s e p a r a t i s t s may e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t i e s making i n r o a d s i n w e s t e r n Canada, 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 i s by no means a s p e n t f o r c e . The o n g o i n g p r e s e n c e o f i n g r o u p a n t i p a t h i e s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t O n t a r i o and Quebec i n t h e form o f a g r a r i a n p r o t e s t , ' f e d - b a s h i n g 1 , p r o v i n c e - b u i l d i n g , e v a s i o n o f f i s c a l o b l i g a t i o n , o r p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r n a s c e n t s e p a r a t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u g g e s t s t h a t the c o n d i t i o n w i t h which we a r e c o n c e r n e d i s 69. a r o b u s t phenomenon which stems the t i d e o f s o c i e t a l change. Extreme s h i f t s i n economic w e a l t h , changes o f government a t both l e v e l s , and major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f p r o v i n c i a l communities have not succeeded i n e r a s i n g w e s t e r n d i s c o n t e n t from t he s l a t e o f f o r c e s which t h r e a t e n s C a n adian f e d e r a l i s m . The u b i q u i t y o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n c a n , i n p a r t , be a t t r i b u t e d t o the c o m p l e x i t y o f the phenomenon i t s e l f . A l i e n a t i o n v a r i e s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e d i v e r s e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s from which i t i s borne. I f , f o r example, w e s t e r n - u n r e s t were n o t h i n g more than a component o f a g r a r i a n r a d i c a l i s m , then i t would have been e x h a u s t e d i n A l b e r t a many y e a r s ago, and i n d e e d , i t would never have become an element o f B.C. p o l i t i c s . But because i t has v e r y d i v e r s e bases o f s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n , i t s e l f , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n p e r s i s t s i n the f a c e o f s p e c i f i c s o c i e t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , because i t v a r i e s w i t h the d i v e r s e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s u n l i k e l y t o be e r a d i c a t e d by e x p l i c i t p o l i c y changes, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s , o r any one o f the many b l u e p r i n t s f o r a r e s t r u c t u r e d f e d e r a l i s m which have engaged Canadian p o l i t i c a l s c i e n -t i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t he p a s t two d e c a d e s . F o r example, the f e d e r a l government's a t t e m p t s t o f o r m a l i z e c o m p e t i t i v e f r e i g h t r a t e s t r u c t u r i n g by i n s t i t u t i n g t he N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t (NTA) i n 1967 e r a s e d some o f the r a i l w a y i n d u s t r i e s ' more b l a t a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s , such as imposing ' h o r i z o n t a l ' r a t e i n c r e a s e s and g r a n t i n g d i r e c t s u b s i d i e s t o t h e r a i l w a y s i n c ompensation f o r l i m i t e d r a t e a d j u s t m e n t s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e A c t d i d l i t t l e t o assuage w e s t e r n p r o v i n c i a l governments' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s ' w i t h the f r e i g h t r a t e i s s u e , and i n d e e d a t the Western Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s C o n f e r e n c e t h e f o u r p r o v i n c e s s u b m i t t e d a j o i n t condemnation o f the NTA, even though the f r e i g h t r a t e i s s u e had'by t h a t - t i m e become.somewhat a r e d h e r r i n g in.some p a r t s o f the w e s t e r n Canadian community.^ T h i r d , i n a s y m b o l i c s e n s e , w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the a r t i -f i c i a l i t y o f r e g i o n a l i s m i n w e s t e r n Canada. Ther e i s today an i n c r e a s i n g t endency to t h i n k o f t h e c o u n t r y i n r e g i o n a l terms. A g e n c i e s such as the Task F o r c e on C a n adian U n i t y , the Canada West F o u n d a t i o n , the Canadian Ba A s s o c i a t i o n , the P a r t i L i b e r a l e , and the Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia have s u b m i t t e d b l u e p r i n t s f o r r e s t r u c t u r e d f e d e r a l i s m s which emphasize.the need f o r g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n the a f f a i r s o f 5 the n a t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s 'framework, w e s t e r n Canadian p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e i s o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d as a more o r l e s s m o n o l i t h i c f o r c e , whether as a s t r a w man f o r p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , ( a s , f o r example, i s the c a s e w i t h B.C.'s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o p o s a l s ) , o r as an a r b i t r a r y d e l i m i t e r o f r e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . Western a l i e n a t i o n i s s i m i l a r l y c o n c e i v e d . G i b b i n s ' argument t h a t the growth o f s t r o n g p r o v i n c i a l governments m i t i g a t e s the r e g i o n a l n a t u r e o f P r a i r i e p o l i t i c s makes a l i e n a t i o n the s i n e qua non o f d i s t i n c t r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s . But w h i l e a l i e n a t i o n e x i s t s i n a l l o f t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same phenomenon i n e a c h . To say t h a t a s i n g l e pheno-menon ( w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n ) cements t o g e t h e r a u n ique r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y when the phenomenon i t s e l f i s i n t e r n a l l y f r a g m e n t e d , i s t o c r e a t e a r e g i o n a l i s m which i s f o r c o n c e p t u a l p u r p o s e s , somewhat i l l u s o r y . F i n a l l y , the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h seem o b v i o u s . While r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s s h o u l d not be abandoned a l t o g e t h e r , they must be a p proached w i t h g r e a t e r c a u t i o n , w i t h g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o the i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l d i v e r s i t y which a c o n c e p t such as 'western a l i e n a t i o n 1 may o b s c u r e . G i b b i n s may be c o r r e c t i n c o n t e n d i n g t h a t p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s s e r v e as the l o c i o f w e s t e r n p o l i t i c s . T h i s becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t as Canadian f e d e r a l i s m e v o l v e s through the c u r r e n t ' c r i s i s ' p e r i o d : A l b e r t a ' s p u r s u i t o f a 'new f e d e r a l i s m ' which recommends equal s t a t u s and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l paramountcy f o r the p r o v i n c e s i n C o n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f a i r s ' , ^ B r i t i s h Columbia's demand f o r r e c o g n i t i o n as an autonomous.region o f i t s e l f , and Newfoundland's i n d e p e n d e n t c h a l l e n g e to the f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment w i t h r e s p e c t t o o f f s h o r e energy r e s o u r c e s -- a l l s u g g e s t t h a t a t t h e governmental l e v e l , r e g i o n a l d i s c o n t e n t has a markedly ' p r o v i n c i a l ' f l a -v o u r . A t t h e mass l e v e l , p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s t s must pay g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e s o f w e s t e r n Canadians v i s - a - v i s t h e i r e a s t e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s . Not a l l w e s t e r n e r s a r e a l i e n a t e d , and t h o s e who a r e need n o t s h a r e any unique s o c i a l , economic, o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s . I f we a r e t r u l y i n t e r e s t e d i n w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , we ought to c o n s i d e r i t i n terms o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s , o f the u n ique h i s t o r i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and s t r u c t u r a l ' f o r c e s which c u m u l a t i v e l y d i s -t i n g u i s h one community from the n e x t . C o n s i d e r i n g w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n t h i s manner i s a f o r m i d i b l e t a s k , one made n e c e s s a r y p r e c i s e l y because we have h i t h e r t o eschewed p r o v i n c i a l i n f a v o u r o f r e g i o n a l communities as o b j e c t s o f a n a l y s i s . But i t i s a n e c e s s a r y t a s k i f we a r e to keep a b r e a s t o f the c h a n g i n g f o r c e s which shape contemporary Canadian f e d e r a l i s m . NOTES T h i s paper c o u l d never have been w r i t t e n w i t h o u t .the. h e l p o f numerous f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s . W h i l e space l i m i t -a t i o n s p r e c l u d e my l i s t i n g a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e , a few s e l e c t names must be m entioned: Donald B l a k e , A l a n C a i r n s , D a v i d E l -k i n s , R i c h a r d J o h n s t o n , Ian U r q u h a r t , Roger G i b b i n s , J i m B r u t o n , S t e v e T o m b l i n . I owe a s p e c i a l d e b t t o Nancy Wong f o r l a s t i n g p a t i e n c e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r e s i g h t , and t y p i n g a i d be-yond t h e c a l l o f d u t y , and t o P r o f e s s o r E l k i n s f o r s h a r i n g t e c h -n i c h a l e x p e r t i s e , i n s i g h t s , and e n t h u s i a s m i n a l l a r e a s . None o f t h e s e p e o p l e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any f l a w s f o u n d h e r e i n . V.C. Fowke, "Natiional P o l i c y : O l d and New", i n W.T. E a s t e r b r o o k and M.H. W a t k i n s , e d s . , Approaches t o C a nadian Economic H i s t o r y , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1971), passim" The view i s a t t r i b u t e d t o f o r m e r C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P. Chuck Cook i n " S e p a r a t i s m West: F a c t o r F a d?", M a c l e a n ' s , v.93, no.48, (Dec. 1, 1980), p.31. A s i m i l a r view i s e x p r e s s e d by f o r m e r P a r t i L i b -e r a l e l e a d e r C l a u d e Ryan i n t h e Vancouver Sun, Dec. 4, 1980, p.A15 See M a c l e a n ' s , o p . c i t . , f o r an example o f t h e s e views as ad-vanced by the news media. See a l s o D e n i s e H a r r i n g t o n ' s a r t i c l e , "Who A r e t h e S e p a r a t i s t s ? " , John R i c h a r d s ' " P o p u l i s m and the West", and the e d i t o r s ' i n t r o d u c t i o n to L a r r y P r a t t and G a r t h S t e v e n s o n , e d s . , Western S e p a r a t i s m : The Myths, R e a l i t i e s , and  Dangers, (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1981). T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n s p i r e d i n p a r t by a passage t a k e n from s o c i o l o g i s t D a n i e l B e l l : " . . . t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . has become a h i g h l y d e d u c t i v e system d e r i v e d from a few b a s i c axioms o r r e a l l y a n a l y t i c a l c o n c e p t s , such as the p a t t e r n e d v a r i a b l e s i n t h e a c t i o n schema o f P a r s o n s , i n which t h e e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s no l o n g e r s t a n d f o r c o n c r e t e e n t i t i e s - - t h e i n d i v i d u a l , the so-c i e t y , and the l i k e " . See The C u l t u r a l C o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f , C a p i t a l -NOTES C l a r k e , e t a l . , use t h e term ' r e g i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s 1 t o d e s c r i b e c i t i z e n s ' " p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s " , which a r e c e n t r a l to t h e s t u d y o f Canadian p o l i t i c s because " . . . o n l y i f such f e e l i n g i s p r e s e n t w i l l t he d i f f e r e n c e s between r e g i o n s t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r can document be e f f e c t i v e l y p o l i t i c i z e d . . . ( a n d ) o n l y i f such f e e l i n g i s p r e s e n t can r e g i o n i t s e l f , a s i d e from p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l o r econo-mic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i t may c o n t a i n , be used t o e x p l a i n beha-v i o u r . " See P o l i t i c a l C h o i c e i n Canada ( a b r i d g e d e d . ) , ( T o r o n t o : McGraw-Hill R y e r s o n , 1980), p. 36. The body o f l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h a g g r e g a t e d p r o t e s t i n w e s t e r n Canada i s n o t i n i t s i n f a n c y . Indeed, many o f t h e ' c l a s s i c s ' o f Canadian p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e f a l l i n t o the c a t e g o r y o f w e s t e r n p r o -t e s t . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e volumes w i l l be mentioned t h r o u g h o u t the p r e s e n t paper. For an e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y , see A l a n F . J . A r b i t i s e , Western Canada S i n c e 1870: A S e l e c t B i b l i o g r a p h y , (Vancouver"! U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1978). R i c h a r d Simeon, " S t u d y i n g P u b l i c P o l i c y " , Canadian J o u r n a l o f  P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , IX: 4, (December 1976), p. 552. I b i d . The q u o t a t i o n i s from Lewis Froman. S i m i l a r a l l e g a t i o n s may be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t o t h e r c o n c e p t s i n p o p u l a r usage among contem-p o r a r y p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the problem w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e , see D a v i d J . E l k i n s and R i c h a r d Simeon, "A Cause i n S e a r c h o f I t s E f f e c t , o r What Does P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e E x p l a i n ? " , C o m p a r a t i v e P o l i t i c s , X I : 2, ( J a n u a r y 1979). Indeed, few a n a l y s t s have even b o t h e r e d to d e f i n e w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n any m e a n i n g f u l way. Roger G i b b i n s 1 n o t i o n o f a " p o l i t i c a l c r e e d ( l a t e r m o d i f i e d t o ' p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y ' ) o f d i s c o n t e n t " i s p r o b a b l y t h e most s e r i o u s l y t h o u g h t o u t , y e t i t does n o t seem t o have taken h o l d among a n a l y s t s o f Canadian p o l i t i c s , p r o b a b l y because i t s o p e r a t i v e terms — ' c r e e d ' , ' i d e o l o g y 1 , and ' d i s c o n t e n t ' -- a r e them-s e l v e s b e s e t by t h e problem o f the dependent v a r i a b l e . See, e.g., W a l l a c e Clement, "A P o l i t i c a l Economy o f R e g i o n a l i s m i n Canada", and C a r l J . Cuneo, "A C l a s s P e r s p e c t i v e on R e g i o n a l i s m , " both i n D a n i e l G l e n d a y , e t a l . , M o d e r n i z a t i o n and the Canadian S t a t e , ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1978). C l a s s i c a l e c o n o m i s t s such as H a r o l d A. I n n i s and Vernon C. Fowke a l s o s u b s c r i b e to a ' p o l i t i c a l economy' p e r s p e c t i v e on r e g i o n a l i s m . See The Fur T r a d e i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1956), and The N a t i o n a l P o T i c y and the  Wheat Economy, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1957). Roger G i b b i n s , P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , ( T o r o n t o : Butterwor.th, 1980), pp.184-85. Da v i d J . E l k i n s , " A l l e g i a n c e and D i s c o n t e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia", un-p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, March, 1982, pp.25-29. G i b b i n s , "Models o f N a t i o n a l i s m : A Case Study o f P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g i e s i n t h e C a n a d i a n West", Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , X: 2, (June, 1977), pp.358-59. The use o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s i n a n a l y z i n g " w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i s by no means l i m i t e d t o t h e academic s p h e r e . Numerous o t h e r i n s t i t u -t i o n s - - p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , t h e media, and p r i v a t e r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a -t i o n s l i k e t h e Canada West F o u n d a t i o n - - have c o n d u c t e d s t u d i e s which d e a l d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y w i t h w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , few o f t h e s e s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r t h e phenomenon i n a comprehensive man-n e r , f o c u s s i n g i n s t e a d upon a few s e l e c t i n d i c a t o r s . However, i f wes-t e r n a l i e n a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o be a major i s s u e i n Canadian p o l i t i c s , i t i s o n l y a m a t t e r o f time b e f o r e l a r g e r , more e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y s a r e ^undertaken. Indeed, the Canada West F o u n d a t i o n began a major c r o s s -p r o v i n c i a l p o l l i n the summer o f 1982, as r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s paper was i n p r o c e s s . See, f o r example, Clement, op. c i t . , and Cuneo, op. c i t . , as w e l l as C.B. Macpherson's Democracy i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r -onto P r e s s , 1953), and.S.M. L i p s e t , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1950")"] T h i s i s i n p a r t a consequence o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i s mea-s u r i n g a c o n c e p t such as s o c i a l c l a s s . See S e c t i o n V I , " S o c i a l C l a s s " i n t h i s paper. In h i s a n a l y s e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , G i b b i n s pays l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i a l c l a s s as an e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e . The same can be s a i d f o r E l k i n s ' s t u d y o f w e s t e r n a l i e n -a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F o r a u s e f u l s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a t u r e on ' p o l i t i c a l a l i e n a t i o n 1 , see K i r k K o e r n e r , P o l i t i c a l A l i e n a t i o n , u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v -e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. The c l a s s i c s t a t e m e n t on p o l i t i c a l - a l i e n a t i o n d e f i n e d i n terms o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s , m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s , anomie, i s o l a t i o n , and s e l f - e s t r a n g e m e n t , i s M e l v i n Seeman's "On t h e Meaning o f A l i e n a t i o n " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, XXIV, (December, 1959), pp.783-91. See a l s o Ada F i n i f t e r , "Dimensions o f P o l i t i c a l A l i e n a t i o n " , American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, (June, 1970), pp.389-410, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f a l i e n a t i o n as p o w e r l e s s n e s s and n o r m l e s s n e s s . 75. I I ) 14. B e g i n n i n g w i t h Seeman, "On t h e Meaning o f A l i e n a t i o n " , op. c i t . , i n 1959. 15. F o r example, 'power!essness', d e s c r i b e d by F i n i f t e r as the a n t i -t h e s i s o f p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y , i s c l e a r l y not a f e a t u r e o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n . A t l e a s t two i n d e p e n d e n t a n a l y s e s o f C a n adian F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n S u r v e y d a t a s u g g e s t ; t h a t B r i t i s h Columbians a r e the most e f f i c a c i o u s p e o p l e i n Canada, w h i l e P r a i r i e r e s i d e n t s tend t o be no more and no l e s s e f f i c a c i o u s than the C a n adian p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. See C l a r k e , e t a l . , op. c i t . , pp. 30-31; see a l s o D a v i d J . E l k i n s and R i c h a r d Simeon, Small W o r l d s : P r o v i n c e s and P a r t i e s i n Canadian  P o l i t i c a l L i f e , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1980), pp. 37-41. 16. G i b b i n s , P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y . . . , p. 167. 17. A l a n C. C a i r n s , "The Governments and S o c i e t i e s o f C a n adian F e d e r a l i s m , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , X: 4, (December 1977). 18. In a p a r t i c u l a r l y damning (and c o n t r o v e r s i a l ) example, L a r r y P r a t t a c c u s e s both A l b e r t a P r e m i e r P e t e r Lougheed and Saskatchewan ex-P r e m i e r A l l a n B l a k e n e y o f u s i n g "the r h e t o r i c o f p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s and a l i e n a t i o n ... t o f o r c e ( o i l ) p r i c e s up, a p o l i c y s t r o n g l y sup^ p o r t e d by t h e ( p e t r o l e u m ) i n d u s t r y " d u r i n g t r i p a r t i t e n e g o t i a t i o n s o v e r t h e f i n a n c i n g o f A l b e r t a ' s Syncrude p r o j e c t i n 1973. See The T a r Sands: Syncrude and t h e P o l i t i c s ' o f ' O i l , (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1976), p. 140. 19. E l k i n s , The Sense o f P l a c e , " i n E l k i n s and Simeon, op. c i t . , e s p . p. 22. 20. E l k i n s , " A l l e g i a n c e and D i s c o n t e n t , " p. 9. 21. David E l t o n and Roger G i b b i n s , "Western A l i e n a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e " , i n R. S c h u l t z , 0. K r u h l a k , and J.C. T e r r y , e d s . , The C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s , 3 r d ed., ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1979), p. 83. 22. I b i d . , p. 95. A t the 1973 Western Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s C o n f e r e n c e , A l b e r t a ' s Lougheed p r o c l a i m e d t h a t "The p e o p l e o f w e s t e r n Canada f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t they c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e much more to C o n f e d e r a t i o n i f c e r t a i n e x i s t i n g f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s were a l t e r e d so t h a t the t a l e n t s and e n e r g i e s o f Western Canadians c o u l d be more m e a n i n g f u l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e w e s t e r n r e g i o n , and t h a t t h i s would s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r e n g t h e n t h e n a t i o n as a whole." C i t e d i n Western Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s  C o n f e r e n c e , V e r b a t i m Record and DocTJments, (Ottawa,.. M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada,. 1977), p. 19. 76. I D 23. C i t e d i n G e r a r d F. Rutan, "Western Canada: The Winds o f A l i e n a -t i o n " , American Review o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s , X I I : 1, ( S p r i n g 1982), pp. 77-78. 24. T h e r e i s a s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between the a c t i v i t i e s o f contemporary governments which a r e engaged i n ' p r o v i n c e - b u i l d i n g 1 , and the g o v e r n -ments o f an e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n which were i n v o l v e d i n ' p r o t e s t ' . As L a r r y P r a t t has p o i n t e d o u t , one o f the major f e a t u r e s o f p r o v i n c e -b u i l d i n g i n contemporary A l b e r t a i s t h a t the s t a t e i s d e l i b e r a t e l y used to spur on p r o v i n c i a l development, i . e . , i t i s not s i m p l y r e a c t -i n g to the a s s y m e t r i e s o f the c o r e - p e r i p h e r y system, but i s engaged i n a p u r p o s i v e s t r a t e g y to a g g r a n d i z e p o l i t i c a l and economic power. See "The S t a t e and P r o v i n c e - B u i l d i n g : A l b e r t a ' s Development S t r a t e g y , " i n Leo P a n i t c h , ed., The C a n a d i a n S t a t e : P o l i t i c a l Economy and  P o l i t i c a l Power, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1977). I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e o r i g i n a l ' p r o v i n c e -b u i l d i n g ' i d e a s t a t e q u i t e e x p l i c i t l y t h a t p r o v i n c i a l governments have been engaged i n such a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , i . e . , what we now t h i n k o f a s . h a v i n g been a d i f f e r e n t v a r i a n t o f p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t i s by o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n p a r t o f the same p r o c e s s as p r o v i n c e -b u i l d i n g . See Edwin R. B l a c k . a n d A l a n C. C a i r n s , "A D i f f e r e n t Per-s p e c t i v e on C a n adian F e d e r a l i s m , " i n J . P e t e r M e e k i s o n , ed., C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m : Myth o r R e a l i t y ? 3 r d ed., ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1977). NOTES See f o r example, A.K. D a v i s , "Canadian S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y as H i n t e r l a n d v e r s u s M e t r o p o l i s " , i n R.K. O s s e n b e r g , ed., C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y : P l u r a l i s m , Change, and C o n f l i c t , ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1971). See P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B r i t i s h Columbia's C o n s t i t u t i o n a l P r o p o s a l s , p r e s e n t e d t o the F i r s t M i n i s t e r ' s C o n f e r e n c e on the C o n s t i t u t i o n , O c t o b e r 1978; paper #2: "B.C.: Canada's P a c i f i c R e g i o n , " p. 19. For a b r i e f l i s t o f d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l i s m , i n c l u d i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , see H. Odum and H.E. Moore, American  R e g i o n a l i s m , (New York: Henry H o l t , 1938), e s p e c i a l l y pp. 2 and 276. Of c o u r s e , some p r o v i n c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d r e g i o n s i n t h e m s e l v e s . O n t a r i o and Quebec a r e commonly viewed i n t h i s manner, a l t h o u g h one c a n n o t o v e r l o o k the f a c t t h a t i n t r a - r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r t h e r e , t o o . For example, t h e r e a r e major s o c i a l and economic d i s s i m i l a r i -t i e s between n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . On t h i s p o i n t , see F r a n c o i s - P i e r r e G i n g r a s , " O n t a r i o , " i n D. B e l l a m y , J . Pammett, and D. Rowat, eds., The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Systems, ( 3 r d e d . ) , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1976), pp. 34-36. C i t e d i n J . P e t e r M e e k i s o n , Canadian F e d e r a l ism: Myth o r R e a l i t y ? 3 r d ed., ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1977), p. 239. Western Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s C o n f e r e n c e V e r b a t i m Record and Documents, (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1976), pp. 19-20. C a l c u l a t e d from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada ( 1 9 7 1 ) , I I I : 4 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , c a t . #94-740. On t h e s e p o i n t s see T.D. Regehr, "Western Canada and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l i c i e s , " i n D.J. B e r c u s o n , ed., Canada and the Burden o f U n i t y , ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1977); Howard D. D a r l i n g , The P o l i t i c s o f  F r e i g h t R a t e s , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1980), p a r t I ; L. Auer and K. M i l l s , " C o n f e d e r a t i o n and Some R e g i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e T a r i f f on M a n u f a c t u r e s , " and Kenneth N o r r i e , "Western Economic G r i e v a n c e s : An Overview With S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e to F r e i g h t R a t e s , " both i n I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s (Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ) and Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, Workshop on the P o l i t i c a l Economy o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n : P r o c e e d i n g s , (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1979). 78. I l l ) 9. D a v i d E. S m i t h , "Western P o l i t i c s and N a t i o n a l U n i t y , " i n B e r c u s o n , op. c i t . , " P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e i n the West," i n B e r c u s o n and P h i l l i p A. Buckner, e d ' s . , E a s t e r n and Western P e r s p e c t i v e s , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1981), and "The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , " i n D. B e l l a m y , J . Pammett, and D. Rowat, e d s . , op. c i t . 10. Kenneth H. N o r r i e , "Some Comments on P r a i r i e Economic A l i e n a t i o n , " i n M e e k i s o n , op. c i t . , "Western Economic G r i e v a n c e s : ..." and "The Economics o f a S e p a r a t e West," ( w i t h M i c h a e l P e r c y ) i n L a r r y P r a t t and G a r t h S t e v e n s o n , e d ' s . , Western S e p a r a t i s m : The Myths,  R e a l i t i e s , and Dangers, (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1981). 11. P r a t t and S t e v e n s o n , op. c i t . 12. George Woodcock, C o n f e d e r a t i o n B e t r a y e d ! The Case A g a i n s t Trudeau's Canada, ( V a n c o u v e r ! Harbour, 1981). 13. H a r o l d C l a r k e , e t a l . , P o l i t i c a l C h o i c e i n Canada ( A b r i d g e d ed.)> ( T o r o n t o : McGraw-Hill R y e r s o n , 1980), pp. 41, 43-45. 14. The b r o c h u r e , made a v a i l a b l e i n 1980, i s r e p l e t e w i t h g r a n d i o s e c l a i m s o f w e s t e r n w e a l t h . F o r example, "Remember the c o a l d e p o s i t s , t h e o i l and gas r e s o u r c e s t h a t can be made a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l ' and d o m e s t i c needs even i n the r e m o t e s t c o r n e r s o f the a r e a , f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . The a l m o s t l i m i t l e s s p r o d u c t i o n o f f a r m , f i e l d , and r a n c h , a b l e to p i l e up a s t o r e o f the b e s t f o o d s i n t o the l a p o f a w o r l d i t now so s o r e l y l a c k s , " ( p . 7 ) . 15. Canada Tax F o u n d a t i o n The N a t i o n a l F i n a n c e s , 1976-77, c h . 10, r e p r i n t e d i n Paul Fox, ed., P o l i t i c s : Canada, 4 t h e d . , ( T o r o n t o : McGraw-H i l l R y e r s o n , 1977), and Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, L i v i n g T o g e t h e r : A Study o f R e g i o n a l D i s p a r i t i e s , (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1977), c h a p t e r 6. 16. Canada. Task F o r c e on Canadian U n i t y , A F u t u r e T o g e t h e r , (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1979), p. 26. 17. I b i d . , pp. 27-28. 18. See, f o r example, P h i l i p R e s n i c k , "B.C. C a p i t a l i s m and the Empire o f the P a c i f i c , " paper prepared f o r the Western S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y M e e t i n g s , W i n n i p e g , March 4-6, 1981, p a s s i m . 19. C i t e d i n S m i t h , "Western P o l i t i c s and N a t i o n a l U n i t y ' V o p . c i t . , p.166. 20. G.F.G. S t a n l e y , "The Western Canadian M y s t i q u e " , i n D. Gagan, ed., P r a i r i e P e r s p e c t i v e s , ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , W i n s t o n , 1970), p.16. 79. I l l ) 21. S m i t h , The P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , p. 47. 22. Roger G i b b i n s , P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , ( T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h , 1980), p. 167. 23. Norman J . R u f f , " L e a d e r s h i p Autonomy and F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s : B.C.'s Approaches t o F e d e r a l i s m i n the 1970's" paper p r e p a r e d f o r the annual meeting o f the Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , H a l i f a x , May 28, 1981, p. 11. 24. C l a r k e , e t a l . , op. c i t . , pp. 48-49. 25. John R i c h a r d s and L a r r y P r a t t , P r a i r i e C a p i t a l ism: Power and  I n f l u e n c e i n the New West, ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1979), c h a p t e r 2. 26. See, f o r example, S m i t h , " P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e i n the West," i n B e r c u s o n and Buckner, op. c i t . , p a s s i m . NOTES The term, ' b e l i e f system' i s borrowed from P h i l i p C onverse and i s used i n t h e manner i n which he d e f i n e d i t , namely, as "a c o n f i g u r -a t i o n o f i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s i n which the elements a r e bound t o -g e t h e r by some form o f c o n s t r a i n t o r f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . " See "The N a t u r e o f B e l i e f Systems i n Mass P u b l i c s " , i n D a v i d A p t e r , ed., I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t , (New York: F r e e P r e s s , 1964), pp. 206-61. I p r e f e r the term, ' b e l i e f system' t o ' i d e o l o g y ' p r e c i s e l y because o f i t s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r d e g r e e s o f c o n s t r a i n t . In c o n t r a s t , E l t o n and G i b b i n s have employed the term ' i d e o l o g y ' i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n i f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , i . e . , as a ' r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y o f d i s c o n t e n t ' . See "Western A l i e n a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e , " i n R. S c h u l t z , 0. K r u h l a k , and J.C. T e r r y , e d ' s . , The Canadian P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s , 3 r d ed., ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1979), p. 83. A t t h e N a t i o n a l F e a s i b i l i t y C o n f e r e n c e on p r a i r i e u n i o n i n 1970, then P r e m i e r H a r r y Strom o f A l b e r t a proposed t h a t "Western f e e l i n g s a g a i n s t t h e E a s t a r e p r i m a r i l y a g a i n s t economic i n j u s t i c e s . . . . A t the h e a r t o f t h i s i s s u e a r e t h o s e a s p i r a t i o n s and c o n c e r n s o f A l b e r t a p e o p l e which r e q u i r e r e c o g n i t i o n and a c t i o n a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l i f they a r e t o be r e a l i z e d " See David K. E l t o n , e d . , One P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e ? C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s and S e l e c t e d P a p e r s , ( L e t h b r i d g e : L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , 1970), p. 32. B l a c k echoes s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s i n h i s examina-t i o n o f B.C. p o l i t i c s : " F e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the p r o v i n c e have always been marked by d i s p u t e s o v e r money and economic c o n t r o l and l i t t l e e l s e . . . s e p a r a t i s t s e n t i m e n t s and movements...date from the time o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n and a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a r e m a n i f e s t e d i n a s s e r t i o n s t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e would be b e t t e r o f f as an i n d e p e n d e n t s o v e r e i g n s t a t e . " See "B.C.: The Canadian o f E x p l o i t a t i o n , " i n H.G. T h o r b u r n , ed., P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, 4 t h ed., ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979) , pp. 290-91. C o n v e r s e d e s c r i b e s ' c o n s t r a i n t ' o r ' f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e ' as "the s u c c e s s we would have i n p r e d i c t i n g , g i v e n i n i t i a l knowledge t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l h o l d s a s p e c i f i e d a t t i t u d e , t h a t he h o l d s c e r t a i n o t h e r i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s . " See C o n v e r s e , op. c i t . , p. 207. See f o r example, R i c h a r d Simeon and D a v i d J . E l k i n s , "The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e s , " i n D.J. E l k i n s and R. Simeon, Small W o r l d s : . P r o v i n c e s and P a r t i e s i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l L i f e , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1980) , pa s s i m , and John W i l s o n , "The Canadian P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e s : Towards a R e d e f i n i t i o n o f the N a t u r e o f the Canadian P o l i t i c a l System," i n Paul Fox, e d . , P o l i t i c s : Canada, ( 4 t h e d . ) , ( T o r o n t o : McGraw-Hill R y e r s o n , 1977), pp. 316-37. Roger G i b b i n s , "Western A l i e n a t i o n and the A l b e r t a P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e , " i n C. C a l d a r o l a , ed., S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1979), p. 156. NOTES The l o g i c o f t h i s methodology i s adopted from E l k i n s and Simeon i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e s . See "A Cause i n S e a r c h o f I t s E f f e c t , o r What Does P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e E x p l a i n ? " Compara-t i v e P o l i t i c s , X I: 2, ( J a n u a r y 1979), e s p . pp. 135-36. Roger G i b b i n s , "Western A l i e n a t i o n and the A l b e r t a P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e , " i n C a r l o C a l d a r o l a , e d . , S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1979), p a s s i m . The t o t a l s a m p l i n g frame c o n s i s t s o f 969 i n d i v i d u a l s , 25.1% o f whom r e f u s e d to be i n t e r v i e w e d , 2.8% o f whom were i n c a p a b l e o f c o m p l e t i n g the i n t e r v i e w , and 20.3% o f whom were e l i m i n a t e d because t h e y c o u l d not be l o c a t e d a f t e r f o u r c a l l b a c k s . See G i b b i n s , op. c i t . , p. 146. In a d d i t i o n , 808 o f the r e s p o n d e n t s were r e - i n t e r v i e w e d by t e l e p h o n e a f t e r the F e b r u a r y 1980 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . The Canada West F o u n d a t i o n has co n d u c t e d a number o f p o l l s t a p p i n g a s p e c t s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n ; w h i l e t h ey have t he advantages o f u t i l i z i n g c r o s s - p r o v i n c i a l samples, a s i n g l e , c omprehensive s t u d y has y e t t o be u n d e r t a k e n . Some o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n ' s r e s u l t s can be found i n G i b b i n s ' R e g i o n a l i s m : T e r r i t o r i a l P o l i t i c s i n Canada and  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , ( T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h , 1982), pp. 181-82, and G e r a r d F. Rutan, "Western Canada: The Winds o f A l i e n a t i o n , " American J o u r n a l o f Canadian S t u d i e s , X I I : 1, ( S p r i n g 1982), pp. 82-84. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s i n d e x , see G i b b i n s , op. c i t . , pp. 146-49. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f the B.C. a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e , see Da v i d J . El k i n s , "Western A l i e n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , d r a f t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, O c t o b e r 1981, pp. 3-8. I must s t r e s s t h a t t h i s a d j u s t m e n t i s made f o r h e u r i s t i c p u rposes o n l y . Thus one who s c o r e s , s a y , 2.63 on one a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y more a l i e n a t e d than one who s c o r e s 2.50 on the o t h e r . G i b b i n s , op. c i t . , p. 166, f f . 26, and E l k i n s , op. c i t . , p. .4. Guttman s c a l e a n a l y s e s y i e l d mean i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( Y u l e ' s Q) o f .337 f o r B.C. and .478 f o r A l b e r t a . 82. V) 10. Many o f the items employed by the Canada West F o u n d a t i o n i n i t s P u b l i c O p i n i o n Updates c l o s e l y resemble t h o s e used i n the B.C. and A l b e r t a a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e s . So too do some o f O l i v e r ' s items i n her 1971 s u r v e y . See e s p e c i a l l y Rutan, op. c i t . , and Thelma O l i v e r , " A s p e c t s o f A l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , " paper p r e p a r e d f o r the f o r t y - s e v e n t h annual m e e t i n g o f the Ca n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , June 2-6, 1975. 11. The A l b e r t a s u r v e y d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h i s s u e s o f s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n to t h e p r o v i n c e and the p r o v i n c i a l government. By c o n t r a s t , t he B.C. s t u d y d e a l s w i t h p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s i n a broad manner, u t i l i z i n g open-ended q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , "what a r e t h e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s t o you p e r s o n a l l y ? " ) to the c a p t u r e r e s p o n d e n t s ' v i e w s . 12. E l k i n s , op. c i t . , pp. 27-35. NOTES For example, p e o p l e who a g r e e w i t h the s t a t e m e n t t h a t " a l l c i v i l s e r v a n t s s h o u l d have t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e " a r e assumed t o have a p o s i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n toward the f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s i n the w o r k p l a c e and t h e r e f o r e p r o b a b l y d i s a g r e e w i t h the s t a t e m e n t t h a t " t r a d e u n i o n s have become too p o w e r f u l i n Canada." We d e s i g n a t e t h e i r views ' l i b e r a l ' i n c o n t r a s t t o r e s p o n d e n t s who d i s a g r e e t h a t a l l c i v i l s e r v a n t s s h o u l d have the r i g h t t o s t r i k e and a g r e e t h a t t r a d e u n i o n s have become too p o w e r f u l , and whom we d e s i g -n a t e , f o r want o f a b e t t e r term, ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' . The f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between such i d e a s a r e d e f i n e d by C onverse as ' c o n s t r a i n t s ' Donald V. S m i l e y , Canada i n Q u e s t i o n : F e d e r a l i s m i n the S e v e n t i e s , 2nd ed., ( T o r o n t o : M c Graw-Hill R y e r s o n , 1976), p. 195. See J.A. Long and F.Q. Quo, " A l b e r t a : One P a r t y Dominance," i n M. R o b i n , ed., C a n adian P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c s , 2nd ed., ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1978), and Myron Johnson, "The F a i l u r e o f the C.'C.F. i n A l b e r t a : An A c c i d e n t o f H i s t o r y , " i n C a r l o C a l d a r o l a , ed., S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1979). L a r r y P r a t t , "The S t a t e and P r o v i n c e - B u i l d i n g : A l b e r t a ' s Development S t r a t e g y , " i n L. P a n i t c h , ed., The Canadian S t a t e : P o l i t i c a l Economy  and P o l i t i c a l Power, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1977), p. 149. T h e r e i s some d i f f i c u l t y i n s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h i s p o i n t , a l t h o u g h I have l i t t l e doubt about i t s a c c u r a c y . Membership f i g u r e s f o r the major s e p a r a t i s t groups a r e u n r e l i a b l e , owing to the o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' p r o p e n s i t i e s t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e i r - bases o f •• s u p p o r t . My c o n v i c t i o n i s based l a r g e l y upon i n f e r e n t i a l e v i d e n c e -- the e l e c t i o n o f a s e p a r a t i s t MLA i n O l d s - D i d s b u r y d u r i n g a 1982 b y - e l e c t i o n , the com-p a r a t i v e l y wide p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f minor s e p a r a t i s t groups i n A l b e r t a . On t h i s l a t t e r p o i n t , see G e r a r d F. F u t a n , "Western Canada: The Winds o f A l i e n a t i o n , " American Review Of C a n adian S t u d i e s , X I I : 1, ( S p r i n g , 1982), pp. 80-82. Indeed, t h e NDP's emphasis upon n a t i o n a l r a t h e r than r e g i o n a l economic i s s u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the 1981 c o n s t i t u t i o n a l n e g o t i a -t i o n s , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the B r i t i s h Columbia l e f t ' s c o m p a r a t i v e l y weak i n t e r e s t i n r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c s . Mr. B a r r e t t ' s p o s i t i o n was t h a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m was not a p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n when compared t o l a r g e r ( n a t i o n a l ) i s s u e s such as i n f l a t i o n , unemployment, and income s e c u r i t y ; •. By c o n t r a s t , P r e m i e r B e n n e t t used the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l forum to advance the c a u s e o f w e s t e r n p r o v i n c i a l i s m i n m a v e r i c k f a s h i o n . 84. VI) 7. As a number o f a n a l y s t s have p o i n t e d o u t , the i d e o l o g i c a l bases o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e not r i g i d l y adhered t o . W h i l e S o c i a l C r e d i t r e a d i l y embraces the r h e t o r i c o f f r e e e n t e r -p r i s e , c a p i t a l i s m , and c o n s e r v a t i s m , i t s b e h a v i o u r tends t o be some-what more p r a g m a t i c than ' i d e o l o g i c a l ' . See, f o r example, R.NI. B u r n s , " B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e Canadian F e d e r a t i o n , " i n R.M. B u r n s , ed., One C o u n t r y o r Two? ( M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s , 1971), and D.V. S m i l e y , "Canada's P o u j a d i s t s : A New Look a t S o c i a l C r e d i t , " Canadian Forum, 42: 500, (September 1962), pp. 121-23. 8. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , G i b b i n s a l s o f i n d s a c o n s e r v a t i v e s t r a i n i n A l b e r t a a l i e n a t i o n . H i s t e s t s f o r ' p o l i t i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m ' employ ten s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e seven items and the use i n the ' i d e o l o g y ' : s c a l e r e f e r r e d t o h e r e . The o m i s s i o n o f t h r e e items and the use o f d i f f e r e n t c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s has not a l t e r e d t he s i m i l a r i t i e s i n our r e s u l t s . 9. Pearson's r = -0.298 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .002 . l e v e l f o r r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g f a m i l y incomes o f $12,000 to $14,999 per y e a r , and r = -0/214 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .025 l e v e l among r e s p o n -dents h a v i n g l i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r o v e r t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s . These a r e the o n l y ' f a m i l y income' and ' l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e ' c a t e -g o r i e s i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s s a t i s f y c o n v e n t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 10. See, f o r example, G l e n A. Toner and F r a n c o i s Bregha, "The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Energy," i n M.S. W h i t t i n g t o n and G. W i l l i a m s , Canadian  P o l i t i c s i n the 1980's, ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1981), pp. 16-18. 11. See L a r r y P r a t t , "Whose O i l i s I t ? " i n L. P r a t t and G. S t e v e n s o n , e d ' s . , Western S e p a r a t i s m : The Myths' R e a l i t i e s , and Danger, (Edmonton"! H u r t i g , 1981), pp. 163-66. 12. T h e r e i s some a m b i g u i t y as t o what i s meant by ' i n v o l v e m e n t ' i n the i n d u s t r y . J u d g i n g by i t s l o c a t i o n i n t h e s u r v e y , I assume t h a t ' i n v o l v e m e n t ' d e a l s i n the main w i t h employment. Census d a t a i n d i -c a t e t h a t as o f 1971, o n l y 2.5% o f A l b e r t a n s were g a i n f u l l y employed i n e i t h e r t h e p e t r o l e u m o r n a t u r a l gas i n d u s t r i e s . W h i l e t h i s f i g u r e o b v i o u s l y r e f e r s to, o n l y t h o s e p e o p l e who a r e d i r e c t l y employed i n t he i n d u s t r i e s , b o t h i t and the 7.2% f i g u r e o b t a i n e d from the A l b e r t a E l e c t o r a t e s u r v e y s u g g e s t t h a t perhaps the manner i n which the o i l i n d u s t r y 'dominates' l i f e i n t h e p r o v i n c e i s o v e r e s t i m a t e d . ab. iv) 13. Among t r a d e u n i o n members, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e o l o g y and a l i e n a t i o n i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e o f l i b e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s i s 2.36, o f ' n e u t r a l s ' = 2.87, and o f c o n s e r v a t i v e s = 2.32. 14. r = -0.085 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e 0.02 l e v e l . Mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s o f l i b e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s i s 2.64; o f n e u t r a l s = 2 . 3 3 , o f con-s e r v a t i v e s = 2.21. N = 562. 15. See T e r r e n c e Levesque and Kenneth H. N o r r i e , "Overwhelming M a j o r i t i e s i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e s o f A l b e r t a , " Canadian J o u r n a l Of P o l i t i c a l  S c i e n c e , X I I : 3, (September, 1979), pp. 452-71. 16. Gordon G a l b r a i t h , " B r i t i s h Columbia" i n D. B e l l a m y , J . Pammett, and D. Rowat , e d ' s . , The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Systems, 3rd ed., ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1976), pp. 70-71. 17. D a v i d J . E l k i n s , " A l l e g i a n c e and D i s c o n t e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , d r a f t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , March 1982, 21-25; Roger G i b b i n s , "Western A l i e n a t i o n and the A l b e r t a P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e , " i n C a r l o C a l d a r o T a , ed., S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s  i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1979), pp. 152-56. 18. The S o c r e d s , a f t e r h a v i n g dominated the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r o v e r t h r e e d e c a d e s , have d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e y w i l l f i e l d no c a n d i d a t e s i n the next p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , which a t the time o f t h i s w r i t i n g was s e t f o r November 2, 1982. 19. 49.8% o f A l b e r t a n r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , w h i l e 43.4% c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . 20. See, f o r example, S.M. L i p s e t , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1950), c h . 11, p a s s i m ; C.B. Macpherson, Democracy i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1953), p a s s i m ; E v e l y n Eager, "The C o n s e r v a t i s m o f the Saskatchewan E l e c t o r a t e " i n N. Ward and D. S p a f f o r d , e d ' s . , P o l i t i c s i n Saskatchewan, (Don M i l l s : Longman's, 1968), pp.2-3 J p a s s i m . For a more t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h , see M a u r i c e P i n a r d . The R i s e o f a T h i r d P a r t y , ( E n g l e w o o d - ' C l i f f : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1971). 21. For a u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e p a r t i e s and the k i n d s o f c l a s s , i d e o l o g i c a l , and r e g i o n a l s u p p o r t which d i s t i n g u i s h e s them, see John McMenemy, "Fragment and Movement P a r t i e s , " i n C. Winn and J . McMenemy, P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o : McGraw-Hill R y e r s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . IV) 22. Thelma O l i v e r , " A s p e c t s o f A l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , " paper p r e p a r e d f o r t h e f o r t y - s e v e n t h annual m e e t i n g o f the Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , Edmonton, June 2-6, 1975, p. 8. Working from t h e same d a t a base, G i l s d o r f draws s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s i n h i s "Western A l i e n a t i o n , P o l i t i c a l A l i e n a t i o n , and the F e d e r a l System," i n C a l d a r o l a , op. c i t . The s u r v e y from which t h e i r d a t a d e r i v e was c o n d u c t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the 1971 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , i n which the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s came to power a f t e r t h i r t y - s i x y e a r s o f S o c i a l C r e d i t Government were c o n c l u d e d . The t i m i n g o f the s u r v e y may e x p l a i n , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , why t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s seem to d i v e r g e from t h o s e o f G i b b i n s , who f i n d s a l i e n a t i o n g r e a t e s t among the ' o l d - l i n e ' C o n s e r v a t i v e s , i . e . , i n 1971 the i n c o m i n g T o r i e s had y e t t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m s e l v e s i n p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n from e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y ( a l t e r n a t i v e l y , one might argue w i t h L a r r y P r a t t t h a t the Lougheed C o n s e r v a t i v e s a r e f o r p r a c t i c a l p u rposes no l o n g e r an ' o l d - l i n e ' p a r t y . See P r a i r i e C a p i t a l i s m , pp. 162-66). 23. David J . E l k i n s , op. c i t . , and Roger G i b b i n s , op. c i t . 24. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , w h i l e E l k i n s j o i n s Laponce i n p r o p o s i n g t h a t " S o c i a l C r e d i t seems to be more a m i d d l e o f t h e r o a d p a r t y i n B.C. t h a n e l s e w h e r e , " 10.2% o f the r e s p o n d e n t s i n G i b b i n s 1 1976 A l b e r t a  E l e c t o r a t e s u r v e y t h o u g h t ' S o c i a l C r e d i t ' s t o o d f o r s o c i a l i s m . F u l l y 53.8% o f r e s p o n d e n t s o f f e r e d no o p i n i o n ; when t h e s e r e s p o n s e s were coded as m i s s i n g d a t a , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f A l b e r t a n s who a s s o c i -a t e d S o c i a l C r e d i t w i t h s o c i a l i s m s t o o d a t 20.2%. See "The S t r u c t u r e o f P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y System" i n D.J. E l k i n s and R. Simeon, Small W o r l d s : P r o v i n c e s and P a r t i e s i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l L i f e , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1980), p. 237 f o r the E l k i n s r e f e r e n c e . 25. T e r r e n c e Levesque and Kenneth N o r r i e , "Overwhelming M a j o r i t i e s i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e o f A l b e r t a , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , X I I : 3, (September 1979), pp. 452-71. The a u t h o r s argue t h a t Government p a r t i e s have s h a r e d a common f o r m u l a f o r e l e c t o r a l s u c -c e s s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e ' s h i s t o r y , i . e . , a d o p t i n g an a n t i -f e d e r a l s t a n c e i n i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , and a d o p t i n g a c o n s e r -v a t i v e s t a n c e i n i n t r a - p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . 26. Thomas S a n f o r d , The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The C o o p e r a t i v e Common- w e a l t h F e d e r a t i o n and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (Ph.D t h e s i s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1961), c h a p t e r 2, and M a r t i n , R o b i n , "The S o c i a l Bases o f P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " i n B. B l i s h e n , F. J o n e s , K. N a e g e l e , and J . P o r t e r , Canadian S o c i e t y :  S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , 3 r d e d . , ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1971). 87. VI) 27. Donald V. S m i l e y , Canada i n Q u e s t i o n : F e d e r a l i s m i n the 1980s ( 3 r d e d . ) , ( T o r o n t o ! M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1980), pp. 121-22. 28. 57.1% o f B.C. New Democrats a r e i d e o l o g i c a l l y ' l i b e r a l 1 , w h i l e 52.2% o f A l b e r t a P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s and 52.6% o f A l b e r t a n S o c r e d s a r e i d e o l o g i c a l l y ' c o n s e r v a t i v e '. 29. As E l k i n s has shown, s u p p o r t e r s o f each o f the major p a r t i e s i n A l b e r t a c o n s i d e r S o c i a l C r e d i t t o the ' r i g h t ' o f a l l o t h e r p a r t i e s . See E l k i n s , op. c i t . , p. 228. 30. See t h e r e f e r e n c e s i n f f . 26. 31. Mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s f o r A l b e r t a ( p r o v i n c i a l ) S o c r e d s by i d e o l o g y : l i b e r a l = 2.45; n e u t r a l = 2.46; c o n s e r v a t i v e = 3 . 0 0 ; t h e r e a r e t oo few c a s e s f o r mean s c o r e s t o be worth n o t i n g among f e d e r a l S o c r e d s . Mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia New Democrats ( p r o v i n c i a l ) by i d e o l o g y : l i b e r a l = 2.67; n e u t r a l = 2.53; c o n s e r v a t i v e = 2.25. 32. One hundred s e v e n t y - f i v e A l b e r t a r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t h a v i n g l i v e d e l s e w h e r e i n Canada; t h e b u l k o f t h e s e come from Saskatchewan ( 5 8 ) , f o l l o w e d by O n t a r i o ( 4 5 ) , and B r i t i s h Columbia ( 3 1 ) . One hundred e i g h t y - o n e r e s p o n d e n t s i n the B.C. sample have l i v e d i n a n o t h e r Canadian p r o v i n c e s i n c e l e a v i n g s c h o o l . Most come from O n t a r i o ( 6 3 ) , A l b e r t a ( 4 6 ) , and Saskatchewan ( 3 3 ) . A g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e comes from o u t - o f - c o u n t r y . 33. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the few ( f e d e r a l ) L i b e r a l B r i t i s h Columbians who have l i v e d i n e i t h e r Saskatchewan o r Manitoba tend t o be more a l i e n a t e d than P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s u p p o r t e r s h a v i n g the same e x p e r i e n c e . Mean a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s f o r r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g l i v e d i n e i t h e r Saskatchewan o r Manitoba a r e : L i b e r a l = 2.44; P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e = 2.13; however," N 1 s = o n l y 16 and 23, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 34. E l k i n s , "The H o r i z o n t a l M o s a i c " , i n E l k i n s and Simeon, op. c i t . , p. 107, and pa s s i m . 35. R o b e r t A l f o r d , P a r t y and S o c i e t y : The An g l o - A m e r i c a n D e m o c r a c i e s , ( C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1963), pp. 250-86. 36. I t a k e as p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n o f S.M. L i p s e t ' s A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1950). 88. VJL) 37. C.B. Macpherson, Democracy i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1953), c h a p t e r 1, e s p e c i a l l y pp. 6-20. 38. In a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s i g h t f u l a s sessment o f B r i t i s h Columbia's economy and c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , Thomas S a n f o r d w r i t e s , "The v e r y p l u r a l i t y o f key commodities p r e v e n t s the growth o f a dominant commodity Weltanschauung s i m i l a r t o the one-time p o s i t i o n and o u t l o o k o f wheat f a r m e r s on t h e Canadian p r a i r i e o r c o t t o n p i c k e r s i n t h e American S o u t h . " The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The  C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n and S o c i a l C r e d i t League i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, (Ph.D D i s s e r t a t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a , 1961), p. 67. See a l s o P h i l i p R e s n i c k , "B.C. C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Empire o f the P a c i f i c , " paper p r e p a r e d f o r the Western S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y M e e t i n g s , W i n n i p e g , March 4-6, 1981, pp. 17-18. 39. M a r t i n R o b i n , "The S o c i a l Bases o f P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " i n B. B l i s h e n , F. J o n e s , K. N a e g e l e , and J . P o r t e r , e d ' s . , Canadian S o c i e t y : S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1971), p. 293. 40. See A l a n C a i r n s , "The Study o f the P r o v i n c e s : A Review A r t i c l e , " B.C. S t u d i e s , XVI: (Summer, 1972-73), pp. 72-73. 41. Andrew N. J a c k s o n , " P a t t e r n s o f H i n t e r l a n d R e v o l t : A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan i n t h e Inter-War P e r i o d , " paper p r e s e n t e d a t the f o r t y - n i n t h annual m e e t i n g o f t h e Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , F r e d e r i c t o n , N.B., June 1977, p. 8. 42. See, f o r example, D. P o e t s c h k e and R. McKown, " P e r c e p t i o n s o f C l a s s i n A l b e r t a , " i n C a r l o C a l d e r o l a , e d . , S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s  i n A l b e r t a , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1979), pp. 193-96; J . Anthony Long and F.Q. Quo, " A l b e r t a : The P o l i t i c s o f Consensus," i n M. R o b i n , ed., C a n a d i a n P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c s , 2nd ed., ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1978), e s p e c i a l l y pp. 22-23. 43. C a l c u l a t e d from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census o f Canada, I I I : 4 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , c a t . #94-740. 44. John R i c h a r d s and L a r r y P r a t t , P r a i r i e C a p i t a l i s m : Power and  I n f l u e n c e i n t h e New West, ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1979), pp. 166-68. 45. See, f o r example, Gordon G a l b r a i t h , " B r i t i s h C olumbia", i n D. B e l l a m y , J . Pammett, and D. Rowat, eds..» The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l  Systems, 3 r d . ed., ( T o r o n t o : Metheun, 1976), pp. 62-75. 89-VI) 46. P h i l i p R e s n i c k , "The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia: A M a r x i s t P e r s p e c t i v e , " i n P. Knox and P. R e s n i c k , ed s., E s s a y s i n B.C. P o l i t i c a l Economy, (Va n c o u v e r : New S t a r , 1974), pp. 5-6. 47. I b i d . , p. 8. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , s i n c e r e t u r n i n g t o power i n 1975, B.C. 1s S o c i a l C r e d i t Government, and P r e m i e r B e n n e t t i n p a r t i c u l a r , has been f a r more b e l l i c o s e i n f a n n i n g the f i r e s o f w e s t e r n a l i e n a -t i o n has t h e O p p o s i t i o n N.D.P. To the e x t e n t t h a t each p a r t y i s r o u g h l y a l i g n e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s i n t e r e s t ( v i d e R o b i n ) , one has d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i s c e r n i n g any t i d y p a t t e r n o f c l a s s - a l i e n a -t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n . 48. We were a d m i t t e d l y d o i n g an i n j u s t i c e to Macpherson, who d e f i n e d A l b e r t a ' s p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s i e as a community o f i n d e p e n d e n t commodity p r o d u c e r s marked by a ' f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' v i s - a - v i s t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o t h e market economy. On t h e one hand, t he f a r m e r s were i n -dependent i n t h a t t h e y were f r e e t o d i r e c t t h e i r own l a b o u r and d i d not d i r e c t the l a b o u r o f o t h e r s , " y e t dependent on an economy o t h e r -w i s e d i r e c t e d and o f which t h e y were a s u b o r d i n a t e p a r t " (Democracy  i n A l b e r t a , p. 224). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the d a t a from which we a r e wor k i n g a r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e t o measure the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s o f t h i s group as Macpherson d e f i n e d i t . As we s h a l l s e e , v e r y few r e s p o n d e n t s a r e f a r m e r s who s u p p o r t S o c i a l C r e d i t ; i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , fewer s t i l l employ no l a b o u r . Thus o u r a n a l y s i s o f t h i s ' a s p e c t ' o f c l a s s - b a s e d a l i e n a t i o n s h o u l d be taken as no more than a rough i n d i c a t o r o f p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s a t t i t u d e s . 49. R i c h a r d s and P r a t t , . o p . c i t . , pp. 167-68. 50. S a n f o r d , op. c i t . 51. G a l b r a i t h , op. c i t . , and M a r t i n R o b i n , "B.C.: The P o l i t i c s o f C l a s s C o n f l i c t , " i n M. R o b i n , ed., Canadian P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c s , ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1971). 52. Two o f the major d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e o u t l i n e d by P o r t e r i n h i s c l a s s i c work, The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1965). F i r s t l y , t h e a r b i t r a r y d e s i g n a t i o n o f s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s i n s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s a l l o w s no more than an ' a r t i f i c i a l ' c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c l a s s . In P o r t e r ' s words, "(The ' a r t i f i c i a l ' c l a s s e s ) a r e not s o c i a l groups because i n s o c i a l groups t h e members have a sense o f i d e n t i t y w i t h one a n o t h e r , s h a r e common v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n s , and have an awareness o f u n i t y and common pu r p o s e " ( p . 1 0 ) . T h i s c r i t i -c i s m l e a d s t o a second m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem, one which has p l a g u e d , v i r t u a l l y a l l c l a s s a n a l y s t s s i n c e Marx: what i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p 90-via between ' o b j e c t i v e c l a s s ' and ' s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s ' ? ( p . 9 ) . For an i n t e r e s t i n g t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s problem w i t h r e s p e c t to c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and Macpherson's c o n c e p t i o n o f f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n A l b e r t a , see P o e t s c h k e and McKown, op. c i t . , pp. 197-202. 53. s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s = .0002 f o r o c c u p a t i o n , .0001 f o r e d u c a t i o n . 54. When f a m i l y income i s c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , P earson's r = -0.049 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .091 l e v e l . 55. In A l b e r t a , r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l i e n a t i o n and the t h r e e components o f s o c i a l c l a s s a r e as f o l l o w s : a) o c c u p a t i o n by a l i e n a t i o n : r = -0.034 ( s i g n i f i c a n c e = .167) b) f a m i l y income by a l i e n a t i o n : r = 0 . 0 3 4 ( s i g n i f i c a n c e = .223) c) e d u c a t i o n by a l i e n a t i o n : r =0.0005 ( s i g n i f i c a n c e = .495) A l l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e Pearson's r . In c o n t r a s t , Thelma O l i v e r f i n d s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l i e n a t i o n and what she c a l l s 'lower s t a t u s 1, a l t h o u g h her d e f i n i -t i o n o f a l i e n a t i o n d i f f e r s from t h a t which we have employed h e r e . See " A s p e c t s o f A l i e n a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , " paper p r e p a r e d f o r the f o r t y - s e v e n t h annual m e e t i n g o f the Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , Edmonton, June 2-6, 1975, pp. 5-6. 56. See D e n i s e H a r r i n g t o n , "Who A r e the S e p a r a t i s t s ? " i n L a r r y P r a t t and G a r t h S t e v e n s o n , e d ' s . , Western S e p a r a t i s m : T h e Myths,  R e a l i t i e s , and Dangers, (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1981), pp. 33-35, and Wayne Skene, " W i l l the P r a i r i e s Go West?" Q u e s t , X: 1, (March 1981), pp. 11-17. 57. The ' m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver' r e g i o n c o n s i s t s o f the p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g s , Vancouver C e n t r e , N o r t h Vancouver-Seymour, Burnaby-W i l l i n g d o n , and S u r r e y , o r o f the f e d e r a l r i d i n g s , Vancouver C e n t r e , Vancouver E a s t , Vancouver Kingsway, N o r t h Vancouver-Burnaby, and Burnaby. 58. T h i s i n c l u d e s c o n t r o l s f o r l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e and age, which G i b b i n s f i n d most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to a l i e n a t i o n . A l l o f the s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t e s c i t e d by G i b b i n s were t e s t e d as c o n -t r o l s ; none produced s i g n i f i c a n c e r e s u l t s . 59. When c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n , the s u b j e c t i v e s o c i a l c l a s s v a r i a b l e y i e l d s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t Cramer's V o f 0.086. The e f f i c a c y and t r u s t v a r i a b l e s , which a r e c o n s t r u c t e d from a number o f i t e m s , a r e both i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o w e s t e r n a l i e n a t i o n a t a c c e p t -a b l e l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ( r = -0.274 and -0.214, r e s p e c t i v e l y , both s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s a r e 0.000). However, l i t t l e i s r e v e a l e d when e f f i c a c y and t r u s t a r e c o n t r o l l e d i n c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s of c l a s s and a l i e n a t i o n ; s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e e l i c i t e d o n l y among m i d d l e groups on e f f i c a c y ( i . e . , n e i t h e r e x t r e m e l y e f f i c a c i o u s nor e x t r e m e l y i n e f f i c a c i o u s ) , and among groups s c o r i n g '3' and '5' on a 7 p o i n t ' t r u s t ' s c a l e r a n g i n g from '0' (low t r u s t ) t o '6' ( h i g h t r u s t ) . NOTES A s i m i l a r view i s advanced i n the c o n c l u s i o n t o Simeon and E l k i n s ' Small Worlds: P r o v i n c e s and P a r t i e s i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l L i f e , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1980). The term, ' p o s i t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e ' , and the c o n c e p t o f government s e l f -i n t e r e s t from which i t d e r i v e s was f o r m u l a t e d by A l a n C a i r n s . See "The Governments and S o c i e t i e s o f Canadian F e d e r a l i s m " , Canadian  J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , X: 4, (December, 1977) f o r a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e s e p r e m i s e s , and " C o n s t i t u t i o n - M a k i n g , Government S e l f - i n t e r e s t , and the Problem o f L e g i t i m a c y i n Canada," (paper to be p u b l i s h e d i n a book t e n t a t i v e l y t i t l e d , P o l i t i c a l S u p p o r t i n  Canada: The C r i s i s Y e a r , ed. H a r o l d C l a r k e and A l l a n K o r n b e r g , f o r t h c o m i n g ) f o r more e x p l i c i t use o f t h e s e terms. S u r p r i s i n g l y few p o l l s t e r s have a c t u a l l y asked whether r e s p o n d e n t s a r e i n f a v o u r o f the west's s e p a r a t i n g from Canada. A l b e r t a i s the o n l y p r o v i n c e i n which the q u e s t i o n has been asked on a somewhat r e g u l a r b a s i s . Thus we f i n d t he f o l l o w i n g : Year S o u r c e : % o f A l b e r t a n s i n f a v o u r o f s e p a r a t i o n 1980 Canada West F o u n d a t i o n 7% 1977 C a l g a r y H e r a l d 2.7% 1974 G i b b i n s ( C a l g a r y ) 2.8% 1970 T. O l i v e r 12% 1969 D a v i d E l t o n 5% See e.g., F.W. Anderson, "The P h i l o s o p h y o f the Macpherson Royal Commission and the N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e E s s a y , " i n K.W. S t u d n i c k i - G i z b e r t , ed., I s s u e s i n X a h a d i a n  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l i c y , ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1974) and e s p . H.D. D a r l i n g , The P o l i t i c s o f F r e i g h t R a t e s , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1980). D a r l i n g ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f the 'Railway Age Ideo-l o g y ' i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the ' i d e o l o g y ' o f a l i e n a t i o n i n w e s t e r n Canada: " I t was perhaps t o have been e x p e c t e d t h a t the f a m i l i a r symptoms o f the o l d s i c k n e s s s h o u l d r e a p p e a r , namely, a new o u t b u r s t i n the o l d s t y l e on f r e i g h t r a t e s , j u s t a few y e a r s a f t e r e v e r y t h i n g was t h o u g h t t o have been s e t t l e d by the passage o f the N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t i n 1967...a r a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon today l e a v e s a wide c r e d i b i l i t y gap, which s u g g e s t s t h a t i t may not be meant to be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h i s way but r a t h e r as a r i t u a l war dance o r even a c o l l e g e y e l l " (p. 235). 93. VI) 5. See e s p e c i a l l y t h e recommendations o f : Canada. Task F o r c e on Canadian U n i t y , A F u t u r e T o g e t h e r , (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1979); Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n , Towards a New  Canada, ( M o n t r e a l : Canadian Bar F o u n d a t i o n , 1978); D a v i d K. E l t o n , e t a l . , A l t e r n a t i v e s : Towards t h e Development o f an E f f e c t i v e  F e d e r a l System f o r Canada: Amended^Report, ( C a l g a r y : Canada West F o u n d a t i o n , 1978); P a r t i L i b e r a l e du Quebec, A New Canadian  F e d e r a t i o n , ( M o n t r e a l : The Quebec L i b e r a l P a r t y , 1980). 6. Roger G i b b i n s , P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , ( T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h , 1980), c h a p t e r 1, p a s s i m . 7. See Government o f A l b e r t a , Harmony i n D i v e r s i t y : A New F e d e r a l ism  f o r Canada, ( P o s i t i o n paper on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Change, O c t o b e r 1978). 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"The O t h e r C r i s i s o f Canadian F e d e r a l ism," Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X X I I : 2 , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , pp. 188-22. . "The Study o f the P r o v i n c e s : A Review A r t i c l e , " B.C. S t u d i e s , 14.:. Summer, 1972; PP:73T82 . C o n v e r s e , P h i l i p . "The N a t u r e o f B e l i e f Systems i n Mass P u b l i c s , " i n D.A. A p t e r , e d . , I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t , New York: F r e e P r e s s , 1974. D a r l i n g , Howard D. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l i c y i n Canada: The S t r u g g l e o f I d e o l o g i e s V e r s u s R e a l i t i e s , " i n K.W. S t u d n i c k i - G i z b e r t , ed., I s s u e s i n Canadian T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l i c y , T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1974. E l k i n s , D a vid J . "The H o r i z o n t a l M o s a i c , " i n D.J. E l k i n s and R. Simeon Small W o r l d s : P r o v i n c e s and P a r t i e s i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l L i f e , T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1980. m » T h e S t r u c t u r e o f P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y Systems" i n E l k i n s and Simeon, Small Worlds... a n d R, Simeon. "A Cause i n S e a r c h o f I t s E f f e c t , o r What Does P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e E x p l a i n ? " Comparative P o l i t i c s , X I : 2 ( J a n u a r y 1979), pp. 127-44. F i n i f t e r , Ada. "Dimensions o f P o l i t i c a l A l i e n a t i o n . " American P o l i t i c a l  S c i e n c e Review, LXIV : 2 ( J u n e , 1970), pp. 398-410 G a l b r a i t h , Gordon. " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " i n D. B e l l a m y , e t a l . , e d s . , The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Systems, 3 r d e d . , T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1976. G i b b i n s , Roger. "Models o f N a t i o n a l i s m : A Case Study o f P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g i e s i n Western Canada," Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e X: 2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , pp. 341-73. . "Western A l i e n a t i o n and the A l b e r t a P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e , " i n C. C a l d a r o l a , ed., S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s i n A l b e r t a , T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1979. G i l s d o r f , R o b e r t . "Western A l i e n a t i o n , P o l i t i c a l A l i e n a t i o n , and the F e d e r a l System : S u b j e c t i v e P e r c e p t i o n s , " i n C a l d a r o l a , ed., S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s i n A l b e r t a . H i n t z e , Hedwig. " R e g i o n a l i s m " , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , X I I I ( 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 208-18. Levesque, T. and N o r r i e , K. "Overwhelming M a j o r i t i e s i n the L e g i s l a t u r e o f A l b e r t a , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , X I I : 3 (1979) pp. 452-71. Long, J.A., and Quo, F.Q. " A l b e r t a : One P a r t y Dominance," i n M. R o b i n , e d . , C a n a d i a n P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c s , 2nd e d . , S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1978. N o r r i e , Kenneth. "Some Comments on P r a i r i e Economic A l i e n a t i o n , " i n M e e k i s o n , ed., Canadian F e d e r a l i s m . . . . "Western Economic G r i e v a n c e s : An Overview w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o F r e i g n t R a t e s , " i n I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s (Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ) and Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, Workshop on t h e P o l i t i c a l Economy o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . _ and M i c h a e l P e r c y . "The Economics o f a S e p a r a t e West," i n L. P r a t t and G. 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" N a t u r a l Resource Revenues and Canadian F e d e r a l i s m : A Survey o f the I s s u e s , " Canadian P u b l i c P o l i c y , V I : (1980) Supplement, pp. 182-91. # " S t u d y i n g P u b l i c P o l i c y , " C a n adian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , IX: 4 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 548-80. and E l k i n s , D.J. " P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e s i n Canada," i n E l k i n s and Simeon, Smal1 Worlds... S m i l e y , Donald V. "Canada's P o u j a d i s t : A New Look a t S o c i a l C r e d i t , " C a n a d i a n Forum, X L I I : 500 (September 1962), pp. 121-23. S m i t h , D a v i d E. "Western P o l i t i c s and N a t i o n a l U n i t y , " i n B e r c u s o n , ed., Canada and t h e Burden o f U n i t y . t " P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e i n t h e West," i n D.J. B e r c u s o n and P.A. Buckner, eds., E a s t e r n and Western P e r s p e c t i v e s , T o r o n t o : T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1981. " T h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s " i n D. B e l l a m y , e t a l . , The P r o - v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Systems. APPENDIX 1: C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C l a s s Index V a l u e : B r i t i s h Columbia A l b e r t a * O c c u p a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l s / M a n a g e r s / T e c h n i c i a n s P r o f e s s i o n a l s / O w n e r s - M a n a g e r s 3 Income $ 25,000 + $ 25,000 + E d u c a t i o n 13 + ( y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ) U n i v e r s i t y / P o s t - g r a d u a t e / o t h e r p o s t - s e c o n d a r y O c c u p a t i o n Supervisor/Foreman/Ski 1 1ed c l e r i c a ! -s a l e s - s e r v i c e / S k i l l e d c r a f t s and t r a d e s S a l e s / C l e r i c a l / S k i l l e d 2 Income $ 15,000 - $ 24,999 $ 15,000 - $ 24,999 E d u c a t i o n 11-12 ( y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ) Some h i g h s c h o o l / F i n i s h e d h i g h s c h o o l 1 O c c u p a t i o n F a r m e r s / S e m i - s k i l l e d c l e r i c a l -s a l e s - s e r v i c e / S e m i - s k i l i e d c r a f t s and t r a d e s / U n s k i l l e d c l e r i c a l - s a l e s -s e r v i c e / U n s k i l l e d c r a f t s and t r a d e s / U n s k i l l e d l a b o u r / F a r m . l a b o u r / I n a p p r o -p r i a t e Unski11ed/Farmer/Rancher/ Housewife/Widow/Armed F o r c e s / Student/Unemployed Income $ 000 - $ 14,999 $ 000 - $ 14,999 E d u c a t i o n 0-10 ( y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g ) No f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g --Completed g r a d e s c h o o l * The B.C. o c c u p a t i o n c a t e g o r y i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f P i n e o / P o r t e r o c c u p a t i o n s c a l e s f o r both s e l f - e m p l o y e d and n o n - s e l f - e m p l o y e d r e s p o n d e n t s . The B.C. d a t a p r o v i d e s e v e r a l o c c u p a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; the P i n e o - P o r t e r s c a l e s a r e used here because t h e y a p p r o x i m a t e the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n used i n the A l b e r t a s t u d y . APPENDIX 2 A f t e r h a v i n g grouped t he O c c u p a t i o n , Income, and E d u c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s i n t h i s manner, a l l v a l u e s were summed, thus c r e a t i n g a s c a l e w i t h v a l u e s v a r y i n g from 3 to 9. These v a l u e s were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c o d e d i n t o q u i n t i l e s , r e s u l t i n g i n the f i n a l Index o f S o c i a l C l a s s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s , by c l a s s , i s as f o l l o w s : BRITISH COLUMBIA C l a s s Number R e l a t i v e Frequency 1 100 11.2% 2 302 33.7% 3 175 19.6% 4 238 26.6% 5 80 8.9% m i s s i n g 156 median = 2.76 N = 1051 V a l i d Cases = 895 ALBERTA C l a s s Number R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c y 1 54 13.0% 2 201 48.6% 3 85 20.5% 4 61 14.7% 5 13 3.1% m i s s i n g 88 median = 2.26 N = 502 V a l i d Cases = 4 1 4 

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