UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Career aspirations of upper year university students Schroeder, Marsha Lynn 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A8 S34.pdf [ 6.08MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094992.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094992-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094992-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094992-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094992-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094992-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094992-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094992-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094992.ris

Full Text

CAREER ASPIRATIONS OF UPPER YEAR UNIVERS ITY STUDENTS by MARSHA LYNN SCHROEDER B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o , 1977 A THES IS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULF ILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERS ITY OF BR IT ISH COLUMBIA N o v e m b e r , 1981 @ M a r s h a L ynn S c h r o e d e r , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of UWtiOLQC L/ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D E - 6 ( 2/79) i i A b s t r a c t One h u n d r e d and s i x f e m a l e and 53 ma le u p p e r y e a r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y o f c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o v e r e d the t o p i c s o f p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l c l o s e n e s s , s u p p o r t , and sex r o l e e n d o r s e m e n t ; m a t e r n a l e m p l o y m e n t , ' c a r e e r c o m m i t m e n t , i n f l u e n c e s on c a r e e r c h o i c e , c a r e e r v a l u e s , and d e s i r e d a d u l t r o l e c o m m i t m e n t s . M e a s u r e s o f e i g h t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were i n c l u d e d : A b a s e m e n t , A c h i e v e m e n t , A f f i l i a t i o n , A u t o n o m y , D o m i n a n c e , E n d u r a n c e , N u r t u r a n c e , and S u c c o r a n c e . The women r e s p o n d e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s b a s e d on whe the r t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e . T h r e e g r o u p s were f o r m e d : t r a d i t i o n a l women (N = 4 8 ) , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women (N=58 ) , and men. As h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e two g r o u p s o f women d i f f e r e d . More o f t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had m o t h e r s who were e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s c h i l d h o o d . The t r a d i t i o n a l women r e p o r t e d b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d , i n mak ing t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e , by a g r e a t e r number of f a c t o r s . In t e r m s o f c a r e e r r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l women more o f t e n v a l u e d b e i n g a b l e t o h e l p o t h e r s w h i l e t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women were more c o n c e r n e d w i t h s a l a r y p o t e n t i a l , f r e e d o m f r o m s u p e r v i s i o n , and j o b a v a i l a b i l i t y . D i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e two g r o u p s o f women c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e e i g h t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t measures . U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t , the t r a d i t i o n a l women s c o r e d h i g h e r on A f f i l i a t i o n and N u r t u r a n c e . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women d e s i r e d fewer c h i l d r e n than the t r a d i t i o n a l women. They r e p o r t e d b e i n g somewhat more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f u t u r e m a r i t a l r o l e s . The men s t u d i e d i n d i c a t e d more t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s than • both groups of women. Few men i n d i c a t e d w i l l i n g n e s s to l i m i t t h e i r job p a r t i c i p a t i o n to a t t e n d to c h i l d c a r e . The r e a l i s m of women's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s was d i s c u s s e d i n terms of both academic p r e p a r a t i o n and m a r i t a l r o l e demands. Changing t r e n d s i n a d u l t r o l e s f o r both sexes were c o n s i d e r e d . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems i n h e r e n t i n the s tudy of women's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and c a r e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were d i s c u s s e d a l o n g w i t h recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . i v T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e of C o n t e n t s . . . i v L i s t of T a b l e s v i Acknowledgements * x Statement of Problem 1 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 3 E x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s to women's achievement i n employment 4 I n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s to women's achievement i n employment 9 S o c i a l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h achievement 15 Background v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n c a r e e r s 20 S t u d i e s of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s 25 Summary. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . • 32. Hypotheses 36 Method. . . . . . . . . . . 39. P a r t i c i p a n t s 39 M a t e r i a l s 40 Procedure 42 Data A n a l y s i s 43 R e s u l t s . . 44 L i m i t a t i o n s of r e s e a r c h on c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s 74 D i s c u s s i o n 77 R e f e r e n c e s 84 V T a b l e s 94 A p p e n d i x A 135 A p p e n d i x B. 152 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s 1 C o n t i n u o u s b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s . . . 9 5 2 F a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s 96 3 M o t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s 97 4 C e r t a i n t y a b o u t c a r e e r p l a n s : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s 98 5 Numbers h a v i n g d i s c u s s e d c a r e e r p l a n s w i t h someone i n t h e f i e l d 99 6 P o s i t i o n o f p e r s o n w i t h whom c a r e e r p l a n s were d i s c u s s e d 100 7 P e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t s : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s 101 8 P e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t a l e n d o r s e m e n t o f sex r o l e r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s : S t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women 103 9 P e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t a l e n d o r s e m e n t o f sex r o l e r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s : . S t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t • f u n c t i o n . • c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women and men 104 10 P e r c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t a l e n d o r s e m e n t o f sex r o l e r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s 106 11 F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e : Number o f p e o p l e e n d o r s i n g e a c h c h o i c e . . . . . . . 1 08 12 Numbers o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n f l u e n c e s on c a r e e r c h o i c e : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s 110 v i i 13 M o t h e r ' s emp loyment s t a t u s .111 14 P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t m e a s u r e s : S t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women . . . 1 1 2 15 P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t m e a s u r e s : S t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women and men . . . 113 16 P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t m e a s u r e s : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s . . . . . 1 1 4 17 C a r e e r r e l a t e d v a l u e s : Number o f p e o p l e e n d o r s i n g e a c h c h o i c e . . . . . . 116 18 M a r r i a g e r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s 117 19 D e s i r e d emp loyment s t a t u s a t s i x c h i l d age p e r i o d s . 1 1 9 20 F a m i l y r e l a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : S t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women 121 21 F a m i l y r e l a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : S t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l a n d " n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women and men 123 22 F a m i l y • r e l a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s . . . . 125 23 M a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e c o u r s e s and u n i v e r s i t y a v e r a g e : M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number o f r e s p o n d e n t s 128 24 P l a n s f o l l o w i n g d e g r e e c o m p l e t i o n . . . . . . 1 2 9 25 P l a n s f o r 5 y e a r s a f t e r d e g r e e c o m p l e t i o n 130 26 P l a n s f o r 10 y e a r s a f t e r d e g r e e c o m p l e t i o n 131 v i i i 27 P l a n s f o r 20 y e a r s a f t e r degree c o m p l e t i o n 132 28 P l a n s f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . . . 1 3.3 29 Importance of c a r e e r v e r s u s f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and number of r e s p o n d e n t s . . . 134 ix Ac knowledqements I would l i k e to thank the members of my committee f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I would l i k e to thank my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . Susan B u t t , f o r her a d v i c e and encouragement throughout the e x e c u t i o n of t h i s p r o j e c t . I would l i k e to thank D r . T a n n i s W i l l i a m s f o r her expert a s s i s t a n c e i n the development of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f o r her h e l p f u l comments. I a l s o wish to express my g r a t i t u d e to the l a t e D r . Edro S i g n o r i f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of t h i s p r o j e c t and f o r h i s f r e e l y g i v e n encouragement. F u r t h e r , I would l i k e to thank D r . Ken C r a i g f o r s e r v i n g on my committee on such s h o r t n o t i c e . F i n a l l y , I wish to express my thanks to K l a u s Schroeder f o r a s s i s t i n g w i t h the many t e d i o u s , t ime consuming t a s k s and a l s o f o r h i s encouragement and a d v i c e throughout t h e . p r o j e c t . . 1 S t a t e m e n t o f P r o b l e m U n t i l r e c e n t l y a young woman c o u l d e x p e c t t o embark upon a f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e l i f e c o u r s e . I t was g e n e r a l l y a ssumed t h a t she w o u l d , upon c o m p l e t i o n o f h e r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , e n t e r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d — u n t i l m a r r i a g e o r t h e i m p e n d i n g b i r t h o f h e r f i r s t c h i l d - - a n d t h e n w i t h d r a w f r o m employment f o r an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d (Douvan & A d e l s o n , 1 9 6 6 ) . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n o f a c a r e e r a s a homemaker o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n a young woman e i t h e r f a i l i n g t o make any s u b s t a n t i a l c a r e e r p l a n s o r i n h e r c h o o s i n g an o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r e d o m i n a t e d . Many o f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h a v i n g a s h o r t p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d ( i . e . i n t e r m s o f p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n ) and as b e i n g e a s i l y l e f t and r e e n t e r e d . Many .women have p r e f e r r e d . e m p l o y m e n t i n s e r v i c e , and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e s e o f f e r r e g u l a r w o r k i n g h o u r s and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t e m p o r a r i l y d i s c o n t i n u i n g emp loyment ( t o a t t e n d t o c h i l d r e a r i n g , f o r e x a m p l e ) w i t h o u t s e v e r e l y j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e c h a n c e o f r e t u r n i n g t o a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . Women i n t h e s e f i e . l d s . a re a l s o a f f o r d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y . T h i s p e r m i t s them t o r e l o c a t e w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d s w i t h o u t t h r e a t e n i n g t h e i r emp loyment s t a t u s ( A g a s s i , 1 9 7 7 ) . P a r t t i m e and t e m p o r a r y emp loyment a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s e f i e l d s , p r o v i d i n g women w i t h more t i m e t o s p e n d on home and c h i l d c a r e 2 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Women a r e e n t e r i n g t h e f u l l t i m e l a b o u r f o r c e i n r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g numbers ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1980) and more women a r e p u r s u i n g u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ; f ewe r young women a r e p u r s u i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e and employment p l a n . In t he p a s t , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have been i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s be tween e m p l o y e d and n o n e m p l o y e d women. R e c e n t t r e n d s show a s h i f t i n f o c u s t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t e d women s t i l l show a p r e f e r e n c e f o r emp loyment i n a r e a s w h i c h have been f e m a l e d o m i n a t e d , f o r e x a m p l e n u r s i n g , e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l w o r k , and 1 i b r a r i a n s h i p . T h e s e w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e s . H o w e v e r , an i n c r e a s i n g number o f women a r e s e e k i n g the c h a l l e n g e and p o t e n t i a l upward m o b i l i t y o f f e r e d by c a r e e r s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y have been m a s c u l i n e d o m a i n s . Such f i e l d s a s l a w , management , m e d i c i n e , and s c i e n c e r e q u i r e b o t h l o n g t e r m commitment and p e r s i s t e n t d e d i c a t i o n . They o f t e n f e a t u r e l o n g and e r r a t i c w o r k i n g h o u r s w h i c h p r e c l u d e p a r t t i m e p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( R o s s i , 1972) and c a r e e r d i s r u p t i o n i s u s u a l l y d e t r i m e n t a l t o a d v a n c e m e n t ( W h i t e , 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e s e c a r e e r s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a f t e r a s n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o e x a m i n e some o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h may be r e l a t e d t o women 's c h o i c e s o f e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . 3 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e For some time the q u e s t i o n has been r a i s e d as to why so few women have chosen to use t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i n c a r e e r s and why, i n t u r n , so few women have a t t a i n e d s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l prominence through t h e i r endeavours ( T y l e r , 1965). G i v e n the s i m i l a r i t y of the sexes i n terms of g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e (Maccoby & J a c k l i n , 1974, p . 65) i t appears t h a t women are not hampered by l a c k of a b i l i t y . Other f a c t o r s seem to be o p e r a t i n g which have d i s c o u r a g e d or p r e v e n t e d women from a s p i r i n g to and a c h i e v i n g i n areas i n which they c o u l d a t t a i n prominence . D e s p i t e h a v i n g been g r a n t e d access to graduate and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e l a t i v e l y few women pursue many of these programmes (Lenney, 1977). 0''.Deary (1974) has sugges ted that g i r l s and women are h i n d e r e d by b a r r i e r s , . both . e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l , which , b l o c k them from n o n t r a d i t i o n a l employment. The e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s are c o m p r i s e d of s t e r e o t y p e s of women i n r e l a t i o n to employment and employment r o l e s . The i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s a re those f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to women's own b e l i e f s and s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s . Both the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s w i l l be examined i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 4 1. E x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t o women 's a c h i e v e m e n t i n employment E x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s may b l o c k women 's e n t r y t o c a r e e r s , o r l i m i t t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a d v a n c e m e n t . In some c a s e s women may be aware o f t h e s e b a r r i e r s p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g , a c a r e e r . In o t h e r s , women may no t be aware o f t h e s e b a r r i e r s u n t i l t h e y e n t e r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . B o t h t y p e s o f e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e s on i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s i t must be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g c a r e e r p l a n s . R e s e a r c h on sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s (Bern, 1974; B r o v e r m a n , V o g e l , B r o v e r m a n , C l a r . k s o n , & R o s e n k r a n t z , 1972) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t women a r e s een by members o f s o c i e t y a s b e i n g warm, n u r t u r a n t , and e m o t i o n a l l y e x p r e s s i v e . Men a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be a c h i e v i n g , i n d e p e n d e n t , and c o m p e t e n t . A s . O ' L e a r y ..(1974) n o t e d , the . i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l who i s s een a s b e i n g . s u i t e d t o p o s i t i o n s o f power a r e m a s c u l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n o t f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M o r e o v e r , men who a r e i n p o s i t i o n s t o p r o m o t e women p e r c e i v e them as b e i n g u n s u i t e d f o r s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s b e c a u s e o f b o t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and the n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t h e y wou ld e v o k e i n t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s . Women a r e h i n d e r e d by s o c i e t a l b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e i r commitment t o employment ( B i l e s & P r y a t e l , 1978 ; O ' L e a r y , 1 9 7 4 ) . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t women a r e l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t s a l a r y , c h a l l e n g e , and c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t and a r e more 5 c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s o c i o e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r emp loyment s i t u a t i o n s . A number o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t women a r e p e r c e i v e d i n ways t h a t a r e d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r a d v a n c e m e n t . B a s s , K r u s e l l , and A l e x a n d e r (1971) f o u n d t h a t women were seen a s b e i n g c a p a b l e , e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e w o r k e r s by ma le manage r s bu t t h e y were a l s o s een t o l a c k s u p e r v i s o r y p o t e n t i a l . The m a n a g e r s f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t women 's f a m i l y commi tmen t s s h o u l d be t h e i r h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y and t h a t women s h o u l d d e f e r t o men i n e x c h a n g e f o r b e i n g a f f o r d e d c h i v a l r o u s t r e a t m e n t . M a l e m a n a g e r s , i n a s t u d y by Rosen and J e r d e e ( 1 9 7 8 ) , v i e w e d ma le e m p l o y e e s as b e i n g more d e p e n d a b l e and p r o m o t a b l e t han women b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , a p t i t u d e s , a t t i t u d e s , and t e m p e r a m e n t s . F e m a l e e m p l o y e e s were v i e w e d as h a v i n g m a i n l y c l e r i c a l s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s a s w e l l a s p o s s e s s i n g s u c h u n d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s a s j e a l o u s y and t i m i d i t y w h i c h s e r v e t o make them u n p r o m o t a b l e . C e c i l , P a u l , and O l i n s (1973) f o u n d t h a t a ma le w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r ( p o s i t i o n u n s p e c i f i e d ) was j u d g e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e i f he p o s s e s s e d s u c h e x e c u t i v e q u a l i t i e s as a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and d e c i s i v e n e s s . A f e m a l e w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r , h o w e v e r , was j u d g e d on t h e b a s i s o f h e r c l e r i c a l s k i l l s , p o i s e , and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . M a n a g e r s do n o t v i ew women e m p l o y e e s a s p o t e n t i a l e x e c u t i v e s . They see women a s f u l f i l l i n g , a t l e a s t i n b u s i n e s s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e c l e r i c a l o r s u p p o r t 6 r o l e s . Women are seen as l a c k i n g the n e c e s s a r y p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s f o r management. T h i s suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of a b a r r i e r of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the h i r i n g of women i n at l e a s t one n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d . Women's chances of success may be d i m i n i s h e d by the a t t i t u d e s of men who are i n p o s i t i o n s of h i r i n g and promoting s t a f f . D i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s e x i s t c o n c e r n i n g male and. female managers' f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s . In a study by Rosen, J e r d e e , and P r e s t w i c h (1975) male managers r a t e d an h y p o t h e t i c a l female s u p e r v i s o r as b e i n g l e s s s u i t e d than an h y p o t h e t i c a l male f o r a p o s i t i o n that i n v o l v e d t r a v e l . In p r o p o s i n g s o l u t i o n s to s u p e r v i s o r s ' f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s male managers more o f t e n expec ted women than men to conform to t h e i r s p o u s e ' s demands. A study by B a r t o l and B u t t e r f i e l d (1976) s i m i l a r l y demonstra ted the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s f o r j u d g i n g male and female s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l . An h y p o t h e t i c a l male manager was seen as more e f f e c t i v e • than a female when he was a c t i v e i n i n i t i a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the work f o r h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s . The woman was judged to be a more e f f e c t i v e manager when her management s t y l e s t r e s s e d concern f o r her s u b o r d i n a t e s ' w e l l b e i n g . . A g a i n , the s u p p o s i t i o n i s ' t h a t women are expected to behave i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the female s t e r e o t y p e by e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r c o n c e r n s f o r the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s . T h i s runs c o n t r a r y to the n o t i o n of t h e - t o u g h , independent manager. These s t u d i e s do not i n d i c a t e whether women 7 experience, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n r e c r u i t m e n t or " p r o m o t i o n ; they do i n d i c a t e that men view women d i f f e r e n t l y than they do men as employees . The assumptions t h a t men h o l d can r e a d i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s that many women p l a y i n the l a b o u r f o r c e and i n s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . T e r b o r g and I l g e n (1975) a d d r e s s e d the q u e s t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h i n b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s by h a v i n g male b u s i n e s s s t u d e n t s e v a l u a t e the resume and work performance of an h y p o t h e t i c a l male or female employee. They found that the" d e c i s i o n to h i r e was made i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the a p p l i c a n t ' s gender but that the i n i t i a l s a l a r y recommendation was lower f o r the woman a p p l i c a n t . The recommended s a l a r y i n c r e a s e f o l l o w i n g one y e a r ' s employment f a i l e d to e l i m i n a t e t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y . There .was a l s o . s o m e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the woman was more o f t e n g i v e n r o u t i n e work ass ignments than was the man. -Terborg and I l g e n suggested t h a t . these s u b t l e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t a c t i c s serve to d i s c o u r a g e women from e n t e r i n g or a s p i r i n g to management p o s i t i o n s . Two f i e l d s t u d i e s of the r o l e of women i n p r e d o m i n a n t l y male work groups (Frank & K a t c h e r , 1 977; Wolman & F r a n k , 1975) suggest t h a t women may a l s o f a c e o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The women i n these s t u d i e s were not t r e a t e d as p a r t of t h e i r work team a n d , f o r the most p a r t , were i g n o r e d . T h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s r a t e d them as l a c k i n g i n task o r i e n t a t i o n . Many of these women r e a c t e d to t h i s 8 o v e r t r e j e c t i o n w i t h d e p r e s s i o n o r a n x i e t y o v e r t h e i r f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e e q u a l s t a t u s . T h i s t y p e o f r e a c t i o n f rom men may d i s c o u r a g e women f r o m a s p i r i n g t o ma le d o m i n a t e d f i e l d s . Women may be d i s c o u r a g e d f r o m p u r s u i n g c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s by n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s d i s p l a y e d by. men w i t h whom t h e y i n t e r a c t s o c i a l l y . In an a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t u d y , P i n e s (1976) f o u n d t h a t c o l l e g e men who v i e w e d a v i d e o t a p e d c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a young woman r a t e d h e r as more i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y a t t r a c t i v e when she e x p r e s s e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e r o l e s o f w i f e and mothe r t h a n when she i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a f u l l t i m e a c a d e m i c c a r e e r . Komarovsky (1972) s i m i l a r l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a l t h o u g h male s t u d e n t s a p p r o v e d o f women a s s u m i n g b r o a d e r s o c i a l r o l e s ( i n c l u d i n g f u l l t i m e c a r e e r s ) t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o m a r r y t r a d i t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e , n u r t u r a n t women. . . . K a n t e r (1977) has e m p h a s i z e d t h a t s o c i e t y v i e w s women a s h a v i n g . m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d o m e s t i c m a i n t e n a n c e o f t he f a m i l y . F a m i l y and employment a r e seen as s e p a r a t e d o m a i n s f o r men. F o r women t h e s e d o m a i n s a r e s een as i n t e r c o n n e c t e d . Women a r e e x p e c t e d t o g i v e t h e i r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s h i g h e r p r i o r i t y , a c c o m m o d a t i n g emp loyment i n o t h e r a v a i l a b l e h o u r s . T h i s v i ew o f women c a n a f f e c t t h e t y p e s o f emp loyment v i e w e d a s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e m . P o s i t i o n s t h a t demand t r a v e l o r i r r e g u l a r h o u r s may be s e e n as i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h women 's f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Women may t h u s n o t . b e o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s 9 o r g i v e n p r o m o t i o n s i n f i e l d s where c a r e e r demands wou ld c o n f l i c t w i t h f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e t h u s s u p p o r t s t he c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s d i s c o u r a g i n g women f r o m a s p i r i n g t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r r o l e s . I t does seem u n r e a l i s t i c t o e x p e c t t h a t members o f s o c i e t y wou ld v i ew women a s i d e a l e x e c u t i v e s o r l e a d e r s when most o f them have e x p e r i e n c e d women l a r g e l y i n s u p p o r t i v e r o l e s . I t m i g h t be q u e s t i o n e d how i m p o r t a n t t h e v i e w s o f men a r e i n s h a p i n g women 's f u t u r e s and t o what e x t e n t women t h e m s e l v e s r e j e c t h i g h ' p r e s t i g e , h i g h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . I t t h e r e f o r e i s r e l e v a n t t o examine some of t h e i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t h a t may b l o c k women's s t r i v i n g s t o w a r d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . 2. I n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t o women 's employment a c h i e v e m e n t W h i l e . , i t seems o b v i o u s t h a t women f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r p a t h s t h a n men i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h i s r e s u l t s s o l e l y f r o m e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s . - The g r e a t e s t b a r r i e r t o women seems t o be t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f c o m b i n i n g t h e demands o f a c a r e e r w i t h t h o s e o f m a r r i a g e and m o t h e r h o o d . H e n n i g and J a r d i m (1977) have a s s e r t e d t h a t i t i s t h e r o l e o f f u t u r e o t h e r s ( h u s b a n d and c h i l d r e n ) i n women 's l i v e s t h a t c a u s e s t h e p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n . and p a s s i v i t y o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f w o m e n ' s ' c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . S t u d i e s ( M e i s s n e r , H u m p h r e y s , M e i s , & S c h e u , 1975 ; W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , & H a r r i s o n , 1980) i n d i c a t e t h a t men a r e no t hampered i n t h e i r c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t by m a r r i a g e and 10 c h i l d r e n . Women are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of home and c h i l d c a r e d u t i e s whether they have c a r e e r s or n o t . As K i p n i s (1976) has s u g g e s t e d , the e a r l y age at which m a r r i a g e and c h i l d b e a r i n g t y p i c a l l y occur p r e v e n t s women from t r a i n i n g f o r and e s t a b l i s h i n g c a r e e r s . ' Women who choose to pursue c a r e e r s may f e e l i t n e c e s s a r y to postpone or forego c h i l d b e a r i n g . Women who d e s i r e c h i l d r e n may r e s t r i c t t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . Rand and M i l l e r (1972) found that g i r l s i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l were aware of the c o n f l i c t s i n h e r e n t i n h a v i n g c h i l d r e n and a c a r e e r . Spence (1974), used the f e a r of s u c c e s s paradigm w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and found t h a t a l t h o u g h the i n c i d e n c e of n e g a t i v e themes was g e n e r a l l y low, the g r e a t e s t number of n e g a t i v e s t o r i e s was w r i t t e n i n response to a m a r r i e d woman c u e ; the s t o r i e s c e n t e r i n g on c o n f l i c t s between .home and c a r e e r . Rather than i n d i c a t i n g support f o r H o r n e r ' s (1972) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t women have an i n t e r n a l mot ive to a v o i d s u c c e s s , these r e s u l t s suggest tha t young women are aware of the r e a l i t y of p o s s i b l e home-career c o n f l i c t s . In examining the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to c a r e e r b a r r i e r s f a c e d by women, T e r b o r g (1977) found that employed women o f t e n r e p o r t e d s t r a i n s due to c o n f l i c t s between employment and t h e i r f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The ex tent to which c o n c e r n s about the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of home and c h i l d r e a r i n g f i g u r e i n young women's c a r e e r c h o i c e s was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the p r e s e n t 11 s t u d y . B e c a u s e t h e y p e r c e i v e men t o be i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e i r f u t u r e h a p p i n e s s , t h e a t t i t u d e s women b e l i e v e men h o l d may be as i m p o r t a n t i n s h a p i n g women 's f u t u r e s a s t h e a t t i t u d e s t h a t men a c t u a l l y h o l d . Ma t thews and T i edman (1964) f o u n d t h a t t h e y o u n g women t h e y q u e s t i o n e d b e l i e v e d t h a t men h o l d n e g a t i v e v i e w s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o m p e t e n t women. T h e s e women t h e r e f o r e c h o s e , f o r t h e most p a r t , t o r e j e c t c a r e e r s i n o r d e r t o g a i n ma le e s t e e m . A t h a n a s s i a d e s (1977) f o u n d t h a t w h i l e women d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p r i v a t e s e l v e s a s s e l f - c e n t r e d and s t a b l e t h e y d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p u b l i c s e l v e s as more s o c i a l and p e r s o n a b l e . W h i l e t h i s may no t be a r e s u l t o f women 's r e l a t i o n s w i t h men i t seems t o r e f l e c t t h e - r o l e c o n f l i c t s t h a t women f a c e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a d o p t a c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n . . A n o t h e r b a r r i e r t o women a s p i r i n g t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s i s t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f f e m a l e p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e -m o d e l s ( O ' L e a r y , 1 9 7 4 ) . As Douvan (1976) has s u g g e s t e d , a c t i v e , m a r r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l women d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of c o m b i n i n g c a r e e r and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s u c c e s s f u l l y . H a p p y , s i n g l e c a r e e r women c a n s e r v e t o d i s p e l t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e u n f u l f i l l e d s p i n s t e r w h i c h d e f l e c t s young women f r o m j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e i r m a r r i a g e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h s t r o n g commi tmen t s t o s t u d y a n d c a r e e r . R o l e m o d e l s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t women c a n s u c c e e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . Douvan n o t e d t h a t 12 women w i t h s t r o n g c a r e e r commitments o f t e n had female r o l e models (such as c h i l d h o o d h e r o i n e s or female f a c u l t y members). A l m q u i s t and A n g r i s t (1971) found that young c o l l e g e women w i t h c a r e e r commitments were more o f t e n i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s by t e a c h e r s and women they had observed at work than were women whose p l a n s were u n c e r t a i n or who were p r e d o m i n a n t l y o r i e n t e d toward m a r r i a g e . The p o s s i b l e impact of r o l e models on n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Another approach to the q u e s t i o n of women's apparent underachievement has been p r o v i d e d by Lenney (1977) . On the b a s i s of an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e review she c o n c l u d e d that women f r e q u e n t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e both t h e i r performance and t h e i r a b i l i t y to s u c c e e d . T h i s may l e a d to l e s s than maximum performance and a decrease i n i n i t i a t i v e . T h i s u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n i s most apparent i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which the s o c i a l environment i s s a l i e n t ( e . g . i n c o m p e t i t i o n or where s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r e s e n t ) , where the task i s seen as sex r o l e i n a p p r o p r i a t e , or where feedback about the woman's performance i s absent or e q u i v o c a l . A l l of these •condit ions are o f t e n p r e s e n t i n academic and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . To some e x t e n t , women may be h a n d i c a p p e d because they p e r c e i v e themselves as i n c o m p e t e n t . O ' L e a r y (1974) has suggested that women are m o t i v a t e d by f e a r of f a i l u r e . T h i s causes them_ to s e l e c t e a s i l y 13 a t t a i n a b l e g o a l s r a t h e r t h a n t o r i s k f a i l u r e by s t r i v i n g t o r e a c h more d i f f i c u l t g o a l s . H e n n i g and J a r d i m (1977) have a s s e r t e d t h a t women a r e o v e r l y c a u t i o u s and a v o i d r i s k t a k i n g b e c a u s e t h e y see r i s k a s i m p l y i n g d a n g e r r a t h e r t h a n c h a l l e n g e . They s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e no t o n l y k e e p s women f r o m s t r i v i n g t o w a r d d i f f i c u l t g o a l s bu t a l s o makes them c a u t i o u s a b o u t s t r i v i n g f o r a d v a n c e m e n t and g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e j o b . In sum, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t women 's u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n emp loyment i s no t s i m p l y a f u n c t i o n o f e x c l u s i o n by m a l e s bu t i s a l s o a p r o d u c t o f women 's b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e i r own w o r t h , t h e v a l u e o f a c h i e v e m e n t , and t h e a d u l t r o l e s t h e y d e s i r e (o r a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o a s s u m e ) . W h i l e some a r g u e t h a t women u n d e r a c h i e v e , i t h a s a l s o been a r g u e d ( S t e i n & B a i l e y , 1973) t h a t women, r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g d e f l e c t e d f r o m a c h i e v e m e n t , a r e c h a n n e l l e d i n t o a c h i e v i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t . a r e n o t v a l u e d when j u d g e d by m a s c u l i n e s t a n d a r d s . F o r e x a m p l e , women a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o w a r d t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a f f i l i a t i o n . T h u s f o r women s u c c e s s m i g h t c o n s i s t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Such b e h a v i o u r i s t y p i c a l l y v i e w e d as a f f i l i a t i v e i n m o t i v e and n o t a s a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n . K i p n i s (1974) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t m e n ' s a c h i e v e m e n t b e h a v i o u r s a r e o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d and e n h a n c e d t h r o u g h t h e i r d e a l i n g ' s w i t h l a r g e numbers o f p e r s o n s (as i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s ) . Women o f t e n a c h i e v e i n more s o l i t a r y 1 4 p u r s u i t s ( e . g . w r i t i n g ) , b e i n g more concerned w i t h the i n t r i n s i c worth of the task than w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n . T h i s , she s u g g e s t e d , l i m i t s the e v a l u a t i o n of women's achievement through such c r i t e r i a as promot ions and s a l a r y . K i p n i s a l s o noted that women have, throughout h i s t o r y , a c c o m p l i s h e d a great d e a l as a r e s u l t of t h e i r v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s ( e . g . fund r a i s i n g ) i n such f i e l d s as r e l i g i o n , the a r t s , and e d u c a t i o n . These a c h i e v e m e n t s , a g a i n , go l a r g e l y u n r e c o g n i z e d due to the absence of monetary i n c e n t i v e s . Women face a v a r i e t y of b a r r i e r s b l o c k i n g t h e i r a c c e s s to h i g h s t a t u s p r o f e s s i o n s . Some of these a r e - the p r o d u c t s of p r e j u d i c e or b e l i e f s about women's p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s . Other b a r r i e r s are the p r o d u c t s of the r o l e s women are s o c i a l i z e d to a s s u m e . . . Women are s o c i a l i z e d ; to , be c o n c e r n e d about o t h e r s , h e l p f u l , and n u r t u r a n t ; they tend not t o b e . s o c i a l i z e d to a s s e r t i v e n e s s , independence , or dominance . Women are a l s o s o c i a l i z e d to f i l l the r o l e s of w i f e and mother, perhaps at the expense of p l a n n i n g an independent e x i s t e n c e . Most women a l s o a n t i c i p a t e and d e s i r e the t r a d i t i o n a l m a r i t a l r o l e which c r e a t e s ambivalence about c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . A young women w i l l ask h e r s e l f i f she i s w i l l i n g to forego m a r r i a g e and c h i l d b e a r i n g i n order to d e d i c a t e her time and e n e r g i e s to p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Women's and men's c a r e e r paths d i f f e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Women are expec ted to assume the 15 domest ic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . If they pursue c a r e e r s they are f a c e d w i t h two j o b s , whereas men are a b l e to focus more of t h e i r time on c a r e e r c o n c e r n s ( e . g . W i l l i a m s et a l . , 1980). 3. S o c i a l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h achievement D e s p i t e the e x i s t e n c e of b a r r i e r s that thwart or d i s c o u r a g e many women from a s p i r i n g to p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s , some women, a l b e i t a m i n o r i t y , have pursued c a r e e r paths t h a t are c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t from the t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n e l i f e p l a n . As w i l l be s e e n , these women can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from o t h e r s by a number of f a c t o r s which a r e , to a g r e a t e x t e n t , r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . These women are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t t i t u d e s and f u t u r e p l a n s t h a t separa te them from other women. I t has been sugges ted t h a t boys are s o c i a l i z e d to be independent and g i r l s are s o c i a l i z e d to be dependent and r e l i a n t upon o t h e r s . . Rosen and A n e s h e n s e l (1976) have h y p o t h e s i z e d that g i r l s are s o c i a l i z e d to conform to the wishes of o t h e r s as p a r t of t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f e m i n i n e domest ic r o l e . These a u t h o r s suggest t h a t women are v i c t i m s of the "chameleon syndrome" which causes them to adapt to a h o s t i l e environment through s p e c i f i c sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s . These b e h a v i o u r s c e n t r e o n : s e n s i t i v i t y to or concerns f o r o t h e r s ' e m o t i o n s , c o m p l i a n c e or the w i l l i n g n e s s to p l a c e the needs of o t h e r s b e f o r e o n e ' s own, and an e x a g g e r a t e d c o n c e r n w i t h t h e i r own a p p e a r a n c e . 1 6 Some women i n Rosen and A n e s h e n s e l ' s s tudy were h i g h l y aware of these sex r o l e r e q u i r e m e n t s and p e r c e i v e d that n e g a t i v e consequences would r e s u l t from t h e i r v i o l a t i o n . These women a v o i d e d behaving i n a manner that would m a n i f e s t the primacy of t h e i r own independent needs . Rosen and Aneshertsel s t a t e t h a t the "chameleon syndrome" i s a p r o d u c t of c l o s e p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and s t r e s s on p o p u l a r i t y . Through a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s tudy they found that women who r e p o r t e d behaving i n a " c h a m e l e o n - l i k e " way a l s o r e p o r t e d h a v i n g had r e s t r i c t i v e p a r e n t s who emphasized the importance of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i l e d i s c o u r a g i n g a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r . These women r e p o r t e d a h i g h degree of domestic o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s when compared to women who d i d not endorse "chameleon syndrome" b e h a v i o u r s . Wals ted (1978).- has suggested t h a t women, are s o c i a l i z e d to accept the s u b o r d i n a t e s t a t u s of b e i n g the " o t h e r " i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h men. Women., p a r t i c - u l a r l y i n a d u l t h o o d , d e f e r to men (employers , f a t h e r s , h u s b a n d s ) . Rather than a s s e r t themselves they use a l t r u i s m toward men as a compensatory mechanism f o r t h e i r p o w e r l e s s n e s s . G i r l s , she h y p o t h e s i z e d , view t h e i r mothers i n t h i s " a l t r u i s t i c o t h e r o r i e n t a t i o n " w h i l e a l s o e x p e r i e n c i n g the encouragement of t h e i r f a t h e r s to behave i n a s i m i l a r l y d e f e r e n t i a l manner. W a l s t e d found that m a r r i e d women who d e s c r i b e d themselves as b e i n g low i n " a l t r u i s t i c o ther o r i e n t a t i o n " were more o f t e n 17 s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and had more e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h o s e who d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g h i g h i n " a l t r u i s t i c o t h e r o r i e n t a t i o n " . The low g r o u p a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s had e n c o u r a g e d g e n d e r a t y p i c a l b e h a v i o u r s and t h a t b o t h p a r e n t s s t r e s s e d a c h i e v e m e n t . The women who r e p o r t e d b e h a v i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h t he h i g h " a l t r u i s t i c o t h e r o r i e n t a t i o n " r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s had been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i r f e m i n i n e d e v e l o p m e n t . They were aware o f t h e i r f a t h e r s ' c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e i r s e x u a l c o n d u c t d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . B o t h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s s t r e s s t h a t many g i r l s become aware o f demands p l a c e d on them t o mo ld t h e i r l i v e s , no t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own i n c l i n a t i o n s , bu t a c c o r d i n g t o t he demand t h a t t h e y be r e a c t i v e t o t h e needs o r w i s h e s o f o t h e r s . S u c h g i r l s may grow up d e r i v i n g g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e f r o m a n t i c i p a t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g t h e needs o f o t h e r s t h a n f r o m s t r i v i n g t o d e v e l o p c o m p e t e n c i e s w h i c h l e a d t o i n d e p e n d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n may r e s u l t i n women p r e f e r r i n g t o p r e p a r e f o r an o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e t h a t s t r e s s e s s e r v i n g o t h e r s e ven when t h e y do n o t p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o a d o m e s t i c f u t u r e . P a r e n t a l e n d o r s e m e n t o f n o n t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s may be r e l a t e d t o women 's c h o i c e o f n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . T h i s w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n t he p r e s e n t s t u d y . H e i l b r u n ' s ( 1 9 7 3 , 1976) r e s e a r c h has s u g g e s t e d t h a t 18 g i r l s may a c q u i r e the t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e , n o n a c h i e v i n g sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n as a r e s u l t of i d e n t i f y i n g e i t h e r w i t h t h e i r mothers or t h e i r f a t h e r s . He s t r e s s e d that g i r l s may d e r i v e v i c a r i o u s s a t i s f a c t i o n from o b s e r v i n g the accomplishments of t h e i r f a t h e r s r a t h e r than s t r i v i n g to emulate them. T h i s would suggest that women may d e r i v e as much s a t i s f a c t i o n from o c c u p y i n g a p o s i t i o n i n which they can observe the power and success of men ( e . g . husbands, f a t h e r s , or coworkers) as they would from a c h i e v i n g t h e i r own s u c c e s s e s . Boys who i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s are h y p o t h e s i z e d by H e i l b r u n to emulate t h e i r f a t h e r s ' a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s r e s u l t s because achievement i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the m a s c u l i n e r o l e . I t has been i m p l i e d that g i r l s are s o c i a l i z e d to be dependent , to v a l u e maintenance of c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and. to., be r e s p o n s i v e to the needs of o t h e r s . Whi le these may, be d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of w i f e and mother they may : be h i n d r a n c e s to a c h i e v i n g c a r e e r success ( e . g . P r a t h e r , 1971). Moderate m a t e r n a l warmth d u r i n g a g i r l ' s c h i l d h o o d has been r e l a t e d to achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n a d u l t h o o d . A l e s s e r degree of n u r t u r a n c e tends to f o s t e r independence (Manley , 1977). Kagan and Moss (1962), i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , found that m a t e r n a l p r o t e c t i v e n e s s d u r i n g a f e m a l e ' s c h i l d h o o d c o r r e l a t e d w i t h : c o n f o r m i t y , a n x i e t y about s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and w i t h d r a w l from s t r e s s f u l 19 s i t u a t i o n s i n l a t e r l i f e . They a l s o n o t e d t h a t g i r l s who p e r f o r m e d w e l l on p r o b l e m s r e q u i r i n g c o m p l e x r e a s o n i n g t e n d e d t o be n o n t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . C r a n d a l l and B a t t l e ( 1 9 7 0 ) , i n a n o t h e r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , f o u n d t h a t g i r l s who were h i g h on i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t - ( i . e . s t r i v i n g t o e n h a n c e i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s f o r i n t r i n s i c r e w a r d ) had r e c e i v e d a r e l a t i v e l y low d e g r e e o f p r o t e c t i v e n e s s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w h i l e r e c e i v i n g a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o a c h i e v e f r o m t h e i r m o t h e r s . In a d u l t h o o d t h e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r i v e r s were l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t : f u l f i l l i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n e r o l e , h a v i n g s e c u r e e m p l o y m e n t , o r h o l d i n g s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t h a n were o t h e r women. H o f f m a n ' s (1972) r e v i e w o f a l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t g i r l s r e c e i v e i n a d e q u a t e i n d e p e n d e n c e t r a i n i n g d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . H o f f m a n a s s e r t s t h a t g i r l s r e c e i v e l e s s p r e s s u r e t h a n b o y s t o e s t a b l i s h a s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y f r o m t h e i r m o t h e r . G i r l s ' a c h i e v e m e n t s t r i v i n g s a r e s een a s m o t i v a t e d by a need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a n e e d f o r m a s t e r y , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h b o y s . H o f f m a n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n i n t e r f e r e s w i t h a d u l t a c h i e v e m e n t s t r i v i n g s . The d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s may t a k e p r i o r i t y o v e r t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f e x c e l l e n c e ( i n d e b a t e , f o r e x a m p l e ) f o r women. C h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d e p e n d e n c y i n g i r l s a r e h y p o t h e s i z e d by H o f f m a n t o l e a d t o 20 l e s s c o n f i d e n c e . i n a b i l i t y and low performance e x p e c t a t i o n s . A d u l t achievement environments (employment and post secondary e d u c a t i o n ) do not o f f e r many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a f f i l i a t i o n and women may not demonstrate maximum p e r f o r m a n c e . In summary, achievement s t r i v i n g i n women i s to some extent the p r o d u c t of a c h i l d r e a r i n g s t y l e that p e r m i t s the young g i r l to e x p l o r e and d e v e l o p her i n t e r e s t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . However, w h i l e achievement m o t i v a t i o n may be n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r e e r success i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t . A woman may s a t i s f y her achievement needs through o ther avenues , such as h o b b i e s or v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e . These would not be c o n s i d e r e d to be w i t h i n the realm of c a r e e r a c h i e v e m e n t . 4. Background v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h achievement  m o t i v a t i o n i n c a r e e r s What f a c t o r s h e l p to guide women who are m o t i v a t e d to a c h i e v e to a s p i r e to c a r e e r s ? Hennig and J a r d i m :(1-977) r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y examined the backgrounds of f i f t y s u c c e s s f u l women e x e c u t i v e s and a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t they d i f f e r e d i n s e v e r a l ways from other employed women. The s u c c e s s f u l women were a l l e i t h e r f i r s t born or o n l y c h i l d r e n and none had b r o t h e r s . They t y p i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d themselves as b e i n g c l o s e to t h e i r f a t h e r s w h i l e r e j e c t i n g the f e m i n i n e l i f e s t y l e which t h e i r mothers t y p i f i e d . They i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r male companionship and m a s c u l i n e a c t i v i t i e s throughout t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s o f t e n 21 began w i t h f r e q u e n t , c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s . These women, who were born i n the e a r l y p a r t of the c e n t u r y , were a p p a r e n t l y s o c i a l i z e d i n t o a more m a s c u l i n e mode or r o l e than were most of t h e i r p e e r s . They were encouraged to e x p l o r e and to a c h i e v e w h i l e l i t t l e emphasis was p l a c e d on the a c q u i s i t i o n of f e m i n i n e s k i l l s . These s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r s were t r e a t e d as dependent v a r i a b l e s and i t t h e r e f o r e cannot be c o n c l u d e d that these were the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n c a r e e r development . I t may be that o t h e r women without c a r e e r achievement were s o c i a l i z e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. These m a n a g e r i a l women may have shown more m a s c u l i n e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s that may have r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r b e i n g more d e s i r a b l e companions to t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d h o o d s . I t i s p o s s i b l e that , the type of s o c i a l i z a t i o n the women s t u d i e d by Hennig and J a r d i m (1977) r e p o r t e d was b i a s e d by i n a c c u r a t e or i n c o m p l e t e r e c a l l of . t h e i r c h i l d h o o d s . T h e i r a t y p i c a l a d u l t l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s may have made the u n u s u a l a s p e c t s of t h e i r c h i l d h o o d s more r e a d i l y remembered. R o s s i (1972) surveyed women g r a d u a t i n g from u n i v e r s i t y i n the e a r l y 1960 's . She grouped them a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r f u t u r e p l a n s i n t o : homemakers, those c h o o s i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female dominated c a r e e r , and those c h o o s i n g a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r . She found that the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group a n t i c i p a t e d t h e i r c a r e e r s p l a y i n g 22 major r o l e s i n t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s . They d e r i v e d r e l a t i v e l y l e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n from f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . They a l s o showed a l e s s e r need f o r i n t e n s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i l e b e i n g c o n f i d e n t that they c o u l d s u s t a i n e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men and o l d e r p e o p l e . H e l s o n ' s (1971) s tudy of women mathemat ic ians r e v e a l e d that the most c r e a t i v e women ( those who had o u t s t a n d i n g p u b l i s h e d work) r e p o r t e d they were r a i s e d i n a f a m i l y where the f a t h e r was a w e l l educated p r o f e s s i o n a l who s e r v e d as a r o l e model f o r h i s d a u g h t e r . A l t h o u g h the f a m i l y was o f t e n i n s e c u r e f i n a n c i a l l y , both p a r e n t s s t r e s s e d i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . W i t h i n the f a m i l y , the f a t h e r was u s u a l l y the dominant parent w i t h the mother h a v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e d u c a t i o n than her h u s b a n d . Few of these c r e a t i v e women had b r o t h e r s . Through a b a t t e r y of p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s H e l s o n found t h a t the c r e a t i v e women were lower on measures of s o c i a l s k i l l s and were h i g h l y i n t r o v e r t e d but were not more i n t e l l i g e n t than the group of l e s s c r e a t i v e m a t h e m a t i c i a n s . On the b a s i s of c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w s they were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g independent and o r i g i n a l but not d i f f e r e n t i n f e m i n i n i t y from the comparison g r o u p . A g a i n , much of the data H e l s o n (1971) p r e s e n t s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e t r o s p e c t i v e b i a s . I t i s a l s o not c l e a r whether the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y s t y l e between the two groups of women were the 23 cause or the r e s u l t of t h e i r a d u l t achievement e x p e r i e n c e s . S t u d i e s by K r i g e r (1972) and O l i v e r (1975) suggest that c a r e e r women d i f f e r from homemakers i n t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n s of p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r . These r e s e a r c h e r s found that c a r e e r women remembered t h e i r p a r e n t s to have been l e s s c o n t r o l l i n g and a c c e p t i n g than d i d homemakers. Whi le t h i s may be the r e s u l t of r e t r o s p e c t i v e b i a s i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that such p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s f o s t e r achievement s t r i v i n g s and the d e s i r e to a c h i e v e through employment. Lemkau (1979) r e c e n t l y reviewed a number of s t u d i e s of women employed i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . She noted that these women d i f f e r e d from other women on a number of p e r s o n a l i t y and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The • n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women tended to s c o r e . h i g h on measures of competency u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the m a s c u l i n e i d e a l ( e ; g . autonomy) but d i d not d i f f e r from other women on t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f e m i n i n e i d e a l ( e . g . i n t e r p e r s o n a l warmth). These women were f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t i v e n e s s and encouragement of sex r o l e i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r s . They were noted to have had w e l l educated p a r e n t s a n d , c o n t r a r y to the p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d s t u d i e s , mothers who were employed d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d h o o d s . Lemkau does p o i n t out that many of the s t u d i e s she reviewed were p l a g u e d w i t h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s 24 f a i l e d t o e n s u r e t h a t c o n t r o l g r o u p s were e q u a t e d on s u c h p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s a s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and a b i l i t y . S amp l e s were s o m e t i m e s c o m p r i s e d o f t h e r e a s e a r c h e r s ' a c q u a i n t a n c e s and t h u s may n o t no t have been r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f e m p l o y e d women. Lemkau p u r p o s e l y r e v i e w e d o n l y t h o s e s t u d i e s t h a t s a m p l e d g r o u p s o f women e m p l o y e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s o r t h o s e who were i n t h e l a t t e r s t a g e s o f a c a d e m i c p r e p a r a t i o n f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n much of t h e d a t a she r e v i e w e d was r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n n a t u r e . I t i s a l t o g e t h e r p o s s i b l e t h a t c a r e e r women may remember t h e i r p a r e n t s a s b e i n g more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r e n d o r s e m e n t o f a t y p i c a l sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s , f o r e x a m p l e , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e s . I t w o u l d seem u n w a r r a n t e d t o c o n c l u d e on t h e b a s i s o f . t h i s t y p e , o f e v i d e n c e t h a t p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s p l a y e d a c a u s a l r o l e i n women 's c h o i c e o f c a r e e r . Lemkau d e f e n d e d h e r c h o i c e o f c a r e e r i n v o l v e d women as t h e s u b j e c t o f s t u d y by s t a t i n g t h a t " . . . i t i s c r i t i c a l t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h o s e who a r r i v e a t f u l l c a r e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m t h o s e who d r o p o u t a l o n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t h " ( p . 2 2 3 ) . W h i l e t h i s p r o c e d u r e d o e s a s s u r e t h a t t h e women s t u d i e d a r e members o f d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i t p r e c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g d a t a a b o u t t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n mak ing c a r e e r c h o i c e s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g a c a r e e r c h o i c e . Women i n t h e l a t t e r 25 s tages of t h e i r undergraduate e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be aware of both the p o s s i b l e b a r r i e r s to t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s and the a t t r a c t i v e a s p e c t s of t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . Because the r o l e of women i n s o c i e t y has been changing over the past c o u p l e of decades i t i s d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e from women such as those who were growing up i n the t w e n t i e s and were s t u d i e d by Hennig and J a r d i m to contemporary young women. Women's l i v e s have been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e l i a b l e methods of b i r t h c o n t r o l which have f r e e d them from unwanted p r e g n a n c i e s . S o c i a l changes , i n c l u d i n g the f e m i n i s t movement, have made advanced e d u c a t i o n , f u l l t ime employment, and g r e a t e r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n more a c c e p t a b l e f o r women. 5. S t u d i e s - o f n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s A l t h o u g h some women may l e a v e .the c a r e e r p a t h , p l a n s and a s p i r a t i o n s are the f i r s t s t e p on i t s c o u r s e . The l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to f a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g women a s p i r i n g to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s from those a s p i r i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t . A l m q u i s t and A n g r i s t (1970) have suggested two models to e x p l a i n why some women a s p i r e to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . The f i r s t model , " c a r e e r c h o i c e s as d e v i a n t " , i s based on the assumption t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y i s a b i p o l a r c o n s t r u c t . When a young woman a s p i r e s to a c a r e e r ( behavi our c o n s i d e r e d to be m a s c u l i n e i n nature) she i s h y p o t h e s i z e d to have d e v e l o p e d a l a r g e l y m a s c u l i n e or 26 i n s t r u m e n t a l l y o r i e n t e d s e l f concept and to not have d e v e l o p e d the n u r t u r a n c e o r i e n t e d s e l f concept t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e m i n i n i t y . I t i s important to n o t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d to the r e s e a r c h by Hennig and J a r d i m and by H e l s o n , t h a t • the women s t u d i e d were p l a n n i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g c a r e e r s at a time when most women e i t h e r d i d not expect to be employed f o r an extended p e r i o d of time or a s p i r e d to p o s i t i o n s i n a s m a l l number of female dominated f i e l d s . Because of t h i s , the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women were, i n a s e n s e , " d e v i a n t " , and l i k e l y p o s s e s s e d such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a s s e r t i v e n e s s and achievement o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t are c o n s i d e r e d to be p r i m a r i l y m a s c u l i n e t r a i t s . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e to suggest that these women d i d not a l s o p o s s e s s f e m i n i n e t r a i t s . A l m g u i s t and A n g r i s t ' . s (.1970) " e n r i c h m e n t , model" of c a r e e r c h o i c e seems more t e n a b l e . T h i s s u g g e s t s that c a r e e r o r i e n t e d women have not r e j e c t e d t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y but have expanded t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of the f e m i n i n e r o l e through t h e i r d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e s and the i n f l u e n c e s of r o l e m o d e l s . T h i s model i s s i m i l a r to Bern's (1974) model of androgyny i n that the d i m e n s i o n s of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y are examined as independent p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s . A woman may a s p i r e to a c a r e e r and have some m a s c u l i n e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but t h i s does not imply t h a t these have been d e v e l o p e d at the expense of her f e m i n i n i t y . 27 To t e s t , the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of these two models A l m q u i s t and A n g r i s t (1970, 1971) examined, some of the c o n c o m i t a n t s of c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s among c o l l e g e women. They grouped t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s t r e n g t h of c a r e e r commitment and whether t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e was t y p i c a l l y or a t y p i c a l l y f e m i n i n e . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that c a r e e r p l a n s were g e n e r a l l y more s a l i e n t f o r those making a t y p i c a l c h o i c e s . Both the s t r o n g c a r e e r commitment and a t y p i c a l c h o i c e groups were l e s s l i k e l y to be s o r o r i t y members, and were more l i k e l y to have mothers who were employed o u t s i d e the home. Women i n these groups a l s o r e p o r t e d h a v i n g h e l d a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of p a r t time jobs and i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were i n f l u e n c e d by people working i n t h e i r chosen f i e l d i n making c a r e e r c h o i c e s . Those a s p i r i n g to a t y p i c a l c a r e e r s d i f f e r e d from t h e i r complement group i n t h e i r f u t u r e work v a l u e s . ;They were r e l a t i v e l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l and l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n h o l d i n g p o s i t i o n s i n which h e l p i n g o t h e r s or working w i t h p e o p l e would be a major f e a t u r e . The group w i t h s t r o n g c a r e e r commitment was more i n t e r e s t e d i n b e i n g a b l e to work w i t h m i n i m a l s u p e r v i s i o n . A l m q u i s t and A n g r i s t (1971) noted that those w i t h s t r o n g commitment had made t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s e a r l i e r and i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r c e r t a i n t y t h a t they would pursue them. These women were a l s o l e s s apt to be m a r r i e d or engaged at the time the study was c o n d u c t e d . There was l i t t l e e v i d e n c e that e i t h e r s t r o n g c a r e e r commitment or a t y p i c a l i t y of 28 c a r e e r c h o i c e was r e l a t e d to an o v e r t r e j e c t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y . . From A l m q u i s t and A n g r i s t ' s r e s e a r c h i t appears t h a t f o r some young women c a r e e r achievement i s an important p a r t of t h e i r f u t u r e p l a n s . Perhaps because t h e i r mothers were employed they were aware of the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o m b i n i n g marr iage and c a r e e r . Other r e s e a r c h , t o o , has suggested the importance of the young woman's mother as a r o l e m o d e l . Ridgeway (1978) found that c o l l e g e women who i d e n t i f i e d more w i t h t h e i r mothers than t h e i r f a t h e r s more o f t e n had h i g h c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s when t h e i r mothers had e x t e n s i v e employment h i s t o r i e s . Altman and Grossman (1977) found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a t e r n a l employment and c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . They a l s o noted t h a t young women, who p e r c e i v e d t h e i r , mothers, to be d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r employment s t i l l e x p r e s s e d h i g h c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . • The d a u g h t e r s of nonemployed women e x p r e s s e d lower a s p i r a t i o n s when they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r mothers to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r r o l e s . However, when t h e i r mothers were p e r c e i v e d to be d i s s a t i s f i e d the daughers had h i g h e r a s p i r a t i o n s . Both of these s t u d i e s u n d e r s c o r e the importance of the mother as a model f o r the f e m i n i n e r o l e . The employed mother can be seen as p r o v i d i n g an example of the p o s s i b i l i t y of combining the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of two r o l e s . The mother can a l s o be seen as i n f l u e n c i n g her 29 d a u g h t e r ' s a t t i t u d e s toward the v a l u e of employment and a c h i e v e m e n t . Baruch (1972) p r o v i d e d support f o r t h i s l a t t e r n o t i o n i n f i n d i n g that young women w i t h more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s toward women's r o l e s more o f t e n had mothers who v a l u e d c a r e e r r e l a t e d achievement even i f they were not employed t h e m s e l v e s . In another study ( B a r u c h , 1976) mothers who e v a l u a t e d themselves as competent i n d i c a t e d more o f t e n t h a t they wanted t h e i r d a u g h t e r s to be i n d e p e n d e n t , a m b i t i o u s , and good s t u d e n t s . They were l e s s concerned w i t h t h e i r daughters b e i n g s e l f c o n t r o l l e d and r e s p o n s i b l e . These r e s u l t s were found to be independent of the mothers ' employment s t a t u s . Baruch has suggested that such m a t e r n a l a t t i t u d e s h e l p to f o s t e r the s e l f esteem and competence t h a t a re important f a c t o r s i n g i r l s ' e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . T h u s , the a t t i t u d e s of mothers,, as w e l l as t h e i r a c t i o n s , . appear r e l e v a n t i n s o c i a l i z i n g g i r l s to a s p i r e to broader a d u l t r o l e s . S t e i n (197-3) r e p o r t e d that d a u g h t e r s of employed mothers s c o r e d h i g h e r on t r a i t measures of a c h i e v e m e n t , dominance, and endurance and lower on succorance and abasement than d i d daughters of nonemployed women. No d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d , however, between the groups on r a t i n g s of m a t e r n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Here a g a i n the s t r e n g t h of the employed m o t h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d . The mother does not s i m p l y p r o v i d e a model f o r a broader f e m i n i n e - r o l e but a i d s i n 30 the development of competence i n a r e a s t h a t women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been presumed to l a c k . Research e v i d e n c e a l s o i n d i c a t e s that women a s p i r i n g to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s d i f f e r on a number of p e r s o n a l i t y measures from those a s p i r i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . C o p l i n and W i l l i a m s (1978) , i n comparing the s t r e n g t h s of m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e typed t r a i t s i n women law s t u d e n t s and u n d e r g r a d u a t e s , noted t h a t the law s t u d e n t s ' means were h i g h e r on achievement , dominance, autonomy, and a g g r e s s i o n and lower on n u r t u r a n c e , s u c c o r a n c e , abasement, and d e f e r e n c e . The means f o r the l a w - s t u d e n t s were a l l i n the f e m i n i n e d i r e c t i o n when they are compared to the A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t norms. G e n e r a l l y f o r the s t u d y , when women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s are compared to those w i t h u n s p e c i f i e d a s p i r a t i o n s t h e i r means are g r e a t e r on m a s c u l i n e t r a i t s ' and l e s s e r on f e m i n i n e t r a i t s . Y a n i c o , H a r d i n , and M c L a u g h l i n (1978) found t h a t the M a s c u l i n i t y but not t h e : F e m i n i n i t y s u b s c a l e of the Bern Sex Role I n v e n t o r y tended to d i f f e r e n t i a t e women i n home economics from those i n e n g i n e e r i n g . The d i s c r e p a n c y between the s t u d i e s c o u l d be the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s between samples or c o u l d be due to the content of the i n s t r u m e n t s used or the normat ive data' upon which s c o r i n g was b a s e d . Handley and H i c k s o n (1978) i n v e s t i g a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e s between women s t u d y i n g ' m a t h e m a t i c s who a s p i r e d to t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s and those who a s p i r e d to n o n t e a c h i n g 31 c a r e e r s ( e . g . b u s i n e s s , e n g i n e e r i n g , or s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h ) . They found the n o n t e a c h i n g group to be more independent and c r e a t i v e , , as measured by the C a t t e l l 16 P . F . s c a l e s . T h i s group g e n e r a l l y s a i d they had made t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s e a r l i e r than the t e a c h i n g group and that t h e i r c h o i c e s were i n f l u e n c e d more o f t e n by " n o n p e o p l e " f a c t o r s such as c h a l l e n g e i n t h e i r employment. Handley and H i c k s o n ' s (1978) r e s u l t s are p o t e n t i a l l y u n r e l i a b l e because of the r e t r o s p e c t i v e na ture of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . However, they suggest t h a t women making n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e s are a t t r a c t e d to d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of c a r e e r s than are those making t r a d i t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Women making n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c h o i c e s may a l s o have -been concerned w i t h c a r e e r p l a n n i n g f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e . These a s p e c t s of c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . Other s t u d i e s suggest that women a s p i r i n g to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s d i f f e r from -those w i t h - more t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the c o n f l i c t s s u r r o u n d i n g f a m i l y and c a r e e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T r i g g and Perlman (1976) r e p o r t e d that a group of women s t u d y i n g m e d i c i n e and d e n t i s t r y saw n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s , i n g e n e r a l , as b e i n g more c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m a r i t a l and s o c i a l needs than d i d a group of women s t u d y i n g n u r s i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n m e d i c i n e . The former group r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s were more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of women's s o c i e t a l r o l e s . C r a w f o r d 32 (1978) l i k e w i s e found that women a s p i r i n g to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s expressed more l i b e r a l views of women's r o l e s and t h e i r own m a r i t a l o b i g a t i o n s w h i l e i n d i c a t i n g l e s s r i g i d s t e r e o t y p e s of o c c u p a t i o n s . In a study by Klemmack and Edwards (1973) the r a t e d f e m i n i n i t y of women's v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the number of c h i l d r e n they d e s i r e d and was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the age at which they wished to marry . Women a s p i r i n g to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s p l a n n e d to have fewer c h i l d r e n and a n t i c i p a t e d b r i e f e r i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n t h e i r l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r c h i l d b i r t h than d i d those w i t h more t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s (Moore & V e r e s , 1976). Women's p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r d e s i r e d m a r i t a l r o l e may be r e l a t e d to the c h o i c e of t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . These w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . , Summary In summary, women who. p u r s u e , or p l a n to pursue' , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l • c a r e e r s appear to v a l u e employment and the rewards i t can p r o v i d e . They are committed to t h e i r work r o l e s - and a n t i c i p a t e b e i n g a b l e to combine these r o l e s w i t h m a r i t a l and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . They e i t h e r a n t i c i p a t e l i t t l e i n the way of c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e demands or have c o n s i d e r e d these and f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h them. While i n the past women had to l a r g e l y renounce the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of w i f e and mother t o _ s u s t a i n c a r e e r commitment (Hennig & J a r d i m , 1977) i t 33 now seems that some women are c o n f i d e n t about t h e i r a b i l i t y to combine them w i t h some measure of s u c c e s s . Career committed women appear to view the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as b e i n g d e s i r a b l e but a l s o as b e i n g l e s s c e n t r a l i n t h e i r l i f e p l a n s . T h e i r commitment to c a r e e r success p o s s i b l y i s r e l a t e d to reduced c o n c e r n w i t h m a r r i a g e . There i s some e v i d e n c e that women who a s p i r e to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s score lower on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s such as n u r t u r a n c e and abasement and h i g h e r on t r a i t s such as achievement and dominance than those women w i t h more t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . Other r e s e a r c h suggests that women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s score h i g h e r on m a s c u l i n e t r a i t s w h i l e not d i f f e r i n g on f e m i n i n e t r a i t s . Such a p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n may a i d women i n s u s t a i n i n g c a r e e r commitment through the c r u c i a l p e r i o d s of. t h e i r t w e n t i e s when they might o t h e r w i s e i n v e s t g r e a t e r concern i n m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y . There i s some e v i d e n c e to suggest t h a t women.with n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s may have had d i f f e r e n t c h i l d h o o d s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s than t h e i r more t r a d i t i o n a l p e e r s . Such women r e p o r t r e c e i v i n g r e l a t i v e l y l e s s n u r t u r a n c e and b e i n g encouraged toward autonomy, a c h i e v e m e n t , and i n d e p e n d e n c e . They r e p o r t d e v e l o p i n g l e s s . c l o s e n e s s to t h e i r p a r e n t s . I t has been suggested t h a t they r e c e i v e d l e s s u n c o n d i t i o n a l acceptance from t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h i s may r e f l e c t p a r e n t a l c o n c e r n w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t . Rather than h a v i n g been s o c i a l i z e d to be 34 c o n c e r n e d w i t h the n u r t u r a n c e , s u b m i s s i v e n e s s , and s o c i a b i l i t y t h a t Block (1973) has i n d i c a t e d to be c e n t r a l to the f e m i n i n e r o l e , they have been p e r m i t t e d to d e v e l o p a degree of independence and. s e l f r e l i a n c e that i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the m a s c u l i n e r o l e . However, t h i s e v i d e n c e i s weak when one c o n s i d e r s that the data are m o s t l y r e t r o s p e c t i v e . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine i f these d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l f r e p o r t s are the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n or i f they are the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l or p e r c e p t i o n s . Career women have a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h e i r p a r e n t s as h o l d i n g l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . A g a i n these may be the r e s u l t of r e t r o s p e c t i v e b i a s . O r , the b e h a v i o u r of the p a r e n t s may have been a r e s u l t of the d a u g h t e r s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s or i n t e r e s t s . Women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s .have more o f t e n had employed m o t h e r s . T h i s suggests t h a t the mother p r e s e n t s a broad d e f i n i t i o n of the f e m i n i n e r o l e . . The employed mother may v a l u e a t t r i b u t e s such as autonomy and achievement and thus f o s t e r these i n her d a u g h t e r . Employed mothers may d i s p l a y l e s s of the concern and p r o t e c t i v e n e s s t h a t l e a d to the development of p a s s i v i t y and dependency. Women who a s p i r e to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s may have been i n f l u e n c e d by a d u l t r o l e models i n making t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . T h i s may r e f l e c t a l o n g term concern w i t h achievement and a c a r e e r that has made them aware of a d u l t 35 work r o l e s o r i t c o u l d r e f l e c t t h e i m p a c t o f some i n d i v i d u a l who has p r o v e d i n s p i r a t i o n a l . Women may a l s o be n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by f e m a l e r o l e m o d e l s . They may see women e m p l o y e d i n r o u t i n e , f e m a l e d o m i n a t e d j o b s and a s p i r e t o more d e m a n d i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . I t i s a p p a r e n t now t h a t sex r o l e c o n c e p t i o n s and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e c h a n g i n g and a d v a n c e d e d u c a t i o n and emp loyment a r e p l a y i n g g r e a t e r r o l e s i n women 's l i v e s . A l t m a n and G rossman (1977) n o t e d t h a t few o f t h e young women t h e y s t u d i e d i n d i c a t e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r homemaking c a r e e r s . I t i s now no l o n g e r q u e s t i o n e d whe the r a young woman w i l l p l a n t o be e m p l o y e d d u r i n g many o f h e r a d u l t y e a r s . I t seems i m p o r t a n t t o e x a m i n e some o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o t h e c h o i c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . B e c a u s e women were no t s t r o n g l y c o m m i t t e d t o c a r e e r s i n t he p a s t , v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s have no t e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d t h e f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o women 's c a r e e r c h o i c e s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a s t o w h e t h e r women who a s p i r e t o d e m a n d i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s a r e s t i l l u n i q u e i n some o f t h e ways t h a t have been o u t l i n e d o r i f women a r e c u r r e n t l y mak ing ca r . ee r c h o i c e s on t h e b a s i s o f i n t e r e s t s and a p t i t u d e s t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and a d u l t r o l e demands . V o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e t h e o r i s t s ( e . g . S u p e r , 1963) have v i e w e d c a r e e r commitment a s a l e n g t h y p r o c e s s o f e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and d e v e l o p i n g a w a r e n e s s o f a b i l i t i e s and 36 i n t e r e s t s . With knowledge of o n e ' s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses the i n d i v i d u a l s e l e c t s a s u i t a b l e o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a . Beyond t h i s , he or she becomes s p e c i f i c w i t h i n t h i s a rea s e t t l i n g upon a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . T h i s f i n a l s t a g e , f o r the c a r e e r o r i e n t e d , t y p i c a l l y o c c u r s d u r i n g the u n i v e r s i t y y e a r s . However, A n g r i s t and A l m q u i s t ( 1 9 7 5 ) have argued that t h i s p a t t e r n i s not a p p l i c a b l e to women. They suggest that s i n c e most women a s p i r e to a narrow range of c a r e e r s d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s must be a f f e c t i n g t h e i r c h o i c e s . They b e l i e v e that when women make c a r e e r p l a n s t h e i r c h o i c e s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e i r f u t u r e domest ic r o l e s . Whi le men are s i m p l y c h o o s i n g a c a r e e r women are a l s o c h o o s i n g a l i f e s t y l e . T h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s may a f f e c t t h e i r chances of m a r r y i n g , the number of c h i l d r e n they w i l l have , and a number of o ther f a m i l i a l v a r i a b l e s that have not t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a f f e c t e d by men's c a r e e r c h o i c e s . The p r e s e n t s tudy was d e s i g n e d to attempt to d i f f e r e n t i a t e women a s p i r i n g to- n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s from those a s p i r i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m i n i n e c a r e e r s . Background v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g to f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n , p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , and f u t u r e r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s were examined i n r e l a t i o n to c a r e e r c h o i c e . Hypotheses On the b a s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , * t h i r t e e n hypotheses were put f o r t h . The s t u d i e s on which they are based are r e f e r e n c e d and the o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d measures are 37 i n d i c a t e d by r e f e r e n c e s to the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n Appendix A . 1. Women a s p i r i n g to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s w i l l be more committed i n t h e i r c h o i c e s than those making t r a d i t i o n a l c h o i c e s . ( A l m q u i s t & A n g r i s t , 1970, 1971; R o s s i , 1972) Q u e s t i o n s 7 , 8 , 9 2. Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l p e r c e i v e themselves to be l e s s s i m i l a r to t h e i r p a r e n t s and to be more d i s t a n t from them. ( K r i g e r , 1972; M a n l e y , 1977; Rosen & A n e s h e n s e l , 1976) Q u e s t i o n s 20, 24, 28, 29 3. Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e i r p a r e n t s to be l e s s warm and e x p r e s s i v e . ( C r a n d a l l & B a t t l e , 1970; Kagan & Moss , 1962) Quest ions 21, 25 4. Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e i r p a r e n t s to have been l e s s r i g i d i n t h e i r endorsement of t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s . (Hennig & J a r d i m , 1977; W a l s t e d , 1978) Q u e s t i o n s 31 t h r o u g h 42 5. More members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l i n d i c a t e b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by e x t r a f a m i l i a l r o l e models i n making t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . ( A l m q u i s t & A n g r i s t , 1970, 1971; Handley & H i c k s o n , 1978) Quest ion 11 38 6. Members o f t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p w i l l have m o t h e r s w i t h more e x t e n s i v e emp loyment h i s t o r i e s . ( A l m q u i s t & A n g r i s t , 1970 , 1 9 7 1 ; A l t m a n & G r o s s m a n , 1977 ; R i d g e w a y , 1 978) Q u e s t i o n 17 7. Members o f t he n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p w i l l i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e i r f a t h e r s t h a n w i l l members o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p . ( H e l s o n , 1 9 7 1 ; H e n n i g & J a r d i m , 1977) Q u e s t i o n 30 8. Members o f the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p w i l l s c o r e more h i g h l y on p e r s o n a l i t y n e e d s s e x - t y p e d ( H e i l b r u n , 1963) as m a s c u l i n e ( A c h i e v e m e n t , A u t o n o m y , D o m i n a n c e , E n d u r a n c e ) and l o w e r on t h o s e s e x - t y p e d a s f e m i n i n e ( A b a s e m e n t , A f f i l i a t i o n , N u r t u r a n c e , S u c c o r a n c e ) . ( C o p l i n & W i l l i a m s , 1978 ; S t e i n , 1974) P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h Form ( J a c k s o n , 1974) 9. Members o f t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p w i l l more o f t e n v a l u e t h e power and c h a l l e n g e i n t h e r e w a r d s o f t h e i r c h o s e n c a r e e r s ( s u c h a s e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l ) . ( A l m q u i s t & A n g r i s t , 1970 , 1971) Q u e s t i o n 12 ( f i r s t 6 a l t e r n a t i v e s ) 10 . M a r r i a g e w i l l be l e s s s a l i e n t t o members o f t he n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p ; f ewer o f them w i l l be m a r r i e d and t h o s e u n m a r r i e d w i l l p l a n m a r r i a g e a t a l a t e r a g e . (Klemmack & E d w a r d s , 1973) Q u e s t i o n s 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 46 39 11. Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l d e s i r e fewer c h i l d r e n and w i l l p l a n s fewer i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n t h e i r working l i v e s . (Moore & V e r e s , 1976) Q u e s t i o n s 47, 48 12. Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l be more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of t h e i r d e s i r e d m a r i t a l r o l e . ( C r a w f o r d , 1978; N a g e l y , 1-971) Q u e s t i o n s 52 to 68 13. The members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l have h i g h e r academic a v e r a g e s , completed more grade twelve l e v e l mathematics and s c i e n c e c o u r s e s , and a c h i e v e d h i g h e r grades i n these c o u r s e s . Q u e s t i o n s 69 to 73 In a d d i t i o n , f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n , l e v e l s of p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , and p a r e n t s ' soc ioeconomic s t a t u s w i l l be examined. D i r e c t i o n a l i t y i s not h y p o t h e s i z e d f o r these v a r i a b l e s . The two groups of women w i l l a l s o be compared to a group of men i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e the ways i n which women d i f f e r from men on the v a r i a b l e s h y p o t h e s i z e d to r e l a t e to c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . Method P a r t i c i p a n t s The p a r t i c i p a n t s were 53 male and 106 female u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n upper year p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s (the women were not e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between the 40 t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p s ) . Data from an a d d i t i o n a l seven s t u d e n t s were not u s e d ; t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e l e t e d due to i n c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and four were o m i t t e d because they had i n d i c a t e d no c a r e e r g o a l . Of the 158 p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n g t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y 57.8% were e n r o l l e d i n A r t s , 13.9% i n Commerce, 10.8% i n E d u c a t i o n , 7.0% i n each of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and S c i e n c e . The remainder were e n r o l l e d i n o ther f a c u l t i e s . M a t e r i a l s The q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A) was p r e s e n t e d i n b o o k l e t f o r m . Respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r age , sex, e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r p l a n s , c e r t a i n t y about t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e , and whether they had d i s c u s s e d t h e i r p l a n s w i t h someone. They were a l s o asked which of twenty p o t e n t i a l f a c t o r s had i n f l u e n c e d i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s and a l s o which of twelve c a r e e r f e a t u r e s had most a p p e a l e d to them. Demographic v a r i a b l e s were tapped by p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e p o r t s of t h e i r p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t and o c c u p a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e i r m o t h e r s ' employment s t a t u s d u r i n g each of f i v e time p e r i o d s . Numbers of b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s were r e p o r t e d . Q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to m a t e r n a l and p a t e r n a l c l o s e n e s s , warmth, encouragement, and a p p r o v a l of c a r e e r p l a n s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h L i k e r t type response s c a l e s l a b e l l e d at each response p o i n t . S i x q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to p a t e r n a l and m a t e r n a l 41 endorsement of sex r o l e r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h l a b e l l e d s i x p o i n t s c a l e s . These items were adapted from W a l s t e d ' s (1978) d i m e n s i o n s which she h y p o t h e s i z e d to r e l a t e to c a r e e r i n v o l v e m e n t . Respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r c u r r e n t involvement i n permanent (marriage or marr iage l i k e ) r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the s i n g l e people were asked i f they d e s i r e d such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the f u t u r e a n d , i f so , at what age they would l i k e to enter i t . They were asked how many c h i l d r e n they would l i k e to have and what t h e i r employment s t a t u s , i d e a l l y , would be when t h e i r c h i l d r e n were i n each of s i x age r a n g e s . They were a l s o asked the r e l a t i v e importance of c a r e e r and f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s i n t h e i r f u t u r e p l a n s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the importance of these to each of t h e i r p a r e n t s . The f i n a l seventeen items on the f i r s t p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r e l a t i n g to p e r c e p t i o n s of m a r i t a l r o l e demands ( c a r e e r i n v o l v e m e n t , domest ic l a b o u r , and c h i l d r e a r i n g ) , were p r e s e n t e d w i t h l a b e l l e d s i x p o i n t s c a l e s . These items were adapted from P a r e l i u s (1975). The second p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p r i s e d of e i g h t s c a l e s of the P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form ( J a c k s o n , 1974) p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s from the m a n u a l . T h i r d person s i n g u l a r pronouns were m o d i f i e d to r e f e r to both g e n d e r s . The s c a l e s i n c l u d e d were Abasement, Achievement , A f f i l i a t i o n , Autonomy, Dominance, E n d u r a n c e , N u r t u r a n c e , and S u c c o r a n c e . 42 P r o c e d u r e S t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y o f c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s d u r i n g r e g u l a r l e c t u r e h o u r s unde r t h e a u t h o r ' s s u p e r v i s i o n . The t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 m i n u t e s . The c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e women r e s p o n d e n t s were c o d e d a s t r a d i t i o n a l o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l b a s e d on 1971 c e n s u s f i g u r e s on t h e b r eakdown o f o c c u p a t i o n s by sex ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h u s , t h r e e g r o u p s were f o r m e d : t r a d i t i o n a l women ( n = 4 8 ) , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women ( n = 5 8 ) , and men ( n = 5 3 ) . L i s t s o f o c c u p a t i o n s c a l l e d t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i x B. F a t h e r s ' and m o t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n s were c o d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e B l i s h e n and M c R o b e r t s (1976) s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r C a n a d a . M a t h e m a t i c s and s c i e n c e a v e r a g e s were d e t e r m i n e d by c o d i n g l e t t e r g r a d e s as A (80 t o 100%)=1, B (70 t o 79%)=2, C (60 t o 69% )=3 , P a s s (50 t o 59%)=4. U n i v e r s i t y a v e r a g e s were c o d e d : F i r s t C l a s s (80 t o 100%) = 1, S e c o n d C l a s s (65 t o 79% )=2 , P a s s (50 t o 64%)=3. The p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s c o r e s were p r o r a t e d t o d e a l w i t h m i s s i n g i t e m r e s p o n s e s when a s c a l e was a t l e a s t 75% c o m p l e t e d ; o t h e r w i s e t h e s c o r e was t r e a t e d a s m i s s i n g d a t a . 43 Data A n a l y s i s Two d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s were performed to t e s t the o v e r a l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t responses of t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women d i f f e r e d . The f i r s t a n a l y s i s examined v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s . The second a n a l y s i s examined the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to the r e s p o n d e n t s ' own a t t i t u d e s . Support f o r these hypotheses p e r m i t t e d the e x a m i n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l hypotheses to i n v e s t i g a t e which v a r i a b l e s are most important i n - d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the two g r o u p s . I n d i v i d u a l hypotheses were t e s t e d w i t h t - t e s t s comparing the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women (one t a i l e d t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e were used where d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was h y p o t h e s i z e d ) . D i f f e r e n c e s among the men and the groups of women were examined u s i n g one way a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e f o l l o w e d by Ne.wman-Keuls p o s t , hoc comparisons ( p r o b a b i l i t y of type I e r r o r set at . 0 5 ) . Where a number of c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n a h y p o t h e s i s , they were a n a l y s e d w i t h two group (the two groups of women) and t h r e e group (women p l u s men) d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s as w e l l as w i t h the above d e s c r i b e d u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . The c o n v e n t i o n a l l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e (.05) was g e n e r a l l y used but f i n d i n g s a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e are a l s o i n c l u d e d . The near s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d as guides f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . S e l f r e p o r t data i s contaminated-by"measurement e r r o r ( r e s p o n d i n g to s o c i a l 44 d e s i r a b i l i t y or response s t y l e ) . T h i s sugges ts the need f o r more r e f i n e d measurement i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . R e s u l t s The groups were i n i t i a l l y compared on the demographic v a r i a b l e s (maternal and p a t e r n a l soc ioeconomic s t a t u s , p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , numbers of b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , and a g e ) . With the e x c e p t i o n of p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n , the v a r i a b l e s were a n a l y s e d w i t h t - t e s t s and a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e . P a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n was a n a l y s e d w i t h C h i - s q u a r e t e s t s . S i n c e few of the mothers had p o s t g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n , t h i s c a t e g o r y was combined w i t h the next c a t e g o r y (undergraduate d e g r e e ) . No d i f f e r e n c e s were found on any of these v a r i a b l e s . The means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , number of r e s p o n d e n t s , and t e s t s t a t i s t i c s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. The C h i - s q u a r e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 2 and 3. Any d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g among the groups are not due to demographic d i f f e r e n c e s . S t u d i e s reviewed by A u s t e r and A u s t e r (1981) and Lemkau (1979) suggest t h a t h i g h soc ioeconomic s t a t u s i s a p r e d i c t o r of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e . These s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d women who grew up s e v e r a l decades ago. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n from the past to the p r e s e n t i s d i f f i c u l t because of p o s s i b l e economic and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . A u s t e r and A u s t e r (1981) a s s e r t t h a t soc ioeconomic s t a t u s remains an important d e t e r m i n a n t of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t women w i t h 45 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s come from a c r o s s s e c t i o n of soc ioeconomic b a c k g r o u n d s . The d i f f e r e n c e may be due to g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . There has been an i n c r e a s e i n the number of m a r r i e d women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1980) and , t h u s , p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a c a r e e r i s congruent w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a d u l t l i f e . Economic p r e s s u r e s and c h a n g i n g s o c i a l c o n c e p t i o n s of women have c r e a t e d a c l i m a t e i n which female employment i s not mere ly condoned but i s expec ted and o f t e n n e c e s s a r y . P a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n was examined as another index of s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The r e s u l t s a g a i n i n d i c a t e that the t h r e e groups are comparable on t h i s v a r i a b l e . The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s do not support the f i n d i n g s of H e l s o n (1971) and Hennig and J a r d i m (1977) t h a t i n d i c a t e d that n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had fewer b r o t h e r s . T h i s i s l i k e l y due to g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . These a u t h o r s sugges ted that the p a r e n t s of the women they s t u d i e d p r o b a b l y c o n s i d e r e d e d u c a t i o n to be more important f o r b o y s . Because of t h i s , women w i t h o u t b r o t h e r s were more apt to r e c e i v e advanced e d u c a t i o n . C u r r e n t l y , p a r e n t s may be more l i k e l y to r e c o g n i z e the importance of e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n of both s e x e s . H a v i n g no b r o t h e r s may no l o n g e r p l a y a r o l e i n women's a c c e s s to f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e r e has been a c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d over the c e n t u r y toward s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s . The expenses of e d u c a t i o n f o r women may be more r e a d i l y borne when fewer demands are p l a c e d on p a r e n t s ' f i n a n c e s . 46 H y p o t h e s i s 1 Women a s p i r i n g to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s w i l l be more  committed to t h e i r c h o i c e s than women making t r a d i t i o n a l  c h o i c e s . The v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t , f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s were c e r t a i n t y of p u r s u i n g the chosen c a r e e r , c e r t a i n t y about wanting to pursue the c a r e e r , and l e n g t h of time s i n c e the c a r e e r g o a l had been c h o s e n . No d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d f o r these v a r i a b l e s (see T a b l e 4 ) . R e l a t e d to t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , respondents were asked i f they had d i s c u s s e d t h e i r c a r e e r g o a l s w i t h someone i n t h e i r chosen f i e l d and, i f so , what t h e i r p o s i t i o n was and how they were known to the r e s p o n d e n t . The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s - q u e s t i o n was a n a l y s e d w i t h C h i - s q u a r e t e s t s . Comparisons between the groups of women i n d i c a t e d , % (1.) = 2.97., p_ < .10 , t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l women had somewhat more o f t e n d i s c u s s e d t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s w i t h someone than had the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women, '% (1)- = 2 .97 , £ < .10 , (77.1% v e r s u s 61.4%). No sex d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d . These r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5. The l a t t e r p a r t s of the q u e s t i o n were c o d e d , f i r s t , to i n d i c a t e whether the person was a s t u d e n t or a f a c u l t y member, or a person working i n the f i e l d and then to show whether the person was a r e l a t i v e , or was known through the u n i v e r s i t y , employment e x p e r i e n c e , s o c i a l c o n t a c t ( e . g . a f a m i l y f r i e n d ) , or a r r a n g e d i n t e r v i e w ( t h i s l a s t c a t e g o r y was o m i t t e d from a n a l y s i s because of i n f r e q u e n t 47 e n d o r s e m e n t ) . No d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s ( s ee T a b l e 6 ) . T h e r e i s no s u p p o r t f o r t he n o t i o n t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l women a r e l e s s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s t h a n a r e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women b a s e d on t h e s e m e a s u r e s . I f d i s c u s s i n g c a r e e r p l a n s w i t h o t h e r s i s an i n d e x of c o m m i t m e n t , t h e n i n t h i s s t u d y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l women we re , i f a n y t h i n g , more c o m m i t t e d t o t h e i r p l a n s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t fewer n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had d i s c u s s e d t h e i r c a r e e r s w i t h o t h e r s may r e f l e c t g r e a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d ' l e s s r e l i a n c e on o t h e r s ' o p i n i o n s . F u t u r e s t u d i e s m i g h t b e n e f i t by m e a s u r i n g commitment i n o t h e r ways . F o r e x a m p l e , t he e x t e n t t o w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a r e w i l l i n g t o s u s t a i n c o n t i n u o u s commitment t o t h e i r c a r e e r s c o u l d be. i n v e s t i g a t e d . D i f f e r e n c e s i n commitment m e a s u r e d by t h e s e t y p e s o f v a r i a b l e s a r e d i s c u s s e d u n d e r H y p o t h e s i s 12 . H y p o t h e s i s 2 . Members o f t he n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p w i l l p e r c e i v e  t h e m s e l v e s t o be l e s s s i m i l a r t o t h e i r p a r e n t s and t o be  more d i s t a n t f r o m t h e m . On t h e c l o s e n e s s t o mo the r v a r i a b l e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p (M=5.19) r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a s somewhat c l o s e r t han d i d t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M = 4 . 7 5 ; _t (102) = 1 .86 , p_ < . 0 5 . T h i s a l s o o c c u r r e d f o r c l o s e n e s s t o f a t h e r , t (100) = 1 . 6 9 , 2 < « 0 5 ; M=4.66 f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=4.15 f o r t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p . No d i f f e r e n c e s were 48 found f o r the r a t i n g s of s i m i l a r i t y to e i t h e r p a r e n t . M a t e r n a l and p a t e r n a l encouragement and a p p r o v a l of c a r e e r p l a n s were a l s o examined w i t h the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e being that the t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=5.39) p e r c e i v e d t h e i r f a t h e r s to be more a p p r o v i n g of t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s than d i d the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=4.84; t (93) = 2 .51 , p_ < . 0 1 . Comparisons of the t h r e e groups on these v a r i a b l e s r e v e a l e d a d i f f e r e n c e on c l o s e n e s s to mother, F (2,154) = 2 .43 , p_ < ' 1 0 ' w i t h the mean f o r the men (M=5.13) f a l l i n g between those of the two groups of women. The post hoc comparisons f a i l e d to r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the means. D i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e groups were found on p e r c e p t i o n s of f a t h e r ' s a p p r o v a l of c a r e e r c h o i c e , F (2,141) = 2 .85 , p_ < - 1 0 ' T n e t r a d i t i o n a l women p e r c e i v e d more a p p r o v a l than d i d the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women; the mean f o r the men (M=5.08) f e l l between, not d i f f e r i n g from e i t h e r group of women. No other d i f f e r e n c e s were found on the v a r i a b l e s i n q u e s t i o n and the h y p o t h e s i s r e c e i v e d o n l y p a r t i a l s u p p o r t . These r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7. The d i f f e r e n c e s r e v e a l e d might be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i n g that the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women, as a g r o u p , were r a i s e d i n f a m i l y environments where r e l a t i v e l y l e s s n u r t u r a n c e was g i v e n . T h i s would be i n agreement w i t h M a n l e y ' s (1977) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l e s s n u r t u r a n c e i s b e n e f i c i a l i n f o s t e r i n g independence and c o n c e r n w i t h 49 achievement . However, s i n c e these measures were, f i r s t s e l f r e p o r t , and, second, p a r t l y r e t r o s p e c t i v e , the d i f f e r e n c e s may be due to d i f f e r i n g s e l f p e r c e p t i o n s r a t h e r than a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r . For example, the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women may d e s i r e to be independent of t h e i r f a m i l i e s and to see themselves as somewhat removed. F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h i s i s p r e s e n t e d under Hypotheses 3 and 5. L o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h and d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , or at l e a s t p a r e n t a l as w e l l as c h i l d s e l f - r e p o r t , would be n e c e s s a r y to i n v e s t i g a t e the impact of a c t u a l p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s . H y p o t h e s i s 3 The members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l p e r c e i v e  t h e i r p a r e n t s to have been l e s s warm and e x p r e s s i v e . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women (M=4.88) p e r c e i v e d t h e i r mothers to have been l e s s warm than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l women, M=5.35; t (103) = 2 .74 , p_ < . 0 1 . The members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=4.31) a l s o p e r c e i v e d - t h e i r f a t h e r s as l e s s warm, t_ (99) = 1.75, p . - < .05 , than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=4.78). For comparisons of the t h r e e g r o u p s , m a t e r n a l warmth reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F (2,155) = 3 .64 , p_ < . 0 5 . The post hoc comparisons r e v e a l e d t h a t the two groups of women d i f f e r e d but the men (M=1.87), who s c o r e d between the two, d i f f e r e d from n e i t h e r . The r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y suppor t the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s (see T a b l e 7 ) . 50 A g a i n , one must q u e s t i o n whether these r e s u l t s are the p r o d u c t of d i f f e r e n t p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s . The e f f e c t c o u l d be due to d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of the p a r e n t s or to the d e s i r e to be s e p a r a t e from the p a r e n t s . Only l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h c o u l d determine i f p a r e n t a l c l o s e n e s s i s r e l a t e d to the c h o i c e of a t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r . H y p o t h e s i s 4 The members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l p e r c e i v e  t h e i r p a r e n t s to have been l e s s r i g i d i n t h e i r endorsement  of t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s . The v a r i a b l e s of c o n c e r n here were the s i x p a t e r n a l and maternal sex r o l e b e h a v i o u r s tatements ( s c a l e e n d p o i n t s were l a b e l l e d 1=very t r u e , 6=very f a l s e ) . I n i t i a l a t tempts at c o m b i n i n g these items to c r e a t e s c a l e s d i d not y i e l d a d e q u a t e . c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a s to j u s t i f y t h i s p r o c e d u r e . The s i x q u e s t i o n s f o r the mother and s i x f o r :the f a t h e r were a n a l y s e d f i r s t w i t h d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s . For the two groups of women the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t nor was the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t i n the t h r e e group a n a l y s i s . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a b l e s a re p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 8 and 9. U n i v a r i a t e e x a m i n a t i o n of these items r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups of women. A d i f f e r e n c e among the t h r e e groups was found o n l y on the i tem "My f a t h e r d i s c o u r a g e d b e h a v i o u r s t h a t are more t y p i c a l of the 51 o p p o s i t e sex" F (2,147) = 7 . 8 6 , p_ < . 0 1 . Post hoc comparisons i n d i c a t e d that the men (M=3.39) d i f f e r e d from the two groups of women (M=4.18 f o r t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=4.57 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group) i n t h a t they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r f a t h e r s to be l e s s e n c o u r a g i n g of o p p o s i t e sex b e h a v i o u r s . T h i s i s i n keeping w i t h N o r t h American s o c i e t y ' s g r e a t e r acceptance of c r o s s - s e x b e h a v i o u r f o r g i r l s than f o r b o y s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was not s u p p o r t e d . These r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 10. The f a i l u r e to f i n d support support f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The h y p o t h e s i s was based on r e t r o s p e c t i v e r e s e a r c h (Hennig & J a r d i m , 1977; W a l s t e d , 1978). D i f f e r e n c e s found between t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women i n these s t u d i e s may have been the r e s u l t of b i a s e d r e c o l l e c t i o n s . P o s s i b l y t h e r e a re no a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l endorsement of sex r o l e r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s . . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that t h e r e a re g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s and the p r e s e n t s t u d y . In the p a s t , p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s c o u l d have p l a y e d a r o l e i n women's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . These may no longer- be a f a c t o r . A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s that because the measures used i n the p r e s e n t s tudy were s e l f r e p o r t s and r e t r o s p e c t i v e they were contaminated by measurement e r r o r . However, the Hennig and J a r d i m and W a l s t e d s t u d i e s s u f f e r from the same m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . 52 A more s t r i n g e n t t e s t of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s needed. A b e t t e r i n v e n t o r y of sex r o l e r e l a t e d behaviour , s ta tements c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s . However, l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h would be r e q u i r e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a c t u a l p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s are r e l a t e d to c a r e e r c h o i c e . H y p o t h e s i s 5 More of the members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l  i n d i c a t e b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by e x t r a f a m i l i a l r o l e models i n  making t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s each of the p o t e n t i a l person i n f l u e n c e s on c a r e e r c h o i c e from q u e s t i o n 11 was examined w i t h C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s e s . The t r a d i t i o n a l group r e p o r t e d somewhat more o f t e n b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d , by t h e i r f a t h e r s . , ^ (1) = 2 .89 , p < .10 ; 37.5% of the t r a d i t i o n a l and 24.4% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women checked t h i s c a t e g o r y . S i m i l a r l y , mother as an i n f l u e n c e was checked by 50.5% of the t r a d i t i o n a l women but by o n l y 27.6% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group, A- (1) = 5 .62 , p < . 0 5 . No d i f f e r e n c e s were found on the o t h e r two f a m i l i a l c a t e g o r i e s . T u r n i n g to the e x t r a f a m i l i a l c a t e g o r i e s , i t was found t h a t 22.4% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women v e r s u s 8.3% of the t r a d i t i o n a l women r e p o r t e d h a v i n g been i n f l u e n c e d by male p r o f e s s o r s , ^ (1) = 3 .87 , p < . 0 5 . The o n l y o ther c a t e g o r y to demonstrate a d i f f e r e n t i a l 53 endorsement r a t e was "A woman working i n my chosen f i e l d " , X*(1) = 3 .70 , 2 < 41.7% of the t r a d i t i o n a l and 24.1% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women endorsed t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i s l a s t r e s u l t i s not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e t h e r e are more women working i n t r a d i t i o n a l than i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . Women w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s are more l i k e l y to have e n c o u n t e r e d women i n t h e i r chosen f i e l d . While i t appears t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l women were somewhat more i n f l u e n c e d by f a m i l y members, i t does not appear t h a t the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women were more i n f l u e n c e d by e x t r a f a m i 1 i a l p e r s o n s . The numbers of f a m i l i a l and e x t r a f a m i l i a l i n f l u e n c e s endorsed were a l s o computed f o r each person and s u b j e c t e d to t - t e s t s . I t was found that the t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=1.10) checked more f a m i l i a l i n f l u e n c e s than d i d the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=0.74; t (104) = 1.78, 2 < - 0 5 - N o d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r e x t r a f a m i 1 i a l i n f l u e n c e s . A l s o , the number of male and female i n f l u e n c e s was computed w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g o b s e r v e d o n l y f o r the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y , t (104) = 2 .48 , 2 < « 0 1 ; the t r a d i t i o n a l group checked more female i n f l u e n c e s (M=1 .63) than the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=1.05). When nonperson i n f l u e n c e s were examined, a d i f f e r e n t i a l endorsement r a t e was seen f o r "Work or v o l u n t e e r e x p e r i e n c e " w i t h 68.8% of the t r a d i t i o n a l s and 39.7% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s i n d i c a t i n g t h i s to have been i n f l u e n t i a l ' i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e , % (1) = 8 .92 , 2 < . 0 1 . The o n l y o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r 54 " H o b b i e s " w i t h 2 9 . 2 % o f t he t r a d i t i o r i a l s and 1 0 . 3 % of t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s c h e c k i n g t h i s c a t e g o r y , X (1) = 6 . 0 8 , 2 < . 0 1 . I t i s a l s o n o t a b l e t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l women (M=4.60) c h e c k e d more i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s t h a n t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women, M = 3 . 6 2 ; t (104) = 1 .96 , p_ < . 0 5 . The h y p o t h e s i s was not s u p p o r t e d . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women d i d no t i n d i c a t e h a v i n g been i n f l u e n c e d more by e x t r a f a m i 1 i a l r o l e m o d e l s ( see T a b l e s 11 and 1 2 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e r a t e o f e n d o r s e m e n t can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . They may be t h e r e s u l t o f r e s p o n s e b i a s . The t r a d i t i o n a l women may have r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i t e m s more t h o u g h t f u l l y t h a n t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women, f o r e x a m p l e . The t r a d i t i o n a l women c o u l d a c t u a l l y have had more c o n t a c t w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s t h r o u g h emp loyment and h o b b i e s . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women may have been o r may, have p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s o r w i s h e d t o p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s a s more i n d e p e n d e n t i n t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . T h i s . l a s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s e d r e s u l t s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . Whether t h e y i n d e e d a r e more i n d e p e n d e n t c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d , bu t i t s t a n d s t o r e a s o n t h a t women who c o n t r a v e n e s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s may be more i n d e p e n d e n t t h a n women who do n o t . When t h e two g r o u p s o f women were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e men, d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d f o r " F a t h e r " , % (2) = 5 . 0 8 , 55 p < .10 , w i t h the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women e n d o r s i n g t h i s c a t e g o r y l e s s than the o t h e r two g r o u p s ; " M o t h e r " , x . '' ^ (2) = 5 .71 , p < .10 , w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l group g i v i n g z the g r e a t e s t endorsement; "Female f r i e n d " , X (2) = 5 .39 , p < .10 , w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l group g i v i n g the g r e a t e s t z endorsement ; "Female p r o f e s s o r " , X (2) = 4 .74, p .10 , w i t h the men g i v i n g the l e a s t endorsement ; "Woman working 2. i n my chosen f i e l d " , % (2) = 23.46, p < . 01 , w i t h men g i v i n g the l e a s t endorsement ; "Work or v o l u n t e e r z-e x p e r i e n c e " , ^ (2) =20.57, p < . 01 , w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l women g i v i n g the g r e a t e s t endorsement ; and " H o b b i e s " , (2) =6.35, p < .05 , w i t h the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women g i v i n g the l e a s t endorsement . Men and women and women r e c a l l d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . T h i s may r e f l e c t a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n f l u e n c e s but c o u l d r e f e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l women's g r e a t e r thought f u l n e s s or w i l l i n g n e s s to endorse i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s ; Thus the r e s u l t i n g d i f f e rences .may be a f u n c t i o n of response s t y l e . For the t o t a l number of female i n f l u e n c e s c h e c k e d , i t was found that the men (M=.62) checked the l e a s t , f o l l o w e d by the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p s , F (2,156) = 11.35, p < . 01 , w i t h a l l groups d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y . D i f f e r e n c e s a l s o o c c u r r e d f o r the number of nonperson i n f l u e n c e s e n d o r s e d , F (2,156) = 3 .85 , p < . 0 5 . The t r a d i t i o n a l women (M=1.92) checked s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than the men (M=1.25); the 56 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women (M=1.45) f e l l i n between and d i d not d i f f e r from e i t h e r g r o u p . . For the t o t a l number of i n f l u e n c e s c h e c k e d , F (2,156) = 3 .92 , p < .05 , the t r a d i t i o n a l women endorsed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than e i t h e r of the o ther g r o u p s , which d i d not d i f f e r (M=3.32 f o r men) . A g a i n , the r e s u l t s suggest tha t the t r a d i t i o n a l women are e i t h e r more aware of i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e or are more w i l l i n g to admit to i n f l u e n c e s , or were l e s s independent and more i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r s . Response b i a s a n d / o r a g r e a t e r amount of i n t r o s p e c t i o n on the p a r t of the t r a d i t i o n a l women must be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e r i e n c e as e x p l a n a t o r y of the f i n d i n g s . The q u e s t i o n of i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s i s d i f f i c u l t to i n v e s t i g a t e . The data these q u e s t i o n s generate are both . . i n t r o s p e c t i v e and r e t r o s p e c t i v e . i n n a t u r e . The p o s s i b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n memory a r i s e s . I f the c a r e e r - c h o i c e was made a number of y e a r s ago, few i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s may be remembered. A more r e c e n t c h o i c e c o u l d evoke memories of a g r e a t e r number of f a c t o r s . . H y p o t h e s i s 6 Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group have mothers w i t h  more e x t e n s i v e employment h i s t o r i e s . M o t h e r ' s employment s t a t u s ( F u l l t i m e , Par t t i m e , No p a i d job) was examined f o r each of f i v e age p e r i o d s of the r e s p o n d e n t ' s l i f e . Ch-i~square a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d . 57 D u r i n g the p r e s c h o o l p e r i o d of t h e i r l i v e s , 9.1% of the t r a d i t i o n a l and 25.9% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had mothers who were employed e i t h e r f u l l or p a r t t i m e , •Z-y~ (2) = 4 .70 , p < . 10 . D u r i n g the next p e r i o d of the r e s p o n d e n t s ' l i v e s (Grades 1 to 4) t h e r e was a g a i n a d i f f e r e n c e i n employment r a t e s , i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , "A- (2) = 6 .07, p < .05 ; 22.2% of the t r a d i t i o n a l v e r s u s 44.4% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had employed mothers . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r the p e r i o d "Grades 5 to 8" a l t h o u g h the p r o p o r t i o n s were i n the expected d i r e c t i o n (31.8% of the t r a d i t i o n a l and 68.2% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had mothers w i t h f u l l time employment) , but d i f f e r e n c e s were a g a i n found f o r the p e r i o d s "Grades 9 to 12", ^ (2) = 4 .78, p < .10 , and z " d u r i n g u n i v e r s i t y y e a r s " , (2) = 9 .57 , p < . 0 1 . D u r i n g the former p e r i o d 25.'5% of the, t r a d i t i o n a l women v e r s u s 46.3% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had mothers who were employed f u l l t i m e . In the l a t t e r p e r i o d the p e r c e n t a g e s were 28.9% and 58.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y (see T a b l e 13) . H y p o t h e s i s s i x was l a r g e l y s u p p o r t e d . R e s u l t s of these a n a l y s e s g e n e r a l l y suggest that ' m a t e r n a l employment i s r e l a t e d to d a u g h t e r ' s c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s ( e . g . A l m q u i s t & A n g r i s t , 1970, 1971). Employed mothers c o u l d have p r o v i d e d f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e that employment and f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s can be combined s u c c e s s f u l l y , or ' a l t e r n a t i v e l y , tha t employment i s an a c c e p t e d , and even expec ted a d u l t female r o l e 58 ( e . g . Hoffman, 1979). These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women had d i f f e r e n t c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s than the t r a d i t i o n a l women. I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of l e s s c l o s e n e s s to t h e i r p a r e n t s r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n t c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . However, the l i n k between these i s tenuous and r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 7 Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l i n d i c a t e  g r e a t e r p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y to t h e i r f a t h e r s than w i l l  members of the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p . Q u e s t i o n 30, " C o n s i d e r i n g y o u r s e l f and both of your p a r e n t s , which are you more l i k e ? " was of i n t e r e s t here (the s c a l e end p o i n t s were l a b e l l e d : 1="much more l i k e mother" and 6="much more l i k e f a t h e r " ) . The two groups of women and the women p l u s men were a n a l y s e d w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was not s u p p o r t e d (see T a b l e 7 ) . The h y p o t h e s i s was d e r i v e d from the r e t r o s p e c t i v e data of H e l s o n (1971) and Hennig and J a r d i m (1977). The women i n these s t u d i e s may have viewed t h e i r f a t h e r s as r o l e m o d e l s . They c o u l d have p e r c e i v e d themselves as more s i m i l a r to t h e i r f a t h e r s than t h e i r m o t h e r s . However, t h i s p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y c o u l d be the r e s u l t of s i m i l a r i t y between t h e i r own and t h e i r f a t h e r ' s a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e s . The women i n t h i s s tudy were younger and had not yet begun t h e i r c a r e e r s . 59 A g r e a t e r number of women ( i n c l u d i n g employed mothers) a re p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to serve as r o l e models f o r young women. N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women do not n e c e s s a r i l y have to emulate t h e i r f a t h e r s as a model of a c h i e v e m e n t . H y p o t h e s i s 8 Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l score h i g h e r  on p e r s o n a l i t y needs sex t y p e d as m a s c u l i n e and lower on  those sex typed as f e m i n i n e . . For the two groups of women the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was s i g n i f i c a n t , % (8) = 30 .35 , p < . 01 , but the percentage of c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of group membership was o n l y 69.9% (versus 50% expected by c h a n c e ) . For the t h r e e group a n a l y s i s the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , 1^(16) = 59 .03 , p < . 01 , w i t h 50% of the cases c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d (versus 33.3% by c h a n c e ) . T a b l e s 1,4 and 15 c o n t a i n . the c o e f f i c i e n t s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a b l e s f o r these a n a l y s e s . The u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l women, as a group, s c o r e d h i g h e r on A f f i l i a t i o n , t (101) = 1.93, p < . 0 5 ; M=10.47 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=9.10 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , and N u r t u r a n c e t (101) = 4 .86 , p < . 0 1 ; M=12.46 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=10.24 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , o n l y . These r e s u l t s c o n t r a d i c t those p r e s e n t e d by C o p l i n and W i l l i a m s (1978) and Y a n i c o et a l . (1978) . T h i s i s p o s s i b l y due to the d i f f e r e n t measures used i n the t h r e e s t u d i e s . D i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d r e f l e c t i tem c o n t e n t or s t y l e 60 of p r e s e n t a t i o n . However, i t may be that'women w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s no l o n g e r d i f f e r on competence t r a i t s . Perhaps i t i s the g r e a t e r concern w i t h a f f i l i a t i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y n u r t u r a n c e , that i s r e l a t e d to women's c h o i c e of t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . T h i s sugges ts that over time some women are becoming f r e e r to e x p r e s s l e s s s t r e n g t h i n these t r a d i t i o n a l l y v a l u e d f e m i n i n e t r a i t s . I t would be unwise to c o n c l u d e from these r e s u l t s tha t c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s are i n f l u e n c e d by p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the c h o i c e of c a r e e r i n f l u e n c e s p e r s o n a l i t y s t y l e o r , at l e a s t , response to p e r s o n a l i t y measures . There i s some support f o r the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the two groups can be d i s c r i m i n a t e d on the b a s i s of sex typed p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . In the three group a n a l y s i s d i f f e r e n c e s were found on A f f i l i a t i o n , F (2,153) = 3 .41 , p_ < .05 ; Autonomy, F (2,153) = 4 .99 , p_ < . 01 ; N u r t u r a n c e , F (2,153) = 16.41, p < . 0 1 ; and Succorance F (2,153) = 5 .82 , p_ < . 0 1 . On A f f i l i a t i o n the t r a d i t i o n a l women s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the men (M=8.52) w i t h the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women, as a group, not d i f f e r i n g from e i t h e r . On Autonomy the men s c o r e d (M=8.32) s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=6.24) w i t h the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=7.23), a g a i n , not d i f f e r i n g from e i t h e r . On N u r t u r a n c e the t r a d i t i o n a l group s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the other two groups whose means d i d not d i f f e r (M=9.42 f o r 61 men). On Succorance the men s c o r e d (M=6.01) s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the o ther two g r o u p s ' whose means d i d not d i f f e r (M=8.43 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=7.63 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group). . See T a b l e 16 f o r the r e s u l t s of the u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s A f f i l i a t i o n , Autonomy, and N u r t u r a n c e the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women d i d not d i f f e r from the men, and f e l l between them and the t r a d i t i o n a l women. T h i s suggests that on these p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s they were indeed n o n t r a d i t i o n a l . • H y p o t h e s i s 9 Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l more o f t e n  than t r a d i t i o n a l women v a l u e the power and c h a l l e n g e  rewards of t h e i r chosen c a r e e r s . The twelve employment v a l u e c a t e g o r i e s from q u e s t i o n 12 were examined by r a t e of endorsement u s i n g C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s e s . A d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r - s a l a r y p o t e n t i a l , % (1) = 2 .93 , p < .10 , w i t h 43.1% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s but o n l y 27.1% of the t r a d i t i o n a l s e n d o r s i n g t h i s reason f o r c h o o s i n g t h e i r c a r e e r . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s a l s o more o f t e n v a l u e d freedom from, s u p e r v i s i o n , % (1) = 2 .93 , p < .10 , w i t h 43.1% of t h i s group v e r s u s 27.1% of the t r a d i t i o n a l group e n d o r s i n g t h i s . The t r a d i t i o n a l s more f r e q u e n t l y endorsed " H e l p i n g p e o p l e " , "X- (1) = 12.39, p < . 0 1 ; 95.8% of t h i s group endorsed t h i s reason compared to 69.0% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s . The o n l y o t h e r v a r i a b l e 62 on which a d i f f e r e n c e was found was "Job a v a i l a b i l i t y " , . % (1) = 2 .74 , p < .10 , w i t h 44.8% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a - l s v e r s u s 29.2% of the t r a d i t i o n a l s e n d o r s i n g t h i s (see T a b l e 17) . There i s some support f o r h y p o t h e s i s n i n e . The t r a d i t i o n a l women's g r e a t e r endorsement of h e l p i n g people may r e f l e c t t h e i r g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n n u r t u r a n c e . T h e i r l e s s e r c o n c e r n w i t h e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l i s somewhat c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s t e r e o t y p e of e a r n i n g s b e i n g l e s s important to women ( e . g . O ' L e a r y , 1974). The d i f f e r e n c e seen on j o b a v a i l a b i l i t y ' m a y r e f l e c t g r e a t e r commitment to employment by the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. These women may be somewhat more concerned w i t h b e i n g a b l e to e s t a b l i s h a c a r e e r and thus i n d i c a t e c o n c e r n about openings i n the job market . When these a n a l y s e s were r e p e a t e d w i t h the g r o u p . o f men i n c l u d e d , d i f f e r e n c e s were found o n l y f o r " H i g h s a l a r y i ... - . p o t e n t i a l " , . •% ( 2 ) = 14.14, p_. < . 01 , and " B e i n g a b l e t o h e l p p e o p l e " , V (2) = 21 .79 , p_ < . 01 , w i t h the men- h a v i n g the h i g h e s t and lowest response r a t e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . H y p o t h e s i s 10 M a r r i a g e w i l l be l e s s s a l i e n t to the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l  g r o u p ; fewer of them w i l l be m a r r i e d and the unmarr ied  w i l l p i a n marr iage at a l a t e r age . A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem was e n c o u n t e r e d i n t e s t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . J u d g i n g from the e a r l y ages at which some respondents i n d i c a t e d h a v i n g e n t e r e d a permanent 63 r e l a t i o n s h i p i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t some i n t e r p r e t e d engagemen t s o r l o n g t e r m d a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f o r e x a m p l e , as p e r m a n e n t . The q u e s t i o n , h o w e v e r , was i n t e n d e d t o r e l a t e o n l y t o m a r r i a g e o r c o h a b i t a t i o n . B o t h p a r t s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s were a f f e c t e d by t h i s p r o b l e m . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , must be e x a m i n e d w i t h t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n i n m i n d . No d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d e i t h e r be tween the two g r o u p s o f women o r among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s on m a r i t a l s t a t u s , age o f e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e p a r t n e r s h i p , o r age a t w h i c h t h e u n a t t a c h e d wou ld l i k e t o e n t e r i n t o a pe rmanen t r e l a t i o n s h i p . V e r y few o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d no t w i s h t o e n t e r i n t o a p a r t n e r s h i p and t h e s m a l l e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s p r e c l u d e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . On t h e q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t he i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g a p a r t n e r i n t h e f u t u r e , no g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d ( s ee T a b l e 18 f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s ) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s e v i d e n c e , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be s u p p o r t e d . Howeve r , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o c l a r i f y t h i s i s s u e . H y p o t h e s i s 11 Members o f t he n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p w i l l d e s i r e fewer  c h i l d r e n and w i l l p l a n f ewer i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n t h e i r  c a r e e r s . The mean number o f c h i l d r e n d e s i r e d was f o u n d t o be l o w e r f o r t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l s (M=1.83) t h a n f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s , M = 2 . 3 9 ; t (100) = 2 . 2 8 , p < . 0 5 . When t h e g r o u p o f men was i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s t h e mean o f t h e 64 t r a d i t i o n a l group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than were the means of the o ther two groups (M=1.84 f o r men), which d i d not d i f f e r , F (2/149) = 3 .54, p < . 05 . For t h i s r e s u l t see T a b l e 18. For the l a t t e r p a r t of the h y p o t h e s i s the a n t i c i p a t e d employment s t a t u s of the women was a n a l y s e d at each of the s i x c h i l d age p e r i o d s . Because of the i n f r e q u e n t endorsement of the f u l l time employment c a t e g o r y f o r the f i r s t two age p e r i o d s ( c h i l d l e s s than s i x months, c h i l d aged s i x months to one year ) the f u l l time and p a r t time c a t e g o r i e s were combined f o r a n a l y s i s . A d i f f e r e n c e r e s u l t e d o n l y f o r the p e r i o d "Have a c h i l d aged 1 to 2 y e a r s " , % (2) = 6 .38 , p < .05 , w i t h 64.7% of the t r a d i t i o n a l women p r e f e r r i n g to not be employed v e r s u s 52.6% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women (see T a b l e 19). I n s p e c t i o n of T a b l e 19 shows that, few men p l a n to l i m i t or d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r employment p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g any c h i l d age p e r i o d . ' ' , ' The comparison of the two groups of women p r o v i d e s some support f o r the h y p o t h e s i s . These r e s u l t s r e l a t e to c a r e e r commitment. The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p ' s lower mean number of c h i l d r e n d e s i r e d may be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of g r e a t e r commitment to c a r e e r . However, when one l o o k s at d e s i r e d employment s t a t u s a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of both groups of women p l a n to d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r c a r e e r s to a t t e n d to c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . C o l e (1981) and White (1970) have both sugges ted that gaps i n c a r e e r 65 p a r t i c i p a t i o n have d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on advancement. These r e s u l t s may i n d i c a t e t h a t the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women are l e s s committed to t h e i r c a r e e r s than are men. I t i s a l s o n o t a b l e t h a t few men i n d i c a t e that they w i l l d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r c a r e e r s w h i l e most of the women expected t h a t they w i l l . I t i s c l e a r that women assume that they w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d c a r e . Men a l s o assume t h a t t h i s i s the woman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Women and men do not appear to be p l a n n i n g s i m i l a r c a r e e r c o u r s e s . T h i s w i l l be. d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r under H y p o t h e s i s 12. H y p o t h e s i s 12 Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l be more  l i b e r a l i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of t h e i r d e s i r e d m a r i t a l  r o l e . The seventeen q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g housework, employment, and c h i l d r e a r i n g a s p e c t s of marr iage were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The s c a l e f o r these items ranged from 1=disagree s t r o n g l y to 6=agree s t r o n g l y . For the two groups of women the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s f a i l e d to r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e ; For the t h r e e •group a n a l y s i s the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n was z. s i g n i f i c a n t , % (34) = 96 .74 , p < . 01 , w i t h 64.1% of the cases c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . T a b l e s 20 and 21 c o n t a i n the c o e f f i c i e n t s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a b l e s . For the women, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found on the i tem "I i n t e n d to be employed a l l of my a d u l t l i f e " , 66 t (104) = - 2 . 3 7 , p < .05 , w i t h more members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=4.16) than the t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=3.42) a g r e e i n g w i t h t h i s s ta tement . Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group agreed more w i t h "I do not expect to do a l l h o u s e h o l d t a s k s m y s e l f " , t (103) = -1.96, 2 < .05 . The means f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups were 5.13 and 5 .52 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group a l s o showed g r e a t e r endorsement of the items "I expect my p a r t n e r to h e l p w i t h the housework" , t (104) = - 2 . 6 5 , p_ < . 0 1 ; M=5.17 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=5.62 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , and "I expect my p a r t n e r to do 50% of the housework" , t (104) = - 2 . 4 8 , 2 < . 0 1 ; M=3.73 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l group, M=4.45 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group a l s o agreed more w i t h the s ta tements "I would marry o n l y i f i t d i d not i n t e r f e r e w i t h my c a r e e r " , t: (.102) = - 1 . 7 3 , 2 < . 05 ; M=2.33 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=2.84 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , and "I would f o r e g o c h i l d r e n i f they would i n t e r f e r e w i t h my c a r e e r " , t. (101) = - 2 . 6 4 , p < -01 ; M=1.94 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=2.73 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p . H y p o t h e s i s twelve r e c e i v e d p a r t i a l s u p p o r t . The two groups of women are s i m i l a r i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of the d e s i r e to share c h i l d r e a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h t h e i r p a r t n e r s . However, when the r e s u l t s d i s c u s s e d under H y p o t h e s i s 11 are c o n s i d e r e d w i t h t h i s t h e r e i s an apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The women s t a t e d 67 that they p l a n n e d to d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r c a r e e r s to a t t e n d to c h i l d c a r e . T h i s would i n d i c a t e that they do not t r u l y expect e q u a l s h a r i n g of these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women were more concerned than t r a d i t i o n a l women w i t h a t t a i n i n g an e q u a l d i v i s i o n of domest ic l a b o u r . T h i s may r e f l e c t t h e i r concern w i t h a v o i d i n g a p o s i t i o n where they would assume unequal demands f o r two r o l e s i n marr iage ( i . e . f i n a n c i a l support and housework) . Support f o r g r e a t e r c a r e e r commitment on the p a r t of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women can be seen from t h i s g r o u p ' s g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s to f o r e g o marr iage and c h i l d b e a r i n g and t h e i r g r e a t e r endorsement of c o n t i n u o u s c a r e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t h o o d . When the men were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s e s a d i f f e r e n c e was a g a i n seen on "I i n t e n d to be employed a l l of my a d u l t l i f e " , F (2,155) = 6 .68, p < . 0 1 . The means of the men (M=4.56) and the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women d i f f e r e d from t h a t f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l women but d i d not d i f f e r from each o t h e r . A d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o found on the i tem "I do not expect to do a l l h o u s e h o l d t a s k s m y s e l f " , F (2,155) = 2 .37 , p < .10 , M=5.17 f o r men, but no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were i n d i c a t e d by the post hoc c o m p a r i s o n s . A l s o , "I expect my p a r t n e r to h e l p w i t h the housework" showed d i f f e r e n c e s , F (2,156) = 3 .49 , p < .05 , w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l groups d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y whereas the men (M=5.43) d i d not d i f f e r from 68 e i t h e r . The same p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s was found f o r "I expect my p a r t n e r to do 50% of the housework" , F (2,153) = 3 .29 , p < .05 , M=4.24 f o r the men. On the item "I would forego c h i l d r e n i f they would i n t e r f e r e w i t h my c a r e e r " the t r a d i t i o n a l women were found to d i s a g r e e more w i t h t h i s i tem than were the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women and the men (M=2.60) who d i d not d i f f e r , F (2,150) = 4.1.2, p < . 05 . D i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o found on some of the items f o r which no d i f f e r e n c e s had been found between the two groups of women. Men were found to agree somewhat more s t r o n g l y w i t h "I expect my p a r t n e r to do most of the housework" , F (2,153) = 16.28, p < . 0 1 . The means were 1.60 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women, 1.62 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l women, and 2.67 f o r the men. Men, s i m i l a r l y , agreed somewhat more w i t h the statement "I . expect my p a r t n e r to do most of the c h i l d r e a r i n g t a s k s " , F (2,149) = 25 .70 , p < . 0 1 . A g a i n , the means of the t r a d i t i o n a l (M=1.53) and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l (M=1.51) women d i f f e r e d from the men's (M=2.90). Some d i f f e r e n c e was found on the item "I t h i n k the most important t h i n g f o r a woman i s ' to be a good w i f e and m o t h e r " , F (2,155) = 2 .76 , p < .10 , but post hoc comparisons r e v e a l e d no mean d i f f e r e n c e s (M=2.72 f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group, 2.77 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , and 3.40 f o r the men). A d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o seen on the item "I t h i n k the most important t h i n g f o r a man i s to be a good husband and f a t h e r " , F (2,155) = 5 .20 , p < . 01 , w i t h 69 the men, as a g r o u p , a g r e e i n g more w i t h t h i s statement (M=4.13) than the t r a d i t i o n a l (M=3.29) or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l (M=3.17) g r o u p s , which d i d not d i f f e r (see T a b l e 22 ) . A g a i n , as the r e s u l t s of H y p o t h e s i s 11 s u g g e s t e d , men are l e s s w i l l i n g than women to assume equal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r domestic t a s k s i n m a r r i a g e . A l t h o u g h women may see e q u a l i t y as d e s i r a b l e i t cannot be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t the c o o p e r a t i o n of t h e i r p a r t n e r s . H y p o t h e s i s 13 Members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group w i l l have h i g h e r  academic a v e r a g e s , completed more grade twelve l e v e l  mathematics and s c i e n c e s c o u r s e s , a c h i e v i n g h i g h e r grades  i n these c o u r s e s . No d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the groups of women on any of these v a r i a b l e s . In the t h r e e group a n a l y s e s t h e . o n l y d i f f e r e n c e noted was t h a t the mean mathematics average f o r men (M=1.83) was h i g h e r than the means of e i t h e r group of women (M=2.27, f o r the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women,- M=2.35 f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l women), who d i d not d i f f e r , F (2,115) = 3 .88 , p < . 0 5 . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was not s u p p o r t e d (see T a b l e 23) . The r o l e of a b i l i t y i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g needs more thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The measures used to t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s were v e r y g l o b a l i n n a t u r e . Even i f i t i s assumed t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were a c c u r a t e i n r e p o r t i n g t h e i r g r a d e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e that more s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s p l a y a r o l e i n c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . Courses taken at the 70 secondary s c h o o l l e v e l p a r t l y determine what o p t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e f o r u n i v e r s i t y programmes. Some women may choose t r a d i t i o n a l female f i e l d s of s tudy because they l a c k p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r o ther c o u r s e s or because they d i d not e x c e l i n some s u b j e c t s ( e . g . mathematics) at the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l . Research has r e c e n t l y f o c u s e d on mathematics as an important determinant of c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s (Pedro , W o l l e a t , & Fennema, 1981). I t has been sugges ted that inadequate mathematics t r a i n i n g c h a n n e l s many women i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . T h i s warrants more i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Other a b i l i t i e s s h o u l d a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Some women may e n t e r f i e l d s l i k e e lementary e d u c a t i o n because of s t r e n g t h i n v e r b a l s k i l l s . A b i l i t i e s and p e r c e p t i o n s of a b i l i t i e s may p l a y a key r o l e i n c a r e e r c h o i c e . Other v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t The r e s p o n d e n t s ' f u t u r e p l a n s were a l s o e v a l u a t e d by examining what they thought they would be d o i n g at each of f o u r time p e r i o d s . S m a l l expected c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s n e c e s s i t a t e d the c o l l a p s i n g of c a t e g o r i e s . For the f i r s t p e r i o d ( f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n of the degree now b e i n g pursued) the c a t e g o r i e s : Employment, F u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , and Other p l a n s were a n a l y s e d . No d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t e d . For the r e m a i n i n g p e r i o d s ( f i v e , t e n , and twenty y e a r s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of the degree) the c a t e g o r i e s : Employment ( f u l l or p a r t t ime) and Other p l a n s ( i n c l u d i n g undecided)" were a n a l y s e d . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s seen were a t ten 71 years beyond c o m p l e t i o n of the d e g r e e . For the two groups of women 74.1% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women expected to be employed v e r s u s . 52.1% of the t r a d i t i o n a l women, (1 ) = 5 .55 , p < . 05 . In the t h r e e group a n a l y s i s i t was found t h a t 73.6% Of the men a n t i c i p a t e d b e i n g employed, % (2) = 7 .23 , p < . 05 . These r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 24 to 27. T h i s sugges ts that the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women are as committed to long term c a r e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as men a r e . The d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups of women suggests that the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women are more c e r t a i n about t h e i r c a r e e r p l a n s i n that they b e l i e v e they w i l l be i n the l a b o u r f o r c e ten years f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of t h e i r d e g r e e . When the women's p l a n s are examined i t i s n o t a b l e that few i n d i c a t e d that they would be s t a y i n g at home w i t h c h i l d r e n . When t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d w i t h the r e s u l t s of Hypotheses 11 and 12 t h e r e appears to be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . T h i s c o u l d suggest that these women have not thought about the p o s s i b l e problems r e l a t e d to c o o r d i n a t i n g c a r e e r and f a m i l y r o l e s . For f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , ^ (4) = 28 .09 , p < . 01 , was found between the two groups of women. T h i s was h i g h l i g h t e d by 45.0% of the t r a d i t i o n a l women p l a n n i n g no f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n i n comparison to 19.6% of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p . T h i s suggests t h a t some women may choose t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s 72 b e c a u s e t h e y a r e m o t i v a t e d t o e n t e r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e s o o n e r t h a n a r e women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , women w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s may have made a t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n w i l l i n g t o p u r s u e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were f o u n d i n t h e t h r e e g r o u p a n a l y s i s , %• (8) = 5 0 . 9 3 , 2 < . 0 1 , w i t h o n l y 1 0 . 0 % o f t h e men p l a n n i n g no f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . I t i s p e r h a p s more r e l e v a n t t o compare t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women t o t h e men on t h i s v a r i a b l e s i n c e t h e s e two g r o u p s a r e p r e s u m a b l y p l a n n i n g s i m i l a r c a r e e r c o u r s e s . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e , 7~ (4) = 8 . 3 2 , p < .10, w i t h 4 2 . 0 % o f t h e men and 19.6% o f t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p a s p i r i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . A l t h o u g h some women a r e a s p i r i n g t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s t h e y a r e no t a s p i r i n g t o t h e same c a r e e r s a s men a r e . T h e s e women a r e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g ( e . g . l a w , m e d i c i n e ) and somewhat more f r e q u e n t l y p l a n n i n g p o s t g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 8 . F i n a l l y , t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f c a r e e r and f a m i l y commi tmen t s was e x a m i n e d . I t em 49 was o f i n t e r e s t h e r e ( t he end p o i n t s o f t h e s c a l e were i = " f a m i l y - much more i m p o r t a n t " a n d 6 = " c a r e e r much more i m p o r t a n t " ) . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p (M=2.91) p l a c e d r e l a t i v e l y more w e i g h t on c a r e e r t h a n . d i d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M = 2 . 1 1 ; t (101) = - 3 . 2 4 , 2 < T n e t h r e e g r o u p 73 comparison a l s o reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F (2,152) = 5 .07, p < . 01 , w i t h the two groups of women a g a i n d i f f e r i n g w h i l e the men (M=2.48) d i d not d i f f e r from e i t h e r g r o u p . T h i s r e s u l t c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women p e r c e i v e t h e i r c a r e e r s to be of g r e a t e r importance i n t h e i r f u t u r e than do the t r a d i t i o n a l women. Howevever, the means i n d i c a t e that a l l t h r e e groups b e l i e v e f a m i l y to be more important than c a r e e r . For q u e s t i o n s 50 and 51, r e l a t i n g to p e r c e i v e d importance of f a m i l y and employment to p a r e n t s , the word " j o b " was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r " c a r e e r " on the s c a l e p o i n t s . The n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=2.48) a l s o p e r c e i v e d that employment was of r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r importance to t h e i r f a t h e r s than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p , M=2.39; t (98) = - 2 . 5 6 , p < . 05 . D i f f e r e n c e s between the three groups were f o u n d , F .(2,147) = 3 .30 , p < .0.5, w i t h the two groups of women d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y w h i l e the men's mean (M=2.92) d i d not d i f f e r from the o ther two. .The. members of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group (M=1.83) were a l s o found to p e r c e i v e t h a t employment was r e l a t i v e l y more important to t h e i r mothers than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l group, M=1.38; t (104) = - 2 . 0 3 , p < .05 . No d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the t h r e e group a n a l y s i s . The d i f f e r e n c e f o r the two groups of women w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r mothers must be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y when one c o n s i d e r s that the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women's mothers g e n e r a l l y were more o f t e n employed. These r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 29. 74 The f i n d i n g that the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l group p e r c e i v e d both of t h e i r p a r e n t s to be more concerned w i t h t h e i r jobs than d i d the t r a d i t i o n a l group may r e f l e c t f a m i l i a l concern w i t h employment r e l a t e d a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s c o u l d a l s o suggest tha t the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women were r e l a t i v e l y more aware of the demands of employment. L i m i t a t i o n s of r e s e a r c h on c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s Research to date on the t o p i c of women's c a r e e r p l a n n i n g has l a c k e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r e c i s i o n . One l i n e of r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on women who have g a i n e d e n t r y i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . If the major concern of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to examine the p r o c e s s of c a r e e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n , one i s f a c e d w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n of r e t r o s p e c t i v e e v i d e n c e . T h i s may be c o l o u r e d ' by i n c o m p l e t e or i n a c c u r a t e r e c o l l e c t i o n s . r e s u l t i n g from the passage of time a n d / o r a d u l t achievement e x p e r i e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s e v i d e n c e i s d a t e d . Women are no l o n g e r expec ted to assume p r i m a r i l y domest ic o r i e n t a t i o n s i n a d u l t h o o d . More r o l e models are a v a i l a b l e to contemporary women and c h a n g i n g s o c i a l r o l e s have c r e a t e d an atmosphere i n which c a r e e r achievement i s more l i k e l y than i t was i n the p a s t . R e s e a r c h examining the c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s of young women a v o i d s these l i m i t a t i o n s but p r e s e n t s d i f f e r e n t s h o r t c o m i n g s . If the g o a l of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to 75 determine how some women a r r i v e at n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s i t cannot be reached by i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a s p i r a t i o n a l stage a l o n e . Some, perhaps many, young women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s w i l l l e a v e t h e i r c a r e e r paths and choose more t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s . A l s o , as C o l e (1981) has a s s e r t e d , even at the stage of c o m p l e t i n g formal e d u c a t i o n the c a r e e r c o u r s e i s o n l y s t a r t i n g . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s r e s t r i c t e d by the f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t a l s o l i m i t e d by the range of p a r t i c i p a n t s s t u d i e d . C h o i c e of u n i v e r s i t y major i s an important determinant of the range of a v a i l a b l e c a r e e r c o u r s e s . A broader range of d i s c i p l i n e s s h o u l d be tapped to i n v e s t i g a t e c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s more t h o r o u g h l y . T h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o i s l i m i t e d by the ins t rument u s e d . S e l f r e p o r t data are p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t a m i n a t e d by response s t y l e and . s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . . It . i s a l s o p o s s i b l e . t h a t some items were not s e n s i t i v e enough to measure t r u e d i f f e r e n c e s . . Q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s were of r e s t r i c t e d u t i l i t y because of t h e i r p a r t l y r e t r o s p e c t i v e n a t u r e . C o n c l u s i o n s based upon l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h c o u l d a v o i d many of these l i m i t a t i o n s . By examining groups of i n d i v i d u a l s , b e g i n n i n g i n c h i l d h o o d , one. c o u l d d i r e c t l y observe and measure p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s and a t t i t u d e s . I t would a l s o be p o s s i b l e to i n v e s t i g a t e a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and the e d u c a t i o n a l and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s that p l a y a p a r t i n the c h o i c e of c a r e e r g o a l s . 76 By f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c a r e e r i t would be p o s s i b l e to determine which i n d i v i d u a l s a t t a i n success and which a l t e r t h e i r c a r e e r c o u r s e s . T h i s c o u l d permit the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the b a r r i e r s that d i s c o u r a g e or b l o c k women's c a r e e r c o u r s e s . T h i s type of r e s e a r c h would a l s o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r e x a m i n a t i o n of men's c a r e e r development . However, even l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s are of l i m i t e d u s e . T h e i r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d to the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n which they were c o n d u c t e d . O b t a i n e d r e s u l t s may be of h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e or may generate hypotheses f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h but r e s u l t s are of l i m i t e d p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t would be d i f f i c u l t , at b e s t , to f o r m u l a t e a t h e o r e t i c a l framework e x p l a i n i n g women's c a r e e r c h o i c e s . Career p l a n n i n g i s l i k e l y a f f e c t e d by economic t r e n d s ( a v a i l a b i l t y of f u n d i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of employment i n c e r t a i n , f i e l d s ) and by s o c i a l t r e n d s (the r o l e of women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e , the modal d i v i s i o n of domestic l a b o u r ) 4 These f a c t o r s are not s t a t i c and must be c o n s i d e r e d as important v a r i a b l e s i n the p r o c e s s of c a r e e r development . Thus at p r e s e n t a c o m b i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s seems a d v i s a b l e i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g women's c a r e e r c h o i c e s . In s p i t e of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , c l e a r cut d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the groups under s tudy on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s paper d e a l s w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of these d i f f e r e n c e s . 77 D i s c u s s i o n I t i s important to note that over h a l f the women s t u d i e d a s p i r e d to c a r e e r s t h a t have been male dominated i n the p a s t . T h i s may i n d i c a t e that women no longer view c a r e e r s as l a r g e l y m a s c u l i n e endeavours and t h a t the b a r r i e r s to t h e i r access are no l o n g e r as f o r m i d a b l e as O ' L e a r y (1974) s u g g e s t e d . The p o s s i b i l i t y a l s o looms that the s t u d e n t s i n v e s t i g a t e d have u n r e a l i s t i c n o t i o n s about the ease w i t h which f a m i l y and c a r e e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s can be combined . The women s t u d i e d do not appear to have c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d the e f f e c t s of c a r e e r d i s r u p t i o n on t h e i r c a r e e r c o u r s e s . They i n d i c a t e , on one hand, tha t they d e s i r e an e q u a l p a r t n e r s h i p i n marr iage but they a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t they w i l l s t a y at home f u l l time when t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e i n f a n t s . The men i n the s tudy (who are l i k e l y s i m i l a r to the men these women w i l l marry) i n d i c a t e d a somewhat more t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n of t h e i r d e s i r e d m a r i t a l r o l e s . The men were somewhat more . i n favour of t h e i r p a r t n e r s assuming the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r housework and c h i l d c a r e . Which a t t i t u d e w i l l p r e v a i l i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m a r i t a l r o l e s ? Other r e s e a r c h e r s (Meissner et a l . , 1974; W i l l i a m s et a l . , 1980) have found that wives p e r f o r m the m a j o r i t y of domest ic d u t i e s even i n d u a l c a r e e r m a r r i a g e s . The c o n s t r a i n t s of domest ic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s can g r e a t l y l i m i t such c a r e e r r e l a t e d 78 a c t i v i t i e s as t r a v e l and working l o n g , i r r e g u l a r h o u r s . C u r t a i l e d c a r e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d , i n t u r n , be viewed as r e f l e c t i n g l a c k of c a r e e r commitment or l a c k of a m b i t i o n . Women who are s i n g l e a n d / o r c h i l d l e s s may b e l i e v e that they w i l l be a b l e to cope w i t h the s t r a i n s of a d u a l c a r e e r marr iage and p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . However,, when a c t u a l l y f a c e d w i t h these d i f f i c u l t i e s they may not be a b l e to s u s t a i n t h e i r c a r e e r commitment. L o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h c o u l d determine i f women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s reach t h e i r goals, and s u s t a i n t h e i r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d that men's and women's c o n c e p t i o n s of a d u l t r o l e s are c h a n g i n g . The expected a d u l t r o l e s of the sexes may be a p p r o a c h i n g e q u a l i t y i n terms of both domestic and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . If s o c i e t y i s a p p r o a c h i n g a more androgynous c o n c e p t i o n of a d u l t r o l e s both men's and women's o c c u p a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l change . Kanter (1977) has suggested t h a t employment and f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n a l l y have been viewed as separa te domains f o r men. Changing s o c i a l r o l e s w i l l demand the acknowledgement of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of these domains . T h i s c o u l d b r i n g about changes i n employment that would f a c i l i t a t e the s h a r i n g of f i n a n c i a l and domest ic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n m a r r i a g e . F l e x i b l e working h o u r s , job s h a r i n g , p a r t time p o s i t i o n s i n male dominated f i e l d s , and on s i t e day c a r e would h e l p reduce 79 the n e c e s s i t y of d i f f e r e n t r o l e s f o r men and women. These changes , however, have not yet o c c u r r e d . The women i n the p r e s e n t s tudy are p r o b a b l y o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c i n t h e i r b e l i e f tha t they can a c h i e v e s t a t u s equal to t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s i n m a r r i a g e . I t i s a l s o important to q u e s t i o n the r e a l i s m of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women's p l a n s i n terms of academic p r e p a r a t i o n . While an i n d i v i d u a l may a s p i r e to enter a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l or graduate programme t h e r e are few a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t r a i n i n g or employment i f academic s t a n d i n g i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h . Inadequate academic p r e p a r a t i o n may prevent an i n d i v i d u a l from g a i n i n g access to a d e s i r e d f i e l d . For example, an i n d i v i d u a l who seeks a c a r e e r as a b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e may e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a c h i n g t h i s g o a l w i t h o n l y a background i n g e n e r a l A r t s . F u r t h e r , i t i s l i k e l y that women w i t h such a background would encounter more o b s t a c l e s than men w i t h a s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d . A- 1 more . s t r i n g e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of academic p r e p a r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to take account of the r e a l i s m of f u t u r e g o a l s . A recent survey of the c a r e e r s of u n i v e r s i t y educated men and women two y e a r s a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981) r e v e a l e d t h a t many A r t s g r a d u a t e s were employed i n p o s i t i o n s that were u n r e l a t e d to t h e i r f i e l d of s tudy and that o f t e n d i d not r e q u i r e a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e . G i v e n that the m a j o r i t y of women i n the p r e s e n t s tudy were i n A r t s i t i s l i k e l y t h a t some w i l l end up i n 80 j o b s t h a t a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t fewer women than men a t t a i n p o s t g r a d u a t e degrees ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1978). A l t h o u g h women r e c e i v e n e a r l y h a l f of the B a c h e l o r ' s degrees g r a n t e d , l e s s than one t h i r d of M a s t e r ' s degrees and l e s s than one f i f t h of D o c t o r a l degrees a r e g r a n t e d t o women. I t i s c l e a r t h a t women g e n e r a l l y t e r m i n a t e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n sooner than men. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t some women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s w i l l not complete the e d u c a t i o n a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h e i r chosen c a r e e r . Even f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of e d u c a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r b e g i n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o p e r s i s t i n or d e r t o advance and become e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r f i e l d s . One cannot s i m p l y complete law s c h o o l , f o r example, s t a y home f o r f i v e y e a r s , and then b e g i n a c a r e e r . An i n d i v i d u a l may be w e l l over t h i r t y y e a r s of age by the time she or he i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n a c a r e e r . Many women may b e l i v e t h a t t h i s i s too o l d t o b e g i n c h i l d b e a r i n g . As l o n g as women a r e p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d c a r e most w i l l be unable t o e s t a b l i s h c a r e e r s the same way men do. T h i s s t u d y has d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h - i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s . I t s h o u l d not be thought t h a t t h e s e a s p e c t s a l o n e a r e t h e i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s of c a r e e r c h o i c e . E x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s can a l s o p l a y a major p a r t i n d i s c o u r a g i n g women. Men's a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s can cause some women t o r e t r e a t from n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . S e x u a l harassment, d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t r e a t m e n t , f o r m a l and 81 i n f o r m a l e x c l u s i o n from d i s c u s s i o n and d e c i s i o n making are some f a c t o r s that can p o t e n t i a l l y d i s c o u r a g e or b l o c k women. In some cases women's b e l i e f s about how they w i l l be t r e a t e d on the job (even i f these b e l i e f s are unfounded) may serve as a d e t e r r e n t to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . In o ther cases women may not be aware of e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s u n t i l they enter the l a b o u r f o r c e . L i t t l e i s known about the i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s of c a r e e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( C o l e , 1981). I t i s p o s s i b l e that women are not a f f o r d e d the same o p p o r t u n i t i e s as men f o r i n f o r m a l d i s c o u r s e or r e s e a r c h a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s w i t h i n academic s e t t i n g s , f o r example. Women have much to g a i n by e n t e r i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . They b e n e f i t p e r s o n a l l y through the c h a l l e n g e of a demanding c a r e e r . They have s t a b l e , adequate incomes and b e n e f i t s tha t grant f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . This , p r e p a r e s them f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i v o r c e or widowhood ( D o w l i n g , 1981). Women.wi l l c o n t r i b u t e more- to f i e l d s ( p o l i t i c s , law, m e d i c i n e , s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , e t c . ) , as t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n these f i e l d s i n c r e a s e s . G r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these f i e l d s w i l l g i v e women more of a v o i c e i n p o l i c y making i n both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r . R e s e a r c h i s needed on f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to women's c a r e e r p e r s i s t e n c e . The number of women e n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l programmes ( e . g . law and m e d i c i n e ) has r i s e n i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The c a r e e r c o u r s e s of these 82 women are s t i l l unknown. C o l e (1981) a s s e r t s that the c a r e e r c o u r s e i s -only b e g i n n i n g at the c o m p l e t i o n of formal e d u c a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n i s needed to h e l p encourage young women who a s p i r e to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s . I t i s a l s o important to have i n f o r m a t i o n that w i l l a i d p r o f e s s i o n a l women i n s u s t a i n i n g t h e i r c a r e e r i n v o l v e m e n t . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of women's e n t r y i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l b l u e c o l l a r jobs i s needed. The m a j o r i t y of r e s e a r c h on women's v o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r has f o c u s e d on u n i v e r s i t y educated women (Lemkau, 1979), n e g l e c t i n g the l a r g e number of women whose formal e d u c a t i o n does not p r o c e e d a l o n g t h i s c o u r s e . The e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d here suggests that women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t i n some ways from those w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , but i n many ways the two. groups are s i m i l a r . . The women s t u d i e d showed commitment to employment and they i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r e q u a l i t y i n t h e i r m a r i t a l r o l e s . I f these r e s u l t s foreshadow f u t u r e t r e n d s i n employment p a r t i c i p a t i o n and m a r i t a l r o l e s i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to reexamine both men's and women's c a r e e r p a t h s . These r e s u l t s cannot be taken to suggest tha t sweeping changes have o c c u r r e d . What they do suggest i s that women are c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of c a r e e r s i n f i e l d s t h a t have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a s c u l i n e domains . T h i s i s a c r u c i a l f i r s t s t e p toward d e s e g r e g a t i n g employment. These r e s u l t s a l s o suggest tha t women a n d , to some e x t e n t , men are coming" to view m a r r i a g e 83 as an e q u a l s h a r i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s i s a n e c e s s a r y s t e p to permit women to i n v e s t the time and energy e s s e n t i a l f o r c a r e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and advancement. A s h i f t can be seen from the b i p o l a r n o t i o n of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y ( e . g . Gough, 1964) toward a r e c o g n i t i o n of these as independent d imensions (Bern, 1974). No l o n g e r i s a women who has s t r o n g c a r e e r commitment c o n s i d e r e d to be a d e v i a n t who has r e j e c t e d her f e m i n i n i t y . She e x h i b i t s both i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s . From t h i s p o i n t changes i n assumptions about both men and women are i n o r d e r . Both sexes are showing g r e a t e r freedom from the apparent c o n s t r a i n t s of gender r o l e s . In the f u t u r e both men and women w i l l be f r e e r to adopt a more androgynous o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s w i l l a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l s to choose from a •variety of a d u l t . l i f e s t y l e s ; . r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l g e n d e r . I t i s now becoming c o r r e c t to view such a c t i v i t i e s as employment and c h i l d r e a r i n g as a d u l t endeavours r a t h e r than v i e w i n g them as gender a p p r o p r i a t e . In the f u t u r e more changes w i l l l i k e l y occur that w i l l d i m i n i s h the importance of gender as a d e t e r m i n a n t of a d u l t o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . 84 R e f e r e n c e s A g a s s i , J . B . The q u a l i t y of women's working l i f e . In D . O . J e w e l l ( E d . ) , Women and management: An expanding r o l e . A t l a n t a : G e o r g i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977. A l m q u i s t , E . M . , & A n g r i s t , S . S . C a r e e r s a l i e n c e and a t y p i c a l i t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e among c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l of M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y , 1970, 32, 242-249. A l m q u i s t , E . M . , & A n g r i s t , S . S . Role model i n f l u e n c e s on c o l l e g e women's c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . M e r r i 1 1 - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 1971, YT_, 263-279. A l t m a n , S . L . , & Grossman, F . K . C a r e e r p l a n s and m a t e r n a l employment. Psychology of Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, j_, 365-375. A n g r i s t , S . S . , & A l m q u i s t , E . M . C a r e e r s and  coat ingenc i e s . New Y o r k : D u n e l l e n , 1975. A t h a n a s s i a d e s , J . C . The i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the female s t e r e o t y p e by . c o l l e g e women. Human - R e l a t i o n s , 1 977, 30, 187-199. A u s t e r , C . J . , & A u s t e r , D . F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g women's c h o i c e of n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r s : The r o l e of f a m i l y , p e e r s , and c o u n s e l o r s . V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1981, 29, 253-263. 85 B a r t o l , K . M . , & B u t t e r f i e I d , D . A . Sex e f f e c t s i n e v a l u a t i n g l e a d e r s . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 6 , 6J_, 4 4 6 - 4 5 4 . B a r u c h , G . K . M a t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s upon c o l l e g e women's a t t i t u d e s toward women and work. Developmental P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 6, 3 2 - 3 7 . B a r u c h , G . K . G i r l s who p e r c e i v e themselves as competent : Some a n t e c e d e n t s and c o r r e l a t e s . P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 6 , J_, 3 8 - 4 9 . B a s s , B . M . , K r u s e l l , J . , & A l e x a n d e r , R . A . Male managers' a t t i t u d e s toward working women. American B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 1 9 7 1 , j_5, 2 2 1 - 2 3 6 . Bern, S . L . The measurement of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 4 , 4 2 , 1 5 5 - 1 6 2 . B i l e s , G . E . , &. P r y a t e l , H . A . M y t h s , management and women.. P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 8 , 5_7, 5 7 2 - 5 7 7 . B l i s h e n , B..R. , & M c R o b e r t s , H.A. . A r e v i s e d soc ioeconomic index f o r o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada . Canadian Review of S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 1 9 7 6 , j_3, 7 1 - 7 9 . Blocks J . H . C o n c e p t i o n s of sex r o l e s : Some c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1 9 7 3 , 2 8 , 5 1 2 - 5 2 6 . 86 B r o v e r m a n , I .K . , V o g e l , S.R.., B r o v e r m a n , D .M . , C l a r k s o n , F . E . , & R o s e n c r a n t z , P . S . S e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s : A c u r r e n t a p p r a i s a l . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1972, 28., 59-78. C e c i l , E i A . , P a u l , R.J-., t O l i n s , R .A . P e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e o f s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s u s e d t o e v a l u a t e ma le and f e m a l e j o b a p p l i c a n t s . P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, 26, 397-404. C o l e , J . R . Women i n s c i e n c e . A m e r i c a n S c i e n t i s t , 1981, 69, 385-391. C o p l i n , J . W . , & W i l l i a m s , J . E . Women law s t u d e n t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s e l f and t h e i d e a l l a w y e r . P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 2, 323-333. C r a n d a l l , V . C . , & B a t t l e , E . S . The a n t e c e d e n t s and a d u l t c o r r e l a t e s o f a c a d e m i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t . M i n n e s o t a S y m p o s i a on C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t ( V o l . 4 ) , 1970. D o u v a n , E . The r o l e o f m o d e l s i n women 's p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P s y c h o l o g y o f Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1976, J_, 5-20. D o u v a n , E . , & A d e l s o n , J . The a d o l e s c e n t e x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1966. D o w l i n g , C . The C i n d e r e l l a c o m p l e x . New Y o r k : Summi t , 1981 . 87 F r a n k , H . H . , & K a t c h e r , A . H . The q u a l i t i e s of l e a d e r s h i p : How male m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s e v a l u a t e t h e i r female p e e r s . Human R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 7 7 , 3 0 , 4 0 3 - 4 1 6 . Gough, H . G . Manual f o r the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : C o n s u l t i n g . P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . . H a n d l e y , H . M . , & H i c k s o n , J . F . Background and c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s of women w i t h mathemat ica l a p t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 8 , J_3, 2 5 5 - 2 6 2 . H e i l b r u n , A . B . Sex r o l e i d e n t i t y and achievement m o t i v a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1 9 6 3 , J_2, 4 8 3 - 4 9 0 . H e i l b r u n , A . B . Parent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and f i l i a l s e x - r o l e b e h a v i o r : The importance of the b i o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t . Nebraska Symposium on M o t i v a t i o n ( V o l . 2 1 ) . L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 . H e i l b r u n , A . B . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the f a t h e r and sex r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the d a u g h t e r . The F a m i l y • C o o r d i n a t o r , 1 9 7 6 , 2 5 , 4 1 1 - 4 1 6 . H e l s o n , R. Women mathemat ic ians and the c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , 3 6 , 2 1 0 - 2 2 0 . H e n n i g , M. , & J a r d i m , A . The m a n a g e r i a l woman.. Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : Anchor P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 . 88 Hoffman, L . W. E a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s and women's achievement m o t i v e . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1972, 28, 129-155. Hoffman, L . W. M a t e r n a l employment:1979. American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1979, 34, 859-865. H o r n e r , M. Toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d c o n f l i c t s i n women. J o u r n a l of S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1972, 28, 157-175. J a c k s o n , D . N . P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form M a n u a l . Goshen, New Y o r k : Research P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , 1974. Kagan, J . , & Moss, H . A . B i r t h to m a t u r i t y ' : A s tudy i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1962. R a n t e r , R. M. Work and f a m i l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : A c r i t i c a l review and agenda f o r r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage, 1977. K i p n . i s , D . M . . Inner d i r e c t i o n , o ther d i r e c t i o n and achievement m o t i v a t i o n . Human Development , 1974, 17, 321-343. K i p n i s , D . M . I n t e l l i g e n c e , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and achievement o r i e n t a t i o n . In B . B . L l o y d & J . A r c h e r ( E d s . ) , E x p l o r i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1976. Klemmack, D . L . & Edwards, J . N . Women's a c q u i s i t i o n of s t e r e o t y p e d o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . S o c i o l o g y and  S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , 1973, 57, 510-525. 89 Komarovsky, M. C u l t u r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and sex r o l e s : The m a s c u l i n e c a s e . American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , 1 9 7 3 , 7 8 , 8 7 3 - 8 8 4 . K r i g e r , S . F . N ach and p e r c e i v e d p a r e n t a l c h i l d r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s of c a r e e r women and homemakers. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 2 , 2, 4 1 9 - 4 3 2 . Lemkau, J . P . P e r s o n a l i t y and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women i n male -dominated o c c u p a t i o n s : A r e v i e w . P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 9 , 4, 2 2 1 - 2 4 0 . Lenney, E . Women's s e l f c o n f i d e n c e i n achievement s e t t i n g s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1 9 7 7 , 8_4, 1-13. Maccoby, E . E . , & J a c k l i n , C . N . The p s y c h o l o g y of sex d i f f e r e n c e s . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 . M a n l e y , R . O . P a r e n t a l warmth and h o s t i l i t y as r e l a t e d to sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s achievement o r i e n t a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 7 , J_, 2 2 9 - 2 4 6 . Matthews, E . , & Tiedman, D . V . A t t i t u d e s toward c a r e e r and marr iage and the development of l i f e s t y l e i n young women. J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 4 , 11, 3 7 5 - 3 8 4 . M e i s s n e r , M . , Humphreys, E . W . , M e i s , S . M . , & Scheu, W . J . No e x i t f o r w i v e s : S e x u a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r and the c u m u l a t i o n of h o u s e h o l d demands. Review of Canadian  S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 1 9 7 5 , J_2, 4 2 4 - 4 3 9 . 90 Moore, K . M . , & V e r e s , H . C . T r a d i t i o n a l and i n n o v a t i v e c a r e e r p l a n s of two-year c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l of  C o l l e g e Student P e r s o n n e l , 1976, _T7, 34-38. O ' L e a r y , V , E . Some a t t i t u d i n a l b a r r i e r s to o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s in women. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1974, E M , 809-826. O l i v e r , L . W . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to c a r e e r and homemaking o r i e n t a t i o n i n c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l  B e h a v i o r , 1975, 7, 1-12. P a r e l i u s , A . P . Emerging s e x - r o l e a t t i t u d e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and s t r a i n s among c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l of M a r r i a g e  and the F a m i l y , 1975, 37, 146-153. P e d r o , J . D . , W o l l e a t , P . , & Fennema, E . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s and mathematics p l a n s . V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1981, 29, 25-34. P i n e s , A . The i n f l u e n c e of g o a l s on p e o p l e s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of a competent woman. Sex R o l e s , 1979, 5, 71-76 . P r a t h e r , J . Why c a n ' t women be more l i k e men? American  B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 1971, j_5, 172-182. Rand, L , M . , & M i l l e r , A . L . A d e v e l o p m e n t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n i n g of women's c a r e e r and marr iage a t t i t u d e s and l i f e p l a n s . J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l  B e h a v i o r , 1972, 2, 317-331. 91 Ridgeway, C. P a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p a t t e r n s of c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n i n c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1 978 , _1_2 , 1 -1 1 . Rosen, B.C., & A n e s h e n s e l , C.S. The chameleon syndrome: A s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n of the female sex r o l e . J o u r n a l of M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y , 1 9 7 6 , 3J3, 6 0 5 - 6 1 7 . Rosen, B.C., & J e r d e e , T.H. P e r c e i v e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a n a g e r i a l l y r e l e v a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . - Sex R o l e s , 1 9 7 8 , 4, 8 3 7 - 8 4 3 . Rosen, B.C., J e r d e e , T.H., & P r e s t w i c h , T.L. Dual c a r e e r m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t : P o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y m a n a g e r i a l a t t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l of M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y , 1 9 7 5 , 3 7 , 5 6 5 - 5 7 2 . R o s s i , A.S. B a r r i e r s t o the c a r e e r c h o i c e of e n g i n e e r i n g , m e d i c i n e or s c i e n c e among American women. In J.M. Bardwick ( E d . ) , Readings .on the ps y c h o l o g y of women. New York: Harper & Row, 1 9 7 2 . Spence, J.T. The Thematic A p p e r c e p t i o n Test and a t t i t u d e s toward achievement i n women: A new loo k a t the motive t o a v o i d s u c c e s s and a new method of measurement. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 4 , 4 2 , 4 2 7 - 4 3 7 . S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Demography D i v i s i o n . O c c u p a t i o n s by  sex f o r Canada and the p r o v i n c e s . Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1 9 7 4 . 92 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e , and C u l t u r e D i v i s i o n . From the s i x t i e s to the e i g h t i e s a  s t a t i s t i c a l p o r t r a i t of Canadian h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Ot tawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1978. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Demography D i v i s i o n . C a n a d a ' s female  l a b o u r f o r c e . Ot tawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1980. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e , and C u l t u r e D i v i s i o n . Job market r e a l i t y f o r p o s t s e c o n d a r y  g r a d u a t e s . Ot tawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. S t e i n , A . H . The e f f e c t s of m a t e r n a l employment and e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t on the s e x - t y p e d a t t r i b u t e s of c o l l e g e f e m a l e s . S o c i a l B e h a v i o r and P e r s o n a l i t y , 1973, 1 , 111-114. S t e i n , A . H . , & B a i l e y , M . M . The s o c i a l i z a t i o n of achievement o r i e n t a t i o n i n f e m a l e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l  B u l l e t i n , 1973, 80, 345-366. Super , D . E . S e l f c o n c e p t s i n v o c a t i o n a l development . In D . E . Super ( E d . ) , Career development : S e l f concept  t h e o r y . P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n B o a r d , 1963. T e r b o r g , J . R . Women i n management: A r e s e a r c h r e v i e w . J o u r n a l ' of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1977, 62, 647-664. T e r b o r g , J . R . , & I l g e n , D . R . A t h e o r e t i c a l approach to sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a s c u l i n e o c c u p a t i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r and Human . P e r f o r m a n c e , 1975, 13, 352-376. 93 T r i g g , J . L . , & Per lman, D . S o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s on women's p u r s u i t of a n o n t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r . Psychology of Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1976, J_, 138-150. T y l e r , L . E . The p s y c h o l o g y of human d i f f e r e n c e s . Englewood, New J e r s e y : A p p l e t o n , 1965. W a l s t e d , J . J . The a l t r u i s t i c o ther o r i e n t a t i o n : An e x p l o r a t i o n of female p o w e r l e s s n e s s . P s y c h o l o g y of Women Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 2, 162-176. W h i t e , M . S . P s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to women i n s c i e n c e . S c i e n c e , 1970, 170, 413-416. W i l l i a m s , T . M . , Z a b r a c k , M . L . , & H a r r i s o n , L . F . Some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g y i n Canada. Canadian P s y c h o l o g y , 1980, 2J_, 97-108. Wolman, C , & F r a n k , H . The s o l o woman i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l peer g r o u p . American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1975, 4_5, .164-171 . Y a n i c o , B . J . , H a r d i n , S . I . , & M c L a u g h l i n , K . G . Androgyny and t r a d i t i o n a l v e r s u s n o n t r a d i t i o n a l major c h o i c e among c o l l e g e f reshmen. J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l  B e h a v i o r , 1978, J_2, 261-269. 94 T a b l e s 95 T a b l e 1 C o n t i n u o u s Background V a r i a b l e s : Means, S tandard D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of Respondents 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 F a t h e r ' s SES 50.74 52.15 55.06 - 0 . 4 6 1 . 0 4 ' 16.23 14.43 1 4.88 (46) (56) (51 ) M o t h e r ' s SES 48.53 45.27 48.13 1.13 .75 9.13 1 3.66 13.32 (30) (40) (35) Number of 1 .06 1 .28 .92 -1 .11 1 .94 b r o t h e r s .84 1 .09 .87 (48) . (58) (53) Number of 1.21 1 .26 1 .26 -0 .24 .05 s i s t e r s 1 .03 1 .09 .92 (48) (58) (53) Age 23.00 22.48 22.06 .63 .80 5.04 3.23 2.66 (48) (58) (53) 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of R e s p o n d e n t s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. t - v a l u e f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . 2 < . 10 p_ < .05 £ < .01 T a b l e 2 F a t h e r ' s E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t u s 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN Elementary 3 1 2 6 Some H i g h S c h o o l 12 8 1 2 H i g h S c h o o l Diploma 1 0 1 3 6 Some U n i v e r s i t y 9 9 6 B a c h e l o r ' s Degree 4 4 9 P o s t g r a d u a t e Degree 9 1 0 1 3 Two groups of women: T* (5) = 5 .90 , n . Three g r o u p s : ^ (10) = 13. 08, n . s . TRAD = NTRAD T r a d i t i o n a l women. = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. T a b l e 3 M o t h e r ' s E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t u s 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN Elementary 3 6 3 Some H i g h S c h o o l 12 16 1 6 H i g h S c h o o l Diploma 1 6 1 5 11. Some U n i v e r s i t y 14 1 1 1 2 B a c h e l o r ' s Degree 3 6 7 P o s t g r a d u a t e Degree 0 3 4 Two groups of women: < ( 4 ) = 4 .23 , n . Three g r o u p s : X (8) = 7.60 , n . s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. .98 T a b l e 4 C e r t a i n t y about Career P l a n s : Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of Respondents 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 C e r t a i n w i l l pursue c a r e e r 4.46 1 .08 (48) 4.67 1 .08 • (58) 4.49 1.21 • (51) -0 .88 .48 C e r t a i n want to pursue c a r e e r 4.81 1 .41 (48) 5.03 1.14 (58) 4.94 1.10 (51 ) - 0 .90 .44 Length of time s i n c e c h o i c e made (months) 62. 19 48.99 (48) 54. 1 5 38.96 (53) 52.69 36.94 (49) .92 .73 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of Respondents . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. t - v a l u e f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . * ** * * * 2 < .10 2 < .05 2 <~ . 01 T a b l e 5 Numbers h a v i n g D i s c u s s e d Career P l a n s 1 w i t h Someone i n the F i e l d TRAD NTRAD MEN Have d i s c u s s e d 37 35 28 Have not d i s c u s s e d 11 22 13 Two groups of women: (1) = 2 .97 , p_< .10 . i Three g r o u p s : (2) = 3 .66 , n . s . 1 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 100 T a b l e 6 P o s i t i o n of Person w i t h Whom C a r e e r P l a n s were D i s c u s s e d 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN 2 1 1 3 9 7 31 25 31 Student F a c u l t y Employed Two groups of women: ^ (1) = 1.50, n . s , Three g r o u p s : % (2) = 2 .32, n . s . How t h i s Person was Known TRAD NTRAD MEN S c h o o l 9 1 2 1 1 Work j'1 '" "' "e : ' 6 R e l a t i v e •" .6 6 ••- •10 Soc i a l l y 8 i o 8 Appointment 1 1 2 Two groups of women: r o ) = 2.12, n . Three g r o u p s : X . ( 6 ) = 4.36 , n . s . TRAD = NTRAD T r a d i t i o n a l women. = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 101 T a b l e 7 P e r c e p t i o n s of P a r e n t s : Means, S tandard D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of R e s p o n d e n t s 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 M o t h e r - c l o s e n e s s 5 . 1 9 * 4 .75 b 5 .13" 1 .86** 2 .43* .99 1 . 34 .94 (47) (57) (53) Mother-warmth 5 . 3 5 ° " 4.88 1 , al 5.13 2 . 7 4 * * * 3 .64** .81 .95 .94 (48) (57) (53) M o t h e r - a p p r o v i n g 5.35 5.14 '5 .02 1 .20 1 .22 .80 1.19 1 .42 (47) (57) (52) M o t h e r - e n c o u r a g e 5.09 5.14 4.96 -0 .31 .56 .95 .85 .88 (47) (57) (52) M o t h e r - 4.35 4.18 3.98 .71 1 .10 s i m i l a r i t y 1.31 1 .26 1 .23 (48) (57) (53) 1 02 T a b l e 7 c o n t i n u e d TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e F - v a l u e F a t h e r - c l o s e n e s s 4.66 4.15 4.45 1m59** 1 .56 1 .42 1 .62 1 .39 (47) (55) (51 ) Fa ther -warmth 4.78 4.31 4.27 1.75** 2 .09 1 .26 1 . 43 1 .37 (46) (55) • (51 ). F a t h e r - a p p r o v i n g 5.39 4.84 5.08 2 .51*** 2 .85* .75 1 .25 1 .20 • (44) (51 ) (49) F a t h e r - e n c o u r a g e 5.04 4.85 4.90 .98 .54 .98 .98 .89 (45) (54) (50) F a t h e r - 4.28 4.18 3.82 .34 1 .32 s i m i l a r i t y 1 . 52 1 . 54 1 .38 (46) (56) (51 ) Which parent 3.38 3.65 3.54 -0 .94 .50 more l i k e 1 .60 1.31 1 .20 (47) (55) (53) 1 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of R e s p o n d e n t s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 2 t - v a l u e f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 3 F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . * rj < .10 *** 2 < « 0 1 1 03 T a b l e 8 P e r c e p t i o n s o f P a r e n t a l E n d o r s e m e n t o f Sex R o l e R e l a t e d B e h a v i o u r s : S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Women F a t h e r -- o p p o s i t e sex . 5 8 6 F a t h e r -- a p p e a r a n c e . 1 93 F a t h e r -- p o p u l a r i t y - . 3 0 5 F a t h e r -- s c h o o l - . 8 8 7 F a the r-- i n d e p e n d e n c e - . 2 6 4 Fa the r-- c a r e e r . 794 Mother-- o p p o s i t e sex - . 3 4 9 Mother-- a p p e a r a n c e - . 3 3 5 M o t h e r - p o p u l a r i t y . 544 M o t h e r - s c h o o l . 494 M o t h e r - i n d e p e n d e n c e - .381 M o t h e r - c a r e e r - . 0 2 9 A c t u a l G r o u p 1 Number o f C a s e s P r e d i c t e d G r o u p TRAD NTRAD TRAD 43 26 17 NTRAD. 53 17 36 X ( 1 2 ) = 8 . 3 8 , n . s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 1 04 T a b l e 9 P e r c e p t i o n s of P a r e n t a l Endorsement of Sex Role R e l a t e d B e h a v i o u r s : S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Women and Men F i r s t F u n c t i o n Second F u n c t i o n F a t h e r - o p p o s i t e sex .996 - . 1 2 6 F a t h e r - a p p e a r a n c e - . 5 8 3 .632 F a t h e r - p o p u l a r i t y .158 - . 685 F a t h e r - s c h o o l - . 4 8 4 - . 368 F a t h e r - i n d e p e n d e n c e .029 - .722 F a t h e r - c a r e e r .416 .873 M o t h e r - o p p o s i t e sex - . 4 8 7 . 1 73 M o t h e r - a p p e a r a n c e .251 - . 6 0 5 M o t h e r - p o p u l a r i t y " .300 ' ' .626 • M o t h e r - s c h o o l .168 • .004 M o t h e r - i n d e p e n d e n c e - . 1 8 0 - . 1 20 M o t h e r - c a r e e r - . 2 8 8 .337 T a b l e 9 c o n t i n u e d A c t u a l G r o u p 1 Number of Cases TRAD NTRAD MEN TRAD 4 3 1 4 15 1 4 NTRAD 53 1 1 32 1 0 MEN 50 1 2 9 29 F i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n : l (24) = 33 .06 , n . s . Second d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n : X X (11) = = 5.21 , n . s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 106 Table*10 P e r c e p t i o n s of P a r e n t a l Endorsement of Sex R o l e R e l a t e d B e h a v i o u r s : Means, S tandard D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of R e s p o n d e n t s 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 F a t h e r - 4.18* 4 . 5 7 a 3 . 3 9 b -1 .27 7 .86*** o p p o s i t e sex 1 .43 1 .63 1 .55 (45) (54) (51 ) F a t h e r - 3.18 3.15 3.21 .10 .97 appearance 1 .53 1 .64 1 .27 (45) (55) (52) F a t h e r - 4.35 4.36 3.98 -0 .05 1 .17 p o p u l a r i t y 1 .48 1 .47 1 .33 (43) (55) (51 ) F a t h e r - 1 .89 1 .62 1 .94 1 .24 1 . 1 5 s c h o o l 1.19 .99 1 .35 (45) (55) (52) F a t h e r - 2.36 2.15 2.29 .76 .32 independence 1 .26 1 .46 1 .29 (45) (55). (52) F a t h e r - •  .2.40 2.40 2.44- .00 .99 career . 1 .53 1 .49 1 .55 (45) (55) (52) 1 07 T a b l e 10 c o n t i n u e d TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e F - v a l u e M o t h e r - . 3.67 3.73 . 3.52 -0 .20 .25 o p p o s i t e sex 1.59 1 .72 1.43 (48) (56) (52) M o t h e r - 2.23 2.25 2.08 - 0 . 0 7 .36 appearance 1 .28 1 .23 .90 (48) (57) (53) M o t h e r - 3.13 3.43 2.88 -1 .05 2.13 p o p u l a r i t y 1 .36 1.51 1.22 (47) (56) (52) M o t h e r - 1 .77 1 .68 1 .72 .42 .10 s c h o o l 1.13 .98 .95 (48) (57) (53) M o t h e r - 2.50 2.14 2.55 1 .37 1 .65 independence 1 . 40 1 .26 1.15 (48) (56) (53) M o t h e r - 2.13 2.05 2.30 .30 .63 c a r e e r 1 .20 1 . 20 r. 15 (48) (56) (53) 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = -Number of -Respondents. TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. t^-value f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means . s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . * ** * * * p < .10 p < .05 p < .01 108 T a b l e 11 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Career C h o i c e : Number of People E n d o r s i n g Each C h o i c e 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN 2 q p . % 3 q p . £ F a t h e r 1 8 1 3 22 2.89* 5.08* Mother 24 1 6 19 5.62** 5 .71* Male r e l a t i v e 5 6 7 .00 .87 Female r e l a t i v e 6 8 3 .04 2.15 Male f r i e n d 8 1 1 1 7 .09 4 . 12 Female f r i e n d 1 4 10 6 2.13 5.40* Male c o u n s e l o r 3 4 2 .02 .55 Female c o u n s e l o r 3 2 1 .46 1 .35 Male t e a c h e r 4 6 5 . 12 . 1 2 Female t e a c h e r 5 4 2 .42 1 .73 Male p r o f e s s o r 4 "13 -• 7 ; 3.87** 4.28 •Female p r o f e s s o r 6 7 1 .01 4.74* Man i n f i e l d 9 1 2 1 7 .06 3.00 Woman i n f i e l d 20 1 4 1 3.70* 23.46*** 109 T a b l e 11 c o n t i n u e d TRAD NTRAD MEN 2 qp. X* 3 q p . £ Work 3 3 23 1 3 8 .92** 20.57*** Hobbies 1 4 6 1 3 6 .08** 6.35** Courses 23 25 20 .25 1 .07 Books 16 23 14 .45 2.18 T e l e v i s i o n 6 7 6 .01 .03 Number of people 48 58 53 1 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. * p < . 1 0 * * p < .05 * * * p < - 0 1 1 1 0 T a b l e 12 Numbers of D i f f e r e n t Types of I n f l u e n c e s on Career C h o i c e : Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of Respondents 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F' - v a l u e 3 T o t a l number endorsed a 4.60 2.75 (48) 3 . 6 2 k 2.43 (58) 3.32 k 1 .99 (53) 1.96* 3 . 92** Male i n f l u e n c e s 1 .06 1 .06 (48) 1.12 1 .09 (58) 1 .45 1.19 (53) -0 .28 1 .86 Female i n f l u e n c e s a. 1 .63 1 .28 (48) 1 . 0 5 k 1.10 (58) . 6 2 ° .74 (53) 2 .48** 1 1 . 35*** Nonpeople i n f l u e n c e s a 1 .92 1 . 37-(48) 1 .45^ 1.13 (58) 1 .25 k 1 .24 (53) 1 .94* 3 .85** F a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s 1.10 1.21 (48) .74 -.89 (58) .96 1 .07 (53) 1 .78* 1 .61 N o n f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s 1.58 1.51 (48) 1.43 1.39 (58)' 1.11 1.01 (53) .-.54 • 1 .70 . 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of R e s p o n d e n t s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. t - v a l u e f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . * ** *** p < . 1 0 p < .05 2 < .01 111 T a b l e 13 M o t h e r ' s Employment S t a t u s 1 TRAD NTRAD P r e s c h o o l p e r i o d No p a i d job 40 ' 40 • „ . Par t time job 1 5 • % (2)•= 4 .70 , p < .10 F u l l time job 3 9 Grades 1 to 4 No p a i d job 35 30 T Par t time job 5 8 ^ (2) = 6 .07 , p < .05 F u l l time job 5 16 Grades 5 to 8 No p a i d job 27 28 Par t time job 10 11 (2) = 1.98, n . s . F u l l time job 7 15 Grades 9 to 12 No p a i d job . .24 21 P a r t time' job ' 1 1 8 % {2) = 4 .78 , p < .10 F u l l time job 12 25 U n i v e r s i t y y e a r s • . No p a i d job 16 14 • z Par t time job 16 8 1£ (2) = 9 .57 , p < .01 F u l l time job 13 31 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. T a b l e 14 P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t Measures : S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t Funct : T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i ' Abasement .319 Achievement .443 Af f i 1 i a t i o n .063 Autonomy .090 Dominance .335 Endurance -0 .123 N u r t u r a n c e -1 .013 Succorance -0 .037 A c t u a l G r o u p 1 ' Number of Cases TRAD NTRAD 46 57 P r e d i c t e d Group TRAD .NTRAD 33 18 1 3 39 ^ (8) = 30.35, p_ < .01 1 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women 1 1 3 T a b l e 15 P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t Measures : S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Women and Men F i r s t F u n c t i o n Second F u n c t i o n Abasement - . 502 - . 345 Achievement - . 026 .754 Af f i 1 i a t ion .073 - .172 Autonomy - .054 - . 0 5 6 Dominance - .454 .058 Endurance .041 - . 165 N u r t u r a n c e .864 - . 260 Succorance .343 .653 A c t u a l G r o u p 1 Number of Cases . P r e d i c t e d Group TRAD NTRAD MEN TRAD 46 32 8 . 6 NTRAD 57 1 6 16 25 MEN 53 1 1 12 30 F i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n : i (16) = 53 .09 , p < . Second d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n : % Z (7) = 4 . 29 , n . s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 1 1 4 T a b l e 16 P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t M e a s u r e s : Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of Respondents 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 Abasement 6.08 6.06 6.53 .03 .47 2.69 2.46 3.29 (46) (57) (53) Achievement 9.85 10.13 10.57 -1 .38 .88 2.55 2.71 3.08 (46) (57) (53) A f f i l i a t i o n 1 0 . 4 7 ° 9 . 1 0 ^ 8 . 5 2 b 1.93** 3 .41** 3.79 3.42 4.14 (46) (57) (53) Autonomy 6 . 2 4 ° " 7 . 3 2 a k 8.32^ - 1 . 5 2 4 .99*** 3.13 3.38 3.27 (46) (57) (53) Dominance 7.75 9.01 9.34 -1 .62 2.21 3.69 4.12 3.97 (46) (57) (53) Endurance 9.50 9.61 9.58 -0 .16 .01 3.28 3.21 3.30 (46) (57) (53) 1 1 5 T a b l e 16 c o n t i n u e d TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e F - v a l u e N u r t u r a n c e 12 .46 a 10.23 1 3 9. 42 b 4 .85*** 16.41*** 2.11 2.46 3.34 (46). (57) (53) Succorance 8 . 4 5 a 7 . 6 3 a 6 . 0 l b 1.08 5.82*** 3.53 4.11 3.23 (46.) (57) (53) 1 1st row = Means. 2nd row = Standard D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of R e s p o n d e n t s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 2 it - v a l u e f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 3 F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . * 2 < • 1 0 ** 2 < - 0 5 *** 2 < • 0 1 1 16 T a b l e 17 Career R e l a t e d V a l u e s : Number of People E n d o r s i n g Each C h o i c e 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN 2 3 gp. % \ S a l a r y p o t e n t i a l 1 3 24 34 2 .93* 14.14*** R e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y 1 4 25 20 2 .19 2.20 P r e s t ige 1 1 21 18 2 .20 2.39 C h a l l e n g e 38 45 42 .04 .06 S u p e r v i s i o n 1 3 25 23 2 .93* 3.70 F i n . s e c u r i t y 21 30 28 .67 .98 H e l p p e o p l e 46 40 29 1 2 2 9* * * 2i , 79*** Work environment 33 32 35 2 .04 2.41 C o - w o r k e r s 24 20 24 2 .60 2.79 Good hours 23 27 24 .02 .07 S e c u r i t y " ' 1 5 19 21 '"• .03 .92 A v a i l a b i l i t y 1 4 26. 15 2 .74* 4.24 . -Number of p e o p l e 48 58 53 1 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. * p < . 1 0 * * p < .05 * * * p < .01 T a b l e 18 M a r r i a g e R e l a t e d V a r i a b l e s C u r r e n t M a r i t a l S t a t u s TRAD NTRAD MEN M a r r i e d 22 25 21 Unmarr i e d 26 31 31 Two groups of women: (1 ) = .01 , n . s Three g r o u p s : 7^(2) = .34 , n . s . D e s i r e d M a r i t a l S t a t u s f o r Unmarr ied TRAD NTRAD MEN Marr i e d Unmarr ied 24 ' 1 28 29 2 1 1 18 T a b l e 18 c o n t i n u e d C o n t i n u o u s V a r i a b l e s Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of R e s p o n d e n t s 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 Age m a r r i e d 20.23 1 9.92 20 . 00 .38 .08 3.24 2.31 ' 2.45 (22) (25) (21 ) Age m a r r i a g e 25.61 25.50 26.50 . 1 3 .61 d e s i red 2.74 3.01 4.58 (23) (26) (26) Importance of 5.06 4.98 5.08 .69 . 1 3 marr iage 1.12 .95 1 .03 (48) (58) (53) Number of a 2.39 1 .831" 1 .84 b 2.28** 3.54** c h i l d r e n 1.19 1 .23 1 .02 (44) (58) (50) 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of R e s p o n d e n t s . TRAD • = T r a d i t i o n a l -women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. t . -value f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . p_ < .10 2 < .05 2 < .01 * ** *** 1 1 9 • . T a b l e 19 D e s i r e d Employment S t a t u s at S ix C h i l d Age P e r i o d s 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN L e s s than 6 mos No p a i d job 37 47 1 P a r t t ime job 7 5 11 F u l l t ime job 0 3 38 Two groups of women: (1) = .02 , n7S Three g r o u p s : % ( 4 ) = 1 07 . 37, p_ < . 01 6 months to 1 yr No p a i d job 34 41 1 Par t t ime job 9 10 6 F u l l t ime job 0 4 43 Two groups of women: ^X-.(l) = .28 , n . s . Three g r o u p s : 1C.( 4) =. 10.7.45, p_ < .01 .1 year to 2 years No p a i d job 29 29 0 P a r t t ime job 14 19 8 F u l l t ime job 0 7 42 Two groups of women: "% (1) = 6 .38 , p < .05 . t. Three g r o u p s : X (4) = 94 .94 , p_ < .01 T a b l e 19 c o n t i n u e d TRAD NTRAD MEN Aged 2 to 5 years No p a i d job 1 8 19 0 P a r t t ime job 18 21 6 F u l l t ime job 7 1 5 : 44 Two groups of women: = 1 . 72, n . Three g r o u p s : ( 4 ) = 60 .47 , p < .01 Elementary s c h o o l No p a i d job 4 4 0 P a r t time job 29 27 4 F u l l t ime job 1 2. 24 46 Two groups of women: **(2) = 3. '10, n . Three g r o u p s : %% (4) = 45.21 > 2 < .01 Secondary s c h o o l No p a i d job. 3 2 • 0 Par t time job '•'14 10 4 F u l l t ime job 28 43 46 Two groups of women: -CM2) = 3. 07, n . Three g r o u p s : = 12.96, 2 < - 0 5 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 121 T a b l e 20 F a m i l y R e l a t e d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i t i o n a l . Women Both p a r t n e r s f i n a n c i a l - . 130 Employed a l l a d u l t l i f e .465 Not expect do a l l h o u s e h o l d .198 Expect p a r t n e r h e l p work .509 P a r t n e r do 50% housework .206 P a r t n e r do most housework - .024 Not expect do a l l r e a r i n g - .330 Expect p a r t n e r h e l p r e a r i n g -.1,20 P a r t n e r do 50% c h i l d r e a r i n g - .603 P a r t n e r do most c h i l d r e a r i n g - .002 Woman ' s c a r e e r e q u a l .160 I m p o r t a n t - w i f e and mother .121 Important -husband and f a t h e r .085 Important-woman p a i d c a r e e r - .294 Important-man p a i d c a r e e r .007 Marry not i n t e r f e r e - c a r e e r - .261 Forego c h i l d r e n i f i n t e r f e r e .804 122 T a b l e 20 c o n t i n u e d A c t u a l G r o u p 1 Number of Cases P r e d i c t e d Group TRAD NTRAD TRAD 45 28 17 NTRAD 55 18 37 ^' (17) = 21 .30 , n . s . 1 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. T a b l e 21 S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s for T r a d i t i o n a l and N o n t r a d i t i o n a l Women and Men F a m i l y R e l a t e d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : F i r s t F u n c t i o n Second F u n c t i o n Both p a r t n e r s f i n a n c i a l - . 200 - . 035 Employed a l l a d u l t l i f e • .433 .283 Not expect do a l l h o u s e h o l d .049 .058 Expect p a r t n e r h e l p work .089 .489 P a r t n e r do 50% housework .296 .217 P a r t n e r do most housework .428 - .048 Not expect do a l l r e a r i n g - . 325 - .113 Expect p a r t n e r h e l p r e a r i n g .257 - .338 P a r t n e r do 50% c h i l d r e a r i n g - .212 - . 597 P a r t n e r do most c h i l d r e a r i n g .472 - . 445 Woman's c a r e e r .equal .058 .126 I m p o r t a n t - w i f e and mother .165 .130 Important -husband and f a t h e r .146 - .141 Important-woman p a i d c a r e e r - . 4 6 7 - . 1 2 9 Important-man p a i d c a r e e r .194 .014 Marry not i n t e r f e r e - c a r e e r - . 613 . . ..174 Forego c h i l d r e n i f i n t e r f e r e .703 .450 T a b l e 21 c o n t i n u e d A c t u a l G r o u p 1 Number of Cases P r e d i c t e d Group TRAD NTRAD MEN TRAD 45 26 1 6 3 NTRAD 55 1 6 32 7 MEN 45 2 8 35 1 F i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n : ^ (34) = 96.74, g < Second d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n : %z (16) = 20.22, n . s TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 1 25 T a b l e 22 F a m i l y R e l a t e d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of R e s p o n d e n t s 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F-- v a l u e 3 Both p a r t n e r s f i n a n c i a l support 4.67 1.12 (48) 4.86 1 .30 (58) 4.58 1 .23 (52) -0 .82 .79 Employed a l l a d u l t l i f e 3.42 1 .60 (48) 4. 1 6fc 1 .60 (58) 1 .54 (52) -2 . 37*** 6 .68*** Do not expect do a l l h o u s e h o l d t a s k s 5.13 1.17 (47) 5.52 .86 (58) 5.17 1 .05 (53) - 1 . 9 6 * * 2 .37*-Expect p a r t n e r h e l p w i t h housewor k 5 . l 7 a 1.10 (48) 5 .62 b . 64 (58) 5.43*1, .89 (53) -2.65*** 3 .49** Expect p a r t n e r to do 50% of housework a 3.73 1 . 53 (48) 4 . 4 5 b 1 .45 (58) 4 . 2 4 a t 1.41 (50) - 2 . 4 8 * * * 3 .29** Expect p a r t n e r to do most of housework 1.62* : .80 (.47) 1 . 6 0 a .79 (58) : 2.67 1 , 1 .52 (51) .09 1 6 .28*** Do not expect do a l l c h i l d r e a r i n g 5.60 .92 (48) 5.60 .73 (57) 5.32 .94 (50) .05 1 .80 126 T a b l e 22 c o n t i n u e d TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e F - v a l u e Expect p a r t n e r h e l p w i t h c h i l d r e a r i n g 5.79 .46 (48) 5.74 .55 (57) 5.74 .49 (50) .55 • 19 Expect p a r t n e r to do 50% of c h i l d r e a r i n g 4.69 . 1 .20 (48) 4.46 1.35 • (57) 4.31 1 .42 (49) .91 1 .00 Expect p a r t n e r to do most of c h i l d r e a r i n g 1.53* .86 (47) 1 . 5 1 a .78 (57) 2 . 9 0 b 1 .55 (48) . 1 4 . 25 .70*** Woman's c a r e e r e q u a l to p a r t n e r ' s 5.29 1 .05 (48) 5.47 .75 (58) 5.23 .87 (53) - 0 . 9 9 1 .07 Most important good w i f e and mother 2 .77* 1.51 (48) 2 . 7 2 a 1 .69 (58) 3.40 1 1 1 .75 (52) . 1 5 2.76** Most important good husband and f a t h e r 3.29 1 .65 (48) 3. 1 7°" 1 .79 (58) 4 .13 b 1 .56 (52) . 35 5 .20** 1 27 T a b l e 22 c o n t i n u e d TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e F - v a l u e Most important 2.56 2.62 2.54 -0 .22 .06 woman p a i d 1 .37 1 . 32 1.11 c a r e e r (48) (58). (52) Most important 3.13 3.09 3.40 ' . . 1 2 .59 man p a i d c a r e e r 1 .55 1 .64 1 .62 (48) (58) (53) Marry i f not 2.33 2.84 2.43 - 1 . 7 3 * * 1 .81 i n t e r f e r e w i t h 1.17 1 .70 1 .39 c a r e e r (48) (56) (51 ) Forego c h i l d r e n 1 .94 a 2.73 b 2.60 b - 2 . 6 4 * * * 4 . 1 2** i f i n t e r f e r e 1.15 1 .77 1 .39 w i t h c a r e e r (47) (56) (50) 1 1st row = Means. 2nd row = Standard D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of Respondents . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 2 . t - v a l u e f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l . . and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women: 3 F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . * p < . 1 0 ** 2 < .05 * * * £ < .01 1 28 T a b l e 23 Mathematics and Sc i e n c e Courses and U n i v e r s i t y A v e r a g e : Means, S tandard D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of Respondents 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 M a t h e m a t i c s - .90 .81 1 .06 .68 2.02 number of c o u r s e s .66 .63 .66 (48) (58) (53) Mathemat i c s - 2.35* 2 . 2 7 a 1 .83 k .34 3.88** average .96 .98 .78 (35) (39) (44) Sc i e n c e - 1 .04 1.16 1 .42 -0 .32 1 .75 number of courses ; .78 .85 1 .06 (48) (58) (53) Sc i e n c e - 2 . 04 2.08 1 . 96 - 0 . 22 .24 average .75 .70 .75 (38) (40) (40) U n i v e r s i t y - 1 .79 1 .80 1.86 - 0 . 0 9 .23 average .50 .62 .50 (48) (56) (50) 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of Respondents . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. t^-value f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. F - v a l u e f o r comparing t h r e e g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a.common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r ** * * * 2 < . 1 0 2 < .05 2 < .01 T a b l e 24 P l a n s F o l l o w i n g Degree C o m p l e t i o n 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN Employment 25 22 23 E d u c a t i o n 10 21 20 T r a v e l 5 8 6 Other 0 1 1 Unknown 8 5 3 Two groups of women: % (2) = 3 .39 , n . Three g r o u p s : %* (4) = 4.67 , n . s . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 1 30 T a b l e 25 P l a n s f o r 5 Years a f t e r Degree C o m p l e t i o n TRAD NTRAD MEN Employed f u l l time Employed p a r t time S t a y i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n E d u c a t i o n T r a v e l Other Unknown 29 4 2 2 1 0 1 0 40 4 1 5 1 1 6 36 1 0 7 1 2 6 Two groups of women: ^ (1) = .67 , n . s ,2-Three g r o u p s : % (2) = .79 , n . s . TRAD'= T r a d i t i o n a l women; NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 131 T a b l e 26 P l a n s f o r 10 Y e a r s a f t e r D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN E m p l o y e d f u l l t i m e 1 7 33 39 E m p l o y e d p a r t t i m e 8 10 0 S t a y i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n 6 6 0 E d u c a t i o n 1 1 1 T r a v e l 1 1 0 O t h e r 1 1 5 Unknown 1 4 6 8 Two g r o u p s o f women: t * ( 1 ) = 5 . 5 5 , £ T h r e e g r o u p s : X (2) = 7 .33 , E < . 05 TRAD = NTRAD T r a d i t i o n a l women. = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 1 32 T a b l e 27 P l a n s f o r 20 Years a f t e r Degree C o m p l e t i o n TRAD NTRAD MEN Employed f u l l time 18 26 30 Employed p a r t time 7 1 1 2 S t a y i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n 1 2 0 Educat ion 2 1 1 T r a v e l 1 3 0 Other 1 1 6 Unknown 18 1 4 1 3 Two groups of women: K (D = 1 .48 , n . •u Three g r o u p s : % (2) = 1 .63 , n . s . 1 TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women • NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 1 33 T a b l e 28 P l a n s f o r F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN None 18 1 1 5 Undergraduate degree 16 7 6 Graduate work- 4 13 12 p r e s e n t f i e l d Graduate work- 2 14 6 another f i e l d P r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l 0 11 21 Two groups of women: f- (4) = 28 .09 , p < .01 Three g r o u p s : % (8) = 50 .93 , p < .01 N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women and men: % (4) = 8 .32 , p < .10 TRAD = NTRAD T r a d i t i o n a l women. = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. 134 T a b l e 29 Importance of Career v e r s u s F a m i l y R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : Means, S tandard D e v i a t i o n s , and Number of Respondents 1 TRAD NTRAD MEN t - v a l u e 2 F - v a l u e 3 S e l f a 2.11 1.09 (47) 2.91 1 , 1 .38 (56) at 2.48 1 . 34 (52) - 3 . 2 4 * * * 5.07*** F a t h e r 2 . 3 9 ° ~ 1 .33 (44) 3 .21 b 1 .79 (56) 2 . 9 2 a b 1.61 (50) - 2 . 5 6 * * 3.30** Mother ' 1 .38 .73' (48) 1 .83 1 .39 (58) 1.71 1.11 (52) - 2 . 0 3 * * 2.21 1st row = Means. 2nd row = S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . 3rd row = Number of Respondents . TRAD = T r a d i t i o n a l women. NTRAD = N o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. t^-vaiue f o r comparing t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n t r a d i t i o n a l women. F - v a l u e f o r comparing three g r o u p s . Means s h a r i n g a common s u p e r s c r i p t do not d i f f e r . * ** * * * 2 < . 1 0 p < .05 2 < .01 1 35 A p p e n d i x A IDENTIFICATION NUMBER AGE SEX UNIVERSITY MAJOR YEAR DEGREE NOW BEING SOUGHT DEGREE(S) OBTAINED PREVIOUSLY Note: When asked to state an occupation try to c l a r i f y the nature of the job. For example, i f you indicate 'sales' also include what i s being sold (e.g. clothing, l i f e insurance, medical supplies, e t c . ) . S i m i l a r l y , i f you are planning a career i n l i f e insurance, state the po s i t i o n you are aspi r i n g to (e.g. actuary, underwriter, or c l e r k ) . 1. Are you planning further education or t r a i n i n g beyond the degree which you are now pursuing? (Check the appropriate spot) No further t r a i n i n g Another undergraduate degree Graduate work i n your current major Graduate work i n another f i e l d Professional school (e.g. law, medicine, architecture, etc.) (specify) Other (specify) 137 What do you plan to do immediately a f t e r completing the degree you are now pursuing? Work or seek employment (specify what you expect to be doing) Pursue further education or t r a i n i n g (specify the course or f i e l d ) Travel Other (please specify) Do not know at present What do you think y o u ' l l be doing 5 years a f t e r completing your current degree? .. Employed f u l l time (specify position) Employed part time (specify position) Staying home with children Pursuing further education or t r a i n i n g (specify) T r a v e l l i n g Other (specify) Do not know What do you think y o u ' l l be doing 10 years a f t e r completing your current degree? Employed f u l l time (specify position) Employed part time (specify position) Staying home with children Pursuing further education or t r a i n i n g (specify) . T r a v e l l i n g Other (specify) Do not know 138 5. What do you think y o u ' l l be doing 20 years a f t e r completing your current degree? Employed f u l l time (specify position) Employed part time (specify position) Staying home with children Pursuing further education or t r a i n i n g (specify) T r a v e l l i n g Other (specify) Do not know A number of items i n t h i s questionnaire ask you to indicate your response on a scale. C i r c l e the number on the response scale that best r e f l e c t s your attitude toward the item. For example, consider the item "I think that a un i v e r s i t y education i s very worthwhile". 1 2 3 A 5 6 agree agree agree disagree disagree disagree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly I f you agree moderately with t h i s statement, c i r c l e 2. I f you disagree strongly, c i r c l e b. Always c i r c l e the number on the scale which r e f l e c t s how you f e e l about the item. 6. O v e r a l l , what i s your occupational goal? That i s , i n what f i e l d do you plan to spend the majority of your working l i f e . I f you have not decided, please say so but i f you have some idea of what you would l i k e to do please state t h i s . 139 7. How c e r t a i n are you that t h i s i s what you w i l l be doing for the majority of your working l i f e ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 very somewhat s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y somewhat very uncertain uncertain uncertain c e r t a i n certain c e r t a i n 8. How c e r t a i n are you that t h i s i s what you want to work at? 1 2 3 4 5 6 very somewhat s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y somewhat very uncertain uncertain uncertain certain certain certain 9. How long have you wanted to pursue t h i s occupation? (in months and/or years) 10. Have you discussed your career plans with someone working i n t h i s f i e l d ? No Yes If yes, what i s t h e i r p o s i t i o n How do you know them? 11. Which of the following people and experiences influenced you i n choosing your career goal? Place a check mark beside the ones you think were i n f l u e n t i a l and then assign a rank to each of the ones you checked. Give a 1 to the item that was most i n f l u e n t i a l , a 2 to the next most i n f l u e n t i a l , etc. _My father My mother _Another male r e l a t i v e _Another female r e l a t i v e _A male f r i e n d _A female fr i e n d _Male guidance counsellor Other (specify)_ Female guidance counsellor Male high school teacher Female high school teacher Male professor Female professor Man working i n my chosen f i e l d Woman working i n my chosen f i e l d Work or volunteer experience _Hobbies School courses JBooks, a r t i c l e s or pamphlets on the f i e l d ^ T e l e v i s i o n or movies No one or nothing I r e c a l l 140 12. Which of the following appeal to you with respect to your chosen career? Place a check mark beside those which are important to you and then rank these i n order of importance (l=most important). High salary p o t e n t i a l Having a l o t or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Having a p o s i t i o n of prestige and influence I n t e l l e c t u a l or creative challenge Freedom from supervision F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y Being able to help people Having a pleasant work environment ; Having congenial co-workers Qood working hours Job secu r i t y Job a v a i l a b i l i t y Other (please specify) 13. What i s (or was) your father's occupation (Be s p e c i f i c ) 14. What was your father's highest l e v e l of educational attainment? Elementary school Some high school High school graduation Some un i v e r s i t y University undergraduate degree Graduate or professional degree Other (specify) 15. What i s (or was) your mother's occupation? 16. What was your mother's highest l e v e l of educational attainment? Elementary school Some high school High school graduation Some un i v e r s i t y University undergraduate degree Graduate or professional degree Other (please specify) . 17. Was your mother employed outside the home during the following periods of your l i f e ? (Check the appropriate spots) No Part time F u l l time up to age 5 years from grade 1 to grade 4 from grade 5 to grade 8 from grade 9 to grade 12 during your un i v e r s i t y years 18. How many brothers do you have? 19. How many s i s t e r s do you have? 20. How close are you to your mother? ( C i r c l e the one that best describes your s i t u a t i o n . ) 4 5 6 s l i g h t l y moderately very distant distant distant 1 2 3 very moderately s l i g h t l y close close close 142 21. How warm and expressive i s your mother toward you? 1 2 3 A 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very warm warm warm cold cold cold 22. How approving of your career plans and goals i s your mother? A 1 2 3 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y disapproving disapproving disapproving approving 5 6 moderately very approving approving 23. To what extent does your mother encourage you and o f f e r advice regarding your career plans? 1 2 frequently sometimes encourages encourages 2A. How close are you to your father? 1 2 3 very moderately s l i g h t l y close close close seldom never encourages encourages A 5 6 s l i g h t l y moderately very distant distant distant 25. How warm and expressive i s your father toward you? very warm moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very warm warm cold cold cold 26. How approving of your career plans and goals i s your father? 1 2 3 A 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very disapproving disapproving disapproving approving approving approving 143 27. To what extent does your father encourage you and o f f e r advice regarding your career plans? 1 2 3 4 frequently sometimes seldom never encourages encourages encourages encourages 28. Considering your p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , values, etc. how much would you say that you and your father are alike? 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very d i s s i m i l a r d i s s i m i l a r d i s s i m i l a r s i m i l a r s i m i l a r s i m i l a r 29. Considering your p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , values, etc. how much would you say that you and your mother are a l i k e 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very d i s s i m i l a r d i s s i m i l a r d i s s i m i l a r s i m i l a r s i m i l a r s i m i l a r 30. Considering yourself and both of your parents which are you more l i k e (with respect to i n t e r e s t s , personality, etc.)? 1 2 3 4 5 6 much moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y :. moderately much more more more more more more l i k e mother l i k e mother l i k e mother l i k e father l i k e father l i k e father 4 144 31. My father discouraged behaviours that are more t y p i c a l of the opposite sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e false 32. My father encouraged me to be concerned about my dress and appearance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 33. My father was concerned about how popular I was with people my own age. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 34. My father encouraged me to do my very best i n school. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 35. My father encouraged me to be independent and s e l f r e l i a n t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 36. My father encouraged me to think about and plan a career. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 145 37. My mother discouraged behaviours that are more t y p i c a l of the opposite sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 38. My mother encouraged me to be concerned about my dress and appearance. 1 2 3 A 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true false f a l s e f a l s e 39. My mother was concerned about how popular I was with people my own age. 1 2 3 - 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 40. My mother encouraged me to do my very best i n school. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 41. My mother encouraged me to be independent and s e l f r e l i a n t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e false f a l s e 42. My mother encouraged me to think about and plan a career. 1 2 3 4 5 6 very moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately very true true true f a l s e f a l s e f a l s e 146 43. Do you currently consider yourself to be involved i n a permanent rel a t i o n s h i p with another person? Yes No 44. I f yes, at what age did you enter t h i s relationship? 45. If you are not presently i n a permanent rel a t i o n s h i p do you think you w i l l enter such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the future? Yes No If yes, by what age would you, i d e a l l y , l i k e to be involved i n a permanent relationship? (note: partner = spouse or person with whom you have a permanent relationship) 46. In general, how important i s having a partner i n your future plans? 1 2 3 4 5 6 not at a l l moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately extremely important unimportant unimportant important important important 47. How many children would you, i d e a l l y , l i k e to have? 48. Assuming that you have children and are f i n a n c i a l l y secure, what would your employment status be during each of the following periods? (Check the appropriate spots) no paid part time job job Have c h i l d l e s s than 6 months old Have c h i l d aged 6 months to 1 year Have c h i l d aged 1 to 2 years Have children aged 2 to 5 years Have children i n elementary school Have children i n secondary school f u l l time job 147 49. Considering your future plans, which of career and family (partner and/or children) obligations i s more important to you? 1 2 3 family family family much moderately s l i g h t l y more more more important important important 4 career s l i g h t l y more 5 career moderately more important important 6 career much more important 50. For your father, which of his obligations do you think was more important to him while you were growing up? 1 2 3 family family family much moderately s l i g h t l y more more more important important important job s l i g h t l y more 5 6 job job moderately much more more important important important 51. For your mother, which of her obligations do you think was more important to her while you were growing up? 1 2 3 family family family much moderately s l i g h t l y more more more important important important 4 5 6 job job job s l i g h t l y moderately much more more more important important important 148 Please indicate your agreement with the following statements. 52. Both partners should contribute to the f i n a n c i a l support of the family. 1 2 - 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i t f i t l y moderately strongly 53. I intend to be employed a l l of my adult l i f e . 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 54. I do not expect to do a l l household tasks myself. 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 55. I expect my partner to help with the housework. 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 56. I expect my partner to do 50% of the housework. 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 57. I expect my partner to do most of the housework. 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 149 58. I do not expect to do a l l c h i l d r e a r i n g tasks myself. disagree strongly disagree disagree 4 agree 5 agree moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately 59. I expect my partner to help with the c h i l d r e a r i n g . disagree strongly disagree disagree 4 agree 5 agree moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately 60. I expect my partner to do 50% of a l l c h i l d r e a r i n g tasks. 1 disagree strongly disagree disagree 4 agree 5 agree 6 agree strongly 6 agree strongly 6 agree moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 61. I expect my partner to do most of the c h i l d r e a r i n g tasks. 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 62. A woman's career i s of equal importance to her partner's. 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 63. I think the most important thing f o r a woman i s to be a good wife and mother. 1 2 3 disagree disagree disagree strongly moderately \ s l i g h t l y 5 agree 6 agree agree s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 64. I think the most important thing f o r a man i s to be a good husband and father. 1 2 3 disagree disagree disagree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y agree agree agree s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 150 65. I think the most important thing for a woman i s to have a successful paid career. 1 disagree strongly 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree agree agree agree moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 66. I think the most important thing for a man i s to have a successful paid career. 1 disagree strongly 2 ' 3 4 5 disagree disagree agree agree disagree strongly 2 3 4 5 disagree disagree agree agree 6 agree moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 67. I would marry only i f i t did not i n t e r f e r e with my career. 6 agree moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 68. I would forego children i f they would i n t e r f e r e with my career. 1 2 3 4 5 6 disagree disagree disagree agree agree agree strongly moderately s l i g h t l y s l i g h t l y moderately strongly 151 69.. Did you take grade twelve mathematics courses? Yes No 70. If yes, which course(s) did you take and what were your f i n a l grades? 71. Did you take grade twelve science courses? Yes No 72. If yes, which course(s) did you take and what were your f i n a l grades? 73. For the previous academic year, what was your f i n a l academic average? *** Please f e e l free to aidd any comments below. THANK YOU 1 52 A p p e n d i x B T r a d i t i o n a l C a r e e r C h o i c e s Elementary s c h o o l teacher Nurse S o c i a l worker C o u n s e l l o r (no p o s t g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g ) Home economics F l i g h t a t t e n d a n t R e c r e a t i o n worker Support h e a l t h c a r e worker ( r e h a b i l i t a t i o n m e d i c i n e , l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n ) S e c r e t a r y N o n t r a d i t i o n a l C a r e e r C h o i c e s Lawyer P h y s i c i a n Accountant B u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e Secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r C l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t A r c h i t e c t Systems a n a l y s t Pharmac i s t Research s c i e n t i s t S p o r t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r J o u r n a l i s t / P e r f o r m i n g a r t i s t 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094992/manifest

Comment

Related Items