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The Islands Trust : an institutional experiment in the management of scarce natural and social resources Porcher, Laura Kathryn 1980

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THE ISLANDS TRUST: INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SCARCE NATURAL AND SOCIAL RESOURCES V^^X LAURA KATHRYN PORCHER B.Sc, The University of V i c t o r i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Resource Management Sciences We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by July 1980 (c) Laura Kathryn Porcher, 1980 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f f?esoo<r-c,e. f V l a n a j e m e K l Sci£<nces> The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l experiment i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l management. E v a l u a t i o n i s made o f th e performance of the I s l a n d s T r u s t and the o v e r a l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l system, on the b a s i s o f o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g the i n c e p t i o n of the T r u s t . P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y proves u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g the b e h a v i o r o f the t h r e e p r i n c i p l e c a t e g o r i e s of a c t o r s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l system: v o t e r s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and p o l i t i c i a n s . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e stu d y a re 1) t o examine the e x t e n t t o which the T r u s t has f u l f i l l e d the i n t e n t o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , and 2) t o d i s c o v e r the f a c t o r s which have c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s degree of s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e . . I n i t i a l l y a s t u d y i s made of the l e g a l and h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g of r e s o u r c e management, both i n Canada g e n e r a l l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the t r u s t a r e a . The e v o l u t i o n of the I s l a n d s T r u s t i s d e s c r i b e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the i n t e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s on which e v a l u a t i o n i s made. I n t e n t i s d e r i v e d from the Report of the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s which recommended i n s t i t u t i n g t h e T r u s t i n 1973, t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Debates from 1973 t o 1979, and the p o l i c y s t atement of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t i n 1975.. Summarizing t h e s e t h r e e s o u r c e s , the T r u s t was i n t e n d e d 1) t o a c t as t h e mechanism c f c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l of i s l a n d development, 2) t o ensure o r d e r l y i i i development of the i s l a n d s , 3) t o o f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l c o n t r o l w h i l e p r o t e c t i n g the p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the s c e n i c beauty, r u r a l atmosphere, and r e c r e a t i o n a l a m e n i t i e s of the t r u s t a r e a . E m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s i s made of t h r e e major problem a r e a s i n i s l a n d development: Crown l a n d , s u b d i v i s i o n , and f o r e s t r y . For each of t h e s e broad i s s u e s , s t a t i s t i c s d e s c r i b i n g the problems, d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e d u r e s , I s l a n d s T r u s t i n v o l v e m e n t , and I s l a n d s T r u s t r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s are examined. Case s t u d i e s a r e used e x t e n s i v e l y . I s l a n d s T r u s t f i l e s , a t t e n d a n c e a t I s l a n d s T r u s t m e e t i n g s , and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h i s l a n d e r s and government a g e n c i e s are t h e main data s o u r c e s . P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y s u g g e s t s why t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l system o p e r a t e s as i t does. The t h e o r y makes two fundamental ass u m p t i o n s : 1) a l l people a c t r a t i o n a l l y , and 2) a l l people a c t i n t h e i r own s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s . The t h e s i s makes an i m p l i c i t a ssumption i n i t s d e f i n i t i o n o f v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s t h a t economic i n t e r e s t s and i n t e r e s t s i n h o l d i n g power as an end ( r a t h e r than as a means t o an end) are p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g m o t i v a t o r s o f b e h a v i o r . Under t h e s e assumptions a model i s b u i l t , d e s c r i b i n g t h e b e h a v i o r of v o t e r s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and p o l i t i c i a n s . E m p i r i c a l l y i t i s found t h a t t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t has few powers w i t h which t o f u l f i l l i t s mandate. fiegarding the t h r e e main i n t e n t s of the T r u s t , r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : 1. No s i n g l e mechanism of c o n t r o l of i s l a n d development e x i s t s . Other government a g e n c i e s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h i v T r u s t o b j e c t i v e s , and t o submit t o t h e c o o r d i n a t i n g r o l e of t h e T r u s t . 2. Development has become much more o r d e r l y , but some e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l problems p e r s i s t , over which the T r u s t has minimal c o n t r o l . 3..Since t h e T r u s t has l i t t l e a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e l o c a l c o n t r o l . P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s are p r o t e c t e d w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t tendency. . The I s l a n d s T r u s t has a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s i n f u l f i l l i n g i t s mandate, t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t has been g i v e n powers t o do so. . S e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s a r e s u g g e s t e d . T r u s t e e s may be i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o t e c t i n g the i s l a n d e nvironments because 1) t h e y wish t o get r e - e l e c t e d and t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e i r e l e c t o r a t e s want the i s l a n d s p r o t e c t e d , and 2) the power of the T r u s t i t s e l f i s d e r i v e d from f u l f i l l i n g the T r u s t mandate. People w i t h v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , t e n d t o d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s . . P r e s s u r e from people w i t h v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s tends t o cause p o l i t i c i a n s to p r e s s u r e b u r e a u c r a t s t o bend r u l e s . B u r e a u c r a t s a r e eager t o promote t h e i r agency's mandate, and t e n d t o adapt t h e i r programs t o the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , * The t h e s i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o democracy, e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , and i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e management. I t appears t h a t f u r t h e r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power may lead to positive results integrated resource management, l o c a l c o n t r o l . v with respect to coordination and environmental protection, and v i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s ............................................ x i L i s t o f Appendices x i i Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x i i i C h apter I I n t r o d u c t i o n .................................... 1 Chapter I I Methodology .12 A. G r a s p i n g the I n t e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t Act ........ 12 B. A Scheme t o E s t i m a t e t h e Success of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t 13 C. A Theory t o E x p l a i n How the D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g System F u n c t i o n s 16 Chapter I I I H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t ....18 A. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l and L e g a l Framework of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management i n Canada 13 B. H i s t o r y of Resource and S e t t l e m e n t Management of the I s l a n d s P r i o r t o the I s l a n d s T r u s t 24 C. E v e n t s L e a d i n g t o t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t 28 D. B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n o f O r i g i n a l S t r u c t u r e and Powers of th e I s l a n d s T r u s t 29 E. Some L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e O r i g i n a l I s l a n d s T r u s t L e g i s l a t i o n ...33 F. E v o l u t i o n of I s l a n d s T r u s t S t r u c t u r e and Powers .35 G. Role of t h e R e g i o n a l P l a n i n t h e T r u s t Area .....39 Chapter IV I n t e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t .................... 43 A. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s ..........43 B. A c c o r d i n g t o Hansard (1973 t o 1979) 47 C. A c c o r d i n g t o "The P o l i c y o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t , " August, 1975 .59 v i i D. D i s c u s s i o n 62 1. G e n e r a l 62 2. What i s " P r e s e r v e and P r o t e c t " ? ................. 62 3. I n t e n t of L o c a l vs. P r o v i n c i a l C o n t r o l .64 4. B a s i s f o r E v a l u a t i o n of I s l a n d s T r u s t Performance 65 Chapter V P u b l i c C h o i c e Theory as i t R e l a t e s t o the I s l a n d s T r u s t - ... 67 A. G e n e r a l Assumptions 67 B. , P u b l i c C hoice Theory .... ........................... 6 9 C. B a s i c Concepts 'of t h e Model .............71 1. . P u b l i c good 71 2. Power .....72 3. . I nte r e s t s ......... ... ...... . . 7 2 4. P r o p e r t y R i g h t s .74 5. P r o p e r t y 75 6. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o u n c i l ............................ 76 7. The S t a t e .77 8. .  Bur e a u c r a c y .73 D. A Model Prom P u b l i c C h o i c e Theory ................... 73 E. .Summary , 98 Chapter VI Crown Land ............102 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n - C r o w n Land Base ...102 B. . J u r i s d i c t i o n s , Mandates, and P o l i c i e s I n v o l v e d w i t h Crown Land ...» ...106 1. M i n i s t r y of Lands, Par k s and Housing Act ...106 2.. Land Act 108 a. H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e Land Act 108 b. Land Amendment Act ...........................109 c. .Procedures ...................................110 3. I s l a n d s T r u s t Act and P o l i c y ............111 Co I n t e r a c t i o n o f I s l a n d s T r u s t w i t h L a n d Management B r a n c h f r o m I s l a n d s T r u s t I n c e p t i o n t o C a s e S t u d y ...115 D. B e n n e t t Bay M a r i n a C a s e S t u d y 123 E. D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e B e n n e t t Bay M a r i n a C a se ........... 148 F. . T h e o r e t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f B e n n e t t Bay M a r i n a C a s e S t u d y .155 G. R e l a t i o n s o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t and t h e L a n d Management B r a n c h S i n c e t h e C a s e 160 H. A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e I s l a n d s . T r u s t and t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s , and H o u s i n g 169 1 . . H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e Agreement ......................169 2. D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e A g r e e m e n t ...........171 C h a p t e r V I I S u b d i v i s i o n 177 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n ........................................ 177 1 . . H i s t o r y o f S u b d i v i s i o n ' A c t i v i t y on t h e I s l a n d s ...177 2. S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l P r i o r t o and Under t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t 178 B. I n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e T r u s t ' s P e r f o r m a n c e w i t h R e s p e c t t o O r d e r l y D e v e l o p m e n t ...181 1..The S u b d i v i s i o n P r o b l e m .................181 a. R a t e o f C r e a t i o n o f New L o t s .......181 b. E v i d e n c e o f D e n s i t y - r e l a t e d Water S h o r t a g e s and Sewage D i s p o s a l P r o b l e m s 186 c. E v i d e n c e c f S o c i a l D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ..187 2. " I m p r o v e m e n t " o f I s l a n d L o t s 188 3. C o n c l u s i o n .....................191 C. S u b d i v i s i o n A p p r o v a l P r o c e d u r e 192 1..The " S t a n d a r d P r o c e d u r e " .........................192 2 . ^ P o t e n t i a l P r o b l e m s and P e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e " S t a n d a r d P r o c e d u r e " .. 196 a. R o l e o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t i n t h e P r o c e d u r e ...196 b. I m p a c t o f Mandates on P e r s o n n e l ..............200 c. P o t e n t i a l C o n f u s i o n o f t h e A p p l i c a n t .........200 i x 3. .Case Study: Denman I s l a n d S u b d i v i s i o n 20 1 4. . D i s c u s s i o n of Denman I s l a n d S u b d i v i s i o n Case 223 5. T h e o r e t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Denman I s l a n d S u b d i v i s i o n Case 223 6..Fate o f I s l a n d s T r u s t Recommendations ............231 D. C o n c l u s i o n 233 Chapter V I I I F o r e s t r y 237 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n ........................................237 1. Tenure of F o r e s t Land 237 a. T a x a t i o n Tree Farms .......................... 237 b. Other P r i v a t e Land ........................... 238 c. Crown Land ....240 B. I n t e r e s t s i n F o r e s t Values ..........................241 1..Values P r o v i d e d by F o r e s t Land ..........241 2..The I n t e r e s t s c f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t ...............242 3. The I n t e r e s t s of t h e Landowner 242 4. The C o n f l i c t of I n t e r e s t s 243 C. P o t e n t i a l Problems of I s l a n d L o g g i n g ................ 244 1. A e s t h e t i c s and R e c r e a t i o n Problems 244 2. .Water Problems 245 3. A l l e v i a t i o n c f Problems Through F o r e s t Management Techniques 245 D. How the I s l a n d s T r u s t has D e a l t w i t h Logging on T a x a t i o n Tree Farms ; 246 1. . I s l a n d s T r u s t s I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Respect t o Management P l a n s 246 2 . . I s l a n d s T r u s t ' s S u b m i s s i o n t o t h e Pe a r s e R o y a l Commission .....249 3. Report of t h e Commission w i t h Respect t o T a x a t i o n Tree Farms and F o r e s t Management P l a n n i n g 253 4 . . A c t i o n s Taken by the T r u s t s i n c e the Commission R e p o r t 259 X 5. P o s s i b l e • F u t u r e A c t i o n s Open to the T r u s t ........262 6. Zoning of T a x a t i o n Tree Farms ......265 E. How the I s l a n d s T r u s t has D e a l t w i t h Logging on Non-T a x a t i o n Tree Farm P r i v a t e Lands 266 1. A c t i o n s Taken (or Attempted) by the I s l a n d s T r u s t P r i c r t o O c t o b e r , 1975 . 267 2 . . I s l a n d s T r u s t ' s S u b m i s s i o n t o the P e a r s e R o y a l Commission ......268 3..Report of t h e Commission w i t h R espect t o U n r e g u l a t e d P r i v a t e Lands 269 4. Bowen I s l a n d Case Study .....273 5 . . A c t i o n s Taken by the I s l a n d s T r u s t S i n c e t h e Bowen Case 277 6. Case S t u d i e s o f Logging wich Respect t o S e r i o u s Water Problems 282 F. C o n c l u s i o n ..287 Chapter IX C o n c l u s i o n 290 A. F u l f i l l m e n t of I n t e n t 290 1. „The T r u s t t o Act as the S i n g l e Mechanism of C o o r d i n a t i o n and C o n t r o l 290 2. The T r u s t t o Ensure O r d e r l y Development ....293 3..The T r u s t t o A f f o r d S i g n i f i c a n t L o c a l C o n t r o l , E n s u r i n g P r o t e c t i o n o f S p e c i f i e d P r o v i n c i a l I n t e r e s t s 295 B. T h e o r e t i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n o f R e s u l t s .................. 297 C. P e r s o n a l I m p r e s s i o n s ..................301 B i b l i o g r a p h y 307 Appendices ................................................312 x i iIST_OF_TABLES Table I : P r i v a t e / P u b l i c C h o i c e Models , 80 T a b l e I I : Crown Land Summary ..104 Table I I I : P r o g r e s s of I s l a n d P l a n n i n g .....179 T a b l e I V : Rate of S u b d i v i s i o n 182 Ta b l e V: S u b d i v i s i o n L o t s (1977) ...... 185 Table V I : T a x a t i o n Tree Farms: Area and ownership .........239 LIST_OF_APPENDICES A. . I s l a n d s T r u s t Act (1974 Chapter 43) 313 B. . I s l a n d s T r u s t Act (1979 ES Chapter 208) ................ 321 C. L e t t e r , March 15, 1979, John B i c h t o Hon. James R. Chabot 329 D. Agreement Between M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s and Housing and I s l a n d s T r u s t w i t h Respect t o P l a n n i n g and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Crown Land W i t h i n t h e T r u s t Area 33 1 E. L e t t e r , June 6, 1979, John R i c h t o Hon. James R. Chabot 335 F. L e t t e r , J u l y 13, 1979, John R i c h t o Hon. James B. Chabot 337 G. .Memorandum, October 26, 1978, Tony Ro b e r t s t o Marc Holmes : 339 H. L e t t e r , J u l y 8, 1979, Denman I s l a n d Bylaw Support Group t o Hon. A l e x F r a s e r .342 I . G a l i a n o I s l a n d T a x a t i o n 350 J . Environment and Land Use Act (1971 Chapter 17) 353 K . . L e t t e r , F e b r u a r y 9, 1977, Marc Holmes t o Hon. J.A. N i e l s o n ....355 L. Memorandum, May 1, 1979, A.H. R o b e r t s t o G e n e r a l T r u s t e e s 356 M. L e t t e r , June 6, 1979, John R i c h t o Hon. T.M..Waterland .359 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The c o o p e r a t i o n of t h e t r u s t e e s and s t a f f o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t , which made t h i s study p o s s i b l e , i s most g r a t e f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . The guidance and p a t i e n c e of I r v i n g Fox and P a t r i c i a Marchak were a l s o e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s s t u d y , and f o r th e s e I am very t h a n k f u l . The a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement o f P a u l Tennant, Bob W i l l i a m s , Andrew Thompson, B i l l Lane, P e t e r B o othroyd, Brahm Wiesman, B i l l Sees, and E r i k K a r l s e n a re a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d . F i n a l l y , my deepest g r a t i t u d e i s f e l t f o r Alan Chambers whose c o n s t a n t r e s e r v e of p a t i e n c e , encouragement, and d i r e c t i o n I depended upon;. I t i s he who has most f o s t e r e d my p e r s o n a l growth through t h i s t h e s i s and has k i n d l e d my d e s i r e t o unde r s t a n d more about the human c o n d i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e n a t u r a l environment. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 2 The o b j e c t of t h i s s tudy i s t o examine an u nusual i n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of n a t u r a l and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s of a r e g i o n , These r e s o u r c e s can be c o n s i d e r e d s c a r c e , as the r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n was t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e s of t h e r e g i o n were unigue t o t h e p r o v i n c e . The s t u d y views t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n as an experiment t c the above ends, and examines the e x t e n t t o which the i n s t i t u t i o n has s u c c e s s f u l l y f u l f i l l e d t h e i n t e n t o f i t s mandate. The s t u d y a l s o makes an attempt t o e x p l a i n how the t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l system f u n c t i o n s t o produce the r e s u l t s found i n t h e t h e s i s . The G u l f and Howe Sound I s l a n d s i n t h e S t r a i t of G e o r g i a between t h e l o w e r mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d c o n s t i t u t e a h i g h l y v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e . .. T h e i r m i l d c l i m a t e , r e l a t i v e l y low r a i n f a l l , g e o l o g y , and s i t u a t i o n i n t h e S t r a i t make them unigue t o . Canada and a p p e a l i n g t o a g r e a t number o f p e o p l e . The i s l a n d s combine a wide d i v e r s i t y of human B r i t i s h Columbia s t a t u t e s were r e c e n t l y renumbered.. The 1979 r e v i s e d s t a t u t e s (with the new numbers) took e f f e c t May 17, 1980. . U n l e s s 1979 s t a t u t e s a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r e n c e d , t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y uses the former numbers. 2An attempt has been made i n the t h e s i s to use government department names which were i n use at the t i m e r e f e r e n c e d , r a t h e r t h a n c u r r e n t names. 2 l i f e s t y l e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and s c e n i c beauty.. The g u i e t , r u r a l atmosphere o f the i s l a n d communities i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a s s e t of the i s l a n d s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e much of the lower m a i n l a n d and s o u t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d i s h i g h l y developed. A l a r g e subgroup of t h e s e i s l a n d s (from G a b r i o l a I s l a n d ^ southward) i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , so much so t h a t i n 1973 a p r o p o s a l was put f o r t h by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission t o make t h i s a r e a i n t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l park. The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e park was t o be: ... t o p r e s e r v e t h e e x i s t i n g a t t r a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i s l a n d a r c h i p e l a g o a s t r i d e t h e border i n c l u d i n g the p r e s e r v a t i o n c f marine and land-based w i l d l i f e , a r c h e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c r e s o u r c e s , and the maintenance of water g u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s . ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o i n t Roberts Board, 1973) As over 50% of B.C.'s p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n c e n t e r s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e s e i s l a n d s , and many people have a c t u a l l y made t h e i s l a n d s t h e i r home, the n a t u r a l and s c e n i c v a l u e of t h e i s l a n d s has been w i d e l y acknowledged.. Demand f o r use of the i s l a n d s has d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d over t h e l a s t two decades. S e v e r a l reasons account f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e . The l a r g e c e n t e r s of p o p u l a t i o n n e a r b y , e s p e c i a l l y G r e a t e r Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , have had h i g h i n m i g r a t i o n s and n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . G r e a t e r g e n e r a l a f f l u e n c e has made the p o s s i b i l i t y o f v a c a t i o n i n g or owning a summer home a r e a l i t y f o r a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of pe o p l e . P r e s s u r e s of l i v i n g i n l a r g e r urban c e n t e r s have i n c r e a s e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of people s e e k i n g r e c r e a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e c i t i e s . . 3 The demand may • be beyond t h e s u p p l y c a p a b i l i t y of the i s l a n d s , depending on the s p e c i f i c g u a l i t i e s demanded. For example, i f the i s l a n d s were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o l o t s so s m a l l as t o s a t i s f y e v e r y o n e ' s d e s i r e f o r an i s l a n d l o t , t h e very a m e n i t i e s of t h e i s l a n d s which people are g e n e r a l l y s e e k i n g , such as a r u r a l atmosphere and i n t e r e s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s , would be d e s t r o y e d . Some a r e a s of t h e i s l a n d s may have a l r e a d y reached b i o p h y s i c a l l i m i t s to the number of p e o p l e t h e y can accommodate, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t to water s u p p l y and sewage d i s p o s a l , (e.g. water s h o r t a g e s have r e c e n t l y been e x p e r i e n c e d i n some a r e a s of Pender, S a l t s p r i n g , and G a b r i o l a I s l a n d s ) . While use of v a r i o u s t e c h n o l o g i e s may h e l p a l l e v i a t e such problems, many r e s i d e n t s f e e l t h a t 1) t h e use o f some such t e c h n o l o g i e s i s not i n harmony wit h t h e i r l i f e s t y l e , and 2) t h e h i g h e r p o p u l a t i o n which n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e use of t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i e s i n t e r f e r e s w i t h o t h e r v a l u e s of the i s l a n d s which t h e y wish t o p r o t e c t , such as the q u i e t r u r a l atmosphere. The problem o f h i g h demand p r e s s u r e , w i t h the r e s u l t i n g danger of overdevelopment, has t h u s been p e r c e i v e d as a genuine problem on t h e s e i s l a n d s . The t a s k seems t o be t o d i s t r i b u t e the a m e n i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i s l a n d s t o the people of B r i t i s h C olumbia, i n a manner t h a t does not d e s t r o y t h e v e r y n a t u r a l and s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s which people v a l u e , and a l s o t h a t i s e q u i t a b l e . _ The e g u i t y problem confounds t h e o r i g i n a l problem immensely, as t h e f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e : 1. While some landowners may have been r e l y i n g on s u b d i v i d i n g t h e i r l a n d f o r f u t u r e income, many landowners have been a t t r a c t e d t o the i s l a n d s because of t h e r u r a l atmosphere and may 4 f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e i f t h e i r n e i g h b o u r ' s l a n d i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l l o t s . 2. O r i g i n a l landowners were t h e r e f i r s t and as such may have a r i g h t t o enjoy t h e i r p r o p e r t y as i t s t a n d s ; yet o t h e r r e s i d e n t s of B.C. may have a r i g h t t o v i s i t t h e i s l a n d s as o f t e n as t h e y wish and they expect to be accommodated i n some way (e.g. by a campground or r e s c r t ) d u r i n g t h e i r v i s i t . 3.. While parks and campgrounds a r e u s e f u l i n accommodating l a r g e numbers of p e o p l e , t h e y may d e t r a c t from some s o c i a l a s p e c t s of community l i v i n g which l o c a l r e s i d e n t s now enj o y . 4. The f e r r y s e r v i c e i s a l e v e r which c o u l d be o p e r a t e d t o d i m i n i s h t h e number of people r e a c h i n g t h e i s l a n d s ; however, the f e r r y s e r v i c e t o t h e i s l a n d s i s an e x t e n s i o n of the p u b l i c highway system on which a l l B.C. r e s i d e n t s have a r i g h t t o t r a v e l . These a r e a few of t h e e g u i t y i s s u e s which i l l u s t r a t e the magnitude o f t h i s q u e s t i o n of a l l o c a t i n g the l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s of the i s l a n d s e q u i t a b l y . I n summary, i t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some c o n t r o l i n t h e development of the i s l a n d s i s i m p o r t a n t because u n c o n t r o l l e d development l e a d s to d e g r a d a t i o n of t h e r e s o u r c e s . . For example, i n a study of the same i s l a n d s Chambers (1971) found t h a t 11 ... t h e s u b - d i v i s i o n of l o t s t o s i z e s below two a c r e s may be accompanied by a r a t h e r r a p i d decrease i n [ p e r c e i v e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l ] g u a l i t y . " While t h e b e s t mechanisms o f e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e as yet undetermined, t h e u n a v o i d a b l e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t some k i n d of l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s r e g u i r e d t o prev e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n . 5 The p r o v i n c i a l government has attempted a s e r i e s o f i n n o v a t i o n s t o manage t h e s e i s l a n d s . P r i o r t o 1965, t h e i s l a n d s were u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y ; t h e i r r e s i d e n t s r e c e i v e d very few l o c a l s e r v i c e s and had no l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y . The major impetus f o r development came from b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s , w i t h some l e a d e r s h i p g i v e n by l o c a l chambers o f commerce; p u b l i c improvements were u s u a l l y the r e s u l t of a p p e a l s from c o m m e r c i a l lobby groups t c v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments such as Highways and Lands, and t h e B.C. F e r r y A u t h o r i t y . Most i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s and p r o p e r t y owners had l i t t l e i n p u t i n t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f development of t h e i r communities. In 1965, the B.C. l e g i s l a t u r e passed l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r the c r e a t i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e . The G u l f and Howe Sound i s l a n d s were (and s t i l l are) i n c l u d e d i n seven r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . . As the i s l a n d s were n o n - m u n i c i p a l , they were (and s t i l l are) r e p r e s e n t e d by members e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y f r c m groups o f the i s l a n d s . For example, the s o u t h e r n i s l a n d s of G a l i a n o , Mayne, North and South Pender, and S a t u r n a , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r s m a l l e r a s s o c i a t e d i s l a n d s , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by one e l e c t e d member on the Board of t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d has i t s own d i r e c t o r on the same Board. . Because f u n c t i o n s o t h e r than r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and community h o s p i t a l s were g r a n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , the t y p e s of s e r v i c e s which were p r o v i d e d d i f f e r e d among t h e i s l a n d s . Most assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and r e f u s e d i s p o s a l . However, i n most ca s e s sewage d i s p o s a l c o n t i n u e d t o be handled by the B.C. Department of H e a l t h , and water s u p p l y by water improvement 6 d i s t r i c t s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the P r o v i n c e . S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s a r e p a i d f o r by an a d d i t i o n a l l e v y on the r e a l p r o p e r t y t a x . The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e c r e a t e d both advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s f o r the i s l a n d s , as summarized by G l o v e r (1974). C e r t a i n b e n e f i t s were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s . . However, communication w i t h r e g i o n a l boards and s t a f f were o f t e n d i f f i c u l t due to the remoteness of t h e i s l a n d s . . In some c a s e s , r e g i o n a l g o a l s appeared t o be d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s , e.g. w i t h r e s p e c t t o minimum l o t s i z e s (Glover and Chataway, 1973).. The g r e a t number of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n v o l v e d w i t h the management of t h e Gu l f I s l a n d s f o s t e r e d no o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g among t h e i s l a n d s ; i t appears t h a t o n l y one r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t (the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ) i n c l u d e d any of t h e i s l a n d s i n i t s r e g i o n a l p l a n . I n t h e l a t e 1960's, l a r g e - s c a l e s u b d i v i s i o n s on No r t h Pender I s l a n d (Magic Lake E s t a t e s , with 1300 l o t s ) and on Mayne I s l a n d g e n e r a t e d wide p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , which provoked the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n 1969 t o impose a " t e n - a c r e f r e e z e " cn f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n . T h i s was re g a r d e d as a temporary measure t o g i v e t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t i me t o generate community p l a n s f o r each o f t h e i s l a n d s , a l t h o u g h no o f f i c i a l d i r e c t i v e was i s s u e d t o the r e g i o n a l boards t o t h i s e f f e c t . The t e n - a c r e f r e e z e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a move d r a s t i c enough t o m o t i v a t e t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o g e n e r a t e community p l a n s . . The community p l a n s would supposedly i n c o r p o r a t e the views of concerned r e s i d e n t s and a c t as a g u i d e l i n e f o r more 7 c o n t r o l l e d development of the i s l a n d s . E f f o r t s t o g e n e r a t e community p l a n s o c c u r r e d on some i s l a n d s , w i t h the i m p e t u s coming e i t h e r from the r e g i o n a l board member or from th e r e s i d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s * However, t h i s was a slow p r o c e s s and by September, 1972 when the B.C. government changed, not more than f o u r i s l a n d p l a n s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g z o n i n g bylaws had been g e n e r a t e d and approved. Immediately a f t e r the New Democratic P a r t y assumed power, i t r e q u e s t e d the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s composed of members of a l l f o u r p a r t i e s of the l e g i s l a t u r e t o examine the g u e s t i c n of f u t u r e development on t h e i s l a n d s . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e had been s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e from the p r o v i n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s had not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y managing t h e development of the G u l f I s l a n d s * I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , once h a v i n g made the community p l a n s and z o n i n g bylaws, c o u l d have more s u c c e s s f u l l y managed the i s l a n d s to meet p u b l i c s a t i s f a c t i o n . However, r a t h e r t h a n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s be a l l o w e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o do so, the Committee recommended t h a t a new i n s t i t u t i o n c a l l the I s l a n d s T r u s t be formed. The o b s e r v a t i o n s of the Committee which l e d t o t h i s recommendation are summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. The i s l a n d s have the problem of the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s : a) l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , many r e t i r e d and many who have t o earn t h e i r l i v i n g l o c a l l y ; b) l a r g e numbers of summer r e s i d e n t s and/or v i s i t o r s ; c) l a r g e landowners, u s u a l l y a b s e n t e e , o f t e n c o r p o r a t e and f o r e i g n ; d) a l a r g e r p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t of the 8 g e n e r a l p u b l i c ; e) l a n d d e v e l o p e r s and s p e c u l a t o r s ; f ) T a x a t i o n Tree Farm h o l d e r s . . 2. L a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n s and over-development are the p r i o r i t y c o n c e r n . . 3. There i s a need f o r i n c r e a s e d , s u p e r v i s e d p u b l i c space. 4. Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the i s l a n d s i s a key f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the e x t e n t of f u t u r e growth on t h e i s l a n d s . As such i t needs c a r e f u l c o n t r o l and c o o r d i n a t i o n , which are o u t s i d e o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t j u r i s d i c t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n on the i s l a n d s i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on p e d e s t r i a n t r a n s i t , and the i s l a n d s planned a c c o r d i n g l y . , 5. There has been a s e r i o u s l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n and communication between v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments and between the p r o v i n c e and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 6. Emphasis f o r f u t u r e development on the i s l a n d s s h o u l d be p l a c e d on r e c r e a t i o n , moderate r e s i d e n t i a l use, and p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e r u r a l atmosphere. 7 .. Waste and garbage d i s p o s a l and s h o r t a g e of p o t a b l e water are o t h e r major c o n c e r n s . The p o s s i b i l i t y of f o r m i n g t h e i s l a n d s i n t o one r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t had been c o n s i d e r e d by the Committee.. However, the d i s a d v a n t a g e s of t h i s n o t i o n were, i n G l o v e r ' s words: 1. The a v a i l a b l e powers would s t i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h o s e o u t l i n e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l Act u n l e s s amendments were made t o i n c r e a s e t h e powers o f a l l r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s (which from t h e p r o v i n c i a l v i e w p o i n t i s l i k e l y t o be p o l i t i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e ) . 2..The r e g i o n a l t a x base would be i n a d e q u a t e i n p r o v i d i n g any f u n c t i o n s over and above r u d i m e n t a r y s e r v i c e s . I f a s u b s i d y was p r o v i d e d t o the G u l f I s l a n d s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t h e problem of e q u i t y would be r a i s e d by t h e o t h e r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 9 3. The t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y would be l i m i t e d t o r e g i o n a l s t a f f and the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee.. 4. C o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l departments would l i k e l y not improve over t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . 5. P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s would not be d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d . 6..Some s e r v i c e s such as h o s p i t a l s and ambulence s e r v i c e s c o u l d not be e f f i c i e n t l y p r o v i d e d by a G u l f I s l a n d s E e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t due t o e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . . 7. I t appears t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more time would be r e g u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a new r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t t han t o e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i a l purpose T r u s t Commission. Time i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r due t o the temporary n a t u r e of the t e n a c r e f r e e z e and the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r l o t s on the i s l a n d s . ( G l o v e r , 1974, pp.34-35) Thus, i n 1974, t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t was e s t a b l i s h e d by an a c t of t h e B.C. l e g i s l a t u r e . The mandate of the I s l a n d s T r u s t has been: ... t o p r e s e r v e and p r o t e c t , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the Government of the P r o v i n c e , the t r u s t a r e a and i t s unigue a m e n i t i e s and environment f o r the b e n e f i t of t h e r e s i d e n t s of the t r u s t a r e a and of the P r o v i n c e g e n e r a l l y . ( S e c t i o n 3[ 1 ], I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , 1974) S i x y e a r s have now l a p s e d s i n c e the I s l a n d s T r u s t was formed, and no a n a l y s i s has been made of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i n f u l f i l l i n g i t s mandate.. L e g i s l a t i o n promoting p r e s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s through the i n s t i t u t i o n o f a t r u s t i s not found e l s e w h e r e i n Canada; i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t can be viewed as an ex p e r i m e n t . Given t h a t the o r i g i n a l mandate o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t i s an a m b i t i o u s one, and t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f e e l . an i n c r e a s e d need f o r p r o t e c t i o n of i t s l e s s common n a t u r a l and s o c i a l e n v i r onments, i t w i l l be v a l u a b l e t o know t h e degree o f s u c c e s s met by t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t . . 10 The I s l a n d s T r u s t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g o b j e c t of study f o r two a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s . One of t h e major i n t e n t s b e h i n d the T r u s t was t o a l l o w l o c a l r e s i d e n t s g r e a t e r i n p u t w i t h r e s p e c t t o i s l a n d development.. I t appears t h a t t h e T r u s t c o n s t i t u t e s the h i g h e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n per c a p i t a i n a l l of Canada, has s e v e r a l powers of o t h e r l o c a l governments, and a l s o has s e v e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . In t h e s e r e s p e c t s , i t appears t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n of power has been somewhat d e c e n t r a l i z e d . . I f power has i n d e e d been d e c e n t r a l i z e d , i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see the r e s u l t s of such d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . A t h i r d r e a s o n f o r s t u d y i n g t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t i s t h a t a major r o l e of the T r u s t has been t o c o o r d i n a t e o t h e r a g e n c i e s a f f e c t i n g r e s o u r c e and s e t t l e m e n t management of the i s l a n d s . Many o t h e r r e g i o n s have demonstrated a need f o r a c o o r d i n a t i n g body t o i n t e g r a t e r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g and management. I f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t has been s u c c e s s f u l l y f u l f i l l i n g the e x p l i c i t mandate of s e c t i o n 3(1) above, and the i m p l i c i t i n t e n t of t h e l e g i s l a t i o n , then i t may s e r v e as a model f o r meeting s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s i n e t h e r a r e a s . I f , however, the I s l a n d s T r u s t has been u n s u c c e s s f u l , i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o u n d e r s t a n d the r e a s o n s f o r f a i l u r e , so t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e can be m o d i f i e d t o b e t t e r meet s o c i e t y ' s g o a l s . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study a r e : 1.  t o determine t h e e x t e n t t o which the I s l a n d s T r u s t and t h e t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l system have f u l f i l l e d the i n t e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , and 2 . . t o attempt t o understand why t h i s degree of s u c c e s s , i . e . why have o p e r a t e d the way they have. 11 t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t has a c h i e v e d the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g systems 12 Chapter I I METHODOLOGY The problem of d e t e r m i n i n g the e x t e n t t o which t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t i s f u l f i l l i n g i t s mandate poses two fundamental t a s k s . The f i r s t i s t o understand t h e e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t i n t e n t o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t . The second i s t o d e v i s e some way of examining how w e l l t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t has s a t i s f i e d t h i s i n t e n t . To t r y t o understand why the system (comprised of p e o p l e w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n the i s l a n d s , p o l i t i c i a n s of the I s l a n d s T r u s t and the P r o v i n c e , and b u r e a u c r a t s ) has o p e r a t e d t h e way t h a t i t has, some g e n e r a l t h e o r y i s r e g u i r e d . A. G r a s p i n g , the__Intent o f t h e _ I s l a n d s T r u s t Act To a s s i s t i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i n t e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t l e g i s l a t i o n , two b a s i c s t u d i e s were made. The f i r s t s e t s the I s l a n d s T r u s t i n a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . An e x a m i n a t i o n was made of the h i s t o r y of r e s o u r c e and s e t t l e m e n t management on the i s l a n d s p r i o r t o t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e e v o l u t i o n o f the T r u s t completed t h i s h i s t o r i c a l view. The second s t u d y i s addressed more s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the i n t e n t of the T r u s t . An e x a m i n a t i o n was made o f t h r e e s e p a r a t e s o u r c e s which i n d i c a t e i n t e n t : 1. t h e 1973 r e p o r t of the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , 13 2. t h e Hansard debates (1973 - 1979), and 3. the I s l a n d s T r u s t P o l i c y Statement of 1975.. These p r o v i d e d the background from which an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n t e n t o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t Act was drawn. The h i s t o r i c a l and l e g a l s t u d i e s and the s t u d y of i n t e n t s i m p l y l a y the f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of the e x t e n t t o which t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t has f u l f i l l e d i t s mandate.. B • A Scheme t o , E s t i m a t e _ _ t h e _ S u c c e s s _ i o f _ t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t The major problems f a c i n g t h e i s l a n d s can be s e p a r a t e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : 1) i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o r e s o u r c e s and the n a t u r a l e nvironment, and 2) i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t and accommodation of pe o p l e . Even s o c i a l or c o m m u n i t y - r e l a t e d problems (e.g. t h e matter of l i f e s t y l e s ) can u s u a l l y be t r a c e d t o i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o r e s o u r c e s or s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e adopted f o r co n v e n i e n c e . A s e l e c t i o n of t h r e e major problems f a c i n g the t r u s t a r e a was made t o p r o v i d e c o n t e n t f o r e v a l u a t i n g the T r u s t ' s s u c c e s s . For each o f the t h r e e problem a r e a s , an e x a m i n a t i o n was made o f data d e s c r i b i n g the problem, l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e problem, and what the T r u s t has done (or t r i e d t o do) about the problem s i n c e i n c e p t i o n . I n a l l t h r e e a r e a s , the problem i n v o l v e d i n t e r a c t i o n c f the T r u s t with one or more government a g e n c i e s . T h e r e f o r e , t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the r e s p e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and s p e c i f i c a l l y the T r u s t ' s r o l e i n these p r o c e s s e s , i t was u s e f u l t o c l o s e l y c o n s i d e r one or more case s t u d i e s f o r each problem.. F i n a l l y , t h e performance o f 14 the T r u s t was e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t t h e i n t e n t o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , s u b j e c t t o c o n s t r a i n t s s e t by l e g i s l a t i o n or r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h t h e case s t u d i e s . The t h r e e problems s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y were: 1) Crown l a n d s , 2) s u b d i v i s i o n , and 3) f o r e s t r y . While s u b d i v i s i o n r e l a t e s t o s e t t l e m e n t , and f o r e s t r y r e l a t e s t o r e s o u r c e s , Crown l a n d r e l a t e s t o b o t h . J u s t i f i c a t i o n of s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e problems i s n e c e s s a r y , but f i r s t i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o e x p l a i n why a few o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s were not chosen. Water s u p p l y and watershed p r o t e c t i o n are c r i t i c a l problems on s e v e r a l i s l a n d s . . However, t h e s e problems a r e most a f f e c t e d by t h e number of people demanding water use, which i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n of s u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y . . S i n c e s u b d i v i s i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e water problem i t s e l f c o u l d be o m i t t e d . Logging a l s o a f f e c t s water s u p p l y and watershed p r o t e c t i o n but l o g g i n g , t o o , was c o v e r e d . Another major problem f a c i n g t h e i s l a n d s can be c a l l e d " t o u r i s m " , or " r e c r e a t i o n " , or "how t o p r o v i d e o f f - i s l a n d e r s w i t h a r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e on t h e i s l a n d s w i t h o u t damaging the p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l environment of the i s l a n d s . " T h i s i s a very broad a r e a , encompassing such t o p i c s as m arinas, p u b l i c p a r k s , o v e r n i g h t accommodation, and maintenance of an environment which c o n t i n u e s t o a t t r a c t p e o p l e — t o name but a few.. An e n t i r e t h e s i s c o u l d be w r i t t e n on t h i s s u b j e c t . T h i s area was l e f t f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s . A t h i r d a r e a not s p e c i f i c a l l y a d dressed was c o a s t a l zone management. While the problem i s c e r t a i n l y i m p o r t a n t , i t 15 r e l a t e s c l o s e l y t o t h e management of the f o r e s h o r e and beyond, which was p a r t l y c o v e r e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of Crown lands.. I t was hoped t h a t t h e c h a p t e r on Crown l a n d s would be of some use t o t h o s e working on c o a s t a l zone management. A f o u r t h problem not examined was t h e e f f e c t o f t a x a t i o n on i s l a n d p r o p e r t y - o w n e r s . I t i s of major co n c e r n t h a t as l a n d p r i c e s r i s e on the i s l a n d s , t a x e s i n c r e a s e , and i n many c a s e s , i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i d e n t s on s u b s i s t e n c e incomes) are f o r c e d o f f the i s l a n d s or a r e f o r c e d t o s u b d i v i d e t h e i r p r o p e r t y t o e a r n e x t r a income and t o lower t h e i r t a x e s . The i s l a n d communities may be s l o w l y changing from d i v e r s e v a r i e t i e s of p e o p l e of a l l ages and i n c o m e - b r a c k e t s t o " e n c l a v e s f o r t h e r i c h . " E g u i t y i s a key v a r i a b l e i n t h i s problem; s h o u l d c u r r e n t i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s "get t h e b r e a k s " (e.g. i n the form of l o w e r taxes) s i m p l y because they were t h e r e f i r s t , or s h o u l d t h e i s l a n d s be r e s e r v e d f o r o n l y t h o s e who can a f f o r d t o pay the h i g h p r i c e of l i v i n g t h e r e - - o r a r e t h e r e o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s ? T h i s problem i s p a r t l y addressed i n t h e s u b d i v i s i o n and Crown l a n d c h a p t e r s , but the r o l e of t a x a t i o n i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y examined. The T r u s t C o u n c i l i t s e l f has formed a Committee on T a x a t i o n which has made an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y of l e g i s l a t i o n on t h e m a t t e r , and i s now d e v e l o p i n g some co n c e p t s which aim t o h e l p a l l e v i a t e the s i t u a t i o n . F i n a l l y , w h i l e f e r r i e s are a key t o i s l a n d development, t h i s problem i s r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n t h a t the B.C. F e r r y C o r p o r a t i o n o b v i o u s l y has complete c o n t r o l of f e r r i e s i n the s o u t h e r n a r e a , and the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways has c o n t r o l i n the n o r t h e r n a r e a . I t was hoped t h a t 16 the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the T r u s t and o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s , as r e v e a l e d through t h i s t h e s i s , c o u l d shed some l i g h t on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the T r u s t and these two a g e n c i e s . While j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e problem a r e a s may now be g u i t e a p p a r e n t , a g u i c k summary w i l l be o f f e r e d i n any c a s e . S u b d i v i s i o n was the p r i o r i t y concern of the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s which recommended i n s t i t u t i n g t h e T r u s t ; a major i n t e n t was t h a t t h e T r u s t would p r o v i d e some c o n t r o l i n t h i s matter. Crown l a n d o f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l on a few i s l a n d s , and s i n c e i t i s owned and t h u s c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the Crown, i t i s the most r e a d i l y m a l l e a b l e l a n d { i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y speaking) i n the t r u s t a r e a . Logging i s one of the mainstays o f t h e i s l a n d economies, and i t can s e v e r e l y a f f e c t t h e i s l a n d environment, depending on how and where i t i s done. As i s p r o b a b l y a p p a r e n t , t h e r e i s o v e r l a p among t h e s e t h r e e problems. Data f o r the s t u d y of the t h r e e problems were o b t a i n e d from th e I s l a n d s T r u s t f i l e s (which were c o m p l e t e l y a c c e s s i b l e ) , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h key p o l i t i c i a n s and p u b l i c s e r v a n t s from v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , and a t t e n d a n c e at v a r i o u s I s l a n d s T r u s t meetings. C. . A Theo.rY_.tg, EgBlain.•ffQW_J^§ J: D g c i s i o n - M a k i n q . System F u S g t i o n s A g e n e r a l t h e o r y i s developed t o e x p l a i n t h e a c t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s p l a y e r s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t r u s t a r e a . T h i s t h e o r y , l i k e any o t h e r t h e o r y , i s based on a s e t of a s s u m p t i o n s , and l e a d s t o a s e t of p r e d i c t i o n s or i n f e r e n c e s . The t h e o r y may be a p p r o p r i a t e i n 17 c e r t a i n a p p l i c a t i o n s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n o t h e r s ; on the o t h e r hand, i t may be t o t a l l y wrong. T h e r e f o r e , c e r t a i n phenomena may be found which t h e t h e o r y seems t o e x p l a i n w e l l , and o t h e r s may be found which the t h e o r y does not e x p l a i n a t a l l ; a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may be t h a t t h e t h e o r y e x p l a i n s n o t h i n g . The e x p r e s s purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s not t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t e s t t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y ; r a t h e r i t i s t o f i n d the e x t e n t t c which t h e T r u s t i s f u l f i l l i n g t h e i n t e n t of i t s mandate. However, t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h e t h e o r y i s a p p l i c a b l e , i t may h e l p e x p l a i n why the p r o v i s i o n system i s f u n c t i o n i n g the way i t does, i.e..why the T r u s t has a c h i e v e d t h e degree of s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e found by t h i s t h e s i s . 18 Chapter I I I HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE ISLANDS TRUST The broad purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r and the c h a p t e r f o l l o w i n g i s t o d e v e l o p a n o t i o n of the i n t e n t of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t . T h i s c h a p t e r d e v e l o p s the l e g a l and h i s t o r i c a l background o f the T r u s t , as a s e t t i n g f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r which more s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s e s i n t e n t . I t i n c l u d e s t h e g e n e r a l l e g a l s e t t i n g of r e s o u r c e management, a h i s t o r y of e n v i r o n m e n t a l management i n the t r u s t a r e a w i t h t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g to t h e i n c e p t i o n of the T r u s t , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t Act and how i t e v o l v e d , and t h e r o l e of a r e g i o n a l p l a n i n the t r u s t a r e a . A. Ju?i§ d i e t i o n a l and Lecjal Framework of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management i n Canada There e x i s t two main r o u t e s through which c o n t r o l of a r e s o u r c e can be e x e r c i s e d : ownership and l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n draws h e a v i l y from Thompson and Eddy (1973). I n Canada ownership of a r e s o u r c e may be v e s t e d w i t h the Crown ( e i t h e r P r o v i n c i a l or F e d e r a l ) , or i t may be a l i e n a t e d i n whole or i n p a r t from the Crown t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r or a l o c a l government. For the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r e n c e s t o ownership r e f e r o n l y t o ownership by the P r o v i n c i a l o r F e d e r a l Crown, as i n t e n d e d i n t h e Thompson and Eddy paper; i m p l i c a t i o n s of p r i v a t e and l o c a l government 19 ownership are d i s c u s s e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g . Ownership i s a r e s u l t of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y o f Canada. I n g e n e r a l , t h e p r o v i n c e s own p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and t h e f e d e r a l government owns n o r t h e r n and o f f s h o r e r e s o u r c e s . At t h e t i m e of w r i t i n g , i t i s not c e r t a i n whether th e f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l government owns and has j u r i s d i c t i o n o v er the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a . I n most p l a c e s a l o n g t h e sea c o a s t , t h e p r o v i n c i a l boundary t e r m i n a t e s at the low water mark; the B.C..Crown owns the f o r e s h o r e ( i . e . t h e l a n d between h i g h and low water mark), w h i l e f u r t h e r o f f s h o r e i s f e d e r a l t e r r i t o r y . I n a r e f e r e n c e i n 1976, the B r i t i s h Columbia C o u r t of Appeal r u l e d t h a t the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a c o m p r i s e s " i n l a n d waters" and b e l o ngs t o B r i t i s h Columbia.. The case i s now e n r o l l e d f o r a p p e a l w i t h t h e Supreme C o u r t of Canada. A d e c i s i o n i n f a v o u r of the f e d e r a l government w i l l a f f e c t such t h i n g s as the power of t h e p r o v i n c e t o zone and l e a s e water i n the t r u s t a r e a , and j u r i s d i c t i o n over f e r r i e s . C u r r e n t l y s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s e x t e n d i n g out i n t o the S t r a i t ; by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s abut each o t h e r a l o n g t h e c e n t r e of the S t r a i t . Some have a c g u i r e d ownership r i g h t s t h r o u g h l e a s e o f t h e seabed t o 1000 f e e t seaward. T h e r e f o r e , they have p o l i t i c a l and ownership j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h i s w a t e r , and can t h u s zone t h i s c o a s t a l a r e a . The I s l a n d s T r u s t may have p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s c o v e r i n g a l l water and t h e seabed between Vancouver I s l a n d and the m a i n l a n d , and might t h e r e f o r e be a b l e t o zone a l l t h i s water. ( T h i s q u e s t i o n i s more f u l l y d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . ) A l l t h i s c o u l d change i f t h e S t r a i t i s found t c be f e d e r a l l y cwned. U n t i l t h a t 20 d e c i s i o n i s m a d e , i t w i l l b e a s s u m e d ( a s i t h a s b e e n u n t i l n o w ) t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e b e d a n d w a t e r o f G e o r g i a S t r a i t . L e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y i s a r e s u l t o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f p o w e r s b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s t h r o u g h t h e B N A A c t ( 1 8 6 7 ) . . S e c t i o n 91 o f t h e B N A A c t g i v e s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s e v e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e p o w e r s w h i c h m a y a f f e c t e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t . T h e f i r s t i s l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y " t o m a k e l a w s f o r t h e p e a c e , o r d e r a n d g o o d g o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a . " T h i s i s a v e r y b r o a d p o w e r w h i c h c o u l d b e u s e d t o d e a l w i t h a n y " m a t t e r o f n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n " : M u n r o v . . T h e N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l C o m m i s s i o n (1966) S C E 663. O t h e r p o w e r s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h m a y s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t i n c l u d e p u b l i c p r o p e r t y ( s . 9 1 [ 1 A j ) , r e g u l a t i o n o f t r a d e a n d c o m m e r c e ( s . 9 1 [ 2 ] ) , n a v i g a t i o n a n d s h i p p i n g ( s . 9 1 [ 1 0 j ) , s e a c o a s t a n d i n l a n d f i s h e r i e s ( s . 9 1 [ 1 2 J ) , I n d i a n s a n d l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n s ( s . 9 1 [ 2 4 ] ) , a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n e s w h i c h e x t e n d b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s o f a p r o v i n c e o r c o n n e c t t w o p r o v i n c e s ( s . 92[ 10 ] £ a ]) . J u r i s d i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e i s s h a r e d j o i n t l y b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . S e c t i o n 92 o f t h e E N A A c t a w a r d s t h e p r o v i n c e s v e r y w i d e p o w e r s t o d e a l w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t . T h e p r o v i n c e s h a v e e x c l u s i v e p o w e r s o v e r t h e m a n a g e m e n t a n d s a l e o f p u b l i c l a n d s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e p r o v i n c e a n d o f t h e t i m b e r a n d w o o d t h e r e o n ( s . 9 2 [ 5 ] ) , m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ( s . 9 2 [ 8 ] ) , l o c a l w o r k s a n d u n d e r t a k i n g s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d t o b e u n d e r f e d e r a l c o n t r o l ( s . 9 2 [ 1 0 ] ) , p r o p e r t y a n d c i v i l r i g h t s 21 w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e (s..92[ 13 ]) , and g e n e r a l l y a l l m a t t e r s of a merely l o c a l or p r i v a t e n a t u r e i n the p r o v i n c e (s.92£16]). As the terms of these s t a t e m e n t s a r e very broad, t h e c o u r t s have i n t e r p r e t e d p r o v i n c i a l powers very b r o a d l y , e n a b l i n g p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s t o d e a l w i t h a v a s t a r r a y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems (I n c e , 1 976) . Where both ownership and a l l a s p e c t s of l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y c o i n c i d e i n one government, t h a t government has e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y t o manage t h e r e s o u r c e . But where, as i s more o f t e n the c a s e , the two mechanisms of c o n t r o l are d i v i d e d between governments, n e i t h e r government has u n i l a t e r a l c o n t r o l over the r e s o u r c e . T h i s i s u s u a l l y t h e r e s u l t of o v e r l a p s i n l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . The sense i n which l e g i s l a t i v e power e n a b l e s a government t o e x e r c i s e j u r i s d i c t i o n over a r e s o u r c e i s o b v i o u s . Ownership can more i n d i r e c t l y (but e g u a l l y as e f f e c t i v e l y ) a f f e c t t h e r e s o u r c e t h r o u g h the e x e r c i s e of c o n d i t i o n s on the s a l e s o f r i g h t s t o u t i l i z e the r e s o u r c e . Thus, the power t o c o n t r o l p r o d u c t i o n or c o n s e r v a t i o n of the r e s o u r c e g e n e r a l l y l i e s w i t h t h e government owning the r e s o u r c e . Where a government has ownership j u r i s d i c t i o n , i t has a " g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and [a] g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t c p r o v i d e sound management" (Thompson and Eddy, 1973, p.76) than i t does where t h e r e s o u r c e i s p r i v a t e l y owned. One of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f government ownership i s t o a l l o c a t e t h e management and use of t h e r e s o u r c e between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s * I f t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s t o be i n v o l v e d , 22 i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s must be made by the government w i t h r e s p e c t t o : 1) the mechanism t o a l l o c a t e t h e r e s o u r c e between competing e n t r e p r e n e u r s , and 2) the c o n d i t i o n s o f t r a n s f e r r i n g r i g h t s . The c o n d i t i o n s of the t r a n s f e r s (e.g. s a l e s o r l e a s e s ) are p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t as they p r o v i d e t h e base f o r f u t u r e management s t r a t e g i e s . As p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , v a r i o u s r i g h t s to r e s o u r c e s may be a l i e n a t e d from the Crown ( P r o v i n c i a l or F e d e r a l ) t o p r i v a t e b o d i e s , l o c a l governments, and Crown a g e n c i e s . . T h i s o c c u r s m a i n l y t h r o u g h g r a n t s , s a l e s , and l e a s e s . Each of t h e s e mechanisms i n v o l v e s some k i n d of conveyance which g u i t e c l e a r l y s t a t e s the r i g h t s b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d . Both p a r t i e s are l e g a l l y bound. However, the government h a v i n g l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n r e t a i n s the power t o pass r e g u l a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n which may a brogate or i n some way a f f e c t r i g h t s so a l i e n a t e d . S i g h t s may be e x p r o p r i a t e d by t h e Crown with or w i t h o u t c o m p e n s a t i o n , depending on whether t h e new l e g i s l a t i o n awards compensation, a l t h o u g h e x p r o p r i a t i o n w i t h o u t compensation i s e x t r e m e l y uncommon. H e r e i n l i e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a) t h e f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , and b) the C r o w n - p r i v a t e body (or l o c a l government) r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h r e s p e c t t o ownership and l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n . The f e d e r a l government cannot u n i l a t e r a l l y remove ownership r i g h t s from th e p r o v i n c e s (nor v i c e v e r s a ) t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n ; t h i s can o n l y occur i n s p e c i f i c w e l l - d e f i n e d c a s e s , such as the f e d e r a l government e x p r o p r i a t i n g l a n d f o r an a i r p o r t . Broader i s s u e s r e q u i r e t h e agreement of both p a r t i e s t o a new or amended 23 c o n s t i t u t i o n . . ( A d m i t t e d l y , t h e r e e x i s t s a l a r g e grey a r e a between t h e " s p e c i f i c purposes" and " g e n e r a l a r e a s r e q u i r i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m " , i n which t h e r e may be c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt as t o t h e l e g a l i t y c f e x p r o p r i a t i o n . ) However, a government h a v i n g l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n can remove ownership r i g h t s from p a r t i e s t o a conveyance. Thus, w h i l e ownership by a p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l government i s c a p a b l e of f r u s t r a t i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the o t h e r government, ownership by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r or l o c a l government does not pose such a problem; r i g h t s g r a n t e d by the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l governments can be withdrawn. One f u r t h e r note must be made r e g a r d i n g powers of the Crown with r e s p e c t t o r e s o u r c e management.. Ince (1976, pp.35-37), d e s c r i b e s t h e s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : The a c t i v i t i e s o f governments and t h e i r a g e n c i e s are o f t e n a major so u r c e of harm t o the environment. Yet because of the s p e c i a l l e g a l p o s i t i o n o f " t h e Crown", governments are many t i m e s a b l e t o i g n o r e l e g i s l a t i o n , which the government i t s e l f has c r e a t e d , d e s i g n e d t o combat e n v i r o n m e n t a l abuse.. A l o n g s t a n d i n g r u l e of t h e common law i s t h a t t h e Crown i s not bound by s t a t u t e except by e x p r e s s words or ne c e s s a r y i m p l i c a t i o n . T h i s r u l e has been adopted a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l . . .... T h i s means t h a t most f e d e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l laws cannot be used a g a i n s t t h e Crown: the Crown and i t s a g e n c i e s can a c t w i t h o u t f e a r of v i o l a t i n g such s t a t u t e s . However, a number of f e d e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a t u t e s e x p r e s s l y b i n d t h e Crown, £e.g.] s e c t i o n 7 1 of the F i s h e r i e s A c t . B r i t i s h Columbia has a b o l i s h e d the common law r u l e of Crown immunity from s t a t u t e s . S e c t i o n 13 of t h e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Act s t a t e s : U n l e s s an enactment o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e s e v e r y A c t , and every enactment made th.ereunder, i s b i n d i n g on Her M a j e s t y . 24 Thus, i n B.C. t h e Crown w i l l be bound by p r o v i n c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a t u t e s u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted. ... However, s e c t i o n 44 o f the Laws D e c l a r a t o r y A c t s e r v e s t o exempt t h e Crown from any s t a t u t e d e a l i n g w i t h the use o r development o f l a n d (my emphasis) . F u r t h e r m o r e , p r o v i n c i a l Crown C o r p o r a t i o n s — s u c h as t h e B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y — o f t e n have i n t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i n g s t a t u t e s p r o v i s i o n s exempting th e C o r p o r a t i o n frcm p r o v i n c i a l law. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t a l t h o u g h an Act may e x p r e s s l y a p p l y t o the Crown, t h e c o u r t s have been very r e l u c t a n t t o a p p l y t h e p e n a l p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t a g a i n s t t h e Crown. T h e r e f o r e , depending on t h e p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l problem and s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h a t problem, the Crown may be exempt from i t s own e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a w s , as t h e B.C. Crown i s , f o r example, w i t h r e s p e c t to i t s own l a n d use l a w s . . So a l s o may s e r v a n t s and agents of the Crown be immune ( I n c e , 1976, p.37). B. H i s t o r y o f E e s o u r c e and S e t t l e m e n t Management_of t h e . I s l a n d s P r i o r t o _ t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t W i t h i n the t r u s t a r e a , t h e BNA Act (1867) awards th e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia most ownership and l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over p u b l i c l a n d s and t h e r e s o u r c e s t h e r e i n . E x c e p t i o n s i n the t r u s t a r e a i n v o l v e s m a l l t r a c t s of f e d e r a l p u b l i c works and p r o p e r t y , such as l i g h t h o u s e s and post o f f i c e s , and f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r e a s l i s t e d above. There i s c u r r e n t l y much c o n f u s i o n as t o whether l o c a l a i r f i e l d s a r e under f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . The p r o v i n c e s have d e l e g a t e d a number of t h e i r powers a c q u i r e d under the ENA A c t t o l o c a l governments. In B r i t i s h C olumbia, c e r t a i n powers a r e d e l e g a t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s c a l l e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , such as c i t i e s , towns, and v i l l a g e s . 25 under the M u n i c i p a l A c t . There are not y e t any such i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s w i t h i n t h e t r u s t a r e a , a l t h o u g h Ganges on S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d i s now c o n s i d e r i n g i n c o r p o r a t i o n . C e r t a i n s e r v i c e s such as water s u p p l y , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , and power s u p p l y have been p r o v i d e d w i t h i n t h e t r u s t a r e a by water u s e r s ' communities, u t i l i t i e s , improvement d i s t r i c t s , and s p e c i f i e d a r e a s . Some of t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d and o t h e r s not. . However, t h e s e a r e not c a s e s i n which t h e p r o v i n c e has d e l e g a t e d powers or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; i f the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had not formed t h e m s e l v e s , t h e s e r v i c e s would s i m p l y not have been p r o v i d e d . I n g e n e r a l p r i o r t c 1965, the powers d e l e g a t e d t o l o c a l governments ( i . e . t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) i n c l u d e d t h e power t o p l a n and r e g u l a t e l a n d use w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s of the l o c a l government. Thus, s e t t l e m e n t i s s u e s such as zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l were handled by some l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, r e s o u r c e i s s u e s o u t s i d e the m u n i c i p a l i t y , such as t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o f o r e s t r y or a g r i c u l t u r e , c o n t i n u e d t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s . T h i s i s so even though th e r e s o u r c e s o u t s i d e the m u n i c i p a l i t y may have had c r i t i c a l e f f e c t s on t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r (e.g. w i t h r e s p e c t t o employment or r e c r e a t i o n ) . Only a minute p r o p o r t i o n of the p r o v i n c e had any such l o c a l government. T h e r e f o r e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g of development of the p r o v i n c e , i n c l u d i n g development i n the t r u s t a r e a , was very c e n t r a l i z e d . I n 1965, the B r i t i s h Columbia government i n s t i t u t e d r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s throughout the p r o v i n c e . _ The f o l l o w i n g 26 r e a s o n s have been put f o r t h : 1. Less t h a n one per c e n t of the area of B.C. was w i t h i n o r g a n i z e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n 1965. People l i v i n g i n t h e r emainder of t h e p r o v i n c e (about 250,000 i n number) had no government r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c l o s e r than t h e i r MLA and the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t . P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was f e l t t o be t o o s m a l l t o d e a l w i t h the vast t e r r i t o r y ( T i n d a l , 1977). 2. I n e g u i t i e s r e s u l t e d as p e o p l e moved i n t o t h e u n o r g a n i z e d area t o a v o i d m u n i c i p a l t a x e s and t h e n demanded m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t c h o s p i t a l s . 3. Poor l a n d use and u n c o n t r o l l e d s p r a w l were e v i d e n t , i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 4. The p r o v i n c i a l government wished t o impose m e t r o p o l i t a n governments on the l a r g e urban c e n t e r s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver and V i c t o r i a (Tennant, 1973).. B r i t i s h Columbia was p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o 28 r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s on the b a s i s of i n f o r m a l economic r e g i o n s or ' t r a d i n g a r e a s ' (Tennant, 1 973). E x c e p t f o r two mandatory f u n c t i o n s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were not i n i t i a l l y d e l e g a t e d e x p l i c i t powers. R a t h e r , they were o f f e r e d a "smorgasboard" of f u n c t i o n s ; t h e y c o u l d s e l e c t from a wide range of o f f e r i n g s . The- two mandatory f u n c t i o n s were r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g of community h o s p i t a l s . . Other f u n c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r use o u t s i d e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( i . e . i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y ) i n c l u d e : p r e p a r a t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t p l a n s , s u p p l y of w a t e r , waste r e m o v a l , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p a r k s , h o l d i n g and management of l a n d s g r a n t e d by t h e Crown t o be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n of t r e e 27 c u t t i n g o u t s i d e Tree Farm L i c e n c e s and f o r e s t r e s e r v e s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of " l o c a l communities" c f 500 people or l e s s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by l o c a l community commissions, e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Commission to a d v i s e on p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commissions, and e s t a b l i s h m e n t and enforcement of b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . Thus, s e t t l e m e n t i s s u e s were emphasized much more s t r o n g l y t h a n r e s o u r c e i s s u e s . The procedure f o r a c g u i r i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s r e g u i r e s t h a t the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , upon recommendation of the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , i s s u e l e t t e r s p a t e n t which a s s i g n s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . T h i s method o f e n c o u r a g i n g or i m p o s i n g some degree of r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and p a r t i c u l a r l y on the b u r g e o n i n g r e g i o n s of G r e a t e r Vancouver and G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a , has been termed "The S t r a t e g y of G e n t l e I m p o s i t i o n " by Tennant (1973).. A l l t h e l a n d on the i s l a n d s of the t r u s t a r e a i s u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y . Thus, except on t h e s m a l l t r a c t s of l a n d under f e d e r a l 0 j u r i s d i c t i o n , B.C. Crown l a n d (which c o n s t i t u t e d about 20% of the l a n d i n t h e t r u s t area i n 1974), Crown c o r p o r a t i o n l a n d , and l a n d i n T a x a t i o n Tree Farms (which c o n s t i t u t e d about 15% of the l a n d i n the t r u s t a r e a ) , the seven r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s c o v e r i n g the t r u s t a rea were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g l a n d use on the i s l a n d s . While they had the o p t i o n of b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to s e t t l e m e n t , t h e y c o n t r o l l e d few ( i f any) i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o r e s o u r c e s . B.C..Lands S e r v i c e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r use and a l i e n a t i o n of Crown l a n d ; B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p r o v a l o f management p l a n s f o r t i m b e r e d l a n d s i n T a x a t i o n Tree Farms; 28 B.C. F e r r y A u t h o r i t y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and from the i s l a n d s ; B.C. Department o f Highways was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some f e r r i e s as w e l l as roads and s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l ; B. C..Department o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s ; B.C. Department of Mines and Pe t r o l e u m Resources was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n , l e a s i n g , and e x t r a c t i o n — t o name a few of t h e o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s a f f e c t i n g r e s o u r c e management on the i s l a n d s . C. E v e n t s L e a d i n q t o the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t The s p e c i f i c e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o the f o r m a t i o n of the I s l a n d s T r u s t were d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r . . As mentioned, r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s b e n e f i t t e d the G u l f and Howe Sound I s l a n d s w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s , such as h o s p i t a l s and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . However, some r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s c r e a t e d new problems such as the i m p o s i t i o n of r e g i o n a l g o a l s which were more u r b a n - o r i e n t e d t h a n d e s i r e d by t h e i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s , and some seemed i n e f f e c t i v e a t s o l v i n g o l d e r problems such as communication and l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n . The t e n - a c r e f r e e z e was imposed i n 1969 as a d r a s t i c measure t o h a l t rampant, unplanned s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y and t o encourage t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o f o r m u l a t e community pla n s f o r t h e i s l a n d s . The a l l - p a r t y S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s e f f e c t i v e l y e l u c i d a t e d many of t h e problems e x p e r i e n c e d by the G u l f and Howe Sound I s l a n d s . ( I t must be n o t e d , however, t h a t t h i s committee had time o n l y t o examine t h e i s l a n d s which are now i n the I s l a n d s T r u s t a r e a . I t d i d not manage t o see t h e more n o r t h e r n i s l a n d s such as Texada, Savory, C o r t e z and Quadra, 29 which may w e l l have e x p e r i e n c e d — a n d s t i l l may be e x p e r i e n c i n g — problems s i m i l a r t o those i n the t r u s t area.) These problems are f u l l y d i s c u s s e d ' i n the next c h a p t e r on the i n t e n t of the T r u s t . The committee f e l t t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were w e l l -adapted t o " c a r r y on the u s u a l f u n c t i o n s such as h o s p i t a l s , l o c a l improvements, s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , e t c . " , but n o t geared t o c a r r y out a l l t h e r e g u i r e m e n t s needed over the l o n g e r term. .. The committee s p e c i f i e d t h e s e r e g u i r e m e n t s t o be the placement o f emphasis on r e c r e a t i o n , moderate r e s i d e n t i a l use, and p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e r u r a l atmosphere. F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e p o r t , l e g i s l a t i o n was d r a f t e d t o i n s t i t u t e a t r u s t w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e i s l a n d s w i t h i n t h e a r e a v i s i t e d by t h e S t a n d i n g Committee. The I s l a n d s T r u s t c oncept was g e n e r a l l y w e l l - r e c e i v e d by i s l a n d e r s and p r o v i n c i a l MLA's. However, i t was not h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t e d by some r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s * Those r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t h a t had made s i n c e r e a t t e m p t s and some p r o g r e s s toward t h e f o r m a t i o n of community p l a n s f o r the i s l a n d s f e l t the T r u s t was unnecessary. D. B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n of O r i g i n a l _ S t r u c t u r e _ a n d Powers o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t The s t r u c t u r e of the proposed I s l a n d s T r u s t was not as w e l l r e c e i v e d as t h e T r u s t concept i t s e l f . The T r u s t was t o c o n s i s t of t h r e e g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s a p p o i n t e d by C a b i n e t (one of whom would be t h e c h a i r m a n ) , and 26 l o c a l t r u s t e e s , two e l e c t e d from each of 13 d e s i g n a t e d i s l a n d s . The term o f o f f i c e f o r a l l 30 t r u s t e e s was two y e a r s . I t was t h e duty of t h e t h r e e g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s t o r e p r e s e n t the p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the i s l a n d s . The t r u s t chairman was to d e c i d e which i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o the o b j e c t of the t r u s t , were g e n e r a l a f f a i r s ( i . e . a f f e c t i n g more than one d e s i g n a t e d i s l a n d or one or more n o n - d e s i g n a t e d i s l a n d s ) , and which were l o c a l a f f a i r s ( i . e . a f f e c t i n g o n l y one d e s i g n a t e d i s l a n d ) . G e n e r a l a f f a i r s were t o be handled by t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t committee, c o n s i s t i n g of the t h r e e g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s . L o c a l a f f a i r s were t o be handl e d by t h e l o c a l t r u s t committee f o r the r e s p e c t i v e i s l a n d , c o n s i s t i n g of the t h r e e a p p o i n t e e s and t h e two l o c a l l y e l e c t e d t r u s t e e s . The i n f o r m a l body of a l l 29 t r u s t e e s , now c a l l e d t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t C o u n c i l , i s a n o n - l e g a l body which was n o t a s s i g n e d any p r o c e d u r e s or f u n c t i o n s . However, the T r u s t C o u n c i l f o r m u l a t e d i t s own procedures and meets q u a r t e r l y t o d i s c u s s m a t t e r s of g e n e r a l c o n c e r n . The C o u n c i l makes recommendations t o the G e n e r a l T r u s t . Many MLA's, r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r s , and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s c omplained t h a t s i n c e the t h r e e a p p o i n t e e s of t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d o u t v o t e t h e two l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t would be t o o s t r o n g and the l o c a l i n t e r e s t g i v e n second p r i o r i t y a g a i n . I t was f e l t by some t h a t l o c a l c o n t r o l was b e i n g eroded. I t was a l s o noted t h a t the T r u s t d i d not i n c l u d e any members from t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , p r o v i n c i a l government departments, or Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h i t was i n t e n d e d t o c o o r d i n a t e a l l of th e s e b o d i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i s l a n d s . E e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of i s l a n d s where community p l a n s had a l r e a d y been d e v e l o p e d f e l t a p p r e h e n s i v e about the T r u s t ; they d i d not 31 want t o have t o change the community p l a n s on account of the T r u s t . The argument which government MLA's pr e s e n t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e was t h a t two v o t e s out of f i v e gave the i s l a n d s much g r e a t e r i n p u t than they c u r r e n t l y had under the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e ( e . g . . i s l a n d s i n the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t have two v o t e s out of f o r t y - s e v e n ) . Another r e b u t t a l of the c o m p l a i n t of l a c k of l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s was t h a t t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t was not g i v e n any i n i t i a t i n g powers anyway; i t c o u l d o n l y make a p p r o v a l s and recommendations. I t was a l s o argued t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a very l a r g e p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i s l a n d s which needed t o be r e p r e s e n t e d , s i n c e such a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the E r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e i s l a n d s , and s i n c e the i s l a n d s were unigue t o B.C. Another s u g g e s t i o n was t h a t t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s would b r i n g to t h e i s l a n d s an o v erview of development on a l l the i s l a n d s , t h u s s h a r i n g answers t o problems e x p e r i e n c e d by more than one i s l a n d . (See the c h a p t e r on " I n t e n t of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t " f o r a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e arguments.) The o r i g i n a l powers of the I s l a n d s T r u s t were f a i r l y l i m i t e d . . The i n i t i a l l e g i s l a t i o n gave t h e T r u s t no powers t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p l a n or r e g u l a t e development on the i s l a n d s . T h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h r ough community p l a n s and zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n b y l a w s , remained w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , a l o n g w i t h a l l o t h e r p r e v i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . I t was hoped t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s would c o n t i n u e t o encourage l o c a l communities t o draw up t h e i r own community p l a n s . ( I t must be noted t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s 32 were s t i l l not l e g a l l y o b l i g a t e d t o produce community p l a n s o r bylaws f o r t h e i s l a n d s * ) The I s l a n d s T r u s t was t o encourage and a s s i s t i n the p r o c e s s of community p l a n n i n g , and t o draw e x p e r t a d v i c e from government departments when r e g u i r e d . . The T r u s t was t o " c o o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the d i f f e r e n t departments o f government and the Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s as they [ d e a l t ] w i t h the i s l a n d s " (Honourable James L o r i m e r , Hansard, May 21, 1974), but was g i v e n no s p e c i a l powers wit h which t o do so* The T r u s t d u t i e s i n c l u d e d : 1. making recommendations t o C a b i n e t r e g a r d i n g f o r m a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p o l i c i e s t o p r e s e r v e and p r o t e c t t h e t r u s t a r e a , 2.. c o o r d i n a t i n g and a s s i s t i n g i n f o r m i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e s e p o l i c i e s , 3. making recommendations t o C a b i n e t r e g a r d i n g a c q u i s i t i o n , use, and d i s p o s i t i o n c f Crown l a n d i n the t r u s t a r e a , and 4. l o c a t i n q and i d e n t i f y i n g h e r i t a g e s i t e s i n the t r u s t a r e a . R e g a r d i n g l a n d use i n t h e t r u s t a r e a , t h e r o l e of t h e t r u s t was l a r g e l y as a v e t o i n g agency, as f o l l o w s : 1. community p l a n s , r e g i o n a l p l a n s , z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n b y l a w s , land-use c o n t r a c t s , e t c . formed by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o r e g u l a t e use c r s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d w i t h i n the t r u s t a r e a had t o be approved by C a b i n e t and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e T r u s t committee; 2. c o n s t r u c t i o n or enlargement of b u i l d i n g s and improvements i n the t r u s t a rea had t o be approved by the a p p r o p r i a t e T r u s t committee; and 3. t h e P r o v i n c i a l Crown was not t o develop or d i s p o s e of l a n d i n the t r u s t area without g i v i n g n c t i c e of t h e development or 33 d i s p o s i t i o n t o the g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s . Thus, the I s l a n d s T r u s t was i n e f f e c t a "watch dog" agency w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s e t t l e m e n t i s s u e s handled by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . . While the T r u s t c o u l d not i n i t i a t e p l a n s , b y l a w s , or l a n d - u s e c o n t r a c t s , i t c o u l d r e f u s e a p p r o v a l i f t i e s e were not i n k e e p i n g w i t h the T r u s t ' s o b j e c t i v e of p r e s e r v i n g and p r o t e c t i n g the t r u s t a r e a . . The p u b l i c s e n t i m e n t a t the t i m e was a g a i n s t t h e T r u s t h a v i n g i n i t i a t i n g power i f t h i s would r e q u i r e r e w r i t i n g ccmmunity p l a n s . E. . Some . L i m i t a t i o n s of, the O r i g i n a l ^ Islands,, T r u s t L e g i s l a t i o n N e i t h e r the I s l a n d s T r u s t nor the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s had t h e power t o approve s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s i n the t r u s t a r e a . T h i s power l a y w i t h a person a u t h o r i z e d by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l . . The M u n i c i p a l Act s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r " s h a l l g i v e due r e g a r d t o and take c o g n i z a n c e of any o f f i c i a l community p l a n when d e a l i n g w i t h [ s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s ] " (s. 7 1 1[3]). Thus, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the community p l a n was l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n of the a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r . The Land R e g i s t r y Act s p e c i f i e d t h a t "the a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r ma_/ r e f u s e t o approve th e s u b d i v i s i o n i f i t does net conform t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e bylaws of ... the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e g u l a t i n g the s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d " (s. .94, my e m p h a s i s ) . Thus, i t appears t h a t t h e s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r was not o b l i g a t e d t o r e f u s e an a p p l i c a t i o n which d i d not comply w i t h t h e community p l a n o r zoning or s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws of an i s l a n d . One s e c t i o n of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t Act which would have g i v e n 3 4 the T r u s t a l a r g e r hand i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n of s u b d i v i s i o n development, but which i s s t i l l not p r o c l a i m e d i s s e c t i o n 6 ( 3 ) . T h i s s t a t e s : ... no r e g i s t r a r under the Land T i t l e s Act [ f o r m e r l y t h e Land R e g i s t r y Act ] s h a l l a c c e p t an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e p o s i t of a p l a n of s u b d i v i s i o n ... [ i n c l u d i n g s t r a t a p l a n s ] ... w i t h i n the t r u s t a r e a ; u n l e s s t h e p l a n i s approved by t h e t r u s t committee h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n .... T h i s s e c t i o n c o u l d have been used by t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t t o make c e r t a i n t h a t new s u b d i v i s i o n s met w i t h t h e T r u s t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of community p l a n s and bylaws. I t c o u l d have a l s o been used, pe r h a p s , where a p r o p o s a l met with bylaws but was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n a ccordance w i t h t h e T r u s t ' s o b j e c t i v e o f p r e s e r v i n g and p r o t e c t i n g t h e environment. With r e s p e c t t o Crown l a n d ( i n c l u d i n g f o r e s h o r e ) , the r o l e of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t was weak. The Crown agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Crown l a n d s had o n l y t o n o t i f y t h e T r u s t of i t s i n t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p , s u b d i v i d e , l e a s e , l o g , o r d i s p o s e of Crown l a n d . However, zo n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws were a p p l i c a b l e t o Crown l a n d s . With r e s p e c t t o o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , the r c l e of the T r u s t was a l s o weak. F o r e s t l a n d s i n T a x a t i o n Tree Farms were c o m p l e t e l y handled by the B.C. Assessment A u t h o r i t y , t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e and the l o g g i n g companies owning the f o r e s t l a n d ; no p r o v i s i o n e x i s t e d whereby the I s l a n d s T r u s t had t o be c o n s u l t e d r e g a r d i n g the use of f o r e s t l a n d s . ( I t i s noted t h a t n e i t h e r d i d r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s nor m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have any c o n t r o l over T a x a t i o n Tree Farms.) F u r t h e r m o r e , l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y on p r i v a t e l a n d s n o t under T a x a t i o n Tree Farm t e n u r e , were a l m o s t t o t a l l y u n r e g u l a t e d by any agency. . 35 The I s l a n d s T r u s t was not g i v e n t h e power t o r a i s e money. I t was t o t a l l y funded by the p r o v i n c i a l budget, T h i s meant t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t was s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d , not o n l y by th e t h r e e p r o v i n c i a l a p p o i n t e e s , but a l s o by c o n t r o l o f t h e amount o f funds a v a i l a b l e t o t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t and of the purposes f o r which t h i s money was t o be used. T h i s has been viewed by some as undemocratic. F. E v o l u t i o n _g,f I s l a n d s , T r u s t S t r u c t u r e and Powers The o r i g i n a l I s l a n d s T r u s t Act was e x p l a i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . I n 1975, an Amendment Act was passed f o r t h e b a s i c purpose of c r e a t i n g an " I s l a n d s T r u s t Fund" which the I s l a n d s T r u s t would a d m i n i s t e r " f o r the purpose of c a r r y i n g out the o b j e c t s of t h e t r u s t " (s.2A, I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t ) . The f u n d was t o be comprised o f g i f t s and g r a n t s from p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments o r a g e n c i e s , and from p r i v a t e donors. The Amendment Act p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e T r u s t c o n s t i t u t e a c o r p o r a t i o n ( s . 2 i 5 ] , I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t ) , so t h a t i t c o u l d purchase and h o l d r e a l p r o p e r t y . The c a p a b i l i t y of p u r c h a s i n g l a n d would have been u s e f u l f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n a r e a s such as community watersheds, t h e p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e s such as p u b l i c beach a c c e s s e s and p a r k s , as w e l l as f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g techniques.;. A l t h o u g h t h i s Amendment A c t was passed i n 1975, t h e key 36 s e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t Fund ( i . e . s e c t i o n 2A) has s t i l l not been p r o c l a i m e d . I n 1979 the s e c t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g the T r u s t was p r o c l a i m e d , but not w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of g i v i n g the T r u s t the power t o h e l d l a n d ; r a t h e r t o remove l i a b i l i t y from the t r u s t e e s i n case of damages r e s u l t i n g from c o u r t c a s e s . (The f a c t t h a t the T r u s t d i d not e x i s t as a l e g a l e n t i t y p r i o r t o 1979 must have been an o v e r s i g h t . ) Now t h a t the T r u s t i s a c o r p o r a t i o n , i t would appear t h a t i t l e g a l l y has t h e power t o h o l d l a n d , s i n c e t h e r e i s n o t h i n g p r o c l a i m e d i n the I s l a n d s T r u s t Act t o the c o n t r a r y , and t h e r i g h t t o h o l d l a n d i s p r o b a b l y a common law r i g h t of a c o r p o r a t i o n . . (However, the I s l a n d s T r u s t i s not under t h i s i m p r e s s i o n ; the T r u s t b e l i e v e s i t cannot h e l d land.). I n 1977, another Amendment Act was passed which changed t h e fundamental s t r u c t u r e o f the T r u s t and gave i t a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The s t r u c t u r e was changed such t h a t the chairman and two v i c e - c h a i r m e n ( i . e . .the g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s ) , are now e l e c t e d by and from among t h e l o c a l t r u s t e e s , r a t h e r t h a n a p p o i n t e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s were t o be " e l e c t e d ... by the l o c a l t r u s t e e s from among t h e i r number as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e a f t e r the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n of t h e l o c a l t r u s t e e s " (s. 2 [ 1 ] , I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t ) . . The o t h e r major change brought about by t h i s Amendment Act was t h a t t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t was g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e t r u s t a r e a , and t h i s f u n c t i o n was removed from ' the seven r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the powers t r a n s f e r r e d p e r t a i n e d t o the appointment of A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commissions and the 37 p r e p a r a t i o n and enforcement of s e t t l e m e n t or community p l a n s , z o ning b y l a w s , s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws and r e g i o n a l p l a n s . The e x i s t i n g p l a n s and bylaws of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were t o be adopted by the T r u s t , hut c o u l d be r e p e a l e d o r amended by t h e T r u s t . P l a n s and bylaws (and amendments) s t i l l had to be approved by the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , as t h e y d i d under the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . A s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n added t o the I s l a n d s T r u s t Act s t a t e d : Where a r e g i o n a l p l a n [ o f the t r u s t a r e a ] i n c l u d e s . . . . a r e a s ... d e s i g n a t e d as ha v i n g s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e i n s e c u r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the o b j e c t s of the t r u s t by reason of t h e i r a) s c e n i c v a l u e , or b) r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l , or c) n a t u r a l or s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , o r d) d e l i c a t e e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h o s e a r e a s s h a l l , cn a p p r o v a l o f t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n by th e m i n i s t e r ... be under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s f o r the purpose of a d o p t i n g s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i v e z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n by-laws o r r e g u l a t i c n s . i(s.6[7], I s l a n d s T r u s t Act) T h i s r e i n f o r c e d t h e n o t i o n o f t h e t r u s t area i t s e l f b e i n g a r e g i o n a l e n t i t y , r e g u i r i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and a t t a i n i n g r e g i o n a l g o a l s . T h i s n o t i o n was not e n t i r e l y w e l l - r e c e i v e d by i s l a n d e r s because many view t h e i r i s l a n d as the o n l y m e a n i n g f u l p l a n n i n g u n i t ; t h e s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n of c e r t a i n a r e a s by t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s was r e s e n t e d by some as p a t e r n a l i s t i c and imposing o f o u t s i d e o b j e c t i v e s . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t t h i s s o r t of i m p o s i t i o n of r e g i o n a l g o a l s ( i . e . i m p o s i t i o n , by o t h e r t r u s t e e s o f g o a l s p e r t a i n i n g s t r i c t l y t o t h e i s l a n d s ) was b e t t e r t h a n the former i m p o s i t i o n o f r e g i o n a l g o a l s by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 38 The a d d i t i o n of two o t h e r s e c t i o n s t o the I s l a n d s T r u s t Act p r o v i d e d t h a t : 1) r e g i o n a l boards c o u l d not adopt b y l a w s , undertake work, or i s s u e p e r m i t s , c o n t r a r y t o t r u s t bylaws; and 2) i f t h e T r u s t a d v i s e d a r e g i o n a l board t h a t i t proposed t o adopt or amend a z o n i n g bylaw o r community p l a n , t h e r e g i o n a l board c o u l d w i t h h o l d a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t f o r up t o n i n e t y days, i f t h e r e was some doubt as t c whether i t would comply with t h e new p l a n o r bylaw. For t h e purposes of the Land Commission A c t , the T r u s t was to take over the r o l e c f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the t r u s t a r e a . F i n a l l y , r e f e r e n c e was made i n the 1977 Amendment Act t o the power of the T r u s t t o h o l d l a n d . S e c t i o n 2 (6), which was enacted i n 1975 but not p r o c l a i m e d , namely: The t r u s t has a l l the power and c a p a c i t y of a n a t u r a l person of f u l l c a p a c i t y i n c a r r y i n g out i t s o b j e c t s . . was r e p e a l e d and the f o l l o w i n g was s u b s t i t u t e d : The c o r p o r a t i o n ... may, w i t h p r i o r a p p r o v a l of the m i n i s t e r , a c c e p t , h o l d and d i s p o s e o f r e a l p r o p e r t y ; but s h a l l n o t , w i t h o u t p r i o r a p p r o v a l of t h e m i n i s t e r , i n c u r l i a b i l i t i e s or borrow money. Thus, i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the l e g i s l a t u r e was s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g e n a b l i n g t h e T r u s t t o h o l d l a n d , a l t h o u g h i t was r e l u c t a n t t o a l l o w t h e T r u s t t o do so wi t h o u t M i n i s t e r i a l a p p r o v a l , or t o borrow money f o r such a purpose. At the time of w r i t i n g , t h e major s e c t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s power a r e . s t i l l not p r o c l a i m e d , but the T r u s t may i n f a c t have the power t o h o l d l a n d s i m p l y because i t i s a c o r p o r a t i o n (as mentioned prev i o u s l y ) . 39 G. . Bgle_o f _ t he. R e g i o n a l P l a n i n „„the_ T r u s t . Area. The h i s t o r y of land-use p l a n n i n g on the i s l a n d s has not a ccorded w i t h the o p t i c a l p l a n n i n g procedure as i n f e r r e d from the M u n i c i p a l Act. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g i n r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e : 1. A r e g i o n a l p l a n i s to be p r e p a r e d {s. 795£1])._ 2. A r e g i o n a l p l a n may be d e s i g n a t e d as an o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n (s. 796[ 1 J ) -3.. F o l l o w i n g t h e a d o p t i o n o f an o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n , o f f i c i a l s e t t l e m e n t p l a n s are t o be prepared (s. 796A[ 1 ] ) . S e t t l e m e n t p l a n s are not t c c o n t r a d i c t t h e o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n s (s.797[ 1 ]) . 4. . O f f i c i a l s e t t l e m e n t p l a n s are t o form t h e b a s i s f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of l a n d use r e g u l a t o r y bylaws (s. 796B[ 1 ]) . . These zon i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws must comply w i t h the o f f i c i a l s e t t l e m e n t p l a n and the o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n (s.796A_7] and s. 797£ 1 ]) . Thus, i n the procedure as l e g i s l a t e d , the r e g i o n a l p l a n g i v e s r i s e t o community (or s e t t l e m e n t ) p l a n s , which g i v e r i s e t o z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws. I n t h e case of the t r u s t a r e a , i t appears t h a t o n l y the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n c l u d e d any t r u s t i s l a n d s i n a r e g i o n a l p l a n . Community p l a n s were prompted by t h e t e n -a c r e f r e e z e , but were not c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e framework of a r e g i o n a l p l a n . As o f November, 1978 a l l of the d e s i g n a t e d i s l a n d s had no adopted community p l a n s , and the I s l a n d s T r u s t i s now i n the p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g a r e g i o n a l p l a n . I t has been argued t h a t the i s l a n d s o f the t r u s t a r e a do not form a r e g i o n a l u n i t . F i r s t , the i s l a n d s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . Examples of d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e : 1) S a l t s p r i n g i s much more h i g h l y developed t h a n any of the o t h e r i s l a n d s , w i t h Ganges b e i n g t h e c e n t e r of commerce f o r many of the i s l a n d s , and 2) i s l a n d s w i t h a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of s m a l l l e t s seem t o have a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n t s . Another p o s s i b l e , but as y e t s p e c u l a t i v e , d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t the n o r t h e r n i s l a n d s of Denman, Hornby, L a s g u e t i , and G a b r i o l a may have a t t r a c t e d q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t group of r e s i d e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p h i l o s o p h i e s and l i f e s t y l e s than the s o u t h e r n and Howe Sound i s l a n d s . As a r e s u l t of i n t e r - i s l a n d d i f f e r e n c e s some i s l a n d e r s would r e s e n t h a v i n g v a l u e s o f o t h e r i s l a n d s b e i n g f o r c e d upon them. Second, most i s l a n d s have s t r o n g e r economic and s o c i a l l i n k s w i t h the mainland or Vancouver I s l a n d t h a t w i t h o t h e r i s l a n d s of the t r u s t a r e a . For t h i s r e a s o n , i t has been argued t h a t each i s l a n d forms a b e t t e r r e g i o n a l u n i t , w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , as a p a r t o f i t s r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t t h a n as a p a r t o f the t r u s t a r e a . However, the o t h e r s i d e of the argument i s t h a t most i s l a n d e r s i n the t r u s t a r e a p r o b a b l y have more i n common, with r e s p e c t t o problems and v a l u e s , w i t h o t h e r i s l a n d e r s than w i t h the n e i g h b o u r i n g urban components of t h e i r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . G i v e n t h e s e two r e a l i t i e s , a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r the t r u s t 41 area presumably would not attempt to d i m i n i s h t h e v a r i e t y of v a l u e s h e l d i n t h e t r u s t a r e a , n or would i t attempt t o u n i f y the t r u s t a r e a as an economic r e g i o n . B a t h e r i t would s t r i v e t o c r e a t e p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g common problems among the i s l a n d s , and would i d e n t i f y s p e c i a l a r e a s of each i s l a n d which are s i g n i f i c a n t t o the r e g i o n as a whole. A r e g i o n a l p l a n drawn up by t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t would p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t more s e r i o u s c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s f o r the i s l a n d s t h a n would r e g i o n a l p l a n s g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . ' ( P o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d t h r o u g h o u t the t h e s i s . ) There may e x i s t a problem of i m p o s i n g r e g i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s , even though t h e g e n e r a l c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t m o t i v e s of t h e T r u s t may be regarded as b a s i c a l l y a g r e e a b l e . I f the T r u s t i d e n t i f i e s ' c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of the t r u s t a r e a as r e g i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o such t h i n g s as r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l (e.g. swimming beaches o r c a m p s i t e s ) , i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l , or s c e n i c v a l u e , and t r i e s t o impose s p e c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on the use and development of tho s e a r e a s , i s l a n d e r s may choose t o defend t h e i r e x i s t i n g community p l a n i f i t d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s of t h e T r u s t . I t may prove d i f f i c u l t t o o v e r l a y a s e t of r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s onto independent i s l a n d u n i t s which have now de v e l o p e d community p l a n s . One would expect t h a t i n s p i t e of t h i s p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y , the T r u s t w i l l attempt t o have t h e community p l a n s r e w r i t t e n such t h a t they become c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e g i o n a l p l a n . However, i t appears t h a t t h e T r u s t does not i n t e n t t o r e w r i t e t h e community p l a n s ; f u r t h e r amendments to t h e e x i s t i n g 42 p l a n s w i l l s i m p l y be made t o comply w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n . I f the new r e g i o n a l plan i s found t o be i n agreement w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g community p l a n s , one must g u e s t i o n the v a l u e o f d e v e l o p i n g a r e g i o n a l p l a n . I t appears t h a t t h e r a t i o n a l e of t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n i s to " o u t l i n e broad p o l i c i e s f o r the f u t u r e use of t h e T r u s t A r e a " ; " t o draw t o g e t h e r common g o a l s and l o o k a t the whole T r u s t Area from a wider p e r s p e c t i v e [ t h a n O f f i c i a l Community P l a n s and Zoning and S u b d i v i s i o n B y - l a w s ] " (John R i c h , Chairman, "A R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t Area," 1980).. I n summary, the development of the i s l a n d s may have proceeded q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y i f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t had been g i v e n t h e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n and had been r e q u i r e d t o g e n e r a t e a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r the i s l a n d s i n 1974, t o form the b a s i s of the community p l a n s ( i . e . the procedure n o r m a l l y r e g u i r e d e l s e w h e r e i n the p r o v i n c e ) . However, the I s l a n d s T r u s t now has t h e advantage of h a v i n g l e a r n e d over the p a s t s i x y e a r s about the e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l problems f a c i n g t h e i s l a n d s and about r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i f i c p r o t e c t i o n . I t i s ex p e c t e d t h a t the T r u s t w i l l r e f l e c t t h i s knowledge i n t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n , f u t u r e community p l a n s , and f u t u r e z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws. 43 Chapter IV IN5ENT_0F_THE_ISLA ND S_ TEUST The i n t e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t can be su r m i s e d from a number o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . . I n t h i s c h a p t e r an e x a m i n a t i o n i s made o f t h r e e key s o u r c e s : 1.. the September, 1973 r e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , which recommended t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of a t r u s t , 2.. the Hansard debates t h r o u g h t i m e , from d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e above r e p o r t (September 24,1973) t h r o u g h 1979, and 3. the " P o l i c y Statement of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t , " 1975. . From t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n , an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s made of t h e fundamental i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t i n t e n t o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t . A.. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S e l e c t Standing_Cgmmittee_on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s was r e g u e s t e d i n 1973 t o examine problems o f the i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a and make recommendations t o the l e g i s l a t u r e . The terms of r e f e r e n c e o f the Committee were: " t o i n q u i r e i n t o the g u e s t i o n o f f u t u r e development, i n c l u d i n g the development of community p l a n s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s and o t h e r such i s l a n d s i n the v i c i n i t y as t h e Committee may c o n s i d e r a p p r o p r i a t e " (Hansard, F e b r u a r y 22, 1973). . The study was t o i n c l u d e an e x a m i n a t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l Act and o t h e r A c t s 44 a f f e c t i n g l o c a l government, with a view t o recommending changes. The o b s e r v a t i o n s of the Committee were summarized i n c h a p t e r I . As w e l l as s e t t l e m e n t problems such as l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n s , over-development, s h o r t a g e s of p o t a b l e w a t e r , waste and garbage d i s p o s a l , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; and r e s o u r c e problems such as the need f o r more s u p e r v i s e d p u b l i c s p ace, the need f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n of the r u r a l atmosphere, and t h e need t o s a t i s f y t he demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use of the i s l a n d s (e.g..more beach a c c e s s e s , h i k i n g t r a i l s , p i c n i c a r e a s , and campgrounds); the Committee p o i n t e d out the need f o r a more c o o r d i n a t e d approach t o p l a n n i n g and development than was c u r r e n t l y o f f e r e d by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and e x i s t i n g government departments. Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the i s l a n d s was f e l t t o be a key t o t h e e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n , n e e d i n g c a r e f u l c o n t r o l and c o o r d i n a t i o n . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s was not w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be some form of l o c a l i n p u t i n t o t h i s i m p o r t a n t matter h a n d l e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government. The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s from the Committee r e p o r t deserve g u o t a t i c n : - One o f t h e major problems encountered by the Committee i n i t s t o u r s , h e a r i n g s , and p u b l i c meetings i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e has been, and r e m a i n s , a very s e r i o u s l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n and communication. I n many r e s p e c t s , t h e i s l a n d s have f a l l e n v i c t i m t o ad hoc or "b a n d - a i d " a c t i v i t y . There i s a need f o r a c o - o r d i n a t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g , z o n i n g , c o n t r o l of l a n d use, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and r e l a t e d m atters f o r a l l the i s l a n d s and t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n would r e q u i r e s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g over and above t h e c u r r e n t revenue s o u r c e from l o c a l t a x a t i o n . Although r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s are not geared t o c a r r y out a l l t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e x p e c t e d of them r e l a t i v e t o the f u t u r e of t h e C o a s t a l i s l a n d s of B r i t i s h Columbia, they can w e l l s e r v e the i s l a n d s f o r many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes i n c l u d i n g h o s p i t a l s , s c h o o l s , l o c a l improvements, s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , h e a l t h , b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n , e t c . . ... R e c o g n i z i n g t h e need t o ensure c o n t i n u e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r some r e s i d e n t s of t h e i s l a n d s , s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d l i m i t e d commercial development, l i g h t i n d u s t r y , and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y c o m p a t i b l e with the l i f e s t y l e of t h e i s l a n d s can c o n t i n u e , n o n e t h e l e s s , emphasis f o r t h e f u t u r e development of the i s l a n d s s h o u l d be p l a c e d on r e c r e a t i o n , moderate r e s i d e n t i a l use, and p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r u r a l atmosphere. The Committee was impressed w i t h seme i n s t a n c e s o f d e s i r a b l e l a n d use (by r e s i d e n c e s , summer camps, a few p a r k s , endowments) but was alarmed a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n or h o a r d i n g of l a n d by r e s i d e n t and absentee owners f o r h i g h c a p i t a l g a i n s purposes.. I t was a l s o d i s t r e s s e d by t h e e v i d e n c e of c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y i n t h e p a s t , which was undertaken w i t h o u t f u l l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i t s impact on the f u t u r e o f each i s l a n d . Our b e l i e f i s t h a t t h e i s l a n d s are t o o i m p o r t a n t t o the people of Canada to be l e f t open t o e x p l o i t a t i o n by r e a l - e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r s and s p e c u l a t o r s . (Hansard, September 24, 1973) The key recommendation of t h e Committee was as f o l l o w s : The Committee recommends t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government e s t a b l i s h an " I s l a n d s T r u s t " (or c e m m i s s i o n ) , as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e body t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and t o co-o r d i n a t e the f u t u r e of each i s l a n d w i t h i n our terms of r e f e r e n c e . I t must be emphasized most s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e t r u s t i s t o assume the p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l G u l f I s l a n d s ' a f f a i r s w i t h i n Government j u r i s d i c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g l a n d use, f u t u r e growth p a t t e r n s , c o n t r o l of development, i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and commercial a c t i v i t y , as w e l l as parks and open space d e s i g n a t i o n s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e t r u s t be f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l i n t e r e s t s , not o n l y on t h e i s l a n d s , but t h r o u g h o u t the P r o v i n c e as a whole. While r e c o g n i z i n g the r i g h t s 'of the i s l a n d e r s , t h e Committee s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia i s d r a m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a c t i v i t y which does not have t h e same impact i n o t h e r p a r t s of the P r o v i n c e . The Committee ag a i n r e f e r s t o t h e f r a g i l e n a t u r e of these c o a s t a l u n i t s . Eecause i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a v a r i e t y of Government departments and a g e n c i e s : Highways, H e a l t h , F e r r i e s , Lands and F o r e s t s , P a r k s , 46 e t c . , as w e l l as r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and c i t i z e n groups on the i s l a n d s , a l l have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , we emphasize t h a t t h e proposed t r u s t or commission must not be a s e p a r a t e and (or) remote agency, but r a t h e r a f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i n g body, whose t a s k i t i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r each group, agency, or department of Government and t o a c t i n t h e best i n t e r e s t s of the i s l a n d s and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s , w i t h due r e g a r d f o r the broader and P r o v i n c e - w i d e i n t e r e s t . Thus, t h e i n t e n t s of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S t a n d i n g Committee appeared t o be: 1.. t o s t a n d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l a s p e c t s of f u t u r e development of t h e i s l a n d s ; 2.. t o c o o r d i n a t e , c o n t r o l , and assume pri m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g , l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m e r c i a l and r e s o u r c e development, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , and p a r k s and open space; 3. t o improve communication between i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , and government a g e n c i e s ; 4.. t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i s l a n d s , as w e l l as the l o c a l i n t e r e s t , i n t o i s l a n d p l a n n i n g and development; 5. to ensure t h a t emphasis f o r f u t u r e development of the i s l a n d s be p l a c e d on r e c r e a t i o n , moderate r e s i d e n t i a l use, and p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r u r a l atmosphere; 6. t o d i s c o u r a g e e x p l o i t i v e r e a l e s t a t e s p e c u l a t i o n and development; 7. t o a c t as a f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o o r d i n a t i n g body, b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r each agency ox department of Government. I t was n o t c l e a r from the r e p o r t whether i t was i n t e n d e d t h a t the T r u s t s h o u l d a c t u a l l y be comprised of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l these a g e n c i e s , or whether i t s h o u l d s i m p l y draw upon t h e s e 47 a g e n c i e s as r e g u i r e d and f o s t e r i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l communication. D u r i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e r e p o r t t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e by Mr. . Nu n w e i l e r of the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee, remarks were made t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s d i d not have adeguate f i n a n c i n g t o do what they would have l i k e d t o have done f o r the i s l a n d s , and t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were not geared t o c a r r y out a l l t h e i r l o n g term r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t was f e l t t h a t a n o t h e r v e h i c l e was needed t o be a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e placement of f u t u r e emphasis on r e c r e a t i o n , moderate r e s i d e n t i a l use, and p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e r u r a l atmosphere. I t i s s t i l l not e x a c t l y c l e a r , i f t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s had been g i v e n adeguate f u n d i n g , why t h e y c o u l d not have performed th e n e c e s s a r y f u n c t i o n s . E. A c c o r d i n g _ t o _ H a n s a r d (1973 t o 19 79) The l e g i s l a t i v e d e b a t e s , as r e c o r d e d i n Hansard, p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of the p e r c e p t i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s r e g a r d i n g problems on the i s l a n d s , and r e g a r d i n g the I s l a n d s T r u s t a s a p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n t o t h o s e problems. For most s e r i o u s m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s of the T r u s t , b oth s i d e s of t h e q u e s t i o n were r a i s e d and d i s c u s s e d . These d e b a t e s are n o t d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s ; o n l y comments which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o i n t e n t of t h e T r u s t a r e noted here.. However, an i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s o f the debates s u g g e s t s t h a t the s p e c i f i c g u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by t h e o p p o s i t i o n , and the s p e c i f i c r e p l i e s of the government (throughout t h i s e n t i r e p e r i o d ) s h o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y be t a k e n l i t e r a l l y . I t i s l i k e l y 48 t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p o l i t i c a l manoeuvering was o c c u r r i n g on both s i d e s of the l e g i s l a t u r e , and a l s o on some r e g i o n a l boards. Thus, w h i l e the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s p r o v i d e a g l i m p s e of t h e i n t e n t b e h i n d the T r u s t , t h e y s h o u l d perhaps be taken " w i t h a g r a i n of s a l t . " For the purposes of t h e t h e s i s , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s made by t h e Members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly as r e c o r d e d i n Hansard were s i n c e r e , and p r o v i d e a r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t b e h i n d the T r u s t . The t h e s i s w i l l not d e l v e i n t o p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l manoeuvers. When t h e Honourable James L o r i m e r p r e s e n t e d the I s l a n d s T r u s t Act t o the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r second r e a d i n g on May 21, 1974 he made s e v e r a l p o i n t s , paraphrased as f o l l o w s : - The v o t i n g s t r e n g t h o f the i s l a n d s had been g u i t e s m a l l . - The i s l a n d s had been somewhat cf a n u i s a n c e t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . - The i s l a n d a e r s f e l t b a d l y n e g l e c t e d by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and the p r o v i n c e . . - E v i d e n c e showed t h a t the i s l a n d s can be r u i n e d very q u i c k l y and e a s i l y by u n f o r t u n a t e s u b d i v i s i o n s and u n f o r t u n a t e developments. I t was agreed unanimous!y t h a t ^ t h e r e ,had_tp ,be some, mechanism_to., c o n t r o l t h i s . s o r t Qi_d§y§i:9£gpnfe-9g-^he i s l a n d s . - The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s would c a r r y on, as the I s l a n d s T r u s t would have no power t o implement any a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g any developments, z o n i n g b y l a w s , or community p l a n s . I t was hoped t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s would c o n t i n u e h a v i n g l o c a l community groups draw up t h e i r own Community P l a n s . - The T r u s t was t o a s s i s t t h e p r o c e s s of drawing up community p l a n s and was t o be a b l e t o draw e x p e r t a d v i c e from any p r o v i n c i a l department f o r a s s i s t a n c e . . o 49 - The T r u s t was t o c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s of the d i f f e r e n t departments of government and Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s as t h e y d e a l t w i t h t h e i s l a n d s . - I t was not i n t e n d e d f o r the T r u s t t o have any i n i t i a t i n g powers. From t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t appears t h a t the major i n t e n t o f the T r u s t was: 1. to make t h e i s l a n d e r s f e e l as i f they had a l a r g e r r o l e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i s l a n d development; 2. t o guard a g a i n s t developments which might have s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s on the i s l a n d s ; 3. to f a c i l i t a t e the community p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s by a s s i s t i n g r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and by r e q u e s t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e from government departments as r e q u i r e d ; 4.. t o c o o r d i n a t e a l l government a c t i v i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i s l a n d s , so t h a t t h e y were not i n c o n f l i c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . The f o l l o w i n g paraphrased s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g i n t e n t were drawn from the second r e a d i n g o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t Act: - There i s a need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n not only between t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y among v a r i o u s government departments and Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s : Hydro, Highways, F e r r i e s , R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . (Hugh C u r t i s - SC) - The I s l a n d s T r u s t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t o work i n c o n j u n c t i o n with l o c a l , p eople and t o b r i n g i n e x p e r t a d v i c e when they need i t . Most r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s a r e now t o o l a r g e and have t o o many problems t o g i v e t h e i s l a n d s t h e k i n d of a t t e n t i o n they d e s e r v e . . Responding to t he q u e s t i o n , " I f t h e r e a l r e a d y e x i s t p l a n s and b y l a w s , why i s an I s l a n d s T r u s t ' n e e d e d ? " : t h e s e i s l a n d s a r e so b e a u t i f u l and such a d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e s t o have the i s l a n d e r s change t h e i r bylaws w i l l i n c r e a s e i n y e a r s t o come. I s l a n d e r s w i l l have more i n p u t than b e f o r e . For example, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e s o u t h e r n i s l a n d s w i l l change from two v o t e s out of f o r t y - s e v e n , which i t i s i n t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , t o two votes out of f i v e . The g e n e r a l t r u s t w i l l b r i n g an overview of development of a l l t h e i s l a n d s ; answers t c problems may e a s i l y be sh a r e d among th e i s l a n d s . The i s l a n d s a r e unigue and s p e c i a l . They need t h i s s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n . 50 (Karen S a n f o r d - NDP) - The t h r u s t of the Committee r e p o r t was t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e p l a n n i n g and development of the i s l a n d s ; not t o •pre s e r v e and p r o t e c t * . T h i s i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c . ( A l l e n W i l l i a m s - LIB) - Responding t o t h e argument t h a t uniqueness i s not an excuse f o r such a precedent: t h o s e i s l a n d s a r e not the p r i v a t e p r e s e r v e of the people who l i v e on them; t h e y are l o v e d and c h e r i s h e d by a l o t of us. C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e o t h e r unique a r e a s , but t h i s one r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n . As evidenced on Mudge I s l a n d and Mayne I s l a n d * the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have not done a good j o b . (Rosemary Brown - NDP) At t h e end of t h e second r e a d i n g , Honourable James L o r i m e r responded t o c r i t i c i s m s o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t . The f o l l o w i n g p a r a p h r a s e d s t a t e m e n t s cf i n t e n t were among h i s r e p l i e s : - The I s l a n d s T r u s t Act g i v e s the c o n t r o l back t o t h e people on t h e i s l a n d s . - P l a n s i n a few i s l a n d s , not many, are i n p l a c e . They w i l l remain i n p l a c e , and w i l l be t h e key t o development of those p a r t i c u l a r i s l a n d s . Other a r e a s w i l l be p r e p a r i n g t h e i r own p l a n s i n the same way as t h e ones t h a t have t h e i r p l a n s prepared* The t r u s t , I hope, w i l l a s s i s t t h i s method, and w i l l a s s i s t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . - In r e s p o n s e t o B i l l B e n n e t t ' s c l a i m t h a t the a c t i s an e r o s i o n of c o n t r o l which c e n t r a l i z e s government; and h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n s t e a d o f i n s t i t u t i n g an I s l a n d s T r u s t the government s h o u l d g i v e l o c a l s a chance t o p l a n f o r th e m s e l v e s u n t i l they f a i l , i n which case t h e M i n i s t e r s h o u l d move i n w i t h t h e L o c a l S e r v i c e s Act (as was done with t h e i m p o s i t i o n of the 10-acre f r e e e z e ) : t r u e , I can c o n t r o l those i s l a n d s as M i n i s t e r under t h e L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t . What I am t r y i n g t o do i s t o g i v e t h a t power t o l o c a l p e o p l e , t o l e t them l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own dest i n i e s . - The t r u s t , I hope, w i l l a s s i s t i n making arrangements f o r community p l a n s , developed by the l o c a l people on the i s l a n d s . When t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t Act was i n the Committee Stage (May 51 28,1974) the f o l l o w i n g paraphrased s t a t e m e n t s of i n t e n t were made: - I n response t o a q u e s t i o n p o i n t i n g out t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n seems t o e x c l u d e any matter which may a f f e c t a d e s i g n a t e d i s l a n d and a l s o p a r t o f the mainland: t h e i n t e n t i o n i s t h a t i t o n l y a f f e c t s t h e i s l a n d s , not t h e main l a nd. (James L o r i m e r - NDP) [Note: T h i s statement i s o f r e l e v a n c e t o such i s s u e s as o i l t a n k e r t r a f f i c . ] - In r e s p o n s e t o an argument by Hugh C u r t i s t h a t t h e T r u s t s h o u l d not s i m p l y be a f f o r d e d n o t i c e of developments or d i s p o s i t i o n s by Crown a g e n c i e s but should have veto power over Crown a g e n c i e s : s e c t i o n 6 (4) i s here so t h a t i n p r a c t i c e t h e r e w i l l be c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e t r u s t committee. As a r e s u l t t h e r e s h o u l d be complete c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e s e p a r a t e departments, the Crcwn a g e n c i e s , and the t r u s t i t s e l f . O b v i o u s l y what w i l l happen i s t h a t any Crown agency or any government department w i l l be i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the t r u s t b e f o r e such a c t i o n s as a power l i n e or a new highway c r whatever a r e t a k e n . (James L o r i m e r - NDP) - R e f e r r i n g t o t h e above r e s p o n s e : t h a t i s a very d i s a p p o i n t i n g answer from the M i n i s t e r . . Promise o f c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n are empty words._ Witness the f o r m e r government: c e r t a i n arms of t h a t government and c e r t a i n Crown a g e n c i e s n e v e r t h e l e s s went ahead and d i d e x a c t l y what they l i k e d . While the M i n i s t e r ' s genuine i n t e n t i s t o c o n s u l t and c o o p e r a t e , t h e r e s h o u l d be some k i n d of p r o t e c t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n t o a much more r e l i a b l e degree t h a n " g i v e n o t i c e " . ( S c o t t W a l l a c e - PC) - A l l members of both s i d e s of the House were i n s u p p o r t of the Committee's recommendation t h a t something had t o be done i n o r d e r t o l o o k a f t e r these unique i s l a n d s . Yet we f i n d t h a t when the government wishes t o d e a l w i t h those l a n d s , i t need not s u b j e c t i t s e l f t o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of any t r u s t e e s . ( A l l e n W i l l i a m s - LIB) What has happened i n the p a s t has been t h a t departments and Crown a g e n c i e s have gone i n t o the i s l a n d s on t h e i r own and done whatever p a r t i c u l a r job t h e y had been i n t e n d i n g t o do.. The Crown a g e n c i e s and departments s h o u l d n o t i f y t h e t r u s t b e f o r e any a c t i o n i s t a k e n , i n 52 o r d e r t h a t the t r u s t w i l l now be a b l e t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h the i n t e n t i o n s of o t h e r a g e n c i e s and can c o r r e l a t e the a c t i v i t i e s or have them r e v i e w e d or whatever th e t r u s t may d e c i d e s h o u l d be done. (James L o r i m e r - NDP) The f o l l o w i n g statements were made at the Report Stage of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t Act (June 4, 1974): - We want p r e s e r v a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n , and f u t u r e development o f t h i s a rea which has unique q u a l i t i e s . ( A l l e n W i l l i a m s - LIB) - T h i s b i l l p r o v i d e s f o r mere r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by t h e i s l a n d p eople than t h e y've ever had b e f o r e . I t p r o v i d e s them w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r more i n p u t t h a n ever b e f o r e . Everyone wants t h e 10-acre f r e e z e l i f t e d ; e veryone wants new d i r e c t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s and some s o r t of mechanism to c a r r y t h a t out. .  ( C a r l L i d e n - NDP) The I s l a n d s T r u s t Act was passed on t h i r d r e a d i n g on June 4, 1974.. The mandate of the T r u s t was as s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r I . Summarizing th e f o r e g o i n g s t a t e m e n t s from second r e a d i n g through t o the p a s s i n g o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , the f o l l o w i n g i n t e n t o f the T r u s t was made app a r e n t : 1. t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e p l a n n i n g and development of the i s l a n d s , between c o m m u n i t i e s , r e g i o n a l ' d i s t r i c t s , and a l l government departments and Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s ; 2. t o be c o n s u l t e d by government departments and Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r developments and d i s p o s i t i o n s , so as t o c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s between t h e s e a g e n c i e s . Note t h a t i t was NOT the i n t e n t t h a t the T r u s t s h o u l d be a b l e t o veto these a c t i v i t i e s ; o t h e r w i s e the government would have amended s e c t i o n 6 (4) when as.ked r e p e a t e d l y by a l l p a r t i e s of the 53 o p p o s i t i o n t o do so; 3. t o g i v e i s l a n d e r s mere a t t e n t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n than they had r e c e i v e d from the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ; 4. t o g i v e c o n t r o l "back to the people on t h e islands.'.' "To l e t them l o o k a f t e r t h e i r cwn d e s t i n i e s . " (Lorimer) 5.. t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s by g e n e r a t i n g a p e r s p e c t i v e of development on a l l the i s l a n d s ; 6.. t o p r o t e c t the i s l a n d s such t h a t t h e y remain b e a u t i f u l and s p e c i a l . . To d i r e c t f u t u r e development of the i s l a n d s w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e , t o ensure t h a t s p e c i a l a m e n i t i e s a re p r e s e r v e d and t h a t t h e r e s t of the i s l a n d s a r e g e n e r a l l y p r o t e c t e d from u n d e s i r a b l e developments; 7. t o a s s i s t t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e development of. community p l a n s . The I s l a n d s T r u s t Amendment A c t , 1975 was i n t r o d u c e d i n mid-1975, a f t e r the T r u s t had been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l months. The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e n t of the T r u s t and o f t h e Amendment A c t were made: The p r i n c i p l e of the b i l l i s t o a l l o w the t r u s t t o h o l d l a n d s i n i t s name. At p r e s e n t i t i s unable t o acc e p t g i f t s of r e a l e s t a t e and a l s o p e r s o n a l e s t a t e s and t o h o l d a n y t h i n g i n i t s name. The p r o v i s i o n here a l l o w s the t r u s t t c be a c o r p o r a t i o n f o r t h e purpose o f h o l d i n g l a n d and i t a l l o w s the t r u s t t o c a r r y on as an i n d i v i d u a l might do. ... i t has the power t o buy and s e l l l a n d as w e l l . However, t h e b a s i c purpose here and the need a t t h e p r e s e n t time i s f o r power t o h o l d l a n d . . .... [ A t p r e s e n t an o f f e r of p r o p e r t y ] p r o b a b l y has t o be put i n t o the Department of Lands. Most people don't want t o donate p r o p e r t y as a t r u s t t o a department of government, they would f a r r a t h e r donate i t t o a t r u s t i n which t h e r e would be some c o n t r o l and t h a t the t r u s t would be bound t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l a n d or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e terms of the t r u s t . 54 ( L o r i m e r - NDP) The c o n t e n t of the amendment i s whether or not i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r the t r u s t t o be a b l e t o buy and s e l l l a n d r a t h e r than j u s t i n h e r i t l a n d by d o n a t i o n . ....[The M i n i s t e r i s m i s l e a d i n g . He s a i d ] t h a t a l t h o u g h he had o r i g i n a l l y i n s t r u c t e d t h e [ d r a f t i n g ] department t h a t t h e b i l l s h o u l d not have t h e power t o buy l a n d , he would p r o b a b l y need t h a t power i n a c o u p l e of y e a r s . So i t w i l l remain i n the b i l l . I f ... the b a s i c concept of the o r i g i n a l l e g i s l a t i o n ... was to t r y t o b r i n g about th e best and optimum o r d e r l y development c f the G u l f I s l a n d s , i t seems s t r a n g e t h a t we might not need t h e power t o a c q u i r e or buy l a n d now, but ... t h a t maybe i n a year or two t h a t power might be d e s i r a b l e . ... A l l of us ... v o t e d ... t o p r e s e r v e t h e i s l a n d s i n t h e i r b e s t p o s s i b l e environment... . ( S c o t t W a l l a c e - PC) A year ago ... i t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e was no need f o r powers t o h o l d r e a l e s t a t e or ... p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y , t h a t i t c o u l d be h e l d e l s e w h e r e . There are a number of a r e a s i n government which can h o l d l a n d . We have found i n t h e past year t h a t people who were prepa r e d t o g i v e d o n a t i o n s o b j e c t e d t o g i v i n g them t o the government as such or t o a department of government. They wanted t o g i v e i t t o the t r u s t . . .....The r e a s o n [ f o r not needing] t h e power t o buy and s e l l f o r about two y e a r s i s t h a t we had no [ c a s h ] o f f e r s a t p r e s e n t . When we got the o f f e r s and had t h o s e f u n d s , we c o u l d then amend t h e s t a t u t e [ t o ] t a k e c a r e of i t . ... We have no reason a t p r e s e n t f o r b u y i n g and s e l l i n g l a n d . Need c o u l d w e l l a r i s e w i t h i n a c o u p l e of y e a r s . ... The purpose of the fund i s t o d e velop and l o o k a f t e r t h e i s l a n d s , to a c q u i r e l a n d f o r p o s s i b l e park purposes and f o r w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . I t ' s a l s o t o l o o k a f t e r t h e q u e s t i o n of l o o k i n g i n t o water s u p p l i e s and make s t u d i e s i n the a r e a . There have been very few s t u d i e s made up t o now, and t h o s e have t c be done. (James L o r i m e r - NDP) The i n t e n t o f the I s l a n d s T r u s t Amendment A c t , 1975 i s e v i d e n t from the above q u o t a t i o n s . However, as mentioned i n c h a p t e r I I I , t h e key s e c t i o n of t h i s a c t , i . e . s e c t i o n 2A which s e t s up the I s l a n d s T r u s t Fund, has not y e t been p r o c l a i m e d . . F o l l o w i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n i n November, 1976 t h e 55 B r i t i s h Columbia government changed. P a r t y s t a n d i n g s changed from NDP - 37, SC - 10, LIB - 5, PC - 2, t o SC - 35, NDP - 18, LIB - 1, PC - 1. The I s l a n d s T r u s t Amendment A c t , 1977 was i n t r o d u c e d i n March, 1S77 by the new M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Honourable Hugh C u r t i s , whose r i d i n g happened t o i n c l u d e t h e s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s . The o r i g i n a l b i l l p r o v i d e d b a s i c a l l y f o r the t r a n s f e r of the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n from t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o the I s l a n d s T r u s t . I t d i d not i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the e l e c t i o n ( r a t h e r t h a n appointment) o f g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s u n t i l t h i s b i l l was amended l a t e r i n 1977. During p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e b i l l a t second r e a d i n g , the M i n i s t e r made the f o l l o w i n g comments: ... The re f o r m s ... w i l l s i m p l i f y p l a n n i n g and r e g u l a t o r y procedures and b r i n g t h o s e p r o c e d u r e s c l o s e r t o p e o p l e and communities s e r v e d by the I s l a n d s T r u s t . . ... The e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g l a n d - u s e and p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s w i t h i n t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t a r e a has proven t o be s l o w , u n w i e l d y , and o f t e n remote from the people a f f e c t e d by tho s e c o n t r o l s or r e g u l a t i o n s . . . . . a main purpose of t h i s b i l l i s t o improve t h e p l a n n i n g and l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . T h i s i s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d by t r a n s f e r r i n g c e r t a i n powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from t h e seven c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o t h e t r u s t i t s e l f . ... The e x i s t i n g t h r e e - l e v e l system empowers r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o adopt l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n and p l a n n i n g bylaws, s u b j e c t t o a p p r o v a l by the t r u s t and by the p r o v i n c e . . The new proposed t w o - l e v e l system w i l l p e r m i t t h e t r u s t ... to adopt bylaws s u b j e c t t o p r o v i n c i a l a p p r o v a l . . .... [ T h i s w i l l ] e l i m i n a t e t h e d e l a y s and f r u s t r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l l e v e l of a p p r o v a l [ a n d ] a l s o c o n f e r a p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g r o l e on the t r u s t ... .. The t r u s t ' s e x i s t i n g c a p a c i t y t o approve r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n i t i a t e s [ s i c ] c o n f i n e s i t e s s e n t i a l l y t o a n e g a t i v e approach based cn veto power.. . . . [ T h i s i s ] 56 e n f o r c e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l n e g a t i v i s m . ... R e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o ... [ p r o v i d e ] a v a r i e t y of customary s e r v i c e s , they w i l l a l s o r e t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d o p t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . ... The p r i n c i p l e t h a t the p r o v i n c e as a whole has an i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g and p r o t e c t i n g the I s l a n d s T r u s t a r e a i s m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l a p p r o v a l o f b y l a w s , p r o v i s i o n o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new c l a u s e t o a s s i s t i n p r o t e c t i n g the prime n a t u r a l a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d i n r e g i o n a l p l a n s . . T h i s l a t t e r c l a u s e w i l l e nable the t r u s t t o adopt s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e to d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s o f .high r e c r e a t i o n a l , s c e n i c or e c o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . . . . . [ B e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s o f t h i s amendment w i l l i n c l u d e ] g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and ... a l e s s cumbersome a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . D u r i n g second r e a d i n g t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e argument about g i v i n g p r o v i n c i a l a p p o i n t e e s t h i s added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t was f e l t t h a t l o c a l c o n t r o l was b e i n g eroded by removing t h e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n frcm e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . The f o l l o w i n g were among t h e comments r e g a r d i n g i n t e n t a t t h a t t i m e : We a l l agree t h a t t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n the i s l a n d a r e a s o f our p r o v i n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s , and t h a t t h e s e are the j e w e l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p a r t of our p r o v i n c i a l t r e a s u r e , and t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be some s p e c i a l form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . But t h a t s p e c i a l form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d not be a m a j o r i t y p r o v i n c i a l - g o v e r n m e n t - a p p o i n t e d group. ... What [ t h i s b i l l ] does i s t a k e away even such powers as t h e r e a r e w i t h t h e l o c a l l y e l e c t e d r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . To me t h a t ' s wrong ...... (Gordon G i b s o n - LIB) How do you do t w p _ t h i n g s — g i v e t h e m _ l o c a l 57 il-li2£0SZ_iiIiil_E-i£_:i-_i£-i_i A 5J2_l5_£h e_ o^e a t e s t e x t e n t , and £reserve the n a t u r a l beauty and o r d e r l y development of t h e _ i s l a n d s _ o r t h e degree t o _which they s h o u l d be developed? N a t u r a l l y , t h a t ' s t h e essence o f what we're d e b a t i n g . . ... We're l o o k i n g at an A c t which i s i n t e n d e d t o be one p r o v i d i n g f o r many, many y e a r s , i f not decades and a c e n t u r y , of prudent management and p r e s e r v a t i o n of what i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a very v a l u a b l e p a r t of B r i t i s h Columbia's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . ( S c o t t W a l l a c e - PC, my emphasis) ... One of t h e r e a s o n s the I s l a n d s T r u s t was formed i n the f i r s t p l a c e was t o s t o p development i n t h e d i s o r d e r l y way t h a t [ i t ] has o c c u r r e d . D e v e l o p e r s must be c o n t a i n e d on these b e a u t i f u l i s l a n d s . We've seen those i s l a n d s s o l d out over t h e y e a r s . (Dennis Cocke - NDP) [The o r i g i n a l I s l a n d s T r u s t Act has one f l a w : ] no a u t h o r i t y t o do a n y t h i n g p o s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e , or b e n e f i c i a l f o r the i s l a n d s ... . (Hon. A l l e n W i l l i a m s - SC) The I s l a n d s T r u s t Amendment A c t , 1977 was i n Committee on August 3 1,. 1977. P r i o r t o t h i s d a t e , the b i l l was amended t o p r o v i d e f o r the e l e c t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s from among the l o c a l t r u s t e e s by t h a t group.. The M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s c r i t i c o f the NDP, C h a r l e s B a r b e r , e x p r e s s e d h i s p a r t y ' s f u l l s u p p ort f o r the amendment. He s a i d t h a t i t would p r o v i d e a form of d e m o c r a t i c s e l f - g o v e r n i c e n t and l o c a l c o n t r o l t h a t d i d not p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t . The b i l l was then passed w i t h f u l l s u p p o r t of t h e l e g i s l a t u r e . Summarizing i n t e n t of the I s l a n d s T r u s t gleaned from a review o f l e g i s l a t i v e d e b a t e s , t h e T r u s t has been i n t e n d e d p r i o r t o November, 1977 t o : 1. g i v e i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s more a t t e n t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and c o n t r o l t h a n they had under the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ; 2. make i s l a n d e r s f e e l t h a t they have a l a r g e r r o l e i n t h e 58 p l a n n i n g and d e t e r m i n a t i o n of i s l a n d development; 3- ^ t t e m j j t t o c o o r d i n a t e a l l government a c t i v i t i e s with r e s p e c t to the i s l a n d s , so t h a t t h e y were not i n c o n f l i c t w i t h one a n o t h e r ; 4. l i a s e between communities, r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , government departments, and Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s ; 5. f a c i l i t a t e community p l a n n i n g on each i s l a n d , and draw p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e when needed; 6. a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s by b r i n g i n g a p e r s p e c t i v e o f problems and s o l u t i o n s on e t h e r i s l a n d s ; 7. p r o t e c t the i s l a n d s such t h a t t h e y remain b e a u t i f u l and s p e c i a l ; d i r e c t f u t u r e development o f t h e i s l a n d s i n an o r d e r l y manner and w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e ; ensure t h a t the n a t u r a l beauty, r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e , or e c o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e of s p e c i a l a m e n i t i e s i s p r e s e r v e d , and t h a t the r e s t of the i s l a n d s are p r o t e c t e d from developments h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s . S i n c e the 1977 Amendment Act took e f f e c t , t h e i n t e n t has a l s o i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1. t o p r o v i d e more s i m p l e p l a n n i n g and r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s ; 2.. t o b r i n g p l a n n i n g and r e g u l a t o r y procedures c l o s e r t o the i s l a n d c ommunities; 3.. f o r the T r u s t t o adopt a p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g approach, r a t h e r than a n e g a t i v e v e t o i n g . approach; f o r t h e prudent c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e c f the T r u s t t o t o be r e f l e c t e d i n i m a g i n a t i v e community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . 4. t o p r o v i d e d e m o c r a t i c s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and l o c a l c o n t r o l . 59 C. . A c c o r d i n g t o "The P o l i c y of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t i , A u g u s t ^ ±9 75. The p o l i c y statement of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t d e a l t w i t h i t s mandate " t o p r e s e r v e and p r o t e c t " t h e i s l a n d s , and w i t h v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c i s s u e s such as community p l a n s and b y l a w s , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Crown l a n d , f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , water, f o r e s h o r e , and r e c r e a t i o n . The s t a t e m e n t s a i d t h a t the T r u s t i n t e r p r e t s p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n of the i s l a n d s t o mean: ... i t must promote p o l i c i e s which w i l l a l l o w f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s the o p p o r t u n i t y of d e c i d i n g how t h e i s l a n d s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d or developed. T h i s would seem t o i m p l y t h a t the T r u s t f e l t i t s h o u l d d i s c o u r a g e p o l i c i e s which p e r m i t i r r e v e r s i b l e a c t i o n s . The statement c o n t i n u e d : To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s the T r u s t w i l l m o n i t o r , and where n e c e s s a r y , r e g u l a t e the r a t e and e x t e n t of development t a k i n g p l a c e i n the T r u s t a r e a and encourage t y p e s of development t h a t w i l l m a i n t a i n t h e e s s e n t i a l l y r u r a l n a t u r e of t h e i s l a n d s . R e g a r d i n g community p l a n s and b y l a w s , t h e s t a t e m e n t s a i d : The T r u s t c o n s i d e r s i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t each i s l a n d community a r r i v e a t i t s own consensus of how i t s h o u l d d e v e l o p , and t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n s h o u l d i d e a l l y be a s t a t e m e n t of t h a t consensus. ... T r u s t p o l i c y , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o encourage and where n e c e s s a r y a i d l o c a l i s l a n d groups i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s and by-laws which have community consensus. R e g a r d i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , t h e statement s a i d : 60 The T r u s t w i l l , i n f u l l c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l i s l a n d g r o u p s , E e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s and o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s , determine the d e s i r e d k i n d , r a t e , and e x t e n t of growth of p o p u l a t i o n based upon t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the n a t u r a l and man-made systems of an i s l a n d o r a group of i s l a n d s . . The c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of an i s l a n d w i l l be based upon the c a p a b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s such as s o i l s , w a ter, and v e g e t a t i o n t o s u s t a i n human a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t i r r e p a r a b l e impairment. ... C o n s t r u c t i o n and development s h o u l d be on a s c a l e ccmmensurate w i t h t h a t of t h e i s l a n d concerned. Where i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a on t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y e x i s t s , t h e T r u s t w i l l , of n e c e s s i t y adopt a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f an i s l a n d ' s c a p a c i t y t o accommodate growth. P o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s and d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l be de s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e most v u l n e r a b l e a s p e c t s of i s l a n d environment and a m e n i t i e s so t h a t the T r u s t can f u l f i l l i t s long-term o b l i g a t i o n s t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . The s t a t e m e n t summarized t h e b a s i c elements of t r u s t p o l i c y as f o l l o w s : a. E e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the i s l a n d s are a r e s o u r c e of n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e but of f i n i t e s i z e , j u s t i f y i n g p r o v i n c i a l as w e l l as l o c a l i n t e r e s t i n how they a r e used and p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n . b. P r o v i s i o n of as v a r i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and e x p e r i e n c e as t h e i s l a n d s a r e a b l e t o o f f e r , now and i n the f u t u r e , i n c l u d i n g a range of h o l i d a y accommodation and f a c i l i t i e s . c. R e t e n t i o n of the n a t i v e f l o r a and fauna and b o t h unigue and t y p i c a l i s l a n d s c e n e r y ; and r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t some a r e a s a r e too f r a g i l e f o r any i n t e n s i v e use and must be p r o t e c t e d by c r e a t i o n of r e s e r v e s . d. E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p a t t e r n o f l a n d use which w i l l a l l o w needed and r e a s o n a b l e development i n the p r e s e n t but which w i l l a t the same ti m e p r e s e r v e l a n d from a l i e n a t i o n , so t h a t f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s w i l l have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make t h e i r own c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s . e. Development of the i s l a n d s o n l y i n ways which a re i n sympathy w i t h the landscape and which make the most of each s i t e ' s n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . f . R e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the i s l a n d s are f i r s t o f a l l an 61 e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t y o f p e o p l e , and t h e w e l f a r e o f t h o s e p e o p l e , and t h o s e who j o i n them and come a f t e r them, must a l w a y s be a p r i m a r y c o n c e r n c f t h e T r u s t . _ S u m m a r i z i n g t h e T r u s t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s i n t e n t , t h e T r u s t f e l t i t s h o u l d : 1. d i s c o u r a g e i r r e v e r s i b l e a c t i o n s ; 2. m o n i t o r and r e g u l a t e r a t e a nd e x t e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t ; 3. e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t m a i n t a i n s t h e r u r a l n a t u r e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; 4. e n c o u r a g e and a s s i s t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f p l a n s and b y l a w s w h i c h have community c o n s e n s u s ; 5. d e t e r m i n e d e s i r e d k i n d , r a