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The Islands Trust : an institutional experiment in the management of scarce natural and social resources Porcher, Laura Kathryn 1980

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THE  ISLANDS TRUST:  INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SCARCE NATURAL AND SOCIAL RESOURCES by V^^X B.Sc,  LAURA KATHRYN PORCHER The U n i v e r s i t y  o f V i c t o r i a , 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Resource Management S c i e n c e s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1980  (c)  Laura Kathryn Porcher, 1980  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  this  thesis  degree shall  agree  scholarly  at the U n i v e r s i t y make  that  p u r p o s e s may  h i s representatives.  of  this  written  fulfilment of of British  available  by  gain  shall  copying  t h e Head  I t i s understood  f o r financial  Columbia,  f o r reference  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  the requirements f o r  that  copying  n o t be a l l o w e d  of  University  f?esoo<r-c,e. of British  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  f V l a n a j e m e K l Sci£<nces>  Columbia  I agree and  thesis  Department or  that  study.  of this  o f my  permission.  Department  The  i t freely  permission  by  thesis  in partial  or  publication  without  my  i i ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e I s l a n d s experiment the  i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l management.  performance  institutional and  Trust as an  of  the  Islands  Trust  and  of  bureaucrats, to  actors  the extent  intent of the Islands which have c o n t r i b u t e d Initially  a  in  Trust  the  overall  of the three  institutional  principle  system:  the  voters,  study  A c t , and 2) t o d i s c o v e r  the  are  factors  degree of success or f a i l u r e . .  i s made  of  trust area.  t h e l e g a l and h i s t o r i c a l  in  Canada  generally  and  The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d s  i s described. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t  the  theory  t o which the T r u s t has f u l f i l l e d t h e  management, b o t h  the  Public choice  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e  to t h i s  study  of r e s o u r c e  specifically Trust  i n  and p o l i t i c i a n s .  examine  setting  the  s y s t e m , on t h e b a s i s o f o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d p r i o r t o  proves u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g the behavior  1)  E v a l u a t i o n i s made o f  f o l l o w i n g t h e i n c e p t i o n of t h e T r u s t .  categories  institutional  basis  on w h i c h e v a l u a t i o n  i s made.  Report of the S e l e c t Standing  w h i c h recommended i n s t i t u t i n g Debates from Islands  1973 t o 1979,  Trust  in  1975..  and  the  was i n t e n d e d  1) t o a c t a s t h e  and  control  island  policy  statement  mechanism  development,  from  Matters  i n 1973, t h e L e g i s l a t i v e  Summarizing these t h r e e  Trust  of  Intent i s derived  C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l  the Trust  provides  2)  to  cf  of the  sources, the coordination  ensure  orderly  iii d e v e l o p m e n t of control  r u r a l atmosphere,  3)  island  offer  and  significant  local  i n t e r e s t s i n the  scenic  recreational  amenities  d e v e l o p m e n t : Crown l a n d , s u b d i v i s i o n , and of these  Islands  broad  issues, statistics  procedures,  Islands  the  forestry.  d e s c r i b i n g the  Case  Trust  meetings, are the  Public choice theory operates  as  i t  assumptions:  1)  in their  selfish  own  assumption  in  Islands Trust and  suggests The  a l l people  sources.  why  the  theory  The  institutional  makes  act r a t i o n a l l y ,  interests.  and  thesis  two 2)  an  end)  Under t h e s e  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  implicit  i t  is  found  powers w i t h which t o f u l f i l l  that  the  i t s mandate.  mechanism  development agencies  are  of  exists.  strong motivators  reluctant  to  of  describing  I s l a n d s T r u s t has fiegarding follows:  c o n t r o l of Other  than  politicians.  o f t h e T r u s t , r e s u l t s were a s single  (rather  a s s u m p t i o n s a model i s b u i l t ,  o f v o t e r s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and  Empirically  No  an  act  i t s d e f i n i t i o n of v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s t h a t economic  to  main i n t e n t s  fundamental  makes  as  the behavior  system  a l l people  i n t e r e s t s i n h o l d i n g power a s an end  means  attendance  d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h i s l a n d e r s and  main d a t a  does.  files,  i n t e r e s t s and  1.  problems,  T r u s t r e l a t i o n s with other agencies are examined.  government a g e n c i e s  behavior.  For  and  Islands  Trust  in  involvement,  s t u d i e s a r e used e x t e n s i v e l y .  a  of  a n a l y s i s i s made o f t h r e e m a j o r p r o b l e m a r e a s  decision-making  at  to  area. Empirical  each  islands,  w h i l e p r o t e c t i n g the p r o v i n c i a l  beauty, trust  the  island  government cooperate  with  the  few  three  i v Trust  objectives,  and  to  c o o r d i n a t i n g r o l e of t h e  2.  Development  has  submit  to  Trust.  become  much more o r d e r l y ,  b u t some e n v i r o n m e n t a l  and  social  persist,  the  T r u s t has  over  which  the  problems minimal  control.  3 . . S i n c e t h e T r u s t has l i t t l e is  little  local  interests  authority,  control.  are  there  Provincial  protected  with  a  in  fulfilling  c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t tendency. . The  Islands  Trust  has  achieved  mandate, t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t has  success  been g i v e n p o w e r s t o do s o . .  Several theoretical conclusions may 1)  be  i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o t e c t i n g the  they  wish  to  get  re-elected  are  suggested.  and  the  majority  want t h e i s l a n d s p r o t e c t e d , and  Trust i t s e l f  is  People to  from  fulfilling  with vested i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  2)  vested  bureaucrats their  interests  tends  t o bend r u l e s .  the  Trust  i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r The  thesis  democracy, management.  their  are  eager  tend t o adapt t h e i r  the  mandate.  property r i g h t s , from  to cause p o l i t i c i a n s to  Bureaucrats  a g e n c y ' s m a n d a t e , and  of  t h e power o f  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y influence decisions.. Pressure  with  Trustees  i s l a n d environments because  electorates  derived  its  tend people  pressure  to  promote  programs t o  the  clientele,*  has  important  environmental  implications  protection,  and  with  respect  integrated  to  resource  I t a p p e a r s t h a t f u r t h e r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  power  v may  lead  integrated  to  p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s with r e s p e c t  resource management,  local control.  to coordination  environmental  protection,  and and  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i  i  List  o f T a b l e s ............................................ x i  List  of Appendices  x i i  Acknowledgements  ..........................xiii  C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n .................................... Chapter I I Methodology A. G r a s p i n g  1 .12  the Intent  B. A Scheme t o E s t i m a t e  of the Islands Trust  A c t ........ 12  t h e Success of t h e I s l a n d s  Trust 13  C. A T h e o r y Functions  to  E x p l a i n How t h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g  Chapter I I I H i s t o r i c a l  Perspective  System  of the Islands Trust  ....18  A. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l and L e g a l Framework Management i n Canada  of  B. H i s t o r y o f R e s o u r c e and S e t t l e m e n t Islands Prior t o the Islands Trust  Management o f t h e  C. E v e n t s L e a d i n g t o t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t Trust D. B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n o f O r i g i n a l the I s l a n d s Trust E.  Some Limitations Legislation  F.  E v o l u t i o n of Islands Trust  G. R o l e o f t h e R e g i o n a l  of  the  Plan  to the Matters  Original  Structure  B. A c c o r d i n g  t o Hansard  C. A c c o r d i n g to A u g u s t , 1975  "The  Islands  Islands  Area  13 24 28 29  Trust ...33  and P o w e r s  i n the Trust  Select  the  S t r u c t u r e and Powers o f  Chapter IV I n t e n t of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t A. A c c o r d i n g Municipal  Environmental  of  16  .35 .....39  ....................  43  Standing  Committee on ..........43  (1973 t o 1979)  47  Policy  of  the  Islands  Trust,"  .59  vii D. D i s c u s s i o n  62  1. G e n e r a l  62  2. What i s " P r e s e r v e  and P r o t e c t " ?  ................. 62  3. I n t e n t o f L o c a l v s . P r o v i n c i a l C o n t r o l  .64  4. B a s i s f o r E v a l u a t i o n o f I s l a n d s T r u s t P e r f o r m a n c e  65  C h a p t e r V P u b l i c C h o i c e Theory as i t R e l a t e s t o t h e I s l a n d s Trust  -  A. G e n e r a l  ... 67  Assumptions  67  B. , P u b l i c C h o i c e T h e o r y .... ........................... C. B a s i c C o n c e p t s 'of t h e M o d e l  .............71  1. . P u b l i c good  71  2. Power  .....72  3. . I n t e r e s t s ......... ... 4. P r o p e r t y  69  ......  ..72  Rights  .74  5. P r o p e r t y  75  6. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  C o u n c i l ............................ 76  7. The S t a t e  .77  8. .. B u r e a u c r a c y  .73  D. A M o d e l Prom P u b l i c C h o i c e T h e o r y ................... 73 E. .Summary , 98 C h a p t e r V I Crown L a n d  ............102  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n - C r o w n B. . J u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  Land B a s e  ...102  Mandates, and P o l i c i e s  Crown L a n d 1. M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s  ...» and H o u s i n g A c t  2.. L a n d A c t a.  with ...106 ...106 108  H i g h l i g h t s o f t h e Land A c t  b. L a n d Amendment A c t  Involved  108  ...........................109  c. . P r o c e d u r e s ...................................110 3. I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t and P o l i c y ............111  Co  Interaction of Islands Branch from I s l a n d s Trust  D. B e n n e t t E.  Trust w i t h L a n d Management I n c e p t i o n t o C a s e S t u d y ...115  Bay M a r i n a Case Study  Discussion  o f t h e Bennett  123  Bay M a r i n a  F. . T h e o r e t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f B e n n e t t Study  Case Bay  G. R e l a t i o n s of the Islands Trust Management B r a n c h S i n c e t h e Case H. A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e I s l a n d s . T r u s t of  Lands,  Parks,  ........... 148 Marina  and  Land 160  and t h e  Ministry  and Housing  169  o f t h e A g r e e m e n t ......................169  1..Highlights  2. D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e A g r e e m e n t Chapter  the  Case .155  ...........171  V I ISubdivision  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  177  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177  1..History o f S u b d i v i s i o n ' A c t i v i t y o n t h e I s l a n d s ...177 2. S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l P r i o r t o a n d U n d e r t h e I s l a n d s Trust 178 B. I n d i c a t i o n s to  Orderly  of  the Trust's  Performance  c.  Respect  Development  ...181  1..The S u b d i v i s i o n P r o b l e m a. b.  with  .................181  R a t e o f C r e a t i o n o f New L o t s Evidence of Density-related and Sewage D i s p o s a l P r o b l e m s Evidence  2. " I m p r o v e m e n t "  cf Social  Dissatisfaction  of Island  188  .....................191  Approval  Procedure  1..The " S t a n d a r d P r o c e d u r e " 2.^Potential "Standard  ..187  Lots  3. C o n c l u s i o n C. S u b d i v i s i o n  Water  .......181 Shortages 186  Problems Procedure"  192  .........................192  and  Peculiarities ..  a.  Role of t h e Islands  b.  Impact o f Mandates on P e r s o n n e l  c.  Potential  Confusion  Trust  of the 196  i n t h e Procedure  ...196  ..............200  of the Applicant  .........200  ix 3. .Case S t u d y : Denman I s l a n d S u b d i v i s i o n  20 1  4. . D i s c u s s i o n o f Denman I s l a n d S u b d i v i s i o n C a s e  223  5. T h e o r e t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e S u b d i v i s i o n Case  of  the  Denman  Island  223  6 . . F a t e o f I s l a n d s T r u s t R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ............231 D. C o n c l u s i o n  233  Chapter V I I I F o r e s t r y A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  237  ........................................237  1. T e n u r e o f F o r e s t L a n d  237  a.  Taxation  T r e e Farms .......................... 237  b.  O t h e r P r i v a t e Land ........................... 238  c.  Crown L a n d  ....240  B. I n t e r e s t s i n F o r e s t 1..Values Provided  Values  ..........................241  by F o r e s t L a n d  ..........241  2..The I n t e r e s t s c f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t  ...............242  3. The I n t e r e s t s o f t h e L a n d o w n e r  242  4. The C o n f l i c t  243  of I n t e r e s t s  C. P o t e n t i a l P r o b l e m s o f I s l a n d L o g g i n g ................ 244 1. A e s t h e t i c s a n d R e c r e a t i o n P r o b l e m s  244  2. .Water P r o b l e m s  245  3. A l l e v i a t i o n Techniques  c f Problems Through F o r e s t  D. How t h e I s l a n d s Trust T a x a t i o n T r e e Farms 1. . I s l a n d s Trusts Management P l a n s  has  Dealt  with  Interaction  2..Islands Trust's Submission Commission  to  Logging ;  with the  Management  Respect  Pearse  on  245 246  to 246  Royal .....249  3. R e p o r t of t h e Commission w i t h Respect t o Taxation T r e e Farms and F o r e s t Management P l a n n i n g 253 4..Actions Report  T a k e n by t h e T r u s t  since  the Commission 259  X  5. P o s s i b l e • F u t u r e A c t i o n s Open t o t h e T r u s t 6.  Zoning  E. How the Taxation  of T a x a t i o n  T r e e Farms  ......265  I s l a n d s T r u s t has D e a l t w i t h L o g g i n g T r e e Farm P r i v a t e L a n d s  1. A c t i o n s Taken (or A t t e m p t e d ) by P r i c r t o O c t o b e r , 1975 2..Islands Trust's Commission 3..Report of Unregulated 4.  F.  Submission  the I s l a n d s .  to  the Commission P r i v a t e Lands  on  the Pearse  with  Taken by  Logging  Respect  to  wich  Since the  Respect t o  Bowen  Serious  Conclusion  Fulfillment  The  269  277 282  ..287 290  of I n t e n t  1. „The T r u s t to Act as the C o o r d i n a t i o n and C o n t r o l 2.  267  Royal ......268  C h a p t e r IX C o n c l u s i o n A.  266  .....273  the I s l a n d s Trust  Case Studies of Water P r o b l e m s  NonTrust  Bowen I s l a n d C a s e S t u d y  5..Actions Case 6.  ........262  Trust t o Ensure O r d e r l y  290 Single  Mechanism  of 290  Development  ....293  3..The T r u s t to Afford Significant Local Control, Ensuring Protection of Specified Provincial Interests 295 B.  T h e o r e t i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n o f R e s u l t s .................. 297  C.  Personal  Bibliography Appendices  Impressions  ..................301 307  ................................................312  xi iIST_OF_TABLES  Table I : P r i v a t e / P u b l i c Choice Models  ,  T a b l e I I : Crown L a n d Summary  ..104  Table I I I : Progress of I s l a n d Planning T a b l e I V : Rate  of Subdivision  T a b l e V: S u b d i v i s i o n L o t s  .....179 182  (1977)  T a b l e V I : T a x a t i o n T r e e Farms: A r e a  80  ...... 185 and o w n e r s h i p  .........239  LIST_OF_APPENDICES  A. . I s l a n d s T r u s t  A c t (1974 C h a p t e r 43)  B. . I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t (1979 ES C h a p t e r C. L e t t e r , R. C h a b o t  March  15,  1979,  John  313 208) ................ 321 Bich  to  Hon. James 329  D. A g r e e m e n t Between M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and Housing and Islands Trust with Respect to Planning and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Crown Land W i t h i n t h e T r u s t A r e a 33 1 E. L e t t e r , J u n e F. L e t t e r ,  6, 1 9 7 9 , J o h n R i c h t o Hon. James R. C h a b o t  J u l y 13, 1979, J o h n R i c h t o Hon. James B.  G. .Memorandum, O c t o b e r Holmes H. L e t t e r ,  26,  1978,  Tony  Roberts  335  Chabot  to  Marc  :  J u l y 8, 1979, Denman I s l a n d Bylaw  337 339  Support  t o Hon. A l e x F r a s e r  Group .342  I. Galiano I s l a n d Taxation  350  J . E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d K..Letter, February Hon. J.A. N i e l s o n  353  L. Memorandum, Trustees  May  Use A c t (1971 C h a p t e r 17) 9, 1977, Marc Holmes 1,  1979,  A.H. R o b e r t s  to  to ....355  General  356  M. L e t t e r , J u n e 6, 1 9 7 9 , J o h n R i c h t o Hon. T . M . . W a t e r l a n d .359  xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The Trust,  cooperation  which  appreciated. Patricia these Paul  made  of this  The  the trustees study  guidance  Boothroyd,  Brahm  appreciated. Chambers  Finally,  patience  about  environment.  this  Irving study,  F o x and and f o r  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f  my d e e p e s t g r a t i t u d e of p a t i e n c e ,  I t i s he who h a s  the  gratefully  Bill  Lane,  S e e s , and E r i k K a r l s e n  growth through t h i s t h e s i s more  to  of  Andrew Thompson,  whose c o n s t a n t r e s e r v e  understand  i s most  The a s s i s t a n c e  Wiesman, B i l l  d i r e c t i o n I depended upon;.  natural  and  am v e r y t h a n k f u l .  T e n n a n t , Bob W i l l i a m s ,  personal  possible,  M a r c h a k were a l s o e s s e n t i a l  I  and s t a f f o f t h e I s l a n d s  i s felt  are also for  Alan  e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and most  and h a s k i n d l e d  human c o n d i t i o n  Peter  fostered  my  my d e s i r e t o  i n r e l a t i o n tothe  1 Chapter I  INTRODUCTION  The  object  institution natural be  and  of  established social  considered  to the  study  was  that  the the  The  study  the  has  total  s t u d y a l s o makes an  The between Island  Strait  of  fulfilled  functions  to to  unusual  protection  of  resources  can  the  views t h i s  attempt  Gulf  and  Howe Sound I s l a n d s  the  lower  mainland a  relatively  highly low  people.  The  i n the  of B r i t i s h valuable  creation region  of  were  institution  as  extent  which  the  to  an  i n t e n t of i t s  explain  how  the  produce the  results  Strait  Georgia  and  of  C o l u m b i a and r e s o u r c e . ..  r a i n f a l l , g e o l o g y , and  make them u n i g u e t o . Canada  number o f  These  an  thesis.  constitute  climate,  system  the  examines the  successfully  institutional  found i n the  for  resources  a b o v e e n d s , and  The  examine  r a t i o n a l e behind the  experiment t c the  mandate.  to  specifically  as  province.  institution  is  r e s o u r c e s of a r e g i o n ,  scarce,  this institution unigue  this  2  1  Vancouver  Their  mild  situation in  appealing  to  i s l a n d s c o m b i n e a wide d i v e r s i t y  the  a  great  of  human  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t a t u t e s were r e c e n t l y renumbered.. The 1979 r e v i s e d s t a t u t e s ( w i t h t h e new numbers) t o o k e f f e c t May 17, 1980. . U n l e s s 1979 s t a t u t e s are s p e c i f i c a l l y referenced, this t h e s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y u s e s t h e f o r m e r numbers. An a t t e m p t has been made i n department names w h i c h were r a t h e r t h a n c u r r e n t names. 2  the in  thesis to use use at the time  government referenced,  2 lifestyles,  r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and s c e n i c b e a u t y . . The  g u i e t , r u r a l atmosphere o f t h e i s l a n d to  be  an  lower  asset  mainland  of  the islands,  and  southern  communities i s  considered  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e much o f t h e  Vancouver  Island  i s  highly  developed. A ^  large  subgroup  southward)  i s considered  much  that  so  International international  in  of  a  proposal  Commission  park.  i s l a n d s (from G a b r i o l a I s l a n d  t o be o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  1973  Joint  these  to  was make  importance,  put this  forth  by  area  into  so the an  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p a r k was t o be:  ... t o p r e s e r v e t h e e x i s t i n g a t t r a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i s l a n d a r c h i p e l a g o a s t r i d e t h e border including the preservation c f marine and land-based wildlife, archeological and historic resources, and the maintenance of water g u a l i t y standards. ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o i n t R o b e r t s B o a r d , 1973) As  over  immediately actually value  50%  adjacent made  of  B.C.'s  t o these  the  islands  population  islands, their  o f t h e i s l a n d s h a s been w i d e l y Demand f o r u s e o f t h e i s l a n d s  over  the  increase. Greater  last  two  decades.  The l a r g e c e n t e r s o f Vancouver  the  reality in  many  possibility  people  have  acknowledged.. has  dramatically  increased  S e v e r a l reasons account f o r t h i s population  nearby,  Greater  general  especially  affluence  has  o f v a c a t i o n i n g o r o w n i n g a summer home a Pressures  l a r g e r urban c e n t e r s have i n c r e a s e d , r e s u l t i n g of people  centers  home, t h e n a t u r a l a n d s c e n i c  f o r a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of people.  proportion  in  a n d V i c t o r i a , h a v e h a d h i g h i n m i g r a t i o n s and  natural population increases. made  and  lives  in  of l i v i n g a  greater  seeking r e c r e a t i o n outside the c i t i e s . .  3 The  demand  may • be  i s l a n d s , d e p e n d i n g on  beyond  the  the  specific  supply c a p a b i l i t y gualities  example,  i f t h e i s l a n d s were s u b d i v i d e d  satisfy  e v e r y o n e ' s d e s i r e f o r an i s l a n d  of t h e i s l a n d s  which  r u r a l atmosphere Some  areas  limits  interesting  o f t h e i s l a n d s may  to  the  particularly  number  with  of  of  seeking, would  such  they  can  r e s p e c t t o w a t e r s u p p l y and been  accommodate,  sewage  disposal,  experienced  residents  f e e l that  1)  i n harmony w i t h t h e i r  help a l l e v i a t e  such  in  some  While  problems,  the  t h e use o f some s u c h t e c h n o l o g i e s i s n o t  lifestyle,  and  2) t h e  higher  population  quiet  rural  atmosphere.  The  danger  The  task  seems  to  be  to  problem  of  qualities  does  not  which  destroy  distribute  the  p e o p l e v a l u e , and  very  While land  some for  demand thus  t h e a m e n i t i e s and Columbia, i n a  natural  and  social  a l s o t h a t i s e q u i t a b l e . _ The  e g u i t y problem confounds the o r i g i n a l f o l l o w i n g examples  as  on t h e s e i s l a n d s .  r e s o u r c e s of the i s l a n d s t o the people of B r i t i s h manner t h a t  high  of overdevelopment, has  been p e r c e i v e d a s a g e n u i n e p r o b l e m  their  with  v a l u e s of the i s l a n d s which t h e y wish t o p r o t e c t , such  pressure, with the r e s u l t i n g  1.  use many  w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e use o f t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i e s i n t e r f e r e s other  a  biophysical  P e n d e r , S a l t s p r i n g , and G a b r i o l a I s l a n d s ) .  o f v a r i o u s t e c h n o l o g i e s may  as  be d e s t r o y e d .  have a l r e a d y r e a c h e d  people  For  l o t , the very amenities  lifestyles,  ( e . g . w a t e r s h o r t a g e s have r e c e n t l y areas  demanded.  i n t o l o t s s o s m a l l as t o  people are g e n e r a l l y  and  of t h e  problem immensely,  as  the  illustrate:  l a n d o w n e r s may future  h a v e been r e l y i n g  income,  many  on  landowners  subdividing have  a t t r a c t e d t o the i s l a n d s because of t h e r u r a l atmosphere  been and  may  4 feel  uncomfortable  small  lots.  2.  Original  right of  i f t h e i r neighbour's  landowners  t o enjoy t h e i r  were t h e r e f i r s t  and  they expect  campground o r r e s c r t ) 3.. W h i l e large  p a r k s and  t h e i s l a n d s as o f t e n  during t h e i r campgrounds they  a s p e c t s o f community l i v i n g  which  The f e r r y  of  may h a v e  a  as  they  t o be accommodated i n some way ( e . g . by a  people,  4.  numbers  and as s u c h  into  property as i t stands; yet other r e s i d e n t s  B.C. may h a v e a r i g h t t o v i s i t  wish  land i s subdivided  service i s a lever  visit. are  useful  may  in  accommodating  d e t r a c t from  some  l o c a l r e s i d e n t s now which  could  be  social  enjoy.  operated  to  d i m i n i s h t h e number o f p e o p l e r e a c h i n g t h e i s l a n d s ; h o w e v e r , t h e ferry  service  highway system  to  the  islands  on w h i c h  is  an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p u b l i c  a l l B.C. r e s i d e n t s  have  a  right  to  travel. These  are  a  few  of  the  eguity  i s s u e s which  magnitude o f t h i s q u e s t i o n of a l l o c a t i n g of  the i s l a n d s In  the  i l l u s t r a t e the  limited  resources  equitably.  summary, i t h a s been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some c o n t r o l i n t h e  development  of  the  islands  i s i m p o r t a n t because u n c o n t r o l l e d  development l e a d s t o d e g r a d a t i o n of t h e r e s o u r c e s . . F o r example, in 11  a study of ... t h e  the  same  sub-division  accompanied  by  a  islands  rapid  that  some  kind  prevent environmental  found  that  decrease  in  [perceived  W h i l e t h e b e s t mechanisms o f e q u i t a b l e  d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e as yet undetermined, is  (1971)  o f l o t s t o s i z e s below t w o a c r e s may be  rather  environmental] guality."  Chambers  of l e g i s l a t i v e degradation.  the unavoidable conclusion intervention i s reguired to  5  The  provincial  government  has  attempted  i n n o v a t i o n s t o manage t h e s e i s l a n d s . were  unorganized  territory;  impetus  given  improvements  by  local  The  business i n t e r e s t s ,  chambers  of  were u s u a l l y t h e r e s u l t o f a p p e a l s f r o m  and  L a n d s , a n d t h e B.C. F e r r y A u t h o r i t y . p r o p e r t y owners had  development of t h e i r In  little  input  into  the  passed  The  G u l f and Howe Sound i s l a n d s  were  directly  districts..  (and  still  were  (and s t i l l  are)  represented  i s l a n d s o f G a l i a n o , Mayne, N o r t h with t h e i r  Saltspring  the  Board  Island  differed  districts,  the  types  among t h e i s l a n d s .  building  regulations  c a s e s sewage d i s p o s a l Department  of  the  province.  are) i n c l u d e d i n non-municipal,  members  elected  F o r example, t h e s o u t h e r n P e n d e r , and  Saturna,  of  Health,  and  Capital  responsibility  were  granted  Regional  assumed  refuse  disposal. to  water  be  f o r regional  individually  of s e r v i c e s which  Most  continued and  the  h a s i t s own d i r e c t o r on t h e same  a n d community h o s p i t a l s  regional  by  and S o u t h  Board. . Because f u n c t i o n s other than planning  of  smaller associated islands, are represented  by one e l e c t e d member on District.  Highways  direction  As t h e i s l a n d s were  frcm groups of the i s l a n d s .  together  as  legislation providing  the c r e a t i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s throughout  they  commercial  communities.  1 9 6 5 , t h e B.C. l e g i s l a t u r e  regional  public  Most i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s  for  seven  major  w i t h some  commerce;  lobby groups t c v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments such and  of  r e s i d e n t s r e c e i v e d v e r y few  planning authority.  f o r d e v e l o p m e n t came f r o m  leadership  series  P r i o r t o 1965, t h e i s l a n d s  their  l o c a l s e r v i c e s and h a d no l o c a l  a  to  were p r o v i d e d  responsibility  for  However, i n most  handled  by  s u p p l y by w a t e r  the  B.C.  improvement  6  d i s t r i c t s administered  by t h e P r o v i n c e .  the  are paid  regional districts  Services  provided  by  f o r by an a d d i t i o n a l l e v y on t h e  r e a l property t a x . The  regional d i s t r i c t structure  disadvantages Certain  created  b o t h a d v a n t a g e s and  f o r t h e i s l a n d s , as summarized by G l o v e r  benefits  were o b t a i n e d  through the p r o v i s i o n  services..  However, communication w i t h r e g i o n a l  were o f t e n  difficult  some  cases,  Chataway,  districts  involved  fostered  no  Regional  islands..  r e g i o n a l g o a l s a p p e a r e d t o be d i f f e r e n t f r o m  and  appears t h a t  of s p e c i f i c  b o a r d s and s t a f f  due t o t h e r e m o t e n e s s o f t h e  of i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s , e.g. w i t h (Glover  (1974).  with  respect  1973).. the  The  included  those  l o t sizes  number o f r e g i o n a l  of  planning  one r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t  District)  minimum  great  management  o v e r a l l coordinated only  to  In  the  Gulf  Islands  among t h e i s l a n d s ; i t  (the Greater  Vancouver  any o f t h e i s l a n d s i n i t s r e g i o n a l  plan. In t h e Pender  late  Island  cn  temporary generate  Affairs i n  further  measure community  enough  to  give  plans  The t e n - a c r e f r e e z e  the  of  on  North  1300 l o t s ) and on Mayne  concerned  to This  regional  impose was  a  "ten-acre  regarded  districts  as  time  a to  f o r e a c h o f t h e i s l a n d s , a l t h o u g h no to the  regional  was c o n s i d e r e d  t o motivate the r e g i o n a l  p l a n s . . The c o m m u n i t y p l a n s views  1969  subdivision.  o f f i c i a l d i r e c t i v e was i s s u e d effect.  with  subdivisions  wide p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , w h i c h p r o v o k e d t h e  of Municipal  freeze"  large-scale  (Magic Lake E s t a t e s ,  Island generated Minister  1960's,  to  this  t o be a move d r a s t i c  d i s t r i c t s t o g e n e r a t e community  would  residents  boards  supposedly  incorporate  and a c t a s a g u i d e l i n e  the  f o r more  7 controlled  development of  community  plans  coming e i t h e r  the  occurred  from  the  islands.  on  some  regional  islands, board  residents  themselves*  However, t h i s  September,  1972  B.C.  four  island  when t h e plans  g e n e r a t e d and  and  New  the  of  not  fact that province  is  made  However, r a t h e r be  allowed  observations  recommendation are islands  interests: earn  islands.  that  that  community  regional development  the plans  regional and  opportunity  institution  zoning  i s l a n d s t o meet  than suggesting  the  This  political  the  managing t h e  to  call  that  t o do  the  so,  the  the  Islands  formed.  The  The  been  legislature  been s t r o n g  possible the  C o m m i t t e e recommended t h a t a new  1.  the  h a v e more s u c c e s s f u l l y managed t h e  districts  be  had  suggesting  It  having  public satisfaction.  Trust  there  been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  Islands*  once  p a r t i e s of  of f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e  the  had Gulf  regional  b y l a w s had  Matters  the  bylaws, could  than  S e l e c t S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l  from  districts,  zoning  more  by  power,  guesticn  of  the  assumed  examine the  districts  from  a s l o w p r o c e s s and  Democratic Party  members o f a l l f o u r  pressure  or  impetus  approved.  r e q u e s t e d the  evidence  generate  the  government changed, not  composed o f  is  to  with  member  was  corresponding  Immediately a f t e r the it  Efforts  their  a)  living  and/or v i s i t o r s ; corporate  and  c)  the  Committee  s u m m a r i z e d as  have  local  of  the  of  the  r e s i d e n t s , many r e t i r e d b)  d)  to  following and  this  usually  special  many who  l a r g e numbers of summer  large landowners,  foreign;  led  follows:  problem  locally;  which  have  to  residents  absentee,  often  a l a r g e r p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t of  the  8 general  p u b l i c ; e)  l a n d d e v e l o p e r s and  speculators;  f)  Taxation  the  priority  T r e e Farm h o l d e r s . . 2.  Large  subdivisions  and  over-development  are  concern.. 3.  T h e r e i s a need f o r i n c r e a s e d ,  4.  Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the  determining it  the  extent  on 5.  pedestrian There  and  been  the  a  lack  the  province  6.  E m p h a s i s f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t on  placed  on  Waste and  other  major The  district  islands.  As  in such  on  the  of  islands be  placed  accordingly., coordination  d e p a r t m e n t s and  and  between  the  islands and  should  be  preservation  atmosphere. g a r b a g e d i s p o s a l and  s h o r t a g e of p o t a b l e  water  are  concerns.  possibility had  factor  districts.  of  forming the  been c o n s i d e r e d  d i s a d v a n t a g e s of t h i s n o t i o n 1.  of  r e c r e a t i o n , moderate r e s i d e n t i a l use,  of the r u r a l 7..  regional  key  which are o u t s i d e  i s l a n d s planned  serious  space.  emphasis should  communication between v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l and  a  Transportation  in t h i s respect  t r a n s i t , and  has  is  coordination,  jurisdiction.  i s also important,  islands  public  o f f u t u r e g r o w t h on t h e  n e e d s c a r e f u l c o n t r o l and  regional d i s t r i c t  supervised  by  the  i s l a n d s i n t o one Committee..  were, i n G l o v e r ' s  regional  However,  words:  The a v a i l a b l e powers w o u l d s t i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h o s e o u t l i n e d i n the M u n i c i p a l Act unless amendments were made t o increase t h e powers o f a l l r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s (which from t h e p r o v i n c i a l v i e w p o i n t is likely to be p o l i t i c a l l y undesirable).  2..The r e g i o n a l t a x base would be i n a d e q u a t e i n p r o v i d i n g any f u n c t i o n s o v e r and above r u d i m e n t a r y s e r v i c e s . I f a subsidy was provided to the Gulf Islands Regional District the problem o f e q u i t y would be r a i s e d by t h e other r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s .  the  9 3.  The t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y w o u l d be l i m i t e d to s t a f f and t h e T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee..  regional  4. C o - o r d i n a t i o n with p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s would not improve over t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . 5.  P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s would n o t be d i r e c t l y  likely  represented.  6..Some s e r v i c e s s u c h as h o s p i t a l s and a m b u l e n c e services could n o t be e f f i c i e n t l y provided by a G u l f I s l a n d s E e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t due t o e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . . 7. I t a p p e a r s t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more t i m e would be r e g u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a new r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t t h a n t o e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i a l purpose Trust Commission. Time i s a n important factor due t o t h e t e m p o r a r y nature of the t e n acre freeze and t h e i n c r e a s i n g demand for lots on t h e islands. ( G l o v e r , 1974, pp.34-35) Thus,  i n 1974, t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t  o f t h e B.C. l e g i s l a t u r e .  was e s t a b l i s h e d by an a c t  The mandate o f t h e I s l a n d s  Trust  has  been: ... t o preserve and p r o t e c t , i n c o o p e r a t i o n with m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e Government o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e trust a r e a a n d i t s u n i g u e a m e n i t i e s and e n v i r o n m e n t f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s of t h e t r u s t area and o f the P r o v i n c e g e n e r a l l y . ( S e c t i o n 3[ 1 ], I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , 1974) Six  years  have  now  lapsed  since  f o r m e d , and no a n a l y s i s h a s been made o f this  institution  promoting through  in  preservation the  experiment.  Given  T r u s t i s an a m b i t i o u s to  of  institution  Canada; i n t h i s r e s p e c t  continue  fulfilling natural  of  effectiveness  and  social  was of  Legislation environments  a t r u s t i s not found elsewhere i n  the  original  one, and t h a t  f e e l . an i n c r e a s e d  common n a t u r a l a n d s o c i a l  the  i t s mandate..  t h e Islands Trust  that  the Islands Trust  c a n be  viewed  as  an  mandate o f t h e I s l a n d s  industrialized  society  will  need f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f i t s l e s s  environments, i t w i l l  know t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s met by t h e I s l a n d s  be  valuable  Trust..  to  10  The  I s l a n d s T r u s t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  additional was  reasons.  to allow l o c a l  island  One  of t h e  residents  development..  o b j e c t of study  major i n t e n t s behind  greater  input  I t appears t h a t the  with  for  the  two  Trust  respect  to  Trust c o n s t i t u t e s the  h i g h e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n per c a p i t a i n a l l o f C a n a d a , has  several  powers  several  of  other  local  governments,  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . appears  that  the  previous  it  will  be  interesting  to  of  indeed  see  has  In these  distribution  somewhat d e c e n t r a l i z e d . . I f power has  also  respects, i t  power  has  been  been d e c e n t r a l i z e d ,  the  results  of  such  decentralization. A third major  reason  role  of  t h e T r u s t has  a f f e c t i n g resource Many  other  body t o  and  the  objectives  T r u s t has  The 1..  to  that  a  agencies  the  islands.  management.  a b o v e , and  then  i t may  serve  as  in  ether  areas. be  a  the  fulfilling  implicit intent  model  for  I f , however, the  meeting Islands  u s e f u l t o understand  so t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the  the  s t r u c t u r e can  be  e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t and  the  t o b e t t e r meet s o c i e t y ' s g o a l s . o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s determine  total institutional Islands  is  other  of  been s u c c e s s f u l l y  been u n s u c c e s s f u l , i t w i l l  reasons f o r f a i l u r e , modified  management  p l a n n i n g and  I s l a n d s T r u s t has  legislation,  similar  Trust  r e g i o n s have d e m o n s t r a t e d a need f o r a c o o r d i n a t i n g  mandate o f s e c t i o n 3(1)  explicit  Islands  been t o c o o r d i n a t e  settlement  integrate resource  If  of t h e  f o r s t u d y i n g the  Trust  Act,  the  study  s y s t e m have and  are:  fulfilled  the  intent  of  the  11 2.. this  to  attempt  to understand  degree of s u c c e s s ,  have o p e r a t e d  the  way  why t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t has  i . e . why  they  have.  the  decision-making  achieved systems  12 Chapter I I  METHODOLOGY  The Trust The  problem of d e t e r m i n i n g  i sfulfilling first  i t s mandate  i s t o understand  t h e extent t o which t h e I s l a n d s poses  two  the explicit  t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t . The s e c o n d i s e x a m i n i n g how w e l l t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t To  t r y to  understand  and i m p l i c i t  to  t h e P r o v i n c e , and b u r e a u c r a t s )  has,  some g e n e r a l t h e o r y  this  (comprised  intent of way  has o p e r a t e d  of  intent. of people  of t h e I s l a n d s  Trust  t h e way t h a t i t  i s reguired.  Grasping, the__Intent o f t h e _ I s l a n d s T r u s t Act To a s s i s t i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i n t e n t o f  legislation,  two  basic  perspective.  made o f t h e h i s t o r y o f r e s o u r c e islands  prior  to  e v o l u t i o n o f t h e Trust completed t h i s i s addressed  intent  of t h e T r u s t .  sources  which i n d i c a t e i n t e n t :  the  Municipal  1973  report  Matters,  of  An  sets the was  management on t h e  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e  more  the Select  Trust  examination  historical  An e x a m i n a t i o n  Islands  The f i r s t  and s e t t l e m e n t  the Islands Trust.  The s e c o n d s t u d y  the  s t u d i e s were made.  Islands Trust i n a h i s t o r i c a l  1.  tasks.  some  has s a t i s f i e d  with i n t e r e s t s i n the i s l a n d s , p o l i t i c i a n s  A.  devise  why t h e s y s t e m  and  fundamental  view.  specifically  t o the  was made o f t h r e e  separate  Standing  Committee  on  13  2.  t h e Hansard debates  3.  the Islands Trust P o l i c y  These  provided  the  (1973 - 1 9 7 9 ) , a n d S t a t e m e n t o f 1975..  b a c k g r o u n d f r o m w h i c h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  t h e i n t e n t o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t was drawn. The simply  historical l a y the  and l e g a l s t u d i e s and t h e  foundation  •  two  m a j o r p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t h e i s l a n d s c a n be s e p a r a t e d  c a t e g o r i e s : 1) i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o r e s o u r c e s and t h e  problems  of  issues  people.  (e.g. t h e  issues  matter  pertaining  classification A  2)  and  accommodation  was  Islands Trust  i  environment,  to  intent  i t s mandate..  A Scheme t o , E s t i m a t e _ _ t h e _ S u c c e s s _ o f _ t h e The  of  f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e e x t e n t t o  which t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t has f u l f i l l e d  B  study  to  For  each o f t h e t h r e e  data  describing  agencies. processes i n these more c a s e  social  of l i f e s t y l e s ) resources  the  or  s e t t l e m e n t and  community-related  c a n u s u a l l y be t r a c e d  or  settlement.  This  f o r convenience.  the  f o r evaluating the Trust's  p r o b l e m a r e a s , an e x a m i n a t i o n problem,  legislation  and what t h e T r u s t h a s done  problem s i n c e  to  natural  o f t h r e e major problems f a c i n g t h e t r u s t  made t o p r o v i d e c o n t e n t  involved  Even  was t h e r e f o r e a d o p t e d  selection  problem,  relating  inception.  interaction Therefore,  cf to  In  the Trust  of decision-making, processes,  area  success.  was made o f  pertaining  (or t r i e d  a l l three  better  into  to the  t o do) a b o u t t h e  areas,  the  problem  w i t h one o r more g o v e r n m e n t understand  the  and s p e c i f i c a l l y  i t was u s e f u l t o  closely  s t u d i e s f o r each problem.. F i n a l l y ,  respective  the Trust's consider  one  role or  t h e performance o f  14  the  Trust  was  Act,  subject  to  through the The 2)  evaluated against constraints  case  three problems s e l e c t e d and  settlement,  and  relates  both.  to  3)  forestry  the  to  of  problem  could  of  or  omitted.  "recreation",  but  or  with  a r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e on  the  physical  or  three  are  entire  "how  to  left  A third management.  for future a r e a not While  be  islands  be  water water  called  off-islanders  islands."  damaging This i s a  marinas,  maintenance  on  Since  covered.  without  as  a  name  public of  an  but  a  t h i s subject.  This  researchers.  specifically the  affects  can  people—to  written  affected  the  was  provide  and  most  that  too,  islands  topics  problems  activity..  the  accommodation,  thesis could  why  which i s l a r g e l y  logging,  environment which c o n t i n u e s to a t t r a c t  a r e a was  critical  felt  s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t of t h e  overnight  An  to explain  Logging a l s o  the  very broad a r e a , encompassing such parks,  to  these  building  Another major problem f a c i n g "tourism",  relates  chosen.  and  watershed p r o t e c t i o n  lands,  s e l e c t i o n of  f o r s t u d y , i t was be  Crown  land  watershed p r o t e c t i o n  selected  itself  s u p p l y and  revealed  Crown  f i r s t i t i s desirable  subdivision  was  Trust  resources,  i s l a n d s . . However, t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e  subdivision  few..  were: 1)  number o f p e o p l e demanding w a t e r u s e ,  function  or  While s u b d i v i s i o n  relates  o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s were n o t  several  Islands  legislation  for study  Justification  Water s u p p l y and  by  by  forestry.  problems i s n e c e s s a r y , but  on  set  i n t e n t of the  studies.  subdivision,  a few  the  problem  addressed is  was  certainly  coastal important,  zone i t  15  r e l a t e s c l o s e l y to the which was  was  management o f t h e  p a r t l y covered  hoped t h a t t h e c h a p t e r  to those  working  It  on Crown l a n d s  use  forced  property island of  off  to earn  people  It  the  be  simply  because  reserved  price  of  examined.  The  but  Taxation  w h i c h has  matter,  and  a l l e v i a t e the Finally, this B.C.  addressed  the  there who  afford  role  varieties for  the  current  of  to  lower  pay  the the  other a l t e r n a t i v e s ?  subdivision  formed  study  The  or s h o u l d  and  of t a x a t i o n i s n o t has  their  taxes.  form  first,  can  i n the  developing  is  Corporation  has  incomes)  problem; should  there--or are there  the  cases,  to "enclaves  (e.g. i n  were  while f e r r i e s are a  i n the southern Highways  their  land  a  specifically Committee  of l e g i s l a t i o n  some c o n c e p t s  Crown  on  w h i c h aim t o  on the help  situation.  problem Ferry  breaks"  made an e x t e n s i v e now  lower  income-brackets  Trust Council i t s e l f  is  many  s l o w l y changing from d i v e r s e  they  living  chapters,  to  f o r only those  This problem i s p a r t l y land  in  t h a t as  or are f o r c e d to s u b d i v i d e  variable in this  i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s "get the  high  some  t h e e f f e c t o f t a x a t i o n on  of major concern  e x t r a i n c o m e and  o f a l l a g e s and  i s l a n d s be  is  islands  E g u i t y i s a key  taxes)  of  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i d e n t s on s u b s i s t e n c e  c o m m u n i t i e s may  rich."  would be  on t h e i s l a n d s , t a x e s i n c r e a s e , and  island residents are  beyond,  on c o a s t a l zone management.  property-owners.  prices rise  and  i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of Crown lands..  A f o u r t h p r o b l e m n o t e x a m i n e d was island  foreshore  relatively  the  to  island  straightforward  o b v i o u s l y has  a r e a , and control  key  development, in  that  c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l of  Ministry  i n the n o r t h e r n  of area.  ferries  Transportation I t was  the  hoped  and that  16 the  relationships  agencies,  between  as r e v e a l e d  the  through  justification  guite apparent, Subdivision  of the three  the  priority  C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s T r u s t ; a major i n t e n t control  in  potential  on a few  completely  this  Logging can  matter.  of the  three  Data f o r the Islands  interviews agencies,  As  two  agencies.  problem a r e a s offered  may  in  the  Crown,  would  is  i t  owned  most  the  trust  theory,  or  readily area.  e n v i r o n m e n t , d e p e n d i n g on how  i s probably  apparent,  there  is  and  overlap  files  (which  politicians  and  p r o b l e m s were o b t a i n e d were c o m p l e t e l y  at v a r i o u s I s l a n d s T r u s t  to explain  the  t r u s t area.  inferences.  The  theory  may  FuSgtions  actions  This theory, l i k e and  various  meetings.  v a r i o u s p l a y e r s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g the  from  accessible) ,  p u b l i c s e r v a n t s from  i s b a s e d on a s e t o f a s s u m p t i o n s ,  predictions  thus  o f t h e i s l a n d e c o n o m i e s , and i t  theory i s developed  to  some  and  J  respect  the  considerable  C. . A Theo.rY_.tg, EgBlain.•ffQW_J^§ : D g c i s i o n - M a k i n q . S y s t e m  with  Standing  i s the  in  be  case.  provide  offers  i t  speaking)  mainstays  attendance  i n t e r a c t i o n s of  now  any  of the S e l e c t  land  since  study of the t h r e e  w i t h key  A general  light  problems.  Trust  and  c o u l d s h e d some  Trust  Crown  s e v e r e l y a f f e c t the i s l a n d  among t h e s e  the  {institutionally  i s one  provincial  w h i c h recommended i n s t i t u t i n g  that  by  be  other  these  concern  i s l a n d s , and  where i t i s done.  the  was  controlled  malleable land  T r u s t and  a g u i c k summary w i l l  was  and  this thesis,  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e While  Trust  and  processes any  other  leads to a set be  of  appropriate i n  17  certain  a p p l i c a t i o n s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n o t h e r s ; on  h a n d , i t may be t o t a l l y be  found  be  found  may  w h i c h t h e t h e o r y seems t o e x p l a i n w e l l , a n d o t h e r s  may  alternatively,  the  which t h e However,  does  not  explain  at a l l ;  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s not t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  general Trust to  theory  i t may be t h a t t h e t h e o r y e x p l a i n s n o t h i n g .  The e x p r e s s test  the  Therefore, certain  other  phenomena  which  wrong.  the  theory; is  the  rather  fulfilling  extent  i t i s to find  the  intent  that the theory  of  the extent t c i t s mandate.  i s a p p l i c a b l e , i t may  h e l p e x p l a i n why t h e p r o v i s i o n s y s t e m i s f u n c t i o n i n g t h e way does, failure  i.e..why found  the T r u s t has a c h i e v e d  by t h i s  thesis.  t h e degree o f s u c c e s s  i t or  18 Chapter I I I  HISTORICAL  PERSPECTIVE  OF THE ISLANDS  The b r o a d p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r  TRUST  and t h e c h a p t e r  following  i s t o d e v e l o p a n o t i o n of the i n t e n t o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t . chapter  develops the l e g a l  Trust,  as  a  setting  and  for  the  specifically  addresses i n t e n t .  setting  resource  of  of the T r u s t , a b r i e f  Act  how  trust  A.  i t evolved,  chapter  I t includes  with  inception  background  following  management,  management i n t h e t r u s t a r e a  and  historical  the  a  history  the  events  of  the  which more  general of  This  legal  environmental  leading  to  d e s c r i p t i o n of the Islands  the Trust  and t h e r o l e o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n i n t h e  area.  Ju?i§ d i e t i o n a l  and  Lecjal  Framework  of  Environmental  Management i n Canada There resource The  main  routes  t h r o u g h which c o n t r o l o f a  discussion  whole  (either or  government.  references  be  vested  from t h e Crown t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r  For  the  ownership  first  of  this  ownership  P r o v i n c i a l o r F e d e r a l Crown, as i n t e n d e d  in  the  Eddy  and  of  private  or a  discussion  to  implications  refer  part  with  be a l i e n a t e d  only  paper;  to  may  P r o v i n c i a l o r F e d e r a l ) , o r i t may  i n part  authority.  draws h e a v i l y f r o m Thompson and Eddy  I n Canada o w n e r s h i p of a r e s o u r c e  t h e Crown  local  two  c a n be e x e r c i s e d : o w n e r s h i p and l e g i s l a t i v e  following  (1973).  in  exist  by  the  Thompson  and  local  government  19  ownership are  discussed immediately  Ownership i s a r e s u l t Canada. the  of  following.  the  constitutional  I n g e n e r a l , t h e p r o v i n c e s own  f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t owns n o r t h e r n At  the  federal the  time  of  or p r o v i n c i a l  Strait  writing,  B.C..Crown  owns  at  foreshore  appeal of  to  of the  jurisdiction regional the  Supreme C o u r t  over  ferries.  Strait;  the  jurisdiction  centre  case  of Canada.  of  Appeal  waters"  i s now  and  enrolled for  A decision  in  favour  a f f e c t s u c h t h i n g s as t h e  l e a s e water i n the t r u s t  power  area,  and  Currently several municipalities  Trust  the  the  of  have  w a t e r , and may  Strait.  lease  they  can  extending  Some  the  seabed  political thus  have p o l i t i c a l  have  and  i s more f u l l y is  found  be  able  discussed tc  be  to  zone t h i s  A l l this cwned.  ownership  covering a l l  the  zone a l l t h i s  federally  feet  c o a s t a l area.  boundaries  later.)  acguired  t o 1000  and  s e a b e d between V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and  therefore  the S t r a i t  of  through  of t h i s  Islands  might  territory.  each  Therefore,  question  federal  and  by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s a b u t  seaward.  if  The  the  into  rights  and  is  the  out  ownership  w a t e r and  mark;  l a n d between h i g h  d i s t r i c t s have p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s  other along  The  Columbia..  t o zone and  water  the over  sea c o a s t ,  comprises " i n l a n d  f e d e r a l government w i l l province  whether  the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t  of Georgia  British  with the  the  1976,  Strait  resources.  jurisdiction  low  ( i . e . the  a  in  has  the  In  belongs  offshore  I n most p l a c e s a l o n g t h e  water mark), while f u r t h e r o f f s h o r e  t h a t the  and  i s not c e r t a i n  low  ruled  p r o v i n c i a l resources,  and  i t  terminates  the  reference  of  g o v e r n m e n t owns and  of Georgia.  p r o v i n c i a l boundary  history  mainland,  water.  (This  could  change  Until  that  20 d e c i s i o n that bed  i s  the and  made,  P r o v i n c e water  of  Act  the  make  with  This  any  "matter  C a p i t a l  a  which  management  i n c l u d e  t r a d e  and  and  l a n d s  and  or  r e g a r d i n g  have  f o r  thereon  of  92 d e a l  broad  of  been  u n t i l  Act  f i r s t  i s  now) the  which  and  (s.91[24]),  which  extend  p r o v i n c e s i s  shared  used  of  d e a l  N a t i o n a l  the  f e d e r a l  r e g u l a t i o n and  and  of  s h i p p i n g  (s.91[12J),  I n d i a n s  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  beyond  the  ( s . 9 2 [ 10 ] £ a ]) . j o i n t l y  to  of  environmental  (s.91[1Aj),  f i s h e r i e s  a u t h o r i t y  government  a f f e c t  n a v i g a t i o n  i n l a n d  a f f e c t  v . . T h e  powers  BNA  f e d e r a l  may  be  Munro  s i g n i f i c a n t l y property  good  could  Other  663.  the  which  and  powers the  l e g i s l a t i v e  order  power  through  gives  powers  c o n c e r n " :  SCE  d i v i s i o n  governments  BNA  peace,  l i n e s  ENA  with  b e l o n g i n g  to  (s.92[5]),  f e d e r a l  the  powers  undertakings  under  the  Indians  two  has  between  l i m i t s  of  a  J u r i s d i c t i o n the  f e d e r a l  and  governments.  e x c l u s i v e  lands  and  to  r e s u l t  (s.91[2]),  a g r i c u l t u r e  S e c t i o n powers  the  p u b l i c  connect  p r o v i n c i a l  of  The  (1966)  communication  p r o v i n c e  the  a  of  coast  reserved  over  91  may  sea  j u r i s d i c t i o n  p r o v i n c i a l  commerce  (s.91[10j),  has  n a t i o n a l  Commission  government  Columbia  and  very  of  i t  l e g i s l a t i v e  for i s  (as  i s  management.  laws  assumed  S t r a i t .  a u t h o r i t y  s e v e r a l  environmental  be  B r i t i s h  Section  government  Canada."  of  f e d e r a l  (1867)..  "to  w i l l  Georgia  L e g i s l a t i v e between  i t  Act  awards  e n v i r o n m e n t a l over  the  the  province  m u n i c i p a l  other c o n t r o l  than  the  management.  management and  i n s t i t u t i o n s those  p r o v i n c e s  and of  property  of  p u b l i c and  l o c a l  designated and  wide  p r o v i n c e s  timber  (s.92[8]),  s p e c i f i c a l l y  (s.92[10]),  The s a l e  the  very  c i v i l  wood works  to  be  r i g h t s  21 within the province merely  local  or p r i v a t e nature  the terms of these interpreted  (s..92[ 13 ]) , and g e n e r a l l y a l l m a t t e r s  statements  provincial  i n the province  are very  broad,  of  (s.92£16]).  the  courts  powers v e r y b r o a d l y , e n a b l i n g  a As  have  provincial  l e g i s l a t u r e s t o deal with a vast array o f environmental  problems  ( I n c e , 1 976) . Where  both  authority  ownership  coincide  in  and  one  a l l aspects  government,  that  e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y t o manage t h e r e s o u r c e . more  often  the case,  t h e two mechanisms  the  resource.  legislative  government  But  where,  as  has i s  of c o n t r o l are d i v i d e d  between governments, n e i t h e r government has over  of  unilateral  This i s usually the result  control  of overlaps i n  legislative authority. The s e n s e i n w h i c h l e g i s l a t i v e to  exercise jurisdiction  can  more i n d i r e c t l y  resource  through  rights to utilize production the  or  over  a resource  (but e g u a l l y the  power e n a b l e s  exercise  the resource.  as of  a  government  i s obvious.  Ownership  effectively)  Thus,  resource.  the  Where  power  to  control  generally l i e s a  government  ownership j u r i s d i c t i o n , i t has a " g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y greater Eddy,  opportunity  1973, p.76) t h a n  t c provide  the  c o n d i t i o n s on t h e s a l e s o f  conservation of the resource  government owning t h e  affect  s o u n d management"  i t does where t h e r e s o u r c e  with has  and [a]  (Thompson and i s  privately  owned. One allocate and  of  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f government o w n e r s h i p i s t o  t h e management a n d use o f t h e r e s o u r c e  private  sectors*  between  public  I f t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s t o be i n v o l v e d ,  22 important to:  1)  decisions  the  made by  the  mechanism t o a l l o c a t e t h e  entrepreneurs, The  must be  and  conditions  particularly  2)  of  the the  resource  conditions  of  transfers  i m p o r t a n t as  they  government w i t h  respect  between c o m p e t i n g  transferring  (e.g.  provide  sales the  or  rights.  leases)  base  for  are  future  management s t r a t e g i e s . As  previously  alienated  from the  bodies,  local  mainly  through  mechanisms  Crown  abrogate  depending although  on  by  Federal)  Crown  sales,  and  transferred.  to  agencies..  leases.  Both p a r t i e s  to  pass  regulatory  private occurs  of  these  Crown  whether  the  expropriation  with  new  without  legislation  without  legally  jurisdiction  legislation  or  clearly  are  a f f e c t r i g h t s so a l i e n a t e d .  the  be  This  Each  government h a v i n g l e g i s l a t i v e  o r i n some way  be e x p r o p r i a t e d  and  or  may  some k i n d o f c o n v e y a n c e w h i c h g u i t e  However, t h e power  r i g h t s to r e s o u r c e s  (Provincial  grants,  r i g h t s being  r e t a i n s the  various  governments,  involves  s t a t e s the bound.  noted,  which  may  Sights  may  compensation,  awards c o m p e n s a t i o n ,  compensation  is  extremely  uncommon. Herein  lies  the  difference  p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , and government)  relationship,  legislative  jurisdiction.  unilaterally vice  versa)  occur i n  the  with The  through  legislative  well-defined  government  expropriating  require  agreement of  land both  a)  the  C r o w n - p r i v a t e body  respect  to  federal  remove o w n e r s h i p r i g h t s  specific  the  b)  between  from  (or  local  ownership  and  government the  f o r an parties  such  as  airport. to  a  cannot  provinces  jurisdiction; cases,  federal-  t h i s can the Broader  new  (nor  or  only  federal issues amended  23 constitution. .  (Admittedly,  between t h e " s p e c i f i c constitutional as  to  the  purposes"  and  r e f o r m " , i n which  legality  having l e g i s l a t i v e  exists  a  large  grey  "general  areas  requiring  jurisdiction  However, a g o v e r n m e n t  c a n remove o w n e r s h i p  Thus, w h i l e ownership  f e d e r a l government i s c a p a b l e of f r u s t r a t i n g  jurisdiction sector  of t h e o t h e r government, ownership  or l o c a l  granted  by  rights  by a  federal  or  provincial  from  provincial  the l e g i s l a t i v e by  the  private  g o v e r n m e n t does n o t p o s e s u c h a p r o b l e m ;  the  area  t h e r e may be c o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t  cf expropriation.)  p a r t i e s t o a conveyance. or  there  governments  rights  can  be  withdrawn. One with  f u r t h e r note  respect  to  must be made r e g a r d i n g powers o f t h e Crown  resource  management.. I n c e  (1976,  pp.35-37),  describes the s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s :  The a c t i v i t i e s o f g o v e r n m e n t s a n d t h e i r agencies are o f t e n a major s o u r c e o f harm t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . Yet b e c a u s e of the s p e c i a l legal position of "the Crown", governments a r e many t i m e s able t o ignore l e g i s l a t i o n , which t h e government itself has created, d e s i g n e d t o combat e n v i r o n m e n t a l a b u s e . . A l o n g s t a n d i n g r u l e o f t h e common l a w i s t h a t t h e Crown i s n o t bound by s t a t u t e e x c e p t by e x p r e s s words o r necessary i m p l i c a t i o n . T h i s r u l e has been adopted at the federal l e v e l . . .... T h i s means t h a t most f e d e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a w s c a n n o t be used a g a i n s t t h e Crown: t h e Crown and i t s a g e n c i e s c a n a c t w i t h o u t f e a r o f v i o l a t i n g such statutes. However, a number of federal environmental statutes expressly b i n d t h e Crown, £e.g.] s e c t i o n 7 1 o f t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s a b o l i s h e d t h e common l a w r u l e of Crown immunity from statutes. S e c t i o n 13 o f t h e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Act s t a t e s : Unless an e n a c t m e n t otherwise specifically provides every A c t , a n d e v e r y e n a c t m e n t made t h . e r e u n d e r , i s b i n d i n g on H e r M a j e s t y .  24 T h u s , i n B.C. t h e Crown w i l l be bound by provincial environmental statutes unless specifically exempted. ... H o w e v e r , s e c t i o n 44 o f the Laws D e c l a r a t o r y Act s e r v e s t o exempt t h e Crown f r o m any s t a t u t e d e a l i n g w i t h the use or development of land (my emphasis) . F u r t h e r m o r e , p r o v i n c i a l Crown C o r p o r a t i o n s — s u c h as the B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y — o f t e n have in their incorporating statutes provisions exempting the C o r p o r a t i o n frcm p r o v i n c i a l law. It should be noted that although an Act may e x p r e s s l y a p p l y t o the Crown, t h e c o u r t s have been very reluctant to apply the penal p r o v i s i o n s of the Act a g a i n s t t h e Crown. Therefore, specific  d e p e n d i n g on t h e p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l  legislation  environmental  a g e n t s o f t h e Crown be  H i s t o r y o f E e s o u r c e and  Prior to_the Within  trust  Province of B r i t i s h  Exceptions  over  l a n d use immune  Settlement  area,  the  federal  The acquired  Columbia public  most  lands  p r o p e r t y , such  jurisdictional  or p r o v i n c i a l  may  p.37).  Act  under  the  (1867) awards  ownership and  the  and  tracts  a s l i g h t h o u s e s and areas  legislative  resources  small  listed  the  therein.  of  federal  post  offices,  above. airfields  There are  is  under  jurisdiction.  p r o v i n c e s have  Columbia, c e r t a i n called  So a l s o  ( I n c e , 1976,  c u r r e n t l y much c o n f u s i o n a s t o w h e t h e r l o c a l federal  laws..  Crown i s ,  Management_of t h e . I s l a n d s  BNA  i n the t r u s t area i n v o l v e  p u b l i c w o r k s and and  may  Islands Trust the  jurisdiction  Crown  l a w s , as t h e B.C.  f o r e x a m p l e , w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s own  B.  and  p e r t a i n i n g t o t h a t problem, the  be exempt f r o m i t s own  s e r v a n t s and  problem  ENA  delegated  Act to l o c a l  powers a r e  municipalities,  a  such  delegated as  number  of  their  governments. to  cities,  powers  In  incorporated t o w n s , and  British areas  villages.  25 under  the  Municipal  incorporated Saltspring  areas  Act. within  I s l a n d i s now  Certain  There the  are  trust  not  yet  any  area, although  such  Ganges  considering incorporation.  s e r v i c e s such  as water s u p p l y , f i r e  p r o t e c t i o n , and  power s u p p l y h a v e been p r o v i d e d w i t h i n t h e t r u s t  area  users'  districts,  communities,  specified  areas.  incorporated which the the  general prior  governments  government.  However, r e s o u r c e relating  to  administered  by  on t h e p e o p l e respect  regional  w i t h i n the  political  by  or  some  and  the  districts  delegated  within  the  such  planning  i f  British  the  plan  of  the and  institutions. as  continued  those to  be  T h i s i s so e v e n t h o u g h  the  h a v e had  critical  center  effects  (e.g.  with  Only a minute p r o p o r t i o n government.  development  Columbia  throughout  local  as z o n i n g  local  population  local of  to  boundaries  agriculture,  d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e t r u s t a r e a , was 1965,  in  the s e r v i c e s  m u n i c i p a l i t y , such  m u n i c i p a l i t y may  any  are not cases  s e t t l e m e n t i s s u e s such  p r o v i n c i a l agencies.  had  been  i n c l u d e d t h e power t o  t o e m p l o y m e n t or r e c r e a t i o n ) .  administration  In  powers  i s s u e s o u t s i d e the  living  of t h e p r o v i n c e  including  the  were h a n d l e d  r e s o u r c e s o u t s i d e the  and  provided.  t c 1965,  forestry  water  have  not formed themselves,  Thus,  subdivision control  by  powers o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ;  ( i . e . to municipalities)  r e g u l a t e l a n d use  local  organizations  n o t . . However, t h e s e  delegated  n o t have b e e n  improvement  these  o r g a n i z a t i o n s had  would s i m p l y  and  of  others  p r o v i n c e has  local  In  utilities,  Some  and  on  of t h e  very  province,  centralized.  government province._  Therefore,  The  instituted following  26 r e a s o n s h a v e been p u t 1.  L e s s t h a n one  organized  per  government  province  too  small  2.  Ineguities  area to  to deal  indicating  1965.  use  on  vast  the b a s i s  250,000  B.C.  in  than  as  territory  people  taxes  was  in  number)  had  their  MLA  and  the  large  the no  and  felt  (Tindal,  then  within  living  the  to  be  1977).  moved i n t o t h e  and  with respect  unorganized  demanded  municipal  tc hospitals.  uncontrolled  sprawl  were  evident,  planning.  government  (Tennant,  British  of  People  closer  the  municipal  provincial  Victoria  in  a need f o r r e g i o n a l  governments  on  with  land  area  P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  particularly  Poor  The  the  (about  resulted  avoid  services,  of  representation  P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet.  4.  cent  municipalities  r e m a i n d e r of t h e  3.  forth:  wished  urban c e n t e r s  to  impose  of Greater  metropolitan Vancouver  and  1973)..  C o l u m b i a was  p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o 28 r e g i o n a l  of i n f o r m a l e c o n o m i c  regions  or  districts  'trading  areas'  (Tennant, 1 973). E x c e p t f o r two not  initially  mandatory f u n c t i o n s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  delegated  explicit  powers.  Rather, they  o f f e r e d a "smorgasboard" of f u n c t i o n s ; t h e y c o u l d wide  range  of  offerings.  regional planning, hospitals. .  Other  municipalities preparation establishment by  the  and  of  functions  settlement  Crown t o be  two  parks, used  available  unorganized plans, holding for  planning  supply and  were  s e l e c t from  mandatory f u n c t i o n s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  (i.e. in  of  The-  were  of  for  a  were  community  use  territory)  outside include:  of w a t e r , waste r e m o v a l ,  management o f  recreation,  lands  regulation  granted of  tree  27 cutting  outside  establishment administered Technical  Tree  local  Planning  establishment  of  establishment  and  issues.  reguires  that  patent  planning regions  Advisory  Planning  the  imposing  some  on  the  the  corporation  land,  constituted  a b o u t 15%  and  in land  being  land  use  on  few  Crown  land;  B.C.  management p l a n s  method  the  Victoria,  Imposition"  by T e n n a n t  of  the  Crown l a n d the  trust  in  Taxation  the  any)  responsible for  Forest  Service  f o r timbered  was  lands  (which  has  been  (1973).. area  land  constituted  Tree  Farms  (which  t r u s t a r e a ) , the  seven  were r e s p o n s i b l e  to  the  settlement, to  use  alienation  Taxation  of  they  relating and  for  option  resources.  responsible f o r approval in  is  i n 1 9 7 4 ) , Crown  W h i l e t h e y had  issues  of  burgeoning  trust  area  t r u s t area  the i s l a n d s .  (if  B.C..Lands S e r v i c e was  This  issue  of r e g i o n a l development  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many i s s u e s r e l a t i n g  controlled  upon  Affairs,  p a r t i c u l a r l y on  islands  functions  Council,  functions.  of t h e l a n d i n t h e  regional d i s t r i c t s covering planning  in  than  T h u s , e x c e p t on t h e s m a l l t r a c t s of  land  a  matters,  strongly  Greater  0  of  more  Municipal  degree  u n d e r f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , B.C. 20%  much  of  and  of G e n t l e  of  Thus,  specific  Vancouver  land  on p l a n n i n g  be  of b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s .  Minister  unorganized t e r r i t o r y .  about  people or l e s s to  procedure f o r a c g u i r i n g these  which a s s i g n  the  reserves,  and  Lieutenant-Governor  Strategy  forest  Commissions,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and  t e r m e d "The  advise  emphasized  The  of G r e a t e r  All  to  were  of  or  on  Commission  the  recommendation  encouraging  and  community c o m m i s s i o n s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t  enforcement  issues  resource  letters  Licences  o f " l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s " c f 500 by  settlement  Farm  Tree  of of  Farms;  28 B.C. F e r r y  Authority  was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and  f r o m t h e i s l a n d s ; B.C. D e p a r t m e n t o f for  some  ferries  as  well  B. C . . D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n for  provincial  parks;  Highways  resource  C.  name  and C o n s e r v a t i o n  B.C. D e p a r t m e n t  was  responsible  o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m  exploration, leasing,  a few of t h e other  jurisdictions  The  specific  were  regional  to the Establishment  events leading t o the formation  described districts  building  in  the  benefitted  first  chapter..  regulations.  more u r b a n - o r i e n t e d seemed  As  imposed  as  at  solving  use r e g u l a t i o n .  island older  Islands  hospitals  H o w e v e r , some r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  ineffective  created  w h i c h were  residents, problems  The t e n - a c r e  and  and  such as  freeze  was  i n 1969 a s a d r a s t i c measure t o h a l t r a m p a n t , u n p l a n n e d  subdivision activity formulate The  and t o e n c o u r a g e t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  community p l a n s all-party  Select  Standing  Committee  on  e f f e c t i v e l y e l u c i d a t e d many o f t h e p r o b l e m s  this  to  f o r the islands.  by t h e G u l f and Howe Sound I s l a n d s . that  mentioned,  t h e G u l f and Howe Sound  t h a n d e s i r e d by t h e  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and l a n d  Trust  of the Islands  new p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f r e g i o n a l g o a l s  Matters  affecting  of the I s l a n d s  w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s , such  some  and  management on t h e i s l a n d s .  EventsLeadinq  Trust  responsible  a s r o a d s and s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l ;  R e s o u r c e s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m i n e r a l extraction—to  was  Municipal experienced  ( I t must be n o t e d ,  however,  c o m m i t t e e had t i m e o n l y t o e x a m i n e t h e i s l a n d s w h i c h  a r e now i n t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t a r e a . more n o r t h e r n  I t d i d n o t manage t o s e e t h e  i s l a n d s such as Texada, Savory, C o r t e z  and Q u a d r a ,  29 w h i c h may w e l l have e x p e r i e n c e d — a n d  still  may be  problems s i m i l a r t o those i n t h e t r u s t area.) are  fully  discussed  'i n  experiencing— These  problems  t h e n e x t c h a p t e r on t h e i n t e n t o f t h e  Trust. The  committee f e l t  adapted  to  "carry  that the regional d i s t r i c t s  on  the  usual  were  well-  f u n c t i o n s such as h o s p i t a l s ,  l o c a l improvements, s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , e t c . " , but n o t  geared  carry  t e r m . .. The  o u t a l l t h e r e g u i r e m e n t s needed o v e r t h e l o n g e r  committee  specified  emphasis  on  of t h e r u r a l  Following trust  visited was  r e g u i r e m e n t s t o be t h e p l a c e m e n t o f  recreation,  preservation  a  these  with  this  moderate  However,  report, legislation  jurisdiction  well-received  i t was  districts*  Those  over  not  D.  highly  regional  f o r the islands f e l t  Brief  Islands The received of  three  Description  use,  was d r a f t e d t o i n s t i t u t e  the  i s l a n d s w i t h i n the area  The  Islands  Trust  concept  appreciated districts  that  the  the Trust  by  some had  formation  regional  made of  sincere  community  was u n n e c e s s a r y .  of O r i g i n a l _ S t r u c t u r e _ a n d  Powers o f t h e  Trust s t r u c t u r e of t h e proposed I s l a n d s as t h e T r u s t general  concept i t s e l f .  trustees  Trust  The T r u s t  appointed  was n o t a s w e l l was t o  by C a b i n e t  consist  (one o f whom  w o u l d be t h e c h a i r m a n ) , a n d 26 l o c a l  t r u s t e e s , two e l e c t e d  each  The  of  and  by i s l a n d e r s and p r o v i n c i a l MLA's.  a t t e m p t s a n d some p r o g r e s s t o w a r d plans  residential  atmosphere.  by t h e S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e .  generally  to  13  designated  islands.  from  term o f o f f i c e f o r a l l  30 t r u s t e e s was two y e a r s .  I t was t h e d u t y  trustees  the p r o v i n c i a l  to  represent  The t r u s t c h a i r m a n was t o d e c i d e object than  of one  the t r u s t , designated  i n t e r e s t i n the i s l a n d s .  which i s s u e s  relating  General  one  affairs  affairs  committee,  or  of  the  L o c a l a f f a i r s were t o be h a n d l e d  committee  for  appointees  and t h e two l o c a l l y e l e c t e d t r u s t e e s .  is  respective  more  only  one  by  the  were t o be h a n d l e d  consisting  the  non-designated  (i.e. affecting  trustees.  of  to  more  or  island).  body  general  island  designated  the  three  (i.e.affecting  and w h i c h were l o c a l  trust  the  were g e n e r a l a f f a i r s  islands),  general  of  three  by t h e  general  local  trust  i s l a n d , c o n s i s t i n g of t h e t h r e e The  informal  a l l 29 t r u s t e e s , now c a l l e d t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t C o u n c i l ,  a n o n - l e g a l body w h i c h was n o t  functions.  procedures  Council  formulated  p r o c e d u r e s and meets q u a r t e r l y t o  discuss  matters  The  the  any  Trust  concern.  However,  assigned  Council  makes  recommendations  to  i t s  or own  of  general  the  General  Trust. Many  MLA's,  complained outvote  regional  directors,  and  that since the three appointees  residents  of the province  could  two l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l  interest  w o u l d be t o o s t r o n g a n d t h e l o c a l i n t e r e s t g i v e n s e c o n d  priority  again. It  the  local  I t was f e l t by some t h a t l o c a l c o n t r o l was b e i n g  was a l s o n o t e d  from  that the Trust did  the regional d i s t r i c t s ,  of  these  Eepresentatives been  developed  bodies  i t was  with  o f i s l a n d s where felt  include  any  members  p r o v i n c i a l government d e p a r t m e n t s ,  o r Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h all  not  eroded.  apprehensive  intended  respect community  to plans  to  coordinate  the had  about the T r u s t ; they  islands. already d i d not  31  want t o have t o c h a n g e t h e community  plans  on  account  of  the  Trust. The this  a r g u m e n t w h i c h g o v e r n m e n t MLA's p r e s e n t e d  s t r u c t u r e was  much  greater  t h a t two  input  district  structure  District  have  of the the  Islands  could  make  islands  proportion the  islands sharing (See  given  islands  under the  regional  Capital  Regional  Another r e b u t t a l  representativeness  and  was  recommendations. large  I t was  provincial since  such a  E r i t i s h Columbia population  lived  adjacent  s i n c e the  i s l a n d s were u n i g u e t o B.C.  t h a t the general  overview  would  bring  answers t o problems e x p e r i e n c e d  by  more t h a n one  on  of  trustees  " I n t e n t of the I s l a n d s  original  limited..  The  powers  initial  systematically  plan  jurisdiction,  subdivision a l l  districts. continue community  large to  to  the  i s l a n d s , thus  Trust"  island.  for  a  more  arguments.) of  the  legislation or  in  Another  a l l the  chapter  also  interest  on  the  that  i n i t i a t i n g p o w e r s anyway; i t  development  The  with  the  of  the  represented,  complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the  This  in  any  w h i c h needed t o be  was  an  not  e x i s t e d a very  i s l a n d s , and  of f i v e gave  out o f f o r t y - s e v e n ) .  approvals  of t h e  suggestion  votes  was  argued t h a t t h e r e the  (e.g..islands  of l a c k of l o c a l  Trust  only  out  t h a n t h e y c u r r e n t l y had  two  complaint  votes  i n favour  Islands  gave t h e  regulate  Trust  development  on  powers  to  the i s l a n d s .  bylaws, remained w i t h the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ,  along  It  was  hoped  plans  no  fairly  and  previous  community  were  zoning  other  through  Trust  responsibilities that  the  ( I t must be  noted  of  the  regional  regional d i s t r i c t s  to encourage l o c a l communities t o plans.  and  draw  up  their  would own  that the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  32 were s t i l l  not  legally  o b l i g a t e d t o produce community  bylaws f o r the  islands*)  assist  process  i n the  The  Islands Trust  was  plans  or  to encourage  and  of community p l a n n i n g , and  t o draw  a d v i c e f r o m g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s when r e g u i r e d . . The  Trust  was  different  departments  of  t h e Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s as t h e y  [ d e a l t ] with  the  to " c o o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of the government islands" was  ( H o n o u r a b l e James L o r i m e r ,  g i v e n no The  1.  and  expert  special  H a n s a r d , May  powers w i t h w h i c h t o do  21,  1974),  but  so*  Trust duties included:  making  recommendations  implementation  to  Cabinet  of p o l i c i e s t o p r e s e r v e  regarding and  formation  protect  the  and  trust  area, 2..  c o o r d i n a t i n g and  assisting  i n forming  and  implementing  these  policies, 3. use, 4.  making and  recommendations  disposition  locatinq  and  Regarding  to  Cabinet  regarding  c f Crown l a n d i n t h e t r u s t  l a r g e l y a s a v e t o i n g a g e n c y , as f o l l o w s :  1.  community p l a n s ,  r e g u l a t e use  regional  the  zoning  c r s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d w i t h i n the t r u s t and  the a p p r o p r i a t e Trust  c o n s t r u c t i o n o r e n l a r g e m e n t o f b u i l d i n g s and trust  committee; 3.  the  in  the  and  area  area.  of t h e  trust  subdivision  c o n t r a c t s , e t c . f o r m e d by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  be a p p r o v e d by C a b i n e t 2.  plans,  and  trust  area, the r o l e  was  bylaws, land-use  area,  i d e n t i f y i n g h e r i t a g e s i t e s i n the  l a n d use i n t h e t r u s t  acquisition,  had  to  be  a r e a had  to to  committee; improvements i n  a p p r o v e d by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  Trust  and  P r o v i n c i a l Crown was trust  area  without  not to develop  or d i s p o s e  of  land  g i v i n g n c t i c e of the development  or  33 disposition  t o the g e n e r a l  Thus, the with  Islands Trust  respect  districts..  trustees.  to  the  While the  was  i n e f f e c t a " w a t c h dog"  settlement  i s s u e s h a n d l e d by  Trust c o u l d not  land-use c o n t r a c t s , i t could refuse in  keeping  protecting against  with  the  the  the  Trust's  t r u s t area..  Trust  having  r e w r i t i n g ccmmunity  the  approval  objective  regional  plans, bylaws,  i f tiese of  not  preserving  and  power i f t h i s  would  plans.  Islands  O r i g i n a l ^ Islands,, Trust L e g i s l a t i o n Trust nor  the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n the t r u s t area.  power  by  Municipal due  with  when  a  person a u t h o r i z e d  Act s p e c i f i e d t h a t the  regard  t o and  dealing  take  with  [subdivision  of  the  approving  s p e c i f i e d t h a t "the approving subdivision ...  if  my  approving which  emphasis).  officer  did  not  was  not  comply  s u b d i v i s i o n b y l a w s o f an One  The  "shall  give  o f f i c i a l community  plan  officer. officer  This  ma_/  was  The  plan  (s. 7 1 1 [ 3 ] ) . left  to  the  Land R e g i s t r y  r e f u s e t o approve  r e g u l a t i n g the Thus,  of  of  land"  i t appears t h a t the s u b d i v i s i o n  obligated with  subdivision  Act the  i t does n e t c o n f o r m t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e b y l a w s  the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t  (s. .94,  officer  applications]"  community  had  Order-in-Council..  approving  c o g n i z a n c e o f any  Thus, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the discretion  was  require  t h e power t o a p p r o v e s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s lay  or  were  p u b l i c sentiment at the time  initiating  E. .. Some . L i m i t a t i o n s o f , t h e Neither  The  initiate  the  agency  the  to  refuse  community  an  application  plan or  zoning  or  island.  s e c t i o n of t h e I s l a n d s  Trust  A c t w h i c h w o u l d have  given  3 4  the T r u s t  a  larger  development,  but  hand  in  the  which i s s t i l l  regulation  not  of  proclaimed  subdivision  i s section 6(3).  This s t a t e s : ... no r e g i s t r a r u n d e r t h e L a n d T i t l e s Act [ f o r m e r l y t h e Land R e g i s t r y Act ] s h a l l accept an application for deposit of a p l a n o f s u b d i v i s i o n ... [ i n c l u d i n g s t r a t a p l a n s ] ... w i t h i n t h e t r u s t a r e a ; unless the plan is a p p r o v e d by t h e t r u s t c o m m i t t e e h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n .... This  section  certain  c o u l d have been used by t h e  that  new  interpretation  of  subdivisions community  plans  met  with  and  bylaws.  a l s o been u s e d , p e r h a p s , where a p r o p o s a l was  not  considered  to  be  o b j e c t i v e o f p r e s e r v i n g and  in  of the I s l a n d s Trust Crown  lands  develop, However,  had  only  subdivide, zoning  was  weak.  and  the  I t could  have  bylaws  but  with with  Trust's  the  Trust's  environment.  ( i n c l u d i n g f o r e s h o r e ) , the The  log,  role  Crown agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  to n o t i f y the  lease,  met  accordance  p r o t e c t i n g the  W i t h r e s p e c t t o Crown l a n d  I s l a n d s T r u s t t o make  or  T r u s t of i t s i n t e n t i o n dispose  of  Crown  to  land.  s u b d i v i s i o n b y l a w s were a p p l i c a b l e t o Crown  lands. With r e s p e c t t o o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , also  weak.  Forest lands i n Taxation  handled  by  Service  and  provision  the  B.C.  the  Assessment  logging  the  rcle  T r e e Farms were  Authority,  the  use  of f o r e s t l a n d s .  did regional d i s t r i c t s  nor  Taxation  T r e e Farms.)  lands not  under T a x a t i o n  unregulated  by any  the  was  completely B.C.  t o be  ( I t i s noted  Forest  municipalities  have any  T r e e Farm t e n u r e ,  were  no  consulted  that neither control  Furthermore, logging a c t i v i t y  agency. .  Trust  companies owning the f o r e s t l a n d ;  e x i s t e d whereby t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t had  regarding  of the  over  on p r i v a t e  almost  totally  35  The It  Islands  was t o t a l l y  the the  T r u s t was n o t g i v e n t h e power t o r a i s e money.  f u n d e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l b u d g e t ,  provincial interest three  provincial  was s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d , appointees,  amount o f f u n d s a v a i l a b l e purposes  f o r which  v i e w e d by some a s  F.  to  this  previous  Trust  and  of  the  T h i s h a s been  section.  I n 1975, an Amendment A c t was p a s s e d f o r t h e  Amendment  for  Islands  S t r u c t u r e and Powers  Trust  would a d m i n i s t e r  comprised  Act  was  explained  Trust  Fund"  i n the  which  the  " f o r the purpose o f c a r r y i n g out  (s.2A, I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t ) .  of  provided  Act  "Islands  gifts  f e d e r a l governments o r a g e n c i e s ,  real  a l s o by c o n t r o l o f t h e  Islands  be  (s.2i5],  by  original  Trust  to  only  undemocratic.  the o b j e c t s of the t r u s t " was  not  money was t o be u s e d .  b a s i c p u r p o s e o f c r e a t i n g an Islands  but  the  E v o l u t i o n _g,f I s l a n d s , T r u s t The  T h i s meant t h a t  The  fund  and g r a n t s f r o m p r o v i n c i a l and and f r o m p r i v a t e  donors.  The  that the Trust constitute a corporation  I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t ) , s o t h a t i t c o u l d p u r c h a s e and  hold  property. The  capability  of  purchasing  the  protection  of  certain  watersheds, public  beach  implementation Although  the  provision  accesses  of  and  areas certain  parks,  of p o s i t i v e planning this  Amendment  land  Act  as  would have been u s e f u l such  as  community  p u b l i c s e r v i c e s such as well  as  for  the  techniques.;. was p a s s e d i n 1975, t h e k e y  36 section still the  regarding not  Trust  the  the Islands Trust  been was  Trust  proclaimed.  proclaimed,  the  power  Fund  I n 1979  (i.e. section  has  the s e c t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g  but not with the i n t e n t i o n  t o held  2A)  of  l a n d ; r a t h e r t o remove  giving  liability  f r o m t h e t r u s t e e s i n c a s e o f damages r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o u r t c a s e s . (The f a c t t h a t t h e T r u s t to  1979  must h a v e been an o v e r s i g h t . )  c o r p o r a t i o n , i t would hold  land,  Trust  Act t o the  probably Islands it  since  a  appear t h a t i t l e g a l l y  there  is  contrary,  common  cannot held 1977,  fundamental  law  nothing  and  right  chairman  structure  of  The  the  Trust  structure  The  number  of the l o c a l other  that  was  as  ...  soon  trustees"  right  hold  districts..  to  is a  power  to  Islands land  the  Trust  is  believes  passed which changed gave  changed  by  such  trustees,  that  local  the  Islands  Trust  rather  than general  trustees  as p r a c t i c a b l e a f t e r t h e (s. 2 [ 1 ] , I s l a n d s T r u s t  was  removed  Specifically,  appointment  of  was in  from ' the t h e powers  Advisory  given the  seven  area,  respective  transferred  Planning  Act)..  and  Act for this  regional  pertained  Commissions  from  general  responsibility  trust  the  t r u s t e e s ) , are  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the the  the  i t additional  major c h a n g e b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h i s Amendment  c o m m u n i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g function  the  v i c e - c h a i r m e n ( i . e . .the g e n e r a l  t r u s t e e s were t o be " e l e c t e d  election  has  i n the  and  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t .  their  t h a t the Trust  proclaimed  e l e c t e d by and f r o m among t h e l o c a l  among  prior  o f a c o r p o r a t i o n . . (However, t h e  a n o t h e r Amendment A c t was  and two  appointed  the  the  entity  land.).  responsibilities.  was  Now  T r u s t i s not under t h i s i m p r e s s i o n ;  In  now  d i d n o t e x i s t as a l e g a l  and  to the  37 preparation zoning  and e n f o r c e m e n t o f s e t t l e m e n t subdivision  regional  existing  p l a n s and b y l a w s o f t h e r e g i o n a l  districts  adopted  by  the  Trust,  P l a n s and  the  regional A  hut could  bylaws  approved by t h e M i n i s t e r  bylaws  community  and  Trust.  bylaws,  or  (and  plans,  plans. were  The  to  be  be r e p e a l e d o r amended by t h e  amendments)  of M u n i c i p a l  still  had  to  be  A f f a i r s , as they d i d under  districts.  significant  section  added  to  the  Islands  Trust Act  stated: Where a r e g i o n a l plan [ o f the t r u s t area] includes . . . . a r e a s ... d e s i g n a t e d a s h a v i n g s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e i n securing and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e t r u s t by reason of t h e i r a) s c e n i c v a l u e , o r b) r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l , o r c) n a t u r a l o r s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , o r d) d e l i c a t e e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h o s e a r e a s s h a l l , cn a p p r o v a l o f t h e r e g i o n a l plan by the minister ... be u n d e r the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e general t r u s t e e s f o r the purpose of adopting special protective zoning and subdivision by-laws or regulaticns. i(s.6[7], This reinforced regional  the notion  entity,  regional  goals.  islanders  of the  reguiring This notion  trust  regional  Islands area  itself  planning  was n o t e n t i r e l y  unit; the s p e c i a l protection  of c e r t a i n  general  trustees  some  imposing of outside that  regional  islands)  resented  objectives..  this  (i.e. imposition, to the  and  b e c a u s e many v i e w t h e i r i s l a n d a s t h e o n l y  was  sort  of  by  better  g o a l s by t h e r e g i o n a l  meaningful  areas  of  districts.  by  the  former  generally  regional  of goals pertaining the  by  a s p a t e r n a l i s t i c and  imposition  than  a  attaining  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was  by o t h e r t r u s t e e s was  being  well-received  planning  agreed  T r u s t Act)  goals strictly  imposition  of  38 The  a d d i t i o n of two o t h e r  provided  that:  1)  regional  s e c t i o n s t o the I s l a n d s Trust Act boards  u n d e r t a k e work, o r i s s u e p e r m i t s , 2)  i f the  Trust  advised  a d o p t o r amend a z o n i n g board could there  withhold  could  contrary  not  adopt  bylaws,  to t r u s t bylaws;  and  a r e g i o n a l board t h a t i t proposed t o  bylaw o r community  plan,  the  regional  a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t f o r up t o n i n e t y d a y s , i f  was some d o u b t a s t c w h e t h e r i t would c o m p l y w i t h t h e new  plan o r bylaw. For  t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e Land C o m m i s s i o n A c t , t h e T r u s t  to  take  over the r o l e  the  trust  power  enacted  with respect t o  area.  Finally, the  cf the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  was  reference  of  was made i n t h e 1977  the Trust  to hold  land.  i n 1975 b u t n o t p r o c l a i m e d ,  Amendment  Section  Act t o  2 (6), which  was  namely:  The t r u s t h a s a l l t h e power a n d c a p a c i t y of a natural person of f u l l c a p a c i t y i n c a r r y i n g out i t s o b j e c t s . . was r e p e a l e d  and t h e f o l l o w i n g was s u b s t i t u t e d :  The corporation ... may, w i t h prior approval of the m i n i s t e r , a c c e p t , h o l d and d i s p o s e o f r e a l p r o p e r t y ; b u t s h a l l n o t , without p r i o r approval of t h e m i n i s t e r , i n c u r l i a b i l i t i e s o r b o r r o w money. T h u s , i t was e v i d e n t enabling  the  Trust  allow t h e Trust borrow  money  major  sections  proclaimed, land  simply  prev i o u s l y ) .  that the l e g i s l a t u r e to hold land,  t o do so w i t h o u t  although  but  the  because  to  Trust i t is  approval,  At t h e t i m e  this  considering  i t was r e l u c t a n t t o  Ministerial  f o r such a purpose. pertaining  was s t i l l  power  or  to  of w r i t i n g , t h e  are.  still  not  may i n f a c t have t h e power t o h o l d a  corporation  (as  mentioned  39 G. . B g l e _ o f _ t he. R e g i o n a l The  history  of  accorded with the the  Municipal  planning  in  P l a n i n „„the_ T r u s t . Area.  land-use  optical  Act.  regional  planning  planning  on  t h e i s l a n d s has  procedure  as  inferred  According  to the  Municipal  districts  should  follow  Act, the  not from  land-use following  procedure: 1.  A r e g i o n a l p l a n i s t o be  2.  A  regional  may  {s. 795£1])._  be d e s i g n a t e d  as an o f f i c i a l  regional  ( s . 796[ 1 J) -  plan 3..  plan  prepared  Following  official  adoption  settlement  Settlement plans  the  plans  plans  are not  tc  of  an  official  are  to  be  regional  prepared  contradict  the  plan,  ( s . 796A[ 1 ] ) .  official  regional  ( s . 7 9 7 [ 1 ]) .  4. . O f f i c i a l preparation zoning  settlement o f l a n d use  and  settlement  plans  regulatory  subdivision p l a n and  are  bylaws  to bylaws  must  the o f f i c i a l  form t h e  basis for  (s. 796B[ 1 ]) . .  comply with the  regional  plan  the  These  official  (s.796A_7]  and  s. 797£ 1 ]) . Thus,  in  gives r i s e to  zoning In  in  a  procedure  t o community and  (or s e t t l e m e n t )  case  of  the  Vancouver Regional regional plan.  As  trust area, District  regional  plans, which  plan  give  rise  created  i t appears that only  i n c l u d e d any  Community p l a n s  a c r e f r e e z e , b u t were n o t regional  as l e g i s l a t e d , the  s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws.  the  Greater  the  trust  islands  were p r o m p t e d by t h e  within  the  framework  the  tenof  a  plan. of  November,  1978  a l l  of the  designated  islands  had  no a d o p t e d community p l a n s , and p r o c e s s of It not  developing  has  been  Islands  a regional  argued that  form a r e g i o n a l u n i t .  from each o t h e r .  the  Ganges  2)  seem  to  the  First,  the  a  greater  A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e , but northern  center  i s l a n d s with  have  now  i s l a n d s of the  the  i s l a n d s are  1)  of  of  the  commerce  a greater  for  proportion  proportion  of  islands.  and  than the  As a r e s u l t o f i n t e r - i s l a n d  would r e s e n t  islands,  many o f  of s m a l l  seasonal  having values  of other  the lets  residents.  as y e t s p e c u l a t i v e , d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t  lifestyles  do  Saltspring  other  i s l a n d s o f Denman, H o r n b y , L a s g u e t i , and  philosophies  the  very d i f f e r e n t  Gabriola  have a t t r a c t e d q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t group of r e s i d e n t s to  in  t r u s t area  Examples of d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e :  being  i s l a n d s , and  is  plan.  i s much more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d t h a n any with  Trust  with  s o u t h e r n and  the may  respect  Howe Sound  d i f f e r e n c e s some i s l a n d e r s  islands  being  forced  upon  them. Second, links  with  islands that  the  of  islands  mainland or  the  t r u s t area.  have  district of  planning t h a n as the  For  a p a r t of the  with  e c o n o m i c and  Island  that  regional unit, with as  a  t r u s t area.  other  been a r g u e d to  part of i t s r e g i o n a l However,  respect  i s l a n d e r s than with  components of t h e i r r e g i o n a l G i v e n t h e s e two  with  other  respect  a r g u m e n t i s t h a t most i s l a n d e r s i n t h e common,  social  with  t h i s r e a s o n , i t has  considerations,  p r o b a b l y h a v e more i n values,  stronger  Vancouver  each i s l a n d forms a b e t t e r  regional  side  most  to  the  other  trust  area  problems  and  the n e i g h b o u r i n g  urban  districts.  realities,  a r e g i o n a l plan  for  the  trust  41  area  presumably  values  held  t r u s t area  would  not  i n t h e t r u s t a r e a , n o r would i t attempt t o u n i f y t h e a s an e c o n o m i c r e g i o n .  create  policy  regarding  would  identify  special  significant by  the  attempt to diminish the v a r i e t y of  areas  Trust  conservationist  of  this  will  There  would  policies  the  Trust  industrial special  with  serious  reasons  conservationist  respect  scenic  of to  value,  such  beaches and  things or  tries  island  units  of  to  which  have  as  impose areas,  e x i s t i n g community p l a n  regional  as  campsites),  on t h e use and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h o s e  to overlay a set  If  the t r u s t area  with t h e r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s of t h e Trust.  prove d i f f i c u l t independent  more  (Possible  general  features  ( e . g . swimming  p o t e n t i a l , or  disagrees  reflect  throughout the t h e s i s . )  i s l a n d e r s may c h o o s e t o d e f e n d t h e i r it  are  may be r e g a r d e d a s b a s i c a l l y a g r e e a b l e .  potential  restrictions  which  a problem of imposing r e g i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s  significant  recreational  island  districts. '  identifies 'certain  regionally  to  i s l a n d s t h a n would r e g i o n a l  on i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s , even t h o u g h t h e motives of t h e Trust  strive  A r e g i o n a l p l a n drawn up  probably  f o r the  be d i s c u s s e d  may e x i s t  each  as a w h o l e .  p l a n s g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e g i o n a l for  i t would  common p r o b l e m s among t h e i s l a n d s , and  to the region  Islands  Bather  i f  I t may  objectives  onto  now d e v e l o p e d c o m m u n i t y  plans. One  would  difficulty,  the  expect Trust  that will  in  However,  i t appears  r e w r i t e t h e community p l a n s ;  of  this  potential  a t t e m p t t o have t h e community  r e w r i t t e n s u c h t h a t t h e y become plan.  spite  consistent that the Trust  with  the  plans  regional  does n o t i n t e n t t o  f u r t h e r amendments t o t h e  existing  42 plans  will  s i m p l y be made t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n .  t h e new r e g i o n a l p l a n i s f o u n d existing  community  developing the  plans,  one  a regional plan.  regional  to  be  in  must  agreement  guestion  I t appears t h a t  p l a n i s t o " o u t l i n e broad  use  of t h e Trust Area";  at  t h e whole T r u s t Area from a wider  with  the  the  policies  of  rationale  of  for the future  perspective [than  and S u b d i v i s i o n B y - l a w s ] "  summary,  proceeded  the  quite differently  the planning f u n c t i o n regional  the  province).  existing  and  Trust  bylaws.  i f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t h a d been  given  However, l e a r n e d over  potential  resources requiring  future  have  had  been  the  islands  1980).. may  ( i . e . the procedure  advantage of having  the  and  of  Rich,  required  to  generate  a  p l a n f o r t h e i s l a n d s i n 1 9 7 4 , t o form t h e b a s i s o f t h e  community p l a n s in  development  look  Official  (John  C h a i r m a n , "A R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t A r e a , " In  the  value  " t o draw t o g e t h e r common g o a l s and  Community P l a n s and Z o n i n g  If  will  community  the  Islands  this  plans,  and  Trust years  elsewhere now h a s t h e about  the  f a c i n g t h e i s l a n d s and about  protection.  reflect  reguired  the past s i x  problems  specific  normally  I t i s expected  that  knowledge i n t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n , future  zoning  and s u b d i v i s i o n  43 C h a p t e r IV  IN5ENT_0F_THE_ISLA ND S_ TEUST  The  intent  of  the  Islands  T r u s t c a n be s u r m i s e d  number o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . . I n t h i s  from a  c h a p t e r an e x a m i n a t i o n  i s  made o f t h r e e key s o u r c e s : 1..  the  S e p t e m b e r , 1973 r e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g  on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , which  recommended  the  Committee  institution  of  a  trust, 2..  the  Hansard  above r e p o r t 3. From  t i m e , from  discussion of the  1979, a n d  S t a t e m e n t o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t , " 1975. .  examination,  fundamental  A..  through  ( S e p t e m b e r 24,1973) t h r o u g h  the "Policy this  debates  implicit  According  to  an  interpretation  and e x p l i c i t  the  Select  intent  i s made  of  the  of the Islands Trust.  Standing_Cgmmittee_on M u n i c i p a l  Matters As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Municipal  Matters  was r e g u e s t e d  the i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t the l e g i s l a t u r e . "to  inquire  Committee  on  i n 1973 t o e x a m i n e p r o b l e m s o f  of Georgia  and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o  The t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e C o m m i t t e e  were:  i n t o the guestion o f f u t u r e development, i n c l u d i n g  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f community p l a n s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s a n d o t h e r such i s l a n d s i n t h e appropriate" include  vicinity  (Hansard,  an e x a m i n a t i o n  as  February of  the  the  Committee  22,  1 9 7 3 ) . . The s t u d y  Municipal  Act  may  and  consider  other  was t o Acts  44  affecting The  l o c a l government, with  a view t o recommending c h a n g e s .  observations  Committee  chapter I .  As  subdivisions,  well  of as  the  settlement  over-development,  waste and garbage d i s p o s a l , problems  the  demand  campgrounds); coordinated  the  approach offered  hiking  to  planning  by r e g i o n a l  a key t o t h e  entire  coordination.  It  by  some  situation, was p o i n t e d  of r e g i o n a l  water, resource  need  the  to  islands  areas,  and  t h e need f o r a more  development  than  was  d i s t r i c t s and e x i s t i n g g o v e r n m e n t  Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  jurisdiction  and  of  picnic  out  large  potable and  in  p u b l i c space, the  use  trails,  pointed  departments.  be  of  as  atmosphere, and t h e  for recreational  Committee  such  transportation;  of the r u r a l  (e.g..more b e a c h a c c e s s e s ,  currently  shortages  and  summarized  problems  s u c h a s t h e need f o r more s u p e r v i s e d  need f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n satisfy  were  t o t h e i s l a n d s was f e l t needing  out that  districts,  careful this  control  and  was n o t w i t h i n t h e there  should  important matter  handled  t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s from t h e Committee  report  form of l o c a l i n p u t  implying  t o be  into this  that  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. The  following  deserve  guotaticn:  - One o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e C o m m i t t e e i n i t s t o u r s , h e a r i n g s , and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n , and r e m a i n s , a v e r y s e r i o u s l a c k o f co-ordination and c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n many r e s p e c t s , t h e i s l a n d s have f a l l e n victim t o ad hoc o r " b a n d - a i d " activity. There i s a need for a co-ordinated j u r i s d i c t i o n t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r planning, zoning, c o n t r o l o f l a n d u s e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and r e l a t e d m a t t e r s for a l l t h e i s l a n d s and t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n w o u l d r e q u i r e s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g o v e r and a b o v e t h e c u r r e n t revenue s o u r c e from l o c a l t a x a t i o n .  Although r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s a r e not geared t o c a r r y out a l l t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e x p e c t e d o f them relative to the future of the C o a s t a l i s l a n d s of B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e y c a n w e l l s e r v e t h e i s l a n d s f o r many administrative purposes including hospitals, schools, local improvements, special projects, health, building i n s p e c t i o n , e t c . . ... Recognizing t h e need t o ensure c o n t i n u e d employment opportunities f o r some r e s i d e n t s of the islands, strictly c o n t r o l l e d l i m i t e d commercial development, light industry, and a g r i c u l t u r a l activity compatible with the l i f e s t y l e of t h e i s l a n d s can continue, n o n e t h e l e s s , emphasis f o r t h e f u t u r e development of the islands should be p l a c e d on r e c r e a t i o n , moderate r e s i d e n t i a l u s e , and p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r u r a l atmosphere. The C o m m i t t e e was i m p r e s s e d with seme i n s t a n c e s of desirable land u s e (by r e s i d e n c e s , summer camps, a few p a r k s , endowments) b u t was a l a r m e d a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n or hoarding of land by r e s i d e n t and a b s e n t e e owners f o r h i g h c a p i t a l g a i n s p u r p o s e s . . I t was a l s o d i s t r e s s e d by the evidence of considerable s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y i n the p a s t , w h i c h was u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t f u l l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f its i m p a c t on t h e f u t u r e o f e a c h i s l a n d . Our b e l i e f i s that the i s l a n d s are too important t o the people of Canada t o be l e f t open t o e x p l o i t a t i o n by r e a l - e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r s and s p e c u l a t o r s . ( H a n s a r d , September 2 4 , 1973)  The  k e y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e C o m m i t t e e was as f o l l o w s :  The C o m m i t t e e recommends t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government establish an " I s l a n d s Trust" (or c e m m i s s i o n ) , as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e body t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and t o c o ordinate t h e f u t u r e o f each i s l a n d w i t h i n our terms o f reference. I t must be e m p h a s i z e d most s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e t r u s t i s t o assume t h e p r i m a r y responsibility for a l l Gulf Islands' affairs w i t h i n Government j u r i s d i c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g land u s e , f u t u r e growth p a t t e r n s , c o n t r o l of development, i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and commercial a c t i v i t y , a s w e l l a s p a r k s and o p e n s p a c e designations. It i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e t r u s t be f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l i n t e r e s t s , not only on t h e islands, but throughout t h e P r o v i n c e a s a whole. While r e c o g n i z i n g t h e r i g h t s 'of t h e i s l a n d e r s , t h e C o m m i t t e e s u g g e s t s t h a t this section of B r i t i s h Columbia is dramatically affected by p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a c t i v i t y w h i c h does n o t h a v e t h e same i m p a c t i n o t h e r parts of the Province. The Committee again r e f e r s t o t h e f r a g i l e nature of these c o a s t a l u n i t s . Eecause i t i s r e c o g n i z e d that a variety of Government departments and agencies: Highways, H e a l t h , F e r r i e s , Lands and F o r e s t s , Parks,  46 etc., as w e l l a s r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and c i t i z e n g r o u p s on t h e i s l a n d s , a l l h a v e an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y in this respect, we emphasize t h a t the proposed t r u s t or c o m m i s s i o n must n o t be a separate and (or) remote agency, but r a t h e r a f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i n g b o d y , whose t a s k i t i s t o b r i n g together each group, agency, or department o f G o v e r n m e n t and t o a c t i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i s l a n d s and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s , with due r e g a r d f o r t h e b r o a d e r and P r o v i n c e - w i d e i n t e r e s t . Thus, Standing 1..  the  intents  Committee  to stand  of  the Islands Trust  according  to the  a p p e a r e d t o be:  responsible f o r a l l aspects  of  future  development  of t h e i s l a n d s ; 2.. t o  coordinate,  for planning, and  resource  open  space;  3.  land  control, use  and assume p r i m a r y  regulation,  transportation,  development, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ,  t o i m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n between  districts, 4..  to  well  and g o v e r n m e n t  incorporate as  responsibility  the  local  the  island  commercial  and p a r k s and  residents,  regional  agencies; P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i s l a n d s , as  interest,  into  island  planning  and  development; 5.  to  ensure  that  i s l a n d s be p l a c e d preservation 6.  to  emphasis  for  future  on r e c r e a t i o n , m o d e r a t e  of a r u r a l  discourage  development  residential  of the  use,  and  speculation  and  atmosphere;  exploitive  real  estate  development; 7.  t o a c t as a f u l l y  together It the  each agency  representative ox d e p a r t m e n t o f  was n o t c l e a r f r o m t h e r e p o r t Trust  these  should  agencies,  c o o r d i n a t i n g body,  bringing  Government.  whether  i t  was  intended  that  a c t u a l l y be c o m p r i s e d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l or  whether  i t  should  simply  draw upon  these  47 a g e n c i e s as  reguired  During the  to  do  and  that the  their  foster interdepartmental  presentation  Mr. . N u n w e i l e r o f t h e made t h a t t h e  and  of the r e p o r t  Select  Standing  communication.  to the  legislature  by  remarks  were  Committee,  r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s d i d not  have a d e g u a t e f i n a n c i n g  what t h e y w o u l d h a v e l i k e d t o h a v e done f o r t h e i s l a n d s ,  long  vehicle  regional districts  term r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  was  emphasis  needed t o be on  preservation clear,  if  funding,  were n o t  of t h e r u r a l  why  not  that  residential  had  have  another  p l a c e m e n t of  It is s t i l l  districts  could  t o c a r r y out a l l  felt  the  moderate  atmosphere.  regional they  was  able to achieve  recreation,  the  It  geared  been  use, not  and  exactly  given  performed  future  adeguate  the  necessary  functions.  E.  According_to_Hansard The  legislative  indication regarding Trust  as  serious  of  a  to  d e b a t e s , as  the  p r o b l e m s on  (1973  19 79) recorded  perceptions the  potential  of  islands, solution  matters p e r t a i n i n g to the  i n Hansard, provide provincial  and to  regarding  politicians the  Islands  those problems.  s t r u c t u r e and  For  question  were  These  discussed  i n t h i s t h e s i s ; only  which d i r e c t l y  are  r e l a t e t o i n t e n t of the  H o w e v e r , an the  specific  specific period)  in-depth  guestions  replies should  not  of  the  raised  by  and  the  government  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be t a k e n  comments here..  debates suggests opposition,  (throughout literally.  the  discussed.  Trust are noted  a n a l y s i s of the  most  f u n c t i o n s of  T r u s t , b o t h s i d e s of t h e debates  raised  an  that  and  this It is  the  entire likely  48 that  a  considerable  o c c u r r i n g on b o t h regional  while  the i n t e n t  behind  grain  assumed  of that  Legislative  political  s i d e s of the l e g i s l a t u r e ,  the f o l l o w i n g  manoeuvering and  also  was  on  some  The  quotations provide a glimpse  the T r u s t , they  salt." the  For  thesis  as  should  the  statements  Assembly  provide a r e a l i s t i c Trust.  of  boards.  Thus,  a  amount  purposes made  recorded  representation will  not  p e r h a p s be  by  delve  "with  of the t h e s i s , i t i s the  Members  i n Hansard of  taken  of  the  were s i n c e r e ,  intent  into  of  behind  the and the  possible p o l i t i c a l  manoeuvers. When t h e Trust  H o n o u r a b l e James  Lorimer  the  A c t t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e f o r s e c o n d r e a d i n g on May  he made s e v e r a l p o i n t s , p a r a p h r a s e d  - The  presented  as  somewhat  cf  21,  follows:  v o t i n g s t r e n g t h o f t h e i s l a n d s had  - The i s l a n d s had been regional districts.  Islands  a  - The islandaers f e l t badly neglected d i s t r i c t s and t h e p r o v i n c e . .  been g u i t e s m a l l . nuisance by  to  the  the r e g i o n a l  - E v i d e n c e showed t h a t t h e islands can be ruined very quickly and easily by unfortunate subdivisions and u n f o r t u n a t e developments. I t was agreed unanimous!y t h a t ^ t h e r e ,had_tp ,be some, mechanism_to., c o n t r o l t h i s . s o r t Qi_d§y§i:9£gpnfe-9g-^h i s l a n d s . e  - The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s would c a r r y o n , as the Islands T r u s t would h a v e no power t o i m p l e m e n t any a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g any d e v e l o p m e n t s , z o n i n g b y l a w s , o r community p l a n s . I t was hoped the regional districts would continue having local community g r o u p s draw up t h e i r own Community P l a n s . - The T r u s t was to assist the process of drawing up c o m m u n i t y p l a n s and was t o be a b l e t o draw e x p e r t a d v i c e f r o m any p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t f o r a s s i s t a n c e . .  1974  o  49 - The T r u s t was t o c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s a s t h e y dealt with the i s l a n d s . - I t was n o t i n t e n d e d f o r t h e T r u s t t o have a n y i n i t i a t i n g powers. From t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e m a j o r i n t e n t o f t h e T r u s t was: 1. t o make t h e i s l a n d e r s f e e l a s i f t h e y h a d a larger r o l e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i s l a n d development; 2. t o g u a r d against developments which might have s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s on t h e i s l a n d s ; 3. t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e community planning process by assisting regional districts and by requesting professional advice from government departments as required; 4.. t o c o o r d i n a t e a l l g o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i s l a n d s , s o t h a t t h e y were n o t i n c o n f l i c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . The  following  paraphrased  statements  regarding intent  drawn f r o m t h e s e c o n d r e a d i n g o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t : - There is a need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n n o t o n l y b e t w e e n t h e regional districts and c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but particularly among v a r i o u s government departments and Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s : H y d r o , H i g h w a y s , F e r r i e s , R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . (Hugh C u r t i s - SC) - The I s l a n d s Trust h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t o work i n conjunction with local, people and t o b r i n g i n e x p e r t a d v i c e when t h e y need i t . Most r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s a r e now t o o l a r g e and h a v e t o o many p r o b l e m s t o g i v e t h e i s l a n d s t h e kind of a t t e n t i o n they deserve.. Responding to the question, " I f there already e x i s t p l a n s and b y l a w s , why i s an I s l a n d s T r u s t ' n e e d e d ? " : t h e s e islands are so b e a u t i f u l and such a d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e s t o have t h e i s l a n d e r s change t h e i r bylaws w i l l i n c r e a s e i n y e a r s t o come. Islanders will h a v e more input than before. F o r e x a m p l e , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e southern i s l a n d s w i l l change from two v o t e s out of forty-seven, which i t i s i n the Capital Regional D i s t r i c t , t o two v o t e s o u t o f f i v e . The g e n e r a l trust will b r i n g an o v e r v i e w of development of a l l t h e i s l a n d s ; a n s w e r s t c p r o b l e m s may e a s i l y be s h a r e d among the islands. The i s l a n d s a r e u n i g u e and s p e c i a l . They need t h i s s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n .  were  50 (Karen  Sanford  - NDP)  - The t h r u s t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e r e p o r t was t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e planning and development of the i s l a n d s ; not to • p r e s e r v e and p r o t e c t * . T h i s i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c . ( A l l e n W i l l i a m s - LIB) - Responding t o t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t u n i q u e n e s s i s n o t an excuse f o r such a precedent: t h o s e i s l a n d s a r e not t h e private preserve o f t h e p e o p l e who l i v e on them; t h e y a r e l o v e d and c h e r i s h e d by a l o t o f u s . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e are other unique areas, but t h i s one r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l protection. As e v i d e n c e d on Mudge I s l a n d a n d Mayne I s l a n d * t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s h a v e n o t done a good j o b . (Rosemary Brown - NDP) At t h e end o f t h e s e c o n d r e a d i n g , H o n o u r a b l e James responded t o c r i t i c i s m s o f the I s l a n d s Trust  Lorimer  A c t . The f o l l o w i n g  p a r a p h r a s e d s t a t e m e n t s c f i n t e n t were among h i s r e p l i e s :  - The I s l a n d s Trust Act p e o p l e on t h e i s l a n d s .  gives  t h e c o n t r o l back t o t h e  - P l a n s i n a f e w i s l a n d s , n o t many, a r e i n p l a c e . They w i l l r e m a i n i n p l a c e , and w i l l be t h e k e y t o d e v e l o p m e n t of those particular islands. Other areas will be p r e p a r i n g t h e i r own p l a n s i n t h e same way a s t h e o n e s t h a t have t h e i r p l a n s prepared* The t r u s t , I h o p e , w i l l assist this m e t h o d , and w i l l assist the regional districts. - I n r e s p o n s e t o B i l l B e n n e t t ' s c l a i m t h a t t h e a c t i s an e r o s i o n o f c o n t r o l w h i c h c e n t r a l i z e s g o v e r n m e n t ; and h i s suggestion t h a t i n s t e a d o f i n s t i t u t i n g an I s l a n d s T r u s t the government should g i v e l o c a l s a chance t o plan f o r themselves until they f a i l , i n which case t h e M i n i s t e r s h o u l d move i n w i t h t h e L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t ( a s was done with t h e i m p o s i t i o n of t h e 10-acre f r e e e z e ) : t r u e , I can control those i s l a n d s as M i n i s t e r under the Local Services Act. What I am t r y i n g t o do i s t o g i v e that power t o l o c a l p e o p l e , t o l e t them l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own dest i n i e s . - The t r u s t , I h o p e , w i l l for community plans, the i s l a n d s . When t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t  assist i n making arrangements d e v e l o p e d by t h e l o c a l p e o p l e on  A c t was i n t h e C o m m i t t e e S t a g e  (May  51 28,1974)  the  following  paraphrased  statements  of i n t e n t  made:  - In response to a question p o i n t i n g out that the l e g i s l a t i o n seems t o e x c l u d e any m a t t e r w h i c h may a f f e c t a designated i s l a n d and a l s o p a r t o f t h e m a i n l a n d : t h e i n t e n t i o n i s that i t only a f f e c t s the i s l a n d s , not the main l a nd. (James L o r i m e r - NDP) [Note: This statement o i l tanker t r a f f i c . ]  i s of r e l e v a n c e t o such  issues  as  - I n r e s p o n s e t o an a r g u m e n t by Hugh C u r t i s t h a t t h e T r u s t s h o u l d n o t s i m p l y be a f f o r d e d n o t i c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t s or dispositions by Crown a g e n c i e s but s h o u l d have v e t o power o v e r Crown a g e n c i e s : s e c t i o n 6 (4) i s h e r e so that in practice there w i l l be c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e t r u s t committee. As a result there should be complete cooperation and c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e separate d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e Crcwn a g e n c i e s , and t h e trust itself. Obviously what w i l l happen i s t h a t any Crown a g e n c y o r any g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t w i l l be i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the trust b e f o r e s u c h a c t i o n s a s a power l i n e o r a new highway c r whatever are t a k e n . (James L o r i m e r - NDP) - R e f e r r i n g to the above r e s p o n s e : that is a very disappointing answer from the Minister.. Promise of c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n a r e empty words._ Witness the former g o v e r n m e n t : c e r t a i n arms o f t h a t g o v e r n m e n t and c e r t a i n Crown a g e n c i e s n e v e r t h e l e s s went ahead and did e x a c t l y what t h e y liked. While the M i n i s t e r ' s g e n u i n e i n t e n t i s t o c o n s u l t and c o o p e r a t e , t h e r e s h o u l d be some k i n d of p r o t e c t i o n i n t h i s section to a much more r e l i a b l e d e g r e e t h a n " g i v e n o t i c e " . ( S c o t t W a l l a c e - PC) - A l l members o f b o t h s i d e s o f t h e House were i n s u p p o r t of t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t s o m e t h i n g had to be done i n order t o look a f t e r these unique i s l a n d s . Y e t we f i n d t h a t when t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i s h e s t o d e a l w i t h those l a n d s , i t need n o t subject itself to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of any t r u s t e e s . ( A l l e n W i l l i a m s - LIB) What has happened i n t h e p a s t has been t h a t d e p a r t m e n t s and Crown a g e n c i e s have gone i n t o t h e i s l a n d s on their own and done whatever particular j o b t h e y had been i n t e n d i n g t o do.. The Crown agencies and departments should notify t h e t r u s t b e f o r e any a c t i o n i s t a k e n , i n  were  52 o r d e r t h a t t h e t r u s t w i l l now be able to be familiar with t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s and c a n c o r r e l a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o r have them reviewed or whatever the t r u s t may d e c i d e s h o u l d be done. (James L o r i m e r - NDP)  The the  following  statements  I s l a n d s T r u s t Act  were made a t t h e R e p o r t S t a g e  (June 4,  of  1974):  - We want preservation, conservation, and future d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s a r e a w h i c h has u n i q u e q u a l i t i e s . ( A l l e n W i l l i a m s - LIB) - T h i s b i l l p r o v i d e s f o r mere r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by t h e i s l a n d people than t h e y ' v e e v e r had b e f o r e . I t p r o v i d e s them w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r more i n p u t than ever before. E v e r y o n e wants t h e 10-acre f r e e z e l i f t e d ; e v e r y o n e wants new d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e i s l a n d s and some s o r t of mechanism t o c a r r y t h a t o u t . .. ( C a r l L i d e n - NDP) The 4,  Islands  1974.. The  T r u s t A c t was  mandate o f t h e T r u s t was  Summarizing the through  to  intent  of the  1.  the  Trust  to  be  made  these  NOT  6 (4)  by  regarding  second  I.  reading  I s l a n d s Trust Act, the f o l l o w i n g  apparent: and  development of  government their  activities  the  activities;  section  June  the  and  islands,  a l l government  Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s ;  as t o c o o r d i n a t e was  from  regional' d i s t r i c t s ,  consulted  corporations  it  was  communities,  d e p a r t m e n t s and 2.  p a s s i n g o f the  on  as s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r  foregoing statements  to c o o r d i n a t e the planning  between  p a s s e d on t h i r d r e a d i n g  intent otherwise  when  as.ked  departments  d e v e l o p m e n t s and  between t h e s e t h a t the  Crown  dispositions,  agencies.  Trust should  the government  would  repeatedly  a l l  by  and  be  Note  that  able to have  parties  so  veto  amended of  the  53 opposition 3.  t o do s o ;  to give  i s l a n d e r s mere  t h e y had r e c e i v e d 4.  to  give  from t h e r e g i o n a l  control  to assist  and  representation  than  districts;  "back t o t h e p e o p l e on t h e i s l a n d s . ' . '  l e t them l o o k a f t e r t h e i r 5..  attention  cwn d e s t i n i e s . "  "To  (Lorimer)  i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s by g e n e r a t i n g  a perspective  of  d e v e l o p m e n t on a l l t h e i s l a n d s ; 6.. t o  protect  t h e i s l a n d s s u c h t h a t t h e y r e m a i n b e a u t i f u l and  s p e c i a l . . To d i r e c t f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f conservationist  attitude,  preserved  and  protected  from u n d e s i r a b l e  7.  to  assist  community The mid-1975, months. Trust  that  the  the  the  islands  with  a  t o ensure t h a t s p e c i a l amenities are  rest  of  the  islands  are  generally  developments;  regional  districts  in  t h e development of.  plans. Islands  Trust  after  the  Amendment A c t , Trust  had  1975  was  introduced  been i n o p e r a t i o n  The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g  the  in  f o r several  intent  of  a n d o f t h e Amendment A c t were made:  The p r i n c i p l e of the b i l l i s t o allow the t r u s t t o h o l d l a n d s i n i t s name. A t p r e s e n t i t i s unable t o accept gifts o f r e a l e s t a t e and a l s o p e r s o n a l e s t a t e s and t o h o l d a n y t h i n g i n i t s name. The p r o v i s i o n here allows t h e t r u s t t c be a c o r p o r a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h o l d i n g l a n d and i t a l l o w s t h e t r u s t t o c a r r y on a s an individual might d o . ... i t h a s t h e power t o b u y and s e l l land as w e l l . However, t h e b a s i c purpose h e r e and the need a t the present time i s f o r power t o h o l d l a n d . . .... [ A t p r e s e n t an o f f e r o f p r o p e r t y ] p r o b a b l y has t o be p u t i n t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s . Most people don't want t o d o n a t e p r o p e r t y a s a t r u s t t o a department of government, they would f a r r a t h e r d o n a t e i t t o a t r u s t i n w h i c h t h e r e w o u l d be some control and t h a t t h e t r u s t w o u l d be bound t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r land or personal property i n c o n j u n c t i o n with t h e terms of the t r u s t .  the  54 (Lorimer  -  NDP)  The content of t h e amendment i s whether o r n o t i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e t r u s t t o be a b l e t o buy and sell land rather than just inherit land by donation. ....[The M i n i s t e r i s m i s l e a d i n g . He said] that although he had originally instructed the [ d r a f t i n g ] department t h a t t h e b i l l s h o u l d not have the power t o buy l a n d , he w o u l d p r o b a b l y need t h a t power i n a c o u p l e of years. So i t will remain i n the bill. I f ... t h e basic concept of the o r i g i n a l l e g i s l a t i o n ... was t o t r y t o bring about the best and optimum orderly development cf the Gulf Islands, i t seems s t r a n g e t h a t we m i g h t n o t n e e d t h e power t o acquire or buy land now, b u t ... t h a t maybe i n a y e a r o r two t h a t power m i g h t be d e s i r a b l e . ... A l l o f us ... v o t e d ... t o p r e s e r v e t h e i s l a n d s i n t h e i r best p o s s i b l e environment... . ( S c o t t W a l l a c e - PC) A y e a r ago ... i t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e was no need f o r p o w e r s t o h o l d r e a l e s t a t e o r ... p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y , that i t c o u l d be h e l d e l s e w h e r e . T h e r e a r e a number o f a r e a s i n government which can h o l d l a n d . We h a v e found in the p a s t y e a r t h a t p e o p l e who were p r e p a r e d t o g i v e d o n a t i o n s o b j e c t e d t o g i v i n g them t o t h e government as such or t o a d e p a r t m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t . They wanted t o g i v e i t t o t h e t r u s t . . .....The r e a s o n [ f o r n o t needing] t h e power t o buy and s e l l f o r a b o u t two y e a r s i s t h a t we had no [ c a s h ] o f f e r s a t p r e s e n t . When we g o t t h e o f f e r s and had those funds, we c o u l d t h e n amend t h e s t a t u t e [ t o ] t a k e c a r e o f i t . ... We h a v e no r e a s o n a t p r e s e n t f o r b u y i n g and s e l l i n g land. Need could well arise w i t h i n a couple of years. ... The purpose of the fund i s t o d e v e l o p and l o o k a f t e r the i s l a n d s , to acquire land for possible park purposes and for wilderness areas. I t ' s also to look a f t e r t h e q u e s t i o n of l o o k i n g i n t o water supplies and make s t u d i e s in the area. T h e r e h a v e b e e n v e r y few s t u d i e s made up t o now, and t h o s e have t c be done. (James L o r i m e r NDP)  The evident  i n t e n t of the from  chapter  III,  s e t s up  the  the the  key  Islands  above  the  Amendment  quotations.  s e c t i o n of t h i s  Islands Trust  Following  Trust  F u n d , has  provincial  Act,  However, as  1975  mentioned i n  a c t , i . e . s e c t i o n 2A not  yet  election  is  which  been p r o c l a i m e d . . i n November, 1976  the  55 British from LIB  C o l u m b i a government changed.  NDP  changed  - 1, PC - 1.  March,  Trust  Amendment A c t ,  1977  1S77 by t h e new M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l C u r t i s , whose r i d i n g  Islands. of  standings  - 37, SC - 10, L I B - 5, PC - 2, t o SC - 3 5 , NDP - 18,  The I s l a n d s  Hugh  Party  the  The o r i g i n a l b i l l planning  Islands  Trust.  (rather  than  introduced  Affairs,  provided from  b a s i c a l l y f o r the  appointment) i n 1977.  in  Honourable  happened t o i n c l u d e t h e s o u t h e r n  Gulf  transfer  the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o the  I t d i d not i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r  was amended l a t e r second r e a d i n g ,  function  was  of general  the  election  trustees u n t i l this  During presentation  of t h e  bill  t h e M i n i s t e r made t h e f o l l o w i n g comments:  ... The r e f o r m s ... w i l l s i m p l i f y planning and r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s and b r i n g t h o s e p r o c e d u r e s closer t o p e o p l e and c o m m u n i t i e s s e r v e d by t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t . . ... The existing process of developing and a d m i n i s t e r i n g l a n d - u s e and p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s w i t h i n t h e Islands T r u s t a r e a h a s p r o v e n t o be s l o w , u n w i e l d y , and o f t e n r e m o t e f r o m t h e p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by t h o s e controls or regulations.. . . . a main p u r p o s e o f t h i s b i l l i s t o i m p r o v e t h e p l a n n i n g and l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n processes. This i s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d by t r a n s f e r r i n g c e r t a i n p o w e r s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from t h e seven currently involved regional d i s t r i c t s t o the trust i t s e l f . ... The existing three-level system empowers regional districts t o adopt land-use r e g u l a t i o n and p l a n n i n g b y l a w s , s u b j e c t t o a p p r o v a l by t h e t r u s t and by the p r o v i n c e . . The new p r o p o s e d t w o - l e v e l s y s t e m w i l l permit the trust ... t o a d o p t bylaws subject to provincial a p p r o v a l . . .... [This w i l l ] eliminate the d e l a y s and f r u s t r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with an a d d i t i o n a l level of approval [and] also confer a p o s i t i v e planning r o l e on t h e t r u s t ... .. The t r u s t ' s e x i s t i n g c a p a c i t y t o a p p r o v e regional district initiates [ s i c ] confines i t essentially t o a n e g a t i v e a p p r o a c h based cn veto power.. . . . [ T h i s i s ]  bill at  56 enforced  institutional  negativism.  ... R e g i o n a l districts will continue ... [ p r o v i d e ] a v a r i e t y o f c u s t o m a r y s e r v i c e s , t h e y also retain responsibility for adopting administering building regulations.  to will and  ... The p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e a s a w h o l e h a s an i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g a n d p r o t e c t i n g t h e I s l a n d s Trust area i s maintained i n the continuation of p r o v i n c i a l approval of bylaws, provision of financial support and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new c l a u s e t o a s s i s t i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e prime n a t u r a l a r e a s designated i n regional plans.. This latter c l a u s e w i l l enable the t r u s t t o adopt s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e to d e s i g n a t e d areas o f .high r e c r e a t i o n a l , scenic or e c o l o g i c a l importance. ....[Beneficial results of this amendment will i n c l u d e ] greater responsiveness to l o c a l circumstances and ... a l e s s cumbersome a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . During giving felt  s e c o n d r e a d i n g t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e a r g u m e n t a b o u t  p r o v i n c i a l appointees  that  local  planning  function  control  t h i s added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  was  being  eroded  by  I t was  removing  the  frcm e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the r e g i o n a l  districts. The that  following  were among t h e comments r e g a r d i n g  intent  time:  We a l l agree t h a t t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l circumstances i n the i s l a n d areas o f our p r o v i n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s , and t h a t t h e s e a r e t h e j e w e l s of British Columbia, part of our p r o v i n c i a l t r e a s u r e , and t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be some s p e c i a l form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . But t h a t s p e c i a l f o r m o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be a majority provincial-government-appointed group. ... What [ t h i s b i l l ] d o e s i s t a k e away e v e n s u c h powers a s there are with the l o c a l l y elected regional district. To me t h a t ' s wrong ...... (Gordon G i b s o n - L I B ) How  do  you  do  twp_things—give  them_local  at  57 il-li2£0SZ_iiIiil_E-i£_:i-_i£-i_i A 5J2_l5_£h e_ o^e a t e s t extent, and £reserve t h e n a t u r a l b e a u t y and o r d e r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f the_islands_or the degree t o _which t h e y should be developed? N a t u r a l l y , t h a t ' s t h e e s s e n c e o f what we're debating.. ... We're l o o k i n g at an Act which is intended to be one p r o v i d i n g f o r many, many y e a r s , i f n o t d e c a d e s and a c e n t u r y , of prudent management and preservation of what i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a v e r y v a l u a b l e part of B r i t i s h Columbia's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . ( S c o t t W a l l a c e - PC, my e m p h a s i s ) ... One o f t h e r e a s o n s t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t was f o r m e d i n the f i r s t place was to stop development in the disorderly way t h a t [ i t ] has o c c u r r e d . D e v e l o p e r s must be c o n t a i n e d on t h e s e beautiful islands. We've seen those i s l a n d s s o l d out over the y e a r s . ( D e n n i s Cocke - NDP) [The original I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t has one f l a w : ] no authority to do anything positive, c o n s t r u c t i v e , or b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h e i s l a n d s ... . (Hon. A l l e n W i l l i a m s - SC) The  Islands  A u g u s t 3 1,. 1977. provide local the  Prior to this  f o r the e l e c t i o n  NDP,  Charles  democratic  Barber, He  of t h e  that  self-governicent  previously exist.  The  bill  was  on  g e n e r a l t r u s t e e s f r o m among  the  Municipal Affairs  critic  of  his party's f u l l  support  for  would  local then  provide  control  a  form  that  passed with f u l l  of  did  not  support  of  legislature. Summarizing i n t e n t of the  review  of l e g i s l a t i v e  to  November, 1977  1.  give i s l a n d  c o n t r o l than 2.  i n Committee  to  i t  and was  was  amended  expressed  said  1977  d a t e , the b i l l  t r u s t e e s by t h a t g r o u p . . The  t h e amendment.  the  T r u s t Amendment A c t ,  debates,  Islands  Trust  the Trust  has  gleaned  from  been i n t e n d e d  a  prior  to:  r e s i d e n t s more a t t e n t i o n ,  t h e y had  representation,  and  under t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ;  make i s l a n d e r s f e e l t h a t t h e y  have  a  larger  role  in  the  58 planning  and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  3-  ^ttemjjt t o coordinate  to  the  islands,  so  of i s l a n d  development;  a l l government a c t i v i t i e s  that  they  with  were n o t i n c o n f l i c t  respect with  one  another; 4.  liase  between c o m m u n i t i e s ,  d e p a r t m e n t s , and Crown 5.  facilitate  assist  districts,  government  corporations;  community  professional assistance 6.  regional  individual  planning  on  each  island,  and draw  when n e e d e d ; islands  by  bringing  a  perspective  of  p r o b l e m s a n d s o l u t i o n s on e t h e r i s l a n d s ; 7.  protect  special;  the  islands  such  that  d i r e c t f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i s l a n d s i n an  manner  and  natural  beauty, r e c r e a t i o n a l value,  special  amenities  are  t h e y r e m a i n b e a u t i f u l and  with  protected  a  conservationist  i s preserved,  from  orderly  a t t i t u d e ; ensure that the  or e c o l o g i c a l importance  of  and t h a t t h e r e s t o f t h e i s l a n d s  developments  having  significant  negative  impacts. Since  t h e 1977 Amendment A c t t o o k e f f e c t ,  also included to provide  more s i m p l e  2..  to  planning  island 3.. than  planning  and r e g u l a t o r y  and r e g u l a t o r y  has  procedures;  procedures c l o s e r t o the  communities;  f o r the Trust a  t o adopt a p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g  negative  vetoing  . approach;  c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e c f the Trust imaginative 4.  intent  the f o l l o w i n g :  1.  bring  the  to  c o m m u n i t y and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  to provide  approach,  for to  be  the  rather prudent  reflected i n  decisions.  d e m o c r a t i c s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and l o c a l c o n t r o l .  59 C. . ±9  According  to  "The  The  statement  Policy  of the I s l a n d s T r u s t i , A u g u s t ^  75. policy  mandate  "to preserve  specific  i s s u e s such  capacity, water,  dealt  p r o t e c t " the  and  as c o m m u n i t y  agricultural  land.  islands,  plans  Crown  and  land,  with  with  bylaws,  its  various carrying  forestry,  mining,  f o r e s h o r e , and r e c r e a t i o n .  The and  and  of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t  statement  s a i d t h a t the T r u s t  interprets  preservation  p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d s t o mean:  ... i t must promote policies which will allow f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f d e c i d i n g how the i s l a n d s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d o r d e v e l o p e d . This  would  discourage statement  seem  to  policies  imply which  that permit  the  Trust  irreversible  felt  i t  should  actions.  The  continued:  To accomplish this the T r u s t w i l l m o n i t o r , and where n e c e s s a r y , r e g u l a t e t h e r a t e and e x t e n t of development taking place i n t h e T r u s t a r e a and e n c o u r a g e t y p e s o f development t h a t w i l l maintain the essentially rural n a t u r e of t h e i s l a n d s . Regarding  c o m m u n i t y p l a n s and  bylaws,  the statement  said:  The Trust c o n s i d e r s i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t each i s l a n d c o m m u n i t y a r r i v e a t i t s own c o n s e n s u s o f how i t should develop, and t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n s h o u l d i d e a l l y be a s t a t e m e n t o f t h a t c o n s e n s u s . ... T r u s t p o l i c y , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o e n c o u r a g e and where necessary a i d l o c a l i s l a n d groups i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s and b y - l a w s w h i c h have community c o n s e n s u s . Regarding  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , the statement  said:  60 The T r u s t w i l l , i n f u l l consultation with local island groups, E e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s and o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l agencies, determine t h e d e s i r e d k i n d , r a t e , and extent o f g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n b a s e d upon t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the natural and man-made s y s t e m s o f a n i s l a n d o r a group of i s l a n d s . . The c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f an i s l a n d w i l l be b a s e d upon the c a p a b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s u c h as s o i l s , water, and v e g e t a t i o n to sustain human activities without irreparable impairment. ... C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be on a s c a l e c c m m e n s u r a t e w i t h that of t h e i s l a n d concerned. Where i n s u f f i c i e n t data on t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y exists, the Trust will, of necessity adopt a conservative estimate o f an i s l a n d ' s c a p a c i t y t o accommodate g r o w t h . P o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s and distribution will be d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e most v u l n e r a b l e a s p e c t s o f i s l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t and a m e n i t i e s so t h a t the Trust can fulfill i t s long-term obligations t o future generations. The  s t a t e m e n t summarized t h e b a s i c elements of t r u s t p o l i c y  as f o l l o w s : a. E e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e i s l a n d s a r e a r e s o u r c e o f n a t i o n a l importance but of f i n i t e s i z e , j u s t i f y i n g p r o v i n c i a l as well as l o c a l i n t e r e s t i n how they a r e used and p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n . b.  Provision of as v a r i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and e x p e r i e n c e a s t h e i s l a n d s a r e a b l e t o o f f e r , now and i n the future, i n c l u d i n g a range o f h o l i d a y accommodation and facilities.  c. R e t e n t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e f l o r a a n d f a u n a and b o t h unigue and typical i s l a n d s c e n e r y ; a n d r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t some a r e a s a r e t o o f r a g i l e f o r any i n t e n s i v e use and must be p r o t e c t e d by c r e a t i o n o f r e s e r v e s . d.  Establishment of a p a t t e r n o f l a n d use which w i l l a l l o w n e e d e d and r e a s o n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t i n the present but which will a t t h e same t i m e preserve land from a l i e n a t i o n , so t h a t f u t u r e generations will have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make t h e i r own c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s .  e.  Development o f t h e i s l a n d s o n l y i n ways w h i c h a r e i n s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e l a n d s c a p e and w h i c h make t h e most o f each s i t e ' s n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  f.  Recognition  that  the  islands  are  first  of  a l l an  61 e x i s t i n g community of p e o p l e , and t h e w e l f a r e of people, and those who j o i n t h e m a n d come a f t e r m u s t a l w a y s be a p r i m a r y c o n c e r n c f t h e T r u s t . _ Summarizing Trust  felt  the  Trust's  interpretation  of i t s  those them,  intent,  the  i t should:  1.  discourage irreversible  2.  m o n i t o r and  3.  encourage  regulate  actions;  rate  development  and  that  extent  of  development;  maintains the r u r a l  nature of  the  environment; 4.  encourage  and  bylaws  5.  determine  growth,  and  assist  which have  community  desired  based  on  i n the  kind,  carrying  process of development  of  plans  consensus; rate  and  capacity  extent of  of  natural  population and  man-made  systems; 6. . e n c o u r a g e  provision  experiences,  including  of the a  widest  range  of  variety holiday  cf  recreational  accommodation  and  facilities; 7.  encourage  policies  to retain  both  u n i q u e and  typical  island  scenery; 8.  protect  9.  encourage  prevent 10..  fragile  areas;  policies  alienation  discourage  of  which p e r m i t needed  development  afford  local  which  resources;  developments  which  are not complementary  natural landscape; 11.  but  communities  a primary concern. .  to  the  62 •  Discussion  1»  Genera 1  D  Throughout the f o r e g o i n g settlement and  of  descriptions  1)  of  resource  management on t h e i s l a n d s p r i o r t o t h e I s l a n d s  the  e v o l u t i o n of the T r u s t ,  and Trust,  and 2) t h e p r e c e d i n g  three  accounts of the i n t e n t cf the T r u s t ,  t h e most a p p a r e n t o b j e c t i v e  of t h e I s l a n d s  t h e c r e a t i o n o f a mechanism  for,the  Trust  legislation  c o n t r o l of development  i n the t r u s t  objectives  included  providing  input into  planning  and  coordinating respect  2..  the  of  Other  major  more o p p o r t u n i t y  island  development,  a l l government  for and  agencies  with  islands  was  to the i s l a n d s .  The n o t i o n  and  Frqtect"?  of " p r e s e r v i n g  a well-defined feature  Committee Bather  area.  islanders  regulating  activities  What i s " P r e s e r v e  not  was  on M u n i c i p a l the  and p r o t e c t i n g " t h e  of t h e r e p o r t  Matters  Committee  nor of the  frowned  on  of the S e l e c t  Standing  legislative  debates.  unplanned  subdivision  development  and recommended t h a t e m p h a s i s f o r f u t u r e  be  on  placed  preservation  recreation, of  a  moderate  rural  certain  guite  the  often  voiced  ££eserving  the  explicitly  defined;  interpretation..  in  environment this  residential  atmosphere.  p r o t e c t i n g t h e i s l a n d s frcm  was  development  While  types  of  legislative not.  j o b was l e f t  use,  the  notion  development debates,  Neither  that  concept  and of was of was  to the Islands Trust f o r  63 It  seems f a i r t o say  Legislative their  1974  Assembly state.  inevitable  and  that  intended  Some  acceptable  for  intended. irreversible not  while  prevented.  Bather,  intent.  One  place  amenities  i s evident  6(7)  identified  to the in  a  scenic value, interest,  the  development  had  to  islands;  i t was  islands  reguired  resources  and  destruction, the  of and  "optimum and The  Trust's  be  all..  However, i t  was  remain  beautiful  and  preventing  provincial  also s t r e s s e d the  all  be  development  1977  Islands Trust regional  plan  Amendment A c t , Act.  potential,  of c e r t a i n introduced areas  natural  or  the General that  into  the  that  planning  and  communities  to  Islands  a  be  Trust.  conservationist  management development  prevent  of of  management o f  Trust  to  scientific  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s could  agreed  The  the  as s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h r e s p e c t  instituted  neglect.  which  be  I t s p e c i f i e d that  view presented  careful  to  of p r e s e r v a t i o n  ecological  unanimously  appears  the the  natural  exploitation,  was  to strive  for  o r d e r l y development" of t h e i s l a n d s . policy  statement  interpreted  p r o t e c t " g u i t e c o n s e r v a t i v e l y , which i s probably the  was  that a l l i r r e v e r s i b l e a c t i o n s should  i s the  rural  seemed  in  was  where some n o t i o n  be  preserved to  of  debatable,  a f f o r d e d s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e s by  attitude  the  i n that sense p r e s e r v a t i o n  guestion  orderly  a strong  of  i t appears that i t  delicate  T h e r e was  Members  i s l a n d s be  i s l a n d s would  recreational  or  any,  t o most, i f not  actions i s s t i l l  n e c e s s a r i l y intended  section  of  d e c a d e s t o come, and Thus,  i f  t h a t the  degree  u n a n i m o u s l y hoped t h a t t h e unigue  few,  intent  of  "preserve i n keeping  o r d e r l y development.  importance of  being  responsive  and with  The  statement  to  existing  64 island  3.  c o m m u n i t i e s , i n w h a t e v e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were made.  Intent  of L o c a l v s . P r o v i n c i a l C o n t r o l  One was  thread  running  the i n t e n t t o give  local  c o n t r o l of development.. intent had  was  more  control,  interests  in  the  protected.  legislators control  a  t o make t h e l o c a l 2)  islands  ensuring  measure  of  i t appeared t h a t  the  people f e e l that they that  obviously  opportunities)  some c c n c e r n  developers—hence  at  mechanisms  of p r o v i n c i a l  more a u t o n o m o u s amenities  i t appears that a there  of l o c a l  provincial  the i n t e r e s t s i n the  to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) , the  m i g h t be r u i n e d ;  the  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  t h a t i f t h e i s l a n d s were g i v e n  of t h e powers  greater  (specifically  atmosphere  T h e r e was  (as a f f o r d e d  islands  residents  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  while  scenic beauty, r u r a l were  1)  basically  throughout the three a c c o u n t s of i n t e n t  the  of  was a  three  local the  distrust  provincial  appointees. A  look  the  p r o v i n c i a l government control  furthers  an  control  a few r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t  1..  the  general  government, represent bylaws  Municipal  new  trustees  Trust  by t h e  how  much  The f o l l o w i n g  m.echanisms: (previouly appointed  e l e c t e d by t h e l o c a l  the  of  t o have.  trustees)  the p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the t r u s t of  retained  understanding  i s l a n d e r s were a c t u a l l y i n t e n d e d  are  2.  of  must  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l are  supposed  to  area;  be a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f  Affairs;  3.  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  c o n t r o l s the Islands Trust  4..  the I s l a n d s  Trust  of  provincial  d e p a r t m e n t s o r Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s . .  cannot veto  developments  or  budget;  dispositions Neither  does  65 the  Islands  provincial The  T r u s t Act appear  4•  will  sources Islands  these  and o t h e r  studied,  will  T r u s t was  land  departments  or  consultation  The  islands  with  significant  the  the T r u s t ,  was  single  performance  mechanism  development  commercial  sector.  of  ( i . e . of  and  resource  Where  other  government on  the  p l a n n e d any c h a n g e s  would  be  c o g n i z a n c e of T r u s t o b j e c t i v e s ,  and  system  was  tha.t  there  r o l e as c o o r d i n a t i n g  to ensure orderly  conservationist  negative  of the  and open space) , p a r t i c u l a r l y  corporations  Trust a  the  island  parks,  within the Trust's  Islands  as  of  private  Crown  with  act  transportation,  the i n t e n t of  cooperation  to  recreation,  r e s p e c t t o the  the  the  system.  control  use,  from  f o r judgment  p e r f o r m a n c e and where a p p l i c a b l e  and  development,  interpreted  be used a s t h e b a s i s  institutional  coordination  islands,  other  Trust. Performance  summary o f i n t e n t , as  The I s l a n d  with  over  mechanisms o f p r o v i n c i a l  following  Trust's  planning,  paramountcy  become more e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s .  of the t o t a l  2.  of  B a s i s f p r ^ E v a l u a t ion of_.Islands  The  1.  have  legislation.  implications  control  to  attitude,  impacts  on  the  body.  development  of the  guarding  against  natural  and  social  environment. .  3. .The  Islands  significant  Trust  measure  was of  to  afford  attention  and  local local  communities control  ,  a while  66 ensuring t h a t  p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the scenic  atmosphere, and r e c r e a t i o n a l amenities were  beauty,  rural  67 Chapter  V  PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY AS IT RELATES TO THE ISLANDS TRUST  The  purpose  i d e a s w h i c h may  of  this  chapter  i s t o d i s c u s s seme g e n e r a l  provide i n s i g h t s i n t o the behavior  making s y s t e m s i n v o l v i n g t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t . focus  of  While  facilitate  theory  an  understanding  the T r u s t have  will  of  why  the p r i n c i p l e  performed  the  they  theory  not  or  may  test the theory. seems  systems  have.  be  processes..  successful  The  Therefore, the t h e s i s  applicable  and"  points  out  While  of the  i n e x p l a i n i n g a l l the  f i n d i n g s of the t h e s i s , the t h e s i s i s not designed  it  to  a l s o p r o v i d e an a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e w o r k i n t h e f o r m the decision-making  may  way  with  i s intended  decision-making  a model f o r e x a m i n i n g  to  decision-  t h e t h e s i s i s t o examine t h e T r u s t ' s performance  r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e n t o f i t s mandate, t h e t h e o r y  involving  of  specifically  uses t h e t h e o r y  where  i t  seems  where t o be  inadequate.  A.  the  General  Assumptions  The p u b l i c  o u t c r i e s on t h e i s l a n d s i n t h e e a r l y  resultant  institution  evidence market  of t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t i t s e l f  t h a t g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n was d e s i r e d imperfections  and  legislators  Government i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y public  interest."  to  and  serve  as  alleviate  i n a d e q u a c i e s , a t l e a s t as f a r as t h e  p u b l i c o f t h e i s l a n d s and p r o v i n c i a l  "the  1970's  However,  the  were  concerned.  presumed t o a c c o r d public  interest  with is  68 problematic; systematic  there  example.  d e f i n i t i o n s of  the  [ 1970 ] ) .  individuals  and  what  Several public  definition, this  interest  theories  interest  n o r any s i n g l e  exist  is in  which  ( s e e Downs  who a r e s e n s i t i v e t o groups i n s o c i e t y .  politicians  propose  [1962],  and  the  interests  of a l l  T h i s a p p e a r s t o be assumed  and " p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . "  P u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d o e s n o t make assumption.  Under t h i s t h e o r y  bureaucrats, selfish  any  M o s t o f t h e t h e o r i e s assume "good p e o p l e " i n  government—people  f o r both  single  way o f d e t e r m i n i n g  particular  Steiner  i s no  a l l actors,  and p o l i t i c i a n s a r e assumed  including  voters,  1) t o a c t i n t h e i r  i n t e r e s t s , a n d 2) t o a c t r a t i o n a l l y .  Thus  this  no  one  own i s  assumed t o a c t i n t h e " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . " Admittedly  these  a r e very  many e x a m p l e s where t h e y where  people  Furthermore, other  have  are  acted  inappropriate.  Examples  abound  irrationally.  most i n d i v i d u a l s do h a v e a t l e a s t some c o n c e r n  people  and,  concern  joining  and t h e r e a r e  n o n r a t i o n a l l y and e v e n  therefore,  t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and b e h a v i o r . some  l a r g e assumptions,  f o r the  an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  are  not e n t i r e l y e g o i s t i c a l i n  F o r example, people  public  for  i n t e r e s t through  may  reflect  their  v o t e , by  group, o r by f o r e g o i n g monetary g a i n i n  o r d e r t o b e t t e r s e r v e o t h e r s . . I d e o l o g i e s , e t h i c s , and r e l i g i o n s commonly p r o v i d e  m o t i v a t i o n f o r people t o a c t  way..  cases,  In  many  b e n e f i t frcm  people  voluntarily  interests  in  the person  might s t i l l  selfishly;  however,  derive  sacrificing  a i d o f another be  may  to  be  an  unselfish  some p s y c h o l o g i c a l of  group's i n t e r e s t s . .  said  i f such  some  in  acting  their  personal  In this rationally  sense, and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s a s may be  69 derived  frcm  definition  of  Therefore, are  altruistic selfish  behavior  are  from  the  definition  Summarizing, while i t i s recognized altruistically, assumed  that  a l l  accordingly. ethical  and  Another  will  weakness  may  its  do  exist  they  used  here,.  do s o m e t i m e s a c t  more t h a n  are b a s i c a l l y not,  of  however,  others, i t  self-interested imply  these  assumptions  an  behavior.  and  act  absence  of  weaknesses  long-run  which  time  a  person's  (but  taking the  cognizance analytical  the  framework  of  B-  Choice_Theory  general  names.  science  field  political  ( M u e l l e r , 1976).  economy, and The  choice  or simply the a p p l i c a t i o n  of  birth  of  book. theory  Social  field  of  Choice  i s concerned  non-  P u b l i c c h o i c e i s the  i s sometimes r e f e r r e d this  of  economics  as s o c i a l c h o i c e , c o l l e c t i v e c h o i c e , and  Kenneth Arrow's Public  theory.  c h o i c e c a n be d e f i n e d a s t h e e c o n o m i c s t u d y  market d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , political  at a l l .  of t h e m ) ,  i s drawn f r c m t h e p a r a d i g m o f p u b l i c c h o i c e  to  horizon  self-interest  this thesis  Public  self-  However, t h e r e a r e many a c t i o n s w h i c h  t h e o r e t i c a l model t o be u s e d f o r  Public  is  i s that there i s  s h o r t - r u n and  be i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t  be v i e w e d t o be n o t i n  Despite  t h a t people  between a person's  I t may  dominate  the  restraints*)  often a c o n f l i c t interest.  people  b e n e f i t s may  of s e l f - i n t e r e s t  t h a t some p e o p l e  (This does  or o t h e r  within  b e n e f i t s , t h e l o g i c becomes c o n f o u n d e d .  w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t such  excluded  included  t o by  study and  was  the  these  new  other  i n 1951  Individual  same  with  Values.  w i t h t h e mechanisms by  which  70 human s o c i e t i e s make (Russell,  1979).  institutions politicians  The  "which to  decisions  their  emphasis  would  generate  about  lead  has  collective been  self-seeking  on  lives  designing  bureaucrats  or  p u b l i c w e l f a r e i n t h e same s e n s e t h a t  t h e m a r k e t l e a d s some s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d  businessmen t o  social surplus" (Tullcck, i n Russell,  1979, p . 3 2 ) .  explained the notion of p u b l i c choice theory  produce  a  Downs (1976)  well:  ... I t may seem strange to a s s e r t that most officials [ o f the government or bureaucracy] are significantly motivated by s e l f - i n t e r e s t when their s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i s to serve the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .... . A l t h o u g h many o f f i c i a l s s e r v e t h e p u b l i c interest a s t h e y p e r c e i v e i t , i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t they a r e p r i v a t e l y m o t i v a t e d s o l e l y o r e v e n m a i n l y by a d e s i r e t o s e r v e t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t £er s e . I f s o c i e t y has c r e a t e d t h e p r o p e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h e i r private motives will l e a d them t o a c t i n what t h e y b e l i e v e t o be t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , even though these motives, like everyone e l s e ' s , are partly rooted i n t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t . T h e r e f o r e , whether o r n o t t h e public i n t e r e s t w i l l i n f a c t be s e r v e d d e p e n d s upon how e f f i c i e n t l y s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e designed t o achieve that purpose. S o c i e t y cannot i n s u r e t h a t i t w i l l be s e r v e d m e r e l y by a s s i g n i n g someone t c s e r v e i t . , (p.87) According public  t o R u s s e l l ( 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e r e a r e two main t h r e a d s  choice  theory.  One  institutions forarriving alternatives individuals homo  cn  rational  the b a s i s of t h e choices  into  the  study  of rules or ranking  The  second  world of p u b l i c c h o i c e s — a s  behavior  of  or p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e  unit.  p o l i t i c i a n s , e t c . - - t o see  self-interested  traditional  the  at a c o l l e c t i v e choice or  m a k i n g up t h e c o l l e c t i v e  e c o n o m i c us  bureaucrats,  involves  to  whether  explain  inserts voters,  assumptions  events  better  of than  views.  The l a t t e r i s the thread t h a t t h i s t h e s i s attempts t o  use.  71  A  model  i s  formulated  under t h e p r e v i o u s l y  about  t h e b e h a v i o r of v a r i o u s  m e n t i o n e d a s s u m p t i o n s and o t h e r s t o be made  explicit  later,  includes  some  studies.  R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e x t e n t t o which p r e d i c t i o n s  model will  drawing frcm the p u b l i c directly  successfully be u s e f u l  C.. B a s i c  relevant  explain  i n guiding  theories  the findings  as w e l l a s  which  empirical of  the  of t h e r e s e a r c h ,  they  the analysis.  predictions  c o n c e p t s s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d  Public  of  the  and e x p l i c i t l y  model,  certain  key  defined.  good  Public  goods  i n the s t r i c t e s t  made a v a i l a b l e , c a n n o t everyone. restrictive. Steiner  choice l i t e r a t u r e  C o n c e p t s of„the. Model  Before developing  1.  actors,  For  this  be  restricted  frcm  the  free  thesis, this definition i s felt  A b r o a d e r more e x p l i c i t  (1970) w i l l  sense a r e goods which, once  definition  put  use  of  t o be t o o forth  be u s e d :  M Y _ P f t k l i c l Y _ i n ^ u c e d o r ^ p r o v i d e d ^ c c l l e c t i y e ^ good i s a p u b l i c good. A " c o l l e c t i v e g o o d " i n my d e f i n i t i o n i s not necessarily a collective consumption good. Collective goods arise whenever some segment o f t h e p u b l i c c o l l e c t i v e l y w a n t s and i s p r e p a r e d t o pay f o r a different bundle o f g o o d s and s e r v i c e s than the unhampered m a r k e t w i l l p r o d u c e . A c o l l e c t i v e good thus r e q u i r e s 1) an a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n e i t h e r g u a n t i t y or guality b e t w e e n i t and t h e a l t e r n a t i v e t h e p r i v a t e m a r k e t w o u l d p r o d u c e , and 2) a v i a b l e demand f o r the difference. i  Collective g o o d s may be p r i v a t e l y or p u b l i c l y provided. Co-ops, unions, vigilante organizations, country c l u b s , c a r p o o l s , and t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a l l  by  72 e x a m p l e s of p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r i s e i n r e s p o n s e t o c o l l e c t i v e demands f o r p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i v e goods or services. When t h e c o o r d i n a t i n g mechanism f c r p r o v i d i n g a c o l l e c t i v e good invokes the powers of the s t a t e I d e f i n e t h e good as a p u b l i c good. In this definition there i s the r e g u i r e m e n t t h a t a p u b l i c good must meet the t e s t s of b e i n g a c o l l e c t i v e good. Public provision by i t s e l f does n o t c r e a t e p u b l i c goods. . (p. 25) Under  this  services  definition,  it  i s c l e a r f o r example, t h a t  (including s p e c i f i c decisions)  d e p a r t m e n t o r a g e n c y , whose f u n c t i o n private  developments with  public  goods—if  such  p r o v i d e d by  general  a government  i s to c o n t r o l public  and/or  respect to environmental g u a l i t y , a  mechanism of  control i s  are  collectively  demanded.  2.  Power Power  involves  "possession  control,  influence  over  1977).  M a r c h a k ' s words  ( 1 9 7 9 ) , "Power  the  the  In  determine  ethers"  of  rules  enforce decisions"  (Webster's  of  New  authority  Collegiate  game; t h e  is  the  or  Dictionary, capacity  r i g h t or t h e  to  ability  to  (p. 13).  3. . I n t e r e s t s Interests attention  behavior,  seme  action.  in  subsistence  on  Interests  lead this  reguirements  (which  They may  the  may  be  perceived  or  to  costs  such  as  to  and the  states  everything  food  and  special  tangible  motivators  improved  refers  cause be  {or more a c c u r a t e l y ,  individuals context  accompany  object  i . e . concerns.  depending  interests) Welfare  f e e l i n g s which  toward  intangible),  taking  are  of  or  human  benefits  of  objects  of  of  welfare.  from  basic  shelter,  through  73 higher  reguirements  environmental  such  as  self-fulfilling  employment,  g u a l i t y , l e i s u r e t i m e and r e c r e a t i o n a l  amenities,  t o t h e h i g h e r human g u e s t f o r p o w e r — b o t h power t o c o n t r o l own d e s t i n y  and power t o c o n t r o l  Economic i n t e r e s t s involving  material  the destinies  refer s p e c i f i c a l l y  benefits.  It  of others.  to  those  must be n o t e d  power a n d employment t h e m s e l v e s a r e n o t m a t e r i a l can  be u s e d i n t u r n  t c derive material  most o f t h e i n t e r e s t s  investment,  or  (again t a n g i b l e to  define  strong  or i n t a n g i b l e ) .  vested  interests,  interests  between  certain  i s  made.  defined to include  in  such  the  to  kinds  of  definition  i n power of  vested  interest i n the interest, directly  unless  vehicle  interests.  environment, that  end—are  shall  particular  value),  choose all to  The  term  which  this  are s p e c i f i c a l l y interest  Any i n t e r e s t s t h a t  ( i . e. . p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) an  stake,  desired  by  Thus, v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s  as  a  interests.  Thus, not  included  be  termed  environmental  that  in  f o r example, a  in lead  benefits—other  not  c o n n e c t e d w i t h an economic i n t e r e s t  one's p r o p e r t y an e n d .  i t i s  a l l e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s , and t h e  non-material  interest  from  a way a s t o i n c l u d e  thesis  s e g u e s t e r i n g power a s a n end i n i t s e l f . only  sense,  interests.  W h i l e seme p e o p l e m i g h t  i n t e r e s t s " i s used h e r e as t h e  distinction  i n this  they  p e r s o n a l commitment i n an o b j e c t  f o r the purposes of t h i s  distinguish "vested  other  although  benefits,  benefits;  to concerns a r i s i n g  interests  that  mentioned above a r e economic  Vested i n t e r e s t s r e f e r  one's  this one's  vested  interest  i s  (e.g. i n t e r e s t  in  or with an i n t e r e s t i n a c q u i r i n g  power a s  74  Vested  interests  share i n something business);  (e.g. a t i t l e  o r f r o m an i n f o r m a l  ( e . g . . t o an e x i s t i n g or  to  may r e s u l t f r o m a l e g a l r i g h t , t i t l e , o r  an  political,  to  land,  or  a  share  ( n o n - l e g a l ) but s t r o n g economic,  or s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n such as a department  in  a  commitment arrangement;  of a b u r e a u c r a c y ) .  T h i s commitment may, f o r e x a m p l e , be due t o employment w i t h  that  organization. The the  rational  pursuit of s e l f - i n t e r e s t  maximization of p e r s o n a l u t i l i t y  those p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s derived but  not  excluding  those  4.  or s a t i s f a c t i o n , from  psychological  h a v i n g and u s i n g power e v e r  c a n be t a k e n t o  mean  excluding  benefitting  others,  benefits derived  from  others.  Property Eights Private  capitalist  property rights system.  are  a  fundamental  element  of  a  They a r e n o t , h o w e v e r , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  e v e r y human s o c i e t y .  In particular,  the  concept  of  "owning"  l a n d , and r e c e i v i n g a c e r t a i n b u n d l e o f r i g h t s w i t h t h e t i t l e t o that it  land,  i s a  i s something  concept  societies  have  which s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d ;  foreign developed  to  many  varying  p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , and C a n a d i a n adopted of  a system  private  which a f f o r d s  other degrees society  cultures. of  acceptance  happens  the  prohibit  to  individuals a significant  of have  bundle  property rights.  Private property rights are privileges, basically with  Various  property  what  the  owner  wishes  to  1) t o  do  d o , and 2) t o  o t h e r p e o p l e and g o v e r n m e n t s f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e p r o p e r t y  75 and  from d e t e r m i n i n g  s h a l l be  p u t . . They  Rather,  their  may  the uses t o which r e s o u r c e s are  not  scope begins  usually  of t h e  itemized  v e r y wide and  or  property  specified.  all-encompassing,  be g r a d u a l l y n a r r o w e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t upon p a s s a g e o f  regulating stressed  the  use  that  in  and  disposition  a l l  r i g h t s have the f o r c e expropriation laws  or  cf  capitalist  of  law;  property.  societies,  they  are  land-use  zoning  laws.  such  almost  governments  as  if  see  Private property to  do  entitle  the  owner t o a  influence  with  w h i c h may  t o owners of l e s s  the  n o t be  to  a  to  of  valuable property.  be d i r e c t , a s i n t h e c a s e right  vote,  or  what one  It i s  rights  simply  wishes.  as  T h i s power  or i n d i r e c t ,  power  influence  landowners are  land  and  owners, or  and  as i n t h e c a s e  the  They a l s o  decision-making  where o n l y  l a n d o w n e r s e m p l o y o t h e r s t o work agriculture  property  a v a i l a b l e to non-property  may  private  operate.  property  measure  by  capitalist on  r i g h t s , h o w e v e r , a r e more t h a n  rights  be  nuisance  on t h e s e r i g h t s .  private  c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y must  as  of  s o c i e t i e s tend t o place a high degree of importance and h e s i t a t e i n f r i n g i n g  must  overridden  Governments  property r i g h t s ,  laws  private property  only  laws or s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t o r y laws,  It  and  entitled  where l a r g e  on  their  (e.g.  form of  vested  interests.  which  this  through  forestry)..  P r o p e r t y r i g h t s a r e one  5. _ P r o p e r t y The concerned  kinds  of  property  a r e l a n d and  with  w a t e r , and  the  biological  t h e s i s i s most and  physical  76 resources All  contained  types  of " r e a l "  structures,  cr  supported  i n o r on t h e l a n d and w a t e r .  p r o p e r t y , s u c h as l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , and f i x e d  are included i n t h i s  definition  of  property,  but  chattels are not. For  the  partitioned "use"  or  actually  into  purposes  of  two g r o u p s .  "subsistence" lived  necessarily)  on  by  this  thesis,  The f i r s t  property. the  group  This  landowner  property shall  refers  and  can  be to  perhaps  be  called property  (but not  used t o d e r i v e an e x i s t e n c e f o r h i m - o r h e r s e l f and  family. The  second  property.  group  of  Here r e f e r e n c e  then  not  "exchange"  lived  these  on  o n l y t o t u r n an e c o n o m i c r e n t  i s usually considered  property, although  6.  be c a l l e d  be " e x c h a n g e d " f o r g o o d s a n d / o r s e r v i c e s ) .  6f p r o p e r t y  zoning  shall  i s made t o p r o p e r t y  the landowners but u t i l i z e d will  property  by  (which  This  kind  t o be c o m m e r c i a l o r i n d u s t r i a l  t e r m s h e r e do n o t r e f e r  to  the  local  of the property.  Representative Reference  intervention initially  was  Council made  with respect t o a l l o c a t i o n  posited  that  representative council. referred  to:  electorate necessarily decisions  p r e v i o u s l y t o t h e need f o r g o v e r n m e n t  1) is  of  resources.  It i s  t h e government c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y  of a  By r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , two p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e  that the c o u n c i l i s elected,  and  2)  that i t s  p r o p e r t y owners and r e s i d e n t s o f t h e r e g i o n - - n o t  a l lthe  people  (e.g. t h e people  who  c o u l d . be  affected  by i t s  outside the region).. I t i s the task  77  of  the  representative  council  to  govern  in  the  "public  interest."  7..  The  State  The  remainder  "state."  of  the  I t i s important  council  i s a governing  here s h a l l  shall  be  t o note that while t h e  called  the  representative  body a n d hence p a r t o f a s t a t e , t h e t e r m  be u s e d t o mean  representative  government  the  governing  bodies  outside  c o u n c i l , e x c e p t where s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e  the  i s made  to t h e i n c l u s i o n of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u n c i l . . The s t a t e c o n s i s t s o f council,  as  well  governing  as governing  an  electorate  representative representative  council, council.  c o u n c i l i s delegated bodies. .  "Same  representative delegating  broader and  higher  than  electorates. but  having  "Higher"  including  broader  that  powers  means  having  c o u n c i l , and not having  i t s powers  means of  the  than  the  I t i s posited that the representative  powers o n l y t h r o u g h t h e s e h i g h e r  level"  the  b o d i e s on t h e same l e v e l a s t h e  c o u n c i l but which have d i f f e r e n t having  bodies  to  the  similar  governing  powers  the capability  of  to  the  either  representative c o u n c i l or vice  versa. The h i g h e r powers the  of  components o f t h e s t a t e s e t c o n s t r a i n t s  the representative c o u n c i l .  s t a t e may a f f e c t  such t h a t  the  representative  on  the  The l o w e r c o m p o n e n t s o f council's  electorate  decisions of the representative c o u n c i l are a f f e c t e d . .  78 8. . B u r e a u c r a c y The  bureaucracy  organizations  which  representative implementing,  is  the  i s employed  council  for  m o n i t o r i n g , and  group by  the  of  the  administrative  state  express  enforcing  the  and  purposes policies  of of  the 1) the  s t a t e a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u n c i l , and 2) a d v i s i n g on m a t t e r s as  requested  by t h e s t a t e and on m a t t e r s  which t h e b u r e a u c r a c y  f e e l s are important.. Employees o f t h e bureaucracy a r e The  public  servants.  word b u r e a u c r a t i s r e s e r v e d f o r g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s o f t h e  bureaucracy their  D.  called  who h a v e a p o s i t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y  great authority i n  department.  A _Mpdel From P u b l i c C h o i c e  Now l o o k i n g c l o s e r a t further  assumptions,  a  Theory  public  model  choice  (i.e. a  inferences or predictions) i s formulated. model m i g h t  theory set  and  o f p o s t u l a t e s and  The i n f e r e n c e s o f t h e  have seme r e l e v a n c e t o t h e b e h a v i o r o f  Trust, the behavior of the p r o v i n c i a l bureaucracy,  the  Following a  general examination of the theory, inferences of the  areas.  attempting  to  A f t e r each e m p i r i c a l relate  empirical results. model;  rather  model  Then t h e main body o f t h e t h e s i s  w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t i n e a c h problem  the  Islands  state, the behavior of the  and t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e t o t a l s y s t e m .  summarized i n a l i s t .  stating  are  proceeds  of the selected  s t u d y , an a n a l y s i s i s made,  inferences  of  the  Once a g a i n , t h i s t h e s i s does  model not  t o the test  the  i t s i m p l y uses t h e m o d e l a s one p o s s i b l e s e t o f  79 explanations analytical  f o r the  that  the_major  t h u s , of t h e model,  self-interested  of  variables. Russell,  i s t h a t a l l human b e i n g s  an  individual's in  utility  guide  or  of t h e t h e o r y are  function  h i s comments  1979, p . 5 3 ) , p u t s f o r t h  thesis w i l l  rational, testable  to  a  few  on T u l l o c k ' s p a p e r ( i n  T a b l e I on t h e f o l l o w i n g  page,  p u b l i c c h o i c e m o d e l s w i t h p r i v a t e c h o i c e m o d e l s and  not deal  arguments possible  alternative  should  arguments  A further (1979)  a  While  rigorous  are  of  behavior.  mentioned  is  this  manner,  be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e as an i n i t i a l  argument i s l e f t  note  functions.  w i t h each argument i n  explanations  t r e a t m e n t o f each  Russell  a  To g e t r i g o r o u s l y  s u g g e s t i n g some key a r g u m e n t s f o r u t i l i t y  for  as  a s s u m p t i o n , h o w e v e r , one must r e s t r i c t t h e  Mueller,  contrasting  these  and  u n d e r l y i n g assumption  u t i l i t y maximizers.  p r e d i c t i o n s from t h i s arguments  found,  framework f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s u l t s .  Recall and  behaviors  guide  (Additional  subseguently.)  and  Rigorous  f o r subseguent r e s e a r c h e r s .  necessary  regarding  these  arguments.  said i t well:  [ W h i l e ] t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s r e a s o n s f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i n c o m e and w e a l t h e f f e c t s , political decisions also involve issues t h a t c a n n o t be r e l i a b l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d o l l a r s — e . g . war, a b o r t i o n , [environmental guality, lifestyle]. I f people are rationally self-interested about p u b l i c choices, they will be s o a b o u t these i s s u e s , a n d l e a v i n g them c u t of o u r c a l c u l a t i o n s w i l l be very d a m a g i n g , w h i l e b r i n g i n g them i n w i l l be e x t r e m e l y difficult* (p.11) This  problem  i s related  to  the  problem  of  including  p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from such t h i n g s as e n v i r o n m e n t a l guality it  or  lifestyle  i n cur d e f i n i t i o n  i s extremely d i f f i c u l t  benefits,  of vested i n t e r e s t s ; as  ( i f not impossible) t o  and a s i t i s n o t c e r t a i n  measure  these  t o what e x t e n t t h e y m o t i v a t e  80  TABLE I PBIVATE/PUBLIC CHOICE MODELS Priyate  Choice Models  Actor  Utility  Function  Consumers  P r i v a t e goods  F a c t o r owners  Income, l e i s u r e ,  Managers o f f i r m s  Profits,  Arquements  risk  s a l e s , growth, g u i e t  P u b l i c C h o i c e Models Actor  Utility  Function  Arquements  Voters  P u b l i c goods, income,  Politicians  Income,  Bureaucrats  Budget s i z e ,  ideology security  wealth  life  81 behavior,  this  thesis  commonly c o n s i d e r e d The  first  distinguishes  motivators postulate  assumption i s that voters  them  based  make t h e i r  on  the  major  more  underlying  d e c i s i o n s on t h e  own i n t e r e s t s , n o t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .  that  this  and  other  r e l a t i n g t o d o l l a r s and power.  their  could  frcm  basis  (Mueller  of  suggests  be t e s t e d on t h e b a s e s o f p u b l i c g o o d s ,  income,  wealth.) A second p o s t u l a t e  underlying  assumption  politics f o r their Crain  which d i r e c t l y  (1977),  i s  that  follows  from  politicians  are  own i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r t h a n  Crain  and  the  this  same  engaged  public  in  good.  T o l l i s o n (1976, 1 9 7 7 a , b ) , and C r a i n ,  D e a t o n , and T o l l i s o n (1977) have t e s t e d an immense c o l l e c t i o n o f hypotheses  which  hypothesis,  and  hypothesis.  (The i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r  for  explanations  are so  specialized  this  to refute the  of s p e c i f i c  patterns  t h a t t h e s a l a r y o f an e l e c t e d  lower than h i s or her opportunity  elected  can  a  means  to  costs..  politician's  utility  nonpecuniary income." pecuniary politicians which  they  income  some  ether  own.  official i s  end  for  f u n c t i o n , some a d d i t i o n a l p e c u n i a r y  increase  Non-pecuniary  p r e s t i g e , s t a t u s , and  power  which  the  income are  value  or  Additional  may r e s u l t , f o r e x a m p l e , f r o m p o l i c i e s cr  most  argument i n  (Mueller, i n R u s s e l l , p.55).  which p r o t e c t  of  "Thus, g e t t i n g  p o l i t i c i a n s , a n d t h e need a r i s e s t o p o s i t seme o t h e r the  authors  governments.)  usually  only  general  i s r e f e r r e d t o these  of a large c o l l e c t i o n  must be n o t e d  be  of  f a r t h e i r t e s t s have f a i l e d  behavior observed i n l o c a l It  versions  of  of the property  may be i n t h e f o r m o f derived  from  holding  82 public  office..  Tollison  (See  model [ 1976,  A corollary allocate  t h e Frey models [ 1 9 7 6 a , b ] and t h e C r a i n -  1977a,b].)  of t h i s  their  time  postulate  to  win  i s that  i s s u e s ( s o . t h a t t h e y may c o n t i n u e t o  serve  their  interests);  will  votes rather than n e c e s s a r i l y t o  master  own  politicians  stay  in  that i s , politicians  power  will  to  be v o t e  maximizers. The  view  different  of  from  the  welfare maximizers. maximizers) rational is  politicians  build  traditional Models  of  vote  maximizers  i s  guite  view o f p o l i t i c i a n s as s o c i a l politician  behavior  on Downs ( 1 9 5 7 ) . . To b e t t e r  vote maximizer  would a c t , a g l a n c e a t  (as  understand voting  vote how a  behavior  necessary. The  basic  economic  t h a t v o t e r s d e c i d e which personal  an  model o f v o t i n g b e h a v i o r c a n d i d a t e t o s u p p o r t by  b e n e f i t s expected  Candidates and  as  from  compete by o f f e r i n g  amount  of  hypothesizes  comparing  the e l e c t i o n o f each  the  candidate.  v o t e r s p o s i t i o n s on p u b l i c i s s u e s  facilitation  services  (Fiorina  and  Noll,  1978b) . However, the f r e e r i d e r effect  the  public  problem  on v o t i n g  good a s p e c t o f p u b l i c i s s u e s ,  h a s been  shown  to  have  a  namely  significant  behavior.  Granted the extremely small effect on [ t h e a v e r a g e v o t e r ] i f he i m p r o v e s the guality o f h i s v o t e by learning more about the issues, the cost-benefit a n a l y s i s w o u l d a l m o s t u n i f o r m l y i n d i c a t e t h a t he s h o u l d not t r y . ( T u l l o c k , i n R u s s e l l [ 1979 ], p. 38) Therefore,  while  many p e o p l e do v o t e , many a r e p o o r l y  informed  83 on  issues. Thus, a r a t i o n a l s t a t e g y  maximize  votes,  individual i.e.  is  voters  i s  service  set forth  [Mueller,  master  they  to  as  ( E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have contributors;  to  politician  attempting  issues but rather to give  a  constituents  corollary  supported  have  to  the  found  that  and  that  further  bureaucracy,  vote maximizing  point  "constituent  rationale dollars  exceptions  is  not  to  involves  a  do  as  politicians  principles,  will  next  to  of  to  bend  (1978a,b)  contact  with  the bureaucracy  get  them  to  make  (p.40)..  This  interaction  (interference!)  Restating  this corollary:  considerable  effort  rules  their  for  in  getting  the  constituents  and  1  Before extending public the in  lot  but  prediction.  expend  contributors.  behavior  votes  (1979) i n t h i s r e g a r d i s  t h e p r i n c i p l e s they a r e e n f o r c i n g "  the  bureaucracy  behavior,  serving  buy  Noll  with the i n t e n t of convincing  of p o l i t i c i a n - bureaucracy  used  for  one.  hypothesis.  made by T u l l o c k  work  t o a d o p t good g e n e r a l  notion  previous  19 76].)  supported t h i s A  contributors.  the  E m p i r i c a l work i n t h i s a r e a by F i o r i n a and has  to  a r e a l i n c e n t i v e t o vote i n h i s or her favour;  t o do d i r e c t  This  net  for a  choice  theory  i m p l i c a t i o n s of p u b l i c c h o i c e  general  are  probed  i m p l i c a t i o n s on how p o l i t i c i a n s  a  bit  into  bureaucratic  theory  on p e o p l e s  further.  1  Further  make d e c i s i o n s c a n be d e r i v e d .  I n L o g i c _ o f _ C o l l e c t ! ve...Act i o n , Maneur O l s o n  (1971)  develops  84 a theory  of groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  category  of  rational as  a  public  choice  He  i n t o the broad  argues  t h a t even i f  a l l benefit  by  g r o u p t o a c h i e v e a common o b j e c t i v e , t h e y w i l l  unless  there  Further,  he  unanimous  is  interest—unless coercion  suggests  Olson's collective  take  holds  stems  small,  when  from  certain  or  device. there  properties  w h i c h make  i s  of  collective  c o l l e c t i v e goods a r e a v a i l a b l e t o a l l t o the attainment  the r a t i o n a l utility-maximizer will  "free ride.")  i s  197 1, p. 2) .  a c h i e v e t h e group b e n e f i t . a  not a c t t o  incentive  "even  acting  g r o u p a b o u t t h e common good and t h e  i t " (Olson,  Since  group  other  o r n o t each i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t e s  goods,  to help  some  this  a  the  and l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s  action problematic. whether  in  argument goods  or  that  agreement  methods o f a c h i e v i n g  to  theory.  and s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d p e o p l e w i l l  a c h i e v e t h a t group  the  which f a l l s  which, Olson notes, exacerbate t h i s  n o t be i n c l i n e d  (He o r s h e w i l l  Two o t h e r  of  be  properties of large  tempted groups  problem a r e :  1) E a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l be s u c h a small p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e g r o u p ' s r e s o u r c e s t h a t he w i l l v i e w i t as inconseguential i n a f f e c t i n g t h e outcomes o f t h e group's a c t i o n : the i n c o n s e g u e n t i a l i t y problem. 2) The costs of o r g a n i z i n g l a r g e . groups are considerable, c r e a t i n g a h u r d l e t h a t must be jumped b e f o r e any o f t h e collective goods c a n be o b t a i n e d : the organizing problem. (Mitchell,  i n R u s s e l l , 1979, pp.89-90)  These p r o p e r t i e s  lead t o the conclusion  the  good  not  collective offer the  ... way (Olson, It  any  the  "however  valuable  m i g h t be t o t h e g r o u p a s a w h o l e , i t d o e s  individual of  that  any  incentive  to  ...bear  c o s t s of the n e c e s s a r y c o l l e c t i v e  in  any  action"  1971, pp.50-51).. i s of c r i t i c a l  importance that  i n t h e above  discussion,  85 reference person. vested  to  the  "individual"  " p e r s o n " means t h e a v e r a g e  I f anyone h a s a p a r t i c u l a r l y interest)  in  a  expending  more  that public  energy  good  t h e i r favour)  corollaries collective  will  cr  good  interest  (e.g..in a p a r t i c u l a r  rationally  be  able  to  afford  ( e . g . t o make t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s i o n r e s u l t i n  theory,  about  can  the  person. be  derived  behavior  of  seme  people  postulates with  and  respect  to  goods:  1) I n d i v i d u a l s good  or groups with vested i n t e r e s t s i n can  rationally  afford  a  than those  without vested  Unless  p u b l i c good, they a c t i o n promoting 1aa) particular  that  good,  interests.  people  have  will  n o t form  a vested i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r a  group  to  collectively  take  t h a t good.  Individuals  public  particular  t o expend more e f f o r t and  resources i n t o t h e decision process with respect to  1a)  (i.e.a  resources into the e f f o r t t o a t t a i n  than t h e average  From t h i s  strong  collective  government d e c i s i o n ) , they  public  or  or groups with v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s  good w i l l  process  with respect to  vested  interests..  e x e r t more i n f l u e n c e  that  (This  good  than  a  corollary  i s  will of  in a  i n the d e c i s i o n people the  without a b o v e two  p o s t u l a t es.) 1ab) under- . o r corollary  non-provision  by many i n d i v i d u a l s b r i n g s of  certain  p u b l i c goods.  about  the  (This i s a  o f t h e above p o s t u l a t e s . )  While such  Free r i d i n g  t h e p o s t u l a t e s would seem t o s u g g e s t  phenomena  necessarily  as  environmental  f o l l o w . . As M i t c h e l l  lobbies,  (inHussell,  the this  absence does  of not  1979) p o i n t s , o u t :  86 I n a s i t u a t i o n where i n d i v i d u a l s have a h i g h disutility for p u b l i c b a d s t h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o e s c a p e , where they have imperfect information [e.g.i f they underestimate the m a r g i n a l c o s t s and/or o v e r e s t i m a t e t h e marginal b e n e f i t s o f c o n t r i b u t i n g ] , a n d where t h e c o s t of c o n t r i b u t i n g t c a lobby i s low, the act of contributing i s consonant with a r a t i o n a l strategy of s e e k i n g t o m i n i m i z e t h e maximum r e g r e t . (p. 121) I t i s p o s t u l a t e d here t h a t environmental under t h e c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d  lobbies w i l l  s e t of  detailed  assumptions,  model  serve  p o l i t i c i a n s a r e vote maximizers, the  interests  residents  suggest served  to  Initially  of  and/or  their  freguent  than  that  case  those  the  more  property  interests  he  has.  This  that  the  greater  other  rights rights or  to  of t h e people i s  composed  a l a n d o w n e r h a s , t h e more  assumption the  size  follows or of  f c r use a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y  she  are vested an  be  people.  property  he  options  property  of  l a n d o w n e r s o f t h e r e g i o n , t h e model w o u l d  from  value the  the  of the  property;  removed  t h e more r i g h t s t h e owner h a s t o p u t t h e l a n d t o  having  reference i s  Thus, i f t h e e l e c t o r a t e  p r o p e r t y , t h e more o p t i o n s t h e r e a r e f o r use  more  more  t h e y a r e more l i k e l y  electorate  more t h a n i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r  property r i g h t s  Since  a  t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f r e s i d e n t s a n d l a n d o w n e r s would  Assume  unless  generate  with  later.  outside t h e i r electorate. of  probed  together  of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u n c i l ; t h e e f f e c t s  the s t a t e a r e o v e r l a i d If  are  of p o l i t i c i a n ^ b e h a v i o r .  made t o p o l i t i c i a n s  occur  above by M i t c h e l l .  Now t h e s e t o f p o s t u l a t e s d e r i v e d f r o m O l s o n , another  only  various  by l a w , uses.  i n t e r e s t s by d e f i n i t i o n , t h e  individual  has, the  more  vested  h a s { i g n o r i n g f o r now t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  kinds of vested i n t e r e s t s as w e l l ) . .  87  The g r e a t e r the  property,  a f f e c t other the  the property the  mere  likely  cf  the  region,  g r o w t h , and c o m m u n i t y that p o l i t i c i a n s  of  life, the  for  The p r o p e r t y the  use  may  and s o o n .  T h u s , i t c a n be  representative  council  the property  the  the  more  property  rights  owner  postulate  is  individuals  expected have  a  actually  with  a  vested  corollary interests  of  (from  the  of the  can  caveat  which above)  greater region.  This  O l s o n ' s argument rationally  the  afford  that to  more e f f o r t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . . ( T h i s i n f l u e n c e ,  of c o u r s e , property  i s constrained owners;  property  by t h e p r o p e r t y  r i g h t s are h i g h l y regarded  i n f l u e n c e o f one o t h e r If  i t i s greater  reasonable  property  further  and  follows  former g e n e r a l l y than  of  a l l other  bodies,  and  cwner.)  assumed t h a t " e x c h a n g e " p r o p e r t i e s a r e  most  exchange  most  "use" p r o p e r t i e s , which i s  properties  corporations  from have  governing  private  c o u l d be a b r o g a t e d t h r o u g h t h e  l a r g e r o r more v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t i e s corollary  by  i n s i z e or value than  since  corporations,  rights  as suggested p r e v i o u s l y , i n d i v i d u a l s '  i n exceptional circumstances  council  affect  will  and h e n c e has,  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e cwner on d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  usually  i s to  i n t e r e s t i n t h e use o f g r e a t e r p r o p e r t i e s . .  f o l l o w s s h o r t l y , the g r e a t e r  only  of  environment, the population  I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t , s u b j e c t t o an i m p o r t a n t  invest  use  t h e use of t h e p r o p e r t y  p e o p l e i n some way.  economy  greater  a n d t h e mere o p t i o n s  above more  individual  than  that  influence  owners  can  of  can  are afford  the  by  to purchase  individuals,  individual on  owned  the  owners o f t h e representative  t h e latter....  (Whether t h e  88 group i n t o t o o f exchange p r o p e r t y than  the  roughly  would  However, w h i l e  rights yield  peoples'  private  reasonable  to  council  (still  people  or  i n each  more i n f l u e n c e  property  assume  ignoring the  i t i s not  decisions state)  with  this  of  are  relatively  the  ( i . e . those not included  sense  that  Hence  the  in this  large  need  the  their  legitimation of  the  number  of  rights, in  of p e o p l e o f t h e  out  would  power.  o f t h e s e more  t o be  interests local  of  interests  Examples  such  of  electorate  part  t o the majority of the e l e c t o r a t e  statements  property  the  demonstrated  of  favour  f a v o u r e d o v e r t h e i r s and  on  powerful i n d i v i d u a l s or corporations;  of  in  representatives  f o r legitimation  necessarily  p r i v i l e g e d group)  i n t e r e s t s were b e i n g  vote t h e i r e l e c t e d  more  representative  always  were t h e c a s e , t h e m a j o r i t y  region  would l i k e l y  depend  group.)  those i n d i v i d u a l s o f f e r something t o  other  would  (within the constraints of  rights),  that  corporations  If  influence  i t may be r e a s o n a b l e t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t  property  return.  more  g r o u p i n t o t o o f owners o f use p r o p e r t y ,  on t h e amount c f p r o p e r t y  unless  have  must  justified.  may  jobs  be  include  supported,  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made t o community p r o j e c t s , t h e a c c e s s a l l o w e d t h e public t o previous  private  lands,  postulate:  and  provided  l e g i t i m a t i o n of the i n t e r e s t s with  greater  this basis  property  rights,  so  that of  cn.  Thus,  1) t h e r e  i s c a r r i e d o u t t o make enough  or  of  rights w i l l  the  former  of  the  group, the group with  u s u a l l y succeed i n  corporations  2) t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f  e l e c t o r s f e e l that t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , t o o , a r e being actions  the  i s enougJa b a s i s f o r  individuals  and t h a t  restating  influencing  rest served  greater  the  of  the  by t h e property  representative  89 c o u n c i l t o make d e c i s i o n s i n t h e i r It  must  be  favour.  n o t e d , however, t h a t f o r v a r i o u s  o b s t a c l e o f l e g i t i m a t i o n may n o t be o v e r c o m e . may p r e v e n t t h e g r o u p o f l a r g e p r o p e r t y  t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o the extent  significantly  i n f l u e n c i n g the decision-makers.  the  perceived  relative  returns  D e p e n d i n g on t h e i s s u e i n q u e s t i o n , the  perceived  this  " c l a s s " ; or the perceived  of  ownership  Certain  factors  that they succeed i n One s u c h  from  this  other  interests.  may be d e f i n e d t o  of  this  b e n e f i t s of  same  land;  or  alternative  i f the  the  majority  which  t h a n t h o s e owned by t h i s  elected large  relative  are  returns  cf voters made  i n t e r e s t s are perceived  to outweigh t h e  returns  to  the  by  region  e x p l i c i t through the l e g i t i m a t i o n process, t h e  factor  which  may  make  owners t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r  c u l t u r e of the people of make  i f the  powerful, regardless  the  i t difficult  become s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (This  lands.  to  side  with  the  landowners.  property  that  of ether  systems  " c l a s s " , the perceived  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c a n be e x p e c t e d n o t  Another  which  mean  issue a f f e c t s  b e n e f i t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f a f f e c t i n g t h e s e o t h e r these  factor  b e n e f i t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e u s e s o f t h e l a n d owned by  properties other  If  this  owners f r o m s u c c e s s f u l l y  legitimizing  is  reasons  they w i l l not  Attitudes  more  may  prevail  f o r any one p e r s o n o r c o r p o r a t i o n t o i n the region.  Iti s  possible  o f p e o p l e view a n y one b o d y b e c o m i n g t o o permit  i t s interests  o f t h e b e n e f i t s t h e y may d e r i v e  might  f o r large  i n t e r e s t s i s the ideology or  region.  influential  majority  i t difficult  likely  occur  in  to  from t h o s e  smaller  be  served,  interests.  less-developed  c o m m u n i t i e s t h a n i n l a r g e h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d ones b e c a u s e  of  the  90 l a c k of  anonimity.)  A  somewhat  of the much  p e o p l e of the that  interests  a  visitors  may,  as on  place  other  contrast  or  the  directly  and  the  in  the on  briefly,  property and  an  represented owner h a s ,  i f  the  effort i s exerted effort  decisions constraints  and  the of  the  greater  i n t o the  exerted,  of  on  residents  the  legitimizer.  and  They  of  the  recreational  legitimizer. its  may  all  I f such  interests  large  a  are  representative council,  f o r the  a  benefits  protection  and  property-owner  i s a representative council, owners  (of  non-property  the  of  greater  council  But  his  council  r i g h t s of o t h e r s ,  and  influence (subject  and  that  greater property  r i g h t s , the  process;  one's  her  the  would  extent  i f the  or  property  "use"  owners, then  the  council.  one's  both  groups t o the  greater  representative  property  its  example,  economic  decision-making  the  For  s e r v i c e s , which  suggests that decisions  is  very  direction.  i f there  properties)  not  on  region,  the  desires  legitimize  low-impact  the  i n t e r e s t s of these v a r i o u s  group  rights;  more  of  of  council in his  "exchange"  reflect  the  interests  is  seasonal  i f i t s electorate includes property  model i n i t i a l l y  each  development  prove g u i t e d i f f i c u l t  Summarizing and  and/or  wages o f f e r e d by  represented  t o i n f l u e n c e the  to  population.  a very h i g h value  i s significant  t h u s , i t may  that there  attempting  p r o v i s i o n of h e a l t h - c a r e  with  population  be  t h e n e e d s and  h a n d , p l a c e i m p o r t a n c e on  environment,  amenities,  body  people  employment and  natural  likely  retired  not  the  I t may  do f o r a c e r t a i n  cf  may  region.  particular  could  population  such  r e l a t e d f a c t o r i s simply  more  if  the  on  the  to  disregarding  the here  91 the  problem of  thus  vested  greater that  interests)  t h a n t h o s e of  the  of  "use"  interests,  interests  are  electorate  i f the  council  successful  will  that in  to j u s t i f y  E f f e c t s of  representative Public  choice  bureaucrats. rationally  discussed  theory  Again, i t i s  is  now  assumed  self-interested  utility  Downs ( 1 9 6 7 ) , i t i s p o s t u l a t e d  that  retain,  their  i f not  to  c o n v e n i e n c e , and The  the  this  take actions  in  size  hypothesis  that or  (with r e s p e c t  status  the  more  (Unit  36:  Decision-Making,  behind  majority  the  these the  d e r i v e enough b e n e f i t s  from  state in decisions  their  of  the  later. applied to the that  a l l  behavior  bureaucrats  maximizers.  Drawing  power,  income,  bureaucrats further,  specifically,  from to  prestige,  public.  will the  strive  to  enhancement bureau,.  bureaucrats  i n the bureau budget and  of are  b u r e a u c r a t s seek at l e a s t  will and/or  relative  power  agencies). Administrative  1978)  has  Behavior  outlined  five  and  Democratic  major  influences  responsible  f o r the  b e h a v i o r of  an o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  are  here.  Postulates  can  drawn  of  of  ( p r e s t i g e or r e g a r d ) ,  to other  suggests  o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) of t h e i r  which promote i n c r e a s e s  bureau  Fox  follows  continuation,  (e.g. e n l a r g e m e n t Restating  owners  s e c u r i t y ; r a t h e r than t o s e r v e the  corollary  ensure  staff,  maximize,  model  f u r t h e r accommodation of  i n v o l v i n g the  c o u n c i l are  the  (and  generally  decide i n favour  making  f e e l that they p e r s o n a l l y  interests.  rights  "exchange" i n t e r e s t s are  provided  owners' a c t i v i t i e s  property  i n t e r e s t s ; then the  representative  exchange  the  l e g i t i m a t i o n ) ; and  be  formulated  from which from t h e s e  two as  92 follows: 1..  An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  program, or g e n e r a l experience, training. Sewell 2.  and  in  will  wishes of the  agency  of  tc  the  significant  withstood  tends  Mueller  or  that  her  person's  professional  empirical  testing  by  t o adapt i t s program t o  the  group  (in  model  with  of  Eussell,  which  i t  a  of  general  this  most  is  that  is  within  a  will  more i n c l i n e d  be  t o compete on to  an  the  total  of  the  the  more  s i n g l e bureau less  efficiency  promote  most  Niskanen's One  model  function  the  is  bureaucrat.  more monopoly power a b u r e a u h a s ) ,  bureaucrats  1979),  bureaucracy  budget-maximizing  hypotheses  consolidated the  his  by  policy,  interacts.  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y developed  (i.e.  by  c l i e n t e l e or i n t e r e s t  According  model  has  affected  by a  ].)  government  freguently  be  particular  (This hypothesis  [ 1971  Each  law  o f what i s i n t e n d e d  inclined  b a s i s and  they  will  be  demand  and  Noll  (1978b) a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n how  the  for  the  service. Fiorina  b u r e a u c r a c y can apparent to  persist in  unpopularity.  account f o r  earlier.  a r i s e and  Their  voter  The and  model  politician  of  that  maximize  production  of  expenditures).  public "For  tc  goods  model i n  was  behavior that  they  bureaucratic  (rather  despite  model w h i c h  behavior  bureaucratic  1971  seek  democracy  p a r t of t h e i r  d i f f e r e n t from Niskanen's agencies  a  excessive  than  its  attempts explained  is slightly hypothesize  inputs  to  maximizing  the  total  e x a m p l e , an a g e n c y w h i c h p r o v i d e s t r a n s f e r  payments might seek t o i n c r e a s e  contact  between c a s e w o r k e r s  and  93 clients  or  the  bureaucratic  total  input,  caseload  while  because  being  less  p r o p o s a l s t o p r o v i d e a c r o s s t h e board Now theory  that with  examination  respect  politicians, an  an  to  has  various  examination  product  enthusiastic  b e e n made o f p u b l i c c h o i c e  system  components  rather  Since resource  management  than  o v e r l a i d and  to recognize the  "provision  This  system."  term  ( o f a l l government which  the  system  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and j u r i s d i c t i o n s  to of  of  as  the  full array  organizations, produce  these  and  decisions.  components  often  o v e r l a p , sometimes r e s u l t i n g i n c o m p e t i t i o n and/or c o n f u s i o n . discussion  follows  of  first  the  effects  a  agency.  t o mean t h e f u l l  levels),  interrelate  are  about a p a r t i c u l a r  existence  i s taken  about  decisions  simply t h e performance of a s i n g l e  F i r s t i t i s important  individuals  (voters,  made o f what p u b l i c c h o i c e t h e o r y s u g g e s t s  o f a s y s t e m , i f one i s c o n c e r n e d  of agencies  about  i n c r e a s e s i n payments."  r e s o u r c e p r o b l e m , a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n t o whole,  lead to greater  and b u r e a u c r a t s ) , t h e s t a t e i s f i n a l l y  the "system" i t s e l f . the  both  of  A  overlapping  j u r i s d i c t i o n s , and s e c o n d t h e e f f e c t s o f mandates.. While and  c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s may seem  troublesome,  they  may  i n fact  c o s t s . . F o x ( U n i t 35: The N a t u r e stated  that  management]  " i fa decisions  single  of  agency  i t is  likely  unnecessary,  costly,  p r o v i d e more b e n e f i t s t h a n "Provision does that  Systems")  dominate a  has  [resource  pathological  institutional condition exists." Advantages o f complex p r o v i s i o n systems i n c l u d e : 1.  more  varied  perceptions  a n d v a l u e s a r e b r o u g h t t o b e a r on  94 the i s s u e , r e s u l t i n g  i n a broader range of  r i c h e r s e t of i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g 2.  a greater  diversity  3..  efficiency  alternatives  and  a  generated;  of services are offered;  i s increased  (because  of  specialization  and  competition) ; 4.  innovation i s increased  (because o f c o m p e t i t i o n ) .  One o f t h e m a j o r a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p u b l i c design the  choice  theory  to  o f i n s t i t u t i o n s h a s been i n i n t r o d u c i n g c o m p e t i t i o n providers  efficiency heart:  of  public  goods--"essentially  by  the  among  rewarding  w i t h t h a t w h i c h warms t h e c o c k l e s o f t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c  e x p a n s i o n of m i s s i o n ,  b u d g e t , and power"  (Russell,  1979,  p.18). . Ostrom  (1973) h a s gone f u r t h e r t c s a y :  Fragmentation of a u t h o r i t y among d i v e r s e decision c e n t e r s w i t h m u l t i p l e v e t o c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n any one jurisdiction and the development of multiple, overlapping j u r i s d i c t i o n s of widely d i f f e r e n t scales are necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r maintaining a s t a b l e political order which can a d v a n c e human w e l f a r e u n d e r r a p i d l y changing c o n d i t i o n s . (pp.111-12) Thus, i f t h i s complexity  were a  of  normative  overlaps,  study,  a  system  involving  d u p l i c a t i o n , and c o n c u r r e n c y  a  m i g h t be  v i e w e d a s a h e a l t h y one. However, as t h i s  i s a p o s i t i v e study,  e x t r a c t from t h i s theory the  system  some h e l p  works  an a t t e m p t i s made t o  some h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h h e l p e x p l a i n  t h e way i t d o e s . . S p r o u l e - J o n e s  t o t h i s end.  (1974)  uhj lends  He w r i t e s :  O v e r l a p p i n g a u t h o r i t y and c o n c u r r e n t powers among a variety of c o l l e c t i v e a g e n c i e s a f f o r d s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o o b t a i n a p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y f r o m some i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and f o r r e m e d i e s t o be found f o r t h e i m p o s i t i o n of h a r m f u l i n d i r e c t ccnseguences from the preferred policies of other individuals, acting e i t h e r on t h e i r own o r t h r o u g h some c o l l e c t i v e agency..  95 (pp. 118-19) Thus,  i t can  than  one  be p o s t u l a t e d  agency  or  does  not  l e v e l , he o r s h e  will  individual  level  representative the  the  state,  electorate  satisfaction to  find  with  it  could  council.  c o u n c i l i s delegated  be s e r v e d  better region  eguipped  to  the  than the representative  higher  level  to  government,  t o the extent  serve  them.  groups i n t h e r e g i o n ' s  representative  they  logic  and  council applies egually  of g o v e r n m e n t , i . e . t h e i n t e r e s t s w i l l that to  they.are represented exert  powers t o l o w e r  level  that  I f i t i s assumed  of  the  to  some  levels,  state  extent  may a l s o be s e r v e d  t h a t t h i s l e v e l has r e t a i n e d The  by  i s  c o u n c i l of t h e r e g i o n . . Since t h e  i n t e r e s t s are also represented  level,  i t s powers  i n t e r e s t s of t h e groups of the  various  of  than  by t h e c o u n c i l t o t h e e x t e n t  t h a t the higher serve  and  Primarily, since  each of  i s r e l u c t a n t to delegate  be p o s t u l a t e d  through  must be made o f more  the i n t e r e s t s of the various  the state  an  one a g e n c y o r  satisfaction  t h e c o u n c i l h a s t h e l e g a l power t o s e r v e them. that  i f  s t a t e i s o v e r l a i d on t o p o f a r e g i o n  of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  can o n l y  involved,  i s more  agencies.  council, consideration  representative  where t h e r e  government  attempt  i f a  decisions  the  of  obtain  another of the involved Therefore,  t h a t on i s s u e s  theory  by  by t h i s  legal  applied  powers to  well to t h i s higher be s e r v e d  and t o t h e e x t e n t  influence i n decision processes  to  the  the  the level  extent  t h a t they can a f f o r d (and l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r  interests to the larger public). , A c o r o l l a r y w h i c h f o l l o w s i s t h a t i f a n i n d i v i d u a l h a s some rights outside  the region  of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  c o u n c i l , he  may  96 attempt  to  have  the  public i n t e r e s t defined  i n a wider  f o r u m and  to l e g i t i m i z e h i s i n t e r e s t s to t h i s wider  that  representative  the  subsumed i n t h e influence  larger  council f o r u m and  resulting  i n the  The  to  m a k i n g no  modifications  avoid  supplier  incentive  for  institutional inherently  power  to  by  a single  as  w e l l as  agency.  by  the  to  any  one  or  "naturally  short run  solution"  the  side-  p l a y e d by are  two  solution  of  longer  run  the  (p.130).  The  i s u n s t a b l e because e x t e r n a l i t i e s of  back i n t o t h e agency  political  or  the  s o l u t i o n has  instabilities  p r o c e s s and  government  terms  under  been s e t t l e d .  create  incurring which  the  Thus n e i t h e r  an  negative existing system  is  stable.  Finally, may  the be  representative  decisions affected  council  a g e n c i e s . . Suppose t h e mandate  representation mandate  by  i n e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m o r by  e x t e r n a l i t i e s to reopen  specific  are  supplied  agencies  a single supplier  the  jointly  strategies  or  either  solution  feed  k i n d s of  bargaining costs,  costs,  of a d o p t i n g  good may  council  region  of the  subseguent m o d i f i c a t i o n s  governments  inclined  solution  so  relative  supplied  t o t a k e a c c o u n t of h o l d o u t  more a g e n c i e s . .  the  2)  supplied,  good i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e payments  the  s y s t e m i f a good i s 1)  good i s j o i n t l y  single  lose their  (1974) comments on  or more a g e n c i e s o r l e v e l s , and a  residents  public,  decisions.  Sproule-Jones  If  and  public  affects  its  by  actions  and  of a  mandates of  of the  decisions?  It  of  the  h i g h e r l e v e l government council  above i t s f u n c t i o n  interests  representative  mandates—mandates  representative  over  to the  and  and  region. is  is of How  assigned  a  giving  local  will  this  expected that  i f  the  97 mandate i s i n c o n f l i c t e l e c t o r a t e , t h e n the would  be  very  with the  i n t e r e s t s of the  politicians  hard  pressed  of the  I f i t i s assumed t h a t  conflict  the  then i t would not politicians m i g h t be would (i.e.  to  carry  r e f l e c t the i f only  thus the  out  the  interests  because  if  consider  their  the  be  by t h e  Furthermore,  influence for  the  hired  on  by  with  to  the  mandate  postulated a  on  the  department.  The  o f f " on  that  particular  council) since that  reflect  council assigned  were  to  representative  mandate  state. high  level  government  the  of  philosophy  and  a  large  Thus,  (or  actually  i t  may  could  associated  representative  of t h a t  feature  work  department  politicians  philosophy one  people  of t h e  department  likely  has  are a t t r a c t e d t o  employees over t i m e .  was  with  of a government  likely  attitudes  mandate and  accordance  philosophy  p e o p l e who  public servants  o r i e n t a t i o n 1)  in  and  mission.  council)  government  be  a t r i s k , as b o t h t h e  and  representative  "rub  of t h e  It  itself  mandates o f  the a t t i t u d e s of  the  get r e - e l e c t e d . .  electorate  with those agencies,  d e p a r t m e n t , and  a l s o tend be  (cr  for  institution  attempt t o enhance t h e i r bureau  department  in  difficult  mandate been  mandate, t h e  and  not  assumed t o a f f e c t d e c i s i o n s o f b u r e a u c r a t s  p o l i t i c i a n s associated their  the  powers) would be  is  representative  politicians  their  I n a s i m i l a r manner, t h e can  ofr  council  the e l e c t o r a t e ,  particularly  mandate and  the  mandate  mandate  m a j o r i t y of  d e c i s i o n s of t h e  powers a r e a s s i g n e d  agencies  the  mandate more t h a n i f no  the  c o u n c i l d i d not  and  e x p e c t e d t o be  expected that  considered),  (and  i n t e r e s t s of the  be  representative  to both s a t i s f y t h e i r  s t a y i n power. with  m a j o r i t y of  department,  w h i c h drew them  98 t o t h e j o b , 2) was l i k e l y likely  criterion  on  hired*  and  through  y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e agency.  E.  3)  one  which  became i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  they  their  were  attitude  Summary  In  concluding  summarized  by  model t h u s  a  this list  chapter,  the  foregoing  theory  o f t h e p o s t u l a t e s and c o r o l l a r i e s  i s  of the  developed.  Assumptions 1)  A l l individuals  act i n their  2) A l l i n d i v i d u a l s  own s e l f i s h  interests.  act rationally.  P o s t u l a t e s and c o r o l l a r i e s 1) V o t e r s make interests, 2)  their  decisions  not the public  Politicians  than n e c e s s a r i l y  of  of  service  allocate  their  own  own  interests  t h e i r ..time..to w i n v o t e s , r a t h e r  issues.  Politicians will  more l i k e l y  than of other  P o l i t i c i a n s are l e s s  those i n the electorate 2ac)  of  interest.  t o master  their electorate 2ab)  basis  good.  Politicians will  2aa)  the  a r e engaged i n p o l i t i c s f o r t h e i r  rather than the public 2a)  on  serve  the  interests  people. likely  to serve the i n t e r e s t s  who n e g l e c t t o v o t e .  Politicians will  allocate  t h e i r t i m e t o do  direct  rather than t o  master  expend c o n s i d e r a b l e  effort  t o c o n s t i t u e n t s and c o n t r i b u t o r s ,  issues. 2aca) in trying  Politicians will  t o g e t t h e b u r e a u c r a c y t o bend  c o n s t i t u e n t s and  contributors.  the  rules  for  their  99 I n d i v i d u a l s  3)  p u b l i c  good  or  can i n t o  than  without  Unless  3a)  p a r t i c u l a r  the  p u b l i c  c o n t r i b u t i n g  t o  c o l l e c t i v e l y  take  process  good  i n t e r e s t s ,  the  the  an  w i l l  Since  the  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  of  shown,  to  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  c o i n c i d e n t  u s u a l l y  with  t h a t  good.  with  more  e f f o r t to  and  that  good,  i n t e r e s t  and  a  form  vested  i n f l u e n c e  than  low a  i n  a  f o r  an  c o s t  of  group  to  i n t e r e s t s i n  w i l l  3ab)  i n  a  the  d e c i s i o n  people  without  or  Assuming  tend  c o u n c i l  w i l l  r e g i o n ,  one  hence  provided of  the  form  the  i n f l u e n c e  a c c o u n t a b l e ,  use  than  r i d i n g  n o n - p r o v i s i o n  B u r e a u c r a t s  the  and  are  of  of  more the  that  the  e l e c t o r a t e  t h a t  i t s  vested property  owner  on  owner  has  to  which  i n t e r e s t s  are  i n t e r e s t s . .  than  Free  r i g h t s  m a j o r i t y  are  p r o p e r t i e s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  4a)  p a r t i c u l a r  d i s u t i l i t y  not  property  the  the  t h e i r  g r e a t e r  exchange  p u b l i c  vested  w i l l  good  greater  3aaaa)  4)  r e s p e c t  high  groups  property  the  has,  under-  a  more  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  exert  that  g r e a t e r  owner  s u c c e s s f u l l y the  i n  i n t e r e s t s .  3aaa)  r i g h t s  a  they  or  a  2)  promoting  to  with  1)  i m p e r f e c t  a c t i o n  expend  p r o c e s s  or  group;  r e s p e c t  to  e i t h e r  good;  a  p u b l i c  with  vested  have  bad,  i n t e r e s t s  i n t e r e s t s .  I n d i v i d u a l s  3aa) p a r t i c u l a r  vested  people  vested  a f f o r d  d e c i s i o n  p u b l i c  i n e s c a p a b l e  with  r a t i o n a l l y  r e s o u r c e s those  groups  t h a t  p r o p e r t i e s , to  have  i n d i v i d u a l by  many  c e r t a i n  i n  t h e i r  own  w i l l  seek  at  p r o p e r t i e s  " i n d i v i d u a l  owners  more  i n f l u e n c e  owners  of  i n d i v i d u a l s  of  a c t  exchange  p u b l i c  use b r i n g s  on  are of a  p r o p e r t i e s . about  the  r a t h e r  than  the  r e t a i n ,  i f  goods.,  i n t e r e s t s  i n t e r e s t , B u r e a u c r a t s  l e a s t  to  not  to  100 maximize,  their  power,  s e c u r i t y ; r a t h e r than 4aa)  income,  prestige,  to serve the  Bureaucrats  convenience,  public.  will'act  t o promote the bureau  and/or s t a f f , bureau s t a t u s ( p r e s t i g e or regard) , power w i t h r e s p e c t t o e t h e r 4aaa)  program t o the which  Each  wishes  government  agency tends or  to adapt i t s  interest  group  with  bureau  more c o n s o l i d a t e d a f u n c t i o n i s w i t h i n  ( i . e . t h e more monopoly power a b u r e a u h a s ) ,  less inclined  bureaucrats  b a s i s and  more i n c l i n e d  the  the  will  be t o compete  they  bureaucratic  Government  with the  mandate o f t h e i r  5a)  An  an  the  efficiency  t o promote t o t a l  demand  perceptions  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and  to  maximize  goods. tend to  accord  will in  o f what i s i n t e n d e d by be  affected  particular  by  by  2) t h e mandate which  1)  his  that  a  that  or  her  person  is  to c a r r y out..  issues  where  t h e r e i s more t h a n one  government i n v o l v e d , i f i n d i v i d u a l s one  seek  g o v e r n m e n t body.  individual's  experience,  attempting  agencies  bureaucrats w i l l  p r o g r a m , o r g e n e r a l law  person's  On  be  i n p u t s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n of p u b l i c  5) D e c i s i o n s of p o l i t i c i a n s and  policy,  will  on  a  service. 4aac)  with  relative  i t most f r e g u e n t l y i n t e r a c t s .  single  6)  and  budget  agencies.  of t h e c l i e n t e l e  4 a a b ) The  for  and  department  satisfaction  through  or  level,  another  of  do n o t they  the  agency or l e v e l  obtain  will involved  of  satisfaction  attempt  to  find  departments  or  levels. 6a)  If individuals  do n o t a c h i e v e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u n c i l , and  i f they  satisfaction