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The politics of language education : a case study of West Malaysia, 1930-1971 Kalimuthu, K. Ramanathan 1979

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THE POLITICS OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF WEST MALAYSIA,  1930 - 1971  by K.RAMA.NATHAN (KALIMUTHU B. Soc. S c i . (Honours), 1977 U n i v e r s i t i Sains M a l a y s i a  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF •MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P o l i t i c a l  Science)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y , 1979 (S)  K. Ram ana than K a l i m u t h u , 1979  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  P  o  l  i  t  i  c  a  l  Scdience  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  IE-6  BP  75-51 1 E  1. 2. 1979  TO  MY  FATHER  ABSTRACT In  J u l y , 1969, the M a l a y s i a n M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n announced 'a  new  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y ' under which E n g l i s h , Chinese and T a m i l s c h o o l s were r e q u i r e d to b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s of c o n v e r s i o n t o Malay medium i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t a g e s , b e g i n n i n g i n 1970. of  T h i s p o l i c y t o i n t r o d u c e Malay as the medium  i n s t r u c t i o n took r o u g h l y f o r t y y e a r s t o e v o l v e .  i s to examine how t h i s was  The aim of t h i s study  a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h f o u r phases of p o l i t i c s  government i n West M a l a y s i a :  and  ( i ) The B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  1930-1941; ( i i ) The Post-War C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1945-1954; ( i i i ) The A l l i a n c e Government, 1955-1961, and ( i v ) The A l l i a n c e Government, 1962-1971 I t was observed i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t though non-Malay demands f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s were p e r s i s t e n t and c o n s i s t e n t they l a c k e d p o l i t i c a l u n i t y and c o h e s i v e n e s s i n s u c c e s s f u l l y p u r s u i n g t h e i r demands.  The M a l a y s , i n c o n t r a s t were i n i t i a l l y a p a t h e t i c towards  language q u e s t i o n .  the  They became p o l i t i c i z e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g  Independence, however and were a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p o l i t i c a l supremacy. A consequence of t h i s was  t h a t t h e y were a b l e to pursue a communally  o r i e n t e d language p o l i c y w i t h g r e a t e f f e c t i v e n e s s so t h a t Malay became e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . The p o l i c y was  s u c c e s s f u l l y pursued by a s e r i e s of Government  Ordinances and A c t s t h a t were d e s i g n e d t o ensure t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s of the C o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h r e g a r d s to t h e Malay language were adhered  to while  p e r m i t t i n g f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r implementation.  found  However, i t was  t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r a c t between t h e Malays and t h e non-Malays was  an i m p o r t a n t and i n t e g r a l a s p e c t of the p o l i c y making Malay the medium  of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t reason f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the p o l i c y l i e s i n t h e g r a d u a l i s t i c and n a t u r e i n w h i c h the p o l i c y was  implemented.  iii  incremental  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I -  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  Some Contemporary Case S t u d i e s  ..  ..  ..  ..  Review of L i t e r a t u r e Methodology  ..  13  ....  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  Notes t o Chapter I II  3 15 18  BRITISH COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION, 1930-1941  ..  ..  21  The P l u r a l S o c i e t y and t h e C o l o n i a l Government  "  ..  ..  Communal Demands  ..  ..  21 ..  ..  ..  ..  26  M o t i v e s and Aims of t h e P o l i c y Makers  ..  ..  28  P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses  ..  ..  30  Aftermath Conclusion  32 ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  Notes t o Chapter I I III  34 36  POST-WAR COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION UP TO 1954  ..  ..  41  P o l i t i c a l Developments Leading t o t h e F i r s t A l l i a n c e Government  41  E d u c a t i o n a l Development  45  Communal Demands  50  M o t i v e s and Aims o f t h e P o l i c y Makers  ..  ..  51  P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses  ..  ..  54  Aftermath Conclusion  61 ..  ....  ..  Notes t o Chapter I I I  ..  ..  ..  ..  62 64  iv  PAGE  CHAPTER IV  THE ALLIANCE GOVERNMENT, 1955-1961  68  Major P o l i t i c a l Events E d u c a t i o n a l Development  68 ..  ..  Communal Demands  76  M o t i v e s and Aims o f t h e P o l i c y Makers ..  ..  79  P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses  ..  82  ..  Aftermath  98  Conclusion  99  Notes t o Chapter IV V  71  101  THE ALLIANCE GOVERNMENT, 1962-1971  105  Major P o l i t i c a l Events  106  Communal Demands and E d u c a t i o n a l Development  ..  •.  110  M o t i v e s and Aims o f t h e P o l i c y Makers ..  ..  116  P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses  ..  ..  118  Conclusion  ..  ..  128  ..  ....  Notes t o Chapter V VI  CONCLUSION .:.  130 135  Notes t o Chapter V I  146  APPENDIX . I  II  The Time-Schedule f o r t h e Implementation o f t h e Teaching i n Bahasa M a l a y s i a o f a l l s u b j e c t s o t h e r than E n g l i s h Language and t h e P u p i l s ' Own Languages i n N a t i o n a l - T y p e E n g l i s h S c h o o l s S u b j e c t s t o be Taught i n Bahasa M a l a y s i a i n N a t i o n a l - T y p e E n g l i s h P r i m a r y S c h o o l s i n 1970  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  147 148 149  v  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I  PAGE P a r a l l e l Growth of M a l a y s , Chinese and I n d i a n s , 1911-1941  vi  9  ABBREVIATIONS BARJASA  B e r s a t u Ra'ayat J a t i Sarawak  BBBK  B a r i s a n B e r t i n d a k Bahasa Kebangsaan  CACE  C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on  CLC  Communities L i a i s o n Committee  CSMC  A l l Malaya Chinese S c h o o l Management Committee  Education  Association DAP  Democratic A c t i o n P a r t y  FMCE  F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a C e r t i f i c a t e of  Gerakan  Gerakan Rakyat M a l a y s i a  IMP  Independence of Malaya P a r t y  KMT  Kuomintang  LCE  Lower C e r t i f i c a t e of  MCA  Malaysian  MCP  Malayan Communist P a r t y  MIC  Malaysian  NOC  N a t i o n a l Operations  PAP  People's A c t i o n Party  PMIP  Pan M a l a y s i a n  PN  P a r t y Negara  PPP  People's Progressive Party  SNAP  Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y  SUPP  Sarawak U n i t e d P e o p l e ' s P a r t y  UCSTA  U n i t e d C h i n e s e S c h o o l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n  UDP  United Democratic P a r t y  UMNO  U n i t e d Malays N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n  Education  Education  Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n  I n d i a n Congress  vii  Council  Islamic Party  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My deepest g r a t i t u d e i s t o my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , P a u l R. Tennant, w i t h o u t whose c o n s t a n t t h e s i s would have not been completed.  Professor  encouragement and guidance t h i s I am a l s o v e r y t h a n k f u l t o  P r o f e s s o r s R. S. M i l n e and John R. Wood f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e  constructive  criticisms. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d  t o S y l v i a Woodcock f o r h e r many a c t s  of k i n d n e s s and f o r h e r warm f r i e n d s h i p .  My f r i e n d s I s h a k Lebbe,  Donald Crone and J i m Gansner a l s o h e l p e d me a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n w r i t i n g this thesis. Not  t o be f o r g o t t e n , my thanks t o Mrs. Grace C r o s s f o r d o i n g an  e x c e l l e n t j o b of t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s . Above a l l I would l i k e t o thank my f r i e n d s Mohd. Noor b i n , Mohd. T a h i r and R. S i d d h a r t h a n f o r t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y .  L a s t l y I would  l i k e t o r e c o r d my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o J a c k Gegenberg, Mohammad Ghulam K a b i r , Evelyn  R i e d i g e r and Mrs. O l i v e C u t h b e r t f o r making my s t a y i n  Vancouver e v e n t f u l .  viii  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Malaysia's  education  system i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d  b e s t i n South-east A s i a i f n o t i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g  t o be one o f t h e  world.''"  E n r o l l m e n t and  r e t e n t i o n t h r o u g h p r i m a r y and secondary c y c l e s a r e h i g h . w i t h o t h e r T h i r d World systems, t h e q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g system i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d ,  and t h e s u p p l y  i s adequate i n most i n s t a n c e s .  I n comparison i s high, the  of r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s and t e x t s  Yet the education  system has been burdened  w i t h a r e c u r r e n t problem - t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The i n s t i t u t i n g of Malay as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n has been a c o n t i n u i n g p o i n t o f controversy  and c o n f l i c t between t h e i n d i g e n o u s Malays and t h e non-Malays  f o r w e l l over f o r t y years.  This t h e s i s w i l l deal w i t h the e v o l u t i o n of  n a t i o n a l language p o l i c y i n t h e p r i m a r y and secondary s c h o o l systems and the v a r i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s a r i s i n g from i t . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of n a t i o n a l movements t h a t s u c c e s s i n gaining p o l i t i c a l  independence from t h e c o l o n i a l power i s f o l l o w e d by  2 e f f o r t s t o r e g e n e r a t e and g l o r i f y t h e l o c a l c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e .  But  i n a m u l t i - e t h n i c ( o r m u l t i - c u l t u r a l ) s o c i e t y t h e r e a r e bound t o be c o n t r o v e r s i e s over t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f one s o c i e t y as opposed t o another.  Some i s s u e s - such as language, r e l i g i o n , and c u l t u r e - a r e  f a r more i m p o r t a n t than o t h e r s and, become t h e i g n i t i o n p o i n t s i n inter-ethnic controversies.  There a r e bound t o be b i t t e r  conflicts  over t h e i n s t i t u t i n g o f t h e language o f one p a r t i c u l a r community as  2  opposed t o t h a t o f a n o t h e r . Throughout r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y Governments appear t o have m a n i p u l a t e d  3 the e d u c a t i o n system t o s u i t t h e i r p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l  objectives.  When t h e s c h o o l system i s d i s p a r a t e o r independent o f government c o n t r o l , e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the school  system i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  o f t e n pursued by  government p o l i c y makers i n an attempt t o ensure u n i f o r m i t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and as a step toward n a t i o n a l u n i t y . Many new s t a t e s i n c l u d e language p o l i c i e s as an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e i r n a t i o n a l development program. a program i s f a c i l i t a t i n g identification;  The o s t e n s i b l e r e a s o n f o r such  n a t i o n a l communication and f o s t e r i n g n a t i o n a l  y e t those involved i n the formulation  of language p o l i c i e s a r e q u i c k t o r e c o g n i z e  and r e a l i z a t i o n  t h a t t o g i v e precedence t o  one p a r t i c u l a r language i n a m u l t i - e t h n i c s o c i e t y may n e g a t i v e l y inter-ethnic relations.  affect  E v i d e n t l y , t h e language o f one group cannot  be e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e n a t i o n a l o r o f f i c i a l language w i t h o u t s e r i o u s l y i n f r i n g i n g upon o r a f f e c t i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d communities.  language r i g h t s o f o t h e r  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m a t e r i a l advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s  between t h e competing communities, w h i c h a r e c l e a r l y i m p l i e d , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s cultural  pertaining to  values.  The q u e s t i o n  o f n a t i o n a l language i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n .  What language ( o r languages) s h a l l be used as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n ? What s h a l l be t h e o f f i c i a l language o r languages f o r t h e purposes of  3  administration?  E d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y must square w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n t a k e n  i n r e g a r d s t o t h e language o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The Government must  c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e t h e adequacy of t h e i n d i g e n o u s language r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e p r e s e n t ;  as w e l l as a s s e s s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  p e r s o n n e l and f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e language  chosen.  I f t h e s e i s s u e s a r e r a i s e d as an immediate r e s u l t of the w i t h d r a w a l of c o l o n i a l r u l e , t h e n a t u r e of t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s s u r r o u n d i n g them can be a p p r e c i a t e d f u l l y o n l y i n terms of h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Such c o n f l i c t s r e v e a l many complex a s p e c t s of t h e s e s o c i e t i e s ; sense of c u l t u r a l l y  their  d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , t h e p o s t u r e towards c o l o n i a l  rule,  the p a t t e r n of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s and the means advocated f o r l e v e l l i n g them.  Such c o n f l i c t s a l s o g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e p r e s e n t  c o u r s e of p o l i t i c s and s o c i a l change.  Thus, the c h o i c e of a n a t i o n a l  language o f t e n i n v o l v e s so many v a l u e s t h a t c o n v e n i e n c e , and e f f i c i e n c y a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e d e c i s i v e c r i t e r i a .  rationality, Iti s ,  t h e r e f o r e , n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e problem of language p o l i c y more from a p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e than from a p r e d o m i n a n t l y t e c h n i c a l v i e w p o i n t .  Some Contemporary Case S t u d i e s An h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w of e v e n t s i n I n d i a and S r i Lanka,  which  have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s comparable t o t h o s e found i n M a l a y s i a - i . e . l i n g u i s t i c and e t h n i c c l e a v a g e s and concomitant p o l i t i c a l problems w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y of n a t i o n a l language formation.  policy  I n b o t h t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e were problems of d i s s e n t  4  when the government attempted to i n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l o r  official  language. The  c h o i c e of a n a t i o n a l language i n I n d i a and  s i n g l e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l s c h o o l s was  c o n s e q u e n t l y of a  complicated  by t h e f a c t  t h a t no s i n g l e language c o u l d c l a i m an overwhelming s u p e r i o r i t y . were more than ten languages t h a t were r e g i o n a l l y and  There  demographically  4 salient. was  Thus when H i n d i , a language p r e d o m i n a n t l y used i n the N o r t h ,  adopted as the  ' o f f i c i a l language' of the U n i o n , i t was  t h a t E n g l i s h would c o n t i n u e  t o be used u n t i l 1965,  Parliament  situation.  would r e v i e w the  However, w i t h the date due  decided  a f t e r which  f o r the changeover t o H i n d i f a s t  a p p r o a c h i n g r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s were s u f f i c i e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d t h a t B e n g a l i , M a r a t h i , P u n j a b i , T a m i l , and  the  Telegu s p e a k i n g r e g i o n s were not  p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t H i n d i as t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e . T h e problem  was  f u r t h e r compounded by t h e f a c t t h a t " H i n d i f a n a t i c s " a t the C e n t r e pushed t h e i r case i n an e x c l u s i v i s t and  had  z e a l o u s manner t h u s a l i e n a t i n g  o t h e r language groups even f u r t h e r . The O f f i c i a l Language Commission and Parliament  the Committee of Members of  on t h e i s s u e had o r i g i n a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n w h i c h  E n g l i s h education  had p e r p e t u a t e d produced an unwholesome s o c i a l  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and  stratification.  The  Commission c o n s e q u e n t l y  recommended t h a t H i n d i should p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e p l a c e E n g l i s h as O f f i c i a l language and  the  t h e main media of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l s c h o o l s ,  p o s s i b l y w i t h e f f e c t i v e changeover i n  1965.  5  The Report i m m e d i a t e l y aroused g r e a t a n x i e t y  i n the non-Hindi  s p e a k i n g a r e a s where a g i t a t i o n s were mounted t o r e g i s t e r p r o t e s t s  against  the recommended c o u r s e of a c t i o n .  Nehru,  was q u i c k t o sense t h e magnitude  The Prime M i n i s t e r , J a w a h a r l a l of t h e p r o t e s t s  and t h e r e f o r e  pledged  t h a t n o n - H i n d i a r e a s c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o use E n g l i s h f o r an i n d e f i n i t e period.  To a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e a s s u r a n c e r e s t r a i n e d f u r t h e r  protests.  But w i t h t h e demise of Nehru i n 1964, i t was apparent t h a t h i s p l e d g e would n o t be honoured by t h e new Prime M i n i s t e r , L a i Bahadur S h a s t r i , and h i s Government.  On R e p u b l i c Day, J a n u a r y 26, 1965, i n  pursuance of the l i t e r a l p r o v i s i o n s of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , H i n d i promulgated as t h e o f f i c i a l language of the Union.  was  T h i s sparked two  months of a n t i - H i n d i a g i t a t i o n s and r i o t s a l l over I n d i a , t h e most v i o l e n t ones were i n T a m i l Nadu, where more than 60 people were k i l l e d by p o l i c e b u l l e t s , and two youths performed an unprecedemted ('Vietnamese s t y l e ' ) .  a c t of  self-immolation  S t u d e n t s , whose i n t e r e s t s were t h e most a f f e c t e d  by the l e g i s l a t i o n , j o i n e d i n the f r a y and o f f e r e d t h e s t i f f e s t resistance.  The support of t h e D r a v i d a Munnetra Kazhagam was  especially  p o t e n t i n f o r c i n g the C e n t r a l Government t o back down on i t s p o l i c y decision.^ The C e n t r a l Government agreed to a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment. f u r t h e r consented to a ' t h r e e - l a n g u a g e f o r m u l a ' under w h i c h each language, as w e l l as H i n d i and E n g l i s h , were adopted as languages i n t h a t s t a t e .  I n r e t r o s p e c t , the new  It  state's  official  formula, which  finally  6  became t h e o f f i c i a l language p o l i c y , has been honoured o n l y i n the b r e a c h . T a m i l Nadu and  o t h e r south I n d i a n s t a t e s v i r t u a l l y have e l i m i n a t e d H i n d i  from the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , w h i l e t h e H i n d i h e a r t l a n d of N o r t h I n d i a remained almost m o n o - l i n g u a l . I n d i a as the l i n k language and  E n g l i s h continues  has  t o remain throughout  i n the s c h o o l system.  S r i Lanka seems to have weathered a s i m i l a r storm. Independence, the S i n h a l e s e made up about 61 p e r c e n t  Before  of the  population g  while t h e i r nearest  r i v a l s , t h e T a m i l s , made up 23 p e r c e n t .  c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , extending  Under B r i t i s h  from the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h u n t i l  1948,  E n g l i s h had become t h e language of the government, t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , 9 modern commerce, h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n  and  t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t of p o l i t i c s .  J u s t b e f o r e Independence, t h e r e was Tamil n a t i o n a l i s m .  a r e s u r g e n c e of S i n h a l a and  An o f f s h o o t of t h i s was  the "Swabhasha" ("own  language")  movement w h i c h sought t o r e p l a c e E n g l i s h as t h e o f f i c i a l language of c o u n t r y by b o t h S i n h a l a and T a m i l . ^  prominence.  As a r e s u l t , "the demand among the m a j o r i t y of the community t u r n e d 'swabhasa' t o ' S i n h a l a o n l y ' as the o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e . T h u s ,  privileged  position  I n 1956, p o l l s and was  the  However, w i t h the achievement of  Independence, a n a t i o n a l r e s u r g e n c e among the S i n h a l e s e g a i n e d  o f f i c i a l language c o n t r o v e r s y  of  q u i c k l y s h i f t e d from an a t t a c k on  from  the the  of E n g l i s h to a c l a s h between the e t h n i c communities.  the U n i t e d N a t i o n a l P a r t y government was  defeated  at  the  r e p l a c e d by a group of o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c i a n s under the  l e a d e r s h i p of the S r i Lanka Freedom P a r t y .  The  f i r s t l e g i s l a t i v e task  7  of t h e new government was t h e enactment o f an O f f i c i a l Language A c t d e c l a r i n g " t h e S i n h a l a language s h a l l be t h e one o f f i c i a l language o f 12 Ceylon."  U n d e r s t a n d a b l y t h e A c t was much r e s e n t e d by t h e E n g l i s h - -  educated but even more vehemently by t h e T a m i l s .  The T a m i l s i n p a r t i c u l a r  f e l t t h a t t h e u n q u a l i f i e d d e c l a r a t i o n of S i n h a l e s e was a r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r w o r s t f e a r s t h a t t h e i r language would be r e l e g a t e d t o a p o s i t i o n of i n f e r i o r i t y w i t h a subsequent d e c l i n e i n b o t h language and c u l t u r e . The F e d e r a l P a r t y w h i c h had emerged from t h e 1956 e l e c t i o n s as the p r i n c i p a l T a m i l p a r t y assumed t h e m a n t l e of p r o t e s t f o r t h e T a m i l s . To c o u n t e r  t h e language a c t , t h e p a r t y c l a i m e d e q u a l s t a t u s w i t h t h e  Sinhalese.  I n August, 1956, t h e F e d e r a l P a r t y i s s u e d an u l t i m a t u m  that  i f t h e p a r t y ' s language and o t h e r demands were n o t met w i t h i n a y e a r i t 13 would l a u n c h a " n o n - v i o l e n t d i r e c t a c t i o n campaign t o a c h i e v e  i t s aim."  T h i s .prompted..Prime M i n i s t e r B a n d a r n a i k e t o have d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e l e a d e r s of t h e F e d e r a l P a r t y .  On J u l y 26, 1957, a f o r m a l w r i t t e n  agreement between t h e Prime M i n i s t e r and t h e F e d e r a l P a r t y l e a d e r S. J . V. Chelvanagam was a c h i e v e d .  On t h e language q u e s t i o n a f o r m u l a was agreed  upon f o r l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g " r e c o g n i t i o n o f T a m i l as t h e language of the m i n o r i t y " and p r o v i d i n g t h a t " t h e language o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n /and 14 e d u c a t i o n / of t h e N o r t h e r n  and E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s  should be T a m i l . "  But b e f o r e t h i s agreement c o u l d r e a c h f o r m a l i z a t i o n , v o c i f e r o u s o p p o s i t i o n developed.  The uncompromising ' S i n h a l a - o n l y ' a d v o c a t e s a t t a c k e d t h e  agreement as a b e t r a y a l of t h e S i n h a l e s e community.  The T a m i l i n t u r n  began t o p r o t e s t t h e u s e o f S i n h a l e s e i n t h e N o r t h e r n  and E a s t e r n  Provinces  8  and they were backed by the F e d e r a l P a r t y i n t h e i r q u e s t .  Under t h e  weight of heavy p r e s s u r e s from the opponents o f the p a c t , the Prime M i n i s t e r was moved to abrogate ...  .  a c t x v i t x e s as the  t h e p a c t - c i t i n g the F e d e r a l P a r t y  15 reason.  Immediately communal t e n s i o n s spewed i n t o open c o n f l i c t . f o u r days of u t t e r chaos, a s t a t e of emergency was ment.  After  d e c l a r e d by the Govern-  Many members of p a r l i a m e n t b e l o n g i n g t o the F e d e r a l P a r t y ,  i n c l u d i n g the l e a d e r of a minor i n f l a m m a t o r y  S i n h a l e s e p a r t y , the J a t h i k a  V i m u k t h i Peramuna ( N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t ) , were p l a c e d under house 16 arrest.  When the r i o t i n g was  brought under c o n t r o l , t h e Government  used the o p p o r t u n i t y of t h e absence of the F e d e r a l P a r t y members t o  enact  a T a m i l Language A c t . The new Tamil.  Act was  i n t e n d e d to d e f i n e a t l a s t t h e 'reasonable use'  of  The Act p r o v i d e d f o r the use of T a m i l i n e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c  s e r v i c e entrance examinations,  and " p r e s c r i b e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s " ."^  However, i t was more than seven y e a r s b e f o r e the f i r s t r e g u l a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y for  the A c t were put i n t o e f f e c t .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e b a s i c t e n e t s of  the Act were adhered t o even a f t e r t h e SLFP was elections.  d e f e a t e d i n the  1965  Thus the A c t managed to r e v e r s e t h e extremes of b o t h  Sinhalese  and T a m i l n a t i o n a l i s m and managed to found a tenuous but seemingly  workable  measure of compromise between the S i n h a l e s e and the T a m i l language i n t e r e s t s . W h i l e I n d i a and S r i Lanka seemed to have worked out a ' t h r e e language' f o r m u l a o n l y as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o open c o n f l i c t , M a l a y s i a a b l e t o i n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e language as t h e o f f i c i a l  and language of  was  9  i n s t r u c t i o n i n schools.  I n o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how t h i s was  a c h i e v e d i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s a y something o f t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l r u l e i n Malaya.  Rupert Emerson b e s t d e s c r i b e s pre-war C o l o n i a l Malaya when  he s t a t e s t h a t " d i v i d e d from each o t h e r i n almost e v e r y a s p e c t , t h e p e o p l e s of Malaya have i n common e s s e n t i a l l y o n l y t h e f a c t t h a t they l i v e i n t h e „18 same c o u n t r y .  E t h n i c groups were d i v i d e d p r i m a r i l y a l o n g r a c i a l ,  c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c l i n e s .  The M a l a y s , who formed t h e m a j o r i t y ,  were u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e o f t h e c o u n t r y .  The Chinese  and I n d i a n s , who immigrated t o Malaya i n s e a r c h o f b e t t e r p r o s p e c t s , formed t h e remainder o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  T a b l e I shows t h e p a r a l l e l growth o f  the t h r e e main r a c i a l groups d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1911 t o 1941: TABLE I P a r a l l e l Growth of M a l a y s , Chinese and I n d i a n s , 1911-1941 Year  Malays  Chinese  Indians  1911  1,437,000  916,000  267,000  1921  1,651,000  1,174,000  471,000  1931  1,962,000  1,709,000  624,000  1941  2,278,000  2,379,000  744,000  (Note:  These f i g u r e s p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f S i n g a p o r e , though t h i s i s n o t i n d i c a t e d by D. G. E. Hall.)  Source: D. G. E. H a l l , A H i s t o r y o f South-East A s i a . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1964. p. 750.  10  Each group had c e r t a i n s p e c i a l i z e d economic f u n c t i o n s i n t h e p r o d u c t i v e process.  W i t h i n each e t h n i c group t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s such as  l i n g u i s t i c , r e g i o n a l and c u l t u r a l .  I n sum, pre-war Malaya was t h e i d e a l 19  type of a p l u r a l s o c i e t y i n t h e sense o u t l i n e d by J . S. F u r n i v a l l . E n g l i s h language e d u c a t i o n began w i t h t h e m i s s i o n s c h o o l s i n the e a r l y 1 9 t h Century. requirements  L a t e r t h e Government i n an e f f o r t t o f u l f i l l t h e  o f an expanding economy and t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a -  t i v e system i n t r o d u c e d p u b l i c n o n - s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s .  These s c h o o l s were  l o c a t e d i n t h e urban c e n t r e s and were l a r g e l y p a t r o n i z e d by t h e non-Malays, who were q u i c k t o r e a l i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n as a means f o r s e c u r i n g employment w i t h t h e Government and commercial houses.  These  s c h o o l s were a l s o p a t r o n i z e d by a segment o f Malay s o c i e t y , namely t h e a r i s t o c r a t s , i n o r d e r t o be t r a i n e d t o f i l l Malayan C i v i l S e r v i c e a t j u n i o r and m i d d l e  the requirements  of the 20  level administrators.  As  a d i r e c t consequence, w h i l e a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f non-Malays were c a p i t a l i s i n g on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y r u r a l based M a l a y s were b e i n g pushed back even f u r t h e r i n t h e m o d e r n i z a tion  process. A few m i s s i o n s c h o o l s d i d o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n Malay.  t h e p r i n c i p a l r o o t o f Malay e d u c a t i o n was i n t h e K o r a n i c 22 W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of ' i n d i r e c t R u l e ' , the n u c l e u s  However, 21 schools.  t h e s e K o r a n i c s c h o o l s formed  from which e v o l v e d t h e Government Malay s c h o o l system.'  However, t h i s e x t e n s i o n of Government s p o n s o r s h i p d i d n o t b r i n g about d r a s t i c changes i n t h e n a t u r e and c o n t e n t o f v e r n a c u l a r  education.  11  The Malay s c h o o l s c o n t i n u e d t o remain backward i n terms o f t h e q u a l i t y of t e a c h e r s , c o n t e n t o f s y l l a b u s and b a s i c a m e n i t i e s such as t e x t b o o k s . The Government made no s e c r e t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e aim o f t h e Malay v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n was t o keep t h e Malays i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s and t h u s 23 a v o i d "economic d i s l o c a t i o n and s o c i a l u n r e s t . " c o u n t r y was undergoing  While the r e s t of the  d r a s t i c s o c i a l and economic change, t h e Malays  were burdened by a system o f s c h o o l i n g t h a t sought t o i n c l u c a t e " h a b i t s 24 of o r d e r , p u n c t u a l i t y and obedience" more than a n y t h i n g  else.  E a r l y Chinese e d u c a t i o n was p r o v i d e d f o r by c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the Chinese community.  The B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were s u p p o r t i v e o f  t h i s arrangement, o s t e n s i b l y on t h e ground o f c o s t .  This non-interference  of t h e Government enabled t h e Chinese t o u s e t h e s c h o o l s as c e n t r e s t o t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n "how t o remain Chinese o u t s i d e t h e homeland", and 25 o f t e n as s t a g i n g p o i n t s o f anti-government  activities.  I n 1924, t h e  Government i n t r o d u c e d t h e system of g r a n t s - i n - a i d as a means t o reduce t h e independence o f t h e s e s c h o o l s .  T h i s was g r a d u a l l y extended u n t i l by  e a r l y 1960s most Chinese s c h o o l s were e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y o r f u l l y  assisted.  The I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , l a r g e l y of T a m i l e x t r a c t i o n , came t o Malaya o r i g i n a l l y as i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s t o work m o s t l y i n t h e rubber plantations.  I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n developed  p l a n t a t i o n and was o f poor q u a l i t y .  i n f o r m a l l y on t h e  I n 1923, a law r e q u i r i n g t h e  p l a n t a t i o n management t o p r o v i d e adequate p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n l e d t o some growth of T a m i l s c h o o l s b u t t h e r e was no change whatsoever i n t h e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n .  I t was o n l y i n 1956 t h a t f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e  12  T a m i l s c h o o l s was assumed by the Government, b u t t h i s change c o u l d not a l t e r the y e a r s of n e g l e c t . From the end of the Second World War  u n t i l 1954  t h e r e have been  s e v e r a l Government sponsored s t u d i e s and r e p o r t s on the problems of the Malayan e d u c a t i o n a l system.  But most of the R e p o r t s were seen as b e i n g  e i t h e r too r a d i c a l i n t h e i r c o n t e n t or f a i l i n g to t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p r e v a i l i n g  communal s e n t i m e n t s w i t h r e g a r d s to implementing  language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n as opposed  to a n o t h e r .  one  Thus i t  became the t a s k of t h e s u c c e s s o r A l l i a n c e Governments to work out a compromise s o l u t i o n . W i t h the achievement  of Independence and the i n s t i t u t i n g of  inter-communal c o o p e r a t i o n i n the form of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r a c t the problem of the language of i n s t r u c t i o n was s o l v e d not by e n a c t i n g a s i n g l e p i e c e of a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n but i n a g r a d u a l manner s t r e t c h i n g over a decade.  But t h e r e c o n t i n u e d t o be  inter-communal  d i s a g r e e m e n t s w h i c h o f t e n t e s t e d the A l l i a n c e concept of communal cooperation.  I t was o n l y i n 1971 t h a t the Government was a b l e to make a  f i r m commitment towards implementing the s i n g l e medium of the i n s t r u c t i o n policy.  13  Review of Literature It i s frequently assumed i n the l i t e r a t u r e on p o l i t i c a l development that l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y i s an obstacle to e f f i c i e n t government. Language i s believed to be the major cause of numerous day-to-day d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by the governments of many ethnically and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y 26 complex countries.  Solving the l i n g u i s t i c problem either by elimina-  ting or r e s t r i c t i n g the use of the minority languages would, i t i s held, 27 help i n the development of a more viable national p o l i t i c a l system. Although such speculations about the probable effects of l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y on p o l i t i c a l development have been frequent, there have been v i r t u a l l y no attempts to demonstrate how this d i v e r s i t y actually 28 complicates the business of government. The study of language and p o l i t i c s i s of potential interest to most s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , to development planners and to those whose primary interest center on the p o l i t i c s of l i n g u i s t i c nationalism.  Yet  none of these s p e c i a l i s t s seem to have devoted enough attention to the language-politics relationship f o r the subject to achieve subdisciplinary prominence.  There i s no important theory about how language i s d i f f e r e n t  from other p o l i t i c a l issues ( i f indeed i t i s ) , or about how language factors intervene and thus a f f e c t the outcome of p o l i t i c a l process or the policy making process.  Thus a coherent framework which examines the  problem of language education p o l i c i e s and their evolution i s needed. Many analysts of government and p o l i t i c s i n Malaysia have expended a great deal of research on the various national elections, the economy, the problems of integration, the role of the p o l i t i c a l e l i t e ,  14  and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s among o t h e r s .  Yet o n l y a m i n i m a l  amount of  a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to the problem of language e d u c a t i o n .  The  problem of language e d u c a t i o n i s t r e a t e d as p a r t of the o v e r a l l problem of the p r o c e s s of government and  thus the i s s u e i s t r e a t e d as  an  29 incidental  one.  C y n t h i a Enloe's p e n e t r a t i n g a r t i c l e ,  " I s s u e s and I n t e g r a t i o n i n  30 Malaysia,"  and her book M u l t i - e t h n i c P o l i t i c s :  b o t h d e a l w i t h the problems of i n s t i t u t i n g  The Case of M a l a y s i a ,  Malay as the medium of  i n s t r u c t i o n , but p o l i t i c a l events s i n c e then have made some of her o b s e r v a t i o n s out of d a t e .  The  i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y s i t u a t i o n and  the p o l i c y  on secondary s c h o o l s have changed a good d e a l s i n c e the book was w r i t t e n . In the same t o k e n , M a r g a r e t R o f f ' s a r t i c l e ,  "The  Politics  M a l a y a , " d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h the c r i s i s of the 1967 Ratnam's Communalism and  the P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s  of Language i n  period.  i n M a l a y a , t r e a t s language  of e d u c a t i o n a t some l e n g t h but i s p r i m a r i l y devoted to the communal compromises of 1956-1961. 34 Democracy Without Consensus,  K. J .  initial  S t i l l o t h e r s l i k e K a r l von  Vorys'  and B. Simandjuntak's Malayan F e d e r a l i s m ,  35 1945-1963,  t r e a t the problem i n c i d e n t a l l y .  On the o t h e r hand  w r i t i n g s of e d u c a t i o n i s t s , such as T. R. F e n n e l l ' s t h e s i s "Commitment t o Change: A H i s t o r y of Malayan E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y , 1945-1957," and  Paul  Chang Ming Phang's E d u c a t i o n a l Development i n a P l u r a l S c o i e t y - A 37 Malayan Case Study,  examine the problem i n i s o l a t i o n w i t h o u t making  r e f e r e n c e s to the o v e r a l l p o l i t i c s politics  of the p e r i o d concerned.  I n sum,  of language e d u c a t i o n i s one of the areas t h a t needs more  r e s e a r c h and  t h i s study w i l l endeavour to f i l l  the  gap.  the  15  Methodology T h i s study r e l i e s a g r e a t d e a l on secondary s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . I n a d d i t i o n Malayan newspapers r e l a t i n g t o t h e 1957-1960 p e r i o d have been c o n s u l t e d .  T h i s study a l s o r e l i e s on my own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e -  f i r s t as a p r o d u c t o f t h e Malayan s c h o o l system and next as a s c h o o l t e a c h e r f o r w e l l over seven y e a r s i n M a l a y s i a .  I n a d d i t i o n , I have  drawn i n f e r e n c e s from s t u d i e s of t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e , o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and of M a l a y s i a n g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s . T h i s study i s perhaps t h e f i r s t t o i d e n t i f y t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s attempt i n e a r l y 1930 t o i n t r o d u c e Malay as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Even though t h e p o l i c y was a f a i l u r e , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s  demonstrates t h a t t h e B r i t i s h d i d d e s i r e t o have a u n i f i e d s c h o o l system, (though  t h e i r primary  f o r the c o l o n i a l  i n t e n t i o n was t o make e d u c a t i o n somewhat cheaper  coffer).  I n v i e w of an absence of a s u i t a b l e t h e o r y on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i t i c s o f language e d u c a t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine t h e f o l l o w i n g questions:  What was t h e n a t u r e and o r i g i n o f t h e p o l i c y t o i n t r o d u c e  Malay as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n M a l a y s i a n s c h o o l s ? determinedly  How  and p e r s i s t e n t l y was t h i s p o l i c y pursued by t h e v a r i o u s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r governments between t h e p e r i o d 1930 t o 1971?  To  f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e t h e main q u e s t i o n s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l be dealt with i n this 1.  thesis:  What were t h e demands ( c o n c e r n i n g Malay as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n ) o f t h e Malay and non-Malay communities d u r i n g each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? How d i d t h e E n g l i s h educated e l i t e and t h e n o n - E n g l i s h educated masses d i f f e r on t h e i s s u e ?  16  2.  What were t h e m o t i v e s and aims o f t h e p o l i c y makers i n p u r s u i n g t h e p o l i c y o f Malay as t h e main medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n ?  3.  What e f f e c t , e i t h e r a c t u a l o r p e r c e i v e d , d i d the proposed p o l i c y have on t h e Malay and nonMalay communities?  4.  What were the r e a c t i o n s o f t h e Malay and nonMalay communities t o t h e p o l i c y ?  5.  What p a r t d i d t h e i s s u e p l a y i n the o v e r a l l p o l i t i c s o f t h e p e r i o d mentioned?  The t i m e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y i s from 1930 t o 1971.  The  s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f 1930 has been chosen because i t was a t t h i s time t h a t Malay as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n was f i r s t proposed.  S i m i l a r l y , the  y e a r 1971 has been chosen because i t marked a d e f i n i t e and fundamental change i n t h e r u l e s o f t h e game i n t h e c o u n t r y .  I t was i n t h i s y e a r t h a t  the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendment A c t , 1971 was e n a c t e d t h e r e b y removing f r o m the r e a l m of p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e N a t i o n a l Language and i t s s t a t u s i n the Government and i n p r i m a r y and secondary education. The time p e r i o d between 1930 and 1971 has been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r phases a c c o r d i n g country.  t o the c l i m a t e o f p o l i t i c a l  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  Chapter I I w i l l d e a l w i t h pre-War Malaya between t h e y e a r s  1930 and 1941 d u r i n g w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had complete c o n t r o l of the d e c i s i o n making powers o f t h e government.  It is  a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a marked absence o f communal i n p u t s i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s .  Chapter I I I w i l l examine the second phase on t h e  e v o l u t i o n of t h e p o l i c y t o make Malay t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  During  17  the p e r i o d between 1945 t o 1954 t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l changes u n d e r t a k e n by t h e c o l o n i a l government i n an e f f o r t to p r e p a r e the c o u n t r y f o r independence.  Chapter IV w i l l r e l a t e t o t h e  p e r i o d between 1955 and 1961 d u r i n g w h i c h t h e A l l i a n c e P a r t y assumed power and d u r i n g w h i c h inter-communal c o o p e r a t i o n was the keynote i n the policymaking process.  Chapter V w i l l examine the p e r i o d between 1962  and 1971 d u r i n g w h i c h t h e r e was i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l  a c t i v i t y and d u r i n g  which the b a s i c t e n e t s agreed upon d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f Independence were s u b j e c t e d to i n t e n s e c o n t r o v e r s y by a new  generation  of s u b - e l i t e s who were n o t p a r t y t o t h e o r i g i n a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l compromises.  L a s t l y , Chapter V I w i l l p r o v i d e a summary and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  the f i n d i n g s  of t h i s t h e s i s .  18  Notes 1.  Robert W. McMeekin, J r . E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g and E x p e n d i t u r e D e c i s i o n i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s : With a M a l y s i a n Case Study, New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1975. p. 142.  2.  K. J . Ratnam, Communalism and the P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s i n Malaya, Singapore: U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya P r e s s , 1965. p. 126.  3.  W i l l i a m M. O'Barr and Jean F. O'Barr ( e d s ) , Language and The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1976. p. 6.  4.  J y o t i r i n d r a Das Gupta, Language C o n f l i c t and N a t i o n a l Development, B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1970. pp. 45-68.  5.  Ibid.  6.  Ibid.  7.  Y. Mansoor M a r i c a n , "The P o l i t i c a l Accommodation of P r i m o r d i a l P a r t i e s : DMK ( I n d i a ) and PAS ( M a l a y s i a ) , " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. p. 123; Robert L. Hardgrave, J r . , The D r a v i d i a n Movement, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1965; P h i l i p S p r a t t , DMK i n Power, Bombay: N a c h i k e t a P u b l i s h e r s , 1970; Sagar A h l u w a l i a , Anna - The Tempest and the Sea, New D e l h i : Young A s i a P u b l i c a t i o n 1969. Chapter 3.  8.  J . D. Gupta, op. c i t . ,  9.  Robert N. Kearney, "Language and the R i s e of T a m i l S e p a r a t i s m i n  Chap. V. Passim; R a j n i K o t h a r i , P o l i t i c s i n I n d i a , L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1970. pp. 326-330; Robert L, Hardgrave, J r . I n d i a , Government and P o l i t i c s i n a D e v e l o p i n g N a t i o n , (2nd e d i t i o n ) . New York: H a r c o u r t Brace J a v a n o v i c h , Inc., 1975. pp. 93-96.  p.  24.  S r i Lanka," A s i a n Survey, V o l . X V I I I , No. 10.  Politics  I b i d . , p.  5, (May, 1978)  p.  526.  527.  11.  Ibid.  12.  O f f i c i a l Language A c t , No. 33 of 1956, as c i t e d i n Robert N. Kearney Communalism and Language i n the P o l i t i c s of C e y l o n , Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. p. 143.  13.  I b i d . , p. 85.  19  14.  Ibid.  ( f o r a f u l l t e x t o f the "Bandaranaike - Chelvanayagam  Pact,"  J u l y 26, 1957, see pages 145-146.)  15.  I b i d . , p. 86.  16.  Ibid.  17. 18.  I b i d . , pp. 147-149 (Appendix I I I ) . Rupert Emerson, Foreword to Frank H. H. K i n g , The Malayan N a t i o n , New York: I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1957. p. V.  19.  J . S. F u r n i v a l , C o l o n i a l P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e . Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948. p. 304.  20.  W i l l i a m R. R o f f , The O r i g i n s o f Malay N a t i o n a l i s m , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Chapter 7.  21.  Ibid.  22.  Rupert Emerson, M a l a y s i a : A Study of D i r e c t and I n d i r e c t R u l e , K u a l a Lumpur: U n i v e r s i t y o f Malaya P r e s s , 1964.  23.  R. 0. W i n s t e d t , i n E d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a . B r i t i s h Empire E x h i b i t i o n : Malayan S e r i e s (London: 1924) p. 15 as c i t e d i n W. R. R o f f , op. c i t . , p. 141.  24.  F r a n k Swettenham, B r i t i s h M a l a y a , London: 1948, p. 258.  25.  W.  26.  G a b r i e l Almond and James Coleman, The P o l i t i c s o f D e v e l o p i n g A r e a , P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960; passim. L u c i e n W. Pye, A s p e c t s of P o l i t i c a l Development, B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1966, passim.  27.  Ibid.  28.  W i l l i a m M. O'Barr and Jean F. O'Barr, (eds.) op. c i t . , p. 14.  29.  See D a n i e l E l d r e d g e Moore, "The U n i t e d Malay N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and : the 1959 Malayan E l e c t i o n s : A Study o f P o l i t i c a l P a r t y i n A c t i o n i n a newly Independent S o c i e t y , " B e r k e l e y : Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1960; S. A r a s a r a t n a m , I n d i a n i n M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e , K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970; V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The Chinese i n M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967.  New  England:  Haven:  A l l e n and Unwin,  C. S. C o r r y , Malaya To-day. B r i t i s h Commonwealth A f f a i r s , No. London: Longmans, Green and Co. 1957. p. 42.  9.  20  30.  C y n t h i a E n l o e , " I s s u e s and I n t e g r a t i o n i n M a l a y s i a , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . X L I , No. 3, ( F a l l , 1968) pp. 372-385.  31.  C y n t h i a E n l o e , M u l t i - e t h n i c P o l i t i c s : The Case Study of M a l a y s i a , B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1970.  32.  M a r g a r e t R o f f , "The P o l i t i c s o f Language i n M a l a y a , " A s i a n Survey, V o l . V I I , No. 5 (May, 1967), pp. 316-328.  33.  K. J . Ratnam, op. c i t . , pp.  34.  K a r l von V o r y s , Democracy Without Consensus, P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975.  35.  B. Simandjuntak, Malayan F e d e r a l i s m , 1945-1963, K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969.  36.  T. R. F e n n e l l , "Commitment to Change: A H i s t o r y o f Malayan E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y , 1945-1957," Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1968.  37.  P a u l Chang Ming Phang, E d u c a t i o n a l Development i n a P l u r a l S o c i e t y , A M a l a y s i a n Case Study, Singapore: Academia P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1973.  126-141.  21  CHAPTER I I BRITISH COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION, 1930-1941  The  P l u r a l S o c i e t y and t h e C o l o n i a l Government The  Malay community d u r i n g  between t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c The  t h i s e r a was complacent and p o l a r i z e d  r u l i n g c l a s s and t h e r a k y a t ( o r s u b j e c t s ) .  absence o f an a r t i c u l a t e m i d d l e - c l a s s  was distinct.''" The main  u n i f y i n g f o r c e s f o r t h e Malays were t h e common bonds o f r a c e , and  language.  religion  Y e t t h e s e f a c t o r s were c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f 2  harrow p r o v i n c i a l i s m and l o y a l t i e s .  T h i s f a c t o r was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n  p r e v e n t i n g a w i l l i n g n e s s t o o r g a n i z e and c o o p e r a t e f o r t h e good o f t h e 3 community as a whole.  Under B r i t i s h t u t e l a g e and p r o t e c t i o n i s m t h e  members o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y were a b l e t o g e t E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya and  E n g l a n d , were f r e q u e n t l y  acquired  r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e and these  p o s i t i o n s o f some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e  t r a d i t i o n a l p e a s a n t r y were encouraged t o remain i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s .  As  a consequence, the Malay a r i s t o c r a c y remained t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e o f Malay s o c i e t y . During t h i s period Malays t o mean " t r e a s o n " . and  t h e term " p o l i t i c s " was u n d e r s t o o d by t h e The p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y remained w h o l l y  loyal 4  s u b m i s s i v e t o t h e Government, t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e R u l e r s .  As a r e s u l t , Malay n a t i o n a l i s m  and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y "seemed twenty-  f i v e y e a r s b e h i n d t h e r e s t o f Southeast A s i a . " " '  There were v e r y few  p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e Malay community and  22  even these few were i n s p i r e d by I s l a m i c c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l i s m i n t h e m i d d l e - e a s t and by n a t i o n a l i s t movements i n the Dutch E a s t I n d i e s . The f i r s t p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Malays o c c u r r e d under t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c c o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Malay s u l t a n s t o p r o t e c t the  i n t e r e s t of the r u l i n g c l a s s .  new s o c i a l and economic  P o p u l a r s u p p o r t "was g r a n t e d n o t t o  g o a l s , b u t t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f Malay  i n s t i t u t i o n s and t o the s a f e g u a r d i n g o f Malay p r i v i l e g e s . . . " ^  It  appears t h a t Malay p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y was g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by t h e D e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930's.  The D e p r e s s i o n t r a n s f o r m e d p r o s p e r i t y o v e r -  n i g h t i n t o widespread p o v e r t y , and t h i s i n t u r n t r i g g e r e d p u b l i c protests. To t h e immigrant groups, Malaya was an E l Dorado.  The most  i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n o f the Chinese and t h e I n d i a n s seems t o have been t o make enough money t o r e t i r e t o t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d .  Economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s  i n B r i t i s h Malaya c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h t h e ever p r e s e n t s p e c t r e o f p o v e r t y , war o r famine i n the homelands.  After living  i n Malaya f o r a  number o f y e a r s , many immigrants l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r homeland. Others were f o r c e d t o remain because o f d e b t s , v e s t e d economic  interests  g  or adverse c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r homeland.  There were s u b s t a n t i a l  d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n b o t h the Chinese and I n d i a n communities.  F o r example,  t h e r e were sharp c l e a v a g e s between t h e r i c h and poor, the E n g l i s h educated and n o n - E n g l i s h e d u c a t e d , t h e l o c a l and the f o r e i g n born 9 i m m i g r a n t s , and between the v a r i o u s d i a l e c t groups. d i f f e r e n c e s made t h e achievement  A l l these  of p o l i t i c a l unity a d i f f i c u l t  task.  23  Nevertheless,  t h e r e were f r e q u e n t  upsurges of Chinese and  Indian  n a t i o n a l i s m i n s p i r e d and o f t e n n u r t u r e d by l o c a l branches of Kuomintang (KMT)  and  the I n d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t movements.  I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  a t b e s t l i m i t e d and  the  Chinese  and  episodic.  G e n e r a l l y , t h e s e upsurges of n a t i o n a l i s m were not o r i e n t e d so much towards the l o c a l environment as they were r e a c t i o n s to e x t e r n a l f o r c e s and developments, l i k e the Chinese n a t i o n a l i s t movement and independence movement i n China and f o r e i g n based and common cause and  India respectively."^  the  Indian  Such  i n s p i r e d movements f a i l e d to u n i t e the p e o p l e i n a f a i l e d t o produce any p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s i n the  p o l i t i c s of B r i t i s h M a l a y a . The main f e a t u r e o f B r i t i s h c o n t r o l o f the Malay was  the r e s i d e n t system w h i c h was  peninsula  d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y as a means o f  b r i n g i n g law and o r d e r to the F e d e r a t e d Malay states."'""'"  Malay s u l t a n s  remained s o v e r e i g n but were r e q u i r e d to adhere to the " a d v i c e "  given  12 by the B r i t i s h R e s i d e n t s  or B r i t i s h A d v i s e r s .  I n t h i s manner the  B r i t i s h assumed almost complete c o n t r o l of the d e c i s i o n making powers o f the government.  The  government " r e t a i n e d t h e i r Malay t r a p p i n g s ,  the f u n c t i o n s of government were c a r r i e d on w i t h a f a i r l y  efficient  b u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t a f f e d i n the h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s by  British  13 officials." p e o p l e , and  The  B r i t i s h recognized  the Malays as the  indigenous  the government a c c e p t e d s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r  w e l f a r e and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r r i g h t s as the s u b j e c t of sultan.  I n a d d i t i o n , the B r i t i s h adopted a "pro-Malay" s t a n c e  the to  24  h e l p p r e s e r v e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f Malay s o c i e t y and economy. Even e d u c a t i o n , a p o t e n t i a l l y m o d e r n i z i n g this goal.  agent, was geared  t o meet  I n S i r George M a x w e l l ' s memorable p h r a s e , "The a i m o f  the Government i s . . . t o make t h e son o f a f i s h e r m a n o r a peasant a more i n t e l l i g e n t f i s h e r m a n o r peasant than h i s f a t h e r had been and a man whose e d u c a t i o n would enable him t o understand  how h i s own l o t  o f l i f e f i t s i n w i t h t h e scheme o f l i f e around him.""'""'  Although  these p o l i c i e s seemed s o l i c i t i o u s and a p p r o p r i a t e , a t t h i s time did  they  n o t h e l p t h e Malays t o come t o terms w i t h t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e  modern w o r l d .  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e Malays  h e l p e d t o n u r t u r e an u n d e r c u r r e n t o f resentment among t h e o t h e r r a c i a l communities. The B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s g e n e r a l l y adopted a l a i s s e z - f a i r e approach i n g o v e r n i n g .  The t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e o f t h e  immigrant p o p u l a t i o n made the t a s k o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r somewhat e a s i e r in  t h a t l i t t l e was n e c e s s a r y except t o t r y t o p r o v i d e m a r g i n a l c o n d i -  t i o n s o f l a w and o r d e r .  G e n e r a l l y , t h e c o l o n i a l government remained  a l o o f from t h e immigrant communities u n t i l t h e r e were o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g immediate a t t e n t i o n .  F o r example, Chinese  vernacular  e d u c a t i o n was p e r m i t t e d t o e v o l v e on i t s own w i t h o u t any d i r e c t i o n from t h e c o l o n i a l government.  However, as soon as i t was apparent  the s c h o o l s were b e i n g used by KMT s y m p a t h i s e r s  to i n c u l c a t e  that  anti-  government i d e o l o g y , t h e government promptly  stepped i n t o e n f o r c e  l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l i n g such a c t i v i t i e s . " * " ^  I n sum, t h e f a i l u r e t o a c t  25  e a r l i e r does not i n d i c a t e the l a c k of a p o l i c y but r a t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t B r i t i s h p o l i c y was as l o n g as they c o u l d be  to have no o p e r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s or c o n t r o l s avoided.  I t must be mentioned a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t h a t the B r i t i s h never c o n s c i o u s l y p r a c t i s e d a p o l i c y o f ' d i v i d e and were a l r e a d y t h e r e " and B r i t i s h r u l e was  rule'.  "The  divisions  these d i v i s i o n s r e q u i r e d no B r i t i s h  however i n s t r u m e n t a l i n m i n i m i z i n g the  c o n t a c t s between the two communities.  I n the p r o c e s s  initiatives."^  official o f government,  "the e l i t e s , o r n e a r - e l i t e s , o f each of the r a c i a l groups d e a l t w i t h 18 the B r i t i s h r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y w i t h each o t h e r " . t o k e n , the p l u r a l s o c i e t y p e r m i t t e d perpetuate  By the same  the B r i t i s h an o p p o r t u n i t y  i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m i n the v a r i o u s v e r n a c u l a r  to  schools,  the system of communal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the s e t t i n g up o f a s p e c i a l 19 20 "Chinese P r o t e c t o r a t e " and the I n d i a n I m m i g r a t i o n Committee. The B r i t i s h were w i t h o u t doubt p a t e r n a l i s t i c towards the Malays but t h i s d i d not commit them t o a p o l i c y o f o p p o s i t i o n to the immigrant races.  But the B r i t i s h d i d t r y to h o l d the b a l a n c e as the p r o t e c t i n g  power between the v a r i o u s r a c e s .  Very o f t e n i n making o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s ,  the B r i t i s h d i d t a k e the view of the o t h e r communities i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and  i f l e g i s l a t i o n o r proposed p o l i c y g o a l s d i d not meet w i t h  a p p r o v a l of the community o r i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t was  always  the delayed  21 or reconsidered. completely  I n sum,  B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d not  e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r - r a c i a l c l a s h e s ,  r a t h e r postponed t h e i r  arrival.  but  26  Communal Demands  The most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of the p e r i o d was the l a c k o f u n i t y w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l communities concerned. the communal groups was s t i l l  G e n e r a l l y each o f  i n a s t a t e o f i n f a n c y as f a r as i t s  s p i r i t o f n a t i o n a l i s m was concerned.  There were v e r y few Malay  t r u l y concerned w i t h the l o n g term development  elites  o f the community.  Many o f t h e embryo p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were s t i l l f i n d i n g t h e i r d i r e c t i o n s and were l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o a h a n d f u l o f Malay educated radical intellectuals.  The A r a b i c educated r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m i s t s  were p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s and d i d n o t command enough s u p p o r t to a r t i c u l a t e demands r e l a t i n g t o s o c i a l i s s u e s as y e t . The more i n f l u e n t i a l E n g l i s h educated a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e c r u i t e d l a r g e l y from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a r i s t o c r a c y were not p r e p a r e d t o make demands on b e h a l f o f t h e masses.  There were some Malay r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the  F e d e r a l L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , b u t t h e s e p o s i t i o n s were monopolised by f a v o u r i t e s o r r e l a t i v e s o f the Malay r u l e r s and p o l i c i e s p r o m o t i n g 22 Malay w e l f a r e were s i d e t r a c k e d i n t h e p u r s u i t o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . There were f o u r Malay members i n the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l a f t e r 1927.  legislative  They were R a j a Chulan, Tengku Musa'eddin,  A b d u l l a h b i n H a j i Dahan and Tengku Sulaiman; belonged t o the a r i s t o c r a c y .  Dato  a l l o f them c l e a r l y  Of t h e s e members R a j a Chulan was perhaps  the most v o c a l i n i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to Malay i n t e r e s t s such as 23 education.  Y e t even he f e l t i t was a m i s t a k e t o extend E n g l i s h  27  e d u c a t i o n t o t h e r u r a l a r e a s , "because Malay y o u t h s who g a i n a s m a t t e r i n g o f E n g l i s h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s do n o t t a k e k i n d l y t o t h e 24 p u r s u i t s of t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s " .  I n o t h e r words even t h e most o u t -  s t a n d i n g spokesman o f Malay i n t e r e s t s merely r e f l e c t e d the o f f i c i a l t h i n k i n g of the c o l o n i a l  government.  As mentioned e a r l i e r t h e Chinese and I n d i a n communities were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h events i n t h e i r homeland.  The Chinese s c h o o l system  had e v o l v e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y , o u t s i d e t h e o r b i t o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Department.  The Chinese t r i e d as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r  c u l t u r e and language.  Thus, when t h e B r i t i s h moved i n t o p r o v i d e  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e Chinese s c h o o l s , the Chinese were r e l u c t a n t to a c c e p t such a s s i s t a n c e as t h i s would b r i n g i n s t r i c t e r measures o f 25 government c o n t r o l .  Needless t o say they d i d n o t make any demands  to i n t r o d u c e Malay as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . There were e q u a l l y few demands from the I n d i a n community t o make Malay t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n I n d i a n s c h o o l s .  F i r s t l y , the  p l a n t a t i o n T a m i l s c h o o l s x^ere t a c i t l y i n t h e hands o f t h e p l a n t a t i o n management and as such t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e government.  S e c o n d l y , t h e t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e p l a n t a t i o n workers  i n t h e p l a n t a t i o n made e d u c a t i o n an unwanted l u x u r y .  L i k e the Malays,  the Chinese and the I n d i a n s were n o t a t a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e government's schools.  d e c i s i o n t o make Malay t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r  28  M o t i v e s and Aims o f the P o l i c y Makers The key p o l i c y maker o f the p e r i o d and o f the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  the Governor.  colonial  The Governors o f the Malay S t a t e s ^seem  t o have had much more autonomy than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s elsewhere. o f t e n a c t e d w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of l a t i t u d e and o f t e n on t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e s without d i r e c t orders.  They  own  The motives and aims o f the Governor  i n p r o p o s i n g a p o l i c y to make Malay the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l Malayan s c h o o l s seem to have been d i c t a t e d by two b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The f i r s t was  t h e economic i m p e r a t i v e of the Great D e p r e s s i o n  n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e d u c t i o n of c o s t s .  The second r e a s o n was  reduce t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the Kuomintang (KMT) Chinese s c h o o l s .  the need to  and o t h e r elements i n the  At the same time an attempt was made to c o n t r o l  autonomous Chinese I n 1931  which  the  schools.  the Great D e p r e s s i o n reduced  to the l o w e s t l e v e l s i n c e 1918  the revenue o f the  Colony  and i n the same y e a r the c o l o n y had  second h i g h e s t e x p e n d i t u r e i n i t s h i s t o r y .  the  T h i s c o n j u n c t i o n produced a  27 d e f i c i t o f M$20,201,030.  T h i s was  a s e v e r e blow to the c o s t c o n s c i o u s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e immediate steps were t a k e n to reduce expenditure.  A Retrenchment Committee composed o f members o f the L e g i s -  l a t i v e C o u n c i l was measures.  a p p o i n t e d to i n v e s t i g a t e and recommend r e m e d i a l  Among i t s f i n d i n g s was  t h a t c e r t a i n departments had "expanded 28 out o f a l l r e l a t i o n to the p o p u l a t i o n and p u b l i c revenue". The p r i n c i p a l o f f e n d i n g departments were i d e n t i f i e d as E d u c a t i o n , M e d i c a l 29 and the P o l i c e departments. The committee recommended retrenchment  29  of s t a f f and r e d u c t i o n i n p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e . J u s t a t t h e onset o f the D e p r e s s i o n , S i r C e c i l C l e m e n t i  was  a p p o i n t e d as the High Commissioner ( t o the Malay S t a t e s ) and Governor (of the S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t ) .  He had e a r l i e r s e r v e d as Governor o f  Hong Kong and had w i t n e s s e d a n t i - B r i t i s h a c t i v i t i e s i n s t i g a t e d  by  KMT  30 sympathisers. Colonial  He was w e l l aware of the problems f a c e d by  the  Government i n Malaya, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d s to the  problem  of " t e a c h i n g s m a n i f e s t e d l y p r e j u d i c i a l to the W e l f a r e o f the Colony 31 and B r i t i s h Empire". I t i s therefore p o s s i b l e that h i s experience i n Hong Kong may  have c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s a n t i - K u o m i n t a n g  policies in  32 Malaya. In p r o p o s i n g to i n t r o d u c e Malay as the medium of i n a l l s c h o o l s C l e m e n t i and h i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may  instruction  have t a k e n  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the n a t u r e of the E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d unemployed Clementi i n p a r t i c u l a r  into  clerks.  f e l t t h a t " i t i s i d l e to educate youths up to  Cambridge School C e r t i f i c a t e s t a n d a r d m a i n l y a t p u b l i c c o s t i f t h e r e i s 33 no p r o s p e c t of employment f o r them".  Thus, C l e m e n t i proposed  t w e n t y - f i v e to a hundred p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n E n g l i s h secondary  a  school 34  f e e s i n an attempt In a d d i t i o n ,  to d i s c o u r a g e the heavy e n r o l l m e n t i n the s c h o o l s .  i n promoting Malay as the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n  i n primary  s c h o o l s one o f d e m e n t i ' s major motives was v e r y l i k e l y to c r e a t e among the Chinese a commitment to the Malay S t a t e s - c e r t a i n l y Lennox M i l l s i s emphatic o i l t h i s p o i n t , s t a t i n g children  t h a t C l e m e n t i " b e l i e v e d t h a t the  o f the Chinese l i v i n g i n Malaya s h o u l d be taught to r e g a r d the  J  30  P e n i n s u l a /Malaya7 and not China as t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y and  should  35 develop a Malayan p a t r i o t i s m . " s i n c e Malay was  I n a d d i t i o n , C l e m e n t i argued t h a t  " a l r e a d y the l i n g u a f r a n c a o f the c o u n t r y  ...  i t is  j u s t i f i e d t h a t the Government o n l y p r o v i d e f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n the Malay language f o r a l l c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s a r e d o m i c i l e d e i t h e r 36 i n the c o l o n y o r i n the Malay S t a t e s . "  I n a d d i t i o n he announced  t h a t Chinese and T a m i l s c h o o l s a l r e a d y i n r e c e i p t of g r a n t s might c o n t i n u e to r e c e i v e them but no new  a p p l i c a t i o n s would be e n t e r t a i n e d .  Thus C l e m e n t i b e l i e v e d t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Malay language as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l Malayan s c h o o l s would s e r v e as a cure f o r the economic problems posed by the Great D e p r e s s i o n and c r e a t e a sense o f l o y a l t y towards Malaya among the c h i l d r e n of the  immigrants.  P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses The l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a g i t a t i o n t h a t t h e r e  was  37 d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was n i t y was  C h i n e s e , r a t h e r than Malay.  The I n d i a n commu-  q u i e s c e n t , p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h events i n I n d i a and  insulated  from the mainstream of p o l i t i c s due to the n a t u r e o f the p l a n t a t i o n 38 s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e .  The m a j o r i t y o f the  English-educated  Malays d i d not p r o t e s t as they were e i t h e r i n agreement w i t h the governmental p o l i c i e s o r were not o r g a n i z e d as a p o t e n t f o r c e .  The  E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d group among the Chinese and I n d i a n s d i d p r o t e s t m i l d l y but these p r o t e s t s were m u f f l e d compared to those of the educated s e c t o r .  Chinese  31  The  groups t h a t vehemently opposed d e m e n t i ' s p r o p o s a l s  the Chinese-educated and  were  i n t h i s they found a u s e f u l a l l y i n the  39 Kuomintang.  The  Chinese community had h i t h e r t o r e j e c t e d Government  g r a n t s - i n - a i d because they meant i n c r e a s e d control.  government s u p e r v i s i o n  and  F u r t h e r m o r e , the Chinese community r e g a r d e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of Malay i n t h e i r s c h o o l s culture.  as an attempt to downgrade and d i l u t e  They a c c o r d i n g l y p r o t e s t e d  their  t h a t Malay might be the l i n g u a  40 f r a n c a of the c o u n t r y ,  "but  c u l t u r a l l y i t had  little  to o f f e r " .  They accused the Government of f a v o r i t i s m towards the Malays and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s such as the p r o v i s i o n of f r e e and Malay v e r n a c u l a r  education  and  vernacular  education  compulsory  s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r them i n E n g l i s h  They a c c o r d i n g l y demanded t h a t the Government s h o u l d as w e l l and  cited  schools.  s u b s i d i z e Chinese  t h a t elementary E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n  be  41 provided  " f r e e or a t a n o m i n a l c o s t . " The  represented  C h i n e s e members i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , who  Chinese p u b l i c o p i n i o n to the C o l o n i a l government, were  the f i r s t to p r o t e s t .  They were j o i n e d by the more a r t i c u l a t e Chinese  p r e s s , b u s i n e s s g u i l d s and a s s o c i a t i o n s of v a r i o u s a d d i t i o n , a new r e s u l t of KMT  denominations.  In  found sense of p r i d e and r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y , as a  propaganda, s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n .  the C o u n c i l members' speeches and dered on r a c i a l c h a u v i n i s m . t h e i r c u l t u r e was was  in effect  the v e r n a c u l a r  press e d i t o r i a l s bor-  They made s t a t e m e n t s to the e f f e c t t h a t  s u p e r i o r , o f a n c i e n t o r i g i n , and  i n f e r i o r to t h e i r s .  Increasingly,  A few e x t r e m i s t s  t h a t the Malay language  even c l a i m e d  t h a t they would  32  not i n t e r m a r r y w i t h t h e Malays because t h e i r c h i l d r e n would be "degenerate and w o r t h l e s s h y b r i d s . " Malay members i n t h e C o u n c i l were much p e r t u r b e d by such open expressions of r a c i a l b i g o t r y .  The most v o c a l p r o t e s t s came from the  M a l a y - e d u c a t e d r a d i c a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t from t h e English-educated e l i t e s .  They r e a c t e d s h a r p l y to t h e c l a i m s o f Chinese  r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y and had m i s g i v i n g s o v e r B r i t i s h i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y 43  w h i c h was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n f l u x of t h e C h i n e s e .  A few became  i n c r e a s i n g l y aware t h a t " t h e immigrant was i n a f a i r way to become t h e 44  economic master o f the o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t . "  Others p r o t e s t e d t h a t  r e f u s a l t o t e a c h E n g l i s h , " t h e b r e a d - e a r n i n g language o f M a l a y a , " i n the Malay v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s was p r o o f t h a t t h e r e a l p o l i c y o f the Government was to t r a i n t h e s t u d e n t s "how not t o g e t employment . . . /an<17 t o make room f o r o u t s i d e r s .  However, most o f t h e e m o t i o n a l l y  charged c o u n t e r a t t a c k s were l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e debates i n t h e Council.  I n sum, d e m e n t i ' s  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y h e l p e d a g g r a v a t e the  i l l - f e e l i n g between t h e Chinese and t h e M a l a y s , and t h i s a r o u s e d a c e r t a i n amount o f a p p r e h e n s i o n as to t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e Chinese i n Malaya and i l l - w i l l  towards B r i t i s h  rule.  Aftermath W i t h i n a span o f two y e a r s t h e s i t u a t i o n s t a b i l i z e d . were s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h i s .  There  F i r s t l y , t h e economy began t o p i c k up  because t h e D e p r e s s i o n d i d n o t have a p r o l o n g e d impact on t h e p r o d u c t i o n of r u b b e r and t i n .  Secondly, S i r C e c i l d e m e n t i ' s  t e n u r e as Governor  33  was never a p o p u l a r one.  S e v e r a l of h i s p r o p o s a l s  o p p o s i t i o n from b o t h Europeans  and C h i n e s e .  46  had a r o u s e d s t r o n g  Most o f h i s p o l i c i e s were  brought f o r w a r d w i t h i n two y e a r s of h i s a r r i v a l from the g o v e r n o r s h i p of Hong Kong, where he had a c q u i r e d a d i s t a s t e f o r the Chinese and the 47 KMT  i n particular.  Many b e l i e v e d t h a t he had a c t e d too h a s t i l y  w i t h o u t adequate knowledge o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f Malaya.  and  Thirdly, Sir  C e c i l C l e m e n t i gave p r i o r i t y to c h e c k i n g the powers o f the C h i n e s e community r a t h e r than to the p r o m o t i o n o f communal c o o p e r a t i o n i n m a t t e r s o f p o l i t i c s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the Chinese i n the Malay  P e n i n s u l a r e g a r d e d the Government as a l i e n and unsympathetic to Chinese 48 demands.  F o u r t h l y , t h e r e were s t r o n g r e a c t i o n s i n China to  Clementi's 'anti-Chinese' p o l i c i e s . p r o t e s t w i t h Great B r i t a i n .  The KMT  Government l o d g e d a s t r o n g  F i f t h l y , the "Manchurian I n c i d e n t " o f 49  September 18, 1931, and Japanese d e s i g n s i n China soften i t s a n t i - B r i t i s h  prompted the KMT  to  propaganda.  A l l these f a c t o r s had an e f f e c t on t h e e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . Since the economy had begun to improve once more t h e r e was a renewed need f o r E n g l i s h educated c l e r k s , t e a c h e r s , and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  The  p o l i c y to i n t r o d u c e Malay i n a l l s c h o o l s was no l o n g e r t e n a b l e and t h e r e f o r e dropped.  was  C o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s between China and B r i t a i n made  S i r C e c i l C l e m e n t i ' s seeming a n t i - C h i n e s e p o l i c y unnecessary a s p e c t o f B r i t i s h policy i n Malaysia.  I n any e v e n t , h i s t e n u r e as Governor came  t o a r a t h e r a b r u p t end i n 1934.  34  Conclusion  I t i s apparent t h a t t h e p o l i c y to i n t r o d u c e Malay as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n was a p o l i c y d i c t a t e d by t h e economic i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as w e l l as one d i c t a t e d by t h e Governor's a n t i - C h i n e s e ' f e e l i n g s . The c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' response t o t h e problem o f t h e E n g l i s h educated unemployed was t o r a i s e t h e fees t o make E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n a r e l a t i v e l y expensive a f f a i r .  However, once t h e economy improved the  d e c i s i o n t o i n c r e a s e t h e f e e s was dropped.  R e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e p r o v i s i o n  o f new g r a n t s - i n - a i d were removed and g r a n t s were extended to Chinese and I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r  schools.  The i s s u e o f Malay as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t major d e c i s i o n s made by t h e B r i t i s h  i n the p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l  had t o d e a l w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t and dangerous differences.  demonstrates field  crosscurrents of r a c i a l  The attempt t o make t h e p o l i c y a c c e p t a b l e  demonstrated  B r i t i s h f l e x i b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n s i d e r t h e views o f t h e immigrant communities.  The Chinese community c l e a r l y demonstrated a semblance o f  u n i t y and was b e t t e r p l a c e d t o make i t s demands a c c e p t a b l e .  On the o t h e r  hand, t h e r e was a c o n s p i c u o u s absence o f any s u b s t a n t i a l Malay n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  There were e x t r e m e l y r a r e i n s t a n c e s when Malay  voiced a concern to safeguard  t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r need.  elites  Thus i t i s  e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p o l i c y to i n t r o d u c e Malay as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n was one based p u r e l y on B r i t i s h i n i t i a t i v e s .  As i n d i c a t e d , the p o l i c y  was p a r t l y t o encourage t h e use o f Malay b e f i t t i n g i t s p o s i t i o n as t h e l i n g u a f r a n c a o f t h e c o u n t r y and p r o b a b l y  t o make t h e C h i n e s e and  35  Indians pay f o r t h e i r own the post-war attempts p o l i c y i n a remarkably  education.  The next chapter w i l l  examine  o f the B r i t i s h government to i n t r o d u c e the changed p o l i t i c a l  environment.  36  Notes 1.  Gordon P. Means, M a l a y s i a n P o l i t i c s , 2nd ed., London: Hodder and S t o u g h t o n , 1976. Chapter 1; J . M. G u l l i c k , I n d i g e n o u s P o l i t i c a l System of Western M a l a y a , London: A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1958; Khoo Kay Kim, "Malay S o c i e t y , 1874-1920s," J o u r n a l of S o u t h e a s t A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . V, No. 2 (September, 1974) pp. 179-198; Radin Soenarno, "Malay N a t i o n a l i s m , 1896-1941", J o u r n a l of S o u t h e a s t A s i a n H i s t o r y , V o l . 1, No. 1 (March 1960) pp. 1-28; R. 0. W i n s t e d t , The M a l a y s : A C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , 3 r d ed., rev. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1953; W i l l i a m R. R o f f , The O r i g i n s of Malay N a t i o n a l i s m , New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Chapter I .  2.  V i r g i n i a Thompson, Postmortem M a c m i l l a n Co., 1943. p.  on M a l a y a , New Y o r k :  The  308.  3.  Ibid.  4. 5.  Cf. M a j l i s (August 7, 1939); W. R. R o f f , op_. e x t . , f n . 16, p. John K e r r y K i n g , S o u t h e a s t A s i a i n P e r s p e c t i v e , New Y o r k : 1957. p. 43. c i t e d by R. S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, P o l i t i c s and Government i n M a l a y s i a , S i n g a p o r e : F e d e r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978. p. 23.  6.  Radin Soenarno, op_. c i t .  7.  Y a e l L e v y , M a l a y s i a and C e y l o n : A Study of Two D e v e l o p i n g C e n t r e s . B e v e r l e y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1974. p. 23.  8.  F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s m a t t e r see the f o l l o w i n g books: Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , Chap. 2 and 3. S. Arasaratnam, I n d i a n s i n M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e . K u a l a Lumpur: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970; K e r n i a l S i n g h Sandhu, I n d i a n s i n M a l a y a : Some A s p e c t s of t h e I m m i g r a t i o n and S e t t l e m e n t , Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The Chinese i n M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967.  9.  V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The P o s i t i o n of t h e Chinese i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a , New Y o r k : I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1950. pp. 32-33; Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , p. 35; V i c t o r P u r c e l l , op. c i t . , Chap. X I .  218.  37  10.  S. Arasaratnam, p a s s i m ; V i c t o r P u r c e l l , (1967) op. c i t . , Chap. X I ; Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , Chap. 3  11.  A d i v e r g e n c e of development a r o s e i n t h e Malay P e n i n s u l a because of d i f f e r e n t s e t s of r e l a t i o n s h i p between B r i t a i n and t h e Malay S t a t e s . I n 1896 t h e f o u r Malay s t a t e s of S e l a n g o r , Perak Pahang and N e g r i Sembilan were j o i n e d i n an a s s o c i a t i o n c a l l e d t h e F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s (FMS) i n a move d e s i g n e d t o f u r t h e r c e n t r a l i z e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . I n 1909 f i v e o t h e r Malay S t a t e s , Johore and P e r l i s , Kedah, K e l a n t a n and Trengganu, w h i c h had gained t h e i r freedom from Siamese S u z e r a i n t y were brought under B r i t i s h c o n t r o l . S i n c e the f i v e new s t a t e s r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s i n g l e c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y they were d e s i g n a t e d as the U n f e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s (UMS). Each of t h e f i v e s t a t e s (UMS) o p e r a t e d more o r l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r ; and o n l y c o o p e r a t e d i f t h e r e were any t h r e a t s from K u a l a Lumpur towards t h e i r semi-autonomous s t a t u s . Each U n f e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e had e n t e r e d i n t o a t r e a t y agreement w i t h t h e B r i t i s h as t h e ' p r o t e c t i n g power'; each S u l t a n had a B r i t i s h A d v i s e r ( n o t a R e s i d e n t as i n t h e FMS) a c c r e d i t e d t o h i s c o u r t and a s m a l l number of B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s at each l e v e l of S t a t e machinery. The U n f e d e r a t e d S t a t e s r e t a i n e d a g r e a t e r degree of autonomy than d i d t h o s e i n the FMS, but t h e i r s t a t e s were not as advanced p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y as were t h e FMS. The S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s of Penang, M a l a c c a and S i n g a p o r e were a d m i n i s t e r e d d i r e c t l y by t h e B r i t i s h as a Crown Colony w i t h a Governor as the head. F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n see Lennox A. M i l l s , B r i t i s h R u l e i n E a s t A s i a , London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942. Chap. I I ; and S t a n l e y S. B e d l i n g t o n , M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e . C o r n e l l : I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. p. 32 f f .  12.  Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , p.  13.  I b i d . , p.  14.  Ibid.  15.  George M a x w e l l , i n Annual Report of 1920. p. 13, as c i t e d i n P h i l i p Loh Fook Seng, The Malay S t a t e s 1877-1895, P o l i t i c a l Changes and S o c i a l P o l i c i e s , S i n g a p o r e : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. p. 173.  16.  For example t h e Government i n t r o d u c e d t h e R e g i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s O r d i n a n c e , 1920, a f t e r i t became apparent t h a t s u b v e r s i o n was b e i n g taught i n t h e Chinese s c h o o l s by t e a c h e r s r e c r u i t e d from C h i n a .  42.  43.  38  17.  R. S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, P o l i t i c s Malaysia.  and Government i n  S i n g a p o r e : F e d e r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978.  p. 23.  18.  I b i d . , p. 23.  19.  V i c t o r P u r c e l l , op. c i t . , Chap. X.  20.  Lennox A. M i l l s , B r i t i s h R u l e i n E a s t e r n A s i a , London: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942. p. 220 and Chap. I V .  21.  Frank H. H. K i n g , The New Malayan N a t i o n , A Study of Communalism and N a t i o n a l i s m . New Y o r k : I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1957. p. 47.  22.  W. R. R o f f , op. c i t . , Chap. 7  23.  I b i d . , p. 201.  24.  Ibid.  25.  V i c t o r P u r c e l l , o^. c i t . , p. 230.  26.  E r n e s t Chew, "Swettenham and B r i t i s h R e s i d e n t i a l R u l e i n West M a l a y a " , J o u r n a l of Southeast A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . V, No. 2 (September, 1974). p. 170; C. D. Cowan, N i n e t e e n t h Century M a l a y a , London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Chap. 4.  27.  L. A. M i l l s , o_p_. c i t . , p. 84.  28.  Ibid.  29.  G e n e r a l l y v e r y l i t t l e was spent on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n by the c o l o n i a l government. F o r example, e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya i s as f o l l o w s : 1918 1920 1925 1930 1935 1937  -  2.1% 1.4% 3.8% 3.9% 5.7% 5.3%  (Compiled from L. A. M i l l s , op_. c i t . ) 30.  L. A. M i l l s , op_. c i t . , pp. 406-414.  31.  Lennox A. M i l l s , op. c i t . , p. 347.  Oxford  39  32,  For a more d e t a i l e d study of S i r C e c i l C l e m e n t i ' s G o v e r n s h i p of Hong Kong and t h e problems he encountered see I b i d . , pp. 406-414, and pp. 458-476; f o r an i n depth a n a l y s i s of d e m e n t i ' s a n t i - K o u m i n t a n g p o l i c i e s see I b i d . , pp. 37 f f .  33.  Lennox A. M i l l s , op_. c i t . , p. 357.  34.  Ibid.  35.  I b i d . , p. 358.  36.  Ibid.  37.  K. Jeyaratnam, " R a c i a l F a c t o r s i n t h e P o l i t i c a l Development of t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , " (M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958), p. 33; Lennox A. M i l l s , op. c i t . , p. 63.  38.  S. A r a s a r a t n a m , op_. c i t . , Chap. IV; R a v i n d r a K. J a i n , South I n d i a n s on t h e P l a n t a t i o n F r o n t i e r i n M a l a y a . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970; Usha M a h a j a n i , The R o l e o f I n d i a n M i n o r i t i e s i n Burma and M a l a y a , Bombay: V o r a and Co., 1960; K e r n i a l S i n g h Sandhu, I n d i a n s i n Malaya: Some A s p e c t s o f t h e i r I m m i g r a t i o n and S e t t l e m e n t , 1786-1957. Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969.  39.  P'ng Poh Seng, "The Kuomintang i n M a l a y a , 1912-1941", J o u r n a l o f Southeast A s i a n H i s t o r y , V o l . 2, No. 1, (March 1961) pp. 1-32; Yen Ching Hwang, The Overseas Chinese and the 1911 R e v o l u t i o n . K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976.  40.  Lennox A. M i l l s , op. c i t .  41.  Ibid.  42.  P r o c e e d i n g of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of the S.S., 1930. pp. B. 173, B. 177, as c i t e d i n Lennox A. M i l l s , o p . , c i t . , p. 359.  43.  I b i d . , p. 359.  358.  359.  40  44.  I b i d . , p.  360.  45.  Ibid.  46.  I b i d . , pp. 56 f f .  47.  I b i d . , Chap. X I .  48.  Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , p.  49.  F o r a more t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s i n c i d e n t t h a t f i n a l l y l e d to t h e P a c i f i c War, see Saburo Lenaga, The P a c i f i c War. Trans. Frank B a l d w i n , New Y o r k : Pathenon A s i a L i b r a r y , 1978.  32.  Al CHAPTER I I I POST WAR  COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION TO  T h i s c h a p t e r examines the post-war  195A  r e v i v a l of t h e p o l i c y t o  i n t r o d u c e Malay as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n .  A b r i e f overview of  p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s and major e d u c a t i o n a l developments of t h i s p e r i o d i s u s e f u l i f one i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e of communal demands, the m o t i v e s and aims of the p o l i c y makers, t h e impact of t h e p o l i c y , and t h e communal responses.  P o l i t i c a l Developments l e a d i n g t o t h e F i r s t A l l i a n c e Government In  September 19A5, t h e B r i t i s h r e t u r n e d t o war ravaged Malaya w i t h  a commitment t o p r e p a r e t h e c o u n t r y f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and e v e n t u a l f u l l independence.  I t was  apparent t o t h e B r i t i s h t h a t the pre-war m u l t i -  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t up of the Malay s t a t e s and t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s r e q u i r e d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o cope w i t h the new p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l demands.  The B r i t i s h Government however, w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g  any of t h e S u l t a n s or t h e p e o p l e , formed a "Malayan U n i o n " c o n s i s t i n g of t h e Malay S t a t e s and t h e two S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s of Penang and w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y c e n t r a l i z e d i n K u a l a Lumpur.  Malacca,  The Malayan  Union p r o p o s a l s f u r t h e r m o r e g r a n t e d e q u a l c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s t o a l l r e s i d e n t s i n the c o u n t r y . There was  c o n s i d e r a b l e a p p r e h e n s i o n over what was p e r c e i v e d t o  be a p o t e n t i a l d e p r i v a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l Malay p r i v i l e g e s and s o v e r e i g n  42  r i g h t s of t h e i r R u l e r s .  The Malays were p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b e d over t h e  e x t e n s i o n of c i t i z e n s h i p t o t h e C h i n e s e community whom t h e y had come t o f e a r as a r e s u l t o f a month l o n g ' r e i g n o f t e r r o r ' between t h e t i m e 2 the Japanese s u r r e n d e r e d  and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f B r i t i s h  control.  Thus t o t h e Malays t h e p r o p o s a l s were a b e t r a y a l and i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the B r i t i s h c o u l d no l o n g e r be r e l i e d upon t o s e r v e as a dependable bulwark a g a i n s t t h e more a g g r e s s i v e non-Malay communities. R e a c t i o n t o t h e Malayan Union p r o p o s a l was u n u s u a l l y s w i f t and vehement, e s p e c i a l l y when viewed a g a i n s t t h e background o f seventy y e a r s of complacent Malay s o c i e t y .  Suddenly t h e Malays were no l o n g e r  " s l e e p y b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f a p r i v e l e g e d p o s i t i o n " , i n s t e a d they were transformed  i n t o "champions of t h e i r r i g h t s / a g a i n s t enemiesV" who t r i e d 3  t o d e s t r o y them".  The Malayan Union p r o p o s a l s p r o v i d e d a r a l l y i n g  p o i n t and a c a t a l y s t f o r t h e Malay community  a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h , and  l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d M a l a y s N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (UMNO) 4 i n March o f 1946 under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of Dato Onn b i n J a a f a r . W h i t e h a l l was q u i c k t o sense t h e g r a v i t y of t h e s i t u a t i o n and i n i t i a t e d n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Malay l e a d e r s .  I n F e b r u a r y o f 1948,  the Malayan Union p r o p o s a l was r e p l a c e d by a newly c o n s t i t u t e d F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , r e s t o r i n g t h e s o v e r e i g n r i g h t s of t h e R u l e r s and the s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e M a l a y s .  Conditions governing the  a c q u i s i t i o n o f c i t i z e n s h i p by t h e non-Malays were made more r e s t r i c t i v e . The n e t r e s u l t o f t h e new p o l i t i c a l arrangements was t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f Malaya as p r i m a r i l y a Malay  country.  43  I n e a r l y 1948, t h e Malayan Communist P a r t y (MCP) e s c a l a t e d i t s t e r r o r i s t campaign and t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l Government "Emergency".^ insurgency  declared the  The B r i t i s h then began s u c c e s s f u l l y t o combat t h e  by a s e r i e s o f m i l i t a r y , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l measures.  1949 t h e B r i t i s h h e l p e d  In  form t h e Communities L i a i s o n Committee (CLC) i n  an attempt t o b r i n g t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e main communities t o g e t h e r .  The  B r i t i s h r e g a r d e d t h e CLC as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a r e n a f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s o f compromise s o l u t i o n s t o o u t s t a n d i n g  communal i s s u e s and perhaps a way 8  of p a v i n g  the way f o r a non-communal approach t o p o l i t i c s .  However,  the recommendations o f t h e CLC were n o t always w e l l r e c e i v e d by t h e communal o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  I n f a c t , committee members o f t e n found them-  s e l v e s i n c o n f l i c t between t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as l e a d e r s of communal o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o promote communal i n t e r e s t s , and t h e i r i m p l i e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as members o f t h e committee t o seek "non-communal" 9 answers t o v e x i n g p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s .  Such was t h e case when Dato Onn  proposed the i n c l u s i o n o f non-Malays as members o f UMNO.  Meeting  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s i d e a Dato Onn p r o m p t l y r e s i g n e d as head o f t h e p a r t y i n 1951, and founded t h e non-communal Independence o f M a l a y a P a r t y (IMP)."^  However, UMNO s u r v i v e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p c r i s i s and chose as i t s  new p r e s i d e n t , t h e p r i n c e from Kedah, Tunku A b d u l Rahman. An e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o independence was t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t o w h i c h the B r i t i s h c o u l d hand over t h e government. In view of the r a c i a l composition the s u c c e s s o r  of the country,  government s h o u l d a t l e a s t r e p r e s e n t  i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e two major r a c e s .  44  Thus, the B r i t i s h began t o support Dato Onn's Independence o f Malaya P a r t y (IMP)  w h i c h "was  the f i r s t major attempt t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r  the people  of d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l o r i g i n s i n t o one non-communal p o l i t i c a l  organization".  But  the IMP f a i l e d t o secure the support o f the M a l a y s and non-Malays.  The  B r i t i s h thus began l o o k i n g f o r some o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t o whom  they c o u l d hand over power. and  S i n c e UMNO had emerged as a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  e n t i r e l y Malay-based p a r t y , i t was f e l t an a l l i a n c e o f some s o r t w i t h  a l e a d i n g Chinese p a r t y would be a s u i t a b l e arrangement.  Thus, when  UMNO teamed up w i t h the Malayan C h i n e s e A s s o c i a t i o n (MCA)  the  British  f u l l y endorsed the arrangement. The MCA was founded i n F e b r u a r y o f 1949 was  founded t o p e r f o r m s e v e r a l r o l e s .  with B r i t i s h support. I t  B a s i c a l l y i t r i v a l l e d the MCP  i n p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t e f o c u s f o r Chinese l o y a l t i e s . funds t o help i n the r e s e t t l e m e n t emerged as a r e s p e c t a b l e  Socially i t raised  o f t h e Chinese s q u a t t e r s .  I t also  i n s t r u m e n t embodying Chinese i n t e r e s t i n any 12  f u r t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o r p o l i t i c a l changes. The K u a l a Lumpur M u n i c i p a l E l e c t i o n i n F e b r u a r y , 1952, formation  o f an ad hoc  c o n f i d e n t l y defeated  a l l i a n c e between the UMNO and t h e MCA. 13  the IMP by n i n e s e a t s t o two.  l o c a l i z e d p a c t was l a t e r extended t o o t h e r Malaya.  Following  This  They  purely  l o c a l e l e c t i o n s a l l over  t h i s s u c c e s s f u l formula a n a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e organi-  z a t i o n was s e t up i n 1953 partner.  saw the  w i t h the UMNO assuming the r o l e o f a s e n i o r  The n e x t y e a r , the Malayan I n d i a n Congress (MIC)  joined  the  A l l i a n c e , t h e r e b y making the A l l i a n c e a l e g i t i m a t e spokesman f o r a l l  45 t h r e e major communities.  I n t h e case of t h e IMP, t h e e l e c t o r a l r e b u f f  of t h e p a r t y caused t h e d i s g r u n t l e d Dato Onn t o abandon t h e non-communal s t a n c e of the p a r t y .  I n l a t e r 1953 he founded t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  Malay-  based P a r t y Negara (PN). The A l l i a n c e confounded many p o l i t i c a l p u n d i t s who had p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e arrangement would not l a s t l o n g .  The Malay and  non-Malay  l e a d e r s o f t h e A l l i a n c e i n most i n s t a n c e s adopted moderate p o s i t i o n s as far  as communal i s s u e s were c o n c e r n e d .  I n many i n s t a n c e s t h e r e was a  convergence of i n t e r e s t s between t h e Malay and non-Malay members of the A I T  1  4  Alliance. Educational  Development  S i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l changes, e f f o r t s were made by the C o l o n i a l Government t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e e d u c a t i o n  system.  The  of Malaya Agreement of 1948 p r o v i d e d f r e s h impetus f o r t h e of the e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y .  system of e d u c a t i o n  re-examination  The t a s k was e n t r u s t e d t o a l a r g e l y m u l t i -  r a c i a l but E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d A d v i s o r y Committee  Federation  committee known as t h e ^±rstj C e n t r a l  on E d u c a t i o n .  I n i t s r e p o r t i t agreed t h a t t h e i d e a l  s h o u l d be i n t h e mother-tongue but i t p o i n t e d out  t h a t o n l y t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a common 'Malayan  identity'.  I t proposed t h a t " t h e t e a c h i n g of t h e Malay and E n g l i s h language be compulsory i n a l l Government-aided p r i m a r y  schools".  should  Furthermore,  i t more c o g e n t l y argued " t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s h a l l be f r e e (and f i n a l l y compulsory) p r i m a r y  education  i n the medium of E n g l i s h " .  However, t h i s r e p o r t provoked so much o b j e c t i o n i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l  46  t h a t i t was  shelved.  The n e x t s t e p was t h e s e t t i n g up of a committee t o i n q u i r e i n t o the  adequacy of t h e " e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e M a l a y s " . " ^  T h i s committee, under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p of Leonard J . B a r n e s , D i r e c t o r of  S o c i a l T r a i n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of O x f o r d , i n c l u d e d n i n e Malays and  f i v e Europeans.  The committee's recommendations were sweeping and f a r  exceeded i t s terms of r e f e r e n c e .  I t q u i t e c o r r e c t l y f e l t t h a t i t was  u n a b l e t o propose improvements i n the Malay s c h o o l s w h i c h d i d n o t i n v o l v e t h e whole e d u c a t i o n system. The most c o n t r o v e r s i a l a s p e c t o f t h e Barnes Committee's  report  was t h e c l a u s e w h i c h advocated " t h a t two l a n g u a g e s , and o n l y two languages s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , and t h e s e two must be t h e 18 o f f i c i a l languages of t h e c o u n t r y , namely Malay and E n g l i s h " .  As t h e  committee c o u l d n o t d e c i d e w h i c h of t h e two languages would be t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , i t recommended a b i - l i n g u a l N a t i o n a l s c h o o l system, w h i c h would u t i l i z e  b o t h Malay and E n g l i s h as media of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The r e p o r t i n e f f e c t suggested t h a t t h e C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s c h o o l s s h o u l d cease t o o p e r a t e as s h o u l d s t r i c t l y E n g l i s h s c h o o l s .  I n summarizing  i t s recommendations, t h e committee r e i t e r a t e d : We have s e t up b i l i n g u a l i s m i n Malay and E n g l i s h as i t s / t h e N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s ? o b j e c t i v e , because we b e l i e v e t h a t a l l p a r e n t s who r e g a r d Malaya as t h e i r permanent home and t h e o b j e c t i v e of t h e i r u n d i v i d e d l o y a l t y w i l l be happy t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n educated i n t h o s e languages /Malay and English. I f any p a r e n t s were n o t happy about t h i s , t h e i r unhappiness would p r o p e r l y be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t they d i d n o t so r e g a r d Malaya.19  47  Even b e f o r e t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Barnes Committee was p r e p a r e d , t h e non-Malays, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e C h i n e s e , e x p r e s s e d grave r e s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e committee and i t s expected p r o - M a l a y stand.  The B r i t i s h H i g h Commissioner, S i r Henry Gurney, a n t i c i p a t i n g  a need t o d e a l w i t h t h e Barnes Report as w e l l as t o m o l l i f y t h e mounting Chinese p r o t e s t s , i n v i t e d two e x p e r t s on Chinese e d u c a t i o n , Dr. W i l l i a m 20 P. Fenn and Dr. Wu Teh-Yao,  t o make a " p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f t h e 21  whole f i e l d o f Chinese e d u c a t i o n U n l i k e t h e Barnes Committee,  ..." t h e Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n sought t h e  o p i n i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l communities. published  The R e p o r t , w h i c h was  i n June o f 1951, was b r o a d l y s y m p a t h e t i c towards Chinese  education. aggressive  I t warned a g a i n s t t u r n i n g Malaya " i n t o a c o c k p i t o f c u l t u r e s " , and d e c l a r e d t h a t any r e s t r i c t i v e i m p o s i t i o n o f  one o r two languages upon t h e p e o p l e o f Malaya was i n i m i c a l t o communal t o l e r a n c e and n a t i o n a l u n i t y , s i n c e t h e u n i t y o f a n a t i o n "depends n o t upon t h e s i n g l e n e s s o f tongue o r s i m p l i c i t y o f c u l t u r e s " b u t upon 22 "the h e a r t s o f i t s c i t i z e n s " . I t recommended t h a t " C h i n e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f any e d u c a t i o n a l program o f t h e f u t u r e 23 of Malaya".  I t u l t i m a t e l y recommended t h a t Chinese be r e t a i n e d as  the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e i n c l u d i n g E n g l i s h and Malay as s u b j e c t languages.  I n sum, a t r i l i n g u a l e d u a t i o n was proposed f o r t h e Chinese  schools. The d i v e r g e n t v i e w s of t h e Barnes Committee and t h e Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n r e p o r t s made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Government t o implement t h e  48  recommendations o f e i t h e r o f t h e r e p o r t s , e s p e c i a l l y so s i n c e s u p p o r t i n g e i t h e r would mean s u p p o r t i n g one communal group a g a i n s t another.  A compromise s o l u t i o n was worked out whereby an independent  and m u l t i - r a c i a l ^>econd7 C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n  (CACE)  was s e t up t o study b o t h t h e r e p o r t s and come up w i t h a r e p o r t t h a t would form t h e b a s i s f o r any l e g i s l a t i o n on e d u c a t i o n . The  /j3econd7 C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee came out i n f u l l  of t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Barnes Committee R e p o r t .  Contrary  support  to the  Fenn-Wu r e p o r t t h e CACE r e p o r t argued t h a t i n t e r - r a c i a l n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s would e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e a l l r a c i a l l y segregated  vernacular  schools.  I t f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d t h e Barnes Report and recommended t h a t a l l p u p i l s i n primary, s c h o o l s study Malay and E n g l i s h throughout t h e i r s i x y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g and t h a t Chinese and I n d i a n p u p i l s be p r o v i d e d w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o study e i t h e r Kuo Yu o r T a m i l as a s u b j e c t language.  It  a l s o suggested t h a t t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n be e i t h e r E n g l i s h o r Malay i n t h e N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s r a t h e r t h a n b o t h as suggested by t h e Barnes Report.  I t furthermore  suggested t h a t t h e Government g i v e  a s s u r a n c e t h a t f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r t h e Chinese and I n d i a n s c h o o l s would not be withdrawn.  I n sum, t h e CACE r e p o r t f o r t h e most p a r t r e j e c t e d  the Fenn-Wu Report and g e n e r a l l y agreed w i t h t h e concept o f N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s as proposed by t h e Barnes Committee R e p o r t . On t h e 1 9 t h and 2 0 t h o f September o f 1951, t h e C o u n c i l debated the B a r n e s , Fenn-Wu and t h e CACE R e p o r t s .  They were l a t e r r e f e r r e d t o  49  a s e l e c t committee o f e l e v e n members of t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h was t o d r a f t suitable legislation.  Like i t s predecessor, the select  committee  agreed w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Barnes Committee R e p o r t .  The f i n a l  r e s u l t o f a l l t h e s e d e l i b e r a t i o n s was t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1952. The E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1952 a l t e r e d t h e i d e a of a s i n g l e b i l i n g u a l n a t i o n a l s c h o o l t o t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g two t y p e s of n a t i o n a l  schools.  E i t h e r Malay o r E n g l i s h would be t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , w h i l e a t the  same t i m e f a c i l i t i e s would be p r o v i d e d f o r t h e study of Kuo Yu o r  T a m i l as a s u b j e c t i f f i f t e e n o r more p u p i l s of any grade r e q u e s t e d i t . The E n g l i s h medium s c h o o l s would have Malay as a compulsory s u b j e c t from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t h i r d y e a r o f s c h o o l i n g . the  On t h e o t h e r hand,  Malay medium s c h o o l s would have E n g l i s h as a compulsory s u b j e c t  language from t h e f i r s t y e a r onwards.  I n a d d i t i o n t h e Malay medium  p u p i l s would be p r o v i d e d w i t h a ' s p e c i a l Malay c l a s s ' t o e n a b l e them t o make an easy t r a n s i t i o n from t h e Malay medium s c h o o l s t o t h e E n g l i s h medium secondary s c h o o l s .  As i n t h e c a s e of t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s ,  f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e l e a r n i n g of t h e t h r e e v e r n a c u l a r languages would be 24  made a v a i l a b l e i n t h e secondary s c h o o l s .  However, t h e Ordinance was  n e v e r f u l l y implemented by t h e C o l o n i a l Government because of o p p o s i t i o n to many o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s . f r o m t h e M a l a y s as w e l l as non-Malays, and because i t was too e x p e n s i v e t o u n d e r t a k e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s many of t h e  p r o v i s i o n s of t h e Ordinance found p l a c e s i n subsequent e d u c a t i o n a l reforms f o l l o w i n g  Independence.  50 Communal Demands The u n u s u a l l y s t r o n g p r o t e s t from t h e Malay community a s a r e s u l t of t h e Malayan Union p r o p o s a l marked t h e end o f Malay complacency and brought about a new r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h .  Encouraged  by t h e s u c c e s s i n r e g a i n i n g t h e i r s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s , t h e Malays continued to press f o r a better deal i n other sectors, i n c l u d i n g education. UMNO l e a d e r s , e d i t o r s o f t h e Malay v e r n a c u l a r p r e s s , s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and o t h e r s who were concerned w i t h Malay backwardness c a l l e d f o r i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Malay c h i l d r e n t o g a i n a c c e s s t o secondary s c h o o l s . The f a c t o r t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y s p a r k e d Malay p r o t e s t w i t h r e g a r d t o Malay e d u c a t i o n was t h e Report o f t h e / J F i r s t Education.  7  C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on  The Malays r e j e c t e d t h e Committee's l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g and  f e l t t h a t t h e Malay language s h o u l d occupy a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t of E n g l i s h i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s debate c u l m i n a t e d i n e a r l y 1949 when t h e S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l of UMNO, Dato Z a i n a l A b i d i n b i n A l i p r o p o s e d , " t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f Malay and E n g l i s h s h o u l d be compulsory i n a l l Government-aided p r i m a r y 25 schools".  Other members o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l argued t h a t more  concern s h o u l d be shown f o r Malay e d u c a t i o n and t h a t t h e CACE r e p o r t was u n a c c e p t a b l e as i t doomed t h e f u t u r e development o f t h e Malay language.  Malay newspapers a l s o t o o k up t h e i s s u e and argued a l o n g 26  similar lines.  Thus, t h e Government was f o r c e d t o s e t up a committee  t o study t h e problem of Malay e d u c a t i o n i n e a r l y 1950. Communal demands from t h e non-Malays were u n l e a s h e d p a r t l y as a  51  r e s u l t of l e a k a g e s  to the Chinese v e r n a c u l a r p r e s s t h a t the Barnes  Committee had exceeded i t s terms of r e f e r e n c e and  t h a t the r e p o r t  was  27  b e i n g w r i t t e n from an e x c l u s i v e l y Anglo-Malay p o i n t of v i e w . Secondly,  the MCP's propaganda argued r a t h e r p l a u s i b l y t h a t the  had the l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n the a f f a i r s of the Chinese. t h e r e was was  British  I n v i e w of  this,  an upsurge of Chinese p r o t e s t even b e f o r e the Barnes Report  o f f i c i a l l y released.  The MCA,  and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d groups p r e s s e d  t o g e t h e r w i t h the v e r n a c u l a r the Government f o r a f a i r  equitable deal regarding their vernacular schools.  I n sum,  Malays p r o t e s t e d the i n a d e q u a c i e s of the CACE Report, p r o t e s t e d the y e t - t o - b e r e l e a s e d Barnes R e p o r t . wanted a b e t t e r d e a l f o r t h e i r own  press  and  w h i l e the  the non-Malays  Both the communities  education.  M o t i v e s and Aims of the P o l i c y Makers The Barnes and  the Fenn-Wu R e p o r t s were prepared  h e i g h t of the Emergency. the sponsors  during  the  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g to n o t e t h a t  of the r e p o r t s were p r i n c i p a l l y concerned w i t h i n s u r i n g  Malayan i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y .  T h i s f i r s t meant the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of  the s c h o o l s and the u n i f i c a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g p o l y g l o t s c h o o l s i n t o a coherent  system.  Secondly,  t h e r e was  the need f o r p r e p a r i n g  the  c o u n t r y and the e d u c a t i o n system to be c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g the q u a l i f i e d manpower.  L a s t l y , t h e r e was  a need to m o l l i f y the newly  e s t a b l i s h e d s p i r i t of communalism, w h i c h was upgrade the v a r i o u s v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s .  necessary  manifested  i n demands t o  52  Chinese s c h o o l s had l o n g been a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e of t r o u b l e f o r the Government. government had had schools.  S i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of KMT  r u l e i n China  the  to handle the problem of s u b v e r s i o n i n Chinese  The problem was  f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d because a l a r g e number  of t e a c h e r s were r e c r u i t e d , or t r a i n e d , i n C h i n a and presumably s c h o o l e d 28  i n KMT  or Communist d o c t r i n e s .  i n - a i d and  S e v e r a l attempts  to p r o v i d e g r a n t s -  then to i n c r e a s e v i g i l a n c e i n the Chinese s c h o o l s met  l i m i t e d success.  Furthermore,  with  a s u b s t a n t i a l number of r e c r u i t s t o the  MCP's cause had come from the Chinese s c h o o l s .  A l l these f a c t s o n l y  h e l p e d to c o n f i r m t h a t the Chinese s c h o o l s were indeed a hotbed f o r the spread of anti-government  ideology.  government was  to d e a l w i t h the problem by u t i l i z i n g  determined  Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the the  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y as "an i n s t r u m e n t of c o n t r o l and a s s i m i l a t i o n " and  there-  29  by to reduce the autonomy of these s c h o o l s . Though the Barnes Committee's terms of r e f e r e n c e d i d not i n c l u d e a n y t h i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h the need to i n v o k e a sense of  loyalty,  the r e p o r t s t r e s s e d " t h a t p r i m a r y s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be p u r p o s e l y used to b u i l d up a common Malay n a t i o n a l i t y  ....  Our scheme would  s e r i o u s l y weakened i f any l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of Chinese,  I n d i a n s , and  o t h e r non-Malay communities were to choose to p r o v i d e t h e i r own 30 c l a s s e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s " . recommendation i s not hard t o see.  be  primary  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s  Of the 13 members of t h e Barnes  Committee n i n e were from the Malayan t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e .  Thus i t i s  r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t the c u r r e n t government's t h i n k i n g must have been a g u i d i n g f o r c e .  53  The Fenn-Wu m i s s i o n ' s terms of r e f e r e n c e were more e x p l i c i t however.  I t was  encouraged to survey the Chinese s c h o o l system  and  propose changes t h a t would s e r v e t o b r i d g e "the gap between the p r e s e n t communal system of s c h o o l s " so t h a t i n f u t u r e " e d u c a t i o n w i l l be on a non-communal b a s i s w i t h E n g l i s h o r Malay as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e m i s s i o n was a l s o asked to l o o k i n t o the " p r e p a r a t i o n of  t e x t b o o k s f o r p r e s e n t use w i t h a Malayan as d i s t i n c t from a  Chinese  31 background and  content".  By c o n s e n t i n g t o the F e d e r a t i o n Agreement (1948) t h e B r i t i s h Government had acknowledged Malaya as p r i m a r i l y a 'Malay c o u n t r y ' . T h i s c l e a r l y meant t h a t the f i r s t duty of the Government was  to e n a b l e  the M a l a y s to a c h i e v e a r i g h t f u l p l a c e as the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e of t h e country.  S i n c e e d u c a t i o n was  p r o c e s s , the B r i t i s h f e l t  an i m p o r t a n t element i n the m o d e r n i z a t i o n  t h a t they had " t o b r i n g the c u l t u r e up to d a t e "  and make them c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g s k i l l s and l e a d e r s h i p i n the e r a of 32 modernization.  T h i s t a s k was made even more urgent by the p r e s s u r e s  of Malay charges of n e g l e c t on the p a r t of the B r i t i s h  colonial  administration. By the same t o k e n , the B r i t i s h had t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the growing wave of p r o t e s t s from the non-Malay communities.  The  Chinese were p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h t h e B r i t i s h pro-Malay t h a t i t was  concerned  policies.  The government a l s o had t o prove  w i t h the w e l f a r e of the Chinese and t h a t the  MCP's c r i t i c i s m was not v a l i d .  Furthermore,  s i n c e the B r i t i s h  had  54  h e l p e d c r e a t e and s u s t a i n the MCA, of  they had to consent t o the demand  the l e a d i n g spokesman of Chinese i n t e r e s t .  The B r i t i s h , w h i l e  s u p p o r t i n g the Malay demands, had a l s o t o c o n s i d e r the demands of the non-Malays  i n o r d e r to ensure the l o y a l t y and s u p p o r t of t h e C h i n e s e .  P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses The s c h o o l s h a r d e s t h i t by the recommendations  of the Barnes  Committee and the E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e (1952) were t h e C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s which were the most s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t .  The p o l i c y of  l i m i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n to the Malay and E n g l i s h languages i n the N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s meant t h a t Chinese language would o n l y be taught f o r a d a i l y h a l f hour p e r i o d .  The p o l i c y i n e f f e c t meant t h a t the Chinese  had t o r e l i n q u i s h a medium of i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t had h e l p e d m a i n t a i n t h e i r d i s t i n c t e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y .  I n a d d i t i o n , i t was  p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s q u i e t i n g t o be t o l d t h a t i f they were u n w i l l i n g to g i v e 33  up t h e i r s c h o o l s then they would be r e g a r d e d as d i s l o y a l . The a c c e p t a n c e of the Barnes Committee and the E d u c a t i o n Ordinance (1952) was a major s u c c e s s f o r the M a l a y s .  F o r the f i r s t  time t h e i r language was accorded the s t a t u s of " o f f i c i a l  language" and  more i m p o r t a n t l y the l e a r n i n g o f the Malay language was made compulsory for  a l l communities.  the  Government accorded i t a p o s i t i o n s u p e r i o r t o t h a t of the o t h e r  languages. the  I n making Malay the one o t h e r medium of i n s t r u c t i o n  The Ordinance a l s o s e t the t r e n d f o r f u t u r e development  Malay language w h i c h was  of  t o become the backbone of any attempt to  55  i n s t i l t h e s p i r i t o f Malayan n a t i o n a l i s m .  I n sum, the Ordinance  p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r p r o o f t o t h e Malays t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n as t h e i n d i genous p e o p l e was s a f e g u a r d e d and t h e immigrant communities had no c h o i c e b u t t o conform t o the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . Communal r e s p o n s e s t o t h e Barnes R e p o r t and t h e Ordinance was e s s e n t i a l l y o f a p a r t i s a n n a t u r e , w i t h t h e Malays c o n s e n t i n g and t h e non-Malays d i s s e n t i n g .  The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , though i t met w i t h g e n e r a l  Chinese s u p p o r t , was n e v e r t h e l e s s r e j e c t e d because most o f t h e p r o p o s a l s were n o t i n l i n e w i t h c u r r e n t government t h i n k i n g . the  However, w h i l e  Malay r e s p o n s e s t o t h e Ordinance tended t o f i r s t be one o f f u l l  s u p p o r t and l a t e r v a c i l l a t i o n , t h e Chinese p r o t e s t was n o t o n l y c o n s i s t e n t but  p e r s i s t e n t as w e l l .  . The I n d i a n communal p r o t e s t s were g e n e r a l l y  m i l d a p a r t from an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l s t u d y o f t h e problems o f I n d i a n 34  e d u c a t i o n u n d e r t a k e n by t h e MIC. The immediate Malay response t o the Barnes R e p o r t was one o f f u l l support.  The UMNO l e a d e r s welcomed i t as a r i g h t s t e p i n t h e  d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f the Malay c u l t u r e . the  T h e r e f o r e when  R e p o r t was d i s c u s s e d i n the 1951 UMNO Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g t h e r e  was unanimous s u p p o r t f o r i t . When t h e Barnes R e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l UMNO l e a d e r s and t h e Malay l e a d e r s o f t h e IMP came o u t i n f u l l s u p p o r t of  i t s recommendations.  Tunku A b d u l Rahman, f o r example, c o m p l e t e l y  agreed w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t , and suggested t h a t t h e Government t a k e immediate s t e p s t o implement i t .  Dato Razak, w h i l e  56  a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t , d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e implementation supported  of the s l i g h t l y  w a t e r e d down CACE R e p o r t .  He f i r m l y  the p r o v i s i o n t h a t o n l y Malay and E n g l i s h be taught i n t h e  National schools.  He agreed w i t h t h e Tunku t h a t t h e Chinese and T a m i l  36 languages c o u l d be taught p r i v a t e l y i f so d e s i r e d .  However, i n  e a r l y 1954, the moderate Malay l e a d e r s who had e a r l i e r f a v o u r e d t h e Barnes Report and the E d u c a t i o n Ordinance, t h e i r stand.  1952, suddenly  reversed  T h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o t h e p r o t e s t s from t h e g r a s s r o o t s  and n o t a b l y from t h e Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who o b j e c t e d t o t h e Ordinance.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the Ordinance and t h e N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s  solidified  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Government's p o l i c y among t h e Malay s c h o o l  teachers.  They were i n f a c t one o f t h e f i r s t groups t o be p o l i t i c a l l y  aware and, u n l i k e t h e Malay a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e l i t e , were drawn f r o m t h e  37 g e n e r a l Malay community.  They had been UMNO's s t a u n c h e s t  supporters  38 ever s i n c e t h e e a r l y days o f Malay n a t i o n i s t a g i t a t i o n . Thus they e v o l v e d i n t o "one o f t h e most a c t i v e i n t e r e s t groups o p e r a t i n g i n and  39 out o f UMNO p o l i t i c s " . The Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e h e n s i v e  over  the emphasis o f t h e Barnes Committee, t h e CACE and t h e Ordinance which gave E n g l i s h a much s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n t o Malay, w h i c h ceased medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n beyond t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s .  They  t o be a  expressed  p a r t i c u l a r f e a r s o f b e i n g r e t r e n c h e d o r o f b e i n g r e p l a c e d by the b e t t e r t r a i n e d E n g l i s h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who were b e i n g s e n t t o t h e U n i t e d Kingdom f o r t r a i n i n g .  Thus, the Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s argued t h a t the  N a t i o n a l type c l a s s e s "would s t a g n a t e the Malay e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e " .  57  I n a d d i t i o n the F e d e r a t i o n o f Malay S c h o o l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n (FMSTA) w h i c h by then had become the l e a d i n g spokesman o f Malay s c h o o l  teachers  unanimously r e j e c t e d the n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s . F o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f the more i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d form o f  the A l l i a n c e , the UMNO l e a d e r s were c o n c i l i a t o r y towards the Chinese s t a n d . They began t o s u p p o r t the Chinese f o r a f a i r and e q u i t a b l e d e a l i n the education p o l i c y .  W i t h t h e assumption o f the e d i t o r i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e  Utusan Melayu by an UMNO member the newspaper began t o p r i n t a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s c l a i m i n g t h a t the E d u c a t i o n Ordinance the development  o f Malay and C h i n e s e languages.  endangered  I n a n e d i t o r i a l on  September 9, 1954 the Utusan Melayu f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d i t s p o s i t i o n by d e c l a r i n g t h a t the " p r o p o s a l s o f the Barnes Committee were not o n l y i n i m i c a l t o the e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f the M a l a y s , but t o the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f the C h i n e s e , because t h e i r p r o p o s a l o n l y a t t a c h e d i m p o r t a n c e t o 41 the E n g l i s h language." Chinese p r o t e s t s were p r e d i c t a b l y s t r o n g over the R e p o r t s and Ordinance.  They were p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e h e n s i v e over the f a c t t h a t not a  s i n g l e Chinese o r I n d i a n had been i n c l u d e d i n the Barnes committee. a d d i t i o n t o t h a t t h e recommendations out o f hand by the Government.  In  o f the Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n were r e j e c t e d  Thus, most o f the Chinese p r o t e s t s were  d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Government f o r i t s i n a b i l i t y t o a s s u r e a f a i r  deal  f o r the C h i n e s e . The debates i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l mentioned e a r l i e r the i n h e r e n t communal d i f f e r e n c e s .  reflected  W h i l e I n d i a n members chose t o adopt  a midway p o s i t i o n and be m i l d i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s , i t was the MCA and i t s  58  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who interests.  c l e a r l y emerged as spokesmen of the  non-Malay  The most n o t a b l e champion of Chinese i n t e r e s t was Tan  S i n , the son o f the MCA of the Barnes committee.  president.  Siew  He s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i s e d the f i n d i n g s  He f u r t h e r m o r e e x p r e s s e d g r e a t r e s e r v a t i o n s  over the c l a u s e i n the Barnes Report w h i c h suggested t h a t p e r s o n s  who  were not happy w i t h t h e two languages, i . e . E n g l i s h and M a l a y , were n o t happy i n M a l a y a . country.  He remarked " t h e s e few words a r e s u r e l y unique i n t h i s  Seldom i f e v e r , i n the p a s t h i s t o r y o f t h i s c o u n t r y has the  maximum of r a c i a l b i g o t r y , r a c i a l i n t o l e r a n c e and deep s e a t e d i g n o r a n c e 42  of fundamental p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s been compressed  i n so few words."  Other members c a l l e d f o r a s s u r a n c e s and guarantees f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the Chinese v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s .  But i t must be mentioned t h a t the  p r o t e s t emanating from the MCA was g e n e r a l l y r e s t r a i n e d perhaps the moderates  because  f e a r e d t o be i d e n t i f i e d as d i s l o y a l .  However, the most vehement p r o t e s t s were t a k i n g p l a c e o u t s i d e the arena of party p o l i t i c s .  The groups t h a t most p r o t e s t e d the Barnes  R e p o r t and the e n s u i n g Ordinance were the Chinese e d u c a t i o n i s t s - n o t a b l y the members of the Chinese S c h o o l Management Committees school teachers.  and t h e Chinese  They took g r e a t p a i n s to show t h a t they were p r i m a r i l y  moved t o p r o t e s t out o f the d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t the m a i n s t a y o f t h e i r c u l t u r e , • though i t was apparent t h a t t h e i r p r i m a r y c o n c e r n was c l o s u r e of the Chinese s c h o o l s .  to p r e v e n t the  I n a d d i t i o n , the Chinese v e r n a c u l a r  p r e s s , n o t a b l y Nanyang S i a n g Pau and S i n g P i n g J i h Poh, was  also  committed t o the g o a l of p r e v e n t i n g the c l o s u r e o f Chinese s c h o o l s and began a c t i v e l y t o make demands f o r some a c t i o n from the Government.  59  I n v i e w o f t h e ongoing p r o t e s t s , t h e MCA c o u l d no l o n g e r remain detached.  I n November, 1952, the MCA i n s t i t u t e d a Chinese  Education  C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee i n an apparent move t o r e s t r a i n the d i s s a t i s f i e d Chinese e d u c a t i o n i s t s and t h e v e r n a c u l a r p r e s s . functioned e s s e n t i a l l y  The committee  t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Chinese s c h o o l s i n any n e g o t i a t i o n s 43  w i t h t h e Government c o n c e r n i n g Chinese e d u c a t i o n .  To no a v a i l i t  s u b m i t t e d p e t i t i o n a f t e r p e t i t i o n t o High Commissioner S i r G e r a l d Templer. I t was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e B u s i n e s s L i c e n s i n g and R e g i s t r a t i o n Ordinance w h i c h had been passed  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e E d u c a t i o n Ordinance, 44  f i n a n c e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Malayan e d u c a t i o n program.  1952, t o h e l p  The l e a d e r s  o f MCA c o n s i d e r e d t h i s as adding i n s u l t t o i n j u r y , f o r they were b e i n g r  coerced t o f i n a n c e an e d u c a t i o n system w h i c h they opposed b i t t e r l y .  The  MCA c o u n t e r e d t h i s w i t h a t h r e a t t o send a d e p u t a t i o n t o London t o a p p e a l to t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r C o l o n i e s . The MCA a l s o i n v i t e d Dr. V i c t o r P u r c e l l , t h e renowned  Chinese  s c h o l a r , t o p r e p a r e a r e p o r t on t h e Chinese i n August and September o f 1952.  The Malay e l i t e were t h o r o u g h l y d i s p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s and Tunku  Abdul Rahman i n h i s c a p a c i t y as t h e UMNO P r e s i d e n t f o r b a d e UMNO o f f i c i a l s to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e .  T h i s t o an e x t e n t caused a s e v e r e s t r a i n on t h e  newly f o r g e d a l l i a n c e between t h e UMNO and t h e MCA.  I n apparent  r e t a l i a t i o n , MCA withdrew i t s o f f e r o f M$500,000 w h i c h had been earmarked 45 f o r the s e t t i n g up o f a Malay W e l f a r e Fund t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d  jointly.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e MCA p r e s e n t e d i t s f i n d i n g s on t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Chinese  i n t h e form o f the Memorandum on Chinese E d u c a t i o n i n t h e  F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya i n March o f 1954.  60  The Memorandum e x p r e s s e d " t h e f e a r s c r e a t e d i n the Chinese Community o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya by t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1952", and s t a t e d " t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e proposed N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s " would be " t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f the c l o s u r e o f Chinese  4 v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s , and t h e end o f Chinese e d u c a t i o n i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n " . The Memorandum wanted t h e H i g h Commissioner  t o h e l p guarantee t h e  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f Chinese c u l t u r e and s c h o o l s and Kuo Yu t o be accorded t h e s t a t u s o f ' o f f i c i a l language'. I t f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d : Let us once and f o r a l l make i t a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t h a t the Chinese community has never sought, i s n o t s e e k i n g and w i l l never seek an e x c l u s i v e and s e p a r a t i s t p o s i t i o n i n the Malayan s o c i e t y . They a r e merely a s k i n g f o r e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e . 1 4  The trademark o f t h e Chinese e d u c a t i o n i s t s was much i n e v i d e n c e , i n t h a t the Memorandum was j o i n t l y s i g n e d by t h e MCA P r e s i d e n t as w e l l as t h e Chairman o f t h e MCA's Chinese E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l  Committee.  In A p r i l o f 1953, the MCA sponsored a c o n f e r e n c e o f Chinese S c h o o l Management Committees  and t e a c h e r s .  The MCA P r e s i d e n t , Tan Cheng Lock  gave f u l l s u p p o r t t o t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e t o b r i n g about a b e t t e r d e a l i n Chinese e d u c a t i o n and t o ensure t h a t t h e C h i n e s e language  48 needs s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d .  ' I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , t h e MCA a l s o l e n t  s u p p o r t t o the proposed C h i n e s e - r u n Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y announced i n 1953 by a group o f w e a l t h y C h i n e s e .  A l l t h e s e e f f o r t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e  MCA seemed o b v i o u s l y i n t e n d e d t o c o n v i n c e t h e Government and t h e Malays of  t h e i r i n t e n t t o pursue a commitment t o Chinese e d u c a t i o n . T h i s p a t t e r n o f p r o t e s t from t h e Chinese community c o n t i n u e d up  61  u n t i l e a r l y 1955 when t h e A l l i a n c e began g e a r i n g i t s machinery the f o r t h c o m i n g e l e c t i o n s .  to face  The promise o f t h e A l l i a n c e i n i t s m a n i f e s t o  r e l e a s e d i n e a r l y 1954 t o reexamine t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1952, t h e B u s i n e s s L i c e n s i n g and R e g i s t r a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , and the F e d e r a l L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Paper No. 67 o f 1954 on E d u c a t i o n , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t h e l p e d frayed nerves.  The outcome o f t h e e l e c t i o n and t h e subsequent  soothe  education  r e p o r t s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r .  Aftermath Few o f t h e a m b i t i o u s p l a n s c o n t a i n e d i n the Ordinance were ever implemented.  The p o l i c y o f n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s d i d n o t a p p e a l t o a l a r g e  s e c t i o n o f t h e Malay community, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i n f l u e n t i a l Malay s c h o o l teachers.  They f e l t t h a t t h e Ordinance "was a d e l i b e r a t e attempt by 49  t h e C o l o n i a l Government t o o u s t t h e Malay language  (sic)".  Similarly,  the non-Malays opposed t h e Ordinance because i t endangered t h e i r and c u l t u r e .  Furthermore,  language  the w i t h d r a w a l o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e p l a n by  the moderate A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s f i n a l l y caused t h e Ordinance drawn by t h e B r i t i s h Government.  t o be w i t h -  Dato Onn's s u p p o r t o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e  Malays v i a t h e N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s and h i s f e e l i n g s t h a t t h e Malays  should  not p r o t e s t l e d t h e Malays t o r e j e c t h i s p a r t y a t t h e p o l l s . A y e t more s e r i o u s problem was t h e p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t o f the p l a n . Government e x p e n d i t u r e on e d u c a t i o n had s p i r a l l e d from M$11.5 m i l l i o n i n 1946  t o M$95.68 m i l l i o n i n 1953, and t h i s was i n t h e f a c e o f a govern-  ment d e f i c i t o f over M$200 m i l l i o n i n t h e same year."'"'"  In addition,  the c o s t o f f i n a n c i n g t h e ongoing Emergency and t h e d e c l i n i n g p r i c e o f  62  rubber and t i n made i t a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y  f o r t h e government t o  r e c o n s i d e r p l a n s t o implement t h e E d u c a t i o n Ordinance, Government s e t up another  1952.  The  committee t o study t h i s problem. I t s  r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d i n t h e form o f a Government White Paper w h i c h concluded  t h a t " m u l t i - r a c i a l s c h o o l s were ' e s s e n t i a l ' b u t out o f t h e 52  q u e s t i o n because of t h e l a c k o f funds t o pay f o r them".  A l l these  f a c t o r s had t h e n e t e f f e c t of s c u t t l i n g t h e C o l o n i a l Government's p l a n t o i n t r o d u c e Malay and E n g l i s h as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l Malayan s c h o o l s .  I t now became t h e t a s k o f t h e A l l i a n c e government t o  d e a l w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n a r i s i n g from these  circumstances.  Conclusion The E d u c a t i o n Ordinance was t h e f i r s t c o n c r e t e attempt t o l e g i s l a t e a n a t i o n a l education p o l i c y .  The problem of i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y  seemed t o be t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e and i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e two major r e p o r t s on e d u c a t i o n - t h e Barnes Committee Report and t h e Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n Report. p o l i c y as an i n s t r u m e n t  The government was determined t o u s e e d u c a t i o n of c o n t r o l and a s s i m i l a t i o n as f a r as t h e  Chinese s c h o o l s were concerned. The ascendancy o f Malay p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h made t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n aware o f t h e n e c e s s i t y of u p g r a d i n g  t h e Malay  vernacular education. I n i t i a l l y Malay support  f o r t h e p o l i c y t o i n t r o d u c e Malay  as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n was v e r y s t r o n g .  I t began t o wane as i t  63  became c l e a r t h a t t h e i r language would not be t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r p o s t primary  level.  In a d d i t i o n , the s p i r i t  of cooperation  f o r g e d between the UMNO and t h e MCA enabled many Malay l e a d e r s t o support  t h e Chinese  i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e P a r t y Negara p o l i c y  regard to the education p o l i c y .  with  The i s s u e o f t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n  a l s o brought t o t h e f r o n t t h e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who emerged both as s u b - e l i t e s and as an important  p r e s s u r e group.  S i n c e they had been t h e  ardent s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e UMNO and t h e MCA, t h e i r d e s i r e s and concerns c o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d . and  clear.  guarding  I n t h e ensuing  p r o t e s t s t h e i r v o i c e s were l o u d  Indeed, they would soon become a potent  force i n safe-  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s once t h e A l l i a n c e government was  formed. The  q u e s t i o n o f medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n served as an important  t e s t i n g ground f o r the v i a b i l i t y o f t h e A l l i a n c e formula.  The Malay  component o f the A l l i a n c e , UMNO, c l e a r l y emerged as the s e n i o r p a r t n e r and Malay communal i n t e r e s t s superceded  a l l o t h e r communal i n t e r e s t s .  The p o s i t i o n o f the Malay language as the b a s i s f o r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l system was thus c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  64 Notes 1.  For a more i n d e p t h a n a l y s i s of t h e Malayan Union p r o p o s a l see James de V. A l l e n , The Malayan U n i o n , New Haven: Y a l e S o u t h e a s t A s i a S t u d i e s , 1967. (Monograph S e r i e s no. 10.)  2.  The Japanese s u r r e n d e r i n l a t e August, 1945 was r a t h e r sudden and almost a month e l a p s e d b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l of B r i t i s h t r o o p s i n Malaya. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e MPAJA, w h i c h had waged a g u e r i l l a war a g a i n s t the Japanese emerged from the j u n g l e s i n t o Malayan towns and v i l l a g e s and assumed power. Immediately they began e x e c u t i n g many Malays who had been d e t e c t i v e s and i n f o r m e r s t o the Japanese. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n b i t t e r i n t e r - r a c i a l c l a s h e s and r i o t i n g i n many s t a t e s . The r e t u r n of t h e B r i t i s h t r o o p s f o r t u n a t e l y p r e v e n t e d f u r t h e r i n c i d e n t s of violence.  3.  S. W.  4.  For a more i n depth a n a l y s i s of the f o r m a t i o n of the UMNO see: D a n i e l E l d r e d g e Moore, "The U n i t e d Malay N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e 1959 E l e c t i o n s , " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1960; I s h a k b. T a d i n , "Dato Onn and Malay N a t i o n a l i s m , 1946-1951," J o u r n a l o f Southeast A s i a n H i s t o r y , V o l . 1, No. 1 (March 1960). pp. 56-88.  5.  Gordon P. Means, M a l a y s i a n P o l i t i c s , London: Hodder and S t o u g h t o n , 1976. pp. 5 6 f f . ; B. Simandjuntak, op_. c i t . , pp. 178-82.  6.  V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The Chinese i n Modern M a l a y a , S i n g a p o r e : Donald Moore, 1956. p. 41.  7.  For more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the Emergency see t h e f o l l o w i n g books: Anthony S h o r t , The Communist I n s u r r e c t i o n i n Malaya 1948-1960, London: F r e d e r i c k M u l l e r L t d . , 1975; Gene Z. Hanrahan, The Communist S t r u g g l e i n M a l a y a , New Y o r k : I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c P v e l a t i o n s , 1954; H a r r y M i l l e r , Menace i n M a l a y a , London: George G. Harrap & Co., 1950; J u s t u s M. Van der K r o e f , Communism i n M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e , The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1967; L u c i a n Pye, G u e r i l l a Communism i n M a l a y a : I t s S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Meaning, P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956; Victor P u r c e l l , M a l a y a : Communist o r F r e e ? S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : C a l i f o r n i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954.  J o n e s , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n M a l a y a , London: R o y a l I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1953. p. 139.  65 8.  Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , pp.  9.  Ibid.  122-124.  10.  I s h a k T a d i n , op_. c i t . , pp. 81 f f .  11.  R. K. V a s i l , P o l i t i c s i n a P l u r a l S o c i e t y , K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. p. 37.  12.  R. S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, P o l i t i c s and Government i n M a l a y s i a , Singapore: F e d e r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1978, p. 34; Chan Heng Chee, "The Malayan Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n , " M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of S i n g a p o r e , S i n g a p o r e , 1965; Margaret R o f f , "The Malayan Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n 1948-1965," J o u r n a l of Southeast A s i a n H i s t o r y , V o l . 6, no. 2 (1965), pp. 40-53.  13.  R. K. V a s i l , op_. c i t . , pp. 48-49.  14.  R. S. M i l n e and D. K. Mauzy, op_. c i t . , p.  15.  Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , p. 24; T. R. F e n n e l , "Commitment t o Change: A H i s t o r y of Malayan E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y , 19451957," Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of H a w a i i , 1968. p. 95.  16.  I b i d . , p.  17.  F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , Report of t h e Committee on K u a l a Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r s , 1951. B. Simandjuntak, ^p_. c i t . , p. 195. F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , Report of t h e Committee on K u a l a Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r s , 1951, i n T. R. F e n n e l , op_. c i t . , p. 155.  •18.  35.  119. Malay E d u c a t i o n , p. v. Quoted i n Malay E d u c a t i o n . p. 21. Quoted  19.  I b i d . , Chap. IV p a r a 8. p. 196.  Quoted i n B. Simandjuntak,  20.  Dr. W i l l i a m P. Fenn was A s s o c i a t e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y of the Board of T r u s t e e s of a dozen h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n China. He was an American c i t i z e n and h i s s e r v i c e s were sought t h r o u g h o f f i c i a l c h a n n e l s . However, he f e l t t h a t he c o u l d n o t f a i r l y do t h e j o b u n l e s s he had a n a t i v e Chinese speaker i n t h e m i s s i o n . Thus, Dr. Wu Teh Yao's s e r v i c e s were sought. He was t h e n a U n i t e d N a t i o n s O f f i c i a l . He had s t u d i e d f o r a w h i l e i n Malaya and had a thorough knowledge of the problems f a c e d by t h e Chinese i n Malaya.  21.  T. R. F e n n e l , op_. c i t . , p.  173.  op. c i t . ,  66  22.  F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , Chinese S c h o o l s and t h e E d u c a t i o n of Chinese Malayans: The Report of a M i s s i o n I n v i t e d t o Study t h e Problem of the E d u c a t i o n of t h e Chinese i n M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r s , 1951. Chap. I I , p a r a . 15, as quoted i n B. Simandjuntak, op. c i t . , p. 197.  23. - I b i d . 24.  F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , Report of t h e S p e c i a l Committee A p p o i n t e d on t h e 2 0 t h Day of September, 1951 t o Recommend L e g i s l a t i o n t o cover a l l a s p e c t s of E d u c a t i o n P o l i c y f o r t h e F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , No. 70, 1952, 3 O c t o b e r , 1952, p a r a . 15 and S e c t i o n 21 of the E d u c a t i o n Ordinance appended t h e r e t o , as quoted i n B. Simandjuntak, op. c i t . , p. 199.  25.  T. R. F e n n e l , op_. c i t . , p.  26.  I b i d . , p. 97.  27.  V i c t o r P u r c e l l , "The C r i s i s of Malayan E d u c a t i o n , " P a c i f i c V o l . XXVI, No. 1 (March, 1953) p. 71.  28.  Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , pp. 173-377; V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The Chinese i n M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. pp. 232-233.  29.  C y n t h i a H. E n l o e , M u l t i - e t h n i c P o l i t i c s : The Case Study of M a l a y s i a . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : Center f o r South and Southeast A s i a S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1970. p. 47.  30.  Report of t h e Committee on Malay E d u c a t i o n , as c i t e d i n V.  119.  Affairs,  Purcell,  "The C r i s i s i n Malayan E d u c a t i o n , " p. 71. 31.  I b i d . , p. 72.  32.. 33.  C. H. E n l o e , op_. c i t . , p. 47. G a y l D. Ness, B u r e a u c r a c y and R u r a l Development i n M a l a y s i a , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1967. pp. 66-67.  34.  S. A r a s a r a t n a m , I n d i a n s i n M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e , K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970.  p.  187.  35.  S t r a i t s Times, August 27, 1951, as quoted i n T. R. F e n n e l , p.  36. 37.  T. R. F e n n e l , op. c i t . , p. 202. W i l l i a m R. R o f f , O r i g i n s of Malay N a t i o n a l i s m , New Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Chap. V.  Haven:  183.  67  38.  C. H. E n l o e , op_. e l t . , p.  156.  39.  Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , p.  40.  Malay M a i l , February 10, 1955, as c i t e d i n T. R. op. c i t . , p. 385.  41.  Utusan Melayu, September 9, 1954,  42.  T. R. F e n n e l , op_. c i t . , p.  43.  Chan Heng Chee, op_. c i t . , p.  44.  I b i d . , pp. 60-61;  45.  Gordon P. Means, c>p_. c i t . , p.  46.  T. R. F e n n e l , op_. c i t . , p.  47.  I b i d . , p.  48.  I b i d . , pp.  49.  S t r a i t s Times, F e b r u a r y 5, 1954, op. c i t . , p. 199.  50.  M a j l i s , February 28, 1955, as c i t e d i n F e n n e l , cip. c i t . , p.  196. Fennel  as c i t e d i n T. R. F e n n e l , p.  328.  200. 60.  T. R. F e n n e l , op. c i t . , p. 269 f f . 135.  310.  319. 305-306. as c i t e d i n B.  Simandjuntak, 404.  68  CHAPTER IV THE  ALLIANCE GOVERNMENT  1955-1961  T h i s p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l e s p e c i a l l y with regard  t o the a d o p t i o n  i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l Malayan s c h o o l s .  activity  of Malay as the main medium of  The p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d  the  e v o l u t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y i n the form of two o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s which served as p o l i t i c a l benchmarks and w h i c h i r r e v o c a b l y s e t t r e n d f o r the f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y .  the  T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine the  major p o l i t i c a l events and e d u c a t i o n a l development, and  analyze  the  communal demands, the m o t i v e s and aims of the p o l i c y makers, the p o l i c y impact, and  the communal r e s p o n s e s .  Major P o l i t i c a l The  s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t  Events  event of t h i s p e r i o d was  ming v i c t o r y of the A l l i a n c e p a r t y i n the 1955 Council Election.  The A l l i a n c e p a r t y won  the o v e r w h e l -  Federal L e g i s l a t i v e  51 out of the 52 s e a t s  p o l l e d t e n times as many v o t e s as a l l the o t h e r p a r t i e s and combined."'"  was  independents  Thus the A l l i a n c e p a r t y f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f as  l e g i t i m a t e successor  to the C o l o n i a l Government.  and  the  The A l l i a n c e v i c t o r y  f o l l o w e d by a C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , h e l d i n London e a r l y i n  1956, I t was  and  attended  decided  by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the R u l e r s and  the A l l i a n c e .  t h a t Malaya s h o u l d become f u l l y independent w i t h i n the  Commonwealth by August, 1957.  I t was  a l s o agreed t h a t a C o n s t i t u t i o n a l  69  Commission s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d to draw up a d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n . Constitutional  The  Commission soon s e t about c o l l e c t i n g memoranda from  the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups and 131 memoranda.  p o l i t i c a l parties.  In a l l i t received  However, the s u b m i s s i o n s of the A l l i a n c e "had  t i o n a l importance i n v i e w of t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e r o l e as the  excep-  future  2  government . . . ." the UMNO, the MCA, p o s i t i o n of the The  and  E a r l i e r , the  t h r e e components of the  the MIC,  determined the r e l a t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  had  three races.  A l l i a n c e " b a r g a i n " , concluded between the Malay and  Malay components, i n e f f e c t r e p r e s e n t e d a p r i c e p a i d by the f o r f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of the The  Alliance,  functions  the  non-Malays  Federation.  a s s i g n e d to the Malay R u l e r s , the e n s h r i n i n g of I s l a m  the s t a t e r e l i g i o n , the " S p e c i a l p o s i t i o n of the M a l a y s " , and recognition  of the Malay language as  o f f i c i a l language a f t e r 1967,  the N a t i o n a l  In exchange, the non-Malays enjoyed the b e n e f i t s 3 i n the c i t i z e n s h i p q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . extended to any providing  of f u r t h e r  p e r s o n b o r n i n the c o u n t r y a f t e r August 31,  the c l a i m s of the non-Malays to the s t a t u s  the  sole  non-Malays. relaxation  In a d d i t i o n , c i t i z e n s h i p  the p a r e n t s were d o m i c i l e d t h e r e .  as  the  language and  were a l l agreed upon by the  non-  This p r o v i s i o n  was  1957, recognized  of c i t i z e n by v i r t u e  of 4  j u s s o l i , not r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y  but  o n l y f o r those b o r n a f t e r independence.  Another i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of the " b a r g a i n " not the C o n s t i t u t i o n was  that  stated  explicitly  the Chinese would be a l l o w e d to p l a y a  in  70  dominant r o l e i n b u s i n e s s " f r e e from t h e h i n d r a n c e s  or persecution  to w h i c h they / t h e Chinese/ have been s u b j e c t e d i n some o t h e r Southeast  Asian countries.""'  The 1955 E l e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d a v i c t o r y f o r t h e A l l i a n c e and the f o r c e s of communal c o o p e r a t i o n . the f o r c e s of communal c h a u v i n i s m . l a r g e l y Chinese supported  Nevertheless, i t also  unleashed  The more communally i n c l i n e d and  Labour P a r t y , t h e People's  Progressive Party  (PPP), t h e Malay based Pan Malayan I s l a m i c P a r t y (PMIP) and Dato Onn's P a r t y Negara (PN), a l l c o n c e n t r a t e d on i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r respective clienteles.  I n t h e p r o c e s s these p a r t i e s a l s o c l a i m e d  they had been short-changed  by the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A l l i a n c e  that  "bargain".  Thus, f o l l o w i n g t h e e l e c t i o n s , t h e burden o f h a v i n g t o prove t h a t t h e a c c u s a t i o n s o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n were i n c o r r e c t caused c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n and s t r e s s e s w i t h i n the A l l i a n c e .  However, UMNO was now b e t t e r  a b l e t o cope w i t h the p r e s s u r e s because o f the t i g h t c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by i t s moderate Malay l e a d e r s , namely Tunku A b d u l Rahman, Dato A b d u l Razak, and Dr. I s m a i l . W i t h i n t h e MCA t h e t r o u b l e s were more open.  A s e c t i o n of younger  and more a r t i c u l a t e members who had n o t been a p a r t y t o t h e o r i g i n a l b a r g a i n and hence t o t h e s p i r i t o f compromise and c o n c e s s i o n , emerged as a new f a c t i o n i n e a r l y 1958. "Young T u r k s " d e f e a t e d  T h i s group w h i c h s t y l e d i t s e l f as the  t h e " O l d Guards" of Tan Cheng Lock and h i s son  Tan Siew S i n i n t h e 1958 MCA e l e c t i o n s .  The new P r e s i d e n t , Dr. L i m  Chong Eu, and h i s f a c t i o n attempted t o w r i n g more c o n c e s s i o n s  from t h e  71  UMNO and the M a l a y s , but f a i l e d .  I n the p r o c e s s  they a l i e n a t e d Tunku  A b d u l Rahman, and he was f i r m i n demanding t h a t the t r o u b l e - m a k e r s be e x p e l l e d from the MCA.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s c r i s i s many o f the Young Turks  l e f t the p a r t y i n l a t e 1958.  However, when Tan Siew S i n was e l e c t e d  as the new MCA P r e s i d e n t i n 1961, the P a r t y . the  UMNO r e s t o r e d i t s f u l l c o n f i d e n c e  in  T h i s c r i s i s w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l l a t e r i n  chapter.  E d u c a t i o n a l Development I n September, 1955,  j u s t one month a f t e r the A l l i a n c e assumed  the r e i n s o f government, a 15 member committee under the  chairmanship  of Dato A b d u l Razak, the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , was drawn from the Federal L e g i s l a t i v e Council.  I t was empowered t o :  examine the p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f the F e d e r a t i o n of Malaya and t o recommend any a l t e r a t i o n s o r a d a p t a t i o n s that are necessary w i t h a view t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e t o the p e o p l e o f the F e d e r a t i o n as a whole which w i l l s a t i s f y t h e i r needs and promote t h e i r c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l development as a n a t i o n , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o the i n t e n t i o n to make Malay as the n a t i o n a l language o f the c o u n t r y w h i l s t p r e s e r v i n g and s u s t a i n i n g the growth o f t h e languages and c u l t u r e o f o t h e r communities l i v i n g i n the c o u n t r y . 6 The Razak R e p o r t , w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n August, 1956, l e g i s l a t e d as the E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1957, amendments.  The Committee r e c o g n i z e d  planning f o r a m u l t i - r a c i a l society.  was s u b s e q u e n t l y  a f t e r undergoing minor  the magnitude o f i t s t a s k o f I n v i e w o f t h i s , they  considered  t h e i r t a s k a p r a g m a t i c one "of p l a n n i n g f o r the immediate f u t u r e , which  72  might be d e f i n e d as t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s , a p e r i o d w h i c h may be r e g a r d e d as t r a n s i t i o n a l i n Malayan e d u c a t i o n . T h e Committee f u r t h e r recommended t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s proposed i n t h e r e p o r t s h o u l d  - i f adopted 8  be reexamined i n t h e l i g h t o f e x p e r i e n c e n o t l a t e r than 1959. The  Razak Report abandoned t h e i d e a o f a n a t i o n a l s c h o o l  and agreed t h a t c h i l d r e n should education  continue  i n the separate vernacular  system,  to r e c e i v e t h e i r primary  schools.  However, i t b e l i e v e d  that: the u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f t h i s c o u n t r y must be t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r t h e c h i l d r e n o f a l l r a c e s under a n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l system i n w h i c h t h e n a t i o n a l language i s t h e main medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n , though we r e c o g n i z e t h a t p r o g r e s s towards t h i s g o a l cannot be rushed and must be g r a d u a l . 9 Furthermore, i n order  t o a c c o r d Malay a p o s i t i o n worthy o f a n a t i o n a l  language, i t was f e l t t h a t i t : must be l e a r n t i n a l l s c h o o l s and ... t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f Malay to and t h e l e a r n i n g o f Malay by a l l p u p i l s s h a l l be t h e c o n d i t i o n o f Government assistance i n a l l schools.10 The R e p o r t , i n a d d i t i o n , suggested i n c e n t i v e s f o r t h e l e a r n i n g of t h e Malay language. " f o r reaching  R e i t e r a t i n g t h a t i n c e n t i v e s were n e c e s s a r y  adequate s t a n d a r d s i n Malay", t h e Committee suggested t h e  f o l l o w i n g measures: a.  Malay c o u l d be made a q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r e n t r y i n t o the Government s e r v i c e s ;  b.  i t c o u l d be made a f a c t o r t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i o n f o r secondary e d u c a t i o n , and c o u l d be made compulsory i n a l l government e x a m i n a t i o n s ;  73  c.  i t c o u l d be made a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e one s e e k i n g a s c h o l a r s h i p from p u b l i c f u n d s ;  d.  g r a n t s - i n - a i d c o u l d be made t o depend i n p a r t on t h e s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g o f Malay as and when s u f f i c i e n t f a c i l i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e . i l  The Report gave s e p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t t o t h e p r i m a r y and secondary schools. broad  I t suggested t h a t t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s would f a l l i n t o two  categories. 1.  Standard P r i m a r y s c h o o l s , i n w h i c h t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n would be t h e Malayan n a t i o n a l language; and  2.  S t a n d a r d - t y p e P r i m a r y s c h o o l s , i n which t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n would be i n Kuo Yu o r Tamil or E n g l i s h .  The Report recommended t h a t E n g l i s h s h o u l d be made a compulsory s u b j e c t i n a l l primary schools.  W i t h r e g a r d t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n T a m i l o r Kuo  Yu, i t was proposed t h a t such i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e 12 at  t h e r e q u e s t o f p a r e n t s o f f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n from any one s c h o o l . W i t h r e g a r d t o secondary s c h o o l s , t h e R e p o r t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  the  aim o f secondary e d u c a t i o n was t o t r a i n employable and l o y a l  citizens,  and t h a t "one o f i t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s i s t o f o s t e r and encourage t h e c u l t u r e s and languages o f t h e Malayan community . . . ."  Thus, t h e  R e p o r t recommended t h a t t h e aim " s h o u l d be t o e s t a b l i s h one type o f n a t i o n a l secondary s c h o o l were t h e p u p i l s work towards a common f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n , b u t where t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y  i n the c u r r i c u -  lum t o a l l o w s c h o o l s o r p a r t o f s c h o o l s t o g i v e p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o 13 v a r i o u s languages and c u l t u r e s . "  I n e f f e c t , Malay was made a  compulsory language t o be l e a r n e d i n o r d e r t o pass t h e two p u b l i c  74  e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e Lower C e r t i f i c a t e o f E d u c a t i o n (LCE), a t t h e end of t h e t h i r d y e a r and the F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya C e r t i f i c a t e a t t h e end of f i v e or s i x y e a r s o f secondary s c h o o l i n g .  (FMCE),  E n g l i s h was  r e t a i n e d as a language t o be s t u d i e d i n n a t i o n a l secondary s c h o o l s because, "no secondary s c h o o l p u p i l s h a l l be a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n t h e m a t t e r e i t h e r o f employment o r o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya o r o v e r seas as l o n g as i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o use t h e E n g l i s h language f o r these 14 purposes."  C o n c e r n i n g the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n Chinese  secondary s c h o o l s , the Committee saw "no r e a s o n f o r a l t e r i n g t h e p r a c t i c e . . ." p r o v i d e d o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s mentioned  e a r l i e r were met."'""'  I n accordance w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Razak R e p o r t , a Committee under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f A b d u l Rahman b i n T a l i b was formed " t o r e v i e w " t h e Report and make recommendations c o n c e r n i n g implementation."*"^  The Review Committee p r e s e n t e d i t s r e p o r t i n June,  1960, and agreed t h a t t h e p o l i c y o u t l i n e d i n the Razak Report had been " f a i t h f u l l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d o u t . . . . T h e  Committee  r e v i e w e d the E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1957, and f o r m u l a t e d what became the E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1961. As f a r as t h e s t a t u s o f the Malay  language  was concerned the p o l i c y as e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e Ordinance o f 1957 remained unchanged. The Rahman T a l i b Report c o n c l u d e d t h a t p u b l i c p r i m a r y Chinese and T a m i l s c h o o l s s h o u l d be t o l e r a t e d - a t l e a s t " f o r t h e time b e i n g " , but n o t t h e secondary s c h o o l s .  " I t would be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h an  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y designed t o c r e a t e n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and h a v i n g  75  the  i n t e n t i o n o f making  the  country,"  the Malay language the n a t i o n a l language of  the Committee a s s e r t e d , " t o extend and p e r p e t u a t e a  language and r a c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a l throughout the p u b l i c l y  financed  18 e d u c a t i o n a l system". The Rahman T a l i b Report f u r t h e r proposed a number of to  changes  f u r t h e r the p r o c e s s of implementing Malay as the medium of  instruction.  The more n o t a b l e were as f o l l o w s : 1. Secondary s c h o o l s r e c e i v i n g p a r t i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the Government w h i c h f a i l e d t o make arrangements to conform f u l l y w i t h a l l the s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s as from the b e g i n n i n g of 1962 or e a r l i e r , " s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as independent s c h o o l s i n e l i g i b l e f o r any a s s i s t a n c e from Government funds as from the b e g i n n i n g of 1962." 2  A l l the " o f f i c i a l , n a t i o n a l , p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n s the Lower C e r t i f i c a t e of E d u c a t i o n and the F e d e r a t i o n of Malaya C e r t i f i c a t e o f E d u c a t i o n E x a m i n a t i o n s - s h o u l d be h e l d o n l y i n the n a t i o n ' s two o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e s , Malay and E n g l i s h . " 1 9  F u r t h e r m o r e , the Committee was r e s o l u t e i n i t s recommendations the  that  M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d cease to o r g a n i z e e x a m i n a t i o n s i n  C h i n e s e , i . e . the J u n i o r M i d d l e I I I ,  the Chinese Secondary S c h o o l  P r o m o t i o n , and the Chinese Secondary S c h o o l L e a v i n g C e r t i f i c a t e 20 E x a m i n a t i o n s , w i t h e f f e c t from 1961. The Report p r o v i d e d some i n c e n t i v e s f o r the e f f e c t i v e implementation of the p o l i c y .  From 1962 onwards f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n ,  h i t h e r t o enjoyed o n l y by the Malay and T a m i l s c h o o l s , was extended to E n g l i s h and Chinese medium s c h o o l s . However, no changes were proposed  76  w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n M a l a y , C h i n e s e , T a m i l o r E n g l i s h medium s c h o o l s .  I n o r d e r t o g i v e g r e a t e r prominence t o t h e use  of t h e n a t i o n a l language,  i t was suggested  t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d and s t a n d a r d -  type s c h o o l s be r e d e s i g n a t e d as N a t i o n a l and N a t i o n a l - t y p e s c h o o l s emphasising  thus  t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s c h o o l system.  In r e s p e c t t o the secondary  s c h o o l s , " t h e C h i l d r e n o f Malayan  communities who o p t t o o b t a i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e medium of Malay w i l l from 1962 onwards o b t a i n . . . f r e e e d u c a t i o n i n a l l /JialayT* secondary 21 schools".  I n sum, t h e Rahman T a l i b Report f u r t h e r removed c e r t a i n  l o o p h o l e s i n h e r e n t i n the Razak Report.  I t guaranteed  the p o s i t i o n of  the Malay language and a t the same time t h r e a t e n e d t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e non-Malay secondary  schools. Communal Demands  As mentioned i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t h e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were the most p e r s i s t e n t i n r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e E d u c a t i o n Ordinance,  1952. Thus many moderate A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s who  f a v o u r e d t h e E n g l i s h b i a s o f t h e Ordinance had t o s t o p s u p p o r t i n g i t and come o u t i n s u p p o r t o f the s c h o o l t e a c h e r s f o r guarantees vernacular education.  f o r the  I t was i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t h a t t h e  Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were an i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l f o r c e w i t h i n UMNO. They commanded much s u p p o r t from a l a r g e number o f Malays who had a t t e n d e d o n l y Malay s c h o o l s , and who were k e e n l y c o n s c i o u s o f j o b  77  opportunities.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s was t h e f a c t t h a t many l e a d e r s  of t h e UMNO were former s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o r e d u c a t i o n i s t s ( n o t a b l e among whom was Ghafar Baba, Mohamad K h i r J o h a r i , and Syed N a s i r b i n Ismail).  Thus i t i s apparent t h a t t h e i r demands c o u l d n o t e a s i l y be  r e j e c t e d by t h e moderate Malay l e a d e r s . The Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s p r e s s u r e d  t h e government f o r t h e  e x c l u s i v e use o f Malay i n t h e Government, f o r r a p i d e x p a n s i o n  of a  Malay medium s c h o o l system, and f o r e q u a l s t a t u s and pay f o r Malay 23 school teachers.  They a l s o o b j e c t e d t o t h e p r o m o t i n g o f E n g l i s h as  the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n Secondary s c h o o l s and t o t h e scheme o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g which saw a l a r g e number o f non-Malays b e i n g to  t h e U n i t e d Kingdom d u r i n g t h e m i d - f i f t i e s .  continued  sent  The Malay s c h o o l  teachers  t h e i r p r o t e s t s b o t h w i t h i n UMNO and by e n l i s t i n g t h e support  o f the Malay v e r n a c u l a r p r e s s f o r t h e i r cause.  I n v i e w o f these  developments, t h e A l l i a n c e p a r t y , had promised t o r e v i e w t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system once i t gained v i c t o r y i n t h e 1955 e l e c t i o n . The Chinese s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , l i k e t h e i r Malay c o u n t e r p a r t s , were an i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l f o r c e b o t h w i t h i n t h e MCA and w i t h o u t .  They  were o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d as t h e f i r s t Chinese communal l e a d e r s and were a c t i v e i n a r t i c u l a t i n g Chinese communal i n t e r e s t s l o n g b e f o r e MCA was 24 formed.  T r a d i t i o n a l reverence  t o t h e Chinese s c h o o l t e a c h e r s made  t h e i r p o s i t i o n a l l t h e more c r e d i b l e . s c h o o l s a s envisaged  The c r e a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l  i n the E d u c a t i o n Ordinance,  1952 sparked  fears  among the Chinese s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and t h e Chinese s c h o o l management  78  committee members.  Both o f these groups had e a r l i e r formed the  United  Chinese S c h o o l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n (UCSTA) and the A l l - M a l a y a  Chinese  S c h o o l Management Committee A s s o c i a t i o n (CSMS) t o s e r v e j o i n t l y as single-purpose  interest associations.  Both the UCSTA and the CSMC  members f e a r e d t h a t the Chinese s c h o o l s were b e i n g  threatened  p o s s i b i l i t y o f w i t h d r a w a l o f f i n a n c e s loomed l a r g e . Chinese s c h o o l t e a c h e r s  as t h e  Understandably, the  were much d i s t r e s s e d over any p e r c e i v e d  threat  of c l o s u r e f o r t h a t would mean o n l y one t h i n g - the l o s s o f a f o r m e r l y secure job. vernacular  Thus they began t o p r o t e s t and demanded t h a t the s c h o o l s must be s a f e g u a r d e d a t a l l c o s t s .  B e g i n n i n g i n e a r l y 1954 UCSTA and "genuinely  Chinese  the CSMC.  the MCA defended the p o s i t i o n o f t h e  Tan Cheng Lock e x p l a i n e d  t h a t the Chinese were  f r i g h t e n e d t h a t i t i s the Government's i d e a t o e l i m i n a t e  Chinese s c h o o l s . "  He was f u r t h e r m o r e quoted as s a y i n g t h a t "the  s t r o n g l y o b j e c t t o h a v i n g E n g l i s h and Malay c l a s s e s i n Chinese  Chinese schools.  They say i t i s the t h i n edge o f the wedge towards the c l o s i n g o f 25 Chinese s c h o o l s " .  E a r l y i n J a n u a r y , 1955,  the m a t t e r w i t h the UMNO l e a d e r s . t i v e s o f the MCA's C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y  the MCA l e a d e r s took up  I n a meeting between the Committee on E d u c a t i o n ,  representathe UCSTA,  the CSMC, the MIC's Malayan I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n Committee and the UMNO, t h e f u t u r e o f the Chinese and T a m i l s c h o o l s was d i s c u s s e d .  I t was a l s o  agreed t h a t the Chinese would drop t h e i r demands t o have Chinese made the t h i r d o f f i c i a l language i n r e t u r n f o r a promise t h a t the A l l i a n c e would c o n t i n u e  t o s u p p o r t the non-government s c h o o l s when a n a t i o n a l  79  s c h o o l was a v a i l a b l e a f t e r the e l e c t i o n s .  Thus, f o r t h e s e f u r t h e r  r e a s o n s , t h e A l l i a n c e went to the e l e c t i o n s w i t h a promise to r e v i e w the e x i s t i n g s c h o o l system.  M o t i v e s and Aims o f the P o l i c y  Makers  The major p r i o r i t y of the A l l i a n c e government e s t a b l i s h a n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n system.  i n 1955 was to  I n August o f t h a t y e a r t h e  Tunku i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Government would examine new i d e a s f o r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n because the e x i s t i n g " n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s had not been found 27 popular".  O b v i o u s l y , the t a s k must have been viewed as one o f g r e a t .  i m p o r t a n c e , j u d g i n g from the f a c t t h a t UMNO's second s e n i o r - m o s t l e a d e r , Dato A b d u l Razak, was a p p o i n t e d to t h e p o s t o f M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n . Two f a c t o r s seem to have been paramount w i t h r e g a r d t o the e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y .  i n the minds of the p o l i c y makers  F i r s t l y , t h e r e was the need to  upgrade the Malay language b e f i t t i n g i t s s t a t u s as the n a t i o n a l language. S e c o n d l y , i n v i e w of t h e ongoing Emergency and the t h r e a t i t posed on the f u t u r e of t h e c o u n t r y t h e r e was a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e s c h o o l system s h o u l d be used t o s o c i a l i z e f u t u r e Malayan c i t i z e n s and i n c u l c a t e a s e n t i m e n t of l o y a l t y towards the c o u n t r y .  The d e s i r e to make Malay  the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l Malay s c h o o l s r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to f o r c e f u l l y persuade t h e non-Malays t o a c c e p t "a c u l t u r a l u n i f o r m i t y 28 based on Malay c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " .  W i t h o u t doubt the language i s s u e  i s a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f Malay n a t i o n a l i s m .  There was an awareness  among the Malay l e a d e r s t h a t t h e d i v e r s e s c h o o l system was  directly  80  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n t i n u i n g d i v i s i o n of the Malayan s o c i e t y i n t o communal compartments.  S i n c e i t was e v i d e n t t h a t Malay  political  supremacy was the backbone o f the system, i t was f e l t t h a t the Malay language s h o u l d s e r v e as a b a s i s on which c u l t u r a l u n i f o r m i t y would be built.  The Malay l e a d e r s were w e l l aware of the p r e s s u r e from the  Malay community f o r a more Malay based e d u c a t i o n system.  By a d v o c a t i n g  a M a l a y - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n system, i t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e would be g r e a t e r m a t e r i a l advantage f o r the M a l a y s , and more avenues would be opened f o r the h i t h e r t o d i s a d v a n t a g e d  Malays.  There was a p r o f o u n d d e s i r e among the moderate A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s  29 to " b r i n g the d i f f e r e n t r a c e s i n the c o u n t r y t o g e t h e r . . . ," o f r e a s o n i n g not hard to fathom.  a line  A s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e number of the  30 A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s were E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d .  • They were c e r t a i n t h a t  t h e c o s m o p o l i t a n i n f l u e n c e had been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r s e e m i n g l y moderate s t a n d i n a system wrought w i t h extreme communal c l e a v a g e s . There was p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s on the need to b r i n g a l l the r a c e s t o g e t h e r t o s o c i a l i z e f u t u r e c i t i z e n s w i t h v a l u e s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the i d e a l s of a u n i f i e d Malayan n a t i o n .  The Government was a l s o d e t e r m i n e d  to g a i n e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f the e d u c a t i o n system.  The C h i n e s e  s c h o o l s p a r t i c u l a r l y had remained independent of the mainstream of e d u c a t i o n a l development led  i n Malaya.  T h i s independence w i t h o u t doubt had  a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e number of s c h o o l s t o be used as the r e c r u i t i n g  31 ground f o r s u b v e r s i v e elements.  I n v i e w o f the Emergency, t h i s  t h r e a t must have been v e r y r e a l .  The Government d e c i s i o n to w i t h d r a w  81  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to independent Chinese s c h o o l s , to impose s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l o f the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f s c h o o l s and of the members of  the  t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l seem to conform to the need to have a c t u a l e x t e n s i o n o f F e d e r a l Government c o n t r o l . There were, however, c e r t a i n c r u c i a l p o i n t s l e f t ambiguous. For example, the q u e s t i o n of languages to be used i n the e x a m i n a t i o n s was  not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  and  s t a n d a r d i z e d e x a m i n a t i o n s t h a t were to be encouraged remained  unclear.  S i m i l a r l y , the type o f common c o n t e n t  The A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s who  formulated  have been aware of these a m b i g u i t i e s .  syllabus  the Razak R e p o r t must  The moderate w e s t e r n educated  e l i t e such as Tunku,Dato Razak, Mohd. K h i r J o h a r i , Tan  Siew S i n , V.  T.  Sambanthan and Dr. Lim Chong Eu, had s i m u l t a n e o u s l y posed as n a t i o n a l spokesmen, e t h n i c agents and a r t i c u l a t o r s of w e s t e r n v a l u e s which they f e l t were u s e f u l f o r the c o u n t r y .  The m u l t i p l i c i t y of r o l e s of  the  p o l i c y makers c o u l d e a s i l y p a r a l y z e the w o r k i n g o f the system, but the Malayan l e a d e r s were a b l e t o l e a v e c e r t a i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s s u i t a b l y ambiguous so t h a t the machinery o f government c o u l d s o l v e them as they were a p p l i e d or when they become c o n t r o v e r s i a l . As  identified  32 by C y n t h i a E n l o e ,  the " p o l i t i c s o f a m b i g u i t y "  i s ideally suited  f o r a government to cope w i t h problems posed by p o t e n t i a l l y f o r c e s of e t h n i c h o s t i l i t i e s . i n the 1957  divisive  However, the many a m b i g u i t i e s  inherent  Ordinance were g r a d u a l l y t i g h t e n e d i n the subsequent  e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t o f 1961  under the chairmanship  o f E d u c a t i o n , A b d u l Rahman b i n T a l i b .  o f the new M i n i s t e r  82  P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses The acceptance o f t h e Razak Report demonstrated a t y p i c a l A l l i a n c e s t y l e of p o l i t i c s .  Much o f t h e p o l i t i c a l disagreement w i t h i n  the  A l l i a n c e was r e s o l v e d behind c l o s e d doors and t h u s p u b l i c v o t i n g i n  the  Assembly was g e n e r a l l y u n i f i e d , even though i n d i v i d u a l members tended  to e x p r e s s t h e i r concern o v e r p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of t h e p o l i c y b e i n g debated.  The v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s o f t h e t h r e e communal p a r t i e s were made  known t o t h e p r e s s , and members l e t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n be known t o the  p u b l i c by means o f t h e u s u a l o f f - t h e - r e c o r d t e c h n i q u e .  Usually a  b a r r a g e o f c l a i m s and c o u n t e r - c l a i m s preceded t h e making of t h e compromises.  These c l a i m s , however, d i d n o t seem t o a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l  outcome o f t h e p o l i c y .  There was always t h e danger t h a t i n c l o s e  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s between t h e members o f t h e t h r e e p a r t i e s , would  agreements,  be reached t h a t were a t t i m e s too compromising f o r t h e more  c h a u v i n i s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d members o f t h e p a r t y .  T h i s p a t t e r n was c l e a r l y  i n e v i d e n c e when t h e Razak Report was p r e s e n t e d i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e for  Council  a p p r o v a l . The o n l y persons who o b j e c t e d t o t h e r e p o r t were t h o s e  who had n o t been i n v o l v e d i n i t s p r e p a r a t i o n o r were n o t p a r t o f t h e t o p e c h e l o n o f t h e components o f t h e A l l i a n c e p a r t y .  Whatever d i s s a t i s -  f a c t i o n t h e r e was among t h e C o u n c i l members was l a r g e l y c o n t a i n e d by 33  Dr. I s m a i l b i n Dato A b d u l Rahman's c a l l f o r communal t o l e r a n c e .  Thus,  when t h e v o t e s were counted t h e r e was unanimous support f o r t h e Report and t h i s Report s u b s e q u e n t l y became t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1957.  83  Outside the Legislative Council, Malay school teachers generally were jubilant with the expansion of Malay educational opportunities and the prospect of improved income and rapid promotion. less than two years  However, in  the FMSTA and i t s members became disillusioned over  what they considered was an excessive delay on the part of the Government in implementing the provisions of the Razak Report.  First,  they had hoped that their status would be enhanced without additional qualifications being imposed.  They were thus much perturbed when the  Government announced in July, 1956, that they would have to s i t for an examination equivalent to the Lower Certificate of Education in order to become qualified to teach in the national schools.  They were also  dissatisfied that Malay secondary schools were not being set up as promised. As a result, the FMSTA submitted a memorandum to the Minister of Education calling for the immediate implementation of Malay as the sole medium of instruction in a l l Malayan schools, and requesting that a l l Malay schools be automatically converted into standard or national schools.  In addition, they demanded withdrawal of the directive making  the Malay school teachers s i t for the LCE examination.  The memorandum  furthermore wanted an immediate establishment of Malay secondary 35 schools.  The FMSTA gave the Government t i l l February, 1958 to meet  the demands after which i t announced that i t would call on i t s 10,000 36  members to withdraw their support from the UMNO.  The Malay press too  84  joined the v o l l e y of protest.  Utusan Melayu,  f o r example, reminded  Dato Razak t h a t s i n c e he was a Malay he s h o u l d a c t i n such a way t o 37 make t h e Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s happy. The top UMNO l e a d e r s were a p p a r e n t l y i n no p o s i t i o n t o be adamant i n t h e i r stand.  I n June, 1957, t h e Government announced t h a t i t was  p o s t p o n i n g t h e s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r t h e Malay t e a c h e r s u n t i l 1958. The Tunku then began a l o n g p r o c e s s o f p l a c a t i n g t h e Malay s c h o o l teachers.  He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e d e l a y i n s e t t i n g up  secondary s c h o o l s was a l a c k o f t e a c h e r s , and t h a t t h e s c h o o l s would be set up a s soon as t h e t e a c h e r s sent abroad t o be t r a i n e d r e t u r n e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e new E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r , Mohd. K h i r b i n J o h a r i , gave assurance t h a t Malay medium c l a s s e s would be s t a r t e d i n e x i s t i n g E n g l i s h s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e n e x t t h r e e months.  But a l l t h e s e moves t o p l a c a t e  the s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were i n v a i n . In e a r l y February o f 1958, t h e FMSTA o r g a n i z e d s e v e r a l r a l l i e s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e Government. 38 t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n student r i o t s .  I n K o t a B a r u , t h e demonstra-  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e Pan Malayan  I s l a m i c P a r t y (PMIP) and Dato Onn's P a r t y Negara (PN) a c t i v e l y t h e FMSTA  i n i t s stand.  supported  UMNO l e a d e r s were u n d e r s t a n d a b l y d i s t u r b e d  over a l l t h e s e developments.  As a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e .concern t h e 1958  UMNO G e n e r a l Assembly a c c e p t e d a m o t i o n p r e s e n t e d by t h e Penang d e l e g a t i o n w h i c h c a l l e d f o r "a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n t o those members who had 39 r e s i g n e d over t h e Malay e d u c a t i o n row t o r e t u r n t o UMNO."  85  F o l l o w i n g t h e UMNO Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , Tunku t r i e d t o come to an agreement w i t h t h e Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s f o r he was c e r t a i n t h a t t h e i r support would determine UMNO's s u c c e s s a t t h e f o r t h c o m i n g 1959 Elections.  I n September 2 1 , 1958. a d e l e g a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e FMSTA,  headed by i t s P r e s i d e n t Mohamad Noor b i n Ahmad, met w i t h t h e Tunku, Dato A b d u l Razak and Mohd. K h i r J o h a r i i n a round t a b l e c o n f e r e n c e .  In the  e n s u i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , Tunku agreed t o t h e demands o f t h e FMSTA t h a t Malay be made t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l p r i m a r y and s t a n d a r d - t y p e by J a n u a r y ,  1959.  schools  However, he f e l t t h a t Malay c o u l d o n l y be i n t r o d u c e d  40 i n stages.  Soon a f t e r , t h e Government e s t a b l i s h e d f i f t y - o n e Malay-  medium secondary c l a s s e s i n e x i s t i n g secondary s c h o o l s f o r those c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s had i n d i c a t e d t h a t they wished t o a t t e n d .  In addition,  t h e Government opened t h e f i r s t Malay medium secondary s c h o o l a t I p o h i n May, 1959. I t was named t h e S e k o l a h Tunku A b d u l Rahman. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e a g i t a t i o n s o f t h e Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were indeed d i f f i c u l t t o be assuaged.  UMNO's poor showing i n t h e E a s t Coast  s t a t e s o f K e l a n t a n and Trengganu d u r i n g t h e 1959 e l e c t i o n s , w h i l e c e r t a i n l y not wholly a t t r i b u t a b l e to the teachers'  dissatisfaction, 41  cannot e n t i r e l y be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f o t h e r causes. w i t h the implementation  However,  o f t h e Rahman T a l i b Report t h e r e was a marked  r e d u c t i o n i n Malay d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y from t h e Malay s c h o o l teachers.  I n regard t o the question of a q u a l i f y i n g examination, t h e  M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p e r m i t t e d t h e Malay t e a c h e r s t o be employed as  86  t e a c h e r s by p l a c i n g them i n a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y , and made t h e LCE t h e minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r new r e c r u i t s t o t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , Government ambivalence system.  1957, ended  r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n of Malay i n t h e e d u c a t i o n  F o l l o w i n g t h e enactment o f t h e O r d i n a n c e ,  a l l s c h o o l s had t o  t e a c h t h e Malay language e i t h e r as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n o r as a s u b j e c t language i n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y f o r government a s s i s t a n c e .  The  Malay language a l s o became a compulsory language f o r a l l government r u n examinations.  Thus, t h e Chinese  s c h o o l s w h i c h had h i t h e r t o  avoided  t e a c h i n g t h e Malay language were now f o r c e d t o t e a c h i t o r f a c e t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f government f u n d i n g . When t h e Razak p l a n was f i r s t p r e s e n t e d , i t won t h e a p p r o v a l of a l l communities.  There were s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s .  F i r s t , the  Committee w h i c h had d r a f t e d t h e Report was composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e t h r e e p a r t i e s of t h e A l l i a n c e .  S e c o n d l y , many Chinese  felt  t h a t t h e MCA would a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t Chinese i n t e r e s t s and seek t o s a f e g u a r d t h e p r a c t i c e o f Chinese t h e g e n e r a l medium of i n s t r u c t i o n .  secondary  s c h o o l s i n u s i n g Kuo Yu as  T h i r d l y , when t h e A l l i a n c e c o n t e s t e d  i t s f i r s t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n i n 1955, i t s m a n i f e s t o pledged t h a t i t would " r e o r i e n t a t e e d u c a t i o n t o a Malayan o u t l o p k " and i t hastened  t o add  t h a t t h e A l l i a n c e would " a l l o w v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s t h e i r normal 42 expansion".  I n o t h e r words, t h e emphasis was on t h e c o n t e n t of  e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r than making Malay t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l Malayan s c h o o l s . over t h e Report  Thus, t h e non-Malays had no r e a s o n t o be and t h e r e f o r e g r a n t e d i t unanimous s u p p o r t .  apprehensive The  87  Chinese were impressed t h a t t h e p o l i c y agreed upon d i d n o t c a l l f o r any immediate o r s u b s t a n t i a l c o n c e s s i o n s . d i d n o t appear t o be i n any danger. of methods f o r u n c e r t a i n g o a l s .  The Chinese s c h o o l system  But t h e Chinese m i s t o o k  Perhaps  flexibility  t h e ambiguous n a t u r e o f t h e  document was p a r t l y t h e reason f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . The t i m i n g o f t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e Report was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . At t h e time t h e Report was b e i n g p r e p a r e d and when i t was r e l e a s e d , n e g o t i a t i o n s were underway between t h e members of t h e A l l i a n c e r e g a r d i n g the A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n and t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r a c t .  The non-Malay  members o f t h e A l l i a n c e r i g h t l y f e l t t h a t a c o n c e s s i o n on t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n was indeed a s m a l l p r i c e t o pay f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n o f citizenship rights.  Thus, t h e MCA and t h e MIC e l i t e chose not t o r a i s e  any o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Razak Report when i t was r e l e a s e d . However, o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Report i n t e n s i f i e d when i t became c l e a r t h a t t h e Chinese medium s c h o o l s would have t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e LCE e x a m i n a t i o n s i n e i t h e r E n g l i s h o r Malay, n o t i n Chinese as had p r e v i o u s l y been done. pupils  The UCSTA i n p a r t i c u l a r argued t h a t s i n c e t h e i r  knew v e r y l i t t l e E n g l i s h o r Malay t h e y s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o t a k e  t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n i n t h e medium i n w h i c h they had been i n s t r u c t e d . They a l s o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e way t h e e x a m i n a t i o n was b e i n g  conducted  v i o l a t e d t h e A l l i a n c e e l e c t i o n promises made i n 1955. Thus, they were moved t o submit a memorandum o u t l i n i n g t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , b u t i t made no headway.  Next they t h r e a t e n e d a b o y c o t t o f a l l Chinese s t u d e n t s s i t t i n g  f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n and t h i s seemed t o work.  Dato Razak, who had e a r l i e r  88  been f i r m , r e l e n t e d and agreed t o a temporary postponement of t h e e x a m i n a t i o n and t o t h e use of Kuo Yu f o r another y e a r as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and e x a m i n a t i o n . T h i s unexpected s u c c e s s of t h e UCSTA was viewed as a v i c t o r y of a s o r t f o r i t s P r e s i d e n t Lim Lean Geok, whom Tan Siew S i n had 43 i d e n t i f i e d as " t h e most p o w e r f u l man  i n Malaya today . . . ."  Encouraged by t h i s Lim began c l a m o u r i n g f o r even more changes i n the E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1957.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he and h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n  r e j e c t e d t h e p a r t of t h e Report t h a t s t r e s s e d t h a t e v e n t u a l l y Malay would be t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l s c h o o l s .  They wanted t h e  Chinese language t o be t a u g h t f o r a t l e a s t a t h i r d of t h e t i m e and more i m p o r t a n t l y  t o have t h e LCE and t h e FMCE e x a m i n a t i o n s conducted i n  the language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r e v e r .  The mounting  dissatisfaction  and p r o t e s t s by a prominent and i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t o r of t h e Chinese community o b v i o u s l y alarmed t h e MCA  leaders.  I n an apparent attempt t o  make a d i s p l a y of o r g a n i z i n g t h e Chinese t o c o n s i d e r the MCA  r e v i v e d t h e C e n t r a l E d u c a t i o n Committee w h i c h had  dormant s i n c e t h e 1954 White Paper p r o t e s t s . MCA  t h e Razak R e p o r t , remained  I n F e b r u a r y of 1957, t h e  sponsored a c o n f e r e n c e of Chinese e d u c a t i o n i s t s of which the UCSTA  and t h e CSMC were t h e most prominent. Much t o t h e c o n s t e r n a t i o n  of the moderate MCA  l e a d e r s , the  Conference p r o m p t l y " r e j e c t e d " as " u n a c c e p t a b l e " t h e A l l i a n c e Government's e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y as a p p l i e d t o the Chinese s c h o o l s .  It  89  a l s o appointed  a d e l e g a t i o n on i t s own t o approach t h e Government t o 44  secure r e v i s i o n s t o t h e Razak p l a n . found i t s e l f  The MCA's l e a d e r s h i p s u d d e n l y  i n a s i t u a t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n and c o n f u s i o n .  On t h e  one hand, they were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e A l l i a n c e Government and wanted t o be counted as l o y a l Malayans s u p p o r t i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g themselves c l o s e l y w i t h t h e A l l i a n c e p o l i c y .  Y e t , o n t h e o t h e r hand,  the MGA's l e a d e r s h i p had t o a c t as t h e c u s t o d i a n o f Chinese language and c u l t u r e and c o n s e q u e n t l y to  safeguard  moved t o p r e s s u r e t h e Government t o a c t  t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e Chinese community.  However, t h e  moderate MCA l e a d e r s c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d a p o s s i b l e b r e a k i n c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e UMNO i f th'ey q u e s t i o n e d  the p r o v i s i o n s of the  Razak Report w h i c h was p a r t o f t h e A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n .  Thus, t h e MCA  l e a d e r s chose n o t t o p r e s s t h e i s s u e and adopted a n o n - c o m m i t t a l s t a n d . The MCA l e a d e r s h i p ' s d e c i s i o n n o t t o r o c k t h e A l l i a n c e boat c r e a t e d an i m p r e s s i o n among t h e more c h a u v i n i s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d members of t h e s o c i e t y t h a t t h e p a r t y was c a p i t u l a t i n g t o t h e more a g g r e s s i v e Malay l e a d e r s .  S i n c e t h e MCA c o u l d n o t push f o r a more p o s i t i v e s t a n d  i n safeguarding  Chinese i n t e r e s t s , many Chinese i n c r e a s i n g l y t u r n e d  to  t h e PPP and t h e Labour P a r t y t o a r t i c u l a t e i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o  Chinese i n t e r e s t s .  W i t h i n t h e MCA i t s e l f , t h e r e was i n c r e a s i n g 45  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h t h e 'Old Guards.'  This d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of a new f a c t i o n i n t h e MCA w h i c h , w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h e m e r i t of r e m a i n i n g  w i t h t h e A l l i a n c e , was a l s o  90  sympathetic  t o t h e p o l i t i c a l demands a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e more communal  elements of t h e Chinese  society.  S t a r t i n g i n mid-November, 1957, t h e r e were s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s i n Malay Chinese  s c h o o l s i n Penang, I p o h , K u a l a Lumpur and Seremban,  over t h e q u e s t i o n of the language t o be used i n t h e Government examinations.  The s t u d e n t s who took t o r i o t i n g were l a r g e l y backed  by t h e i r t e a c h e r s , o b j e c t i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t Malay s h o u l d be t h e medium f o r t h e Government sponsored even t h o s e educated  LCE e x a m i n a t i o n s  i n t h e Chinese medium s c h o o l s .  f o r a l l students, I n the face of  mounting v i o l e n c e , t h e Government c l o s e d a l l Chinese s c h o o l s f o r a 46 week b e g i n n i n g November 17, 1957.  The MCA as a  member o f t h e  A l l i a n c e was i n no p o s i t i o n e i t h e r t o condone t h e a c t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s o r t o t a k e up a d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r f a v o u r . t h e MCA l e a d e r s h i p chose t o weather t h e storm w i t h o u t doing  Thus, anything.  The n o n - a c t i o n o f t h e MCA c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h the way t h e PPP went t o t h e r e s c u e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d by t h e p o l i c e . D. R. Seenivasagam and h i s b r o t h e r S. P. Seenivasagam, t h e two l e a d e r s of t h e PPP, p e r s o n a l l y helped b a i l them out en masse i n Ipoh.  In 47  a d d i t i o n , t h e y promised  t o defend  them when f o r m a l charges were l a i d .  The prompt a c t i o n by t h e PPP i m m e d i a t e l y began t o pay d i v i d e n d s t o the p a r t y .  At t h i s time t h e r e was a v a c a n c y f o r t h e F e d e r a l  L e g i s l a t i v e seat i n t h e Ipoh-Menglembu c o n s t i t u e n c y , and t h e PPP promptly  contested i t .  The l e a d e r s of s e v e r a l p o w e r f u l Chinese 48 A s s o c i a t i o n s and G u i l d s swung i n f a v o u r of t h e PPP. On November  91  23, 1957, t h e PPP c a n d i d a t e , D. R. Seenivasagam s c o r e d a r e s o u n d i n g v i c t o r y when he d e f e a t e d Yap Y i n Fah (MCA).  T h i s v i c t o r y was  indeed  a sweet one f o r him, f o r o n l y two y e a r s e a r l i e r he had p o l l e d a mere 49 808 v o t e s and had l o s t h i s d e p o s i t .  The v i c t o r y of D.  R.  Seenivasagam gave him a n a t i o n a l p l a t f o r m to argue t h a t t h e MCA no l o n g e r be r e l i e d upon as t h e spokesman of Chinese  could  interests.  I n c r e a s i n g l y h i s speeches and deeds were g i v e n f r o n t page coverage i n t h e Chinese p r e s s and he became a s o r t of n a t i o n a l hero f o r the Chinese. A l l t h e s e developments p r o f o u n d l y d i s t u r b e d t h e MCA l e a d e r s . The e v e n t s i n Ipoh d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g ness among the younger Chinese-educated to do something  members.  restless-  They were determined  to a r r e s t the s a g g i n g support f o r t h e MCA.  Thus,  t h e r e was a c o a l e s c i n g of v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups such as UCSTA, t h e CSMC, t h e F e d e r a t i o n G u i l d and A s s o c i a t i o n , a group of young v a g u e l y s o c i a l i s t o r i e n t e d MCA  members, and o t h e r s .  Whip, Dr. Lim Chong Eu, who  They chose t h e A l l i a n c e  had by then d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f by  c o u n t e r i n g most of D. R. Seenivasagam's c r i t i c i s m , as t h e i r l e a d e r . The  ' c o a l i t i o n ' soon c h a l l e n g e d the incumbent Tan Cheng Lock and h i s  group f o r t h e l e a d e r s h i p of the MCA. t h a t they were determined the Chinese.""^  In the process they a l s o d e c l a r e d  " t o p r o t e c t more s t r o n g l y t h e i n t e r e s t s o f  T h i s o n l y h e l p e d t o a l a r m the moderate Malay l e a d e r s .  N e i t h e r t h e i r support f o r t h e incumbent MCA  l e a d e r nor a warning t h a t  " A l l i a n c e u n i t y depends on the type o f l e a d e r s [of. the MCA/  who  took  92  office,"  was a b l e t o p r e v e n t t h e d e f e a t o f Tan Cheng Lock and h i s  faction.  The Young Turks under Dr. Lim's l e a d e r s h i p c a p t u r e d almost  a l l t h e major p o s t s and Dr. L i m h i m s e l f was e l e c t e d as t h e new P r e s i d e n t i n March, 1958. I n one o f h i s f i r s t p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s Dr. L i m d e c l a r e d : we want e q u a l i t y i n t h i s c o u n t r y .  "First,  S e c o n d l y , we a r e f o r an a s s u r a n c e 52  of our way o f l i f e , our language and our s c h o o l s . "  He a l s o began  c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n over t h e problems o f Chinese e d u c a t i o n .  F u r t h e r m o r e , he was a b l e t o c o n v i n c e Dato  Razak,  w i t h whom he had c l o s e r a p p o r t , t o head a committee t o reexamine t h e Razak Report i n 1959. However c a u t i o u s , t h e s t e p - b y - s t e p approach was n o t t o the l i k i n g o f t h e UCSTA, and was s u b j e c t e d t o r i d i c u l e by t h e PPP members as w e l l as from t h e members of t h e O l d Guards. I n p a r t i c u l a r , Tan Siew S i n and Ong Yoke L i n were the'most  effective  i n p r e s s u r i n g Dr. L i m t o t a k e a more d e f i n i t e s t a n d over t h e e d u c a t i o n and language  issue.  I n v i e w o f a l l t h e s e p r e s s u r e s , t h e MCA was moved i n t o p o s i t i v e action.  Without w a i t i n g f o r t h e 1959 e l e c t i o n , a f t e r w h i c h t h e Razak  Report would be r e v i e w e d , t h e MCA c a l l e d f o r a n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e on 54 Chinese e d u c a t i o n .  The meeting was a t t e n d e d by about a thousand  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e v a r i o u s g u i l d s and a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e members of t h e UCSTA and t h e CSMC  A c a l l was made a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e f o r a f a i r  and e q u i t a b l e d e a l f o r Chinese e d u c a t i o n . W h i l e a g r e e i n g t h a t  compulsory  t e a c h i n g o f Malay as a s u b j e c t i n a l l v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s was commendable,  93  t h e meeting l i s t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g demands: a.  t h a t t h e mother tongue s h o u l d be t h e main medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the v e r n a c u l a r schools,  b.  t h a t the medium of e x a m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be same as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  c.  t h a t the r e n u m e r a t i o n f o r Chinese s c h o o l t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be on par w i t h o t h e r s ,  d.  t h a t b u d g e t i n g s h o u l d g i v e a f a i r share t o the Chinese s c h o o l s ,  e.  t h a t the Government s h o u l d i n c r e a s e the e x i s t i n g g r a n t t o t h e Chinese s c h o o l s by 100 per cent.55  the  Dr. L i m , a p p a r e n t l y r e a l i s i n g the t h r e a t t o t h e harmonious r e l a t i o n s between UMNO and the MCA  posed by the c o n f e r e n c e , c a u t i o n e d t h e  members t o broaden t h e i r v i e w and urged them t h a t " a l l t h o s e  conference  interested 56  i n Chinese e d u c a t i o n keep i n mind t h e problems of o t h e r communities." But b e f o r e h i s p l e a s of c a u t i o n c o u l d have any e f f e c t on the UCSTA, t h e M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , Mohd. K h i r J o h a r i , i n an attempt tough w i t h the Chinese  t o get  school teachers, issued a d i r e c t i v e that  Chinese  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r t r a i n i n g o r e x p e r i e n c e , must s i t f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n  ( e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e LCE)  i n t h e Malay language i n  o r d e r t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e proposed U n i f i e d  Teaching  Scheme. The UCSTA and i t s 7,000 s t r o n g members were now great apprehension.  I n an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e l e g a t e s c o n f e r e n c e ,  decided to boycott the examinations. i s s u e on t h e MCA,  i n a s t a t e of they  I n an apparent move t o f o r c e t h e  t h e y c a l l e d on t h e p a r t y t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o t h e  94  A l l i a n c e E l e c t i o n M a n i f e s t o t h e i r demands c o n c e r n i n g Chinese e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t e x a m i n a t i o n s be g i v e n i n the  Chinese  58 language.  I n a d d i t i o n , Lim Lean Geok and Chin Chee Meow, t h e CSMC  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , p r e s e n t e d Dr. Lim w i t h an u l t i m a t u m t h a t o n l y " i f t h e i r demands were i n c l u d e d i n the A l l i a n c e M a n i f e s t o , . . . would t h e y 59 upon the Chinese i n t h e c o u n t r y t o v o t e f o r t h e A l l i a n c e . " apparent move t o show t h e UCSTA and the CSMC t h a t t h e MCA approached  call  I n an had i n f a c t  the Tunku w i t h a s i m i l a r demand, t h e p a r t y ' s P u b l i c i t y  Chairman Yung Pung How made p u b l i c a c o n f i d e n t i a l l e t t e r dated June 24, 1958, from Dr. Lim t o t h e Tunku which'had remained unanswered. the l e t t e r Dr. Lim, among o t h e r t h i n g s , had asked t h a t "The  In  Alliance  manifesto should i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y t h a t the p a r t y intends to review i n g e n e r a l t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of i t s e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y i n the l i g h t of e x p e r i e n c e s over t h e p a s t two y e a r s . T h i s l e t t e r was f o l l o w e d by a statement by Yung Pung How t h a t : I f we do n o t succeed i n g e t t i n g what we t h i n k i s f a i r t h e MCA G e n e r a l Committee w i l l d e c i d e on J u l y 12, whether we f i g h t under t h e A l l i a n c e banner or on our own . . . . The MCA w i l l stand a b s o l u t e l y f i r m on the i s s u e of Chinese e d u c a t i o n and t h e a l l o c a t i o n of s e a t s f o r t h e MCA . . . .61 The Tunku was t h e u p s t a r t MCA  i n f u r i a t e d by t h e imprudent  a c t i o n , and f e l t t h a t  l e a d e r had breached mutual t r u s t and l o y a l t y .  He  therefore r e p l i e d i n a scathing l e t t e r thus: I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t your i n t e n t i o n i s t o break from t h e A l l i a n c e and i t o f f e r s me and o t h e r s i n t h e A l l i a n c e no room f o r d i s c u s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as  95  you have made t h e terms of your demands p u b l i c and u n e q u i v o c a l . . . . U n d e t e r r e d , we w i l l f i g h t t h e e l e c t i o n s as t h e A l l i a n c e w i t h t h e MIC and t h o s e members o f t h e MCA, who do n o t support your s t a n d and b e l i e v e i n t h e honest i n t e n t i o n s and i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e A l l i a n c e P a r t y . 6 2 Dr. L i m i m m e d i a t e l y r e a c t e d t o t h i s move by a p p r o a c h i n g t h e Tunku t o make amends, b u t t h e Tunku was determined t o d e a l w i t h t h e b r e a c h o f contract.  F o l l o w i n g an Emergency UMNO G e n e r a l Assembly meeting on  J u l y 12, t o d i s c u s s t h e c r i s i s , t h e Tunku l a i d down h i s c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e a d m i t t i n g t h e MCA.  He f e l t , "We cannot end t h i s c r i s i s i f £5r.  Lim  7  does n o t withdraw t h e t h r e a t e n i n g l e t t e r and e x p e l t h o s e i r r e s p o n s i b l e 63 members who c r e a t e d t h e c r i s i s . "  Dr. L i m then t o o k t h e s e terms  to t h e Emergency meeting o f t h e MCA C e n t r a l Working reiterated  Committee.  He  that: I t i s n o t l i k e l y we w i l l be a l l o c a t e d 32 s e a t s . . . / t h e e d u c a t i o n / c l a u s e w i l l n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a n i f e s t o . The Government w i l l implement i t by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i r e c t i v e a s soon as p o s s i b l e . 6 4  Dr. L i m a l s o f e l t t h e shortcoming o f t h e MCA d u r i n g t h e J u l y was t h e l a c k o f u n i t y among t h e members o f t h e MCA.  crisis  " I f today t h e 65  MCA had s o l i d l y u n i t e d , t h e problem would be v e r y much e a s i e r . " The MCA C e n t r a l Working  Committee conceded  t o t h e terms put f o r w a r d  66 by t h e Tunku by a v o t e o f 89 t o 60.  Following this v i r t u a l  s u r r e n d e r and t h e d e f e a t o f t h e 'ultra-communal flood  f a c t i o n ' t h e r e was a  o f r e s i g n a t i o n s from t h e r a n k and f i l e o f t h e MCA.  Yong Pung  How, t h e P u b l i c i t y Chairman, Too Joon H i n g , t h e S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l , Chin See Y i n and S. M. Yong, among o t h e r s t e n d e r e d r e s i g n a t i o n s .  In  96  d i s g u s t over t h e manner i n w h i c h MCA had c a p i t u l a t e d t o t h e Tunku, Yong Pung How suggested  t h a t t h e "MCA had o u t l i v e d i t s u s e f u l n e s s and  i s no l o n g e r a b l e t o c a r r y o u t even t h e main o b j e c t s f o r w h i c h i t „67 was  formed.  The p o s i t i o n o f D r . L i m was now tenuous e s p e c i a l l y w i t h  t h e resurgence  o f t h e O l d Guards under t h e s t e w a r d s h i p  and Ong Yoke L i n .  o f Tari Siew S i n  I n c r e a s i n g l y he was i s o l a t e d from t h e t h e mainstream  of MCA-UMNO l i a i s o n .  To make m a t t e r s  even worse, h i s name was  c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from t h e l i s t o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e f o r t h c o m i n g elections.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s Dr. Lim tendered  P r e s i d e n t and l e f t f o r m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t  h i s r e s i g n a t i o n as MCA  i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom.  Dr. Cheah Toon Lok, a c l o s e f r i e n d o f t h e Tunku, was now chosen as t h e i n t e r i m P r e s i d e n t o f t h e MCA.  W i t h o u t doubt t h e c r i s i s  enhanced t h e  s t a t u s o f t h e Tunku, and o p p o s i t i o n t o him was t h o r o u g h l y The A l l i a n c e P a r t y machinery became more coherent ever b e f o r e .  discredited.  and c e n t r a l i z e d  than  When t h e e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were t a b u l a t e d , i t was  apparent t h a t t h e MCA was t h e h a r d e s t h i t as a r e s u l t o f t h e J u l y crisis.  Of t h e 31 s e a t s i t c o n t e s t e d i t won o n l y 19. On t h e o t h e r  hand, t h e PPP and t h e S o c i a l i s t F r o n t w h i c h had championed t h e Chinese e d u c a t i o n i s s u e were a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s e a t s i n t h e «P a r lii•a m e n t*. .  6  8  A f t e r t h e 1959 e l e c t i o n , t h e MCA's c l a i m o f b e i n g t h e o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e C h i n e s e community was t h o r o u g h l y The p o s i t i o n of UMNO was f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d .  shattered.  I t a l s o became apparent  t h a t t h e MCA and t h e MIC would now have t o r e l y on t h e benevolence o f  97  t h e UMNO t o ensure t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e Government. S i n c e t h e UMNO was t h e c u s t o d i a n o f Malay i n t e r e s t s i t was now a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e them i n a more f o r c e f u l manner and t h e r e b y a s s u r e a p r i m a c y o f Malay i n t e r e s t s .  T h i s p r i m a c y o f M a l a y i n t e r e s t i n t h e Government  was a l l t h e more apparent w i t h t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e Rahman T a l i b Report. Even though t h e r e was g r a s s r o o t s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over t h e p r o v i s i o n t o end Government a s s i s t a n c e t o C h i n e s e medium secondary s c h o o l s , t h e i n t e r i m MCA P r e s i d e n t d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was "one o f t h e b e s t r e p o r t s t o 69  come out o f t h e Government . . . ."  Once a g a i n t h e UCSTA and t h e  CSMC p r o t e s t e d t h e apparent a n t i - C h i n e s e s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Rahman T a l i b r e p o r t and s u b m i t t e d disagreements.  a memorandum o u t l i n i n g  They a l s o o r g a n i z e d  a p r o t e s t meeting t o which t h e  Chinese G u i l d s , A s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e MCA were i n v i t e d . was n o t prepared Therefore  their  B u t t h e MCA  t o be p u t i n an e m b a r r a s s i n g p o s i t i o n once a g a i n .  t h e t o p e c h e l o n o f t h e MCA d e c i d e d n o t t o a t t e n d t h e m e e t i n g .  I n p a r t i c u l a r , Tan Siew S i n argued t h a t t h e MCA c o u l d n o t support the meeting because " t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t o f t h e two b o d i e s /JJCSTA and CSMC7 was t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f C h i n e s e a s t h e o f f i c i a l language."  He  r e i t e r a t e d h i s p a r t y ' s p o s i t i o n by s t r e s s i n g t h a t t h e MCA's " p o s i t i o n would be p r e j u d i c e d i f we were t o j o i n t h e m . " ^  The UCSTA and t h e  CSMC c o n t i n u e d t h e i r p r o t e s t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e MCA's l a c k o f endorsement f o r t h e i r s t a n d . support  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they were a b l e t o get  from t h e PPP and t h e S o c i a l i s t F r o n t .  B u t t h e p r o t e s t s came  t o an abrupt end when L i m Lean Geok's l i c e n s e t o t e a c h was w i t h d r a w n .  98  To make m a t t e r s even more d i f f i c u l t of C i t i z e n s h i p i s s u e d a  f o r him, t h e R e g i s t r a r G e n e r a l  n o t i c e on August 12, 1961, a n n u l l i n g h i s  c i t i z e n s h i p because he had "shown h i m s e l f by a c t and speech t o be d i s l o y a l or d i s a f f e c t e d t o t h e F e d e r a t i o n  o f Malaya."^"'"  Following  t h i s , i n O c t o b e r , 1961, t h e Rahman T a l i b Report was passed w i t h unanimous a p p r o v a l  on t h e p a r t o f t h e A l l i a n c e members but w i t h non-  Malay o p p o s i t i o n members d i s s e n t i n g .  Aftermath The  Rahman T a l i b Report pushed t h e p r o c e s s o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  and n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s e v e r a l s t e p s f u r t h e r and r e a f f i r m e d t h e b a s i c constitutional contract.  The C h i n e s e secondary s c h o o l s now had no  c h o i c e but t o comply w i t h Government d i r e c t i v e s o r f a c e d e r e g i s t r a t i o n . Many were f o r c e d t o c o n v e r t  t o an English-medium as those proved t o  be more p l a t a b l e than t o c o n v e r t  t o a Malay-medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  A l s o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e Rahman T a l i b Report was s u f f i c i e n t l y ambiguous i n n o t s t i p u l a t i n g how much E n g l i s h must be used i n t h e Chinese s c h o o l s c h o o s i n g i t as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Many schools continued  t o u s e t h e C h i n e s e language as much as p o s s i b l e .  This s i t u a t i o n continued came i n t o e f f e c t .  u n t i l 1970 when t h e new e d u c a t i o n  T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  policy  i n d e t a i l i n the next  chapter. Many o f t h e d e f e c t o r s from t h e MCA s u b s e q u e n t l y stood as  99  independent c a n d i d a t e s or j o i n e d t h e PPP Joon H i n g , f o r example, was  or t h e Labour P a r t y .  a b l e t o win a P a r l i a m e n t a r y  seat i n a  b y - e l e c t i o n p u r e l y on the i s s u e of the C h i n e s e language and H i s s u c c e s s was f r i e n d s h i p was a new 1962.  education.  f o l l o w e d by t h e r e t u r n of Dr. Lim from B r i t a i n , r e v i v e d , and  their  t h i s u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o the f o r m a t i o n  p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , the U n i t e d D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y The UDP  Too  of  (UDP), i n A p r i l ,  s t a t e d as i t s p r i n c i p l e " t o f i g h t f o r t h e r i g h t s of  non-Malays, e s p e c i a l l y e d u c a t i o n  based on a more r e a s o n a b l e p o l i c y  72 than t h e Razak R e p o r t . "  As f o r t h e MCA,  t o r a i s e t h e i s s u e i n p u b l i c any more. the A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n was  sacrosanct.  i t s l e a d e r s chose not  Perhaps the l e a d e r s f e l t  that  Of c o u r s e , t h e r e were r u m b l i n g s  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n from w i t h i n t h e rank and  f i l e , but t h e s e never  reached the i n t e n s i t y of t h e J u l y C r i s i s of 1959. c h o o s i n g not t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e language and  W i t h the  education  MCA  issues f u r t h e r ,  the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s adopted them as t h e l e a d i n g p l a t f o r m  planks.  Conclusion  The  language q u e s t i o n and  the r e l a t e d i s s u e of the medium of  i n s t r u c t i o n i n Malayan s c h o o l s p r o f o u n d l y inter-communal c o o p e r a t i o n  t e s t e d the v i a b i l i t y  w i t h i n the A l l i a n c e .  I t was  a  serious  i s s u e because i t l e d t o t h e r e s i g n a t i o n of a l a r g e number of communal' elements from the MCA. out of the c r i s i s , t h e MCA  W h i l e t h e UMNO emerged  of  'ultra-  stronger  and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the MIC  declined  i n t h e i r s t a t u r e as the s o l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of non-Malay i n t e r e s t . A l s o , the teacher's  u n i o n emerged as an i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l  force  100  as a r e s u l t of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n q u e s t i o n . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t b o t h t h e Malay and C h i n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were important  i n e n s u r i n g t h e e l e c t o r a l success of t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s ,  n o t a b l y t h e PMIP, t h e PPP and t h e Labour P a r t y , because these p a r t i e s were more ready t o champion t h e i s s u e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the FMSTA, t h e UCSTA and t h e CSMC r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The Rahman T a l i b  Report by no means ended t h e c o n t r o v e r s y over t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , many o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e r e p o r t caused even more d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r o t e s t s e s p e c i a l l y from t h e non-Malay. The r e p e r c u s s i o n s of t h e r e p o r t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t h e t h e next chapter.  101  Notes 1.  F r a n c i s G. C a r n e l l , "The Malayan E l e c t i o n s , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s V o l . X X V I I I (December, 1955), pp. 315-350.  2.  R. S. M i l n e , Government and P o l i t i c s i n M a l a y s i a . Houghton M i f f l i n , 1967, p. 87.  3.  Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , Chapter 12; R. S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, P o l i t i c s and Government i n M a l a y s i a , Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1978, pp. 36-42.  4.  Mohamed S u f f i a n b. Hashim, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n of M a l a y s i a . K u a l a Lumpur: J a b a t a n Chetak K e r a j a a n , 1972, Chapter 16.  5.  R. S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, op_. c i t . , p.  6.  F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , Report o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Committee, 1956. K u a l a Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r s , 1956, p. 1, as c i t e d i n K. J . Ratnam, Communalism and the P o l i t i c a l Process i n Malaya, Singapore: U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya P r e s s , 1965, p. 127.  7.  P a u l Chang Ming Phang, E d u c a t i o n a l Development i n a P l u r a l S o c i e t y : A M a l a y s i a n Case Study , S i n g a p o r e : Academia P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1973, p. 4TTI  8.  Ibid.  9.  Razak R e p o r t ,  10.  I b i d . , p.  4.  11.  I b i d . , p.  128.  12.  I b i d . , pp.  13.  I b i d . , p.  14.  Ibid.  15.  Ibid.  16.  Ibid.  p.  9-10. 12  Boston:  39.  As c i t e d i n K. J . Ratnam, op. c i t . , p.  127.  102  17.  F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , Report o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Review Committee, ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Rahman T a l i b Report) K u a l a Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r s , 1960, p a r a s . 57 and 61,as c i t e d i n B. Simandjuntak, op_. c i t . , p. 203.  18.  Rahman T a l i b R e p o r t , p. 3, as c i t e d i n von V o r y s , op_. c i t .  19.  Rahman T a l i b R e p o r t , pp. 29-31, a s c i t e d i n R. K. V a s i l , op. c i t . , p. 135.  20.  Ibid.  21.  A b d u l Rahman b i n T a l i b , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n a Radio B r o a d c a s t , October 2 3 , 1961, Quoted from M i n i s t r y of I n f o r m a t i o n B o o k l e t , (n.d.) p. 5.  22.  D a n i e l E. Moore, "The U n i t e d M a l a y s N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e 1959 Malayan E l e c t i o n s : A Study o f a P o l i t i c a l P a r t y i n A c t i o n i n a Newly Independent S o c i e t y , " Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1960. p. 95 f f .  23.  T. R. F e n n e l , p. 402.  24.  Chan Heng Chee, cip_. c i t . , p. 68.  25.  Malay M a i l , November 8, 1954, as c i t e d i n T. R. F e n n e l , op_. c i t . , p. 407.  26.  T. R. F e n n e l , op_. c i t . , pp. 414-415.  27.  Malay M a i l , August 1 1 , 1955, as c i t e d i n T. R. F e n n e l , p. 422.  28. 29.  K. J . Ratnam, op_. c i t . , p. 132. A b d u l Rahman b. T a l i b , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , Radio B r o a d c a s t , p. 1.  30.  Leo Ah Bang, " E l i t e Cohesion i n M a l a y s i a : A Study o f A l l i a n c e L e a d e r s h i p , " M.S.Sc. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S i n g a p o r e , 1972.  31.  Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , p. 273 f f .  32.  C y n t h i a H. E n l o e , " I s s u e s and I n t e g r a t i o n i n M a l a y s i a , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . X L I , No. 3 ( F a l l 1968), p. 375 f f .  103  33.  F e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y a , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 16 May, 1956, C o l . 1144-1205 and 1193, as c i t e d i n B. Simandjuntak, p. 201.  34.  Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , p.  35.  Utusan M e l a y u , A p r i l 22, 1957, and Malay M a i l , A p r i l 22, as c i t e d i n T. R. F e n n e l , p. 484.  36.  Margaret R o f f , "The P o l i t i c s of Language i n M a l a y a , " A s i a n Survey,  196. 1957,  V o l . V I I , No. 5(May 1967), p. 321. 37.  Malay M a i l , May 27, 1957, as c i t e d i n T. R. F e n n e l , p. 486.  38.  S t r a i t s Times, F e b r u a r y 3, 1958, and March 31, 1958.  39.  Malay M a i l ,  40.  D a n i e l E. Moore, c>p_. c i t . , p. 97.  41. 42.  I b i d . , p. 95 f f . Margaret R o f f , "The Malayan C h i n e s e A s s o c i a t i o n , 1948-1965," J o u r n a l of S o u t h e a s t A s i a n H i s t o r y , V o l . 6, No. 2 (1965) p. 50.  43.  Frank H. H. K i n g , op_. c i t . , p. 40.  44.  S t r a i t s Times, F e b r u a r y 4, 1957, and F e b r u a r y 25,  45.  J . D. Vaughan, The Manner and Customs of t h e Chinese of t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s . K u a l a Lumpur: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. passim.  46.  S t r a i t s Times,  47.  R. K. V a s i l , op_. c i t . , p. 232.  48.  I b i d . , p. 233.  49.  I b i d . , p. 232.  50.  S t r a i t s Times, March 3,  51.  I b i d . , March 22,  May  12, 1958, as c i t e d i n D. E. Moore, p. 97.  November 18,  1958.  1958.  1957.  1957.  104  52.  L b i s L , December 1, 1958.  53.  D a n i e l E. Moore, op. c i t . , p. 235.  54.  S t r a i t s Times. March 24, 1958.  55.  I b i d . . A p r i l 27, 1959.  56.  Malay M a i l . A p r i l 28, 1959.  57.  S i n g a p o r e S t a n d a r d . June 2, 1959, as c i t e d i n D a n i e l E.. Moore, op. c i t . , p. 2 06.  58.  S t r a i t s Times. J u l y 6, 1959.  59.  D a n i e l E. Moore, op_. c i t . , p. 207.  60.  S t r a i t s Times, J u l y 10, 1959.  61.  Ibid.  62.  I b i d . , J u l y 11, 1959.  63.  I b i d . , J u l y 13, 1959.  64.  Ibid.  65.  I b i d . , J u l y 14, 1959.  66.  Ibid.  67. 68.  Ibid. T.\ ,E. S m i t h , "The Malayan G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n o f 1959," P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . 33, No. 1, (March 1960), p. 46.  69.  S t r a i t s Times, August 6, 1960.  70.  Quoted from t h e M i n u t e s of t h e MCA C e n t r a l Working Committee, November 4, 1960, as c i t e d i n Chan Heng Chee, p. 71.  71.  Chan Heng Chee, op_. £it•, p. 141; R. K. V a s i l , op. £it. , p. 243.  72.  Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , p. 247.  105 CHAPTER V  THE ALLIANCE GOVERNMENT, 1962-1971 T h i s p e r i o d was a t u r b u l e n t one i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f M a l a y s i a . A r a p i d s e r i e s of events profoundly the n a t i o n .  I n 1963, t h e F e d e r a t i o n was e n l a r g e d  Borneo T e r r i t o r i e s and Singapore."'" e x p e l l e d from t h e F e d e r a t i o n . occurred  a f f e c t e d the f u t u r e p o l i t i c s of to include the  Two y e a r s l a t e r S i n g a p o r e was  B r i e f but t r a u m a t i c r a c i a l  riots  i n K u a l a Lumpur f o l l o w i n g t h e May 1969 e l e c t i o n s .  Then  f o l l o w e d twenty months o f emergency r u l e by t h e N a t i o n a l O p e r a t i o n s C o u n c i l (NOC).  Parliament  was reconvened under a new Prime M i n i s t e r  i n 1971, and i s s u e s t h a t had caused c o n t r o v e r s i e s were removed from t h e r e a l m o f p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n by a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment i n t h e same y e a r . important  Education  and t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n q u e s t i o n s  were  i s s u e s i n t e r w o v e n i n t h e f a b r i c o f t h e p o l i t i c s of t h i s p e r i o d ,  e s p e c i a l l y during the l a t t e r h a l f of the p e r i o d . over t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e Rahman T a l i b R e p o r t .  There- were p r o t e s t s But t h i s t i m e  t h e MCA was c a r e f u l n o t t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h any such p r o t e s t s .  The  i s s u e was t h e r e f o r e t a k e n o v e r and a m p l i f i e d by t h e non-Malay o p p o s i tion parties.  The Government a l s o u n d e r t o o k c e r t a i n measures t o l e s s e n  the a m b i g u i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e e d u c a t i o n  system and u l t i m a t e l y ended  i t s ambivalence w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n Malaysian  schools.  106  Major P o l i t i c a l  Events  I n P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a , the A l l i a n c e Government, whose term of o f f i c e d i d not e x p i r e u n t i l August 1964, F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s on A p r i l 2 5 t h , 1964.  decided  t o h o l d s t a t e and  The o v e r r i d i n g i s s u e of  the 2  e l e c t i o n was  Indonesia's  c o n f r o n t a t i o n over the f o r m a t i o n of M a l a y s i a .  The e l e c t i o n f o r c e d t h e a n t i - M a l a y s i a o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , n o t a b l y  the  Pan Malayan I s l a m i c P a r t y (PMIP), the S o c i a l i s t F r o n t , the U n i t e d D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (UDP)  and the P e o p l e ' s P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y , t o choose  between s u p p o r t i n g M a l a y s i a as a f a i t a c c o m p l i or g i v i n g the appearance of r e n d e r i n g support  to M a l a y s i a ' s  development o f the e l e c t i o n was  f o r e i g n aggressor.  A surprising  the e n t r y of the P e o p l e ' s A c t i o n P a r t y  (PAP), c a s t i n g i t s e l f i n the mould of a " f r i e n d , l o y a l o p p o s i t i o n  and  3 critic." The e l e c t i o n brought a r e s o u n d i n g Government,for i t won the PAP  80 of 104  v i c t o r y f o r the A l l i a n c e  seats contested.  i n t o t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e p e n i n s u l a had  At f i r s t i t s l e a d e r s , such as Lee Kuan Yew, f a r b e t t e r p a r t n e r s than the MCA.  However, the e n t r y of  important r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  p o r t r a y e d t h e m s e l v e s as  N e x t , t h e PAP  coined a r a t h e r  c a t c h y p h r a s e ' M a l a y s i a n M a l a y s i a ' b a s i c a l l y meaning r a c i a l e q u a l i t y and  i n the p r o c e s s  began c h a l l e n g i n g the concept of t h e  T h i s c r e a t e d a whole new  p e r s p e c t i v e and  'bargain'.  s t i r r e d up o l d f e a r s .  The UMNO l e a d e r s were q u i c k t o sense the dangers of  reopening  107  o l d wounds and d w e l l i n g on i s s u e s t h a t had seemingly been s o l v e d once and f o r a l l w i t h t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r a c t .  Thus UMNO spurned  the PAP's advances and a t t h e same t i m e t r i e d t o shore up t h e w i t h some c o n c e s s i o n s ,  but w i t h l i m i t e d s u c c e s s .  Once t h e PAP  MCA was  r e p u d i a t e d by t h e Tunku, t h e PAP r e s o r t e d t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , and formed a u n i t e d o p p o s i t i o n f r o n t w i t h t h e Sarawak U n i t e d P e o p l e ' s P a r t y , t h e UDP,  t h e PPP, and Machinda of Sarawak.  With the  e x c e p t i o n of t h e Machinda P a r t y , a l l were known f o r t h e i r preponderant Chinese c o m p o s i t i o n .  By inid-1965 what began as a f r i e n d l y  soon degenerated i n t o an u n d i s g u i s e d  contest  e f f o r t t o m o b i l i z e the  non-Malays  w i t h a promise of e q u a l i t y and an end t o "Malay M a l a y s i a " , and a 4  b i d t o s e i z e t h e r e i n s of the government from t h e A l l i a n c e .  On  May 27, 1965, Lee Kuan Yew moved an amendment f o l l o w i n g t h e Yangd i - P e r t u a n Agong's speech f o r n o t i n c l u d i n g the ' M a l a y s i a n matter.  And t h a t , i n Tunku's own words, was t h e " s t r a w t h a t broke t h e  camel's back."^  On J u l y 25, a d e c i s i o n t o e x p e l S i n g a p o r e from  M a l a y s i a was made by Tunku w h i l e c o n v a l e s c i n g operation.^  i n London a f t e r an  Then on August 9, 1965, t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n Amendment B i l l  e x p e l l i n g S i n g a p o r e was passed u n a n i m o u s l y . ^ r a i s e d by t h e PAP c o n t i n u e d from i t s Malayan wing.  However, t h e i s s u e s  under t h e banner of a new p a r t y  Rakyat M a l a y s i a  formed  T h i s p a r t y , w h i c h was named t h e D e m o c r a t i c  A c t i o n P a r t y (DAP), t o g e t h e r w i t h the PPP and newly formed  equality.  Malaysia'  (Gerakan) c o n t i n u e d  Gerakan  w i t h the b a s i c theme of r a c i a l  108  I n c r e a s i n g l y the non-Malay components o f t h e A l l i a n c e seemed u n a b l e t o defend themselves a g a i n s t t h e charge o f h a v i n g c a p i t u l a t e d t o the M a l a y s .  On the o t h e r hand, UMNO was s u b j e c t e d t o c r i t i c i s m  from t h e more communally o r i e n t e d ' u l t r a s ' .  The PMIP's a c c u s a t i o n s  t h a t the UMNO c o u l d no l o n g e r be r e l i e d upon t o advance Malay i n t e r e s t s f u r t h e r l e n t c r e d i b i l i t y t o t h e arguments o f the ' u l t r a s ' .  I n essence  t h e r e was a growing d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h the way the A l l i a n c e and a d e f i n i t e swing o f v o t e r sentiment the o f f i n g . May  operated,  away from t h e p a r t y was i n  The A l l i a n c e Government d e c l a r e d g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s f o r  10, 1969.  U n l i k e p r e v i o u s e l e c t i o n s , t h i s e l e c t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i -  sed by t h e absence o f any s i n g l e o v e r r i d i n g new p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . The A l l i a n c e chose t o s t a n d on the b a s i s o f i t s p a s t r e c o r d and t h i s c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h t h e O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s who r e s o r t e d t o a i r i n g 8 p e r e n n i a l communal i s s u e s .  The c o n t i n u o u s d w e l l i n g on the theme  of r a c i a l e q u a l i t y and o f h a v i n g been s h o r t changed by t h e A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n sent communal t e n s i o n s s o a r i n g . The e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were s h o c k i n g t o the A l l i a n c e P a r t y . I t s f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y s t r e n g t h was reduced t o 66 s e a t s , and i t 9  p o l l e d o n l y 48.5  percent of the popular vote.  The MCA was b a d l y  d e f e a t e d and won o n l y 13 o f t h e 33 s e a t s i t c o n t e s t e d .  I n the State  Assembly e l e c t i o n s , t h e l o s s e s were even more d r a s t i c .  The A l l i a n c e  once a g a i n l o s t K e l a n t a n t o the PMIP and t h i s time Penang t o the Gerakan.  I n Perak and S e l a n g o r , i t appeared i t c o u l d l o s e c o n t r o l ,  109  t h u s r a i s i n g t h e s p e c t r e o f a p o s s i b l e non-Malay M e n t e r i B e s a r ( C h i e f Minister). margin.  I n Kedah and Trengganu, t h e A l l i a n c e won by a reduced The O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , w i t h a s t r e n g t h e n e d  jubilant.  I n an atmosphere o f exuberance, t h e DAP and t h e Gerakan  held several 'victory processions'.  The Malays i n r e t a l i a t i o n  o r g a n i z e d a p r o c e s s i o n on t h e i r own.  R a c i a l v i o l e n c e broke out on  the n i g h t s of 13 and 14 May, ,1969. a c t i o n and p r o c l a i m e d  The Government t o o k immediate  a S t a t e o f Emergency.  Executive authority  n o r m a l l y e x e r c i s e d by t h e Cabinet was d e l e g a t e d Operations, (NOC).  p o s i t i o n , were  to the D i r e c t o r of  Tun Razak, who a l s o headed t h e N a t i o n a l O p e r a t i o n s  Council  10  The MCA a t f i r s t d e c l i n e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e government owing t o i t s r e j e c t i o n by t h e Chinese e l e c t o r a t e , but l a t e r was coaxed i n t o accepting m i n i s t e r i a l posts/without  p o r t f o l i o but w i t h 'Special  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ' d u r i n g t h e emergency.  S e v e r a l members of t h e ' u l t r a '  f a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e UMNO who attempted an ' i n t e r n a l coup' a g a i n s t t h e Tunku were e x p e l l e d o r sent abroad on 'study l e a v e ' . many of t h e i r demands were s u b s e q u e n t l y  Nonetheless,  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e government's  "New Economic P o l i c y " t o upgrade t h e M a l a y s , and a l s o i n t h e "new education p o l i c y " enunciated  j u s t two months a f t e r t h e r i o t s .  The Tunku i n an Independence Day b r o a d c a s t announced he would r e t i r e . M i n i s t e r soon a f t e r .  I n  e  a  on August 30, 1970,  He was r e p l a c e d by Tun Razak as Prime r  l  y  1 9 7 1 >  t  h  e  G o v e  rn ent m  i s s u e d a White  110 Paper e n t i t l e d Towards N a t i o n a l Harmony, w h i c h s t a t e d :  I f i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n s of the C o n s t i t u t i o n s e c t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e d e l i c a t e compromises among the major r a c e s - are a t t a c k e d . . . it w i l l c e r t a i n l y arouse f e a r s and emotions I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e s e v i t a l c l a u s e s must, i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , be p r o t e c t e d from the k i n d of debate t h a t q u e s t i o n s t h e v e r y p r i n c i p l e on w h i c h the n a t i o n was founded . . . . In order t o ensure t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s e s w i l l not be used t o arouse r a c i a l f e e l i n g s , i t i s proposed t h a t A r t i c l e 10 be amended t o g i v e power t o the P a r l i a m e n t t o pass laws p r o h i b i t i n g the q u e s t i o n i n g of any m a t t e r , r i g h t , s t a t u s , p o s i t i o n , p r i v i l e g e , s o v e r e i g n t y or p e r o g a t i v e e s t a b l i s h e d o r p r o t e c t e d by the P r o v i s i o n s of P a r t I I I ( p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o c i t i z e n s h i p ) ; A r t i c l e 152 (the N a t i o n a l language and the languages of o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s ) , A r t i c l e 153 ( s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n of t h e Malay and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r communities) or A r t i c l e 181 ( t h e S o v e r e i g n t y of t h e r u l e r s . Tun  Razak s t a t e d soon a f t e r : " I . hope t h e amendments w i l l be  approved, 12  o t h e r w i s e I r e g r e t we  cannot r e t u r n t o the p a r l i a m e n t a r y  democracy."  When t h e v o t e s were t a k e n on the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l (Amendment) B i l l ,  the  Gerakan, the PMIP, SUPP, SNAP and  the  Bill;  the A l l i a n c e voted i n favour  t h e o n l y o p p o s i t i o n t o i t came from the PPP  and  of  the DAP.  Thus,  the White P a p e r ' s proposed amendments t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n were passed 13 by a v o t e of 125 t o 17. Communal Demands and E d u c a t i o n Developments The E d u c a t i o n A c t , 1961, communally o r i e n t e d  ' u l t r a s ' i n the UMNO and o t h e r  a l i g n e d w i t h the p a r t y . and  to a l a r g e extent  s a t i s f i e d the more i n t e r e s t groups  However, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the non-Malays  i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e Chinese was  i n t e n s e and w i d e s p r e a d .  First,  Ill  many Chinese f e l t t h a t the A c t was  the t h i n edge o f the wedge d e s i g n e d  u n t i m a t e l y to f o r c e the e l i m i n a t i o n o f Chinese medium e d u c a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e was a g e n e r a l a p p r e h e n s i o n o v e r the manner i n which MCA  and the MIC had c a p i t u l a t e d  p r o c e s s were r e g a r d e d Malays.  the  to the UMNO o v e r the A c t , and i n the  as h a v i n g s o l d out non-Malay i n t e r e s t s t o the  The O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , on the o t h e r hand, c o n t i n u e d to demand  a b e t t e r d e a l , i n p a r t i c u l a r o v e r p r o v i s i o n s o f the e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . The Labour P a r t y , f o r example, had the s u p p o r t o f the Chinese-educated and i t o f t e n argued t h a t the A l l i a n c e Government was a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s t r o y the Chinese language.  The PPP i n the same manner argued  the A l l i a n c e Government, and e s p e c i a l l y the MCA  that  c o u l d no l o n g e r be  14 r e l i e d upon to s a f e g u a r d Chinese e d u c a t i o n .  The UDP  specifically  e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o v e r the Government's e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . f a c t , one o f t h e major p l a t f o r m p l a n k s o f the p a r t y was t h e r i g h t s o f non-Malays,  "to f i g h t f o r  e s p e c i a l l y i n e d u c a t i o n which s h o u l d be  on a more r e a s o n a b l e p o l i c y than the Razak Report.""'""' O p p o s i t i o n , i n u n i s o n , demanded a revamping  based  Thus, the  of the e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n  system and a f a i r d e a l f o r the Chinese medium s c h o o l s . e a r l i e r on, these developments  In  As  mentioned  were a r e s u l t o f the r a c i a l e q u a l i t y  theme  of the PAP i n i t s b r i e f i n t r u s i o n i n t o the p o l i t i c s o f the P e n i n s u l a . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , t h e s e i n c e s s a n t demands f o r e q u a l i t y  and  the q u e s t i o n i n g o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r a c t by the non-Malays s p a r k e d a mood o f m i l i t a n c y were i n c r e a s i n g l y  among the more communally i n c l i n e d M a l a y s .  alarmed over the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a  fundamental  They  112  realignment  of M a l a y s i a n p o l i t i c s .  I n response to the q u e s t i o n i n g  of t h e s t a t u s of t h e Malay language i n the s c h o o l system, t h i s group of m i l i t a n t Malays formed the B a r i s a n B e r t i n d a k Bahasa  Kebangsaan  (BBBK) o r t h e N a t i o n a l Language A c t i o n F r o n t , under the e r s t w h i l e Chairman of t h e Dewan Bahasa dan P u s t a k a , mid 1964.  Syed N a s i r b i n I s m a i l , i n  The BBBK had t h e s u p p o r t o f many UMNO members, A l l i a n c e  P a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s , Malay s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , t h e i r U n i o n , j o u r n a l i s t s University  and  students.  There was now an added impetus among Malay p o l i t i c i a n s i n t h e i r agitation  f o r speedier  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e c i s i o n t o make Malay  the s o l e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  I n c r e a s i n g l y , Syed N a s i r emerged as  the champion of the Malay language. should  He even proposed t h a t t h e Government  abandon English-medium i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h p r i m a r y s c h o o l s .  He c a l l e d on a l l c i t i z e n s to " a c c e p t the n a t i o n a l language wholeh e a r t e d l y as the language of t h e i r b i r t h p l a c e ;  and /jtc£7 show t h e i r  16 l o y a l t y and s i n c e r i t y . "  He was c a r e f u l and e f f e c t i v e i n a r t i c u l a t i n g  Malay communal o p i n i o n so t h a t i t was w i t h i n t h e bounds o f t h e constitutional helped  contract.  To a l a r g e e x t e n t Syed N a s i r ' s p r o t e s t s  only  to f u r t h e r r a i s e non-Malay a p p r e h e n s i o n s w i t h r e g a r d s t o the  language i s s u e i n the M a l a y s i a n  schools.  The MCA had a b r i e f r e s p i t e w i t h t h e e x p u l s i o n o f S i n g a p o r e from t h e F e d e r a t i o n .  But w i t h the assumption o f t h e r a c i a l e q u a l i t y  " M a l a y s i a n M a l a y s i a " theme by t h e DAP and o t h e r o p p o s i t i o n the MCA was once a g a i n i n a dilemma.  Added t o t h i s was  parties,  the r e v i v a l of  113  the  UCSTA and CSMC w h i c h b o t h began t o a c t i v e l y c o u r t the o p p o s i t i o n  p a r t i e s , t h e Chinese Chambers o f Commerce, and the G u i l d s and A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r s u p p o r t t o t h e i r cause.  Once a g a i n the MCA  leader-  s h i p chose to remain out o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y and be d i s c r e e t . n a t u r a l l y not enough t o s a t i s f y t h e UCSTA and t h e CSMC.  T h i s was  They showed  t h e i r d i s g u s t w i t h the MCA when i t sponsored an assembly t o p l e d g e s u p p o r t f o r the Tunku i n 1965, - about 400 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from 187 b o d i e s walked out a f t e r f a i l i n g to b r i n g about a d i s c u s s i o n on t h e Chinese language  issue.^  W i t h i n the MCA i t s e l f t h e r e was a growing element o f dissatisfaction. the  s o l e o f f i c i a l language f a s t a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s  increased. issue. for  W i t h the due date f o r t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f Malay as dissatisfaction  The Youth Wing o f the MCA soon became e m b r o i l e d o v e r the  I t spearheaded a movement u r g i n g the Government t o p r o v i d e  a w i d e r use o f the Chinese language, to make i t an o f f i c i a l  language and f o r more a s s i s t a n c e to Chinese e d u c a t i o n .  The MCA  Youth  Chairman, Lee San Choon, most n o t a b l y wanted "a more l i b e r a l s t a n d 18 on t h e C h i n e s e language e s p e c i a l l y as r e g a r d s e d u c a t i o n . "  But he  a l s o c a u t i o n e d the MCA Youth n o t t o i n s i s t on Chinese as an o f f i c i a l language, and when i t l o o k e d l i k e h i s c a u t i o n would not be heeded, he  t h r e a t e n e d t o r e s i g n i f h i s demands were not met. However, the MCA P r e s i d e n t , Tan Siew S i n , t r i e d t o be  discreet.  He warned t h a t i t would t a k e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o  make Chinese the o f f i c i a l language, and t h i s was i m p o s s i b l e .  He a l s o  114 argued t h a t i f the MCA "backs t h i s demand t h e r e w i l l be a head on c o l l i s i o n w i t h the UMNO and t h i s w i l l mean the end o f the A l l i a n c e . "  19  I n a d d i t i o n , the MCA's h i g h command took p a i n s t o d e a l w i t h s t r a g g l e r s such as the Youth V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and P r e s i d e n t o f the F e d e r a t i o n o f Chinese School Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , Sim Mow Yo.  He was l a t e r  20 expelled for "defying party leadership."  Likewise, a r e s o l u t i o n  from the Penang Branch o f the MCA c a l l e d f o r a c c e p t a n c e o f the Chinese 21 language " f o r o f f i c i a l and e x t e n s i v e use thoroughout the  country."  Thus, the MCA e x p e c t e d the UMNO t o l i k e w i s e m o b i l i z e and r e s t r a i n the Malay community and the ' u l t r a s ' Syed N a s i r n o n e t h e l e s s e a r l y November, 1966,  especially.  was a c t i v e i n h i s p r o t e s t s . I n  Syed N a s i r i s s u e d a 13 page c o n f i d e n t i a l  memorandum t o the Prime M i n i s t e r , the Deputy Prime M i n i s t e r , a l l C a b i n e t members, a l l M e n t e r i Besar ( C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ) and a l l members 22 o f the UMNO E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l .  I n the memorandum Syed N a s i r s t r e s s e d  t h a t "Malay must become the s o l e n a t i o n a l language w i t h no f u r t h e r concession  t o o t h e r communities."  I n a d d i t i o n , Syed N a s i r d e f i n e d t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s . decisive . . . . final"  They "must not be i n -  The language p o l i c y o f t h i s c o u n t r y i s one and  t o r e p l a c e E n g l i s h w i t h the N a t i o n a l Language as the s o l e  o f f i c i a l language i n t h i s c o u n t r y . o r i s s u e s on t h i s , and {the^J  There a r e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , problems 23  cannot be r a i s e d . . . ."  His  arguments gained a wide d e a l o f support among many young UMNO members, who  had not been p a r t y t o the o r i g i n a l A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n .  Dr. M a h a t h i r  In addition,  b i n Mohammad, a p e r s o n known f o r " s t r o n g Malay views on  115  constitutional contract,"  Dato Harun b i n H a j i I d r i s , t h e M e n t e r i  Besar o f S e l a n g o r , and Dato A b d u l Rahman b i n Yakub, M i n i s t e r o f Land and M i n e s , were a l l s y m p a t h e t i c to t h e main t h r u s t o f Syed N a s i r ' s argument.  Thus, i n view o f t h i s accumulated d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e top  e c h e l o n A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s h i p were f o r c e d t o weigh a l l t h e p o s s i b l e consqeuences b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a s u i t a b l e n a t i o n a l language p o l i c y . The N a t i o n a l Language B i l l was i n t r o d u c e d by t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , Tunku A b d u l Rahman, on F e b r u a r y 24, 196?.  I t s p r o v i s i o n s were v o t e d  upon and t h e b i l l was passed w i t h a r e s o u n d i n g 95 ayes a g a i n s t 11 26 nays.  The A c t f i r s t l y p r o v i d e d t h a t " t h e n a t i o n a l language s h a l l  be used f o r o f f i c i a l purposes . . . " o n and a f t e r September  1, 1967.  S e c t i o n 3 of the A c t affirmed that "Nothing i n t h i s A c t s h a l l a f f e c t the r i g h t of t h e F e d e r a l Government o r any S t a t e Government t o use any t r a n s l a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l documents o r communications i n the language o f any o t h e r community i n the F e d e r a t i o n f o r such purposes as may be deemed necessary i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . "  S e c t i o n 4, a l l o w e d the Yang d i -  P e r t u a n Agong t o " p e r m i t the c o n t i n u e d use of t h e E n g l i s h language f o r 27 such o f f i c i a l purposes as may be deemed f i t . " H i s M a j e s t y soon made an o r d e r p e r m i t t i n g t h e c o n t i n u e d use o f E n g l i s h " t r a i n i n g o r e x a m i n a t i o n where the approved c o u r s e o r t h e approved t e x t o f any s u b j e c t 28 is English."  The A c t i n e f f e c t d e c l a r e d Malay as t h e O f f i c i a l  Language and s a f e g u a r d e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h as t h e second language i n Malay-medium secondary s c h o o l s .  The A c t f u r t h e r guaranteed t h e  c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n o f the English-medium s c h o o l s f o r an a d d i t i o n a l period.  I n e s s e n c e , t h e A c t s e r v e d t o r e a f f i r m t h e p a r t of t h e A l l i a n c e  116  b a r g a i n on m a t t e r s o f language and e d u c a t i o n .  Nevertheless, following  the passage o f t h e A c t i n P a r l i a m e n t , t h e Government began t h e g r a d u a l p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e t e a c h i n g o f a r t s s u b j e c t s such as h i s t o r y , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , geography, and a r t s and c r a f t s i n 29 Malay. A f t e r t h e May 1 3 t h i n c i d e n t o f 1969, the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s was  c a r r i e d o u t w i t h more v i g o u r .  A 'new e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y ' was d e c l a r e d  by t h e new E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r , Dato Abdul Rahman b i n Yakub, i n J u l y , 1969.  T h i s p o l i c y e n u n c i a t e d two major changes i n t h e e d u c a t i o n system.  F i r s t , a l l i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e Standard  One c l a s s e s o f M a l a y s i a n  schools  (except d u r i n g E n g l i s h , Chinese and T a m i l language s e s s i o n s ) "would be 30 w h o l l y conducted  i n Malay."  Thence f o r w a r d c o n v e r s i o n would be made  s t a n d a r d by s t a n d a r d one y e a r a t a time. t h e U n i v e r s i t y would be e n t i r e l y i n Malay.  Thus by 1983 i n s t r u c t i o n i n Secondly, h i s t o r y , geography,  and c i v i c s would be taught i n Standard Four i n Malay.  T h i s would mean  t h a t o n l y mathematics and s c i e n c e would c o n t i n u e t o be taught i n E n g l i s h 31 i n Standard Four.  I n sum, t h e new p o l i c y adhered t o t h a t o f t h e  E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1961 and, a t t h e same t i m e , s e t t h e c o n v e r s i o n p r o c e s s moving and ended i n due course t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the English-medium p r i m a r y and secondary  schools. M o t i v e s and Aims o f P o l i c y Makers  By mid-1966 t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d by Syed N a s i r and h i s s u p p o r t e r s as w e l l as t h e i r Chinese c o u n t e r p a r t s were viewed w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f  117  a p p r e h e n s i o n by the moderate A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s h i p . l e a d e r s were not p r e p a r e d t o make any Malays but  f u r t h e r concession  they were a l s o concerned t h a t due  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  The moderate Malay to the  non-  to the e f f o r t s of Syed N a s i r  of Malay as the s o l e o f f i c i a l language would  be  32 perceived saw  as "a Malay communal v i c t o r y . "  The  a d i s t u r b i n g p r o s p e c t o f communal p a s s i o n s  i n f l a m e d and as a r e s u l t .  the p o s s i b i l i t y of the MCA The  Tunku i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r e being  unnecessarily  becoming even more v u l n e r a b l e  moderate A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s were c l e a r l y concerned t h a t  the o p e r a t i o n of the Government, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of the c o u r t s s c h o o l s , would be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d or i m p a i r e d of E n g l i s h as demanded by the  'ultras'.  and  by the t o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n  Thus, they were a m b i v a l e n t  about the p o s i t i o n of the E n g l i s h language i n the s c h o o l system. was  apparent from the f r e q u e n t  ministers.  p o l i c y speeches made by b u r e a u c r a t s  This and  For example, the permanent head of the E d u c a t i o n Department,  H a j i Hamdan b i n S h e i k h T h i r , urged the p u p i l s of a l a r g e Malay-medium secondary s c h o o l "not  to l o s e s i g h t o f the importance of the E n g l i s h  33 language."  Likewise,  the E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r , Mohd. K h i r b i n J o h a r i  o f t e n l a u d e d the E n g l i s h language and p r o s p e r i t y o f the c o u n t r y schools  and  i t s r o l e i n the p r o g r e s s  and  i n p a r t i c u l a r the r o l e of the English-medium  as the " o n l y i n s t i t u t i o n to b r i n g t o g e t h e r  the c h i l d r e n of a l l  34 races." 1966,  The  Tunku i n h i s D e e p a v a l i message to the n a t i o n on November  summarized the Government's a t t i t u d e towards the proposed language  b i l l i n t h i s manner:  " A l l that i s intended  i s to put Malay as the n a t i o n a l  118  and o f f i c i a l language, and E n g l i s h as t h e second language, w h i l e t h e 35 languages o f o t h e r s w i l l go on as they have been g o i n g on." the  language b i l l was b a l a n c e d t o c o u n t e r a c t s e r i o u s l y  Thus,  destabilising  p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d by the ' u l t r a s ' and a t t h e same time soothe t h e nonMalay demands f o r guarantees f o r t h e i r languages. P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r t h e N a t i o n a l Language A c t o f 1967 a f f i r m e d t h a t Malay would become " t h e s o l e o f f i c i a l language" a l t h o u g h t h e E n g l i s h language c o u l d be used by t h e F e d e r a l and S t a t e Governments "for  such o f f i c i a l purposes as may be deemed f i t . "  I n . o t h e r words, t h e  Act  p e r m i t t e d t h e c o n t i n u e d use o f E n g l i s h as a supplementary  for  t h e conduct o f Governmental b u s i n e s s and e d u c a t i o n .  p r o v i s i o n that sparked p r o t e s t s .  I t was t h i s  On t h e one hand t h e r a d i c a l Malays  thought t h a t t h e B i l l was too moderate and compromising; o t h e r , t h e non-Malays  language  and on t h e  f e l t t h a t i t was n o t enough t o guarantee and  p r e s e r v e t h e i r c u l t u r e and language.  The t r i u m v i r a t e o f Tunku A b d u l  Rahman, Tun A b d u l Razak and Tun Dr. I s m a i l were d e t e r m i n e d t o a v o i d what they f e l t would be d r a m a t i c v i c t o r i e s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r a c t by any o f t h e communities l e s t they t r i g g e r p u b l i c  inter-  communal c o n f r o n t a t i o n r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e J u l y c r i s i s o f 1959.  There-  f o r e , they began t o persuade t h e UMNO members from t a k i n g open o p p o s i t i o n . Thus, when the B i l l came f o r debate i n P a r l i a m e n t , the theme o f t h e argument advanced by t h e A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e UMNO  119  l e a d e r s was one o f "inter-communal peace."  The most e f f e c t i v e  spokesman f o r t h e A l l i a n c e was Tun Dr. I s m a i l and he c o u n t e r e d most o f the a t t a c k by t h e PMIP and t h e PPP.  About t o r e t i r e , he r e f u t e d t h e  rumour b e l i e v e d by many Malays t h a t he had d i s a g r e e d of t h e B i l l .  w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s  He s t a t e d : "Not o n l y do I s u p p o r t t h e B i l l , b u t  . . . .  37 I p l a y e d a major r o l e i n f o r m u l a t i n g B i l l w i l l not convert  it."  He acknowledged t h a t t h e  those who a r e wedded t o t h e p o l i c y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  languages o t h e r than t h e N a t i o n a l Language t o be t h e o f f i c i a l  language,  o r those who a r e s t r o n g l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l Language  should  be t h e o n l y language o f communication between t h e Government and the public."  He f u r t h e r argued t h a t the B i l l ,  Malaysians - Malays, Chinese, Indians  " w i l l a p p e a l t o those  and o t h e r s - who take a n a t i o n a l  p r i d e i n the n a t i o n a l language t o be t h e s o l e o f f i c i a l language w h i l e a t t h e same time r e a l i z i n g t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t s t a g e o f M a l a y s i a ' s h i s t o r y t h e languages o f o t h e r communities too must be used f o r t r a n s l a t i o n s o f o f f i c i a l documents and communication, so t h a t a l l c i t i z e n s c a n 38 understand what i s g o i n g on i n t h e i r c o u n t r y . " A f t e r t h i s speech by a much r e s p e c t e d Malay l e a d e r , the outcome o f the v o t i n g was never i n 39 doubt.  There were 95 v o t e s f o r t h e B i l l  and 9 v o t e s a g a i n s t .  W h i l e most o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e B i l l w i t h i n UMNO was contained, and  much o p p o s i t i o n was m a n i f e s t e d o u t s i d e the p a r t y .  The BBBK  i t s a l l i e s a t f i r s t attempted t o persuade the Government t o change  the B i l l  once i t was announced t h a t i t would be t a b l e d i n P a r l i a m e n t .  S e n s i n g t h e dangers o f t h e demands b e i n g made, Tun Razak attempted t o p l a c a t e them by d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e Government would "take a c t i v e  steps  120  40  to widen the use o f the n a t i o n a l language i n a l l f i e l d s next y e a r , " but  t h a t was not enough.  volume.  The BBBK's p r o t e s t s continued  Even w h i l e the A l l i a n c e N a t i o n a l  Prime M i n i s t e r ' s house to d i s c u s s  the B i l l  to grow i n  C o u n c i l was meeting a t the before  tabling i t i n Parlia-  ment, t h r e e hundred banner-waving Malays demonstrated a t the gates a g a i n s t what they f e l t  to be a compromise  formula f o r m u l t i - l i n g u a l i s m .  In another demonstration e f f i g i e s of the Prime M i n i s t e r were burned.  41  42 43  I t was  the PMIP which gave the most s u p p o r t to the demands o f the BBBK.  In one of the l o n g e s t  speeches ever made i n P a r l i a m e n t , Dato A s r i , the  PMIP l e a d e r , launched a s c a t h i n g a t t a c k on the B i l l .  He accused the  44  Tunku of "wounding  the h e a r t  A l l i a n c e Government  was  o f h i s own  dooming  race."  He claimed  the Malays to backwardness and t h a t the  n a t i o n a l language d i d not have and would not have "economic He f e l t  that the  value."  t h a t the Malays would c o n t i n u e to remain backward s i n c e the o n l y 45  schools But  g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e to t h e i r c h i l d r e n were Malay  t h i s was  a v o i c e i n the w i l d e r n e s s ,  schools.  and d i d not a f f e c t  the outcome  of the v o t i n g on the B i l l . Following  the. passage o f the B i l l  campaign c o n c e r n i n g  a full  scale public  i t s p r o v i s i o n s was mounted by A l l i a n c e members,  by M i n i s t e r s , by M e n t e r i Besars and by the Malay s u l t a n s . was at  r e a l l y not n e c e s s a r y as t h e r e was not much o p p o s i t i o n l e a s t a t t h a t time.  came out s o l i d l y  But  this  to the A c t -  The Utusan Melayu which had e a r l i e r s a i d " i t  would be f a r b e t t e r to w a i t u n t i l Tunku had given an now  education  i n support of Tunku.  explanation,"  It criticised  those  who  121  opposed the A c t and argued t h a t they "must be m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e 46 to cause t r o u b l e . " against  The UMNO l e a d e r s began d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o c e e d i n g s  those who had e a r l i e r d i s s e n t e d .  For example, the Deputy  Chairman o f Penang S t a t e UMNO was d i s m i s s e d  for supporting  the  As f o r Syed N a s i r , he was q u i c k t o sense the t r o u b l e s ahead. immediately dispatched from the E x e c u t i v e  a personal  dissenters. He  l e t t e r o f apology and o f f e r e d t o r e s i g n  C o u n c i l o f UMNO.  However, he was saved from  the  w r a t h o f Tunku by the t i m e l y i n t e r v e n t i o n o f Tun Razak. Though i t appeared t h a t most o f the o u t s t a n d i n g : i s s u e s were s e t t l e d a m i c a b l y w i t h i n the UMNO, the Language A c t 1967 repercussions.  had s e v e r a l  F i r s t , the moderate f e a t u r e s were e v e n t u a l l y  by many Malays as a c o n c e s s i o n t o the non-Malays. f e a t u r e s were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Tunku and  These moderate  thus weakened h i s  and p o s i t i o n among the r a d i c a l and c o m m u n a l l y - o r i e n t e d M a l a y s . r e s u l t o f the A c t and  perceived  stature As a  the manner he h a n d l e d the s t r a g g l e r s w i t h i n  ranks o f UMNO the Tunku was d i s t r u s t e d by the t h a t had come t o g e t h e r t o c h a l l e n g e  'ultras'.  the B i l l p e r s i s t e d and  more s u p p o r t among the l e a d e r s , and as a r e s u l t Tunku was 47 the u n c h a l l e n g e d l e a d e r " o f the M a l a y s .  the  The f o r c e s gained even "never a g a i n  S e c o n d l y , many d i s g r u n t l e d  elements w i t h i n UMNO f l o c k e d t o the more a g g r e s s i v e  spokesmen o f Malay  i n t e r e s t s such as Dr. M a h a t h i r , Harun I d r i s , Syed N a s i r I s m a i l , Syed 48 J a ' a f a r A l b a r among o t h e r s . T h i r d l y , the p o s i t i o n o f the PMIP was f u r t h e r enhanced and i t was viewed as a more dynamic proponent o f Malay 49 interests.  I n f a c t the PMIP was s u c c e s s f u l l y a b l e to  mobilise  122  g r i e v a n c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the q u e s t i o n o f the Malay language i n s c h o o l s and t o draw p r o t e s t v o t e s t o i t s cause. The more m i l i t a n t s e c t o r o f t h e Malay s o c i e t y had hoped the  that  c o n v e r s i o n t o the s o l e n a t i o n a l language would c r e a t e r a p i d  economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the Malays i n b o t h t h e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c sectors.  They had a l s o hoped the government would u t i l i z e  the n a t i o n a l  language l e g i s l a t i o n as an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t t o b r e a k non-Malay of  t h e v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f the economy.  They argued t h a t  control  tolerating  c o n t i n u e d use o f o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , e s p e c i a l l y E n g l i s h , would ensure the c o n t i n u e d preponderance o f the non-Malays i n the economic and p r o f e s s i o n a l sectors.  Nor had the ' s p e c i a l r i g h t s ' h e l p e d the Malays d r a m a t i c a l l y .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , many o f t h e s e elements f e l t  t h a t t h e UMNO l e a d e r s h i p had  conceded too much t o the non-Malays and thus had permenently r e l e g a t e d the  Malay language t o a p o s i t i o n o f i n f e r i o r i t y . The PMIP e n t e r e d t h e e l e c t i o n campaign o f 1969 by r e a s s e r t i n g  i t s p l e d g e f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n o f Malay supremacy i n a l l a s p e c t s o f the  country.  Much o f i t s campaign a c t i v i t y c e n t e r e d on the p e r e n n i a l  communal i s s u e s o f language and e d u c a t i o n . T h u s , p r e s e n t i n g  itself  as a dogmatic communalist p a r t y , i t was c l e a r l y a b l e t o draw the d i s g r u n t l e d elements i n Malay s o c i e t y as i t s cause.  This contrasted  s h a r p l y w i t h the UMNO w h i c h chose t o s t a n d on i t s p a s t r e c o r d . l e a d e r s were determined t o a v o i d c u l t u r a l i s s u e s .  UMNO  Malay was e n s h r i n e d  as t h e o f f i c i a l and n a t i o n a l language, the e d u c a t i o n system was a d o p t i n g i t as f a s t as p o s s i b l e and the moderate l e a d e r s f e l t  this  123  i t s e l f was  enough to p a c i f y the r a d i c a l elements i n Malay s o c i e t y ,  then the v o t e s were counted  f o l l o w i n g the 1969  E l e c t i o n s i t was  but  apparent  t h a t the PMIP's l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g had gained wide c u r r e n c y . U n l i k e the UMNO, the MCA  and the MIC  p r e s t i g e as a r e s u l t of the Language A c t .  d i d gain a great deal of  S e c t i o n Three o f the A c t  p e r m i t t e d t h e c o n t i n u e d use o f E n g l i s h and the r i g h t to m a i n t a i n the English-medium s c h o o l s , i n w h i c h non-Malays tended e f f e c t , the MCA u '  and the MIC  to do w e l l .  f e l t r e l i e v e d and g r a t e f u l t h a t t h e i r  i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e g a r d s to E d u c a t i o n had been safeguarded Malay l e a d e r s . was  brought t i g h t l y under c o n t r o l ;  for i t .  when the B i l l was  and  the  MIC  presented f o r  u n e q u i v o c a l support by the MCA  and  the  Tan Siew S i n l a u d e d the B i l l as an "achievement of some  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Alliance.""'''" r e a s s u r e d the non-Malays t h u s :  V. T. Sambanthan, the MIC  i s b e i n g done hot by compulsion  President,  "Today, when we r e p l a c e E n g l i s h w i t h  t h e Malay language as the o f f i c i a l language,  acceptance  by the moderate  Whatever p r o t e s t t h e r e was w i t h i n the MCA  debate i n P a r l i a m e n t , t h e r e was MIC  In  i t i s w e l l known t h a t i t  but by the p r o c e s s of f r e e acceptance  w i l l i n g l y and v o l u n t a r i l y by the non-Malay i n t h i s  -  country."  He f u r t h e r r e a s s u r e d the d i s g r u n t l e d Malays by s t a t i n g : " L e t me s t a t e c l e a r l y and c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t t h i s i s not the i n t e n t i o n and we do  not  52 seek and we do not want m u l t i - l i n g u a l i s m i n t h i s  country."  W h i l e the A l l i a n c e p a r t n e r s applauded the B i l l as a h a l l m a r k of the s p i r i t o f t o l e r a n c e , the Chinese o r i e n t e d o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , n o t a b l y the PPP and the Labour P a r t y , d i s a s s o c i a t e d themselves claims.  from these  D. R. Seenivasagam i n p a r t i c u l a r f e l t t h a t the B i l l was  "one  124  o f the g r e a t e s t a c t s o f t r e a c h e r y and b e t r a y a l on one h a l f almost o f 53 the p o p u l a t i o n o f West M a l a y s i a . "  However, o t h e r o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s  such as Dr. Tan Chee Khoon and Dr. L i m Chong Eu were w e l l aware o f s p i r i t o f compromise e n t a i l e d i n the B i l l and moderate c r i t i c i s m .  the  therefore offered only  Dr. Tan even d e f i e d p a r t y d i r e c t i v e s and  supported  54 the B i l l .  Thus, when the B i l l was  passed Dr. Tan and Dr.  Lim  p r e f e r r e d t o be absent and l e f t P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n to the B i l l the P P P .  to  5 5  However, w i t h the approach o f the 1969 language and  e l e c t i o n s the i s s u e of  e d u c a t i o n once a g a i n gained prominence.  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s .  Beginning  i n 1968,  Several factors  the Government, as  has  been i n d i c a t e d , began to push f o r the g r a d u a l c o n v e r s i o n o f the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r c e r t a i n a r t s s u b j e c t s i n the E n g l i s h medium p r i m a r y schools. DAP  and  To the exponents o f p o l i t i c a l  o u t b i d d i n g such as the PPP,  the Labour P a r t y , t h i s move s e r v e d as a c o n v i n c i n g argument t h a t  the f u t u r e of the non-Malays were b e i n g j e o p a r d i z e d . campaigns o f 1969, presented The DAP  the  the DAP,  the PPP  and  I n the  election  the Gerakan s p e c i f i c a l l y  p o l i c i e s on language e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r e l e c t i o n p l a t f o r m .  was  the most v o c i f e r o u s i n a r t i c u l a t i n g the i s s u e .  e l e c t i o n manifesto  In i t s  i t promised the a d o p t i o n o f an i n t e g r a t e d e d u c a t i o n  system, where s c h o o l s would use the major l a n g u a g e s , and p u b l i c e x a m i n a t i o n s would be i n the media of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Furthermore, i t  sought to r e l e g a t e the Malay ..language to the s t a t u s of compulsory 56 second language.  I n the f i e l d i t s promises were even more a g g r e s s i v e ;  125  one DAP c a n d i d a t e i n t h e S e l a n g o r even promised t h a t i f h i s p a r t y were to succeed i n t h e e l e c t i o n s he would "make the Malays l e a r n Chinese i n two m o n t h s . T h u s  i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e DAP aimed t o p r o j e c t an  image t h a t i t was t r u l y the champion o f t h e r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e non-Malay community. The Gerakan, on the o t h e r hand, took a compromise p o s t u r e b a l a n c i n g the demands o f t h e Malays w i t h those o f t h e non-Malays.  The  p a r t y was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f Chinese and T a m i l e d u c a t i o n up t o H i g h e r S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l was i n no way i n i m i c a l t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a u n i t e d M a l a y s i a n n a t i o n and t h e development o f Malay as 58 t h e s o l e n a t i o n a l language.  L i k e w i s e , t h e PPP s u p p o r t e d the  c o n t i n u a t i o n of the f o u r language  streams o f e d u c a t i o n , and " e q u a l 59  t r e a t m e n t f o r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i r r e s p e c t i v e of r a c e . " R e g a r d i n g the p r o v i s i o n o f g r a n t s - i n - a i d , these s c h o o l s s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d w i t h o u t g i v i n g up the Chinese o r T a m i l medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The DAP was a l s o bent on d i s c r e d i t i n g t h e MCA as the l e g i t i m a t e spokesman o f Chinese i n t e r e s t .  I t t h e r e f o r e began s u p p o r t i n g a 1967  M a l a y s i a n Chinese G u i l d s and A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e Chinese language  Press  c a l l f o r a Chinese language U n i v e r s i t y modeled a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e 60 Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y o f S i n g a p o r e .  The MCA denounced t h i s scheme and  i n s t e a d d e f l e c t e d t h i s movement f o r the Merdeka U n i v e r s i t y (as t h e proposed U n i v e r s i t y was t o be c a l l e d ) i n t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p r e 61 u n i v e r s i t y Tunku A b d u l Rahman C o l l e g e f o r Chinese s t u d e n t s . But w i t h  126  the mounting p r e s s u r e f o r p o s i t i v e a c t i o n , t h e MCA l a t e r r e v e r s e d i t s s t a n d and s u p p o r t e d the Merdeka U n i v e r s i t y .  Without doubt t h e MCA's  i n d e c i s i o n on t h e language i s s u e caused many v o t e r s t o s u p p o r t the O p p o s i•t i•o n . 62 F o l l o w i n g the May 1 3 t h I n c i d e n t , some r a d i c a l Malays were moved to make a more d e f i n i t e pro-Malay community.  s t a n d on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g  The May 1 3 t h I n c i d e n t they argued had c o n f i r m e d  their  their  d i a g n o s i s t h a t n o t enough was b e i n g done f o r t h e Malays e c o n o m i c a l l y , t h a t t h e Language A c t (1967) had been t o o f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e non-Malays, and t h a t the Tunku's s t y l e o f p o l i t i c s was too ' f e u d a l ' , l o y a l t y r a t h e r than a b i l i t y o r a c h i e v e l e n t .  emphasizing  T h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were  r e s t r i c t e d by t h e Government a l t h o u g h many o f t h e i r p o l i c y demands were s u b s e q u e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e "New Economic P o l i c y " and t h e "new education p o l i c y " .  W i t h i n UMNO, t h e group which had c r i t i c i z e d t h e  Tunku were s u b j e c t e d t o d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n s . e x p e l l e d from t h e p a r t y .  Dr. M a h a t h i r , was  Others l i k e the newly a p p o i n t e d A s s i s t a n t  M i n i s t e r t o Tun Razak, Musa Hitam were " s e n t on s t u d y l e a v e " t o t h e U n i t e d Kingdom.  A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n was Abdul Rahman Yakub, who, though he had 63  emerged as a h a r d - l i n e r , " a b s t a i n e d from open s u p p o r t f o r Dr. M a h a t h i r , " and was a p p o i n t e d as t h e new M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n .  I n June 1969,  Abdul Rahman Yakub assumed o f f i c e and i m m e d i a t e l y he l e t i t be known t h a t he r e c o g n i s e d o n l y Malay as t h e l e g i t i m a t e language f o r h i s m i n i s t r y . On J u l y 10, 1969, j u s t two months a f t e r the r i o t s and b e f o r e  normalcy  had r e t u r n e d , Abdul Rahman Yakub announced a 'new e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y '  127  " w i t h o u t t h e Tengku's knowledge o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n . " Goh  According to  Cheng T e i k , " T h i s u n i l a t e r a l d e c l a r a t i o n o f p o l i c y made a t t h e  peak o f t h e a n t i - T e n g k u expulsion . . .  campaign and on t h e eve o f Dr. M a h a t h i r ' s  suddenly  d e f l a t e d t h e h i g h l y charged atmosphere and 65  rendered  t h e Tengku's t a s k l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g . " Abdul Rahman Yakub was a b l e t o do what o t h e r M i n i s t e r s o f  E d u c a t i o n had f a i l e d t o do. a l t h o u g h t h e r e were s t i l l  He was f i r m i n h i s s t a n d , s t a t i n g t h a t  "a v e r y s m a l l percentage  o f t h e p e o p l e who do  not l i k e t h i s , b u t such i s t h e i r a t t i t u d e t h e r e i s n o t h i n g we can do to p l e a s e t h e m . " ^  But he c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t he had n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t  i n t e n t i o n of withdrawing  from the s t a t e d g o a l s .  He argued t h a t t h e  Government "has been v e r y l e n i e n t p e r s u a d i n g c e r t a i n s e c t o r s t o l e a r n and use Bahasa M a l a y s i a //the N a t i o n a l language/  . . . . But i f persuasion  s t i l l do_es not p r o v i d e r e s u l t s then we must r e s o r t t o t h e whip. human p s y c h o l o g y  The  i s such t h a t . i f \<re l e a v e i t t o t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e t o 67  choose, they do n o t make t h e c o r r e c t c h o i c e . " m a t t e r o f p r i m a r y and secondary  Having  s e t t l e d the  e d u c a t i o n , Dato Rahman Yakub l e f t f o r  I n d o n e s i a t o r e c r u i t s t a f f f o r t h e s c h o o l s and f o r t h e newly e s t a b l i s h e d 68  U n i v e r s i t y Kebangsaan ( N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y ) .  Thus, a f t e r c o n t r o -  v e r s i e s , p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n s and i n d e c i s i o n s l a s t i n g almost f o r t y  years  the Malay language f i n a l l y was s c h e d u l e d t o become t h e medium o f instruction.  128  Conclusion  The problem of language e d u c a t i o n was  once a g a i n p a r t l y  the  r e a s o n f o r inter-communal c o n f l i c t , but w h i l e the p o l i c y makers o f e a r l i e r p e r i o d s were a b l e to postpone making d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n s on q u e s t i o n o f the s t a t u s of the Malay language i n the s c h o o l  the  curriculum  t h i s time they were a b l e to i r r e v o c a b l y end Government ambivalence w i t h r e g a r d to the p o l i c y .  The b u i l d i n g up o f communal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as  a r e s u l t of the v a r i o u s p r o v i s i o n s o f the E d u c a t i o n A c t , 1961, N a t i o n a l Language A c t , 1967,  had  and  s e r i o u s consequences w i t h r e g a r d s  the to  the moderate and o f t e n ambiguous p o l i c i e s pursued by the A l l i a n c e Government.  F o l l o w i n g the May  s e v e r a l important  13th I n c i d e n t , the Government undertook  and b i n d i n g measures to end u n b r i d l e d q u e s t i o n i n g of  the e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y .  The  c a u t i o u s n a t u r e o f non-Malay a g i t a t i o n  f o l l o w i n g the I n c i d e n t h e l p e d  the Government to push f o r w a r d  i t s policy  to s t a n d a r d i z e , end a m b i g u i t i e s , and upgrade the s t a t u s of Malay as s o l e medium of  the  instruction.  In attempting  to s t r i k e a moderate s t a n d the moderate Malay  and non-Malay e l i t e s o f the A l l i a n c e s u f f e r e d the most because they were not a b l e to c o n t i n u e t h e i r c o n t r o l o f the p a r t y machinery as w e l l as to command the c o n t i n u e d h i g h s u p p o r t of the e l e c t o r a t e . l e a d e r s , n o t a b l y Tunku, l o s t p r e s t i g e i n UMNO. c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t . b o t h had  t h e i r own  The  Malay  T h i s l o s s of s t a t u r e  L i k e w i s e , the MCA  share o f l e a d e r s h i p c r i s e s and  and  the  MIC  the d e c l i n e i n g r a s s r o o t s  129  support.  F o l l o w i n g the May 1 3 t h I n c i d e n t , Malay p o l i t i c a l  supremacy  i n t h e Government was c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d , e n a b l i n g them t o push f o r an even more determined  pro-Malay p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f  the Malay language i n s c h o o l s .  Thus, a p o l i c y w h i c h was f i r s t  i n 1930 reached i t s f u l l s t a t e o f growth i n 1971.  conceived  From now on t h e  p r o t e s t s were n o t t o be over t h e s t a t u s o f Malay i n M a l a y s i a n  schools  as i t has become a f a i t a c c o m p l i , but t h e r e were t o be i n d i r e c t p r o t e s t s such as when t h e Merdeka U n i v e r s i t y i s s u e was a g a i n r a i s e d by the DAP.  130  Notes 1.  For a more i n depth study o f the f o r m a t i o n of M a l a y s i a see the the f o l l o w i n g books: Mohamed N o o r d i n S o p i e e , From Malayan Union t o Singapore S e p a r a t i o n , K u a l a Lumpur: P e n e r b i t U n i v e r s i t i M a l a y a , 1974; Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , Chapter 16, 17, 18 and 19; James P. O n g k i l i , The Borneo Response to M a l a y s i a , 1961-1963, S i n g a p o r e : Donald Moore P r e s s , 1967; James P. O n g k i l i , M o d e r n i z a t i o n i n East M a l a y s i a 1960-1970, K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972; M a r g a r e t C. R o f f , The P o l i t i c s o f B e l o n g i n g : P o l i t i c a l Change i n Sabah and Sarawak, K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974; R. S. M i l n e and K. J . Ratnam, M a l a y s i a : New S t a t e s i n a New N a t i o n , London: F r a n k Cass, 1974.  2.  K. J . Ratnam and R. S. M i l n e , The Malayan P a r l i a m e n t a r y E l e c t i o n of 1964, S i n g a p o r e : U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya P r e s s , 1967, p. 110 and Chap. V I .  3.  S t r a i t s Budget, November 6, 1963, o p . c i t . , p.  as c i t e d i n Gordon P. Means,  337.  4.  Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , p.  347.  5.  Tunku A b d u l Rahman, " L o o k i n g Back," The  S t a r , A p r i l 7, 1975,  as  c i t e d i n R. S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, op. c i t . , p.  73.  6.  Gordon P. Means, op_. c i t . , p.  7. 8.  Ibid. M a r t i n Rudner, "The M a l a y s i a n G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n of 1969: A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , " Modern A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 1, No. 4, (1970), pp. 1-21; Nancy L, S n i d e r , "Race, L e i t m o t i v o f the Malayan E l e c t i o n Drama," A s i a n Survey, V o l . X, No. 12, (December, 1970), pp. 1070-1080; R. S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, op_. c i t . , p. 161. R. K. V a s i l , The M a l a y s i a n G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n o f 1969, S i n g a p o r e : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s s , 1972, p. 46; K. J . ]&tnam, and R. S. M i l n e , "The 1969 P a r l i a m e n t a r y E l e c t i o n s i n West M a l a y s i a , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . X L I I I , No. 2 (Summer, 1970), pp. 203-226.  9.  10.  354.  K a r l von V o r y s , op. c i t . , P a r t I I I ; R . S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, op. c i t . , pp. 84 f f .  131  11.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , p. 418.  12.  S t r a i t s Times, F e b r u a r y 4, 1971, as c i t e d i n K a r l von V o r y s , op. c i t . , p. 418.  13.  I b i d . , March 4, 1971, as c i t e d i n Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , p. 403.  14.  I b i d . , p. 243.  15.  I b i d . , p. 249.  16. 17.  K a r l von V o r y s , op. c i t . , p. 202. S t r a i t s Times, June 21, 1965 as c i t e d i n Chan Heng Chee, op. c i t . , p. 108.  18.  S t r a i t s Times, August 18, September 4, 1965, and September 8, 1965, as c i t e d i n R. S. M i l n e , op_. c i t . , p. 90.  19.  S t r a i t s Times, August  2, 1965, as c i t e d i n R. S. M i l n e and  Diane K. Mauzy, op_. c i t . , p. 141. 20.  Margaret R o f f , op c i t . , p. 32.  21. 22.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , p. 202. I b i d . , p. 203.  23.  I b i d . , p. 205.  24.  Ibid.  25.  A b d u l Rahman b i b Yakub was a M u s l i m Malay/Melanau from Sarawak. He was a member o f t h e P a r t i BARJASA. He e n t e r e d P a r l i a m e n t i n 1963, and was a p p o i n t e d M i n i s t e r o f Land and Mines i n 1965. A f t e r t h e May 1 3 t h I n c i d e n t he was a p p o i n t e d M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n . He was w e l l known as a f i e r y speaker and o f t e n e x p r e s s e d s t r o n g pro-Malay v i e w s . T h i s earned him t h e a d m i r a t i o n o f Malay s t u d e n t s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher learning. He was p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p o l i c y o f c o n v e r t i n g English-medium i n t o Malay-medium s c h o o l s .  26.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. e x t . , p. 210.  27.  I b i d . , p. 206 f f .  See a l s o M a h a t h i r b. Mohamad, The Malay Dilemma, S i n g a p o r e : The A s i a n P a c i f i c P r e s s , 1970. Chapters 4 and 4, passim.  132  28.  Suffian,  op_. c i t . , p. 280.  29.  See Appendix I on t h e Schedule f o r t h e s u b j e c t s taught i n M a l a y s i a n P r i m a r y Schools as o f 1970.  30.  Goh Cheng T i e k , The May T h i r t e e n t h I n c i d e n t and Democracy i n M a l a y s i a , K u a l a Lumput: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971, p. 32.  31.  F r a n c i s Wong Hoy Kee and Ee Tiang Hong, E d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y s i a (2d e d i t i o n ) , K u a l a Lumpur: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books ( A s i a ) L t d . 1975. p. 180.  32.  Ibid.  33.  S t r a i t s Times, October 15, 1966, as c i t e d i n M a r g a r e t R o f f , op. c i t . , p. 324.  34.  Margaret R o f f , op_. c i t . , p. 324.  35. 36.  Ibid. M a l a y s i a , Dewan Ra'ayat, P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, V o l . I l l , No. 45, March 2, 1967, C o l . 6004, as c i t e d i n K a r l von V o r y s , p. 207.  37.  M a r g a r e t R o f f , op_. c i t . , p. 326.  38.  P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, March 3, 1967, C o l . 6138 and 6144, 6145, as c i t e d i n K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , p. 209.  39.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , p. 210.  40.  S t r a i t s Times,  December 2, 1966, as c i t e d i n M a r g a r e t R o f f ,  op. c i t . , p. 325. 41. 42.  43. 44.  M a r g a r e t R o f f , op. c i t . , p. 325. Y. Mansoor M a r i c a n , "The P o l i t i c a l Accommodation o f P r i m o r d i a l P a r t i e s : D.M.K. ( I n d i a ) and PAS ( M a l a y s i a ) , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1976. p. 161. Ibid. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, Dewan Ra'ayat, T h i r d S e s s i o n , 2nd P a r l i a m e n t , K u a l a Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r s , 1968, C o l . 6020-6048, as c i t e d i n I b i d . , p. 70.  133  45.  Y. Mansoor M a r i c a n , op_. c i t . , p. 161 f f .  46.  Margaret R o f f , op_. c i t . , p. 326.  47.  R. K. V a s i l (1972), op_. c i t . , p. 15.  48.  Goh Cheng T i e k , op. c i t . , Chap. 4.  49.  Y. Mansoor M a r i c a n , op_. c i t . , p. 161 f f .  50.  Nancy S n i d e r , op_. c i t . ;  51.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , p. 207.  52.  P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, C o l . 6012, as c i t e d i n K a r l von V o r y s ,  M a r t i n Rudner, op_. c i t .  op. c i t . , p. 208. 53.  I b i d . C o l . 6059, as c i t e d i n I b i d . , p. 208.  54.  R. K. V a s i l , op. c i t . , p. 156.  55.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , p. 210.  56.  R. K. V a s i l , j 3 p . c i t . , p. 303.  57.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , p. 285.  58.  R. K. V a s i l , op_. c i t . ,  59.  Gordon P. Means, op. c i t . , p. 394.  60.  K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . , pp. 283-287.  61.  Peter Pendersen, " P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r V i o l e n c e i n M a l a y s i a , "  p. 305 f f .  C u r r e n t H i s t o r y , 61 ( 3 6 4 ) , (December, 1971), pp. 339-367. 62.  M a r t i n Rudner, op_. c i t . , pp. 9-15.  63.  Goh Cheng T i e k , op_. c i t . , p. 31.  64.  I b i d . , p. 32.  65. 66.  Ibid. Malay M a i l , p. 397.  J u l y 2 1 , 1969, as c i t e d i n K a r l von V o r y s , op_. c i t . ,  134  67.  Utusan Melayu, J u l y 19, 1969, as c i t e d i n K a r l von V o r y s , op. c i t . , p. 397.  68.  The i d e a o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i Kebangsaan was f i r s t announced i n September o f 1968, by t h e t h e n M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , Mohd. K h i r J o h a r i i n an apparent attempt t o show t h a t t h e Government was indeed concerned about t h e s t a t u s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e M a l a y s . See: S t u a r t Drummond and D a v i d Hawkins, "The M a l a y s i a n E l e c t i o n s o f 1969: An A n a l y s i s o f t h e the Campaign and t h e R e s u l t s , " A s i a n Survey, V o l . X, No. 4, ( A p r i l , 1970), pp. 320-335.  135  CHAPTER V I CONCLUSIONS  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f n a t i o n a l i s t movements f o l l o w i n g independence i s t h e e f f o r t t o r e g e n e r a t e and g l o r i f y t h e n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e .  This  i s g e n e r a l l y a c h i e v e d i n p a r t through c u r r i c u l u m m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l system and, i n m u l t i - l i n g u a l s o c i e t i e s , by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a s i n g l e language t o s e r v e as an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c education i n s t i t u t i o n s .  The t a s k has u s u a l l y proven d i f f i c u l t .  I n d i a and S r i Lanka a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y , i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s t h e demands o f t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s and l i n g u i s t i c groups forced the adoption of a three-language solution.  f o r m u l a as a compromise  I n t h e case o f I n d i a , a l l t h e r e g i o n a l languages were  e s s e n t i a l l y i n d i g e n o u s and t h e r e f o r e the i m p o s i t i o n o f H i n d i , a language b e l o n g i n g t o one p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n , was n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c o u n t r y as a whole.  I n t h e case o f S r i Lanka, most o f t h e T a m i l s  were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d ( J a f f n a ) , w h i l e the r e s t of the country c o n s i s t e d of the S i n h a l e s e .  The case  of M a l a y s i a i s d i f f e r e n t from b o t h I n d i a and S r i Lanka.  Only one  group - t h e M a l a y s - may be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e i n d i g e n o u s  people.  S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s no g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n among t h e v a r i o u s groups.  I n a d d i t i o n , o n l y i n M a l a y s i a i s t h e r e a system o f c o n s t i t u -  136  t i o n a l c o n t r a c t , as e p i t o m i z e d by t h e A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n . c o h e s i v e n e s s o f t h e Malay community t a t i o n o f t h e non-Malay community  The r e l a t i v e  and UMNO as opposed t o fragmen-  and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e A l l i a n c e  p a r t n e r s (MCA and M I C ) , a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p o l i c y w h i c h made Malay t h e n a t i o n a l  language and t h e main medium o f  instruction. Communal Demands D u r i n g t h e f o u r phases i n t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e p o l i c y w h i c h made Malay t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n , communal demands v a r i e d the type of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n the.policy  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t phase o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  making  as d i d  issues.  o f Malay as t h e medium o f  i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e Malays were n o t y e t p o l i t i c i z e d o r touched by t h e s p i r i t of nationalism.  N e i t h e r t h e masses n o r t h e E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d  Malay e l i t e were i n a p o s i t i o n as the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . were i n t e r e s t e d a l l interested  t o demand t h a t Malay be e s t a b l i s h e d The non-Malays, e s p e c i a l l y  the Chinese,  i n s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e i r own s c h o o l s and were n o t a t i n a l l o w i n g Malay t o be e i t h e r  a s u b j e c t language o r  the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . D u r i n g t h e second phase of t h e p o l i c y , i . e . 1946 t h r o u g h 1954, the  s i t u a t i o n had changed d r a s t i c a l l y .  sleepy b e n e f i c i a r i e s demands p e r t a i n i n g  The Malays were no l o n g e r  o f s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s but were a c t i v e  to their interests.  The r e s u r g e n t Malay  f o r c e f u l l y made demands f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n o f b e t t e r  i n making community  infrastructural  137  f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s i n a d d i t i o n f o r making Malay the  one o t h e r main medium of i n s t r u c t i o n .  w i t h the p r o v i s i o n  making Malay the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n  o n l y up t o p r i m a r y l e v e l . Malay demands. instruction  i n stages  The C h i n e s e community was s t a r t l e d by t h e s e  They wanted a s s u r a n c e s t h a t t h e Chinese language  i n t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s would be p r o t e c t e d .  Chinese a l s o wanted t h e Government financially.  They were n o t s a t i s f i e d  The  to continue supporting t h e i r  schools  The E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d Malay e l i t e supported Malay and  E n g l i s h as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , but were l a t e r f o r c e d t o g i v e support t o t h e more communally based demands. of t h e Chinese and I n d i a n E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d  The same may be  said  elites.  D u r i n g t h e t h i r d phase o f t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e p o l i c y , i . e . 1955 t h r o u g h 1962, t h e demands from t h e Malay community were t o a c c o r d Malay t h e s t a t u s b e f i t t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l language i n the s c h o o l system.  The more communally i n c l i n e d M a l a y s , such as t h e v e r n a c u l a r  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , wanted t o see Malay i m m e d i a t e l y i n s t i t u t e d as the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  Moderate l e a d e r s o f the community p r e f e r r e d a  g r a d u a l approach t o i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p o l i c y .  I n a d d i t i o n , they wanted  t h e r e t e n t i o n of E n g l i s h as an a l t e r n a t e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Members of t h e non-Malay community, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e C h i n e s e , wanted to r e t a i n t h e i r s c h o o l s and opposed any p o l i c y t h a t would r e s u l t i n their abolition. dilemma.  The moderate non-Malay l e a d e r s were t h r u s t i n t o a  They were wedded t o t h e A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n , and d i d n o t want t o  u p s e t t h e i r UMNO f r i e n d s by making e x t r e m i s t communal demands and t h e r e f o r e they chose t o be moderate and even n o t t o a r t i c u l a t e such  138  issues. D u r i n g t h e f o u r t h phase of t h e e v o l u t i o n  of the p o l i c y , i . e .  1962 up t o 1971, Malay v i e w s d e f i n i t e l y p r e v a i l e d . rather exclusive  s t a t u s f o r t h e i r language;  Government stop s u p p o r t i n g E n g l i s h , schools.  They demanded a  t h e y demanded t h a t t h e  Chinese and I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r  The moderate l e a d e r s o f UMNO would have p r e f e r r e d a l e s s  extremist position  involving  a gradualist  p o l i c y with regards t o the  medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t h i s meant r e t a i n i n g and p a r t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h .  t h e o t h e r languages  The Chinese community n a t u r a l l y d i d n o t  want t h e Malay medium i n t h e i r s c h o o l s as i t meant t h e end o f t h e Chinese system.  I n sum, t h e Malay demands f o r a p o l i c y w h i c h made  Malay t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n e v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h r e e s t a g e s : (1) pre-war apathy w i t h l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r language p o l i c y , (2) moderate n a t i o n a l i s t f e r v o r  and demands t o make Malay t h e o t h e r medium  of i n s t r u c t i o n b e s i d e s E n g l i s h ,  and (3) extreme n a t i o n a l i s m and demands  t h a t i t be t h e o n l y medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . wanted t o r e t a i n E n g l i s h , very enthusiastic  The non-Malay  communities  Chinese and T a m i l medium s c h o o l s and were n o t  about t h e r i s i n g t i d e o f Malay n a t i o n a l i s m w h i c h made  M a l a y t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  The A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s  generally  p r e f e r r e d a d u a l M a l a y - E n g l i s h p o l i c y , b u t t h e a g g r e s s i v e demands o f the O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s and from a new g e n e r a t i o n o f s u b - e l i t e s UMNO, MCA and t h e MIC f o r c e d t h e l e a d e r s t o u l t i m a t e l y complete i n s t r u c t i o n i n Malay.  within  agree t o almost  139 M o t i v e s and Aims of t h e P o l i c y  Makers  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t phase o f t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e p o l i c y , t h e C o l o n i a l Government t r i e d t o i n t r o d u c e Malay as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e an e d u c a t i o n t h a t would be cheaper t o t h e c o l o n i a l c o f f e r s and w h i c h would r e s t r i c t t h e E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d unemployed.  S e c o n d l y , t h e Government wished t o u t i l i z e Malay as t h e  medium of i n s t r u c t i o n t o i n c u l c a t e a sense of l o y a l t y towards Malaya and t o reduce t h e s u b v e r s i v e i n f l u e n c e s of t h e Kuomintang i n Chinese schools.  However, b e f o r e t h e p o l i c y c o u l d be implemented, t h e Malayan  economy began t o r e c o v e r from the d e p r e s s i o n .  Thus t h e p o l i c y was no  l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y because t h e r e was once a g a i n a demand f o r E n g l i s h educated j u n i o r o f f i c i a l s .  In a d d i t i o n , the anti-Kuomintang p o l i c y  advocated by t h e Governor was no l o n g e r t e n a b l e i n v i e w of t h e c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the B r i t i s h Government and t h e Kuomintang Chinese  Government. D u r i n g t h e second phase, t h e Emergency was t h e a l l  issue.  encompassing  The p o l i c y makers were d e t e r m i n e d t o reduce t h e independence  of t h e C h i n e s e s c h o o l s and a l s o f e l t t h a t by i n t r o d u c i n g Malay as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n a sense of l o y a l t y towards Malaya would be inculcated.  S e c o n d l y , t h e B r i t i s h , by v i r t u e of t h e F e d e r a t i o n of  M a l a y a Agreement, 1948, had acknowledged t h a t Malaya was i n f a c t a "Malay c o u n t r y " and thus t h a t t h e y owed t h e Malays an o b l i g a t i o n . Now  t h e B r i t i s h sought t o p r o v i d e ways and means t o p r o t e c t t h e  s t a t u s of t h e Malay as the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e of t h e c o u n t r y .  The  140  q u e s t i o n o f making Malay t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i e w of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e were p e r s i s t e n t  demands  from t h e Malayan community f o r i t . I n t h e t h i r d phase o f t h e e v o l u t i o n  of t h e p o l i c y UMNO and Malay  i n t e r e s t s were paramount by v i r t u e of t h e f a c t t h a t had  t h e non-Malays  bound themselves t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r a c t a g r e e i n g t o c e r t a i n  fundamental f a c t o r s of Malay c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l dominance. A l l i a n c e p a r t y and t h e s p i r i t o f intercommunal c o o p e r a t i o n  The  legitimized  by t h e overwhelming support f o r t h e p a r t y d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f i t s establishment.  Thus, when t h e Razak Report was p r e s e n t e d t h e  p o s i t i o n of Malay i n t h e s c h o o l s was n o t o b j e c t e d t o by t h e non-Malay A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s because i t was p a r t of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l a l r e a d y agreed upon.  Since the threat  contract  of communist s u b v e r s i o n was  s t i l l r e a l , t h e Government f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n e x t e n d i n g i t s c o n t r o l o f the  Chinese s c h o o l s and f i r m l y s e t t i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r a f i n a l  conversion t o e i t h e r English schools.  o r Malay as t h e medium i n t h e Chinese  I n sum, t h e p o l i c y makers were o b l i g a t e d  to uphold the status  of Malay as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n b e f i t t i n g i t s s t a t u s National the  as t h e  language and as a means t o i n c u l c a t e a sense of l o y a l t y t o  country. D u r i n g t h e f o u r t h phase, t h e p o l i c y makers were o b v i o u s l y  concerned about t h e c o n t i n u e d use o f t h e E n g l i s h b u s i n e s s o f government and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . were concerned o v e r t h e p e r s i s t e n t  language i n t h e  At the same time they  demand from t h e more  141  chauvinistically inclined  ' u l t r a s ' , t o upgrade the Malay language  as t h e o n l y medium of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The p o l i c y makers i n p r o p o s i n g  the Language A c t , 1967 were i n f a c t s e e k i n g t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y guarantee t h e p o s i t i o n of E n g l i s h as the second laneuaae.  The  demands o f t h e non-Malav communities were a l s o a c o n s t r a i n i n g  force  as t h e same a c t a l s o guaranteed t h e c o n t i n u e d use of Chinese and T a m i l as u n o f f i c i a l languages. P o l i c y Impact and Communal Responses D u r i n g t h e f i r s t phase of t h e language e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y i t was the Chinese s c h o o l s w h i c h were a f f e c t e d the most and t h u s i t was the Chinese who p r o t e s t e d t h e most.  On the o t h e r hand, t h e Malays were  not c o n s u l t e d l e t a l o n e a f f e c t e d by the p o l i c y i n a s u b s t a n t i a l manner. D u r i n g the second phase, t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1952, d i d upgrade t h e Malay language t o the s t a t u s of a second i m p o r t a n t medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , but t h e r e were p r o t e s t s from the Malay community because t h e Government was p r e p a r e d t o p r o v i d e Malay v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n o n l y up t o P r i m a r y l e v e l .  Thus, t h e Malays q u i c k l y became d i s -  i l l u s i o n e d and demanded a b e t t e r d e a l .  W i t h the f o r g i n g o f a s p i r i t  of c o o p e r a t i o n t h e r e was a c o a l e s c i n g of i n t e r e s t between  the Malay  and the non-Malays w h i c h was u l t i m a t e l y . r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w i t h d r a w a l of t h e p o l i c y .  D u r i n g t h e t h i r d phase the f u t u r e of t h e Malayan  s c h o o l system was i r r e v o c a b l y s e t i n m o t i o n by the a d o p t i o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1957, and t h e E d u c a t i o n A c t , 1961.  By a g r a d u a l  142  p r o c e s s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n Malay was f i n a l l y and f i r m l y v to become t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  I n i t i a l l y t h e r e was unanimous  support f o r t h i s p o l i c y but once i t reached t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h e r e were i n c e s s a n t p r o t e s t s .  The M a l a y s wanted r a p i d  of the p r o v i s i o n of the ordinances. i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  stage  implementation  The non-Malays wanted  restraint  S i n c e t h e MCA and MIC l e a d e r s c o u l d not and  d i d not back t h e p r o t e s t o r s , t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s assumed t h e t a s k of p r o t e s t i n g .  I n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e non-Malays became d i s i l l u s i o n e d  w i t h t h e MCA and t h e MIC f o r what was p e r c e i v e d an e x c e s s i v e c a p i t u l a t i o n t o t h e UMNO.  T h i s l e d t o a g r a d u a l but s u r e e r o s i o n o f  support f o r t h e non-Malay p a r t i e s o f t h e A l l i a n c e . Between 1962 and 1971, a number o f younger and more a r t i c u l a t e Malays who had not been p a r t y t o t h e o r i g i n a l A l l i a n c e b a r g a i n emerged as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e w i t h i n UMNO.  This group, o f t e n c a l l e d  t h e ' U l t r a s , ' was opposed t o any f u r t h e r c o n c e s s i o n s t o non-Malays. I n p a r t i c u l a r , they p r o t e s t e d t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l Language A c t (1967) had been too c o n c i l i a t o r y towards t h e non-Malays and i n t h e p r o c e s s had f u r t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e d t h e M a l a y s .  W i t h i n two y e a r s t h e s e  p r o t e s t o r s had g a i n e d enough support from w i t h i n UMNO and w i t h o u t t o c h a l l e n g e t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Tunku.  Though they f a i l e d i n t h e i r  e f f o r t s , they n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e a r l y retirement o f t h e Tunku, The moderate non-Malay l e a d e r s i n the A l l i a n c e were  grateful  f o r t h e g u a r a n t e e s p r o v i d e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Language A c t (1967) w i t h  143  r e g a r d t o t h e s t a t u s of t h e E n g l i s h , Chinese and T a m i l languages. But t o t h e non-Malays o u t s i d e t h e narrow c i r c l e of t h e A l l i a n c e leadership.the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g u a r a n t e e s were t o o l i t t l e .  a d d i t i o n t o t h e language q u e s t i o n , t h e non-Malays a l s o against  other p r o v i s i o n s favouring the Malays.  In  protested  Thus, t h e r e was a  marked growth of a n t i - A l l i a n c e s e n t i m e n t s among b o t h t h e M a l a y s and the non-Malay v o t e r s .  These s e n t i m e n t s m a n i f e s t e d themselves i n t h e  s e v e r e s e t back t h e A l l i a n c e e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e 1969 E l e c t i o n s . UMNO escaped r e l a t i v e l y unscathed w h i l e t h e MCA and t h e MIC were h i t by t h e d e f e c t i o n of t h e v o t e r s t o t h e more a r t i c u l a t e opposition parties.  F o l l o w i n g t h e May 1 3 t h I n c i d e n t , i t was apparent  t o t h e Government t h a t t h e u n b r i d l e d q u e s t i o n i n g  of s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s  ( o f w h i c h t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n was one) had c o n t r i b u t e d t o r a c i a l r i o t s and a d e c l i n e i n s u p p o r t f o r t h e A l l i a n c e . t h i s a C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendment A c t was i n t r o d u c e d of P a r l i a m e n t  a f t e r 20 months of Emergency r u l e .  I n view of  as t h e f i r s t a c t This C o n s t i t u t i o n a l  Amendment A c t , 1971 e f f e c t i v e l y c u r t a i l e d f u t u r e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e sensitive issues. thus became a f a i t  The s t a t u s of Malay as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n accompli.  Nevertheless,  t h e r e were i n d i r e c t p r o t e s t s from t h e non-Malay  community, p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e C h i n e s e . increase i n enrollment  F i r s t , t h e r e was an  t o Chinese-medium p r i m a r y s c h o o l s but a f t e r a  while t h i s trend tapered  off.  S e c o n d l y , t h e i s s u e o f Merdeka U n i v e r s i t y  144  was 1978  r e v i v e d and p e r s i s t e n t l y pursued by the DAP. was  Only i n December,  t h i s i s s u e s e t t l e d a f t e r the Government had  argued a g a i n s t the i d e a .  skillfully  T h i r d l y , t h e r e has been a p e r c e p t i b l e  d e c l i n e i n support f o r the MCA  w h i c h i t has been p e r s i s t e n t l y c r i t i -  c i s e d from a l l s i d e s f o r l a c k of e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p and u n a b l e t o echo the more e x t r e m i s t  f o r being  c o m p l a i n t s and demands of the  Chinese  community. I n e f f e c t communal response t o the p o l i c y w h i c h made Malay medium of i n s t r u c t i o n e v o l v e d  i n t h r e e s t a g e s f o r the Malay community:  (1)  Pre-War Malay communal apathy and  (2)  P o s t war  l a c k of n a t i o n a l i s t i c demands,  r e s u r g e n c e of communal demands and p r o t e s t s over  r e l a t i v e backwardness of t h e community and, more d e f i n i t e stand w i t h o u t any the s t a t u s of E n g l i s h language.  and  (3)  the  mass p r o t e s t f o r a  f u r t h e r concessions w i t h regards to The non-Malays were b a s i c a l l y  c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r p r o t e s t , from 1930 t h e i r schools  the  onwards w a n t i n g t o s a f e g u a r d  t h e p o s t i o n of t h e E n g l i s h medium s c h o o l s .  It is  the case t h a t the i s s u e of Malay as the.medium of i n s t r u c t i o n was one of t h e fundamental i s s u e s t h a t a f f e c t e d inter-communal relationships i n Malaysia.  I n the s u c c e s s f u l e v o l u t i o n of a p o l i c y  f a v o u r i n g t h e Malay language, the most i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r was  the r e l a t i v e c o h e s i v e n e s s of the Malay community as opposed t o  fragmentation  and d i s u n i t y among t h e non-Malays.  s u c c e s s i n t h a t the major e d u c a t i o n  The  p o l i c y was  a  r e p o r t s were c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d  t o ensure the dominance of the Malay l a n g u a g e , w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g some f l e x i b i l i t y i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y .  F i n a l l y , the p o l i c y  145 was implemented i n a g r a d u a l i s t i c and i n c r e m e n t a l f a s h i o n thus promoting n a t i o n a l u n i t y and a r e d u c t i o n i n p r i m o r d i a l l o y a l t i e s over the l o n g term.  Dato Musa Hitam, the p r e s e n t M i n i s t e r o f  E d u c a t i o n , best sums up the whole c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h regards t o language e d u c a t i o n : to an end. widely  "Bahasa M a l a y s i a  language/ i s a means  I t i s a means of c r e a t i n g n a t i o n a l u n i t y .  spoken but i t i s e l i t i s t .  dialect o f  /Jlalay  7  T a m i l i s small.""'"  Chinese  English i s  i s l i m i t e d and / t h e I n d i a n  146  Notes  1.  F a r E a s t e r n Economic Review, June 23, 1978, p.16.  147  APPENDIX I  The Time-Schedule f o r the I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the Teaching i n Bahasa M a l a y s i a o f a l l S u b j e c t s o t h e r than E n g l i s h Language and t h e P u p i l s ' Own Languages i n N a t i o n a l - T y p e E n g l i s h S c h o o l s  Year  S u b j e c t s to be Taught i n Bahasa M a l a y s i a  1970  I n a l l s u b j e c t s o t h e r than E n g l i s h Language -ditto-  1971 1972  I n a l l s u b j e c t s o t h e r than E n g l i s h Language and P u p i l s ' Own Languages  (Primary Level) Standard 1 Standard 2 Standard 3  1973  -ditto-  Standard 4  1974  -ditto-  Standard 5  1975  -ditto-  Standard 6  (Secondary L e v e l ) 1976  -ditto-  Form I  1977  -ditto  Form I I  1978  -ditto ( S i j i l Rendah P e l a j a r a n E x a m i n a t i o n o n l y , 1978)  Form I I I  1979  -ditto-  Form IV  1980  -ditto-  Form V  ( S i j i l Pelajaran Malaysia E x a m i n a t i o n o n l y , 1980) 1981  -ditto-  Form V I (Lower)  1982  -ditto-  Form V I (Upper)  ( S i j i l Tinggi Persekolahan E x a m i n a t i o n o n l y , 1982)  P r o f e s s i o n a l C i r c u l a r No. 8/1969, M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , K u a l a Lumpur, 10 J u l y 1969. Source:  F r a n c i s Wong Hoy Kee and Ee T i a n g Hong, E d u c a t i o n i n Malaysia (2nd e d i t i o n ) , K u a l a Lumpur: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books ( A s i a ) L t d . 1975. p. 180.  APPENDIX I I S u b j e c t s t o be taught i n Bahasa M a l a y s i a i n N a t i o n a l - T y p e E n g l i s h P r i m a r y Schools i n 1970  Subjects  Standard Standard 1  Standard 2  Standard 3  Standard 4  i n Bahasa M a l a y s i a All  Subjects  A r t s and C r a f t s , P h y s i c a l and H e a l t h Education, L o c a l Studies, Music, Bahasa M a l a y s i a , I s l a m i c R e l i g i o u s Knowledge  As above  H i s t o r y , Geography, C i v i c s , A r t and C r a f t s , P h y s i c a l and H e a l t h Educat i o n , M u s i c , Bahasa M a l a y s i a , I s l a m i c R e l i g i o u s Knowledge  Subjects  i n English  E n g l i s h Language  Mathematics, S c i e n c e , E n g l i s h Language  As above  P u p i l s ' Own Nil Nil  P u p i l s ' Own  As above  Language  Language  -ditto-  Standard  5  C i v i c s , Bahasa M a l a y s i a , I s l a m i c R e l i g i o u s Knowledge  A l l other  subjects  -ditto-  Standard  6  Bahasa M a l a y s i a , I s l a m i c R e l i g i o u s Knowledge  A l l other  subjects  -ditto-  Source: F r a n c i s Wong Hoy Kee and Ee_Tiang Hong, op. c i t . , p. 181.  149  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS A b d u l Rahman, Tunku. May 13: B e f o r e and A f t e r . Utusan Melayu P r e s s , 1969.  K u a l a Lumpur:  A l l e n , James de V. The Malayan Union. New Haven: Y a l e Southeast A s i a S t u d i e s , 1967 (Monograph S e r i e s , No. 1 0 ) . Almond, G a b r i e l A. and James S. Coleman (eds.) The P o l i t i c s of D e v e l o p i n g Areas. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. Almond, G. A. and S. Verba. The C i v i c C u l t u r e . P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963.  N.J.:  Almond, G a b r i e l A. and P o w e l l , G. Bingham. Comparative P o l i t i c s , A Developmental Approach. New D e l h i . Amerind P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1972. A r a s a r a t n a m , Sinnappah. I n d i a n s i n M a l a y s i a and Singapore. K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Barber, Noel.  The War of the Running Dogs. The Malayan Emergency 1948-1960. New Y o r k : Weybright and T a l l e y , I n c . , 1972.  B a s t i n , John and Winks, Robin W. Compiled M a l a y s i a : S e l e c t e d H i s t o r i c a l Readings. K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. Brackman, A r n o l d C. Southeast A s i a ' s Second F r o n t . New F r e d r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1966.  York:  B r a s s , P a u l R.  Language, R e l i g i o n and P o l i t i c s i n N o r t h I n d i a . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974.  Chai Hon-Chan.  The Development of B r i t i s h Malaya 1896-1909. (2nd e d i t i o n ) K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967.  Cheng T i e k , Goh. The May Malaysia. 1971.  T h i r t e e n t h I n c i d e n t and Democracy i n K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Ching Hwang, Yen. The Overseas Chinese and t h e 1911 R e v o l u t i o n . K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976.  150 Coleman, James S.  C o r r y , W.C.S. Cowan, C D .  (ed) E d u c a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l Development. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965.  Malaya Today. B r i t i s h Commonwealth A f f a i r s No. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1955.  N i n e t e e n t h Century M a l a y a . (The O r i g i n s of B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l C o n t r o l ) London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961.  Deutsch, K a r l W.  Dye,  N a t i o n a l i s m and S o c i a l Communication: An I n q u i r y i n t o t h e F o u n d a t i o n s of N a t i o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons, 1953.  Thomas R.  Understanding P u b l i c P o l i c y . (third edition) Englewood C l i f f s , NJ.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1978.  E l e g a n t , Robert S.  E l s b r e e , W.H. Eddy Lee.  9.  The Dragon's Seed. P r e s s , 1959.  New  York:  St. Martin's  Japan's R o l e i n Southeast A s i a n N a t i o n a l i s t Movements. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953 E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n West M a l a y s i a . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972.  Singapore:  E g e r t o n , Hugh Edward. B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l P o l i c y i n the XXth London: Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1922.  Century.  Emerson, R u p e r t , M i l l s , Lennox A. and Thompson, V i r g i n i a . Government and N a t i o n a l i s m i n Southeast A s i a . New York: I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1942. Emerson, Rupert.  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government i n Southeast A s i a . Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955.  Emerson, Rupert.  M a l a y s i a : A study i n D i r e c t and I n d i r e c t R u l e . K u a l a Lumpur: U n i v e r s i t y o f Malaya P r e s s , 1964.  E n l o e , C y n t h i a H.  M u I t i ^ E t h n i c P o l i t i c s : The Case Study of M a l a y s i a . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : Center f o r South and Southeast A s i a S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1970.  E n l o e , C y n t h i a H.  E t h n i c C o n f l i c t and P o l i t i c a l Development. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1973.  Esman, M i l t o n J .  ' A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Development i n M a l a y s i a . I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972.  151  Fishman, Joshua A., C h a r l e s A. Ferguson and J y o t i r i n d r a Das Gupta Language Problems of D e v e l o p i n g N a t i o n s . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons, 1968. F u r n i v a l l , J.S.  (eds).  C o l o n i a l P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e . Cambridge, E n g l a n d : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948.  G i n s b u r g , N o r t o n and R o b e r t s , J r . C h e s t e r F. Malaya. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1958. G u l l i c k , J.M.  I n d i g e n o u s P o l i t i c a l System of Western M a l a y s i a . London: A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1958.  Gupta, J y o t i r i n d r a Das. Language C o n f l i c t and N a t i o n a l Development. B e r k e l e y , Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1970. H a l l , D.G.E.  A H i s t o r y of S o u t h e a s t A s i a . 1964.  Hanrahan, Gene Z.  London:  MacMillan,  The Communist S t r u g g l e i n M a l a y a . New I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1954.  H a r d g r a v e , Robert L. J r . The D r a v i d i a n Movement. P o p u l a r P r a k a s h a n , 1965.  York:  Bombay:  Hardgrave, Robert L. J r . I n d i a Government and P o l i t i c s i n a Developing Nation. (2nd e d i t i o n ) New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t Brace J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1975. Heidhues, Mary F. Somers. Southeast A s i a ' s C h i n e s e M i n o r i t i e s . 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