UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Anglo-Saxon iconography in the York Psalter Virgin cycle Kendon, Jennifer Doran 1979

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ANGLO-SAXON  ICONOGRAPHY  YORK P S A L T E R V I R G I N  I N THE CYCLE  by JENNIFER  DORAN KENDON  B.A., S i r G e o r g e W i l l i a m s  A THESIS  U n i v e r s i t y , 1972  SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L  FULFILMENT  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE MASTER  OF  OF ARTS in  THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE Department  We  accept to  this  of F i n e  t h e s i s as  the required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  STUDIES Arts  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  A u g u s t 1979 A  Jennifer  D o r a n Kendon > 1979  OF  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department-or  by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Fine  Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  June 30th,  1979  i i  ABSTRACT  The  m i n i a t u r e s of  Univ.  of G l a s g o w L i b r a r y ) ,  north  of  form,  style  century  England  dating  the York  an  Psalter  important manuscript  cji 1170,  have  an  iconography  to  the p i c t o r i a l  English  manuscripts  as  exemplified  Psalter,  t h e P e m b r o k e C o l l e g e M S . 1 2 0 and  L e av e s.  However,  unique  iconography  lustrated  scenes  sets  this  i s concerned  distinct  common t e x t u a l  recensions  iconographic  yzed  which from  shrouded  the  by  of  the S t .  the Four  on  the  in  12th Albans  Psalter  last  the Death,  by  the  three  il-  Burial  and  other representations south  literary  of  and  England.  artistic  I I a n a l y z e s the V i r g i n Latin  source  i n an A n g l o - S a x o n  Anglo-Saxon  tion,  with  the  the  of  This  sources f o r  imagery.  Chapter the  cycle  depicting  from  cycles  is distinguished  i t a p a r t from  subject i n manuscripts  thesis  of  i t s Virgin  folios — s i x  Assumption--which the  of  Psalter  from  obvious r e l a t i o n  and  the York  (MS.U.3.2,  version  i s shown  features does  not  the p o i n t body m o t i f  Anglo-Saxon  i n g e n e r a l the  and  and  homily to  then on  accord of v i e w  with of  tradition  The  either  a g a i n s t one  some o f  the  final  scene  of  these  i t s dramatic form,  i s established later  first  English  as  art.  against of i t s  the n a r r a t i v e .  explain  i n the c y c l e .  cycle  The  unusual of  texts, and  a characteristic Chapter  Assumpis  anal-  the trait  I I I discusses  of D o r m i t i o n - A s s u m p t i o n  iconography  in  i i i  Continental the  theme occurs  of  a Death  tually  the  York  from in  and be  P s a l t e r has  Byzantine  w h i c h was also  and to  an  as  well.  In  an  the  bined  Anglo-Saxon  new,  doing  artist  he  highly  has  of  a  w h e r e by  of  art.  the  Chapter  IV  in  the  contemporary  imaginative  the  created  of  York  the  to  that  through-  artist  of models  the  But,  proto-  Virgin cycle, some o f  has  the  other  devotion  pictorial  iconography,  habi-  iconography,  Psalter Virgin cycle  a unique  subject  often  ever-increasing  and  York  illumination.  very  the  aspect  sources  content.  notes  English  on  i n the a  Anglo-Saxon  influence  recurrence  m a i n a v a r i e t y of  inventive features, insular art.  The  of  miniatures,  for  comparison  form  development  other  followed  form.  i n expanded  logical  literary  original  special tradition  Isles,  cycle  atmosphere  Mary,  so  as  formative  contributed  miniatures  be  the  i n more d e v e l o p e d  a r t and  out the  British  in English  iconography  turns  the  and  seen  some u n u s u a l  type  in particular  Assumption  present  the  of  earlier  can  out  and  in art  it  P sa 11 er  art  has  to  com-  motifs.  imbued  with  In a  iv  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT LIST  i  OF I L L U S T R A T I O N S  -vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  x i i i  CHAPTER I I. II. III.  i  1  I n t r o d u c t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n  2  Provenance  8  Historiography  16  CHAPTER I I  21  The V i r g i n  Cycle  Analysis-Textual  23 Sources  27  Analysis-Assumption miniature  49  CHAPTER I I I .  60  Assumption iconography—Continental traditions  61  Assumption  72  iconography—insular  traditions  CHAPTER I V The o t h e r  miniatures  Conclusions NOTES t o C h a p t e r to  Chapter  85 92  I  . 100  I I  105  to Chapter  I I I  109  to  IV  112  Chapter  V  Page  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1  1  8  ILLUSTRATIONS  1  2  9  SOURCES OF  192  ILLUSTRATIONS  v i LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  1.  J a n u a r y : p l o w i n g . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l . C o t t o n MS T i b e r i u s B . v , f o l i o 3.  British  Museum  2.  June:  3.  J a n u a r y : F e a s t i n g . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o  4.  F e b r u a r y : Warming b e f o r e a F i r e . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o l v .  5.  March: D i g g i n g . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 2.  6.  A p r i l : Lovemaking. C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o  7.  May:  Hawking. C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , York P s a 1 t e r . gow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 3.  8.  June:  P r u n i n g . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , York gow: U n i v . L i b r . M S U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 3v .  9.  July:  Mowing. C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 4.  10.  A u g u s t : R e a p i n g . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 4 v .  11.  September: G a t h e r i n g g r a p e s . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , York P salter. G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 5.  12.  O c t o b e r : T r e a d i n g g r a p e s . C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , Y o r k t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 5 v .  13.  November: York  14.  December: K i l l i n g hogs. C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 6v .  15.  C r e a t i o n o f Adam; T h e T e m p t a t i o n . F u l l p a g e m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : Univ.Libr. MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 7 v .  16.  E x p u l s i o n f r o m P a r a d i s e ; Adam d i g g i n g , E v e s p i n n i n g . F u l l p a g e m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 8.  p r u n i n g . J u l y : mowing. C a l e n d a r pages, York P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o s 3v a n d 4.  York  York 1.  York 2v .  Psalter.  Psalter.  Psalter. Psalter.  GlasGlasGlasgow:  Psal-  G a t h e r i n g ' a c o r n s f o r hogs. C a l e n d a r page d e t a i l , P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 6. York P s a l t e r .  vii  17.  Angel  T e l l s Abraham to s a c r i f i c e h i s son; S a c r i f i c e of I s a a c . F u l l p a g e m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . Glasgow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 f o l i o 9v .  18.  Third  Temptation of C h r i s t . R a i s i n g of L a z a r u s . Full p a g e m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . Glasgow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 f o l i o l l v  19.  S u p p e r a t Emmaus; C h r i s t ' s A p p e a r a n c e t o t h e D i s c i p l e s . F u l l p a g e m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . Glasgow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 1 2 .  20.  D o u b t i n g Thomas. C h r i s t a t t h e Sea o f T i b e r i a s . m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . Univ.Libr. MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 1 3 v .  21.  The A s c e n s i o n , F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , Y o r k P s a l t e r . gow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 1 4 .  22.  Pentecost. Full Univ.Libr.  23.  C h r i s t i n M a j e s t y . F u l l Page m i n i a t u r e , Y o r k Glasgow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 1 6 .  24.  Angel Announces t h e d e a t h to t h e V i r g i n . V i r g i n Announces Impending Death t o t h e A p o s t l e s . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 1 7 v  25.  Death  26.  B u r i a l o f t h e V i r g i n . The A s s u m p t i o n . F u l l p a g e m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : Univ.Libr. MS. U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 1 9 v .  27.  D a v i d H a r p i n g . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , Y o r k P s a l t e r . gow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 2 1 v .  28.  B e a t u s I n i t i a l . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , Y o r k P s a l t e r . Glasgow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 2 2 .  29.  S t a t u e t t e from B r i d l i n g t o n A l b e r t Museum.  30.  Statuette, back view, from B r i d l i n g t o n V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum.  31.  The V i s i t a t i o n . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , C o p e n h a g e n C o p e n h a g e n : R o y a l L i b r a r y MS T h o t t 1 4 3 2 o ,  page m i n i a t u r e , MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o  York 15v  Psalter .  F u l l page Glasgow:  Glas-  Glasgow,  Psalter.  o f t h e V i r g i n . The F u n e r a l P r o c e s s i o n . F u l l p a g e m i n i a t u r e i n two r e g i s t e r s , Y o r k P s a 1 1 e r . G l a s g o w : Univ.Libr. MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 1 8 .  Priory..  London:  Glas-  Victoria  Priory.  and  London:  Psalter. folio  v i i i B e a t u s I n i t i a l . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , Copenhagen P s a l t e r . C o p e n h a g e n : R o y a l L i b r a r y , MS T h o t t 1 4 3 2 o , f o l i o 17. K o i m e s i s . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , W i n c h e s t e r P s a l t e r . B r i t i s h M u s e u m C o t t o n MS N e r o C . i v , f o l i o 29. I n i t i a l t o P s a l m 7 2 : Woman s u c k l i n g two men (?Mother C h u r c h ) . Y o r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 f o l i o 94. I n i t i a l t o P s a l m 1 0 1 : Man a n d a n i m a l s . Yo r k P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 128. I n i t i a l to Psalm David. York f o l i o 46 .  26: S a m u e l a n n o i n t i n g and c r o w n i n g Psalter. G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 ,  Decorative i n i t i a l U n i v . L i b r . MS  T to P s a l m 67. Y o r k U.3.2, f o l i o 85v.  Psalter .  Glasgow:  I n i t i a l t o P s a l m 7 7 : B a t t l e o f a man a n d a C e n t a u r . York P s a l t e r . G l a s g o w : U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 101 . I n i t i a l t o P s a l m 5 1 , Q: D o e g w h i s p e r i n g t o S a u l a n d p o i n t i n g to D a v i d . York P s a l t e r . Glasgow: Univ.Libr. MS U . 3 . 2 , f o l i o 7 5 . Initial MS  to P s a l m 97. U.3.2, f o l i o  Assumption. M i s s a l f o l i o 98 . Death  York P s a l t e r . Glasgow: 125v.  from  Tours.  Tours:  Univ.Libr.  Bibl.Comm.  of the V i r g i n . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e . P a r i s : B i b l . N a t . MS l a t . 1 7 3 2 5 .  MS,  P e r i c o p e Book.  Entombment of C h r i s t . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r . H i l d e s h e i m : S t . Godehard's, unnumbered MS, p.48. Entombment of C h r i s t . W a l l - p a i n t i n g . Formis, nave, n o r t h w a l l .  Sant'Angelo  in  B u r i a l of S t . A e m i l i u s , I v o r y p a n e l from r e l i q u a r y s h r i n e , A b b e y o f S a n M i l l a n de l a C o g o l l a , R i o j a ( p r o v i n c e of L o g r o n o ) , S p a i n . Entombment outer  of C h r i s t . R e l i e f c a r v i n g . doorway. W i l t s h i r e .  Malmesbury  Entombment of C h r i s t . Scene from m i n i a t u r e . L o n d o n : V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m MS of leaf.  Abbey,  Psalter leaf. 661, v e r s o  ix 48.  Burial  o f J u d a s M a c c a b e u s , d e t a i l from m i n i a t u r e , Winchester B i b l e . Winchester: Cathedral B i b l e , f o l i o 350v.  49.  Burial  of t h e K i n g . D e t a i l from m i n i a t u r e , Romance o f A l e x a n d e r . C a m b r i d g e : T r i n i t y C o l l e g e MS 0.9.34, f o l i o 34.  50.  Burial  o f t h e Dead. D e t a i l from m i n i a t u r e Seven A c t s o f M e r c y , P a r i s P s a l t e r . N a t . MS l a t . 8846, f o l i o 156v.  51.  Burial  o f J o s e p h . Lower h a l f o f page. A e l f r i c B r i t i s h Museum C o t t o n MS C l a u d i u s B . i v ,  52.  Tree  of J e s s e . M i n i a t u r e , S h a f t e s b u r y L i b r a r y MS Lansdowne 383, f o l i o  53.  Tree  of J e s s e . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , Lambeth B i b l e . London: Lambeth P a l a c e L i b r a r y MS.3, f o l i o 1 9 8 r .  54.  Tree  o f J e s s e . F u l l Page m i n i a t u r e , W i n c h e s t e r Psalter. B r i t i s h Museum: C o t t o n MS Nero C . i v , f o l i o 9.  55.  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Assumption m i n i a t u r e , see F i g . 26.  56.  I n c a r n a t i o n . D e t a i l from m i n i a t u r e , Bamberg G o s p e l s . Bamberg: S t a a t b i b l . MS 94.A.11.18, f o l i o 155.  57.  A s s u m p t i o n . A l a b a s t e r r e l i e f c a r v i n g . New Y o r k : p o l i t a n Museum, The C l o i s t e r s .  58.  ?Assumption of the V i r g i n . Side panel Sant'Engracia, Saragossa.  59.  A s s u m p t i o n of t h e V i r g i n . Fragment Sens: C a t h e d r a l T r e a s u r e .  60.  Assumption St. %  61.  Koimesis. of  Otto  relief  York  from  British  Psalter.  Bayerische  Metro-  sarcophagus.  from b r o c a d e  i n gold bookcover,  I I I . Munich:  Pentateuch. f o l i o 72v.  Psalter. 15.  of the V i r g i n . Ivory bookcover G a l l : Monastery L i b r a r y . Ivory  d e p i c t i n g the Paris: Bibl.  textile.  of T u o t i l l o .  Gospel  Staatbibl.  Book Clm. 4453  62.  Detail  63.  K o i m e s i s . C e n t r a l p a n e l o f i v o r y t r i p t y c h from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . W a s h i n g t o n : Dumbarton Oaks C o l l e c t i o n . K o i m e s i s . I c o n . S a i n t C a t h a r i n e ' s M o n a s t e r y , Mount S i n a i .  64.  o f F i g . 61.  X  65.  Koimesis.  Mosaic. Martorana,  Palermo.  66.  Koimesis. W a l l - p a i n t i n g . Church of Saint Clement, S a i n t Mary P e r i b l e p t o s . Ohrid, Y u g o s l a v i a .  67.  Assumption. D e t a i l from M i n i a t u r e , Sacramentary from A u g s b e r t . B r i t i s h M u s e u m MS H a r l e y 2 9 0 8 , f o l i o 123v.  68.  K o i m e s i s w i t h C o r o n a t i o n . M i n i a t u r e , Prtim G r a d u a l . P a r i s : B i b l . N a t . MS l a t . 9 4 4 8 , f o l i o 6 0 v .  69.  Death  70.  A s s u m p t i o n . M i n i a t u r e , M o r g a n 6 4 . New Y o r k : M o r g a n L i b r . MS 6 4 1 , f o l i o 1 4 2 v .  formerly  o f t h e V i r g i n and A s s u m p t i o n . M i n i a t u r e , P e r i c o p e Book o f Henry I I . M u n i c h : B a y e r i s c h e Staatbibl. Clm. 4452, f o l i o 119.  71. Death  of t h e V i r g i n and A s s u m p t i o n . p o r t a l , Cathedral of S e n l i s .  72. A s s u m p t i o n .  Capital.  Pierpont  Tympanum o f w e s t  Clermont-Ferrand.  73. D e a t h  o f t h e V i r g i n . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f E t h e l w o l d . B r i t i s h M u s e u m : MS A d d . 4 9 5 9 8 , f o l i o 102v .  74.  of the V i r g i n . Miniature, Benedictional of A r c h b i s h o p Rob e r t . R o u e n : B i b l . M u n . MS Y . 7 , f o l i o 4.  Death  75. D e a t h  76.  Plan  of the V i r g i n . Locis Sanet i s .  o f Four J e r u s a l e m Churches. D e t a i l from o f A d a m n a n ' s De Locis Sanctis. Vienna: Cod. 458, f o l i o 4 v .  77. D e a t h  78.  o f t h e V i r g i n and ? A s s u m p t i o n . S t o n e Church of Wirksworth, Derbyshire.  Assumption. no  79.  Virgin  80.  Creation  81.  Fall  82.  D r a w i n g f r o m p a g e . B e d e ' s De Sinding, PI. Vllb.  Ivory  panel.  Munich:  Liber  page. Copy Staat.Bibl.  slab  Bayerisches  from  Nat.Mus.  MA 1 6 4 .  and C h i l d .  Stone  relief.  o f Adam. M o s a i c .  o f Man a n d E x p u l s i o n Pala tina. S a c r i f i c e of Isaac. Ivory  York  Minster.  Monreale. from  Paradise.  Mosaic.  plaque. Cathedral  of  Palermo,  Salerno.  xi 83.  S a c r i f i c e of Isaac. Wall-painting. Cathedral, Baptistery.  Concordia  84.  S a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c . D e t a i l from m i n i a t u r e , Lambeth B i b l e . L o n d o n : L a m b e t h P a l a c e L i b r . MS 3, f o l i o 6.  85.  S a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c . D e t a i l from m o s a i c . Church o f San V i t a l l e , Ravenna. L u n e t t e , P r e s b y t e r y , l e f t w a l l .  86.  A s c e n s i o n . D e t a i l from m i n i a t u r e , M i s s a l J u m i e g e s . R o u e n , B i b l . M u n . MS Y . 6 .  87.  A s c e n s i o n . D e t a i l from page, H e r e f o r d M u s e u m : MS C a l i g u l a A . X I V .  88.  Ascension. Bibl.  89.  Ascension. Ampulla.  90.  Ascension.  91.  A s c e n s i o n . I n i t i a l . Drogo Sacramentary. N a t . MS l a t . 9 4 2 8 , f o l i o 7 1 v .  92.  Ascension. wold.  93.  A s c e n s i o n . D e t a i l from m i n i a t u r e , A t h e l s t a n B r i t i s h M u s e u m : MS G a l b a A . X V I I I .  94.  A s c e n s i o n . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , Pembroke 120 (Cambridge).  95.  A s c e n s i o n . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , S t . A l b a n s H i l d e s h e i m : S t . Godehard's unnumbered  96.  A s c e n s i o n . D e t a i l from page, Copy o f t h e H o m i l i e s o f t h e V i r g i n by James o f K o k k i n o b a p h o s . Paris: B i b l . N a t . MS. g r e c . 9 4 .  97.  A s c e n s i o n . D e t a i l from page. P s a l t e r from Bury S t . Edmonds. V a t i c a n : Reg.MS.12, f o l i o 73v.  98.  Symbols o f t h e E v a n g e l i s t s . I n c i s e d d e c o r a t i o n on wooden c o f f i n r e l i q u a r y o f S t . C u t h b e r t . Durham: Cathedral Library.  99.  Symbols of t h e E v a n g e l i s t s . M i n i a t u r e s , L i n d i s f a r n e G o s p e l s . B r i t i s h M u s e u m C o t t o n MS. N e r o D . i v , f o l i o s 25v ( S t . M a t t h e w ) ; 93v ( S t . M a r k . ) ; 137v ( S t . L u k e ) ; 209v ( S t . J o h n ) .  of Robert  Troper.  D e t a i l from page, Rabula Gospels. L a u r e n t i a n a C o d . P l u t . 1 56.  Detail  Monza:  from  Cathedral  Mosaic,  Sagittaria.  of  British Florence:  Treasure.  Monreale. Paris:  Bibl.  F u l l page m i n i a t u r e , B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f B r i t i s h M u s e u m : MS A d d . 4 9 5 9 8 .  Ethel-  Psalter.  College  MS  Psalter. MS, p . 5 4 .  xii  100.  Symbol of t h e E v a n g e l i s t . M i n i a t u r e , Book o f C e r n e . Cambridge: U n i v . L i b r . L I . I . 1 0 , f o l i o 21v.  Figures  used  i n Notes  i.  B u r i a l o f P a u l a . I n i t i a l E. B o d l . 7 1 7 l e i a n L i b r a r y ' , f o l i o 6v .  Oxford:  i i .  Koimesis. Ivory. S . 6.  Landesmuseum  Darmstadt:  Hessische  Bod-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I thesis ment  would  a n d many  and cheered  I wish partment  thoughtful  me w h i l e  support,  Dr. Morehart's  gentle  suggestions  I worked  A r t s , who a c t e d  and g u i d a n c e  needed.  of t h e D e p a r t -  on t h i s  to thank a l s o Dr. Debra  of F i n e  during  thusiasm much  g r a t i t u d e t o my  A r t s , f o r her constant  encouragement,  1978  to express  a d v i s o r , D r . Mary M o r e h a r t ,  of F i n e  guided  like  thesis.  Pincus,  as a d v i s o r  when  De-  i n 1977 -  sabbatical leave.  came a t a t i m e  which  they  Her e n were  1 Chapter  1  Of  the c o l l e c t i o n  Glasgow L i b r a r y , manuscript ter  featured it  dating  (Glasgow,  acclaimed  an  ca  of  MS.  to us  also  by  the  manuscript  and  Miller  the  12th century p s a l t e r s  describe  know as  Hunter  U.3.2).  the of  12th  counts  Aitken  a  ".  citation  . . large  i t as  ".  i n 1908  i t s physical  York  Traditionally  numerous  times  d e c o r a t i o n has  and  . . one  of  Psal-  c e n t u r y , i t has  of v a r i o u s a r t h i s t o r i a n s . as  the  of  illuminated  English medieval  Its luxurious  attention  to the  we  exhibitions  the  and  which  i m p o r t a n t work of  literature.''  Young  p l a c e m u s t go  1170  Univ.Libr.  i n major  i s known  larly  pride  b e l o n g i n g to the U n i v e r s i t y  art  and  in  scho-  caught  Rickert describes  splendid  psalter.  .  ."  the most b e a u t i f u l  of  t o come d o w n t o u s were the  features  first  to  in detail  systematically  in their  Catalogue 3  of  the  Manuscripts  in  the  More r e c e n t l y  the  been  i n T.S.R. B o a s e ' s  surveyed  mann's 1973  manuscript  acteristics  and  of  first by  part  of  to r e l a t e  Hunterian of  Museum.  t h e Psalter  s h o r t m o n o g r a p h and Manuscripts  this  presenting a  i n order  the  iconography  c a t a l o g u e , Romanesque  The the  style  Library  Chapter  summary o f i t to  have i n Kauff-  1066-1190.  will  4  introduce  i t s chief  the mainstream  charof  2  English of  illumination  greater interest  well  known a b o u t  second  part  aspects.  of  enance of  t h e York  the  York  a new  evidence  form  essay.  are  the As  less  therefore  outline  I will  However,  features  f o c u s of  the  i t s atypical the  point  following  out,  the  prov-  from  the n o r t h of  England  iconography—two  interrelated  factors—  understanding of  this  the and  will  Psalter  the n a t u r e of  Humber a t  12th century.  Psalter  the Chapter  this  i t s Virgin  suggest  I believe  These w i l l  sections  and  of  during the  the manuscript  artistic  activity  and  also  n o r t h of  the  time.  I.  To 1977  confirms that  contains a  large  and  begin: a personal v i s i t  210  folios  scale  brilliant  butes  to  the manuscript measuring  290  x 184  together with  colouring  hand  typical  for  prayers at  of  the  Originally  the end  which  written  are with  mm  in  as  condition  (11% x  i t s lavish  throughout  1160's,  to Glasgow  i n i t s present  i t s sumptuous appearance.  one  script.  which  b y me  use  7%"),^ of  gold  the d e c o r a t i o n c o n t r i The  text  noted  by  in a late  is written Boase,  14th  in  except  century  feminine endings  but l a -  3 ter an  altered  into  indication  feminine several  of  gender of  the masculine p l u r a l ,  t h e s e p r a y e r s ; may  the o r i g i n a l  t h e Psalter.  as w e l l  as  owner  the  of  emphasis  the m i n i a t u r e s suggest  that  The  on  the V i r g i n  in  the  patron of  such  i  a d e l u x e w o r k may high  standing  well  from  manuscript.^  have been an  Yorkshire,  Thus,  the  York  with  the t r a d i t i o n  ters  arid o t h e r d e v o t i o n a l  abbess  the area of Psalter  of  lady  origin  would  popular i n England books  or  be  of  of  the  associated  illuminated  produced  f o r women,  psalas  8 exampled  by  t h e St.  On  Albans  opening  the d e c o r a t i o n  of  initial  lively  of  H with  the months,  the  zodiac  tion the  complex  genre  single  figures  been t r a c e d by  early  lower  by  scenes  Psalters.  i s greeted f i r s t  pages a t  the  depicting  (Figs.  2-14). psalters  engaged  i n t h e York  signs  such  i n England of  Psalter  specifically  i n the  the  and  groups  in of  activity  English  11th c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t s such as  of  illustra-  instead  i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Schapiro to  by  the o c c u p a t i o n s  While  12th c e n t u r y , the use as  top  down t h e p a g e w i t h  i n medieval the  one  characters  i n roundels  C o n t i n e n t by  Shaftesbury  t h e Psalter,  the Calendar  and  i s customary  and  has  influence  the B r i t i s h  Mus-  9  eum from  MS.  Tiberius  B.v  folio  3  (Fig.l).  the b e g i n n i n g t h e r e are h i n t s  here  Consequently i n the  right  opening  be  4  p a g e s and Psalter  i n the  responds  indications  of  to l o c a l  opposed  Overall, full-page 15-28), from  i s within  style  (Hildesheim, From  this  Bury  Bible,  Psalter  ca  1150  of  double  of  the  figures frame;  borders  of  the  which  MS  3 ) , and  are:  type  of  the  frame  ca  the  Pembroke  Winchester  C.IV),  the  1 1  of broad  within  ornament  and  the  1140-1150  a means t o b u i l d  itself;  new  ms,).'"  through  the use  filling  the  1119-1123  2), the  Bible,  i n compositions kept  the  of  unnumbered  L  style  page—(Figs.  ca  descended  Lambeth  edges as  fashion.  thirteen  impact  C.C.C. MS  York  illumination  Psalter,  M u s e u m MS N e r o  f e a t u r e s of  c o l o u r w i t h shaded  grouping  the  (British  English  Treasury,  Lambeth P a l a c e L i b r . ca  to imported  by  Albans  (Cambridge,  cay1140,  the  e l a b o r a t e Beatus  generated St.  that  the m i n i a t u r e s —  trend of  tradition  1135  120,  of an  St. Godehard's  characteristic  ies  as  i n the  pictorial  C o l l e g e MS  and  the main  the mid-century  (London,  style  illustrations  Romanesque  of  the  as  i t s owner  areas  volume; the  the  boundar-  inside  architectural  the set12  tings  subjugated  The initials 150  at  style  the  smaller g i l t  (Figs.  to  the  of  requirements  the  the  initials—ten,  liturgical  sections  initials  throughout  34-40) conforms  of  of  to m i d - c e n t u r y  large  the  the  narrative.  historiated  Psalms  remaining  type.  and  about  t e x t —  They f e a t u r e  thick Like  stems, l a r g e the  initials  resemble, secular  they  harp-playing  to  are  painted  lake  and  or  The  part  and  than  they  include hair  such  and  the  Byzantine  contemporary  tones  of  English  notes:  ".  .  The  of  attempts  the  Romanesque  . ( i t ) i s the first  executed  12th  drapery Of  the  York  begun  is  no-  colourthe  colour  gold  vocabu-  Ottonian  style also  reflects  12th  to  century  represents  stylization.  i n the  in-  from  later  As  Bible  the  Wormald  i t s farthest  Bury  as  singly  pure  tandem w i t h  Psalter  reduction  i n these  backgrounds,  developed  rich brown  silhouetted  century  and  as  gray,  of  is  miniatures  a blue  slatey  times—in the  The  vermillion  Such a p a l e t t e  developments.  climax  of  gold  i l l u m i n a t i o n as  i n England,  of  in black,  tooled  with  sources.  colour.  green,  figures  i n e f f e c t at  in English  v i s u a l charm  colours  aquamarine  stunning.  i s i n keeping  manuscripts  which  her  Psalter's  brilliant  against  ground  the  of  outlined  garish  and  and  combing  the  e f f e c t of  almost  lary  of  i n blended  i n groups less  scrolls.  Psalter  lavish  mermaid  range  and  pigments  thing  overly  pure orange,  beige.  set  inhabited  Winchester  in clear, bright  lazuli  tense  the  large  i t s wide  red,  lapus  as  not  and  goat.'^  A due  i n the  are  motifs  blossoms  limit  t o make  a  6 compromise between c e r t a i n  aspects  ticularly  damp-fold  convention  of  had  of  i n the  pattern which  a r t . " . ^ evident gures with the  A  similar  i n the  of  course process  figural  elongated,  a metallic artist's  tubular  appearance  tendency  an  ornamental  in  these  on  the  design,  characters  face  of  Often  the  f i g u r e s of  the  i n 12th  miniatures scenes this  century  the  York  of  deluxe  by  a pictorial  New  his  against are  to  i s also  with  stances  f i -  and  in spite  f i g u r e s as  look  love  in barbaric  Psalter,  immense  par-  English  patterns  Yet,  i s told  Psalter  its affinity  represent  from  the  York  i n the  i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n of  reveals  ration  art,  of  part  of  expressiveness of  dawning  sacrifice  their  gold  capable.of  despair his  backgrounds,  expressing  pathos.  In Psalter  see  the  in rigid  i s an  isolated  York  the  ( F i g . 15).  A b r a h a m w h e n he  (Fig.17).  human  of  conceive  we  and  schematized  shape  there  as  son  real  to  Byzantine  i t s true origins  of  style  of  final  to  the  psalters.^  events days  Psalter  from of  (Figs.  illustrations, E n g l i s h method The  the  the  subjects  B i b l e and  life  of  f u l l - p a g e scenes  or  emphasizing  the  from Life  the of  of  Virgin. to  the  six In  group  prefaced  the of  deco-  the  Include  t e x t pages were  c y c l e of both,  the  15-26) b e l o n g s  E n g l i s h p s a l t e r s whose  Testament,  the  Old  Christ  or and  7  occasionally known t h a t a  from  this  Continental  system  by  the  Life  practice  of  innovation,  the  13th  of  the  Virgin.'''^  prefatory  though  century.  In  It is  well  illustration  i t became a s p i t e of  a  was  not  widespread  possible  ulti-  18 mate o r i g i n earliest to  an  in Byzantine  example of  English  art which  such a  manuscript  P^cht  decorative  of  the  11th  suggests,  scheme  the  is attributed  century,  British  Mus-  1 9 eum  MS  Tiberius  Psalter  C.vi.  adopts  following tically  Here  a native  chapters,  English  again.the  tradition  i t is this  traits  which  and  artist  as  of  I will  hallmark  York  show i n  predilection for  i s the  the  the  characteris-  of  his  creative  capac i t y . One there  may  i s obvious  between amples would  the of  relation  miniatures  English  agree with  overall  established  other  pictorial  dating  ca  leaves  1140, now  of  from  this  in style, the  York  introduction form  Professors  by  the the  cycles  B o a s e and  manuscript St.  Albans  represented  and  Psalter  i l l u m i n a t i o n between  appearance  tion  of  conclude  the  to  ex-  1175.  Kauffmann  Psalter  v i z : Pembroke C o l l e g e  other  and  is allied  by  iconography  and  1125  that  I  that the  line  and  in traditwo  manuscripts  M S . 1 2 0 and  i n d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n s known as  the the  set Four  20 Psalter  Leaves.  However,  i n the  remainder  of  this  Chap-  8 ter,  I wish  Psalter  to present  which  produced  the a t y p i c a l  set i t apart  i n the south  of  from  f e a t u r e s of the  the main  line  of  York  manuscripts  England.  II. S i n c e most in  the southern  first ern  schools,  of a l l f o r being  scriptorium.  vival  E n g l i s h Romanesque t h e York  an  While  Psalter  important  we  i n the 12th century  do  illumination  have  gains  manuscript evidence  i n s c u l p t u r e and  centers  distinction from  a  north-  of a n o r t h e r n r e i n architecture,  21 particularly the  north  are less  manuscripts Edmonds, ters  from  well  examples of i l l u m i n a t i o n  known.  the southern  Canterbury  are assigned  Psalter which  i n Yorkshire,  e t al.,  In comparison schools  only  to t h e n o r t h .  (Copenhagen, Royal  to the  other  MS  Thott  Bury  St.  contemporary  These a r e : t h e  Libr.  numerous  at Winchester,  three  from  143  Copenhagen  2°, c a  1170,  i s similar  Calendar 293, m i d  t o t h e York Psalter i n s t y l e , s c r i p t and 22 entries; a n d two b o o k s now a t O x f o r d , Douce MS o r t h i r d q u a r t e r 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , a n d MS Gouch L i t u r g .  23 2  (S.C.  18343),  late  12th century.  group moreover  t h e York  another  an a s p e c t  from  psal-  count,  i t scolleagues  tury manuscripts  Psalter  this  i s t h e most  which  northern significant  d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t not  i n the north  i n general,  Of  but from  other  viz. i t sVirgin  12th  cycle.  on  only cenThese  9 miniatures to  other  heavily It  (Figs.  on A n g l o - S a x o n  revival  rate  northern  century  from  since  noted  not reflected  England.  Among  translation),  Archbishop  though  that  from  a  sepa-  i n the other 12th  greater  and o t h e r s ,  which  the northern  significance f o r the  special  the primary  with  a r e : Oswald  twice  of Beverley  the primacy  evi-  i s i n the selection  are associated  these  Cuthbert  John  i n this  cycle.  others,  (24 A p r i l ) ,  stems  i t accounts  scriptorium  i n the Calendar  imagery.  claim  Therefore  assumes  rely-  students of  I shall  iconography  i n part  unusual  to concentrate  chapters  by Boase  f o r a northern  Wilfrid  i n contrast  by e a r l i e r  the south.  of the V i r g i n  As  his  tradition  argument  saints  I wish  o f t h e Psalter  treatment  of  which  of indigenous  examples  provenance  dence  Psalter  for their  suggested  In the f o l l o w i n g  this  my  sources  aspect—not  manuscript—oh  thesis.  for  i n t h e York  representations of the subject, I believe  i s this  the  24-26)  (24 A p r i l (7 M a y )  o f York  of  the north  (5 A u g u s t ) , and a g a i n  on  d e s c r i b e d as  dates  from  after  24 his  death,  national their as  and B o t o l p h  saints  occurrence  the Calendar  such  (17 J u n e ) .  as Oswald  elsewhere from  Some  of these are  and C u t h b e r t ,  i n southern  t h e Winchester  a s we  see  from  manuscripts, such 25 Psalter. But John o f  10 Beverley the  seldom occurs  r a r e mention of  outside  the  Bishop  northern  manuscripts  of  Paulinus  York,  famous  f o r c h r i s t e n i n g Edwin at York  theory  that  nated  the  i n the  Psalter  diocese  i n 627,  i n i t s northern of York,  self.  For  St. Cuthbert  given  which  l e d Boase  both  i f not  (d.644),  supports  connections  the  city  h i s f e a s t and  in his original  and  the origi-  of York i t -  translation  assessment  of  are  the  26 manuscript But  the  suggest  absence of  Benedict gue  to  Biscop,  against  greater  p o s s i b l e patronage  other  Carilef,  Durham.  emphasis  Northumbrian Boisilus  However,  f o r he  from  s a i n t s such as  and  Aidan  St. Augustine  i s mentioned  Durham.  seems t o is  three  times,  a  some s p e c i a l  meaning  the  His  28  octave  4  an  the manuscript.  September  entries. with  of  and  f e a s t on  his translation  Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Augustinian Since  the  cognized  Y o r k as  the  that  fact  there  in i t s leaves,  to as  the  home o f are  Psalter.  no  for  August, i t s October  t h e r e may  be  the  art historians Psalter,  and  marks, colophons  the manuscript  28  11  promi-  are  connection  27  1920's m o s t  the  tions  York  house.  on  ar-  given  nence u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h owner  Bede,  Reversing  have  re-  in spite  or  of  inscrip-  i s commonly r e f e r r e d his earlier  opinion,  11 Boase  notes  i n h i s monograph,  attribution  to York  The  is certainly  York  Psalter,  that  r e a s o n a b l e on  the  an  basis  29 of  the Calendar  cuss  i t in detail,  cause  of  century was  Also,  a provenance  t h e known a r t i s t i c York  still  artistic  was  no  though from  community under  of a r t i s t i c  from  Virgin,  sculpture,  By  the  i n the l a t e  be-  12th  though i t  m a i n t a i n e d an  active  i t s powerful prelate, from  1154  Roger of 30 to 1181. The  p r o d u c t i o n from  York  i s well  docu-  as  dated v a r i o u s l y  also  dis-  i s possible  longer the northern c a p i t a l ,  l'Evequ'e, A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k  mented  does not  there.  t h e n o r t h e r n m e t r o p o l i s and  excellence  he  York  activity  N  Pont  and  entries.  e v i d e n c e d by t h e famous York ' 3 from the 10th to the 12th c e n t u r y ,  12th century s e r i e s  of  over-life32  sized  Prophets  There,  i s also  atelier  from  the B e n e d i c t i n e Abbey  p r o o f of an  at York  early  a figure  p r o d u c i n g work of h i g h q u a l i t y .  we  do  scriptorium  from  one  of which  Two may  glass fragre-  of Jesse, an e a r l y i n s t a n c e o f 33 12th c e n t u r y theme. S a d l y , t h e r e i s no e x t a n t of manuscripts i l l u m i n a t e d at York at t h i s time,  t h i s new evidence though  S t . Mary.  12th c e n t u r y s t a i n e d  ments a r e p r e s e r v e d at the M i n s t e r , flect  of  a Tree  know o f  earlier  ones and  also  of  an  important  known f o r i t s i n d i v i d u a l  style  i n the  13th  Moreover,  of A r c h b i s h o p  34 century. (729-737),  and  later  since under  the  time  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of  Egbert  Alcutn  12 (from  7 8 0 ) , t h e famed  Library  at the Minster  School  es-  35 tablished though  a tradition  little  testified Friars  remains,  at York which  a more  was  first  from  A l -  tradition i s  catalogue  of the Austin 36 than 646 books.  not less  i s the accepted  attribution  origin  of the  the Augustinian by Z a r n e c k i  between  the manuscript  Psal-  on S t . A u g u s t i n e  t o an A u g u s t i n i a n  suggested  connection  of this  i n the Calendar  likely  A provenance  lists  York  the emphasis  cates  the extent  by the 13th c e n t u r y  While ter,  of b o o k - c o l l e c t i n g at York.  Priory  at  house.  Bridlington  on t h e g r o u n d s and o t h e r  indi-  of the  works  of a r t  37 known be  summarized  ous by  to o r i g i n a t e  there.  The c a s e  for Bridlington  as f o l l o w s .  Although  b y no m e a n s  as C i s t e r c i a n t h e second  endowed  establishments  decade  of the 12th century  and p r o s p e r o u s  The P r i o r y  Augustinian  of B r i d l i n g t o n ,  Canons by W a l t e r  i n the north,  founded  as numerthere  a number  houses  may  were  of  well-  i n Yorkshire.  f o r the Augustinian  de G a n t c a 1114 i n h o n o u r  of the  Holy  38 Mary It  was  York of  , was  known a s a c e n t e r  a l s o one o f t h e r i c h e s t  Psalter  to have  indeed  o f l e a r n i n g o f some houses.  been  still  be a r g u e d  t h a t we  Supposing the  commissioned  B r i d l i n g t o n — s i n c e the Calendar  suggests  do n o t i n f a c t  repute.  know  f o r the use  t h i s — i t i f that  can Priory  produced  i t .  Although  dence  that  there  i s record  I have not  found  Bridlington maintained of  Robert  the  an  documentary  active  Scribe  who  evi-  scriptorium,  was  active  in  39 1159.  The  grows  argument  stronger  sculpture there,  f o r B r i d l i n g t o n as  however  dated  to  suggests  the  that  an  artistic  center  an  important  fragment  of  12th  century  since late  recently  B r i d l i n g t o n supported  at  found  least  an  40 important  the  lower  sured in  sculpture  left  niche  or  leaning  half  of  In  one  for  foot  the  Fig. their  works  forward  in height.  Yorkshire  a background.  ling.  4  first  one  ( F i g s . 29-30)  has  The  striking  surely  w h i c h was  pose of  capable  of  is  carved  It  the  p o s e and he  i n the  producing  the  by  a  figure  Zarnecki  Copenhagen  resemblence  originated  mea-  position in  been compared  in expressive  have  sculpture—with  original  V i s i t a t i o n i n the 31)  represents  f i g u r e which would  against  8v,  ter,  about  slightly  two  draped  i n d i c a t i n g an  scene of  the  a  statuette  smooth  (folio  l•«ty.  small  round—a  back  the  This  originally  the  workshop.  Psalter rounded  concludes  modelthat  same a r t i s t i c art  to  of  high  cenqual-  1  In Copenhagen  light  Psalter  of and  the the  known r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n York  Psalter  in style  the  (compare  14  the  Beatusr  identical dars  initials, scripts  and  ( n e i t h e r has an  provenance ton.  and  outlined  by  closely  paralleled  t h e York  works  is likely,  connection  Psalter,  9v,  F i g . 17) and  the  drapery  e.g.  The  Pentecost  has been  the s t a t u e t t e .  fold  t h e same h i g h  ture  and  the  York  shown.  by  As  i t s outer  individual  instances Sacrifice  (folio  detail  i s  i n the miniatures of  Isaac  (folio  15v, F i g . 2 2 ) , where  t r e a t e d almost  artistic  between  formed  and  Such c o i n c i d e n c e  with  a common  feature of the s c u l p t u r e  unusual  i n numerous  Calen-  v i z . Bridling-  s t a t u e t t e c a n be  illogical  This  near-  of f e a s t s i n the  Zarnecki, a striking  t h e d e c o r a t i v e and  i n their  f o r Thomas B e c k e t ) ,  the B r i d l i n g t o n  ( F i g .29).  of  entry  a more d i r e c t  garment  of  28 , 3 2 ) a n d  selection  for a l l three  However,  Psalter  is  Figs.  identically of s t y l e  standard  i n both  the manuscript  i n Zarnecki's  to B r i d l i n g t o n  as  to  that  together the s c u l p -  opinion point  very  42 strongly  I of  have  summarized here  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  spective  connections  evidence  o n e may  nated  origin.  between the  t h e most two  i n a northern  psalters  to the s c u l p t u r e  reasonably conclude  obvious and  fragment. that  atelier associated  they  with  aspects their  re-  From  this  a l l origi-  the Priory  of  15  Bridlington.  This  atelier  must have been l a r g e  several  artists  working  to  require  it  must have been  ue  for thirty  i n existance  years  was  have been  i n production  script  at least  by  1170  t o t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y  sculpture  the  in different  produced.  o f t h e York  Alternatively a decade  Psalter  enough media to  contin-  when t h e  the a t e l i e r  earlier  than  and  could  1170  has been dated  since  to the  43 1160's.  Thus, a p o s s i b l e  the a t e l i e r Psalter his of  might have been:  written  pupils;  under Robert  first  t h e 1 1 7 0 ' s ; and  Psalter  would have  by  of the  York  1159, o r  by  the early  years  because of i t s  followed  somewhat  later,  117 5. To  enance:  summarize  a northern  the evidence with  origin  is virtually  the appearance i n the Calendar saints sonable the  by  c o m p l e t e d by  t h e Copenhagen  style  the text  the Scribe  the i l l u m i n a t i o n s  more c l a s s i c a l ca  sequence of p r o d u c t i o n  such  as P a u l i n u s .  attribution  emphasis i n the Calendar  an A u g u s t i n i a n Accordingly,  establishment  Bridlington  certain  of e x c l u s i v e l y  Although  a n d many  regard  York i t s e l f  scholars on  to  because of northern is a  have a c c e p t e d  St. Augustine  a wealthy  and  reait,  points  f o r the manuscript's  Priory,  prov-  to  origin.  intellec-  16  tual  center,  should  links  between the  found  at  i n the  Bridlington's Bridlington  connect  York  However, b e f o r e  with  depicted  this  Death,  to  one  the  the  earliest  center.  York  That  attested  sculpture of  of  and  this  by the  manu-  Psalter  inter-  atelier.  earlier,  the  northern  significant  Virgin cycle, to  northern  factor  since  which  provin  I shall  prove  i t belongs  can  interests.  This  dis-  Chapters  of  my  thesis.  i t i s necessary  to  record  remaining  other  statuette  evidence also  similarities  tradition to  and  the  is further the  stylistic  important  artistic  is a  proceeding  c o n t r i b u t i o n by  The are  Psalter  traced occupy  to  stated  i t s unusual  be  the  works  iconographic  connected  an  Calendar  I have  the  will  as  are  for being  in Yorkshire  and  a l l three  ultimately  the  an  and  comparison between  i n s t y l e and  explaining  cussion  Psalter  common s o u r c e  Psalter,  enance of  the  round  i s the  As  how  There  importance  close  Copenhagen script  York  considered.  B r i d l i n g t o n , noteworthy  sculpture  another  be  art  h i s t o r i a n s on  the  here  problems  cycle.  Burial  i n s i x scenes  and on  Assumption the  last  of  three  the  Virgin  folios  of  17  the  full-page  24-26).  illustrations  Although  the  of  the  York  subject occurs  Psalter  (Figs.  i n at least  two  other  44 important ter  i s unique.  fully are  12th century p s a l t e r s  at  only i s i t unusual  this  time  but  different  from  i t s southern  Although  this  search,  I have  the V i r g i n lished. its  Not  style  was  executed  to  the close  script  to  unusual  that  of  i n being  of  York  Psalter  details  Psalter  .  he  though  only  refers  on  also  initials  and  However,  several  t h e r e i s no  pub-  (noted  m i n i a t u r e s must  includes  on  i t s Calendar  He the  the V i r g i n  since  for re-  been  as M i l i a r  of  so  (Fig.33).  has  a c c o r d i n g to  t h e Copenhagen  cycle,  set out  have commented  relationship  of  Psal-  previous scholarship  i n the d i o c e s e of York.  h i s eye  the  the  records that  iconography  have missed  of  little  d e c o r a t i o n , such  stylistic  York  contemporaries  art historians  and  t h o u g h he  it  tions  early  the  presents c o n s i d e r a b l e area  that  iconography  lavish  above),  found  of  i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n many  variation  Most  , that  the  not  illustra-  mention  of  i t in  45 his  text.  Saunders  In t h i s i n 1933  producing (which  she  ca  1170.  is  her  acknowledges  first-rate calls Her  mention  reflected  same genre  of  art historical  that  illumination  t h e Glasgow  o n l y r e c o r d of  York as  was  seen  Psalter),  i t s distinctive  of  the  increasing  worship  through  the  introduction  of  capable  in i t s  which  of  writing,  she  of Psalter  dates  iconography the  Virgin,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  18  her  Death  York  and  Assumption  Psalter,  ca  into  1170,  the  certain  Winchester  psalters, Psalter,  e.g. ca  the  1150,  and  46 the  Westminster  criptions graphy,  Psalter,  are of  of  of her  ther  extensive  This  i s found  belonging  interest  greater  work  ca  from  interest  authorship, Virgin i n ".  to Mr.  1200.  While  the v i e w p o i n t of  to t h i s  i s her  cycle  thesis  unwitting  dating  . . the  Saunders  from  earlier  mention  depicting  of  ano-  12th c e n t u r y .  incomplete psalter  Dyson P e r r i n s ,  historio-  i n an  the  des-  from  Bury  the b i r t h ,  early  47 life  and  also  refers  Koimesis 12th  death of to  which  the V i r g i n .  this  psalter  would  . . .".  from  Bury  make i t t h e  Byzantine influence  as  second  century (see Fig.33 mentioned  under  Walter  Oakeshott  depicting instance  above) of  i n a manuscript  i n the  the  from  a  subject  a  major  48 southern scription to—then graphy from  scriptorium. of  this  I f we  southern  York  thesis  Psalter  that  Virgin  i n the V i r g i n  Assumption  reason  the Anglo-Saxon  cycle  des-  remains  not icono-  distinct  versions.  German a r t h i s t o r i a n s terest  Oakeshott's  m i n i a t u r e — a n d t h e r e i s no  i t s u p p o r t s my  i n the  accept  imagery  i c o n o g r a p h y and  as  their  have a l s o an  expressed i n -  example of  extensive  and  unusual thorough  19  lists But in  have b e e n I n v a l u a b l e  the  later  scholars  analytical studies.  Virgin  cycle  traces  the  logians. unusual mystic in  English  against  after  these,  possible  the  49 most  examined  the  of Assumption  writings  notes  seemed  Boase has  textual  E l i s a b e t h of 1165,  investigation.  types  i n the  form, he  v i s i o n s of  own  have c o n t r i b u t e d  some o t h e r  seeking  pictorial  England  Of  theme b r i e f l y In  f o r my  of  and  several  sources  theo-  for i t s  i n p a r t i c u l a r that  the  Schonau, w h i c h c i r c u l a t e d to  e x p r e s s most  clearly  the 50  corporeal  nature  of  the Assumption  A l t h o u g h more r e c e n t  scholarship  c o n n e c t i o n , Deshman i n 1970 several  of  the  grounds t h a t  other  s t u d y and  methods o f  this  Chapters  traditions  for  the  of  artist  the  West.  of  the He  York to  Boase's  this  theory  that  subject's  text  t h i s i n f a c t has  support  inventions  concluded  narrative  Psalter.  on  the  textual  that  the  deserves  Psal-  a more  become one  of  the  presented  in  the  thesis.^  From my following  criticized  recensions  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  thorough  continues  m i n i a t u r e s were s i m p l y  s o u r c e were known i n the ter's  i n the  the the  own of  e x a m i n a t i o n as the  literary  Dormition-Assumption, York  Psalter  has  sources  and  pictorial  I propose created  a new  that  icono-  graphy based on h i s i n s u l a r h e r i t a g e . f e r e n t elements of Anglo-Saxon  a n c e s t r y , h i s imagery be  comes unique and i s imbued with a new, content.  In combining d i f  highly  original  21 Chapter  II  The tures  of  the  full-page of  the  principal York  Psalter  illustrations  Virgin  (Figs.  where  i n contemporary  these  s i x scenes  paralleled if  the  for  at  blank  i s the  noteworthy basis In  this  and  i n two i n the  discussing  pose  that  that  new  important  for  s u b j e c t , the  Beatae text ticed as  Mariae  or  i n p l a c e s as first  by  two  explanations  for  of the  out  per  form  aspects  so  the  with  in this  Psalter the  In point  in his brief Transitus  variations  what  these  does  cycle  below.  cycle  I will  images.  agree  T h i s was  narrative,  but  i ) because  pro-  in  Latin  they  the  no-  these his  text  Transitu  contradicts  of  are:  image.  De  discussion  is  textual  apocryphal  translation, the  also  unusual  not  so  interests  Virgin the  un-  more  intended  to  but  are  fully,  Chapter,  usual  fact out  else-  o f "the A s s u m p t i o n  l i e behind  York  Assumption  page  aside,  of  of  Continent,  g a t h e r i n g were  Pseudo-Melito  the  set  minia-  folios  and  the  registers  iconography  i n the  I will  on  copiousness  sources  Transitus.  Burial  in i t s relationship  details  Boase  illustrations  same  three  the  subject appears  a r t and  pictorial  Anglo-Saxon  cycle  The  for being  the  ways:  i n the  Death,  i n two  However,  several the  the  English  i n the  these  The  of  24-26).  time  pages  fact  centers  arranged  illumination.  here  i c o n o g r a p h i c n o v e l t y of  scenes only are  22  inventions  by  Visions  of  E l i s a b e t h of  another  version  scene  of  sessed as  to  the  other  has  noted  rative  the  and  i i ) that  Schtfnau  V i r g i n ' s death,  part  found,  Chapter.  worked  on  versions  apocryphal  that  there  current  cycle  account  to  I will  in  of  the  Psalter's  West by  this  isolate  the  first  York  No  story,  narrative  as-  else, or  exam-  iconography  though  Deshman  of  the  nar-  time.  deviations  and  text.  be  one  problem  Virgin  describe  Psalter  Transitus the  the  the  will  were d i f f e r e n t r e c e n s i o n s  i n the  order  influenced  of  this  century  described  suggestions  has  the  12th  Boase's  the  of  the  ( d . 1 1 6 5 ) who  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  traditional  other  the  second  miniature,  Virgin  of  I have  In and  artist;  Assumption.  i n the  f a r as  ined  the  the  the  i n an  s i x scenes  analyze  I will  between  then  them  text of  the  against  compare  an-  insular recension  in  2 the this  Anglo-Saxon text  explains  i s the many o f  Blickling probable the  Homilies  ca  s o l u t i o n to  cycle's  971. the  deviations  I n my puzzle  and  for i t  anachronistic  features . The  three  folios  are  arranged  as  opinion,  follows:  23 The  Angel  Announc  ing  the  Death  to. the  (upper  register  Beneath, t w i n , rounded columns of right  arcade  cloth. with She  simulated porphyry  He  the  i s shown b e h i n d  holds a blank  other  and  differs (e.g.  marble, an  palm  resting  covered  the V i r g i n  from  Figs.  what 21,  hands o v e r l y ances.  Her  she  22);  wears  right  so  i n comparison hand  to r e n d e r  hind  the p i l l a r  back  illogically  the  that the  three  in  of  a  on  fate  the r i g h t ,  as  he  and  strides  her  Impending  Standing  on and  the r i g h t ,  This  attire  her  i s s m a l l e r and previous  wing  into  register  to  possibly  the V i r g i n  In  an  passes  be-  curves  the  room.  the  folio  her  appear-  to come.  Death  p o i n t s to John  left.  miniatures  h i s drapery  forward  and  under-  i n g r e e t i n g or  her  (lower  event  head  white  the  p r o p o r t i o n s of  movement, t h e a n g e l ' s  V i r g i n Announces  forthcoming  earlier  the  hand  on  head.  to her  i s raised  a gesture of acceptance  attempt  her  i n the  moreover,  changed large  over  Fig.24)  on  by  with his left to  17v  the angel  altar  scroll  a c l o a k d r a w n up  b o d y h a v e now  The  arches  folio  wears a n a r r o w l y cut dress w i t h a l o n g w h i t e  shift,  is  g i v e s the  Virgin  Apostles 17v  tells  Fig. of  i n the c e n t e r .  the She  24)  . is  about  to  hand  less  according  also  nimbed  the  and  seemingly  one  of  whom p o i n t s  if  to  at  P e t e r ,at  derstanding does not  him.  the  the  of  the  the  following  scenes.  The  Death  Virgin  Virgin  right  r e s t i n g on  right  angles  still  living,  stands  to  composition; pery  and  foot  of  the  right the  the  his  bed  left  arm and  i n a l l , headed  his  keys  ding  scene.  eyes  Peter.  which  bed,  them  folio  her  a  misun-  error  She she  18r  head  i s depicted  i t are  Peter was  as  behind  which  to  the  awkwardly  i s represented  watches C h r i s t the  center  who  toward Mary. the  now  handed  stand  five  kneeling  holds to  John  as  the drathe  apostles,  in addition i n the  Jews a g a i n  at  who  of  At  in  Fig.25)  clutching his outstretched  behind  caps,  arm  back  toes, an  Behind  other  Peter's  his  register  C h r i s t i s at  Palm which Behind  on  Peter,  i n round  Jews p a r t i a l l y  in benediction  by  stands  The  f i g u r e s and  i n her  open as  arm  Jews  behind  counterpane.  bed.  six  the  lies  left  beard-  more complex a r r a n g e m e n t s  (upper  a pillow  with  behind  pass  and  his chest.  are-three  trodding  other,  the  book to  toward  overlapping  i n the  the  are  i s nimbed To  In a d d i t i o n , the  occur  The  back,  seems to  same t i m e  of  fashion.  uneasily  p o i n t i n g Jew touch  J o h n who  clasping a closed  and  the  to  to Western  him  of  palm  24  to  prece-  depicted  25 in  round  eight  caps.  In the upper  witnessing  angels  right  appear.  The  neath double arches resting  on  frame  central  to  the composition.  see has  divides which on  been omitted  the composition  contains  the r i g h t  The  Funeral  bier  angels  which  stretch  gesture  palm  in his left.  composition Virgin border. of  He  which  has  Peter  turns  their  gazes  background.and  side  as  wear.round  of  two  left, zone  on  hands  i n the  i s l e d by  hand,  view  as w e l l  one  and  as  not  of  Other The  i n the  to have a One stret-  to Peter.  Jews a r e  group,  is  the  the cortege  were a p p e a l i n g  shown  Peter  the  and  over h i s shoulder.  i n front  hats.  who  accompanying  a l l the scenes  i s the only  other.  the  the V i r g i n  procession  of v i s i o n  back  Christ  1 8 r F i g . 25)  in his right  Of  expect  a divine  i n three-quarter  i f he  a t each  folio  veiled  The  frame.  h i s head  the l e f t  h i s arms o u t w a r d  direct  their  range  this miniature  and  which  would  on  a mantle, while  i s shown  no  zone  be-  Virgin.  the body  the keys  out of our  t h e Jews on  ches  by  the  register  forward  book and  cycle,  and  we  standing  the Jews,  of l a m e n t a t i o n .  a closed  to walk  and  carry  i s covered  with  about  earthly  (lower  apostles  beneath  ancient  into  an  columns  column the  of  i s enacted  lateral  of  the angels  Procession  two  the heads  scene  in lieu  the a p o s t l e s  with  The the  The  corner,  They  i n the apparently  /  26 out of  of  doors,  proceeds  overlapping,  resent the  rocky  other  script,  The  stylized  ground.  in folios  Burial  of  the  The  i n grave  base  simple  right,  the  book clamped the  drapery.  upper  torso  assists is  appears  the  back.  their  red  wings  gives  the  This  apostles, plane  for  parallel  In a l l ,  Assumption  of  the  held  t o be  out  register  the  over  of  by  lower four the  to  (folio thirds  other  Fig.  on the  arm  closed  beneath his  apostle  who  of  his  body  cense  the  frame at  the  top.  b e t w e e n them and  one  are  lower  the  on  a  a  the  since  part  26)  completely  angels  the  19v of  the  hover  mourners  manu-  r e s t s on  hand,  arrangement,  i n f r o n t of  Virgin  the  distance  appear  fifteen  which  i n one  i n f r o n t of  while  two  upper  i s recognisable  awkward  angels  Occupying  19v  resemble  15-17).  coffin  illusion  mourners.  (Figs.  rep-  i n the  her  his chest  and  not  into  spreading  to  f o r m s do  V i r g i n ' s body,  Above c e n t e r ,  the  9v  (folio  keys  burial  at  and  Peter  I t i s an  s h a p e s w h i c h may  the  design.  i n the  8r  consisting  lower  linen,  against  these  surface  groundlines elsewhere  Virgin  p a l m and  scalloped  elliptical  7v,  apostles  wrapped  a  However  d e p i c t i o n s ' of  as  of  on  body,  the  pictorial  containing  the  present.  register  page,  this  Fig.26) dramatic  27 scene and  shows  a band  tightly by  around  The  equidistant  figure,  her  being carried  sheet, with  angels.  at  swathed  the head,  stretched  nimbed  sheet  the t o t a l l y  seven  aloft  molded on  a  d e e p l y i n d e n t e d edges a n g e l s on  points,  feet  which  each  form  side  held  hold  a pattern  the  of r i b -  3 like Two  sections  resembling those of a  additional  Christ  s t a n d s on  miracle  he  divinity sence ial  angels below  has  just  t h e empty  his right  created.  i n t h e Assumption  i n the  of  the l e f t ,  cense  rib-vaulted  The  scene  arm  ceiling.  sarcophagus.  pointing  presence here of contrasts  with  There  the appearance  the  the  h i s ab-  episode above where m o r t a l s perform  the V i r g i n .  to  the  bur-  of censing  an-  a r t , the  death  4 gels  may  refer  Analysis  - Textual  In of  the V i r g i n  title the  of  various ferent  immortality. Sources  representations i s termed  from  as  (from  dormitio:  t h e Assumption.  ways:  a cycle  The of  episodes connected  Psalter,  or a  Eastern  a Koimesis.  t h e theme i n W e s t e r n  Dormition  simply  York  to her  single  Alternatively,  the  illustrations  i s known  to  sometimes,  s l e e p ) or  subject  s c e n e s may  refer  w i t h Mary's s c e n e may  may  be to  expressed the  d e a t h , as  emphasize  as  difi n the  one  speci-  28  fic  aspect,  (Fig. the  33).  e.g.  i n the  The  account  oldest  narratives account  of  of  appearing  versions.  These  the  h i s t o r y of  were based  on  original  s i n at  exempt a l s o Not  only  soul  at  the  a bodily  ted.  5  at the  earlier Bishop the 6th  and  this  manner  that  her  death  her  and  she  of  was  predes-  exempt so  sense of  personally  to  the  receive  elements were  Transitu  Coptic  and  Sardis  Beatae  form  promoted  i n the  this  in his the  of  the  Mariae,  Greek v e r s i o n s , later  a 4th' c e n t u r y used  form  2nd  work.  t r e a t i s e De  circulation  she  reuni-  in  Gloria  the  text  a t t r i b u t e d to century,  Mary's permit-  legend  Gregory  and  was  a Latin  Pseudo-Melito  was  word.  two  basic  from  she  a s s u m p t i o n when h e r  and  trace  death,  her  conception,  normal  to  her  like  soon  Arabic  p u r p o s e was  the  As  and  also  century  abbreviated  stated  Coptic  the  but  earliest  her  earlier, Syriac,  in  apo-  dying,  De  of  or  and  i n the  29  s e r i e s of  i n Greek or  intervene  oldest  the  century  moment o f  death  Christ  The W e s t was  life  premise  the  in a  in Latin, Gaelic,  moment o f  ted  5th  folio  V i r g i n ' s d e a t h i s not  have been u n i q u e .  from  did  Psalter,  occurs  t e x t s , whose  the  must  but  the  Mary's  tination  the  i t written  afterwards  to,  of  S c r i p t u r a l Gospels,  cryphal  on  Winchester  but  of  version  Meliin  Tours in  Martyrum  acceptance  based  fact in  an (590)  of  the  29 account tion  in. t h e West a t  d o c t r i n e was  opposition tury. the  from  However  an  based  on  orthodox by  the  Pseudo-Melito  early  date.  legendary  Because or  century  assump-  apocryphal  theologians arose  10th  the  accounts,  i n the  8th  cen-  various recensions  t e x t were c u r r e n t  and  widely  used  of  in  England.  that  the  coming  The  s t o r y as  angel  enters  death  and  the  a p o s t l e s who  ing  Pentecost,  obsequies warning On  the  had  were to  him  that  third  day  the  the  i t so  w h e n he  laying  by  brought  into  to  the  announce  a palm.  the  by  Mary  city  the  p a l m on  the  valley  The their  last i t  are  to  to fixed  releases his  blindness  sends of  of b e l i e v e r s .  Jehoshaphat  pre-  bier  Jews a t t e m p t  to  eyes  body.  Three v i r g i n s  leader  (from  her  the  palm,  delivers  Peter  the  follow-  her  the  in Christ.  of  the  a p o s t l e s c a r r y her  cure  request,  where  destroy  s o u l and  Michael.  of  the  her world  John  to  c a n n o t move them; P e t e r  the  the  gives  attempt  angels.  hands  belief  At  forth-  i n Jerusalem  r e c e i v e s her  the  relates  her  a p o s t l e s performed  G a b r i e l and  and  confesses  ple  with  place.  for burial;  t h a t he  Jew  is  appears,  bier  verted  her  Jews w i l l  tomb, a c c o m p a n i e d  seize to  take  while  archangels body  home t o  Transitus  s c a t t e r e d throughout  the  to  the  i n the  m i r a c u l o u s l y reappear  Christ  pare  Mary's  presents  rites, the  i t appears  the  hands con-  the  peo-  Mary house  on  30 Mount  Zion)  ives;  Cltrist  to  and  laid  in a  appears  new  again  tomb  and  near  the  apostles  take  the  body  of  h i s mother  up  into  returns  the  soul  of  the V i r g i n  to  her  opened,  and  the  Thou  that  flesh,  didst  shalt  sepulchre.  Lord not  not  .  g r e e t s her suffer  suffer  .  with  rises  up  heaven.  the  of from  the  union  the  him  grave ". of  body  the  Ol-  Michael  words:  by  of  beseech  body,  corruption  dissolution  Mary  t h e Mount  is  . . the  in  the  grave,  worg  ships This  Christ, summary  heaven liar  as  used  i t i s related  of  this  i s borne  of Mary's  textual  analysis  and  source  The  angels  into  death,  burial  and  i n the  f o r the  the Marian  version  by  initially  first  scene  24) The  Angel  Announcing  typical  representation  of  wall-paintings  i n the  and  i t illustrates  the  palm  paradise ried taken  branch. of  the  Lord,  before  thy  bier  up  out  of  the  and on  the  to  into  most  fami  the  following  Psalter,  I  of  comparison.  Psalter  the  have  cycle  Virgin, by  (Fig.  is a  comparison  of  A l l Saints,  Chalgrove  " . . .  Behold,  he,  i t to  shalt  third  body.".^  York  York  brought thou  In  event—see  Church  the  i s the  standard  Death  passage  I have  a  i n the  the  the  this  i n the as  assumption  Transitus  subject.  cycle  Paradise.  The  day  thee  cause when  Virgin's  said from  i t to thou  the be  car-  shalt  unusual  be  close  31  fitting her  and a b s o l u t e l y  b o d y a s do h e r o t h e r  lier  appearances.  ingless I  straight  believe  that  different  T h i s change  alteration  as does  m o d e l was u s e d  does n o t  d r a p e r i e s i n her ear-  as Boase  here.  funeral  garb,  the narrative,  " . . .  and  clothed herself  may  be t h e m a t i c  here  i n her best  reasons  on t h e V i r g i n ' s  By c o n n e c t i n g  tist  have wished  Also,  also  shift  lowing. may  Then Mary  i nproportion,  The a r t i s t  has shown M a r y p r e p a r i n g h e r s e l f f o r he has i n t e r p r e t e d  literally  raiment.  episodes  as Heimann has s u g g e s t e d ,  i n her  the lines  put o f f her garments . . .".^  i n h i s using  to suggest  i n my  f o r death  scenes  visually,  fol-  thea r -  her forthcoming he w o u l d  There  t h e same p a t t e r n  a n d i n t h e Death  these  a mean-  implies, but  t h e change  opinion  in  articulate  i s not necessarily  by t h e a r t i s t  i t indicates,  a different  shift  death.  have avoided  any 1  confusion  with  t h e Annunciation  While adheres does  closely  not follow  Pseudo-Melito tion yet  the f i r s t  states  register  t o t h e Transitus the text  version.  of  2  Christ.  folio  narrative,  According  (17v)  the lower  scene  and d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e  to t h i s  t h e Jews appear  h a s shown b o t h .  that the Virgin  i n this  so c l o s e l y  of Peter; nor should the a r t i s t  of the b i r t h  there  at this  T h e Transitus  g i v e s t h e palm  i s no  men-  t i m e and  plainly  to John alone.  Con-  32 sequently  we  the  figures  extra  may  suspect that out  here  of order  the a r t i s t  himself,  as  has  added  h i s own  inven-  13 tion—as  Boase b e l i e v e s —  formalistic this  way.  ial  models  the  cycle  though  r e a s o n why  he  would  More l i k e l y  he  used  reflecting  there  alter  seems t o be  no  the composition i n  a different text  or p i c t o r -  a d i f f e r e n t apocryphal account  which  would  account  Folio  18r  ( F i g . 25)  from  the  Transitus.  f o r the a n a c h r o n i s t i c  of ele-  ment s .  deviations The  Death  Eastern  of  the  Virgin  also  hold  the  soul  follows  B y z a n t i n e manner.  of  Also  significant  In the upper i n the main  f o r m u l a . f o r t h e Koimesis,  does not  reveals  but  register the  unlike  t h e V i r g i n as  he  normal  i t , Christ  would  i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the  i n the text  and  14 to gin  representations here  is still  temporary (folio the  resented Virgin  bed  as  which  described a painting  lies  i n an  living.  Fig.33),  on  apostles.  Byzantine influence, We  English miniature  29,  scene  under  dead  on  a t t i t u d e of t h e bed  compare an  i s depicted John  almost  con-  apostle grief; the  by  leans  the  over  t o p and  (ca  of Mount  surrounded  another  Psalter,  i n accordance  of Warzburg  i n the Church  near  Vir-  i n t h e Winchester  a couch,  A bearded  shown b e h i n d  by  may  the  1130), r e p 14 -a Zion.  the  with  The  grieving  foot  of  the  bearded  apostle  is  gently  touches  the  33 the Virgin'.s  breast  beat  truly  ove,  two a n g e l s  ceive the like  has stopped.  Christ  Virgin,  figure.  which  Psalter  reproduces  the s t a t i c ,  changed.  The  Virgin  of  lies  lamenting  expectant, earlier  the  Lord  a  great  light  expectation  the  stand  increases  episode  from  almost  child-  form,  i t s Byzantine  the  prototypes the Eastern  everything  instead  or kneel  i s stressed.  h e r bed w i t h  The a r t i s t  arrival  w h e n ".  multitude  suddenly  o f a n g e l s , and  . . .".^  he e m p h a s i z e s  death.  depicts  . .  the t e n s i o n of the scene  introduces  of the f i v e  behind  that place.  the event,  This for  i n -  the dramatic  As i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  anachronistic features i n  Jews i n t h e background.  s i n c e t h e Transitus  connects  A l s o , he d i s p l a y s P e t e r  t h e palm, and t h i s  to r e -  up t h e s o u l o f  forhieratic  expressions.  came d o w n u p o n  scene.  prepare  holds  scene,  came w i t h a g r e a t  too early  following ing  loss,  he a g a i n  and a b -  on h e r bed and t h e a p o s t l e s , i n s t e a d  of the Virgin's  presence  appear  wakeful  of r i t u a l i z i n g  miniature,  Psalter  moment o f C h r i s t ' s  Jesus  i s censing  the n a r r a t i v e element  their  change of time stead  like  solemnized  not mournful,  the  feeling  miniature  Now  the heart-  i s shown as a s m a l l , s w a d d l e d  I n t h e York  has  i n front  i n the center  In i t s acute  Winchester  tradition.  Peter  whether  w i t h arms and hands v e i l e d  the soul.  dead  as i f to determine  arrangement  them  Here  they  to the  prominently  hold-  contradicts the text  34  which, e x p l i c i t l y  states  that  ".  . . John c a r r i e d t h e  p a l m . . . .  The The  Funeral  calls of  his  and c a l m  f o r a sober  !8r,  formal  expressions.  described  agony  i n t h e Transitus  when  f o r Peter  the leader to help  Jew i n , res-:  The e v e n t  itself  with  of the a c t  the  text which  dramatic i s normal-  o f t h e Jews c r i e s  him.  depicts  manner w i t h  atmosphere but the treatment  s a c r i l e g e i s not at a l l i n keeping  represented  F i g . 25)  i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e impious  a subdued, almost  gestures  incident ly  register (folio  Procession  surprisingly, trained  bottom  The t e x t  out i n  describes:  A n d b e h o l d , o n e o f t h e m who was a p r i n c e o f t h e p r i e s t s o f t h e J e w s i n h i s d e g r e e was f i l l e d w i t h f u r y a n d w r a t h a n d . . . h e came n e a r a n d w o u l d have o v e r t h r o w n t h e b i e r and c a s t t h e body on t h e earth. A n d f o r t h w i t h h i s h a n d s d r i e d up f r o m h i s e l b o w s and c l a v e to t h e b i e r . And when t h e a p o s t l e s l i f t e d t h e b i e r , p a r t o f h i m was h a n g i n g a n d p a r t c l a v e t o t h e b i e r , a n d h e was w r u n g w i t h e x treme t o r m e n t as t h e a p o s t l e s went on and sang . . . Then t h a t p r i n c e c r i e d o u t , s a y i n g : I b e s e e c h t h e e h o l y P e t e r . . . f o r I am s o r e t o r m e n t e d w i t h g r e a t pains. Remember t h a t when t h e d a m s e l t h a t k e p t t h e d o o r knew t h e e i n t h e j u d g e m e n t h a l l and t o l d t h e r e s t , that they might c h a l l e n g e thee, then I spake on t h y b e h a l f . 17 In  contrast  other  to the r e s t r a i n t  English versions  of t h e Glasgow  of t h i s  scene,  miniature,  f o r instance  the 18  representationsat (ca  1 3 0 0 a n d ca  Croughton  1320 r e s p . ) ,  and i n t h e L u t t r e l l stress  Psalter  the agonizing  moment  ,  35 when t h e p r i n c e hangs by h i s hands artist  o f t h e York. Psalter  describing the dreadful  those  who d a r e d e f i l e  the  instead  miracle  JewsJ left  of t h e Mother  t h e moment a f t e r w a r d s ,  stand  came n e a r  through  still  that  this  faith.  ".  mo-  befall  of C h r i s t , but i sfollowing  . . Peter  . . . a n d h e [the  and k i s s e d  The  consequences which  the bier  accomplished  made t h e b i e r  the bier.  does n o t i l l u s t r a t e  ment  depicts  from  . . .  prince of the  t h e b e d , and f o r t h w i t h a l l p a i n  h i m a n d h i s h a n d s w e r e made w h o l e  . . . even  the apos19  ties the  themselves marvelled miniature,  over  their  once Peter fessed this it  shoulders  who c a r r y t h e b i e r  i n s u r p r i s e , which  had stopped  hisbelief.  does  the procession  T h e Pseudo-Melito  not provide  h i s hands.  the a r t i s t ,  that  the apostles  f o r gladness.".  they  could  derives One  here:  posture  or once a g a i n  from  more f e a t u r e  does  i s shown.  While  of the locale  an e x p r e s s i v e  recension  i n this  do  where  had c o n recount  hands, but  invention  another  detail  of the narrative?  scene deserves  mention  s c a l l o p e d b a s e l i n e on w h i c h there  only  o f t h e Jew s t r e t c h i n g  c a n we d e t e c t  a different  the distinctively  cession Transitus  Is this  back  and t h e p r i n c e Transitus  f o r the gesture  In  look  i n c i d e n t of the r e s t o r a t i o n of the withered  forth of  and wept  the pro-  i s no d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h e t h e event  takes  p l a c e , one  36 would as  e x p e c t an  t h e one  Fig.  Indication  i n the S a c r i f i c e  1 7 ) , or an  space d e p i c t e d (folio  17v,  i n The  tract  our  composition. of  They  It Virgin ter,  cycle,  as  tive  folio  design.  Beneath  wrapped  like  w h i c h has Their ".  and  Impending  of  Death  occurring  Proces-  the apostles  essential  the f i n a l  Assumption,  charged  is a mood  at-  part  of  the  group  to  the  i n the other  of her  been drawn back r e d and  the whole  In contrast  of  striking  and  to  of r e s t r a i n t  has  the  imaginato  the m i r a -  the V i r g i n ' s  to heaven of  i n the  changed  befitting  burial,  wings  highly  the Psal-  the preceding scenes  i n a kind  orange  miniature i n t h e York  atmosphere  a mummy, i s l i f t e d  though  neutral  i n t h e Funeral  t o t h e Transitus.  the scene  prominent  . .as  examine  earlier  a dramatic, highly cle.  to  ( F i g . 26)  The  9v,  groundline.  compositions of  19v  such  Cfolio  the  the f i g u r a l  a d e v i c e not  t h e Burial  i t relates  her  the feet  extend beyond  remains  straightforward cycle,  of  s u c h as  however  beneath  i n open a i r ,  miniature  f o r t h e y a r e an  the vellum,  representations  Isaac  setting  Here  shapes  attention  scene  V i r g i n Announces  F i g . 24).  the unique  the  of  independent  sion,  edges  of  body,  on  an  outer  glory  by  angels.  create  an  shroud  effect  picture  were aglow  with  In Western  depictions  of  the  20 flicker  of  flames.".  this  scene,  37 the V i r g i n in  the  York  (Fig.41), 12th  sometimes Psalter,  or  she  century  i s shown c a r r i e d  up  e.g.  century  i n the  i s represented  illumination  from  12th  in a cloth  partially the  missal  shrouded  Cologne  as  she  from  as  a  is Tours  mid-  school which  shows  21 similar  folds  winding  cording  to  totally  swathed  earlier  or  Boase,  matic  statement  there  i s no  grave  linen,  who  body  later. of  doubt  across  the  discusses has  no  scene  i n the  here  the  in detail,  York  body,  physically  But  Psalter  of  iconography  makes a  the m i r a c l e ,  still  raised  ac-  the  i n Assumption  corporeal nature  that  i s being  the  ( F i g . 42).  parallels  This motif the  body  wound  from  the  dra-  for  in its tomb  to  hea-  22 ven.  The  Transitus rises  !  scene does not  and  correspond  i s incompatible  with  with  it,  the  account  for there  the  in  the  Virgin  and  kneels before Christ: . t h e a p o s t l e s c a r r y i n g M a r y came i n t o t h e p l a c e o f t h e V a l l e y o f J e h o s h a p h a t . . . and l a i d h e r i n a new tomb a n d s h u t t h e s e p u l c h r e . . . a n d l o , s u d d e n l y the L o r d J e s u s came w i t h a g r e a t m u l t i t u d e o f a n g e l s and l i g h t f l a s h i n g w i t h g r e a t b r i g h t n e s s . . . . And he commanded M i c h a e l t h e a r c h a n g e l t o b r i n g t h e s o u l o f the h o l y Mary. And B e h o l d M i c h a e l . . . r o l l e d a w a y t h e s t o n e f r o m t h e s e p u l c h r e and t h e L o r d s a i d : R i s e up, t h o u t h a t d i d s t n o t s u f f e r c o r r u p t i o n by u n i o n o f the f l e s h , s h a l t not s u f f e r d i s s o l u t i o n of the body i n the s e p u l c h r e . A n d i m m e d i a t e l y M a r y r o s e up f r o m t h e g r a v e and b l e s s e d t h e L o r d . . . and t h e L o r d k i s s e d h e r and d e p a r t e d , and d e l i v e r e d h e r t o t h e a n g e l s t o b e a r h e r i n t o P a r a d i s e . 23  Boase c o n c l u d e s have been particular  that  invented  by  treatment  the  pictorial  the of  artist,  the  scene  form since "...  of  the  there  Assumption is for  neither a  must  this  prototype  38 -M  nor  any  24  successors. T h o u g h B o a s e r e j e c t s t h e Transitus  basis gest by  f o r t h e York. Psalter that  the a r t i s t ' s  a different  occurs  text.  i n .the p o p u l a r  Assumption,  imagination  as t h e t e x t u a l  he does however may  have been  sug-  stimulated  Another  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s  episode  Visions  o f E l i s a b e t h o f Schtfnau,  ca  25 1165,  and Boase has a s s o c i a t e d  unusual  form  this  o f t h e Assumption  expressions  stress the corporeal  This  particular, relationship w i l l  tail  i n t h e second  part  of t h i s  here b r i e f l y  i n connection  to  E l i s a b e t h ' s Visions  tion.  that  by  t h e Transitus.  to  explain the anachronistic  in  the other  nality  of the  Chapter,  deal  Consequently  Transitus, I  have  which  with  de-  i n order  the  Assump-  described  cannot  and u n u s u a l  be  used  details  Boase a t t r i b u t e s to t h e  origi-  artist. now  i s whether the  c y c l e o f t h e York  17v, 18r) c a n be r e l a t e d t o a n o t h e r as Deshman h i n t e d . found  i n greater  episodes  t h e Visions  features  event.  but I mention i t  only  the e a r l i e r  two m i n i a t u r e s , i n t h e V i r g i n  (folios  of the  be a s s e s s e d  What n e e d s , t o b e a n a l y z e d first  nature  since  to t h e c y c l e as a whole  T h e y do n o t i n c l u d e  miniatures  the highly  i n the manuscript,  both  note  text with  that  the account  Based  Psalter  version of the  o n my  own  of the death  and  examination, assumption  39  of  the VLrgLn  i n the BlLckling  Homilies,  an A n g l o - S a x o n  26 vernacular  text  significant the  main  he  (Transitus)  Mary  and  resurrection  raising from  i n several  Psalter.  fairly  the a r r i v a l  i n the funeral  of her soul  t h e tomb a n d  and  presenta-  of C h r i s t  with  the-attemp-  procession  conversion,  to Michael, eventual  has  closely.  of the angel  h i s subsequent  For  commentary  a t t h e bed-side o f M a r y ,  of the b i e r and  of t h i s  the a r r i v a l  light  of t h e Jews  i n t h e York  the author  includes  and a g r e a t  desecration  leader of  , i s associated  to the V i r g i n of the palm,  angels ted  of events  the L a t i n a u t h o r i t y  Accordingly, tion  c a 971  d e t a i l s to the scenes  flow  followed  written  and  by  the  the  burial  finally  her  assumption  to  Para-  dise . Similarity several  differences  versions text  of the main however  of the n a r r a t i v e .  i n the homilies  seem  episodes  between  t o me  to supply  i n t h e Psalter's  opinion  text  behind for  the p i c t o r i a l  at times  On I  the basis believe  cycle,  the a r t i s t  seems t o f o l l o w a l s o  of  connection  had b e f o r e  the explanation  been one  Psalter Transitus to both  him an  Latin  i n the d e r i v a t i v e  In  of the  though not the e x c l u s i v e t h e York  are  and  iconography.  have  the t r a d i t i o n a l  of the close  the a r t i s t  could  there  the vernacular  These a d d i t i o n s  some o f t h e a n o m a l i e s the B l i c k l i n g  aside,  Virgin  for my  sources model,  miniatures  narrative. these  illustrated  sources, manuscript  40  of  the  Transitus—supposing  ed,  a  possibility  his  c y c l e of  elements posal,  from  text  i n the  only  palm  angel  all  .  the  other  exist-  l a t e r — o n w h i c h he same t i m e  literary  Blickling  and  the  Transitus  11  At  have  he  introduced  example at  Homilies,  transformed  based  his  dis-  which  he  in his visual  imag-  Psalter.  Pseudo-Melito  Mary  suggested  i n the  Initially  from  be  the  account  knew i n t h e ery  to  miniatures.  also  the  such a model would  the  . . again  Blickling  agrees  when, f o l l o w i n g the who  announced  returned  h u m i l i t y , the  account  to  palm-twig  her  her  that  had  the  r e c e i p t of  forthcoming  h o u s e and she  with  put  the  death,  aside,  previously  with  re2  ceived. But  . . and  then  the  stead  of  cular  arrival  Paul,  from  the  apostles which .  vernacular  continuing  announcement and  invested  on to  then body  a  she  . . that  the  Then  that the  c l o s e t , and to  third  for i n -  John's  spectaher  the  apostles  (first  she  would  . . depart  holy  Mary  showed her  ".  called  at  burial  day  come i n w h i c h  Peter  a l l the  them a l l h e r  h a v e on was  garment.".  f o l l o w i n g scenes witness  k i n s f o l k and  . . . .  finest  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  others),  the  (Blickling) differs  the  cloud,  the  desired  text  with  her  i n t o her  herself with  garments,  and  Peter  said  she  would  depart  29 from  us.".  This  contradicts  the  Transitus  version  which  41 specifically  describes  grave-cloth.es and  charging  i n .  the Virgin  showing  . . the secret  11  him w i t h  t h e palm  John alone  her  part  of the house.  . ."  of l i g h t  t o be c a r r i e d  be-  30 fore  h e r bed b o r n e t o t h e tomb.  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s Blickling the  sermonist  characters John,  of  the apostles  trast  has a l t e r e d t h e emphasis  attending  of  holds  change of circumstance,  Mary's  the privileged  last  shall  ceasing  come a n d I s h a l l  Anglo-Saxon v e r s i o n them a l l ,  with  rites.  and of a l l t h e mourners  without  until  depart  i n the roles of Peter,  instead  p o s i t i o n as t h e a c t i v e  to t h e L a t i n t e x t where Mary  together  the  ".  present.  invites  a l l t o keep  o u t o f t h e body  the time of death  In con-  . . t h e h o u r when  i t i s the blessed  leader  Peter  watch  the Lord  . . .", i n t h e  who  entreats  a r r i v e d , to keep watch  with  there  great  31 him.  This  light  ".  text  continues  . . s o that  that  a l l t h e fiends  suddenly  who  were  shone a  there,  and  those  32 who  saw t h e l i g h t ,  Transitus val  also  recounts  but describes  asleep,  were overpowered."  saving  t h e moment  /"italics  just  before  minej. Christ's  i t a s t h e h o u r when a l l i n t h e h o u s e  the apostles  and t h e t h r e e  The  virgins  who  arriwere  were  33 there. several ling  Peter times  continues  to r e c e i v e a d d i t i o n a l  as t h e guardian  v e r s i o n , f o r when M a r y  of the deathwatch  rested  distinction i n the Blick-  u p o n h e r b e d ".  . . a t the  34 head  sat the blessed  dresses  the Lord  Peter.".  concerning  Later  h e i s t h e o n e who a d -  the whiteness  of Mary's  s o u l and  42 he  also  leads  emphasis  the apostles  that  i n p l a c i n g her upon t h e b i e r ,  i s l a c k i n g i n the general  an  d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the  Transitus.  The  Anglo—Saxon account matches  in  t h e command  to  deposit  t h e body  procession ing  up  of the Lord  t h e head  before  the b i e r . as h o l d i n g  Mary, The  "Thou a r t t h e p u r e s t on  The  latter  thy bier,  and  with  tomb  describes the other  not  this  virgin,  and  the palm  of  f o r us  to bear  this  l i f t car-  light  mention but  Instead  i t is fitting  as  apostles  specifically  honour.  and  funeral  Peter  i n f r o n t o f t h e cortege,  with  and  a new  accounts of the  John bearing  f o r m e r does  i s John d e s c r i b e d  depart  their  with  the palm  to f i n d  but  o f t h e body  the blessed  ther  there,  are d i f f e r e n t .  rying  Peter  to Peter  the L a t i n v e r s i o n  nei-  John  says,  f o r thee to  palm-twig  . .  .".  35 /"italics to  minej.  This  s i n g l e John out  the  palm,  Saxon than  as  as  John  i n the B l i c k l i n g  the apostle  specified  v e r s i o n would  passage  e s p e c i a l l y chosen  i n t h e Transitus.  allow  the a r t i s t  i n the miniature  bearing  does  Instead t o show P e t e r  the palm  nothing  to  carry  the Anglorather  i n f r o n t of  the  procession. Distinguishing continues bier,  that  after  supporting  Peter  once more,  the apostles  i t with  their  arose  hands,  the  and  Peter,  Blickling  lifted again  up  the  i n the  43 role  of spokesman  Egypt,  and  and  leader,  sang H a l l e l u j a h - ;  says:  and  "Israel  the Lord  went  out of  i s truly  support-  36 ing  this  ity,  bier.".  the Anglo-Saxon h o m i l i s t  stress  considered  author-  i t important phrase  to  about  the  support. The  remainder  Transitus  sacriligious  i n most Jew  and  the f i n a l  But the l a t t e r  reflects  confusion  tus  manuscript,  the  two  of the v e r n a c u l a r  respects  Virgin.  Mary's  i n the L a t i n  divine assistance i n his additional  Lord's  the  U n l i k e the account  part  burial  according  and  he  ".  assumption of the  o f more t h a n  of the  assumption one  Transi-  t o t h e a n a l y s i s and c o m p a r i s o n Thus, M i c h a e l  t w i c e , once a t her deathbed  s e p u l c h r e , whence  parallels  the i n c i d e n t of the  of the account  i n the t r a n s l a t i o n  t e x t s by W i l l a r d . soul  through  account  . . lifted  takes and  h e r up  charge  again  of  of  at the  i n the clouds  be-  37 fore  the presence  gone  to the Lord  gels  i n t h e Transitus  raise  t h e body  of the Lord.". i n the clouds,  of Mary  and w i t h up  The  apostles  supplant  the role  a l l their  i n the clouds  power,  too, having of the anthemselves  t o t h e ".  . . bliss  38 o f Paradise.". To in  s u m m a r i z e so f a r ; t h e a c c o u n t  t h e Bl£ckl£ng  sion  Transitus  Homll res  appears  f o r the p r i n c i p a l  of the Assumption  to depend elements  on  the L a t i n  of the  ver-  narrative.  44 However, tions  the Anglo—Saxon account  in detail  which differ  ticularly  i n i t s emphasis  the  apostles .  other  textual  sources  many, o f  the  tures  f o r the  unusual  become c l e a r  words,  i t seems  answers—where  the  iconography.  ably  used  model  the  In (folio  17v,  the  Fig.24),  he  he  Virgin  the  central ping  over as  York  Psalter,  i n these  minia-  below.  the Anglo-Saxon  par-  considered  i n the  illustrate  In  text  other  provides  cannot.— i n e x p l a i n i n g  two  I feel  and  versions  upper  John new  artist  aspects  i n the  scenes  that  an  group  the  the  artist  additional  prob-  literary  i n the  is fitted  f i g u r e s as  the  of  the  Virgin  cycle  lower. i n the  accounts. of  the  and  the  But  at  i n awkwardly  evident  the  presentation  meeting the  the  Peter  left  i n the  shows t h a t  between  same  version. to  the  From  f i g u r e s of  Bli.ckli.ng  earlier  the  narrative for  episodes  confusion  I described  the  must have combined  register,  characters  a c t i o n , and  of  from both  Jews i n accordance w i t h the  additional  authority,  are  features  v e r s i o n as  illustrates  introduces  varia-  i s s i n g l e d out  versions  Transitus  the  Latin  Transitus  the  the  first  contains  palm  that  Latin  who  cycle  several  imagery.  miniature  the  I will  Consequently  A n g l o - S a x o n and  of  as  the  Peter  Virgin  Blickling  for his  on  iconographic  t o me  the  from  When b o t h  1  presents  time, and The of  the  overlap-  the  artist  45 was. h e s i t a n t  about, s q u e e z i n g  seems r e a s o n a b l e t o the a r t i s t portance, The  had  infer  from  Introduced  from  appearance  them  the  here  i s hard  of  the  Jews  set of  the  register  t h e Death  25),  lines  the  would  be  of  artist  referring  preceding  unusual  h i s knowledge of  i n the next  Fig.  this  the m i n i a t u r e .  Peter, thereby  inclusion upper  into  to  may  the  have  i n keeping  an  the  anti-semitic  w i t h the  sentiment  (folio  their In  18r  Blickling  the  activities  reference of  but  difficult.  the  at  im-  description.  Virgin  present  that  his  explain  i s less  interpreted  "fiends"  Mary's death,  Blickling  scenes of  arrangement  stressing  to  It  the  which  time,  parti-  38 cularly  at York.  An  Melito  version  would  lowing  episode  of  ing  this  included As  he  tinct  model the  illustrated  naturally  t h e Funeral  f o r the  depict  the  Procession,  blends  of Jews but  general layout,  Jews a n a c h r o n i s t i c a l l y  d i d b e f o r e , he  the  Pseudo-  i n the while  artist  i n t h e Death  h i s sources  the  fol-  follow-  has as  again  well.  to produce  a  dis-  throughout  these  iconography. The  miniatures  unusual  emphasis  could reflect  Saxon n a r r a t i v e w h i c h  the  i n a l l the episodes..  Death,  w h i l e the a r t i s t of  t h e bed  as  on  Peter  similar  stress  i n the  repeatedly brings Peter  tion  head  Transitus  For  example,  does not  stated  i n the  i n the  show P e t e r text  at  (perhaps  Anglo-  to our scene the  attenof  the  actual  for lack  of  46 space him  i n his composition),  in slightly  les, the  adjacent one  surely  who  had  i n mind  and  i n the  Peter This  to  Christ.  the  the  palm-twig  Funeral  head  on  at  the  Peter  the  apost-  holding  the  as  and  which the  John does not  stated  head  Peter's  agrees with  of  i n the  artist  palm  here  the  pro-  the  position  his principal  of  group honour  and  above,  Blickling  sermonist  added  to  Peter's  praises  for this  statement  that  truly  supporting  The  following line  les  went  the  in this clouds,  text and  "...  they  the  and  then  moment the  palm.  leader  i n the  noted  was  as  importance  I have  Lord  but  c a r r y i n g the  As  the  lead  Transitus  Saxon v e r s i o n .  into  of  showing  at Mary's death  circumstance  scene,  i t is explicitly  emphasis  at  by  episode.  i s depicted  tacitly  i n the  stress Peter  B l L c k l i n g t e x t names him  i n h i s d e p i c t i o n of next  as  The  i s clue p r i v i l e g e d  In cession  does  l a r g e r s c a l e and  brings  this  he  Anglo-  the  bier.  then  the  apost-  carried  the  bier,  39  and  sang  God's p r a i s e .  procession  with  a celestial  the  p e c u l i a r shapes  are  now  evident;  T h e y do  not  setting  as  is  a  clear the  shown i n t h e i n the  seems a l s o atmosphere.  supporting  resemble  specified  . ."  the  statement  to  With  Transitus  this  f i g u r e s i n the of  clouds  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of other  associate  miniatures for this  i s mind, miniature  they  must  ground  or  and  scene,  the  s i n c e no  be. natural locale  I suggest  that  47  th.e a r t i s t  has  painted c l o u d s as the v i s i b l e s i g n of d i -  v i n e support.  T h i s - s u p p o s i t i o n e x p l a i n s too why  ticular register to  be  work.  i s the o n l y one  shown without  a painted  par-  i n a l l the i l l u m i n a t i o n s  frame or a r c h i t e c t u r a l  In the other m i n i a t u r e s  tectural setting limits  this  frame-  the frame or use of an  the composition  spatially,  archi-  in spite  of an o c c a s i o n a l hand or f o o t s t r a y i n g over the edge, as i n f o l i o s 8r, 13v,  15v  ( F i g s . 16,  20,  22).  Here he has  such r e s t r i c t i o n s not because h i s composition crowded as one might expect but theme and  i t s source.  was  overly  i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  In a heavenly, c l o u d - f i l l e d  as depicted by the a r t i s t  of the York  limitless,  cannot be contained,  boundary.  As  removed  and  Psalter,  continues  the zone  space i s beyond  f a r as I have a s c e r t a i n e d , the B l i c k l i n g  s i o n of the Funeral  Procession  any ver-  i s the only text to d e s c r i b e  clouds as the l o c a t i o n of the scene and  the Lord's  support  40 as the u n d e r l y i n g means of t r a n s p o r t . reasonable  to conclude that the B l i c k l i n g  by the a r t i s t  as the source  d e p i c t i o n of an a e r i a l The in lar,  Therefore  artist  i t seems  account was  f o r h i s unusual and  used  imaginative  procession.  has i n c l u d e d one  other  original  detail  t h i s scene that betrays h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the vernacuAnglo-Saxon account.  As  I pointed out  earlier,  the  artist drama  has chosen not to i l l u s t r a t e  i n the i n c i d e n t of s a c r i l e g e , as i s normally  sented,  that  miraculous sion not on  t h e moment o f g r e a t e s t  o f t h e Jew's agony.  s a l v a t i o n which  obviously hanging  this  later  denoting  hands from  of this  the bier,  departed,  once a g a i n .  of circumstance,  versions  he e m p h a s i z e s t h e  shows t h e Jew, h i s b l a n d  a l l pain  b u t made w h o l e  change  Instead  repre-  scene  with  Boase  w r i t i n g that  as i t i s d e s c r i b e d  h i s hands  t o o comments ".  show t h e p r i n c e  expres-  . . the  hanging  by h i s  i n t h e De  Transitu  41 .  . .",  though  h e o f f e r s no e x p l a n a t i o n  tion.  With  reason  f o r t h e change  lustrated  the Blickling  the l i n e s  following  him: " S t r e t c h f o r t h  vest.  . . then  shall  were b e f o r e .  ture  o f t h e man r e a c h i n g text.  iconography  for.  The a r t i s t  t h e Jew's a p p e a l t h y hand,  . . .",  forward  Once a g a i n  and r e v e a l s  with  gesture  thou  who belie-  and be a s i n the minia-  h i s arms a s  the B l i c k l i n g  has i l -  to Peter  and s a y t h a t  the exact  altera-  however, t h e  t h y hands become r e s t o r e d 42  they  this  of the scene  i s accounted  tells  by  version  f o rthis  account  described  c l a r i f i e s the  t h e a r t i s t ' s dependence on A n g l o -  Saxon m a t e r i a l . This tion  between  vernacular for  Chapter  the Virgin  account  i t s novel  so f a r h a s d i s c u s s e d cycle  i n t h e York  i n the B l i c k l i n g  features.  Homilies  the close  Psalter  rela-  and t h e  as the b a s i s  The A n g l o - S a x o n v e r s i o n  i n con-  49 junction the  with  the  iconography  cing,  T r a n s i t u s was  of  the V i r g i n  the f i r s t  Announces  the F u n e r a l P r o c e s s i o n .  does  not  last  folio  any  more  earlier,  account  i n the V i r g i n  than does  angels  i n the L a t i n  the Anglo-Saxon  inal  needs  t o be  iconography  this  of  and,  text.  image, unconnected  sources, the  text  Burial  and  the grave,  strangely,  Consequently of  of  cycle  Vir-  by  this  way.  text  the  Assumption as  - -  noted  worshipping  to heaven the  by  apostles  seemingly  the proven  explained another  the V i r g i n  form  delivered  to e i t h e r  the  Both v e r s i o n s ,  from  subsequently  of  Announ-  the Anglo-Saxon  pictorial  text.  Angel  the Death  However,  d e s c r i b e Mary r i s i n g  source for  scenes—the  cycles-the  the L a t i n  C h r i s t , and  literary  Death,  f o r the u n u s u a l  before  in  four  her  gin,  the  orig-  textual  This aspect  i s the next  concern  of of  Chap t e r .  Analysis  -  In Psalter, ther  Assumption his analysis.of  (folio  literary  19v,  the Assumption  F i g . 26), Boase  source might  scene  suggested  l i e behind  the  i n the that  York  ano-  inspiration  of  the  43 new  pictorial  could  have  form.  known of  According the V i s ions  German B e n e d i c t i n e nun  who  to h i s argument, of  received  Elisabeth about  of  1156  the  artist  Schbnau, a  a  revelation  50 of  the Virgin's  described  the  aasumption.  ". . . i n a v e r y  with, l i g h t tude  bodily  and t h e form  of angels sepulchre  Elisabeth's vision  remote p l a c e a sepulchre  o f a woman  bathed  i n i t , and a g r e a t  multi-  s t a n d i n g a b o u t i t . A n d s h e was r a i s e d and w i t h t h e m u l t i t u d e o f a n g e l s  from  s h e was c a r -  44 ried to  up o n h i g h . " .  meet h e r , c a r r y i n g  and  they  assured ".  entered  the portals  by an a n g e l  flesh.  . . .". This  assumption—a both the  of the truth into  have  popular  t h e 1170's  taken  the sign of the cross Elisabeth,  of her v i s i o n ,  heaven both  first  account  records  offering  proof  that and  between  of the bodily  issue i n 12thcentury  by word  i n manuscript.  b y t h e visions  further  i n the spirit  current  o f t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y , where  circulated  came  4 5  controversial  half  hand  of l i g h t .  E n g l i s h and C o n t i n e n t a l — w a s last  continues.that Christ  i n h i sright  . . M a r y was c a r r i e d  the  of  The v i s i o n  o f mouth Boase  mariology  i n England i t i s thought  and l a t e r  has t r a c e d  the Continent  during to  by t h e end  the route  and England  and  46 my own r e s e a r c h v e r i f i e s Elisabeth's Rouse in  w o r k a p p a r e n t l y was s e n t  of Ford  i n Devonshire  1164 b y R o g e r  Continental  h i s account.  Gustum,  shortly  A redaction of first  after  a monk o f F o r d  m o n a s t e r y where  t h e Visions  to the Cistercian E l i s a b e t h ' s death  temporarily i n a were  popular.  Along  51 with- the  V±si.ons R o g e r  and  on  the  basis  can  be  assigned  of to  the  a n a l y s i s of  that  the  Visions: could  1172  or  1173.  this  the  between  accompanying  have reached  Elisabeth's  different parts  of  extant  12th. c e n t u r y  these,  two  the  B.IV  both written  Visions  prefatory  letter  time of  transmission  1171  1178.  and  letter,  England  spread  country  manuscripts  originated  L i b r a r y MS  149,  period  undated  In  Boase  most  a  deduces  likely  in  4 7  That  ter  an  i t s contents,  detailed  to  included  i n the and  in a  i s seen  i n the  containing  north  Oxford,  late  r a p i d l y from  of  St.  12th  number  her  story.  England:  Durham  John's  century  Ford  College  northern  of Of  ChapMS.  English  48 script.  On  narrative Psalter  this  was  current  Assumption  feasible,  he  i s ".  argues,  terms of  being  the  Sch-ifnau's  tist  found  ther  the  heaven,  event 49  . . .".  a l o n e was  version  Though  of  the  Visions  no  his  the  carried  confirmed  by  suggests but  therefore  Assumption,  possible  or  work might  i n d i c a t i o n that  in  from  visthe  Elisabeth  that  does not  direct stimulus,  Elisabeth's  I have found  as  s  York  based  of  statement  Boase  i n s p i r a t i o n i n the  i t is  artist  being  Elisabeth  when t h e  miniature  clearest  the  and  the  i n c o r r u p t i b l e body  vision.  text  illustrated  . . the  that The  that  country  painted,  description.  grave d i r e c t to  model.  north  in Boase's.opinion, her  of  i t i s probable  i n the  was  i m a g e r y on  ual  evidence  the say  whether  have been s u c h an  arwhean a illus-  52  trated  manuscript  nection  i n any  has  event,  assumption  directly  with  does  ligh_t  ascending does  not  in a  have  elements the  ly  unusual  from the to  evoke  physical  sepulchre i n a  place  bathed  the  female  form  the  Still,  artist  described  Given  seek  that  i n the  the  significant  of  a  also  (as  this  scene  me  be  in a  general  Mary  worshipping  versions, angels, body in  only  and  the  o n l y as  her  text  before Christ  d e s c r i b e s her  account ". does  .  seen  by  . the  and  as  Elisabeth  Elisabeth  of  a  f o r example  in  unreasonable the  most  the  comparison  Visions  seems  stated carried  a woman.  to  Though  i t omits  i n the  other  up  on  high  p r o v i d e s f o r the  record  high-  distinct  episode,  the  combined  traditional  depicted  sense.  being  form  the  But  I  r e c e n s i o n of  i t i s not  story.  makes between  cycle,  Assumption,  for this  Virgin's  Virgin  of  has  Psalter  F i g . 33),  source the  valid  argument  resourcefully  model  Boase to  a  Boase's  different  artist  York  Psalter,  another  of  i n the  has  in a  conventional iconography Winchester  image  of  con-  the  scenes  together with  form  compelling  description  glory.  earlier  that  plainly  text.  of  the  i t is a  me.  the  narrative,  Latin  from  kind  suggested  f o r h_er  indeed  convince  For  survived,  .  specifically  by  rising Nowhere  the  ascent  53 of  the  figure  me  i s the  tion. tist one  In had  a  verbal  greatest the  wrapped  single  expect also  similar  direct  image.  Yet  for  the  form  source  for  On  cal  assumption,  image of a  kind  was  of  of  mind  As  English her  first  count  too  was  not  by  of  of  her  and  detailed  reference  to  s p e c i f i c men-  text  the  as  a  probability  probab-  the  as  at  the  an 8th In  Ethelburga,  dawn,  thus: this  the  to  artist  form  of  Elisa-  a more v i v i d  Virgin.  body r i s i n g  new  imagery.  saint  of  to  visual  provide  make any  ar-  thus  inspiration i s diminished  though not  s i s t e r nuns, light  not  the  miniature the  to  Assump-  sources;  between  l i t e r a t u r e describes  early  similar  A s.sumptlon  discounts  direct  in written  England.  the  glory  textual  do  the  Virgin cycle,  i t i s this lack  shroud-wrapped  i t invented  existed  in  the  of  seems  Assumption.  as  insular  the  does not  opinion  another  b e t h ' s Visions northern  and  the  the  his  Visions  such a unique  le  of  feature  relationship  Elisabeth  w h i c h i n my  shroud- w h i c h  dramatic  e a r l i e r scenes  descriptions.  tion  in a  directly interpreted  could  find  totally  from  Elisabeth of  the  early  York date  century  In  of  records  "Leaving  her  s i s t e r saw  the  the  grave  SchiJnau  the  the  cell  the  for north  death  v i s i o n of one  distinctly  in  nor  Bede a p p a r e n t l y  connection with he  physi-  fact,  Psalter, in  since  i t of had of one  night  at  what  ap-  peared  t o be  a human b o d y w r a p p e d  more b r i g h t l y  than  the  sun.  T h i s was  it  e n t e r e d the open heavens.  of  the m i r a c l e  over  description  to the  torial  form  York  of  As uniqueness the in  noted  swathed  the c e n t e r of  where, the  that  the  at l e a s t  mummy-like  ough.  The  subject, St.  PScht  Christ's  Although  has  linked  head,  but  mummy f a s h i o n  the  not  establishes  the  vertically I agree  pic-  such  to  i n Sant'Angelo  Boase's  comparison  else-  of  the  the  i s common  a s we  with see  ( F i g . 43) shroud  of en-  another  i n the f o r which  drawn  shrouding of  i n Formis  on  posed  with  associated  1119-1123  form  face,  Eliza-  the  to b u r i a l s  i s usually  ca  than  iconography, the motif  connected  p.43,  Psalter,  imagery  invests  i s without visual  body  . . until  i s the d r a m a t i c emphasis  t h e Entombment o f C h r i s t ,  Albans  Otto  shrouded  as  shining  Assumption.  f o r Assumption form  up.  closer  that  the V i r g i n  scene.  form  us  what c h i e f l y  body of  the  brings  Psalter  above,  raised  and  Such.vivid  imagination  f o r the Assumption  totally  assertion  in  the  shroud  . . ." .  corruption  beth's  in a  over  the  corpse  (wall-painting,  5 2  ca  1072-1100,  shrouded York  found  bodies  Psalter  though  F i g . 44).  not  are  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  including  the head  indeed rare  unknown.  for instance  The on  an  and  f a c e as  i n Western  motif occurs ivory  totally seen  en-  i n the  Continental a r t ,  i n S p a i n as  panel depicting  I  have  scenes  from  55 the L i f e  of St.. Aemi.li.us.  from  the reliquary  1067)- a t t h e A b b e y o f S a n M i l l a n CFig.  45).  amples, tists  But the motif , rare  miniature, English  i n addition  t h e form  foot.  sculpture  corpse,  interest  i n numerous  totally  ex-  to E n g l i s h a r -  other instances of  o f t h e Entombment  t h e body  T h e same s u b j e c t  Ridja  to i t s dramatic use i n the Glasgow  appears  ( F i g . 46) d e p i c t s  (1053-  as i t i s i n C o n t i n e n t a l  a r t i n t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y and e a r l i e r .  the Malmesbury 1170  de l a C o g o l l a ,  must have been o f s p e c i a l  since,  shrine  wrapped,  of  enshrouded  i s similarly i n the Leaf  For Christ,  from  treated,  example, ca  head  to  a g a i n as a  i n London,  MS.661  53 (Fig.  47).  In different  in  contemporary  of  Judas  (folio  Maccabeus  to  of Lazarus,  (Fig.  18).  a unique  folio  Church, I56v  Bible,  time  the t o t a l l y  That  (Paris,  shrouded  ca  Saxon a r t a s w e l l ,  but also  f o r instance  form  of  appears  iconography  i n the century  nat.  i s seen.from.its appearance  Burial  Psalter  1170-1200  i s a  over  1150-1180  i n t h e York  Bibl.  the motif  12 thi. c e n t u r y e x a m p l e s  of the ca  i n Lazarus  i n t h e Par i s Psalter, Canterbury  and  1 2 t h c e n t u r y Romance  representation  F i g . 50).  English, t r a i t merous  t h e Winchester  where  i t over  The m o t i f c o n t i n u e s i n u s e l a t e  i t appears  Christ  find  i n the i n i t i a l  ( F i g . 4 9 ) , and a second  be a l s o  when  from  e.g.  350v, F i g . 4 8 ) , i n a l a t e 54  Alexander Raising  examples:  c o n t e x t s we  from  MS.lat.8846  characteristic not only  i n earlier  i n the burial  i n nu-  Anglo-  scenes of  56 patriarchs  in.the 1 1 t h c e n t u r y A e l f r i c  M u s e u m Cotton  ClaudLus  The shrouded insular  rising  imagination  associated  with  in  a r t from  English  the grave  entombment,  tion  of the shrouded  original,  body  the a r t i s t  unique  indigenous  motif,  Psalter  C o n s e q u e n t l y o n e may  have r e l i e d  on  weakened this  Another be  a different  since  persistent  possibility  that  the a r t i s t  subject  the  could  imagery.  t h e Assumption—as  generally the  the a r t i s t  of  Boase's  the form could  s u c h as a Tree  e x p r e s s i o n of the e v e r — i n c r e a s i n g  of  equally  tradition.  f o r the s o u r c e of t h e adapted  be  derived  bank  consider  l i ebehind  native  connec-  have  the well-stocked  Visions  As  i c o n o g r a p h y may  form  Elisabeth's  of Bede.  Given  Though  to Assumption  from  i n the  i t srecurrence i n the  surprising.  o f t h e York  .  existed  the time  pictorial  argument—that  might  to g l o r y  the motif persisted  preference for this becomes l e s s  5 5  t h e image o f t h e  the 11th c e n t u r y onward.  Psalter  tion  from  (British  72v, F i g . 5 1 )  i n the n o r t h from  York  his  folio  e v i d e n c e so f a r s h o w s t h a t  body  English  B.iv  Pentateuch.  Assump-  h i s c o m p o s i t i o n from  of Jesse, i t s e l f  a  new  d e v o t i o n to the V i r g i n  in  56 the  12th-century.  Psal tor  w h i c h may  t h e Shaftesbury  Similar  prototypes predating  h a v e been known to t h e a r t i s t  Psalter  ca  1130-1140  (British  the  York  occurred i n  Library  MS  57 Lansdowne  383  folio  1 5 , F i g . 5 2 ) , t h e Lambeth  1150  (folio  1 3 0 , F i g . 5 3 ) a n d i n t h e Winchester  1150  (folio  9,  the  vertical,  central Jesse  Fig. 54).  of the design,  across the bottom.  have been r e p l a c e d empty c o f f i n angels  notes, York a  the figure  figure  could  of Christ  could  perhaps  have  of the Tree  Another  representation  to h i s Mother  similarly  a t York Minster  dels  dating  from  that  the missing  are depicted  the mid-12th portions  con-  i nthe  evolved from to the V i r g i n  of the Tree itself.  nimbed  and as T u r n e r  o f J e s s e i n t h e Winchester  home may h a v e b e e n a t Y o r k  south w a l l  The  f o r the roundels  i n t h e Bible  pointing  elements  by t h e  body o f Mary.  substitute  as the  recumbent  Assumption  as one of t h e p r o p h e t s p o i n t i n g  miniature  to  t h e suspended  the busts of prophets  Psalter  54)."*^  beneath  functions  compositional  Psalter  ca  miniature  the horizontal  These  i n t h e York  on t h e s i d e s  taining  with  ca 1 1 4 0 -  Psalter  Bible  e l o n g a t e d form o f the V i r g i n  column  lying  I n t h e Lambeth  Bible  Psalter  such i nthe (Fig.  of Jesse  closer  In the glass  of the  prophets i n roun-  c e n t u r y and L e t h a b y  may h a v e c o n t a i n e d  suggests  the other f i -  58 gures necessary to complete  In  a r e v i e w of Boase's  mann d e s c r i b e s experimental might  a Tree  t h e York  Psalter  of Jesse.  monograph, Adelh.eid H e i Assumption  c o m p o s i t i o n , an awkward  have been  improved  a s a new a n d  arrangement  had t h e a r t i s t  shifted  which the b u r i a l  58 episode  to the bottom  register.  ments., w o u l d  result  motion  the Assumption  since  impetus in  my  because  used  Moreover, ter  and  an  similar  the  ca New  one  1400  descendant  ( F i g . 57)  York.  grave  have  now  In t h i s  owned by  lovely  stretched  tire c e n t r a l  figure  of  though, h e r e h e r  tifully  side  draped  of  folds  bend  softly  regis-  155, a  Incarnation.  Psalter  ascending  Assumpagainst  currency for I alabaster,  angels,  in strict, shrouded;  the  have dating  Museum  lateral  over  has  the m i n i a t u r e  the  to  cycle.  folio  a g a i n see  i s not  top  Bamberg  w o r k we  the V i r g i n form  feasible  from  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  by  But  i n the upper  of  English  small  tautly  be  the V i r g i n  94.A.11.18  certain  in a later  sheet  cent,  not  11th century  the V i r g i n  enjoyed  upward  ( F i g . 5s).  t h e s o u r c e f o r t h e York  the unique d e s i g n of  s h r o u d must  found  the l e f t  c o m p o s i t i o n f o r the scene  Whatever tion,  MS  of  com-  additional  of a c t i o n of  he  i s n o t u n u s u a l and  i n the  Staatbiblio.  shows on  would  the b u r i a l  i n the lower  f o r example  (Bamberg, which  of  gain  t h e page  the sequence  arrangement  sense  would  i n the other miniatures  before,  56)  Fig.  alter  resurrection  occurred Gospels  motif  such a reconstruction  i t would  switch,  i n a more e f f e c t i v e  from b e i n g at the top of  opinion  bottom  Such, a  of  the  holding  vertical  as-  instead  beau-  base.  59  59  To Psalter  may  summarize: have devised  t h e Assumption, combining highly  he  imaginative  i n the  well  familiar,  the  S a x o n and  later  miniature  a c y c l e of  f o r the  of  Assumption eral,  and  British aspects, just on  this  the  the  to  imagery  of  first  be  idea  by  transforming already he  in existbe  Chapter  Anglo-Saxon in  miniatures, pictorial  in  would  This  Assumption  two  for  iconography  primarily  to  considered the  the and  form  next  Chapter  concluding  that  the  and  will  insular  h e r i t a g e — i s the  c y c l e i n the  York,  now  Anglo-  in  i s the  l a r g e r bank of  its tradition  The  the V i r g i n  the  i n Eastern  specifically  as. i t s l i t e r a r y  by  Virgin. as  York.  the  cycle.  iconography  Isles.  and  E n g l i s h a r t f o r the of  so  the  composition  distinct did  sources  account  What r e m a i n s tionship  He  of  repertory, with which  his nearest  Homilies  a  fashion a motif  vernacular  artist  experimental  sources.  into  Blickling  last  an  created  Anglo—Saxon  described  ones:  also  different  ence  has  although, the  Western i n the focus  Dormitionart  in  a r t of on  pictorial formative  Psalter.  rela-  these  gen-  the two  traditioninfluence  60 Chapter I I I  In. p r e s e n t i n g gin  cycle  analyzed tive  elty  an Anglo—Saxon  also of  and  setting  f o r the  the  now  Assumption  of  second:  an  not  early cult  England  further either  been d e a l t  by  that  Instead  tradition  To comparison  the  the  knowledge  i n any  7th  from  of Mary  substantiate  to C o n t i n e n t a l  a  char-  English art. theme o f i n the  the  wider  originality tradition this  on  for  i s an  area show  expressed  i n the  north  Psalter  I will  propose  does not  representations i n general  relate  of  the  resemblence.  the Glasgow V i r g i n c y c l e an  nov-  I will  a r t except  of  chief  re-  detail.  century.  i n t h e York  in Continental  stemming  my  contemporary  the uniqueness  seen as  literary  of  the c y c l e or  first:  t h e V i r g i n was  t h e end  to e a r l i e r  Assumption  of  later  the p i c t o r i a l  with  I t has  body—the  the a r t i s t ' s  To  narra-  i n t h e Psalter--as and  Virhas  the Assumption  the V i r g i n viewed  to evaluate  s c a l e ; and  has  shrouded  consider  Chapter  iconography.  miniature  theme i n E n g l i s h a r t .  which  he  commentary on  of  sources f o r the  the preceding  of Anglo-Saxon  will  i n order  a larger  of  trait  Chapter  Death  how  the motif  t h e Assumption  acteristic This  immediate  i n . t h e York. Psalter,  as. t h e t e x t u a l b a s i s  lated  the  the  should  early insular pictorial  and  worship.  this  claim,  examples,  I have found  t h e theme of  that  the  in  Death  61  and in  Assumption English  genous ently the  art.  i n terms  consistent  was  and i n more d e v e l o p e d  From an e a r l y  tradition  emphasis  More  occurs earlier  date  of Mary w o r s h i p  on t h e V i r g i n  with  this  cycle  extended  than any o t h e r imported the generative force  i n Northumbria,  expresses i t s e l f  of a concentration  form  on t h a t  lineage  A l l told,  Psalter  of n a t i v e  influence,  on t h e V i r g i n  this  indi-  appar-  theme.  i n t h e York  an  i s  interest.  heritage  iconography i n the  manuscript.  A brief the  subject  early ern  representations  relief  ( F i g . 5g)  Another  early  In general,  of the Assumption  i n a r t under  of the V i r g i n  Byzantine fabric  prayer between  trate  themselves  might  result  which  t h e hand  example  transisset  depicts  of t h i s now  orans,  the V i r g i n  standing  i n t h e 8th  Here  Mater  the lack  identification  Domina  be-  cen-  the V i r g i n  two o t h e r a n g e l s p r o s of a  mandorla  of the subject  i t not f o r the i n s c r i p t i o n Maria  as i n the  p r e s e r v e d a t Sens w i t h  at her feet.  East-  her by t h e wrist.''  type recurs  two a n g e l s w h i l e  the  from S a n t ' E n g r a c i a ,  o f God r a i s i n g  i n a mistaken  an A s c e n s i o n w e r e  of  art follows.  are variants  tween a p o s t l e s ,  "cum  of the development  on t h e 4th c e n t u r y s a r c o p h a g u s  Saragossa,  in  view  i n Continental  influence  tury  overall  which  de Apostolis",  as  states: proof  62  that  this  probably  i s indeed our  earliest  The the  orant  as  Tuotillo, 60)• of  coes  exampled  type  by  the  the  early  into  Gall  identified  Virilis  scenes  i n q u e s t i o n , L a f o n t a i n e argues  of  the  text.  Transitus.  between  Likely  the  artist  bookcover  had  of  fres-  an of  that a close a Coptic from  Fig.  version  analysis  copied  11th  Library,  9th century  f r e s c o s and  by  and  narrative  In her  the  10th  i n Rome a s  c y c l e of  exists  the  i n the  and  attribution.  Monastery  dramatic  ( F i g 59 )  expressed  ivory  trated  tionship  date  certain  famous  Temple of F o r t u n a the  of  i n use  alternative been  of  of Assumption,  ( 1 0 t h c e n t u r y , * St.  theme has  at  depiction  continued  However, an  the  Assumption  hieratic  Virgin,  centuries  an  illusthe  three  rela-  recension a  Transitus 3  manuscript  illustrated  Given  the  as  unreliable  an  tive low  occurrence  was  situs  can  could To  the  extensive Dormition  apocryphal  theological  c y c l e i s found  T h u s we  to  the  c y c l e s seem u n u s u a l . this  tive  r e p u t a t i o n of  w i t h an  proof,  But  not  as  unique  such  to  that  illustrated  have c i r c u l a t e d  i n the  at  Italy even  narrative  time narra-  demonstrate since a earlier  manuscripts  West b e f o r e  r e t u r n to C o n t i n e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t s :  9th century  this  extensive  I shall  i n E n g l i s h a r t of  conclude  text  cycle.  cycle in Italy,  be-  narradate.  of the  the  9th  century.  in  addition  by  the  end  Tran-  of  63 the  10th  come the  century  into  general  Greek  tles  into  usage.  the  one  to  Mary's  behind  one  at  feet.  the  the  and  at  the  left  headed  always  leans  bearded  over  the  Virgin  to  the  flying  angels.  may  vary  from  the  twelve  a p o s t l e s proper  and of  additional the  ory  over  i n the  present  mourners  may  also  appear  This  several  icons  from  Saint  centuries,  (Fig.64);  torana,  Palermo  ing  i n the  Besides Death  and  the  theme  i n the  the  Gospel  Fig.61-62); date  from  the  mid-12th  ( F i g . 65);  Church  the  of  e.g.  at  the  as  the  the  of  the  the  century a  late  other  appeared.  i s more  many  as  Otto  members exten-  III  panel  (Munich,  of  an  ( F i g . 63); Sinai,  mosaics  from  century  St. Clement  iconographic  and  six-  century i v -  Mount  13th  of  Dormition,  G e n e r a l l y the  variable  soul  occurs  Constantinople  is  mourners  10th  central  Peribleptos,  Koimesis,  Assumption West  and  of  is  Christ  anonymous  late  Book  C a t h e r i n e ' s Monastery,  century  as  over  scene,  the  to  apos-  bending  of  standardized iconography  cover  similar  hand  to  Peter  in this  number  were  gold  of  The  the  by  Virgin.  to  who  S t a a t . B i b l . Clm.4453 triptych  scene  bishops  crowd.  sively  death  the  of  Paul  had  according  headed  by  included  including  the  the  habitually  teen,  at  was  right  John,  bier  Koimesis  division  two  the  f o r the  structure  text  groups,  formula  Its standard  the  and  shown  Byzantine  v e r s i o n s of  censing kiss  the  i n some  ivory in  12th the  Mar-  wall-paint(Fig.66).  types  for  treatment instances  of  64  combines --with  exclusively  or w i t h o u t  mesis.  These  grouped  into  in  other  10th two  a mandorla  Western  and  on  from Augsbert  folio  10th  F i g . 67).  sence  of C h r i s t  other  details  vary  also  tive  nimbed  on  the  beneath),  form.  For  of  Christ  tradition  of  the  late  9448  10th  folio  setting.  the  The  the  the  F i g . 68) Pericope  Book  half-length Virgins  over  the  deathbed  lined  by  times  with  11th  scene.  J.J.G.Alexander  w i t h Mary by  orans  the  hand  of  c a r r y i n g the  century  Harley  her  the  body  Henry  Different  or  palm. 641  the  the The  crown,  and  may  a  diminu-  i s shown  (New  dead  swaddled  i n the  ways.  the  MS.lat.  Koimesis  10th  Fig.69  century, ),  is  uses poised  combinations 11th  Virgin  the  Bibl.Nat. to  119  the  soul with  also  other  North  preadd  i n a medallion which  God,  2908  versions blend  II,  folio  orans  may  small  (Paris,  be  but  s o u l as  a coronation of  Koi-  Sacramentary  in several different  continue  M o r g a n MS  or  r e c e i v e the  (Munich,Bayr.Sta&tsbibl.Clm.4452 a  God  Gradual  adds  Coronation  Virgin  iconography  Ottonian  Virgin Priim  the  more u s u a l ,  to  the  maintains  Virgin's  example  orant  as  type  (though  present  century  60v  or  of  the  conventional  M u s e u m MS  other  hand  as  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s can  such  Byzantine  of Mary  tradition  The  The  the  depicts  (British  d e p i c t i o n of  figure  couch  child-like  as  One  a cloth  following  such  the  123v  from  century  types.  mounting  century,  elements 11th  basic  features—such  century,  crowned,  French  type  and  outsomeat  times  exampled  York," P i e r p o r i t M o r g a n  Library  65  MS.641  folio  142v  orans,  carrying  in  a mandorla  as  i n the  Fig.70 the  )  palm w i t h  a s s i s t e d by  manuscript  the  angels  crowned, right  with  from.Augs.bert,  the  i t remains ambiguous, according  sentations of  the  are  of  her  really  Tuotillo  to  i n almost  depict  the  flects  the  tion.  A  of 6  to the  or  the  i n Glory  images  of  God.  Here,  Mary  is  not  mandorla.  Con-  Alexander,  as  these  i n the  of  the  repretradition  question  h i s t o r y of  the  controversy  instances  which  of  glorified  a  is  the  point  reluctance  one  her  bodily  symbolic  here  representation  emphasizing  her  Virgin  as  re-  assump-  i s included  restricted to  make  V i r g i n ' s body, which  the  distrust  to  there  on  i n most one  for  distinctions  early  raising  religious  subject  ascent,  actual  these  controversy  s h o w how  a Virgin  to  of  ivory.  a l l of  brief  rising  b o d i l y assumption  I have drawn that  the  death  sequently  question  ascending  th.ehand  has  the  s u b s t i t u t e d by  full-length  hand,  shown and  to  been  shows a  of  spiritual in  the  orans.  The the of  6th the  During pressed  A s s u m p t i o n had  century twelve  as  a  in  festival  principal  Charlemagne's the  been c e l e b r a t e d on  feasts  time  the  August  i n the feast  West a l t o g e t h e r  on  15th  at and  liturgical  came c l o s e the  least  to  grounds of  i t was  since one  calendar. being i t s  supassoc-  66  i a t i b n with, t h e a p o c r y p h a l theological hert  value.  ( d . 860),  C6.gi.tus  me  The  n a r r a t i v e s and  Abbot  condemned  the  repudiated  the  t e x t of  be  accepted.  The  letter  the  t h e Mount of  the most  states  i t was the  h o l y body was t a k e n away o r  c e n t r a l i s s u e of  the A s s u m p t i o n was of  the V i r g i n  t a k e n up.  i t was  of  Paschasius  widely  tic  divided  should  his  of  i s not  schools  the  the  letter,  St. Gall i n the  i n G r e g o r y of  Breviary  over  on  the  Odilo  the  of  nor  letter  body was  f o r the  the  Office  theoloagnos-  (d.1049),  states that  Jerome  other  of  in a  Carolingian period  of C l u n y  a result  entry  actually  question:  the  how  i . e . ; whether  lessons  b o d i l y assumption, As  known,  i t s i n f l u e n c e , Western  Cd.912) a d o p t e d  Tours.  foot  incorporated  p o s i t i o n t a k e n by  . . ." and  an  spiritual  sermon o n . t h e A s s u m p t i o n the  the  This  controversy,  i n the work of  trust  firm belief  found  Owing to  7  Paschasius. RadbertJ Stammerer  at  is  to  empty tomb, but  i n t e r p r e t e d as  i n the  i n t o two  view f e a t u r e d  . we  the  i n which  there  resurrected.  Radbert's  used  whose c o n s e r v a t i v e .  removed  letter,  a work n o t  tremendous p r e s t i g e i n the  the A s s u m p t i o n .  gians  i s an  i n t o h e a v e n , or whether  sermon, e n j o y e d and  to be  St. Jerome),  Jehoshaphat  O l i v e s where t h e r e  Rad-  i n a famous  n a r r a t i v e as  of  dubious  Paschasius  acknowledges that  empty c h u r c h i n t h e v a l l e y  whether  Transitus  ( w r o n g l y a t t r i b u t e d to  he  o r why  of C o r b i e ,  their  /"meaning  hand N o t k e r  opposite an  view  i d e a he  this  ".  the with  had  division,  the  67  Transitus.  retained  assumption  was  retarded  tury  when a n o t h e r  This  treatise,  sibly of  of  uncertain  wrongly  English  Promoting  i s reflected  in  England,  of  bodily  gustine, ticle land,  assumption  and  which  was  written  1142-1196.  to appear  nent. the  The  empty  cloth  expressed instance with ca  from  the  angels.  t h e new  of  been  (d.1136)  a  con-  (d.1109). assumption,  other theologians  working  who  was  at  (d.1167)  who  affirmed  of  the  one  Pseudo-Au-  Newburgh's Commentary on  on  the r e q u e s t of Abbot  of  the p h y s i c a l  the  Roger  from  shows C h r i s t  Tours  gone, w h i l e  French  portal  interpretation  the b a s - r e l e f  assumption  12th century i n England  from  the h e l p of a n g e l s .  1150,  of a c o r p o r e a l  pos  influence  has  Canterbury  the arguments  12th century m i s s a l  by  approach.  the  and  cen-  Can-  of  By-  8  tomb, t h e body  held  of  bodily  12th  of  Representations gin  early  ousted  of R i e v a u l x ,  using  in William  of  of Autun  time at Canterbury, A i l r e d  i n the  to S t . A u g u s t i n e but  S t . Anselm  Honorious  the line  (Paschasius Radbert)  i n the w r i t i n g s  e.g.  belief  a new  gradually  the g e n e r a l acceptance  it  the  up  attributed  authorship,  to the m i l i e u  and  i n trie West u n t i l  sermon opened  the Pseudo-Jerome  nected  status  A  ca  the V i r g i n  1130, La  i n Majesty stretching  be-  Conti-  depicts  mounts  sculpture  tympanum f r o m  the  ( F i g . 41),  in various  Autun,  and  thus  in a  particularly  experiments; for shows M a r y  rising  Char i t e - s u r - L o i r e , out  h i s hand  to  9  the  Virgin  panum f r o m  who  i s b e i n g drawn  into  the mandorla.  S t .P i e r r e - l e - P u e l l i e r , Bourges  (now  On  the  tym-  i n t h e Muse'e  68 de  Berry),  the  the whole  story  of  a n g e l ' s message f o l l o w e d  have  t h e Transitus by  ried  register aloft  by  the V i r g i n two  is laid  angels.'"  depict  At  lintel  reliefs  relief  i s carved without Christ  maged) ; t h e s e c o n d the  body from  a crown  over  Ferrand, Christ the  the  body  the c o f f i n  i m p r e s s i o n made b y  tain  features  art.  Virgin with  It displays  cycle  of Western  the  graphy  i n the presence  acteristics  only  subject.  On  departed  from  many u n i q u e  elements  emphasis  on  Peter over  presence  of  the Jews,  Angels of  them  holds  Clermont-  of C h r i s t  from  the  cer-  in Continental  aspects of  the  story  the Assumption,  subject  i n the  and  fea-  12th  o f Koimesis  the deathbed.  of  f o r m u l a e w h e n he i n Chapter  But  this  s u c h common c h a r -  the  the  York  Psalter  introduced  the  I I , s u c h as  the other a p o s t l e s ,  cen-  icono-  same s o u r c e b e h i n d  the a r t i s t  the d i f f e r e n t  saving  matches  traditions  at  by  ( F i g . 72).  Psalter  the d i c t a  dalift  stone  n a t u r e of  outlined  i s much  solid  i n part  these v i s u a l  first  i s shown as  i n t h e York  the o t h e r hand,  At  two  is lifted  d e p a r t e d body  stem  car-  open,  i n a g e n e r a l sense  ultimately  then  eyes  iconography f o r the  i t follows  one  (Fig.71)."  same n a r r a t i v e  Also  relationship  the work  may  i n the  The  resurrection.  these p i c t o r i a l  tury.  is  her  dramatizes the c o r p o r e a l  tures  Assumption.  of Mary,  which  and  1180-1190,  tomb i n i t s s h r o u d , w h i l e head  which  tomb a n d ca  (though  shows a b o d i l y  the shrouded  from  i n the  and  section  procession  Senlis,  the Death  the V i r g i n ' s  The  and  a damaged  shown t h e D o r m i t i o n , t h e f u n e r a l  upper  i s depicted:  the  moments o f  the  new  anachronistic the  narrative  69  w h i c h , h e has, o p t e d itself  to i l l u s t r a t e ,  the extent of the cycle  and above a l l , t h e d r a m a t i c  Assumption  as a shrouded  presentation  body d o m i n a t i n g  combination of features  i s not found  of  representations  Dormition—Assumption  the  more l i k e l y  recension far  that  the a r t i s t  of the n a r r a t i v e  the best  of t h e  t h e scene.  i n t h e wider  stream  w h i c h makes  depended  i t a l l  on t h e A n g l o - S a x o n  i n the Blickling  explanation of the a r t i s t ' s  This-  Homilies,  exceptional  so icono-  graphy.  Boase the  totally  his  statement  with  (1962)  shrouded  Virgin,  here,  however  Assumption  Eastern  representations. as a r i s i n g  the  argument  My own f i n d i n g s  elsewhere  to this  of i t s o r i g i n  corpse  of a  or  physical g r a p h i c man-  Consequently English motif  i n Chapter  I I , now a s -  greater weight.  L n h i s . m o n o g r a p h o n t h e Psalter, thoroughly  York  i n Western  manuscript.  a n c e s t r y , as t r a c e d  of the  i n such  as a s p e c i f i c a l l y  concur  of t h e r e s e a r c h  t h e form  The i l l u s t r a t i o n  shrouded  i s apparently unique  w i t h Anglo-Saxon  that  of  he h a s n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e d  and on t h e b a s i s  does n o t occur  ner  sumes e v e r  though  i tdoes appear  Psalter  Assumption  pointed out the originality  w i t h many c o m p a r i s o n s .  h i s statement  presented  first  explore the frequency  Boase does n o t  of t h e theme o f t h e D e a t h  70 and  Assumption  i n English: a r t .  unenterprising  examples  ments i n p o r t a l Psalter  Fig.  (.as c o m p a r e d  ca  980  miniatures:  (British  7 3) a n d t h e s l i g h t l y  Robert  (Rouen,  i n passing the  to the French  sculpture) i n the contemporary  a n d two e a r l i e r  Ethelwold  He m e n t i o n s  Bibl.Mun.  Museum later MS.Y.7  experiWinchester  t h e Benedictional  MS.  Add.  49598  Benedictional folio  of  folio  of  102v Archbishop  4 F i g . 74) w h i c h  he  12 c i t e s merely have found of  as unusual  there  a r e indeed  t h e D e a t h and A s s u m p t i o n  ficance  should The  resent  and  be  gow m i n i a t u r e s  of the V i r g i n  more o r i g i n a l  developed  Assumption.  But as I  English representations  c y c l e i n t h e York  another,  types  other  types.  and t h e i r  signi-  considered.  Virgin  simply  different  ed  10th century  Psalter  variation  f o r the iconography  I b e l i e v e i t i s more l i k e l y stem  from  need  a different  not  o f t h e many of the Death  that  tradition  the Glas-  not  reflect-  i n the C o n t i n e n t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s or f o r t h a t matter  contemporary  E n g l i s h work o f s o u t h e r n  would  have been  side  influence.  southern monds and pare Death  the f i r s t  to absorb  Manuscripts  follow middle-Byzantine  depict the subject examples of  the  virgin  Canterbury  and l a t e r  pendant  Psalter  of  Koimesis.  out-  from the  and Bury  Eas.tem  in  which  the mainstream  as a f a i t h f u l  i n t h e Winchester  provenance,  of t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y  schools a t Winchester,  rep-  S t . Ed-  iconography We may  com-  ( F i g . 33) o f t h e  t o an a d j a c e n t  miniature  of the  71 Virgin  Enthroned  f  the pair  often  described  as c o p i e s of a  13 B y z a n t i n e diptych;.  These r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  pared  mosaics  and  to the S i c i l i a n  have even  been l i k e n e d  Virgin  Enthroned  script  k n o w n a s Queen 14  MS.  Egerton  thoroughly  to Crusader  Xn a n y e v e n t ,  t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y sometimes c a l l e d  it  i s thought  tional  Koimesis  Luttrell  also  follows  Museum  to Eastern  of t h e second  the Bury  Psalter  S t . Edmonds), has a  and an e x t e n s i v e  Psalter  adhere  psalter  of  Bury  (British  the miniatures are  and s t r i c t l y  t o be from  Sinai  a r t s u c h as t h e  Psalter  The o t h e r E n g l i s h  com-  c e n t u r y J e r u s a l e m manu-  Melisende's  Byzantinized  iconography.  a n d t o work, f r o m M o u n t  i n the mid—12th  .1139)..  have been  cycle  half (as  conven-  i n the 13th century  the prescribed  Byzantine  for-  mula.'' There  a r e numerous  Assumption  i n later  again  from  t h e south, f o r example:  Burgh  St. Peter,  and  the cycle  pictorial  English  instances  Norfolk;  from  Brook,  tradition.  East Anglian  school  James between  work from  o f t h e D e a t h and the 13th century,  wall-paintings  from  C h a l g r o v e ; Wimborne, D o r s e t ; Kent,  Another  a l lreflect  the Eastern  important cycle  of i l l u m i n a t o r s  and d a t e d  allied b y M.  1280. a n d 130.Q i s t h e w a l l - p a i n t i n g  to the R.  at the 16  Church of A l l Saints, This extensive  Crough-ton,  treatment under  Nor t h h a m p t o n s h i r e.  strong  Byzantine  influence  72 contained complete her  Life  of the V i r g i n ,  parents.  the Perrins  by. J a m e s ,  Collection;  at Dorchester: I mention continuing  popularity  art.  i s especially  What  fact and  that  including  English: representations  have been l i s t e d in  25. - e p i s o d e s w h i c h , f o r m e d  originally  Virgin  scenes from  introducing  the 14th century  such as t h e B r a l l e the Lady  them h e r e  Horae  formerly  Chapel, a t E l y and t h e one as I l l u s t r a t i o n s  of the Death  and A s s u m p t i o n  noteworthy  they a l l o r i g i n a t e  they a l l r e f l e c t  an almost  of the  i n English  i n t h e s e examples  i s the  i n s c h o o l s s o u t h o f t h e Humber  the influence  tradi-  tion.  Their  trasts  sharply  unique  example of n o r t h e r n iconography i n E n g l i s h a r t .  to that  Since supplying  representations  c l a r i f l e d - many we m i g h t theory ly, is  contemporary  to examine  had a l r e a d y  to find  tlxe l l k l i h o o d  cycle  artistic  tradition  und  Sinding  earlier  a  Insular a r t The A n g l o -  source  features. models  which  Therefore  to support the  f o r t h e theme.  i n h i s pioneering  Hlmmelfahrt  remains  i n our n o r t h e r n  and A s s u m p t i o n .  unusual  con-  are unsatisfactory i n  of such ancestry i s increased  r e f e r e n c e by Olav Tod  which  provided a textual  of the cycle's  of an Anglo-Saxon  s t u d y , Marlae  parallels  of the Death  expect also  Psalter  f o r the Virgin  one i s tempted  Saxon r e p e r t o r y  as f a r as I c a n a s c e r t a i n ,  o f t h e York  an e x p l a n a t i o n  manuscript, for  imagery,  of the Byzantine  Fortunate-  since  there  iconographlcal  (1903), to a l a t e  7 th-early  73 8th century manuscript  o f Bede known as  the P i l g r i m ' s  Report  Sanctis)^^  includes  the  (De  Liber  earliest  Locls  extant i l l u s t r a t i o n  a work of E n g l i s h ble  to t r a c e  the drawing well he  be  i n time  gin:  for  the  and first  trace,  prepared York  her  inscription: an  angel  retained this  picture  figures.  we  the F l a g e l l a t i o n , lies  on  the  i n known e x a m p l e s w h i c h  body  i s shown w r a p p e d  grave.  she "Hie  L i k e Mary  Sancta  ObiJt" .  i n Byzantium  with Early as w e l l  time--that Christ  after  as  since  for his  of  the  Vir-  Mary's  I have been  On  Christian in Britain  scene  t h e bed  Behind  and able  linensheet  i n the death  watchful.  i n accordance  may  reliable  stone bench  i n a heavy  i s awake and Maria  with  Sinding claims  have of a Death  Mary  impossi-  i n question  t o be  in  i s the draughtsman) i s  time  f o r the  Psalter,  appears  Bede  the column of  two  i t was  the manuscript  ( t h e work  be  the V i r g i n  by m o d e r n a r t h i s t o r i a n s  ( i f indeed  surviving  i t includes  of  w h a t may  of  While  of D o r m i t i o n iconography..  illustration  deathbed  essay  Sinding's authority  analysis  the o l d e s t  the Death  (Fig.75).  for this  is continuously cited  Bede's  of  the present whereabouts  lost),  accurate  to  provenance  which  Travel  of  the  i s the  t h e bed  stands  tradition—still and  Ireland  h i s a s c e n s i o n should not  at  be  rep-  a n g e l , presumably  sig-  18 resented nifying that a  as  he  victory  the a r t i s t  had  b e e n on  over  death,  earth. holds  The  the palm  knew t h e a p o c r y p h a l  t i m e when C o n t i n e n t a l  story  a r t expressed  branch,  evidence  in detail.  the Assumption  At as  a  74 hieratic  d.rans,  i t seems a s t o n i s h i n g  thie D e a t h of  the V i r g i n  h.y t h e  with  the  England.  Lf  angel  n o r t h of (and  shown i n her  palm  i n an  counter—evidence  lustration  could  be  fies  the  picture, and  may  the  genesis  Assumption  that  but  shroucV and  8th century  Bede was  m e r e l y wanted  i s correct  of  the  pictorial  i l -  tradition  Sinding  justi-  n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s by  painting a decoration  to  the  to. r e f u t e i t ) , t h i s  the  not  accompanied  work f r o m  in English art.  e a r l y appearance of  explanation  a p i c t u r e of  1  Is. no  t h e D e a t h and  see  S i n d i n g s. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  there  of  to  illustrate  p o s s i b l y have t r a n s f o r m e d  the  the  or  cult  inscription  a representation  of  the  19 dying been  Virgin  for  purpose.  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  lence  i n the  worship  north  of  i s b o r n e out  expressions  of  Northumbrian  earliest  the D e a t h of  subject an  by  written  the D e a t h , as  immediate  However, Bede c o u l d a l s o b e c a u s e of  early cult  representations  The the  this  source  the  evidence,  well of  of  as  other  important  i n England  the V i r g i n  site  Adamnan's l a t e  the  of  7 t h - e a r l y 8th. c e n t u r y  her  and  this century  Celtic  as  to  preva-  8th  and  Hodegetria.  Bede's d r a w i n g  written references and  Virgin  the V i r g i n of  the  have  i s one  the  of  theme of  passing, v i z . :  travelogue  of  the  Holy  20 L a n d , De terview  LocisSanctts. of  the  pilgrim  t h e Near  This  treatise  A r c u l f who  a journey  to  679-682.  Adamnan r e p o r t e d  had  E a s t w h i c h he the  summarized  his i n -  r e c e n t l y returned  had  made a b o u t  traveller's  the  from years  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  75 Church, of  the Roly  (the  Sepulchre)  Holy  presented of  four  Virgin as  Mary a d j o i n i n g t h e Round  a  quadrangular  building .  Adamnan a l s o w i t h a p l a n d r a w n on  of  th.e J e r u s a l e m  churches  Church  under  Arculf  a wax  tablet  discussion,  includ-  21 ing  the  c h u r c h w h e r e Mary- d i e d .  fragile to  to  exist  parchment,  church Bibl.  copy of  exists  458,  B e d e , who  from  De  from  drawing  story  evidences  illustrated a century  painting Certainly Benedict had with  Fig.76  one,  king  the  b o o k came and 23  Transitus  into  used  a  Aldfrith  the  hands  i t as  the  manuscripts  the  Fortuna  9th  century  Virilis,  culled  Possibly or w a l l half  (628-689),  made s e v e r a l t r i p s  Staat.  King  of  basis  from the  of  the  the  t o Rome a n d  was  (as  Transitus, in  Northumbria  of  Transitus in existence.  w e a r m o u t h and  merchandise  the  perhaps  already  returned  in  Bede's  7 t h c e n t u r y we of  not  apocryphal  tradition  panel  founder  spiritual  a  were  Rome),  c o u l d have been a v a i l a b l e  second  Mary's  Sanctis.  elements  earlier.  more a b u n d a n t  copy where  Adamnan p r e s e n t e d  t h a t a r e c e n s i o n of  the  Biscop  ).  too  transferred  (Vienna,  Northumbrian  Locis  i n manuscript by  bottom 22  the  Temple of  with  evidently  to  illustrated  the  little  over  the  plan, obviously  9th century  center  in Continental art until  frescos  an  4v,  and  i t i n h i s History  Liber  Since  in a  i n the  folio  quoted  h i s own  copied  today  h i s book at York  ( 6 8 5 - 7 0 5 ) and  of  f o r l o n g . i n wax  i s indicated Cod.  The  ".  than  . .  know that Jarrow, loaded  before.  . . "  76 including and  ".  . .a  p i c t u r e s of  l a r g e q u a n t i t y of  sacred  books  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s to  of  a l l kinds  adorn  the  central  24 nave from ".  . . a  tles.  one  St.  Peter  Death. by  Transitus  sions  could  and  of  I t i s at  we  from  twelve  in  Biscop's  speculate  illustrated  the  later of  also  copies  from  have  the or  the  that the  not,,of recen-  Anglo-Saxon apocryphal of  existed in  apos-  library  since different  Knowledge  drawing  from  indication  have other  especially  8th century  stone  to  the  possible that  a copy,  known t o  the  England,  a  boarding  pictures  the  period story  work  by  Northumbrian  5  artistic  Funeral  of  these  i n c l u d e d a c y c l e of  least  had  Ireland.  earliest  another  have  identified  Tours,  While  t h e m e was  on  i t i s tempting  have been f a m i l i a r  libraries.^  :  and  Of  M a r y and  installed  Biscop  have been  Gregory  on  Virgin  . .".  s t o r y i n some f o r m ,  England  and  the  other.  representations could  established  in  the  . ." w e r e t o b e  Virgin's  the  to  l i k e n e s s of  Church of such  wall  of D o r m i t i o n  more c o m p l e t e  popular work.  A  P r o c e s s i o n - and slab from  N o r t h u m b r i a may  the  developed  the  iconography  evidence  in insular  be  that  devotions c y c l e of  Church, of W i r k s w o r t h ,  the from  the  a po s s i b l e . A s s u m p t i o n  in  is  Death carved  Derbyshire,  26 described  first  by  depicts  the V i r g i n  head  the  of  B e t t y K u r - t h i n 1945  ( F i g . 77).  borne  w i t h John  to  her  procession bearing  burial the  p a l m and  a man  It at  the  shown  77  with, h i s arms o u t s t r e t c h e d and characteristic including priest  depiction Kurth as  That  loses  of a figure  scene  be a n A s s u m p t i o n ,  such  an e a r l y  iconography England  Adjacent  based  when,  as an A s c e n s i o n  thus  rounding  o n t h e Transitus  early  Christian  or C a r o l i n g i a n  ments  the uniqueness  times  Jewish  i s another by  angels.  narrative.  developed  . . up  the  but i t could  narrative  ".  the  out the  r e n d e r i n g of a f u l l y  K u r t h comments,  and  surrounded  A l l  are present  to the group  i n a mandorla  this  story  cloud w i t h the angels  a hand.  identifies  well  the bier .  f e a t u r e s of the apocryphal  the c i r c u l a r  who  touching  Dormition  should  t o now  no  were known.  occur i n  examples of . .",  docu27  of this  Contemporary tury as  English  the V i r g i n  more  mition  tre. the  Assumption (Bayer  of  on a bed  iconography,  i s depicted  164 F i g . 78').  pictorial  ca  980  i s a group  (Fig.73).  page w i t h t h e  three weeping  register  women.  of a p o s t l e s  w i t h c l o t h e s and a  a crown.  However  p e r i o d i s the Dor-  Ethelwold,  tended.by  holds  Robert  which  t h a t a Transitus  at the top four angels.descend Hand  i s the 8th cen-  t h e s u b j e c t on a f u l l  i n the lower  The d i v i n e  slab  at Munich  to the Anglo-Saxon  i n t h e Benedictional  reclining  now  N a t . M u s . no MA  to the theory  continued  the bottom  and  to the Wirksworth  miniature presents  Virgin At  orans  interesting  tradition  This  ivory  subject f o r Anglo-Saxon a r t .  scep-  From h i s a n a l y s i s  Deshman c o n c l u d e s  that  the core  of of  78 this  m i n i a t u r e was  illustrating and is  an  apocryphal  assumption. important  Virgin  copied  He  since  i n Western  intact  from  narrative  p o i n t s out i t i s the  a of  further  first  cycle  the V i r g i n ' s that  actual  a r t , p r e d a t i n g by  of m i n i a t u r e s  the  death  iconography  C o r o n a t i o n of  some 150  years  the  another 28  English The  Benedictional  date  of  ( F i g . 7S),  Virgin. pressed the  C o r o n a t i o n on  also  the c a p i t a l Archbi  the  the n a r r a t i v e  hovering angels  dictional.  Surrounded  crown, Mary  i s shown o r a n t  tion  of assumption  The iconography  Robert  s u b j e c t i s i n more  a p o s t l e s and  Reading, of  ca  1130.  slightly  later  c o n t a i n s a m i n i a t u r e of  Here however and  shop  from  by  seen  i n the  and  form  the  sup-  without  earlier  Bene-  to r e c e i v e  her  posi29 i n most C o n t i n e n t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . " .  entrance  of  in English  ".  about  of  have been  simplified  mourners i n the  elements  the Death  . . traditional  the C o r o n a t i o n  a r t does not  into  directly  Dormition relate  to  the  30 cycle  i n the  York  demonstration art  of  the  (to borrow a  reason  why  Psalter. inventive  phrase  England  I have  ".  included  capacity  of Adolph  of  i t here  English  Goldschmidt)  . . shows h e r s e l f  more  as  medieval  which  i s the  independent  of 3  convention  than  The  of  tion  artist  of V i r g i n  the Continent  the  York  Psalter  iconography  not  i n the  iconographic  sphere.".  miniatures inherited  a  only emphasizing  Death  the  tradi-  79  and  Assumption but a t r a d i t i o n  notable  also  for I t s crea-  t i v e in.novattons .  That t h e s e  last  ance does not d i m i n i s h dition thern lost ing  interests.  the inroads with  importance during  this  important  have d i s a p p e a r e d  shift  to t h e s o u t h  appear  the p i c t o r i a l  tra-  by n o r -  the north  of England  the 8 t h century  that  i n southern  representations as a r e s u l t  s u f f e r e d by t h e n o r t h e r n  Viking  proven-  follow-  made by t h e D a n i s h i n v a s i o n s , and i t i s c o n -  the Death should  loss  that  I t i s w e l l known t h a t  its artistic  Other  t h e argument  f o r t h e D e a t h and A s s u m p t i o n was g e n e r a t e d  sistent of  examples a r e o f s o u t h e r n  from  representations  artistic  centers.  t h e n o r t h may  of the i n e s t i m a b l e provinces  simply  damage and  a l s o d u r i n g the  r a i d s when, f o r example, we know t h a t  i n 867 Y o r k 32  was b u r n e d The also  vast  e x t e n s i v e l y and t h e M i n s t e r  devastation  account  by W i l l i a m  f o r great  artistic  conclude:  first,  school  the Conqueror l o s s e s from  destroyed. i n 1069 must  t h e Humber t o  33 the  Forth.  To sentation  o f t h e D e a t h of t h e V i r g i n , 11 l u s t r a t i n g  s i o n o f t h e Transitus  manuscript,  Northumbrian provenance. and  the 'oldest 'surviving  Assumption r e c u r s  Second,  reprea  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d  recento a  t h e theme o f t h e D e a t h  as a p i c t o r i a l  tradition  in signi-  80  fleant fore,  later  example's f r o m  evidence  suggests  that  t h e Death: and A s s u m p t i o n narrative  existed  the Anglo-Saxon from  form  i n the apocryphal  i n England,  moving  the n o r t h to the southern centers i n accordance political cycle a  history  i n expanded  logical  English  form  Psalter  i n t h e York  ther  that  self  visually  subject  the  c a n be s e e n  of a subject h a b i t u a l l y  as  present i n  a r t £r.om-the . N o r t h u m b r i a n , p e r i o d .  the early also  practice  Eastern iconography,  I wish  of the V i r g i n  Derived  two c l o s e l y  7th century carving  from  t o exam-  of the  to point out f u r -  of Mary worship  i n Northumbrian  style.  has been  f o r the iconography  i n images  of h i e r a t i c  section  of the V i r g i n .  i s represented  late  i n this  antecedents  D e a t h and A s s u m p t i o n  of  with the  The r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e  development  the insular  works  from  of the country.  My m a i n p u r p o s e ine  There-  t h e end o f t h e 7 t h c e n t u r y  as i t i s related  i n artistic  period.  expressed i t -  and C h i l d .  This  a r t i n important the seated  iconic  Hodegetria  related representations,  on C u t h b e r t ' s  coffin  reliquary  a t Durham and t h e e a r l y  9 t h c e n t u r y m i n i a t u r e i n t h e Book  Kells,  distinction  grant a d d i t i o n a l  the e a r l i e s t Marian ted  to the n o r t h of  e x a m p l e s i n t h e West a l s o  iconography.  They e v i d e n c e  prototypes i n northern a r t i s t i c  works a r e thought  of t h i s  providing  variant  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  of  centers f o r these  t o have been m o d e l l e d  after  of  of importwo  a" work-''of - a r t  81  in  NorthumhrLa  sures  In. t h e  prototype by  the  and  received  second  enjoyed  frequent  Scotland  instances  we  half  the  through  century  part  of  the  status  of  representations  and,  according  find  at  There are Child  as  the  least  other  later  to  Biscop's  7th.  a revered of  traces  stock  century.  the  of  That  icon  ".  the  is  witnessed  several  Cuthbert-Kells  of  the  Virgin  period, notably  which  trea-  this  . . i n  St.  representations  Anglo-Saxon  of  theme i n Nor t h u m b r i a  Kitzlnger  ( F i g . 79),  York V i r g i n  of  copies  and  the  10th  a Byzantine  icon-  35 ography,  but  Compared  to  Wirksworth these of  Virgin the  the slab  icons  their  D e a t h of by  a  on  the  are  or  lack  the  the  single  and  miniatures  expressive One  and  might  of  content say  the  the  D e a t h and  i s documented  cycles  in  type.  the  Benedictionals, and  that  iconic  inventive  devotion  i n two  ways:  to  use the  first  by  representations—the  Virgin  evidence  of  the  and  i n l a t e r .Anglo-Saxon  theme,  Besides  the  ivories  developed  in English art  Virgin  of Mary  portable  i n Northumbrian  concentration  worship  the  expressed themes  small  imaginative  prototypes.  was  dual  most  of  Child—and:  second,  representations  Assumption. artistic  examples,  i n w r i t t e n form  by  the  the earl-  82  Lest  Christian writers  terest  i n the circumstances  Pilgrim's: Feast  i n England.  Travel  Report,  to h i s i n -  o f Mary's d e a t h r e c o r d e d  Bede's  of t h e Assumption  In a d d i t i o n  extols  sermon d e l i v e r e d her r o l e a s  in his  on t h e  Intercessor.  E l s e w h e r e he r e f e r s t o h e r ". . . i m m a c u l a t e p u r i t y and perfect the  sanctity.  . .  11  and from him t o o we have  words o f t h e 7 t h c e n t u r y  Mary's p e e r l e s s  related  English  Sedulius  Bede e x p r e s s e s a l s o  to the V i r g i n ' s  Hymn for the Subject century  poet  praising  p o s i t i o n i n t h e human r a c e as w e l l  stainless v i r g i n i t y ^ ectly  Irish  recorded  a concern  incorruptibility.  of V i r g i n i t y  nun, E t h e l d r e d a ,  as h e r indir-  In h i s  i n honour o f t h e 7 t h he p r a i s e s  her s i n c e  To h e a v e n d e v o t e d , t h e r e s h e w o n new f a m e And b r e a t h e d h e r l a s t , t o h e a v e n d e v o t e d t h e r e . V e i l e d i n t h e tomb s i x t e e n N o v e m b e r s l a y N o r r o t s h e r v i r g i n f l e s h i n t h e tomb XT, t h i n e t h e p o w e r . even i n t h e s e p u l c h r e Her v e s t u r e s p o t l e s s g l e a m s . X T , t h i n e t h e power."  A poem by A l d h e l m who was known to have m a i n tained  close  (d.7Q5),  contact  with  the Northumbrian  shows how q u i c k l y  introduced  7Q1),  38 were t a k e n up by t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s . four  Assumption, 39 pendency.  liturgy  of her f e s t i v a l s , appear  festi-  by Pope S y r i u s ( 6 8 7 -  including  i n the Calendar  A record  Aldfrith,  t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f Mary's  vals,  century  i n t o Roman  King  By t h e 8 t h  the. F e a s t  of the  of the L i n d i s f a r n e de-  of e a r l y d e v o t i o n  i s preserved  also  83 in  the  early  Library  9 t h c e n t u r y Book, of  LI.. 1.10)  which  Cerne  c o n t a i n s p r a y e r s of  venerating  Mary.  the V i r g i n  t o o : N o r d e n f a l k notes, t h a t  Celtic  literature  i s attested  Maria  Saint  ascribed  to  Univ.  earlier  date  documents w o r s h i p  within, the Columban order Virgin!  (Cambridge,  an  early  by  t h e hymn De  Cuchuimnei  of  Marian  who  cult Beata  lived  around  700.40  To England essay, tant The  c o n t i n u e an  through though  the l a t e r  I will  e x p r e s s i o n s of examples c i t e d  tion  to Mary  is  expressed  In  summary:  analysis  here  also  images  in visual Chapter  has  O t t o n i a n and  significance  Psalter  can  be  my  intent  from  in in  t o some  i n the  12th  in written the  the  this  imporcentury.  e x i s t e n c e of  devo-  form  7th century  pictorial  what onward.  traditions  in Continental art in  Romanesque p e r i o d s .  I t has  £he  explored  theme i n E n g l i s h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  cycle f o r the  art, stimulated I n my  document  analyzed  textual  tradition  early  iconography  this  I I ) , the V i r g i n  Mary w o r s h i p . York  of  i t s Anglo-Saxon  Anglo-Saxon  the  literature  Chapter  the V i r g i n  and  this  the a r t i s t i c  last  i n Northumbria  Carolingian,  Chapter  of  witness  Assumption  Beyond  i n the  Cult  o f D e a t h and  the  p e r i o d s i s beyond  refer the  of M a r i a n  by  connections i n the  York  (proposed Psalter,  theme i n i n s u l a r a long history  o p i n i o n the V i r g i n e x p l a i n e d as  rests and  of  in  later  indigenous  miniatures in  a revival  of  on  the  Anglo-Saxon  84  iconography  originating  pictorial  narrative  D e a t h and  Assumption  i n the north  which from  had  i n the  influenced  the 8 t h  tradition  images  century.  of  the  of  85 CHAPTER  IV  Anglo-Saxon Iconography York Psalter  This deriving Virgin  from  cycle  concentrated ual  basis  in  thesis  has  the  other  claimed  the  first  York  To  which  I I ) on  vernacular derivative  narrative.  Second,  iconography  of  to  the  the  through  I have  the  proposed of  whether  the  iconography  Like rest  attention.  English that  two  show t h i s ,  have  isolating  I the  closely  to  and  Psalter.  antecedents  of  the  contribution.  York  Latin  Assumption  Assumption,  an  I I I ) the  field  From  my  heritage for descended  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , has  the  text-  apocryphal  ( i n Chapter  the  The  re-surquestion  play a role  in  the other m i n i a t u r e s .  of  the V i r g i n  t h e m i n i a t u r e s has r e f e r e n c e s by  especially  present after  cycle,  Turner,  iconography  Boase  and  detailed Kauffmann  i ) the undercurrent  i n most the  the  received l i t t l e  general influences:  iconography  manuscripts  in  a Northumbrian  Anglo-Saxon  those  Brief  have noted Byzantine  of  of  iconography  Eastern a r t , narrowing  t h e Death, and  i n the m i n i a t u r e s of  arises  the  of  the  been r e v i v e d  the  the Death  important Anglo-Saxon  now  of  theme o f  i n W e s t e r n and  iconography  faced  I have a n a l y z e d  significance  findings,  of  of  insular  corresponds  Anglo-Saxon  the  has  Psalter.  ( i n Chapter  f o r the c y c l e  the V i r g i n  that  northern traditions of  Miniatures  English  second  half  of  illuminated of  the  12th  86  century  when p o l i t i c a l  alliance St.  contact  to the p i c t o r i a l  Albans  Psalter  traditions  and i t s progeny.  traditions  a r e a t work  miniatures  and t h e a r t i s t ' s  tain  from  example,  the  Genesis miniatures  can  be p a r a l l e l e d  times as  throughout  h i s customary  For  mo, ca  strong  Byzantine  of Isaac  this  was a m o t i f  e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e Certainly diverse  the iconography of the combinations ob-  of different  7v, 8 r F i g s .  i n the 12th century ca  1180 ( F i g s .  as a naked  9v F i g . 1 7 ) .  revived  sources.  1 5 , 16) w h i c h  mosaics  from  Paler-  81.  Some-  8.0,  r e v i v e s an E a r l y C h r i s t i a n  (folio  the  influence i s reflected i n  (folios  the p o r t r a y a l of Isaac  fice  ; and i i )  often unique  blending  1160, and M o n r e a l e , the a r t i s t  increased  figure  Kauffmann  motif,  such  i n the Sacripoints out  i n Continental a r t i n the 12th  2 century, century  b u t I have ivory  found  plaque  8 2) a n d t h e l a t e  from  comparisons the Cathedral  11th century  Sagittaria  ( F i g . 8"3) .  miniature,  v i z . : the draped  a  knife,  from (Fig. enna  and t h e d e v i c e  similar 8 4)  the Sea  which  versions,  of Tiberias  i s paralleled  w a l l - p a i n t i n g from  altar,  long  motifs  sword  of the a r r e s t i n g  Elsewhere  i n the 11th  of Salerno ( F i g .  iconographic  and t h e 6 t h c e n t u r y  common t o l o c a l at  Other  representations  ( F i g . 8 5).  also  mosaic  the a r t i s t  from uses  derive  Bible,  ca 1 1 5 0  San V i t a l e ,  Rav-  an iconography  such as h i sm i n i a t u r e  (folio  i n this  instead of  angel,  i n t h e Lambeth  Concordia  of  1 3 v , F i g . 20),- a r a r e 3 i n Pembroke C o l l e g e MS.120.  Christ theme  87  It  i s not  essay  to a n a l y z e  tures  i n the  out  that  tain  opted  York  Psalter.  to  the  follow will  sions  the  artist, insular  the  as  b u t may  I do  wish  open d i s c u s s i o n this  treatment  Ascension Above  the upper  a c l o u d formed  lines.  This  Schapiro time  and  as  type an  1000, MS.Y.6  MS.Caligula  and  A.XIV  of  definitive  this my  conclu-  iconographic  iconography (folio  sources  the  having vanished  differently has  F i g , 87).  Troper He  legs  from  expressed  notes  of  of  Christ  their  sight  that  by  wavy Meyer  f o r the  around Jumieges  (British  The  Christ.  been c r e d i t e d  of Robert  t h e Hereford  Fig.21)  c o l o u r e d bands of  invention  the M i s s a l  14r  a Disappearing  apostles,  of A s c e n s i o n  affects  compositional features.  art i n English manuscripts  f o r example Fig.86)  assembled  Anglo-Saxon  i n Western  the  cycle,  remainder  the A s c e n s i o n  theme and  by  which i n -  o b s e r v a t i o n s from  t o be  Anglo-Saxon  torso  origin  cer-  manuscript.  i s r e p r e s e n t e d as  the V i r g i n  seen,  into  here  of  on  this  to p o i n t  identified  The  these  of  minia-  d i d f o r the V i r g i n  not meant  f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e of both  he  scope  a l l the other  traditions.  They a r e  the m i n i a t u r e s of  are  of  s u b j e c t s I have  Characteristic  in  within  However,  therefore present  research.  the  nor  iconography  f o r some o f  that  Chapter  for  the  intent  i c o n o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s of A n g l o - S a x o n  dicates  own  the  the  first year  (Rouen,  Museum,  i n t h e new  variant  88  ".  .  rest  . only  the  of  body d i s a p p e a r e d  the  the  artist  who  observed  legs  wished from  or  to  feet  of  C h r i s t were r e p r e s e n t e d ,  i n the  clouds.  show C h r i s t as  below.  he  . . . Even  . . . I t i s as  looked  the  the  to  the  i f  apostles  mandorla which  enclos-  4 es  Christ.  responds Christ  . . i s cut  e x a c t l y to  by  the  the  clouds.".  image  i n the  disappearing  between a  In  contrast Eastern  Ascensions  or  enthroned  pels  i n a mandorla,  (Florence,  century  ampulla  and  12th  the  Continental ward  as  from  Drogo  71v,  tions  also differ  F i g . 91),  miniature  the  A.XVIII,  oped for  by  Ascension F i g . 93) On  graphic  clouds  normally the  Ascension features  which  and  6th  century  Treasure  and  10th' c e n t u r y  the  Ascension  Benedictional the  9th  i n t h e Athelstan combines  i t seems  i n the  c o i n c i d e as  year Psalter.  well.  ivory  be  Christ. has  Minden, Galba  traditions.  v a r i a n t which  Other In  at  ( B r i t . M u s . MS  could  for-  representa-  (Fig.92)  Continental  1000  6th  lat.9428,  a Disappearing  century  Gos-  Western  striding  Ethelwold  as i f t h e  the  York  with  the  Bib.Nat.MS  Psalter,  different  Rabula  ( F i g . 89),  Anglo-Saxon  of  standing  ( F i g . 90).  (Paris,  shows  aureole.  F i g . 88),  show C h r i s t a c t i v e and  Sacramentary  an  show C h r i s t  at Monreale  Deshman t o  balance  description cor-  Psalter  Monza C a t h e d r a l  i n E n g l i s h a r t around the  l a y e r of  e.g.:  mosaic  from  i n the  been connected and  the  v e r s i o n s may  folio  The  York  B i b 1 . L a u r . Cod . P l u t . 1 56,  century  i n the  This  the  develprototype  exceptional  the m i n i a t u r e  5  in  iconothe  89  York  Psalter,  corners The  an  and  angels  9-11.  angel  Christ's hold  descends  feet  scrolls  In other  12th  are  century  Pembroke C o l l e g e Ms.120  ter  and  carry  Albans  not  in  Continental Ascensions  customarily figures  scrolls.  use  with  tine  a  Kokkinobaphos, Bibl.Nat.  rule  only  characteristic  For  (Vatican. toward  toward  of  San  toward of  the  the  first  hand  half  of  Fig.96),  Christ In  the  Byzan-  Virgin  by  century  angels  point  Christ.^  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  of  i n the folio  (103)  Drogo  l e Mura  12th  the  use  w i t h one  i n the  groupP  the  main  traditions.  fuori  H o m i l i e s of  but  the  toward  lower  angels  scrolls  ones  Paolo  Psal-  the  Eastern  the  as  angels  toward  the  Reg.Ms.12  folio  as  1:  Winchester  hold  or  w i t h one  Ms.grec.94,  example,  Christ  another  do." n o t  from  wings.  such  found,  i n gestures  scrolls  the D i s a p p e a r i n g C h r i s t  1000.  On  hand  i n a copy  However  with  Bible  the  I have  w i t h Western  pointing  other  a r t , e.g.  (Paris,  the  angels  the  James o f  as  or  the  also  upper  their  ( F i g ; ; , 95) , ' t h e  f a r as  hands  by  the  Ascensions  (Fig.94),  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s such  Sacramentarg  and  their  i n accordance  Carolingian  depict  As  of  according to Acts  English  Psalter  do  each  supported  inscribed  the  t h e St.  from  of  i n England  Psalter 73v  hand  i n the Ascension  hold  new  about Bury  F i g . 9 7), the  and  the  from  the  variant  the St.  year Edmonds  angels  scrolls  with  same m a n u s c r i p t ,  is  the  gesture the  other.  scroll  90 recurs  but  supported angels up  sion  by  the  have uses  Christ port,  hold  a  York we  appeared Psalter  may  well  i n the  unusual  artist  of  the  C h r i s t who  is  ( F i g . 87),  the  c a r r i e s C h r i s t as  and  practical  the  York of  angels  he  support  Psalter  .  also  which  seems u n p a r a l l e l e d  steps system  His  transport  of  the  motif  i n 12th the  i t had  St.  representations  much of  i n the  could  Ascen-  since  for additional  sup-  i n Eastern  or  C h r i s t had  a l -  depicts  the  four  with  multiple  combination,  Ezekiel's  halos,  of  Winchester  cited  the  likely  Bury  Continental  Psalters)  ,  coincidence  as  Psalter  and  suggest  some c l o s e r  the  artist  innovative  from York  the  w i n g s and which  York  the  the  An-  admired  aspects  and  the  incor-  imagery.  the  of  the  above does  that  own  But  i n s u l a r iconography Psalter.  C h r i s t i n Glory  V i s i o n i n the  E n g l i s h or  and  between  derived  symbols  equipped  E n g l i s h work p r e d a t i n g  i n i t s most  miniatures of  disappearing  Albans  say  i t in his  representation  the  become p o p u l a r .  details  One  of  century  Other m o t i f s  orary  which  Troper  u n o r t h o d o x method  English Ascension  porated  the  Hereford  wings  other  association.  ture  ascending  the  (e.g.  assume  glo-Saxon  new  the  art . Since  ready  This  similarly on  the  scroll  i n s p i r e d the  feature  Western  t i m e by In  a  clouds.  stands a  this  a cloud.  together  into  might  i s held  (folio  evangelists either  i s adopted Bible, work,  For  example:  16,  Fig.  or  for  book. the  is infrequent though  23),  full-length  scrolls also  fea-  fully  in  and This  scene  of  contemp-  equipped  sym-  91 bois  are  common i n C a r o l i n g i a n  a r t of  the  late  8th  and  early  8 9th  century.  I t i s not  my  intent  iconographic  development  of  the  note is  t h a t the  preserved  variant fully  i n the  known  ca  698,  7th  bridge,  a  top.of .St.  f o u r pages  of  the  Lindisfarne  and  head  and  regards  tional  Archbishop  of  i n the  the the as  peg  by  Nordenfalk, preposterous  at  the  motif  the  of  of  scene  round,  cap-shaped  of  Lazarus  Psalter  be  t r a c e d t o an  type  fication  of head f o r the  137v, of  (Bri-  209v,  Cerne  i n the  (Cam-  York  the  of  which  century the  English who,  Third  devil  in a  body.  the V i r g i n origin.  . .  the  to  an the  Jews  cycle  in  in the  Although  b e c o m e a common m a r k 12th century  type  . . with his  d e p i c t e d on  ) and  J.J.G.  Tempta-  according ".  of  Benedic-  hosts.".''''' F i n a l l y ,  Anglo-Saxon  c o v e r i n g had  10th  beast-like  hats  ( F i g . 18  Jews by  The  Gospels  details  caricature  heavenly  the R a i s i n g can  two  i n the  The  grotesque  the  in a  Cuthbert's  Book  Harping  top,  huge mouth and  adversary  which  9  the Anglo-Saxon m i n i a t u r i s t  alarming  may  i s exceptional for i t s addition  Robert\®  nose,  we  98 , 99 , .1 00) . '  originating  creates a  the  7th century.  93v,  9th century  Figs.  harp  the  25v,  (Fig.18) depicts a p a r t i c u l a r l y  invented  this  folios  the m i n i a t u r e of David  Alexander  tion  the  ( F i g . 27),  lion's  already occured  on  U n i v . L i b r . L I . I 10)  Psalter  had  occurs  Nero D.iv  but  with a l l i t s attributes  of  century)  In  e v a n g e l i s t symbol  Psalter by  t r y to u n r a v e l  end  symbol on  type  to  the  Museum C o t t o n  early  York  i n England  equipped  Coffin tish  full-length  here  i n England  of  identi-  and  the  92  Continent, York  the  Psalter  aspect tury  belongs  Aelfric  York  in  sum  some u n u s u a l  type  t u r n s out  which  i s the  tributes  an  early  up:  throughout  has  followed from  traditions  hat  d e p i c t e d i n the  whose most  appearance  (Fig. 1 0 ) .  elements  pictorial  round  to a t r a d i t i o n  Pentateuch  Psalter  iconographic rary  type of  i s i t s remarkably  To the  special  i n the  t o be  insular  a variety  of models,  art.  formative influence  from  very  on  contempo-  often  Anglo-Saxon  of  combining  illumination.  features  imaginative aspect  cen-  the m i n i a t u r e s the a r t i s t  i n English  inventive  11th  1 2  B y z a n t i n e a r t and  and  significant  However the p r o t o -  iconography  the V i r g i n  cycle  also  to t h e o t h e r m i n i a t u r e s as  conwell.  Conclusions  In iconography gin  by  Chapter of  relating  I I I have  the Death, the c y c l e  10th century B l i c k l i n g the  original  Latin  ter  has  traced  in  also  the Assumption  The  persistent  insular York  Psalter  forwarded  Burial  Homilies,  an  known as  Assumption  Anglo-Saxon  the  pictorial  form  the m o t i f the  the  This  the  trait from  the  in  of  shrouded  the  Chapbody  English a r t .  early  8th  the a r t i s t than  specific  the Assumption  Vir-  r e c e n s i o n of  a t home r a t h e r  the v a l u e of  Boase between  of  theory that  his inspiration doubt  of  Transitus.  a characteristic  supports  may by  and  distinctive  to the v e r n a c u l a r account  r e c u r r e n c e of  found we  the  as  a r t onward  Consequently tion  text  e x p l a i n e d the  century of  the  abroad.  connec-  i n the  Psalter  93 and in  a popular the  his is  12th  visions  of  suggestion  noted  here  i n these of  story  episode  the  body a t  reunion the  York  shrouded  the  two  may  have  as  a  in  harmony  swaddled  of  from  inherent  form  and  manuscripts  there the  the  the  i n g e n u i t y and  who a  cited  the  end  emphasis  an  on  the  apt  to  with a  dual of  totally  Assumptions ascending  belong  have c r e a t e d  the  expression  together  sensibility  of  artist  the  in  would  the  reunited  d e p i c t i o n of  he  the  new  to  that  imagery  the  fittingness  content.  i n f l u e n c e from  of  i s also an  century  i s evidence  north.  at  i m a g i n a t i o n of  such  to  cycle  t e x t may  I I has  i n t e r p r e t e d as  As  Virgin  be  s o u l — o f t e n portrayed  tomb.  also discard  Blickling  This  f i g u r e — w i t h Mary's body,  Assumption  15th  a l s o be  miracle  text.  soul being  His  English miniaturists  An  the  of  from  line  ter  Assumption.  reunion  the  moments.  s t i m u l a t e d the  body c o u l d  the  of  different  the  i n the Anglo-Saxon  recounts  the V i r g i n ' s  may  i n the  Chapter  w h e n he  of  i s dedicated  prominently  .  We  Peter  which  Conclusions  of  on  comment on  homilist  Psalter  of  emphasis  figures  additional  confusion  her  the  Schtfnau.  to Y o r k M i n s t e r  since Peter  An  C o n t i n e n t a l account  E l i s a b e t h of  that  a reference  saint,  century  Civic  liturgical  possible.  Assumption  Although  drama  by the  o r g a n i z e r s would  the  on  there  play connected  c y c l e s enacted t h a t as  drama  with  York  are  out  of  Psal-  no  York  York Weavers'  s u b j e c t was go  the  extant before  Guild,  important  their  way  to  in  94 stage  the Assumption  on o c c a s i o n s o f s p e c i a l  importance, as 13  York  i n 1486 h o n o u r e d  the v i s i t  that  other dramatized cycles  of Henry  from  popular i n England  stage  directions  vincingly plain  cited  from  the unusual  there  could  have been  the Assumption  In  the 15th century play  divine fetch of  point  upper  reaches  the  performance.  similarity suitable  tion Psalter  i n this  i n New  Psalter  the unique  was  these d i r e c t i o n s  (Fig.57)}\tself  by C h r i s t an  to  image  to t h e heavens the usual  Anderson  and t h e d i s t i n c t i v e by t h e a n g e l s  from the  Accordingly  b y some m a c h i n e r y  form  drama.  i s related  the type of device which  scene  i n t h e Em-  and an e a r l y  t h e tomb.  to ex-  Similarly,  t h e a n g e l s commanded  from  con-  I I Ihas examined  and A s s u m p t i o n  iconographic  i n the wider  traditions.  has noted t h e  would  have  been  design of the  i n the alabaster  a descendent  Assump-  of the  the development s e t t i n g of  I t appears  that  in  place for  York  miniature. Chapter  Death  From  i s grasped York  by PScht  Psalter.  of the church which  between  which  body  was r a i s e d  the  and l a t e r  the Assumption  of view with  the V i r g i n  sheet  i n t h e York  the Virgin's  have been  some c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n  of  plays  specific  costume worn by C h r i s t 14  m a u s m i n i a t u r e s o f t h e S t . Albans  know  Testaments  The  o f t h e Peregrinus  by E m i l e M a l e  pilgrim's  do  a n d t h e Peregrinus  by t h e 1 2 t h c e n t u r y .  a copy  first  . We  t h e O l d a n d New  s u c h a s t h e A n g l o - N o r m a n j'eu d'Adam were  VII.  of the  Continental  the Virgin  cycle  95  in  the  York  southern eral  Psalter  English  cycle  of  scripts  the  and  the  Northumbrian  from  12th  can  7thr-early  Byzantine  account  of  distinct  from  cult  the  stress  on  8th  back  the  century  i n the  narrative  Saxon  i s attested  from  the Death the  south by  Virgin  and of  depicting  i n the argument  cycle  of  to  the  in  Koimesis,  i n the  York  separate norththe  manuscript ancestry.  i n the  group, out  suggests  south,  Kauffmann  i s borne  form  reflect  not  This  by  the V i r g i n  iconography  north.  Bede.  Hodegetria.  insular  Leaves  manu-  Western  the  of  .Ms .120-Four  elements  in  of Marian known  and  further  iconography  n o r t h e r n provenance  the  carving,  England  with this  to  important  Dormition  a r c h t e t y p e d i s c u s s e d by Coll  However,  the Death to  to  i n gen-  i n the n o r t h i n w r i t t e n  influence  a pictorial  to a r t i s t s  than  or  more c l o s e l y  i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  factor  St .Albans-Pembroke able  other  c e n t u r y work a t t r i b u t e d  northern tradition  that  traced  i t s association  Thus  significant  further  8th  f o r ithe u n i q u e  because  formulae,  Images of  surviving  w h i l e m i n i a t u r e s of  A  relate  i n the V i r g i n  a Marian  tradition. a  be  oldest  century manuscripts  Psalter  is  the  c e n t u r y and  contemporary  ern  be  of  to these  subject,  does  c e n t u r y , an  interest  7th  the  Therefore,  I  10th  late  expressions  tradition  the V i r g i n . c a n  t o w h a t may  art,  the  northern manuscript.  Assumption of  relate  common t o a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  indigenous  i n the  not  v e r s i o n s of  resemblence  another  does  and  for  was also  the  availby  i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s stemming  the from  96 this  line.  slab, any to  the  The two  Benedictionals  sense h i e r a t i c be.  Instead  recensions earlier  to  way  us  centuries  artists  features Lambeth  i n the  Bible  Pa'cht a n d  We  later  of  had  the  Aelfric  scenes others  of  to  of  even text  have  the  end  been  of  south.  the  tend  various  this  may  in  the  In  kind  of  a Early  w h i c h were c i r c u l a t i n g i n the  recourse  Old  to  Genesis on  11th  and  be12th  Late Antique  Testament,  Pentateuch,  depend  not  versions  of  i n the  idea  are  Perhaps  from  know t h a t  i n England  C h r i s t i a n models  well,  and  Wirksworth  in its  cycles  least  a clearer  libraries.  Ottonian  manuscripts  at  the  Psalter  Transitus.  Dormition  artists  gives  and  illuminated manuscripts  tween E n g l i s h  phic  extensive  York  works r e f l e c t  i n the  i n Northumbria  this  Christian  Early  English  English  the  Carolingian  narrative  with  century  small  and  t h a n Deshman b e l i e v e d ,  available 7th  as  the  the  illustrated  and  i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Bede's work,  since  St.  iconogra-  Albans  Psalter  h a v e b e e n shown by a Cotton  and  Genesis  Dodrecen-  16 sion. the  Swarzenski  1  miniatures  also  i n the  C.C.C.MS 2 8 6 )  are  Gospels  English  Late Antique miniatures Similarly,  supposing  manuscript  did  Gospels  w e l l as  nation  as  i n the  cations,  the  has  Early  which an  one  may  the  of  copies  that  exist,  noted  that  St.  Augustine  found  early  were  Christian period.  pictorial tradition  8th  their  way  illustrated  conclude  to  that  which  century to  the  England.  Apocryphal for  i t s wider the  of  Transitus  subjects In  that  (Cambridge,  made i n t h e  had  Scriptures  i t is possible  illumiimpli-  Virgin cycle  in  97  the  York  cestry  Psalter  attaches i t s e l f ,  and e x t e n d s  i s of very  i t s significance  beyond  respectable anthe orbit  of Eng-  lish art.  In  this  of  Anglo-Saxon  as  t h e new  vil  last  iconography  type  argue  tury  English  York  Psalter,  from  these  is  consideration  ever  8th century uprisings  the  troublesome  Such  country quality  i s consistent  their  appreciation  to avoid  of  The r e -  resurgence  the Conquest.  that  This  thesis.  i n view from  t h e Norman  of  Howi t s  the 7th  takeover, the  e x e r t e d an i n d i v i d u a l with the p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f t h e York  express  imported  cycle  manuscript  be due t o a  Psalter.  in patriotic  influences.  character. English as-  Perhaps  and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n s u l a r  t h e s e m i n i a t u r e s may  to the  b y t h e k i n g s o f N o r t h u m b r ia*" \ o  traditionally  of the iconography  de-  One  coincidence.  i n another  such  i n 12th cen-  and i n d e p e n d e n c e  following  pects  tion  also  to suggest  of r e b e l l i o n  and  north  than  i n the north after  period  Jews.  with a Virgin  properly belonging  history  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  i n an i m p o r t a n t  may  i t i s not unreasonable  political  more  iconography  sentiment  miniatures  for depicting  combination  a northern scriptorium  national  aspects  and a r e n o t c o n f i n e d s o l e l y  ancestry suggests  of  other  features recur generally  illumination  of indigenous  Psalter  Ascension,  hat t r a d i t i o n  but their  Anglo-Saxon vival  that  I have o u t l i n e d  i n t h e York  of English  and t h e round  could  Chapter,  terms  in  traditions, the  inclina-  98  The is  justified  contemporary  abundance of M a r i a n also  by  religious  lectual  stimuli  m u s t be  attributed  venerated  an  not  behind  explanation  The  the V i r g i n  cycle  That  England's  v a n c e m e n t and Already been  by  contribution  the  9th century,  instituted  as  and  Lanfranc later  pal  festivals  ters  of  Anselm's  i t as  the great  Ailred  of R i e v a u l x  devoted  spiritual  (d.1167), Osbert (1127-1128),  role  of  i n the  ad-  acknowledged.  of  the f i v e The  the  leader  of  had  Alfred  princi-  chief  disciple,  of C l a r e ,  and  by  the Assumption  calendar.  English  Mary,  a r t , but  to the laws  one  sense  the C o n t i n e n t .  12th century included  Cistercian  at Westminster  and  i s widely  according  recognized  b i o g r a p h e r and  1124),  prior  a holiday  i n the  on  the Feast of  i n the l i t u r g i c a l  the c u l t  and  the c u l t  intel-  worship of  played a major  p r o p a g a t i o n of  implications:  i n the wider  literature  i n England  Psalter  e m o t i o n and  ever-increasing  in religious  immense p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n  i n t h e York  of l a r g e r  sentiment.  to t h e  only  imagery  promo-  elder Eadmer  (d .  Yorkshire,  the  English  the younger  Anselm,  19 Abbot fied  of Bury this  larizing was  t o be  S t . Edmonds,  Anselm  as  t h e one  a collection a major  of  1121-1148. responsible  t h e Miracles  catalyst  S o u t h e r n has  identi-  f o r c o p y i n g and  of  the  Virgin,  i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n  popu-  which  of p o p u l a r  20 veneration. state Feast, after  Anselm  the Feast of  the  i s noted  too  Immaculate  unknown t o t h e Normans, had the Conquest  and  for his efforts  to  rein-  Conception at Bury.  This  been g e n e r a l l y  i t s reintroduction  at Bury  abolished S t . Edmonds  99  and  i n s e v e r a l other  monasteries  was  the  subject  of  intense  21 disputes. rounding  This the  created  an  question  conditions,  In the  ments—such  as  has  and  the  the  setting  of  i n advance  of of  new  have  intellectual  iconographic  Continental of  the  at Reading--shouId  sur-  iconographic  provocative  actual Coronation  identified  controversy  f o r advanced  e a r l y appearance  the  related  b o d i l y Assumption must  suitable  this  in English art  Zarnecki  of  atmosphere  innovations.  mulas  friction  develop-  Virgin not  for-  which  be  surpri-  s ing . Under Virgin,  the  mirrors  this  indigenous tures Of  mented  compelling  unique Marian  is revival  northern that  surge  cycle  of  the  i n the  York  c r e a t i v e environment.  iconography,  there  such  the  one of  a  spiritual  i t was  might  By say  special  cult  the  Psalter  also  i t s preservation that  form  of  a different  of  i n these  minia-  insular  piety.  atmosphere, Knowles  to r e m a i n  of  has  com-  thing from  the  23 religious  sentiment  of  the  bury  has  us  an  also  special  temper  satisfaction tage  of  of  Psalter  guardian  and  evocative  northern  i n observing  t h e York  present-day nor t h .  given  south  There  although  i s d i s t a n t by of  of  Malmes-  d e s c r i p t i o n of  devotion. that  William  the manuscript  the  the  i s thus  some  northern  centuries,  the  remains  the  in  heri-  100  NOTES TO  CHAPTER  1  Pages  1-20  C.M. K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque Manuscripts 1066-1190 (London: H a r v e y M i l l e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , p.118, c i t e s t h e l i t e r a t u r e and exhibitions t o 1 9 7 3 o n t h e York Psalter. S e e a l s o O l a v S i n d i n g , Mariae Tod und Himmelfahrt, ( C h r i s t i a n i a , 1903) p p . 8 8 - 9 ; R o b e r t Deshman, The Iconography of the Full Page Miniatures of the Benedictional of Ethelwold, ( P r i n c e t o n : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D d i s s e r t a i o n ) p.102, n.76. 2 Margaret (Harmondsworth,  R i c k e r t , Painting in Br i t a in: The- Middle Ages M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 5 4 ) , p .98 •  G  G  \  E r i c G. M i l l a r , La Miniature anglaise du X au XIII siecle. ( P a r i s : G. v a n O e s t , 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 4 1 f . , p l . 6 0 f . 3 J . Y o u n g a n d P . H . A i t k e n , A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow. ( G l a s g o w : James M a c l e h o s e and S o n s , 1908) n o . 2 2 9 . 4 K a u f f m a n n Romanesque Manuscripts, No.95 p p . 1 1 7 - 8 . ''ibid., a n d my own m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t c o n c u r . ber  ^T.S.R. B o a s e , L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p.  The 5.  York  Psalter,  Ibid., a n d T . S . R . B o a s e , English of E n g l i s h A r t S e r i e s , ed.T.S.R.Boase, 1 9 5 3 ) , pp.24.2. 7  (London:  Faber  and  Fa-  Art 1100-1216 . History (Oxford: Clarendon Press,  8 C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , Romanesque Painting from the Eleventh to the Thirteenth Century. (Lausanne: S k i r a , 1958) p.172 n o t e s : " T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t E n g l a n d p l a y e d a d e c i s i v e p a r t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e d e l u x e P s a l t e r f o r p r i v a t e u s e , a n d we n e e d n o t be s u r p r i s e d a t t h e f a c t t h a t . . . t h e c a l e n d a r s a i n t s i n t h e P s a l t e r o f Queen M e l i s e n d e o f J e r u s a l e m . . . d e r i v e f r o m an E n g l i s h p r o t o t y p e . " 9  M e y e r S c h a p i r o , "The I m a g e o f t h e D i s a p p e a r i n g C h r i s t . T h e A s c e n s i o n i n E n g l i s h A r t a r o u n d t h e y e a r 1 0 0 0 " , Gazette des Beaux arts, 1 9 4 3 , p . 1 4 8 : "Where a r t i s t s of t h e p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d and t h r o u g h o u t t h e X I I and X I I I c e n t u r i e s , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t t h e months by a s i n g l e f i g u r e . . . i n E n g l i s h c a l e n d a r s of the e a r l y XI c e n t u r y . . . whole groups of c o o p e r a t i n g f i g u r e s ( s o m e t i m e s a s many a s f i v e o r s i x ) , a r e i n t r o d u c e d . " A n o t h e r e x a m p l e w o u l d b e B r i t i s h Museum MS. J u l i u s A . V I : s e e N o r d e n f a l k , Early Medieval Painting from the Fourth to the Eleventh Century ( S k i r a , ]957) , p . 1 9 1 . '^See O t t o Pa"cht's m a g i s t e r i a l s t u d y on t h i s k e y manus c r i p t , The St. Albans Psalter, (London: Warburg I n s t i t u t e , I960). The d a t i n g u s e d f o r t h i s w o r k a n d o t h e r s f o l l o w s K a u f f m a n n ' s Romanesque Manuscripts  101 NOTES f o r  70,  "see 78.  pages  1-20  K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque  Manuscripts,  Nos.  56,  35,  1 2 P a ' c h t , op.cit.,  pp.  105-114.  1 3 N o r do t h e i n i t i a l s s h o w f i n e s p i r a l s a n d t i n y w h i t e b e a s t s , w h i c h K a u f f m a n n n o t e s came i n t o p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e 1 1 7 0 ' s a n d w h i c h a p p e a r i n t h e Copenhagen Psalter. Romanesque Manuscripts, p . 1 1 8 . B o a s e , York Psalter, p.243. 14 The s e c u l a r f e a t u r e o f a n a n i m a l p l a y i n g a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t i s p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e S i g e n a w a l l - p a i n t i n g s , ca 1170, w h i c h w e r e s u p p o s e d l y p a i n t e d b y E n g l i s h a r t i s t s who w e r e i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m i n i a t u r e s o f t h e Winchester Bible. Though t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a s i g n of d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , i t d e m o n s t r a t e s the wide range of c o n t a c t a v a i l a b l e to t r a v e l l i n g E n g l i s h p a i n t e r s and a l s o t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n w h i c h p o p u l a r motifs could journey. O t t o Pa'cht f i r s t n o t i c e d t h e c o i n c i d e n c e i n "A C y c l e o f E n g l i s h F r e s c o e s i n S p a i n " , Burlington Magazine, May, 1969, pp.166-175. " • ^ F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n i n t h e T w e l f t h C e n t u r y " , Journal of the B r i t i s h Archeol o g i c a l Association, 3 r d . s e r i e s , V I I I , 1943, p.44. 1 6 Romanesque  K a u f f m a n n , . R o m a n e s g u e Manuscripts, Painting, pp.170-171.  ' ^ P a ' c h t , op.cit., Ibid.,  p.45f.  Nordenfalk,  pp.51-53.  p.53.  19 F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , "An E n g l i s h E l e v e n t h - C e n t u r y P s a l t e r w i t h P i c t u r e s : B r i t i s h M u s e u m C o t t o n MS T i b e r i u s C . V I " , The Walpole Society, 38, 1960-62, p . I f . 20 B o a s e , The York Psalter, p.6; K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque Manuscripts, p.118 and p . 3 1 f . On t h e F o u r L e a v e s s e e K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque Manuscripts, No. 66 a n d M . R . J a m e s , " F o u r L e a v e s o f a n E n g l i s h P s a l t e r 1 2 t h C e n t u r y " , Walpole Society, No. XXV (1937) 1-23. 21 G e o r g e Z a r n e c k i , Later English Romanesque Sculpture, 1140-1210, (London: A l e c T i r a n t i L t d . , 1953), pp.34-38.Boase, York Psalter, p. 2 4 1 . 22 K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque Manuscripts, Nos. 96; also M . M a c k e p r a n g , V . M a d s e n , C.S. P e t e r s e n , Greek and Latin Manus c r i p t s in Danish C o l l e c t i o n s ( 1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 3 2 - 4 2 , P i . 4 8 - 6 0 . N e i t h e r C a l e n d a r o f t h e York Psalter o r t h e Copenhagen Psalter has an e n t r y f o r Thomas B e c k e t w h o s e m u r d e r i n D e c e m b e r , 1170, led to h i s w i d e s p r e a d c u l t i n the y e a r s s h o r t l y afterwards. T h i s o m i s s i o n has b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d by B o a s e and o t h e r s t o mean t h a t t h e s e p s a l t e r s w e r e l i k e l y c o m p l e t e d by 1170 by 1173 w h e n B e c k e t was canonized. o r  102 NOTES f o r p a g e s  1-20  23 1(  174  K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque Manuscripts, Nos. 94, ¥ork Psalter, p. 2 4 4 - 2 4 5 . B o a s e , York Psalter, p . 5 ; Young and A i t k e n ,  97.Boase, Catalogue,  25 F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , The Winchester Psalter (London: Harvey M i l l e r & M e d c a l f L t d . , 1973) r e p r o d u c e s pages from t h i s psalter's Calendar. See pp.111 and 116. 26 Boase,  English  Art,  p.242 .  27 Kauffmann,  Romanesque  Manuscripts,  p.118.  28 B o a s e , York Psalter, p . 5 . The m a n u s c r i p t i s s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d to as t h e Glasgow P s a l t e r , see O.E.Saunders, A History of English Art in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), p.58f. 29 B o a s e , York Psalter,pp.5-6. 30 W i l l i a m P a g e , e d . The V i c t o r i a History of the Counties of England. A History of Yorkshire ( L o n d o n : C o n s t a b l e & Comp a n y , 1 9 1 3 ) v . 3 , p . l 7 f . A l s o J . R a i n e , Historians of the Church of York and i t s Archbishops ( R o l l s S e r i e s 71) I ( 1 8 7 9 ) , I I ( 1 8 8 6 ) , I I I ( 1 8 9 4 ) ; G e o r g e B e n s o n , Later Medieval York: The City and County of the City of York from 1100 to 1603 ( W a k e f i e l d , Yorksh: S .R.Publishers L t d . , 1968). 31 D a v i d T a l b o t R i c e , The Byzantine Element in Late Saxon Art ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p p . 7 - 8 . J o h n B e c k w i t h , J v o r y Carvings in Early Medieval England, (London: Harvey M i l l e r & M e d c a l f L t d . , 1972), p.91, a s s i g n s a date not l a t e r than the 12th century. See a l s o E r i c MacL a g e n "A R o m a n e s q u e R e l i e f i n Y o r k M i n s t e r " , Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy, X, 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 2 3 , 4 7 9 - 4 8 5 . 32 B o a s e , English Art, p . 241* A l s o Rehee Marcouse B o a s e , English Art, p . 241* A l s o Rehee Marcouse Figure Sculpture in St. Mary's Abbey, York. (York: Y o r k s h i r e Sculpture in St. Mary P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1951). P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1951) 33 W.R. L e t h a b y , " A r c h b i s h o p R o g e r ' s C a t h e d r a l a t Y o r k a n d I t s S t a i n e d G l a s s " , Archeological Journal LXXII (1915)p.42 34 E r i c M i l l a r , "Fresh M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e Study of E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n " , Studies in Arts and L i t e r a t u r e from B e l l e da Costa Greene E d i t e d by D o r o t h y M i n e r ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954), p. 290.  NOTES f o r  pages  1-20  103  3 5 V.C.H. A History of Yorkshire, p . 6 f . A l s o s e e The Rev. G.F. B r o w n e , Alcuin of York (London: S o c i e t y f o r Promoting C h r i s t i a n K n o w l e d g e , 1 9 0 8 ) , p.84: ". . . A l c u i n s u c e e d e d A l b e r t i n t h e m a s t e r s h i p o f t h e S c h o o l o f Y o r k and i n t h e o w n e r s h i p of the g r e a t l i b r a r y . . . . A l c u i n t e l l s us t h a t i t c o n t a i n e d a l l L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e , a l l t h a t G r e e c e had h a n d e d on t o t h e R o m a n s , a l l t h a t t h e H e b r e w p e o p l e h a d r e c e i v e d f r o m on h i g h . . .and h a d w o r k s o f t h e l e a r n e d men of the E n g l i s h Church s u c h a s A l d h e l m o f M a l m e s b u r y , and B e d e . . . . 3 6 M. R. J a m e s , The Catalogue of the Library of the Augustinian F r i a r s at York now f i r s t . Edited from the Manuscript at T r i n i t y College, Dublin. (Cantabrigiae: Ioanni W i l l i s Clark, 1 9 0 9 ) , p.16. Of i n t e r e s t i n J a m e s ' l i s t i s No. 609 Item tractatus beati Augustini de Assumptione beatae Virginis. 37 Z a r n e c k i , Romanesque Sculpture in England pp.47-48. 3 8 O t t o L e h m a n n - B r o c k h a u s , Lateinische Schriftquellen Zur Kunst in England, Wales und Schottland vom Jahre 901 bis zum Jahre 1307. Band I. ( M u n i c h : P r e s t e l V e r l a g , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 1 4 , "No.418) Cartularium' abbathiae de Whiteby ord. S. Benedicti, vol.2 Nr.639, p.688: Iste Gilbertus de Gant . . . fundavit monasterium canonicorum de B r i d l i n g t o n in honore s.Mariae.' ca a. 1113." 39 D . K n o w l e s and R . N . Had co ck,'•, .Medi eva 1 Religious Houses England and Wales ( L o n d o n : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n and Co., 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 1 2 9 . A l s o s e e D u g d a l e , Monasticum Anglicanum, » ' " 40 Z a r n e c k i , Romanesque Sculpture, p.47. 4 1 Ibid., p.48. VI  Ibid.  co1  2 3 4  -  h2  43 Boase,  The  York  Psalter,  p.5.  44 Winchester Psalter ( B r i t i s h M u s e u m C o t t o n MS N e r o C . i v , f o l i o 29; P s a l t e r f r o m B u r y S t . Edmonds ( f o r m e r l y o f t h e D y s o n P e r r i n s C o l l e c t i o n ) No. 55 i n Catalogue of FortySix Western and Oriental Illuminated Manuscripts (London: S o t h e b y & Co., 1959), f o l i o 92b. ^ M i l l a r , E.G. La miniature anglaise, p.49.  NOTES f o r pages  1-20  104  46 E„ S a u n d e r s , English Illumination I (Florence & M u n i c h , 1928) n . l , p.41. S a u n d e r s a l s o i d e n t i f i e s as a D e a t h of the V i r g i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the l a r g e i n i t i a l 'E' i n t h e S t . Jerome on I s a i a h m a n u s c r i p t i n t h e Bodleian L i b r a r y (Bodl.MS. B o d l e y 717). A c c o r d i n g to Boase t h i s i s i n c o r r e c t s i n c e he a t t r i b u t e s the s u b j e c t to the b u r i a l o f P a u l a , to whose d e a t h Jerome r e f e r s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n . Above P a u l a s i t s the V i r g i n , c a r r y i n g the ' v i r g a , I s a i a h ' s 'shoot out o f the seed of J e s s e ' , e n t h r o n e d between Jerome and I s a i a h . See Boase, English Art, p.29, pi.5a. Fig. 1 1  Burial 47,  of  Paula.  Saunders, A  Initial History  E of  Bodl.717, English  Art,  folio  6v  (Boase, pi.5a)  pp.57-58.  48, W a l t e r O a k e s h o t t , Sigena -.Romanesque Paintings in Spain and the Winchester Bible A r t i s t s . (London: H a r v e y M i l l e r & M e d c a l f L t d . , 1972), p.79. 49  / O . S i n d i n g , Mariae Tod und Himmelfahrt, (Christiania, 1903); K. K t t n s t l e , Ikonographie der C h r i s t l i c h e n Kunst (Freib u r g , 1928) I, pp. 564-567; H. F e l d b u s c h , Die Himmelfahrt Mari& (Tukas-Bilcherei zur C h r i s t l i c h e n Ikonographie, Band II) (DUsseldorf, L.Schwann, 1951) pp. X I I - X V I I I ; J o s . H e c h t , " D i e frtthesten Darstellungen der H i m m e l f a h r t M a r i e n s " , Das Miinster IV, 1951, 1-12. See a l s o b i b l i o . f o r K . W e s s e l and G . S c h i l l e r . 50 Boase, York Psalter, pp.9-11 and 13-14. 51  R o b e r t Deshman, Iconography,  p.102,  n.76.  30-a . See A l s o J . B e c k w i t h , Ivory Carvings, p,13f and e s p e c i a l l y p . 5 8 f . , f o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a r l y Y o r k as c u l t u r a l c e n t e r of the n o r t h . " T h i s c u l t u r e was made p o s s i b l e by the t e a c h i n g o f Theod o r e , H a d r i a n , l a t e r A l d h e l m , at C a n t e r b u r y but i n t h e n o r t h the I r i s h monks a t L i n d i s f a r n e and B e n e d i c t B i s c o p a t Wearmouth and J a r r o w were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c e n t e r s o f l e a r n i n g w i t h i m p o r t a n t  NOTES f o r p a g e s 2 1 - 5 9  105  l i b r a i r i e s which put England i n the f o r e f r o n t medieval c i v i l i s a t i o n . " , p.13. NOTES TO CHAPTER I I  of early  pages 21-59  ^ J . P . M i g n e , ed . P a t r i o l o g i a e cursus completus. . . Series Graeca V (1857) 1231; C . T i s c h e n d o r f , Apocalypses Apocryphae ( L i p s : 1866) pp.124 f f and pp.95-112 f o r t h e a p o c r y p h a l book of S t . John t h e E v a n g e l i s t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Mary's assumption. T r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e T r a n s i t u s t e x t and c o m m e n t s o n i t s v a r i o u s r e c e n s i o n s , s e e : M.R. J a m e s , T h e Apocryphal New Testament ( 1 9 2 4 ) , pp.209-216 . See a l s o Assumpt i o n a r t i c l e i n A Catholic Dictionary of Theology I, 1 7 0 - 1 7 9 with extensive bibliography. 2 The R e v . R . M o r r i s , e d . The B l i c k l i n g Homilies of the Tenth Century (London: E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , 1880), 136-151. The m a n u s c r i p t was t h e n owned b y t h e M a r q u i s o f L o t h i a n 3 G. H e n d e r s o n , Gothic (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Peng u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 6 7 ) p.74 p i . 3 2 . 4 .... O l a v S i n d i n g , Mariae Tod und Himmelfahrt, p.89, f i r s t noticed this. I am g r a t e f u l t o D r . M a r y M o r e h a r t f o r a s s i s t ance i n t h e German t r a n s l a t i o n . " ' A Catholic Dictionary of Theology I, 1 7 0 - 1 7 9 ; C r o s s , The Oxford Dictionary of the C h r i s t i a n Church O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 9 8 f ; F . L . C r o s s , The C h r i s t i a n Fathers (London: G e r a l d Duckworth & Co. L t d p . 7 5 f ; H i l d a G r a e f , Mary: A History of Doctrine and (London: Sheed and Ward, 1 9 6 3 ) , p . l 3 3 f .  F. L . (London: Early . , 1960) Devotion  G r e g o r y o f T o u r s ' work i s i n Migne, P a t r i o l o g i a e . . . Series Latina, 7 1 , 7 0 8 B , C ; R. D e s h m a n , Iconography, p.100, n.68 n o t e s a t l e a s t t w o A n g l o - S a x o n t r a n s l a t i o n s o f a n a b r i d g e d v e r s i o n of t h e r e c e n s i o n by G r e g o r y o f T o u r s . 7  8  M . R . J a m e s Apocryphal,  Ibid  p.216.  .  Q  M.R. J a m e s , " W a 1 1 - P a i n t i n g s i n C r o u g h t o n C h u r c h , N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e , I I " , Archeologia LXXVI, 1927, 180-202. pp.201-202, f i g . l . ^M.R. ^Ibid  J a m e s , Apocryphal, . , p . 211 .  p. 210.  See  106  NOTES f o r pages 21-59 12  A d e l h e i d Heimann, review of T.S.R. Boase, The Psalter,  Burlington  Magazine,  Boase, The  York  105.,. 1963.,  York  p.222.  13 Psalter,  p.22.  14  For  examples, F i g s . 3 3 , 63, 6 4 , 6 5 , 66, 68,  14-a A.  Stewart, t r a n s . Description  of  the  ( P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s , Text Society,- 189 6) , p . 4 3 . ' M.R.James, Apocryphal, , p . 213.  "Ibid.  , p . 214 .  Land,  p.212.  5  '^ Ibid.  Holy  69.  18  E . G . M i l l a r , The L u t t r e l l P s a l t e r (London: B r i t i s h Museum T r u s t e e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 3 5 . The d e a t h , ^ f u n e r a l , b u r i a l and assumption of the V i r g i n are d e p i c t e d on f o l i o s 95, 97, 98,  98b, 99, 99b, 19  100.  James, Apocryphal,  p. 2 1 4 .  20 Boase,The York  Psalter,  p.26.  21 Albert Zeit,  B o e c k l e r , Deutsche  Buchmalerei 1959),  (Munich: K a r l Robert Langewiesche,  Vorgotischer pi.48.  22 Boase, York 23  Psalter,  James, Apocryphal,  p.26.  p.  215-216.  24 Boase, York  Psalter,  p.13.  25 Migne, PL 195, c o l . 1 3 8 . "Poem on  the  O.H.Prior,  Assumption", Cambridge  (Cambridge:  26 Morris,  See a l s o J.P.Strachey, ed . Anglo-Norman  Texts,  ed.  U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 2 4 ) pp.13-26.  Blickling  Homilies,  pp.136-151.  See  also  R.Deshman, Iconography, p . 100 , n.68. The account of C h r i s t ' s Ascension i n t h e - B l i c k l i n g Homilies has been a s s o c i a t e d by Schapirbwith the new image of the d i s a p p e a r i n g C h r i s t i n E n g l i s h a r t around 1 0 0 0 : "The Image of the D i s a p p e a r i n g C h r i s t " , Gazette des  Beaux Arts 27  1943,  Morris,  28  Ibid.,  29 Ibid.  134-152.  Ibid. p.138.  107 NOTES f o r p a g e s  21-59  30 J a m e s , Apocryphal, 31 Morris, Blickling  p. 211. Homilies,  p.144.  33 J a m e s , Apocryphal,  p.212.  34 Morris, 3  5  Blickling  Homilies,  p. 144.  J M d . ,p . 148 .  JJbid. Ibid., p p . 154 a n d 1 5 6 . S e e R. W i l l a r d , "On B l i c k l i n g H o m i l y X I I I : T h e A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n " , The Review of Engl i s h Studies, X I I , J a n u a r y 1 9 3 6 , p p . 1 - 1 7 a n d "The Two A c c o u n t s o f t h e A s s u m p t i o n i n B l i c k l i n g H o m i l y X I I I " , The Review of English Studies, X I V , J a n u a r y 1938, pp.1-19. 38 37  Morris,  Blickling  Homilies,  p.156.  38-a R.B. D o b s o n , The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of March 1190, ( Y o r k : S t . A n t h o n y ' s P r e s s , 1974 39 M o r r i s , B l i c k l i n g Homilies, p.148. 40 S e e M . R . J a m e s , Apocryphal, pp.209-216 f o r o t h e r sions  ver-  41 B o a s e , The York Psalter, p.24. 42 M o r r i s , B l i c k l i n g Homilies, p. 152. 43 B o a s e , The York Psa1ter,pp.9-16. 44 Ibid.,  p.10.  Ibid. S e e R u t h J-* . D e a n , " E l i z a b e t h , A b b e s s o f S c h H n a u , a n d R o g e r o f F o r d " , Modern Philology, X L I , May 1 9 4 4 , 2 0 9 - 2 2 0 ; J . P . S t r a c h e y , op.cit., n.25; R u t h J.Dean, " M a n u s c r i p t s o f E l i z a b e t h o f S c h t f n a u i n E n g l a n d " , Modern Language Review, X X X I I ( 1 9 3 7 ) 6 2 - 7 1 ; H. T a l b o t , " T h e V e r s e s o f R o g e r o f F o r d on o u r L a d y " , Collectanea ord. cisterciensium reformatorum, VI (1939) , 44-54. h5  4 6 ;  Boase,  The  York  Psalter,  p.10.  108 NOTES f o r p a g e s 2 1 - 5 9 48 F o r MS 1 4 9 s e e H . O . C o x e , Catalogus Codicum Manuqui in colleglis aulisque Oxoniensibus hodie ad II ( O x f o r d , 1 8 5 2 ) , 4 5 - 4 6 .  scriptorum servantur  49 Boase,, York  Psalter,  p.13.  50 Ibid.,  p.10 .  ^ B e d e , A History of the English Church and People, (Trans, by Leo S h e r l e y - P r i c e , Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Peng u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 7 0 ) , B o o k F o u r , C h a p t e r 9, p p . 2 2 0 - 2 2 1 . 52 p .72,n.7 .  Otto  P a ' c h t , The St.Albans  Psalter,  p.7 2-73 a n d  53 A.Heimann,  op.cit.,  p?222.  54  v-  e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m o t i f was u s e d i n r e p r e s e n t a of secular burials, also i below. ^ S e e F r a n c i s Wormald, " C o n t i n e n t a l I n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l I l l u m i n a t i o n " , Transactions of the International Congress of Bibliophiles, London 1965 ( L o n d o n : 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 4 - 5 : ". . . y o u r a t t e n t i o n i s d r a w n t o C o t t o n MS C l a u d i u s B.iv i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum. This i s an e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y copy o f t h e P e n t a t e u c h a n d J o s h u a i n O l d E n g l i s h b e l o n g i n g <once t o . . . Canterbury. I n i t t h e r e i s a l a r g e number o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y o f t h e O l d Testament-. . . I n one s c e n e , f .72b, o f t h e b u r i a l o f J o s e p h , t h e c o r p s e i s w r a p p e d up l i k e a cocoon which on c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n bears astrong resemblence t o a mummy c a s e . " ^ A r t h u r W a t s o n , The Early Iconography of the Tree of Jesse (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934), e s p e c i a l l y Ch . V I I . tions  s  e  D . H . T u r n e r , "The L a s t 1963 , p p . 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 . 5 7  77 F a l l  e  Phase o f Romanesque",  Apollo  58 L e t h a b y , op.cit.,p.42  f.  59 in  American  A u g u s t a S. T a v e n d e r , "Mediaeval English Museums, II", S p e c u l u m , X X X I V n o . 3 J u l y  *54 c o n t ' d . T h e m o t i f i s f o u n d T h e B u r i a l o f E d m u n d , P i e r p o n t M o r g a n MS t r a t e d o n P i . 2 1 o f MA t h e s i s : The Pierpont cles of St. Edmund: Some observations on of its Illuminated Miniatures, by Pamela 1978 .  Alabasters 1959 , p.437  also on f o l i o 18, 7 3 6 (New Y o r k ) , illusMorgan Life and Mirathe content and style F r a s e r , UBC, S e p t e m b e r  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I  pages  109  60-84  *F . C a b r o l , " L ' A s s o m p t i o n d a n s l ' a r t " , D i c t i o n n a i r e de theologie catholique, e d . R. L e c l e r q ( P a r i s : 1 9 4 7 ) , 2989, 2 9 9 0 , f i g . 1 0 2 5 . T h i s a t t r i b u t i o n i s d i s p u t e d by S i n d i n g a n d J a m e s , ( T r i s t r a m & J a m e s , 1927 ) . l ' A b b e E . C h a r t r a i r e , "Une r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d e l ' a s s o m p t i o n d e l a t r e s s a i n t e V i e r g e a u V I I I s i e c l e " , Revue de l'Art Chretien, 40, 1897, pp.227-229. 3 J a c q u e l i n e L a f o n t a i n e , Peintures Medie^vales dans l e Temple d i t de l a Fortune V i r i l e a Rome. (Etudes de P h i l o l o g i e , d'archeologie et d ' h i s t o i r e anciennes, Tome VI, B r u s s e l s , R a v e n s t e i n , 1959), pp.28-35 . 4 K u r t W e i t z m a n n , Catalogue of the Byzantine and Early Medieval A n t i q u i t i e s in the Dumbarton Oaks C o l l e c t i o n I I I (Washington, 1972), p.71. ^See a l s o t h e f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e Koimesis: S t e a t i t e plaque, l a t e 10th, early 11thcentury (Vienna, K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e s Mus.), Weitzmann, i J b i d . f i g . 197, showing the s o u l a s a c o m p l e t e l y wrapped f i g u r e ; m o s a i c , m i d d l e o f t h e 14th c e n t u r y ( P r a g u e : N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y ) The Bohemian M a s t e r , ( D e m u s , Byzantine Art and the West, L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d a n d N i c o l s o n , 1 9 7 0 , f i g . 1 5 4 ) ; w a l l - p a i n t i n g , ca .1320, C h u r c h o f t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n , G r a c a n i c a , Y u g o s l a v i a ( S c h u g - W i l l e , Art of the Byzantine World, New Y o r k : H a r r y N . A b r a m s I n c . , 1 9 6 9 ) i l - . l u s t r a t e d o n p.219; i v o r y f r o m t h e end o f t h e 1 0 t h c e n t u r y ( D a r m s t a d t , H e s s i s c h e L a n d e s m u s e u m S.6 ( H . F e l d b u s c h , Die Himmelfahrt, p i . 2 ^ my f i g . i i , p . 1 1 7 . J . J . G . A l e x a n d e r , Norman I l l u m i n a t i o n at Mont St. Michel 966-1100 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1970), pp. 1 5 5 f f . S e e a l s o V . L e r o q u a i s , Les Psautiers Manuscrits Latins des Bibl iotheques publiques de France, Tome I (Ma-con: P r o t a t Freres, 1940-41) P i . X L V I I T h e D e a t h a n d C o r o n a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n ( P a r i s ; Bibl.nat.MS l a t . 2 3 8, f o l . 6 2 v ) l a t e 1 2 t hc e n t u r y , which d e p i c t s the s o u l a s a s m a l l , naked f e m a l e f o r m . ^ H . G r a e f , Mary.A History, p.178 f . g Ibid.-p. 222-249 . See a l s o V a l e r i e I . J . F l i n t , "The C o m m e n t a r i e s o f H o n o r i u s A u g u s t o d u n e n s i s o n t h e S o n g o f S o n g s " , Revue Benedictine, 8 4 , 1914, p p . 1 9 6 - 2 1 1 .  x  9  B o a s e , York P s a l t e r , p . 1 2 ; L o u i s R e a u , Iconographie de l ' a r t Chretien, P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1957, I i ; 597-635. 1  ^Boase,  York  Psalter , p .12 .  NOTES f o r p a g e s ^^Ibid.;  110  60-84 R e a u , Iconographie,  f i g . 41.  12 B o a s e , York Psalter, p. 11. 13 F. W o r m a l d , The Winchester Psalter (London: Harv e y M e d c a l f L t d . , 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 8 7 - 9 0 , ""How then a r e t h e s e two. m i n i a t u r e s t o be e x p l a i n e d ? They a r e n o t a d d i t i o n s and a r e c l e a r l y contemporary w i t h the r e s t of the f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s . . . The s i t u a t i o n h a s now s o m e w h a t a l t e r e d b y t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a l a r g e number o f i c o n s p r e s e r v e d i n t h e m o n a s t e r y of S t . C a t h a r i n e on Mount S i n a i ! . . . . Some o f t h e s e i c o n s w e r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e L a t i n K i n g d o m o f J e r u s a l e m and W e i t z m a n n has p u b l i s h e d one i c o n w h i c h i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y by an E n g l i s h a r t i s t (see Wormald f i g . 9 1 ) . I f an E n g l i s h i c o n c o u l d f i n d i t s way t o M o u n t S i n a S i t i s e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r a B y z a n t i n e d i p t y c h t o f i n d i t s way t o W i n c h e s t e r a n d t o b e c o p i e d t h e r e . H i s t o r i c a l l y t h i s w o u l d be p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t W i n c h e s t e r w h e r e t h e b i s h o p , H e n r y d e B l o i s , was a w e l l known c o l l e c t o r o f c u r i o s i t i e s and a n t i q u e s . " 14 0. D e m u s , Byzantine Art and the West, p . l 5 8 f f , Demus f i g . 1 0 . S e e n o t e 44, p.103; n o t e 18, p . 1 0 6 . A l s o M.R. James, " W a l l - p a i n t i n g s i n C r o u g h t o n C h u r c h , N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e " , P a r t I I , Archeologia, L X X V I , 1927, pp.202-204. * 1 5  Ibid.,  16  p.l85f.  * 0 . S i n d i n g , Mariae Tod und Himmelfahrt, p.68-69. A l s o p.114, n.224: "Ed.Geyer o.a. S t . P a g . 3 0 9 , where however Bede's d r a w i n g i s not r e p r o d u c e d . T h i s i s shown i n Mommert: D i e D o r m i t i o , u.s.w. L e i p z i g , 1899, S.91; and i n t h e S o c i e t y of German P a l e s t i n i a n s , 1831". S e e J a c k F i n e g a n , The Archeology of the New Testament: The L i f e of Jesus and the Beginning of the Early Church, ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p . 1 0 6 , q u o t e s T h e o d o s i u s ( 5 3 0 ) who d e s c r i b e s t h e V a l l e y o f J e h o s h a p h a t a s ". . . w h e r e J u d a s b e t r a y e d t h e L o r d and a l s o t h a t t h e r e i s t h e r e a c h u r c h o f S t . M a r y t h e M o t h e r o f t h e L o r d ( e c c l e s i a dominae Mariae Matris Domini)."; p . x v i i i c i t e s B e d e ' s Liber de Locis Sanct i s as the s t a n d a r d g u i d e b o o k to the h o l y p l a c e s f o r p i l g r i m s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s : Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum v o l . 38, ed. P.Geyer, ( V i e n n a , 1 9 3 8 ) , I t i n e r a Hierosolymitana Saeculi i i i i - v i i i . 7  I  18 Sinding,  Mariae  Tod  Ibid. * On t h e s o - c a l l e d B u r y c r i p t i v e Catalogue of Illuminated of Charles William Dyson Perrins,  und  Himmelfahrt,  p.69.  19  P s a l t e r , s e e a l s o t h e DesManuscripts in the Library 2 v o l s . (Oxford: U n i v e r s i t y  111 NOTES f o r p a g e s Press,  60-84  1920) . 20  D e n i s M e e h a n , e d . Adamnan's De Locis Sanctis. Scriptores L a t i n i Hiberniae V o l . I l l ( D u b l i n : The Dublin I n s t i t u t e f o r A d v a n c e d S t u d i e s , 1958) p . 4 3 f . A l s o see J . F i n e g a n , The Archeology, p . x v i i i a n d P . G e y e r , CSEL: (38) Adamnai de l o c i s Sanctis l i b r i tres, pp.219-297 and Bedae l i b e r de l o c i s Sanctis, pp.299-321. 21 D . M e e h a n , Adamnan's, p.3 a n d J . F i n e g a n , The Archeology, x v i i i . P e t e r H . B l a i r , Northumbria in the Days of Bede ( L o n d o n : V i c t o r G o l l a n c z L t d . , 1 9 7 6 ) a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n A r c u l f , Adamnan and Bede i n C h a p t e r s 2 and 3. 22 M e e h a n , Adamnan's, opposite p.47. 23 Ibid., p.3-5 . 24 C . P l u m m e r , e d . , Venerabilis Baedae Opera H i s t o r i c a , H i s t o r i a Abbatum, 6, ( O x f o r d : 1 8 9 6 ) I , p.369 . R . W i l l a r d , "On B l i c k l i n g H o m i l y X I I I " p p . 2 - 5 . A l s o G . F . B r o w n e , Alcuin of York, p.84. 2 5  R.E.S.  1936,  26 Slab",  Saxon 51-53 .  B e t t y K u r t h , "The I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e Wirksworth Burlington Magazine, LXXXVI ( A p r i l 1945), 114-121 27 Ibid., p . 121 . 28 R. D e s h m a n , Iconography, pp.83-89. 29 Ibid., p.89. See a l s o E l K b i e t a T e m p l e , AngloManuscripts 900-1066 (London: Harvey M i l l e r , 1976)pp.  3 0 R. D e s h m a n , Iconography, p p . 8 8 - 9 1 . On another E n g l i s h C o r o n a t i o n , s e e G e o r g e Z a r n e c k i , "The C o r o n a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n o n a C a p i t a l f r o m R e a d i n g A b b e y " , Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s , 13 ( 1 9 5 0 ) p p . 1 - 1 2 . 31 A. G o l d s c h m i d t , " E n g l i s h I n f l u e n c e on Medieval A r t o f t h e C o n t i n e n t " , Medieval Studies in Memory of A.Kingsley Porter, I I (Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939), p.719. 3 2 W . P a g e , ed . A History of Yorkshire and A History of York (The V i c t o r i a H i s t o r i e s of the Counties of England), v o l s . I l l , " I V , V o l . I l l : p.6 , 3 9 6 .  112  NOTES f o r pages  60-84.  33  Ibid. 34  Ernst  Kitzinger,  "The  Coffin-Reliquary",  p. 2 6 4 .  35  See J . B e c k w i t h , Ivory Carving in Early Medieaval (London: H a r v e y M i l l e r & M e d c a l f , 1 9 7 2 ) n o s . 1 5 , 2 4 ,  England 40.  36  The gained  England 1875),  Ch. 37  Rev. and  T.E. lost  B r i d g e t t , Our Lady's that T i t l e (London:  Dowry, or How B u r n s and O a t e s ,  1.  B e r t r a m C o l g r a v e and R.A.B. Mynors, e d i t o r s , Bede's E c c l e s i a s t i c a l History of the English People (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 9 6 9 ) , p.399 . T h i s was f i r s t b r o u g h t to my a t t e n t i o n by D o r e e n N a l o s . 3 8  H. Anglo-Saxon 39  M a y r - H a r t i n g , The Coming of C h r i s t i a n i t y to England (London: B . T . B a t s f o r d , 1 9 7 2 ) , p.186-190.  Ibid.,  p.189.  40  C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , C e l t i c and Anglo-Saxon Painting (London: C h a t t o and Windus L t d . , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 1 1 6 . For a d d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n on e a r l y M a r i a n d e v o t i o n s i n E n g l a n d , see G r a e f , Mary.A History, Ch.4, pp.162-165, 1 7 2 - 1 7 4 . NOTES TO  CHAPTER IV  pages  85-99  *"D.H. T u r n e r , "The L a s t Phase o f Romanesque", p.151, s u g g e s t s a d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t i o n f o r f o l i o 13v ( s e e b e l o w , n o t e 3 ) ; B o a s e , The York Psalter, p o i n t s out t h e u n u s u a l f e a t u r e s o f some o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s s u c h as t h e naked I s a a c i n f o l i o 9v, but makes no a t t e m p t to a n a l y z e t h e i c o n o g r a p h y i n d e t a i l ; K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque Manuscripts, pp.118-119. As f a r as I know, t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e e n t i r e c y c l e has n e v e r been p u b l i s h e d , a l t h o u g h a Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n i n progress (brought to my n o t i c e by D r . Mary M o r e h a r t ) may p r o v e o f i n t e r e s t : Jane H e a t h e r i n g t o n Brown, "The Y o r k P s a l t e r : a C o d i c o l o g i c a l , P a l e o g r a p h i c a l , and A r t H i s t o r i c a l S t u d y " . U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , Art Journal, Spring 1 9 7 9 . A key a s p e c t o f t h e p i c t o r i a l c y c l e i s i t s i n complete s t a t e . The t h i r t e e n f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s a r e on f a c i n g pages, and each p a i r o f p i c t u r e s i s f o l l o w e d by a p a i r of b l a n k pages. I have i n d i c a t e d t h i s i n t h e s e q u e n c e of i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r t h i s t h e s i s . I i n c l u d e here the c o l l a t i o n o f t h e i l l u s t r a t e d f o l i o s i n o r d e r t o show t h e s t r u c -  NOTES  f o r pages  113  85-99  t u r e o f e a c h g a t h e r i n g , s i n c e t h i s would have b e a r i n g on t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f b o t h t h e b l a n k s and t h e c y c l e as a whole. For e x a m p l e , t h e A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n i s on f o l i o 19v, t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e f o l i o , a n d i t f a c e s a b l a n k p a g e o n t h e r i g h t , numb e r e d as f o l i o . 20r . One w o u l d e x p e c t t o s e e o n t h i s b l a n k p a g e a m i n i a t u r e o f t h e C o r o n a t i o n , g i v e n t h e emphasis on t h e V i r gin i n t h e p s a l t e r and t h e appearance o f t h e s u b j e c t i n o t h e r E n g l i s h p s a l t e r s , e . g . t h e Winchester Psalter. T h i s suggest i o n w o u l d be p l a u s i b l e f o r t h e c o m p a n i o n b l a n k f a c i n g t h e A s s u m p t i o n f o l i o as w e l l as t h e n e x t f o l l o w i n g b l a n k (20v) a r e a l l l e a v e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i f t h g a t h e r i n g . T h e new sixth gathering begins only at f o l i o 21r, also blank, f o l lowed by t h e scene o v e r l e a f o f D a v i d H a r p i n g . One c o u l d t h u s c o n c e i v a b l y a r g u e t h a t t h e V i r g i n c y c l e d i d n o t end w i t h t h e scene o f t h e A s s u m p t i o n and p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e d an a d d i t i o n a l m i n i a t u r e of the C o r o n a t i o n , o r V i r g i n Enthroned. The s t i t c h i n g a p p e a r s t o b e u n t a m p e r e d ( f r o m my own o b e r v a t i o n ) , a n d t h u s t h e c o l l a t i o n f o r t h e m i n i a t u r e s runs as f o l l o w s : Second g a t h e r i n g : Third gathering: Fourth gathering: Fifth gathering: Sixth gathering:  four leaves two l e a v e s four leaves four leaves two leaves  2:1/lv 3:l/lv 4:l/lv 5:l/lv 6:l/lv  2/2v 3/3v 4/4v 2/2v 2/2v 3/3v 4/4v 2/2v 3/3v 4/4v 2/2v a n d c o n t i n u i n g  T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e h a n d w r i t t e n f o l i o numbers and s u b j ec t s: Folio Folio 7 r B l a n k 2:1 8 r E x p u l s i o n 2:2 ( s e c o n d g a t h e r i n g ) 7v C r e a t i o n 2 : l v Labour Temptation 9 r B l a n k 2:3 8v B l a n k 2 : 2 v l O r B l a n k 2:4 9v S a c r i f i c e 2 : 3 v l l r B l a n k 3:1 ( t h i r d g a t h e r i n g ) lOv B l a n k 2:4v 1 2 r Emmaus 3:2 l l v Temptation 3 : l v C h r i s t ' s Appearance Lazarus 1 3 r B l a n k 4:1 ( f o u r t h g a t h e r i n g ) 12v B l a n k 3 : 2 v 13v I n c r e d u l i t y 4 : l v 1 4 r A s c e n s i o n 4:2 C h r i s t on Water 15r B l a n k 4:3: 14v B l a n k 4:2v 1 6 r C h r i s t i n M a j e s t y 4:4 15v P e n t e c o s t 4:3v 1 7 r B l a n k 5:1 ( f i f t h g a t h e r i n g ) 16v B l a n k 4 : 4 v 1 8 r D e a t h 5: 17v A n n o u n c e m e n t - D e a t h 5 : l v 1 9 r B l a n k 5: 18v B l a n k 5:2v 2 0 r B l a n k 5: 19v A s s u m p t i o n 5 : 3 v 2 1 r B l a n k 6: 20v B l a n k 5:4v (sixth gathering) 21v D a v i d 6 : l v 22r Beatus 6:2r  114 NOTES f o r p a g e s  85-99  A l s o to n o t e from the s t r u c t u r e of the t h i r d g a t h e r i n g i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t c o n t a i n s o n l y two l e a v e s , w h e r e a s t h e o t h ers have four l e a v e s of i l l u s t r a t i o n s . This suggests, (and K a u f f m a n n , p . 1 1 8 , h a s n o t e d t h i s a l s o ) t h a t two l e a v e s may be m i s s i n g . S u c h a n o m i s s i o n may e x p l a i n the l a c k o f any scenes between t h e - R a i s i n g of Lazarus ( f o l i o l l v ) and the Emmaus m i n i a t u r e ( f o l i o 1 2 r ) , w h e r e n o r m a l l y o n e w o u l d e x p e c t to see s c e n e s f r o m the P a s s i o n . 2 K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque  Manuscripts,  p.119.  3 I n f o l i o 13v o f t h e York Psalter, C h r i s t on t h e r i g h t s t a n d s upon t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e w a t e r and r e a c h e s w i t h h i s r i g h t h a n d t o P e t e r , who i s n a k e d and h a l f - s u b m e r g e d . On t h e l e f t , s i x a p o s t l e s i n a b o a t t u r n t h e i r h e a d s ( s a v i n g o n e man who s t a r e s ahead)j t o w a r d t h e e v e n t . The s c e n e h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d b y B o a s e , (The York Psalter, P l a t e 3)as C h r i s t Saves S t . P e t e r upon the W a t e r s , a c c o r d i n g to the t e x t i n Matthew 14:22-31. T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n however c r e a t e s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l c o n f u s i o n , s i n c e t h e s c e n e o f t h e D o u b t i n g - Thomas i n t h e u p p e r r e g i s t e r i s an e v e n t w h i c h o c c u r s a f t e r t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n , and C h r i s t s a v e s P e t e r b e f o r e t h e P a s s i o n . S u r e l y the a r t i s t would not have combined models i n such a way. F o r B o a s e t h e r e s e e m s t o be no c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e o u t - o f - o r d e r s c e n e , u n l e s s t h e common t h e m e o f l a c k o f f a i t h on t h e p a r t o f an a p o s t l e i s t h e l i n k b e t w e e n them. H o w e v e r , T u r n e r ("The L a s t Phase of Romanesque", p.151) sugg e s t s t h a t the scene i s i n f a c t the a p p e a r a n c e of C h r i s t at T i b e r i a s . - A l t h o u g h b a s e d p i c t o r i a l l y on a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f C h r i s t s a v i n g P e t e r , t h e - s u b j e c t i s m e a n t t o show P e t e r swimming t o h i s r i s e n L o r d on t h e s h o r e o f t h e sea o f T i b e r i a s , a c c o r d i n g to John 21:4-8. T h u s t h e r e w o u l d be no chron o l o g i c a l b r e a k b e t w e e n t h i s s c e n e and t h e one o f t h e d o u b t i n g Thomas a b o v e i t . And t h o u g h C h r i s t a t T i b e r i a s i s an u n u s u a l P o s t ^ R e s u r r e c t i o n s u b j e c t , two p r e v i o u s i n s t a n c e s i n E n g l i s h a r t may be c i t e d : P e m b r o k e C o l l e g e MS 1 2 0 , f o l i o 31b ( w h e r e P e t e r i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g h a l f - n a k e d : s e e M.R.James, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Pembroke College, Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1905, p . 1 2 3 ) ; a n d t h e l e a f i n New Y o r k , M S . 5 2 1 ( P i e r p o n t M o r g a n L i b r a r y ) , s e e M . R . J a m e s " F o u r Leaves", p.9 n o . 5 b , P l a t e V. At a t t r i b u t i o n of t h i s scene to C h r i s t at T i b e r i a s w o u l d a l s o c o n c u r w i t h vs 7 o f J o h n 21: " T h e r e f o r e t h a t d i s c i p l e whom J e s u s l o v e d s a i t h u n t o P e t e r , I t i s t h e L o r d . Now w h e n S i m o n P e t e r h e a r d t h a t i t was t h e L o r d , he g i r t h i s f i s h e r ' s c o a t ' u n t o h i m ( f o r he was n a k e d ) , a n d d i d c a s t h i m s e l f i n t o the sea." The 1 0 t h c e n t u r y Egbert Codex, f o l i o 90, a l s o d e p i c t s P e t e r ' s n a k e d n e s s , now c o v e r e d by a c o a t , ( s e e F r a n z R o n i g , Codex Egberti, T r i e r : Spee-Verlag, 1977 , p . 1 1 3 .  NOTES f o r p a g e s  Christ",  ^Meyer p. 134. R.  5  .115  85-99  Schapiro,  "The  Image o f  D e s h m a n , Iconography,  the D i s a p p e a r i n g  p.l48f.  6 Ibid  .  Ibid., p . 1 5 0 - 1 5 2 . S e e a l s o O t t o Pa'cht* s s i o n o f t h e S t . A l b a n s A s c e n s i o n i n The St. Albans p . 56 a n d p . 9 5 . 7  discusPsalter,  Q  Ernst  Kitzinger,  "The  Co f f d n - R e l i q u - a r y " , p . 2 3 5 f .  9 Ibid., p . 234 a n d p . 234 n . l . S e e a l s o - M e y e r S c h a p i r o , "Two R o m a n e s q u e D r a w i n g s i n A u x e r r e a n d some I c o n o g r a p h i c a l P r o b l e m s " , Romanesque Art, (New Y o r k : G e o r g e Braziller I n c . , 1 9 7 7 ) p p . 3 0 6 - 3 2 7 ; b y t h e same a u t h o r , "The M i n i a t u r e s o f t h e F l o r e n c e D i a t e s s a r o n " , Art B u l l e t i n 5 5 , 1 9 7 5 , p p . 4 9 4 5 3 1 ; a n d F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , The Miniatures in the Gospels of St. Augustine ( C a m b r i d g e : a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954) pp. 7-8 . ' ^ J . J . G . A l e x a n d e r , Norman " c a r l  N o r d e n f a l k , Early  Illumination,  Medieval  Painting,  p.112. pp  190-191. 12 R u t h M e l l i n k o f f , "The r o u n d c a p - s h a p e d h a t s dep i c t e d on J e w s i n B r i t i s h Museum C o t t o n C l a u d i u s B . I V " , Anglo-Saxon England 2 ( C a m b r i d g e : 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 155-166, e s p e c i a l l y pp.163-165. 13 R o s e m a r y W o o l f , The English Mystery Plays, (London: and K e g a l P a u l , 1 9 7 2 ) , C h . X I I , p.160 f . 14 A E m i l e M a l e , L'Art r e l i g i e u x du K i l e s i e c l e en ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 2 ) , p . 1 3 7 f f ; O t t o P a ' c h t , The St. Albans p . 74ff .  Routledge  France Psalter, val  ' " ' M . D . A n d e r s o n , Drama and Churches,(Cambridge: University  Imagery Press,  in English Medie1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 152-155.  '^C. R . D o d w e l l , The Canterbury School of I l l u m i nation 1066-1200, ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 9 1 f f ; 0 . P a ' c h t , St. Albans Psalter, p p . 8 0 - 8 1 ; R o s a l i e B. G r e e n , "Adam a n d E v e C y c l e i n t h e Hortus Deliciarum," Late C l a s s i c a l and Mediaeval Studies in Honor of Albert Mathias Friend,Jr. ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955) pp. 112-131. A r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n i s f o u n d i n H e r b e r t L. K e s s l e r , The I l l u s t r a t e d Bibles from Tours. Studies i n Manuscript I l l u m i n a t i o n . No . 7 . ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1977).  116 NOTES f o r p a g e s  85-99  Hans S w a r z e n s k i , "Unknown B i b l e P i c t u r e s b y W i l l i a m d e B r a i l e s , " Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, I , 1938, pp.55-69. S e e a l s o F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , The Miniatures in the Gospels of St. Augustine: Corpus C r i s t i College MS 286 (Camb r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954) p . l 3 f f . 18 S e e P . H . B l a i r , Northumbrla in the Days of Bede, C h a p t e r s 1 and 2 f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e w a r r i o r k i n g s o f 7 t h c e n t u r y N o r t h u m b r i a , a s he t e r m s them; a l s o D . K n o w l e s , The Monastic Order in England:A History of i t s Development from the times of St. Dunstan to the Fourth Lateran Council 943-1216 (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949) who d e s c r i b e s Y o r k s h i r e a s f o l l o w s : "From more t h a n one p o i n t o f v i e w t h e n o r t h o f E n g l a n d was a f i e l d r e a d y f o r s o w i n g . D e s p i t e t h e s p r e a d o f m o n a s t i c i s m a f t e r t h e C o n q u e s t , i t was s t i l l largely v i r g i n s o i l . . . . In the north, too,the s p i r i t u a l a t m o s p h e r e was c o n g e n i a l . I n the e a r l y decades of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a r e n a i s s a n c e , i n t e l l e c t u a l and r e l i g i o u s , was t a k i n g p l a c e a t Y o r k i t s e l f a n d o t h e r c e n t r e s , w h i c h were a t l a s t ; r e c o v e r i n g from t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n i n v a s i o n s and the more r e c e n t h a r r y i n g o f t h e C o n q u e r o r , and t h e e a r n e s t , s o m e w h a t s t e r n n o r t h e r n p i e t y . . . was t o r e m a i n a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g f r o m t h e r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t o f t h e s o u t h . . . ." (p.229). That a wave o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r n a t i v e h i s t o r y a r o s e i n t h e l a t e 1 1 t h and e a r l y 1 2 t h c e n t u r i e s i s e v i d e n t i nt h e h i s t o r i c a l w r i t e r s w h o s e w o r k s show a n i n c r e a s i n g p r i d e i n England and i t s i n s u l a r t r a d i t i o n s . O r d r i c V i t a l i s , who was s e n t a r o u n d t h e y e a r 1 0 8 5 t o b e c o m e a monk i n a N o r m a n m o n a s t e r y , w r o t e a h i s t o r y o f Norman a c h i e v e m e n t s b u t he w r o t e and t h o u g h t o f h i m s e l f as an E n g l i s h m a n i n e x i l e . W i l l i a m o f M a l m e s b u r y , w h o s e Gesta Regum w a s w r i t t e n a b o u t 1125, f o l l o w e d Bede's example i n w r i t i n g h i s t o r y as d i s t i n c t from b i o g r a p h y or a n n a l s . G e o f f r e y o f Monmouth, B i s h o p o f S t . A s a p h , ' ( c a 1 1 6 5 - 7 5 ) , w r o t e a n i m a g i n a t i v e History of the Britons, ca 1 1 3 9 , l a t e r r e v i s e d i n 1 1 4 7 , w h i c h b y i t s t o n e and c h a r a c t e r e n c o u r a g e d a r e v i v a l o f E n g l i s h f e e l i n g . See D o r i s M a r y S t e n t o n , English Society in the Early Middle Ages (1066-1307) (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1972), pp. 2 7 1 - 2 7 4 ; G . O . S a y l e s , The Medieval Foundations of England, (London: Methuen & Co. L t d . 1 9 6 6 ) , Chapter X V I I I . 19 S e e R . W . S o u t h e r n , The Making of the Middle Ages (New H a v e n a n d L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) p . 2 4 6 f f ; H . G r a e f , Mary.A History, pp. 210-224 . *p.H7. 20 R . W . S o u t h e r n , "The E n g l i s h O r i g i n s o f t h e ' M i r a c l e s o f t h e V i r g i n ' " , Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies (London: Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1958), I V , pp.176-216. 21 A. G a s q u e t a n d E. B i s h o p , The Bosworth Psalter ( L o n d o n : G . B e l l , 1 9 0 8 ) , p p . 4 7 - 5 1 ; D. K n o w l e s , The Monastic Order, pp. 510-513.  NOTES  117  85-99  f o r pages  22 G e o r g e  Zarnecki,  "The C o r o n a t i o n  of the V i r g i n " ,  p.12 23 D a v i d See worth  Psalter,  Knowles,  The Monastic  a l s o A.Gasquet p.72-73 .  Fig.ii  Order,  and E . B i s h o p ,  p.229 The  Bos-  K o i m e s i s . I v o r y , end of the 1 0 t h c e n t u r y ( D a r m s t a d t : H e s s i s c h e Landesmuseum S.6) ( F e l d b u s c h , PI.2)  118 SELECTED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A i t k e n , P . H e n d e r s o n a n d Y o u n g , J . A Catalogue of the Manuscripts In the Library of the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow. G l a s g o w : James M a c l e h o s e and S o n s , 1908. A h s m a n n , H u b e r t u s P e t r u s J o h a n n e s . La culte de l a Sainte et l a 1 i t t e r a t u r e du Moyen Age. U t r e c h t : 1 9 3 0 . Alexander, J.J.G. 1100. Oxford: -  Norman Illumination at Mont Clarendon P r e s s , 1970.  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" O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e C o t t o n G e n e s i s Fragments'', Late C l a s s i c a l and Mediaeva1 Studies in Honor of Albert Mathias Friend, Jr. 112-131. P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955. Studies in C l a s s i c a l and Byzantine E d . b y - H e r b e r t L. K e s s l e r . C h i c a g o of Chicago P r e s s , 1971. -,  Manuscript Illumination. and L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y  L o e r k e , W.C., K i t z i n g e r , E. a n d B u c h t h a l , H.^ The Place of Book Illumination in Byzantine Art. P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: The A r t Museum, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975.  Wellescz, 1960. Wessel, II,  Emmy. The  Vienna  Genesis.  K. " H i m m e l f a h r t " , 1971.  Realexikon  London:  Faber  and  Faber,  zu'r Byzantinischen  Kunst  W h i t e l o c k , D o r o t h y , e d . English H i s t o r i c a l Documents c .5001042. Vol.1 of English H i s t o r i c a l Documents, 5 V o l s , ed.by D a v i d C. D o u g l a s . L o n d o n : E y r e a n d S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1 9 5 5 . W i l l a r d , R. "On B l i c k l i n g H o m i l y X I I I : The V i r g i n " , The Review of English Studies 1-17. -  "The Two A c c o u n t s X I I I " , The Review  of the Assumption of English-Studies  Assumption of the X I I ( J a n u a r y 1936)  i n B l i c k l i n g Homily XIV ( J a n u a r y 1938)1-19.  W i l p e r t , J o s e p h . Die Romischen Mosaikenu. Malereien der Kirchlichen Bauten v. IV-XIII Jahrhundert. Vol. IV. Freiburg i m B r e i s g a u , B a s i l , W i e n : H e r d e r , 1976 ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 1 6 ) . W o o l f , R o s e m a r y . The and Kegan P a u l ,  English 1972.  Mystery  Plays.  London:.  Routledge  Wormald, F r a n c i s . " T h e Development of E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n T w e l f t h C e n t u r y " , Journal of the B r i t i s h Archeological s o c i a t i o n , 3 r d . s e r i e s , V I I I (1943), 31-49.  i n the As-  128 W o r m a l d , F r a n c i s . "The S u r v i v a l o f A n g l o - S a x o n a f t e r t h e N o r m a n C o n q u e s t " , Proceedings-of Academy., XXX ( 1 9 4 4 ) 1 2 7 - 1 4 5 . -  English London:  Drawings of the Tenth and F a b e r and F a b e r , 1952.  -  The Miniatures C r i s t i College 1954 .  in MS  Illumination the British  Eleventh  Centuries.  the Gospels of St. Augustine. Corpus 286. Cambridge: at the U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  "An E l e v e n t h C e n t u r y P s a l t e r w i t h Society, XXXVIII (1960-62) 1-14.  Pictures ', 1  The  Walpole  " C o n t i n e n t a l I n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l I l l u m i n a t i o n " , Transactions of the Fourth International Congress of Bibl i o p h i l e s . L o n d o n : 1967. -  The Winchester 1973 .  Psalter.  London:  Harvey  Miller  and  Medcalf,  W r a t i s l a w - M i t r o v i c , L u d m i l a , a n d O k u n e v , N.. "La- D o r m i t i o n d e l a S a i n t e V i e r g e dans l a p e i n t u r e m e d i e V a l e o r t h o d o x e ' , Byzantinoslavica I I I ( 1 9 3 1 ) 1 3 4 - 1 7 6 , 19 p l a t e s . 1  Z a r n e c k i , George."The C o r o n a t i o n of f r o m R e a d i n g A b b e y " , Journal of I n s t i t u t e s , 13 ( 1 9 5 0 ) 1-12. Later Alec  Romanesque Sculpture T i r a n t i , 19-53.  Romanesque  Art.  New  York:  in  the V i r g i n the Warburg  England  University  on a and  Capital Courtauld  1140-1210.  Books,  1971.  London:  ILLUSTRATIONS  130  HI' ' irmVi  if  ^.  "D -ITIT- H C  C .TIT-  .*~ T\ J- a  Fig  Fig  —  . .. *V7?imi»^i  i  i n . • • i • • i.• •• i.^Si^Tffliiii-i—n  rfijcmtfncfltf juiJer tnordme-ijiiiJnf•  VI f 5>ii y r n i r a ^ T ^ m f t r i f d r i y i i n e ' f n l y r •  i*'°  — J  -f  -  —I  »  ...,mMI  January: Plowing. D e t a i l from Calendar P a g e . B r i t i s h M u s e u m C o t t o n MS Tiberius B.v, f o l i o 3 .  June: P r u n i n g . J u l y : Mowing. C a l e n d a r Pages. Glasgow: U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 . F o l i o s 3 v , 4. Photos  f r o m s l i d e s : UBC Slide Library  F i g . 3 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2. F o l i o 1 January: F e a s t i n g  F i g . 4 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o l v February: Warming b e f o r e a Fire HI—'  Photos from s l i d e s : UBC S l i d e L i b r a r y  Fig. 5  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS F o l i o 2 March:Digging  U.3.2.  F i g . 6 Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U . 3 . 2 F o l i o 2v A p r i l : Lovemaking Photos from s l i d e s : UBC  Slide  Library  Fig. 7  Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2. F o l i o 3 May: Hawking  F i g . 8 Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2 F o l i o 3v June: Pruning Photos  from s l i d e s : UBC S l i d e Library  Fig. 9  Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2. F o l i o 4 J u l y : Mowing  Fig.10 Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2 F o l i o 4v August: Reaping Photos from s l i d e s : UBC S l i d e  Library  1 Fig.11 Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2 F o l i o 5 September: G a t h e r i n g Grapes  J  Fig.12 Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2 F o l i o 5v October: Treading Grapes Photos from  slides  UBC S l i d e Library  J Fig.  13 Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2 F o l i o 6 November: Gathering Acorns f o r Hogs  Fig.14 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 6v December: K i l l i n g Hogs  Photos from s l i d e s : UBC S l i d e  £ Library  Fig.  1 5 G l a s g o w , U n i v . L i b r . M S U .3.2 F o l i o 7 v C r e a t i o n o f Ad am; The T e m p t a t i o n (2:lv)  Fig.  Photos  from  16 G l a s g o w , U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 8 Expulsion from Paradise Adam d i g g i n g , E v e S p i n n i n g (2:2 slides:  UBC  Slide Library  Glasgow,  U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2. F o l i o 8v Blank Page (2:2v) I-  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 9 Blank Page (2:3r) 00  Fig.  17  Glasgow, Univ. L i b r . MS.U.3.2. F o l i o 9v Angels T e l l s Abraham to s a c r i f i c e h i s son; S a c r i f i c e of Isaac (2:3v) Photo  from s l i d e : UBC  Glasgow, Univ.Libr.MS U.3.2. f o l i o 10 Blank Page (2:4r)  Slide  Library  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2. F o l i o lOv Blank Page (2:4v)  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 11 Blank Page  (3:lr)  £ °  Fig.18 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o l l v T h i r d Temptation o f . C h r i s t ; R a i s i n g of Lazarus ( lv) 3 :  F i g . 19 Glasgow, F o l i o 12 Christ's ciples Photos  U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 Supper at Emmaus; Appearance to the D i s (3:2r)  from s l i d e s : UBC  Slide  Library  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2. F o l i o 12v B l a n k Page  (3:2v)  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 13 B l a n k P a g e ( 4 : l r )  ^  20 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 13v Doubting Thomas; C h r i s t at the Sea of T i b e r i a s (4:lv)  F i g . 21 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS F o l i o 14 A s c e n s i o n (4:2r) Photos from s l i d e s : UBC  Slide  U.3.2  Library  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 f o l i o 14v Blank Page (4:2v)  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 15 Blank Page (4:3r)  £  F i g . 22 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 15v Pentecost (4:3v)  F i g . 23 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 16 C h r i s t i n Majesty (4:4r) Photos from  s l i d e s : UBC  Slide  Library.  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 16v Blank Page (4:4v)  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 17 Blank Page (5;lr)  Fig.  24 G l a s g o w , U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 17v A n g e l A n n o u n c i n g t h e death to the V i r g i n ; V i r g i n Annouces Impending Death to the Apostles (5:lv) Photos  from  F i g . 25 G l a s g o w , U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 18 D e a t h o f t h e V i r g i n ; The F u n e r a l Procession (^ o \ slides:  UBC  Slide  Libr.  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2. F o l i o 18v Blank Page C5:2v)  Glasgow, Univ. L i b r . MS U.3 F o l i o 19 Blank Pag (5:3r)  Fig.  26 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 19v B u r i a l of the V i r g i n ; The Assumption (5:3v) Photo from s l i d e : UBC S l i d e L i b r a r y  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 20 Blank Page (5:4r)  G l a s g o w , U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 20v B l a n k Page (5:4v)  Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 21 B l a n k Page (6:lr)  Fig.  27 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 21v David H a r p i n g ( c o l l a t i o n 6:lv) 1  Photos from  F i g . 28 Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r . MS U.3.2 F o l i o 22 Beatus I n i t i a l ( c o l l a t i o n 6:2r) s l i d e s : UBC  Slide  Libr.  ig.  29 S t a t u e t t e from B r i d l i n g t o n ; B a c k v i e w : (London: V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum)  (Zarnecki: 1953  p i . 1 1 5 , 116)  Fig.30  F i g . 31.  The V i s i t a t i o n Copenhagen Psalter (Copenhagen: R o y a l Libr.MS T h o t t 143 2 o ) (Zarnecki, 1953  p i . 117)  £  Fig.  32.  B e a t u s I n i t i a l . F u l l page m i n i a t u r e . Copenhagen Psalter. (Copenhagen: Royal L i b r a r y MS T h o t t 1 4 3 2 o , f o l i o 17) (Boase, 1953  PI.86)  154  CM CM  1M  M  cn  •b  fri  cd  C/3 COC S  OH  • o  u  JO  •H i-J • > •H  w  iH cd iH -U -rl  c c 3 "53 B H  07  01  •a  B o 60 0  c *  •H 3  u  •a  CJ co  «  ew  m  o  2  5  O °" 00 o CO iH CO <H iH O  CO  60  pq  •rl rH  CO  8 o u  <4-l  o  o •e PM  CN CM  C  c  cd B  CM f 3 cd^  60 •H  155 00  c •rH • CMC m s • re o H rl ce o COT 3 D  G  • o CO  d  H  tJ • *H  g p  00  c CS • r l 4-1 >« C •rl - r l • H c c O ro c c « vOcd o rH 60 O c u xi CD i H 3 - r l Cd H s > rH O C O cd O HH to Q VO cn •H  M  • 00 iH  Pu  >>  S-t  ca u  •H rJ 0) T3 •H rH  W u CQ ED ••  w  cu  X) •rl rH  CO S o u 4H CO o 4J o X! P-i  156  r- }-i IN  3  6  -u  • rH  C  N  co  CD cd a; CO c_> C/l CM S cd o  •  4J  u  J 2 i-H iH  rl  CC U X  cu 'a  C  cd  cd c cd -H  r3 *H > iH  C E  C  M  rH  « O &  c  UH  O  rH  o  60  CO  -a  O  CO i H Cd r H O  u [« a co cn  S o rl MH CO  o  60 •H  4J  o  CM  CN r H • Cd CO TH P  • *J  -H  CO 33  u  c: H 0)  >  Xi • r l •H  •U Cd  u o a 91 r3 Q > - m S co o  cd  O to CO i H Cd r H rH O 60  O fn CO 60 •H  15  ponm^fttgaitatt tunm ttttulos. \YID gtianf m mouaarcpiipodicmra ~  fticiam cogirautc lingua m a / F i g .  39  G l a s g o w , I n i t i a l S a u l  U n i v . L i b r . to  and  P s a l m  51  p o i n t i n g  dnnt A-lratjcftfron C <• CTtilLiummt hli; mde $»  trrr.iditunudomrm. Q u r n u m tu dommnf .MTrcnts  tomf cfrapomiirt deof diligraf Jomnumi Mm nu Urnv culbdn difT.imm.ilfiTs Slop dc r r u n u p t u a r c T r t t t c I'ratmcot. \jxt C^TA dt rotb: <vnmT coslf  Cm  L  tcncia. t c n r m i ram m dn'i) revtmfrcr 1 m c m o n c f r i f i M n c m f ens.  iu mtrahiu miur Satadim fa dvuuj ant tS  Fig.  MS  U . 3 . 2 .  Q,  D o e g  to  F o l i o  1 75  w h i s p e r i n g  t o  D a v i d  r  brahinn (rfn mil'. •I oramfandemmrat Mnnrt ftr.mi. nuotifptrai acntram mtrtJtnt mfticwm fann. R ctouluiil eft mrfcdie fnt : * uerrt.nri fnc domm ifr.ihd. idcmnt crmfcrrmrm trrrt fjlnurc dnmrniMJir detiiTnrrrtTTT.i tanntt ACT  Bluer A-r/jUnx. Ii tiUictitoramomcTdMiatn cvrNir.i4-u«rr'falnnmratjrf ducntih A-ne>cr e nbe ccrntc,.  irtn'.Arr TTi(orrfremi rrrcrfdm: moncu "-.art A plcnmido eras CTM raT.inrm A-qta 'Mtnraw mro tammil pl.in.Irnr TTurafrmnl". - momrf cnilubmrc AOTfyec cn diUqfh nemrradlurtcri. ndmrnt ort<TnuiUiuinin ,  40 G l a s g o w , U n i v . L i b r . MS U . 3 . 2 F o l i o 1 2 5 v D e c o r a t i v e I n i t i a l t o P s a l m 97  Photos from s l i d e s : UBC S l i d e Library.  Fig.  41 A s s u m p t i o n , 1 2 t h c e n t u r y M i s s a l ( T o u r s , B i b l . c o m m . MS f o l i o 9 8 ) (Feldbusch,  P I . 5)  F i g . 42  D  e a t h of the V i r g i n , mid-12th c e n t u r y P e r i c o p e Book (Paris, B i b l . N a t . M S l a t . 17325) (Boeckler,  P i .4 8 ) .  &  i  Fig.  43  E n t o m b m e n t o f C h r i s t St. Albans Psalter ca 1119-1123 ( H i l d e s h e i m , S t . G o d e h a r d , unnumb e r e d ms. p.48) (Pa'cht,  1960,  pi.33a)  159  o  F i g . 44 Entombment of C h r i s t ca 1072-1100 (Sant'Angelo i n Formis, w a l l - p a i n t i n g , nave, n o r t h w a l l . (Demus,  Romanesque,  p i . 156)  Fig.  45  B u r i a l of St. Aemilius. Ivory panel from r e l i q u a r y s h r i n e 10531067, A b b e y o f San M i l l a n de l a Cogolla, R i o j a (province of Logrono) (de P a l o l , P I . 8 1 )  F i g . 46  E n t o m b m e n t o f C h r i s t c a 117 0 S c u l p t u r e , Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire. ( Z a r n e c k i , 1953 , PI.94)  47 Entombment ca 1140 F i g . 48 B u r i a l of Judas Mac(Victoria & Albert Mus. cabeus 1150-1180 (WinMS 661 v e r s o of p s a l t e r Chester Cath.Libr. leaf) (James,1937,PI.VIII) B i b l e , f o l i o 350v)  Fig.  49 B u r i a l o f t h e K i n g , f i r s t h a l f 12th c e n t u r y . ( C a m b r i d g e , T r i n i t y C o l l . MS.0.9. 34 f o l i o 79) Photo from s l i d e , UBC S l i d e L i b r .  i 163  Fig.  50 B u r i a l of the Dead (from Seven A c t s of Mercy) 1170-1200 ( P a r i s , Bibl.Nat.MS l a t . 8846 f o l i o 156v) The Paris Psalter ( L e r o q u a i s , P i . CIV)  if  c<_\ mm  ) / ^ ' ; auififr ii\S»^^ c  .  P.  Fig.51  B u r i a l o f Joseph, 11th century (British M u s e u m C o t t o n MS C l a u d i u s B . i v f o l i o 72v lower half) A e l f r i c Pentateuch (Wormald, C o n t i n e n t a l ences, f i g . 1)  Influ-  Fig.52  T r e e o f J e s s e Shaftesbury (Brit.Libr. MS L a n s d o w n e 15, c a 1 1 3 0 - 1 1 4 0 ) Photo  from  slide:  Psalter 383 f o l i o  UBC S l i d e Libr .  F i g . 53  T r e e o f J e s s e Lambeth Bible ca 1150 ( L o n d o n , L a m b e t h P a l a c e L i b r . MS . 3 f o l i o 1 9 8 r ) (Watson,  PI.  XV)  I  Fig.  Psalter 54 T r e e o f J e s s e Winchester ( B r i t i s h Museum C o t t o n MS N e r o 9r) (Watson, Pl.X'IX)  165  ca 1 1 5 0 C.iv folio  Fig.  55 R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f A s s u m p t i o n York Psalter (Glasgow, U n i v . L i b r MS U.3.2 f o l i o 1 9 v ) /•reconstruction mine;  Fig.  56  I n c a r n a t i o n scene Bamberg Gospels 11th century (Bamb e r g S t a a t b i b l i o . M S 94.A. 11.18 f o l i o 155) Photo f r o m s l i d e , UBC S l i d e L i b r .  Fig.57 Assumption of the V i r g i n ca 1400 A l a b a s t e r , h e i g h t : 50 cm.(New Y o r k : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, The C l o i s t e r s ) (Tavender,  p . A 38 )  Cum transissct Maria mater domino de apostc  Fig.  59  A s s u m p t i o n of the V i r g i n 8 t h c e n t u r y B y z a n t i n e bro-» cade t e x t i l e (Sens C a t h e d r a l Treasure) ( R e v u e de 1 'art 1897 , p . 2 2 8 )  Chretien  Fig.  60 A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n early 10th century. Ivory bookcover of T u o t i l l o (St.Gall Monastery Libr.) (Feldbusch,  PI.4)  Fig.  61  F i g . 62,  detail H cr  Koimesis, late 10th century (Reichenau) Ivory r e l i e f i n gold bookcover, Gospel Book of Otto III ( M u n i c h , B a y e r i s c h e S t a a t (Backes, P-163)  b  i  b  l  -  C  l  m  -  4  4  5  3  >  (Weitzmann,  fig!?*)  Fig.63  Koimesis, l a t e 10th century Constantinople. Central panel of i v o r y t r i p t y c h . ( W a s h i n g t o n , Dunib a r t o n Oaks C o l l e c t i o n )  F i g . 64 K o i m e s i s , 1 2 t h c e n t u r y Icon, Saint Catherine's M o n a s t e r y , Mount Sinai <- . TT  f  171  Fig.  65 K o i m e s i s , m i d - 1 2 t h c e n t u r y mosaic, Martorana, Palermo (Demus,1949,  PI.56)  172  Fig.  66  K o i m e s i s , ca 129 5 W a l l - p a i n t i n g , Church of Saint Clement, formerly Saint Mary P e r i b l e p t o s , Ohrid, Yugo s l a v i a . (Schug-Wille,  p.217)  173  Fig.  68  Koimesis with Coronation l a t e 10th c e n t u r y Prilm Gradual ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t . MS l a t . 9448, f o l i o 60v) (Sinding,  pl.iXa)  Fig.  69 Death of the V i r g i n and Assumpt i o n , 10th c e n t u r y . Pericope Book of Henry II (Munich, B a y e r i s c h e S t a a t b i b l . C l m . 4452 f o l i o 119) (Feldbusch, P l . l )  Fig.  70 Assumption, 11th c e n t u r y Morgan 641 (New York, P i e r p o n t Morgan L i b r a r y MS 641 f o l i o 142v) (Alexander, Norman Ilium.Pi.40)  I  F i g . 72 Assumption, 12th c e n t u r y . C a p i t a l from C l e r m o n t - F e r r a n d . (Feldbusch  pi. ) 3  >  -tj  Fig.  73 Death of the V i r g i n , ca Benedictional  of  Ethelwold  Fig.  98Q (British  Museum MS Add.49598 f o l i o 102v) (photo from a s l i d e , UBC S l i d e Library)  74  Death of the V i r g i n , l a t e 10th c e n t u r y . Benedictional bishop  Mun.  Robert.  MS Y.7  (Rouen, f o l i o 4) (Rickert, 1959)  of  Arch-  Bibl. pi.29b  ON  177  Fig.  75 Death of the V i r g i n , l a t e 7 t h - e a r l y 8th century, E n g l i s h , ?Northumbria From Bede's De Liber Locis Sanctis (ex Olav Sinding Mariae Tod und Himmel fahrt  Fig.  76  Pl.VIIb)  Plan of four Jerusalem Churches ( A r c u l f ) ( V i e n n a , S t a a t . B i b l . Cod.458 , f o l i o 4v) Meehan, opp.p.47.  178  Fig.  Fig.  77  78  Death of the V i r g i n , stone s l a b 8 t h c e n t u r y . Church of Wirksworth, D e r b y s h i r e . (Anderson, p i . 24 1971)  Assumption. Ivory, 8th century ( M u n i c h , B a y e r . N a t .Mus. no MA 1 6 4 ) ( B e c k w i t h , 1 9 7 2 , No.24)  179  Fig.  79  Virgin and C h i l d . S t o n e ?10th-12th century. York  relief. Minster. (Talbot 1952  Rice,  PI.22)  18  Fig.  Fig.  81  82  F a l l of c a 1160  Man a n d Mosaic,  0  E x p u l s i o n from P a r a d i s e Palermo, P a l a t i n a .  S a c r i f i c e of I s a a c , 11th c e n t u r y plaque. C a t h e d r a l of S a l e r n o .  ivory  (Weitzmann, f i g .16)  1955,  j  Fig.  83  181  S a c r i f i c e of Isaac, l a t e 1 1 t h century Wall-painting, Concordia Sagittaria, Cathedral, B a p t i s t e r y .(Demus, Romanesque Mural Painting, Pi. 9)  Fig.  84  S a c r i f i c e o f I s a a c Lambeth Bible ca 1150 ( L o n d o n , Lambeth P a l a c e MS 3 f o l i o 6) Photo f r o m s l i d e , UBC S l i d e L i b r .  . 85  S a c r i f i c e of I s a a c , 6th c e n t u r y M o s a i c , C h u r c h o f San V i t a l e , Lunette, Presbytery, l e f t w a l l Ravenna . Photo f r o m s l i d e , UBC Slide Libr.  oo N  F i g . 86 A s c e n s i o n , ca 1000 Missal  of  Robert  (Rouen, MS.Y.6) (Schapiro, f i g . 5 1943)  of  Jumieges  . 87 A s c e n s i o n , ca 1000 Hereford Troper, (British Museum M S . C a l i g u l a A.XIV) (Schapiro, f i g . 6 1943)  «  184  to  u >• t} u <u 3 A  4-1 4J  C rt  u m  o « 4-1 N vD C  C  O  -s  o •H  rt  CO rH  C H <U O 'J  P . HI  cn B u < <! H 00 00  4-1 CJ  Pi  1F5  F i g .  Fig.  90  A s c e n s i o n , Monreale  ca  1180 Mosaic (Demus, Mosaics  91 A s c e n s i o n , m i d - 9 t h c e n t u r y Drogo Sacramentaru, Metz (Paris, Bibl.Nat.MS.lat. 9428, f o l i o 71v)  (Alexander,  Norman Illumination PI . 39d)  P1.74B)  F i g . 92 A s c e n s i o n , 1 0 t h century. Benedictional of Ethelwold (Brit.Mus. MS.Add.49598) (Alexander,  Norman  Ilium.Pi.39e)  F i g . 93 A s c e n s i o n ,  century (British Museum MS.Galba A.XVIII) (Schapiro, f i g . l 1943) Athelstan  10th  Psalter  I  Fig.  95  A s c e n s i o n , c a 1119-1123 St. Albans Psalter (Hildesheim, S t . Godehard's. unnumbered ms) p . 54 (Pa'cht, St.Albans, Pi.33a)  188  -v  Fig.  96  A s c e n s i o n , f i r s t h a l f 12th c e n t u r y Copy o f t h e H o m i l i e s o f t h e V i r g i n by James o f K o k k i n o b a p h o s ( P a r i s , B i b . N a t . MS.grec.94) ( S c h u g - W i l l e , p.173) . 5  U ^ p ^ i m dijcemir addu[<fetf$.(im e * m ^ . : 4 :  ?f; \  ^OTivinqiiQ  4  Fig.  97  bmcphax^cftdcph^ll/  Ascension with Disappearing C h r i s t ca 1000, P s a l t e r from Bury St.Edmonds ( V a t i c a n , R e g .MS . 12 f o l i o 73v) (Schapiro, 1943)  fig.  3  :  F i g . 98  E v a n g e l i s t symbols, ca 698 I n c i s e d d e c o r a t i o n , wooden c o f f i n r e l i q u a r y of St. Cuthbert (Durham Cathedral Library)  M  ( K i t z i n g e r , Coffin PI. I)  Reliquary  3  190  St. Fig. 9 9  Luke  (f.l37v)  S t . John  ( f . 209v)  E v a n g e l i s t S y m b o l s , ca 698-721 Lindisfarne Gospels ( B r i t i s h Museum C o t t o n MS N e r o D . I V ) K i t z i n g e r , Coffin Reliquary PI . X I I  191  Fig.  100  E v a n g e l i s t Symbol S t . Luke, c a 818-830 Book of Cerne (Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y L I . I . 1 0 ) f o l i o 21v.  (Rickert,1954,  Pi.62)  192  SOURCES OF  ILLUSTRATIONS NOT  IN BIBLIOGRAPHY  Backes, Magnus and D o l l i n g , Regine. Art of the Dark Ages. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1969. Bazin, Germain. The History of World Sculpture. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y L t d . , 1968. Boeckler, A l b e r t . Deutsche Buchmalerei Vorgotischer Zeit. Munich: K a r l Robert Langewiesche, 1969. De P a l o l , S.P. in Spain.  and Hirmer, Max. Early Medieval Art London: Thames and Hudson, 1967.  Ronig , Franz J . Codex Egberti. Das Perikopenbuch das Erzbischofs Egbert von T r i e r (977-993). Trier: Speer-Verlag, 1977. Schug-Wille, C h r i s t a . Art of the Byzantine York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1969.  World.  Weitzmann, Kurt. Catalogue of the Byzantine Medieval A n t i q u i t i e s in the Dumbarton tion I I I . Washington: 1972.  and Oaks  New Early Collec-  

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