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The notion of order in R.W. Emerson and Chuang Tzu Hagiwara, Takao 1978

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THE NOTION OF ORDER IN R. W. EMERSON AND CHUANG TZU by TAKAO HAGIWARA B.A., Sophia U n i v e r s i t y , 1971  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Programme i n Comparative L i t e r a t u r e  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  October, 1978 0 Takao Hagiwara, 1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t I  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  representatives.  this  thesis  It  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department of  Comparative L i t e r a t u r e  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  n^lQTM^Mt Z<£y /?7fi  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s a comparative study of the n o t i o n of order i n Emerson and Chuang' Tzu-... The n o t i o n of order seems to be s i g n i f i c a n t , because i t i s d i r e c t l y connected w i t h what i s thought t o be the most fundamental problem of human e x i s t e n c e which seems t o c r i t i c a l l y the  affect  the t o t a l i t y of  modes and s t r u c t u r e s of human phenomena, i n c l u d i n g , of  course, l i t e r a t u r e .  This problem l i e s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between dualism and non-dualism  ( c f . p. 12, n . . 1 ) .  Needless  to say, one's concept of order v a r i e s g r e a t l y depending on the  degree of one's i n c l i n a t i o n toward e i t h e r of these two  a t t i t u d e s , because, as i s the case w i t h any n o t i o n t h a t has i t s o p p o s i t e , o r d e r i n e v i t a b l y presupposes i t s o p p o s i t e concept, d i s o r d e r , thus p u t t i n g the problem of order on the l e v e l of dualism.  T h e r e f o r e , by examining Emerson's and  Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n s of o r d e r , we and how  can hope t o c l a r i f y  whether  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the u n i v e r s e are d u a l i s t i c or  non-dualistic. In order t o achieve t h i s purpose we t h e s i s i n t o three c h a p t e r s .  shall divide  this  The f i r s t chapter compares  Emerson's n o t i o n of order and boundaries w i t h t h a t of Chuang Tzu and reaches the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the former i s based on the  dualism o f the e i t h e r / o r type of l o g i c , w h i l e the l a t t e r  i s based on the n o n - d u a l i s t i c both/and type of l o g i c . In the second chapter we examine Emerson's and Chuang  Tzu's concepts of order from the viewpoint o f law and e s t a b l i s h t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n of law and order i s Logocent r i c , whereas t h a t of Chuang Tzu i s Chaos-oriented. In  the l a s t chapter we approach the theme of order  from the p e r s p e c t i v e of l i f e .  In t h i s chapter, t o o , our  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Logos and Chaos, the l o g i c of e i t h e r / o r and t h a t of both/and, becomes u s e f u l i n s u r v e y i n g Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of l i f e , and order.  T h i s chapter  aims t o reach the same c o n c l u s i o n s as those o f the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , concerning the concepts of order and l i f e i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu. Our o v e r a l l aim i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n of order i s b a s i c a l l y L o g o c e n t r i c  (i.e.,  d u a l i s t i c ) , w h i l e t h a t of Chuang Tzu i s Chaos-oriented ... ( i . e . , n o n - d u a l i s t i c ) , and t h a t both views are e q u a l l y v a l i d and i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n c o n s t i t u t i n g the u n i v e r s e i n i t s entirety.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  I.  II.  III.  .  1  NOTES TO INTRODUCTION  12  ORDER AND BOUNDARIES  15  NOTES.TO CHAPTER I . . .  55  ORDER AND LAW  .  58  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I  102  ORDER AND LIFE  105  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I . . .  .  141  CONCLUSION  145  NOTES TO CONCLUSION  154  BIBLIOGRAPHY  155  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I should l i k e to express my Grenberg, D.  Overmyer, and W.  ment, i n s t r u c t i o n , and this thesis.  My  K. Takashima, and others who  t o Drs.  B.  N i c h o l l s f o r t h e i r encourage-  c r i t i c i s m during  appreciation K.  gratitude  my  year of w r i t i n g  i s extended t o Drs.  T s u r u t a , and  S.  to f e l l o w students  were so generous w i t h a s s i s t a n c e  and  Iida, and  valuable  suggestions. My  special  gratitude  goes to Dr. A. Wilden of Simon  F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , whose summer seminar i n 1977 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia aroused my  the  enthusiasm and  d e c i s i o n to choose the theme of t h i s t h e s i s .  v  at  my  T h e r e f o r e i s Space, and t h e r e f o r e Time, t h a t man may know t h a t t h i n g s are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and i n d i v i d u a l . . . . The wise man shows h i s wisdom i n s e p a r a t i o n , i n g r a d a t i o n , and h i s s c a l e of c r e a t u r e s and of m e r i t s i s as wide as nature. (Emerson, Nature, ch. 5) At l a s t comes P l a t o , the d i s t r i b u t o r , who needs no b a r b a r i c p a i n t , or t a t t o o , or whopping; f o r he can d e f i n e . He leaves w i t h A s i a the v a s t and s u p e r l a t i v e ; he i s the a r r i v a l of accuracy and i n t e l l i g e n c e . "He s h a l l be as a god to me, who can r i g h t l y d i v i d e and d e f i n e . " (Emerson, " P l a t o ; or the P h i l o s o p h e r " ) The Way has never known boundaries; speech has no constancy. But because of [the r e c o g n i t i o n of a] " t h i s , " there came to be boundaries. L e t me t e l l you what the bound a r i e s are. There i s l e f t , there i s r i g h t , there are t h e o r i e s , there are debates, there are d i v i s i o n s , there are d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s , there are emulations, and there are contentions. These are c a l l e d the E i g h t V i r t u e s . . . . So I say, those who d i v i d e f a i l to d i v i d e ; those who d i s c r i m i n a t e f a i l to discriminate. (Chuang Tzu, ch. 2, t r . by B. Watson)  vi  INTRODUCTION  S e v e r a l books and a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Ralph Waldo Emerson E a s t e r n thought.  (1803-1882) and  These works i n c l u d e F. I. Carpenter's  Emerson and A s i a (Cambridge: 1930), A. C h r i s t y ' s The O r i e n t i n American Transcendentalism  (New York: 1932), V. M. Ames'  Zen and American Thought (Honolulu: 1962), and S. Ando's Zen and American Transcendentalism  (Tokyo: 1970).  However, most  of these s t u d i e s tend t o emphasize the s i m i l a r i t i e s r a t h e r than the d i f f e r e n c e s between Emerson's t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m and the E a s t .  Moreover, none of these books has attempted a  d i r e c t comparison between.Emerson and p h i l o s o p h i c a l Taoism as represented by Chuang Tzu (c. 4th century B.C.).  I f such  an attempt had been c a r r i e d out, the comparatist might, have found a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of d i f f e r e n c e as w e l l as resemblance between the two t h i n k e r s .  As w i l l become c l e a r i n  the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , i n s p i t e of the g r e a t t e m p o - s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e between Emerson and Chuang Tzu, they have many p o i n t s i n common, and y e t they d i f f e r on one c r u c i a l p o i n t which seems t o be r e f l e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n . t h e i r n o t i o n s of order: Emerson's n o t i o n of order i s d u a l i s t i c , whereas t h a t of Chuang Tzu i s n o n - d u a l i s t i c . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e seems t o o r i g i n a t e i n the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the two b a s i c aspects o f the 1  2 u n i v e r s e , which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n the l a s t chapter and c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s t h e s i s .  These two approaches,  a l s o b e i n g the most fundamental a t t i t u d e s toward human e x i s t e n c e , seem t o form, the two p r e - p r o p o s i t i o n a l bases o f a l l human a c t i v i t i e s , n o t t o mention o f l i t e r a t u r e . sense, comparison,between  In t h i s  Emerson and Chuang Tzu, w i t h  s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r concepts of order, can be s a i d t o be an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f one. of the e s s e n t i a l problems i n comparative l i t e r a t u r e . To r e c a p i t u l a t e , then, the aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o c l a r i f y . t h e n a t u r e o f and the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two b a s i c world views  ( i . e . , d u a l i s m and non-dualism) through a.  comparison o f Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n s o f o r d e r , and thus t o l a y a p a r t o f the f o u n d a t i o n f o r comparative literature studies.  C o n s i d e r i n g the nature o f the g o a l o f  t h i s paper, our approach t o t h i s task n a t u r a l l y becomes somewhat " p h i l o s o p h i c a l " — p h i l o s o p h i c a l , however, i n the o r i g i n a l sense o f the term, i . e . , p h i l o s o p h i a "wisdom" or " t r u t h " ) .  (love o f  I d e a l l y speaking, t h i s k i n d o f attempt  should be all-comprehensive and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y , but i f t h i s be i m p o s s i b l e , which i s r a t h e r l i k e l y . i n view o f the scope o f t h i s r e s e a r c h as an M.A. t h e s i s , i t should at l e a s t , be  "eclectic." Having s t a t e d our g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n as above, l e t us  f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e on i t .  As i s mentioned above, the main  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o c l a r i f y the fundamental  3 d i f f e r e n c e s between Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's.concepts order.  To achieve t h i s task we  s h a l l employ the  t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s which seem to be c l o s e l y  of  following  interconnected:  order and boundaries, order and law, and order and l i f e . chapter w i l l be a l l o t t e d to each of these v i e w p o i n t s . in  the f i r s t chapter we  establish indicate either/or  Thus,  s h a l l examine Emerson's and Chuang  Tzu's n o t i o n s of boundaries concepts of o r d e r .  One  and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p  to t h e i r  Through t h i s examination we hope t o  t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n s of order and  boundaries  a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n toward dualism, i . e . , the type of l o g i c , w h i l e those of Chuang Tzu tend toward  non-dualism,  i . e . , the both/and.type of l o g i c .  These two  types of l o g i c seem t o correspond  t i v e l y t o the l o g i c of Logos arid t h a t of Chaos  respec-  ( c f . p. .10),  o  f o r Logos i s a b i f u r c a t i n g of u n i t y .  The  second  principle,  whereas Chaos i s t h a t  c h a p t e r , then, aims t o i n v e s t i g a t e  Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n s of law and order i n terms of Logos and Chaos. The ideas o f Logos and Chaos w i l l f u r t h e r be in  the l a s t chapter, where we  s h a l l examine the n o t i o n of  order i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu as r e f l e c t e d concepts of l i f e .  developed  in their  In t h i s chapter the n o t i o n s of being  and  non-being w i l l a l s o be i n t r o d u c e d i n connection w i t h Logos, Chaos, l i f e ,  death, o r d e r , d i s o r d e r , e t c .  Through the survey of Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n s of order as o u t l i n e d above, t h i s paper attempts  to  4 show not only t h a t the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the i s t h a t between L o g o c e n t r i c oriented  two  ( i . e . ; d u a l i s t i c ) and Chaos-  ( i . e . , n o n - d u a l i s t i c ) world views, but a l s o t h a t  these seeming incompatible  standpoints  can be harmonized  from the vantage p o i n t of a wider p e r s p e c t i v e . Having b r i e f l y s t a t e d the r a t i o n a l e , aim, format of t h i s t h e s i s , i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e the range and  As - f o r Emerson, c o n s i d e r i n g  the " p h i l o s o p h i c a l " nature of t h i s paper and t h e s i s , i t would be reasonable  i t s s i z e as  to concentrate  t i o n mainly on h i s most famous dozen essays and with o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s poems such as "The As  to touch upon  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Emerson's and Chuang  Tzu's t e x t s used i n t h i s paper.  M.A.  method,.and  c a l l e d i n n e r chapters)  atten-  lectures, -  to h i s j o u r n a l s and well-known  Rhodora," "Brahma," "Two  f o r Chuang Tzu, we  our  an  Rivers," etc.  s h a l l use both n e i p' i e n p*^ ^ and wai  c a l l e d outer and miscellaneous  t s a p' i e n chapters)  yf  (the  so-  w i t h somewhat  s t r o n g e r emphasis on n e i p i e n than on wai 1  ^  (the so-  tsa p'ien, for  reasons t h a t w i l l be c l a r i f i e d below. What we  should note here i s t h a t there seem to be  some i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n both Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's texts.  As  S. G. Brown p o i n t s out, the ambiguities  i n Emerson  seem to- come from the f o l l o w i n g i d e a : . . . sometimes the world seemed t o him to have independent m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e , c o l o r e d and i n t e r preted by mind, and sometimes i t seemed to him wholly dependent and i d e a l . He never could e n t i r e l y make up h i s mind, and hence i t i s t h a t throughout  5 h i s w r i t i n g , and.whatever the s p e c i f i c problem under d i s c u s s i o n , you w i l l f i n d him now on t h i s s i d e and now on t h a t i n t h e fundamental q u e s t i o n of metaphysics. A l l h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and l i t t l e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s flow from t h i s source.3 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Emerson h i m s e l f  seems t o have  been aware o f t h i s , f o r i n h i s " S e l f - R e l i a n c e " he w r i t e s : But why should you keep your head over your s h o u l der? Why drag about t h i s corpse of your memory, l e s t you c o n t r a d i c t somewhat you have s t a t e d i n t h i s o r that p u b l i c place? Suppose you should c o n t r a d i c t y o u r s e l f ; what then?^ Judging from these passages, i t seems t h a t we must be•ready to face a c o n s i d e r a b l e Emerson's thought. angle, very  amount o f d i f f i c u l t y  However, looked  i n dealing with  a t from a d i f f e r e n t ,  these i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s themselves may prove t o be the  consistency  above q u o t a t i o n  of Emerson, f o r as we can surmise from the from Brown, Emerson's i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s seem,  to a r i s e from h i s o s c i l l a t i o n between m a t e r i a l i s m ism.  and i d e a l -  In other words, Emerson's world view i s d u a l i s t i c .  It  seems t h a t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of P l a t o as a man who. "turns i n c e s s a n t l y the obverse and the r e v e r s e ("Plato; himself.  o r the P h i l o s o p h e r , "  of the medal o f Jove"  IV, 56) holds t r u e o f Emerson  Thus as f a r as d u a l i s m i s concerned, Emerson.seems  t o be r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t and we can keep t h i s i n mind as an important clue t o understanding him. On the other hand, the Chuang Tzu i s a l s o s a i d t o be inconsistent.  Some o f the reasons f o r t h i s would be t h a t i t  i s a compilation  by many w r i t e r s over a c o n s i d e r a b l e  of time and thus some i n f l u e n c e s upon i t by other  period  schools o f  6 thought  such as those of the C o n f u c i a n i s t s , M o - i s t s , 5  Legalists,  and L o g i c i a n s were unavoidable.  As M.  Fukunaga  s a y s , "Scholars have long been -debating over which p a r t s of the 3 3 chapters of the Chuang Tzu are the o r i g i n a l work of Chuang Chou [ i . e . , Chuang Tzu] a u t h e n t i c t e a c h i n g s . . . . "^  and which chapters convey h i s Furthermore, as Watson w r i t e s  i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the Chuang Tzu: A l l we know about the i d e n t i t y of Chuang Tzu, or Master Chuang, are the few f a c t s recorded i n the b r i e f n o t i c e g i v e n him i n the Shih c h i or,Records of the H i s t o r i a n (ch. 63) by Ssu-ma Ch'ien (145?89? B.C.). A c c o r d i n g to t h i s account, h i s p e r s o n a l name was Chou, he was a n a t i v e of a p l a c e c a l l e d Meng, and he once served as "an o f f i c i a l i n the l a c q u e r garden" i n ,Meng. Ssu-ma Ch'ien adds t h a t he l i v e d at the same time as King Hui (370-319 B.C.) of L i a n g and King.Hsuan (319-301 B.C.) of C h ' i , which would make him.a contemporary of Mencius, and t h a t he wrote a work i n 100,000 words or more which was "mostly i n the nature of f a b l e . " 7 Be t h a t as i t may, between n e i p ' i e n (the  a d i s t i n c t i o n has  (the i n n e r chapters)  o u t e r and m i s c e l l a n e o u s  chapters)  long been made  and wai t s a p ' i e n and most s c h o l a r s  seem to agree i n c o n c l u d i n g t h a t the n e i p ' i e n are r e l a t i v e l y o l d and e s p e c i a l l y you  ^Tjjf;  vj?'//] "1^  the f i r s t two  c h a p t e r s , i . e . , Hsiao  (free and easy wandering) and C h ' i wu  ( d i s c u s s i o n on m a k i n g . a l l t h i n g s equal)  yao  lun  are the  o  o r i g i n a l concepts  of Chuang Tzu.  Then does t h i s  distinction  between.the n e i p ' i e n and wai t s a p ' i e n mean t h a t only the former,  and e s p e c i a l l y  the f i r s t  two  c h a p t e r s , are  worthy i n conveying Chuang Tzu's o r i g i n a l thought or most o f , the other chapters should be d i s m i s s e d  trustand a l l , as  7 i n a u t h e n t i c or even c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the i n n e r chapters?  As  mentioned i n the above q u o t a t i o n from Fukunaga, s c h o l a r s seem to d i s a g r e e on t h i s p o i n t , but there seems to,be some k i n d of core n o t i o n i n the Chuang Tzu which may  serve as a touch-.  stone i n d e c i d i n g whether a c e r t a i n passage i s e x p r e s s i n g Chuang Tzu's o r i g i n a l i d e a or not.  Presumably t h i s i s why  Fukunaga s t a t e s : However, r e c e n t l y I am becoming i n t e r e s t e d more i n g r a s p i n g the quintessence of Chuang Tzu's thought i n the context of h i s work as a whole, than i n p u t t i n g emphasis i n the formal d i s t i n c t i o n between n e i , wai, t s a p' i e n ffcj . 5 ^ . jfe . . . . My o p i n i o n i s t h a t the essence of Chuang Tzu's p h i l o s ophy which i s unique and d i s t i n c t from other systems of thought l i e s i n the philosophy of wan wu c h i t'ung [the e q u a l i t y of a l l t h i n g s ] i n C h ' i wu Tun p ' i e n and i n i t s development and v a r i a t i o n s as seen i n the d i a l o g u e s between Ho Po ;oT , and Po H a l Jo i n , ch'iu s h u i p' i e n jpz ^ [Autumn Floods] , Shao Chin iytf& and Ta Kung T i a o %ft i n Tse-yang p' i e n gi| f| ^ ,. and Chung N i -fo fa and Jan Chiu 4±f- ~& i n Chih p e i you p ' i e n ^0 iL2j| % [Knowledge Wandered N o r t h ] . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s viewpoint, I i n t e r p r e t e d Chuang Tzu's t a o 3^ (the world of r e a l i t y ) and e x p l a i n e d wu h s i n A;' (a l i b e r a t e d l i f e ) . In c o n s i d e r i n g Chuang T z u s p h i l o s o p h y , the i d e a of the e q u a l i t y of a l l t h i n g s ( 7} & (s\ ) would be the most important touchstone i n judging the authent i c i t y of a c e r t a i n passage.in the t e x t . 1  However, I do not i n t e n d by any means t o i g n o r e and omit the v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the Chuang Tzu t h a t do not conform t o the i d e a of 7i& M (the e q u a l i t y of a l l t h i n g s ) , as being non- or a n t i Chuang T z u i s t i c . Even i f they are l a t e r i n t e r p o l a t i o n s , and even i f they d i f f e r from each other i n t h e i r importance as [Chuang Tzu's] thought, the contents of the ChUang Tzu as a whole r e t a i n and express one coherent i d e a and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The v a r i o u s i n t e r p o l a t i o n s of l a t e r w r i t e r s seem t o serve as the b a s i s of the philosophy of if'fj "f^ ( d i s c u s s i o n on making a l l things e q u a l ) , and thus form the mental c l i m a t e t h a t n u r t u r e s Chuang T z u i s t i c thought.^  :  8 I n . t h i s q u o t a t i o n Fukunaga seems t o be e x p r e s s i n g two important  p o i n t s : one i s t h a t the i d e a o f 77  is\ ( e q u a l i t y  of a l l things) i s the core o f Chuang Tzu's thought; the other i s t h a t there i s an i n t e g r i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y  through-  out the Chuang Tzu which appears t o be a mere admixture o f v a r i o u s ideas which are o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o each o t h e r . T h i s c o n s i s t e n c y , according tenet of correspond  t o Fukunaga, centers on t h e  Jo], which, otherwise  expressed  seems t o  t o the n o t i o n of non-dualism.  In t h i s t h e s i s we s h a l l follow-Fukunaga's o p i n i o n mentioned above and t r e a t the book of Chuang Tzu as a c o n s i s t e n t whole, w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis, however, p l a c e d on the n e i .p'ien  ]^\ ^  t e n e t i s considered  (the i n n e r c h a p t e r s ) , whose c e n t r a l t o be  ^ ^5^"/o\ o r non-dualism not only by  Fukunaga b u t by other scholars."*"^  From t h i s standpoint i t  f o l l o w s n a t u r a l l y t h a t the name "Chuang Tzu" used i n t h i s t h e s i s does n o t r e f e r t o a s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l whose h i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i t y i s very obscure, but " t o the mind, or group o f minds, r e v e a l e d i n the t e x t c a l l e d Chuang Tzu, p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i r s t  seven s e c t i o n s o f t h a t text.""'"'*'  However, although we s h a l l regard the Chuang Tzu as a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t whole and l e t the name Chuang Tzu stand  f o r the group-of people who compiled  i t , we are n o t t o  f o r g e t the f a c t t h a t a f t e r a l l i t i s a c o m p i l a t i o n by many hands oyer a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f time and thus, depending on the commentator o r the t r a n s l a t o r , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  9 the t e x t may  d i f f e r considerably.  Taking t h i s i n t o c o n s i d -  e r a t i o n , we s h a l l make use of as m a n y . i n t e r p r e t e r s and commentators as p o s s i b l e besides, Fukunaga and Watson,  who  are  thought  the. two main sources i n i n t e r p r e t i n g Chuang Tzu's 12  in this thesis. i t may  In s p i t e of these p r e c a u t i o n s , however,  s t i l l be p o s s i b l e t h a t our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  Chuang Tzu i s not completely f r e e from some k i n d of " m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " and even of " d i s t o r t i o n s . "  But t h i s seems t o  be unavoidable, c o n s i d e r i n g the nature of Chuang Tzu's thought. To quote Fukunaga again: In i t s freedom, f a r - r e a c h i n g i m a g i n a t i o n , and n o v e l yet o r i g i n a l e x p r e s s i o n s , Chuang Tzu's philosophy has unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are not comparable to other s c h o o l s of thought. His p h i l o s o p h y has, so to say-, the freedom of "Pegasus g a l l o p i n g across heaven." I t i s an extremely d i f f i c u l t task t o i n t e r p r e t such a philosophy e x a c t l y and e x p l a i n i t to others i n proper words. Needless.to say, my book Chuang Tzu i s a p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s demanding t a s k , and as such i t i n d i c a t e s o n l y one of many p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The reader may n a t u r a l l y f i n d a number of dogmatic statements, d i s t o r t i o n s , and p r e j u d i c e s i n i t . . But f o r me t h e r e was no other way than t o express what I understood about the Chuang Tzu i n my own language. Besides, I b e l i e v e t h a t the Chuang Tzu i s o r i g i n a l l y such,a book as allows people their.own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and understandings of i t . To seek f o r only one,absolute a u t h o r i t y o u t s i d e one's s e l f and t o become a s l a v e to the ideas of the a n c i e n t s — t h e s e were the t h i n g s t h a t Chuang Tzu denounced most.?-3 In flexible  other words, Chuang Tzu's thought seems t o be very (but of course here i s a l s o the danger of i t s  e a s i l y degenerating i n t o looseness and l a x i t y ) , and flexibility  this  seems to a r i s e from h i s non-dualism which, i n  Chuang Tzu's terminology, may  be-expressed  i n such words-as  10 Hun-tun jjft >t  (Chaos) and Wu  5*  In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , we of Hun-tun,and Wu  (Non-being or Nothingness) . s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e the meanings  and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s i n Chuang Tzu's  n o t i o n . o f order as c o n t r a s t e d to t h a t of Emerson which seems to be r a t h e r d u a l i s t i c and  Logos-oriented.  A few more words i n p a s s i n g , however,,seem necessary here t o prevent p o s s i b l e misunderstandings meanings of the terms Hun-tun  a n c  ^  W  u  ^  concerning  the  which seem t o  be two o f the b a s i c n o t i o n s of Chuang.Tzu's n o n - d u a l i s t i c philosophy.  In Chuang Tzu, Hun-tun  y& , which we  translate  as "Chaos" f o r want of a b e t t e r term, i s not mere confusion. or d i s o r d e r .  I t s u r e l y has the i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o n f u s i o n  and d i s o r d e r , . a t l e a s t t o the human i n t e l l e c t , but i t i s , so to speak, the "Great D i s o r d e r , " an "excess t h e r e f o r e a " r i c h matrix  of o r d e r "  1 4  and  r e p l e t e w i t h orders from which  15 l i m i t e d orders a r i s e . "  In t h i s t h e s i s , . t o imply  this  "Great D i s o r d e r , " which seems to be the t r u e order i n Chuang Tzu, we  s h a l l employ the word "Chaos" w i t h a c a p i t a l . "C,"  and chaos..to denote c o n f u s i o n and d i s o r d e r i n the u s u a l sense of the terms which are, i n a sense, a l i e n a t e d Chaos. A s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n may being.  apply to Non-being and  Non-being or Nothingness i s a makeshift  f o r Chuang Tzu's Wu &  translation  which does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean a  mere t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l empty space or v o i d w i t h no object i n i t .  non-  This k i n d of non-being  concrete  (or n o t h i n g n e s s ) ,  opposed t o b e i n g , i s an " a l i e n a t e d " or " e x t e r n a l i z e d "  as  11 Non-being and t h e r e f o r e should be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Non-being of Chuang Tzu, which,  l i k e the f i e l d s of energy i n  modern p h y s i c s , i s pregnant w i t h p o t e n t i a l i t y  ( c f . p.  118).  I t i s , so t o speak, the womb of b e i n g s , and as such i s a cognate of Hun-tun, the matrix of o r d e r s i n the w o r l d . i s noteworthy  What  here i s t h a t both beings and o r d e r s are i n c o n -  c e i v a b l e without boundaries, and so.we can suspect t h a t both Hun-tun and Non-being have a c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n , or even c o n n a t u r a l i t y , w i t h the n o t i o n of boundaries which i s the main theme of Chapter I of t h i s  thesis.  NOTES TO INTRODUCTION Here, the term " n o n - d u a l i s t i c " may be somewhat p r e f e r a b l e to "monism," s i n c e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the former are not so r e s t r i c t i v e as those of the l a t t e r , and because of t h i s the l a t t e r tends to be e a s i l y mistaken f o r something t h a t i s opposed to "dualism," thus l e a d i n g us to another dualism between "monism" and "dualism." In connection with t h i s , A. Watts w r i t e s : "But monism does not a c t u a l l y escape from dualism. Not only does i t f a i l t o answer the q u e s t i o n : 'What i s the o r i g i n of the seeming e x i s t e n c e of the other s i d e , i f only one s i d e i s r e a l ? ' — but a l s o the very n o t i o n of absolute oneness i s d u a l i s t i c because i t excludes and opposes the p o s s i b i l i t y of the many" (Watts, The Supreme, I d e n t i t y : An Essay on O r i e n t a l Metaphysic and the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n [New York, 1960], pp. 64-65). 2 To be sure, Logos has a u n i f y i n g f u n c t i o n , as i t s etymology i n d i c a t e s , . i . e. , i e g e i n — to gather ( c f . M. M i i l l e r , The Science of Language, V o l . I I [London, 1891], 71), but t h i s u n i f y i n g power seems to be based upon s e l e c t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Logos does not gather t h i n g s at random, but i t c o l l e c t s t h i n g s a n a l o g i c a l l y ( i . e . , a c c o r d i n g t o logos or r a t i o ) so as to c r e a t e a well-ordered.and w e l l - p r o p o r t i o n e d cosmos out of c h a o t i c matter. In connection with t h i s , A. Watts w r i t e s i n h i s Myth and R i t u a l i n C h r i s t i a n i t y : "The D i v i d e r ('I came not to b r i n g peace, but a sword') i s the Logos, who 'set a compass on the face of the deep' [Proverbs 8:27], who ' d i v i d e d the l i g h t from the darkness' [Genesis 1:4], and c r e a t e d the firmament to ' d i v i d e the waters from the waters' [Genesis 1:6]" (Watts, Myth and R i t u a l i n C h r i s t i a n i t y [Boston, 1968], p. 108). In h i s Rogosu to remma" (Logos and Lemma), T. Yamauchi a l s o w r i t e s , t h i s time i n the context of Greek philosophy: "Logos, i n the f i r s t p l a c e , s t a r t s with a d i s t i n c t i o n (l*J?i|) between the two [the s u b j e c t and the p r e d i c a t e ] , and without t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n t h e r e can be no 'logos-like'' development. T h i s i s i n t r i n s i c to the n o t i o n of logos and without i t logos cannot be l o g o s . I t i s because of t h i s t h a t logos not only i m p l i e s ' g a t h e r i n g , ' but a l s o ' d i s t i n g u i s h i n g . ' . . . Although logos i n v o l v e s , above a l l , the n o t i o n of c o l l e c t i n g , i t s manner of c o l l e c t i o n i s not l i n e a r [ i . e . , continuous] but d i s c o n t i n u o u s (#*[££.^ ) and i t s development i s based, more than anything e l s e , on bifurcation. The connection of t h i n g s by l o g o s , so t o speak, i s achieved through d i v i s i o n (^7" V\ ) ; i t i s a union reached through d i s r u p t i o n (S^iGL)" (Yamauchi, Rogos to remma (Logos and Lemma) [Tokyo, 1974], pp. 21-26. T r a n s l a t i o n mine.) C f . a l s o p. 67 of t h i s t h e s i s . 12  13 3  S. G. Brown, "Emerson's P l a t o n i s m , " The New England Q u a r t e r l y , 18 (1945), 336. 4 Emerson, " S e l f - R e l i a n c e " i n Cabot, ed., The Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, V o l . I I (London and New YorkT 1 8 8 3 ) , 5 8 . F i g u r e s i n parentheses a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n s from Emerson's w r i t i n g s r e f e r to t h i s e d i t i o n . 5 Cf. B. Watson, t r . , The Complete Works o f Chuang Tzu (New York, 1968), p. 15. c  M. Fukunaga, S o s h i (Chuang Tzu) (Tokyo, 1971), p. 200. 7 Watson, p. 1. 8 C f . Fukunaga, p. 200. 9 I b i d . , pp. 200-201. T r a n s l a t i o n mine. "*"^Cf. O. Kan ay a, S o s h i , V o l . I , 12; M. M o r i , J o d a i y o r i kandai n i i t a r u seimeikan no t e n k a i (The Development of the Concepts o f Human Nature and D e s t i n y from the Beginning to the Han Dynasty) (Tokyo, 1975), p. 81; W. T. Chan, A Source Book i n Chinese Philosophy ( P r i n c e t o n , 1973), p. 179; A. C. Graham, "Chuang-tzu's Essay on Seeing Things as E q u a l , " H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n , 9 (1969-70), 137-159. "''"'"Watson, p. 3. 12 Some of the other r e f e r e n c e s c o n s u l t e d a r e : 1) 0. Kanaya, t r . , Soshi 2) M. M o r i , t r . , Soshi  (Chuang T z u ) , 3 v o l s .  (Chuang T z u ) , 3 v o l s .  (Tokyo, 1977),  (Tokyo, 1975).  3) H. G i l e s , t r . , Chuang Tzu: M y s t i c , M o r a l i s t and S o c i a l Reformer (London, 1926). 4) W. T. Chan, A Source Book i n Chinese Philosophy ( P r i n c e t o n , 1973) . 5) H. C r e e l , What Is Taoism? and Other S t u d i e s i n Chinese C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y (Chicago and London, 1970). 6) T. Merton, The Way  of Chuang Tzu  (New York, 1969).  7) J . Needham, Science and C i v i l i s a t i o n i n China, V o l . I I (Cambridge, 1962). 8) R. T. Ames, "An.Exegesis o f the 'Ta Tsung Shih' Chapter of the Chuang Tzu" (M.A. t h e s i s submitted t o the  14 Department of A s i a n Columbia, 19 73) .  Studies,  University.of  British  9) Y. L. Fung, t r . / Chuang-tzu; A New S e l e c t e d T r a n s l a t i o n w i t h an E x p o s i t i o n of the Philosophy o f Kuo Hslang (New York, 1964). 13 Fukunaga, p. 202.  T r a n s l a t i o n mine.  14 Paul Weiss, "Some Paradoxes R e l a t i n g t o Order," The Concept o f Order, ed. P. G. Kuntz ( S e a t t l e and London, 1968), p. 16. 15 J . E. Feibleman, " D i s o r d e r , " The Concept of Order, ed. P. G. Kuntz ( S e a t t l e and London, 1968) , p. 12.  CHAPTER I ORDER AND  BOUNDARIES  Order, b y . i t s very n a t u r e , sets boundaries to t h i n g s . T h e r e f o r e the f i r s t  step i n our d i s c u s s i o n of the n o t i o n of  order i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu should be t o s t a r t  an  examination of the meaning of boundaries i n t h e i r works.  The  concept of boundaries w i l l become u s e f u l i n c o n s i d e r i n g the other•problems  presented i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , p r i m a r i l y  "lav/" and " l i f e , " both of which-are, more or l e s s ,  variations  on the problem of b o u n d a r i e s . Before we begin a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n s of o r d e r and boundaries, we may  first  need t o g i v e some g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of the word "boundary." We  may  a l s o need t o e s t a b l i s h the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n i n which  our argument w i l l proceed.  The u s u a l meaning of "boundary"  would be "a l i n e which marks a l i m i t " or "a d i v i d i n g between two o b j e c t s . "  However, i n t h i s chapter we  line  shall  extend the o r i g i n a l meaning of boundaries t o some extent and r e - d e f i n e i t as "anything t h a t separates and two t h i n g s (whether p h y s i c a l or mental)." extended  differentiates  According to t h i s  d e f i n i t i o n , such t h i n g s as gaps, spaces, h o l e s , and  vacuums can be i n c l u d e d as boundaries so long as they separate and d i f f e r e n t i a t e one t h i n g from another. words, "boundary" i s the fundamental  15  element  In other  that i s required  16 in  the s o - c a l l e d d u a l i s t i c world I t seems t h a t , depending  view. on how  we  approach  the.  n o t i o n of boundaries, our world view becomes e i t h e r or  non-dualistic.  dualistic  Our aim i n t h i s chapter i s t o c l a r i f y ,  on  the one hand, t h a t Emerson takes e s s e n t i a l l y a d u a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward boundaries  (we may  call  t h i s . a t t i t u d e the  e i t h e r / o r type o f . l o g i c ) , whereas Chuang Tzu, a n o n - d u a l i s t i c approach  (which may  be named the both/and  and, on the other hand, how  type of l o g i c ) ,  the d i f f e r e n c e s between the  world views are r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r . n o t i o n s of o r d e r . achieve these aims, we  To  s h a l l s e t up f o u r major p e r s p e c t i v e s :  language, v i s i o n , the m i r r o r , and transcendence. three are the elements  two  The  first  of boundaries which seem t o be common  to both Emerson and Chuang Tzu. transcendence, concerns the way  The l a s t v i e w p o i n t , i . e . , the two w r i t e r s t r a n s c e n d  boundaries. Having e s t a b l i s h e d these p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on boundaries and the g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s chapter, we  are now  ready t o s t a r t a d e t a i l e d examination of the  n o t i o n s of order and boundaries i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu through the four p e r s p e c t i v e s given above, of which i s our f i r s t  language  topic.  A c l o s e connection between.language and can be surmised from the f o l l o w i n g reasons.  boundaries  First,  i s based on gaps t h a t l i e between l e t t e r s , words> phonemes, and gaps are n o t h i n g but boundaries.  language  and  In h i s  17 System and Structure,. A. Wilden w r i t e s about the r e l a t i o n ships between language and gaps: Thus, speech can be d e s c r i b e d as c o n s i s t i n g of chain upon chain of words, a l l seeking t o f i l l up the h o l e s i n communication,, h o l e s t h a t cannot be filled. In communications t e r m i n o l o g y , these holes are i n e f f e c t the 'gaps' which d i g i t a l communication and s i g n i f i c a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y i n t r o d u c e i n t o the analog continuum of ' l i f e , ' ' r e l a t i o n , ' and 'meaning.' Without these gaps — such .as those between the i n t e g e r s , between the l e t t e r s i n an alphabet, o r between the 'on' and the ' o f f o f the r e l a y s i n a d i g i t a l computer, or i n the g e n e t i c code — l a n g u a g e , as a p a r t i c u l a r system of the s u b s t i t u t i o n and combination of d i s c r e t e elements c a l l e d signs or s i g n i f i e r s , would not be p o s s i b l e . ! As i s i m p l i e d i n t h i s passage, language i s based on the dualism between n e g a t i o n and a f f i r m a t i o n "off").  (e.g., "on" and  T h i s d u a l i s m seems t o a r i s e from the n a t u r e of the  word "not."  Through the d i v i d i n g f u n c t i o n of "not" we  can  d i s t i n g u i s h between an a f f i r m a t i v e and a n e g a t i v e sentence, between the s u b j e c t and the p r e d i c a t e , and determine word order and p a r t s o f speech.  Another aspect of language i s  t h a t i t i s l i n e a r i n the sense t h a t both i n spoken,and i n w r i t t e n form i t i s a s u c c e s s i o n of sounds or l e t t e r s . a l l these f a c t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , we is  can say t h a t  Taking  language  an "order," which c o n s i s t s of the v a r i o u s boundaries  c i t e d above.  So by paying a t t e n t i o n t o Emerson's and Chuang  Tzu's a t t i t u d e s toward language, we  can hope t o c l a r i f y some  aspects o f t h e i r n o t i o n of order. Let  us take up Chuang Tzu f i r s t ,  since his position  toward language seems t o be r a t h e r simple compared w i t h t h a t  18 of  Emerson.  Throughout  Chuang Tzu,. he takes a s t r o n g l y  n e g a t i v e approach t o language.  2  For i n s t a n c e , he says:  The Way has never known boundaries;.speech has no constancy. . . . So [I say,] those who d i v i d e f a i l to d i v i d e ; those who d i s c r i m i n a t e f a i l t o d i s c r i m i n a t e . . . . The Great Way i s not named; Great D i s c r i m i n a t i o n s are not spoken; . . . If discrimi n a t i o n s are put i n t o words, they do not s u f f i c e . ^  ^1L-4H&  4 % ...  X4ntL&$£%  To g i v e another example of Chuang Tzu's n e g a t i o n of.language, we have the famous s t o r y about Hun-tun c o n c l u s i o n of the n e i p ' i e n fa ^  (Chaos) p l a c e d as the  (the i n n e r c h a p t e r s ) :  The emperor of the South Sea was c a l l e d Shu [ B r i e f ] , the emperor of the North Sea was c a l l e d Hu [Sudden], and the emperor of the c e n t r a l r e g i o n was c a l l e d Hun-tun [Chaos]. Shu and Hu from time t o time came t o g e t h e r f o r a meeting i n the t e r r i t o r y of Hun-tun, and Hun-tun t r e a t e d them very g e n e r o u s l y . Shu and Hu d i s c u s s e d how they c o u l d repay h i s k i n d ness. " A l l men," they s a i d , "have seven openings so they can see, hear, e a t , and b r e a t h e . But Huntun alone doesn't have any. Let's trying [sic] b o r i n g him some!" Every day they bored another h o l e , and on the seventh day Hun-tun d i e d . (ch. 7, 97)  5t *, *fe 0  * * 6. »  Hun— tun ; * l . ^ o r ^ l i ^  n  a  s  ^  &  tt^K  such meanings as chaos,, d i s o r d e r l i 4  ness, ambiguity, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , homogeneity,  and  continuum. I t i s on the one hand the s t a t e of the U n i v e r s e b e f o r e heaven and e a r t h were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , and on the o t h e r  19 hand the p r i m o r d i a l f o r c e t h a t permeates i t s creation.  the U n i v e r s e a f t e r  Hun-tun i s another name f o r Tao  (the  u l t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e of the U n i v e r s e ) , and i t can a l s o c o r r e s pond,, a t l e a s t on one l e v e l , the  t o the analog continuum, t o use  terminology of communications  passage quoted from W i l d e n ) .  theory ( c f . the above  T h i s anecdote, t h e n , t e l l s us  how the n a t u r a l flow. of. l i f e o f Tao o r Chaos was impeded and destroyed by the ...misdirected, kindness, of Shu and Hu, who r e p r e s e n t the d i g i t a l aspect o f human language and human n o t i o n o f order.  As we can guess from the passage, Chuang  Tzu i s a g r e a t defender of Chaos o r D i s o r d e r "D").  (with a c a p i t a l  T h i s D i s o r d e r , however, i s not d i s o r d e r i n t h e u s u a l  sense o f the word.  I t appears t o be d i s o r d e r by the s t a n -  dards of human language, t h a t i s based on a n a l y t i c l o g i c or a d i g i t a l way o f t h i n k i n g , whereas t o Chuang Tzu i t a c t u a l l y i s the u l t i m a t e o r d e r o r p r i n c i p l e o f the U n i v e r s e . so  It i s ,  t o speak, t h e Great D i s o r d e r o f the w o r l d . Now, what would be Emerson's a t t i t u d e toward  language?  Here the s i t u a t i o n i s n o t as simple as i n t h e case o f Chuang Tzu,  f o r Emerson seems t o take two apparently  opposite  a t t i t u d e s toward language :i?sometimes he negates i t ; a t other times he defends i t .  H i s n e g a t i o n of language can be seen  i n such remarks as."Words are f i n i t e organs o f the i n f i n i t e mind.  They cannot cover the dimensions o f what i s i n t r u t h .  They break, chop, and impoverish i t " (Nature, I , 50), and "The s o u l answers never by words, but by the t h i n g i t s e l f  20 that i s inquired a f t e r . delusive. for  . .." ("The  . . .  An answer i n words i s  Over-Soul," I I , 265), and "Books are  the s c h o l a r ' s i d l e times" ("The  92).  American S c h o l a r , " I ,  These words would seem to i n d i c a t e the same viewpoint  on language as Chuang Tzu's. However,.in  the same essays from which the above  passages are taken, Emerson,.seems to.emphasize the importance of  speech: i n Nature he a l l o t s one e n t i r e chapter t o d i s c u s -  s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and Nature; i n "The American S c h o l a r " he s a y s , "Books are the b e s t of t h i n g s , w e l l used; abused, among the worst" Over-Soul" we soul] w i l l ,  r e a d , "Only i t s e l f  ( I , 91); and i n "The  can i n s p i r e whom i t [the  and b e h o l d ! t h e i r speech s h a l l be l y r i c a l ,  sweet, and u n i v e r s a l as the r i s i n g o f the wind ' 1  How  are we t o understand t h i s ? .  As we  and  (II> 253).  can surmise from the  above q u o t a t i o n s , Emerson i s not t o t a l l y opposed t o language, but  r a t h e r he i s denying what he t h i n k s t o be a degenerate  use of language cut o f f from i t s s p i r i t u a l f o u n t a i n h e a d , namely, the Over-Soul.  Human language, so f a r as i t comes  d i r e c t l y from t h i s s o u r c e , i s good.  T h i s seems t o be h i s  c o n v i c t i o n , and i t would a l s o e x p l a i n why his  life  he spent most of  as a l e c t u r e r and wrote two essays on.eloquence.  I t i s a w e l l known f a c t t h a t as a young student at Harvard he was  charmed by the speeches o f W. E. Channing, D.  and E. E v e r e t t .  We  Webster,  can see h i s p a s s i o n f o r eloquence i n h i s 5  j o u r n a l f o r as e a r l y as February 1820.  And  late in his  j o u r n a l he a l s o w r i t e s , "Why c o l l e g e o f f e r e d me  has never the poorest  a p r o f e s s o r s h i p of r h e t o r i c ?  country  I think I  c o u l d have taught an o r a t o r , though I am none."^  Thus i t  would be  is  f a i r to say t h a t , u n l i k e Chuang Tzu, who  extremely s u s p i c i o u s about the use of language, Emerson still  retains a considerable However, as we  or boundaries, and the u n i v e r s e  saw  amount of b e l i e f i n i t .  above, language i s based on.gaps  so i t i s o f t e n very inadequate to cover  in i t s entirety.  I t i s l i k e a net, and  cannot scoop up water, which i s the u n i v e r s e . i n e v i t a b l y introduces i t s e l f and and  Language  ( i . e . , dualism) between  the o b j e c t which i t s p e c i f i e s , between the  the o b j e c t s spoken o f , between man  a m a t e r i a l world. we  a schism  can achieve  So long as language i s a s o r t of  l o s t , as we  t h i s i s the reason.why he  by the p l a i n s t y l e of the language of the o r d i n a r y  In h i s j o u r n a l f o r June 24,  1840,  language of the s t r e e t . i s always s t r o n g . "  w r i t e s i n h i s j o u r n a l f o r October 27,  see how  in  i s attracted people  are c l o s e r to the concrete world of everyday l i f e  words become one with  saw  T h i s i s the predicament of Emerson as  an o r a t o r , and probably  "The  order,  an order by a p p l y i n g i t to the Chaos of  the s t o r y of Hun-tun.  intellectuals.  speaker  as mind and.Nature as  Nature, but the l i f e of Chaos tends to be  who  a net  things."  1831,  He  writes,  also  "In good w r i t i n g  From these remarks we  Emerson.occupies h i m s e l f w i t h the task of  the gap between language and  he  than  can  filling  i t s o b j e c t s , between man  and  Nature. Emerson's e f f o r t t o overcome the boundary between language and t h i n g s seems t o have some r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s attempt t o r e c o n c i l e the schism between the seer and the seen, f o r as we s h a l l see below,  language has a s t r o n g  connection w i t h v i s i o n . For  f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s p o i n t we need t o  examine the f u n c t i o n of v i s i o n , which i n t h i s t h e s i s we s h a l l use b a s i c a l l y i n the u s u a l sense o f the term, i . e . , o p t i c a l v i s i o n as d i s t i n c t from " m y s t i c a l v i s i o n . "  V i s i o n can be a  boundary-maker i n s e v e r a l ways which are c l o s e l y  interrelated.  F i r s t , v i s i o n i s a matter o f the seer and the seen, i . e . , the  s u b j e c t and the o b j e c t ; hence a boundary  between the two.  i s presupposed  What i s i n t e r e s t i n g here i s t h a t t h e r e i s  a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i s i o n and language i n the sense t h a t the o b j e c t seen i s u s u a l l y named and c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . Needless t o s a y , l a n g u a g e i s based on conceptions and i d e a s . ;  In  f a c t , . t h e word " i d e a " i s d e r i v e d from the Greek verb 7  idein  (to. s e e ) .  Since language i s a s o r t o f boundaryjmaker,  t h i s would a l s o support, even though i n d i r e c t l y , our assumption t h a t v i s i o n can be a boundary-maker. I f the p r i m a l meaning o f e y e s i g h t • a s .a boundary-maker lies  i n the demarcation between the seer and the seen, a  secondary meaning l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t v i s i o n , i n conjunct i o n w i t h the f u n c t i o n o f the mind, n e c e s s a r i l y draws boundaries between the o b j e c t s seen by the s e e r .  Vision  23 does not f u n c t i o n normally u n l e s s i t d i s t i n g u i s h e s one  thing  from another, thus i n t r o d u c i n g order i n t o t h i n g s i n a s t a t e of  confusion.  Hun-tun.  Here a g a i n , we  are reminded  The a c t i o n s of shu and Hu, who  of t h e . s t o r y of  bored the h o l e s (a  metaphor f o r boundaries) i n the opaque face of Hun-tun (Chaos) can be s a i d t o symbolize the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  and  " o r d e r i n g " f u n c t i o n of human v i s i o n . With these p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v i s i o n , boundaries, and o r d e r , we  are ready t o  examine the p o s i t i o n s . t o w a r d v i s i o n adopted by Emerson and Chuang Tzu.  L e t us take Emerson f i r s t .  w r i t e s i n h i s American  As F.,0. M a t t h i e s s e n  Renaissance:  He [Emerson] h e l d i t the f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a r t i s t t o r e c o r d adequately what he had observed; and he was reassured by the thought t h a t 'our American c h a r a c t e r i s marked by a more than average d e l i g h t i n accurate p e r c e p t i o n . ' When he could b e l i e v e h i m s e l f t o be not merely a r e p o r t e r but a poet, he could phrase h i s c o n v i c t i o n more i n t e n s e l y : the poet i s the man 'whose eye can i n t e g r a t e a l l the p a r t s . ' 8 What M a t t h i e s s e n c a l l s  " h i s [Emerson's] almost  exclusive 9 .  a b s o r p t i o n w i t h s e e i n g " elsewhere very d i f f i c u l t t o prove.  One  i n . t h e same book  i s not  of the b e s t examples i s i n  Nature: In the woods, we r e t u r n to reason and f a i t h . There. I f e e l t h a t n o t h i n g can b e f a l l me i n l i f e , no d i s g r a c e , no c a l a m i t y ( l e a v i n g me my e y e s ) , which nature cannot r e p a i r . Standing on the bare ground, —my head bathed by the b l i t h e a i r , and u p l i f t e d i n t o i n f i n i t e space, — a l l mean egotism v a n i s h e s . I become a t r a n s p a r e n t e y e b a l l ; I am n o t h i n g ; I see a l l ; the c u r r e n t s of the U n i v e r s a l Being c i r c u l a t e through me;. I am p a r t or p a r t i c l e of God. (I, 15-16)  24 In t h i s passage t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s Emerson's p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h v i s i o n , we  see how  lem.we .saw/ e a r l i e r —  he t r i e s to r e s o l v e the same prob-  the problem  of the dichotomy between  the seer and the seen, the s u b j e c t and the o b j e c t , man Nature.  He seems t o t h i n k t h a t he has succeeded  and  i n over-  coming t h i s d u a l i s m by a n n i h i l a t i n g h i s sense of i n d i v i d uated consciousness and u n i t i n g w i t h the U n i v e r s a l Being, God.  We  f i n d the same view echoed i n h i s poem "Brahma,"  where he says "the red s l a y e r " and "the s l a i n " are  one;  and a l s o i n h i s essay, "The Over-Soul," when he w r i t e s , ". . . the act of s e e i n g and the t h i n g seen, the seer and the s p e c t a c l e * the s u b j e c t and the o b j e c t , are one" ( I I , 2 53), and "For they are poets by the f r e e course which they allow to the i n f o r m i n g s o u l , which through t h e i r beholds (II,  eyes  again and.blesses the t h i n g s which i t had made"  271). However, i t seems t h a t he does not, or r a t h e r cannot,  stay i n such a n o n - d u a l i s t i c s t a t e f o r l o n g . whom Emerson d e s c r i b e s . a s a man c o i n , h e . a l s o turns h i s .  Like Plato,  who.ceaselessly t u r n s a  T h i s i s seen, f o r example i n the  l a t t e r p a r t of h i s poem "The  Rhodora":.  Rhodora! i f the sages ask thee why This charm i s wasted on the e a r t h and sky, <• T e l l them, dear, t h a t i f eyes are made f o r s e e i n g , Then Beauty i s i t s own excuse f o r b e i n g : Why thou wert t h e r e , 0 r i v a l of the r o s e ! I never thought t o ask, I never knew: But, i n my simple ignorance suppose The self-same Power t h a t brought me t h e r e brought you. (IX, 39)  25 Although he  says "beauty i s i t s own  never knew or thought.to ask why still  the flower was  and  there,  he  he.  cannot help supposing t h a t the same "Power" i s working  behind both the flower he  excuse f o r b e i n g "  and  himself.  Thus we  can t e l l  that  i s on the verge o f i n t r o d u c i n g a boundary between the  "Power" and  the f l o w e r , between the  (Here seems to l i e one seems to be  aspect  "Power" and  himself. ^ 1  of Emerson's dualism.)  an i n e v i t a b l e consequence of .his n o t i o n  This of  beauty, which i s predominantly dependent on v i s i o n (a boundary-maker).  In a sense, beauty i s a problem of how  boundaries between the o b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n of s i g h t . beauty, we and  t o draw  through the  discrim-  So by examining h i s n o t i o n  of  can hope to c l a r i f y h i s concepts of boundaries,  thus, o f  order.  For b e t t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Emerson's i d e a of beauty, let  us quote a passage from h i s Nature: The a n c i e n t Greeks c a l l e d the world Kp^/foJ, beauty. Such i s the c o n s t i t u t i o n of a l l t h i n g s , or such the p l a s t i c power of the human eye, t h a t the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the t r e e , the animal, give us a d e l i g h t i n and for.themselves; a, p l e a s u r e a r i s i n g from o u t l i n e , c o l o r , motion,, and grouping. T h i s seems p a r t l y owing to the eye itself. The eye i s the b e s t of a r t i s t s . By the mutual a c t i o n of i t s s t r u c t u r e and.of the laws of l i g h t , p e r s p e c t i v e i s produced, which i n t e g r a t e s every mass of o b j e c t s , of what c h a r a c t e r s o e v e r i n t o a w e l l c o l o r e d and shaded globe, so t h a t where the p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s are mean and u n a f f e c t i n g , the landscape which they compose i s round and symmetrical. And as the eye i s the best composer, so l i g h t i s the f i r s t of p a i n t e r s . There i s no o b j e c t so f o u l t h a t i n t e n s e l i g h t w i l l not make b e a u t i f u l . And the stimulus i t a f f o r d s to the sense, and a s o r t of i n f i n i t u d e which i t hath, l i k e t  space and time, make a l l matter gay. corpse has i t s own beauty. In  t h i s q u o t a t i o n we  Even the (I,.21-22)  should f i r s t note the word  "symmetrical  which seems t o be one of the key words f o r understanding Emerson's n o t i o n s o f beauty, It  v i s i o n , boundaries, and o r d e r .  i s almost a commonplace t h a t Emerson,was g r e a t l y  i n f l u e n c e d by P l a t o , who  i s s a i d t o have h i g h l y esteemed  mathematics, e s p e c i a l l y geometry, a system of theory about boundaries.  So i t would not be very improper  t o look f o r a  c l o s e r e l a t i o n between Emerson's n o t i o n of. beauty symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n of geometry. writes i n his journal for  and  the  For i n s t a n c e , he  1849:  For we do not l i s t e n with much r e s p e c t t o the verses of a man who i s only a poet, nor t o the c a l c u l a t i o n s of a man who i s only a n , a l g e b r a i s t , but i f the man i s at the same time acquainted w i t h the g e o m e t r i c a l foundations of t h i n g s , and w i t h t h e i r moral purposes, and sees the f e s t a l splendor of the day, h i s poetry i s exact, and h i s a r i t h m e t i c musical. His poetry and h i s mathematics a c c r e d i t each o t h e r . I look upon the s t r e s s l a i d by P l a t o on geometry as h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t H And  a g a i n , i n h i s e s s a y s • " C i r c l e s " and  opher," we  read the f o l l o w i n g passages,  " P l a t o ; or the P h i l o s respectively:  The eye i s the f i r s t c i r c l e ; the h o r i z o n which i t forms i s the second; and throughout nature t h i s primary f i g u r e i s repeated without end. I t i s the h i g h e s t emblem i n the c i p h e r of the world. (II, 281) In the Timaeus he i n d i c a t e s the h i g h e s t employment of the eyes. "By us i t i s a s s e r t e d t h a t God invented and bestowed s i g h t on us f o r t h i s purpose, — t h a t on s u r v e y i n g the c i r c l e s of, i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the heavens, we m i g h t . p r o p e r l y employ those of our.own minds, which, though d i s t u r b e d  when compared w i t h the o t h e r s t h a t are uniform, are s t i l l a l l i e d t o t h e i r c i r c u l a t i o n s ; and t h a t having thus l e a r n e d , and being n a t u r a l l y possessed o f a c o r r e c t reasoning f a c u l t y , we might, by i m i t a t i n g the uniform r e v o l u t i o n s o f d i v i n i t y , s e t r i g h t our own wanderings and b l u n d e r s . " (IV, 64-65) Thus i t would not be too much o f an exaggeration t o say t h a t at the b a s i s o f Emerson's i d e a l beauty l i e s t h e n o t i o n of g e o m e t r i c a l symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n which i s d e t e c t e d i n the e x t e r n a l -world and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o u n i t y by the o r d e r i n g function of v i s i o n . Besides the word "symmetrical,"  we should not over-  look the word " l i g h t , " on which Emerson puts a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f emphasis i n the above q u o t a t i o n from Nature ( c f . p. 2 5 ) . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o see t h a t l i g h t p l a y s an important  r o l e i n g e o m e t r i c a l symmetry i n h i s n o t i o n . o f  beauty, f o r without  l i g h t t h e r e can be no v i s i o n  ( i n the  u s u a l sense of the term), which i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n composing symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n i n the outer world.  As Emerson  h i m s e l f p o i n t s out i n the above q u o t a t i o n , i t i s due t o "mutual a c t i o n of i t s [the eye's] s t r u c t u r e and the laws o f . l i g h t " t h a t "the landscape  i s round and symmetrical."  " L i g h t , " he c o n t i n u e s , " i s the f i r s t of p a i n t e r s " and "There i s no o b j e c t so f o u l t h a t i n t e n s e l i g h t w i l l not make b e a u t i ful.  .•. .  Even the corpse has i t s own beauty."  Judging  from these passages and h i s g e o m e t r i c a l n o t i o n o f beauty mentioned above, we can say t h a t i n Emerson l i g h t has a s p e c i a l power t o put i n t o order such a f o u l t h i n g . a s a corpse  28 which has  a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n with c o r r u p t i o n and d i s o r d e r ,  i . e . , . c o n f u s i o n of boundaries. reasons  T h i s seems t o be one  ( f o r other reasons see pp.  65,.107-108) why  p r o f u s e use of the image of l i g h t i n h i s works.  of.the he makes  In f a c t , i t  would be f a i r t o say t h a t h i s essay Nature, f o r i n s t a n c e , begins  and ends with  an a d o r a t i o n of the sun  shines to-day a l s o " i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , and filths cluding  of nature, the sun s h a l l dry up  (e.g.> "The  sun  "The  and  sordor  . . . " i n the con-  paragraph). T h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r l i g h t might a l s o have come from  Greek thought.  Both P l a t o and P l o t i n u s , who  seem t o have 13  i n f l u e n c e d Emerson.to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, absolute b e i n g , the Idea and  the One,  compare t h e i r  t o the sun  (e.g.,.the  p a r a b l e of the cave i n P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c , Book V I I ; P l o t i n u s ' emanation theory his  i n Enneads, V . I . 6 ) .  Moreover, i n  Nature, Emerson mentions the well-known Greek i d e a of  the t r i a d of t r u t h , good, and beauty "God  and  i s the a l l - f a i r .  ( c f . Phaedrus, 246e):  T r u t h , and goodness, and beauty, are  but d i f f e r e n t faces o f the same A l l " ( I , 30). of beauty i s God  (who  I f the  source  i s o f t e n compared t o the sun and i t s  l i g h t , a s , f o r example, i n P l a t o , P l o t i n u s , and Emerson f o r the reasons c i t e d above), and of the order which, as we  i f t h i s God  i s a l s o the  source  have seen i n the above q u o t a t i o n ,  from Emerson (pp. 26-27), has  a strong i n c l i n a t i o n , t o w a r d  g e o m e t r i c a l symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n , then we  can  t h a t . l i g h t , v i s i o n , and  interconnected  symmetry are c l o s e l y  conclude  elements i n Emerson's n o t i o n s of beauty and o r d e r .  In  Emerson, beauty seems t o mean o r d e r , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f g e o m e t r i c a l symmetry  and p r o p o r t i o n , i . e . , w e l l - o r d e r e d boun-  d a r i e s , which can be r e a l i z e d through the o r d e r i n g  function  of v i s i o n and l i g h t which, i n t u r n , come from God i n t h e i d e a l world. On the other hand, we have'a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t  picture  i n Chuang Tzu's concepts of beauty, v i s i o n , boundaries; and order.  Judging from the s t o r y o f Hun-tun quoted e a r l i e r , we  can e a s i l y . i m a g i n e t h a t Chuang Tzu would have p l a c e d a low value on v i s i o n and s e e i n g .  This i s f u r t h e r supported by  the abundant use o f dark images i n h i s w r i t i n g .  This i s not  to say, however, t h a t he does not use t h e image of l i g h t a t all.  He does use i t sometimes,.. but, u n l i k e Emerson, who  seldom, gives a p o s i t i v e meaning t o darkness, Chuang Tzu t r i e s to.see a deep s i g n i f i c a n c e i n darkness. Above a l l , the word hsiian £. would i n d i c a t e  this.  Hsu'an, which means "dark" and "mysterious," o f t e n appears i n the Chuang Tzu i n such e x p r e s s i o n s as hsuan ming \ ^ (the Dark O b s c u r i t y , chs. 6, 17), hsuan t'ung ^ }b\ (Mysterious L e v e l i n g , ch. 10) , hsuan t ' i e n j; ft. (Dark Heaven, ch. 11) , hsiian ku  ^  (Dark A n t i q u i t y , ch. 1.2) , hsiian ohu j;  P e a r l , ch. 12) , hsuan t e % sheng  (Dark  (Dark V i r t u e , ch. 12) , hsiian  %g (the Dark Sage, ch. 13) , and hsttan s h u i %  B l a c k Waters, ch. 2 2 ) . Besides hsiian  (the  , we come across  many other words t h a t have much t o do w i t h darkness.  To add  30 a few more,examples, we have: "The t o r c h o f chaos and doubt — - t h i s i s what the sage s t e e r s by" (ch. 2, 42) . " -|L$^ Jt, ftH^ A iL?ff ^ i" "For the Tao which shines f o r t h i s n o t Tao" (ch. 11, 119) "  ft)  T^'"  a  n  d  :  . . . The essence o f t h e P e r f e c t Way i s deep and d a r k l y shrouded; the extreme of the P e r f e c t Way i s mysterious and hushed i n s i l e n c e . L e t t h e r e be no s e e i n g , no h e a r i n g , e n f o l d t h e s p i r i t i n quietude and the body w i l l r i g h t i t s e l f . (ch'. 11, 119)  On the b a s i s o f these examples  t  we can say t h a t i n Chuang  Tzu v i s i o n i n the u s u a l sense o f the term  ( i . e . , seeing  t h i n g s under l i g h t ) i s not v a l u e d ; r a t h e r , darkness  and the  " c o n f u s i o n " o f boundaries between t h i n g s are h i g h l y esteemed. This tendency  seems t o have much t o do w i t h h i s i d e a  o f beauty, f o r Chuang Tzu f i n d s a unique v a l u e i n what i s commonly thought t o be deformed and abnormal,  and d e f o r m i t i e s  are n o t h i n g but the c o n f u s i o n o f boundaries.  A hunchback, a  c r i p p l e , and other misshapen men are h i s f a v o u r i t e characters.  The f o l l o w i n g are two examples taken from chapter  5 o f Chuang Tzu: Duke A i of Lu s a i d . t o C o n f u c i u s , "In Wei t h e r e was an u g l y man named A i T ' a i - t ' o . But when men were around him, they thought only o f him and c o u l d n ' t break away, and when women saw him, they ran begging t o t h e i r f a t h e r s and mothers, s a y i n g , 'I'd r a t h e r be t h i s gentleman's concubine than another man's w i f e ! ' — t h e r e were more than t e n such.cases and i t hasn't stopped y e t . No one ever heard him take the l e a d — h e always j u s t chimed i n i n w i t h other people. He wasn't i n the p o s i t i o n o f a r u l e r where he c o u l d save men's l i v e s , and.he had  31  no s t o r e of p r o v i s i o n s to f i l l men's b e l l i e s . On top of t h a t , he was ugly enough t o astound the whole w o r l d , chimed i n but never l e d , . and. knew no more than what went on r i g h t around him. And yet. men and women f l o c k e d to him." (ch. 5, 72)  Mr. Lame-Hunchback-No-Lips t a l k e d to Duke L i n g of Wei, and Duke L i n g was so p l e a s e d w i t h him t h a t when he looked at normal men he thought t h e i r necks looked too l e a n and skinny. Mr. Pitcher-sized-Wen t a l k e d t o Duke Huan of C h ' i , and Duke Huan was so pleased w i t h him t h a t when he looked at normal men he thought t h e i r necks looked too lean and skinny. T h e r e f o r e , i f v i r t u e i s preeminent, the body w i l l be f o r g o t t e n . , (ch.  5, 74-75)  m  One  £  %#T1L  reason why  d e f o r m i t i e s may and  "SU  W  ^  UMI  Chuang Tzu shows such i n t e r e s t i n chaos be t h a t he  i s w e l l aware of the  241)  To him " [jjt]  "[The  4L&%  n  Way]  i s i n the p i s s and  and  complementary  r e l a t i v e nature of beauty and u g l i n e s s , order  disorder. 22,  4.  and  shit"  (ch.  and:  "The ten thousand t h i n g s are r e a l l y one. We look on some as b e a u t i f u l because they are r a r e or u n e a r t h l y ; we look on others as ugly because they are f o u l and r o t t e n . . But the f o u l and r o t t e n may turn i n t o the r a r e and u n e a r t h l y , and the r a r e and u n e a r t h l y may t u r n i n t o the f o u l and r o t t e n . So i t i s s a i d , You have only to comprehend the one b r e a t h t h a t i s the w o r l d . The sage never ceases t o value oneness." (ch. 22, 236)  32  To sum u p  f  then, we  can say t h a t Emerson's g e o m e t r i c a l  n o t i o n of beauty i s d u a l i s t i c i n t h a t i t i s based on the b i f u r c a t i n g f u n c t i o n of v i s i o n which d i s c r i m i n a t e s geometric a l symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n from asymmetry and d i s p r o p o r t i o n , whereas Chuang Tzu's concept of beauty i s n o n - d u a l i s t i c i n the sense t h a t i t negates the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n of v i s i o n and t r i e s to.see v a l u e s even i n d e f o r m i t i e s and disorder. The d i f f e r e n c e between d u a l i s t i c and n o n - d u a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s toward boundaries i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu may  be  f u r t h e r r e f l e c t e d i n another element of boundaries i n the two w r i t e r s , namely, the image of the m i r r o r .  The m i r r o r  f u n c t i o n s as a boundary because i t has a s u r f a c e which separates the seer and the seen  (the image).. T h i s m i r r o r  s u r f a c e i s i n .fact the embodiment of the imaginary boundary we.supposed between the seer.and the seen, the s u b j e c t  and  the o b j e c t i n d e a l i n g w i t h the n o t i o n and the problem of vision.  So by examining the f u n c t i o n s of the image of the  m i r r o r i n Emerson, and Chuang Tzu,. we may  further  clarify  t h e i r concepts of boundaries and o r d e r . That Emerson sees the e x t e r n a l world as a mirror-image i s e v i d e n t from such passages as: "The  laws o f moral nature  answer t o those of matter as face t o face i n a g l a s s "  (Nature, I, 38);  "I look f o r the new  Teacher, t h a t . . .  s h a l l see the world to be  the m i r r o r of the s o u l "  ("Divinity  School Address," I , 148);  "As  scarcely  i n dreams so i n the  l e s s f l u i d events of the world every man  sees h i m s e l f  c o l o s s a l , without knowing t h a t i t i s h i m s e l f " Laws," I I , 141);  and  "For the t r u t h was  r e f l e c t e d to us from n a t u r a l o b j e c t s "  in  ("Spiritual  i n us before  i t was  ("Intellect," II,  317).  For Emerson the world i s a p r o j e c t i o n of t h a t which i s i n s i d e h i m s e l f , which he it  c a l l s the s o u l or s p i r i t .  i s q u i t e n a t u r a l f o r him  i s an i l l u s i o n .  Therefore  to conclude t h a t the outer  As F. 0. Matthiessen p o i n t s out,  world  t h i s would  be the main reason, why., h i s works abound i n the images of 14 f l u x and  f l u i d i t y , e s p e c i a l l y thab of water.  sense we  can say  In  t h a t Emerson t r i e s to a b o l i s h the  boundaries between things,, and  this clear-cut  so comes q u i t e c l o s e t o  Chuang.Tzu's world-view, whose fundamental tenet i s based Tao  or Hun-tun if^l^C, which has  s t a t e of chaos, of f l u x and  no boundaries and  is in a  fluidity.  However, as i s u s u a l w i t h Emerson, t h i s i s only s i d e of the c o i n .  The  other  on  one  side i s his individualism,  which i s a p t l y r e f l e c t e d i n the t i t l e of h i s essay " S e l f Reliance." calls  Although we  must not f o r g e t that what Emerson  " s e l f " i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as the i n d i v i d u a l  person separated . from the r e s t of the world, s t i l l " s e l f " very e a s i l y comes to mean j u s t t h a t . t h i s would be i n h i s s t y l e .  According  One  Emerson's  proof  t o S. G. Brown,  of "one  34 of the most i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Emerson's essays 15 and An  l e c t u r e s i s t h a t they c o n s i s t c h i e f l y of  conclusions."  o p i n i o n r e l e v a n t to t h i s i s t h a t of M a t t h i e s s e n , who  says:  His work corresponds so n a t u r a l l y t o h i s l i f e t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e s the purest example of what i n d i v i d u a l i s m could produce. The sentence was h i s u n i t , as he recognized when c o n f e s s i n g s a d l y t o C a r l y l e (1838) t h a t h i s paragraphs were only c o l l e c t i o n s of 'infinitely repellent particles.' It is significant t h a t he s a i d the same t h i n g when r e f l e c t i n g on s o c i e t y . a s 'an imperfect union': 'Every man i s an i n f i n i t e l y r e p e l l e n t orb, and holds h i s i n d i v i d u a l being on t h a t c o n d i t i o n . ' The sentence was the i n e v i t a b l e u n i t f o r : t h e man who could say, 'A s i n g l e thought has no l i m i t t o i t s value.'16 Another element of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s m might be ted i n h i s n o t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y .  It•is  refleer.  t r u e t h a t .in  " S e l f - R e l i a n c e " Emerson f l a t l y denies p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y such statements as, "And  so the r e l i a n c e on  in  Property,  i n c l u d i n g the r e l i a n c e on governments which p r o t e c t i t , i s the want of s e l f - r e l i a n c e "  ( I I , 85).  However, i t seems  e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t elsewhere he defends the concept of property.  For i n s t a n c e , i n h i s r a t h e r o p t i m i s t i c and  sim-  p l i s t i c t r e a t i s e on wealth, Emerson advocates the p r i n c i p l e of f r e e competition  by  independent i n d i v i d u a l s .  He  writes:  The Saxons are the merchants of the world; now,.for a thousand y e a r s , the l e a d i n g r a c e , and by nothing more than t h e i r q u a l i t y of p e r s o n a l independence, and i n i t s s p e c i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n , pecuniary independence. (VI, 89-90) Another example i s i n h i s " H i s t o r y , " where he  writes:  Property a l s o holds of the s o u l , covers great s p i r i t u a l f a c t s , and i n s t i n c t i v e l y we at f i r s t h o l d to i t w i t h swords and laws and wide and complex combinations. . . . We honor the r i c h because they  35 have e x t e r n a l l y the freedom, power, and grace which we f e e l to be s u p e r i o r t o man,, proper t o us.  ( I I , 11-12) This apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s a t t i t u d e toward p r o p e r t y i s probably s i m i l a r t o t h a t encountered i n h i s approach toward language.  As i n the case of language, p r o p e r t y i s  good as'long as i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of one's true " s e l f " which draws i t s l i f e and power from the s p i r i t u a l source, the "One"  or the Over-Soul.  Be t h a t as i t may,  judging from the two  quoted above from "Wealth" and " H i s t o r y , " we  passages  cannot .deny t h a t  Emerson's n o t i o n of " s e l f " r e t a i n s an aspect o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n the u s u a l sense of the term, and t h i s makes us h e s i t a t e t o jump t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the f l o w i n g images  i n Emerson's  w r i t i n g s have the.same s i g n i f i c a n c e as those we  f i n d i n the  Chuang Tzu. In t h i s r e g a r d , we must examine the images of the m i r r o r and water i n Chuang Tzu.  F i r s t , l e t us take up  Chuang Tzu's m i r r o r imagery, which appears i n such passages as: "Confucius s a i d , .'Men water —  do not m i r r o r themselves i n running  they m i r r o r themselves i n s t i l l water'"  " i^Ji 0 k^^%y^  S^7^ cfn  ^£.7&  ^  ^  (ch. 5,  69)  "; "Among l e v e l  things,  water at r e s t i s the most p e r f e c t , and t h e r e f o r e i t can serve as a standard" (ch. 5, 74) " >£. ^  "; "The P e r f e c t Man  uses h i s mind l i k e a m i r r o r  going after/.nothing, welcoming storing"  ?M ^ £ ] ^ - ^ ~ * T —  n o t h i n g , responding but not  (ch. 7, 97) " £ A ffl /  c  *  ft  & fa T $  "  36 and  "The  sage's mind i s the m i r r o r of s t i l l n e s s i n Heaven  and e a r t h , the g l a s s of the ten thousand t h i n g s " 142)  "  ^t/e^/o^^Tt^ttH'C*  ^  y  •"  -t,  H .  17  '  (ch. What  13, we  should note i n these passages i s t h a t Chuang Tzu seems t o  be  i n t e r e s t e d i n the serene nature of the m i r r o r s u r f a c e  (a  boundary) r a t h e r than i n the images themselves i n the  mirror.  The  t h i r d passage i n p a r t i c u l a r t e l l s us t h a t the sage i s  l i k e the s u r f a c e of the m i r r o r t h a t n e i t h e r welcomes nor goes a f t e r what.comes t o and quotation  leaves i t .  So i n a sense t h i s  i s s a y i n g t h a t the sage must i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f  the boundary  (the m i r r o r surface)  t h i n g s , the seer and  i t s e l f that divides  the seen, i n t h i s case.  with two  T h i s would  the main d i f f e r e n c e between Chuang Tzu's a t t i t u d e toward m i r r o r and  t h a t of Emerson, who  Our  the  seems t o be much more i n t e r -  e s t e d i n the c o n t r a s t between the seer and more.on t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  be  the seen.  l a t e r on i n t h i s  (But  chapter.)  next step i s ,to examine the meanings of water  symbolism i n Chuang Tzu and n o t i o n of boundaries.  see how  i t i s related to his  Among many water images i n h i s work,  the f o l l o w i n g would be u s e f u l i n c o n s i d e r i n g the p o i n t s i n question: Where the s w i r l i n g waves gather there i s an abyss; where the s t i l l water gather there i s an abyss;, where the running waters gather there i s an abyss. The abyss has nine names and I [the T a o i s t sage] have shown him t h r e e . (ch. 7, 96)  37 [The Way i s ] v a s t and ample, t h e r e i s nothing i t does not r e c e i v e . Deep and profound, how can i t be fathomed? (ch. 13, 151)  I go under w i t h the s w i r l s and come out w i t h the e d d i e s , f o l l o w i n g along the way the water goes and never t h i n k i n g about myself. (ch. 19, 205)  Knowledge wandering north t o the banks o f the B l a c k Waters, climbed the K n o l l o f Hidden H e i g h t s , and there by chance came upon Do-Nothing-Say-Nothing. (ch. 22, 234)  m&tt •£*  5u  i-t. ^  z  -  ±  .  tin  ftj8t  %  %*jf.  But he who i s a P e r f e c t Man l e t s h i s s p i r i t r e t u r n to the B e g i n n i n g l e s s , t o l i e down i n p l e a s a n t slumber i n the V i l l a g e of N o t - A n y t h i n g - A t - A l l ; l i k e water he flows through the Formless, or t r i c k l e s f o r t h from the Great P u r i t y . (ch. 32, 3 56)  As we can surmise from these q u o t a t i o n s , Chuang Tzu's sage seems t o be the man who has become l i k e water.  In the case  of Emerson, as we saw i n the q u o t a t i o n from Nature ( c f . p. • 23),  h i s body becomes f l u i d and d i s a p p e a r s , y e t h i s eyes  still  remain t o see t h i n g s around him, w h i l e i n Chuang Tzu  even the e y e s i g h t i s l o s t (or Chaos). itself.  i n the dark water  Chuang Tzu's Tao man  ("£  ) of Tao  ) becomes the water  S i n c e we cannot draw any boundaries i n w a t e r , . t h a t  i s to say, t h e r e are innumerable ways t o draw boundaries i n it,  can we not say t h a t t o become l i k e water i s to.become  every boundary t h a t e x i s t s i n the world?  T h i s may  sound a  38 little  f a r - f e t c h e d at t h i s stage, but  l a t e r on t h i s p o i n t  w i l l become c l e a r e r . Another meaning of the water symbol i n Chuang seems to concern, as i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  Tzu  case of Emerson, the problem of  socio-economic s t r u c t u r e .  With r e s p e c t  t h i s , J . Needham presents an i n t e r e s t i n g o p i n i o n Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China. r e l a t i o n s h i p between the water and  to  in his  After discussing a close feminine symbols i n the  18 early Taoist schools,  he proceeds to comment on  T a o i s t s ' a t t i t u d e toward f e u d a l i s m  i n ancient  the  China:  What, then, d i d the T a o i s t s propose as a n a l t e r n a - " t i v e to f e u d a l s o c i e t y ? They proposed nothing new, they d i d not look forward, and s t r i c t l y speaking, t h e r e f o r e , they were not r e v o l u t i o n a r y ; they looked back, and the type of s o c i e t y to which they wished to r e t u r n can have been n o t h i n g other than p r i m i t i v e t r i b a l c o l l e c t i v i s m . T h e i r i d e a l was the U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " n a t u r a l " c o n d i t i o n of l i f e , b e f o r e the i n s t i t u t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , b e f o r e the appearance of p r o t o - f e u d a l i s m w i t h i t s l o r d s and "high k i n g s , " i t s p r i e s t s , a r t i s a n s and augurs, at the b e g i n n i n g of the bronze age.19 Here, we  should note the words " c o l l e c t i v e " and  t i a t e d , " both of which could  a l s o be  the o t h e r hand, the f e u d a l system and  "undifferen-.  a p p l i e d t o water.  On  t h a t of p r i v a t e prop-  e r t y n e c e s s a r i l y presuppose the i n t r o d u c t i o n of boundaries between c l a s s e s and Therefore,  between s e l f - c o n t a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s .  u n d e r l i n i n g Chuang Tzu's water symbol can be  an. impulse to a b o l i s h a l l such boundaries.  On  the f u n c t i o n of the water image i n Chuang Tzu  this point differs  d i a m e t r i c a l l y from t h a t i n Emerson,.who, i n s p i t e of h i s e f f o r t t o achieve u n i t y by  seen  l i q u e f y i n g the w o r l d ,  still  r e t a i n s the i d e a o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m t h a t could induce the ideology  of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y  capitalistic  society.  and f r e e competition  under a  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s r e l a t e d t o the  l a s t t o p i c we are t o d e a l w i t h here i n comparing the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the m i r r o r  imagery i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu  —  the i d e a t h a t the w o r l d , e s p e c i a l l y human s o c i e t y , i s an i l l u s i o n or dream.  In Emerson one can see a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between the m i r r o r symbol and the world as an i l l u s i o n , f o r he compares the e x t e r n a l world t o the m i r r o r image. On the other hand, although the i d e a t h a t the w o r l d i s an i l l u s i o n or dream i s p r e v a l e n t  i n Chuang Tzu's thought,  it  t o f i n d any d i r e c t  seems d i f f i c u l t , a t f i r s t glance,  connection  between t h i s i d e a and the m i r r o r symbol used by  him, f o r i n Chuang Tzu the m i r r o r mainly stands f o r the calm s t a t e of mind o f the e n l i g h t e n e d .  However, we c o u l d  say t h a t t h i s serene s t a t e of mind can be achieved who regard  the world as i l l u s i o n  also  by those  and are not attached  to i t .  In f a c t , as i s c l e a r from the above passages about the image of the m i r r o r quoted from Chuang Tzu, the world i s a m i r r o r image r e f l e c t e d on the mind of the sage, the only being  difference  t h a t Chuang Tzu i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n the s u r f a c e of  the m i r r o r i t s e l f , w h i l e Emerson tends t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n t r a s t between the image i t s e l f and the s e e r .  (This  d u a l i s m of the seer and the seen seems t o be a t the b a s i s of Emerson's Now,  individualism.) l e t us f u r t h e r examine Chuang.Tzu's a t t i t u d e  40 toward the world.  The  i d e a t h a t the world  (as  represented  by human s o c i e t y ) i s i l l u s i o n . i s r a t h e r p r e v a l e n t Chuang Tzu,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the second chapter/  i n the  whose b a s i c  d o c t r i n e i s that every d i f f e r e n c e i n the w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g t h a t between r e a l i t y and a l l things  are one  and  chapter Chuang Tzu  dreams, i s r e l a t i v e and  the same.  writes:  For i n s t a n c e ,  ultimately in this  :  "He who dreams of d r i n k i n g wine may weep when morning comes; he who dreams of weeping may i n the morning go o f f to hunt. While he is"dreaming he does not know i t i s a dream, and i n h i s dream he may even t r y to i n t e r p r e t a dream. Only a f t e r he wakes does he know i t was a dream. And someday there w i l l be a great'awakening when we know t h a t t h i s i s a l l a great dream. Yet the s t u p i d b e l i e v e they are awake, b u s i l y and b r i g h t l y assuming they understand t h i n g s , c a l l i n g t h i s man r u l e r , t h a t one herdsman — how dense! Confucius and you are both dreaming! And when I say you are dreaming, I'am dreaming, too." (ch. 2, 47-48)  We  see  a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s passage and what  Emerson says: we  may  "...  presently  (Nature, I, 66).  the world i s a d i v i n e dream from which  awake t o the g l o r i e s and But what we  c e r t a i n t i e s of  day"  must note here i s t h a t Chuang  Tzu w r i t e s : "Confucius and you. are both dreaming!  And when  I say you  in a  are dreaming, I am dreaming, too,"  thus,  sense, c o n t r a d i c t i n g h i s f i r s t statement t h a t "someday w i l l be  a great  awakening when we  there  know t h a t t h i s i s a l l a  41 g r e a t dream."  We cannot  Emerson's I d e a l i s m .  see t h i s k i n d of t o t a l negation i n  F o r f u r t h e r examination  l e t us quote another passage from Emerson.  on t h i s p o i n t , J u s t b e f o r e the  above q u o t a t i o n Emerson says: I d e a l i s m s a i t h ; Matter i s a phenomenon, not a substance. I d e a l i s m acquaints us w i t h t o t a l d i s p a r i t y between the evidence o f our.own b e i n g , and the evidence o f the world's b e i n g . The one i s p e r f e c t ; the o t h e r , i n c a p a b l e o f any assurance . . . (Nature, 1, 66), I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g  t o compare t h i s w i t h another  story  of Chuang Tzu's about a dream: Once Chuang Chou dreamt he was a b u t t e r f l y , a b u t t e r f l y f l i t t i n g and f l u t t e r i n g around, happy w i t h h i m s e l f and doing as he p l e a s e d . He d i d n ' t know he was Chuang Chou. Suddenly he woke up and there he was, s o l i d and unmistakable Chuang Chou. But.he d i d n ' t know i f he was Chuang Chou who had dreamt he was a b u t t e r f l y , o r a b u t t e r f l y dreaming he was Chuang Chou. Between Chuang.Chou and a b u t t e r f l y there must be some d i s t i n c t i o n ! This i s c a l l e d the Transformation o f Things. (ch. 2, 49)  For Emerson the world i s a dream, but not the mind, so long as i t partakes o f the realm o f Ideas, whereas i n Chuang Tzu there i s no knowing which i s more r e a l , h i m s e l f o r the butterfly  i n a dream. :  He says t h e r e must be some d i s t i n c t i o n  between the two, but he f r e e l y metamorphoses from one t o the other, probably because he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the boundary i t s e l f  between h i m s e l f  ("reality")  and the b u t t e r f l y  (a  "dream").  In Emerson's a t t i t u d e toward the world as  i l l u s i o n there remains a shadow of an i n d i v i d u a l who to  tends  stand back from the world t o watch i t , whereas Chuang  Tzu's sage shows an i n c l i n a t i o n to immerse h i m s e l f i n the world, or more e x a c t l y , to i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f with the  boundary  between any.two o b j e c t s i n the w o r l d , whether they are a b u t t e r f l y and a man  or a dream.and r e a l i t y .  Here i s i l l u s -  t r a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e between Emerson and Chuang Tzu i n t h e i r approach t o the problem o f the world as an  illusive  image i n the m i r r o r : the former i s d u a l i s t i c , w h i l e the latter i s non-dualistic. This d i f f e r e n c e f u r t h e r leads us t o another t o p i c  —-  t h a t of transcendence, which seems to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the  t o p i c of the m i r r o r imagery surveyed above.  transcendence i s a problem of how ( i . e . , boundaries) imposed for  In a sense,  t o overcome the l i m i t a t i o n  upon human beings i n the form,  i n s t a n c e , of the i l l u s i v e i d e a o f the world.  Therefore,  by examining the nature of transcendence i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu, we  can hope t o c l a r i f y t h e i r n o t i o n s of boun-  d a r i e s and o r d e r ; We  can look at the concept -of transcendence from  p o i n t s of view: temporal and s p a t i a l .  L e t us f i r s t  two  examine  Emerson's n o t i o n of time and h i s t o r y , which i s expressed i n the  f o l l o w i n g passages  i n his writings:  There i s one mind common to a l l i n d i v i d u a l men. . . . Of the works o f t h i s mind h i s t o r y i s the record. ("History," I I , 9)  I f the whole o f h i s t o r y i s i n one man, i t i s a l l t o be e x p l a i n e d from i n d i v i d u a l experience. ("History," I I , 10) In the c y c l e of the u n i v e r s a l man, from whom the known i n d i v i d u a l s proceed, c e n t u r i e s are p o i n t s , and a l l h i s t o r y i s but the epoch o f one degradation. (Nature, I , 74) The  s p i r i t s p o r t s w i t h time, — "Can crowd e t e r n i t y i n t o an,hour, Or. s t r e t c h an hour t o e t e r n i t y . " ("The Over-Soul," I I , 256)  A c c o r d i n g t o these passages,  Emerson seems t o be s a y i n g t h a t  the i n d i v i d u a l can transcend h i s s h o r t l i f e  span and a t t a i n  e t e r n a l l i f e by r e a l i z i n g i n h i m s e l f the,power of the "one mind," the " u n i v e r s a l man," o r the " s p i r i t . " The same can be s a i d o f h i s n o t i o n o f space: Man i s t h e dwarf o f h i m s e l f . Once he was permeated and d i s s o l v e d by s p i r i t . He f i l l e d nature w i t h h i s o v e r f l o w i n g c u r r e n t s . Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from woman, the moon. (Nature, I , 74-75) He [each man] must s i t s o l i d l y a t home, and not s u f f e r h i m s e l f t o be b u l l i e d by kings o r empires, but know t h a t he i s g r e a t e r than a l l the geography and a l l the government of the world . . . ("History," I I , 14) By having recourse t o the power of the s p i r i t o r the OverS o u l , the i n d i v i d u a l can, transcend h i s i n d i v i d u a t e d ego t o become i n f i n i t e and e t e r n a l —  t h i s would be one aspect, i f  not the e n t i r e t y , o f Emerson's n o t i o n o f time and space. Chuang Tzu holds an extremely this.  s i m i l a r viewpoint t o  F o r example, he w r i t e s , "A man l i k e t h i s  [the P e r f e c t  Man] r i d e s the clouds and m i s t , s t r a d d l e s the sun and moon, and wanders beyond the f o u r seas"  (ch. 2, 46) " ^  \_fLA_~\  44 J ^ T E f i fv&L%&:4z4["  and :  There i s n o t h i n g i n the world b i g g e r than the t i p of an autumn h a i r , and Mount T ' a i i s t i n y . No one has l i v e d l o n g e r than a dead c h i l d , and P'eng-tsu d i e d young.20 Heaven and e a r t h were born at the same time I was, and the ten thousand t h i n g s are one w i t h me. (ch. 2, 43)  Judging from these passages  quoted above, we  are tempted t o  conclude t h a t both Emerson and Chuang Tzu are fundamentally the same i n t h e i r n o t i o n of t e m p o - s p a t i a l transcendence. However, a c l o s e r examination w i l l t e l l us t h a t t h i s i s not necessarily true.  The  f o l l o w i n g are some examples which  i n d i c a t e other aspects of Emerson's concept o t time: Power ceases i n the i n s t a n t of repose; i t r e s i d e s i n the moment of t r a n s i t i o n from a p a s t t o a new s t a t e , i n the s h o o t i n g of the g u l f , i n the d a r t i n g to an aim. ( " S e l f - R e l i a n c e , " I I , 69) The s o u l l o o k e t h s t e a d i l y forwards, c r e a t i n g a world b e f o r e her, l e a v i n g worlds behind her. ("The Over-Soul," I I , 2 57) The gases gather t o the s o l i d firmament: the chemic. lump a r r i v e s at the p l a n t , and grows; a r r i v e s at the quadruped, and walks; a r r i v e s at the man, and thinks. ("Uses of Great Men," IV, 16-17) A s u b t l e chain of c o u n t l e s s r i n g s The next unto the f a r t h e s t b r i n g s ; . The eye reads omens where i t goes, And speaks a l l languages the r o s e ; And, s t r i v i n g t o be man, the worm, Mounts through a l l the s p i r e s of form. (Nature, I, 7) Here we  can d e t e c t a sense of progress and e v o l u t i o n , and i n  t h i s sense Emerson's n o t i o n o f time and h i s t o r y i s l i n e a r or at l e a s t s p i r a l , which,  i n terms of space, i s d i r e c t e d upward.  45 In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , Chuang Tzu's concept of time i s c y c l i c : "At the end no t a i l ;  a t the b e g i n n i n g , no head" (ch.  14, 156) or end.  "The Way . . .  Decay, growth, f u l l n e s s , and emptiness  and then begin again" (ch. 17, 182) /^\ "^n  j^LTst! single  i s without b e g i n n i n g  "  :  jjGjgk j^-ifo . . .  "; "Beginning and end are p a r t of a  r i n g and no one can comprehend i t s p r i n c i p l e "  305)  end  |t  S%[ % tifc  •"  What i s more  (ch. 27,  interesting  i s t h a t even though Chuang Tzu has an e v o l u t i o n i s t i c  world-  view, u n l i k e t h a t of Emerson, h i s does not p l a c e mankind at the summit.  T h i s would be a n a t u r a l consequence of h i s  n o t i o n of c y c l i c time.  A good example of t h i s i s i n chapter  The seeds of t h i n g s have mysterious workings. In the water they become Break V i n e , on the edges of the water they become Frog's Robe. I f they sprout on the s l o p e s they become H i l l S l i p p e r s . If H i l l S l i p p e r s get r i c h s o i l , they t u r n i n t o Crow's F e e t . The r o o t s of Crow's Feet turn i n t o maggots and t h e i r leaves t u r n i n t o b u t t e r f l i e s . Before long the b u t t e r f l i e s are transformed and t u r n i n t o i n s e c t s t h a t l i v e under the stove; they look l i k e snakes and t h e i r name i s Ch'u-t'o. A f t e r a thousand days, the Ch'o-t'd i n s e c t s become b i r d s c a l l e d D r i e d L e f t o v e r Bones. The s a l i v a of the D r i e d L e f t o v e r Bones becomes Ssu-mi bugs and the Ssu-mi bugs become Vinegar E a t e r s . I - l o bugs are born from the V i n e g a r E a t e r s , and Huang-shuang bugs from Chiu-yu bugs. Chiu-yu bugs are born from Mou-jui bugs and Mou-jui bugs are born from Rot Grubs and Rot Grubs are born from Sheep's Groom. Sheep's Groom couples w i t h bamboo t h a t has not sprouted f o r a long w h i l e and produces Green Peace p l a n t s . Green Peace p l a n t s produce leopards and leopards produce horses and horses produce men. Men i n time r e t u r n again t o the mysterious workings. So a l l c r e a t u r e s come out of the mysterious workings and go b a c k . i n t o them again. (ch. 18, 195-196)  ^  I f Emerson's time i s l i n e a r , a t one l e v e l a t l e a s t , or s p i r a l and t h a t of Chuang Tzu i s c y c l i c , a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n seems to apply to t h e i r n o t i o n o f space:  Emerson's n o t i o n of  space i s , so to say, l i n e a r ; t h a t of Chuang Tzu, c i r c u l a r . T h i s w i l l become c l e a r e r by examining the image of h e i g h t used by them. Besides the.above-quoted poem used as an epigraph f o r Nature, we come across many other e x p r e s s i o n s of h e i g h t i n Emerson's w r i t i n g s : "We  ascend i n t o t h e i r  and know t h a t these are the thoughts  [Ideas'] r e g i o n ,  of the Supreme  (Nature, I , 60-61); "Our being i s descending know not whence"  ("The Over-Soul,"  Being"  i n t o us from we  I I , 252); " A l l t h i n g s  mount and mount" ('"Plato; or the P h i l o s o p h e r , " IV, 68); " A l l t h i n g s ascend, and the r o y a l r u l e of economy i s t h a t i t should ascend  a l s o , o r , whatever we do must always have a  h i g h e r aim" ("Wealth," V I , 121),  Thus here again, as i n the  case of the image of l i g h t , we can see the i n f l u e n c e of  47 P l a t o n i s m and Neo-Platonism  working  upon Emerson.  Their  f a v o r i t e symbol f o r the a b s o l u t e b e i n g i s the sun h i g h up i n heaven,(cf. p. 28)  and they o f t e n use the image of f l i g h t i n  d e s c r i b i n g the s o u l ' s r e t u r n from t h i s world t o the realm of 21 the Idea or the One.  The same can be s a i d of Emerson,  whose a t t e n t i o n seems t o be d i r e c t e d from one p l a c e (e.g., the earth) d i r e c t l y t o another  (e.g.,,the i d e a l w o r l d ) , thus  making h i s n o t i o n of s p a t i a l transcendence w i l l become c l e a r e r i f we ism i n terms of  linear.  This  examine h i s concept of i n d i v i d u a l -  transcendence.  F. 0. M a t t h i e s s e n points out t h a t one of the r e c u r r e n t images i n Emerson i s taken from the l a s t sentence of P l o t i nus' Enneads, which reads: " T h i s , t h e r e f o r e , i s the l i f e the Gods, and of d i v i n e and happy men; t e r r e n e concerns, a l i f e  of  a l i b e r a t i o n from a l l  unaccompanied w i t h human p l e a s u r e s , 22  and a f l i g h t of the alone to the alone."  One  o f the b e s t  examples t h a t r e f l e c t the image of "a f l i g h t of the alone t o the alone" i n Emerson's w r i t i n g s would be the l a s t  paragraph  of h i s " I l l u s i o n s " : There i s no chance and no anarchy i n the u n i v e r s e . A l l i s system and g r a d a t i o n . Every god i s there s i t t i n g i n h i s sphere. The young m o r t a l e n t e r s the h a l l of the firmament; there i s he alone w i t h them alone, they pouring on him b e n e d i c t i o n s and g i f t s , and beckoning him up t o t h e i r thrones. On the i n s t a n t , and i n c e s s a n t l y , f a l l snow-storms o f i l l u s i o n s . . . . And when, by and by, f o r an i n s t a n t , the a i r c l e a r s and the c l o u d l i f t s a l i t t l e , t h e r e are the gods s t i l l s i t t i n g around him on t h e i r thrones, — they alone w i t h him alone. (VI, 308) I t would not be d i f f i c u l t to r e p l a c e P l o t i n u s ' "the alone"  48 and Emerson's "they alone" and "him alone" w i t h "the i n d i vidual."  Thus we  can see in.Emersonian t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m a  s t r a i g h t . l i n e s t r e t c h i n g from one i n d i v i d u a l t o another, from man  as an i n d i v i d u a l on e a r t h t o the One,  another  i n d i v i d u a l , i n heaven or i n the noumenal w o r l d . Chuang Tzu's concept of space, i n c o n t r a s t , seems to have a c i r c u l a r nature.  I t i s t r u e t h a t , l i k e Emerson, he  a l s o uses the image of h e i g h t t o express h i s transcendence from the mundane world. the n e i p ' i e n ^  ^  Above a l l ,  the opening chapter of  (the i n n e r chapters) s t a r t s w i t h the  s t o r y about the g r e a t b i r d P' eng  which soars i n t o the sky  to move from the n o r t h e r n darkness t o the southern darkness. Other examples are: "He  [the T a o i s t sage] w i l l soon  the day and ascend f a r o f f " (ch. 5, 69) and "And  "<$J_3^0(f]  a f t e r a thousand y e a r s , should he  choose  £.ft'L'"  7  [the sage] weary  of the w o r l d , he w i l l leave i t and ascend t o the immortals, r i d i n g on those white clouds a l l the way of G o d "  23  (ch., 12, 130)  ^ ^ - ^ i ^ ^ ' "  "  up t o the d i s t r i c t  [Z*lA^-fj%M  Moreover,. the word t ' i e n  (-^:  i t ^rfp-fc-^^k literally,  24 heaven) i s o f t e n used by Chuang Tzu.  There are s u r e l y  some evidences t o show t h a t Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of space i s q u i t e s i m i l a r to t h a t of Emerson. However, we  should a l s o note t h a t i n Chuang Tzu  e a r t h l y images p l a y an important r o l e .  Before we g i v e  examples o f - t h i s , l e t us l i s t e n t o what M. Fukunaga says about Chuang Tzu's transcendence.  A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the  49 u n s t a b l e and m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n o f the people i n t h e Warring  States p e r i o d i n a n c i e n t China, t o which Chuang Tzu  belonged,  Fukunaga continues:  j£$i  )  The thought o f Chuang Tzu and Lao Tzu ( was not t h a t o f hope and b e l i e f which p r a i s e d the goodness and beauty o f humanity, but r a t h e r i t was a philosophy o f d e s p a i r and u n r e s t t h a t lamented over the i n c u r a b l e grimness and darkness of the human c o n d i t i o n . I t was a l s o the p h i l o s o p h y o f the oppressed who trembled w i t h f e a r from p o v e r t y , shame, and punishments, r a t h e r than t h a t o f t h e r u l e r s who were proud o f t h e i r power and depended upon t h e i r wealth. I t was not a q u i e t m e d i t a t i o n , but a l i f e f u l l of v i c i s s i t u d e s t h a t f i r s t e x i s t e d i n t h e i r thought. I t was not l i b e r a t e d t r a n s c e n d ence, but an i n c o n v e n i e n t r e a l i t y t h a t they had t o d e a l w i t h i n t h e i r philosophy a t f i r s t . Their philosophy taught n o t the way t o escape from the r e a l i t y of human s o c i e t y upward or outward, but the wisdom t o p i e r c e through down t o the bottom o f reality. The freedom and transcendence o f Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu l i e i n the a c t i o n of going down t o the bottom o f r e a l i t y . T h e i r transcendence was n o t h i n g but the f l i g h t toward the freedom t h a t p i e r c e d through every l i m i t a t i o n on freedom 0#13») down t o i t s bottom.25 T h i s would be the nature o f Chuang Tzu's transcendence, and probably t h i s i s why we o f t e n come across such p a r a d o x i c a l expressions as : "The sage leans on the sun and moon, tucks the u n i v e r s e under h i s arm, merges h i m s e l f w i t h t h i n g s , leaves the c o n f u s i o n and muddle as i t i s , and looks on s l a v e s as e x a l t e d " (ch. 2, 47) " ^  "; "His understanding  was p e r f e c t l y t r u e . (ch. of  %  BR^fe  t  lB% $ ^  JiUfcfc  was t r u l y t r u s t w o r t h y ; h i s v i r t u e  He never entered the realm o f 'not-man'"  7, 92) " ^ ^ • ^ ^ ^ - S t f ? ^ : ^  \1&^k  "; "He g o t r i d  the c a r v i n g and p o l i s h i n g and r e t u r n e d t o p l a i n n e s s ,  l e t t i n g h i s body stand alone l i k e a c l o d .  In t h e midst o f  50 entanglement  he remained  ended h i s l i f e "  (ch. 7 ,  s e a l e d , and i n t h i s oneness he 97)  and "He  "  fli^Kfl^l^±  &  [Chuang Tzu] came and went alone  w i t h the pure s p i r i t of Heaven and e a r t h , y e t he d i d not view the ten thousand t h i n g s w i t h arrogant eyes. scold its %  over ' r i g h t ' and  vulgarity"  (ch. 3 3 ,  He d i d not  'wrong,' but l i v e d w i t h the age 373)  iiC^^A.^^T^'Q^.."  " >$fj ig.  ^  and \<L  Chuang Tzu's t r a n s c e n d e n t a l man  seems t o f l y up i n t o heaven on the back of the g r e a t b i r d P'eng to p l a y w i t h the sun and moon, y e t as P'eng comes down to the southern darkness a f t e r the g r e a t f l i g h t , so does he come back t o the e a r t h (the s t a r t i n g p o i n t ) t o mingle w i t h the s l a v e - l i k e  life  of the o r d i n a r y people and t o accept  "the c o n f u s i o n and muddle as i t i s . "  His g o a l i s h i s  s t a r t i n g p o i n t ; h i s i d e a l world i s r i g h t i n the middle of. the s q u a l i d  r e a l i t y of everyday  life.  of the c i r c u l a r nature of h i s space and  Here i s the meaning transcendence.  Both Emerson and Chuang Tzu regard the world as i l l u s i o n , the mirage o f phenomena, but t h e i r approach it  i s d i f f e r e n t : Emerson sees a c l e a r - c u t  toward  d i s t i n c t i o n between  t h i s i l l u s i v e world and the r e a l world, the ordered realm of Idea where g e o m e t r i c a l laws of n e c e s s i t y r e i g n , and t r i e s t o transcend the boundary t o reach the l a t t e r once and f o r a l l .  26 For him "the v e i l of Maya must be p i e r c e d " ;  Chuang Tzu, on  the c o n t r a r y , f i n d s h i s transcendence! by immersing in  the c o n f u s i o n and entanglement  of t h i s world  himself  (i.e.,  Chaos).  51 We have examined the n o t i o n s of order and  boundaries  i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu from the four p o i n t s of view: language, v i s i o n , the m i r r o r , and transcendence. seen t h a t although Emerson seemingly denies actually  he i s a t t r a c t e d  language,  by i t and t r i e s t o f i l l  brought about by language by u s i n g language. a p p l i e s t o v i s i o n and h i s n o t i o n of beauty.  We•have  up the gaps  The same Vision,  like  language, i s a gap-maker, i . e . , a boundary-maker, i n t h i s world.  Out of the numerous boundaries, h i s v i s i o n  chooses  some and t r i e s t o compose an order and harmony i n t h i s w o r l d . But t h i s o r d e r and harmony, which i s h i s i d e a l , b e a u t y , has a strong p r e d i l e c t i o n  f o r g e o m e t r i c a l symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n  and t h e r e f o r e leaves out those t w i s t e d and i r r e g u l a r boundaries  t h a t do not f i t i n i t s geometric p a t t e r n .  Because of  t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y of the boundaries, he seems to conclude t h a t t h i s world i s imperfect.and i l l u s o r y . world i s a t r a n s i e n t  image r e f l e c t e d  To him  this  i n a m i r r o r , and the  r e a l world i s somewhere e l s e or hidden behind the mirror,, the v e i l of Maya.  Thus he has t o choose e i t h e r  this  imper-  f e c t world or t h a t i d e a l w o r l d , and i f he would take the l a t t e r , he has t o transcend t h i s w o r l d , t h a t i s , he has t o break through the m i r r o r s u r f a c e (the boundary) t o reach the other world.  In t h i s sense Emerson's a t t i t u d e  toward  order  and boundaries can be s a i d t o be d u a l i s t i c and .following the either/or  type of l o g i c .  What would be the l o g i c of Chuang Tzu, then?  To  answer t h i s q u e s t i o n l e t us b r i e f l y review h i s n o t i o n o f order and boundaries.  As i s c l e a r from the s t o r y o f Hun-tun  (Chaos) quoted a t the beginning s t r o n g l y denies  of t h i s chapter, Chuang Tzu  language, v i s i o n , and, f o r t h a t matter, a l l  other f u n c t i o n s o f the f i v e senses.  H i s approach i s t o be  e y e l e s s and immersed e n t i r e l y i n the speechless and b l i n d Chaos o f Tao where.the boundaries confused  and d i s o r d e r e d .  i s normally  among t h i n g s are completely  Therefore he does n o t r e j e c t what  considered grotesque  and u g l y .  I t looks ugly  and d i s o r d e r e d from the standpoint o f the Emersonian n o t i o n of beauty and order t h a t i s based on the symmetry and proportion of things.  A c t u a l l y f o r Chuang Tzu the t r u e harmony  and order may l i e i n asymmetry and d i s p r o p o r t i o n .  1  As he  says: He [the man o f k i n g l y V i r t u e ] sees i n the d a r k e s t dark, hears where there i s no sound. In the midst of darkness, he alone sees the dawn; i n the midst of the soundless, he alone hears harmony. (ch. 12, 128)  2- + *Bflf\**3t To see l i g h t i n the darkness i s soundless soundless  ( i . e . , e y e l e s s ) , t o hear what  ( i . e . , s p e e c h l e s s ) , and t o hear harmony i n the  (Chaos) —  these paradoxes are p o s s i b l e only when  one p l a c e s o n e s e l f at the boundary between two t h i n g s as l i g h t and darkness, disorder.  such  speech and s p e e c h l e s s n e s s , o r d e r and  T h i s would be what Chuang Tzu c a l l s l i a n g h s i n g 27  ^  (walking two roads)  and he o b v i o u s l y i s f o l l o w i n g the  53  n o n - d u a l i s t i c both/and  type of l o g i c .  This i s a n a t u r a l  r e s u l t of h i s becoming one w i t h Hun-tun, another name f o r the v e i l of Maya.  To him,  too, the world appears  as Maya's  v e i l , which i s woven w i t h a c o u n t l e s s number of threads ( i . e . , b o u n d a r i e s ) , some s t r a i g h t , some entangled.  However,  u n l i k e Emerson he does not p i e r c e the v e i l ; he t r i e s t o f o l l o w every t h r e a d i n the v e i l whether i t i s t w i s t e d or straight.  T h i s seems to be h i s way  of transcendence,  and of  f i n d i n g o r d e r and harmony i n the u n i v e r s e .  One  of the good  examples of t h i s k i n d of t r a n s c e n d e n t a l man  would be Lord  Wen-hui's cook i n the t h i r d chapter of Chuang Tzu: Cook T i n g was c u t t i n g up an ox f o r Lord Wen-hui. At every touch of h i s hand, every heave of h i s s h o u l d e r , every move of h i s f e e t , every t h r u s t of h i s knee — z i p ! zoop! He s l i t h e r e d the k n i f e along w i t h a z i n g , and a l l was i n p e r f e c t rhythm, as though he were performing the dance of the Mulberry Grove or keeping time t o the Ching-shou music. "Ah, t h i s i s marvelous!" s a i d Lord Wen-hui. "Imagine s k i l l r e a c h i n g such h e i g h t s ! " Cook T i n g l a i d down h i s k n i f e and r e p l i e d , "What I care about i s the Way, which goes beyond s k i l l . When I f i r s t began c u t t i n g up oxen, a l l I c o u l d see was the ox i t s e l f . A f t e r three years I no longer saw the whole ox. And now — now I go at i t by s p i r i t and don't look w i t h my eyes. P e r c e p t i o n and understanding have come t o a stop and s p i r i t moves where i t wants. I go along w i t h the n a t u r a l makeup, s t r i k e i n the b i g hollows, guide the k n i f e through the b i g openings, and f o l l o w t h i n g s as they are. So I never touch the s m a l l e s t - l i g a m e n t or tendon, much l e s s a main j o i n t . "A good cook changes h i s k n i f e once a year because he c u t s . A mediocre cook changes h i s k n i f e once a month . — because he hacks* I've had t h i s . k n i f e of mine f o r n i n e t e e n years and I've cut up thousands of oxen with i t , and y e t the blade i s as good as though i t had j u s t come from the g r i n d s t o n e .  54 There are spaces between the j o i n t s , and the blade of the k n i f e has r e a l l y no t h i c k n e s s . I f you i n s e r t what has no t h i c k n e s s i n t o such spaces, then there's p l e n t y of room — more than enough f o r the blade t o p l a y about i t . That's why a f t e r n i n e t e e n years the blade of my k n i f e i s s t i l l as good as when i t f i r s t came from the g r i n d s t o n e . "However, whenever I come t o a complicated p l a c e , I s i z e up the d i f f i c u l t i e s , t e l l m y s e l f . t o watch out and be c a r e f u l , keep my eyes on what I'm d o i n g , work very s l o w l y , and move the k n i f e w i t h the g r e a t e s t s u b t l e t y , u n t i l — f l o p ! the whole t h i n g comes apart l i k e a c l o d of e a r t h crumbling t o the ground. I stand there h o l d i n g the k n i f e and look a l l around me, completely s a t i s f i e d and r e l u c t a n t to move on, and then I wipe o f f the k n i f e and put i t away." " E x c e l l e n t ! " s a i d Lord Wen-hui. "I have heard the words of Cook T i n g and l e a r n e d how t o care f o r life!" (ch. 3, 50-51)  + i t - f zA  4$ n % ILW^  a  5C £  QH  t ftmtf  ffij  *t**? ^ ^  jft * ^  ^ >«A  it t  £ L £ ^ L £ / | J i M j f o  &  i f t f  ^  I * L f k&-it.fr] ^ ^ / j ^4^31  ^ jfe s] & * i i t - r t  ttfc  +  flp  £4fr*£**  NOTES TO CHAPTER I "^A. Wilden, System and S t r u c t u r e : Essays - i n Communic a t i o n and Exchange (London, 1977), p. 25.  2 There i s a n . i n t r i n s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n here, because Chuang Tzu i s n e g a t i n g language through language. Thus he i s a t once denying and a f f i r m i n g language. T h i s l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y seems to come from the fundamentally c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of the u n i v e r s e . Further, d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s p o i n t w i l l be done i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters ( c f . pp. 6 7 - 6 8 ,  133).  3  Watson, t r . , The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, pp. 43-44. F i g u r e s i n parentheses a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n s from the Chuang Tzu r e f e r t o t h i s e d i t i o n .  115,  4  Needham, Science and C i v i l i s a t i o n m  China, I I , p.  5 • -  E. W.. Emerson and W. E. Forbes, eds. , The J o u r n a l s of Ralph Waldo Emerson, V o l . I (Boston and New York, 1909-  1914),  14-15.  ^F. O. M a t t h i e s s e n , American Renaissance: A r t and E x p r e s s i o n i n the Age of Emerson and Whitman (New York,  1966), p.  18.  7  With r e s p e c t to t h i s , D. Ross says: "Both £ cS^J and [8£<i are d e r i v e d from {.SfetV , 'to see,' and the o r i g i n a l meaning of both words i s no doubt ' v i s i b l e form,'" (Ross, P l a t o ' s Theory of Ideas [Oxford, 1951], p. 1 3 ) . g M a t t h i e s s e n , p. 51.  9 I b i d . , p. 50. "^Cf. a l s o Emerson's poem "Two  Rivers."  ^ E m e r s o n and Forbes, eds., J o u r n a l s , V I I I ,  43-44.  12 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t immediately a f t e r the passage quoted from Ross i n the above note (7), Ross continues: " T a y l o r made i n V a r i a S o c r a t i c a a comprehensive study of the usage of the words i n Greek l i t e r a t u r e b e f o r e P l a t o , and came t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the usage which we f i n d i n P l a t o and o c c a s i o n a l l y elsewhere has i t s o r i g i n i n a Pythagorean use of these terms i n the sense of g e o m e t r i c a l  55  56 p a t t e r n or f i g u r e " (Ross, p. 13). Although C. M. G i l l e s p i e denies T a y l o r ' s c o n c l u s i o n , he s t i l l admits t h a t Pythagorean elements i n P l a t o ' s i d e a seem to have been a " c o l l a t e r a l growth" (Ross, pp. 13-14). Ross a l s o i n t r o d u c e s H. C. B a l d r y ' s theory t h a t " P l a t o ' s usage of the terms eUS"} and l£6<fi. , and indeed 'the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of P l a t o ' s metap h y s i c s , ' were reached by a f u s i o n of S o c r a t e s ' t e a c h i n g about moral v a l u e s w i t h the Pythagorean t e a c h i n g about number-patterns" (Ross, p. 14)>. Whether P l a t o ' s " i d e a " i s d e r i v e d from Pythagorean g e o m e t r i c a l { p a t t e r n s or not, i t seems h i g h l y probable t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n of v i s i o n and i t s cognate " i d e a " have a s t r o n g p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r geometry, judging from Emerson's remarks i n h i s j o u r n a l f o r September, 1845: ". . . a n admirable passage concerning P l a t o ' s express i o n t h a t God geometrizes. — M o r a l s , v o l . i i i " and from v a r i o u s o t h e r passages quoted from him;°in t h i s t h e s i s ( c f . pp. 25-27, 76-78). I t i s i n t h i s c o n t e x t that.we should i n t e r p r e t the word " c i r c l e " used by Emerson i n the q u o t a t i o n s on page 2 6 of t h i s t h e s i s , which, a t f i r s t s i g h t , seems t o i n d i c a t e h i s c i r c u l a r and c y c l i c n o t i o n s of space and time. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be v a l i d t o some e x t e n t ( c f . p. 81), but as we have seen above, Emerson's concept of c i r c l e seems to show a predominant i n c l i n a t i o n toward g e o m e t r i c a l p r e c i s i o n which seems t o be i n s e p a r a b l y connected w i t h h i s concept of transcendence of the w o r l d , which, i n t u r n , makes h i s n o t i o n o f space r a t h e r l i n e a r ( c f . pp. 46-48). C f . a l s o F. Capra, The Tao of P h y s i c s (Berkeley, 1975), p. 257. 13 C f . Brown, "Emerson's P l a t o n i s m " ; V. Hopkins, "Emerson and Cudworth: P l a s t i c Nature and T r a n s c e n d e n t a l A r t , " American L i t e r a t u r e , 23 (1951), 80-98.  14  M a t t h i e s s e n , pp. 68-70.  15  Brown, p.  326.  "^Matthiessen, pp. 64-65. 17 My t r a n s l a t i o n based on Watson.  18  Needham, pp.  1 9  I b i d . , p.  57ff.  104.  20 S a i d t o have l i v e d t o an i n c r e d i b l y o l d age (Watson's n o t e ) . 21 For example, i n h i s Phaedrus, P l a t o w r i t e s : "The s o u l i n her t o t a l i t y has the care of inanimate b e i n g everywhere, and t r a v e r s e s the whole heaven i n d i v e r s forms a p p e a r i n g ; — when p e r f e c t and f u l l y winged she soars  57 upward, and orders the whole world . . ." (B. Jowett, t r . , The Dialogues o f P l a t o , V o l . I l l [Oxford, 1953], 153). And P l o t i n u s w r i t e s i n h i s Enneads; "But how s h a l l we f i n d the way? What method can we d e v i s e ? . . . T h i s would be t r u e a d v i c e , 'Let us f l y t o our c o u n t r y " (A. H. Armstrong, P l o t i n u s [London, 1953], p. 137). C f . a l s o .Plotinus' famous remarks a t .the end of Enneads, quoted i n t h i s t h e s i s (p. 47). 1  22 M a t t h i e s s e n , p. 68. 23 My t r a n s l a t i o n , based on Watson. 24 Although the term t ' i e n l i t e r a l l y means heaven, i n r e a l i t y f o r Chuang Tzu i t meant Nature. C f . Chan,. A Source Book i n Chinese P h i l o s o p h y , pp. 190-193, 205-207; Watson, p. 25; Fung, Chuang Tzu, pp. 44-45. 25  M. Fukunaga, S 5 s h i ; Naihen (Tokyo, 1970), p. 153. T r a n s l a t i o n mine. A. C h r i s t y , The O r i e n t i n American .Transcendentalism (New York, 1932), p. 123. Watson, p. 41.  CHAPTER I I ORDER AND LAW In the p r e v i o u s chapter we reached the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n s o f order and boundaries  are e s s e n t i a l l y  founded on the e i t h e r / o r type of l o g i c , whereas those of Chuang Tzu are founded on the both/and type,of l o g i c .  These  two types o f l o g i c may a l s o be c a l l e d the l o g i c o f Logos and t h a t o f Chaos, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the d i f f e r e n c e between the two seems.to be r e f l e c t e d i n Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's concepts  of order and law.  T h i s chapter, then, w i l l  attempt  to show how Emerson's n o t i o n s o f law and order are fundament a l l y L o g o c e n t r i c , w h i l e those o f Chuang Tzu are Chaosoriented. To f u r t h e r our d i s c u s s i o n i t seem necessary t o g i v e a g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f law i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the n o t i o n of o r d e r .  I t goes without s a y i n g t h a t "law" i s an i n d i s p e n -  s a b l e concept  i n c o n s i d e r i n g the n o t i o n o f o r d e r , f o r the  broadest d e f i n i t i o n of law i s t h a t i t i s "a p r i n c i p l e t h a t connotes o r d e r , whether t h i s be the order o f the p h y s i c a l universe o r that of m o r a l i t y . "  1  .It i s with t h i s b a s i c d e f i -  n i t i o n o f law i n mind t h a t we should begin our i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the concepts  o f law and order i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu.  In the process of our examination we s h a l l focus our a t t e n t i o n on s e v e r a l aspects o f law such as e t e r n a l law ( d i v i n e  58  59 law), the laws of Nature  ( p h y s i c a l law), n a t u r a l law  law of r e a s o n ) , and human ( p o s i t i v e ) law. attempt to show how  (the  T h i s chapter  will  Emerson's n o t i o n o f law and order i s  e s s e n t i a l l y L o g o c e n t r i c , w h i l e t h a t of Chuang Tzu i s Chaosoriented. In the l a s t chapter we  saw  both Emerson's and Chuang  Tzu's a t t i t u d e s toward language: Emerson's approach toward language i s p o s i t i v e ; t h a t of Chuang Tzu, n e g a t i v e .  This  d i f f e r e n c e seems to serve as a c l u e t o understanding  the  n o t i o n s of " d i v i n e law" i n the works of these two w r i t e r s . In the G r e c o - p h i l o s o p h i c and J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , t h i s d i v i n e law  ( p r i n c i p l e ) of the u n i v e r s e i s o f t e n  expressed by the Greek word f o r language or speech, l o g o s . Since Emerson shows a s t r o n g p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r speech, we  may  s a f e l y assume t h a t h i s n o t i o n o f - d i v i n e law would be Logoso r i e n t e d , whereas Chuang Tzu's n e g a t i v e approach to language r e q u i r e s us to search f o r another  s u i t a b l e term to d e s c r i b e  2 h i s concept.of  " d i v i n e law;"  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s of such  a  term would of course be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those of Logos. In order to continue our d i s c u s s i o n of these p o i n t s we  need t o c l a r i f y the meaning of the word l o g o s .  According  t o The E n c y c l o p a e d i a of P h i l o s o p h y , the Greek noun l o g o s , d e r i v e d from the verb l e g o , "I say," has  the f o l l o w i n g  meanings : "word, speech, argument, e x p l a n a t i o n , . d o c t r i n e esteem, numerical computation,  measure, p r o p o r t i o n , p l e a , 3  p r i n c i p l e , and reason  (whether human or d i v i n e ) .  It i s  60 s a i d t h a t H e r a c l i t u s of Ephesus  (c. 535-475 B.C.)  first  used  the word logos t o denote the d i v i n e law of the u n i v e r s e which i s i n a s t a t e of constant change.  However, t h i s i s r e f u t e d  4  by some s c h o l a r s ,  and so i t may  be s a f e not t o draw any  d e c i s i v e c o n c l u s i o n concerning H e r a c l i t u s ' " L o g o s - d o c t r i n e , " except t h a t Logos can mean " d i v i n e law" apart from the Heraclitean context. Logos has a l s o been equated w i t h P l a t o n i c Ideas, NeoP l a t o n i c Nous (Reason), and w i t h "the Word of God" Gospel of St. John.  i n the  The c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p among Idea, Nous,  and the Johannine Logos may  be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g  passage  from F. C. Happold's M y s t i c i s m : A Study and an Anthology: I t [Nous] i s the D i v i n e Mind and a l s o the World of Forms and Ideas i n the P l a t o n i c sense. . . . C h r i s t i a n Neoplatonism equated the Logos o f S t . John's Gospel, the.Second Person of the T r i n i t y , the d i v i n e A c t i v i t y , the World P r i n c i p l e , the That which i s the b a s i s of the m a n i f o l d , and which was i n c a r n a t e i n Jesus C h r i s t , w i t h the Nous of Plotinus. Both Clement and O r i g e n . c a l l the Logos the Idea of Ideas.5 Needless t o say, the c o n n o t a t i o n s of Logos vary from one s c h o o l t o another.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , as we  can surmise from the  above passage from Happold, t h e r e seems t o be an obvious common denominator u n d e r l y i n g these s c h o o l s of thought and religion.  As we have seen e a r l i e r  ( c f . p. 12, n. 2 ) , t h i s  common f e a t u r e seems t o be the b i f u r c a t i n g as w e l l as u n i t i n g f u n c t i o n of Logos.  We  can see t h i s tendency toward  u n d e r l y i n g almost a l l the meanings of logos c i t e d Furthermore, we  division  above.  should a l s o remember.the f o l l o w i n g :  Neo-  P l a t o n i s m i s d e r i v e d from Platonism; many s c h o l a r s agree t h a t the author of the Johannine  Gospel was  w e l l aware o f ,  and most probably i n f l u e n c e d by, the " L o g o s - d o c t r i n e " of P h i l o Judaeus, who  attempted  t o s y n t h e s i z e Greek p h i l o s o p h y  ( e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of P l a t o and the S t o i c s ) and the t r a d i t i o n of the Word (Memra) of God Logos.  Thus we  can say t h a t Logos  P l a t o n i c ) , Reason, language extremely  through  Biblical  the d o c t r i n e of  ( P l a t o n i c and  (word), and d i v i n e law  Neoare  c l o s e t o each other i n t h e i r c o n n o t a t i o n s .  With t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Logos i n mind, l e t us f i r s t examine how  c l o s e l y i t i s r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n  of order and d i v i n e law i n Emerson, who  was  both educated  as-  a C h r i s t i a n m i n i s t e r and i n f l u e n c e d by Greek p h i l o s o p h y . Although Emerson seldom mentions the - term l o g o s , he o f t e n uses other cognate words and e x p r e s s i o n s , such as intellect,  idea,  7  thoughts, the word, God,  the  reason,  Over-Soul,  8  9  S p x r x t u a l Laws, analogy, are from Nature and  etc.  The  f o l l o w i n g two  examples  "Fate":  Man i s conscious of a u n i v e r s a l s o u l w i t h i n or behind h i s i n d i v i d u a l l i f e , wherein, as i n . a f i r m a ment, the natures of J u s t i c e , T r u t h , Love, Freedom, a r i s e and s h i n e . T h i s u n i v e r s a l s o u l he c a l l s — Reason. And the b l u e sky i n which the p r i v a t e e a r t h i s b u r i e d , the sky w i t h i t s e t e r n a l calm, and f u l l of e v e r l a s t i n g orbs, i s the type.of Reason. That which i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d we c a l l Reason, c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o n a t u r e , we c a l l S p i r i t . S p i r i t i s the C r e a t o r . S p i r i t hath >life i n i t s e l f . And man i n a l l ages and c o u n t r i e s embodies i t i n h i s language as the F a t h e r . ( I , 33) H i s t o r y i s the a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n of these two — Nature and Thought; two boys pushing each other on  the curbstone of the pavement. . . . W h i l s t the man i s weak, the e a r t h takes up him. He p l a n t s h i s b r a i n and a f f e c t i o n s . By and by he w i l l take up the e a r t h , and have h i s gardens and vineyards i n the b e a u t i f u l order and p r o d u c t i v e n e s s of h i s thought. (VI, 46) Other examples are: "The  i n t e l l e c t searches  out the  order of t h i n g s as they stand i n the mind of God, the c o l o r s of a f f e c t i o n "  absolute  and  without  (Nature, I , 28); "In i n q u i r i e s  r e s p e c t i n g the laws of the world  and the frame of t h i n g s ,  the h i g h e s t reason i s always the t r u e s t "  ( I b i d . , 70);  "But  when the f a c t i s seen under the l i g h t of an i d e a , the gaudy f a b l e fades and s h r i v e l s .  We  behold the r e a l h i g h e r  ( I b i d . , 78); "That s o u l which w i t h i n us i s a o u t s i d e of us i s a law" man  Judging  sentiment,  ("Compensation," I I , 99),;  i s the word made f l e s h "  law"  ". . . a  ( " S e l f - R e l i a n c e , " I I , 75-76).  from these q u o t a t i o n s , we  can say t h a t Emerson's  n o t i o n of d i v i n e law and order i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d by the term Logos, whose v a r i o u s meanings we t h i n g s which should be noted  have examined above.  One  i n p a s s i n g , however, i s t h a t  although Logos has v a r i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s , most of them c e n t e r around the mind or i n t e l l e c t .  This i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n  the above passages quoted from Emerson, e s p e c i a l l y i n the passage from "Fate."  T h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the mind would  be the main reason why-,  i n s p i t e . o f the c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  of emphasis p l a c e d on the importance of N a t u r e , ^ n o t i o n of order and  law tends  Emerson's  to.be a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c , and  thus somewhat a l i e n to the ideas of Chuang Tzu. Chuang Tzu's world view i s N a t u r e - o r i e n t e d , t h a t i s ,  63 Chaos-oriented.  T h i s becomes c l e a r e r when we  n o t i o n of " d i v i n e law"  or " e t e r n a l law,"  Emerson's L o g o c e n t r i c concept of d i v i n e  examine h i s  and compare i t w i t h law.  In the f i r s t p l a c e , l e t us determine whether Chuang Tzu's " e t e r n a l law"  c o n t a i n s any  elements t h a t bear  i t i e s w i t h the concepts of Logos. term l i _ of Tao  One  of Heaven) , t a l i  as t ' i e n l i  wu  equivalent  (the p r i n c i p l e s  chTh l i 7 f ^  $S£L  (the p r i n c i p l e s  t ' i e n t i c h i h l i ^ - ^ t . 7L 5fL (the.  of ten thousand t h i n g s ) , and  p r i n c i p l e s of Heaven and E a r t h ) . o r i g i n a l l y meant "the  According  t o Needham, the  ' p a t t e r n ' i n t h i n g s , the  markings i n jade or the f i b r o u s t e x t u r e of muscle, and l a t e r a c q u i r e d i t s standard ple.'" "'" 1  the  ££ (Great. P r i n c i p l e ) , ch.'eng l i ifc £f. (the  p r i n c i p l e s of growth) , wan  word l i .  example would be  , which Chuang Tzu o f t e n employs as an  i n such expressions  similar-  d i c t i o n a r y meaning of  L a t e r the concept of l _ i  the Neo-Confucian,scholar  Chu  was  only  'princi-  f u l l y developed by  H s i ^ . J - (1131-1200 A.D.),  attempted to r e v i t a l i z e the d e c l i n i n g Confucianism  who  of h i s  time by borrowing v a r i o u s elements from Taoism and Buddhism. I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s to present d i s c u s s i o n of Chu  a detailed  H s i ' s concept of L i here, but as Needham  p o i n t s out, i t i s obvious t h a t a c l o s e connection e x i s t s between the Tao  of the a n c i e n t T a o i s t s and the L i of  Chu  12 Hsi,  and  thus between the T a o i s t Lx and the L i of Chu  Hsx.  What i s n o t a b l e here i s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to Needham, many o c c i d e n t a l s i n o l o g i s t s t r a n s l a t e d Chu  Hsi's L i i n t o  such Western terms as P l a t o n i c - A r i s t o t e l i a n Form, n a t u r a l (scientific) spermatikos  law, Vernunft  (Reason),  (the Seminal Logos) .  and the S t o i c  logos  Although Needham i s very-  s k e p t i c a l about these t r a n s l a t i o n s and suggests h i s  own  14 v e r s i o n " P r i n c i p l e of O r g a n i s a t i o n " deny t h a t the term l i  £C  i n s t e a d , we  cannot  has some elements t h a t tempted  Western s c h o l a r s t o equate i t w i t h Logos, reason, form, and so on.  B e s i d e s , the word l i  Chinese e x p r e s s i o n as l i h s i n g or  i s used i n such a.modern ^•[t  to mean " r a t i o n a l i t y "  "reason." Taking a l l these f a c t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t seems  t h a t Chuang Tzu's L i , which doubtless i s one of the b a s i c concepts  f o r Chu H s i ' s L i , has some aspects t h a t remind us  of the n o t i o n of Logos.. I f we  are t o choose one  concept  from Chuang Tzu's terminology which would be s i m i l a r t o the concept of Logos, then L i 2fL would be the b e s t c h o i c e . t h i s sense we  can say t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n of e t e r n a l  In law  and t h a t of Chuang Tzu are s i m i l a r t o each o t h e r . A t the same time, however, we  should not f o r g e t t h a t  L i i s subsumed i n Tao, which, i n Chuang Tzu, i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h Hun-tun or Chaos — - the e y e l e s s  (dark), mouthless  (speechless) p r i m o r d i a l s t a t e of the u n i v e r s e .  When d e a l t  w i t h on the same l e v e l , which Emerson o f t e n seems t o do ( c f . pp. 93 , 117 , 121-123-, 146-147 / 15Q-151-) , the two n o t i o n s of Hun-tun (Chaos) and Logos seem t o be i n c o m p a t i b l e , the promi n e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l a t t e r being speech  (whether  human,or d i v i n e ) and is  one  light  ( c f . Johannine G o s p e l ) .  This  of the d i f f e r e n c e s between Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of  e t e r n a l law and order represented by L i and Tao  (Chaos),  and  the ideas of Emerson, which.are q u i t e L o g o c e n t r i c , t h a t i s , intellectual,  speech-orientedand  There i s another  f u l l of images of  d i f f e r e n c e between the two  seems to l i e i n the n o t i o n of Hun-tun. the f i r s t  As we  light.  which  have seen i n  chapter, Hun-tun i s a s t a t e o f the u n i v e r s e i n  which no c l e a r - c u t boundaries  or d i s t i n c t i o n s . e x i s t s .  T h e r e f o r e , i n a world view w i t h Hun-tun as i t s c e n t e r , no t r a n s c e n d e n t a l supreme b e i n g t h a t e x i s t s apart from t h i s world  can be supposed, to say nothing of an anthropomorphic,  celestial  l a w - g i v e r , whose v e s t i g e s are c l e a r l y seen i n  Emerson's n o t i o n s of, a d i v i n e being and i t s law  ( c f . the  16 above q u o t a t i o n from Nature, another  important  I, 33).  T h i s seems t o be  d i f f e r e n c e between Chuang Tzu and Emerson  concerning the n o t i o n of e t e r n a l law. The  l a s t * but not l e a s t , d i f f e r e n c e between the  would be i n the anthropocentrism  u n d e r l y i n g the Logos-  o r i e n t e d n o t i o n of the d i v i n e law of Emerson. pocentrism  seems to, have a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  This anthro- . with,the  somewhat anthropomorphic nature of Emerson's c e l e s t i a l giver.  law-  I f , . a s i s the case w i t h Emerson, there i s a d i r e c t  connection between the d i v i n e law-giver if  two  only i n the spheres  (God)  and man,  of the mind, i n t e l l e c t , and  then i t i s q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t man  even  spirit,  i s considered to be  the  66 c e n t e r and the r u l e r o f the u n i v e r s e . ". . . a l l The man  t h i n g s preach the i n d i f f e r e n c y of  is all"  from every other being to him" of anthropocentrism the reasons  circumstance.  ("Compensation," I I , 116), and  p l a c e d i n the c e n t r e of beings,,and  "He  [man]  a ray of r e l a t i o n  (Nature, I , 33).  i s r a r e l y seen i n Chuang Tzu.  is  passes  This kind One  of  f o r t h i s can be seen i n the f a c t t h a t Chuang  Tzu's n o t i o n of e t e r n a l Hun-tun  A c c o r d i n g t o Emerson,  (or u l t i m a t e ) law^ which i s based  on  (Chaos), does not presuppose any supreme being  transcendent of t h i s world.  Thus we  can say t h a t although  Chuang Tzu's concept of e t e r n a l law resembles  t h a t of Emerson  i n i t s concept of L i , the resemblance i s a p a r t i a l one:  the  former i s Chaos-oriented, w h i l e the l a t t e r i s L o g o c e n t r i c . In order t o f u r t h e r our d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n t r a s t between Chaos and Logos and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the n o t i o n of law and order i n . t h e works of Emerson and Chuang Tzu,  we  need f i r s t t o c o n s i d e r the a t t i t u d e of each w r i t e r toward logic. as we  The word l o g i c saw  ( l o g i k o s ) i s d e r i v e d from logos which,  above, means o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e , and so, by  examining.the  nature of Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's l o g i c  we  can hope t o c l a r i f y some aspects of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n o t i o n s of order and  law.  In the l a s t chapter we  reached  the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t  Emerson's l o g i c shows an i n c l i n a t i o n toward the e i t h e r / o r type of l o g i c , whereas t h a t of Chuang Tzu tends toward the both/and type of l o g i c .  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e seems t o correspond  to  t h a t between Logos and Chaos f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons:  s i n c e the e t y m o l o g i c a l meanings of Logos are speech, word, g a t h e r i n g , c o u n t i n g , r a t i o , and measure, a l l of which are based  on boundaries, Logos can be s a i d t o have a c l o s e  17 r e l a t i o n s h i p with b i f u r c a t i o n ,  which i s the b a s i s of the  e i t h e r / o r type of l o g i c ; Chaos, on the other hand, has innumerable  boundaries  in itself,  and so by f o l l o w i n g every  one of them, i . e . , by becoming one w i t h Chaos, one achieve cosmic harmony and o r d e r . h s i n g $\ <f=j (walking two Thus we of  This i s c a l l e d  can liang  roads) or the both/and type of  logic  can say t h a t Logos has a c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o the  logic  e i t h e r / o r , and Chaos t o t h a t of both/and.  difficult  I t i s not  to see t h a t the former type of l o g i c i s the b a s i s  f o r A r i s t o t e l i a n formal l o g i c which c o n s i s t s i n the laws of i d e n t i t y , c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and the excluded middle  (thus we  can see another correspondence  formal  between Logos and  l o g i c ) , w h i l e the l a t t e r type of l o g i c leads us t o a " l o g i c " which i s an exact r e v e r s a l of formal l o g i c . t h i s the l o g i c of Chaos.)  (We may  In f a c t , i t i s not so much " l o g i c  as a l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n by the standards.of formal as the f o l l o w i n g examples w i l l The  language h e . s t i l l  atti-  In s p i t e of h i s s t r o n g negation of  wrote a book, Chuang Tzu.  he denies language.  logic,  indicate.  f i r s t example can be seen i n Chuang Tzu's  tude toward language.  call  Here we  encounter  tency t o t h a t found i n such statements  Using language  a similar  inconsis-  as-"I am l y i n g , "  and  68 "Do  not read t h i s sentence."  T h i s k i n d of paradox seems t o  l i e behind the s o - c a l l e d double binds  (paradoxical injunc-  tions) .  Chuang Tzu had  to commit t h i s l o g i c a l  probably  because, as w i l l become c l e a r e r i n the next  ( c f . p. i33) , .the s t r u c t u r e of the u n i v e r s e on a double b i n d .  For Chuang Tzu, one way  predicament i s t o use allows him  inconsistency, chapter  i t s e l f i s based to solve  this  the both/and type of l o g i c , which  to ignore what i s f o r b i d d e n by the laws of  c o n t r a d i c t i o n and  the excluded middle.  By the standard  t h i s l o g i c Chuang Tzu's a t t i t u d e toward language i s not  of a  contradiction. T h i s l o g i c of Chuang Tzu seems t o be r e f l e c t e d i n h i s l i t e r a r y device.  Since he i s t r y i n g to express what i s  e s s e n t i a l l y i n e f f a b l e , h i s language p a r a d o x i c a l and  oblique.  inevitably.becomes  He u s u a l l y does not make a s t r a i g h t -  forward f r o n t a l a t t a c k on the p o i n t he but r a t h e r employs' a negative  intends t o  approach u s i n g such means as  the s a t i r i c a l y e t humorous anecdote and  the  debate " t h a t s t a r t s out sounding completely sober, and ends by reducing inanity." One  clarify,  pseudological rational  and  language t o a g i b b e r i n g  1 8  of the examples of such p s e u d o l o g i c a l  discussions,  which can a l s o be another i n s t a n c e of Chuang Tzu's both/and type of l o g i c , . i s i n the well-known debate between Chuang Tzu and h i s f r i e n d , Hui Tzu % - \ ' Chuang Tzu and Hui Tzu were s t r o l l i n g along  the  69 dam o f the Hao R i v e r when Chuang Tzu s a i d , "See how the minnows come out and d a r t around where they p l e a s e ! That's what f i s h r e a l l y enjoy!" Hui Tzu s a i d , "You're n o t a f i s h — h o w know what f i s h enjoy?"  do you  Chuang Tzu s a i d , "You're n o t I , so how do you know I don't know what f i s h enjoy?" Hui Tzu s a i d , "I'm n o t you, so I c e r t a i n l y don't know what you know. On the other hand, you're c e r t a i n l y n o t a f i s h — so t h a t s t i l l proves you don't know what f i s h enjoy!" Chuang Tzu s a i d , "Let's go back t o your o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n , p l e a s e . You asked me how I know what f i s h enjoy —— so you a l r e a d y knew I knew i t when you asked the q u e s t i o n . I know i t by s t a n d i n g here b e s i d e the Hao." (ch. 17, 188-189)  To Hui Tzu, a renowned l o g i c a n , Chuang Tzu's viewpoint i s sheer nonsense.  I t v i o l a t e s the law o f i d e n t i t y  (or c o n t r a -  d i c t i o n ) by c o n f u s i n g s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , i . e . , Chuang Tzu and the f i s h , thus b r i n g i n g d i s o r d e r i n t o the o r d e r o f formal l o g i c .  However, a c c o r d i n g , t o Chuang Tzu, Hui Tzu's  e i t h e r / o r type o f l o g i c i s the very cause of the d i s o r d e r s brought  about i n the Great Order o f Nature o r Hun-tun.  world o f Hun-tun i s the p l a c e where t h e both/and epistemology h o l d s t r u e , where beings " f e e l " correspondence  The  type of  the i n n e r  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h i n g s r a t h e r than  " s p e c u l a t e " or " r a t i o c i n a t e " about the apparent  distinctions  70 and  oppositions  God  and  between s u b j e c t  the u n i v e r s e ,  etc.  and  o b j e c t , man  What Chuang Tzu  and  Nature,  i s interested in  seems t o be the hidden r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h i n g s ,  the  s o - c a l l e d " p a r t i c i p a t i o n mystique." Emerson's approach, i n c o n t r a s t , seems to approximate t h a t of Hui Tzu, but before we  can reach t h i s c o n c l u s i o n  we  need to take a c l o s e r look at Emerson's l o g i c , f o r sometimes Emerson seems t o assume e x a c t l y the same a t t i t u d e as does Chuang Tzu  toward the problem of l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n .  i n s t a n c e , i n " S e l f - R e l i a n c e " he  For  writes:  A f o o l i s h c o n s i s t e n c y i s the hobgoblin of l i t t l e minds, adored by l i t t l e statesmen and p h i l o s o p h e r s and d i v i n e s . With c o n s i s t e n c y a great s o u l has simply nothing to do. He may as w e l l concern h i m s e l f w i t h h i s shadow on the w a l l . Speak what you t h i n k now i n hard words and tomorrow speak what tomorrow t h i n k s i n hard words again, though i t c o n t r a d i c t every t h i n g you s a i d to-day. ( I I , 58) This would seem to be the source of the n o t o r i o u s ency i n Emerson's w r i t i n g s .  I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t they  i n c o n s i s t e n t , because the author h i m s e l f d e c l a r e s does not care about c o n t r a d i c t i o n . account f o r the r a t h e r rhapsodic often detectable  inconsist-  in his style.  that  are he  A n d - t h i s would a l s o  and even fragmental tone As  0. W.  F i r k i n s points  out,  Emerson seems t o have p r e f e r r e d s h o r t a p h o r i s t i c sentences,  19 phrases, and  anecdotes to long n a r r a t i v e s .  too, Emerson seems t o resemble Chuang Tzu, who r e s o r t s t o a long s y s t e m a t i c In so f a r as we it  On t h i s  point,  seldom  exposition.  judge from the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  seems t h a t Emerson and Chuang Tzu  agree w i t h each  other  71 i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward l o g i c : both seem t o d i s c a r d l o g i c i n f a v o r of the both/and type of l o g i c . assumption  i s f u r t h e r strengthened when we  formal  This  read about the  r e v e l a t i o n a l experience Emerson had a t the Z o o l o g i c a l Garden in Paris. thie  In h i s j o u r n a l f o r J u l y 13, 1833,  he w r i t e s about  experience: Not a form so grotesque, so savage nor so b e a u t i f u l but i s an e x p r e s s i o n of some p r o p e r t y i n h e r e n t i n man the observer, — an o c c u l t r e l a t i o n between the very s c o r p i o n s and man. I f e e l the centipede i n me —— cayman, a carp, eagle and fox. I am moved by strange sympathies, I say c o n t i n u a l l y "I w i l l be a naturalist."  A s i m i l a r t e n e t echoes throughout  Nature, which was  a few years a f t e r h i s t r i p t o P a r i s .  published  F o r example, he  says:  The g r e a t e s t d e l i g h t which the f i e l d s and woods m i n i s t e r i s the s u g g e s t i o n . o f an o c c u l t r e l a t i o n between man and the v e g e t a b l e . I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me and I to them. (I, Reading these passages, we  16)  cannot h e l p being convinced t h a t  Emerson, too, has a s o r t of " p a r t i c i p a t i o n mystique" i s not u n l i k e t h a t of Chuang Tzu. this  But how  can we  which  reconcile  k i n d ' of world view of Emerson, which seems t o be  based  on the l o g i c of both/and, and the other aspect of Emerson's logic —  the l o g i c of e i t h e r / o r , which tends t o separate  from Nature,  and Nature from the d i v i n e being  man  (the S p i r i t ) ?  Is one of them our m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , o r , c o n s i d e r i n g Emerson's d e f i a n c e of c o n t r a d i c t i o n , are we of them are true?  t o say t h a t both  There seem t o be two p o s s i b l e answers t o  t h i s q u e s t i o n , both of which are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d :  the  72 first  l i e s i n the way Emerson d e f i n e s Nature; the second, i n  h i s anthropocentrism.  A c c o r d i n g t o V. C. Hopkins, Emerson  makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between two aspects o f Nature:  "Lower-  case 'nature' (natura n a t u r a t a ) , the m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s , i n so f a r as they are unchanged by man, i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d 'Nature' i n upper  case  from  (natura naturans) , the S p i r i t which  passes through m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s and a l s o through man's 20 will."  In Nature and "Nature," r e s p e c t i v e l y , Emerson  writes: P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d , the u n i v e r s e i s composed o f Nature and the S o u l . S t r i c t l y speaking, t h e r e f o r e , a l l t h a t i s separate from us, a l l which Philosophy d i s t i n g u i s h e s as the NOT ME, t h a t i s , both nature and a r t , a l l other men and my own body, must be ranked under t h i s name, NATURE. ( I , 10-11) A t the gates o f the f o r e s t , the s u r p r i s e d man of the w o r l d i s f o r c e d t o leave h i s c i t y estimates o f g r e a t and s m a l l , wise and f o o l i s h . . . . Here i s s a n c t i t y which shames our r e l i g i o n s , and r e a l i t y which d i s c r e d i t s our heroes. Here we f i n d Nature to be the circumstance which dwarfs every other circumstance, and judges l i k e a god a l l men t h a t come t o her. ( I l l , 163-164) "Nature" i n the f i r s t passage would correspond t o the lowercase Nature, and "Nature" i n the second q u o t a t i o n , t o the upper-case Nature.  T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between the two kinds  of Nature seems t o be an i n e v i t a b l e consequence o f Emerson's I d e a l i s m t h a t separates the S p i r i t  (or Soul) from matter and  sets the former i n a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n than the l a t t e r .  From  here a r i s e s h i s anthropocentrism, f o r a c c o r d i n g t o Emerson ". . . w i t h i n man i s the s o u l o f the whole; . . . the e t e r n a l One"  ("The Over-Soul," I I , 253), and " I n e f f a b l e i s the union  of man  and God i n every a c t of the s o u l "  ( I b i d . , 274).  We  1  should a l s o note "here t h a t , as we have seen e a r l i e r , Emerson's n o t i o n of the s o u l  (or s p i r i t )  i s i n s e p a r a b l e from  t h a t of Logos, which i s a l s o the b a s i s o f the laws of formal l o g i c t h a t exclude c o n t r a d i c t i o n . From these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f Emerson's concepts of Nature, S p i r i t , Logos, and man,  we may  draw two  assumptions  which seem t o p r o v i d e answers t o the q u e s t i o n r a i s e d  above:  one i s t h a t Emerson seems t o c o n s i d e r the upper-case Nature (or the S p i r i t ) to be f r e e from c o n t r a d i c t i o n ; the o t h e r i s t h a t f o r him man  as an embodiment of Logos and thus the  center of the u n i v e r s e seems t o have a s p e c i a l k i n d of r e l a t i o n t o the u n i v e r s e , and t h i s r e l a t i o n seems to be r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t from the " p a r t i c i p a t i o n mystique" we  saw  between Chuang Tzu and the f i s h i n the aforementioned anecdote.  The f i r s t  assumption can be proved by a passage  Emerson wrote a few sentences a f t e r h i s condemnation s i s t e n c y which we quoted  of con-  above:  In t h i s p l e a s i n g c o n t r i t e w o o d - l i f e which God allows me, l e t me r e c o r d day by day my honest thought without p r o s p e c t or r e t r o s p e c t , and, I cannot doubt, i t w i l l be found symmetrical, though I mean i t not and see i t not. ( " S e l f - R e l i a n c e , " I I , 59) Emerson can laugh away i n c o n s i s t e n c y , probably because f i r m l y b e l i e v e s i n the c o n s i s t e n c y of the S p i r i t or God works through the human mind.  he that  What i s noteworthy here i s  t h a t h i s n o t i o n of God i s r a t h e r L o g o c e n t r i c , i . e . , l o g i c a l i n the sense of formal l o g i c .  For a f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of  74 t h i s p o i n t l e t us quote another passage from "The American S c h o l a r , " where.Emerson d e s c r i b e s  the c l a s s i f y i n g  of the human mind which "goes on t y i n g t h i n g s diminishing  anomalies, d i s c o v e r i n g . r o o t s  ground whereby c o n t r a r y out from one stem."  He  function  together,  running under  and remote t h i n g s cohere and flower continues:  I t [the human mind] p r e s e n t l y l e a r n s t h a t s i n c e t h e dawn of h i s t o r y . t h e r e has been a constant accumulation and c l a s s i f y i n g o f f a c t s . But what i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n but the p e r c e i v i n g t h a t these o b j e c t s are not c h a o t i c , and are not f o r e i g n , but have a law which i s a l s o a law o f the human mind?  (I  f  87) .  Emerson b e l i e v e s t h a t the human mind has a c l a s s i f y i n g and o r d e r i n g power,.and t h a t seemingly c h a o t i c t h i n g s i n t o order by t h i s power. n o t i o n of order  can.be put  Thus, we can say t h a t Emerson's  and d i v i n e law i s e s s e n t i a l l y  based on t h e  l o g i c of Logos and not on t h a t o f Chaos. Emerson's i d e a t h a t the human mind c l a s s i f i e s and unifies  t h i n g s which are i n a c h a o t i c s t a t e seems t o have a  c l o s e connection —  w i t h the second assumption mentioned above  the assumption t h a t Emerson's " p a r t i c i p a t i o n  might be d i f f e r e n t  from t h a t of Chuang Tzu.  mystique"  Immediately  a f t e r the passage quoted above ( c f . p. 61) concerning the analogies Creator,  among Reason, sky, i n t e l l e c t , Nature, s o u l , and F a t h e r ,  Emerson  continues:  I t i s e a s i l y seen t h a t there i s nothing lucky o r c a p r i c i o u s i n these a n a l o g i e s , b u t t h a t they are constant, and pervade nature. These are n o t the dreams of a few poets, here and t h e r e , but man i s an a n a l o g i s t , and s t u d i e s r e l a t i o n s i n a l l o b j e c t s .  75 He i s p l a c e d i n the centre of b e i n g s , and a ray of r e l a t i o n passes from every other being to him. And n e i t h e r can man be understood without these -objects, nor these .objects without man. (Nature, I , .33) In t h i s q u o t a t i o n the word " a n a l o g i e s " seems to be f o r the word analogy to logos  (ratio)."  i t s e l f comes from ana logon  important,  "according  Thus, i t seems q u i t e n a t u r a l f o r  Emerson, whose n o t i o n of human beings i s L o g o s - o r i e n t e d , s t a t e t h a t "man a n a l o g i s t who and r a t i o s  i s an a n a l o g i s t . "  uses h i s reason  To Emerson, man  q u o t a t i o n , "He  i s p l a c e d i n the centre of b e i n g s , and from every other being t o him."  r e l a t i o n which Emerson sees between h i m s e l f and i n the world seems t o be an a n a l o g i c a l one.  i n s e c t s and  man  The  the.objects  He p r o j e c t s the  I t seems t h a t what Emerson, saw  animals  w e l l - o r d e r e d and "Nature,"  i n the  a t the Z o o l o g i c a l Garden i n P a r i s  n o t h i n g but the image of h i s own. face —  essay  a ray  ( p r o p o r t i o n a t e pattern, p r i n c i p l e ) i n h i s b r a i n onto  the outer world.  was  unifies,  T h e r e f o r e , as Emerson says i n the above  of r e l a t i o n passes  logos  i s an  (logos) to d e t e c t r e l a t i o n s  (logos) among t h i n g s and c l a s s i f i e s ,  and orders them.  to  a human face which  f o l l o w e d the laws of Logos.  he says, "Man  v e g e t a t i v e , speaks to man  was  imprisoned, man impersonated"  In h i s  crystallized, ( I I I , 188).  It  i s a human being as Logos made f l e s h t h a t i s c e n t r a l i n Emerson's i d e a of correspondence  between man  T h i s seems to be the d i f f e r e n c e between the  and  Nature.  "participation  mystique." of Emerson and t h a t of Chuang Tzu, which i s based on the l o g i c of Chaos.  76 So f a r we have examined the n o t i o n of d i v i n e law and order i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu through the c o n t r a s t between the l o g i c of Logos and t h a t of Chaos.  The d i f f e r e n c e  between the two types of l o g i c i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r . n o t i o n of " p a r t i c i p a t i o n mystique": Emerson tends t o see an analogy between man  and other o b j e c t s i n the world and between  man  and a d i v i n e b e i n g , whereas t h i s k i n d of correspondence can s c a r c e l y . b e found i n Chuang Tzu who does not r e c o g n i z e any supreme b e i n g whether o u t s i d e or i n s i d e the u n i v e r s e .  I f we  look a t the concept of analogy from a . d i f f e r e n t angle we  may  f i n d another c o n t r a s t between Emerson and Chuang Tzu concerning t h e i r n o t i o n s of d i v i n e law and o r d e r . As the etymology of ana logon  (according t o r a t i o )  i n d i c a t e s , the word analogy i s o r i g i n a l l y a term of geometry. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s q u i t e probable t h a t g e o m e t r i c a l elements w i l l be found i n Emerson's n o t i o n of analogy, j u s t as they are i n . his-, concept Of beauty.  For example, i n " P l a t o ; or  the P h i l o s o p h e r , " Emerson quotes from P l a t o ' s analogy.of a l i n e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p r o p o r t i o n a t e p a r t s which P l a t o used to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the phenomenal world and the i d e a world.  A f t e r t h i s q u o t a t i o n Emerson comments:  To these f o u r s e c t i o n s , the f o u r o p e r a t i o n s o f the s o u l correspond, — c o n j e c t u r e , f a i t h , understanding, reason. As every p o o l r e f l e c t s the image of the sun, so every thought and t h i n g r e s t o r e s us an image and c r e a t u r e of the supreme Good. The u n i verse i s p e r f o r a t e d by a m i l l i o n channels f o r h i s activity. A l l t h i n g s mount and mount. (IV, 68) P l a t o ' s g e o m e t r i c a l analogy of the l i n e seems to have had an  i n f l u e n c e on Emerson and can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g statements: "With a geometry of sunbeams the s o u l l a y s t h e foundations o f nature" astronomer d i s c o v e r s  ( " I n t e l l e c t , " I I , 322); "The  t h a t geometry, a pure a b s t r a c t i o n of  the human mind, i s the measure o f p l a n e t a r y American S c h o l a r , " without r e c o g n i z i n g  motion" ("The  I , 87); "A man does not t i e h i s shoe laws which b i n d the f a r t h e s t regions of  n a t u r e : moon, p l a n t , gas, c r y s t a l , are concrete geometry and numbers"  ("Nature," I I I , 176); and "The American who has  been c o n f i n e d ,  i n h i s own country, t o the s i g h t o f b u i l d i n g s  designed a f t e r f o r e i g n models, i s s u r p r i s e d on e n t e r i n g M i n s t e r o r St. P e t e r ' s a t Rome, by t h e f e e l i n g that s t r u c t u r e s are i m i t a t i o n s a l s o , —  f a i n t copies  York  these  o f an  i n v i s i b l e archetype".(Nature, I , 71). Although Emerson does not use the word "geometry" i n the l a s t passage, i t i s obvious from the other passages quoted here t h a t what he c a l l s "an i n v i s i b l e archetype" has a s t r o n g p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r geometrical  symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n , which are a l s o important  elements of a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Thus we can say t h a t one o f t h e  aspects o f Emerson's n o t i o n o f law ( e s p e c i a l l y that o f d i v i n e law) i s i t s g e o m e t r i c a l  nature.  Furhjtermore, we should note i n the l a s t passage quoted above the pragmatic and a e s t h e t i c nature o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . I t seems t h a t i n Emerson the laws o f geometry which are a prominent f e a t u r e o f h i s n o t i o n  of d i v i n e law u n d e r l i e  both  h i s a e s t h e t i c s and h i s pragmatism, namely, h i s n o t i o n of  78 f i n e and o f u s e f u l a r t s .  To g i v e a few examples-of t h i s , we  have: Thus a r c h i t e c t u r e i s c a l l e d "frozen music," by De S t a e l and Goethe. V i t r u v i u s thought an a r c h i t e c t should be a m u s i c i a n . "A Gothic church," s a i d Coleridge, " i s a p e t r i f i e d r e l i g i o n . " Michael Angelo maintained t h a t , t o an a r c h i t e c t a knowledge of anatomy i s e s s e n t i a l . (Nature, I , 49) Herein we have an.explanation o f the n e c e s s i t y t h a t r e i g n s i n a l l the kingdom of A r t . A r i s i n g out o f e t e r n a l Reason, one and perfect,.whatever i s b e a u t i f u l r e s t s on t h e foundation o f the n e c e s s a r y . Nothing i s a r b i t r a r y , nothing i s i n s u l a t e d i n beauty. I t depends f o r e v e r on the necessary and the u s e f u l . . . . F i t n e s s i s so i n s e p a r a b l e an accompaniment o f beauty, t h a t i t has been taken f o r it. The most p e r f e c t form t o answer an end i s so far beautiful, ("Art," V I I , 55) M o l l e r , i n h i s Essay on A r c h i t e c t u r e , taught t h a t the b u i l d i n g which was f i t t e d a c c u r a t e l y t o answer i t s end would t u r n out t o be b e a u t i f u l though beauty had n o t been intended. I f i n d the l i k e u n i t y i n human s t r u c t u r e s r a t h e r v i r u l e n t and p e r v a s i v e ; t h a t a c r u d i t y i n t h e b l o o d w i l l appear i n t h e argument; a hump i n the shoulder w i l l appear i n the speech and handiwork. I f h i s mind c o u l d be seen, the hump would be seen. ("Fate," V I , 47-48) In the f i r s t passage we should note the s i m i l a r i t i e s between music-and a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h a t both f o l l o w mathematical, geometrical  laws  (e.g., symmetry, p r o p o r t i o n , harmony,  rhythm, e t c . ) . • In the second q u o t a t i o n has  a strong  the word n e c e s s i t y  a s s o c i a t i o n with geometrical  i s based on reason  (ratio).  n e c e s s i t y , which  And i n the l a s t passage our  a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o the f a c t t h a t the (geometrical) ness of a r c h i t e c t u r e as w e l l as u s e f u l n e s s  exact-  and beauty are  t r e a t e d synonymously, w h i l e a hump, which reminds -us of the deformed sage i n Chuang Tzu's p a r a b l e  quoted i n Chapter I ,  79 i s thought ugliness —  t o symbolize  i n a c c u r a c y , u s e l e s s n e s s , and  a l l o f which are n e g a t i v e  qualities.  As i s c l e a r from the above examination,  there seems  t o be a c l o s e connection between Emerson's pragmatism and the laws o f geometry, which* a c c o r d i n g t o him,.have t h e i r b a s i s i n the realm of Ideas.  On the other hand, i f Chuang  Tzu's concept o f " e t e r n a l law" i s Chaos-oriented, l i k e l y t o be r e f l e c t e d i n h i s views on pragmatism  this i s (useful-  ness) and g e o m e t r i c a l law, t h i s l a t t e r we have a l r e a d y considered i n connection w i t h Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n o f beauty i n the l a s t chapter.  The f o l l o w i n g are two examples  taken  from Chuang Tzu t o c l a r i f y the p o i n t i n question:• Hui Tzu s a i d t o Chuang Tzu, "I have a b i g t r e e of the k i n d men c a l l shu. I t s trunk i s too g n a r l e d and bumpy t o apply.a measuring l i n e t o , i t s branches t o o bent and t w i s t y t o match up t o a compass o r square. You c o u l d stand i t by the road and no c a r p e n t e r would look a t i t twice. Your words, t o o , are b i g and u s e l e s s , and so everyone a l i k e spurns them!" Chuang Tzu s a i d , ". . . Now you have t h i s b i g t r e e and you're d i s t r e s s e d because i t ' s u s e l e s s . Why don't you p l a n t i t i n Not-Even-Anything. V i l l a g e , o r the f i e l d o f Broad-and-Boundless,.relax and do nothing by i t s s i d e * or l i e down f o r a - f r e e and easy s l e e p under i t ? . Axes w i l l never shorten i t s l i f e , nothing can ever harm i t . I f t h e r e ' s no use f o r i t , how can i t come t o g r i e f or p a i n ? " (ch. 1, 35)  80 I f we must use curve and plumb l i n e , compass and square t o make something r i g h t , t h i s means c u t t i n g away i t s inborn nature; i f we must use cords and knots, glue and lacquer to make something f i r m , t h i s means v i o l a t i n g i t s n a t u r a l V i r t u e . So the crouchings and bendings of r i t e s and music, the smiles and beaming looks of benevolence and r i g h t e o u s n e s s , which are intended to comfort the h e a r t s of the world, i n f a c t d e s t r o y t h e i r constant naturalness. (ch. 8, 100)  Thus we  can say t h a t i n Chuang Tzu g e o m e t r i c a l laws and  u s e f u l n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them are denied  the  as being  d e t r i m e n t a l t o the spontaneous outflow of the inborn, nature of t h i n g s .  I t seems t h a t f o r Chuang Tzu g e o m e t r i c a l  laws  are not the t r u e laws of the u n i v e r s e , and u s e f u l n e s s which f o l l o w s the laws o f geometry i s not r e a l u s e f u l n e s s .  For  Chuang Tzu t r u e u s e f u l n e s s seems t o . l i e i n what appears t o be u s e l e s s and meaningless, and the u l t i m a t e law of the u n i verse i s something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the laws o f geometry.  Logos-oriented  Emerson's n o t i o n of d i v i n e law which i s  both L o g o c e n t r i c and geometric  seems t o be somewhat  mechanical when compared with t h a t of Chuang Tzu, which has c l o s e t i e s w i t h Chaos. The elements of mechanical and d e t e r m i n i s t i c laws of geometry seen i n Emerson's n o t i o n of d i v i n e law f u r t h e r l e a d us to another (physical  t o p i c : c a u s a l i t y and the laws of Nature  laws).  Emerson seems t o have two  seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y  81 views on c a u s a l i t y .  The f i r s t i s t h a t t h i n g s are so i n t e r -  r e l a t e d and complicated t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t the f i r s t cause i n t h i s u n i v e r s e .  The second i s t h a t t h e r e i s  an u l t i m a t e cause somewhere and by r e a l i z i n g t h i s cause c a n . p r e d i c t the f u t u r e e x a c t l y .  one  The f i r s t - k i n d of c a u s a l i t y ,  which seems to.be c l o s e t o t h a t of Chuang Tzu, i s seen, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n such passages as: "This knot of nature i s so w e l l t i e d t h a t nobody was two ends.  ever cunning enough t o f i n d the  Nature i s i n t r i c a t e , over-lapped, inter-weaved  and e n d l e s s " ("Fate," V I , 40); "The s i m p l i c i t y o f nature i s not t h a t which may  e a s i l y be r e a d , but i s i n e x h a u s t i b l e "  ( " S p i r i t u a l Laws," I I , 131); and "What i s nature t o him? There i s never a b e g i n n i n g , t h e r e i s never an end, t o the i n e x p l i c a b l e c o n t i n u i t y of t h i s web  of God  ..."  ("The  American S c h o l a r , " I , 86-87). However, Emerson's f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n , a b o u t c a u s a l i t y seems t o be the second type mentioned  above, f o r a few  sentences a f t e r the l a s t passage quoted here Emerson w r i t e s , ". . . i n the mass and i n the p a r t i c l e , Nature hastens t o render account of h e r s e l f t o the mind. begins"  ( I , 87).  Idealism.  Here we  Classification  can d e t e c t a s i g n of Emerson's  For him t h e r e seems t o be n o t h i n g t h a t cannot be  known t o the human mind which i s d i r e c t l y connected t o the i d e a w o r l d , the realm of the e t e r n a l law.  In the same essay  quoted above, he says: He s h a l l see t h a t nature i s the o p p o s i t e of the s o u l , answering t o i t p a r t f o r p a r t . One i s s e a l  82 and one i s p r i n t . I t s beauty i s the beauty of h i s \ own mind. I t s laws are the laws of h i s own mind. Nature then becomes to him the measure of h i s attainments. So much of nature as he i s i g n o r a n t o f , so much of h i s own mind does he not y e t possess. (I, Needless  88)  to say, i n Emerson the human s o u l b e l o n g s - t o God  the Over-Soul.  T h i s i s why  or  he w r i t e s about the human s o u l  ascending t o the Supreme Mind, "the c e n t e r of the world, where, as i n the c l o s e t of God,  we  see causes, and  the u n i v e r s e , which i s but a slow e f f e c t " II,  ("The  anticipate  Over-Soul,"  259). Another t h i n g we  should note about Emerson's c a u s a l i t y  i s t h a t i s i s m e c h a n i s t i c and d e t e r m i n i s t i c , t h a t i s , i t i s "Newtonian."  The  f o l l o w i n g are a few examples which  i l l u s t r a t e this point: "The problem of p h i l o s o p h y , " a c c o r d i n g t o P l a t o , " i s , f o r a l l that e x i s t s c o n d i t i o n a l l y , to f i n d a ground u n c o n d i t i o n e d and a b s o l u t e . " I t proceeds on the f a i t h t h a t a law determines a l l phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be p r e d i c t e d . . . . In p h y s i c s , when t h i s [to grasp the laws of Nature] i s a t t a i n e d , the memory disburdens i t s e l f of i t s cumbrous catalogues of p a r t i c u l a r s , and c a r r i e s c e n t u r i e s of o b s e r v a t i o n i n a s i n g l e formula. (Nature, I,.59-60) That famous a b o r i g i n a l push propagates i t s e l f through a l l the b a l l s of the system, and through every atom of every b a l l ; through a l l the races of c r e a t u r e s , and through the h i s t o r y and performances of every i n d i v i d u a l . ("Nature," I I I , 177) The world i s mathematical, and has no c a s u a l t y i n a l l i t s v a s t and f l o w i n g curve. . . . A man h a r d l y knows how much he i s a machine u n t i l he begins t o make t e l e g r a p h y , loom, p r e s s , and locomotive, i n h i s own image.. ("Power," VI, 80-81) Besides these examples, we  come across other passages,  such  83 as: ". . . these ' f i t s o f easy t r a n s m i s s i o n and as Newton c a l l e d them, — are the law of s p i r i t " look f o r the new  reflection,'  are the law of nature because they  ("The American S c h o l a r , " I , 99); "I  Teacher t h a t . . . s h a l l see the i d e n t i t y  of the law of g r a v i t a t i o n , w i t h p u r i t y of h e a r t " :  ("Divinity  School Address," I , 148); "What a v a i l s i t to f i g h t w i t h the e t e r n a l laws of mind, which a d j u s t the r e l a t i o n of a l l persons t o each o t h e r by the mathematical measure of t h e i r havings and b e i n g s ? " ( " S p i r i t u a l Laws," I I , 142);  "These,  [famine, typhus, f r o s t , war, e t c . ] are pebbles from the mountain, h i n t s o f the terms by which our l i f e i s w a l l e d  up,  and which show a k i n d of mechanical exactness" ("Fate," V I , 24); " A l l s u c c e s s f u l men were c a u s a t i o n i s t s "  have agreed i n one t h i n g —  ("Power," V I , 56); and "There i s no  chance and no anarchy i n the u n i v e r s e . gradation"  they  A l l i s system and  ( " I l l u s i o n s , " V I , 308).  Although,, i n the l a s t passage above, Emerson says t h a t "there i s no chance and no anarchy i n the u n i v e r s e " and i n "Fate" he d e s c r i b e s the unsurmountable  power of f a t e ,  circumstance, and the n e c e s s i t i e s of m a t e r i a l Nature, he s t i l l . s e e m s t o b e l i e v e i n . t h e freedom o f human b e i n g s .  This  i s c l e a r from h i s b e l i e f i n the human h i n d and i t s d i r e c t r e l a t i o n w i t h God or the S p i r i t which we have seen b r i e f l y above.  F o r him, "Man  i s not o r d e r o f nature . . . but a  stupendous antagonism, a dragging t o g e t h e r of the p o l e s of the U n i v e r s e " ("Fate,""VI, 27), and "We  are as law g i v e r s ;  84 we  speak f o r Nature; we prophesy  and d i v i n e "  ( I b i d . , 30).  A c c o r d i n g to Emerson, i t i s because human beings have  intel-  l e c t and s p i r i t t h a t they do not belong t o Nature, but stand above i t as l a w g i v e r s .  T h i s i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by o t h e r  statements such as: " I n t e l l e c t annuls F a t e . t h i n k s , he i s f r e e "  So f a r as a  man  ("Fate," VI, 27); "Thought d i s s o l v e s the  m a t e r i a l u n i v e r s e b y . c a r r y i n g the mind up i n t o a spherewhere a l l i s p l a s t i c " for  ( I b i d . , 32); and "Fate then i s a name  f a c t s . n o t y e t passed under the f i r e of thought; f o r  causes which  are unpenetrated"  Thus we and freedom,  (Ibid.,. 35).  can say t h a t i n Emerson's i d e a s . o f  causality  there i s a strong p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r a . b i f u r c a t i o n  between s p i r i t and matter, between upper-case'Nature naturans) and lower-case Nature between man  and m a t e r i a l Nature.  (natura  (natura n a t u r a t a ) , and In Emerson human beings  tend t o . s t a n d apart from m a t e r i a l Nature i n order t o observe and c o n t r o l i t by means o f t h e i r own w i l l much as they would manipulate machinery.  In t h i s sense Emerson's n o t i o n of  c a u s a l i t y i s not f a r from t h a t of Newton, who  contends  that  there e x i s t s a r a t i o n a l order i n Nature and thus g i v e n c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . ( e . g . , the a b o r i g i n a l push) the f u t u r e of the  u n i v e r s e i s p r e d i c t a b l e through and through. Chuang Tzu, on the o t h e r hand, seems t o have a r a t h e r  d i f f e r e n t type of c a u s a l i t y from t h a t of Emerson.  To put i t  p a r a d o x i c a l l y y e t more e x a c t l y , i n Chuang Tzu's world view there seems t o be no such t h i n g as c a u s a l i t y i n the sense  85 t h a t "a d e f i n i t e cause g i v e s r i s e . t o a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t , so t h a t the f u t u r e of any p a r t of a system can be p r e d i c t e d w i t h a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y i f i t s s t a t e a t any time i s known i n  21 a l l details."  Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of " c a u s a l i t y " and "the  laws of Nature" seems t o be c l o s e r t o t h a t of the u n c e r t a i n t y p r i n c i p l e i n modern p h y s i c s r a t h e r than t o the m e c h a n i s t i c determinism o f Newton. this.  There are a t l e a s t three reasons f o r  In the f i r s t p l a c e , as we saw  i n the l a s t chapter  Chuang Tzu's concepts of space and time are c i r c u l a r cyclic;  and  T h i s means t h a t the b e g i n n i n g (cause) and the end  ( e f f e c t ) are u l t i m a t e l y one and the same, and so i t does not make.sense t o t a l k about c a u s a l i t y i n terms o f l i n e a r n o t i o n of the  space and time, where cause and e f f e c t , the observer and observed, man  and the r e s t of the w o r l d , the supreme  b e i n g and the u n i v e r s e , tend.to become-separated independent  from each other..  The second reason, which the  first,  and  i s c l o s e l y connected w i t h  i s t h a t i n Chuang Tzu we  seldom come a c r o s s - t h e  n o t i o n of supreme b e i n g or o f a c r e a t o r of the u n i v e r s e . This has a l r e a d y been mentioned to  e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , but  add a few more examples, we have the f o l l o w i n g passages: T z u - c h ' i s a i d , "The Great C l o d b e l c h e s out b r e a t h and i t s name i s wind. So long.as i t doesn't come f o r t h , n o t h i n g happens. But when i t does, then t e n thousand hollows b e g i n c r y i n g w i l d l y . Can't you hear them,.long drawn out? . . . " Tzu-yu s a i d , "By the p i p i n g of e a r t h , then, you mean simply [the sound of] these h o l l o w s , and by the p i p i n g of man [the sound of] f l u t e s and whis-. ties. But may I ask about the p i p i n g of Heaven?"  86 T z u - c h ' i s a i d , "Blowing on the ten thousand t h i n g s i n a d i f f e r e n t way, so t h a t each can be i t s e l f — a l l take what they want f o r themselves, but who does the s o u n d i n g ? " (ch. 2, 36-37) 22  ^  ^ 4 ^ ; t f f 4- - - - 3- ^ s it $  m<  Great I m p a r t i a l Accord s a i d , "Chickens squawk, dogs bark — t h i s i s something men understand. But no matter how g r e a t t h e i r understanding, they cannot e x p l a i n in. words how the chicken and the dog have come t o be what they are, nor can they imagine i n t h e i r minds what they w i l l become i n . t h e f u t u r e . You may p i c k a p a r t and analyze t i l l you have reached what i s so minute t h a t i t i s without form, what i s so l a r g e t h a t i t cannot be encompassed. But whether you say t h a t 'nothing does i t ' or t h a t 'something makes i t l i k e t h i s , ' you have not y e t escaped from.the realm of ' t h i n g s , ' and so i n the end you f a l l i n t o e r r o r . " (ch. 25, 292)  In  such a w o r l d view as we  see i n these q u o t a t i o n s t h e r e can.  be no f i r s t cause or prime mover of the u n i v e r s e . happens n a t u r a l l y and spontaneously. Tzu c a l l s t z u jan ness). are,  fe,^  Everything  T h i s i s what Chuang  ( W h a t - i s - s o - o f - i t s e l f or  as-it-is-  The squawking of chickens and the b a r k i n g of dogs  as they a r e , Tao, and t h e r e i s no need t o suppose a  "prime mover" behind them such as i s seen behind the rhodora i n Emerson's poem. ( c f . p. 2 4).  87 The  t h i r d reason-why Chuang Tzu does not have c a u s a l -  i t y i n the u s u a l sense seems to l i e i n the s o c i a l m i l i e u i n which he l i v e d .  We  have seen i n the passage quoted from  Fukunaga ( c f . p. 49)  t h a t Chuang Tzu's times were those of .  political  and s o c i a l upheaval.  and every  other c o n c e i v a b l e d i s a s t e r and misery  people.  I t i s not very d i f f i c u l t  unstable s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s had minds.  Wars, famine, heavy t a x a t i o n , assailed  to imagine t h a t  the  these  a g r e a t e f f e c t upon  people's  U n l i k e Emerson, who- seems to believe... i n ' t h e c e r t a i n t y  and b r i g h t n e s s o f the human mind, Chuang Tzu seems to pay much more a t t e n t i o n t o i t s grimness and darkness. "The  mind of man  i s more p e r i l o u s than mountains or  harder t o understand than Heaven" (ch. 32, JJA ^ ) f l ^ * u  He w r i t e s ,  ," and  fathomed and s t i l l ;  358)  rivers,  " H/C-'vjr)^^  "At r e s t , i t [the mind] i s deep-  i n movement, i t i s f a r - f l u n g as  the  heavens, r a c i n g and g a l l o p i n g out of reach of a l l bounds. T h i s indeed i s the mind of manj" (ch. 11, 116) «?P ^  $  M}^  ^ ^  and unstable w o r l d ,  ^  A 'H"  •"  m  " ^y^^iJ^  such a c h a o t i c  i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o h o l d a view  which presupposes a u n i v e r s e t h a t i s w e l l , o r d e r e d ically  determined by Newtonian c a u s a l i t y .  and mechan-  Such a c a u s a l i t y  can s c a r c e l y p r e d i c t the exact course of a p i e c e of paper blown i n a gust of wind or t h a t of a m i c r o s c o p i c p a r t i c l e i n the Brownian movement on the s u r f a c e of water. people  i n the Warring S t a t e s p e r i o d i s l i k e l y  The  f a t e - of  to have been  very much l i k e t h i s p i e c e of paper or the minute p a r t i c l e .  88 C o n s i d e r i n g these reasons  mentioned above, we  t h a t Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n s of " c a u s a l i t y " and  may  safely  say.  "the laws of.  Nature" seem to be c l o s e r t o t h a t of the u n c e r t a i n t y p r i n c i p l e which t e l l s us t h a t the absolute p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n direction  and  ( v e l o c i t y ) of an o b j e c t at a given moment cannot  be determined s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , because the observer  (e.g.,  the ^ - r a y s or the X-rays from an " i d e a l " microscope) i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t s and  changes the f u t u r e course of the o b j e c t 23  observed  (e.g., photons or e l e c t r o n s ) .  The nature  of Chuang Tzu's " c a u s a l i t y " seems t o be  r e f l e c t e d in. h i s n o t i o n of freedom.  As we  saw  i n the quo-  t a t i o n from Fukunaga i n Chapter I , Chuang Tzu sought freedom not o u t s i d e t h i s world but i n s i d e i t . r e f l e c t s the severe  Perhaps t h i s a t t i t u d e  c o n d i t i o n s of h i s times, which were so  p r e s s i n g that he had  l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to s p e c u l a t e upon, an  i d e a l world transcendent  of h i s s o c i e t y .  Chuang Tzu human,existence was  I t seems t h a t t o  i n e s c a p a b l y ensnared i n the  v e i l of Maya or F a t e , t h a t i s , i n the u n c e r t a i n s t a t e of the c h a o t i c s o c i e t y of the time.  I t would have been almost  impossible f o r him to step out of the t a n g l e d net of Fate i n order to s p e c u l a t e upon ways t o c o n t r o l the c o n f u s i o n put i t i n t o order.  Instead, Chuang Tzu plunged i n t o  chaos and f o l l o w e d every  thread of the net.  have been h i s transcendence and  freedom.  of  t r a n s c e n d e n t a l man  at  the end of the previous chapter.  We  and the  T h i s seems t o saw  this kind  i n the parable of the cook T i n g quoted The  following i s  another  89 example  of a man of t h i s  type:  [ A l l a t once Master Ytf f e l l i l l and h i s body was completely deformed: h i s back s t i c k s up l i k e a hunchback and h i s v i t a l organs are on top o f him; h i s c h i n i s hidden i n h i s n a v e l , h i s shoulders are up above h i s head and h i s p i g t a i l p o i n t s a t the sky. H i s f r i e n d Master Ssu Comes and asks him i f he r e s e n t s i t . Thereupon Master Yii answers: ]^4 "Why no, what would I r e s e n t ? I f the process c o n t i n u e s , perhaps i n time h e ' l l [the C r e a t o r w i l l ] 2 5 transform my l e f t arm i n t o a r o o s t e r . In t h a t case I ' l l keep watch on the n i g h t . Or perhaps i n time h e ' l l t r a n s f o r m my r i g h t arm i n t o a crossbow p e l l e t and I ' l l shoot down an owl f o r r o a s t i n g . Or perhaps i n time h e ' l l transform my b u t t o c k s i n t o cartwheels. Then, w i t h my s p i r i t f o r a horse, I ' l l climb up and go f o r a r i d e . What need w i l l I ever have f o r a c a r r i a g e again? "I r e c e i v e d l i f e because the time had come; I w i l l l o s e i t because the order o f t h i n g s passes on. Be.content w i t h t h i s time and d w e l l i n t h i s o r d e r and then n e i t h e r sorrow nor joy can touch you. In a n c i e n t times t h i s was c a l l e d the ' f r e e i n g o f the bound.' There are those who cannot f r e e themselves, because they are bound by t h i n g s . But nothing can ever win a g a i n s t Heaven — t h a t ' s the way i t ' s always been. What would I have t o r e s e n t ? " (ch. 6, 84-85)  m  ^  T  tfe %  % <*•  *n ^ J* ^  As we can see by the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the import a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Emerson and Chuang Tzu concerning t h e i r n o t i o n o f the laws o f Nature are as f o l l o w s : Emerson b e l i e v e s i n the r a t i o n a l order o f Nature and the freedom o f  90 human beings i n . i t ; Chuahg Tzu regards the u n i v e r s e as " c h a o t i c , " at l e a s t to the human mind, and the freedom o f man  as an i n d i v i d u a l t o c o n t r o l the outer world i s i n c o n -  ceivable. These d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n o t i o n s of p o s i t i v e  (or human) law, f o r p o s i t i v e  law i s based upon the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l . At law.  first  s i g h t , Emerson seems t o be denying p o s i t i v e  He says: ". . . the moment he  [man]  acts from h i m s e l f ,  t o s s i n g the laws, the books, i d o l a t r i e s and customs out of the  window, we p i t y , him no more but thank and r e v e r e him"  ( " S e l f - R e l i a n c e , I I , 76); ". . . n o  forms, n e i t h e r  constitu-  t i o n , nor laws, no covenants, nor churches, nor b i b l e s , are of  any use i n themselves"  ("The  F u g i t i v e S l a v e Law,"  220-221); and "Every s o u l i s by t h i s i n t r i n s i c  XI,  necessity  q u i t t i n g i t s whole system o f t h i n g s , i t s f r i e n d s and home and laws and f a i t h growth"  . . . because i t no l o n g e r admits i t s  ("Compensation," I I , 119-120). On the .other hand, Emerson sometimes makes statements  t h a t suggest a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e toward s o c i a l and t h e i r laws.  institutions  We have already seen t h i s i n h i s a t t i t u d e  toward p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i n Chapter I (pp. 34-35).  He  also  shows the same viewpoint i n h i s "Wealth," where he advocates f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n under "equal laws" t h a t "secure l i f e property"  (VI, 104).  One  and  of the reasons f o r t h i s a t t i t u d e .  seems t o be h i s " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " w h i l e another reason,  91 i n s e p a r a b l e from the f i r s t ,  seems t o l i e i n h i s f i r m b e l i e f 26  i n the i n t r i n s i c goodness o f human n a t u r e . passage  The f o l l o w i n g  from Emerson's j o u r n a l f o r October, 1852, i l l u s t r a t e s  both o f these p o i n t s : The laws f i n d t h e i r r o o t i n the credence o f the people. A two-foot stone w a l l guards my f i n e pears and melons, a l l summer l o n g , from droves of hungry boys & poor men & women. I f one of these people should q u e s t i o n my. r i g h t & p l u c k my f r u i t , I should s e t the cumbrous machinery o f the law slowly, i n motion, & by good l u c k of evidence & c o u n s e l , I might get my r i g h t a s s e r t e d , & t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n d e r daunted. But i f every passenger should make the l i k e attempt, though the law were p e r f e c t , my house would n o t be worth l i v i n g i n , nor my f i e l d s w o r t h , p l a n t i n g . I t i s the e d u c a t i o n o f these people i n t o the ideas & laws o f p r o p e r t y , & t h e i r l o y a l t y , t h a t makes those stones i n t h e low w a l l so v i r t u o u s . The low-stone-wall i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n seems t o symbolize Emerson's i n d i v i d u a l i s m , . a n d the o v e r a l l tone o f the passage c l e a r l y - i n d i c a t e s h i s t r u s t i n humanity.  F o r him the i n d i -  v i d u a l human b e i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y t r u s t w o r t h y , because, as we have seen so f a r , h i s s o u l i s d i r e c t l y connected w i t h the Over-Soul, t h e e t e r n a l Good.  The p o s i t i v e law o f human,  s o c i e t y i s good and necessary i n so f a r as i t f a i t h f u l l y r e f l e c t s - d i v i n e law — t h i s  seems t o be Emerson's message  when he s a y s : "See again the p e r f e c t i o n o f the Law as i t a p p l i e s i t s e l f t o the a f f e c t i o n s , and becomes the law o f society"  ( " D i v i n i t y School Address," I , 123); "We adore an  i n s t i t u t i o n , and do n o t see t h a t i t i s founded on a.thought which we have"  ( " S p i r i t u a l Laws," I I , 152); and "Every law  which the s t a t e enacts i n d i c a t e s a f a c t i n human nature"  ("History,"  I I , 15-16).  I f Emerson's n o t i o n of d i v i n e law, n a t u r a l law.  the same seems to apply Natural  i n g r a i n e d by God "the  of p o s i t i v e law i s based on  law  that  t o h i s concept of  i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as "the  laws  i n man's nature but d e c l a r e d by men"  or  laws which everyone endowed w i t h the f a c u l t y of reason  can accept as u n i v e r s a l l y t r u e . " d e f i n i t i o n s , we  can  The  the b a s i s of these  say t h a t n a t u r a l law  norm f o r p o s i t i v e law, customs.  On  seems to be  m o r a l i t y , s o c i a l mores, taboos,  v a l i d i t y of n a t u r a l law has  among j u r i s t s .  But  the and  long been debated  as f a r as Emerson i s concerned, t h e r e i s  no doubt t h a t , although he seldom uses the term " n a t u r a l  law"  i n h i s w r i t i n g s , he has  This  i s because, as we  the n o t i o n of t h i s k i n d of law.  have seen through the v a r i o u s  c i t e d above, he b e l i e v e s i n human nature and l a t t e r being p o i n t , by  examples  d i v i n e law,  the s o l e fountainhead of n a t u r a l law.  changing our viewpoint a l i t t l e ,  Emerson's n o t i o n of n a t u r a l law His concept of m o r a l i t y  l e t us  from the angle of  At look  the  this at  morality.  can be seen i n such statements as:  S e n s i b l e o b j e c t s conform to the premonitions of Reason and r e f l e c t the conscience. A l l things are moral; and i n t h e i r boundless changes have an unceasing r e f e r e n c e t o s p i r i t u a l nature. (Nature, I , 46) I t has already been i l l u s t r a t e d , . t h a t every n a t u r a l process i s a v e r s i o n of a moral sentence. The moral law l i e s at the centre of nature and r a d i a t e s to the circumference. ( I b i d . , 47) Yesterday I was asked what I mean by morals. I r e p l y t h a t I cannot d e f i n e , and care not to d e f i n e . . . . Yet i n the morning watch on my b e r t h I  93 thought t h a t morals i s the s c i e n c e o f the laws o f human a c t i o n as r e s p e c t s r i g h t and.wrong. Then I s h a l l be asked, and what i s Right? Right i s a conformity t o t h e laws o f nature a s . f a r as they are known t o the human mind. . . .27 The league between v i r t u e and nature engages a l l t h i n g s t o assume a h o s t i l e f r o n t t o v i c e . The b e a u t i f u l laws and substances o f the world persecute and whip t h e t r a i t o r . ("Compensation," I I , 111) A mob i s a s o c i e t y o f bodies v o l u n t a r i l y b e r e a v i n g themselves o f reason and t r a v e r s i n g i t s work. The mob i s man v o l u n t a r i l y descending t o the nature o f the b e a s t . I t s f i t hour o f a c t i v i t y i s n i g h t . I t s a c t i o n s are i n s a n e , l i k e i t s whole c o n s t i t u t i o n . ( I b i d . , 115). In a v i r t u o u s a c t i o n I p r o p e r l y am;, i n a v i r t u o u s act I add t o the world; I p l a n t i n t o d e s e r t s conquered from Chaos and Nothing and see the darkness r e c e d i n g on the l i m i t s o f the horizon., ( I b i d . , 117) Judging from these passages, we may s a f e l y conclude t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n o f m o r a l i t y i s based on the dualism between spirit  and matter, upper-case Nature and lower-case  good and e v i l , s a n i t y  Nature,  (reason) and i n s a n i t y , man as the  s p i r i t and man as the b e a s t , l i g h t and darkness, order and chaos, e t c .  In other words,.for Emerson m o r a l i t y (good)  seems t o be on the s i d e o f Logos; belongs to.Chaos.  and immorality (bad)  T h i s seems t o be a.conspicuous  aspect o f  Emerson's n o t i o n of n a t u r a l law, and consequently of h i s n o t i o n o f d i v i n e law. In  Chuang Tzu., on the other hand, we can expect t o  f i n d a d i a m e t r i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e toward p o s i t i v e and n a t u r a l law as h i s world view i s C h a o s - o r i e n t e d .  We have  seen e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter t h a t Chuang Tzu's approach t o  Fate  (Chaos) i s not t o escape from or s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t i t ,  but to f o l l o w and become one w i t h  i t . To do t h i s man  must  d i s c a r d the sense of the i n d i v i d u a t e d s e l f which tends to separate  him  from Fate and p i t him  against i t .  becomes " s e l f l e s s " or "egoless" i n t h i s way, a r i s e no problem of p r i v a t e property  I f he  there  (for property  possessed by a " s e l f " or an "ego"), and  accordingly  w i l l be no n e c e s s i t y of p o s i t i v e laws to s e t t l e the over p r o p e r t y . the  T h i s property  " s e l f " or "ego"  i n c l u d e s one's own  will must be there disputes  body which  t h i n k s i t possesses. .  That the sense of " s e l f , " as s e t a g a i n s t the w o r l d , must be overcome seems to be the i d e a fundamental t o Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of Chaos, i n f l u e n c i n g h i s . a t t i t u d e toward p o s i t i v e law.  Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Chuang Tzu's Chaos,  which i s c l o s e l y connected to the f i r s t , would be t o view i t from a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  As the word Chaos  i m p l i e s , Chuang Tzu's views on p o l i t i c s seem to show a s t r o n g p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r "anarchism."  We  p o i n t i n the previous  dealt with h i s ."collec-  chapter when we  touched upon t h i s  t i v e p r i m i t i v i s m , " where no i n s t i t u t i o n of p r i v a t e exists.  I f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . i s denied,  p o s i t i v e law  to defend i t would not  property  the n e c e s s i t y of  arise.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Chuang Tzu's p r i m i t i v i s m i s i t s negation  of i n t e l l e c t u a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n which seems t o  be the b a s i s f o r n a t u r a l law — w i t h reason and  the law t h a t anyone endowed  i n t e l l e c t can r e c o g n i z e  as u n i v e r s a l l y t r u e .  95 A c c o r d i n g t o Needham, i n the time of Chuang Tzu, Confucian li  (customs, mores) was  c l o s e s t to the Western concept of  28 n a t u r a l law. mockeries  Thus i n Chuang Tzu we  o f t e n come across m i l d  and sometimes even severe c r i t i c i s m s of Confucian-  ism along w i t h a d e n u n c i a t i o n of the system of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and p o s i t i v e law: In the days o f Ho Hsu, people stayed home but d i d n ' t know what they were doing, walked around but d i d n ' t know where they were going. T h e i r mouths crammed w i t h food, they were merry; drumming on t h e i r b e l l i e s , they passed the time. T h i s was as much as they were able t o do. Then the sage came along w i t h the crouchings and bendings of r i t e s and music, which.were intended t o reform.the bodies of the world; w i t h the r e a c h i n g - f o r - a - d a n g l e d - p r i z e of benevolence and r i g h t e o u s n e s s , which was intended t o comfort the h e a r t s of the world. Then f o r the f i r s t time people l e a r n e d t o stand on t i p t o e and covet knowledge, t o f i g h t t o the death over p r o f i t , and there was no.stopping them. T h i s i n the end was the f a u l t of the sage. (ch. 9, 10 6)  fllf  j&. & %. ^ *t-fc If n * 1 %  q  Jt- ^  ft A % #f  f$g  E^T  ufc. ^ =g. A. i ^ ^  Cut o f f s a g e l i n e s s , c a s t away wisdom, and then the g r e a t t h i e v e s w i l l cease. Break the j a d e s , crush the p e a r l s , and p e t t y t h i e v e s w i l l no longer r i s e up. Burn the t a l l i e s , s h a t t e r the s e a l s , and the people w i l l be simple and g u i l e l e s s . Hack up the b u s h e l s , snap the balances i n two, and the people w i l l no longer wrangle. Destroy and wipe out the laws t h a t the sage has made f o r the world, and a t l a s t you w i l l f i n d you can reason w i t h the people. (ch. 10, 110-111)  ^  96  As we  can see i n the above passages, what Chuang Tzu i n t e n d s  by h i s n e g a t i o n of p o s i t i v e and n a t u r a l law i s not t o b r i n g about anarchy i n the o r d i n a r y sense, but r a t h e r t o generate the t r u e order and harmony of Nature  (Chaos), w h i c h : i s l o s t  through the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and a r t i f i c i a l i t y of human i n t e l l e c t , which, as we have a l r e a d y seen, i s i n s e p a r a b l y connected w i t h Emerson's concepts of the s p i r i t , s o u l , i d e a , reason, and thus of Logos.  Thus a sharp c o n t r a s t i s  e x h i b i t e d between Emerson's n o t i o n of p o s i t i v e and  natural  law which i s r a t h e r L o g o c e n t r i c , and t h a t . o f Chuang Tzu which i s based on Chaos.  In t h i s c h a p t e r , we have examined Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of law and order from f o u r v i e w p o i n t s : d i v i n e law, the laws o f Nature and n a t u r a l law.  Through  ( p h y s i c a l law), p o s i t i v e  law,  t h i s examination i t has become  c l e a r t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n of law and order i s fundamentally L o g o c e n t r i c , w h i l e t h a t of Chuang.Tzu i s C h a o s - o r i e n t e d .  One  of the important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Logos i s i t s . d u a l i s m .  It  separates S p i r i t from Nature  (God)  from matter, Nature  (natura naturans)  (natura n a t u r a t a ) ,. mind from body, r a t i o n a l  i r r a t i o n a l , man  from  from Nature, the i d e a world from the phenom-  e n a l w o r l d , order from Chaos, e t c .  The f i r s t p a r t of each  of these p a i r s belongs t o d i v i n e law whereas the.second assumes the r o l e of r e c e i v e r o f the law.  The l o g i c of Logos  i s formal l o g i c , which i s based on the e i t h e r / o r type,of logic.  Thus f o r Emerson, who o f t e n f o l l o w s t h i s type o f . 29  l o g i c , " e i t h e r Chaos o r Law i s a t the base o f t h i n g s . " And he chooses  the l a t t e r .  I t i s t r u e t h a t Logos a l s o has a u n i f y i n g  function,  but i t i s a f u n c t i o n based on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , c h o i c e , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and i t c l a s s i f i e s t h i n g s i n t o d i v i n e (Intelligible)  and mundane (Sensible) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  Thus  the s e n s i b l e w o r l d i s d i v i d e d i n t o i l l u s i o n and b e l i e f (common-sense assurance) understanding  and the i n t e l l i g e n t world  into  (mathematical reasoning) and t r u e knowledge o f  the Idea o f the Good.  Each of these four d i v i s i o n s i s  a l l o t t e d t o a , s e c t i o n o f a l i n e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r proportionate parts.  Thus the u n i f y i n g f u n c t i o n of Logos i s  a n a l o g i c a l and g e o m e t r i c a l .  We have seen t h i s k i n d o f  analogy r e f l e c t e d i n Emerson's n o t i o n o f correspondence between man and Nature.  The l o g i c a l and g e o m e t r i c a l nature  of Logos i s a l s o seen i n h i s concept o f c a u s a l i t y of N a t u r e ) .  (the laws  To Emerson the world i s a garden, w e l l ordered  with geometrical p r e c i s i o n .  More p r e c i s e l y , t h i s o r d e r i s a  p r o j e c t i o n onto the outer world of the r a t i o n a l order of the human mind which i n t u r n r e c e i v e s i t s order from the i d e a world.  So man i s the agent o f the c e l e s t i a l l a w - g i v e r , t h e  supreme b e i n g , who i s e s s e n t i a l l y  rational.  T h i s i d e a seems t o have much t o do w i t h Emerson's n o t i o n o f the freedom  o f man as an i n d i v i d u a l .  To be the  98 executors of d i v i n e law, human beings must be i n d i v i d u a l s both r a t i o n a l and independent apply, the law.  from the world i n which they  T h i s k i n d o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n Emerson leads  us, on t h e one hand, t o h i s concept o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and p o s i t i v e law and, on the other hand, t o h i s n o t i o n o f n a t u r a l law.  The p r o p e r t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , i n c l u d i n g the  body of the i n d i v i d u a l , must be defended by p o s i t i v e but p o s i t i v e laws must draw t h e i r v a l i d i t y  laws,  from the i n d i v i d -  u a l ' s moral consciousness or r a t i o n a l i t y , which i s capable of  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g good from e v i l , r i g h t from wrong.  Needless  to  say, n a t u r a l law, i n t u r n , has i t s source i n d i v i n e law.  Reviewing Emerson's L o g o c e n t r i c n o t i o n of order and law i n t h i s way, we can see i n i t an ordered h i e r a r c h y : the Logoso r i e n t e d supreme b e i n g at the summit, human beings i n the middle, and Nature In  as the m a t e r i a l world a t the bottom.  Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n o f order and law, however, the  converse seems t o be t r u e : Nature as Chaos appears on t o p , human beings i n the middle, and the supreme being a t the bottom 241]  (e.g.> "the Way i s i n the p i s s and s h i t "  " j^/^t- % A% ") .  [ch. 22,  However, i f we want t o be more a c c u r a t e ,  t h i s arrangement i s n o t q u i t e c o r r e c t , f o r Chuang Tzu does not d i s c r i m i n a t e between h i g h and low, between t h e d i v i n e world and t h e mundane w o r l d , o r between man and Nature, e t c . E v e r y t h i n g i s regarded as equal from the viewpoint of Tao (Chaos).  By the standards o f the e i t h e r / o r type o f l o g i c  t h i s i s nonsense and i r r a t i o n a l .  "A" (man) must be s t r i c t l y  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from "non-A" ( f i s h or b u t t e r f l y ) . d i f f e r e n t from "No."  But the both/and  "Yes" i s  type of l o g i c says,  t h a t "A"  i s equal t o "non-A" and an answer can be both  and "No"  at once..  "Yes"  The r i g i d l y - d e f i n e d g e o m e t r i c a l l i n e  that  d i v i d e s and c l a s s i f i e s t h i n g s i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s of e i t h e r Yes-or No may  be c o n c e i v a b l e i n the mind, the i d e a l w o r l d ,  but i n the a c t u a l world every l i n e or boundary i s more or l e s s t w i s t e d and crooked.  T h i s crookedness  of boundaries  seems to be the nature of "the p a t t e r n i n t h i n g s " — - the o r i g i n a l meaning of l i . $|L , which i s employed by Chuang Tzu t o i n d i c a t e the T a o i s t n o t i o n of the u l t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e i n the u n i v e r s e . The crooked nature of boundaries seems a l s o t o apply to the boundary between cause and e f f e c t , between the obs e r v e r and the o b j e c t observed. straight  One  l i n e between one's " s e l f "  r e s t of the world  (the observed)  cannot draw a c l e a r - c u t ,  (the observer) and the  i n order t o separate the  former from the l a t t e r and f r e e l y observe the l a t t e r outside.  from  One.cannot determine the exact d i f f e r e n c e between  the observer and the observed i n order, t o p r e d i c t and  control  the f u t u r e of the l a t t e r , but one can f o l l o w the boundary between the two — Tzu toward  t h i s seems t o be the a t t i t u d e of Chuang  the problem of c a u s a l i t y and  freedom.  The i d e a t h a t an i n d i v i d u a t e d " s e l f "  (a r a t i o n a l  being) e x i s t s . i n d e p e n d e n t l y from t h e world and possesses t h i n g or another g i v e s r i s e t o a meticulous system of  one  100 p o s i t i v e laws and, as the b a s i s f o r these laws, the concept of n a t u r a l law which was  embodied as l i  customs) i n the time of Chuang Tzu.  (mores and  However, a c c o r d i n g t o  Chuang Tzu, these complicated systems of p o s i t i v e laws li  TMJL which  are supposed  and  t o harmonize a l l the c o n t r o v e r s i e s  and c o n f u s i o n s i n the world are the very cause of d i s o r d e r i n the u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d y e t p e a c e f u l world of Nature  (Chaos).  As we have seen above, t h i s diso.rder o r i g i n a l l y comes from the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s of human beings who  tend t o imagine  t h a t they are i n d i v i d u a l s transcendent of lower-case Emerson who  Nature.  shares t h i s world view says, " I t [Nature] i s  made t o serve [human b e i n g s ] " (Nature,. 1, 45).  But Chuang  Tzu would say t h a t there i s no such t h i n g as a m a t e r i a l world as opposed t o a s p i r i t u a l w o r l d .  Nor i s t h e r e a  c e l e s t i a l law-giver t h a t p r e s i d e s over the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . There are only boundaries and we them, or r a t h e r we  (human beings) are p a r t of  are the boundaries.  But these boundaries  are so numerous t h a t they are e q u i v a l e n t t o  being.non-  e x i s t e n t , i . e . , wu iSt (Nothingness) and hsfl FJL (Emptiness) . (Hence the s t a t e of s o - c a l l e d "egolessness.") words, they infinitely  In other  (the boundaries) are a conglomeration of one long boundary whose both ends are unknown (most  probably they meet somewhere?) .  Another name f o r wu  or  hs.u -jj^ would be Chaos (Tao) , the u l t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e or law of the u n i v e r s e .  Thus in-Chuang  Tzu the " d i v i n e law" as the  u l t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e and human b e i n g s , t o whom p o s i t i v e  and  101 n a t u r a l laws belong, are a l l one i n the Boundary, Chaos, or Wu ^ t , the concepts of which w i l l be f u r t h e r surveyed i n the next chapter, from the p e r s p e c t i v e of l i f e and order i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu.  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p a e d i a , V o l . V I I I 1967) , 545.  (New  York,  2 To apply the term " d i v i n e law" t o Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of the u l t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e may be r a t h e r incongruous here, as i t becomes c l e a r l a t e r t h a t he does not presuppose any supreme being as a d i v i n e l a w - g i v e r . 3 P. Edwards, ed., The E n c y c l o p a e d i a of P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . V (New York, 1967) , 83. 4 A c c o r d i n g t o M. C. West, who has c a r e f u l l y gone over the fragments of H e r a c l i t u s , there is. no r e l a t i o n s h i p between H e r a c l i t u s ' logos ("discourse" or "word") and the d i v i n e law of the "Logos." West w r i t e s : "Our review of the evidence t h e r e f o r e leads to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t H e r a c l i t u s uses only i n the o r d i n a r y senses of the word a t t e s t e d i n and b e f o r e the f i f t h century, and t h a t the Logos can be banished from our account of h i s p h i l o s o p h y " (West, E a r l y Greek Philosophy and the O r i e n t [Oxford, 1971], pp. 128-129). Cf. a l s o J . Burnet, E a r l y Greek Philosophy. (London, 1908), pp. 146 n. 3, 153 n. 1, 157. 5 . . F. C. Happold, M y s t i c i s m : A Study and an Anthology (Baltimore, 1973), p. 204. ^Cf. J . H a s t i n g s , ed., E n c y c l o p a e d i a of R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , V o l . V I I I (New York, 19 61), 136; New C a t h o l i c Encyc l o p a e d i a , V o l . V I I I , 968. 7 J . H i r s c h b e r g e r w r i t e s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between. Logos and Idea i n P l a t o : "The i d e a i s a u n i v e r s a l concept {%o{oS) . . . . f o r him [Plato] a l l e v o l u t i o n must be guided from above by an a n t i c i p a t i o n of meaning and of purpose. P l a t o i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of an i d e a l morphology. In t h i s r e s p e c t the statement recorded i n the Prologue of S t . John's Gospel: 'In the beginning was the word". (Logos) has a meaning and accords w i t h the f a c t s " ( H i r s c h b e r g e r , The H i s t o r y of P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . I, t r . , A. F u e r s t [Milwaukee, 1958], pp. 92-94). C f . a l s o note 12 t o Chapter-1 of t h i s t h e s i s , g In h i s The Philosophy of P l o t i n u s , Inge w r i t e s about the n o t i o n of Logos i n P l o t i n u s , whose concept of the WorldSoul reminds us of Emerson's Over-Soul: " I t [Logos] i s t h a t which, proceeding from S p i r i t , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or through the medium of the World-Soul, and i d e n t i c a l i n i t s nature 102  103 w i t h S o u l , conveys the energy o f S p i r i t and Soul i n t o M a t t e r " (W. R. Inge, The Philosophy of P l o t i n u s , V o l ; I [London., 1918], 156). 9 Cf. the f o l l o w i n g passage from Emerson's j o u r n a l f o r 1852: "The great words o f the world such as a n a l o g y : — what a s t e p mankind took when P l a t o f i r s t spoke tHat word! Analogy i s i d e n t i t y of r a t i o , and what c i v i l i z a t i o n , what mounting from savage beginnings does i t not r e q u i r e ! " ( J o u r n a l s , V I I I , 271-272). We can a l s o suspect t h a t there i s a c l o s e connection between Emerson's n o t i o n of analogy and g e o m e t r i c a l symmetry and p r o p o r t i o n ( c f . note 12 to Chapter I of t h i s t h e s i s ) . ^ E m e r s o n sees two d i f f e r e n t meanings i n the word Nature: the lower-case Nature (the s o - c a l l e d n a t u r a n a t u r a t a ) ; the upper-case Nature (the s o - c a l l e d n a t u r a n a t u r a n s ) . The Nature t h a t he h o l d s i n h i g h e r esteem seems t o be the l a t t e r . T h i s p o i n t w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter (see p. 72). II,  ''""'"Needham, Science and C i v i l i s a t i o n i n China, V o l . 473. 1 2  Ibid.,  Ibid., pp. 29-30. 1 3  485. 472-476.  C f . a l s o C r e e l , What Is Taoism?  14  Needham, 475. 15 Cf. a l s o the f o l l o w i n g passages from Watts and Berdyaev: " I t [a m e t a p h y s i c a l d o c t r i n e ] goes on t o say t h a t from t h i s r e a l i t y a l l t h i n g s ( i . e . , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s ) are produced out of t h a t which i s 'no-thing' by the Logos, which i s word-and-thought" (Watts, Myth and R i t u a l i n C h r i s t i a n i t y , pp. 60-61); "In the b e g i n n i n g was the Logos, the Word, the Meaning, and the L i g h t . But t h i s e t e r n a l t r u t h of r e l i g i o u s r e v e l a t i o n only means t h a t the kingdom of l i g h t and meaning has been r e a l i z e d i n i t i a l l y i n being and t h a t the Logos triumphed from the b e g i n n i n g over darkness of every k i n d " (N. Berdyaev, Freedom and the S p i r i t [London, 1948], p. 165). 16 Cf. a l s o the f o l l o w i n g passage from Backgrounds o f American L i t e r a r y Thought by R. W. Horton and H. W. Edwards: "Emerson's conception of the O v e r s o u l i s of course p a n t h e i s t i c , but h i s constant use of the word ' God ', i n r e f e r r i n g to the d i v i n e l i f e - p r i n c i p l e would seem t o i n d i c a t e e i t h e r t h a t the h a b i t s of a l i f e t i m e were too s t r o n g f o r him, or t h a t h i s a c t u a l idea, o f the D e i t y was more p e r s o n a l i z e d than h i s philosophy should l o g i c a l l y have p e r m i t t e d " (Horton and Edwards, Backgrounds of American L i t e r a r y Thought, [New York, 1967], pp. 116-117). 1  104 17  Cf. note 2 t o the I n t r o d u c t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s .  18 Watson, t r . , The Complete  Works of Chuang Tzu, p.5.  19 0. W. F i r k i n s , Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York, 1965), pp. 230-231. 20 Hopkins, "Emerson and Cudworth: P l a s t i c Nature and T r a n s c e n d e n t a l A r t , " 86. 21 The words adapted from Capra, The Tao of P h y s i c s , p. 56. 22 Heaven i s not something d i s t i n c t from e a r t h and man, but a name a p p l i e d to the n a t u r a l and spontaneous f u n c t i o n i n g of the two (Watson's.note). Cf. a l s o Chan's comment on t h i s passage i n h i s A Source Book i n Chinese P h i l o s o p h y , p. 181. 23 For more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the u n c e r t a i n t y p r i n c i p l e and p h i l o s o p h i c a l Taoism, the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o Capra, chs. 10-11. 24 My own p a r a p h r a s i n g of Watson's t r a n s l a t i o n . 25 Here Chuang Tzu uses the word C r e a t o r '^Jt'i]^. However, the i m p l i c a t i o n of the word i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which we encounter i n the Western t r a d i t i o n . As i n the case of t ' i e n , t h i s word means Nature or F a t e . With r e s p e c t to t h i s , Needham comments: "Examples can be found of t h i n k e r s i n China who maintained a b e l i e f i n the p e r s o n a l i t y of 'Heaven' .•. . but they were e x c e p t i o n a l . Chuang Tzu o f t e n speaks of the 'Author of Change' (tsao hua che* [-£aL4t> ^ ]) o r 'of Things' (tsao wu che ['gijfy.ft ]) but the r e f e r e n ces are p o e t i c a l and even somewhat mocking" (Needham, p.581n), 26 In connection w i t h t h i s , Horton and Edwards w r i t e i n t h e i r Backgrounds of American L i t e r a r y Thought: "Even i n h i s economics he resembled h i s f o r e b e a r s [the P u r i t a n s ] , f o r he b e l i e v e d that success c o n s i s t s i n c l o s e appliance, t o the laws of the w o r l d , and s i n c e these laws are i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral, the a c q u i s i t i o n o f wealth i s n e c e s s a r i l y moral. Just as the snow f a l l s l e v e l today and i s blown i n t o d r i f t s tomorrow, so i n e v i t a b l y are r i c h e s u n e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the people" (Horton and Edwards, p. 117). 27 Emerson and Forbes, eds., J o u r n a l s , I I I , 207-208. 28 Needham, 521. C h r i s t y , The O r i e n t i n American T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m , p. 104.  CHAPTER I I I ORDER AND Before and  life  LIFE  s t a r t i n g our d i s c u s s i o n on the n o t i o n of  order  i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu, i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e  examine b r i e f l y some g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of l i f e r e l a t i o n s h i p to order.  and i t s  I t i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to be  and p r e c i s e when d e f i n i n g the term " l i f e , "  exact  because the  of demarcation between s o - c a l l e d l i v i n g organisms and matter becomes b l u r r e d when we  c o n s i d e r such  to  line dead  a.borderline  case as a v i r u s o r , f o r t h a t matter, subatomic, p a r t i c l e s ("dead matter") t h a t c o n s t i t u t e l i v i n g organisms. we  can d e t e c t " l i f e , "  "inanimate"  or r a t h e r a metaphor f o r " l i f e , "  t h i n g s such as the sea, r i v e r s , e l e c t r i c  volcanic eruptions, etc. "inanimate" (or  "life  Presumably what we  current,  f e e l i n these  f o r c e " ) , of which, a c c o r d i n g t o modern p h y s i c s , form.  .However, we  i d e n t i f y r i v e r s , e l e c t r i c i t y , volcanoes,  do not  immediately  and the sea  l i v i n g organisms, f o r something seems to be m i s s i n g They may  stand f o r a p r i m o r d i a l l i f e  they are somewhat amorphous and —  in  o b j e c t s i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of s o - c a l l e d energy  matter i s merely one  things.  Moreover,  the s t r u c t u r e which we  may  call  f o r c e , but  "order." take a b r i e f  d e f i n i t i o n s of " l i f e . " 105  i n these  lacking i n organic structure  T h i s p o i n t w i l l become c l e a r e r i f we look at some of the standard  with  "Life"  106 can be d e f i n e d i n v a r i o u s ways: g e n e t i c a l l y natural selection), biochemically  (DNA  physically  (negative e n t r o p y ) , and  i c a l terms  ( s p i r i t , God,  however, seems t o be one  Idea).  and  ( e v o l u t i o n by amino a c i d s ) ,  i n r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h -  U n d e r l y i n g these  definitions,  common f e a t u r e , namely, o r d e r .  E v o l u t i o n i s based on the s e l e c t i o n of the f i t t e s t e l i m i n a t i o n of anomalies caused by mutations;  DNA  and and  acids c o n s i s t of a r e g u l a r arrangement of molecules  entropy  (negative entropy;  and,  as we  amino  which,  i n terms of thermodynamics, can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a of  the  decrease  have seen i n the  p r e v i o u s . c h a p t e r s , such noumenal concepts  as s p i r i t ,  God,  and Idea, which are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be the source "life,"  have o r d e r i n g power.  Thus we  can say t h a t " l i f e "  a k i n d of o r d e r , o r , to put i t i n s t i l l say t h a t " l i f e , "  another way,  e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of a l i v i n g  we  s h a l l use the word " l i f e "  is  can  organism, i s a  form of energy, ordered and r e g u l a t e d in, c e r t a i n ways. t h i s chapter we  of  In  basically in this  sense. If concept  life  i s a k i n d of order, then death,  of l i f e ,  the  opposite  can be d e f i n e d as a k i n d of d i s o r d e r .  Since Logos i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p r i n c i p l e of o r d e r , and Chaos one.of d i s o r d e r  (or r a t h e r D i s o r d e r ) , we  connection between l i f e Chaos.  As we  can see a s t r o n g  and Logos, and between death  and  have seen e a r l i e r , Emerson's n o t i o n of order  i s L o g o c e n t r i c , w h i l e t h a t of Chuang Tzu i s Chaos-oriented. . :  T h e r e f o r e , we  can expect  to see t h i s d i f f e r e n c e r e f l e c t e d i n  107 t h e i r notion of l i f e  and death.  t h e i r concepts .of l i f e  C o n v e r s e l y , by  and death, we can shed some l i g h t  upon some aspects o f t h e i r n o t i o n o f o r d e r . then, w i l l attempt  examining  T h i s chapter,  t o c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l i f e ,  Death, Logos, and Chaos, and w i l l t r y t o show how these are r e l a t e d t o the n o t i o n o f order i n Emerson and Chuang Tzu. To continue w i t h o u r . d i s c u s s i o n , l e t us f i r s t examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e  and Logos.  As f o r the connec-  t i o n between Logos and the s p i r i t u a l aspect o f l i f e , we need not spend many words here. the key concept behind noumenpn, i s thought life.  I t i s a l l too c l e a r t h a t Logos,  the various.terms  t o be the fountainhead o f s p i r i t u a l  This i s . i p a r t i c u l a r l y  discussed shortly. importance  that stand f o r  t r u e i n Emerson and w i l l be  A t t h i s stage, however, i t i s of primary  t o c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p h y s i c a l  aspects o f l i f e and Logos. Logos and ( p h y s i c a l ) l i f e with l i g h t .  The f i r s t connection between i s t h a t both have a c l o s e a f f i n i t y  As we have seen i n the l a s t chapter  ( c f . p. 65),  Logos has a s t r o n g p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r l i g h t w h i l e l i f e on. e a r t h i s supported by the l i g h t from the sun.  T h i s seems t o .  be the c h i e f reason why l i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of the sun, is  o f t e n used as the symbol o f s p i r i t , s o u l , l i f e  s p i r i t u a l o r p h y s i c a l ) and Logos.  (whether  Another connection  between Logos and ( p h y s i c a l ) l i f e can be seen i n the s t r u c t u r e of DNA, of  1  s h o r t f o r d e o x y r i b o n u c l e i c a c i d , the c a r r i e r  the g e n e t i c code.  DNA c o n s i s t s o f f o u r b a s i c molecules  108 c a l l e d n u c l e o t i d e s , which are i d e n t i c a l except f o r the n i t r o g e n bases they c o n t a i n .  These n i t r o g e n bases are  adenine, guanine, c y t o s i n e , and thymine, each a b b r e v i a t e d as A, G, C, and T.  Because of the d i f f e r e n c e s of the n i t r o g e n  bases, the n u c l e o t i d e s f u n c t i o n as the "alphabet" o f the g e n e t i c code.  The g e n e t i c code i s a s e q u e n t i a l  of  " t h r e e - l e t t e r words'  of  t h e . f o u r n u c l e o t i d e bases.  1  the  arrangement.  (codons) made up by t a k i n g three out What i s i n t e r e s t i n g here i s  l a n g u a g e - l i k e nature o f the g e n e t i c code.  would be somewhat rash t o c a l l DNA  Although i t  a language, we  see a s t r o n g analogy between the two.  still  In h i s System and,  S t r u c t u r e , A. Wilden quotes from C. H. Waddington who "In  f a c t why  not t h i n k of DNA  can  says,  as the B i b l e , of messenger  RNA  as the preacher,.and of the p r o t e i n s as the congregation o  ready t o perform the good works of the Word.of God?" Logos  (as words and the Word) and p h y s i c a l l i f e  c l o s e l y connected i n the nature of Still life  Thus  seem t o be  DNA.  another r e l a t i o n s h i p between.Logos and p h y s i c a l  can be seen i n P l o t i n u s  1  d o c t r i n e o f Logos.  In h i s The  Philosophy of P l o t i n u s , W. R. Inge w r i t e s : L i f e , he [ P l o t i n u s ] says, cannot be generated by an aggregation of l i f e l e s s p a r t i c l e s , nor can i n t e l l i g e n c e be produced by t h i n g s without understanding. I f i t be suggested t h a t when the molecules are arranged i n a c e r t a i n o r d e r , l i f e r e s u l t s , then the p r i n c i p l e which produces, the o r d e r , and not the molecules which are so arranged, should be c a l l e d the S o u l .or v i t a l p r i n c i p l e . Body i s produced, through the agency of the seminal Logoi,. by S o u l , which g i v e s form, t o i n d e t e r m i n a t e "Matter. 3 1  As we  can surmise from t h i s q u o t a t i o n , t h e r e seems t o be an  109 intrinsic  connection between p h y s i c a l l i f e  an important element) and Logos.  (of which DNA i s  A c c o r d i n g to Inge's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of P l o t i n u s ' L o g o s - d o c t r i n e , i t i s due t o the o r g a n i z i n g power of Logos t h a t DNA  ( i . e . , "molecules arranged  i n a c e r t a i n order") can f u n c t i o n as  DNA.  With these p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind concerning  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Logos and l i f e ,  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of Logos in.Emerson's n o t i o n of l i f e  order.  l e t us examine and  I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o suppose t h a t s i n c e Emerson i s  an i d e a l i s t , he c o n s i d e r s the s p i r i t or s o u l , and thus Logos, as the only fountainhead of l i f e material).  The f o l l o w i n g passages from h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l  further i l l u s t r a t e out men" but 298):  ( b o t h . s p i r i t u a l and  t h i s p o i n t : . " I t i s one l i g h t which beams  of a thousand s t a r s .  I t i s one s o u l which animates a l l  ("The American S c h o l a r , " I , 108); "Nothing i s secure l i f e , t r a n s i t i o n , the e n e r g i z i n g s p i r i t "  ("Circles," I I ,  and "Through a l l i t s kingdoms, t o the suburbs and  o u t s k i r t s o f things,, i t [Nature] i s f a i t h f u l whence i t has i t s o r i g i n .  to the cause  I t always speaks o f S p i r i t .  . . .  I t i s a g r e a t shadow p o i n t i n g always t o the sun behind us" (Nature, I , 65). and now  As we have seen e a r l i e r  ( c f . pp. 27-28, 65)  i n the passages quoted here, Emerson seems t o be  preoccupied w i t h the images o f l i g h t , h e i g h t , sky and the sun.  T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s f u r t h e r proof t h a t h i s n o t i o n of  (both s p i r i t u a l  and physical), i s L o g o s - o r i e n t e d .  Logos i s r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l l i f e not only i n the  life  110 images o f l i g h t and the sun, but a l s o i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  DNA.  We have seen t h i s i n the above q u o t a t i o n s from Wilden's System and S t r u c t u r e and Inge' s The Philosophy o f Plotinus.. We  are reminded here of Emerson's i n t e r e s t i n language and  speech"(Logos) examined  i n the f i r s t  chapter (pp. 19-21).  There may be some k i n d of hidden c o n n e c t i o n between Emerson's c a r e e r as a m i n i s t e r and a l e c t u r e r , i . e . , as a messenger of the Word  (Logos) of God,  and the f u n c t i o n of DNA  as the  c a r r i e r o f g e n e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n which i s compared t o the Bible, by Waddington.  Emerson's sermons and l e c t u r e s  could  i n s p i r e , animate, and move h i s audience t a k i n g a c t i o n s t o b r i n g harmony and order t o the world, e s p e c i a l l y i n t o w i l d Nature.  (In connection w i t h t h i s we should note t h a t Emerson  l i v e d i n the age of expansionism, the age of c i v i l i z a t i o n of the w i l d West.)  A s i m i l a r movement toward harmony and o r d e r  seems t o t a k e . p l a c e i n DNA message from DNA,  and amino a c i d s : a c c o r d i n g to the  amino a c i d s are arranged i n t o an ordered  s t r u c t u r e of p r o t e i n s which, i n t u r n , c o n s t i t u t e a h i g h l y complicated y e t well-harmonized l i v i n g organism. may  be p o s s i b l e t o see a s o r t of a n a l o g i c a l  between Emerson's p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r language  Thus i t  relationship (Logos) and  DNA  which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f the b a s i c elements of physical  life.  Another aspect of DNA i n a l l l i v i n g organisms. we  i s i t s u n i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y  This i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g when  c o n s i d e r Emerson's i d e a t h a t a L o g o s - o r i e n t e d p r i n c i p l e  Ill ( i . e . , S p i r i t ) permeates, animates, and He  a s s e r t s t h i s i d e a time and  again  c o n t r o l s the  i n h i s w r i t i n g s : "Each  c r e a t u r e i s only a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the other; in  them i s more than the d i f f e r e n c e , and  is  one  and the same" (Nature, I , 49);  out of the same s p i r i t , and  the,likeness  their radical  " A l l t h i n g s proceed  "Genius d e t e c t s  through a l l the kingdoms of organized  life  .  the e t e r n a l u n i t y "  I I , 18);."There i s , at the s u r f a c e ,  infinite  v a r i e t y of t h i n g s ; at the centre there i s s i m p l i c i t y cause" and  ( I b i d . , 19);  and  r e p e t i t i o n of a very  of i n t u i t i v e experience  "Nature i s an endless few  laws"  s i m p l i c i t y of DNA  sense, DNA  organisms.  few  This  called  kind  "partici-r  be e x p l a i n e d through  the  i n a l l c r e a t u r e s on e a r t h .  f u n c t i o n s .through a simple  t i t i o n of a very  of  combination  (Ibid.,.20).  of Emerson which we  p a t i o n mystique" i n Chapter I I may u n i t y and  law  a l l things c o n s p i r e with i t "  ( " D i v i n i t y School Address," I , 124);  ("History,"  universe.  In a  "combination and  repe- .  laws" which are common i n a l l l i v i n g  Thus, there seems to be a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the u n i t y of DNA  and  t h a t of the S p i r i t or Logos i n  Emerson's n o t i o n of l i f e  and  order.  Chuang Tzu, source of l i f e and Hu, is  who  true  on the other hand, seems t o f i n d  the  i n Hun-tun or Chaos which i s k i l l e d by  represent  Shu  the Logos aspect of human beings..  t h a t Chuang Tzu sometimes t a l k s about s p i r i t  as  opposed to the body i n such words and passages as shen (spirit),  ching  ( s p i r i t u a l essence, m a t e r i a l f o r c e ) ,  It  112 ching-shen  ^ ftfy (pure s p i r i t , v i t a l s p i r i t ) ;  t r e a t your s p i r i t energy  l i k e an o u t s i d e r .  . . ." (ch. 5, 76)  " ^ ^  "You now  —  You wear out your  ^ 2,  tfr %  3- ^ i f f  ". ... e n f o l d the s p i r i t i n quietude and the body w i l l itself  (ch. 11, 119)  " $ @ J $ yk.lffr  SB-  " ; and  s p i r i t reaches i n the f o u r d i r e c t i o n s , flows now now 169)  you  right  "Pure  this  way,  t h a t — t h e r e i s no p l a c e i t does not extend t o " (ch. 15, " ^  -fjj? MS^jk-yk^^  ffj  •"  These passages  seem t o  i n d i c a t e t h a t , l i k e Emerson, Chuang Tzu a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s the s p i r i t  from the body.  However, i n Chuang Tzu i t i s  extremely d i f f i c u l t t o draw a c l e a r - c u t l i n e of demarcation between the s p i r i t ching ^  and the body.  Chuang Tzu's shen ^  merge i n s e p a r a b l y w i t h h s i n g  such n o t i o n s as h s i n g >^ matter-energy) .  $r-''j  and  (body, form) through  (inborn nature) and ch.' i ^  (breath,  Hsing |>£_ i n Chuang Tzu seems to imply an v  o r d e r l y and harmonious f u n c t i o n of body and s p i r i t  (  ^  Chuang Tzu says? Out of the flow and f l u x , t h i n g s were born, and as they grew they developed d i s t i n c t i v e shapes; these were c a l l e d forms. The forms and bodies h e l d w i t h i n them s p i r i t s , each w i t h i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l i m i t a t i o n s , and t h i s was c a l l e d the inborn nature. (ch. 12, 131-132)  and "The 259)  i n b o r n nature i s the substance of l i f e "  " 'V^L^  Z_ ^  to those of h s i n g  "  Ch'.i ^  (ch. 23,  has c o n n o t a t i o n s s i m i l a r  i n t h a t both are combination of matter  ).  113 and s p i r i t w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s  the substance  c l e a r from such passages a s :  "Man's l i f e i s a c o m i n g - t o g e t h e r  of b r e a t h  [ch,* i ] ...  I f i t comes t o g e t h e r ,  i t s c a t t e r s , there ,is death" J ^ ^ ^ J ' } J f e ? L ";  ( c h . 22,  of l i f e .  This  there i s l i f e ;  235)  is  if  " /.  "No, d o n ' t l i s t e n w i t h your mind, but  l i s t e n w i t h your s p i r i t [ c h ' i ] "  (ch.  4, 58)  "^  V,^ <0  v ? f 3 - I j i - ^ " ; "And now —- now I go a t i t by s p i r i t  [shen ^  and d o n ' t l o o k w i t h my eyes"  i.fi^-^v /^  ^'^^f! % ^  S III";  ( c h . 3 , 50-51) " % ^  ] 1  and " I n the m i d s t of the jumble of -  wonder and mystery a change took p l a c e and she had a s p i r i t [ch'i].  A n o t h e r change and she had a body" ( c h . 18,  192)  I n the l a s t passage  " jfefy^Jfa LT%\ ^(V^k^m^^." quoted h e r e , Chuang Tzu says c h ' i ^  comes out of the  state  of c o n f u s i o n (^L^f ) w h i c h i s n o t h i n g b u t Chaos o r H u n - t u n . Thus we can say t h a t i n Chuang T z u , Chaos ( D i s o r d e r ) under the concept of c h ' i quite close to hsing  $L .  lies  B e s i d e s , s i n c e ch'. i ik. i s ,  , shen %^ , and c h i n g ^  , we can 5  a l s o c o n c l u d e t h a t Chaos u n d e r l i e s a l l these n o t i o n s . What, t h e n , are the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s , w i t h r e g a r d t o the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t of l i f e ? here.  We can g i v e two examples  F i r s t , e v o l u t i o n by n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n i s based on  m u t a t i o n s i n the DNA.  These m u t a t i o n s have been c a u s e d ,  l e a s t so f a r as i s known, by u n p r e d i c t a b l e d i s t u r b a n c e s the arrangement of the n u c l e o t i d e bases i n t h e g e n e t i c  at in  code  and a l s o by m i s t a k e s i n t h e p r o c e s s of i n t e r p r e t i n g the g e n e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . i n t o amino a c i d s .  These d i s t u r b a n c e s  114 and mistakes can f u r t h e r be t r a c e d t o the random movements and c o l l i s i o n s o f "subatomic p a r t i c l e s " i n the u n i v e r s e . J.  As  Monod p o i n t s out, mutation i s e s s e n t i a l l y the i n c i d e n t  t h a t takes p l a c e a t the l e v e l of quantum theory and so the u n c e r t a i n t y p r i n c i p l e can be a p p l i e d to i t . matter o f chance. based on Chaos.  In t h i s sense we  Mutation i s a  can say t h a t l i f e i s  Secondly, the sun, which i s the source of  energy f o r a l l l i v i n g organisms on earth,, i s c o n s t a n t l y moving toward s o - c a l l e d thermal death  (the i n c r e a s e o f  entropy .or d i s o r d e r ) by e m i t t i n g l i g h t • t h r o u g h i t s n u c l e a r reactions.  This i s another r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e  and  Chaos. Although Chaos i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h darkness, c o n f u s i o n , c o r r u p t i o n and death by Emerson ( c f . pp. 121-123) it the  can a l s o be the b a s i s f o r l i f e . reasons why  T h i s seems t o be one of  Chuang Tzu emphasizes  Chaos r a t h e r than Logos.  the importance of  For Chuang Tzu, Chaos  "death") seems t o precede Logos  ("life,"  ("darkness,"  "light").  As he  w r i t e s , "The b r i g h t and s h i n i n g i s born out o f deep darkness the  ordered i s born out.of f o r m l e s s n e s s ; pure s p i r i t  out  of the Way"  ^ ^ • ^ ^  —  (ch. 22, 238)  i l L •"  " ^fc  > £ . ^ \£  i s born ^  j£  Here i s a sharp c o n t r a s t between  Emerson's L o g o c e n t r i c n o t i o n of l i f e o r i e n t e d concept of l i f e .  and Chuang Tzu's Chaos-  In other words, Emerson's  life  descends from above, from the s p i r i t u a l world o f Ideas or Forms  ^  ( c f . p. 46), whereas Chuang Tzu's l i f e a r i s e s from  115 below, from depth, darkness,  and f o r m l e s s n e s s , i . e , , Tao  or  Hun-tun. This d i f f e r e n c e f u r t h e r leads us to.the t o p i c of being and non-being, death.  a v a r i a t i o n of the problem of l i f e  and  T h i s i s because S p i r i t , Idea-and Form a l l seem t o  partake of b e i n g , w h i l e depth, darkness, have much i n common Although  and  formlessness  with.non-being.  Parmenides,.Plato,  and presumably Emerson  would argue t h a t a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e i n t h i s world i s "phenomenon" and  "becoming" and thus cannot be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  ultimate being  (or r a t h e r B e i n g ) , s t i l l  there seems to e x i s t  an e s s e n t i a l connection between the two, because the  sense  of being o b v i o u s l y a r i s e s from the r e c o g n i t i o n of a c t u a l t h i n g s i n t h i s world. mind  I d e a l i s t s may  a s s e r t t h a t without  (as opposed t o matter) t h e r e can be no p e r c e p t i o n of  the e x t e r n a l world, but t h i s  leads us to.an endless d i s p u t e  between s u b j e c t i v i s m ( s p i r i t ) and o b j e c t i v i s m (matter).  It  seems t h a t n e i t h e r a pure s t a t e of the m i n d . ( i . e . , s u b j e c t i v i t y ) nor t h a t of matter  ( i . e . , objectivity) i s conceivable,  f o r both belong to the realm of the unconscious. we  have consciousness  The moment  and s t a r t debating the p r i o r i t y  i d e a l i s m over m a t e r i a l i s m or v i c e v e r s a , we  of  inevitably  presuppose a boundary between s u b j e c t ( s p i r i t or mind) and object  (matter'-or body) and by e x t e n s i o n between other t h i n g s  i n the e x t e r n a l world.  T h i s process i s n o t h i n g but  p e r c e p t i o n of a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e by.our senses.  the  Thus i t would  116 be s a f e t o say t h a t the conception of being  (whether i t  partakes of the i d e a l world or not) i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o our r e c o g n i t i o n o f the phenomena i n the outer world. I t may s t i l l be p o s s i b l e t o argue t h a t the a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e i n t h i s world  i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t r u e b e i n g i n the  i d e a l w o r l d , but as we have seen above, consciousness o f being seems t o be i m p o s s i b l e . w i t h o u t the phenomena i n the world.  a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n of  This i s equivalent to saying  t h a t the i d e a o f - b e i n g presupposes-boundaries. seen i n the f i r s t the concept  chapter/  As we have  " i d e a , " which i s i n s e p a r a b l e from  of b e i n g , i s founded on s i g h t . a n d  boundaries.  On the b a s i s o f the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on b e i n g , we can say t h a t a b e i n g i s , so t o say, something which i s s u r rounded by a boundary and c u t o f f from the r e s t of the world. I t i s a f i g u r e d e f i n e d a g a i n s t a set.ground.  Non-being,  then, can be d e f i n e d as the boundary t h a t separates the being from the ground and other t h i n g s .  (In f a c t , the.ground i s  no other than the boundary, as w i l l become c l e a r l a t e r on.) Absolute Being  (or b e i n g - i t s e l f ) . i s s a i d t o comprehend both 9  i t s e l f and non-being,,  but we should not f o r g e t t h a t even  behind the n o t i o n o f absolute Being b e i n g d i s c u s s e d above.  l i e s the concept of  We c o u l d say t h a t absolute Being i s  an e x t e n s i o n of b e i n g o r , c o n v e r s e l y , b e i n g . i s an " a l i e n a t e d " Being.  In any case, i t seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t boundaries - are  i n v o l v e d i n the problem o f being and a l i e n a t i o n . ^ 1  With these p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . o n being and  117 non-being  i n mind, l e t us f i r s t examine Emerson's n o t i o n s of  b e i n g and non-being.  His a t t i t u d e toward  be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g  these concepts  can  passages:  I t [ i n t e l l e c t u a l s c i e n c e ] f a s t e n s the a t t e n t i o n upon . . . Ideas. . . . We ascent i n t o t h e i r r e g i o n , and know t h a t these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. . . . No man f e a r s age or m i s f o r tune or death i n t h e i r company, f o r he i s t r a n s p o r t e d out of the d i s t r i c t of change. . . . We apprehend the a b s o l u t e . As i t were, f o r the f i r s t time, we e x i s t . (Nature, I , 60-61) Good i s p o s i t i v e . E v i l i s merely p r i v a t i v e , not a b s o l u t e : , i t i s l i k e c o l d , which i s the p r i v a t i o n of heat. A l l e v i l i s so much death or n o n e n t i t y . Benevolence i s absolute and r e a l . So much benevolence as a man hath, so much l i f e hath he. For a l l t h i n g s proceed out of t h i s same s p i r i t . . . ( " D i v i n i t y School Address," I , 123) The s o u l i s not a compensation, but a l i f e . The s o u l i s . Under a l l t h i s running,sea of circums t a n c e , whose waters ebb and flow w i t h p e r f e c t balance, l i e s the a b o r i g i n a l abyss of r e a l Being. Essence, or God, i s not a r e l a t i o n or a p a r t , but the whole. Being i s the v a s t a f f i r m a t i v e e x c l u d ing n e g a t i o n , s e l f - b a l a n c e d , and swallowing up a l l r e l a t i o n s , p a r t s and times w i t h i n i t s e l f . Nature, t r u t h , v i r t u e , are the i n f l u x from thence. V i c e i s the absence or departure of the same. Nothing, Falsehood, may indeed stand as the g r e a t Night or shade on which as a background the l i v i n g u n i v e r s e p a i n t s i t s e l f f o r t h , but no f a c t i s begotten by i t ; i t cannot work, f o r i t i s not. I t - cannot work any good; i t cannot work any harm. I t i s harm inasmuch as i t i s worse not t o be than t o be. ("Compensation," I I , 116) As we  can see i n these passages, Emerson t h i n k s t h a t  soul,  s p i r i t , Good,.the Supreme Being, Ideas, and a f f i r m a t i o n are on the s i d e of l i f e and b e i n g , w h i l e n o t h i n g , e v i l , f a l s e h o o d , night  (darkness), p r i v a t i o n , n e g a t i o n , and "not" belong to  death and non-being.  What i s noteworthy  Emerson says t h a t non-being  here i s t h a t  such as n e g a t i o n and "not" are  118 t o t a l l y excluded o r a l i e n a t e d from Being and are regarded as a mere background.  We  should a l s o note t h a t , as we  have  seen i n Chapter I ( c f . p. 17), n e g a t i o n or "not" i s a k i n d of boundary.  Here i s the reason why  we have supposed  t h a t non-being, boundaries, and ground  earlier  are synonymous and  they are a l l a l i e n a t e d from Being. Now,  i n Emerson, l i f e i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h b e i n g , or  more e x a c t l y , Being.  T h i s i d e a seems t o be s u p p o r t a b l e from  a s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e . Although Being i s s a i d t o embrace both i t s e l f  and non-being,  s t i l l we  e a s i l y tends t o exclude non-being passages quoted from Emerson  cannot deny that i t  as i s seen i n the above  (e.g., "Being i s the v a s t  affirmative, excluding negation").  T h i s excluded  non-being  seems t o f u n c t i o n as the boundary t h a t surrounds Being beings.  In t h i s sense we  and  can say t h a t , at l e a s t i n Emerson,  Being and beings are d i s c r e t e " i n d i v i d u a l s " separated from and s e t a g a i n s t non-being  or background.  t r u e of the s t r u c t u r e s of DNA elements.of p h y s i c a l l i f e . p h y s i c s t e l l us, both DNA  The same may  and amino acids,, the two  hold basic  As b i o c h e m i s t r y and.modern  and amino a c i d s c o n s i s t of  "indi-  v i d u a l " molecules and these molecules, i n t u r n , r a r e an aggregate of the s o - c a l l e d subatomic p a r t i c l e s t h a t "pop of  out"  the v o i d , or t o use the terminology of quantum t h e o r y , of  a f i e l d of energy.  Thus i t can be s a i d t h a t  subatomic  p a r t i c l e s are the prototypes of -beings, and t h a t the v o i d or the f i e l d of energy surrounding them corresponds t o non-being.  Here i s i l l u s t r a t e d a c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between p h y s i c a l  119  life  and beings (and Being) i n Emerson's w o r l d view. At  the same time, however, we should note t h a t sub-  atomic p a r t i c l e s  (beings) come out of the vacuum  and v a n i s h again i n t o i t .  (non-being)  In t h i s sense beings are dependent  on non-being, or r a t h e r Non-being.'  And presumably t h i s  be the reason, hidden even t o Chuang Tzu h i m s e l f , why esteems Non-being o r wu |Sfc  (Nothingness) so h i g h l y .  i n s t a n c e , he w r i t e s , "In the Great B e g i n n i n g , t h e r e nonbeing; there was there was  no b e i n g , no name.  One, but i t had no form.  and came t o l i f e  . . ." (ch.  — )Lfl[$3*fa-~  tff>  k  i£ • "  the  For was  Things got h o l d of i t  F  o  r  c  h  u  a  n  9  J&LJft&%  Tzu- l i f e  comes n o t from b e i n g , but from non-being, or r a t h e r being.  he  Out o f i t arose One;  12, 131) "Jj.^^^fc  M \% >  may  Non-  However, as the supreme Being u l t i m a t e l y transcends  o p p o s i t i o n between b e i n g and non-being, so does Chuang  Tzu's absolute Non-being  go beyond both b e i n g and non-being.  The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n w i l l serve as a c l u e to understanding  this:  There i s a b e g i n n i n g . There i s a not y e t b e g i n n i n g to be a b e g i n n i n g . There i s a not y e t b e g i n n i n g t o be a not y e t b e g i n n i n g t o be a b e g i n n i n g . There i s b e i n g . There i s nonbeing.; There i s a not y e t b e g i n n i n g t o be nonbeing. T h e r e . i s a not y e t b e g i n n i n g t o be a not y e t b e g i n n i n g t o be nonbeing. Suddenly there i s nonbeing. But I do not know, when i t comes t o nonbeing, which i s r e a l l y b e i n g and which i s nonbeing. Now I have j u s t s a i d somet h i n g s . But I don't know whether what I have s a i d has r e a l l y s a i d something or whether i t hasn't s a i d something. (ch. 2, 43). :  120  In  the f i r s t passage quoted above, Chuang Tzu says,  presumably f o r the sake of convenience and f o l l o w i n g the c o n v e n t i o n a l way beginning.  of argument,  t h a t there i s non-being i n the  But t h i s i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , f o r r e a l non-being  simply cannot e x i s t - a n d t r u e b e g i n n i n g must be b e g i n n i n g l e s s . T h e r e f o r e he says i n the second passage t h a t a f t e r a l l he does not not know whether non-being r e a l l y e x i s t s o r not, or whether what he has s a i d r e a l l y means something nothing  (another b e i n g ) .  (being) or  This shows t h a t the t r u e Non-being  of Chuang Tzu i s the boundary between being and non-being, between.something  and n o t h i n g .  As we saw a t the end of the  p r e v i o u s chapter, Non-being i s the Great Boundary, Chaos, or Wu(Nothingness).  Here i s a sharp c o n t r a s t between  Emerson's n o t i o n of l i f e which i s d i r e c t e d toward Logos and Being, and t h a t of Chuang Tzu which i s based on Chaos and Non-being. T h i s .difference seems t o be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward w i l l , which i s c l o s e l y connected w i t h anthro-. pocentrism. life  As we have seen above, Emerson's concept of  can be compared  t o t h a t of quanta  (packets of energy)  t h a t come out of and v a n i s h i n t o the p h y s i c a l f i e l d .  Just  as quanta are always exposed t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of being  121 swallowed is  up by the v o i d of the p h y s i c a l f i e l d , l i f e  (being)  c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the danger o f b e i n g drowned i n  the abyss o f non-being the w i l l  (death o r chaos).  t o overcome the t h r e a t o f chaos.  t h i s tendency  i n Emerson's n o t i o n of w i l l .  repeat the passage quoted e a r l i e r  From here  arises  We can d e t e c t F o r example, t o  (p. 93), Emerson says, "In  a v i r t u o u s a c t i o n I p r o p e r l y am; i n . a v i r t u o u s a c t I add t o the world; I p l a n t i n t o d e s e r t s conquered  from Chaos and  Nothing and see the darkness r e c e d i n g on the l i m i t s o f the h o r i z o n " ('Compensation," I I , 117). Besides t h i s example, we come across many passages w i t h a s i m i l a r tone: "I say t o the U n i v e r s e , Mighty one! thou a r t not my mother; r e t u r n t o chaos, i f thou w i l t , I s h a l l s t i l l e x i s t .  I live.  my b e i n g , i t i s t o a d e s t i n y g r e a t e r than t h i n e " December 21, 1823);  I f I owe (Journal,  "But every j e t o f chaos which t h r e a t e n s  to exterminate us i s c o n v e r t i b l e by i n t e l l e c t i n t o wholesome force.  Fate i n unpenetrated causes"  ("Fate," V I , 35); "So  much only o f l i f e as I know by e x p e r i e n c e , so much of the w i l d e r n e s s have I vanquished  and p l a n t e d , o r so f a r have I  extended my b e i n g , my dominion"  ("The American  Scholar," I,  96); and "And we are now men . . . and n o t minors lids  and inva-,  . . . but g u i d e s , redeemers and b e n e f a c t o r s , obeying  the Almighty e f f o r t and advancing on Chaos and the Dark" ( " S e l f - R e l i a n c e , " I I , 49). From these passages we can s a f e l y i n f e r t h a t i n Emerson l i f e w i l d gushing o f Nature  i s a . w i l l t o subdue the c h a o t i c ,  (or F a t e ) .  I t i s a domination of  122 being over non-being , l i f e over death, and order (logos) over d i s o r d e r (chaos). Emerson's ideas o f t h i s k i n d on l i f e  and w i l l  n a t u r a l l y l e a d us t o h i s anthropocentrism, which has been touched upon i n the l a s t chapter  ( c f . p. 65). For Emerson,  man seems t o be a t y p i c a l "being" as the e x p r e s s i o n "human beings" i n d i c a t e s .  A c c o r d i n g t o him, human beings are.  d i r e c t l y connected t o the Supreme Being i n the i d e a l world through Logos, i . e . , the s p i r i t , s o u l , i n t e l l e c t , etc.  reason,  T h e r e f o r e " l i f e " means p a r t i c u l a r l y human l i f e .  needless t o say, the most prominent  And  f e a t u r e o f human l i f e i s  c i v i l i z a t i o n , which i s man's c u l t i v a t i o n , . taming, and domination,of w i l d Nature which i n c l u d e s d i s e a s e , death, madness, n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s , e t c . i n c l i n a t i o n toward  Emerson.shows a s t r o n g  t h i s kind of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  already been mentioned  T h i s has  a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s throughout  t h e s i s , and e s p e c i a l l y i n the passages  j u s t quoted  this above,  but t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t f u r t h e r , we have the f o l l o w i n g examples: The e x e r c i s e o f t h e W i l l , or the l e s s o n of power, i s taught i n every event. From,the c h i l d ' s succ e s s i v e p o s s e s s i o n of h i s s e v e r a l senses up t o the hour when he s a i t h , "Thy w i l l be done!" he i s l e a r n i n g the s e c r e t t h a t he can reduce under h i s w i l l , n o t only p a r t i c u l a r events but g r e a t c l a s s e s , nay, the whole s e r i e s of events, and so c o n f o r m . a l l f a c t s t o h i s c h a r a c t e r . Nature i s thoroughly mediate. I t i s made t o s e r v e . . . . I t o f f e r s a l l i t s kingdoms to.man as the raw m a t e r i a l which he may mould i n t o what i s u s e f u l . . . . One a f t e r another h i s v i c t o r i o u s thought comes up w i t h and reduces a l l t h i n g s , u n t i l the world becomes at l a s t  123 only a r e a l i z e d w i l l , —  the double of the man. (Nature ,. I , 45-46)  A correspondent r e v o l u t i o n i n t h i n g s w i l l attend the i n f l u x of the s p i r i t . So f a s t w i l l d i s a g r e e able appearances, swine, s p i d e r s , snakes, p e s t s , mad-houses, p r i s o n s , enemies, v a n i s h ; they are temporary and s h a l l be no more seen. The sordor and f i l t h s o f nature, the sun s h a l l dry up and the wind exhale. . . . The kingdom of, man over nature, which cometh not w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n , — a dominion such as now i s beyond, h i s dream of God, — he s h a l l e n t e r without more wonder than the b l i n d man f e e l s who i s g r a d u a l l y r e s t o r e d t o p e r f e c t s i g h t . ( I b i d . , 79-80) The annual s l a u g h t e r from typhus f a r exceeds t h a t of war; but r i g h t drainage d e s t r o y s typhus. The plague i n the s e a - s e r v i c e from scurvy i s . h e a l e d by lemon j u i c e and other d i e t s p o r t a b l e or p r o c u r a b l e ; the d e p o p u l a t i o n by c h o l e r a and small-pox i s ended by drainage and v a c c i n a t i o n ; and every, o t h e r pest i s not l e s s i n the chain o f cause and e f f e c t , and may be fought o f f . And w h i l s t a r t draws out the venom, i t commonly e x t o r t s some b e n e f i t from the vanquished enemy. The mischievous t o r r e n t i s i taught to drudge f o r man; the w i l d . b e a s t he makes u s e f u l f o r food, or d r e s s , or l a b o r ; the chemic e x p l o s i o n s are c o n t r o l l e d l i k e h i s watch. These are now the steeds on which he r i d e s . ("Eate," VI, .36-37) He [man] looks l i k e a p i e c e of l u c k , but i s a p i e c e of c a u s a t i o n ; the mosaic, angulated and ground t o f i t i n t o the gap h e , f i l l s . Hence i n each town t h e r e i s some man who i s , i n h i s b r a i n and performance, an e x p l a n a t i o n of the t i l l a g e , p r o d u c t i o n , f a c t o r i e s , banks, churches, ways of l i v i n g and s o c i e t y of t h a t town. . . . Each of these men, i f they were t r a n s p a r e n t , would seem to you not so much men as walking c i t i e s , and wherever you put them they would b u i l d one. ( I b i d . , 45) Thus i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n Emerson o r d e r , l i f e , w i l l c e n t r i s m and c i v i l i z a t i o n are concepts each other.  anthropo-  inseparably linked to  They are c o n n a t u r a l and subsumed i n the n o t i o n  of Logos. A t the same time, however, as i s always the case  with  124 Emerson, t h e r e are some elements which seem t o c o n t r a d i c t what we have j u s t seen as h i s n o t i o n of w i l l centrism.  Here l e t us b r i e f l y  and anthropo-  examine these elements and  see whether o r n o t they f i t i n w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n s reached above.  In the f i r s t p l a c e , Emerson.sometimes appears t o  negate t h e human w i l l .  This i s seen i n such statements as:  " I f i n t h e l e a s t p a r t i c u l a r one c o u l d derange nature, —  the order o f  who would accept the g i f t of l i f e ? "  ("Fate," V I ,  51) , and ". . . 1 say t h a t the power o f Nature  predominates  over t h e human w i l l  i n a l l works o f even the f i n e a r t s , i n  a l l t h a t r e s p e c t s t h e i r m a t e r i a l and e x t e r n a l circumstances" ("Art," V I I , 50-51). ing  the human w i l l  Fate.  A t f i r s t g l a n c e , he seems t o be negat-  and p r a i s i n g the n e c e s s i t i e s of Nature o r  But t h i s seeming  c o n t r a d i c t i o n - can be e x p l a i n e d i f we  remember t h a t i n Emerson t h e r e are two kinds o f Nature: the upper-case Nature case Nature  (the S p i r i t ,  Reason, S o u l ) , and the lower-  (matter), and when he g l o r i f i e s  always the upper-case Nature.  What he c a l l s  Nature, i t i s the "human w i l l "  here, then, seems t o be the l o w l y , b r u t a l egoism t h a t belongs to  the lower-case Nature.  This i s c l e a r , i n the f o l l o w i n g  passages: "So much as we can shove a s i d e our egotism, our p r e j u d i c e and w i l l , and b r i n g the onmiscience o f reason upon the  s u b j e c t b e f o r e us, so p e r f e c t . i s the work" ("Art," V I I ,  52) ; "In l i k e manner our moral nature i s v i t i a t e d i n t e r f e r e n c e of our w i l l "  by any  ( " S p i r i t u a l Laws," I I , 127); and  ". . . a h i g h e r law than t h a t o f our w i l l r e g u l a t e s events.  125 .  . .  We  need only obey.  and by lowly l i s t e n i n g we  There i s guidance  f o r each o f us*  s h a l l hear the r i g h t word"  (Ibid.,  132) . I t seems t h a t the human w i l l which Emerson i s denying here i s t h a t which i s cut o f f from s p i r i t u a l i t y . of w i l l , which i s i n f a c t no other than animal  This kind  instinct,  must be d i s c a r d e d i n order t o r e c e i v e a h i g h e r w i l l from i d e a l world —  the  t h i s seems t o be h i s p o i n t .  The same d i s t i n c t i o n between s p i r i t u a l i t y and  brutal  Nature might be u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g h i s non-anthropocentric remarks such as: "Youhave j u s t d i n e d , and however scrupulously  the slaughter-house  d i s t a n c e of miles> race-living "Let  i s concealed i n the g r a c e f u l  there i s c o m p l i c i t y  expensive  races  —  at. the expense o f . r a c e " ("Fate," VI, .12-13), and  us b u i l d a l t a r s t o the B e a u t i f u l N e c e s s i t y , which  secures t h a t a l l i s made of one p i e c e ; t h a t p l a i n t i f f defendant,  f r i e n d and enemy, animal and p l a n t , food  e a t e r are of one k i n d " ( I b i d . , 51).  and  and  Here again he seems t o  be c o n t r a d i c t i n g h i s a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c and  civilization-  o r i e n t e d a t t i t u d e seen i n the passages quoted  earlier.  The-  key t o t h i s problem seems t o l i e i n the words "the B e a u t i f u l N e c e s s i t y " i n the l a s t passage. Nature, however c h a o t i c i t may  A c c o r d i n g t o Emerson, seem, i s b a s i c a l l y  governed  by t h i s B e a u t i f u l N e c e s s i t y which i s the law of the  Spirit.  As we have seen i n the previous chapter, he maintains t h a t human beings embody t h i s law and thus can c o n t r o l the o u t s i d e  126 phenomena o r f a t e a t t h e i r w i l l . are  In f a c t , f o r him phenomena  n o t h i n g but the p r o j e c t i o n o f what i s i n s i d e the human  mind.  Hence h i s remarks t h a t " a l l  i s made one p i e c e " and  "Fate then i s a name f o r f a c t s n o t y e t passed under the f i r e of  thought; f o r causes which are unpenetrated"  35).  There i s very l i t t l e  ("Fate," V I ,  d i s t a n c e between t h i s k i n d of  view on f a t e and Emerson's anthropocentrism mentioned In  above.  connection w i t h t h i s we should a l s o note what he w r i t e s  i n h i s j o u r n a l f o r A p r i l 7 ( ? ) , 1840: "In a l l my  lectures,.I  have taught one d o c t r i n e , namely, the i n f i n i t u d e o f the p r i v a t e man."  Thus we can say t h a t although Emerson  sometimes appears t o be denying the w i l l and power o f human beings he i s always In approach  f a i t h f u l t o h i s anthropocentrism.  c o n t r a s t to t h i s , Chuang Tzu employs a n e g a t i v e t o the human w i l l and anthropocentrism.  This point  has already been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I ( c f . pp. 66, 76), but t h e r e s t i l l cially The  remains  room f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n ,  from the viewpoint o f l i f e ,  espe-  death, and c i v i l i z a t i o n .  f o l l o w i n g passages w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t  further:  The True Man o f a n c i e n t times knew n o t h i n g o f l o v i n g l i f e , knew nothing o f h a t i n g death. He emerged without d e l i g h t ; he went back i n without a f u s s . He came b r i s k l y , he went b r i s k l y , and t h a t was a l l . He d i d n ' t f o r g e t where he began; he d i d n ' t t r y t o f i n d out where he would end. He r e c e i v e d something and took p l e a s u r e i n i t ; he f o r g o t about i t and handed i t back again. T h i s i s what I c a l l n o t u s i n g the mind t o r e p e l . t h e Way, not u s i n g man t o h e l p out Heaven. T h i s i s what I c a l l the True Man. (ch. 6, 78)  127  T h i s t o t a l negation of the human w i l l seems t o be i n Chuang.Tzu's a t t i t u d e toward  anthropocentrism.  reflected He w r i t e s :  You have had the a u d a c i t y to take on human form and you are d e l i g h t e d . But the human form has ten thousand changes t h a t never come t o an end. Your j o y s , then, must be uncountable. T h e r e f o r e , the sage wanders i n the realm where t h i n g s cannot get away from him, and a l l are p r e s e r v e d . He d e l i g h t s i n e a r l y death; he .delights i n o l d age; he d e l i g h t s i n the b e g i n n i n g ; he d e l i g h t s i n the end. I f he can serve as a model f o r men, how much more so t h a t which the ten thousand t h i n g s are t i e d to and a l l changes a l i k e w a i t upon! (ch. 6, 81)  and: I f a man s l e e p s i n a damp p l a c e , h i s back aches and he ends up h a l f p a r a l y z e d , but i s t h i s t r u e of a loach? I f he l i v e s i n a t r e e , he i s t e r r i f i e d and shakes w i t h f r i g h t , but i s t h i s t r u e of a monkey? Of these t h r e e c r e a t u r e s , then, which one knows the proper p l a c e t o . l i v e ? Men e a t the f l e s h of g r a s s f e d and g r a i n - f e d animals, deer eat g r a s s , c e n t i pedes f i n d snakes t a s t y , and hawks and f a l c o n s r e l i s h mice. Of these f o u r , which knows how food ought to t a s t e ? Monkeys p a i r w i t h monkeys, deer go out with deer, and f i s h p l a y around w i t h f i s h . Men c l a i m t h a t Mao-ch'iang and Lady Li.were b e a u t i f u l , but i f f i s h saw them they would d i v e t o the bottom of the stream, i f b i r d s saw them they would f l y away, and i f deer saw them they would break i n t o a run. Of these f o u r , which knows how t o f i x the standard of beauty f o r the world? (ch. 2, 45-46)  128  * if  %m*  and: When Chuang Tzu was about t o d i e , h i s d i s c i p l e s expressed a d e s i r e t o g i v e him a sumptuous b u r i a l . Chuang Tzu s a i d , "I w i l l have heaven and e a r t h f o r my c o f f i n and c o f f i n s h e l l , the sun and moon f o r my p a i r o f jade d i s c s , the s t a r s and c o n s t e l l a t i o n s f o r my p e a r l s and beads, and the t e n thousand t h i n g s f o r my p a r t i n g g i f t s . The f u r n i s h i n g s f o r my f u n e r a l are a l l r e a d y prepared — what i s there to add?" "But we're a f r a i d the crows and k i t e s w i l l e a t you, Master!" s a i d h i s d i s c i p l e s . Chuang Tzu s a i d , "Above ground I ' l l be eaten by crows and k i t e s , below ground I ' l l be eaten by mole c r i c k e t s and ants. Wouldn't i t be r a t h e r b i g o t e d to d e p r i v e one group i n order t o supply the other?" (ch. 32, 361)  ^-r> fcMH It  %tiL*£  seems t h a t f o r Chuang Tzu l i f e  .tt*r* i l e i s not necessarily  r e s t r i c t e d t o human l i f e , i t i n c l u d e s every the world.  Not only does i t i n c l u d e a l l the c r e a t u r e s on  the e a r t h , b u t a l s o what i s normally matter.  l i v i n g thing i n  thought t o be inanimate  Chuang Tzu does not make value judgments  l i f e and death.  concerning  Human l i f e i s only a p a r t of t h e g r e a t  c y c l e o f Nature, the g r e a t flow of Tao (Chaos) t h a t embraces  129 both l i f e  and death.  i l l u s t r a t e this  The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n seems t o  point:  Chuang Tzu's w i f e d i e d . When Hui Tzu went t o convey h i s condolences, he found Chuang Tzu s i t t i n g w i t h h i s legs sprawled out, pounding on a tub and singing. "You l i v e d w i t h h e r , she brought up your c h i l d r e n and grew o l d , " s a i d Hui Tzu. " I t should be enough simply not to weep at her death. But pounding.on a tub and s i n g i n g — t h i s i s going too far, isn't i t ? " Chuang Tzu s a i d , "You're wrong. When ;she f i r s t d i e d , do you t h i n k I d i d n ' t g r i e v e l i k e anyone e l s e ? But I looked back t o her b e g i n n i n g and the time b e f o r e she was born. Not only the time b e f o r e she was born, but the time b e f o r e she had a body. Not only the time b e f o r e she had a body, but the time b e f o r e she had a s p i r i t . In the midst of the jumble of wonder and mystery a change took p l a c e and she had a s p i r i t . Another change and she had a body. Another change and she was born. Now t h e r e ' s been another change and she's dead. It's just like the p r o g r e s s i o n of the four seasons, s p r i n g , summer, f a l l , winter. "Now she's going t o l i e down p e a c e f u l l y i n a v a s t room. I f I were t o f o l l o w a f t e r her bawling and sobbing, i t would show t h a t I don't understand anything about f a t e . So I stopped." (ch. 18, 191-192)  ^  t  ^  M  ^#3-S»\toi&Jk.fa3fc  %3>B^k  fciUL 3eftj£fip^  4f 2£ 3- 0  fr£  A-ME  ^£ £  Another aspect which n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t s from t h i s k i n d  130 of  a t t i t u d e toward the human w i l l , l i f e ,  and death i s a  c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f doubt concerning the progress o f c u l t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n .  T h i s can be surmised from h i s  c r i t i c i s m of Confucianism, which tends t o i g n o r e Nature and i s completely occupied w i t h the advancement o f humanism and civilization. for  Civilization  has an i n t r i n s i c  predilection  the domination and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f Nature by human b e i n g s .  I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y based on anthropocentrism.  Civilization  d e c l a r e s t h a t i t w i l l tame and put i n t o order the dangerous chaos o f p r i m i t i v e Nature, both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e human b e i n g s , by means of human w i l l and reason, and that  this  w i l l b r i n g about the t r u e happiness o f human k i n d .  However,.  t h i s kind of " i d e a l i s t i c " work.  approach t o Na'ture:does  not always  I t i s even p o s s i b l e t h a t because o f the i d e a l i s t i c  and a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c nature and a t t i t u d e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n the t r u e o r d e r and harmony o f Nature are d i s t u r b e d and l o s t * thus making the r i n g - l e a d e r of the d i s t u r b a n c e extremely unhappy.  One glance a t human h i s t o r y w i l l prove  this.  Environmental d i s r u p t i o n i s one of the m i s e r i e s brought about by the p r i d e o f human c i v i l i z a t i o n . the  f o l l o w i n g s t o r y from Chuang Tzu. i n t h i s  We can i n t e r p r e t light:  The Yellow Emperor had r u l e d as Son of Heaven f o r n i n e t e e n years and h i s commands were heeded throughout the w o r l d , when he heard t h a t Master Kuang Ch'eng was l i v i n g on top of the Mountain o f Emptiness and I d e n t i t y . He t h e r e f o r e went t o v i s i t him. "I have heard t h a t you, S i r , have mastered the P e r f e c t Way. May I venture t o ask about the essence o f the P e r f e c t Way?" he s a i d . "I would l i k e t o get h o l d o f the essence of Heaven and e a r t h  131 and use i t the common the y i n and a l l living  to a i d the f i v e g r a i n s and to n o u r i s h people. I would a l s o l i k e to c o n t r o l yang i n order to i n s u r e the growth of things. How may t h i s be done?"  Master Kuang Ch'eng s a i d , "What you say you want to l e a r n about p e r t a i n s to the t r u e substance of t h i n g s , but what you say you want to c o n t r o l pert a i n s to t h i n g s i n t h e i r d i v i d e d s t a t e . H Ever s i n c e you began to govern the w o r l d , r a i n f a l l s before the c l o u d vapors have even gathered, the p l a n t s and t r e e s shed t h e i r leaves b e f o r e they have even turned yellow, and the l i g h t of the sun and moon grows more and more s i c k l y . Shallow and v a p i d , w i t h the mind of a p r a t t l i n g knave — what good would i t do to t e l l you about the P e r f e c t Way!" (ch. 11, 118-119)  ^5LftJif[  & U. s 2« an  f«s $  *LiLi%k  vftzJU& ^% \^  Reading t h i s s t o r y , we  have t o say  thousand years  <f>C  that Chuang Tzu was  aware of the.dangerous aspects of s c i e n c e more than two  % W  and  well  civilization  ago.  Through the above examination of Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's notions  of o r d e r ,  life, will,  and  anthropocentrism, i t  can be s a i d t h a t Emerson's n o t i o n of order e s s e n t i a l l y anthropocentric of Chuang Tzu  life is  ( i . e . , Logocentric), while  i s Chaos-centered.  come from the two  and  that  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e seems t o  d i f f e r e n t ways of d e a l i n g w i t h  the  132 apparently  c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of l i f e which seems to be  a  t y p i c a l example of s o - c a l l e d double-bind s i t u a t i o n s . In order  to c l a r i f y  concept of entropy and c y b e r n e t i c s , A. M.  t h i s p o i n t , we  need to review  i t s r e l a t i o n to l i f e .  the  In h i s book on  Kondratov quotes N. Wiener's remarks on 12  life:  " L i f e c o n t r a d i c t s the other p a r t s of the  When Wiener s a i d t h i s he must have had  i n mind the n o t i o n  entropy, the second law of thermodynamics. entropy i s a measurement of d i s o r d e r . t h a t the u n i v e r s e  universe."  Simply  This law  i s , as a whole, tending  of  stated,  tells  us  toward a s t a t e of  13 disorder,  because a s t a t e of chaos i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y much  more, probably than t h a t of o r d e r . DNA  and  amino a c i d s , the two  kind of-order, formation.of  and  according  the systematic  As we  have seen e a r l i e r ,  bases.of p h y s i c a l l i f e , are to b i o c h e m i s t r y ,  the  a  first  combination of these b a s i c  elements of l i f e i s a phenomenon of such extremely p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t we appears to be  can  literally  a g a i n s t the  small 14 c a l l i t a miracle. It 15  law of entropy.  Therefore, i t  i s q u i t e understandable f o r Wiener to say t h a t l i f e d i c t s the r e s t of the u n i v e r s e .  contra-  " L i f e " i s on.the s i d e of  o r d e r , w h i l e the r e s t of the world i s governed by the law entropy, namely, d i s o r d e r . In other words, l i f e universe.  And  i s a s e l f - n e g a t i o n of  t h i s seems to be the fundamental reason.why  l i f e i s caught i n the predicament and bind.  The  the  paradox of a double  i n d i v i d u a l organism must take i n other  living  of  133 organisms to preserve  i t s own  means t o destroy l i f e . order. to  made.  To maintain  The u n i v e r s e orders  die) at once.  life.  life  To preserve  to l i v e and to k i l l  (i.e.,  the u n i v e r s e i s  I t i s s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y and puts one  not an e x c e p t i o n .  then,  order i s to destroy  This seems t o be the way  ament of a double b i n d .  life,  i n t o the p r e d i c -  Needless to say, human e x i s t e n c e i s  I t seems t h a t whatever wevsmay do or say  a u t o m a t i c a l l y leads us to s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n .  Chuang Tzu's  l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s chapter p. 67)  seems to be one  example of t h i s .  (cf.  As f o r Emerson, he  seems to have been aware of t h i s but, as we  saw  earlier,  he  f l a t l y ignores i t . Be t h a t as i t may, of  how  there s t i l l  remains the  to r e c o n c i l e i n d i v i d u a l l i f e with l i f e  human beings w i t h the r e s t of the u n i v e r s e order with  (negative entropy) w i t h d i s o r d e r "chaos."  as a whole,  (i.e.,  little  literally  These problems cannot e a s i l y  minds" ( " S e l f - R e l i a n c e , " I I , 58). a matter of l i f e  and death.  be,dismissed  the reason why,  hobgoblin  They are  And what i s worse,  they are based on an i n s o l u b l e double-bind This i s probably  Nature),  (entropy),,"logos"  w i t h such remarks as "a f o o l i s h c o n s i s t e n c y i s the of  question  situation.  i n s p i t e of t h e i r  d i s d a i n f o r l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , both Emerson and Chuang Tzu employed numerous words i n t h e i r e f f o r t to e x p l a i n something. to  T h i s something seems t o be the way  d e l i v e r a n c e from t h i s double b i n d .  t o freedom,  T h e i r problem i s one  134 and the same, but, as we  have seen above, their.answers  d i f f e r from each other: i n the case of Emerson, a s t r o n g a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c w i l l dominates Nature or Fate; i n Chuang Tzu there i s a complete abandonment of the human w i l l and  a  t o t a l immersion i n Nature. Let us f u r t h e r examine the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r approach to the double-bind s i t u a t i o n of human e x i s t e n c e . We  can see how  Emerson faces t h i s predicament  i n the  f o l l o w i n g passage from h i s "Fate":, One key, one s o l u t i o n t o the mysteries of human c o n d i t i o n , one s o l u t i o n t o the o l d knots of f a t e , freedom, and foreknowledge, e x i s t s ; the propounding, namely of the double consciousness. A man must r i d e a l t e r n a t e l y on the horses of h i s p r i v a t e and h i s p u b l i c n a t u r e , as the e q u e s t r i a n s i n the c i r c u s throw themselves nimbly from horse t o horse, or p l a n t one f o o t on the back of one and the other f o o t on the back of the o t h e r . So when a man i s the v i c t i m of h i s fate> has s c i a t i c a i n h i s l o i n s and cramp i n h i s mind; a c l u b - f o o t and a club i n h i s w i t ; a sour face and a s e l f i s h temper; a s t r u t i n h i s g a i t and a c o n c e i t i n h i s a f f e c t i o n ; or i s ground t o powder by the v i c e of h i s r a c e ; , — - he i s to r a l l y on h i s r e l a t i o n t o the U n i v e r s e , which h i s ruin benefits. Leaving the daemon who s u f f e r s , he i s t o take s i d e s w i t h the D e i t y who secures u n i v e r s a l b e n e f i t by h i s p a i n . (VI, 49-50) Emerson's n o t i o n of the "double  consciousness" i n t h i s  passage reminds us o f Chuang Tzu's l i n g h s i n g f£f f\ (walking /y  two  roads).  But a c a r e f u l reading of the q u o t a t i o n w i l l  r e v e a l t h a t Emerson's "double dualistic.  consciousness" i s e s s e n t i a l l y  He v a c i l l a t e s between two p o l a r i t i e s :  i n d i v i d u a l and the whole.  the  T h i s dualism seems t o be  the l a t t e r p a r t of the above passage which, a t f i r s t  affecting glance,  c a r r i e s e x a c t l y the same i m p l i c a t i o n as Chuang Tzu's- a t t i t u d e  13 5 toward w i l l .  Emerson presupposes  the d i f f e r e n c e between the  daemon and the D e i t y and p l a c e s importance on t h e l a t t e r . Here he i s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between good and e v i l .  This  becomes more obvious i n the paragraph t h a t f o l l o w s immedia t e l y a f t e r the one j u s t  quoted:  To o f f s e t the drag o f temperament and r a c e , which p u l l s down, l e a r n t h i s l e s s o n , namely t h a t by the cunning co-presence of two elements which i s throughout n a t u r e , whatever • lames o r p a r a l y z e s you draws i n w i t h i t the d i v i n i t y , i n some form,:to repay. A good i n t e n t i o n c l o t h e s i t s e l f w i t h sudden power. When a god wishes t o r i d e , any c h i p or pebble w i l l bud and shoot out winged f e e t and serve him f o r a horse. (VI, 50) In  t h i s passage we can d e t e c t a w i l l  the  "good i n t e n t i o n " of t h e d i v i n e .  t o overpower e v i l by C o n s i d e r i n g Emerson's -  b e l i e f i n the d i v i n i t y o f human b e i n g s , i t i s n o t very difficult  t o r e p l a c e "a god" i n the l a s t sentence of t h i s  passage w i t h "man."  From here a r i s e s h i s anthropocentrism  which we have examined e a r l i e r .  Thus we can say t h a t the  "double c o n s c i o u s n e s s " o f Emerson does not r e a l l y s o l v e the double b i n d u n d e r l y i n g the problem o f l i f e — - t h e dilemma between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and the whole, between human beings and the u n i v e r s e (Nature). to the  I t seems t h a t Emerson attempts  overcome t h i s problem by i d e n t i f y i n g the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h whole, man w i t h Nature, but through h i s a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c  s p i r i t u a l i s m he c r e a t e s another Nature t h a t confronts-and menaces human l i f e .  (Thus he has another double bind.)  regards t h i s Nature as c h a o t i c , e v i l ,  and dangerous,  He  and so  i t must be subjugated and put i n t o o r d e r by d i v i n e Reason  136 (Logos, the e t e r n a l Good) t h a t works through human b e i n g s . This seems t o be Emerson's " s o l u t i o n " of the s i t u a t i o n of human e x i s t e n c e .  double-bind  However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t as  long as he maintains a d u a l i s t i c viewpoint he w i l l keep on c r e a t i n g an i n f i n i t e s e r i e s of double b i n d s . by proposing "double  In other words,  consciousness" Emerson e n d l e s s l y o s c i l -  l a t e s between the i n d i v i d u a l and the whole, between human life  and other l i v i n g t h i n g s , between order and d i s o r d e r ,  between " l i f e " in  and  a v a i n attempt  "death,"  and between " l o g o s " and  "chaos"  t o have the former dominate the l a t t e r i n  these groups of o p p o s i t e p a i r s . Chuang Tzu, on the other hand, seems t o take q u i t e the o p p o s i t e a t t i t u d e toward the double-bind c o n d i t i o n i n which human beings are caught.  As has been p o i n t e d out so f a r ,  Chuang Tzu does not p a r t i c u l a r l y condemn entropy  (disorder)  as represented by death, d e f o r m i t y , d i s e a s e , i n s a n i t y , darkness,  and non-being.  A c c o r d i n g t o Chuang Tzu, these are  not a n t a g o n i s t i c so much as complementary t o n e g a t i v e (order) which i n c l u d e s l i f e , l i g h t , and b e i n g . graph  evil,  entropy  symmetry, h e a l t h , s a n i t y , good,  The f o l l o w i n g i s the f i r s t h a l f of a para-  from the Chuang Tzu i n which he d i s c u s s e s t h i s p o i n t :  E v e r y t h i n g has i t s " t h a t , " e v e r y t h i n g has i t s "this." From the p o i n t of view of " t h a t " you cannot see i t , but through understanding you can know i t . So I say, " t h a t " comes out of " t h i s " and " t h i s " depends on " t h a t " — w h i c h i s to say t h a t " t h i s " and " t h a t " g i v e b i r t h t o each o t h e r . But where there i s b i r t h there must be death; where there i s death there must be b i r t h . Where t h e r e i s a c c e p t a b i l i t y there must be u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y ; where  137 there i s u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y there must be a c c e p t a b i l ity. Where there i s r e c o g n i t i o n of r i g h t there must be r e c o g n i t i o n of wrong; where there i s recogn i t i o n of wrong there must be r e c o g n i t i o n of r i g h t . T h e r e f o r e the sage does not proceed i n such a way, but i l l u m i n a t e s a l l i n the l i g h t of Heaven.16 (ch. 2, 39-40)  2- %  flip  ffft. 73 ^ _ ^ -Tf f  ^ -si *T ^3^. #AJL^^LA-* & <?b s* l ^ r  L i f e and death are o p p o s i t e  and  ©^  even c o n t r a d i c t o r y when  looked at from the viewpoint of formal l o g i c , i . e . , the e i t h e r / o r type of l o g i c . and  However, at the  type of l o g i c the o p p o s i t i o n  the two  can be  the two  contradictory  nating  both/  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between  transcended without e l i m i n a t i n g e i t h e r one  " a l l i n the  Nature or Chaos.  terms.  Chuang Tzu  As we  have already that e x i s t s  given opposite  expressed as a hinge  {%%.)  terms.  seen, Chaos (and  does not  but  (Hun-tun) exist)  This Boundary seems to  or a socket  of  calls this illumi-  l i g h t of Heaven" which i s nothing  i s the Boundary or V o i d between any  and  l e v e l of the  ($f[ ) i n the  latter  h a l f of the paragraph j u s t quoted above: He [the sage] too recognizes a " t h i s , " but a " t h i s " which i s a l s o " t h a t , " a " t h a t " which i s a l s o " t h i s . " His " t h a t " has both a r i g h t and a wrong i n i t ; h i s " t h i s " too has both a r i g h t and a wrong i n i t . So, i n . f a c t , does he s t i l l have a " t h i s " and "that"? Or does he i n f a c t no longer have a " t h i s " and "that"? A s t a t e i n which " t h i s " and " t h a t " no longer f i n d t h e i r opposites i s c a l l e d the hinge of the Way. When the hinge i s f i t t e d i n t o the s o c k e t , i t can respond e n d l e s s l y . I t s r i g h t then i s a s i n g l e endlessness and i t s wrong too i s a s i n g l e  be  13 8 endlessness. clarity.  So, I say, the b e s t t h i n g t o use i s (ch. 2, 40)  j^&^Jt  ikfr&C  ft*  -IL  Thus i t can be s a i d t h a t Chuang Tzu's way t o overcome t h e problem o f the double b i n d o f l i f e and death i s t o have recourse i n the Boundary p a i r s as l i f e  (Chaos, Non-being) between such  and death, b e i n g and non-being,  the i n d i v i d u a l  and the whole, human beings and Nature, order and d i s o r d e r , "logos" and "chaos," e t c .  Here seems t o be one major  d i f f e r e n c e between Emerson and Chuang Tzu.  In f a c i n g the  double-bind s i t u a t i o n , Emerson.bases h i s ideas on Being (Logos) which i s supposed non-being being  t o i n c l u d e both b e i n g  (life)  and .  (death) y e t tends t o a l i e n a t e and dominate non-  (the a l i e n a t e d non-being becomes e v i l , death, d i s o r d e r ,  boundaries, e t c . ) ; Chuang Tzu, on the other hand, i s o r i e n t e d to Chaos  (Non-being) which i s the Boundary and t h e r e f o r e  subsumes w i t h i n i t s e l f both being and non-being,  l i f e and  death, order and d i s o r d e r , human beings and the r e s t of the world, e t c .  In  t h i s chapter we have examined Emerson's and Chuang  Tzu's n o t i o n s o f order and l i f e  from s e v e r a l viewpoints such  as Logos, Chaos, B e i n g , Non-being, w i l l ,  anthropocentrism,  139 and double b i n d s .  Through  t h a t f o r Emerson l i f e  these examinations we have shown  i s a s o r t o f order (which i s q u i t e  c l o s e t o the u s u a l sense o f the term) and so i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d , both s p i r i t u a l l y Logos which Being, w i l l ,  and p h y s i c a l l y , w i t h the n o t i o n of  i n t u r n has an i n s e p a r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h and-anthropocentrism.  L i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y that  of human b e i n g s , i s a w i l l t o overcome death which, i n Emerson, i s expressed through v a r i o u s terms such as chaos ( d i s o r d e r ) , darkness, e v i l ,  fate, disease, insanity, etc.  From here a r i s e s Emerson's anthropocentrism which i s another name f o r Logocentrism.  A t the same time, however, t h i s g i v e s  r i s e t o an u n s o l v a b l e problem o f the double-bind s i t u a t i o n the dilemma between l i f e  and death, order and d i s o r d e r , . e a c h  and a l l , man and Nature, " l o g o s " and "chaos," e t c . solution  —  As a  f o r t h i s predicament Emerson proposes the "double  consciousness" which, however, i s e s s e n t i a l l y based on the either/or  type o f l o g i c , and thus n a t u r a l l y - leads him t o the  very cause o f the double-bind s i t u a t i o n , namely, the human will  (logos) t o overcome death and non-being  other words, Logos a l i e n a t e s i n t o the boundary  Chaos (Non-being)  (chaos).  In  and makes i t  between every c o n c e i v a b l e p a i r of o p p o s i t e s .  In t h i s way Emerson e n d l e s s l y v a c i l l a t e s between logos and chaos, l i f e  and death, order a n d . d i s o r d e r , being and non-  being, e t e . On the other hand, Chuang Tzu's approach i s based on the both/and  type o f l o g i c .  He does not s t r i c t l y separate  140 life  from death, o r d e r from d i s o r d e r , b e i n g from non-being,  "logos" from "chaos."  He seems t o see how the terms o f  these p a i r s are r e l a t i v e and dependent on each o t h e r . i d e a seems t o be r e f l e c t e d i n h i s n o t i o n s of c h ' i hsing  , both o f which are a harmonious  nation of l i f e  Needless t o say, the concepts o f ch' i ^ f L and h s i n g i n c l u d e d i n Tao or Hun-tun  and  and o r g a n i c  and death, energy and matter, s p i r i t  This  combi-  and body.> are  (Chaos) which i s the Boundary.  By i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h the boundaries among things,. Chuang Tzu t r i e s t o r e s t o r e the a l i e n a t e d Boundary  (Chaos)  and thus t r a n s c e n d the i n s o l u b l e q u e s t i o n of the double b i n d . In  the process o f t h i s transcendence, the human w i l l t o  a l i e n a t e and, i f p o s s i b l e , e l i m i n a t e death and d i s o r d e r i s n a t u r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be unnecessary and even h a r m f u l . Hence h i s doubts about the anthropocentrism and c i v i l i z a t i o n which i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t from the human w i l l t o overcome death and non-being. the  In Chuang Tzu the human w i l l , both o f  i n d i v i d u a l and of the whole, must be emptied i n order  t h a t one can tune i n t o the g r e a t flow o f L i f e , o f Chaos, which i n c l u d e s both l i f e  and death.  preserve both one's i n d i v i d u a l l i f e universe.  In t h i s way one can and the L i f e o f the  This seems t o be Chuang Tzu's method o f d e a l i n g  w i t h the predicament of the double b i n d .  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I I n . t h i s t h e s i s we s h a l l use DNA t h e o r y , and f o r t h a t matter o t h e r s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s , as a convenient means o f i n t e r p r e t i n g and e x p l a i n i n g Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of l i f e and o r d e r . T h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y imply t h a t we take t h i s and other t h e o r i e s as f a c t w i t h absolute v a l i d i t y and r e a l i t y . I t i s almost a.truism t h a t a c e r t a i n s c i e n t i f i c theory i s not t o t a l l y f r e e from i t s h y p o t h e t i c a l nature and thus i s q u i t e o f t e n superseded by other new t h e o r i e s w i t h a deeper and broader p e r s p e c t i v e . However/ a t l e a s t f o r the p r e s e n t , DNA theory seems t o have a v a l i d i t y t o the extent t h a t man can a c t u a l l y c o n t r o l mutations by u s i n g i t . According t o David Suzuki, a Canadian g e n e t i c i s t , "In humans, g e n e t i c and medical techniques a l r e a d y e x i s t t h a t can be used t o d e t e c t and i n some i n s t a n c e s r e c t i f y u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n unborn c h i l d r e n " (Dennis B e l l , " T a l k i n g to . . . Dr. Quirks and Quarks," The P r o v i n c e , 26 November 1977, p. 5, c o l . 6 ) . C f . a l s o J . F. D a n i e l l i , " A r t i f i c i a l S y n t h e s i s o f New L i f e Forms," i n C. C. P r i c e , ed., S y n t h e s i s of L i f e (Stroudsburg, 1974), pp. 287-291. 2 -Wilden,.System and S t r u c t u r e , p. 3 97. 3 Inge, The Philosophy of P l o t i n u s , V o l . I , 125. i C f . Fukunaga, S o s h i : Gaihen ) (Tokyo, 1970), pp. 4-5; Mori ,. J S d a i y o r i k a n d a i . n i i t a r u seimeikan.no t e n k a i (The Development o f the Concepts of Human Nature and D e s t i n y from the Beginning t o t h e Han Dynasty), p. 92. 5 In connection w i t h t h i s we should note the f o l l o w i n g passage from L i e h Tzu, another T a o i s t t e x t whose t e n e t s have much i n common w i t h those o f Chuang Tzu: "My body i s one h ch ' i f£ [matter-energy , v i t a l with the mind, the mind w i t ) [ s p i r i t ] , shen %fo w i t h wu f o r c e ] , c h ' i %L w i t h shen [nothingness]" (ch. 4) " 4& ... - - .... ^ , ffc^ " ( , *f %\® ) . Wu ^ i n t h i s passage no doubt corresponds t o Tao o r Hun-tun.  (f\.\> \-%  4  ^Cf. J . Monod, Chance and N e c e s s i t y : An Essay on the N a t u r a l Philosophy of Modern B i o l o g y , t r . , A u s t r y n Wainhouse (New York, 1971), ch. 6. 7 C f . a l s o Hesiod, Theogony, 118-125; Ovid, Metamorphoses , I , 1-87; M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t , I , 9-22; H a s t i n g s , E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , I I I , 363. 141  142 g Cf. Emerson's f o l l o w i n g remarks on reason, which seems t o be c l o s e l y connected w i t h the n o t i o n of b e i n g : "The a u t h o r i t y of Reason cannot be separated from i t s v i s i o n . They are not two a c t s , but one. The s i g h t commands, & the command sees" ( j o u r n a l f o r June, 1835). i 9 Cf. P a u l T i l l i c h , The Courage t o Be (London and Glasgow, 1967), p. 43; Masao Abe, "Non-being and Mu: The M e t a p h y s i c a l Nature of N e g a t i v i t y i n the E a s t and the West," R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , 2 (1975) , 181-192. •^Cf. the f o l l o w i n g passage from Parmenides: "And remaining the same i n the same p l a c e , i t [Being] r e s t s by i t s e l f and thus remains t h e r e f i x e d ; f o r powerful N e c e s s i t y holds i t i n the bonds of a L i m i t , which c o n s t r a i n s i t round about, because i t i s decreed by d i v i n e law t h a t Being s h a l l not be without boundary. . . . But s i n c e t h e r e i s a ( s p a t i a l ) L i m i t , i t [Being] i s complete on every s i d e , l i k e the mass of a well-rounded sphere, e q u a l l y balanced from i t s c e n t r e i n every d i r e c t i o n ...... ." (K. Freeman, t r . , A n c i l l a to the P r e - S o c r a t i c P h i l o s o p h e r s [Oxford, 1948] , p. 44) . " ^ ' i . e . , the y i n and yang, b e i n g two, a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t a departure from the p r i m a l u n i t y of the Way. What Master Kuang Ch'eng i s o b j e c t i n g t o , of course, i s the f a c t t h a t the Yellow Emperor wishes t o " c o n t r o l " them (Watson's note, p. 119). 12 A. M. Kondratov, S a i b a n e t i k k u s e nyumon ( I n t r o d u c t i o n to C y b e r n e t i c s ) , t r . , Yoshio A k i t a (Tokyo, 1975) , p. 16. 13 To be more p r e c i s e , t h i s i s not q u i t e c o r r e c t , f o r the law.of entropy holds t r u e o n l y i n a c l o s e d system, whereas no,one knows whether the u n i v e r s e i s c l o s e d or open, i . e . , f i n i t e or i n f i n i t e . I t seems f a i r l y p l a u s i b l e to h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t s o - c a l l e d e n t r o p i c doom i s o n l y one phase of the u n i v e r s e and somewhere unknown t o our s c i e n c e t h e r e e x i s t s a l a r g e r law t h a t comprehends both entropy (e.g., soc a l l e d death) and n e g a t i v e entropy -(e.g., s o - c a l l e d l i f e ) . The n o t i o n of such a law seems to.approximate Chuang Tzu's Tao and, to some e x t e n t , Emerson's Over-Soul (the S p i r i t u a l Law). However, as i s the case w i t h Newtonian p h y s i c s , the law of entropy seems t o apply to the u n i v e r s e , at l e a s t w i t h i n a c e r t a i n framework. 14 Cf. Monod, ch. 8. Although Monod,,who wrote t h i s book i n 1970, cannot have been as s i m p l i s t i c as F. R. Japp and du Noiiy, who a s s e r t e d the i m p r o b a b i l i t y of l i f e a r i s i n g from i n o r g a n i c matter without t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the c h e m i c o - p h y s i c a l laws working among p a r t i c l e s and molecules (see M. Gardner, The Ambidextrous U n i v e r s e [New York and  143 London, 1964], ch. 15), he may s t i l l be open t o the same k i n d of c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d toward Japp and du Nouy by many s c i e n t i s t s of today who tend t o support the i d e a of the " i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f the o r i g i n of l i f e " ( c f . E. Samuel, Order: i n L i f e [Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . , 1972], pp. 261-271; Gardner, ch. 15). However, t h e r e seem t o be at l e a s t two reasons f o r which Monod's p o s i t i o n can be defended:.one i s t h a t he does not say t h a t the formation o f amino a c i d s and DNA out of inanimate matter i s improbable ( f o r the former were s y n t h e s i z e d by S. L. M i l l e r i n 1952, and adenine, one of the f o u r bases of DNA, by C. Ponnamperuma, a Ceylonese b i o c h e m i s t , i n 1963), but t h a t how the coupled system o f amino, a c i d s and DNA, which i s v i r t u a l l y a l i v i n g organism i t s e l f , came i n t o b e i n g has been unknown u n t i l today, and t h i s phenomenon seems to be much more improbable than the formation of DNA o r amino a c i d s , because i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a matter of e v o l u t i o n , which i s based on the i n t e r a c t i o n of chance and the laws of Nature ranging over a long p e r i o d of time. The o t h e r reason, which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the f i r s t , i s that, even i f the c o u p l i n g system of DNA and amino a c i d s i s an i n e v i t a b l e consequence brought about by unknown laws i n the u n i v e r s e (which Emerson would a s c r i b e t o the S p i r i t [Logos], and Chuang Tzu t o Tao o r Chaos), s t i l l i t appears to be a r a r e and somewhat miraculous phenomenon, c o n s i d e r i n g the tendency of the u n i v e r s e which i s moving, at l e a s t f o r the p r e s e n t , toward a c h a o t i c s t a t e , a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e of entropy. 0f course, i t i s not a g a i n s t the law o f entropy, because l i f e on e a r t h i s supported by the l i g h t of the sun which i n c r e a s e s the net entropy of the u n i v e r s e as a whole by i t s combustion. However, as was mentioned i n note 14 of t h i s chapter, the phenomenon of " l i f e " seems t o be a p a r t i a l v i o l a t i o n o f the law o f entropy p r e v a l e n t i n the u n i v e r s e . A c c o r d i n g t o E. Samuel,.this seeming c o n t r a d i c t i o n r a i s e s "the r a t h e r uncomfortable problem o f e x p l a i n i n g how l o c a l 'energy s i n k s ' e x i s t i n the u n i v e r s e , where coupled r e a c t i o n s can compound the d i s p e r s i v e tendency o f other r e a c t i o n s and e s t a b l i s h an ordered s t r u c t u r e of matter, e s p e c i a l l y when the system i s a dynamic one l i k e the c e l l " (Samuel, Order: i n L i f e , p. 261). 1 5  " ^ T ' i e n , which f o r Chuang Tzu means Nature or the Way (Watson's n o t e ) . C f . a l s o notes 24 (p. 57) and 25 (p. 10 4) of t h i s t h e s i s . See next page.  144 17  An i n t e r e s t i n g analogy which i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t may be seen i n the graph o f the f u n c t i o n y=l/x. As the graph i n d i c a t e s , when x a c t u a l l y has the v a l u e of zero, the r e s u l t s are u n p r e d i c t a b l e . Perhaps because of t h i s , x i s not allowed t o assume the v a l u e zero. Still, i t is p o s s i b l e t o imagine t h a t + 0 0 and - OO meet at the p o i n t x=0. Mathematicians u s u a l l y s e t y=0 a t x=0 to complete the f u n c t i o n y=l/x (x=^0) , thereby g i v i n g i t w e l l - d e f i n e d v a l u e s at a l l -x -> 0~ p o i n t s on the x - a x i s . This also suggests t h a t the two extremes ( i . e . , + 00 and meet at zero. Zero, the boundary between the p o s i t i v e numbers and the n e g a t i v e numbers, can be compared to (the hinge) or (the socket) i n the l a s t passage quoted from Chuang Tzu. We should a l s o note t h a t i n the same passage Chuang Tzu w r i t e s , " I t s r i g h t then i s a s i n g l e endlessness and i t s wrong too i s a s i n g l e e n d l e s s n e s s . " The two arms of the graph which extend i n f i n i t e l y toward +00 and -CO may correspond r e s p e c t i v e l y t o the r i g h t (a s i n g l e endlessness) and the wrong (another e n d l e s s n e s s ) , and these by e x t e n s i o n t o being and non-being, "logos" and "chaos," l i f e and.death, e t c . These seemingly o p p o s i t e p a i r s may indeed meet somewhere, subsumed i n Zero, the Boundary, Non-being, Chaos.  too  -or  CONCLUSION Through the examination o f Emerson's and Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n s o f order we have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t Emerson's concepts of  order are r a t h e r L o g o c e n t r i c ( i . e . , d u a l i s t i c ) , whereas  those of Chuang Tzu are. b a s i c a l l y Chaos-oriented dualistic).  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be b e s t symbolized  s t o r y of Hun-tun quoted this thesis.  seem t o r e p r e s e n t  aspects o f Logos such as consciousness,  language, v i s i o n  1  i n the  from the Chuang Tzu on page 18 o f  Shu and Hu i n t h i s anecdote  the fundamental reason,  ( i . e . , non-  1  (as connected w i t h l i g h t ) ,  ( s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l ) , s p i r i t ,  life  law, symmetry, p r o p o r t i o n  ( r a t i o ) , harmony, e t c . , a l l of which, as we have seen are important elements In Hun-tun  i n Emerson's n o t i o n o f o r d e r .  the f i r s t p l a c e they  (Shu and Hu) stand o u t s i d e o f  (Nature) and look a t i t from t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e , thus  symbolizing human consciousness as opposed t o Hun-tun which has none of the f i v e senses and can, t h e r e f o r e , be a metaphor for  the unconscious.  H e r e . i s the f i r s t s i g n o f d u a l i t y  l i e s between man as consciousness unconscious matter  (object).  (subject) and Nature as  Then Shu and Hu bore eyes, a  mouth, a nose, e t c . , i n the amorphous face of Hun-tun. would mean t h e i r attempt  that  This  or w i l l t o subjugate the seeming  chaos and d i s o r d e r (lawlessness) of m a t e r i a l Nature the o r d e r i n g power of v i s i o n  ( l i g h t ) and speech  through  (language).  (Here i s another d u a l i t y i n t r o d u c e d among the o b j e c t s of v i s i o n and language.)  We can see a p a r a l l e l between t h i s  146 process and Emerson's a t t i t u d e toward untamed Nature mentioned e a r l i e r :  "So much only o f l i f e as I know by e x p e r i e n c e ,  so much o f the w i l d e r n e s s have I vanquished so f a r have I extended  and p l a n t e d , o r  my b e i n g , my dominion"  ("The American  S c h o l a r , " I , 96). Emerson, as w e l l as Shu and Hu, seems t o t h i n k t h a t the seeming chaos and w i l d e r n e s s o f Hun-tun (Nature) mean death and darkness, face  and so by imposing.a  (a symbol o f Logos)-upon Hun-tun he b e l i e v e s t h a t he  has succeeded  i n giving l i f e  ( l i g h t ) and order  But h i s n o t i o n s o f l i f e  (law) t o i t .  and order seem t o be r a t h e r  r e s t r i c t e d compared w i t h those of Chuang Tzu, which on n o n - d u a l i s t i c Hun^tun, the matrix of l i f e Moreover, Emerson's concepts o f l i f e mechanical of  human  are-based  and o r d e r .  and order are somewhat  and g e o m e t r i c a l as the w e l l - p r o p o r t i o n e d symmetry  the human f a c e symbolizes.  I t i s t r u e t h a t Emerson  expounded the s o - c a l l e d o r g a n i c theory, which regards a r t as an o r g a n i c process o f Nature and maintains t h a t an a r t i s t i c work must develop i t s own form,from w i t h i n as i f i t were a seed growing i n t o a t r e e .  However, t h i s theory should  also  be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t of Emerson's I d e a l i s m o r s p i r i t ualism.  Needless  s p i r i t u a l Nature  t o say, Nature i n h i s theory.means (natura naturans)  and as we have a l r e a d y  seen, t h i s s p i r i t u a l Nature i s r a t h e r L o g o c e n t r i c d u a l i s t i c , symmetrical,  and g e o m e t r i c a l ) .  (i.e.,  H i s "organicism,"  then, seems t o be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of Chuang Tzu, whose n o t i o n of Nature i s based on Hun-tun which i n c l u d e s  147 such t h i n g s as chaos, d i s e a s e * death, darkness, e v i l , e t c . , a l l of which are r e j e c t e d by Emerson.  Compared w i t h Chuang  Tzu's " o r g a n i c i s m , " Emerson's o r g a n i c theory i s s t i l l somewhat geometric and mechanical.  I t i s founded on the  e i t h e r / o r type of l o g i c and so i t tends t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between l i f e  (order) and death  (disorder) and choose the  former, thus r e j e c t i n g , a l i e n a t i n g , and k i l l i n g the seemingly c h a o t i c y e t v i v i d and spontaneous  l i f e of Hun-tun. .  T h i s seems t o be what Chuang Tzu f e a r s most, f o r t h i s would a l s o mean the death of Shu and Hu  (human b e i n g s ) ,  who,  a c c o r d i n g to Chuang Tzu's v i e w p o i n t , o r i g i n a t e not i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l , i d e a l world beyond m a t e r i a l Nature, but i n Hun-tun (Nature) i t s e l f . tun  Shu and Hu  (human beings) and  Hun-  (Nature) are not two separate t h i n g s , but the former  should be regarded as the embryos i n the womb of the l a t t e r . However, once they are born of Hun-tun and become conscious of  themselves, they t r y t o sever the u m b i l i c a l cord between  Hun-tun (the mother) and themselves  (the c h i l d r e n ) .  They  draw a c l e a r - c u t boundary.between themselves as human beings and Nature as matter  ( i . e . , mater or mother) and then t r y to  c o n t r o l the l a t t e r from w i t h o u t .  To r e p e a t the passage  quoted from Emerson i n the second chapter: W h i l s t the man i s weak, the e a r t h takes up-him. He p l a n t s h i s b r a i n and a f f e c t i o n s . By and by he w i l l take up the e a r t h , and have h i s gardens and v i n e yards i n the b e a u t i f u l order and p r o d u c t i v e n e s s of h i s thought ["Fate," V I , 46]. The e a r t h i n t h i s passage could correspond to Nature or  148 Hun-tun (Tao), which i s sometimes expressed as t a k ' u a i •7C  (the Great Clod) i n the Chuang Tzu (ch. 6) .  son's L o g o c e n t r i c n o t i o n o f order tends t o b i f u r c a t e man and Nature position.  Emerinto  (Hun-tun) and p l a c e the former i n t h e h i g h e r  We saw t h i s k i n d o f b i f u r c a t i o n i n Hui Tzu's  e i t h e r / o r type of l d g i c , which separates Chuang Tzu (man) from the f i s h  (Nature) i n another anecdote mentioned  second chapter.  i n the  Emerson, who b a s i c a l l y f o l l o w s the l o g i c o f  e i t h e r / o r , shows a s t r o n g i n c l i n a t i o n toward an anthropocent r i c i d e a i n which human beings as the embodiment o f Logos s t i c k out from the m a t e r i a l Nature c o n t r o l and order i t .  Human beings  "being") stand out o f the Non-being  (Chaos) t o c o n s c i o u s l y (a t y p i c a l example o f o f Hun-tun, j u s t as  subatomic p a r t i c l e s emerge from the v o i d of energy, which can be a metaphor f o r Hun-tun.  Here i s a sharp c o n t r a s t  between Emerson's c o n s c i o u s n e s s - o r i e n t e d ( i . e . ,  anthropocen-  t r i c ) n o t i o n of order and t h a t of Chuang Tzu, which has a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r immersion  i n the unconscious o f Hun-tun.  T h i s c o n t r a s t between consciousness and unconsciousness can a l s o be expressed as t h a t between a c t i o n non-action  (non-will).  In h i s j o u r n a l f o r 1835, Emerson  w r i t e s , "To t h i n k i s t o a c t , " and i n "The American he f u r t h e r develops t h i s  ( w i l l ) and  Scholar,"  idea:  A c t i o n i s w i t h the s c h o l a r s u b o r d i n a t e , b u t i t i s e s s e n t i a l . . . . I n a c t i o n i s cowardice. . . . The preamble of thought, the t r a n s i t i o n through which i t passes from the unconscious t o the c o n s c i o u s , i s a c t i o n . Only so much do I know, as I have l i v e d [ I , 95-96].  A few sentences a f t e r t h i s comes the passage quoted above i n which Emerson equates experience (consciousness) w i t h man's domination of w i l d Nature.  But the w i l l t o dominate Nature  (Hun-tun) by human beings i n e v i t a b l y a l i e n a t e s i t , f o r domination presupposes dominated>and, as we death o f Nature themselves.  the e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the o b j e c t  saw  above, e a s i l y b r i n g s about the  (Hun-tun) and, consequently, human beings  In Emerson, a l i e n a t e d Nature seems t o appear  as  non-being, chaos, d i s o r d e r , d i s e a s e , death, darkness, e v i l , insanity, fate, etc.  In o t h e r words, these s t a t e s are the  voids or h o l e s (a metaphor f o r boundaries) bored i n t o the face of Hun-tun, which t u r n out t o be enormous and t h r e a t e n to e n g u l f Shu and Hu  (human b e i n g s ) .  Here i s the predicament  of Emerson's n o t i o n of w i l l and a c t i o n . the  "double consciousness," presumably  As the concept o f h i s f i n a l s o l u t i o n to  t h i s problem, a p t l y i n d i c a t e s , he v a c i l l a t e s and between the m a t e r i a l Nature Logos  unreal Maya.  (the unconscious, Chaos) and  (consciousness or r e a s o n ) .  times appears t o be r e a l  oscillates  For Emerson Nature some-  (natura naturans) and sometimes  (natura n a t u r a t a ) , an i l l u s o r y , a n d c h a o t i c v e i l of When the o s c i l l a t i o n between the two becomes g r e a t e r  and gets t o i t s maximum, he breaks through the v e i l boundary) t o reach the e t e r n a l realm of the Idea  (the  (or order)  once and f o r a l l . This seems t o be a n a t u r a l consequence  of Emerson's  n o t i o n of o r d e r , which i s e s s e n t i a l l y L o g o c e n t r i c and i s  150 based on the e i t h e r / o r type of l o g i c . course, merely a negative order.  I t has  aspect  However, t h i s i s , of  of h i s d u a l i s t i c n o t i o n  a p o s i t i v e s i d e , too, as w i l l be  of  clarified  shortly. A t t h i s stage, words on the n e g a t i v e  however, we  need to spend a few more  elements i n Emerson's Logocentrism.  For f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s p o i n t , l e t us r e t u r n to  the  anecdote of Hun-tun mentioned e a r l i e r .  Shu  and Hu  As we  are o r i g i n a l l y one w i t h Hun-tun.  immersed and  embedded i n the l a t t e r .  of b o r i n g holes  i n the face o f Hun-tun  The  have seen, former  Therefore, (which  are  their  action  eventually  causes death to i t ) i s , i n a sense, a s e l f - n e g a t i o n or s e l f d e s t r u c t i o n of and by Hun-tun i t s e l f .  Here seems to l i e the  fundamental cause of the double binds between such p a i r s as l i f e and  death, order  preceding  chapters.  arid d i s o r d e r , e t c . , d i s c u s s e d T h i s s e l f - n e g a t i o n of Hun-tun  i n the (the  u n i v e r s e , Nature) can be compared.to the s t r u c t u r e of  the  Mobius s t r i p , the h a l f - t w i s t e d c i r c u l a r s t r i p w i t h only side.  The  negating  t w i s t i n the s t r i p may  nature of the u n i v e r s e .  negation) the s l a y e r and the s t e a l e r and seems to be  correspond to the  the s t o l e n become one  and  the  the same.  (or  eaten, Emerson  aware of t h i s and expresses t h i s k i n d of i d e a i n  h i s poems and  essays such as "Brahma," "Fate,"  sation."  at the same time, he has  But  f o r dualism.  self-  Because of t h i s t w i s t  the s l a i n , the e a t e r and  one  He  tends to pay  and  "Compen-  a strong p r e d i l e c t i o n  a t t e n t i o n only to the two  sides  151 of  the s t r i p and regards i t as an o r d i n a r y , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  strip-without a twist  (negation).  T h i s means a d e n i a l  ( a l i e n a t i o n ) o f the t w i s t , whose o t h e r names are n e g a t i o n , "not," non-being, the boundary. the  He stands on t h i s s i d e of  boundary where l o g o s , o r d e r , law, l i f e  and being are t o  be found and he sees chaos, d i s o r d e r , death, and on the o t h e r s i d e .  non-being  He has t o choose e i t h e r t h i s s i d e or  t h a t , but a c t u a l l y both are one and the same.  And  this  causes him t o make a r e p e t i t i o u s movement between t h i s and the o t h e r s i d e of the s t r i p .  side  T h i s seems to be the  nature of what he c a l l s the "double consciousness." which, as we have seen above, causes him t o s t e p over the boundary the  realm of Ideas i n the end.  to  T h i s i s Emerson's t r a n s c e n -  dence , which i s r a t h e r a c t i v e and i s d i r e c t e d outward  and  upward. In  c o n t r a s t to t h i s , Chuang Tzu t r i e s t o immerse  h i m s e l f i n the boundary  between the two s i d e s of the s t r i p .  By f o l l o w i n g the boundary  of the Mobius s t r i p , which can be  seen as a metaphor f o r Chaos,.he transcends the dilemma o f the  double b i n d between order and d i s o r d e r .  dence i s , so t o speak, inward and downward.  His t r a n s c e n However, h e r e i n  seems t o l i e the danger o f h i s transcendence, f o r i t i s e a s i l y misunderstood f o r q u i e t i s m , an i n a c t i v e t o t a l s i o n i n t o the womb o f Hun-tun.  regres-  Although such i s not the  case, as we can see, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n the anecdote of cook T i n g quoted a t the.end of the f i r s t  chapter, we  cannot deny  152 the f a c t t h a t Chuang Tzu's n o t i o n of order., which i s based on the n o n - d u a l i s t i c Chaos or Hun-tun (the unconscious) an element  has  t h a t leads one t o l i c e n t i o u s n e s s or t o a s e l f -  s a t i s f i e d t o t a l s e c l u s i o n from s o c i e t y , both of which seem to be n e g a t i v e aspects of Hun-tun as the unconscious. On the other hand, Emerson's L o g o c e n t r i c ( i . e . , d u a l i s t i c ) n o t i o n of o r d e r , which i s b a s i c a l l y consciousnessand a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d and thus tends t o lead one t o an endless o s c i l l a t i o n between any two o p p o s i t e p a i r s or e l s e t o an idealistic flight  i n t o the noumenal w o r l d , may  n e g a t i v e s i d e of the c o i n . have a p o s i t i v e aspect.  merely be a  Needless t o say, i t must a l s o  T h i s may  be i l l u s t r a t e d through the  two aspects of the Mobius s t r i p : on one l e v e l t h i s s i d e of the s t r i p i s .completely d i f f e r e n t and d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  from  the o t h e r . s i d e ; on another l e v e l the two s i d e s are one  and  the same.  G e n e r a l l y speaking, Emerson seems t o take the  former view, w h i l e Chuang Tzu takes, the l a t t e r .  However,  both views are v a l i d and both are i n d i s p e n s a b l e as they c o n s t i t u t e the e n t i r e t y of the Mobius s t r i p , namely* the universe.  Because of the t w i s t  u n i v e r s e the two viewpoints may  ( i . e . , s e l f - n e g a t i o n ) i n the appear to be  contradictory,  but i n r e a l i t y they are complementary. The same can be s a i d of the p a r a b l e mentioned  earlier  of Hun-tun and the " p a r t i c i p a t i o n mystique" between Chuang Tzu and the f i s h .  Hun-tun  able t o r e a l i z e i t s own  (the unconscious) would not be  v a l u e without the consciousness  153 (Logos) o f Shu and Hu, j u s t as Chuang Tzu would not be able to recognize the p l e a s u r e o f the f i s h without i n g h i m s e l f from i t . remarks concerning  first  separat-  We are reminded here o f Emerson's  the j o y he experiences  i n his  "participa-  t i o n mystique" w i t h Nature: "Yet i t i s c e r t a i n . t h a t the power, to produce t h i s d e l i g h t does, not r e s i d e i n nature, but i n man, o r i n a harmony of both"  (Nature, I , 16).  Therefore,,  from the vantage p o i n t of a wider p e r s p e c t i v e , we can say t h a t BOTH e i t h e r / o r AND both/and are necessary,  BOTH Logos  AND Chaos, BOTH Emerson AND Chuang Tzu are r e q u i r e d t o complete the u n i v e r s e .  NOTES TO CONCLUSION  Cf.  note 8 t o Chapter I I I o f t h i s  154  thesis.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Abe,  Masao. 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