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Marshals of the Alexanderreich : a study of the careers of Hephaistion, Leonnatos, Krateros and Perdikka Heckel, Waldemar 1978

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MARSHALS OF THE ALEXANDERREICH A Study of the C a r e e r s o f H e p h a i s t i o n , Leonnatos, K r a t e r o s and P e r d i k k a s by WALDEMAR HECKEL B.A. (Hon.) U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1972 M.A. McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1978 © Waldemar H e c k e l , 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Classics The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Feb. 28, 1978. ABSTRACT I t s c a r c e l y needs s a y i n g t h a t few men, i f any, have so dominated t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e i r own times as has A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t ; h i s i s a c u r i o u s h y b r i d o f h i s t o r y and b i o g r a p h y . In 1925/26 Helmut Berve took the f i r s t s t e p i n " d e c e n t r a l i s i n g " the h i s t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r by p u b l i s h i n g h i s a l l - e m b r a c i n g s t u d y , Das Alexanderreieh auf prosopographisoher Grundlage3 i n two volumes, perhaps t h e most workable and thorough such study i n t h e f i e l d o f a n c i e n t Greek h i s t o r y . But we have n o t advanced f a r beyond t h a t f i r s t s t e p i n the i n t e r v e n i n g f i f t y -one y e a r s ; r a t h e r than a s t i m u l u s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y , Berve's work - p o s s i b l y on a c c o u n t o f i t s thoroughness - has become a c r u t c h f o r A l e x a n d e r - s c h o l a r s , a c o n v e n i e n t c a t a l o g u e of names and f a c t s , too o f t e n a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the t e s t i m o n y of the o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s . When we c o n s i d e r minor i n d i v i d u a l s , about whom l i t t l e i s known and l e s s has been w r i t t e n , we s h a l l n o t go f a r wrong by c o n s u l t i n g B erve's r e f e r e n c e work; though, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , even h e r e h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e o f t e n marred by poor judgment (see f o o t n o t e s passim). But f o r the most important f i g u r e s , the most p o w e r f u l men i n A l e x a n d e r ' s empire, we must ask i f t h e i r c a r e e r s and c h a r a c t e r s can be a d e q u a t e l y summarised i n a mere t h r e e to f i v e pages. C l e a r l y they cannot be. i i I n the c a s e s o f the f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h whom t h i s s t u d y i s concerned, Berve's vitae axe. p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . O n l y H e p h a i s t i o n , who d i e d i n 324 B.C., i s t r e a t e d from b e g i n n i n g to end; Leonnatos, K r a t e r o s and P e r d i k k a s , who o u t l i v e d t h e K i n g , l e a v e much t o be commented on. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f P e r -d i k k a s , whose r o l e i n t h e e v e n t s of 323-321 B.C. was f a r more b r i l l i a n t and c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h a n h i s c a r e e r up to A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h . There a r e o f c o u r s e the a r t i c l e s o f G. Plaumann (RE V I I I . 1 [1912] 291-296, s.v. " H e p h a i s t i o n [ 3 ] " ) and F r . Geyer (RE XII.2 [1925] 2035-2038, s°.v. "Leonnatos [ 1 ] " ; XIX.1 [1937] 604-614, s.v. " P e r d i k k a s [ 4 ] " ; and Supplbd IV [1924] 1038-1048, s.v. K r a t e r o s [ l a ] " ) , but t h e s e a r e more compressed and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , l e s s i n c l i n e d toward i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; they a r e a l s o more prone to e r r o r than Berve's i n c o m p l e t e e n t r i e s . Other modern s c h o l a r s shed more l i g h t on t h e "marshals o f the Alexonderrei-ch" - most n o t a b l y E. B a d i a n , F. Schachermeyr, A.B. Bosworth, R.M. E r r i n g t o n and G. W i r t h -, but t h e i r works o f t e n r e l y h e a v i l y on the m a t e r i a l adduced by Berve. Many o t h e r s a r e c o n t e n t w i t h mere g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s : ' Kence H e p h a i s t i o n i s a t one time A l e x a n d e r ' s foremost commander, a t a n o t h e r h i s incompetent m i n i o n ; P e r d i k k a s i s b o t h middle-aged and i n the bloom of youth; K r a t e r o s h i g h i n A l e x a n d e r ' s esteem o r a man n e g l e c t e d by A l e x a n d e r , t h e g e n e r a l s , even the t r o o p s . Only a f r e s h s t u d y of t h e p r i m a r y e v i d e n c e w i l l h e l p to un-r a v e l t h e m y s t e r i e s o f t h e s e men who l a b o u r e d i n the shadow o f A l e x a n d e r and c o n t i n u e to do so i n the pages of h i s h i s t o r i a n s . i i i I f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on t h e m a r s h a l s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s e m p i r e : H e p h a i s t i o n , L e o n n a t o s , K r a t e r o s and P e r d i k k a s . The e v i d e n c e , s u b j e c t e d t o c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y , y i e l d s many new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; o f t e n i t i s b a f f l i n g . Not a l l new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e s i g n i -f i c a n t , n o r e v e r y r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r i g i n a l . B u t , i f I have pr o d u c e d f o u r b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s t h a t a r e i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and - what i s more i m p o r t a n t - based on t h e e v i d e n c e r a t h e r t h a n on m i s l e a d i n g p r e c o n c e p t i o n s , t h e n I have shed new l i g h t on A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i Acknowledgement v T a b l e of A b b r e v i a t i o n s v i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1: H e p h a i s t i o n : omnium amicorum carissimus 41 CHAPTER 2: Le o n n a t o s : e£s x55v eiaupcdv 87 CHAPTER 3: K r a t e r o s : (puAogaauAeus 118 CHAPTER 4: P e r d i k k a s : S u c c e s s o r and F a i l u r e 160 B i b l i o g r a p h y 214 APPENDIX 1: The Somatophylakes o f : A l e x a n d e r the Gre a t 238 APPENDIX 2: H e p h a i s t i o n ' s Chiliarchia 266 APPENDIX 3: The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f A t t a l o s and P e r d i k k a s 282 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank P h i l l i p E. H a r d i n g and Malcolm F. McGregor. v i TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS Beloch, GG Bengtson, Die Strategic Berve 1-2 Breloer, Kampf gegen Poros Breloer, Bund mit Poros Briant, Antigone le Borgne Carney, Macedonian Aristocracy Cloche, La Dislocation Dittenberger, Syll. Droysen, Hellenismus 1-2 E l l i s , Philip II Griechische Geschichte (2nd ed.), 4 vols, Berlin and Leipzig, 1912-1927. Die Strategic in der hellenistischen Zeit: Ein Beitrag zum antiken Staats-recht (Mfincnener Beitrdge zur Papyrus-forschung und antiken R'echtsgeschichte3 Heft 26), Munich, 1937. Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographisoher Grundlage, 2 vols, Munich, 1925-1926. Alexanders Kampf gegen Poros, Stuttgart, 1933. Alexanders Bund mit Poros: Indien von Dareios zu Sandrokottos (Sammlung orientalistischen Arbeiten 9), Leipzig, 1941. Antigone le Borgne: Les Debuts de sa Carriere et les Problemes de I'Assemble'e Macedonienne (Centre de Recherches d' Eistoire Ancienne3 vol. 10), Paris, 1973. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Aristocracy, Diss. Duke University, 1975. La Dislocation d'un Empire: Les premiers Succes-s^u^s-xdMllexdndr'e'ofb.e^Grandji9Pa-rcLs, 1969. • Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (3rd ed.), vol. 1, Leipzig, 1915. Geschichte des Hellenismus,. (3rd ed.), vols 1-2, Basle, 1952. Philip II and Macedonian Imperialism, London, 1976. Fontana, Le Lotte Le Lotte per la Successione di Alessandro Magno dal 323 al 3153 Palmero, 1960. v i i Fox F u l l e r , Generalship G r a n i e r , Die makedonische Heeresversammlung Green G r i f f i t h , Main Problems H a m i l t o n , PA H a m i l t o n , Alexander the Great Hoffmann, Die Makedonen Jacoby, FGrHist K a e r s t , Hellenismus 1-2 Kornemann, Die Alexander-geschichte Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens M i l n s M l l l l e r , PEG Alexander the Great, London, 1973. The Generalship of Alexander the Great, London, 1958. Die makedonische Heeresversammlung: Ein Beitrag zum antiken Staatsrecht (Mttnchener Beitrdge zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte, H e f t 1 3 ) , Munich, 1931. Alexander of Macedon, Harmondsworth, 1974. Alexander the Great: The Main Problems, Cambridge, 1966. Plutarch, Alexander: A Commentary, O x f o r d , 1969. Alexander the Great, London, 1973. Die Makedonen: ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum, G b t t i n g e n , 1906. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, B e r l i n and L e i d e n , 1 9 2 3 - ( i n p r o g r e s s ) . Geschichte des Eellenismus (3rd e d i t i o n ) , B e r l i n and L e i p z i g , v o l . 1 (1927), v o l . 2 (1926). Die Alexandergeschichte des Kbnigs Ptolemaios I. von Aegypten, L e i p z i g , 1935. Eellenistic Queens: A Study of Woman-Power in Macedonia, Seleucid Syria and Ptolemaic Egypt (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Archaeology, no'. 14), B a l t i m o r e , 1932. Alexander the Great, London, 1968. Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, 5 v o l s , P a r i s , 1841-1870. v i i i N i e s e 1 Pe a r s o n , LEA Schachermeyr, Ingenium und Macht Schachermeyr, Alexander in Baby Ion Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse S c h a e f e r , Demosthenes 3 S e i b e r t , Bettr&ge zw dynas-tisehen Verbindungen S e i b e r t , Untersuohungen zur Geschichte Ptolemaios I. Smith, EHI S t r a s b u r g e r , Ptolemaios und Alexander T a r n , CAE 6 T a r n 1-2 Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten seit der Schlacht bei Chaeronea3 v o l . 1, Gotha, 1893, r e p r . Darmstadt, 1963. The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great, New York, 1960. Alexander der Grosse: Ingenium und Macht, Graz, 1949. Alexander in Babylon und die Reichsordnung nach seinem Tode, V i e n n a , 1970. Alexander der Grosse: Das Problem seiner Persbnlichkeit und seines Wirkens, V i e n n a , 1973. Demosthenes und seine Zeit, v o l . 3, L e i p z i g , 1887. Historische Beitr&ge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit (Historia Einzelschrift 10), Wiesbaden, 1967. Untersuohungen zur Geschichte Ptolemaios I. (MiXnchener Beitrdge zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichtes H e f t 5 6 ) , Munich, 1969. The Early History of India (From 600 B. C. to the Muhammadan Conquest3 including the Invasion of Alexander the Great)3 4 t h ed., r e v i s e d by S.M. Edwardes, O x f o r d , 1924. Ptolemaios und Alexander, L e i p z i g , 1934. The Cambridge Ancient History, v o l . 6, Cambridge, 1927, r e p r . 1964. Alexander the Great, 2 v o l s , Cambridge, 1948. ix Vezin, Eumenes von Kardia Welles, Alexander and the Hellenistic World Wilcken Eumenes von Kardia, Diss. Tubingen, 1907. Alexander and the Hellenistic World, Toronto, 1970. Alexander the Great, G.C. Richards t r . , with introduction and notes by E.N. Borza, New York, 1967; f i r s t German publication, 1931. INTRODUCTION In s p r i n g or summer 337 P h i l i p I I took a new w i f e , K l e o p a t r a , the n i e c e of Attalos.''" There had been other wives, before and a f -t e r Olympias, but t h i s marriage was d i f f e r e n t . I t was not merely because P h i l i p married K l e o p a t r a as a matter of p o l i c y , on which 2 b a s i s he took a l l h i s wives, according to Satyros. Nor was i t because K l e o p a t r a was Macedonian; f o r there had been P h i l a the 3 4 E l i m i o t . According to P l u t a r c h , P h i l i p loved the g i r l , but t h i s w i l l s c a r c e l y have dishonoured Olympias; possessive and j e a l o u s though she was, she had long s i n c e t r a n s f e r r e d her a f f e c t i o n s to her son. Yet now P h i l i p had taken a w i f e , young and of noble, Macedonian, descent; the household, the Court, indeed the very S t a t e , were thrown i n t o t u r m o i l . Satyros ap. Athen. 13.557D-E = FHG I I I , f r . 5; Athen. 13.560C; Ar r . 3.6.5; P l u t . Alex. 9.6-7; Diod. 16.93.9; 17.2.3; J u s t i n 9.5.8-9; 9.7.12; P s . - K a l l . 1.20-21; J u l . V a l . 1.13. For the date see, most r e c e n t l y , J.R. E l l i s , Philip II 302, notes 3 and 4. P. Green, 8 7 f f . , b e l i e v e s the marriage took place i n 338 (autumn), f o r he proposes two c h i l d r e n by P h i l i p and Kleo -p a t r a , Europe (so Satyros ap. Athen. 13.557E) and Karanos (Jus-t i n 9.7.3; 11.2.3; seemingly corroborated by Paus. 8.7.7). This date cannot be c o r r e c t s i n c e (1) P h i l i p probably d i d not r e t u r n to Macedonia u n t i l s p r i n g 337, so CA. Roebuck, "The Settlements of P h i l i p I I w i t h the Greek States i n 338 B.C.," CP 43 (1948) 73-92; c f . A. Schaefer, Demosthenes I I I . 3 7 f f . , esp. 62-65; see a l s o T.T.B. Ryder, Koine Eivene, London, 1965, 150-162; (2) Karanos c e r t a i n l y d i d not e x i s t , so Tarn 2.260-262; c f . A.R. Burn's r e -view of Tarn's book i n JHS 67 (1947) 143. 2 Satyros ap. Athen. 13.557B: 6 6e IJL'ALTITIOS aiet Kara i t o A e y o v eyauEU. 3 P o s s i b l y the aunt of Alexander's f r i e n d and t r e a s u r e r , Harpalos; c f . Berve 2.440. 4 P l u t . Alex. 9.6; Satyros ap. Athen. 13.557D. 2 P h i l i p was s e r i o u s about t h e g i r l , t h i s i s c e r t a i n . He changed h e r name t o E u r y d i k e , i n the f a s h i o n of Macedonian queens,~* and he undoubtedly e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e to have a son by h e r . But as f o r Olympias, h e r power a t C o u r t was n o t harmed, even i f h e r ego. T h i s power she owed n o t to the f a c t t h a t she was P h i l i p ' s w i f e -t h e r e had been f i v e o t h e r s , now a s i x t h - but t o h e r p o s i t i o n as mother o f P h i l i p ' s o n l y p o s s i b l e h e i r ; t h a t i s t o e x c l u d e , as must be done, P h i l i n e ' s son, the m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e A r r h i d a i o s . ^ That P h i l i p s h o u l d d e s i r e a n o t h e r son was not u n r e a s o n a b l e , e i t h e r from a p e r s o n a l o r p o l i t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . But t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o sup-p l a n t A l e x a n d e r , who had p r o v e n h i m s e l f a b l e and i n many r e s p e c t s h i s f a t h e r ' s s o n , w i t h an i n f a n t son o f K l e o p a t r a i s u n l i k e l y . A r r . 3.6.5 i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e t o c a l l h e r E u r y d i k e . But t h i s w i l l n o t mean, as Berve 2.213 ( c i t i n g R. S c h n e i d e r , Olympias, die Mutter Alexanders des Grossen, Zwiekau, 1886, 18, 1; the work i s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o me) s u g g e s t s , t h a t h e r name was E u r y d i k e b e f o r e m a r r i a g e ; f o r t h i s view c f . a l s o Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 129, n.83; H a m i l t o n , PA 24; but T a r n 2.262, n . l t h i n k s t h i s i s an e r r o r on A r r i a n ' s p a r t . E u r y d i k e d e v e l o p e d i n t o a d y n a s t i c name, so G. Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens 23-25. I t was t h e name o f P h i l i p ' s I l l y r i a n mother, E u r y d i k e I ( P l u t . de liberis educandis 20 = p . l 4 B ; Suda s.v. Kapavos; L i b a n i o s , Argumentum orationum Demosthenicarum 1 8 ) ; P h i l i p ' s f i r s t w i f e , Aiidata, a l s o I l l y r i a n , took t h e name; see J . K a e r s t , RE VI.1 (1907) 1326, s.v. " E u r y d i k e ( 1 5 ) " ; c f . A r r . Succ. 1.22; A i l i a n , VH 13.36. The name was a l s o g i v e n t o Adea ( o r Hadea; Berve 2.12-13, no. 23, s.v. 'A6ia), daughter o f Kynnane ( A u d a t a - E u r y d i k e ' s daughter) and Amyntas P e r d i k k a , when she m a r r i e d P h i l i p A r r h i d a i o s ; see P o l y a i n o s 8.60; K a e r s t , loc. cit., s.V. " E u r y d i k e ( 1 3 ) " ; D o u r i s , FGrHist 76 F52 = Athen. 13.560C; the name-change i s r e c o r d e d by A r r . Succ. 1.23. See Berve 2.385-386, no. 781, s.V. $LALTI:UOS 'AppuSaCos; K a e r s t , RE I I . 1 (1895) 1248-1249, s.v. " A r r i d a i o s ( 4 ) . " F o r h i s mental s t a t e , P l u t . de fort. Al. 2.5 = Mor. 337D; J u s t i n 13.12,11; 14.5.2; App. Syr. 52 ( o u * e y i p p o v a ) ; Porphyr. T y r . = FHG I I I , f r . 4; the H e i d e l -b e r g Epitome 1 c a l l s him e i t u X n T C T U K O s , see the comments o f G. Bauer, Die Heidelberger Epitome: Eine Quelle zur Diadochengeschichte, L e i p z i g , 1914, 26-27. 3 P h i l i p was an a s t u t e p o l i t i c i a n : he c o u l d n o t have c o n s i d e r e d l e a v i n g Macedonia w i t h o u t a mature h e i r t o t h e thron e . So much, a t l e a s t , w i l l have been apparent t o P h i l i p . The Macedonian a r i s t o c r a c y saw i t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y . They w i l l have made no s e c r e t o f t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l o f Olympias, t h i s E p e i r o t Medea who had been P h i l i p ' s w i f e o f twenty y e a r s . 7 And thus i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the cause o f the estrangement o f P h i l i p from A l e x a n d e r and Olympias was n o t h i s a c t o f m a r r y i n g K l e o p a t r a but the manner i n which t h e n o b i l i t y i n t e r p r e t e d i t s meaning. At the w e d d i n g - f e a s t i t was A t t a l o s , n o t P h i l i p , who g p r a y e d f o r "legitimate h e i r s f o r the Macedonians." And i t was s u r e l y o n l y when A l e x a n d e r , j u s t i f i a b l y o f f e n d e d by the remark, d i s r u p t e d the banquet and withdrew i n t o e x i l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s mother, t h a t P h i l i p became t r u l y a l i e n a t e d from w i f e and son. That the drunken b r i d e g r o o m t u r n e d upon h i s son i n a f i t of rage i s under-s t a n d a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Macedonian c o n t e x t . A s o b e r P h i l i p was awake t o the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , and a l l h i s a c t i o n s t h e r e a f t e r , u n t i l the time o f h i s a s s a s s i n a t i o n , r e f l e c t a d e t e r m i n a t i o n A l e x a n d e r was b o r n about J u l y 356; c f . H a m i l t o n , PA 7; thus the m a r r i a g e d a t e s to 357. F o r Olympias see Berve 2.283-288, no. 581, s.v. 'OAUUULCSS; H. S t r a s b u r g e r , RE X V I I I . 1 (1939) 177-182, s.v. "Olympias ( 5 ) " ; Macurdy., Hellenistic Queens 22-46; T r i t s c h , Olympias. Die Mutter Alexanders des Grossen, F r a n k f u r t , 1936, aims a t the g e n e r a l r e a d e r . Cf. a l s o F. Reuss, "KBnig Arybbas von E p e i r o s , " Rh. Mus. 36 (1881) 1 6 1 f f . ; R.M. E r r i n g t o n , "Arybbas the M o l o s s i a n , " GRBS 16 (1975) 41, n . l . On the p a r a l l e l w i t h Medea, P l u t . Alex. 10.7, q u o t i n g E u r i p i d e s , Medea 288; c f . H. W i l l r i c h ' s a p t d e s c r i p t i o n : " D i e s T e u f e l s w e i b h a t h i n -l & n g l i c h g e z e i g t , dass s i e zu a l l e m f a h i g war... 1 1 (Hermes 34 [1899] 175). Athen. 13.557D; the s t o r y cannot be t r a c e d t o a s o u r c e e a r l i e r than S a t y r o s ; c f . E l l i s , Philip J J 214-215; P l u t . Alex. 9.7; P s . - K a l l . 1.20-21; J u l . V a l . 1.13 speaks o f L y s i a s , c l e a r l y a mi s t a k e f o r A t t a l o s . 4 to a c h i e v e s t a b i l i t y a t home b e f o r e h i s d e p a r t u r e f o r A s i a . P h i l i p c o u l d have f o r e s e e n the dangers o f a l i e n a t i n g h i s son, and f o r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e we may s u s p e c t t h a t he had had no i n -t e n t i o n o f d o i n g so. But he had not reckoned - o r at l e a s t not f u l l y - w i t h the a t t i t u d e s o f the Macedonian n o b i l i t y and 9 A l e x a n d e r ' s own f e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y . At t h i s time the Macedonian n o b l e s c l o s e d t h e i r ranks i n r e s p o n s e to P h i l i p ' s u n i o n w i t h K l e o p a t r a ; t h i s amounted t o a r e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e e x i s t i n g network of a f f i l i a t i o n s . What these were a t the time o f P h i l i p ' s a c c e s s i o n , we cannot say, f o r want o f e v i d e n c e . But P h i l i p undoubtedly owed h i s p o s i t i o n t o the s u p p o r t o f a p o w e r f u l and i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t i o n ofu'the a r i s t o -c r a c y . Now A t t a l o s h i m s e l f took to w i f e one o f Parmenion's d a u g h t e r s , t h e o l d g e n e r a l no doubt t h i n k i n g t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h A t t a l o s would prove b e n e f i c i a l . Another of h i s daughters Parmenion m a r r i e d to K o i n o s , son o f P o l e m o k r a t e s , l a t e r one o f A l e x a n d e r ' s l e a d i n g generals."'""'" P h i l i p ' s commander, A n t i p a t r o s , Cf. E. B a d i a n , "The Death of P h i l i p I I , " Phoenix 17 (1963) 245-246; H a m i l t o n , " A l e x a n d e r ' s E a r l y L i f e , " G & R 12 (1965) 120-121. See a l s o U. K B h l e r , "Uber das V e r h a l t n i s s A l e x a n d e r ' s des Grossen z u seinem V a t e r P h i l i p p , " Sitzb. d. Akademie dev Wissensohaften, Berlin, 1892, 497-514. C u r t . 6.9.18. J . Rufus F e a r s ; " P a u s a n i a s , The A s s a s s i n o f P h i l i p I I , " Athenaeum 53 (1975) 133, n.77, b e l i e v e s t h a t " the a l l e g e d m a r r i a g e o f P h i l o t a s ' s i s t e r to A t t a l u s , found i n no o t h e r s o u r c e , i s . . . a n i n -v e n t i o n . " I f i n d C u r t i u s ' i n f o r m a t i o n more l i k e l y t o be t r u e than n o t , e s p e c i a l l y i n view o f t h e e x t e n s i v e Macedonian m a r r i a g e - a l l i a n c e s . H i s e v i d e n c e about K o i n o s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by A r r i a n ; see n. 11 below. C u r t . 6.9.30. We are t o l d by A r r . 1.24.1 t h a t K o i n o s , h i m s e l f a newly-wed, l e d the veo"Yauou back to Macedonia i n w i n t e r 334/3 and r e j o i n e d A l e x a n d e r a t G o r d i o n i n s p r i n g ( A r r . 1.29.4). F o r K o i n o s see Berve 2.215-218, no. 439, s.v. KoCvog. 5 wed his daughter to Alexandros, son of Ae*ropos, of the Lynkestian 12 royal house, possibly also at this time. Perdikkas, of the royal family of Orestis, was the brother-in-law of Attalos, son 13 of Andromenes; both took vengeance on Philip's assassin Pausanias. Another of Andromenes' sons, Amyntas, was intimate with Parmenion's son, Philotas, who in turn was a contemporary and friend of the 14 deposed heir to the Macedonian throne, Amyntas Perdikka. His allegiance Philip had already secured through marriage to his eldest daughter (Amyntas' cousin) Kynnane. This formidable system of a f f i l i a t i o n s , which was likely more extensive than our sources indicate, must have reinforced Alexander's feelings of isolation; his own personal friends, as far as we can t e l l , do not appear to have been adherents of this powerful faction.^ Curt. 7.1.7; Justin 11.7.1; 12.14.1. The name of Antipatros' daughter is not known. See Berve 2.17-19, no. 37, s.V. - 'AAe'£;av6pos.. Diod. 16.94.4; cf. Fears, op. c i t . , n.10; see Berve 2.90, no. 177, s.v. ' A r a A a v x r i ; the fact that she was with the fleet i n 321/o could imply, however, that the marriage took place only shortly before that date. See also Berve 2.92-93, no. 181, s.v. • "ATTCXAOS; 2.308-309, no. 614, s.V. H a u o a v t a s ; and 2.313-316, no. 627, s.v. I Iep6uxxas, and my 'Chapter 4. On the relationship of the sons of Andromenes to Philotas, Curt. 77.1.10-11; see Berve nos. 57,,181, 644, 704; see also Berve 2.393-397, no. 802, s.v. $LXwxas. For Amyntas Perdikka and Philotas, Curt. 6.10.24;. cf. Berve 2.30-31, no. 61, s.v. ' A u u v x a s . Berve 2.229, no. 456, s.v. K y vvdv r i ; Arr. Suae. 1.22 (where the form Kovdvn occurs); Polyainos 8.60 (Kuvva)7 For the name 0. Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 219. Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens 48-49, dates the marriage to 340, when Kynnane was about 17-18 years old. E l l i s , Philip II 217, assumes that the marriage belongs to 337/6. But see also Beloch GG% 3.2.69. Hamilton, G & R 12 (1965) 120. 6 And, a l t h o u g h r e c a l l e d f r o m e x i l e t h r o u g h the agency o f Demaratos o f K o r i n t h , A l e x a n d e r w i l l have f e l t even more t h r e a t e n e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s i n t e n t i o n o f wedding A r r h i d a i o s t o a K a r i a n p r i n c e s s and by t h e banishment o f h i s companions."'"^ To an e x t e n t , A l e x a n d e r must have been encouraged by t h e d e p a r t u r e o f A t t a l o s and Parmenion f o r A s i a i n the s p r i n g o f 336, and by t h e imp e n d i n g m a r r i a g e o f h i s s i s t e r , K l e o p a t r a , t o h e r 18 u n c l e A l e x a n d r o s o f E p e i r o s ; K l e o p a t r a - E u r y d i k e , now s e v e r a l months p r e g n a n t , was n e v e r t h e l e s s a cause o f a n x i e t y . But when, a t t he a c t u a l .wedding-ceremony a t A i g a i i n summer 336, P a u s a n i a s s t r u c k down P h i l i p , a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n e i t h e r o f t h e L y n k e s t i a n s 19 o r o f t h e b r o o d i n g O l y m p i a s h e r s e l f , A l e x a n d e r f o u n d h i m s e l f i n a p r e c a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n , e n t i r e l y dependent upon t h e whim o f t h i s p o w e r f u l n o b l e f a c t i o n . I t was i n d e e d f o r t u n a t e f o r A l e x a n d e r t h a t P l u t . Alex. 10.1-4; A r r . 3.6.5 i s l e s s s p e c i f i c . See A.B. B o s w o r t h , JHS 93 (1973) 258; E l l i s , ' P h i l i p II 218; B a d i a n , Phoenix 17 (1963) 245; H a m i l t o n , G & R 12 (1965) 121; PA 25. See a l s o B e r v e 2.320, no. 640, s.V. nuCwSapog; K B h l e r , op. a i t . , n.9, 502-503. D i o d . 16.91.4; J u s t i n 9.6.1; 13.6.4. See Berve 2.19-21, no. 38, s.V. 'AAe^avSpos; 2.212-213, no. 433, s.V. KAeouctTpa; K a e r s t , RE 1.1 (1893) 1409-1410, s.v. " A l e x a n d r o s ( 6 ) " ; F. S t a h e l i n , RE X I . 1 (1921) 735-738, s.v. " K l e o p a t r a ( 1 3 ) " ; Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens 2 2 f f . , e s p . 30-31. P. Green's (97) v i e w o f A l e x a n d r o s ' a t t i t u d e , i.e., t h a t " t h i s r e c a l c i t r a n t young m a n i m p e r v i o u s t o c l a i m s o f n e p o t i s m and p a e d e r a s t y m i g h t . . . f i n d some a t t r a c t i o n i n an i n -c e s t u o u s m a r r i a g e , " i s the p r o d u c t o f an o v e r - f e r t i l e i m a g i n a t i o n . H. W i l l r i c h , "Wer l i e s s K H n i g P h i l i p p von Makedonien ermorden?" Hermes 34 (1899) 174-182, c o n c l u d e s t h a t P e r s i a n g o l d i n d u c e d t h e sons o f Apropos t o i n s t i g a t e t h e murder o f P h i l i p . B a d i a n , Phoenix 17 (1963) 244-250, ar g u e s t h a t A l e x a n d e r had e v e r y r e a s o n t o p r o c u r e P h i l i p ' s a s s a s s i n a t i o n ; h i s arguments a r e , as Fox (505) p o i n t s o u t , N i e b u h r ' s r e v i v e d (Niebuhr's Lectures on Ancient History, t r . Dr. 7 Attalos and Parmenion happened to be i n Asia, and that Kleopatra's c h i l d had i n fact turned out to be a g i r l . 20 But the nation might very w e l l , as Plutarch says, have looked to the Lynkestians and to Amyntas Perdikka. 21 Antipatros' action at t h i s moment appears, therefore, somewhat d i f f i c u l t to explain. He presented Alexander to the army, by whom he was acclaimed "King of the Macedonians. 1 1 Antipatros, however, neither averted suspicion from--the sons of 2 Aeropos nor saved them from a trumped-up charge, i f such i t was; Leonard Schmitz, v o l . 2, London, 1852, 307-311); Badian's case f o r Alexander's g u i l t i s c e r t a i n l y not "conclusive," despite Hamilton's claims (G & R 12 [1965] 120, n.6). That Pausanias acted from a purely personal motive i s argued by K. K r a f t , Der 'rationale ' Alexander, Frankfurter Althistorische Studien, Heft 5, Frankfurt, 1971; see the reviews by Bosworth, JHS 93 (1973) 256-258, and Badian, Gnomon 47 (1975) 48-58. J. Rufus Fears, Athenaeum 53 (1975) 111-135, also believes that Pausanias acted from a personal motive. Bosworth, " P h i l i p II and Upper Macedonia," CQTX.S. 21 (1971) 93-105, revives the charges against the Lynkestians. Satyros ap. Athen. 13.557E; the filia of J u s t i n 9.7.12. Plut. de fort. Al. 1.3 = Mor. 327C: itScm 6' uuouXos 1\\> Maxedovta •rcpos 'Auuvxav 6raoSXe*nouaa xau TOUS ' AepoTcou uaC6as. See J.R. E l l i s , "Amyntas Perdikka, P h i l i p II and Alexander the Great: A Study i n Conspiracy," JHS 91 (1971) 15-24. This otherwise stimulating d i s -cussion i s marred by a chronological e r r o r : E l l i s suggests that "Amyntas Perdikka was captured and executed (not, as we now see, because Alexander was simply insecure, but on a genuine charge of treason), and h i s execution f e l l , as Justin's order of presentation implies, between the f a l l of Thebes i n October 335 and the beginning of the Persian expedition i n Spring 334" (21). Now the date given by A r r i a n (Suae. 1.22) for Amyntas' death i s vague, and perhaps due to the epitomator, but i t i s c l e a r from Arrian's Anabasis (1.5.4-5) that Amyntas perished probably during the winter 336/5 (as we should expect); f o r Kynnane, Amyntas' wife, was offered by Alexander to Langaros, King of the A g r i a n i , i n l a t e spring or summer 335, at which time she must have been widowed (Green's theory, 141, about Alexander's "macabre sense of humour" i s pure gibberish). See Berve 2.230, no. 460, s.V. Adyyapos. Cf. Schaefer, Demosthenes III.101, n.3; Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens 49; Bosworth, C^n.s. 21 (1971) 103, n.4. F o r t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e L y n k e s t i a n s were i n f a c t g u i l t y see B o s w o r t h , op. c i t . , n.19; c f . e a r l i e r v i e w o f W i l l r i c h , op. c i t . , n.19. 8 y e t , i n t h i s manner, he may i n f a c t have been s e r v i n g h i s own i n t e r e s t s . Perhaps he d i d n o t f e e l s e c u r e i n promoting the cause o f the L y n k e s t i a n s a g a i n s t a p o w e r f u l f a c t i o n from Lower Macedonia; h i s own p o s i t i o n c o u l d b e t t e r be s e r v e d by A l e x a n d e r , who had the c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e army and who would undoubtedly take vengeance on A t t a l o s . As f o r A l e x a n d r o s o f L y n k e s t i s , he was s p a r e d (doubt-l e s s through the c o a c h i n g o f h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w ) by b e i n g the 23 f i r s t t o h a i l h i s namesake as the new K i n g . The Macedonians were r e a l i s t s : m a r r i a g e s were l a r g e l y p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s , the purges t h a t accompanied t h r o n e - d i s p u t e s a d e a d l y game. Ha s t y r e a l i g n m e n t f o l l o w e d , and A n t i p a t r o s abandoned the sons o f Apropos, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f A l e x a n d r o s , w h i l e P a r -24 menion s a c r i f i c e d h i s s o n - i n - l a w , A t t a l o s , a t A l e x a n d e r ' s b e h e s t . Support o f A l e x a n d e r became a n e c e s s i t y , b u t i t was not w i t h o u t a c e r t a i n r e l u c t a n c e ; t o t h i s , a t l e a s t , t h e rumblings o f d i s c o n t e n t throughout A l e x a n d e r ' s campaigns b e a r w i t n e s s . In s p i t e o f the purge t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f P h i l i p , i n which Amyntas P e r d i k k a , A l e x a n d e r ' s most dangerous r i v a l , was mur-de r e d , the e s t a b l i s h e d n o b i l i t y s t i l l o c c u p i e d key p o s i t i o n s i n the 2 Macedonian army, e s p e c i a l l y the adherents o f the house o f Parmenion. A r r . 1.25.2; C u r t . 7.1.6-7; J u s t i n 11.2.2. Through the agency o f H e k a t a i o s , a c c o r d i n g t o Diod. 17.2.5-6; 17.5.2. See Berve 2.148, no. 292, s.v. ''EnonraCos. ' But f o r a d i f f e r e n t view see C u r t . 7.1.3: ( s c . Parmenio) ...amicus et• ipsi Alexandro tarn fidus, ut occidendi Attalum non alio ministro uti mallet. See a l s o L. Edmunds, "The R e l i g i o s i t y o f A l e x a n d e r , " GRBS 12 (1971) 367. See Berve nos. 295, 554, 802, s.VV. "Exrcop, N u K d v a i p , $uXcoTas. A l s o B a d i a n , "The Death o f Parmenio," TAPA 91 (1960) 327-329, and E.D. Carney, Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Aristocracy, D i s s . Duke U n i v . , 1975. 9 These could mount a formidable opposition to Alexander, given the opportunity and the motive. But they also represented an obstacle to the young commanders and friends of Alexander, who are the subjects of this study. Alexander was unfettered by the events and the outcome of the Philotas-affair; i t was an "acknow-26 ledged turning-point" in his career. But, as i t represented the decline of the established nobility, i t marked the emergence of a new group of ambitious nobles, who were closely associated with Alexander himself. These men had their grievances against the house of Parmenion and i t s a f f i l i a t e s , and they played no small part in bringing about i t s destruction. For this reason i t i s profitable to examine (i) the family of Kleopatra-Eurydike and ( i i ) the f a l l of Parmenion's faction. (i) The Family of Kleopatra-Eurydike. The ancient sources t e l l us l i t t l e about Kleopatra-Eurydike or her origins. She was the niece of a certain Attalos, who be-27 longed to the Macedonian nobility; this i s frequently attested. 26 Badian, op. c i t . , n.25, 324; Edmunds., op. cit., n.24, 363. 27 Plut. Alex. 9.7; Satyros ap. Athen. 13.557D; Paus. 8.7.7; the relationship is confused by Diodoros (17.2.3) and Justin (9.5.8-9), who make Attalos Kleopatra's brother, though Diod. 16.93.9 says he was her nephew. Jul. Val. 1.13 has Kleopatra as Attalos' daughter, while Ps.-Kall. 1.2(jV21 names Lysias (clearly Attalos i s meant) as Kleopatra's brother. P. Green's stemma (587) attempts, un-wisely, to reconcile the variants by postulating a brother, as well as an uncle, of Kleopatra, named Attalos; but this defeats the purpose of source-criticism. See also Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 157. 10 But there i s only-one f u r t h e r reference to her o r i g i n : Satyros informs us that she was the s i s t e r of a c e r t a i n H i p p o s t r a t o s , as w e l l as A t t a l o s ' n i e c e . There i s no other e x p l i c i t statement about her f a m i l y , though there i s much that can be deduced from evidence h i t h e r t o disregarded. The clue to the f a m i l y of Kleopatra-Eurydike r e s t s , I b e l i e v e , w i t h the i d e n t i t y of a c e r t a i n Hegelochos, the 28 admiral of Alexander's f l e e t . 29 Quintus C u r t i u s , recounting the t r i a l and t o r t u r e of P h i l o t a s , claims t h a t Hegelochos conspired w i t h Parmenion i n Egypt, but that Parmenion was opposed to t a k i n g a c t i o n against Alexander w h i l e Dareios I I I was s t i l l a l i v e ; the i n c i d e n t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d to be f i c t i t i o u s . E. Badian, f o r example, w r i t e s : "Curtius...has a st o r y of a p l o t between Parmenio and Hegelochus (then dead), which P h i l o t a s i s s a i d to have d i v u l g e d under t o r t u r e . Since no charge was i n f a c t brought against Parmenio, i t i s almost c e r t a i n that none could be: the p l o t w i t h Hegelochus must be an e f f o r t of l a t e r 30 apologia." Other modern s c h o l a r s have ignored the s t o r y as w e l l , 31 or simply dismissed i t out of hand. But who invented t h i s con-See Berve 1.160-161 and 2.164-165, no. 341, s.v. 'HyeXoxos; Sundwall, RE VII.2 (1912) 2594,'S.v. "Hegelochos ( 1 ) , " i s of l i t t l e use. See Hoffmann, Die-Mdkedonen 183, w i t h n.91. On h i s command of the f l e e t see H. Hauben, "The Command St r u c t u r e i n Alexander's Mediterranean F l e e t s , " AUG. SOO. 3 (1972) 55-65, esp. 56-58; "The Expansion of Macedonian Sea-Power under Alexander the Great," Ana. Soo. 7 (1976) 82-87; and a l s o A. Baumbach, Kleinasien unter Alexander dem Grossen, D i s s . Jena, publ. Weida, 1911, 4 9 f f . Curt. 6.11.22-29. Badian, TAPA 91 (1960) 332. Rejected by J . Rufus Fears, Athenaeum 53 (1975) 133, n.77, i t i s 11 s p i r a c y and why? What r e a s o n f o r naming Hegelochos as Parmenion's f e l l o w - c o n s p i r a t o r ? When Hegelochos i s i d e n t i f i e d , an answer w i l l emerge. We f i r s t e n c o u n t e r Hegelochos as a commander o f an6%ov a t the G r a n i k o s R i v e r ( A r r . 1.12.7; 13.1), where he i s s u b o r d i n a t e to Amyntas (Berve , no.59) , son o f A r r h a b a i o s (the executed b r o t h e r o f L y n k e s t i a n A l e x a n d r o s ) . T h i s connexion i s , as I s h a l l demon-32 s t r a t e , more than c o i n c i d e n t a l i n view o f th e " s t r a n g l e h o l d " t h a t the e s t a b l i s h e d n o b i l i t y had on p r i n c i p a l commands i n the army. When Al e x a n d e r l e f t G o r d i o n i n s p r i n g 333, he s e n t Hegelochos t o the c o a s t w i t h o r d e r s t o b u i l d a new f l e e t a t the H e l l e s p o n t 33 ( A r r . 2.3.4). A f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l campaign w i t h the f l e e t , he appears t o have handed o v e r n a v a l a f f a i r s to Amphoteros, the b r o t h e r o f K r a t e r o s , and r e j o i n e d A l e x a n d e r i n Egypt i n the w i n t e r of 332/1. He r e a p p e a r s , f o r the l a s t time, a t Gaugamela ( A r r . 3 . 1 1 . 8 ) , i g n o r e d by the r e c e n t monographs o f Green, Schachermeyr and H a m i l t o n ; Fox mentions Hegelochos (289), i n a c c u r a t e l y and w i t h -out a judgment on the h i s t o r i c i t y o f the i n c i d e n t . Berve t r e a t s t h e matter w i t h c a u t i o n (2.165). B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 329. C u r t . 3.1.19: Amphoterum alas si ad oram Hellesponti, aopiis autem pvae fecit Hegelochum, Lesbium et Chiton Coumque prae-sidiis hostium Zibevatuvos. The apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f A r r . 3.2.6 (seen by Berve 1.161 and 2 . 3 2 v n o . 68, s.v. 'Aucpoxepds) i s perhaps e x p l a i n e d by Hauben, And. Soc. 3 (1972) 57, who sees t h i s as " a d i a r c h i c f l e e t command" i n which "the head o f the marines a l s o f u n c t i o n e d as the supreme commander o f the whole f o r m a t i o n . " Thus Amphoteros c o n t r o l l e d the p u r e l y n a v a l m a t t e r s , under Hegelochos' d i r e c t i o n . A r r . 3.2.3. 12 an iliavch i n P h i l o t a s ' Companion C a v a l r y . There i t seems he may have l o s t h i s l i f e ; A r r i a n s a y s n o t h i n g f u r t h e r about h i m , C u r t i u s speaks o f h i m as h a v i n g d i e d i n b a t t l e b e f o r e t h e P h i l o t a s -a f f a i r t o o k p l a c e (6.11.22: -ilium dico Hegeloohum qui in aoie oe-cidit). I t was i n E g y p t , C u r t i u s s a y s , t h a t H e g e l o c h o s c o n s p i r e d w i t h Parmenion. T h i s c h a r g e a g a i n s t h i m w a r r a n t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C u r t i u s r e p o r t s t h a t , t h r o u g h t h e u r g i n g o f K o i n o s , K r a t e r o s and H e p h a i s t i o n , P h i l o t a s was t o r t u r e d i n o r d e r t o g a i n a c o n f e s s i o n (6.11.10), though i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e a c t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o e x t o r t an a d m i s s i o n o f Parmenion's c o m p l i c i t y i n t h e Dimnos-35 a f f a i r . Of Dimnos' c r i m e P h i l o t a s , a t f i r s t , d e n i e d a l l know-l e d g e (quod ad Dymnum pevtinet nihil scio3 6.11.30), a l t h o u g h he a d m i t t e d t h a t a c e r t a i n H e g e l o c h o s , i n c e n s e d by A l e x a n d e r ' s Amrnons-sohnsohaft (cum pvimum Iovis filium se salutari iussit vex3 6.11.23), c o n s p i r e d w i t h Parmenion t o murder A l e x a n d e r . P a r m e n i o n , however, approved t h e measure o n l y i f D a r e i o s were dead (6.11.29), and the a c t u a l c o n s p i r a c y came t o naught. whether P h i l o t a s d i d i n f a c t c o n f e s s t o t h e H e g e l o c h o s - a f f a i r o r w h e t h e r i t was m e r e l y s o r e p o r t e d by A l e x a n d e r ' s a g e n t s , t h e cha r g e was made: i t had e q u a l v a l u e f o r A l e x a n d e r w h e t h e r i t was e x a c t e d under d u r e s s o r m e r e l y i n v e n t e d . B u t , i f A l e x a n d e r ' s agents p r e s e n t e d a f a b r i c a t e d c h a r g e , t h e n they must have known s o m e t h i n g about Hegelochos t h a t made h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such a c o n s p i r a c y p l a u s i b l e . Now B a d i a n a l l e g e s t h a t "no charge was i n f a c t b r o u g h t See Berve 2.142r-143, no. 269, s.v. A t y v o s . F o r the name see Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 206. 13 against Parmenio" (supra), but this i s not so; for undoubtedly, in the version of Curtius, the charges brought against Parmenion included his alleged dealings with Hegelochos. And charges were clearly brought against him. To Polydamas, the bearer of Par-menion' s writ of execution, Alexander says: scelere...Parmenionis otmes pariter appetiti (7.2.13). More ex p l i c i t l y , we are told that charges of some sort were used to jus t i f y Parmenion's murder by Kleandros and his associates: Oleander primores eorum (Parmenion's troops) intromitti iubet litterasque regis scriptas ad milites recitat, quibus insidiae Parmenionis in regent... oontinebantur (7.2.30). It follows that the charges extorted from Philotas were used in condemnation of Parmenion. The story appears to have some substance; we are reminded of 36 the epiboule of Philotas, related by Arrian and Plutarch, which also took place in Egypt and was the result of the same grievances. It i s clear that Alexander's journey to the oasis of Siwah and his rejection of Philip as his father exacerbated an already uneasy 37 feeling in the Macedonian army. But the existence of a hostile faction antedates the Ammonssohnschaft and - as is certainly true Arr. 3.26.1; Plut. Alex. 48.1-49.2; de fort. Al. 2.7 = Mor. 339E-F. Berve 2.165 concludes that Hegelochos' naming as a conspirator with Parmenion made him "ein Trager der philippischen Tradition." The matter is brought to a head by the affair of Kleitos; cf. Berve 2.206-208, no. 427, s.v. KAECTOS; also F. Cauer, Philotas, Kleitos, Kallisthenes: Beitrdge zur Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen, JdhrbUcher fttr kl. Philologie, Supplbd20 (1894) 38-58; R. Schubert, "Der Tod des Kleitos," Eh. Mus. 53 (1898) 98-120; the conflict between old and new is clear from-the primary sources: Plut. Alex. 50.1-52.2; Arr. 4.8.1-9.4; Curt. 8.1.19-52. 14 i n P h i l o t a s ' case - we ought t o l o o k f o r the seeds o f Hegelochos' d i s c o n t e n t i n some e a r l i e r event. We must ask, who was Hegelochos? A r r i a n (3.11.8) t e l l s us t h a t Hegelochos was the son o f H i p p o s t r a t o s . The l a t t e r name appears o n l y t w i c e i n accounts o f the p e r i o d b e f o r e 336 ( A l e x a n d e r ' s a c c e s s i o n ) : Marsyas (op. Didymos, Demosth. c o l . 13.2) names a c e r t a i n H i p p o s t r a t o s , son of Amyntas, who d i e d i n P h i l i p ' s I l l y r i a n campaign, w h i l e S a t y r o s (ap. Athen. 13.55 7D) says t h a t H i p p o s t r a t o s was the b r o t h e r o f 38 K l e o p a t r a - E u r y d i k e . The t h r e e r e f e r e n c e s t o H i p p o s t r a t o s may v e r y w e l l be t o one man, the f a t h e r o f Hegelochos; thus Hege-l o c h o s ' importance t o the h i s t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r l i e s i n h i s r e -l a t i o n s h i p t o K l e o p a t r a - E u r y d i k e ( h i s a u n t ) . But t h e r e are t h r e e major o b j e c t i o n s ; none i s i n s u r m o u n t a b l e . The most s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n i s t h a t o f K.J. B e l o c h : " E i n 'HyeXoxos 'Iiiitoaxpdxou b e f e h l i g t e b e i A r b e l a e i n e l i e der H e t a e r e n -r e i t e r e i ( A r r . Anab. I l l 11,8); aber K l e o p a t r a s B r u d e r kann n i c h t wbhl e i n e n Sohn gehabt haben, der i n 331 a l t genug gewesen w&re, 39 e i n s o l c h e s Kommando zu f u h r e n . . . . " But i s t h i s a c t u a l l y the case? We have two approximate ages t h a t can be used i n the con-s t r u c t i o n o f a stemma f o r the f a m i l y o f K l e o p a t r a . A c c o r d i n g to P l u t a r c h (AZex. 9.6), K l e o p a t r a was s t i l l v e r y young when she m a r r i e d P h i l i p i n 337: [ K X e o i t d x p a ] n v 6 $UAI.IIH:OS n y c ' Y 6 1 0 Tcap^evov, epaafteus nap' nALKuav xfis xdpns. Berve's e s t i m a t e t h a t she was Marsyas = FGrHist 135/136 F17; S a t y r o s = M i l l i e r , FUG I I I , f r . 5 . B e l o c h GG2' 3.2.70. 15 b o r n ca 353 appears to s u i t P l u t a r c h ' s d e s c r i p t i o n ; she may, however, have been c o n s i d e r e d young i n comparison w i t h Olympias, who was now i n h e r l a t e t h i r t i e s . 355-353 B.C. p r o v i d e s a good, c o n s e r v a t i v e , date f o r K l e o p a t r a ' s b i r t h . Berve assumes t h a t A t t a l o s , K l e o p a t r a ' s u n c l e , was b o r n ca 380, thus b e i n g a con-temporary of P h i l i p I I ; he c o u l d have been c o n s i d e r a b l y o l d e r . I f we assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Berve's dates are c o r r e c t ( a l l o w i n g f o r some s l i g h t adjustments) and t h a t H i p p o s t r a t o s was the son of Amyntas (so Marsyas ap. Didymos), then the f o l l o w i n g stemma emerges. F a t h e r (ca 430 - ?) 40 Amyntas (ca 405 -d i e d . b e f o r e 337) A t t a l o s (ca 385-336/5) = d. o f Parmenion I H i p p o s t r a t o s (ca 380-344/3) Hegelochos (ca 360-331) K l e o p a t r a (355/3-335/4) = P h i l i p I I Europe (b.336) T h i s cannot be, as B e l o c h 'QG? 3'. 2. 70-71 ( f o l l o w e d t e n t a t i v e l y by Green, 587) s u g g e s t s , A n t i o c h o s , f o r Amyntas, son o f A n t i o c h o s , was s t i l l a l i v e and a c t i v e at the time o f A l e x a n d e r ' s A s i a n cam-p a i g n (see Berve 2.28-29, no. 58, s.V. 'Ayuvras); i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l the s o u r c e s would have f a i l e d t o mention t h a t he was K l e o p a t r a ' s f a t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y A r r i a n , who r e c o r d s the reasons f o r h i s f l i g h t : 'AUUVTCXS 6 'Avxuo ' xou, os ecpuyev zn ManeSovuas ' AAe£;av6pov, ua§ah> uev ou6ev itpos ' AAeE;dv6pou, Suavotqt 6e rfj itpos 'AAe'5av6pov xau auros aita^ucoaas TL TtaSeCv upos auToO axapu (1.17.9). No s o u r c e r e c o r d s t h a t Amyntas, son o f A n t i o c h o s , was A t t a l o s ' b r o t h e r ; i n s t e a d i t i s deduced t h a t Amyntas, the f a t h e r o f K l e o p a t r a , was dead and t h a t she was the ward o f A t t a l o s (Berve 2.94, 213). These a r e , I b e l i e v e , more s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n s than 16 I c o n s i d e r next the arguments o f F e l i x S t a n e l i n . Speaking o f the H i p p o s t r a t o s who d i e d i n the I l l y r i a n campaign, S t a h e l i n a r g u e s : "man kBnnte ebensogut an H i p p o s t r a t o s , den B r u d e r P h i l i p p s z w e i t e r Gemahlin K l e o p a t r a denken, den S a t y r o s . . . i n e i n e r Weise erwahnt, d i e uns vermuten l a s s t , das der Mann s i c h i r g e n d w i e besonders 41 h e r v o r g e t a n haben muss." Y e t , he c o n c l u d e s : " I n keinem F a l l e i s t H i p p o s t r a t o s , d e r V a t e r des Heg e l o c h o s , m i t H i p p o s t r a t o s , dem B r u d e r der K l e o p a t r a , i d e n t i s c h , denn w i r w i s s e n , dass A l e x a n d e r b e i seinem Ubergange nach A s i e n d i e s a m t l i c h e n Verwandten s e i n e r S t i e f m u t t e r 42 umbringen l i e s s ( J u s t i n 11,5,1)." Now, i t need n o t be argued s t r e n u o u s l y t h a t J u s t i n s h o u l d n o t and need n o t be taken l i t e r a l l y . What he says i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s : Proficisdens ad Persicum helium omnes novercae suae cognatos, quos Philippus -in excelsiorem dignitatis locum provehens imperiis praefecerat, interfecit. But J u s t i n p a i n t s a v e r y b l a c k p i c t u r e d f A l e x a n d e r , one o f whose c h i e f f a u l t s was t h a t non in hostem3 sed in suos saeviebat (9.8.15). J u s t i n ' s method o f d e n i g r a t i n g A l e x a n d e r Berve's (2.28, n.2) c l a i m t h a t the name i s too common. Nor i s A r r i a n ' s t e s t i m o n y (supra) e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e d w i t h J u s t i n ' s c l a i m t h a t A l e x a n d e r murdered a l l K l e o p a t r a ' s male r e l a t i v e s (11.5.1); t h i s remark i s p r o b a b l y f a l s e , b u t we might ex p e c t t h a t K l e o p a t r a ' s f a t h e r , i f anyone, would have been foremost among A l e x a n d e r ' s enemies. 41 F. S t a r i e l i n , " D ie g r i e c h i s c h e n H i s t o r i k e r f r a g m e n t e b e i Didymos," Klio 5 (1905) 151. Ibid. 17 i s one t h a t employs g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s and e x a g g e r a t i o n s : where J u s t i n c l e a r l y knows o f o n l y one i n c i d e n t o r one v i c t i m o f A l e x a n d e r ' s c r u e l t y , he speaks o f many. Thus he a l l u d e s t o the murder o f K l e i t o s i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: hie [sc. Alexander} . 4 3 amioorum interfector oonvivio frequenter exoessit (9.8.16). He speaks o f many sons o f P h i l i p I I , though he can name o n l y one ( t o e x c e p t , m o m e n t a r i l y , the f i c t i t i o u s K a r a n o s ) : Genuit ex Larissaea saltriee filiwn Arrhidaeum, qui post Alexandrum regnavit. Eabuit et multos alios filios ex variis matrimoniis regio more susceptos, qui partim fato, partim ferro periere (9.8.2-3). L i k e -w i s e , a l t h o u g h he names o n l y one b r o t h e r (the f i c t i t i o u s K aranos, whose e x i s t e n c e i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by J u s t i n h i m s e l f a t 9.7.12), whom A l e x a n d e r put to d e a t h , he speaks o f fratres interfeoti 44 (12.6.14). Thus, when he says nec suis3 qui apti regno videbantur, pepercit, ne qua materia seditionis prooul se agente in Macedonia remaneret (11.5.2), he has one s p e c i f i c v i c t i m i n mind, Amyntas P e r d i k k a (tunc Amyntas consobrinus...interfeat [us], 12.6.14). And, t h e r e i s o n l y one r e l a t i v e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s noveroa (= K l e o p a t r a ) who might be d e s c r i b e d as [quern] Philippus in ex-celsiorem dignitatis locum provehens imperiis praefecerat (11.5.1), and he i s A t t a l o s ( c f . a g a i n 12.6.14); omnes novercae suae cognatos ...interfecti must be another g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . There are numerous Cf. the note o f Rev. John S e l b y Watson, Justin, Cornelius Nepos and Eutropius, London, 1910, f o o t o f p.88. Fratres, a r h e t o r i c a l p l u r a l , so R. Lane Fox, 504. 18 o t h e r examples o f g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s and e x a g g e r a t i o n s f o r e f f e c t ; 45 t h e above-mentioned a r e , I b e l i e v e , s u f f i c i e n t to make the p o i n t . 46 I say n o t h i n g about the numerous e r r o r s i n f a c t . We need n o t base our argument s o l e l y on the t e x t (and the method) o f J u s t i n . A c c o r d i n g to a l l the s o u r c e s t h a t r e c o r d h e r death (and t h e s e i n c l u d e J u s t i n ) , K l e o p a t r a and h e r daughter were 47 t h e v i c t i m s n o t o f A l e x a n d e r but o f Olympias. On A t t a l o s , however, A l t h o u g h one might mention the 115 sons o f A r t a x e r x e s or the 600,000 P e r s i a n s a t t h e G r a n i k o s (10.1.1; 11.6.11); t o say n o t h i n g o f t h e f a t e s o f the f i f t y b r o t h e r s o f D a r e i o s , t o -g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n ( 1 0 . 1 . 4 f f . ) J u s t i n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n (9.5.9) o f A t t a l o s as K l e o p a t r a ' s b r o t h e r i s the most b l a t a n t example; o n l y a t e x t u a l emendation saves L y n k e s t i a n A l e x a n d r o s from becoming a b r o t h e r of A l e x a n d e r the Great (11.2.2); and f o r the e r r o r i n v o l v i n g the s e n d i n g o f Parmenion ad oocupandam Persicam classem (11.10.4) see Berve 2.301, n.3. These are s e l e c t e d v i r t u a l l y a t random, but they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the n a t u r e o f J u s t i n ' s account o f A l e x a n d e r . P l u t . Alex. 10.7; i t was done a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r ' s w i s h e s ; J u s t i n 9.7.12 says t h a t she was f o r c e d by Olympias to hang h e r s e l f ; Paus. 8.7.7 says t h a t b o t h mother and son were f o r c e d onto a f i e r y v e s s e l . Karanos, as son o f P h i l i p and a w i f e o t h e r than Olympias, has a g a i n been r e s u r r e c t e d . Tarn r i g h t l y d i d away w i t h him (2.260-262, Appendix 9, " C a r a n u s " ) ; he was f o l l o w e d by A.R. Burn, JHS 67 (1947) 143. But Karanos has been^accepted as the son o f K l e o p a t r a ( d e n y i n g , t h e r e f o r e , the e x i s t e n c e o f Europe) by N i e b u h r , op. cit. 3 n.19, 309; Grote 12.8; Droysen, Eellenismus 1.70; C. B r a d f o r d W e l l e s , Alexander and the Eellenistic Worlds T o r o n t o , 1970, 15; and as K l e o p a t r a ' s second c h i l d by Fox, 503-504>and P. Green, 1 0 8 f f . and 523-524. That he was the son o f an-o t h e r w i f e , most l i k e l y P h i l a the E l i m i o t , i s proposed by W i l l r i c h , Eermes 34 (1899) 177; S t l h e l i n , RE XI.1, s.v. " K l e o p a t r a , " 734-735; Berve 2.199-200, no. 411, s.v. Kdpctvos, and 2.213-214; W i l c k e n , 62; Macurdy, Eellenistic Queens 54; N i e s e 1.52; Schachermeyr, Ingenium und Macht 8 4 f f . ; Alexander der Grosse 102, w i t h n.84, 104; M i l n s , 18; K. K r a f t , op. cit. 3 n.19, 24,n.30. Most r e c e n t l y , E l l i s , Philip II 306, n.54, c o r r e c t l y s u p p o r t s Tarn. The c h i l d i s c l e a r l y meant t o be K l e o p a t r a ' s (the noverca o f J u s t i n 11.2.3 must be K l e o p a t r a , as T a r n has p r o v e d c o n c l u s i v e l y ) . The son mentioned by P a u s a n i a s i s the same c h i l d r e f e r r e d t o as filia by J u s t i n 9.7.12, and t h i s i s Europe, so S a t y r o s ap. Athen. 13.557E. See a l s o n . l supra. 19 Alexander did take vengeance, through the agency of a cer-48 tain Hekataios, and with the acquiescence of Parmenion. There i s no mention of any other male relatives of Kleopatra. Her father and her brother were already dead before she married Philip in 337, and this w i l l explain why Kleopatra i s consistently identified not as the daughter of Amyntas but as the niece of Attalos. At this point, we may consider the third objection to the equating of the individuals named Hippostratos. Berve writes: "Foucart...und Beloch...vermuten eine Identitat mit dem von Didy-mos...erwarmten, im Illyrerkriege...gefallenen H., doch scheint 49 Satyros...ihn 337 als noch lebend vorauszusetzen." This ob-jection cannot be allowed to stand. Satyros gives no indication about the brother of Kleopatra, whether he was s t i l l alive or had already died; nor can any inference be drawn. But the evidence of Satyros may well t e l l us something about Kleopatra's family-history. Amyntas may have died before his son,-Hippostratos, and Kleopatra (and possibly her mother) would therefore have passed into the custody of her brother u n t i l his death in 344/3. At that time Kleopatra, now between nine and eleven years of age, became the ward of her uncle, Attalos. Thus her only two known male re-latives who s t i l l lived in 337 were the prominent Attalos and 48 Diod. 17.2.5-6; 17.5.2; Curt. 7.1.3; see Berve 2.148, no.292, s.v. 'ExaxaCos. Badian, TAPA 91 (1960) 327; Green 119-120. 49 Berve 2.185, no.390, s.V. ' Iitudaxpaxos. For this I l l y r i a n campaign see F. Wlist, Philip II. von Mdkedonien und Gvieohen-~land in den Jdhven von '346 bis 338 (MVtnehener histovisohe. Ab-. handlungen, Heft 14, 1938) 54-58. 20 Kleopatra's nephew Hegelochos, who had only begun h i s career i n the army. Only a l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of J u s t i n stands i n o p p o s i t i o n to equating Hegelochos w i t h the nephew of K l e o p a t r a ; I b e l i e v e that the testimony has been shown to be u n r e l i a b l e . The career of Hegelochos, t h e r e f o r e , proves i n s t r u c t i v e . When Alexander set out f o r A s i a , he l e f t many enemies, p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous, a l i v e both i n Macedonia and w i t h i n the army; the s e r i e s of i n t r i g u e s and c o n s p i r a c i e s that followed the death of P h i l i p I I i s an adequate testimony to t h i s . Alexander could, and d i d , e l i m i n a t e h i s most dangerous p o l i t i c a l r i v a l s , but he was forced to adopt a p o l i c y of c o n c i l i a t i o n ; f o r the very b a s i s of h i s power were the Mace-donian nobles, who had supported P h i l i p and who had now r e a l i g n e d themselves i n accordance w i t h the needs of the new regime. There were some c a s u a l t i e s , but Alexander w i l l have been anxious to l i m i t the s l a u g h t e r . Peace had been made w i t h Parmenion, but A t t a l o s was the p r i c e . N evertheless, numerous members of the " A t t a l o s - f a c t i o n " remained a l i v e and i n p o s i t i o n s of power. Alexandros of L y n k e s t i s came to no harm at t h i s time, though he was l a t e r a r r e s t e d f o r h i s i n t r i g u e s . Yet Alexander could have been expected to f e a r him on account of the execution of Heromenes and Arrhabaios."'^ Amyntas, the nephew of Lynkestian Alexandros and the son of the executed Arrhabaios, a l s o r e t a i n e d h i s rank u n t i l the a r r e s t of h i s uncle 51 l e d , apparently, to h i s own f a l l . And so i t comes as no s u r -p r i s e t h a t Hegelochos was a l s o l e f t unharmed. Hippostratos had See Berve 2.80, 169, nos. 144, 355, s.VV. 'AppagaCos, 'Hpou£vn.S. Berve 2.30. 21 been K l e o p a t r a ' s b r o t h e r , b u t he was l o n g dead and f o r -g o t t e n by the time t h a t the purge took p l a c e . Hegelochos p r e s e n t e d no c h a l l e n g e t o A l e x a n d e r ' s s o v e r e i g n t y and the K i n g c o u l d i l l a f f o r d t o extend h i s feud w i t h A t t a l o s t o i n -c l u d e even K l e o p a t r a ' s nephew. The Macedonian n o b i l i t y were too numerous, t o o i n f l u e n t i a l and too much i n t e r r e l a t e d to make such an a c t i o n f e a s i b l e . We a r e reminded o f Badian's s a l u t a r y o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " A l e x a n d e r c o u l d n o t a f f o r d (and had h a r d l y i n t e n d e d ) t o engage i n w h o l e s a l e s l a u g h t e r o f t h e 52 Macedonian n o b i l i t y . " O p p o s i t i o n t o A l e x a n d e r , r e s u l t i n g from t h e problems o f the s u c c e s s i o n o f 336, c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the death o f A l e x a n d r o s of L y n k e s t i s , the denouement o f t h e P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r . F r i c t i o n c o n t i n u e d throughout A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n between the s u p p o r t e r s o f A l e x a n d e r and those whom Schachermeyr terms " a l t m a k e d o n i s c h 53 g e s i n n t . " I n the c o u r s e o f t h i s s t r u g g l e t h e r e were many c a s u a l t i e s , and, w h i l e Hegelochos appears t o have d i e d i n b a t t l e , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n to s u s p e c t thathhercwas n o t h o s t i l e t o A l e x a n d e r and ndti a t l e a s t c a p a b l e o f p l o t t i n g a g a i n s t him. I f he was i n f a c t t h e nephew o f K l e o p a t r a , the murder o f h i s aunt w i l l have been f r e s h i n h i s mind i n 332/1. C u r t i u s (or h i s s o u r c e ) d i d n o t i n -v e n t t h e i n c i d e n t ; i f Hegelochos was not K l e o p a t r a ' s nephew, why d i d he c o n s p i r e ( o r r a t h e r why was he charge w i t h c o n s p i r i n g ) w i t h Parmenion? V e x a t i o n a t the Ammonssohnschaft a l o n e i s not an 5 2 B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 335. Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 363. 22 adequate i n c e n t i v e . Now t h a t we have some c l u e c o n c e r n i n g the f a m i l y o f Hegelochos a more p l a u s i b l e motive f o r h i s h i t h e r t o d i s r e g a r d e d c o n s p i r a c y emerges. Parmenion ex-t r i c a t e d P h i l o t a s from the dangers brought on by h i s t r e a -sonous grumblings i n E g y p t ; v e r y l i k e l y , he d i s s u a d e d an 54 angry Hegelochos at t h a t time as w e l l . The s c a t t e r e d r e f e r e n c e s t o H i p p o s t r a t o s , as w e l l as the e n i g m a t i c c o n s p i r a c y o f H e g e l o c h o s , which C u r t i u s d i d n o t i n v e n t , p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the o r i g i n s o f K l e o p a t r a - E u r y d i k e . They a l s o add a new dimension t o the p o l i t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r s t a n d s out as the d e c i s i v e e v e n t , and from which t h e r e d e v e l o p e d a new p o w e r - s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the Macedonian army. (ii) The Fall of Parmenion's Faction.'*'* From the e r a o f P h i l i p I I , Parmenion emerged as Macedon's foremost g e n e r a l ; p o w e r f u l w i t h i n the army, where h i s f a m i l y and i t s a d h erents h e l d major commands, he was no l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l a t 56 57 the Court. Born ca 400 B.C., Parmenion was a mature commander a l r e a d y when P h i l i p came t o the throne i n 359. We do n o t know 5 4 A r r . 3.26.1; c f . P l u t . Alex. 48.4. See W. H e c k e l , "The C o n s p i r a c y Against P h i l o t a s , " Phoenix 31 (1977) 9-21. rrfi P l u t . Apophth. Phil. 2 = Mor. 177C. See Berve 2.298-306, s.v. napysvtwv; a l s o B e r v e , RE XVIII.4 (1949) 1559-1565, s.v. "Parmenion ( 1 ) . " 5 7 C u r t . 6.11.32; c f . 7.2.33. 23 e x a c t l y what h i s connexions were w i t h the a r i s t o c r a t i c f a c t i o n s and f a m i l i e s o f Macedon b e f o r e P h i l i p ' s m a r r i a g e t o K l e o p a t r a -E u r y d i k e , but i t appears t h a t h i s s o n , P h i l o t a s , was brought up at the C o u r t w i t h P h i l i p ' s nephew, Amyntas P e r d i k k a ; f o r the 5 8 two appear to have been v e r y c l o s e i n age. What connexions Parmenion had w i t h A l e x a n d e r and Olympias and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s , we cannot say; P h i l o t a s i s p o r t r a y e d as one o f A l e x a n d e r ' s f r i e n d s , 59 y e t h i s a c t i o n s w i l l s c a r c e l y have endeared him to A l e x a n d e r . Undoubtedly, Parmenion, who c o u l d n o t a s p i r e t o the k i n g s h i p him-s e l f , s u p p o r t e d P h i l i p p o l i t i c a l l y w i t h the sameeenthusiasm as he d i d m i l i t a r i l y . Thus, when P h i l i p m a r r i e d K l e o p a t r a , Parmenion brought h i m s e l f i n t o c l o s e r alignment w i t h the K i n g by m a r r y i n g one o f h i s d a u g h t e r s t o A t t a l o s ; t h i s u n i o n w i l l date to summer 60 o r autumn 337, t h a t i s , s h o r t l y a f t e r P h i l i p ' s own wedding. P r o b a b l y b e f o r e Parmenion's d e p a r t u r e f o r A s i a i n s p r i n g 336, 5 8 See Berve 2.393-397, no. 802, s.v. ^LAuras; t h e r e i s , as y e t , no a r t i c l e i n RE. Berve (393) assumes t h a t P h i l o t a s was P a r -menion' s e l d e s t son, as he commanded the Companions, and t h a t he was b o r n " n i c h t l ange v o r 360, da e r a n s c h e i n e n d z u den Jugendfreunden A l . s g e h B r t e . " But b o t h h i s younger b r o t h e r s , H e k t o r and N i k a n o r , h e l d major commands, and thus h i s b i r t h -date f e l l more l i k e l y between 365-360, which would make him r o u g h l y contemporary w i t h Amyntas P e r d i k k a . P r o b a b l y they were syntrophoi a t the C o u r t , where they became c l o s e f r i e n d s ( c f . C u r t . 6.9.17; 6.10.24). See Berve 2.30-31, no.61, s.v. ' AuUVTOtS . 59 P l u t . Alex. 10.3: the P i x o d a r o s - a f f a i r . Whether P h i l o t a s was brought i n t o shame A l e x a n d e r o r whether he was P h i l i p ' s i n -formant (so H a m i l t o n , G & R 12 [1965] 121, w i t h n.4, t r a n s -l a t i n g TtapotAotBuv as " t a k i n g as w i t n e s s " ) , he must have earned A l e x a n d e r ' s i l l - w i l l . 60 C u r t . 6.9.18, and see n.10 supva. 24 K o i n o s sought and o b t a i n e d the hand o f one o f Parmenion's younger daughters ( p o s s i b l y the y o u n g e s t , i n view o f P a r -menion' s ) a g e ) . ^ But Parmenion u n d e r s t o o d t h a t p o l i t i c a l m a r r i a g e s are not made i n heaven: t h e s e s e r v e d h i s advantage, and he r e p u d i a t e d h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A t t a l o s soon a f t e r -ward, a g a i n t o h i s advantage. When P h i l i p ' s a s s a s s i n a t i o n brought w i t h i t the d o w n f a l l o f K l e o p a t r a - E u r y d i k e and h e r f a c t i o n , Parmenion r e a c t e d a c c o r d -i n g l y . Now i t was p o l i t i c a l l y 'expedient- t o s a c r i f i c e h i s new s o n - i n - l a w t o A l e x a n d e r ' s vengeance. T h i s was Parmenion's token o f l o y a l t y , and t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o doubt t h a t A l e x a n d e r was 62 s a t i s f i e d . H o s t i l e f a c t i o n s remained w i t h i n the Macedonian army, b u t a s s a s s i n a t i o n had been an a l l - t o o - c o n v e n i e n t means o f d e p o s i n g a Macedonian k i n g ; n o t h i n g c o u l d ensure complete s e c u r i t y f o r t h e new monarch. A l e x a n d e r had to s e c u r e h i s p o s i t i o n by a c a r e f u l p r o c e s s o f l i q u i d a t i o n and c o n c i l i a t i o n ; i n the case of Parmenion, i n the l i g h t o f h i s power w i t h i n the army, he p r e -f e r r e d t o opt f o r c o n c i l i a t i o n . S i x y e a r s l a t e r t h e r e o c c u r r e d an i n c i d e n t t h a t has been a v e x a t i o n t o h i s t o r i a n s , a n c i e n t and modern: P h i l o t a s was t r i e d and executed on a charge o f c o n s p i r a c y , Parmenion was s u b s e q u e n t l y ^ C u r t . 6.9.30; A r r . 1.24.1; 1.29.4; see n.11 supra. The" p r o -d u c t o f t h i s u n i o n was a son named P e r d i k k a s ; see W. D i t t e n -b e r g e r , Sylloge Ins criptionum Graecarum 13 ( L e i p z i g 1915) 552-553, no. 332; Berve 2.312-313, no. 626, s.v. TlepdCnnaz. D i o d . 17.2.5-6; -17.5.2;.. C u r t . 7.1.3; see n.24 supra. Cf.. L. Edmunds, "The R e l i g i o s i t y o f A l e x a n d e r , " GRBS 12 (1971) 367. 25 murdered by A l e x a n d e r ' s agents. Though A l e x a n d e r ' s a p o l o g i s t s have been, q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l y , e a g e r t o e x c u l p a t e him, n e i t h e r Ptolemy, A r i s t o b o u l o s , n o r even Tarn c o u l d escape the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Parmenion's death was " p l a i n murder and l e a v e s a deep s t a i n on A l e x a n d e r ' s r e p u t a t i o n . " ^ 4 C.A. Robinson J r . attempted t o a t t a c h a c e r t a i n degree o f l e g a l i t y t o Parmenion's murder, b a s i n g h i s arguments on an a l l e g e d Macedonian lex, o f which C u r t i u s s p e a k s , but h i s e f f o r t s were so f u t i l e t h a t even Tarn c o u l d n o t a c c e p t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s . ^ The s t a n d a r d treatment o f the a f f a i r i s now t h a t o f E. B a d i a n : a p r o s o p o g r a p h i c s t u d y r e -v e a l s t h a t A l e x a n d e r had been s t e a d i l y "undermining Parmenio's r e p u t a t i o n " and " e x t r i c a t i n g h i m s e l f from the s t r a n g l e h o l d o f 66 Parmenio's f a m i l y and a d h e r e n t s , " and t h a t " P h i l o t a s ' ' t r e a s o n ' F o r t h e se events see F. Cauer, Jahrbucher fttr kl. Philologie3 Supplbd 20 (1894) 8-38; C.A. Robinson J r . " A l e x a n d e r t h e Great and Parmenio," AJA 49 (1945) 4 2 2 f f . ; Tarn 2.270-272, App. 12: "The Murder o f Parmenion"; B a d i a n , "The Death o f Parmenio," TAPA 91 (1960) 324-338; H a m i l t o n , PA 134-135; Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 326-336; J . Rufus F e a r s , Athenaeum 53 (1975) 132-134; E.D. Carney, Macedonian Aristo-cracy 8 4 f f . , b u t e s p e c i a l l y "The D e s t r u c t i o n o f the Parmenion F a c t i o n , " 111-137; and, f o r a s u r v e y o f the major vie w s , J . S e i b e r t , Alexander der Grosse: Ertr&ge der Forschung3 Darm-s t a d t , 1972, 140-141. T a r n 1.64; c f . Ptolemy and A r i s t o b o u l o s , FGrHist 138 F13; 139 F22. Robinson, AJP 58 (1937) 109, based on C u r t . 6.11.20:...legem Macedonum veriti3 qua cautum erat ut propinqui eorum qui regi insidiati essent cum ipsis necarentur.... These arguments were r e i t e r a t e d i n " A l e x a n d e r ' s B r u t a l i t y , " AJA 56 (1952) 169-170. B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 329. 26 was a t r a n s p a r e n t f a b r i c a t i o n . " * ' 7 B a d i a n c o n c l u d e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Parmenion's murder "was n o t a p a n i c - s t r i c k e n r e a c t i o n t o an u n f o r e s e e n emergency; i t must be r e g a r d e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e same scheme, and i n d e e d , i n view o f Parmenio's 6 8 p o s i t i o n , as i t s c u l m i n a t i o n . " Now t h i s "scheme" o f which B a d i a n speaks i s the c a l c u l a t e d " f r a m i n g " o f P h i l o t a s by A l e x a n d e r ; i n t h i s p r o c e s s , H e p h a i s t i o n , K r a t e r o s , K o i n o s and P e r d i k k a s "had shown themselves 'Alexander's men' i n the d e c i s i v e ..69 t e s t . " A study o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the a f f a i r r e v e a l s , I b e l i e v e , something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , and B a d i a n demonstrates a r e l u c t a n c e to r e a c h the obvious c o n c l u s i o n : P h i l o t a s was the v i c t i m o f a f a c t i o n o f young commanders who worked f o r h i s e l i m i n -a t i o n . They d i d not a c q u i e s c e i n A l e x a n d e r ' s c a l c u l a t e d scheme to d e s t r o y P h i l o t a s and Parmenion b u t , r a t h e r , they p r e v a i l e d upon A l e x a n d e r , w i t h a view to t h e i r own advantage, to show no mercy t o P h i l o t a s . I n o r d e r t o demonstrate t h i s , I take up each o f Badiansis p o i n t s . (1) Alexander had been "undermining Parmenio 's reputation. " C e r t a i n l y t h e r e are s t o r i e s t h a t c a s t Parmenion i n an un-f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t , 7 ^ b u t they do so f o r two o b v i o u s r e a s o n s : p r o -^7 Ibid. , 333. 6 8 Ibid., 333. 6 9 Ibid., 337. 7 0 A r r . 1 . 1 3 . 2 f f . ; P l u t . Alex. 16.3; C u r t . - 3 . 5 . 1 f f . and. 6.10.34f.; P l u t . Alex. 19; A r r . 2.4.9-10; Diod. 17.54.4; A r r . 2.25.2; P l u t . 27 A l e x a n d e r propaganda and apologia. To say t h a t some o f these s t o r i e s "go back to good s o u r c e s (Ptolemy and C a l l i s t h e n e s ) does not mean t h a t they are t r u e and, u n l e s s they can be p r o v e d to d e r i v e from K a l l i s t h e n e s , they were s u r e l y w r i t t e n a f t e r Parmenion's death. Furthermore, any such s t o r y t h a t d e r i v e s from 72 K a l l i s t h e n e s (and o n l y one can be a s s i g n e d to him w i t h c e r t a i n t y ) need n o t be a t t r i b u t e d to a d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o undermine P a r -menion' s r e p u t a t i o n . K a l l i s t h e n e s was the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i a n o f the P a n h e l l e n i c crusade ( A l e x a n d e r ' s salesman t o the League o f 73 K o r i n t h ) and he wrote w i t h the aim o f e n h a n c i n g the r e p u t a t i o n Alex. 33; A r r . 3.18.11. There are cases i n which Parmenion's a d v i c e i s a c c e p t e d , o r i n which Parmenion g i v e s good a d v i c e : D i o d . 17.16; C u r t . 3.7.8-10; P l u t . Alex. 21.9; C u r t . 4.10.16-17; A r r . 3.18.11; o r cases i n which Parmenion performs l o y a l s e r v i c e : A r r . 1 .25.4ff.; C u r t . 7.1.3. 71 72 73 B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 328. P l u t . Alex. 33 = FGrEist 124 F37. K a l l i s t h e n e s charges t h a t Parmenion managed a f f a i r s b a d l y ( d e l i b e r a t e l y ) a t Gaugamela. On t h i s see H a m i l t o n , PA 89, and Jacoby IID 429-430, who a s s e r t , q u i t e r i g h t l y as I t h i n k , t h a t t h i s passage ( i n d e e d the e n t i r e h o s t i l e p o r t r a i t o f Parmenion) was w r i t t e n a f t e r Parmenion's death. Note a l s o L. P e a r s o n , LEA 47, who s u g g e s t s t h a t the e v i d e n c e t h a t l i n k s K a l l i s t h e n e s w i t h t h i s h o s t i l e p o r t r a i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Undoubtedly, he i s c o r r e c t to assume t h a t the s t o r i e s were " e l a b o r a t e d by l a t e r w r i t e r s . " B e l o c h ' s ( I V 2 2.290-306: A b s c h n i t t XV, " A l e x a n d e r und Parmenion") a t -tempt t o see Parmenion as the m i l i t a r y master-mind b e h i n d a l l A l e x a n d e r ' s major v i c t o r i e s i s t o t a l l y u n c o n v i n c i n g . Cf. a l s o A.M. Devine, "Grand T a c t i c s a t Gaugamela," Phoenix 29 (1975) 381,im.21. W.K. P r e n t i c e , " C a l l i s t h e n e s , the O r i g i n a l H i s t o r i a n o f . A l e x a n d e r , " TAPA 54 (1923) 7 4 f f . ; -T.S. Brown, " C a l l i s t h e n e s and A l e x a n d e r , " AJP 70 (1949) 2'33'f. on the importance o f Greek p u b l i c o p i n i o n ; P e a r s o n , LEA 22'ff. ; Jacoby I I D 411; and most r e c e n t l y M. P l e z i a , "Der T i t e l und der Zweck von K a l l i s t h e n e s A l e x a n d e r g e s c h i c h t e , " Eos 60 (1972) 263-268, and G. Dobesch, " A l e x a n d e r der Grosse und der k o r i n t h i s c h e Bund," Grazer Beitr&ge 3 (1975) 73-149. 28 o f a young and a m b i t i o u s k i n g who was eager t o win c r e d i t f o r h i m s e l f and n o t appear t o be w i n n i n g b a t t l e s through the b r i l l i a n c e o f h i s f a t h e r ' s g e n e r a l . K a l l i s t h e n e s was w r i t i n g f o r a Greek a u d i e n c e , moreover f o r Greeks a t home; i n o r d e r t o "undermine" e f f e c t i v e l y the r e p u t a t i o n o f P a r -menion, he ought t o have been w r i t i n g f o r the Macedonian s o l -d i e r y to whom alon e t h i s was a major concern. Nor would the Macedonian army have t o l e r a t e d such c r i t i c i s m s , as K l e i t o s ' 74 anger a t the poem o f P r a n i c h o s o r t h a t o f A l e x a n d e r a t K a l l i s t h e n e s ' "blame o f the Macedonians" d e m o n s t r a t e s . ^ More l i k e l y , any n o t a b l e p r o p a g a n d a . h o s t i l e t o Parmenion was w r i t t e n a f t e r h i s death. Apologia and the h i s t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r are i n s e p a r a b l e ; the a p o l o g i s t s f e l t a g r e a t need 76 t o j u s t i f y Parmenion's murder. (2) "Alexander had also made considerable progress in extricating himself from the stranglehold of Parmenio's family and adherents." There i s an e v i d e n t d e c l i n e i n the power o f Parmenion's house i n the y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d the c r o s s i n g i n t o A s i a . But we P l u t . Alex. 50.8; see Berve 2.327, no. 657, s.v. Ilpdvuxos and 2.320, no. 639, s.V. IlLepuwv. P l u t . Alex. 53.4-6; see Berve 2.191-199, no. 408, s.v. KaAUaSe'vns. Cf. a l s o P. M e r l a n , " I s o c r a t e s , A r i s t o t l e and A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t , " Historia 3 (1954-1955) 76-77. As I argue, the e f f e c t i v e u ndermining o f Parmenion's r e p u t a t i o n d u r i n g h i s own l i f e t i m e c o u l d n o t have been e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d ; c e r t a i n l y K a l l i s t h e n e s ' w r i t i n g s had no e f f e c t on the a t t i t u d e s o f the Macedonians toward t h e i r commander. The s t o r i e s must be i n t e n d e d as apologia. 29 cannot f a i r l y a t t a c h the blame f o r t h i s to A l e x a n d e r . P a r -menion' s power was somewhat l i m i t e d by t h e death o f A t t a l o s ; and t h i s was done w i t h Parmenion's a p p r o v a l . 7 7 A l r e a d y the monopoly o f the A t t a l o s - f a c t i o n was broken. Another a f f i l i a t e , Amyntas, son o f A r r h a b a i o s , v a n i s h e s a f t e r the a r r e s t o f A l e x a n d r o s 78 of L y n k e s t i s ; t h i s too was done through t h e agency o f Parmenion. H i s own sons, H e k t o r and N i k a n o r , had d i e d o f n a t u r a l causes be-79 f o r e the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r took p l a c e . T h i s can h a r d l y have been p a r t o f a scheme t o weaken Parmenion's power intfche army. In f a c t , 80 i f Berve i s c o r r e c t , A l e x a n d e r may even have i n c r e a s e d Parmenion's power at the b e g i n n i n g o f the campaign by a p p o i n t i n g P h i l o t a s com-mander o f the Companion C a v a l r y . As f o r Asandros, he i s somewhat of an enigma, b u t we cannot be s u r e t h a t he was Parmenion's b r o t h e r . 77 „ See n.24 supra. 7 8 A r r . 1.25.4ff. Berve nos. 295, 554; f o r a d r a m a t i s e d v e r s i o n o f H e k t o r ' s drowning i n E g y p t , C u r t . 4.8.7-9; N i k a n o r ' s d e a t h , A r r . 3.25.4; C u r t . 6.6.18-19. 3 Berve 2.393. 1 Berve 2.87, no. 165, s.v. "Aaav6pos; J . K a e r s t , EE I I . 2 (1896) 1515, s.v. "Asandros ( 2 ) " ; C. B r a d f o r d W e l l e s , Alexander and the Eellenistic World 39, e r r o n e o u s l y c a l l s him Parmenion's c o u s i n . There are f o u r r e f e r e n c e s t o him (though C u r t . 7.10.12 reads aelexander o r alexander i n the mss.j Schmieder r e s t o r e s Asander) , b u t o n l y one i d e n t i f i e s him: "Aaav6pos 6 $uXc5xa ( A r r . 1.17.7), But P h i l o t a s i s a common name and Be r v e , who i s n o r m a l l y c a u t i o u s (2. 397-399: " G l e i c h s e t z u n g mit einem der anderen T r S g e r des Namens i s t b e i dessen H H u f i g k e i t z u u n s i c h e r " ) , d e s c r i b e s Asandros as "an-s c h e i n e n d B r u d e r Parmenions" (2.87). The case f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s , - i n f a c t , v e r y weak. Moreover, i f Asandros was Parmenion's b r o t h e r , A l e x a n d e r ' s a c t o f r e c a l l i n g him from S a r d e i s t o the main camp i n 30 (S) "Philotas' 'treason' was a transparent fabrication." We are t o l d by the s o u r c e s t h a t a c e r t a i n Dimnos, f o r an 82 unknown r e a s o n , p l o t t e d w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r s a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r . He d i v u l g e d the d e t a i l s o f h i s p l o t , and the names o f h i s f e l l o w -c o n s p i r a t o r s , t o Nikomachos, h i s l o v e r . But Nikomachos, i n alarm, r e p o r t e d what he had h e a r d to h i s b r o t h e r K e b a l i n o s , who i n t u r n attempted t o i n f o r m A l e x a n d e r . K e b a l i n o s conveyed the message to P h i l o t a s , b u t P h i l o t a s f a i l e d t o i n f o r m the K i n g . S e e i n g t h a t P h i l o t a s would n o t a c t , K e b a l i n o s d i s c l o s e d the i n f o r m a t i o n t o a R o y a l Page, Metron, who b r o u g h t the m a t t e r t o A l e x a n d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . o r d e r t o have him e l i m i n a t e d cannot have been p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e . T h i s c o u l d o n l y have r e v i v e d u n p l e a s a n t memories and a c c e n t u a t e d the s u f f e r i n g s o f the house of Parmenion. I t i s remarkable t h a t h i s a r r i v a l c r e a t e d no r e c o r d e d s e n s a t i o n i n A l e x a n d e r ' s camp, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a d i s s i d e n t f a c t i o n i n the army, which d i s -approved o f Parmenion's murder ( D i o d . 17.80.4; J u s t i n 1 2 . 5 . 4 f f . ; C u r t . 7 . 2 . 3 5 f f . ) . Even i n Hegelochos' c a s e , which b e a r s o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t y , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f d i s c o n t e n t . I f we make Asandros Parmenion's b r o t h e r , we c r e a t e a h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n t h a t the s o u r c e s must have s u p p r e s s e d , i.e., the r e a c t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s camp to Asandros' a r r i v a l . These are named by C u r t . 6.7.15: Amyntas, A r c h e p o l i s , Aphobetos, D e m e t r i o s , Theoxenus (= Dioxenos, see Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 207), I o l a o s , N i k a n o r , P e u k o l a o s ; Berve nos. 64, 161, 190,.260, 387, 558, 637; t h e s e are A r r i a n ' s (3.26.3) o'aou aXAou UETECTXOV otuxiL iffg EUU-BouXns. See W. H e c k e l , GRBS 16 (1975) 393-398. Berve 2.142-143, no. 269, s.v. Auuvos; c f . Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 206, who r e j e c t s C u r t i u s ' form, Dymnus ( 6 . 7 . I f f . ) , on l i n g u i s t i c grounds; Berve 2.143 b e l i e v e s P l u t a r c h ' s (Alex. 49) Auuvos i s a s c r i b a l e r r o r , A w r i t t e n f o r A, though Z i e g l e r ' s Teubner t e x t , r e t a i n s Limnos; t h a t form i s a l s o p r e f e r r e d by Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 3 2 8 f f . ; c f . K i r c h n e r , EE V . l (1903) 648, .. s.v. "Dimnos"; H a m i l t o n , PA 135. See a l s o Berve 2.279-280, no. 569, s.v. NLHO'UOIXOS; K r o l l , RE XVII. 1 (1936) 459, s.v. "Nikomachos ( 6 ) " ; Berve 2.203, no. 418, s.v.. KEBOIACVOS; Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 209; i n P l u t . Alex.. 49.4 the mss. r e a d BaAu'vo) o r iBaXeuv^; K r o l l , RE XI.1.(1903) 101, s.v. " K e b a l i n o s " ; Berve 2.260-261, no. 520, s.v. ME'TPCJV; c f . RE XV.2 (1932) 1485, s.V. "Metron ( 2 ) . " 31 Because Dlmnos " c o n v e n i e n t l y k i l l e d h i m s e l f ( o r was k i l l e d 84 w h i l e r e s i s t i n g a r r e s t ) " and because P h i l o t a s ' g u i l t c o u l d n o t be p r o v e d , B a d i a n c o n c l u d e s t h a t the D i m n o s - a f f a i r was a c t u a l l y a " f a b r i c a t i o n " aimed at i m p l i c a t i n g P h i l o t a s , a p l o t t h a t was h a t c h e d w h i l e he was a t t e n d i n g to t h e f u n e r a l r i t e s o f h i s b r o t h e r , 85 N i k a n o r , who had o n l y r e c e n t l y d i e d i n A r e i a . Badian reminds us t h a t P l u t a r c h speaks o f a c o n s p i r a c y against P h i l o t a s . But P l u t a r c h does n o t say t h a t t h i s c o n s p i r a c y c o n s i s t e d o f i the " f r a m i n g " of P h i l o t a s i n the D i m n o s - a f f a i r , as Badian's s k i l f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n s 86 o f the e v i d e n c e l e a d us to b e l i e v e . That the D i m n o s - a f f a i r was meant to "frame" P h i l o t a s i s u n l i k e l y . I c o n s i d e r J.R. H a m i l t o n ' s r e f u t a t i o n s i m p l e and adequate: "how c o u l d A l e x a n d e r know t h a t 87 P h i l o t a s would f a i l t o pass on the i n f o r m a t i o n ? " There a r e , o f c o u r s e , o t h e r o b j e c t i o n s ; the c o m p l e x i t y of the p l o t would have 88 made i t s s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i o n e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . But the s t r o n g e s t argument a g a i n s t the " f a b r i c a t e d c o n s p i r a c y " i s the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t r u e c o n s p i r a c y against P h i l o t a s . T h i s w i l l , 84 85 86 87 B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 331. Ibid., 330; C u r t . 6.6.19; A r r . 3.25.4. B a d i a n does n o t say so e x p l i c i t l y , b u t between pages 326 and 330 he c a r e f u l l y l e a d s the r e a d e r to b e l i e v e t h a t , because P l u t a r c h speaks o f a c o n s p i r a c y against P h i l o t a s , we ought t o l o o k f o r one i n the form o f a " f a b r i c a t e d " c o n s p i r a c y i n the D i m n o s - a f f a i r . Cf. T.P. Wiseman, Phoenix 27 (1973) 191: " B a d i a n i s a master o f the c o n t r o l l e d i n f e r e n c e . " H a m i l t o n , PA 134-135. The news o f Dimnos' p l o t , had P h i l o t a s n o t f a v o u r e d i t , would have g i v e n him an o p p o r t u n i t y t o prove h i s l o y a l t y , so Fox, 289. 32 I b e l i e v e , answer the l a s t q u e s t i o n r a i s e d by Badian's i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . (4) Was the murder of Parmenion the culmination of a well-planned scheme or a reaction to an unforeseen emergency? F o r t u n e had i n d e e d t aken two o f Parmenion's sons, b u t t h e most c r i t i c a l move, as f a r as P h i l o t a s was c o n c e r n e d , was d i c t a t e d by m i l i t a r y sense. The events t h a t f o l l o w e d Gaugamela made i t c l e a r t h a t the n a t u r e o f the war was t o take a d r a s t i c change; the p u r s u i t o f D a r e i o s and Bessos would r e q u i r e v i g o u r and m o b i l i t y . S i n c e Parmenion, now s e v e n t y y e a r s o f age, was i l l - s u i t e d f o r t h i s type o f w a r f a r e and s i n c e a younger and e x t r e m e l y c a p a b l e K r a t e r o s had been groomed by a s e r i e s o f commands o f e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g im-p o r t a n c e as Parmenion's e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s o r , Parmenion was s e n t t o 89 Ekbatana w i t h the i m p e r i a l t r e a s u r e s . On account of the n a t u r e o f the campaign, he was n e v e r r e c a l l e d and took what we might today c a l l a " d e s k - j o b " a t Ekbatana, e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e s e c u r i n g o f e a s t -west communications. The appointment, w h i l e n o t a demotion, meant 90 a c o n s i d e r a b l e " l o s s o f power" i n r e l a t i o n t o the army, but a t Parmenion's age such a change o f p o s i t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e . W h i l e he may have r e s e n t e d the change, j u s t as any commander, a f t e r a l i f e o f s e r v i c e , r e s e n t s removal from a c t i v e d u t y , i t was h i s son, P h i l o t a s , who was to s u f f e r most from i t . 89 A r r . 3.19.7; H a m i l t o n , Alexander the Great 90, i s one o f t h e few s c h o l a r s t o p o i n t out the obvious r e a s o n f o r Parmenion's removal: h i s age, see n.57. See a l s o J u s t i n , 1 2 . 1 . 3 . 90 Bad i a n ' s words, TAPA 91 (1960) 329, n.16. 33 P h i l o t a s s u ddenly found h i m s e l f i s o l a t e d w i t h i n the Mace-do n i a n army. As a young man he had r i s e n t o h i s p o s i t i o n o f 91 prominence, no doubt, t h r o u g h the i n f l u e n c e o f h i s f a t h e r . H i s p r e s t i g e gave r i s e i n t u r n t o a r r o g a n c e and l i c e n c e i n 92 speech. He i s p o r t r a y e d as a f r i e n d o f ^ A l e x a n d e r , but p r o -b a b l y he was somewhat o l d e r , l i k e l y a syntrophos o f Amyntas 93 P e r d i k k a . In the P i x o d a r o s - a f f a i r , P h i l i p b r o u g h t P h i l o t a s a l o n g i n an e f f o r t to shame A l e x a n d e r on account o f h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h the K a r i a n p r i n c e ; t h i s w i l l s c a r c e l y have r a i s e d P h i l o t a s 94 i n A l e x a n d e r ' s e s t i m a t i o n . Nor was P h i l o t a s among those who were b a n i s h e d by P h i l i p on account of A l e x a n d e r ' s i n t r i g u e s w i t h 95 P i x o d a r o s . N e v e r t h e l e s s b o t h Ptolemy and A r i s t o b o u l o s r e l a t e t h a t i t was on account oft'the f r i e n d s h i p and honour i n which A l e x a n d e r h e l d b o t h Parmenion and P h i l o t a s t h a t A l e x a n d e r o v e r l o o k e d the 96 l a t t e r ' s epiboule i n Egypt. 91 So Fox, 287. One wonders i f the death o f A t t a l o s and the p r o m o t i o n o f P h i l o t a s were i n any way r e l a t e d . qo T h e m i s t i o s , Or. 19.229C-D; P l u t . Alex. 48. 93 See n.58 supra. 94 See n.59 supra. 9 5 P l u t . Alex. 10.3; B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 327, makes much o f t h i s . Qf. A r r . 3.26.1; FGrHist 138 F13 ( P t o l e m y ) ; 139 F22 ( A r i s t o b o u l o s ) , 34 The e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s s o - c a l l e d c o n s p i r a c y i n Egypt has not been s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d . T h i s epiboule, r e l a t e d by A r r i a n ( 3 . 2 6 . 1 ) , must be the s u b j e c t o f the f i r s t p a r t o f P l u t a r c h ' s account o f the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r (i.e.3 chap. 48.4-97 4 9 . 2 ) . I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t P l u t a r c h speaks o f a con-s p i r a c y against P h i l o t a s . K r a t e r o s had suborned P h i l o t a s ' m i s t r e s s A n t i g o n e to i n f o r m a g a i n s t h e r l o v e r ; f o r P h i l o t a s 98 had been f o o l i s h l y a r r o g a n t and outspoken. K r a t e r o s , on h i s p a r t , was m o t i v a t e d by h i s s t r o n g sense o f l o y a l t y , f o r which he came to be termed philobasileus, and by h i s own p e r s o n a l 99 100 a m b i t i o n . But t h i s p r o l o n g e d e spionage r e v e a l e d l i t t l e t h a t was not a l r e a d y known: t h a t P h i l o t a s had been v o i c i n g h i s o b j e c t i o n s to the K i n g ' s o r i e n t a l i s m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e c e n t Ammonssohnschaft, and t h a t he c l a i m e d a g r e a t e r share o f the c r e d i t f o r h i s own m i l i t a r y achievements and those o f h i s f a t h e r . Very l i k e l y , he was i n c i t e d by the r e s e n t f u l H e g e l o c h o s , whose g r i e v a n c e s have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . B u t , w h i l e P h i l o t a s was a c q u i t t e d o f charges o f t r e a s o n through h i s f a t h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e , two points become c l e a r from t h i s d i s a f f e c t i o n i n E g y p t : P h i l o t a s ' enemies were a l r e a d y a c t i v e and eager t o r u i n As Z i e g l e r ' s Teubner t e x t i n d i c a t e s and B a d i a n , op. cit. 3 331, i m p l i e s . P l u t . Alex. 48.4-49.2;.Mor. 339E-F; c f . C u r t . 6.8.3; B e r v e 2.42, no. 86, s.v. 'AVTUYO'VTI; c f . 2.222 and 2.394. See f u r t h e r ''Chapter 3: K r a t e r o s . ' Philobasileus: P l u t . Alex. 47.10; D i o d . 17.114.2; c f . C u r t . 6.8.2. B a d i a n , op. cit.3 331. 35 him, and P h i l o t a s h i m s e l f was, i n many ways, the author of h i s own misfortune. P h i l o t a s ' a c t i v i t i e s at the time of P i x o d a r o s - a f f a i r w i l l have earned him the enmity of many-of Alexander's f r i e n d s . But he was arrogant as w e l l . The p r e s t i g i o u s command th a t he h e l d was coveted by the younger commanders, who through t h e i r con-nexions w i t h Alexander hoped f o r greater power. Their envy and the obvious short-comings of P h i l o t a s ' p e r s o n a l i t y (Themistios uses him as an exemption of au-SdSeua)"'"^ "'" gave r i s e to a "conspiracy" against him. The s i t u a t i o n i s i r o n i c . While Parmenion, through h i s r e j e c t i o n of the p a r t y of A t t a l o s - and t h i s w i l l i n c l u d e the a r r e s t of Alexandros of L y n k e s t i s - and h i s l o y a l t y , had won the g o o d w i l l of Alexander, h i s son, P h i l o t a s , through h i s own f o l l y and u n p o p u l a r i t y , was to b r i n g on t h e i r d o w n f a l l . Opposition was to come from another quarter. When the news of Dimnos' conspiracy broke, the cards were stacked against P h i l o t a s ; h i s l i c e n c e i n speech and the s u s p i c i o n of e a r l i e r treason made h i s c o m p l i c i t y i n the a f f a i r a l l the more c r e d i b l e . I t appears that P h i l o t a s h i m s e l f d i d not f u l l y understand h i s own predicament at the time when the events of the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r began to un f o l d . C e r t a i n l y 102 h i s f o o l i s h d i s r e g a r d of h i s f a t h e r ' s advice, h i s arrogance, and h i s general unpopularity made h i s u l t i m a t e d e p o s i t i o n only a matter of time. His p o l i t i c a l enemies, who had long before begun to work Themistios, too. ett. n.92. 102 t a P l u t . Alex. 48.3: unoc|juav e £ x e nav cp^dvov, toaxe nat IlapuevuDvd HOT' ELTCECV upos auxdv, Zs uaC, x ^ P ^ V 0 1 - ytvov. 36 f o r h i s e l i m i n a t i o n , s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d by t h e news o f Dimnos' c o n s p i r a c y . Deep-rooted a n i m o s i t i e s m a n i f e s t e d themselves i n the form o f v i g o r o u s p r o s e c u t i o n a n d , s i n the f a c e o f a d v e r s i t y , Parmenion, through whose i n f l u e n c e P h i l o t a s had escaped an e a r l i e r charge of t r e a s o n , was n o t t h e r e to h e l p him. When P h i l o t a s was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the charge o f c o m p l i c i t y i n the D i m n o s - a f f a i r , he r e p l i e d t h a t he had n o t p a s s e d on the i n f o r m a t i o n because he had n o t taken i t s e r i o u s l y , a p e c u l i a r a t t i t u d e i n a Court where i n t r i g u e s were common and always p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous. At a n o t h e r time Parmenion's mere p r e s e n c e might have commuted t h e c c h a r g e from t r e a s o n to n e g l i g e n c e . And y e t i t appears t h a t A l e x a n d e r was s t i l l w i l l i n g t o pardon P h i l o t a s on the v e r y 103 ground t h a t t h e crime had, i n f a c t , been one o f n e g l i g e n c e . But a t t h i s p o i n t h i s p o l i t i c a l enemies i n t e r v e n e d . A l e x a n d e r ' s young commanders, K r a t e r o s , H e p h a i s t i o n , Leon-n a t o s , P e r d i k k a s and K o i n o s , saw t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f P h i l o t a s i n the c o n s p i r a c y as the p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r ' s e c u r i n g h i s e l i m i n -104 a t i o n . K r a t e r o s , who had e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t e d P h i l o t a s ' a c t i v i t i e s , now l e d the a s s a u l t . He became the spokesman o f t h i s h o s t i l e f a c t i o n , and h i s words w i l l r e p r e s e n t the t h i n k i n g o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s . A l e x a n d e r ought to have c o n s u l t e d them on t h i s m a t t e r , he s a i d . P h i l o t a s would c o n t i n u e to p l o t a g a i n s t him, but A l e x a n d e r C u r t . 6.7.32ff. C u r t . 6.8.4: Non aliam ipremendi inimici oooasionem aptiovem futuvam vatus (sc. Craterus).... 37 c o u l d not excuse P h i l o t a s time a f t e r time. Nor would P h i l o t a s be mellowed by h i s k i n d n e s s . A l e x a n d e r must guard h i m s e l f a g a i n s t the enemy w i t h i n . A l l P h i l o t a s ' enemies were c o n v i n c e d t h a t he was i n v o l v e d i n the D i m n o s - c o n s p i r a c y , o r at l e a s t so they s a i d ; 106 and now they urged t h a t P h i l o t a s s h o u l d be t o r t u r e d . When Al e x a n d e r a l l o w e d h i m s e l f to be p e r suaded t h a t P h i l o t a s must be removed he was n o t a c t i n g e n t i r e l y a g a i n s t h i s w i l l . Schachermeyr i s q u i t e r i g h t t o p o i n t out t h a t the d r a s t i c s t e p s t h a t were taken a f t e r P h i l o t a s ' a r r e s t need n o t have been t a k e n . ^ 7 But, had A l e x a n d e r not been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s group o f companions, he might w e l l have been aontent t o take l e s s s t r i n g e n t measures and a l l o w the house o f Parmenion t o l a p s e i n t o the state< o f ob-108 s c u r i t y f o r which i t was d e s t i n e d . P h i l o t a s , a t any r a t e , knew who h i s enemies were when the c r i t i c a l moment came. He pronounced t h a t the b i t t e r n e s s o f h i s enemies had overcome A l e x a n d e r ' s g o o d w i l l (picit.. .bonitatem tuam3 rex3 inimicorum meorum acerbitas: C u r t . 6.8.22). And C u r t i u s makes i t c l e a r who t h e s e inimici were: Secunda deinde vigilia3 luminibus extinctis, cum paucis in regiam coeunt Hephaestio et Craterus et Coenus et Erigyius3 hi ex amicis3 ex armigeris autem Perdiccas et Leonnatus (6.8.17). These g a i n e d most from P h i l o t a s ' e x e c u t i o n , 1 0 5 C u r t . 6.8.9. 1 0 6 C u r t . 6.8.15. Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 334-335. One cannot over-emphasise the s t a t e o f d e c l i n e of the house o f Parmenion a l r e a d y before the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r . 38 e s p e c i a l l y Krateros and Hephaistion, the former being most vigorous i n arousing Alexander's h o s t i l i t y toward P h i l o t a s , 109 the l a t t e r the most vehement of h i s tormentors. They had a l l hated Philotas f o r a long time; Plutarch (Alex. 49.8) c a l l s them x o u s ndXai, u u a o u v x a s aux<5v. But since Hephaistion and Krateros had the most influence with Alexander, and emerged as the chief b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the a f f a i r , we may j u s t l y consider them the chief enemies of P h i l o t a s . What parts Perdikkas, Leonnatos and E r i g y i o s played i n destroying P h i l o t a s , we cannot say; nor are t h e i r benefits as immediately obvious. Krateros' opposition to Philotas can be e a s i l y understood; he was l o y a l and ambitious, and i n both respects he proved a natural enemy of P h i l o t a s . From the time of the epiboule i n Egypt* he appears to have a c t i v e l y opposed Ph i l o t a s . Hephaistion, on the other hand, made use of a more subtle power, h i s personal influence with Alexander. His r e l a t i o n s h i p with Alexander, which grew more intimate as the campaign progressed, made him a rather s i n i s t e r f i g u r e ; t h i s I s h a l l demonstrate i n my discussion of him. Cer t a i n l y h i s unprecedented r i s e a f t e r P h i l o t a s ' execution i s very suspicious. Two other i n d i v i d u a l s exemplify the opportunism f o r which Macedonian p o l i t i c s are famous, Koinos and Amyntas. Both stood to lose more than they could gain. But they turned a p o t e n t i a l l y disastrous s i t u a t i o n to t h e i r advantage. In Koinos' case, we Cf. E.D. Carney, Macedonian Aristocracy 124, 127. 39 cannot be s u r e i f he was r e a c t i n g t o an emergency, o r i f he had merely s h i f t e d h i s l o y a l t i e s . K o i n o s was P h i l o t a s ' b r o t h e r - i n -law, b u t he d i d n o t s u p p o r t him. I t appears t h a t he too p l o t t e d a g a i n s t P h i l o t a s . When P h i l o t a s came to t r i a l b e f o r e the Mace-d o n i a n army, K o i n o s was h i s most outspoken p r o s e c u t o r (Coenus3 quamquam Philotas sorovem matrimonio seewn ooniunxerat, tamen acrius quam quisquam in Philotan invectus est: C u r t . 6.9.30). Koi n o s would g a i n from P h i l o t a s ' r u i n , b u t he a l s o knew t h a t h i s f a m i l y - c o n n e x i o n s w i t h him c o u l d p r ove d i s a s t r o u s . S i m i l a r l y , Amyntas, son o f Andromenes, a v e r t e d danger by r e p u d i a t i n g h i s r e -l a t i o n s h i p w i t h P h i l o t a s , who had been h i s friend."*""^ When A l e x a n d e r p e r s o n a l l y c a l l e d f o r the d e a t h - p e n a l t y be-f o r e the Macedonian army, the enemies o f P h i l o t a s won the day. T h e i r e f f o r t s s e c u r e d f o r them commands o f major i m p o r t a n c e , p o s i t i o n s t h a t were t o b r i n g them i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h one another s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d ; f o r the s u c c e s s o f t h e i r c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t P h i l o t a s o n l y h e l p e d t o encourage f u r t h e r r i v a l r y . Parmenion was 111 e l i m i n a t e d i n f e a r f u l h a s t e , a " r e g r e t t a b l e n e c e s s i t y " ; i n the denouement o f the a f f a i r , A l e x a n d r o s o f L y n k e s t i s p e r i s h e d and Demetrios the Bodyguard, s u s p e c t e d o f c o m p l i c i t y , was r e p l a c e d 112 by Ptolemy, son o f Lagos. The "old-Macedonian" a t t i t u d e s were C u r t . 7 . 1 .18ff.; see F. H e l m r e i c h , Die Reden bei Curtius3 Rhetovisohe Studien 14, Paderborn, 1927, 168-183; F. G r a n i e r , Die makedonische Reeresversammlung 42-46; W. H e c k e l , GRBS 16 (1975) 393-398: the regius praetor o f C u r t i u s (Berve no. 65) i s the son o f Andromenes. 1 1 1 B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 332, p a r a p h r a s i n g Tarn. 1 1 2 A r r . 3.27.5. 40 no l o n g e r s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e h i g h e r r a n k s , f o r t h e commanders were now l a r g e l y companions o f A l e x a n d e r , o r at. l e a s t men o f h i s temperament. But the o l d - f a s h i o n e d element c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t i n t h e army; t h e s e A l e x a n d e r s u p p r e s s e d by t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a d i s c i p l i n a r y s q u adron a f t e r t h e P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r , by means o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f t h e K l e i t o s - a f f a i r . Y e t m u t i n i e s a t t h e H y p h a s i s and a t O p i s reminded A l e x a n d e r t h a t f r i c t i o n between t h e 113 o l d and t h e new was v e r y r e a l . As f o r A l e x a n d e r ' s new strong-men, t h e y f o r m a c u r i o u s group. They a r e a group w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s and a m b i t i o n s , c o u p l e d w i t h c e r t a i n v i c e s and d e f i c i e n c i e s . They b e l o n g t o the s h o r t - l i v e d g e n e r a t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r , f o r t h e y d i d n o t o u t l i v e h i m by more tha n two y e a r s . I t was l e f t t o l e s s e r l i g h t s t o b u i l d t he H e l l e n i s t i c k i ngdoms, w h i l e A l e x a n d e r ' s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s and most b r i l l i a n t commanders were t h e v i c t i m s o f t h e i n i t i a l s u c c e s s i o n - s t r u g g l e . D u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e s t h e y w e r e , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , h i d d e n f r o m v i e w by the shadow o f the g r e a t man. I n t h i s s t u d y , I shed some new l i g h t on f o u r o f them: H e p h a i s t i o n , L e o n n a t o s , K r a t e r o s , P e r d i k k a s . See E.D. Ca r n e y , Macedonian Aristocracy3 -passim. 41 Chapter 1 HEPHAISTION: omnium amioorum carissimus^ In O ctober o f 324 B.C. H e p h a i s t i o n d i e d a t Ekbatana o f a 2 f e v e r a g g r a v a t e d by immoderation i n f o o d and d r i n k . He ended h i s l i f e the d e a r e s t o f A l e x a n d e r ' s f r i e n d s , the most i n f l u e n t i a l man i n the newly-won empire. F o r A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f , the u n t i m e l y death t r i g g e r e d an almost b o u n d l e s s d i s p l a y o f g r i e f , r e m i n i s c e n t , as he was d o u b t l e s s aware, o f A c h i l l e s ' sorrow a t the f a t e o f P a t r o k l o s . Whatever the s o u r c e o f the p a r a l l e l o f P a t r o k l o s and H e p h a i s t i o n , and the c l a i m t h a t A l e x a n d e r c o n s c i o u s l y emulated A c h i l l e s , who had been h i s h e r o ex uaL6o's, t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o doubt t h a t the g r i e f was genuine. The accounts o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o H e p h a i s t i o n ' s death were many and v a r i e d , as A r r i a n C u r t . 3.12.15. The b a s i c works are G. Plaumann, RE V I I I . 1 (1912) 291-296, s.v. " H e p h a i s t i o n ( 3 ) " ; Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 170-171; Berve 2.169-175, no. 357, s.v. 'Hcpataruuv, t o which I suggest the f o l l o w i n g r e v i s i o n s : on p.169 r e a d J u s t i n 12.12.11 i n s t e a d o f X I I , 12,1 (the same m i s p r i n t o c c u r s on p.174); p.169, n.3, r e a d D i o g . L a e r t . 5.1.27 f o r V , l , 1 2 ; on p.172 add Diod. 17.96.1; p.173 add C u r t . 9.10.6; p.173 r e f e r s t o A r r . VII,3,2. T h i s s h o u l d d i r e c t t h e r e a d e r t o A r r . 7.12.7, where an i n o p p o r t u n e l a c u n a o c c u r s . P. 174 i m p l i e s t h a t the r e a d i n g o f J u s t i n 12.12.12 i s 10,000 t a l e n t s ; i t i s duddeoim milium talentum. I am unable t o f i n d a passage t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o the f a u l t y r e f e r e n c e P s . - K a l l . 3.17 (p.171, n . 2 ) . B e r v e a l s o o m i t s P l i n y ' s (NH 34.64) mention o f a L y s i p p e a n s t a t u e o f H e p h a i s t i o n . See a l s o Berve's b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n i n 1.81-84: "C) D i e g r o s s e n H e i f e r A l e x a n d e r s " ; f o r H e p h a i s t i o n i n Arrian-Pto-lemy see Kornemann, Die Alexander geschichte 242-243; see a l s o Schacher-meyr, Alexander der Grosse 511-515 and passim; c f . Alexander in Babylon 31-37. A r r . 7.14.1; P l u t . Alex. 72; Diod. 17.110.8; P o l y . 4.3.31; B e l o c h I I I 2 2.321-322. 3 A r r . 7.14.4. 42 t e l l s u s , and i n each case s t r o n g l y p r e j u d i c e d by the phthonos o r eitnoia t h a t each a u t h o r f e l t f o r H e p h a i s t i o n o r f o r A l e x a n d e r 4 h i m s e l f . A l e x a n d e r ' s a c t i o n s were u n u s u a l , i n d e e d c o n t r o v e r s i a l : t h e s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f g r i e f were not o n l y t y p i c a l o f the o r i e n t a l despot t h a t he had shown i n c r e a s i n g s i g n s o f becoming,"* b u t were c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between H e p h a i s t i o n and A l e x a n d e r was, t o use one modern s c h o l a r ' s p h r a s e , "not p u r e l y P l a t o n i c . " I H e p h a i s t i o n , son o f Amyntor, came from P e l l a and, a c c o r d i n g g t o C u r t i u s (3.12.15), was ed u c a t e d w i t h A l e x a n d e r . B ut, a p a r t from C u r t i u s ' t e s t i m o n y , the t r a d i t i o n t h a t the two were c l o s e f r i e n d s from boyhood i s not s u b s t a n t i a t e d by any r e l i a b l e s o u r c e ; I n s p i t e o f t h i s statement ( A r r . 7.14.2), t h e s u r v i v i n g accounts o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r and c a r e e r are s u r p r i s i n g l y c o n s i s t e n t and do n o t r e f l e c t a g r e a t d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n . Cf. P l u t . Pelopidas 34.3. H a m i l t o n , Alexander the Great 31. A r r . 6.28.4; Ind. 18.3; P. Oxy. 2520, an e p i c poem on P h i l i p o f Macedon, f r . l , l i n e 15, r e a d s : ] ^  uvauuvTopaa'aAA[-.... }au'T [. L o b e l ' s commentary r e a d s : " I f poo c o u l d be r e a d , which I doubt, t h e r e would emerge the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e f e r e n c e t o Amyntor, f a t h e r o f A l e x a n d e r ' s companion, H e p h a e s t i o n . . . , " Oxyrhynohus Papyri XXX, ed. E. L o b e l , London, Egyptian Exploration Society, Graeco-Roman Memoirs, No. 44, 1964, 46. cum ipso - [ s c . Alexandro] pariter educatus [est]. 43 9 nor can i t be traced to a primary author of any worth. A l -most a l l modern sc h o l a r s accept t h i s boyhood r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h the exception of W.W. Tarn, who drew a t t e n t i o n to P l u t a r c h ' s (Alex.' 10.4) f a i l u r e to mention Hephaistion among the l i s t of fr i e n d s who were e x i l e d from P h i l i p ' s Court i n consequence of Alexander's i n t r i g u e s w i t h the K a r i a n P i x o d a r o s . T a r n a l s o r e j e c t e d , on the ground that i t was a Xdyos, A r r i a n ' s (1.12.1) remark that Hephaistion crowned the tomb of P a t r o k l o s at I l i o n , o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence f o r a long-standing i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s h i p between Alexander and Hep h a i s t i o n , which was common knowledge already at the time of the c r o s s i n g i n t o A s i a . As 9 10 11 P s . - K a l l . 1.18 and J u l . V a l . 1.10 r e l a t e that Alexander and Hephaistion s a i l e d to Olympia together as adolescents; Diog. L a e r t . 5.1.27 mentions l e t t e r s from A r i s t o t l e to Hephaistion. P. Oxy. 2520, were i t complete, might provide v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n (see n.7 supra). Tarn 2.57. The passage i s considered by Badian, "The Death of Par-menio," TAPA 91 (1960) 327, as s i g n i f i c a n t f o r P h i l o t a s ' p o s i t i o n at the time of Alexander's e x i l e ("...he c l e a r l y placed good r e -l a t i o n s w i t h the k i n g above excessive l o y a l t y to a d i s c r e d i t e d crown p r i n c e " ) . A r r . 3.6.5 adds Laomedon, the brother of E r i g y i o s , but als o omits Hephaistion (and P h i l o t a s ) . Those who accept the boyhood r e -l a t i o n s h i p as a matter of f a i t h assume that both Alexander and Hephai-s t i o n were educated by A r i s t o t l e (as Curt. 3.12.15 and Diog. L a e r t . 5.1.27 i m p l y ) ; so Berve 2.169; and r e c e n t l y R.D. Mi l n s 23; Fox 56; Green 55; but against the view that A r i s t o t l e was Alexander's c h i e f preceptor see A.H. Chroust, Aristotle, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1973, 1.125-132, and notes on pp.358-364. Cf. A i l i a n , VH 12.7. R. Lane Fox (113) serves as an e x c e l l e n t example: "Already the two were i n t i m a t e , A c h i l l e s and P a t r o c l u s even to those around them; the comparison would remain to the end of t h e i r days and i s proof [my emphasis] of t h e i r l i f e as l o v e r s . . . . " More c r e d i b l e i s the g e n e r a l l y overlooked work of B. P e r r i n ("Genesis and Growth of an Alexander-myth," TAPA 26 [1895] 56£68), where i t i s p o i n t e d out t h a t "the romantic attachment i n which the two f r i e n d s were d e l i g h t e d to pose as A c h i l l e s and P a t r o k l o s e v i d e n t l y dates from the l a s t years of t h i s p e r i o d [i.e.3 a f t e r Gaugamela]. But romantic t r a d i t i o n c o n f i d e n t l y , and i n a very t e l l i n g way, transposes t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the e a r l i e r p e r i o d s " ( 5 8 ) . 44 p o l i t i c a l propaganda A l e x a n d e r ' s v i s i t t o the s i t e o f Troy w i l l have had g r e a t a p p e a l f o r the Greek c i t y - s t a t e s ; one t h i n k s o f 12 A g e s i l a o s ' a b o r t i v e s a c r i f i c e a t A u l i s . But, i f A l e x a n d e r made use o f the i n c i d e n t t o promote h i s P a n h e l l e n i c c r u s a d e , he d i d so through h i s o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i a n , K a l l i s t h e n e s , and K a l l i s t h e n e s , 13 i t a a p p e a r s , d i d not make H e p h a i s t i o n the new P a t r o k l o s . T a r n s o b j e c t i o n s were not w e l l r e c e i v e d ; t h e y do r e v e a l a need t o r e -examine the problem. T a r n drew a t t e n t i o n t o the work o f a c e r t a i n C h o i r i l o s o f I a s o s , who accompanied A l e x a n d e r on the e x p e d i t i o n and r e c o r d e d h i s achievements i n the form o f an e p i c poem, i n which A l e x a n d e r 14 appeared as A c h i l l e s . Tarn has argued c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t t h e en-15 t i r e p o r t r a i t o f the A c h i l l e a n A l e x a n d e r d e r i v e s from the p o e t a s t e r s , 1 2 Xen. Eell. 3.4.3; P l u t . Ages. 6.6-11. Cf . G.L. Cawkwell, " A g e s i l a u s and S p a r t a , " C ^ n . s . 26 (1976) 66-67: " A g e s i l a u s sought, by s a c r i -f i c i n g a t A u l i s as Agamemnon had done..., to g i v e the campaign a g r a n d i o s e s i g n i f i c a n c e , to open as i t were a new c h a p t e r i n the g r e a t c o n f l i c t o f E a s t and West." Cf . a l s o J . Eehork, "Homer, Herodot und A l e x a n d e r , " Beitrdge zur dlten Geschichte und deren Bachleben, Festschrift fur Franz Altheim zum 6.10.1968, B e r l i n , 1969, 257-258; G. Dobesch, " A l e x a n d e r d e r Grosse und d e r k o r i n t h i s c h e Bund," Grazer Beitrdge 3 (1975) 88, n.34. 13 F o r K a l l i s t h e n e s see Jacoby, FGrHist I I B , no. 124; a l s o IID 411-432; P e a r s o n , LEA 22-49; on the propaganda-value see W.K. P r e n t i c e , " C a l l i s t h e n e s , The O r i g i n a l H i s t o r i a n o f A l e x a n d e r , " TAPA 54 (1923) 74-85; T.S. Brown, " C a l l i s t h e n e s and A l e x a n d e r , " AJP 70 (1949) 233-234 = G r i f f i t h , Main Problems 37-38. 14 FGrEist 153 F l O a = P o r p h y r i o s , H o r a t . AP 357; c f . Berve 2.408-409, no. 829, s.V. XoupuXog; C r u s i u s , BE I I I . 2 (1899) 2361-2363, s.v. " C h o i r i l o s ( 5 ) " ; T a r n 2.57-58. 1 5 T a r n 2.55-62 and 265-270. 45 and i t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s f o u r t h - c e n t u r y Eumolpos, 16 whom P o r p h y r i o s l a b e l l e d poeta pessimus , and h i s k i n d were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p a r a l l e l H e p h a i s t i o n - P a t r o k l o s . There can be n o t t h o u g h t o f A l e x a n d e r c o n s c i o u s l y e m u l a t i n g A c h i l l e s a t t h i s p o i n t . : A r r i a n ' s Aoyos v e r y l i k e l y B e l o n g s to t h e l a t e r t r a d i t i o n , which drew the p a r a l l e l o f P a t r o k l o s and H e p h a i s t i o n from the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the l a t t e r ' s d eath. C e r t a i n l y , A l e x a n d e r ' s e x t r a v a g a n t g r i e f on t h a t o c c a s i o n must have been more s t r i k i n g i n i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o e v e n t s d e s c r i b e d i n the Iliad than any o t h e r a s p e c t of h i s ( o r H e p h a i s t i o n ' s ) c e a r e e r . A l e x a n d e r may w e l l have been con-s c i o u s o f h i s r o l e as A c h i l l e s when H e p h a i s t i o n d i e d - and t h i s need n o t imply i n s i n c e r i t y on h i s p a r t -, but i n 334 n e i t h e r A l e x a n d e r nor h i s o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i a n r e g a r d e d H e p h a i s t i o n as P a t r o k l o s ; t h i s p a r a l l e l 18 b e l o n g s t o a l a t e r r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n . H e p h a i s t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e h i s wounding a t Gaugamela are Poeta pessimus fuit Choerilusy qui Alexandrian seoutus opera eius descripsit...cut Alexander dixisse fertur3 multum malle se Thersiten iam Homeri esse quam Choerili Achillen; see n.14 supra. B. P e r r i n , op. cit. ; but see A.R. Anderson, " H e r a c l e s and h i s S u c c e s s o r s , " HSCP 39 (1928) 13-14, who t h i n k s t h a t A l e x a n d e r began h i s e x p e d i t i o n w i t h A c h i l l e s as h i s h e r o , but t h a t he soon c o n v e r t e d t o H e r a k l e s . In the l i g h t o f the e v i d e n c e and the s t r o n g r o m a n t i c e l e m e n t s , I s u s p e c t t h a t A l e x a n d e r ' s e m u l a t i o n o f A c h i l l e s i s f i c t i t i o u s , though he d i d c o n s c i o u s l y i m i t a t e H e r a k l e s . P e r r i n , op.ccit.3 59-60. 46 19 i l l a t t e s t e d and d e r i v e p r i m a r i l y from the v u l g a t e . We are n o t t o l d when he became somatophylax, but i t appears t h a t he r e p l a c e d the o b s c u r e , but n o t u n i m p o r t a n t , P t o l e m a i o s (Berve, no.672), who d i e d a t H a l i k a r n a s s o s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f the campaign (see Appendix 1 ) . I f t h i s i s t r u e , then h i s e a r l y a c t i v i t i e s a r e somewhat e a s i e r t o e x p l a i n . L o u k i a n p r o v i d e s the f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o H e p h a i s t i o n a f t e r A r r i a n ' s AO*YOS; he 20 c l a i m s as h i s s o u r c e a l e t t e r o f Eumenes o f K a r d i a to A n t i p a t r o s . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s , H e p h a i s t i o n gave A l e x a n d e r an a u s p i c i o u s (though e m b a r r a s s i n g f o r H e p h a i s t i o n ) g r e e t i n g on the morning o f the b a t t l e o f I s s o s . He appears n e x t , on the day a f t e r the 21 b a t t l e , i n one o f the most p o p u l a r anecdotes about A l e x a n d e r . Among the c a p t i v e s taken a f t e r the P e r s i a n d i s a s t e r a t I s s o s were the w i f e and mother of D a r e i o s I I I . H e a r i n g t h a t they mourned 22 D a r e i o s as a l r e a d y dead, A l e x a n d e r s e n t to them Leonnatos, who i n -19 The e v i d e n c e o f P s . - K a l l . and J u l . V a l . v r . l . 10 can c a r r y l i t t l e w e i g h t , n o r i s t h e r e any way to d e t e r m i n e / t h e t r u t h about an a l l e g e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between H e p h a i s t i o n r a n d A r i s t o t l e ( Diog. L a e r t . 5.1.27). The s o u r c e o f C u r t . 3.12.15 i s p o s s i b l y K l e i t -a r c h o s ; Diod. 17.114.1, 3 mentions A l e x a n d e r ' s l o v e f o r H e p h a i s t i o n and Olympias' j e a l o u s y ; c f . L o u k i a n , dial. mort. 12.4, where P h i l i p i s s a i d t o d i s a p p r o v e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s d e v o t i o n t o H e p h a i s t i o n ; c f . a l s o Athen. 10.435A where A l e x a n d e r ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o women prompted Olympias and P h i l i p t o send the T h e s s a l i a n c o u r t e s a n K a l l i x e i n a t o t h e i r s on; see Berve 2.190-191, no. 406, s.v. K a A A C ^ e L v a , and Berve 1.10; P l u t . Alex. 28.3 mentions a g i f t o f l i t t l e f i s h e s from A l e x a n d e r t o H e p h a i s t i o n ; he r e a d A l e x a n d e r ' s l e t t e r s from Olympias and s h a r e d h i s s e c r e t s : P l u t . Alex. 39.5; apophth. Al. 14 = Mor. 180D; de fort. Al. 1.11 = Mor. 332F), b u t t h e s e may r e f e r t o l a t e i n t h e campaign. 20 L o u k i a n , Pro Lapsu 8. 2 1 A r r . 2.12.6-7; Diod. 17.37.5; 114.2; C u r t . 3.12;15ff. ; V a l , Max.. 4.7 e x t 2; I t i n e r . 37; Sud'a s.v. ' Hcpoxo"T.C*u>v. 2 2 A r r . 2.12.5; C u r t . 3.12.7-12; Diod. 17.3.7.3; P l u t . Alex. 21.2. 47 formed them t h a t D a r e i o s had i n f a c t escaped from.the b a t t l e f i e l d o f I s s o s and t h a t A l e x a n d e r would see to t h e i r own s a f e t y . On the f o l l o w i n g morning, A l e x a n d e r , a c c o r d i n g l y , went to v i s i t the P e r s i a n women, t a k i n g w i t h him H e p h a i s t i o n , who was t a l l e r and 23 more s t r i k i n g i n appearance than A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f . The Queen-mother, m i s t a k i n g H e p h a i s t i o n f o r A l e x a n d e r , p r o s t r a t e d h e r s e l f i n the P e r s i a n manner o f showing r e v e r e n c e (npoaxu'vrio'Ls). Informed o f the e r r o r , she f e a r e d A l e x a n d e r ' s d i s p l e a s u r e , but he a l l a y e d h e r f e a r s and, i n d i c a t i n g H e p h a i s t i o n , remarked: "he too i s A l e x a n d e r . " The anecdote s e r v e s two p u r p o s e s : to show the magnanimity o f A l e x a n d e r , the g r e a t conqueror who a l l o w e d even the d e f e a t e d enemy t o r e t a i n h i s former d i g n i t y , and t o demonstrate t h a t the bond o f f r i e n d s h i p between the two was so s t r o n g t h a t A l e x a n d e r p u b l i c l y a c k n o w l e d g e d " H e p h a i s t i o n Et siaut aetate par erat regi, ita corporis habitu praestabat ( C u r t . 3.12.1); c f . statura et forma praestabat ( V a l . Max. 4.7 e x t 2 ) ; and 6 'TL yetCcov ecpdvri exeCvos ( A r r . 2.12.6). The scene i s d e p i c t e d i n a p a i n t i n g o f Veronese a t the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , London; S i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e s to H e p h a i s t i o n ' s y o u t h f u l appearance a r e made by C u r t i u s (7.9.19) and J u s t i n (12.12.11). A c c o r d i n g t o P l i n y (NH 34.64), L y s i p p o s ( o r , as some s a i d , P o l y k l e i t o s [the younger]) produced a s t a t u e o f H e p h a i s t i o n ; see H. Rackham's n o t e i n Pliny: Natural History, Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , v o i b 9, Cambridge, Mass., 1938, 174, note b; c f . F r a n k l i n P. Johnson, Lysippos, Durham, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1927, 25, 230; K. Gebauer, " A l e x a n d e r b i l d n i s und A l e x a n d e r t y p u s (D19)," Mitteilungen des deutschen archdologischen Instituts (Athenische Abteilung) 63-64 (1938-1939) 67-69, b e l i e v e s he can i d e n t i f y t h i s . He was a l s o p o r t r a y e d i n AMtion's p a i n t i n g o f the m a r r i a g e o f A l e x a n d e r and Rhoxane, where he was the b e s t man (vuu(paYa>YO*s), s t a n d i n g t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r i g h t and h o l d i n g a t o r c h ; the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by L o u k i a n (Action 5) i s f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by t h e p a i n t i n g on the n o r t h w a l l o f the F a r n e s i n a i n Rome by " I I Sodoma"; see R.H. Hobart Cust, Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, The Man and the Painter, 1477-1549, London, 1906, 135-147; see a l s o A. Hayum, Giovanni Antonio Bazzi - "II Sodoma," D i s s . H a r v a r d , 1968, p u b l . New York, 1976, 3 0 f f . and 74-75. 48 as h i s alter ego. The s t o r y t h a t A l e x a n d e r bestowed upon H e p h a i s t i o n the s i n g u l a r honour o f c h o o s i n g a k i n g f o r the S i d o n i a n s a l s o de-r i v e s from the v u l g a t e . The d e t a i l s o f t h e s t o r y need n o t be 25 r e p e a t e d , f o r i t s u f f i c e s t o say t h a t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e A l e x a n d e r , a p p a r e n t l y m o t i v a t e d by h i s a f f e c t i o n f o r H e p h a i s t i o n , g r a n t e d him the honour o f c r e a t i n g a k i n g . From Tyre H e p h a i s t i o n conducted the f l e e t t o Gaza, a r e -26 l a t i v e l y minor command now t h a t A l e x a n d e r c o n t r o l l e d the s e a s . But perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t r e f e r e n c e to H e p h a i s t i o n ' s e a r l y a c t i v i t i e s d a t e s to the y e a r 331, when A l e x a n d e r had moved o u t o o f Egypt. The l e x i c o g r a p h e r H a r p o k r a t i o n quotes the h i s t o r i a n Marsyas 27 o f P e l l a as s a y i n g t h a t a young man o f Samian o r P l a t a i a n o r i g i n 2 8 (so D i y . l l o s ) was s e n t by Demosthenes to A l e x a n d e r f o r the purpose •nat yap nat O S T O S 'AAe£;oiv6p6's eaxuv ( D i o d . 17.37.6; c f . V a l . Max. 4.7„ext 2; A r r . 2.12.7; Suda s.v. ' HcpauaTuuv; C u r t . 3.12.17). Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 512, t a k e s t h i s one s t e p f u r -t h e r and sees A l e x a n d e r as c o n t i n u a l l y s t r i v i n g to bestow honours upon H e p h a i s t i o n . " A l e x a n d e r , der i n s e i n e r Neigung f u r H e p h a i s t i o n n i e m a l s genug zu t u n g l a u b t e . . . . " C u r t . 4.1.15-25; P l u t . Mor. 340C-D; Diod. 1 7 . 4 7 f f . , who i n c o r r e c t l y says i t happened a t T y r e . See Berve 2.3, no. 1, s.V. 'A36aAaJvuuos; c f . D. S o h l b e r g , "Zu K l e i t a r c h , " Historia 21 (1972) 758-759, w i t h a d d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . C u r t . 4.5.10. T h i s must be the P h o e n i c i a n and K y p r i o t f l e e t , which went ov e r t o A l e x a n d e r a f t e r I s s o s . The Greek c o n t i n g e n t s were s t i l l i n the n o r t h w i t h Amphoteros and Hegelochos. See H. Hauben, "The Ex-p a n s i o n o f Macedonian Sea-Power under A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t , " Ana. Soo. 1 (1976) 8 2 f f . FGrHist 135 F2 = H a r p o k r a t i o n p.43.8, s.v. 'APLOTUJJV. FGrHist 73 F2. 49 of effecting a reconciliation. The young man, Aristion,"'^ gained access to Alexander through Hephaistion. The arrival is dated by an Athenian embassy, which reported his presence at Alexander's Court, to the year 331; Aischines appears to corroborate Marsyas' testimony, but i t is possible that Marsyas used Aischines as one 30 of his sources. This should not detract from Marsyas' evidence, however, for he proves, upon close examination, to have been a 31 historian of some worth. And i t was Marsyas, not Aischines, who See Berve 2.63, no. 120, s.v. 'Apuaruajv; J. Kirchner, RE II. 1 (1895) 900, s.v. "Aristion (12)." Note the close similarity between Aischines, In Ctesiphontem 160 and 162, and Marsyas, FGrHist 135 F2, 3, which are pre-served by Harpokration. For Marsyas see F. Ritschl, De Marsyis rerum soriptoribus, Breslau, 1836, later published under the same t i t l e as no. XVI of Opuscula Philologica, vol. 1, Leipzig, 1866, 449-470; C. MUller, Fvagmenta Scriptorum de rebus Alexandri Magni3 ap-pended to Fr. Dlibner's edition of Arrianus, Paris, 1846, 40-46; H. Sauppe, "Die neuen Bruchstllcke des Hyper-ides," Philol. 3 (1848) 647, for the date of Aristion's mission; Fr. Kampe, 11 Jahresberichte Uber griechische Historiker," Philol. 4 (1849) 130-134; A. Hecker, "Epistola Critica," Philol. 5 (1850) 452; R. Stiehle, "Zu den Fragmenten der griechischen Historiker," Philol. 9 (1854) 465-466; H. Diels and W. Schubart, Didymos: Kommentar zu Demosthenes (Papyrus 9780) 3 Berliner Klassiker-texte I, Berlin, 1904; F. St&helin, "Die griechischen Historiker-fragmente bei Didymos," Klio 5 (1905) 150-151; 0. Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 66, 90-92, 210 and passim-, P. Foucart, "Etude sur Didymos," Mem. de I'aoad. des Inseript. et Belles-Lettres 38 (1909) 138-145; Berve 2.247-248, no. 489, s.v. Mapauas; Jacoby, FGrHist IIB, no. 135 and IID 480-484; R. Laqueur, RE XIV.2 (1930) 1995-1999, s.V. "Marsyas (8-9)"; C.A. Robinson Jr. (ed.), The History of Alexander the Great3 vol. 1 (Brown University Studies XVI), Providence, R.I., 1953, 166-171, for a translation of the fragments; Pearson, LHA 253-254. 50 provided the additional information that Demosthenes sent Aristion to Hephaistion in particular. As the brother of Antigonos Monophthalmos and of Pellaian origin, Marsyas very likely knew Hephaistion and was in a position to assess his relationship with Alexander; Marsyas was 32 himself, according to the Suda3 a syntrophos of Alexander. But again this i s not conclusive evidence for Alexander's devotion to Hephaistion, who may merely have been acting in his capacity as 33 somatophylax. Certainly,^ontthe basis of the existing evidence ,T~we shall never know the truth about the immortal friendship. We know simply that i t came about, undoubtedly at an early date. Tarn's major objection, that Plutarch's l i s t of companions omitted to mention Hephaistion, is not in i t s e l f damning. The l i s t is also given by Arrian (3.6.5) and his source appears to be Ptolemy, whose failure to give his p o l i t i c a l rivals just representation in his account is generally 34 acknowledged by scholars. But Ptolemy had nothing to fear from Hephaistion and there is no trace of fri c t i o n between the two while Hephaistion lived. Yet i t is curious that Ptolemy consistently failed to mention Hephaistion's rank as somatophylax (a rank that he certainly 32 Suda s.v. Mapcruas. There are two other references to his l i f e : Plut. MOP. 182C mentions a legal-dispute in which he was involved (we do not know of what sort, or of the outcome) and Diod. 20.50. 4 says he held a naval command in the battle at Salamis (Kypros). 33 Although Hephaistion may have brought Aristion to Alexander, Goldstein, The Letters of Demosthenes , 1968, 43, n.33, must be correct to reject Badian's proposal that he was Demosthenes' "powerful protector at Court," which i s surely to read too much into one fragment of Marsyas (Badian, "Harpalus," JHS 81 [1961] 34 = G r i f f i t h , Main Problems 224). See n.36 below. 51 35 h e l d ) , w h i l e i n no-way d e t r a c t i n g from H e p h a i s t i o n ' s importance. With P e r d i k k a s Ptolemy the h i s t o r i a n was r u t h l e s s ; t h i s has been 36 amply demonstrated by Schwahn and E r r i n g t o n . Nor i s t h e r e any mention o f the h e r o i s m o f A r i s t o n o u s i n I n d i a , though Ptolemy c l a i m s t o have been absent when the b a t t l e a g a i n s t the M a l l o i took p l a c e (see Appendix 1 ) . But, i f Ptolemy was d e l i b e r a t e l y s i l e n t about the r o l e o f H e p h a i s t i o n - and of the l e s s e r somatophylakes, P e i t h o n , A r i s t o n o u s , Lysimachos -, t h e n the account o f the h i s t o r i a n - k i n g , 37 i n whom A r r i a n p l a c e d so much f a i t h , becomes v e r y s i n i s t e r i n d e e d . Ptolemy named Nearchos, E r i g y i o s , Laomedon, H a r p a l o s and h i m s e l f as 38 those who were e x i l e d "when P h i l i p d i s h o n o u r e d Olympias." The f i r s t t h r e e were Greeks, and t h e r e was a l i m i t t o what they c o u l d e x p e c t to a c c o m p l i s h c i n a w o r l d dominated by the Macedonian n o b i l i t y ; we need ' t h i n k o n l y o f the u n s p e c t a c u l a r c a r e e r o f Eumenes under A l e x a n d e r . 35 See R.M. E r r i n g t o n , " B i a s i n Ptolemy's H i s t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r , " CQn.s. 19 (1969) 237-238; H. S t r a s b u r g e r , Ptolemaios und Alexander, L e i p z i g , 1934, 51. 39 3 6 W. Schwahn, "Die N a c h f o l g e A l e x a n d e r s des Grossen," Klio 23 (1930) 211-238; E r r i n g t o n , op. cit.3 233-242; S t r a s b u r g e r , op. cit. 3 47, 52-54 does n o t develop the i d e a f u l l y . 37 A r r . Anab. proem. 2. 38 P l u t . Alex. 10.4 p l a c e s the e x i l e a f t e r the P i x o d a r o s - a f f a i r , which i s p r o b a b l y more a c c u r a t e . H a m i l t o n , PA 27 i s p r o b a b l y r i g h t t o assume t h a t A r r i a n i s g i v i n g "a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t i m e , s u f f i c i e n t f o r h i s p u r pose"; S c h a e f e r ' s (Demosthenes und seine Zeit I I I . 6 5 - 6 6 , n.2) p r e -f e r e n c e f o r A r r i a n i s n o t c o m p e l l i n g . 39 i See Berve 2.156-158, no. 317, s.v. Euy^vns; c f . V e z i h , Eumenes von Kardia 12-17; H.D. W e s t l a k e , "Eumenes o f C a r d i a , " Essays on the Greek Historians and Greek History, London, 1969, 319-321, b e l i e v e s t h a t the c l a i m (which he t h i n k s d e r i v e s from Hieronymos) t h a t Eumenes s u f f e r e d a d i s a d v a n t a g e by b e i n g Greek i s u n j u s t i f i e d . H i s arguments 52 F o r H a r p a l o s Ptolemy appears to have had some compassion: the 40 d e t a i l s o f h i s f i r s t f l i g h t a r e vague; the account o f h i s famous d e f e c t i o n to Athens h a s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , been devoured 41 by an i n o p p o r t u n e l a c u n a i n the t e x t o f A r r i a n . Whether H e p h a i s t i o n was d e l i b e r a t e l y o m i t t e d from the l i s t of A l e x a n d e r ' s f r i e n d s cannot be determined. I t s h o u l d be added, however, t h a t P h i l i p d i d n o t e x i l e all A l e x a n d e r ' s f r i e n d s . I t becomes c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s no f i r m e v i d e n c e f o r the view t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n and A l e x a n d e r were i n t i m a t e as youths (though t h i s does not mean t h a t they were n o t ) ; T a r n was a t l e a s t r i g h t i n q u e s t i o n i n g the v a l u e o f the e v i d e n c e on which t h i s assumption was based. And, w h i l e i t seems i m p o s s i b l e - i n d e e d f o o l i s h - t o deny t h a t t h i s f r i e n d -s h i p d e v e l o p e d a t an e a r l y d a t e , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s f r i e n d s h i p was e m b e l l i s h e d by the r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n , which t r a n s p o s e d t h e i d e v o t i o n t h a t the two s h a r e d i n t h e i r l a s t y e a r s to the e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e campaign. a r e u n c o n v i n c i n g , f o r he uses the examples of A l e x a n d e r ' s Greek f r i e n d s , and t h e i r c a r e e r s show, q u i t e c l e a r l y , t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r connexions w i t h A l e x a n d e r , they c o u l d not a t t a i n h i g h o f f i c e ; c f . B a d i a n , TAPA 91 (1960) 337; "Nearchus the C r e t a n , " YCS 24 (1975) 147-170. A g a i n s t W e s t l a k e i s view t h a t Lysimachos was a Greek who r o s e t o power (320) see Hliner-w a d e l, Forschungen zur Geschichte Kdnigs Lysimachos von Thrakien3 D i s s . Z u r i c h , 1910, 13. A r r . 3.6.4-7. See Berve 2.75-80, no. 143, s.v. "ApitaXos, esp. p.76; B a d i a n , "The F i r s t F l i g h t o f H a r p a l u s , " Historia 9 (1960) 245-246; a g a i n s t t h i s W. H e c k e l , "The F l i g h t o f H a r p a l o s and T a u r i s k o s , " CP 72 (1977) 133-135. A r r . 7.12.7 b r e a k s o f f w i t h an account o f A n t i p a t r o s ' t r o u b l e s w i t h Olympias and resumes w i t h H e p h a i s t i o n ' s q u a r r e l s w i t h Eumenes. But a t t h i s p o i n t P h o t i o s ' epitome of the Anabasis (91, p.68b,.20) r e a d s : i\> xoux^ nat "AprcaXos PaauXbHa Xagwv $XETO cpei5yuv xptfl- 1 0 '™. 53 I I A r e v i e w o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s c a r e e r a f t e r the b a t t l e at 42 Gaugamela i l l u m i n a t e s h i s debt to h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A l e x a n d e r . The events o f the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r and a f t e r w a r d show t h a t he was not o n l y the c h i e f b e n e f i c i a r y o f A l e x a n d e r ' s g o o d w i l l , but a l s o the s k i l f u l m a n i p u l a t o r of the K i n g ' s power of command. H e p h a i s t i o n ' s was, i n f a c t , an u n u s u a l c a r e e r : u n t i l the 43 death of P h i l o t a s , he h e l d no major m i l i t a r y command; the m a j o r i t y o f h i s commands were o f a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - m i l i t a r y n a t u r e , and those t h a t d i d i n v o l v e m i l i t a r y s k i l l were o f t e n conducted i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h a more e x p e r i e n c e d commander; and, as i t becomes a p p a r e n t , he owed h i s promotion more to h i s 44 r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A l e x a n d e r than t o h i s own a b i l i t y . I t i s 42 He was wounded i n the arm>at Gaugamela: A r r . 3.15.2; Diod. 17.61.3; C u r t i u s 4.16.32. Fo r the p r oblem i n v o l v i n g xffiv a o j y a T O c p u A d x w v n y o t f u e v o s see Appendix 1. 43 P o l y a i n o s 4.3.27 r e c o r d s t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n and P h i l o t a s ( i n t h i s c ase a p p a r e n t l y the son o f Parmenion) commanded the f o r c e s d i r e c t l y opposed t o A r i o b a r z a n e s (though P o l y a i n o s i n c o r r e c t l y has P h r a s a o r t e s [see Berve 2.60-61, 400, nos. 115, 813, s.VV. 'ApuoBap^dvriS, $paaadpTns]) , w h i l e A l e x a n d e r l e d the e n c i r c l i n g f o r c e s a t the P e r s i a n Gates. But b o t h A r r i a n (3.18.4, 7-8) and C u r t i u s (5.4.14-15, 29) r e l a t e t h a t K r a t e r o s commanded the main f o r c e ; Diod. 17.68 does n o t u n d e r s t a n d the s t r a t e g y (see f u r t h e r ''Chapter 3: K r a t e r o s ' 1 ) . No o t h e r s o u r c e mentions H e p h a i s t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t , and h i s appearance w i t h P h i l o t a s l o o k s v e r y s u s p i c i o u s . P h i l o t a s , son of Parmenion, does n o t appear to have been l e f t b e h i n d w i t h the main f o r c e . A r r . 3.18.6 i s s u r e l y s p e a k i n g o f the taxiarch ( B e r v e , no. 803); C u r t . 5.4.20, 30 c o n f u s e s him w i t h the c a v a l r y - o f f i c e r ; on h i s i d e n t i t y see R.D. M i l n s , " A l e x a n d e r ' s Seventh Phalanx B a t t a l i o n , " GRBS 1 (1966) 159-160; a g a i n s t t h i s A.B. Bosworth, "A28ETAIP0I" CQ n.s. 23 (1973) 252-253. So C.B. W e l l e s , Alexander and the Hellenistic World 47; a g a i n s t H a m i l t o n , PA 145; Berve 2.173; Kdrnemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 242. 54 the l a s t o f these p o i n t s t h a t m e r i t s f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f o r nowhere i s H e p h a i s t i o n ' s i n f l u e n c e more e v i d e n t than i n the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r . The i n t r i c a c i e s o f the a f f a i r I have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n : Dimnos' p l o t was the c a t a l y s t t h a t a l l o w e d A l e x a n d e r ' s younger commanders to work f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f P h i l o t a s . And s u r e l y i t would be n a i v e to suppose t h a t h i s d e s t r u c t i o n and the sudden unprecedented r i s e o f H e p h a i s t i o n were i n no way r e l a t e d . In p a r t , P h i l o t a s had h i m s e l f t o blame: he was a r r o g a n t . He d i s p a r a g e d the achievements of A l e x a n d e r , c l a i m i n g t h a t the Macedonian v i c t o r i e s were the work of Parmenion; no l e s s a Macedonian than K l e i t o s , he d i d not make l i g h t o f h i s own con-t r i b u t i o n . But h i s o v e r b e a r i n g and i m p u l s i v e n a t u r e was i n c l i n e d t o arouse the h o s t i l i t y not so much o f A l e x a n d e r as o f h i s younger Companions. The Eetaivoi r e p r e s e n t e d the Macedonian n o b i l i t y , from whom the K i n g drew h i s g e n e r a l s and g o v e r n o r s , and A l e x a n d e r ' s c l o s e s t a s s o c i a t e s b e l o n g e d to t h i s body; they were young and eager 45 f o r p r o m o t i o n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y j e a l o u s o f a n o t h e r ' s s u c c e s s . Thus, w h i l e s u c c e s s came e a s i l y t o the son o f P h i l i p ' s g e n e r a l , i t was n o t w i t h o u t odium. A l e x a n d e r ' s f r i e n d s had no l o v e f o r Parmenion's son; P l u t a r c h says they had l o n g h a t e d P h i l o t a s (Alex. 4 9 . 8 ) . T h e i r h o s t i l i t y can be t r a c e d , c e r t a i n l y , t o P h i l o t a s ' F o r the Eetaivoi see T a r n 2 . 1 3 5 f f . ; Berve 1.30-37; G. Plaumann, RE V I I I . 2 (1913) 1374-1380, s.v. 'Exoxpot; G.S. S t a g a k i s , "Qb^s s e r v a t i o n s on the 'ExaCpoo o f A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t , " Ancient Macedonia, T h e s s a l o n i k i , 1970, 86-102. 55 f i r s t rumblings of d i s c o n t e n t i n E g y p t , 4 0 although P h i l o t a s ' r o l e i n the P i x o d a r o s - a f f a i r may have been the cause of con-47 s i d e r a b l e u n p o p u l a r i t y . At the time of the Egyptian ep^ -boule3 Parmenion's i n f l u e n c e had saved P h i l o t a s from charges of t r e a s o n , but Parmenion's power was waning and h i s retirement became more and more imminent w i t h each success of the ambitious 48 Krateros. At the time of Dimnos' p l o t , P h i l o t a s was at the mercy of h i s p o l i t i c a l enemies: h i s f a t h e r was at Ekbatana, h i s 49 brothers were dead, he was i s o l a t e d w i t h i n the Macedonian army. Command of the Companions was undoubtedly a coveted p o s i t i o n , and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that H e p h a i s t i o n , who was by now the f i r s t among Alexander's f r i e n d s , should c h e r i s h the hope of becoming h i s foremost commander; and no u n i t was used more e f f e c t i v e l y a f t e r Gaugamela than the Macedonian c a v a l r y . The record of Hephaistion's dealings w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l s shows that he was P l u t . Alex. 48.3-49.2; MOT. 339D-F; A r r . 3.26.1. P l u t . Alex. 10.3. P h i l i p I I used P h i l o t a s as an example of good conduct i n a manner intended to shame Alexander. Hamilton (PA 26, repeating h i s views of "Alexander's E a r l y L i f e , " G & R 12 [1965] 121, w i t h n.4) may be c o r r e c t , however, to take impaAaScSv to mean " t a k i n g as w i t n e s s " and to assume that P h i l o t a s reported Alexander's i n t r i g u e s w i t h Pixodaros to P h i l i p . In e i t h e r case, P h i l o t a s ' r o l e was not one that would win Alexander's f r i e n d s h i p . P l u t a r c h ' s (Mor. 339F) c l a i m that Alexander had hated P h i l o t a s f o r seven years thus deserves s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n (so Hamilton, PA 134); those who were e x i l e d on P h i l o t a s ' account ( i f he d i d i n f a c t betray t h e i r dealings w i t h Pixodaros) w i l l have hated him even more. See Chapter 3: Krateros. Parmenion sent to Ekbatana: A r r . 3.19.7; Hektor's death: Curt. 4,8.7-9; Nikanor's death: A r r . 3.25.4; Curt. 6.6.18-19. 56 o f a p a r t i c u l a r y quarrelsome nature"*^ and n o t above m a l i g n i n g o t h e r s to A l e x a n d e r , even when t h i s a f f o r d e d no obvious p e r s o n a l gain."'"'" P h i l o t a s was to be the f i r s t v i c t i m o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s a n i m o s i t y . But n e i t h e r H e p h a i s t i o n ' s h a t r e d o f P h i l o t a s nor-jhls-.in-r f l u e n c e w i t h A l e x a n d e r was s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f to d i s l o d g e P h i l o t a s from h i s command; he was a h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c e r , descended from a n o b l e Macedonian f a m i l y . Nor had Parmenion f a i l e d t o win c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y and a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g i n the army. Y e t P h i l o t a s ' f o o l i s h h a n d l i n g o f the news of Dimnos' c o n s p i r a c y gave h i s p o l i t i c a l a d v e r s a r i e s the p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e c u r e h i s e l i m i n a t i o n . That P h i l o t a s ' g u i l t amounted i n f a c t t o l i t t l e more than n e g l i g e n c e seems v i r t u a l l y c e r t a i n . A l e x a n d e r , i t appears, was s t i l l f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d toward him, and he might w e l l have 52 shown clemency a second time had n o t P h i l o t a s ' enemies i n t e r v e n e d . 5 0 P l u t . Alex. 47.11-12; Mor. 337A; A r r . 7.13.1; 7.14.9; P l u t . Eumenes 2.1-3. Berve 2.173 a p t l y d e s c r i b e s h i s b e h a v i o u r as "das Behehmen e i n e s verzogenen K i n d e s . " Cf. B a d i a n , "The Eunuch Bagoas: A Study i n Method," CQ -n.;s.. 8 (1958) 150: "Even the c h a r a c t e r and i n t r i g u e s o f the s i n i s t e r H e p h a i s t i o n are n o t i l l u m i n a t e d by A r r i a n - P t o l e m y . " "'"'" P l u t . Alex. 55.1: H e p h a i s t i o n s a i d t h a t K a l l i s t h e n e s had p r o -mised t o do proskynesis but went back on h i s word. Some s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n l i e d " t o save h i s own s k i n " (so T.S. Brown, " C a l l i s t h e n e s and A l e x a n d e r , " AJP 70 [1949] 244 = G r i f f i t h , Main Problems 4 9 ) ; c f . Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 384; H a m i l t o n , PA 153. 52 A l e x a n d e r says t o P h i l o t a s : Faventem habes iudicem, si3qquod ad-mitti non potuit3 saltern negari potest3 C u r t . 6.7.32. T h i s sug-g e s t s t h a t A l e x a n d e r was w i l l i n g to f o r g i v e P h i l o t a s , i f o n l y he c o u l d deny c o m p l i c i t y . P h i l o t a s c o u l d n o t a b s o l v e h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y , b u t he d i d c l a i m t h a t h i s crime was one o f n e g l i g e n c e , r a t h e r than o f c o n s p i r a c y . A l e x a n d e r was tossome e x t e n t s a t i s f i e d ( o r a t l e a s t 57 As before i n Egypt, Krateros was h i s most vigorous opponent, and h i s b e n e f i t from the d e s t r u c t i o n of P h i l o t a s and Parmenion i s c l e a r ; but he had already superseded Parmenion, and h i s success as a commander was based on h i s a b i l i t y . What then of Hephaistion's r o l e , which cannot be passed over l i g h t l y ? How he i n f l u e n c e d Alexander's t h i n k i n g i n p r i v a t e we cannot say; undoubtedly Alexander discussed the matter w i t h him, and we may suppose that Hephaistion 53 was not loathe to speak i l l of P h i l o t a s . C e r t a i n l y Hephaistion was part of the consilium amicopum, which Alexander c a l l e d a f t e r h i s i n i t i a l meeting w i t h P h i l o t a s , when he may s t i l l have i n c l i n e d 54 toward l e n i e n c y . C u r t i u s p o r t r a y s Krateros as the c h i e f spokes-man on t h i s occasion, but Hephaistion was among those who voiced the o p i n i o n that P h i l o t a s must have been g u i l t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n Dimnos' conspiracy (nee cetevi dubitabant, quin coniuvationis indicium suppressupus non fuisset nisi auctop aixt particeps: 6.8.10) and that he should be forced to r e v e a l the names of h i s co-conspira-t o r s under t o r t u r e (ornnes igitur quaestionem de eo, ut pavticipes scelepis indicave cogeretuv, hdbendam esse decevnunt: 6.8.15). There-a f t e r , Hephaistion comes to the fore . Once i t i s decided to take he was temporarily r e c o n c i l e d w i t h P h i l o t a s ) , though Curtius 6.7.35 was i n doubt about Alexander's true f e e l i n g s : haud facile dixerim credidevitne ei rex3 an altius iram suppvessevit. Nevertheless, i t i s c l e a r from 6.7 . I f f . that a lengthy denunciation of P h i l o t a s by the generals played no sma l l p a r t i n i n f l u e n c i n g Alexander's d e c i s i o n . P l u t . MOP.339F claims t h a t Alexander d i d not confide i n Hephaistion on the matter of P h i l o t a s ; t h i s i s s u r e l y i n c o r r e c t . See n.52 suppa. 58 a c t i o n a g a i n s t P h i l o t a s , H e p h a i s t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e . H i s name heads the l i s t o f those who came to A l e x a n d e r ' s t e n t d u r i n g the second watch on the n i g h t o f P h i l o t a s ' a r r e s t : cum paucis in regiam coeunt Hephaestion et Cvaterus et Coenus et Evigyius, hi ex amicis, ex armigevis autem Perdiccas et Leonnatus (6.8.17). In the a c t u a l Philotaspvozess , the t r i a l b e f o r e the army, H e p h a i s t i o n i s n o t mentioned; K o i n o s and Amyntas were outspoken, b o t h eager to r e p u d i a t e t h e i r t i e s w i t h P h i l o t a s . ^ There was a l s o A l e x a n d e r , won o v e r by P h i l o t a s ' enemies. H e p h a i s t i o n ' s i n -f l u e n c e , we may s u s p e c t , was on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l , and h i s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h the army cannot have been g r e a t . True to h i s n a t u r e , he r e -appears as the foremost o f P h i l o t a s ' t o r m e n t o r s . The Macedonians demanded t h a t P h i l o t a s be e x e c u t e d by s t o n i n g , but H e p h a i s t i o n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s p e r suaded t h a t he be t o r t u r e d f i r s t : Hephaestio autem et Craterus et Coenos tormentis veritatem exprimendam esse dixerunt (6.11.10). From C u r t i u s ' account (6.11.10-18) we g a i n a p i c t u r e o f the d e e p - r o o t e d enmity between P h i l o t a s and K r a t e r o s - the l a t t e r appears to have been a c t i v e l y campaigning a g a i n s t him s i n c e the d i s -a f f e c t i o n i n Egypt"* 0 -, but we a l s o see an u n f a v o u r a b l e s i d e o f K o i n o s was P h i l o t a s ' b r o t h e r - i n - l a w ( C u r t . 6.9.30; c f . A r r . 1.24.1; 1.29.4; D i t t e n b e r g e r , Syll. l 3 332; see f u r t h e r my I n t r o d u c t i o n , n . l l ) . Amyntas and h i s b r o t h e r s had been f r i e n d s of P h i l o t a s ( C u r t . 7.1.11); Amyntas h i m s e l f had been named by Dimnos as a c o n s p i r a t o r ( C u r t . 6 . 7 . 15; 11.38; see W. H e c k e l , "Amyntas, Son of Andromenes," GEBS 16 [1975] 393-398; B a d i a n , "The Death o f Parmenio," TAPA 91 [1960] 334, n.30); Polemon f l e d from the camp a f t e r P h i l o t a s ' a r r e s t ( A r r . 3.27.1-3; C u r t . 7 . 1 . 1 0 f f . ) . See a l s o G r a n i e r , Die makedonische Heeresversammtung 42-46; r e c e n t l y R. L o ck, "The Macedonian Army Assembly i n the Time o f A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t , " CP 72 (1977) 101-102. See Chapter 3: K r a t e r o s . 59 H e p h a i s t i o n ; t h i s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d to some e x t e n t by the te s t i m o n y o f P l u t a r c h (Alex. 4 9 . 1 2 ) , who r e f e r s t o P h i l o t a s ' tormentors as T O C S nepu T O V 'HcpaLaxCiova. In view o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s l a t e r d e a l i n g s w i t h r i v a l s , and o f h i s obvious g a i n from P h i l o t a s ' d o w n f a l l , we must assume t h a t he was a most f o r m i d a b l e opponent and no l e s s r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r P h i l o t a s ' demise than K r a t e r o s . One o f the b l a c k e s t c h a p t e r s i n the h i s t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r c l o s e d w i t h the e x e c u t i o n o f P h i l o t a s and, i n f e a r f u l h a s t e , the murder o f Parmenion. F o r H e p h a i s t i o n a new c h a p t e r i n h i s c a r e e r began w i t h h i s appointment as hippavoh of o n e - h a l f o f the Companions, a d i r e c t consequence o f h i s r o l e i n the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r . I l l A r r i a n r e l a t e s (3.27.4) t h a t , f o l l o w i n g the e x e c u t i o n o f P h i l o t a s , the command o f the Companion c a v a l r y was d i v i d e d between H e p h a i s t i o n and K l e i t o s the B l a c k , son o f D r o p i d e s , ^ 7 s i n c e A l e x a n d e r no l o n g e r thought i t wise t o e n t r u s t so i m p o r t a n t a command to any one p e r s o n . T h i s may inde e d have been the c a s e , b u t the appointment o f K l e i t o s had i t s p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y r e a s o n s . The p o p u l a r view t h a t the appointment o f K l e i t o s was a c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e to the e l e v a t i o n o f unp o p u l a r H e p h a i s t i o n i s e n t i r e l y a c c e p t a b l e ; f o r i t was n e c e s s a r y to p l a c a t e the " o l d - l i n e " Macedonians, who d i d n o t t l o o k f a v o u r a b l y See B e r v e 2.206-208, no. 427, s.V. KAeCxos; W. K r o l l , RE X I . 1 (1921) 666, s.V. " K l e i t o s ( 9 ) . " 60 upon the treatment o f Parmenion and h i s son. But the d u a l appointment made good m i l i t a r y , sense as w e l l . A l e x a n d e r r e -a l i s e d t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n , whose l o y a l t y c o u l d c e r t a i n l y n o t be c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , was not e q u a l to the t a s k of commanding the e n t i r e Companions; nor i s i t l i k e l y t h a t he would have f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t the army might r e s e n t t h i s appointment, which 59 was so o b v i o u s l y based on nepotism. How t h i s d i v i s i o n o f the c a v a l r y worked i n p r a c t i c e i s un-known, owing t o the l a m e n t a b l y vague n a t u r e of the e v i d e n c e . Of K l e i t o s ' a c t i v i t i e s as hipparoh, from h i s appointment t o the time 60 o f h i s d e a t h , we know n o t h i n g . At the time o f h i s d e a t h , K l e i t o s had been o f f e r e d the s a t r a p y o f B a k t r i a , but i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t A l e x a n d e r a p p o i n t e d him o r i g i n a l l y w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f r e p l a c i n g 61 him by means o f a f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n o f the c a v a l r y . The s o u r c e s are m i s l e a d i n g . Two y e a r s of w a r f a r e s e p a r a t e K l e i t o s ' promotion F o r the f o r m a t i o n o f the ataktoi, a d i s s i d e n t f a c t i o n t h a t d i s a p p r o v e d o f t h e treatment of Parmenion and P h i l o t a s , see D i o d . 17.80.4; J u s t i n 1 2 . 5 . 4 f f . ; C u r t . 7.2.35ff. C f . C u r t . 8.1.52; A r r . 4.14.2. See Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 363; Fox 311. The poem o f P r a n i c h o s ( B e r v e , no. 657), i f i t r e f e r s t o a h i s t o r i c a l i n c i d e n t (so H a m i l t o n , PA 141), such as the d e f e a t a t the P o l y t i m e t o s R i v e r ( A r r . 4.3.7; 4.5.2-6.2; C u r t . 7.6.24; 7 . 7 . 3 0 f f . ) , cannot mean t h a t K l e i t o s took p a r t i n the a f f a i r s a t Marakanda o r a t the P o l y -t i m e t o s , as i s s u g g e s t e d by J . B e n o i s t - M e c h i n , Alexander the Great: The Meeting of East and West, Mary I l f o r d t r . , New York, 1966, 81-82. See e s p e c i a l l y P.A. B r u n t , " A l e x a n d e r ' s Macedonian C a v a l r y , " JHS 83 (1963) 27-46; G.T. G r i f f i t h , "A Note on the H i p p a r c h i e s o f A l e x a n d e r , " JHS 83 (1963) 68-76; Berve 1.104-112; T a r n 2.154-167; c f . a l s o B e l o c h 3.2.322-352, XXXII "Das Heer A l e x a n d e r s . " 61 from h i s d e a t h , y e t t h e r e i s no mention o f h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the campaigns from 330 t o 328 B.C. Some s c h o l a r s a t t r i b u t e h i s absence t o a wound s u s t a i n e d i n b a t t l e o r t o i l l n e s s , though t h e r e 62 i s no h i n t o f t h i s i n the s o u r c e s . P o s s i b l y an e x p l a n a t i o n i s to be found i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the e x t a n t h i s t o r i e s o f A l e x a n d e r : the K l e i t o s - e p i s o d e i s r e l a t e d out of i t s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t b y , P l u t a r c h and A r r i a n i n o r d e r t h a t the t h r e e g r e a t c a t a s t r o p h e s ( P h i l o t a s , 6 3 K i e i t o s , K a l l i s t h e n e s ) may be r e c o r d e d i n a sequence. Perhaps t h i s format can be t r a c e d to the p r i m a r y s o u r c e s and, i f so, t h e s e s o u r c e s w i l l have begun to c o n c e i v e o f K l e i t o s as dead, hence o m i t t i n g him from t h e i r accounts of e v e n t s i n which he must c e r t a i n l y have taken p a r t . H e p h a i s t i o n ' s own r o l e a l s o r e q u i r e s an e x p l a n a t i o n . Never do we h e a r o f h i s commanding the h a l f o f the Companions t h a t had been a s s i g n e d t o him; i n f a c t , i n the y e a r 329, when the c a v a l r y was A l e x a n d e r ' s main s t r i k i n g f o r c e i n Sogdiana, A r r i a n makes no 64 mention of H e p h a i s t i o n , w h i l e C u r t i u s r e c o r d s o n l y t h a t he was one of the c o u n s e l l o r s who came to A l e x a n d e r ' s t e n t b e f o r e the 65 b a t t l e w i t h the S k y t h i a n s a t the I a x a r t e s R i v e r . D u r i n g t h i s y e a r i t appears t h a t the c a v a l r y was e i t h e r d i r e c t l y under A l e x a n d e r ' s command o r , j , a s s i n the case of the attempted r e l i e f o f Marakanda and 62 Suggested most r e c e n t l y by Fox 311. A p r e v i o u s i l l n e s s o f K l e i t o s was r e c o r d e d by A r r i a n (3.19.8). 63 Kornemann, Die Alexandevgeschichte 138, assumes t h a t " d i e V e r -k o p pelung der b e i d e n K a t a s t r o p h e n [i.e., K l e i t o s , K a l l i s t h e n e s ] i n der Umgebung A l e x a n d e r s e r s t von der V u l g a t a und i h r f o l g e n d von A r r i a n v o l l z o g e n worden i s t . " 6 4 Cf. Berve 2.171. 6 5 C u r t . 7.7.9. 62 the b a t t l e a t the P o l y t i m e t o s R i v e r , d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l de-tachments under minor commanders. What we l e a r n o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s l a t e r c a r e e r as a c a v a l r y -o f f i c e r c o n f i r m s our s u s p i c i o n s t h a t h i s promotion to hipparoh was owed more to h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h A l e x a n d e r than t o h i s 6 7 m i l i t a r y g e n i u s . I n the s p r i n g o f 328, A l e x a n d e r moved out o f h i s w i n t e r - q u a r t e r s i n B a k t r i a , r e - c r o s s e d the Oxos R i v e r and conducted a "sweep-campaign" a g a i n s t the r e b e l l i o u s S o g d i a n i . The f o r c e s were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p a r t s , w i t h H e p h a i s t i o n com-68 manding one c o n t i n g e n t . But the p r o j e c t appears t o have a c c o m p l i s h e d l i t t l e more than t o win back s e v e r a l s m a l l f o r t r e s s e s t o which the r e b e l l i o u s n a t i v e s had f l e d ; the most i m p o r t a n t a c t i o n 69 was f o u g h t , i n t h a t s e a s o n , by K r a t e r o s a g a i n s t the M a s s a g e t a i . A r r . 4.5.2-6.2; C u r t . 7.7.31ff., f o r a d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n . T h i s s h o u l d n o t l e a d us t o C. B r a d f o r d W e l l e s ' c o n c l u s i o n (Alexander and the Hellenistic World 40) t h a t A l e x a n d e r , f e a r i n g p o w e r f u l r i v a l s , s e n t " i n c o m p e t e n t s " a g a i n s t Spitamenes. F o r t h e f a l l a c y t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n commanded the somatophylakes, as Diod. 17.61.3 i m p l i e s , see Appendix 1. On the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the rank o f somatophylax (and s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s ) see Badi a n ' s n o t e , TAPA 91 (1960) 328, n.14. A r r . 4.16.2. The o t h e r c o n t i n g e n t s were commanded by P e r d i k k a s , Ptolemy and A l e x a n d e r , w h i l e K o i n o s and A r t a b a z o s h e l d a . j o i n t command; C u r t . 8.1.1 speaks of t h r e e d i v i s i o n s under A l e x a n d e r , H e p h a i s t i o n and K o i n o s ; C u r t . 8.1.10 says A r t a b a z o s accompanied H e p h a i s t i o n . A r r . speaks o f stratia, i m p l y i n g t h a t the e n t i r e f o r c e was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p a r t s , b u t a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the army (the infan t ry - taxe i s o f P o l y p e r c h o n , A t t a l o s , G o r g i a s , Meleagros and K r a t e r o s , who commanded them, A r r . 4.16.1; 17.1; C u r t . 8.1.6) were i n B a k t r i a . The main s t r i k i n g f o r c e i n Sogdiana was the c a v a l r y . K r a t e r o s a g a i n s t the M a s s a g e t a i : A r r . 4.16.2-3; C u r t . 8.1.6-7; A r r . 4.17.1. 63 When the columns r e u n i t e d a t Marakanda i n the summer o f 328, H e p h a i s t i o n ' s f u n c t i o n s began t o be adapted t o s u i t h i s t a l e n t s . There i s no r e a s o n t o suppose t h a t he had any e x t r a -o r d i n a r y a b i l i t i e s as a g e n e r a l ; h i s p r e v i o u s m i l i t a r y r e c o r d p r e c l u d e s t h i s , and h i s l a t e r r o l e as a " u t i l i t y - m a n " l e a d s t o the same c o n c l u s i o n . H i s f i r s t m i s s i o n i n Sogdiana was t o s y n -o e c i z e the l o c a l s e t t l e m e n t s , 7 ^ * an assignment t h a t was to guarantee the l o y a l t y o f the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n by means o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f g a r r i s o n s , w h i l e i t p r o v i d e d A l e x a n d e r w i t h a network o f communications i n the r e g i o n . The r e p e a t e d use t h a t A l e x a n d e r made o f H e p h a i s t i o n i n t h i s ( n o n - m i l i t a r y ) c a p a c i t y -perhaps t h e s e were a c t i v i t i e s t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n h i m s e l f e n j o y e d -becomes apparent from t h i s p o i n t onward. In f a c t , i t i s the f o u n d i n g o f c i t i e s , the b u i l d i n g o f b r i d g e s , and the s e c u r i n g of communications t h a t c o n s t i t u t e H e p h a i s t i o n ' s major c o n t r i b u t i o n to A l e x a n d e r ' s expedition. 7''" A p a r t from the synoecisms i n Sogdiana, l i t t l e e l s e i s known o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e the army moved i n t o I n d i a . C u r t i u s (8.2.13) t e l l s us t h a t he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c q u i r i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r the w i n t e r o f 328/7; t h i s t a s k C u r t i u s dates to t e n days a f t e r K l e i t o s ' murder. The remainder o f the campaign, A r r . 4.16.3. R.D. M i l n s l l l 2 c r e d i t s H e p h a i s t i o n w i t h b r i d g i n g the r i v e r ( i n two p l a c e s ) a t Thapsakos, which i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n view o f h i s l a t e r a c t i v i t i e s {.e.g., b r i d g i n g the Indus) but i s n o t documented, as f a r as I c a n n t e l l , by the a n c i e n t s o u r c e s . 64 which saw t h e death o f Spitamenes and the c a p t u r e o f the Rock o f 72 C h o r i e n e s , does n o t i n c l u d e another r e f e r e n c e t o H e p h a i s t i o n . When the e x p e d i t i o n s e t out f o r I n d i a a t the end of s p r i n g 327, H e p h a i s t i o n and P e r d i k k a s were se n t ahead w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l f o r c e to a c t as an advance guard, t o subdue the a r e a around 73 P e u k e l a o t i s , and to b u i l d a b o a t - b r i d g e on the Indus. Berve 74 poses the q u e s t i o n , who had the imperium maius i n t h i s v e n t u r e ? N o m i n a l l y , i t appears t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n had i t , f o r C u r t i u s ' account o f the d e a l i n g s w i t h Omphis, son o f T a x i l e s , makes no mention o f P e r d i k k a s , who must c e r t a i n l y have been p r e s e n t ; the d e t a i l s o f t h i s a r e n o t g i v e n by A r r i a n . 7 ^ I t appears, however, 72 There i s no mention o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s r o l e i n the m a r r i a g e o f A l e x a n d e r and Rhoxane, p a i n t e d by Action and d e s c r i b e d by L o u k i a n , Action 5; c f . n.23 supra. 73 74 75 A r r . 4.22.7-8; 23.1; 30395 j5'.'3-..S; C u r t . 8.10.2-3; 12.4, 15; Metz E p i t . 48. See V. Smith, EHI 53 and 63, who f o l l o w s the s u g g e s t i o n o f M. Foucher, Sur la Frontiere Indo-Afghane, P a r i s , 1901, 46, t h a t the c r o s s i n g took p l a c e a t Ohind o r Und, s i x -t e e n m i l e s n o r t h o f A t t o c k ( A t a k ) , which was f o r m e r l y thought to be the l o c a t i o n o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s b r i d g e . Berve 2.171; c f . 2.314, where Berve s u g g e s t s "das P. d i e F u s s -t r u p p e n , H e p h a i s t i o n d i e R e i t e r kommandierte." T h i s i s not con-v i n c i n g ; P e r d i k k a s no l o n g e r commanded pezhetairoi3 h i s taxis had been g i v e n t t o h i s b r o t h e r A l k e t a s (Berve 2.22, no. 45, s.V. 'AXuiiaz). P e r d i k k a s was h i m s e l f a hipparch and, i f one hipp-arehia was i n f e r i o r t o a n o t h e r (as was t h e case i n the l a s t y e a r s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n ; c f . A r r . 7.14.10; M o d . 18.3.4; App. Syr. 57; P l u t . Eum. 1.5), t h e n P e r d i k k a s was p o s s i b l y i n f e r i o r t o H e p h a i s t i o n i n t h i s v e n t u r e . C u r t i u s , who l a s t mentions P e r d i k k a s a t 8.10.2, l e a v e s him i n limbo, f a i l i n g t o mention him i n connexion w i t h Omphis ( C u r t . 8.12.6; c f . Metz E p i t . 48: magnumque comrneatum ab Hephaestione oompara[tum in] venit [ s c . Alexander]; C u r t . 8.12.15). For Omphis (Metz E p i t . 49 has Mophis) see Berve 2.369-371, no. 739, s.v. Ta^LAns. Berve i s n o t p r o p e r l y c r o s s - i n d e x e d , thus n e i t h e r Omphis o r Mophis appears i n t h e a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g . He ' i s : I n " f a c t the I n d i a n Ambhi, c f . V. Smith, EHI 6 3 f f . 65 P e r d i k k a s ' p r e s e n c e i n t h i s , H e p h a i s t i o n ' s f i r s t major i n -dependent command, can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the need f o r a com-p e t e n t m i l i t a r y man, and t o t h e i r apparent c o m p a t i b i l i t y . In the l a t e s t a g e s o f the campaigns, b o t h H e p h a i s t i o n and P e r d i k k a s had d e v e l o p e d s t r o n g p e r s o n a l t i e s w i t h A l e x a n d e r , and i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t P e r d i k k a s r e p l a c e d the dead H e p h a i s t i o n as A l e x a n d e r ' s most t r u s t e d g e n e r a l and f r i e n d ; f o r the two seem t o have been s y m p a t h e t i c toward A l e x a n d e r ' s Versohmelzungspolitik. 7^ T o g e t h e r w i t h P e r d i k k a s , H e p h a i s t i o n advanced to the Indus a l o n g the K a b u l R i v e r - v a l l e y , subduing some n a t i v e s who r e s i s t e d b u t w i n n i n g the m a j o r i t y o v e r by n e g o t i a t i o n and show o f f o r c e . At P e u k e l a o t i s , however, they found the l o c a l r u l e r , A s t e s , un-w i l l i n g t o submit, and o n l y a f t e r thirty*.'days o f s i e g e d i d they take the c i t y ; A s t e s h i m s e l f was k i l l e d . 7 7 By the time t h a t A l e x a n d e r r e a c h e d the Indus, H e p h a i s t i o n had b u i l t the b o a t -b r i d g e and a c q u i r e d p r o v i s i o n s , c h i e f l y from Omphis ( T a x i l e s ) , 78 f o r the b u l k o f the army. 76 See "Chapter 4: P e r d i k k a s . " F o r h i s c h a r a c t e r see F. M i l t n e r , " D i e s t a a t s r e c h l f L c h e E n t w i c k l u n g des A l e x a n d e r r e i c h e s , " Klio 26 (1933) 52; Schachermeyr, Alexander in Babylon 16. 7 7 A r r . 4.22.8; c f . Berve 2.89-90, no. 174, s.v. "Aaxns. Cf. B. B r e l o e r , Alexanders Bund mit Poros: Indien von Dareios zu Sandrokottos3 L e i p z i g , 1941, 108-110. 78 A r r . 5.3.5; C u r t . 8.10.2-3; 1 2 . 4 j 6, 15; Metz E p i t . 48; F u l l e r , Generalship 126-127; B r e l o e r , Alexanders Kampf gegen Poros (Ein Beitrag zur indisohen Geschiohte)3 Bonnerorientalistische Studien, H e f t 3, S t u t t g a r t , 1933, 22. 66 I n the b a t t l e w i t h P o r o s , H e p h a i s t i o n and P e r d i k k a s b o t h commanded c a v a l r y and were d i r e c t l y under A l e x a n d e r ' s c o n t r o l 79 on the l e f t wing; more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g . H i s next m i s s i o n , a g a i n s t the r e b e l l i o u s c o u s i n o f the r e c e n t l y d e f e a t e d k i n g , the "bad P o r o s " (nfepos 6 xawds), was conducted i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h another hipparoh, D e m e t r i o s . 8 ^ I n I n d i a , as i n B a k t r i a - S o g d i a n a , H e p h a i s t i o n ' s d u t i e s con-t i n u e d t o be p r i m a r i l y n o n - m i l i t a r y . T o g e t h e r w i t h P e r d i k k a s 81 he had founded the c i t y o f O r o b a t i s en route to the Indus (which he b r i d g e d ) , and ga t h e r e d p r o v i s i o n s from Omphis. A f t e r s u b j u g a t i n g t h e "bad P o r o s , " he s y n o e c i z e d a c i t y between the 82 Hydraotes and Ak e s i n e s R i v e r s ; l a t e r he founded s e t t l e m e n t s 83 at P a t t a l a and i n the l a n d o f the O r e i t a i . The l a t t e r , named 79 A r r . 5.12.2; C u r t . 8.14.15. F o r the b a t t l e i n g e n e r a l see R. S c h u b e r t , " Die P o r u s - S c h l a c h t , " Eh.' Mus. 56 (1901) 543-562; G. V e i t h , "Der K a v a l l e r i e k a m p f i n d e r S c h l a c h t am Hydaspes," Klio 8 (1908) 131-153; Tarn 2.190-198; H a m i l t o n , "The C a v a l r y B a t t l e a t the Hydaspes," JHS 76 (1956) 26-31.- See a l s o B r e l o e r , Kampf gegen Poros (n.78 supra) 51; F u l l e r , Generalship 180-199; esp. 186-187. 8 0 A r r . 5.21.5; Diod. 17.91.2; see Berve 2.134, 345, nos. 256, 684, s.w. AriyrfTpuos, n&pos. The i n c i d e n t i s r e f e r r e d t o b r i e f l y by B r e l o e r , Bund mit Poros (n.77 supra) 125, n.2. 8 1 A r r . 4.28.5. op A r r . 5.29.3. A r r . 6.21.5. 67 A l e x a n d r e i a , may i n f a c t have been the synoecism of Rhambakia, 84 which Leonnatos completed. In 326 Hephaistion came to the f o r e . The army had mutinied at the Hyphasis, no longer w i l l i n g to proceed ever eastward. Alexander may have f e l t that Koinos, the spokesman f o r the war-85 weary troops, had betrayed him. Koinos soon died of i l l n e s s , but Alexander, r e t r a c i n g h i s steps only grudgingly came to r e l y 86 more h e a v i l y on h i s bosom-friend, Hephaistion. On h i s r e t u r n to the Hydaspes he found the c i t y that Hephaistion had synoecized on the western banks of the Akesines, though Hephaistion had com-p l e t e d the task and r e j o i n e d Alexander before the mutiny at the 87 Hyphasis. From t h i s settlement the army returned t o the Hydaspes, where Hephaistion i s next named i n Nearchos' l i s t of trierarchoi, the men res p o n s i b l e f o r meeting the expenses of 88 Alexander's I n d u s - f l e e t . C e r t a i n l y he d i d not command a ship h i m s e l f , f o r , as the army began i t s descent of the Indus R i v e r -84 See '^Chapter 2: Leonnatos' ; a l s o Hamilton, "Alexander among the O r e i t a e , " Historia 21 (1972) 603-608. 85 For Koinos' speech: A r r . 5.27.2-9; Curt. 9.2.20; Alexander's r e a c t i o n , A r r . 5.28.1. 86 Koinos' death: A r r . 6.2.1; Curt. 9.2.20. Badian i s s u s p i c i o u s of h i s sudden death: JHS 81 (1961) 22; Studies in Greek and Roman History, Oxford, 1964, 200. E.D. Carney, Macedonian Aristocracy, b e l i e v e s that Alexander now came to regard Krateros as " p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous" (216) and that "he d i d not f e a r [Hephai-s t i o n ] as he d i d K r a t e r o s " (220) ; but see my d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p below. 87 Diod. 17.93.1; Curt. 9.1.35. Q Q Nearchos, FGrHist 133 F l = A r r . Ind. 18.3. 68 system, w i t h A l e x a n d e r s a i l i n g w i t h the f l e e t , t h e main f o r c e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : H e p h a i s t i o n , w i t h the l a r g e r p o r -t i o n o f the army and two hundred e l e p h a n t s , marched down the e a s t e r n bank, w h i l e K r a t e r o s w i t h the s m a l l e r f o r c e descended 89 on the west. I t was A l e x a n d e r ' s custom t o d i v i d e h i s f o r c e s whenever p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o s u b j u g a t e enemy t e r r i t o r y more e f f e c t i v e l y , b u t t h i s s e p a r a t i o n o f H e p h a i s t i o n and K r a t e r o s had i t s p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . There had l o n g been r i v a l r i e s among A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a r e s t f r i e n d s , e s p e c i a l l y between K r a t e r o s and H e p h a i s t i o n , and t h e s e f r i c t i o n s e r u p t e d i n t o open hand-to-hand 90 combat at some p o i n t i n the I n d i a n campaign. Now i t had ceased to be a p e r s o n a l a f f a i r , f o r the s u p p o r t e r s o f each man were on the verge o f coming t o blows. I t seemed t h a t the o n l y way t o ease the s i t u a t i o n was to keep the two commanders a p a r t as much as p o s s i b l e . The Indus p r o v e d u s e f u l . The r i v a l s were g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o p r o c e e d downstream, each on h i s s i d e o f the r i v e r , and to await the f l e e t , which would j o i n them t h r e e days' s a i l from the p o i n t 91 o f d e p a r t u r e . Two days a f t e r A l e x a n d e r ' s a r r i v a l a t the p r e -d e s t i n e d l o c a t i o n , H e p h a i s t i o n c o n t i n u e d s o u t h toward the j u n c t i o n o f the Hydaspes and A k e s i n e s , toward the t e r r i t o r y o f the p e o p l e s 92 a l l i e d t o the M a l l o i , who had p r e p a r e d t o r e s i s t the i n v a d e r . QQ A r r . 6.2.2; A r r . Ind. 19.1-3; D i o d . 17.96.1. 9 0 P l u t . Alex. 47.11-12; c f . Diod. 17.114.1-2. 9 1 A r r . Ind. 19.3; A r r . 6.4.1; c f . R.D. M i l n s . 2 2 7 . 9 2 A r r . 6.4.1. 69 By the time H e p h a i s t i o n a r r i v e d , he found t h a t A l e x a n d e r (who had s a i l e d ahead) had subdued the t r i b e s o f t h a t r e g i o n and was p r e p a r i n g t o march d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t the M a l l o i ; these l i v e d between the H y d r a o t e s and A k e s i n e s R i v e r s . In o r d e r to d e a l w i t h the M a l l o i , A l e x a n d e r d e v i s e d the f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g y . F i r s t the s l o w e r t r o o p s , the i n f a n t r y -taxis of P o l y p e r c h o n and the e l e p h a n t s , were t r a n s f e r r e d t o the w e s t e r n bank and p l a c e d under K r a t e r o s ' command, as were the hippotoxotai and the f o r c e w i t h which P h i l i p p o s (the b r o t h e r o f H a r p a l o s , the T r e a s u r e r ) had f o l l o w e d the course o f the A k e s i n e s 93 R i v e r . H e p h a i s t i o n and the t r o o p s t h a t remained w i t h him were t o march f i v e days i n advance toward the c o n f l u e n c e o f the Ake-s i n e s and H y d r a o t e s . Nearchos was to s a i l down the A k e s i n e s w i t h the f l e e t , and Ptolemy was to f o l l o w H e p h a i s t i o n ' s r o u t e a f t e r a d e l a y o f t h r e e days. A l e x a n d e r meanwhile c r o s s e d the d e s e r t r e g i o n between the r i v e r s w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f t a k i n g the M a l l o i o f f guard. He hoped t h a t those o f the M a l l o i who escaped southward would be d r i v e n i n t o the arms o f H e p h a i s t i o n , w h i l e Ptolemy would 94 l i e i n w a i t f o r those who attempted t o escape to the west. The e l a b o r a t e s t r a t e g y p r o v e d u n n e c e s s a r y , f o r A l e x a n d e r took t h e M a l l o i 93 A r r . 6.5.5. A good d i s c u s s i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t t h e M a l l o i i s g i v e n by B r e l o e r , Bund mit Poros (n.77 supra) 29-56; F u l l e r , Generalship 259-263; V. S m i t h , EHI 9 4 f f . 94 A r r . 6.5.6. 70 c o m p l e t e l y by s u r p r i s e . They had n o t e x p e c t e d t h a t the enemy would a r r i v e from the west, through the w a t e r l e s s r e g i o n . Thoseuwho r e t r e a t e d t o t h e i r c h i e f c i t y , where A l e x a n d e r was c r i t i c a l l y wounded, were s l a u g h t e r e d , w h i l e those o f a n o t h e r town, i f they d i d not f i n d r e f u g e i n the 95 marshes, were b u t c h e r e d by the f o r c e s o f P e r d i k k a s . The army c o n t i n u e d southward, both H e p h a i s t i o n and K r a t e r o s now o c c u p y i n g the e a s t e r n bank, s i n c e the t e r r a i n 96 on the w e s t e r n s i d e p r o v e d too d i f f i c u l t f o r K r a t e r o s ' t r o o p s . But b e f o r e the army re a c h e d P a t t a l a news came o f u n r e s t i n the west. Thus K r a t e r o s was despatched w i t h the e l e p h a n t s , such Macedonians as were u n f i t f o r s e r v i c e (airduaxoi,) and the taxeis o f A t t a l o s , Meleagros and A n t i g e n e s , h a v i n g been g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o p o l i c e the r e g i o n s o f A r a c h o s i a , D r a n g i a n a and f i n a l l y Karmania, 97 where he was to r e j o i n A l e x a n d e r . F o r H e p h a i s t i o n i t must have been welcome news t h a t K r a t e r o s , h i s most p o w e r f u l r i v a l , had been s e n t t o the west; f o r he now became, u n d i s p u t e d l y , A l e x a n d e r ' s s e cond-in-command. At P a t t a l a A l e x a n d e r made good use o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s k i l l s , i n s t r u c t i n g h im to f o r t i f y the p l a c e w h i l e he h i m s e l f s a i l e d 98 t o the mouth o f the Indus v i a the west arm o f the r i v e r . On h i s A r r . 6.6.6. A r r . 6.15.4. A r r . 6.17.3; on the e r r o r a t 6.15.5 see Bosworth, " E r r o r s i n A r r i a n , " CQ n.'s. 26 (1976) 1 2 7 f f . A r r . 6.18.1. 71 r e t u r n , he found the t a s k completed and he a s s i g n e d to H e p h a i s t i o n the work of f o r t i f y i n g the h a r b o u r and b u i l d i n g the dockyards at the c i t y , w h i l e he h i m s e l f s a i l e d t o the 99 Ocean a l o n g the e a s t e r n arm o f the Indus. H e p h a i s t i o n appears t o have completed t h i s work by the time o f A l e x a n d e r ' s r e t u r n , a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t P a t t a l a h a r b o u r , which be-came the base f o r Nearchos' O c e a n - f l e e t , was s e t t i n f i n a l o r d e r by Nearchos h i m s e l f . H e p h a i s t i o n , however, accompanied A l e x a n d e r to the west. At the A r a b i o s R i v e r , A l e x a n d e r l e f t him b e h i n d w i t h the main f o r c e , w h i l e he, Leonnatos and Ptolemy ravaged the l a n d o f the O r e i t a i i n t h r e e columns."^"'" H e p h a i s t i o n , i t a p p e a r s , had been i n s t r u c t e d t o l e a d h i s f o r c e s t o the b o r d e r s o f the O r e i t a i , where 102 a l l the c o n t i n g e n t s r e u n i t e d . In the l a n d o f the O r e i t a i , H e p h a i s t i o n made p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the synoecism of Rhambakia, w h i l e A l e x a n d e r a t t e n d e d t o m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s on the f r o n t i e r s o f G e d r o s i a . But H e p h a i s t i o n was soon r e p l a c e d by Leonnatos and s e n t to j o i n A l e x a n d e r , who now p r e p a r e d to take the army thr o u g h 103 t h e G e d r o s i a n d e s e r t . Leonnatos remained b e h i n d , f o r a t i m e , w i t h the s a t r a p A p o l l o p h a n e s , i n o r d e r to s e t t l e a f f a i r s among the O r e i t a i , complete the s y n o e c i s m of Rhambakia, and p r e p a r e f o r the needs o f Nearchos, who would be s t o p p i n g t h e r e en route 99 A r r . 6.20.1. 1 0 0 Ibid. 1 0 1 Arr.. 6.21.3; C u r t . 9.10.6. 102' " " , A r r . 6.21.5. 1 0 3 A r r . ; 6.22.3. 72 to the P e r s i a n Gulf."'"""' Of H e p h a i s t i o n ' s p a r t i n the G e d r o s i a n e x p e d i t i o n we know n o t h i n g , e x c e p t t h a t he accompanied A l e x a n d e r . A f t e r the o r d e a l and a r e s t i n Karmania, H e p h a i s t i o n l e d t h e s l o w e r t r o o p s and the b a g g a g e - t r a i n s i n t o P e r s i a a l o n g t h e c c o a s t a l r o u t e (itapa SdAaaaav). A l e x a n d e r took the l i g h t e r t r o o p s through the mountains t o P e r s e -p o l i s and t h r o u g h the P e r s i a n Gates; H e p h a i s t i o n must have f o l l o w e d , f o r the l a s t p o r t i o n o f h i s march, the waggon-road (aya£L,T6*s) t h a t b y -passed the G a t e s , which Parmenion had used i n the w i n t e r o f 331/0, when he l e d a s i m i l a r f o r c e . On the road to Sousa, the f o r c e s were r e u n i t e d . And i t was a t Sousa t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n reached the p i n n a c l e o f h i s c a r e e r . I V From h i s r o l e i n the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r , we g a i n a p i c t u r e o f H e p h a i s t i o n as an u n p l e a s a n t , j e a l o u s i n d i v i d u a l . " ^ 0 Perhaps en-couraged by h i s s u c c e s s a g a i n s t the r i v a l P h i l o t a s , H e p h a i s t i o n A r r . 6.22.3; Ind. 23.5-8; C u r t . 9.10.7; Diod. 17.104.5-6; 105.8; P l i n y , NH 6.97; c f . Chapter 2: Leonnatos''; c f . H a m i l t o n , " A l e x a n d e r among the O r e i t a e , " Historia 21 (1972) 603-608. A r r . 6.28.7; f o r Parmenion's r o u t e around the P e r s i a n Gates A r r . 3.18.1; C u r t . 5.3.16. E.D. Carney, Macedonian Aristocracy 221: "One forms a p i c t u r e o f A l e x a n d e r ' s c l o s e s t f r i e n d which i s n o t a t t r a c t i v e . Y e t i t i s easy to see why such a man would be b o t h u s e f u l and a t t r a c t i v e to A l e x a n d e r : he was a t t r a c t i v e t o no one e l s e , and t h e r e f o r e to A l e x a n d e r a l o n e . " 73 c o n t i n u e d t o be at odds w i t h l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n A l e x a n d e r ' s e n t o u r a g e : K a l l i s t h e n e s , Eumenes, K r a t e r o s . Toward the end o f h i s c a r e e r , as we have seen, t h e r e was c o n f l i c t between H e p h a i s t i o n and K r a t e r o s , who was e q u a l l y a m b i t i o u s but more c a p a b l e . Y e t K r a t e r o s ' m e t e o r i c r i s e was somewhat r e t a r d e d , r e a c h i n g a p l a t e a u i n I n d i a , when H e p h a i s t i o n became a power-f u l and dangerous r i v a l . There had been f r i c t i o n , and A l e x a n d e r appears to have k e p t them a p a r t d e l i b e r a t e l y . But, w h i l e the K i n g p r o f e s s e d t o l o v e them b o t h dearly,"*"^ 7 some of the blame f o r K r a t e r o s ' l e s s - t h a n - s p e c t a c u l a r c a r e e r a f t e r 326 must be a t t a c h e d t o H e p h a i s t i o n ' s i n f l u e n c e and t o A l e x a n d e r ' s w i l l i n g -108 ness t o promote the l a t t e r ' s i n t e r e s t s . H e p h a i s t i o n ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s r e v e a l t h a t he was 109 q u a r r e l s o m e , d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c o m p a t i b l e . We do n o t know the e x a c t n a t u r e o f h i s q u a r r e l w i t h K a l l i s t h e n e s , o r why he m a l i g n e d him. Perhaps K a l l i s t h e n e s ' way o f l i f e d i d not a p p e a l to H e p h a i s t i o n , 110 ^ 7 F o r A l e x a n d e r ' s d e v o t i o n t o H e p h a i s t i o n : C u r t . 3.12.15; P l u t . Alex. 47.9-10; Diod. 17.114.1-3; c f . A r r . 1.12.1; A i l i a n , VR 12.7; L o u k i a n , dial. movt. 12.4 (397). K r a t e r o s : cams in paucis. C u r t . 6.8.2; ovxuva L O O V xfj eauxou xecpaAfJ ayeu, A r r . 7.12.3; c f . P l u t . Alex. 47.9-10; Mor. 181D; Diod. 17.114.1-2. 108 Carney, Mddedonian Aristocracy, s u s p e c t s A l e x a n d e r ' s m o t i v e s : " . . . A l e x a n d e r was c a r e f u l t o b a l a n c e the d u t i e s and honours o f K r a t e r o s w i t h those o f o t h e r top men, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h H e p h a i s t i o n " (214). " A l e x a n d e r c a r e f u l l y m o n i t o r e d h i s a c t i v i t i e s and c o n s c i o u s l y p l a y e d him o f f a g a i n s t o t h e r s . K r a t e r o s was p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous... and had t o be watched c l o s e l y " (216). Carney, n.106 supra. ^ ® A r r . 4.10; P l u t . Alex. 53. H e p h a i s t i o n s h a r e d many o f the s e n t i m e n t s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s f l a t t e r e r s , who c o n t r i b u t e d to K a l l i s t h e n e s ' r u i n . 74 who showed an e n t h u s i a s t i c preference f o r Alexander's o r i e n t a l i s m s and was h i m s e l f given to the same immoderation that at times a f f l i c t e d the King."'"'''"'' P l u t a r c h t e l l s us that Hephaistion was sympathetic to Alexander's Verschmelzungspolitik - which Alexander, no doubt, ex-pl a i n e d to him and won h i s support f o r - and that he was used by 112 Alexander i n h i s dealings w i t h the P e r s i a n s . Perhaps t h i s a t t i t u d e toward the o r i e n t a l s earned him the d i s f a v o u r of both Macedonians and Greeks, though h i s r i s e to power through Alexander's f a v o u r i t i s m was a major cause of h o s t i l i t y ; there w i l l have been a number of h i s contemporaries who encouraged rumours that Hephaistion 113 was Alexander's minion. Perhaps he organised the unpopular 11A proskynesis-affair, as modern s c h o l a r s h i p l i k e s to assume, though Chares of M y t i l e n e , whom Schachermeyr regards as Alexander's "Chef der K a n z l e i , " would be a more s u i t a b l e candidate f o r such work."'""''"' At any r a t e , K a l l i s t h e n e s had promised Hephaistion that 111 112 Cf. Ephippos of Olynthos and h i s work Tispt x f j s 'AAe£:av6pou «au ' HcpaLaxu'wvos T E A e u x f i s (or Tacpfis), FGrHist 126, which doubtless exaggerated t h e i r v i c e s . P l u t . Alex. 47.9-10. A i l i a n , VH 12.7; J u s t i n 12.12.11; Loukian, dial. movt. 12.4 (397); Diod. 17.114.3; c f . Tarn 2.319-326, Appendix 18: "Alexander's A t t i t u d e to Sex," esp. 321. Droysen, Hellenismus 1.312; Berve 2.171; Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 383; Hamilton, Alexander the Great 105; PA 153; Wilcken 169; Welles, Alexander and the Hellenistic World 41; Green 375-376. Schachermeyr, Alexander in Babylon 17-18; 34. 75 he would p e r f o r m pToskynesis - o r so, a t l e a s t , the l a t t e r c l a i m e d -but went back on h i s word. H e p h a i s t i o n wasted no time i n m a l i g n i n g K a l l i s t h e n e s , once the sycophant, D e m e t r i o s , son o f Pythonax, had brought K a l l i s t h e n e s ' d e f i a n c e t o A l e x a n d e r ' s attention."''"'" 0 We cannot say t o what e x t e n t he c a r r i e d h i s h o s t i l i t y , b u t he w i l l s c a r c e l y have done a n y t h i n g t o enhance K a l l i s t h e n e s ' a l r e a d y de-c l i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y . K a l l i s t h e n e s , however, made l i t t l e o r no e f f o r t t o redeem h i m s e l f . The accounts o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s q u a r r e l s w i t h Eumenes are l o s t from the m a n u s c r i p t s of A r r i a n and Curtius."''"'"7 P l u t a r c h , i n h i s Life of Eumenes, speaks o f two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s on which t h e y d i s a g r e e d . The f i r s t i n s t a n c e i n v o l v e d the a l l o t m e n t o f l i v i n g -q u a r t e r s : H e p h a i s t i o n gave the q u a r t e r s p r e v i o u s l y a s s i g n e d to 118 Eumenes t o the f l u t e - p l a y e r E u i o s . T h i s was c l e a r l y an a r r o g a n t g e s t u r e on H e p h a i s t i o n ' s p a r t and an a f f r o n t t o the Greek Eumenes, a man of no mean s t a t i o n . T h i s i n c i d e n t i s presumably one t h a t i s l o s t from A r r i a n ' s m a n u s c r i p t , f o r i t took p l a c e a t Ekbatana, p r e -119 c i s e l y the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n which the lacuna o c c u r s . The 116 P l u t . Alex. 55.1. F o r D e m e t r i o s , son o f Pythonax, see A r r . 4.12.5; see a l s o Berve 2.134-135, no. 258, s.v. Anyilxpuos. See H a m i l t o n , PA 153. A r r . 7.12.7 breaks o f f w i t h the q u a r r e l s o f A n t i p a t r o s and Olympias, and resumes w i t h the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f H e p h a i s t i o n and Eumenes (TOUTIJ) T(J5 AO'Y4> uTtoTtTtflCavTa ' Hcpauaxuajva avvaXXayf\vab EuyeveC, oux e x d v x a ex6*VT the a c t u a l q u a r r e l i t s e l f i s l o s t . C u r t . 10.4.3 breaks o f f a t Opis and resumes w i t h t t h e account o f A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a t h , 1 0 . 5 . I f f . 118 n P l u t . Eum. 2.1; c f . Berve 2.155-156, no. 315, s.V. Eucos. E u i o s was h i m s e l f a s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e , f o r he q u a r r e l l e d w i t h Kassandros over the boy Python (Berve 2.339, no. 678, s.V. IIu^wv), so P l u t . MOT. 180F. 119 See n.117 supra. 76 second q u a r r e l , again the r e s u l t of a r e l a t i v e l y minor i s s u e , i n v o l v e d a g i f t or a p r i z e (itepu Supeas T L V O S ) ; P l u t a r c h does 120 not give the d e t a i l s . The qu a r r e l s evoked Alexander's anger, f i r s t against Hephaistion (who appears to have i n s t i g a t e d them) and l a t e r against Eumenes, and i t appears that ever s i n c e the f i r s t i n c i d e n t the two were at odds w i t h one another; f o r the cause of the enmity must be sought i n the s t r u g g l e f o r power w i t h -i n the army, and i n the unpleasant nature of Hephaistion. F o r t u n a t e l y f o r Eumenes, the animosity and Hephaistion were s h o r t - l i v e d ; never-t h e l e s s , Eumenes was c a r e f u l to avert any s u s p i c i o n that he favoured Hephaistion's death by proposing t h a t honours be granted to him posthumously. Most r e v e a l i n g , however, are the accounts of Hephaistion's stormy r e l a t i o n s w i t h K r a t e r o s . The two had worked together against P h i l o t a s , a common enemy; nowmambition f o r power and Alexander's favour l e d i n e v i t a b l y to je a l o u s r i v a l r y . In the e a r l y stages of the campaign there had been l e s s c o n f l i c t : Krateros had been s t e a d i l y 122 p r o v i n g h i m s e l f the most l i k e l y man to replace Parmenion, Hephaistion was b u s i l y i n g r a t i a t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h Alexander. Both were dear to the K i n g , and he used them according to t h e i r a b i l i t i e s : Krateros f o r im-portant m i l i t a r y assignments and f o r dealings w i t h Greeks and Macedonians P l u t . Eton. 2.4. Cf. V e z i n , Eumenes i3on Kardia 16-17; Berve 2.156-158, no. 317, s.v. Euydvns; K a e r s t , RE VI 1083-1084; f o r h i s l a t e r career see H.D. Westlake, "Eumenes of Cardia," Essays on the Greek Historians and Greek History, New York, 1969, 313-330. 1 A r r . 7.14.9; c f . Diod. 17.115.1. See Chapter 3: Krateros. 77 ( f o r he was v e r y " t r a d i t i o n a l " i n h i s t h i n k i n g ) , H e p h a i s t i o n f o r o r g a n i s a t i o n a l work, b o t h i n conquered t e r r i t o r y and a t the Court. But, as H e p h a i s t i o n 1 s a s p i r a t i o n s extended t o h i g h e r commands i n the army, j e a l o u s y e r u p t e d i n t o open hand-to-hand f i g h t i n g , w i t h 123 the s u p p o r t e r s of each ready to j o i n i n the f r a y . Undoubtedly t h i s a c counts f o r the f a c t t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n and K r a t e r o s were s e l -dom i n the same camp t o g e t h e r ( f o r any l e n g t h of time) a f t e r 326. The i n c i d e n t i n I n d i a , where H e p h a i s t i o n and K r a t e r o s came to blows, i s i n s t r u c t i v e . We a r e t o l d t h a t A l e x a n d e r rode up and o p e n l y r e p r o a c h e d H e p h a i s t i o n , c a l l i n g him a madman i f he d i d not know t h a t " w i t h o u t A l e x a n d e r he would be n o t h i n g . " T h i s was n o t the case w i t h K r a t e r o s , whom A l e x a n d e r c h i d e d i n p r i v a t e ; f o r K r a t e r o s was n o t one to be d i s h o n o u r e d b e f o r e h i s own t r o o p s , and b e f o r e the Hetairoi. A l e x a n d e r r e c o g n i s e d the v a l u e o f K r a t e r o s to the K i n g and t o the army, and, undoubtedly, he was p a i n e d by the f r i c t i o n between K r a t e r o s and H e p h a i s t i o n . H i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e l a t t e r , on the o t h e r hand, was a much more p e r s o n a l one; r u f f l e d f e a t h e r s c o u l d be smoothed ov e r i n p r i v a t e . And p r o b a b l y he under-s t o o d t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n ' s n a t u r e was l a r g e l y t o blame. Novtwo i n -d i v i d u a l s a r e more a p t l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d than a r e H e p h a i s t i o n and * 125 K r a t e r o s by the e p i t h e t s cpuXaXe^avSpos and cpuXoSaaLXeu's. 1 2 3 P l u t . Alex. 47.11. 124 P l u t . Alex. 47.11: 'AX££av6pos eXouSo'peu TOV 'Hcpauaxuova cpavepus, eyTiAriHTOv. HotAffiv not yauvd'uevov, e t u f j auvunauv ti)s, edv TLS aurou TOV 'AA££av6pov acpe'Xnrau, yr|6^v e a r t v . 125 P l u t . Alex. 47.9-10; Mov. 181D; Diod. 17.114.2. 78 In view o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s r i v a l r y w i t h K r a t e r o s and the p r e v i o u s d o w n f a l l s o f P h i l o t a s and K a l l i s t h e n e s , the somewhat u n s p e c t a c u l a r l a s t y e a r s o f K r a t e r o s under A l e x a n d e r s u g g e s t t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n ' s i n f l u e n c e w i t h A l e x a n d e r had a g a i n been a t work. We cannot say what would have happened had K r a t e r o s a c t u a l l y become Regent o f Macedonia i n A n t i p a t r o s ' p l a c e . But, f o r H e p h a i s t i o n i n A s i a , the base o f A l e x a n d e r ' s i n t e g r a t e d empire, K r a t e r o s ' d e p a r t u r e f o r Europe l e f t him w i t h o u t a s e r i o u s 126 r i v a l as A l e x a n d e r ' s d e a r e s t f r i e n d and foremost g e n e r a l . V Sousa i n the s p r i n g o f 324 saw n o t o n l y the c l e a r e s t mani-f e s t a t i o n o f A l e x a n d e r ' s Vevsohmetzungspoti-ti-k i n the mass-marriages between the I r a n i a n and Macedonian n o b i l i t i e s , b u t a l s o the c u l -m i n a t i o n o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s u n u s u a l c a r e e r . A l r e a d y he had become t h e army's most im p o r t a n t o f f i c e r , f o r he commanded the f i r s t 127 chiUarchia o f the Companions. Very soon he would be crowned f o r h i s e x p l o i t s on the campaign, a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r members o f 12 8 t h e S t a f f (the somatophylakes). But now he r e c e i v e d , a t the mass-marriages, what must be r e g a r d e d as the g r e a t e s t honour o f h i s c a r e e r , no l e s s than a s h a r e i n the empire. 126 F o r K r a t e r o s ' d e p a r t u r e see A r r . 7.12.3-4; c f . Chapter 3: K r a t e r o s . The a m b i t i o u s and somewhat u n s c r u p u l o u s P e r d i k k a s , however, l u r k e d i n the shadows. 127 See Appendix 2. A r r , 7.14.10. A r r . 7.5.6. 79 F o r A l e x a n d e r the m a r r i a g e t o Rhoxane, i n s p i t e o f the s t r o n g r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n t h a t i t h a d been a love-match, had been the f i r s t experiment i n p o l i t i c a l m a r r i a g e ; P h i l i p I I had e x p l o i t e d p o l i t i c a l m a r r i a g e s t o t h e i r f u l l e s t , and now A l e x a n d e r s e c u r e d t h e g o o d w i l l o f t h e s t u b b o r n S o g d i a n i by 129 m a r r y i n g one o f t h e i r r a c e . In 324, f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d on the throne o f the Great K i n g , A l e x a n d e r sought t o l e g i t i m i s e h i s own p o s i t i o n by m a r r y i n g t h e Achaimenid S t a t e i r a , d a u g h t e r 130 o f D a r e i o s I I I . To K r a t e r o s he gave A m a s t r i s , daughter o f A l e x a n d e r had g i v e n h i s f i r s t t h oughts to p o l i t i c a l m a r r i a g e i n 337, a t the time of the i l l - a d v i s e d communications w i t h P i x o d a r o s ( P l u t . Alex. 10). At the I a x a r t e s R i v e r , some two y e a r s b e f o r e h i s m a r r i a g e to Rhoxane, he r e j e c t e d a u n i o n w i t h the daughter o f the S k y t h i a n k i n g .(Arr. 4.15.1-5). For th e m a r r i a g e t o Rhoxane see A r r . 4.19.4-20.4; P l u t . Alex. 47.7; Mor. 332E, 338D; C u r t . 8.4.21-30; Metz E p i t . 28-29; Zon. 4.12, p.296, 6; S t r a b o 11.517. For the p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e s P l u t . Alex. 47.8; c f . C u r t . 8.4.25. See H a m i l t o n , PA 129-130; on the marriage M. Renard and J . S e r v a i s , "A; .propos. du^mariage d' A l e x a n d r e e t de Roxane," Antequite' Classique 24 (1955) 29-50; T a r n 2.326; but see Schachermeyr, Alexander in Babylon 22: "man gewinnt den E i n -d r u c k , a l s ob s i c h Roxane im L i e b e s l e b e n A l e x a n d e r s gegenliber den neuen, aus S t a a t s r U s o n g e s c h l o s s e n e n Ehen r e c h t wohl zu behaupten wusste." See Berve 2.346-347, no. 688, s.v. 'Pw^dvri. A l e x a n d e r h e l d b o t h h e r f a t h e r and b r o t h e r i n g r e a t honour, see Berve 2.292-293, no. 587, s. V. '0£udtpxTis; 2.186, no. 392, s.V. 'ixdvns. Rhoxane was, one might add, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of A l e x a n d e r ' s m i s t r e s s B a r s i n e (whose son H e r a k l e s i s now a c c e p t e d by P.A. B r u n t , " A l e x a n d e r , B a r s i n e and H e r a c l e s , " Riv. di Fil. 103 [1975] 22-34, a g a i n s t T a r n , " H e r a c l e s , Son o f B a r s i n e , " JHS 41 [1921] 1 8 f f , , a n d 2.330-337; c f . Berve 2.102-104, 2.168, no. 353, s.V. 'HpaxAfis, who a c c e p t s h i s e x i s t e n c e ) , the o n l y woman to b e a r c h i l d r e n by A l e x a n d e r ; t h a t i s t o omit h i s f i c t i t i o u s c h i l d r e n by the I n d i a n queen K l e o p h i s (Berve, no.435) and T h a l e s t r i s the Amazon. P l u t . Alex. 70.3; Mor. 329E-F; Diod. 17.107.6; J u s t i n 12.10.9-10; A r r . 7.4.4 (from A r i s t o b o u l o s ) m i s t a k e n l y c a l l s h e r B a r s i n e . Berve 2.363-364, no. 722, s.v. Exdxetpa. T a r n 2.334, n.4, f o l l o w e d by H a m i l t o n , PA 195, t h i n k s B a r s i n e was h e r o f f i c i a l and c o r r e c t name ( a g a i n s t B e r v e , loo. cit.); t h i s view i s s h a r e d by Schachermeyr, Alexander in Babylon 22 (though n o t r e p e a t e d i n Alexander der Grosse). 80 Dareios' brother, Oxyathres, a bride worthy of the King's most 131 capable commander. But to Hephaistion he wedded Drypetis, the s i s t e r of his own bride S t a t e i r a , f o r , according to A r r i a n , "he wished his ch i l d r e n to be the f i r s t - c o u s i n s of Hephaistion's 132 c h i l d r e n . " By marrying S t a t e i r a , Alexander had strengthened h i s claim to the rul e over Asia - and c l e a r l y the marriage must have had great popular appeal for the Persians, who hoped to see 133 the grandsons of Dareios on the throne -, but he also conferred upon Hephaistion, who married h i s new s i s t e r - i n - l a w , more than j u s t the honour of re l a t i o n s h i p by marriage: t h i s was a legitimate, though l e s s e r , claim to a share i n the empire. whatever the exact nature of Alexander's plans f o r Hephaistion -and i t i s doubtful that these included making him chiliavchos i n the Persian sense of hazavapatis - they were never f u l l y r e a l i s e d . 131 See Arr..7.4.5; Memnon, FGvHist 434 F4. Berve 2.24, no. 50, s.v. "Ayaorpus; Wilcken, RE 1.2 (1894) 1750, s.v. "Amastris (7)." Berve 2.291-292, no. 586, s.v. 'OSucxSpns. See also Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens 60, 107. 132 » » * \ / Arr. 7.4.5: ['AA^£av6pov] edeAeuv yap ol ave^uous xaiv naL6a>v yev^a^at TOUS ' HtpatOTi^uvos itaC6as. For Drypetis see Arr. loc. cit.; Diod. 17.107.6; cf. Curt. 10.5.20. Berve 2.148, no. 290, s.V. ApunfJTLS. For her death (along with her s i s t e r ) at the hands of Rhoxane arid Perdikkas Plut. AZex. 77.6. 133 Alexander strengthened t h i s claim by marrying also Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes III Ochos, who had ruled P e r s i a before Dareios I I I . See Berve 2.306, no. 607, s.V. napuaarLS. Arr. 7.4.4. For the family-connexions see 0. Neuhaus, "Der Vater der Sisygambis (und das Verwandschaftsverhaltniss des Dareios III Kodomannos zu Artaxerxes II und I I I ) , " Rh. Mus. 57 (1902) 610-623. See Appendix 2; also P.J. Junge, "Hazarapatis," Klio 33 (1940). 13-38; E. Benveniste, Titles et Noms Propves en Ivanien Anaien3 81 The o n l y honours t h a t A r r i a n c l a i m s were a c c o r d e d t o him were the crowning ( a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r somatophylakes) and the d i s -t i n g u i s h e d m a r r i a g e t o D r y p e t i s , b o t h a t Sousa. From Sousa H e p h a i s t i o n l e d the b u l k o f the i n f a n t r y t o the P e r s i a n G u l f , 135 w h i l e A l e x a n d e r s a i l e d down the E u l a i o s R i v e r t o the c o a s t . From the mouth o f the E u l a i o s he f o l l o w e d the s h o r e l i n e o f the P e r s i a n G u l f and t u r n e d upstream i n t o the T i g r i s to the p l a c e where H e p h a i s t i o n had t a k e n the army; i t was H e p h a i s t i o n ' s l a s t 136 command. To g e t h e r they proceeded t o O p i s , and from Opis t o Ekbatana; i t was now autumn 324 B.C. At Ekbatana A l e x a n d e r o f f e r e d s a c r i f i c e and c e l e b r a t e d 137 a t h l e t i c and l i t e r a r y c o n t e s t s . There were bouts o f heavy d r i n k i n g , and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r H e p h a i s t i o n f e l l i l l w i t h a 138 f e v e r . We do not know the p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f h i s a i l m e n t ; even 139 P l u t a r c h , who g i v e s the most d e t a i l , i s vague. I n v a r i a b l y , P a r i s , 1966, 51-71. Schachermeyr, Alexander in Babylon<j31-37; I f i n d h i s c o n c l u s i o n somewhat u n c o n v i n c i n g : "Der U n t e r s c h i e d zum R e i c h s v e r i e r a t des p e r s i s c h e n h a z a r a p a t i s l a g a l s o d a r i n , dass der C h i l i a r c h A l e x a n d e r s llberhaupt k e i n e dauernden und f i x e n B e f u g n i s s e zu e i g e n h a t t e , dass e r n i c h t s war, s o l a n g e ihm d e r H e r r s c h e r k e i n e n A u f t r a g gab, dass e r aber a l s v o l l w e r t i g e r a l t e r ego des H e r r s c h e r s a u f t r e t e n konnte, s o b a l d i h n d i e s e r m i t einem d i e s b e z l i g l i c h e n A u f t r a g und e i n e r d i e s b e z l i g l i c h e n V e r t r e t u n g be-t r a u t e V ( 3 6 ) . A r r . 7.7.1. 136 . _ _ , A r r . 7.7.6. 137 P l u t . Alex. 72.1 says t h a t some 3000 a r t i s t s had a r r i v e d from Greece; c f . A r r . 7.14.1; Diod. 17.110.8 ( d r a m a t i c c o n t e s t s o n l y ) . 138 The heavy d r i n k i n g was e x a g g e r a t e d by Ephippos o f O l y n t h o s , FGrHist 126, and p l a y e d down by A r i s t o b o u l o s , 139 F62 = A r r . 7.29.4. P l u t . Alex. 72.1-2. 82 Hephaistion's death i s l i n k e d with heavy drinking: A r r i a n implies that the drinking-bouts were the cause of Hephaistion's i l l n e s s , Diodoros i s more e x p l i c i t , but Plutarch does not specif y the cause of Hephaistion's fever, only that immoderate eating and drinking 140 were the proximate cause of his death. Ephippos of Olynthos, i n his scandalous pamphlet T tepu xfjs 'AAe£dv6pou xat 'HcpatatLaJvos 141 T s A e u T f i s , w i l l have a t t r i b u t e d i t s o l e l y to barbaric drinking-habits. At any ra t e , i t was on the seventh day of h i s i l l n e s s that Hephaistion died (so Arr. 7.14.1). The only other d e t a i l s are supplied by Plutarch, according to whom, Hephaistion disregarded the s t r i c t d i e t imposed by his doctor Glaukos (Glaukias i n Arr. 7.14.4), who 142 had gone o f f to the theatre. Eating a b o i l e d fowl and drinking 143 a great quantity of wine, Hephaistion hei'ghtened h i s fever and died; news of h i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g condition reached Alexander at the stadium, where he was watching the boys ;' races, but he returned too l a t e and 144 found Hephaistion already dead. For the accounts of his death: Arr. 7.14.Iff.; Diod. 17.110.8; Polyainos 4.3.31 ( i n c o r r e c t l y , i t happened at Babylon!); J u s t i n 12.12.11; Arr. 7.18.2-3; Epiktetos 2.22.17; Pl u t . Alex. 72; Pelopidas 34.2; Nepos, Eumenes 2.2; Appian, BC 2.152. 1 4 1 For Ephippos of Olynthos see Jacoby, FGrHist no. 126, and IID 437-439. 1 4 2 P l u t . Alex. 72.2. See Berve 2.112, no. 228, s.V. TAauxCas. 1 4 3 Plut. Alex. 72.2. 1 4 4 Arr. 7.14.1. 83 From the accounts o f what f o l l o w e d i t i s v i r t u a l l y im-p o s s i b l e to s e p a r a t e f a c t from f i c t i o n . A r r i a n p r o v i d e s a c a t a l o g u e o f \eyo\ieva., but h i s c r i t e r i a f o r d i s c e r n i n g what i s r e l i a b l e and what i s n o t - when i n d e e d he does make such an attempt - amount to l i t t l e more than a c c e p t i n g what i s h o n o u r a b l e i n a k i n g ' s b e h a v i o u r and r e j e c t i n g what i s n o t ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t he r e c a l l s the r a t h e r n a i v e b a s i s f o r h i s t r u s t i n Ptolemy's History, which he r e l a t e d i n the p r o -145 oemium. A l e x a n d e r ' s g r i e f was e x c e s s i v e ; on t h i s p o i n t a l l the s o u r c e s concur, but t h e r e were some who thought i t n o b l e t h a t he s h o u l d d i s p l a y h i s sorrow, o t h e r s who found i t A r r . 7.14.2-10. I n the prooemium A r r i a n says t h a t he based h i s h i s t o r y on the works o f A r i s t o b o u l o s and Ptolemy, whom he judged t o be the most r e l i a b l e o f the h i s t o r i a n s o f A l e x a n d e r "because A r i s t o b o u l o s had accompanied A l e x a n d e r on the e x p e d i t i o n , and Ptolemy, i n a d d i t i o n to campaigning w i t h him, was a K i n g h i m s e l f , and i t would have been more d e s p i c a b l e f o r him to l i e than f o r anyone else'/ (prooem. 2 ) . A r r i a n d i d n o t i g n o r e A l e x a n d e r ' s f a u l t s , i t i s t r u e , b u t he c o u p l e d h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f h i s hero w i t h w h o l e - h e a r t e d ( o f t e n e x c e s s i v e ) p r a i s e not o n l y o f h i s v i r t u e s b u t o f h i s r e a d i n e s s t o r e p e n t of h i s crimes (e.g. 4.19.6; 4.9.1). On the whole t h e r e i s a r e l u c t a n c e to a c c e p t s t o r i e s t h a t c a s t A l e x a n d e r i n a bad l i g h t , and the a t t i t u d e p r e v a i l s t h a t , i f we a r e to judge A l e x a n d e r ' s c h a r a c t e r , we must base t h i s on a l l the e v i d e n c e , n o t on a p o r t i o n o f i t : OCJTLS <5e xaxuCet ' AXe£;av6pov, un uo'vov otra a ^ i a xaxLCeaSau ECTTL itpocpepo'uevos. xaxtC^xaj, ciXXa £;\5uiravTa t a 'AXe^dvSpou ELS ev x W P ^ 0 V SuvaYcryaiv ...(7.30.1). F o r a u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n o f A r r i a n ' s a t t i t u d e to h i s s u b j e c t see J.R. H a m i l t o n ' s " I n t r o d u c t i o n " i n Aubrey de S e l i n c o u r t ' s Penguin - t r a n s l a t i o n , Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander, Harmondsworth, 1971, 17-34, though H a m i l t o n ' s comment (Alexander the Great 20) t h a t A r r i a n , "a S t o i c h i m s e l f , I.:avoided the d o c t r i n a i r e condemnation of A l e x a n d e r p o p u l a r i n S t o i c c i r c l e s , " f a l l s s h o r t o f e x p r e s s i n g A r r i a n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to-.make excuses f o r A l e x a n d e r ( o r , a t l e a s t , t o o v e r l o o k what i s u n p l e a s a n t ) . 84 u n f i t t i n g f o r A l e x a n d e r o r f o r any o t h e r k i n g . Those who saw i n A l e x a n d e r ' s g r i e f an e m u l a t i o n o f A c h i l l e s r e p o r t e d t h a t he shaved t h e manes o f h i s h o r s e s and h i s m u l e s , t o r e down c i t y -w a l l s , and l a y upon the c o r p s e o f h i s P a t r o k l o s , r e f u s i n g f o o d 146 and w a t e r ; t h e l a s t p o i n t i s a t l e a s t t y p i c a l o f A l e x a n d e r . M a g n i f i c e n t , i n d e e d o s t e n t a t i o u s , were the f u n e r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , some o f w h i c h were l a t e r c a n c e l l e d a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f P e r -147 d i k k a s , who conveyed H e p h a i s t i o n ' s body t o B a b y l o n . I n h i s r o l e as G r e a t K i n g , he o r d e r e d t h a t 'the s a c r e d f i r e o f P e r s i a be e x t i n g u i s h e d u n t i l s u c h t i m e as H e p h a i s t i o n ' s l a s t r i t e s had 148 been t a k e n c a r e o f . Such were the honours a c c o r d e d the dead 146 F o r A l e x a n d e r ' s e x c e s s i v e g r i e f and t h e agreement o f t h e s o u r c e s see A r r . 7.14.2; f o r d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d the d i s p l a y o f e m o t i o n , A r r . 7.14.3. The e m u l a t i o n o f A c h i l l e s : A r r . 7.14.4 (he a l s o c u t h i s own h a i r ) ; A i l i a n , VH 7.8; P l u t . Pelop. 34.2 ( h o r s e s ' manes, d e m o l i s h e d w a l l s ) , c f . Alex. 72.3. F o r h i s r e f u s a l o f f o o d and d r i n k , A r r . 7.14.8. C f . A l e x a n d e r ' s b e h a v i o u r a f t e r K l e i t o s ' d e a t h , A r r . 4 . 9 . I f f . ; P l u t . Alex. 51.10-52.1; C u r t . 8 . 2 . I f f . 147 F o r t h e f u n e r a l p y r e : J u s t i n 12.12.12; D i o d . 17.115.5 ( b o t h put t h e c o s t a t 12,000 t a l e n t s ) ; A r r . 7.14.8 (10,000). D i o d . 17.115.6 speaks o f the s l a u g h t e r o f 10,000 s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s ; f o r t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s monument see D i o d . 18. 4.2 (who w r o n g l y c a l l s i t the p y r e , whichwhad a l r e a d y been com-p l e t e d ; see Diddorus of Sicily, v o l . 9, Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y , Cambridge, Mass., 1935, R.M. Geer t r . , 2 1 , n . l ) ; c f . B a d i a n , "A K i n g ' s N o t e b o o k s , " HSCP 74 (1967) 200-201. A c c o r d i n g t o P l u t . Alex. 72.5 the work was t o be u n d e r t a k e n by S t a s i k r a t e s ( D e i n o k r a t e s ? see B e r v e , nos. 249, 7 2 0 ) , who had o f f e r e d t o shape Mt. Athos i n t o a g i a n t l i k e n e s s o f A l e x a n d e r . See H a m i l t o n , PA 202. F o r P e r d i k k a s ' i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t a k e the body t o B a b y l o n , D i o d . 17.110.8; i t i s n o t mentioned by A r r i a n . 148 F o r t h e s a c r e d f i r e see D i o d . 17.110.8. Schachermeyr, Alexander in Babylon, "Das p e r s i s c h e K B n i g s f e u e r am H o f e A l e x a n d e r s , " 38-48, esp. 47. 85 H e p h a i s t i o n . But t h e r e were s t o r i e s o f A l e x a n d e r ' s anger. Blame was c a s t on G l a u k i a s t h e p h y s i c i a n - though A l e x a n d e r had e a r l i e r t r u s t e d w i t h h i s own l i f e the d o c t o r , P h i l i p o f 149 A k a r n a n i a - and on the h e a l i n g - g o d A s k l e p i o s : G l a u k i a s was c r u e l l y e x e c u t e d , and the temple o f A s k l e p i o s a t Ekbatana r a s e d . On the K o s s a i a n s t o o , a b a r b a r i c p e o p l e to the west 151 o f Ekbatana, A l e x a n d e r v e n t e d h i s anger. And, n o t s u r -p r i s i n g l y , h i s t o r y was q u i c k t o d i s c o v e r p r o p h e s i e s o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s 149 150 151 The s t o r y o f P h i l i p o f A k a r n a n i a i s a p o p u l a r one, and p a r t of t h e h o s t i l e p o r t r a i t o f Parmenion: A r r . 2.4.9-10 = A r i s t o -b o u l o s , FGrHist 139 F8; C u r t . 3.6.1-13; 6.10.34-35; J u s t i n 11.8.5-9; Diod. 17.31.4-6; P l u t . Alex. 19; V a l . Max. 3.8 e x t 6; Seneca, de Ira 2.23.2; I t i n e r . 28-30; P s . - K a l l . 2.8; J u l . V a l . 2.24; Zon. 4.9 p.289, 3. See H a m i l t o n , PA 49-50; Berve 2.388-389, no. 788, s.v. ^L'ALTITIOS. A c c o r d i n g t o A r r i a n 7.14.4, G l a u k i a s was hanged, though P l u t . Alex. 72.3 c l a i m s he was c r u c i f i e d ( a p p a r e n t l y c o n f u s e d by Berve 2.112: " E r wurde nach [ H e p h a i s t i o n s ] Tode auf A l . s Be-f e h l g e k r e u z i g t , wie A r r i a n . . . b e r i c h t e t " ; u n l e s s A r r i a n uses expeuaae to mean " c r u c i f i e d " [see LSI s.V. xpeudvvuut], P l u t -a r c h ' s verb avaaxaupdco i s n o r m a l l y used of c r u c i f i x i o n . A r r i a n c l a i m s t h a t G l a u k i a s was e x e c u t e d f o r g i v i n g bad m e d i c i n e , which may be the " o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n , " so Berve, loe. eit. 3 and H a m i l t o n , PA 200. That A l e x a n d e r d i d i n f a c t e x e c u t e G l a u k i a s does n o t seem u n l i k e l y , f o r he was known to i n t e r f e r e i n the b u s i n e s s o f p h y s i c i a n s ( c f . h i s a d v i c e to P a u s a n i a s the d o c t o r o f K r a t e r o s on how to t r e a t h i s p a t i e n t w i t h h e l l e b o r e [ P l u t . Alex. 41.7], o r h i s l e t t e r t o P e u k e s t a s ' d o c t o r , A l e x i p p o s , c o n g r a t u l a t i n g him on h i s h e a l i n g t a l e n t s [ P l u t . Alex. 41.6]; and i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t we know the names o f s e v e r a l o t h e r d o c t o r s i n A l e x a n d e r ' s e n t o u r a g e , see Berve 1.79-80). For the temple o f A s k l e p i o s see E p i k t e t o s 2.22.17; b u t c f . A r r . 7.14.6: oux e T c u e t x c J S xe'xpnxox you 6' ' AaxXnubds, ou awaas you xov exaCpov ovxuva uaov xrj eyauxou xecpaXfj fiyov. A r r . 7 . 1 5 . I f f . ; D i o d . 17.111.4ff.; P o l y a i n o s 4.3.31. 86 152 death. The "Son o f Amnion" se n t envoys to Slwah to i n -q u i r e i f H e p h a i s t i o n s h o u l d be worshipped as a god; t h e p rudent f a t h e r r e p l i e d t h a t he s h o u l d be r e v e r e d as a h e r o . 1 5 3 A r r . 7.18.2 = A r i s t o b o u l o s , FGvEist 139 F54. The s e e r P e i t h -agoras p r o p h e s i e d the deaths o f b o t h A l e x a n d e r and H e p h a i s t i o n ( c f . A p p i a n , BC 2.152). The prophesy was g i v e n to A p o l l o d o r o s , h i s b r o t h e r , who f e a r e d b o t h H e p h a i s t i o n and A l e x a n d e r . Had he a l s o found H e p h a i s t i o n d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h ? A r r . 7.14.7: envoys are s e n t to Ammon. A r r . 7.23.6: the response comes t h a t he s h o u l d be r e v e r e d as a h e r o ; c f . P l u t . Alex. 72.3, but i n c o r r e c t l y t h a t he s h o u l d be d e i f i e d M o d . 17.115.6; J u s t i n 12.12.12: eumque post mortem soli ut dewn iussit; L o u k i a n , Cal. 17. The h e r o - c u l t o f H e p h a i s t i o n i s a l l u d e d to by H y p e r e i d e s 6.21: na,t CTHOUS TOUTWV-" oiniras ucrnep npuias TUUSV. Cf. P. T r e v e s , " H y p e r i d e s and the C u l t o f H e p h a e s t i o n , " CR 53 "(1939) 56-57; E. Bickerman, "Sur un Passage d' H y p e r i d e , " Athenaeum 41 (1963) 70-85; C. H a b i c h t , Gottmensohentum und gviedhisahe Stttdte, Munich, 1956, 28-36. But P.M. F r a s e r , i n h i s r e v i e w of H a b i c h t , CR n.s. 8 (1958) 153f.,does not t h i n k the a l l u s i o n to H e p h a i s t i o n : L i s so o b v i o u s . See H a m i l t o n ' s comments, PA 200-201, where these views a r e summarised; the n o t i o n t h a t A l e x a n d e r sought t o i n t r o d u c e h i s own d e i f i c a t i o n by means o f H e p h a i s t i o n ' s h e r o - c u l t a n t e d a t e s H a b i c h t , see Kornemann, "Zur G e s c h i c h t e der a n t i k e n H e r r s c h e r k u l t e , " Klio 1 (1901) 65, who makes a good case f o r t h i s . A r r . 7.23.6-8 r e l a t e s t h a t A l e x a n d e r was w i l l i n g t o f o r g i v e Kleomenes ( B e r v e , n o . 431) h i s c r i m e s ' i n Egypt i f he saw to a h e r o ' s s h r i n e t h e r e . F o r s m a l l l i k e n e s s e s o f H e p h a i s t i o n made by the Eetaivoi see Diod. 17.115.1. The l i o n o b f Hamadan (Ekbatana) may be the one s u r v i v i n g monument to H e p h a i s t i o n ; f o r t h i s see H. Luschey, "Der LbVe von E k batana," Avchaeologisehe Mitteilungen aus Ivan 1 (1968) 115-122, esp. 121-122. Cf. Fox (435): " c e n t u r i e s l a t e r , when H e p h a i s t i o n had l o n g been f o r g o t t e n , the l a d i e s o f Hamadan would smear the nose o f t h e i r l i o n w i t h jam, h o p i n g f o r c h i l d r e n and easy c h i l d b i r t h . H e p h a i s t i o n ended h i s fame as a symbol o f f e r t i l i t y . " 87 Chapter 2 LEONNATOS: el's xuiv exat'pwv Leonnatos, a c c o r d i n g t o the t e s t i m o n y o f the Suda, was a r e l a t i v e o f E u r y d i k e , the mother o f P h i l i p I I , hence an ad-2 h e r e n t o f t h e L y n k e s t i a n r o y a l house; he was a syntrophos o f A l e x a n d e r and h i s P e l l a i a n o r i g i n i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by A r r i a n (Anab. 6.28.4; Ind. 18.3). H i s f a t h e r ' s name i s n o t c e r t a i n , though t h e r e i s a tendency to f a v o u r the t w i c e - a t t e s t e d Anteas. See Berve 2.232-235, no. 466, s.v. Aeovvdxos, to which I s u g g e s t the f o l l o w i n g r e v i s i o n s : p.232 ( f i r s t l i n e ) f o r A r r . IV,28,4 read 6.28.4; p. 233 H e g e s i a s ( M l i l l e r , FHG, f r . 3) i s now Jacoby, FGrHist 142 F5 = Dion. H a l . de Comp. Verb. 18 p.l23-126R; p.234 " v g l . O n e s i c r . f r g . 26" i s now FGrHist 134 F28 = P l i n y , NH 6.97; add A r r . Ind. 23.8; f o r Leonnatos' crowning a t Sousa, add A r r . Ind. 23.6 and 42.9; A i l i a n , VH 9.3 makes Leonnatos fond of h u n t i n g ( n o t , as Berve s t a t e s , fond o f w r e s t l i n g ) ; f o r h i s e x t r a v a g a n t i m p o r t i n g o f sand, o r more p r e c i s e l y powdery d u s t , f o r w r e s t l i n g add P l i n y , NH 35.167-168; Athen. 12.539D (from P h y l a r c h o s o r A g a t h a r c h i d e s o f K n i d o s ) = FGrHist 81 F41 and/or 86 F3; Leonnatos i s n o t named by P s . - K a l l . 3.31, but r a t h e r J u l . V a l . 2.3 (Leontas) may r e -f e r t o Leonnatos ( c f . Berve 2.233, n.3 "Ps. C a l l . 11,2"?); p.235 C u r t . X,7,9 s h o u l d r e a d 10.7.8; h i s s a t r a p y o f H e l l e s -p o n t i n e P h r y g i a i s more a c c u r a t e l y d e r i v e d from A r r . Succ. I a . 6 and l b . 2 . F o r the name see Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 168-170, who h o l d s t h a t the p r o p a r o x y t o n e a c c e n t u a t i o n (i.e., Aeo'vvaxos) i s p r e f e r a b l e e t y m o l o g i c a l l y . See a l s o F. Geyer, BE XII.2 (1925) 2035-2038, s.v. "Leonnatos ( 1 ) . " Suda s.V. Aeo'vvaxos = A r r . Suoo. f r . 1 2 ; c f . C u r t . 10.7.8: stirpe regia genitus. F o r E u r y d i k e ' s connexions w i t h - t h e L y n k e s t i a n r o y a l house see G. Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens. 17; A.B. Bosworth, " P h i l i p I I and Upper Macedonia," CQ n.s. 21 (1971) 99-101; see a l s o Geyer ( n . l supra) 2035. So Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 170; Geyer 2035 pass e s o v e r the problem; Berve 2.232 i s non-committal. 88 But t h e r e i s no way o f d e t e r m i n i n g which o f t h r e e forms i s c o r r e c t ; f o r each o f these appears to d e r i v e from a d i f f e r e n t p r i m a r y s o u r c e . A l l forms are found i n A r r i a n : Anab. 6.28.4 ( A r i s t o b o u l o s , FGrEist 139 F50) g i v e s the p a t r o n y m i c as 'Avx^ou, which has the s u p p o r t o f "Avdous i n Suae. Ia.2 (= P h o t i o s , Bibiiotheke cod. 92, p.69, o r i g i n a l l y from Hieronymos o r perhaps D i y l l o s 4 ) ; Anab. 3.5.5 ( c e r t a i n l y P t o l e m y 5 ) reads 'Ovdaou; Indike 18.3 (Nearchos, FGrEist 133 F l ) Euvou. I t was on account o f h i s u p b r i n g i n g , h i s f a m i l y - b a c k g r o u n d , h i s s i z e and h i s b e a u t y , the Suda c l a i m s , t h a t Leonnatos reached a p o s i t i o n o f honour. C e r t a i n l y h i s f a m i l y - t i e s w i l l have made him e l i g i b l e f o r the company o f the Eetairoi , who T a r n assumes were drawn p r i m a r i l y from the ranks o f the Macedonian a r i s t o c r a c y . 7 In t h i s r e s p e c t Leonnatos i s of i n t e r e s t , f o r he r e p r e s e n t s a man who accompanied t 8 A l e x a n d e r , i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , as eus TSJV exadpwv. 4 "AVTOUS i s g i v e n by Berve 2.232 and Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 170; A.G. Roos' Teubner t e x t ( L e i p z i g , 1967) has "Av%ous. D o u r i s i s a l s o a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e f o r A r r i a n ' s xa uexa 'AXe'^av6pov, b u t , on the u n c e r t a i n t y o f s o u r c e - c r i t i c i s m - i n t h i s c a s e, see Bosworth's b r i e f remarks ("The Death o f A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t : Rumour and Propaganda," CQ u . s . 21 [1971] 129-130). 5 So Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschiehte 128, 137, 252; S t r a s b u r g e r , Ptolemaios und Alexander '34'. Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 170: "dann mllsste aber i n der I n d i k e Euvou aus der i o n i s c h e n D i a l e k t f o r m 'Avx^w oder 'Avx^ew v e r -d e r b t s e i n , und das i s t n i c h t gerade w a h r s c h e i n l i c h . " 7 Tarn 2.138. g A r r . 2.12.5; C u r t . 3.12.7 {ex purpuratis; c f . A r r . 4,12.2). 89 The f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d of Leonnatos dates t o the time o f the death o f P h i l i p , . I I : he i s named, a l o n g w i t h P e r -d i k k a s and A t t a l o s ( a p p a r e n t l y t h e son o f Andromenes), among g t h e somatophylakes who p u r s u e d the a s s a s s i n P a u s a n i a s . Berve i s c e r t a i n l y c o r r e c t t o assume t h a t the somatophylakes h e r e a r e i n t e n d e d t o be the h y p a s p i s t s f o r the e l i t e group o f somato-phylakes, who-h numbered seven i n 325 (and were presumably seven throughout the c a m p a i g n 1 1 ) , d i d not i n c l u d e e i t h e r Leonnatos o r 12 P e r d i k k a s from the s t a r t , n o r was anyone by the name o f A t t a l o s e v e r known to have been a member o f t h a t u n i t ; the son o f Andro-13 menes c e r t a i n l y was n o t . On the o t h e r hand, Droysen's s u g g e s t i o n 14 t h a t the basili-koi paides axe meant i s r e j e c t e d by Geyer. P e r d i k k a s was c e r t a i n l y too o l d , s a s was Leonnatos h i m s e l f , t o b e l o n g t o the Pages; i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t any one of them commanded t h a t u n i t . 1 5 9 Diod. 16.94.4. 1 0 Berve 2.233, n . l . 1 1 Cf. Berve 1.26; f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n see Appendix 1. 12 See Appendix 1; Leonnatos was a p p o i n t e d somatophylax i n 332/1; P e r d i k k a s was one by the time o f the P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r (330). 13 See Berve 1.27 f o r a complete l i s t ; c f . Berve 2.92, no. 181, s.v. " A x x a X o g . 14 Droysen, Eellenismus 1.70; Geyer, RE XII.2 (1925) 2035. 1 5 F o r the basilikoi pa-ides see Berve 1. 37-39, "c) D i e k B n i g l i c h e n Pagen"; c f . A r r . 4.13.1; A i l i a n , VR 14.48; C u r t . 5.1.42; Diod. 17.65.1. 90 Under A l e x a n d e r , Leonnatos does n o t appear u n t i l the y e a r 333. A f t e r the b a t t l e a t I s s o s , A l e x a n d e r c a p t u r e d 16 the women o f D a r e i o s I I I , i n c l u d i n g h i s w i f e and h i s mother. These women had been m i s l e d by rumours and b e l i e v e d t h a t D a r e i o s was dead. I n o r d e r t o f r e e them from u n n e c e s s a r y sorrow, A l e x a n d e r p r e p a r e d t o send t o them a c e r t a i n M i t h r e n e s , the former s a t r a p o f S a r d e i s , who spoke Persian.''' 7 But he q u i c k l y changed h i s mind and s e n t i n s t e a d L e o n n a t o s , f e a r i n g l e s t the s i g h t o f a t r a i t o r would o n l y f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e the 18 women's a n g u i s h . Undoubtedly the s e n s a t i o n c r e a t e d by Leon-n a t o s ' a r r i v a l was n o t u n l i k e t h a t d e s c r i b e d by C u r t i u s (3.12. 9-12) , w i t h the t e r r i f i e d women s u p p o s i n g t h a t the appearance o f armed men a t t h e i r t e n t meant c e r t a i n death, b u t t h e s t o r y , which was r e l a t e d i n (we may suppose) a l e s s e l a b o r a t e f a s h i o n by A r i s t o b o u l o s and Ptolemy, has been e m b e l l i s h e d c o n s i d e r a b l y 1 6 A r r . 2.12.4-5; C u r t . 3 . 1 2 . 4 f f . ; Diod. 17.37.3; P l u t . Alex. 21.2. See Berve 2.356-357, no. 711, s.v. EuauYauBLg ( D a r e i o s ' mother; D i o d . 17.37, Ztavyyav&pLz); 2.362-363, no. 721, s.v. ETdxeupa ( s i s t e r and w i f e o f D a r e i o s ) . For the f a m i l y - b a c k -ground o f Sisygambis see 0. Neuhaus, "Der V a t e r d e r Sisygambis (und das V e r w a n d s c h a f t s v e r h S l t n i s s des D a r e i o s I I I Kodomannos zu A r t a x e r x e s I I und I I I ) ," Rh. Mus. 57 (1902) 610-623. 1 7 C u r t . 3.12.6-7; see Berve 2.262-263, no. 524, s.v. Mu$pn"v,ns. See A. Baumbach, Kleinasien vnter Alexander dem Grossen, D i s s . Jena, p u b l . Weida, 1911, 39-40; on h i s l a t e r c a r e e r as s a t r a p of Armenia,under A l e x a n d e r see P. J u l i e n , Zur Verwaltung der Satrapieri tenter Alexander dem Grossen, D i s s . L e i p z i g , p u b l . Weida, 1914, 27-28. 1 8 C u r t . 3.12.7-12. 91 by C u r t i u s . Q u i t e p o s s i b l y C u r t i u s based h i s v e r s i o n on t h a t o f K l e i t a r c h o s , who r e c o r d e d H e p h a i s t i o n ' s v i s i t t o 20 t h e P e r s i a n Queen and l i k e l y r e l a t e d Leonnatos' a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . At any r a t e , Leonnatos a c h i e v e d h i s p u r p o s e , a s s u r i n g the women t h a t D a r e i o s l i v e d and t h a t A l e x a n d e r would a t t e n d to them p e r s o n a l l y . Perhaps A l e x a n d e r d e l i b e r a t e l y chose an i m p o r t a n t member o f the company of the Hetairoi f o r such a m i s s i o n o f diplomacy; p e r h a p s , however, the i n c i d e n t r e f l e c t s something o f Leonnatos' c h a r a c t e r - which the s o u r c e s have o t h e r w i s e l e f t somewhat c o l o u r l e s s - and h i s a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e such s i t u a t i o n s . C u r t i u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n (3.12.7) o f Leonnatos as ex purpuratis u i 21 must be the e q u i v a l e n t of eva TUV exaC*pu)V, but he i s s a i d to have a r r i v e d cum paucis armigeris ( C u r t . toe. cit",), and t h e s e must be e x p l a i n e d . They a r e d e s c r i b e d as armati ( C u r t . 3.12.8, hence "armed b o d y g u a r d s " ) , which s u g g e s t s t h a t they were h y p a s p i s t s . I f t h i s i s s o , then L e o nnatos, who a p p a r e n t l y h e l d no independent command i n the e a r l y s t a g e s of the campaign, may have h e l d r o u g h l y t h e same rank t h a t he h e l d i n the summer o f 336, t h a t i s , a l e s s e r FGrHist 138 F7; 139 F10; S t r a s b u r g e r , Ptolemaios und Alexander 29; Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 114. A r r . 2.12.6-8; Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 114, 124; Jacoby IID 503; b u t S t r a s b u r g e r , Ptolemaios und Alexander 29, t h i n k s 'per-haps A r i s t o b o u l o s . ' Berve 2.233. 92 22 commission i n the h y p a s p i s t s . I n t h a t c a s e , those who accompanied A l e x a n d e r as Eetaivoi most l i k e l y d i d n o t f i g h t as a u n i t - t h e r e i s o n l y one i n s t a n c e i n which they may have 23 done so, and t h i s i s v a g u e l y d e f i n e d - o r c o n s t i t u t e a f o r -24 mal body, as T a r n s u g g e s t s , but were d i s t r i b u t e d t h roughout the ranks as o f f i c e r s o f h i g h e r and lower rank. P e r d i k k a s 25 by now commanded h i s own taxis of pezhetaivoi, but A t t a l o s , who o n l y l a t e r became a taxiaveh, may a l s o have been a l e s s e r o f f i c e r i n the h y p a s p i s t s a t t h i s t i m e ; A t t a l o s must c e r t a i n l y 26 have b e l o n g e d t o the Eetaivoi. That Leonnatos and P h i l o t a s (Parmenion*s son) took p a r t i n the c a p t u r e o f B a t i s a t Gaza i s d o u b t f u l . The B a t i s - e p i s o d e 22 Berve 2.233, w i t h n . l . 23 A r r . 1.6.5; though t h e s e are p o s s i b l y the Companion C a v a l r y , j u s t as the somatophylakes i n t h i s i n s t a n c e may r e f e r t o the h y p a s p i s t s . 2 4 T a r n 2.138. 25 See Chapter 4: Perdikkas''; c f . Berve 2.313-316, no. 627, s.v. IJepSuxxas, esp. 313. He was a l r e a d y a taxiaveh i n A l e x a n d e r ' s T r i b a l l i a n campaign o f 335 ( A r r . 1.6.9). 26 A t t a l o s : see n.12 supva. He was P e r d i k k a s ' b r o t h e r - i n - l a w (though the m a r r i a g e c o u l d b e l o n g to the time of the s u c c e s s i o n of 323), see Berve 2.90, no. 177, s.v. 'AxaAdvTri. F o r h i s mem-b e r s h i p i n the ranks of the h y p a s p i s t s see Berve 2.92, n.3; f o r the l i k e l i h o o d o f h i s b e i n g onecof the Eetaivoi [Amyntas, h i s b r o t h e r , c e r t a i n l y was] see Berve 1.31. I f my t h e o r y i s c o r r e c t i n the cases o f A t t a l o s and Leonnatos, t h i s would make Nearchos' rank as c h i l i a r c h o f the H y p a s p i s t s more p l a u s i b l e (Nearchos was a l s o an Eetaivos); t h i s i s doubted by B a d i a n , "Nearchus the C r e t a n , " ICS 24 (1975) 150-151. 93 27 (Hegesias v i a D i o n y s i o s o f H a l i k a r n a s s o s ) i s n o t o r i o u s l y un-r e l i a b l e and has been c o n v i n c i n g l y r e j e c t e d as f i c t i o n by T a r n 28 and B. P e r r i n . Leonnatos became somatophytax i n Egypt i n 332/1, r e p l a c i n g 29 Arhybbas, who had d i e d . He i s the f i r s t r e c o r d e d a p p o i n t e e t o the o f f i c e , though i t i s l i k e l y t h a t H e p h a i s t i o n r e p l a c e d P t o l e m a i o s (Berve, no. 672, see Appendix 1 ) , who d i e d a t H a l i k a r n a s s o s , i n the f i r s t y e a r o f the campaign. How h i s ap-pointment t o the somatophylakes a f f e c t e d h i s s t a t u s as a member of the h y p a s p i s t s can o n l y be s u r m i s e d ; p r o b a b l y he ceased t o be a member o f t h a t u n i t , f o r he w i l l n o t l i k e l y have h e l d the h i g h . r a n k o f somatophylax and y e t have been i n f e r i o r i n a u t h o r i t y 30 t o N i k a n o r , the commander o f the h y p a s p i s t s . The somatophylakes3 we may suppose, f o u g h t i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the K i n g — t h i s , a t l e a s t , t h e i r name and o r i g i n imply - u n l e s s they were g i v e n s p e c i a l commands i n another s e c t o r . Hence L e o n n a t o s , who h e l d no independent command b e f o r e the campaign i n Sogdiana, i s not mentioned by the s o u r c e s , e x c e p t i n n o n - m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n s . 27 H e g e s i a s , FGrEist 142 F5 = Dion. H a l . de Comp. Verb. 18 p.123-126R. 28 B. P e r r i n , "Genesis and Growth of an Alexander-myth," TAPA 26 (1895) 59-68; T a r n 2.265-270, Appendix 11: "The Death o f B a t i s . " 29 A r r . 3.5.5, who g i v e s the form 'Appu*8as; see Berve 2.85, no. 156, s.V. 'ApuBBag; f o r t h e name, which i s E p e i r o t , see Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 176-177, who p r e f e r s 'ApuBBas on the b a s i s o f i n -s c r i p t i o n a l e v i d e n c e . See a l s o Appendix 1. 30 Berve 2.275, no. 554, s.V. N u K c t v u p . 94 I n t h e a f f a i r s o f P h i l o t a s , K l e i t o s and K a l l i s t h e n e s , t h e r e f o r e , we s ee t h e n o n - m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e somato-phylax L e o n n a t o s . I n C u r t i u s ' a c c o u n t o f t he P h i l o t a s - a f f a i r , he accompan ie s P e r d i k k a s , K r a t e r o s , H e p h a i s t i o n , K o i n o s and E f i g y i o s (and some o t h e r s , unnamed) t o A l e x a n d & r t s t e n t s h o r t l y 31 b e f o r e P h i l o t a s ' a r r e s t . P r o b a b l y he was one o f P h i l o t a s ' v i g o r o u s o p p o n e n t s , who c o n s p i r e d a g a i n s t h i m once t he news o f D imnos ' t r e a c h e r y became known, b u t we canno t say i f he was one o f P h i l o t a s ' t o r m e n t o r s ; c e r t a i n l y he was n o t one o f the o b v i o u s b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t he a f f a i r . He i s n o t h e a r d o f a g a i n u n t i l t h e 32 K l e i t o s - e p i s o d e , a g a i n i n t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n by C u r t i u s . L e o n n a t o s ' r o l e i n t he s t r u g g l e t h a t r e s u l t e d i n K l e i t o s ' d e a t h , as d e s c r i b e d by C u r t i u s , has caused some d i f f i c u l t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o C u r t i u s , when A l e x a n d e r a s s a i l e d K l e i t o s , P e r d i k k a s and P t o l e m y a t t e m p t e d t o r e s t r a i n h i m , w h i l e L y s i m a c h o s and L e o n -n a t o s t o o k away h i s s p e a r ; a l l appea r t o have a c t e d i n t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s as somatophylakes. Bu t C u r t i u s ' v e r s i o n appea r s t o be 33 v i t i a t e d by the t e s t i m o n y o f P l u t a r c h ( f r o m Chares o f M y t i l e n e ), 3 1 Curt. 6.8.17. 3 2 Curt. 8.1.46. 33 Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 364. Athen. 1.211k = FGrHist 125 F9 informs us t h a t , according to Chares, Alexander was fond of apples. The throwing of apples i n the v e r s i o n of P l u t a r c h argues at l e a s t f o r an eye-witness source. Chares gave i n f o r m a t i o n of t h i s s o r t ( i . e . , from d a i l y C o u r t - l i f e ) , and the d e t a i l about the apples (though h a r d l y a f i r m b a s i s f o r eva l u a t i o n ) may suggest him as a source. See Kornemann, Die Alexandergesohichte 249; R. Schubert, "Der Tod des K l e i t o s , " Eh. Musi; 53 (1898) 98-120; T.S. Brown, " C a l l i s t h e n e s and Alexander," AJP 70 (1949) 240, i s o l a t e s K a l l i s t h e n e s but does not recognise Chares. Cf. Pearson, LHA 50-61. 95 34 which is preferred by most modern scholars. According to Plutarch, i t was a certain Aristophanes, termed awyaTocptfAa^, who disarmed Alexander (though the weapon in this case was a dagger1: 'AA^^cvSpog. . .TO eyxe^PLotov e?n*Teu. TOJV 6 e a w y a T o c p u A d x t o v evos ' ApuaTo<pdvous cp^daavTog u(peXe*a-&at, Alex. 51.5-6). Now i t i s a matter of some dispute who this somatophylax was, for there was no known member of the e l i t e corps named Aristophanes. The name was emended by Palmerius to read "Aristonous" (a known 35 member of the somatophylakes ), and i t is a simple and sensible emendation. Berve's rejection of i t as "nicht nur reine WillkUr, 36 sondern auch sachlich falsch" in favour of an actual Aristophanes, who was a member of the hypaspists (to whom the term somatophylakes 37 was at times applied ), has been shown to be incorrect by K. Ziegle 3 4 Brown, AJP 70 (1949) 237; Hamilton, PA 139; Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 362ff.; Berve 2.207-208; Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 248-251. But Schubert, Ph. Mus. 53 (1898) 99, points out "eine Verschmelzung von zwei ver-schiedenen Originalberichten." 35 > Berve 2.69, no. 133, s.v. 'ApuaTo'vous; for the names see Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 171; also Kaerst, BE II.1 (1895) 967-968, s.v. "Aristonous (7)." Cf. W. Hunerwadel, Forschungen zur Geschichte Kdnigs Lysimachos von Thrakien, Diss. Zurich, 1910 10. See also Hamilton, PA 143. 36 Berve 2.69, n.2; cf. 2.74, no. 136, s.v. 'ApbaTOtpdvris. 37 Berve 1.28,nn.l; Tarn 2.135-142; see Appendix 1. 3 8 K. Ziegler, "Plutarchstudien," Bh. Mus. 84 (1935) 379-380. 96 He p o i n t e d out t h a t i n the v e r y s e n t e n c e i n which A r i s t o p h a n e s i s d e s c r i b e d as somatophylax P l u t a r c h speaks o f the hypaspistai , whom A l e x a n d e r summoned; i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t P l u t a r c h used two d i f f e r e n t terms t o a p p l y t o the same u n i t w i t h i n the same se n t e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o the " c o r r e c t e d " v e r s i o n o f P l u t a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , i t was A r i s t o n o u s t h e Bodyguard, and n o t Lysimachos and L e o n n a t o s , who disarmed the K i n g . But i s t h i s a c t u a l l y the case? To d e t e r m i n e who d i d what i s such a c h a o t i c i n s t a n c e i s no t p o s s i b l e . But i t a l s o i s n o t t r u e t h a t C u r t i u s ' v e r s i o n i s v i t i a t e d by t h a t o f P l u t a r c h . P l u t a r c h ' s v e r s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e removal o f A l e x a n d e r ' s own dagger., which was the f i r s t weapon t h a t he might be e x p e c t e d t o r e a c h f o r , i f he c a r r i e d i t on h i s per s o n . The wording o f the Greek i n t h i s case makes i t u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s was a case o f A r i s t o n o u s t a k i n g the dagger from A l e x a n d e r ; i n d e e d , i t would have been a r a t h e r comic scene. P l u t a r c h says t h a t A l e x a n d e r s e a r c h e d f o r h i s dagger ( e ^ n * T e t ) , but A r i s t o n o u s had a n t i -c i p a t e d the ev e n t s (cpddcmvTos) and removed (ucpeXeo^au) i t . Now, u n l e s s we are t o imagine A l e x a n d e r g r o p i n g i n v a i n a t h i s w a i s t f o r the weapon, which A r i s t o n o u s , l i k e some l i g h t - f i n g e r e d t h i e f , had d e x t e r o u s l y s n a t c h e d away, we must assume t h a t the dagger l a y n earby and t h a t A r i s t o n o u s , w i t h f o r e t h o u g h t , had taken i t out o f harm's way. Q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , and i n no way c o n t r a d i c t o r y , i s the account g i v e n by C u r t i u s , i n which A l e x a n d e r , i n need o f a weapon, s n a t c h e s a s p e a r from one o f the bodyguards (.Alexander rapta lanoea ex manibus armigeri: 8.1.45). T h i s then i s the weapon t h a t Leon-n a t o s and Lysimachos w r e s t e d from A l e x a n d e r , who was now i n c e n s e d by the i n s o l e n c e o f K l e i t o s . C e r t a i n l y a l l the somatophyZ.dk.es were 97 present at the banquet, as Plutarch Implies, and as we should 39 expect. Very li k e l y each one attempted, in his own way, to avert the disaster, but we are not in a position to say who did what. Leonnatos, according to Arrian (4.12.2), ridiculed the abortive attempt to introduce pvoskynesis at the Macedonian Court. Arrian writes: aXXct ouyns Y^P Y e v ° V i ^ v n S e i t L xoCs Xdyous a v a a r a v r a s Ilepaaiv T O U S npeaguxciToOs e c p e^ns npoaxuvsCv. Asovvdrov 6e, Iva T & V E T a u p t u v , eiteuSn T L S E S O X E L T & V I l E p o a J v a u T i j J oux ev xdayu> n p o a x u v f f a a x , T O V 6E E u t y e A d a a u xijj axrfyaTt T O U I l E p a o u ws TaitELviji* xau T O U T ^ xotAEiin'vavTa T O T E 'AXi^avdpov CuvaXXaynvau a u ^ L S . Berve believes that the man in question is not Leonnatos the Bodyguard (though Arr. 2.12.5 calls him s v a r a i v E r a u p c o v ) , since Arrian refers to him i n a l l other instances (where he is specifically identified) as 6 awyaxocpu'Xa? (e.g., 4.21.4; 4.24.10; 6.9.3; 6.22.3), once he has related that Leonnatos became a Body-guard (3.5.5). Therefore, Berve concludes, this Leonnatos is the son of Antipatros of Aigai, the same Leonnatos whom Nearchos named 40 as one of the tvieTavdho'i at the Hydaspes River. I find Berve's equating of this Leonnatos with the one of Arrian's pvoskynesis-episode unconvincing. Plut. Alex..51.11. Berve 2.235, no. 467, s.v. -AEovvdros. Cf. Arr. Ind. 18.6 = Nearchos, FGrHist 133 Fl.- He is not the son of Antipatros the Regent, who was from Paliuraa 98 B e r v e ' s argument i s t o o dogmatic .and o v e r - s i m p l i f i e s A r r i a n ' s use o f t e r m i n o l o g y : "Dass es s i c h n i c h t um den g l e i c h -namigen S o m a t o p h y l a x . . . h a n d e l t . . . , z e i g t deutlich [my emphasis] der e r k l a r e n d e Z u s a t z A r r i a n s . . . e v a xwv e x a i T p w v . But t h e r e can be no t a l k o f c o n s i s t e n t o r i n c o n s i s t e n t usages i n A r r i a n : A r r i a n does n o t a p p l y the e p i t h e t 6 awyaxocpuXa^ t o Leonna t o s u n t i l 4.21.4 ( t h a t i s , a f t e r he^has r e l a t e d t h e pvoskynesis-e p i s o d e ) , n o r does t h i s e p i t h e t d e r i v e from t h e same s o u r c e as t h e p h r a s e e v a xwv e x a u p w v . B o t h p a s s a g e s i n w h i c h L e o n n a t o s i s d e s c r i b e d as a member o f the Eetaivoi d e r i v e from w r i t e r s o t h e r t h a n P t o l e m y , who i s c l e a r l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n 42 o f h im as somatophylax. Thus i t i s p e r f e c t l y r e a s o n a b l e t o f i n d L e o n n a t o s r e f e r r e d t o as a member o f t h e Eetaivoi a t 4.12.2, even though he became somatophylax a t 3.5.5 (one does n o t e x c l u d e 43 t h e o t h e r ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f we a r e t o c o n f i n e t h e argument t o what i s , and what i s n o t , e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n the s o u r c e s , we can . ' u n o t s a y w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t A n t i p a t r o s ' s o n , L e o n n a t o s , was a member o f t h e Eetaivoi; B e r v e ' s guess t h a t he was may be c o r r e c t , 44 but t h a t i s i m p l i c i t . 41 B e r v e 2.235. 42 F o r the s o u r c e s o f A r r . 2.12.5 see n o t e s 19 and 20 supra. F o r A r r . 4.12.2 see Kornemann, Die Alexandevgeschichte 142, who t h i n k s c h a p t e r s 10-12 co m p r i s e " E i n l a g e n . . . a u s anderen Q u e l l e n " ; c f . S t r a s b u r g e r , Ptolemaios und Alexander 40, who c a t e g o r i s e s c h a p t e r s 10-12 as Xeydyeva. 43 The somatophylakes were a l l hetaivoi, though o n l y seven hetaivoi were somatophylakes. G.S. S t a g a k i s , " O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e ETAIPOI o f A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t , " Ancient Macedonia, T h e s s a l o n i k i , 1970, 86-102, e x a g g e r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y . 44 B e r v e 1.31. 99 More i m p o r t a n t i s the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n . The man who laughed a t the s p e c t a c l e o f P e r s i a n s g r o v e l l i n g b e f o r e A l e x a n d e r was a man o f rank, t o whom the a c t of p r o s t r a t i o n was a b h o r r e n t and who must c e r t a i n l y have r e g a r d e d the Mace-d o n i a n k i n g as primus inter pares and P e r s i a n s as i n f e r i o r s . T h i s w i l l have been t r u e o f Leonnatos the Bodyguard, who was o f the h i g h e s t n o b i l i t y . A l e x a n d e r ' s anger was s h o r t - l i v e d , as we a r e t o l d ; he might have d e a l t more s e v e r e l y w i t h a l e s s e r i n d i v i d u a l . Now none of t h e s e p o i n t s r u l e s out Leonnatos, son o f A n t i p a t r o s , b u t he must be r e g a r d e d as the l e s s l i k e l y can-d i d a t e . A r r i a n ' s use o f the p h r a s e e v a TUSV e x a u p u v , which does no t r u l e out Leonnatos the Bodyguard, w i l l more l i k e l y r e f e r t o him than t o the obscure and o n c e - a t t e s t e d son o f A n t i p a t r o s . The l a t t e r ' s temporary d i s f a v o u r w i t h A l e x a n d e r would s c a r c e l y be s i g n i f i c a n t . The same s t o r y i s t o l d by C u r t i u s ( K l e i t a r c h o s ? ) about 45 P o l y p e r c h o n , though i n a more s e n s a t i o n a l form, w h i l e P l u t a r c h s u b s t i t u t e s the name of K a s s a n d r o s , the e l d e s t son o f A n t i p a t r o s 46 the Regent. C u r t i u s i s c e r t a i n l y wrong, on the b a s i s o f h i s own t e s t i m o n y . P o l y p e r c h o n was n o t p r e s e n t when the proskynesis scene took p l a c e . A r r i a n t e l l s . - u s t h a t P o l y p e r c h o n , A t t a l o s and A l k e t a s were l e f t b e h i n d w i t h K r a t e r o s i n Sogdiana to complete the s u b j u g a t i o n o f P a r a i t a k e n e , w h i l e A l e x a n d e r moved s o u t h i n t o B a k t r i a ; C u r t . 8.5.22. P l u t . Alex. 74.2-5; c f . H a m i l t o n , PA 206. See Berve 2.201-202, s.V. . KdaaavSpo.s. 100 i t was in Baktria that the conspiracy of the Pages was un-covered (Arr. 4.22.1-2). Since Attalos, Alketas and Krateros, with whom Polyperchon had l e f t Alexander's camp, were informed of the Pages' conspiracy by letter (Plut. Alex. 55.6) and since their departure from the main camp is dated by Curtius (8.5.2) to before the pvoskynesis-episode, i t appears that Polyperchon was not present when Alexander attempted to introduce pvoskynesis 47 and could not have ridiculed i t . Plutarch's failure to men-tion Polyperchon among those who were informed by letter i s per-haps explained by Polyperchon's separate mission to Bubacene, of 48 which only Curtius speaks. Polyperchon, therefore, should not be connected with this incident; Curtius has confused him with Leonnatos, who certainly was present. As for Kassandros, son of Antipatros, his participation in the affair must be the pro-duct of later writers, influenced by the antipathy of Kassandros and Polyperchon, and by the tradition that Alexander was hostile 49 to Antipatros and his sons. Thus, while Leonnatos, son of Antipatros of Aigai, i s re-motely possible as the man named by Arrian in the pvoskynesis-episode, he is unlikely; there is no reason to suppose that this Berve 2.326 believes that "die Tatsache [i.e.3 Polyperchon ridiculing the Persians] selbst i s t nicht zu bezweifeln, zumal sie zu dem starr makedonischen Charakter des P. stimmt...." See "Chapter 3: Krateros, ' n.75. Curt. 8.5.2. 49 » . Plut. Alex.. 74.2: MaXuara .6 * ' Av ru i taTpov ecpogeCTO Hat TOUS icaC6as, uv ' i d X a s u&v apx^obvoxo 'os ?jv, 6 6e" Kdaav6pos atpCxro uev v e c o a T U . . . , 101 i s not the somatophylax, to whom Arrian refers i n a l l other c a s e s . H e incurred Alexander's displeasure, though only b r i e f l y , as Arr i a n implies and as we may deduce from Leonnatos' 51 52 career. Badian (followed by Hamilton ) speaks of t h i s i n -cident as "retard[ing] h i s advancement" and believes that Leonnatos " r e h a b i l i t a t e d himself by outstanding courage," 53 whereby Badian must r e f e r to the heroism against the M a l l o i . But Alexander's anger must have been very s h o r t - l i v e d , for Leonnatos' m i l i t a r y career, which had only begun i n the spring of 327 (i.e., j u s t before the experiment with pvoskynesis) , suffered nothing adverse when the army set out for India at 54 the end of spring of that same year. A r r i a n mentions no other Leonnatos i n the Anabasis. The name i s only twice attested i n t h i s period, but i t i s known i n l a t e r times; cf. Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 168-169, n.75. See also Badian, TAPA 91 (1960) 337, n.34, who rejec t s Berve's i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n with Leonnatos no.467. In the case of Polyperchon, Curtius says that h i s disfavour lasted some time: Polypeveonti quidem postea castigato diu ignoviti 8.6.1. 52 Hamilton, PA 54. 53 Badian, TAPA 91 (1960) 337: "...Leonnatus, seems to have i n -curred the king's displeasure by contributing to the r i d i c u l e that k i l l e d the attempt to introduce pvoskynesis among the Macedonians. This must have retarded h i s advancement. When he r e h a b i l i t a t e d himself by outstanding courage and l o y a l t y , h i s r i s e was rapid, culminating i n the great honor he received at Susa." 54 The a f f a i r of the Pages, and the arrest of K a l l i s t h e n e s , occurred i n Baktria i n 327 (Arr. 4.22.2) ; the pvoskynesis-eplsode must have been s h o r t l y before t h i s , and a f t e r the marriage of Alexander and Rhoxane. Cf. Berve 2.346-347; "Die Verschmelzungspolitik Alexanders des Grossen," Klio 31 (1938) 152-153 = G r i f f i t h , Main Pvoblems 120-121; Brown, AJP 70 (1949) = G r i f f i t h , Main Pvoblems 49; Fox 320ff. 102 If we are to single out any event that may have won back the King's favour for Leonnatos, we might consider his part in the affair of the Pages. According to Curtius, Eury-lochos, the brother of Charikles, brought the news of the Pages' conspiracy to Alexander through the agency of Ptolemy, son of Lagos, and Leonnatos."^ Arrian does not mention Leonnatos, only Ptolemy, who was doubtless eager to win for himself sole credit for the d i s c l o s u r e . W e knowanothing further of his activities in this connexions Leonnatos' f i r s t military command dates to the spring of 327 and, therefore, chronologically before the conspiracy of the Pages. This amounted to the leadership of the forces that besieged the "Rock of Chorienes" by night, a task that Leonnatos f u l f i l l e d in rotation with his fellaw-somatophylakes, Perdikkas and Ptolemy."'7 We know nothing else about this command, but i t marks (as far as we can t e l l ) Leonnatos' entry into the military sphere. When the army l e f t Baktria for India,iwith Hephaistion 5 8 and Perdikkas sent to the Indus, Leonnatos and Ptolemy emerged C u r t . 8.6.22. See B e r v e 2.159, 407, nos. 322, 824, s.W. Euptf-AOXOS, XotpuHAffs; c f . T.S. Brown, AJP 70 (1949) 2 4 0 f f . ; J . S e i b e r t , Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Ptolemaios I. (Mttnchener Beitr&ge zur Papyrus fgrschung und antiken Reohtsgeschichte. H e f t 56) Mu n i c h , 1969, 18-19. Arr. 4.13.7. Cf. Berve 2.152-153, 191-199, nos. 305, 408, s.W. 'EpudAaos, KaA\LO"de"vns. See Seibert, Zoo. cit. ; Strasburger, Ptolemaios und Alexander 40; Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 143. Arr. 4.21.4. Cf. F. von Schwarz, Alexander des Grossen FeldzUge in Turkestan, Munich, 1893, 21-23, 83ff.; Fuller, Generalship 244-245. Arr. 4.22.7; 30.9; 5.3.5; Curt. 8.10.2-3; Metz Epit. 48; V. Smith, E H I 53, 63. 103 as prominent commanders of that segment of the army under Alexander's per s o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . Both were wounded i n the 59 t e r r i t o r y around the Choes R i v e r , though not s e r i o u s l y , f o r each commanded on e - t h i r d of Alexander's forces i n the campaign that drove the Aspasians i n t o the h i l l s ; Leonnatos' forces i n c l u d e d the taxeis of pezhetaivoi under the command 60 of A t t a l o s , son of Andromenes, and Balakros. While Ptolemy r e l a t e s the a c t i v i t i e s of h i s own d i v i s i o n i n some d e t a i l , we know l i t t l e about Leonnatos' forces other than that they were e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d r i v i n g the Aspasians from t h e i r 61 p o s i t i o n s i n the h i l l s and b r i n g i n g about t h e i r defeat. Leonnatos had, at l e a s t , proved hims e l f a competent commander. At the Hydaspes R i v e r , Alexander faced Poros w i t h h i s en-t i r e f o r c e and, s i n c e he had more experienced m i l i t a r y men at h i s d i s p o s a l , he used Leonnatos i n a l e s s e r c a p a c i t y . C u r t i u s names Leonnatos as an infantry-commander, together w i t h A n t i -62 genes and Tauron, and says that he crossed the Hydaspes some Ar r . 4.23.3. A r r . 4.24.10. Cf. Berve 2.101, no. 201,••s.V. BdAaxpog. K a e r s t , BE I I . 2 (1896) 2816, s.v. "Balakros ( 4 ) . " A r r . 4.25.3. Curt. 8.14.15. Cf. Berve 2.41, 371-372, nos. 83, 741, s.w. ' A vToy^v r i s , Taupwv. 104 d i s t a n c e upstream from the main camp t h a t f a c e d P o r o s ' army. But Berve has c o r r e c t l y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a comparison o f the t e x t s o f A r r i a n and C u r t i u s r e v e a l s t h a t C u r t i u s has m i s t a k e n Leonnatos f o r S e l e u k o s , and t h a t the company o f i n f a n t r y i n 63 q u e s t i o n a r e , i n f a c t , the h y p a s p i s t s . Other than t h i s , t h e r e i s no mention o f Leonnatos i n the b a t t l e a g a i n s t Poros. Presumably h i s a c t i v i t i e s were s i m i l a r t o those o f Ptolemy, w i t h whom he s h a r e d the rank o f somatophylax and whose e a r l i e r 64 m i l i t a r y c a r e e r was somewhat s i m i l a r . But t h i s i s o f l i t t l e h e l p , f o r we know o n l y t h a t the somatophylakes, P e r d i k k a s , Ptolemy and L ysimachos, c r o s s e d the Hydaspes i n the same t r i a k o n t e r as 65 A l e x a n d e r ; o f the o t h e r somatophylakes A r r i a n says n o t h i n g , though H e p h a i s t i o n , as hipparoh, c e r t a i n l y c r o s s e d the r i v e r 66 at the same time. C u r t i u s , on the o t h e r hand, i s o f l i t t l e u s e, f o r he g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e s t h e r o l e and importance o f Ptolemy 67 i n t h i s b a t t l e . We must assume t h a t , as somatophylax, Leonnatos 6 3 A r r . 5 . 1 2 . I f f . Berve 2.233. 64 Berve 2.329-335, no. 668, s.v. nxoAeyaCog. S e i b e r t , Unter-suohungen zur Geschichte Ptolemaios (n.55 supra), omits t h i s p a r t o f Ptolemy's c a r e e r e n t i r e l y . Leonnatos and Ptolemy appear t o g e t h e r i n a number o f i n s t a n c e s d u r i n g these y e a r s : C u r t . 8.1.46; A r r . 4.21.4; C u r t . 8.6.22; A r r . 4.23.3; 4.24.10; 4.25.3; C u r t . 8.14.15; P l u t . Mor. 344D; A r r . 6.28.4. 6 5 A r r . 5.13.1. But c f . Berve 2.172, n . l . 66 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the b a t t l e i n g e n e r a l see the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d i n " C hapter 1: Hep h a i s t i o n , ' ' n.79. 6 7 C u r t . 8.13.17-27. 105 accompanied A l e x a n d e r when he c r o s s e d t h e Hydaspes and t h a t he fought among the t r o o p s t h a t were d i r e c t l y under A l e x a n d e r ' s c o n t r o l , namely, t h e c a v a l r y - u n i t s o f H e p h a i s t i o n and P e r d i k k a s 68 and the ile basilike. In the march t o the Hyphasis and back we hear n o t h i n g o f Leonnatos. H i s name reapp e a r s i n the l i s t o f some t h i r t y tvievavehoi a t the Hydaspes R i v e r i n l a t e 326, some t h r e e o r 69 f o u r months a f t e r the b a t t l e w i t h P o r o s . These t h i r t y were g i v e n t r i e r a r c h i e s o f the A t t i c t y p e , t h a t i s , they were r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r meeting the expenses o f f i t t i n g out a t r i e r e m e . 7 ^ But he d i d n o t command a s h i p ; t h i s i s c l e a r from the r o l e s o f some o f the o t h e r tvievavdhoi . and from Leonnatos' a c t i v i t i e s n e a r P a t t a l a . 7 1 S i n c e he was among the f o r c e s t h a t h a b i t u a l l y a c -companied the K i n g , he v e r y l i k e l y s a i l e d d o w n - r i v e r w i t h him A r r . 5.16; C u r t . 8.14.15. A r r . Ind. 18.3-10 = Nearchos, FGvEist 133 F l . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f A l e x a n d e r ' s e x p e d i t i o n see B e l o c h I I I ^ 2.304-322, " Die C h r o n o l o g i e der F e l d z l i g e A l e x a n d e r s , " esp. 320. The d e p a r t u r e o f the f l e e t and the l a n d - f o r c e s i s d a t e d by Str a b o 15. 692 (= A r i s t o b o u l o s , FGvEist 139 F35) t o "a few days b e f o r e the s e t t i n g o f the P l e i a d e s " (itpo Suoeios i c X e u d f i o s ou itOAAotCs nu^pctus). See most r e c e n t l y H. Hauben, "The Ex p a n s i o n o f Macedonian Sea-Power under A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t , " Anc. Soc. 7 (1976) 91; U. W i l c k e n (188) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s had a f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n : " t o g i v e a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the e n t e r p r i s e to h i s immediate f o l l o w e r s . " See a l s o Berve 1.165-166. E.g. 3 H e p h a i s t i o n and K r a t e r o s , who commanded the l a n d - f o r c e s i n the des c e n t o f the Indus. F o r Leonnatos' a c t i v i t i e s see below. 106 as far as the confluence of the Hydaspes and the Akesines and later accompanied him by land in the campaign against the Malloi, 72 who lived between the Akesines and Hydraotes Rivers. It was in this campaign against the Malloi that Leonnatos played one of his most noteworthy - though again disputed - parts. Alexander had taken the Malloi by surprise, marching through the desert that lay between the rivers, rather than marching north, as the Indians themselves anticipated, from the junction of the 73 rivers. When the Malloi withdrew to their main city and Alexander sought to inspire his war-weary Macedonians by being the f i r s t to scale the city-walls, near-disaster struck. Very few of the Macedonians managed to join Alexander at the top before the ladders gave way, and Alexander, seeing that he was cut off from his troops, leapt from the walls inside the city, where 74 he was wounded by an enemy missile. Several of his followers rushed to his aid, though i t is not clear from the sources exactly who these were. One is certain: Peukestas, who was made an eighth somatophylax for his part in saving the King's l i f e . 7 5 The others 7 2 Arr. 6.2.3ff.; Curt. 9.3.24. 73 Arr. 6.4, esp. 6.4.3; Curt. 9.4.15ff. is ignorant of Alexander's strategy. See Fuller, Generalship 259-263; Wilcken 190; Hamilton, PA 176; V. Smith, EHi 98ff. ; Breloer, Alexanders Bund mit Poros: Indien von Dareios zu Sandrokottos3 Leipzig, 1941, 29ff. 74 Arr. 6.8.4-13.5 for a f u l l account of Alexander's a c t i v i t i e s ; cf. Curt. 9.4.26-5.30; Diod. 17.98-100.1; Plut. Alex. 63; MOT. 327B; 341C; 343D; 344C-D; Strabo 15.701; Justin 12.9.3-13; Oros. 3.19.6-10; Itiner. 115-116; Metz Epit. 76-77; Ps.-Kall. 3.4.12-15; Zon. 4.13, p.299, 16; Iulian. oonv. 331A; cf. Hamilton, PA 176ff.; Kornemann, Die Alexander'geschichte 82-85. 7 5 Berve 2.318-319, no. 634, s.v. ne0ne"aTas; Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 177-178; Arr. 6.28.3-4. 107 pose problems. Aristonous and Ptolemy are named, but the for-mer i s mentioned only by Curtius, while Ptolemy himself (against the testimony of Kleitarchos) said that he was not present at the b a t t l e . 7 d Three others are named in connexion with the incident: Habreas and Limnaios (= Timaeus), who were both k i l l e d , 7 7 and 78 Leonnatos, who for his heroism was crowned at Sousa by Alexander. Both Habreas and Leonnatos are disputed, as Arrian tells,us: uitep Aeovvdxou 6e ouxexu £uucpepovxau ou6e uirep 'A3p£ou xoO 6uuoppC*xou (6.11.7). But this does not mean, as Berve suggests, that "[Limnaios] wird von einem T e i l der Uberlieferung (Plut. 63; de fort. Alex. 1.2 p.327B; 11.13 p. 344D) an Stelle des auch nicht sicher bezeugten Leonnatos (nr. 466; Arr. VI,11,7) beim Kampf um die Mallerstadt ge-79 nannt." Plutarch (Alex. 63; Mor. 327B) does f a i l to mention 76 Curt. 9.5.21: Vtolomaeum, qui postea regnavit3 huic pugnae ad-fuisse auatoT est Clitarchus et Timagenes; sed ipse3 scilicet gloriae suae non vefragatus afuisse se3 missum in expeditionem, memoriae tradidit. Cf. Arr. 6.11.8; 6.5.6-7; Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 82-85. See also R.M. Errington, "Bias in Ptolemy's History of Alexander," CQ n.s. 19 (1969) 235, 239. 7 7 Berve 2.5-6, no. 6, s.v. 'ABp^as; Kirchner, RE 1.1 (1893) 110, s.v. "Abreas"; Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 222; he is named only by Arrian, whom Droysen, Hellenismus 1.368-369, follows; cf. Schacher-meyr, Alexander der Grosse 455; Kornemann, Die Alexandergeschichte 254. Limnaios (Plut.), Timaeus (Curt.), see Berve 2.237, no. 474, s.v. AuuvaCos; Niese 1.143; n.3; Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 147. 78 Curt. 9.5.15, 17 (with Peukestas, Aristonous, Timaeus); Plut. Mor. 344D (with Ptolemy, Limnaios); not mentioned by Mor. 327B (only Ptolemy and Limnaios); Arr. Ind. 19.8 = Nearchos, FGrHist 133 F l (with Peukestas); Arr. 6.9.3; 6.10.1-2 (with Peukestas, Habreas); 6.11.7 (his role i s not attested by a l l sources). And cf. Arr. Ind. 23.6; Arr. 7.5.5, where he is crowned, i n part for saving Alexander's l i f e . 79 Berve 2.237. 108 Leonnatos, but he does not s u b s t i t u t e Limnaios f o r Leonnatos ( i n f a c t , they appear together i n MOT. 344D). What does happen i n s t e a d i s that Limnaios-Timaeus of P l u t a r c h - C u r t i u s replaces 80 Habreas, who i s known only to A r r i a n (Ptolemy and/or A r i s t o b o u l o s ) . But, when A r r i a n says that there was no agreement on the matter of Leonnatos ( u i t E p Aeovvdxou 6e ouKe'it ^uucpe'povTau), he must mean th a t Leonnatos was not named by every work that he consulted; t h i s i s indeed t r u e of the extant authors. I f the extant records r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y t h e i r primary sources, then t h i s means that A r r i a n ' s sources were not unanimous on the subject of Leonnatos among the M a l l o i . I f there was a dispute about i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i n v o l v e d Limnaios and Habreas, both of whom were k i l l e d i n the b a t t l e . Cer-t a i n l y , i t w i l l have been e a s i e r to confuse the names of the ob-81 scure dead than of a wounded, but l i v i n g , hero. From the c i t y of the M a l l o i to the j u n c t i o n of the Akesines and Hydraotes, and thence to P a t t a l a , Leonnatos accompanied Alexander by sh i p . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h i s w i l l have been on account of h i s wounds, i n the second, because he belonged to eos...3 qui oomitari eum [sc. Alexandrum] solebant, whom Cur t i u s 82 speaks of as accompanying Alexander by s h i p . At P a t t a l a , Leon-natos, now recovered from h i s wounds, l e d a force of one thousand 80 See n.77 supra f o r references. For the confusion of Habreas and Limnaios (Timaeus) see myrgroupings i n n.78 supra3 where i t i s c l e a r t h a t there i s no confusion of Limnaios f o r Leon-natos (against Berve 2.237). 81 For the dispute concerning Ptolemy see n.76 supra. Curt. 9.8.3. 109 c a v a l r y and e i g h t t h o u s a n d h o p l i t e s and -psiloi a l o n g t h e s h o r e o f the i s l a n d ( w hich formed t h e d e l t a o f the Indus) w h i l e A l e x a n d e r t o o k the f l e e t t o the Ocean v i a t h e w e s t e r n 83 arm o f the r i v e r . W i t h A l e x a n d e r r e t u r n i n g u p s t r e a m , Leon-n a t o s now r e t r a c e d h i s s t e p s t o P a t t a l a . From t h e r e he a c -companied t h e K i n g , by l a n d , a l o n g t h e e a s t e r n arm o f t h e r i v e r as f a r as a g r e a t l a k e , where he remained i n c h a r g e of h i s own t r o o p s and t h o s e s h i p s w i t h t h e i r c r e w s , t h a t ; A l e x a n d e r l e f t b e h i n d as he t o o k a s m a l l e r detachment t o 84 t h e Ocean. When A l e x a n d e r r e t u r n e d , L e o n n a t o s , i t seems, l e d t he l a n d f o r c e s back t o P a t t a l a . H a v i n g r e a c h e d t h e Ocean, A l e x a n d e r now gave t h o u g h t t o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e West. Pr e s u m a b l y h i s n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s had t o l d h i m t h a t the r e g i o n t o t h e west l a c k e d w a t e r , and so he s e n t L e o n n a t o s ahead t o d i g w e l l s a l o n g t h e r r o u t e t h a t t h e 85 army was t o f o l l o w . When he had c o m p l e t e d t h i s t a s k , L e o n -n a t o s a w a i t e d A l e x a n d e r on the b o r d e r s o f t h e l a n d o f the O r e i t a i ; 86 t h i s was l a t e i n t h e summer o f 325. R e a c h i n g t h e A r a b i o s R i v e r , A l e x a n d e r l e f t t h e b u l k o f the army under t h e command o f H e p h a i s t i o n and, d i v i d i n g t h e r r e s t o f the army i n t o t h r e e p a r t s (as he had done a g a i n s t the A s p a s i a n s two y e a r s e a r l i e r ) , under the command o f P t o l e m y , L e o n n a t o s and h i m s e l f , he moved s o u t h o f t h e A r a b i o s i n t o 8 3 A r r . 6.18.3. 8 4 A r r . 6.20.3. or C u r t . 9.10.2. 8 6 B e l o c h I I I 2 2.320. 110 the t e r r i t o r y o f the O r e i t a i , who had n o t s u b m i t t e d to him. By means o f a v i g o r o u s "sweep-programme," l i k e the one he had employed i n Sogdiana i n 329, A l e x a n d e r ravaged the l a n d and 87 subdued the O r e i t a i . The columns of Ptolemy and Leonnatos r e u n i t e d f i r s t w i t h A l e x a n d e r and then w i t h H e p h a i s t i o n ' s t r o o p s . I n one body t h e y p r o c e e d e d t o Rhambakia, where H e p h a i s t i o n was l e f t t o s e t t l e the c i t y , w h i l e A l e x a n d e r took a f o r c e t o the G e d r o s i a n b o r d e r , where the O r e i t a i and the G e d r o s i a n s were p r e -88 p a r i n g t o r e s i s t . When these had been overcome w i t h o u t much d i f f i c u l t y , A l e x a n d e r s e n t L e o n n a t o s , t o g e t h e r w i t h A p o l l o p h a n e s , whom he had a p p o i n t e d s a t r a p o f the a r e a , t o Rhabakia, presumably w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o send H e p h a i s t i o n ahead t o G e d r o s i a . But Leonnatos, w i t h the A g r i a n e s , some a r c h e r s and c a v a l r y , and a f o r c e o f mercenary c a v a l r y and i n f a n t r y , was o r d e r e d to remain i n the > » 89 l a n d o f the O r e i t a i (EV "fipous), w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : TO TE v.auTUMOv uuouEveLV e a t ' *av nepLTtXe\5ari TTJV X ^ P ° W xau T r j v n6*Xuv ^UVOLHL^ELV n a i Ta KotTct TOUS 'fipELTas HoayeCv ( A r r . 6.22.3). 90 > » H a m i l t o n has argued c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t n o t o n l y does EV "fipoLs C u r t . 9.10.6-7; Diod. 17.104.5-6; c f . t t h e s s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y i n Sogdiana, A r r . 4.16.1-3; C u r t . 8 . 1 . I f f . A r r . 6.21.5-22.2. A r r . 6.22.3. J.R. H a m i l t o n , " A l e x a n d e r among the O r e i t a e , " Historia 21 (1972) 605-606. I l l mean "among the Oreitai" but the use of the definite article in x r j v T t d A u v £uvouMLC;euv refers to the city mentioned previously 91 (i.e., Rhambakia, which Hephaistion had begun to synoecize ), 92 and not another city, as was formerly thought. Sometime between Alexander's departure and the arrival of Nearchos with the fleet, Leonnatos won an impressive victory over the Oreitai, who had risen against him. According to the partisan account of Nearchos, he in f l i c t e d upon the enemy heavy 93 casualties: "he k i l l e d six thousand of them, and a l l tHeir leaders." And of his own forces Leonnatos lost only fifteen cavalrymen and 94 a handful of infantry; Apollophanes the satrap f e l l in the battle. 95 When Nearchos arrived at the shore near Rhambakia, Leonnatos had prepared provisions for his Ocean-voyage. He also exchanged troops with Nearchos taking with him those men who, on account of their laziness, had caused or might cause disciplinary problems on the 96 fleet. After Nearchos' departure, Leonnatos put everything in 9 1 Arr. 6.21.5. 92 Wilcken 199; see also the literature cited by Hamilton, op. cit., 603, n.l,.though I am baffled by the reference to Droysen III.2, p.233 (I find that Droysen, Hellenismus 1.391, appears to agree with Hamilton that Leonnatos finished Hephaistion's work at Rham-bakia: "die Kolonisation der neuen Stadt zu vollenderi"). 93 Arr. Ind. 23.5 = Nearchos, FGrHist 133 F l . 94 Ibid. On the fate of Apollophanes see Badian, "Harpalus," JHS 81 (1961) 21. 9 5 Arr. 6.22.3; cf. Ind. 23 = 133 F l . ^ Ind. 23.8: nat TUJV vaure'ajv 6'aou ev TU epyiji BAowerfeLV ecpauvovto Necxpx^. 112 o r d e r among the O r e l t a i (as he had been I n s t r u c t e d ) and s e t out f o r G e d r o s i a by l a n d . The news o f h i s e x p l o i t s had a l r e a d y r e ached 97 A l e x a n d e r by l e t t e r , b u t i t i s u n c e r t a i n where Leonnatos h i m s e l f r e j o i n e d A l e x a n d e r ; perhaps i t was i n Karmania, though p o s s i b l y o n l y at Sousa. Sousa marked the h i g h - p o i n t i n Leonnatos' c a r e e r under A l e x a n d e r . He was awarded a g o l d e n crown i n honour of h i s 98 courage i n I n d i a and h i s v i c t o r y o v e r the O r e i t a i . P r e -sumably he t o o k a P e r s i a n b r i d e i n t h e marriage-ceremony a t Sousa, though we have no r e c o r d o f t h i s ; n o r i s t h e r e any mention o f h i s b r i d e . Whoever she was, she was d o u b t l e s s r e p u d i a t e d by Leonnatos s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d , and, u n l i k e A m a s t r i s , the P e r s i a n 99 b r i d e o f K r a t e r o s , she had no known h i s t o r y under the Diadochi.. When A l e x a n d e r d i e d s u ddenly i n B a b y l o n , Leonnatos emerged as one o f the strong-men o f the s u c c e s s i o n - c r i s i s : t o g e t h e r w i t h P e r d i k k a s and Ptolemy, he belon g e d to ot U^Y^OTOL TWV unitewv x a u xu3v f ) Y e u o v w v s a s opposed to t h o s e l e s s e r l i g h t s , [oi] yex' exeuvous. C u r t . 9.10.19. A r r . Ind. 23.6; 42.9; Anab. 7.5.5. I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t he was crowned a second time when " H e p h a i s t i o n and the o t h e r somato-phy l a k e s " were crowned (7.5.6). Berve 2.24, no. 50, s.v. "Ayaaxpus; c f . W i l c k e n , RE 1.2 (1894) 1750, s.v. " A m a s t r i s ( 7 ) ; and a l s o my C h a p t e r 3: K r a t e r o s . A r r . Suae. Ia.2. 113 I n the debate t h a t f o l l o w e d , i n which t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f P e r d i k k a s proposed t h a t Rhoxane:'s a s - y e t - u n b o r n c h i l d ( i f i n d e e d a son was born) s h o u l d i n h e r i t the kingdom, i t was s u g g e s t e d by P e i t h o n , one o f the Bodyguard, t h a t Leonnatos s h a r e w i t h P e r d i k k a s the g u a r d i a n -s h i p o f the c h i l d , on the ground t h a t b o t h were o f r o y a l s t o c k (stivpe 101 regia genitos: C u r t . 10.7.8). But when the common s o l d i e r y , i n -c i t e d by M e l e a g r o s , d e c l a r e d f o r the f e e b l e A r r h i d a i o s , whom they h a i l e d as K i n g under the t i t l e P h i l i p I I I , Leonnatos l e d the c a v a l r y , the backbone o f P e r d i k k a s ' s u p p o r t , o u t s i d e the c i t y o f B a b y l o n , w h i l e P e r d i k k a s h i m s e l f remained w i t h i n the c i t y i n the hope o f win-n i n g o v e r the i n f a n t r y . But P e r d i k k a s ' s t a y was b r i e f , owing t o the h o s t i l i t y o f M e l e a g r o s , who had c o n v i n c e d the co n f u s e d A r r h i d a i o s t h a t P e r d i k k a s must be k i l l e d , and he soon r e j o i n e d Leonnatos and 102 the c a v a l r y . At t h i s p o i n t our knowledge o f Leonnatos' a c t i v i t i e s i n the s t r u g g l e f o r power a t Ba b y l o n b r e a k s o f f , f o r h i s cause was 103 e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t o f P e r d i k k a s , who dominates the a n c i e n t s o u r c e s . But, whatever Leonnatos' hopes were - and h i s e a r l i e r naming as a g u a r d i a n t o g e t h e r w i t h P e r d i k k a s (whose a m b i t i o u s d e s i g n s Leonnatos was i n t e n d e d t o keep i n check) s u g g e s t s t h a t he c o u l d have hoped f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e power -, he must have been d i s a p p o i n t e d by the outcome. 101 102 103 Cf. J u s t i n 13.2.13-14. C u r t . 10.7.20; 10.8.4. That Leonnatos w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y s u p p o r t e d P e r d i k k a s ' regency i s d o u b t f u l , but the h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c e r s w i l l have been unanimous i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o Meleagros and P h i l i p A r r h i d a i o s . F o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n , w i t h the modern l i t e r a t u r e , see Chapter 4: P e r -d i k k a s . 114 P e r d i k k a s , once he had overcome M e l e a g r o s , became the de facto r u l e r o f the A s i a n empire, f o r he had b o t h the f i g u r e - h e a d , P h i l i p A r r h i d a i o s , and the r o y a l armies f i r m l y under h i s c o n t r o l ; t h e r e was no f u r t h e r t a l k o f s p e c i a l a u t h o r i t y f o r Leonnatos once the c a v a l r y and i n f a n t r y had been r e c o n c i l e d . In the s e t t l e m e n t o f 323 ( t h e much-debated Reichsordnung o f B a b y l o n ) , Leonnatos was l e f t somewhat out i n the c o l d . A s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r o f P e r d i k k a s ( a t l e a s t i n the s t r u g g l e w i t h M e l e a g r o s ) , he must have been d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s a t r a p y o f H e l l e s p o n t i n e 104 P h r y g i a , d e s p i t e i t s s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n . D i d P e r d i k k a s , i n f a c t , t h i n k t h a t Leonnatos would a c t i n h i s i n t e r e s t s ? I f s o , he was q u i c k l y d i s a p p o i n t e d , f o r Leonnatos began im m e d i a t e l y to i n t r i g u e a g a i n s t P e r d i k k a s and*the marshals o f the empire. He had been c o n t a c t e d by the s i s t e r o f A l e x a n d e r , the widow o f A l e x a n d r o s o f E p e i r o s , K l e o p a t r a , through whom he hoped to g a i n power; f o r she had o f f e r e d h e r hand i n m a r r i a g e , perhaps at Olympias' i n s t i g a t i o n , and such a m a r r i a g e c a r r i e d w i t h i t a s e r i o u s - p o s s i b l y " l e g i t i -mate" - c l a i m to the throne o f Macedon. A r r . Succ. Ia.6; l b . 2 ; C u r t . 10.10.2; Diod. 18.3.1; and 18.12.1 (where " P h i l o t a s " i s w r i t t e n i n s t e a d o f L e o n n a t o s ) ; J u s t i n 13.4. 16. C o n s i d e r R.M. E r r i n g t o n ' s remarks: "Leonnatus a c q u i r e d a c r u c i a l s a t r a p y i n exchange - which P e r d i c c a s c o u l d s c a r c e l y deny him - but h i s subsequent c a r e e r shows h i s thwarted a m b i t i o n , and h i s l a t e r d i s l o y a l t y t o P e r d i c c a s may have o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s r e b u f f " ("From Babylon to T r i p a r a d e i s o s : 323-320 B.C.," JHS 90 [1970] 57). P l u t . Eumenes 3.8-9. F o r K l e o p a t r a see Berve 2.212-213, no. 433, s.V. KXeoudrpa; S t a n e l i n , RE XI.1 (1921) 735-738, s.v. " K l e o p a t r a ( 1 3 ) . " See a l s o Macurdy, Eellenistic Queens 3 0 f f . , esp. 36-37; Droysen, Eellenismus 2.37; Geyer, RE XII.2 (1925) 2037; E r r i n g t o n , op. cit. 60. 115 Leonnatos certainly was not content to play "second fiddle" to Perdikkas. When he received orders to aid Eumenes i n wresting his satrapy of Kappadokia from Ariarathes, he had already formulated his plan to overthrow P e r d i k k a s . U n d o u b t e d l y he was encouraged by the insubordination of Antigonos, satrap of Phrygia, who refused Perdikkas' instructions that he also should support Eumenes; nor w i l l he have failed to recognise that Perdikkas did not have the strong backing of the generals. Peithon, Ptolemy, Philotas, Anti-107 gonos, a l l were seditious. But with Eumenes Leonnatos miscal-culated, thinking that he would find i n him a willing ally. It i s d i f f i c u l t to say whether Eumenes was loyal to Perdikkas from the start or i f he was forced into his camp by the circumstances. Renewed turmoil in Greece offered Leonnatos his pretext for crossing the Hellespont and seeking the throne; for Antipatros, blockaded at Lamia in Thessaly by Leosthenes and his forces, sent Hekataios of Kardia to summon both Krateros and Leonnatos to Greece. Now, i t appears, Leonnatos made a serious error, for he attempted to persuade Eumenes to cross into Europe with him, ostensibly i n aid of Antipatros, in reality to win the Macedonian throne for himself. Plut. Eumenes 3.4-5. For Peithon's designs in the upper satrapies see Diod. 18.4.8; 18. 7.1-9. Ptolemy's opposition to Perdikkas' regency can be seen i n the succession-debate, Curt. 10.6.13-16; Justin 13.2.11-12; for his fear of Perdikkas' intentions Diod. 18.14.1-2. Philotas was removed from his satrapy (Justin 13.6.16) on account of his loyalty to Krateros (Arr. Suae. 24.9-11). For Antigonos' insubordination see Plut. Eumenes 3.4-5. Plut. Evan. 3.6; Diod. 18.12.1 (see n.104 supra) ; 18.14.4-5; Justin 13.5.14-15. 116 He r e v e a l e d t o Eumenes t h e d e t a i l s o f h i s correspondence w i t h K l e o p a t r a , but i n t h i s m a t t e r he misjudged Eumenes, who had no i n t e n t i o n o f j o i n i n g f o r c e s w i t h h i m on account o f h i s a r c h -r i v a l H e k a t a i o s . While A l e x a n d e r l i v e d , Eumenes had denounced H e k a t a i o s , u r g i n g the K i n g t o depose him and r e s t o r e eleutheria to t he K a r d i a n s . Now he f e a r e d t h a t A n t i p a t r o s would k i l l him 109 i n o r d e r t o p l e a s e H e k a t a i o s . T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g the n i g h t , Eumenes and h i s f o r c e s s l i p p e d away from Leonnatos, b r i n g i n g the news o f Leonnatos' d e s i g n s to P e r d i k k a s . 1 1 ^ D i s a p p o i n t e d i n h i s hopes o f w i n n i n g Eumenes' s u p p o r t , Leonnatos c r o s s e d i n t o Europe w i t h o u t a w a i t i n g K r a t e r o s ; but f o r t u n e was n o t w i t h him. He f e l l on the b a t t l e f i e l d at Krannon i n T h e s s a l y , as d i d h i s Greek opponent L e o s t h e n e s . A n t i p a t r o s may i n d e e d , as J u s t i n c l a i m s , have w e l -112 corned the death o f Leonnatos. 109 110 111 P l u t . Eumenes 3.8-10. V e z i h , Eumenes von Kardia 27-28, argues t h a t Eumenes, as a Greek, was n o t eager t o a s s i s t i n s u p p r e s s i n g t h i s most r e c e n t Greek u p r i s i n g . V e z i n (28) -suggests t h a t "Leon-n a t s u b e r e i l t e O f f e n h e i t i h n n i c h t a l s dennMann e r w i e s , s o l c h e i n e A b s i c h t zu v e r w i r k l i c h e n . " Macurdy, Hellenistic Queens 36-37, d e s c r i b e s Leonnatos as "impetuous and e a s i l y c a r r i e d away by en-t h u s i a s m , " b u t he d i d have the s u p p o r t o f Olympias and h e r daughter ( t h e f a m i l y o f A l e x a n d e r s t i l l counted f o r s o m e t h i n g ) , and he was h i m s e l f r e l a t e d t o the r o y a l house; thus h i s b i d f o r power c o u l d n ot be taken l i g h t l y . P l u t . Eum. 3.10; Nepos, Eum. 2.4-5, c l a i m s t h a t Leonnatos p l a n n e d to k i l l Eumenes when he c o u l d n o t persuade him. Perhaps i t was from Eumenes' r e p o r t t h a t P e r d i k k a s f i r s t gave thought t o m a r r y i n g K l e o p a t r a f o r p o l i t i c a l advantage. P l u t . Phokion 25.5; A r r . Suae. 1.9; Diod. 18.15.3; St r a b o 9.434; J u s t i n 13.5.14. Cf. Berve 2.236-237, no. 471, s.v. Aecoa^vris. On the Lamian War see A. S c h a e f e r , Demosthenes und seine Zeit I I I . 3 5 9 f f . 112 J u s t i n 13.5.15. 117 " K u r z , aber glanzend 1 s t d i e R o l l e , welche L f e o n n a t o s ] u n t e r A l [ e x a n d e r ] s p i e l t , und s i e s t e l l t i h n i n d i e Reihe d e r e r s t e n H e e r f l i h r e r s e i n e r Z e i t . " Thus Berve (2.235) summarises L e o n n a t o s 1 c a r e e r . He was a p o t e n t i a l u n f u l f i l l e d . F o r the S u c c e s s o r s o f A l e x a n d e r the Great h i s death was perhaps a t i m e l y one: t h e r e were a l r e a d y too many such men o f a m b i t i o n and a b i l i t y . As a p e r s o n a l i t y , Leonnatos (as he i s d e p i c t e d by the s o u r c e s ) l a c k s c o l o u r . Those who took the t r o u b l e t o r e c o r d such t h i n g s r e l a t e t h a t he was f o n d o f w r e s t l i n g and 113 g y m n a s t i c s ; o t h e r s a s c r i b e t o him a p a s s i o n f o r the hunt. I f he was opposed to the o r i e n t a l p r a c t i c e o f pvoskynesis, which he r e g a r d e d as demeaning, he was not e q u a l l y contemptuous o f P e r s i a n l u x u r y and o s t e n t a t i o n , though t h i s e x t r a v a g a n c e was most v i s i b l e i n h i s p u r s u i t o f s p o r t and w a r f a r e . B a s i c a l l y , he was a s o l d i e r and a man o f a c t i o n , about whom the Suda a p t l y s a y s : "he a t t a i n e d a share o f honour (xi,un) i n accordance w i t h h i s u p b r i n g i n g , h i s f a m i l y - b a c k g r o u n d , and the beauty and s t a t u r e o f h i s body."'''"'"4 P l u t . Alex. 40.1; P l i n y , NH 35.167-168 ( w r e s t l i n g and g y m n a s t i c s ) ; Athen. 12.539D = P h y l a r c h o s , FGrHist 81 F41 and/or A g a t h a r c h i d e s of K n i d o s , 86 F3; A i l i a n , VH 9.3 ( h u n t i n g ) ; c f . n . l supra. See a l s o H a m i l t o n , PA 106. Suda, s.V. AEOVVCITOS. Cf. H a m i l t o n , loo. cit. 118 CHAPTER 3 KRATEROS: cpuAoBaauAeus 1 K r a t e r o s was a s o l d i e r and a p a t r i o t , l o y a l t o h i s K i n g , 2 f a i t h f u l t o h i s Macedonian o r i g i n s . Throughout A l e x a n d e r ' s r e i g n he won the r e s p e c t and d e v o t i o n b o t h o f the K i n g and the army, through an u n u s u a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f a b i l i t y and l o y a l t y . Y e t he d i d n o t a t t a i n g r e a t n e s s , even when the moment p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f . As a p e r s o n a l i t y he appears t o have been somewhat un-i n s p i r e d , and h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o make a b i d f o r supreme power a f t e r A l e x a n d e r ' s death may w e l l b e t r a y a c e r t a i n u n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r s t a t e s m a n s h i p . But he gained q u i c k l y a r e p u t a t i o n as a s o l d i e r , and, among A l e x a n d e r ' s new commanders, he was und o u b t e d l y t h e b e s t . I n f o r m a t i o n on K r a t e r o s can be found i n the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s : F. Geyer, RE Supplbd IV (1924) 1038-1048, s.v. " K r a t e r o s ( l a ) " ; B erve 2.220-227, no. 446, s.v. Kpdxepos, though the a c c e n t s h o u l d be oxytone (Kpaxepds); c f . Hoffmann, Die Makedonen 155. I sug-g e s t the f o l l o w i n g r e v i s i o n s t o Berve's a r t i c l e : p.220 r e a d C u r t . 3.9.8 i n s t e a d o f 111,9,7; p.222 P l u t . Alex. 48 i s more p r e c i s e l y 48.7; f o r C u r t . V I , 8 , 3 f f . r e a d 6 . 8 . 2 f f . ; A r r . IV,4,3 s h o u l d r e a d 4.3.3; P l u t . 55 i s Alex. 55.6 (and c f . A r r . 4.22.2 f o r t h e d a t e ) ; add A r r . 5.12.1; p.224 f o r A r r . Ind. 19 r e a d Ind. 19.1, 3; add D i o d . 17.96.1; A r r . VI,5,5 s h o u l d r e a d 6.5.7; f o r " H i e " r e a d " H i e r " ; p.226 C u r t . V I I I , 8 , 2 s h o u l d be 6.8.2; a l s o the f o l l o w i n g more p r e c i s e r e f e r e n c e s t o P l u t a r c h ' s Alexander, p.226, l i n e 6, 47.9; l i n e 13, 41.5-7 and 47.10, l i n e 19, 47.11-12; l i n e 29, 41.5; l i n e 30, 40.4-5; a l s o p.226, l i n e 17, Eumenes 6.3. F o r K r a t e r o s i n A r r i a n - P t o l e m y see Kornemann, Die Alexander-geschichte 245-246. P l u t . Alex. 47.9-10. 119 I K r a t e r o s , son o f A l e x a n d r o s , came from the mountainous 3 can t o n o f O r e s t i s . Of h i s f a m i l y - b a c k g r o u n d v e r y l i t t l e i s known: h i s mother's name was A r i s t o p a t r a , 4 Amphoteros ( l a t e r A l e x a n d e r ' s a d m i r a l ) was h i s brother."* Presumably the f a m i l y b e l o n g e d t o the h i g h n o b i l i t y o f Upper Macedonia, f o r K r a t e r o s was one o f the most i n f l u e n t i a l members o f t h e Eetaivoi. But, s i n c e we do n o t know the names o f any o t h e r r e l a t i v e s - by b l o o d o r by m a r r i a g e -, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to determine a n y t h i n g f u r t h e r about the p o s i t i o n o f K r a t e r o s ' f a m i l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r n o b l e houses o f O r e s t i s and Macedonia. N e i t h e r Berve nor Geyer suggests -a date f o r K r a t e r o s ' b i r t h , though Berve r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r s Amphoteros the younger b r o t h e r . 7 F o r h i s f a t h e r ' s name: A r r . Ind. 18.5; A r r . 1.25.9; c f . a l s o P. P e r d r i z e t , " V e n a t i o A l e x a n d r i , " JHS. 19 (1899) 274. F o r O r e s t i s A r r . Ind. 18.5. S t r a b o 15.702 = FGrHist 153 F2 ( a l e t t e r from K r a t e r o s t o h i s mother). F o r Amphoteros see Berve 2.32-33, no. 68, s.v. 'Aucpoxepo's; K a e r s t , RE 1.2 (1894) 1977, s.v. "Amphoteros ( 4 ) . " C u r t . 6 . 8 . 2 f f . ; 6.8.17; 6.11.10; 9.6.6. On the Hetairoi, G.S. S t a g a k i s , " O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Hetairoi o f A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t , " Ancient Macedonia, T h e s s a l o n i k i , 1970, 86-102, c r e a t e s more problems than i t s o l v e s . K r a t e r o s d i d n o t become somato-phylax, and t h i s may imply t h a t h i s f a m i l y was o f l e s s e r im-p o r t a n c e ( c f . Berve's comments 1.25—26); c e r t a i n l y t h r e e o f the somatophylakes c r e a t e d by A l e x a n d e r had connexions w i t h r o y a l h o u s e s : P e r d i k k a s , L e o n n a t o s , Ptolemy. Berve 2.32. 120 T h i s can be r e a s o n a b l y i n f e r r e d f r o m K r a t e r o s ' r a n k . And, w h i l e i t i s h a z a r d o u s t o guess when K r a t e r o s was b o r n , i t appears t h a t he was c o n s i d e r a b l y younger t h a n t h e f o r e m o s t 8 g e n e r a l s o f P h i l i p I I : A t t a l o s , P a r m e n i o n , A n t i p a t r o s . K r a t e r o s ' p r o m o t i o n was q u i c k and s t e a d y , and t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t he was a younger man w i t h a b i l i t y , r a t h e r t h a n a m i d d l e -aged man whose c a r e e r p r o s p e r e d o n l y when A l e x a n d e r came t o t h e t h r o n e . Perhaps he was b o r n a f t e r 370 B.C. L a t e r c a s e s o f i l l h e a l t h w i l l be a s c r i b a b l e t o the e f f e c t s o f wounds and 9 h a r d c a m p a i g n i n g r a t h e r t h a n t o o l d age. K r a t e r o s ' s t o r y i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i l i t a r y , and i t i s f u l l o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . We h e a r n o t h i n g o f h i m b e f o r e 334, n o r i s i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f he took p a r t i n A l e x a n d e r ' s European campaigns. B u t he must have commanded f r o m t h e v e r y s t a r t o f th e A s i a t i c e x p e d i t i o n h i s own , xd£ts o f TIE C^xoxpou , p r o b a b l y c o m p r i s i n g t r o o p s r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e r e g i o n o f O r e s t i s . 1 ^ He 8 Be r v e 2.94, no. 182, s.V. "AxxaAos, b o r n aa 380, b u t per h a p s e a r l i e r ; see my " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " 2.298-306, no. 606, s.u. IlapuevLwv, b o r n 400 B.C.; 2.46-51, no. 94, s.v. ' Avxtitaxpos, b o r n 398. 9 K r a t e r o s ' wounds: P l u t . Alex. 41.5; A r r . 4.3.3; i l l h e a l t h : P l u t . Alex. 41.6-7; A r r . 7.12.4. ^ The e v i d e n c e f o r K r a t e r o s ' , x d g u g : (yaXayO : A r r . 1.14.2-3; l i k e l y A r r . 2.8.4 and C u r t . 3.9.8; A r r . 3.11.10; D i o d . 17. 57.3; C u r t . 4.13.29, i n e r r o r ; A r r . 3.18.4; C u r t . 5.4.14; 6.4.2; A r r . 3.23.2; 4.22.1. 121 f i r s t appears as taxiarch at the Granikos River, where he is stationed on the l e f t side with the infantry-battalions of Philip-pos and Meleagros. 1 1 By the following year, Krateros had gained in authority, commanding a l l the infantry on the l e f t wing at the battle of Issos; but even so he was subordinate to Parmenion, who 12 had supreme command over a l l the forces on the l e f t . Early in 332, during the protracted siege of Tyre, Krateros and Perdikkas were entrusted with the command of the besieging 13 forces i n Alexander's absence; Polyainos records one instance when a Tyrian sortie was effectively countered by Krateros' troops. Krateros' battalion appears twice in Arrian's description of the battle-array at the Granikos (1.14.2, 3). A.B. Bosworth, "Errors in Arrian," CQ 26 (1976) 126, is probably right to suppose that Ptolemy and Aristoboulos gave conflicting accounts and that "Arrian has absorbed both versions without reconciling the contradiction." According to Arr. 1.14.2, Krateros' battalion was placed between Koinos' and Amyntas' on the right side; <1..14. 3 places him on the l e f t side with Philippos and Meleagros, which i s more lik e l y (cf. Roos' Teubner text, Leipzig, 1967, 32; R. KBpke, Jahvbuchev filr cl. Philologie 99 [1869] 263; J.G. Droysen, Kleine Schriften zur altenGeschichte, Leipzig, 1894, 2.222-223= "Alexanders des Grossen Armee," Hermes 12 [1877] 242). Arr. 2.8.4; Curt. 3.9.8. Krateros is regulary on the l e f t side, and this points in favour of KBpke's and Droysen's (n.11 suovd) preference for Krateros' position on the l e f t side at the Granikos (Arr. 1.14.3), as opposed to the right (1.14.2). He commands the l e f t with the fleet at Tyre, Arr. 2.20.6; Curt. 4.3.11; and with the land forces at Gaugamela, Arr. 3.11.10; Curt. 4.13.29; Diod. 17.57.3. Curt. 4.3.1. Arr. 2.20.4 does not mention this, but that is hardly surprising since the command was held jointly by Krateros and Perdikkas, the latter a victim of Ptolemy's bias. See R.M. Errington, "Bias in Ptolemy's History of Alexander," CQ n.s. 19 (1969) 237, though he thinks this may "conceivably be an omission of Arrian's. 1 1 Polyainos 4.13; cf. Berve 2.220. 122 When Alexander had prepared a formidable fleet, Krateros and the Kypriot king, Pnytagoras, commanded the le f t wing in the naval assault on Tyre."'""' In the military sphere, there i s no further mention of Krateros until 331 and the battle of Gauga-mela, where, as at Issos, he led the infantry-divisions on the 16 l e f t wing but was again subordinate to Parmenion. After Gaugamela Krateros' advancement was steady and rapid. On the road from Sousa to Persepolis, in the land of the Ouxians, Krateros was given his f i r s t independent command over a portion (i.e., other than his own taxis) of the army. When the Ouxians refused to allow Alexander passage through their territory, he took a picked force along one of the lesser-known roadsoand f e l l upon them, as they were unprepared for an attack from that quarter. He had sent Krateros ahead to occupy the heights, to which he assumed the Ouxians would flee. They did in fact retreat to the h i l l s and large numbers of them were butchered by Krateros' troops.''"7 From this point onward, Alexander regularly divided his forces, usually entrusting the larger, and Arr. 2.20.6; Curt. 4.3.11. Arr. 3.11.10; Diod. 17.57.3; but Curt. 4.13.29 is in error: in Zaevo Craterus Peloponnesium eqvdtes habebat Aohaeorum et Loorensium et Malieon turmis sibi adiunetis;cf. Berve 2.221, n . l , this i s an error for Philoxenos (no. 442). See Arr. 3.17.4ff.;Diod.-17.67 and Curt. 5.3.1-16 make no mention of Krateros' role. Cf. J.F.C. Fuller, Generalship 226-228; A.T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire, Chicago, 1948, 519; Sir AureT Stein, "An Archaeological Journey in Western Iran," Geog.-Journal 92 (1938) 313ff. Cf. also Strabo 11.13.6 (C524) ; 15.3.6 (C729). 123 18 s l o w e r , p o r t i o n o f the army t o K r a t e r o s . L a t e r i n the campaigns, when H e p h a i s t i o n , P e r d i k k a s , Ptolemy and Leonnatos a c q u i r e d more importance, t h e y a l s o h e l d independent commands; n e v e r t h e l e s s , those t a s k s t h a t i n v o l v e d the g r e a t e s t r i s k and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were, f o r the most p a r t , r e s e r v e d f o r K r a t e r o s . Some f i v e days a f t e r the d e f e a t o f the Ouxians, A l e x a n d e r ' s army reached the P e r s i a n Gates, where they found the r o a d b a r r e d 20 by A r t a b a z o s ' son A r i o b a r z a n e s , s a t r a p o f P e r s i s . S i n c e he had 18 19 20 F o r K r a t e r o s ' independent commands: Metz E p i t . 35, 59, 60; P o l y a i n o s 4.13; C u r t . 4.3.1; A r r . 3.17.4ff.; C u r t . 5.4.14-16, 29, 33-34; 5.6.11; A r r . 3.21.2; C u r t . 6.4.2, 23-24; A r r . 3.25. 6, 8; C u r t . 6.6.25, 33; A r r . 4.2.2; C u r t . 7.6.16, 19; 7.9.20-22; A r r . 4.17.1; C u r t . 8.1.6; 8.5.2; A r r . 4.18.1; 4.22.1-2; 4.23.5; C u r t . 8.10.4; A r r . 4.24.6-7; 4.28.7; 5.12.1 ;5.18.1; 5.21.4; Diod. 17.96.1; A r r . 6.2.2; 6.4.1; 6.5.5, 7; A r r . Ind. 19.1, 3; C u r t . 9.8.3; 9.10.19; A r r . 6.15.5, 7; 6.17.3; 6.27.3; 7.12.3-4. A g a i n s t the Ouxians: A r r . 3.17.4ff.; a g a i n s t A r i o b a r z a n e s : A r r . 3 . 18.4ff.; C u r t . 5 . 4 . 1 4 f f . ; a g a i n s t the M a s s a g e t a i i n B a k t r i a : C u r t . 8.1.6; A r r . 4.17.1; a t the Hydaspes: A r r . 5.12.1; C u r t , f a i l s t o mention K r a t e r o s ' i m p o r t a n t r o l e ; p o l i c i n g the s a t r a p i e s t o the west: A r r . 6.17.3; c f . C u r t . 9.10.19. F o r the t i m e - i n t e r v a l see Diod. 17.68.1; c f . C u r t . 5.3.17, w i t h an apparent t e x t u a l problem, s i n c e C u r t i u s says t h a t A l e x a n d e r e n t e r e d P e r s i s on the t h i r d day, b u t re a c h e d the "G a t e s " on the f i f t h ; see F. Schmieder's n o t e s , Quinti Cuvtii Rufi: De Rebus Gestis Alexandvi Magni, v o l . 2, London, 1825, 1089. Complete accounts o f the b a t t l e a t the P e r s i a n G ates: A r r . 3.18.1-9; C u r t . 5.3.16-5.34; Diod. 17.68.1-69.2; P o l y -a i n o s 4.3.27; t h e b e g i n n i n g o f an account i s g i v e n by P l u t . Alex. 37.1-2 ( c f . H a m i l t o n , PA 96-97); a l s o S t r a b o 15.3.6 (C729). See S i r A u r e l S t e i n , op. oit. n.17; Olmstead, loo. oit. n.17; F u l l e r , Generalship 228-234. F o r A r i o b a r z a n e s see Berve 2.60-61, no. 115, s.v. ' A p u o g a p ^ c x v r i s ; P o l y a i n o s m i s t a k e n l y has $ p a a a d p T r i s (Berve 2.400, no. 813, s.V.), the l a t e r s a t r a p o f P e r s i s ; c f . K a e r s t , RE I I . 1 (1895) 833, s.v. " A r i o b a r z a n e s ( 4 ) . " 124 w i t h him a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r c e and s i n c e A l e x a n d e r had been unable t o take the pass on the i n i t i a l a s s a u l t , i n q u i r i e s 21 were made c o n c e r n i n g an a l t e r n a t e r o u t e . There was, o f c o u r s e , the waggon-road through the p l a i n , by which Parmenion was l e a d i n g the b a g g a g e - t r a i n s and the h e a v i l y - a r m e d t r o o p s i n t o P e r s i a , but i t was l o n g e r and A l e x a n d e r f e a r e d t h a t a d e l a y would a l l o w the P e r s i a n s s u f f i c i e n t time t o remove the t r e a s u r e s from P e r s e p o l i s , which l a y beyond the " G a t e s " and 22 the Araxes R i v e r . T h e r e f o r e , l e a r n i n g o f a d i f f i c u l t en-c i r c l i n g p a t h , A l e x a n d e r l e d a chosen f o r c e t o A r i o b a r z a n e s ' r e a r and l e f t the r e s t o f h i s t r o o p s a t the f o o t o f the " G a t e s " 23 under the d i r e c t i o n o f K r a t e r o s . He had been g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s The f i g u r e s v a r y : C u r t . 5.3.17 has 25,000 i n f a n t r y w i t h A r i o -b a r z a n e s ; Diod. 17.68.1, 25,000 i n f a n t r y and 300 c a v a l r y ; A r r . 3.18.2 has 40,000 i n f a n t r y and 700 h o r s e . C u r t . 5.3.22-23 i s o v e r - d r a m a t i c about A l e x a n d e r ' s s e t b a c k (tunc haesitabat de-prehensa felicitous3 nec aliud remedium erat3 quam reverti qua venerat)3 but t h i s s p r i n g s from a tendency to see t h i s e v e n t as the P e r s i a n T h e r m o p y l a i ( c f . A.R. Burn, Alexander the Great and the Middle East3 Harmondsworth, 1973, 121-122). A r r . 3.18.1; C u r t . 5.3.16. A c c o r d i n g t o C u r t . 5.5.2 and Diod. 17.69.1, A l e x a n d e r l e a r n e d o f the t r e a s u r e a f t e r he had c l e a r e d the " G a t e s . " S u r e l y h i s c h o i c e o f the s h o r t e r mountainous r o u t e s u g g e s t s t h a t he h a s t e n e d to P e r s e p o l i s f o r the v e r y purpose of c a p t u r i n g the t r e a s u r e (so Schachermeyr, Alexander der Grosse 286; Olmstead, op. cit. n.17, 5 1 9 f f . ; c f . Droysen, Hellenismus 1.227, who g i v e s e q u a l emphasis to A l e x a n d e r ' s p u r s u i t o f D a r e i o s ) . A r r . 3.18.4 says the i n f o r m a t i o n came from p r i s o n e r s ; P l u t . Alex. 37.1-2; Diod. 17.68.5-6; P o l y a i n o s 4.3.27; Curt . 5.4.10-13 speak o f a L y k i a n boukolos3 a P e r s i a n E p h i a l t e s , p a r t o f the T h e r m o p y l a i -m o t i f . C u r t . 5.4.14; A r r . 3.18.4, f o r the b a t t l e . Diod. 17.68 has m i s u n d e r s t o o d the s t r a t e g y c o m p l e t e l y o r so g r e a t l y compressed h i s account as to make A l e x a n d e r ' s purpose i m p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d ; P o l y a i n o s (4.3.27) must be wrong t o say the camp was l e f t under the command o f H e p h a i s t i o n and P h i l o t a s . 125 t o a t t a c k A r i o b a r z a n e s i f he t u r n e d t o d e a l w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s f o r c e . I f , however, A l e x a n d e r reached the r e a r o f A r i o b a r z a n e s ' p o s i t i o n u n d e t e c t e d , K r a t e r o s was t o await the t r u m p e t - s i g n a l , w h e r e a f t e r b o t h d i v i s i o n s o f the army would a t t a c k t h e "Gate s " 24 s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s i s i n f a c t what happened, and A r i o b a r z a n e s * 25 men, hemmed i n by the c l i f f s , were v i r t u a l l y a n n i h i l a t e d . The r o a d t o P e r s e p o l i s l a y open f o r A l e x a n d e r ; K r a t e r o s b r o u g h t up 26 the r e s t o f the t r o o p s through f o r c e d marches. P e r s e p o l i s f e l l . L o o t i n g and s l a u g h t e r exceeded the norm. I t T was n o t much l a t e r t h a t A l e x a n d e r conducted a t h i r t e e n - d a y campaign i n t o the i n t e r i o r o f P e r s i a , l e a v i n g the b u l k o f the 27 army b e h i n d w i t h Parmenion and K r a t e r o s . P r o b a b l y i t was t h e i r t a s k t o s e t i n o r d e r the ravaged c i t y and to arrange f o r the r e -moval o f the t r e a s u r e s ; P e r s e p o l i s had n o t y e t endured the f i n a l o u t r a g e a t the hands o f A l e x a n d e r and the A t h e n i a n c o u r t e s a n ThaSs. 24 25 26 27 A r r . 3.18.4-5; C u r t . 5.4.14-16. A r r . 3.18.9 says t h a t A r i o b a r z a n e s and a few horsemen escaped; C u r t . 5.4.33-34 says t h a t he was k i l l e d b e f o r e P e r s e p o l i s (which i s c o n t r a d i c t e d a l s o by A r r . 3.23.7; c f . Berve 2.61, n . 3 ) ; i f he was not k i l l e d , i t i s c u r i o u s t h a t he r e c e i v e d no honours from A l e x a n d e r , who h e l d h i s f a t h e r , A r t a b a z o s , i n h i g h esteem. The Araxes R i v e r ( C u r t . 5.5.3; S t r a b o 15.3.6 [C7 2 9 ] ) : i t was b r i d g e d by K o i n o s , Amyntas and P h i l o t a s (Berve, no. 803), w h i l e the b a t t l e was b e i n g f o u g h t w i t h A r i o b a r z a n e s , so A r r . 3.18.6, n o t l a t e r by A l e x a n d e r h i m s e l f as C u r t . 5.5.3-4 and Diod. 17.69.2 say. F o r K r a t e r o s ' f o r c e d marches to P e r s e p o l i s see C u r t . 5.4.34. C u r t . 5.6.11. C u r t . 5.7.2-10; Diod. 17.72; P l u t . -Alex. 3 8 . 2 f f . ; Athen. 13.576D-E = K l e i t a r c h o s , FGrEist 137 F l l ; c f . S t r a b o 15.730. Tarn 2.47-48 r e j e c t s t h e T h a i s - s t o r y as a f i c t i o n ; f o r a more c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n 126 It i s doubtful, however, that Krateros took part in the actual transporting of the treasures to Ekbatana, a task given to Par-29 menion. Some units of the pezhetairoi did remain behind to 30 guard the treasure, but Krateros' taxis l i k e l y did not. Krateros appears to have set out with Alexander from Ekbatana toward the Kaspian Gates and, when Alexander hastened after Dareios and his captors, Krateros led the slower forces eastward from the Kaspian Gates and awaited the return of Koinos and his party, who had been 31 on a foraging mission. Parmenion's orders to march north into Hyrkania, through the territory of the Kadousians, once he had brought the treasures to Ekbatana, were apparently rescinded, and the divisions of the army that had served as Parmenion's escort see E.N. Borza, "Fire from Heaven: Alexander at Persepolis," CP 67 (1972) 233-245; for a discussion of Persepolis in relation to Greek p o l i t i c s see Badian, "Agis III," Hermes 95 (1967) 170-192; cf. G. Wirth, "Alexander zwischen Gaugamela und Persepolis," Historia 20 (1971) 617-632