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The tomb of Margaret of Brabant by Giovanni Pisano Blackman, Peter John 1978

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THE  TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT BY GIOVANNI PISANO by  PETER JOHN BLACKMAN B.Sc, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  THE  in FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine Arts)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1978  (c) Peter John Blackman, 1978  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  it  written  thesis  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  financial  is  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS  APRIL, 1978  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  by  understood  FINE ARTS  or  British  for extensive  permission.  Department  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  of  be a l l o w e d  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  without  my  ii  ABSTRACT  Unique one  i n i t s d e s i g n , t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of the l a s t  works o f s c u l p t u r e p r o d u c e d  E x e c u t e d between t h e y e a r s o f 1312 resents field San  the only  o f tomb s c u l p t u r e .  Originally  Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o ,  survives,  by G i o v a n n i P i s a n o .  1313,  t h e monument r e p -  e x t a n t e s s a y , made by G i o v a n n i P i s a n o , i n t h e  d e s t r o y e d between 1798 now  and  of Brabant i s  and  erected  i n the church of  Genoa, t h e tomb was  1810,  t h e tomb c o n s i s t s  partially  along with the church. of s i x marble  As i t  fragments;  a  group  r e p r e s e n t i n g Margaret  of Brabant  w i t h two  a t t e n d a n t s , a Madonna,  a figure representing  the v i r t u e  Justice,  and  such a f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g The struction  fragments and  o f t h e monument p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s  i s minimal  and  appearance  a r e known.  contemporary  Temperance f r a g m e n t of  fragments sufficient  o f t h e tomb  original  Although the J u s t i c e  figure  and  c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e same e l e m e n t s  t h e tomb r e p r e s e n t s a L a s t  group  are  likely  complement,  the  o f t h e m s e l v e s , do n o t p r o v i d e a  for reconstruction.  Interpretation  i t s fragmented  o p i n i o n s have been p u b l i s h e d .  the  in a  f i g u r e s which  f r o m t h e tomb's o r i g i n a l  t o be s e e n as r i s i n g  project  of the  o f t h e tomb, i n and basis  of recon-  descriptions  tomb has been h i n d e r e d by  is  Documentation  four, mid-fourteenth century v i r t u e  t o have been c o p i e d  from  Temperance.  interpretation. no  t h e head  state,  Harald Keller  Judgment s c e n e .  has  of  y e t two  the major  suggested  Margaret  from the grave at the c a l l  of  that  Brabant  of the  final  iii  trumpets. rising of  H e r b e r t von Einem, on t h e o t h e r hand, r e l a t e s t h e  f i g u r e of Margaret  the Assumption  significance  of Brabant  of the V i r g i n  of t h i s  to French  examples  and i n t e r p r e t s  association  i n the l i g h t  in relief,  the p o l i t i c a l o f Dante's  Commedia.  An  attempt  i s made h e r e  of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  t o e l u c i d a t e both the problems  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  offered  by t h e tomb o f  Margaret  of Brabant.  By t h e s t u d y o f r e l a t e d ,  designs,  particularly  t h o s e o f A r n o l f o d i Cambio and T i n o d i  Camaino, t h e e x a m i n a t i o n description, and  a thesis  a definition  of the a v a i l a b l e  documentation  f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  and  contemporary i t sfate,  a unified Margaret  programme  f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  illustrating  of Brabant,  immediately  In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e p o s i t i o n Brabant is  i n the contemporary  analysed.  a r e seen  and  wall  By an  appended  examination  t h e o l o g y c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e human  a thesis  tomb  o f t h e monument  of the elaborate, m u l t i - l e v e l ,  tomb t y p e w h i c h i t i n t r o d u c e s i s p r e s e n t e d . of  contemporary  soul  o f t h e tomb as  the ascension of the soul of after  death,  i s expounded.  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  tradition  of funerary  of  sculpture  G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s  to herald  a significant  tomb d e s i g n o f t h e p e r i o d .  change i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  iv  L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s CHAPTER  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  I:  II:  III:  IV:  CHAPTER V:  v  GIOVANNI PISANO, AND HER TOMB RECONSTRUCTING OF BRABANT  MARGARET  OF  BRABANT, 1  THE TOMB  OF  MARGARET 16  INTERPRETING OF BRABANT:  THE TOMB OF AN HISTORICAL  MARGARET ANALYSIS  41  INTERPRETING OF BRABANT:  THE TOMB OF MARGARET A NEW PERSPECTIVE  50  CONCLUSION  60  Notes  65  Illustrations  79  Bibliography  106  Appendix  114  V  L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, main group, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, main group ( d e t a i l ) , Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, J u s t i c e (front view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, J u s t i c e (rear view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb o f Margaret o f Brabant, Madonna (front view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Madonna (rear view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (front view), Swiss private c o l l e c t i o n . GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (rear view), Swiss p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance ( d e t a i l ) , Swiss private c o l l e c t i o n . Two angels holding a baldacchino, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. Justice, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Temperance, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. ' Prudence, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Fortitude, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Death of Walram of Luxemburg. Codex Balduini Tvevivens-is, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 14a. Funeral o f Margaret of Brabant. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 17a. Death o f Henry VII. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 35b. Henry VII's body transferred to Pisa. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36a. Funeral of Henry VII. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36b. An i d e a l i s e d representation of Henry VII's tomb. Codex Balduini  21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.  Tvevivensis,  79 79 80 80 81 81 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 84 j-J 85 85 86 86 87  Staatsarchiv, Koblenz,  1 C No. 1, 37. Tomb of Cardinal Guglielmo F i e s c h i (d. 1256), S. Lorenzo f u o r i l e mura, Rome. Tomb of Luca S a v e l l i , S. Maria i n Aracoeli, Rome. PIETRO DI ODERISIO: Tomb o f Clement IV (d. 1268), S. Francesco, Viterbo. PIETRO DI ODERISIO: Tomb of Clement IV ( d e t a i l ) , S. Francesco, Viterbo. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Adrian V (d. 1276), S. Francesco, Viterbo. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi d e l l a Molara (d. 1276), S. Giovanni i n Laterano, Rome.  87 88 88 89 89 90 90  vi  27. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye (d. 1282), S. Domenico, Orvieto. 28. Reconstruction by Romanini of the Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye. 29. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye ( d e t a i l ) , S. Domenico, Orvieto. 30. Drawing of the tomb of Boniface VIII (d. 1303). 31. Tomb o f Benedict XI (d. 1304), S. Domenico, Perugia. 32. Tomb o f Benedict XI ( d e t a i l ) , S. Domenico, Perugia. 33. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Henry VII (d. 1313). 34. Reconstruction by Bauch o f the tomb o f Henry VII. 35. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Henry VII ( d e t a i l of two couns e l l o r s ) , Camposanto, Pisa. 36. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Petroni (d. 1314), Cathedral, Siena. 37. Caryatid Fortitude, Louvre, P a r i s . 38. Caryatid Prudence, Louvre, P a r i s . 39. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb o f Gastone d e l l a Torre (d. 1318). 40. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Bishop Antonio d e g l i O r s i (d. 1320 or 1321). 41. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Bishop Antonio d e g l i O r s i ( d e t a i l ) , Cathedral, Florence. 42. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb o f Catherine of A u s t r i a (d. 1323), S. Lorenzo, Naples. 43. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb o f Mary o f Hungary (d. 1323), S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples. 44. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Mary of Hungary ( d e t a i l ) , S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples. 45. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Charles o f Calabria (d. 1328), S. Chiara, Naples. 46. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb o f Marie o f V a l o i s (d. 1331), S. Chiara, Naples. 47. GIOVANNI AND PACIO DA FIRENZE: Tomb of Robert o f Anjou, S. Chiara, Naples. 48. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Tomb o f Guarnerio d e g l i Antelm i n e l l i , S. Francesco, Sarzana. 49. NINO PISANO: Tomb of Archbishop Simone S a l t a r e l l i (d. 1342), S. Caterina, P i s a . 50. Tomb o f Archbishop Juan de Aragon (d. 1334), Cathedral, Tarragona. 51. Tomb of Archbishop Juan de Aragon ( d e t a i l ) , Cathedral, Tarragona. 52. Tomb of Cardinal Luca F i e s c h i (d. 1343), S. Lorenzo, Genoa. 53. DOMENICO PIAGGIO: Transcription of the epitaph of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 54. Shrine of Beato Bertrando (d. 1350), Baptistery, Cathedral, Orvieto. 55. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Martyr, P o r t i n a r i Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan. v  91 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 93 s  94 94 94 94 95 . 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 98 99 99 100 100 100 101  vii  56. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Marytr ( d e t a i l ) , P o r t i n a r i Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan. 57. Reconstruction by T o r r i t i of the tomb of Margaret o f Brabant. 58. Reconstruction of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 59. Tomb of the Bardi family, S. Croce, Florence. 60. Tomb slab of Presbyter Bruno (d. 1194), Cathedral, Hildesheim. 61. Tomb slab o f Saint Reinheldis, Church, Reisenbeck. 62. Death and t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n of Abbot Lambert (d. 1125), Municipal Library, Boulogne, MS. 46, f o l . 1 V. 63. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCI AND ASSISTANTS: Tomb of Azzone V i s c o n t i , S. Gottardo, Milan. 64. Drawing o f the tomb of Abbot P i e r r e de Dijon (d. 1132), Abbey o f Saint-Begnine, Dijon. C o l l e c t i o n Roger de Gaignieres. 65. Drawing o f the tomb of Bishop P i e r r e de C h a t e l l e r a u l t of P o i t i e r s (d. 1135), Abbey, Fontevrault. C o l l e c t i o n Roger de Gaignieres. 66. Drawing o f the tomb of Abbot Arnoult (?), formerly Saint-Pere, Chartres. C o l l e c t i o n Roger de Gaignieres. 67. Drawing o f the tomb of Bishop Ancoul de Pierrefonds of Soissons (d. 1158), Abbey, Longpont. C o l l e c t i o n Roger de Gaignieres. 68. Drawing o f the tomb o f Bishop Gosselin de Vierzy of Soissons (d. 1152), Abbey, Longpont. C o l l e c t i o n Roger de Gaignieres. 69. D e t a i l of the Porte Romane, Cathedral, Chartres. 70. Awakening of the V i r g i n (detail: o f west p o r t a l ) , Cathedral, S e n l i s .  101 102 102 102 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 105 105  1 CHAPTER I GIOVANNI  PISANO,  MARGARET  AND  The Trecento  HER  BRABANT,  TOMB  tradition  of f i g u r a l  its  origins  Its  r o o t s c a n be t r a c e d t o G o t h i c F r a n c e .  Arnolfo tombs  d i Cambio  stages  nascent  i n the e a r l y  are remarkable Coming figural  tombs.  Centred  and h i s r e c o r d e d  than  fifty  of Brabant  his  Italy.  h i s own  Nicola,  for  f u n e r a r y monuments  years  after  Giovanni  the r e - b i r t h of Pisano's  tomb f o r  ( d . 1311) r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t  G o t h i c s e p u l c h r a l forms  Pisano  his fellow pupil,  step i n  -- t o g e t h e r  with  A r n o l f o d i Cambio,  and  f o l l o w e r , T i n o d i Camaino -- among t h e p r i m o g e n i t o r s  of the I t a l i a n utions  salvation  period.  The tomb p l a c e s G i o v a n n i  father,  import-  on t h e p e r s o n a l  t h e e v o l u t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n o f F r e n c h in  develops  o f programmatic  image, t h e s e  documents o f t h e i r less  tradition  a r c h i t e c t u r e p l a y s an  tomb s c u l p t u r e i n I t a l y ,  Margaret  In t h e hands o f  1  the c l a r i f i c a t i o n  i n funerary iconography,  of the deceased  century.  and h i s Roman f o l l o w e r s , and i n t h e l a t e r  Concerned with  role  tomb s c u l p t u r e has  decades o f the t h i r t e e n t h  o f T i n o d i Camaino, t h i s  rapidly.  ant  i n the l a s t  OF  Renaissance  to the f i g u r a l  tomb.  E a c h makes n o t e w o r t h y  tomb t r a d i t i o n .  the Area o f S a i n t Dominic,  N i c o l a Pisano's  S. Domenico, B o l o g n a ,  as  contribdesign recon-  2 s t r u c t e d by Pope-Hennessy,  in i t soriginal  sarcophagus,  scenes  decorated with  from  form  the l i f e  included a of the s a i n t ,  2  supported caryatid  by a r c h a n g e l s , supports  innovative inal (Fig. 25),  virtues,  and a c o l y t e s .  A r n o l f o d i Cambio,  i n h i s tombs o f C a r d -  A n n i b a l d i ( d . 1276), S. G i o v a n n i  i n Laterano,  2 6 ) , Pope A d r i a n V ( d . 1276), S. F r a n c e s c o , C a r d i n a l Guillaume  (Fig.  de Braye' ( d . 1282),  2 7 ) , and Pope B o n i f a c e  (surviving  The  and t h e n a r r a t i v e s a r c o p h a g u s a r e two h i g h l y  features.  Riccardo  cardinal  fragments  VIII  Rome,  V i t e r b o (Fig.  S. Domenico,  Orvieto  ( d . 1303), O l d S t . P e t e r ' s  i n t h e G r o t t e V a t i c a n e ) , adapts  and t r a n s 3  forms t r a d i t i o n a l  elements o f French  t h e b a s i s f o r a new I t a l i a n his Neapolitan  tomb  tradition.  sculpture,  Tino  d i Camaino, i n  tombs, e x p a n d s upon t h e m o t i f s  his predecessors,  laying  i n t r o d u c e d by  c r e a t i n g an e f f l o r e s c e n c e o f d e s i g n  possib-  4 ilities  i n t h e second q u a r t e r o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h Vasari,  i n Le vite  de'piu  eccelenti  century.  pittori,  soultori  5 ed  arohitettori,  gives Giovanni  Pisano  a considerable  oeuvre.  W h i l e V a s a r i d o e s n o t m e n t i o n t h e tomb  Brabant,  three a d d i t i o n a l  Pisano  Vita.  tombs a r e d i s c u s s e d  Of t h e f i r s t ,  t h a t o f Pope U r b a n  tomb  of Margaret o f  i n the Giovanni IV, V a s a r i w r i t e s ,  "Essendo dunque morto in Perugia papa Urbano IV, fu mandato per Giovanni, it quale andato la feae la sepoltuva di quel pontefiae di marmo; la quale, insieme oon quella di papa Martino IV, fu poi gettata per terra quando i Perugini aggrandirono i l loro veseovado, di modo ohe se ne veggiono solamente alcune reliquie sparse per la ohiesa."6  ( H a v i n g t h e n d i e d i n P e r u g i a Pope U r b a n IV, G i o v a n n i P i s a n o was s e n t f o r , who was t o make t h e tomb o f t h e pope o f m a r b l e ; w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h a t o f Pope M a r t i n IV, was thrown t o t h e g r o u n d when t h e P e r u g i a n s  3  e n l a r g e d t h e i r V e s c o v a d o , i n a way t h a t o n l y a few r e m a i n s a r e s e e n d i s p e r s e d i n t h e c h u r c h . ) Scholarly  o p i n i o n sees V a s a r i ' s mention as a c o n f u s e d  t o t h e tomb o f M a r t i n  IV ( d . 1285) h a v i n g  reference  been e x e c u t e d  by G i o 7  vanni Pisano As  r a t h e r than  nothing of these  the accuracy  t o t h e tomb o f U r b a n  1264).  tombs s u r v i v e s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o j u d g e  o f V a s a r i ' s statement,  but i t i s nevertheless  worthy t h a t V a s a r i a t t r i b u t e s G i o v a n n i papal  IV ( d .  Pisano with  tomb a t what w o u l d be a r e l a t i v e l y  early  note-  an i m p o r t a n t  point i n h i s  career. Vasari  c r e d i t s Giovanni  Pisano with  another  tomb, t h a t  o f B e n e d i c t IX: "Essendo, poi, morto in Perugia papa Benedetto IX, fu mandato per Giovanni,' i i quale andato a Perugia feee nella chiesa vecchia di San Domenioo de 'Frati Predicatori una sepoltura di marmo per quel pontefiee; i l quale ritratto di naturale e in abito pontefioale pose intorno sopra la cassa eon due Angeli, uno da ciasoun lato, che tengono una oortina; e di sopra una Nostra Donna con due Santi di rilivievo che la mettono in mezzo; e molti altri ornamenti intorno a quella sepoltura intagliata.  ( H a v i n g , t h e n , d i e d i n P e r u g i a Pope B e n e d i c t IX, G i o v a n n i was s e n t f o r , who was t o make i n P e r u g i a i n t h e o l d c h u r c h o f San Domenico de.' F r a t i P r e d i c a t o r i a tomb o f m a r b l e f o r t h a t p o n t i f f ; t h e e f f i g y o f whom i s t a k e n from n a t u r e and i n p o n t i f i c a l h a b i t i s p l a c e d on t h e s a r c o p h a g u s w i t h two a n g e l s , one on e a c h s i d e , t h a t h o l d a c u r t a i n ; and a Madonna w i t h two s a i n t s w i t h h e r i n t h e m i d d l e ; and many o t h e r o r n a m e n t s c a r v e d a r o u n d t h e tomb.) Again Vasari  the s p e c i f i c i s referring  reference i sunlikely. here  I t i s probable  n o t t o t h e tomb o f B e n e d i c t  that  IX, who  4  dies  i n 1044, b u t t o t h e tomb o f B e n e d i c t  tomb o f B e n e d i c t 31),  XI s t i l l  and seems t o b e l o n g  stands  XI ( d . 1 3 0 4 ) .  The  i n S. Domenico, P e r u g i a (Fig.  t o a l a t e r moment i n Trecento  sculp-  10 ture. A third  Giovanni  Pisano  tomb i s d e s c r i b e d by V a s a r i :  "Parimente, nella chiesa nuova de'detti Fratti Predicatovi fece i~l sepolcro di messer Niccolo Guidalotti perugino e vescovo di Reaanati, it quale fu institutore delta Sapienza nuova di P erugia. "  ( S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e new c h u r c h o f t h e F r i a r s P r e a c h e r s he made t h e tomb o f M. N i c c o l o G u i d a l o t t i o f P e r u g i a and B i s h o p o f R e c a n a t i , who i n s t i t u t e d t h e new U n i v e r s i t y o f P e r u g i a . ) Supino i d e n t i f i e s  t h e tomb a s t h a t o f B e n e d e t t o  G u i d a l o t t i and  12 dates  i t to the t h i r t e e n t h The  V a s a r i Vita,  attributions, Margaret by  Giovanni  of this  Pisano  tomb s c u l p t o r , cluded  incorrect  tomb i n a b r o a d e r project,  i n i t ss p e c i f i c  Pisano's context,  coming l a t e  and q u i t e p o s s i b l y papal  tomb  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  tomb  work on t h e suggesting  that  i n the s c u l p t o r ' s l i f e ,  h a d a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as an  an i m p o r t a n t The  while  h e l p s us t o see G i o v a n n i  o f Brabant  t h e time  century.  as a s c u l p t o r  important  whose work i n -  design.  o f Brabant,  executed  b e t w e e n 1312 13  and  1313, i s one o f t h e l a s t  survives Palazzo  works o f G i o v a n n i  i n fragments p r e s e r v e d  i n the Palazzo  Pisano. Bianco  It and t h e  Rosso o f Genoa, and i n a S w i s s p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n .  commission  f o r t h e tomb comes s h o r t l y  after  The  the completion of  5  the p u l p i t pulpit,  f o r P i s a C a t h e d r a l i n 1311.  the s c u l p t o r  (1312-1313),  produces  this,  his last  t h r e e w o r k s : t h e Madonna d i A r r i g o  t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  1 4  After  of Brabant  (1312-1313),  15 and  t h e Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a  (after  1312).  masterpiece of Giovanni Pisano's l a s t final,  l a r g e programmatic The  istic  significance  of Brabant.  m a r r i a g e t o Henry w a r r i n g houses Margaret appears  intercession  the h i s t o r i c a l  IV, Count  position  o f Luxemburg  i n 1292  Brabant.  important p o l i t i c a l activities,  i t s art-  Margaret's  united  the  From t h e b e g i n n i n g ,  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Henry  i n Henry's  his  of i t s occupant,  o f t h e Duke o f B r a b a n t ,  o f Luxemburg and  t o have had  perhaps  o f t h e tomb i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y  Daughter  of Brabant's  y e a r s , and  tomb i s t h e  sculptural undertaking.  importance but a l s o  Margaret  The  Iv o f  Luxemburg  implications.  on t h e few  Margaret's  occasions that  t h e s e are r e c o r d e d a p p a r e n t l y served, t o moderate h i s p o l i c y . She  was  elicited  known as a " m e r c i f u l and m i l d 17 widespread Henry  ful  until,  Henry  having greatness thrust  6,  preparations Emperor rule,  career  V I I , K i n g o f t h e Romans and  on J a n u a r y  appears  Almost  With  he was 18  emperor-elect. ceremonies  i m m e d i a t e l y , Henry  f o r a t r i u m p h a l v o y a g e t o be  i n Rome.  t o have been  upon him,  p r e s e n t at the c o r o n a t i o n 1309.  hopes o f u n i t i n g  i n December,  1310.  unevent-  elected Margaret i n Aachen  V I I began  the  crowned H o l y Roman  Italy  under  t h e e m p e r o r - e l e c t embarked upon h i s j o u r n e y ,  by h i s queen,  actions  praise.  IV's p o l i t i c a l  o f B r a b a n t was  q u e e n , " whose  imperial accompanied  6  The  arrival  of the r o y a l  some as t h e p r e s a g e o f a new  court  in Italy  was  taken  age.  " B e h o l d , now i s t h e a c c e p t a b l e t i m e , w h e r e i n a r i s e t h e s i g n s o f c o n s o l a t i o n and p e a c e . . . . R e j o i c e , 0 I t a l y , t h o u g h now t o be p i t i e d even by t h e S a r a c e n s , f o r soon you w i l l be e n v i e d throughtout the world, because your bridegroom, the s o l a c e of the•world•and the g l o r y o f your p e o p l e , t h e most c l e m e n t Henry, D i v i n e and A u g u s t u s and C a e s a r , h a s t e n s t o t h e n u p t i a l s . " 1  So D a n t e h a i l e d  the a r r i v a l  Margaret's travelled  VII to Milan,  t o o k p l a c e on J a n u a r y later  that  coffin  o f Henry  sojourn i n Italy  w i t h Henry  6,  1311.  was  t o be  short  where a n o t h e r  She  p  VII.  died  same y e a r , on December 14,  i n t h e c h u r c h o f San  by  lived.  coronation  of the plague  and was  She  buried  i n Genoa  in a  Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o  lead  to await  20 p r o p e r entombment. on June  29,  1312,  pope's l e g a t e s . p r o v e d t o be sanction Anjou, Henry was  Henry that  he was  Henry's  a hazardous  t o Rome.  quest f o r the u n i f i c a t i o n and  K i n g o f S i c i l y , and  impossible task.  a strong  was  withdrawn.  opponent  24,  1313,  Nothing tomb o f M a r g a r e t only  while beseiging  fever  and  the  Italy  Robert  o f an e m p i r e  Siena, that  of  under  efforts. Henry  It  VII  died.  i s known o f t h e o r i g i n a l  commission  of Brabant or the d e t a i l s  document p e r t a i n i n g  of  there,  Slowly the papal  V I I , worked e f f i c i e n t l y t o u n d e r m i n e H e n r y ' s  on A u g u s t  I t was  f i n a l l y crowned emperor by  for his activities in Italy  succombed t o m a l a r i a l  The  V I I moved on  f o r the  of i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n .  t o work on t h e tomb i s d a t e d  one  7  day  after  the death  o f t h e emperor.  21  I t r e c o r d s the  payment  t o G i o v a n n i P i s a n o by G i o v a n n i da B a g n a r a ,  a r c h b i s h o p o f Genoa,  at  1313,  t h e r e q u e s t o f H e n r y V I I , on A u g u s t  golden  florins.  monument. himself  The  The  sum  sculptor  the s c u l p t o r  signs in receipt  operis  March 6, 23,  1312.  1312,  1312,  It i s possible that  when Henry l e f t  monument was  16,  Pisa,  eighty-one  that  of  the  o f payment, d e s i g n a t i n g sepulchre:  sepulovi....  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the commission  L e a v i n g Genoa on F e b r u a r y  of  q u i t t a n c e f o r the cost  o f Queen M a r g a r e t ' s  "... intalliatov Mavgavite. .. "  Other  is partial  25,  domine  a r e open t o c o n j e c t u r e .  Henry V I I a r r i v e d  in Pisa  between t h i s  and  date  the commission  awarded t o G i o v a n n i P i s a n o .  on  April  f o r the  Work p r e s u m a b l y  began 22  on  t h e monument s h o r t l y  thereafter.  from P i s a  t o Genoa, t h e tomb may  in  As G i o v a n n i P i s a n o  1313.  1313,  i t seems l i k e l y  t h e tomb. that  How  that  P o s s i b l y moved by  have been e r e c t e d a t some  i s r e c o r d e d i n Genoa i n  he  then  complete  time  August,  s u p e r v i s e d the completion  ever the d a t i n g i s manipulated,  t h e tomb was  boat  of  i t i s certain  by  t h e M a r c h o f 1314, f o r G i o v a n n i 23 P i s a n o i s documented i n S i e n a a t t h a t t i m e . The tomb r e m a i n e d i n San F r a n c e s c o d i C a s t e l l e t t o u n t i l i t s d e s t r u c t i o n i n t h e 24 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 1798. From t h e d e s t r u c t i o n Castelletto  until  1960,  of Brabant  raised  auxiliary  two  Francesco d i '  t h e o n l y p i e c e known t o s u r v i v e  tomb o f M a r g a r e t up by  o f t h e c h u r c h o f San  was  a half-figure  figures  (Fig.  1).  from  the  o f a woman b e i n g The  central  figure  8  and  her a s s i s t a n t  to the right  a r e connected  marble a t t h e base o f t h e f i g u r e s . the  left  i s now c o m p l e t e l y  has  arms s e v e r e d  carefully apparent  on t h e r i g h t  horizontally thigh,  arm  a t a l i n e between h e r r i g h t  The nose and l i p s  are s l i g h t l y  i n t h e hands o f t h e a s s i s t a n t  assistant  to the right  portion  of the figure  at the waist  to  the r i g h t .  drilled All  through  the figures  sides.  i s intact to  The l o w e r  beneath the l e v e l  i svisible  She wears a w i m p l e . on b o t h  The a u x i l i a r y  h a b i t s , drawn  on t h e a s s i s t a n t  The v e i l  i n t h e round  A l l figures  Two b a n d s a r e c r o s s e d  s i d e s o f h e r neck.  are carved  The  towards t h e c e n t r a l  p l a n e o f t h e b a s e o f t h e woman.  A cowl  Her eyes  Her r i g h t  against i t s chest.  The woman wears a s h a w l .  her chest.  h i p and l e f t  i s apparent).  i s damaged b u t e x t e n d s  and elbow.  This lady,  b u t h e r l e f t arm,  The a s s i s t a n t s wear l o o s e l y f i t t i n g  in  over  —  leans forward  h o l d i n g h e r arm c l o s e l y  are draped.  damaged.  on t h e r i g h t  (a r e p a i r beneath her shoulder  figure,  i t s legs  Her head t u r n s upwards.  at the shoulder  again  figure  hand a r e  s h o u l d e r o f t h e r i s i n g woman.  terminated  the horizontal  This latter  I t leans forward,  the w r i s t  of  figure to  The v e s t i g e s o f i t s l e f t  i s m i s s i n g -- s e v e r e d  held  freestanding.  l e a n s towards t h e l e f t .  a r e open.  The a u x i l i a r y  i n the mid-forearm.  counterpoised.  by a b r i d g e o f  h e r head i s  She i s crowned.  with  f i g u r e on t h e l e f t  over  equal  detail  on a l l  m e a s u r e s 66 cm. i n  25 height, 67  t h a t on t h e r i g h t ,  cm. i n h e i g h t .  Palazzo Bianco,  74 cm.  The c e n t r a l  The p r o v e n a n c e o f t h i s  Genoa, i s t r a c e a b l e .  f r a g m e n t s were p u r c h a s e d  figure i s  g r o u p , now i n t h e  I t seems l i k e l y  that  these  by t h e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e B r i g n o l e - S a l e  9  family,  A n t o n i o Rosso,  endangered l o c a t i o n letto  into  i n 1804.  t h u s moved f r o m  their  i n t h e c h u r c h o f San F r a n c e s c o d i C a s t e l -  the B r i g n o l e - S a l e  Brignole-Sale,  They  in Voltri,  collection.  that  I t was  i n the  Villa  t h e f i g u r e s were i d e n t i f i e d  r e m n a n t s o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f B r a b a n t i n 1874.  as  Then  owned  by t h e D u c h e s s a d i G a l l e r i a  (nee B r i g n o l e - S a l e ) , t h e p i e c e s 27 were c o n n e c t e d by S a n t o V a r n i t o t h e newly d i s c o v e r e d document 28 o f A u g u s t 25,  1313,  ments p a s s e d i n t o  p u b l i s h e d by F e d e r i c o A l i z e r i .  Additional 1960.  A r t i and t h e n c e t o t h e 29 museum o f G e n o a ) .  —  a d e s e r t e d Genoese freestanding,  was  g a r d e n (Figs.  i s thrust  face turns to the l e f t . is  clothed  ODISTI  with  INIQUITATEM  The  the upper p a r t forward,  The  as s u c h by t h e emblaz-  lips  head  o f t h e body  are s l i g h t l y  —  figure i s  open.  a sword  woman.  to the  DILECISTI  The  i n the  figure  right  IUSTITIAM  D e s p i s e I n i q u i t y ) from Psalm  i s m a n t l e d i n t h e same  and a l t h o u g h much damaged t h i s pinnacled  This  t h e n e c k i s e x t e n d e d as t h e  the i n s c r i p t i o n  as t h e f i g u r e o f t h e r i s i n g  more e l a b o r a t e l y  light  h o l d s and t h e b a l a n c e  3 and 4 ) .  (Love J u s t i c e  44 o f t h e V u l g a t e .  figure.  identified  i n a f l o w i n g r o b e and c a r r i e s  hand and a s c r o l l  come t o  d i s c o v e r e d by C a t e r i n a M a r c e n a r o i n 30  leaning with  The head  —  which the f i g u r e  oned on t h e c h e s t  right.  f r a g m e n t s o f t h e tomb have  A figure of J u s t i c e  sword and s c r o l l  frag-  the Accademia d i B e l l e  Palazzo Bianco (the c i v i c  since  The  Her head  ornament  i s also  fashion crowned  a p p e a r s t o have  been  t h a n t h e s i m p l e band worn by t h e o t h e r  Once b r o k e n f r o m t h e r e s t  o f t h e body,  t h e head  has  10  been r e s t o r e d . the  figure  ural  form.  details The  was  on  the  stands  103  cm.  other  t o be  d i Sant'Agostino  sculptural  executed The  R o s s o , Genoa,  figure  indication or  i s much damaged and  in height.  i n the P a l a z z o  Another draped  any  figure  a l l s i d e s are seen  now  Galleria  c a r v i n g , t h e r e i s no  associated with  Although  figure  piece,  From t h e  was  with  that  architect-  worn,  equal  the  care.  provenance of  the  i s unknown.  i d e n t i f i e d by M a r c e n a r o  as a remnant o f t h e M a r g a r e t  i n the  of  Brabant  32 tomb,  i n 1963  attributed  (Figs.  5 and  to Giovanni  6).  Pisano  This figure by  W.R.  had  been o r a l l y  V a l e n t i n e r , i n 1939,  to  33 the D i r e z i o n e B e l l e less  figure  Pisano,  Arti.  exhibits  such  The  close a f f i n i t i e s  w i t h Madonna and  Child  as t h e Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a ,  p i e c e r e p r e s e n t s a Madonna -- t h e C h i l d figure  i s freestanding.  out  to the r i g h t .  The  left  detail  on  Without original also  arm  The  The  from  a l l s i d e s of the  i t s head, t h e h e i g h t may  be  Sampierdarena unrecorded  into 34  date.  i s executed  s t a n d s 47.5  cm.  the P a l a z z o  that  figure  hand. the  with  care.  equal  cm.  i s known t o have been moved  The  The  Madonna,  from  Genoa, a t  I t s e a r l i e r p r o v e n a n c e i s unknown.  figure.  leans  Once a g a i n  t o have been 54  the J u s t i c e  The  the r i g h t  the G a l l e r i a d i Sant'Agostino,  Rosso w i t h  this  i n height.  moved, a f t e r M a r c e n a r o ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  head-  Giovanni  been l o s t .  into  t h e elbow down.  estimated  i n the P a l a z z o Rosso,  by  indicate  having  i s gathered  figure  figure  figures  b a c k i s c o n c a v e as t h e  drapery  i s missing  that t h i s  figure,  It into  an was  11  The  head o f a f e m a l e  was  identified  by S e i d e l  with the  35 tomb o f M a r g a r e t remaining  section  originally  and  line  o f neck,  i t i s apparent  lowered  7 and 8 ) . that  From t h e  t h e head  and t u r n e d t o t h e l e f t .  through  t o p o f t h e head  the l i p s  a r e smoothly  and c h i n  finished.  b a l d a c c h i n o , were a l s o  eyes  in a vert-  (Fig. 9 ) .  The b a c k  The f r a g m e n t  T h i s p i e c e , on t h e a r t m a r k e t  a Swiss p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . Two a d d i t i o n a l f i g u r e s ,  was  The  The s u r f a c e o f t h e f a c e i s r o u g h e n e d  running  15.5 cm. h i g h . in  i n 1968. (Figs.  slightly  l o o k downwards. ical  of Brabant  is  i n 1942, i s now  No e a r l i e r p r o v e n a n c e i s known. each h o l d i n g t h e remains o f a  connected  w i t h t h e monument  f o r Margaret  36 of  B r a b a n t . ( F i g . 10).  T h e s e p i e c e s o f unknown  e n a n c e , were g i v e n by S a n t o Their The of  the other  Pisano are  Carrara  angels,  gravity,  be s e r i o u s l y  e x e c u t i o n i s i n no way  fragments  comparable  A l l the p i e c e s connected  provmuseum.  questioned.  o f t h e tomb and an a t t r i b u t i o n  to that t o Giovanni  with  t h e tomb  marble. the fragments,  with  the exception of the baldacchino  a r e t h e work o f G i o v a n n i P i s a n o  style  duction  with  of their  i s unacceptable.  That  The  V a r n i to the Palazzo Bianco  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e monument may  quality  earlier  of the fragments  i s entirely  of Giovanni Pisano's and g r a c e ,  and c a l m  t h e Madonna d e l l a  late  been  questioned.  consistent  with  the pro-  years.  There  is a  i n these pieces that  Cintola,  certain  a s s o c i a t e s them  t h e Madonna d i A r r i g o ,  Paduan Madonna  f o r Enrico Scrovegni  Pisano's  years.  later  has never  and t h e  ( c . 1305-6), o f G i o v a n n i  Whether t h i s may  be s e e n , .as A y r t o n h a s  12  suggested, last,  37  as t h e p r o d u c t  Pisa pulpit  o r as a r e s u l t  l a t e works i n r e l a t i o n is  unknown.  Justice,  o f s t a t u e s on  may  resemblance  C h i l d with  prophet  the  figures  calm which  invade  sculptor's  disassociated.  M a r i a Maddalena, four v i r t u e  Fortitude  between t h e J u s t i c e and  copies.  Toesca  M a d d a l e n a w i t h a tomb p r o j e c t  and  11,  12,  13,  head f r a g m e n t  suggest  connects by  (Figs.  Genoa,  figures,  t h e head o f t h e  o f t h e S. M a r i a M a d d a l e n a group  are d e l i b e r a t e  and  not be  t h e f a c a d e o f S.  Giovanni Pisano with the J u s t i c e figure  i n the  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e tomb i s p r o v i d e d  Temperance, P r u d e n c e and  close  and  works marks a change i n t h e  w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a Madonna and  The  pulpits  from w h i c h t h e Genoan f r a g m e n t s  a group  o f energy  of the d i s p a r a t e nature of  to h i s e a r l i e r  last  Additional by  release  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the t r a n q u i l i t y  Giovanni Pisano's style  of a f i n a l  that  the v i r t u e s  14).  by  Temperance the  latter  a t S.  a follower of Giovanni  Maria  Pisano 38  and M a r c e n a r o suggests t h a t may  be  suggested  four v i r t u e project  by  that  be  d a t e d t o c.1350.  t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of Brabant  It  had  f i g u r e s w h i c h s e r v e d as t h e m o d e l s f o r a l a t e r a follower of Giovanni Pisano.  copies a l s o suggest with  t h e y may  that  the s p e c i f i c  t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of Brabant  The  S. M a r i a  fragments  now  were i n f a c t  tomb  Maddalena  associated  i n Genoa i n  the m i d - f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S i n c e Santo Bianco  fragments  rejection  of t h i s  Varni's original  association  w i t h t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t claim  of the P a l a z z o  of Brabant  has been p u b l i s h e d .  only  one  Portigliotti (cf.,  13  Appendix, tomb  e n t r y 2 1 ) , denyin'g t h a t  o f Margaret  o f Brabant,  t h e fragments  links  to the R e s u r r e c t i o n of the Virgin-,  belong to the  t h e image o f t h e r i s i n g and s u g g e s t s t h a t  woman  t h i s was 39  in  fact  has  the o r i g i n a l  indicated  that  meaning o f G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s work.  the p o r t r a i t - n a t u r a l i s m  o f t h e Genoese  b e a r s no r e s e m b l a n c e figures  to Giovanni Pisano's i d e a l i s e d 40 and r e j e c t s P o r t i g l i o t t i ' s t h e s i s .  Accepting Pisano,  t h e p i e c e s as f r a g m e n t s  i t may be q u e s t i o n e d t h a t  Margaret  o f Brabant.  tombs f o r f e m a l e s  However,  i n Italy  this  paucity  complete  time m i t i g a t e s  T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e tomb  to the p o l i t i c a l at the court  situation  only  i n Naples  that  a p p r e c i a b l e numbers o f tombs  absence o f strongly  against  one u n - r e c o r d e d , by i s noteworthy.  o f tombs d e s i g n e d f o r women, i n I t a l y ,  probability,  Madonna  tomb was t h e tomb o f  t h e r e b e i n g two s u c h Genoese monuments, Giovanni Pisano.  figure  o f a tomb by G i o v a n n i  t h e almost  at t h i s  Grosso  i s due, i n a l l  a t the time.  o f the Angevin  It i s  kings of S i c i l y ,  f o r women: were  Those o f t h e queens C a t h e r i n e o f A u s t r i a  The  commissioned.  ( d . 1323, Fig. 4 2 ) ,  Mary o f Hungary ( d . 1323, Fig. 4 3 ) , and M a r i e o f V a l o i s ( d . 1331, and  Fig. 4 6 ) , a l l by T i n o d i Camaino, a t t e s t  dynastic  importance  of their  occupants.  to the p o l i t i c a l  In N o r t h e r n  t h e c i t y - s t a t e s were n o t c o n d u c i v e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ical  power by women and t h e i r  In N o r t h e r n E u r o p e , tradition  importance  rule.  We may c i t e  of p o l i t -  was n o t g r e a t .  on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e e x i s t e d  o f monarchic  not uncommon.  dynastic  Italy,  a long  Tombs d e s i g n e d f o r women a r e t h e r e  t h e famous tombs o f E l e a n o r o f  14  Aquitaine the  ( d . 1204)  i n t h e Abbey C h u r c h  of Fontevrault,  tomb o f D u c h e s s M a t h i l d a i n B r u n s w i c k  C a t h e d r a l as  and examples  41 of  a large  Margaret  number o f s u c h monuments.  of Brabant,  i n Genoa, a f f o r d e d  for  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  was  t h e o c c a s i o n -- as w i l l  new  approach The  Margaret ion.  the r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y  be  to the d e p i c t i o n  argued  in this  of the occupant  Henry  February  thesis  and  -- f o r a  o f t h e tomb.  r e a s o n s f o r t h e c h o i c e o f Genoa as t h e s i t e f o r  o f B r a b a n t ' s monument a r e a l s o  extracted  the death of  o f a f e m a l e tomb i n N o r t h e r n I t a l y ,  V I I had,  upon h i s a r r i v a l  r e s t o r e o r d e r among i t s G u e l p h  the  Thus,  an o a t h o f f e a l t y 1312,  n o r t h was  Genoa, Henry  and G h i b e l l i n e  from the c i t y .  t o h i s t r o o p s and  V I I ' s supremacy  to the  discuss-  i n Genoa, a t t e m p t e d  although the p r o t e c t i o n left  relevant  factions.  When he l e f t ,  of imperial  He  had  in  rights in  the G h i b e l l i n e  i n t h e s e r e g i o n s was  to  signori  of  by no means  42 secure. the  I t seems l i k e l y  VII a v a i l e d  i n memory, w i t h tomb o f h i s queen.  brother,  Walram, i n V e r o n a  adduce a s i m i l a r  Trevivensis  was  archbishop of T r i e r appears  the d i r e c t i o n  and Henry  to take s p e c i a l  and b u r i a l s  Koblenz,  The  o f Henry  of  p r e s e n c e i n Genoa, a t The  burial  of h i s  e x t a n t Codex  1 C No.  1) i s an  d e p i c t s t h e j o u r n e y o f Henry  d e s i g n e d under  himself  at the r e q u e s t of the S c a l i g e r  interpretation.  (Staatsarchiv,  manuscript which It  Henry  o p p o r t u n i t y to maintain the i m p e r i a l  least  may  that  VII to  vicars, Balduini  illuminated 43 Italy.  o f B a l d w i n o f Luxemburg,  VII's brother.  care i n i t s depiction  V I I , Walram o f Luxemburg,  The  manuscript  of the  deaths  and M a r g a r e t  of  15  Brabant  (Figs.  15 - 2 0 ) .  That  the b u r i a l s  the i m p e r i a l  family,  attention  r e c o r d i n g the l i n g e r i n g presence  imperial  —  right  on I t a l i a n  t o the land  the importance  —  soil,  o f t h e s e members o f  should receive  i s interesting  o f t h e commission  careful  and p e r h a p s t h e and s e r v e s t o s t r e s s  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of  Brabant. That  t h e commission  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  was awarded t o G i o v a n n i P i s a n o a t t e s t s sculptor. and  A t t h e age o f about  illustrious  sixty,  of Brabant  to the reputation  of the  G i o v a n n i P i s a n o had a l o n g  c a r e e r b e h i n d him and h i s fame must have been  44 widespread.  The c h o i c e o f G i o v a n n i P i s a n o s u g g e s t s  t h e imp-  o r t a n c e p l a c e d by Henry V I I on t h e work, and t h e e x t a n t indicate that of  this  thesis  of Margaret ation  t h i s was a p r o d u c t i o n o f q u a l i t y . t o demonstrate  o f Brabant  that  fragments  I t i s t h e aim  t h e programme o f t h e tomb  a l s o r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t  re-interpret-  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n s e p u l c h r a l  m a k i n g i t a k e y monument i n t h e t r a d i t i o n  iconography,  o f tomb d e s i g n i n  Italy. The  disjecta  membra  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  pose problems b o t h o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n the gradual accumulation  formulated. fuller  o f fragments  With asso-  t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s have been  Accordingly, i t i s only i n recent years that  understanding  possible.  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  c i a t e d w i t h t h e tomb, new s o l u t i o n s  of Brabant  of t h i s  i m p o r t a n t monument has become  a  16  CHAPTER I I RECONSTRUCTING OF MARGARET  The ant  original  i s unknown.  OF  appearance  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f B r a b -  i n number  do p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n  The work o f A r n o l f o  TOMB  BRABANT  The f r a g m e n t s w h i c h  tomb, w h i l e i n s u f f i c i e n t struction,  TEE  c a n be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  for a full about  physical  t h e form o f t h e tomb.  d i Cambio and T i n o d i Camaino —  i t i o n s b e f o r e and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s  recon-  after  -- a s s i s t  the t r a d i n an u n d e r -  s t a n d i n g ' o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n made by G i o v a n n i P i s a n o i n t h e monument o f M a r g a r e t Trecento of  of Brabant.  tomb t r a d i t i o n ,  B r a b a n t known  century,  and d e s c r i p t i o n s  from t h e f i f t e e n t h  f o r m t h e b a s i s upon w h i c h The  tradition  of f i g u r a l  v a n n i P i s a n o ' s tomb o f M a r g a r e t origins  i n the l a s t  to  little  this  which  decades  interest  tural  tradition  which  figural  a reconstruction  o f the t h i r t e e n t h  representation  (d.  S. L o r e n z o  c a n be made.  i n t o which  Gio-  century.  Prior  the l i k e n e s s o f the deceased or i n I n a Rome d o m i n a t e d  by t h e  of the absence o f a  and a t t e n d a n t t e c h n i q u e t h a t  are re-used.  eighteenth  o f B r a b a n t may be p l a c e d has  i t i s indicative  sarcophagi 1256),  through the l a t e  tomb s c u l p t u r e  representation.  of the Cosmati,  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  a p p e a r s t o have been shown i n tomb d e s i g n s  recorded, i n e f f i g y ,  any o t h e r f i g u r a l school  The f r a g m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e  the only  tombs i n  o c c u r s a r e those i n which a n t i q u e  The tombs o f C a r d i n a l G u g l i e l m o  fuori  sculp-  Fieschi  l e mura, Rome (Fig. 2 1 ) , and L u c a  17  Savelli,  S. M a r i a i n A r a c o e l i ,  amples.  In b o t h , a C h r i s t i a n  elements.  In t h e F i e s c h i  c e n t u r y A.D., attendant  Rome (Fig. gloss  i s p r o v i d e d by  tomb t h e s a r c o p h a g u s ,  bears the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  sacrifice  22), a r e eminent  additional  of the  third  of a wedding scene  with a panel containing  ex-  and  the symbolism  of  45 apotheosis. cardinal's  Above, a p p e a r s  a mosaic  soul  b e i n g p r e s e n t e d by  This  depiction  panel depicting  saints  t o an  the  enthroned  46 Christ. figure  i s indicative  scenes  illustrating  is  of the deceased  o f an  interest  i s made t o r e c o r d  And  and h i e r a r c h i c a l  Both completeness tradition and  s e a t e d Madonna and C h i l d 47 tomb.  of the  although the f a s h i o n , an  t h e image o f C a r d i n a l F i e s c h i .  monument, a s m a l l register  i n I t a l y was  S p a n i s h examples,  set.  and  tombs i n w h i c h  Deriving  sustenance  of mosaic  attempt  In t h e  i s placed  the concern f o r p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e characterise the early  donor  i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  personal salvation.  a r r a n g e d i n an i d e a l i s e d  as a s p o n s o r e d  Savelli  i n the  upper  architectural the  from  figural French  this  I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n developed at the 48 t i m e o f A r n o l f o d i Cambio. I n i t i a l l y o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e tomb o f Clement IV ( d . 1268), S. F r a n c e s c o , V i t e r b o , by P i e t r o d i 49 Oderisio which  (Fzg.  23).  In t h i s monument t h e c l a s s i c a l c i b o r i u m  surrounds the F i e s c h i  an e l e m e n t  t o be u s e d  more i m p o r t a n c e ,  tomb i s r e p l a c e d  extensively  in later  by  Italian  however, i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  as a r e c l i n i n g  effigy.  The  and p o w e r f u l l y  rendered  (Fig.  f a c e o f t h e dead 24).  An  a G o t h i c canopy tombs.  of the  Of  deceased  pope i s c a r e f u l l y  attempt  has been made  —  18  to capture the  flesh  cocious an  the  l i k e n e s s of  s a g s downward —  the  deceased.  The  the  pope i s d e a d .  U J  example o f many s u c h d e p i c t i o n s o f  immediate s u c c e s s o r  being  the  eyes are  This  the  is a  pre-  deceased  tomb o f A d r i a n  V  (d.  closed,  in  effigy;  1276),  51 S.  Francesco, Viterbo  itectural strongly  unity,  and  Riccardo  with  Annibaldi  e r a n o , Rome (Fig.  the  effigy  F r a n c e --  Arnolfo  towards  effigy  are  of  the  and  by  is  arch-  again  deceased there  To are  deceased being  indicates  the  the  this  lifted  the  French the  of  images o f  t o heaven.  taste.  of  the  effigy  cardinal, reclining enclosure  effigy  and  some-  the  soul  Arnolfo  of  d i Cambio in his  Annibaldi 53  tomb i n i t s o r i g i n a l  The  a curtained  the  J u l i a n Gardner  set  cere-  In  corpse of the  in  gvande 52  acolytes,  Italy,  tomb w o u l d seem t o have been o r i g i n a l l y  s u r r o u n d e d by  use  f r a g m e n t e d monument o f C a r d i n a l  p r o b a b l e form of  the  lineage de  C h r i s t , and In  1282),  incorporated  long  their  Lat-  (d.  t w e l f t h century.  funeral rites,  Italian  early  in  Braye  tombeaux  The  of  Giovanni  a c t i o n r e l a t e d to the  included  now  itself  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  adapted these elements to of  —  these  Cardinal  In t h e s e tombs,  c l o s e of  clergy performing  times mourners.  discussion  27).  elements of  t h e s e tombs a r e  attended  ( d . 1276), S.  deceased  at the  programmes o f  C a r d i n a l G u i l l a u m e de  (Fig.  the  the  d i Cambio's tombs f o r  d e l l a Molara 26),  monie , d e v e l o p e d  the  a d d i t i o n to  Domenico, O r v i e t o  France,  A development  p o r t r a i t - l i k e n e s s i n the  important  tombs o c c u r r e d  with  25).  marked. An  S.  (Fig.  state.  in a wall  niche.  upon h i s s a r c o p h a g u s ,  to the  rear  of which ran  was a  19  frieze  of c l e r i c s .  fragment  The  hold objects associated  Above and b e h i n d  the e f f i g y  Madonna and C h i l d . ceased case,  s i x f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d on with the o f f i c e  appeared  In t h e de B r a y e  a relief  dead.  depicting  the  of the  compartment.  a n g e l s or deacons h o l d the d r a p e r y  extant  of the  tomb t h e e f f i g y  i s again enclosed i n a curtained two  this  In  de-  this  i n s u c h a way  that  54 the e f f i g y  o f t h e c a r d i n a l may  be  seen.  Above,  sents a k n e e l i n g f i g u r e of the c a r d i n a l ' s and  Child,  also is  survive  not  seen  f l a n k e d by from  clear.  S. D o m i n i c .  Two  soul  their  disposition  image.  But  of s t r i k i n g  ance i s t h e manner i n w h i c h A r n o l f o d i Cambio a d a p t s  monuments. in  earlier  closer use,  The  to i t s o r i g i n a l  we  i n France,  ition,  the  the s o u l  tomb i n m o s a i c .  image o f t h e r i s i n g  of the deceased underlies  r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w by  tained  noted  In t h e de B r a y e  soul  the iconography. the e f f i g y and  The  that trad-  the r e c e p t i o n tomb  passing of  of the c a r d i n a l here  the  (Fig.  In t h e F r e n c h  In t h e de B r a y e  of the  life  in his cur-  in i t s isolation  —  t o heaven,  donor f i g u r e  indicates  i n t o heaven.  r e c e s s , w h i l e above —  tomb  t h e A n n i b a l d i monument --  the k n e e l i n g , sponsored  i n the F i e s c h i  import-  these  o f Abbot A r n o u l t ( ? ) r e c o r d e d by G a i g n i e r e s  same i n t e n t i o n is  than  to  t h a t we  be  French  o f images o f t h e human s o u l b e i n g l i f t e d  i s r e p l a c e d by  have met  i n personal salvation  form  the  o f t h e drama o f d e a t h  monuments i s much i n e v i d e n c e .  s u c h as t h a t 66),  i t s depiction  interest  angels  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h tombs may  a development o f the p o r t r a i t  ceremony tomb and  pre-  t o t h e Madonna  headless, censing  t h e o r i g i n a l monument b u t  In t h e e f f i g i e s  a saint  of  the  20  components of the programme, the a r c h i t e c t u r e p l a y s a key r o l e the f i g u r e of the c a r d i n a l ' s s o u l , presented C h i l d , may  —  to the Madonna and  be taken to represent the p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n of  C a r d i n a l de Braye.  Thus, t h i s tomb by A r n o l f o d i Cambio i n t r o -  duces i n t o the I t a l i a n tomb t r a d i t i o n a d i s t i n c t emphasis upon the dramatic  d e p i c t i o n of s a l v a t i o n enhanced by a c o n t r o l l e d  and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g use of a r c h i t e c t u r a l The plicit  interest  setting.  i n making p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n v i s u a l l y  appears to have motivated  the d e c o r a t i o n of the now  exlost  tomb chapel of N i c h o l a s I I I (d. 1280), i n Old St. P e t e r ' s , Rome. The  chapel contained an e f f i g y of the pope and behind the  55  altar,  a p a i n t i n g of N i c h o l a s I I I being drawn upwards by S a i n t N i c h o l a s with S a i n t F r a n c i s —  the vis  a  tergo  —  pushing  from  T h i s i s known from a d e s c r i p t i o n of the tomb i n the de  behind. Chronicon  Lanercost: "...supra sanctum sanctum  altare Nicholaum Fvanciscum  eapellae suae dipingi faceret se ad superiora ducentem et a tergo impellentem."56  Although unprecedented i n I t a l i a n a r t , t h i s image i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of  N i c h o l a s I I I being l e d to heaven a f t e r death,  w i t h the t r a d i t i o n we have t r a c e d . of  i s compatible  In t h i s chapel the drama  death with i t s e x p l i c i t p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e s and the use of  an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g — the f i r s t  i n t h i s case the funerary chapel,  of i t s k i n d i n I t a l y —  a l l conform with b a s i c prop-  o s i t i o n s o f , f o r example, the tomb of C a r d i n a l de Braye. A r n o l f o d i Cambio's l a s t tomb design, that f o r Boniface  21  VIII  ( d . 1303),  i n Old St. Peter's,  Rome (Fig. 3 0 ) , t o o k up t h e 57  use  of the funerary  was o r i g i n a l l y Boniface.  set into  i n t r o d u c e d by N i c h o l a s  The e f f i g y  l a y i n a curtained enclosure In t h i s  the  case  de B r a y e ,  the drapery  and o t h e r  -- t h e d r a p e r y  standing.  being  Above t h e e f f i g y  of Boniface and  Also,  Child  IV and B o n i f a c e  by S a i n t s P e t e r  earlier  was a m o s a i c p a n e l VIII being  Vasari  and a t t r i b u t e d  In t h a t placed  i s here In t h e  had n o t b e e n  showing t h e s o u l s  presented  t o a Madonna  and P a u l . XI ( d . 1 3 0 4 ) ,  d e c e a s e d ' s s o u l a s a k n e e l i n g donor i n the f i r s t  figure.  tombs t h i s  (Fig. 3 1 ) , t h e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  been n o t e d  Arnolfo  t r e a t e d a s t h o u g h t h e f i g u r e were  In t h e tomb o f B e n e d i c t Perugia  angels  angels,  of the e f f i g y  as though i t b e l o n g s t o a r e c l i n i n g  Annibaldi,  with  o f t h e A n n i b a l d i tomb i n two ways.  the e f f i g y .  treated  within  arrangement  e a r l i e r monument t h e r e were d e a c o n s , r a t h e r t h a n behind  It  of Saint  t h e monument was r e c e s s e d  a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e h e a d and f e e t .  changed t h e d e s i g n  III.  the rear wall of the chapel  Above t h e a l t a r ,  a niche. in  chapel  chapter,  to Giovanni  representation of the  figure  this  i n S. Domenico,  i s revived.  As h a s  tomb was d e s c r i b e d by  Pisano  b u t i s now t h o u g h t t o  58  be  t h e work o f a S i e n e s e  tomb i n c l u d e s t h o s e di ism  standing  Vasari's d e s c r i p t i o n of the  elements which  Cambio's i n n o v a t i o n s of the e f f i g y ,  master.  "...it  form t h e b a s i s o f A r n o l f o  i n tomb d e s i g n : quale  to r e v e a l the e f f i g y  ritratto  the p o r t r a i t - n a t u r a l di  natuvale.  i n a curtained recess,  ..";  angels  "...due  22  Angeli,  uno  da ciascun  lato...";  and a Madonna  and  saints,  59 "...una  stand  Nostra  Donna  oon due  i n a tabernacle  Gardner w r i t e s  Santi..."  The Madonna  and  saints  and t h e w h o l e i s s e t w i t h i n a G o t h i c  that t h i s  tomb, " . . . p r o b a b l y  canopy.  conveys t h e best 60  impression  of the o r i g i n a l  f o r m o f A r n o l f o ' s de B r a y e  tomb."  W i t h t h e a c c e s s i o n o f C l e m e n t V, i n 1305, and t h e s u b sequent  removal o f the papal  court  and i t s p a t r o n a g e t o A v i g n o n ,  Rome d e c l i n e d a s a c e n t r e o f i n n o v a t i v e tomb s c u l p t u r a l ity.  O t h e r c e n t r e s of I t a l y  ortant Arnolfo  d i Cambio's i d e a s t h r o u g h  Balduccio  One  in  seems t o have been r a p i d . and G i o v a n n i d i  a r e expanded and p r e s e n t e d  divergence  of the f i r s t  awarded t o T i n o  that  d i Camaino.  figural  representing  i s observed. commiss-  Begun i n 1315, t h e tomb i s From t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e tomb a greater  role  Henry V I I was r e p r e s e n t e d  t h e programme; below as an e f f i g y ,  phagus, and above s e a t e d  period  non-ecclesiastical  sculpture played  encountered before.  i n new com-  t h e tomb o f Henry V I I ( d . 1313), 61  i n a fragmented s t a t e .  i s apparent  i n tomb d e s i g n  important  ions of the fourteenth century,  here than  Italy  The number o f s e c u l a r tombs f r o m t h i s  i n c r e a s e s and a g r e a t  it  t o make imp-  The d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f  d i Camaino, N i n o P i s a n o ,  t h i r t e e n t h century  known o n l y  time,  t h e m o t i f s o f A r n o l f o d i Cambio and t h e tombs o f t h e  binations.  was  at t h i s  c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n tomb d e s i g n .  I n t h e work o f T i n o  late  began,  activ-  reclining  i n majesty with  h i s c o u n s e l l o r s (Figs.  on h i s  twice  sarco-  four standing f i g u r e s 62 33 and 3 4 ) . T h i s double  23  representation previous  of the deceased  depictions  and  new  to Italy  are  recorded  iconography,  i s entirely  of the effigy  at the time.  i n France, a s we  with  a sponsored  Images o f s u c h  and i t i s t e m p t i n g  d i d with  d i f f e r e n t from the donor  seated  figure,  figures  to associate  t h e f e m a l e tomb t r a d i t i o n ,  the with  the  63 power o f m o n a r c h i c a l appearance of t h i s at  the court  rule.  It i s significant  form o f double  of the Angevin  p o r t r a i t - n a t u r a l i s m t h a t we  stand  as a l a n d mark.  of the  individuality  (Fig.  of  Tuscany.  Cathedral  Riccardo (F%g.  i s s e t up f r o m  s u p p o r t e d by f o u r  of  devel-  tomb must  are the  features  the likeness of  are also  treated  patronage d i d not completely i n fact,  with  Petroni 64  36).  consoles.  sarcophagus upheld by f o u r  On  north,  i s Tino  tomb f a l l s  from  a broad  i n the  into a  t h e Roman tomb  and appended base  f i g u r e s which bear  into  d i Camaino's  ( d . Genoa, 1314),  This  the ground  disappear  f o r the dispersal  tomb s t y l e ,  influence  tomb a r c h i t e c t u r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t  The tomb  not only  of h i s counsellors  An e a r l y e x a m p l e o f t h i s  of Siena  this  an a i m t o c a p t u r i n g  d e v e l o p e d Roman G o t h i c  tomb f o r C a r d i n a l  of  have t r a c e d  seems t o have been r e s p o n s i b l e , the lately  i s i n Naples,  35).  Ecclesiastical and  the next  In the t r a d i t i o n  I t i s clear that  Henry V I I s c u l p t e d w i t h emperor, but those  representatin  kings.  oping  that  category type.  to the wall,  i s positioned the the sarcophagus  65  on  their  relief and  shoulders.  panels;  Saint  The s a r c o p h a g u s  a N o l i Me  Thomas  Tangere,  Inspecting  i s decorated  the Resurrection  t h e Wounds o f C h r i s t .  with  three  of C h r i s t , On  the top  24  of  the  sarcophagus, beneath a t e n t - l i k e baldacchino  originally Petroni.  by  four  figures, reclines  Above t h i s ,  Madonna and  in a tripartite  C h i l d with  baldacchino,  and  In  aspects  i t s other  the  two  saints.  tabernacle the  It  figural i s only  plays  any  rather i n the  Resurrection to  be  as b e i n g the  use  of  role  The  employed by  a  effigy,  traditional  elements.  Unlike  the  tomb i s upon  aspect  of  t h e monument.  appearance of  tomb programme w o u l d Gardner c i t e s  demonstrative of northern  Cardinal  summit t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e  at a l l .  in Italy.  open,  i s set  the  emphasis of the  at the  of C h r i s t i n the  image b e i n g  The  architectural  tabernacle  unprecedented  of  tomb i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y .  than the  significant  effigy  tabernacle,  above a r e  tombs o f A r n o l f o d i Cambio, t h e the  the  held  this  the  also  appear  iconography  i n f l u e n c e i n the  design  —  German s t a i n e d - g l a s s w o r k e r s i n  the  66 apse o f tion  San  Francesco  at A s s i s i .  references  than the  of  seen i n the  the  first  s h r i n e s of  The  their  idea i t s e l f  innovative design  Dominic,  finished  depicting  archangels,  sarcophagus of  supportive  i n 1267.  a c o l y t e s and 6 7  the  e l e m e n t s may  saint.  use  other  probably  from N i c o l a P i s a n o ' s i n Bologna,  individual The  sarcophagus i s a l s o  example o f  has  f o r the  than  have o c c u r r e d  Area of  the lineage  Saint  supports  s e c u l a r use  in late  in  a direct  There e i g h t  first  use  unusual,  virtues originally  The  Resurrec-  salvation  tombs o f A r n o l f o d i Cambio.  extant  saints.  the  previously explicit  c a r y a t i d f i g u r e s beneath the  being  the  use  s c e n e t h e P e t r o n i monument d e p i c t s p e r s o n a l  through C h r i s t rather  of  With the  held of  thirteenth  aloft these  century  25 Naples.  Four c a r y a t i d v i r t u e s , now i n the Louvre, a r e i d e n t -  i f i e d as l a t e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y works  (Figs.  37 and 38).  V a l e n t i n e r f u r t h e r suggests t h a t they a r e t h e work o f a f o l l ower of N i c o l a P i s a n o and t e n t a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e s them w i t h t h e gc  d e s t r o y e d tomb of C h a r l e s M a r t e l (d. 1295), S. L o r e n z o , These f o u r v i r t u e s , J u s t i c e , F o r t i t u d e , Prudence, may have s u p p o r t e d a sarcophagus  Naples.  and Temperance,  i n much t h e same way as t h e  f i g u r e s by T i n o d i Camaino, t h a t support the tomb of C a r d i n a l Petroni.  The sarcophagus  a t Bologna i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h r e l i e f  scenes o f the l i f e o f S a i n t Dominic of  and T i n o d i Camaino's use  r e l i e f scenes p r o b a b l y draws i t s i n s p i r a t i o n from t h a t work  by N i c o l a P i s a n o . Tino d i Camaino's next tomb, t h a t o f Gastone d e l l a T o r r e (d.  1318), f o r S. Croce, F l o r e n c e (Fig. 3 9 ) , was a g a i n s u p p o r t e d 70  h i g h on the w a l l by means of c o n s o l e s .  The iconography of  C h r i s t ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n i s u t i l i s e d once more on t h e face.  sarcophagus  As i n t h e P e t r o n i monument, t h e e f f i g y o f t h e deceased  r e c l i n e s i n s i d e a b a l d a c c h i n o h e l d open by a n g e l s . a Madonna and C h i l d .  Above i s s e t  Of more i n t e r e s t , because o f i t s c l e a r  break from t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f tomb iconography o f the t i m e , i s t h e tomb of B i s h o p A n t o n i o d e g l i O r s i (d. 1320-1), C a t h e d r a l , F l o r e n c e (Fig. 4 0 ) , by T i n o d i Camaino. known o n l y i n a fragmented  state.  A g a i n , t h e tomb i s  The tomb c o n s i s t s o f a s e a t e d  f i g u r e of the b i s h o p r e p r e s e n t e d i n death upon h i s sarcophagus (Fig.  41).  The l a t t e r  i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a r e l i e f showing the  V i r g i n p r e s e n t i n g the b i s h o p t o C h r i s t .  O r i g i n a l l y , a group  26  of  t h e Madonna and C h i l d w i t h  presented  two f l a n k i n g  saints,  a kneeling f i g u r e of the bishop's  soul,  one o f w h i c h were p a r t o f  71 t h e programme. atid  figures  identified  The s a r c o p h a g u s was s u p p o r t e d  and two a n g e l s  with  t h e tomb.  support  h o l d i n g open a b a l d a c c h i n o  an a r c a d e d  in  t h e Henry V I I and P e t r o n i monuments,  Bishop has  Antonio  broken with  bishop  Orsi,  seated  traditional  i s represented  number w i t h o u t  decorated with  thrice  the i n c l u s i o n  ography a t the b e g i n n i n g a r e marked by t h e i r  i s placed  T i n o d i Camaino In a d d i t i o n , t h e  i n t h e tomb programme and of a r e c l i n i n g  effigy 72 programme.  the v e r s a t i l i t y  this  which  may  O r s i mon-  o f tomb  of the fourteenth century.  d e p e n d a n c e on f i g u r a l  These  We  different  l e v e l s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e tomb programme —  five  distinct  levels  tombs a d e v e l o p i n g  are apparent.  T i n o d i Camaino i n t r o d u c e s new of C h r i s t , sarcophagus,  the scene  and t h e a l l e g o r i c a l  tendency  O r s i monument  In h i s r e l i e f  iconography  of intercession  —  are  to create  (Fig.  in 40)  carvings,  the R e s u r r e c t i o n  on t h e t h e d e g l i  scenes  tombs  of the deceased  handled.  V a l e n t i n e r ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the d e g l i  icon-  s c u l p t u r e and t h e  f r e e d o m and v a r i e t y w i t h w h i c h t h e e f f i g i e s see i n these  As  In h i s p o r t r a y a l o f  representations.  to represent  rested  reliefs.  a g r o u p , t h e Henry V I I , P e t r o n i , and d e g l i  uments, may be t a k e n  are also  g r e a t emphasis  i n majesty,  have o n c e been a p a r t o f t h e tomb As  allegorical  s c u l p t u r e o f t h e tomb.  degli  cary-  The w h o l e s t r u c t u r e o r i g i n a l l y  on  upon t h e f i g u r a l  by t h r e e  beneath.  Orsi  27  In he  1323  designed  (d.  or  1324,  Tino  tombs f o r t h e  1 3 2 3 ) , S.  d i Camaino went t o N a p l e s ,  Angevin c o u r t :  Catherine  Lorenzo  (Fig.  42);  Mary o f Hungary  S.  M a r i a Donna R e g i n a  (Fig.  43);  Charles  S.  Chiara  (Fig.  (Fig.  46).  45);  Notable  use  of  the  deceased.  and  v i r t u e f i g u r e s as This  freestanding  of  In t h e  Charity  Austria's  soul being  Mary o f Hungary, t h e  the  effigy  i s enclosed  i n a baldacchino  the  c h u r c h o f S.  to a seated abria, of  and  possibly  as  the  held  Child.  i n that  Cardinal  In  the  include  Virtues  of  d e c e a s e d w h i c h may  i n Tino's  the  work.  two  tombs a f r i e z e tomb —  Above t h e s e ,  the  a  of  are  Above,  the  angels. a model two of  angels  Cal-  complement Theological  a l l of which stand  Annibaldi  contact  these l a s t  --  i n the  effigy  tomb  two  three  In  Catherine  p r e s e n t e d by  the  the  which  effigy.  of Marie of V a l o i s , the to  of  traced  of A u s t r i a ,  tomb o f C h a r l e s  and c l e r i c s recumbent  be  angels,  open by  In  as  sarcophagus  sarcophagus.  leonine p l i n t h s . —  d l Camaino's  In t h e as  1328),  Chiara  s o u l o f Mary o f Hungary and  i s increased  four  the  M a r i a Donna R e g i n a a r e  Madonna and  angel-virtues  as w e l l  supports of  S.  f i g u r e of  Virtues,  the  of  the  to C h r i s t .  Cardinal  supplicant  the  (d.  s a r c o p h a g u s on  supplicant  presented  four  the  s a i n t s surround  i n front of  the  1331),  tomb o f C a t h e r i n e  ranged  Above t h i s ,  (d.  have s e e n , may  support  f i g u r e s of  i s shown i n r e l i e f  as we  1323),  Calabria  c a r y a t i d s to support  tradition,  f i g u r e s o f Hope and  lunette  Marie of V a l o i s  Austria  (d.  i n a l l t h e s e monuments i s T i n o  back t o N i c o l a P i s a n o .  four  of  of  where  of  on  mourners  i s ranged behind  the  i n d i c a t e a Roman now  typical  scene  of  28  the in  s u p p l i c a n t s o u l i s seen. Naples  The  tombs o f T i n o d i Camaino  show a marked i n c r e a s e i n t h e  of t h e i r  programmes.  canopies  and  a l l are r i g i d l y  divided  each w i t h  i t s own  success  that this  architectural  and  by  into  d e c o r a t i v e and  nowhere b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d Giovanni  architectural  A l l are surrounded  levels,  by  last  substantial  ascending symbolic  i n the  P a c i o da F i r e n z e , S.  Gothic  horizontal  scheme.  design could achieve  than  quality  i s perhaps  tomb o f R o b e r t  C h i a r a , Naples  The  of  Anjou  (Fig.  47),  t h e d e s i g n o f w h i c h owes much t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s made by di  Camaino.  isions  In t h i s  movement o f t h e eye  image o f C h r i s t  i n Majesty  From t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l and  h i s s u c c e s s o r s we  Giovanni  S.  complexity  H i s work on  Francesco,  from  Again,  Sarzana  the  consoles.  t h e monument i s m i n i m a l .  mounted on  two  lions  The  effigy  reclines  two  angels.  The  the  i n bed  lowest  (Fig.  The  of G i o v a n n i  48),  a  registers  Pisano,  simple  above g r o u n d  architectural  and  level,  is  fortitude).  a s l e e p b e n e a t h a canopy h e l d  A n o t h e r tomb o f i m p o r t a n c e  i n the  and  surrounding  s a r c o p h a g u s o f t h e boy  Above i n a t a b e r n a c l e s t a n d s  degli  i n comparison  i s both  (symbolic of r e s u r r e c t i o n as  to achieve  tomb o f G u a r n e r i o  t h e tomb i s s u p p o r t e d  appended t o t h e w a l l on  div-  o f T i n o d i Camaino  pupil  t h e work o f T i n o d i Camaino i n N a p l e s  unassuming.  of  the h o r i z o n t a l  above.  t u r n to another  d i Balduccio.  Antelminelli, with  1345,  o f t h e monument a r e c a r e f u l l y m o d u l a t e d  compelling v e r t i c a l to the  tomb, o f a b o u t  Tino  t h e Madonna and t r a d i t i o n s we  by Child.  have  29  t r a c e d i s that of Archbishop C a t e r i n a , P i s a (Fig.  Simone S a l t a r e l l i  49), by Nino Pisano.  (d. 1342), S.  R e s t i n g at ground  the sarcophagus i s decorated with r e l i e f scenes of the of  the archbishop.  Above t h i s ,  the e f f i g y of the deceased. the f r o n t of t h i s e n c l o s u r e .  Two  level,  life  i n an arcaded e n c l o s u r e r e c l i n e s angels draw back c u r t a i n s from  Above i n a t r i p a r t i t e t a b e r n a c l e  i s p l a c e d a Madonna and C h i l d with two  adoring f i g u r e s .  t h i s t a b e r n a c l e and the e n c l o s u r e below appears  Between  an image of  S a l t a r e l l i ' s soul — 73  a small nude f i g u r e —  being e s c o r t e d to  heaven by angels.  The r e l i e f s e r v e s here t o re-emphasise  the i n t e r e s t i n p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n and the drama of death that has run through the tomb designs of t h i s p e r i o d .  In the S a l t -  a r e l l i tomb, the h o r i z o n t a l l a y e r i n g of the monument i s used with an e x p e r t i s e born of the p r e v i o u s t r a d i t i o n . stepwise ascent of Simone S a l t a r e l l i ,  from l i f e  Here the  to death,  ascension to heaven, i s c l e a r l y and e l e g a n t l y expressed four l a y e r s of the tomb. ing of  through  i n the  Nino Pisano's use of the nude,  ascend-  s o u l i s a r e t r o s p e c t i v e use of French examples of the r i s i n g the s o u l and a conscious r e j e c t i o n of the k n e e l i n g s u p p l i c a n t  soul f i g u r e s that we have d e s c r i b e d as a l a r g e l y I t a l i a n ography.  icon-  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a l i n k between these  types of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by the remote tomb, by  an  I t a l i a n craftsman, of Archbishop Juan de Aragon (d. 1334), set i n t o a niche of the C a t h e d r a l , Tarragona (Figs. 50 and 51). 74 In  t h i s tomb the sarcophagus of the deceased,  i s surrounded  on one s i d e by f i g u r e s .  r e s t i n g on  lions,  Above, the s o u l of the  30  archbishop, ation  in this  case  fully  i s borne towards C h r i s t  c l o t h e d and k n e e l i n g i n s u p p l i c by two a n g e l s .  romise  between t h e nude a s c e n d i n g  licant  soul i s intended. Returning  Fieschi Pisano. the  Not now  tomb's o r i g i n a l  remains, scene  5 2 ) , by a p u p i l  location  and much  a p p e a r a n c e i s unknown.  i t i s clear  fragmented what  decorated with a of C h r i s t  by t h e  The r e c l i n i n g  upon t h e s a r c o p h a g u s was a l s o  b a l d a c c h i n o h e l d open by two a n g e l s ,  of Giovanni  However, from  that the sarcophagus,  a p o s t l e s , r e s t e d upon f o u r l i o n s .  the deceased  supp-  t h e tomb o f C a r d i n a l L u c a  s h o w i n g t h e i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e wounds  twelve of  (Fig.  in i t soriginal  a comp-  s o u l and t h e k n e e l i n g  t o Genoa, we n o t e  ( d . 1343), S. L o r e n z o  Clearly  effigy  e n c l o s e d by a  examples o f w h i c h a r e l e g i o n  elsewhere. These then tradition century  of f i g u r a l  tomb  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  must be a n a l y s e d  prior  an e s t i m a t e  of t h i s  Historical  descriptions,  o f S. F r a n c e s c o  Giovanni  with  form, reference  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e tomb from  form  the fragments  may  them-  be made.  before the d e s t r u c t i o n of the  di Castelletto These serve  i n Italy.  tradition  Attempered w i t h  of that o r i g i n a l  the mid-thirteenth  i n i t so r i g i n a l  t o 1798, and i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d  selves,  church  century,  of Brabant,  i n the l i g h t  i t s key monuments.  tombs w h i c h s h a p e d t h e  s c u l p t u r e from  to the mid-fourteenth  Pisano's  to  are the important  i n the years f o l l o w i n g  1798,  are available.  to indicate  ation  and p r o v i d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  the o r i g i n a l the o r i g i n a l  loc-  31  form of  the  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  develops i n d e t a i l arent  from the  work, t h a t Brabant,  the  and  the  fact  to these  None o f  this  t h e monument.  that  i m p o r t a n c e o f Henry V I I , she  was  buried  D e s c r i p t i o n s of  considerations  are  i n each  Margaret  i n Genoa, were  the  and  material  I t i s app-  i n w h i c h t h e monument i s c i t e d ,  historical  prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n . adjuncts  appearance of  context  the  of Brabant.  of  tomb a r e p r o v i d e d accordingly  of  as  general  in  character. The Brabant,  first  after  known r e f e r e n c e  the  document o f  to the  1313,  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  i s provided  by  the  of Libro 75  degli  anniversarii  This records o r a t i o n was Stating  that  church along  del  Conventu  t h e Processio spoken b e f o r e  the  datable  the  tomb was  originally  the  right  the  i n 1460,  Francesco  mortuorum  would t r a v e l the  placed 76  altar.  who  writes  1537,  Agostino  i n the This  i n which the  first  1321,  the  Brabant. c h o i r of  the  i s supported of  parte leva (Appendix,  saw  of  the  to i n d i c a t e that  c h o i r of  that Margaret  Maiori a sepulta..."  Giustiniani  Castelletto.  from the  (was entombed i n a m a r b l e s e p u l c h r e r a i s e d p a r t o f t h e main c h a p e l ) . In  di  nave, M a r c e n a r o i n t e r p r e t s  to s h o r t l y a f t e r  high  "...in Capella marmoreo fuit  San  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  r i g h t hand s i d e o f  reference,  Cipricum  die  the  this procession  the  of  in  di  church by  Cristoforum  Brabant, sepulcro entry 1)  in  the  tomb,  "...in la capella maggiore in una sepultura di marmo della parte sinistra, secondo che ella haveva ordinate" (Appendix, e n t r y 3)  to  32  ( i n the main chapel i n a marble s e p u l c h r e on the l e f t s i d e as she had ordained.) The  l a s t time that the tomb i s recorded t o have been seen i n  the main chapel was i n 1610.  G i u l i o Pasqua w r i t e s that the  tomb was, "dentro la ohiesa dalla banda dritta altar grande." (Appendix, entry 4)  dell'  ( i n s i d e the church on the r i g h t s i d e o f the high a l t a r ) . Marcenaro e x p l a i n s the v a r i a n c e i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to the s i d e on which the tomb appeared erent p o i n t s o f view.  t o be the r e s u l t of d i f f -  G i u l i o Pasqua, a layman, would have looked  from the nave i n t o c h o i r , seeing the tomb on the r i g h t .  Mon-  s i g n o r Agostino G i u s t i n i a n i , Bishop o f Nebio, would have looked from the c h o i r i n t o the nave, seeing the tomb on h i s l e f t .  77  Between the date o f the Pasqua r e f e r e n c e and the next, in  1641, the tomb may have been r e l o c a t e d .  Agostino  Schiaffino  writes, "...la fronte  sua area dell'organo  (Appendix,  si vede anaora in presente a ornato di statue di marmo. "  entry 5)  (her tomb i s s t i l l seen at present f a c i n g the organ, decorated with marble s t a t u e s ) . In a d d i t i o n , S c h i a f f i n o ' s a t t e n t i o n was drawn t o the i n s c r i p t i o n of  the tomb which he read as, MARGARITA HENRICI JANUE ANNO DOMINI  VII R0MAN0RUM UXOR OBIIT MCCI ( s i c ) . (Appendix, entry  6)  33  An  anonymous c h r o n i c l e r o f  the  e n r i c h i n g upon G i u s t i n i a n i ' s differently,  eighteenth  r e p o r t but  w r i t e s that Margaret of  century,  also locating  tumulata."  (Appendix,  the  tomb  Brabant,  "...desiderosa partecipare de meriti di Santi religiosi Ordino nel suo testamento intervata nella loro Chiesa, dove sopra Capella di S. Francesco in un suntuoso  fu  probably  entry  questi d'esser la mausoleo  7)  (eager to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the m e r i t s of these h o l y b r o t h e r s o r d a i n e d i n h e r t e s t a m e n t t o be i n t e r r e d i n t h e i r c h u r c h , where above t h e c h a p e l o f S. F r a n c e s c o i n a sumptuous mausoleum she was entombed). Of more i m p o r t a n c e of  the  than  tomb i s t h e Monumenta  the p r e v i o u s  Genuensia  T h i s work, c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h sketch (Fig. of  of the 53).  inscription  Piaggio  the  cum  peratricis." Several of  the  This  aspects epitaph  of  tomb e p i t a p h s ,  contains  a  o f B r a b a n t monument  t r e a t s of the  actual sculpture  words,  statua  decumbente  (Appendix,  this  o f Domenico P i a g g i o .  the Margaret  only b r i e f l y  t h e monument w i t h "Deposition  of  brief descriptions  entry  document  are  a s e m i - c i r c u l a r band  i s shown b e n e a t h t h e  dictae  Im-  12) noteworthy.  i s used  coat-of-arms,  In t h e  f o r the  and  drawing  inscription.  above t h e  epitaph  78 of Bishop  Leonardo F o r n a r i o .  The in  any  b a s i c i s s u e s which present  attempt  to r e c o n s t r u c t the  Margaret of Brabant in  relation  Castelletto;  t o the  are  as  original  form of the  f o l l o w s : (1), the  s t r u c t u r e of  (2), the  themselves f o r  nature  the  of the  church  nature  o f San  architectural  solution tomb  of the  Francesco  of tomb di  s t r u c t u r e of  34  the  tomb i t s e l f ;  original to  and ( 3 ) , t h e n a t u r e  s c u l p t u r e o f t h e tomb.  The f i r s t  of the  consideration relates  t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e tomb as a w h o l e , be i t f r e e s t a n d i n g ,  constructed high  against  a wall, recessed  up f r o m t h e w a l l  The best  (fin.  into a niche,  above g r o u n d l e v e l .  a r r a n g e m e n t s have been met  is  and d i s p o s i t i o n  A l l of these  1267),  by N i c o l a P i s a n o ' s  common o f t h e f o u r ,  Area of Saint  i n S. Domenico, B o l o g n a .  S. G i u s t i n a , P a d o v a ,  formal  before.  f r e e s t a n d i n g monument, t h e l e a s t  represented  or p r o j e c t i n g  Dominic  The s h r i n e o f S a i n t  Luke,  i s an e a r l y example o f t h e same f o r m i n t h e  79 fourteenth  century.  fourteenth  century  Bertrando (Fig. and in  The u s e o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t  i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e s h r i n e o f t h e B e a t o  ( d . 1350),  Saint Augustine  respectively. for  i s evinced  of Saint Peter 81 (c.1350-60),  Milan,  Taking  relics,  i n t o account  The  Pavia,  suited to shrines  d i Camino ( d . 1 3 3 5 ) ,  t h e d e s c r i t p i o n s o f t h e tomb, type  o f monument, d o u b t  i n t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of the church.  more a p p r o p r i a t e ,  d'Oro,  t h i s was n o t i t s s o l e u s e . 82  e a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e tomb p l a c e  main c h a p e l be  utilised  d i Balduccio  and t h e S c a l i g e r monuments o f  t o 1798, and t h e p a u c i t y o f t h i s upon i t s b e i n g  b o t h by G i o v a n n i  by t h e tomb o f R i z z a r d o Veneto,  Cathedral  (1335-1339, Fig. 5 5 ) ,  and San P i e t r o i n C i e l  of s a i n t l y  S. G i u s t i n a , V i t t o r i o Verona.  Marytr  A l t h o u g h t h e form i s a d m i r a b l y  the veneration  This  i n the B a p t i s t e r y o f Orvieto  5 4 ) , and t h o s e  S. E u s t o r g i o ,  i n t o the mid-  In t h i s  prior  i s cast  of Brabant.  i t on t h e s i d e o f t h e  location a wall  f o r f u n c t i o n a l reasons,  tomb w o u l d  than a f r e e s t a n d i n g  35  monument.  Evidence also suggests that  was r e s e r v e d central  p r i m a r i l y f o r the r e l i c s  there  N i c o l a Pisano, Balduccio The  of s a i n t s f o r which a  a r e no known f r e e s t a n d i n g  Arnolfo  d i Cambio, T i n o  for non-sanctified tradition  develops i n I t a l y t o go i n v a r i o u s  of the large s c a l e f i g u r a l  a r c h i t e c t u r a l component o f t h e programme  tombs as t h o s e o f C l e m e n t (Fig.  as i t  century  In Rome, and t h o s e a r e a s  the  IV (Fig.  design  XI  V  (Fig.  under  emphasising  (Fig.  Such 25), Card-  3 1 ) , a r e examples  this  of  t h e drama i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e s e canopies surround  i s confined  appears  developed.  23), Adrian  2 8 ) , and B e n e d i c t  Figural sculpture  a tomb  of  Gothic  trend.  tomb  i n the course of the fourteenth directions.  Giovanni  occupants.  i n f l u e n c e o f Roman d e v e l o p m e n t s ,  de B r a y e  tombs by e i t h e r  d i Camaino, o r  the  inal  tomb  and r e a d i l y a c c e s i b l e monument i s most s u i t a b l e .  Accordingly,  di  the freestanding  and t h e programme monuments.  t h e tombs, m a k i n g them monumental and  self-sufficient. In T u s c a n y , early level,  fourteenth wall  and t o t h e n o r t h ,  century  that  appended tomb.  tombs o f C a r d i n a l R i c c a r d o (Fig.  39), Bishop Orso  below, t h e tomb sculpture  rather  iconographical  This  to c a l l  form i s b e s t  Petroni  (Fig.  of Margaret  I want  a tomb  (Fig.  type develops the elaborate, illustrated  as w i l l  tombs t h e s c u l p t u r e  by t h e  be  In t h e s e tombs,  than a r c h i t e c t u r e vis emphasised.  schemes a r e i n t r o d u c e d  multi-  36), Gastone d e l l a  4 1 ) , and i n i t i a l l y of Brabant.  i n the  argued  figural  Elaborate  and f o r m u l a t e d .  i s a l l o c a t e d t o many d i s t i n c t  Torre  In t h e s e  levels  i n the  36  programme.  Furthermore,  uments b u t r a t h e r on  mon-  a r e appended t o t h e w a l l , r a i s e d f r o m t h e g r o u n d  consoles. The  in  t h e tombs a r e n o t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  two t r a d i t i o n s a p p e a r t o be f u s e d  h i s N a p l e s tombs.  signs that  i n Naples r e f l e c t Tino,  In t h e N e a p o l i t a n  (Fig.  43), Charles  (Fig.  4 6 ) , and l a t e r  by  Giovanni  is  expressed  parate  tombs o f Mary o f Hungary  (Fig. 4 5 ) , and M a r i e o f V a l o i s  da F i r e n z e ,  o f Anjou  (Fig. 47)  t h e u n i o n o f t h e two t r a d i t i o n s  of highly  s c u l p t u r a l iconography  architectural structure.  a n a l y s i s o f two tombs, c l o s e  Roman and n o r t h e r n  between t h e two f o r m s . constructed  some o f T i n o ' s d e -  became aware o f t h e  i n t h e tomb o f R o b e r t  i n the combination  rigorous, An  of Calabria  and P a c i o  d i Camaino  Roman t r a d i t i o n s and seem t o i n d i c a t e  p e r h a p s on h i s way t o N a p l e s ,  Roman d e v e l o p m e n t s .  with  As h a s been s u g g e s t e d ,  by T i n o  i n date,  traditions clarifies  The tomb o f B e n e d i c t  from t h e d i s -  the d i s t i n c t i o n  XI ( d . 1304), as  f o r S. S t e f a n o d e l C a s t e l l a r e c.1320, r e p r e s e n t s t h e 83  Roman t y p e (d.  1314), c o n s t r u c t e d  level, is  (Fig. 3 1 ) .  wall  i n 1318, r e p r e s e n t s  appended tomb t y p e  constructed  raised  The tomb o f C a r d i n a l R i c c a r d o  (Fig. 3 6 ) .  The B e n e d i c t  multi-  XI tomb  the wall, while  t h e P e t r o n i monument i s  up on t h e w a l l .  In t h e B e n e d i c t  XI tomb t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l  sculpture  tomb o f C a r d i n a l the  the elaborate,  against  component o f t h e tomb i s e m p h a s i s e d . figural  -Petroni  This  submission of the  t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e tomb i s a l i e n Riccardo  l a t t e r monument.  Petroni.  Caryatids  Figural sculpture  are introduced.  to the  abounds i n  The d e c o r a t i v e  37  p a n e l s o f t h e B e n e d i c t XI tomb a r e r e p l a c e d w i t h r e l i e f The in  use of A r n o l f o  d i Cambio's c u r t a i n e d  effigy  t h e B e n e d i c t XI tomb, i s d e v e l o p e d i n t o  scenes.  chamber s e e n  a tent-like  canopy  84 h e l d open by f o u r  instead  o f two f i g u r e s .  u s e o f a g r e a t e r number o f h o r i z o n t a l sculptural these is  iconography.  levels  placed  levels,  level  and r a i s e d  f r o m t h e B e n e d i c t XI monument.  d i Camaino tomb may be s e e n f o r Simone S a l t a r e l l i , levels  The  up e n h a n c e s  northern,  28). it  S. C a t e r i n a ,  i n the s e q u e n t i a l  Tuscan  i n Arnolfo  development  figures-,  a vanguard,  respect  (Fig. 4 9 ) .  There the  soul  from e a r t h  drama o f d e a t h e v i d e n t  stems,  into  the Tino  a x i s o f t h e monument  clearly to  heaven.  i n the  o f c o u r s e , from t h e t r e n d s de B r a y e  o f t h e Roman t r a d i t i o n  t h e r e a two a c t drama —  progress through death  a multi-level  i n t o heaven.  With  —  (Fig.  may we  call  narration of  the gradual  inclusion  f o r which  t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of Brabant  and t h e a d d i t i o n  of scenes of e a r t h l y  activity,  programme d e v e l o p s f u r t h e r in  Pisa  emphasis.  i n N i n o P i s a n o ' s tomb  d i Cambio's tomb f o r C a r d i n a l  I t i s an e n r i c h m e n t  of v i r t u e  fruit  this  t h e tomb  l e v e l s o f t h e tomb i s  In t h i s  the pilgrimage of S a l t a r e l l i ' s  interest  seen  to bear  o f t h e tomb and t h e v e r t i c a l  delineate  e a c h w i t h i t s own  a c c e n t t o t h e tomb -- t h a t  This aspect o f ascension through v a r i o u s absent  makes  The g r a d u a l d i m i n i s h i n g o f t h e s i z e o f  gives a v e r t i c a l  above g r o u n d  The tomb a l s o  to include  the ' l i f e '  was this  o f the deceased  the n a r r a t i v e . It  i s logical  to consider  as a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e  t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  n o r t h e r n tomb t r a d i t i o n  of Brabant  and t h u s o f t h e  38  e l a b o r a t e , m u l t i - l e v e l , w a l l appended type. with the known f a c t s about the tomb and ovative was  This i s consistent  suggests that the  iconography of the tomb (as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  a p a r t of an e q u a l l y i n n o v a t i v e  inn-  below)  s t r u c t u r a l design.  Although  Giovanni Pisano has been shown to be aware of c e r t a i n Roman developments, i t i s more reasonable to b e l i e v e that Tino d i  Cam-  85 aino's  innovations  f o l l o w those made by h i s master.  It i s apparent, i n i t i a l l y , Brabant had standing  that the tomb of Margaret of  r e l a t i v e l y considerable  f i g u r a l sculpture;  four f r e e -  v i r t u e s , a f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant -- f o r so  c e n t r a l f i g u r e must I t h i n k be i n t e r p r e t e d — f i g u r e s , and  a Madonna and  the Madonna and  Child.  It should  a s s i s t e d by  t r a d i t i o n a l forms, such as baldacchino  two  be noted that  C h i l d i s a t r a d i t i o n a l element.  the  only  Even i f other  h o l d i n g angels or a r e -  c l i n i n g e f f i g y were once a p a r t of the tomb, the emphasis upon f i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e and closer in s p i r i t The  i t s innovative  q u a l i t y p l a c e the monument  to Tino d i Camaino than to the Benedict XI tomb.  d i s p o s i t i o n of the s c u l p t u r e w i t h i n the programme of  tomb of Margaret of Brabant must a l s o have had m u l t i - l e v e l aspect The  a f f i n i t y with  of the tomb of C a r d i n a l Riccardo  o r i g i n a l placement of the Madonna and  the tomb, i n a l l p o s s i b l i t y i n a Gothic  the the  Petroni.  C h i l d at the apex of  tabernacle,  would seem  86 most probable and C h i l d , being  quite t r a d i t i o n a l .  Below the Madonna  and  escorted upwards towards them, must have been the  f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant.  The  o f f by a h o r i z o n t a l plane from her  three-quarter left  f i g u r e i s cut  t h i g h to the upper r i g h t  39  hip.  This  a flat  strongly  surface  i n d i c a t e s that  beneath i t .  The  the  slanted  figure rested  p o s i t i o n of the  assistant  r i g h t of the main group i s f i r m l y f i x e d by h i s arm b r i d g e to the and  central figure.  the u n f i n i s h e d  i n d i c a t e that  The  to  a marble  f e e t of the  these elements were not  assistant  may  o r i g i n a l l y intended to  In a d d i t i o n ,  s i z e of the  ant's f i g u r e r e s t e d .  structure  The  strongly  suggests that  the  a c o n t a i n e r beneath her.  The  t h i s group was  c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s being l i f t e d  That t h i s c o n t a i n e r may  located  '  right  o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s main group  sarcophagus i s a reasonable c o n c l u s i o n . that  a  upon which Margaret of Brab-  p o s i t i o n of the a s s i s t a n t to the  is not as r i g i d l y p r e s c r i b e d .  be  the base of t h i s a s s i s t a n t  i s terminated below the base of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , p l a c i n g l i m i t to the  the  appearance of t h i s b r i d g e  appearance of the  v i s i b l e from the ground.  and  on  from  have been  It i s p o s s i b l e ,  above a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y on  her  however, the  sarco-  phagus of Margaret of Brabant, i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l between the  e f f i g y i n death, and  Child.  The  the Madonna  and  presence of a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y i n the o r i g i n a l tomb  programme i s h i g h l y i t i o n f o r the and  heaven, r e p r e s e n t e d by  problematic.  Because of the p e r v a s i v e  trad-  i n c l u s i o n of such an element i n northern European  I t a l i a n tomb programmes, the  absence of a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y  87 would be extremely unusual.  The  presence of a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y  would i n t r o d u c e another l e v e l i n t o the been seen to be The  a concern apparent i n the  u t i l i s a t i o n of f r e e s t a n d i n g  have i n f l u e n c e d  tomb programme which tomb of C a r d i n a l  has Petroni.  v i r t u e f i g u r e s must  Tino d i Camaino's tomb f o r C a r d i n a l  Petroni.  also  40  It  i s likely  Prudence, bling  that  the four v i r t u e  and F o r t i t u d e ,  t h e same f i g u r e s  caryatid-like  figures,  the l a t t e r  Justice,  two w i t h a t t r i b u t e s  i n t h e S. M a r i a M a d d a l e n a  f i g u r e s beneath  Temperance, resem-  group,  a c t e d as  the sarcophagus of Margaret  of Brab-  88 aht.  Because  figure  there  ever supported another s t r u c t u r e ,  figures  stood i n front  the sarcophagus. uccio's of  i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t  shrine  T h i s arrangement  here It  suggested.  actually  i n Giovanni d i Bald-  (Fig. 5 6 ) .  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  an a l t e r n a t e  h a s been  A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n by P o p e - H e n n e s s y p l a c e s t h e v i r t u e t h e recumbent  figure  i t i s interesting  effigy  i n a lunette  to consider  In t h i s  t h e tomb o f J u a n de  effigy  of the deceased.  The u s e o f t h e f i g u r e s  the sarcophagus  i s much more c o n s i s t e n t  P i s a n o ' s use of such f i g u r e s  saints  of Margaret o f 89  above.  (Fig. 50) i n w h i c h v a r i o u s  discussed  A reconstruction  arrangement  Aragon  conforms  supported  (Fig. 5 8 ) .  Brabant, with the r i s i n g  beneath  that the  o f B r a b a n t b a s e d upon t h e s e i d e a s i s  f i g u r e s as g u a r d i a n s a r o u n d  connection  i s seen  f o r Saint Peter Marytr  Justice  i t i s possible  o f four p i e r s which  t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  given  the extant  are arrayed behind the  in his pulpits,  as q u a s i - s u p p o r t s with Giovanni  however, and a l s o  t o t h e meaning o f t h e tomb programme as a w h o l e as i s below.  41  CHAPTER I I I INTERPRETING  THE  TOMB OF MARGARET  AN HISTORICAL  Major Margaret  problems  o f Brabant.  deceased,  lifted  OF  ANALYSIS  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  a r e p o s e d by t h e tomb o f  The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  dramatically  BRABANT:  of the e f f i g y of the  upwards by two a t t e n d a n t s , i s u n -  precedented  in Italian  iconography  have been s u g g e s t e d , t h e meaning o f t h i s main  of  t h e tomb r e m a i n s  tomb s c u l p t u r e .  partially  While  obscure.  sources of t h i s group  T h e b o l d n e s s and " p a r a -  90 chronistic" the  q u a l i t i e s o f t h e group  essential The  of  Brabant  for  significance  history  group  —  cerning  the rediscovery  briefly  Brabant  and V a r n i  to avail  o f t h e group  i s described  of  as b e i n g l o w e r e d  Brabant  entries  and t h e i r  this descriptive  interpretation  that  The e a r l y  documentation The c e n t r a l  Margaret of  f r o m h e r tomb.  interpretation  themselves  14 and 1 6 ) , c o n -  as i l l u s t r a t i n g  i n the act of being l i f t e d  unclear.  o f t h e e n i g m a t i c main  and d e s c r i p t i v e l y w i t h t h e f r a g m e n t s .  of Milanesi's  of  (Appendix,  of these pieces  appearance  changed  fragments  Only t h e  conceived o f Margaret  i n t o h e r tomb by m o n k - l i k e  analysis  (Appendix,  was r e p e a t e d by S c o t t ,  t h e main g r o u p were i n t e r p r e t e d  but  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  t h e r i s i n g . f i g u r e and i t s two a s s i s t a n t s . by A l i z e r i  figure  The f i r s t  were t h e t h r e e f i g u r e s  reports  deal  o f t h e programme r e m a i n s  of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i s varied.  interpretation  have been i n d i c a t e d  entry  i n 1886.  17).  figures This  The two f i g u r e s  as monks o r d e a c o n s ,  until  42  the  publication,  (Appendix, angels.  in  1906,  e n t r y 19),  Santo  of  i n which these  Varni's i n i t i a l  were a n g e l s had  been e r a s e d ,  the  no w i n g s  f i g u r e s had  possessed  such  also observed I t was  that  one  appraisal  of the  be  a r e d e s c r i b e d as these  two  figures  with the o b s e r v a t i o n that they apparently  f i g u r e s bore  a cowl  on  t o have a c c e p t e d  ever  Varni h i s back.  the  two  question.  accredited with  o f t h e tomb,  italiana  they marble or b r o n z e ) .  first,  as a n g e l s w i t h o u t  dell'arte  impression that  ( n o r i n d e e d had  appears,  V e n t u r i may  Storia  figures  f o r him,  appendages, be  V e n t u r i who  assistants  Venturi's  the  first  interpretive  writing,  "...it assistito  oorpo, ma riohiamoto e soretto dagli  tudine  e a l l gloria."  a vita angioli  (Appendix,  alia  sorgere, bea-  entry  19)  (The body, r e c a l l e d to l i f e , r i s e s , a s s i s t e d and s u p p o r t e d by t h e a n g e l s t o b e a t i t u d e and g l o r y . ) Suggesting recalled  that  Margaret  -- t o be  taken  Harald Keller, favours the  of Brabant's t o heaven.  i n h i s book Giovanni  interpretation  of  Brabant  tomb i s an  of  t h e queen.  Keller  body i s b e i n g r e s u r r e c t e d  that  attempt also  1  Pisano,  t h e main g r o u p o f t h e  t o demonstrate  the  r e c o g n i s e s the unique  Giovanni Pisano's conception.  1942,  also  Margaret  resurrection nature  He w r i t e s ,  "Giovanni allein hat es gewagt, die Tote als Auferstehende darzustellen. Als der Sohall der Posaunen des Geriahstags an ihr Ohr dringt, erhebt, sieh die Herrsoherin vom Totenbett,  of  —  43  wo.sie im Leichengewand gelegen hatte, mit kreuzformig gebundenen breiten B'dndern umwickelt. Zwei Engel sind besoh'dftigt, ihr aufzuhelfen, aber die K'dnigin sieht uber die himmlischen Boten hinweg, ihr ahnungsvoiler Bliak sucht den Weltenriohter. " (Appendix,  entry  27)  ( G i o v a n n i a l o n e has a t t e m p t e d t o d e p i c t t h e dead as a r e s u r r e c t e d b e i n g . When t h e sound o f t h e t r u m p e t s r e a c h e s h e r e a r on t h e day o f judgment, even t h e s o v e r e i g n a r i s e s f r o m h e r d e a t h b e d , where she l a y i n h e r tomb g a r m e n t s , w i t h wide r i b b o n s t i e d a r o u n d h e r i n t h e s h a p e of a c r o s s . Two a n g e l s a r e b u s y t o h e l p h e r a r i s e , but t h e queen l o o k s b e y o n d t h e h e a v e n l y m e s s e n g e r s , her l o o k i o f a n t i c i p a t i o n s e a r c h e s f o r the judge of the world.) Keller's conjecture  i s footnoted with  fresco  above t h e  1340),  i n the B a r d i d i V e r n i o  59). of  i n the  t h a t a p p e a r s on  living  Pantocrator  The  —  man  two  Croce,  Florence  a clear  fresco i s a Christian  either  statement  is rising  t h e L a s t Day,  dead  statement  r e s u r r e c t e d , so and  s i d e of C h r i s t .  That  hand s i d e o f C h r i s t .  theme o f  from her  to f a c e her  shall  is clearly  the Margaret  the of  we a l l . divided  this  gentle-  tomb, h e r final  body and  judgment.  Keller's  of Brabant  of the gentleman of the B a r d i f a m i l y suggests  of Brabant  The  expectations of b e a t i t u d e i s evinced  the r i g h t  of the  was  t h e L a s t Judgment on  (Fig.  sarcophagus i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  as C h r i s t  one  h i s p l a c e m e n t on  that  S.  tomb p r e s e n t s  o f t h e B a r d i f a m i l y had  identification  on  just  zones —  the  i n the  fresco i l l u s t r a t e s  into  by  a credo  Chapel,  f u t u r e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e body.  Christ  such  a  tomb o f a g e n t l e m a n o f t h e B a r d i f a m i l y ( c .  Taken as a whole t h i s  a belief  a r e f e r e n c e to  that  tomb  with  Margaret  soul re-united  44  In  1954, S ' J a c o b  unexpected.  She w r i t e s  f o u n d t h e meaning o f t h e tomb t o be that,  " c o n t r a r y t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g n o t i o n s about t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e dead, t h e s h r o u d e d body o f M a r g a r e t h a o f Luxembourg ( B r a b a n t ) r i s e s f r o m her b e d o f s t a t e , a s s i s t e d by two a n g e l s . " ( A p p e n d i x , e n t r y 29) S'Jacob the  a c c e p t s K e l l e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e theme o f  Margaret  o f Brabant  tomb b u t i n t e r j e c t s t h a t  Margaret of  B r a b a n t must be s e e n t o be r i s i n g  from h e r bed o f s t a t e .  interpretation  t h e form o f contemporary  i n which a bed. of  an e f f i g y o f t h e d e c e a s e d S'Jacob  Brabant  the  takes i n t o account  i s the f i r s t  to the u s u a l l y  implication  to use a term  interpretation  t o r e l a t e the f i g u r e of Margaret o f t h e day --  t h i s e f f i g y has been a c t i v a t e d  l a t e r employed  Panofsky,  tomb  i s s e e n t o be l y i n g on s u c h  reclining effigy figures  being that  This  by P a n o f s k y  i n lectures  delivered  —  -- i n i t s r e s u r r e c t i o n . i n 1956, f o l l o w e d  Keller's  o f t h e tomb.  "And i n one memorable c a s e — so b o l d l y p a r a c h r o n i s t i c i t foreshadows t h e Baroque r a t h e r than the High Renaissance — t h e body o f t h e deceased i t s e l f (Margaret of Brabant) i s a s s i s t ed t o ' r i s e f r o m t h e dead' as i f i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e L a s t Judgment." ( A p p e n d i x , e n t r y 40) The of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t h e o n l y  t h e tomb has been p r o v i d e d by Einem,  35).  Questioning the v e r a c i t y  associates the  major  soul  thorough  analysis  i n 1961 ( A p p e n d i x ,  of K e l l e r ' s  interpretation,  entry Einem  t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e tomb w i t h monuments i n w h i c h  o f the deceased  i s borne  t o heaven.  N o t a b l e among  Einem's examples a r e t h e tomb s l a b o f P r e s b y t e r B r u n o  ( d . 1194),  45  Cathedral, Engelbert  H i l d e s h e i m (Fig.  6 0 ) , and  the tombstone of  I I , C a t h e d r a l , Bonn, d a t e d t o t h e l a s t  fourteenth century.  That  these depict  the soul  t h a n h i s r e s u r r e c t e d body, b e i n g a s s i s t e d  angels  i s a t t e s t e d by  The  body,  in effigy,  r e s e n t e d by and of  Swiss  a small,  representation  the  deceased,  upwards by of the  two  deceased.  i s shown a t t h e same t i m e as t h e s o u l  rep-  naked f o r m .  French  examples o f r e l i e f  the V i r g i n  quarter of of the  rather  the double  Archbishop  i n which  Einem a l s o  cites  certain  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the R e s u r r e c t i o n  the V i r g i n  i s seen  t o be r i s i n g  from  her  91 tomb w i t h a n g e l i c  assistance.  a b l e t o t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t raising in  of Margaret  imitatio,  of Brabant.  He  t o h e a v e n as a  of the Assumption  of the V i r g i n .  description  Aurea,  of Jacobus  of t h i s  assumption  de V o r a g i n e .  when He  Of  theme i s a p p l i c -  interprets  of Brabant  orary  of C h r i s t  F o r Einem, t h i s  representation, A nearly  i s p r o v i d e d by  interest  comes t o t a k e t h e s o u l  days  later,  contemp-  the  Legenda  h e r e a r e t h e words  o f t h e V i r g i n Mar.y,  "Come my c h o s e n and I s h a l l s e t t h e e i n my f o r I have c o v e t e d t h e b e a u t y o f t h e e . " 9 2 Three  the  seat,  t h e L o r d r e t u r n s t o t h e body o f t h e  Virgin,  "And anon t h e s o u l came a g a i n t o t h e body o f Mary, and i s s u e d g l o r i o u s l y o u t o f t h e tomb, and t h u s was r e c e i v e d i n t h e h e a v e n l y chamber, and a g r e a t company o f a n g e l s w i t h h e r . 9 3 Thus, t h e body and  the s o u l  of the V i r g i n  were assumed t o  Christ's  94 side  i n h e a v e n , upon H i s t h r o n e .  f o u n d , by Einem, Henry V I I  i n Dante's  i n heaven.  An  description  analogous  situation  is  of the throne a w a i t i n g  46  " I n t h a t g r e a t c h a i r whereon you f i x y o u r e y e s , Moved by t h e crown a l r e a d y p l a c e d above i t , Ere yet y o u r s e l f w i l l share t h i s m y s t i c a l feast S h a l l s i t t h e s o u l -- on e a r t h i m p e r i a l -Of l o f t y Henry, who s h a l l come t o g u i d e An I t a l y as y e t u n f i t f o r him." (Paradise, XXX:133-138) In  Einem's view, Henry V I I ,  await  the  .  assumption  .  of  in  imitatio  Margaret  of  Christi,  Brabant,  may in  be  seen  to  imitatio  95  Vzrgzms.  After additional 1968, of  on  the  self  the  occasion  head o f  with  by  the  the  Mansuetudo  discovery  interpretation  significance lips  the  of  Temperance meaning of  of  the  of  the  the  Madonna and  tomb was  his publication (Appendix, the  virtue  that  figure  t o be  of  the  of  figures, Seidel,  in  identification  42).  figures,  an  Justice  p r o v i d e d by  entry  original application  Temperance being  of  Concerning  Seidel the  found  finger  a t t r i b u t e of  to  him-  the the  Mansuetudo.  v i r t u e w h i c h b r i d l e ' s men's t o n g u e s  and  96 p r e v e n t s them f r o m o f f e n d i n g as  Of  his  the  Seidel  with  their  speech.  r e f e r e n c e James, 3:13, " L e t him show o u t o f a good c o n v e r s a t i o n works w i t h meekness o f wisdom." position  of  the  virtues  i n the  Seidel  takes  his  tomb programme as  concludes, "...die Tugenden gleiahsam di irdisahen Stufen bilden, die zur Verkl'drung der Margarethe emporfuhren. Die Offenbarung erfullt sie 'Iustitia' mit Schreoken; die 'Temperantia ' ist, obgleioh von einer sanften S t i l l e umgeben, nooh im Naehdenken befangen. Erst die auferstehende Konigin erfahrt die Vision als eine beseligende und befreiende Kraft."97  a  whole,  42  (The v i r t u e s form, as i t were, t h e s t e p s on e a r t h w h i c h l e a d up t o t h e t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n o f M a r g a r e t . The r e v e l a t i o n i s f u l f i l l e d by J u s t i c e w i t h f r i g h t ; Temperance i s deep i n t h o u g h t . I t i s o n l y when t h e queen r i s e s f r o m t h e dead t h a t she experiences t h e v i s i o n as a b l i s s f u l and l i b e r a t i n g f o r c e . ) Thus, d e v e l o p i n g gives  the  upon E i n e m ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  virtue figures a trascendental  ment's programme -to  the  "steps"  tomb, S e i d e l  f u n c t i o n i n t h e monu-  from which Margaret  i s assumed  heaven. Gian  of  as  the  the  iton  of  Lorenzo M e l l i n i ,  tomb w i t h long  reference  standing.  He  i n 1970,  i n t e r p r e t e d t h e main  to a medieval  iconographical  writes  monument;  of  the  trad-  "L 'origine del raooonto e tuttavia medioevale, deriva infatti dalt ''ieonografia. ... delta disputa tra t'angeto e it diavolo per f'anima del defunto, da eui alia tontana vengono le due enigmatiohe figurine fuori soata e pereio non realistiche ma semptici geni, tra i quali la defunta, non pitt a n i m u l a . ma aonereta e levitante salma oorporea, si libra eon lento ritmo eliooidale, scartando 1'uno e volgendosi all' attro, che si piega a guardarla net volto, come per riconscerea, e ad esso sorride." 3  (Appendix,  entry  45)  (The o r i g i n o f t h e s t o r y i s , however, m e d i e v a l , i t d e r i v e s from the iconography of the d i s p u t e between t h e a n g e l and t h e d e v i l f o r t h e s o u l o f t h e d e c e a s e d , f o r w h i c h f r o m a f a r come t h e two, o u t o f s c a l e , e n i g m a t i c f i g u r e s , n o t r e a l b u t s i m p l e g e n i i , between w h i c h t h e d e c e a s e d , no l o n g e r a l i t t l e s o u l , b u t a r e a l and r i s i n g c o r p o r e a l body, l i b e r a t e s h e r s e l f w i t h s l o w hel e l i c a l rhythm, r e j e c t i n g one and t u r n i n g h e r s e l f t o t h e o t h e r , t h a t bends t o l o o k h e r i n t h e f a c e as i n r e c o g n i t i o n , and t o s m i l e a t him.) We  will  have o c c a s i o n  to return to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  group  48  It  i s evident from the p r e c e d i n g account that  a t i o n s of the tomb have changed of  the d i s c o v e r y of the f i r s t  one aspect of the commentaries  interpret-  s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e the time  fragments to the p r e s e n t .  Yet,  has remained constant; a l l i n t e r -  r e l a t i o n s of the tomb, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of P o r t i g l i o t t i ' s Appendix,  (see  entry 21), accept the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the main group  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Margaret of Brabant at some time a f t e r the  moment of her death.  I t has been the exact  identification  of  that moment that has caused the c o n t r o v e r s y .  of  Margaret of Brabant, f o r so the f i g u r e must be  i s r i s i n g upwards seems evident -- M i l a n e s i ' s  That the f i g u r e identified,  interpretation  i s l a i d to r e s t by the face of the f i g u r e , whose e x p r e s s i o n b e l i e s that she i s being entombed.  Taking up a s u g g e s t i o n made  by V e n t u r i , K e l l e r developed the f i r s t 'moment' d e p i c t e d i n the monument. of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the  H i s t h e s i s , that Margaret  Brabant i s being r e s u r r e c t e d at the Last Judgment, would  seem q u i t e a t t r a c t i v e .  The presence of a Madonna a'nd C h i l d 98  would be u n s u i t e d to such a programme.  One would  case that a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t P a n t o c r a t o r — B a r d i tomb, but now the tomb.  of  Brabant to the r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y ,  life  as i n the  l o s t -- would have been an i n t e g r a l p a r t  of  S'Jacob,  i s highly poetic.  expect i n t h i s  i n her r e l a t i o n of the f i g u r e of Margaret i n t r o d u c e s a concept that  Giovanni Pisano may  i n t o the formerly s t a t i c e f f i g y  be seen to have breathed  form.  The importance of Einem's i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s of the main group cannot be underestimated.  However, two p o i n t s may  be  49  criticised. Brabant  rising  ionable. VII's  Einem's a s s o c i a t i o n t o heaven  and  o f t h e image o f M a r g a r e t  the p o e t r y of Dante i s h i g h l y  D a n t e c a n n o t have w r i t t e n  lofty  seat p r i o r  G i o v a n n i P i s a n o had,  to Henry's  on A u g u s t  the l i n e s  to the  t h e tomb was  complete.  25,  1313,  received  It i s unreasonable,  while,  as has been s e e n ,  of  Margaret  of  the V i r g i n  dubious  of Brabant  and D a n t e ' s  i s acceptable visually,  from a t h e o l o g i c a l  serves to i n d i c a t e  point  t h e image o f M a r g a r e t  These to  contemporary  attitudes  life,  interpretation  A neglect mately It  give  would  logical designed Brabant  that  towards  ignores r i c h  a new  therefore,  verses.  and  the  This  have r e c e i v e d  death,  and p h i l o s p h i c a l  rather criticism  implications little  attention.  importance  significance  the s o u l ,  and  sources of i n f o r m a t i o n  the  that  i m p r e s s i v e and u n i q u e  imperative to investigate environment  i n which  i f an i n f o r m e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t o be f o r m u l a t e d .  are  of  after-  o f t h e tomb has been n e g l e c t e d .  meaning t o t h i s  seem, t h e r e f o r e ,  figure  so f a r .  seem t o be o f p r i m e The  And  Assumption  latter  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e monument.  i n any  partial  the p a r a l l e l s  o f view.  of Brabant  a s p e c t s o f t h e tomb would  a full  the  a lacuna i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  As y e t , t h e t h e o l o g i c a l of  1313.  i n h i s work b o t h  subsequent  her a s s i s t a n t s  Henry  24,  t h e a n a l o g y drawn between t h e  and  quest-  time i t i s probable  e x p e c t G i o v a n n i P i s a n o t o have a n t i c i p a t e d d e a t h o f t h e emperor  describing  d e a t h on A u g u s t  payment f o r h i s work on t h e tomb, a t w h i c h that  of  ultimonument.  the theo-  t h e monument  was  o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of  50  CHAPTER IV INTERPRETING  THE A  The birth,  thirteenth  was a p e r i o d  TOMB OF MARGARET NEW  OF  BRABANT:  PERSPECTIVE  century,  of great  t h e time o f G i o v a n n i  theological  Pisano's  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  99 controversy.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n  i n t o Europe o f A v e r r o e s '  c o m m e n t a r i e s upon A r i s t o t l e , i n t h e 1230's a c t e d i n much o f t h e r e f o r m u l a t i o n during Saint  these years. Bonaventure,  o f C h r i s t i a n thought  The a t t i t u d e s Saint  occurring  o f s u c h C h r i s t i a n men a s  Thomas A q u i n a s ,  and S i g e r  t o w a r d s t h e m e t a p h y s i c s and m o r a l and n a t u r a l pagan A r i s t o t l e and h i s commentators r e f l e c t age.  as a c a t a l y s t  of Brabant  philosophy of the t h e changes o f t h e  As t h e t h e o l o g y o f A u g u s t i n e met t h e p h i l o s o p h y . o f A r i s t o t l e  not  least  i n t h e t h o u g h t s o f t h o s e who i n t e r p r e t e d  God  t o man was t h e n a t u r e and d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e human Investigation  t o u c h e d by t h e d r i v e of  t h e age.  of  the fourteenth  the  critical  that of  we t u r n  Brabant.  for clarity  By t h e c l o s e century,  post-mortem e x i s t e n c e theologians  o f t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e human instilled  of the thirteenth  and p h i l o s o p h e r s a l i k e .  careful  to better  s o u l was  and t h e b e g i n n i n g  scrutiny  soul  and i t s  by t h e  I t i s t o t h e s e s t u d i e s and  years of t h e i r formulation, i n order  soul.  by t h e s c h o l a s t i c i s m  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e human  had r e c e i v e d  t h e ways o f  between 1260 a n d 1280,  u n d e r s t a n d t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  51  During of  the l a t t e r  the systematic  half  of the t h i r t e e n t h century,  codification  of the C h r i s t i a n  concepts  human s o u l had been w r i t t e n i n d e f e n s e o f i t s v e r y Critical  in this  1260's,  i n Paris,  telians,  situation  psychism which denied In A v e r r o e s '  a passive  intellect  corporeal, is  i n t h e mid  the immortality  philosophy, —  t h e i n d i v i d u a l human 1<  in avticulo  f o r a l l mankind.  d o c t r i n e o f mono-  of the i n d i v i d u a l  t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . """  i tperishes  >  1  human  possesses  This being  mortis.  intellect  Aristo-  These s c h o l a r s ,  affirmed Averroes'  a c t i v a t e d by t h e a g e n t  ular  Averroists.  of the  existence.  o f a school of R a d i c a l or Heterodox  l e d by S i g e r o f B r a b a n t ,  soul.  had been t h e d e v e l p m e n t ,  known a l s o as L a t i n  much  entirely  The p a s s i v e  intellect  w h i c h i s e t e r n a l and s i n g -  Above t h e a g e n t  intellect  i s ranged a  h i e r a r c h y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e s w h i c h d e r i v e f r o m t h e P r i m e Mover. Thus,  individual  individual  and p e r s o n a l  responsibility  were a l s o r e j e c t e d . was,  of course,  of C h r i s t i a n  Specific  By  extension,  and t h e r e w a r d s o f t h e a f t e r - l i f e  Siger of Brabant's acceptance of t h i s  i n direct  faith  s a l v a t i o n was d e n i e d .  conflict  and e l i c i t e d  w i t h many o f t h e m a j o r  thesis tenets  strong objections.  a t t a c k s upon S i g e r o f B r a b a n t ' s p o s i t i o n  began, 102  in  1267,  In t h i s ,  with  B o n a v e n t u r e ' s Collationes  the Seraphic  made by A v e r r o e s : there is  i s only  impossible  aventure found  Doctor  (1),  called  de  f o r a mortal  the root of these  errors  i s e t e r n a l ; (2), that  f o r a l l mankind; being  praeceptis.  attention to three  that the world  one i n t e l l e c t  decern  to attain  and ( 3 ) , t h a t i t  immortality.  problems i n Averroes'  Bon-  'misinter-  52  pretation' in  of A r i s t o t l e ' s  h i s l e c t u r e s De donis  original Spiritus  philosophy. Sancti,  Again,  Bonaventure  i n 1268, criticised  103 the A v e r r o i s t i c Bishop  of Paris,  Thirteen icated  views.  On December 10, 1270, S t e p h e n  made h i s c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e s e same  p o i n t s were p r o c l a i m e d t o be e r r o n e o u s  a l o n g w i t h a l l who s h a l l  have t a u g h t  Tempier, 104  errors.  and "excommun-  o r a s s e r t e d them  105 knowingly." "the  first  ically  Three article  o f t h e s e point's a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r  i s , that  the i n t e l l e c t  one and t h e same;" t h e s e v e n t h ,  t h e form  o f man s p e c i f i c a l l y  corruption  interest:  o f a l l men i s numer-  "that  the soul,  which i s  a s man, d i s i n t e g r a t e s w i t h t h e  o f t h e body;" t h e e i g h t ,  "that  the soul  i n i t s state 106  of The  separation after contradiction  church,  of this  on a more p o p u l a r  state of the s p i r i t fession  death  does n o t s u f f e r last  corporeal f i r e . "  e r r o r was t h e f o r m  level,  was more  from  responded.  rigorously  i n which t h e  The p o s t - m o r t e m  defined.  In t h e P r o -  o f F a i t h made by t h e G r e e k , M i c h a e l P a l e o l o g u s , t o t h e  Second C o u n c i l o f Lyons,  i n 1274, t h e p o s i t i o n  of the church i n  t h i s m a t t e r i s made c l e a r . "The s o u l s o f t h o s e who a f t e r h a v i n g r e c e i v e d h o l y b a p t i s m have i n c u r r e d no s t a i n o f s i n , e i t h e r while remaining i n t h e i r bodies or being d i v e s t e d o f them, a r e r e c e i v e d i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o heaven. The s o u l s o f t h o s e who d i e i n m o r t a l s i n o r w i t h o r i g i n a l s i n o n l y , however, i m m e d i a t e l y d e s c e n d t o h e l l , , y e t t o be p u n i s h e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t punishments."107 In 1270, Thomas A q u i n a s De  unitate  made r e p l y  -tntellectus  to this  contra  also  entered the fray with h i s  Averroistas.  Siger  and t h e o t h e r c o n d e m n a t i o n s  of Brabant  i n h i s De  anima  53  intellectiva, was  of  1272  a g a i n prompted  were t h e n  o r 1273.  In 1277,  to action.  condemned.  Two  Stephen  h u n d r e d and  S t e e n b e r g h e n has  called  Tempier  nineteen this  errors  condemnation,  109 " t h e most  important  establish  the  matters  of the middle  ages."  supremacy o f t h e o l o g y  of c o n t r o v e r s y ,  Even D a n t e l a t e r  had  the  over  I t sought philosophy  ascendancy of  c a u s e t o comment on  faith the  to  and,  over  in  reason.  Averroistic  philosophy. In h e l l , "On t h i s s i d e E p i c u r u s and h i s t r a i n Have s e p u l c h r e , t h e y who a f f i r m e d t h e s o u l D i e s w i t h t h e f l e s h . " (Inferno, X:13-15.) On  a more p o p u l a r  level,  manuals c o n t a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s emphasised and  the  and  location,  upon t r a d i t i o n a l  judgment was the  being  soul,  pitted  b a t t l e being  early  gospel  was  thought  a g a i n s t the granted  text,  Joseph  the  demons, t h e D e v i l ,  Death,  death,  the  of the 1 1  ^  soul  Gradually,  d o c t r i n e of  a psyohomachia,  immediate  or  battle  f o r c e s of  good  f o r c e s of e v i l .  The  victor  this  possession  and  to r e c e i v e .  These  The  of  role  i n the  appearance i s found of  the  late  the Egyptian  a p p e a r s a t Joseph's d e a t h - b e d and  i n the  vanquishes  s o u g h t by god the  apocryphal In  this  three  Amenti. evil  Angelic psyohomachia.  fourth century.  h i s soul i s being and  in  the deceased's s o u l .  t o p l a y a key  Carpenter,  i s dying  death,  lay  to take p l a c e .  r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r  Joseph  At  1  older beliefs,  were p r o d u c e d .  after  conceptions,  formulated. "'""'"  a s s i s t a n t s were c o n s i d e r e d An  instruction  the punishments i t c o u l d expect  developing  for  nature  utilising  Christ  spirits.  54  Four angels  then  come t o e s c o r t t h e s o u l o f J o s e p h t o Abraham's  112 Bosom.  This t r a d i t i o n a l  evolved that of  into  one's e t e r n a l f a t e  the church's  nition  last  rites  of Beauvais  as dogma by B e n e d i c t 114  of January  29, 1336.  i s decided.  psychomachia upholds  The p e r f o r m a n c e  f o r t h e dead b e i n g 113  i n t h i s matter.  by V i n c e n t  affirmed  of the  t h e d o c t r i n e o f i m m e d i a t e judgment w h i c h  at death  importance  description  o f extreme  T h i s d o c t r i n e was g i v e n  recog-  and S a i n t Thomas A q u i n a s and XII i n the edict  Returning  again  Benediotus  Deus,  t o D a n t e , we s e e t h e  same c o n c e p t s expressed. "When L a c h e s i s h a s no more t h r e a d t h e s o u l I s f r e e d o f f l e s h and c a r r i e s o f f w i t h i t In posse b o t h t h e human and t h e d i v i n e ; , A l l o f t h e o t h e r f a c u l t i e s a r e muted, B u t memory, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and w i l l A r e more a l e r t i n a c t t h a n e ' e r b e f o r e . W i t h o u t d e l a y and o f i t s own a c c o r d I t f a l l s t o e i t h e r bank, most w o n d r o u s l y , And t h e r e i t f i r s t l e a r n s o f i t s d e s t i n e d c o u r s e . And s o o n as s p a c e encompasses i t t h e r e Around i t t h e f o r m - g i v i n g v i r t u e r a d i a t e s , W i t h s h a p e and s i z e a s i n t h e l i v i n g members..." (Purgatory, XXV:78-89.) Not  a l l t h e e x e g e t i c m a t e r i a l on t h e n a t u r e  s o u l may be c o n s i d e r e d activity. attempt with  of Siger of  Brabant's  Much o f t h e work was p r o m p t e d by a c o n s c i e n t i o u s  to r a t i o n a l i s e  an a l r e a d y  desire  t o be t h e r e s u l t  o f t h e human  t h e newly e n c o u n t e r e d  long e s t a b l i s h e d C h r i s t i a n  t o understand  the nature  theology.  In t h e i r  o f man and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h God t h e t h e o l o g i a n s o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h the mediator  pagan p h i l o s o p h i e s  of that i n t e r a c t i o n ,  century i n v e s t i g a t e d  the V i r g i n  Mary.  55  Saint  Bonaventure w r i t e s of t h e V i r g i n ,  "...Mary i s n o t o n l y t h e g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f h e a v e n e s s e n t i a l t o man's s a l v a t i o n . The L o r d n e v e r r e c e i v e s anyone e x c e p t t h r o u g h h e r . " H 5 A l b e r t u s Magnus, establishes  i n h i s Tractatus  the V i r g i n  Mary  de natura  boni , o f 1240,  as a m e d i a t o r ,  " . . . b e c a u s e she gave b i r t h t o t h e Redeemer b e c a u s e she p r a y s f o r us i n heaven,"116 presumably  on  Luke,  states  nunc  et  in  hora  also  mortis  nostrae.  and  I n h i s commentary  w r i t t e n between 1260 and 1274, A l b e r t u s Magnus a l s o that, " . . . t h e f u l n e s s o f t h e Godhead d w e l t i n h e r b o d i l y o n l y because Jesus C h r i s t dwelt i n h e r , and t h r o u g h him a l o n e she becomes f o r us a s o u r c e and a q u e d u c t o f g r a c e , s o t h a t t h r o u g h h e r i t can o v e r f l o w t o men."117  Recalling  t h e words o f S a i n t  "The g r a c e we  o f God  see the important As t h e V i r g i n  Paul,  i s eternal l i f e , "  position  given  Mary was  God and t h e human s o u l ,  so were  (Romans,  to the V i r g i n  conceived  6:23)  Mary.  as t h e m e d i a t o r  the v i r t u e s considered  m e d i a t o r s between t h e s o u l and t h e body.  In La Lumiere  between  t o be t h e as  a l a y text of considerable p o p u l a r i t y i n the l a t e t h i r t e e n t h century,  the union  following  o f t h e s o u l and body  i s discussed  terms,  "Les philosophes disent corps par des 'vertus' et lui d'intermediares  que I'ame est unie qui servent entre et de liens."118  au elle  i n the  Lais,  56  ( P h i l o s o p h e r s say t h a t t h e s o u l i s u n i t e d w i t h t h e body by t h e ' v i r t u e s ' w h i c h s e r v e between them as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s and as l i n k s . ) This  text written  i n c.1267, m i r r o r s  o f Thomas A q u i n a s on  the  subject.  the  extensive  B e l i e v i n g that  exegetics "virtue is a  119 power col t h e virtues  soul,"  (Justice,  Aquinas sought  to demonstrate that  Temperance, F o r t i t u d e , and  the  moral  Prudence) remain 120  a f t e r d e a t h i n a p e r f e c t e d f o r m as powers o f t h e s e p a r a t e d s o u l . B e l i e v i n g t h a t , " t h e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e of good works i s b u i l t 121 on ual  the  four v i r t u e s , "  Aquinas sought  their  individ-  roles. "Thus, p r u d e n c e i s t h e v i r t u e w h i c h commands; j u s t i c e t h e v i r t u e w h i c h r e n d e r s what i s due i n a c t i o n s between e q u a l s ; t e m p e r a n c e t h e v i r t u e which r e s t r a i n s d e s i r e s f o r the p l e a s u r e s of t o u c h ; and c o u r a g e t h e v i r t u e w h i c h s t r e n g t h e n s i n the f a c e of death."122 In t h e  discussed, explicit  an  nascent interest  is clearly  drama i s e x p r e s s e d exegetics position  on of  the the  figural  i n making the  mirrors  subject.  of  time that  S i g e r of Brabant  image o f soul.  the  The  deceased  clarity  I t becomes r e l e v a n t  with  visually which  this  explicit theological  For  just  the  a p p e a r a n c e and  as  i t s immortality concern  Italian  questioned  the  h i s separated, t o ask,  after  tombs.  At  yet  therefore,  the  the  individuality on  dis-  corporeal  to theologians,  emphasis i s p l a c e d  and  death  been  and  t h e programmes o f  human s o u l , a new  drama o f  has  concise  great  inform  that  the  human s o u l and  interests  the  tomb t r a d i t i o n  i n evidence.  d e a t h became a s u b j e c t  of  to d e f i n e  recording  same  very  of  the  the  individualised i f the  depiction  57  of Margaret light  of Brabant  of these  rising  upwards may  n o t be  e x p l a i n e d i n the  ideas.  In 1311-1312, a t t h e t i m e when t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t Brabant  was  Aquinas'  being designed,  the C o u n c i l of Vienne  c o n c e p t i o n of the s o u l  as t h e forma  affirmed  corporis  —  of Thomas  the  123 essential,  i n f o r m i n g power o f t h e body.  the shades  that  At  p o p u l a t e D a n t e ' s Commedia  t h e same t i m e ,  were b e i n g c o n c e i v e d  124 as s i m u l a c r a o f t h e human body. studied  and  t h e human s o u l  conlude  that,  just  The  after-life  thoroughly analysed.  May  could represent i t just  interpret  the  as c o n c r e t e l y ?  figure being assisted  to r i s e  by  b e i n g e s c o r t e d t o heaven i m m e d i a t e l y a l l the extant elements  after  see  the  g r a c e o f God  important  by  be  thought  that  we  not  attend-  Brabant We  may  (Romans,  t h e Madonna and  tomb programme. by  The  radiant  e x p r e s s i o n on  "...grace  of  death?  life."  arising  recalls  May  thus  Paul,  t o be  t h e Madonna.  of Brabant  i s eternal  position  have p l a y e d i n t h e o r g i n a l may  not  o f t h e tomb w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o  the theology of the time. N o t i n g a g a i n t h e words o f S a i n t  we  we  t h e two  a n t s as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o u l o f Margaret  "The  been  as t h e s o u l became d e f i n e d t h e o l o g i c a l l y ,  sculpture  explain  had  6:23) Child  Margaret  of  the grace of the Lord,  t h e words o f S a i n t i s a kind of l i g h t  the f a c e of  Thomas of the  Aquinas, soul."  125  would Brabant  mediated Margaret  58  In t h e  m o s a i c above t h e  21)  and  i n the  the  s o u l of  and  w i t h the  tomb o f C a r d i n a l  the  of Brabant,  tomb o f C a r d i n a l  deceased  the  other  G u i l l a u m e de  Braye  (Fig.  i s shown i n s u p p l i c a t i o n .  patronage of on  Guglielmo F i e s c h i  h i s s a i n t , he  prays  27)  Kneeling,  f o r mercy.  hand, i s shown r e c e p t i v e  (Fig.  of  Margaret  divine 126  grace. The  Her  face  shines,  drama i s e x p l i c i t  her  and  positively affirms  Margaret of Brabant's soul The have an soul.  four  into  r o l e i n the  Augustine  with o i l . the  acceptance  of  heaven.  v i r t u e f i g u r e s of  important Saint  head i s a n o i n t e d  the  tomb may  a l s o be  a c t i v a t i o n of Margaret  seen  of  to  Brabant's  writes,  "God i s the very l i f e of the s o u l . Now i t is p r e c i s e l y by b e s t o w i n g v i r t u e s on t h e s o u l t h a t God b e s t o w s l i f e upon i t , f o r even t h e s o u l i s n e i t h e r w i s e , nor j u s t , nor p i o u s , i t i s s t i l l a s o u l when s t r i p p e d o f t h e s e v i r t u e s ; b u t i t i s , so t o say, a s o u l t h a t i s dead, a s o u l d e p r i v e d of l i f e . I t i s capable of g i v i n g l i f e to the body, b u t i t a l s o n e e d s t o be g i v e n l i f e . God v i v i f i e s i t by g r a n t i n g i t wisdom, p i e t y , j u s t i c e , c h a r i t y and t h e r e b y , , a l l t h e o t h e r virtues."127 In is  the  addition,  r e s u l t of  d e c e a s e d has also  serve  an  t o be  the  the  p r e s e n c e of  ancient  belief  protected.  same apotvopeic  the  that  Angels,  virtue the  figures  body and  evangelists,  function.  Turning  s o u l of and  the  lions  away  evil,  An  image  128 they p r o t e c t the  the  soul  and  body o f  the  v i r t u e s as m i l i t a n t g u a r d i a n s o f  to the at  the  Psyohomachia  of Prudentius.  l e a s t , a d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e was v i r t u e s upon tombs.  deceased. the  Also,  given  defunct i n the  to the  Katzenellenbogen  may  be  twelfth  traced century  representation  writes,  of  of  59  T w e l f t h c e n t u r y sermons m a i n t a i n t h e j u s t i f i a b i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y o f s u c h o r n a m e n t a t i o n , ' I f t h e r e l i c s o f t h e s a i n t s were t o r e m a i n h i d d e n and d i d n o t s h i n e f o r t h w i t h t h e symbols o f t h e v i r t u e s , ' s a y s T h i o f r i d u s o f E c h t e r n a c h ( d . 1110), 'what c o u l d s t i r up a l o n g i n g f o r heaven i n t h e h a r d and s t o n y h e a r t o f man? What w o u l d be c a p a b l e o f f r e e i n g i t f r o m v i c e and r e s t o r i n g i t to v i r t u e ? ' " 1 2 S  The  e s c o r t s of Margaret  apocryphal These  gospel,  figures  the  are, therefore,  soul of Margaret All  Joseph  of Brabant  of Brabant Cavpentev  , which  after  her  of the Margaret  be  ful  programme f o r t h e monument as a w h o l e .  the  theological i s seen  attendant  i n the c r e a t i o n  concerns of the p e r i o d ,  t o be  drawn upwards.  f i g u r e s she r i s e s  up  With  towards  powers w h i c h  activate  serve a trascendental v i r t u e s may function, Brabant  a l s o be  the s o u l  function  meaning-  substance to  of  Brabant's  i n her  face.  The  the  Madonna i s  draws M a r g a r e t  associated with this of Margaret  i n the l i f t i n g  seen t o s e r v e a p r o t e c t i v e  as g u a r d i a n s o f t h e s o u l  and  possible,  virtues  tomb  t h e Madonna above h e r ,  s o u r c e and m e d i a t o r o f t h e g r a c e w h i c h The  and  the a s s i s t a n c e of  the  t o heaven.  Giving  Margaret  illumination  the  of grace apparent  the  of Brabant  of a u n i f i e d  the  Brabant  discussed.  death.  may  soul  has been  the  the guardians sent to guide  the extant elements  seen t o c o n s p i r e  a r e e x p l a i n e d by  scene  of Brabant  of are and  o f her s o u l . and  a  The  didactic  and body o f M a r g a r e t  of  examples o f t h e v i r t u e s w h i c h make h e r a s c e n s i o n  60  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION  The escorted  representation  t o heaven  The  of the deceased being  i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r d e a t h has a l o n g h i s t o r y i n  b o t h m a n u s c r i p t and antiquity.  o f the s o u l  in relief  imago  olipeata  sculpture  that  goes b a c k  o f a Roman s a r c o p h a g u s  to such  as 130  that  o f the Seasons  Sarcophagus,  Dumbarton Oaks,  Washington, 131  and t h a t of  which Panofsky  terms  a " m e d i e v a l i z e d imago c l i p e a t a , "  t h e s a r c o p h a g u s o f Dona Sancha  ascension  o f t h e human s o u l  ( c . 1100)  a f t e r death.  both depict  the  Other d e p i c t i o n s  of the  same e v e n t a r e n o t e d i n t h e A p o t h e o s i s o f an Emperor 132  from  ivory  t h e tomb  slab  consular of Saint  manuscript, the  relli  That after  Lambert  One  ( d . 1342),  S. C a t e r i n a ,  Pisa  examples  the f u n e r a l  the s o u l  an e l e p h a n t - d r a w n enthroned under  In a  (Fig.  62),  a n g e l s from h i s this  i s t h e tomb o f Simone S a l t a (Fig.  49)., a work t h a t  to e a r l i e r  i n some  French t r a d i t i o n s . immediately  when t h e dead body o f t h e d e c e a s e d  ceremony a l s o  Apotheosis diptych  61).  o f the use o f  the a s c e n s i o n of the s o u l  death i s emphasised  deceased,  major  tomb s c u l p t u r e  record  (Fig.  L i b r a r y , Boulogne  l o o k e d on a s a r e v e r s i o n  s u c h images  down b e l o w  Riesenbech  and  i s c a r r i e d upward by two  of the l a s t  in Italian  ways c a n be  1130),  i n the M u n i c i p a l  s o u l o f Abbot  imagery  i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum,  Reinheldis(c.  now  f u n e r a l bed.  or  diptych  an  appears. is lifted platform  a canopy  In t h e B r i t i s h by two w i n g e d  Museum  genii while  c a r r i e s an e f f i g y  o f honour,  of the  in a funeral  pro-  61  cession. soul  On t h e tomb s l a b o f P r e s b y t e r  o f Bruno i s l i f t e d  which  i s being  away  Bruno  ( d . 1194), t h e  from t h e c o r p s e o f t h e d e c e a s e d  wrapped i n a w i n d i n g - s h e e t  (Fig. 6 0 ) .  In t h e  tomb o f A z z o n e V i s c o n t i ( d . 1 3 3 9 ) , S. G o t t a r d o , M i l a n by  Giovanni d i Balduccio  the  extant  and a s s i s t a n t s , a l t h o u g h  fragments i n d i c a t e that  (Fig. 6 3 ) ,  dismantled,  t h e immediacy o f t h e 132  soul's  a s c e n t w o u l d have been e x p l i c i t l y  image o f V i s c o n t i ' s s o u l  i s c a r r i e d by an a n g e l .  sarcophagus,  the e f f i g y  with  angelic  assistance.  both  t h e body and t h e s o u l  of the deceased Thus,  de  Pierrefonds  (d. as  by G a i g n i e r e s ,  in h i s archbishop's  (Fig.  of Bishop G o s s e l i n  the souls  (Figs.  The  i s apparent  ascending  Ancoul  de V i e r z y  67 and 68)  o f t h e s e two B i s h o p s o f S o i -  The tomb o f J u a n de A r a g ^ n  50), d e p i c t s  the soul  of the deceased  apparel.  A p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r d e p i c t i n g the soul being heaven  slab,  I n t h e tombs o f t h e B i s h o p  robes o f o f f i c e .  1334), T a r r a g o n a  settled  f i g u r e , as i s e v i n c e d  from t h e abbey a t L o n g p o n t  s s o n s wear t h e i r (d.  i s tenderly  the d e p i c t i o n of the soul  ( d . 1158) and t h a t  1152), b o t h recorded  diptych.  On t o p o f t h e  careful attention.  does n o t a l w a y s t a k e t h e f o r m o f a n a k e d the Apotheosis  The naked  as i n t h e B r u n o tomb  receive  Although predominant,  by  rendered.  i n F r e n c h tombs o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h  escorted  to  century.  s t r e s s i n g of the i n t e r c e s s o r y r o l e of the V i r g i n i n the  admittance of the deceased's soul partially  explain  i n t o heaven w o u l d  t h e a d a p t i o n s made i n I t a l i a n  seem t o  tomb d e s i g n  of the  62  French m o t i f .  P r i o r t o G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s tomb of Margaret of  Brabant, the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the a s c e n d i n g s o u l was i n t o the k n e e l i n g donor f i g u r e .  T h i s Panofsky has  transformed  called,  "...a new h u m a n i s t i c s u b s t i t u t e f o r the image of the s o u l i n the g u i s e of a l i t t l e nude f i g u r e c a r r i e d a l o f t by angels."134 The r o l e of the V i r g i n i s a l s o changed i n t h e s e tombs from t h a t of a p a s s i v e s p e c t a t o r i n t o t h a t of an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the drama of the s o u l ' s a s c e n s i o n .  T h i s aspect of the V i r g i n i s  p a r a l l e l e d i n the w r i t i n g s of S a i n t Bonaventure  and A l b e r t u s  Magnus t h a t have been c i t e d . The tomb of Margaret of Brabant appears as a l o g i c a l development of the French and I t a l i a n d e p i c t i o n s of the s o u l a f t e r death.  The I t a l i a n d e s i r e t o d r a m a t i s e and make v i s u a l l y  e x p l i c i t the p r o c e s s e s of death i s here u n i t e d w i t h a F r e n c h iconography.  The c o n c r e t e and t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l image of  Margaret of B r a b a n t ' s s o u l b e i n g e s c o r t e d t o heaven u n i q u e l y embodies the F r e n c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o u l ' s ascent and the I t a l i a n "humanized" and i n d i v i d u a l i s e d , k n e e l i n g donor f i g u r e . G i o v a n n i P i s a n o , by g i v i n g substance t o the s o u l , f u l f i l s a need t o r e c o r d the p e r s o n a l and i m m e d i a t e l y apparent acceptance of the deceased's  s o u l i n t o heaven w i t h the i n t e r c e s s i o n df the V i r g i n .  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the r e - u s e o f the French m o t i f of the a s c e n s i o n of the s o u l o c c u r s i n I t a l y o n l y a f t e r G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n of the iconography. The t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l environment  which  63  nurtured Giovanni Pisano's depiction Brabant that  i n a c o n c r e t e ' f a s h i o n has  Giovanni Pisano could  and  a matter  had  first  possible That  been d i s c u s s e d .  of c o i n c i d e n t a l  hand k n o w l e d g e .  interest  that,  this  hypothetical i n the e a r l y  controversial  of  It i s impossibl  have been unaware o f t h e s e  development  o f them, he may  have  V a r i o u s s c h o l a r s have c o n s i d e r e d i t  that Giovanni Pisano v i s i t e d  occurred The  of the soul of Margaret  France during h i s  journey i s thought,  by  some, t o have  1270's, a t t h e c r i t i c a l  aspects of Siger  lifetime.  t i m e when much o f  of Brabant's  Aristotelianism  w o u l d have been o p e n l y d i s c u s s e d i s i n t r i g u i n g . Giovanni Pisano's i n c l u s i o n tomb and the  the concomitant  tomb programme i s a l o g i c a l  tradition may of  increase  be  spearheaded  Margaret  of Brabant  which  characteristics  activity.  of  i n the of  of the e a r l i e r  d i Cambio.  t o be  The  the e a r t h l y  virtue  Roman  figures  aspects of the  s u p p o r t her s o u l ' s a s c e n s i o n .  drama o f t h e s o u l ' s a c c e p t a n c e exemplary  figures  i n t h e number o f l e v e l s  development  by A r n o l f o  considered, i n part,  of the v i r t u e  into  heaven i s a s s o c i a t e d  Margaret  In t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t  of Brabant's  life The  with  temporal  of the Renaissance  tomb  136 this  association The  becomes o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e .  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of Brabant  i s one  uments o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o f u l l y ibilities and  of programmatic  architect,  an e n r i c h e d and  development.  of the f i r s t  comprehend  Giovanni Pisano,  u n i t e s both aspects of h i s a c t i v i t y concise narrative.  The  the  elaborate,  mon-  posssculptor  to achieve multi-level,  64  w a l l appended tomb that he  introduces  emphasises s c u l p t u r a l  elements but  orders  scheme.  p o t e n t i a l of t h i s development i s a t t e s t e d by  The  them i n t o a d i s t i n c t  and  clear architectural  f l o r e s c e n c e of t h i s form a f t e r Giovanni Pisano's i n i t i a l ment.  P r i o r to Giovanni Pisano, we  may  a w e l l ordered p r o g r e s s i o n  successive Aquinas.  experi-  f i n d perhaps the c l o s e s t  p a r a l l e l to the tomb of Margaret of Brabant's emphasis on and  the  clarity  from e a r t h to heaven through  l e v e l s only i n the Summa Theologiae  of S a i n t Thomas  65  NOTES  1.  R e c e n t and i l l u m i n a t i n g s t u d i e s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f I t a l i a n Trecento f i g u r a l tomb s c u l p t u r e a r e p r o v i d e d by, J u l i a n G a r d n e r , The Influence Patronage on the Introduction Rome and the Surrounding Area,  of Popes' and Cardinals' of the Gothic Style into 1254-1305, D i s s . , London  U n i v e r s i t y , 1969; and K u r t Bauch, " A n f a n g e des l i c h e n G r a b m a l s i n I t a l i e n , " Mitteilungen des historischen  Institutes  in  Florenz,  XV  (1971),  figiirKunstpp.  227-  258. 2.  J o h n P o p e - H e n n e s s y , "The A r e a S. D o m i n i c ; A H y p o t h e s i s , " Burlington Magazine, 93 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 347-351. The p r o b lems r e l a t e d t o t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f segments o f t h i s monument a r e t r e a t e d w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n by S t e f a n o B o t t a r i , L'Area  di  S.  Domenico  in  Bologna,  Bologna,  Patron,  1964.  The A r e a o f S a i n t Domenic was c o m p l e t e d i n 1267. Although N i c o l a P i s a n o a p p e a r s t o have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e s i g n , h i s hand i s s e e n o n l y r a r e l y i n t h e e x e c u t i o n . A r n o l f o d i Cambio, L a p o , and F r a G u g l i e l m o a r e a l l t h o u g h t t o have c o n t r i b u t e d e x t e n s i v e l y t o t h e work. 3.  Of i m p o r t a n c e i n t h i s r e g a r d i s J u l i a n G a r d n e r , " A r n o l f o d i Cambio and Roman Tomb D e s i g n , " Burlington Magazine , 115 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 420-439.  4.  The s t a n d a r d monograph on T i n o d i Camaino, t h a t o f V a l e n t i n e r , Tino di Camaino, P a r i s , Pegasus, 1935, amply i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t .  5.  A l l c i t a t i o n s o f V a s a r i ^ h a v e been drawn f r o m M i l a n e s i , Le ed architettori  vite  de'piu scritte  eccelenti da Giorgio  pittori, Vasari,  W.R.  Gaetano  scultori Florence,  Sansoni,  1878,  I.  6.  Milanesi,  p.  306.  7.  Milanesi,  p.  306,  8.  Milanesi,  p.  315.  9  Milanesi,  p.  315,  10.  I.B. S u p i n o , Giorgio Vasari: Vita di Niccolo e Giovanni Pisano scultori e architetti, F l o r e n c e , Bemporad, 1911, p. 51, "Il monumento a Benedetto IX (si legga invece Benedetto XI) non appartiene a Giovanni, ma a qualche maestro senese." A. G a r z e l l i , Sculture toscane nel Dugento e nel  n.  1  n.  2  66  Trecento, F l o r e n c e , M a r c h i a n d . B e r t o l l i , 1969, p. 205, d i s c u s s e s t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f t h e monument and n o t e s t h a t i t o r i g i n a l l y s t o o d i n S. S t e f a n o d i Castellare. The tomb i s d a t e d t o c.1320. 11.  Milanesi,  p.  12.  Supino,  13.  The b i r t h d a t e o f G i o v a n n i P i s a n o i s u n c e r t a i n , as i s t h e date of h i s death. G e n e r a l l y , i t i s b e l i e v e d that the b i r t h o f t h e s c u l p t o r o c c u r r e d c.1250, m a k i n g him i n h i s s i x t i e s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e tomb f o r Margaret of Brabant. G i o v a n n i P i s a n o i s assumed t o have d i e d a t sometime between 1314 and 1319, s e e M i c h a e l A y r t o n , Giovanni Pisano, Sculptor, New Y o r k , W e y b r i g h t and T a l l e y , 1969, pp. 37 and 192.  14.  T h i s work, now i n t h e Camposanto, P i s a i s t h o u g h t t o have been c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s j o u r n e y t o Genoa t o c o m p l e t e t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f B r a b a n t , see A y r t o n , p. 187.  15.  The Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a r e s t s on t h e a l t a r o f t h e c h a p e l of the Holy G i r d l e i n Prato C a t h e d r a l . It i s generally t h o u g h t t o be G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s l a s t s u r v i v i n g work, A y r t o n , p. 220. C a t e r i n a M a r c e n a r o , " L a Madonna d e l l a tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a d i B r a b a n t e , " Paragone, 167 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 17-21, b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a p r e d a t e s t h e tomb of Margaret of Brabant f o r s t y l i s t i c reasons. T h i s would make t h e tomb t h e l a s t e x t a n t work o f G i o v a n n i P i s a n o .  16.  W i l l i a m M. Empire and  p.  315.  51.  Bowsky, Henry VII in Italy, The City-State, 1310-1313, Lincoln,  Conflict of University  o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , 1960, p. 18. Bowsky i s t h e s o u r c e o f a l l b i o g r a p h i c a l ^ m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g to Margaret of Brabant that follows. , 17.  Bowsky, p.  137.  18.  I t a p p e a r s u n l i k e l y t h a t Henry V I I a c t i v e l y worked f o r h i s i m p e r i a l t i t l e from the h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . C f . , Bowsky, p. 19.  19.  D a n t e A l g h i e r e , Letter V, p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n i n S e p t e m b e r O c t o b e r , 1310, (Bowsky, pp. 4 9 - 5 0 ) .  20.  "...In iuxta  choro altare  ecclesiae depositum  (San F r a n c e s c o d i C a s t e l l e t t o ) in sarcofago plumbeo..." -- from  A l b e r t i n o M u s s a t o , Historia Muratori,  X,  5,  Rerum  r . IV,  Italicarum  c o l . ' 404a-b  Augusta, Scriptores,  p u b l i s h e d by Mediolani,  ( C a t e r i n a Marcenaro,  L.A. 1727,  "Per l a  67  tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a pp. 3-17, p. 12, n.  d i B r a b a n t e , " Pavagone, 2.  The t e x t o f t h e document, Atti del Leonardo de 'Garibaldi, Archivio di ( 1 3 1 3 - 1 3 1 8 ) , f o l i o 21b, reads:  133  (1961),  Cartolario del Notaio S t a t o , Genoa, Reg. 2,  "In nomine domini -- amen. Ego magister Johannes quondam magistri Nicole de Pisis intalliator operis sepulori bone memorie domine Margarite olim romanorum imperatrix, regine semper auguste, in domo Fratrum minorum de Janua confiteor vobis domino Johanni de Bagnaria arohidiaoono Januensis me a vobis habuisse et recepisse florenos octuaginta unum auri, boni et iusti ponderis et valoris qui valet pro quolibet floreno solidos XXIIII et denarios quattuor Janue dantibus et solventibus pro nomine et vice serenissimi principis domini Henrici dei gratia Romanorum imperatoris semper augusti et de ipsius domini imperatoris propria pecunia pro dicto opere et nomine ipsius operis, renuntians exceptioni non habitorum et non recepttorum et non numeratorum doctorum florenorum et omni a l i i iuri per quod in aontrarium me tueri possem: promittens vobis dicto nomine et de ipsis florenis et ipsos expendere bona fide et sine fraude in ipso opere et bonam et ydoneam rationem de ipsis facere vel a l i i cui de iure dicta ratio fieri debet vel debebit. Alioquin penam dupli dicte quantitatis cum omnibus dampnis inter esse et expensis quae propterea fierent vobis dicto nomine stipulantibus et solvere promitto. Ratis manentibus supradictis et proinde et ad sic observandum omnia bona mea vobis nomine pignori obligo habita habenda. Actum Janue in sacrestia anno domini nativitate millesimo trecentesimo decimo tertio indictione X die XXV augusti circa tertiam: Presentibus testibus presbitero Jacopo de Montogio da cappucinis sacrista ecclesie Januensis et presbitero Bevioto cappellano in ecclesie Januensis pro domino imperatore." The d a t i n g o f t h i s document has b e e n v a r i o u s l y interpreted in recent l i t e r a t u r e . The d a t e i s r e a d as A u g u s t 25, 1312, by H e r b e r t von E i n e m , "Das Grabmals der K o n i g i n M a r g a r e t h e i n Genua," Festschrift Hans R. Hahnloser, Basel, B i r k h a u s e r , 1961, pp. 125-150; H a r a l d K e l l e r , Giovanni Pisano, V i e n n a , S c h r o l l , 1942, p. 71; J o h n P o p e - H e n n e s s y , " G i o v a n n i P i s a n o , " Encyclopedia of World Art, 1962, VI, pp. 358a-366a. The d a t e i s r e a d as A u g u s t 25, 1313, by J o h n P o p e - H e n n e s s y , Italian Gothic Sculpture, 2nd ed., London, P h a i d o n P r e s s , 1972, p. 179; M. S e i d e l , " E i n neu e n t e c k t e s Fragment des G e n u e s e r G r a b m a l s d e r K o n i g i n Marg a r e t h e von G i o v a n n i P i s a n o , " Pantheon, 26 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 335-351; P. T o r r i t i , "Una statua d e l l a 'Giustizia' d i G i o v a n n i P i s a n o e i l monumento a M a r g h e r i t a d i B r a b a n t e , "  68  Bolletino  Ligustico  per  la  storia  e  la  cultura  12 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 124-134; M a r c e n a r o , Tomba, r e a d i n g a p p e a r s t o be c o r r e c t .  ,  latter  23.  A y r t o n , p. 186. The document, d a t e d M a r c h 9, 1314, gives judgment on an a p p e a l a g a i n s t a t a x demand i n S i e n a .  24.  M a r c e n a r o , Tomba, p. 9. In 1798, the c e s c o d i C a s t e l l e t t o was e x p r o p r i a t e d and i t s d e m o l i t i o n begun i n 1805.  church by t h e  o f San F r a n Direttorio  For  pieces  see,  t h e measurement  26.  27.  28.  this  and  other  Sculpture,  p.  19.  179.  M a r c e n a r o , Tomba, p. 9 and n. 24. The s a l e o f s e v e r a l m a r b l e s was a u t h o r i s e d on September 15, 1804, for their p r o t e c t i o n , by t h e S e n a t o r and P r e s i d e n t o f t h e M a g i s t r a t e o f F i n a n c e , Genoa. Santo V a r n i ,  " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , " Giornale  archeologia,  storia  Federico di  29.  of  Gothic  V a l e n t i n e r , p.  The  This opinion  Pope-Hennessy,  by  6.  22.  25.  i s expressed  regionale  p.  Alizeri,  archeologia,  Orlando  Milan,  e belle  Grosso,  I  Ligustico  (1874),  di  pp.  " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , " Giornale  storia  Alfieri  arti,  e  Catalogo  and  belle  arti,  della  Lacroix,  I  p.  Ligustico  (1874),  Galleria  1912,  di  436-437.  p.  Palazzo  410. Bianco,  2.  30.  M a r c e n a r o , Tomba, p. 3. For f i n d and i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s e e  31.  M a r c e n a r o , Tomba,  32.  M a r c e n a r o , Madonna,  33.  Ibid.  34.  Ibid.,  35.  S e i d e l , d,p .  36.  T h e s e two f r a g m e n t s measure 77 and 68 cm. The r i g h t hand f i g u r e h o l d s a segment o f c u r t a i n upon w h i c h t h e l e t t e r s (0)TA CENTRUM a r e i n s c r i b e d . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f B a r a b a n t o r i g i n a t e s with  , p.  18.  p.  18.  F.  this  4. pp.  17-21.  ait..  Alizeri,  Genoa, 1887, des Giovanni S u p i n o , Arte  p.  the circumstances of Appendix, e n t r y 36.  Catalogo  p. 29. Pisano, Pisano,  della  Collezione  Santo  Varni,  M. S a u e r l a n d t , Uber die Bildewerke L e i p z i g , 1904, pp. 4 7 f f ; and I.B. Florence, F r a t e l l i A l i n a r i , 1904,  69  p. 174, b o t h l i n k recognising their on  Italian  t h e two a n g e l s w i t h t h e monument w h i l e i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y (M. L o n g h u r s t , Notes  Monuments  of  the  12th  to  16th  Centuries,  and A l b e r t Museum, London, n.d., I, C42 ) . a u t h o r s , G r o s s o , p. 2; A. V e n t u r i , Giovanni Leben  und  sein  Werk,  Florence,  Pantheon,  Victoria  F o l l o w i n g these Pisano, sein  1927,  I,  p.  52;  V a l e n t i n e r , p. 39; P o p e - H e n n e s s y , Gothic Sculpture, p. 179, a l l a c c e p t t h e a n g e l s as p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l tomb programme. The f o l l o w i n g a u t h o r s e i t h e r d o u b t o r s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n : L o n g h u r s t , op. c i t . ; K e l l e r , p. 71; P i e t r o T o e s c a , Il Trecento, 1951; r p t . T u r i n , U n i o n e T i p o g r a f i c o , 1964, p. 233. 37.  Ayrton,  p.  38.  Toesca,  pp.  39.  Guiseppe P o r t i g l i o t t i , Genova;  pp.  185. 380-381, and  riviste  "Margherita  mensile  1067-1072.  M a r c e n a r o , Madonna, del  d i Brabante  commune,  ( C f . , Appendix,  p.  entry  19. a Genova,"  September  30,  1925,  21).  40.  O r l a n d o G r o s s o , " I n t o r n o a l i a tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a d i B r a b a n t e a P a l a z z o B i a n c o , " Genova; r i v i s t e mensiVe del commune, O c t o b e r 31, 1925, pp. 1203-1204.  41.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f f e m a l e tombs s e e , K u r t Bauch, Das m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e Grabbild, B e r l i n , W a l t e r de G r u y t e r , 1976, C h a p t e r 8, " F r a u e n g e s t a l t e n des 13.Jahrhunderts," pp. 99-105, and a l s o , c h a p t e r 9, "Doppelgrabsteine," pp. 106-119. These e f f i g i e s conform to the northern t r a d i t i o n f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e c e a s e d au vif.  42.  Bowsky, pp.  43.  The codex i s i l l u s t r a t e d j o u r n e y t o Rome g i v e n by  152-153.  Heinrich's  VII.  irensis,  Berlin,  im  and a h i s t o r y G. I r m e r , Die  Bildercyclus  Weidmannsche,  der  o f Henry Romfahrt  Codex  VII's Kaiser  Balduini  Trev-  1881.  44.  A y r t o n , p. 186, a d d u c e s t h e same c o n c l u s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s Madonna f o r E n r i c o S c r o v e g n i ; " T h e r e i s , however, no d o u b t t h a t t h e Madonna c a r v e d f o r S c r o v e g n i by G i o v a n n i was an i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s w i d e s p r e a d fame. S c r o v e g n i s p a r e d no e x p e n s e , and i n e m p l o y i n g G i o t t o and G i o v a n n i upon h i s p i o u s u n d e r t a k i n g , he was c e r t a i n l y aware t h a t he had a c q u i r e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f m a s t e r s o f t h e f i r s t rank."  45.  The  s a r c o p h a g u s i s d i s c u s s e d by  sur  le  symbolismefuneraire  Librairie  O r i e n t a l i s t e P.  des  F. Cumont, •romains,  Geuthner,  1966,  Recherches  1942;  p.  rpt.  78.  Paris,  70  46.  The m o s a i c i s d i s c u s s e d by J . G a r d n e r , "The T a b e r n a c l e i n S. M a r i a M a g g i o r e , " Papers of School at Rome, 38 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 220-230.  47.  The d a t e o f t h e S a v e l l i monument i s u n c e r t a i n . References i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e tomb a l l o w i t t o be post-dated f r o m 1287. The a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e tomb and i t s m o s a i c d e c o r a t i o n may be f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a d d i t o n s . Cf. Guida  d'Italia;  Roma  e  dintorni,  Milan,  Capocci the British  1962,  p.  119.  48.  J u l i a n G a r d n e r , "The Tomb o f C a r d i n a l A n n i b a l d i by A r n o l f o d i Cambio," Burlington Magazine, 114 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 136-141. G a r d n e r t r a c e s .the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Porte Romane, Cathedral, Reims (Fig. 6 9 ) , and tombs i n Leon C a t h e d r a l , upon A r n o l f o ' s designs. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a more d i r e c t s o u r c e f o r t h i s i n f l u e n c e may have e x i s t e d . " I t c a n n o t be exc l u d e d t h a t t h e F r e n c h model may have b e e n i n O l d S t . Peter's i t s e l f . The tomb o f Amice de C o u r t n a y , C o u n t e s s o f A r t o i s , who d i e d i n Rome i n 1275 may have c o n f o r m e d t o t h i s type," G a r d n e r , Annibaldi, p. 141. n. 34. C f . , Bauch, Anfange, pp. 2 4 6 f f .  49.  Bauch, Anfange, pp. 2 5 2 f f . , a r g u e s t h a t t h i s tomb may c o n s i d e r e d an e a r l y work o f A r n o l f o d i Cambio.  50.  For a d i s c u s s i o n of the " c o n s i d e r a b l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l support f o r t h i s new s c u l p t u r a l t r e n d , " i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f "men c l o s e t o o r members o f t h e c u r i a i t s e l f , " s e e G a r d n e r , Influence,  51.  52.  p.  29,  n.  be  2.  G a r d n e r , Arnolfo, argues a g a i n s t the a t t r i b u t i o n of t h i s tomb t o A r n o l f o d i Cambio, "Comparison w i t h the o t h e r e f f i g i e s (by A r n o l f o ) r e v e a l s t h a t o f A d r i a n V t o be t h e p r o d u c t o f an e c l e c t i c s c u l p t o r h e a v i l y i n t e r e s t e d by . A r n o l f o d i Cambio's s t y l e , and s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a t e r t h a n the pope's d e a t h . " E. P a n o f s k y , Aspects from  Tomb Sculpture; Ancient Egypt  to  Four Lectures Bernini, H.W.  on its Changing Janson, ed.,  New Y o r k , Abrams, n.d., pp. 60-61. As e x a m p l e s : t h e tomb o f P i e r r e de C h a t e l l e r a u l t , B i s h o p o f P o i t i e r s ( d . 1 1 3 5 ) , F o n t e v r a u l t , designed i n the t h i r t e e n t h century, and r e c o r d e d i n a d r a w i n g by G a i g n i e r e s (Fig. 6 5 ) ; t h e tomb o f G i l l e s du C h a s t e l e t ( d . t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) , E v r o n ( J . Adhemar, "Les tombeaux de l a C o l l e c t i o n G a i g n i e r e s , " B o o k I , " Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 84 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 1-192, #120); and t h e tomb o f Abbot A r n o u l t ( ? ) , f o r m e r l y St.-Pere, C h a r t r e s (Fig. 66). 53.  G a r d n e r , Annibaldi,  pp.  136ff,  and  f i g . 7.  A  drawing  71  o f t h e tomb ( B i b l i o t e c a A p o s t o l i c a V a t i c a n a , Codex Barbevini , L a t . 4423, f o l i o 2 3 ) , o n c e b e l i e v e d t o r e c o r d t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e tomb i s shown c o n v i n c i n g l y t o be an i n a c c u r a t e a s s e m b l a g e o f f r a g m e n t s o f t h e tomb a f t e r i t s destruction. 54.  C f . , John White,  Art  and  Harmondsworth, P e n g u i n ,  Architecture  in Italy,  1250-1400,  1966, pp. 55-56.  55.  G a r d n e r , Arnolfo,  p. 437.  56.  J o s e p h S t e v e n s o n , e d . , Chronicon de Lanercost, 12011346, E d i n b u r g h , E d i n b u r g h P r i n t i n g Co., 1839, p. 99.  57.  G a r d n e r , Arnolfo,  58.  See above, n. 10.  59.  Milanesi,  60.  G a r d n e r , Arnolfo,  61.  C f . , V a l e n t i n e r , C h a p t e r 3, "The Tomb o f t h e Emperor pp. 16-42, p i s . 6-17.  62.  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p o f o f H e n r y V I I has been q u e s t i o n e d 4). The o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i o n was m a u s o l e e de l ' E m p e r e u r H e n r i V I I Fabre, P a r i s , 1902, p. 365.  63.  An e f f i g y o f K i n g D a g o b e r t i n S t . D e n i s i s d e s c r i b e d by Dom D o u b l e t as s e a t e d , r e s t i n g h i s f e e t on a l i o n and a d o g . ( s ' J a c o b , pp. 179-180).  64.  C f . , G a r d n e r , Influence,  65.  P o p e - H e n n e s s y , Gothic Sculpture, p. 16, i n a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s t h e four s u p p o r t i n g f i g u r e s as " . . . s l e n d e r carya t i d s of the V i r t u e s . . . " The f i g u r e s a r e w i t h o u t a t t r i butes. Three a r e male, t h e f o u r t h , female.  66.  G a r d n e r , Influence, p. 172. See G u i s e p p e M a r c h i n i , Le Vetrate dell'Umbria, Rome, De L u c a , 1973, ( C o r p u s V i t r e a r u m M e d i i A e v i , I t a l i a , V o l . I ) , p. 33 and p i . XXIV, who d a t e s t h e windows, 1253-1260. V a l e n t i n e r , p. 49, f i g . 8, s u g g e s t s t h a t a p r e d e l l a p a n e l i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t , by U g o l i n o da S i e n a , f o r h i s S. C r o c e a l t a r p i e c e , i n f l u e n c e d T i n o d i Camaino. He w r i t e s , " I t c a n s c a r c e l y be d o u b t e d t h a t T i n o was i n s p i r e d by t h i s p a n e l o f U g o l i n o , who, f o r h i s p a r t , may have been i n d e b t e d  p. 437, f i g s .  24 and 25.  p. 315, nn. 1 and 2. pp. 423-424. Henry,"  c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h t h e tomb ( V a l e n t i n e r , p. 148, n. made by E . B e r t a u x , "Le a P i s e , " Melanges a Paul  p. 172.  72  f o r the motive to n o r t h e r n p a i n t i n g , p o s s i b l y to French m i n i a t u r e s of the t h i r t e e n t h century, i n which t h e s c e n e was s i m i l a r l y represented." 67.  See  68.  P a r i s , Musge n a t i o n a l du  above, n.  Moyen  Age,  2.  de  la  du  P a r i s , Musee N a t i o n a u x , T h e s e s t a t u e s s t a n d 110 69.  Louvre,  Renaissance  Catalogue et  des  des  temps  1922, I, p. 70, cm. i n h e i g h t .  #'s  sculptures modernes,  571-574.  V a l e n t i n e r , pp. 93-94 and 151, n. 15. The tomb o f C h a r l e s M a r t e l i s d e s c r i b e d by P i e t r o Summonte, Historia della citta e regno Napolitano, N a p l e s , 1675, I I , p. 353 ( V a l e n t i n e r , p. 152); "...mori dunque i l re d'Ungharia in Napoli intorno i l fine dell'anno 1295 d'eta. d'anni 30....fu sepolto in un sepolcro di marmo sostenuto dalle statue delle quattro virtu cardinale."  70.  Valentiner,  p.  59.  71.  Valentiner,  pp.  72.  T h i s number may be i n c r e a s e d t o f o u r i f V a l e n t i n e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the b i s h o p i s p o r t r a y e d i n the a l l e g o r i c a l r e l i e f p a n e l i s c o r r e c t ( V a l e n t i n e r , p. 7 2 ) .  73.  C f . , V i c t o r i a G o l d b e r g , "Leo X, Clement V I I and t h e i m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e s o u l , " Simiolus, 8 ( 1 9 7 5 - 6 ) , pp. 16-25, p. 19, d i s c u s s e s t h e r a r i t y o f s u c h d e p i c t i o n s .  74.  The a t t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s m a s t e r f u l work i s u n c e r t a i n . E m i l e B e r t a u x , "La s c u l t u r e du X I V s i e c l e en E s p a g n e , " Histoire de I'art, A. M i c h e l , ed., P a r i s , C o l i n , 1906, I I , P a r t 2, pp. 652-654, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e tomb may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s c h o o l of Andrea P i s a n o , p o s s i b l y G i o v a n n i and P a c i o da F i r e n z e . J u a n de C o n t r e r a s , Historia del Arte Hispanico, B a r c e l o n a , S a l v a t , 1935, I I , p. 198, suggests that a d i r e c t f o l l o w e r of Giovanni Pisano, p o s s i b l y T i n o d i Camaino, e x e c u t e d t h e tomb i n N a p l e s f o r shipment to Tarragona. The q u a l i t y o f t h e e f f i g y , i n a l a b a s t e r , c a s t s d o u b t upon b o t h t h e s e a t t r i b u t i o n s . The tomb i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n d e t a i l by F r a n c e s V i c e n s , Cathedral de Tarragona, Barcelona, Ediciones P o l i g r a f a , 1970, p i s . 130-139.  62ff.  e  75.  Libro  di  degli  Anniversarii  Castelletto  "Processio Prima  in Statio.  in die  del  Genova, mortuorum  Convento  di  San  Francesco  B i b l i o t e c a Reale, Turin, in  Conventu  Janue.  .. .  MS.,  73  Ad imperatricem. omnia fiunt sicut consuetum est in suis anniversariis. Responsorium Subvenire sanoti et cetera et inde kyrie eleyson pater noster. ORATIO. Quesumus domine pro tua pietate misere clementer anime famule tue imperatricis. et a oontagiis mortalitatis exutam in eterne salvatoris partem restitue. Inalina domine aurem tuam ad preees nostras quibus miiericordiam tuam suppHoes exoramus ut animam famuli tui imperatoris qui de hoc secolo migrare iusisti in pacis ac lucis regionis constituas. et sanctorum tuorum iubeas esse consortem. per christum." ( M a r c e n a r o , -Tomba, p. 15., n. 1 4 ) .  M a r c e n a r o , Tomba,  p.  M a r c e n a r o , Tomba,  pp.  Cf.,  8. 8-9.  Einem, p. 147, n.  The s h r i n e veneziana  36.  is illustrated gotica,  by W.  1300-1460,  Wolters,  Venice,  La  scultura  Alfieri,  1976,  II,  f i g s . 28-30. The a f f i n i t i e s between t h e monument and t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e s h r i n e o f S. D o m i n i c a r e n o t e d by W o l t e r s , I , p. 152. Cf., For  Wolters,  I, pp. 185-186,  the s h r i n e of Saint  Gothic  Sculputre,  p.  Augustine,  199,  p i . 62,  See W o l t e r s ,  I , pp. 160-161,  Garzelli,  205.  p.  and I I , f i g s .  266-271.  see Pope-Hennessy, and  f i g . 45.  and I I , f i g s .  84-90.'  The u s e o f t h i s t e n t - l i k e c a n o p y may have p r e c e d e d t h e P e t r o n i monument i n t h a t o f H e n r y V I I . C f . , P o p e - H e n n e s s y , Gothic Sculpture, p. 184, who w r i t e s , "The t e n t - l i k e s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which t h e e f f i g y i s p l a c e d appears, from a m i n i a t u r e i n t h e Codex B a l d u i n i n o t e d by V a l e n t i n e r , a l s o t o a l s o t o have been employed i n t h e monument o f t h e Emperor H e n r y V I I a t P i s a , and p e r h a p s d e r i v e s i n b o t h c a s e s f r o m G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s monument o f M a r g a r e t o f L u x emburg a t Genoa, w h i c h may have i n s p i r e d o t h e r r e a t u r e s o f T i n o ' s w a l l monuments." H e n r y V I I was i n f a c t g i v e n a t e n t , " b e d e c k e d w i t h j e w e l s and s u r m o u n t e d by a g o l d e n e a g l e , " upon h i s a r r i v a l i n P i s a (Bowsky, p. 1 5 3 ) . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s u c h an e l e m e n t i n t h e Codex  Balduini  commemoration C f . , M. Jahrbuch  Trevirensis  of t h i s  Seidel, der  gift  i s a direct  (Fig.  r e f e r e n c e and  "Die Rankensaulen der Sieneser  Berliner  Museen,  11  a  20).  (1969),  pp.  Domfassade,"  81-157.  74  86.  Cf.,  M a r c e n a r o , Madonna,  p.  21,  who  "La sua scala, rapportataa quella superstiti della tomba scomparsa, sitci prospettiea cine aonferma la opera..."  87.  The had  of  the  Madonna,  O r s o monument (Fig. 4 0 ) , as r e c o n s t r u c t e d by V a l e n t i n e r , no e f f i g y , b u t t h i s may a l s o be q u e s t i o n e d , c f . ,  Pope-Hennessy,  88.  writes  delle altre statue suggerisce una complessupposta grandiositd dell'  Gothic  Sculpture,  p.  185.  T h i s f o r m o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d by T o r r i t i , Giustizia, pp. 133-134, f i g . 8-9 (Fig. 57). Torriti's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e tomb p l a c e s t h e r i s i n g f i g u r e and her two a s s i s t a n t s on t o p o f t h e s a r c o p h a g u s w i t h f o u r v i r t u e f i g u r e s as a c t u a l c a r y a t i d s . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e v i r t u e s i s l a r g e l y h y p o t h e t i c a l but T o r r i t i s u g g e s t s t h a t the J u s t i c e may have a p p e a r e d on t h e l e f t b e c a u s e , ".. . i l suo  fianco  destro  e  squadrato  e  calato  a  piombo  come  un  pilastro angolare." This reconstruction i s questioned by S e i d e l , p. 338, and p. 350, n. 28. T o r r i t i ' s assumption t h a t t h e J u s t i c e a c t e d as a c a r y a t i d was made p r i o r t o t h e r e m o v a l , by r e s t o r e r s , o f s u r p l u s cement f r o m t h e n e c k o f t h e f i g u r e w h i c h had been l e f t when once t h e f r a c t u r e d head had been r e p l a c e d . 89.  P o p e - H e n n e s s y , Gothic Sculpture, p. 179, w r i t e s , "...since t h e i n s c r i p t i o n i s i n t h e s e c o n d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and i s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e Empress, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s and t h e t h r e e o t h e r C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s were g r o u p e d r o u n d t h e effigy."  90.  P a n o f s k y , p.  91.  Cf.,  E.  Revue  77.  M&le,  de  I'art  "Le  portail  ancien  et  de  Senlis  moderne  , 29  et  son  influence,"  (1911),  pp.  161-176.  Examples of the i c o n o g r a p h y a r e found at S e n l i s , C h a r t r e s , Laon, S a i n t Yvod de B r a i n e , L a u s a n n e , and S. M a r i a i n Vezzolano. I t a p p e a r a n c e a t S e n l i s was a p p a r e n t l y unp r e c e d e n t e d . ( F i g . 70). 92.  Jacopo  de  Voragine,  The  Saints, Trans. William p. 237. p.  Golden  Caxton,  Legend  or  Lives  London, J.M.  of  Dent,  the  1900,  93.  Ibid.,  241.  94.  The A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n a p p e a r s i n f r e q u e n t l y i n s e p u l c h r a l monuments ( c f . , s ' J a c o b , pp. 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 ) . For e x a m p l e s s e e , t h e tomb o f Doge F r a n c e s c o D a n d o l o ( d . 1 3 3 9 ) , S. M a r i a d e i F r a r i , V e n i c e , W o l t e r s , I , pp. 163-164, and I I , f i g . 100; and an anonymous tomb i n t h e C o l l e z i o n e  75  Cini,  M o n s e l i c e , W o l t e r s , I , p . 181, and I I , f i g s .  302-305.  95.  Einem,  96.  Seidel,  pp. 344-345.  97.  Seidel,  p. 348.  98.  The p r e s e n c e o f a Madonna and C h i l d i n t h e programme would be u n s u i t a b l e i n t h i s c a s e , a l t h o u g h t h e V i r g i n Mary would n o t be a s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . The V i r g i n Mary's r o l e a s an " i n s t r u m e n t o f I n c a r n a t i o n and R e d e m p t i o n " i s d i s c u s s e d by D.C. S h o r r , "The R o l e o f t h e V i r g i n i n G i o t t o ' s L a s t Judgment," Art Bulletin, 38 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 207-214. See a l s o , S i s t e r M. V i n c e n t i n e , The Blessed Virgin Legend  p. 144.  Mary Prior  as Mediatrix in the Latin and Old French to the Fourteenth Century, Washington,  Catholic University 99.  C f . , E. G i l s o n ,  of America,  History  of  1938, p. 71.  Christian  Philosophy  in  the  Middle Ages, New Y o r k , Random House, 1955, p. 387. See a l s o , F e r n a n d v a n S t e e n b e r g h e n , The Philosophical Movement  in  the  Thirteenth  Century,  Edinburgh,  Nelson,  1955. 100.  The p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g t o t h e a p p e l l a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d by G i l s o n , pp. 388-389.  101.  C f . , A v e r r o e s , "The G r e a t Commentary on De anima, Book I I I , t t . 4 and 5," t r a n s . A r t h u r Hyman f r o m A v e r r o i s C o r d u b e n s i s Commentarium Magnum i n A r i s t o t e l i s De Anima Libros,  Philosophy  of  the Middle  Ages,  of t h i s  group  A. Hyman and  J . Walsh e d s . , New Y o r k , H a r p e r and Row, pp. 314-324. The commentary o f G i l s o n , pp. 224-225, i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d , a s i s t h a t o f C . C . J . Webb, "Some N o t e s on t h e Problem  of S i g e r , "  Medieval  and  Renaissance  Studies,  2  ( 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 121-127. 102.  Gilson,  103.  Ibid..  104.  p . 403.  The P a r i s i a n c o n d e m n a t i o n s o f 1270 a r e p u b l i s h e d i n t r a n s l a t i o n by John F. W i p p e l a n d A l l a n B. W o l t e r e d s . , Philosophy  336. 105.  Ibid..  106.  Ibid..  of  the Middle  Ages,  New  Yrok,  MacMillan,  1969, p.  76  107.  P u b l i s h e d by H e n r y D e n z i n g e r , The Sources of Catholic Dogma, t r a n s . J . D e f e r r a r i f r o m t h e 3 0 t h ed. o f E n c h i r i d i o n Symbolorum, S t . L o u i s , H e r d e r , 1957, p. 184, #464.  108.  C f . , S i g e r o f B r a b a n t , "De anima i n t e l l e c t i v a , C h a p t e r 7: Whether t h e i n t e l l e c t i v e s o u l i s m u l t i p l i e d i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f human b o d i e s , " i n Wippe.l, pp. 360365.  109.  S t e e n b e r g h e n , p.  110.  Ch.-V. L a n g l o i s , "La L u m i e r e as L a i s , " La au moyen-age. Vol. 4: La vie s p i r i t u e l l e , H a c h e t t e , 1928, pp. 66-119.  111.  On t h e d o c t r i n e o f i m m e d i a t e judgment see, J.A. McHugh, "Judgment," Catholic Encylcopedia, 1910, V I I I , pp. 5 5 0 f f . The d o c t r i n e d e r i v e s f r o m t h e P a r a b l e o f L a z a r u s and D i v e s (Luke, 16:22-23).  112.  Cf.,  113.  In  94.  s ' J a c o b , p.  de  France Librairie  120.  tomb s c u l p t u r e ,  tombeaux  vie en Paris,  grande  these b e l i e f s f i n d cSremonie  (cl.,  see  expression above,  n.  in  the  52).  In t h e s e monuments t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d upon t h e l a s t r i t e s performed f o r the deceased i n d i c a t e s the concern w i t h which t h e moments a f t e r d e a t h were v i e w e d . S ' J a c o b , p. 73, writes, " . . . t h e G o t h i c a r t i s t s d i d not aim so much a t commemorating t h e l i t u r g i c a l a c t s , as d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e f f i c a c y of the p r a y e r s . " I t i s the performance of t h e s e a c t s t h a t ensures the e v e r l a s t i n g b l i s s of t h e i r r e c i p i e n t . 114.  The r e l e v a n t t e x t o f t h e Benedictus Deus i s p u b l i s h e d by D e n i z i n g e r , pp. 530-531. A l l those worthy of immediate a d m i s s i o n t o heaven a r e g r a n t e d , "by i n t u i t i v e v i s i o n , " the s i g h t of God.  115.  C i t e d by Literature, p. 107.  J o a n M. F e r r a n t e , Woman as Image New Y o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y  116.  C i t e d by Devotion,  H i l d a G r a e f , Mary; London, Sheed and  117.  Cited  Graef,  118.  Langlois,  119.  S a i n t Thomas A q u i n a s , Summa Theologica, woode, 1965, i a 2ae:65,l.  120.  Ibid.,  by  p.  I, p.  in Medieval Press, 1975,  A History of Doctrine and Ward, 1963, I, p. 274.  276.  80.  l a 2ae:67,l  E y r e and  Spottis-  77  121.  Ibid.,  l a 2ae:60,l.  122.  Ibid.,  l a 2ae:61,4.  123.  D e n z i n g e r , p. 190, #481. The C o u n c i l edict  De  summa  trinitate  et  fide  of Vienne,  oatholioa,  i n the  reproved,  "as e r r o n e o u s and i n i m i c a l t o t h e C a t h o l i c f a i t h e v e r y d o c t r i n e o r p o s i t i o n r a s h l y a s s e r t i n g o r t u r n i n g t o doubt that the substance of the r a t i o n a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l soul t r u l y and i n i t s e l f i s n o t a f o r m o f t h e body." C f . , S a i n t Thomas A q u i n a s , The Soul, T r a n s . J . P . Rowan, S t . L o u i s , H e r d e r , 1949, p. 13, a r t . 1, "When t h e body i s c o r r u p t e d t h e s o u l does n o t l o s e t h e n a t u r e w h i c h b e l o n g s t o i t a s a form, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t does not a c t u a l l y p e r f e c t m a t t e r a s a f o r m . " 124.  E . G i l s o n , " D a n t e ' s N o t i o n o f a Shade; P u r g a t o r i o Medieval Studies, 29 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 124-142.  125.  Aquinas,  126.  C f•., ibid., l a : 89, "The s e p a r a t e d s o u l d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d by means o f i n n a t e s p e c i e s , n o r by s p e c i e s i t a b s t r a c t s t h e n , n o r by s p e c i e s a l o n e . . . . b u t by s p e c i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d i v i n e l i g h t . The s o u l i s made a sharer i n these j u s t l i k e other immaterial substances, t h o u g h i n an i n f e r i o r mode. Thus a s soon a s i t c e a s e s t o t u r n t o t h e body i t t u r n s t o h i g h e r b e i n g s . I t does not f o l l o w on t h i s a c c o u n t t h a t t h e k n o w l e d g e i s n o t n a t u r a l , f o r God i s t h e a u t h o r o f t h e i n f l o w i n g o f l i g h t , n o t o n l y of grace, but a l s o o f n a t u r e . "  127.  C i t e d by E . G i l s o n , The Christian Philosophy of St. Augustine, t r a n s . L.E.M. L y n c h , New Y o r k , Random House, 1960, p. 131.  128.  C f . , s ' J a c o b , p. 213.  129.  A d o l f K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , Allegories in Medieval Art from Early Christian  Summa,  Century, trans. pp. 46-47.  l a 2ae:110,1.  J.P. C r i c k ,  130.  Illustrated  by P a n o f s k y ,  131.  Ibid.  , p.  132.  Ibid.  , fig.  133.  C f . , T o e s c a , p. 272.  134.  Paaofsky,  59,  fig.  236.  239.  p. 78.  XXI,"  of  the Virtues Times to the  New Y o r k , W.W.  f i g . 127  and  Vices Thirteenth  N o r t o n , 1964,  78  135.  C f . , Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 7; and A y r t o n , p. 42. K e l l e r , p. 11-12, i s t h e most i n s i s t a n t o f t h o s e who b e l i e v e G i o v a n n i P i s a n o t o have v i s i t e d F r a n c e . He w r i t e s , "Zwischen 1270 Pisano in franzosischen  136.  und 1275 muss aufgehalten  sich dann haben."  Giovanno  P a n o f s k y , p. 73, c h a r a c t e r i s e s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e v i r t u e s i n tomb programmes a s c h a r a c t e r w i t n e s s e s a s one o f t h e " i c o n o g r a p h i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s " w h i c h mark t h e t r a n s i t i o n between G o t h i c tomb s c u l p t u r e and R e n a i s s a n c e tomb sculpture.  GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant (d. 1311), main group, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, main group (detail), Palazzo Bianco, Genoa.  80  Fig.  3  Fig.  4  GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f B r a b a n t , J u s t i c e v i e w ) , P a l a z z o Rosso, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f B r a b a n t , J u s t i c e v i e w ) , Palazzo Rosso, Genoa.  (front (rear  81  Fig.  5  Fig.  5  Fig.  6  Fig.  6  GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Madonna (front view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Madonna (rear view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa.  82  Fig.  8  Fig.  9  GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (front view), Swiss private collection. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (rear view), Swiss private collection. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (detail), Swiss private collection.  Fig.  9  83  Fig.  Fig.  10  10  Two angels holding a baldacchino, Palazzo  Bianco, Genoa.  Fig.  11  Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.  11 12 13 14  Fig.  12  Justice, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Temperance, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Prudence, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Fortitude, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa.  Fig.  85  Fig.  16  Fig.  IS  Fig.  16  Death of Henry VII's brother, Walram of Luxemburg, at the siege of Brescia, July 26, 1311, and h i s funeral: D(omi)n(u)s Walr(amus) frCater) regis sagitta obiit Brixie. SepelitCur) V(er)one multi moriuntCur) aere aorrupto. Codex Balduini Trevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C no. 1, 14a. Funeral of Margaret of Brabant: Regina obiit Janue XI. deoe(m)b(r)is an(n)o XVIII sepelit(ur) ad Minores. Codex Balduini Trevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 17a.  86  I Fig.  18  Fig.  17  Fig.  18  .fetotdto-kirnsato_6___fl6.  I  Death of Henry VII at the siege of Siena, August 24, 1313: Obitus Imp)er)atoris H(envioi) septimi i(u) Bonoo(n)ve(n)t(o) die XXIII augu(sti) anno MCCCXIII. Codex Balduini Tvevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 35b. Henry VII's body t r a n s f e r r e d to P i s a : Reduetis H(enriei) Imp(eratovis) lysis. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36a.  87  Fig.  19  Fig.  19  Funeral of Henry VII i n P i s a : Exequie Imp('er)atoris Codex Balduini  Fig.  20  E(enrioi) lysis. Trevirensis,  Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36b. An idealised representation of Henry VII's tomb. Codex Balduini  Trevirensis,  Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 37.  Fig.  20  Fig.  21  Fig.  22  Tomb of Cardinal Guglielmo F i e s c h i (d. 1256), S. Lorenzo f u o r i l e mura, Rome. Tomb of Luca S a v e l l i , S. Maria i n Aracoeli, Rome.  89  Fig. 24  25 26  ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb o f Adrian V (d. 1276), S. Francesco, Viterbo. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb o f Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi d e l l a Molara (d. 1276), S. Giovanni i n Laterano, Rome.  Fig.  27  Fig. Fig. Fig.  27 28 29  Fig. 28  Fig. 29  ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye (d. 1282), S. Domenico, Orvieto. Reconstruction by Romanini o f the tomb of Cardinal Guillaum de Braye. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb o f Cardinal Guillaume de Braye ( d e t a i l ) , S. Domenico, Orvieto.  Fig.  Fig. Fig. Fig.  30 31 32  31  Fig. 32  Drawing of the tomb of Boniface VIII (d. 1303). Tomb o f Benedict XI (d. 1304), S. Domenico, Perugia. Tomb o f Benedict XI ( d e t a i l ) , S. Domenico, Perugia.  CD  to  93  Fig. 35 Fig. Fig. Fig.  33 34 35  Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Henry VII (d. 1313). Reconstruction by Bauch of the tomb of Henry VII. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Henry VII ( d e t a i l of two counsellors), Camposanto, Pisa.  94  Fig.  36  Fig.  36  Fig. Fig Fig.  37 38 39  TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Petroni (d. 1314), Cathedral, Siena. Caryatid Fortitude, Louvre, P a r i s . Caryatid Prudence, Louvre, P a r i s . Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tarib of Gastone d e l l a Torre (d. 1318).  Fvg. 39  Fig.  Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Bishop Antonio d e g l i O r s i (d. 1320 or 1321). TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Bishop Antonio d e g l i O r s i ( d e t a i l ) , Cathedral, Florence. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Catherine of Austria (d. 1323), S. Lorenzo, Naples.  Fig.  Fig. 43  Fig. 44  Fig.  43  Fig.  44  TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Mary of Hungary (d. 1323). S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Mary of Hungary ( d e t a i l ) , S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples.  97  Fig.  45  Fig.  45  Fig.  46  Fig. 46  TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Charles of Calabria (d. 1328), S. Chiara, Naples. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Marie of V a l o i s (d. 1331), S. Chiara, Naples.  If  Fig.  47  Fig. Fig. Fig.  47 48 49  Fig.  %  48  Fig.  49  GIOVANNI AND PACIO DA FIRENZE: Tomb of Robert of Anjou, S. Chiara, Naples. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Tomb of Guarnerio d e g l i Antelminelli, S. Francesco, Sarzana. NINO PISANO: Tomb of Archbishop Simone S a l t a r e l l i (d. 1342), S. Caterina, Pisa.  CD 00  Fig.  50  Fig.  50  Fig.  51  Tomb of Juan de Aragon (d. 1334), Cathedral, Tarragona. Tomb of Juan de Aragon ( d e t a i l ) , Cathedral, Tarragona.  100  Fig.  Fig. Fig.  52 53  Fig.  54  54  Tomb of Cardinal Luca F i e s c h i (d. 1343), S. Lorenzo, Genoa. DOMENICO PIAGGIO: Transcription of the epitaphs o f Margaret o f Brabant and Leonardo Fornario. Shrine of the Beato Bertrando (d. 1350), Baptistery, Cathedral, Orvieto.  Fig.  Fig.  55  Fig.  56  56  GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Martyr, P o r t i n a r i Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Martyr ( d e t a i l ) , P o r t i n a r i Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan.  102  Fig.  Fig.  59  58  103  Fig.  61  Fig.  60  Fig.  61  Fig.  62  Fig.  63  Tomb s l a b o f P r e s b y t e r Bruno ( d . 1194), Cathedral, Hildesheim. Tomb s l a b o f S a i n t R e i n h e l d i s , Church, Reisenbeck. Death and t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n o f Abbot Lambert ( d . 1125), Municipal Library, Boulogne, MS. 46, f o l . I V . GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO AND ASSISTANTS: Tomb o f Azzone V i s c o n t i ( d . 1339), S. Gottardb, Milan.  104  Fig.  Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 67 Fig. 68  68  Drawing of the tomb of Abbot Pierre de Dijon (d. 1132), Abbey of Asint-Benigne, Dijon. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Pierre de Chatellerault of Poitiers (d. 1135), Abbey, Fontevrault. Collection Roger d i Gaignieres. Drawing of the tomb of Abbot Arnoult (?), formerly Saint-Pere, Chartres. Collection Roger de Gaignidres. Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Ancoul de Pierrefonds of Soissons (d. 1158), Abbey, Longpont. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Gosselin de Vierzy of Soissons (d. 1152), Abbey, Longpont. Collection Roger de Gaignieres.  105  Fig.  70  Fig. Fig.  69 70  D e t a i l of the Porte Romane, Cathedral, Reims. Awakening of the V i r g i n ( d e t a i l of west p o r t a l ) , Cathedral, Senlis.  106  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Alazard,  Jean.  L'art  sieole. Alizeri,  it alien  des  V o l . I. Paris,  Federico.  origines  storia,  Aubert,  Foster.  Marcel.  La sculpture  Giornale  e belle  A r i s t o t l e . Be anima in the Version and the Commentary of St.  Kenneth 1951.  la fin  du  XIV  e  H e n r i L a u r e n s , 1949.  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Arnolfo  italiano.  Mario.  Sauerlandt,  mensile  ed.  World  1067-1072.  Angiola  gotico  2nd  "Margherita d i Brabante  riviste  pp.  Sculpture.  of  Otto  von.  Das  Role of the V i r g i n i n G i o t t o ' s Last Bulletin, 38 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 207-214. Mittelalter.  Vol.  B e r l i n , Propylaen Verlag, Vol. 6). Steenberghen, Fernand van. Thirteenth Century. Stevenson,  J.,  2:  Das  de  Co.,  1839.  Soul.  T r a n s . J.P.  The  Mittelalter.  The Philosophical Movement in the E d i n b u r g h , N e l s o n and Sons, 1955.  Chronicon  Saint. 1949.  hdhe  (Propylaen Kunstgeschichte,  Edinburgh P r i n t i n g Thomas A q u i n a s , Herder,  ed.  1972,  Lanercost,  1201-1346.  Edinburgh,  Rowan. S t .  Louis,  112  Thomas Aquinas, S a i n t . Summa Theologiae. Spottiswoode, 1965.  London, Eyre and  Toesca, P. "Giovanni P i s a n o . " Encioloipedia 1933, c o l s . 596-598. Toesca, P. Il 1964.  1951;  Trecento.  V o l . XVII,  italiana,  r p t . T u r i n , Unione  Tipografico,  T o r r i t i , P i e r o . "Ancora s u l monumento Brabante d i Giovanni Pisano i n Genova." Commentari, I (1960), pp. 66-67. T o r r i t i , P i e r o . "La ' G i u s t i z i a ' d i G i o v a n n i Pisano e i l monumento a M a r g h e r i t a d i Brabante." B o l l e t t i n o Ligustico  per  la  storia  12 (1960), pp. 124-134.  Torriti,  la  cultura  regionale,  P i e r o . "Una s t a t u a d e l l a ' G i u s t i z i a ' d i Giovanni Pisano per i l monumento funebre a M a r g h e r i t a d i Brabante i n Genova." Commentari, I I I - I V (1960), pp. 231-236.  V a l e n t i n e r , W.R.  Tino  di  Camaino.  V a r n i , Santo. "Correspondence." storia Vasari,  e  e belle  Giorgio. e  Le  arti,  vite  architettori,  P a r i s , Pegasus P r e s s , Giornale  Ligustico  I (1874), pp.  di  piu  nelle  eccelenti  redazioni  A d o l f o . Storia del  Trecento.  1967.  dell'arte  1906;  italiana.  pittori, del  r p t . Nendeln,  Vitzhum,  de  1970.  Tarragona.  archeologia,  1550  e  scultori 1568.  Vol.  5.  1969. Vol.  4:  La  scultura  Kraus'Reprint L t d . ,  V e n t u r i , A d o l f o . Giovanni Pisano, sein Leben Two v o l s . F l o r e n c e , Panthen, 1927. Vicens, Frances. Cathedral P o l i g r a f a , S.A.,  di  436-437.  R. B e t t a r i n i , ed. F l o r e n c e , Sansoni, Venturi,  1935.  und  sein  Werk.  Barcelona, E d i c i o n e s  Georg and V o l b a c h - B e r l i n , W.F. Die Malerei un Plastic Mittelalters in Italien. Wildpark-Potsdam, Akademische V e r l a g s g e s e l l e s c h a f t Athenaium M.B.H., 1924. des  Voragine, Jacopo de. The Golden Legend or the Lives Saints. Trans. W i l l i a m Caxton. London, J.M. Wallace, Robert Dan.  of  the  Dent,  L'influence de la Prance gothique deux precurseurs de la Renaissance; Nicola 'et Pisano. Geneva, L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1953.  1900.  sur Giovanni  113  W a t e r s , W.G. I t a l i a n Co., 1926.  Sculptors.  2nd e d . London, Methuen and  Webb, C . C . J . "Some N o t e s on t h e P r o b l e m o f S i g e r . " Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies, 2 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 121-127. Wenzel, S i e g f r i e d . "The P i l g r i m a g e G e n r e . " Mediaeval Studies, White,  J o h n . Art  and Architecture  of L i f e as a Late Mediaeval 35 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 370-388. in  Italy,  1250-1400.  Harmondsworth, P e n g u i n Books, 1966. W i p p e l , J . F . and W o l t e r , A.B., e d s . Medieval from  St. Augustine  to Nicholas  of  Philosophy; Cusa.  New  York,  M a c M i l l a n , 1969. Wolters,  Wolfgang.  La  scultura  Two v o l s . V e n i c e ,  veneziana  A l f i e r i , 1976.  gotica,  1300-1460.  114  HISTORICAL  APPENDIX  1460 lanuensium Monumenta per fratrem Cristoforum Ciprioum ordinis minorum confeota - Ab anno domini nostri Iesu Christi MXCVIIII usque ad annum MCCCCLX (Exemplatum 1617), Biblioteca Universitaria, Genoa, MS. B V I I 6, pp. 65-66. "...Ipso et anno die XII deoembris in festo Sanote Lueie d.na Margarita oonsors eius imperatrix que etiam lanuam advenerat in Conventu Fratrum predioatorum vita defeoit et in Conventu fratrum minorum eiusdem urbis prout ipsa legaverat in Capella Maiori a parte leva sepulcro marmoreo fuit sepulta, ut etiam in libro eorundem Fratrum qui in Saaristia eiusdem eonventus oonservatur et in l i t t e r is ipsos fratres eidem imperatori dirreotis aontinetur quarum oo'pia adhuo apud nos extat." (Marcenaro,  Tomba,  p.  A collection Margaret Lucy,  recorded.  12,  The n o t i c e  she  had c h o s e n  in  a marble  ipsa  sepulchre  ". . .a parte of  the c h o i r  o f S.  during  makes r e f e r e n c e  i n the b u r i a l  "...prout  death  i n the monastery  involvement herself  16.)  o f Genoese r e c o r d s ,  of Brabant's  on December  16, n.  the feast  to Margaret's  arrangements.  legaverat..."  --  i n the r a i s e d  part  . ."  Francesco.  —  of  Saint  o f S. D o m i n i c , i s  She was  —  leva.  1099-1460.  —  direct  entombed,  as  115  2 16th  Century Cronica  Januem Stato,  ab initio Turin.  ad  annum  1333,  Archivio  di  "...Anno domini MCCCVIIIJ elleotus est in alamania-'rex henviaus comes de lucemburgo vir imperatorem et venit in Lombardiam MCCCX itaque omnes civitates lombardie per solempnes ambasatoves se dederunt dicto domino imparatori et Januenses similiter fecerunt. Et MCCCXI venit in Janua et manendo ibi domina imperatrix uxor eius ibidem defuncta est et sepulta ad sanctum franciscum de Janua. Dictus vero dominus imperator ivit pisas et romam. et post multa bella et controversias que habuit tarn in roma quam item in tuscia et lombardia sicut deo placuit vitam f i n i v i t MCCCXIIJ in die beati rochi." (V. X  Promis,  (1874),  Atti  pp.  della  495ff;  Societa  Ligure  Marcenaro,  di  Tomba,  Storia  pp.  F'atria,  13-14,  n.  5. )  A An and  his  death  account  subsequent  i n Genoa,  Francesco  in  of  chronicle.  Henry V I I ' s  election  I t a l i a n journey. 1311,  and  as  "vir  Margaret  her  burial  franciscum..."  --  in  the  of  imperatorem" Brabant's  church  of  S.  --  "...ad are  Genoese  sanctum  noted.  3 1537 Agostino  Giustiniani:  Castigatissimi  Annali  con  la  loro  116  copiosa tavola delta Ecaelsa & Illustrissima Republi. di Genoa, da fideli & approvati Scrittori, per el Reverendo Monsignore Agostino Giustiniani Genovese Vescovo di Nebio accuvamente racolti, Genoa, 1537, p. 116. "Et i l giorno di S. Lucia L 'Imperatrioe Margarita, delta quale habbiamo parlato di sopra, nel monasterio di S. Dominico passo di que^sta vita all'altra, & fu sepelita nella chiesa di S. Francesco in la capella maggiore in una sepultura di marmo delta parte sinistra, secondo che ella haveva ordinato." (Marcenaro,  The S. D o m i n i c church noted.  death  p. 16., n. 16.)  o f Margaret  'of B r a b a n t  and h e r entombment  o f S. F r a n c e s c o , Reference  "...secondo  i n a marble  on t h e l e f t  side  i s made t o arrangements  b e i n g made by M a r g a r e t  i n t h e monastery o f sepulchre i n the of the chapel, i s f o r t h e entombment  herself:  che ella  haveva  ordinato."  4 1610 Giulio  "Dentro grande. trioe."  la chiesa ddlla 1311. Il Deposito  (Einem,  p . 132. )  Places of  P a s q u a , Memorie e sepolcri che sono nelle Chiese di Genova e i suoi suburbii raccolte I 'anno 1610, C i v i c a B i b l i o t e c a B e r i o , Genoa, M.R. I I . 2.II, p . 26.  t h e tomb  S. F r a n c e s c o  banda dritta di Margherita  of Margaret  to the r i g h t  o f Brabant  of the high  dell'altar Impera-  inside  altar.  the church  117  5 1641 A g o s t i n o S c h i a f f i n o , Annali Eoolesiastioi 1300-1528, Archivio Storico del MS. 079, I I I , p. 58. "...La sua dell'organo  area si ornata  (Marcenaro,  Places the of  organ. the  Tomba, appears in  the  17th  the  At  p. to  7  and be  Tomba,  tomb,  that  Conception n.  in  the  8).  p.  14,  n.  decorated  time,  a moving  Cappella  vede ancor di statue  the left  This of  Maggiore  tomb  the  a  Liguria, Genoa,  fronte  7.)  was  of  i s the  the of  arm  in presente di marmo."  with  organ  delta Commune,  marble located  the  above  transept  first from  statues,  facing  the  Altar  (Marcenaro,  reference  its original  to  what  location  church.  Century A g o s t i n o S c h i a f f i n o , Annali Eoolesiastioi C i v i c a B i b l i o t e c a B e r i o , Genoa,  nella I I I , p.  "Il giorno di S. Lucia in Genova nel monastero di S. Domenico si mori Margarita moglie del Re Henrico e secondo ch'ella aveva ordinato fu sepellita nella chiesa di S. Caterina nella contrata di locoli, posseduta dalle Monache dell'ordine di S. Francesco che poi cadendo ad altra religione, fu i l suo corpo trasportato nell chiesa di S. Francesco nella cui area fu posto tale epitaphio: Margarita Henrici VII Regis Romanorum uxor obiit Janue anno domini MCCCI. " (Einem,  p.  133.)  Liguria, 43.  118  The by  erroneous Giscardi,  reference to b u r i a l  i n S. C a t e r i n a i s c o r r e c t e d  i n 1750 ( s e e below, A p p e n d i x e n t r y 1 1 ) .  t a p h o f t h e tomb  The  epi-  reads,  Margaret,  w i f e o f H e n r y V I I , K i n g o f t h e Romans,  Genoa t h e y e a r o f t h e L o r d  1301  died  (sic).  7  18th  Century Chiese  di Genova,  MS.  Archivio  S t o r i c o d e l Commune,  Genoa,  050, p. 279.  "In che gran concetto di religiosa perfetione vivessero i Frati antichi di questo Monastero puo argumentarsi ch'essendo morta in Genoa it giorno di S.ta Lucia dell'IZll L 'Imperatrice Margarita Moglie d'Enrico Sesto desiderosa partecipare de meriti di questi Santi religiosi Ordino net suo testamento d'esser interrata . nella loro Chiesa, dove sopra la Capella di S. Francesco in un suntuoso mausoleo fu tumulata. "  (Marcenaro,  Tomba,  p. 14, n.  12.)  E x t e n d e d r e f e r e n c e i s made t o M a r g a r e t ' s burial a  i n the church  o f S. F r a n c e s c o .  "sumptuous mausoleum,"  Francesco." has with  The a c t u a l  been s u g g e s t e d that referred  transept.  i s located  location  that the s i t e  request f o r  The tomb, d e s c r i b e d as  "sopra  la Capella  of the chapel referred  di  S.  i s unknown.  t o here  It  i s identical  t o i n e n t r y 5, t h a t i s , i n t h e l e f t  arm o f t h e  119  18th  Century Nicolo  P e r a s s o , Memorie e notizie di di Genova, Archivio d i Stato, p. 27 r . and v .  (Marcenaro,  Describes  Tomba,  t h e tomb  p.  7.)  as  "un suntuoso  chiese e oipeve pie Genoa, MS. 836,  mausoleo."  9 1728 Federigo F e d e r i c i , o l e , Genoa,  Collectanei Liguri, MS., p. 192.  "La cui moglie morse e fu sepolta in Margarita in S. Francesco dove ancor vede la sua area marmorea... " (Einem,  is  p.  Genova domina hoggi si  134.)  Margaret  of Brabant's marble  "...area  marmorea..."  mentioned  Biblioteca Brign-  i n the church  tomb  —  — o f S.  Francesco.  10 1739 Giacomo  G i s c a r d i , Diario di Santi, Beati, Servi di Bio della Citta e Dominio B i b l i o t e c a F r a n z o d i a n a , Genoa, MS.  Venerabili e di Genova, 127, p. 365.  "...Aveva essa prima di morire ordinato d'esser sepolta nella chiesa di P.P. minori di S. Francesco di Genova, che perb i l di Lei cadavere cola traferito gli furono celebrate I'essequie  120  degne dell ''Imperiale Majesta et indi in un areo di marmo ornata di molte anehe al presente si vede sopra la del medesimo S. Francesco alia parte del'Saneta Sanctorum."  (Einem, p.  eolloeato figure ehe cappella sinistra  133.)  D e s c r i b e s t h e monument as a m a r b l e tomb d e c o r a t e d many f i g u r e s , left  located  of the h i g h  "above t h e c h a p e l  o f S.  Francesco,"  with to  altar.  11 1750 Giacomo G i s c a r d i , monasteri,  di p.  Genova, 203.  Origine e luoghi  e  successi pii della  delle citta  B i b l i o t e c a Franzodiana,  chiese e e riviere  Genoa,  "L'anno 1311 mori in Genova Margarita moglie dell'Imperatore Henrico VII i l die successe il giorno di S. Lucia, e secondo quello avea ordinato circa i l suo deposito fu sepolta nella presente chiesa di S. Francesco, dove ancora oggidl si vede i l di Lei sepolcro ornato di molte statue di marmo sopra la capella di detto Santo. L'anno seguente cesso di vivere nel luogo di Buonconvento nella Toscana i l medesimo Imperatore Henrico VII i l cui cadavere fu sepolto nella Citta di Pisa, ma i l di lui cuore ordino prima di morire che fosse portato in Genova come fu eseguito e riposto nella stessa area ove giaceva I 'Imperatrice sua consorte Margarita. Errore i l Canonico Calcagnino nella Storia delle ceneri di S. Giovanni Battista ove dice che I' Imperatrice Margarita fu sepolta nella chiesa di S. Caterina, mentre, i l fatto stesso cioe I' essistenza del suo sepoloro mostra il cohtrario  (Einem, p.  133.)  MS.,  the  121  This manuscript to the heart  o f Henry V I I h a v i n g  accordance with death, The S.  provides  a request  and b e i n g  placed  the f i r s t  and o n l y  been t r a n s p o r t e d  erroneous reference  t o Genoa, i n  made by t h e Emperor p r i o r  i n t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t to Margaret  C a t e r i n a made by A g o s t i n o  reference  to h i s  o f Brabant.  of Brabant's b u r i a l i n  S c h i a f f i n o ( s e e below,  Appendix  e n t r y 6) i s h e r e c o r r e c t e d .  12 18th  Century Domenico P i a g g i o , Epitaphia, sepulcra et sine stematibus marmorea et lapidea  in eaelesiis, M.R. I I . 4 . 9 . ,  inscriptiones existentia  C i v i c a B i b l i o t e c a B e r i o , Genoa, I I I , p. 226.  Super Capellam S. Franaisci Margherita Enriei Sexti Regis Romanorum Genua anno MCCCXI depositum cum statua decumbente dicta Imperatricis Leon:^ Familia  ex antiqua Furnariorum S.C. ceteberrimus et dignissimus episcopus hoc Sacellum proprio aere construi Ius sit  uxor  obijt  us  Marianensis  (Einem, p . 133 . )  A transcription semi-circular  field  that  l u n e t t e - l i k e opening. Archbishop "Super  o f t h e tomb's e p i t a p h p l a c e d seems t o s e r v e  a s t h e frame f o r a  The c o a t - o f - a r m s o f L e o n a r d o F o r n a r i ,  o f Genoa, a p p e a r s above t h e e p i t a p h .  Capellam  S.  i n a narrow  Francisci"  i s written  to the  The l e g e n d right.  122  13 1874 Federico A l i z e r i , di  "Correspondence,"  archeologia,  storia,  Giornale  e belle  Ligustico  arti,  I  (1874),  p. 410. The 1313,  first  and t h e i n i t i a t i o n  Margaret  of Brabant.  i n w h i c h t h e tomb itself  publication  o f t h e document o f A u g u s t 25,  o f t h e modern h i s t o r y  o f t h e tomb o f  R e f e r e n c e i s made t o G e n o e s e  i s discussed,  chronicles  b u t i t i s assumed t h a t  t h e work  i s lost.  14 1874 Santo V a r n i , di  pp.  "Correspondence,"  archeologia,  storia,  links  Ligustico arti,  I  (1874),  436-437.  In r e s p o n s e t o A l i z e r i ' s Varni  Giornale e belle  fragments  publication  (Appendix  i n the V i l l a  Brignole-Sale,  t o G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ' s tomb p r o j e c t .  The f r a g m e n t s  entry 13),  in Voltri,  (  are described  as, "...costano di tre figure; cioe di una in atto di essere alzata dalla tomba da mutilate nella testa, le quali indossano lunga veste. "  An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n is  doubted.  o f t h e two a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e s a s a n g e l s  Note i s a l s o made t h a t  "...con di san  muliebre due altre una  piu altri provenienti Francesco."  t h e f r a g m e n t s were dalle  demolizioni  found,  123  15 1875 L.T.  Belgrano, Archivio  "Societa Ligure Storico Italiano  di Storia Patria," , 22 ( 1 8 7 5 ) , pp. 307-332.  Repeats the f i n d i n g s o f A l i z e r i entries  and V a r n i  (Appendix  13 and 1 4 ) .  16 1876 Federico  Alizeri,  Liguria  "Notizie d e i P r o f e s s o r i d e l disegno,"  dalle  Scultura, Re-publication reference  origini  al  secolo  XVI,  Vol.  IV:  1876, pp. 2 6 f f . o f t h e document o f A u g u s t  t o t h e newly d i s c o v e r e d  25, 1313,  with  fragments.  17_ 1878 G a e t a n o M i l a n e s i , Le vite scultori e architetti,  Vasari, n. 1. An Pisano.  addendum t o V a s a r i ' s  Describes  by  two f i g u r e s d r e s s e d  by  J.P. the  Richter, Italian  Sansoni,  Vite  Modern,  1878, I , p. 326,  o f N i c o l a and  in  di  as monks.  Commentary edition  atto  essere  This  Giovanni  containing  of Milanesi  messa  notes and  1886; r p t . London, S o c i e t y  nella  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is: repeated  Bohn, 1901, I I , p. 295; and L e a d e r S c o t t , and  pittori, Giorgio  the c e n t r a l f i g u r e as,  "...una muliebre tomba...",  from  Florence,  de'piu eocelenti scritte da  other  and  emmendations  sources,  Sculpture,  London,  Renaissance  f o r Promoting C h r i s t i a n  124  Knowledge,  1905, p. 28.  18 1904 A. B r a c h , Nicola and Giovanni Pisano des XIV Jahrhunderts in Siena, and M u n d e l , 1904, p. 50. Of  t h e tomb of• M a r g a r e t  of Brabant  und die Ptastik Strassburg, Heitz  Brach  "Erhalten is die Grabfigur der Kaiserin, zwei Engeln, deren Kb'pfe zerstort sind, dem Grabe emporgehoben. " Uses of  the fragments  o f t h e monument  t h e tomb o f B e n e d i c t  to counter  X I , S. Domenico  writes, di aus  von  the a t t r i b u t i o n  i n Perugia,  to Giovanni  Pisano.  19 1906 A. V e n t u r i , Storia dell'arte italiana, Vol. 4: La Scultura del Trecento, 1906; r p t . N e n d e l n K r a u s R e p r i n t L t d . , 1967, pp. 231 and 233. Describes resurrezione.  the three  f i g u r e group  as a  "scena  della  "  "...La defunta, da due angioli camera funebre vita, sorgere, alia beatudine  sorpresa dal sonno di morte, aiutata a sorgere dalla tomba. Nella sopra i l corpo, ma richiamoto a assistito e sorretto dagli angioli, e alia gloria." 20  1906 W.  Suida,  Suida  Genua,  placing  Leipzig,  E.A. Seeman,  t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  1906, pp. 36-37.  of Brabant  i n the  125  late  thirteenth  and e a r l y  tomb s c u l p t u r e , resembled  fourteenth century t r a d i t i o n  suggests that  t h e monument may  t h e tomb o f C a r d i n a l  have  de B r a y e by A r n o l f o  of  originally d i Cambio.  21 1925 Guiseppe P o r t i g l i o t t i , Genova;  30, Argues  that  viviste  1925,  pp.  n o t be  for  the f o l l o w i n g reasons:  del  commune,  from the V i l l a  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  (1) , t h e p r o v e n a n c e  o f t h e s c u l p t u r e does  fragments o r i g i n a t e d  September  1067-1072.  the fragments  may  the  " M a r g h e r i t a d i B r a b a n t e a Genova," mensile  Brignole-Sale of Brabant  not e s t a b l i s h  that  i n t h e c h u r c h o f S. F r a n c e s c o d i  Castelletto; (2) , t h e c e n t r a l  figure  o f t h e group  r e s e m b l e s Madonna  figures  by G i o v a n n i P i s a n o ; ( 3 ) , t h e costume o f t h e c e n t r a l with that  of the d e p i c t i o n  Balduini  of Margaret  does  not c o r r e s p o n d  of Brabant  i n the  Codex  Tvevivensis;  (4) , the f u n e r a l of Margaret Balduini  figure  Tvevivensis  does  of Brabant  depicted  i n the  Codex  n o t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e e x t a n t tomb  fragments; (5) , t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e t h r e e with that  of contemporary  Portigliotti of  the V i r g i n  suggests that  figure  group  i s inconsistent  tombs. the fragments r e p r e s e n t  made by G i o v a n n i P i s a n o .  an  Assumption  126  22 1925 O r l a n d o G r o s s o , " I n t o r n o a l i a tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a d i B r a b a n t e a P a l a z z o B i a n c o , " Genova; viviste mensile  del  commune,  October  31, 1925, pp.  1203-1204. A rejection fragments  (Appendix  of P o r t i g l i o t t i ' s  interpretation  of the  entry 21).  23 1927 A. V e n t u r i ,  Giovanni  Florence, The orary  qualities  sein  Leben  Venturi  d i Cambio and t h e t r a d i t i o n  of Brabant Todes,"  o f B r a b a n t monument.  i s interpreted  as opposed  sein  in relation cites  o f tomb  t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y as b e i n g d i s t i n c t  of the Margaret  und  Wevk,  1927, I, pp. 51 and 61.  o f t h e tomb  tomb s c u l p t u r e a r e n o t e d .  Arnolfo in  unique  Pisano,  Pantheon,  t h e tombs o f  sculpture  i n Italy  from t h e i c o n o g r a p h y  The f i g u r e o f Margaret  as i l l u s t r a t i n g  to the t r a d i t i o n  t o contemp-  "eine  o f showing  Besiegevin  des  t h e deceased i n  the s l e e p o f death.  24 1933 Wolfgang  Stechow, " G i o v a n n i P i s a n o , " Allgemeines  dev  bildenden  Kunstlev  von dev Antike  Gegenwavt, Hans V o l l m e r ed., L e i p z i g , 1933, X X V I I , p. 100a. R e f e r s t o t h e tomb Spatzeit"  fragments  of Giovanni Pisano.  a s t h e "Hauptwevk  Lexikon bis zuv  E.A. Seeman,  dev  127  25 1935 W . R . , V a l e n t i n e r , Tino 1935, p. 34.  di  Valentiner  the  recognises  of Margaretoof Brabant,  Camaino,  P a r i s , Pegasus  portrait  q u a l i t y of  the  Press,  face  writing,  " I n t h e workshop o f G i o v a n n i P i s a n o . . . . p o r t r a i t s are r a r e . The most i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t o f t h e Empress M a r g a r e t on t h e Genoese tomb, t h o u g h , i f one s u b t r a c t s t h e costume l i t t l e r e m a i n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r o f the portrayed..."  26 n.d. M.  Longhurst,  Notes  on  Italian  Monuments  of  the  12th  to the 16th Centuries, Photostat e d i t i o n p r e p a r e d by I . Lowe u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, London, n.d., C42. Suggests that  the  tomb p r o b a b l y d i d not  have a  the I,  reclining  effigy. 27 1942 Harald  Relates of  the  Last  K e l l e r , Giovanni Pisano, 1942, pp. 59-60 and 71. the  iconography of  the  V i e n n a , Anton S c h r o l l ,  tomb f r a g m e n t s t o  that  Judgment.  28 1951 Pietro  T o e s c a , l l Treaento,  1951;  rpt. Turin,  Unione  128  Tipografico,  1964, pp. 252 and 380-381.  Desribes the f i g u r e of Margaret "...in atto di risorgere sorretta illuminata da un sorriso..."  The  four  virtue figures  of  Brabant, da  Angeli  o f S. M a r i a M a d d a l e n a , Genoa, a r e m e n t i o n -  ed as t h e work o f a f o l l o w e r  of Giovanni  Pisano.  29 1954 Henriette  s'Jacob,  Sepulchral p. 46.  Idealism  and  Symbolism,  D e s c r i b e s the f i g u r e of Margaret "...from  her f u n e r a l  Realism;  A  Study  of  Leiden, E.J. B r i l l , of Brabant  as  1954, rising,  bed a s s i s t e d by two a n g e l s . "  30 1956 Mario  S a l m i , L'arte italiana, Vol. I; Dalle cristiane all arte gotica, 2nd. ed., 1  Sansoni,  1956, p. 363.  D i s c u s s e s t h e tomb style  of Giovanni Pisano  origini Florence,  fragments  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the  i n h i s late years.  31 1956 (V),  " G i o v a n n i P i s a n o , " Dizionario enciclopedico i t a l i a n o , Rome, 1956, V, p. 412a.  D i s c u s s e s t h e tomb Pisano's  late  style.  fragments  i n the context of Giovanni  129  32 1960 Emilio  The  L a v a g n i n o , L'arte medioevale, U n i o n e T i p o g r a f i c o , 1960, pp.  c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the main group  2nd ed., 663-664.  Turin,  i s described  as  rising, ".. .dal  letto  funebre..."  33 1960 Piero  T o r r i t i , "Una s t a t u a d e l l a ' G i u s t i z i a ' d i G i o v a n n i P i s a n o p e r i l monumento f u n e b r e a M a r g h e r i t a d i B r a b a n t e i n Genova," Commentari, 3/4 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 231-236.  Ai'figure is  herein  attributed Justice of  representing  associated  to Giovanni Pisano.  f i g u r e to that  M a d d a l e n a were c o p i e d  figure  figures  close  i s noted  the f i v e  f o r a funerary  of  of J u s t i c e  of Brabant  resemblance  of f i g u r e s  and  of the  from the c h u r c h  ( c f . , Appendix entry  figures  28).  from Santa M a r i a  monument f r o m t h e i r  i n t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  is identified  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  The  i n a group  s u g g e s t i o n i s made t h a t  ponding  Virtue  w i t h t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  S. M a r i a M a d d a l e n a , Genoa,  The  the C a r d i n a l  of Brabant.  as a c a r y a t i d f r o m t h e f i r s t  The  level  corresJustice of  the  Brabant.  34 1960 Piero  Torriti,  "Una  statua  della  'G i u s t i z i a ' d i Giovanni  130 P i s a n o e i l monumento a M a r g h e r i t a d i Bolletino  Ligustico  regionale, Provides  XII  per  la  storia  ( 1 9 6 0 ) , pp.  a rough r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  e  Brabante,"  la  cultura  124-134. sketch.  35 1961 Herbert  von in  Einem,  "Das  Grabmal der  Genua," Festschrift  Birkhauser,  1961,  Hans  pp.  P u b l i s h e d w i t h knowledge o n l y of  the  main g r o u p .  iconography of w i t h the of  the  Provides  these pieces,  Assumption of  the  Konigin H.  Margarethe  Hahnloser,  of  the  three  fragments  a major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o c u s s e d on  Virgin  and  Basel,  125-150.  the  their  of  the  relationship  political  significance  tomb.  36 1961 C.  M a r c e n a r o , "Per l a tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a d i Paragone, 133 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 3-17.  A figure P i s a n o and  associated  Descriptions It  representing  of  i s suggested  the that  with  Justice  the  tomb o f M a r g a r e t  tomb, p r i o r the  i s attributed  Justice  to  1798,  are  f i g u r e was  of  Brabante," to  Giovanni  Brabant.  discussed  in  detail.  a caryatid  in  the  monument.  37 1961 Piero  Torriti,  " A n c o r a s u l monumento B r a b a n t e d i  Giovanni  131  P i s a n o i n Genova," Commentari, 66-67. A brief  account o f the d i s c o v e r y  In c h r o n o l o g i c a l  I ( 1 9 6 1 ) , pp.  of the J u s t i c e figure.  sequence;  (1) , C. M a r c e n a r o f o u n d t h e J u s t i c e f i g u r e i n March, 1960. (2) , P. T o r r i t i  f o u n d t h e J u s t i c e f i g u r e i n December, 1960.  (3) , P. T o r r i t i ,  1960 ( A p p e n d i x e n t r y  (4) , C. M a r c e n a r o ,  33), published.  1961 ( A p p e n d i x e n t r y  36), published.  (5) , P. T o r r i t i ,  1961 ( A p p e n d i x e n t r y  37), published.  (6) , P. T o r r i t i ,  1960 ( A p p e n d i x e n t r y  34), published.  38 1962 John Pope-Hennessy, " G i o v a n n i P i s a n o , " Encyclopedia of World Art, New Y o r k , 1962, V I , pp. 358a-366a. The with  a figure representing Pisa  Pisa). of  f i g u r e of Margaret  This  of Brabant  i s linked  (Museo d e l l ' O p e r a  l a t e work o f G i o v a n n i  Pisano  stylistically  d e l Duomo,  was o r i g i n a l l y  part  a g r o u p r e p r e s e n t i n g Henry V I I and P i s a k n e e l i n g b e f o r e  a  Madonna and C h i l d .  39 1963 C.  Marcenaro, di  The as  " L a Madonna d e l l a  B r a b a n t e , " Paragone,  headless,  standing  a Madonna by G i o v a n n i  of Margaret  of Brabant.  Pisano  tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a 167 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 17-21.  f i g u r e o f a woman  i s identified  and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  The s u g g e s t i o n  i s made t h a t  t h e tomb t h e Madonna  132  occupied  a lofty  position  i n t h e tomb programme.  40 1964 E.  P a n o f s k y , Tomb Sculpture; Changing Aspects from  H.W. Janson 77 and 82.  ed., New  Refers to the f i g u r e "...assisted anticipation  Four Lectures Ancient Egypt  York,  of Margaret  on to  -its Bernini,  Abrams, n.d., of Brabant  pp.  as b e i n g ,  t o r i s e f r o m t h e dead' as i f i n o f t h e L a s t Judgment..."  41 1966 John W h i t e , Art and Architecture in Italy, 1400, Harmondsworth, P e n g u i n Books, p. 88.  12501966,  " V a r i e d movement, e m o t i o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y and r i g i d s e l e c t i v i t y o f d e t a i l were e v i d e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f Luxemburg ( B r a b a n t ) . . . . t h e b a s i s o f t h i s w a l l tomb must have been a f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e p u l c h r a l drama o f A r n o l f o ' s monument f o r C a r d i n a l de B r a y e . "  42 1968 M.  S e i d e l , " E i n neu e n t d e c k e t e s Fragment des Genueser G r a b m a l s d e r K o n i g i n M a r g a r e t h e von G i o v a n n i Pisano," Pantheon, XXVI ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 335-351.  A head,  i n a Swiss p r i v a t e  collection,  is identified  p a r t o f a f i g u r e o f Temperance by G i o v a n n i P i s a n o and w i t h t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t  of  Brabant.  as  associated  133  43 1969 M.  Ayrton,  Giovanni  bright 228.  Pisano,  and T a l l e y ,  Sculptor,  New  A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e tomb i n t h e c o n t e x t Pisano's  York,  Wey-  1969, pp. 185-192 and 227-  of Giovanni  l a t e work.  44 1969 D.D.  P i n c u s , "A Hand by A n t o n i o R i z z o and t h e D o u b l e C a r i t a s Scheme o f t h e T r o n Tomb," Art Bulletin, 51 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 247-256.  Suggests  that i t i s ,  " . . . l i k e l y t h a t t h e p r o m i n e n t u s e o f more o r l e s s f r e e s t a n d i n g v i r t u e f i g u r e s was i n t r o d u c e d by G i o v a n n i P i s a n o i n t h e tomb o f M a r g a r e t o f Brabant..."  45 1970 Gian Lorenzo 1970, Discusses representing after  death.  t o be r i s i n g , whilst  M e l l i n i , Giovanni pp. 177-178.  Venice,  Electa,  t h e tomb i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a t r a d i t i o n o f  t h e psychomachia  between t h e d e v i l  The f i g u r e o f M a r g a r e t i n her r e s u r r e c t i o n ,  shunning  Pisano,  the other.  of Brabant  and  angels  i s interpreted  t o w a r d s one o f h e r a t t e n d a n t s  134  46 1972 ' John Pope-Hennessy,  Italian  Gothic  London, P h a i d o n Books, Suggests derives Virgin.  that  pp.  that  depicting  the C a r d i n a l  the  effigy  of Margaret  of Brabant  the  rising  f i g u r e of Margaret  of  , 2nd  ed.,  179-180.  the r e s u r r e c t i o n of Margaret  from F r e n c h r e l i e f s Suggests  Sculpture  1972,  of  Brabant  t h e Awakening o f t h e  V i r t u e s were g r o u p e d  beneath  a lunette  around  containing  Brabant.  47 1973 Julian  Gardner, Burlington  Suggests of  B r a b a n t may  of Nicholas  that  " A r n o l f o d i Cambio and Roman Tomb D e s i g n , Magazine, 115 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 420-439.  t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e tomb o f  have b e e n d e r i v e d  I I I (d.  1280).  from t h a t  Margaret  o f t h e tomb c h a p e l  

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