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The tomb of Margaret of Brabant by Giovanni Pisano Blackman, Peter John 1978

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THE TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT BY GIOVANNI PISANO by PETER JOHN BLACKMAN B.Sc, University of Bri t i s h Columbia, 1974 THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine Arts) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1978 (c) Peter John Blackman, 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . FINE ARTS Department or The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS APRIL, 1978 i i ABSTRACT Unique i n i t s design, the tomb of Margaret of Brabant i s one of the l a s t works of s c u l p t u r e produced by Giovanni Pisano. Executed between the years of 1312 and 1313, the monument re p -r e s e n t s the only extant essay, made by Giovanni Pisano, i n the f i e l d of tomb s c u l p t u r e . O r i g i n a l l y e r e c t e d i n the church of San Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o , Genoa, the tomb was p a r t i a l l y d estroyed between 1798 and 1810, along with the church. As i t now s u r v i v e s , the tomb c o n s i s t s of s i x marble fragments; a group r e p r e s e n t i n g Margaret of Brabant with two attendants, a Madonna, a f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g the v i r t u e J u s t i c e , and the head from such a f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g Temperance. The fragments of the monument present problems of recon-s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Documentation of the tomb p r o j e c t i s minimal and no contemporary d e s c r i p t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l appearance are known. Although the J u s t i c e f i g u r e and the Temperance fragment correspond to the same elements i n a group of f o u r , mid-fourteenth century v i r t u e f i g u r e s which are l i k e l y to have been c o p i e d from the tomb's o r i g i n a l complement, the fragments of the tomb, i n and of themselves, do not p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb has been hindered by i t s fragmented s t a t e , yet two major o p i n i o n s have been p u b l i s h e d . H a r a l d K e l l e r has suggested that the tomb r e p r e s e n t s a La s t Judgment scene. Margaret of Brabant i s to be seen as r i s i n g from the grave at the c a l l of the f i n a l i i i trumpets. Herbert von Einem, on the other hand, r e l a t e s the r i s i n g f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant to French examples i n r e l i e f , of the Assumption of the V i r g i n and i n t e r p r e t s the p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n the l i g h t of Dante's Commedia. An attempt i s made here to e l u c i d a t e both the problems of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f e r e d by the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. By the study of r e l a t e d , contemporary tomb designs, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of A r n o l f o d i Cambio and Tino d i Camaino, the examination of the a v a i l a b l e documentation and d e s c r i p t i o n , a t h e s i s f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the monument and a d e f i n i t i o n of the e l a b o r a t e , m u l t i - l e v e l , w a l l appended tomb type which i t i n t r o d u c e s i s presented. By an examination of contemporary theology concerning the nature of the human s o u l and i t s f a t e , a t h e s i s f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb as a u n i f i e d programme i l l u s t r a t i n g the ascension of the s o u l of Margaret of Brabant, immediately a f t e r death, i s expounded. In c o n c l u s i o n , the p o s i t i o n of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant i n the contemporary t r a d i t i o n of funerary s c u l p t u r e i s analysed. Giovanni Pisano's c o n t r i b u t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s are seen to h e r a l d a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the conception of tomb design of the p e r i o d . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents iv List of Illustrations v CHAPTER I: GIOVANNI PISANO, MARGARET OF BRABANT, AND HER TOMB 1 CHAPTER I I : RECONSTRUCTING THE TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT 16 CHAPTER I I I : INTERPRETING THE TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 41 CHAPTER IV: INTERPRETING THE TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT: A NEW PERSPECTIVE 50 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION 60 Notes 65 Illustrations 79 Bibliography 106 Appendix 114 V LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, main group, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. 79 2. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, main group (detail), Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. 79 3. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Justice (front view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. 80 4. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Justice (rear view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. 80 5. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Madonna (front view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. 81 6. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Madonna (rear view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. 81 7. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (front view), Swiss private collection. 82 8. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (rear view), Swiss private collection. 82 9. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (detail), Swiss private collection. 82 10. Two angels holding a baldacchino, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. 83 11. Justice, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. 84 12. Temperance, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. ' 84 13. Prudence, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. 84 14. Fortitude, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. 84 15. Death of Walram of Luxemburg. Codex Balduini Tvevivens-is, j-J Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 14a. 85 16. Funeral of Margaret of Brabant. Codex Balduini Tveviv-ensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 17a. 85 17. Death of Henry VII. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staats-archiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 35b. 86 18. Henry VII's body transferred to Pisa. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36a. 86 19. Funeral of Henry VII. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36b. 87 20. An idealised representation of Henry VII's tomb. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 37. 87 21. Tomb of Cardinal Guglielmo Fieschi (d. 1256), S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome. 88 22. Tomb of Luca Savelli, S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome. 88 23. PIETRO DI ODERISIO: Tomb of Clement IV (d. 1268), S. Francesco, Viterbo. 89 24. PIETRO DI ODERISIO: Tomb of Clement IV (detail), S. Francesco, Viterbo. 89 25. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Adrian V (d. 1276), S. Francesco, Viterbo. 90 26. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi della Molara (d. 1276), S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. 90 v i 27. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye (d. 1282), S. Domenico, Orvieto. 91 28. Reconstruction by Romanini of the Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye. 91 29. ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye (detail), S. Domenico, Orvieto. 91 30. Drawing of the tomb of Boniface VIII (d. 1303). 92 31. Tomb of Benedict XI (d. 1304), S. Domenico, Perugia. 92 32. Tomb of Benedict XI (detail), S. Domenico, Perugia. 92 33. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Henry VII (d. 1313). 93 34. Reconstruction by Bauch of the tomb of Henry VII. 93 35. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Henry VII (detail of two coun-sellors), Camposanto, Pisa. 93 36. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Petroni (d. 1314), Cathedral, Siena. s 94 37. Caryatid Fortitude, Louvre, Paris. 94 38. Caryatid Prudence, Louvre, Paris. 94 39. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Gastone della Torre (d. 1318). 94 40. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Bishop Antonio degli Orsi (d. 1320 or 1321). 95 . 41. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Bishop Antonio degli Orsi (detail), Cathedral, Florence. 95 42. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Catherine of Austria (d. 1323), S. Lorenzo, Naples. 95 43. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Mary of Hungary (d. 1323), S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples. 96 44. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Mary of Hungary (detail), S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples. 96 45. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Charles of Calabria (d. 1328), S. Chiara, Naples. 97 46. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Marie of Valois (d. 1331), S. Chiara, Naples. 97 47. GIOVANNI AND PACIO DA FIRENZE: Tomb of Robert of Anjou, S. Chiara, Naples. 98 48. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Tomb of Guarnerio degli Antel-minelli, S. Francesco, Sarzana. 98 49. NINO PISANO: Tomb of Archbishop Simone S a l t a r e l l i (d. 1342), S. Caterina, Pisa. v 98 50. Tomb of Archbishop Juan de Aragon (d. 1334), Cathedral, Tarragona. 99 51. Tomb of Archbishop Juan de Aragon (detail), Cathedral, Tarragona. 99 52. Tomb of Cardinal Luca Fieschi (d. 1343), S. Lorenzo, Genoa. 100 53. DOMENICO PIAGGIO: Transcription of the epitaph of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 100 54. Shrine of Beato Bertrando (d. 1350), Baptistery, Cath-edral, Orvieto. 100 55. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Martyr, Portinari Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan. 101 v i i 56. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Marytr (detail), Portinari Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan. 101 57. Reconstruction by T o r r i t i of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 102 58. Reconstruction of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 102 59. Tomb of the Bardi family, S. Croce, Florence. 102 60. Tomb slab of Presbyter Bruno (d. 1194), Cathedral, Hildesheim. 103 61. Tomb slab of Saint Reinheldis, Church, Reisenbeck. 103 62. Death and transfiguration of Abbot Lambert (d. 1125), Municipal Library, Boulogne, MS. 46, f o l . 1 V. 103 63. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCI AND ASSISTANTS: Tomb of Azzone Visconti, S. Gottardo, Milan. 103 64. Drawing of the tomb of Abbot Pierre de Dijon (d. 1132), Abbey of Saint-Begnine, Dijon. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. 104 65. Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Pierre de Chatellerault of Poitiers (d. 1135), Abbey, Fontevrault. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. 104 66. Drawing of the tomb of Abbot Arnoult (?), formerly Saint-Pere, Chartres. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. 104 67. Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Ancoul de Pierrefonds of Soissons (d. 1158), Abbey, Longpont. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. 104 68. Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Gosselin de Vierzy of Soissons (d. 1152), Abbey, Longpont. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. 104 69. Detail of the Porte Romane, Cathedral, Chartres. 105 70. Awakening of the Virgin (detail: of west portal), Cathedral, Senlis. 105 1 CHAPTER I GIOVANNI PISANO, MARGARET OF BRABANT, AND HER TOMB The Trecento t r a d i t i o n of f i g u r a l tomb s c u l p t u r e has i t s o r i g i n s i n the l a s t decades of the t h i r t e e n t h century. I t s r o o t s can be t r a c e d to G o t h i c F r a n c e . 1 In the hands of A r n o l f o d i Cambio and h i s Roman f o l l o w e r s , and i n the l a t e r tombs of Tino d i Camaino, t h i s nascent t r a d i t i o n develops r a p i d l y . Concerned with the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of programmatic stages i n funerary iconography, a r c h i t e c t u r e p l a y s an import-ant r o l e i n the e a r l y tombs. Centred on the per s o n a l s a l v a t i o n of the deceased and h i s recorded image, these f u n e r a r y monuments are remarkable documents of t h e i r p e r i o d . Coming l e s s than f i f t y years a f t e r the r e - b i r t h of f i g u r a l tomb s c u l p t u r e i n I t a l y , Giovanni Pisano's tomb f o r Margaret of Brabant (d. 1311) r e p r e s e n t s an important step i n the e v o l u t i o n and adapt a t i o n of French G o t h i c s e p u l c h r a l forms i n I t a l y . The tomb p l a c e s Giovanni Pisano -- together with h i s f a t h e r , N i c o l a , h i s f e l l o w p u p i l , A r n o l f o d i Cambio, and h i s own f o l l o w e r , Tino d i Camaino -- among the pr i m o g e n i t o r s of the I t a l i a n Renaissance tomb. Each makes noteworthy c o n t r i b -u t i o n s to the f i g u r a l tomb t r a d i t i o n . N i c o l a Pisano's design f o r the Area of S a i n t Dominic, S. Domenico, Bologna, as recon-2 s t r u c t e d by Pope-Hennessy, i n i t s o r i g i n a l form i n c l u d e d a sarcophagus, decorated with scenes from the l i f e of the s a i n t , 2 supported by archangels, c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s , and a c o l y t e s . The c a r y a t i d supports and the n a r r a t i v e sarcophagus are two h i g h l y i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e s . A r n o l f o d i Cambio, i n h i s tombs of Card-i n a l R i ccardo A n n i b a l d i (d. 1276), S. Giovanni i n Laterano, Rome, (Fig. 26), Pope Adrian V (d. 1276), S. Francesco, V i t e r b o (Fig. 25), C a r d i n a l Guillaume de Braye' (d. 1282), S. Domenico, O r v i e t o (Fig. 27), and Pope Boniface VIII (d. 1303), Old St. P e t e r ' s ( s u r v i v i n g fragments i n the Gr o t t e V a t i c a n e ) , adapts and t r a n s -3 forms t r a d i t i o n a l elements of French tomb s c u l p t u r e , l a y i n g the b a s i s f o r a new I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n . Tino d i Camaino, i n h i s N e a p o l i t a n tombs, expands upon the m o t i f s i n t r o d u c e d by h i s predecessors, c r e a t i n g an e f f l o r e s c e n c e of design p o s s i b -4 i l i t i e s i n the second quarter of the f o u r t e e n t h century. V a s a r i , i n Le vite de'piu eccelenti pittori, soultori 5 ed arohitettori, g i v e s Giovanni Pisano a c o n s i d e r a b l e tomb oeuvre. While V a s a r i does not mention the tomb of Margaret of Brabant, three a d d i t i o n a l tombs are d i s c u s s e d i n the Giovanni Pisano Vita. Of the f i r s t , t h a t of Pope Urban IV, V a s a r i w r i t e s , "Essendo dunque morto in Perugia papa Urbano IV, fu mandato per Giovanni, it quale andato la feae la sepoltuva di quel pontefiae di marmo; la quale, insieme oon quella di papa Martino IV, fu poi gettata per terra quando i Perugini aggrandirono i l loro veseovado, di modo ohe se ne veggiono solamente alcune reliquie sparse per la ohiesa."6 (Having then d i e d i n Pe r u g i a Pope Urban IV, Giovanni Pisano was sent f o r , who was to make the tomb of the pope of marble; which, together with that of Pope M a r t i n IV, was thrown to the ground when the Perugians 3 enlarged t h e i r Vescovado, i n a way that only a few remains are seen d i s p e r s e d i n the church.) S c h o l a r l y o p i n i o n sees V a s a r i ' s mention as a confused r e f e r e n c e to the tomb of Ma r t i n IV (d. 1285) having been executed by G i o -7 vanni Pisano r a t h e r than to the tomb of Urban IV (d. 1264). As nothing of these tombs s u r v i v e s , i t i s im p o s s i b l e to judge the accuracy of V a s a r i ' s statement, but i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s note-worthy that V a s a r i a t t r i b u t e s Giovanni Pisano w i t h an important papal tomb at what would be a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y p o i n t i n h i s car e e r . V a s a r i c r e d i t s Giovanni Pisano with another tomb, that of Benedict IX: "Essendo, poi, morto in Perugia papa Benedetto IX, fu mandato per Giovanni,' i i quale andato a Perugia feee nella chiesa vecchia di San Do-menioo de 'Frati Predicatori una sepoltura di marmo per quel pontefiee; i l quale ritratto di naturale e in abito pontefioale pose intorno sopra la cassa eon due Angeli, uno da ciasoun lato, che tengono una oortina; e di sopra una Nostra Donna con due Santi di rilivievo che la mettono in mezzo; e molti altri ornamenti intorno a quella sepoltura intagliata. (Having, then, d i e d i n P e r u g i a Pope Benedict IX, Giovanni was sent f o r , who was to make i n Per u g i a i n the o l d church of San Domenico de.' F r a t i P r e d i c a t o r i a tomb of marble f o r that p o n t i f f ; the e f f i g y of whom i s taken from nature and i n p o n t i f i c a l h a b i t i s p l a c e d on the s a r -cophagus with two angels, one on each s i d e , t h at h o l d a c u r t a i n ; and a Madonna wit h two s a i n t s with her i n the middle; and many other ornaments carved around the tomb.) Again the s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e i s u n l i k e l y . It i s probable that V a s a r i i s r e f e r r i n g here not to the tomb of Benedict IX, who 4 d i e s i n 1044, but to the tomb of Benedict XI (d. 1304). The tomb of Benedict XI s t i l l stands i n S. Domenico, Peru g i a (Fig. 31), and seems to belong to a l a t e r moment i n Trecento s c u l p -10 t u r e . A t h i r d Giovanni Pisano tomb i s d e s c r i b e d by V a s a r i : "Parimente, nella chiesa nuova de'detti Fratti Predicatovi fece i~l sepolcro di messer Niccolo Guidalotti perugino e vescovo di Reaanati, it quale fu institutore delta Sapienza nuova di P erugia. " ( S i m i l a r l y , i n the new church of the F r i a r s Preachers he made the tomb of M. N i c c o l o G u i d a l o t t i of Pe r u g i a and Bishop of Rec a n a t i , who i n s t i t u t e d the new U n i v e r s i t y of Perugia.) Supino i d e n t i f i e s the tomb as that of Benedetto G u i d a l o t t i and 12 dates i t to the t h i r t e e n t h century. The V a s a r i Vita, while i n c o r r e c t i n i t s s p e c i f i c tomb a t t r i b u t i o n s , helps us to see Giovanni Pisano's work on the Margaret of Brabant tomb i n a broader context, s u g g e s t i n g that by the time of t h i s p r o j e c t , coming l a t e i n the s c u l p t o r ' s l i f e , G iovanni Pisano had al r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as an important tomb s c u l p t o r , and q u i t e p o s s i b l y as a s c u l p t o r whose work i n -cluded an important papal tomb design. The tomb of Margaret of Brabant, executed between 1312 13 and 1313, i s one of the l a s t works of Giovanni Pisano. It s u r v i v e s i n fragments preserved i n the Palazzo Bianco and the Palazzo Rosso of Genoa, and i n a Swiss p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . The commission f o r the tomb comes s h o r t l y a f t e r the completion of 5 the p u l p i t f o r P i s a C a t h e d r a l i n 1311. A f t e r t h i s , h i s l a s t p u l p i t , the s c u l p t o r produces three works: the Madonna d i A r r i g o (1312-1313), 1 4 the tomb of Margaret of Brabant (1312-1313), 15 and the Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a ( a f t e r 1312). The tomb i s the masterpiece of Giovanni Pisano's l a s t years, and perhaps h i s f i n a l , l a r g e programmatic s c u l p t u r a l u n dertaking. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the tomb i n v o l v e s not only i t s a r t -i s t i c importance but a l s o the h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n of i t s occupant, Margaret of Brabant. Daughter of the Duke of Brabant, Margaret's marriage to Henry IV, Count of Luxemburg i n 1292 u n i t e d the warring houses of Luxemburg and Brabant. From the beginning, Margaret of Brabant's a s s o c i a t i o n with Henry Iv of Luxemburg appears to have had important p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Margaret's i n t e r c e s s i o n i n Henry's a c t i v i t i e s , on the few o c c a s i o n s that these are recorded apparently served, to moderate h i s p o l i c y . She was known as a " m e r c i f u l and m i l d queen," whose a c t i o n s 17 e l i c i t e d widespread p r a i s e . Henry IV's p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r appears to have been unevent-f u l u n t i l , having greatness t h r u s t upon him, he was e l e c t e d 18 Henry V I I , King of the Romans and emperor-elect. Margaret of Brabant was present at the c o r o n a t i o n ceremonies i n Aachen on January 6, 1309. Almost immediately, Henry VII began the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a triumphal voyage to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor i n Rome. With hopes of u n i t i n g I t a l y under i m p e r i a l r u l e , the emperor-elect embarked upon h i s journey, accompanied by h i s queen, i n December, 1310. 6 The a r r i v a l of the r o y a l c o u r t i n I t a l y was taken by some as the presage of a new age. "Behold, now i s the a c c e p t a b l e time, wherein a r i s e the si g n s of c o n s o l a t i o n and peace.... R e j o i c e , 0 I t a l y , though now to be p i t i e d even by the Saracens, f o r soon you w i l l be envied throughtout the world, because your bridegroom, the s o l a c e of the•world•and the g l o r y of your people, the most clement Henry, D i v i n e and 1 p Augustus and Caesar, hastens to the n u p t i a l s . " So Dante h a i l e d the a r r i v a l of Henry V I I . Margaret's sojourn i n I t a l y was to be sho r t l i v e d . She t r a v e l l e d with Henry VII to M i l a n , where another c o r o n a t i o n took p l a c e on January 6, 1311. She d i e d of the plague i n Genoa l a t e r t h a t same year, on December 14, and was b u r i e d i n a l e a d c o f f i n i n the church of San Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o to await 20 proper entombment. Henry VII moved on to Rome. I t was th e r e , on June 29, 1312, that he was f i n a l l y crowned emperor by the pope's l e g a t e s . Henry's quest f o r the u n i f i c a t i o n of I t a l y proved to be a hazardous and i m p o s s i b l e task. Slowly the papal s a n c t i o n f o r h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n I t a l y was withdrawn. Robert of Anjou, King of S i c i l y , and a s t r o n g opponent of an empire under Henry V I I , worked e f f i c i e n t l y to undermine Henry's e f f o r t s . I t was on August 24, 1313, while b e s e i g i n g Siena, that Henry VII succombed to m a l a r i a l f e v e r and d i e d . Nothing i s known of the o r i g i n a l commission f o r the tomb of Margaret of Brabant or the d e t a i l s of i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . The only document p e r t a i n i n g to work on the tomb i s dated one 7 21 day a f t e r the death of the emperor. I t r e c o r d s the payment to Giovanni Pisano by Giovanni da Bagnara, archbishop of Genoa, at the request of Henry VII, on August 25, 1313, of eighty-one golden f l o r i n s . The sum i s p a r t i a l q u i t t a n c e f o r the cost of the monument. The s c u l p t o r s i g n s i n r e c e i p t of payment, d e s i g n a t i n g h i m s e l f the s c u l p t o r of Queen Margaret's s e p u l c h r e : "... intalliatov operis sepulovi.... domine Mavgavite. . . " Other circumstances of the commission are open to c o n j e c t u r e . Leaving Genoa on February 16, 1312, Henry VII a r r i v e d i n P i s a on March 6, 1312. I t i s p o s s i b l e that between t h i s date and A p r i l 23, 1312, when Henry l e f t P i s a , that the commission f o r the monument was awarded to Giovanni Pisano. Work presumably began 22 on the monument s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . P o s s i b l y moved by boat from P i s a to Genoa, the tomb may have been e r e c t e d at some time i n 1313. As Giovanni Pisano i s recorded i n Genoa i n August, 1313, i t seems l i k e l y that he then s u p e r v i s e d the completion of the tomb. How ever the d a t i n g i s manipulated, i t i s c e r t a i n that the tomb was complete by the March of 1314, f o r Giovanni 23 Pisano i s documented i n Siena at that time. The tomb remained i n San Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o u n t i l i t s d e s t r u c t i o n i n the 24 years f o l l o w i n g 1798. From the d e s t r u c t i o n of the church of San Francesco d i ' C a s t e l l e t t o u n t i l 1960, the only p i e c e known to s u r v i v e from the tomb of Margaret of Brabant was a h a l f - f i g u r e of a woman being r a i s e d up by two a u x i l i a r y f i g u r e s (Fig. 1). The c e n t r a l f i g u r e 8 and her a s s i s t a n t to the r i g h t are connected by a b r i d g e of marble at the base of the f i g u r e s . The a u x i l i a r y f i g u r e to the l e f t i s now completely f r e e s t a n d i n g . T h i s l a t t e r f i g u r e has arms severed i n the mid-forearm. I t leans forward, i t s l e g s c a r e f u l l y c o u n t e r p o i s e d. The v e s t i g e s of i t s l e f t hand are apparent on the r i g h t shoulder of the r i s i n g woman. T h i s lady, h o r i z o n t a l l y terminated at a l i n e between her r i g h t h i p and l e f t t h i g h , leans towards the l e f t . Her head turns upwards. Her eyes are open. The nose and l i p s are s l i g h t l y damaged. Her r i g h t arm i s m i s s i n g -- severed at the shoulder — but her l e f t arm, he l d i n the hands of the a s s i s t a n t on the r i g h t i s i n t a c t to the w r i s t (a r e p a i r beneath her shoulder i s apparent). The a s s i s t a n t to the r i g h t again leans forward towards the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , h o l d i n g her arm c l o s e l y a g a i n s t i t s chest. The lower p o r t i o n of the f i g u r e i s damaged but extends beneath the l e v e l of the h o r i z o n t a l plane o f the base of the woman. A l l f i g u r e s are draped. The a s s i s t a n t s wear loosely f i t t i n g h a b i t s , drawn i n at the waist and elbow. A cowl i s v i s i b l e on the a s s i s t a n t to the r i g h t . The woman wears a shawl. Two bands are cr o s s e d over her chest. She wears a wimple. The v e i l over her head i s d r i l l e d through on both s i d e s of her neck. She i s crowned. A l l the f i g u r e s are carved i n the round with equal d e t a i l on a l l s i d e s . The a u x i l i a r y f i g u r e on the l e f t measures 66 cm. i n 25 height, that on the r i g h t , 74 cm. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s 67 cm. i n he i g h t . The provenance of t h i s group, now i n the Palazzo Bianco, Genoa, i s t r a c e a b l e . I t seems l i k e l y that these fragments were purchased by the s e c r e t a r y of the B r i g n o l e - S a l e 9 f a m i l y , Antonio Rosso, i n 1804. They thus moved from t h e i r endangered l o c a t i o n i n the church of San Francesco d i C a s t e l -l e t t o i n t o the B r i g n o l e - S a l e c o l l e c t i o n . I t was i n the V i l l a B r i g n o l e - S a l e , i n V o l t r i , t h a t the f i g u r e s were i d e n t i f i e d as remnants of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant i n 1874. Then owned by the Duchessa d i G a l l e r i a (nee B r i g n o l e - S a l e ) , the p i e c e s 27 were connected by Santo V a r n i to the newly d i s c o v e r e d document 28 of August 25, 1313, p u b l i s h e d by F e d e r i c o A l i z e r i . The f r a g -ments passed i n t o the Accademia d i B e l l e A r t i and thence to the 29 Palazzo Bianco (the c i v i c museum of Genoa). A d d i t i o n a l fragments of the tomb have come to l i g h t s i n c e 1960. A f i g u r e of J u s t i c e — i d e n t i f i e d as such by the sword and s c r o l l which the f i g u r e holds and the balance emblaz-oned on the chest — was d i s c o v e r e d by C a t e r i n a Marcenaro i n 30 a d e s e r t e d Genoese garden (Figs. 3 and 4). T h i s f i g u r e i s f r e e s t a n d i n g , l e a n i n g with the upper p a r t of the body to the r i g h t . The head i s t h r u s t forward, the neck i s extended as the face turns to the l e f t . The l i p s are s l i g h t l y open. The f i g u r e i s c l o t h e d i n a f l o w i n g robe and c a r r i e s a sword i n the r i g h t hand and a s c r o l l with the i n s c r i p t i o n DILECISTI IUSTITIAM ODISTI INIQUITATEM (Love J u s t i c e — Despise I n i q u i t y ) from Psalm 44 of the Vulgate. The head i s mantled i n the same f a s h i o n as the f i g u r e of the r i s i n g woman. Her head i s a l s o crowned and although much damaged t h i s ornament appears to have been more e l a b o r a t e l y p i n n a c l e d than the simple band worn by the other f i g u r e . Once broken from the r e s t of the body, the head has 10 been r e s t o r e d . From the c a r v i n g , there i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the f i g u r e was a s s o c i a t e d with any other s c u l p t u r a l or a r c h i t e c t -u r a l form. Although the f i g u r e i s much damaged and worn, the d e t a i l s on a l l s i d e s are seen to be executed with equal care. The f i g u r e stands 103 cm. i n h e i g h t . The provenance of the p i e c e , now i n the Palazzo Rosso, Genoa, i s unknown. Another draped f i g u r e was i d e n t i f i e d by Marcenaro i n the G a l l e r i a d i Sant'Agostino as a remnant of the Margaret of Brabant 32 tomb, i n 1963 (Figs. 5 and 6). T h i s f i g u r e had been o r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to Giovanni Pisano by W.R. V a l e n t i n e r , i n 1939, to 33 the D i r e z i o n e B e l l e A r t i . The c l o s e a f f i n i t i e s t h a t t h i s head-l e s s f i g u r e e x h i b i t s with Madonna and C h i l d f i g u r e s by Giovanni Pisano, such as the Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s p i e c e r e p r e s e n t s a Madonna -- the C h i l d having been l o s t . The f i g u r e i s f r e e s t a n d i n g . The back i s concave as the f i g u r e leans out to the r i g h t . The drapery i s gathered i n t o the r i g h t hand. The l e f t arm i s m i s s i n g from the elbow down. Once again the d e t a i l on a l l s i d e s of the f i g u r e i s executed with equal care. Without i t s head, the f i g u r e stands 47.5 cm. i n h e i g h t . The o r i g i n a l height may be estimated to have been 54 cm. The Madonna, a l s o i n the Palazzo Rosso, i s known to have been moved from Sampierdarena i n t o the G a l l e r i a d i Sant'Agostino, Genoa, at an 34 unrecorded date. I t s e a r l i e r provenance i s unknown. I t was moved, a f t e r Marcenaro's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the f i g u r e , i n t o the Palazzo Rosso with the J u s t i c e f i g u r e . 11 The head of a female was i d e n t i f i e d by S e i d e l with the 35 tomb of Margaret of Brabant i n 1968. (Figs. 7 and 8). From the remaining s e c t i o n of neck, i t i s apparent that the head was o r i g i n a l l y s l i g h t l y lowered and turned t o the l e f t . The eyes look downwards. The s u r f a c e of the face i s roughened i n a v e r t -i c a l l i n e running through the l i p s and c h i n (Fig. 9). The back and top of the head are smoothly f i n i s h e d . The fragment i s 15.5 cm. high. T h i s p i e c e , on the a r t market i n 1942, i s now i n a Swiss p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . No e a r l i e r provenance i s known. Two a d d i t i o n a l f i g u r e s , each h o l d i n g the remains of a baldac c h i n o , were a l s o connected with the monument f o r Margaret 36 of B r a b a n t . ( F i g . 10). These p i e c e s of unknown e a r l i e r prov-enance, were given by Santo V a r n i to the Palazzo Bianco museum. T h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with the monument may be s e r i o u s l y questioned. The q u a l i t y of t h e i r e x e cution i s i n no way comparable to that of the other fragments of the tomb and an a t t r i b u t i o n t o Giovanni Pisano i s unacceptable. A l l the p i e c e s connected with the tomb are C a r r a r a marble. That the fragments, with the exception of the b a l d a c c h i n o angels, are the work of Giovanni Pisano has never been questioned. The s t y l e of the fragments i s e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t with the pro-d u c t i o n of Giovanni Pisano's l a t e years. There i s a c e r t a i n g r a v i t y , and grace, and calm i n these p i e c e s that a s s o c i a t e s them with the Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a , the Madonna d i A r r i g o , and the Paduan Madonna f o r E n r i c o Scrovegni (c. 1305-6), of Giovanni Pisano's l a t e r years. Whether t h i s may be seen, .as Ayrton has 12 37 suggested, as the product of a f i n a l r e l e a s e of energy i n the l a s t , P i s a p u l p i t or as a r e s u l t of the d i s p a r a t e nature of the l a t e works i n r e l a t i o n to h i s e a r l i e r p u l p i t s and prophet f i g u r e s i s unknown. Nev e r t h e l e s s , the t r a n q u i l i t y and calm which invade Giovanni Pisano's l a s t works marks a change i n the s c u l p t o r ' s s t y l e from which the Genoan fragments may not be d i s a s s o c i a t e d . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the tomb i s p r o v i d e d by a group of s t a t u e s on the facade of S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa, which represent a Madonna and C h i l d with four v i r t u e f i g u r e s , J u s t i c e , Temperance, Prudence and F o r t i t u d e (Figs. 11, 12, 13, 14). The c l o s e resemblance between the J u s t i c e and head fragment by Giovanni Pisano with the J u s t i c e and the head of the Temperance f i g u r e of the S. Maria Maddalena group suggest that the l a t t e r are d e l i b e r a t e c o p i e s . Toesca connects the v i r t u e s at S. Maria Maddalena with a tomb p r o j e c t by a f o l l o w e r of Giovanni Pisano 38 and Marcenaro suggests that they may be dated to c.1350. I t may be suggested that the tomb of Margaret of Brabant had four v i r t u e f i g u r e s which served as the models f o r a l a t e r tomb p r o j e c t by a f o l l o w e r of Giovanni Pisano. The S. Maria Maddalena c o p i e s a l s o suggest t h a t the s p e c i f i c fragments now a s s o c i a t e d with the tomb of Margaret of Brabant were i n f a c t i n Genoa i n the mid-fourteenth century. Since Santo V a r n i ' s o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of the Palazzo Bianco fragments with the tomb of Margaret of Brabant only one r e j e c t i o n of t h i s c l a i m has been p u b l i s h e d . P o r t i g l i o t t i ( c f . , 13 Appendix, entry 21), denyin'g that the fragments belong to the tomb of Margaret of Brabant, l i n k s the image of the r i s i n g woman to the R e s u r r e c t i o n of the Virgin-, and suggests that t h i s was 39 i n f a c t the o r i g i n a l meaning of Giovanni Pisano's work. Grosso has i n d i c a t e d that the p o r t r a i t - n a t u r a l i s m of the Genoese f i g u r e bears no resemblance to Giovanni Pisano's i d e a l i s e d Madonna 40 f i g u r e s and r e j e c t s P o r t i g l i o t t i ' s t h e s i s . A c c e p t i n g the p i e c e s as fragments of a tomb by Giovanni Pisano, i t may be questioned that t h i s tomb was the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. However, the almost complete absence of tombs f o r females i n I t a l y at t h i s time m i t i g a t e s s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t there being two such Genoese monuments, one un-recorded, by Giovanni Pisano. T h i s aspect of the tomb i s noteworthy. The p a u c i t y of tombs designed f o r women, i n I t a l y , i s due, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , to the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n at the time. I t i s only i n Naples at the court of the Angevin k i n g s of S i c i l y , that a p p r e c i a b l e numbers of tombs f o r women: were commissioned. Those of the queens C a t h e r i n e of A u s t r i a (d. 1323, Fig. 42), Mary of Hungary (d. 1323, Fig. 43), and Marie of V a l o i s (d. 1331, Fig. 46), a l l by Tino d i Camaino, a t t e s t to the p o l i t i c a l and d y n a s t i c importance of t h e i r occupants. In Northern I t a l y , the c i t y - s t a t e s were not conducive to the development of p o l i t -i c a l power by women and t h e i r d y n a s t i c importance was not gr e a t . In Northern Europe, on the other hand, there e x i s t e d a long t r a d i t i o n of monarchic r u l e . Tombs designed f o r women are there not uncommon. We may c i t e the famous tombs of Eleanor of 14 A q u i t a i n e (d. 1204) i n the Abbey Church of F o n t e v r a u l t , and the tomb of Duchess M a t h i l d a i n Brunswick C a t h e d r a l as examples 41 of a l a r g e number of such monuments. Thus, the death of Margaret of Brabant, i n Genoa, a f f o r d e d the r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a female tomb i n Northern I t a l y , and was the o c c a s i o n -- as w i l l be argued i n t h i s t h e s i s -- f o r a new approach to the d e p i c t i o n of the occupant of the tomb. The reasons f o r the c h o i c e of Genoa as the s i t e f o r Margaret of Brabant's monument are a l s o r e l e v a n t to the d i s c u s s -i o n . Henry VII had, upon h i s a r r i v a l i n Genoa, attempted to r e s t o r e order among i t s Guelph and G h i b e l l i n e f a c t i o n s . He had e x t r a c t e d an oath of f e a l t y from the c i t y . When he l e f t , i n February 1312, although the p r o t e c t i o n of i m p e r i a l r i g h t s i n the n orth was l e f t to h i s troops and the G h i b e l l i n e signori of Genoa, Henry VII's supremacy i n these r e g i o n s was by no means 42 secure. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t Henry VII a v a i l e d h i m s e l f of the o p p o r t u n i t y to maintain the i m p e r i a l presence i n Genoa, at l e a s t i n memory, with tomb of h i s queen. The b u r i a l of h i s b r o t h e r , Walram, i n Verona at the request of the S c a l i g e r v i c a r s , may adduce a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The extant Codex Balduini Trevivensis ( S t a a t s a r c h i v , Koblenz, 1 C No. 1) i s an i l l u m i n a t e d 43 manuscript which d e p i c t s the journey of Henry VII to I t a l y . It was designed under the d i r e c t i o n of Baldwin of Luxemburg, archbishop of T r i e r and Henry VII's b r o t h e r . The manuscript appears to take s p e c i a l care i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of the deaths and b u r i a l s of Henry V I I , Walram of Luxemburg, and Margaret of 15 Brabant (Figs. 15 - 20). That the b u r i a l s of these members of the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , on I t a l i a n s o i l , should r e c e i v e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n — r e c o r d i n g the l i n g e r i n g presence and perhaps the i m p e r i a l r i g h t to the land — i s i n t e r e s t i n g and serves to s t r e s s the importance of the commission of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. That the commission of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant was awarded to Giovanni Pisano a t t e s t s to the r e p u t a t i o n of the s c u l p t o r . At the age of about s i x t y , Giovanni Pisano had a long and i l l u s t r i o u s c a r e e r behind him and h i s fame must have been 44 widespread. The c h o i c e of Giovanni Pisano suggests the imp-ortance p l a c e d by Henry VII on the work, and the extant fragments i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s was a p r o d u c t i o n of q u a l i t y . I t i s the aim of t h i s t h e s i s to demonstrate that the programme of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant a l s o r e p r e s e n t s an important r e - i n t e r p r e t -a t i o n and development of c u r r e n t trends i n s e p u l c h r a l iconography, making i t a key monument i n the t r a d i t i o n of tomb design i n I t a l y . The disjecta membra of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant pose problems both of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . With the gradual accumulation and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of fragments asso-c i a t e d with the tomb, new s o l u t i o n s to these problems have been formulated. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s on l y i n recent years that a f u l l e r understanding of t h i s important monument has become p o s s i b l e . 16 CHAPTER II RECONSTRUCTING TEE TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT The o r i g i n a l appearance of the tomb of Margaret of Brab-ant i s unknown. The fragments which can be a s s o c i a t e d with the tomb, while i n s u f f i c i e n t i n number f o r a f u l l p h y s i c a l recon-s t r u c t i o n , do p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the form of the tomb. The work of A r n o l f o d i Cambio and Tino d i Camaino — the t r a d -i t i o n s b e f o r e and the developments a f t e r -- a s s i s t i n an under-standing' of the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by Giovanni Pisano i n the monument of Margaret of Brabant. The fragments themselves, the Trecento tomb t r a d i t i o n , and d e s c r i p t i o n s of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant known from the f i f t e e n t h through the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century, form the b a s i s upon which a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n can be made. The t r a d i t i o n of f i g u r a l tomb s c u l p t u r e i n t o which G i o -vanni Pisano's tomb of Margaret of Brabant may be p l a c e d has o r i g i n s i n the l a s t decades of the t h i r t e e n t h century. P r i o r to t h i s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t appears to have been shown i n tomb designs which recorded, i n e f f i g y , the l i k e n e s s of the deceased or i n any other f i g u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In a Rome dominated by the school of the Cosmati, i t i s i n d i c a t i v e of the absence of a s c u l p -t u r a l t r a d i t i o n and attendant technique that the only tombs i n which f i g u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n occurs are those i n which antique sarcophagi are re-used. The tombs of C a r d i n a l Guglielmo F i e s c h i (d. 1256), S. Lorenzo f u o r i l e mura, Rome (Fig. 21), and Luca 17 S a v e l l i , S. Maria i n A r a c o e l i , Rome (Fig. 22), are eminent ex-amples. In both, a C h r i s t i a n g l o s s i s p r o v i d e d by a d d i t i o n a l elements. In the F i e s c h i tomb the sarcophagus, of the t h i r d century A.D., bears the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a wedding scene and attendant s a c r i f i c e with a panel c o n t a i n i n g the symbolism of 45 apotheosis. Above, appears a mosaic panel d e p i c t i n g the c a r d i n a l ' s s o u l being presented by s a i n t s to an enthroned 46 C h r i s t . T h i s d e p i c t i o n of the deceased as a sponsored donor f i g u r e i s i n d i c a t i v e of an i n t e r e s t i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of scenes i l l u s t r a t i n g p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n . And although the mosaic i s arranged i n an i d e a l i s e d and h i e r a r c h i c a l fashion, an attempt i s made to r e c o r d the image of C a r d i n a l F i e s c h i . In the S a v e l l i monument, a small seated Madonna and C h i l d i s p l a c e d i n the upper 47 r e g i s t e r of the tomb. Both the concern f o r p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e and a r c h i t e c t u r a l completeness c h a r a c t e r i s e the e a r l y tombs i n which the f i g u r a l t r a d i t i o n i n I t a l y was s e t . D e r i v i n g sustenance from French and Spanish examples, t h i s I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n developed at the 48 time of A r n o l f o d i Cambio. I n i t i a l l y of i n t e r e s t i s the tomb of Clement IV (d. 1268), S. Francesco, V i t e r b o , by P i e t r o d i 49 O d e r i s i o (Fzg. 23). In t h i s monument the c l a s s i c a l c i b o r i u m which surrounds the F i e s c h i tomb i s r e p l a c e d by a G o t h i c canopy — an element to be used e x t e n s i v e l y i n l a t e r I t a l i a n tombs. Of more importance, however, i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased as a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y . The f a c e of the dead pope i s c a r e f u l l y and p o w e r f u l l y rendered (Fig. 24). An attempt has been made 18 to capture the l i k e n e s s of the d e c e a s e d . U J The eyes are c l o s e d , the f l e s h sags downward — the pope i s dead. T h i s i s a p r e -c o c i o u s example of many such d e p i c t i o n s of the deceased i n e f f i g y ; an immediate successor being the tomb of A d r i a n V (d. 1276), 51 S. Francesco, V i t e r b o (Fig. 25). A development towards a r c h -i t e c t u r a l u n i t y , and p o r t r a i t - l i k e n e s s i n the e f f i g y i s again s t r o n g l y marked. An important a d d i t i o n to the programmes of these e a r l y tombs occu r r e d with A r n o l f o d i Cambio's tombs f o r C a r d i n a l Riccardo A n n i b a l d i d e l l a Molara (d. 1276), S. Giovanni i n L a t -erano, Rome (Fig. 26), and C a r d i n a l Guillaume de Braye (d. 1282), S. Domenico, O r v i e t o (Fig. 27). In these tombs, i n c o r p o r a t e d with the e f f i g y of the deceased — i t s e l f of long l i n e a g e i n France -- are the elements of the French tombeaux de gvande cere-52 monie , developed at the c l o s e of the t w e l f t h century. In France, these tombs are c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t h e i r use of the e f f i g y attended by c l e r g y performing f u n e r a l r i t e s , a c o l y t e s , and some-times mourners. To t h i s a c t i o n r e l a t e d to the corpse of the deceased there are i n c l u d e d images of C h r i s t , and the s o u l of the deceased being l i f t e d to heaven. In I t a l y , A r n o l f o d i Cambio adapted these elements to I t a l i a n t a s t e . J u l i a n Gardner i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the now fragmented monument of C a r d i n a l A n n i b a l d i 53 i n d i c a t e s the probable form of the tomb i n i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e . The tomb would seem to have been o r i g i n a l l y set i n a w a l l n i c h e . The e f f i g y of the c a r d i n a l , r e c l i n i n g upon h i s sarcophagus, was surrounded by a c u r t a i n e d e n c l o s u r e to the r e a r of which ran a 19 f r i e z e of c l e r i c s . The s i x f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h i s extant fragment h o l d o b j e c t s a s s o c i a t e d with the o f f i c e of the dead. Above and behind the e f f i g y appeared a r e l i e f d e p i c t i n g the Madonna and C h i l d . In the de Braye tomb the e f f i g y of the de-ceased i s again enclosed i n a c u r t a i n e d compartment. In t h i s case, two angels or deacons ho l d the drapery i n such a way that 54 the e f f i g y of the c a r d i n a l may be seen. Above, a s a i n t p r e -sents a k n e e l i n g f i g u r e of the c a r d i n a l ' s s o u l to the Madonna and C h i l d , f l a n k e d by S. Dominic. Two headless, censing angels a l s o s u r v i v e from the o r i g i n a l monument but t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n i s not c l e a r . In the e f f i g i e s a s s o c i a t e d with both tombs may be seen a development of the p o r t r a i t image. But of s t r i k i n g import-ance i s the manner i n which A r n o l f o d i Cambio adapts the French ceremony tomb and i t s d e p i c t i o n of the drama of death to these monuments. The i n t e r e s t i n p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n t h a t we noted i n e a r l i e r monuments i s much i n evidence. In the de Braye tomb — c l o s e r to i t s o r i g i n a l form than the A n n i b a l d i monument -- the use, i n France, of images of the human s o u l being l i f t e d to heaven, such as that of Abbot A r n o u l t (?) recorded by G a i g n i e r e s (Fig. 66), i s r e p l a c e d by the k n e e l i n g , sponsored donor f i g u r e t hat we have met i n the F i e s c h i tomb i n mosaic. In the French t r a d -i t i o n , the image of the r i s i n g s o u l i n d i c a t e s the r e c e p t i o n of the s o u l of the deceased i n t o heaven. In the de Braye tomb the same i n t e n t i o n u n d e r l i e s the iconography. The p a s s i n g of l i f e i s r e p r esented below by the e f f i g y of the c a r d i n a l i n h i s c u r -t a i n e d r e c e s s , while above — and here i n i t s i s o l a t i o n of the 20 components of the programme, the architecture plays a key role — the figure of the cardinal's soul, presented to the Madonna and Child, may be taken to represent the personal salvation of Cardinal de Braye. Thus, t h i s tomb by Arnolfo d i Cambio i n t r o -duces into the I t a l i a n tomb t r a d i t i o n a d i s t i n c t emphasis upon the dramatic depiction of salvation enhanced by a controlled and discriminating use of a r c h i t e c t u r a l setting. The interest in making personal salvation v i s u a l l y ex-p l i c i t appears to have motivated the decoration of the now l o s t tomb chapel of Nicholas III (d. 1280), in Old St. Peter's, Rome.55 The chapel contained an e f f i g y of the pope and behind the a l t a r , a painting of Nicholas III being drawn upwards by Saint Nicholas with Saint Francis — the vis a tergo — pushing from behind. This i s known from a description of the tomb in the Chronicon de Lanercost: "...supra altare eapellae suae dipingi faceret sanctum Nicholaum se ad superiora ducentem et sanctum Fvanciscum a tergo impellentem."56 Although unprecedented in I t a l i a n art, t h i s image in i t s depiction of Nicholas III being led to heaven after death, i s compatible with the t r a d i t i o n we have traced. In t h i s chapel the drama of death with i t s e x p l i c i t personal references and the use of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l setting — in t h i s case the funerary chapel, the f i r s t of i t s kind in Italy — a l l conform with basic prop-ositions of, for example, the tomb of Cardinal de Braye. Arnolfo d i Cambio's l a s t tomb design, that for Boniface 21 VIII (d. 1303), i n Old St. P e t e r ' s , Rome (Fig. 30), took up the 57 use of the funerary chapel i n t r o d u c e d by N i c h o l a s I I I . I t was o r i g i n a l l y set i n t o the r e a r w a l l of the chapel of S a i n t B o n i f a c e . Above the a l t a r , the monument was re c e s s e d w i t h i n a n i c h e . The e f f i g y l a y i n a c u r t a i n e d e n c l o s u r e with angels i n attendance at the head and f e e t . In t h i s arrangement A r n o l f o changed the design of the A n n i b a l d i tomb i n two ways. In that e a r l i e r monument there were deacons, r a t h e r than angels, p l a c e d behind the e f f i g y . A l s o , the drapery of the e f f i g y i s here t r e a t e d as though i t belongs t o a r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e . In the A n n i b a l d i , de Braye, and other e a r l i e r tombs t h i s had not been the case -- the drapery being t r e a t e d as though the f i g u r e were standin g . Above the e f f i g y was a mosaic panel showing the s o u l s of Boniface IV and Bonif a c e V I I I being presented to a Madonna and C h i l d by S a i n t s Peter and Pa u l . In the tomb of Benedict XI (d. 1304), i n S. Domenico, Per u g i a (Fig. 31), the three-d i m e n s i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased's s o u l as a k n e e l i n g donor f i g u r e i s r e v i v e d . As has been noted i n the f i r s t chapter, t h i s tomb was d e s c r i b e d by V a s a r i and a t t r i b u t e d to Giovanni Pisano but i s now thought to 58 be the work of a Sienese master. V a s a r i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the tomb i n c l u d e s those elements which form the b a s i s of A r n o l f o d i Cambio's i n n o v a t i o n s i n tomb design: the p o r t r a i t - n a t u r a l -ism of the e f f i g y , "...it quale ritratto di natuvale. .."; angels s t a n d i n g to r e v e a l the e f f i g y i n a c u r t a i n e d r e c e s s , "...due 22 Angeli, uno da ciascun lato..."; and a Madonna and s a i n t s , 59 "...una Nostra Donna oon due Santi..." The Madonna and s a i n t s stand i n a t a b e r n a c l e and the whole i s set w i t h i n a Got h i c canopy. Gardner w r i t e s that t h i s tomb, "...probably conveys the best 60 impression of the o r i g i n a l form of A r n o l f o ' s de Braye tomb." With the a c c e s s i o n of Clement V, i n 1305, and the sub-sequent removal of the papal court and i t s patronage to Avignon, Rome d e c l i n e d as a c e n t r e of i n n o v a t i v e tomb s c u l p t u r a l a c t i v -i t y . Other c e n t r e s of I t a l y began, at t h i s time, to make imp-o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n tomb design. The d i s s e m i n a t i o n of A r n o l f o d i Cambio's ideas through I t a l y seems to have been r a p i d . In the work of Tino d i Camaino, Nino Pisano, and Giovanni d i Ba l d u c c i o the m o t i f s of A r n o l f o d i Cambio and the tombs of the l a t e t h i r t e e n t h century are expanded and presented i n new com-b i n a t i o n s . The number of s e c u l a r tombs from t h i s p e r i o d i n c r e a s e s and a great divergence i n tomb design i s observed. One of the f i r s t important n o n - e c c l e s i a s t i c a l commiss-ions of the f o u r t e e n t h century, the tomb of Henry VII (d. 1313), 61 was awarded to Tino d i Camaino. Begun i n 1315, the tomb i s known only i n a fragmented s t a t e . From the remains of the tomb i t i s apparent that f i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e p l a y e d a g r e a t e r r o l e here than encountered b e f o r e . Henry VII was re p r e s e n t e d twice i n the programme; below as an e f f i g y , r e c l i n i n g on h i s s a r c o -phagus, and above seated i n majesty with four s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s 62 r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s c o u n s e l l o r s (Figs. 33 and 34). T h i s double 23 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e c e a s e d i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e e f f i g y w i t h a s p o n s o r e d d o n o r f i g u r e , and new t o I t a l y a t t h e t i m e . Images o f s u c h s e a t e d f i g u r e s a r e r e c o r d e d i n F r a n c e , and i t i s t e m p t i n g t o a s s o c i a t e t h e i c o n o g r a p h y , as we d i d w i t h t h e f e m a l e tomb t r a d i t i o n , w i t h t h e 6 3 power o f m o n a r c h i c a l r u l e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e n e x t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s f o r m o f d o u b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i n i s i n N a p l e s , a t t h e c o u r t o f t h e A n g e v i n k i n g s . I n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f d e v e l -o p i n g p o r t r a i t - n a t u r a l i s m t h a t we h a v e t r a c e d t h i s tomb must s t a n d a s a l a n d mark. I t i s c l e a r t h a t n o t o n l y a r e t h e f e a t u r e s o f H e n r y V I I s c u l p t e d w i t h an a i m t o c a p t u r i n g t h e l i k e n e s s o f t h e e m p e r o r , b u t t h o s e o f h i s c o u n s e l l o r s a r e a l s o t r e a t e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i t y (Fig. 3 5 ) . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l p a t r o n a g e d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y d i s a p p e a r and seems t o h a v e b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e , i n f a c t , f o r t h e d i s p e r s a l o f t h e l a t e l y d e v e l o p e d Roman G o t h i c tomb s t y l e , n o r t h , i n t o T u s c a n y . An e a r l y e x a m p l e o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s T i n o d i C a m a i n o ' s tomb f o r C a r d i n a l R i c c a r d o P e t r o n i ( d . Genoa, 1 3 1 4 ) , i n t h e 64 C a t h e d r a l o f S i e n a (F%g. 3 6 ) . T h i s tomb f a l l s i n t o a c a t e g o r y o f tomb a r c h i t e c t u r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e Roman tomb t y p e . The tomb i s s e t up f r o m t h e g r o u n d and a p p e n d e d t o t h e w a l l , s u p p o r t e d by f o u r c o n s o l e s . On a b r o a d b a s e i s p o s i t i o n e d t h e s a r c o p h a g u s u p h e l d b y f o u r f i g u r e s w h i c h b e a r t h e s a r c o p h a g u s 6 5 on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s . The s a r c o p h a g u s i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h t h r e e r e l i e f p a n e l s ; a N o l i Me T a n g e r e , t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t , and S a i n t Thomas I n s p e c t i n g t h e Wounds o f C h r i s t . On t h e t o p 24 of the sarcophagus, beneath a t e n t - l i k e b a l d a c c h i n o h e l d open, o r i g i n a l l y by four f i g u r e s , r e c l i n e s the e f f i g y of C a r d i n a l P e t r o n i . Above t h i s , i n a t r i p a r t i t e t a b e r n a c l e , i s set a Madonna and C h i l d with two s a i n t s . The use of the e f f i g y , b a l d a c c h i n o , and the t a b e r n a c l e above are t r a d i t i o n a l elements. In i t s other aspects the tomb i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y . U n l i k e the tombs of A r n o l f o d i Cambio, the emphasis of the tomb i s upon the f i g u r a l r a t h e r than the a r c h i t e c t u r a l aspect of the monument. I t i s o n l y i n the t a b e r n a c l e at the summit t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e p l a y s any s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e at a l l . The appearance of the R e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t i n the tomb programme would a l s o appear to be unprecedented i n I t a l y . Gardner c i t e s t h i s iconography as being demonstrative of northern i n f l u e n c e i n the design — the image being employed by German s t a i n e d - g l a s s workers i n the 66 apse of San Francesco at A s s i s i . With the use of the Resurrec-t i o n scene the P e t r o n i monument d e p i c t s p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n through C h r i s t r a t h e r than the p r e v i o u s l y e x p l i c i t i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r e n c e s seen i n the tombs of A r n o l f o d i Cambio. The use of c a r y a t i d f i g u r e s beneath the sarcophagus i s a l s o unusual, being the f i r s t extant example of t h e i r use other than i n the s h r i n e s of s a i n t s . The i d e a i t s e l f probably has a d i r e c t l i n e a g e from N i c o l a Pisano's i n n o v a t i v e design f o r the Area of S a i n t Dominic, i n Bologna, f i n i s h e d i n 1267. There e i g h t supports d e p i c t i n g archangels, a c o l y t e s and v i r t u e s o r i g i n a l l y h e l d a l o f t 6 7 the sarcophagus of the s a i n t . The f i r s t s e c u l a r use of these s u p p o r t i v e elements may have o c c u r r e d i n l a t e t h i r t e e n t h century 25 Naples. Four c a r y a t i d v i r t u e s , now i n the Louvre, are i d e n t -i f i e d as l a t e t h i r t e e n t h century works (Figs. 37 and 38). V a l e n t i n e r f u r t h e r suggests that they are the work of a f o l l -ower of N i c o l a Pisano and t e n t a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e s them w i t h the gc destroyed tomb of Charles Martel (d. 1295), S. Lorenzo, Naples. These four v i r t u e s , J u s t i c e , F o r t i t u d e , Prudence, and Temperance, may have supported a sarcophagus i n much the same way as the f i g u r e s by Tino d i Camaino, that support the tomb of C a r d i n a l P e t r o n i . The sarcophagus at Bologna i s decorated with r e l i e f scenes of the l i f e of Saint Dominic and Tino d i Camaino's use of r e l i e f scenes probably draws i t s i n s p i r a t i o n from that work by N i c o l a Pisano. Tino d i Camaino's next tomb, that of Gastone d e l l a Torre (d. 1318), f o r S. Croce, Florence (Fig. 39), was again supported 70 high on the w a l l by means of consoles. The iconography of C h r i s t ' s Resurrection i s u t i l i s e d once more on the sarcophagus face. As i n the P e t r o n i monument, the e f f i g y of the deceased r e c l i n e s i n s i d e a baldacchino held open by angels. Above i s set a Madonna and C h i l d . Of more i n t e r e s t , because of i t s c l e a r break from the t r a d i t i o n s of tomb iconography of the time, i s the tomb of Bishop Antonio d e g l i O r s i (d. 1320-1), Cathedral, Florence (Fig. 40), by Tino d i Camaino. Again, the tomb i s known only i n a fragmented s t a t e . The tomb c o n s i s t s of a seated f i g u r e of the bishop represented i n death upon h i s sarcophagus (Fig. 41). The l a t t e r i s decorated w i t h a r e l i e f showing the V i r g i n presenting the bishop to C h r i s t . O r i g i n a l l y , a group 26 of the Madonna and C h i l d with two f l a n k i n g s a i n t s , one of which presented a k n e e l i n g f i g u r e of the bishop's s o u l , were p a r t of 71 the programme. The sarcophagus was supported by three c a r y -a t i d f i g u r e s and two angels h o l d i n g open a b a l d a c c h i n o are a l s o i d e n t i f i e d with the tomb. The whole s t r u c t u r e o r i g i n a l l y r e s t e d on an arcaded support decorated with a l l e g o r i c a l r e l i e f s . As i n the Henry VII and P e t r o n i monuments, great emphasis i s p l a c e d upon the f i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e of the tomb. In h i s p o r t r a y a l of Bishop Antonio d e g l i O r s i , seated i n majesty, Tino d i Camaino has broken with t r a d i t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the bishop i s represented t h r i c e i n the tomb programme and t h i s number without the i n c l u s i o n of a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y which may 72 have once been a p a r t of the tomb programme. As a group, the Henry V I I , P e t r o n i , and d e g l i O r s i mon-uments, may be taken to represent the v e r s a t i l i t y of tomb i c o n -ography at the beginning of the f o u r t e e n t h century. These tombs are marked by t h e i r dependance on f i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e and the freedom and v a r i e t y with which the e f f i g i e s of the deceased are handled. We see i n these tombs a developing tendency to c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the tomb programme — i n V a l e n t i n e r ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the d e g l i O r s i monument (Fig. 40) f i v e d i s t i n c t l e v e l s are apparent. In h i s r e l i e f c a r v i n g s , Tino d i Camaino i n t r o d u c e s new iconography — the R e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t , the scene of i n t e r c e s s i o n on the the d e g l i O r s i sarcophagus, and the a l l e g o r i c a l scenes beneath. 27 In 1323 or 1324, Tino d i Camaino went to Naples, where he designed tombs f o r the Angevin c o u r t : C a t h e r i n e of A u s t r i a (d. 1323), S. Lorenzo (Fig. 42); Mary of Hungary (d. 1323), S. Maria Donna Regina (Fig. 43); C h a r l e s of C a l a b r i a (d. 1328), S. C h i a r a (Fig. 45); and Marie of V a l o i s (d. 1331), S. C h i a r a (Fig. 46). Notable i n a l l these monuments i s Tino d l Camaino's use o f v i r t u e f i g u r e s as c a r y a t i d s to support the sarcophagus of the deceased. T h i s t r a d i t i o n , as we have seen, may be t r a c e d back to N i c o l a Pisano. In the tomb of C a t h e r i n e of A u s t r i a , the f i g u r e s of Hope and C h a r i t y support the sarcophagus on which four f r e e s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s of s a i n t s surround the e f f i g y . In a l u n e t t e i s shown i n r e l i e f the s u p p l i c a n t f i g u r e of C a t h e r i n e of A u s t r i a ' s s o u l being presented to C h r i s t . In the tomb of Mary of Hungary, the four C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s , as angels, are ranged i n f r o n t of the supports of the sarcophagus. Above, the e f f i g y i s enclosed i n a b a l d a c c h i n o h e l d open by two angels. Above t h i s , the s u p p l i c a n t s o u l of Mary of Hungary and a model of the church of S. Maria Donna Regina are presented by two angels to a seated Madonna and C h i l d . In the tomb of C h a r l e s of C a l -a b r i a , and p o s s i b l y i n t h a t of Marie of V a l o i s , the complement of a n g e l - v i r t u e s i s i n c r e a s e d to i n c l u d e the three T h e o l o g i c a l as w e l l as the four C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s -- a l l of which stand on leonine p l i n t h s . In these l a s t two tombs a f r i e z e of mourners and c l e r i c s — as i n the A n n i b a l d i tomb — i s ranged behind the recumbent e f f i g y of the deceased which may i n d i c a t e a Roman contact i n Tino's work. Above these, the now t y p i c a l scene of 28 the s u p p l i c a n t s o u l i s seen. The l a s t tombs of T i n o d i Camaino i n Naples show a marked i n c r e a s e i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l q u a l i t y of t h e i r programmes. A l l are surrounded by s u b s t a n t i a l G o t h i c canopies and a l l are r i g i d l y d i v i d e d i n t o ascending h o r i z o n t a l l e v e l s , each with i t s own d e c o r a t i v e and symbolic scheme. The success t h a t t h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e sign c o u l d achieve i s perhaps nowhere b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d than i n the tomb of Robert of Anjou by Giovanni and Pacio da F i r e n z e , S. C h i a r a , Naples (Fig. 47), the design of which owes much to the developments made by T i n o d i Camaino. In t h i s tomb, of about 1345, the h o r i z o n t a l d i v -i s i o n s of the monument are c a r e f u l l y modulated to achieve a compelling v e r t i c a l movement of the eye from the lowest r e g i s t e r s to the image of C h r i s t i n Majesty above. From the a r c h i t e c t u r a l complexity of Tino d i Camaino and h i s s u c c e s s o r s we t u r n to another p u p i l of Giovanni Pisano, Giovanni d i B a l d u c c i o . H i s work on the tomb of Guarnerio d e g l i A n t e l m i n e l l i , S. Francesco, Sarzana (Fig. 48), i n comparison with the work of Tino d i Camaino i n Naples i s both simple and unassuming. Again, the tomb i s supported above ground l e v e l , appended to the w a l l on c o n s o l e s . The a r c h i t e c t u r a l surrounding of the monument i s minimal. The sarcophagus of the boy i s mounted on two l i o n s (symbolic of r e s u r r e c t i o n and f o r t i t u d e ) . The e f f i g y r e c l i n e s as i n bed asleep beneath a canopy h e l d by two angels. Above i n a t a b e r n a c l e stands the Madonna and C h i l d . Another tomb of importance i n the t r a d i t i o n s we have 29 traced i s that of Archbishop Simone S a l t a r e l l i (d. 1342), S. Caterina, Pisa (Fig. 49), by Nino Pisano. Resting at ground l e v e l , the sarcophagus i s decorated with r e l i e f scenes of the l i f e of the archbishop. Above t h i s , in an arcaded enclosure r e c l i n e s the e f f i g y of the deceased. Two angels draw back curtains from the front of t h i s enclosure. Above in a t r i p a r t i t e tabernacle i s placed a Madonna and Child with two adoring figures. Between t h i s tabernacle and the enclosure below appears an image of S a l t a r e l l i ' s soul — a small nude figure — being escorted to 73 heaven by angels. The r e l i e f serves here to re-emphasise the interest in personal salvation and the drama of death that has run through the tomb designs of t h i s period. In the S a l t -a r e l l i tomb, the horizontal layering of the monument i s used with an expertise born of the previous t r a d i t i o n . Here the stepwise ascent of Simone S a l t a r e l l i , from l i f e to death, through ascension to heaven, i s c l e a r l y and elegantly expressed in the four layers of the tomb. Nino Pisano's use of the nude, ascend-ing soul i s a retrospective use of French examples of the r i s i n g of the soul and a conscious r e j e c t i o n of the kneeling supplicant soul figures that we have described as a largely I t a l i a n icon-ography. It i s interesting to note that a l i n k between these types of representation i s provided by the remote tomb, by an I t a l i a n craftsman, of Archbishop Juan de Aragon (d. 1334), 74 set into a niche of the Cathedral, Tarragona (Figs. 50 and 51). In t h i s tomb the sarcophagus of the deceased, resting on lions , i s surrounded on one side by figures. Above, the soul of the 30 archbishop, i n t h i s case f u l l y c l o t h e d and k n e e l i n g i n s u p p l i c -a t i o n i s borne towards C h r i s t by two angels. C l e a r l y a comp-romise between the nude ascending s o u l and the k n e e l i n g supp-l i c a n t s o u l i s intended. Returning to Genoa, we note the tomb of C a r d i n a l Luca F i e s c h i (d. 1343), S. Lorenzo (Fig. 52), by a p u p i l of Giovanni Pisano. Not now i n i t s o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n and much fragmented the tomb's o r i g i n a l appearance i s unknown. However, from what remains, i t i s c l e a r that the sarcophagus, decorated with a scene showing the i n s p e c t i o n of the wounds of C h r i s t by the twelve a p o s t l e s , r e s t e d upon four l i o n s . The r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y of the deceased upon the sarcophagus was a l s o enclosed by a bal d a c c h i n o h e l d open by two angels, examples of which are l e g i o n elsewhere. These then are the important tombs which shaped the t r a d i t i o n of f i g u r a l tomb s c u l p t u r e from the m i d - t h i r t e e n t h century to the mid-fourteenth century, i n I t a l y . Giovanni Pisano's tomb of Margaret of Brabant, i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, must be analysed i n the l i g h t of t h i s t r a d i t i o n with r e f e r e n c e to i t s key monuments. Attempered with d e s c r i p t i o n s of the tomb p r i o r to 1798, and i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from the fragments them-s e l v e s , an estimate of that o r i g i n a l form may be made. H i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , b e f o r e the d e s t r u c t i o n of the church of S. Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o i n the years f o l l o w i n g 1798, are a v a i l a b l e . These serve to i n d i c a t e the o r i g i n a l l o c -a t i o n and pr o v i d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the o r i g i n a l 31 form of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. None of t h i s m a t e r i a l develops i n d e t a i l the appearance of the monument. I t i s app-arent from the context i n which the monument i s c i t e d , i n each work, that the h i s t o r i c a l importance of Henry VII, Margaret of Brabant, and the f a c t that she was b u r i e d i n Genoa, were of prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n s of the tomb are p r o v i d e d as adjuncts to these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and are a c c o r d i n g l y general i n c h a r a c t e r . The f i r s t known r e f e r e n c e to the tomb of Margaret of Brabant, a f t e r the document of 1313, i s p r o v i d e d by the Libro 75 degli anniversarii del Conventu di San Francesco di Castelletto. T h i s records the Processio in die mortuorum i n which the f i r s t o r a t i o n was spoken be f o r e the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. S t a t i n g t hat t h i s p r o c e s s i o n would t r a v e l from the c h o i r of the church along the right hand s i d e of the nave, Marcenaro i n t e r p r e t s the r e f e r e n c e , datable to s h o r t l y a f t e r 1321, to i n d i c a t e that the tomb was o r i g i n a l l y p l a c e d i n the c h o i r of the church to 76 the r i g h t of the high a l t a r . T h i s i s supported by C r i s t o f o r u m Cipricum i n 1460, who w r i t e s that Margaret of Brabant, "...in Capella Maiori a parte leva sepulcro marmoreo fuit sepulta..." (Appendix, entry 1) (was entombed i n a marble sepulchre i n the r a i s e d p a r t of the main c h a p e l ) . In 1537, Agostino G i u s t i n i a n i saw the tomb, "...in la capella maggiore in una sepultura di marmo della parte sinistra, secondo che ella haveva ordinate" (Appendix, entry 3) 32 (in the main chapel in a marble sepulchre on the l e f t side as she had ordained.) The l a s t time that the tomb i s recorded to have been seen in the main chapel was in 1610. G i u l i o Pasqua writes that the tomb was, "dentro la ohiesa dalla banda dritta dell' altar grande." (Appendix, entry 4) (inside the church on the right side of the high a l t a r ) . Marcenaro explains the variance i n the descriptions with regard to the side on which the tomb appeared to be the result of d i f f -erent points of view. G i u l i o Pasqua, a layman, would have looked from the nave into choir, seeing the tomb on the ri g h t . Mon-signor Agostino G i u s t i n i a n i , Bishop of Nebio, would have looked 7 7 from the choir into the nave, seeing the tomb on his l e f t . Between the date of the Pasqua reference and the next, in 1641, the tomb may have been relocated. Agostino Schiaffino writes, "...la sua area si vede anaora in presente a fronte dell'organo ornato di statue di marmo. " (Appendix, entry 5) (her tomb i s s t i l l seen at present facing the organ, decorated with marble statues). In addition, Schiaffino's attention was drawn to the i n s c r i p t i o n of the tomb which he read as, MARGARITA HENRICI VII R0MAN0RUM UXOR OBIIT JANUE ANNO DOMINI MCCI ( s i c ) . (Appendix, entry 6) 33 An anonymous c h r o n i c l e r of the e i g h t e e n t h century, probably e n r i c h i n g upon G i u s t i n i a n i ' s r e p o r t but a l s o l o c a t i n g the tomb d i f f e r e n t l y , w r i t e s t h a t Margaret of Brabant, "...desiderosa partecipare de meriti di questi Santi religiosi Ordino nel suo testamento d'esser intervata nella loro Chiesa, dove sopra la Capella di S. Francesco in un suntuoso mausoleo fu tumulata." (Appendix, entry 7) (eager to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the m e r i t s of these holy b r o t h e r s ordained i n her testament to be i n t e r r e d i n t h e i r church, where above the chapel of S. Francesco i n a sumptuous mausoleum she was entombed). Of more importance than the p r e v i o u s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of the tomb i s the Monumenta Genuensia of Domenico P i a g g i o . T h i s work, concerned p r i m a r i l y with tomb epitaphs, c o n t a i n s a sketch of the i n s c r i p t i o n of the Margaret of Brabant monument (Fig. 53). P i a g g i o only b r i e f l y t r e a t s of the a c t u a l s c u l p t u r e of the monument with the words, "Deposition cum statua decumbente dictae Im-p e r a t r i c i s . " (Appendix, entry 12) S e v e r a l aspects of t h i s document are noteworthy. In the drawing of the epitaph a s e m i - c i r c u l a r band i s used f o r the i n s c r i p t i o n . T h i s i s shown beneath the coat-of-arms, and above the e p i t a p h 78 of Bishop Leonardo F o r n a r i o . The b a s i c i s s u e s which present themselves f o r s o l u t i o n i n any attempt to r e c o n s t r u c t the o r i g i n a l form of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant are as f o l l o w s : (1), the nature of the tomb i n r e l a t i o n to the s t r u c t u r e of the church of San Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o ; ( 2), the nature of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e of 34 the tomb i t s e l f ; and (3), the nature and d i s p o s i t i o n of the o r i g i n a l s c u l p t u r e of the tomb. The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e l a t e s to the s t r u c t u r e of the tomb as a whole, be i t f r e e s t a n d i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d a g a i n s t a w a l l , r e c e s s e d i n t o a niche, or p r o j e c t i n g high up from the w a l l above ground l e v e l . A l l of these formal arrangements have been met be f o r e . The f r e e s t a n d i n g monument, the l e a s t common of the fou r , i s best represented by N i c o l a Pisano's Area of S a i n t Dominic ( f i n . 1267), i n S. Domenico, Bologna. The s h r i n e of S a i n t Luke, S. G i u s t i n a , Padova, i s an e a r l y example of the same form i n the 79 f o u r t e e n t h century. The use o f the arrangement i n t o the mid-f o u r t e e n t h century i s demonstrated by the s h r i n e of the Beato Bertrando (d. 1350), i n the B a p t i s t e r y o f O r v i e t o C a t h e d r a l (Fig. 54), and those of S a i n t Peter Marytr (1335-1339, Fig. 55), 81 and S a i n t Augustine (c.1350-60), both by Giovanni d i B a l d u c c i o i n S. E u s t o r g i o , M i l a n , and San P i e t r o i n C i e l d'Oro, P a v i a , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although the form i s admirably s u i t e d to s h r i n e s f o r the v e n e r a t i o n of s a i n t l y r e l i c s , t h i s was not i t s s o l e use. 82 T h i s i s evinced by the tomb of Ri z z a r d o d i Camino (d. 1335), S. G i u s t i n a , V i t t o r i o Veneto, and the S c a l i g e r monuments of Verona. Taking i n t o account the d e s c r i t p i o n s of the tomb, p r i o r to 1798, and the p a u c i t y of t h i s type of monument, doubt i s c a s t upon i t s being u t i l i s e d i n the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. The e a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n s of the tomb p l a c e i t on the s i d e of the main chapel of the church. In t h i s l o c a t i o n a w a l l tomb would be more a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r f u n c t i o n a l reasons, than a f r e e s t a n d i n g 35 monument. Evidence a l s o suggests that the f r e e s t a n d i n g tomb was r e s e r v e d p r i m a r i l y f o r the r e l i c s of s a i n t s f o r which a c e n t r a l and r e a d i l y a c c e s i b l e monument i s most s u i t a b l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , there are no known f r e e s t a n d i n g tombs by e i t h e r N i c o l a Pisano, A r n o l f o d i Cambio, Tino d i Camaino, or Giovanni d i B a l d u c c i o f o r n o n - s a n c t i f i e d occupants. The t r a d i t i o n of the l a r g e s c a l e f i g u r a l tomb as i t develops i n I t a l y i n the course of the f o u r t e e n t h century appears to go i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s . In Rome, and those areas under the i n f l u e n c e of Roman developments, a tomb design emphasising the a r c h i t e c t u r a l component of the programme developed. Such tombs as those of Clement IV (Fig. 23), Adrian V (Fig. 25), Card-i n a l de Braye (Fig. 28), and Benedict XI (Fig. 31), are examples of t h i s t r e n d . F i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e i s c o n f i n e d and the programme of the drama i s c o n t r o l l e d by the a r c h i t e c t u r e i n these monuments. Gothic canopies surround the tombs, making them monumental and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . In Tuscany, and to the north, a tomb type develops i n the e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h century that I want to c a l l the e l a b o r a t e , m u l t i -l e v e l , w a l l appended tomb. T h i s form i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the tombs of C a r d i n a l Riccardo P e t r o n i (Fig. 36), Gastone d e l l a T o r r e (Fig. 39), Bishop Orso (Fig. 41), and i n i t i a l l y as w i l l be argued below, the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. In these tombs, f i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e r a t h e r than a r c h i t e c t u r e vis emphasised. E l a b o r a t e i c o n o g r a p h i c a l schemes are i n t r o d u c e d and formulated. In these tombs the s c u l p t u r e i s a l l o c a t e d to many d i s t i n c t l e v e l s i n the 36 programme. Furthermore, the tombs are not s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t mon-uments but r a t h e r are appended to the w a l l , r a i s e d from the ground on c o n s o l e s . The two t r a d i t i o n s appear to be fused by Tino d i Camaino i n h i s Naples tombs. As has been suggested, some of Ti n o ' s de-si g n s i n Naples r e f l e c t Roman t r a d i t i o n s and seem t o i n d i c a t e that Tino, perhaps on h i s way to Naples, became aware of the Roman developments. In the N e a p o l i t a n tombs of Mary of Hungary (Fig. 43), Cha r l e s of C a l a b r i a (Fig. 45), and Marie of V a l o i s (Fig. 46), and l a t e r i n the tomb of Robert of Anjou (Fig. 47) by Giovanni and Pacio da F i r e n z e , the union of the two t r a d i t i o n s i s expressed i n the combination of h i g h l y s c u l p t u r a l iconography with r i g o r o u s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e . An a n a l y s i s of two tombs, c l o s e i n date, from the d i s -parate Roman and northern t r a d i t i o n s c l a r i f i e s the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two forms. The tomb of Benedict XI (d. 1304), as c o n s t r u c t e d f o r S. Stefano d e l C a s t e l l a r e c.1320, r e p r e s e n t s the 83 Roman type (Fig. 31). The tomb of C a r d i n a l R i c c a r d o -Petroni (d. 1314), c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1318, r e p r e s e n t s the e l a b o r a t e , m u l t i -l e v e l , w a l l appended tomb type (Fig. 36). The Benedict XI tomb i s c o n s t r u c t e d against the w a l l , w h i l e the P e t r o n i monument i s r a i s e d up on the w a l l . In the Benedict XI tomb the a r c h i t e c t u r a l component of the tomb i s emphasised. T h i s submission of the f i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e to the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the tomb i s a l i e n to the tomb of C a r d i n a l Riccardo P e t r o n i . F i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e abounds i n the l a t t e r monument. C a r y a t i d s are in t r o d u c e d . The d e c o r a t i v e 37 panels of the Benedict XI tomb are r e p l a c e d with r e l i e f scenes. The use of A r n o l f o d i Cambio's c u r t a i n e d e f f i g y chamber seen i n the Benedict XI tomb, i s developed i n t o a t e n t - l i k e canopy 84 h e l d open by four i n s t e a d of two f i g u r e s . The tomb a l s o makes use of a g r e a t e r number of h o r i z o n t a l l e v e l s , each w i t h i t s own s c u l p t u r a l iconography. The gradual d i m i n i s h i n g of the s i z e of these l e v e l s g i v e s a v e r t i c a l accent to the tomb -- that the tomb i s p l a c e d above ground l e v e l and r a i s e d up enhances t h i s emphasis. T h i s aspect of ascension through v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the tomb i s absent from the Benedict XI monument. In t h i s r e s p e c t the Tino d i Camaino tomb may be seen to bear f r u i t i n Nino Pisano's tomb f o r Simone S a l t a r e l l i , S. C a t e r i n a , P i s a (Fig. 49). There the l e v e l s of the tomb and the v e r t i c a l a x i s of the monument c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e the p i l g r i m a g e of S a l t a r e l l i ' s s o u l from e a r t h to heaven. The i n t e r e s t i n the s e q u e n t i a l drama of death evident i n the northern, Tuscan development stems, of course, from the trends seen i n A r n o l f o d i Cambio's tomb f o r C a r d i n a l de Braye (Fig. 28). I t i s an enrichment of the Roman t r a d i t i o n — may we c a l l i t t here a two act drama — i n t o a m u l t i - l e v e l n a r r a t i o n of progress through death i n t o heaven. With the gradual i n c l u s i o n of v i r t u e figures-, f o r which the tomb of Margaret of Brabant was a vanguard, and the a d d i t i o n of scenes of e a r t h l y a c t i v i t y , t h i s programme develops f u r t h e r to i n c l u d e the ' l i f e ' o f the deceased i n the n a r r a t i v e . I t i s l o g i c a l to c o n s i d e r the tomb of Margaret of Brabant as a forerunner of the northern tomb t r a d i t i o n and thus of the 38 elaborate, m u l t i - l e v e l , wall appended type. This i s consistent with the known facts about the tomb and suggests that the inn-ovative iconography of the tomb (as w i l l be discussed below) was a part of an equally innovative s t r u c t u r a l design. Although Giovanni Pisano has been shown to be aware of certain Roman developments, i t i s more reasonable to believe that Tino d i Cam-85 aino's innovations follow those made by his master. It i s apparent, i n i t i a l l y , that the tomb of Margaret of Brabant had r e l a t i v e l y considerable f i g u r a l sculpture; four free-standing virtues, a figure of Margaret of Brabant -- for so the central figure must I think be interpreted — assisted by two figures, and a Madonna and Child. It should be noted that only the Madonna and Child i s a t r a d i t i o n a l element. Even i f other t r a d i t i o n a l forms, such as baldacchino holding angels or a re-c l i n i n g e f f i g y were once a part of the tomb, the emphasis upon f i g u r a l sculpture and i t s innovative quality place the monument closer in s p i r i t to Tino d i Camaino than to the Benedict XI tomb. The d i s p o s i t i o n of the sculpture within the programme of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant must also have had a f f i n i t y with the m u l t i - l e v e l aspect of the tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Petroni. The o r i g i n a l placement of the Madonna and Child at the apex of the tomb, in a l l p o s s i b l i t y in a Gothic tabernacle, would seem 86 most probable and quite t r a d i t i o n a l . Below the Madonna and Child, being escorted upwards towards them, must have been the figure of Margaret of Brabant. The three-quarter figure i s cut off by a horizontal plane from her l e f t thigh to the upper right 39 hip. This strongly indicates that the slanted figure rested on a f l a t surface beneath i t . The position of the assistant to the right of the main group i s firmly fixed by his arm and a marble bridge to the central figure. The appearance of t h i s bridge and the unfinished appearance of the feet of the assistant may indicate that these elements were not o r i g i n a l l y intended to be v i s i b l e from the ground. In addition, the base of t h i s assistant i s terminated below the base of the central figure, placing a l i m i t to the size of the structure upon which Margaret of Brab- ' ant's figure rested. The position of the assistant to the right is not as r i g i d l y prescribed. The orientation of t h i s main group strongly suggests that the central figure i s being l i f t e d from a container beneath her. That t h i s container may have been her sarcophagus i s a reasonable conclusion. It i s possible, however, that t h i s group was located above a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y on the sarco-phagus of Margaret of Brabant, in an intermediate l e v e l between the e f f i g y in death, and heaven, represented by the Madonna and Child. The presence of a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y in the o r i g i n a l tomb programme i s highly problematic. Because of the pervasive trad-i t i o n for the inclusion of such an element in northern European and I t a l i a n tomb programmes, the absence of a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y 87 would be extremely unusual. The presence of a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y would introduce another l e v e l into the tomb programme which has been seen to be a concern apparent in the tomb of Cardinal Petroni. The u t i l i s a t i o n of freestanding virtue figures must also have influenced Tino d i Camaino's tomb for Cardinal Petroni. 40 It i s l i k e l y t h a t the four v i r t u e f i g u r e s , J u s t i c e , Temperance, Prudence, and F o r t i t u d e , the l a t t e r two with a t t r i b u t e s resem-b l i n g the same f i g u r e s i n the S. Maria Maddalena group, acted as c a r y a t i d - l i k e f i g u r e s beneath the sarcophagus of Margaret of Brab-88 aht. Because there i s no evidence that the extant J u s t i c e f i g u r e ever supported another s t r u c t u r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the f i g u r e s stood i n f r o n t of four p i e r s which a c t u a l l y supported the sarcophagus. T h i s arrangement i s seen i n Giovanni d i B a l d -u c c i o ' s s h r i n e f o r S a i n t P eter Marytr (Fig. 56). A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant based upon these ideas i s given here (Fig. 58). It should be noted that an a l t e r n a t e arrangement has been suggested. A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n by Pope-Hennessy p l a c e s the v i r t u e f i g u r e s as guardians around the recumbent e f f i g y of Margaret of 89 Brabant, with the r i s i n g f i g u r e i n a l u n e t t e above. In t h i s c onnection i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to c o n s i d e r the tomb of Juan de Aragon (Fig. 50) i n which v a r i o u s s a i n t s are arr a y e d behind the e f f i g y of the deceased. The use of the f i g u r e s as qu a s i - s u p p o r t s beneath the sarcophagus i s much more c o n s i s t e n t with Giovanni Pisano's use of such f i g u r e s i n h i s p u l p i t s , however, and a l s o conforms to the meaning of the tomb programme as a whole as i s d i s c u s s e d below. 41 CHAPTER I I I INTERPRETING THE TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS Major problems of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are posed by the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e f f i g y of the deceased, l i f t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y upwards by two attendants, i s un-precedented i n I t a l i a n tomb s c u l p t u r e . While sources of t h i s iconography have been suggested, the meaning of t h i s main group of the tomb remains p a r t i a l l y obscure. The boldness and "para-90 c h r o n i s t i c " q u a l i t i e s of the group have been i n d i c a t e d but the e s s e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the programme remains u n c l e a r . The h i s t o r y of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant i s v a r i e d . The f i r s t fragments to a v a i l themselves f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n were the three f i g u r e s of the enigmatic main group — the r i s i n g .figure and i t s two a s s i s t a n t s . The e a r l y r e p o r t s by A l i z e r i and V a r n i (Appendix, e n t r i e s 14 and 16), con-c e r n i n g the r e d i s c o v e r y of these p i e c e s and t h e i r documentation deal b r i e f l y and d e s c r i p t i v e l y with the fragments. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the group i s d e s c r i b e d as i l l u s t r a t i n g Margaret of Brabant i n the act of being l i f t e d from her tomb. Only the appearance of M i l a n e s i ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that conceived of Margaret of Brabant as being lowered i n t o her tomb by monk-like f i g u r e s changed t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s (Appendix, entry 17). T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was repeated by S c o t t , i n 1886. The two f i g u r e s of the main group were i n t e r p r e t e d as monks or deacons, u n t i l 42 the p u b l i c a t i o n , i n 1906, of V e n t u r i ' s Storia dell'arte italiana (Appendix, entry 19), i n which these f i g u r e s are d e s c r i b e d as angels. Santo V a r n i ' s i n i t i a l impression that these two f i g u r e s were angels had been erased, f o r him, w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the f i g u r e s had no wings (nor indeed had they a p p a r e n t l y ever possessed such appendages, be they marble or bronze). V a r n i a l s o observed that one of the f i g u r e s bore a cowl on h i s back. It was V e n t u r i who appears, f i r s t , to have accepted the two a s s i s t a n t s as angels without q u e s t i o n . V e n t u r i may be a c c r e d i t e d with the f i r s t i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r a i s a l of the tomb, w r i t i n g , "...it oorpo, ma riohiamoto a vita sorgere, assistito e soretto dagli angioli alia bea-tudine e a l l gloria." (Appendix, entry 19) (The body, r e c a l l e d to l i f e , r i s e s , a s s i s -ted and supported by the angels to b e a t i t u d e and g l o r y . ) Suggesting that Margaret of Brabant's body i s being r e s u r r e c t e d — r e c a l l e d -- to be taken to heaven. Har a l d K e l l e r , i n h i s book Giovanni Pisano, 1942, a l s o favours the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h at the main group of the Margaret of Brabant tomb i s an attempt 1 to demonstrate the r e s u r r e c t i o n of the queen. K e l l e r a l s o r e c o g n i s e s the unique nature of Giovanni Pisano's conception. He w r i t e s , "Giovanni allein hat es gewagt, die Tote als Auferstehende darzustellen. Als der Sohall der Posaunen des Geriahstags an ihr Ohr dringt, erhebt, sieh die Herrsoherin vom Totenbett, 43 wo.sie im Leichengewand gelegen hatte, mit kreuzformig gebundenen breiten B'dndern um-wickelt. Zwei Engel sind besoh'dftigt, ihr aufzuhelfen, aber die K'dnigin sieht uber die himmlischen Boten hinweg, ihr ahnungsvoiler Bliak sucht den Weltenriohter. " (Appendix, entry 27) (Giovanni alone has attempted to d e p i c t the dead as a r e s u r r e c t e d being. When the sound of the trumpets reaches her ear on the day of judgment, even the s o v e r e i g n a r i s e s from her deathbed, where she l a y i n her tomb garments, with wide ribbons t i e d around her i n the shape of a c r o s s . Two angels are busy to help her a r i s e , but the queen looks beyond the heavenly messengers, her looki of a n t i c i p a t i o n searches f o r the judge of the world.) K e l l e r ' s c o n j e c t u r e i s f o o t n o t e d with a r e f e r e n c e to a f r e s c o above the tomb of a gentleman of the B a r d i f a m i l y (c. 1340), i n the B a r d i d i V e r n i o Chapel, S. Croce, F l o r e n c e (Fig. 59). Taken as a whole t h i s tomb prese n t s a c l e a r statement of a b e l i e f i n the f u t u r e r e s u r r e c t i o n of the body. The dead C h r i s t t h a t appears on the sarcophagus i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the l i v i n g P a n t o c r a t o r i n the f r e s c o i s a C h r i s t i a n statement of such a credo — j u s t as C h r i s t was r e s u r r e c t e d , so s h a l l we a l l . The f r e s c o i l l u s t r a t e s the L a s t Judgment and i s c l e a r l y d i v i d e d i n t o two zones — one on e i t h e r s i d e of C h r i s t . That t h i s g e n t l e -man of the B a r d i f a m i l y had e x p e c t a t i o n s of b e a t i t u d e i s evinced by h i s placement on the r i g h t hand s i d e of C h r i s t . K e l l e r ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the theme of the Margaret of Brabant tomb with that of the gentleman of the B a r d i f a m i l y suggests that Margaret of Brabant i s r i s i n g from her tomb, her body and s o u l r e - u n i t e d on the L a s t Day, to face her f i n a l judgment. 44 In 1954, S'Jacob found the meaning of the tomb to be unexpected. She w r i t e s t h a t , " c o n t r a r y to the p r e v a i l i n g n o t i o n s about the r e s u r r e c t i o n of the dead, the shrouded body of Margaretha of Luxembourg (Brabant) r i s e s from her bed of s t a t e , a s s i s t e d by two ang e l s . " (Appendix, entry 29) S'Jacob accepts K e l l e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the theme of the Margaret of Brabant tomb but i n t e r j e c t s that Margaret of Brabant must be seen to be r i s i n g from her bed of s t a t e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n takes i n t o account the form of contemporary tomb i n which an e f f i g y of the deceased i s seen to be l y i n g on such a bed. S'Jacob i s the f i r s t to r e l a t e the f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant to the u s u a l l y r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y f i g u r e s of the day --the i m p l i c a t i o n being that t h i s e f f i g y has been a c t i v a t e d — to use a term l a t e r employed by Panofsky -- i n i t s r e s u r r e c t i o n . Panofsky, i n l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d i n 1956, f o l l o w e d K e l l e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb. "And i n one memorable case — so b o l d l y para-c h r o n i s t i c i t foreshadows the Baroque r a t h e r than the High Renaissance — the body of the deceased i t s e l f (Margaret of Brabant) i s a s s i s t -ed to ' r i s e from the dead' as i f i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the Las t Judgment." (Appendix, entry 40) The major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the only thorough a n a l y s i s of the tomb has been p r o v i d e d by Einem, i n 1961 (Appendix, entry 35). Q u e s t i o n i n g the v e r a c i t y of K e l l e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Einem a s s o c i a t e s the conception of the tomb with monuments i n which the s o u l of the deceased i s borne to heaven. Notable among Einem's examples are the tomb s l a b of P r e s b y t e r Bruno (d. 1194), 45 C a t h e d r a l , Hildesheim (Fig. 60), and the tombstone of Archbishop E n g e l b e r t I I , C a t h e d r a l , Bonn, dated to the l a s t q u a r t e r of the f o u r t e e n t h century. That these d e p i c t the s o u l of the deceased, r a t h e r than h i s r e s u r r e c t e d body, being a s s i s t e d upwards by two angels i s a t t e s t e d by the double r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the deceased. The body, i n e f f i g y , i s shown at the same time as the s o u l rep-resented by a s m a l l , naked form. Einem a l s o c i t e s c e r t a i n French and Swiss examples of r e l i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the R e s u r r e c t i o n of the V i r g i n i n which the V i r g i n i s seen to be r i s i n g from her 91 tomb with a n g e l i c a s s i s t a n c e . For Einem, t h i s theme i s a p p l i c -able to the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. He i n t e r p r e t s the r a i s i n g of Margaret of Brabant to heaven as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , in imitatio, of the Assumption of the V i r g i n . A n e a r l y contemp-o r a r y d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s assumption i s p r o v i d e d by the Legenda Aurea, of Jacobus de Voragine. Of i n t e r e s t here are the words of C h r i s t when He comes to take the s o u l of the V i r g i n Mar.y, "Come my chosen and I s h a l l set thee i n my seat, f o r I have coveted the beauty of thee."92 Three days l a t e r , the Lord r e t u r n s to the body of the V i r g i n , "And anon the s o u l came again to the body of Mary, and i s s u e d g l o r i o u s l y out of the tomb, and thus was r e c e i v e d i n the heavenly chamber, and a great company of angels w i t h her.93 Thus, the body and the s o u l of the V i r g i n were assumed to C h r i s t ' s 94 s i d e i n heaven, upon His throne. An analogous s i t u a t i o n i s found, by Einem, i n Dante's d e s c r i p t i o n of the throne a w a i t i n g Henry VII i n heaven. 46 "In that great c h a i r whereon you f i x your eyes, Moved by the crown a l r e a d y p l a c e d above i t , Ere yet y o u r s e l f w i l l share t h i s m y s t i c a l f e a s t S h a l l s i t the s o u l -- on e a r t h i m p e r i a l --Of l o f t y Henry, who s h a l l come to guide An I t a l y as yet u n f i t f o r him." (Paradise, XXX:133-138) In Einem's view, Henry V I I , in imitatio Christi, may be seen to await the assumption of Margaret of Brabant, in imitatio . . 95 Vzrgzms. A f t e r the d i s c o v e r y of the Madonna and J u s t i c e f i g u r e s , a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb was p r o v i d e d by S e i d e l , i n 1968, on the o c c a s i o n of h i s p u b l i c a t i o n of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the head of Temperance (Appendix, entry 42). Concerning him-s e l f with the meaning of the v i r t u e f i g u r e s , S e i d e l found the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i n g e r to the l i p s by the Temperance f i g u r e to be an a t t r i b u t e of Mansuetudo. Mansuetudo being that v i r t u e which b r i d l e ' s men's tongues and 96 prevents them from o f f e n d i n g with t h e i r speech. S e i d e l takes as h i s r e f e r e n c e James, 3:13, "Let him show out of a good c o n v e r s a t i o n h i s works with meekness of wisdom." Of the p o s i t i o n of the v i r t u e s i n the tomb programme as a whole, S e i d e l concludes, "...die Tugenden gleiahsam di irdisahen Stufen bilden, die zur Verkl'drung der Margarethe empor-fuhren. Die Offenbarung erfullt sie 'Iustitia' mit Schreoken; die 'Temperantia ' ist, obgleioh von einer sanften S t i l l e umgeben, nooh im Naeh-denken befangen. Erst die auferstehende Konigin erfahrt die Vision als eine beseligende und be-freiende Kraft."97 42 (The v i r t u e s form, as i t were, the steps on e a r t h which l e a d up to the t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n of Margaret. The r e v e l a t i o n i s f u l f i l l e d by J u s t i c e with f r i g h t ; Temperance i s deep i n thought. I t i s o n l y when the queen r i s e s from the dead that she experiences the v i s i o n as a b l i s s f u l and l i b e r a t i n g f o r c e . ) Thus, developing upon Einem's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb, S e i d e l g i v e s the v i r t u e f i g u r e s a t r a s c e n d e n t a l f u n c t i o n i n the monu-ment's programme -- as the " s t e p s " from which Margaret i s assumed to heaven. Gian Lorenzo M e l l i n i , i n 1970, i n t e r p r e t e d the main group of the tomb with r e f e r e n c e to a medieval i c o n o g r a p h i c a l t r a d -i t o n of long s t a n d i n g . He w r i t e s of the monument; "L 'origine del raooonto e tuttavia medioevale, deriva infatti dalt ''ieonografia. ... delta dis-puta tra t'angeto e it diavolo per f'anima del defunto, da eui alia tontana vengono le due enigmatiohe figurine fuori soata e pereio non realistiche3 ma semptici geni, tra i quali la defunta, non pitt animula. ma aonereta e levi-tante salma oorporea, si libra eon lento ritmo eliooidale, scartando 1'uno e volgendosi all' attro, che si piega a guardarla net volto, come per riconscerea, e ad esso sorride." (Appendix, entry 45) (The o r i g i n of the s t o r y i s , however, medieval, i t d e r i v e s from the iconography of the d i s p u t e between the angel and the d e v i l f o r the s o u l of the deceased, f o r which from a f a r come the two, out of s c a l e , enigmatic f i g u r e s , not r e a l but simple g e n i i , between which the deceased, no longer a l i t t l e s o u l , but a r e a l and r i s i n g c o r p o r e a l body, l i b e r a t e s h e r s e l f with slow he-l e l i c a l rhythm, r e j e c t i n g one and t u r n i n g h e r s e l f to the other, t h a t bends to look her i n the face as i n r e c o g n i t i o n , and to smile at him.) We w i l l have o c c a s i o n to r e t u r n to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 48 It i s evident from the preceding account that i n t e r p r e t -ations of the tomb have changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y since the time of the discovery of the f i r s t fragments to the present. Yet, one aspect of the commentaries has remained constant; a l l i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s of the tomb, with the exception of P o r t i g l i o t t i ' s (see Appendix, entry 21), accept the central figure of the main group as a representation of Margaret of Brabant at some time after the moment of her death. It has been the exact i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of that moment that has caused the controversy. That the figure of Margaret of Brabant, for so the figure must be i d e n t i f i e d , i s r i s i n g upwards seems evident -- Milanesi's interpretation i s l a i d to rest by the face of the figure, whose expression belies that she i s being entombed. Taking up a suggestion made by Venturi, Keller developed the f i r s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the 'moment' depicted in the monument. His thesis, that Margaret of Brabant i s being resurrected at the Last Judgment, would seem quite a t t r a c t i v e . The presence of a Madonna a'nd Child 98 would be unsuited to such a programme. One would expect in t h i s case that a representation of Christ Pantocrator — as i n the Bardi tomb, but now l o s t -- would have been an in t e g r a l part of the tomb. S'Jacob, in her r e l a t i o n of the figure of Margaret of Brabant to the r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y , introduces a concept that i s highly poetic. Giovanni Pisano may be seen to have breathed l i f e into the formerly s t a t i c e f f i g y form. The importance of Einem's interpretive analysis of the main group cannot be underestimated. However, two points may be 49 c r i t i c i s e d . Einem's a s s o c i a t i o n of the image of Margaret of Brabant r i s i n g to heaven and the poetry of Dante i s h i g h l y quest-i o n a b l e . Dante cannot have w r i t t e n the l i n e s d e s c r i b i n g Henry VII's l o f t y seat p r i o r to Henry's death on August 24, 1313. Giovanni Pisano had, on August 25, 1313, r e c e i v e d the p a r t i a l payment f o r h i s work on the tomb, at which time i t i s probable that the tomb was complete. I t i s unreasonable, t h e r e f o r e , to expect Giovanni Pisano to have a n t i c i p a t e d i n h i s work both the death of the emperor and Dante's subsequent v e r s e s . And while, as has been seen, the analogy drawn between the f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant and her a s s i s t a n t s and the Assumption of the V i r g i n i s a c c e p t a b l e v i s u a l l y , the p a r a l l e l s are r a t h e r dubious from a t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. T h i s l a t t e r c r i t i c i s m serves to i n d i c a t e a lacuna i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s so f a r . As yet, the t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the image of Margaret of Brabant have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . These aspects of the tomb would seem to be of prime importance to a f u l l understanding of the monument. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of contemporary a t t i t u d e s towards death, the s o u l , and the a f t e r -l i f e , i n any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb has been n e g l e c t e d . A n e g l e c t t h a t i g n o r es r i c h sources of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t u l t i -mately g i v e a new meaning to t h i s impressive and unique monument. It would seem, t h e r e f o r e , imperative to i n v e s t i g a t e the theo-l o g i c a l and p h i l o s p h i c a l environment i n which the monument was designed i f an informed i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant i s to be formulated. 50 CHAPTER IV INTERPRETING THE TOMB OF MARGARET OF BRABANT: A NEW PERSPECTIVE The t h i r t e e n t h century, the time of Giovanni Pisano's b i r t h , was a p e r i o d of great t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l 99 c o n t r o v e r s y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o Europe of Averroes' commentaries upon A r i s t o t l e , i n the 1230's acted as a c a t a l y s t i n much of the r e f o r m u l a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n thought o c c u r r i n g during these years. The a t t i t u d e s of such C h r i s t i a n men as Sain t Bonaventure, S a i n t Thomas Aquinas, and S i g e r of Brabant towards the metaphysics and moral and n a t u r a l p h ilosophy of the pagan A r i s t o t l e and h i s commentators r e f l e c t the changes of the age. As the theology of Augustine met the ph i l o s o p h y . o f A r i s t o t l e not l e a s t i n the thoughts of those who i n t e r p r e t e d the ways of God to man was the nature and d i s p o s i t i o n of the human s o u l . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the q u a l i t i e s of the human so u l was touched by the d r i v e f o r c l a r i t y i n s t i l l e d by the s c h o l a s t i c i s m of the age. By the c l o s e of the t h i r t e e n t h and the beginning of the f o u r t e e n t h century, the nature of the human so u l and i t s post-mortem e x i s t e n c e had r e c e i v e d c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y by the th e o l o g i a n s and p h i l o s o p h e r s a l i k e . I t i s to these s t u d i e s and the c r i t i c a l years of t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n , between 1260 and 1280, that we tu r n i n order to b e t t e r understand the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 51 During the l a t t e r h a l f of the t h i r t e e n t h century, much of the systematic c o d i f i c a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n concepts of the human s o u l had been w r i t t e n i n defense of i t s very e x i s t e n c e . C r i t i c a l i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n had been the develpment, i n the mid 1260's, i n P a r i s , of a sch o o l of R a d i c a l or Heterodox A r i s t o -t e l i a n s , known a l s o as L a t i n A v e r r o i s t s . These s c h o l a r s , l e d by S i g e r of Brabant, a f f i r m e d Averroes' d o c t r i n e of mono-psychism which denied the i m m o r t a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l human s o u l . In Averroes' philosophy, the individual human possesses a p a s s i v e i n t e l l e c t — the imag i n a t i o n . 1<">"1" T h i s being e n t i r e l y c o r p o r e a l , i t p e r i s h e s in avticulo mortis. The p a s s i v e i n t e l l e c t i s a c t i v a t e d by the agent i n t e l l e c t which i s e t e r n a l and s i n g -u l a r f o r a l l mankind. Above the agent i n t e l l e c t i s ranged a h i e r a r c h y of i n t e l l i g e n c e s which d e r i v e from the Prime Mover. Thus, i n d i v i d u a l and pe r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n was denied. By ext e n s i o n , i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the rewards of the a f t e r - l i f e were a l s o r e j e c t e d . S i g e r of Brabant's acceptance of t h i s t h e s i s was, of course, i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with many of the major t e n e t s of C h r i s t i a n f a i t h and e l i c i t e d s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a t t a c k s upon S i g e r of Brabant's p o s i t i o n began, 102 i n 1267, with Bonaventure' s Collationes de decern praeceptis. In t h i s , the Seraphic Doctor c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to three e r r o r s made by Averroes: ( 1 ), that the world i s e t e r n a l ; (2), that there i s only one i n t e l l e c t f o r a l l mankind; and (3), that i t i s i m possible f o r a mortal being to a t t a i n i m m o r t a l i t y . Bon-aventure found the roo t of these problems i n Averroes' ' m i s i n t e r -52 p r e t a t i o n ' of A r i s t o t l e ' s o r i g i n a l p h i losophy. Again, i n 1268, i n h i s l e c t u r e s De donis Spiritus Sancti, Bonaventure c r i t i c i s e d 103 the A v e r r o i s t i c views. On December 10, 1270, Stephen Tempier, 104 Bishop of P a r i s , made h i s condemnation of these same e r r o r s . T h i r t e e n p o i n t s were proclaimed to be erroneous and "excommun-i c a t e d along with a l l who s h a l l have taught or a s s e r t e d them 105 knowingly." Three of these point's are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t : "the f i r s t a r t i c l e i s , that the i n t e l l e c t of a l l men i s numer-i c a l l y one and the same;" the seventh, "that the s o u l , which i s the form of man s p e c i f i c a l l y as man, d i s i n t e g r a t e s with the c o r r u p t i o n of the body;" the e i g h t , "that the s o u l i n i t s s t a t e 106 of s e p a r a t i o n a f t e r death does not s u f f e r from c o r p o r e a l f i r e . " The c o n t r a d i c t i o n of t h i s l a s t e r r o r was the form i n which the church, on a more popular l e v e l , responded. The post-mortem s t a t e of the s p i r i t was more r i g o r o u s l y d e f i n e d . In the Pro-f e s s i o n of F a i t h made by the Greek, Michael P a l e o l o g u s , to the Second C o u n c i l of Lyons, i n 1274, the p o s i t i o n of the church i n t h i s matter i s made c l e a r . "The s o u l s of those who a f t e r having r e c e i v e d holy baptism have i n c u r r e d no s t a i n of s i n , e i t h e r w h ile remaining i n t h e i r bodies or being d i v e s t e d of them, are r e c e i v e d immediately i n t o heaven. The s o u l s of those who d i e i n mortal s i n or with o r i g i n a l s i n only, however, immediately descend to h e l l , , yet to be punished with d i f f e r e n t punishments."107 In 1270, Thomas Aquinas a l s o entered the f r a y with h i s De unitate -tntellectus contra Averroistas. S i g e r of Brabant made r e p l y to t h i s and the other condemnations i n h i s De anima 53 i n t e l l e c t i v a , of 1272 or 1273. In 1277, Stephen Tempier was again prompted to a c t i o n . Two hundred and nineteen e r r o r s were then condemned. Steenberghen has c a l l e d t h i s condemnation, 109 "the most important of the middle ages." I t sought to e s t a b l i s h the supremacy of theology over philosophy and, i n matters of controversy, the ascendancy of f a i t h over reason. Even Dante l a t e r had cause to comment on the A v e r r o i s t i c p hilosophy. In h e l l , "On t h i s s i d e E p i c u r u s and h i s t r a i n Have sepulchre, they who a f f i r m e d the s o u l Dies with the f l e s h . " (Inferno, X:13-15.) On a more popular l e v e l , u t i l i s i n g o l d e r b e l i e f s , l a y manuals c o n t a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n were produced. These emphasised the nature and l o c a t i o n , a f t e r death, of the s o u l and the punishments i t c o u l d expect to r e c e i v e . 1 1 ^ G r a d u a l l y , developing upon t r a d i t i o n a l conceptions, the d o c t r i n e of immediate judgment was formulated.1"'""'" At death, a psyohomachia, or b a t t l e f o r the s o u l , was thought to take p l a c e . The f o r c e s of good being p i t t e d a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of e v i l . The v i c t o r i n t h i s b a t t l e being granted p o s s e s s i o n of the deceased's s o u l . A n g e l i c a s s i s t a n t s were c o n s i d e r e d to p l a y a key r o l e i n the psyohomachia. An e a r l y r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r appearance i s found i n the apocryphal gospel Joseph the Carpenter, of the l a t e f o u r t h century. In t h i s t e x t , Joseph i s dying and h i s s o u l i s being sought by three demons, the D e v i l , Death, and the E g y p t i a n god Amenti. C h r i s t appears at Joseph's death-bed and vanquishes the e v i l s p i r i t s . 54 Four angels then come to e s c o r t the s o u l of Joseph to Abraham's 112 Bosom. T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the psychomachia evolved i n t o the d o c t r i n e of immediate judgment which upholds that at death one's e t e r n a l f a t e i s decided. The performance of the church's l a s t r i t e s f o r the dead being of extreme 113 importance i n t h i s matter. T h i s d o c t r i n e was given r e c o g -n i t i o n by Vincent of Beauvais and S a i n t Thomas Aquinas and a f f i r m e d as dogma by Benedict XII i n the e d i c t Benediotus Deus, 114 of January 29, 1336. Returning again to Dante, we see the same concepts expressed. "When L a c h e s i s has no more thread the s o u l Is f r e e d of f l e s h and c a r r i e s o f f with i t In posse both the human and the d i v i n e ; , A l l of the other f a c u l t i e s are muted, But memory, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and w i l l Are more a l e r t i n act than e'er be f o r e . Without delay and of i t s own accord I t f a l l s to e i t h e r bank, most wondrously, And there i t f i r s t l e a r n s of i t s d e s t i n e d course. And soon as space encompasses i t th e r e Around i t the for m - g i v i n g v i r t u e r a d i a t e s , With shape and s i z e as i n the l i v i n g members..." (Purgatory, XXV:78-89.) Not a l l the e x e g e t i c m a t e r i a l on the nature of the human sou l may be co n s i d e r e d to be the r e s u l t of S i g e r of Brabant's a c t i v i t y . Much of the work was prompted by a c o n s c i e n t i o u s attempt to r a t i o n a l i s e the newly encountered pagan p h i l o s o p h i e s with an a l r e a d y long e s t a b l i s h e d C h r i s t i a n theology. In t h e i r d e s i r e to understand the nature of man and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with God the t h e o l o g i a n s of the t h i r t e e n t h century i n v e s t i g a t e d the mediator of that i n t e r a c t i o n , the V i r g i n Mary. 55 S a i n t Bonaventure w r i t e s of the V i r g i n , "...Mary i s not only the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of heaven e s s e n t i a l to man's s a l v a t i o n . The Lord never r e c e i v e s anyone except through her. " H 5 A l b e r t u s Magnus, i n h i s Tractatus de natura boni , of 1240, a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s the V i r g i n Mary as a mediator, "...because she gave b i r t h to the Redeemer and because she prays f o r us i n heaven,"116 presumably nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. In h i s commentary on Luke, w r i t t e n between 1260 and 1274, A l b e r t u s Magnus a l s o s t a t e s t h a t , "...the f u l n e s s of the Godhead dwelt i n her b o d i l y only because Jesus C h r i s t dwelt i n her, and through him alone she becomes f o r us a source and aqueduct of grace, so that through her i t can overflow to men."117 R e c a l l i n g the words of S a i n t P a u l , "The grace of God i s e t e r n a l l i f e , " (Romans, 6:23) we see the important p o s i t i o n given to the V i r g i n Mary. As the V i r g i n Mary was conceived as the mediator between God and the human s o u l , so were the v i r t u e s c o n s i d e r e d to be the mediators between the s o u l and the body. In La Lumiere as Lais, a l a y t e x t of c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y i n the l a t e t h i r t e e n t h century, the union of the s o u l and body i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g terms, "Les philosophes disent que I'ame est unie au corps par des 'vertus' qui servent entre elle et lui d'intermediares et de liens."118 56 ( P h i l o s o p h e r s say that the s o u l i s u n i t e d with the body by the ' v i r t u e s ' which serve between them as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s and as l i n k s . ) T h i s t e x t w r i t t e n i n c.1267, m i r r o r s the e x t e n s i v e e x e g e t i c s of Thomas Aquinas on the s u b j e c t . B e l i e v i n g that " v i r t u e i s a 119 power col the s o u l , " Aquinas sought to demonstrate that the moral v i r t u e s ( J u s t i c e , Temperance, F o r t i t u d e , and Prudence) remain 120 a f t e r death i n a p e r f e c t e d form as powers of the separated s o u l . B e l i e v i n g t h a t , "the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e of good works i s b u i l t 121 on the four v i r t u e s , " Aquinas sought to d e f i n e t h e i r i n d i v i d -u a l r o l e s . "Thus, prudence i s the v i r t u e which commands; j u s t i c e the v i r t u e which renders what i s due i n a c t i o n s between equals; temperance the v i r t u e which r e s t r a i n s d e s i r e s f o r the p l e a s u r e s of touch; and courage the v i r t u e which strengthens i n the face of death."122 In the nascent f i g u r a l tomb t r a d i t i o n t h a t has been d i s c u s s e d , an i n t e r e s t i n making the drama of death v i s u a l l y e x p l i c i t i s c l e a r l y i n evidence. The c l a r i t y with which t h i s drama i s expressed m i r r o r s the c o n c i s e and e x p l i c i t t h e o l o g i c a l e x e g e t i c s on the s u b j e c t . For j u s t as the appearance and d i s -p o s i t i o n of the human s o u l and i t s i m m o r t a l i t y a f t e r c o r p o r e a l death became a s u b j e c t of great concern to t h e o l o g i a n s , the same i n t e r e s t s inform the programmes of I t a l i a n tombs. At the very time that S i g e r of Brabant questioned the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the of the human s o u l , a new emphasis i s p l a c e d on r e c o r d i n g the image of the deceased and h i s separated, yet i n d i v i d u a l i s e d s o u l . I t becomes r e l e v a n t to ask, t h e r e f o r e , i f the d e p i c t i o n 57 of Margaret of Brabant r i s i n g upwards may not be e x p l a i n e d i n the l i g h t of these i d e a s . In 1311-1312, at the time when the tomb of Margaret of Brabant was being designed, the C o u n c i l of Vienne a f f i r m e d Thomas Aquinas' conception of the s o u l as the forma corporis — the 123 e s s e n t i a l , i n f o r m i n g power of the body. At the same time, the shades that populate Dante's Commedia were being conceived 124 as s i m u l a c r a of the human body. The a f t e r - l i f e had been s t u d i e d and the human s o u l thoroughly analysed. May we not conlude t h a t , j u s t as the s o u l became d e f i n e d t h e o l o g i c a l l y , s c u l p t u r e c o u l d represent i t j u s t as c o n c r e t e l y ? May we not i n t e r p r e t the f i g u r e being a s s i s t e d to r i s e by the two a t t e n d -ants as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o u l of Margaret of Brabant being e s c o r t e d to heaven immediately a f t e r death? We may thus e x p l a i n a l l the extant elements of the tomb with r e f e r e n c e to the theology of the time. Noting again the words of S a i n t Paul, "The grace of God i s e t e r n a l l i f e . " (Romans, 6:23) we see the important p o s i t i o n t h at the Madonna and C h i l d would have played i n the o r g i n a l tomb programme. Margaret of Brabant may be thought to be a r i s i n g by the grace of the Lord, mediated by the Madonna. The r a d i a n t e x p r e s s i o n on the face of Margaret of Brabant r e c a l l s the words of S a i n t Thomas Aquinas, 125 "...grace i s a k i n d of l i g h t of the s o u l . " 58 In the mosaic above the tomb of C a r d i n a l Guglielmo F i e s c h i (Fig. 21) and i n the tomb of C a r d i n a l Guillaume de Braye (Fig. 27) the s o u l of the deceased i s shown i n s u p p l i c a t i o n . K n e e l i n g , and with the patronage of h i s s a i n t , he prays f o r mercy. Margaret of Brabant, on the other hand, i s shown r e c e p t i v e of d i v i n e 126 grace. Her face shines, her head i s anointed with o i l . The drama i s e x p l i c i t and p o s i t i v e l y a f f i r m s the acceptance of Margaret of Brabant's s o u l i n t o heaven. The four v i r t u e f i g u r e s of the tomb may a l s o be seen to have an important r o l e i n the a c t i v a t i o n of Margaret of Brabant's s o u l . S a i n t Augustine w r i t e s , "God i s the very l i f e of the s o u l . Now i t i s p r e c i s e l y by bestowing v i r t u e s on the s o u l that God bestows l i f e upon i t , f o r even the s o u l i s n e i t h e r wise, nor j u s t , nor pious, i t i s s t i l l a s o u l when s t r i p p e d of these v i r t u e s ; but i t i s , so to say, a s o u l that i s dead, a s o u l d e p r i v e d of l i f e . I t i s capable of g i v i n g l i f e to the body, but i t a l s o needs to be given l i f e . God v i v i f i e s i t by g r a n t i n g i t wisdom, p i e t y , j u s t i c e , c h a r i t y and thereby,, a l l the other v i r t u e s . " 1 2 7 In a d d i t i o n , the presence of the v i r t u e f i g u r e s i s the r e s u l t of an a n c i e n t b e l i e f that the body and s o u l of the deceased has to be p r o t e c t e d . Angels, e v a n g e l i s t s , and l i o n s a l s o serve the same apotvopeic f u n c t i o n . Turning away e v i l , 128 they p r o t e c t the s o u l and body of the deceased. An image of the v i r t u e s as m i l i t a n t guardians of the defunct may be t r a c e d to the Psyohomachia of P r u d e n t i u s . A l s o , i n the t w e l f t h century at l e a s t , a d i d a c t i c purpose was given to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the v i r t u e s upon tombs. Katzenellenbogen w r i t e s , 59 T w e l f t h century sermons maintain the j u s t i f i a b i l -i t y and n e c e s s i t y of such ornamentation, 'If the r e l i c s of the s a i n t s were to remain hidden and d i d not shine f o r t h with the symbols of the v i r t u e s , ' says T h i o f r i d u s of Echternach (d. 1110), 'what c o u l d s t i r up a l o n g i n g f o r heaven i n the hard and stony heart of man? What would be capable of f r e e i n g i t from v i c e and r e s t o r i n g i t to v i r t u e ? ' " 1 2 S The e s c o r t s of Margaret of Brabant are e x p l a i n e d by the apocryphal gospel, Joseph the Cavpentev , which has been d i s c u s s e d . These f i g u r e s are, t h e r e f o r e , the guardians sent to guide the so u l of Margaret of Brabant a f t e r her death. A l l the extant elements of the Margaret of Brabant tomb may be seen to c o n s p i r e i n the c r e a t i o n of a u n i f i e d and meaning-f u l programme f o r the monument as a whole. G i v i n g substance to the t h e o l o g i c a l concerns of the p e r i o d , Margaret of Brabant's s o u l i s seen to be drawn upwards. With the a s s i s t a n c e of the attendant f i g u r e s she r i s e s up towards the Madonna above her, the i l l u m i n a t i o n of grace apparent i n her fa c e . The Madonna i s the source and mediator of the grace which draws Margaret of Brabant to heaven. The v i r t u e s a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s scene are the powers which a c t i v a t e the s o u l of Margaret of Brabant and serve a t r a s c e n d e n t a l f u n c t i o n i n the l i f t i n g of her s o u l . The v i r t u e s may a l s o be seen to serve a p r o t e c t i v e and a d i d a c t i c f u n c t i o n , as guardians of the s o u l and body of Margaret of Brabant and examples of the v i r t u e s which make her ascension p o s s i b l e , 60 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o u l of the deceased being e s c o r t e d to heaven immediately a f t e r death has along h i s t o r y i n both manuscript and i n r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e that goes back to a n t i q u i t y . The imago olipeata of a Roman sarcophagus such as 130 that of the Seasons Sarcophagus, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, 131 and that which Panofsky terms a "medievalized imago c l i p e a t a , " of the sarcophagus of Dona Sancha (c. 1100) both d e p i c t the ascension of the human s o u l a f t e r death. Other d e p i c t i o n s of the same event are noted i n the Apotheosis of an Emperor from an 132 i v o r y c o n s u l a r d i p t y c h i n the B r i t i s h Museum, and the tomb s l a b of S a i n t R e i n h e l d i s ( c . 1130), Riesenbech (Fig. 61). In a manuscript, now i n the M u n i c i p a l L i b r a r y , Boulogne (Fig. 62), the s o u l of Abbot Lambert i s c a r r i e d upward by two angels from h i s f u n e r a l bed. One of the l a s t major examples of the use of t h i s imagery i n I t a l i a n tomb s c u l p t u r e i s the tomb of Simone S a l t a -r e l l i (d. 1342), S. C a t e r i n a , P i s a (Fig. 49)., a work that i n some ways can be looked on as a r e v e r s i o n to e a r l i e r French t r a d i t i o n s . That such images r e c o r d the ascension of the s o u l immediately a f t e r death i s emphasised when the dead body of the deceased or the f u n e r a l ceremony a l s o appears. In the B r i t i s h Museum Apotheosis d i p t y c h the s o u l i s l i f t e d by two winged g e n i i w h i l e down below an elephant-drawn p l a t f o r m c a r r i e s an e f f i g y of the deceased, enthroned under a canopy of honour, i n a f u n e r a l pro-61 c e s s i o n . On the tomb s l a b of P r e s b y t e r Bruno (d. 1194), the sou l of Bruno i s l i f t e d away from the corpse of the deceased which i s being wrapped i n a winding-sheet (Fig. 60). In the tomb of Azzone V i s c o n t i (d. 1339), S. Gottardo, M i l a n (Fig. 63), by Giovanni d i B a l d u c c i o and a s s i s t a n t s , although dismantled, the extant fragments i n d i c a t e that the immediacy of the 132 s o u l ' s ascent would have been e x p l i c i t l y rendered. The naked image of V i s c o n t i ' s s o u l i s c a r r i e d by an angel. On top of the sarcophagus, the e f f i g y of the deceased i s t e n d e r l y s e t t l e d with a n g e l i c a s s i s t a n c e . Thus, as i n the Bruno tomb s l a b , both the body and the s o u l r e c e i v e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n . Although predominant, the d e p i c t i o n of the s o u l ascending does not always take the form of a naked f i g u r e , as i s evinced by the Apotheosis d i p t y c h . In the tombs of the Bishop Ancoul de P i e r r e f o n d s (d. 1158) and that of Bishop G o s s e l i n de V i e r z y (d. 1152), both from the abbey at Longpont (Figs. 67 and 68) as recorded by G a i g n i e r e s , the s o u l s of these two Bishops of S o i -ssons wear t h e i r robes of o f f i c e . The tomb of Juan de Arag^n (d. 1334), Tarragona (Fig. 50), d e p i c t s the so u l of the deceased i n h i s archbishop's a p p a r e l . A p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r d e p i c t i n g the s o u l being e s c o r t e d to heaven i s apparent i n French tombs of the t h i r t e e n t h century. The s t r e s s i n g of the i n t e r c e s s o r y r o l e of the V i r g i n i n the admittance of the deceased's s o u l i n t o heaven would seem to p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the adaptions made i n I t a l i a n tomb design of the 62 French motif. P r i o r to Giovanni Pisano's tomb of Margaret of Brabant, the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the ascending soul was transformed i n t o the k n e e l i n g donor f i g u r e . This Panofsky has c a l l e d , "...a new humanistic s u b s t i t u t e f o r the image of the soul i n the guise of a l i t t l e nude f i g u r e c a r r i e d a l o f t by angels."134 The r o l e of the V i r g i n i s a l s o changed i n these tombs from that of a passive spectator i n t o that of an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the drama of the soul's ascension. This aspect of the V i r g i n i s p a r a l l e l e d i n the w r i t i n g s of Saint Bonaventure and A l b e r t u s Magnus that have been c i t e d . The tomb of Margaret of Brabant appears as a l o g i c a l development of the French and I t a l i a n d e p i c t i o n s of the soul a f t e r death. The I t a l i a n d e s i r e to dramatise and make v i s u a l l y e x p l i c i t the processes of death i s here u n i t e d with a French iconography. The concrete and three-dimensional image of Margaret of Brabant's soul being escorted to heaven uniquely embodies the French r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o u l ' s ascent and the I t a l i a n "humanized" and i n d i v i d u a l i s e d , k n e e l i n g donor f i g u r e . Giovanni Pisano, by g i v i n g substance to the s o u l , f u l f i l s a need to record the personal and immediately apparent acceptance of the deceased's soul i n t o heaven with the i n t e r c e s s i o n df the V i r g i n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the re-use of the French motif of the ascension of the soul occurs i n I t a l y only a f t e r Giovanni Pisano's r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n and adaptation of the iconography. The t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l environment which 63 nurtured Giovanni Pisano's d e p i c t i o n of the s o u l of Margaret of Brabant i n a concrete'fashion has been d i s c u s s e d . It i s i m p o s s i b l that Giovanni Pisano c o u l d have been unaware of these development and a matter of c o i n c i d e n t a l i n t e r e s t t h a t , of them, he may have had f i r s t hand knowledge. V a r i o u s s c h o l a r s have c o n s i d e r e d i t p o s s i b l e that Giovanni Pisano v i s i t e d France d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e . That t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l journey i s thought, by some, to have oc c u r r e d i n the e a r l y 1270's, at the c r i t i c a l time when much of The c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspects of S i g e r of Brabant's A r i s t o t e l i a n i s m would have been openly d i s c u s s e d i s i n t r i g u i n g . Giovanni Pisano's i n c l u s i o n of the v i r t u e f i g u r e s i n the tomb and the concomitant i n c r e a s e i n the number of l e v e l s of the tomb programme i s a l o g i c a l development of the e a r l i e r Roman t r a d i t i o n spearheaded by A r n o l f o d i Cambio. The v i r t u e f i g u r e s may be c o n s i d e r e d , i n p a r t , to be the e a r t h l y aspects of the l i f e of Margaret of Brabant which support her s o u l ' s a s c e n s i o n . The drama of the s o u l ' s acceptance i n t o heaven i s a s s o c i a t e d with exemplary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Margaret of Brabant's temporal a c t i v i t y . In the f u t u r e development of the Renaissance tomb 136 t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n becomes of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. The tomb of Margaret of Brabant i s one of the f i r s t mon-uments of the f o u r t e e n t h century to f u l l y comprehend the poss-i b i l i t i e s of programmatic development. Giovanni Pisano, s c u l p t o r and a r c h i t e c t , u n i t e s both aspects of h i s a c t i v i t y to achieve an e n r i c h e d and c o n c i s e n a r r a t i v e . The e l a b o r a t e , m u l t i - l e v e l , 64 wall appended tomb that he introduces emphasises sculptural elements but orders them into a d i s t i n c t and clear a r c h i t e c t u r a l scheme. The potential of t h i s development i s attested by the florescence of t h i s form after Giovanni Pisano's i n i t i a l experi-ment. Prior to Giovanni Pisano, we may find perhaps the closest p a r a l l e l to the tomb of Margaret of Brabant's emphasis on c l a r i t y and a well ordered progression from earth to heaven through successive l e v e l s only in the Summa Theologiae of Saint Thomas Aquinas. 65 NOTES 1. Recent and i l l u m i n a t i n g s t u d i e s of the development of I t a l i a n Trecento f i g u r a l tomb s c u l p t u r e are p r o v i d e d by, J u l i a n Gardner, The Influence of Popes' and Cardinals' Patronage on the Introduction of the Gothic Style into Rome and the Surrounding Area, 1254-1305, D i s s . , London U n i v e r s i t y , 1969; and Kurt Bauch, "Anfange des f i g i i r -l i c h e n Grabmals i n I t a l i e n , " Mitteilungen des Kunst-historischen Institutes in Florenz, XV (1971), pp. 227-258. 2. John Pope-Hennessy, "The Area S. Dominic; A Hypothesis," Burlington Magazine, 93 (1957), pp. 347-351. The prob-lems r e l a t e d to the a t t r i b u t i o n of segments of t h i s mon-ument are t r e a t e d with i l l u s t r a t i o n by Stefano B o t t a r i , L'Area di S. Domenico in Bologna, Bologna, Patron, 1964. The Area of S a i n t Domenic was completed i n 1267. Although N i c o l a Pisano appears to have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the design, h i s hand i s seen only r a r e l y i n the e x e c u t i o n . A r n o l f o d i Cambio, Lapo, and F r a Guglielmo are a l l thought to have c o n t r i b u t e d e x t e n s i v e l y to the work. 3. Of importance i n t h i s r e g a rd i s J u l i a n Gardner, " A r n o l f o d i Cambio and Roman Tomb Design," Burlington Magazine , 115 (1973), pp. 420-439. 4. The standard monograph on Tino d i Camaino, that of W.R. V a l e n t i n e r , Tino di Camaino, P a r i s , Pegasus, 1935, amply i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . 5. A l l c i t a t i o n s of Vasari^have been drawn from Gaetano M i l a n e s i , Le vite de'piu eccelenti pittori, scultori ed architettori scritte da Giorgio Vasari, F l o r e n c e , Sansoni, 1878, I. 6. M i l a n e s i , p. 306. 7. M i l a n e s i , p. 306, n. 1 8. M i l a n e s i , p. 315. M i l a n e s i , p. 315, n. 2 9 10. I.B. Supino, Giorgio Vasari: Vita di Niccolo e Giovanni Pisano scultori e architetti, F l o r e n c e , Bemporad, 1911, p. 51, "Il monumento a Benedetto IX (si legga invece Bene-detto XI) non appartiene a Giovanni, ma a qualche maestro senese." A. G a r z e l l i , Sculture toscane nel Dugento e nel 66 Trecento, F l o r e n c e , Marchi a n d . B e r t o l l i , 1969, p. 205, d i s c u s s e s the problems of the a t t r i b u t i o n of the monument and notes that i t o r i g i n a l l y stood i n S. Stefano d i C a s t e l l a r e . The tomb i s dated to c.1320. 11. M i l a n e s i , p. 315. 12. Supino, p. 51. 13. The b i r t h d a t e of Giovanni Pisano i s u n c e r t a i n , as i s the date of h i s death. G e n e r a l l y , i t i s b e l i e v e d that the b i r t h of the s c u l p t o r o c c u r r e d c.1250, making him i n h i s s i x t i e s at the time of the commission of the tomb f o r Margaret of Brabant. Giovanni Pisano i s assumed to have d i e d at sometime between 1314 and 1319, see Michael Ayrton, Giovanni Pisano, Sculptor, New York, Weybright and T a l l e y , 1969, pp. 37 and 192. 14. T h i s work, now i n the Camposanto, P i s a i s thought to have been completed before Giovanni Pisano's journey to Genoa to complete the tomb of Margaret of Brabant, see Ayrton, p. 187. 15. The Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a r e s t s on the a l t a r of the chapel of the Holy G i r d l e i n Prato C a t h e d r a l . It i s g e n e r a l l y thought to be Giovanni Pisano' s l a s t s u r v i v i n g work, Ayrton, p. 220. C a t e r i n a Marcenaro, "La Madonna d e l l a tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a d i Brabante," Paragone, 167 (1963), pp. 17-21, b e l i e v e s that the Madonna d e l l a C i n t o l a predates the tomb of Margaret of Brabant f o r s t y l i s t i c reasons. T h i s would make the tomb the l a s t extant work of Giovanni Pisano. 16. W i l l i a m M. Bowsky, Henry VII in Italy, The Conflict of Empire and City-State, 1310-1313, L i n c o l n , U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1960, p. 18. Bowsky i s the source of a l l b i o g r a p h i c a l ^ m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g to Margaret of Brabant that f o l l o w s . , 17. Bowsky, p. 137. 18. I t appears u n l i k e l y t h at Henry VII a c t i v e l y worked f o r h i s i m p e r i a l t i t l e from the h i s t o r i c a l sources a v a i l a b l e . Cf., Bowsky, p. 19. 19. Dante A l g h i e r e , Letter V, probably w r i t t e n i n September-October, 1310, (Bowsky, pp. 49-50). 20. "...In choro ecclesiae (San Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o ) iuxta altare depositum in sarcofago plumbeo..." -- from A l b e r t i n o Mussato, Historia Augusta, p u b l i s h e d by L.A. M u r a t o r i , Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, Mediolani, 1727, X, 5, r . IV, col.' 404a-b ( C a t e r i n a Marcenaro, "Per l a 67 tomba d i M a r gherita d i Brabante," Pavagone, 133 (1961), pp. 3-17, p. 12, n. 2. The t e x t of the document, Atti del Cartolario del Notaio Leonardo de 'Garibaldi, A r c h i v i o d i S t a t o , Genoa, Reg. 2, (1313-1318), f o l i o 21b, reads: "In nomine domini -- amen. Ego magister Johannes quondam magistri Nicole de Pisis intalliator operis sepulori bone memorie domine Margarite olim romanorum imperatrix, regine semper auguste, in domo Fratrum minorum de Janua confiteor vobis domino Johanni de Bagnaria arohidiaoono Januensis me a vobis habuisse et recepisse florenos octuaginta unum auri, boni et iusti ponderis et valoris qui valet pro quolibet floreno solidos XXIIII et denarios quattuor Janue dantibus et solventibus pro nomine et vice serenissimi principis domini Henrici dei gratia Romanorum imperatoris semper augusti et de ipsius domini imperatoris propria pecunia pro dicto opere et nomine ipsius operis, renuntians exceptioni non habitorum et non recepttorum et non numer-atorum doctorum florenorum et omni a l i i iuri per quod in aontrarium me tueri possem: promittens vobis dicto nomine et de ipsis florenis et ipsos expendere bona fide et sine fraude in ipso opere et bonam et ydoneam rationem de ipsis facere vel a l i i cui de iure dicta ratio fieri debet vel debebit. Alioquin penam dupli dicte quantitatis cum omnibus dampnis inter esse et expensis quae propterea fier-ent vobis dicto nomine stipulantibus et solvere promitto. Ratis manentibus supradictis et proinde et ad sic observ-andum omnia bona mea vobis nomine pignori obligo habita habenda. Actum Janue in sacrestia anno domini nativitate millesimo trecentesimo decimo tertio indictione X die XXV augusti circa tertiam: Presentibus testibus presbitero Jacopo de Montogio da cappucinis sacrista ecclesie Januensis et presbitero Bevioto cappellano in ecclesie Januensis pro domino imperatore." The d a t i n g of t h i s document has been v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n r e cent l i t e r a t u r e . The date i s read as August 25, 1312, by Herbert von Einem, "Das Grabmals der K o n i g i n Margarethe i n Genua," Festschrift Hans R. Hahnloser, B a s e l , B i r k h a u s e r , 1961, pp. 125-150; Ha r a l d K e l l e r , Giovanni Pisano, Vienna, S c h r o l l , 1942, p. 71; John Pope-Hennessy, "Giovanni Pisano," Encyclopedia of World Art, 1962, VI, pp. 358a-366a. The date i s read as August 25, 1313, by John Pope-Hennessy, Italian Gothic Sculpture, 2nd ed., London, Phaidon Press, 1972, p. 179; M. S e i d e l , " E i n neu entecktes Fragment des Genueser Grabmals der K o n i g i n Mar-garethe von Giovanni P i s a n o , " Pantheon, 26 (1968), pp. 335-351; P. T o r r i t i , "Una s t a t u a d e l l a ' G i u s t i z i a ' d i G iovanni Pisano e i l monumento a M a r g h e r i t a d i Brabante," 68 Bolletino Ligustico per la storia e la cultura regionale , 12 (1961), pp. 124-134; Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 6. The l a t t e r r e a d i n g appears to be c o r r e c t . 22. T h i s o p i n i o n i s expressed by V a l e n t i n e r , p. 19. 23. Ayrton, p. 186. The document, dated March 9, 1314, g i v e s judgment on an appeal a g a i n s t a tax demand i n Siena. 24. Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 9. In 1798, the church of San F r a n -cesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o was e x p r o p r i a t e d by the D i r e t t o r i o and i t s d e m o l i t i o n begun i n 1805. 25. For the measurement of t h i s and other p i e c e s see, Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 179. 26. Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 9 and n. 24. The s a l e of s e v e r a l marbles was a u t h o r i s e d on September 15, 1804, f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n , by the Senator and P r e s i d e n t of the M a g i s t r a t e of Finance, Genoa. 27. Santo V a r n i , "Correspondence," Giornale Ligustico di archeologia, storia e belle arti, I (1874), pp. 436-437. 28. F e d e r i c o A l i z e r i , "Correspondence," Giornale Ligustico di archeologia, storia e belle arti, I (1874), p. 410. 29. Orlando Grosso, Catalogo della Galleria di Palazzo Bianco, M i l a n , A l f i e r i and L a c r o i x , 1912, p. 2. 30. Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 3. For the circumstances of t h i s f i n d and i t s p u b l i c a t i o n see Appendix, e n t r y 36. 31. Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 4. 32. Marcenaro, Madonna, pp. 17-21. 33. Ibid. , p. 18. 34. Ibid., p. 18. 35. S e i d e l , d,p . ait.. 36. These two fragments measure 77 and 68 cm. The r i g h t hand f i g u r e holds a segment of c u r t a i n upon which the l e t t e r s (0)TA CENTRUM are i n s c r i b e d . The a s s o c i a t i o n of these f i g u r e s with the tomb of Margaret of Barabant o r i g i n a t e s with F. A l i z e r i , Catalogo della Collezione Santo Varni, Genoa, 1887, p. 29. M. Sauerlandt, Uber die Bildewerke des Giovanni Pisano, L e i p z i g , 1904, pp. 4 7 f f ; and I.B. Supino, Arte Pisano, F l o r e n c e , F r a t e l l i A l i n a r i , 1904, 69 p. 174, both l i n k the two angels with the monument while r e c o g n i s i n g t h e i r i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y (M. Longhurst, Notes on Italian Monuments of the 12th to 16th Centuries, V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, London, n.d., I, C42 ) . F o l l o w i n g these authors, Grosso, p. 2; A. V e n t u r i , Giovanni Pisano, sein Leben und sein Werk, F l o r e n c e , Pantheon, 1927, I, p. 52; V a l e n t i n e r , p. 39; Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 179, a l l accept the angels as p a r t of the o r i g i n a l tomb programme. The f o l l o w i n g authors e i t h e r doubt or s p e c i f -i c a l l y r e j e c t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n : Longhurst, op. c i t . ; K e l l e r , p. 71; P i e t r o Toesca, Il Trecento, 1951; r p t . T u r i n , Unione T i p o g r a f i c o , 1964, p. 233. 37. Ayrton, p. 185. 38. Toesca, pp. 380-381, and Marcenaro, Madonna, p. 19. 39. Guiseppe P o r t i g l i o t t i , "Margherita d i Brabante a Genova," Genova; riviste mensile del commune, September 30, 1925, pp. 1067-1072. (Cf., Appendix, entry 21). 40. Orlando Grosso, "Intorno a l i a tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a d i Brabante a Palazzo Bianco," Genova; r i v i s t e mensiVe del commune, October 31, 1925, pp. 1203-1204. 41. For a d i s c u s s i o n of female tombs see, Kurt Bauch, Das m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e Grabbild, B e r l i n , Walter de Gruyter, 1976, Chapter 8, " F r a u e n g e s t a l t e n des 13.Jahrhunderts," pp. 99-105, and a l s o , chapter 9, "Doppelgrabsteine," pp. 106-119. These e f f i g i e s conform to the n o r t h e r n t r a d i t i o n f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the deceased au vif. 42. Bowsky, pp. 152-153. 43. The codex i s i l l u s t r a t e d and a h i s t o r y of Henry VI I ' s journey to Rome given by G. Irmer, Die Romfahrt Kaiser Heinrich's VII. im Bildercyclus der Codex Balduini Trev-i r e n s i s , B e r l i n , Weidmannsche, 1881. 44. Ayrton, p. 186, adduces the same c o n c l u s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to Giovanni Pisano's Madonna f o r E n r i c o Scrovegni; "There i s , however, no doubt that the Madonna carved f o r Scro-vegni by Giovanni was an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s widespread fame. Scrovegni spared no expense, and i n employing G i o t t o and Giovanni upon h i s pious undertaking, he was c e r t a i n l y aware that he had a c q u i r e d the s e r v i c e s of masters of the f i r s t rank." 45. The sarcophagus i s d i s c u s s e d by F. Cumont, Recherches sur le symbolismefuneraire des •romains, 1942; r p t . P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e O r i e n t a l i s t e P. Geuthner, 1966, p. 78. 70 46. The mosaic i s d i s c u s s e d by J . Gardner, "The Capocci Tabernacle i n S. Maria Maggiore," Papers of the B r i t i s h School at Rome, 38 (1970), pp. 220-230. 47. The date of the S a v e l l i monument i s u n c e r t a i n . References i n the i n s c r i p t i o n of the tomb allow i t to be post-dated from 1287. The a r c h i t e c t u r e of the tomb and i t s mosaic d e c o r a t i o n may be f o u r t e e n t h century additons. Cf. Guida d'Italia; Roma e dintorni, M i l a n , 1962, p. 119. 48. J u l i a n Gardner, "The Tomb of C a r d i n a l A n n i b a l d i by A r n o l f o d i Cambio," Burlington Magazine, 114 (1972), pp. 136-141. Gardner t r a c e s .the i n f l u e n c e of the Porte Romane, C a t h e d r a l , Reims (Fig. 69), and tombs i n Leon C a t h e d r a l , upon A r n o l f o ' s designs. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e that a more d i r e c t source f o r t h i s i n f l u e n c e may have e x i s t e d . " I t cannot be ex-cluded that the French model may have been i n Old St. P e t e r ' s i t s e l f . The tomb of Amice de Courtnay, Countess of A r t o i s , who d i e d i n Rome i n 1275 may have conformed to t h i s type," Gardner, Annibaldi, p. 141. n. 34. Cf., Bauch, Anfange, pp. 246ff. 49. Bauch, Anfange, pp. 252ff., argues that t h i s tomb may be c o n s i d e r e d an e a r l y work of A r n o l f o d i Cambio. 50. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the " c o n s i d e r a b l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l support f o r t h i s new s c u l p t u r a l t r e n d , " i n the w r i t i n g s of "men c l o s e to or members of the c u r i a i t s e l f , " see Gardner, Influence, p. 29, n. 2. 51. Gardner, Arnolfo, argues a g a i n s t the a t t r i b u t i o n of t h i s tomb to A r n o l f o d i Cambio, "Comparison with the other e f f i g i e s (by A r n o l f o ) r e v e a l s that of A d r i a n V to be the product of an e c l e c t i c s c u l p t o r h e a v i l y i n t e r e s t e d by . A r n o l f o d i Cambio's s t y l e , and s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a t e r than the pope's death." 52. E. Panofsky, Tomb Sculpture; Four Lectures on its Changing Aspects from Ancient Egypt to Bernini, H.W. Janson, ed., New York, Abrams, n.d., pp. 60-61. As examples: the tomb of P i e r r e de C h a t e l l e r a u l t , Bishop of P o i t i e r s (d. 1135), F o n t e v r a u l t , designed i n the t h i r t e e n t h century, and recorded i n a drawing by G a i g n i e r e s (Fig. 65); the tomb of G i l l e s du C h a s t e l e t (d. t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) , Evron ( J . Adhemar, "Les tombeaux de l a C o l l e c t i o n Gaignieres,"Book I, " Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 84 (1974), pp. 1-192, #120); and the tomb of Abbot A r n o u l t ( ? ) , f o r m e r l y St.-Pere, C h a r t r e s (Fig. 66). 53. Gardner, Annibaldi, pp. 136ff, and f i g . 7. A drawing 71 of the tomb ( B i b l i o t e c a A p o s t o l i c a V a t i c a n a , Codex Barbevini , Lat. 4423, f o l i o 23), once b e l i e v e d to r e c o r d the o r i g i n a l form of the tomb i s shown c o n v i n c i n g l y to be an i n a c c u r a t e assemblage of fragments of the tomb a f t e r i t s d e s t r u c t i o n . 54. Cf., John White, Art and Architecture in Italy, 1250-1400, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1966, pp. 55-56. 55. Gardner, Arnolfo, p. 437. 56. Joseph Stevenson, ed., Chronicon de Lanercost, 1201-1346, Edinburgh, Edinburgh P r i n t i n g Co., 1839, p. 99. 57. Gardner, Arnolfo, p. 437, f i g s . 24 and 25. 58. See above, n. 10. 59. M i l a n e s i , p. 315, nn. 1 and 2. 60. Gardner, Arnolfo, pp. 423-424. 61. Cf., V a l e n t i n e r , Chapter 3, "The Tomb of the Emperor Henry," pp. 16-42, p i s . 6-17. 62. The a s s o c i a t i o n of t h i s group of c o u n s e l l o r s with the tomb of Henry VII has been questioned ( V a l e n t i n e r , p. 148, n. 4). The o r i g i n a l connection was made by E. Bertaux, "Le mausolee de l'Empereur He n r i VII a P i s e , " Melanges a Paul Fabre, P a r i s , 1902, p. 365. 63. An e f f i g y of King Dagobert i n St. Denis i s d e s c r i b e d by Dom Doublet as seated, r e s t i n g h i s f e e t on a l i o n and a dog.(s'Jacob, pp. 179-180). 64. Cf., Gardner, Influence, p. 172. 65. Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 16, i n a c c u r a t e l y de-s c r i b e s the four s u p p o r t i n g f i g u r e s as " . . . s l e n d e r c a r y -a t i d s of the V i r t u e s . . . " The f i g u r e s are without a t t r i -butes. Three are male, the f o u r t h , female. 66. Gardner, Influence, p. 172. See Guiseppe M a r c h i n i , Le Vetrate dell'Umbria, Rome, De Luca, 1973, (Corpus Vitr e a r u m Me d i i A e v i , I t a l i a , V o l . I ) , p. 33 and p i . XXIV, who dates the windows, 1253-1260. V a l e n t i n e r , p. 49, f i g . 8, suggests that a p r e d e l l a panel i l l u s t r a t i n g the R e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t , by Ugolino da Siena, f o r h i s S. Croce a l t a r p i e c e , i n f l u e n c e d T i n o d i Camaino. He w r i t e s , " I t can s c a r c e l y be doubted that Tino was i n s p i r e d by t h i s panel of Ugolino, who, f o r h i s p a r t , may have been indebted 72 f o r the motive to northern p a i n t i n g , p o s s i b l y to French m i n i a t u r e s of the t h i r t e e n t h century, i n which the scene was s i m i l a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d . " 67. See above, n. 2. 68. P a r i s , Musge n a t i o n a l du Louvre, Catalogue des sculptures du Moyen Age, de la Renaissance et des temps modernes, P a r i s , Musee Nationaux, 1922, I, p. 70, #'s 571-574. These s t a t u e s stand 110 cm. i n h e i g h t . 69. V a l e n t i n e r , pp. 93-94 and 151, n. 15. The tomb of C h a r l e s M a r t e l i s d e s c r i b e d by P i e t r o Summonte, Historia della citta e regno Napolitano, Naples, 1675, I I , p. 353 ( V a l e n t i n e r , p. 152); "...mori dunque i l re d'Ungharia in Napoli intorno i l fine dell'anno 1295 d'eta. d'anni 30....fu sepolto in un sepolcro di marmo sostenuto dalle statue delle quattro virtu cardinale." 70. V a l e n t i n e r , p. 59. 71. V a l e n t i n e r , pp. 6 2 f f . 72. T h i s number may be i n c r e a s e d to four i f V a l e n t i n e r ' s suggestion that the bishop i s p o r t r a y e d i n the a l l e g o r i c a l r e l i e f panel i s c o r r e c t ( V a l e n t i n e r , p. 72). 73. Cf., V i c t o r i a Goldberg, "Leo X, Clement VII and the i m m o r t a l i t y of the s o u l , " Simiolus, 8 (1975-6), pp. 16-25, p. 19, d i s c u s s e s the r a r i t y of such d e p i c t i o n s . 74. The a t t r i b u t i o n of t h i s m a s t e r f u l work i s u n c e r t a i n . Emile Bertaux, "La s c u l t u r e du X I V e s i e c l e en Espagne," Histoire de I'art, A. M i c h e l , ed., P a r i s , C o l i n , 1906, I I , Part 2, pp. 652-654, suggests that the tomb may be a s s o c i a t e d with the s c h o o l of Andrea Pisano, p o s s i b l y Giovanni and Pacio da F i r e n z e . Juan de Contreras, Historia del Arte Hispanico, Barcelona, S a l v a t , 1935, I I , p. 198, suggests that a d i r e c t f o l l o w e r of Giovanni Pisano, p o s s i b l y Tino d i Camaino, executed the tomb i n Naples f o r shipment to Tarragona. The q u a l i t y of the e f f i g y , i n a l a b a s t e r , c a s t s doubt upon both these a t t r i b u t i o n s . The tomb i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n d e t a i l by Frances V i c e n s , Cathedral de Tarragona, Barcelona, E d i c i o n e s P o l i g r a f a , 1970, p i s . 130-139. 75. Libro degli Anniversarii del Convento di San Francesco di Castelletto in Genova, B i b l i o t e c a Reale, T u r i n , MS., "Processio in die mortuorum in Conventu Janue. . . . Prima Statio. 73 Ad imperatricem. omnia fiunt sicut consuetum est in suis anniversariis. Responsorium Subvenire sanoti et cetera et inde kyrie eleyson pater noster. ORATIO. Quesumus domine pro tua pietate misere clementer anime famule tue imperatricis. et a oontagiis mortalit-atis exutam in eterne salvatoris partem restitue. Inalina domine aurem tuam ad preees nostras quibus miiericordiam tuam suppHoes exoramus ut animam famuli tui imperatoris qui de hoc secolo migrare iusisti in pacis ac lucis regionis constituas. et sanctorum tuorum iubeas esse consortem. per christum." (Marcenaro, -Tomba, p. 15., n. 14). Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 8. Marcenaro, Tomba, pp. 8-9. Cf., Einem, p. 147, n. 36. The s h r i n e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by W. Wolters, La scultura veneziana gotica, 1300-1460, Venice, A l f i e r i , 1976, I I , f i g s . 28-30. The a f f i n i t i e s between the monument and the o r i g i n a l form of the s h r i n e of S. Dominic are noted by Wolters, I, p. 152. Cf., Wolters, I, pp. 185-186, and I I , f i g s . 266-271. For the s h r i n e of S a i n t Augustine, see Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculputre, p. 199, p i . 62, and f i g . 45. See Wolters, I, pp. 160-161, and I I , f i g s . 84-90.' G a r z e l l i , p. 205. The use of t h i s t e n t - l i k e canopy may have preceded the P e t r o n i monument i n that of Henry V I I . Cf., Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 184, who w r i t e s , "The t e n t - l i k e s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which the e f f i g y i s p l a c e d appears, from a m i n i a t u r e i n the Codex B a l d u i n i noted by V a l e n t i n e r , a l s o to a l s o to have been employed i n the monument of the Emperor Henry VII at P i s a , and perhaps d e r i v e s i n both cases from Giovanni Pisano's monument of Margaret of Lux-emburg at Genoa, which may have i n s p i r e d other r e a t u r e s of T i no's w a l l monuments." Henry VII was i n f a c t given a t e n t , "bedecked with jewels and surmounted by a golden e a g l e , " upon h i s a r r i v a l i n P i s a (Bowsky, p. 153). I t seems l i k e l y that the i n c l u s i o n of such an element i n the Codex Balduini Trevirensis i s a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e and a commemoration of t h i s g i f t (Fig. 20). Cf., M. S e i d e l , "Die Rankensaulen der Si e n e s e r Domfassade," Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen, 11 (1969), pp. 81-157. 74 86. Cf., Marcenaro, Madonna, p. 21, who w r i t e s of the Madonna, "La sua scala, rapportataa quella delle altre statue superstiti della tomba scomparsa, suggerisce una comples-sitci prospettiea cine aonferma la supposta grandiositd dell' opera..." 87. The Orso monument (Fig. 40), as r e c o n s t r u c t e d by V a l e n t i n e r , had no e f f i g y , but t h i s may a l s o be questioned, c f . , Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 185. 88. T h i s form of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s suggested by T o r r i t i , Giustizia, pp. 133-134, f i g . 8-9 (Fig. 57). T o r r i t i ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the tomb p l a c e s the r i s i n g f i g u r e and her two a s s i s t a n t s on top of the sarcophagus with four v i r t u e f i g u r e s as a c t u a l c a r y a t i d s . The p o s i t i o n of the v i r t u e s i s l a r g e l y h y p o t h e t i c a l but T o r r i t i suggests that the J u s t i c e may have appeared on the l e f t because, ".. . i l suo fianco destro e squadrato e calato a piombo come un pilastro angolare." T h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s questioned by S e i d e l , p. 338, and p. 350, n. 28. T o r r i t i ' s assumption t h a t the J u s t i c e acted as a c a r y a t i d was made p r i o r to the removal, by r e s t o r e r s , of s u r p l u s cement from the neck of the f i g u r e which had been l e f t when once the f r a c t u r e d head had been r e p l a c e d . 89. Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 179, w r i t e s , " . . . s i n c e the i n s c r i p t i o n i s i n the second person s i n g u l a r and i s addressed to the Empress, i t i s probable that t h i s and the three other C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s were grouped round the e f f i g y . " 90. Panofsky, p. 77. 91. Cf., E. M&le, "Le p o r t a i l de S e n l i s et son i n f l u e n c e , " Revue de I'art ancien et moderne , 29 (1911), pp. 161-176. Examples of the iconography are found at S e n l i s , C h a r t r e s , Laon, S a i n t Yvod de Braine, Lausanne, and S. Maria i n Vezzolano. I t appearance at S e n l i s was a p p a r e n t l y un-precedented . ( F i g . 70). 92. Jacopo de Voragine, The Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints, Trans. W i l l i a m Caxton, London, J.M. Dent, 1900, p. 237. 93. Ibid., p. 241. 94. The Assumption of the V i r g i n appears i n f r e q u e n t l y i n s e p u l c h r a l monuments ( c f . , s'Jacob, pp. 126-127). For examples see, the tomb of Doge Francesco Dandolo (d. 1339), S. Maria d e i F r a r i , Venice, Wolters, I, pp. 163-164, and I I , f i g . 100; and an anonymous tomb i n the C o l l e z i o n e 75 C i n i , Monselice, Wolters, I, p. 181, and I I , f i g s . 302-305. 95. Einem, p. 144. 96. S e i d e l , pp. 344-345. 97. S e i d e l , p. 348. 98. The presence of a Madonna and C h i l d i n the programme would be u n s u i t a b l e i n t h i s case, although the V i r g i n Mary would not be as d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . The V i r g i n Mary's r o l e as an "instrument of I n c a r n a t i o n and Redemption" i s d i s c u s s e d by D.C. Shorr, "The Role of the V i r g i n i n G i o t t o ' s Last Judgment," Art Bulletin, 38 (1956), pp. 207-214. See a l s o , S i s t e r M. V i n c e n t i n e , The Blessed Virgin Mary as Mediatrix in the Latin and Old French Legend Prior to the Fourteenth Century, Washington, C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America, 1938, p. 71. 99. Cf., E. G i l s o n , History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages, New York, Random House, 1955, p. 387. See a l s o , Fernand van Steenberghen, The Philosophical Movement in the Thirteenth Century, Edinburgh, Nelson, 1955. 100. The problems r e l a t i n g to the a p p e l l a t i o n of t h i s group are d i s c u s s e d by G i l s o n , pp. 388-389. 101. Cf., Averroes, "The Great Commentary on De anima, Book I I I , t t . 4 and 5," t r a n s . Arthur Hyman from A v e r r o i s Cordubensis Commentarium Magnum i n A r i s t o t e l i s De Anima L i b r o s , Philosophy of the Middle Ages, A. Hyman and J . Walsh eds., New York, Harper and Row, pp. 314-324. The commentary of G i l s o n , pp. 224-225, i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h i s regard, as i s t h a t of C.C.J. Webb, "Some Notes on the Problem of S i g e r , " Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2 (1950), pp. 121-127. 102. G i l s o n , p. 403. 103. Ibid.. 104. The P a r i s i a n condemnations of 1270 are p u b l i s h e d i n t r a n s -l a t i o n by John F. Wippel and A l l a n B. Wolter eds., Phil-osophy of the Middle Ages, New Yrok, MacMillan, 1969, p. 336. 105. Ibid.. 106. Ibid.. 76 107. P u b l i s h e d by Henry Denzinger, The Sources of Catholic Dogma, t r a n s . J . D e f e r r a r i from the 30th ed. of E n c h i r i d -i o n Symbolorum, St. L o u i s , Herder, 1957, p. 184, #464. 108. Cf., S i g e r of Brabant, "De anima i n t e l l e c t i v a , Chapter 7: Whether the i n t e l l e c t i v e s o u l i s m u l t i p l i e d i n accord with the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of human bod i e s , " i n Wippe.l, pp. 360-365. 109. Steenberghen, p. 94. 110. Ch.-V. L a n g l o i s , "La Lumiere as L a i s , " La vie en France au moyen-age. Vol. 4: La vie s p i r i t u e l l e , P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Hachette, 1928, pp. 66-119. 111. On the d o c t r i n e of immediate judgment see, J.A. McHugh, "Judgment," Catholic Encylcopedia, 1910, V I I I , pp. 550ff. The d o c t r i n e d e r i v e s from the Parable of Lazarus and Dives (Luke, 16:22-23). 112. Cf., s'Jacob, p. 120. 113. In tomb s c u l p t u r e , these b e l i e f s f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n the tombeaux de grande cSremonie (cl., see above, n. 52). In these monuments the emphasis p l a c e d upon the l a s t r i t e s performed f o r the deceased i n d i c a t e s the concern with which the moments a f t e r death were viewed. S'Jacob, p. 73, w r i t e s , "...the Gothic a r t i s t s d i d not aim so much at commemorating the l i t u r g i c a l a c t s , as drawing a t t e n t i o n to the e f f i c a c y of the p r a y e r s . " I t i s the performance of these a c t s that ensures the e v e r l a s t i n g b l i s s of t h e i r r e c i p i e n t . 114. The r e l e v a n t t e x t of the Benedictus Deus i s p u b l i s h e d by D e n i z i n g e r , pp. 530-531. A l l those worthy of immediate admission to heaven are granted, "by i n t u i t i v e v i s i o n , " the s i g h t of God. 115. C i t e d by Joan M. F e r r a n t e , Woman as Image in Medieval Literature, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975, p. 107. 116. C i t e d by H i l d a Graef, Mary; A History of Doctrine and Devotion, London, Sheed and Ward, 1963, I, p. 274. 117. C i t e d by Graef, I, p. 276. 118. L a n g l o i s , p. 80. 119. S a i n t Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Eyre and S p o t t i s -woode, 1965, i a 2ae:65,l. 120. Ibid., l a 2ae:67,l 77 121. Ibid., l a 2ae:60,l. 122. Ibid., l a 2ae:61,4. 123. Denzinger, p. 190, #481. The C o u n c i l of Vienne, i n the e d i c t De summa trinitate et fide oatholioa, reproved, "as erroneous and i n i m i c a l to the C a t h o l i c f a i t h every d o c t r i n e or p o s i t i o n r a s h l y a s s e r t i n g or t u r n i n g to doubt that the substance of the r a t i o n a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l s o u l t r u l y and i n i t s e l f i s not a form of the body." Cf., S a i n t Thomas Aquinas, The Soul, Trans. J.P. Rowan, St. L o u i s , Herder, 1949, p. 13, a r t . 1, "When the body i s c o r r u p t e d the s o u l does not l o s e the nature which belongs to i t as a form, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h at i t does not a c t u a l l y p e r f e c t matter as a form." 124. E. G i l s o n , "Dante's Notion of a Shade; P u r g a t o r i o XXI," Medieval Studies, 29 (1967), pp. 124-142. 125. Aquinas, Summa, l a 2ae:110,1. 126. Cf •. , ibid., l a : 89, "The separated s o u l does not understand by means of innate s p e c i e s , nor by s p e c i e s i t a b s t r a c t s then, nor by s p e c i e s alone....but by s p e c i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by the i n f l u e n c e of the d i v i n e l i g h t . The s o u l i s made a sharer i n these j u s t l i k e other immaterial substances, though i n an i n f e r i o r mode. Thus as soon as i t ceases to tu r n to the body i t turns to higher beings. I t does not f o l l o w on t h i s account that the knowledge i s not n a t u r a l , f o r God i s the author of the i n f l o w i n g of l i g h t , not only of grace, but a l s o of nature." 127. C i t e d by E. G i l s o n , The Christian Philosophy of St. Augustine, t r a n s . L.E.M. Lynch, New York, Random House, 1960, p. 131. 128. Cf., s'Jacob, p. 213. 129. A d o l f Katzenellenbogen, Allegories of the Virtues and Vices in Medieval Art from Early Christian Times to the Thirteenth Century, t r a n s . J.P. C r i c k , New York, W.W. Norton, 1964, pp. 46-47. 130. I l l u s t r a t e d by Panofsky, f i g . 127 131. Ibid. , p. 59, f i g . 236. 132. Ibid. , f i g . 239. 133. Cf., Toesca, p. 272. 134. Paaofsky, p. 78. 78 135. Cf., Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture, p. 7; and Ayrton, p. 42. K e l l e r , p. 11-12, i s the most i n s i s t a n t of those who b e l i e v e Giovanni Pisano to have v i s i t e d France. He w r i t e s , "Zwischen 1270 und 1275 muss sich dann Giovanno Pisano in franzosischen aufgehalten haben." 136. Panofsky, p. 73, c h a r a c t e r i s e s the i n c l u s i o n of the v i r t u e s i n tomb programmes as c h a r a c t e r witnesses as one of the " i c o n o g r a p h i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s " which mark the t r a n s i t i o n between G o t h i c tomb s c u l p t u r e and Renaissance tomb s c u l p t u r e . GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant (d. 1311), main group, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, main group (detail), Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. 80 Fig. 3 GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret o f Brabant, J u s t i c e ( f r o n t view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. Fig. 4 GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb o f Margaret of Brabant, J u s t i c e ( r e a r view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. 81 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 5 GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Madonna (front view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. Fig. 6 GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Madonna (rear view), Palazzo Rosso, Genoa. 82 GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (front view), Swiss private collection. Fig. 8 GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (rear view), Swiss private collection. Fig. 9 GIOVANNI PISANO: Tomb of Margaret of Brabant, Temperance (detail), Swiss private collection. Fig. 9 83 Fig. 10 Fig. 10 Two angels holding a baldacchino, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa. Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 11 Justice, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Fig. 12 Temperance, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Fig. 13 Prudence, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Fig. 14 Fortitude, S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa. Fig. 85 Fig. 16 Fig. IS Death of Henry VII's brother, Walram of Luxemburg, at the siege of Brescia, July 26, 1311, and his funeral: D(omi)n(u)s Walr(amus) frCater) regis sagitta obiit Brixie. SepelitCur) V(er)one multi moriuntCur) aere aorrupto. Codex Balduini Trevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C no. 1, 14a. Fig. 16 Funeral of Margaret of Brabant: Regina obiit Janue XI. deoe(m)b(r)is an(n)o XVIII sepelit(ur) ad Minores. Codex Balduini Trevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 17a. 86 I . fetotdto - k i r n s a t o _ 6 _ _ _ f l 6 . I Fig. 18 Fig. 17 Death of Henry VII at the siege of Siena, August 24, 1313: Obitus Imp)er)atoris H(envioi) septimi i(u) Bonoo(n)ve(n)t(o) die XXIII augu(sti) anno MCCCXIII. Codex Balduini Tvevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 35b. Fig. 18 Henry VII's body transferred to Pisa: Reduetis H(enriei) Imp(era-tovis) lysis. Codex Balduini Tvevivensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36a. 87 Fig. 19 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Funeral of Henry VII in Pisa: Exequie E(enrioi) Imp('er)atoris lysis. Codex Balduini Trevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 36b. An idealised representation of Henry VII's tomb. Codex Balduini Trevirensis, Staatsarchiv, Koblenz, 1 C No. 1, 37. Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Tomb of Cardinal Guglielmo Fieschi (d. 1256), S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome. Tomb of Luca Savelli, S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome. 89 Fig. 24 25 ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Adrian V (d. 1276), S. Francesco, Viterbo. 26 ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi della Molara (d. 1276), S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 27 ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye (d. 1282), S. Domenico, Orvieto. Fig. 28 Reconstruction by Romanini of the tomb of Cardinal Guillaum de Braye. Fig. 29 ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO: Tomb of Cardinal Guillaume de Braye (detail), S. Domenico, Orvieto. Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 30 Drawing of the tomb of Boniface VIII (d. 1303). Fig. 31 Tomb of Benedict XI (d. 1304), S. Domenico, Perugia. Fig. 32 Tomb of Benedict XI (detail), S. Domenico, Perugia. CD to 93 Fig. 35 Fig. 33 Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Henry VII (d. 1313). Fig. 34 Reconstruction by Bauch of the tomb of Henry VII. Fig. 35 TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Henry VII (detail of two counsellors), Camposanto, Pisa. 94 Fig. 36 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig 38 Fig. 39 TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Cardinal Riccardo Petroni (d. 1314), Cathedral, Siena. Caryatid Fortitude, Louvre, Paris. Caryatid Prudence, Louvre, Paris. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tarib of Gastone della Torre (d. 1318). Fvg. 39 Fig. Reconstruction by Valentiner of the tomb of Bishop Antonio degli Orsi (d. 1320 or 1321). TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Bishop Antonio degli Orsi (detail), Cathedral, Florence. TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Catherine of Austria (d. 1323), S. Lorenzo, Naples. Fig. Fig. 43 TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Mary of Hungary (d. 1323). S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples. Fig. 44 TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Mary of Hungary (detail), S. Maria Donna Regina, Naples. Fig. 43 Fig. 44 97 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 45 TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Charles of Calabria (d. 1328), S. Chiara, Naples. Fig. 46 TINO DI CAMAINO: Tomb of Marie of Valois (d. 1331), S. Chiara, Naples. Fig. 47 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 If % Fig. 48 Fig. 49 GIOVANNI AND PACIO DA FIRENZE: Tomb of Robert of Anjou, S. Chiara, Naples. GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Tomb of Guarnerio degli Antelminelli, S. Francesco, Sarzana. NINO PISANO: Tomb of Archbishop Simone S a l t a r e l l i (d. 1342), S. Caterina, Pisa. CD 00 Fig. 50 Fig. 50 Tomb of Juan de Aragon (d. 1334), Cathedral, Tarragona. Fig. 51 Tomb of Juan de Aragon (detail), Cathedral, Tarragona. 100 Fig. 54 Fig. 52 Tomb of Cardinal Luca Fieschi (d. 1343), S. Lorenzo, Genoa. Fig. 53 DOMENICO PIAGGIO: Transcription of the epitaphs of Margaret of Brabant and Leonardo Fornario. Fig. 54 Shrine of the Beato Bertrando (d. 1350), Baptistery, Cathedral, Orvieto. Fig. 56 Fig. 55 GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Martyr, Portinari Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan. Fig. 56 GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO: Shrine of Saint Peter Martyr (detail), Portinari Chapel, S. Eustorgio, Milan. 102 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 103 Fig. 61 Fig. 60 Tomb s l a b of Presbyter Bruno (d. 1194), Cat h e d r a l , Hildesheim. Fig. 61 Tomb s l a b o f Sa i n t R e i n h e l d i s , Church, Reisenbeck. Fig. 62 Death and t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n of Abbot Lambert (d. 1125), M u n i c i p a l L i b r a r y , Boulogne, MS. 46, f o l . I V . Fig. 63 GIOVANNI DI BALDUCCIO AND ASSISTANTS: Tomb of Azzone V i s c o n t i (d. 1339), S. Gottardb, M i l a n . 104 Fig. 68 Fig. 64 Drawing of the tomb of Abbot Pierre de Dijon (d. 1132), Abbey of Asint-Benigne, Dijon. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. Fig. 65 Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Pierre de Chatellerault of Poitiers (d. 1135), Abbey, Fontevrault. Collection Roger d i Gaignieres. Fig. 66 Drawing of the tomb of Abbot Arnoult (?), formerly Saint-Pere, Chartres. Collection Roger de Gaignidres. Fig. 67 Drawing of the tomb of Bishop Ancoul de Pierrefonds of Soissons (d. 1158), Abbey, Longpont. Collection Roger de Gaignieres. 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London, S o c i e t y f o r Promoting C h r i s t i a n Knowledge, 1940. I l l Pincus, D.D. "A Hand by Antonio Rizzo and the Double C a r i t a s Scheme of the Tron Tomb." Art Bulletin, 51 (1969), pp. 247-256. Pope-Hennessy, John. "The Area S. Domenic; a Hypothesis." Burlington Magazine, 93 (1957), pp. 347-351. Pope-Hennessy, John. "Giovanni P i s a n o . " Encyclopedia of World Art, V o l . VI. 1962, pp. 358a-366a. Pope-Hennessy, John. I t a l i a n Gothic Sculpture. 2nd ed. London, Phaidon Press, 1972. P o r t i g l i o t t i , Guiseppe. "Margherita d i Brabante a Genova." Genova; riviste mensile del commune, September 30, 1925, pp. 1067-1072. Romanini, A n g i o l a Mara. Arnolfo di Cambio e l o ' s t i l novo del gotico i t a l i a n o . M i l a n , Casa E d i t r i c e Cechina, 1969. Salmi, Mario. L'arte italiana. Vol. I: Dalle origini cristiane a l l ' a r t e gotica. 2nd ed. F l o r e n c e , Sansoni, 1956. Sauerlandt, Max. Uber die Bildwerke des Giovanni P%sano. 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"Some Notes on the Problem of S i g e r . " Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies, 2 (1950), pp. 121-127. Wenzel, S i e g f r i e d . "The P i l g r i m a g e of L i f e as a Late Mediaeval Genre." Mediaeval Studies, 35 (1973), pp. 370-388. White, John. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1250-1400. Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1966. Wippel, J.F. and Wolter, A.B., eds. Medieval Philosophy; from St. Augustine to Nicholas of Cusa. New York, MacMillan, 1969. Wolters, Wolfgang. La scultura veneziana gotica, 1300-1460. Two v o l s . Venice, A l f i e r i , 1976. 114 HISTORICAL APPENDIX 1460 lanuensium Monumenta per fratrem Cristoforum Ciprioum ordinis minorum confeota - Ab anno domini nostri Iesu Christi MXCVIIII usque ad annum MCCCCLX (Exemplatum 1617), B i b l i o t e c a U n i v e r s i t a r i a , Genoa, MS. B VII 6, pp. 65-66. "...Ipso et anno die XII deoembris in festo Sanote Lueie d.na Margarita oonsors eius imperatrix que etiam lanuam advenerat in Conventu Fratrum pre-dioatorum vita defeoit et in Conventu fratrum minorum eiusdem urbis prout ipsa legaverat in Capella Maiori a parte leva sepulcro marmoreo fuit sepulta, ut etiam in libro eorundem Fratrum qui in Saaristia eiusdem eonventus oonservatur et in l i t t e r is ipsos fratres eidem imperatori dirreotis aontinetur quarum oo'pia adhuo apud nos extat." (Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 16, n. 16.) A c o l l e c t i o n of Genoese r e c o r d s , 1099-1460. Margaret of Brabant's death d u r i n g the f e a s t of Sa i n t Lucy, on December 12, i n the monastery of S. Dominic, i s recorded. The n o t i c e makes r e f e r e n c e to Margaret's d i r e c t involvement i n the b u r i a l arrangements. She was entombed, as she h e r s e l f had chosen — "...prout ipsa legaverat..." --i n a marble sepulchre i n the r a i s e d p a r t — ". . .a parte leva. . ." — of the c h o i r of S. Francesco. 115 2 16th Century Cronica Januem ab initio ad annum 1333, A r c h i v i o d i Stato, T u r i n . "...Anno domini MCCCVIIIJ elleotus est in ala-mania-'rex henviaus comes de lucemburgo vir imperatorem et venit in Lombardiam MCCCX itaque omnes civitates lombardie per solempnes ambasa-toves se dederunt dicto domino imparatori et Januenses similiter fecerunt. Et MCCCXI venit in Janua et manendo ibi domina imperatrix uxor eius ibidem defuncta est et sepulta ad sanctum franciscum de Janua. Dictus vero dominus imperator ivit pisas et romam. et post multa bella et controversias que habuit tarn in roma quam item in tuscia et lombardia sicut deo placuit vitam f i n i v i t MCCCXIIJ in die beati rochi." (V. Promis, Atti della Societa Ligure di Storia F'atria, X (1874), pp. 495ff; Marcenaro, Tomba, pp. 13-14, n. 5. ) A Genoese c h r o n i c l e . An account of Henry VII's e l e c t i o n as "vir imperatorem" and h i s subsequent I t a l i a n journey. Margaret of Brabant's death i n Genoa, i n 1311, and her b u r i a l i n the church of S. Francesco --"...ad sanctum franciscum..." --are noted. 3 1537 Agostino G i u s t i n i a n i : Castigatissimi Annali con la loro 116 copiosa tavola delta Ecaelsa & Illustrissima Republi. di Genoa, da fideli & approvati Scrittori, per el Reverendo Monsignore Agostino Giustiniani Genovese Vescovo di Nebio accuvamente racolti, Genoa, 1537, p. 116. "Et i l giorno di S. Lucia L 'Imperatrioe Marg-arita, delta quale habbiamo parlato di sopra, nel monasterio di S. Dominico passo di que^sta vita all'altra, & fu sepelita nella chiesa di S. Francesco in la capella maggiore in una sepultura di marmo delta parte sinistra, secondo che ella haveva ordinato." (Marcenaro, p. 16., n. 16.) The death of Margaret 'of Brabant i n the monastery of S. Dominic and her entombment i n a marble sepulchre i n the church of S. Francesco, on the l e f t s i d e of the chapel, i s noted. Reference i s made to arrangements f o r the entombment being made by Margaret h e r s e l f : "...secondo che ella haveva ordinato." 4 1610 G i u l i o Pasqua, Memorie e sepolcri che sono nelle Chiese di Genova e i suoi suburbii raccolte I 'anno 1610, C i v i c a B i b l i o t e c a B e r i o , Genoa, M.R. I I . 2.II, p. 26. "Dentro la chiesa ddlla banda dritta dell'altar grande. 1311. Il Deposito di Margherita Impera-trioe." (Einem, p. 132. ) Pl a c e s the tomb of Margaret of Brabant i n s i d e the church of S. Francesco to the r i g h t of the high a l t a r . 117 5 1641 Agostino S c h i a f f i n o , Annali Eoolesiastioi delta Liguria, 1300-1528, A r c h i v i o S t o r i c o d e l Commune, Genoa, MS. 079, I I I , p. 58. "...La sua area si vede ancor in presente a fronte dell'organo ornata di statue di marmo." (Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 14, n. 7.) P l a c e s the tomb, decorated with marble s t a t u e s , f a c i n g the organ. At that time, the organ was l o c a t e d above the A l t a r of the Conception i n the l e f t arm of the t r a n s e p t (Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 7 and n. 8). T h i s i s the f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to what appears to be a moving of the tomb from i t s o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n i n the C a p p e l l a Maggiore of the church. 17th Century Agostino S c h i a f f i n o , Annali Eoolesiastioi nella Liguria, C i v i c a B i b l i o t e c a B e r i o , Genoa, I I I , p. 43. "Il giorno di S. Lucia in Genova nel monastero di S. Domenico si mori Margarita moglie del Re Henrico e secondo ch'ella aveva ordinato fu sepellita nella chiesa di S. Caterina nella contrata di locoli, posseduta dalle Monache dell'ordine di S. Francesco che poi cadendo ad altra religione, fu i l suo corpo trasportato nell chiesa di S. Francesco nella cui area fu posto tale epitaphio: Margarita Henrici VII Regis Romanorum uxor obiit Janue anno domini MCCCI. " (Einem, p. 133.) 118 The erroneous r e f e r e n c e to b u r i a l i n S. C a t e r i n a i s c o r r e c t e d by G i s c a r d i , i n 1750 (see below, Appendix entry 11). The e p i -taph of the tomb reads, Margaret, wife of Henry V I I , King of the Romans, d i e d Genoa the year of the Lord 1301 ( s i c ) . 7 18th Century Chiese di Genova, A r c h i v i o S t o r i c o d e l Commune, Genoa, MS. 050, p. 279. "In che gran concetto di religiosa perfetione vivessero i Frati antichi di questo Monastero puo argumentarsi ch'essendo morta in Genoa it giorno di S.ta Lucia dell'IZll L 'Imperatrice Margarita Moglie d'Enrico Sesto desiderosa partecipare de meriti di questi Santi religiosi Ordino net suo testamento d'esser interrata . nella loro Chiesa, dove sopra la Capella di S. Francesco in un suntuoso mausoleo fu tumu-lata. " (Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 14, n. 12.) Extended r e f e r e n c e i s made to Margaret's request f o r b u r i a l i n the church of S. Francesco. The tomb, d e s c r i b e d as a "sumptuous mausoleum," i s l o c a t e d "sopra la Capella di S. Francesco." The a c t u a l l o c a t i o n of the chapel i s unknown. I t has been suggested that the s i t e r e f e r r e d to here i s i d e n t i c a l with that r e f e r r e d to i n entry 5, that i s , i n the l e f t arm of the tra n s e p t . 119 18th Century N i c o l o Perasso, Memorie e notizie di chiese e oipeve pie di Genova, A r c h i v i o d i Sta t o , Genoa, MS. 836, p. 27 r . and v. (Marcenaro, Tomba, p. 7.) Descr i b e s the tomb as "un suntuoso mausoleo." 9 1728 Federigo F e d e r i c i , Collectanei Liguri, B i b l i o t e c a B r i g n -o l e , Genoa, MS., p. 192. "La cui moglie morse e fu sepolta in Genova domina Margarita in S. Francesco dove ancor hoggi si vede la sua area marmorea... " (Einem, p. 134.) Margaret of Brabant's marble tomb — "...area marmorea..." — i s mentioned i n the church of S. Francesco. 1739 10 Giacomo G i s c a r d i , Diario di Santi, Beati, Venerabili e Servi di Bio della Citta e Dominio di Genova, B i b l i o t e c a Franzodiana, Genoa, MS. 127, p. 365. "...Aveva essa prima di morire ordinato d'esser sepolta nella chiesa di P.P. minori di S. Fran-cesco di Genova, che perb i l di Lei cadavere cola traferito gli furono celebrate I'essequie 120 degne dell ''Imperiale Majesta et indi eolloeato in un areo di marmo ornata di molte figure ehe anehe al presente si vede sopra la cappella del medesimo S. Francesco alia parte sinistra del'Saneta Sanctorum." (Einem, p. 133.) D e s c r i b e s the monument as a marble tomb decorated with many f i g u r e s , l o c a t e d "above the chapel of S. Francesco," to the l e f t of the high a l t a r . 11 1750 Giacomo G i s c a r d i , Origine e successi delle chiese e monasteri, e luoghi pii della citta e riviere di Genova, B i b l i o t e c a Franzodiana, Genoa, MS., p. 203. "L'anno 1311 mori in Genova Margarita moglie dell'Imperatore Henrico VII i l die successe i l giorno di S. Lucia, e secondo quello avea ordinato circa i l suo deposito fu sepolta nella presente chiesa di S. Francesco, dove ancora oggidl si vede i l di Lei sepolcro ornato di molte statue di marmo sopra la capella di detto Santo. L'anno seguente cesso di vivere nel luogo di Buonconvento nella Toscana i l medesimo Imperatore Henrico VII i l cui cadavere fu sepolto nella Citta di Pisa, ma i l di lui cuore ordino prima di morire che fosse portato in Genova come fu eseguito e riposto nella stessa area ove gia-ceva I 'Imperatrice sua consorte Margarita. Errore i l Canonico Calcagnino nella Storia delle ceneri di S. Giovanni Battista ove dice che I ' Imperatrice Margarita fu sepolta nella chiesa di S. Caterina, mentre, i l fatto stesso cioe I ' essistenza del suo sepoloro mostra i l cohtrario (Einem, p. 133.) 121 T h i s manuscript p r o v i d e s the f i r s t and onl y r e f e r e n c e to the heart of Henry VII having been t r a n s p o r t e d to Genoa, i n accordance with a request made by the Emperor p r i o r to h i s death, and being p l a c e d i n the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. The erroneous r e f e r e n c e to Margaret of Brabant's b u r i a l i n S. C a t e r i n a made by Agostino S c h i a f f i n o (see below, Appendix entry 6) i s here c o r r e c t e d . 12 18th Century Domenico P i a g g i o , Epitaphia, sepulcra et inscriptiones sine stematibus marmorea et lapidea existentia in eaelesiis, C i v i c a B i b l i o t e c a B e r i o , Genoa, M.R. II.4.9., I I I , p. 226. Super Capellam S. Franaisci Margherita Enriei Sexti Regis Romanorum uxor obijt Genua anno MCCCXI depositum cum statua decumbente dicta Imperatricis Leon:^us ex antiqua Furnariorum Familia S.C. ceteberrimus et Marianensis dignissimus episcopus hoc Sacellum proprio aere construi Ius sit (Einem, p. 133 . ) A t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the tomb's e p i t a p h p l a c e d i n a narrow s e m i - c i r c u l a r f i e l d that seems to serve as the frame f o r a l u n e t t e - l i k e opening. The coat-of-arms of Leonardo F o r n a r i , Archbishop of Genoa, appears above the epit a p h . The legend "Super Capellam S. Francisci" i s w r i t t e n to the r i g h t . 122 13 1874 Fe d e r i c o A l i z e r i , "Correspondence," Giornale Ligustico di archeologia, storia, e belle arti, I (1874), p. 410. The f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of the document of August 25, 1313, and the i n i t i a t i o n of the modern h i s t o r y of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. Reference i s made to Genoese c h r o n i c l e s i n which the tomb i s d i s c u s s e d , but i t i s assumed that the work i t s e l f i s l o s t . 14 1874 Santo V a r n i , "Correspondence," Giornale Ligustico di archeologia, storia, e belle arti, I (1874), pp. 436-437. In response to A l i z e r i ' s p u b l i c a t i o n (Appendix entry 13), V a r n i l i n k s fragments i n the V i l l a B r i g n o l e - S a l e , i n V o l t r i , ( to Giovanni Pisano's tomb p r o j e c t . The fragments are d e s c r i b e d as, "...costano di tre figure; cioe di una muliebre in atto di essere alzata dalla tomba da due altre mutilate nella testa, le quali indossano una lunga veste. " An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the two attendant f i g u r e s as angels i s doubted. Note i s a l s o made that the fragments were found, "...con piu altri provenienti dalle demolizioni di san Francesco." 123 15 1875 L.T. Belgrano, " S o c i e t a Archivio Storico Repeats the f i n d i n g s of e n t r i e s 13 and 14). L i g u r e d i S t o r i a P a t r i a , " Italiano , 22 (1875), pp. 307-332. A l i z e r i and V a r n i (Appendix 16 1876 F e d e r i c o A l i z e r i , " N o t i z i e d e i P r o f e s s o r i d e l disegno," Liguria dalle origini al secolo XVI, Vol. IV: Scultura, 1876, pp. 2 6 f f . R e - p u b l i c a t i o n of the document of August 25, 1313, with r e f e r e n c e to the newly d i s c o v e r e d fragments. 17_ 1878 Gaetano M i l a n e s i , Le vite de'piu eocelenti pittori, scultori e architetti, scritte da Giorgio Vasari, F l o r e n c e , Sansoni, 1878, I, p. 326, n. 1. An addendum to V a s a r i ' s Vite of N i c o l a and Giovanni Pisano. D e s c r i b e s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e as, "...una muliebre in atto di essere messa nella tomba...", by two f i g u r e s dressed as monks. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s : repeated by J.P. R i c h t e r , Commentary containing notes and emmendations from the Italian edition of Milanesi and other sources, London, Bohn, 1901, I I , p. 295; and Leader S c o t t , Sculpture, Renaissance and Modern, 1886; r p t . London, S o c i e t y f o r Promoting C h r i s t i a n 124 Knowledge, 1905, p. 28. 18 1904 A. Brach, Nicola and Giovanni Pisano und die Ptastik des XIV Jahrhunderts in Siena, Strassburg, H e i t z and Mundel, 1904, p. 50. Of the tomb of• Margaret of Brabant Brach w r i t e s , "Erhalten is die Grabfigur der Kaiserin, di von zwei Engeln, deren Kb'pfe zerstort sind, aus dem Grabe emporgehoben. " Uses the fragments of the monument to counter the a t t r i b u t i o n of the tomb of Benedict XI, S. Domenico i n Perugia, to Giovanni Pisano. 19 1906 A. V e n t u r i , Storia dell'arte italiana, Vol. 4: La Scultura del Trecento, 1906; r p t . Nendeln Kraus Reprint L t d . , 1967, pp. 231 and 233. Des c r i b e s the three f i g u r e group as a "scena della resurrezione. " "...La defunta, sorpresa dal sonno di morte, aiutata da due angioli a sorgere dalla tomba. Nella camera funebre sopra i l corpo, ma richiamoto a vita, sorgere, assistito e sorretto dagli angioli, alia beatudine e alia gloria." 20 1906 W. Suida, Genua, L e i p z i g , E.A. Seeman, 1906, pp. 36-37. Suida p l a c i n g the tomb of Margaret of Brabant i n the 125 l a t e t h i r t e e n t h and e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h century t r a d i t i o n of tomb s c u l p t u r e , suggests that the monument may have o r i g i n a l l y resembled the tomb of C a r d i n a l de Braye by A r n o l f o d i Cambio. 21 1925 Guiseppe P o r t i g l i o t t i , "Margherita d i Brabante a Genova," Genova; viviste mensile del commune, September 30, 1925, pp. 1067-1072. Argues that the fragments from the V i l l a B r i g n o l e - S a l e may not be a s s o c i a t e d with the tomb of Margaret of Brabant f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: (1) , the provenance of the s c u l p t u r e does not e s t a b l i s h that the fragments o r i g i n a t e d i n the church of S. Francesco d i C a s t e l l e t t o ; (2) , the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the group resembles Madonna f i g u r e s by Giovanni Pisano; (3) , the costume of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e does not correspond with that of the d e p i c t i o n of Margaret of Brabant i n the Codex Balduini Tvevivensis; (4) , the f u n e r a l of Margaret of Brabant d e p i c t e d i n the Codex Balduini Tvevivensis does not correspond with the extant tomb fragments; (5) , the iconography of the three f i g u r e group i s i n c o n s i s t e n t with that of contemporary tombs. P o r t i g l i o t t i suggests that the fragments r e p r e s e n t an Assumption of the V i r g i n made by Giovanni Pisano. 126 22 1925 Orlando Grosso, "Intorno a l i a tomba d i Mar g h e r i t a d i Brabante a Palazzo Bianco," Genova; v i v i s t e mensile del commune, October 31, 1925, pp. 1203-1204. A r e j e c t i o n of P o r t i g l i o t t i ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the fragments (Appendix entry 21). 23 1927 A. V e n t u r i , Giovanni Pisano, sein Leben und sein Wevk, F l o r e n c e , Pantheon, 1927, I, pp. 51 and 61. The unique q u a l i t i e s of the tomb i n r e l a t i o n to contemp-orary tomb s c u l p t u r e are noted. V e n t u r i c i t e s the tombs of A r n o l f o d i Cambio and the t r a d i t i o n of tomb s c u l p t u r e i n I t a l y i n the f o u r t e e n t h century as being d i s t i n c t from the iconography of the Margaret of Brabant monument. The f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant i s i n t e r p r e t e d as i l l u s t r a t i n g "eine Besiegevin des Todes," as opposed to the t r a d i t i o n of showing the deceased i n the sl e e p of death. 24 1933 Wolfgang Stechow, "Giovanni Pisano," Allgemeines Lexikon dev bildenden Kunstlev von dev Antike bis zuv Gegenwavt, Hans Vollmer ed., L e i p z i g , E.A. Seeman, 1933, XXVII, p. 100a. Refers to the tomb fragments as the "Hauptwevk dev Spatzeit" of Giovanni Pisano. 127 25 1935 W.R.,Valentiner, Tino di Camaino, P a r i s , Pegasus Press, 1935, p. 34. V a l e n t i n e r r e c o g n i s e s the p o r t r a i t q u a l i t y of the face of Margaretoof Brabant, w r i t i n g , "In the workshop of Giovanni Pisano.... p o r t r a i t s are r a r e . The most important i s that of the Empress Margaret on the Genoese tomb, though, i f one s u b t r a c t s the costume l i t t l e remains of the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r of the p o r t r a y e d . . . " 26 n.d. M. Longhurst, Notes on Italian Monuments of the 12th to the 16th Centuries, Photostat e d i t i o n prepared by I. Lowe under the auspices of the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, London, n.d., I, C42. Suggests that the tomb probably d i d not have a r e c l i n i n g e f f i g y . 27 1942 Harald K e l l e r , Giovanni Pisano, Vienna, Anton S c h r o l l , 1942, pp. 59-60 and 71. R e l a t e s the iconography of the tomb fragments to that of the Last Judgment. 28 1951 P i e t r o Toesca, l l Treaento, 1951; r p t . T u r i n , Unione 128 T i p o g r a f i c o , 1964, pp. 252 and 380-381. Desribes the f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant, "...in atto di risorgere sorretta da Angeli illuminata da un sorriso..." The four v i r t u e f i g u r e s of S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa, are mention-ed as the work of a f o l l o w e r of Giovanni Pisano. 29 1954 H e n r i e t t e s'Jacob, Idealism and Realism; A Study of Sepulchral Symbolism, Leiden, E . J . B r i l l , 1954, p. 46. De s c r i b e s the f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant as r i s i n g , "...from her f u n e r a l bed a s s i s t e d by two angels." 30 1956 Mario Salmi, L'arte italiana, Vol. I; Dalle origini cristiane all1 arte gotica, 2nd. ed., F l o r e n c e , Sansoni, 1956, p. 363. Dis c u s s e s the tomb fragments i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s t y l e of Giovanni Pisano i n h i s l a t e years. 31 1956 (V), "Giovanni Pisano," Dizionario enciclopedico i t a l i a n o , Rome, 1956, V, p. 412a. Dis c u s s e s the tomb fragments i n the context of Giovanni Pisano's l a t e s t y l e . 129 32 1960 E m i l i o Lavagnino, L'arte medioevale, 2nd ed., T u r i n , Unione T i p o g r a f i c o , 1960, pp. 663-664. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the main group i s d e s c r i b e d as r i s i n g , ".. .dal letto funebre..." 33 1960 P i e r o T o r r i t i , "Una s t a t u a d e l l a ' G i u s t i z i a ' d i Giovanni Pisano per i l monumento funebre a Margherita d i Brabante i n Genova," Commentari, 3/4 (1960), pp. 231-236. A i ' f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g the C a r d i n a l V i r t u e of J u s t i c e i s h e r e i n a s s o c i a t e d with the tomb of Margaret of Brabant and a t t r i b u t e d to Giovanni Pisano. The c l o s e resemblance of the J u s t i c e f i g u r e to that i n a group of f i g u r e s from the church of S. Maria Maddalena, Genoa, i s noted ( c f . , Appendix entry 28). The suggestion i s made that the f i v e f i g u r e s from Santa Maria Maddalena were copied f o r a funerary monument from t h e i r c o r r e s -ponding f i g u r e s i n the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. The J u s t i c e f i g u r e i s i d e n t i f i e d as a c a r y a t i d from the f i r s t l e v e l of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 34 1960 P i e r o T o r r i t i , "Una s t a t u a d e l l a ' G i u s t i z i a ' d i Giovanni 130 Pisano e i l monumento a M argherita d i Brabante," Bolletino Ligustico per la storia e la cultura regionale, XII (1960), pp. 124-134. Provides a rough r e c o n s t r u c t i o n sketch. 35 1961 Herbert von Einem, "Das Grabmal der K o n i g i n Margarethe i n Genua," Festschrift Hans H. Hahnloser, B a s e l , Birkhauser, 1961, pp. 125-150. P u b l i s h e d with knowledge o n l y of the three fragments of the main group. Provides a major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the iconography of these p i e c e s , focussed on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Assumption of the V i r g i n and the p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the tomb. 36 1961 C. Marcenaro, "Per l a tomba d i M a r g h e r i t a d i Brabante," Paragone, 133 (1961), pp. 3-17. A f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g J u s t i c e i s a t t r i b u t e d to Giovanni Pisano and a s s o c i a t e d with the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. D e s c r i p t i o n s of the tomb, p r i o r to 1798, are d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . I t i s suggested that the J u s t i c e f i g u r e was a c a r y a t i d i n the monument. 37 1961 P i e r o T o r r i t i , "Ancora s u l monumento Brabante d i Giovanni 131 Pisano i n Genova," Commentari, I (1961), pp. 66-67. A b r i e f account of the d i s c o v e r y of the J u s t i c e f i g u r e . In c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence; (1) , C. Marcenaro found the J u s t i c e f i g u r e i n March, 1960. (2) , P. T o r r i t i found the J u s t i c e f i g u r e i n December, 1960. (3) , P. T o r r i t i , 1960 (Appendix entry 33), p u b l i s h e d . (4) , C. Marcenaro, 1961 (Appendix entry 36), p u b l i s h e d . (5) , P. T o r r i t i , 1961 (Appendix entry 37), p u b l i s h e d . (6) , P. T o r r i t i , 1960 (Appendix entry 34), pu b l i s h e d . 38 1962 John Pope-Hennessy, "Giovanni P i s a n o , " Encyclopedia of World Art, New York, 1962, VI, pp. 358a-366a. The f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant i s l i n k e d s t y l i s t i c a l l y with a f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g P i s a (Museo d e l l ' O p e r a d e l Duomo, P i s a ) . T h i s l a t e work of Giovanni Pisano was o r i g i n a l l y part of a group r e p r e s e n t i n g Henry VII and P i s a k n e e l i n g before a Madonna and C h i l d . 39 1963 C. Marcenaro, "La Madonna d e l l a tomba d i Margherita d i Brabante," Paragone, 167 (1963), pp. 17-21. The headless, standing f i g u r e of a woman i s i d e n t i f i e d as a Madonna by Giovanni Pisano and a s s o c i a t e d with the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. The suggestion i s made that the Madonna 132 occupied a l o f t y p o s i t i o n i n the tomb programme. 40 1964 E. Panofsky, Tomb Sculpture; Four Lectures on -its Changing Aspects from Ancient Egypt to Bernini, H.W. Janson ed., New York, Abrams, n.d., pp. 77 and 82. Refers to the f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant as being, " . . . a s s i s t e d to r i s e from the dead' as i f i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the Last Judgment..." 1966 41 John White, Art and Architecture in Italy, 1250-1400, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1966, p. 88. " V a r i e d movement, emotional s e n s i t i v i t y and r i g i d s e l e c t i v i t y of d e t a i l were e v i d e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the tomb of Margaret of Luxemburg (Brabant).... the b a s i s of t h i s w a l l tomb must have been a f u r t h e r development of the s e p u l c h r a l drama of A r n o l f o ' s monument f o r C a r d i n a l de Braye." 42 1968 M. S e i d e l , " E i n neu entdecketes Fragment des Genueser Grabmals der Konigin Margarethe von Giovanni Pisano," Pantheon, XXVI (1968), pp. 335-351. A head, i n a Swiss p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , i s i d e n t i f i e d as part of a f i g u r e of Temperance by Giovanni Pisano and a s s o c i a t e d with the tomb of Margaret of Brabant. 133 43 1969 M. Ayrton, Giovanni Pisano, Sculptor, New York, Wey-b r i g h t and T a l l e y , 1969, pp. 185-192 and 227-228. A d i s c u s s i o n of the tomb i n the context of Giovanni Pisano's l a t e work. 44 1969 D.D. Pincus, "A Hand by Antonio R i z z o and the Double C a r i t a s Scheme of the Tron Tomb," Art Bulletin, 51 (1969), pp. 247-256. Suggests that i t i s , " . . . l i k e l y t h a t the prominent use of more or l e s s f r e e s t a n d i n g v i r t u e f i g u r e s was int r o d u c e d by Giovanni Pisano i n the tomb of Margaret of Brabant..." 45 1970 Gian Lorenzo M e l l i n i , Giovanni Pisano, Venice, E l e c t a , 1970, pp. 177-178. Disc u s s e s the tomb i n the context of a t r a d i t i o n of r e p r e s e n t i n g the psychomachia between the d e v i l and angels a f t e r death. The f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant i s i n t e r p r e t e d to be r i s i n g , i n her r e s u r r e c t i o n , towards one of her attendants w h i l s t shunning the other. 134 46 1972 ' John Pope-Hennessy, Italian Gothic Sculpture , 2nd ed., London, Phaidon Books, 1972, pp. 179-180. Suggests that the r e s u r r e c t i o n of Margaret of Brabant d e r i v e s from French r e l i e f s d e p i c t i n g the Awakening of the V i r g i n . Suggests that the C a r d i n a l V i r t u e s were grouped around the e f f i g y of Margaret of Brabant beneath a l u n e t t e c o n t a i n i n g the r i s i n g f i g u r e of Margaret of Brabant. 47 1973 J u l i a n Gardner, " A r n o l f o d i Cambio and Roman Tomb Design, Burlington Magazine, 115 (1973), pp. 420-439. Suggests that the iconography of the tomb of Margaret of Brabant may have been d e r i v e d from t h a t of the tomb chapel of N i c h o l a s I I I (d. 1280). 

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