UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Shadow cabinet organization in Canada 1963-78 Ort, Karen 1978

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SHADOW CABINET ORGANIZATION IN CANADA 1963-78 by KAREN ORT B . A . , (Honours), Queen's U n i v e r s i t y at Kingston , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l Science) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 © Karen O r t , 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree t h a t the Library shall make it freely available for r e f e r e n c e and st u d y . I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P o l i t i c a l Science The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date September 5» 1978 i i ABSTRACT The .study, focuses on shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e p r a c t i c e ; o f a p p o i n t i n g members t o shadow t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s by O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s a n a l y z e d i n C a n a d a b e t w e e n 1963 and 1 9 7 8 , a p e r i o d o f c o n t i n u a l P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e O p p o s i t i o n . The u n d e r -l y i n g q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n has become more o r l e s s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n Samuel H u n t i n g t o n ' s f o u r t e s t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n a r e o u t l i n e d . T h e y were u s e d i n a s s e s s i n g C a n a d i a n shadow c a b i n e t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . To o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e t e s t s f o r t h i s s t u d y i t p r o v e d u s e -f u l t o a n a l y z e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t s y s t e m a l o n g t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s . A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m s i n w h i c h t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f shadow c a b i n e t s i s an a c c e p t e d c o n v e n t i o n a l s o h e l p e d i s o l a t e t h e v a r i a b l e s t o s t u d y i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t . A l t h o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s c e n t e r s on t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1963 t o 1 9 7 8 , a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f O p p o s i t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d . I t p r o v i d e s t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e p e r i o d and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o o t s o f t h e p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y r e v e a l t h a t a shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t e d i n C a n a d a t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d 1 9 6 3 -78 . F o r most o f t h e 15 y e a r s i t s s t r u c t u r e and p r a c t i c e s were c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . The c h a n g e was i n t h e d i r e c t i o n i i i o f i n c r e a s e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n on a t l e a s t t h r e e o f H u n t i n g t o n ' s f o u r d i m e n s i o n s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e i t i s a r g u e d t h a t shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n has become an e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e o f a t l e a s t P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e O p p o s i t i o n i n C a n a d a . 1 V T A B L E OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r Page I INTRODUCTION 1 M e t h o d o l o g y 9 II COMPARATIVE STUDY OF B R I T I S H AND A U S T R A L I A N SHADOW CABINETS 1 4 I I I HISTORY OF OPPOSITION ORGANIZATION IN CANADA l b IV SHADOW CABINET ORGANIZATION IN CANADA 1963-78 6 b C a n a d i a n C a b i n e t S y s t e m 3 6 Shadow C a b i n e t A d a p t a b i l i t y 4 2 C o m p l e x i t y 5 3 A u t o n o m y 6 0 8 7 C o h e r e n c e V CONCLUSIONS 1 0 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 0 5 APPENDIX 11  V L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e Page I C o m p a r i s o n o f Shadow C a b i n e t and C a u c u s C o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e H o u s e o f Commons 61 II C o m p a r i s o n o f Spokesmen and B a c k b e n c h S p e c i a l i z a t i o n S c o r e s 68 I I I C o m p a r i s o n o f Spokesmen S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n V a r i o u s A c t i v i t i e s 69 IV S p e c i a l i z a t i o n S c o r e s o f Shadow C a b i n e t Members by P a r l i a m e n t a r y E x p e r i e n c e 71 V S p e c i a l i z a t i o n S c o r e s o f Shadow C a b i n e t Members by M i n i s t e r i a l E x p e r i e n c e 73 VI S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f Shadow C a b i n e t Members by Shadow E x p e r i e n c e 75 V I I S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f Shadow C a b i n e t Members by L e v e l o f A c t i v i t y 77 V I I I R e g i o n a l v s . S u b j e c t S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f Shadow C a b i n e t Members 79 IX R e g i o n a l S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f Shadow C a b i n e t Members by P a r l i a m e n t a r y E x p e r i e n c e 80 X R e g i o n a l S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f Shadow C a b i n e t Members by R e g i o n 82 V 1 L I S T OF GRAPHS G r a p h Page 1 C o m p a r i s o n o f Shadow C a b i n e t and C a b i n e t S i z e 1 963-1 977 , 2 A v e r a g e Shadow C a b i n e t S p e c i a l i z a t i o n O v e r Time 3 C o m p a r i s o n o f Spokesmen and B a c k b e n c h S p e c i a l i z a t i o n S c o r e s 66 g 1 C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION In t h e s p r i n g o f 1963 t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n Canada e n t e r e d o p p o s i t i o n a f t e r h a v i n g f o r m e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e p r e v i o u s s i x y e a r s . I t has n o t h e l d o f f i c e s i n c e t h e n , b u t has been t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h f i v e P a r l i a m e n t s i n two m a j o r i t y and t h r e e m i n o r i t y g o v e r n m e n t s i t u a t i o n s . The L i b e r a l P a r t y , u n d e r two d i f -f e r e n t l e a d e r s , has c o n t i n u e d t o f o r m t h e g o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . The number o f C o n s e r v a t i v e Members o f P a r l i a -ment has r a n g e d f r o m a low o f 72 i n t h e 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t , 1 9 6 8 - 7 2 , t o a h i g h o f 107 i n t h e 2 9 t h , 1 9 7 2 - 7 4 . The C o n -s e r v a t i v e s have had t h r e e l e a d e r s s i n c e 1 9 6 3 . J . G . D i e f e n -b a k e r , t h e f o r m e r P r i m e M i n i s t e r , l e d t h e p a r t y u n t i l 1 9 6 7 . In a b i t t e r s t r u g g l e w h i c h s h o o k p a r t y u n i t y , R o b e r t L . S t a n f i e l d , P r e m i e r o f Nova S c o t i a , became t h e l e a d e r i n l a t e 1967 . He s e r v e d f o r n i n e y e a r s , l e a d i n g h i s p a r t y i n t h r e e e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n s , 1968 , 1972 and 1974 . J o e C l a r k , a y o u n g , r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d Member o f P a r l i a m e n t w i t h b a c k r o o m p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , r e p l a c e d S t a n f i e l d as L e a d e r o f t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1976 . S i n c e t h a t t i m e he has c o n t i n u e d to l e a d t h e p a r t y i n P a r l i a m e n t b u t has n o t , as y e t , f o u g h t an e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n . T h e r e have been many i n t e r e s t i n g c h a n g e s i n C a n a d a ' s P a r l i a m e n t and h e r p a r t i e s i n t h e l a s t 15 y e a r s . Some have a l r e a d y been s t u d i e d by 2 p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s . Among t h e many t h a t have n o t , i s t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a shadow c a b i n e t . When D i e f e n b a k e r f i r s t e n t e r e d o p p o s i t i o n , he a p -p o i n t e d a shadow c a b i n e t , a c c o r d i n g t o P e t e r S t u r s b e r g , who has e d i t e d an o r a l h i s t o r y o f t h e p e r i o d . ^ T h e s e a p p o i n t m e n t s were o f f i c i a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m a n s h i p s . W i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f 1 9 6 5 , t h e O p p o s i t i o n has s i n c e had a c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s y s t e m . L i s t s o f c h a i r m e n f o r t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s a r e r e l e a s e d p e r i o d i c a l l y . P r i o r t o 1969 t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s ' c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d c a b i n e t s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e was a c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h a i r m a n f o r e a c h m i n i s t e r . O v e r t i m e , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n G r a p h 1 , t h e c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n have come t o o u t n u m b e r t h e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . The r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y f o r o v e r s e e i n g m i n i s t r i e s s u c h as C o n sumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s has been s p l i t be tween 2 two d i f f e r e n t c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s . In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , c o m m i t t e e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h s u b j e c t s t h a t a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f more t h a n one m i n i s t r y . C a u c u s c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n , f i r s t a p p o i n t e d i n t h e 1 9 4 ' 0 ' s , g r a d u a l l y a s s u m e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s b e y o n d s i m p l y c h a i r i n g c o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a -t e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n began t o c h a n g e b e f o r e 1963 b u t were s t i l l e v o l v i n g d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 6 3 - 7 8 . As w e l l as s u p e r v i s i n g t h e s t u d y o f s u b j e c t a r e a s i n c a u c u s , t h e c h a i r m e n became p a r t y s p o k e s m e n and c r i t i c s o f g o v e r n m e n t GRAPH 1 COMPARISON OF SHADOW CABINET AND CABINET S I Z E 4 p o l i c y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e g r o u p o f c h a i r m e n began t o assume c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In t h e 2 6 t h P a r l i a m e n t , 1 963-6 5 , t h e g r o u p met o n l y a t t h e c a l l o f t h e c h a i r m a n o f c a u c u s . By 1968 i t was m e e t i n g d a i l y to p l a n p a r l i a m e n t a r y 3 s t r a t e g y . G r a d u a l l y o v e r t i m e , as t h e number o f c h a i r m e n o r c r i t i c s o f p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t a r e a s i n c r e a s e d , a new t y p e o f a p p o i n t m e n t e m e r g e d . The f i r s t c o o r d i n a t o r s , t h r e e to be e x a c t , were a p p o i n t e d i n 1973 . T h e y were g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i n a s u b j e c t a r e a , i n w h i c h more t h a n one c o m m i t t e e was i n -v o l v e d . In t h e f a l l o f 1977 a c o m p l e t e s l a t e o f 6 c o -o r d i n a t o r s was a p p o i n t e d . A l l b u t 5 c o m m i t t e e s had been 4 g r o u p e d i n t o p o l i c y a r e a s e a c h h e a d e d by a c o o r d i n a t o r . Now i t i s t h e s e 6 c o o r d i n a t o r s who meet w i t h t h e l e a d e r 5 d a i l y t o p l a n and c o o r d i n a t e p a r l i a m e n t a r y s t r a t e g y . In s p i t e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e a p p o i n t e e s , o f f i c i a l p a r t y s t a t e m e n t s have a l w a y s c o n t i n u e d t o use t h e t e r m c a u c u s c h a i r m a n r a t h e r t h a n s h a d o w , c r i t i c o r s p o k e s m a n . B o t h R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d and Joe C l a r k have s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e t e r m shadow c a b i n e t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e , b e c a u s e a p p o i n t e e s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y become c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s i f t h e p a r t y g a i n e d o f f i c e . ^ H o w e v e r , r e p o r t e r s a n d j o u r n a l i s t s t h r o u g h -o u t t h e p e r i o d have r e f e r r e d t o t h e g r o u p o f a p p o i n t e d c h a i r m e n as t h e shadow c a b i n e t , and to i n d i v i d u a l c h a i r -men as e i t h e r t h e p a r t y ' s s p o k e s m e n o r c r i t i c s . ^ In 5 a d d i t i o n t h e a p p o i n t e e s s p e a k o f t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s manner and Joe C l a r k has u s e d b o t h o f t h e s e t e r m s . 9 H o w e v e r , the l e a d e r s ' h e s i t a t i o n t o r e f e r to t h e g r o u p o f c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n as a shadow c a b i n e t r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s o n e . To s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m we n e e d a d e f i n i -t i o n o f a shadow c a b i n e t . T h e r e a r e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a shadow c a b i n e t . F i r s t l y , i t i s a g r o u p o f O p p o s i t i o n c a u c u s l e a d e r s w h i c h assume s i m i l a r r o l e s v i s - a - v i s t h e O p p o s i t i o n c a u c u s t h a t t h e c a b i n e t does i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t p a r t y . I t i s t h e c a b i n e t w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o g r a m o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t . B e c a u s e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t and o p p o s i t i o n a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t t h e shadow c a b i n e t i s n o t p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . B u t i f a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n i s b e i n g c a r r i e d on by t h e O p p o s i t i o n c a u c u s , t h e n t h e shadow w o u l d be i n v o l v e d . A shadow c a b i n e t d i r e c t s t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r o g r a m . I t d e c i d e s t h e i s s u e s t h e p a r t y w i l l f o c u s upon i n i t s a t t e m p t s t o e m b a r r a s s t h e g o v e r n m e n t . In g e n e r a l t e r m s , i t i n i t i a t e s and c a u c u s r e -s p o n d s . The i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i s w h e t h e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a g r o u p . I f t h e y n e v e r meet o r do n o t have c o l l e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s a shadow c a b i n e t does n o t e x i s t . S e c o n d l y , a shadow c a b i n e t as i m p l i e d by t h e name o v e r s e e s o r shadows t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c a b i n e t . R o u g h l y t h e same d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r as t h e c a b i n e t ' s i s a d o p t e d by 6 the s h a d o w . I n d i v i d u a l s shadow t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . As w e l l as b e i n g c r i t i c s , shadow c a b i n e t members a r e p a r t y s p o k e s m e n upon t h e s u b j e c t a r e a f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e . T h u s i n d i v i d u a l members o f the shadow c a b i n e t , as w e l l as t h e g r o u p as a w h o l e , have p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s t o f u l f i l l . A t h i r d d i m e n s i o n o f a w e i 1 - d e v e l o p e d shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e n o t i o n o f t h e shadow as an a l t e r n a t i v e c a b i n e t . Once t h e O p p o s i t i o n p a r t y g a i n s o f f i c e t h e members o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t become members o f t h e c a b i n e t . However t h i s i s o n l y one p a r t o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t d e f i n i t i o n . I t has t h e o t h e r r o l e s , as d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , o f d i r e c t i n g c r i t i c i s m , o r g a n i z i n g i n t e r n a l c a u c u s o p e r a t i o n s and p o s s i b l y f o r m u l a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y . T h e s e r o l e s a r e b a s e d on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f O p p o s i t i o n as an i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n d i s t i n c t f r o m s i m p l y b e i n g o u t o f o f f i c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a l t h o u g h t h e g r o u p o f C o n s e r v a t i v e c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n may n o t be a f u t u r e c a b i n e t , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t e x i s t s as an o r g a n i z e d g r o u p p e r f o r m -i n g t h e d u t i e s s p e c i f i e d a b o v e and members have a s s o c i a t e d i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i t can be c o n s i d e r e d a shadow c a b i n e t . F u r t h e r u n t i l t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y f o r m s a f u t u r e g o v e r n m e n t t h e c l a i m t h a t the g r o u p i s n o t an a l t e r n a t i v e c a b i n e t r e m a i n s u n t e s t e d . Once t h e l e a d e r i s i n t h e s i t u a -t i o n o f h a v i n g t o c h o o s e a c a b i n e t he may f i n d i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o d e n y p o s i t i o n s t o shadow s p o k e s m e n . 7 T h e r e i s a n o t h e r o b j e c t i o n t o c o n s i d e r i n g t h e C o n s e r v a -t i v e g r o u p o f c h a i r m e n as t h e a l t e r n a t i v e c a b i n e t . O t h e r p a r t i e s e x i s t i n C a n a d a w h i c h c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y f o r m t h e g o v e r n m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e u n l i k e l i h o o d o f t h i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e j u s t i f i e s a f o c u s on t h e C o n -s e r v a t i v e g r o u p as a shadow c a b i n e t and i g n o r i n g t h e c r i t i c p o s i t i o n s i n t h e s m a l l e r p a r t i e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e on why a shadow c a b i n e t i s e m e r g i n g i n C a n a d a and i s a l r e a d y w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n o t h e r B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m s . To e x p l a i n t h i s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n . M o s t , i f n o t a l l o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s f o c u s on a c h i e v i n g o f f i c e . The O p p o s i t i o n p a r t y w i l l seek t o d i s -c r e d i t t h e e x i s t i n g g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h c o n t i n u a l s c r u t i n y o f i t s p o l i c i e s and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r e s e n t i t s e l f as an a l t e r n a t i v e . The a p p o i n t m e n t o f a l e a d e r s h i p team o r shadow c a b i n e t i s one means t h e O p p o s i t i o n can use t o b o t h p r e s e n t i t s e l f as an a l t e r n a t i v e and to i m p r o v e i t s s c r u t i n y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t . In p o s i n g as an a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e r e a r e a d v a n t a g e s t o an e m p h a s i s upon l e a d e r s h i p as o p p o s e d to p o l i c y . I f t h e O p p o s i t i o n f o r m u l a t e s and p r e s e n t s p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s , i t i s v u l n e r a b l e to c o u n t e r - a t t a c k by t h e g o v e r n m e n t and o t h e r a g e n t s o f c r i t i c i s m i n the p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . M o r e o v e r , i f v o t e r s a r e l a r g e l y r e a c t i n g t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e n t h e r e i s . n o n e e d f o r t h e O p p o s i t i o n t o p r e s e n t e x p l i c i t c o u n t e r p r o p o s a l s . I t 8 must o n l y a p p e a r p r e p a r e d w i t h a c r e d i b l e team o f l e a d e r s on h a n d . A team o f l e a d e r s i s a l s o l i k e l y t o f u r t h e r t h e g o a l o f r e s p o n s i b l e , e f f e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . One e l e m e n t o f what a p p e a r s as i r r e s p o n s i b l e c r i t i c i s m i s t h e a b s e n c e o f a c o h e r e n t u n i t e d a t t a c k . The p a r t y i s u n l i k e l y t o a p p e a r as a r e s p o n s i b l e c r i t i c i f c a u c u s members a r e a d v a n c i n g c o n f l i c t i n g p o s i t i o n s . A g r o u p o f shadow m i n i s t e r s c o -o r d i n a t i n g t h e c a u c u s ' a c t i v i t i e s s o l v e s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a p p e a r i n g to s p e a k w i t h many v o i c e s . A s s i g n i n g shadows s p e c i f i c p o l i c y a r e a s , i n w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d o r have some e x p e r i e n c e , e v e n i f l i m i t e d , i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n more c o g e n t and t h o r o u g h l y r e s e a r c h e d c r i t i c i s m . T h u s , t h e e m e r g e n c e o f shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a -t i o n s h o u l d n o t t a k e us by s u r p r i s e . I t i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e g o a l s o f t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h p a r l i a -m e n t a r y s y s t e m . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t o l o o k more c l o s e l y a t the d e v e l o p m e n t o f shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n C a n a d a i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1963 t o 1978 . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n j u d g i n g w h e t h e r t h e shadow c a b i n e t has become an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n , an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a n o t e on t h e m e t h o d o l o g y and s o u r c e s u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . C h a p t e r Two i s a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f shadow c a b i n e t s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and i n A u s t r a l i a . In b o t h c o u n t r i e s t h e 9 o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e s e two s y s t e m s s e r v e s t o c l a r i f y t h e d e f i n i t i o n j u s t p r e s e n t e d and t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n c a s e . C h a p t e r T h r e e i s a s h o r t h i s t o r y o f O p -p o s i t i o n c a u c u s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n C a n a d a . The r o o t s o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v e t o be i m p o r t a n t i n i t s l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r d e a l s e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e shadow c a b i n e t s t r u c t u r e , p r o c e d u r e s and o p e r a -t i o n s i n t h e p e r i o d , 1 9 6 3 - 7 8 . The c o n c l u s i o n s draw t o g e t h e r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . M e t h o d o l o g y The f i r s t s t e p i n a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n , "How i n -s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i s t h e C a n a d i a n shadow c a b i n e t s y s t e m ? " i s t o f i n d an a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n . Samuel H u n t i n g t o n d e f i n e s an i n s t i t u t i o n as a s t a b l e , v a l u e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o r p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r . ^ He has i s o l a t e d f o u r a s p e c t s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . T h e s e f o u r c r i t e r i a p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s o f o u r s t u d y . T h e y d e t e r m i n e t h e f a c t o r s s e a r c h e d f o r and s e r v e as t h e o r g a n -i z i n g p r i n c i p l e i n p r e s e n t i n g o u r f i n d i n g s . A t t h i s p o i n t the r e a d e r i s b r i e f l y i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e s e c o n c e p t s as d e -f i n e d by H u n t i n g t o n . F u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o u r and how t h e y were o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i s i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n i s a d a p t a b i l i t y , w h e t h e r t h e 10 o r g a n i z a t i o n has been a b l e t o s u r v i v e o v e r t i m e i n l i g h t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a l l e n g e . 1 1 The more a d a p t a b l e an o r g a n -i z a t i o n , t h e more h i g h l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e . One r a t h e r weak t e s t o f a d a p t a b i l i t y i s c h r o n o l o g i -c a l a g e . The r e q u i r e d a s s u m p t i o n , o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a l -l e n g e , makes i t a l e s s t h a n c o m p l e t e l y a d e q u a t e t e s t . I t i s a more s t r i n g e n t t e s t o f a d a p t a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y a c t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s and d e t e r m i n e how t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n d e d t o t h e m . Thus H u n t i n g t o n s e t s o u t g e n e r a t i o n a l 1 2 age and f u n c t i o n a l a d a p t a b i l i t y as two i m p o r t a n t t e s t s . A g e n e r a t i o n a l c h a n g e i n t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i s a good t e s t o f a d a p t a b i l i t y . F u n c t i o n a l a d a p t a b i l i t y p e r t a i n s to how t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n d s t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s w h i c h m o d i f y o r d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e i t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n . H u n t i n g t o n ' s s e c o n d t e s t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s c o m p l e x i t y . The more c o m p l e x an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s , t h e 1 3 g r e a t e r the d e g r e e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e i s a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d t h a t c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n s as o p p o s e d t o s i m p l e ones w i l l be a b l e t o a d a p t t o c h a n g e s i n f u n c t i o n . 1 ^ The number and c h a r a c t e r o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b - u n i t s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o f c o m p l e x i t y . A r e t h e y h i e r a r c h i c a l l y r e l a t e d o r • f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c ? A r e t h e r e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s u b - u r i i t s ? The d e g r e e o f aut onomy o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e t h i r d 1 5 t e s t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . T h i s t e s t i n c l u d e s c o n -s i d e r a t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n has i t s own r u l e s , n p r o c e d u r e s a n d d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r : To what e x t e n t i s i t i n d e p e n d e n t o f o t h e r s o c i a l g r o u p s and m e t h o d s ? Is i t a b l e t o a c q u i r e and e x p e n d r e s o u r c e s w i t h o u t b e i n g s u b j e c t t o d e t a i l e d s c r u t i n y . Can i t a s s i m i l a t e new p e r -s o n n e l so t h a t i t s c h a r a c t e r i s n o t c h a n g e d . The f o u r t h and f i n a l t e s t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s c o h e r e n c e . The more u n i f i e d and c o h e r e n t an o r g a n i z a t i o n , 1 C t h e more i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . A t t h e v e r y minimum H u n t i n g -t o n a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e must be c o n s e n s u s on t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e s o l v i n g i n t e r n a l d i s p u t e s . A r e t h e r e d i s c i p l i n a r y m e c h a n i s m s ? A r e a c t o r s w i l l i n g t o f o c u s on g r o u p o b j e c t i v e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f p r i v a t e o r p e r s o n a l o n e s ? As w e l l as H u n t i n g t o n ' s f r a m e w o r k o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a -t i o n , we u s e d a number o f t h e m e a s u r e s R . M . P u n n e t t s e t o u t i n h i s work on B r i t i s h shadow c a b i n e t s . ^ 7 Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i s h i s c o n c e p t o f a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e w h i c h i s u s e d i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f a u t o n o m y . The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y R e s e a r c h O f f i c e s u p p l i e d l i s t s o f t h e c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n and c o o r d i n a t o r s a p p o i n t e d s i n c e 1963 . The House o f Commons D e b a t e Index and t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e were e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , n e w s p a p e r s , m a g a z i n e s , and b i o g r a p h i c a l and a u t o -b i o g r a p h i c a l w o r k s on c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l i t i c i a n s were s e a r c h e d f o r c l u e s on O p p o s i t i o n c a u c u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 12 C h a p t e r One FOOTNOTES ' P e t e r S t u r s b e r g , D i e f e n b a k e r : L e a d e r s h i p G a i n e d , 2 v o l s . ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , 2 : 1 0 8 . 2 C o m p l e t e l i s t s o f shadow c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s a r e i n -c l u d e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . 3 G o r d o n F a i r w e a t h e r , " W a n t e d E f f i c i e n t E x p e r t i s e , " C a n a d i a n B u s i n e s s , November 1 9 6 8 , p . 44 . 4 The p o l i c y a r e a s a r e l i s t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . 5 T i m H e a l d , " T h e M a k i n g o f Joe C l a r k , " Weekend  M a g a z i n e , 18 F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 8 , p . 5 . ^ R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d made t h i s c l e a r i n a n n o u n c i n g h i s c h a i r m e n i n O c t o b e r 1973 . V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , 26 O c t o b e r 1973 . Joe C l a r k v o i c e d t h e same o p i n i o n i n A p r i l 1976 . T o r o n t o G l o b e and M a i l , 10 A p r i l 1976 . ^ A few e x a m p l e s a r e p r o v i d e d . C h r i s t i n e Newman and P e t e r Newman, " P o r t r a i t o f a New Regime t a k i n g P o w e r , " M a c L e a n ' s , 15 J u n e 1 963 , p . 4 2 ; B l a i r F r a s e r , " B a c k s t a g e i n O t t a w a , " M a c L e a n 1 s , 25 J u l y 1964 , p . 2 ; W a l t e r S t e w a r t , " S t a n f i e l d v s . Y a h o o s , " M a c L e a n ' s , 4 J a n u a r y 1 974 , p . 1 - 7 ; G l o b e and Mai 1 , 10 A p r i l 1 976 ; R o b e r t J a m i e s o n , " F o r C l a r k , n e x t t e s t i s v i s i b l e c o m m a n d , " F i n a n c i a l P o s t , 12 F e b r u a r y 1977 ; M o n t r e a l S t a r , 6 A p r i l 1 9 7 7 ; W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , 8 O c t o b e r 1977 . o F a i r w e a t h e r , " W a n t e d E f f i c i e n t E x p e r t i s e , " p . 4 2 . In t h e M o n t r e a l S t a r , 6 A p r i l 1 9 7 7 , Joe C l a r k r e f e r r e d t o J a c k H o r n e r as a p a r t y s p o k e s m a n and i n t h e G l o b e and  M a i l , 8 A p r i l 1 9 7 7 , t o D a v i d M a c D o n a l d as t h e p a r t y ' s r e -g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t c r i t i c . ^ S a m u e l H u n t i n g t o n , P o l i t i c a l O r d e r i n C h a n g i n g  S o c i e t i e s (New H a v e n , C o n n . : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 12. I b i d . , p . 13 . 1 2 I b i d . , p . 14. 1 3 I b i d . , p . 17 1 4 I b i d . , p . 18. 1 5 1 b i d . , p . 20 . 1 6 1 b i d . , p . 22 . 1 7 R . M . P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n ( L o n d o n H e i n e m a n n , 1 9 7 3 ) . 14 C h a p t e r II COMPARATIVE STUDY OF A U S T R A L I A N AND B R I T I S H SHADOW C A B I N E T S The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e x p a n d upon o u r d e f i n i t i o n o f a shadow c a b i n e t t h r o u g h a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and A u s t r a l i a . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t a i n i t has become an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n . I t o r i g i n a t e d w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the " l a t e c a b i n e t . " ^ As e a r l y as t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x - c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s u n o f f i c i a l l y assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 2 f o r o v e r s e e i n g t h e i r p a s t p o r t f o l i o s . In 1955 t h e L a b o u r O p p o s i t i o n began t h e p r a c t i c e o f n a m i n g members as o f f i c i a l s p o k e s m e n f o r p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y a r e a s , a p r a c t i c e s i n c e 3 c o n t i n u e d by b o t h p a r t i e s . The team o f s p o k e s m e n i s a n n o u n c e d p u b l i c l y on e n t e r i n g o p p o s i t i o n and r e v i s e d p e r i o d i c a l l y . T h i s team i s o r g a n i z e d a l o n g t h e same l i n e s as t h e c a b i n e t , w i t h i d e n t i c a l p o r t f o l i o a s s i g n m e n t s . The e n t i r e O p p o s i t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h s e n i o r and j u n i o r a p p o i n t m e n t s — s p o k e s m e n who s i t i n t h e shadow and o t h e r s who r e m a i n o u t s i d e , shadow m i n i s t e r s 4 o f s t a t e and p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e c r e t a r i e s . O p p o s i t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be as c o m p l e x as g o v e r n m e n t . The shadow c a b i n e t a d a p t s t o c h a n g e s i n c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n - -a new c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 15 5 an i d e n t i c a l shadow p o s i t i o n . The l e a d e r o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y s e l e c t s h i s own shadow c a b i n e t . The p r o c e s s i s s l i g h t l y more c o m p l i c a t e d i n t h e L a b o u r p a r t y b u t t h e l e a d e r i s s t i l l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a c t u a l a s s i g n m e n t o f s u b j e c t a r e a s t o g s p o k e s m e n . R . M . P u n n e t t ' s s t u d y o f B r i t i s h shadow c a b i n e t s f o u n d t h a t t h e l e a d e r w o u l d i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l , r e g i o n a l and i d e o l o g i c a l g r o u p s i n the p a r t y . T h e r e a r e o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e l e a d e r ' s a p p o i n t -m e n t s . O f t e n he i s u n a b l e t o deny s e n i o r p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s o r p r e v i o u s l e a d e r s h i p r i v a l s shadow p o s i t i o n s . ^ The B r i t i s h shadow c a b i n e t i s b a s i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h one f u n c t i o n , t h a t o f m a n a g i n g t h e a f f a i r s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n . I t s r o l e i n s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g i n c l u d e s d e c i d i n g t h e l i s t o f s p e a k e r s f o r d e b a t e , f o r m u l a t i n g p a r t y r e a c t i o n s t o g o v e r n m e n t p r o n o u n c e m e n t s and s e l e c t i n g t h e i s s u e s to e m p h a s i z e . L i t t l e t i m e i s s p e n t c o n s i d e r i n g l o n g - t e r m p o l i c y a t t i t u d e s . As a r e s u l t shadow c a b i n e t p r i o r i t i e s i n B r i t a i n a p p e a r t o c e n t r e upon i m p r o v i n g c r i t i c i s m r a t h e r t h a n upon p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e p e r i o d s i n g o v e r n m e n t . In t h e House o f Commons t h e i n d i v i d u a l shadows a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a l l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e m i n i s t e r , f o r d i r e c t i n g c r i t i c i s m i n q u e s t i o n p e r i o d and f o r e n u n c i a -o t i n g p a r t y p o l i c i e s i n t h e r e l e v a n t s u b j e c t a r e a . O v e r t i m e shadow m i n i s t e r s have come t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r c o n t r i -b u t i o n s t o t h e i r a s s i g n e d s u b j e c t s . By 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 79 p e r c e n t 16 o f t h e shadow s p o k e s m e n ' s i n t e r j e c t i o n s were on t h e i r 9 a s s i g n e d t o p i c s . T h e r e a r e p r a c t i c e s i n b o t h t h e L a b o u r and t h e C o n -s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e shadow c a b i n e t i s an a u t o n o m o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t a p a r t f r o m c a u c u s . In t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y shadow c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s do n o t a t t e n d m e e t i n g s o f t h e 1922 C o m m i t t e e . The o n l y l i n k b e -tween t h e two i s t h e c h i e f w h i p who a t t e n d s shadow c a b i n e t m e e t i n g s as w e l l as t h o s e o f t h e 1922 C o m m i t t e e . ^ A l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s h a d o w - c a u c u s r e l a t i o n s a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s made w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h o f f i c e . In t h e 1964-70 p e r i o d o f C o n s e r v a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n e a c h shadow m i n i s t e r was a s s i g n e d t o an o f f i c e r i n t h e R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t . B a c k b e n c h e r s were n o t s i m i l a r l y a s s i g n e d . P r i o r i t y was to be g i v e n t o r e s e a r c h r e q u e s t s f r o m shadow m e m b e r s . On t h e b a s i s o f e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g P u n n e t t c o n c l u d e s t h a t , " I n g e n e r a l , C o n s e r v a t i v e b a c k b e n c h e r s a r e p r o b a b l y as d e f e r e n t i a l t o -wards t h e i r Spokesmen i n o p p o s i t i o n as t h e y a r e t o w a r d s M i n i s t e r s when t h e y a r e i n p o w e r . I n t h e L a b o u r p a r t y , shadows a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c h a i r m e n o f c a u c u s s u b j e c t g r o u p s . T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e shadow c a b i n e t i s an e n t i t y s e p a r a t e f r o m c a u c u s i n t h i s p a r t y as w e l l . The d e g r e e o f autonomy i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r o o t s i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f e x - m i n i s t e r s . T h e r e i s a m e d i a and p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f shadow c a b i n e t s i n B r i t a i n . The p a r t y i n f o r m s t h e m e d i a o f s p e c i a l 17 shadow c a b i n e t m e e t i n g s and i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e made. The shadow member i s r e g a r d e d as t h e o f f i c i a l p a r t y s p o k e s m a n and t h e p r e s s w i l l s e e k him o u t f o r o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t s w i t h i n h i s a r e a o f c o m p e t e n c e . N e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s w i l l o f t e n b a l a n c e a m i n i s t e r i a l s t a t e m e n t w i t h a shadow m e m b e r ' s r e s p o n s e . D u r i n g e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n s d e -1 ? b a t e s b e t w e e n m i n i s t e r s and c r i t i c s a r e t e l e v i s e d . T h e s e e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y f u n c t i o n s e s t a b l i s h t h e shadow c a b i n e t ' s autonomy f r o m t h e c a u c u s , w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r l i a m e n -t a r y e n t i t y . C o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e shadow a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t a d h e r e d to as r i g o r o u s l y as i n t h e c a b i -1 3 n e t . Some e x p r e s s i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n i s t o l e r a t e d . H o w e v e r , shadow members have been d i s m i s s e d and have r e -s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s . 1 ^ F o r t h e most p a r t , h o w e v e r , spokesmen a p p e a r w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h u s h e i g h t e n t h e c o h e r e n c e o f t h e g r o u p . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no p r o m i s e o f a c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e d i n a c c e p t i n g a shadow a s s i g n m e n t , i t does r a i s e e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f a f u t u r e m i n i s t e r i a l a p p o i n t m e n t . The f a c t s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h i s i s w a r r a n t e d . In t h e L a b o u r c h a n g e -o v e r f r o m o p p o s i t i o n t o g o v e r n m e n t i n 1964 , 13 o u t o f a shadow c a b i n e t o f 18 were a p p o i n t e d to t h e c a b i n e t . F i v e were g i v e n t h e p o r t f o l i o t h e y had been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s h a d o w i n g . In t h e 1970 c h a n g e i n g o v e r n m e n t t h e c a r r y -1 5 o v e r was even g r e a t e r t h a n i n 1964 . 18 In s u m m a r y , a f t e r 1955 shadow c a b i n e t s became an e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e s s i n B r i t a i n . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c a b i n e t i s r e p l i c a t e d as w e l l as c e r t a i n o t h e r p r a c t i c e s and n o r m s . Even t h i s b r i e f d e s c r i -p t i o n a l l o w s one to c o n c l u d e t h a t B r i t i s h shadow c a b i n e t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y a d a p t a b l e , c o m p l e x , a u t o n o m o u s and c o -h e r e n t . Shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n A u s t r a l i a much l a t e r t h a n i t d i d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . P r i o r t o 1965 shadow m i n i s t e r s were n o t r e g u l a r l y a p p o i n t e d . S o m e t i m e s t h e l e a d e r w o u l d a s k p a s t and p o t e n t i a l m i n i s t e r s t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s . ^ In h i s f i r s t e d i t i o n o f A u s t r a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t w r i t t e n i n 1 9 4 9 , C r i s p m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e f r o n t b e n c h t e n d e d t o s p e c i a l -i z e i n o n l y a v e r y few i n s t a n c e s . ^ 7 He was l e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t , " t h e y t o o k l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s 1 8 t h a n d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n B r i t a i n . " The s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e d i n 1965 when t h e F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t a r y L a b o u r p a r t y p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g a shadow c a b i n e t . I t was t o e l e c t an a d d i t i o n a l number o f members w h o , a l o n g w i t h t h e 14-member e l e c t e d P a r l i a m e n t a r y E x e c u t i v e , w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a shadow m i n i s t r y e q u a l i n s i z e t o t h e c a b i n e t . The l e a d e r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o c a t i n g p o r t f o l i o r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Y e t , as i t t u r n e d o u t n e i t h e r t h e shadow c a b i n e t a p p o i n t e d a f t e r t h e 1967 n o r a f t e r t h e 1970 1 9 e l e c t i o n was as c o m p l e x as t h e c a b i n e t . I t was s m a l l e r 19 and c o n s e q u e n t l y d i d n o t m i r r o r t h e p o r t f o l i o d i v i s i o n s . In b o t h i n s t a n c e s t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e c a u c u s was t h e r e a s o n why a s s i g n m e n t s were n o t i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e o f t h e c a b i n e t . When t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y became t h e O p p o s i t i o n i n 1972 i t c o n t i n u e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f f o r m a l l y a p p o i n t i n g shadow m i n i s t e r s . T h e r e f o r e , as i n B r i t a i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d n o t r e m a i n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h o n l y one p a r t y b u t became a g e n e r a l o p p o s i t i o n p r a c t i c e . The s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n L i b e r a l p a r t y i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e B r i t i s h L a b o u r p a r t y i n O p p o s i t i o n . The l e a d e r i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y f r e e t o ^ c n o o s e h i s own shadow c a b i n e t b u t must 20 i n c l u d e a 15-man e x e c u t i v e e l e c t e d by t h e c a u c u s . T h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t , as i n B r i t a i n , f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t i n c a b i n e t - m a k i n g must a l s o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n n a m i n g shadow c a b i n e t s . B a l a n c i n g s t a t e r e p r e s e n t a -21 t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a n c a b i n e t s i s one s u c h s c o n c e r n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e a L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n ' s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t named i n 1974 b e c a u s e i t d i d n o t 22 a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s t a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n c a u c u s . Shadow c a b i n e t s i n A u s t r a l i a a r e n o t s t r i c t l y means o f o r g a n i z i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e O p -p o s i t i o n p a r t y i n t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . S e n a t o r s as w e l l as members o f t h e l o w e r h o u s e a r e a s s i g n e d shadow p o s i t i o n s . U s u a l l y t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f shadow members t h a t a r e f r o m t h e S e n a t e i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e number o f S e n a t o r s i n t h e c a b i n e t . ' 1 , 3 A n o t h e r p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s more t h a n s i m p l y a c a u c u s o r g a n i z a t i o n and t r u l y an a l t e r n a t i v e c a b i n e t i s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f C o u n t r y p a r t y members i n L i b e r a l shadow c a b i n e t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e f i l l i n g o f t h e p o r t f o l i o s u s u a l l y h e l d by members o f 24 t h i s s m a l l e r c o a l e s c e n t p a r t n e r w i t h L i b e r a l m e m b e r s . An i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p a r i s o n can be drawn between t h e A u s t r a l i a n and t h e B r i t i s h s i t u a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r o l e assumed by t h e shadow s p o k e s m e n . As m e n t i o n e d , t h e B r i t i s h shadow f o c u s e s l a r g e l y on m a t t e r s o f s h o r t - t e r m s t r a t e g y . The A u s t r a l i a n s h a d o w , a t l e a s t when t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y i s i n o p p o s i t i o n , p l a c e s h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on l o n g -t e r m p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . The shadow c a b i n e t i s more t h a n s i m p l y an o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t t e r s o f o p p o s i t i o n b u t a l s o p r e p a r e s f o r f u t u r e t e r m s i n o f f i c e . The L i b e r a l p a r t y c o n s t i t u t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n s t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y p a r t y t h e " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g and p r o m o t i n g 25 t h e p o l i c i e s w h i c h g u i d e t h e P a r t y i n g o v e r n m e n t . " I t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e shadow m i n i s t e r s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i s p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . Between 1972 and 1974 t h e r e had been l i m i t e d e f f o r t s by some shadow members t o p r o c e e d w i t h p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t . H o w e v e r , s t a f f s u p p o r t was n o n - e x i s t e n t w h i c h r e t a r d e d t h e s e a t t e m p t s . A f t e r t h e 1974 e l e c t i o n t h o u g h , c o m p r e h e n s i v e p o l i c y r e -v i e w was u n d e r t a k e n . A f e d e r a l p o l i c y s u p p o r t u n i t was e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h o r g a n i z e d s t u d y s e s s i o n s o f shadow m i n i -21 s t e r s , b a c k b e n c h e r s and i n t e r e s t e d o u t s i d e e x p e r t s . The shadows were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d r a f t i n g t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s w h i c h were t h e n s u b m i t t e d t o t h e P o l i c y C o o r d i n a t i o n Com-m i t t e e w h i c h c h e c k e d f o r l o g i c and c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h o t h e r 26 p a r t y p o l i c y . N e c e s s a r y r e v i s i o n s were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e shadow s p o k e s m e n . Once t h e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t was a c c e p t a b l e t o t h i s c o m m i t t e e i t w o u l d be p r e s e n t e d to t h e w h o l e shadow c a b i n e t . A f t e r b e i n g a p p r o v e d by i t , t h e p a p e r was p u b l i c l y r e l e a s e d . T h i s p o l i c y r e v i e w p r o c e s s p r o v e d q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l , a t l e a s t i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f p o l i c y a r e a s s t u d i e d . In a y e a r n i n e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s were c o m p l e t e d and r e l e a s e d p u b l i c l y , e i g h t more were b e i n g d e a l t w i t h by t h e shadow c a b i n e t and t e n had been i n i t i a l l y 27 c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o o r d i n a t i o n C o m m i t t e e . The i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f t h e shadow m i n i s t e r i n t h i s p r o c e s s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s a p o s i t i o n w i t h d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m t h e o r d i n a r y b a c k b e n c h e r . As i n B r i t a i n shadow members have been d i s m i s s e d f o r i r r e s p o n s i b l e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s and i g n o r i n g c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . O t h e r s have r e s i g n e d b e c a u s e t h e y were u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t a s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c y 28 pos i t i ons . P e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h e f r e q u e n t a l t e r n a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y f o r m i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n r e c e n t y e a r s shadow c a b i n e t f o r m a t i o n i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d by b o t h l e a d i n g p a r t i e s . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t a c c e p t s t h e 22 shadow c a b i n e t as a l e g i t i m a t e i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e s y s t e m . P r i o r t o the e l e c t i o n i n 1974 P r i m e M i n i s t e r W h i t l a m s t a t e d he w o u l d a l l o w p u b l i c s e r v i c e b r i e f i n g o f shadow m i n i s t e r s t o m i n i m i z e any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s r u p t i o n s i n t h e e v e n t o f a c h a n g e i n g o v e r n m e n t . (The c o n s u l t a t i o n s d i d n o t i n f a c t t a k e p l a c e , s u p p o s e d l y b e c a u s e t h e L e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n w o u l d n o t d e s i g n a t e h i s f u t u r e m i n i s t e r i a l 2 9 l i n e - u p . ) T h i s i n c i d e n t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was a c c e p t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the P a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m a f t e r b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d f o r l e s s t h a n a d e c a d e . In c o n c l u s i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e has been no a t t e m p t t o e x h a u s t i v e l y s t u d y shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e i t h e r B r i t a i n o r A u s t r a l i a , e n o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n has been g a t h e r e d t o draw a t l e a s t some t e n t a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e two s y s t e m s . In n e i t h e r c o u n t r y i s t h e r e any c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . H o w e v e r , i t i s a c c e p t e d as a l e g i t i m a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n by p o l i t i c i a n s i n b o t h c o u n -t r i e s . I t has become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r p a r l i a -m e n t a r y p r o c e s s e s and i s u n l i k e l y t o d i s a p p e a r . In b o t h c a s e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p e a r e d t o e v o l v e s l o w l y f r o m t h e i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s assumed by e x - m i n i s t e r s . W h e t h e r i t i s a . r e p l i c a o f t h e c a b i n e t v a r i e s between c o u n t r i e s and o v e r t i m e . Y e t , i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s u s u a l l y t h e s i z e and d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s c o m p a r a b l e i f n o t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e c a b i n e t . C a b i n e t s e l e c t i o n r u l e s a p p e a r t o a p p l y , t h o u g h p e r h a p s n o t q u i t e as r i g i d l y t o shadow f o r m a t i o n . One o f 23 t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i s i n t e r m s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h t h e shadow c a b i n e t p e r f o r m . Y e t , p e r h a p s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e s h o u l d n o t be o v e r e m p h a s i z e d b e c a u s e t h e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n e x e r c i s e d i s c u s s e d was o n l y one e x a m p l e , u n d e r t a k e n by a p a r t y w h i c h had f o r m e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r 30 t h e p r e v i o u s 23 y e a r s . I t may t u r n o u t t o be an i s o l a t e d o c c u r r e n c e . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n and B r i t i s h shadow c a b i n e t s t r u c t u r e , p r a c t i c e s and f u n c t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r h o p e f u l l y p r o v i d e s t h e r e a d e r w i t h a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f shadow c a b i n e t s . T h e y w i l l be f u r t h e r c o m p a r e d t o t h e C a n a d i a n c a s e i n C h a p t e r F o u r . C h a p t e r Two 24 P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , p . 5 4 ; D . R . T u r n e r , The Shadow C a b i n e t i n B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 33 . 2 P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , p . 36 . 3 1 b i d . , p . 59 . 4 J . P . M a c K i n t o s h , The B r i t i s h C a b i n e t , 3d e d . , ( L o n d o n : S t e v e n s & S o n s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 5 3 8 ; P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , p . 5 . 5 P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , p . 174 . 6 I b i d . , p . 174. 7 1 b i d . , p . 140 . 8 I b i d . , p . 5 , 2 5 2 - 2 6 1 . 9 1 b i d . , p . 32 5. 1 0 I b i d . , p . 302 . 1 1 I b i d . , p . 3 0 7 - 3 0 8 . 1 2 I b i d . , p . 5 ; T u r n e r , Shadow C a b i n e t , p . 78 . 1 3 P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , p . 2 8 8 ; T u r n e r , Shadow C a b i n e t , p . 6 0 - 6 2 . 1 4 P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , p . 2 9 5 - 3 0 1 ; T u r n e r , Shadow C a b i n e t , p . 6 3 ; I . F . B u r t o n and G . D r e w r y , " P u b l i c L e g i s l a t i o n : A S u r v e y o f t h e S e s s i o n 1 971 / 7 2 , " P a r i i a m e n t a r y  A f f a i r s 26 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 3 ) : 1 5 1 . 1 5 P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , p . 3 6 9 - 3 7 5 . 1 fi L . F . C r i s p , A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t , 3d e d . , ( H a w t h o r n , V i c : Longman A u s t r a l i a , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 302 . 25 1 7 L . F . C r i s p , The P a r l i a m e n t a r y G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a [ L o n d o n : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n and C o . , 1 9 4 9 ) , p . 162 . 1 8 . , . , I b i d . 1 9 " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c s  and H i s t o r y 13 ( A p r i l 19 6 7 ) : 2 5 6 ; " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 16 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 0 ) : 76 . 20 " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f  P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 19 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 2 5 1 - 2 5 2 . 21 " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f  P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 19 ( A p r i l 1 973) : 7 8 . 22 " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f  P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 20 (December 1 974) : 386 . 23 C r i s p , A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t , p . 305 . 24 " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f  P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 20 (December 1 9 7 4 ) : 3 8 6 . 25 Ian M a r s h , " P o l i c y M a k i n g i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y : The O p p o s i t i o n E x p e r i e n c e , " The A u s t r a l i a n Q u a r t e r l y 48 ( J u n e 1 9 7 6 ) : 7 . 2 6 Ian M a r s h i n h i s a r t i c l e " P o l i c y M a k i n g i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y , " ( p . 1 4 ) g a v e us t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e P o l i c y C o o r d i n a t i o n C o m m i t t e e was a shadow c a b i n e t c o m m i t t e e . 27 I b i d . , p . 16 . 2 8 " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f  P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 18 ( A p r i l 1 971 ) : 1 00 ; " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 22 ( D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 6 ) : 3 9 9 . 29 " P o l i t i c a l C h r o n i c l e , " A u s t r a l i a n J o u r n a l o f  P o l i t i c s and H i s t o r y 20 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 4 ) : 3 8 1 . ' 30 M a r s h , " P o l i c y M a k i n g i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y , " p . 7. C h a p t e r I I I 26 HISTORY OF OPPOSITION ORGANIZATION I N . C A N A D A A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1963 t o 1978 an e f f o r t was made t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r a h i s t o r y o f shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n p r i o r to the 1 9 6 0 ' s . The o r i g i n s o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n p r o v e to be i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n s o f the shadow c a b i n e t . The e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e t o a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r w h i l e i n o p p o s i t i o n was Chubby P o w e r ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f L a u r i e r a l l o c a t i n g work to c o m m i t t e e s h e a d e d by h i s a p p o i n t e e s . The p r a c t i c e was n o t c o n t i n u e d a f t e r L a u r i e r ' s d e a t h i n 1 9 1 9 , r a t h e r , as Power r e c a l l e d , s e n i o r i t y was t h e b a s i s o f an i n f o r m a l a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ^ The l a c k o f any w e l l - d e f i n e d d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . T h e r e s i m p l y was no need f o r i t . John E n g l i s h i n h i s book The D e c l i n e o f P o l i t i c s , a r g u e d t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was c e n t r a l i z e d i n t h e hands o f t h e 2 p a r t y l e a d e r s . T h e y made a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s c o n -c e r n i n g p a r t y p o l i c y and o r g a n i z a t i o n . V i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e l e a d e r c o n t r o l was f e a s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d number o f d e c i s i o n s t h a t had t o be made. O v e r t i m e , h o w e v e r , t h e l e a d e r ' s d o m i n a n c e d e c l i n e d as t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f b o t h g o v e r n m e n t and o p p o s i t i o n i n c r e a s e d . The n e x t a t t e m p t t o f o r m a l l y a s s i g n d u t i e s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f L i b e r a l o p p o s i t i o n f r o m 1930 t o 1935 . 27 Again C h u b b y Power p r o v i d e s t h e d e t a i l s o f t h i s o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l a t t e m p t . He f i r s t c o n v i n c e d M a c k e n z i e K i n g t o 3 o r g a n i z e the c a u c u s and was l a t e r made C h i e f o f O p e r a t i o n s . T h e r e were two d i f f e r e n t b a s e s f o r g r o u p s o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n t h e c a u c u s . One was o r g a n i z e d a l o n g s e c t i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l l i n e s t o d e a l w i t h l o c a l c o n c e r n s and c r i t i c i z e t h e m i n i s t e r f r o m t h e l o c a l i t y o r p r o v i n c e . O t h e r g r o u p s d e a l t w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s . T h e s e c a u c u s g r o u p s were n o t c h a i r e d by e x - m i n i s t e r s , who, a c c o r d i n g t o P o w e r , were 4 k e p t i n r e s e r v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y l e s s w e l l - k n o w n MP s were g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o become i n v o l v e d . As C h i e f o f O p e r a t i o n s , Power a d m i t s t h e r e were d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e n -c o u r a g i n g Members o f P a r l i a m e n t t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s on c r i t i c i z i n g a l i m i t e d number o f p o l i c i e s o r one p a r t i c u l a r c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r . One i s l e f t w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n f r o m r e a d i n g P o w e r , t h a t members were r e l u c t a n t t o t a k e o r d e r s f r o m him b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t he was s t r i c t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p e r s o n a l g a i n . O v e r t i m e t h o u g h t h e L i b e r a l c a u c u s i n -c r e a s i n g l y p r e s e n t e d a c o h e r e n t a t t a c k . Chubby Power f e l t t h a t t h e r e were n u m e r o u s b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d f r o m h i s e f f o r t s . F i r s t l y , o p p o s i t i o n members were i n t i m i d a t e d by B e n n e t t . T h e y were h e s i t a n t t o o p p o s e him i n t h e H o u s e and t h u s s u b j e c t t h e m s e l v e s t o h i s r i d i c u l e . A s s i g n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s made i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r p e o p l e t o a v o i d c o n t r i b u t i n g and r e s u l t e d i n a team o f MP s who c o u l d b o l s t e r one a n o t h e r i n t h e i r c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h 28 5 B e n n e t t . S e c o n d l y , a s s i g n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c r i t i - ^ c i z i n g s p e c i f i c c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s e n t a i l e d a t t a c k s o u t s i d e as w e l l as i n s i d e t h e House o f Commons w h i c h w o u l d r e t a r d t h e g r o w t h o f M i n i s t e r s ' p o l i t i c a l r e p u t a t i o n s . F i n a l l y i n h i s own w o r d s , " t h e main t h i n g w o u l d be t o keep t h e boys i n t e r e s t e d and p o s s i b l y a m u s e d . " 7 Thus e a r l y o r g a n i z a -t i o n was n o t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e need t o d i v i d e i n t e r n a l c a u c u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o v e r s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g o r c o -o r d i n a t i o n . I t was an i n n o v a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e p a r t y ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e House o f Commons i n m i n d . I t was n o t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u t a p o l i t i c a l i n n o v a t i o n . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t t h e s e two e a r l y a t t e m p t s a t o r g a n i z a t i o n were n o t i n i t i a t e d by t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y w h i c h has been i n o p p o s i t i o n f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y . In t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y d u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s and 1 9 3 0 ' s o b o t h M e i g h e n and B e n n e t t r e f u s e d to d e l e g a t e a u t h o r i t y . The b a c k b e n c h seemed to a c c e p t t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e i r l e a d e r . R o g e r G r a h a m , M e i g h e n ' s b i o g r a p h e r , n o t e d t h a t b a c k b e n c h e r s w o u l d even r e q u e s t M e i g h e n t o w r i t e t h e i r s p e e c h e s f o r a t h e m . M a n i o n , B e n n e t t ' s s u c c e s s o r , w o r k e d a t b u i l d i n g a s e n s e o f teamwork w i t h i n c a u c u s , b u t r e a l l y s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e s were o n l y i n t r o d u c e d by B r a c k e n , M a n i o n ' s s u c c e s s o r i n 1945 . B r a c k e n i n s t i t u t e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f h o l d i n g w e e k l y c a u c u s m e e t i n g s . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , he s e t up a s y s t e m o f c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s t o a l l o w f o r g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e b a c k b e n c h e r s i n t h e m a k i n g o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . A f u n c t i o n a l 29 d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o th.e c a b i n e t ' s was a d o p t e d . T h e s e c o m m i t t e e s met r e g u l a r l y d u r i n g P a r l i a -m e n t a r y s e s s i o n s t o d e a l w i t h p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s r e f e r r e d t o them by c a u c u s . I f t h e m a t t e r was c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p o r t a n t i t w o u l d r e t u r n t o c a u c u s b u t i n c e r t a i n i n -s t a n c e s , t h e l e a d e r w o u l d s i m p l y a c c e p t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e . T h i s c o m m i t t e e s y s t e m was c o n t i n u e d u n d e r D r e w ' s l e a d e r s h i p . By t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s t h e c h a i r m e n o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s were 1 2 b e i n g r e f e r r e d to as t h e p a r t y ' s c r i t i c s . The p o s i t i o n as t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c o f a p o r t f o l i o e v o l v e d o u t o f a c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m a n s h i p . I t was i n i t i a l l y a c a u c u s a s s i g n m e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e c a r r y o v e r o f a g o v e r n m e n t a l o n e . T h i s i s u n l i k e t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e B r i t i s h o r A u s t r a l i a n shadow c a b i n e t s . The s e t o f c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s was ~ an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e w h o l e c a u c u s as d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e c h a i n o f p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t e -g r a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s and c a u c u s . D a w s o n , i n h i s G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e s were n o t a l l o w e d 1 3 to u s u r p t h e s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g r o l e o f t h e w h o l e c a u c u s . B e c a u s e t h e c o m m i t t e e s were n o t a l l o w e d to e n c r o a c h upon t h e f u n c t i o n s o f c a u c u s , and t h e r o l e o f p a r t y c r i t i c was i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d up w i t h c h a i r i n g c o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g s , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h e y h e l d any s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e o r a u t h o r i t y v i s - a - v i s c a u c u s . T h i s g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e d so t h a t by 1957 a c e r t a i n number o f t h e c r i t i c s were c o n s i d e r e d 30 t o have c l a i m t o c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s and a t l e a s t 5 were a p p o i n t e d by D i e f e n b a k e r . 1 4 When t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y e n t e r e d o p p o s i t i o n i n 1957 i t a d o p t e d a s i m i l a r s y s t e m o f c r i t i c a s s i g n m e n t s a l t h o u g h i t i s u n c l e a r how c l o s e l y t h e p o s i t i o n s were t i e d t o c a u c u s 1 5 c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m a n s h i p s . H o w e v e r , j o u r n a l i s t s w r i t i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y c r i t i c s o f p a r t i c u l a r 16 1 s u b j e c t a r e a s . The key c r i t i c s were e x - c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . I t i s i n a r e f e r e n c e to t h i s p e r i o d t h a t we f i n d t h e f i r s t s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e h o l d i n g o f a shadow c a b i n e t m e e t i n g t o p l a n p a r i i a m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s . I t i s p r o b a b l y n o t a c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h i s h a p p e n e d i n a p e r i o d when t h e shadow c a b i n e t c o n t a i n e d e x - c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . C h e v r i e r , t h e j u s t i c e c r i t i c , a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e i l l - f a t e d m o t i o n o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t r o d u c e d by P e a r s o n e a r l y i n 1958 had been d i s c u s s e d i n a m e e t i n g o f t h e " s o - c a l l e d shadow c a b i n e t " w i t h a l l members h a v i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r 1 o o p i n i o n s . He f e l t t h a t as a r e s u l t he and h i s c o l l e a g u e s had to s h a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t h e H o u s e . R e p o r t i n g o f a n o t h e r i n c i d e n t f r o m t h e same p e r i o d o f L i b e r a l o p p o s i t i o n p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i c s . P a u l H e l l y e r , t h e d e f e n c e c r i t i c , r e t u r n e d f r o m a NATO P a r l i a m e n t a r i a n ' s C o n f e r e n c e i n E u r o p e i n 1962 c o n v i n c e d t h a t h i s p a r t y ' s d e f e n c e p o s i t i o n n e e d e d r e v i s i o n . He w r o t e a p o s i t i o n p a p e r w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a 31 d r a s t i c c h a n g e i n t h e L i b e r a l d e f e n c e s t a n d . L e s t e r P e a r s o n l a t e r u s e d t h i s p a p e r t o a n n o u n c e a c h a n g e i n p a r t y p o l i c y . A l l t h e e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h i s d e c i s i o n to c h a n g e t h e p o l i c y was made by P e a r s o n , w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g 1 9 i t e i t h e r i n c a u c u s o r i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t . H e r e i s an e x a m p l e o f a c r i t i c i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s a s s i g n m e n t as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r e s s u r e t h e l e a d e r f o r c h a n g e i n t h e p a r t y ' s p o l i c y when he f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t f r o m t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g e x a m p l e s . The shadow c a b i n e t had been c o n s u l t e d a b o u t a p a r l i a m e n t a r y t a c t i c b u t n o t a b o u t a p o l i c y c h a n g e . Y e t i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e t h e l e a d e r had j u s t been e l e c t e d , w h i l e i n t h e s e c o n d had h e l d t h e l e a d e r s h i p f o r f o u r y e a r s . M o r e o v e r , P e a r s o n was f a r more k n o w l e d g e a b l e a b o u t d e f e n c e and e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s t h a n p a r l i a m e n t a r y s t r a t e g y . Any o r a l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s c o u l d h e l p e x p l a i n P e a r s o n ' s use o f h i s shadow c a b i n e t i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s . A L i b e r a l shadow c a b i n e t c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t u n t i l 1963 so n o n -e x i s t e n c e can be r u l e d o u t as a r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f 20 c o n s u l t a t i o n on t h e c h a n g e i n d e f e n c e p o l i c y i n 1962 . In summary t h e p o s i t i o n as p a r t y c r i t i c o r i g i n a t e d a s , and c o n t i n u e s t o be r e l a t e d t o , t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f a c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m a n s h i p . A l t h o u g h t h e a p p o i n t m e n t i s s t i l l o f f i c i a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as a c h a i r m a n s h i p , t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r t h e p o s i t i o n has come t o 32 i n v o l v e a d d i t i o n a l r o l e s . A l s o o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e , a g a i n b e c a u s e o f t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e p o s i t i o n , i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e shadow c a b i n e t i s an a u t o n o m o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o w e d t o o p e r a t e w i t h o u t c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n by c a u c u s . C o n v e r s e l y i s t h e shadow c a b i n e t a b l e t o e x e r t i t s i n f l u e n c e upon t h e c a u c u s ? J . W i l l i a m s w r i t i n g i n t h e 1 9 5 0 1 s commends B r a c k e n f o r h a v i n g d e m o c r a t i z e d p r o c e d u r e by a l l o w i n g f o r g r e a t e r c a u c u s i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e c i s i o n -21 m a k i n g t h r o u g h c o m m i t t e e w o r k . A c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r c h a i r m e n o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s have come t o d o m i n a t e the a f f a i r s o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n so t h a t o v e r t h e l o n g - r u n t h e i n n o v a t i o n has n o t o p e n e d up b u t r a t h e r has c o n c e n t r a t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n a s e l e c t g r o u p . C h a p t e r T h r e e FOOTNOTES 33 Chubby P o w e r , The M e m o i r s o f Chubby P o w e r : A P a r t y  P o l i t i c i a n , e d . Norman Ward ( T o r o n t o : Macmi11 an , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 262 . 2 J o h n E n g l i s h , The D e c l i n e o f P o l i t i c s : The C o n s e r v a - t i v e s and t h e P a r t y S y s t e m 1901-20 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 1 3 - 1 4 . 3 P o w e r , A P a r t y P o l i t i c i a n , p . 268 , 2 7 6 - 7 7 . 4 1 b i d - , p . 2 7 4 - 7 6 . 5 I b i d . , p . 2 74. 6 I b i d . , p . 2 72 . 7 1 b i d . , p . 271 . o J o h n R. W i l l i a m s , The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y 1 9 2 0 - 4 9 ( D u r h a m , N . C . : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 4 8 , 5 4 - 5 9 ; R o g e r G r a h a m , A r t h u r M e i g h e n , 3 v o l s . ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n & C o . , 1 960) , 2 : 1 8 7 . 9 G r a h a m , A r t h u r M e i g h e n , 2 : 1 8 7 . ^ W i l l i a m s , The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , p . 2 0 9 . 1 1 I b i d . , p . 216 . 1 2 John G. D i e f e n b a k e r , One C a n a d a : M e m o i r s o f t h e R i g h t  H o n o u r a b l e J o h n G. D i e f e n b a k e r , 3 v o l s . ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 7 5 ) , 1 : 2 3 6 . 1 3 R. M a c G r e g o r D a w s o n , The G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , 5 t h e d . , r e v . Norman Ward ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 377 . 34 iHJhe f o l l o w i n g f o u r were a s s i g n e d t h e p o r t f o l i o s t h e y had c r i t i c i z e d , A . J . B r o o k s , V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s ; D. F u l t o n , J u s t i c e ; Wm. H a m i l t o n , P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l ; and G.R. P e a r k e s , N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e . J . M . M a c D o n n e l l who had been f i n a n c e c r i t i c was made a m i n i s t e r w i t h o u t p o r t f o l i o . S t u r s b e r g , D i e f e n b a k e r , 1 : 6 5 - 6 8 ; D i e f e n b a k e r , One C a n a d a , 2 : 4 2 . 1 5 In h i s m e m o i r s , C h u b b y Power e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y was n o t v e r y s u c c e s s f u l a t s e t t i n g up a c o m m i t t e e s y s t e m i n 1 9 5 7 , b e c a u s e o f l i m i t e d numbers and l a c k o f o p p o s i t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . P o w e r , A P a r t y P o l i t i c i a n , p . 310 . ^ N e w m a n and Newman, " P o r t r a i t o f a New R e g i m e , " p . 4 2 . 1 7 T h r e e o f t h e key c r i t i c s were P a u l M a r t i n , J a c k P i c k e r s g i l l and L i o n e l C h e v r i e r who had been m i n i s t e r s i n L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t ' s c a b i n e t . I b i d . 1 8 S t u r s b e r g , D i e f e n b a k e r , 1 : 8 8 . 1 9 A c c o r d i n g to J u d y L a M a r s h c a u c u s was a n g r i e r a b o u t n o t b r i n g c o n s u l t e d t h a n a b o u t t h e c h a n g e i n p o l i c y . J u d y L a M a r s h , B i r d i n a G i l d e d Cage ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1 969) , p~. TT. As t h e f i n a n c i a l c r i t i c , W a l t e r G o r d o n d i d n o t know a b o u t t h e c h a n g e i n p o l i c y b e f o r e h a n d . He s t a t e s he s h a r e d t h e a n g e r f e l t by t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a u c u s o v e r P e a r s o n ' s a c t i o n s . W a l t e r L . G o r d o n , A P o l i t i c a l M e m o i r ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 1 1 4 - 1 7 . 20 Newman and Newman, " P o r t r a i t o f a New R e g i m e , " p . 4 2 . W i l l i a m s , The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , p . 217 . C h a p t e r IV 35 SHADOW CABINET ORGANIZATION IN CANADA 1963-78 T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n C a n a d a . H u n t i n g t o n ' s f o u r c r i t e r i a as p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r One a r e u s e d t o o r g a n i z e the a n a l y s i s . H o w e v e r , s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e to h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s t o s t u d y . H u n t i n g t o n h i m s e l f a d m i t s t h a t t h e f o u r t e s t s a r e a b s t r a c t and must be s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r s t u d y . ^ T h e r e f o r e , t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e c o n c e p t s i t p r o v e d u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r t h e C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t s y s t e m . The c a b i n e t i s a c c e p t e d to be a w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . B e c a u s e o f t h e p a r a l l e l s between t h e c a b i n e t and t h e s h a d o w , t h e t y p e o f f a c t o r s w h i c h make t h e c a b i n e t a s t a b l e i n -s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d a l s o s e r v e as m e a s u r e s o f t h e l e v e l o f shadow c a b i n e t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . Most o f t h e f a c t o r s s t u d i e d were d e l i n e a t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f u n c t i o n , one c a n n o t e x p e c t t h e shadow t o be an e x a c t r e p l i c a o f t h e c a b i n e t . T h e r e f o r e , i n d e a l i n g w i t h a s p e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n r e l a t e d t o f u n c t i o n t h e m e a s u r e s were d e r i v e d f r o m the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n shadow c a b i n e t s . As a r e s u l t t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n o f t h e s t u d y s h o u l d s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as how i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , o r how a d a p t a b l e , 36 c o m p l e x , a u t o n o m o u s and c o h e r e n t i s t h e shadow c a b i n e t , r a t h e r t h a n , how c l o s e l y does i t r e s e m b l e t h e c a b i n e t . The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e f o r e , d e a l s b r i e f l y w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t s y s t e m . Our o n l y c o n c e r n i s t o p i n p o i n t f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z a t i o n . T h e s e f a c t o r s s u m m a r i z e d i n a c h a r t a t t h e end o f t h i s s e c t i o n , f o r e a s y r e f e r e n c e , a r e u s e d i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r to a n a l y z e t h e shadow c a b i n e t . C a n a d i a n C a b i n e t S y s t e m  A d a p t a b i 1 i t y The f i r s t t e s t o f t h e c a b i n e t ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y . I t has been a c e n t r a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body t h r o u g h w o r l d w a r , o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s and p e r i o d s o f m i n o r i t y g o v e r n m e n t , t o name j u s t a few p o t e n -t i a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g s i t u a t i o n s . I t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l and g e n e r a t i o n a l age a r e two i n d i c a t o r s o f a d a p t a b i l i t y . I t has s u r v i v e d s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , o v e r 110 y e a r s . In t o t a l , 396 d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , s p a n n i n g n u m e r o u s g e n e r a t i o n s , have a c t e d as c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . A t h i r d i n d i c a t o r o f a d a p t a b i l i t y i s t h e c a b i n e t ' s l a c k o f f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y . The p h a s i n g o u t o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i s l e s s o f a c h a l l e n g e t o i t s c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e i f i t p e r f o r m s o t h e r s as w e l l . T h u s a m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s more a d a p t a b l e t h a n one w i t h o n l y one m a j o r f u n c t i o n . The C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t has f o u r r o l e s t o f u l f i l l ; l e g i s l a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , 37 2 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l . As a r e s u l t , t h e c a b i n e t c o n t i n u e s t o be an i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n even t h o u g h t h e b u r e a u c r a c y has e n c r o a c h e d upon a t l e a s t some o f i t s l e g i s l a -t i v e i n i t i a t i v e . T h i s i s o n l y one e x a m p l e o f i t s a d a p t -a b i l i t y . F u n c t i o n a l a d a p t a b i l i t y o v e r t i m e i s t h e f i n a l i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t o f c a b i n e t a d a p t a b i l i t y . I t has n o t r e a l l y had t o a d a p t t o a c h a n g e , b u t i n s t e a d to an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s c o p e and s c a l e o f i t s f u n c t i o n s . In r e s p o n s e t h e s i z e o f t h e c a b i n e t has g r o w n . P o r t f o l i o s have been r e o r g a n i z e d i n an a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a more r a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . The c a b i n e t now o p e r a t e s e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f c o m -m i t t e e s . a n d i t has e s t a b l i s h e d a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t b o d i e s . T h r o u g h t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s t h e c a b i n e t has a d a p t e d t o an i n c r e a s e d w o r k l o a d . C o m p ! e x i t y The C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t has become more c o m p l e x o v e r t h e y e a r s . C h a n g e s i n r e s p o n s e t o i n c r e a s e d g o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t y a c c o u n t f o r t h i s t r e n d . The i n c r e a s e d number o f c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s f r o m 22 i n 1963 to 31 i n 1977 i s one f a c t o r . S e c o n d , t h i s i n c r e a s e d s i z e has been a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e e m e r g e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t s . Not o n l y a r e t h e r e m i n i s t e r s w i t h , and w i t h o u t p o r t f o l i o r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but a l s o m i n i s t e r s o f s t a t e w i t h , and w i t h -o u t s p e c i a l s u b j e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a u t h o r i t y a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p o s i t i o n 38 vary . A t h i r d component of c a b i n e t complex i t y i s the h i e r -archy of a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e . The workload i n v o l v e d in some c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s makes them more important than o t h e r s . In t h i s r e s p e c t j u s t i c e , e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s and f i n a n c e are g e n e r a l l y regarded as c o o r d i n a t i n g p o r t f o l i o s . S ince 1968 Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau has used the Cab inet Committee o"f P r i o r i t i e s and P l a n n i n g as the c e n t r a l p o l i c y development group. M i n i s t e r s who are members of t h i s com-mi t tee are l i k e l y more i n f l u e n t i a l , in c a b i n e t as a r e s u l t . D i f f e r e n c e s in the r e g u l a r i t y of tu rnover of p o r t f o l i o s and the p r o b a b i l i t y of p o s i t i o n s being f i l l e d by f i r s t - t i m e appo in tees r e i n f o r c e ' ' the sense of a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . One f i n a l i n d i c a t o r of c a b i n e t complex i t y i s the i n -c r e a s i n g emphasis on committee work as opposed to f u l l c a b i n e t . Under the c u r r e n t prime m i n i s t e r , P i e r r e T r u d e a u , a l l matters go to committee before f u l l c a b i n e t . The a c t i v i t i e s of c a b i n e t are c o m p l i c a t e d f u r t h e r by the ex-i s t e n c e . o f two types of commit tees , s u b j e c t and c o o r d i n a t i n g commi t t e e s . Autonomy Samuel Hunt ington a t t a c h e s a broad d e f i n i t i o n to the concept of autonomy. One aspect i s d i s t i n c t i v e behav iour p a t t e r n s . The c a b i n e t can be i d e n t i f i e d , that i s i t stands as a d i s t i n c t e n t i t y , in terms of i t s dominat ion of gove rn -ment c o n t r i b u t i o n s in the House of Commons. Government 39 b a c k b e n c h e r s make f e w e r s p e e c h e s and r a i s e f e w e r m o t i o n s t h a n c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . I t i s t h e c a b i n e t w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s l e g i s l a t i o n , d e f e n d s i t i n l i g h t o f o p p o s i t i o n c r i t i c i s m and a n s w e r s q u e s t i o n s . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s a p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g m i n i s t e r s f r o m b a c k b e n c h e r s . T h e y t e n d t o a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y d e v o t e t h e i r r e m a r k s t o i s s u e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p o r t f o l i o r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . O v e r a t h r e e - m o n t h p e r i o d i n t h e f a l l o f 1977 t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e o f c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s was 7 8 , t h a t i s , on a v e r a g e 78% o f e a c h c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r ' s i n t e r j e c t i o n s were r e l a t e d t o h i s p o r t f o l i o a s s i g n m e n t . S e c o n d , c a b i n e t i s an a u t o n o m o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e more s t a n d a r d s e n s e o f t h e t e r m . One n e e d s o n l y t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c a b i n e t g o v e r n m e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s . I t i n i t i a t e s and does n o t r e s p o n d t o d i r e c t i o n s f r o m c a u c u s . E v e n w i t h t h e 1969 r e f o r m s i n t h e 4 L i b e r a l c a u c u s , c a b i n e t s t i l l has t h e u p p e r h a n d . C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s meet w i t h c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s b u t l a r g e l y t o i n f o r m them o f t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t o use t h e c o m m i t t e e s as s o u r c e s o f p o l i c y i n p u t . From one p e r -s p e c t i v e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s r e i n f o r c e s t h e c a b i n e t ' s c o n t r o l . B e c a u s e c a u c u s i s i n f o r m e d b e f o r e -hand and g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o i c e r e s e r v a t i o n s t h e p r e s s u r e s t o g i v e f u l l s u p p o r t t o t h e m i n i s t e r ' s p r o p o s a l s o n c e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House o f Commons a r e i n c r e a s e d . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e autonomy and t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e c a b i n e t 40 i s e n h a n c e d by i t s a c c e s s t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r t i s e o f t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e . F i n a l l y t h e p o s i t i o n o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e c r e t a r y s t a n d s as a n . i n t e r m e d i a r y s t e p between c a u c u s and c a b i n e t . C o n -s e q u e n t l y , i t n o t o n l y s y m b o l i z e s c a b i n e t a u t o n o m y b u t a l s o a f f o r d s an o p p o r t u n i t y o u t s i d e c a b i n e t t o l e a r n o f a t l e a s t some o f t h e p r a c t i c e s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a -t e d w i t h i t . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s an i n c o m p l e t e a p p r e n t i c e -s h i p , b u t i t a l l o w s c a b i n e t i n c u m b e n t s t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y r o l e o f t h e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r . C o n -s e q u e n t l y i n t h e o r y i t i s p a r t o f a s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , so t h a t new r e c r u i t s do n o t weaken t h e d i s t i n c t i v e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f t h e c a b i n e t . Between 1963 and 1978 3 5 , o r 60.3% o f c a b i n e t a p p o i n t e e s had p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e as p a r l i a -m e n t a r y s e c r e t a r i e s . C o h e r e n c e The norm o f c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y makes t h e c a b i n e t a h i g h l y c o h e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Once a d e c i s i o n has been r e a c h e d a l l m i n i s t e r s a r e t o p u b l i c l y s h a r e t h e r e s p o n s i - ' b i l i t y f o r t h e c a b i n e t ' s a c t i o n s . F o r a p e r i o d when P i e r r e T r u d e a u f i r s t became p r i m e m i n i s t e r c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y was r e l a x e d . In t h e p r e - l e g i s l a t i o n p e r i o d m i n i s t e r s were a l l o w e d t o p u b l i c l y e x p r e s s t h e i r own o p i n i o n s on p e n d i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s f r e e d o m was d i s c o n t i n u e d , how-e v e r , b e c a u s e t h e o p p o s i t i o n w o u l d use m i n i s t e r i a l s t a t e -ments t o e m b a r r a s s t h e g o v e r n m e n t a f t e r p o l i c y had been 41 5 d e t e r m i n e d . I f a m i n i s t e r f e e l s he c a n n o t s h a r e i n t h e r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r a c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o r e s i g n . T h i s s t a n d s as a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d p r o c e d u r e f o r r e s o l v i n g i n t e r n a l d i s a g r e e m e n t s . The p r i m e m i n i s t e r r e m a i n s t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r and d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . He has powers o f a p p o i n t m e n t , d i s m i s s a l , p r o m o t i o n and d e m o t i o n . One c o u n t e r v a i l i n g f o r c e w h i c h d e c r e a s e s t h e c o h e r e n c e o f t h e c a b i n e t i s t h e l i m i t s on t h e l e a d e r ' s s e l e c t i o n p r e r o g a t i v e s . The i m p e r a t i v e s o f r e g i o n a l , r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p o p p o n e n t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l o f t e n l e a d t o a c a b i n e t w h i c h i s n o t i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o h e s i v e o r p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s -f u l a t w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e i n c l u s i o n o f i d e o l o g i c a l r i v a l s o r l e a d e r s h i p o p p o n e n t s may h e l p u n i t e t h e p a r t y o r a t l e a s t c r e a t e t h i s image i t i n c r e a s e s t h e c h a n c e s o f i n t e r n a l c a b i n e t d i s a g r e e m e n t . In s p i t e o f t h i s w e a k n e s s , t h e c a b i n e t i s a c o h e r e n t b o d y . The norm o f c o l -l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e o f r e -s i g n i n g i f t h e d e c i s i o n c a n n o t be s u p p o r t e d c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s c o h e r e n c e . T h e s e f o u r c r i t e r i a a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . The c a b i n e t has a d a p t e d t o i n c r e a s e d demands o v e r t i m e by b e c o m i n g more c o m p l e x . In t u r n , a c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n i s b e t t e r a b l e t o a d a p t t o c h a n g e . I f i t was n o t as a u t o n o m o u s as i t i s , t h e c a b i n e t w o u l d n o t be as c o h e r e n t . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r t l i s t s t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f c a b i n e t i n s t i t u -42 t i o n a l i z a t i o n u n d e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e a d i n g . T h i s w i l l a l l o w f o r e a s y r e f e r e n c e w h i l e r e a d i n g t h e s t u d y o f shadow c a b i n e t w h i c h has been o r g a n i z e d a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . C h e c k 1 i s t A d a p t a b i 1 i t y 1. c h r o n o l o g i c a l age 2 . g e n e r a t i o n a l age 3. f u n c t i o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y 4 . f u n c t i o n a l a d a p t a b i l i t y o v e r t i m e C o m p ! e x i t y 1. s i z e i n c r e a s e 2. d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a p p o i n t m e n t s 3. h i e r a r c h y o f a u t h o r i t y 4 . c o m m i t t e e s y s t e m A u t o n o m y 1. d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s p f b e h a v i o u r - d o m i n a n c e o f House o f Commons - s p e c i a l i z a t i o n 2. a u t o n o m y i n a c t i v i t i e s f r o m t h e c a u c u s 3. s o c i a l i z a t i o n C o h e r e n ce 1. m a k e - u p o f o r g a n i z a t i o n 2 . d i sc i p 1 i ne r ; 3 . c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Shadow C a b i n e t A d a p t a b i l i t y Shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n d o e s n o t have t h e same r o o t s as t h e c a b i n e t i n t h e C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . But w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f o n e y e a r i t has e x i s t e d f o r t h e p a s t 15 y e a r s o f C o n s e r v a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n , b o t h i n p e r i o d s o f m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y g o v e r n m e n t , i n p r e and p o s t e l e c t i o n s e s s i o n s . Between 1963 and 1 9 7 8 , 107 d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s s e r v e d as p a r t y c r i t i c s . O n l y f o u r o u t o f 51 c r i t i c s i n 1977 had been f i r s t a p p o i n t e d i n 1963 . F u r t h e r -m o r e , among t h e c r i t i c s i n b o t h t h e 2 9 t h and 3 0 t h P a r l i a -m e n t s , 1972-74 and 1 9 7 4 - 7 7 , t h e m e d i a n y e a r o f e n t e r i n g P a r l i a m e n t was 1968 and 1972 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h u s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n has c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t w i t h p e o p l e who were n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s b e g i n n i n g . In 1 9 6 3 , 50% o f t h e c r i t i c s were e x - c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . In 1977 o n l y 3.9% o r 2 were e x - m i n i s t e r s . T h i s i s s i g n i -f i c a n t b e c a u s e one w o u l d e x p e c t e x - m i n i s t e r s t o l i k e l y r e -t a i n m i n i s t e r i a l b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s and t h e r e f o r e t o p o s -s i b l y a c t as an e x - c a b i n e t . H o w e v e r , shadow c a b i n e t s d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r as t h e e x - m i n i s t e r s l e f t t h e c a u c u s and as b a c k b e n c h e r s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e a t s e r v i n g w h i l e t h e i r p a r t y was i n g o v e r n m e n t were r e p l a c e d by ones w i t h o u t t h i s e x -p e r i e n c e . S i n c e 1963 t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n has a l s o s u r v i v e d two c h a n g e s i n l e a d e r s h i p . R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d s u c c e e d e d J o h n D i e f e n b a k e r i n 1967 and Joe C l a r k , S t a n f i e l d i n 1976 . D i e f e n b a k e r had been one o f t h e f i r s t c h a i r m a n o f t h e c a u c u s 6 c o m m i t t e e s e s t a b l i s h e d by B r a c k e n i n 1942 . T h u s he was a member o f t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n w h i c h had e s t a b l i s h e d the p r a c t i c e . Y e t Joe C l a r k ' s v i c t o r y i n 1976 s y m b o l i z e s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new g e n e r a t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p . The shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n s u r v i v e d t h i s g e n e r a t i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n 44 and was a c t u a l l y s t r e n g t h e n e d by i t , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d w a s , and Joe C l a r k i s , t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n D i e f e n b a k e r , c o m m i t t e d t o a team a p p r o a c h i n o p p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n t i n u e d existence of the shadow cabinet u n d e r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e a d e r s i s one t e s t o f i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y , i t i s n o t an e s p e c i a l l y r i g o r o u s t e s t b e c a u s e o f t h e l e a d e r -s h i p s t y l e s o f the r e c e n t l e a d e r s . The more s t r i n g e n t t e s t w o u l d be w h e t h e r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d s u r v i v e a l e a d e r c o m m i t t e d t o r u n n i n g more o f a " o n e - m a n s h o w . " The f u n c t i o n s o f a shadow c a b i n e t a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f a c a b i n e t . I t has no e x e c u t i v e o r l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In g e n e r a l t e r m s t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f a shadow c a b i n e t i s p o l i t i c a l . I t s r a t i o n a l e i s t o h e l p t h e O p p o s i t i o n p a r t y a c h i e v e i t s g o a l o f g a i n i n g o f f i c e . In t h e o r y i t can do t h i s by p e r f o r m i n g more t h a n one f u n c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y o f t h e c a b i n e t does n o t h e l p i d e n t i f y t h e p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s t o be e x p e c t e d o f a shadow c a b i n e t , t h e n o t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y i s s t i l l a r e l e v a n t t e s t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . The mere e x i s t e n c e o f a shadow c a b i n e t c r e a t e s the. image o f r e a d i n e s s , o f a g r o u p o f p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s p r e -p a r e d t o assume c a b i n e t p o s t s once i t s p a r t y g a i n s o f f i c e . S e c o n d l y , as w i t h t h e B r i t i s h m o d e l , t h e shadow c a b i n e t may p e r f o r m t h e f u n c t i o n o f o r g a n i z i n g and d i r e c t i n g t h e s t r a t e g y o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n . T h i r d , as i n A u s t r a l i a i t may have p o l i c y - m a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a i m e d a t b o t h 45 a c q u i r i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t and p r o v i d i n g t h e b a s i s o f a l e g i s l a t i v e p r o g r a m o n c e i n o f f i c e . F i n a l l y , as i n t h e B r i t i s h c a s e , one may n o t e t h e r o l e o f i n d i v i d u a l shadows as o f f i c i a l p a r t y s p o k e s m e n w i t h e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y d u t i e s to p e r f o r m . The n e x t p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s how t h e g r o u p o f C a n a d i a n shadows has g r a d u a l l y assumed t h e s e r o l e s . The o r i g i n s ' o f t h e shadow o r s p o k e s m a n p o s i t i o n were d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . R e c a l l t h a t i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s t h e c o m m i t t e e s and c h a i r m e n were n o t a l l o w e d t o u s u r p t h e s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e w h o l e c a u c u s . Y e t , by 1976 t h e e m p h a s i s had c h a n g e d . In s p e a k i n g o f h i s g r o u p o f a p p o i n t e e s Joe C l a r k i d e n t i f i e d one o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as " t h e t a s k o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s o f t h i s g o v e r n m e n t a r e s u b j e c t t o e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u o u s s c r u t i n y w i t h i n t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e s s . " 7 T h u s , as i n B r i t a i n , s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g has become a shadow c a b i n e t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In t h e same p r e s s s t a t e m e n t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r a l s o s t r e s s e d t h e g r o u p ' s i m p o r t a n c e i n " d e m o n s t r a t e [ . i n g ] b o t h i n P a r l i a m e n t and i n t h e c o u n t r y a t l a r g e t h e f a c t t h a t o u r p a r t y has a team r e a d y and a b l e t o p r o v i d e a c o m p e t e n t , p o s i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e p r e s e n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " H e r e i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e f i r s t f u n c t i o n o f a shadow c a b i n e t — p o r t r a y i n g t o t h e p u b l i c t h e image o f a p r e p a r e d a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . In c o m p a r i s o n , Joe C l a r k o n l y o f f h a n d e d l y m e n t i o n e d t h e shadow s p o k e s m a n ' s 46 r o l e i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c a u c u s . Thus o v e r t h e y e a r s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e n t a i l e d by t h e s e a p p o i n t m e n t s has c h a n g e d f r o m t h e mere c h a i r i n g o f a c o m m i t t e e t o t h a t o f a c t i n g , as a p a r t y ' s c r i t i c , and a l o n g w i t h a g r o u p o f c o l 1 e a g u e s , p o s i n g as an a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n -m e n t . No d o u b t t h i s c h a n g e o c c u r r e d g r a d u a l l y , m a k i n g i t i m p o s s i b l e to p i n p o i n t e x a c t l y when t h e a p p o i n t m e n t began to be u n d e r s t o o d as more t h a n a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s t r i c t l y r e l a t e d to i n t e r n a l c a u c u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . H o w e v e r , some o f i t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d c o v e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . D u r i n g b o t h t h e 2 6 t h and t h e 2 7 t h P a r l i a m e n t s , f r o m 1963 t o 1 9 6 8 , t h e l i s t o f a s s i g n m e n t s was r e l e a s e d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g " P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s " and t h e l i s t s i n c l u d e d t h e names o f v i c e - c h a i r m e n and s e c r e t a r i e s as w e l l as t h e c h a i r m e n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e s . The l i s t f o r 1964 i n d i c a t e d t h e c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n w o u l d m e e t , n o t a t t h e c a l l o f t h e l e a d e r , b u t o f t h e c a u c u s c h a i r m a n . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a t l e a s t d u r i n g t h e m i d -1 9 6 0 ' s ( t h e D i e f e n b a k e r p e r i o d ) a c h a i r m a n s h i p was s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d a c a u c u s a p p o i n t m e n t . B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e p e r i o d o f S t a n f i e l d ' s l e a d e r s h i p t h e l i s t s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d o n l y t h e names o f t h e c h a i r m e n . I t a l s o became l e s s common t o r e f e r t o t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p s as b e i n g a s s i g n e d by c a u c u s . R a t h e r t h e y were u n d e r s t o o d t o be t h e l e a d e r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t s a p p r o v e d o r c o n f i r m e d by c a u c u s . The t r e n d c u l m i n a t e d i n 1976 w i t h t h e l i s t o f a s s i g n m e n t s b e i n g r e l e a s e d by t h e 47 O p p o s i t i o n L e a d e r ' s O f f i c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e C h a i r m a n o f C a u c u s . Even t h o u g h J o e C l a r k has c o n t i n u e d t o r e f e r t o t h e p o s i t i o n s as c h a i r m a n s h i p s , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r d u t i e s , q u o t e d a b o v e , i n d i c a t e s t h e y a r e no l o n g e r s i m p l y a c t i n g as c h a i r m e n o f c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s . Now t h e C a n a d i a n shadow c a b i n e t a p p e a r s t o have an i m a g e - b u i l d i n g r o l e , an o p p o s i t i o n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , p o l i c y - r e l a t e d d u t i e s and e v e n t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The g r o u p o f c h a i r m e n o r g a n i z e t h e s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n . In t h e S t a n f i e l d p e r i o d t h e g r o u p , r a n g i n g i n s i z e f r o m 24 t o 4 0 , met d a i l y t o p l a n and c o o r d i n a t e q u e s t i o n p e r i o d and t o d e c i d e on t h e p o i n t s o f g o v e r n m e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o f o c u s u p o n . In s l i g h t l y m o d i -f i e d f o r m t h i s p r a c t i c e has been c o n t i n u e d by J o e C l a r k . Not o n l y does t h e shadow c a b i n e t a c t as a p l a n n i n g o r c o -o r d i n a t i n g b o d y , b u t t h e shadow members a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e s p o n d i n g to g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y p r o n o u n c e m e n t s and l e a d i n g t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e i r s u b j e c t a r e a i n t h e House o f Common s . S e c o n d , as a g r o u p t h e shadow c a b i n e t a p p e a r s t o have c e r t a i n p o l i c y r e l a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a l t h o u g h t h e i r p r i m a r y f o c u s i s on p l a n n i n g p a r l i a m e n t a r y s t r a t e g y . A f o r m e r r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i d e n t i f i e d c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n as t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a r m o n i z i n g Q p o l i c y . F u r t h e r , t h e r o l e o f the c o o r d i n a t o r , more f u l l y d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , has been d e f i n e d as " e n s u r i n g o r d e r l y and c o m p a t i b l e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n i n a r e a s o f b r o a d s c o p e . The t y p e o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o i s r a t h e r u n c l e a r . B o t h S t a n f i e l d and C l a r k have m a i n t a i n e d o n g o i n g o u t s i d e p o l i c y c o m m i t t e e s s e p a r a t e f r o m c a u c u s . 1 1 T h u s t h e t y p e o f p o l i c y i n q u e s t i o n may be s i m p l y c o m m i t m e n t s e m e r g i n g o u t o f q u e s t i o n s , r e s p o n s e s t o g o v e r n m e n t a n n o u n c e m e n t s and o f f -hand s t a t e m e n t s made t o t h e p r e s s . T h i r d , t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e o f s p o k e s m e n p e r f o r m i n g e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y f u n c t i o n s . A l v i n A r m s t r o n g i n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f F l o r a M a c D o n a l d m e n t i o n s t h a t w h i l e F l o r a was c r i t i c o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t she v i s i t e d a l l o f t h e I n d i a n bands i n C a n a d a and k e p t i n c o n -t a c t w i t h t h e i r l e a d e r s . F l o r a r e c e i v e d , as w e l l as d e l i v e r e d , b r i e f s on m e r c u r y p o i s o n i n g , l a n d c l a i m s , and 1 2 o t h e r I n d i a n c o n c e r n s . In E d w i n B l a c k ' s a r t i c l e on o p -p o s i t i o n r e s e a r c h he d i s c u s s e s t h e demands p l a c e d upon t h e o f f i c e a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y s p e e c h e s o f c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n " m a k i n g m a j o r p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s , r a d i o , 1 3 t e l e v i s i o n and l i v e a d d r e s s e s . . . . " The s p o k e s m a n r o l e does n o t a p p e a r t o be l i m i t e d t o P a r l i a m e n t a l t h o u g h t h e e x t e n t o f e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s u n c l e a r . O v e r t h e p a s t 15 y e a r s t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y has i n -c r e a s i n g l y e m p h a s i z e d t h e shadow c a b i n e t i n i t s e f f o r t s t o a p p e a r as an a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . One i n d i c a t o r o f t h i s i s t h e c o n c e r n w i t h b a l a n c i n g r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n 49 i n shadow a p p o i n t m e n t s . R e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s an e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e o f C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t - m a k i n g . The v a r i o u s r e g i o n s o f C a n a d a have come t o e x p e c t r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s i n t h e c a b i n e t who can e x p r e s s t h e d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n a l c o n c e r n s i n t h e m a k i n g o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y . Yet t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e shadow i s n o t a p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i n g b o d y , t h i s i s n o t a r a t i o n a l e f o r f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s i n s o f a r as t h e r e a r e s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l p o l i c y c o n c e r n s t h e r e w i l l be p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l b a s e s o f c r i t i c i s m . F u r t h e r and p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e g i o n s and i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i n shadow r a n k s i n d i c a t e s t h e O p p o s i t i o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o p l a y by t h e r u l e s o f t h e game. I t d e m o n s t r a t e s i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f and a c c o m m o d a t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e g i o n a l i s m i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . F i r s t and f o r e m o s t , r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s l i k e l y a ' p o l i t i c a l ' 1 4 r a t h e r t h a n a ' p o l i c y - m a k i n g ' c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e 26 th P a r l i a m e n t D i e f e n b a k e r had no r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were 15 c a u c u s members f r o m S a s k a t c h e w a n , and 10 f r o m Nova S c o t i a , n e i t h e r p r o v i n c e was r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e g r o u p o f c h a i r m e n . H o w e v e r , as w i t h t h e move away f r o m an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p o s i t i o n s t r i c t l y as a com-m i t t e e c h a i r m a n s h i p , c h a n g e s i n r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o l l o w e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p c h a n g e . A f t e r 1968 t h e r e has a l w a y s been shadow r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l t h e p r o v i n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n c a u c u s . In f a c t i n t h e 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t t h e 50 o n l y t i m e a p r o v i n c e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , was n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n c a u c u s S t a n f i e l d c o n s i d e r e d r e g i o n a l i n p u t so c r u c i a l t h a t o u t s i d e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o k e e p c a u c u s i n f o r m e d on 1 5 t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n p e r s p e c t i v e . C l a r k has a d m i t t e d t h a t s t r i k i n g a r e g i o n a l b a l a n c e i n f l u e n c e d h i s a p p o i n t m e n t s 1 g i n 1976 . F u r t h e r e x c l u d i n g t h e D i e f e n b a k e r p e r i o d b e -c a u s e o f t h e d o m i n a n c e o f e x - m i n i s t e r s , t h e f i s h e r i e s c r i t i c has a l w a y s been f r o m t h e M a r i t i m e s . F a r m e r s , u s u a l l y f r o m t h e P r a i r i e s , have been t h e a g r i c u l t u r e c r i t i c s and p e o p l e f r o m o u t s i d e o f c e n t r a l C a n a d a t h e t r a n s p o r t c r i t i c s . T h u s , as c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s have come t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y , so have shadow p o s i t i o n s . T h e r e i s a f u r t h e r f u n c t i o n t h e shadow c a b i n e t p e r -f o r m s i n r e s p e c t t o i m a g e - b u i l d i n g . A d i s u n i t e d and o p e n l y w a r r i n g p a r t y i s u n l i k e l y t o e i t h e r c a r r y on e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n o r p o r t r a y t h e image o f an a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n -m e n t . A s s i g n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s keeps a g r e a t e r number o f c a u c u s members i n v o l v e d i n t h e d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s o f o p p o s i t i o n . P e o p l e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be f r u s t r a t e d and o p e n l y c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r own p a r t y s t r a t e g y , p o l i c i e s o r l e a d e r . Thus t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f shadow p o s i t i o n s has p o s s i b l y been u s e d t o p r o m o t e m e m b e r s ' a t t a c h m e n t s t o t h e p a r t y . I f t h e shadow c a b i n e t has been used i n t h i s m a n n e r , one w o u l d e x p e c t p a r t i c u l a r p r e s s u r e s t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f a s s i g n m e n t s i n l o n g p e r i o d s o f o p p o s i t i o n , a m a j o r i t y g o v e r n m e n t s i t u a t i o n and when t h e 51 l e a d e r i s n o t s e c u r e l y i n c h a r g e . I f any p e r i o d s i n c e 1963 f i t s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i t i s t h e 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t f r o m 1 9 6 8 -1972.1 T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s . A f t e r a s m a l l shadow c a b i n e t o f 20-22 members u n d e r D i e f e n b a k e r 1 s l e a d e r s h i p t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n began t o grow d u r i n g t h e 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t and n u m b e r e d 34 by t h e end o f t h e f o u r t h s e s s i o n . H o w e v e r , e x c e p t f o r t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e 2 9 t h P a r l i a m e n t t h e r e has been a s t e a d y upward t r e n d i n t h e s i z e o f t h e shadow as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r O n e . B e c a u s e t h e c h a n g e was o f t h i s n a t u r e t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y a more l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n t h a n t h e p r o m o t i n g o f s o l i d a r i t y . The c a b i n e t a d a p t e d t o t h e o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n g o v e r n -ment a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s by e x p a n d i n g i n s i z e a n d , i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , r e o r g a n i z i n g m i n i s t r i e s . The same p r e s -s u r e s can a c c o u n t f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e shadow r a n k s . As w i t h t h e c a b i n e t , i t i s n o t an i s s u e o f a d a p t i n g t o a c h a n g e d f u n c t i o n , but r a t h e r a n e e d t o c h a n g e t o be a b l e to c a r r y on t h e same f u n c t i o n , t h e s c r u t i n y o f g o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . In c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s new shadow a s s i g n m e n t s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o l l o w i n g new m i n i s t r i e s o r t h e r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o l d o n e s . 1 7 More i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h a t i n numerous o t h e r c a s e s shadow p o s i t i o n s f o r p a r t i c u l a r 1 8 s u b j e c t s e x i s t e d p r i o r t o m i n i s t r i e s . In g e n e r a l t h e t r e n d o v e r t h e p e r i o d has been away f r o m a shadow d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r w h i c h d u p l i c a t e s t h e c a b i n e t ' s . In t h e 2 6 t h 52 P a r l i a m e n t t h e shadow c a b i n e t was s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r t h a n the c a b i n e t w i t h no shadows o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , t h e S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l o r t h e A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r o f D e f e n c e . By t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t t h e shadow c a b i n e t was an e x a c t d u p l i c a t e o f i t s c o u n t e r p a r t . S i n c e t h e n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e 2 9 t h P a r l i a m e n t , t h e r e have been an i n -c r e a s i n g number o f a p p o i n t m e n t s made e a c h s e s s i o n . By t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n o f t h e 3 0 t h P a r l i a m e n t t h e r e were 44 shadows b u t o n l y 32 m i n i s t r i e s . T h i s t r e n d i s u n l i k e t h e B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n e x a m p l e s , where t h e r e has been a t e n d e n c y t o d u p l i c a t e t h e c a b i n e t b o t h i n s i z e and d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . As w e l l as t h e t r e n d t o a p p o i n t shadows t o s u b j e c t s t h a t were n o t y e t s e p a r a t e m i n i s t r i e s , t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y t o a t f i r s t a p p o i n t two o r more shadows t o l a r g e m i n i s t r i e s . T h i s p r e d a t e d t h e d i v i s i o n o f a m i n i s t r y i n t o two a p p o i n t m e n t s . T h u s t h e r e i s now, f o r i n s t a n c e , a c r i t i c f o r h e a l t h and a n o t h e r f o r w e l f a r e . In 1977 t h e r e were f o u r c r i t i c s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , a g e n e r a l s p o k e s -man and t h r e e o t h e r s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on l i v e s t o c k , t h e wheat b o a r d , and e a s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r e . The t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n p o s i t i o n has been d i v i d e d i n t o a i r , g r o u n d and m a r i n e . The O p p o s i t i o n , i n v i e w o f i t s l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , was n o t a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o t h e p r e s s u r e s a r i s i n g f r o m i n c r e a s e d g o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t y by e x p a n d i n g t h e r a n k s o f i t s s u p p o r t 53 1 9 s t a f f . I n s t e a d i t has d i v i d e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s among more o f i t s Members o f P a r l i a m e n t . F i n a l l y , t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f c o o r d i n a t o r s i s a r e s p o n s e t o p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f shadow p o s i t i o n s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s r e l a t i v e l y new t y p e o f p o s i t i o n i s p a r t o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t ' s a d a p t a t i o n t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The d e t a i l s o f c o o r d i n a t o r s and c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n on c o m p l e x i t y . In summary shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n has e x i s t e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t 15 y e a r s o f C o n s e r v a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n . I t has s u r v i v e d a number o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s d u r i n g t h a t t i m e , most i m p o r t a n t l y c h a n g e s i n l e a d e r s h i p . O n l y a few c r i t i c s f i r s t a p p o i n t e d i n 1963 r e m a i n i n t h e p r e s e n t shadow c a b i n e t . D u r i n g t h a t t i m e a p r o c e s s , no d o u b t begun i n t h e p a s t , has e v o l v e d f u r t h e r so t h a t an a p p o i n t m e n t now means more t h a n a c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m a n s h i p . By 1 9 7 7 , t h e shadow c a b i n e t was a g r o u p o f p a r t y s p o k e s m e n . I t had a d a p t e d i t s e l f t o t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f o v e r s e e i n g more and more g o v e r n -ment a c t i v i t y . F u r t h e r i t i s a m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n as t h e c a b i n e t i s , t h o u g h w i t h v e r y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s t o f u l f i l l . C o m p l e x i t y O v e r t h e l o n g - t e r m t h e r e has been a s h a r p r i s e i n t h e number o f shadow members f r o m 19 i n 1963 t o 51 i n 1978 . U n t i l 1970 t h e a s s i g n m e n t s b a s i c a l l y m i r r o r e d c a b i n e t 54 p o r t f o l i o s . S i n c e t h e n t h e s h i f t has been away f r o m p o r t -f o l i o shadows t o s u b j e c t s p o k e s m e n . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n a s s i g n m e n t s s u c h as j u s t i c e , f i n a n c e , e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s w h i c h r e m a i n i d e n t i c a l t o t h e c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s . In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s p o r t f o l i o c o n c e r n s s u c h as h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , and I n d i a n a f f a i r s and n o r t h e r n d e v e l o p m e n t have been d i v i d e d i n t o t h e i r s u b j e c t c o m p o n e n t s . T h e r e i s a t h i r d t y p e o f c r i t i c w h i c h assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , s u c h as t h e p i p e l i n e o r y o u t h . T h e r e a r e a number o f m i n i s t r i e s w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e g e n e r a l s u b j e c t s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a s s i g n m e n t s i n c r e a s e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s u l t i n a shadow c a b i n e t t h a t i s n o t a m i r r o r image o f t h e c a b i n e t . In r e c e n t y e a r s t h e c o o r d i n a t o r p o s i t i o n has e m e r g e d w h i c h e n t a i l s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p o k e s m e n . T h r e e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t c o -o r d i n a t o r s were f i r s t a p p o i n t e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1973 . As a n n o u n c e d , t h e s e p e o p l e were t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " e n s u r -i n g o r d e r l y and c o m p a t i b l e p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n i n a r e a s o f ? n b r o a d s c o p e . " As an e x a m p l e t h e c a u c u s c h a i r m a n i n h i s p r e s s r e l e a s e e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e e n e r g y c o o r d i n a t o r w o u l ! d ' " c o -o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f c o m m i t t e e s on I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and C o m m e r c e , I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s as w e l l as E c o n o m i c A f f a i r s and T a x a t i o n 21 as t h e y a p p l y t o e n e r g y . " A t the same t i m e R u r a l A f f a i r s , 55 and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o o r d i n a t o r s were a p p o i n t e d . The E n e r g y and R u r a l A f f a i r s c o o r d i n a t o r s were d r o p p e d t h e n e x t y e a r . H o w e v e r , t h e c o n c e p t o f s u c h a p o s i t i o n was n o t a b a n d o n e d . C o o r d i n a t o r s were a p p o i n t e d f o r C a n a d i a n - A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s , S o c i a l and L e g a l A f f a i r s , and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s . In t h e f a l l o f 1977 a c o m p l e t e s l a t e o f s i x c o o r d i n a t o r s was named. T h e y were t o a c t as t h e c h a i r m e n o f c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e c r i t i c s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u b j e c t s and p o r t f o l i o s i n t h e w i d e r p o l i c y a r e a . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a h i e r a r c h y o f i m p o r t a n c e i n shadow a s s i g n m e n t s , as i n c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n . R e c a l l t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f shadow c a b i n e t i n v o l v e m e n t i n p o l i c y -m a k i n g r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e f i n e h i e r a r c h y i n t e r m s o f i n f l u e n c e i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g . One w o u l d e x p e c t a h i e r a r c h y o f shadow p o s i t i o n s , i f i t e x i s t s , t o i n v o l v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n f l u e n c e on s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g . B e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e shadow r o l e one w o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t t h e h i e r a r c h y w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e c a b i n e t ' s w i t h t h e most i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s s h a d o w i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s . The t u r n o v e r o f shadow p o s i t i o n s v a r i e s . The t o p t h r e e p o r t f o l i o s i n t h e c a b i n e t h i e r a r c h y , f i n a n c e , j u s t i c e and e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , a r e among t h o s e w i t h t h e l o w e s t t u r n o v e r a l o n g w i t h e n e r g y , m i n e s and r e s o u r c e s , n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e , f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s and h e a l t h . A l l 56 e x c e p t f o r h e a l t h a r e c o u n t e r p a r t s o f e x i s t i n g c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s . Two o t h e r s w i t h low t u r n o v e r a r e n a t i o n a l r e v e n u e and t h e p o s t o f f i c e w h i c h have been f i l l e d by two e x - m i n i s t e r s , M a r c e l L a m b e r t and W a l t e r D i n s d a l e f o r a l o n g t i m e . T h o s e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t t u r n o v e r a r e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p -m e n t , s c i e n c e , c o n s u m e r and c o r p o r a t e a f f a i r s and h o u s i n g , a l l r e l a t i v e l y new c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s . Two a r e t h e r e -22 s p o n s i b i 1 i t i e s o f m i n i s t e r s o f s t a t e i n t h e c a b i n e t . The l i k e l i h o o d o f shadow p o s i t i o n s b e i n g f i l l e d by f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t e e s a l s o v a r i e s . T h e r e i s a m a r k e d t e n d e n c y t o f i n d f r e s h m e n a s s u m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r u n -e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e , s m a l l b u s i n e s s , y o u t h , m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , s u p p l y and s e r v i c e s and a g r i c u l t u r e . N e i t h e r o f t h e two w h i c h a r e c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Two a r e s h a d o w i n g m i n i s t e r s o f s t a t e , and y o u t h has no c a b i n e t c o u n t e r p a r t . In r e c e n t y e a r s i t has been uncommon f o r f i r s t t i m e a p p o i n t e e s t o be c r i t i c s o f j u s t i c e , e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , i n d u s t r y , t r a d e 2 3 and c o m m e r c e , o r h e a l t h and w e l f a r e . H o w e v e r , t h i s has c h a n g e d o v e r t i m e . D u r i n g t h e D i e f e n b a k e r p e r i o d a number o f f r e s h m e n shadows c r i t i c i z e d t h e i n d u s t r y , t r a d e and commerce and e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s p o r t f o l i o s and th..e o n l y f r e s h m e n c r i t i c s o f j u s t i c e and h e a l t h and w e l f a r e were a p p o i n t e d by D i e f e n b a k e r . A f t e r 1968 t h e r e has been o n l y one f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t e e f o r i n d u s t r y , t r a d e and c o m m e r c e , P a u l H e l l y e r , and one f o r e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , C l a u d e W a g n e r , b o t h men w i t h m i n i s t e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e . F i n a n c e has been f i l l e d by two f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t e e s , James G i l l i e s and S i n c l a i r S t e v e n s e a c h w i t h a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n i n e i t h e r t h e a c a d e m i c o r b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y b e f o r e e n t e r -i n g p o l i t i c s . From t h e s e two i n d i c a t o r s t h e r e a p p e a r s to be a h i e r a r c h y o f a p p o i n t m e n t s i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t , r a n g i n g f r o m shadows w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d to t h e c o o r d i n a t i n g c a b i n e t p o r t f o l i o s a t t h e t o p t o shadows o f o t h e r p o r t -f o l i o s , m i n i s t r i e s o f s t a t e and a t t h e b o t t o m s u b j e c t a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h have no c a b i n e t c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h e r e i s one o t h e r i n d i c a t o r o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . N o r m a l l y t h e l i s t o f c h a i r m a n s h i p s a r e r e -l e a s e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . H o w e v e r , t h e r e was a d e -p a r t u r e f r o m t h i s p r a c t i c e i n t h e l a s t two s e s s i o n s o f t h e 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t . F i n a n c e , e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , j u s t i c e and the p r i v y c o u n c i l t o p p e d t h e l i s t w i t h y o u t h , f i s h e r i e s , s c i e n c e , v e t e r a n s a f f a i r s and t r e a s u r y b o a r d a t t h e b o t t o m . The l i s t s were n o t drawn up a c c o r d i n g t o p r e c e d e n c e , as i s t h e p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e c a b i n e t . The o r d e r d i d n o t r e f l e c t e i t h e r p a r l i a m e n t a r y o r shadow c a b i n e t e x p e r i e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e Angus M a c l e a n , an e x - m i n i s t e r , who had been an MP s i n c e 1959 and a shadow s i n c e 1963 was n e a r t h e b o t t o m o f the l i s t . H i s a s s i g n m e n t was f i s h e r i e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , L o u i s C o m e a u , a member f o r two y e a r s w i t h no e x p e r i e n c e as a shadow was n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e l i s t . H i s s u b j e c t a r e a was e n e r g y , m i n e s and r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e i s no way t o 58 a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e o r d e r o f t h e s e two l i s t s r e f l e c t e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r e s t i g e o r i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a p p o i n t -m e n t s . H o w e v e r , i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e h i e r a r c h y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t u r n o v e r and f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t m e n t s . The b e s t e v i d e n c e o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l d i v i s i o n o f r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t h e c o o r d i n a t o r p o s i t i o n . P o l i c y c o o r d i n a -t o r s were f i r s t a p p o i n t e d i n 1973 and 1974 . In 1976 C l a r k r e q u e s t e d S t e v e n s i n f i n a n c e , B a l f o u r i n i n d u s t r y , t r a d e and commerce and K e m p l i n g i n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y t o work as an e c o n o m i c t e a m . T h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r e a s u r y b o a r d , s u p p l y and s e r v i c e s , p u b l i c w o r k s and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s t a f f r e l a t i o n s were a l s o a s k e d t o work j o i n t l y as a g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s g r o u p . T h i s i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t i t y between i n -d i v i d u a l shadows and t h e f u l l shadow c a b i n e t was c a r r i e d a s t e p f u r t h e r i n t h e f a l l o f 1977 when most o f t h e shadows were o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s e t o f c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s . A c o o r d i n a t o r was to h e a d e a c h o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s . Not o n l y a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e a p p o i n t e e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l shadows b u t t h e i r r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s p l a c e them i n a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e s u b j e c t o r p o r t f o l i o s h a d o w s . T h e y a r e t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e b r o a d s u b j e c t a r e a s and make s u r e p e o p l e work i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . Joe C l a r k s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o o r d i n a t o r " w o u l d have f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as 24 p a r t y spokesman i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . " S t r a t e g y p l a n -n i n g i s no l o n g e r a f u l l shadow c a b i n e t e x e r c i s e . I t i s 59 t h e s i x c o o r d i n a t o r s who now meet w i t h t h e l e a d e r d a i l y . I f t h e p o s i t i o n e v o l v e s o v e r t i m e i n s u c h a way as t o e n t a i l f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a p o l i c y a r e a , i t i s u n l i k e any p o s i t i o n i n e i t h e r t h e C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t o r t h e B r i t i s h and t h e A u s t r a l i a n shadow c a b i n e t s . The c o o r d i n a t o r s a p p o i n t e d i n O c t o b e r 1 9 7 7 , a l l s e n i o r M P s , had s e r v e d as shadow s p o k e s m e n . F i v e o u t o f s e v e n had been s p o k e s m e n i n t h e s u b j e c t a r e a t h e y were a s s i g n e d to c o o r d i n a t e . The two e x c e p t i o n s were L i n c o l n A l e x a n d e r as c o o r d i n a t o r o f g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s and A l l a n L a w r e n c e , f o o d and r e s o u r c e s . H o w e v e r , L a w r e n c e had e x p e r i e n c e as a p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r o f r e s o u r c e s . A l l e x c e p t o n e , Dan M a z a n k o w s k i ( t r a n s p o r t and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ) , were a l s o a s s i g n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as shadow s p o k e s m e n . The c o -o r d i n a t o r p o s i t i o n i s r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e s u p e r m i n i s t e r s a p p o i n t e d by P r e m i e r W i l l i a m D a v i s o f O n t a r i o i n 1972 . I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see w h e t h e r t h e s e p o s i t i o n s r e s u l t i n t h e same p r o b l e m s w i t h l i n e s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a r o s e i n O n t a r i o . In c o n c l u s i o n , o v e r t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e shadow c a b i n e t has become a more c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a -t i o n . The number o f p o s i t i o n s has i n c r e a s e d . T h e r e a r e two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , shadow s p o k e s m e n and c o o r d i n a t o r s . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a h i e r a r c h y o f i n f l u e n c e i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t . T h e r e a r e r e a s o n s to b e l i e v e t h e i n c u m b e n t s o f t h e j u s t i c e , e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s and f i n a n c e shadows a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n -60 f ' l u e n t i a l . C e r t a i n l y t h e e x p l i c i t a s s i g n m e n t o f f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p o l i c y i n an a r e a s u b o r d i n a t e s i n d i v i d u a l s p o k e s m e n and p l a c e s t h e s e a p p o i n t e e s i n a u t h o r i t a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . A u t o n o m y T h i s s e c t i o n b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h t h e shadow c a b i n e t f r o m t h e O p p o s i t i o n b a c k b e n c h e r s . The shadow c a b i n e t ' s d o m i n a t i o n o f O p p o s i t i o n c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e House o f Commons and t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s make i t p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h them f r o m o t h e r m e m b e r s . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e I t h e shadow c a b i n e t d o m i n a t e s a d d r e s s i n r e p l y , w i r t t e n q u e s t i o n s , p r i v a t e m e m b e r s ' b i l l s and a d j o u r n m e n t m o t i o n s . In t h e c a s e o f a d j o u r n m e n t m o t i o n s t h e r e has been a s t e a d y t r e n d o f i n c r e a s i n g shadow c a b i n e t d o m i n a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e p a t t e r n i s n o t o f s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n r e s p e c t t o a d d r e s s i n r e p l y and p r i v a t e m e m b e r ' s b i l l s , o v e r t h e l o n g t e r m t h e t r e n d i s i n t h a t same d i r e c t i o n o f g r e a t e r shadow d o m i n a n c e . The s i t u a t i o n i s n o t as c l e a r w i t h w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s . In t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n o f t h e 3 0 t h P a r l i a m e n t t h e b a c k b e n c h a s k e d o n l y 1.7% f e w e r q u e s t i o n s t h a n w o u l d have been e x p e c t e d i f t h e r e had been e q u a l i n i t i a t i v e among a l l c a u c u s m e m b e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s d i s t o r t e d by t h e e x t e n s i v e a c t i v i t y o f t h e two b a c k b e n c h e r s . Tom C o s s i t t and R o b e r t Howie a s k e d 23.3% of a l l t h e C o n -s e r v a t i v e q u e s t i o n s . T h u s t h e l a c k o f shadow c a b i n e t T a b l e I COMPARISON OF SHADOW CABINET AND CAUCUS CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS >% of Total Caucus Address Questions in on Reply Notice Private Member1s B i l l s Adjourn Motions Index of the Level A c t i v i t y 26- 1 shadow 20.6% 22.9% 36.7% 12.5% .937 backbenchers 78.4 77.1 63.3 87.5 27- 1 shadow 21.9 35.7 29.1 33.3 23.4 .584 backbenchers 77.1 64.3 70.9 66.7 76.6 28- 1 shadow 33.3 29.2 43.4 23.1 23.9 .594 backbenchers 65.3 70.8 56.6 76.9 76.1 29- 1 shadow 33.6 45.7 28.1 40.0 41.0 .813 backbenchers 65.4 54.3 71.9 60.0 59.0 30- 2 shadow 39.8 48.6 41.5 44.4 43.3 .835 backbenchers 59.2 51.4 58.5 55.6 56.7 Source: House of Commons Debate f o r f i v e sessions of Parliament: 26th 1st 1963; 27th 1st 1966-67; 28th 1st 1968-69; 29th 1st 1973-74; 30th 2nd 1976-77. a) Each score represents the percentage of that type of co n t r i b ut ion made by e i t h e r the shadow cabinet or the backbench. For example the shadow cabinet accounted f o r 22.9% of the Opposit ion Addresses in Reply in 1963. b) The index of the l e v e l of a c t i v i t y is a measure of the increased a c t i v i t y of i n d i v i d u a l spokesmen. It was derived by d i v i d i n g the to ta l number of debate c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by the shadow appointees by the number of appointees and the number of days in the s e s s i o n . 62 d o m i n a n c e i s n o t a r e s u l t o f t h e q u e s t i o n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e e n t i r e b a c k b e n c h . E x c l u d i n g t h e s e two f r o m t h e c o m p u t a -t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t shadow m i n i s t e r s a s k e d 54.1% o f t h e r e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i l e t h e y c o m p r i s e d 41.8% o f t h e r e m a i n i n g c a u c u s . Thus w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s e two members t h e shadow c a b i n e t has come t o d o m i n a t e w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s t o a d e g r e e n o t i n d i c a t e d by the f i g u r e s i n T a b l e I . The f i n a l c o l u m n i n t h e t a b l e i s a m e a s u r e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p o k e s m e n . I t r e p r e s e n t s t h e a v e r a g e number o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made e a c h day by e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s p o k e s m a n . S i n c e t h e 2 7 t h P a r l i a m e n t t h e r e has been a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n t h e d e b a t e a c t i v i t y o f s p o k e s m e n . The i n d e x f o r t h e 2 6 t h P a r l i a m e n t d o e s n o t f i t i n t o t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f i n -c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y o v e r t i m e . T h i s s c o r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t d u r i n g 1 9 6 3 , on a v e r a g e , e a c h s p o k e s m a n c o n t r i b u t e d a l m o s t d a i l y . T h i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h i n d e x f o r t h e 2 6 t h P a r l i a -can a t l e a s t be p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e m a k e - u p o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t . F i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e p o s i t i o n s were f i l l e d by e x - m i n i s t e r s . S e c o n d l y i t was t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f o p p o s i t i o n f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . Thus i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e c a r r y o v e r / o f a c a b i n e t p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r a c c o u n t s f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1963 . O v e r a l l , h o w e v e r , t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d has been t o w a r d g r e a t e r shadow c a b i n e t d o m i n a t i o n o f O p p o s i t i o n c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e House o f Commons. 63 S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s i s a b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n o f t h e C a n a d i a n c a b i n e t and t h e B r i t i s h shadow w h i c h has g r a d u a l l y been a d o p t e d by t h e C a n a d i a n shadow as w e l l . The g e n e r a l t r e n d t o w a r d i n c r e a s e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s can be seen i n G r a p h 2. A s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e i s a m e a s u r e o f t h e shadow m e m b e r ' s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a t t e n t i o n on h i s a s s i g n e d s u b j e c t . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f d e b a t e s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g i n t e r j e c t i o n s 2 6 on a s s i g n e d t o p i c by t o t a l number o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s . In 1963 t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e o f shadow m i n i s t e r s was 2 5 . 1 . In t h e f i r s t s i x months o f t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n o f t h e 3 0 t h P a r l i a m e n t i t had r e a c h e d 4 5 . 9 . T h e r e was a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n t h e D i e f e n b a k e r p e r i o d f r o m 25 .1 to 3 6 . 4 . D u r i n g S t a n f i e l d ' s l e a d e r s h i p t h e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e was r e a c h e d i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f m i n o r i t y g o v e r n m e n t . H o w e v e r , i t f e l l a f t e r w a r d s so t h a t when R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d l e f t o f f i c e i t was o n l y one p o i n t a b o v e what i t had been i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f h i s l e a d e r s h i p . The a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r t h e e n t i r e 1 5 - y e a r p e r i o d p e a k e d a t 4 8 . 3 i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f Joe C l a r k ' s l e a d e r s h i p . The p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s he p l a c e d on a team a p p r o a c h has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s a shadow c a b i n e t p a t -t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s c r i t i c s f r o m o p -p o s i t i o n b a c k b e n c h e r s . A s a m p l e o f 118 b a c k b e n c h e r s was d r a w n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 f o r e a c h o f f i v e s e s s i o n s o f Graph 2 AVERAGE SHADOW CABINET SPECIALIZATION OVER TIME Year 1963 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 65 P a r l i a m e n t s p a n n i n g t h e 15 y e a r s u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n , and i n c l u d i n g a t l e a s t one s e s s i o n u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e a d e r s . A p r o b l e m w i t h s t u d y i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f b a c k b e n c h e r s was d e c i d i n g what s u b j e c t one e x p e c t e d them t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n o n . F o r t h e s e s s i o n where v i c e - c h a i r m e n o f t h e c a u c u s c o m m i t -t e e s were known t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e . In t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e c o m p u t a t i o n i n v o l v e d e x p r e s s i n g t h e number o f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s on t h e s u b j e c t c o v e r e d by t h e c o m m i t t e e t h e y v i c e - c h a i r e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r t o t a l d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Y e t t h e s a m p l e c o u l d n o t be e x c l u s i v e l y c o m p r i s e d o f v i c e - c h a i r m e n b e c a u s e t h e y were n o t known f o r t h e 2 8 t h and 2 9 t h P a r l i a m e n t s . T h u s by c h e c k i n g t h e a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s o f House o f Commons s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s t h e s a m p l e was e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e t h o s e who a t t e n d e d c o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g s r e g u l a r l y . I t was f e l t t h a t good a t t e n d a n c e d e m o n s t r a t e d a t l e a s t an i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t a r e a and c o n s e q u e n t l y , p r o v i d e d t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t e s t i n g w h e t h e r t h e b a c k b e n c h e r f o c u s s e d h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t . As d e m o n s t r a t e d by G r a p h 3 b a c k b e n c h e r s do n o t t e n d t o f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on one s u b j e c t . Nor i s t h e r e any p a t t e r n o f i n c r e a s e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o v e r t i m e , as t h e r e has been i n r e s p e c t t o t h e shadow c a b i n e t . COMPARISON OF SPOKESMEN AND BACKBENCH SPECIALIZATION SCORES 5 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 3 0 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 5 S p e c i a l i z a t i o n Score shadow spokesmen backbenchers 2 6 - 1 2 7 - 1 2 8 - 1 2 9 - 1 3 0 - 2 Pariiament and Session 67 T h u s w h i l e t h e b a c k b e n c h e r s had an a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e 7 .3 p o i n t s b e l o w t h e shadow a v e r a g e i n 1 9 6 3 , by 1976 t h e d i f f e r e n c e had i n c r e a s e d t o 2 7 . 6 p o i n t s . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e ( s e e T a b l e I I ) t h a t t h e g r o u p o f v i c e -c h a i r m e n i n t h e 2 7 t h and t h e 3 0 t h P a r l i a m e n t s had h i g h e r a v e r a g e s c o r e s t h a n t h e e n t i r e g r o u p o f b a c k b e n c h e r s , a l t h o u g h s t i l l n o t as h i g h as t h e g r o u p o f s h a d o w s . A more t h o r o u g h s t u d y o f shadow c a b i n e t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d by p o s i n g a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o r e s e a r c h . A r e shadow m i n i s t e r s s p e c i a l i z e d i n a c t i v i t i e s o t h e r t h a n d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s ? S e c o n d l y , , a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s was** p o s e d a b o u t p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Does s p e c i a l i z a t i o n v a r y w i t h p a r l i a m e n t a r y , c a b i n e t and shadow c a b i n e t e x p e r i e n c e . Is i t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y o r t h e s u b j e c t i n f l u e n c e s t h e d e g r e e o f s p e c i a l i -z a t i o n ? The f i n a l t o p i c i n t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e e x -p r e s s i o n o f r e g i o n a l c o n c e r n s as a f a c t o r w e a k e n i n g s p e c i a l i -z a t i o n . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s o t h e r t h a n d e b a t e has v a r i e d o v e r t i m e ( s e e T a b l e I I I ) . D e b a t e p r o v e s t o be n e i t h e r t h e o n l y n o r t h e most h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y . O r a l q u e s t i o n s a r e more h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d . T h r e e t h r e e -month p e r i o d s o f q u e s t i o n s r e v e a l e d a t r e n d o f i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o v e r t i m e . The same g e n e r a l p a t t e r n p e r -t a i n s t o q u e s t i o n s on n o t i c e . T h e r e i s no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r i v a t e m e m b e r s ' b i l l s e v e n i g n o r i n g 68 T a b l e II COMPARISON OF SPOKESMEN AND BACKBENCH S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N SCORES Shadow B a c k b e n c h V i c e - c h a i r m e n n n n 26-1 25. l a 19 1 7 . 8 18 27-1 35. 6 23 2 4 . 4 29 2 8 . 2 10 28-1 37. 8 25 20 .1 20 29-1 44 . 5 35 2 2 . 0 23 30-2 48 . 3 39 1 9 . 7 28 2 7 .0 12 S o u r c e : House o f Commons D e b a t e f o r f i v e s e s s i o n s o f P a r i i a m e n t . a) The s c o r e s a r e t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e shadow c a b i n e t a n d t h e s a m p l e o f b a c k -b e n c h e r s f o r e a c h s e s s i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t . T a b l e I I I COMPARISON OF SPOKESMEN SPECIALIZATION IN VARIOUS ACTIVITIES Debate Questions on Notice -Private Member's B i l l s Adjourn. Motions Oral Questions b n n n n 26-1 2 5 . l a 17.8 221 100 1 40.7 281 27-1 35.6 30.2 433 20 5 16.7 18 28-1 37.8 31.5 404 33.3 3 56.3 18 46.2 412 29-1 44.5 24.0 351 8.3 12 42.6 68 30-2 48.3 48.3 487 37.5 9 23.0 74 62.7 404 Source: House of Commons Debate f o r f i v e sessions of Parliament a) Scores represent the average s p e c i a l i z a t i o n score of the shadow cabinet f o r the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . b) n represents the t o t a l number of wri t ten questions , p r i v a t e member's b i l l s , and adjournment motions, oral quest ions , introduced by shadow members. 70 t h e s c o r e o f 100 i n t h e 2 6 t h P a r l i a m e n t [ b e c a u s e i t i s b a s e d on o n l y one b i l l ) . S i n c e 1968 t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f a d j o u r n -ment m o t i o n s has d e c r e a s e d . As a r e s u l t , o v e r t i m e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y a c r o s s a c t i v i t i e s has i n c r e a s e d . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i s o r a l q u e s t i o n s , t h e most s p e c i a l i z e d , f o l l o w e d by c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o d e b a t e and w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n l i g h t o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by e a c h o f t h e s e t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s . O r a l q u e s t i o n p e r i o d i s t h e most h i g h l y p u b l i c i z e d i n t e r m s o f n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t -i n g and t e l e v i s i o n c o v e r a g e . I t o f f e r s a good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n v e y i n g t h e image o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . On t h e o t h e r hand w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s a l l o w t h e shadow s p o k e s m e n t o a s k q u e s t i o n s on c o n s t i t u e n c y and r e -g i o n a l c o n c e r n s as w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d l a t e r . Shadow s p o k e s m a n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has v a r i e d w i t h p a r l i a -m e n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e ( s e e T a b l e I V ) . In b o t h 1963 and 1965 s p o k e s m e n w i t h t e n o r more y e a r s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x -p e r i e n c e (and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e i n o p p o s i t i o n ) had c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s t h a n t h e more i n e x p e r i e n c e d shadow m e m b e r s . H o w e v e r , by 1968 t h e most e x p e r i e n c e d were no l o n g e r t h e most s p e c i a l i z e d . B e c a u s e p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l i -z a t i o n f o r o n l y t h e s e two p a r l i a m e n t s one i s s u s p i c i o u s t h a t i t may be m i n i s t e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t . The s i x i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t e n o r more y e a r s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e 2 6 t h P a r l i a m e n t were a l l e x - m i n i s t e r s . 71 T a b l e IV S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N SCORES OF SHADOW CABINET  M EM B E R S BY PAR L I A ME NT AR Y E X P E RIE N C E 10 y r s . o r more 5 to 10 y r s . l e s s t h a n 5 e x p e r i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e y r s . e x p e r i e n c e h n n 26- 1 4 4 . 7 a 6 1 5 . 8 10 1 7 . 2 3 27- 1 4 6 . 4 7 3 1 . 2 11 2 9 . 4 5 28 - 1 3 5 . 2 15 4 2 . 9 8 1 8 . 3 2 2 9 - 1 4 1 . 2 16 3 8 . 0 8 5 7 . 5 11 30- 2 5 2 . 9 9 4 5 . 5 9 4 7 . 6 21 S o u r c e : House o f Commons D e b a t e f o r f i v e s e s s i o n s o f P a r l i a m e n t . a) The s c o r e s a r e t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . 72 The same i s t r u e o f s i x o u t o f t h e s e v e n i n t h e 2 7 t h P a r i i a m e n t . As shown i n T a b l e V , t h e e x - m i n i s t e r s had a h i g h e r a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e t h a n t h e e n t i r e g r o u p o f s p o k e s m e n i n b o t h s e s s i o n s o f t h e 26 th P a r l i a m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the a c t i v i t i e s o f e x -m i n i s t e r s and t h e o t h e r shadow c r i t i c s i n t h e 2 7 t h P a r l i a -m e n t / In t h e 2 6 t h P a r l i a m e n t a l l o f t h e e x - m i n i s t e r s were c r i t i c s o f t h e i r p a s t p o r t f o l i o s . T h e r e were a number o f e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s i n t h e n e x t P a r l i a m e n t . As s t a t e d , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s a c a b i n e t b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n . T h u s , t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f e x - m i n i s t e r s i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d p r o b a b l y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i r r e c e n t c a b i n e t e x p e r i e n c e . O v e r t h e f o u r s e s s i o n s t h e e x - m i n i s t e r s ' s c o r e s r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e g r o u p , as s h o w n , r e s u l t s f r o m t h o s e w i t h o u t m i n i s t e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e b e c o m i n g more s p e c i a l i z e d . As t h e o t h e r a p p o i n t e e s became a c c u s t o m e d to t h e i r r o l e as s p o k e s m e n t h e y came t o i n c r e a s i n g l y r e -s e m b l e t h e e x - m i n i s t e r s . In l i g h t o f t h e i r r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n c a b i n e t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s o f t h e e x - m i n i s t e r s a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y l o w . T h i s p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d f r o m a number o f f a c t o r s . No d o u b t , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a s p o k e s m a n were n o t so o n e r o u s as t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t o p r e c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n 73 T a b l e V S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N SCORES OF SHADOW CABINET MEMBERS BY M I N I S T E R I A L E X P E R I E N C E T o t a l Shadow C a b i n e t E x - M i n i s t e r s Non E x -M i n i s t e r s n ri n 26 - 1 2 5 . l a 19 33. 0 10 1 6 . 3 9 26- 2 26 . 5 21 31 . 2 10 2 2 . 3 11 2 7 - 1 35 . 6 21 33. 0 8 3 8 . 6 1 3 27- 2 36. 4 21 32. 8 8 39.1 1 3 S o u r c e : House o f Commons D e b a t e f o r f o u r s e s s i o n s o f P a r i i a m e n t 2 6 t h 1 s t 1963 2 6 t h 2nd 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 27 th 1 s t 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 2 7 t h 2nd 1967 -68 a) The s c o r e s a r e t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . 74 to s p e a k on o t h e r s u b j e c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e may n o t have been t h e l e a d e r ' s e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s on t h e one s u b j e c t . In a d d i t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t h i s g r o u p o f men saw t h e m s e l v e s as s e n i o r p a r t y s p o k e s m e n r a t h e r t h a n s t r i c t l y p o r t f o l i o c r i t i c s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e y t e n d e d t o m o n o p o l i z e t h e shadow c a b i n e t a c t i v i t i e s . The e x - m i n i s t e r s c o m p r i s e d 52.6% o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t b u t made 62.9% o f t h e s h a d o w ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o d e b a t e . P e r h a p s o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g a s p o k e s -m a n ' s b e h a v i o u r i s n o t h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y b u t h i s shadow c a b i n e t e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s seems l o g i c a l b e c a u s e s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n was n o t a b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n o f b a c k b e n c h e r s b u t was r e s t r i c t e d t o shadow m e m b e r s . T a b l e VI p r e s e n t s f i g u r e s on how s p e c i a l i z a t i o n v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o shadow e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n c e r t a i n s e s s i o n s was n o t v e r y l a r g e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e 2 9 t h P a r l i a m e n t t h e r e was a p a t t e r n . F i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t e e s t e n d t o have l o w e r s c o r e s t h a n e x p e r i e n c e d s h a d o w s . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be a b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n w h i c h i s l e a r n e d a f t e r a member becomes a shadow m i n i s t e r . A s t u d y o f s c o r e s s u b d i v i d e d by g e n e r a l p o l i c y a r e a d i d n o t r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h p e r s i s t e d 2 7 o v e r t i m e . In t h e e a r l i e r P a r l i a m e n t s u n d e r s t u d y , shadows i n t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s o f f i n a n c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were r e l a t i v e l y more s p e c i a l i z e d . Y e t , o v e r t h e y e a r s a t one t i m e o r t h e o t h e r f o o d and r e s o u r c e s , g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a -75 T a b l e VI S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N OF SHADOW C A B I N E T MEMBERS BY SHADOW E X P E R I E N C E F i r s t - t i m e One P r i o r Some V e r y Appo i n t e e Appo i n t m e n t E x p e r i e n c e E x p e r i e n c e d 27-1 3 4 . l a 10 35.7 7 37.8 6 28- 1 32.1 13 48.4 1 40.1 11 29- 1 54.7 14 39.2 13 40.0 8 30- 2 36.9 8 51.1 7 50.3 16 53.1 8 S o u r c e : House o f Commons D e b a t e f o r f o u r s e s s i o n s o f P a r l i a m e n t . a) The s c o r e s a r e t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . -76 t i o n s and c u l t u r a l p o l i c y were a l s o t h e a r e a s w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s . T h u s s u b j e c t a r e a does n o t a p p e a r t o have a d i s c e r n i b l e i n d e p e n d e n t e f f e c t on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e c o n -c e n t r a t i o n o f a t t e n t i o n i s t h e l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y o f t h e s p o k e s m a n . U n t i l J o e C l a r k t o o k o v e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y t h e most a c t i v e shadow s p o k e s m e n a l s o had t h e h i g h e s t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s . ( s e e T a b l e V I I ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e more and l e s s a c t i v e h a l v e s o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t r a n g e d f r o m 7 t o 20 p o i n t s . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h o s e p e o p l e who t o o k t h e i r r o l e s e r i o u s l y b o t h a c c e p t e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l e a d i n g House o f Commons c r i t i c i s m and c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e i r a s s i g n e d t o p i c . F i n a l l y , we were i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g how s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n as a b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n c h a n g e d w i t h a c h a n g e i n a s s i g n -m e n t . Is t h e r e an i m m e d i a t e a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e new s u b j e c t o r d o t h e s p o k e s m e n c o n t i n u e t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r p r i o r a s s i g n -ments? A s a m p l e o f 35 MP s i n v o l v e d i n one o f t h r e e d i f -f e r e n t shadow c a b i n e t s h u f f l e s was a n a l y z e d . In o n l y s e v e n c a s e s were t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s on p a s t a s s i g n m e n t s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s c o r e on t h e p r e s e n t a s s i g n m e n t . In f o u r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s MP s c o n c e n t r a t e d on a s u b j e c t w h i c h t h e y were n o t a s s i g n e d u n t i l t h e n e x t s e s s i o n . F o r t h e most p a r t shadow members t e n d e d to c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i r c u r r e n t a s s i g n -77 T a b l e V I I S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N OF SHADOW CABINET MEMBERS  BY L E V E L OF A C T I V I T Y H i g h 9 Low n n 26-1 2 8 . 6 b 8 22 . 6 11 27-1 41 . 7 1 2 29 . 5 9 28-1 4 8 . 4 11 28 . 9 1 3 29-1 48 . 2 16 41 . 5 1 8 30-2 4 5 . 9 1 7 53 . 3 22 30-3 46 . 2 20 4 5 . 6 23 S o u r c e : House o f Commons D e b a t e f o r s i x s e s s i o n s o f P a r i i a m e n t . 3 0 t h 3 r d 18 O c t o b e r 1977 t o 7 A p r i l 1978 . a) The h i g h and low l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t y a r e r e l a t i v e . The g r o u p o f shadow members was s p l i t a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n h a l f a c c o r d i n g t o number o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . b) The s c o r e s a r e t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . 78 ments t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f any p r e v i o u s o r e x p e c t e d f u t u r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a t o p i c o t h e r t h a n t h e one a s s i g n e d i s n o t t h e c a u s e o f low s p e c i a l i -z a t i o n s c o r e s . One c o u n t e r v a i l i n g p r e s s u r e on shadow s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n s t i t u e n c y c o n c e r n s . Spokesmen a r e a l s o MPs r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n t h e c o u n t r y . As c o n s t i t u e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e r e a r e p r e s s u r e s on them t o v o i c e r e g i o n a l o r c o n s t i t u e n c y c o n c e r n s . T h u s s p e a k i n g on r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i s l i k e l y t o be one f a c t o r a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . As e x p e c t e d t h e r e a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r r e g i o n a l s c o r e s on w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s t h a n on d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , ( s e e T a b l e V I I I ) . Q u e s t i o n s on n o t i c e a r e e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d to r e -q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o n s t i t u e n t s , o r on o t h e r l o c a l m a t t e r s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t t h e e f f e c t o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e on r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Members e l e c t e d i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t may be e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e -e l e c t i o n and t h u s d e v o t e a t t e n t i o n t o r e g i o n a l and c o n s t i - ; t u e n t m a t t e r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e w i t h t e n y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e may o n l y have s e r v e d f o r t h i s l e n g t h o f t i m e b e c a u s e t h e y have r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s t i -t u e n c y s e r v i c e . E a r l y i n t h e p e r i o d t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d were f a r l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e g i o n a l m a t t e r s ( s e e T a b l e I X ) . Y e t , as n o t e d b e f o r e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e e f f e c t s 79 T a b l e V I I I REGIONAL V S . S U B J E C T S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N OF SHADOW C A B I N E T MEMBERS D e b a t e . S u b j e c t R e g i o n a l Q u e s t i o n s S u b j e c t on N o t i c e Reg i o n a l 2 6 - 1 2 5 . l a 18 . 9 1 7 . 8 33 . 2 n 1 9 27- 1 35. 6 8 . 6 30 . 2 22 . 7 23 28- 1 37. 8 9 . 0 31 . 5 1 7 . 8 25 2 9 - 1 44 . 5 1 0 . 8 24. 0 1 8 . 8 35 30 - 2 48 . 3 1 0 . 9 48 . 3 1 8 . 2 39 S o u r c e : House o f Commons D e b a t e f o r f i v e s e s s i o n s o f P a r i i a m e n t . a) The s c o r e s a r e t h e a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , s c o r e s f o r t h e g r o u p o f shadow m e m b e r s . b) R e g i o n a l s c o r e s were c o n s t r u c t e d , as t h e s u b j e c t s c o r e s w e r e , by d i v i d i n g t h e number o f i n t e r -j e c t i o n s o f a r e g i o n a l n a t u r e by t h e t o t a l number o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s . To q u a l i f y as a r e g i o n a l c o n -c e r n t h e r e had t o be n o t e d i n t h e H a n s a r d I n d e x , c o n s t i t u e n c y , o r o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l p l a c e name, o r some i n d i c a t i o n t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n was s p e c i f i -c a l l y a b o u t t h e home r e g i o n e i t h e r t h e M a r i t i m e s , Q u e b e c , O n t a r i o , t h e P r a i r i e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a or t h e N o r t h . 80 T a b l e IX REGIONAL S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N OF SHADOW CABINET MEMBERS BY PARLIAMENTARY E X P E R I E N C E 10 y r s . or more ex-perience 5 to 10 y r s . ex-perience l e s s than 5 y r s . ex-perience Total Shadow Cabinet n n n n 26- •1 7 . 1 a 6 22.9 10 28.9 3 18.9 19 27- •1 5.2 7 8.7 11 13.3 5 8.6 23 28- •1 11.2 15 5.9 8 5.2 2 9.0 25 29- •1 10.6 16 10.7 8 11.2 11 10.8 35 30- •2 16.0 9 11.9 9 8.4 21 10.9 39 S o u r c e : House o f Commons D e b a t e f o r f i v e s e s s i o n s o f P a r i i a m e n t . a) The s c o r e s a r e a v e r a g e r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n s c o r e s o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . 81 o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y and p r e v i o u s m i n i s t e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e 2 6 t h and 2 7 t h P a r l i a m e n t s . One h u n d r e d p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h t e n y e a r s o r more o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e r v i c e i n t h e 2 6 t h and 70% i n t h e 2 7 t h were e x - m i n i s t e r s . I t may be t h a t e x - m i n i s t e r s f e e l s e c u r e i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n and do n o t c o n s i d e r i t n e c e s s a r y to d e v o t e t i m e , a t l e a s t i n t h e H o u s e , t o c o n s t i t u e n c y m a t t e r s . In a d d i t i o n as m i n i s t e r s t h e y d i d n o t d e a l w i t h l o c a l p r o b l e m s by r a i s i n g them i n t h e House b u t r a t h e r by d i r e c t i n g them t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o l -l e a g u e o r d e p a r t m e n t . T h u s , t h e i r l o w e r r e g i o n a l s c o r e s may be a f u r t h e r e x a m p l e o f c a r r y o v e r • o f m i n i s t e r i a l p a t -t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t c o n c e r n w i t h v o i c i n g r e g i o n a l m a t t e r s v a r i e s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between r e g i o n s i n C a n a d a ( s e e T a b l e X ) . The d i f f e r e n t s p o k e s m e n f r o m t h e n o r t h have had c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r r e g i o n a l s c o r e s . O v e r t i m e t h e s c o r e s o f e a s t e r n s p o k e s m e n have been r e l a t i v e l y h i g h but have f l u c t u a t e d w i t h o u t any c l e a r p a t t e r n e m e r g i n g . Quebec s c o r e s have d e c l i n e d o v e r t i m e . P r a i r i e s c o r e s have s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d and s p o k e s m e n f r o m O n t a r i o have had c o n s i s t e n t l y low r e g i o n a l s c o r e s . T h u s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s s t u d y t h e i m p a c t o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f r e g i o n a l c o n -c e r n s on shadow s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n v a r i e s b e t w e e n r e -g i o n s i n C a n a d a . In a d d i t i o n t o d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r t h e r e a r e f a c t o r s re:l"at;ed t o a more c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f autonomy t h a t n e e d t o be l o o k e d a t . Of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n T a b l e X REGIONAL S P E C I A L I Z A T I O N OF SHADOW CABINET MEMBERS BY REGION E a s t Quebec On t a r i o P r a i r i e s B . C . N o r t h ri .n n n n n 26-1 36. O a 6 26 .1 4 4 . 4 3 4 . 2 6 27-1 8. 5 5 2 3 . 8 3 4 . 2 8 5 .7 3 4 . 5 3 2 0 . 0 1 28-1 1 4 . 0 8 1 0 . 8 2 3 .2 6 3 . 9 8 42 . 9 1 29-1 1 2 . 4 11 1 1 . 7 2 8 . 0 9 1 0 . 3 11 1 3 . 9 1 1 8 . 9 1 30-2 1 9 . 4 9 9 . 4 3 3 .5 11 1 0 . 4 1 3 8 . 2 2 3 4 . 4 1 S o u r c e : H o u s e o f Commons D e b a t e f o r f i v e s e s s i o n s o f P a r i i a m e n t a) The s c o r e s a r e t h e a v e r a g e r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s o f d e b a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . 00 ro 83 i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h c a u c u s . Is t h e shadow c a b i n e t an a p -p e n d a g e o f t h e c a u c u s , c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z e d , o r i s i t f r e e t o i n i t i a t e a c t i o n ? R e c a l l t h a t shadow c a b i n e t s i n B r i t a i n a r e r e l a t i v e l y a u t o n o m o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a c t i n -d e p e n d e n t l y , and a r e n o t h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e by c a u c u s . T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f i n c r e a s i n g C a n a d i a n shadow c a b i n e t a u t o n o m y f r o m c a u c u s . B e g i n n i n g i n 1968 t h e com-m i t t e e o f c h a i r m e n began t o meet r e g u l a r l y , r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e C h a i r m a n o f C a u c u s or e v e n t h e l e a d e r . In d e s c r i b i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s Dawson e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s and c h a i r m e n were n o t e x p e c t e d t o e n c r o a c h upon t h e c a u c u s 1 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r P a r l i a m e n t a r y s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g . H o w e v e r , by 1968 t h e shadow c a b i n e t was p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s t a s k . A l s o , as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on a d a p t a b i l i t y , c h a i r -men have begun t o assume e x t r a - p a r i i a m e n t a r y r o l e s w h i c h i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g a u t o n o m y and i n -d e p e n d e n c e f r o m c a u c u s . The r e l a t i o n s between t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a u c u s and i t s r e s e a r c h u n i t a r e a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f a u t o n o m y . In m a k i n g r e q u e s t s f o r r e s e a r c h , c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n a r e g i v e n r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h p l a c e them i n a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e r e s t o f t h e c a u c u s . As s e t up i n 1969 t h e r e s e a r c h o f f i c e was o r g a n i z e d a l o n g t h e same l i n e s as t h e c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e s y s t e m . E a c h c o m m i t t e e was a s s i g n e d r e s e a r c h s t a f f . In a p r e s s i n t e r v i e w , E d w i n B l a c k , t h e f i r s t d i r e c t o r 84 o f t h e o f f i c e s p e a k s o f " t h e work ( b e i n g ) d i v i d e d u p , w i t h 2 8 e a c h r e s e a r c h e r r e p o r t i n g t o t h e c a u c u s c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m a n . " A l l r e q u e s t s f o r r e s e a r c h were t o be a p p r o v e d by t h e c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n b e f o r e b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r . M o r e o v e r , t h e c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n a l o n g w i t h t h e i r c o m m i t t e e s 29 were to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e c i d i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s . " T h u s , a t l e a s t i n t h e o r y , t h e c h a i r m a n was t o be a v i t a l l i n k i n t h e c h a i n o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h o f f i c e . The spokesman e x e r c i s e d a u t h o r i t y o v e r h i s c o m m i t t e e members by e i t h e r a p p r o v i n g o r r e j e c t i n g r e q u e s t s f o r r e s e a r c h . T h e r e a r e o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f s p o k e s m e n e x e r c i s i n g p e r -s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t s p o k e s m e n were a l l o w e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a s s i g n d u t i e s t o o t h e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , F l o r a M a c D o n a l d , w h i l e t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t c r i t i c , d i v i d e d h e r shadow r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s e a c h u n d e r a s u b c o m m i t t e e c h a i r -30 man. M a c D o n a l d e x p e c t e d and r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s f r o m e a c h o f t h e s e s u b c o m m i t t e e s . In a d d i t i o n Doug Roche i n d i c a t e d t h a t C l a u d e W a g n e r , as E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s c r i t i c , had s u b c o m m i t t e e s ^ u n d e r h i m . Roche was a s k e d by Wagner t o head t h e s u b -31 c o m m i t t e e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . The s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s t h e s e e x a m p l e s were t a k e n f r o m gave t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i c s were s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e s u b c o m m i t t e e s . H o w e v e r , i t r e m a i n s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r s u c h s t e p s can be t a k e n by t h e c r i t i c s on t h e i r o w n , o r w h e t h e r t h e y must be a p p r o v e d by t h e shadow c a b i n e t , t h e 85 c o o r d i n a t o r , o r t h e l e a d e r . The t h i r d and f i n a l t e s t o f shadow c a b i n e t a u t o n o m y i s w h e t h e r p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e to p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e c r e t a r i e s e x i s t , and s e r v e as a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s f o r shadow p o s i t i o n s . The h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s l i g h t . We a r e now i n t e r e s t e d i n p o - " s i t i b n s o u t s i d e o f t h e shadow w h i c h a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p s between i t and t h e b a c k b e n c h e s . Is a v i c e - c h a i r m a n s h i p o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s p e c i a l s t u d y v i e w e d as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a shadow s p o k e s m a n s h i p ? T h e r e c a n n o t be a c o m p l e t e s t u d y o f t h i s f a c t o r s i n c e t h e v i c e - c h a i r m e n d u r i n g t h e S t a n f i e l d p e r i o d a r e n o t known. The a s s i g n m e n t o f r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s p e c i a l s t u d i e s began i n t h e 2 9 t h P a r l i a m e n t and has been c o n t i n u e d on a s m a l l e r s c a l e . Between 1964 and 1968 t h e r e were 27 f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t e e s a s s i g n e d c h a i r -m a n s h i p s . F i f t e e n o r 55.5% o f them had s e r v e d as v i c e -c h a i r m e n . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s 44.1% o f t h e t o t a l number o f v i c e - c h a i r m e n d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . S i n c e 1974 t h e r e have been 24 f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t e e s , 45.8% o f them have had p r e v i o u s s p e c i a l s t u d i e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . C o u n t i n g v i c e -c h a i r m a n s h i p s , as w e l l as s p e c i a l s t u d i e s , means t h a t a t l e a s t 58.3% had some d u t i e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e o r d i n a r y MP p r i o r to a p p o i n t m e n t . T h i s p e r c e n t a g e c o u l d be h i g h e r b e c a u s e many c o u l d have h e l d v i c e - c h a i r m a n s h i p s d u r i n g t h e S t a n f i e l d p e r i o d w h i c h we a r e unaware o f . T h o u g h t h e p e r -c e n t a g e s a r e n o t o v e r w h e l m i n g l y h i g h t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e 86 t h a t v i c e - c h a i r m a n s h i p s o r s p e c i a l s t u d i e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s , a s t e p between b e i n g a b a c k b e n c h e r and a s p o k e s m a n . Between 1963 and 1 9 7 7 , 84 new a p p o i n t m e n t s were made to t h e shadow c a b i n e t e x c l u d i n g t h e f i r s t l i n e - u p i n 1963 and a l l t h e e x - m i n i s t e r s a p p o i n t e d a f t e r t h a t . O n l y 13 o f t h e 84 o r 15.5% o f them were f r e s h m e n MP s when a p p o i n t e d t o t h e s h a d o w . G e n e r a l l y members a r e n o t a s s i g n e d shadow r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s u n t i l t h e y have had a c h a n c e t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h House o f Commons and c a u c u s p r o c e d u r e s . In summary t h e shadow c a b i n e t has become more a u t o n o m o u s o v e r t i m e . I n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s a b e h a v i o u r p a t -t e r n t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t s members f r o m b a c k b e n c h e r s . E x a m p l e s , n o t o n l y o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t ' s a u t o n o m y , b u t e x e r c i s e o f a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e c a u c u s have been d i s c u s s e d . The shadow c a b i n e t has become a g r o u p w h i c h a c t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f c a u c u s . C a u c u s ' a p p r o v a l o f i t s i n i t i a t i v e s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be n e c e s s a r y . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i s s u e t h a t has n o t been d e a l t w i t h i s t h e shadow c a b i n e t ' s i n i t i a t i v e v i s - a - v i s t h e l e a d e r . A t one p o i n t i n t h e D i e f e n b a k e r p e r i o d t h e shadow c a b i n e t d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e l e a d e r ' s t a c t i c s . J o h n D i e f e n b a k e r had p l a n n e d t o f i l i b u s t e r t h e r u l e c h a n g e s i n 1965 . Y e t , t h e shadow c a b i n e t , w h i c h was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a n t i - D i e f e n b a k e r , f e l t i t s p a r t y c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o be l a b e l l e d o b s t r u c t i o n -i s t o n c e a g a i n . When D i e f e n b a k e r was c o n f r o n t e d by h i s key 87 32 c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n he was f o r c e d t o back d o w n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , C l a u d e W a g n e r , i n r e s i g n i n g h i s p o s t as c h a i r -man o f t h e c o m m i t t e e o f c h a i r m e n i n 1 9 7 7 , s a i d i t had n o t been a m e a n i n g f u l p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e d e c i s i o n s had been 33 made by Joe C l a r k . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , W a g n e r ' s c o m p l a i n t r e v e a l e d t h e l e a d e r ' s d o m i n a n c e o v e r t h e shadow c a b i n e t . The p r a c t i c e o f s e l e c t i n g someone o t h e r t h a n t h e l e a d e r t o a c t as t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e o f c h a i r m e n began i n 1976 . C l a r k had j u s t become l e a d e r by d e f e a t i n g W a g n e r , a m u c h . o l d e r and more e x p e r i e n c e d p o l i t i c i a n , by a 6 5 - v o t e m a r g i n . Thus i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n was g i v e n to Wagner i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f an u n i t e d p a r t y . Y e t t h e p o s i t i o n was r e t a i n e d a f t e r W a g n e r ' s r e s i g n a t i o n and g i v e n to James G i l l i e s . I t w i l l be i n -t e r e s t i n g to see what h a p p e n s t o i t now t h a t G i l l i e s has d e c l a r e d h i s i n t e n t i o n t o r e t i r e f r o m p o l i t i c s . C o h e r e n c e The norm o f c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y has n o t been an e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v e n t i o n o f shadow c a b i n e t o p e r a t i o n . T h e r e a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s o f i t s e m e r g e n c e but t h e y a r e v e r y r e c e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f any o t h e r p r a c t i c e s w h i c h e n s u r e c o h e r e n c e . In t h e p e r i o d s o f i n t r a - p a r t y f i g h t i n g and l e a d e r s h i p c h a l l e n g e u n d e r D i e f e n b a k e r and S t a n f i e l d t h e c a u c u s was n e v e r d i v i d e d i n s u c h a way as t o p i t t h e b a c k b e n c h a g a i n s t 88 t h e shadow c a b i n e t as a w h o l e . J o h n D i e f e n b a k e r g a v e key a p p o i n t m e n t s i n 1963 t o p e o p l e who had s u p p o r t e d h i m . 3 4 Y e t e x - m i n i s t e r s s u c h as G . N o w l a n , L . B a l c e r , H . J . F l e m m i n g and P. M a r t i n e a u whose l o y a l t i e s t o D i e f e n b a k e r were q u e s t i o n -a b l e d u r i n g t h e 1962 c a b i n e t c r i s i s were a l s o i n c l u d e d . D u r i n g t h e D i e f e n b a k e r p e r i o d h i s shadow c a b i n e t was n e v e r s t r i c t l y f i l l e d w i t h h i s s u p p o r t e r s . As an e x a m p l e , G . F a i r w e a t h e r . T . B e l l , H . M a c q u a r r i e , P. N o w l a n , D. M a c -D o n a l d , D a v i e F u l t o n , a l l e a r l y o p p o n e n t s o f J o h n D i e f e n -3 fi b a k e r , were members o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t p r i o r t o 1 9 6 7 . T h i s i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i m e m i n i s t e r -c a u c u s r e l a t i o n s . A p r i m e m i n i s t e r i s n o t l i k e l y t o t o l e r -a t e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s o p e n l y e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s l e a d e r s h i p . R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d was f a c e d w i t h a h o s t i l e c a u c u s a f t e r t h e 1968 e l e c t i o n . O n l y two o f h i s l e a d e r s h i p o p p o n e n t s , J . D i e f e n b a k e r and G . H e e s , were s t i l l members o f c a u c u s b u t many D i e f e n b a k e r s u p p o r t e r s r e m a i n e d M P s . N e i t h e r D i e f e n b a k e r n o r Hees were made members o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t i n 1968 ( G e o r g e Hees was a p p o i n t e d c h a i r m a n o f c a u c u s ) , but t h e c o m m i t t e e c h a i r m e n were n o t j u s t c h o s e n f r o m among S t a n f i e l d ' s s u p p o r t e r s . Most o f t h o s e who had w o r k e d h a r d d u r i n g h i s l e a d e r s h i p c a m p a i g n were a p -p o i n t e d . T h e y i n c l u d e d G . F a i r w e a t h e r , G . A i k e n , D. H a r k -37 n e s s and D a v i d M c D o n a l d , but a l s o i n c l u d e d were s u c h w e l l -known D i e f e n b a k e r s u p p o r t e r s as W. D i n s d a l e , W. M o n t e i t h , 89 A . M a c L e a n , T . R i c a r d , M. A s s e l i n , W. N e s b i t t , J . H o r n e r 38 t o name j u s t a f e w . When J o e C l a r k t o o k o v e r t h e l e a d e r -s h i p i n 1976 he was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n . Many more o f h i s l e a d e r s h i p r i v a l s were members o f t h e c a u c u s t h a n had been t h e c a s e w i t h S t a n f i e l d i n 1968 . A l l 3 9 8 o f them were g i v e n shadow a s s i g n m e n t s . In an i n t e r -v i e w Joe C l a r k e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e o t h e r l e a d e r s h i p c a n d i -d a t e s were g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t " t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s can f u n c t i o n as a c o - o r d i n a t e d 40 p a r t y . " C o n s e q u e n t l y o p p o s i t i o n s e l e c t i o n o f shadow members a p p e a r s t o p a r a l l e l t h e use o f c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t s t o n u r t u r e p a r t y u n i t y . S t r o n g p e r s o n a l l o y a l t y f o r t h e l e a d e r has n o t been a c o h e s i v e p r i n c i p l e o f shadow c a b i n e t s . C o h e r e n c e o f t h e shadow does n o t a p p e a r t o be a v e r y i m -p o r t a n t g o a l o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t p r o c e s s . The n e x t q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r d i s m i s s a l i s u s e d i n a d i s c i p l i n a r y f a s h i o n . T h e r e have been 14 shadow c a b i n e t s h u f f l e s s i n c e 1 9 6 3 , an a v e r a g e o f one a y e a r . Y e t t h e s h u f f l e s have n o t been e v e n l y s p a c e d e i t h e r y e a r l y o r s e s s i o n a l l y . T h e r e were o n l y t h r e e d u r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s o f D i e f e n b a k e r ' s l e a d e r s h i p . In t h e S t a n f i e l d y e a r s f r o m 1968 t o 1976 t h e r e were e i g h t . D u r i n g h i s f i r s t n i n e t e e n months J o e C l a r k s h u f f l e d t h e shadow c a b i n e t t h r e e t i m e s . T h e r e i s no l o n g e r an i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t a c h a i r m a n s h i p i s n e c e s s a r i l y a y e a r l y o r s e s s i o n a l a p p o i n t m e n t . O v e r t h e f i f t e e n y e a r s , 107 d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s have been c o m m i t t e e 90 c h a i r m e n as c o m p a r e d t o 80 who have been c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . As a r e s u l t t h e r e have been more shadow c a b i n e t t h a n c a b i n e t s h u f f l e s w h i c h have i n v o l v e d d r o p p i n g a p p o i n t e e s . F o r t y -e i g h t a p p o i n t e e s have h e l d more t h a n one c h a i r m a n s h i p . S e v e n t e e n p e o p l e have been d r o p p e d f r o m t h e shadow c a b i n e t and t h e n r e a p p o i n t e d a t some t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e - ( b y c o n t r a s t t o t h r e e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , W. G o r d o n , B. M a c k a s e y and A . O u e l l e t ) . T h u s f r e q u e n t s h u f f l i n g o f shadow c a b i n e t s and d i s m i s s a l o f a p p o i n t e e s i s a g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t d i s m i s s a l i s used as a d i s c i p l i n a r y m e a s u r e . L a c k o f r e a p p o i n t m e n t has n e v e r been c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h low s p e c i a l i z a -41 t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n o t u s e d t o e n c o u r a g e g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a s s i g n e d t o p i c . T h r e e shadow s p o k e s m e n were among t h e T o r y r e b e l s who v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e O f f i c i a l L a n g u a g e s A c t i n 1969 . In t h e n e x t s h u f f l e o n l y one was d r o p p e d , and a n o t h e r r e b e l who had n o t been i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t p r e v i o u s l y was a p p o i n t e d . A f t e r t h e P r a i r i e r e -g i o n a l c a u c u s c h a l l e n g e t o S t a n f i e l d ' s l e a d e r s h i p i n 1970 none o f t h e W e s t e r n members were r e p l a c e d as c h a i r m e n . J . H o r n e r , t h e i n s t i g a t o r , c o n t i n u e d as t h e t r a n s p o r t c r i t i c and t h r e e more W e s t e r n members were a p p o i n t e d s p o k e s m e n i n t h e n e x t s h u f f l e , w h i c h i n c r e a s e d P r a i r i e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n i n t h e shadow f r o m 25 -feo 28.6%. T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e a t a l l o f shadow c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t s , o r d i s m i s s a l s b e i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e l o y a l t i e s o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e a p -91 p o i n t e e s p r i o r t o 1976 . T h e r e a r e a number o f p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s . F i r s t , p e r h a p s J . D i e f e n b a k e r and R. S t a n f i e l d d i d n o t t h i n k t h e c r i t i c p o s i t i o n s were s u f f i c i e n t l y i m -p o r t a n t t o f i l l them s t r i c t l y w i t h t h e i r own s u p p o r t e r s . S e c o n d , i t c o u l d have been t h a t c e r t a i n o f t h e i r c r i t i c s were t o o i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e c a u c u s t o be d e n i e d p o s i t i o n s . T h i r d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h e y were a t t e m p t i n g t o use t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s to g e t p e o p l e i n v o l v e d and c r e a t e l o y a l t y among t h e d i s s i d e n t s . A r e a s o n f o r t h e l a r g e t o t a l number o f p e o p l e i n v o l v e d c o u l d be t h a t members a r e u n w i l l i n g t o assume t h e e x t r a r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f b e i n g a shadow f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s . A l t h o u g h i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d any c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a t l e a s t a number o f t h e d i s m i s s a l s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e e x -p r e s s e d w i s h e s o f t h e c r i t i c . A f t e r b e c o m i n g l e a d e r , C l a r k i n c r e a s e d t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e c o h e r e n c e o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t . In f i r s t a n n o u n c i n g h i s a p p o i n t m e n t s i n A p r i l 1 9 7 6 , he e x p l a i n e d t h e a p p o i n t -ments were o n l y t o l a s t f o r t h e r e s t o f t h a t y e a r a t w h i c h t i m e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d w o u l d be r e v i e w e d . H o w e v e r , t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t r e p l a c e m e n t has n o t been c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s p e r t a i n s t o t h i s p e r i o d as much as any o t h e r . T h u s i f C l a r k has been e v a l u a t i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h i s s h a d o w s , he d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . J o e C l a r k w o u l d l i k e t o see c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a d o p t e d as a shadow c a b i n e t p r a c t i c e . He a s k e d J a c k H o r n e r t o r e s i g n f r o m t h e shadow c a b i n e t a f t e r he became aware H o r n e r was c o n s i d e r i n g j o i n i n g t h e L i b e r a l s . In h i s c o m -ments t o t h e p r e s s C l a r k s a i d , " I c a n ' t have a f r o n t -b e n c h e r , a s p o k e s m a n f o r t h e p a r t y , n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e 42 e n e m y . " In M a r c h 1 9 7 7 , D a v i d M a c D o n a l d was d i s m i s s e d f r o m t h e p a r t y ' s s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e when he b r o k e p a r t y l i n e s and v o t e d a g a i n s t an i m m i g r a t i o n b i l l . As r e p o r t e d i t had been C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l i n t e n t i o n , t h o u g h he d i d n o t c a r r y t h r o u g h w i t h i t , t o r e l i e v e MacDona1d o f h i s d u t i e s as t h e c r i t i c on r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A t t h a t t i m e a p a r t y s o u r c e s a i d , " C l a r k had d e c i d e d t o i m p o s e some r u l e s o f s o l i d a r i t y on t h e Shadow as T r u d e a u d o e s on 43 t h e C a b i n e t . " C l a r k i n r e s p o n d i n g t o M a c D o n a l d ' s a n g r y c o n s t i t u e n t s e x p l a i n e d , " I ' m t r y i n g t o p u r s u e new g r o u n d 44 t o see t h a t t h e p a r t y h o l d s t o g e t h e r b e t t e r . " In D a v i d M a c D o n a l d ' s o p i n i o n , c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was d i f -45 f e r e n t i n t h e shadow t h a n i n t h e c a b i n e t . The a c t i o n s a g a i n s t H o r n e r and M a c D o n a l d i n d i c a t e t h a t C l a r k , more so t h a n h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , w a n t s a d i s c i p l i n e d , c o h e r e n t shadow c a b i n e t . A l t h o u g h J o e C l a r k has c o n t i n u e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e team a p p r o a c h and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e s e n t i n g a c o h e r e n t 46 c r e d i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e p r e s e n t g o v e r n m e n t , he has n o t been w i l l i n g t o r e s o l v e one o f t h e m a j o r o b s t a c l e s t o g r e a t e r c o h e r e n c e . A p p o i n t m e n t as a shadow s p o k e s m a n c o n t i n u e s t o h o l d no p r o m i s e o f a f u t u r e c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n . In t h i s s e n s e t h e s p o k e s m e n do n o t t r u l y r e p r e s e n t an a l t e r n a t i v e c a b i n e t as t h e y do i n B r i t a i n where t h e r e i s >. c o n s i d e r a b l e c a r r y o v e r f r o m shadow t o c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t s . T h i s may have p r o m p t e d D a v i d M a c D o n a l d ' s r e s p o n s e t o h i s p r o b l e m s . The s p o k e s m e n ' s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a d h e r e t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , o r t o d e v o t e more t i m e t o t h e i r a s s i g n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may r e s u l t f r o m t h e l a c k o f l o n g - t e r m b e n e f i t s i n d o i n g s o . Y e t b o t h R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d and J o e C l a r k have been u n w i l l i n g to make any c o m m i t m e n t s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . I f a shadow a p p o i n t m e n t i n c l u d e d t h e p r o m i s e o f a f u t u r e c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n , t h e l e a d e r ' s o p t i o n s o n c e i n o f f i c e w o u l d be n a r -r o w e d . S e c o n d , i t w o u l d p r e c l u d e t o some e x t e n t u s i n g t h e p r o m i s e o f c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s as an i n c e n t i v e t o e n t i c e 47 good c a n d i d a t e s . In an i n t e r v i e w i n s p r i n g 1 9 7 8 , J o e C l a r k s t a t e d t h a t i t was q u i t e l i k e l y , i f he f o r m e d t h e n e x t g o v e r n m e n t t h a t some o f h i s f u t u r e m i n i s t e r s w o u l d 48 have no p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e . In t h e same i n t e r v i e w he was a s k e d t o comment on a s t a t e m e n t o f S i n c l a i r S t e v e n s , t h e f i n a n c e c r i t i c , who has s a i d t h a t he s h o u l d n o t be 49 t h o u g h t o f as t h e n e x t C o n s e r v a t i v e f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r . In r e s p o n s e C l a r k s t a t e d t h a t he had n o t r u l e d o u t S t e v e n s as t h e f u t u r e m i n i s t e r , but he was n o t w i l l i n g t o commit h i m s e l f t o h im e i t h e r . He m e n t i o n e d t h r e e o t h e r p o s s i b l e a p p o i n t e e s , none o f whom were e v e n members o f t h e c a u c u s i n 1 9 7 8 . 5 0 94 In summary t h e shadow c a b i n e t has n o t been a p a r t i c u -l a r l y - c o h e r e n t ' o r g a n i z a t i o n . F a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C o n -s e r v a t i v e p a r t y d u r i n g t h e 15 y e a r s u n d e r s t u d y have been m i r r o r e d i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t . As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y t h e r e has been some h e s i t a n c y on t h e p a r t o f shadow s p o k e s -men t o s a c r i f i c e t h e i r own p r i v a t e o b j e c t i v e s i n r e s p e c t t o t h e v o i c i n g o f r e g i o n a l c o n c e r n s f o r t h e g o a l s o f t h e e n t i r e g r o u p . F i n a l l y i t i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r C l a r k ' s a t t e m p t t o i n t r o d u c e s t r i c t e r a d h e r e n c e t o t h e norm :of c o l -l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l . The shadow c a b i -n e t i s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m t h e c a b i n e t . T h e r e i s no s i m i l a r i m p e r a t i v e t o c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y , n o r t h e same i n c e n t i v e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c c e p t t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y u n t i l s u c h t i m e as t h e shadow c a b i n e t i s e x p l i c i t l y c o n s t i t u t e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . 95 C h a p t e r F o u r FOOTNOTES ' H u n t i n g t o n , P o l i t i c a l O r d e r i n C h a n g i n g S o c i e t i e s , p . 1 2 . 2 W . A . Ma t h e s o n , The P r i m e M i n i s t e r and t h e C a b i n e t ( T o r o n t o : M e t h u e n , 1 9 7 6 ) , c h p t . 1 - 2 ; R . M . P u n n e t t , The  P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t and P o l i t i c s ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 6 5 - 7 0 . 3 J u s t i c e , e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s and f i n a n c e a r e g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as c o o r d i n a t i n g p o r t f o l i o s and t h u s a t t h e t o p o f t h e c a b i n e t h i e r a r c h y . Between 1963-77 t h e r e were t h r e e S e c r e t a r i e s o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , s i x F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r s as c o m p a r e d t o n i n e M i n i s t e r s o f Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n and t e n P o s t m a s t e r s G e n e r a l : . P o r t f o l i o s c . c o m -m o n l y h e l d by f r e s h m e n a r e n a t i o n a l r e v e n u e , s o l i c i t o r -g e n e r a l and p o s t m a s t e r g e n e r a l . 4 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e f o r m s i n t h e L i b e r a l c a u c u s i n 1969 see Thomas H o c k i n , " T h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r and P o l i t i c a l L e a d e r s h i p : An I n t r o d u c t i o n to some R e s t r a i n t s and Im-p e r a t i v e s , " i n Apex o f P o w e r , e d . Thomas H o c k i n ( T o r o n t o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 2 - 2 2 ; M a t h e s o n , P r i m e M i n i s t e r  and C a b i n e t , p . 1 8 4 - 8 9 . 5 M a t h e s o n , P r i m e M i n i s t e r and C a b i n e t , p . 1 7 - 1 8 . J o h n D i e f e n b a k e r had been t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e j u s t i c e and d o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a 1 r e l a t i o n s c o m m i t t e e f r o m 1 942 t o 1946 . In 1946 he became c h a i r m a n o f e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s . W i l l i a m s , The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , p . 2 1 7 ; D i e f e n b a k e r , One  C a n a d a , 1 : 2 3 6 . 7 J o e C l a r k , S t a t e m e n t by L e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , R e : P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e C o m m i t t e e C h a i r m e n , p r e s s r e l e a s e , 9 A p r i l 1 9 7 6 , p . 2. 8 1 b i d . E d w i n P r a c t i c e s , " 33 . B l a c k , " O p p o s i t i o n R e s e a r c h : Some T h e o r i e s and C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 5 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 2 ) : 96 1 u D a n M a z a n k o w s k i , S t a t e m e n t by C a u c u s C h a i r m a n , p r e s s r e l e a s e , 24 O c t o b e r 1973 . ^ T h o m a s S y m o n s , P r e s i d e n t o f T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y a t t h e t i m e , h e a d e d a p o l i c y c o m m i t t e e d u r i n g R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d ' s l e a d e r s h i p . J o e C l a r k a p p o i n t e d a 20-man p o l i c y a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e i n t h e f a l l o f 1976 . F i v e MP s s e r v e on i t as w e l l as o t h e r p a r t y members and p e o p l e s p e c i f i c a l l y s o u g h t o u t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n a p o l i c y a r e a . E . G e r s t e i n i s t h e c h a i r m a n . 1 2 A l v i n A r m s t r o n g , F l o r a M a c D o n a l d (Don M i l l s O n t . : J . M . D e n t & S o n s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 1 3 3 - 3 5 . 1 3 B l a c k , " O p p o s i t i o n R e s e a r c h , " p . 36 . 1 4 An e x a m p l e o f p u b l i c o r a t l e a s t m e d i a e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .in t h e shadow c a b i n e t i s i n -d i c a t e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s C l a r k was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h , i n naming s i x p o l i c y c o o r d i n a t o r s . A V a n c o u v e r Sun c o r -r e s p o n d e n t w a n t e d t o know why t h e r e was n o t a c o o r d i n a t o r f / o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a when t h e r e were 12 members o f c a u c u s f r o m t h a t p r o v i n c e . C l a r k ' s r e s p o n s e w a s , " Y o u f a c e p r o b l e m s when y o u c h o o s e s i x c o o r d i n a t o r s . You have t o c h o o s e them f r o m somewhere a n d t h a t means t h a t some o t h e r p l a c e s a r e n o t g o i n g t o have a c o o r d i n a t o r [ f r o m ] t h e r e . " ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , 26 November 1 9 7 7 ) . 1 5 J o h n B i r d , " S t a n f i e l d ' s w o r r y : Can T r u d e a u w i n l o s t House B a t t l e s on T . V . , " F i n a n c i a l P o s t , 28 S e p t e m b e r 1968 . I D J o e C l a r k , R e : P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e C h a i r m e n , p . 2. ^ 7 T h e P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s were c o m b i n e d i n t o one shadow p o s i t i o n a f t e r t h e m i n i s t r i e s were c o m b i n e d i n 1969 . An e n v i r o n m e n t shadow was e s t a b l i s h e d f o l l o w i n g t h e m i n i s t r y i n 1972 and a s m a l l b u s i n e s s f o l l o w i n g i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n 1976 . 1 o H o u s i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d as a shadow p o s i t i o n i n D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 , y e t t h e M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r U r b a n A f f a i r s w i t h h o u s i n g as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l J u n e 1 9 7 1 . S i m i l a r l y s c i e n c e became a shadow a s s i g n m e n t i n F e b r u a r y 1971 , a m i n i s t r y o f s t a t e i n t h e summer o f 1 9 7 1 ; f i t n e s s and a m a t e u r s p o r t a shadow p o s i t i o n i n s p r i n g 1 9 7 6 , a m i n i s t r y o f s t a t e i n summer 1 9 7 6 ; m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m a 97 shadow p o s i t i o n i n "1972 , a m i n i s t r y o f s t a t e i n f a l l 1 977 ; f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s a shadow p o s i t i o n i n 1 9 7 3 , a m i n i s t r y i n f a l l 1977 . 1 9 In 1976 t h e b u d g e t o f t h e O f f i c e o f O p p o s i t i o n L e a d e r and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e r e s e a r c h u n i t was between $ 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 and $ 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 . The C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y $18 m i l l i o n on c o m p a r a b l e c o n c e r n s . ( R o b e r t J a m i e s o n , " T o r y p o l i c y m a k e r s g e t d a y i n t h e S u n , " F i n a n c i a l P o s t , 4 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 6 . ) 20 S t a t e m e n t by Dan M a z a n k o w s k i . 21 I k . , I b i d . 22 B e c a u s e t h e shadow p o s i t i o n s have n o t a l l e x i s t e d f o r t h e same l e n g t h o f t i m e a m e a s u r e had t o be c o n s t r u c t e d t o a l l o w f o r c o m p a r i s o n i n t u r n o v e r . The number o f c h a n g e s i n a shadow a s s i g n m e n t c a u s e d by e l e c t o r a l d e f e a t o f t h e i n c u m b e n t was s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l number o f c h a n g e s . T h i s f i g u r e was t h e n d i v i d e d by t h e number o f s e s s i o n s o f P a r l i a m e n t i n w h i c h t h e shadow p o s i t i o n had e x i s t e d . 23 To a l l o w c o m p a r i s o n i n t e r m s o f f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t -m e n t s , t h e number o f t i m e s t h e a p p o i n t m e n t had been h e l d by a f i r s t - t i m e a p p o i n t e e was d i v i d e d by t h e number o f s e s s i o n s o f P a r l i a m e n t i n w h i c h t h e shadow p o s i t i o n had e x i s t e d . 24 W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , 7 O c t o b e r 1977 . 25 M a t h e s o n , P r i m e M i n i s t e r and C a b i n e t , p . 2 3 6 ; J o n a t h a n M a n t h o r p e , The Power and t h e T o r i e s ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 2 1 9 - 2 1 . P u n n e t t , F r o n t - B e n c h O p p o s i t i o n , A p p e n d i x E , p . 4 7 3 - 8 1 . 2 7 The g e n e r a l p o l i c y a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s by t h e p a r t y were u s e d i n s t u d y i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e , 28 J o h n B i r d , " O p p o s i t i o n r e s e a r c h g r a n t s ' f i n e ' - - b u t more N e e d e d , " F i n a n c i a l P o s t , 27 December 1969 . B l a c k , " O p p o s i t i o n R e s e a r c h , " p . 31 . 98 30 A r m s t r o n g , T I o r a , p . 136 . 31 D o u g l a s R o c h e , The Human S i d e o f P o l i t i c s ( T o r o n t o : C I a r k e , I r w i n & C o . , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 79 . 32 P e t e r Newman, The D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 121. : . 3 3 G l o b e and M a i l , 18 J a n u a r y 1977 . 34 Newman, D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s , p . 94. 35 S t u r s b e r g , D i e f e n b a k e r , p . 6 1 , c h p t . 4 ; P e t e r Newman, R e n e g a d e i n P o w e r : The D i e f e n b a k e r Y e a r ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 368 . 3 6 Newman, D i s t e m p e r o f Our T i m e s , p . 96 . 3 7 G e o f f r e y S t e v e n s , S t a n f i e l d ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 1 8 3 - 8 4 . 3 8 1 b i d . , p . 2 26. 3 9 The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f J o e C l a r k ' s o p p o n e n t s and t h e p o s i t i o n s he gave them i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t i n A p r i l , 1 976 : J o h n F r a s e r - L a b o u r James G i l l i e s - E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s Heward G r a f f t e y - Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s J a c k H o r n e r - T r a n s p o r t F l o r a M a c D o n a l d - F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s P a t r i c k Nowlan - C o m m u n i c a t i o n s S i n c l a i r S t e v e n s - F i n a n c e C l a u d e Wagner - E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s 40 V a n c o u v e r S u n , 26 November 1977 99 In t h e 2 6 t h P a r l i a m e n t 44.4% o f t h e members w i t h b e l o w a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n were d r o p p e d f r o m t h e shadow c a b i n e t i n t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h o s e w i t h b e l o w a v e r a g e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s d r o p p e d i n o t h e r i n -s t a n c e s . T h o s e who s u f f e r e d e l e c t o r a l d e f e a t were e x -c l u d e d f r o m t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s . % 26-2 -- 27-1 33 . 3% 28-4 • - 29-1 20 27-1 -- 27 -2 0 29-1 -- 29 -2 7. 7 27-2 -- 28-1 1 6 . 7 29 -2 -- 30-1 12. 5 28-1 -- 28-2 54. 5 30-1 • - 30-2 45 28-2 -- 28-3 1 4 . 3 30-2 • - 30 -3 0 28 -3 -- 28 -4 0 4? M o n t r e a l S t a r , 6 A p r i l 1977 . 4 3 G l o b e and M a i l , 8 A p r i l 1 977 . 4 4 1 b i d . , 18 May 1 977 . 4 5 1 b i d . , 8 A p r i l 1 977 . 46 Joe C l a r k , R e : P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e C h a i r m e n ; G l o b e and M a i l , 18 May 1 9 7 7 ; V a n c o u v e r S u n , 26 November 1 977 . 47 T h e r e has been a good d e a l o f s p e c u l a t i o n and r a t h e r l e s s e v i d e n c e on t h e a t t r a c t i n g o f c a n d i d a t e s w i t h p r o m i s e o f a c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n . J o h n D i e f e n b a k e r r e v e a l e d i n h i s m e m o i r s , One C a n a d a , 3 : 2 6 1 , t h a t he had p r o m i s e d a c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n t o D u f f R o b l i n i n 1965 i f b o t h R o b l i n and t h e C o n -s e r v a t i v e s were s u c c e s s f u l . A n o t h e r r e c e n t e x a m p l e w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n s p e c u l a t i o n o f s u c h p r o m i s e s b e i n g g i v e n was t h e a t t r a c t i o n as C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s i n 1972 o f James G i l l i e s , Dean o f t h e F a c u l t y o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t u d i e s Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y ; S i n c l a i r S t e v e n s , C h a i r m a n o f C o m t e c h G r o u p I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i m i t e d and P e t e r B a w d e n , P r e s i d e n t o f P e t e r Bawden D r i l l i n g S e r v i c e s L i m i t e d . ( R o b e r t C a t h e r w o o d "Where have a l l t h e A n g r y T o r i e s G o n e , " F i n a n c i a l P o s t , 18 M a r c h 1972. 4 8 V a n c o u v e S u n , 27 May 1978 . 4 9 I b i d . » » 5 0 I b i d . Chapter V 100 CONCLUSIONS We s h a l l here h i g h l i g h t on ly the most important f a c t o r s concern ing the a s s e r t i o n of shadow c a b i n e t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i -z a t i o n . The f i r s t s u p p o r t i n g f a c t o r i s the change in f u n c -t i o n s . The shadow c a b i n e t i s now more than s imply a group of caucus committee cha i rmen . The i n d i v i d u a l members,as wel l as c h a i r i n g committee m e e t i n g s , ac t as p a r l i a m e n t a r y c r i t i c s and par ty spokesmen. In a d d i t i o n , (a l though t h i s i s an area which r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h ) the shadow c a b i n e t performs at l e a s t some c o l l e c t i v e d u t i e s r e l a t e d to s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g . Second, the two d i f f e r e n t types of shadow p o s i t i o n and the h i e r a r c h y of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which l i n k s them, makes the shadow c a b i n e t a r e l a t i v e l y complex o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s d i s t i n g u i s h e s shadow c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s from the backbenches. F i n a l l y , (a l though t h i s i s another area which needs f u r t h e r study) the shadow c a b i n e t appears to be autonomous r a t h e r than d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the caucus . In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to these i n d i c a t o r s of shadow c a b i n e t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s i t s lack of coherence . C o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s not an accepted convent ion of shadow c a b i n e t p r a c t i c e . There does not even appear to be agreement among the a c t o r s on i t s c o l l e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s or 101 t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s . 1 O n l y r e c e n t l y has t h e r e been an a t t e m p t t o e n c o u r a g e c o l -l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r to d i s c i p l i n e t h e s p o k e s m e n . C r u d e l y s p e a k i n g t h e n , t h e shadow c a b i n e t p a s s e s t h e f o r m a l t e s t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n on t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s b u t f a i l s on a f o u r t h . We c e r t a i n l y f o u n d t h e shadow c a b i n e t to be a more s t a b l e and v a l u e d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1978 t h a n i t had been i n 1963 and t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e a s o n t o p r e d i c t i t s d e m i s e . A f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d e v e l o p m e n t s i n shadow c a b i n e t o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e c h a n g e s i n l e a d e r s h i p . I n t e r v i e w d a t a w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y to f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h t h e c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . H o w e v e r , we t h i n k i t i s v a l i d to i n f e r t h a t c h a n g e s i n l e a d e r s h i p were a m a j o r c a u s e o f c h a n g e s i n t h e shadow c a b i n e t . To s u m m a r i z e b r i e f l y , d u r i n g John D i e f e n b a k e r ' s l e a d e r s h i p t h e r e were o n l y a b o u t 20 shadow p o s i t i o n s . The g r o u p o f c h a i r m e n met i r r e g u l a r l y , a t t h e c a l l o f t h e c a u c u s c h a i r m a n and l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f a c r i t i c ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n Commons d e -b a t e were on h i s a s s i g n e d t o p i c . U n d e r R o b e r t S t a n f i e l d the s i z e o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t i n c r e a s e d f r o m 24 i n 1968 t o 41 i n 1974 . I t became a r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e to h o l d d a i l y shadow c a b i n e t m e e t i n g s . The a p p o i n t m e n t o f c o o r d i n a t o r s was f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and shadow s p o k e s m e n began t o i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n upon a s s i g n e d t o p i c s . When Joe C l a r k became l e a d e r a 102 c o m p l e t e s l a t e o f c o o r d i n a t o r s was a p p o i n t e d . He made t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t t o i m p o s e c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e shadow c a b i n e t . The mean s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e p e a k e d i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f h i s l e a d e r s h i p . In h i s p r e s s r e l e a s e a n n o u n c i n g t h e shadow a p p o i n t m e n t s C l a r k gave an e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e shadow c a b i n e t ; t o c o n v e y t o t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e p a r t y i s p r e p a r e d and w i l l i n g t o t a k e o f f i c e , a n d t o e n s u r e e f f e c t i v e , c o n t i n u a l s c r u t i n y o f g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s . T h e r e a r e f a c t o r s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l p e r s o n -a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s , w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s ' commitment to a team a p p r o a c h . B e f o r e b e c o m i n g t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t y l e a d e r S t a n f i e l d had s e r v e d as t h e P r e m i e r of Nova S c o t i a f o r 10 y e a r s . As p r e m i e r o f a l o n g and p o l i t i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n he l e a r n e d o f t h e m e r i t s o f d e l e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s o m e t h i n g w i t h w h i c h John D i e f e n b a k e r had a l w a y s had d i f f i c u l t y . B e c a u s e he was f a c e d w i t h s u c h a h o s t i l e , f r a c t i o u s c a u c u s he had t o use a l l t h e means a t h i s d i s p o s a l to c r e a t e l o y a l t y among h i s b a c k b e n c h e r s . Joe C l a r k , as a y o u n g , i n e x p e r i e n c e d l e a d e r w i t h few p o l i t i c a l c r e d i t s p r o b a b l y u s e d shadow a p p o i n t m e n t s f o r t h e same p u r p o s e . But a l s o , C l a r k ' s a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p s y m b o l i z e s t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a new g e n e r a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c i a n s . He b r i n g s a new p h i l o s o p h y t o p o l i t i c s , t h a t o f b e i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n . In r e s p o n s e t o a q u e s t i o n a b o u t h i s l a c k o f 103 p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e he r e s p o n d e d : . . . w h a t I run i s a p a r t y . And I ' v e r u n i t p r e t t y s u c c e s s f u l l y and t h a t ' s t h e germane e x p e r i e n c e . I 'm a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n p o l i t i c s and b e i n g p r i m e m i n i s t e r r e q u i r e s a. p r o f e s -s i o n a l i n p o l i t i c s . . . And I ' v e been a b l e t o make t h e p a r t y p l a n . W e ' r e n o t a t a l l a r a g -t a g o u t f i t and t h a t was o u r r e p u t a t i o n some y e a r s a g o . The i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s on a team o f l e a d e r s o r a shadow c a b i n e t can be u n d e r s t o o d as p a r t o f a move t o w a r d p r o -f e s s i o n a l i z e d p o l i t i c s . P e o p l e , s u c h as J o e C l a r k , a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e p o l i t i c s i s t o o i m p o r t a n t an u n d e r -t a k i n g t o o p e r a t e w i t h o n l y an a d - h o c , i n f o r m a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . " R a g - t a g o u t f i t s " a r e no l o n g e r s a t i s f a c t o r y , In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e has been c o n t i n u o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e p a s t 15 y e a r s u n d e r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e a d e r s . The l o n g t e r m o f o p p o s i t i o n was q u i t e l i k e l y a p r e s s u r e l e a d i n g t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y t o s y s t e m a t i z e shadow p r a c t i c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y w h e t h e r i t i s an e m e r g i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i n C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t o r j u s t a f e a t u r e o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n o p p o s i t i o n r e m a i n s t o be s e e n . The a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n d e p e n d s upon i t b e i n g r e p l i c a t e d by a n o t h e r p a r t y i n o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e . 104 C h a p t e r F i v e FOOTNOTES ' i n c r e a s e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has n o t r e s u l t e d f r o m a g r o w -i n g c o n s e n s u s among shadow c a b i n e t members t h a t t h e y s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s . A s t u d y o f t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a -t i o n s o f mean s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s c o r e s r e v e a l s as much v a r i -a b i l i t y now as t h e r e was 15 y e a r s a g o . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a -t i o n s have f l u c t u a t e d f r o m a low o f 1 8 . 6 t o a h i g h o f 2 7 . 2 , w i t h no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n to t h e c h a n g e o v e r t i m e . 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C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n D e f e n c e P r o d u c t i o n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s F o r e s t r y H e a l t h and W e l f a r e I n d u s t r y J u s t i c e L a b o u r M i n e s a n d T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y Co u n c i 1 P u b l i c Works S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e T r a d e and Commerce T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s A g r i c u l t u r e C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s F o r e s t r y H e a l t h and W e l f a r e J u s t i c e L a b o u r M i n e s and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s P o s t O f f i c e P u b ! i c Works S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e T r a d e and tommerce T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s 2 7 t h P a r l i a m e n t 2nd S e s s i o n C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e Cons umer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s D e f e n c e P r o d u c t i o n E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s her i es F o r e s t r y a n d R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y Shadow C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e M i n e s and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s F o r e s t r y N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s I n d u s t r y I l l 2 7 t h P a r l i a m e n t 2nd S e s s i o n ( c o n t i n u e d ) Ca b i n e t J u s t i c e L a b o u r Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l P u b l i c Works S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l T r a d e and Commerce T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t 1 s t S e s s i o n C a b i n e t Shadow C a b i n e t J u s t i c e L a b o u r C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P o s t O f f i c e P u b l i c Works S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l T r a d e and Commerce T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Shadow C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Wei f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P r i v y C o u n c i l T r e a s u r y B o a r d A g r i c u l t u r e C o n s u m e r , and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Wei f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n t o f T r e a s u r y B o a r d P u b l i c Works P u b l i c Works 112 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t 1 s t S e s s i o n C a b i n e t R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s ( c o n t i n u e d ) Shadow C a b i n e t R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a 1 S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s 2 8 t h P a r l i a m e n t 2nd S e s s i o n C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s a n d F o r e s t r y I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t Industry,Trade & Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Wei f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e T r e a s u r y B o a r d P u b l i c Wo r k s R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Shadow C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ' Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y H o u s i n g I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y , T r a d e & Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P r i v y C o u n c i l T r e a s u r y B o a r d P u b l i c Works R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n S c i e n c e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Y o u t h P a r l i a m e n t 2nd S e s s i o n C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e Commun i ca t i ons C o n s u m e r and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E n e r g y , M i n e s a n d R e s o u r c e s E n v i r o n m e n t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Wei f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e T r e a s u r y B o a r d P u b l i c Works R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t U r b a n A f f a i r s V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s 1 1 3 Shadow C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e - l i v e s t o c k 3 c o - c h a i r m e n C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Consumer A f f a i r s C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E c o n o m i c A f f a i r s and T a x a t i o n E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s E n e r g y p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t c o o r d i n a t o r Env i r o n m e n t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i s h e r i e s I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s I m m i g r a t i o n I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e & S t a t u s o f Women L a b o u r and U n e m p l o y m e n t I n s u r a n c e C o m m i s s i o n Manpower M u l t i c u l t u r a l i sm N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Wei f a r e P o s t O f f i c e , S u p p l y & S e r v i c e s P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s P u b l i c Works R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t R u r a l A f f a i r s c o o r d i n a t o r S c i e n c e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l T r a n s p o r t and DEVCO T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o o r d i n a t o r V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Wheat B o a r d Y o u t h 30th P a r l i a m e n t 1 s t S e s s i o n 114 C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e Commun i c a t i ons Cons umer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s Env i r o n m e n t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s F i t n e s s and S p o r t I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r Manpower Nat i on a 1 Na t i ona 1 Wei f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e and I m m i g r a t i o n D e f e n c e H e a l t h and P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e T r e a s u r y B o a r d P u b l i c Works R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S m a l l B u s i n e s s S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l Shadow C a b i n e t . A g r i c u l t u r e - 3 c o - c h a i r m e n 1 i v e s t o c k d a i r y C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Consumer A f f a i r s C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s , T r e a s u r y B o a r d and N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s Env i r o n m e n t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s C a n a d a - U . S . R e l a t i o n s c o o r d i n a t o r F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s F o r e s t r y H e a l t h H o u s i n g and U r b a n A f f a i r s I m m i g r a t i o n and M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m I n d i a n A f f a i r s I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r M a n p o w e r , W e l f a r e and U . I . C . N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s P o s t O f f i c e P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s P u b l i c S e r v i c e R e l a t i o n s P u b l i c Works R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t DEVCO S c i e n c e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S o c i a l and L e g a l A f f a i r s c o -o r d i n a t o r w i t h s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r S t a t u s o f Women a n d Human R i g h t s So 1 i c i t o r G e n e r a l 3 0 t h P a r l i a m e n t 1 s t S e s s i o n ( c o n t i n u e d ) 115 C a b i n e t S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t U r b a n A f f a i r s V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Shadow C a b i n e t S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Communica-t i o n s c o o r d i n a t o r V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Wheat B o a r d Y o u t h 3 0 t h P a r i i a m e n t 3 r d S e s s i o n C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e Commun i c a t i ons Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i on E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s En v i r o n m e n t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s F i t n e s s and A m a t e u r S p o r t I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e L a b o u r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Wei f a r e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l Shadow C a b i n e t A g r i c u l t u r e 4 c o - c h a i r m e n 1 i v e s t o c k wheat b o a r d e a s t a g r i c u l t u r e Commun i ca t i on s Consumer A f f a i r s C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s E m p l o y m e n t E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s E n v i r o n m e n t E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s F i n a n c e F i s h e r i e s F i t n e s s and A m a t e u r S p o r t H e a l t h H o u s i n g Ind i a n and U r b a n A f f a i r s A f f a i r s I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce J u s t i c e La b o u r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i sm N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t P i p e l i ne P o s t O f f i c e , 3 0 t h P a r l i a m e n t 3 r d S e s s i o n ( c o n t i n u e d ) 116 ' C a b i n e t P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e T r e a s u r y B o a r d P u b l i c Works R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e Smal1 B u s i n e s s S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t U r b a n A f f a i r s V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Shadow C a b i n e t T r e a s u r y B o a r d P u b l i c S e r v i c e P u b l i c Works R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e S m a l l B u s i n e s s S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s T r a n s p o r t - a i r m a r i n e g r o und U n e m p l o y m e n t I n s u r a n c e V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Wei f a r e Y o u t h Shadow C a b i n e t C o o r d i n a t o r s - 1977 E c o n o m i c P o l i c y S o c i a l P o l i c y C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Food and R e s o u r c e s G o v e r n m e n t O p e r a t i o n s T r a n s p o r t and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s 117 PROGRESSIVE C O N S E R V A T I V E CAUCUS ORGANIZATION BY POLICY AREA ECONOMIC POLICY F i n a n c e ITC S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s N a t i o n a l R e v e n u e S m a l l B u s i n e s s CULTURAL POLICY S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e I n d i a n A f f a i r s E n v i r o n m e n t F i t n e s s and S p o r t M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m Y o u t h SOCIAL POLICY Consumer A f f a i r s H e a l t h H o u s i n g - U r b a n A f f a i r s I m m i g r a t i on E m p l o y m e n t V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s Wei f a r e U n e m p l o y m e n t I n s u r a n c e Commiss FOOD AND RESOURCES E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s A g r i c u l t u r e L i v e s t o c k Wheat B o a r d E a s t A g r i c u l t u r e F i s h e r i e s N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS OTHER POLICY AREAS P u b l i c S e r v i c e T r e a s u r y B o a r d S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s P u b l i c Works P o s t O f f i c e E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s D e f e n s e J u s t i c e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS T r a n s p o r t Commun i c a t i o n s A i r T r a n s p o r t M a r i n e T r a n s p o r t G r o u n d T r a n s p o r t 

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