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Planning in the People’s Republic of China : the role of the city in creating a modern socialist society Johnstone, James Carl 1977

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PLANNING IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA: THE ROLE OF THE CITY IN CREATING A MODERN SOCIALIST SOCIETY by JAMES CARL JOHNSTONE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED.IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1977 f c ) James C a r l J o h n s t o n e , 1977 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writ ten pe rm i ss i on . Department of A*£/Z*#*~^ C<r»*~>*&^*A~e, a~*<s*- /^^a^nJC /^Zs-rw***^, The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1WS ABSTRACT U r b a n i z a t i o n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a r e f e a t u r e s common t o a l l n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d . T h i s r e s e a r c h has b e e n u n d e r -t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e how p l a n n i n g f o r t h e s e c o n c e p t s and t h e i r r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s i s b e i n g a p p r o a c h e d and p r a c t i c e d b y t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e i n t h e i r c r e a t i o n o f a new and d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t y , t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . The m e t h o d o l o g y employed i s one b a s e d on a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f t h e o r e t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l s . S e v e r e l y l i m i t e d s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n has n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e t h e s i s . The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a has embarked on a p a t h t o c r e a t e a modern s o c i a l i s t s t a t e . The t r a d i t i o n a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e b y t h e c i t i e s , a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e more r e c e n t c o l o n i a l example o f t h e t r e a t y p o r t , h a s f o s t e r e d an a n t i - u r b a n a t t i t u d e i n C h i n a ' s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and i n i t s p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s . I n t r o d u c i n g t h i s o u t l o o k i s one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f c h a p t e r one. A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o s o c i a l i s t p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e s e c o n d t h e s i s o b j e c t i v e . P o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y , d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e , has b e e n t h e g u i d i n g f o r c e o f b o t h u r b a n and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g w h i l e o n - g o i n g i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e has had p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s i n s h i f t i n g e c o n o m i c d e v e l -opment s t r a t e g i e s and r e l a t e d u r b a n i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s . A u n i q u e s o c i a l i s t model o f u r b a n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i s b e i n g c r e a t e d as t h e C h i n e s e r e t a i n s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s from i i i e a c h s t a g e o f t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e . The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e i s t o a n a l y z e a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c a n l e n d s u p p o r t t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p -ment. T h i s i s done p r i m a r i l y i n c h a p t e r two. U r b a n and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s , d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r , r e f l e c t C h i n a ' s b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s aimed a t e l i m i n a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c i t y and c o u n t r y , between m e n t a l and manual l a b o u r and between i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e . E f f e c t i v e l i n k a g e s have been d e v e l o p e d between u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s t o f a c i l i t a t e d t h e o utward d i f f u s i o n o f g r o w t h and w e l l - b e i n g . D i s p e r s a l o f i n d u s t r y and t e c h n o l o g y f r o m o v e r - c o n c e n t r a t e d c i t i e s on t h e e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d i s c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h p o l i c i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , by t h e c r e a t i o n o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y c i t y s t r u c t u r e w h i c h l i n k s t h e u r b a n a r e a e c o n o m i c a l l y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y t o t h e immediate c o u n t r y s i d e , and t h r o u g h programs s u c h as " h s i a f a n g " , t o t a k e knowledge and s e r v i c e s t o r u r a l a r e a s . S m a l l and medium s i z e c e n t r e s o f C h i n a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l u r b a n n e t w o r k , i n a c t i n g as r e c e i v e r s o f t e c h n o l o g y and i n d u s t r y , a r e p l a y i n g a major r o l e i n f o s t e r i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y w h i l e e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l t h e g r o w t h o f t h e l a r g e s t u r b a n c e n t r e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e m e e t i n g w i t h s u c c e s s . W h i l e t h e C h i n e s e do n o t a d v o c a t e l a r g e c i t i e s as s u c h , t h e y a r e a l s o s h o w i n g t h a t i t i s t h e f o r m o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and n o t s i z e , t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e s u c c e s s o f human s e t t l e m e n t s . i v The two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f c e n t r a l i s m and mass p a r t i c i -p a t i o n a r e a t t h e h e a r t o f u r b a n and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g . The byword i s " c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g , d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l " . P l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e p r e -s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r f i v e . I f t h e r e i s t o be a p o s s i b i l i t y o f l e a r n i n g more a b o u t C h i n a t h e n a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n must be made known. The a c t u a l c i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e u r b a n s t r u c t u r e t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o l i t i c a l u n i t s and t h e p r o c e s s e s and mechanisms t h a t l i n k them a r e v i r t u a l l y unknown. The d e a r t h o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e s c o r r e c t i o n . H o u s i n g and u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e two s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f p l a n -n i n g w h i c h a l s o r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f p l a n n i n g t h a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s , i t i s n o t p r e s u m p t u o u s t o s t a t e t h a t C h i n e s e s o c i a l i s m has p r o d u c e d a s u c c e s s f u l and e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m . W h i l e we c a n n o t d u p l i c a t e f r o m an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e and p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o l e a r n some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s i n f r e e i n g t h e C h i n e s e f r o m e x p l o i t a t i o n and a l s o t o l e a r n o f t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y and w e l l -b e i n g among t h e p e o p l e i n c i t i e s , towns and r u r a l a r e a s . The v a l u e o f t h e t h e s i s r e s t s i n i t s a b i l i t y t o mix a c o m p i l a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t p l a n n i n g and h i s t o r i c a l p o l i t i -c a l g e o g r a p h y . The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e model i s n o t i n b e i n g a p r o t o t y p e t h a t c a n be d u p l i c a t e d i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s o f t h e w o r l d . I t s v a l u e r e s t s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s V i t r a i s e s a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e and r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e c i t y t o s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s . T h i s does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e e v e n t u a l a d o p t i o n o f s i m i l a r s o c i a l i s t m odels b y o t h e r n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r Page ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES x L I S T OF MAPS' AND FIGURES x i i 1. INTRODUCTION 1 U r b a n C h i n a : T r a d i t i o n a l and F o r e i g n . . . 1 D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s 4 R e d r e s s i n g R e g i o n a l I m b a l a n c e 5 S o c i a l i s t Laws o f L o c a t i o n 6 P u r p o s e and C h a p t e r O u t l i n e . 8 S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n 9 2. URBAN CHINA IN PERSPECTIVE 14 I n t r o d u c t i o n 14 The 1953 C e n sus and S u b s e q u e n t D emographic I n f o r m a t i o n 14 F a m i l y P l a n n i n g 18 U r b a n i z a t i o n T r e n d s and C o n t e m p o r a r y U r b a n C h i n a 20 3. POLITICS IN COMMAND 32 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 32 v i i C h a p t e r Page The P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y o f Mao T s e - t u n g 32 T h e o r y o f C o n t r a d i c t i o n 33 The Mass L i n e 34 Economism . . 38 On The C o r r e c t H a n d l i n g Of C o n t r a d i c t i o n s . . . . . 39 T e n G r e a t R e l a t i o n s h i p s 40 The G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d 43 A d v e n t o f t h e U r b a n Commune 45 P e r i o d o f R e c o n s t r u c t i o n 47 The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n 49 A r e a V s . L i n e 50 R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committees . . . . . . . . 52 C i t y o f Ch'ang Ch'un: Open Door P l a n n i n g . . . . . . . 53 Summary 56 4. URBAN AND ECONOMIC PLANNING POLICIES . . . . 57 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . 57 E f f o r t s To R e d r e s s R e g i o n a l I m b a l a n c e and E x p l o i t a t i o n . 57 v i i i C h a p t e r Page I n d u s t r i a l D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 5 9 D i r e c t i n g D e v e l o p m e n t I n l a n d 60 Newly D e v e l o p e d C e n t r e s 65 D u a l S y s t e m o f C i t i e s 70 R u r a l I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 74 M o d i f y i n g C i t y Growth R a t e s 77 W a l k i n g On Two L e g s 79 E x p a n s i o n o f M u n i c i p a l B o u n d a r i e s A d v a n c e s S e l f - S u f f i c i e n c y . 80 T r a n s f e r o f P e o p l e t o t h e C o u n t r y s i d e 83 Summary 87 5. ADMINISTRATIVE PLANNING STRUCTURE 89 I n t r o d u c t i o n 89 1 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e 89 U r b a n S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . 96 U r b a n D i s t r i c t s 96 S t r e e t Committees 97 R e s i d e n t s * C ommittees . . . 97 N e i g h b o u r h o o d Committees . 98 R e s i d e n t s ' G roups . . . . . . 98 S o c i a l i s t C o u r t y a r d 98 i x C h a p t e r Page P l a n n i n g I n C h i n a . 100 R e v o l u t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n I n C h i n a 101 D e v o l u t i o n o f P l a n n i n g Powers 104 N e i g h b o u r h o o d F a c t o r i e s 107 L a r g e P r o d u c t i o n F a c i l i t i e s 108 Emergence o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y -Committee 108 S i g n i f i c a n c e t o P l a n n i n g 113 Summary 114 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 116 I n t r o d u c t i o n 116 P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g y 116 U r b a n and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g P o l i c i e s . . 121 L e s s o n s To Be L e a r n e d and F u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n . 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 GLOSSARY 142 X L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page I U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c Of C h i n a 16 I I U r b a n - R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n R a t i o I n C h i n a 1949-1970 17 I I I I n f a n t M o r t a l i t y R a t e s I n S h a n g h a i and P e k i n g I 9 IV Number Of U r b a n P l a c e s And The U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n By S i z e Of P l a c e : J une 1953 . . 20 V C i t i e s W i t h P o p u l a t i o n s Over A H a l f M i l l i o n , 1970 . . . . 21 V I S i z e And R a t e Of Growth Of The U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n 0 f C h i n a . . . 23 V I I P r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Of U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n : 1953 26 V I I I U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n By P r o v i n c e (1964-1967) . . 27 IX Changes I n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n Of I n d u s t r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1957-1959 . . . . 45 X P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n Of The G r o s s V a l u e Of F a c t o r y O u t p u t A t 1952 P r i c e s And G r o s s V a l u e Of I n d u s t r i a l F i x e d A s s e t s A t O r i g i n a l C o s t Between I n l a n d And C o a s t a l A r e a s , 1949-57 ( p e r c e n t ) 63 x i T a b l e Page XI P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n Of B a s i c C o n s t r u c t i o n I n v e s t m e n t I n I n d u s t r y A t C u r r e n t P r i c e s Between I n l a n d And C o a s t a l A r e a s , 1950-55 ( p e r c e n t ) . . . . . 64 X I I Newly D e v e l o p e d C i t i e s W i t h The S t a t u s Of P r e f e c t u r e - L e v e l M u n i c i p a l i t y . . . . . 66 X I I I Newly D e v e l o p e d C i t i e s W i t h The S t a t u s Of H s i e n - L e v e l M u n i c i p a l i t y . 66 XIV P r i m a c y And Growth Of The C a p i t a l C i t i e s I n P r o v i n c e s And Autonomous R e g i o n s I n C h i n a 69 XV Number Of C h i n e s e U r b a n S e t t l e m e n t s By S i z e , 1953-1972 78 XVI A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n s . . . . . . . . . 92 X V I I C o m p o s i t i o n Of V a r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committees I l l x i i L I S T OF MAPS AND FIGURES Map Page I G i t d e s o f C h i n a , 1953 71 I I C i t i e s o f C h i n a , 1970 . . . . . . . . . . 72 F i g u r e I The R e l a t i o n Between R u r a l I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n And I n d u s t r i a l D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 76 I I A d m i n i s t r a t i v e - P o l i t i c a l S t r u c t u r e . . . 95 I I I S h e n s i P r o v i n c e : S t r u c t u r a l L e v e l s I n v o l v e d I n The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s . . . . . 103 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION U r b a n C h i n a : T r a d i t i o n a l and F o r e i g n F o r a n a t i o n t h a t has a h i s t o r y o f b e i n g o v e r w h e l m i n g l y r u r a l and a g r a r i a n t h e u r b a n e x p e r i e n c e i n C h i n a i s s u r p r i s -i n g l y , n o t new. The c o n c e p t o f c i t y l i v i n g f o r t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e i s an a n c i e n t one, d a t i n g b a c k n e a r l y f o u r t h o u s a n d y e a r s t o a t i m e when " C h i n e s e c i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d f i r s t and f o r e m o s t as p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s " b u t w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d a l s o as nodes f o r t r a d e and m a r k e t i n g . ( O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 58) T h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s o f i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y s e r v e d as c e n t r a l p l a c e s f o r t h e i r i m m e d i a t e h i n t e r l a n d and p e r s e v e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t u r i e s as t h e l a r g e s t s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s t h e y c o n t r o l l e d . S u c h i m p o r t a n t c o n t e m p o r a r y c e n t r e s as S h a n g h a i , Kwangchow, T i e n t s i n and L o y a n g were a t one t i m e t h e s e h s i e n * o r c o u n t y c a p i t a l s , o r s i m i l a r s m a l l v i l l a g e s . U n t i l t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y C h i n a r e m a i n e d an i n w a r d l o o k i n g c o u n t r y w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r most o f t h e i m p o r t a n t s e t t l e m e n t s o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e i n t e r i o r . Rhoads Murphey (1975, p. 166) w r i t e s o f C h i n a : " T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e was a much" c l o s e r and more s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e i n C h i n a t h a n i n t h e West. T h e r e was c e r t a i n l y n e v e r t h e same k i n d o f u r b a n and r u r a l s p l i t . The two were n o t s e e n e i t h e r as o p p o s i t e s o r as r i v a l s n o r d i d t h e u r b a n -* A g l o s s a r y a p p e a r s a t t h e end o f t h e t h e s i s . 2 b a s e d e l i t e s c o r n , d e n i g r a t e , o r a t t e m p t t o i g n o r e t h e r u r a l w o r l d , b u t saw t h e i r f u n c t i o n as p r i m a r i l y one o f s e r v i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e r u r a l s e c t o r . " The C h i n e s e h i s t o r i c a l l y , s a y s Murphey, have n e v e r v i e w e d t h e c i t y as t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d h a s . " T h e r e i s n o t t h e same a s s o c i a t i o n as i n t h e West between p r o s p e r i t y and c i t i e s , n o r t h e same a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n must t a k e p l a c e t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f huge, crowded, and p o l l u t e d u r b a n c e n t e r s . " (1975, p. 165) The f o r c e d o p e n i n g o f t h e t r e a t y p o r t s as W e s t e r n t r a d i n g b a s e s i n 1842 and p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r 1860 c h anged t h e p a t t e r n o f u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t w i t h t h e s e p o r t s e v e n t u a l l y b e c o m i n g t h e e c o n o m i c , e d u c a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l c e n t r e s o f C h i n a . W i t h r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h o c c u r r i n g i n t h e 1920's and 1930's l a r g e s c a l e p o p u l a t i o n moves t o t h e c o a s t a l c i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m e r t r e a t y p o r t s becoming C h i n a ' s l a r g e s t s e t t l e -ments. I t was t h i s f a c t o r , " t h e i r own r e c e n t h i s t o r y , " w h i c h has a l s o i m p e l l e d t h e C h i n e s e t o v i e w t h e c i t y d i f f e r e n t l y : " N e a r l y a l l o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s b i g g e s t c i t i e s were p a r t o f t h e t r e a t y - p o r t s y s t e m o f s e m i -c o l o n i a l f o r e i g n p r i v i l e g e . As s u c h , t h e y were sy m b o l s and a g e n t s o f C h i n a ' s h u m i l i a t i o n . I t was i n t h e s e same c i t i e s , S h a n g h a i , C a n t o n , Hankow, T i e n t s i n as W e l l as i n t h e i r l e s s e r a n a l o g u e s , t h a t t h e C h i n e s e c o l l a b o r a t o r s l i v e d , making a good t h i n g o u t o f t h e f o r e i g n p r e s e n c e and a p i n g W e s t e r n ways. The Communist P a r t y ' s s t r u g g l e f o r power was c r u s h e d i n t h e c i t i e s ( d e s p i t e S o v i e t M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e ) by t h e K u o m i n t a n g . C i t i e s a r e s t i l l s e e n as p o t e n t i a l b r e e d e r s o f b o u r g e o i s c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n and must be s h a p e d and c o n t r o l l e d t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n i s p o s i t i v e r a t h e r t h a n n e g a t i v e . Under f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n t h e t r e a t y p o r t s came more and more t o r e s e m b l e a l i e n W e s t e r n c i t i e s , r e p l i c a t i n g many o f t h e same p r o b l e m s o f a l i e n a t i o n , e x p l o i t a t i o n , and p h y s i c a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n as t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n had a l r e a d y g e n e r a t e d i n E u r o p e and A m e r i c a . " (Murphey, 1975, p. 165) C h i n a ' s c o n t e m p o r a r y r e v o l u t i o n a r y scheme f o r u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t v i e w s t h e c i t y "as a c o n s u m i n g and p a r a s i t i c e n t i t y and as a v e h i c l e o f f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s m and c o l o n i a l i s m . " (Ma, p. 114) I n f a c t t h i s p o l i c y i s d i r e c t e d more t o w a r d t h e r e c e n t p a s t "when t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e p a t t e r n s were o v e r l a i d and d i s r u p t e d b y an e s s e n t i a l l y W e s t e r n p a t t e r n i n t h e f o r m o f t h e f o r e i g n - d o m i n a t e d t r e a t y p o r t s . " (Murphey, 1975, p. 166) I t may i n f a c t be t h i s d i c h o t o m y o f C h i n a ' s u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t w i l l a l l o w f o r a d i f f e r e n t and r e v o l u t i o n a r y a p p r o a c h t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n . Sen-dou Chang s t a t e s " t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f C h i n e s e c i t i e s t o d a y r e s e m b l e s more t h e s y s t e m o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r s i n l a t e i m p e r i a l C h i n a t h a n i t does an u r b a n s y s t e m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s . Nor does t h e u r b a n i z a t i o n p a t t e r n r e s e m b l e t h a t o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s o f t h e T h i r d W o r l d . R a t h e r a d u a l s y s t e m o f u r b a n c e n t e r s , o n e . i n h e r i t e d f r o m i m p e r i a l C h i n a and t h e o t h e r f r o m t h e d e v e l o p e d w o r l d , c a n be d i s c e r n e d on t h e map." (1976, p. 398) C o n s i d e r i n g C h i n a ' s a n t i - u r b a n a t t i t u d e and t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l o p s i d e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s on t h e e a s t c o a s t how i s t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c a t t e m p t i n g t o remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? 4 D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s The c o l o n i a l e r a has l e f t C h i n a as w e l l as o t h e r f o r m e r o v e r s e a s c o l o n i e s w i t h a l e g a c y o f e c o n o m i c b a c k w a r d n e s s and a s p a t i a l s y s t e m c o n d u c i v e t o t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s f o r o v e r s e a s as o p p o s e d t o i n t e r n a l m a r k e t s . A c c o r d i n g t o L o g a n (1972) i t i s t h e b e l i e f o f many d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s t o d a y t h a t a l l o c a t i o n o f i n v e s t m e n t c a n b e s t b e n e f i t t h e r a t e o f n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h and t h e g r e a t e s t number o f p e o p l e i f a p p l i e d t h r o u g h b o t h s p a t i a l and e c o n o m i c s e c t o r s . I n e x - c o l o n i a l c o u n t r i e s , he s t a t e s , t h e n e e d t h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g , i s most p r o n o u n c e d as c o l o n i a l i s m h a s a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h has l e d t o marked v a r i a t i o n s i n r e g i o n a l w e a l t h . T h i s c o n d i t i o n has been a c c e n t u a t e d i n most p r e s e n t day d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s by s t r i v i n g f o r r a p i d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t h r o u g h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o rds, i n ex-c o l o n i a l n a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g C h i n a " t h e d r i v e t o w a r d a h i g h r a t e o f g r o w t h b a s e d on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n may l e a d t o a move-ment o f t h e most p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f c o n c e n t r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t . " ( L o g a n , p. 2-29) I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t p o l i c y c o n f l i c t s c a n and do emerge. I n C h i n a ' s c a s e t h i s t h e s i s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t i n l i g h t o f C h i n a ' s s o c i a l i s t a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t s u c h c o n f l i c t s have b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t . I f l o c a t i o n a l e f f i -c i e n c y i s t h e main r e a s o n f o r i n v e s t m e n t , t h e n as L o g a n s u g -g e s t s , r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y i n c r e a s e . However a h i g h r a t e o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h and t h e demand g e n e r a t e d b y i t a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r r e g i o n a l and o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l 5 e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . The p r o b l e m i s how t o d i s p e r s e t h e e c o n o m i c w e a l t h and p r e v e n t r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e a v o i d i n g t h e r e t a r d a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h r a t e s . L o g a n s u g g e s t s t h a t " n e i t h e r o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s o f s t r i v i n g f o r l o c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y o r r e g i o n a l e q u i t y , c o n f r o n t s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m o f how t o r e a r r a n g e t h e s p a t i a l s y s t e m t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y p e r c a p i t a . " ( L o g a n , p. 230) S p a t i a l p l a n n i n g , he s u g g e s t s , i n t h i r d w o r l d c o u n t r i e s c a n be d i r e c t e d t o d i s p e r s e n o n g e n e r a t i v e c o n c o m i t a n t s o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h s u c h as s c h o o l s , b a n k s and o t h e r s e r v i c e s i n an e q u i t a b l e manner o r t o a c t i v a t e t h e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s b y l i n k i n g them s t r u c t u r a l l y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y t o t h e n a t i o n a l economy. The f i r s t i s b a s i c a l l y an a l l o c a t i v e p r o b l e m w h i l e t h e s e c o n d a c t u a l l y a t t e m p t s f o f o s t e r a s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . I m p l i e d i n t h i s s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s t h e b r e a k i n g down o f " s p a t i a l , e c o n o m i c and i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t h a t l i m i t a s o c i e t y ' s c a p a c i t y f o r g r o w t h . " ( L o g a n , p. 230) I n u s i n g t h e s p a t i a l s y s t e m as a k e y i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n o f a n a t i o n t h e major components a r e t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s , t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k t h a t l i n k s them, and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e f l o w o f demand and o t h e r i n c e n t i v e s t h r o u g h t h e s y s t e m . ( L o g a n , pp. 230-231) C h i n a ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e 1949 h a s , i n a d d i t i o n t o f a c i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h o t h e r t h i r d w o r l d c o u n t r i e s , b e en g u i d e d by t h e s o c i a l i s t laws o f l o c a t i o n . T h e s e laws c o v e r i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s as c a p s u l i z e d by H a m i l t o n ( p . 85) a r e as f o l l o w s : 1) c l o s e t o t h e r e s o u r c e s o r i n p u t s t h e y u s e ; 2) c l o s e t o t h e m a r k e t s - t h e y s u p p l y ; 3) i n t e r r e g i o n a l l y t o d e v e l o p maximum r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n where t h i s i s o p t i m a l ; 4) between r e g i o n s t o a c h i e v e maximum r e g i o n a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y where t h i s i s o p t i m a l ; 5) as e v e n l y as p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o i t r e g i o n a l l y o r l o c a l l y u n d e r u t i l i z e d r e s o u r c e s and t o a s s i s t i n s o l v i n g r e g i o n a l s c a r c i t i e s ; 6) i n a d i s p e r s e d f a s h i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e t o " c r e a t e p r o l e t a r i a n b a s t i o n s o f s o c i a l i s m " ; 7) p r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n b a c k w a r d , n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t y , o r u n d e r d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n s t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r i n t e r r e g i o n a l e q u a l i t y ; 8) t o e l i m i n a t e c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c , and s o c i a l • d i f f e r e n c e s b etween c i t y and c o u n t r y ; 9) as s t r a t e g i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e t o meet war e v e n t u a l i t i e s ; 10) t o a c h i e v e o p t i m a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t r a -b l o c d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r and optimum t r a d e f l o w s ; However, H a m i l t o n s t a t e s t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e laws o f l o c a t i o n a r e f l e x i b l e f o r n o t o n l y do t h e y o v e r l a p , b u t i n d i v i d u a l laws t h e m s e l v e s i n -c o r p o r a t e " c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c , m i l i t a r y , p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l m o t i v e s w h i c h sometimes complement b u t more o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r . " ( H a m i l t o n , p. 85) The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e laws f o r C h i n a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t and f o r C h i n a ' s p l a n n e r s r e s t s n o t i n t h e laws t h e m s e l v e s b u t i n t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t . . i n f l u e n c e t h e i m p o r t a n c e C h i n e s e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a t t a c h i n c h o o s i n g p a r t i c u l a r l a w s . H a m i l t o n o f f e r s f i v e m a i n c o n s t i t u e n t s o f s p a t i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b e h a v i o r t h a t a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g C h i n a ' s s o c i o -e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s and s p e c i f i c a l l y i t s u r b a n a r e a s : 1) i n t e r a c t i o n among d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s a t l a r g e ; 2) t h e i m p a c t o f i d e o l o g y ; 3) t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s p a c e and e n v i r o n m e n t by d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ; 4) t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f d e c i s i o n s ; 5) t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e number and g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e s e laws i t i s s a f e t o s a y t h a t t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a p p l i -c a t i o n i s i n d e e d q u i t e f l e x i b l e . T h e s e s o c i a l i s t , l o c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s o f f e r C h i n e s e p l a n n e r s a w i d e r a n g e b o t h o f c r i t e r i a and most i m p o r t a n t l y , c r i t e r i a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H a m i l t o n s t a t e s t h a t o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e c h a n g i n g t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s i n a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y f r o m a command t o a more d e c e n t r a l i z e d economy c a n be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f more p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t l o c a l and 8 r e g i o n a l l e v e l s as w e l l as g i v i n g more a t t e n t i o n t o l o c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s , a more t h o r o u g h p e r c e p t i o n o f s p a c e and e n v i r o n m e n t , b e t t e r s e a r c h i n g and f i n d i n g o f a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s , and more r i g o r o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f i m p a r t i a l c r i t e r i a . ( H a m i l t o n , p. 104) R e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g e o g r a p h i -c a l l y l o p s i d e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s on t h e e a s t c o a s t . I t i s a l s o b e i n g g u i d e d by a s t r o n g s o c i a l i s t i p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h a d v o c a t e s a n a n t i - u r b a n a t t i t u d e . How i s t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c a t t e m p t i n g t o remedy t h i s r e -g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e o f r e l a t i v e u r b a n w e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e d i r e c t i n g C h i n a a l o n g what i s p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e c o r r e c t p a t h o f b e c o m i n g an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i a l i s t ' n a t i o n ? T h r o u g h what methods a r e t h e C h i n e s e r i d d i n g t h e i r n a t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f e x p l o i t i v e , b o u r g e o i s , u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n t h a t h a s f o s t e r e d t h i s a n t i - u r b a n p h i l o s o p h y ? As L e w i s s u g g e s t s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e n o t e a s i l y a n swered. "The s t a t e o f C h i n a ' s u r b a n economy has p r o v e d as p e r p l e x i n g t o t h e Communists as i t has t o s c h o l a r s i n t h e West. C h i n e s e p l a n n e r s have d i f f e r e d o v e r i n c e n t i v e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e c h -n i q u e s , m a n a g e r i a l p r i n c i p l e s , and t h e r o l e o f p l a n n i n g i t s e l f . " ( L e w i s , 1971, p. 16) N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c does have d e f i n i t e p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f c i t i e s i n i t s new s o c i e t y . P u r p o s e and C h a p t e r O u t l i n e o f T h e s i s The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be t o d e m o n s t r a t e 9 t o what e x t e n t C h i n a h a s , i n i t s s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h b o t h s p a t i a l and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g as e x p l a i n e d by-L o g a n , f o l l o w e d t h e c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d by H a m i l t o n i n t h e l o -c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f i t s economy and i n p a r t i c u l a r what r o l e i t s u r b a n c e n t r e s have p l a y e d i n t h i s n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and what s t r u c t u r e and change have b e e n by n e c e s s i t y i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s t h e m s e l v e s t o complement t h i s n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be o b t a i n e d from two d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . The f i r s t w i l l be a r e v i e w o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o p l a n n i n g and u r b a n i z a t i o n i n C h i n a . The s e c o n d w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o t h e t h e s i s o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from a J u l y , 1976 v i s i t by t h e a u t h o r t o t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c . T h i s l a t t e r m a t e r i a l c a n be v i e w e d i n two p a r t s : 1) s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : - c i t y o f Ch'ang Ch'un p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w . - v i s i t and d i s c u s s i o n a t F e n g s h e n g n e i g h b o r h o o d c o m m i t t e e i n P e k i n g . - v i s i t s t o s p e c i f i c f a c t o r i e s , r u r a l a r e a s and h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s i n S henyang, Ch'ang Ch'un, T a n g s h a n , P e k i n g and C a n t o n . 2 ) g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t C h i n a w h i c h c r e a t e s a b e t t e r " f e e l i n g " and u n d e r -s t a n d i n g f o r what t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e a r e a t t e m p t i n g . C h i n e s e p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u c h t h a t i t does n o t l e n d i t s e l f e a s i l y t o an e x h a u s t i v e , i n t e g r a t e d d i s c u s s i o n 0 10 o f t h e p e r t i n e n t a r e a s o f c o n c e r n j u s t m e n t i o n e d . T h i s p a u c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e somewhat d i s -j o i n t e d n a t u r e o f t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s i n t e n d e d , however, t h a t t h e s e r e l a t e d b u t d i s j o i n t e d f o c i o f t h e t h e s i s p r e -s e n t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c h a p t e r s a t l e a s t be c o n n e c t e d but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e g r a t e d . A c h i e v i n g t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e w i l l r e q u i r e e l a b o r a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s , community o r g a n i z a t i o n , and g overnment s t r u c t u r e . As w e l l i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Mao T s e - t u n g T h o u g h t and M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t t h e o r y be p r o v i d e d . C h a p t e r I d i s c u s s e s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e document and s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . A b r i e f r e v i e w o f C h i n e s e c i t i e s and u r b a n s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , and t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n , w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e s e t t i n g f o r s o c i a l i s t p o l i c i e s b e g i n n i n g i n 1949 and t o e x p l a i n c e r t a i n g overnment p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s t a k e n s i n c e t h a t d a t e . I n t r i c a t e i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government and non-government l e v e l s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e t h a t e c -onomic and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s a l s o be d i s c u s s e d , b u t b r i e f l y . By d e f i n i t i o n u r b a n p l a n n i n g d e a l s w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and p r o d u c t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e v e l o p -ment o f c i t i e s . ( C a n a d a - C h i n a F r i e n d s h i p A s s o c i a t i o n News-l e t t e r , J a n . 1976, p. 13) P r i o r t o t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , C h i n e s e p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s were s e e n as b e i n g s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e masses; b u t s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , t h e a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g has r e f l e c t e d a g r o w i n g e m p h a s i s on w i d e - s c a l e c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t , r e f e r r e d t o now as "open d o o r " p l a n n i n g . ( D i s c u s s i o n w i t h Ch'ang Ch'un p l a n n e r s , J u l y , 1976) T h i s new p o l i t i c a l e m p h a s i s r e o p e n s t h e p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n o f how t h e u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s s h o u l d d e v e l o p and what t h e i r r e -l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be. E f f e c t s o f c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l o u t l o o k s on p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I I . A common m i s c o n c e p t i o n i s t h a t an i d e a l d e s i g n f o r C h i n a ' s o v e r a l l S o c i a l i s t d e v e l o p m e n t was a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t hand w i t h L i b e r a t i o n i n 1949. T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . P o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g u r b a n c e n t r e s have f l u c t u a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e t h a t d a t e as t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e have s t r u g g l e d t o de-t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e c t p o l i t i c a l p a t h t o f o l l o w . The i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t i n u i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n c a n n o t be o v e r s t a t e d . The magni-t u d e o f s u c h e v e n t s as t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d and t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n a t t e s t t o t h i s . C h i n a ' s c i t i e s a r e an i n t e g r a t e d p a r t o f t h i s c o n t i n u i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e and c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l o u t l o o k . P l a n n i n g o f t h e n a t i o n ' s u r b a n a r e a s i s n o t t a k i n g p l a c e i n i s o l a t i o n . P o l i c i e s o f r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , c o n t r o l l e d c i t y g r o w t h , i n d u s t r i a l r e l o c a t i o n , as w e l l as e f f o r t s t o a l t e r t h e n a t u r e o f l i f e i n t h e c i t y i t s e l f have a l l b e e n a f f e c t e d by, and r e f l e c t , t h e c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e and a r e a t t h e same t i m e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o c h a n g i n g g o a l s o f r e g i o n a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s e s s e n t i a l , a l t h o u g h p l a n n i n g f o r u r b a n a r e a s i s a major f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c i t i e s as p a r t o f n a t i o n a l 12 s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s be d i s c u s s e d . T h i s w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n i n c h a p t e r IV. I t i s w i t h i n a r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n t e x t , v i a a d e l i b e r a t e l y d e s i g n e d p a r t i c i p a t o r y and e g a l i t a r i a n s y s t e m , t h a t C h i n a ' s c i t i e s a r e b e i n g r e s t r u c t u r e d . A l i e n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n c a n e a s i l y be c o m b a t t e d when g r a s s - r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e u b i q u i t o u s . New h o u s i n g programs and p r o v i s i o n o f b a s i c m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s have a l l b e e n p l a n n e d and c r e a t e d t h e r e b y a i d i n g e x t e n s i v e l y i n l i m i t i n g c i t y g r o w t h and p r e v e n t i n g o v e r c r o w d i n g . The t e c h n i q u e o f g r o u p o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e work p l a c e and a t home p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e t o i n c u l c a t e new and r e v o l u t i o n a r y g o a l s , an i m p o r t a n t t a s k f o r t h e o n c e and s t i l l p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o i t i v e and b o u r g e o i s n a t u r e o f t h e c i t y . P l a n n i n g f o r t h e c i t y i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o n a t i o n a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n , and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r V. C o n c l u d i n g comments a d d r e s s e d t o u r b a n a r e a s and t h e i r r o l e i n t h e n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c w i l l be f o u n d i n c h a p t e r V I . I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r i n C h i n a , t h e c o n c e p t o f c o n t r o l l e d c i t y g r o w t h , C h i n a as a d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n and i t s p l a n n i n g r e l e v a n c e t o o t h e r t h i r d w o r l d c o u n t r i e s , and t h e e x t e n s i v e b a s i s f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e c i s i o n making be s p e c i f i c a l l y c i t e d . Of n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o c c u r r e n c e s i n C h i n a t o t h e C a n a d i a n p l a n n i n g s c e n e . Any c o m p a r i s o n between d i f f e r i n g n a t i o n s p r e s e n t s numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s . 13 I n t h i s c a s e t h e p i t f a l l s o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and c r o s s - p o l i t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s a r e p r o b a b l y e v e n g r e a t e r . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o p l a n n i n g i n Canada t h e n , w i l l be i n a g e n e r i c s e n s e r a t h e r t h a n i n d i r e c t a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . 14 CHAPTER I I URBAN CHINA IN PERSPECTIVE I n t r o d u c t i o n I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t b y c o n s u l t i n g v i r t u a l l y a l l major E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e s o u r c e s c o n t a i n i n g u r b a n and o t h e r demo-g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r o v i d e s u p p o r t i n g d e m o g r a p h i c k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i n a ' s u r b a n c e n t r e s and d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s g e n e r a l t r e n d s t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h i s u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n f r o m 1949 t o d a t e . D e f i c i e n c i e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l a l s o be commented on. The d i s c u s s i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s l i m i t e d k n o wledge s h o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and h e s i t a n c y i n a r r i v i n g a t s p e c i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t C h i n a ' s p o p u l a t i o n , c e n t r e s . The 1953 C e n s u s and S u b s e q u e n t D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n . The new government o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c c o n d u c t e d C h i n a ' s f i r s t modern c e n s u s , s e t t i n g J u n e 30, 1953, as t h e s t a n d a r d c e n s u s t i m e . The r e s u l t s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1954, showed t h a t C h i n a , e x c l u d i n g T a i w a n , had a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 582,603,417 o f w h i c h 505,346,135 p e r s o n s , o r 86.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n were c l a s s i f i e d as r u r a l . ( C h e n g - S i a n g Chen, pp. 55 & 60) The c e n s u s , a d m i t t e d l y , was n o t i d e a l l y c a r r i e d o u t . P r o b l e m s e x i s t e d w i t h t r a i n e d e n u m e r a t o r s , g e o g r a p h y was a h i n d r a n c e , and c e n s u s t a k e r s r e c o r d e d t h o s e p e o p l e h a b i t u a l l y 15 and l e g a l l y r e s i d e n t (de j u r e p o p u l a t i o n ) as o p p o s e d t o c o u n t i n g t h e number o f p e o p l e a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t a t a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e a t a g i v e n t i m e . More i m p o r t a n t l y , i t i s n o t known what t h e a c t u a l c r i t e r i a o r d e f i n i t i o n s were t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d u r b a n and r u r a l . I t was n o t u n t i l November, 1955 t h a t t h e S t a t e C o u n c i l and t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n t e r n a l A f f a i r s a t t e m p t e d t o d e v e l o p g u i d e l i n e s f o r s u c h a d e f i n i t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g a r e o f f e r e d b y Sen-dou Chang as t h r e e c r i t e r i a w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r a p l a c e was u r b a n o r n o t : 1) " s e a t o f a m u n i c i p a l p e o p l e ' s c o m m i t t e e o r p e o p l e ' s c o m m i t t e e a t or above t h e h s i e n ( o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t ) l e v e l , r e g a r d l e s s o f p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ; 2) a minimum r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f 2,000, a t l e a s t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f w h i c h i s n o n a g r i -c u l t u r a l ; 3) a r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f between 1,000 and 2,000, s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f w h i c h i s non-a g r i c u l t u r a l . " (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 400) U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s no way o f knowing t o what e x t e n t t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s have b e e n f o l l o w e d e i t h e r i n t h e p a s t or t h e p r e s e n t . F o r example t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n i n t h e 1953 c e n s u s a t a l l r e g a r d i n g o c c u p a t i o n . One t h i n g i s c e r t a i n however, and t h a t i s t h e C h i n e s e were s e r i o u s i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e c e n s u s and d e s p i t e i t s f a i l i n g s i t i s s t i l l t h e b e s t and o n l y e x t e n s i v e u n d e r t a k i n g o f i t s k i n d f o r u r b a n a n a l y s i s . The t o t a l C h i n e s e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e o f 77,259,282 (1953) i s a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d by some s c h o l a r s (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 399) The v a r i o u s r a t i o s o f u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n f o r s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s a r e i n many 16 i n s t a n c e s i n t e r p o l a t i o n s u s i n g t h e 1953 c e n s u s as a base-S u b s e q u e n t u r b a n d a t a has e s s e n t i a l l y b e en p i e c e m e a l i n f o r m a t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m u n c h e c k e d r e p o r t s o f p r o v i n c e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , news media, t r a v e l l e r s and government s p e e c h e s . T h e r e have b e e n r e p o r t s i n s e v e r a l w r i t i n g s t h a t a c e n s u s o f some t y p e was u n d e r t a k e n i n 1964, p r o b a b l y by r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s , b u t t h i s c a n n o t as y e t be c o n f i r m e d . I n s p i t e o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e c e n s u s i t s e l f and s u b s e -q u e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t r e n d s i n u r b a n i z a t i o n and g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s o f c i t y s i z e a r e a v a i l -a b l e . A n a l y s e s b y b o t h W e s t e r n and C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s p r o v i d e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . T a b l e I  U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n  P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a T o t a l % Number Y e a r P o p u l a t i o n U r b a n U r b a n 1935 582,603,417 13.3% 77,259,282 1973 800,000,000 16-17% 130-140,000,000 ( a p p r o x . ) S o u r c e : 1953 i n f o r m a t i o n i s t a k e n from 1953 c e n s u s . 1973 d a t a comes from Sen-dou Chang, "The C h a n g i n g System o f C h i n e s e C i t i e s " , 1976. Not e : t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n e x c l u d e s T a i w a n . The f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c was marked by a s t e a d y g a i n i n u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s r e f l e c t e d " b o t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d u s t r i a l programs o f t h e F i r s t F i v e Y e a r P l a n (1953-57) and t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d r u r a l t o u r b a n m i g r a t i o n o f t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n and t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d y e a r s " ( 1 9 5 8 - 6 0 ) . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p., 401) C h e n - S i a n g Chen (1973, p. 68) r e p o r t s t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l g r o w t h r a t e o f t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e p e r i o d 1950-56 t o be 6.43 p e r c e n t ; between 1957 and 1960 i t was 12.2 p e r c e n t . The r a t e o f u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d from 1949 t o 1960 has b e e n p u t a t 7.6 p e r c e n t by K. Chao ( p . 385) w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t r a t i o o f u r b a n t o r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n 1960 ( r e f e r t o T a b l e I I ) w i t h c l o s e t o 19 p e r c e n t o f C h i n a ' s c i t i z e n s r e s i d i n g i n u r b a n a r e a s . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 401) T a b l e I I U r b a n - R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n R a t i o I n C h i n a 1949-1970 Ye Y e a r P o p u l a t i o n U r b a n R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1970 10.6 89.4 11.1 88.9 11.8 88.2 12.5 87.5 13.2 86.8 13.6 86.4 13.5 86.5 14.2 85.8 14.3 85.7 16.2 83.8 17.5 82.5 18.8 81.2 16.8 83.2 S o u r c e : Sen-dou Chang. "The C h a n g i n g S y s t e m o f C h i n e s e C i t i e s . " A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 66, No. 3, S e p t . 1976, pp. 398-415. N o t e t I n f o r m a t i o n i n T a b l e I I has b e e n c o m p i l e d from a number o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . 18 Of C h i n a ' s immense p o p u l a t i o n o f 800 m i l l i o n p e o p l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 83%-84% l i v e i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . However, t h e u r b a n a r e a s s t i l l a c c o u n t f o r 130-140 m i l l i o n p e o p l e . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t , t h e n , t h a t C h i n a i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a r u r a l c o u n t r y , u r b a n p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t s t i l l p l a y an im-p o r t a n t r o l e i n C h i n e s e l i f e and i n t h e n a t i o n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . From 1953 t h r o u g h 1958 y e a r - e n d p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s were r e p o r t e d a n n u a l l y by t h e S t a t e S t a t i s t i c a l B u r e a u and a r e p r o b a b l y more r e l i a b l e t h a n t h e 1953 c e n s u s . A f t e r 1957 t h e a n n u a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e was g r e a t e r t h a n 20 m i l l i o n p e o p l e w h i l e b etween 1954 and 1958 i t a v e r a g e d 17 m i l l i o n . S u c h a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e e a c h y e a r was a c c o m p a n i e d by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e w o r k i n g - a g e g r o u p . Cheng-S i a n g Chen ( p . 58) r e p o r t s t h a t d u r i n g t h e F i r s t F i v e Y e a r P l a n (1953-1957) t h e i n c r e a s e i n w o r k i n g - a g e p o p u l a t i o n was e s t i m a t e d t o be f o u r m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y and d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d F i v e Y e a r P l a n ( 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 6 2 ) , f i v e m i l l i o n , w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% b e i n g a b s o r b e d by i n d u s t r y . S u c h p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s w o r r i e d t h e government and i n 1954 b i r t h c o n t r o l programs were o f f i c i a l l y a d v o c a t e d . A t h u m b n a i l c h r o n o l o g y o f f a m i l y p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s shows s i g -n i f i c a n t f l u c t u a t i o n s : " . . . C h i n a was a b l e t o mount a f u l l y -f l e d g e d b i r t h c o n t r o l c a m p a i g n by 1957, c e a s e a l l d i s c u s s i o n of f a m i l y p l a n n i n g f o r a b o u t 4 y e a r s , i n i t i a t e a n o t h e r p r o -gramme i n 1962, f o r g e t i t i n 1966, and resume an i n t e n s i v e e f f o r t i n t h e 1970s..." ( O r l e a n s , 1975, p. 502) T o d a y t h e government s t r e s s e s t h e need f o r f a m i l y p l a n n i n g , c o n t r a -c e p t i o n , t h e p r o p e r s p a c i n g o f b i r t h s , and t h e c a r e o f t h e m o t h e r ' s h e a l t h . Young p e o p l e a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o p o s t p o n e m a r r i a g e u n t i l t h e age o f 23 t o 27 f o r women and 25 t o 29 f o r men. S m a l l f a m i l i e s , up t o t h r e e c h i l d r e n , a r e e n c o u r a g e d and a b o r t i o n i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . S u c h e f f o r t s c ombined w i t h w i d e - s p r e a d improvement i n a l l h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s have had d r a m a t i c r e s u l t s i n m o r t a l i t y and b i r t h r a t e s , ( r e f e r t o T a b l e I I I ) T a b l e I I I  I n f a n t M o r t a l i t y R a t e s  i n S h a n g h a i and P e k i n g ( D e a t h s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f l i f e p e r t h o u s a n d l i v e b i r t h s ) S h a n g h a i P e k i n g Y e a r C i t y P r o p e r C i t y P r o p e r 1948 150.0 1949 117.6 1959 38.9 1972 8.7 1973 11.6 S o u r c e : S i d e l , V i c t o r W. & R u t h S i d e l . "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f H e a l t h C a r e S e r v i c e s i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . " W o r l d D e v e l o p m e n t . V o l . 3, Nos. 7 & 8, J u l y - A u g u s t 1975, p. 540. I n 1953 t h e c e n s u s l i s t e d 5,568 u r b a n p l a c e s i n C h i n a , n i n e o f w h i c h had a p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r one m i l l i o n . ( T a b l e IV) C o m m u n i t i e s o f 20,000 p e o p l e o r more had t o g e t h e r 51,313,000 i n h a b i t a n t s o r 8.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l popu-l a t i o n t o t a l . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o p o r t i o n was low t h e a b s o l u t e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n , e v e n t h e n , was s i g n i f i c a n t . ( C h e n g - S i a n g Chen, p. 66) 20 T a b l e IV Number o f U r b a n P l a c e s and t h e U r b a n  P o p u l a t i o n / b y S i z e o f P l a c e : J u n e 1953 ( p o p u l a t i o n i n t h o u s a n d s ) S i z e o f p l a c e 1,000,000 o r more 500,000 t o 999,999 200,000 t o 499,999 100,000 t o 199,999 50,000 t o 99,999 20,000 t o 2,000 t o 1,000 t o L e s s t h a n 49,999 19,999 1 ,999 1 ,000 T o t a l number o f u r b a n p l a c e s 9 16 28 49 71 247/ 4,228 727 193 5,568 u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n number 21,020 11,279 8,492 7,201 5,497 23,768 77,257 p e r c e n t 27.2 14.6 11.0 9.3 7.1 30. 8 100.0 S o u r c e : O r l e a n s , L e o A. E v e r y F i f t h C h i l d : The P o p u l a t i o n  o f C h i n a . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972, p. 60. U r b a n i z a t i o n T r e n d s and C o n t e m p o r a r y U r b a n C h i n a R e p o r t i n g u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n i n 1970 t o be as h i g h as 160 m i l l i o n C h e n g - S i a n g Chen s a y s C h i n a had t w e n t y - o n e c i t i e s o f o v e r a m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n ( T a b l e V) w h i c h t o g e t h e r " t o t a l e d 44,460,000 p e o p l e , 5.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a and 27.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . " 21 T a b l e V C i t i e s W i t h P o p u l a t i o n s Over A  H a l f M i l l i o n , 1970 C i t y 1936 1953 1957 • 1970 S h a n g h a i 3,727,000 6 ,204,417 6,900,000 7,000,000 P e k i n g 1,551,000 2 ,768,119 4,010,000 5,000,000 T i e n t s i n 1,292,000 2 ,693,831 3,220,000 3,600,000 Mukden (Shenyang) 527,000 2 ,299,900 2,411,000 2,800,000 Wuhan 1,379,000 1 ,427,300 2,146,000 2,560,000 C a n t o n 1,222,000 1 ,598,900 1,840,000 2,500,000 C h u n g k i n g 446,000 1 ,772,500 2,121,000 2,400,000 N a n k i n g 1,019,000 1 ,091,600 1,419,000 1,750,000 H a r b i n X'Haerhpin) 465,000 1 ,163,000 1,552,000 1,670,000 L u t a ( D a i r e n , P o r t A r t h u r ) 445,000 766,400 1,508,000* 1,650,000* S i a n 155,000 787,300 1,310,000 1,600,000 Lanchow 106,000 397,400 699,000 1,450,000 T a i y u a n ( '34)139,000 720,700 1,020,000 1,350,000 T s i n g t a o 515,000 916,800 1,121,000 1,300,000 C h e n g t u 516,113 856,700 1,107,000 1,250,000 Changchun 228,744 855,200 975,000 1,200,000 Kunming 145,000 6' 9698,900 880,000 1,100,000 T s i n a n 442,000 680,100 862,000 1,100,000 F u s h u n 118,000 678,600 985,000 1,080,000 An s h a n 166,000 : 548,'900 805,000 1,050,000 Chengchow (•31) 80,000 594,700 766,000 1,050,000 iHa'ngchpw 589,000 696,600 784,000 960,000 T a n g s h a n 85,000 693,300 800,000 950,000 Paotow (•35) 67,206 149,400 ('58)650,000 920,000 T z e p o - 184,200 8O6^0O;0* 850,000* Changsha 507,000 650,600 703,000 825,000 S h i h k i a c h w a n g 60,000 373,400 598,000 800,000 T s i t s i h a r 76,101 344,700 668,000 760,000 Soochow 389,797 474,000 633,000 730,000 K i r i n 143,250 435,400 568,000 720,000 Suchow ('35)160,013 373,000 676,000 700,000 Foochow (!?35)359,205 553,000 616,000 680,000 Nanchang 301,000 398,200 508,000 675,000 Kweiyang 117,000 270,900 504,000 660,000 W u s i h 272,209 581,500 613,000 650,000 Hof e i 70,000 183,600 304,000 630,000 Hwainan - 286,900 370,000 600,000 P e n k i (•41) 98,203 449,000 - 600,000 L o y a n g (•35) 77,159 171,200 - 580,000 N a n n i n g 88,900 194,600 264,000 550,000 Huhehot (•35) 83,722 148,400 314,000 530,000 S i n i n g (•46) 55,564 93,700 300,000 500,000 U r u m c h i ('43) 80,000 140,700 275,000 500,000 22 S o u r c e : C h e n g - S i a n g Chen. " P o p u l a t i o n Growth and U r b a n i z a t i o n i n C h i n a 1953-1970." G e o g r a p h i c a l  R e view. V o l . 61, No. 1, J a n . 1973, p. 67. Not e : The f i g u r e s f o r 1936 a r e b a s e d on v a r i o u s p r e w a r s o u r c e s . The f i g u r e s f o r 1953 a r e c e n s u s r e s u l t s , f o r 1957 o f f i c i a l e s t i m a t e s . The 1970 e s t i m a t e was made b y t h e a u t h o r b a s e d on numerous, i f f r a g m e n t a r y , d a t a . • I n c r e a s e l a r g e l y a r e s u l t o f t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c i t y l i m i t s . C i t i e s o f 500,000 o r more numbered 43 i n 1970, had a combined p o p u l a t i o n o f 59,830,000 o r 8.0 p e r c e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l t o t a l and 37.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l u r b a n p o u l a t i o n . ( C h e n g - S i a n g Chen, p. 66) G e o g r a p h i c a l l y t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f u r b a n d w e l l e r s (30%) i s h i g h e s t i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s or M a n c h u r i a . H o p e i p r o v i n c e and K i a n g s u p r o v i n c e c o n t a i n i n g P e k i n g and T i e n t s i n i n t h e f o r m e r and S h a n g h a i i n t h e l a t t e r a r e 20 p e r c e n t u r b a n i z e d . No o t h e r p r o v i n c e o r autonomous r e g i o n has an u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n above t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e o f 16-17 p e r c e n t . C h e n g - S i a n g Chen adds t h a t moderate d e g r e e s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n e x i s t i n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e s o f . C h e k i a n g , F u k i e n , and Kwangtung. U r b a n i z a t i o n t o any gc.eat e x t e n t i s l a c k i n g i n t h e n o r t h w e s t and s o u t h w e s t . The b u i l d - u p o f i n d u s t r y and improvement o f t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n n e t w o r k s has r e s u l t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h o f e x i s t i n g c i t i e s b u t i n many new c e n t r e s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . U r b a n g r o w t h has b e e n most p r o n o u n c e d i n new i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c e n t r e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e b o r d e r r e g i o n s and i n c o m m u n i t i e s s u c h as T a c h i n g w h i c h a r e t a p p i n g new m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . I t i s i n f a c t 23 t h e p u l l e x e r t e d by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i n i t i a l l y a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e p u s h f r o m t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h r o u g h e n f o r c e d c o l l e c t i -v i z a t i o n and c o m m u n a l i z a t i o n w h i c h has been t h e d o m i n a n t f o r c e p r o m o t i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n i n C h i n a . A l t h o u g h t h e f i g u r e s a r e n o t e n t i r e l y r e l i a b l e ( s e e O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 62) t h e f l o w o f p e a s a n t s t o t h e c i t i e s d u r i n g most o f t h e 1950s i s r e v e a l e d i n T a b l e V I . T a b l e V I  S i z e and R a t e o f Growth o f t h e  U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a End o f T o t a l T o t a l Per c e n t Per c e n t o f Y e a r P o p u l a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n U r b a n I n c r e a s e Over i n t h o u s a n d s P r e c e d i n g Y e a r 1949 541,670 57,650 10.60 1950 551,960 61,690 11 .1'2 ' 7.00 1951 563,000 66,320 11 .78 7.50 1952 574,820 71,630 12.46 8.00 1953 587,960 77,670 13.21 8.43 1954 601,720 81,550 13 .55 4.99 1955 614,650 82,850 13.48 1 .59 1956 627,800 89,150 14.20 7.60 S o u r c e : O r l e a n s , L e o A. E v e r y F i f t h C h i l d : The  P o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972, p. 62. E f f o r t s by t h e new r e g i m e t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h e " b l i n d i n f l u x " were q u i c k b u t i n c o n s i s t e n t and f l u c t u a t i n g . From 1952 t o 1957 v a r i o u s government d e p a r t m e n t s i s s u e d d i r e c t i v e s t o c o n t r o l f a r m e r s f r o m m i g r a t i n g t o t h e c i t i e s . However, d i r e c t i v e s were n o t enough and i n 1957 t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c i m p l e m e n t e d t h e f i r s t y o u t h r u s t i c a t i o n p r o g r a m o r h s i a - f a n g (downward t r a n s f e r ) . B u t 1958 marked t h e b e g i n -n i n g s o f t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d , t o be f a c i l i t a t e d t h e f o l -24 l o w i n g y e a r by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e u r b a n commune, b o t h o f w h i c h s e v e r e l y d i s r u p t e d t h e h s i a - f a n g p rogram. U r b a n m i g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d . S e c ond e f f o r t s t o implement t h e r u s t i -c a t i o n movement began i n 1962 and c o n t i n u e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r y e a r s . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 401) The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n 1966 i n i t i a l l y b r o u g h t a h a l t t o t h e r u s t i c a t i o n movement b u t t h e i d e o l o g i c a l a t t a c k was s o o n r e v i v e d . S i n c e l i b e r a t i o n i n 1949 C h i n a has e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i v e l y m o d e rate u r b a n g r o w t h p a r t i c u l a r l y when compared w i t h o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s w h i c h have a s i m i l a r r a t e o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 400) The f l o w o f p e o p l e i n and o u t o f C h i n a ' s c i t i e s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n 1966, up t o w h i c h p o i n t i n t i m e " C h i n a ' s u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n moved h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h h e r a s c e n d i n g economy, showing a c o n t i n u o u s g r o w t h d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e 1960s." ( O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 67) I t was d u r i n g t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h a t an i n t e n s i v e , and t o d a t e c o n s i s t e n t , p o l i c y o f moving s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e was r e b o r n . P r i m a r i l y i n v o l v i n g t h e y o u t h o f C h i n a t h e c a m p a i g n " r e f l e c t e d Mao's b e l i e f t h a t C h i n a ' s s a l -v a t i o n l i e s i n t h e u l t i m a t e c o l l a p s e o f t h e b a r r i e r s between t h e Durban m a d a r i n s ' and t h e i m p o v e r i s h e d r u r a l masses, u r g i n g 'young i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' l e a v i n g t h e c i t i e s t o ' i n t e g r a t e w i t h t h e p e a s a n t s ' f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f 'making r e v o l u t i o n . ' " ( O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 68) A p a r t f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a t e m e n t s n o t much more i s known a b o u t t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i n a ' s u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o L e o O r l e a n s , a w e s t e r n s c h o l a r 25 s t u d y i n g C h i n a ' s p o p u l a t i o n , " t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n i s as d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n as i t s s i z e . " ( O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 70) The 1953 c e n s u s a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h e p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n as i t l i s t e d o n l y t h o s e c i t i e s w i t h 100,000 o r more i n h a b i t a n t s . P u t t i n g t o g e t h e r s c a t t e r i n g s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s m a l l e r com-m u n i t i e s i n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s E . N i ( s e e O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 71) was a b l e t o p r o d u c e a mid-1953 e s t i m a t e f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . ( r e f e r t o T a b l e V I I ) A f t e r 1957 e v e n l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o r e v e a l t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . The one b r i g h t s p o t , s t a t i s t i c a l l y , and e v e n t h e s e a r e r o u g h f i g u r e s , i s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n 1964 t h r o u g h 1967 r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h was u s e d a p p a r e n t l y d u r i n g t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t o announce t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n a r y C o m m i t t e e s . (Onoye, p. 109 and r e f e r t o T a b l e V I I I ) T a b l e V I I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i s h i g h e s t i n t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s and l o w e s t i n t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . S e v e n p r o v i n c e s a l o n g t h e c o a s t a l l r a n k w i t h i n t h e t o p t w e l v e . The f o u r t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d p r o v i n c e s o f t h e w e s t ( T i b e t Autonomous R e g i o n , T s i n g h a i , S i n k i a n g Autonomous R e g i o n , I n n e r M o n g o l i a Autonomous R e g i o n ) r a n k i n g i n t h e b o t t o m f o u r , i n t e r m s o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , showed a r e m a r k a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t i o n o f u r b a n t o t o t a l p o u l a t i o n . T h i s i s an " i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m i n i n g r e s o u r c e s b e g a n t o e x e r c i s e s u c h i n f l u e n c e 26 T a b l e V I I  P r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f  U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n : 1953 ( p o p u l a t i o n i n t h o u s a n d s ) P r o v i n c e T o t a l U r b a n P e r c e n t Number o f T o t a l NE H e i l u n g k i a n g K i n n L i a o n i n g N S h a n s i H o p e i S h a n t u n g Honan 11 ,897 11,290 20,566 14,314 43,348 48,877 44,215 3,697 3,274 8,648 1 , 846 10,077 3,356 2,889 31 .1 29.0 42.0 12.9 23.2 6.9 6.5 H u p e i Hunan K i a n g s i 27,790 33,227 16,773 2,388 2,337 1,269 8.6 7.0 7.2 K i a n g s u Anhwei C h e k i a n g SE 47,137 30,663 22,866 13,733 2,046 2,234 29.1 6.7 9.8 F u k i e n 13, 143 1 ,583 12, .0 Kwangtung 36, 740 4 ,494 12, .2 Kwangsi 17, 591 846 4, . 8 3W Kweichow 15, 037 586 3. ,9 Yunnan 17, 473 1 ,294 7. .4 Szechwan 65, 685 6 ,393 9. ,7 JW S i n k i a n g 4, 874 526 10, , 8 T s i n g h a i 1, 676 117 7. ,0 I n n e r M o n g o l i a 7, 338 782 10. , 7 Kansu and N i n g s i a 12, 928 1 |108 8. , 6 S h e n s i 15, 881 1 ,572 9. ,9 T i b e t 1, 274 162 12. 7 T o t a l 582, 603 77 ,257 13. ,3 S o u r c e : O r l e a n s , L e o A. E v e r y F i f t h C h i l d : The P o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972^ p # 71 « 27 T a b l e V I I I U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n By P r o v i n c e  (1964-1967) ( t e n t h o u s a n d p e r s o n ) Y e a r - e n d A t a C e r t a i n . R a t i o o f A r e a o f 1957 P e r i o d R e c e n t l y I n c r e a s e (%) P e k i n g 401 700^ 74.5 S h a n g h a i 690 i , 0 0 0 ; ; 44.9 T i e n t s i n 322 400 24. 2 H e i l u n g k i a n g 1,486 2,100 41 .3 S h a n t u n g 5,403 5,700 5,4 Kweichow 1,689 1,700 0.6 Shans i 1,596 1,800 12.7 T s i n g h a i 205 200 _ I n n e r M o n g o l i a 920 1,300 41 .3 K i a n g s i 1,861 2 , 200 ? 18.2 Kansu 1 ,461 1 ,300 2.6 (1,500) Honan 4,867 5,000 1 2.7 H o p e i 4,873 s ^ o o 1 • 10.8 Hupeh 3,079 3,200 3.9 Kwangtung 3,796 4,000 5.3 K i r i n 1,255 1,700 35.4 Kian'gsu 5,213 5,700 9.3 C h e k i a n g 2,528 3,100 22.6 Hunan 3,622 3,800 4.9 N i n g s i a 200 Anhwei 3,356 3,500 4.2 Shens i 1,813 2,100 15.8 L i a o n i n g 2,409 2, 800 16.2 Szechwan 7,216 7,000 — Yunnan 1,910 2,300 20.4 F u k i e n 1,465 1 , 700 • 16.0 K w a n g s i 1 ,939 2,400 23.7 S i n k i a n g 564 800 41 . 8 T i b e t 127 132 3.9 T o t a l 64,653 71,100 9.9 S o u r c e : Onoye, E t s u z o . " R e g i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f U r b a n P o p u l a t i o n i n C h i n a . " D e v e l o p i n g E c o n o m i e s . V o l . 8, M a r c h 1970, P. 111. H o p e i i n c l u d e s P e k i n g and T i e n t s i n : K i a n g s u i n c l u d e s S h a n g h a i ( f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o m p a r i s o n t h e y a r e i n c l u d e d h e r e , y e t t h e y were e x c l u d e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a ) . P o p u l a t i o n o f above c i t i e s were d o u b l e c o u n t e d a c c o r d i n g l y , ( b u t had b e e n a d j u s t e d i n t h e t o t a l ) The f i g u r e i n p a r e n t h e s e s f o r Kansu i n c l u d e s N i n g s i a . T h e r e -f o r e , i t i s c o m p a r a b l e w i t h 1957. 28 as t o a l t e r t h e f u n d a m e n t a l n a t u r e o f t h e r e g i o n s . " (Onoye, p. 109) The h i g h u r b a n i n c r e a s e i n K i r i n and H e i l u n g k i a n g p r o v i n c e s ( t h e N o r t h e a s t ) r e p r e s e n t s t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s . D e v e l o p m e n t a l p o l i c i e s have u n d o u b t e d l y c h a n g e d , p a r t i -c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d when r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s were s t i m u l a t e d , t h e r e b y s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c i n g p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s , " b u t t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t c i t i e s c o n -t i n u e d t o expand up t o t h e t i m e o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n t h e mid-1960s. S i n c e t h e n we move i n t o t h e n e a r unknown" i n t e r m s o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . (Thompson, 1975, p. 596) Thompson i s c o r r e c t i n h i s s t a t e m e n t . V i r t u a l l y no d e m o g r a p h i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y u r b a n , i n f o r m a t i o n has b e e n r e l e a s e d b y C h i n e s e 1 a u t h o r i t i e s s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . C o u p l e t h i s w i t h Mao's p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h e r e i s no d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n b etween i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h t h e p o l i c i e s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y and l o c a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y a r e making s u r e o f , and any a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e r a t e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a r e v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . E v e n l a c k i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s O r l e a n s (1972, p. 72) b e l i e v e s t h a t " i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h e C h i n e s e Communists w i l l f i n d C o m p a r i s o n o f P e k i n g , S h a n g h a i and T i e n t s i n f o r two p e r i o d s a r e i m p o s s i b l e , owing t o t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r b o u n d a r y . U n d o u b t e d l y t h e s e a r e f i g u r e s f o r 1965 t o 1967. R e v o l u -t i o n a r y C o m m i t t e e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a c h p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h a t t i m e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , l a t e s t c e n s u s was c a r r i e d o u t i n 1964 as we s t u d i e d b e f o r e , i t was p o s s i b l e t o u s e t h e d a t a o f 1964. 29 i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t ( i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e ) t o c h ange b a s i c a l l y t h e e x i s t i n g u r b a n p a t t e r n s - d e s p i t e some p o s i t i v e e f f o r t s d e v o t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m . The g e n e r a l t r e n d o f b r i n g i n g i n -d u s t r y t o t h e p e o p l e i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , r a t h e r t h a n s h i f t i n g t h e p e a s a n t s i n t o t h e c i t i e s , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be t h e l o n g -r a n g e p o l i c y o f C h i n a . I t i s a l s o assumed t h a t t h i s w i l l n o t r e s u l t i n t h e s t a g n a t i o n and d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f C h i n a ' s c i t i e s , s i n c e a c o n s i d e r a b l e (and s t r a t e g i c a l l y most i m p o r t a n t ) p r o p o r t i o n o f C h i n a ' s i n d u s t r y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o expand u n d e r c e n t r a l c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n . I n o t h e r words, r u r a l i n d u s t r y d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h l o c a l i n v e s t m e n t w i l l s u p p l e m e n t t h e l a r g e - s c a l e u r b a n economy b u t c e r t a i n l y w i l l n o t r e p l a c e i t . " A l t h o u g h h a r d d a t a i s l a c k i n g a f t e r t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u -t i o n R o b i n Thompson i n t h e W o r l d D e v e l o p m e n t J o u r n a l (1975) o f f e r s a number o f r e a s o n s o r i n d i c a t i o n s , some o f them s t a t i s t i c a l , why he b e l i e v e s t h a t i n c o n t e m p o r a r y C h i n a u r b a n i z a t i o n and r e l a t e d c i t y p l a n n i n g a r e f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l . The f o l l o w i n g a r e c a p s u l i z e d comments w h i c h do r e f l e c t what l i t t l e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a c t u a l l y e x i s t s f o r t h e l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s. 1) t h e b i r t h r a t e o f 32 t o 38 p e r t h o u s a n d a n n u a l l y has a t l e a s t b e e n h a l v e d s i n c e t h e 1950s and t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e i s p r e s e n t l y 11 t o 12 p e r t h o u s a n d . 2) t i m e i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l d e m o g r a p h i c p o l i c y . I n i t i a l r e l i a n c e on t h e S o v i e t model o f d e v e l o p m e n t has changed and C h i n a i s now 30 f o l l o w i n g an i n d e p e n d e n t u r b a n p o l i c y , p e r c e p t i o n b y Mao o f t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f a g g l o m e r -a t i o n s t o a t t a c k and h i s a n g e r and d i s t r u s t o f c i t i e s d e v e l o p i n g a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e r u r a l a r e a s , u r b a n i z a t i o n i s b e i n g a t t a c k e d a t i t s s o u r c e by e n h a n c i n g r u r a l l i f e . u r b a n g r o w t h i s b e i n g c o n t a i n e d by b a n n i n g i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e c i t i e s . T h i s i s c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e l o c a l P a r t y - s u p e r v i s e d l e v e l , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f S h a n g h a i , C h i n a ' s l a r g e s t c i t y , has r e m a i n e d a l m o s t c o n s t a n t - 5.5 m i l l i o n - s i n c e l i b e r a t i o n w h i l e i n o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e shows t h a t p r i m a t e c i t i e s d e v e l o p f a s t e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . s t a t i s t i c s f o r s p e c i f i c c i t i e s s u c h as C h a n g s h a i n -d i c a t e a l e v e l l i n g o f f o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . From 1949 t o 1959 t h i s c e n t r e grew from 380,000 t o 600,000. S i n c e 1959 however, Changsha has grown by o n l y 70,000 p e o p l e . Thompson's v i s i t t o s i x u r b a n c e n t r e s i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e s i g n o f new c o n s t r u c t i o n beyond e f f o r t s a t r e d e v e l o p -ment i n t h e w o r s t p a r t s o f t h e i n n e r c i t y , t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n has r e a p p r a i s e d c i t y p l a n n i n g as i t has v i r t u a l l y a l l a s p e c t s o f C h i n e s e l i f e . "The r e a l l y b i g change i n t h e s y s t e m o f p l a n n i n g w r o u g h t by t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n l i e s i n m o t i v a t i o n , n o t i n t h e f o r m a l s y s t e m . " Mao i s w i l l i n g t o 31 s a c r i f i c e i mmediate e c o n o m i c g r o w t h by b u i l d i n g t h e economy f r o m t h e b o t t o m up. R e l y i n g upon r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h b a s e d on e x i s t i n g u r b a n c e n t r e s w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t b e n e f i t s a r e d i f f u s e d t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y . C h i n a i s f o l l o w i n g a p o l i c y o f " b a l a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d on c o l l e c t i v e , m o r a l i n c e n t i v e s . " (Thompson, 1975, pp. 596-597) I n l i g h t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g comments O r l e a n s w i l l be o f f e r e d t h e f i n a l word. He s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e t h e l a r g e s t c i t i e s i n C h i n a " s h o u l d i n c r e a s e a t t h e s l o w e s t r a t e , w h i l e t h e most r a p i d g r o w t h s h o u l d o c c u r i n towns u n d e r f i f t y t h o u s a n d w h i c h i n some ways would have c l o s e r t i e s t o r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . " Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s " u r b a n " , he s a y s , w i l l l i k e l y have t o be r e d e f i n e d t o accommodate t h e new n a t u r e o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n C h i n a and t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e when one e n c o u n t e r s t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t C h i n a i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n t o use t h i s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f C h i n a ' s p o s i t i o n i n t e r m s o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y m i s l e a d i n g . ( O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 72) 32 CHAPTER I I I POLITICS IN COMMAND I n t r o d u c t i o n I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C h i n e s e i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e he a r r i v e d a t f o r i t i s t h e p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f Marx, L e n i n and Mao T s e - t u n g w h i c h has b e e n g u i d i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y i n c l u d i n g u r b a n and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . The e m p h a s i s o f s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y has f l u c t u a t e d s i n c e l i b e r a t i o n as t h e C h i n e s e have e n d e a v o u r e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e c t s o c i a l i s t p a t h t o f o l l o w i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . Mao's i n f l u e n c e has b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n g u i d i n g C h i n a a l o n g a p a t h d i f f e r e n t from t h a t w h i c h o t h e r s o c i a l i s t n a t i o n s have f o l l o w e d . To e x p l a i n C h i n e s e s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y and t h e s t r u g g l e s t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e have gone t h r o u g h , s t r u g g l e s w h i c h have had s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r c i t i e s and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , s e v e r a l o f t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o w i t h an e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on t h e w r i t i n g s o f Mao T s e - t u n g . The P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y o f Mao T s e - t u n g Mao T s e - t u n g as a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t and as t h e l e a d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n o f t h e new C h i n a has a d h e r e d t o t h e d o c t r i n e o f d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , a c o n c e p t w h i c h i s a t t h e h e a r t o f s o c i a l i s m and w h i c h m a i n t a i n s " t h a t human e x i s t e n c e c o n s i s t s 33 o f many c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n t e n d i n g f o r c e s . The i d e a t h a t s t r u g g l e i s b a s i c t o l i f e . " ( B e r r y , p. 434) W r i t i n g i n 1937, Mao s t a t e d t h e c e n t r a l i d e a o f h i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t o f "maodun" o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n , w h i c h he saw as b e i n g b o t h a u b i q u i t o u s and permanent f e a t u r e o f s o c i a l l i f e . S u c h c o n t r a d i c t i o n w o u l d , he c o n t e n d e d , c o n -t i n u e i n t o b o t h s o c i a l i s t and communist s o c i e t i e s . (Mao T s e - t u n g , On C o n t r a d i c t i o n , 1937) Mao f u r t h e r a r g u e d t h a t i n a n a l y z i n g a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most i m p o r t a n t o r p r i n c i p a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n . S e c o n d l y t h e two s i d e s i n t h e c o n f l i c t must be i d e n t i f i e d , t h e p r i n c i p a l a s p e c t and n o n - p r i n c i p a l a s -p e c t , w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s i v e o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a s p e c t b e i n g s u p p o r t e d and a d v a n c e d . The t h e o r y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n was f u r t h e r e d i n 1957 i n a s p e e c h g i v e n by Mao e n t i t l e d "On t h e C o r r e c t H a n d l i n g o f Con-t r a d i c t i o n s Among t h e P e o p l e " . I t was h e r e t h a t a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t h e o r y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s was e s p o u s e d . Mao r e f e r r e d t o a n t a g o n i s t i c and n o n - a n t a g o n i s t i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , t h e f o r m e r d e s c r i b i n g c o n f l i c t s t h a t d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n t h e p e o p l e and enemies o f t h e p e o p l e , t h e l a t t e r d e s c r i b i n g c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g between t h e p e o p l e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h a t methods r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e two t y p e s o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a r e v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . " S t r u g g l e and c r i t i c i s m " , t h a t i s d i s c u s -s i o n s and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m w i t h i n s m a l l g r o u p s , as w e l l as r e -e d u c a t i o n a r e means t h r o u g h w h i c h n o n - a n t a g o n i s t i c c o n f l i c t s a r e r e s o l v e d ; t o h a n d l e a n t a g o n i s t i c c o n f l i c t s i t i s n e c e s s a r y 34 t o " e x e r c i s e d i c t a t o r s h i p " . ( S t a r r , p. 28) J o h n S t a r r i n an e x c e l l e n t e f f o r t t o " c o n c e p t u a l i z e c o n t e m p o r a r y C h i n e s e p o l i t i c s " s t a t e s t h a t " t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f any l e a d e r o r l e a d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i n Mao's schema i s b a s e d on t h e l e a d e r ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e and s e c o n d on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h fee i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e masses o f t h e p e o p l e and r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i r o p i n i o n s and n e e d s . " ( S t a r r , p. 28) The i d e a o f l e g i t i m a c y i n r e a l t e r m s , he adds, i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h what i s c a l l e d t h e "mass l i n e " . T h i s i s a method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c y , t h a t r e q u i r e s l e a d e r s o r c a d r e s t o go t o t h e masses, l e a r n f r o m them and communicate t h e i r i d e a s t o t h e c e n t r e . The c e n t r e w i l l t h e n s y n t h e s i z e t h e i d e a s and d e v e l o p them i n t o p o l i c i e s w h i c h a r e t h e n t a k e n b a c k t o t h e p e o p l e , e x p l a i n e d , m o d i f i e d , and i m p l e m e n t e d . The p r o c e s s t h e n r e p e a t s i t s e l f . Mao w r o t e i n 1943 o f t h e mass l i n e : " I n a l l t h e p r a c t i c a l work o f o u r P a r t y , a l l c o r r e c t l e a d e r s h i p i s n e c e s s a r i l y 'from t h e masses, t o t h e masses'. T h i s means: t a k e t h e i d e a s o f t h e masses ( s c a t t e r e d and un-s y s t e m a t i c i d e a s ) and c o n c e n t r a t e them ( t h r o u g h s t u d y t u r n them i n t o c o n c e n t r a t e d and s y s t e m a t i c i d e a s ) , t h e n go t o t h e masses and p r o p a g a t e and e x p l a i n t h e s e i d e a s u n t i l t h e masses embrace them as t h e i r own, h o l d f a s t t o them and t r a n s l a t e them i n t o a c t i o n , and t e s t t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e s e i d e a s i n s u c h a c t i o n . Then once a g a i n c o n c e n t r a t e i d e a s from t h e masses and once a g a i n go t o t h e masses s o t h a t t h e i d e a s a r e p e r s e v e r e d i n and c a r r i e d t h r o u g h . And s o on, o v e r and o v e r a g a i n i n an e n d l e s s s p i r a l , w i t h t h e i d e a s b e c o m i n g more c o r r e c t , more v i t a l and r i c h e r e a c h t i m e . " (Mao T s e - t u n g , S e l e c t e d Works, V o l . I l l , p. 119) 35 The mass l i n e , s a y s S t a r r , owes much t o t h e i d e a o f " d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m " . A l t h o u g h s i m i l a r i n i n t e n t t o "mass l i n e " L e n i n ' s c o n c e p t o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m i s d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t L e n i n a p p l i e d h i s i d e a p r i m a r i l y t o i n t r a -P a r t y r e l a t i o n s , w h i l e Mao has a p p l i e d t h e mass l i n e t o r e -l a t i o n s b etween t h e P a r t y and s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . ( S t a r r , p. 29) The mass l i n e i n f a c t s e r v e s as a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e two c e n t r a l i d e a s i n C h i n e s e i d e o l o g y : t h e t h e o r y o f c o n t r a d i c -t i o n s and t h e t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m . J o h n s o n (1976) s t a t e s : " T h e r e a r e two e l e m e n t s i n t h e C h i n e s e t h e o r y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i r s t i s M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s m as a g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l g u i d e ; t h e s e c o n d i s t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s m t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m -s t a n c e s o f C h i n a . Mao T s e - t u n g i s t h e t h e o r e t i c i a n o f t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n . I t i s Mao who has e x t r a c t e d from t h e c o r p u s o f M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s m t h o s e a s p e c t s t h a t a r e s e e n t o be most r e l e v a n t t o t h e C h i n e s e s i t u a t i o n . From c l a s s i c a l M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s m t h e r e d e r i v e two k e y t h e o r e t i c a l components f o r t h e C h i n e s e t h e o r y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n -'the t h e o r y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ' and 'the t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m ' . " ( J o h n s o n , p. 33) The t h e o r y o f t h e mass l i n e , o r "from t h e t o p down and t h e b o t t o m up" as i t i s sometimes known, i s i n r e a l i t y an amalgam o f t h e t h e o r y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and t h e t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m . "On t h e l o c a l l e v e l , a t t h e p o i n t o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e b r o a d masses o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e c a d r e i s a k e y f i g u r e i n e l i c i t i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s o f t h e Communist P a r t y . The 36 c a d r e s become k e y f i g u r e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f power and a u t h o r i t y t h a t w i l l i n d u c e change i n C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . The t h e o r y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s g i v e a g u i d e t o t h e c h a r a c t e r , b e a r i n g , and a c t i v i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l c a d r e s . The t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m i n d i - . c a t e s what t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n must be. The t h e o r y o f mass l i n e c l a r i f i e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n l e a d e r s h i p and o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e r e b y g i v e s c l e a r d i r e c t i o n as t o how t h e two c a n be meshed t o p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f e f f e c t i n g change i n s o c i e t y . " ( J o h n s o n , p. 34) C h a p t e r V d e s c r i b e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f C h i n a ' s c i t i e s , t h e s t r u c t u r e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e mass l i n e c o n c e p t i s im-p l e m e n t e d , and t h e r e b y how p l a n n i n g becomes p o l i t i c a l i n C h i n a . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s a l s o g u i d e d by o t h e r f u n d a -m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s . " S e r v e t h e p e o p l e " , one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s e n c o u r a g e s p e o p l e t o a c t i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r comrades and n o t i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f p e r s o n a l g a i n and s e l f a dvancement. T h i s a p p r o a c h has g e n e r a t e d p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s w h i c h have b e n e f i t e d a m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e and has r e s u l t e d i n one o f t h e most i m p r e s s i v e examples o f s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e w o r l d t o d a y . " S e l f - r e l i a n c e " , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d from t h e Red A r e a o f K i a n g s i i n t h e e a r l y 1930s, c a l l s upon p e o p l e t o use t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s whenever p o s s i b l e i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t new p rograms and p r o j e c t s s o much s o t h a t t h e n o t i o n has become i n g r a i n e d and i t i s now a m a t t e r o f p r i d e t o do w i t h o u t S t a t e s u p p o r t t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p o s s i b l e . A l l t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e b a s e d on M a r x i s m , L e n i n i s m and Mao T s e - t u n g T h o u g h t and a r e s u b j e c t t o c o n t i n u o u s and 37 i n t e n s i v e s t u d y among t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e - I t i s w i t h i n t h i s p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t t h a t p l a n n i n g has become a p o w e r f u l t o o l i n b u i l d i n g C h i n a i n t o a s e l f -r e l i a n t s o c i a l i s t n a t i o n . I n s u r v e y i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t C h i n e s e u r b a n l i f e one c a n n o t h e l p b u t be i m p r e s s e d by t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g f o c u s on t h e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y o f C h i n e s e u r b a n d w e l l e r s . As Sawers (1977) s t a t e s t h i s i s v e r y " a p p a r e n t i n t h e C h i n e s e v i e w o f u r b a n f o r m , i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s a t p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g o f n e i g h b o r h o o d s , and i n t h e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c i t y by n e i g h b o r h o o d s " . (Sawers, p. 40) C h i n a ' s u r b a n p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s o v e r t h e y e a r s have n o t r e m a i n e d s t a t i c . T h e y have c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m l i b e r a t i o n i n 1949 t o t h e p r e s e n t day. However, t h e s e change i n u r b a n d i r e c t i o n c a n n o t be i s o l a t e d and v i e w e d by t h e m s e l v e f o r t h e y m i r r o r a much more s i g n i f i c a n t and p r o f o u n d change i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c . More-o v e r , C h i n a ' s u r b a n p o l i c i e s a r e s t r o n g l y i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h and p a r a l l e l C h i n e s e r e g i o n a l and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g . When t h e Communists came t o power i n 1949 t h e y had g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n a g r i c u l t u r e , l a n d r e f o r m and r u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t had l i t t l e k n o wledge o f u r b a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o r i n d u s t r i a l and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g . Mao T s e - t u n g had a l r e a d y warned h i s comrades t o " l e a r n how t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e i n d u s t r y , commerce and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o f b i g c i t i e s , o r o t h e r w i s e we s h a l l n o t know what t o do when 38 t h e t i m e comes". (Mao T s e - t u n g , "Our S t u d y and t h e C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n " , S e l e c t e d Works, V o l . I l l , p. 172) When t h e t i m e d i d come i t was s t a t e d a g a i n , v e r y c l e a r l y by Mao, t h a t "we had no e x p e r i e n c e , C h i n a had no e x p e r t s , t h e m i n i s t e r was h i m s e l f an o u t s i d e r , so we had t o c o p y from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , and h a v i n g c o p i e d we were u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h good from b a d . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f S o v i e t p l a n n i n g was c o r r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o C h i n a , b u t p a r t o f i t was i n c o r r e c t . I t was i m p o r t e d u n c r i t i c a l l y " . (Schram, p. 98-99) The p e r i o d 1949-1952 saw n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s a d o p t e d w h i c h were g e a r e d t o r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f a w a r - t o r n d e v a s t a t e d n a t i o n . P o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s were g u i d e d by t h e need t o p r o v i d e b a s i c s i n h o u s i n g , f o o d p r o d u c t i o n , c l o t h i n g , employment and h e a l t h c a r e w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e c o n s o l i d a t i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l . A l t h o u g h a f i n a l s p l i t d i d n o t m a t e r i a l i z e between t h e C h i n e s e and t h e S o v i e t s u n t i l 1960 t h e F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n marked t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t s e v e n y e a r s l a t e r i n a f o r m a l b r e a k . E c o n o m i c c r i t e r i a (economism) t o o k p r e c e d e n c e o v e r p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d -e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d (1953-57) w i t h t h e e m p h a s i s on e x p a n s i o n o f h e a v y i n d u s t r y b e i n g a c c o m p a n i e d by c e n t r a l i z e d e c o n o m i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and l i m i t e d l o c a l p o l i t i c a l power. yUbban and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , i n h e r e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h l o c a l s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , became t o t a l l y subsumed i n t h e p r o c e s s o f e c o n o m i c planning*.' • ( K i r b y , p. 140) The S o v i e t e r a o f C h i n e s e e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g g r e a t l y 39 a f f e c t e d t h e l o c a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e s u l t a n t u r b a n and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . D e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s t o r e d r e s s r e -g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e s b e t w e e n i n t e r i o r and c o a s t , t h e S o v i e t -i n f l u e n c e d p l a n , a l t h o u g h i d e n t i f y i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 120 c e n t r e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , saw t h e b u l k o f i t g o i n g t o ap-p r o x i m a t e l y 18 p l a c e s . ( B e r g e r , p. 435) The f i r s t s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f u n e a s i n e s s a b o u t t h i s s i t u a t i o n came w i t h Mao's 1957 d e c l a r a t i o n "On t h e C o r r e c t H a n d l i n g o f C o n t r a d i c t i o n s Among t h e P e o p l e " . I t was f e l t a t t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c e l i t e s e e n e m e r g i n g i n C h i n a w o u l d "pose a c o n t r a d i c t i o n b etween t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y and t h e masses, a s u b s i d i a r y s t r a n d r a i s e d t h e e n t i r e un-r e s o l v e d p r o b l e m o f p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g y " . ( K i r b y , p. 144) T h i s i s o f ext r e m e i m p o r t a n c e , f o r i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s t h e C h i n e s e have a l w a y s s t a r t e d from two assump-t i o n s . "By o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g we mean p l a n n i n g w h i c h t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e 600 m i l l i o n p e o p l e o f o u r c o u n t r y . " (Mao T s e - t u n g , 1968, p. 112) I n o t h e r words " w i t h o u t a c e n t r a l and o v e r f a l l n a t i o n a l p l a n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o o r g a n i z e t h e economy t o s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e who l e w o r k i n g p e o p l e " . ( B e r g e r , p. 557) S e c o n d l y , " w i t h t h e i r v i e w o f t h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f 'means and e n d s , ' t h e M a o i s t m a i n s t r e a m has e m p h a s i z e d t h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n and p o l i t i c a l and m o r a l o u t l o o k a r e as e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t as t h e l e v e l o f g r o w t h o f p r o d u c t i o n " . ( K i r b y , p. 141) Bu t i n 1956 Mao was f o r c e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e C h i n a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t as d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e and o n e - s i d e d . The S o v i e t 40 a p p r o a c h t o e c o n o m i c g r o w t h and u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h had b e e n c o p i e d by C h i n a d u r i n g i t s f i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n , had d e - e m p h a s i z e d t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l and consumer goods, w h i l e p l a c i n g a low p r i o r i t y on a g r i c u l t u r e and a s s i g n -i n g p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s t o h e a v y i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n . I n ap-p l y i n g t h e t h e o r y o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o t h e main a s p e c t s o f C h i n a ' s e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n Mao a t t a c k e d t h e t h o u g h t t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n c o u l d a d v a n c e r a p i d l y w h i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t was a l l o w e d t o s l o w . ( B e r g e r , p. 551) "We must on no a c c o u n t r e g a r d i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , s o c i a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l i -z a t i o n and t h e s o c i a l i s t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e as two s e p a r a t e and i s o l a t e d t h i n g s , and on no a c c o u n t must we empha-s i z e t h e one and p l a y down t h e o t h e r . " (Mao T s e - t u n g , 1971, p. 406) Mao f e l t t h a t f u n d s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f b o t h had t o be a c c u m u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . H i s o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t h e r e . They s i g n a l t h e d i f f e r e n t p a t h t h a t n a t i o n was t o f o l l o w i n f u t u r e y e a r s and s h a p e d C h i n a ' s f u t u r e e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s and e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g methods. ( B e r g e r , p . 552) S y n t h e s i z i n g numerous c e n t r a l government r e p o r t s and s u b -s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s i n t o t e n major p r o b l e m s Mao d e l i v e r e d h i s s p e e c h e n t i t l e d " T e n G r e a t R e l a t i o n s h i p s " i n 1956 t o an e n -l a r g e d m e e t i n g o f t h e P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u o f t h e C e n t r a l Committee o f t h e C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y . A l t h o u g h n o t a l l a r e o f d i r e c t s i g n i f i c a n c e s e v e r a l do r e l a t e s t r o n g l y t o e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s w h i c h i n 41 t u r n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t and p l a n n i n g . R o l a n d B e r g e r (1975) i n " E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a " has commented on t h e s e major c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and w i l l be drawn upon e x t e n s i v e l y i n a n a l y z i n g them. 1) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a v y i n d u s t r y on t h e one hand and l i g h t i n d u s t r y and a g r i -c u l t u r e on t h e o t h e r : h e a v y i n d u s t r y was t o c o n t i n u e c l a i m i n g t h e e m p h a s is i n i n -v e s t m e n t " b u t t h e p r o p o r t i o n f o r a g r i c u l -t u r e and l i g h t i n d u s t r y must be somewhat i n c r e a s e d " . Mao f e l t t h a t a l t h o u g h h e a v y i n d u s t r y would a c c u m u l a t e c a p i t a l , l i g h t i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e w o u l d a c c u m u l a t e more and f a s t e r as w e l l as e n s u r i n g t h e l i v e l i h o o d o f t h e p e o p l e . 2) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r y i n t h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n s and i n d u s t r y i n t h e i n -t e r i o r : e f f o r t s t o r e d r e s s t h e l o c a t i o n a l i m b a l a n c e o f i n d u s t r y w h i c h had become c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n was n o t i n c o r r e c t . As Mao s a i d , "we have n o t made . any m a j o r m i s t a k e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two. However, i n r e c e n t y e a r s we have u n d e r e s t i m a t e d c o a s t a l i n d u s t r y t o some e x t e n t and have n o t g i v e n g r e a t enough a t t e n t i o n t o i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . " (On The T e n  M a j o r R e l a t i o n s h i p s , p. 5) I n o t h e r words t h e pendulum had swung t o o f a r i n i n t r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r y i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f C h i n a w i t h n o t enough a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d t o C h i n a ' s e x i s t -i n g 7 0 % o f d e v e l o p m e n t where w o r k e r s c o u l d be t r a i n e d i n t h e c o a s t a l i n d u s t r y w i t h i t s h i g h t e c h n i c a l l e v e l , g o o d - q u a l i t y p r o d u c t s and low p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s w h i c h w o u l d a l s o have had a s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t on t h e t e c h n i -c a l l e v e l and q u a l i t y o f n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r y as a w h o l e . ( B e r g e r , p. 553) 3) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e c o n o m i c c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e f e n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n : n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t b u t c e r t a i n l y m e r i t i n g comment i n t e r m s o f i t s e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . Too h i g h an e x p e n d i t u r e d u r i n g t h e F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n , Mao a r g u e d , had b e e n p l a c e d on m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s . " O n l y w i t h t h e f a s t e r g r o w t h o f e c o n o m i c c o n s t r u c -t i o n c a n t h e r e be more p r o g r e s s i n d e f e n c e 42 c o n s t r u c t i o n . One r e l i a b l e way i s t o c u t m i l i t a r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e n d i t u r e s down t o a p p r o p r i a t e p r o p o r t i o n s and i n - , c r e a s e e x p e n d i t u r e s on e c o n o m i c c o n s t r u e - -t i o n . " (On The T e n M a j o r R e l a t i o n s h i p s , p. 7) 4) The r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e s t a t e , -the u n i t s o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e p r o d u c e r s : as B e r g e r s t a t e s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , f o r t h e r e l a t i o n - •' s h i p between t h e s e u n i t s " t o u c h e s d i r e c t l y on t h e p o l i t i c s o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m " . ( B e r g e r , p. 553) S p e a k i n g a b o u t t h e i n -d e p e n d e n c e o f f a c t o r i e s u nder u n i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p Mao s a i d , " i t ' s n o t r i g h t , I'm a f r a i d , t o p l a c e e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e hands o f t h e c e n t r a l o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l and muni-c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h o u t l e a v i n g t h e f a c t o r i e s any power o f t h e i r own, any room f o r i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n , any b e n e f i t s . . . I n p r i n c i p l e , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r m i n g a u n i t y o f o p p o s i t e s , t h e r e must be b o t h c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and i n d e p e n d e n c e ... I n s h o r t , c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o b o t h s i d e s , n o t t o j u s t one, w h e t h e r t h e y a r e t h e s t a t e and t h e f ac.tory, t h e s t a t e and t h e w o r k e r , t h e f a c t o r y and t h e w o r k e r , t h e s t a t e and t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e , t h e s t a t e and t h e p e a s a n t , o r t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e and t h e p e a s a n t . To g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o o n l y one s i d e , w h i c h e v e r i t may b e , i s h a r m f u l t o s o c i a l i s m and t o t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t " . (On The Ten M a j o r R e l a t i o n -s h i p s , pp. 9 and 12) 5) The r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i -t i e s and t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s : as B e r g e r summarizes "Mao h e r e a r g u e s f o r an e x t e n s i o n o f r e g i o n a l power w i t h i n a u n i f i e d c e n t r a l p l a n . H i s p r o p o s a l s a r e on t h e whole t e n t a -t i v e , c e r t a i n l y i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e sweep-i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l a t e r y e a r s " . ( B e r g e r , p. 553) Mao a t t h i s t i m e s c o r n s t h e s c o r e s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l hands t h a t a r e making t h i n g s d i f f i c u l t f o r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . "We s h o u l d , " he s a y s , " e n c o u r a g e t h e s t y l e o f work i n w h i c h t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e c o n s u l t e d on t h e m a t t e r s t o be t a k e n up." We want b o t h u n i t y and p a r t i c u l a r i t y . To b u i l d a p o w e r f u l s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r y i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o have a s t r o n g and u n i f i e d c e n t r a l l e a d e r s h i p and u n i f i e d p l a n n i n g and d i s c i p l i n e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y ; d i s r u p t i o n o f t h i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e u n i t y i s i m p e r m i s s i b l e . A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s 43 e s s e n t i a l t o b r i n g t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n t o f u l l p l a y and l e t e a c h l o c a l i t y e n j o y t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t y s u i t e d t o i t s l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . " S i n c e t h e p r o v i n c e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have t h e i r own c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t t h e c e n t r a l d e p a r t m e n t s , c a n i t be t h a t t h e p r e f e c t u r e s , c o u n t i e s , d i s t r i c t s and t o w n s h i p s have no c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t t h e p r o v i n c e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ? The c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d t a k e c a r e t o g i v e s c o p e t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e p r o v i n c e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and i n t h e i r t u r n t h e l a t t e r . s h o u l d do t h e same f o r t h e p r e f e c t u r e s , c o u n t i e s , d i s t r i c t s and town-s h i p s ; t h e p r o v i n c e s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , p r e f e c t u r e s , c o u n t i e s , d i s t r i c t s and town-s h i p s s h o u l d a l l e n j o y t h e i r own p r o p e r i n d e p e n d e n c e and r i g h t s and s h o u l d f i g h t f o r them." (On The T e n M a j o r R e l a t i o n s h i p s , pp. 12-16) Items (6) "The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Han n a t i o n a l i t y and t h e m i n o r i t y n a t i o n a l i t i e s " , (7) "The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -tween p a r t y and n o n - p a r t y " , (8) "The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e v o l u t i o n and c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n " , (9) "The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r i g h t and wrong", (10) "The r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween C h i n a and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s " , do n o t r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t and p l a n n i n g and a l t h o u g h o f major i m p o r t a n c e t o o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s w i l l n o t be d e a l t w i t h h e r e . B e g i n n i n g i n 1958 w i t h t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d t h e C h i n e s e i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o f o l l o w a d i f f e r e n t p a t h f r o m t h a t a l r e a d y a t t e m p t e d by t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . T h e y have s i n c e abandoned t h e S o v i e t model b u t i n s o d o i n g have f o l l o w e d a somewhat e r r a t i c c o u r s e i n d e v e l o p m e n t r e f l e c t i n g b o t h i n -e x p e r i e n c e and p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . " T h i s d i v e r g e n c e between t h e e c o n o m i c o r • e c o n o m i s t ' and t h e p o l i t i c a l a p p r o a c h i s no a b s t r a c t o r a c a d e m i c i s s u e , n o r i s i t j u s t a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s p u t a t i o n b etween p e o p l e d o i n g t h e same t h i n g by d i f f e r e n t methods. P r i n c i p l e s o f p l a n n i n g , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and, i n d e e d , t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i -c a l p r o g r e s s i n s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n a l l depend upon w h i c h o f t h e two p o l i c i e s i s f o l l o w e d . " The G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d was i n r e a l i t y a huge c a m p a i g n o r movement as o p p o s e d t o a w e l l t h o u g h t - o u t d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y . ( E c k s t e i n , p. 56) The c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e , t h e " s i m u l t a n e o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y " , was t o be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h two p r i m a r y means! 1) b y mass m o b i l i z a t i o n o f u n d e r e m p l o y e d s u r p l u s l a b o r i n a g r i c u l t u r e . 2) by a much g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s b a s e d on t e c h n o l o g i c a l d u a l i s m . ( E c k s t e i n , p. 56) I t was hoped i n t h i s way t h a t l a b o u r c o u l d be c o n v e r t e d i n t o c a p i t a l and t h a t s u r p l u s l a b o u r c o u l d expand s m a l l -s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . One o f t h e d r a m a t i c outcomes o f t h i s movement was t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d s y s t e m v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d e n t e r p r i s e s b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d t o p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y however, d i d n o t r e l i n q u i s h i t s c o n t r o l o v e r a p l a n n e d economy. "The byword was • c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n -n i n g , d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l ' . " ( K i r b y , p. 141) 45 T a b l e IX  Changes I n D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  Of I n d u s t r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  1957-1959 1957 1958 1959 C e n t r a l c o n t r o l ( p e r c e n t ) 46.0 27.0 26.0 L o c a l c o n t r o l ( p e r c e n t ) 54.0 73.0 74.0 S o u r c e : W h e e l w r i g h t , E . L . and B r u c e M c F a r l a n e . The  C h i n e s e Road To S o c i a l i s m . New Y o r k : M o n t h l y Review P r e s s , 1970, p. 60. K i r b y s u g g e s t s " t h e numerous S o v i e t c a s e s o f o v e r -a g g l o m e r a t i o n , o f i n t e r r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e and i n t e r s e c t o r i a l r i v a l r y were s e e n by t h e C h i n e s e as stemming d i r e c t l y f r o m s t r a t e g i e s o b s e s s e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n . I m p l i c i t i n e a r l y M a r x i s t w r i t i n g s was t h e aim o f ' i r o n i n g o u t ' t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n town and c o u n t r y - a t a s k r e q u i r i n g t h e most c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s p a t i a l c o m p l e x i t i e s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l " . ( K i r b y , p. 141) The A d v e n t o f t h e U r b a n Commune A n o t h e r outcome o f t h e G r e a t L e a p was t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e u r b a n commune. Not w a n t i n g t h e b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s t o l e a v e t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and b e i n g f a c e d a t t h i s t i m e (1957) w i t h a l a r g e i n f l o w o f p o p u l a t i o n t o u r b a n a r e a s t h e C h i n e s e f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s f a c e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f n o t o n l y how t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r i n t h e c i t i e s b u t how t o m o b i l i z e t h e v a s t u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s toward e c o n o m i c p r o d u c t i v i t y . (Schur.mann, 1966, p. 382) To a c t i v a t e t h e u n d e r e m p l o y e d P e k i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n 1958, t h e u r b a n commune, a s h o r t - l i v e d i d e a d e s i g n e d t o make t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n p r o d u c t i v e l y u s e f u l and a t t h e 46 same t i m e p r o v i d i n g a s o c i a l b a s e and o f f e r i n g p e o p l e a new s e n s e o f community. From t h e v e r y s t a r t t h e u r b a n commune f o u n d i t s e l f f a c i n g a number o f p r o b l e m s from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f u s i o n t o e c o n o m i c i n e f f i c i e n c y o f s t r e e t i n d u s t r i e s . ( O r l e a n s , 1972, p. 65) A n a l y z i n g t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n y e a r s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and p o l i t i c s i n C h i n a , Shurmann adds e x t e n s i v e l y t o t h e u r b a n commune e x p e r i m e n t and summarizes i t : "The u r b a n communes o f 195 8 l a c k e d an a d e q u a t e e c o n o m i c b a s e . The C h i n e s e Communists were aware o f t h i s and s o u g h t t o u s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l methods t o make up f o r m a t e r i a l weakness, i n s h o r t , t o use human l a b o r as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r m a t e r i a l c a p i t a l . However, t o make o r g a n i z a t i o n c i w o r k , t h e y f e l t i t had t o be t u r n e d i n t o community. The e x p e r i m e n t o f t h e u r b a n communes s o u g h t t o c r e a t e community. I t f a i l e d b e c a u s e any a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e com-m u n i t y b y f o r c e i s doomed.- The more an ex-t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l g r o u p t r i e s t o impose communal o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e human r e s i s t a n c e t o i t . " (Shurmann, 1966, p. 402) A l t h o u g h t h e u r b a n commune was q u i c k l y abandoned t h e t h r u s t o f C h i n e s e u r b a n p l a n n i n g s i n c e t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d p e r i o d h a s b e e n c o n t i n u a l l y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e d e s i g n o f n e i g h b o r h o o d s f o r p r o m o t i o n o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r -a c t i o n . T h i s s t i l l e v o l v i n g and a p p a r e n t l y e f f e c t i v e u r b a n n e i g h b o r h o o d model i s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r V.. A l t h o u g h f l u c t u a t i n g as C h i n a ' s p o l i c i e s a l t e r e d , one major program o f t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d has b e e n r e t a i n e d and t h a t i s t h e movement o f p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y e d u c a t e d y o u t h , t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n c h a p t e r I I . The f a i l u r e o f t h e u r b a n commune was c o u p l e d w i t h a more s e v e r e p r o b l e m . The G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d i t s e l f was n o t a r e s o u n d i n g s u c c e s s . The i n t e r n a l c r i s i s w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h i s f a i l u r e was added t o b y e n s u i n g n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s a l l o f w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a c o m p l e t e r e v i s i o n o f C h i n a ' s e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s , r e v i s i o n s w h i c h were p r o f o u n d l y f e l t i n t h e c i t i e s Sb.hur.mann w r i t e s o f t h e c i t i e s i n t h e e a r l y 1960s: "The f a i l u r e o f t h e u r b a n communes and t h e e c o n o m i c c r i s i s o f 1960-61 l e f t them ( t h e C h i n e s e ) w i t h t h e same two dilemmas t h e y had f a c e d when t h e y e n t e r e d t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d . S i n c e e a r l y 1961, P e k i n g has shown t h a t i t r e g a r d s t h e e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m as p r i m a r y ; t o r e s o l v e i t , i t has r e t u r n e d t o a p o l i c y o f o f f e r i n g m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s . I t has a l s o a c c e p t e d t h e f a c t t h a t l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s h a d t o be i m p r o v e d , t h o u g h t h e c u l t o f a u s t e r i t y s t i l l r e m a i n s . The C h i n e s e Communist l e a d e r s have r e a l i z e d t h a t e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n g e n e r a l , and r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r u r b a n p r o b l e m i n p a r -t i c u l a r , c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d by p o l i t i c a l -o r g a n i z a t i o n a l means a l o n e . T h e y have r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e must be some s e l f -m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e p r o d u c e r s . To t h i s end, t h e y have a l l o w e d t h e m arket t o o p e r a t e a g a i n a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s o f t h e economy." (Schurmann, 1966, p. 403) Schurmann c o n t i n u e s and s t a t e s t h a t few a t t e m p t s were made i n t h e e a r l y 1960s t o change t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c i t y : "One c a n presume t h a t as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t s have d i m i n i s h e d , t h e c o n t r o l f a c t o r h a s become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t . B u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e p o l i c e , p l a y s a much g r e a t e r r o l e t h a n i t d i d d u r i n g t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b a s i c - l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may s l o w l y be r e a s s u m i n g t h e f o r m s o f t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 s . . . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e C h i n e s e Communists have c r e a t e d e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r g o v e r n i n g C h i n a ' s c i t i e s . T h e y have 48 y e t t o c r e a t e e f f e c t i v e e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u -t i o n s t o r e s o l v e t h e dilemma o f p o p u l a t i o n , and e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o r e -s o l v e t h e dilemma o f community. N e i t h e r o f t h e s e dilemmas w i l l be r e s o l v e d u n l e s s P e k i n g a l l o w s t r u e g r o w t h 'from t h e bottom up', as w e l l as g r o w t h 'from t h e t o p down'." (Schurmann, 1966, p. 403) P o l i t i c a l l y t h i s p e r i o d o f t h e e a r l y 1960's t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n 1966 was r e t r o -g r e s s i v e . The s t r o n g m o r a l f l a v o u r o f t h e 1950's, t h e p e r i o d o f m o r a l i n c e n t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n p h y s i c a l c o e r c i o n and e c o n o m i c i n c e n t i v e s was o v e r t a k e n by "new p o l i c i e s w h i c h p r o m o t e d wage i n c e n t i v e s i n t h e B u k h a v i n i s t mould -e x t r a pay f o r f a c t o r y and commune management, f o r t e c h n i -c i a n s , and o v e r t i m e b o n u s e s . Accompanying t h e s e c h a n g e s was a r e t r e n c h m e n t o f c e n t r a l power o v e r p r o d u c t i o n , and a l s o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r o l e i n t h e market f o r c e s i n i n -d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e " . ( K i r b y , p. 142) D e s p i t e numerous changes i n d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y , a g r i -c u l t u r e has r e m a i n e d t h e b a s i s f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1960 and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s . A g r i c u l t u r e i s s t i l l s e e n as t h e b a s i s f o r p r o d u c i n g s u r p l u s e s w h i c h i n t u r n c a n be u s e d t o f i n a n c e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . T h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a g r i c u l t u r e t o t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e M a o i s t s l o g a n " t a k e a g r i -c u l t u r e as t h e b a s e and i n d u s t r y as t h e l e a d i n g s e c t o r " . U n assuming t h o u g h i t may a p p e a r t o be, t h i s s t a t e m e n t s y m b o l i z e s C h i n a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y and s t r e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f C h i n a ' s c i t i e s t o i t s n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 49 " T h i s has meant t h e somewhat b e l a t e d , taut r a t i o n a l , d i v e r s i o n o f s c a r c e i n v e s t m e n t f u n d s from i n d u s t r y t o a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e r e p l a n n i n g o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r t o g i v e more p r o m i -n e n c e t o p r o d u c t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r s , pumps, and a g r i c u l t u r a l e q u i p m e n t and m a c h i n e r y . I t h a s a l s o f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e d t h e c h i e f r o l e o f c i t i e s , s t i l l t h e major b a s e s , as s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . " (Murphey, 1976, p. 317) T h i s was f u r t h e r d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e S o v i e t a p p r o a c h . An a n t i - u r b a n b i a s was b u i l t i n C h i n a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o l i c i e s b a s e d on t h e v i e w t h a t c i t i e s a r e c o r r u p t i n g and d e h u m a n i z i n g . C h i n a r e s o l v e d , n o t o n l y t o t i e t h e c i t i e s e c o n o m i c a l l y t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , b u t t o a v o i d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new m e t r o -p o l i t a n a r e a s . Any i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d have t o be a b s o r b e d by t h e r u r a l a r e a s and by t h e s m a l l e r c e n t r e s . The p e r i o d 1960 t o 1964, known as t h e New E c o n o m i c P o l i c y , w i t n e s s e d , t o t h e accompaniment o f " t h e g r o w t h o f a p r i v i l e g e d s t r a t u m o f f a c t o r y managers and t e c h n o c r a t s , c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e P a r t y c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e s " , t h e r e e m e r g e n c e o f " e x p e r t n e s s " as o p p o s e d t o " r e d n e s s " . ( W h e e l w r i g h t and M c F a r l a n e , p. 114-115) T h i s t y p e o f i s s u e was t o come t o t h e f o r e d u r i n g t h e t h r e e y e a r C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n ( 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 6 9 ) . The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n The G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n was a t i m e o f m a s s i v e p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l , a p e r i o d o f t i m e w h i c h saw p r o f o u n d a s s e s s m e n t o f b o t h s o c i a l i s t m e t h o d o l o g y and s o c i a l i s t g o a l s . T h e r e was i n e s s e n c e , a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n 50 two f a c t i o n s i n t h e C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y , between t h e f o r c e s and i d e o l o g y r e p r e s e n t e d by Mao, t h e c r e a t o r o f t h e C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n , and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a g m a t i s t s managing t h e c o u n t r y , t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d by L i u S h a o - C h i . E d g a r Snow w r i t e s o f t h e L i u g r o u p : "They t e n d e d t o p u t e c o n o m i c s b e f o r e man, e n c o u r a g e e f f o r t b y m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s f i r s t and z e a l s e c o n d , p u s h p r o d u c t i o n w i t h o u t c l a s s s t r u g g l e , b o o s t t e c h n o l o g y b y r e l y i n g on ' e x p e r t s ' , p u t e c o n o m i c s i n command o f p o l i t i c s t o s e r v e t e c h n o -l o g y , and f a v o r t h e c i t y o v e r t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e . " (Snow, p. 16) The a d h e r e n t s o f L i u S h a o - C h i ' s l i n e were a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s t r o y t h e few s u c c e s s e s o f t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d , t h a t i s t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c h a n g e s w h i c h had a c t u a l l y b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n was t o be an o f f e n s i v e t o r e s t o r e t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y z e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f C h i n a i n t h e 1950's. "The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n p o s e d a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e immemorial d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r and, n o t a b l y , t o t h e d i v i s i o n between town and c o u n t r y s i d e , t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h e d i v i s i o n s b e t w e e n s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h u s r e p r e s e n t s an i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e t h e e f f e c t s o f w h i c h b e a r b o t h on t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e and on t h e s u p e r -s t r u c t u r e , d e s t r o y i n g t h e o l d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and g i v i n g r i s e t o new o n e s . " ( B e t t e l h e i m , p. 8-9) One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f orms o f s t r u g g l e t h a t emerged d u r i n g t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f p l a n n i n g , was t h a t o f " a r e a " v e r s u s " l i n e " . L i u S h a o - c h i was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e r e v i s i o n i s t s , t h a t i s 51 S o v i e t o r i e n t e d e c o n o m i s t s who had o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d t h e im-p o r t a n c e o f t h e " l i n e " t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e r e g i o n a l o r " a r e a " n e e d s . The c o r r e c t s t r a t e g y f o r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment, a c c o r d i n g t o Mao and h i s f o l l o w e r s , was a r e a - o r i e n t e d . "To g e n e r a l i z e , t h i s means t h a t t h e p o l i c y s o u g h t i s one w h i c h s t r i v e s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e sum o f t h e s p e c i f i c n eeds o f i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s and t h e s p e c i f i c n eeds o f a r e a s . " ( K i r b y , p . 142) " F o r m e r l y a l l t h e l a r g e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e n t e r p r i s e s were d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by m i n i s t r i e s a t t h e c e n t r e . The e n t e r p r i s e r e c e i v e d i t s p l a n o f p r o d u c t i o n and i t s a l l o c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s from t h e m i n i s t r y c o n c e r n e d . A t an e a r l y s t a g e , t h i s may have b e e n n e c e s s a r y , b u t as t h e i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e g a i n e d e x p e r i e n c e , i t became, a g r e a t n u i s a n c e . . . T h i s i s now c a l l e d t h e ' t y r a n n y o f t h e l i n e ' . Under t h e new s y s t e m , ( s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n ) p r o d u c t i o n p l a n s a r e made i n terms o f a r e a s . E a c h o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e s f o r m e r l y u n d e r c e n t r a l c o n t r o l has b e e n g i v e n t o t h e p r o v i n c e where i t i s s i t u a t e d . T h e i r o u t p u t and r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e now i n c l u d e d i n t h e l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l p lan...some e n t e r p r i s e s f o r m e r l y i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s p h e r e have b e e n p u t u nder d i s t r i c t o r c o u n t y p l a n n i n g . . . " ( R o b i n s o n , p. 19-20) A c t u a l l y b o t h " a r e a " and " l i n e " t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t b r i n g i n g b o t h i n t o d e c i s i o n making r o l e s . One i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t o f t h i s d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h a t i t has a l t e r e d t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e members o f any g i v e n p r o d u c -t i o n u n i t . P r e v i o u s l y t h r o u g h t h e l i n e c o n c e p t p r o d u c t i o n t a r g e t s w o u l d be t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e d i s c u s s e d b y t h e f a c t o r y , i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g n a t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s and a p p r o -p r i a t e i n t e r m e d i a r i e s . When c o n s u l t a t i o n s and m a t t e r s o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o a l o w e r l e v e l i n t h e h i e r -52 a r c h y s u c h as a c i t y o r a c i t y d e p a r t m e n t , o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a r e more e a s i l y c o n s i d e r e d . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e t h e l i n e a p p r o a c h i s more l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e l a r g e r p r o d u c e r u n i t s s e r v i n g a l a r g e r r e g i o n , t h e a r e a c o n c e p t i n p l a n n i n g , p o t e n t i a l l y c a n g i v e r i s e t o s m a l l e r p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s s e r v -i n g a s m a l l e r a r e a and t h e r e b y r e s u l t i n g i n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . The t r u e p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s u c h a p r o c e s s becomes a p p a r e n t when c o n s i d e r e d w i t h o t h e r p o l i t i c a l c o n c e p t s g u i d i n g u r b a n and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . C o u p l e d w i t h s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y t h e a r e a a p p r o a c h c o u l d r e s u l t i n a l a r g e number o f s m a l l p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s s e r v i n g a w h o l e r e g i o n t h u s h a v i n g a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on a r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t -work. M o r e o v e r , t h e s h i f t i n e m p h a s i s from l i n e t o a r e a c a n be a p p l i e d t o a r e a s o f s o c i e t y o t h e r t h a n i n d u s t r y . (Schenk, 1974, p. 383) F u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e s i n t h e f o r m a l e c o n o m i c and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g n e t w o r k s were n o t made d u r i n g t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . The most s i g n i f i c a n t change came w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s , composed o f a " t h r e e - i n - o n e " c o m b i -n a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e masses, t h e army, and r e v o -l u t i o n a r y c a d r e s . Committees were e v e n t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t a l l l e v e l s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y f r o m t h e p r o v -i n c e s down t o t h e p r e f e c t u r e s , t h e c o u n t i e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and i n t o t h e communes, as w e l l as t h e d i s t r i c t s and n e i g h b o r -hoods o f t h e c i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . A t t h e f a c t o r y l e v e l what t h i s t y p e o f change meant 53 was t h a t , i n s t e a d o f f a c t o r y managers c o n s u l t i n g w i t h p r o -v i n c i a l b u r e a u s , r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s were now s e n t f r o m t h e f a c t o r y t o c o n s u l t w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l o r p r o v i n c i a l government and i t s v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . I t was d u r i n g t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h a t s t r e e t r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e c i t i e s t o c o n d u c t r e s i d e n t i a l mass c r i t i c i s m ; r , ; m e e t i n g s . Many o f t h e e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s ' c o m m i t t e e s were t a k e n o v e r and s t u d y c o u r s e s s e t up f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . T h e r e were u n d o u b t e d l y e x c e s s e s d u r i n g t h i s c a mpaign, b u t i t was f r o m t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f g r a s s - r o o t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l has b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d and c o n t i n u o u s . The r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s t o d a y " p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n i n t e g r a t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d s i n t o a common p o l i t i c a l o u t l o o k and m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e b e h a v i o r " . (Sawers, p. 45) The e f f e c t o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n on c i t y p l a n n i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e c i t y o f Ch'ang Ch'un i n C h i n a ' s n o r t h e a s t . D u r i n g t h e a u t h o r ' s v i s i t t h e r e , a d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t c i t y p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l and t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r t o o k p l a c e w i t h a s m a l l g r o u p o f C h i n e s e p l a n n e r s . Mao, t h e y s a i d , had e n -c o u r a g e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e masses. The p e o p l e were t o be r e l i e d upon i n p l a n n i n g and managing t h e c i t y . How-e v e r , b e f o r e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h e p l a n n e r s had " c l o s e d d o o r s " . T h ey were d i v o r c e d from p r a c t i c e , t h e masses, and r e a l i t y . P l a n n i n g was o f t e n u n p r e d i c t a b l e . " P l a n n i n g , 54 p l a n n i n g , p l a n n i n g , t h e y a r e d r a w i n g s on p a p e r . When t h e y ' r e c o m p l e t e d t h e y hang on t h e w a l l s . " The p l a n n e r s r e c o u n t e d how Mao had t o l d t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e t h a t t h e c i t i e s now b e -l o n g e d t o them and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e c i t i e s s h o u l d be managed by p e o p l e i n t h o s e c i t i e s . P l a n n e r s however had become e x p e r t s and c l o s e d t h e i r d o o r s t o t h e p e o p l e . Now, a f t e r t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h e y were r e l y i n g on t h e masses i n p l a n n i n g and managing t h e c i t y . To a v o i d b e i n g d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e masses, t h e Ch'ang Ch'un p l a n n e r s a c t u a l l y worked on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , roadways and gas p i p e l i n e s w h i c h t h e y had h e l p e d d e s i g n . " C l o s e d d o o r " p l a n n i n g , t h e r e v i s i o n i s t l i n e , had b e e n r e p l a c e d b y "open d o o r " p l a n n i n g , Mao's r e v o l u t i o n a r y l i n e . The f o r m a l p l a n n i n g s y s t e m ap-p a r e n t l y r e m a i n e d i n t a c t . ( D i s c u s s i o n w i t h Ch'ang Ch'un p l a n n e r s , J u l y , 1976) The r e a l change i n t h e s y s t e m o f p l a n n i n g w r o u g h t by t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n r e s t e d i n m o t i -v a t i o n , n o t i n t h e f o r m a l s y s t e m . ( W h e e l w r i g h t and M c F a r l a n e , p. 141) The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n r e a p p r a i s e d c i t y l i v i n g as i t d i d most o t h e r a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n C h i n a and b r o u g h t d r a m a t i c change i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C h i n a ' s u r b a n a r e a s . I t i s now d e s i r e d t h a t u r b a n a r e a s w h i c h a r e becoming p r i m a r i l y s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e . C o n t i n u e d u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w i l l be a c c o m p a n i e d by r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . C i t y f a c t o r i e s a r e now e n -c o u r a g e d t o engage i n a g r i c u l t u r e w h i l e r u r a l communes a r e d e v e l o p i n g s m a l l m a c h i n e - t o o l i n d u s t r i e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e 55 o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y t o u r b a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g i s a l m o s t o b v i o u s . T h e r e w i l l be a l e s s e n i n g o f p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l d e p endence by t h e c o u n t r y s i d e on t h e c i t y . Some n a r r o w i n g o f t h e c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l gap bet w e e n c i t y and c o u n t r y s h o u l d o c c u r . The c i t y , s t r u c t u r e d t o s o c i a l i z e and p o l i t i c i z e i t s own c i t i z e n s and t o s e r v e t h e c o u n t r y s i d e as w e l l , s h o u l d no l o n g e r c o n s t i t u t e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and b u r e a u c r a t i c e l i t e d i v o r c e d f r o m b u t c o n t r o l l i n g p l a n n i n g , p r o d u c t i o n and t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . What has o c c u r r e d i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g and u r b a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l Revo-l u t i o n i s t h a t t h e C h i n e s e a r e p r a c t i c i n g what t h e i r p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y p r e a c h e s . M o r e o v e r t h e c o n c e p t o f i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g and i m p r o v i n g l i f e g e n e r a l l y i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e s h o u l d n o t be v i e w e d as t h e c o u n t r y s i d e now d o m i n a t i n g t h e c i t y . I n r e a l i t y t h e e f f o r t s a r e b e i n g made t o i n t e g r a t e t h e two. The program o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s one t h a t g u i d e s p l a n n i n g i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l c i t y . Thus e a c h community a d a p t s t o p o l i t i c a l and d e v e l o p -m e n t a l c o n c e p t s t o meet i t s own n e e d s and p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n c o n f o r m i n g and b e i n g s u b j u g a t e d t o a n a t i o n a l norm. C h i n a has assumed t h e t a s k o f s o l v i n g t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e . A c c e p t i n g t h i s as a major p o l i t i c a l g o a l h as meant t h a t a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f C h i n e s e p o l i c y s i n c e 1957 has b e e n t o a l t e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l a r g e b u r e a u c r a t i c i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s and t o i n t e g r a t e t h e c i t i e s i n t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . The t e n s i o n between c i t y and c o u n t r y i s v i e w e d as a " p r i m a r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i -56 z a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e " . The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n has b e e n a m ajor e v e n t i n C h i n a ' s s h o r t s o c i a l i s t h i s t o r y and has p l a y e d a major r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s " i n w h i c h t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f u r b a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s was c h a l l e n g e d and s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r -g a n i z a t i o n made t o t a k e on a new form c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a f u n d a m e n t a l e c o n o m i c aim o f r e l e a s i n g t h e c o u n t r y f r o m t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e towns". ( H a r v e y , p. 236-237) Summary Mao T s e - t u n g ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y and t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a d a p t t h i s s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y t o t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n from t h e i r e r r o r s , has l e d t h a t n a t i o n a l o n g a p a t h d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t w h i c h o t h e r s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s have f o l l o w e d . P o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e l e d by Mao t o p r e -v e n t C h i n a f r o m r e s o r t i n g t o c a p i t a l i s t ways and t o d i r e c t n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n g b o t h e c o n o m i c ( " l i n e " ) and s p a t i a l ("area") p a t h s w i l l e n s u r e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between u r b a n and r u r a l w i l l e v e n t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r . The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n r e a s s e r t e d t h e n e e d s o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r and p l a c e d b a l a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t b e f o r e t h e i mmediate e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s o f r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n . The e x i s t e n c e o f a m u l t i t u d e o f s m a l l c e n t r e s as d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r s one and two p r o v i d e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g nodes o f d e v e l o p m e n t t o r e c e i v e t h e t e c h n o -l o g y and knowledge b e i n g d e c e n t r a l i z e d o r d i f f u s e d f r o m l a r g e r e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e s t h u s e n s u r i n g t h a t n a t i o n a l e c o -nomic w e a l t h w i l l be d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n . 57 CHAPTER IV URBAN AND ECONOMIC PLANNING POLICIES I n t r o d u c t i o n I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t u r b a n and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t h e major components o f a n a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y d e s i g n e d t o p e r m a n e n t l y a l t e r t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p o f t h e c i t y t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e and t o t h e n a t i o n as a w h o l e . P o l i c i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i -z a t i o n , c o n t r o l l e d c i t y g r o w t h , r e g i o n a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e and o t h e r s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as t h e means b y w h i c h t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c i s e r a d i c a t i n g r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e and e l i m i n a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b etween c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e . T h i s w i l l be a c -c o m p l i s h e d b y e x p l a i n i n g t h e d u a l s y s t e m o f c i t i e s a s i n t r o -d u c e d i n c h a p t e r one and by e l a b o r a t i n g upon t h e r o l e t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s e t t l e m e n t s i n C h i n a ' s s y s t e m o f c i t i e s a r e p l a y i n g i n r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t and i n t h e d i f f u s i o n o f knowledge and t e c h n o l o g y . U r b a n and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s a r e g u i d e d b y t h e u n d e r l y i n g p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . E f f o r t s t o R e d r e s s R e g i o n a l I m b a l a n c e and E x p l o i t a t i o n The C h i n e s e a r e c o n s c i o u s l y a v o i d i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e g l o b e ; t h a t i s , t h e s w e l l i n g o f m a s s i v e u r b a n c o n g l o m e r a t i o n s and t h e i r a t t e n d a n t p r o b l e m s and t h e 58 p a t t e r n o f r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e i n e c o n o m i c g r o w t h . C h i n a ' s c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l i c i e s f o r s a k i n g t h i s p r o c e s s a r e b a s e d on i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , on r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , on c o n t r o l l e d c i t y g r o w t h , on d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i a l -i z a t i o n , and on r e g i o n a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e b o t h i n i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e . Rhoads Murphey d e s c r i b e s t h e a p p r o a c h as b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y t h r e e f o l d : " ( 1 ) l i m i t t h e g r o w t h o f t h e e x i s t i n g b i g c i t i e s and, a t t h e same t i m e , change t h e i r n a t u r e by p u r g i n g them o f t h e s e l f i s h e l i t i s m and b o u r g e o i s a t t i t u d e s w h i c h t h e y b r e e d as w e l l as a t t a c k i n g o v e r c r o w d i n g , a l i e n a t i o n , e x p l o i t a t i o n , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n t h r o u g h new p l a n n i n g and c o n -t r o l s , (2) a l l o c a t e new u r b a n and i n d u s t r i a l i n -v e s t m e n t p r i m a r i l y t o p r e v i o u s l y n e g l e c t e d o r u n d e r d e v e l o p e d p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y i n c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f p e o p l e and r e s o u r c e s , and (3) f o s t e r r e g i o n a l and l o c a l s e l f - s u f f i -c i e n c y s o t h a t u r b a n and i n d u s t r i a l f u n c t i o n s n eed n o t be s o h e a v i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a few g i a n t c e n t e r s , b u t c a n be p e r f o r m e d on a s m a l l e r and l e s s p r o b l e m - g e n e r a t i n g s c a l e b y e a c h l o c a l i t y f o r i t s e l f t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l and l o c a l c e n t e r s . " (Murphey, 1975, p. 166) P a r t i a l l y b a s e d on p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t y ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n a d e q u a c i e s and n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e , t h e s e p o l i c i e s i n r e a l i t y a r e f o u n d e d i n s o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y , i n a d e s i r e t o r e d e s i g n an u r b a n and i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m i n a new r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n -t e x t . T h e r e e x i s t s a d e s i r e t o m i n i m i z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tween c i t y and c o u n t r y and most i m p o r t a n t l y t o change t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f e x i s t i n g c i t i e s and t o r i d C h i n e s e s o c i e t y o f t h e p e r c e i v e d r o o t o f t h e p r o b l e m : " t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d 59 e l i t i s m w h i c h t h e s e c i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e i r r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f c o l o n i a l i s m , c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t ! ! , and b o u r g e o i s v a l u e s , f o s t e r " . (Murphey, 1975, p. 166) As Murphey s u g -g e s t s , t h e much s o u g h t - a f t e r g o a l o f c h a n g i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x i s t i n g c i t i e s i s p r o b a b l y t h e most d i f f i c u l t o f a l l . F o r p u r p o s e s h e r e S i g u r d s o n * s c o n c e p t o f i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , a g e n e r i c name f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g i n d u s t r y o u t o f a m e t r o p o l i s t o any o t h e r community, w i l l be u t i l i z e d . "The c h i e f aim o f an i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p o l i c y i s u s u a l l y t o a c h i e v e a s h i f t o f f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h from a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t o s e c o n d a r y u r b a n c e n t r e s . " ( S i g u r d s o n , p. 528) R u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s o f s i g n i -f i c a n c e t o u r b a n p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t n o t o n l y f o r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t b u t b e c a u s e " r u r a l i n d u s t r y p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e c o u n t r y s i d e and c o n t r i b u t e s c o n s i d e r a b l y t o r e c t i f y i n g t h e i m b a l a n c e between u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s " . ( S i g u r d s o n , p. 527) E f f o r t s t o d e c e n t r a l i z e i n d u s t r y and i t s r e l a t e d c o n -c e n t r a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t i n a t w o - f o l d manner. F i r s t , i s t h a t a t t e m p t s a r e b e i n g made t o d i v e r s i f y and s t r e n g t h e n t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e and t o i n c r e a s e t h e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o f e x i s t i n g c i t i e s t h r o u g h t h e a d d i t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d u s t r i e s t o t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e . A t t h e same t i m e e f f o r t s a r e u n d e r way t o d i r e c t g r o w t h geo-g r a p h i c a l l y i n l a n d away from t h e c o a s t t o b o t h new and a l -r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r e s . 60 Mao's 1956 s t a t e m e n t , d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , s h e d s some l i g h t o n t h e c o n c e p t o f i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g t h e i n -t e r i o r o f t h e n a t i o n . As B e r g e r s u g g e s t s , Mao a d o p t e d a d i a l e c t i c a l a p p r o a c h i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c o a s t a l c i t i e s t o t h e i n t e r i o r : " I f we make f u l l use o f t h e c a p a c i t y b o t h i n p l a n t and t e c h n o l o g y o f c o a s t a l i n d u s t r y and d e v e l o p i t p r o p e r l y , t h e n we s h a l l have a l l t h e more s t r e n g t h t o d e v e l o p and m a i n t a i n i n d u s t r y i n t h e i n t e r i o r . " ( B e r g e r , p. 553) I m p l i c i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s t h a t l a r g e - s c a l e c i t i e s were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o be d i s c o u r a g e d b u t t h a t " c o n s t r u c t i o n on a g r a n d s c a l e u nder C h i n a ' s p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s " was i l l - a d v i s e d . The d i s p e r s a l o f i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s was n o t a m a t t e r o f s c a t t e r i n g c i t i e s r a n d o m l y b u t a p o l i c y o f a l l e v i a t i n g and p r e v e n t i n g u r b a n c o n g e s t i o n r a t h e r t h a n p r e c l u d i n g l a r g e - s c a l e c i t i e s f o r e v e r . New and o l d i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s were d i s p e r s e d t o e x i s t i n g c i t i e s where i n d u s t r y was n e g l i g i b l e o r l o c a t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s were f a v o r a b l e . ( T i e n , 1973, p. 70) I n f a c t d u r i n g t h e 1950's i t a p p e a r e d t h a t C h i n a ' s u r b a n p o l i c i e s were d e s i g n e d t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e r a p i d f l o w o f u r b a n -i z a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o p r e v e n t i t , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e now. The need t o d e v e l o p i n d u s t r y was a c c e p t e d b y t h e F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n (1953-57) w i t h a n t i c i p a t e d g r o w t h t o be c h a n n e l e d i n t o m e d i u m - s i z e d c i t i e s i n t h e i n t e r i o r and moderate d e v e l o p m e n t t o o c c u r i n t h e c o a s t a l c e n t r e s . "The a b n o r m a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o u r i n d u s t r y i n a few a r e a s and i n t h e c o a s t a l c i t i e s i s i r r a t i o n a l b o t h f r om t h e e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f v i e w and i n r e s p e c t t o n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e . The g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o u r new i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n must c o n -f o r m t o t h e l o n g - t e r m i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s t a t e , and t a k e a c c o u n t o f c o n d i t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f o u r d e v e l o p m e n t . I t must f o l l o w t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i s t r i b u t i n g o u r i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s o v e r v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , l o c a t i n g i n d u s t r i e s c l o s e t o s o u r c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s and f u e l and a r e a s o f c o n -s u m p t i o n , and c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e need t o s t r e n g t h e n n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e , s o as t o c h a nge g r a d u a l l y t h e i r r a t i o n a l d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y and d e v e l o p t h e economy o f b a c k w a r d a r e a s . I n o r d e r t o change t h e i r r a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , we must b u i l d up new i n d u s t r i a l b a s e s , b u t t h e u t i l i -z a t i o n , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l b a s e s i s a p r e r e -q u i s i t e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new i n d u s t r i a l b a s e s . Whether we a r e r e c o n s t r u c t i n g and e x t e n d i n g e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l b a s e s o r b u i l d i n g new o n e s , we must a v o i d o v e r -c o n s t r u c t i o n ; a s u i t a b l e d i s t a n c e s h o u l d s e p a r a t e e n t e r p r i s e s one f r o m t h e o t h e r . A p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f l a r g e , medium and s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e s . The F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n makes t h e f o l l o w i n g b a s i c a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n : 1 . The i n d u s t r i a l f o u n d a t i o n a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e N o r t h e a s t , i n S h a n g h a i and o t h e r c i t i e s must be r a t i o n a l l y u t i -l i z e d and f u l l use made o f i t i n o r d e r t o a c c e l e r a t e o u r i n d u s t r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . 2 . The b u i l d i n g o f new i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s l i k e t h o s e i n N o r t h , N o r t h e a s t and C e n t r a l C h i n a must be a c t i v e l y p u s h e d ahead so..that two new i n d u s t r i a l b a s e s c e n t e r e d on t h e i n t e g r a t e d i r o n and s t e e l works i n Paotow 62 and Wuhan c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e S e c o n d F i v e - Y e a r P l a n . 3. A s t a r t must be made w i t h p a r t o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s c h e d u l e d f o r S o u t h w e s t C h i n a a l o n g w i t h a c t i v e p r e p a -r a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new i n d u s t r i a l b a s e t h e r e . . . . T h i s w i l l g r e a t l y t r a n s f o r m t h e e c o n o m i c l i f e o f a v a s t a r e a o f our c o u n t r y , and s i n c e ' t h i s new g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i s b a s e d on t h e g r o w t h o f h e a v y i n d u s t r y , i t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y t r a n s -f o r m t h e whole n a t u r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y i n China.,' ...The F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n a l s o makes new and more r a t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f new l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s ( m a i n l y t e x t i l e e n t e r p r i s e s ) . T h i s w i l l t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t remedy t h e f o r m e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l i g h t i n d u s t r y i n t h e c o a s t a l c i t i e s and t r a n s f e r i t t o t h e i n t e r i o r where i t w i l l be n e a r t o s o u r c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s and a r e a s o f c o n s u m p t i o n . To s a t i s f y t h e need s o f t h e i n t e r i o r , g r a d u a l s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n t o move c e r t a i n t r a n s p o r t a b l e i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r -p r i s e s f r o m t h e c o a s t a l c i t i e s t o t h e i n t e r i o r . " ( F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n f o r Development o f t h e N a t i o n a l Economy o f  t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a i n 1953- 1957, pp. 40-42) L . J . Lau has p r o v i d e d s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e s h o w i n g t h e g r o s s v a l u e o f f a c t o r y o u t p u t , g r o s s v a l u e o f i n d u s t r i a l f i x e d a s s e t s , and b a s i c c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v e s t m e n t between i n l a n d and c o a s t a l a r e a s . 63 T a b l e X P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e G r o s s V a l u e o f F a c t o r y O u t p u t a t 1952 P r i c e s and G r o s s V a l u e o f I n d u s t r i a l F i x e d A s s e t s a t  O r i g i n a l C o s t Between I n l a n d and  C o a s t a l A r e a s , 1949-57 ( p e r c e n t ) I n l a n d C o a s t a l Y e a r T o t a l A r e a s A r e a s G r o s s V a l u e o f F a c t o r y O u t p u t a t 1952 P r i c e s ( l ) 1949 100.0 22.7 77.3 1950 1951. 1952 100.0 26.9 73.1 1953 100.0 27.7 72.3 1954 100.OC 30.1 69.9 1955 100.0 32.0 68.0 1956 100.0 32.1 67.9 1957 G r o s s V a l u e o f I n d u s t r i a l F i x e d A s s e t s a t O r i g i n a l C o s t (2) 1953 100.0 . 52.0 48.0 1954 1955 100.0 57.0 43.0 S o u r c e : L a u , L a w r e n c e J . " E c o n o m i c Development and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " . C h i n a : A Handbook. ed. by Y u a n - L i Wu. New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1973, p. 566. N o t e : C o a s t a l a r e a s c o n s i s t o f P e k i n g , T i e n t s i n , S h a n g h a i , H o p e i , L i a o n i n g , S h a n t u n g , K i a n g s u , F u k i e n , Kwangtung, and C h e k i a n g . 64 T a b l e X I P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B a s i c C o n s t r u c t i o n  I n v e s t m e n t i n I n d u s t r y a t C u r r e n t P r i c e s  Between I n l a n d and C o a s t a l A r e a s ,  1950-55 ( p e r c e n t ) I n l a n d C o a s t a l P e r i o d T o t a l A r e a s A r e a s 1950-52 100.0 50.2 49.8 1953-55 1-00.0 55.2 44. 8 1950-55 100.0 54.2 45.8. S o u r c e : L a u , L a w r e n c e J . "Ec o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " . C h i n a : A Handbook. ed. by Y a u n - l i Wu. New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1973", p. 567. The t a b l e s r e v e a l t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v e s t m e n t , v a l u e o f i n d u s t r i a l f i x e d a s s e t s and v a l u e o f f a c t o r y o u t p u t n o t o n l y i n c r e a s e d o v e r t i m e b u t t h a t a l t h o u g h o n l y 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o s s v a l u e o f f a c t o r y o u t p u t was p r o d u c e d i n l a n d , t h i s a r e a owned more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o s s v a l u e o f i n d u s t r i a l a s s e t s and r e c e i v e d more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l b a s i c c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v e s t m e n t i n i n d u s t r y . " T h i s s e r v e s t o r e v e a l t h e p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n l a n d a r e a s as a g a i n s t t h e c o a s t a l a r e a s . " ( p . 566) L a u o f f e r s f o u r r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s t r a t e g y o f d i s p e r s a l : r e d u c e d v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o a t t a c k , r e l o c a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l o f t h e n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n b o r d e r p r o v i n c e s , d i s p e r s a l w o u l d l e a d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l s p i n - o f f , and i t w o u l d be r a t i o n a l when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and c o n s u m e r s . S i n c e 1949 a number o f new c e n t r e s have b e e n e s -65 t a b l i s h e d i n p r e v i o u s l y remote p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y o r i n p r e v i o u s l y u n d e v e l o p e d p r o v i n c i a l towns w h i c h s i n c e t h e n have b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h r i v i n g i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s . I n most i n s t a n c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e newest c i t i e s h as b e e n r e l a t e d t o l o c a l r e s o u r c e s s u c h as i r o n o r e , c o a l o r o i l o r t o r e s o u r c e s w h i c h had l a i n u n t o u c h e d w h i l e g r o w t h was c e n t r e d s o u n e v e n l y i n t h e t r e a t y p o r t s . Sen-dou Chang s e e s 181 u r b a n . u n i t s (1975) f o r m i n g t h e u r b a n s y s t e m i n C h i n a £ t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , s e v e n t y - e i g h t p r e f e c t u r e - l e v e l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and one h u n d r e d h s i e n - l e v e l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . However, o n l y n i n e o f t h e s e v e n t y - e i g h t p r e f e c t u r e - l e v e l c e n t r e s c a n be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g t r u l y new " w i t h no h i s t o r i c a l a n t e c e d e n t as a c o u n t y s e a t o r a r u r a l m a rket town; t h e y e x e m p l i f y t h e l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f new c i t i e s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y C h i n a " . See T a b l e X I I . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 407) Of t h e one h u n d r e d h s i e n - l e v e l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , s e v e n t y - n i n e were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s and t w e l v e market towns p r i o r t o 1949. O n l y n i n e have b e e n n e w l y c r e a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s s i n c e l i b e r a t i o n b u t f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l e i g h t e e n new c e n t r e s t h e i r f o u n d i n g has b e e n r e s o u r c e o r i e n t e d . See T a b l e X I I I . 66 T a b l e X I I  Newly D e v e l o p e d C i t i e s W i t h The  S t a t u s Of P r e f e c t u r e - L e v e l M u n i c i p a l i t y C i t y L o c a t i o n M a j o r F u n c t i o n S h i h t s u i s h a n K a r a m a i S h u a h g y a s h a n Hokang C h i h s i A n t a P i n g t i n g s h a n T u k ' o u Maahshan I n n e r M o n g o l i a S i n k i a n g H e i l u n g k i a n g H e i l u n g k i a n g H e i l u n g k i a n g H e i l u n g k i a n g Honan Szechwan A n h w e i C o a l M i n e O i l F i e l d C o a l M i n e C o a l Mine C o a l M i n e O i l F i e l d C o a l Mine I r o n Ore Mine I r o n Ore M i n e , I r o n and S t e e l I n d u s t r y S o u r c e : Sen-dou Chang. "The C h a n g i n g System o f C h i n e s e C i t i e s " . A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n  G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 66, No. 3, S e p t . 1976, p. 407. T a b l e X I I I  Newly D e v e l o p e d C i t i e s W i t h The S t a t u s Of H s i e n - L e v e l M u n i c i p a l i t y C i t y L o c a t i o n M a j o r F u n c t i o n I c h * u n H e i l u n g k i a n g Lumber I n d u s t r y C h i t a i h o H e i l u n g k i a n g C o a l M i n e H u n g c h i a n g K i r i n C o a l Mine C h i a o t s o - Honan C o a l M i n e • S a n m e n h s i a Honan H y d r o e l e c t r i c i t y E r h l i e n I n n e r M o n g o l i a R a i l r o a d T e r m i n a l Haipowan I n n e r M o n g o l i a C o a l Mine Wuta -Inner M o n g o l i a C o a l Mine L e n g s h u i c h i a n g Hunan I r o n Ore M i n e S o u r c e : Sen-dou Chang. "The C h a n g i n g S y s t e m o f C h i n e s e C i t i e s " . A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 66, No. 3, S e p t . 1976, p. 407. Paotow i s an e x c e l l e n t example o f how new p o l i c i e s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n t e r i o r a r e w o r k i n g : 67 " I n 1938 t h e c i t y had o n l y 55,536 p e o p l e and was p r i n c i p a l l y a c o l l e c t i n g c e n t e r f o r l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s ( e s p e c i a l l y w o o l ) f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e s o f n o r t h w e s t C h i n a . P a r t o f t h e f o o d s t u f f s p r o d u c e d i n t h e a d j a c e n t i r r i g a t i o n a r e a s were a l s o c h a n -n e l e d t h r o u g h i t . T oday, Paotow i s a hugh u r b a n c e n t e r t e e m i n g w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y a m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s and i s t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t s t e e l p r o d u c e r i n C h i n a , r a n k i n g n e x t a f t e r - A n s h a n and Wuhan." (Chenge'Siang Chen, p. 69) The c i t y o f Lanchow has d e v e l o p e d i n a s i m i l a r manner and i s a l s o an e x c e l l e n t example o f t h e e f f e c t t h e e x p a n d i n g n a t i o n a l n e t w o r k o f r a i l w a y s and h i g h w a y s has had on a number o f c o m m u n i t i e s . I t has r i s e n i n p o p u l a t i o n f r o m 80,000 p e o p l e i n 1942 t o 1.2 m i l l i o n t o d a y i n t h e a c t u a l u r b a n a r e a and 2 m i l l i o n i n t h e e n t i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a o f t h e c i t y . Lanchow's g r o w t h i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n between i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I t i s t h e c o n v e r g i n g p o i n t f o r f o u r r a i l w a y s and s e v e r a l h i ghways and i s t h e l o c a t i o n f o r a number o f i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d i n g o i l r e f i n e r i e s , , . r u b b e r , aluminum, and c h e m i c a l s . ( C h e n g - S i a n g Chen, p. 69) Modern t r a n s p o r t has u n d o u b t e d l y p l a y e d a s t r o n g r o l e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n by t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l c i t i e s as " d e v e l o p m e n t p o l e s " f o r r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment. The p r e v i o u s s y s t e m o f " e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i v e r e g i o n s " was r e p l a c e d a f t e r t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n when t h i s " s u p r a -p r o v i n c i a l s y s t e m o f e c o n o m i c r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n e d a f t e r t h e S o v i e t model, l o s t i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e wake o f t h e c a m p a i g n f o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y a t a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s " . I n 1958 s e v e n " e c o n o m i c c o -68 o p e r a t i v e r e g i o n s " had been i m p l e m e n t e d , e a c h c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e o r f o u r p r o v i n c e s " a s a r a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c r e g i o n a l -i z a t i o n t o s t i m u l a t e r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t o promote s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y " . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p . 403) The enhancement o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l c i t i e s ' l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e t h r o u g h modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n h a s b e e n c o u p l e d w i t h a r e c e n t p o l i c y o f p l a c i n g an e m p h a s i s on t h e c r e a t i o n o f a complex o f modern i n d u s t r i e s i n e a c h p r o v i n c e " i n c l u d i n g i r o n and s t e e l , h e a v y m a c h i n e r y , motor v e h i c l e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l m a c h i n e r y , and modern t e x t i l e s " . The c o n c e p t p f e s t a b l i s h i n g a modern s e c t o r o f h e a v y i n d u s t r y i n e a c h c o o p e r a t i v e r e g i o n has t h u s b e e n r e p l a c e d by p o l i c i e s a l l o c a t i n g c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t t o e a c h c a p i t a l c i t y w h i c h has a " b e t t e r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r i n d u s t r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and commands n o d a l i t y i n b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l and modern t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m s " . E f f e c t s o f t h i s t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t on e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s has b e e n c o m p i l e d b y Sen-dou Chang i n an a n a l y s i s o f p r i m a t e c i t i e s . i 69 T a b l e XIV P r i m a c y and Growth o f t h e C a p i t a l C i t i e s  i n P r o v i n c e s and Autonomous R e g i o n s i n C h i n a P o p u l a t i o n o f C a p i t a l C i t y i n 1,000's P r i m a c y P r o v i n c i a l C a p i t a l I n d e x % U n i t C i t y i n 1970 1953 1970 I n c r e a s e Kansu L a n c h o u 19.33 397 1 ,450 265.24 C h i n g h a i H s i n i n g 16.67 94 500 431.91 Yunnan Kiunmung ^  Wuhan 14.67 699 1,100 57.37 H u p e i 12.80 1 ,427 2,560 79.40 Kwangtung C a n t o n 8.33 1 ,599 2,500 56.35 S h e n s i S i a n 8.00 787 1 ,600 103.30 N i n g h s i a Y i n c h i u a n 6.67 84 240 185.71 S i n k i a n g U r u m c h i 6.67 141 500 254.61 C h e k i a n g Hangchou 4.80 697 960 37.73 F u k i e n F u c h o u 3.40 533 680 22.97 -K i a n g s i N a n c h i a n g 3.35 398 675 69.60 Kweichow Kweiyang 3 .30 271 660 143.54 Hunan C h i a n g s h a 2.75 651 825 26.73 K i a n g s u N a n k i n g 2.39 1 ,092 1 ,750 60.26 H e i l u n g k i a n g H a r b i n 2.19 1 ,163 1,670 43.59 S h a n s i T a i y u a n 2.08 721 1,350 87.24 Kwangsi N a n n i n g 1 . 83 195 550 182.05 Honan Chengchou 1 .81 595 1 ,050 76.47 L i a o n i n g Shenyang 1 .07 2,300 2,800 21 .74 K i r i n Ch* a ngchun 1 .06 855 1 ,200 40.35 Anhwei H o f e i 1 .05 184 630 292.39 S h a n t u n g C h i n a n 0.85 - 680 1 ,100 61 .76 H o p e i S h i h c h i a c h u a n g 0.83 373 800 114.47 I n n e r M o n g o l i a Huhchot 0.57 148 530 258.11 Szechwan C h ' e n g t u 0.50 857 1,250 45.86 S o u r c e : Sen-dou Chang. "The C h a n g i n g - S y s t e m o f C h i n e s e C i t i e s " . A n n a l s o f " t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 66, No. 3, S e p t . 1976, p. 402. N o t e : S t a t i s t i c s have b e e n c o m p i l e d f r o m a number o f d i f -f e r e n t s o u r c e s . N o t e : P r i m a c y i n d e x i s d e f i n e d as t h e r a t i o b e tween t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r i m a t e o r l a r g e s t c i t y and t h a t o f t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t c i t y . A l t h o u ghr.no t a p p a r e n t i n t h e t a b l e , Sen-dou Chang n o t e s t h a t i n t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y w e l l - d e v e l o p e d p r o v i n c e s p r i m a c y has 70 d e c l i n e d s i n c e l i b e r a t i o n b u t i n c r e a s e d i n t h e l e s s d e v e l o p e d p r o v i n c e s . R e g i o n a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e programs have p r o b a b l y n o t been a b l e t o s u p p o r t s u c h l a r g e c a p i t a l c i t i e s i n t h e b o r d e r p r o v i n c e s u n a i d e d . A s s i s t a n c e , i n t h e form o f c a p i t a l and t e c h n o l o g y t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r a l government, t o t h e s e p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s h as p r o b a b l y b een more i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e i r g r o w t h t h a n e f f o r t s t o w a r d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . The e f f e c t s o f b o t h t h e e a s t w a r d i n l a n d movement o f i n d u s t r y and e f f o r t s t o d e c e n t r a l i z e i n d u s t r y on t h e s y s t e m o f C h i n e s e c i t i e s i s p e r h a p s b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d c a r t o g r a p h i -c a l l y . ( R e f e r t o f o l l o w i n g maps) D u a l S y s t e m o f C i t i e s As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r C h i n a has a d u a l s y s t e m o f c i t i e s . Below t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s a r e t h o s e u r b a n a r e a s , p r e f e c t u r a l and h s i e n c i t i e s , w h i c h have t h e g r e a t e s t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r u r a l a r e a s . P r e f e c t u r a l c i t i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y , a r e an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l b etween p r o v i n c i a l and c o u n t y ( h s i e n ) a u t h o r i t y and s e r v e as t h e s o u r c e i n t h e " t r i c k l i n g down p r o c e s s o f i n n o -v a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y f r o m l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s and p r o -v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s " . I t i s u s u a l l y i n t o t h e s e c e n t r e s t h a t h e a v y i n d u s t r y and a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g y have f i r s t b e e n i n t r o -d u c e d as a measure t o b o l s t e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l h i n t e r l a n d . " T h r e e o u t o f f o u r i r o n and s t e e l p l a n t s i n Honan...are l o c a t e d i n t h e t h r e e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t i e s . Among t h e t h i r t e e n c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s i n C h e k i a n g , f o u r a r e i n t h e c a p i t a l c i t y o f Hangchou, s e v e n i n t h e f o u r p r e f e c t u r a l 71 Map I C I H P B nf C h i n a . 1 9 5 3 S o u r c e : C h e n g - S i a n g Chen. " P o p u l a t i o n Growth and U r b a n i z a t i o n i n C h i n a 1953-1970". The G e o g r a p h i c a l R eview. V o l . 61, No. 1, J a n . 1973, pp. 66-67. 72 Map I I C i t i e s of China, 1970 POPULATION 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 2 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 © 5 0 0 . 0 U 0 o 2 5 0 . 0 0 0 • 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 . 1 0 0 Ktlomijitfr:, 6 0 0 8 0 U .Shwa»KliaOy^. Changchu . . K'tingcliiiling^ jQ J Huhehoi T»L"l"«.:''«\-;;.„h»v.>A\",'y'' _ jKU8h'unTVn«h" >I'enki '/ •v r . - . / / ® ( . © A n s h a n / X / .I'twlillK L .;" TmnKj±uil S _ \ ^ O>efo° 7!^ ' 7"l \/ • — y * _ l i . ..-lUnun.-r ,'QB'Tsinan .Sa. . . . ,„ i&o .n.iiiii-hih. Xsinwn,. \ /, y B L 1 ' ..oyaOK " V * _/Mi«H|tlio. _ / ... o T n i n K l U ' i n i ; N . n y , „ , f " ^ * i ^ T ••-4" 3*dSPi, V • ^t.if°f^a»^'' F A S T Wuhan_ •-. TunilinsT VyS^!^rKi8> f ' n * x <k -s- >«BW!fJ. *"*° hJ h/ Hanechow/TTo.. ' • h.nit\_>?V,\ J W J ' W V - •' / S ! u i o h m l ! K iukioji! vi .% • • •'Si^n h^tOChowV ^ SOUTH CHINA SKA Source: Cheng-Siang Chen. " P o p u l a t i o n Growth and U r b a n i z a t i o n i n China 1953-1970". The Geo g r a p h i c a l Review. V o l . 61, No. 1, Jan. 1973, pp. 70-71. ' 73 c i t i e s , and o n l y two a r e l o c a t e d i n h s i e n c i t i e s . " T h e s e c e n t r e s a l s o a c c o u n t f o r t h e b u l k o f farm m a c h i n e r y p r o d u c e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e s as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g hand t r a c t o r s , d i e s e l e n g i n e s , s i m p l e machine t o o l s and e l e c t r i c m o t o r s . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 410) P r e f e c t u r a l c i t i e s have b e e n d e s c r i b e d as t h e " c o n -v e r g e n c e zone o f two t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , t h e t r i c k l i n g down o f t h e modern s e c t o r o f t h e economy from t h e t o p , and t h e s p i l l i n g o v e r o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y from h s i e n and communes". (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 410) Below t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c i t y i s t h e h s i e n c i t y l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e commune i t i s t h e h s i e n w h i c h a c t e d as " t h e b a s i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t f o r t h e v a s t e m p i r e o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a f o r more t h a n 2,000 y e a r s and t h e s y s t e m i s w e l l m a i n t a i n e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . . . " The h s i e n , numbering a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,010 i n 1975, e a c h w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n between 5,000 and 20,000 p e o p l e , have had t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e c r e a s e d as t h e communes and b r i g a d e s assumed more l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Most i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e changes i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e h s i e n b y t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . S i n c e t h a t momentus e v e n t p r o m o t i n g " s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y f o r e v e r y l e v e l o f t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t s . . . t h e h s i e n c i t y has b e e n d e s i g -n a t e d as t h e p r i m a r y s i t e o f r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and many o f t h e s e c i t i e s h a v e b e e n r e j u v e n a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i n -f u s i o n o f s m a l l and medium s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s " . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 410) 74 I n d u s t r i e s o p e r a t i n g a t t h i s l e v e l f u n c t i o n t o improve t h e l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y and t o s u p p l y s i m p l e consumer goods f o r t h e needs o f r u r a l a r e a s . I n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e h s i e n l e v e l u s u a l l y c o m p r i s e t h r e e b a s i c u n i t s : 1) t h e f i v e s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h p r o d u c e c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s , cement, f a r m m a c h i n e r y and i m p l e m e n t s , g e n e r a t o r s and t r a n s f o r m e r s , and s p a r e p a r t s . T h e s e a r e p r i m a r i l y o p e r a t e d by t h e h s i e n . The p r o d u c t i o n o f i r o n c a n a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . 2) r e p a i r and m a n u f a c t u r e o f f a r m m a c h i n e r y . S i m p l e f a r m i m p l e m e n t s and t o o l s a r e p r o d u c e d w h i l e a g r i -c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s a r e r e p a i r e d . S m a l l e r u n i t s h e r e a r e r u n by t h e b r i g a d e o r commune w h i l e l a r g e r c omplex u n i t s a r e o p e r a t e d b y t h e h s i e n . 3) l i g h t i n d u s t r y p r o c e s s e s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e and p r o v i d e s t h e l o c a l i t y w i t h consumer g o o d s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e s , machine t o o l and power p l a n t s , cement f a c t o r i e s e t c . a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e h s i e n w h i l e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d a t t h e commune and sometimes b r i g a d e l e v e l . S i g u r d s o n , i n h i s a n a l y s i s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b etween r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n h as c a t e -g o r i z e d C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t o f o u r s i z e r a n g e s : . 1) R u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h up t o 10,000 t o 20,000 i n h a b i t a n t s ( m a r k e t t o w n s ) . 2) S m a l l u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h up t o about 200,000 75 i n h a b i t a n t s . 3) S e c o n d a r y u r b a n c e n t r e s w i t h up t o a b o u t 1,000,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . 4) M e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s w i t h o v e r 1,000,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . The p o p u l a t i o n marks a r e o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e as t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e o f t h e community i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e . S i g u r d s o n d e f i n e s s m a l l u r b a n c e n t r e s "as t h o s e whose e x i s t e n c e i s b a s e d m a i n l y on t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y f u r n i s h t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r u r a l a r e a s . I n s e c o n d a r y u r b a n c e n t r e s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r a g r o - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e i s b a s e d m a i n l y on t h e demand f o r f o o d c r e a t e d b y t h e u r b a n c e n t r e . M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a r e t h e one o r few l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s i n a l m o s t any c o u n t r y , i n w h i c h most i n d u s t r y , government and commerce a r e c o n c e n -t r a t e d " . ( S i g u r d s o n , p. 528) I n d u s t r i e s d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o s m a l l e r u r b a n c e n t r e s o r t o r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , and w h i c h m o s t l y p r o c e s s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , S i g u r d s o n has t e r m e d r e -g i o n a l i n d u s t r i e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r u r a l i n d u s t r y t o t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s r e v e a l e d i n f i g u r e I . The aim o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , e x p l a i n e d on page 59 o f t h i s c h a p t e r , i s t o move o r b u i l d i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r -p r i s e s i n s e c o n d a r y c e n t r e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p o p u l a t i o n o f 200,000 o r more, whereas r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s de-s i g n e d t o c r e a t e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h w i l l s e r v e a s m a l l m a r k e t , p r o v i d e employment i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and c r e a t e a s t r o n g e r e c o n o m i c b a s e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y . C h i n a ' s d u a l s y s t e m o f c i t i e s , b e i n g l i n k e d p h y s i c a l l y . i F i a U r e I The R e l a t i o n Between R u r a l I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n Decentralized industry Metropolitan industry Regional industry Rural industry — i fya-0 T 15,000 Rural community [ Small urban centre 200,000 Secondary urban centre 1 — 1,000,000 Size of Community Metropolitan centre S o u r c e : J o n S i g u r d s o n . " R u r a l I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n C h i n a : A p p r o a c h e s and R e s u l t s " . . W o r l d Development. V o l . 3, Nos. 7 & 8, J u l y - A u g u s t 1975, p. 529. 77 and f u n c t i o n a l l y and e x p r e s s i n g a s t r o n g d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p , have f o r m u l a t e d a p a t t e r n o f h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f u s i o n as t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f u s i o n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t have " t r i c k l e d down" t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f t h e a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y . The f i r s t f i f t e e n y e a r s o f i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h c r e a t e d an "ec o n o m i c e f f i c i e n c y . . . w i t h a b e t t e r f u n c t i o n a l a r t i c u l a t i o n " b e t w e e n t h e l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s , w i t h much o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r i n g i n s u p r a -p r o v i n c i a l c e n t r e s s u c h as Shenyang, Anshan, T i e n t s i n , Wuhan, Paotow and C h u n g k i n g . A l t h o u g h t h i s was p a r t i c u -l a r l y t r u e when t h e s e v e n e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i v e r e g i o n s e x i s t e d i t has s i n c e b e e n c h a n g i n g . From t h e mid-1960's on p r o v i n c i a l and some p r e f e c t u r a l c i t i e s have b e n e f i t e d from t h e " t r i c k -l i n g down" p r o c e s s b u t as o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1970's i t has b e e n t h e p r e f e c t u r a l and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h e h s i e n c i t i e s w h i c h have b e n e f i t e d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p r o c e s s as s e e n b y t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s , d e s p i t e t h e c o s t s and d i f f i c u l t y i n b r i n g i n g modern t e c h n o l o g y t o o v e r 2,000 h s i e n c e n t r e s , i s t h a t i t i s a means o f " t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e s o - c a l l e d ' f u n c t i o n a l l y e f f e c t i v e a r e a ' t o a ' p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t i v e a r e a * i n t h e n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s f o r a v a s t c o u n t r y " . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 413) The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n on p o l i c i e s o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e arid s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and on t h e p r e v a i l i n g " a n t i - u r b a n " h a v e a l s o s t r o n g l y m o d i f i e d c i t y g r o w t h r a t e s . D e s p i t e s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s on s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y d e m o g r a p h i c , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t c i t y g r o w t h 78 r a t e s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y have b e e n m o d i f i e d o r c o m p l e t e l y r e v e r s e d . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f P e k i n g and S h a n g h a i have r e m a i n e d s t a b l e i n t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , w h i l e t h e p e r i o d 1953-72 saw c i t i e s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s o f from 50,000 t o 100,000 t o 500,000 grow t h e f a s t e s t w i t h r e s p e c t i v e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e number o f c e n t r e s from 71 t o 105 and 77 t o 91. (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 414) See T a b l e XV. T a b l e XV Number o f C h i n e s e U r b a n S e t t l e m e n t s  By S i z e , 1953-1972 Number o f S e t t l e m e n t s S i z e G roup o f P o p u l a t i o n 1953 1972 More t h a n 5,000,000 1 2 3,000,000-5,000,000 1 1 2,000,000-3,000,000 2 4 1,000,000-2,000,000 5 14 500,000-1,000,000 16 22 100,000- 500,000 77 91 50,000- 100,000 71 105 10,000- 50,000 n. a. 940 S o u r c e s Sen-dou Chang. "The C h a n g i n g System o f C h i n e s e C i t i e s " . A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 66, No. 3, S e p t . 1976, "p. 401. Notes S t a t i s t i c s have b e e n c o m p i l e d f r o m s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . As a r e s u l t o f f o l l o w i n g a p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t i n d u s t r y must s e r v e a g r i c u l t u r e and u r b a n a r e a s must s e r v e r u r a l a r e a s t h e C h i n e s e u r b a n n e t w o r k , one w h i c h i s f a i r l y u n i f o r m t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , i s s t i l l b a s e d on t h e t r a d i -79 t i o n a l s y s t e m o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s . T h i s d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n o f u r b a n c e n t r e s " p a r a l l e l s t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y de-c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s " p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e c h a n g e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y a f t e r t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 414) The d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e n a t i o n as a w h o l e i s s t i l l v e r y much w i t h i n t h e p u r v u e o f t h e c e n t r a l government w i t h a d a p t i v e p l a n n i n g , s o l v i n g l o c a l p r o b l e m s w i t h l o c a l i n g e n u i t y and r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e l o w e r c i t y l e v e l s . The a b i l i t y f o r s m a l l e r c e n t r e s t o do t h i s i s i m p r o v e d when s m a l l and m e d i u m - s i z e d i n d u s t r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n s m a l l u r b a n c e n t r e s f o s t e r more e f f i c i e n t use o f l o c a l t a l e n t and r e s o u r c e s . "Among t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s t y p e o f development" were t h e s m a l l amount o f c a p i t a l r e q u i r e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e use o f some i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and h o u s i n g i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r s , t h e a b i l i t y t o a b s o r b r u r a l u n d e r e m p l o y -ment, t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s t e c h -n o l o g y , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f s u c h e n t e r p r i s e s , and t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s t o s p u r t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e mass r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . " (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 414) W a l k i n g On Two L e g s The C h i n e s e p o l i c y o f " w a l k i n g on two l e g s " , t h a t i s , f o l l o w i n g an a p p r o a c h t o e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h u t i l i z e s i b o t h modern and t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s i n b o t h t h e a g r i -c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s , has f o s t e r e d a d u a l s e c t o r 80 economy and m a i n t a i n e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d u a l s y s t e m o f c i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n . The a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t and p l a n n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t o s m a l l and medium c e n t r e s , a r e : 1) s u p p o r t o f t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e modern i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r by a l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s t o h a n d l e t h e l e s s complex, more l a b o r i n t e n s i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s ; 2) e x p a n s i o n o f t h e a g r a r i a n s e c t o r w i t h t h e a i d o f l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n s m a l l c i t i e s t o r e l i e v e a g r i c u l t u r a l b o t t l e n e c k s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o -c e s s ; 3) a l l e v i a t i o n o f t h e employment p r o b l e m by t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f s u r p l u s l a b o r i n t o s m a l l s c a l e , l a b o r i n t e n s i v e e n t e r p r i s e s a t t h e l e v e l s o f communes and h s i e n ; 4) c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o b o t h i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n and n a t i o n a l m o r a l e by t h e l a r g e u n s k i l l e d o r s e m i s k i l l e d segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 415) D e v e l o p m e n t a l p o l i c i e s r e s u l t i n g i n t h e d u a l s y s t e m o f c i t i e s has l i n k e d a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n d u s t r y and modern t e c h n o l o g y t o t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y . I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s l i n k a g e t h a t C h i n e s e u r b a n p o l i c y has aimed t o a l l e v i a t e t h e t h r e e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n c i t y and c o u n t r y , b etween i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e and between m e n t a l and manual l a b o u r . E x p a n s i o n o f M u n i c i p a l B o u n d a r i e s A d v a n c e s S e l f - S u f f i c i e n c y An i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f C h i n e s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s t h e e x t e n s i v e a r e a b r o u g h t u n d e r t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n t h r o u g h e x p a n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . The e n l a r g e m e n t o f t h e 81 m u n i c i p a l a r e a has l a r g e l y b e en an e f f o r t t o make e a c h c e n t r e "as s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t as p o s s i b l e i n terms o f w a t e r , f u e l , c o n -s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , s e c o n d a r y f o o d s s u c h as v e g e t a b l e s and f r u i t s , and, i n r e c e n t y e a r s , e v e n t h e s t a p l e f o o d f o r t h e l a r g e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n " . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 407) E x p a n s i o n a l s o aimed a t i n t e g r a t i n g u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s t h r o u g h t h e f l o w o f t e c h n o l o g y and c a p i t a l t o t h e immediate h i n t e r l a n d o f t h e d e v e l o p e d u r b a n c e n t r e . R e a s o ns f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Sen-dou Chang s u g g e s t s t h a t i n c l u s i o n o f s e v e r a l l a r g e r e s e r v o i r s was r e a s o n f o r t h e n o r t h w a r d a r e a l e x p a n s i o n o f P e k i n g i n 1958, an e x p a n s i o n w h i c h annexed n i n e h s i e n ( c o u n t i e s ) and r e -s u l t e d i n more t h a n 17,800 s q u a r e k i l o m e t e r s i n t o t a l b e i n g b r o u g h t under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . The westward e x p a n s i o n o f Hangchou was u n d e r t a k e n a p p a r e n t l y t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e H s i n a n c h i a n g H y d r o e l e c t r i c s t a t i o n , t h e l a r g e s t i n s o u t h C h i n a . I n 1973, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e r r i t o r y o f T i e n t s i n was i n c r e a s e d from 4,000 t o more t h a n 11,000 s q u a r e k i l o -m e t e r s , w h i l e a s i m i l a r e x p a n s i o n i n c r e a s e d S h a n g h a i ' s t e r -r i t o r y t o 5,800 s q u a r e k i l o m e t e r s . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, pp. 407-408) One d e s i r e d e f f e c t o f t h i s t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n has b e e n t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r u r a l a r e a s w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l i t y : " I n t h e annexed a r e a s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f P e k i n g , f o r example, t w e n t y c o m m u n i t i e s , e a c h w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 10,000 o r more 82 had emerged by 1972. Among t h e s e t w e n t y c o m m u n i t i e s , o n l y f i v e s e r v e as h s i e n c i t i e s ; t h e r e m a i n d e r a r e p r o d u c t i o n c e n t e r s o f s m a l l and m e d i u m - s i z e d e n t e r p r i s e s . Com-munes l o c a t e d w i t h i n l a r g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a p p e a r t o be more p r o s p e r o u s and p o p u l o u s , as i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e Red S t a r S i n o - K o r e a n F r i e n d s h i p Commune, l o c a t e d t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e o l d w a l l e d a r e a o f P e k i n g . The commune has more t h a n 10,000 p e o p l e whose m e c h a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e has become a show p l a c e f o r f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . " (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 409) S i g u r d s o n ( p . 531) e s t i m a t e s t h a t r u r a l a r e a s under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r r c i t i e s have 20 p e r c e n t o r more o f t h e i r l a b o u r f o r c e i n i n d u s t r y w h i l e f o r t h e n a t i o n as a who l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e i s engaged i n r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s . Whatever t h e l o c a l r e a s o n f o r e x p a n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s t h e w i d e s p r e a d i n c l u s i o n o f l a r g e r u r a l a r e a s w i t h i n c i t i e s h as u n d o u b t e d l y b e e n aimed a t m i n i m i z i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c i t y and c o u n t r y and between i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e . I n t e g r a t i o n o f u r b a n and r u r a l i s a c t u a l l y b r o u g h t a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e d i f f u s i n g o f t e c h n o l o g y t o t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , and by s u b - c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t s o f t h e u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s t o t h e s m a l l , r u r a l , l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e e n t e r p r i s e s . F o r t h e c i t i e s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a l a r g e a g r i c u l t u r e b a s e p r o v i d e s n o t o n l y a s h o r t - d i s t a n c e f o o d s u p p l y b u t a s t i m u l a t i v e t o v a r i o u s p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . ( S e n -dou Chang, 1976, p. 409) The e x t e n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y i n t o a d j a c e n t a r e a s h a s ' a l s o e n h a n c e d t h e a b i l i t y o f c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c e n t r e s s u c h as P e k i n g , t o make l o n g - r a n g e 83 p l a n s and t o expand v a r i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . ( T i e n , p. 70) I t was d u r i n g t h e mid 1970's t h a t C h i n e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f u r b a n l i f e p l a c e d a renewed emphasis on u r b a n s e l f - s u f -f i c i e n c y . P r i o r t o t h a t d u r i n g t h e 1950's and 1960's i n d i -v i d u a l f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n and i t s s u b s e q u e n t e f f e c t s on u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t was more c l o s e l y t i e d t o n a t i o n a l p l a n s and p r i o r i t i e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . P l a n n i n g emphasis i n t h e 1970's has b e e n p l a c e d a t t h e l o w e r a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e l e v e l s t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c i t i e s and p r o v i n c e s i n d e c i s i o n making and i n d i r e c t l y i n t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f c i t i e s t o s e r v e t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r own r e g i o n s . (Buck, p. 31) "The d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r i e s i n r u r a l a r e a s a r o u n d S h a n g h a i , P e k i n g and T i e n t s i n - w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f s u b c o n t r a c t i n g - may i n d i c a t e t h e l o n g - t e r m p r o s p e c t s f o r r u r a l i n d u s t r y i n t h e r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y . The f o r m a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s i s o n l y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p -ment i n most p a r t s o f r u r a l C h i n a . T h i s and t h e s t i l l low l e v e l o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n e x p l a i n s why t h e i n d u s t r i a l l e v e l i s s t i l l compara-t i v e l y low compared w i t h more f a v o u r e d r u r a l a r e a s a r o u n d t h e b i g c i t i e s . " ( S i g u r d s o n , p. 531) T r a n s f e r o f P e o p l e t o t h e C o u n t r y s i d e The d e v e l o p m e n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r p r o d u c t i o n s k i l l s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e t r a n s f e r n o t o n l y o f t e c h n o l o g y b u t a l s o o f p e o p l e t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . P e r s o n t o p e r s o n c o n t a c t has b e e n r e l i e d upon e x t e n s i v e l y i n t r a n s -m i t t i n g t h e d e s i r e d k n o w l e d g e . T r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l s u c h as 84 managers, t e c h n i c i a n s and e n g i n e e r s from a d v a n c e d u r b a n p l a n t s j o u r n e y t o s m a l l e r r u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s w h i l e r u r a l c i t i z e n s a r e s e n t t o a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l u n i t s f o r l e a r n i n g . Some u r b a n d w e l l e r s have b e e n moved p e r m a n e n t l y t o work i n t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e w h i l e e d u c a t e d y o u t h a r e a s k e d t o spend a t l e a s t two y e a r s i n t h e n a t i o n ' s c o u n t r y s i d e . S i g u r d s o n a n a l y z e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s k i l l s ' i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s as b e i n g l a r g e l y r e l i a n t upon: ( 1 ) T r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l (a) C i t y - b a s e d , o l d f a c t o r i e s t r a i n w o r k e r s r e c r u i t e d t o r u r a l f a c t o r i e s . (b) R u r a l f a c t o r i e s u n d e r t a k e t r a i n i n g o f new w o r k e r s . ( 2 ) T r a n s f e r o f p e r s o n n e l (a) T e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l a r e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m o l d t o new f a c t o r i e s . (b) Newly g r a d u a t e d s t u d e n t s a r e a l l o c a t e d t o new, r u r a l f a c t o r i e s . ( S i g u r d s o n , p. 535) Not a l l components o f t h i s p r o c e s s c a n be a n a l y z e d h e r e . P e r t i n e n t t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c i t i e s i n C h i n a however i s t h e movement t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e o f t h e e d u c a t e d y o u t h . V i e w e d i n a t o t a l c o n t e x t t h e downward t r a n s f e r o f e d u c a t e d y o u t h t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e ( h s i a f a n g ) i s more t h a n g r a d u a t e d m i d d l e s c h o o l ( h i g h s c h o o l ) s t u d e n t s b e i n g s e n t t o work on communes o r i n s m a l l r u r a l f a c t o r i e s . I t i s i n t h i s move-85 ment o f young u r b a n e d u c a t e d p e o p l e t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f p r e s e n t day C h i n a i s e p i t o m i z e d . "A December 1975 Red F l a g a r t i c l e r e m i n d e d r e a d e r s t h a t t h e DCY ( d o w n - t o - c o u n t r y s i d e y o u t h ) program i s ' o f f a r - r e a c h i n g s i g -n i f i c a n c e f o r c o m b a t i n g and p r e v e n t i n g r e v i s i o n i s m , f o r c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e d i c t a -t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , f o r r e s t r i c t i n g b o u r g e o i s r i g h t s , f o r g r a d u a l l y n a r r o w i n g t h e t h r e e major d i f f e r e n c e s , f o r s t r e n g t h -e n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , and f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r e ' . I t f u r t h e r r e s u r r e c t e d a q u o t a t i o n f r om Mao w h i c h p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e o n l y c r i t e r i o n f o r g'udging w h e t h e r a y o u t h i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y i s 'whether o r n o t he i s w i l l i n g t o i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f w i t h t h e b r o a d masses o f w o r k e r s and p e a s a n t s and does s o i n p r a c t i c e ' . " A c c o r d i n g t o C u r r e n t Scene t h e number o f y o u t h s s e n t down i n 1975 came t o 2 m i l l i o n . The l a r g e - s c a l e movement t o send y o u t h s t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e was l a u n c h e d i n 1968 by Mao and s i n c e t h a t d a t e has r e s u l t e d i n t h e r u s t i c a t i o n o f a t l e a s t 12 m i l l i o n young p e o p l e . ( C u r r e n t S c e n e , F e b . 1976, V o l . 14, p. 16) T h i s m i g r a t i o n scheme has n o t b e e n o r g a n i z e d t o p o p u l a t e t h e s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d b o r d e r r e g i o n s a l t h o u g h s u c h a p o l i c y does e x i s t . " R a t h e r , i t i s a m i g r a t i o n p r o c e s s whereby u r b a n i t e s r e l o c a t e i n any r u r a l a r e a , t h e r e b y g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o p r i m a r y i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a g r a r i a n s c e n e . " T h i s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by S a l t e r ' s a n a l y s i s o f r u s t i c a t i o n w h i c h shows t h a t " t h e m a j o r i t y o f a l l h s i a f a n g movements w i t h s p e c i f i e d g o a l a r e a s were i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l " . ( S a l t e r , p. 97) D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m does e x i s t w i t h r e s e n t -ment b e i n g f e l t by a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d , p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s and p e a s a n t s a l i k e . I n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e program have b e e n 86 a t t e m p t e d . F o l l o w i n g t h e "Chuchow model", p o l i c i e s have b e e n g e n e r a l i z e d i n many p a r t s o f C h i n a e s t a b l i s h i n g l i n k a g e s between r u r a l communes on t h e one hand and u r b a n f a c t o r i e s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e o t h e r . P a r e n t s , t h r o u g h t h e u n i t s t o w h i c h t h e y b e l o n g , p l a y a l a r g e r r o l e i n t h e r e -s e t t l e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s w h i l e b e t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n s a r e made t o r e c e i v e t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . A d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t s t o make t h e r u s t i c a t i o n p r o g r a m e v e n more p a l a t a b l e a r e b e i n g made. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a t h e number o f p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e h s i a f a n g p r o g r a m w i l l n o t s i g -n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e u r b a n l a n d s c a p e s o r t h e s o c i a l makeup o f t h e major c i t i e s a l o n g t h e e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d o f C h i n a . "However, t h e f a c t t h a t e v e n t h i s number o f p e o p l e a r e r e -p o r t e d t o have w i l l i n g l y l e f t t h e c i t y f o r a d i f f e r e n t and r e l a t i v e l y e x h a u s t i n g e x p e r i m e n t i n 'mass s t r u g g l e ' i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I f t h e s e numbers a r e n o t l o o k e d a t i n t h e a g g r e g a t e b u t r a t h e r c o n s i d e r e d as i n d i v i d u a l s u n d e r g o i n g t h e v a r i o u s h s i a f a n g h a r d s h i p s , t h e n t h e e n t i r e movement t a k e s on a v i t a l i t y and s e n s e o f e x c i t i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n as n o r m a l r u r a l - t o - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n f l o w s a r e r e v e r s e d i n an a t t e m p t t o c o n t i n u e some o f t h e b a t t l e s w h i c h gave C h i n a i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o h e s i v e n e s s i n t h e e a r l y 1950's." ( S a l t e r , p. 99") The h s i a f a n g p r o g r a m i s o n l y one o f t h e mechanisms u t i l i z e d f o r i n s t i l l i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y e s s e n c e i n t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . By t e m p o r a r i l y moving t h e u r b a n l i t e r a t i away 87 from' t h e c i t y and i m m e r s i n g them i n manual l a b o u r and r u r a l l i v i n g C h i n a w i l l b e n e f i t t h e r u r a l a r e a s , e a s e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e somewhat i n t h e c i t i e s , b u t most i m p o r t a n t l y i n -s t i l l i n t h e young p e o p l e a r u r a l c o g n i z a n c e and e n s u r e p r o g r e s s t o w a r d a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y . Summary C h i n a ' s e v o l v i n g p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , u nder t h e l e a d e r -s h i p o f Mao T s e - t u n g , has i n f l u e n c e d p o l i c i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l i -z a t i o n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t e f f e c t s on u r b a n i z a t i o n . D evelopment d i r e c t e d i n l a n d , i n i t i a l l y v i a t h e F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n , was b a s e d more on e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s t h a n on new s e t t l e m e n t s a l b e i t new c o m m u n i t i e s c e r t a i n l y have b e e n c r e a t e d . A l t h o u g h b e n e f i t i n g C h i n a , i n l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t was o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d and r e q u i r e d c o r r e c -t i o n from t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p o f Mao T s e - t u n g . S i m i l a r l y , c h a n g e s i n p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y b r o u g h t about by t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n have had s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on l o c a l and n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n r e s u l t e d i n l e s s c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o v e r i n d u s t r y and p l a c e d i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s on p o l i c i e s o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y as w e l l as s t r o n g l y m o d i f y i n g t h e g r o w t h r a t e s o f C h i n a ' s l a r g e s t c i t i e s . U t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n e t w o r k o f s e t t l e m e n t s as r e c i p i e n t s o f t e c h n o l o g y and k n o w l e d g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p r e f e c t u r a l and h s i e n c e n t r e s , has p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e s u c c e s s i n f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o v i n c i a l h i n t e r l a n d s and r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s e c e n t r e s i n a c t i n g as r e c e i v e r s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f u s i o n and e c o n o m i c 88 d e v e l o p m e n t has l i n k e d them s t r u c t u r a l l y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y t o t h e n a t i o n a l economy. The t r a d i t i o n a l u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t s o f C h i n a a r e p r o v i n g t o be a k e y i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . 89 CHAPTER V ADMINISTRATIVE PLANNING STRUCTURE I n t r o d u c t i o n C h i n a i s a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y , a s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y an i n c r e a s i n g l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d as o p p o s e d t o a command economy. S u c h d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f more p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t l o c a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s . I t i s a l s o a s o c i e t y p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y d i s t r u s t f u l o f u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t s . C i t i e s o f p r e - 1 9 4 9 C h i n e s e s o c i e t y a r e v i e w e d as b e i n g a r e a s o f c o n c e n t r a t e d w e a l t h , e x p l o i t e r s o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and i n t e r n a l l y a l i e n a t i n g . One o f t h e aims o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x p l a i n t h e n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s and p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a f f e c t i n g c i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and t o e l a b o r a t e upon t h e u r b a n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n l i g h t o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s and p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . The aim o f t h i s c h a p t e r ' i s t o e x p l a i n how C h i n a ' s c i t i e s 'are ' r e l a t e d t o o t h e r u n i t s o f n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , a s t r u c t u r e d e s i g n e d t o h e l p d i s p e r s e p r e v i o u s l y c o n c e n t r a t e d w e a l t h , and how t h e y a r e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r n a l l y t o p r e v e n t e x p l o i t a -t i o n and i n v o l v e t h e masses i n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e The framework o f C h i n a ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d by A r t i c l e 53 o f t h e 1954 C o n s t i t u t i o n . ( Shabad, 1972, p. 28) " A r t i c l e 53. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a i s as 90 f O l l O W S ! (1) The c o u n t r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o p r o v i n c e s , autonomous r e g i o n s , and c i t i e s d i r e c t l y u n der t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y ; (2) P r o v i n c e s and autonomous r e g i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o autonomous c h o u , c o u n t i e s , autonomous c o u n t i e s , and c i t i e s ; (3) C o u n t i e s and autonomous c o u n t i e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o h s i a n g , n a t i o n a l i t y h s i a n g , and towns. C i t i e s d i r e c t l y u n d e r the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y and o t h e r l a r g e c i t i e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t s . Autonomous chou a r e d i v i d e d i n t o c o u n t i e s , autonomous c o u n t i e s , and c i t i e s . Autonomous r e g i o n s , autonomous chou and autonomous c o u n t i e s a r e a l l n a t i o n a l autonomous a r e a s . ( J a n , Government o f  Communist C h i n a , 1966, p. 630) Numerous c h a n g e s have b e e n made s i n c e t h a t d a t e , p a r -t i c u l a r l y b e tween 1954 and 1958, s o t h a t b y t h e end o f 1976 C h i n a c o n s i s t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o f t h r e e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s d i r e c t l y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e C e n t r a l Government i n P e k i n g , 21 p r o v i n c e s , and f i v e autonomous r e g i o n s . The P e o p l e ' s  R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a A t l a s l i s t s f u r t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u b -d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e ( r e f e r t o t a b l e X V I) w h i l e T h e o d o r e Shabad i n C h i n a ' s C h a n g i n g Map g i v e s a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s breakdown. P r o v i s i o n s o f t h e 1954 C o n s t i t u t i o n d i v i d e d p r o v i n c e s and autonomous p r o v i n c e s i n t o autonomous c h o u , h s i e n ( c o u n t i e s ) , autonomous h s i e n , and c i t i e s . H s i e n and autonomous h s i e n were f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o h s i a n g ( r u r a l t o w n s h i p s ) , towns ( c h e n ) , and n a t i o n a l h s i a n g . (Shabad, 1972, p. 29) A l l o f t h e autonomous d i v i s i o n s " a r e a r e a s o f n a t i o n a l autonomy i n w h i c h e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a r e g r a n t e d t h e r i g h t t o s e l f - a d m i n i s -91 t r a t i o n u n d e r l o c a l l e a d e r s i n a way t h a t a s s u r e s e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l " . (Shabad, 1972, p. 29) The d r a f t 1971 C o n s t i t u t i o n a f f i r m e d t h e 1954 a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e p a t t e r n as w e l l as r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t (Chuan C h ' u ) , an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l b etween t h e p r o v i n c e and h s i e n w h i c h "combines g r o u p s o f h s i e n i n t o r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s w i t h i n p r o v i n c e " . The r e -p l a c e m e n t by t h e commune o f t h e l o w e s t - l e v e l r u r a l d i v i s i o n , t h e h s i a n g , d u r i n g t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d . The s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t h as b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d p r o b a b l y t o " a v o i d t h e need f o r d i r e c t p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e many h s i e n " . ( Shabad, 1972, p. 30) F o r c l a r i t y Shabad s u g g e s t s d i s c u s s i o n i n t e r m s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u b o r d i n a t i o n . The f i r s t - o r d e r d i v i s i o n s a r e q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and a r e t h o s e d i r e c t l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e c e n t r a l g o v ernment. A l t h o u g h n o t e x p l i c i t l y p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e 1954 C o n s t i t u t i o n s t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l d i v i s i o n o r s u b p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l c o n s i s t s o f t h e s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t (renamed " a r e a " i n 1971), autonomous ch o u , and t h o s e c i t i e s d i r e c t l y u nder p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . The p l a c e m e n t o f an u r b a n a r e a i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n i s a s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c i t y has r e a c h e d . Thus i t i s t h a t " t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y a b o u t e i g h t y y c i t i e s t h a t have r e a c h e d a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n o r a d v a n c e d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o be c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e a r e a s o r autonomous c h o u " . (Shabad, 1972, p. 30) 92 TABLE XVI ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS P r o v i n c e L e v e l S u b p r o v i n c e Level'' 3 C o u n t y L e v e l 0 ( F i r s t O r d e r ) ( I n t e r m e d i a t e ) ( S e c o n d O r d e r ) A u t o n S p e c . M u n i c i - M u n i c i - A u t o n . Chou D i s t . p a l i t y p a l i t y C o u n t y C o u n t y P r o v i n c e Anhwe i 9 6 2 70 C h e k i a n g 8 3 63 F u k i e n ^ 7 2 4 62 H e i l u n g k i a n g 6 8 1 64 1 Honan 10 3 11 110 Hopeh 10 1 8 142 , 2 Hunan 1 9 2 5 84 4 Hupeh 8 2 3 72 Kansu 2 8 2 2 66 6 K i a n g s i 6 2 5 80 K i a n g s u K i r i n 8 7 4 64 1 5 2 7 36 2 Kwangfungf 1 7 1 9 94 3 Kweichow 2 5 1 3 69 9 L i a o i n g d 4 10 41 2 S h a n s i • 5 3 1 96 S h a n t u n g 9 4 5 107 S h e n s i 8 1 3 93 Szechwan 3 12 3 5 181 3 T s i n g h a i 6 1 32 5 Yunnan 8 7 2 2 1 0 7 1 15 A u t o n . R e g i o n I n n e r M o n g o l i a 7 g 2 8 7 4 h 3 Kwangsi Chuang 8 1 72 8 N i n a s i a H u i d 1 2 16 S i n k i a n g U i g h u r 5 6 2 2 73 •6 '" T i b e t 5 1 70 M u n i c i p a l i t y P e k i n g 9 S h a n g h a i . 10 T i e n t s i n - ^ T o t a l 29 178 79 90 2,057 69 % The c o u n t r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o 29 f i r s t - o r d e r u n i t s - 2 1 p r o v i n c e s ( s h e n g ) , 5 autonomous r e g i o n s ( t z u - c h i h c h o u ) , and 3 m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s ( s h i h ) - d i r e c t l y under t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . ^ A t t h e s u b p r o v i n c e ( i n t e r m e d i a t e ) l e v e l , p r o v i n c e s and a u t o n o -mous ^ r e g i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s ( c h u a n - c h ' u ) 93 or autonomous chou ( t z u - c h i c h o u ) . A number o f muni-c i p a l i t i e s a l s o e x i s t a t t h i s l e v e l . C o u n t i e s ( h s i e n ) a r e t h e b a s i c s e c o n d - o r d e r u n i t . O t h e r s e c o n d - o r d e r u n i t s i n c l u d e autonomous h s i e n ( t z u - c h i h s i e n ) and h s i e n - l e v e l s h i h . The te r m h s i e n i s n o r m a l l y u s e d i n s t e a d o f i t s E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t . S u b p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l s do n o t r e f l e c t c h a n g e s c a u s e d b y th e presumed r e a p p o r t i o n m e n t and r e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e I n n e r M o n g o l i a n Autonomous R e g i o n ( l M A R ) b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f d a t a . Kwangtung has an a t y p i c a l u n i t - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t ( h s i n g - c h e n g ch'u) c o m p r i s i n g t h e i s l a n d o f H a i n a n . I t f u n c t i o n s as t h e t o p a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d . I n c l u d e s one town ( c h e n ) i n Yunnan t h a t f u n c t i o n s a t t h e s e c o n d - o r d e r h s i e n l e v e l . The s u b p r o v i n c e l e v e l u n i t i n IMAR i s o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as l e a g u e (meng). I n c l u d e s 52 b a n n e r s ( c h ' i ) , a h s i e n - l e v e l u n i t i n IMAR. IMAR autonomous h s i e n - l e v e l u n i t i s termed t z u - c h i h c h ' i . H s i e n i n f o r m a t i o n u n a v a i l a b l e . S o u r c e : C e n t r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e A g e ncy. P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c  o f C h i n a A t l a s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.r U.S. Dept. o f Documents, 1971, p. 32. H s i e n and autonomous h s i e n r e p r e s e n t most o f t h e s e c o n d -o r d e r d i v i s i o n . C i t i e s a t t h i s l e v e l u s u a l l y have a s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n and a r e n o t as w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n d u s t r i a l l y as c i t i e s a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l , and as w e l l a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o a r e a s o r autonomous chou o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e o r d e r . Shabad d e s c r i b e s t h i r d - o r d e r d i v i s i o n s , n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e C.I.A. A t l a s , w h i c h a r e f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n s o f t h e h s i e n and autonomous h s i e n i n t o r u r a l ( h s i a n g ) and u r b a n a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e u n i t s . However, as s t a t e d , by 1958 t h e h s i a n g had b e e n r e p l a c e d b y t h e commune w h i c h became t h e b a s i c r u r a l p o l i -94 t i c a l u n i t below t h e h s i e n w h i l e t h e commune i t s e l f was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o p r o d u c t i o n b r i g a d e s and p r o d u c t i o n teams ( r e f e r t o F i g u r e I I ) . The b a s i c u r b a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t became t h e town o r " c h e n " . A m arket town i s u s u a l l y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e a t o f a h s i e n , t h u s i t s p o s i t i o n i s owed m a i n l y t o a l o c a l f a r m market r a t h e r t h a n t o i n d u s t r y . Towns a t t h i s l e v e l a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e h s i e n . I n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f any s i g -n i f i c a n c e w o u l d p r o b a b l y r e s u l t i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a town t o a c i t y o r " s h i h " . "Changes i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f C h i n a c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . " T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n t h e towns and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s where " a d -m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a n g e s a r e an e v e n more s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t " . (Shabad, 1972, p. 32) The t h r e e l e v e l s o f c i t i e s i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e c a n be a s -sumed t o r e f l e c t r e l a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and i n d u s t r i a l im-p o r t a n c e . A c i t y u n d e r c e n t r a l government j u r i s d i c t i o n w i l l p e r f o r m more i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s t h a n a c i t y a t t h e s u b -p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l ( u n d e r p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y ) , and a s u b -p r o v i n c i a l c i t y i s p r o b a b l y more s i g n i f i c a n t ' t h a n a c i t y a t t h e h s i e n l e v e l ( u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e a r e a o r s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t ) . (Shabad, 1972, p. 33) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p l a n n i n g of. C h i n a ' s c i t i e s r e s t s w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s w h i l e t h e c e n t r a l government t a k e s a d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e t h r e e a u t o n o -mous c e n t r e s o f S h a n g h a i , P e k i n g and T i e n t s i n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e p r e s e n t d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y t h e s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y , however i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t F i g u r e I I A d m i n i s t r a t i v e - P o l i t i c a l S t r u c t u r e CENTRAL GOVERNMENT COUNTY DISTRICTS DISTRICTS DISTRICTS DISTRICTS PEOPLE'S COMMUNES PRODUCTION I BRIGADES NEIGHBOURHOOD I COMMITTEES | I PRODUCTION I TEAMS Residents' Committees residents' groups PEOPLE'S COMMUNES PRODUCTION I BRIGADES STREET I COMMITTEES | I PRODUCTION | TEAMS Neighbourhood Committees residents' groups • AUTONOMOUS REGIONS PREFECTURES COUNTIES PEOPLE'S COMMUNES PRODUCTION BRIGADES PRODUCTION TEAMS S o u r c e : N. J e f f r e y . D e s i g n . V o l . 49, No. " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e / P o l i t i c a l S y stem I n C h i n a " . A r c h i t e c t u r a l 3, 1974, p. 144. KO Ul 96 a l t h o u g h t h e s t r u c t u r e and i t s i m p l i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s as p r e -s e n t e d i n F i g u r e I I may a p p e a r t o be h i e r a r c h i c a l , t h e s t a t e and mass o r g a n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as d e p i c t e d c a n n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e v e a l how t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t power o f t h e Communist P a r t y i s a c t u a l l y ; e x e r c i s e d . S i m i l a r v i e w s have been e x p r e s s e d by N i c k J e f f r e y , who a d v i s e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f " f o r m a l , o p e r a t i o n a l , and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s " , ( J e f f r e y , p. 144) S u s a n R i f k i n , i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , a r g u e s t h a t " C h i n e s e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s . . . a r e h o l i s t i c " , and t h a t i n a n a l y z i n g t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c we c a n n o t " s e p a r a t e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l g o a l s " . ( R i f k i n , p. 259) More on t h i s a f t e r t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f c i t y s t r u c t u r e . U r b a n S t r u c t u r e T h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h y o f l o c a l government w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r s C h i n e s e c i t i e s , some o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and m a n d a t o r y , t h e r e m a i n d e r mass o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and v o l u n t a r y . M o r e o v e r , t h e m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a c i t y c o v e r s n o t o n l y t h e e n t i r e u r b a n a r e a b u t encompasses a d j o i n i n g communes and sometimes e n t i r e c o u n t i e s , many o f w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s c o n t a i n s m a l l i n -d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s ( r e f e r t o pages 8 0 - 8 3 ) . Thus u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l and autonomous c i t i e s a r e u r b a n d i s t r i c t s , c o u n t y d i s t r i c t s as w e l l as c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and f a c t o r i e s . E v e r y major C h i n e s e town and c i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f d i s t r i c t s , e a c h w i t h i t s own a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and b u r e a u s and c o n t a i n i n g anywhere f r o m 250,000 t o 500,000 p e o p l e . S m a l l e r towns may come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e r u r a l 97 s e c t o r and become c e n t r e s o f commune a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The c i t y o f Ch'ang Ch'un, an u r b a n a r e a o f 1.3 m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n , i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e d i s t r i c t s ( f o u r u r b a n and one on t h e f r i n g e o f t h e c i t y ) e a c h p o s s e s s i n g a s e c t i o n f o r c i t y p l a n n i n g . The d i s t r i c t s t o g e t h e r work u n d e r t h e u n i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e c i t y - t h r o u g h t h e B u r e a u o f C i t y C o n s t r u c t i o n and P l a n n i n g and exchange m a t e r i a l s and p e r s o n n e l as a means o f " m u t u a l a i d " . C i t y d i s t r i c t s a r e f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o s t r e e t c o m m i t t e e s ( i n S h a n g h a i , P e k i n g and T i e n t s i n c a l l e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d com-m i t t e e s ) e a c h p o s s e s s i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f f rom 50,000 t o 100,000 c i t i z e n s . T h i s i s t h e s m a l l e s t u n i t o f s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i s " t h e l o w e s t u r b a n l e v e l a t w h i c h s t a t e c a d r e a r e ap-p o i n t e d t o t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committees and t o t h e s u b - o f f i c e s o f t h e b u r e a u x " . ( J e f f r e y , p. 146) The r e s i d e n t i a l c o m m i t t e e s i n t h e autonomous c i t i e s ( n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s ) a r e formed from a p p r o x -i m a t e l y 60 modern h o u s i n g b l o c k s and 6,000 r e s i d e n t s e a c h . The r e s i d e n t s ' c o m m i t t e e s y s t e m was e x t e n d e d t o a l l o f C h i n a i n 1954. A l s o a t t h i s t i m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o m m i t t e e s ( s t r e e t c o m m i t t e e s i n p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s ) were e s t a b l i s h e d as b r a n c h e s o f c i t y government i n a l l m a j o r c i t i e s o f C h i n a . "They were man d a t o r y i n c i t i e s w i t h o v e r 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n , o p t i o n a l i n c i t i e s b e tween 50,000 and 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n , and n o t e x p e c t e d i n c i t i e s o f f e w e r t h a n 50,000 p o p u l a t i o n . " ( S i d e l , R u t h . p. 28) The : r e s i d e n t s ' c o m m i t t e e i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e n e i g h -b o u r h o o d c o m m i t t e e , w h i c h i n t u r n i s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l t h e c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u s e s t o r e l a t e t o t h e p e o p l e ( r e f e r t o F i g u r e I I ) . From J e f f r e y ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f S h a n g h a i : 98 " t h e s e were d e s c r i b e d as ' s e l f - g o v e r n i n g mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d RevCom'. I n t h i s c a s e , 20 R e s i d e n t s G r o u p s (one f o r . e a c h b l o c k ) w o u l d meet t o g e t h e r on o c c a s i o n and e l e c t t h e i r t h i r d o f t h e e l e c t e d members o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l Committee. The t a s k s o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l Committee were s a i d t o i n c l u d e : ( i ) implement t a s k s s u c h as h y g i e n i c p r o -grammes; ( i i ) t a k e t h e demands o f the p e o p l e t o t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d RevCom; ( i i i ) o r g a n i z e s o c i a l work v i s i t s ; ( i v ) p u s h p r o p a g a n d a a b o u t f a m i l y p l a n n i n g ; (v) recom-mend t o t h e H o u s i n g B u r e a u on h o u s i n g f o r new c o u p l e s ; ( v i ) r u n o l d p e o p l e ' s p l a c e s o f s t u d y and r e c r e a t i o n . " ( J e f f r e y , : p. 145) F o l l o w i n g t h e s t r e e t c o m m i t t e e a r e mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a l l e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o m m i t t e e s and r e s i d e n t s g r o u p s . They a r e v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s whose members a r e m a i n l y women and r e t i r e d w o r k e r s . A l t h o u g h l a c k i n g s p e c i f i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s t h e r o l e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o m m i t t e e , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n r a n g i n g f r o m 2500 t o 12,000 p e o p l e , i s t o p r o v i d e some forms o f h o u s i n g , c o n t r i b u t e a s h a r e o f l a b o u r f o r s u c h p r o j e c t s as r o a d b u i l d i n g , and a c c o r d i n g t o J e f f r e y t o " o r -g a n i z e t h e b r o a d mass, e n c o u r a g e p o l i t i c a l s t u d y , and promote s e l f - r e l i a n c e " . ( J e f f r e y , p. 146) The newest l e v e l o f mass o r g a n i z a t i o n , a p p e a r i n g a f t e r t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n and i m p a r t e d t o t h e a u t h o r d u r i n g h i s 1976 v i s i t t o C h i n a i s t h a t o f t h e s o c i a l i s t c o u r t - y a r d . E x p l a i n e d b y a g r o u p o f p l a n n e r s i n Ch'ang Ch'un, and f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d upon d u r i n g a v i s i t t o F e n g s h e n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o m m i t t e e i n P e k i n g , t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s new b u t n o t a t y e t u b i q u i t o u s community o r g a n i s t o o r g a n i z e a number o f a c t i -99 1) r e t i r e d w o r k e r s and o t h e r w o r k e r s h e l p e d u c a t e young p e o p l e o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l 2) l e a d e r s o r g a n i z e s t u d y s e s s i o n s f o r r e s i d e n t s 3) c i t i z e n s p e r f o r m a r t and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , t a k e p a r t i n s p o r t s meets, l e a r n P e k i n g o p e r a s , and h e l p p u t o u t w a l l n e w s p a p e r s 4) s u p e r v i s e c l a s s e n e m i e s . P e o p l e who e x h i b i t t e n d e n c i e s t o r e t u r n t o t h e o l d ways o f p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y C h i n a a r e w a t c h e d 5) o r g a n i z e p e o p l e t o do p h y s i c a l l a b o u r 6) summon p e o p l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r c u r r e n t t h o u g h t As e x p l a i n e d by t h e Ch'ang Ch'un p l a n n e r s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l i s t c o u r t y a r d i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h Mao's t h o u g h t t o " c o n t r i b u t e more u n p a i d a f t e r t h e e i g h t h o u r workday" and t h a t t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d a t t h e g r a s s r o o t s l e v e l . F o r t h i s l e v e l o f mass o r g a n i z a t i o n t h i s meant a b o u t 30 h o u s e h o l d s p e r s o c i a l i s t c o u r t y a r d w i t h a management c o m m i t t e e o f t h r e e t o f i v e p e o p l e . I n F e n g s h e n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d we were t o l d t h a t s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h e masses a r e b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d and s o c i a l i s t c o u r t y a r d s have o r g a n i z e d u n d e r r e s i d e n t s * c o m m i t t e e s . I n t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h e r e a r e 970 s o c i a l i s t c o u r t y a r d s w i t h r e s i d e n t s ' c o m m i t t e e s c o n s i s t i n g o f f r o m 30 t o 60 c o u r t y a r d s . Time i s spent,"we were t o l d , s t u d y i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f C h a i r m a n Mao and t a k i n g 1 0 0 i p a r t i n c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s u r b a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e encompasses- a l l major c i t i e s and towns, w h i l e s m a l l e r c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n come un d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f commune a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . P l a n n i n g I n C h i n a A l t h o u g h one s h o u l d be w a r y o f c o m p a r i s o n s between C h i n a and o t h e r n a t i o n s i t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o r e a l i z e t h a t p l a n n i n g i n C h i n a i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from p l a n n i n g e l s e w h e r e . T h i s a s p e c t w i l l be t o u c h e d upon l a t e r . The p o i n t t o n o t e h e r e i s t h a t i n C h i n a s p a t i a l o r p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i s n o t s e p a r a t e f r o m e c o n o m i c o r p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g , and t h e p l a n n i n g o f C h i n a ' s c i t i e s i s n o t d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e r u r a l o r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g o f t h e s t a t e as a w h o l e . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f C h i n e s e u r b a n p l a n n i n g t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c f o r c e s a t work a f f e c t i n g c i t i e s be c o n s i d e r e d and e x p l a i n e d , e v e n i f done so b r i e f l y . R o l a n d B e r g e r (1975) o f f e r s an e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t i n g o f t h e e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , w h i l e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s o f i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s t r u c t u r e a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m B a r r y Rlchman and F r a n z Schurmann ( 1 9 6 8 ) . W h e e l w r i g h t and M c F a r l a n e i n t h e C h i n e s e  Road To S o c i a l i s m d i s c u s s t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e c u l t u r a l r e v o -l u t i o n on t h e C h i n e s e p o l i t i c a l economy. E f f o r t s t o change f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work and i t s management and l o c a t i o n i s r e p o r t e d b y C h a r l e s B e t t e l h e i m i n C u l t u r a l 101 R e v o l u t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C h i n a . S t a t e p l a n n i n g i n C h i n a b e g i n s w i t h t h e " f o r m u l a t i o n o f e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i v e s b y t o p p a r t y and government a u t h o r i t i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r k e y p r i o r i t i e s and p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y - f o r example, t h e r e l a t i v e e m p h a s i s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e a v y and l i g h t i n d u s t r y , d e f e n s e , a g r i c u l t u r e . T h e s e d i r e c t i v e s a r e t r a n s -l a t e d i n t o c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i n g t e r m s by t h e S t a t e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n and o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e c e n t r a l o r g a n s . " (Richman, p. 706-707) I t i s t h i s a g e n c y , t h e S t a t e P l a n n i n g C ommission, w h i c h a c t u a l l y p r e p a r e s - C h i n a ' s a n n u a l and f i v e - y e a r p l a n s , and i t s p r o p o s a l s a r e r a t i f i e d by t h e c e n t r a l g o v ernment. L o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g , p e r i o d s o f t e n t o t w e n t y y e a r s , comes under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c C o m m i s s i o n . " C h i n a ' s g e n e r a l e c o n o m i c and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s , s t r a t e g i e s , and p o l i c i e s " a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h " t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etween l i g h t and h e a v y i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , a u t o m a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l p r o g r e s s , t h e t y p e s , l o c a t i o n s , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new i n d u s t r i e s and f a c t o r i e s , p r i o r i t i e s f o r p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t , optimum p l a n t s i z e i n a g i v e n s e c t o r , and so f o r t h . " (Richman, p. 685) A l t h o u g h t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g powers a p p e a r s t o be t h e s i t u a t i o n b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e m a i n t a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y and i n d e -p endence p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h o s e a r e a s o f t h e n a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i n g a g r e a t e r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . I t w o u l d a p p e a r , a c c o r d i n g t o 102 Richman, t h a t as l o n g as o p e r a t i o n s c o n t i n u e t o r u n s m o o t h l y , p r o v i n c e s and c i t i e s have b e e n a l l o w e d t o r e t a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e power o v e r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l s and i n d u s t r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B e r g e r o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g example f r o m h i s k n o w l e d g e o f S h e n s i P r o v i n c e t o e x p l a i n p a r t o f t h e a n n u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . I n September o r O c t o b e r o f e a c h y e a r p r o v i s i o n a l e c o n o m i c t a r g e t s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r a r e s e n t b y t h e S t a t e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n t o t h e f i r s t o r d e r ' l e v e l ( T a b l e I ) . T h e s e p r o v i s i o n a l t a r g e t s , b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e c u r r e n t y e a r , a r e d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e main c a t e g o r i e s : " i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p -ment; a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; m a i n c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s ; raw m a t e r i a l s ; f i n a n c e ; c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and t r a n s -p o r t ; commerce; wages and s o c i a l services'.' ( p . 559) The p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d h e r e a r e t h e same f o r p r o v i n c e s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and autonomous r e g i o n s . The p r o v i n c e r e v i e w s p a s t and f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and " t h e n d i v i d e t h e p r o -v i s i o n a l t a r g e t s i n t o p l a n s f o r e a c h o f t h e u n i t s a t t h e n e x t l o w e r l e v e l - t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n a a n d any towns and f a c t o r i e s u n d e r d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p r o v i n c e " , ( p . 559) I n t h e example o f S h e n s i ( C h a r t I I ) . a p r o v i s i o n a l p l a n i s worked o u t f o r e a c h o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s , towns and s e v e r a l f a c t o r i e s u nder t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p r o v i n c e . E a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n b e l o w t h e p r o v i n c e r e v i e w s t h e p r o v i s i o n a l t a r g e t s i n t e r m s o f i t s own s i t u a t i o n and t h e n d e c i d e s on an a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i s i o n i n t o p l a n s f o r e a c h 103 o f t h e c o u n t i e s , towns and f a c t o r i e s u n d e r i t s r e g i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . C o u n t i e s v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n p o p u l a t i o n s i z e f r o m 400,000 t o 750,000 w i t h an a v e r a g e , i n S h e n s i , o f t h i r t e e n c o u n t i e s t o e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n . The number o f c o u n t i e s i n e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n a l s o v a r i e s t h r o u g h -o u t C h i n a . F i g u r e I I I S h e n s i P r o v i n c e  S t r u c t u r a l L e v e l s I n v o l v e d  I n The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s SHENSI PROVINCE ( p o p u l a t i o n 21 m i l l i o n ) (Sheng) 3 c i t i e s u n d e r d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p o f P r o v i n c e ( S i a n , T u ngchan, P a o k i ) 2 c o u n t y towns under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s (Yenan, S i e n y a n g ) 7 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s (Zhuan Qu) 93 c o u n t i e s ( X i a n ) 2,500 communes (Gong She) 30,000 p r o d u c t i o n b r i g a d e s (Sheng Chan D a D u i ) I 140,000 p r o d u c t i o n teams (Sheng Chan X i a o D u i ) S o u r c e : R o l a n d B e r g e r . " E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . " W o r l d D evelopment. V o l . 3, Numbers 7 & 8, J u l y - A u g u s t 1975, p. 559. I t i s a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s , t h e commune and t h e f a c t o r y , t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e "mass l i n e " comes i n t o f u l l p l a y . G o a l s 104 p r o p o s e d from above a r e d i s c u s s e d f u l l y b y t h e f a c t o r y as a w h o l e and a l s o by e a c h i n d i v i d u a l w orkshop. B e r g e r s t a t e s " t h e t a r g e t s f o r major f a c t o r i e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o : o u t p u t ; v a r i e t i e s , q u a l i t i e s ; major raw m a t e r i a l s , f u e l s , power c o s t s , e t c . ; c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n ; p r o f i t ; l a b o u r and p r o d u c t i v i t y " , ( p . 560) A s i m i l a r p r o c e s s o c c u r s on t h e communes. However, i t i s t h e s e g r a s s r o o t s w h i c h a r e so i m p o r t a n t i n making t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e "mass l i n e " and from t h e " t o p down and t h e b o t t o m up" work. A t e v e r y s t a g e i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e an exchange has o c c u r r e d between t h e u p p e r and l o w e r l e v e l s b e f o r e t h e p l a n i s p a s s e d upward t o t h e l e v e l a bove. M o d i f i c a t i o n s may n o t o n l y be made a t any s t a g e b u t d i s c u s s i o n s a r e o n - g o i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . P r o v i s i o n a l p l a n s w i t h t h e i r s u g g e s t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e 21 p r o v i n c e s , t h r e e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and f i v e a u t o n o -mous r e g i o n s a r e t h e n f o r w a r d e d t o t h e C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g Com-m i s s i o n i n P e k i n g where t h e y a r e c o - o r d i n a t e d and c e n t r a l i z e d . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e s e p r o p o s a l s from t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l " a r e a s " a r e combined w i t h t h e p r o p o s a l s f r o m v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l m i n i s -t r i e s o r " l i n e s " . I t i s up t o t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e p r o p o s a l s from b o t h i n t o one p l a n . Once t h i s h as b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e p l a n , p e r h a p s f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d , goes t h r o u g h t h e same p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g e a c h l e v e l . D e v o l u t i o n o f P l a n n i n g Powers T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s t o make h e r e . F i r s t , t h e C h i n e s e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s method o f " d e v o l u t i o n o f powers" 105 a l l o w s f o r t h e most v a l u a b l e i d e a s t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e p l a n and f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t o o c c u r a t a l l l e v e l s . S e c o n d l y , " t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e one t h i n g , t h e common p u r p o s e d e r i v i n g f r o m u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p o l i c y i s a n o t h e r and more im-p o r t a n t f e a t u r e " . ( p . 561) What t h i s e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e e x p r e s s e s i s a " d e v o l u t i o n o f p l a n n i n g p o wers" w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s C h i n e s e p l a n n i n g f r o m p l a n n i n g as we know i t and a c c o u n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o R o b i n Thompson (1975, p. 602) f o r one o f t h e major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f C h i n e s e p l a n n i n g a t t h e u r b a n l e v e l . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etween v a r i o u s government l e v e l s i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e b u t i l l u s t r a t i o n s c a n a t t e s t t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y and t o a d e -c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n p l a n n i n g powers. The f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t comes f r o m R o b i n Thompson as a r e s u l t o f h i s 1974 v i s i t t o t h e c i t y o f C h angsha: "The M a - Y i - H s i n g N e i g h b o u r h o o d i s an o l d q u a r t e r o f C hangsha, w i t h p o o r h o u s i n g and c r a m p e d i i n d u s t r i e s . R e d e v e l o p m e n t i s g r a d u -a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e . I n i t i a t i v e s have m a i n l y come f r o m t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Committee, w h i c h . h a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , s u p e r i n t e n d e d t h e e r e c t i o n o f t h r e e new b l o c k s o f f l a t s . The i d e a emanated l o c a l l y ; t h e Committee d e c i d e d w h i c h slums most u r g e n t l y w a r r a n t e d c l e a r a n c e and who needed new accommodation; t h e f l a t s were b u i l t by r e s i d e n t s ' l a b o u r w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e i r two f u l l - t i m e b u i l d e r s . However, t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e s u b j e c t t o d i s -c u s s i o n and c o n t r o l w i t h h i g h e r t i e r s . U r b a n D i s t r i c t and S t r e e t Committees w i l l u s u a l l y have one member r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s who w o u l d a d v i s e and l i a i s e a t N e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l . I n o u r Changsha example, p l a n n i n g p e r -m i s s i o n was r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g B u r e a u , w h i c h o p e r a t e s a d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l m a c h i n e r y r e m i n i s c e n t o f B r i t a i n ' s . However, 106 c r i t e r i a u s e d i n e v a l u a t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s i n -c l u d e n o t o n l y t e c h n i c a l s t a n d a r d s o f d e s i g n and d e n s i t y , b u t a l s o c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o d u c -t i o n , m i n i m i z i n g o f j o u r n e y s t o work, e l i m i -n a t i o n o f ' w a s t e s ' , and l i n k a g e s w i t h r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The Changsha B u r e a u had c o n s u l t e d t h e C i t y H o u s i n g and I n d u s t r y B u r e a u x a t i t s own m u n i c i p a l l e v e l t o c h e c k t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e s n e e d ed f o r t h e M a - Y i - H s i n g p r o j e c t s were com-p a t i b l e w i t h g e n e r a l q u o t a s . T h i s c a s e demon-s t r a t e s how d e v o l u t i o n o f p l a n n i n g meshes w i t h an a s p a t i a l , i n c r e m e n t a l m e t h o d o l o g y . " (Thompson, 1975, p. 602) T h e r e i s l e s s known a b o u t t h e c o u n t i e s under m u n i c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n t h a n o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n s . Once a g a i n J e f f r e y o f f e r s h i s own l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p : "The C o u n t y D i s t r i c t s o f P r o v i n c i a l C i t i e s we had no f o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e o f , a s i d e f r o m t h e two p r o v i n c i a l f a c t o r i e s w h i c h a r e i n Wuhan and Changsha c o u n t y d i s t r i c t s . The Wuhan c o u n t y d i s t r i c t s c o v e r 1300 s q . km. ( c f . 190 s q . km. o f u r b a n d i s t r i c t s ) , and c o n t a i n 26 P e o p l e ' s Communes and one s t a t e farm o f o v e r 500 s q . km. p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t l y f o r t h e h e a v y i n d u s t r y t h e r e . I n Changsha, t h e f i v e u r b a n d i s t r i c t s c o v e r 40 s q . km., and t h e c o u n t y d i s t r i c t s 4000 s q . km., w i t h 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . C o u n t y d i s t r i c t s , as i n S h a n g h a i , s e r v e two f u n c t i o n s : t o p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e c i t i e s and f a c t o r i e s ; and t o p r o v i d e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e f o r c o n t r o l l e d u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t and d i s p e r s a l . I n Changsha i t was e m p h a s i z e d t h a t p l a n n i n g was t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y , and o f t h e r u r a l and t h e u r b a n . " ( J e f f r e y , 1974, p. 146) U r b a n p l a n n i n g i s i n r e a l i t y s u b o r d i n a t e t o s t a t e and l o c a l e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g . D e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o r l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o e c o n o m i c p l a n s and c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h t h e numerous b u r e a u s a t t h e c i t y l e v e l . P l a c i n g an e m p h a s i s on " s e l f - r e l i a n c e " has meant however, t h a t t h e i n i t i a t i v e f o r p r o d u c t i o n e x p a n s i o n 107 u s u a l l y comes from t h e f a c t o r y i t s e l f and n o t from above; t h a t i s p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s a t e i t h e r t h e n a t i o n a l or l o c a l l e v e l s . (Buck, p. 27) Two i l l u s t r a t i o n s e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n e i g h -b o u r h o o d f a c t o r i e s t o t h e o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . The f i r s t , an example o f f a c t o r y e x p a n s i o n i n S h a n g h a i ; t h e s e c o n d , a b r i e f i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e i g h b o u r h o o d f a c t o r y , m u n i c i p a l b u r e a u s and t h e s t a t e government. " . . . i n S h a n g h a i Ch'en Y u - j u i , a member o f t h e T ' i e n - s h a n D i s t r i c t R e v o l u t i o n a r y Com-m i t t e e t o l d us a b o u t how f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n o f s u c h a n e i g h b o r h o o d f a c t o r y would p r o -c e e d . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n f o r e x p a n s i o n o r d i n a r i l y w o u l d come from t h e f a c t o r y i t s e l f . N a t u r a l l y , t h e expanded l i n e s w o u l d match l i n e s d e s i r e d i n t h e n a t i o n a l and S h a n g h a i e c o n o m i c p l a n s . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e a p p r o v a l from t h e f a c -t o r y s t a f f and management, s u c h a p r o j e c t w o u l d be r e v i e w e d and a p p r o v e d by t h e n e i g h -b o r h o o d and d i s t r i c t r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s . F i n a l l y , t h e d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e S h a n g h a i m u n i c i p a l government would a l l o c a t e t h e l a n d , s t r u c t u r e s and c a p i t a l goods r e q u i r e d and t h e f a c t o r y w o u l d pay f o r t h i s e x p a n s i o n o u t o f " a c c u m u l a t i o n " , or what we w o u l d c a l l r e t a i n e d e a r n i n g s . Ch'en s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h was an example o f t h e way i n w h i c h s e l f - r e l i a n c e works i n an u r b a n p r o d u c t i o n c o n t e x t . " (Buck, p. 27) I n 1966, i n Shenyang, a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l , n i n e h o u s e w i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d a m e t a l l u r g i c a l f a c t o r y u t i l i z i n g w a s t e m a t e r i a l s f r o m s l a g h e a p s . C r e a t i n g t h e i r own hand t o o l s and r e b u i l d i n g o u t d a t e d m a c h i n e r y t h e o p e r a t i o n ex-panded o v e r t h e y e a r s t o e v e n t u a l l y employ c l o s e t o 200 i n d i v i d u a l s . The p r o d u c t i o n o f s p a r e p a r t s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l m a c h i n e r y became s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e f a c t o r y i s now i n -108 c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g scheme and f u n c t i o n s u n der t h e m u n i c i p a l b u r e a u o f a g r i c u l t u r a l m a c h i n e r y . Wage l e v e l s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l L a b o u r B u r e a u . A major f e a t u r e o f many C h i n e s e c i t i e s , and s o m e t h i n g t h e p e o p l e a r e v e r y p r o u d o f , a r e l a r g e p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as h e a v y i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s . T h e s e l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e s , v i r t u a l c o m m u n i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s , r e l a t e t o t h e s t r u c t u r e i n two ways. They a r e p a r t o f t h e i n t r i c a t e s t a t e n a t i o n a l p l a n as w e l l as b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t component i n t h e u r b a n p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . I n Ch'ang Ch'un t h e l a r g e s t t r u c k f a c t o r y i n C h i n a employs 20,000 w o r k e r s and p r o d u c e s 60,000 u n i t s a n n u a l l y . The p l a n t i t s e l f i s u nder t h e u n i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e c i t y w h i l e d e c i s i o n s t o l o c a t e t h e p l a n t and d e s i g n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s was worked o u t w i t h v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l b u r e a u s . The i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s t y p e o f e n t e r p r i s e i s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s a new t y p e o f community e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e l i b e r a t i o n ; a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n -t e g r a t e d w i t h p r o d u c t i o n . C l i n i c s , day c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , a h o s p i t a l , s i x p r i m a r y and f o u r m i d d l e s c h o o l s , a m i d d l e t e c h -n i c a l s c h o o l ( f o r s p a r e t i m e s t u d y ) and a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e c o l l e g e a r e a l l a t t a c h e d t o and managed by w o r k e r s a t t h i s i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t y . The Emergence Qf The R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committees I t i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s t o e x p l a i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f C h i n a . However, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e p r e c e d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n may be d e c e i v i n g . 109 A t e v e r y l e v e l o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o l i t i c a l u n i t o p e r a t i n g a t t h e same t i m e and i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body. A t many l e v e l s t h i s Communist P a r t y o r g a n i s t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committee. R e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s emerged d u r i n g t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . T h e y a r e o r g a n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l power f o r g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s , f o r f a c t o r i e s and f o r i n s t i t u -t i o n s . " T h e r e i s now a r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e , as t h e o r g a n o f p o l i t i c a l power, a t e v e r y l e v e l from t h e p r o v i n c e s t o t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . " ( R o b i n s o n , p. 14) The b a s i c u n i t s o f p o l i t i -c a l power i n t h e c i t y a r e t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s o f e n t e r p r i s e s and n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . ( R o b i n s o n , p. 15) E v e r y p e r s o n i n C h i n a i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h i s o r g a n u s u a l l y a t t h e p l a c e o f work b u t t h o s e who a r e r e t i r e d and t h o s e who a r e members o f a w o r k e r s ' f a m i l y a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e R e v o l u -t i o n a r y Committee o f t h e i r p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e . ( J e f f r e y , p. 144) "The w o r k e r s l i v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r n e i g h -b o u r h o o d a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i r f a c t o r i e s . The n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e p r e s e n t s m a i n l y h o u s e -w i v e s and r e t i r e d p e o p l e . S t r e e t c o m m i t t e e s e l e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h e s e a r e r e p r e -s e n t e d on t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o m m i t t e e a l o n g w i t h c a d r e s and t h e PLA ( t h o u g h t h e PLA r e p r e s e n t a t i o n seems t o be v e s t i g i a l ) . The c a d r e s a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l a r e p a i d s a l a r i e s b y t h e c i t y . I t i s t h e i r b u s i n e s s n o t o n l y t o b r i n g down s u g g e s t i o n s f r o m above b u t a l s o t o c a r r y t h e v i e w s o f t h e p e o p l e up. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e y c o l l e c t t h e c u s t o m e r s ' v i e w s a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y and v a r i e t y o f goods t o t h e l o c a l s h o p s . When some s p e c i a l t a s k comes up, s a y a c a m p a i g n t o im-p r o v e s a n i t a t i o n b e f o r e t h e h o t w e a t h e r b e g i n s , 110 m e e t i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n s a r e h e l d . The m e e t i n g s may d i v i d e i n t o g r o u p s under s t r e e t c o m m i t t e e s . P l a n s c a n be m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v i e w s t h a t g e t s u p p o r t . " ( R o b i n s o n , p. 16) T h e r e i s an e x c u t i V e p r o v i d e d f r o m a s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e f o r e v e r y r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e w h i l e a t h i g h e r l e v e l s e a c h s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e has a c i v i l s e r v i c e or s t a f f o f o f -f i c i a l s . P a r a l l e l t o e a c h l e v e l i n t h e s t r u c t u r e a r e P a r t y C ommittees r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e P a r t y members i n e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . "The P a r t y . . . i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o l i c y and t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s a r e c h a r g e d w i t h c a r r y i n g o u t t h e P a r t y ' s p o l i c y . " ( R o b i n s o n , p. 14) The f o l l o w i n g i s an a c c o u n t o f t h e r e v o -l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e o f t h e l a r g e c i t y o f S h a n g h a i a s t o l d b y J o a n R o b i n s o n : " I was g i v e n some d e t a i l s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e o f S h a n g h a i , w h i c h r a n k s as a p r o v i n c e . O t h e r s a r e on t h e same p a t t e r n . T h e r e a r e 150 members, o f whom r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e masses a r e 105, c a d r e s 21, and PLA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s 24. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e masses c o n s i s t o f 43 w o r k e r s , 21 p e a s a n t s ( f r o m t h e c o u n t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c i t y ) , 8 Red G u a r d s (now a t m i d d l e s c h o o l , no l o n g e r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ) , 16 i n t e l l e c t u a l s , c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a r t s and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and 17 c o m m e r c i a l w o r k e r s . The c o m m i t t e e as a w h o l e meets g e n e r a l l y t w i c e a y e a r , t o h e a r a r e p o r t on t h e y e a r ' s work and t o d i s c u s s t h e a n n u a l p l a n . I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p o i n t i n g t h e s t a n d i n g com-m i t t e e w h i c h c a r r i e s o u t t h e d u t i e s o f t h e o l d p r o v i n c i a l g overnment. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h b u r e a u x c o n c e r n e d w i t h p l a n n i n g , commerce, f i n a n c e , e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h , and so f o r t h , and t h e r e a r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e p a r t m e n t s a t t h e l o w e r _ l e v e l s . " ( R o b i n s o n , p. 15) J e f f r e y w r i t e s o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e and p r o -v i d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : T a b l e X V I I C o m p o s i t i o n o f V a r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committees Rev Com Members T o t a l Employed % % % % • C a d r e T e c h Work e r s P e a s ' t s Worn PLA T o t a l Worn P a r t y Number Worn P a r t y Indus t r i a l S t e e l w o r k s M a c h i n e F F a c t o r y Docks D i s t r i c t P o r c e l a i n F a c t o r y R u r a l S h e n Deh C o u n t y S i n g C h i a n g P.C. 40-14 6 9 15 5 13 5 1 t e a c h e r 40+ 22 12 17 w i t h i n : 39 83 1 43 21 7 44 4 56 ' . 2 15 m i l i t i a 16 70 14 68,000 18 _many 6,000 20 12.5 3,000 13 many 20 1,826 Pop. 720 t h 20.5 t h 18 S o u r c e : N. J e f f r e y . " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e / P o l i t i c a l S y s t e m i n C h i n a . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n . V o l . 49, No. 3, 1974, p. 148. The r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s "were d e s c r i b e d as ' b a s i c u n i t s o f p r o l e t a r i a t power' ( t h e y i n c l u d e d w o r k e r s ) , and as p r o v i d i n g t h e ' u n i f i e d l e a d e r s h i p ' ( t h e y i n c l u d e d p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a d r e ) . The Rev Corns have members r e -s p o n s i b l e t o t h e mass ( R e s p o n s i b l e Members) and S t a n d i n g Members. The l a t t e r make up a S t a n d i n g Committee w h i c h meets more o f t e n . A t t h e Hunan p o r c e l a i n f a c t o r y we-were t o l d t h a t t h e Rev Com i s a p r o v i s i o n a l power o r g a n i z a t i o n , and an e x e c u t i v e f o r t h e P a r t y C ommittee." ( J e f f r e y , p. 147) B o t h a u t h o r s m e n t i o n the e x i s t e n c e o f " c o n s i d e r a b l e " o v e r l a p b etween P a r t y C ommittees and R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committees and t h e r e l a t i v e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e PLA f r o m t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y C o m m i t t e e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s i s t h a t f o r c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s and f o r s t a t e f a c t o r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e s e b o d i e s a r e t h e o r g a n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h u s t a k e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a c e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r p l a n n i n g . The r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e c a n a l s o be v i e w e d as b e i n g p a r t o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Communist P a r t y o f C h i n a . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h i s c o m m i t t e e e x i s t s a t e a c h l e v e l i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r i t as a h o r i z o n t a l c o m p l e m e n t a r y component t o e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e component a p p e a r i n g i n f i g u r e I I . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s f o r f a c t o r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e i n d i c a t e s i n d i r e c t l y t h e power o f i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c e i n C h i n a ' s p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e . 113 S i g n i f i c a n c e To P l a n n i n g The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e as p r e s e n t e d i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o p l a n n i n g as i t r e f l e c t s many o f t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l s o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g and t h e p l a n n i n g and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s b e h i n d t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t a t e . Most n o t e w o r t h y has b e e n t h e d e v o l u t i o n o f p l a n n i n g powers n o t a b l y t h o s e r e l a t e d t o r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n , q u e s t i o n s r e -l a t e d t o u t i l i z a t i o n , and t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s . P o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s a r e p a r t o f t h e p a r t y s t r u c t u r e n o t d i s c u s s e d h e r e . The C h i n e s e p e o p l e have shown an amazing a b i l i t y t o s t r u g g l e and d e a l w i t h p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s t h r o u g h a p o l i t i c a l and a d -m i n i s t r a t i v e f ramework ( s o l u t i o n t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n and d e b a t e ) as o p p o s e d t o l e a v i n g p l a n n i n g i n t h e hands o f t h e e x p e r t s . J e f f r e y o f f e r s two main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i n e s e p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e . One i s t h a t " p o l i c i e s made and d e c i s i o n s t a k e n u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e P a r t y , a r e l a t i o n w h i c h i s b o t h v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l ( t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e ' u n i f i e d l e a d e r -s h i p ' o f p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h r o u g h R e v o l u t i o n a r y C o m m i t t e e s ) " . S e c o n d l y , " t h a t d e c i s i o n s a r e s u b j e c t t o a 'two-way* f l o w o f p r o p o s a l s from above and b e l o w , w i t h c o n -s i d e r a b l e 'leeway' i n p r o p o s a l s " . ( J e f f r e y , p. 147) I n e s s e n c e , b u r e a u c r a c i e s and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s , p a r -t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , have b e e n l i m i t e d . The s y s t e m o f " f r o m t h e t o p down and t h e b o t t o m up" a p p e a r s t o be e n j o y i n g a h e a l t h y l i f e . The C h i n e s e method o f p l a n n i n g i s d i f f e r e n t , as i s t h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r , b e c a u s e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t and p r a c t i s e d e x t e n s i v e l y . The 114 The s o u r c e s o f t h e p l a n n e r s a d v i c e and t h a t o f o t h e r d e c i s i o n makers comes from a number o f d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s c a n a t t e s t t o t h a t . The p l a n n i n g o f C h i n a ' s c i t i e s i s n o t d i v o r c e d f r o m e c o n o m i c o r p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e n a t i o n as a w h o l e , w h i l e p h y s i c a l o r s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g i s s u b s e r v i e n t t o e c o n o m i c and p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e r e -f l e c t s e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e b a l a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t between i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e and t o e l i m i n a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e . Summary A l l l e v e l s o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a p r o c e s s w h i c h i s b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d a t t h e most l o c a l l e v e l p o s s i b l e . The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f b o t h e c o n o m i c and u r b a n p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s a r e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and mass p a r -t i c i p a t i o n , as r e f l e c t e d by the d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n c h a p t e r t h r e e . S t r u c t u r e d a s C h i n e s e s o c i e t y may a p p e a r t o b e , i t i s n o t a r i g i d s t r u c t u r e . Numerous a l t e r a t i o n s i n e c o n o m i c and u r b a n p l a n n i n g f rameworks have a c c o m p a n i e d c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . N e i t h e r do t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s have c o m p l e t e s a y i n a l l m a t t e r s . The C h i n e s e p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Mao T s e - t u n g and n o t a b l y as a r e s u l t o f the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n have t h w a r t e d o v e r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . S e v e r a l t h i n g s a r e c e r t a i n a bout t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e 115 n a t i o n s c i t i e s . ' They a r e b e i n g d e s i g n e d i n t e r n a l l y i n s u c h a manner as t o c e a s e t h e b r e e d i n g o f b o u r g e o i s - m i n d e d e l i t e s ; t o s e r v e t h e masses; and t o i n t e g r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y w i t h t h e c o u n t r y s i d e f o r d i s p e r s a l o f i n d u s t r y and t e c h n o l o g y . I m p o r t a n t t o d i s c u s s , no m a t t e r how b r i e f l y , a r e t h e e f f e c t s on t h e p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n s s u c h as t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o m m i t t e e s . C h i n a i s a n a t i o n i n t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n ; a p e o p l e c o m m i t t e d t o g o a l s w h i c h w i l l r e q u i r e d e c a d e s t o achieve 1.. U n d o u b t e d l y a l o n g t h e way r e m n a n t s o f c a p i t a l i s t and b o u r g e o i s t e n d e n c i e s w i l l s u r f a c e . The s o -c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e d e s c r i b e d and t h e r e l a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n s t o i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t when t h e need t o r e t a i n c o n t r o l i s u n d e r s t o o d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , and what t h i s t h e s i s r e f l e c t s , i s t h a t l i t t l e i s a c t u a l l y known ab o u t d e t a i l s o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s or t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e and day t o day w o r k i n g s o f t h e c i t y i t s e l f . Knowledge i s s c a n t a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f u r b a n s t r u c t u r e one t o t h e o t h e r , or o f d e t a i l s o f t h e t i e s t h a t s t a t e o r mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s have w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g Communist P a r t y u n i t s . T h i s i s one a s p e c t r e l a t e d t o t h e p l a n n i n g o f C h i n a ' s c i t i e s where t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t gap i n k n o w l e d g e . A t p r e s e n t o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u r b a n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s q u i t e s u p e r f i c i a l . 116 CHAPTER V I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I n t r o d u c t i o n I t i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k t o draw from t h e e x i s t i n g l i m i t e d k n o w l e d g e , c o n c r e t e c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t p l a n n i n g and u r b a n c e n t r e s i n t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . By n e c e s s i t y , t h e q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a l l o w o n l y g e n e r a l q u a l i t a t i v e c o n -c l u s i o n s . T h a t i s t o s a y , i s s u e s r a i s e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c w i l l be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a g e n e r i c s e n s e as o p p o s e d t o t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s o r i n t e r m s o f t h e i r d i r e c t a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o Canada o r o t h e r f o r e i g n s o c i e t i e s . The o c c a s i o n a l s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r -m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d does l e n d c r e d e n c e t o t h e s t r o n g e r i n d i c a t i o n s o f c e r t a i n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g y What i s c e r t a i n i s t h a t t h e C h i n e s e have embarked on a program t o c r e a t e a s o c i e t y where d i s t i n c t i o n s among t h e masses w i l l be a b o l i s h e d and t h a t t h i s p r i m a r y g o a l i s b a s e d on and g u i d e d by a s t i l l - e v o l v i n g , s t r o n g , s o c i a l i s t p o l i t i c a l p h i l o -s ophy. CONCLUSION: POLITICAL IDEOLOGY IS THE GUIDING FORCE OF CHINA'S URBAN AND ECONOMIC PLANNING. Mao T s e - t u n g has warned t h a t c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n i n g o f p e o p l e and m a t e r i a l w i l l come a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e i n t e g r a t i v e p l a n n i n g o f an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y and t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f s u c h an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y w i l l a l s o r e s u l t i n b o t h an i n e q u a l i t y o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and an i n e q u a l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s . Man must be f r e e d n o t o n l y from t h e " n e c e s s i t y o f e k i n g o u t a l i v i n g and f i n d i n g t h e means o f s u b s i s t e n c e , b u t a l s o from t h e i m p e r a t i v e s o f t e c h n o l o g y " . I f t h i s i s n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e n t h e masses w i l l succumb t o a new g r o u p o f r u l e r s , a g r o u p c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e c h n i c i a n s who s u p p l y m a t e r i a l c o m f o r t s , and d i r e c t o r s who shape t h e r e s p o n s e s o f w o r k e r s t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l n e e d s . ( W h e e l w r i g h t and M c F a r l a n e , pp. 216-217) Mao has s u g g e s t e d a new p o l i t i c a l o r d e r w h i c h w i l l meet t h e n eeds o f f a c t o r y and commune i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t y and a " m e a n i n g f u l g r o u p l i f e " . T h i s i s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e p r e s e n t n e c e s s a r i l y h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y and g o v ernment. ( W h e e l w r i g h t and M c F a r l a n e , p. 217) F o l l o w e r s o f Mao T s e - t u n g m a i n t a i n t h a t l i k e p r e - 1 9 4 9 C h i n e s e s o c i e t y , t h e y e a r s 1952-1957 and 1962-1964 were c h a r -a c t e r i z e d b y an e v e r i n c r e a s i n g p o w e r f u l government a p p a r a t u s and a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y t o e s t a b l i s h a s c e n d a n c y o f t h e h i g h e r c l a s s e s o v e r t h e l o w e r . T hey have a l s o c o n s i s t e n t l y warned t h a t u r b a n e c o n o m i c l i f e i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d . T h e y warn o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power, p r o d u c e d by i n -d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , and t h e need o f t h e masses t o combat i t . The two " e n e m i e s " , t h e " i m p e r a t i v e s o f t e c h n o l o g y and i n d u s t r i a l i s m , and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n t h e hands o f t h o s e who promote 118 them" must be s t r u g g l e d w i t h . I f t e c h n o l o g i c a l and e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n become o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e m s e l v e s and " p o l i t i c s i s k e p t from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e i n n e r i m p e r a t i v e s and ' s e l f - e v i d e n t s u c c e s s ' o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t " , t h e n t h e masses w i l l f i n d t h e m s e l v e s d e p r i v e d o f t r u e f r e e d o m e v e n i f t h e y a c q u i r e t h e " i n d i s p e n s a b l e M a r x i a n m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f f r e e d o m " . ( W h e e l w r i g h t and M c F a r l a n e , p. 216) P o s t - 1 9 4 9 C h i n e s e s o c i e t y has b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a c o n t i n u i n g s t r u g g l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e c t s o c i a l i s t p a t h t o f o l l o w . From t h e e a r l y t o mid-1950's, t h e government o b v i o u s l y p l a n n e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on h e a v y i n d u s t r y i n t h e medium and s m a l l c i t i e s o f C h i n a ' s i n t e r i o r p r o v i n c e s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e g e n e r a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n as a n a l y z e d b y Wu i n The S p a t i a l Economy o f Communist C h i n a a r e ( l ) r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; (2) i n t r a r e g i o n a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n t h e b r o a d framework o f i n t e r r e g i o n a l t r a d e ; (3) p r o x i m i t y t o raw m a t e - r i a l s , f u e l s , and m a r k e t s ; (4) c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y ; (5) and g e o g r a p h i c a l b a l a n c e between new and e s t a b -l i s h e d e c o n o m i c b a s e s . I n Wu's a n a l y s i s a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w i t h t h e " o b j e c t i v e l a w s " o f s o c i a l i s t l o -c a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e y c o i n c i d e c l o s e l y w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e S o v i e t economy. By 1959, Mao and o t h e r C h i n e s e l e a d e r s were p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l b a s e s c o n c e r n s h o u l d be shown f o r the p r o p e r b a l a n c e between new and e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s . The S o v i e t model had d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i t was n o t s u i t e d t o C h i n a ' s r e s o u r c e s and r e a l i t i e s r e s u l t i n g i n a s h i f t o f s t r a t e g y 119 d e s i g n e d t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e o v e r a l l r a t e o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , p l a c i n g an e m p h a s i s on l a b o u r , and r e d u c i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l b o t t l e -n e c k s . The r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e o f t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d a c c o m p a n i e d by a huge d r i v e t o r e t u r n t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e s p a t i a l economy bet w e e n 1961 and 1965. The main s h i f t was i n e m p h a s i s from new t o e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s . A p a r t f r o m a l l o c a t i v e c h a n g e s t h e e a r l y 1960's were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l i a n c e on m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s i n b o t h a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y . T h i s gave r i s e t o what t h e C h i n e s e r e f e r r e d t o as " c a p i t a l i s t t e n d e n c i e s " and "economism" o r " r e v i s i o n i s m " . T h e r e was c o n -s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on Mao's p a r t , t h a t t h e s e c h a n g e s w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o g r e a t e r income d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . T h i s marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , a r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d w h i c h l e f t b a s i c a l l o c a t i v e p r i o r i t i e s i n t a c t . The same o b j e c t i v e s i n C h i n e s e s o c i e t y were s t i l l aimed a t b u t t h r o u g h d i f f e r i n g means. I t was hoped t h a t i n s t i l l i n g a new s p i r i t o r work e t h i c w o u l d r e d u c e m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s and r e m u n e r a t i o n and r e p l a c e t h e s e w i t h M a o i s t i d e a l s . A l t h o u g h n o t d i s a p p e a r i n g e n t i r e l y wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s were r e d u c e d and b a r r i e r s o f r a n k and f u n c t i o n i n t h e government and army b r o k e n down. CONCLUSION; MAOIST IDEOLOGICAL STRUGGLE HAS HAD PROFOUND EFFECTS IN SHIFTING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED URBANIZATION POLICIES. Of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e i n a n a l y z i n g t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f 120 c h a n g e s i n u r b a n and e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s from 1949 t o t h e p r e s e n t i s n o t t h e a c t u a l s h i f t s i n d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s , e c o n o m i c p r i o r i t i e s , or methods o f i m p l e m e n t i n g e c o n o m i c p r o g r a m s . E a c h o f t h e v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s o v e r t i m e has had l a s t i n g e f f e c t s . R u r a l i n d u s t r i e s , s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r y and h a n d i -c r a f t s i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d and l a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e mass i r r i g a t i o n , f l o o d c o n t r o l , o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e d u r i n g t h e F i r s t F i v e - Y e a r P l a n , have b e e n r e t a i n e d t o v a r y i n g e x t e n t s . Thus d e s p i t e t h e s h i f t s i n s t r a t e g i e s and p r i o r i t i e s t h e r e has b e e n c o n t i n u i t y . T h e r e has a l s o b e e n p e r p e t u a l t e n s i o n between m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s and i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s u a s i o n f r o m l i b e r a t i o n on. CONCLUSION: A UNIQUE SOCIALIST MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT IS BEING CREATED AS CHINA RETAINS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS FROM EACH STAGE OF ITS IDEOLOGICAL STRUGGLE. I n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e b o t h a s o c i a l i s t and a modern s o c i e t y C h i n e s e p l a n n e r s , p o l i c y - m a k e r s and o t h e r l e a d e r s have b e e n f a c e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o n f l i c t s b e tween a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l i n v e s t m e n t s , r a t e s o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , p o l i c i e s a s s u r i n g h i g h r a t e s o f g r o w t h w h i l e i m p r o v i n g income d i s t r i b u t i o n e t c . S i m i l a r l y t h e r a t e o f advancement among raw m a t e r i a l s , i n v e s t m e n t goods and consumer goods have n e c e s s i -t a t e d a w h o l e s e r i e s o f a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . E c o n o m i c d e v e l o p -ment p r i n c i p l e s have i n r e a l i t y b e e n f o r m u l a t e d i n v e r y b r o a d s t r a t e g i e s . Of t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n has b e e n t h e f l e x i b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s o f C h i n e s e l e a d e r s , c a d r e s and t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o i n n o v a t e , e x p e r i m e n t and l e a r n f r o m t h e i r m i s t a k e s - One t h i n g i s c e r t a i n a b o u t p o s t - l i b e r a t i o n C h i n a and t h a t i s t h a t i t has n o t b e e n a c o n f o r m i s t s t a g n a n t s o c i e t y . Changes have b e e n many and o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . I t i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t as C h i n a ' s p o l i c i e s have s h i f t e d from t h e e a r l y 19.50's on t h a t i t has b e e n t h e c r i t e r i a i n f l u e n c i n g C h i n e s e d e c i s i o n -makers i n c h o o s i n g p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l i s t laws o f l o c a t i o n t h a t i s most i m p o r t a n t ( r e f e r t o H a m i l t o n i n C h a p t e r I ) . I n t e r a c t i o n among d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s a t l a r g e ; t h e i m p a c t o f i d e o l o g y ; and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c i n g e c o n o m i c and u r b a n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . L a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e c l u d e s d i s c u s -s i o n o f o t h e r s u g g e s t e d i n f l u e n c e s . U r b a n and E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g P o l i c i e s U r b a n and e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s r e f l e c t C h i n a ' s b r o a d o b j e c t i v e aimed a t e l i m i n a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c i t y and c o u n t r y . T h e s e p o l i c i e s have t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h a community o f m u t u a l i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n between p e a s a n t and c i t y d w e l l e r i n much t h e same way c i t y p l a n n i n g i s d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r a s e n s e o f community and b e l o n g i n g w i t h i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s t h e m s e l v e s . From t h e s e p o l i c i e s i t . c a n be s a f e l y s t a t e d t h a t no l o n g e r a r e C h i n e s e c i t i e s m e r e l y consumer e n t i t i e s d r a i n i n g t h e s u r -r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e o f i t s c a p i t a l , l a b o u r and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t r i b u t e s . On t h e o t h e r hand i t wo u l d be t o t a l l y e r r o n e o u s t o e v e n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e have b e e n c o m p l e t e l y e r a d i c a t e d , f o r beyond a d o u b t t h e c i t i e s a r e s t i l l e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e p r o d u c t i o n c e n t r e s . But i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n i s no l o n g e r c o n f i n e d s o l e l y t o them. R u r a l a r e a s have b e e n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , p r o v i d e d i n most c a s e s w i t h s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f i n d u s t r y , and i n a d d i t i o n e q u i p p e d w i t h h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s w h i c h were a l m o s t u n h e a r d o f i n y e a r s p a s t . CONCLUSION: E F F E C T I V E LINKAGES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS TO FA C I L I T A T E THE OUTWARD DIFFUSION OF GROWTH AND WELL-BEING. As L o g a n s t a t e s , " i f b i g - c i t y dominance o c c u r s i n a d e v e l o p -i n g c o u n t r y w i t h o u t an improvement i n methods o f d i f f u s i o n and w i t h o u t t h e d e l i b e r a t e b u i l d i n g o f s t r o n g u r b a n - r u r a l s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e r e w i l l be a c o n t r a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a d i s -p e r s i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t as n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h . p r o c e e d s " . He d e v e l o p s h i s arguments f u r t h e r . A c e n t r a l i s s u e f o r any d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n " i s t h e mechanism whereby t h e g r o w t h g e n e r a t e d i n t h e c i t y i s d i f f u s e d o u t w a r d " . The d i f f u s i o n o u t w a r d i s ' a p p a r e n t l y s t r o n g e r when e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i s h i g h ; t h i s b e i n g a r e s u l t o f i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and s t r o n g e r f o r c e s w o r k i n g f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f o b s t a c l e s . CONCLUSION: STRONG MECHANISMS FOR DISPERSING GROWTH OUTWARD EXI S T . THEY ARE: 1 ) POLICIES OF INDUSTRIAL DECENTRALIZATION AND RURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION. 2) CREATION OF A REVOLUTIONARY CITY STRUCTURE WHICH LINKS THE URBAN AREA ADMINISTRATIVELY AND ECONOMICALLY TO THE IMMEDIATE COUNTRYSIDE. 3) PROGRAMS, SUCH AS "HSIA FANG", TO TAKE KNOWLEDGE AND SERVICES TO RURAL AREAS. L o g a n p o s t u l a t e s t h a t i f i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s t o i m p r o v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n and o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l l i n k a g e s .between u r b a n p l a c e s and r u r a l a r e a s t h e n i t w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e t o c r e a t e a " s p r e a d o f towns o f p a r t i c u l a r s i z e s t o f o s t e r t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l i m p u l s e s g e n e r a t e d i n t h e l a r g e s t c e n t e r " . ( L o g a n , pp. 240-241) By a d o p t i n g u r b a n and e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s w h i c h a r e aimed a t m i n i m i z i n g t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n c e s : d i f f e r e n c e s between u r b a n and r u r a l , b etween m e n t a l and manual l a b o u r , and between i n -d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e C h i n e s e i d e o l o g y has r e q u i r e d i n d u s t r y t o s e r v e a g r i c u l t u r e and u r b a n c e n t r e s t o s e r v e r u r a l a r e a s . By u t i l i z i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i s p e r s e d u r b a n s t r u c t u r e s u c h ip-©'!i<c)i<es (have jpe&efidfiaFeedt]^^ d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s m a l l and medium s i z e d c i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y and a l l o w e d them t o p a r a l l e l t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o f i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . P o l i c i e s f o r d i s p e r s i n g g r o w t h o u t w a r d w i l l h e l p f o s t e r s t r u c t u r a l change i n C h i n e s e s o c i e t y b y e n s u r i n g t h a t i m p r o v e d s t a n d a r d s i n r u r a l a r e a s a r e n o t c o s m e t i c , t h a t t h e s e a r e a s a r e n o t j u s t b e i n g a l l o c a t e d n o n g e n e r a t i v e c o n c o m i t a n t s o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h . T h i s a l l o c a t i o n o f g r o w t h i s b e i n g accomp-l i s h e d b y . u t i l i z i n g t h e m u l t i t u d e o f s m a l l and medium s i z e c e n t r e s o f C h i n a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l u r b a n n e t w o r k . CONCLUSION: SMALL AND MEDIUM S I Z E CENTRES OF CHINA'S TRADITIONAL URBAN NETWORK ARE PLAYING A MAJOR ROLE, AS RECEIVERS OF TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY, IN FOSTERING THE STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION OF CHINESE SOCIETY. 124 A l t h o u g h much of e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g i s s t i l l i n t h e hands o f t h e c e n t r a l government t h i s p r o c e s s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has q u i c k e n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . Accom-p a n i e d f r o m t h i s p e r i o d on b y i n c r e a s e d a n t i - u r b a n i s m and i m p r o v e d p r o g r a m s o f u r b a n and r e g i o n a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y , c i t y g r o w t h r a t e s have b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f i e d . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s c o n c e p t o f c o n t r o l l e d c i t y g r o w t h t h a t must be r e a l i z e d i s t h a t t h e C h i n e s e have n o t d e c l a r e d war on t h e c i t i e s . T h e y a r e n o t a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l c i t y g r o w t h i n t h e s e n s e o f d o i n g away w i t h u r b a n a r e a s a l t o g e t h e r . T h e i r o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r e v e n t c i t i e s from becoming e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e and d e v e l o p i n g a l i e n a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h ey a r e p r e v e n t i n g them f r o m p l a y i n g t h e r o l e t h e y p l a y e d i n y e a r s p a s t . T h i s o b j e c t i v e i s b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d b y c h a n g i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r e x i s t i n g c i t i e s and l i f e w i t h i n them and by d i r e c t i n g grvow'th, b o t h new g r o w t h and e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i e s , i n t o s m a l l and medium s i z e d c e n t r e s . CONCLUSION: THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA IS MEETING WITH SUCCESS IN CONTROLLING THE GROWTH OF ITS LARGEST C I T I E S . By c o n t r o l l i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n a n a t i o n i s i n r e a l i t y c o n -t r o l l i n g and g u i d i n g i t s e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; i n C h i n a ' s c a s e , t h r o u g h a s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l framework, a l b e i t a f l u c t u a t i n g one. S u c h a p o l i c y t a k e s t i m e t o implement. The e c o n o m i c momentum o f the p r e v i o u s s o c i e t y , t h e d e m o g r a p h i c f o r c e s a t work and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e change i n p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t has been u n d e r t a k e n a l l r e q u i r e s i g n i f i c a n t 125 t i m e f o r t h e i r e f f e c t s t o be f e l t -T h e r e f o r e u r b a n i z a t i o n as a s t a t e has n o t b e e n c o n t a i n e d . T h a t i s t o s a y , i n a c t u a l numbers (120-140 m i l l i o n p e o p l e ) t h e r e a r e more C h i n e s e l i v i n g i n u r b a n a r e a s t o d a y t h e n e v e r b e f o r e i n C h i n a ' s h i s t o r y . T h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 " m i l l i o n c i t i e s " now compared t o n i n e i n 1953. U r b a n i z a t i o n as a p r o -c e s s , t h a t i s t h e movement o f p e o p l e f r o m r u r a l a r e a s t o u r b a n , has f o r a l l i n t e n s i v e p u r p o s e s b e e n c u r t a i l e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . B e i n g 13 p e r c e n t u r b a n i z e d i n 1953, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 19 p e r c e n t u r b a n i z e d i n t h e e a r l y 1960s, C h i n a now a p p e a r s t o be 16-17 p e r c e n t u r b a n i z e d d e s p i t e t h e e c o n o m i c and i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h w h i c h has o c c u r r e d o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . U r b a n g r o w t h i s c o n t i n u i n g b u t i t i s b e i n g d i r e c t e d i n t o s m a l l and medium s i z e c i t i e s and i n t o newer c i t i e s e s -t a b l i s h e d away from c o a s t a l a r e a s . The l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i t a n c o m m u n i t i e s s u c h as S h a n g h a i a r e b e i n g made more c o m f o r t a b l e f o r l i v i n g b y r e d i r e c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n e i t h e r i n t o s a t e l l i t e c o m m u n i t i e s o r b a c k t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . The p o p u l a t i o n o f S h a n g h a i r e p o r t e d l y has c h anged l i t t l e s i n c e 1949, v a r y i n g between 5.5 and 6 m i l l i o n . (Sen-dou Chang, 1976, p. 414) U r b a n p l a n n i n g i n C h i n a s t r o n g l y p a r a l l e l s r e g i o n a l de-v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g and g i v e n the p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c p h i l o s o p h y o f t h a t n a t i o n t h e two i n r e a l i t y a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . W i t h i n t h e c i t y i t s e l f t h e C h i n e s e have s t r e s s e d community i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g , s o t h a t p h y s i c a l l y t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e r e s e m b l e s a s e r i e s o f c o m m u n i t i e s where a l a r g e c e n t r a l c o r e o r downtown does n o t e x i s t o r i s a t l e a s t d e - e m p h a s i z e d . To f o s t e r t h i s s e n s e o f community t h e C h i n e s e have a t t e m p t e d where p o s s i b l e t o s t r u c t u r e a n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r o u n d p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f e x t e n s i v e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e s . Communist p r o p a g a n d a and t h e o r y , i n f a c t , h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y f o c u s e d on t h e work p l a c e w h e r e a s i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d , t h e f o c u s has b e e n on t h e community a t l a r g e . C h i n e s e s o c i e t y i s w e l l s t r u c t u r e d and w e l l o r g a n i z e d . However, t h e r e i s s t i l l a r e m a r k a b l e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e l o c a l autonomy f o r e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n . C e n t r a l i z i n g f a c t o r s most c e r t a i n l y e x i s t i n e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g . I n t h e i r p l a n n i n g t h e C h i n e s e s t a r t f r o m t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w i t h o u t a c e n t r a l and o v e r - a l l n a t i o n a l p l a n i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p t h e economy t o s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l t h e p e o p l e . The byword i s c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g , d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l . The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C h i n e s e c i t y r e f l e c t s t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l . I n f a c t , l i v i n g i n a C h i n e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d means c o n -s t a n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c l i f e o f t h a t n e i g h b o u r h o o d . A c h i e v i n g t h e above has r e q u i r e d t h a t d e v o l u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t and p r o d u c t i o n be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n C h i n e s e p o l i c y . ( K i r b y , p. 143) From t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a t e m e n t s i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government has c o n t r o l o v e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g , b u t l o c a l a r e a s o r i n s t i t u t i o n s have s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own a f f a i r s and p r o b l e m s , a d a p t i v e p l a n n i n g . 127 CONCLUSION: THE TWO BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CENTRALISM AND MASS PARTICIPATION ARE THE HEART OF URBAN AND ECONOMIC PLANNING. One a s p e c t o f p l a n n i n g t h a t has n o t b e e n d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t l e n g t h s , b u t w h i c h s h o u l d n o n e t h e l e s s be m e n t i o n e d , i s t h a t o f t h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r . The p e o p l e a r e n o t w i l l i n g t o s e e p l a n n i n g f o r a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y d i v i d e d i n t o b u r e a u -c r a t i c p a r t s . T h ey want t o s e e p l a n n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n l o c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s and t h u s f u s e i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , m e n t a l and manual l a b o u r , and c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e . The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n c e r t a i n l y s t r e n g t h e n e d t h i s o u t -l o o k and r e s u l t e d i n i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e r o l e t h e p l a n n e r as " t e c h n i c i a n " o r " e x p e r t " p l a y e d . I n e s s e n c e b u r e a u c r a c i e s and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s have b e e n l i m i t e d o r d e - e m p h a s i z e d w h i l e t h e "bottom up" and " t o p down" p r o c e s s i s e n j o y i n g a v e r y h e a l t h y l i f e . The C h i n e s e p e o p l e h a v e shown an a m a z i n g a b i l i t y t o s t r u g g l e and d e a l w i t h p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s t h r o u g h a p o l i t i c a l f ramework as o p p o s e d t o l e a v i n g p l a n n i n g i n t h e hands o f t h e e x p e r t s . L e s s o n s To Be L e a r n e d And F u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e model i s n o t i n b e i n g a p r o t o t y p e o f u r b a n and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t c a n be dup-l i c a t e d i n o t h e r n a t i o n s , w h e t h e r t h e y be d e v e l o p e d o r T h i r d W o r l d . I t s v a l u e r e s t s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i t r a i s e s a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e and r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e c i t y t o 1 2 8 s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s . The M a o i s t model i s o b v i o u s l y n o t a p e r f e c t e d one. The C h i n e s e do n o t p r o f e s s i t t o be s o . B u t i t i s a d e s i g n t h a t o f f e r s g r e a t p r o m i s e as an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h a t a t i m e when t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n many c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d i s b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d . I t i s up t o us t o s t u d y and l e a r n from t h e C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e . CONCLUSION; LESSONS TO BE LEARNED" FROM CHINA'S EXPERIENCE IN URBAN AND ECONOMIC PLANNING ARE GENERIC IN NATURE. FOR SOME PEOPLES AN ALTERNATIVE SOCIETY IS OFFERED. I n t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h e onus has b e e n p l a c e d on t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o s t u d y t h e C h i n e s e e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n from i t . I f t h i s i s t o be a p o s s i b i l i t y t h e n much more kn o w l e d g e o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c w i l l have t o be made known t o u s . R e f e r e n c e has b e e n made a l r e a d y t o s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t o t h e a c t u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e c i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . The r e l a t i o n o f t h e u r b a n s t r u c t u r e t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o l i t i c a l u n i t s and t h e p r o c e s s e s and mechanisms between t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s o n l y l i g h t l y d i s c u s s e d - i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . 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" L e a d e r s h i p I n S h a n g h a i , 1955-69". I n E l i t e s  I n The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c Of C h i n a . E d i t e d by R o b e r t A. S c a l a p i n o . S e a t t l e ? U n i v e r s i t y Of W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1972. Wiens, H. J . "The H i s t o r i c a l and G e o g r a p h i c a l R o l e o f U r u m c h i , C a p i t a l o f C h i n e s e C e n t r a l A s i a " . ' A n n a l s Of The A s s o c i a t i o n  Of A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 53, 1963, p. 456. i W i l l m o t t , W. E . "The C h i n e s e C i t y And The C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n " . A r e v i e w a r t i c l e i n P a c i f i c A f f a i r s . V o l . 49, No]. 2, Summer 1976, pp. 325-330. W i l s h e r , P e t e r and Rosemary R i g h t e r . "The Two S h a n g h a i s " . I n c h a p t e r 16 o f The E x p l o d i n g C i t i e s . New Y o r k : Q u a d r a n g l e / The New Y o r k Times Book Co., 1975. Wu, Y u a n - L i . " P r i n c i p a l I n d u s t r i a l C i t i e s I n Communist C h i n a : R e g i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n And R a n k i n g " . C o n t e m p o r a r y  C h i n a 1961-1962. E d i t e d by E. . S t u a r t K i r b y . Hong Kong: Hong Kpng U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. . The S p a t i a l Economy Of Communist C h i n a . New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , P u b l i s h e r s , 1967. Yang, G l a d y s . " P a r k s And P l e a s u r e Grounds Of P e k i n g " . E a s t e r n H o r i z o n . V o l . 3, No. 6, June 1964, pp. 41-45. 141 Ying-Mao Kau. "The U r b a n B u r e a u c r a t i c E l i t e I n Communist C h i n a : A C a s e S t u d y Of Wuhan, 1949-65". I n C h i n e s e  Communist P o l i t i c s I n A c t i o n . E d i t e d by A. D. B a r n e t t . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y Of W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1969. . " U r b a n And R u r a l S t r a t e g i e s I n The C h i n e s e Communist R e v o l u t i o n " . P e a s a n t R e b e l l i o n And Communist  R e v o l u t i o n I n A s i a . E d i t e d b y J o h n W i l s o n L e w i s . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. 142 GLOSSARY C a d r e Used i n r e f e r e n c e t o a f u l l - t i m e f u n c t i o n a r y o f t h e P a r t y o r t h e government. A l s o u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e anyone e x e r c i s i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n an o r d i n a r y p o l i t i c a l o r w o r k i n g s i t u a t i o n . C e n t r e P a r t y and s t a t e a g e n c i e s i n P e k i n g . G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d I n i t i a t e d b y Mao i n 1958 - a p l a n t o u t i l i z e C h i n a ' s v a s t manpower t o e f f e c t improvement i n i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h o u t f o r e i g n h e l p . C o o p e r a t i v e s were merged i n t o p e o p l e ' s communes. A l l a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s were m o b i l i z e d , and new t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as e a r l y p l a n t i n g were empl o y e d . I n d u s t r y was l a r g e l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d , and s m a l l - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n a t t h e f a m i l y and v i l l a g e l e v e l was e n c o u r a g e d . N a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s and s e r i o u s c r o p f a i l u r e s i n 1959, 1960, and 1961 l e d t o t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e G r e a t L e a p and a t e m p o r a r y l e s s e n i n g o f Mao's d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p . H s i a f a n q P e r i o d i c a l l y l a r g e numbers o f w o r k e r s a r e s e n t down from t h e c i t i e s t o t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . E a c h y e a r a l a r g e number o f u r b a n y o u t h a r e s e n t t o t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e upon g r a d u a t i o n f r o m m i d d l e s c h o o l . H s i a f a n g s e r v e s as one o f t h e means t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e b a r r i e r s between u r b a n and r u r a l l a b o u r on t h e one hand and m e n t a l and manual on t h e o t h e r a r e t o be removed. H s i a n q L o w e s t - l e v e l r u r a l c i v i l d i v i s i o n , r e p l a c e d d u r i n g t h e G r e a t L e a p F o r w a r d by t h e commune. The commune became t h e b a s i c r u r a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t below t h e h s i e n . H s i e n H s i e n - l e v e l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l c i t i e s and a r e under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p r e f e c t u r a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h a s t a t u s e q u i v a l e n t t o a c o u n t y . T h ey a r e t h e c o n t a c t c e n t r e s o f modern t e c h n o l o g y and i n t e r -t e c h n o l o g y , and s e r v e as t h e c a t a l y s t f o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . A n o n - u r b a n h s i e n i s a c o u n t y - s i z e r u r a l u n i t . Mass L i n e T h i s t e r m d e s i g n a t e s t h e t y p e o f l e a d e r s h i p ex-p e c t e d o f c a d r e s d a t i n g b a c k t o t h e 1930s. T h e y a r e t o i n q u i r e among t h e masses f o r t h e i r i d e a s and d e s i r e s , t r a n s l a t e t h e s e i n t o s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s and t a k e t h o s e b a c k t o t h e p e o p l e t o be p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e , and t o be i m p r o v e d upon d e p e n d i n g upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r a c -t i c e . The p r i n c i p l e i s summed up i n t h e s l o g a n "From t h e masses, t o t h e masses". N e i g h b o u r h o o d Committee L a r g e l y v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s 143 composed o f l o c a l p e o p l e n u m b ering between 2,500 and 12,000 p o p u l a t i o n . I t has no s p e c i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . The c o m m i t t e e ' s t a s k s a r e t o o r g a n i z e p e o p l e f o r s t u d y , t o c o n d u c t e d u c a t i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a , t o o r g a n i z e work i n t h e home, t o o r g a n i z e t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d on q u e s t i o n s o f h y g i e n e and t o o r g a n i z e l o c a l c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n s . P r e f e c t u r e P r e f e c t u r e - l e v e l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e under t h e c o n t r o l o f p r o v i n c e s o r autonomous r e g i o n s . T h e y s e r v e as t h e r e g i o n a l c o r e s o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d u r b a n s y s t e m and a r e a g g r e g a t e s o f modern s e c t o r s o f t h e n a t i o n a l economy. They have t h e s t a t u s o f a p r e f e c t u r e . P r e f e c t u r e s a r e an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b etween p r o v i n c e s and h s i e n and i n c l u d e s e v e r a l h s i e n under t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n . R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committee A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body o f w o r k e r s o r members o f a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i -z a t i o n t h a t a r o s e d u r i n g t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n as i t s l e a d i n g p o l i c y - m a k i n g and s u p e r v i s o r y body. They a r e c u r -r e n t l y "the l e a d e r s h i p b o d i e s o f a l l s o c i a l u n i t s o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y f r o m communes t o p r o v i n c e s . S h i h Or m u n i c i p a l i t y , d e f i n e d as a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h a popu-l a t i o n o f 100,000 o r more. S o c i a l i s t C o u r t y a r d A new l o w e r l e v e l o f u r b a n government s t i l l i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e . The " s o c i a l i s t c o u r t y a r d " o r " m u l t i - s t o r y b u i l d i n g management c o m m i t t e e " , w h i c h encompasses between 100 and 200 p e o p l e , u n d e r t a k e s a c t i v i t i e s t o o r g a n i z e c o u r t y a r d r e s i d e n t s f o r s t u d y and c r i t i c i s m , promote e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n f o r y o u t h s and t e e n a g e r s , i m prove e n v i r o n m e n t a l h y g i e n e and e s t a b l i s h new s o c i a l i s t i d e a s and c u l t u r e . S t r e e t Committee The s m a l l e s t u n i t o f s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e n c o m p a s s i n g between 50,000 and 100,000 p e o p l e . I t o v e r s e e s f a c t o r i e s , c l i n i c s , s t u d y g r o u p s and s c h o o l s . I t a l s o h a n d l e s i n t e r - p e r s o n a l d i s p u t e s . I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e g o v e r n -ment . T r e a t y P o r t s A f t e r t h e Opium War o f 183 8-42, f i v e c i t i e s were d e s i g n a t e d t r e a t y p o r t s , where t h e W e s t e r n powers were a l l o w e d t o s e t up t r a d i n g p o s t s and l i v e u n der t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e N a n k i n g t r e a t y , w h i c h p r o v i d e d immunity from C h i n e s e law. As W e s t e r n p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e d , t h e number o f t h e s e p o r t s expanded i n t o t h e s c o r e s . A t t h e l a r g e r o n e s , s u c h as S h a n g h a i , T i e n t s i n , and Hankow, t h e powers were g r a n t e d t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s , w h i c h , i n e f f e c t , were s m a l l c o l o n i e s t o t a l l y u n d e r t h e r u l e o f t h e v a r i o u s W e s t e r n n a t i o n s . 

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