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Television exposure and children’s aggressive behaviour 1978

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TELEVISION EXPOSURE AND CHILDREN'S AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR by LESLEY ANN JOY B.Sc. (Hons), Southampton University, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department, of Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1978 © Lesley Joy, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements foi an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PSYCHOLOGY The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 n . FEBRUARY 1*+ th 1978 uate i i ABSTRACT The impact o f t e l e v i s i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r was s t u d i e d l o n g i t u d i n a l l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a n a t u r a l e x p e r i m e n t . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n t h r e e s m a l l towns i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada, f i r s t i n 1973, when one town, N o t e l , d i d n o t y e t have t e l e v i s i o n r e - c e p t i o n , and a g a i n i n 1975, two y e a r s a f t e r N o t e l r e c e i v e d one C a n a d i a n c h a n n e l , CBC. I n b o t h 1973 and 1975 t h e second town, U n i t e l , r e c e i v e d CBC, and t h e t h i r d town, M u l t i t e l , r e c e i v e d CBC and t h e t h r e e major U.S. n e t w o r k s (ABC, CBC, and NBC). The major f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y was on t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r d i s p l a y e d by e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a t p l a y on t h e s c h o o l grounds; p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s o f 120 c h i l d r e n a t t i m e 1 and 120 c h i l d r e n a t t i m e 2 were coded by o b s e r v e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r and p e e r r a t i n g s o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r and i n - f o r m a t i o n about t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s were o b t a i n e d . The a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i - c a n t l y from 1973 t o 1975, whereas, t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l d i d n o t change s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t h e same p e r i o d . The i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o b s e r v e d i n N o t e l c h i l d r e n was n o t r e s t r i c t e d m e r e l y t o c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y h i g h i n a g g r e s s i o n , as p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have s u g g e s t e d ( S t e i n & F r i e d r i c h , 1975). On t h e wh o l e , t h e p e e r and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s s u p p o r t e d t h e f i n d i n g s from t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures o f a g g r e s s i o n , and c o n s i s t e n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . That i s , males were more p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d about c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o u r i t e shows r e v e a l e d i i i no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a g g r e s s i v e and l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e among th e t h r e e towns i n t h e r e p e r - t o i r e s o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r d i s p l a y e d . The most p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e d a g g r e s s i o n i n N o t e l c h i l d r e n was h e i g h t e n e d a r o u s a l , r e s u l t i n g f r o m N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t e l e v i s i o n . H e i g h t e n e d a r o u s a l would r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d o f a g g r e s s i o n b e i n g e l i c i t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , because c h i l d r e n l e a r n from t e l e v i s i o n t h a t a g g r e s s i o n i s a c c e p t a b l e , a p p r o p r i a t e , and e f f e c t i v e , the i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r would l i k e l y be m a i n t a i n e d . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x INTRODUCTION 1 Hypotheses 17 METHOD 21 RESULTS 26 L o n g i t u d i n a l A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e 27 1. P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n 27 2. V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n 29 C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e 33 1. P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n 34 2. V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n 37 R e p e r t o i r e o f A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r 41 C h i l d r e n H i g h and Low i n A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r 47 C o r r e l a t i o n s among Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n 68 DISCUSSION 73 FOOTNOTES 84 REFERENCES 86 APPENDIX A: P e e r R a t i n g s 93 APPENDIX B: T e a c h e r ' s R a t i n g s 99 APPENDIX C: C h i l d r e n ' s TV I n t e r v i e w ( N o t e l & U n i t e l ) 100 APPENDIX D: C h i l d r e n ' s Media I n t e r v i e w ( M u l t i t e l ) 108 APPENDIX E: A g g r e s s i o n C a t e g o r i e s 121 T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s c o n t i n u e d Page APPENDIX F: C o d i n g S h e e t s 123' APPENDIX G: R e p e r t o i r e o f A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r 127 APPENDIX H: Key: A b b r e v i a t i o n s Employed i n t h e C o r r e l a t i o n T a b l e s 130 APPENDIX I : C o r r e l a t i o n T a b l e s f o r Teac h e r R a t i n g s , Beer R a t i n g s , and O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n 131 APPENDIX J : V i e w i n g Hours P e r Week 139 v i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1. Demographic Data f o r N o t e l , U n i t e l , and M u l t i t e l Page 18 T a b l e 2. Comparison o f t h e Number o f Shows ( i n C a t e g o r i e s ) A v a i l a b l e i n N o t e l / U n i t e l v e r s u s Those A v a i l a b l e i n M u l t i t e l 20 T a b l e 3. Number o f S u b j e c t s i n Each Subgroup a t Time 1 and Time 2 22 T a b l e 4. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n ( L o n g i t u d i n a l ) T a b l e 5. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n ( L o n g i t u d i n a l ) T a b l e 6. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n ( C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l ) 30 32 38 T a b l e 7. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n ( C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l ) 42 T a b l e 8. Summary T a b l e o f P o s t Hoc T e s t s Conducted on t h e S i g n i f i c a n t Town x Time I n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h e O b s e r v a t i o n a l D a t a A f t e r t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e 43 T a b l e 9. R e p e r t o i r e o f t h e Three H i g h e s t P h y s i c a l and V e r b a l A g g r e s s i v e Responses a t Time 1 and Time 2 45 T a b l e 10. Median-' Values o f A g g r e s s i o n 48 T a b l e 11. P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n - N o t e l : C h i l d r e n Above/ Below Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e Responding a t Time 2, and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours p e r Week a t Time 2 50 T a b l e 12. V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n - N o t e l : C h i l d r e n Above/Below . . Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e R e s p o n d i n g a t Time 2, and T h e i r T e l e - v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours p e r Week a t Time 2 52 T a b l e 13. P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n - U n i t e l : C h i l d r e n Above/ Below Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e R e s p o n d i n g a t Time 2, and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours p e r Week a t Time 2 57 v i i L i s t o f T a b l e s c o n t i n u e d Page T a b l e 14. V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n - U n i t e l : C h i l d r e n Above/ Below Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e Responding a t Time 2, and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 59 T a b l e 15. P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n - M u l t i t e l : C h i l d r e n Above/ Below Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e R e s p o n d i n g a t Time 2, and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 63 T a b l e 16 V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n - M u l t i t e l : C h i l d r e n Above/ Below Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e Responding a t Time 2, and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 65 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Town by Time Interaction for Phy s i c a l Aggression (Longitudinal Analysis) 28 Figure 2. Town by Time Interaction f o r Verbal Aggres- sion (Longitudinal Analysis) 31 Figure 3. Town by Time Interaction f o r Phy s i c a l Aggression (Cross-sectional Analysis) 35 Figure 4. Town by Time Interaction f o r Verbal Aggres- sion (Cross-sectional Analysis) 39 Figure 5. Sex by Time Interaction for Verbal Aggression (Cross-sectional Analysis) 40 Figure 6. Repertoire of the Three Highest Physical and Verbal Aggression Scores at Time 1 and Time 2 44 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS F i r s t and foremost,. I am indebted to my Supervisor, Dr. Merle Zabrack, whose fri e n d s h i p and constructive c r i t i c i s m led me to the completion of t h i s p r o j e c t . Dr. Tannis MacBeth Williams and Dr. Don Dutton, the other two members of my committee, also offered invaluable advice and assistance. I was extremely fortunate i n having such a great committee to guide me through my Master's education. This work was part of a larger research project e n t i t l e d "The Impact of T e l e v i s i o n : A Natural Experiment Involving Three Communities", supervised by Dr. Tannis MacBeth Williams and funded by Canada Council. Consequently, many people were involved i n various aspects of data c o l l e c t i o n and coding, some of whom worked with me on my research. In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e to thank .T Joanne McFadden Hordo, P a t r i c i a Crawford and E l s i e Eccles f o r c o l l e c t i n g time 1 data; Susan Lee Painter and Sue Fiske f o r helping me c o l l e c t time 2 data; V i r g i n i a Green and Georgio Pastore for t h e i r patience during analyses of these data; and Judy Hawkins f o r typing t h i s t h e s i s . Needless to say, thanks are extended to the students, parents and teachers i n the three towns who permitted the invasion by so many "clip-board carrying" observers.' L a s t l y but i n no way the l e a s t , thanks go to Wilf N i c h o l l s f or "being there when I needed him. 1 INTRODUCTION The e f f e c t s o f v i e w i n g f i l m e d a g g r e s s i o n on b e h a v i o u r have been w e l l documented i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1960's. F u r t h e r m o r e , r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d has v a l i d a t e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e l a b o r a - t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s r e s e a r c h shows t h a t a g g r e s s i v e t e c h n i q u e s seen i n f i l m s a r e a p p a r e n t l y l e a r n e d and r e t a i n e d . The f o c u s o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s has been p r i m a r i l y on two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f e f f e c t s : i m i t a t i o n and i n s t i g a t i o n . I m i t a t i o n o c c u r s when what has been seen i s c o p i e d . I n s t i g a t i o n o c c u r s when i n c r e a s e d a g g r e s s i v e n e s s f o l l o w s what has been seen. I n a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s Bandura and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( e . g . , Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1963a; Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1963b; Bandura, 1965) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t o f v i e w i n g a model on c h i l d r e n ' s s u b s e - quent i m i t a t i v e r e s p o n d i n g . Each c h i l d was exposed t o an a d u l t model i n p e r s o n , an' a d u l t model on f i l m , o r a c a r t o o n model on f i l m , e a ch o f whom a g g r e s s e d a g a i n s t a p l a s t i c , l i f e - s i z e d d o l l , s i m i l a r i n appearance t o Bobo t h e clo w n . The c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s were e i t h e r exposed t o a non- a g g r e s s i v e model o r t o no model a t a l l . F o l l o w i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n , t h e c h i l d was l e f t i n a room c o n t a i n i n g t h e same t o y s w i t h w h i c h t h e model had p l a y e d . Coders o b s e r v e d t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r and s c o r e d i t f o r i m i t a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i - c a t e d t h a t the a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d a f t e r e x- p o s u r e t o an a g g r e s s i v e model. To e x p l a i n t h e s e r e s u l t s , Bandura p o s t u l a t e d i n h i s s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y t h a t an o b s e r v e r w i l l l e a r n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a model c o n t i n g e n t 2 on f o u r p r o c e s s e s : t h e o b s e r v e r must be a t t e n d i n g t o t h e model, be a b l e t o r e t a i n what he o r she has see n , be c a p a b l e o f r e p r o d u c i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r ( t h a t i s , have d e v e l o p e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e motor c a p a b i l i t i e s ) , and be m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n . Through e x p o s u r e t o an a g g r e s s i v e model, i n h i b i t i o n s i n t h e o b s e r v e r a g a i n s t a c t i n g i n a v i o l e n t , a g g r e s s i v e manner a r e r e - duced. The e x p e r i e n c e a l s o h e l p s t o shape t h e s t y l e o f t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h a c q u i s i t i o n o f n o v e l a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s . I n a d d i - t i o n , a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between a c q u i s i t i o n and p e r f o r - mance o f b e h a v i o u r . A l t h o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n o f an a g g r e s s i v e model may l e a d t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , t h e o b s e r v e r may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p e r f o r m t h i s b e h a v i o u r i m m e d i a t e l y . However, i f p r o v o k e d enough on some f u t u r e o c c a s i o n he o r she may r e p r o d u c e t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s t h a t were o b s e r v e d . I n s t i g a t i o n t o behave a g g r e s s i v e l y has been s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h a d u l t s by B e r k o w i t z ( e . g . , B e r k o w i t z , 1965, 1966, 1967): who t y p i c a l l y employs t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r a d i g m : w h i l e t h e s u b j e c t i s w o r k i n g a t a t a s k , a c o n f e d e r a t e i n d u c e s anger by i n s u l t i n g t h e s u b j e c t o r s h o c k i n g him ( a l l s u b j e c t s were male) f o r po o r t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g a 'mood' q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e s u b j e c t watches an e x c e r p t o f a f i g h t scene f r o m t h e f i l m "Champion" o r " R e b e l w i t h o u t a Cause" ( e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n ) , o r an ' e x c i t i n g b u t n o n a g g r e s s i v e ' t r a c k r a c e scene. F i n a l l y , t he s u b j e c t s h o c k s t h e c o n f e d e r a t e , e i t h e r i n t h e g u i s e o f an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c o n f e d e r a t e o r as a t e a c h i n g t a s k . V a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s d e s i g n i n v o l v e t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n - e l i c i t i n g c u e s ; f o r example, t h e s h o c k i n g p r o c e d u r e o c c u r s i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f weapons, th e c o n f e d e r a t e i s i n t r o d u c e d as a> b o x e r ( i n c o n t r a s t t o an E n g l i s h 3 m a j o r ) , o r the c o n f e d e r a t e i s g i v e n the same name as t h e a g g r e s s o r i n t h e f i l m . A n g e r i n g t h e s u b j e c t , e x p o s i n g him t o f i l m e d a g g r e s s i o n , and b e i n g i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g g r e s s i o n - e l i c i t i n g cues r e s u l t s i n t h e a d - m i n i s t r a t i o n o f h i g h e r l e v e l s o f shock; t h a t i s , the s u b j e c t i s more a g g r e s s i v e towards t h e v i c t i m . These r e s u l t s l e d B e r k o w i t z t o p o s t u l a t e a c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g model o f a g g r e s s i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e model s t a t e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l r e a c t " i m p u l s i v e l y " o r " a u t o m a t i c a l l y " t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g g r e s s i o n ( e . g . , weapons), p r o v i d e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s ' s e t ' o r r e a d y t o a c t a g g r e s s i v e l y (as when an g e r e d o r i n s u l t e d ) . A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s r e l a t i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n w i t h i n c r e a s e d a g g r e s s i v e n e s s have been c o n - s i s t e n t f o r b o t h c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s (Bandura, 1965; B a r o n , 1971; B e r k o w i t z , 1967; Geen & S t o n n e r , 1972; G e l f a n d & Hartmann, 1969; H i c k s , 1965; W a t t e r s & Brown, 1963), some p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o draw d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s . The c r i t i c s argue t h a t i t i s i n v a l i d t o e x t r a p o l a t e from t h e s e l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s t o t h e r e a l w o r l d o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n v i e w e r . These arguments stem from c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y f i n d i n g s . F o r example, c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t e l e - v i s i o n programmes o r f i l m s were n o t employed i n some e x p e r i m e n t s (Bandura, Ross, & R o s s , 1963; Bandura, 1965). One c o u l d a rgue t h a t i f one o f t h e g o a l s o f l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s i s t o g e n e r a l i z e t o t h e v i e w i n g o f v i o l e n c e on t e l e v i s i o n , t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s h o u l d , a t l e a s t , be r e a l i s t i c . F u r t h e r , when t e l e v i s i o n programmes o r f i l m s were employed ( B e r k o w i t z , 1975, 1966, e t c . ) , t h e e x c e r p t s were shown out of c o n t e x t f o r v e r y l i m i t e d t i m e p e r i o d s ( e . g . , 5 m i n u t e s , 7 m i n u t e s ) . 4 This kind of s i t u a t i o n , then, i s not analogous to one i n which complete programmes are shown, and i t i s l i k e l y that the impact of viewing an i s o l a t e d v i o l e n t f i l m sequence i s quite d i f f e r e n t from the e f f e c t s of viewing an e n t i r e f i l m . For example, research indicates that for adults exposure to j u s t i f i e d violence r e s u l t s i n increased aggressive behaviour i n contrast to violence which i s portrayed as u n j u s t i f i e d (Berkowitz, 1965). S i m i l a r l y , for school aged c h i l d r e n the consequences of violence (whether the aggressor i s punished or not) are important determinants of i m i t a t i v e responding (Bandura, 1965). This type of information, which may be evident i n f u l l - l e n g t h f i l m s or t e l e v i s i o n programmes, i s often missing i n the short f i l m excerpts. On the other hand, for very young chi l d r e n , the presence or absence of negative consequences does l i t t l e to reduce the impact of t e l e v i s e d violence ( C o l l i n s , Berndt, & Hess, 1974; L e i f e r & Roberts, 1972; Stein & F r i e d r i c h , 1975). Another problem i s that exposure to the stimulus material occurs once so only short-term e f f e c t s of viewing aggression are tested. Yet the long-term e f f e c t s of exposure to violence might d i f f e r . For example, a f t e r repeated exposure, a cumulative hypothesis would predict an i n - crease i n aggression. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , s a t i a t i o n or habituation to ag- gression could occur, r e s u l t i n g i n a lessened l i k e l i h o o d of the expres- sion of aggression (Gewirtz, 1967). Furthermore, there i s evidence to suggest that repeated exposure to filmed violence r e s u l t s i n l e s s emo- t i o n a l r e a c t i v i t y to aggressive d i s p l a y s ; that i s , d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n to violence occurs (Cline, C r o f t , & Courrier, 1973), as does increased tolerance of aggression i n one's ' r e a l ' environment (Drabman & Thomas, 1973). 5 F u r t h e r p r o b l e m s a r i s e because s u b j e c t s a r e t e s t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x p o s u r e t o t h e a g g r e s s i v e model o r f i l m , and t h u s t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e t e n t i o n becomes an i s s u e . That i s , i f t h e s u b j e c t does n o t im- m e d i a t e l y p e r f o r m t h e o b s e r v e d a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , how l o n g w i l l t h a t b e h a v i o u r be r e t a i n e d ? H i c k s (1965) found t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s i m i t a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s were r e t a i n e d f o r as l o n g as s i x months. However, as e a c h c h i l d was t e s t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x p o s u r e and p e r f o r m e d the b e h a v i o u r t h e n , r e t e n t i o n c o u l d be due as much t o t h e p r a c t i c e d u r i n g t h i s f i r s t t e s t i n g as t o the o r i g i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o u r . A l s o , i n e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s , i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s a g a i n s t a g g r e s s i n g , s u c h as the s a l i e n c e o f s o c i a l norms, and r i s k o f r e t a l i a t i o n a r e t y p i c a l l y a b s e n t . I n some c a s e s t h e v i c t i m i s not even seen o r h e a r d ( B e r k o w i t z , 1965). Y e t t h e f e e d b a c k o f p a i n has been shown t o be an i m p o r t a n t i n h i b i t o r o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g ( M i l g r a m , 1965; B a r o n , 1971a, 1971b). I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t has been a r g u e d t h a t l a b o r a t o r y i n d u c e d a g g r e s s i o n ( t h r o u g h i n s u l t i n g t h e s u b j e c t o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g e l e c t r i c s h o c k s ) , m i g h t no t be r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e r e a l w o r l d , due t o t h e absence o f v a r i o u s i n h i b i t o r s i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . A f u r t h e r f e a t u r e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l paradigms l i m i t i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s t h e dependent measure o f a g g r e s s i o n employed. I s t h e p h y s i c a l a t t a c k a g a i n s t an i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s u c h as t h e Bobo d o l l a r e a l i s t i c measure o f a g g r e s s i o n ( T e d e s c h i , S m i t h , & Brown, 1974; K l a p p e r , 1968)? T y p i c a l l y , i t i s a r g u e d , t h i s measure i s p l a y a c t i v i t y w h i c h may b e a r l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l a g g r e s s i o n . However, t h e r e i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t i n g t h a t Bobo d o l l t r a i n i n g does t r a n s f e r t o i n t e r - p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s ( W a l t e r s & Brown, 1963; S t e u e r , A p p l e f i e l d , & S m i t h , 6 1971), o r t o s i t u a t i o n s where the t a r g e t o f a g g r e s s i o n i s a human d r e s s e d as a c l o w n ( H a n r a t t y , L i e b e r t , M o r r i s , & Fer n a n d e z , 1969). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e a r e r e a l l i f e examples i n w h i c h b e h a v i o u r i s a c q u i r e d i n ' p l a y c o n t e x t s ' and t h e n p e r f o r m e d , t h r o u g h t r a n s f e r , i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t s ( f o r example, s o l d i e r s l e a r n t o use b a y o n e t s by a t t a c k i n g s t u f f e d s a c k s ; b o x e r s l e a r n and p r a c t i c e t h e i r s k i l l s on p u n c h i n g bags and s p a r r i n g p a r t n e r s ) . F i n a l l y , a n o t h e r i n d e x o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r used e x t e n s i v e l y i n th e l a b o r a t o r y i s t h e Buss (1966) a g g r e s s i o n machine, whereby an i n d i - v i d u a l has t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f d e l i v e r i n g e l e c t r i c shocks o f v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t y t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n . A l t h o u g h t h e i n d e x has been c r i t i c i z e d as n o t b e i n g an i n d i c a t i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n because o f t h e l a c k o f s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t s h o c k i n g t h e ' v i c t i m ' , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e has been d e m o n s t r a t e d . B e r k o w i t z , P a r k e , L e y e n s , and West (1975) f o u n d a p o s i - t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o u n s e l o r r a t i n g s o f a d o l e s c e n t boys' a g g r e s s i o n and t h e i n t e n s i t y o f e l e c t r i c s h o c k s d e l i v e r e d by t h e boys i n t h e Buss s i t u a t i o n . S i m i l i a r l y , c h i l d r e n who were r a t e d a g g r e s s i v e .by. t h e i r - p e e r s were more l i k e l y t o d e l i v e r n o x i o u s n o i s e s t o t h e i r p e e r s i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k ( W i l l i a m s , Meyerson, E r o n , & Se m l e r , 1967). I n sum, t h e l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s on v i e w i n g f i l m e d o r modeled a g g r e s s i o n and an o b s e r v e r ' s subsequent a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s u g g e s t the f o l l o w i n g : v i o l e n c e d e p i c t e d on t e l e v i s i o n can be mimicked by o b s e r v e r s e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y o r s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n ; and, under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s ( f o r example, i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g g r e s s i o n - e l i c i t i n g cues o r anger a r o u s a l ) , t e l e v i s e d v i o l e n c e can i n s t i g a t e an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e a c t s . 7 Due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e l a b o r a t o r y f i n d i n g s and the pr o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h , t h e r e has been i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f e x p o s u r e t o media v i o l e n c e on i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r i n n a t u r a l i s t i c c o n t e x t s . The f i e l d a p p r o a c h can be s e p a r a t e d i n t o two b a s i c m e t h o d o l o g i e s . I n c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , no m a n i p u l a - t i o n o c c u r s , b u t i n s t e a d s u r v e y s o r o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r - mine i f two ( o r more) v a r i a b l e s a r e r e l a t e d . I n e x p e r i m e n t a l f i e l d s t u d i e s , n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n i s combined w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a - t i o n . Feshba/ck and S i n g e r (1971) c o n d u c t e d a f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f s u s t a i n e d e x p o s u r e t o p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g g r e s s i v e o r non- a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n c o n t e n t on a g g r e s s i v e v a l u e s and b e h a v i o u r . Boys i n t h r e e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s ( c o n s i s t i n g o f upper m i d d l e c l a s s y o u n g s t e r s ) , and boys i n f o u r homes ( p r e d o m i n a n t l y l o w e r c l a s s ) were exposed t o an a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n d i e t o r a n o n a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n d i e t f o r s i x weeks. A number o f measures o f a g g r e s s i o n were employed, i n c l u d i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s , a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and a b e h a v i o u r r a t i n g s c a l e , c o m p l e t e d d a i l y f o r each boy by h i s t e a c h e r , s u p e r v i s o r , o r house p a r e n t . A g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r was r a t e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y a t t h e end o f ea c h day. The r a t e r n o t e d whether t h e a g g r e s s i o n was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t p e e r s o r a u t h o r i t y , whether t h e a g g r e s s i o n was p r o v o k e d o r unprovoked, and whether i t was m i l d o r m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t boys exposed t o n o n a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n c o n t e n t were more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n boys exposed t o a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n c o n t e n t , b o t h i n terms o f a g g r e s s i o n towards p e e r s and a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . When t h e d a t a were r e a n a l y z e d , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e 8 i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d , t h e above d i f f e r e n c e o n l y h e l d f o r boys i n t h e homes, n o t f o r t h o s e i n t h e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e x p e r i - m e n t a l r e s u l t s were more pronounced f o r boys i n i t i a l l y h i g h i n a g g r e s - s i v e b e h a v i o u r o r t h o s e i n i t i a l l y low i n TAT f a n t a s y a g g r e s s i o n . Feshbach and S i n g e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t : i ) e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t on t e l e v i s i o n does n o t l e a d t o an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r ; and i i ) e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t on t e l e v i s i o n seems t o r e d u c e o r c o n t r o l t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n i n boys f r o m r e l a t i v e l y l o w s o c i o - economic b a c k g r o u n d s , who a r e a l r e a d y a g g r e s s i v e , o r t h o s e who do n o t e x p r e s s f a n t a s y a g g r e s s i o n . Feshbach and S i n g e r ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s appear t o c o n t r a d i c t t h o s e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s . However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s has been c h a l l e n g e d . L i e b e r t , S o b o l , and D a v i d s o n (1971) p r o p o s e d f o u r major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l drawbacks t o t h e s t u d y : 1. The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r i m a r y dependent measure ( t h e b e h a v i o u r r a t i n g s c a l e ) was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d . 2. The a g g r e s s i v e programmes were l i k e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n t h e n o n a g g r e s s i v e programmes ( C h a f f e e & McLeod, 1972), i m p l y i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . Boys i n t h e c o n t r o l group c o u l d have been more a g g r e s s i v e a f t e r s i x weeks because t h e y r e s e n t e d b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o n o n a g g r e s s i v e programmes w h i c h t h e y l i k e d l e s s , and t h i s r e s e n t m e n t was e x p r e s s e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . 3. The r a t e r s were n o t b l i n d t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s , were u n t r a i n e d and r e c o r d e d t h e b e h a v i o u r s r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y . The p o s s i b i l i t y 9 of r e s p o n s e b i a s cannot be e l i m i n a t e d . 4. The e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y on d i m e n s i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . F o r example, t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s p e r m i t t e d c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n two o f t h e boys' homes t o see an a g g r e s s i v e show a f t e r t h e boys had e x p r e s s e d v e r y s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s t o b e i n g p r e v e n t e d f r o m w a t c h i n g t h e i r f a v o u r i t e show. Thus, a n o t h e r r i v a l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d be p o s t u l a t e d : h a v i n g g a i n e d some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n by o b j e c t i n g , t h e boys t h e n r e a l i z e d t h e y c o u l d g e t t h e i r own way by c o m p l a i n i n g , g r u m b l i n g , b r e a k i n g t h e r u l e s , e t c . , a l l o f w h i c h were measures on t h e b e h a v i o u r r a t i n g s c a l e . F u r t h e r i n a r e p l i c a t i o n of t h e Feshbach and S i n g e r s t u d y , W e l l s (1971) f a i l e d t o f i n d s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e . W e l l s f o u n d t h a t boys who watched o n l y n o n a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n were more v e r b a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h o s e who watched o n l y a g g r e s s i v e shows, and t h e l a t t e r , i n t u r n , d i s p l a y e d more p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . W e l l s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s stemmed f r o m t h e s t i m u - l a t i o n o f " a c t i o n - a d v e n t u r e " shows, whereas t h e i n c r e a s e d v e r b a l a g g r e s - s i o n f r o m t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s r e f l e c t e d t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n n o t b e i n g a l l o w e d t o w a tch t h e " a c t i o n - a d v e n t u r e " shows. S t e i n and F r i e d r i c h ' s (1971) s t u d y o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a g g r e s s i v e , p r o s o c i a l and n e u t r a l t e l e v i s i o n shows on c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s u p p o r t e d W e l l s ' c o n c l u s i o n s . F o r a p e r i o d o f n i n e weeks, n i n e t y - s e v e n n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e weeks, t h e c h i l d r e n were 10 o b s e r v e d i n f r e e p l a y t o a s c e r t a i n b a s e l i n e r a t e s o f t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e and p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . F o r t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r weeks, t h e c h i l d r e n were exposed t o e i t h e r a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n programmes (Batman and Superman c a r t o o n s ) , p r o s o c i a l t e l e v i s i o n programmes ( M i s t e r Roger's Neighbourhood) o r n e u t r a l c h i l d r e n ' s f i l m s . D u r i n g t h i s f o u r week p e r i o d and t h e two p o s t v i e w i n g weeks, c o d e r s o b s e r v e d t h e c h i l d r e n i n f r e e p l a y . C h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y h i g h i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l a g g r e s s i o n who were exposed t o a g g r e s s i v e programmes s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r a g g r e s - s i o n t h a n c h i l d r e n exposed t o n e u t r a l o r p r o s o c i a l shows. C h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y l o w i n a g g r e s s i o n d i d n o t r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y t o t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . There was a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t t e l e v i s i o n can p l a y a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l development: t h o s e c h i l d r e n e x- posed t o t h e p r o s o c i a l programmes showed h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s e l f - c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o u r and t a s k p e r s i s t e n c e t h a n c h i l d r e n exposed t o n e u t r a l o r a g g r e s s i v e shows. S t e u e r , A p p l e f i e l d , and Sm i t h (1971) o b t a i n e d f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i o n t h a t v i e w i n g a g g r e s s i o n i n c r e a s e s a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r i n c h i l d r e n . They s t u d i e d t e n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , c o m p r i s i n g a r a c i a l l y and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y mixed group. F i r s t , t h e c h i l d r e n were matched i n t o p a i r s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e amount o f t i m e t h e y spent v i e w i n g t e l e v i s i o n a t home. Then t h e c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d i n f r e e p l a y f o r t e n days t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s e l i n e r a t e o f a g g r e s s i o n . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e v e n d a y s , one member o f t h e p a i r v i e w e d an a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n programme d a i l y , w h i l e t h e o t h e r member v i e w e d a n o n a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n programme. Each day o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n f r e e p l a y p r o v i d e d measures o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . By t h e end o f t h e e l e v e n d a y s , 11 c h i l d r e n i n t h e a g g r e s s i v e t r e a t m e n t group were more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n c h i l d r e n i n t h e matched c o n t r o l group, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e t e l e v i s i o n t r e a t m e n t had an e f f e c t on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l a g g r e s s i v e be- h a v i o u r . The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f two p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group was d i s c r e p a n t i n t h a t i t i n c r e a s e d more s l o w l y t h a n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n exposed t o t h e a g g r e s s i v e programmes. S t e u e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s p r o - posed two a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r t h i s f i n d i n g : e i t h e r t h e two c h i l d r e n were r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a g g r e s s i v e t e l e v i s i o n programmes i n t h e same way as t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n b u t t h e r e was a l a t e n c y e f f e c t . A l t e r n a - t i v e l y a s e c o n d a r y e x p o s u r e e f f e c t might have been o p e r a t i n g ; t h a t i s , whereas most o f t h e c h i l d r e n were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l mani- p u l a t i o n , t h e two d i s c r e p a n t c h i l d r e n may have been d i s p l a y i n g more h o s t i l i t y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e f i l m . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e s e c o n d a r y e x p o s u r e e f f e c t i s p e e r m o d e l l i n g ( P a r k e , B e r k o w i t z , L e y e n s , West, & S e b a s t i a n , 1975). A c h i l d may n o t d i r e c t l y i m i t a t e what he o r she has seen on t e l e v i s i o n b u t may, i n s t e a d , i m i t a t e a n o t h e r c h i l d .who has . been a f f e c t e d by t h e t e l e v i s e d v i o l e n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f i m i t a t i n g a p e e r ' s a g g r e s s i v e a c t i o n s o r r e t a l i a t i n g a g a i n s t an a t t a c k e r may be i n c r e a s e d a f t e r w a t c h i n g an ag- g r e s s i v e f i l m , even though t h e f i l m i t s e l f may n o t have e l i c i t e d a g g r e s - s i v e r e s p o n d i n g . P a r k e e t a l . ' s (1975) c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn f r o m a s e r i e s , o f f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t s . Boys who watched v i o l e n t movies - were more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n boys who v i e w e d n e u t r a l f i l m s . The s u b j e c t s were 14-18 y e a r o l d boys from d e l i n q u e n t homes. The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n 12 f o u r phases o v e r a seven week p e r i o d . O b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e boys' be- h a v i o u r d u r i n g f r e e p l a y i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e weeks c o n s t i t u t e d t h e b a s e - l i n e l e v e l o f a g g r e s s i o n . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g week, f i v e f i l m s were shown; boys i n one c o t t a g e ( t h e b a s i c u n i t i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c e n t r e w h i c h housed a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y boys) v i e w e d a c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e a g g r e s s i v e movie each n i g h t , w h i l e boys i n t h e second c o t t a g e watched a n e u t r a l n o n a g g r e s s i v e f i l m . Coders o b s e r v e d t h e boys' b e h a v i o u r b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e f i l m . ( V i e w i n g t e l e v i s i o n was n o t p e r m i t t e d d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l week..) On t h e day f o l l o w i n g the f i n a l f i l m , t h e boys f r o m b o t h c o t t a g e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l a b o r a t o r y assessment of a g g r e s s i o n (amount o f e l e c t r i c shock a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a c o n f e d e r a t e ) , under e i t h e r a n g e r e d o r nonangered c o n d i t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e f i n a l t h r e e weeks o f t h e s t u d y , any l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s o f t h e f i l m s on t h e boys' a g g r e s s i v e be- h a v i o u r s were a s s e s s e d . The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t ex- p o s u r e t o f i l m e d v i o l e n c e i n c r e a s e d a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r i n t h e v i e w e r s , and a g a i n , i t was t h e h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e boys who were most a f f e c t e d . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , a second m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o c o l l e c t i n g d a t a i n t h e f i e l d has been t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l s u r v e y s t u d y . Himmelweit, Oppenheim, and V i n c e (1958) compared c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t have t e l e v i s i o n and t h o s e who d i d on a number of measures. The measures o f a g g r e s s i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t e a c h e r r a t i n g s f o r each c h i l d . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e i n a g g r e s s i o n e x i s t e d between v i e w e r s and n o n v i e w e r s . Schramm, L y l e , and P a r k e r (1961) c o l l e c t e d s i m i l a r d a t a i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . They s t u d i e d two C a n a d i a n towns one o f w h i c h had t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n . The measure o f a g g r e s s i o n was a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r agreement 13 o r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t w e n t y - f o u r s t a t e m e n t s ( f o r example, " I don't see a n y t h i n g e s p e c i a l l y wrong about a f i g h t between two groups o f t e e n a g e r s ; i t ' s t h e i r b u s i n e s s , and a d u l t s s h o u l d s t a y out o f i t " ) . The s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n i n Canada who d i d n o t have t e l e v i s i o n were more a g g r e s - s i v e t h a n s u b j e c t s who d i d have t e l e v i s i o n . There was no d i f f e r e n c e be- tween t h e two towns f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e t e n t h grade on t h e a g g r e s - s i o n measure. I n t h e A m e r i c a n p a r t of t h e s t u d y , t h e c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o groups who were h i g h o r low i n t h e number o f h o u r s spent w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n and h i g h o r low i n t h e amount o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l t h e y r e a d . C h i l d r e n c l a s s i f i e d as h i g h t e l e v i s i o n / l o w p r i n t were h i g h e r i n a g g r e s s i o n t h a n c h i l d r e n c l a s s i f i e d as low t e l e v i s i o n / h i g h p r i n t . Schramm e t a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t : " F o r some c h i l d r e n , under some c o n d i t i o n s , some t e l e v i s i o n i s h a r m f u l . F o r o t h e r c h i l d r e n under t h e same c o n d i t i o n s , o r f o r t h e same c h i l d r e n under o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , i t may be b e n e f i c i a l . F o r most c h i l d r e n , under most c o n d i t i o n s , most t e l e v i s i o n i s p r o b a b l y n e i t h e r p a r t i c u l a r l y h a r m f u l n o r p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l " ( p . l ) . The two p r e c e d i n g s t u d i e s c o n t a i n two major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p roblems ( L i e b e r t , 1973). F i r s t t h e measures o f a g g r e s s i o n were i n a d e q u a t e . I n t h e Himmelweit e t a l . s t u d y t h e t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e o n l y whether a c h i l d was a g g r e s s i v e o r n o t , t h e y were n o t a s k e d t o r e p o r t o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d t o a g g r e s i o n , f o r example, b o s s i n e s s , l o u d n e s s , e t c . I n t h e second s t u d y (Schramm e t a l . , 1961), o n l y 4 o f t h e 24 s e l f - r e p o r t measures were c o n c e r n e d w i t h a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . The second m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m was t h a t a g g r e s s i o n was r e l a t e d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t e l e v i s i o n i n t h e home and n o t t o what t h e c h i l d r e n a c t u a l l y watched o r r e p o r t e d w a t c h i n g . I t i s n o t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f 14 t e l e v i s i o n p e r se w h i c h has an e f f e c t i n i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s - s i o n , b u t r a t h e r , t h e a c t of w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n and, more p o s s i b l y , t h e e x p o s u r e t o v i o l e n c e on t e l e v i s i o n . One o f t h e few l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d s u p p o r t e d t h e p r e m i s e t h a t w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n v i o l e n c e i n c r e a s e s a g g r e s s i v e be- h a v i o u r ( E r o n , Huesmann, L e f k o w i t z , & W a l d e r , 1972). I n f o r m a t i o n was f i r s t c o l l e c t e d on measures o f a g g r e s s i o n and p o t e n t i a l p r e d i c t o r s o f a g g r e s s i o n when c h i l d r e n were i n t h e t h i r d grade. The main measure o f a g g r e s s i o n c o n s i s t e d of p e e r n o m i n a t i o n s ; t h a t i s , each c h i l d n ominated any o f h i s o r h e r c l a s s m a t e s on t e n i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g a g g r e s s i o n . Then, mothers were i n t e r v i e w e d t o o b t a i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t e l e v i s i o n p r e f e r e n c e s . P r e f e r e n c e s f o r v i o l e n t t e l e v i s i o n and a g g r e s s i o n were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e e r n o m i n a t i o n s but f o r boys o n l y . Ten y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n d u c t e d t h e second phase of t h e s t u d y . The t e e n a g e r s (now 18-19 y e a r s o l d ) a g a i n n ominated t h o s e among t h e i r p e e r s who were con- s i d e r e d t o be a g g r e s s i v e and gave t h e i r own t e l e v i s i o n programming p r e - f e r e n c e s . A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was o b t a i n e d between p r e - f e r e n c e f o r v i o l e n t t e l e v i s i o n i n t h e t h i r d grade and a g g r e s s i v e h a b i t s , as i n d i c a t e d by p e e r n o m i n a t i o n s , t e n y e a r s l a t e r . U s i n g c r o s s l a g g e d p a n e l c o r r e l a t i o n s and p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s i n g l e most p l a u s i b l e h y p o t h e s i s f o r t h e i r r e s u l t s was t h a t p r e f e r e n c e f o r w a t c h i n g v i o l e n t t e l e v i s i o n i n t h e t h i r d grade c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e development o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . E r o n e t a l . do n o t argue t h a t t e l e v i s i o n v i o l e n c e i s t h e o n l y cause o f a g g r e s i v e b e h a v i o u r s , but t h e y do argue t h a t t e l e v i s i o n v i o l e n c e e x p l a i n s a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r s t u d i e d . 15 A few o f t h e problems w i t h t h i s s t u d y a r e t h o s e i n h e r e n t i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f l o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a . C h a f f e e (1972) arg u e d t h e need f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a t o be r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n a homogeneous l i f e c y c l e p e r i o d , t h a t i s , e i t h e r c h i l d h o o d o r a d o l e s c e n c e but n o t from one t o t h e o t h e r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , how do changes i n s o c i e t y o v e r a t e n y e a r p e r i o d a f f e c t t h e r e s u l t s i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y ? I f t h e p e r i o d between d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s i s r e d u c e d ( f o r example, two t o t h r e e y e a r s ) , t h e changes, i f any, i n s o c i e t y would l i k e l y be l e s s , r a d i c a l . C h a f f e e a l s o d i s c u s s e s some o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems o f t h e E r o n e t a l . s t u d y . F o r example, programme p r e f e r e n c e s a t t i m e 1 were o b t a i n e d by p a r e n t a l r e - p o r t , w h i c h can v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m a c h i l d ' s s e l f - r e p o r t ( G r e e n b e r g , E r i c s o n , & V l a h o s , 1971), whereas programme p r e f e r e n c e s a t t i m e 2 were s e l f - r e p o r t e d . P e e r n o m i n a t i o n s a t t i m e 1 were f o r t h e p r e s e n t and r e s t r i c t e d t o c l a s s m a t e s a t t h a t t i m e , whereas a t t i m e 2, p e e r nomina- t i o n s were r e t r o s p e c t i v e and n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e c l a s s m a t e s a t t h a t t i m e . That i s , t h e t e e n a g e r s were a s k e d t o nominate any o f t h e i r c l a s s - mates i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s , whom t h e y p e r c e i v e d t o be a g g r e s s i v e . The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e t h a t v i e w i n g v i o l e n c e on t e l e v i s i o n does a f f e c t a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . There i s , however, enough i n c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c r i t i c i s m ( f o r example, i n t h e s t u d i e s o f Feshbach & S i n g e r , 1971; E r o n e t a l . , 1972; Himmelweit e t a l . , 1958; Schramm e t a l . , 1961) and t h e use o f s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , t h u s l i m i t i n g g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y (as i n B e r k o w i t z e t a l . , 1975; Feshbach & S i n g e r , 1971), t o w a r r a n t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , e s p e c i a l l y i n n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g s . The p r e s e n t l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y was b a s e d on a n a t u r a l e x p e r i m e n t 16 i n t h r e e s m a l l towns i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. I n d e s i g n i n g t h e s t u d y some o f t h e p roblems m e n t i o n e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t ( f o r example, m u l t i p l e measures o f a g g r e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g f r e e p l a y b e h a v i o u r s , were c o l l e c t e d and c h i l d r e n ' s t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s were r e c o r d e d ) . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s (1973 t o 1975). C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s were made between t h r e e groups o f c h i l d r e n who were exposed t o d i f f e r i n g amounts o f t e l e - v i s i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t h e i n i t i a l phase o f t h e s t u d y ( 1 9 7 3 ) , c h i l d - r e n i n t h e town c a l l e d N o t e l had v e r y l i m i t e d e x p o s u r e t o t e l e v i s i o n ; t h a t i s , a l t h o u g h some o f t h e c h i l d r e n may have seen t e l e v i s i o n w h i l e v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s , t h e town i t s e l f d i d not have t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n and c h i l d r e n c o u l d n o t w a tch i t r e g u l a r l y i n t h e i r homes. (See A p p e n d i x J f o r c h i l d r e n ' s t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h o u r s p e r week i n N o t e l , U n i t e l , and M u l t i t e l a t t i m e 1 and t i m e 2. The d a t a f o r N o t e l c h i l d r e n a t t i m e 1 i n d i c a t e t h a t 70% d i d n o t w a t c h t e l e v i s i o n . ) A t t h e second phase of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n (.1975) , t e l e v i s i o n had been a v a i l a b l e i n N o t e l f o r two y e a r s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90% o f t h e town's p o p u l a t i o n r e c e i v e d t e l e v i s i o n i n t h e i r homes. The second town, U n i t e l , r e c e i v e d two C a n a d i a n s t a t i o n s d u r i n g b o t h phases ( b o t h CBC, b u t from d i f f e r e n t t r a n s m i t t e r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e c o n t e n t o f each c h a n n e l v a r i e d s l i g h t l y ) . The t h i r d town, M u l t i t e l , r e c e i v e d C a n a d i a n (CBC) and A m e r i c a n (ABC, CBS, NBC) s t a t i o n s a t b o t h phases. A l l t h r e e A m e r i c a n n e t w o r k s and t h e C a n a d i a n c h a n n e l were a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o t h o s e p e o p l e who were on c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 85% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Those p e o p l e n o t on c a b l e r e c e i v e d o n l y CBS. The t h r e e towns were comparable on v a r i o u s demographic d i m e n s i o n s , s u c h as s i z e , c l i m a t e , 17 d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e n e a r e s t u r b a n c e n t r e , s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l s , e t c . The r e l e v a n t demographic d a t a a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1 and a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e towns, t h e s e were j u d g e d t o be m i n o r and the towns were c o n s i d e r e d g e n e r a l l y c o m p a r a b l e . 1 M u l t i p l e measures o f a g g r e s s i o n were c o l l e c t e d and c o n s i s t e d o f o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r i n f r e e p l a y and p e e r and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f a g g r e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d : H y p o t h e s i s 1: Based on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y (Bandura, 1963), t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r of c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l was e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. That i s , t h r o u g h e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e models on t e l e v i s i o n , c h i l d r e n ' s i n h i b i t i o n s a g a i n s t a c t i n g i n an a g g r e s s i v e manner m i g h t be r e d u c e d . To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , t h e same c h i l d r e n were ob- s e r v e d two y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n . To a s s e s s any c o n f o u n d i n g e f f e c t s due t o age d i f f e r e n c e s , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d a t t i m e 2 from c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s 1 and 2, who were t h e same age as t h e c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y s t u d i e d . S i n c e t h e v i e w i n g o f t e l e v i s i o n was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o a f f e c t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s was a l s o o b t a i n e d . H y p o t h e s i s 2: S i n c e t h e s o c i a l l e a r n i n g / m o d e l l i n g a p p r o a c h a l s o i m p l i e s an a c q u i s i t i o n o f new forms o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , t h e a g g r e s - s i v e r e p e r t o i r e s o f c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l were e x p e c t e d t o change f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e p e r t o i r e s o f N o t e l c h i l d r e n a t t i m e 1 were e x p e c t e d t o be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e p e r - t o i r e s i n U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l , because o f t h e l a c k o f t e l e v i s e d models i n N o t e l . However, a t t i m e 2, t h e a g g r e s s i v e r e p e r t o i r e s i n a l l t h r e e groups of c h i l d r e n were e x p e c t e d t o be more homogeneous. 18 Table 1 Demographic Data f o r Notel, U n i t e l , and M u l t i t e l ( L i s t i n g 1971 Census Data) Notel U n i t e l M u l t i t e l 1971 Population Town Area P r i n c i p l e source of income Mean income (head) Family heads with English as o f f i c i a l language Family heads with Mother tongue English Proportion of experienced labour force i n blue c o l l a r jobs Family heads educated beyond high school Birthplace Canada If born i n Canada, birth p l a c e B.C. Female population Proportion of population over 15 years 658 354 acres logging r a i l r o a d farming $7377 88% 74% 62% 37% 77% 64% 51% 63% 693 872 Not a v a i l a b l e 375 acres logging r a i l r o a d $6854 93% 81% 72% 23% 90% 34% 57% 65% logging mining $8055 95% 83% 77% 24% 77% 71% 52% 71% 19 H y p o t h e s i s 3: I f t h e e f f e c t s o f v i e w i n g a g g r e s s i o n m o d e l l e d on t e l e v i s i o n a r e c u m u l a t i v e f o r c h i l d r e n , a g g r e s s i o n i n b o t h U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l s h o u l d i n c r e a s e f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2, as t h e s e c h i l d r e n have been c o n t i n u a l l y exposed t o t e l e v i s i o n d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . However, t h e r e i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c e i l i n g e f f e c t o c c u r r i n g . T h e r e f o r e , once a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f a g g r e s s i o n , o r a c e r t a i n age i s r e a c h e d , t h e e f f e c t o f t e l e v i s i o n may no l o n g e r be e v i d e n t . I f t h i s c e i l i n g had n o t been a t t a i n e d a t t i m e 1, c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l s h o u l d i n c r e a s e more i n t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e n e s s t h a n U n i t e l c h i l d r e n , s i n c e U.S. produced t e l e v i s i o n has been shown t o c o n t a i n more v i o l e n t c o n t e n t t h a n C a n a d i a n p r o d u c e d t e l e - v i s i o n ( S i n g e r , 1970; W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , & J o y , 1977). I n a d d i t i o n , Gerbner and G r o s s (1976) have shown t h a t v i o l e n t c o n t e n t on U.S. t e l e - v i s i o n has i n c r e a s e d from 1967 t o 1976. The c o m p a r i s o n between shows a v a i l a b l e i n N o t e l , U n i t e l , and M u l t i t e l i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 2, and t h e r a n k o r d e r i n g o f shows f o r a g g r e s s i o n f r o m t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t e l e - v i s i o n c o n d u c t e d by W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , and J o y (1977). The p e e r and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f a g g r e s s i o n were c o l l e c t e d t o v a l i - d a t e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures employed i n t e s t i n g t h e above h y p o t h e s e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e m u l t i p l e measures o f a g g r e s s i o n were e x p e c t e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i s s u e o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r and sex d i f f e r e n c e s was t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , by o b s e r v i n g b o t h males and f e m a l e s . P a s t r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f v i e w i n g v i o l e n t t e l e v i s i o n on a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r may h o l d o n l y f o r males ( E r o n e t a l . , 1972), and o t h e r r e s e a r c h has c o n s i s t e n t l y shown males t o be more p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s ( F e s h b a c h , 1970). 20 T a b l e 2 Comparison between t h e Number o f Shows ( i n C a t e g o r i e s ) A v a i l a b l e i n N o t e l / U n i t e l v e r s u s Those A v a i l a b l e i n M u l t i t e l . A l s o Shown i n t h e Rank Order o f C a t e g o r i e s f o r A g g r e s s i o n ( W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , & J o y , 1977) Rank O r d e r Number o f Shows i n These f o r A g g r e s s i o n C a t e g o r i e s A v a i l a b l e i n N o t e l / U n i t e l M u l t i t e l ( A c t u a l number) 1, Crime 2 21 2. D o c u m e n t a r i e s 3 6 3. A n i m a t e d 0 16 4. S i t u a t i o n Comedies 12 26 5. A d v e n t u r e 3 6 6. C h i l d r e n ' s Non-Animated 8 17 7. M u s i c / V a r i e t y / T a l k 5 12 8. I n s t r u c t i o n / R e l i g i o n 4 3 9. D rama/Medical 7 12 10. Game 2 8 N e w s / P u b l i c A f f a i r s 5 17 S p o r t s 4 3 The above 2 c a t e g o r i e s were n o t a n a l y z e d by W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , & J o y . S i n g e r & Gordon (1977) f o u n d : "News and s p o r t s c o v e r a g e i n t h e newspapers and on t e l e v i s i o n n e w s c a s t s sampled i s r e l a t i v e l y v i o l e n t . O v e r a l l , 40% o f t h e s e l e c t e d i t e m s f e l l i n t o t h e v i o - l e n c e and c o n f l i c t - r e l a t e d c a t e g o r i e s . . . " 21 METHOD S u b j e c t s O b s e r v a t i o n a l S t u dy: A t o t a l o f 240 c h i l d r e n from t h e t h r e e towns (Note l , . U n i t e l , and M u l t i t e l ) p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d y . Those c h i l d r e n were grouped i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: A t t i m e 1, f i v e male and f i v e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s i n each o f gra d e s 1, 2, 4, and 5 were ob- s e r v e d i n each town. A t ti m e 2, f i v e males and f i v e f e m a l e s i n each o f grad e s 1 and 2 were o b s e r v e d i n ea c h town ( t h i s was t o p r o v i d e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t he gra d e s 1 and 2 c h i l d r e n a t ti m e 1 ) ; i n a d d i t i o n f i v e males and f i v e f e m a l e s i n each o f gra d e s 3 and 4 were o b s e r v e d i n ea c h town, ( t h e grade 4 c h i l d r e n a t ti m e 2 a l s o p r o v i d e d d a t e f o r c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e ti m e 1 grade 4 d a t a ) . A subsample o f c h i l d r e n i n gr a d e s 3 and 4, a t ti m e 2, p r o v i d e d l o n g i t u - d i n a l d a t a f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d on t h e same c h i l d r e n i n g rades 1 and 2 a t ti m e 1. I t was o r i g i n a l l y p r o p o s e d t h a t a l l 60 c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y i n gr a d e s 1 and 2 would be o b s e r v e d a t t i m e 2. How- e v e r , o n l y 44 (73%) o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n were s t i l l a v a i l a b l e two y e a r s l a t e r (16 i n N o t e l , 15 i n U n i t e l , and 13 i n M u l t i t e l ) . T h e r e f o r e , 16 a d d i t i o n a l grade 3 and 4 c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d a t t i m e 2, as w e l l as th e 60 new grade 1 and 2 c h i l d r e n . The number o f s u b j e c t s i n e a c h sub- group, whether l o n g i t u d i n a l o r c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 3. The c r i t e r i a employed f o r i n v o l v i n g a c h i l d i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d y were the f o l l o w i n g : t h e c h i l d was n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y below a v e r a g e i n a b i l i t y ( t h a t i s , t h e t e a c h e r d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f a b i l i t y t o be r e m e d i a l ) ; t h e c h i l d had n o t r e p e a t e d a s c h o o l g r a d e ; t h e 22 T a b l e 3 Number o f S u b j e c t s i n Each Subgroup a t Time 1 and Time 2 L o n g i t u d i n a l Sample N = 44 Time 1 (1973) Time 2 (1975) (Grades 1 & 2) (Grades 3 & 4) M a l e s Females M a l e s Females N o t e l 10 6 10 6 U n i t e l 8 7 8 7 M u l t i t e l 6 7 6 7 C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l Sample N = 240 Time 1 (1973) Time 2 (1975) GR 1 GR 2 GR 4 GR 5 GR 1 GR 2 GR 3 GR 4 M F M F M F M F . M F M F M F M F N o t e l 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 U n i t e l 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 M u l t i t e l 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 23 c h i l d had l i v e d more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e town; no s i b l i n g had been s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n was im p o r - t a n t because s i b l i n g s may be s i m i l a r i n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r due t o s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s , w h i c h , i n such a s m a l l sample s i z e , c o u l d i n t r o d u c e a c o u n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e . T h i s c r i t e r i o n was e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t a t ti m e 2 when new s u b j e c t s were b e i n g chosen. P e e r and Teacher R a t i n g s : A l l c h i l d r e n i n t h e f o u r grades a t t i m e 1 and t i m e 2 were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p e e r and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f a g g r e s s i o n . P r o c e d u r e P e e r R a t i n g s o f A g g r e s s i o n . Each c h i l d n ominated t h e t h r e e c l a s s - mates whom he p e r c e i v e d as t h e b o s s i e s t , f i g h t i n g t h e most, t a l k i n g back t o t h e t e a c h e r t h e most, a r g u i n g and d i s a g r e e i n g t h e most, and p u s h i n g , s h o v i n g , and p o k i n g t h e most. Due t o d i f f i c u l t y i n w r i t i n g t h e i r r e s - ponses and/or r e a d i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f o r m s , c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s 1 and 2 were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . The o l d e r c h i l d r e n c o m p l e t e d t h e forms t h e m s e l v e s i n a group s e t t i n g , w i t h a s s i s t a n c e i f r e q u i r e d (see A p p e n d i x A ) . Teach e r R a t i n g s o f A g g r e s s i o n . Each c h i l d was r a t e d by h i s o r h e r t e a c h e r on t e n s e v e n - p o i n t s c a l e s o f a g g r e s s i o n and a c t i v i t y . These i n d i c a t e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d each c h i l d t o be a c t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , b o s s y , c o m p e t i t i v e , dominant, f r i e n d l y , h o n e s t , h o s t i l e , and lo u d (see A p p e n d i x B ) . T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g H a b i t s . The c h i l d r e n were i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t e r - v i e w e d about t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s . An e x t e n s i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p l e t e d w h i c h p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e number o f h o u r s 24 s p e n t v i e w i n g ( w i t h weekday and weekend v i e w i n g s e p a r a t e d ) , t h e c h i l d ' s f a v o u r i t e shows, the p r e v i o u s day's v i e w i n g , programmes u s u a l l y w a tched, t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p a r e n t a l g u i d a n c e , r e a d i n g h a b i t s , e t c . (See A p p e n d i x C f o r N o t e l and U n i t e l ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and A p p e n d i x D f o r M u l t i t e l ; as t h e l a t t e r town r e c e i v e d more s t a t i o n s , a more e x t e n s i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e q u i r e d . ) O b s e r v a t i o n P r o c e d u r e . C h i l d r e n i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l sample (5 males and 5 f e m a l e s from each o f t h e f o u r g r a d e s i n each town) were o b s e r v e d d u r i n g f r e e p l a y p e r i o d s ( t h a t i s , b e f o r e s c h o o l , a t r e c e s s , a t l u n c h , and a f t e r s c h o o l ) , o v e r a p e r i o d o f two weeks. Each c h i l d was o b s e r v e d f o r 21 one m i n u t e . i n t e r v a l s and no c h i l d was o b s e r v e d f o r any two c o n s e c u t i v e m i n u t e s . F o r r e l i a b i l i t y p u r p o s e s , two -independent o b s e r v e r s watched e a c h c h i l d , s c o r i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . The c a t e g o r i e s were n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l ; t h a t i s , i n any one m i n u t e p e r i o d , any o f the a g g r e s s i o n c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d be coded once o r more t h a n o n c e . 2 The p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i s t e d o f b e h a v i o u r s l a b e l l e d p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t , p h y s i c a l p r e v e n t i o n , and p h y s i c a l t h r e a t . These c a t e g o r i e s were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a t o t a l o f f o u r - t e e n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n c a t e g o r i e s ; f o r example, PA — s u b j e c t h i t s , s l a p s , punches o r s t r i k e s t h e t a r g e t w i t h any p a r t o f t h e body above t h e w a i s t ; PP — s u b j e c t p u s h e s , p u l l s , h o l d s , g r a b s , d r a g s , o r chokes t h e t a r g e t ; PT4 — s u b j e c t c h a s e s t h e t a r g e t w i t h a h e l d o b j e c t , e t c . (see A p p e n d i x E ) . F o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , t h r e e were n i n e s u b c a t e g o r i e s ; f o r example, VD — s u b j e c t d i s p a r a g e s t h e t a r g e t , mocks , e t c . ; VT — s u b j e c t t h r e a t e n s t o h u r t t a r g e t ; VC — s u b j e c t a r g u e s o r i s a t c r o s s p u r p o s e s w i t h t a r g e t , e t c . (see A p p e n d i x E ) . 25 D u r i n g t h e f r e e p l a y p e r i o d s , t h e o b s e r v e r s w a l k e d around the p l a y g r o u n d , s c o r i n g t h e s u b j e c t ' s b e h a v i o u r as u n o b t r u s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . 3 The c h i l d r e n had been f u r n i s h e d w i t h a c o v e r s t o r y w h i c h a p p e a r e d , on i n f o r m a l q u e s t i o n i n g , t o have been a c c e p t e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e week i n e a c h town, b o t h o b s e r v e r s went i n t o e a c h c l a s s , i n t r o d u c e d t h e m s e l v e s and e x p l a i n e d t h e i r p r e s e n c e . They s a i d t h e y would be s i t t i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s , i n t e r v e i w i n g t h e c h i l d r e n , and w a l k i n g around t h e p l a y g r o u n d b e f o r e s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g , d u r i n g r e c e s s and l u n c h , and a f t e r s c h o o l , s e e i n g how c h i l d r e n p l a y t o g e t h e r . There was no m e n t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n o r a g g r e s s i o n . W h i l e on t h e p l a y g r o u n d , t h e o b s e r v e r l o c a t e d a s u b j e c t , o b s e r v e d h i s o r h e r b e h a v i o u r f o r one m i n u t e and t h e n moved on t o t h e n e x t s u b j e c t s c h e d u l e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . The b e h a v i o u r s were r e c o r d e d on t h e l a b e l l e d c o d i n g s h e e t s (see A p p e n d i x F ) . The two o b s e r v e r s were t r a i n e d p r i o r t o a r r i v a l i n t h e t h r e e towns on a d i f f e r e n t sample o f s c h o o l a g e d c h i l d r e n t h a n t h o s e i n t h e s t u d y . The r e l i a b i l i t y a t t a i n e d d u r i n g t r a i n i n g was .85. S i n c e two o b s e r v e r s coded t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r i n e a c h town, r e l i a b i l i t y was t e s t e d c o n - s t a n t l y d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d . The mean r e l i a b i l i t y a t t i m e 1 was 0.86 (based on 40 s c o r e s ) and .80 a t ti m e 2 (based on 51 s c o r e s ) . 1 * 26 RESULTS The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y were d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s . F i r s t , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . These r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n c e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d were o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n i n n a t u r a l f r e e p l a y , as opposed t o t h e some- what r e t r o s p e c t i v e paper and p e n c i l d a t a c o l l e c t e d from t h e t e a c h e r s and p e e r s . However, t h e t e a c h e r and p e e r measures o f a g g r e s s i o n a r e i m p o r - t a n t as v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n s . The s e c - t i o n on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d y w i l l be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a , a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a , t h e r e p e r t o i r e o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s f o r t i m e 1 and t i m e 2 i n a l l t h r e e towns, and f i n a l l y e x a m i n a t i o n i n more d e t a i l o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n who were e i t h e r h i g h o r low i n a g g r e s s i o n a t t i m e 1 and t h e i r a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s a t t i m e 2. The t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s o f t h e s e l a t t e r c h i l d r e n were a l s o s t u d i e d . The f i n a l s e c t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e m u l t i p l e measures o f a g g r e s s i o n ; t h a t i s , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures, t h e p e e r r a t i n g s , and t h e t e a c h e r r a t i n g s . O b s e r v a t i o n a l Study O b s e r v a t i o n a l measures o f b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n were employed a t t i m e 1 and t i m e 2. T h e r e f o r e a number o f d i f f e r e n t a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c o n d u c t e d . F i r s t , l o n g i t u d i n a l ( r e p e a t e d measures) a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c o n d u c t e d on t h e d a t a o f c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d a t time 1 who were a g a i n o b s e r v e d a t t i m e 2. F u r t h e r , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l 27 a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c o n d u c t e d on t h e c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d a t t i m e 1 and on s i m i l a r l y aged c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d a t t i m e 2. The two dependent v a r i a b l e s i n a l l t h e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a were t h e two means o f (a) t h e f o u r t e e n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s , and (b) t h e n i n e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s . 1. L o n g i t u d i n a l A n a l y s e s D a t a c o l l e c t e d on c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d a t t i m e 1 and a g a i n a t t i m e 2 were a n a l y z e d i n two 3 x 2 r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were town and sex and t h e dependent measures were the p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n means. These a n a l y s e s i n v o l v e d t h e s c o r e s o f 44 c h i l d r e n (16 i n N o t e l , 15 i n U n i t e l , and 13 i n M u l t i t e l ) . The f o c u s on t h i s s t u d y was t h e e f f e c t o f t e l e v i s i o n e x p o s u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . From t h e a n a l y s e s c o n d u c t e d i t was i m p o r t a n t t o examine how t h e c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s i n each town v a r i e d o v e r t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e town x t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t one, as i t d e m o n s t r a t e s what o c c u r r e d i n each town o v e r t i m e . i ) . P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n . I n t h e r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e c o n d u c t e d on t h e p h y s i c a l measures o f a g g r e s s i o n , a town by t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n was o b t a i n e d , 1/(2,38) = 3.082, p_ < . 0 6 & (see F i g u r e 1 ) . Tukey A p o s t hoc a n a l y s e s 6 r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e s c o r e s i n t h e t h r e e towns a t t i m e 1. However, a t t i m e 2, t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a g g r e s s i v e (p_ < .01) t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns, who d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2 (p_ < . 0 1 ) , Time 1 Time 2 219 whereas t h e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e o t h e r two towns were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e main e f f e c t f o r ti m e was s i g n i f i c a n t , _F(1,38) = 14.406, £ < .001, showing an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n f r o m t i m e 1 t o ti m e 2, w h i c h was most l i k e l y due t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i o n o v e r t i m e , as d i s c u s s e d above. There was •> a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t m ain e f f e c t f o r s e x , ,F(1,38) =/. 17.101, £ < .001, s p e c i f y i n g t h a t males were more p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s , a r e s u l t f ound c o n s i s t e n t l y i n r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r ( F e s h b a c h , 1970). See T a b l e 4 f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s . i i ) V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n . A town by t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n was o b t a i n e d f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n as w e l l , 1/(2,38) = 2.674, £ < .08 (see F i g u r e 2 ) . P o s t hoc a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t a t ti m e 1, t h e c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l (£ < . 0 5 ) , b u t n o t more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l , who, i n t u r n , d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l . A t ti m e 2, N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s had i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (£ < . 0 5 ) , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e s e c h i l d r e n b e i n g more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h o s e i n U n i t e l (£ < .01) and M u l t i t e l (£ < . 0 1 ) , who d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r towns, J£(2,38) = 3,843, £ < .04. Tukey A p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r - w i s e c o m p a r i s o n s . However, an a n a l y s i s o f complex c o m p a r i s o n s ( S c h e f f e p o s t hoc t e s t ) , showed t h a t t h e mean s c o r e s f o r N o t e l and M u l t i t e l combined were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e o f c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l (£ < .05). See T a b l e 5 f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s . I t 30 T a b l e 4 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n ( L o n g i t u d i n a l Data) Source Degrees o f Freedom Mean Squares F R a t i o P r o b a b i l i t y Town 2 0.650 2.981 0.063 Sex 1 3.730 17.101 0.001* Town x Sex 2 0.246 1.126 0.34 S - w i t h i n 38 0.218 Time 1 2.780 14.406 0.001* Town x Time 2 0.595 3.082 0.06 Sex x Time 1 0.194 1.008 0.32 Town x Sex x Time 2 0.003 0.014 0.99 T i m e - s - w i t h i n 38 0.193 i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t 31 F i g u r e 2. Town by Time I n t e r a c t i o n f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n . L o n g i t u d i n a l A n a l y s i s 32 T a b l e 5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n ( L o n g i t u d i n a l Data) Source Degrees o f Freedom Mean Squares F R a t i o P r o b a b i l i t y Town 2 0.176 3.483 0.04* Sex 1 0.040 0.798 0.38 Town x Sex 2 0.116 2.287 0.12 S - w i t h i n 38 0.051 Time 1 0.094 2.173 0.15 Town x Time 2 0.115 2.674 0.08 Sex x Time 1 0.109 2.534 0.12 Town x Sex x Time 2 0.023 0.540 0.59 T i m e - s - w i t h i n 38 0.043 i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t 33 i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r sex. S i n c e t h e r e s e a r c h on sex d i f f e r e n c e f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n i s v e r y i n c o n c l u s i v e ( F e s h b a c h , 1970), t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e an i n t e r e s t i n g a d d i t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e . I n sum, t h e r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e f o r b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y t h e a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s o f c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2, r e s u l t i n g i n N o t e l c h i l d r e n b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a g g r e s - s i v e t h a n c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns. The males i n t h i s sample d i s p l a y e d more p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n t h a n t h e f e m a l e s and no sex d i f - f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s . 2. C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l A n a l y s e s . The c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c o n d u c t e d on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d a t b o t h t i m e s . T h i s i n v o l v e d a t o t a l o f 240 c h i l d r e n , i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s . A t t i m e 1, t h e f o u r l e v e l s were g r a d e s 1, 2, 4, and 5. A t ti m e 2, t h e f o u r l e v e l s were g r a d e s 1, 2, 3, and 4. The c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s e n a b l e d t h e assessment o f any p o s s i b l e confounds due t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s w h i c h c o u l d have p r o v i d e d an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e o b t a i n e d l o n g i - t u d i n a l r e s u l t s . That i s , as t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n a t ti m e 2 were two y e a r s o l d e r , t h e i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n b e i n g o l d e r and not t o t h e e f f e c t o f t e l e v i s i o n e x p o s u r e o v e r t i m e . By making c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s , t h e e f f e c t s o f age, i f any, c o u l d be as s e s s e d . Thus, i n t h e c r o s s — s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s b o t h t h e town by t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e grade e f f e c t were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t . 34 Two 4-way a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n means. The i n d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r s were town, s e x , t i m e , and g r a d e . i ) P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n . The c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t town by grade i n t e r a c t i o n , 1/(6,192) = 2.668, p_ < .02 (see F i g u r e 3). As t h e r e was no main e f f e c t f o r grade i t was i m p o r t a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n f u r t h e r t o a s c e r t a i n i f t h e younger o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n were b e i n g more a g g r e s s i v e . When d i f f e r e n c e s among age l e v e l s were examined f o r each town, t h e grade 1 c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a g g r e s s i v e t h a n c h i l d r e n a t t h e t h r e e o t h e r age l e v e l s (p_ < . 0 1 ) , whereas i t was t h e grade 2 c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l who were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e o t h e r t h r e e age l e v e l s (p_ < . 0 5 ) . 7 There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e s among th e f o u r l e v e l s i n U n i t e l . I n a d d i t i o n , p o s t hoc a n a l y s e s showed t h a t t h e r e were town d i f f e r e n c e s f o r age l e v e l s 1, 2, and 3 (p_ < . 0 5 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , grade 1 c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l were more a g g r e s - s i v e t h a n t h e grade 1 c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l (p_ K -01) a n d U n i t e l (p_ < . 0 1 ) , who d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Grade 2 N o t e l c h i l d r e n were more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l grade 2 c h i l d r e n (p_ < . 0 1 ) , who were s i m i l a r . The t h i r d age l e v e l c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h i r d age l e v e l c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns (p_ < . 0 1 ) . F i n a l l y , l e v e l 4 c h i l d r e n (grade 5 a t t i m e 1, grade 4 a t t i m e 2) i n a l l t h r e e towns d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n r e v e a l e d no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s . The c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l i n c r e a s e d i n a g g r e s s i o n w i t h age; however, c h i l d r e n i n b o t h M u l t i t e l and U n i t e l d i d n o t d i s p l a y t h i s g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e w i t h age. A l t h o u g h 35 F i g u r e 3. Town by Grade x Time I n t e r a c t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n . C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l D a t a . ...'9 . PI o •H CO CO CD H bO 60 < o o c cu i-l o •H CO CO CU n 60 60 <J o o a a) CU u N.B. •8 \ .7 .6 .3" .4 .3 .2 1.1 1.0 .9 .8 .7 .6 .5 .4 .3 Time 1 M u l t i t e l t j n i t e l •Notel N o t e l M u l t i t e l U n i t e l 2 3 Age L e v e l Though t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , i t shows i n more d e t a i l , i . e . , s e p a r a t i n g t i m e 1 and t i m e 2, t h e s i g n i f i c a n t town by grade intPTeaption. 36 t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a t r e n d was d e v e l o p i n g s i n c e i n a l l t h r e e towns, t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r from l e v e l 3 t o l e v e l 4, o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n i n h i g h e r g r a d e s would be n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn. A d d i t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f more c o m p l i c a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s ( e . g . , town x ti m e x grade) r e v e a l e d no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s and f u r t h e r m o r e , no main e f f e c t f o r grade was o b t a i n e d . T h e r e f o r e i t ap p e a r s t h a t age and p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n were n o t r e l a t e d i n t h i s sample. The t i m e by town i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n was n o t s i g n i - f i c a n t a t l e s s t h a n t h e .10 l e v e l . However, v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e town means a c r o s s t i m e r e v e a l e d a t r e n d c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e d a t a on t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e were no s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e towns a t t i m e 1, whereas t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l , a t t i m e 2, were more p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns. I t appears a l s o t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l were more p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e a t ti m e 2 t h a n t h o s e i n U n i t e l . C h i l d r e n i n e a c h town i n c r e a s e d i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n from t i m e 1 t o tim e 2, w i t h t h e N o t e l c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y i n g t h e l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e . Thus, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was no : s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s m i r r o r e d t h a t o f l o n g i t u d i n a l s u b j e c t s . There were s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r town, J?(2,192) = 4.0, p < .02; sex, F ( l , 1 9 2 ) = 60.11, p_ < .001; and t i m e , F ( l , 1 9 2 ) = 30.724, p_ < .001. S p e c i f i c a l l y , c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l d i s p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n t h a n U n i t e l c h i l d r e n (p_ < .05). M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r N o t e l o r U n i t e l c h i l d r e n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s , males were more p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s , and t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n from 37 t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. See T a b l e 6 f o r the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s . i i ) V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s - s i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t town by t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n , F(2,192) = 6.92, £ < .001 (see F i g u r e 4 ) . P o s t hoc a n a l y s e s showed t h e f o l l o w i n g : (1) a t t i m e 1, c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a g g r e s s i v e (p_ < .05) t h a n c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l and U n i t e l , who d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y ; (2) a t t i m e 2, c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l d i s p l a y e d s i g n i - f i c a n t l y more v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n (p < .05) t h a n M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n , who i n t u r n , were more v e r b a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h o s e i n U n i t e l (p_ < . 0 5 ) ; and (3) N o t e l c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more v e r b a l l y a g g r e s s i v e a t t i m e 2 t h a n a t t i m e 1 (p_ < . 0 1 ) , but t h e c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l d i d n o t i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t i m e . No age d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d , t h a t i s n e i t h e r t h e town by grade i n t e r a c t i o n n o r t h e main . e f f e c t f o r grade were s i g n i f i c a n t , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes. There were s i g n i f i c a n t raain e f f e c t s f o r town, ;F(2,192) = 10.152, £ < .001; s e x , F ( l , 1 9 2 ) = 5.49, p_ < .01; and t i m e , F ( l , 1 9 2 ) = 8.249, p_. < .005. Namely, c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a g g r e s s i v e t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns (p_ < . 0 1 ) , who d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r sex i n d i c a t e d t h a t males were more v e r b a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s . T h i s r e s u l t a l s o emerged i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t sex x t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n , _F (.1,192) = 5.037, p_ < .03 (see F i g u r e 5 ) . P o s t hoc a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t males i n c r e a s e d i n v e r b a l 38 T a b l e 6 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n ( C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l ) Degrees o f Mean F Source Freedom Squares R a t i o P Town 2 0.680 3.999 0.02* Sex 1 10.220 60.111 0.001* Town x Sex 2 0.027 0.161 0.85 Time 1 5.224 30.724 0.001* Town x Time 2 0.281 1.655 0.19 Sex x Time 1 0.394 2.319 0.13 Town x Sex x Time 2 0.-073 0,428 0.65 Grade 3 0.272 1.598 0.19 Town x Grade 6 0.454 2.668 0.02* Sex x Town 3 0.356 2.095 0.102 Town x Sex x Grade 6 0.180 1.059 0.39 Time x Grade 3 0.326 1.916 0.13 Town x Time x Grade 6 0.226 1.328 0.25 Sex x Time x Grade 3 0.309 1.818 0.15 Town x Sex x Time x Grade 6 0.547 3.215 0.005* S - w i t h i n 192 0.17p * i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t 39 F i g u r e 4. Town by Time I n t e r a c t i o n f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n . C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l D a t a Time 1 Time 2 F i g u r e 5. Sex by Time I n t e r a c t i o n f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l D a t a • 4 , 0 i Time 1 Time 2 41 a g g r e s s i o n from t i m e 1 t o ti m e 2 (p_ < . 0 5 ) , b u t f e m a l e s d i d n o t i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , a t ti m e 1, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e between males and f e m a l e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n i n N o t e l between t i m e 1 and t i m e 2 (see a b o v e ) , was p r o b a b l y due t o t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e m a l e s . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has de m o n s t r a t e d t h a t males can be more v e r b a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s (Gordon & S m i t h , 1965). However, t h i s i s n o t a c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g and no s e x d i f f e r e n c e was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s . See T a b l e 7 f o r the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s f o r t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s , f o r . t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a . The p o s t hoc r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a f o r t h e t h r e e town x t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i a g r a m a t i c f o r m i n T a b l e 8. 3. R e p e r t o i r e o f A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r s . To a s s e s s p o t e n t i a l q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e towns, as i n d i c a t e d i n h y p o t h e s i s 2, t h e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l r e s p o n s e s were examined. The f r e q u e n c i e s o f o c c u r r e n c e o f each p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i v e c a t e g o r y . were r e c o r d e d , f o r males and f e m a l e s , a t ti m e 1 and t i m e 2, f o r each town (see A p p e n d i x I ) . A t ti m e 1, t h e r e p e r t o i r e s f o r males and f e m a l e s i n a l l t h r e e towns were s i m i l a r , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t p h y s i c a l measures and t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t v e r b a l mea- s u r e s (see F i g u r e 6 ) . See T a b l e 9 f o r t h e a c t u a l s c o r e s f o r t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t r e s p o n s e s a t t i m e 1 and t i m e 2. S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , c h i l d r e n pushed (PP) , h i t each o t h e r above t h e w a i s t (PA1), and i n t e r f e r e d i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f a n o t h e r ( P I ) ; i n a d d i t i o n , f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , c h i l d r e n made d i s p a r a g i n g remarks (VD), a r g u e d ( V C ) , and commanded each o t h e r i n l o u d and a n g r y v o i c e s ( V S). A d d i t i o n a l l y , a t 42 T a b l e 7 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n ( C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l ) Degrees o f Mean F Source Freedom Squares R a t i o P r o b a b i l i t y Town 2 0.351 10.152 0.001* Sex 1 0.190 5.490 0.02* Town x Sex 1 0.061 1.774 0.17 Time 1 0.285 8.249 0.005* Town x Time 2 0.239 6.919 0.001* Sex x Time 1 0.175 5.057 0.03* Town x Sex x Time 2 0.011 0.312 0.732 Grade 3 0.050 1.435 0.23 Town x Grade 6 0.032 0.938 0.47 Sex x Grade 3 0.019 0.543 0.65 Town x Sex x Grade 6 0.031 0.904 0.49 Time x Grade 3 0.048 1.384 0.25 Town x Time x Grade 6 0.016 0.459 0.84 Sex x Time x Grade 3 0.025 0.737 0.531 Town x Sex x Time x Grade 6 0.044 1.280 0.27 S - w i t h i n 192 0.035 i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t 43 T a b l e 8 Summary T a b l e ( D i a g r a m a t i c Form) o f P o s t Hoc T e s t s Conducted on t h e S i g n i f i c a n t Town x Time I n t e r a c t i o n s f o r the O b s e r v a t i o n a l D a t a A f t e r t h e A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e L o n g i t u d i n a l Sample P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n N o t e l U n i t e l M u l t i t e l Time 1 0.498 N n s ' 0.429< n S v ns N 0.415' N o t e l U n i t e l M u l t i t e l Time 2 p<.01 0.582< \ 0.657' ns V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n Time 1 Time 2 N o t e l U n i t e l M u l t i t e l 0.191% s ns n s ' 0.124< . n c V 0.279' N o t e l ^,0.396^, , / £_<• 01 U n i t e l p<.01 0 . 1 8 K — v ns M u l t i t e l \ 0.215' C r o s s - S e c t i o n a l Sample V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n Time 1 N o t e l 0.163 > / ns U n i t e l p<.05 0.116< , A c M u l t i t e l 0.244/ Time 2 N o t e l , 0.354n n_ y P_<. 05 U n i t e l p<.05 0.152< ^ n c p<.05 M u l t i t e l \ 0.224'' N.B. Town x Time i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . F i g u r e 6. R e p e r t o i r e o f t h e Three H i g h e s t P h y s i c a l and V e r b a l 44 A g g r e s s i v e S c o r e s a t Time 1 and Time 2 400 1 1 300 o ti CU 3 • cr u F*4 200 100 •-I cu u o •H 4-1 I—I I Time 1 Time 2 o •H o S3 11—1 rH 1 1 te  aj • te  4-1 1 'rH i 'H rH •rH 1 (U 1 4-1 CD 4-1 4J 1 rH 4J t—1 rH •rH o CU 3 3 1 g 4J s p a I i p i i cu 4-1 •H 4-> rH I cu 4-1 o a n i 1 cu I 4-> ' 3 rH cu 4J •rl 4-1 rH CU 4J O 13 t l-rl CU 4-) •rl 3 i d j i j m P u s h e s , H i t s , Chases, h o l d s , e t c . s l a p s , throws punches o b j e c t s , K i c k s T e a s e s , Commands, D i s p a r a g e s Argues annoys demands c e n s u r e s d i s a g r e e s 45 T a b l e 9 R e p e r t o i r e o f t h e Three H i g h e s t P h y s i c a l and V e r b a l A g g r e s s i v e Responses a t Time 1 and Time 2 (N = 240) T o t a l Count o f B e h a v i o u r s Over 840 M i n u t e s o f O b s e r v a t i o n Time 1 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n N o t e l U n i t e l M u l t i t e l P ushes; h o l d s ; g r a b s , e t c . 144 140 186 H i t s ; s l a p s ; punches, e t c . 86 58 51 T e a s e s ; annoys; i n t e r f e r e s , e t c . 50 39 48 Commands; demands, e t c . D i s p a r a g e s ; c e n s u r e s , e t c . A r g u e s ; d i s a g r e e s , e t c . V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n N o t e l U n i t e l M u l t i t e l 67 48 74 30 30 48 15 14 38 Time 2 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n N o t e l U n i t e l M u l t i t e l P ushes; h o l d s ; g r a b s , e t c . 311 214 405 Throws Chases 78 an 100 k i c k s 47 O b j e c t H i t s ; s l a p s ; punches, e t c . 72 42 45 : c o n t i n u e d 46 Table 9 continued Verbal Aggression Notel U n i t e l M u l t i t e l Commands; demands, etc. 97 36 69 Disparages; censures, etc. 77 29 29 Argues; disagrees, etc. 53 29 29 47 t i m e 2, t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s was a g a i n s i m i l a r among t h e t h r e e towns, though t h e a c t u a l number o f r e s p o n s e s had i n c r e a s e d i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s (see A p p e n d i x I ) . The one main d i f f e r e n c e among t h e t h r e e towns was t h a t i n s t e a d o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t e r - f e r i n g i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f a n o t h e r ( t h e t h i r d h i g h e s t r e s p o n s e a t t i m e 1 ) , a t t i m e 2 t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l were c h a s i n g , t h o s e i n U n i t e l were t h r o w i n g o b j e c t s , and t h o s e i n M u l t i t e l were k i c k i n g and t r i p p i n g each o t h e r (see F i g u r e 6 ) . These r e s u l t s t h e n , i m p l y t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e were i n c r e a s e s i n a g g r e s s i o n , f o r t h e b e h a v i o u r s o b s e r v e d , t h e r e p e r - t o i r e a c r o s s t i m e f o r each town d i d n o t change. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e towns, a t l e a s t i n terms o f t h e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s o b s e r v e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s f r e e p l a y i n t h e s c h o o l grounds. 4. C h i l d r e n H i g h and Low i n A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y h i g h i n a g g r e s s i o n t e n d t o be most a f f e c t e d by e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e models i n t h e media, ( e . g . , S t e i n & F r i e d r i c h , 1972; P a r k e e t a l . , 1975). On t h i s b a s i s , t h e h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n a t t i m e 1 might a l s o be h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e a t t i m e 2. To i n v e s t i g a t e whether t h i s was t h e c a s e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d i n t h i s sample, t h e median v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . The medians were d e t e r m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r each town, b a s e d on t h e d a t a of t i m e 1 s u b j e c t s . Then, th e subsample o f l o n g i t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s were examined i n r e l a - t i o n t o t h e s e median v a l u e s . These median v a l u e s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n e ach town a r e shown i n T a b l e 10. O n l y t h e 44 l o n g i t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n c o u l d be s t u d i e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s as a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s were r e q u i r e d f o r t i m e 1 and t i m e 2 t o c a l c u l a t e any i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e ( U n i t s T a b l e 10 Median V a l u e s o f A g g r e s s i o n - Number o f A g g r e s s i v e I n c i d e n t s p e r M i n u t e ) N o t e l Time 4 Time 2 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n .38 .75 V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n .14 ,29 U n i t e l Time 1 Time 2 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n .29 .43 V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n .10 .14 M u l t i t e l Time 1 Time 2 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n .48 .58 V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n .24 .14 49 r e s p o n d i n g . Each c h i l d had two a g g r e s s i v e s c o r e s , one f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n and one f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . Thus 44 p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s f o r ti m e 1 were examined, as were 44 v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s . The c h i l d r e n were t h e n s u b d i v i d e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s c o r e s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e whose s c o r e s were above t h e median o f t h e e n t i r e sample a t t i m e 1 f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , and t h o s e whose s c o r e s were below t h e median. S i m i l a r l y , t h e c h i l d r e n were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h e same two c a t e g o r i e s f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , on t h e b a s i s o f whether t h e i r s c o r e s were above o r below t h e median. Then, each c h i l d ' s t i m e 2 a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s were examined t o d e t e r m i n e any i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g . i ) N o t e l . I n N o t e l , t e n o f t h e s i x t e e n l o n g i t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e d had p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s above t h e sample median a t t i m e 1. From t i m e 1 t o ti m e 2, t h e mean i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n f o r t h e s e t e n c h i l d r e n was 0.64; t h a t i s , t h e mean number o f p h y s i c a l a g g r e s - s i o n i n c i d e n t s p e r m i n u t e i n c r e a s e d by 0.64. The r e m a i n i n g s i x c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l , whose p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s were below t h e median a t t i m e 1, a l s o i n c r e a s e d i n a g g r e s s i o n . The mean i n c r e a s e f o r t h e s e s i x c h i l d r e n was 0.86. T h e r e f o r e , f o r b o t h t h o s e c h i l d r e n above t h e median a t time 1 and t h o s e b e l o w t h e median, t h e r e was a mean i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n o v e r t i m e . The i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s i n a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g f o r b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l a r e shown i n T a b l e s 11 and 12, a l s o i n d i c a t e d a r e t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h o u r s a t t i m e 2. F o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , the p a t t e r n was s i m i l a r , though t h e mean i n c r e a s e s a c r o s s t i m e were s m a l l e r . F o r t h e t e n c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s 50 T a b l e 11 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n - N o t e l C h i l d r e n Above/Below t h e Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e Responding a t Time 2 and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours P e r Week a t Time 2 C h i l d r e n ABOVE t h e Median a t Time 1 Sex I n c r e a s e a t Time 2 Decre a s e a t Time 2 T.V. V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 M 0.592 3 - s i c k M 1.714 - 37.5 M 0.334 - 20 M 0.286 - 27 M - 0.620 27 M 0.762 - 28 M - 0.238 48 M 0.572 - 27 M 2.952 - 3.5 F 0.000 0.000 13.5 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.64 Mean number o f h o u r s = 25.72 ... c o n t i n u e d T a b l e 11 c o n t i n u e d C h i l d r e n BELOW t h e Median a t Time 1 T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 M 1.524 - 28 F 0.655 - 25 F 0.381 - 0.0 F 0,552 - 6.5 F 0.810 - 30.5 F 1.238 - 33 Mean i n c r e a s e = 0.86 Mean number o f h o u r s = 20. U n i t s f o r t h e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g t h e number o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n s e s p e r m i n u t e . 52 T a b l e 12 V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n - N o t e l C h i l d r e n Above/Below t h e Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e R e s p o n d i n g a t Time 2 and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours p e r Week a t Time 2 C h i l d r e n ABOVE t h e Median a t Time 1 Sex I n c r e a s e a t Time 2 Decre a s e a t Time 2 T.V. V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 M 0.300 3 - s i c k M 0.048 - 20 F 0.095 - 0 M - 0.095 27 M - 0.190 28 M 0.095 - 48 M 0.333 - 27 F - 0.428 30.5 F 0.190 - 13.5 F 0.714 - 33 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.1062 Mean number o f Hours = 25.56 c o n t i n u e d 53 T a b l e 12 c o n t i n u e d C h i l d r e n BELOW t h e Median a t Time 1 Sex I n c r e a s e a t Time 2 De c r e a s e a t Time 2 T.V. V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 M 0.191 - 28 M 0.715 - 37.5 M 0.381 - 27 F 0.302 - 25 F 0.200 - 6.5 M 0.429 - 3.5 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.37 Mean Number o f Hours U n i t s f o r t h e i n c r e a s e / d e c r e a s e o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g a r e t h e number o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n s e s p e r m i n u t e . 54 were above t h e median a t time 1, t h e mean i n c r e a s e a t t i m e 2 was 0.106, whereas t h e mean i n c r e a s e f o r c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were below t h e median a t t i m e 1, was 0.37. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e t e n c h i l d r e n above t h e median f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n a t t i m e 1, need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be t h e same t e n c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were above t h e median f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n a t t i m e 1; t h a t i s , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l s c o r e s were examined s e p a r a t e l y . ' O v e r a l l , o f t h e 32 s c o r e s c o n s i d e r e d i n N o t e l f o r b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , 26 a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d (81.3%) o v e r t i m e . T h i s d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l s u p p o r t s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , namely, t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n ( b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l ) from t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g a s i m i l a r breakdown o f t h e d a t a f o r t h e l o n g i - t u d i n a l c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns, i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e t o d i s c u s s t h e t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e above c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l number o f v i e w i n g h o u r s p e r week does no t i n d i c a t e a n y t h i n g c o n c l u s i v e , a l t h o u g h i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t r e n d ; t h a t i s , f o r b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , t h e mean number o f v i e w i n g h o u r s a t t i m e 2 f o r c h i l d r e n whose a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s were above t h e median a t t i m e 1, were h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean number o f v i e w i n g h o u r s f o r c h i l d r e n who were below t h e median a t t i m e 1. T h i s f i n d i n g i s w o r t h n o t i n g because t h i s i s t h e o n l y s t u d y i n w h i c h o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r have been o b t a i n e d p r i o r t o c h i l d r e n ' s r e g u l a r t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g . The d a t a t h u s b e a r on t h e " c h i c k e n and egg" q u e s t i o n o f whether c h i l d r e n , who a r e 55 more o r l e s s a g g r e s s i v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t e l e v i s i o n ' s e f f e c t s , w a t c h more o r l e s s t e l e v i s i o n when i t becomes a v a i l a b l e . I t i s a p p a r e n t , however, t h a t more d a t a a r e needed b e f o r e any c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. S i m i l a r l y , i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s emerged from i n s p e c t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e p o r t s o f t h e i r f a v o u r i t e shows; t h a t i s , c h i l d r e n who were h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e a t t i m e 1 d i d n o t s e l e c t more a g g r e s s i v e shows as t h e i r f a v o u r i t e s t h a n t h o s e c h i l d r e n who were n o t v e r y a g g r e s s i v e . F o r example, t h e f o r m e r group chose F o r e s t R a n g e r s , P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y , The W a l t o n s , Coming Up R o s i e , and t h e l a t t e r group p i c k e d P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y , A l l i n t h e F a m i l y , W a l t D i s n e y , and F o r e s t Rangers. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t h e two groups of c h i l d r e n c o u l d be t h a t l e s s h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e shows were a v a i l a b l e i n N o t e l as t h e o n l y c h a n n e l r e c e i v e d i n t h i s town i s CBC. C o n t e n t a n a l y s i s r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t CBC has l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t t h a n CTV and/or t h e t h r e e m ajor U.S. n e t w o r k s ( W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , & J o y , 1977); f o r example, CBC shows no a n i m a t e d programmes ( c a r t o o n s ) and o n l y two c r i m e programmes, c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h c o n t a i n h i g h a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t ( G e r b n e r , 1975; W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1977) (see T a b l e 2 ) . T h e r e f o r e , a g g r e s s i v e and l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l a r e w a t c h i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same k i n d o f t e l e v i s i o n , t hough t h e a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n a ppear t o spend s l i g h t l y more t i m e w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n . i i ) U n i t e l . I n U n i t e l , f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d a t t i m e 1 and t i m e 2. Of t h e s e c h i l d r e n , e i g h t had p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s above t h e median a t t i m e 1. The mean i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2 f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n was 0.12. The mean i n c r e a s e f o r t h e seven c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were below t h e median a t t i m e 1 was 56 0.19. S i m i l a r l y , f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , t h e mean i n c r e a s e f o r t h e e i g h t c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were above t h e median a t t i m e 1 was 0.007, whereas t h e mean i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n f o r t h e seven c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were below t h e median a t t i m e 1 was 0.115, I n sum, o f t h e 30 s c o r e s c o n s i d e r e d i n U n i t e l , f o r b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , 17 s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d ( 5 6 . 7 % ) , and 11 s c o r e s d e c r e a s e d from t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. Two s c o r e s remained t h e same. These f i g u r e s e x p l a i n i n more d e t a i l t h e l a c k o f a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n U n i t e l f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2 as found i n t h e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e ; t h a t i s , t h e c h i l d r e n d i d n o t a l l r e m a i n s t a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r a g g r e s - s i v e b e h a v i o u r , as c o u l d be p o s t u l a t e d f r o m t h e ANOVA r e s u l t s , b u t i n s t e a d some c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d i n a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and o t h e i s d e c r e a s e d . Those c h i l d r e n who d e c r e a s e d i n a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g from time 1 t o t i m e 2 were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w a t c h i n g l e s s t e l e v i s i o n a t t i m e 2 t h a n t h e i r p e e r s who i n c r e a s e d . I n f a c t , t h e number o f h o u r s spent v i e w i n g t e l e v i s i o n e ach week were v e r y s i m i l a r f o r a l l c h i l d r e n (range o f 20- 37 h o u r s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n — t h i s c h i l d d i d n o t w a t c h t e l e v i s i o n a t a l l ) . The v i e w i n g h o u r s p e r week o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l a r e shown i n T a b l e s 13 and 14 as a r e t h e i n c r e a s e s and d e c r e a s e s i n a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s . The tenuous t r e n d p r o p o s e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l , t h a t c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were above t h e a g g r e s s i o n medians a t t i m e 1 were w a t c h i n g more t e l e v i s i o n a t t i m e 2, was n o t u p h e l d . I n f a c t , i n U n i t e l , t h e o p p o s i t e was t r u e — t h e c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were below t h e median were s p e n d i n g more t i m e w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n p o s s i b l y r e n d e r i n g t h e p r o p o s e d t r e n d even more tenuous! I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s a g a i n appeared r e g a r d i n g 57 T a b l e 13 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n - U n i t e l C h i l d r e n Above/Below t h e Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e s / D e c r e a s e s i n A g g r e s s i v e R e s p o n d i n g a t Time 2 and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours P e r Week a t Time 2 C h i l d r e n ABOVE t h e Median a t Time 1 Sex I n c r e a s e a t Time 2 Decre a s e a t Time 2 T.V. V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 M 0.143 a - 31 F - 0.428 20 M 0.103 - 0 M 0.952 - 23 M 0.000 0.000 20.5 M 0.476 - 37 M - 0.143 35 F - 0.143 31 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.12 Mean number o f Hours = 24.67 ... c o n t i n u e d 58 T a b l e 13 c o n t i n u e d C h i l d r e n BELOW t h e Median a t Time 1 T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 M 0.143 - 23.5 M 0.429 - 25.5 F 0.286 - 27.5 F - 0.047 31 F 0.048 - 27.5 F 0.285 - 30.5 F 0.191 - 27 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.191 Mean Number o f Hours = 27.5 U n i t s f o r t h e i n c r e a s e / d e c r e a s e o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g a r e t h e number o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n s e s p e r m i n u t e . 59 T a b l e 14 V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n - U n i t e l C h i l d r e n Above/Below t h e Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e Responding a t Time 2 and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 C h i l d r e n ABOVE t h e Median a t Time 1 Sex M F F M M M F F I n c r e a s e a t Time 2 Decre a s e a t Time 2 0.667 0.096 0.095 0.095 0.090 0.048 0.143 0.048 T.V. V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 25.5 20 31 0 23 35 30.5 31 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.0065 Mean Number o f Hours = 24.5 c o n t i n u e d 60 T a b l e 14 c o n t i n u e d C h i l d r e n BELOW t h e Median a t Time 1 T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 M 0.238 - 31 M 0.095 - 23.5 F 0.095 - 27.5 F 0.095 - 27.5 M 0.142 - 20.5 M 0.000 0.000 37 F 0.143 - 27 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.115 Mean Number o f Hours = 27.71 61 c h i l d r e n ' s f a v o u r i t e t e l e v i s i o n programmes. The more a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d - r e n were n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y s e l e c t i n g t h e more a g g r e s s i v e shows i n com- p a r i s o n t o t h e i r n o n - a g g r e s s i v e p e e r s . T h i s c o u l d a g a i n be an a r t i f a c t o f t h e programmes a v a i l a b l e i n U n i t e l . ( U n i t e l r e c e i v e d two d i f f e r e n t CBC c h a n n e l s f r o m s e p a r a t e t r a n s m i t t e r s . ) F o r example, one c h i l d who was below t h e median a t t i m e 1 and who i n c r e a s e d i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n watched a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 h o u r s o f t e l e v i s i o n p e r week a t t i m e 2 and h e r t h r e e f a v o u r i t e shows were The W a l t o n s , Beachcombers, and Walt D i s n e y , shows i n c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h have been found t o have r e l a t i v e l y l o w a g g r e s - s i v e c o n t e n t . A c h i l d who was above t h e median a t t i m e 1 and d e c r e a s e d i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n watched a p p r o x i m a t e l y 31 h o u r s p e r week a t t i m e 2 and h e r f a v o u r i t e shows were L i t t l e House on t h e P r a i r i e , Abbot and C o s t e l l o , and Bonanza! (The l a s t two shows a r e i n c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h have been f o u n d t o have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t . ) i i i ) M u l t i t e l . I n M u l t i t e l , t h e r e were t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n who were a v a i l a b l e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a t b o t h t i m e s . F o r t h e 5 c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s were above t h e median a t t i m e 1, t h e mean i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n was 0.17, whereas t h e mean i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n below t h e median was 0.29. The 8 c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d above t h e median i n v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n a t t i m e 1 g e n e r a l l y d e c r e a s e d i n a g g r e s s i o n by t i m e 2. (The mean d e c r e a s e was 0.11) T h i s was an u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g , s i n c e i n t h e o t h e r towns b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n i n c r e a s e d f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. Those e i g h t c h i l d r e n were th e o n l y ones t o d e m o n s t r a t e a c o n s i s t e n t d e c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n o v e r t h e two y e a r s . The f i v e r e m a i n i n g c h i l d r e n who were below t h e median a t ti m e 1, had a mean i n c r e a s e o f 0.0004, e s s e n t i o n a l l y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y 62 r emained s t a b l e . However, i n s p e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s d i d n o t i l l u s t r a t e s t a b i l i t y f o r t h e s e f i v e c h i l d r e n — two i n c r e a s e d i n v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n and 3 d e c r e a s e d . The i n c r e a s e s and d e c r e a s e s i n a g g r e s s i v e s c o r e s and mean v i e w i n g h ours p e r week a r e shown f o r c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l i n T a b l e s 15 and 16. I n M u l t i t e l , 26 s c o r e s were c o n s i d e r e d f o r b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n and o f t h e s e s c o r e s , 13 i n c r e a s e d (50%) and 12 d e c r e a s e d from t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. One d i d n o t v a r y . S i m i l a r t o t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from t h e U n i t e l c h i l d r e n , t h e s e r e s u l t s e x p l a i n i n more d e t a i l t h e l a c k o f a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e ; t h a t i s , some c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d i n a g g r e s s i o n and o t h e r s d e c r e a s e d , r a t h e r t h a n a l l t h e c h i l d r e n r e m a i n i n g a t t h e same l e v e l . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e t e l e v i s i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was a g a i n i n c o n c l u s i v e . The c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l r e p o r t e d a g r e a t e r number of v i e w i n g h o u r s p e r week a t t i m e 2 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40) b u t whether t h e c h i l d was h i g h o r low i n a g g r e s s i o n d i d n o t r e l a t e t o t h e number o f h o u r s watched, n o r was t h e r e any c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c h i l d - r e n ' s f a v o u r i t e t e l e v i s i o n programmes. F o r example, t h e a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n p i c k e d P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y , c a r t o o n s , S i x M i l l i o n D o l l a r Man, and Happy Days, whereas l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n p i c k e d c a r t o o n s , P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y , Happy Days, and Hogan's Heroes. T h i s l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e among t h e c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l d i s p e l l s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f f e r e d f o r t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e i n N o t e l and U n i t e l c h i l d r e n ( t h a t t h e r e was n o t enough c h o i c e i n t h e s e l a t t e r towns t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n were w a t c h i n g a g g r e s s i v e shows), as i n M u l t i t e l t h e r e was a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f programmes. 63 T a b l e 15 P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n - M u l t i t e l C h i l d r e n Above/Below t h e Me d i a n a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e Responding a t Time 2 and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 C h i l d r e n ABOVE t h e Median a t Time 1 T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 M 0.238 - 38 F - 0.619 4 M 0.096 - 25.5 M 0.857 - 43 F 0.286 - 34.5 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.172 Mean Number o f Hours = 29.00 C h i l d r e n BELOW t h e median a t Time 1 T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 F 0.047 F 0.179 F 0.000 0.000 F 0.107 40.5 29.5 16 22 ... c o n t i n u e d 64 T a b l e 15 c o n t i n u e d T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 M - 0.239 s i c k M 1.000 - 67 M 0.048 - 22 F 1.143 - 54 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.286 Mean Number o f Hours = 35.86 65 T a b l e 16 V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n - M u l t i t e l C h i l d r e n Above/Below t h e Median a t Time 1, T h e i r I n c r e a s e / D e c r e a s e i n A g g r e s s i v e Responding a t Time 2 and T h e i r T e l e v i s i o n V i e w i n g Hours a t Time 2 C h i l d r e n ABOVE t h e Median a t Time 1 T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 F - 0.143 4 F - 0.238 40.5 F - 0.060 29.5 F - 0.571 16 F - 0.208 22 M - 0.476 s i c k M - 0.143 67 M 1.000 _ 43 Mean I n c r e a s e = -0.105 Mean Number o f Hours = 31.71 i . e . , t h e r e was an o v e r a l l DECREASE c o n t i n u e d 66 T a b l e 16 c o n t i n u e d C h i l d r e n BELOW t h e Median a t Time 1 T.V. I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e V i e w i n g Hours Sex a t Time 2 a t Time 2 a t Time 2 M 0.096 - 38 M 0.048 - 22.5 M - 0.047 22 F - 0.048 54 F - 0.047 34.5 Mean I n c r e a s e = 0.0004 Mean Number o f Hours = 34.8 67 However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t o n l y i n N o t e l d i d c h i l d r e n above t h e median i n a g g r e s s i o n spend more t i m e v i e w i n g t e l e v i s i o n t h a n c h i l d r e n below t h e median. I n t h e o t h e r two towns t h i s t r e n d was r e - v e r s e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , one c o u l d p o s t u l a t e t h a t i f more a g g r e s s i v e shows had been a v a i l a b l e i n N o t e l , where t h e c h i l d r e n had no p r e v i o u s e x p o s u r e t o t e l e v i s i o n , a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n may have s e l e c t e d a g g r e s s i v e shows as - t h e i r f a v o u r i t e s . However, more i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed about c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s e x p o s u r e who have a c c e s s t o a v a r i e t y o f a g g r e s s i v e shows. ( I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t though CBC had l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t t h a n CTV, CBS, ABC, o r NBC ( W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , & J o y , 1977), t h e r e i s s t i l l a g g r e s s i o n d i s p l a y e d on CBC. T h e r e f o r e N o t e l and U n i t e l c h i l d r e n were exposed t o some a g g r e s s i v e models on t e l e v i s i o n . ) I n sum, t h e d a t a r e v i e w e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n do n o t s u p p o r t t h e f i n d i n g s o f some p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( S t e i n & F r i e d r i c h , 1972; P a r k e e t a l . , 1975); t h a t i s , t h a t c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y h i g h i n a g g r e s s i o n t e n d t o be most a f f e c t e d by e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e models i n t h e media. I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h a g g r e s s i v e and l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e d o v e r t i m e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y h i g h i n v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h may be a d i f f e r e n c e i n methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d d u r i n g f r e e p l a y p e r i o d s a t s c h o o l , and i n a d d i t i o n , t h e y had n o t been w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n j u s t p r i o r t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , S t e i n & F r i e d r i c h , 1972) o b s e r v e d c h i l d r e n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e models i n t h e s c h o o l r o o m . S t e i n and F r i e d r i c h ' s 68 (.1972) f i n d i n g s t h a t l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n do n o t d i s p l a y an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g may have o c c u r r e d because t h e s e c h i l d r e n were no t used t o a c t i n g a g g r e s s i v e l y , and t h u s , m ight be r e l u c t a n t t o i m m e d i a t e l y copy a model's b e h a v i o u r . However, a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n may have no h e s i t a t i o n about b e h a v i n g i n an a g g r e s s i v e manner, and c o n s e - q u e n t l y , t h e y might copy t h e model's b e h a v i o u r s o o n e r , o r a t l e a s t r e a l i s e t h a t b e h a v i n g a g g r e s s i v e l y i s a c c e p t a b l e . Over a p e r i o d o f t i m e ( f o r example, two y e a r s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ) , some l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n may a l s o d i s p l a y i n c r e a s e d a g g r e s s i o n f o r a number o f p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s . F o r example, t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e p e e r s a l s o a c t as a g g r e s s i v e m o d els, and a r e l i k e l y t o be more s a l i e n t models t h a n t h o s e on f i l m , s i n c e t h e p e e r groups a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same age, and t h e c h i l d r e n know each o t h e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n may use o b s e r v e d a g g r e s s i o n i n r e t a l i a t i o n t o t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e i r p e e r s . F i n a l l y , c h i l d r e n may l e a r n f r o m o b s e r v i n g models t h a t a g g r e s - s i o n i s e f f e c t i v e and see t h a t i t i s a c c e p t a b l e ( t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t e l e v i s e d a g g r e s s i o n , W i l l i a m s , Z a b r a c k , & J o y , 1977). The messages o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s and a c c e p t a b i l i t y may n o t be i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t o r i m p o r t a n t t o t h e n o n - a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n as a g g r e s s i o n may n o t be v e r y s a l i e n t f o r them. T h e r e f o r e , i f c h i l d r e n a r e n o t o b s e r v e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e m o dels, any d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e and l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n may be d i f f u s e d . C o r r e l a t i o n s among Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n An advantage o f t h i s s t u d y was the use o f m u l t i p l e measures o f a g g r e s s i o n ( t h a t i s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , t e a c h e r r a t i n g s and p e e r r a t i n g s ) . 69 Most p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have employed o n l y one measure o f a g g r e s s i o n , f o r example, o b s e r v a t i o n s ( S t e i n & F r i e d r i c h , 1972), o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Schramm e t a l . , 1961) o r s u r v e y s (Himmelweit e t a l . , 1959). By c o l l e c - t i n g d a t a from more t h a n one s o u r c e , c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n among t h e v a r i o u s measures c o u l d be a s s e s s e d , t h a t i s , more c o n f i d e n c e c o u l d be p l a c e d i n t h e v a l i d i t y o f the measures employed. To t h i s aim, s e v e r a l P e a r s o n p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed on t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a t a . S e p a r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r each town a t t i m e 1 and t i m e 2, r e s u l t i n g i n a t o t a l o f 6 c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s . The i t e m s c o r r e l a t e d were: (a) t h e two a g g r e s s i o n means ( P h y s i c a l and V e r b a l ) ; (b) f o u r t e a c h e r r a t i n g sums ( i . e . , S S I , t h e t e a c h e r r a t i n g sum : f o r a g g r e s s i v e , b o s s y , and h o s t i l e s c a l e s ; SS2, t h e sum o f t e a c h e r r a t i n g s f o r t h e a c t i v e and l o u d s c a l e s ; SS3, t h e t e a c h e r r a t i n g sum f o r the c o m p e t i t i v e and dominant s c a l e s ; and SS4, t h e sum of t e a c h e r r a t i n g s f o r the f r i e n d l y and h o n e s t s c a l e s ) ; and (c) t h e f i v e p e e r r a t i n g measures ( i . e . , p e e r r a t i n g f o r b o s s y ; f i g h t s ; t a l k s back t o t e a c h e r ; a r g u e s and d i s a g r e e s ; and pu s h e s , s h o v e s , and p o k e s ) . Time 1. O v e r a l l , a t t i m e 1 ( c o l l a p s e d a c r o s s a l l t h r e e towns, see Ap p e n d i x J ) , o f t h e 55 p o s s i b l e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e v a r i o u s s c o r e s , 45 o r 81.8% o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o r b e t t e r . 8 S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n N o t e l , 40 o f t h e 55 c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . The m a j o r i t y o f measures c o r r e l a t e d w e l l among them- s e l v e s and w i t h t h e o t h e r measures, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a - t i o n s o f t h e p e e r r a t i n g s c o r e s w i t h t h e v e r b a l measure o f a g g r e s s i o n . I t c o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e i t e r a t e t h a t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a were c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most v a l i d o f t h e v a r i o u s measures, f o r 70 a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . Namely, s i n c e two o b s e r v e r s coded t h e b e h a v i o u r , i t was p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . These r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s were .89 a t t i m e 1 and .80 a t t i m e 2. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o b s e r v e r s coded t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r as i t o c c u r r e d , whereas b o t h t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e t e a c h e r s were r e q u i r e d t o g i v e o v e r a l l r e t r o s p e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , as t h e t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n know e a c h o t h e r t h e y m ight have p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f who t h e y thought was a g g r e s - s i v e w h i c h might i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and judgements. The ob- s e r v e r s would n o t have any e x p e c t a t i o n s a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , and c a l c u - l a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y p r e v e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s f r o m b i a s i n g t h e d a t a . I n sum, f o r N o t e l , t h e p e e r and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n measure, whereas o n l y t e a c h e r r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n measure. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e poor c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e p e e r r a t i n g s c o r e s and t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n measure might be t h a t c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s h o l d d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , b u t n o t f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , a d m i t t e d l y a more b l a t a n t form o f a g g r e s s i o n . I n U n i t e l , a t t i m e 1, o n l y 21 o f the 55 c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i - c a n t . Namely, t h e t e a c h e r r a t i n g s were p o o r l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r measures o f a g g r e s s i o n . The p e e r r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d among t h e m s e l v e s and w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n measure, b u t , a g a i n , n o t w i t h t h e mea- s u r e o f v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . I t appeared t h a t i n U n i t e l t h e t e a c h e r s d i d not a g r e e w i t h t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n o f e i t h e r t h e c h i l d r e n o r the o b s e r v e r s and t h e c h i l d r e n d i d n o t base t h e i r judgements on v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . 71 An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n M u l t i t e l a t t i m e 1 i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n t o t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r N o t e l ; t h a t i s , 36 of t h e p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . On the w h o l e , t h e v a r i o u s measures were w e l l c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n , a g a i n , o f t h e c o r r e l a - t i o n s o f t h e p e e r r a t i n g s w i t h t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n measure. I n sum, f o r t i m e 1, i n N o t e l and M u l t i t e l , i t appeared t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n were b o t h s e n s i t i v e t o p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , but t h e c h i l d r e n seemed t o o v e r l o o k v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . The l a t t e r r e s u l t , w h i c h was a l s o t r u e f o r t h e U n i t e l c h i l d r e n , m i ght be due t o the d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s a g g r e s s i o n . P e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e r a t i n g s c a l e s g i v e n t o t h e c h i l d r e n were m o s t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n ( e . g . , who f i g h t s t h e m o st?; who p u s h e s , s h o v e s , and pokes t h e most?) t h u s f o c u s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n on p h y s i c a l b e h a v i o u r s . Time 2. A t t i m e 2, 38 o f t h e 55 p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s ( c o l l a p s e d a c r o s s a l l t h r e e towns) were s i g n i f i c a n t (see A p p e n d i x J ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n N o t e l , 26 c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t , a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s from t i m e 1. P e e r and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s c o r - r e l a t e d w e l l i n most c a s e s , whereas b o t h o f t h e s e measures c o r r e l a t e d p o o r l y w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures of a g g r e s s i o n . I n U n i t e l , 28 o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . The p a t t e r n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r U n i t e l a t t i m e 1; t h a t i s , t h e t e a c h e r r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d p o o r l y w i t h t h e o t h e r measures o f a g g r e s s i o n , and t h e p e e r r a t i n g s d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n measure. I t a p p e a r e d , a g a i n , t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n may be s e n s i t i v e t o p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n b u t n o t t o v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . 72 I n M u l t i t e l , a t t i m e 2, 37 o f t h e p o s s i b l e 55 c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . The p e e r r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n measure and m o d e r a t e l y w e l l w i t h t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n measure . S i m i l a r t o t h e f i n d i n g i n U n i t e l , t h e c h i l d r e n seemed s e n s i t i v e t o p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . However, i n M u l t i t e l , t h e c h i l d r e n seemed t o be more aware o f v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . I n sum, a t t i m e 2, t h e t e a c h e r r a t i n g s i n N o t e l d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures o f a g g r e s s i o n , and i n a l l t h r e e towns t h e p e e r r a t i n g s d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w e l l w i t h t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n mea- s u r e ( t h o u g h i n M u l t i t e l , t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s were s l i g h t l y b e t t e r t h a n i n t h e o t h e r two t o w n s ) . The two f a c t s , t h a t the t e a c h e r r a t i n g s i n N o t e l d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l measures o f a g g r e s s i o n and t h a t t h e p e e r r a t i n g s i n N o t e l d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e measure o f p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , were t h e o n l y major d i s c r e p a n c i e s among t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f r o m time 1 and t i m e 2. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n N o t e l c o u l d be t h a t b o t h t h e t e a c h e r ' s and c h i l d r e n ' s t o l e r a n c e o f a g g r e s s i o n i n c r e a s e d f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. T h e r e f o r e , t h e t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e o b s e r v e r s , a t t i m e 2, as t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n were a g g r e s s i v e and w h i c h were n o t . The o b s e r v e r s used t h e same a p r i o r i d e f i n i t i o n s a t b o t h phases o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h u s i t i s u n l i k e l y t h e r e were changes i n t h e o b s e r v e r s ' t o l e r a n c e o f a g g r e s s i o n o r changes i n d e f i n i t i o n s o f what i s a g g r e s s i o n from t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2. T e l e v i s i o n was n o t new t o t h e p e o p l e i n U n i t e l o r M u l t i t e l and t h e r e f o r e . t h e i r t o l e r a n c e and d e f i n i t i o n s o f a g g r e s s i o n may n o t have changed from t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2, e x p l a i n i n g why t h e p a t t e r n s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s i n t h e s e two towns were s i m i l a r a t b o t h t i m e s . 73 DISCUSSION I n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , b o t h i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y and i n t h e f i e l d , i t has been f o u n d t h a t i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , c h i l d r e n exposed t o a g g r e s s i v e models, e i t h e r l i v e o r on f i l m , i m i t a t e t h e a g g r e s s i o n d i s p l a y e d and t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r i n c r e a s e s . The r e s u l t s o f b o t h t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t , on t h e w h o l e , c h i l d - r e n i n N o t e l i n c r e a s e d i n b o t h p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n t o t h e i r town. I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o a t t r i b u t e t h i s i n c r e a s e d a g g r e s s i o n t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new a g g r e s s i v e models i n N o t e l between t i m e 1 and t i m e 2. That i s , t h r o u g h e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e m odels, t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n h i b i t i o n s a g a i n s t a c t i n g i n an a g g r e s s i v e manner may have been r e d u c e d (Bandura's t h e o r y o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g , 1969). T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e ; t h a t i s , i n t h e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n and t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f o n l y N o t e l c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t i m e . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t e l e v i s i o n enhanced t h e e f f e c t s o f o b s e r v i n g a g g r e s s i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . That i s , N o t e l c h i l d r e n may have a b s o r b e d more o f what t h e y watched t h a n c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns, and t h u s by t i m e 2 became even more a g g r e s s i v e t h a n c h i l d r e n i n t h o s e towns. I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t t e l e v i s i o n , i n g e n e r a l , had a n o n - s p e c i f i c e n e r g i z i n g e f f e c t o r d i s i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t on t h e N o t e l c h i l d r e n . Tannenbaum and Z i l l m a n (1975) have a r g u e d t h a t w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n may 74 l e a d t o a g e n e r a l s t a t e o f a r o u s a l w h i c h may be e x p r e s s e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . A c c o r d i n g t o B e r l y n e ' s (1960) t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f n o v e l t y on a r o u s a l l e v e l s , t h e N o t e l c h i l d r e n who were n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t e l e v i s i o n w o u l d be more a r o u s e d t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns and the p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e i r e x p r e s s i n g a g g r e s s i o n would t h u s be i n c r e a s e d . As t h e n o v e l t y o f t e l e v i s i o n wears o f f N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o d e c r e a s e t o t h e l e v e l o f U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n . However, because o f t h e d i s i n - h i b i t i n g e f f e c t of t e l e v i s i o n , t h e N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l o f a g g r e s s i o n would be u n l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o t h a t e x h i b i t e d b e f o r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between c h i l d r e n ' s s p e c i f i c t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s and t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , and t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e r e p e r t o i r e s would change w i t h t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n was n o t s u p p o r t e d . I f t h e c o n t e n t o f t e l e v i s i o n programming was a f f e c t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s p e c i f i c a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s , t h e r e p e r t i o r e of a g g r e s s i o n d i s p l a y e d was e x p e c t e d t o v a r y f r o m t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2 i n N o t e l . However, i n s p e c - t i o n o f t h e r e p e r t o i r e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e l e - v i s i o n t o N o t e l d i d n o t a l t e r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e p e r t o i r e . A t t i m e 1, t h e N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e r e p e r t o i r e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e e x h i b i t e d by the c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r two towns. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e were no major changes i n t h e N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s r e p e r - t o i r e s a t t i m e 2. Based on t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n were l e a r n i n g s p e c i f i c new b e h a v i o u r s f r o m t e l e - v i s i o n . However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d 75 d u r i n g f r e e p l a y p e r i o d s a t s c h o o l . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s n o t one i n w h i c h s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s seen on t e l e v i s i o n w o u l d be l i k e l y t o be ex- h i b i t e d , a l t h o u g h i t i s c e r t a i n l y a more r e a l i s t i c s e t t i n g t h a n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . F o r example, c o n t e n t a n a l y s e s have r e v e a l e d t h a t p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n p o r t r a y e d on t e l e v i s i o n i s o f t e n i n t h e form o f b r a n d i s h i n g a weapon, o r u s i n g an o b j e c t n o t i n t e n d e d as a weapon, such as h o u s e h o l d f u r n i t u r e ( W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1977). C l e a r l y , s u c h o b j e c t s a r e n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d . Even i f c h i l d r e n had l e a r n e d t h e s e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s from w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n programmes, i t i s un- l i k e l y t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r s w o u l d be d i s p l a y e d on t h e p l a y g r o u n d . A drawback t o t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o c c u r s when one c o n s i d e r s t h e use o f v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n , w h i c h i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . The N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s r e p e r t o i r e s o f v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n d i d n o t d i f f e r s u b s t a n - t i a l l y f rom t h o s e d i s p l a y e d i n t h e o t h e r towns. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e among t h e t h r e e towns i n v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n d i s p l a y e d i s t h a t c h i l d r e n may be more exposed t o v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n i n t h e i r own e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a n t o p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . That i s , n o t many c h i l d r e n have o b s e r v e d men " s h o o t i n g i t o u t " o r c a r chases i n r e a l l i f e , b u t many c h i l d r e n have w i t n e s s e d p e o p l e b e i n g s a r c a s t i c and v e r b a l l y a b u s i v e . What c h i l d r e n may l e a r n from t h e media i s t h a t v e r b a l a g g r e s - s i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e and a c c e p t a b l e , so t h e f r e q u e n c y o f v e r b a l a g g r e s - s i o n i n c r e a s e s even though t h e form does n o t v a r y . Of c o u r s e , t h i s may a l s o o c c u r f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , w h i c h i s p o r t r a y e d as e x t r e m e l y e f f e c t i v e ( L a r s e n , Gray, & F o r t i s , 1968; W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1977); n e g a t i v e consequences f o r a g g r e s s i o n a r e v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t i n t e l e v i s i o n f i c t i o n . Thus t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e i n the r e s u l t s o f t h e 76 p r e s e n t s t u d y t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n s p e c i f i c a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n s e s f r o m t e l e v i s i o n . The r e s u l t s do n o t p r e c l u d e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , b u t p r o v i d e no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t i t . The f a i l u r e t o f i n d t h a t h i g h l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n were more a f - f e c t e d t h a n l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n by e x p o s u r e t o a g g r e s s i v e models on t e l e v i s i o n adds f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a g g r e s s i o n f r o m t e l e v i s i o n . That i s , some l e s s a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n , who might n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m i t a t e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , p e r s e , may l e a r n t h a t t h i s t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r i s a c c e p t a b l e and so i n c l u d e i t i n t h e i r p l a y r e p e r t o i r e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e t a l i a t i o n t o o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . P e r h a p s i f t e l e v i s i o n p o r t r a y e d ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h a g g r e s s i o n o t h e r t h a n s u b m i s s i o n o r a g g r e s s i v e r e t a l i a t i o n ( W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1977) , c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y l e s s a g g r e s s i v e might r e m a i n so. The a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e ( b o t h l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i o n d i d n o t i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i - c a n t l y from t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2, a l t h o u g h i n h y p o t h e s i s 3 t h e i r a g g r e s s i o n had been p o s t u l a t e d t o be h i g h e r a t t i m e 2. I t m ight be t h a t t h e M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d a maximum i n a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g a t t i m e 1 and so f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e was n o t p o s s i b l e a t t i m e 2. However, a t t i m e 2, t h e c h i l d r e n i n N o t e l d i s p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a g g r e s s i o n t h a n t h e M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n - d i n g was p o s s i b l e . G i v e n t h e marked i n c r e a s e i n N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s - s i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n , and the- l a c k o f a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i o n , i t seems most l i k e l y t h a t an a r o u s a l e f f e c t combined w i t h d i s i n h i b i t i o n o c c u r r e d f o r N o t e l c h i l d r e n 77 r a t h e r t h a n t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t . I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e t u r n t o N o t e l i n t h e f u t u r e when th e c h i l d r e n have become more accustomed t o h a v i n g t e l e v i s i o n , t o see whether t h e i r l e v e l o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e d t o the l e v e l o f t h e o t h e r two towns, as would be p r e d i c t e d from the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t N o t e l c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t e l e - v i s i o n were h e i g h t e n e d because o f t h e i r l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i t . The sex d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n i n b o t h t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s and t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s were c o n s i s - t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s ; t h a t i s , males were found t o be more phy- s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s (Feshbach, 1970). The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n were i n c o n c l u s i v e . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a has a l s o been i n c o n s i s t e n t . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e i n v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s . How- e v e r , i n t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , males d i s p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n a t t i m e 2 t h a n f e m a l e s ( t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t i m e 1 ) . E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n means o b t a i n e d f o r b o t h males and f e m a l e s i n t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a t r e n d , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s e x d i f f e r e n c e f ound i n t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s — t h a t males were more v e r b a l l y a g g r e s s i v e t h a n f e m a l e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s was p r o b a b l y n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t because o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r sample s i z e i n v o l v e d (44 s u b j e c t s , by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h 240 i n t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s ) . The most i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g c o n c e r n i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s was t h a t f o r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , w h i c h was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h most p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on sex d i f f e r e n c e s and p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . The r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f i n d i n g l e n d s c r e d i b i l i t y t o t h e o t h e r f i n d i n g s 78 o b t a i n e d because i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d were n o t f r o m a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n t h a n c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d i n o t h e r r e - s e a r c h on a g g r e s s i o n . One a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i s e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e o b s e r v e r s t o be b l i n d t o t h e towns i n w h i c h t h e y were o b s e r v i n g . However, s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e f i n d i n g s argue s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s . The two o b s e r v e r s a t ti m e 1 were n a i v e c o n c e r n i n g t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s b e i n g t e s t e d , and d i d n o t know t h a t U.S. and C a n a d i a n t e l e v i s i o n d i f f e r i n l e v e l o f a g g r e s - s i o n c o n t e n t . The o b s e r v e r s a t t i m e 2, though unaware o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a t t i m e 1, knew t h a t N o t e l had r e c e i v e d t e l e v i s i o n j u s t a f t e r t h e t i m e 1 o b s e r v a t i o n s had been made, and a l s o knew t h a t N o t e l and U n i t e l r e c e i v e d o n l y CBC whereas M u l t i t e l r e c e i v e d CBC and s e v e r a l US s t a t i o n s . However, n e i t h e r o b s e r v e r knew t h a t US n e t w o r k s had been fo u n d t o c o n t a i n more a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t t h a n C a n a d i a n t e l e v i s i o n ( S i n g e r , 1970; W i l l i a m s e t a l . , 1977). T h e r e f o r e , a t t i m e 1, t h e o b s e r v e r s d i d no t e x p e c t M u l t i t e l c h i l d r e n t o d i s p l a y t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f a g g r e s s i o n ( i . e . , h y p o t h e s i s 3 ) . And, i n d e e d , t h i s d i d n o t o c c u r , i n d i c a t i n g add- t i o n a l l a c k o f s u p p o r t f o r p o t e n t i a l e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s . T h at t h e a g g r e s - s i v e b e h a v i o u r s d i s p l a y e d i n a l l t h r e e towns a t b o t h phases o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were s i m i l a r was a n o t h e r u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g ; i t had been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a g g r e s s i v e r e p e r t o i r e i n N o t e l would change w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a g g r e s s i v e models on t e l e v i s i o n . I f e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s had been o p e r a t i n g w h i l e t h e d a t a were b e i n g c o l l e c t e d , t h e o b s e r - v e r s would have had t o m e n t a l l y r e g i s t e r , w h i l e c o d i n g , w h i c h a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n s e s were t h e most f r e q u e n t and remember the o r d e r from town t o 79 town. S i n c e e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s o f t e n o c c u r s w i t h o u t awareness, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t c o d e r s r e g i s t e r e d and remembered the r e p e r t o i r e s w i t h o u t b e i n g aware o f t h i s p r o c e s s . A n o t h e r f i n d i n g t h a t a r g u e s a g a i n s t e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s i s t h a t i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , t e a c h e r r a t i n g s and/or p e e r r a t i n g s were s i g n i f i - c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l a g g r e s s i o n s c o r e s , p r o v i d i n g v a l i d a t i o n f o r t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the d a t a o b t a i n e d . The o b s e r v e r s c o u l d n o t b i a s t h e i r d a t a t o agree w i t h r a t i n g s o b t a i n e d a t t h e time o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n d i d n o t know t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s ( a t b o t h t i m e 1 and t i m e 2) was above 80%. To o b t a i n t h i s h i g h , r e l i - a b i l i t y , t h e o b s e r v e r s w o u l d have had t o b i a s t h e i r d a t a i n s i m i l a r ways on i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s ( r e l i a b i l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d i n t e r m i t a n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d as two c o d e r s were p r e s e n t i n each town). S i n c e some o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s were n o t c o n f i r m e d , c o r r e l a t i o n s between o b s e r v a t i o n s and p e e r and t e a c h e r r a t i n g s were p o s i t i v e o v e r a l l , and h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y was o b t a i n e d between o b s e r v e r s , t h i s a u t h o r f e e l s c o n f i d e n t t h a t e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . A f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f i n d i n g s has t o do w i t h changes between t i m e 1 and t i m e 2 i n s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . A l l t h r e e e l e - mentary s c h o o l s a c q u i r e d new p r i n c i p a l s , and t h e y might have i n s t i t u t e d new s c h o o l r u l e s and a t t i t u d e s towards a g g r e s s i o n . Had t h i s o c c u r r e d , i t w ould most p r o b a b l y have been r e s t r i c t e d t o p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . S t r i c t e r punishment f o r f i g h t i n g i n t h e p l a y g r o u n d w o u l d r e d u c e t h e 80 amount o f p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n e x h i b i t e d , o r , on t h e o t h e r hand, a more l e n i e n t a t t i t u d e might l e a d t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount of a g g r e s s i o n d i s p l a y e d . The a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s i n N o t e l and M u l t i t e l ( a t ti m e 2) were v e r y s i m i l a r ; r o u g h h o u s i n g was a l l o w e d u n l e s s i t appeared t h a t someone was g o i n g t o g e t h u r t . I n U n i t e l , when t h e p r i n c i p a l was p r e s e n t on t h e p l a y g r o u n d ( t h i s was not o f t e n ) , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s - s i v e b e h a v i o u r was dampened. However, i n N o t e l , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . T h i s would be d i f - f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n by a change i n p r i n c i p a l s as t h e c o n c e r n i n t h e s c h o o l s r e v o l v e d o n l y around e x c e s s i v e p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d new p r i n c i p a l s b u t o n l y t h e a g g r e s s i o n i n N o t e l i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t i m e , and U n i t e l c h i l d r e n were n o t l e s s a g g r e s s i v e t h a n c h i l d r e n i n M u l t i t e l , as would be p r e d i c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f p r i n c i p a l ' s p o l i c i e s i n U n i t e l . S i n c e t h e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r o f c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l d i d n o t change s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om t i m e 1 t o t i m e 2, a change o f p r i n c i p a l s i n N o t e l i s n o t a more l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n d i s p l a y e d t h a n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n . R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d i n t h e f i e l d o f t e n l e a d s t o i n c o n c l u s i v e f i n d i n g s , f i n d i n g s f o r w h i c h c a u s a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c a n n o t , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , be made. However, i f enough i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o l l e c t e d , the r e s e a r c h e r can be more c o n f i d e n t i n p r o p o s i n g the d i r e c t i o n o f c a u s a t i o n . The a u t h o r r e a l i z e s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t w o u l d have been v e r y h e l p f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study, was n o t c o l l e c t e d f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s s u c h as l a c k o f t i m e , l i m i t a t i o n s o f f i n a n c e , and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p e r s o n n e l . F o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t 81 d a t a on p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s be o b t a i n e d , a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g punishment o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i o n , a t t i t u d e s towards t h e use o f a g g r e s s i o n i n s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t and a t t i t u d e s toward t h e use o f t e l e v i s i o n . I n a d d i - t i o n , more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e s c h o o l , f o r example, comic books r e a d , s p o r t s p l a y e d , t h e a t t i t u d e of coaches w i t h r e g a r d t o a g g r e s s i o n w h i l e p l a y i n g , e t c . I t would c e r t a i n l y be advantageous t o have b l i n d o b s e r v e r s , w h i c h was i m p r a c t i c a l i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . S i m i l a r l y , c o l l e c t i o n o f more d a t a d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t seasons o f t h e y e a r w o u l d be an improvement. F o r t h i s s t u d y t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n t h e t h r e e towns d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months. Thus i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g t h e summer i s unknown. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a u t h o r f e e l s t h a t more a c c u r a t e d a t a on t h e c h i l d - r e n ' s t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s a r e needed. The younger c h i l d r e n found t h e t e l e v i s i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i f f i c u l t , even though i t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t . O f t e n t h e s e c h i l d r e n d i d n o t know t h e name o f t h e programmes t h e y w atched, o r t h e number o f h o u r s sp e n t v i e w i n g . I t was o n l y t h r o u g h e x t e n s i v e p r o b i n g t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s a s c e r t a i n e d t h e t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . T h i s t a s k was made a d d i t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t because c h i l d r e n a t t e m p t e d t o g i v e what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e " r i g h t " answer, even though i t had been s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e r e was no r i g h t o r wrong answer. A p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h t o t a k e i n o v e r c o m i n g t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s when w o r k i n g w i t h younger c h i l d r e n m i ght be t o a s k them t o keep a " t e l e v i s i o n d i a r y " f o r a two week p e r i o d , w h e r e i n t h e y c o u l d c h e c k o f f the programmes as t h e y were 82 w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n ( f o r t h e v e r y young c h i l d r e n a p i c t u r e code c o u l d be d e v i s e d ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the p a r e n t s c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s t o v a l i d a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n . I t would be i m p o r t a n t , however, t h a t t h e p a r e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n n o t r e p l a c e the c h i l d r e n ' s i n f o r m a t i o n , as r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r e n t s a r e n o t a l w a y s good j u d g e s o f what t h e i r c h i l d - r e n a r e w a t c h i n g (Greenberg e t a l . , 1971). I n summary, i t was found, by o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n a t f r e e p l a y , t h a t a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g t h e two y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n t o N o t e l , a town p r e v i o u s l y w i t h o u t t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h showing t h a t e x p o s u r e t o t e l e v i s i o n i n c r e a s e s c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s - s i v e b e h a v i o u r ( e . g . , P a r k e e t a l . , 1975; E r o n e t a l . , 1972; S t e i n & F r i e d r i c h , 1971). The o b s e r v e d a g g r e s s i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n U n i t e l and M u l t i t e l d i d n o t change s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t i m e . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n d i s p l a y e d by t h e N o t e l c h i l d r e n o c c u r r e d because t h e c h i l d r e n were a r o u s e d by t h e n o v e l t y o f t e l e v i s i o n , and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e d . I n a d d i t i o n , because a g g r e s s i o n i s p o r t r a y e d on t e l e v i s i o n as a c c e p t a b l e , e f f e c t i v e , and a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e l i k e l i h o o d i s t h a t c h i l d r e n w o u l d i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i o n . I t has a l s o been s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i s i n h i b i t i o n w i l l m a i n t a i n a g g r e s s i v e r e s p o n d i n g once t h e n o v e l t y o f t e l e v i s i o n has worn o f f . E v i d e n c e o f l e a r n i n g s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s f r o m t e l e v i s e d models was n o t f o u n d . However, t h i s may have been due t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y , l i k e t h e f i n d i n g s o f most p r e v i o u s 83 r e s e a r c h , a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c a u s a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t e x p o s u r e t o t e l e v i s i o n l e a d s t o an i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . T h i s e f f e c t does n o t , o f c o u r s e , o c c u r i n a vacuum. A c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f f a c t o r s i s undoubtedly i n v o l v e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p a r e n t s and o t h e r a d u l t s t o w a r d a g g r e s s i o n and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p e e r s . And, a d u l t s and p e e r s a l s o l e a r n f r o m t e l e v i s i o n t h a t a g g r e s s i o n i s an a p p r o p r i a t e and e f f e c t i v e method o f r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t . Thus c h i l d r e n ' s a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r may be a f f e c t e d b o t h d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y by t h e a g g r e s s i o n p o r t r a y e d on t e l e v i s i o n . 84 FOOTNOTES The p r o c e d u r e f o r s e l e c t i n g the t h r e e towns was t h e f o l l o w i n g : N o t e l was t h e i n i t i a l c h o i c e as i t l a c k e d t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n ; U n i t e l was s e l e c t e d as a comparable town because i t was i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , o t h e r demographic v a r i a b l e s were s i m i l a r and t h e N o t e l r e s i d e n t s s e l e c t e d i t as a town s i m i l a r t o t h e i r own. M u l t i t e l was chosen t o e n a b l e a c o m p a r i s o n between t h e e f f e c t s o f e x p o s u r e t o US t e l e v i s i o n v e r s u s e x p o s u r e t o C a n a d i a n t e l e v i s i o n . The c o d i n g scheme employed was a m o d i f i e d f o r m , v a l i d a t e d by Joanne McFadden, o f W a l t e r s , P e a r c e and Dahms 1 1957 scheme. The o b s e r v e r s coded each c h i l d w h i l e p l a y i n g i n t h e p l a y g r o u n d . T h e r e - f o r e , no c h i l d was coded w h i l e a l o n e . T h i s meant t h a t though t h e c h i l d r e n saw t h e o b s e r v e r s w a l k i n g a r o u n d , t h e y seemed unaware t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n o r b e h a v i o u r s were b e i n g coded. A l s o t h e ob- s e r v e r s , though n e a r enough t o h e a r what was b e i n g s a i d by t h e c h i l d - r e n , t r i e d t o g i v e t h e appearance o f l o o k i n g t h e o t h e r way. The c h i l d r e n seemed aware o f t h e o b s e r v e r s f o r the f i r s t few days ( m a i n l y when t h e o b s e r v e r s were l e a r n i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s names and f a c e s , and no c o d i n g was done) b u t soon began t o i g n o r e them, when t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r s were n o t t e a c h e r s and w o u l d n ' t s t o p them i f t h e y were f i g h t i n g , e t c . I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g method: the number o f agreements were d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s . A p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f p_ < .05 was c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f l e c t a s t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g . However, i f a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 85 0.1 > p_ < .05 was o b t a i n e d on t h e o r e t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s t h e s e e f f e c t s were d i s c u s s e d . 6 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , p o s t hoc a n a l y s e s c o n s i s t e d o f : Tukey A f o r s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s S i m p l e M a i n E f f e c t s f o r s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . 7 The age l e v e l s 1, 2, 3, and 4 c o r r e s p o n d t o g r a d e s 1, 2, 4, and 5 a t t i m e 1 and g r a d e s 1, 2, 3, and 4 a t t i m e 2. 8 F o r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t a r e d i s c u s s e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was £ < .05. I n t h e t a b l e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s shown i n A p p e n d i x J , c o r r e l a - t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t a t £ < .1 a r e a l s o shown. 86 REFERENCES Bandura, A. I n f l u e n c e o f model's r e i n f o r c e m e n t c o n t i n g e n c i e s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f i m i t a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1965 ., 1̂ , 589-595. / Bandura, A. P r i n c i p l e s o f b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n . New Y o r k : H o l t , 1969. Bandura, A., Ro s s , D., & Ross, S.A. I m i t a t i o n o f f i l m - m e d i a t e d a g g r e s - s i v e models. J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1963a, 66, 3-11. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S.A. A c o m p a r a t i v e t e s t o f t h e s t a t u s envy, s o c i a l power and s e c o n d a r y r e i n f o r c e m e n t t h e o r i e s o f i d e n t i - f i c a t o r y l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1963b, 67_, 527-534. Ba r o n , R.A. 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APPENDIX A P e e r R a t i n g s Y o u r name — - "~ Y o u r age — Y o u r grade _ " Your s c h o o l 94 In the space below, name the three children in your class who are the bossiest 95 In the spaces below, name the three children in your class who get into fights the most: 1. 2. 3. 96 In the spaces below, name the three children in your class who talk back to the teacher the most: 1. 2. 3. 97 In the spaces below, name the three children in your class who argue and disagree with the other children the most: 1. 2. 3. 98 In the spaces below, name the three children in your class who push, shove and poke other children the most: 1. 2. 3. 99 APPENDIX B T e a c h e r ' s R a t i n g s Please rate each child in your class on the following personality t r a i t s by c i r c l i n g the X which most closely corresponds to your opinion about that child. NAME OF CHILD 1. Active X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l 2. Aggressive X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l 3. Argumentative 4. Bossy X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l 5. Competitive X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l 6. Dominant X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l 7. Friendly 8 . Honest X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l 9. Hostile 10. Loud X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l X X X X X X X Very Not at a l l APPENDIX C 100 CHILDREN'S TV INTERVIEW NAME: I.D. : AGE: SEX (1) Male (2) Female FORM M-V Card 1 1 2-5 6-7 Do - ou have a t e l e v i s i o n s e t a t home? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 14] How many T.V. s e t s do you have a t home? s e t s I s i t ( a r e t h e y ) w o r k i n g o r b r o k e n ? (1) a l l work [SKIP TO QUESTION 5] (2) a t l e a s t one works [SKIP TO QUESTION 5] (3) none work How l o n g has i t (have t h e y ) been broken? (1) l e s s t h a n a week (2) (3) (4) more t h a n a month [SKIP TO QUESTION 14] a week o r so a month o r so How many h o u r s o f t e l e v i s i o n do y o u u s u a l l y w a tch on (a) weekdays b e f o r e s c h o o l ? x 5 = (b) weekdays a f t e r s c h o o l ? x 5 = (c) weekdays a f t e r supper? x 5 = (d) S a t u r d a y ? (e) Sunday? (a) Y e s t e r d a y a t l u n c h t i m e d i d y o u w a t c h T.V.? _ ( 1 ) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 7] (b) D i d you w a t c h t h e Bob McLean Show, t h e Noon Show o r s o m e t h i n g e l s e y e s t e r d a y a t l u n c h t i m e ? (1) The Bob McLean Show (2) The Noon Show (3) O t h e r [SPECIFY] (a) Y e s t e r d a y a f t e r s c h o o l d i d you w a t c h T.V.? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 8] (b) [ I F YES, SELECT THE APPROPRIATE DAY THEN SAY] I'm g o i n g t o r e a d a l i s t o f shows t h a t were on TV y e s t e r d a y a f t e r s c h o o l . T e l l me w h i c h ones you watched. D i d you w a t c h : 10 11 12 13,14 15,16 17,18 19,20 21,22 23 24,25 26 101 Monday Abbott and C o s t e l l o ^Comin' Up Rosle Forest Rangers Hi Diddle Day jPartridge Family Other [SPECIFY] Wednesday Abbott and Costello Comin' Up Rosie Forest Rangers Partridge Family World Series Baseball Other [SPECIFY] game 27 28 29 30 31 32 39 40 41 42 43 44 Tuesday _Abbott and Cos t e l l o Animation Pie _ E l e c t r i c Company Forest Rangers Partridge Family World Series Baseball Other [SPECIFY] game Thursday _Abbott and Cos t e l l o _Forest Rangers _Partridge Family V i s i o n On JWhat's New Other [SPECIFY] (a) Did you watch T.V. l a s t night a f t e r supper? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 9] 33 34 35 36 37 38 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 (b) [IF YES, SELECT THE APPROPRIATE DAY THEN SAY] Which shows did you watch l a s t night? Did you watch: Monday k l l i n the Family Barney M i l l e r arefree Cooking hico and the Man ront Page Challenge Hourglass k e w s Magazine People of our Time "SPECIAL - "Your a Sport j Charlie Brown" The National News Movie "Fear no E v i l " Other [SPECIFY] Tuesday 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63,64 Bob Newhart 65 Celebration 66 Doctor's Hospital 67 F i f t h Estate 68 Happy Days 69 Hourglass 70 P h y l l i s 71 This i s the Law 72 The National News 73 Movie " B e l l i s s i m a " 74 Other [SPECIFY] 75,76 Wednesday Col. Card 2 SPECIAL "Earthwatch" 6 Hourglass 7 L i t t l e House on the P r a i r i e 8 Nature of Things 9 Nobel Priz e Laureate 10 Movie "Escape to Mindanao" 12 "Other [SPECIFY] 13,14 Thursday _Cannon 15 Carole Burnett 16 _House of Pride 17 _Hourglass 18 _King of Kensington 19 _Movin' On 20 Some of My Best Friends are Men 21 _Space 1999 22 Watson Report 23 _The National 24 _Movie "The Tin Star" 25 Movie "The Brides of Dracula" 26 Other [SPECIFY] 27,28 102 9. (a) D i d you w a tch T.V. t h i s m o r n i n g b e f o r e s c h o o l ? _ ( 1 ) Yes _ ( 2 ) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 10] 29 (b) What shows d i d y o u w a tch t h i s morning? C o l . 1. 30 2. 31 3. 32 10. (a) Do y o u r p a r e n t s e v e r keep y o u from w a t c h i n g s o m e t h i n g on t e l e v i s i o n t h a t you want t o watch? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 11] 35 (b) How o f t e n would you say t h i s happens: (1) o f t e n , (2) once i n a w h i l e , o r (3) h a r d l y e v e r ? 36 (c) What a r e t h e r e a s o n s y o u r p a r e n t s u s u a l l y have f o r n o t l e t t i n g you watch? (1) h a v e n ' t done homework (2) h a v e n ' t done c h o r e s (3) p a r e n t s d i s a p p r o v e o f c o n t e n t (4) p a r e n t s want t o watch s o m e t h i n g e l s e \ (5) o t h e r [SPECIFY] 37 (d) Can you t h i n k o f any t i m e s i n t h e p a s t two weeks t h a t y o u r p a r e n t s w o u l d n ' t l e t y ou watch a show t h a t y o u wanted t o see? Name o f show Reason (1) 38 (2) 39 (3) 40 (4) 41 (5) 42 11. Most e v e n i n g s do you watch T.V. a l o n e o r w i t h o t h e r s ? (1) a l o n e (2) w i t h o t h e r s [SPECIFY] 43 12. What c h a n n e l s do you get on y o u r T.V.? (1) c h a n n e l 2 o n l y (2) c h a n n e l 6 o n l y [SKIP TO QUESTION 14] (3) c h a n n e l s 2 and 6 44 (4) o t h e r [SPECIFY] 103 I f t h e r e a r e two d i f f e r e n t shows on a t t h e same t i m e , one on Chan n e l 2 and one on C h a n n e l 6, who g e t s t o choose w h i c h one t o watch? (1) p a r e n t s d e c i d e . _(2) s u b j e c t chooses . (3) o l d e r s i b s choose ;—(4) p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n t a k e t u r n s c h o o s i n g shows some o f us watch on a n o t h e r T.V. s e t (6) o t h e r [SPECIFY] [FOR THOSE WHO DO NOT HAVE A WORKING T.V. AT HOME: ALL OTHERS SKIP TO QUESTION 15] 45 (a) I f you h a v e n ' t got a w o r k i n g t e l e v i s i o n a t home, do you w a t c h T.V. e l s e w h e r e ? (1) Yes _ ( 2 ) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 20] (b) How o f t e n do you w a t c h T.V.? [PROBE TO ASCERTAIN FREQUENCY, DURATION AND LOCATION, E.G. TWICE A WEEK FOR 2 HOURS AFTER SCHOOL AT MY FRIEND'S HOUSE] Fre q u e n c y : Durat i o n : L o c a t i o n : L5. (a) What i s y o u r #1 f a v o r i t e T.V. show? (b) When i s i t on? (c) What a r e y o u r f o u r n e x t most f a v o r i t e shows? 1. 2. 3. 4. (a) Do you u s u a l l y w a t c h T.V. i n t h e m o r n i n g b e f o r e s c h o o l ? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 17] (b) Which o f t h e s e shows do you u s u a l l y watch? U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e A i r B.C. AM - M o r r i e r _Canada AM Romper Room O t h e r [SPECIFY] 46 47 48 49 50,51 52 53,54 55,56 57.58 59,60 61 62 63 64 65 66 L7. (a) Do you u s u a l l y w a t ch T.V. a f t e r S c h o o l ? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 18] 67 f (b) Which shows do you u s u a l l y watch? A b b o t t and C o s t e l l o A n i m a t i o n P i e Comin' Up R o s i e E l e c t r i c Company F l a x t o n Boys . F o r e s t Rangers H i D i d d l e Day 7 3 P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y 7 4 V i s i o n On 7 ^ What's New 7 6 O t h e r [SPECIFY] 7 7 78,79 L8. (a) Do you u s u a l l y w a t ch T.V. i n t h e e v e n i n g s a f t e r supper? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 19] O A 80 (b) Which o f t h e s e shows do you u s u a l l y watch? C a r d 3 A l l i n t h e F a m i l y 6 N a t u r e o f T h i n g s 33 Barney M i l l e r 7 News Magazine 34 Bob Newhart 8 N o b e l P r i z e L a u r e a t e 35 CFJC R e p o r t s 9 On t h e Rocks 36 CFL F o o t b a l l 10 Onedin L i n e 37 Cannon 11 P e o p l e o f Our Time 38 C a r e f r e e C o o k i n g 12 P h y l l i s 39 C a r o l B u r n e t t 13 P o l i c e S t o r y 40 C e l e b r a t i o n 14 Reach f o r t h e Top 41 C h i c o and t h e Man 15 Some o f My B e s t F r i e n d s D o c t o r ' s H o s p i t a l 16 A r e Men 42 F i f t h E s t a t e 17 Tommy H u n t e r 43 F r o n t Page C h a l l e n g e 18 T h i s i s t h e Law 44 Happy Days 19 Take Time 45 Hockey N i g h t i n Canada 20 W a l t o n s 46 H o u r g l a s s 21 W o n d e r f u l W o r l d o f D i s n e y 47 House o f P r i d e 22 The N a t i o n a l News 48 Howie Meeker's Hockey Monday N i g h t Movie 49 S c h o o l 23 Tuesday N i g h t Movie 50 I r i s h Rovers 24 Wednesday N i g h t Movie 51 K i n g o f K e n s i n g t o n 25 Thursday N i g h t Movie 52 K l a h a n i e 26 F r i d a y N i g h t Movie 53 L i t t l e House on t h e S a t u r d a y N i g h t Movie 54 P r a i r i e 27 Sunday N i g h t Movie 55 Mary T y l e r Moore 28 M.A.S.H. 29 Mr. C h i p s 30 Monty P y t h o n ' s Back 31 Mo v i n ' On 32 19. (a) Do you u s u a l l y w a t ch T.V. on S a t u r d a y morning? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 20] 57 105 1 0 6 (a) Do you e v e r r e a d comic books? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 24] (b) What a r e y o u r f a v o r i t e comic books? 1. 2. 3. (c) About how o f t e n do you r e a d a comic book? (1) once a week o r more (2) 2-3 t i m e s a month (3) once a month (4) a few t i m e s a y e a r Do you e v e r r e a d : (a) [VALEMOUNT ONLY] The Canoe M o u n t a i n Echo? (1) Yes (2) No (b) [McBRIDE ONLY] The Robson V a l l e y C o u r i e r ? (1) Yes (2) No (c) What about o t h e r newspapers? Do you e v e r r e a d a newspaper f r o m V a n c o u v e r , Kamloops, P r i n c e George, e t c . ? (1) Yes (2) No (d) About how o f t e n would you say you r e a d a newspaper o f any k i n d ? (1) e v e r y d a y (2) a few t i m e s a week (3) once a week (4) 1-3 t i m e s a month (5) a few t i m e s a y e a r (6) n e v e r 75 76 77 78 79 Card 4 How do you u s u a l l y f i n d out about t h e news? (1) f r o m t h e r a d i o (2) f r o m T.V. (3) f r o m a newspaper (4) f r o m a magazine (5) f r o m my p a r e n t s (6) o t h e r [SPECIFY] 10 107 26. How o l d were you when y o u r f a m i l y moved t o [McBRIDE] [VALMOUNT]? y e a r s 11 [IF BORN IN TOWN WRITE "ZERO"] 27. [McBRIDE ONLY]. Most p e o p l e i n M c B r i d e o n l y got T.V. two y e a r s ago. D i d you watch T.V. b e f o r e t h e new t r a n s m i t t e r came? (1) Yes (2) No [END] 12 (b) Where d i d you watch T.V. b e f o r e the new t r a n s m i t t e r came? 13 108 APPENDIX D CHILDREN'S MEDIA INTERVIEW FORM 3 NAME: 1 I.D.: 2-5 AGE: 6-7 SEX (1) Male (2) Female 8 Do you have a t e l e v i s i o n s e t a t home? 9 (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 14] How many TV s e t s do you have a t home? 10 s e t s I s i t ( a r e t h e y ) w o r k i n g o r brok e n ? 11 (1) a l l work [SKIP TO QUESTION 5] (2) a t l e a s t one works [SKIP TO QUESTION 5] (3) none work How l o n g has i t (have t h e y ) been broken? 12 (1) l e s s t h a n a week (2) a week o r so (3) a month o r so (4) more t h a n a month [SKIP TO QUESTION 14] How many h o u r s o f t e l e v i s i o n do you u s u a l l y w a t ch on (a) weekdays b e f o r e s c h o o l ? x 5 = 13-16 (b) weekdays a f t e r s c h o o l ? x 5 = 17-20 (c) weekdays a f t e r supper? x 5 = 21-24 (d) S a t u r d a y ? 25-28 (e) Sunday? 29-32 (a) Y e s t e r d a y a t l u n c h t i m e d i d you watch TV? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 7] 33 109 (b) [ I f y e s , t h e n a s k ] w h i c h shows d i d you watch y e s t e r d a y a t l u n c h t i m e ? D i d y o u watch A l l my c h i l d r e n 34 As t h e w o r l d t u r n s 35 Bob McLean 36 CBC news 37 Days o f o u r l i v e s 38 D i a l i n g f o r d o l l a r s 39 Edge o f n i g h t 40 Q6 K a l e i d o s c o p e 41 O t h e r 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 7. (a) Y e s t e r d a y a f t e r s c h o o l d i d you w a t c h TV? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 8] 54 (b) [ I F YES, SELECT THE APPROPRIATE DAY THEN SAY] I'm g o i n g t o r e a d a l i s t o f shows t h a t were on TV y e s t e r d a y a f t e r s c h o o l . T e l l me w h i c h ones you watched. D i d you w a t c h : Monday C o l . Tuesday C o l . Somerset 55 Somerset 12 G u i d i n g L i g h t 56 G u i d i n g L i g h t 13 Take 30 57 Take 30 14 G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 58 G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 15 B e w i t c h e d 59 B e w i t c h e d 16 B i g money movie 60 B i g money movie 17 C e l e b r i t y cooks 61 C e l e b r i t y cooks 18 Happy days 62 Happy Days 19 Merv G r i f f i n 63 Merv G r i f f i n 20 F o r e s t Rangers 64 F o r e s t Rangers 21 F a m i l y A f f a i r 65 F a m i l y A f f a i r 22 Comin' Up R o s i e 66 E l e c t r i c Company 23 M i c k e y Mouse 67 M i c k e y Mouse 24 Hogan's Heroes 68 Hogan's Heroes 25 H i D i d d l e Day 69 J u s t f o r f u n 26 Superman 70 Superman 27 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s news 71 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s news 28 News scene 72 News scene 29 P a r t r i d g e f a m i l y 73 P a r t r i d g e f a m i l y 30 C h a n n e l 2 news 74 Cha n n e l 2 news 31 O t h e r 75-77 O t h e r 32-34 78-80 35-37 110 6-8 38-40 9-11 41-43 Wednesday C o l . T h u r s d ay C o l . Somerset 44 Somerset 76 G u i d i n g L i g h t 45 G u i d i n g L i g h t 77 Take 30 46 Take 30 78 G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 47 G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l 79 B e w i t c h e d 48 B e w i t c h e d 80 B i g money movie 49 B i g money movie 6 C e l e b r i t y cooks 50 C e l e b r i t y cooks 7 Happy days 51 Happy days 8 Merv G r i f f i n 52 Merve G r i f f i n 9 F o r e s t Rangers 53 F o r e s t Rangers 10 F a m i l y a f f a i r 54 F a m i l y A f f a i r 11 Comin' Up R o s i e 55 V i s i o n on 12 M i c k e y Mouse 56 M i c k e y Mouse 13 Hogan's Heroes 57 Hogan's Heroes 14 N i c and P i c 58 What's new 15 Superman 59 Superman 16 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s news 60 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s news 17 Newscene 61 Newscene 18 P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y 62 P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y 19 Channel 2 News 63 Channel 2 news 20 Other 64-66 Ot h e r 21-23 67-69 24-26 70-72 27-29 73-75 30-32 8. (a) D i d you watch TV l a s t n i g h t a f t e r supper 33 _ ( 1 ) Yes (2) No (b) [ I f y e s , s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e day t h e n s a y ] w h i c h shows d i d you watch l a s t n i g h t ? D i d you w a t c h : Monday C o l . Tuesday C o l . NBC News 34 NBC News 77 CBC news 35 CBC News 78 K l a h a n i e 36 Barney M i l l e r 79 NFL f o o t b a l l 37 ABC news 80 To t e l l t h e t r u t h 38 To t e l l t h e t r u t h 6 Dinah 39 D i n a h 7 H o u r g l a s s 40 H o u r g l a s s 8 T r u t h o r consequences 41 Brady Bunch 9 Don Adam's s c r e e n t e s t 42 T r u t h o r consequences 10 Good t i m e s 43 Adam 12 11 Reach f o r t h e top 44 C a n d i d Camera 12 I l l - NBC w h i t e p a p e r Rhoda F r o n t page c h a l l e n g e P h y l l i s A l l i n t h e f a m i l y O l y m p i c games p r e v i e w C h i c o and the man Maude Canadian R e a l i s t s The A m e r i c a n a s s a s s i n s F B I Man a l i v e Q-6 e y e w i t n e s s news Newscene CBC news Ch a n n e l 2 news T o n i g h t show-Johnny C a r s o n CBS mo v i e , "Come f l y w i t h me" 1 L o c a l news Other 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62-63 " 64 65-67 "68-70 "71-73 74-76 Hee Haw C e l e b r a t i o n L e t ' s make a d e a l M o v i n ' on Happy days J o e and sons T h i s i s t h e l a w Welcome back K o t t e r P o l i c e woman Mash 5 t h e s t a t e The R o o k i e s One day a t a t i m e F a m i l y t h e a t r e Joe F o r r e s t e r Marcus Welby S w i t c h Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s news Newscene CBC news Channel 2 news T o n i g h t show-Johnny C a r s CBC movie, " C r y P a n i c " L o c a l news Wide W o r l d o f M y s t e r y O t h e r 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 on 34 35-36 37 38 39-41 "42-44 45-47 '48-50 Wednesday Thursday NBC news 51 NBC news 23 CBS news 52 CBS news 24 Bob S w i t z e r 53 S p o r t s c e n e 25 ABC news 54 ABC news 26 To t e l l t h e t r u t h 55 To t e l l t h e t r u t h 27 Din a h 56 D i n a h 28 H o u r g l a s s 57 H o u r g l a s s 29 B r a d y Bunch 58 Brady Bunch 30 T r u t h o r consequences 59 T r u t h o f consequences 31 Adam 12 60 Adam 12 32 I r i s h R o v e r s 61 Match game 33 Bob Newhart 62 Hockey Let's/make a d e a l 34 H o l l y w o o d Squares 63 35 L i t t l e house on t h e p r a i r i e 64 S a n f o r d & Son 36 Tony O r l a n d o and Dawn 65 Grady 37 T h i s l a n d 66 W a l t o n s 38 When t h i n g s were r o t t e n 67 Barney M i l l e r 39 Musicamera 68 The cop and t h e k i d 40 T h a t ' s my Mama 69 On t h e r o c k s 41 Count o f Monte C r i s t o 70 M e d i c a l s t o r y 42 Cannon 71 H a w a i i 5-0 43 112 B a r e t t a 72 The b l u e k n i g h t 73 U p s t a i r s D o w n s t a i r s 74 S t a r s k i & H u t c h 75 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s news 76 Newscene 77 The N a t i o n a l 78 Channel 2 news 79 T o n i g h t show 80 CBC movie " T r i b u t e t o a Bad Man" Movie Other _ 6"7 9-10 11-13 S t r e e t s o f San F r a n c i s c o 44 Watson r e p o r t 45 Barnaby Jones 46 H a r r y 0 47 Peep show 48 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s news 49 Newscene 50 N a t i o n a l 51 Channel 2 news 52 T o n i g h t show 53 CBS movie "Heaven w i t h a gun" 54-55 L o c a l news 56 Mannix 57 L o n g s t r e e t 58 O t h e r 59-61 62-64 65-67 68-70 (a) D i d y o u w a t c h T.V. t h i s m o r n i n g b e f o r e s c h o o l ? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 10] (b) [ I F YES, SELECT THE APPROPRIATE DAY THEN SAY] Which shows d i d y ou watch t h i s morning? D i d y ou watch - 71 Tuesday C o l Q-6 Farm and Home Re p o r t 72 Idea T h i n g 73 C o n s u l t a t i o n 74 Farm R e p o r t s 75 Not f o r Women Only 76 S u n r i s e Semester 77 S a c r e d H e a r t 78 I n t e r s e c t 79 Today Show 80 New Zoo Revue 6 A g r i c u l t u r e Today 7 CBS M o r n i n g News 8 Ca r t o o n s 9 C a p t a i n Kangaroo 10 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News 11 M u n s t e r s 12 Other 13-15 16-18 19-21 22-24 Wednesday C o l Q-6 Farm and Home R e p o r t 25 Id e a T h i n g 26 C o n s u l t a t i o n 27 Farm R e p o r t s 28 Not f o r Women Only 29 S u n r i s e Semester 30 8 L i v e l y A r t s 31 Today Show 32 New Zoo Revue 33 A g r i c u l t u r e Today 34 CBS M o r n i n g News 35 C a r t o o n s 36 C a p t a i n Kangaroo 37 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News 38 Mu n s t e r s 39 Othe r 40-42 43-45 46-48 49-51 113 Thursday F r i d a y Q-6 Farm and Home R e p o r t 52 Q-6 Farm and Home Re p o r t 79 Idea T h i n g 53 I d e a T h i n g 80 C o n s u l t a t i o n 54 C o n s u l t a t i o n 6 Farm R e p o r t s 55 Farm R e p o r t s 7 Not f o r Women Only 56 Not f o r Women Only 8 S u n r i s e Semester 57 S u n r i s e Semester 9 Si g n s o f L i f e 58 A g r i c u l t u r e Today 10 I n t e r s e c t 59 Today Show 11 Today Show 60 New Zoo Revue 12 A g r i c u l t u r e Today 61 C a r t o o n s 13 CBS M o r n i n g News 62 CBS M o r n i n g News 14 C a r t o o n s 63 C a p t a i n Kangaroo 15 C a p t a i n Kangaroo 64 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News 16 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News 65 M u n s t e r s 17 Munsters 66 O t h e r 18-20 Other 67-69 21-23 70-72 24-26 73-75 27-29 76-78 10. (a) Do y o u r p a r e n t s e v e r keep you from w a t c h i n g s o m e t h i n g on t e l e v i s i o n t h a t y o u want t o watch? _ ( 1 ) Yes _ ( 2 ) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 11] 30 (b) How o f t e n would you say t h i s happens: _ ( 1 ) o f t e n _ ( 2 ) once i n a w h i l e , o r (3) h a r d l y e v e r 31 (c) What a r e t h e r e a s o n s y o u r p a r e n t s u s u a l l y have f o r not l e t i n g you watch? _ ( 1 ) h a v e n ' t done homework _(2) h a v e n ' t done c h o r e s (3) p a r e n t s d i s a p p r o v e o f c o n t e n t (4) p a r e n t s want t o watch s o m e t h i n g e l s e _ (5) o t h e r [SPECIFY] 32-33 (d) Can you t h i n k o f any t i m e s i n t h e p a s t two weeks t h a t y o u r p a r e n t s w o u l d n ' t l e t you watch a show t h a t y o u wanted t o see? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name o f how Reason 34-36 39-41 44-46 49-51 54-56 37-38 42-43 47-48 52-53 57-58 ;114 11. Most e v e n i n g s do y o u w a t c h T.V. a l o n e o r w i t h o t h e r s ? (1) a l o n e 59 (2) w i t h o t h e r s [SPECIFY] 60-61 12. (a) What c h a n n e l s do you get on y o u r T.V.? (1) C h a n n e l 2 - ABC (KREM) (2) C h a n n e l 4 - CBS (KXLY) (3) C h a n n e l 5 - CBC (CBUT) (4) C h a n n e l 6 - NBC (KHQ) (5) O t h e r [SPECIFY] (b) How many c h a n n e l s do you get a l t o g e t h e r ? 63 13. When t h e r e a r e two d i f f e r e n t shows on a t t h e same t i m e , f o r example, one on Ch a n n e l 2 and one on Chan n e l 5, who g e t s t o choose w h i c h one t o watch? (1) p a r e n t s d e c i d e (2) s u b j e c t chooses (3) o l d e r s i b s choose (4) p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n t a k e t u r n s c h o o s i n g shows (5) some o f us w a t c h on a n o t h e r T.V. s e t (6) o t h e r [SPECIFY] 64-65 [FOR THOSE WHO DO NOT HAVE A WORKING T.V. AT HOME; ALL OTHERS SKIP TO QUESTION 15] a) I f you h a v e n ' t got a w o r k i n g t e l e v i s i o n a t home, do you watch T.V. e l s e w h e r e ? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 20] 66 b) How o f t e n do you watch T.V.? [PROBE TO ASCERTAIN FREQUENCY, DURATION AND LOCATION, E.G., TWICE A WEEK FOR 2 HOURS AFTER SCHOOL AT MY FRIEND'S HOUSE] Frequency: . 67-68 D u r a t i o n : 69-70 L o c a t i o n : 71-72 15. a) What i s y o u r #1 f a v o r i t e T.V. show? 73-75 b) When i s i t on? (day, t i m e ) 76-77 - 78-79 c) What a r e y o u r f o u r n e x t most f a v o r i t e shows? 1. ; 6-8 2. 9-11 3. 12-14 4. 15-17 16. a) Do you u s u a l l y w a t c h T.V. i n t h e morning b e f o r e s c h o o l ? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 17] 18 b) Which o f t h e s e shows do you u s u a l l y watch? Q-6 Farm and Home R e p o r t I d e a T h i n g C o n s u l t a t i o n Farm R e p o r t s Not f o r Women Only S u n r i s e Semester S a c r e d H e a r t 8 L i v e l y A r t s I n t e r s e c t Today Show New Zoo Review A g r i c u l t u r e Today CBS M o r n i n g News C a r t o o n s C a p t a i n Kangaroo M u n s t e r s S i g n s o f L i f e O t h e r a) Do you u s u a l l y w a t c h T.V. a f t e r s c h o o l ? (1) Yes _ ( 2 ) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 18] b) Which shows do you u s u a l l y watch? Somerset G u i d i n g L i g h t Take 30 _ _ _ G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l B e w i t c h e d B i g Money Movie C e l e b r i t y Cooks Happy Days Merv G r i f f i n F o r e s t Rangers _ _ _ F a m i l y A f f a i r Comin' Up R o s i e E l e c t r i c Company Mi c k e y Mouse Hogans Heroes H i D i d d l e Day J u s t f o r Fun Superman Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News The Scene T o n i g h t P a r t r i d g e F a m i l y Channel 2 News N i c and P i c V i s i o n On What's New Other 115 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36-38 39-41 42-44 45-47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74-76 116 77-79 6-8 9-11 L8. a) Do you u s u a l l y w a tch T.V. i n t h e e v e n i n g s a f t e r supper? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 19] 12 b) Which o f t h e s e shows do you u s u a l l y a t c h ? NBC News 13 B l u e K n i g h t 56 CBS News 14 U p s t a i r s D o w n s t a i r s 57 ABC News 15 S t a r s k y and H u t c h 58 K l a h a n i e 16 The N a t i o n a l 59 NFL F o o t b a l l 17 S p o r t s c e n e 60 To T e l l t h e T r u t h 18 Matchgame 61 Dinah 19 Hockey 62 H o u r g l a s s 20 S a n f o r d and Son 63 Brady Bunch 21 Grady 64 T r u t h o r Consequences 22 M e d i c a l C e n t r e 65 Don Adams S c r e e n T e s t 23 FBI 66 Goodtimes 24 Man A l i v e 67 Reach f o r t h e Top 25 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News 68 NBC Whi t e Paper 26 Newscene 69 Rhoda 27 CBC News 70 F r o n t Page C h a l l e n g e 28 C h a n n e l 2 News 71 P h y l l i s 29 T o n i g h t Show 72 A l l i n t h e F a m i l y 30 CBS Movie ( l a t e ) 73 O l y m p i c Games P r e v i e w 31 L o c a l L a t e News 74 C h i c o and t h e Man 32 Barney M i l l e r 75 Maude 33 Adam 12 76 Canadian R e a l i s t s 34 C a n d i d Camera 77 M.A.S.H. 35 Hee Haw 78 F i f t h E s t a t e 36 C e l e b r a t i o n 79 R o o k i e s 37 L e t ' s Make a D e a l 80 One Day a t a Time 38 M o v i n On 6 F a m i l y T h e a t r e 39 Happy Days 7 Joe F o r r e s t e r 40 J o e and Sons 8 S w i t c h 41 T h i s i s t h e Law 9 W i l d W o r l d o f M y s t e r y 42 Welcome Back K o t t e r 10 Bob S w i t z e r 43 P o l i c e Woman 11 I r i s h Rovers 44 W a l t o n s 12 Bob Newhart 45 The Cop and t h e K i d 13 H o l l y w o o d Squares 46 On t h e Rocks 14 L i t t l e House on t h e M e d i c a l S t o r y 15 P r a i r i e 47 H a w a i i F i v e - 0 16 Tony O r l a n d o and Dawn 48 S t r e e s o f San F r a n c i s c o 17 T h i s Land 49 Watson R e p o r t 18 When T h i n g s Were R o t t e n 50 Barnaby Jones 19 Musicamera 51 H a r r y - 0 20 T h a t 1 s My Momma 52 Peep Show 21 Count o f Monte C r i s t o 53 Mannis 22 Cannon 54 L o n g s t r e e t 23 B a r e t t a 55 Howard C o s e l l 24 117 - I.W.A.T. 25 i .:; Fami l y Ho 1 vak 40 M a t t Helm 26 Columbo 41 J e f f e r s o n s 27 McCloud 42 Doc 28 M c M i l l a n and W i f e 43 Mary T y l e r Moore 29 McCoy 44 C a r o l B u r n e t t 30 B a r b a r y Coast 45 Emergency 31 M e d i c a l C e n t r e 46 NBC S a t u r d a y N i g h t Movie 32 K a t e Mc Shane 47 S w i s s F a m i l y R o b i n s o n 33 D o c t o r ' s H o s p i t a l 48 S i x M i l l i o n D o l l a r Man 34 P e t r o c e l l i 49 ABC Sunday N i g h t Movie 35 M o b i l e One 50 Three f o r t h e Road 36 B i g E d d i e 51 Cher 37 O t h e r 52-54 K o j a k 38 55-57 W a l t D i s n e y 39 58-60 61-63 19. a) Do you u s u a l l y w a tch T.V. on S a t u r d a y morning? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 20] 64 b) Which o f t h e s e shows do you watch? U.S. Farm R e p o r t 65 G r o o v i e G o o l i e s 7 Davey and G o l i a t h 66 P e a n o t s and P o p c o r n 8 Romper Room 67 Beyond t h e P l a n e t o f th e Apes 9 Hong Kong Phooey 68 S h a z a m / I s i s Hour 10 J o s i e and t h e P u s s y c a t s 69 Speed Buggy 11 Sunday S c h o o l o f t h e A i r 70 Westwind 12 Tom and J e r r y / G r a p e Ape 71 O d d b a l l Couple 13 The S e c r e t L i f e o f Waldo The J e t s o n s 14 K i t t y 72 U n c l e C r o c ' s 15 P e b b l e s and Bamm-Bamm 73 Harvey C a r t o o n s 16 P i n k P a n t h e r 74 A m e r i c a n B a n d s t a n d 17 Bugs Bunny Road Runner Hour 75 Go U.S.A. 18 L o s t Saucer 76 Ghost B u s t e r s 19 LE 60 77 O t h e r 20-22 Land o f t h e L u s t 78 23-25 A d v e n t u r e s o f G i l l i g a n 79 26-28 Run Joe Run 80 29-31 Scooby Doo 6 20. a) Do you l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o ? (1) o f t e n (2) sometimes, o r (3) a l m o s t n e v e r ? [SKIP TO QUESTION 21] 32 b) When do you u s u a l l y l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o ? (!) i n t h e mor n i n g b e f o r e s c h o o l (2) a f t e r s c h o o l (3) i n t h e e v e n i n g s a f t e r supper (4) on S a t u r d a y o r Sunday (5) o t h e r [SPECIFY] 33-34 118 c) What k i n d s o f programs do y o u l i s t e n t o on t h e r a d i o ? (1) m u s i c (.2) news (3) h ockey o r f o o t b a l l games (4) o t h e r [SPECIFY] 21. a) O u t s i d e o f s c h o o l , about how many books do y o u r e a d a month? 35-36 37-38 b) Do you e v e r check books o u t o f y o u r s c h o o l l i b r a r y o r t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y ? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 22] 39 c) About how o f t e n do you check books o u t o f a l i b r a r y ? (1) once a week (2) 2-3 t i m e s a week (3) once a month (4) a few t i m e s a y e a r 40 22. Do you e v e r r e a d magazines? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 23] 41 b) What magazines do you re a d ? 42-44 45-47 48-50 51-53 c) About how o f t e n do you r e a d a magazine? 54-56 (1) d a i l y (2) s e v e r a l t i m e s a week (3) once a week (4) 2-3 t i m e s a month (5) once a month (6) a few t i m e s a y e a r 57 23. a) Do you e v e r r e a d comic books? (1) Yes (2) No [SKIP TO QUESTION 24] 58 b) What a r e y o u r f a v o r i t e comic books? 1. 59-61 2. 62-64 3. 65-67 119 c) About how o f t e n do you r e a d a comic book? CI) d a i l y (2) s e v e r a l t i m e s a week (3) once a week (4) 2-3 t i m e s a month (5) once a month (6) a few t i m e s a y e a r 68 24. a) D i d you used t o r e a d t h e Salmo & D i s t r i c t News? (1) Yes (2) No 69 b) Do you e v e r r e a d t h e T r a i l Times? (1) Yes (2) No 70 c) Do you e v e r r e a d t h e N e l s o n D a i l y News? (1) Yes (2) No d) What.about o t h e r newspapers? Do you e v e r r e a d a newspaper f r o m Vancouver, Spokane, C a l g a r y , e t c ? (1) Yes (2) No 72 e) About how o f t e n w o u l d you say you r e a d a newspaper o f any k i n d ? (1) e v e r y d a y .(.2) a few t i m e s a week (3) once a week (4) 1-3 t i m e s a month (5) a few t i m e s a y e a r (6) n e v e r 73 25. a) How do you u s u a l l y f i n d out about t h e news? (1) f r o m t h e r a d i o (2) f r o m T.V. (3) f r o m a newspaper (4) f r o m a magazine (.5) f r o m my p a r e n t s (6) a t s c h o o l (7) o t h e r [SPECIFY2 74-75 b) [ I F WATCHES NEWS ON T.V. ASK] What T.V. News Shows do you u s u a l l y watch? CBS M o r n i n g News 76 Today Show 77 C h a n n e l 2- Krem 5:30 News 78 The Scene T o n i g h t a t 5:30 79 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News - 5:30 80 ABC E v e n i n g News/Harry Reas o n e r , Howard K. S m i t h 6 CBS E v e n i n g News/Walter C r o n k i t e 7 NBC E v e n i n g News/John C h a n c e l l o r 8 120 H o u r g l a s s 9 Chann e l 2 News a t 11:00 10 The Scene T o n i g h t a t 11:00 11 Q-6 E y e w i t n e s s News a t 11:00 12 The N a t i o n a l News 13 26. How o l d were you when y o u r f a m i l y moved t o Salmo? y e a r s 14-15 1 2 1 APPENDIX E A g g r e s s i o n C a t e g o r i e s I . P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n PA^ - _ h i t s , s l a p s , punches, o r s t r i k e s _I w i t h any body p a r t above t h e w a i s t . PA^ - _ h i t s , s l a p s , punches, o r s t r i k e s I w i t h a h e l d o b j e c t . PA^ - S_ k i c k s , s t e p s on, s i t s on, l i e s on, o r t r i p s I w i t h any body p a r t below t h e w a i s t . PA^ - _ b i t e s o r s p i t s 1 PP - _ p u s h e s , h o l d s , p u l l s , g r a b s , d r a g s , o r chokes I PS - S_ s n a t c h e s t h e p r o p e r t y o f 1 ( w i t h o u t damage t o t h a t p r o - p e r t y PD - S_ damages th e p r o p e r t y o f I_ P I - _S_ t r i e s t o c r e a t e a r e a c t i o n i n 1, i . e . , t e a s e s , annoys, o r i n t e r f e r e s i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f _L ( e x c e p t where c h a s i n g i s i n v o l v e d when PT-j o r PT^ i s s c o r e d ) PT^ - j _ t h r e a t e n s I w i t h some p a r t o f t h e body P T 2 - _S t h r e a t e n s 1 w i t h a h e l d o b j e c t P T 3 - _5 chases I PT^ - _3 c h a s e s 1 w i t h a h e l d o b j e c t PF - _S s c o w l s , g r i m a c e s , o r makes sounds o f d i s l i k e o r anger towards _I PO - _S throws o r k i c k s an o b j e c t a t 1, e x c e p t as i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r o n g o i n g p l a y a c t i v i t y I I . V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n VD - _S_ d i s p a r a g e s 1, making remarks o f d i s l i k e f o r 1, f i n d s f a u l t w i t h o r c e n s u r e s 1, condemns I, h u m i l i a t e s _, l a u g h s a t the m i s f o r t u n e o f I_, mocks, e x p r e s s e s t h e d e s i r e t h a t I be t h e v i c t i m o f i m p e r i o u s e v e n t s , a t t r i b u t e s bad q u a l i t i e s t o I_, c u r s e s I_. .122 VP - _S t r i e d t o c l a i m a p o s s e s s i o n o f I_ VR - S_ r e j e c t s o r d e n i e s some a c t i v i t y , p r i v i l e g e , o r o b j e c t t o I VT - S t h r e a t e n s t o h u r t I VS - J3 commands o r demands I_ t o do something o r n o t t o do something i n a l o u d , v i g o r o u s , o r a n g r y tone o f v o i c e . VC - _S a r g u e s w i t h o r i s a t c r o s s - p u r p o s e s w i t h I, where J3 makes more t h a n one s t a t e m e n t w h i c h i s s e p a r a t e d by a r e j o i n d e r . VF - _S t e l l s an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e about _I' s b e h a v i o u r w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r s n e g a t i v e VB - S_ s h i f t s t h e blame f o r some a c t i v i t y w h i c h S_ a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r s n e g a t i v e , t o _I VI - _S t r i e s t o cause i n j u r y t o 1 v i a an agent . 123 APPENDIX F C o d i n g Sheet Time 1 Name D e s c r i p t i o n , No. A g g r e s s i o n C a t e g o r i e s Date Obse Time 1 s r v e r _ 2 3 Date Obse Time 1 _ Brver _ 2 3 Date Obse Time 1 i r v e r 2 3 Date Obse Time 1 i r v e i 2 3 P A 1 P A 2 P A 3 P A 4 PP PS PD P I P T X PT P T 3 PT, 4 PF VD VP VR VT VS - c o n t i n u e d ... 124 A p p e n d i x F c o n t i n u e d A g g r e s s i o n C a t e g o r i e s Date O b s e r v e r Time 1 2 3 Dat Obs T i n 1 e >erver le 2 3 Dat Obs T i n 1 e >ervei le 2 3 Dat Obs T i n 1 e e r v e i le 2 3 VC VF VB VI Comments: A p p e n d i x F c o n t i n u e d C o d i n g Sheet Time 2 Name: Sex: D e s c r i p t i o n : Grade: Date:- / / SF Date: / / SF Time:. - L J Time: L J PA1 H i t / p u n c h PA2 H i t w/obj. PA3 K i c k / s i t on PA4 B i t e / s p i t PP P u s h / h o l d PS S n a t c h p r o p . PD Damage p r o p . P I T e a s e / I n t e r f e r e PT1 T h r e a t PA 1 PT2 T h r e a t / o b j . PT3 Chase PT4 C h a s e / o b j . P F Scowl/sounds Pp Throw o b j . VD D i s p a r a g e VP C l a i m p o s s . VR R e j e c t / d e n y VT T h r e a t h u r t VS Loud Command c o n t i n u e d ... 126 A p p e n d i x F c o n t i n u e d D a t e : / / SF Date: / / SF Time: L J Time: L J vc Argue VF T a t t l i n g VB S h i f t Blame V I I n j u r y / a g e n t 127 APPENDIX G R e p e r t o i r e o f A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r N o t e l Time 1 Male Female Sum Time 2 Male Female Sum P h y s i c a l PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 PP PS PD. P I . PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 PF PO 60 3 14 2 113 4 0 43 5 0 25 0 6 5 26 6 14 5 31 1 0 7 2 0 3 0 2 2 36 9 28 7 144 5 0 50 7 0 28 0 8 7 49 3 54 3 175 2 2 29 31 9 40 0 8 54 23 3 17 2 136 0 0 10 16 2 38 1 .1 11 72 6 71 5 311 2 2 39 47 11 78 1 9 65 V e r b a l VD VP VR VT VS VC VF VB V I 16 0 7 3 30 7 0 0 1 14 0 6 2 37 8 5 0 0 30 0 13 5 67 15 5 0 1 50 0 17 10 49 21 8 0 2 27 5 12 3 48 32 5 0 0 77 5 29 13 97 53 13 0 2 128 A p p e n d i x G c o n t i n u e d R e p e r t o i r e o f A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r U n i t e l Time 1 Time 2 Male Female Sum Male Female Sum P h y s i c a l PA1 25 33 58 26 16 42 PA2 2 3 5 2 3 5 PA3 12 4 16 27 6 33 PA4 0 1 1 1 0 1 PP 104 36 140 170 44 214 PS 3 1 4 1 1 2 PD 0 0 0 1 1 2 P I 28 11 39 11 17 28 PT1 0 1 1 8 1 9 PT2 1 0 1 0 1 1 PT3 16 11 27 16 14 30 PT4 0 0 0 1 2 3 PF 7 5 12 6 3 9 PO 20 8 28 87 13 100 V e r b a l VD 19 11 30 23 13 36 VP 0 0 0 1 1 2 VR 0 1 1 2 1 3 VT 0 2 2 6 5 11 VS 17 31 48 17 12 29 VC 8 6 14 21 8 29 VF 1 0 1 9 6 15 VB 0 0 0 0 0 0 V I 0 1 1 0 1 1 A p p e n d i x G c o n t i n u e d R e p e r t o i r e o f A g g r e s s i v e B e h a v i o u r M u l t i t e l Time 1 Time 2 Male Female Sum Male 'Female Sum P h y s i c a l 45 PA1 32 16 48 36 9 PA2 4 10 14 5 2 7 PA3 9 4 13 30 17 47 PA4 0 1 1 1 0 1 PP 101 85 186 273 132 405 PS 13 3 16 4 1 5 PD 1 0 1 0 0 0 P I 35 16 51 15 5 20 PT1 13 2 15 16 2 18 PT2 6 1 7 4 2 6 PT3 25 8 33 16 18 34 PT4 0 0 0 3 0 3 PF 2 7 9 3 1 4 PO 32 1 33 5 2 7 V e r b a l VD 35 39 74 21 8 29 VP 0 0 0 1 0 1 VR 7 7 14 8 4 12 VT 9 9 18 7 5 12 VS 29 19 48 50 19 69 VC 22 16 38 21 8 29 VF 0 1 1 5 0 5 VB 0 0 0 0 0 0 VI 5 5 10 5 1 6 130 APPENDIX H Key: A b b r e v i a t i o n s Employed i n t h e C o r r e l a t i o n T a b l e s 551 : Sum o f t e a c h e r r a t i n g measures A g g r e s s i v e ; A r g u m e n t a t i v e ; B o ssy; H o s t i l e 552 : Sum o f t e a c h e r r a t i n g measures A c t i v e ; Loud 553 : Sum o f t e a c h e r r a t i n g measures C o m p e t i t i v e ; Dominant 554 : Sum o f t e a c h e r r a t i n g measures F r i e n d l y ; Honest PR1 : P e e r r a t i n g f o r B o s sy PR2 : P e e r r a t i n g f o r F i g h t s PR3 : P e e r r a t i n g f o r T a l k s back PR4 : P e e r r a t i n g f o r A r g u e s ; D i s a g r e e s PR5 : P e e r r a t i n g f o r Push; Shove; Poke AVSS6 : O b s e r v a t i o n a l measure f o r P h y s i c a l A g g r e s s i o n AVSS7 : O b s e r v a t i o n a l measure f o r V e r b a l A g g r e s s i o n APPENDIX I Time 1 C o r r e l a t i o n s among Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r R a t i n g s , and O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures of A g g r e s s i o n , C o l l a p s e d a c r o s s Towns SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 SSI 1.00 SS2 .78 1.00 SS3 .59 .65 1.00 SS4 -.27 -. 16 .27 1.00 PR1 .41 .47 .28 1.00 PR2 .26 .36 (-.14) .59 1.00 PR3 .43 .46 .19 .74 .60 . 1.00 PR4 .38 .47 .24 .85 .69 .74 1.00 PR5 .39 .46 .18 -.23 .66 .63 .61 .63 AVSS6 .37 .36 .27 .28 .49 .36 .41 AVSS7 .22 .31 .28 .17 .17 PR5 AVSS6 AVSS7 1.00 .38 1.00 .19 1.00 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 l e v e l A p p e n d i x I c o n t i n u e d Time 1 N o t e l : C o r r e l a t i o n s among Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r R a t i n g s , and O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 SSI 1.00. SS2 .78 .. 1.00 SS3 .58 .78 1.00 SS4 -.31 1.00 PR1 .62 .63 .53 1.00 PR2 .39 .47 (.22) .55 1.00 PR3 .60 .55 .36 .76 .63 1.00 PR4 .57 .61 .46 .91 .73 .80 1.00 PR5 .68 .62 .55 (-.25) .73 .61 .70 .71 AVSS6 .39 .37 .16 -.35 .36 .75 .41 .54 AVSS7 (.26) .46 .50 .27 PR5 AVSS6 AVSS7 1.00 .50 1.00 1.00 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 l e v e l A p p e n d i x I c o n t i n u e d Time 1 U n i t e l : C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r R a t i n g s , and O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 PR5 AVSS6 AVSS7 551 1.00 552 .75 1.00 553 .68 .72 1.00 554 .49 1.00 PR1 (.24) 1.00 PR2 .71 1.00 PR3 C.25) .49 .44 1.00 PR4 .59 .66 .47 1.00 PR5 .42 .64 .46 .51 'l.OO AVSS6 .40 .40 .42 .33 (.27) 1.00 AVSS7 .26 .35 (.22) 1.00 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 l e v e l Co A p p e n d i x I c o n t i n u e d Time 1 M u l t i t e l : C o r r e l a t i o n s among Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n R a t i n g s , and SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 . PR2 PR3 PR4 PR5 SSI 1.00 SS2 .82 1.00 SS3 .55 .54 1.00 SS4 -.45 -.41 1.00 PR1 .33 .28 (.24) 1.00 PR2 .31 .46 (,25) -.31 .53 1.00 PR3 .54 .52 -.32 .53 .46 1.00 PR4 .40 .41 (,24) .60 .34 .42 1.00 PR5 (.21) .39 -.43 .64 .74 .42 .36 1.00 AVSS6 .32 .35 (,24) .38 .42 .52 (.26) .36 AVSS7 .42. .36 .33 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 l e v e l AVSS6 AVSS7 1.00 1.00 4> A p p e n d i x I c o n t i n u e d Time 2: C o r r e l a t i o n s among Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r R a t i n g s , And O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n , C o l l a p s e d A c r o s s Towns SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 PR5 AVSS6 SSI 1.00 SS2 .62 1.00 SS3 .49 .22 1.00 SS4 -.66 -.41 (-.14) 1.00 PR1 .27 .31 1.00 PR2 .25 .35 .74 1.00 PR3 .38 .40 (.15) -.20 .72 .62 1.00 PR4 .32 .27 (.13) .71 .63 .65 1.00 PR5 .28 .43 -. 17 .74 .78 .72 .65 1.00 AVSS6 .21 .32 .39 .32 .37 .41 1.00 AVSS7 -.23 .21 .21 .20 .38 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s : s i g n i f i c a n t a t . 10 l e v e l 1.00 A p p e n d i x I c o n t i n u e d Time 2 N o t e l : C o r r e l a t i o n s Among Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r R a t i n g s , and Ob se r v a t i o n a l Measures of A g g r e s s i o n SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 ER5 AVSS6 SSI 1.00 SS2 . 70 1.00 SS3 .46 (.24) 1.00 SS4 -.45 -.45 1.00 PR1 .40 .34 1.00 PR2 .44 .58 1.00 PR3 .68 .46 .23 -.38 .63 .29 1.00 PR4 .51 .41 -.36 .80 .56 .75 1.00 PR5 (.26) .42 (-.24) .72 .72 .66 .75 1.00 AVSS6 (.25) 1.00 AVSS7 (.23) .28 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t . 05 l e v e l C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i a n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 l e v e l AVSS7 1.00 to ON A p p e n d i x I c o n t i n u e d Time 2 U n i t e l : C o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r R a t i n g s , and O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures of A g g r e s s i o n SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 PR5 AVSS6 SSI 1.00 SS2 .48 1.00 SS3 1.00 SS4 -.45 .36 1.00 PR1 .39 027) -.41 1.00 PR2 (.25) (-.28) .98 1.00 PR3 .44 .47 -.35 .89 .86 1.00 PR4 .65 .63 .53 1.00 PR5 .51 .43 -.39 .84 .85 .85 .64 1.00 AVSS6 0 26) .49 .53 .45 .49 .49 1.00 AVSS7 .36 .38 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l 1.00 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 l e v e l A p p e n d i x I c o n t i n u e d Time 2 M u l t i t e l : C o r r e l a t i o n s among Teacher R a t i n g s , P e e r O b s e r v a t i o n a l Measures o f A g g r e s s i o n R a t i n g s , and SSI SS2 SS3 SS4 PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 PR5 SSI 1.00 SS2 .77 .1.00 SS3 .47 .39 1.00 SS4 -.70 -.61 1.00 PR1 .34 .32 .34 1.00 PR2 .37 .38 .44 .76 1.00 PR3 .28 .29 .33 .66 .79 1.00 PR4 .39 (.26) .33 .66 .74 .61 1.00 PR5 .36 .43 .64 .80 .64 .55 1.00 AVSS6 (.24) (.22) .49 .55 .45 .56 .56 AVSS7 .39 .31 (.26) .27 AVSS6 AVSS7 1.00 .39 1.00 C o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l C o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s i n p a r e n t h e s e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .10 l e v e l Co 00 139 APPENDIX J V i e w i n g Hours P e r Week Time 1 N o t e l U n i t e l M u l t i t e l (N=30) (N=34) (N=39) No. o f No": o f " No. o f Hours/Week S u b j e c t s % S u b j e c t s % S u b j e c t s % 0 21 70 4 11.8 • - 1-5 1 3.3 1 2.6 6-10 2 6.7 3 8.8 1 2.6 11-15 1 3.3 3 8.8 16-20 1 3.3 4 11.8 21-25 4 11.8 5 12.8 26-30 1 3.3 2 5.9 5 12.8 31-35 1 3.3 4 11.8 7 17.9 36-40 3 7.7 41-45 4 10.3 46-50 1 2.9 3 7.7 51-55 1 2.9 2 5.1 56-60 1 2.6 * L i t t l e 4 11.8 Sometimes 1 3.3 1 2.9 4 10.3 L o t s 1 3.3 3 8.8 3 7.7 'These c h i l d r e n d i d n o t know how many h o u r s t h e y watched o f TV p e r week, so t h e y were a s k e d whether i t was: "a l i t t l e ; l o t s ; o r j u s t sometimes". 140 A p p e n d i x J c o n t i n u e d V i e w i n g Hours P e r Week Time 2 Hours/Week N o t e l (N=38) No. o f S u b j e c t s U n i t e l (N=39) No. o f S u b j e c t s M u l t i t e l (N=37) No. o f Subj e c t s 0 I - 5 6-10 I I - 15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 60+ 5 1 1 4 4 5 10. 4 3 13.16 2.63 2.63 10.53 10.53 13.16 26.32 10.53 7.89 2.63 5.13 2 9 9 9 6 2 5.13 23.08 23.08 23.08 15.38 5.13 4 1 6 3 1 5 1 2 1 1 10.81 2.70 10.81 21.62 16.22 8.11 2.70 13.52 2.70 5.40 2.70 2.70 Mean no. hours/week 21.72 Median no. hours/week 25 28.21 27.5 28.71 25.5

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