UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Studies in the lives of the sons of Constantine Wilson, Edward George 1977

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STUDIES IN THE LIVES OF THE  SONS OF CONSTANTINE by  EDWARD GEORGE WILSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , M.A.,  1965  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C l a s s i c s )  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1977 Edward George W i l s o n , 1 9 7 7  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  requirements f o r  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s s c h o l a r l y purposes may his representatives.  be  granted by  I t i s understood t h a t  t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  permission.  Department of  the Head of my  Classics  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia Dominion of Canada V6T 1W5  that  Department or  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  be allowed w i t h o u t my  I for  by of  written  Research  Supervisors:  J . A. S. Evans and  M. F. McGregor  ABSTRACT  The r e i g n s o f the emperor C o n s t a n t i n e the Great and of h i s nephew J u l i a n the Apostate  have f a s c i n a t e d  c e n t u r y t o the p r e s e n t day.  s c h o l a r s from t h e f o u r t h  Some have seen  of the M i d d l e Ages and i n J u l i a n the l a s t However, the e i g h t e e n y e a r s t h a t passed  i n C o n s t a n t i n e t h e founder  f l o w e r i n g o f the pagan w o r l d .  between the death o f C o n s t a n t i n e  i n 337 and the p r o c l a m a t i o n o f J u l i a n as Caesar very l i t t l e period. antiken  i n 355 have r e c e i v e d  a t t e n t i o n because o f the p a u c i t y of the sources f o r t h i s  Only 0. Seeck, i n h i s monumental Gesckichte Welt ( S t u t t g a r t 1922), and G. G i g l i ,  dinastia (337-361)  dei seeondi Flavii:  Costantino  (Rome 1959), have attempted  des Untevgang dev  i n h i s notes e n t i t l e d La  II, Costante,  Costanzo II  a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of t h i s  p e r i o d , but Seeck's volume, though s t i l l  e s s e n t i a l , has been rendered  somewhat dated by r e c e n t numismatic and p r o s o p o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s w h i l e G i g l i ' s , which i s f a r l e s s thorough,  emphasizes the r e l i g i o u s problems  of the age a t the expense of the p o l i t i c a l . study i s  t o determine  The t a s k undertaken  i n this  the workings o f the c o u r t d u r i n g the p e r i o d f o r  which s o u r c e - m a t e r i a l i s p o o r e s t  (i.e.,  337-353) and t o show how the  government r u l e d w i t h an i r o n hand by C o n s t a n t i n e I degenerated  i n t o the  weak a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of C o n s t a n t i u s I I as r e v e a l e d i n the f i r s t  surviving  books o f Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s . Because the p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s p o o r l y documented i n  iv the l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s , thorough numismatic, and  l e g a l sources.  use has been made of the The  epigraphical,  study of the p o l i c i e s and  of the sons of C o n s t a n t i n e i s a i d e d to a g r e a t extent by an of the c a r e e r s of both t h e i r appointees the p o l i t i c s of the p e r i o d a r e r e f l e c t e d  and  examination  t h e i r opponents.  At  i n the contemporary  d i s p u t e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the s t r u g g l e of A t h a n a s i u s heresy.  practices  times  religious  to overcome the A r i a n  In o t h e r cases the workings of the government can be d i s c e r n e d  i n the c a r e e r s of prominent b u r e a u c r a t s , e s p e c i a l l y the grand l a i n Eusebius and  the p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t s A b l a b i u s , F l a v i u s  and F a b i u s T i t i a n u s .  chamber-  Philippus,  These c h a p t e r s encompass the t r a i n i n g of the sons  ( i n c l u d i n g C r i s p u s , C o n s t a n t i n e I I , C o n s t a n t i u s I I , and C o n s t a n s ) ,  the  massacre of t h e i r r e l a t i v e s upon the death of t h e i r f a t h e r , the d i s p u t e between C o n s t a n t i n e I I and Constans, and Constans,  the j o i n t r e i g n of C o n s t a n t i u s I I  the overthrow of Constans by Magnentius, and  the r e c o v e r y  of the West by C o n s t a n t i u s I I . The main c o n c l u s i o n reached  i s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s and r e i g n s  of the sons of C o n s t a n t i n e were determined  f o r the most p a r t not  h e r e d i t y , nor by the i n s t r u c t i o n s of t h e i r f a t h e r , but by  their  t e a c h e r s d u r i n g t h e i r youth and by t h e i r a d v i s e r s at c o u r t a f t e r death of t h e i r f a t h e r . s i n c e he had  C o n s t a n t i n e the Great both r e i g n e d and  the t r a i n i n g of a s o l d i e r and  s t r a t e g y a g a i n s t c o n s i d e r a b l e odds.  a c h i e v e d supremacy by  careful  H i s sons, however, succeeded  to the their  can be s a i d o n l y to have r e i g n e d , not to have r u l e d .  e x e c u t i o n s of t h e i r h a l f - b r o t h e r C r i s p u s and rendered  the  ruled,  throne b e f o r e they were o l d enough to shake o f f the i n f l u e n c e of c o u r t i e r s and  by  them s u s p i c i o u s and  The  t h e i r mother F a u s t a  i n s e c u r e , to the end  t h a t they t r u s t e d  only  the b u r e a u c r a t s at c o u r t and f e a r e d the p r e f e c t s and g e n e r a l s i n the p r o v i n c e s and even one another.  A g r e a t b a r r i e r a r o s e between the t h r  sons and the problems of t h e i r s u b j e c t s .  T h i s b a r r i e r , the c e n t r a l  bureaucracy, grew more c o r r u p t w h i l e the i n i t i a t i v e of the armies and p r o v i n c i a l s was  sapped.  The weakness of the t h r e e sons  foreshadows  t h a t of A r c a d i u s and Honorius i n the t w i l i g h t of the Roman Empire.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  DEDICATIO  x  ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER ONE:  xi THE SONS AS CAESARS  (1)  Problem of the I m p e r i a l S u c c e s s i o n  (2)  Crispus, L i c i n i u s  1  I I , and C o n s t a n t i n e I I  Made Caesars 1  7  (3)  The T r a i n i n g of the New Caesars  13  (4)  The War A g a i n s t L i c i n i u s  19  (5)  C o n s t a n t i u s I I Made Caesar  21  (6)  The Death of C r i s p u s  27  (7)  C o n s t a n t i n e I I and C o n s t a n t i u s I I 327-333  33  (8)  Constans Made Caesar  34  (9)  Dalmatius Made Caesar' and H a n n i b a l i a n u s Made King of Kings  38  (10)  The T r a i n i n g o f the Caesars  43  (11)  The Death o f C o n s t a n t i n e  46  Notes t o Chapter One CHAPTER TWO:  48  THE DEATH OF CONSTANTINE I AND THE MURDER OF CONSTANTINE I I  (1)  Eusebius and the Massacre  o f 337  (2)  T r a d i t i o n s Surrounding the Massacre vi  64 of 337  66  vii Page (3)  The V i c t i m s of the Massacre o f 337  (4)  Summary of Events Surrounding  78  the Death o f  C o n s t a n t i n e the Great  92  (5)  The Meeting  97  (6)  The D i v i s i o n of A u t h o r i t y i n 337  100  (7)  The Problem of the I n i t i a t i o n of L e g i s l a t i o n  105  (8)  The Nomination o f the Consuls  106  (9)  The A u t h o r i t y o f C o n s t a n t i n e I I and C o n s t a n t i u s I I . . .  of the Three Sons i n 337  338-340  . 108  (10)  The Honours P a i d t o C o n s t a n t i n e 1  110  (11)  The P r a e t o r i a n P r e f e c t s 337-340  114  (12)  Urban P r e f e c t s and Other O f f i c i a l s  (13)  The Return of A t h a n a s i u s  (14)  C o n s t a n t i u s I I i n the E a s t 337-340  124  (15)  C o n s t a n t i n e I I and Constans 337-338  125  (16)  The R e v o l t o f Constans  128  (17)  The Death of C o n s t a n t i n e I I  136  Notes t o Chapter CHAPTER THREE:  337-340  and H i s Second E x i l e  Two  (  120 122  141  THE JOINT RULE OF CONSTANTIUS I I AND CONSTANS  (1)  C o n s t a n t i u s I I i n the East 340-349  163  (2)  Constans i n the West 340-349  170  (3)  The R e l a t i o n s h i p between C o n s t a n t i u s I I and Constans  181  (4)  The F a t e of the S u r v i v o r s o f the Massacre o f 337  184  (5)  The S t r u g g l e o f A t h a n a s i u s Toleration The Consuls 340-350  188 198  (6)  and the Triumph o f  viii Page (7)  The P r a e t o r i a n P r e f e c t s 340-350.  211  (8)  The Urban P r e f e c t s 340-350  218  (9)  Other O f f i c i a l s 340-350  223  L i b a n i u s and the A n n i v e r s a r y of 348  227  (10)  Notes to Chapter Three CHAPTER FOUR:  230  THE DEATH OF CONSTANS AND THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST MAGNENTIUS  (1)  The R e v o l t of Magnentius  250  (2)  The R e v o l t of V e t r a n i o  261  (3)  The O f f i c i a l s o f Magnentius  264  (4)  P r e p a r a t i o n s and N e g o t i a t i o n s b e f o r e Mursa  270  (5)  The Campaign of 351  279  (6)  The L a s t Months of Magnentius  284  Notes to Chapter Four CHAPTER FIVE:  CONCLUSION  Notes to Chapter F i v e BIBLIOGRAPHY .  293 311 330 331  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S  I should l i k e P r o f e s s o r s J . A. study.  g r a t i t u d e and  indebtedness  P r o f e s s o r Evans shed c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t upon the coinage  study of the age  i n h i s absence, P r o f e s s o r McGregor turned  of P e r i c l e s and  decadent, p e r i o d .  a s s i s t i n g i n t h i s study  and  f o r i n s t r u c t i n g me  I am  from  the the  Dusing  i n the p o l i t i c s  the chaos of the t h i r d c e n t u r y .  were f r e q u e n t l y h e l p f u l , most of a l l Gary B. Ferngren G. 0.  of  J . Dusing and K. A.  My  by  of  colleagues i n  the F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  and David  this  devoted h i m s e l f to t h i s l a t e r , and more  I a l s o thank P r o f e s s o r s W.  the L a t e R e p u b l i c and  set  to  S. Evans and Malcolm F. McGregor, the d i r e c t o r s of  f o u r t h century and,  for  to express my  Columbia  the example he  Smith by h i s p e n e t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s of Roman h i s t o r y .  indebted a l s o to the l a t e P. C. F. G u t h r i e of t h i s u n i v e r s i t y ,  i n s t r u c t e d me suggested  i n Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s and  the t i t l e of t h i s work.  Kent, of the B r i t i s h Museum, who  L a t i n epigraphy  the f i r s t  to a c q u a i n t me,  Roman Empire. aunt, Audrey M.  Finally,  also  I a p p r e c i a t e the a d v i c e of J . P.  C.  provided valuable assistance i n  e v a l u a t i n g the r a r e c o i n s of t h i s p e r i o d , and by P r o f e s s o r G e o f f r e y A r c h b o l d ,  and  who  a l s o the i n c i t e m e n t  of the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , who  given was  then an undergraduate, w i t h the h i s t o r y of  I express  Ginn, without  my  thanks to my  whose kindness  and  parents support  would never have been completed. E. G. ix  W.  and my this  the  great  treatise  DEDICATIO  In Memoriam  P. C. F. G u t h r i e  V i r i D o c t i atque A m i c i s s i m i  x  ABBREVIATIONS  For the most p a r t , a n c i e n t authors according  t o the standard  Lewis and Short.  and t e x t s a r e g i v e n  a b b r e v i a t i o n s found i n L i d d e l l and S c o t t and  References to modern works a r e f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n by  author and s h o r t t i t l e .  Both a n c i e n t and modern works a r e l i s t e d i n  t h e i r complete forms i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y , where d e t a i l s f o r the f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s can be found. abbreviations l i s t e d  Whenever p o s s i b l e , the standard  i n L'Annee Philologique  AAT  A t t i d e l l a Accademia  AE  L 'Ann&e  AlPhO  Annuaive de I'Institut de Philologie Orientates de V,"Univevsite" Libre de  AJP  American  Art.  Pass.  delle  are u t i l i z e d .  Scienze  di  Torino  Epigraphique  Journal  of  et d'Histoire Bruxelles  Philology  Johannes Damascenus, Sancti  Artemii  Passio  BAGB  B u l l e t i n de 1'Association  BSAF  B u l l e t i n de la Socie'te' nationale France  BSAP  B u l l e t i n de la Societe  BSFN  B u l l e t i n de la Socie'te' franqaise  Bude  Les belles lettres: C o l l e c t i o n des universit£s de France publi£e sous te patronage de 1'association Guillaume Bud&  ByzZ  Byzantinische  CAAH  Cahiers  CAH  Cambridge  alsaciens Ancient  Guiltaume  Bud§  des Antiquaires  des Antiquaires de  de  de  Picardie  Numismatique  Zeitschrift d Arch&ologie, 1  History xi  d'Art et  d'Histoire  xii  CIL  Corpus Ins criptionum  Latinarum  CJ  Codex  CUE  Cambridge Mediaeval  Cohen  H. Cohen, Description historique frappees sous I 'empire romain  CPh  Classical  CRAI  Comptes Rendus de I'Acadimie des Inscriptions Lettres  CSCA  California  CSHB  Corpus Scriptorum  CTh  Codex Theodosianus  Degrassi  A. D e g r a s s i , I fasti  EHR  English  FHG  Fragmenta Historicorum  Graecorum  Gibbon  E. Gibbon, The History Roman Empire  of the Decline  IGR  Inscriptiones  Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes  ILS  Inscriptiones  Latinae  JEA  Journal of Egyptian  JHS  Journal of Hellenic  JNG  Jahrbuch fur Numismatik und  JRS  Journal of Roman Studies  LCL  Loeb Classical  LRBC  Late Roman Bronze Coinage  LRE  A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284-602.  MGH-.AA  Monumenta Germaniae Historical  NC  Numismatic  Justinianus History des monnaies  Philology  Studies  in Classical Historiae  Historical  et  Belles-  Antiquity  Byzantinae  consolari  dell'impero  romano  Review  and Fall of the  Selectae Archaeology Studies Geldgeschichte  Library  Chronicle  Auctores  Antiquissimi  xiii  NPNF  Nicene  and Post-Nicene  Fathers  of the C h r i s t i a n  NZ  Numismatische  PBA  Proceedings  of the B r i t i s h Academy  PG  Patrologia  Graeca  PL  Patrologia  Latina  PLRE  A. H. M. Jones, J . R. M a r t i n d a l e ,  Church  Zeitschrift  Prosopography  of the Later de  and J . M o r r i s , The  Roman Empire,  RBN  Revue Beige  RE  A. Pauly et a l . , Real-Encyclop'ddie Altertumswissenschaft  REA  Revue des Etudes  RFIC  R i v i s t a di F i l o l o g i a e d'Istruzione  RIC  Roman Imperial  RhM  Rheinisches  RN  Revue  San  Journal  SNR  Schweizerische  SPFB  Sbornik  Vol. I  Numismatique der  classischen  Anciennes Classica  Coinage  Museum fur P h i l o l o g i e  Numismatique of the Society  Praci  of Ancient  Numismatische  Rundschau  F i l o s o f i c k e Fak  S t e i n - P a l a n q u e E. S t e i n and J.-R. Palanque, Histoire  Teubner  Bibliotheca  ZAnt  Ziva  Antike  Numismatics  Teubneriana  du bas-empire  I  0  CHAPTER ONE  THE  (1)  SONS AS CAESARS  Problem o f t h e I m p e r i a l S u c c e s s i o n  On 22 May 337 C o n s t a n t i n e t h e Great d i e d a t Nicomedia w h i l e making p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t t h e P e r s i a n f o r c e s of Sapor I I .  F o r some twenty years he had been making p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e  s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e event o f h i s sudden demise and i t was now t h a t they would come t o t h e t e s t .  H i s s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem o f e n s u r i n g a  p e a c e f u l t r a n s i t i o n of t h e i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y was based upon h i s own s u c c e s s f u l r i s e to power a f t e r t h e death of h i s f a t h e r C o n s t a n t i u s I. Seeing t h e s t r o n g appeal o f d y n a s t i c l o y a l t y i n h i s own case, C o n s t a n t i n e had determined  t o p l a c e h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e members o f h i s  own f a m i l y , thereby r e j e c t i n g t h e a r t i f i c i a l  system o f D i o c l e t i a n ,  itself  a r e s u l t o f D i o c l e t i a n ' s l a c k o f a son, and t h e f o r c e d m i l i t a r y proclamations of the t h i r d century.  C o n s t a n t i n e d i d succeed i n  e l i m i n a t i n g t h e a c t i v e r o l e o f the army immediately he f a i l e d themselves  to s t i f l e completely the machinations eager  a f t e r h i s death, but  of the o f f i c e r s at court,  to make use o f the army f o r t h e i r own ends.  I n o r d e r to  put the i m p e r i a l s u c c e s s i o n of 337 i n t o i t s c o n t e x t , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y first  t o survey t h e p r a c t i c e s t h a t had e v o l v e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t  three  c e n t u r i e s of t h e Empire and, secondly, to d e s c r i b e t h e changes i n p l a n s for  t h e s u c c e s s i o n , changes d i c t a t e d p a r t l y by p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s 1  2 and  p a r t l y by t h e growth o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y .  T h i s w i l l l e a d t o an  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e problems faced by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n upon t h e death of t h e e l d e r  statesman.  D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h e Empire few methods had been u t i l i z e d i n order  t o a c h i e v e change and c o n t i n u i t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  p r i m a r y weakness was t h a t , a p a r t  from n a t u r a l death, t h e o n l y means o f  s e c u r i n g a change was t h e v i o l e n t one of r e v o l u t i o n . absolutism  The growth o f  rendered i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p r a c t i c a l t h e continued  the r e j e c t e d a u t o c r a t .  The  existence of  Thus t h e r e was no a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e o u t r i g h t  murder o f such as Gaius and Domitian.  There were no s p e c i f i e d r u l e s ,  agreed upon by t h e major segments o f t h e community, f o r e n s u r i n g continuity i n administration, place.  but c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e s achieved  The h e r e d i t a r y p r i n c i p l e ,  the R e p u b l i c , transferred  continued  simply  to be dominant i n t h e P r i n c i p a t e ,  from the p r i v a t e t o t h e p u b l i c sphere.  chosen d e s p i t e h i s enforced the intended  so p o w e r f u l i n the g r e a t  successor,  u s u a l l y t h e c l o s e s t male r e l a t i o n ,  f o r h i s future rule.  p r i n c i p l e of heredity,  d e t e r m i n i n g the e x e c u t i v e  being Claudius  to think that i t played  t o be granted  public acclaim i n  followed  suit.  success o n l y when i t s members a c t e d  enjoy  as one, a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , when i t  succeeded i n r a l l y i n g p u b l i c support behind B a l b i n u s Under normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s , however, t h e s e n a t o r s post;  The  a primary part i n  branch i n government, but i t c o u l d  contenders f o r t h e e x e c u t i v e  was  I n t h i s way Augustus r e i n f o r c e d t h e  and most o f h i s s u c c e s s o r s  Senate of Rome p r e f e r r e d  f a m i l i e s of  o b s c u r i t y , but t h e common p r a c t i c e was f o r  a t l e a s t some o f the c h i e f powers and, above a l l , preparation  a primary  and Pupienus.  themselves were l e a d i n g  t h i s s i t u a t i o n merely r e f l e c t e d t h e  3 c o m p e t i t i o n among the g r e a t f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the l a t e Republic."''  The  Assembly of Rome p l a y e d no r o l e d u r i n g the i m p e r i a l p e r i o d . In an empire t h a t owed both i t s b e g i n n i n g  and  e x i s t e n c e to m i l i t a r y might, t h e army can be expected fundamental r o l e , and  so i t d i d .  i t s continued  to have p l a y e d a  M i l i t a r y d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was  the main  reason f o r Nero's s u i c i d e ; the Senate condemned him o n l y a f t e r h e a r i n g of Galba's r e v o l t .  Whenever t h e r e was  member of a dynasty, commander should Vdspasian  had,  he had  m i l i t a r y anarchy was  emerge supreme.  he was  paternal affection,  a r e v o l t a g a i n s t the l a s t s u r v i v i n g bound to ensue u n t i l  one  I f he had o f f s p r i n g of h i s own,  bound by p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i f not  to groom them f o r the s u c c e s s i o n .  as by  If, like  Hadrian,  no male h e i r s , he c o u l d r e s o r t to the a d o p t i o n of a f a v o u r i t e i n  2 o r d e r to ensure c o n t i n u i t y .  The army showed a s t r o n g tendency to  favour  the d y n a s t i c system, s u p p o r t i n g E l a g a b a l u s a f t e r the murder of C a r a c a l l a and  Severus Alexander i n t u r n a f t e r the sudden demise of i t s former  favourite.  C r i s e s were bound to a r i s e whenever d y n a s t i e s ended,  e s p e c i a l l y when many o u t s t a n d i n g  c a n d i d a t e s were a v a i l a b l e and  on the f r o n t i e r s made a r a p i d c h o i c e d e s i r a b l e . the murder o f Alexander,  and  i n the ensuing  T h i s was  pressure  the case  y e a r s s e v e r a l emperors, such  as P h i l i p the Arab, attempted to p r o v i d e a p e a c e f u l s u c c e s s i o n by nomination of t h e i r  after  the  sons to the post of Caesar, but d i d so i n v a i n  because of the weakness of t h e i r own slaughtered with the f a t h e r . power f o r an extended p e r i o d .  p o s i t i o n ; the son was  D i o c l e t i a n was  the f i r s t  invariably  to c o n s o l i d a t e h i s  He d i d t h i s by a n t i c i p a t i n g the a c t i o n of  the army, a p p o i n t i n g a c o l l e a g u e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  When t h i s  d i a r c h y proved to be i n c a p a b l e of managing a l l the concerns,  i t was  4  e n l a r g e d to the s t a t u s of a t e t r a r c h y by t h e a d d i t i o n of two D i o c l e t i a n had no son and was a junior partner. persuaded  compelled  to choose o u t s i d e h i s f a m i l y f o r  H i s f e l l o w Augustus, Maximian, had a son but  to bypass him on the ground of h i s i n s u f f i c i e n t  o u t s i d e r s , C o n s t a n t i u s I and G a l e r i u s , were adopted to r e p u d i a t e h i s own We  spouse and  and  to marry the daughter  no  son and had  excluded because of h i s youth;  to choose another.  was  years.  Two  each was  forced  of h i s Augustus.  can be c e r t a i n t h a t D i o c l e t i a n a c t e d as he d i d as a r e s u l t  n e c e s s i t y ; he had  Caesars.  of  Maximian's son  was  the time had not yet a r r i v e d when 3  c o n d i t i o n s were so s e t t l e d t h a t s t r i p l i n g s c o u l d succeed  to the  The t e t r a r c h y worked w e l l but D i o c l e t i a n determined h i s c o l l e a g u e should a b d i c a t e and T h i s b e i n g the case, new  throne.  t h a t he  e n t r u s t t h e i r powers to younger  Caesars had  to be chosen.  I f the  and  men.  standard  e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e has been f o l l o w e d , Maximian's son Maxentius and C o n s t a n t i u s l ' s son C o n s t a n t i n e would have been chosen.  G a l e r i u s had  son Candidianus who  Constantine  were now  was  still  a mere boy.  Maxentius and  o l d enough but were r e j e c t e d as l a c k i n g i n s u b s e r v i e n c e to  Galerius.  The h e r e d i t a r y method was  abandoned once a g a i n and  r e s o r t e d to Maximin D a i a , a nephew of G a l e r i u s , and l o y a l s u p p o r t e r s of the e a s t e r n r u l e r s . house o f c a r d s i n r u i n s . G a l e r i u s as A u g u s t i and  The  second  Severus  d i e d suddenly a t York i n 306,  Diocletian  to Severus,  both  D i o c l e t i a n l i v e d to see h i s  t e t r a r c h y (with C o n s t a n t i u s I and  and Maximin Daia as Caesars) was  seen to v i o l a t e the b a s i c i n s t i n c t s of t h e army.  Severus  a  When C o n s t a n t i u s I  h i s army t o t a l l y n e g l e c t e d the  and h a i l e d as Augustus C o n s t a n t i u s l ' s own  soon  Caesar  son C o n s t a n t i n e .  Thus e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r C o n s t a n t i n e beheld the s t r e n g t h of d y n a s t i c  5 l o y a l t y i n the army; i t was p l a n s f o r the s u c c e s s i o n . later  t h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t was The  to shape h i s  s u c c e s s f u l r e v o l t of Maxentius a t Rome  i n the same year served to c o n f i r m t h i s l o y a l t y .  passed,  own  d u r i n g which time the members of the f i r s t and  Ten  years  second  t e t r a r c h i e s succumbed to d i s e a s e , o l d age, murder, and c i v i l war o n l y C o n s t a n t i n e and L i c i n i u s , a nominee of G a l e r i u s , were l e f t Augusti.  D i o c l e t i a n had d i e d i n r e t i r e m e n t .  u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts  C o n s t a n t i n e , was  to the u l t i m a t e n e c e s s i t y .  three  G a l e r i u s had  ordered by the l a t t e r  by n a t u r a l causes and,  to y i e l d  d i e d of d i s e a s e , h a v i n g  e n t r u s t e d h i s r e a l m to h i s f r i e n d L i c i n i u s .  Maxentius l o s t h i s e l d e r  when he h i m s e l f was  killed  the M i l v i a n B r i d g e , h i s w i f e and younger son were put to death C o n s t a n t i n e , two  as  to r e g a i n the i m p e r i a l power at the expense of h i s  son or of h i s son-in-law  son Romulus i n 309  Maximian, a f t e r  until  at  by  of the few v i c t i m s i n a purge more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s moderation  i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s than of h i s s u s p i c i o n and 4  b r u t a l i t y at a l a t e r time. b a t t l e by L i c i n i u s ,  fled  Maximin D a i a , d e f e a t e d on the f i e l d  to T a r s u s , where he f e l l  ill  a l s o r e s p e c t i n g the s t r e n g t h of d y n a s t i c l o y a l t y , next  and d i e d .  e l i m i n a t e d the f a m i l y of Maxentius,  Licinius,  i n d u l g e d i n the  g r e a t e s t i m p e r i a l b l o o d b a t h s i n c e the dawn of the P r i n c i p a t e . C o n s t a n t i n e had  of  so now  J u s t as  Licinius,  having gained c o n t r o l o f the s u r v i v o r s i n the E a s t , s e t out t o d e s t r o y all  p o s s i b l e c l a i m a n t s to the army's l o y a l t y .  r e l a t e d to Maximin D a i a or who  had  A l l who  were i n any  taken r e f u g e at h i s c o u r t were  endangered.  D a i a ' s w i f e , h i s e i g h t - y e a r o l d son, and h i s seven-year  daughter  had been b e t r o t h e d to G a l e r i u s ' son Candidianus,  who  put t o death.  way  old  were a l l  D i o c l e t i a n ' s w i f e P r i s c a , G a l e r i u s ' w i f e V a l e r i a and  son  6  C a n d i d i a n u s , and  Severus'  son S e v e r i a n u s had a l l f l e d to D a i a ' s c o u r t ,  e i t h e r a n t i c i p a t i n g t h a t he would emerge the u l t i m a t e v i c t o r o r f e a r i n g the s u s p i c i o u s n a t u r e of L i c i n i u s even b e f o r e the c o n t e s t . and  Severianus were put t o death immediately.  V a l e r i a and  Candidianus Prisca  managed to escape f o r f i f t e e n months but were found h i d i n g i n T h e s s a l o n i c a and put to death; i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t they were attempting to f l e e t o the c o u r t o f C o n s t a n t i n e , who enmity w i t h L i c i n i u s .  In t h i s way  was  i n c r e a s i n g l y at  L i c i n i u s eliminated a l l possible  contenders f o r h i s power i n the East."*  S e v e r a l of the c h i e f  ministers  of D a i a , i n c l u d i n g the f i n a n c i a l p r e f e c t P e u c e t i u s and  the former  p r e f e c t of Egypt, C u l c i a n u s , were a l s o put to d e a t h . ^  In t h i s  L i c i n i u s s e t a precedent  f o r the mass s l a u g h t e r t h a t was  way  to f o l l o w the  death o f C o n s t a n t i n e , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t he butchered o u t s i d e h i s own their  those  f a m i l y on the ground t h a t they had d y n a s t i c c l a i m s o f  own. The e l i m i n a t i o n of Maxentius and D a i a l e f t  Constantine i n  p o s s e s s i o n o f I t a l y , A f r i c a , R a e t i a , and the r e s t of the West, w h i l e L i c i n i u s c o n t r o l l e d Pannonia, Moesia, The two  Thrace, and the r e s t of the E a s t .  i m p e r i a l f a m i l i e s were u n i t e d by the marriage of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s  s i s t e r C o n s t a n t i a w i t h L i c i n i u s , an event c e l e b r a t e d d u r i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e a t M i l a n i n January 313.^ e x i g e n c i e s of war,  was  T h i s u n i t y , d i c t a t e d by the  f a r weaker than the bond between D i o c l e t i a n  and  Maximian had been; Maximian and the Caesars had owed t h e i r i m p e r i a l  rank  to D i o c l e t i a n a l o n e , but C o n s t a n t i n e owed h i s p o s i t i o n t o h i s f a t h e r the army, w h i l e L i c i n i u s d e r i v e d h i s from G a l e r i u s .  An attempt was  and made  to c r e a t e a b u f f e r zone of s o r t s by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a supposedly  7 n e u t r a l Caesar  i n charge o f I t a l y and I l l y r i c u m .  The p o t e n t i a l  Caesar,  Bassianus, panicked when t h e two A u g u s t i were unable to agree on t h e t e r r i t o r y t h a t each would s u r r e n d e r and, when he t r i e d g  to r e v o l t a g a i n s t  C o n s t a n t i n e , he was a r r e s t e d and executed.  Thus t h e attempt  a modus Vivendi  i n open w a r f a r e .  between t h e A u g u s t i r e s u l t e d  to s e c u r e  C o n s t a n t i n e was a t f i r s t v i c t o r i o u s but a s t a l e m a t e a r o s e a t t h e Campus M a r d i e n s i s i n Thrace,  c o m p e l l i n g b o t h to r e a c h an accommodation.  C o n s t a n t i n e was allowed t o keep h i s i l l - g o t t e n g a i n s , Pannonia and Moesia,  w h i l e L i c i n i u s r e t a i n e d Thrace and t h e r e s t o f t h e E a s t . (2)  9  C r i s p u s , L i c i n i u s I I , and  C o n s t a n t i n e I I Made Caesars Once peace had been r e s t o r e d , C o n s t a n t i n e and L i c i n i u s were a b l e to g i v e a t t e n t i o n to t h e problem o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n . attempt  There was no  t o r e s o r t t o D i o c l e t i a n ' s system o f a t e t r a r c h y ; t h a t had been a  r e s u l t o f D i o c l e t i a n ' s l a c k o f a male h e i r and o f t h e u n s e t t l e d c o n d i t i o n s a t the time. was t h e r e an attempt  In the p r e s e n t case both A u g u s t i had sons.  Nor  t o r e s o r t to t h e system o f a t r i a r c h y , which had  a l r e a d y proved a b o r t i v e i n t h e case o f Bassianus.  Instead,  Constantine  and L i c i n i u s r e s o r t e d to the p u r e l y d y n a s t i c p r a c t i c e o f an e a r l i e r p e r i o d , t h e main d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t t h e i r sons were s t i l l  children,  q u i t e i n c a p a b l e o f p l a y i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a t least  several years.  The e x p e c t a t i o n was t h a t t h e i r sons would  merely as h e i r s apparent  and would n o t be r e q u i r e d t o render  s e r v i c e , as had been t h e case f o r D i o c l e t i a n ' s Caesars. at S e r d i c a , near  serve  active  On 1 March 317  t h e boundary o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e A u g u s t i ,  8 C o n s t a n t i n e decreed  i n the absence of L i c i n i u s t h a t h i s own  sons,  F l a v i u s J u l i u s C r i s p u s and F l a v i u s C l a u d i u s C o n s t a n t i n u s , and son, V a l e r i u s L i c i n i a n u s L i c i n i u s ,  Licinius'  should be g i v e n the rank of  Caesar."^  S i n c e the background and f a t e of t h e s e Caesars were to have some b e a r i n g on the p e r i o d subsequent to C o n s t a n t i n e ' s death, a b r i e f account now  be g i v e n of each of them. C r i s p u s was  by f a r the e l d e s t of the t h r e e Caesars.  know the p r e c i s e date o f h i s b i r t h but, own  will  d u r i n g 322,"*"^ we  p r o b a b l y i n 303.  s i n c e he had  can be c e r t a i n t h a t he was  He was  We  do  not  an o f f s p r i n g of h i s  born no l a t e r than  t h e son of M i n e r v i n a , r e f e r r e d  305,  to unanimously 12  as a concubine  by those sources t h a t d e i g n to mention her a t a l l .  i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t she d i e d i n c h i l d b i r t h , her  It  s i n c e no mention i s made of  thereafter.  When C o n s t a n t i n e m a r r i e d F a u s t a on 31 March 307 f o r 13 what were m a n i f e s t l y p o l i t i c a l ends, C r i s p u s became her s t e p - s o n . Fausta h e r s e l f was  about twenty y e a r s of age a t the time of her  14 marriage. S i n c e the c h i l d h o o d o f C o n s t a n t i n e I I i s of g r e a t e r  importance  f o r t h i s study, more emphasis must be g i v e n to the problems s u r r o u n d i n g his early l i f e .  Otto  Seeck, whose o p i n i o n has been t r e a t e d as g o s p e l  even r e c e n t l y by the e d i t o r s of the PLRE, was C o n s t a n t i n e I I was  of the o p i n i o n t h a t  not a son of F a u s t a and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , he was  b a s t a r d o f f s p r i n g of Constantine."'""'  a  I f t r u e , t h i s o p i n i o n would do much  to e x p l a i n the l a t e r enmity between C o n s t a n t i n e I I and h i s younger brothers.  However, i t i s my  son of F a u s t a and  t h a t J.-R.  o p i n i o n t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e I I was  the e l d e s t  Palanque and P. C. F. G u t h r i e adduce good 16 evidence f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . Seeck's o p i n i o n was based p r i m a r i l y on  9 the e v i d e n c e g i v e n by Zosimus and  the Epitome a t t r i b u t e d  to V i c t o r .  Zosimus i n h i s h a t r e d f o r C o n s t a n t i n e d e c l a r e s t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e I I , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s younger b r o t h e r s C o n s t a n t i u s I I and b o r n O U K ai\b $aOaxris Tns *»  <  xou  'EpjcouMou M a ^ i y i a v o u  '  '  euyctTpos,  were  aAA'  17  aAAns, n y o i x e f a s eTTayayaiv y£y'ijuv a i r e i c T e i v e v . manifestly false,  Constans,  T h i s statement  is  s i n c e Zosimus c o n f u s e s F a u s t a w i t h M i n e r v i n a ;  also,  when Zosimus d e s c r i b e s the appointment o f t h e Caesars he i s c a r e f u l to p o i n t out C r i s p u s ' parentage 18 i n e I I ' s was  similar;  but makes no  i n effect,  h i s e v i d e n c e can be excluded. possibility  e f f o r t to show t h a t  Constant-  then, Zosimus c o n t r a d i c t s h i m s e l f and  There  i s , o f c o u r s e , the remote  t h a t a l l C o n s t a n t i n e ' s o f f s p r i n g born a f t e r h i s m a r r i a g e  F a u s t a were n o t h e r s but r a t h e r the p r o d u c t s o f a concubine; w e l l have been the case had F a u s t a been i n f e r t i l e .  Fausta's  to  t h i s could later  a c t i o n i n p r o t e c t i n g her t h r e e s o n s from her s t e p - s o n C r i s p u s e x c l u d e s this possibility.  B e s i d e s , what was  c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t F a u s t a was adequate y e a r s and sufficient  important was  be  the mother, t h a t i s , t h a t she s h o u l d be o f  t h a t the c h i l d r e n concerned  intervals.  t h a t i t should  Born i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y  should be b o r n a t  287,  F a u s t a was  quite old  enough to have c h i l d r e n as many as t h i r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e the appointment o f the C a e s a r s .  What t r o u b l e d Seeck was  o f C o n s t a n t i n e I I and was  Constantius I I .  born on 7 August 317,  the i n t e r v a l between the b i r t h s  I t i s c e r t a i n that Constantius I I  o n l y some f i v e months a f t e r  the appointment o f  the t h r e e Caesars."*"^ Zosimus s t a t e s t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e I I was born ou irpb * 20 iroAAwv nyepwv the appointment of the C a e s a r s and the Epitome t h a t he 21 was  born iisdem diebus,  t h a t i s , t h a t he was  born, i n F e b r u a r y o f  I f t h i s were t h e c a s e he c o u l d not be a son of F a u s t a .  Seeck a l s o  317.  10 adopted  Mommsen's r e a d i n g of JLS  710,  thereby a c c e p t i n g the  as one d e d i c a t e d to Fausta and as r e f e r r i n g  inscription  to her as the noverea of 22  C r i s p u s , C o n s t a n t i n e I I , and C o n s t a n t i u s I I . i n s c r i p t i o n cannot  As G u t h r i e r e v e a l s ,  this  be used as a r e l i a b l e guide s i n c e much of i t has been  t h o r o u g h l y erased; we cannot even be c e r t a i n t h a t the i n s c r i p t i o n was 23 d e d i c a t e d to F a u s t a . The remaining i n s c r i p t i o n s and the c o i n s g i v e no cause t o doubt the l e g i t i m a c y of C o n s t a n t i n e I I o r of e i t h e r of h i s 24 younger b r o t h e r s ,  and J u l i a n i s c a r e f u l t o emphasize t h a t a l l t h r e e 25 were sons of F a u s t a . There i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e I I was  a l e g i t i m a t e son o f F a u s t a , and  t h a t i s the statement  o f the  26 Epitome t h a t C o n s t a n t i u s I I d i e d i n h i s f o r t y - f o u r t h y e a r . o t h e r s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g Ammianus and his  f o r t y - f i f t h year.  Epitome and  E u t r o p i u s , agree t h a t he d i e d i n  From t h i s i t appears  Zosimus, who  A l l the  t h a t the author of the  seems to have f o l l o w e d the same t r a d i t i o n f o r  t h i s p e r i o d , were under the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t C o n s t a n t i u s I I was  born i n  27 318;  t h i s b e i n g the case, they would have seen no c o n f l i c t between the  b i r t h - d a t e s o f the two  Caesars.  I f they were mistaken  about the b i r t h -  date of C o n s t a n t i u s I I , the chances a r e t h a t t h i s l e d them to t h a t of C o n s t a n t i n e I I as w e l l .  Though they may  have been  r e g a r d i n g the d a t e s , t h i s does not mean t h a t they e r r e d i n A r e l a t e t o be the b i r t h p l a c e of C o n s t a n t i n e I I , and  to h i s dies natalis. w h i t h e r he had  C o n s t a n t i n e was  gone from Vienna;  mistaken stating  therein l i e s a  a t A r e l a t e on 13 August  guide 28  316,  t h e r e a f t e r he went to S e r d i c a and  Sirmium.  In those t r o u b l e d times o f c i v i l war  frontiers  i t was  most unusual  confuse  and  i n c u r s i o n s on  the  f o r C o n s t a n t i n e to j o u r n e y t o the more  p e a c e f u l a r e a s o f the Empire except f o r a s e t purpose;  i n t h i s case i t  11 i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he j o u r n e y e d to A r e l a t e i n o r d e r to behold h i s newborn son; t h i s l e a d s us to b e l i e v e t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e I I was born i n A r e l a t e i n J u l y o r e a r l y August o f 316, one year e a r l i e r than h i s younger b r o t h e r . 29 Here l i e s f u r t h e r evidence o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e s t a t u s o f C o n s t a n t i n e I I . But i f , by some chance, 317, to  C o n s t a n t i n e I I was born as l a t e as F e b r u a r y o f  C o n s t a n t i n e was q u i t e capable o f u t i l i z i n g h i s b u r e a u c r a t i c machine  c o n v i n c e t h e populace o f h i s son's l e g i t i m a c y , f o r he c o u l d r e c a l l  t h a t t e l l i n g q u o t a t i o n handed down by S u e t o n i u s : < xplynva i r a ix< ola. 3  to i s  0  The o r i g i n s of L i c i n i u s I I remain  euxuxouo"  1  t o be d i s c u s s e d .  <^a  They would  not m e r i t a t t e n t i o n were i t n o t f o r h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o C o n s t a n t i n e and his  common f a t e w i t h C r i s p u s .  related to  to C o n s t a n t i n e .  The q u e s t i o n i s whether he was d i r e c t l y  The l i t e r a r y  sources a r e unanimous i n r e f e r r i n g  him as t h e son o f C o n s t a n t i a by L i c i n i u s .  31  The c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he  was not a son o f C o n s t a n t i a but r a t h e r t h e b a s t a r d o f f s p r i n g o f a u n i o n between L i c i n i u s and a slave-woman a r o s e from two e n t r i e s i n t h e 32 Theodosian (so  Code,  dated to 336, which s t a t e t h a t t h e son o f L i c i n i a n u s  c a l l e d out o f C o n s t a n t i n e ' s contempt f o r h i s former p a r t n e r ) , qui  .33 per  resoriptum  sane[tissi]mum  dignitatis  oulmen asoendit,  should be  d e p r i v e d o f a l l h i s p r o p e r t y on t h e ground t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y o f a l l those w i t h o u t l i v i n g  f a t h e r , consanguineous  o f f s p r i n g should be c o n f i s c a t e d to t h e f i s c . t h a t t h e son o f L i c i n i a n u s  and reduced escaped,  brother or s i s t e r , or lawful The f i r s t  also  decreed  ( s i c ) s h o u l d be scourged, bound w i t h 34  to h i s o r i g i n a l b i r t h - s t a t u s .  I t appears  f o r l e s s than t h r e e months l a t e r a second  p o s t e d a t Carthage, d e c l a r e d as f o l l o w s :  fetters,  t h a t t h i s son  edict, l i k e the f i r s t  L i c i n i a n i autem f i l i u s , q u i f u g i e n s comprehensus e s t , conpe[dibus v i n c ] t u s ad g y n a e c e i C a r t h a g i n i s m i n i s t e r i u m deputetur. These two was  e n t r i e s i n the code gave r i s e to the t h e o r y t h a t L i c i n i u s  not the l e g i t i m a t e son o f C o n s t a n t i a and  i n o b s c u r i t y , u n t i l 336. to  t h a t he s u r v i v e d , a l b e i t  However, dignitatis  culmen more l i k e l y  s e n a t o r i a l rank than to the post of Caesar.  that L i c i n i u s  I I , the Caesar,  Other  sources  refers  state  s u r v i v e d the death of h i s f a t h e r but  murdered a l o n g w i t h C r i s p u s i n 326.  36  There i s an i n s c r i p t i o n  was  (on a  m i l e s t o n e from C o n s t a n t i n e ' s t e r r i t o r y i n V i e n n e n s i s ) r e f e r r i n g  L i c i n i u s I I as d. n. Constantini  II  to  Maximi et Perpetui Aug. sovoves [sic]  37 filio',  t h i s does not r e f e r  to the same son mentioned i n the code but  r a t h e r to the one r e c o r d e d by the l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s . solved e a s i l y  i f we  p o s t u l a t e two  mentioned i n the code; he was  sons.  The  The problem can  e l d e r would be t h e  be  one  p r o b a b l y born b e f o r e L i c i n i u s ' b e t r o t h a l 38  to C o n s t a n t i a i n the w i n t e r of 311/312; o f f e n d i n g C o n s t a n t i n e a t such a c r i t i c a l L i c i n i u s d i d not i n s i s t on r a i s i n g  p o s s i b l y because of f e a r of time  (i.e.,  1 March  317),  t h i s son to the C a e s a r s h i p but  left  him i n r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y ; a f t e r L i c i n i u s ' death, C o n s t a n t i n e appears have kept him as a v i r t u a l p r i s o n e r i n A f r i c a u n t i l , w i t h h i s slipping  late in l i f e ,  C o n s t a n t i n e sentenced  e s t a b l i s h m e n t at Carthage, to the people.  union with L i c i n i u s ;  faculties  him t o the weaving-  where he c o u l d be worked to death unbeknown  The younger son, L i c i n i u s since t h e i r marriage  I I , was  b o r n of C o n s t a n t i a ' s  took p l a c e a t M i l a n i n  39 January of  313,  t h a t year.  Licinius  I I c o u l d have been born as e a r l y as the autumn  Zosimus and  the Epitome s t a t e t h a t he was  months of age when appointed Caesar,  to  about twenty  thereby p l a c i n g h i s b i r t h about  J u l y 315.  40  S i n c e t h e s e sources e r r e d i n t h e b i r t h - d a t e of  C o n s t a n t i n e I I , they may w e l l have done so f o r L i c i n i u s I I as w e l l .  We  can be c e r t a i n t h a t L i c i n i u s I I was b o r n o f C o n s t a n t i a a t some time between October 313 and J u l y 315.  41  The i n s c r i p t i o n s , l i s t i n g  him  42 between C r i s p u s and C o n s t a n t i n e I I ,  imply t h a t he was o l d e r than  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s younger son. A l t h o u g h C o n s t a n t i n e ' s sons were not made Caesars  until  1 March 317, t h e r e appears to have been p e r s u a s i o n a p p l i e d to C o n s t a n t i n e to grant C r i s p u s a r o l e i n the government a t an e a r l i e r period.  In t h e p a n e g y r i c d e l i v e r e d t o C o n s t a n t i n e a t T r i e r  i n the  autumn of 313, the o r a t o r , w h i l e c o n g r a t u l a t i n g C o n s t a n t i n e f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f Maxentius, n e v e r t h e l e s s i n a r e f e r e n c e both  flattering  and h o r t a t i v e concludes by s a y i n g t h a t the emperor c o u l d make h i m s e l f greater s t i l l  by e n l a r g i n g h i s progeny and g i v i n g them a share i n the  rule: Quamvis enim, imperator i n v i c t e , iam d i v i n a suboles t u a ad r e i p u b l i c a e v o t a s u c c e s s e r i t e t adhuc s p e r e t u r f u t u r a numerosior, i l i a tamen e r i t v e r e beata p o s t e r i t a s u t , cum l i b e r o s tuos g u b e r n a c u l i s o r b i s admoveris, t u s i s omnium maximus i m p e r a t o r . ^ H e r e i n t h e o r a t o r a n t i c i p a t e s F a u s t a ' s c h i l d r e n ; by t h i s time she was q u i t e c a p a b l e of motherhood.  I n 317, however, o n l y C r i s p u s was o l d  enough to p l a y a n y t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n government. (3)  The T r a i n i n g o f the New  C o n s t a n t i n e turned to L a c t a n t i u s , now for  C r i s p u s , and sent h i s e l d e s t  Caesars i n o l d age, f o r a t u t o r  son to Gaul to be i n s t r u c t e d  i n Latin  45 studies.  44  C o n s t a n t i n e seems to have spent most o f h i s time i n  14 I l l y r l c u m , p a r t l y to secure the f r o n t i e r on L i c i n i u s .  t h e r e and p a r t l y t o keep an eye  C r i s p u s p r o b a b l y took no s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n t i l t h e year 320, when i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e s on t h e Rhine caused C o n s t a n t i n e to a p p o i n t a s e p a r a t e p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t as an 46 adviser f o r h i s eldest  son.  On 1 March 321 N a z a r i u s d e l i v e r e d h i s  p a n e g y r i c i n honour o f C o n s t a n t i n e and h i s sons, c e l e b r a t i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e quinquermdlia  o f the Caesars.  The o r a t i o n was  d e l i v e r e d a t Rome i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f C o n s t a n t i n e ' s C a e s a r s b u t 47 C o n s t a n t i n e h i m s e l f was absent.  T h i s p a n e g y r i c , vague and r h e t o r i c a l  though i t may be, i s by f a r the main s o u r c e f o r C r i s p u s ' e a r l y c a r e e r . Nazarius f i r s t  a p o l o g i z e s f o r the r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e F r a n k i s h  i n c u r s i o n s by a l l e g i n g t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e had allowed a few o f them to s u r v i v e i n o r d e r t h a t t h a t n a t i o n might f u r n i s h e x p e r i e n c e f o r C r i s p u s 48 and grant him t h e f i r s t - f r u i t s o f a g l o r i u s v i c t o r y . Crispus i s complimented f u r t h e r by b e i n g c a l l e d t h e g r e a t e s t o f Caesars, f o r h i s b r a v e r y was c a p a b l e o f g r e a t accomplishments i n s p i t e of h i s  pueviles  49 annos.  N a z a r i u s p o r t r a y s C r i s p u s as e n j o y i n g t h e a d m i r i n g g l a n c e s o f  a l l h i s brothers.  The campaign i t s e l f  took p l a c e d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s  w i n t e r and i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d : Cruda adhuc hieme i t e r g e l u i n t r a c t a b i l e , immensum s p a t i o , n i v i b u s infestum i n c r e d i b i l i c e l e r i t a t e c o n f e c i t , ut i n t e l l i g a m u s [sic] a l a c r i t a t i e i u s n i h i l asperum q u i ipsam quam a s u i s petebat tam l a b o r i o s a m i n s t i t u e r i t voluntatem.^ C r i s p u s ' accomplishments i n t h e p r e v i o u s w i n t e r made N a z a r i u s ' t a s k much easier.  Thanks to t h e p a n e g y r i c , C r i s p u s ' fame would be spread and h i s  p o s i t i o n as C o n s t a n t i n e ' s h e i r would be enhanced.  N a z a r i u s found t h e  15 case of the c h i l d C o n s t a n t i n e I I much more d i f f i c u l t .  There was  little  to do but to a s s o c i a t e him w i t h the g l o r y o f h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r : A u d i v i t haec f r a t e r i n t e n t u s et p u e r i l e m animum spes l a e t a et blanda gaudia t i t i l l a r u n t , cumque m i r a r e t u r f r a t r e m , etiam s i b i f a v i t quod ex a n n i s e i u s quam proximus t a n t a e g l o r i a e esset agnovit.,^ Towards the end of h i s p a n e g y r i c , N a z a r i u s f e l t o b l i g e d to c r e d i t younger Caesar w i t h at l e a s t  some independent  the  accomplishment; i n so  doing he r e s o r t e d to f l a t t e r y even more f a r - f e t c h e d than t h a t of Crispus: Te v e r o , C o n s t a n t i n e Caesar, incrementum maximum b o n i p u b l i c i , quibus v o t i s a m p l e c t i t u r Romana f e l i c i t a s , quae de t e tantum e x s p e c t a t quantum nomine p o l l i c e r i s ! Et l i c e t a e t a s adhuc avocet ab i m i t a t i o n e v i r t u t i s paternae, iam tamen ad p i e t a t e m e i u s n a t u r a d e d u c i t : iam maturato s t u d i o l i t t e r i s h a b i l i s , iam f e l i x d e x t e r a f r u c t u o s a s u b s c r i p t i o n e laetatur. Delegat multa i n d u l g e n t i s s i m u s parens et quae per t e c o n c e d i t r e f e r r i ad g r a t i a m tuam mavult.,.^  54 G a l l e t i e r ' s comment may N a z a r i u s , however, was h i s c o n s u l s h i p and It  suffice:  "La v e r i t e en s o u f f r e un  quite correct  peu."  i n p r a i s i n g the younger Caesar  the s u c c e s s f u l b e g i n n i n g of h i s  i s i n t h i s p a n e g y r i c t h a t we  f i n d the f i r s t  for  quinquennalia.^ contemporary  mention of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s younger sons, F l a v i u s J u l i u s C o n s t a n t i u s  and  56 F l a v i u s J u l i u s Constans.  The  former was  younger than C o n s t a n t i n e I I ; the l a t t e r was would not have been p o l i t i c  a t the time a t l e a s t a year but a few months o l d .  f o r N a z a r i u s to omit  It  them, as they were sons  of C o n s t a n t i n e and F a u s t a , y e t i t would not have been d e s i r a b l e f o r him to g i v e them any prominence, s i n c e C o n s t a n t i n e had not yet chosen to sc l io tt uh ae t i othem n s : w i t h i m p e r i a l rank.  N a z a r i u s was  a master i n such  delicate  Tantorum Roma compos bonorum, quae quidem e i sunt cum t o t o orbe communia, h a u r i t i n s u p e r i n g e n t i s s p e i fructum quam praepositam s i b i ex C a e s a r i b u s n o b i l i s s i m i s habet eorumque fratribus. Quorum iam nomina i p s a veneramur, e t s i v o t a nostra interim p r o f e r u n t u r . ^ N a z a r i u s was to  his  c a p a b l e of l o o k i n g f u r t h e r ahead, from C o n s t a n t i n e ' s  sons  grandsons:  Tuos, C o n s t a n t i n e maxime, tuos l i b e r o s ac deinceps nepotes tecum [Roma] o p t a t ut tanto e p l u r i b u s p e t a n t u r quanto maiora noscuntur. It  i s l i k e l y t h a t a t t h i s time C o n s t a n t i n e was  marriage of  of h i s e l d e s t  h i s dynasty.  son to Helena  I f the marriage  d u r i n g the quinquermalia,  we  i n o r d e r to ensure  the  the continuity  had been c e l e b r a t e d j u s t b e f o r e o r  can suspect t h a t N a z a r i u s would have g i v e n  a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of i t . We taken p l a c e by e a r l y i n 322,  contemplating  can be sure t h a t the marriage  f o r on October  30 of t h a t year  had  Constantine  c e l e b r a t e d the b i r t h of an o f f s p r i n g t o C r i s p u s and h i s w i f e Helena  by  59 g r a n t i n g pardon t o a l l except  s o r c e r e r s , homicides,  Thus i t came about t h a t C r i s p u s was accomplishments and p u b l i c a c c l a i m . a u t h o r i t y was  d e l e g a t e d to him,  remains t h a t he had  least  f a r ahead of h i s b r o t h e r s i n We  cannot  be c e r t a i n how  but t h i s i s o f l i t t l e moment.  much The  fact  e x p e r i e n c e d a c t i v e s e r v i c e and was f o l l o w i n g  closely i n his father's footsteps. at  and a d u l t e r e r s .  T h i s was  only natural,  s i n c e he  was  t e n years o l d e r than h i s b r o t h e r s . Almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h N a z a r i u s ' p a n e g y r i c , c o i n s were  s t r u c k commemorating the second  c o n s u l s h i p of C r i s p u s and  Constantine  60 II; t h i s consulship i t s e l f c o i n c i d e d with t h e i r quinquennal'ia. However, the c o i n a g e p a i d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to C o n s t a n t i n e I I  i n t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e death of t h e e l d e r b r o t h e r .  Coins  i s s u e d a t t h i s p e r i o d a l s o p a i d t r i b u t e t o C r i s p u s ' v i c t o r i e s over t h e Franks and t h e A l a m a n n i . ^  C r i s p u s appears  to have spent most o f t h e  succeeding y e a r s i n Gaul, p o s s i b l y r e t u r n i n g b r i e f l y t o Rome f o r t h e b i r t h o f h i s c h i l d i n t h e autumn o f 322 and then j o u r n e y i n g back to h i s headquarters  at T r i e r .  62  Both C r i s p u s and C o n s t a n t i n e I I shared  i n the  63 g l o r y o f t h e i r f a t h e r ' s Sarmatian  v i c t o r y i n 322.  What i s s u r p r i s i n g  i s t h a t t h e r e i s no s u r v i v i n g r e f e r e n c e t o commemorate t h e marriage o f C r i s p u s and Helena e n t r y i n t h e Code. Eetena  or t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r c h i l d a p a r t from t h e b r i e f Bruun d e n i e s t h a t any o f t h e c o i n s w i t h t h e legend  N. F. c a n be r e f e r r e d to C r i s p u s ' w i f e on t h e ground t h a t they  date t o t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e t h e m a r r i a g e . I n o r i g i n i s shrouded daughter no d i r e c t  i n mystery.  of L i c i n i u s . evidence.  "Helena" appears  fact,  even Helena's  Gibbon p r e f e r r e d to r e g a r d her as a  T h i s may w e l l have been t h e case, but t h e r e i s A g a i n s t t h i s t h e o r y i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e name  to have been c o n f i n e d to t h e f a m i l y o f C o n s t a n t i u s I.  I t may be t h a t she was a r e l a t i v e o f C o n s t a n t i n e , perhaps a daughter o f F l a v i u s C o n s t a n t i u s , c o n s u l i n 327. o f f s p r i n g a f t e r October after the c h i l d ' s b i r t h .  The s i l e n c e r e g a r d i n g her and her  322 might be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r death  soon  T h i s would have been a temporary setback f o r  Crispus. A f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r C r i s p u s to prove h i s m e t t l e was becoming e v i d e n t even as N a z a r i u s d e l i v e r e d h i s o r a t i o n . between C o n s t a n t i n e and L i c i n i u s were never  The r e l a t i o n s  a model o f p e r f e c t harmony.  I t was q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t C o n s t a n t i a ' s marriage  to L i c i n i u s was not  adequate to d i s p e l t h e s u s p i c i o n each Augustus e n t e r t a i n e d f o r t h e  other.  In a d d i t i o n to t h e i r personal goals, t h e i r c h i e f  would s u r e l y not have f a i l e d There i s no evidence  administrators  to encourage each t o assume s o l e c o n t r o l .  t h a t C o n s t a n t i a made any attempt t o r e c o n c i l e  b r o t h e r and husband as she was to do l a t e r a f t e r the d e f e a t o f h e r spouse.  By as e a r l y as 321 r e l a t i o n s were r a p i d l y worsening.  panegyric itself  fails  The  t o make any mention o f L i c i n i u s and h i s son, s i l e n c e  b e i n g t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a damnat-io memoviae.  The c o n s u l a r  lists  66 are also t e l l i n g ,  s i n c e f o r a Caesar t o be nominated c o n s u l was to  h e i g h t e n h i s p r e s t i g e ; a nomination was p a r t o f h i s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e succession.  The l i s t runs as f o l l o w s :  318  L i c i n i u s Aug. V  C r i s p u s Caes. I  319  C o n s t a n t i n e Aug. V  L i c i n i u s Caes. I  320  C o n s t a n t i n e Aug. V I  Constantine  Caes. I  321  C r i s p u s Caes. I I  Constantine  Caes. I I  L i c i n i u s Aug. VI  L i c i n i u s Caes. I I  P e t r o n i u s Probianus  Anicius Iulianus  322  (West) (East)  ( n e i t h e r r e c o g n i z e d by L i c i n i u s ) 323  A c i l i u s Severus  V e t t i u s Rufinus  ( n e i t h e r r e c o g n i z e d by L i c i n i u s ) 324  C r i s p u s Caes. I l l  Constantine  Caes. I l l  ( n e i t h e r r e c o g n i z e d by L i c i n i u s ) In a p p o i n t i n g c o n s u l s  f o r 318 and 319 C o n s t a n t i n e  observed t h e  p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e new Caesars should a c q u i r e t h e c o n s u l s h i p to  according  t h e i r age and t h a t on each o c c a s i o n t h e Augustus o f t h e o t h e r p a r t o f  the Empire should become t h e c o l l e a g u e o f h i s " b r o t h e r ' s " Caesar. resulted i n Licinius'  r e c e i v i n g h i s f i f t h consulship before  This  Constantine,  and r e l a t i o n s remained c o r d i a l u n t i l the time came to name c o n s u l s f o r 320,  when i t was  consulship.  necessary that Constantine I I r e c e i v e h i s  first  I f C o n s t a n t i n e wished t o m a i n t a i n i m p e r i a l a c c o r d he  bound to name L i c i n i u s to be C o n s t a n t i n e I I ' s c o l l e a g u e , but he a l r e a d y g i v e n L i c i n i u s precedence  i n the f i f t h  was  had  c o n s u l s h i p and r e s o l v e d  to a f f i r m h i s s u p e r i o r i t y over L i c i n i u s by naming h i m s e l f as h i s son's colleague.  T h i s was  a severe blow to L i c i n i u s ' p r e s t i g e but he d i d not  r e a c t n o t i c e a b l y u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g year, when C o n s t a n t i n e named C r i s p u s and C o n s t a n t i n e I I to be c o n s u l s . d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t L i c i n i u s I I , who  was  should have been named i n h i s s t e a d .  T h i s second  was  o l d e r than C o n s t a n t i n e I I and L i c i n i u s c o u l d not brook t h i s  i n s u l t and named h i m s e l f and h i s son c o n s u l s f o r 321. deteriorated  slight  so b a d l y t h a t i n 322 and  323  Relations  L i c i n i u s r e f u s e d to r e c o g n i z e  the c o n s u l s , even though they were not members o f C o n s t a n t i n e ' s f a m i l y , s o l e l y on the ground t h a t they were chosen by C o n s t a n t i n e . C o n s t a n t i n e symbolized h i s own  the c o l l a p s e of the d i a r c h y by a p p o i n t i n g o n l y  sons as c o n s u l s f o r  (4) The war  324.  The War  Against  a g a i n s t L i c i n i u s was  that a g a i n s t Maxentius and disposal.  Finally  Licinius  to demand much g r e a t e r e f f o r t  r e q u i r e d a l l the r e s o u r c e s a t  Constantine's  The most d e t a i l e d , and y e t i n many ways the most  source f o r t h i s war c o n t e x t and  fails  i s Zosimus, who  than  confused,  makes no mention of C r i s p u s i n t h i s  to name any of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s commanders.  67  However,  68 he does r e f e r to L i c i n i u s ' a d m i r a l Amandus Martinianus.  C r i s p u s ' r o l e i n the war  and  to h i s f e l l o w Augustus  i s a certainty.  The most  20 contemporary source, i t s present  Eusebius  i n h i s Historia  Ecclesiastica,  composed i n  form s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e war, s t a t e s t h a t C r i s p u s shared t h e  69 command and the v i c t o r y w i t h h i s f a t h e r . Constantine's  J u l i a n remarks t h a t one o f  sons a i d e d him i n t h e war a g a i n s t t h e t y r a n t h e  to mention C r i s p u s by name, but t h i s o m i s s i o n  i s understandable  o f t h e damnatio memoviae l a t e r s u f f e r e d by C r i s p u s .  fails i n view  Several other  sources a l l u d e t o C r i s p u s ' r o l e i n t h e w a r . ^  T h e r e f o r e , we can be  c e r t a i n t h a t C r i s p u s d i d t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t .  He who had enjoyed  a  nominal command a g a i n s t t h e Franks and Alamanni f o u r y e a r s e a r l i e r was now o l d enough to assume a more a c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n c i v i l war. f a i l u r e t o mention C r i s p u s i n t h i s c o n t e x t d e s i r e to portray Constantine  as t h e s o l e  can best be a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s aggressor.  The n a v a l campaign a g a i n s t L i c i n i u s was to e s t a b l i s h all  t h e more s e c u r e l y as t h e de facto  Zosimus'  pre-eminent Caesar.  Crispus  A t some time  b e f o r e t h e summer o f 324 C r i s p u s was r e c a l l e d from Gaul t o j o i n h i s father i n preparations  f o r t h e campaign.  Constantine  used  Thessalonica  as h i s main base, g a t h e r i n g h i s armies t h e r e and a l s o p r o v i d i n g i t w i t h a harbour.  While t h e harbour was b e i n g prepared,  large fleet  i n the Piraeus.  into  Thrace,  When C o n s t a n t i n e  C r i s p u s assembled a  s e t o u t from T h e s s a l o n i c a  C r i s p u s moved t h e n a v a l f o r c e s up to t h e new harbour. 72  L i c i n i u s , d e f e a t e d a t A d r i a n o p l e on 3 J u l y 324, f o r t i f i e d h i m s e l f i n Byzantium.  f l e d a c r o s s Thrace and  While C o n s t a n t i n e pursued L i c i n i u s by  l a n d , C r i s p u s s a i l e d toward t h e H e l l e s p o n t , where he encountered the f l e e t o f Amandus j u s t as C o n s t a n t i n e was l a y i n g s i e g e to Byzantium. the f i r s t  day C r i s p u s , a l t h o u g h  On  g r e a t l y outnumbered, succeeded i n u s i n g  the c o n f i n e d space to h i s advantage and got t h e b e t t e r o f Amandus'  f o r c e s near E l a e u s i n the Chersonese.  The f o l l o w i n g day, r e i n f o r c e d  a d d i t i o n a l s h i p s from Thrace and a i d e d by the winds, C r i s p u s won convincing v i c t o r y o f f C a l l i p o l i s .  by  a  On h e a r i n g of the d e f e a t of Amandus, 73  L i c i n i u s , having a l r e a d y chosen M a r t i n i a n u s as h i s f e l l o w Augustus, abandoned hope on the sea, by way blockaded, left  of which he saw  t h a t he would  and f l e d w i t h h i s t r e a s u r e s to Chalcedon.  be  Since L i c i n i u s  o n l y h i s weaker f o r c e s i n Byzantium as a r e a r g u a r d measure,  C o n s t a n t i n e was  soon a b l e to c a p t u r e t h a t c i t y ;  on Byzantium d o u b t l e s s convinced L i c i n i u s ' cause was  h o p e l e s s and  C o n s t a n t i n e met  they s u r r e n d e r e d .  C r i s p u s and  C r i s p u s ' advance by  sea  forces there that t h e i r On  e n t e r i n g Byzantium,  l e a r n e d t h e d e t a i l s of h i s n a v a l v i c t o r y .  L i c i n i u s ' f o r c e s were d e f e a t e d once a g a i n a t C h r y s o p o l i s on 18  September  74 324  a f t e r the f l e e t had conveyed C o n s t a n t i n e ' s army a c r o s s ;  subsequently Nicomedia.^  the s u r v i v o r s s u r r e n d e r e d or f l e d w i t h L i c i n i u s Licinius realized  the h o p e l e s s n e s s  to  of h i s p o s i t i o n  and  sent C o n s t a n t i a to arrange the terms o f s u r r e n d e r w i t h her b r o t h e r . (5)  C o n s t a n t i u s I I Made Caesar  C o n s t a n t i n e consented L i c i n i u s and M a r t i n i a n u s and,  f o r t h e moment to spare the l i v e s o f a f t e r they had  a b d i c a t e d i n h i s presence, 76  he sent them to T h e s s a l o n i c a as a p l a c e o f r e t i r e m e n t .  The  Caesar  L i c i n i u s I I was  spared, p r o b a b l y because o f the e n t r e a t i e s o f h i s  mother, but was  s t r i p p e d of the rank of C a e s a r . ^  to r e p l a c e L i c i n i u s I I w i t h one o f h i s own  C o n s t a n t i n e now  sons, and on 8 November  chose 324  he r a i s e d h i s t h i r d son, F l a v i u s J u l i u s C o n s t a n t i u s , to the rank of Caesar.^  C o n s t a n t i u s I I had been b o r n on 7 August 3 1 7 ^  i n Illyricum,  probably a t Sirmlum. of  80  C o n s t a n t i u s I I ; one  There can be no doubt r e g a r d i n g the l e g i t i m a c y inscription  81  i d e n t i f i e s him as the grandson of  Maximian, and J u l i a n s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t C o n s t a n t i u s I I ' s mother 82 was  the daughter  o f an emperor,  t h a t i s , F a u s t a , daughter  o f Maximian.  Only Zosimus i n s i s t s on the i l l e g i t i m a c y of C o n s t a n t i u s I I and h i s younger b r o t h e r Constans,  but h i s account  i s exceedingly  confused,  s a y i n g t h a t the t h r e e sons were born not o f F a u s t a but of another woman 83 whom C o n s t a n t i n e l a t e r charged w i t h a d u l t e r y and put to death, whereas he had e a r l i e r g i v e n an account of how F a u s t a was the one who was 84 charged  and put t o death.  Zosimus' a n t i p a t h y to C o n s t a n t i n e  t h a t t h a t emperor's f a v o u r i t e s s h o u l d , l i k e him, l i g h t , and h i s testimony,  dictated  be shown i n a bad  e c l i p s e d by the more contemporary e v i d e n c e  w e l l as l a c k i n g i n c r e d i b i l i t y ,  should be r e j e c t e d .  C o n s t a n t i u s I I had  been g i v e n l i t t l e p u b l i c i t y b e f o r e h i s e l e v a t i o n to i m p e r i a l rank. his  In  p a n e g y r i c of 1 March 321 N a z a r i u s dwelt p r i m a r i l y on the e x p l o i t s of  C o n s t a n t i n e and been d i f f i c u l t  Crispus.  The p r a i s e of the Caesar  enough w i t h o u t  i n c l u d i n g t h a t of the  C o n s t a n t i u s I I and Constans, quorum iam 85 nostra  interim  proferuntur.  Constantine f e l t replacement had  as  Now  a l r e a d y made one  C o n s t a n t i u s I I was  infant  now  privati, veneramur,  son to i m p e r i a l rank.  not s t r i c t l y n e c e s s a r y , but  {i.e.,  etsi  C o n s t a n t i n e I I ) a Caesar  A  Constantine and  a t l e a s t s i x y e a r s o l d e r than h i s b r o t h e r  been when a p p o i n t e d Caesar.  vota  t h a t a l l o p p o s i t i o n had been ended,  f r e e to promote h i s t h i r d  f o r L i c i n i u s I I was  a p p o i n t e d Caesar  nomina ipsa  C o n s t a n t i n e I I had  Bruun's argument t h a t C o n s t a n t i u s I I  had was  i n r e p l y to L i c i n i u s ' promotion o f M a r t i n i a n u s to the 86 rank of Augustus c a r r i e s l i t t l e weight; M a r t i n i a n u s was to s e r v e as a  23 m i l i t a r y commander and C o n s t a n t i u s I I was On 8 November 324  C r i s p u s was  to be b i s a n t i d o t e , whereas  too young to be a n y t h i n g o t h e r than a f i g u r e - h e a d . C o n s t a n t i n e took advantage of h i s newly-won supremacy  to promote i n a d d i t i o n h i s mother Helena  and  h i s w i f e F a u s t a to  the  87 rank of Augusta.  C o i n s were minted  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r and  depicting Constantius I I i n  h i s two  e l d e r b r o t h e r s , thereby 88  p r o c l a i m i n g h i s promotion  t o the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the Empire.  youngest b r o t h e r , Constans, C o n s t a n t i u s I I , was a privatus  a l t h o u g h o n l y t h r e e y e a r s younger  not y e t g i v e n the rank o f Caesar  than to remain  f o r nine years.  Of  the t h r e e C a e s a r s ,  Eusebius o f Caesarea Ecclesiastica v i c t o r y over  i t was  C r i s p u s who  was  made h i s f i n a l r e v i s i o n of h i s  the  the l a s t  t h i s task u n t i l  son f o r t h e i r  of the p e r s e c u t o r s , t h e r e b y commencing h i s r o l e Eusebius was  s h o r t l y a f t e r C o n s t a n t i n e ' s death,  h i s p r a i s e t o the changing completed  favourite.  Historia  p a r t l y i n o r d e r to p r a i s e t h e f a t h e r and  the spokesman o f C o n s t a n t i n e ' s d y n a s t i c p o l i c y ;  Eusebius  and was  The  circumstances.  carefully  It i s quite l i k e l y  to  as  continue  adapting that  t h i s r e v i s i o n of h i s h i s t o r y d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 89  324/325 i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t i t to C o n s t a n t i n e on 20 May C o u n c i l o f N i c a e a was  convoked.  325,  when the  Eusebius p r a i s e s C o n s t a n t i n e f o r coming  to the a i d o f t h e C h r i s t i a n s i n the E a s t aya T r a i 6 i Kptair/o g a a i X e i c  <|>iAav9p(DTroTCtTa>". He next d e s c r i b e s how iraxnp aya K a i u i o s ay<j)0) KUKAW i » , 91 6ieA6vxes TT)V K a r a XOOV 6eoyiau)V irapaxa^iv, pafifav X F T V V I K N V a-rrocjiepo vxai. c  Eusebius-gives p r a i s e t o C r i s p u s as 'BaaiAei 8eo<t>iAeo"XC<XU) Kai xa iravxa xou ttaxpbs ouofcu and  f o r a s s i s t i n g h i s f a t h e r i n the r e s t o r a t i o n of  the  91 u n i t y of the Roman Empire.  E u s e b i u s never mentions the o t h e r sons of  24 C o n s t a n t i n e by name i n t h i s c o n t e x t , not even the Caesar but he does d e c l a r e t h a t now,  u o v o i s  e<f>uA&TT£TO  R w v a x a v x i v a 3 c  x c l x n s »  < a i  -  T O I S  Constantine I I ,  when a l l t y r a n n y has been purged  irpoanKouaris  away,  g a a i X e t a s g e g c u d x e rat a v £ T r i ' < j > 0 o v a  .92  a u x o u i r a i a t v .  P r a i s e of a more p r i v a t e n a t u r e o f the Second F l a v i a n s was composed by the e x i l e d poet P u b l i l i u s O p t a t i a n u s P o r p h y r i u s . carm-tna have sometimes been dated to 328 his  r e c a l l from e x i l e t o t h a t y e a r ,  l a t e 324  or e a r l y 325,  93  also  His  on the ground t h a t Jerome dated  but they were c l e a r l y w r i t t e n i n  s i n c e they c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r to the  vicennalia  94 ( s t a r t i n g on 25 J u l y 325)  i n the f u t u r e sense.  We  can, t h e r e f o r e , be  q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s eavmina dated same time as the p u b l i c a t i o n o f E u s e b i u s ' Eistovia  to about  the  Eeolesiastica.  Like  Eusebius, O p t a t i a n u s r e s e r v e s most of h i s p r a i s e f o r C o n s t a n t i n e h i m s e l f and a l l o c a t e s n e a r l y a l l of what remains to C r i s p u s .  In f a c t ,  it is  q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t he composed most o f h i s v e r s e s b e f o r e h e a r i n g o f the appointment, dated 8 November 324,  of C o n s t a n t i u s I I t o the rank o f  Caesar. At l e a s t , he r e c o g n i z e d o n l y two Constantine I I :  C a e s a r s , t h a t i s , C r i s p u s and  virtutum meritis vicennia praecipe vota. ^ saeclorum c r e v i t gemino spes Caesare c e r t a . Whereas E u s e b i u s had p r a i s e d C r i s p u s f o r h i s r o l e i n t h e overthrow L i c i n i u s , O p t a t i a n u s , p r o b a b l y knowing l i t t l e about  of  eastern a f f a i r s ,  p r e f e r r e d to d w e l l upon h i s e a r l i e r v e n t u r e s i n the West, e s p e c i a l l y h i s s u c c e s s e s a g a i n s t the Franks: en! Auguste, t u i s praesens et t a n t u s ubique i m p e r i l s fecunde, paras nunc omine C r i s p i Oceani i n t a c t a s o r a s , quibus e r u t a F r a n c i  dat r e g i o p r o c u l ecce deum, c u i d e v i a t o t a parent campis.g^  latis  C r i s p u s was p r a i s e d f o r h i s deeds o f v a l o u r a g a i n s t t h e Franks, but C o n s t a n t i n e I I was i n c l u d e d o n l y w i t h  difficulty:  Sed C r i s p i i n f o r t i a v i r e s non dubiae r i p a Rhenum Rhodanumque t u e r i u l t e r i o r e parant e t F r a n c i s t r i s t i a i u r a . iam t u , sancte puer, spes t a n t a e r i t e q u i e t i missa p o l o . ^ I t was r e a l l y to C r i s p u s , and C r i s p u s a l o n e , t h a t O p t a t i a n u s looked so f a r as f u t u r e government was  concerned:  s a n c t e , s a l u s mundi, armis i n s i g n i b u s ardens, C r i s p e , a v i s m e l i o r , t e carmina l a e t a secundo C l i o Musa sonans t u a f a t u r p u l c h r a i u v e n t a e . n o b i l e t u decus es p a t r i , tuque alme Q u i r i t u m et spes o r b i s e r i s . ^ g I t i s c l e a r t h a t b o t h Eusebius and O p t a t i a n u s ,  i n the period  immediately  f o l l o w i n g t h e d e f e a t o f L i c i n i u s , regarded C r i s p u s as t h e source o f f u t u r e government and t h a t they p a i d scant r e g a r d t o t h e o t h e r , f a r younger, sons o f C o n s t a n t i n e .  The p u b l i c n a t u r e o f b o t h works  i n d i c a t e s t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e , t o o , had t h e g r e a t e s t c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s e l d e s t son. The two y e a r s f o l l o w i n g L i c i n i u s ' f i n a l d e f e a t brought d r a s t i c change i n C o n s t a n t i n e ' s p l a n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s i o n . t r a g e d i e s were n o t dated w i t h t h e p r e c i s i o n o f triumphs chronographers  Family  by t h e  and the evidence o f t h e codes and t h e c o i n a g e  u n c e r t a i n , but a t e n t a t i v e account  o f t h e p e r i o d can be  about a  remains  attempted.  C o n s t a n t i n e and h i s f a m i l y appear to have remained i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f  99 Nicomedia u n t i l l a t e i n t h e summer o f 325.  During  t h e w i n t e r o f 324,  C o n s t a n t i n e i s s u e d two laws, one a b o l i s h i n g a l l t h e laws and  26 c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f L i c i n i u s and  the o t h e r  invalidation."'"^  i n d i c a t i o n i n these laws t h a t would  There i s no  t h a t L i c i n i u s and M a r t i n i a n u s the synod was  already  commenced at N i c a e a and  Constantine."'"^"'" initial  had  On  restricting  was  19 J u l y 325"*"^ he was  c e l e b r a t i o n o f h i s vioenndlia,  this  been executed.  On  attended i n part  imply  20 May  325  by  making arrangements f o r  the  which were h e l d at Nicomedia  on  103 25 J u l y 325.  I t i s not  known f o r c e r t a i n , but we  most of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s r e l a t i v e s , The  o c c a s i o n was  a j o y o u s one  the opponents had  i f not  f o r the  been crushed, but  a l l , were p r e s e n t  e n t i r e f a m i l y now  event.  t h a t the l a s t  of  eventually  to prove the r u i n o f  dynasty. The  first  h i n t t h a t has  come down to us t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e  becoming more apprehensive about h i s own Theodosian Code f o r 17 for  f o r the  the l a t t e r p a r t of t h e y e a r c a s t  upon t h e s e f e s t i v i t i e s a shadow t h a t was the  can assume t h a t  September 325.  s e c u r i t y i s the e n t r y  Since t h i s r e s c r i p t  was  i n the  i s noteworthy  i t s s t y l e as w e l l as f o r i t s c o n t e n t , I quote i t i n i t s e n t i r e t y : S i q u i s e s t cuiuscumque l o c i o r d i n i s d i g n i t a t i s , q u i se i n quemcumque iudicum comitum amicorum v e l p a l a t i n o r u m meorum a l i q u i d v e r a c i t e r et m a n i f e s t e p r o b a r e posse c o n f i d i t , quod non i n t e g r e adque i u s t e g e s s i s s e v i d e a t u r , i n t r e p i d u s et securus a c c e d a t , i n t e r p e l l e t me: i p s e audiam omnia, i p s e cognoscam et s i f u e r i t conprobatum, i p s e me v i n d i c a b o . D i c a t , securus et bene s i b i c o n s c i u s d i c a t : s i probaverit, ut d i x i , i p s e me v i n d i c a b o de eo, q u i me usque ad hoc tempus s i m u l a t a i n t e g r i t a t e d e c e p e r i t , i l i u m autem, q u i hoc p r o d i d e r i t et c o n p r o b a v e r i t , et d i g n i t a t i b u s et rebus augebo. I t a m i h i summa d i v i n i t a s semper p r o p i t i a s i t et me incolumen p r a e s t e t , ut c u p i o , f e l i c i s s i m a et f l o r e n t e r e p u b l i c a . ^ Q ^  It  i s evident  l i f e was  t h a t someone had  endangered and  became a h o l d e r  had  g i v e n C o n s t a n t i n e the  thrown him  of the i m p e r i a l power.  impression  into a state of panic The  that  that i l l  reason f o r h i s sudden  his  fondness  f o r i n f o r m e r s i s not d i f f i c u l t  a r e v i v a l of t h e J o v i a n dynasty.  to f i n d .  We cannot  I t l a y i n h i s fear of  be c e r t a i n t h a t L i c i n i u s was  s e e k i n g t o e s t a b l i s h an a l l i a n c e w i t h the b a r b a r i a n s o f t h e Danube, but  i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t M a r t i n i a n u s had escaped  T h e s s a l o n i c a and f l e d t o Cappadocia. were t r u e i s o f l i t t l e  EeveuHi  Maximiani,  puvpuram  in pevnioiem  importance.  socevi  Whether o r n o t t h e a l l e g a t i o n s What matters  sui, motus exempto,  rei publioae  custody a t  sumeret,  i s that Constantine,  ne itevum  depositam  b e l i e v e d t h a t they were and  o r d e r e d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f L i c i n i u s a t T h e s s a l o n i c a and o f M a r t i n i a n u s i n Cappadocia.It  i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t they were k i l l e d  shortly  b e f o r e t h e r e s c r i p t was i s s u e d and t h a t the c a l l went o u t t o a r r e s t a l l their associates.  The r e s c r i p t  i s most important  i n revealing  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s s u s p i c i o u s and i m p u l s i v e n a t u r e , which had been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g h i s s u r v i v a l thus f a r .  L i c i n i u s , however, had  h i m s e l f to blame f o r h i s own e x e c u t i o n , s i n c e he had s e t a precedent f o r such a c t i o n by h i s b l o o d b a t h upon t h e death o f Maximin D a i a .  108  S u r p r i s i n g as i t may seem from t h e f o r e g o i n g r e s c r i p t , C o n s t a n t i n e d i d 109 u t i l i z e some moderation, the former  s p a r i n g C o n s t a n t i a and t h e boy L i c i n i u s I I ,  because she was h i s own s i s t e r and t h e l a t t e r because h i s  youth and h i s membership i n the Second F l a v i a n dynasty were h i s salvation. (6)  The Death o f C r i s p u s  C o n s t a n t i n e made C o n s t a n t i u s I I j o i n t c o n s u l w i t h h i m s e l f f o r the year 326,"'""'"^ thereby e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e new Caesar  s h o u l d share i n  the c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h a t year, f o r on 1 March 326 C r i s p u s and  28 C o n s t a n t i n e I I were to c e l e b r a t e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r  decennalia  w h i l e on 25 J u l y 326 C o n s t a n t i n e was t o commemorate t h e end o f h i s vicenndlia.  A f t e r 8 March,"'""''''' C o n s t a n t i n e and h i s f a m i l y s e t out from  Byzantium on t h e i r way to Rome, b u t , b e f o r e they a r r i v e d t h e r e , t r a g e d y s t r u c k twice, r e s u l t i n g i n the f i r s t  instance i n the executions of 112  C r i s p u s and L i c i n i u s  I I , and l a t e r i n t h e murder o f F a u s t a .  This  gruesome f a m i l y tragedy was never p u b l i c i z e d and E u s e b i u s , t h e main contemporary C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r i t y f o r C o n s t a n t i n e ' s l i f e ,  thought  to  to j u s t i f y .  e l i m i n a t e a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o an a c t t h a t he was unable  Pagan a u t h o r i t i e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e v e l l e d w i l d l y through pages as they saw t h e f i r s t  gaping  i t best  their  c r a c k s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e Second  113 F l a v i a n dynasty, resist of  and even l a t e r C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d n o t 114  t h e t e m p t a t i o n to adopt  their version.  The g e n e r a l consensus  those sources t h a t go i n t o any d e t a i l i s t h a t F a u s t a f o r reasons o f  her own accused  Crispus of attempting  t o commit a d u l t e r y w i t h h e r and,  s i n c e a d u l t e r y w i t h t h e Augusta amounted to h i g h t r e a s o n , t h e r e b y secured h i s e x e c u t i o n , and t h a t Helena, mother o f C o n s t a n t i n e , was incensed a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e younger s i s t e r o f her o l d enemy, Theodora, convinced C o n s t a n t i n e o f t h e innocence o f C r i s p u s , informed him t h a t F a u s t a h e r s e l f was g u i l t y o f a d u l t e r y w i t h a common c o u r i e r , and brought i t about t h a t F a u s t a was put t o death by s u f f o c a t i o n i n an overheated bath.  The more contemporary a u t h o r i t i e s , however, do not g i v e any such  d e t a i l s ; A u r e l i u s V i c t o r s t a t e s o n l y t h a t C r i s p u s d i e d incevtum causa,  patris  iudiaio,  k i l l e d egvegium .  . .  }  qua  and E u t r o p i u s simply d e c l a r e s t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e  vivum filium  mox uxovem, post  et sorovis  numeros amiaos,  f i l i u m oommodae indolis  iuvenem  thereby i m p l y i n g some s o r t o f  29 c o n s p i r a c y , a c t u a l or suspected.  That C o n s t a n t i n e was  greatly  s u s p i c i o u s of a c o n s p i r a c y a t t h i s time can be gathered i n t h e Theodosian  Code f o r 17 September 325  e n t r i e s i n the codes f o r the f i r s t  h a l f of 326  have been a s i m i l a r p r e o c c u p a t i o n .  t h a t may  above,"'""'""' and  certain  i n d i c a t e what might w e l l  G u t h r i e i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t  C o n s t a n t i n e h i m s e l f , and not F a u s t a , was e x e c u t i o n and  quoted  from the e n t r y  t h a t i n so doing he "was  the one who  arranged C r i s p u s '  deliberately following a policy  be d e s c r i b e d as ' d y n a s t i c legitimacy'.""'""^ I t i s q u i t e  c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t C r i s p u s was  put to death f o r d y n a s t i c reasons and  not  because of p e t t y s c a n d a l , but i t i s f a r more l i k e l y  t h a t the  were those of F a u s t a and not those of C o n s t a n t i n e .  Guthrie's theory  f a i l s to account C o n s t a n t i n e was  reasons  f o r the e x e c u t i o n o f F a u s t a and a l s o assumes t h a t g u i l t y of a s t r a n g e i n c o n s i s t e n c y i f he put C r i s p u s to  death i n order to ensure a p u r e l y d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n and nephews a r o l e i n the s u c c e s s i o n .  There i s no  l a t e r gave h i s  evidence t h a t C r i s p u s had  done a n y t h i n g to i n c u r C o n s t a n t i n e ' s displeasure,"'""'"^ but F a u s t a had reason to f e a r her  step-son, s i n c e i n age,  he f a r surpassed her own own  t h r e e sons.  p r e s t i g e , and  good  accomplishments  A t l e a s t t e n y e a r s o l d e r than  her  sons, he had a l r e a d y h e l d t h r e e c o n s u l s h i p s and had been p r a i s e d by  N a z a r i u s f o r h i s v i c t o r i e s over the Franks and Alamanni; i n 322 had by h i s w i f e Helena  he  a son, thereby g i v i n g proof o f h i s a b i l i t y  c o n t i n u e the Second F l a v i a n dynasty;  had to  f i n a l l y , he had p l a y e d a prominent  r o l e i n the overthrow of L i c i n i u s and had  received copious p r a i s e f o r 118  his  e f f o r t s from Eusebius and O p t a t i a n u s P o r p h y r i u s .  sons, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Constans, s u c c e s s i o n by the t i t l e o f Caesar  and,  Fausta's  own  had been earmarked f o r the l a c k i n g the m a t u r i t y and  fame of  30 C r i s p u s , were i n a most dangerous p o s i t i o n should C o n s t a n t i n e die.  suddenly  They were young enough to l a c k a u t h o r i t y and y e t o l d enough to  pose a t h r e a t to t h e i r s t e p - b r o t h e r . C o n s t a n t i n e had  When C o n s t a n t i u s I had  enjoyed a s i m i l a r advantage i n age over h i s t h r e e s t e p -  b r o t h e r s , but they posed no  t h r e a t s i n c e they were d e v o i d o f  rank.  r e q u i r e d f o r emperor, and  In 306 a g e n e r a l was  b a r e l y r e s t o r e d a f t e r years o f c i v i l necessity.  d i e d i n 306  war,  one was  i n 326,  still  with unity  of prime  T h e r e f o r e , i f C o n s t a n t i n e were to d i e suddenly,  the l o g i c a l c h o i c e to r e p l a c e him.  imperial  Crispus  was  However, C r i s p u s would have had  d i f f i c u l t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h C o n s t a n t i n e I I and C o n s t a n t i u s I I , f o r they too had been earmarked f o r r u l e and might be used by h i s enemies, e s p e c i a l l y when they became a l i t t l e  older.  F a u s t a , r e c a l l i n g as w e l l  the s l a u g h t e r t h a t L i c i n i u s had  engaged i n a f t e r the death of D a i a , must  have f e a r e d g r e a t l y f o r her own  sons and  allowed.  so d e c i d e d to a c t w h i l e  time  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s s u s p i c i o u s mood, as r e v e a l e d i n the r e s c r i p t  17 September 325,  was  probably s t i l l  a c t i v e ; Fausta simply  advantage of t h i s to charge C r i s p u s w i t h h i g h t r e a s o n .  We  took cannot  c e r t a i n about t h e exact n a t u r e of t h e charge, but i t seems t h a t  be she  i m p l i c a t e d C r i s p u s i n the supposed treasonous d e s i g n s of L i c i n i u s Martinianus.  Whether she a l s o accused  person, as Zosimus, Zonaras,  and  him o f an attempt  of  and  upon her  P h i l o s t o r g i u s r e c o u n t , cannot  be  119 certain.  However, the s p r i n g o f 326 was  c o n c e r n i n g a d u l t e r y and rape and, a c c u s a t i o n , i t may  Crispus.  One  law,  marked by  i f t h i s was  legislation  not i n s t i g a t e d by  Fausta's  even have g i v e n her the i d e a f o r her charge a g a i n s t 120 c o n c e r n i n g a d u l t e r y and  i s s u e d from H e r a c l e a on 3 February  326;  s e r v i n g wenches,  another,  was  on the rape of v i r g i n s ,  31 and a t h i r d law, on t h e t u t o r s of v i r g i n s , were i s s u e d from A q u i l e i a on 121 1 A p r i l and 4 A p r i l r e s p e c t i v e l y .  S i n c e C r i s p u s was executed a t  122 Pola,  l e s s than 100 m i l e s from A q u i l e i a ,  i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t h i s  death o c c u r r e d s h o r t l y b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was For a l i t t l e w h i l e F a u s t a and her t h r e e sons c o u l d b r e a t h e  enacted. easily;  C o n s t a n t i n e b e l i e v e d her a c c u s a t i o n because she had e a r l i e r saved h i s 123 l i f e when i t was t h r e a t e n e d by her own f a t h e r , Maximian. That her a c c u s a t i o n had something t o do w i t h t h e e l d e r L i c i n i u s seems l i k e l y , f o r 124 h i s son, L i c i n i u s I I , was executed a t about t h e same time as C r i s p u s . T h i s time C o n s t a n t i a was unable t o save her son, but she h e r s e l f . . . s u r v i v e d him f o r some time w i t h t h e rank o f nobi-Zissima  . 125 femina  and so  must not have been i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e a f f a i r . Fausta's triumph was s h o r t - l i v e d . C o n s t a n t i n e r e p o r t t h a t Helena,  The sources h o s t i l e t o  t h e mother o f C o n s t a n t i n e , vouched f o r  the innocence o f C r i s p u s and p r e v a i l e d upon her son t o p u n i s h t h e g u i l t y p a r t y , F a u s t a , w i t h death on t h e ground t h a t F a u s t a h e r s e l f was g u i l t y 126 of a d u l t e r y w i t h a common c o u r i e r . Sidonius A p o l l i n a r i s claims that, whereas C r i s p u s had been k i l l e d by c o l d p o i s o n , F a u s t a was e l i m i n a t e d by 1  127 b e i n g s u f f o c a t e d i n a hot bath.  Helena's d e n u n c i a t i o n o f F a u s t a can  be a t t r i b u t e d t o her h a t r e d o f t h e s i s t e r o f t h a t Theodora who had r e p l a c e d her as t h e w i f e o f C o n s t a n t i u s I .  On t h e o t h e r hand,  Helena  favoured C r i s p u s because he was n o t r e l a t e d by b l o o d t o Theodora and Fausta.  She had been a b l e t o secure the v i r t u a l banishment o f  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s h a l f - b r o t h e r s Dalmatius  and J u l i u s C o n s t a n t i u s , b o t h  of  her from s e c u r i n g a s i m i l a r  for  Theodora, but F a u s t a had prevented  C o n s t a n t i n e I I , C o n s t a n t i u s I I , and Constans.  sons fate  F a u s t a was p r o b a b l y  32 k i l l e d b e f o r e 25 A p r i l 326, f o r on t h a t day C o n s t a n t i n e p o s t e d a law to the e f f e c t t h a t t h e r i g h t to denounce a woman f o r a d u l t e r y s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o h e r c l o s e s t male r e l a t i o n s , ne volentibus  temeve  Uceat  128 foedare  oonubia.  Immediately a f t e r t h e i r deaths C r i s p u s and F a u s t a  s u f f e r e d t h e customary damnatio  memoriae;  t h e i r c o i n s ceased  t o be  129 minted  and t h e i r names were erased from  inscriptions.  Constantine  l a t e r repented o f h i s impetuous a c t i o n but t h e damage had been done. an e d i c t dated  22 May 326 he s t a t e d t h a t any a c c u s a t i o n g i v e n v e r b a l l y  should be c o n s i d e r e d i n v a l i d u n t i l s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n w r i t i n g , ut  iva  et per haec spatia  mentis  t r a n q u i l l i t a t e reoepta .  actionem  cum vatione  veniant  sopita  ad supremam  . 130  adque constZio.  T h i s domestic  tragedy  was to l e a v e an i n d e l i b l e i m p r e s s i o n on t h e minds o f C o n s t a n t i n e ' s remaining  In  sons and to k i n d l e i n them a deep-seated  t h a t would plague t h e i r own c a r e e r s .  three  f e a r and s u s p i c i o n  C o n s t a n t i n e moved to p r o t e c t t h e i r  i n t e r e s t s by d e c r e e i n g t h a t t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f a woman engaged i n 131 a d u l t e r y should be granted to her l e g i t i m a t e sons. What remained o f 132 the entourage proceeded t o Rome, e n t e r i n g t h a t c i t y on 18 J u l y 326. 133 There on 25 J u l y C o n s t a n t i n e c e l e b r a t e d h i s vicennalia,  but t h e r e was  l i t t l e cause f o r r e j o i c i n g now t h a t he no l o n g e r possessed  any h e i r o l d  enough t o take over should he d i e w i t h i n t h e next few y e a r s .  Ablabius,  who was l a t e r t o s e r v e under C o n s t a n t i n e as p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t , h i t t h e mark when he s e c r e t l y posted t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r s e upon t h e door o f t h e palace: S a t u r n i aurea s a e c l a q u i s r e q u i r a t ? sunt haec gemmea, sed Neroniana. ^  33 (7)  C o n s t a n t i n e I I and  A f t e r t h e a b o r t i v e vicennalia toward the East by way  of Sirmium and  C o n s t a n t i u s I I 327-333 a t Rome, C o n s t a n t i n e set out T h e s s a l o n i c a and  a r r i v e d at  135 Nicomedia by the end of J u l y 327.  Here he commenced p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r  the enlargement and adornment of Byzantium. was  Meanwhile, C o n s t a n t i n e I I  d i s p a t c h e d to Gaul i n p l a c e of the deceased  C o n s t a n t i u s I I remained i n I t a l y .  Crispus, while  Rumours of t r o u b l e i n the West  caused  C o n s t a n t i n e to cut s h o r t h i s v i s i t t o the E a s t . A l t h o u g h s t i l l a t 136 Nicomedia on 1 March 328, by 5 J u l y he had advanced as f a r as Oescus 137 138 on the Danube and by 27 September he was i n T r i e r . I t was most likely  i n August o r September t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e I I was  given  nominal  command over the e x p e d i t i o n t h a t d e c i s i v e l y r o u t e d an i n c u r s i o n o f t h e 139 Alamanni. eldest  T h i s v i c t o r y served to enhance the r e p u t a t i o n of h i s  son i n the eyes o f the m i l i t a r y t h e r e and  to d e p i c t him as a  capable successor.  In o r d e r to enhance the r e p u t a t i o n o f h i s son 140 throughout Gaul, C o n s t a n t i n e now renamed A r e l a t e as C o n s t a n t i n a . He 141 a l s o bestowed upon h i s son the t i t l e Alamannicus and nominated him to 142 share the c o n s u l s h i p of 329 w i t h h i m s e l f .  The l a t t e r proved  to be a  p a r t i c u l a r honour, f o r t h a t year marked the l a s t time t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e and any o f h i s sons h e l d the c o n s u l s h i p b e f o r e h i s death. C o n s t a n t i n e I I , though s t i l l  o n l y twelve y e a r s o l d , was  Thus  rapidly  a c q u i r i n g the pre-eminent p o s i t i o n among the Caesars once possessed  by  Crispus. It i n nominal of  329  seems t h a t f o r the next t h r e e y e a r s C o n s t a n t i n e I I remained command of Gaul w h i l e h i s f a t h e r spent the s p r i n g and  summer  f o r t i f y i n g the Danube f r o n t i e r and most o f the y e a r s 330 and  331  34 in  t h e neighbourhood o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e .  l a t t e r p a r t o f 331 t h a t t h e Sarmatians a g a i n s t t h e Goths.  I t was p r o b a b l y i n t h e  appealed  to Constantine f o r a i d  C o n s t a n t i n e took advantage o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to  g i v e h i s sons a d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . the nominal  143  He sent C o n s t a n t i u s I I t o assume  command i n Gaul, where he c o u l d impress  h i s i n h e r i t a n c e upon  144 the armies undertake  there. nominal  I n t u r n , C o n s t a n t i n e I I was summoned from Gaul to command o f t h e campaign a g a i n s t t h e Goths.  While  145 C o n s t a n t i n e h i m s e l f remained a t M a r c i a n o p o l i s i n r e s e r v e ,  t h e younger  C o n s t a n t i n e c r o s s e d t h e Danube and on 20 A p r i l 332 i n f l i c t e d a d e c i s i v e d e f e a t upon t h e Goths.  N e a r l y one hundred thousand  o f them were  d e s t r o y e d by hunger and c o l d and, among o t h e r s , t h e son o f t h e G o t h i c 146 k i n g A r i a r i c u s was taken as a hostage. t h a t the Goths ceased  The v i c t o r y was so complete  t o be a menace to the Empire f o r many y e a r s .  C o n s t a n t i n e I I was rewarded by b e i n g granted t h e t i t l e  G o t h i c u s and h i s 147  younger b r o t h e r , C o n s t a n t i u s I I , was a l l o w e d a share i n t h e t i t l e . It  i s p r o b a b l e t h a t as an a d d i t i o n a l reward f o r t h i s  C o n s t a n t i n e I I was p e r m i t t e d to marry.  victory  We have no knowledge o f whom he  m a r r i e d , but we can be c e r t a i n t h a t t h e b r i d e was one o f Theodora's descendants. (8)  Constans Made Caesar  A l t h o u g h a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n had been found problem, t h e year 333 brought the P e r s i a n s .  f o r the Gothic  rumours o f u n r e s t among t h e Sarmatians and  Whether he was i n f l u e n c e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these  matters or merely  thought  t h e time to be opportune,  C o n s t a n t i n e i n v e s t e d w i t h t h e rank of Caesar  on 25 December 333  h i s youngest  son, F l a v i u s  35 J u l i u s Constans. 223150  a t  c  149  o n s t a n t  t h a t Constans was the l a s t  S i n c e C o n s t a n t i n e was -L  n 0  pi  e  o  n  a t Aquae on 11 November  30 March 334,"'""'"'" t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  f o r m a l l y i n v e s t e d a t t h e new  son of C o n s t a n t i n e and F a u s t a .  152  capital.  Constans  was  The Epitome of V i c t o r ,  153  s t a t i n g t h a t Constans d i e d a t the age of twenty-seven, i m p l i e s t h a t he had been born i n 323.  However, the o t h e r sources a r e of the o p i n i o n  t h a t he d i e d i n h i s t h i r t i e t h y e a r , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t he must have been 154 born i n 320.  C o n f i r m a t i o n of the e a r l i e r date i s p r o v i d e d by  the  o n l y contemporary r e f e r e n c e to Constans i n h i s y e a r s as a privatus. 1 March 321,  Nazarius, d e l i v e r i n g h i s panegyric to Constantine,  On  speaks  o f the g r e a t hope t h a t Rome d e r i v e s from the most n o b l e Caesars and t h e i r brothers."'""'"'  from  These " b r o t h e r s " c o u l d o n l y have been C o n s t a n t i u s I I  and Constans, quorum icon nomina ipsa veneramur, etsi vota nostra  interim  156 proferuntur.  Coins were minted  t h e i r obverses  showing a l l t h r e e sons.^''  t h a t Constans was  331 and now  i n honour of the new  b e t r o t h e d to Olympias,  daughter 158  probably at t h i s  time  of Ablabius, consul i n  marked by f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s , which were to  i n f l u e n c e the p l a n s f o r the s u c c e s s i o n . l e a d i n g t r i b e o f the Sarmatians, years e a r l i e r ,  When the A r g a r a g a n t e s ,  had been a t t a c k e d by the Goths  the two  they had armed t h e i r dependants, the Limogantes, i n o r d e r  to s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r p o s i t i o n . driving  Now  t h e Limogantes r o s e a g a i n s t t h e i r  some northward but many i n t o the Roman Empire.  C o n s t a n t i n e , having p r e v i o u s l y d i s p a t c h e d h i s e l d e s t son, I I , back to Gaul, ordered C o n s t a n t i u s I I to proceed Balkans.  with  p r e f e c t at Constantine's court.  The year 334 was  masters,  I t was  Caesar,  C o n s t a n t i n e h i m s e l f , t o g e t h e r w i t h the new  Constantine  thence Caesar  to the Constans,  set out west from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and met Singidunum and Viminacium. sons, welcomed the e x i l e d hundred thousand  C o n s t a n t i u s I I i n the r e g i o n of  Constantine, together with h i s Sarmatians  youngest  and d i s t r i b u t e d more than t h r e e  of them through Thrace,  S c y t h i a , Macedonia,  and  159 Italy.  Constans was  sent west to h i s new  headquarters  i n Italy; i t  i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t he e s c o r t e d some of the s e t t l e r s t h e r e . f o r t h , u n t i l the death of h i s f a t h e r , he was  Hence-  to remain i n I t a l y .  There  i s no r e c o r d of h i s r e c e i v i n g any s p e c i a l mark of d i s t i n c t i o n as a r e s u l t o f the Sarmatian was  granted the t i t l e  proceeded  campaign.  Sarmaticus  C o n s t a n t i u s I I , on the other hand, f o r h i s r o l e i n the s e t t l e m e n t  and  w i t h h i s f a t h e r back to the E a s t , where f u r t h e r t r o u b l e s were  160 brewing. I t was  p r o b a b l y w h i l e C o n s t a n t i n e and  o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e s e t t l e m e n t of the Sarmatians magister pecoris  that Calocaerus,  camelovwn, i n s t i g a t e d a r e v o l t on Cyprus.  been a s e r i o u s earthquake may  C o n s t a n t i u s I I were  on t h a t i s l a n d  short duration.  F l a v i u s Dalmatius,  There had  s h o r t l y b e f o r e and  be a t t r i b u t e d to the s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from i t .  The  the  the  revolt  r e v o l t was  of  the e l d e s t h a l f - b r o t h e r of  C o n s t a n t i n e , by then p r o b a b l y h o l d i n g the post of magistev mi.Htum i n the E a s t , q u i c k l y took the matter  i n hand and  burnt a l i v e a t T a r s u s i n C i l i c i a . T h e  sentenced  C a l o c a e r u s to be  speedy d o w n f a l l of  C a l o c a e r u s i s e v i n c e d by the f a c t t h a t no c o i n s o r i n s c r i p t i o n s have been r e c o r d e d i n h i s name. Much more s e r i o u s was k i n g o f P e r s i a , was s e i z e d i n 297.  determined  I n 334  the growing t h r e a t of P e r s i a .  Sapor I I ,  to r e g a i n the t e r r i t o r y t h a t G a l e r i u s had  T i r a n , k i n g of the b u f f e r s t a t e o f Armenia,  was  37 t r e a c h e r o u s l y captured  by a s a t r a p of Sapor and  f o r c e s o v e r r a n Armenia and Roman support.  Sarmatian campaign.  r e a d i l y agreed to a s s i s t  I I , who  had  Persian  dispatched  was  from  t h e r e , Armenia had  by the P e r s i a n s .  f o r c e s w i t h the Armenian r e f u g e e s ,  them and  r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d w i t h him  By the time he a r r i v e d  absorbed and Amida captured  on the P e r s i a n s and  The  an Armenian d e l e g a t i o n a r r i v e d a s k i n g f o r  Constantine  to A n t i o c h C o n s t a n t i u s  blinded.  Constantius  a b l e to i n f l i c t  the  been  II, joining  a d e c i s i v e defeat  succeeded i n r e f o r t i f y i n g A n t o n i n o p o l i s and  Amida,  162 although  he c o n t i n u e d  r o l e of C o n s t a n t i u s v i c t o r y was  to be harassed  by g u e r i l l a r a i d s .  The  precise  I I i n t h i s campaign cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d .  The  not deemed adequate to warrant the c o n f e r r i n g upon him  the t i t l e P e r s i c u s .  B a s i c a l l y , the o p e r a t i o n was  measure u n t i l C o n s t a n t i n e  who  was  as a h o l d i n g  h i m s e l f c o u l d j o i n the campaign.  commonly been h e l d t h a t i t was Hannibalianus,  devised  not  Constantius  of  It  has  I I , but r a t h e r h i s c o u s i n  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e f e a t of the P e r s i a n army.  However, s e v e r a l sources  l e a d us to b e l i e v e t h a t C o n s t a n t i u s  the guidance of h i s f a t h e r and i s the most e x p l i c i t :  other  a d v i s e r s , was  I I , under  responsible.  Festus  C o n s t a n t i n u s rerum dominus extremo v i t a e suae tempore expeditionem p a r a v i t i n P e r s a s . Toto enim orbe p a c a t i s g e n t i b u s et r e c e n t i de G o t h i s v i c t o r i a g l o r i o s i o r c u n c t i s i n Persas descendebat agminibus. Sub c u i u s adventu B a b y l o n i a e i n tantum regna t r e p i d a r u n t , ut supplex ad eum l e g a t i o Persarum a d c u r r e r e t , f a c t u r o s se imperata p r o m i t t e r e n t , nec tamen pro a d s i d u i s e r u p t i o n i b u s , quae sub C o n s t a n t i o Caesare per Orientem temptaverant, veniam mererentur..,„ 163 E u s e b i u s vouches f o r the P e r s i a n embassy to C o n s t a n t i n e ' s  court  and  164 dates  i t to the w i n t e r of 336/337.  Constantius  Theophanes a l s o mentions  I I ' s v i c t o r y over the P e r s i a n s as w e l l as c o n f i r m i n g  his  38 f o r t i f i c a t i o n o f Amida and A n t o n i n o p o l i s . to  165  No l i t e r a r y sources  refer  any campaign on t h e p a r t o f H a n n i b a l i a n u s a g a i n s t the P e r s i a n s .  Finally,  t h e mint a t A n t i o c h , t h e c l o s e s t to the P e r s i a n f r o n t ,  c o i n s i n honour o f H a n n i b a l i a n u s .  s t r u c k no  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  C o n s t a n t i n e v i s i t e d A n t i o c h i n t h e s p r i n g o f 336, b u t i t i s remote. S u f f i c e i t t h a t C o n s t a n t i u s I I r e t a i n e d nominal  command on t h e e a s t e r n  f r o n t d u r i n g t h e campaigns o f 335.  H i s presence  unable  c e l e b r a t i o n o f h i s tricennatia  to a t t e n d h i s f a t h e r ' s f i r s t  t h e r e rendered him at  Nicomedia on J u l y 25 o f t h a t year."*"^  (9)  Dalmatius Made Caesar and  H a n n i b a l i a n u s Made King o f Kings A f t e r c e l e b r a t i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s tricennalia  a t Nicomedia,  C o n s t a n t i n e made a d r a s t i c change i n h i s p l a n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s i o n . H e r e t o f o r e he had c o n f e r r e d t h e t i t l e of Caesar  upon h i s own sons o n l y ,  but t h e growing t h r e a t from P e r s i a demanded h i s presence on t h e e a s t e r n f r o n t , f a r removed from t h e Rhine and Danube.  Once C o n s t a n t i u s I I had  s u c c e s s f u l l y weathered t h e campaigning season o f 335, C o n s t a n t i n e headed west from Nicomedia and t o u r e d t h e Balkans as f a r as S i s c i a , i n t e n d i n g t o impress  t h e Goths and Sarmatians  doubtless  with h i s continued  168 vigilance.  On 18 September 335, w h i l e s t i l l  C o n s t a n t i n e c o n f e r r e d t h e rank o f Caesar son o f h i s h a l f - b r o t h e r D a l m a t i u s ,  i n t h e Balkans,  upon F l a v i u s J u l i u s  Dalmatius,  and p l a c e d him i n charge o f t h e vvpa  169 Gothi-ea.  The new Caesar had n o t h e l d any d i s t i n g u i s h e d o f f i c e  before  but was now about t h e same age as C o n s t a n t i n e I I o r C o n s t a n t i u s 11."'"^^ The reason f o r the appointment o f an a d d i t i o n a l Caesar was c l e a r a t t h i s  c r i t i c a l period.  C o n s t a n t i n e c o u l d a n t i c i p a t e a l o n g and  difficult  campaign a g a i n s t the P e r s i a n s , a campaign t h a t would demand a l l h i s attention.  Although  t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e f o r any t r o u b l e on  n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r a f t e r the s e t t l e m e n t of the Sarmatians t h a t a r e a demanded c o n s t a n t v i g i l a n c e . the defence of B r i t a i n and the d i o c e s e s o f A f r i c a ,  the Rhine,  I t a l y , and  i n 334,  C o n s t a n t i n e I I was and  the  i n charge  t a s k was  of  Constans c o u l d r e a d i l y manage  I l l y r i c u m , but C o n s t a n t i n e h i m s e l f  had n o r m a l l y a t t e n d e d to the d i o c e s e s of D a c i a , Macedonia, and Dalmatius'  still  Thrace.  s i m p l y to show the i m p e r i a l c o l o u r s a l o n g the  lower  reaches of the Danube w h i l e C o n s t a n t i n e made ready h i s P e r s i a n campaign. R e t u r n i n g t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , "^"*" C o n s t a n t i n e turned h i s a t t e n t i o n once a g a i n t o t h e Armenian problem.  S i n c e the Armenian r o y a l house was  the hands of Sapor, C o n s t a n t i n e determined  to a p p o i n t  Hannibalianus,  b r o t h e r o f t h e younger Dalmatius,  k i n g of k i n g s over Armenia and  neighbouring  i n marriage  p e o p l e s and  gave him  in  his eldest  the  daughter,  172 Constantina.  H a n n i b a l i a n u s was  d i s p a t c h e d to Caesarea  in  173 Cappadocia  until  such time as h i s u n c l e ' s campaign should a l l o w  to assume h i s r o l e i n Armenia. i n honour o f t h e new  Caesar,  Coins were minted  Dalmatius,  throughout  to a r o l e i n the s u c c e s s i o n .  Hannibalianus, granted  the Empire  but o n l y C o n s t a n t i n o p l e s t r u c k  f o r H a n n i b a l i a n u s ; as a c l i e n t - k i n g and not a Caesar, 174 entitled  him  he was  not  The younger Dalmatius  and  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r u n c l e J u l i u s C o n s t a n t i u s , were  the t i t l e riobiZissimus  H a n n i b a l i a n u s was  by Constantine."*"^  The appointment of  no r e f l e c t i o n on the a b i l i t y o f C o n s t a n t i u s I I to d e a l  w i t h t h e e a s t e r n problem; a monarch was  r e q u i r e d to r e p l a c e T i r a n  C o n s t a n t i n e p r e f e r r e d t h a t i t be one of h i s own  and  r e l a t i v e s on whom he  could r e l y .  The death of h i s mother Helena i n 329 had  removed the main  o b s t a c l e to the promotion of her arch-enemies, the descendants of Theodora. The a t t a c k s and  success of C o n s t a n t i u s I I i n r e p e l l i n g the P e r s i a n the appointment of H a n n i b a l i a n u s  produced a temporary  peace, as the P e r s i a n s sent a d e l e g a t i o n to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e  shortly  176 b e f o r e E a s t e r of 336. to  journey  The  lull  i n f i g h t i n g enabled  Constantius  II  to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , t h e r e to j o i n w i t h h i s f a t h e r i n the  f i n a l c e l e b r a t i o n of the tvicervnalia  on 25 J u l y 336.'''^  f e s t i v i t i e s , C o n s t a n t i u s I I solemnized  h i s marriage  As p a r t of  w i t h the daughter oJ 178  J u l i u s C o n s t a n t i u s , C o n s t a n t i n e ' s h a l f - b r o t h e r , and of G a l l a . was  an o c c a s i o n f o r g r e a t  KOITTi  xoG  TTOII'SUJV  6ieTrepa'fvexo  irpeaguxSpou xftv r|AiKiav 6ictTrpaScxyevos.  eaxiciivx6s xe Aaynpuis <ai ayyiroaid<;ovxos, 6'  Xctpiayaxuv,  a<f>a)piayivois aAAaxo6i x ° P °  OaAiai  l s  6n Kai  natSa,  uxSe yev av6pojv 6 i & a o i s , " <5ta66aeis xe iTAoOaiai  onyois sya iroAeaiv eocopouvxo.  By t h i s marriage,  the descendants of Helena (i.e.,  sons and daughters) and  those of Theodora (i.e.,  Constantine's the o f f s p r i n g  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s h a l f - b r o t h e r s and h a l f - s i s t e r s ) were u n i t e d i n t o family.  xe  auvexe'Aei y&uous, iraAaixaxous  e a x i & a e i s 'fjyovxo, vuy<j>oaxoAouvxos auxou 3aaiA£ws xbv  YUvaiKaiv  This  rejoicing:  'Eireidn Se wxX o xp iaKovxae"xns -ctuxaj xfjs BaaiAefas Xpovos, xu> 6eux£pa) xaiv  the  The name of the w i f e of C o n s t a n t i u s I I i s unknown.  time Constans, the youngest son, had  of one  By  been b e t r o t h e d to Olympias, 180  daughter of the p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t A b l a b i u s . commitment o u t s i d e the F l a v i a n dynasty  The  own  this the  reason f o r t h i s  i s d o u b t l e s s to be found  i n the  absence  of  any  a d d i t i o n a l  before  the  end  of  p r o v i s i o n  for  Carthage,  he  tvicennalia,  his  the  e l i g i b l e descendants  succession.  sentenced  the  of  Constantine  On  29  bastard  A p r i l  son  of  Theodora.  made  336,  i n  one a  L i c i n i u s  Shortly  f u r t h e r  r e s c r i p t  to  be  posted  at  scourged, 181  fetters,  bound  w i t h  youth  escaped  Carthage f e t t e r s  on  but  21  and  and  was  J u l y  reduced  to  his  apprehended.  In  336,  consigned  Constantine  to  o r i g i n a l another  sentenced  service  i n  the  way  F l a v i a n  b i r t h - s t a t u s . r e s c r i p t ,  posted  him  bound  to  be  i m p e r i a l weaving  The at i n  establishment  18 2 at  Carthage.  In  competition Although have  on  t h i s  f a i l e d  Crispus  of  part  II  t h i s  source  Caesarea  at  reassure  t h e i r had  time  the  supporters  to  i n f l u e n c e  primary  at  of  served  L i c i n i u s  The  Eusebius  act  to  and  propaganda  the  t h i s  is  for  was  the  J o v i a n  o l d  Constantine's  character,  done  the  of  dynasty  just  freed  sons,  as  the  from  p o s s i b l e  dynasty. i t  could  executions  not of  decade b e f o r e .  a our  knowledge  Laudatio  Constantinople  of  Constantine's  Constantin-L towards  the  d e l i v e r e d t e r m i n a t i o n  by of  the  183  tr-Lcermal'ia.  Eusebius  looked  to  sons  nephews  Constantine's  and  upon  the  w i t h  granting  of  an  i m p e r i a l  r o l e  favour:  n<5ri 6e <ai xex&pxns a v a K O K A o u u e v n s 7repid6ou, ois av rav xP°"va)V eis  UTIKOS  EKTEIVOU£vu)V,  auva\3£u)V x h v g a a i A e f a v OKJ>06VU) Kavwvia  T O U yevovs,  Kaiaapwv xe ava6ef££ai, TTpotfinxwv Oe'icov ctTroTrAnpo i  0 eajr i ay a xa,  a fin u&Aai K C U i r p d i r a A a i wfie irn. eSoa • Kai  6laXf^ovxai  TI*]V  yapyapuyous  x a i s x u v Kaiaapwv em AayiJ>eai, xobs Tfoppwxdxco x o i s  BaaiAefav 'dyioi  ' y ^ t a x o u .... 6 ,6' i s  <J>OJS  f)\\ov  XOTTOXS  aiuoKiayevoys, x a i s e i s yaKpov e£ auxpu irapaTreyiroyevais  aKxiai  Kaxau^dt^ei, ajfie yev riy i v x.oxs x h v ecoav Aaxouai x5v  42 e i r c t ^ i o v auxou  rapnbv,  0dxepov 6e XU)V TTaiSwv 0axepu) y e v e i xu>v  avepaJTTCjJv, Kai ndAiv aAAov aAAax60i,  Aay.Trxnpas o i a Kai <j>toaxnpas  xtov e£ a u x o u irpoxeoy evwv <f>uixu)V, cuevefyexo.  e i 0 ' {mb  yfav  CetiyAnv BaaiAiKoG xeSpiTnrou xexxapas uiro^euCas auxos eauxw oia xivas  TTCOAOUS  toils avSpeloxdxous  Kaioapas, n v i a i s xe auxous  ev.Qeou auytjjwvi'as xe K a i o y o v o i a s apyoadyevos,  dvooSev uifinAws  nvioxwv eAa\5vei, oyou xftv atiyTraaav, '6oriv o riA.ios ecjiopa, <  611TTTTe\3(jjv, auxos xe  xois Traaiv  emTrapoiiv,  KCLX  xa irdvxa  184 6 laaKoiTouy evos • Eusebius, i n mentioning t h e appointment  of more of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s kindred,  i s r e f e r r i n g t o the r e c e n t promotions of Dalmatius and H a n n i b a l i a n u s . Only Dalmatius, however, has been made a Caesar, as i s m a n i f e s t from the r e f e r e n c e to the f o u r most n o b l e Caesars as horses i n the i m p e r i a l chariot.  One must be c a r e f u l to n o t i c e t h a t Eusebius i s p o r t r a y i n g the  Caesars as C o n s t a n t i n e ' s a s s i s t a n t s , not as h i s s u c c e s s o r s .  In a speech  designed to p r a i s e and g l o r i f y the s o v e r e i g n , mention o f h i s m o r t a l i t y would have been most i m p o l i t i c .  Proof t h a t Eusebius c o n s i d e r e d the  Caesars t o be merely t h e a s s i s t a n t s o f , and not the equals o f , t h e i r father  the Augustus  i s c o n t a i n e d i n the subsequent  paragraphs,  wherein  the i m i t a t i o n o f the heavenly empire by the t e r r e s t r i a l one i s emphasized: Kcbreixa xns oupavtou  BaaiAefas  CIK6VI  KeKoaynyevos, avu BAeircjv,  kaxSi xr)v apxexuirov i 6 e a v xous Kdxw 6iaKu3epvaiv i0\3vei, yovdpxou dSuvaaxeias y i y f i y a x i KpaxaioOyevos  • xouxo yap  av9pwpa)V (JiOaei xuv eni yr]s yovn, xuv airdvxwv BaaiAeus  Seoupnxai  • vdyos yap ouxos BaaiAiKns e^ouafas, o xhv Kaxa  ir&VTtdv yfav ctpxnv opi^oyevos . . . .  610 6>T) eas Gebs, aAA'  ou 6 i 3 o , o u 6 e xpeis, o u 6 e exi TrAeioves • aKpiBojs yap aBeov TO TroAuOeov.  eis BaaiAeus, Kat 6  , . "c paaiAiKos e i s Q  ....  Aoyos  TOUTOU  One,  then s u r e l y t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s was  lies  i n the i m m o r t a l i t y of God  and  *  C o n s t a n t i n e had the imperivan  - S  *  to c o n t i n u e .  The  s u r e l y t h i s was  son, j u s t as C o n s t a n t i u s I d i e d , xbv  TCJ  as c r e a t i o n i s governed  -  xn n A i K i a TTpoayovTi  KAripov tns  Traiocov  If  to be h i s gaaiAefas,  o -*  TOJV  irapaoous.  186  "n 4-  But  g i v e n h i s o t h e r sons and h i s e l d e s t nephews a share i n  as w e l l , whereas C o n s t a n t i u s I had not bestowed any  such  command upon h i s o t h e r sons, l a r g e l y because of t h e i r youth.  If  C o n s t a n t i n e were to adhere to h i s own  that  p o l i c y , which advocated  t h e r e be o n l y one monarch, he s t i l l had  the o p p o r t u n i t y to make t h i s  c l e a r by c o n f e r r i n g the t i t l e of Augustus upon h i s e l d e s t tempering failed  t h e a u t h o r i t y of the remaining  to do.  Caesars.  For the moment he put h i s t r u s t  the t r a i n i n g undergone by h i s sons and (10)  i s known.  son and  by  T h i s , however, he  i n h i s own  h e a l t h and  The T r a i n i n g of the  Caesars and  Hannibalianus  B e f o r e t h e i r appointments to the c o u r t , they  had  s t u d i e d r h e t o r i c a t Narbo under E x u p e r i u s ; a f t e r b e i n g granted the of  Caesar, Dalmatius  p r e v a i l e d upon h i s u n c l e to grant E x u p e r i u s  g o v e r n o r s h i p i n Spain.  187  in  nephews.  Of the t r a i n i n g of the younger Dalmatius little  by  difficulty  the m o r t a l i t y of C o n s t a n t i n e .  o n l y one were to govern a f t e r h i s death,  voya) cpuaeoos,  voyos  185  I f the Empire c o u l d be governed o n l y by one,  eldest  KOLX  Their education at that c i t y  title  a  should come as  no s u r p r i s e , s i n c e C o n s t a n t i n e ' s b r o t h e r s spent s e v e r a l y e a r s i n 188 nominal  e x i l e a t nearby T o l o s a ,  p r o b a b l y as l a t e as 330.  In the  of H a n n i b a l i a n u s , n o t h i n g i s known r e g a r d i n g h i s a u t h o r i t y or a f t e r h i s appointment to Caesarea Dalmatius, must have enjoyed  i n Cappadocia.  Regarding  training  His brother,  the p r e r o g a t i v e s t h a t h i s f e l l o w Caesars  o b t a i n e d , i n c l u d i n g a c o u r t of h i s own;  p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t o r not we  case  cannot  whether he had h i s • 189  own  say f o r c e r t a i n .  the e d u c a t i o n of t h e t h r e e s u r v i v i n g sons of  Constantine there i s l i t t l e  specific  A r b o r i u s , the r h e t o r i c i a n , was  information.  A e m i l i u s Magnus  the t u t o r of a Caesar  at  190 Constantinople;  we  cannot  be c e r t a i n which son was  i n v o l v e d , but i t  was  most l i k e l y  had  spent most of h i s time i n the West a f t e r the d e f e a t o f  The two  primary  e i t h e r Constans o r C o n s t a n t i u s I I , s i n c e C o n s t a n t i n e I I  sources f o r the e d u c a t i o n and  t r a i n i n g of the sons of  C o n s t a n t i n e are t h e f i f t y - n i n t h o r a t i o n of L i b a n i u s and Constantini  of Eusebius. 191  C o n s t a n t i n e I I i n 340,  The former,  Licinius.  the  Vita  composed l o n g a f t e r the death of  r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y o n l y to C o n s t a n t i u s I I  and Constans but i t s g e n e r a l n a t u r e enables i t to be u s e f u l as a to the u p - b r i n g i n g of C o n s t a n t i n e I I as w e l l .  guide  Eusebius wrote h i s  biography of C o n s t a n t i n e a t some time between the death of the e l d e r 192 statesman  and  the murder of h i s e l d e s t  son;  l i k e L i b a n i u s , he i s  c a r e f u l to omit any mention of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s nephews a f t e r the of 337,  j u s t as a f t e r 326  he pretended  t h a t C r i s p u s had never  Both sources r e f r a i n from s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s but guide.  still  tragedy existed.  s e r v e as a u s e f u l  L i b a n i u s i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the Caesars r e c e i v e d a t w o f o l d  e d u c a t i o n , b e i n g equipped  f o r both t h e management of the Empire and  45 excellence p r i m a r i l y adept  as  i n  r h e t o r i c ;  from  t h e i r  s o l d i e r s  193  own  and  t h e i r  t r a i n i n g  f a t h e r ,  at  the  who  same  i n  r e g a l  ensured  time  matters  that  moulded  they  t h e i r  was  would  minds  derived  become  i n  the  image  194 of  j u s t i c e .  were  given  Libanius courts  and  adds  armies  that,  when  s i m i l a r  to  they his  were  own,  made  being  Caesars,  they  i n f e r i o r  only  i n  195 t h e i r each  t i t l e . of  According  his  sons  t r a i n i n g ,  so  go  once  amiss;  close  that  he  they  to  to his  would had  be  L i b a n i u s ,  Constantine  own  i n  court  able  proved  to  the  come  to  themselves,  was  e a r l y t h e i r  they  c a r e f u l  stages a i d  were  of  to  keep  t h e i r  should  anything  dispatched  to  the 196  f r o n t i e r s  where  That  was  t h i s  a f t e r II  the  they  the  death  case  of  is  experience evident  Crispus,  had  never  e x i s t e d  unison  along  t h e i r  in  Gothic  the  could  and  careers.  campaign  of  from  although  t r e a t s  the  the  the  and  II  was  of  of  sons  had  only  as  been  a f t e r  government.  the  pretends  remaining  i t  tasks  careers  Libanius  Constantine  332  a c t u a l  t h r e e  that  sons  Constantine  proceeding aided  that  by  i n  his  year  f a t h e r  that  he  197  remained i n sole charge of Gaul. Constantius II had j o i n e d w i t h his father i n the settlement of the Sarmatians i n 334 and i t was n o t u n t i l the  f o l l o w i n g  year  that  he  was  given  command  of  the  forces  on  the  198 eastern  f r o n t .  334»  l e s s  than  more  p a c i f i c  Constans, a  year  nature  i t  a f t e r  of  his  appears,  a c q u i r i n g t e r r i t o r y ,  had  the  been  rank  there  of  was  dispatched Caesar;  l i t t l e  to  I t a l y  because  need  f o r  of  i n the  the  199 immediate of  the  o r a t i o n before  presence  Caesars of the  of  serves  Libanius. death  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  but  of is  h i s to  f a t h e r . supplement,  Eusebius, Constantine a b l e  Eusebius'  to  r a t h e r  w r i t i n g II,  speak  of  than  a f t e r  excludes a l l  account to  the the  three  of  the  c o n t r a d i c t ,  slaughter cousins  brothers.  of  t r a i n i n g the 337  and  from He  emphasizes  46 the appointment of C h r i s t i a n men  as t h e i r  t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  a g r e e i n g w i t h L i b a n i u s r e g a r d i n g the appointment of a c o u r t and m i l i t a r y f o r c e s to each."^^  A c c o r d i n g to E u s e b i u s ,  the t h r e e sons were  a i d e d by a d v i s e r s i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s but l a t e r were s u b j e c t o n l y to 201 their father's instructions.  L i b a n i u s and  f a i l i n g to g i v e s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , a r e c o r r e c t I t was  Eusebius,  although  i n the o v e r a l l  impression.  n a t u r a l t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e would ensure t h a t h i s sons s h o u l d  r e c e i v e the b e s t t r a i n i n g f o r government, i f o n l y to s e c u r e s u r v i v a l a f t e r h i s death, and a l s o t h a t they should be , _ ,,202 xncreasxng xndependence as they matured.  their  granted  t  (11) Little  The Death o f C o n s t a n t i n e  i s known about the a c t i v i t i e s of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s sons  d u r i n g h i s few remaining months a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n of the i n Constantinople. the l a c k of any time.  The  tvioennalia  f r o n t i e r s of the Rhine and Danube appear,  evidence to the c o n t r a r y , t o have been p e a c e f u l at  C o n s t a n t i n e I I was  this  p r o b a b l y spending most of h i s time i n the  v i c i n i t y of T r i e r , where he c o u l d keep a c l o s e watch a l o n g the Rhine f o r any  from  s i g n s o f u n r e s t among the Franks  and Alamanni; he  entire may,  too, have a s s i s t e d Constans i n p r o t e c t i n g t h e upper reaches of t h e Danube from any  Sarmatian  threat.  Constans h i m s e l f p r o b a b l y r e s i d e d at  A q u i l e i a d u r i n g most of t h i s p e r i o d .  The younger Dalmatius  guarded  the  lower reaches of the Danube, p r o b a b l y o p e r a t i n g out of T h e s s a l o n i c a ; w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of h i s u n c l e , he was all  those w i t h i m p e r i a l rank.  the c l o s e s t to C o n s t a n t i n o p l e of  At some time a f t e r the trioennalia  ended i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , p r o b a b l y i n the l a t e summer of 336  or  had  certainly  no l a t e r than the e a r l y s p r i n g of 337,  Constantius I I l e f t  the c a p i t a l and r e t u r n e d to A n t i o c h i n o r d e r to guard f r o n t i e r w h i l e h i s f a t h e r prepared  the e a s t e r n  an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t  the  203 Persians.  Hannibalianus,  Cappadocian Caesarea.  so f a r as i s known, • c o n t i n u e d  C o n s t a n t i n e h i m s e l f , h a v i n g taken  to r e s i d e i n  adequate  p r e c a u t i o n s elsewhere i n t h e Empire, c o n t i n u e d h i s p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the e a s t e r n campaign from the c a p i t a l .  A f t e r c e l e b r a t i n g Easter there,  he  fell  i l l and r e s o r t e d to the hot baths a t C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and l a t e r to 204 those at H e l e n o p o l i s . I t was a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i s time t h a t he d i s p a t c h e d h i s l a s t e d i c t , t h i s one b e i n g to the c o u n c i l of the 205 p r o v i n c e of A f r i c a .  Whether o r not he informed  c o n d i t i o n a t t h i s stage cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d . towards Nicomedia, he f e l l t h a t c i t y and,  h i s f a m i l y of h i s  Proceeding  s e r i o u s l y i l l at Ancyra  thence  i n the suburbs of 206 a f t e r b e i n g b a p t i z e d , d i e d t h e r e on 22 May 337.  48 Notes to Chapter  One  """We must never l o s e s i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t Galba, Otho, V i t e l l i u s , and V e s p a s i a n were, l i k e Caesar and Pompey many y e a r s b e f o r e them, members o f the s e n a t o r i a l o r d e r , e n t i t l e d by t h e i r rank to s i t i n the Senate, even though they owed much o f t h e i r auctoritas to t h e i r m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e . Macrinus (217-218 A.D.) was t h e f i r s t Augustus who was not a member of t h e s e n a t o r i a l o r d e r (Herod. 5.1.5). 2 Nerva, b e i n g c h i l d l e s s , had adopted T r a j a n as h i s s u c c e s s o r . T r a j a n i n t u r n i s r e p o r t e d to have adopted H a d r i a n . But i t was H a d r i a n who c a r r i e d the p r i n c i p l e o f a d o p t i o n to an extreme, f o r he not o n l y adopted Antoninus as h i s s u c c e s s o r but a l s o compelled the l a t t e r to adopt the youths Marcus A u r e l i u s and Verus, thereby e n s u r i n g the s u c c e s s i o n to the second g e n e r a t i o n . 3 Maxentius was regarded as s t i l l too young f o r i n s t r u c t i o n when Pan. Lat. 2.14.1 was d e l i v e r e d i n 289. T h e r e f o r e , he was p r o b a b l y no more than e i g h t y e a r s o l d when D i o c l e t i a n and Maximian a p p o i n t e d t h e i r Caesars i n 293. 4 Thus I i n t e r p r e t Pan. Lat. 10.6.6 (omnibus qui statum e^us tabefactare poterant cum stirpe deletis) i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Pan. Lat.  9.16.5 (cum uxove ac filio  in privatam  domum sponte concesserat).  Even  i f they were not k i l l e d , Maxentius' w i f e and younger son were condemned to an o b s c u r i t y almost tantamount to death. ^ L a c t . Mort. Pers. 50-51. 6  Eus.  HE 9.11.3-4.  L a c t . Mort. Pers. 8  45.1.  Anon. V a l . 5.14-15.  Anon. V a l . 5.18; Zos. 2.20.1. T. D. Barnes, " L a c t a n t i u s and C o n s t a n t i n e , " JRS 63 (1973) 36-38, d a t e s the war to 316, not to the t r a d i t i o n a l year o f 314. y  "^Hieron. Chron. f o r 317; Cons. Const, f o r 317; Chron. Pasch. f o r 317; Anon. V a l . 5.19; V i c t . Caes. 41.6; V i c t . Epit. 41.4; Oros. 7.28.22; Zos. 2.20.2. The e v i d e n c e f o r d a t i n g the promotion o f t h e Caesars to 316 i s v e r y s l i g h t , as i s shown by M. T h i r i o n , "Les v o t a imperiaux sur l e s monnaies e n t r e 337 et 364," SNR 44 (1965) 16-17.  because  ^CTh 9.38.1 o f 30 October 322, pardoning most o f the b i r t h o f a c h i l d to C r i s p u s and Helena.  criminals  49 12  V i c t . Epit. 41.4; Zos. 2.20.2; Zon. 13.2.5D. Whether M i n e r v i n a was t h e f i r s t w i f e o r merely t h e concubine o f C o n s t a n t i n e does not concern us a t t h i s p o i n t . What m a t t e r s i s t h a t he was a son of C o n s t a n t i n e , b u t n o t o f h i s w i f e F a u s t a , t o whom C o n s t a n t i n e was m a r r i e d on 31 March 307 (Pan. Lat. 6 ) . Pan. Lat. 6.4.1 can v e r y w e l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f e r r i n g t o C o n s t a n t i n e ' s marriage to M i n e r v i n a ; f o r t h i s view see J.-R. Palanque, " C h r o n o l o g i e c o n s t a n t i n i e n n e , " REA 40 (1938) 245-248. Anon. V. Const. 9 r e f e r s t o C o n s t a n t i n e ' s f i r s t YUVOUK6S. F o r the view t h a t M i n e r v i n a was i n a s t a t e o f l e g i t i m a t e concubinage w i t h C o n s t a n t i n e see X. L u c i e n - B r u n , " M i n e r v i n a , epouse ou c o n c u b i n e ? , " BAGB 29. (1970) 391-406. 13  Pan. Lat. 6. 14 E. G a l l e t i e r , Pankgyrxques latvns ( P a r i s 1952) 2.7, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Pan. Lat. 6.6.2, f o l l o w s Seeck i n f a v o u r i n g the year 298 f o r h e r b i r t h . But X. Lucien-Brun, " M i n e r v i n a , epouse ou concubine?" BAGB 29 (1970) 393, shows good reason f o r d a t i n g the b i r t h of F a u s t a to 287; i f she had met C o n s t a n t i n e w h i l e she was s t i l l a c h i l d , t h i s must have been b e f o r e 293, when he was sent east to D i o c l e t i a n ' s court. S e e c k , Gesohiehte 4.3 and 377; PLRE 223. This i s also the o p i n i o n o f W. Blum, "Die Jugend des C o n s t a n t i u s II. b i s z u seinem Regierungsantritt. E i n e c h r o n o l o g i s c h e Untersuchung," Classiea et Mediaevalia 30 (1969) 389-391. 1 5  "^J.-R. Palanque, " C h r o n o l o g i e c o n s t a n t i n i e n n e , " REA 40 (1938) 249-250; P. C. F. G u t h r i e , "The E x e c u t i o n o f C r i s p u s , " Phoenix 20 (1966) 329-331. 1 7  Z o s . 2.39.1.  1 Q  Zos. 19 II. 20  2.20.2.  For t h i s d a t e see below under the d i s c u s s i o n o f C o n s t a n t i u s  Zos.  2.20.2.  2 1  Vict.  Epit. 41.4.  2 2  Guthrie,  "The E x e c u t i o n o f C r i s p u s , " 329-331.  23 I have seen t h i s IS a t Surrentum ( i n September 1970). There i s no t r a c e o f t h e word novaevcae [sia] and, i n any case, as a r e s t o r a t i o n i t i n v o l v e s e x c e s s i v e crowding. Far more l i k e l y i s genetrici, o f which I saw t r a c e s (. . . .TR. .1). A. O l i v e t t i , " I f i g l i d e l l a i m p e r a t r i c e F a u s t a , " AAT 49 (1913-1914) 1242-1251, c o n s i d e r s t h i s IS t o have been d e d i c a t e d to F a u s t a as the novevoa o f C r i s p u s and the mater o f C o n s t a n t i n e I I and C o n s t a n t i u s I I .  50 24  AE (1952) 107 c o n f i r m s C o n s t a n t i n e I I as t h e o f f s p r i n g of C o n s t a n t i n e and F a u s t a . 25 J u l . Cv. 1.9D. Anon. V. Const. 9 a f f i r m s t h a t C o n s t a n t i n e had f o u r o f f s p r i n g by F a u s t a , namely C o n s t a n t i n e I I , C o n s t a n t i u s I I , Constans, and C o n s t a n t i n a . Zon. 13.2.5D vouches f o r t h e t h r e e sons. V i c t . Epit.  2 6  42.17.  27 F. Paschoud, Zosime ( P a r i s 1971) 1.212. Paschoud p r e f e r s to s o l v e the problem by r e t a i n i n g the date o f F e b r u a r y 317 f o r C o n s t a n t i n e I I and changing t h a t o f C o n s t a n t i u s I I to 7 August 318, but i n so d o i n g he i s v i o l a t i n g t h e evidence o f Amm. 21.15.3 and E u t r . 10.15.2. Phot. Bibl. 258 (483b), an e x t r a c t from a biography of A t h a n a s i u s , a l s o s t a t e s that Constantius I I died i n h i s f o r t y - f i f t h year. 28  CTh 11.30.5-6. 29 J.-R. Palanque, " C h r o n o l o g i e c o n s t a n t i n i e n n e , " REA 40 (1938) 249-250. 30 Suet.  Claud. 1.  I am i n d e b t e d to D. G. 0. Smith f o r t h i s  reference. E u t r . 10.6.3; V i c t . Caes. 41.6; Anon. V a l . 5.19, 28, 29; ' H i e r o n . Chvon. f o r 317; Oros. 7.28.22. V i c t . Epit. 41.4 and Zos. 2.20.2 o n l y imply t h a t he was a son of C o n s t a n t i a i n t h a t they do n o t s p e c i f y t h a t he was a b a s t a r d , a l t h o u g h a t the same time they do stipulate this status f o r Crispus. 3 1  CTh  32  CTh 4.6.2 o f 29 A p r i l 336.  3 3  3  4.6.2-3.  ^ad suae originis CTh  35  36  pvimovdia.  4.6.3 o f 21 J u l y 336.  A n o n . V a l . 5.19; H i e r o n . Chvon. f o r 317; E u t r . 10.6.3; Oros.  7.28.26. AE  31  (1969/1970) 375.  O Q  L a c t . Movt. Revs. 43.2 and Zos. 2.17.2 f o r the b e t r o t h a l of Consta