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The ideology of the Indian reform movement in eighteenth-century Peru Statton, Marian Joyce Elaine 1977

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THE IDEOLOGY OF THE INDIAN REFORM MOVEMENT IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY PERU  M a r i a n Joyce E l a i n e  Statton  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968  A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the degree o f Doctor o f P h i l o s o p h y  The Department o f H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming t o the required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1977  Marian Joyce Elaine Statton, 1977  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  A  Department of  J-j \nflt\ft.M<  %  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  ii  ABSTRACT  S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i o n c r e a t e d an I n d i a n e l i t e p e r p e t u a t i n g the h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e of I n d i a n s o c i e t y .  i n Peru by-  S p a i n gave a  number of p r i v i l e g e s t o the p r e - H i s p a n i c I n d i a n l e a d e r s so t h a t they would a s s i s t i n c o n t r o l l i n g and e x p l o i t i n g the m a j o r i t y I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n .  The  i n t e r m e d i a r y p o s i t i o n o f these I n d i a n l e a d e r s c r e a t e d a t e n s i o n between the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  l o y a l t i e s they d e r i v e d from Spanish s o c i e t y and  they d e r i v e d from t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n s o c i e t y . Spanish  By the e i g h t e e n t h  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y had exacerbated  p o i n t where the I n d i a n e l i t e was  those  century  t h i s tension to the  o f t e n s u b j e c t t o openly  conflicting  As a r e s u l t they f a c e d the p r o s p e c t of l o s i n g the s o c i a l and  interests.  economic advantages  which t h e i r i n t e r m e d i a r y r o l e o f f e r e d . S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i o n had a l s o , however, a s s i g n e d c o l o n i a l m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n to f o s t e r the w e l f a r e o f I n d i a n s . the p r o t e c t o r a l system t h i s o b l i g a t i o n was bureaucracy.  adThrough  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y the I n d i a n e l i t e attempted to  use b o t h t h i s system and the t h e o r i e s on which i t had been founded t o r e g a i n their effectively privileged status.  From 1708  t o 1737  the Indian  elite  c e n t r e d i n Lima p e t i t i o n e d both the V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s and the S p a n i s h Crown to demand the implementation that the Crown's benevolent  of t h e i r legal p r i v i l e g e s .  theory  i n t e n t i o n s towards the I n d i a n s as a whole were the  source o f the p r i v i l e g e s granted defense  B a s e d on the  the e l i t e , t h e y began t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e  o f common I n d i a n s i n t o t h e s e p e t i t i o n s .  Although  the  administration  iii  responded to these p e t i t i o n s w i t h approval i n theory, they brought l i t t l e i n the way of e f f e c t i v e reform. By 1748  these p e t i t i o n s had created a coherent ideology f o r reform  which the Indian e l i t e of Lima presented i n a document c a l l e d the Representaci6n verdadera.  A Franciscan, F r . C a l i x t o Tupac Inga, played an important r o l e i n  urging the Indians t o continue t h e i r p e t i t i o n s to the Crown rather than undertake r e v o l t against the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The Representaci6n set out a  number of broad reforms i n the c o l o n i a l administration designed to give Indians a more important and responsible p o s i t i o n i n the government of Indian s o c i e t y under the Spanish regime.  These reforms were expressed w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e  of an analogy between the Jews of Babylon and the Indians i n Peru. This analogy was i n s p i r e d by the w r i t i n g s of early Spanish m i s s i o n a r i e s and gave the plan f o r reform a Utopian connotation v/hich undermined i t s appeal f o r Spanish a u t h o r i t i e s .  On the b a s i s of Hispanic missionary i d e a l s , the  RepresentaciSn went as f a r as to j u s t i f y r e b e l l i o n as a means of destroying the t y r a n n i c a l Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  General apprehensions about the  p o s s i b i l i t y of Indian r e v o l t , together with an a c t u a l u p r i s i n g i n 1750  l e d by  members of the Lima I n d i a n e l i t e , moved the V i c e r e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to take repressive measures against Indian protest i n general and p a r t i c u l a r l y against Fr. Calixto. T h i s r e p r e s s i o n e f f e c t i v e l y put an end to the Lima Indian e l i t e ' s r o l e as advocates of the welfare of r u r a l Indian s o c i e t y .  The p a t t e r n of p r o t e s t  e s t a b l i s h e d by the Lima e l i t e and the ideology of reform developed i n the course of t h i s p r o t e s t provided, however, the b a s i s f o r Jose G a b r i e l Tupac  iv  Amaru, h i m s e l f a r u r a l c a c i q u e , t o advocate of oppressed r u r a l I n d i a n s . of r e b e l l i o n developed which now  r e f o r m t o improve the c o n d i t i o n  When these appeals f a i l e d , he adopted the t h e o r y  i n the R e p r e s e n t a c i o n t o i n i t i a t e the r e b e l l i o n o f  bears h i s name.  The  1?80  f o r m a t i o n o f I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t thought w i t h i n  the framework o f H i s p a n i c c o l o n i a l theory p r e c l u d e d i t from d e v e l o p i n g a realistic  assessment o f the complex s o c i a l and economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  existed i n c o l o n i a l Peru.  As a r e s u l t , the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t movement, i l l  p r e p a r e d t o meet the c h a l l e n g e s p r e s e n t e d by the changed c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the 1780*3, was Amaru I I .  d e s t i n e d t o d i e w i t h i t s l a s t and most r a d i c a l exponent, Tupac  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page INTRODUCTION  1  NOTES  11  CHAPTER I The Origins of the Indian E l i t e i n Spanish Colonial L e g i s l a tion NOTES  16 '37  CHAPTER I I The Subjection of the Indian E l i t e to Spanish E x p l o i t a t i o n i n the Eighteenth Century NOTES  kk 66  CHAPTER I I I The Origins of Indian Reformist Thought, Radical Religious 1 Ideals and the Spanish Protectoral System NOTES  80 103  CHAPTER IV The Indian E l i t e as Protectors:  1708-1737  NOTES  110 137  CHAPTER V Radical Reform:  The Representaci6n verdadera  NOTES  14-3 173  CHAPTER VI Repression and Rebellion: NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY  1750-1780  185 201 205  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o express my thanks t o Pablo Macera who,  during h i s  short stay i n Vancouver, gave me an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l which the h i s t o r y of Indian society i n Peru offered f o r innovative research and interpretation. I would also l i k e to thank Roderick Barman f o r h i s p a i n s t a k i n g comments on the composition of the d i s s e r t a t i o n as w e l l as h i s patience i n supporting my work through what must have appeared to be o f t e n inexcusable delays. A number of people outside the U n i v e r s i t y have contributed i n d i r e c t l y to the completion of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , and I would l i k e t o thank two of them as representative of the others.  F i r s t l y , my thanks go t o Norman Leach as the  most outspoken of those who made i t impossible f o r me to abandon the work. Secondly, I owe a great o b l i g a t i o n t o the f a m i l y and f r i e n d s who so generously r e l i e v e d me of my domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the l a s t few weeks of preparing the d i s s e r t a t i o n .  Amongst these I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the outstanding and  understanding cooperation of my husband, Brent.  1  INTRODUCTION  The dramatic impact which the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru i n 1 ? 8 0 had on the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Peru has tended 'to overshadow 'the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the numerous l o c a l r e v o l t s and w r i t t e n protests' 'which preceded i t .  Most h i s t o r i a n s i n t e r p r e t Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' i n the  r e b e l l i o n of 1780 as the culmination of the dissent' expressed i n both w r i t t e n protests and spontaneous u p r i s i n g s beginning i n the 1720*s.^ Fev; s c h o l a r s , however, have attempted to i n v e s t i g a t e the nature of these e a r l y manifestations of Indian discontent from any other than the vantage point of the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru. i c a l understanding  As a r e s u l t , our •histor-  of Indian d i s a f f e c t i o n w i t h the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n the eighteenth century has been colored by the p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru as s e p a r a t i s t i n nature.  While the  American authority on t h i s r e b e l l i o n , L i l l i a n E s t e l l e F i s h e r , considers 2  i t to have been conservative and reformist xn i t s i n t e n t , thxs xnterpretat i o n has not been widely accepted by Peruvian scholars.  On the contrary,  the s e p a r a t i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n presented by D a n i e l V a l c a r c e l and Boleslao Lewin has been r e i t e r a t e d and expanded by recent Peruvian s t u d i e s . ^ I n the absence of a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t u d i e s on e a r l i e r manifestations of Indian d i s s e n t , t h i s emphasis on the s e p a r a t i s t nature of the r e b e l l i o n of 1 7 8 0  2  threatens, by being projected back upon them, t o d i s t o r t our understanding of both the minor r e v o l t s and the w r i t t e n p r o t e s t s which preceded the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru. Our knowledge of e a r l i e r Indian r e v o l t s i s s t i l l founded l a r g e l y on the summary d e s c r i p t i o n s of them given i n the memoriae o f the Peruvian Viceroys and on o c c a s i o n a l references scattered through otherwise unrelated documents.  The r e b e l l i o n of Juan Santos which broke out i n 17^2 i n the  Cerro de l a S a l r e g i o n on the eastern side of the Andes i s a notable exception to t h i s general r u l e .  Both Stefano Varese and Mario Castro Arenas  have described t h i s r e b e l l i o n as marginal and messianic i n nature.  The  f a i l u r e of t h i s r e b e l l i o n t o make any attempt t o consolidate the f o o t h o l d i t d i d gain i n the Andean region of Peru together w i t h the complete d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the r e b e l l i o n on the disappearance of i t s charismatic leader make any comparison between the r e b e l l i o n of Juan Santos and that 5 of Tupac Amaru h i g h l y debatable.  The r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru drew i t s  prime strength from the support of the Andean Indian p o p u l a t i o n and continued to threaten the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n even a f t e r the execution o f i t s i n s t i g a t o r Jose G a b r i e l Tupac Amaru. The mestizo u p r i s i n g i n Cochabamba i n 1750 and the conspiracy of Juan Velez de C6rdova i n Oruro i n 1739» both w i t h i n the boundaries of present-day B o l i v i a , o f f e r more p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r comparison w i t h the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru.  Both occurred w e l l w i t h i n the geographical  area  3  e f f e c t i v e l y colonized by Spain and reveal at l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s to the' r e b e l l i o n of I78O.  For instance, the u p r i s i n g i n Co'chabamba was  an  immediate result of Spanish attempts to oblige mestizos to pay tribute, also a prime factor i n mestizo p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e b e l l i o n Of Tupac Amaru.  The conspiracy i n Oruro planned to oust the corrupt Spanish  ministration and i n s t a l l an Indian as King.  ad-  There i s 'some evidence-lto  support the b e l i e f that the followers of Tupac Amaru planned to'crown him 7 as the legitimate r u l e r of Peru.  The present lack of a comprehensive  evaluation of a l l the factors involved i n the uprising of Cochabamba and conspiracy of Oruro makes any conclusions which might be drawn from these apparent s i m i l a r i t i e s with the r e b e l l i o n of 1?80 highly speculative. Our understanding  of the" "abortive Indian conspiracy i n Lima''and  subsequent uprising i n Huarochiri i n 1750  i s hampered by a s i m i l a r 'lack  of studies.  The leaders of t h i s u p r i s i n g also planned to i n s t a l l ah Pridian  as monarch.  An ajaalysis of the conditions which enabled the preddminatit'ly  urban Indian leaders of the conspiracy of Lima to mobilize the' more r u r a l population of Huarochiri i n an attack on the l o c a l Spanish administration would surely further our understanding of the factors i n f l u e n c i n g the subsequent p a r t i c i p a t i o n of various Indian groups i n the r e b e l l i o n of g Tupac Amaru. There i s , however, s t i l l another important  source of information on  the development of Indian dissent i n the eighteenth century which has  perhaps been even more neglected by h i s t o r i a n s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r tendency to d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y to f a c t o r s which support s e p a r a t i s t n a t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e b e l l i o n of 1780.  the While the  existence of a considerable body of Indian p r o t e s t l i t e r a t u r e dating from 1720 has been acknowledged f o r many years, the r o l e which t h i s l i t e r a t u r e may have played i n shaping Indian opposition t o the Spanish regime i n eighteenth-century Peru has yet to be evaluated.  This d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l  study t h i s l i t e r a t u r e not i n the r e f l e c t e d l i g h t of the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru, but r a t h e r i n the l i g h t of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l context i n which s p e c i f i c p r o t e s t s emerged and of the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s w i t h i n which they were formulated. Aside from the overview presented i n Ruben Vargas Ugarte's H i s t o r i a Q  general d e l Peru,  only one s e r i o u s study has attempted to i n t e r p r e t the  Indian protest l i t e r a t u r e of the eighteenth century.  John Rowe, i n h i s  pioneering a r t i c l e " E l movimiento nacional i n c a d e l s i g l o X V I I I , " attempts to demonstrate that t h i s l i t e r a t u r e formed p a r t of an Indian reformist movement which was i n s p i r e d by a broad r e v i v a l of Inca n a t i o n a l i s m and culminated i n the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru.  10  Rowe's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n presents one major problem.  As Rowe himself  recognizes, the repeated expressions of f i d e l i t y to the Spanish Crown found throughout the Indian p r o t e s t s as w e l l as the Indian r e f o r m i s t s *  5  adoption of Spanish p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s models c o n f l i c t with the nationalist interpretation.  11  Rowe t r i e s to resolve t h i s contradiction  by suggesting that the influence of Hispanic domination on Inca culture was  formal and s u p e r f i c i a l rather than s u b s t a n t i a l .  metaphor to state t h i s contention:  He uses a graphic  "un inca a caballo con un sombrero 12  de tres picos no deja de ser un inca." makes c l e a r , Rowe l a  s  o  And, as the following quotation  i n s i s t s that Inca culture exercised a substantial  influence on the formulation of the Indian reformists* plans:  "Quisieron  c o n s t i t u i r un gobierno y una sociedad organizados en beneficio del elemento indigena y guiados por l a tradici6n de l o s incas, con los cuales les s e r i a posible c u l t i v a r su propia lengua y desarrollar su propia 13 cultura s i n presiones directas de l o s europeos." I t i s clear from these references to language and culture that Rowe believes that the Indian reformists wanted to perpetuate t h e i r Incaic c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c heritage quite independently of i t s e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p to the dominant Hispanic culture.  However, absolutely no  evidence to support t h i s b e l i e f can be found i n any of the Indian protest documents.  Although Rowe theorizes that the Inca n a t i o n a l i s t s ' use of  Hispanic p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s models would be guided by Incaic t r a d i t i o n , this d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l demonstrate that the use which the Indian protesters did i n f a c t make of these models was guided by Spanish c o l o n i a l ideals and  6  the l e g a l i s t i c p r a c t i c e s of the Spanish c o l o n i a l bureaucracy. Since Rowe's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "Inca nationalism" as the motivating f a c t o r behind the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t movement c o n f l i c t s so d r a m a t i c a l l y both w i t h the declared intent of the protest l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f and w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s which the Indian r e f o r m i s t s undertook i n order t o achieve t h e i r r e f o r m i s t g o a l s , the evidence on which Rowe bases h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n warrants close examination.  Rowe supports h i s theory of the existence of  an Inca n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n the eighteenth century w i t h evidence both of the s u r v i v a l of various elements of Inca c u l t u r e and of a renewed i n t e r e s t i n Inca t r a d i t i o n i n the eighteenth century.  The evidence  presented by Rowe, however, does not c o n s t i t u t e convincing proof of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these f a c t o r s as motivating f o r c e s behind the Indian Ik  reform movement.  On the contrary, some of the evidence can be i n t e r p r e t e d  to equal advantage t o show the Indian reformists* adoption of Hispanic values. Rowe's own study demonstrates that the main reason f o r the perpetuat i o n of some elements of Incaic c u l t u r e was as a means of o b t a i n i n g p r i v i l e g e s from the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  F o r instance, according t o  Rowe, the p r e s e r v a t i o n of genealogical t r a d i t i o n s served p r i m a r i l y t o e s t a b l i s h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t t o enjoy s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s granted by Spain t o the descendants of the Inca n o b i l i t y or t o hold the o f f i c e of  7  cacique which, guaranteed a l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the b e n e f i t s t o be 15 derived from the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Indian resources. S i m i l a r l y , Rowe i n t e r p r e t s the "representaciones dramaticas de 16  episodios de l a h i s t o r i a antigua"  as evidence of a r e v i v a l i n Inca  n a t i o n a l i s t s p i r i t i n the eighteenth century.  Yet thel only dramatization  which Rowe s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions was performed i n conjunction with the c e l e b r a t i o n of an important Spanish event, the coronation of King Ferdinand VI i n 1 7 4 3 .  I n t h i s context the "representaciones" served two purposes.  They symbolized the voluntary submission of Inca r u l e r s t o the Spanish Crown and provided a v i s i b l e reminder of the p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s granted 17  the descendants of the Inca r u l e r s v/ithin the Spanish c o l o n i a l system. Thus these "representaciones" are not of themselves demonstrative of a r e v i v a l i n Inca n a t i o n a l i s t sentiment. Rowe deduces a r e v i v a l i n Inca n a t i o n a l i s t s p i r i t from the f a c t t h a t p o r t r a i t s of s e v e r a l eighteenth-century Indian nobles depict them wearing Inca a t t i r e while those of the sixteenth-century forbears show them 18  wearing Spanish d r e s s .  Yet the vehement p r o t e s t s made by the urban  Indian nobles against Spanish decrees p r o h i b i t i n g t h e i r wearing s i l k s and f r i n g e s , generally considered t o be opulent a d d i t i o n s t o Spanish forms of dress, i n d i c a t e t h a t these nobles s t i l l considered Spanish a t t i r e t o be a 19 sign of p r e s t i g e .  Tupac Amaru, considered by Rowe t o be the leader p a r  8  excellence of the I n c a n a t i o n a l i s t movement, wore both Inca and Spanish dress.^ One of the main points of evidence on which Rowe's theory of Inca nationalism r e s t s i s the r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t shown i n the eighteenth century i n the h i s t o r y of the Incas w r i t t e n by the Inca G a r c i l a s o de l a 21 Vega.  Rowe provides convincing evidence of G a r c i l a s o ' s i n f l u e n c e on 22  the Indians' v e r s i o n of s p e c i f i c aspects of Inca h i s t o r y .  I t was  G a r c i l a s o ' s powerful w r i t i n g , i n Rowe's o p i n i o n , that induced the Indians to adopt h i s v e r s i o n of Inca h i s t o r y i n s p i t e of i t s i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which Rowe b e l i e v e s they had received through o r a l tradition: Verdad que l a h i s t o r i a de G a r c i l a s o se apart6 en numerosos puntos de l a t r a d i c i 6 n o r a l todavia conservada, y ha debido haber debates . muy animados entre l o s nobles sobre estos puntos. Pero quien podia dudar de l a autoridad de un l i b r o famoso e s c r i t o por un pariente con i g u a l acceso a l a t r a d i c i 6 n y s i g l o y medio a n t e r i o r . Los Tomases concluyeron que l a t r a d i c i f i n misma habia debido corromperse, y se conformaron, poniendose a c o r r e g i r l o siguiendo l a s i n d i c a c i o n e s d e l h i j o de Chimpu 0 c l l o . 2 3 This s p e c u l a t i o n could e a s i l y be avoided by considering the renewed i n t e r e s t i n G a r c i l a s o as evidence simply of the discovery by the Indian n o b i l i t y of a coherent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l heritage which had otherwise been preserved only i n a l i m i t e d and s e l e c t i v e manner during  9  the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . Indeed, t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f G a r c i l a s o ' s v e r s i o n o f I n c a h i s t o r y may be seen, n o t a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f I n c a n a t i o n a l i s m , but r a t h e r a s p r o o f o f the a c c e p t a b i l i t y t o t h e I n d i a n n o b i l i t y o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f I n c a h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e based l a r g e l y on H i s p a n i c v a l u e s . G a r c i l a s o ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f I n c a h i s t o r y was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Renaissance i d e a l i s m and, as Rowe h i m s e l f admits, G a r c i l a s o ' s r e p u t a t i o n a s an a u t h o r i t y on I n c a m a t t e r s was founded  l a r g e l y on t h e a c c l a i m which h i s  25 writings received m the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y  Europe.  Thus t h e i n f l u e n c e o f G a r c i l a s o I n c a on  i n the eighteenth century, l i k e other p o i n t s o f  e v i d e n c e used by Rowe t o support h i s theory o f I n c a n a t i o n a l i s m , i s entirely  compatible w i t h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m movement  as m o t i v a t e d by H i s p a n i c v a l u e s and d e d i c a t e d t o t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a reformed Spanish c o l o n i a l regime i n P e r u . T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l support t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h  evidence  drawn from an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n groups which p r o v i d e d t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e I n d i a n reform movement as w e l l as from t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s and t h e t e x t s o f t h e i r written protests.  As t h e f o l l o w i n g chapters w i l l show, t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m  movement was a p r o d u c t o f an I n d i a n e l i t e , descendants n o b i l i t y and h e r e d i t a r y l o c a l c h i e f s .  of the Incaic  T h i s e l i t e r e l i e d on p r i v i l e g e s  10 granted i t s members e a r l y i n the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d to maintain a superior s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the Indian masses. When changed p o l i t i c a l and economic conditions i n the eighteenth century threatened  the e l i t e ' s superior s t a t u s , some of i t s members pro-  tested against these changes t o the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  I n these  p r o t e s t s they s t r e s s e d the l e g a l b a s i s f o r t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r i v i l e g e d position.  The f a i l u r e of these p r o t e s t s t o b r i n g e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s caused  the r e f o r m i s t s t o present f u r t h e r and stronger protests incorporating more and more evidence drawn from Spanish c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and Spanish coloni a l t h e o r i s t s i n support of t h e i r cause.  By 1750  these p r o t e s t s had  r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a coherent ideology f o r reform based on Spanish p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n and on the r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s ideals' which had been instrumental i n the formation of that l e g i s l a t i o n .  Accordingly,  the Indian protests of the eighteenth century were dedicated t o e s t a b l i s h i n g not an independent s t a t e guided by Inca t r a d i t i o n s , but the i d e a l i z e d c o l o n i a l society which had been the avowed aim of the Spanish regime i n America.  11  NOTES  INTRODUCTION  1  Daniel V a l c a r c e l , L a r e b e l i 6 n de Tupac Amaru (Mexico and Buenos  A i r e s , 194-7) 1 pp. 25-38; L u i s Durand FLorez, Independencia _e integra'cl6n en e l p l a n p o l i t i c o de Tupac Amaru (Lima, 1973)» pp. 36-39; Boleslao Lewin, L a rebeli6n de Tupac Amaru y_ l o s orlgenes de l a emancipaci'6n americana (Buenos, A i r e s , 1957)* p. 420; John H. Rowe, " E l movimiento nacional i n c a d e l s i g l o XVIII," R e v i s t a u n i v e r s i t a r i a , 4-3, No. 107 (Cuzco, 1954-), 17-4-7; and L i l l i a n E s t e l l e F i s h e r , The Last Inca Revolt, 1780-1783 (Norman, 1966), p. 20. F i s h e r , pp. 130-139. 3 The s e p a r a t i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru presented by V a l c a r c e l , L a r e b e l i 6 n de Tupac Amaru and Lev/in, L a r e b e l i 6 n de Tupac Amaru has provided the b a s i s f o r L u i s Durand F l 6 r e z i n Independencia — i n t e g r a c i 6 n and Juan Jose Vega i n Jos§ G a b r i e l Tupac Amaru (Lima, 19^9)1 to i n t e r p r e t the r e b e l l i o n of 1780 as a precursor of a s t a t e of n a t i o n a l independence and i n t e g r a t i o n yet t o be established i n Peru.  The s e p a r a t i s t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has a l s o been r e i t e r a t e d by V a l c a r c e l and other contributors  12  to the F i f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of H i s t o r y of America which took place i n Lima i n 1971.  John Fisher i n h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to that Congress r e g i s t e r e d  a note of dissent w i t h t h i s popular i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : No obstante l a h o s t i l i d a d c r i o l l a h a c i a e l levantamiento de Tupac Amaru, y no obstante l o s liraitados o b j e t i v o s de su j e f e , algunos h i s t o r i a d o r e s nan sido'-tentados de considerar a l a r e b e l i 6 n como un i n t e n t o de l o g r a r l a independencia. [Con e l sesquicentenario de'la i n dependencia d e l Peru, l a presi6n para hacer de Tupac Amaru e l primero de l o s grandes precursores crece aun mas.] See "La r e b e l i 6 n de Tupac Amaru y e l programa de l a reforma i m p e r i a l de Carlos I I I , " Quinto congreso i n t e r n a t i o n a l de h i s t o r i a de America (Lima, 1972),. I I , 4-11.  Juan Perez de Tudela y Bueso also supported a l o y a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of Tupac Amaru.  See "Acerca d e l s i g n i f i c a d o de Tupac Amaru en l a h i s t o r i a  p o l i t i c a de l a monarquia indiana," Quinto congreso, pp. 4-18-498. ^ Stefano Varese, La s a l de l o s cerros (Lima, 1968); Mario Castro Arenas, La r e b e l i 6 n de Juan Santos (Lima, 1973); and ed. Francisco A. Loayza, Juan Santos e l i n v e n c i b l e (Manuscritos del alio de 1742 a l alio de 1755) (Lima, 1942). 5  The Indians l e d by Juan Santos were i n complete c o n t r o l of Andamarca f o r three days i n 1752 but d i d not attempt to extend t h e i r influence f u r t h e r , probably because of the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of t h e i r g u e r r i l l a - s t y l e warfare to the barren Andean t e r r a i n .  -Castro Arenas,  pp. 137-14-2. I n s p i t e of the obvious d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e b e l l i o n of Juan Santos and that of Tupac Amaru, the p e r s o n a l i t i e s and s o c i a l backgrounds of the two leaders o f f e r some b a s i s f o r comparison.  Castro  13  Arenas, p. 157. ^ See Ruben Vargas Ugarte, Historia general del Peru:  Vi'rrexriato  (1689-1776) (Lima, 1966), IV, 167-170 for details of the revolt i n  Cochabamba. n  See Vargas, Historia, IV, 207-208 for details of the conspiracy of Oruro and Durand Fl6rez, Independencia, pp. 14/1-146 and Lewin, La r e b e l i 6 n , pp. ^25-^28 for the evidence regarding the possible coronation of Tupac Amaru. For a refutation of the validity of this evidence as proof of Tupac Amaru's intention of having himself crowned see L i l l i a n Estelle Fisher, pp. 135-136. g Vargas, Historia, IV, 24-9-251. ^ Vargas, Historia, IV, 24-2-24-9. Rowe, "Movimiento," pp. 28-39. 11  "Movimiento," pp. 28-29. 12 13  "Movimiento," p. 29. "Movimiento," p. 29.  14Some of the examples offered by Ro\*e of the preservation of Inca culture relate largely to the Indian masses, and therefore do not provide evidence for the survival of Inca tradition amongst the Indian nobility whom Rowe himself identifies as the leaders of Inca nationalism. He mentions, for instance, the survival of Inca cults amongst the Indian  Ik  masses, yet a s s e r t s that these c u l t s had l i t t l e influence amonst the n o b i l i t y ("Movimiento," p. 2 2 ) . On the other hand, Rowe chooses t o ignore the evidence which does e x i s t of elements of messianic C h r i s t i a n i t y i n popular rumors of the r e s t o r a t i o n of the Inca monarchy i n the eighteenth century.  Prophecies i n v o l v i n g the r e t u r n of the Inca empire t o i t s  l e g i t i m a t e r u l e r s were a t t r i b u t e d t o Santa Rosa and f i g u r e d i n the Lima conspiracy of 1 7 5 0 and i n a popular b e l i e f i n the imminent coronation of an Inca monarch i n 1 7 7 7 . See Vargas, H i s t o r i a , IV, 24-9, and V a l c a r c e l , L a r e b e l i 6 n , pp. 3 2 - 3 5 . 1 5  "Movimiento," pp. 2 0 - 2 1 .  16  "Movimiento," p. 2k. 1 7  18  See p. 14-5  of this dissertation.  "Movimiento," p. 2 3 . These p r o t e s t s are s t u d i e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , pp. 1 2 0 - 1 2 2 .  20  V a l c a r c e l , pp. 4-7, 74- and Lewin, p. 3 9 5 .  21  Garcilaso de l a Vega, " E l Inca," Primera parte de l o s comentarios r e a l e s , que t r a t a n , de e l origen de l o s Incas, r e i e s que fueron d e l Peru, de su i d o l a t r i a , l e i e s , y_ govierno, en paz, £ jen guerrat  de sus v i d a s , y_  conquistas; y_ de todo l o que fue aquel imperio, y_ su Republica, antes que l o s Espanoles pasaran a e l , ed. N i c o l a s Rodriguez Franco (Madrid, 1 7 2 3 ) . 22  23 "Movimiento," pp. 2 5 - 2 6 . "Movimiento," p. 24-.  15  Rowe himself states "no conocemos ninguna cr6nica de l a h i s t o r i a i n c a basada en un r e g i s t r o d i r e c t o de l a t r a d i c i 6 n o r a l que fue r e ~ copilada despu€s de  164-0."  ("Movimiento," p.  23.)  25 "Movimiento," pp. 24-, 26; L u i s A. Arocena, E l i n c a Garcilaso y_ e l humanismo r e n a c e n t i s t a (Buenos A i r e s , E l Inca Garcilaso de l a Vega (New York,  194-9);  1969).  and Donald G. Castanien,  16  CHAPTER I  The Origins of the Indian E l i t e i n Spanish C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t i o n  The eighteenth-century Indian reform movement advocated  changes i n  the Spanish system of governing the Peruvian Indians as a means of strengthening both the human and material resources of Indian society so that they could once again support the p r i v i l e g e d groups which had emerged early i n the c o l o n i a l period.  The existence of the p r i v i l e g e d Indian  groups which provided the leaders of the reform movement was a direct r e s u l t of Spanish c o l o n i a l p o l i c y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the system used to govern the Indians i n Spanish Peru.  This system, consolidated and c o d i f i e d  by Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of Peru from 1569 to I58I, resulted i n the creation of an o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned Indian e l i t e which survived u n t i l the end of the eighteenth century.^ This Indian e l i t e had i t s o r i g i n i n Toledo's o f f i c i a l adoption of a  2 practice used i n Peru by other administrators  and common i n other Spanish  colonies, the a l l i a n c e between Spain and a group of i n f l u e n t i a l Indians. These Indians served as a buffer between the minority Spanish government and the Indian majority.  In return f o r a s s i s t i n g Spain i n the consolidation  17  and maintenance o f h e r m i n o r i t y r u l e and i n t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the  colony's  r e s o u r c e s , these I n d i a n s d e r i v e d power and p r e s t i g e from t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with the r u l i n g s o c i e t y .  As i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between the two  a c t e d b o t h as agents o f Spanish  societies,  they  s o c i e t y and l e a d e r s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y .  This  r o l e a s s u r e d them some s t a t u s , however e q u i v o c a l , i n both s o c i e t i e s .  Spain  guaranteed t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s i n I n d i a n s o c i e t y by g r a n t i n g them  ex-  3 emption from t r i b u t e payment, Indian subjugation. s t a t u s i n Spanish  t h e head tax w h i c h served as the mark o f  T h i s exemption both s e r v e d as p r o o f o f t h e i r f a v o r e d  eyes, and,  s i n c e a s i m i l a r exemption had  of t h e r u l i n g h i e r a r c h y i n I n c a i c times, c o n f i r m e d  marked members  their superior status i n  k the eyes of the I n d i a n masses.  T h i s exemption a l s o endowed them w i t h  a  c o n s i d e r a b l e advantage over t h e i r f e l l o w I n d i a n s , an advantage which they c o u l d use  t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i r p r e s t i g e w i t h the symbols o f w e a l t h and  common t o I n d i a n and  status  Spanish s o c i e t y .  While some elements of t h e c o l o n i a l I n d i a n e l i t e were drawn from p r e - H i s p a n i c r u l i n g h i e r a r c h y , o t h e r s were c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f i m p o s i t i o n of S p a n i s h - p a t t e r n e d T h e o r e t i c a l l y , Spain's  Spain's  i n s t i t u t i o n s on I n d i a n s o c i e t y .  a l l i a n c e w i t h the e x i s t i n g r u l i n g h i e r a r c h y would  not o n l y c o n c i l i a t e t h i s i n f l u e n t i a l group, but  a l s o p r o v i d e a means o f  c o n t r o l l i n g the n u m e r i c a l l y s u p e r i o r I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . however, r a n counter  the  Such an  alliance,  t o p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s which advocated  18  i s o l a t i n g the leaders of conquered peoples from a p o s i t i o n of power to avoid the r i s k of r e b e l l i o n ,  Toledo devised a system designed to minimize  t h i s r i s k yet s t i l l take advantage of the a u t h o r i t y of the pre-Hispanic Indian leadership. The most powerful element of the I n c a i c r u l i n g h i e r a r c h y , the'iJiemlers of the eleven r o y a l a y l l u s , a l l d i r e c t descendants of Inca r u l e r s , was relegated to a purely symbolic r o l e by the Spanish regime which excluded i t from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the Indian population.  The  members of the r o y a l a y l l u s , who may be termed the higher n o b i l i t y of the Inca regime, were required to demonstrate t h e i r l o y a l t y t o the Spanish Crown on ceremonial occasions as evidence of t h e i r voluntary surrender of sovereignty.  In exchange f o r t h i s s e r v i c e , they were recognized as equals 5  of Spanish n o b i l i t y and granted exemption from t r i b u t e .  The  systematic  withdrawal of r e a l power from the Inca higher n o b i l i t y forced them e i t h e r to accept a purely decorative s t a t u s or to seek p o s i t i o n s of power w i t h i n the system of government created by Toledo f o r the Indians. Toledo's system of l o c a l government f o r the Indians combined both Hispanic and I n c a i c elements under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a Spanish corregidor de i n d i o s , e s s e n t i a l l y a l o c a l governor.  As f a r as p o s s i b l e , however,  Toledo attempted to o f f s e t the i n f l u e n c e of the pre-Hispanic elements by e s t a b l i s h i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a l leadership patterned on purely Hispanic lines.  19  Toledo e s t a b l i s h e d a number of new Indian communities through a program of wholesale resettlement i n the 1570*s and 1580's. The government of these towns was copied d i r e c t l y from the Spanish system with Indians occupying the p o s i t i o n s o f alcalde and regidores. 7 were granted exemption from t r i b u t e ,  These o f f i c i a l s  a concession which s i g n i f i e d i n  Spanish eyes t h e i r e q u a l i t y w i t h the Indian n o b i l i t y .  Many o f the  Ordenanzas r e g u l a t i n g the new towns were designed t o ensure the o f f i c i a l s * independence by s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t i n g the h o l d i n g of any municipal g o f f i c e by t r a d i t i o n a l Indian l e a d e r s .  I n p r a c t i c e , however, the Indians*  tenacious adherence t o t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of l o y a l t y prevented the emergence of any new leadership group i n the towns.  Despite the l e g a l  ban, the t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l leaders played a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n these municipal governments, e i t h e r by h o l d i n g o f f i c e themselves, or by using 9 t h e i r i n f l u e n c e t o dominate the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . I n t r a d i t i o n a l Indian communities, Toledo retained the e x i s t i n g leaders as the heads o f l o c a l government, a s c r i b i n g t o them an a d d i t i o n a l r o l e as agents i n Spain's economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f the Indian masses.  The Spaniards applied the term "cacique", p r e v i o u s l y used t o  describe the l o c a l c h i e f s i n the Caribbean I s l a n d s , t o these l o c a l l e a d e r s , known as "curacas" i n pre-Hispanic times. diverse.  The caciques' o r i g i n s were  Some were descendants of l o c a l c h i e f s , conquered yet retained  20  as agents by the I n c a s , w h i l e o t h e r s were descendants a p p o i n t e d by the I n c a s .  Still  of l o c a l  officials  o t h e r s were members o f the I n c a h i g h e r n o b i l i t y  who used t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n o f l o c a l f i e f d o m s t o become c a c i q u e s and g a i n t h e power w h i c h t h e i r n o b l e s t a t u s d i d not g i v e them. T o l e d o ' s Ordenanzas, however, a t t r i b u t e d t o these l e a d e r s a number o f shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which tended  t o e s t a b l i s h them as a s i n g l e homo-  geneous group w i t h i n t h e Spanish c o l o n i a l system.  Although the purely l o c a l  nature o f the c a c i q u e s ' a u t h o r i t y p r e s e n t e d l i t t l e  t h r e a t t o Spanish  rule,  Toledo p e r c e i v e d t h e i r power as p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous and attempted t o c i r c u m s c r i b e i t as much as p o s s i b l e . to  I n s p i t e of t h i s , Toledo s t i l l  c o n c i l i a t e t h i s i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t o r o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y and m a i n t a i n  a u t h o r i t y over the I n d i a n m a s s e s .  1 0  unique  o f t r a d i t i o n a l I n c a i c a u t h o r i t y and S p a n i s h - d e l e g a t e d  and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y .  their  The c a c i q u e s i n t u r n d e r i v e d an im-  p o r t a n t advantage o v e r the o t h e r i n t e r m e d i a r y groups from t h e i r combination  managed  economic  T h i s d u a l a u t h o r i t y , c o u p l e d w i t h the i s o l a t i o n  from power o f the h i g h e r n o b i l i t y and the r e d u c t i o n t o t r i b u t a r y s t a t u s of  the leaders of smaller Indian g r o u p s ,  themselves  1 1  e n a b l e d the c a c i q u e s t o e s t a b l i s h  as the f u l c r u m o f t h e I n d i a n e l i t e .  B o t h the d u t i e s and s t a t u s o f the c a c i q u e s under S p a n i s h r u l e were comparable t o those t h e y h e l d under the I n c a i c regime. r e f l e c t i n g the precedence  T o l e d o ' s Ordenanzas,  o f t h e Crown's economic i n t e r e s t s i n America,  d e f i n e d t h e c a c i q u e s ' d u t i e s as agents o f economic e x p l o i t a t i o n i n v e r y  21  s p e c i f i c terras.  The caciques were t o act as t r i b u t e c o l l e c t o r s and as 12  purveyors both of f o r c e d labor, known as the mita, and of p a i d labor. The mita i t s e l f was an adaptation of the I n c a i c system of forced labor administered by the caciques, and the caciques'  tribute-collecting 13  functions were s i m i l a r t o those they performed f o r the Inca.  These  s i m i l a r i t i e s tended t o r e i n f o r c e the caciques' new Spanish a u t h o r i t y with the a u t h o r i t y they exercised i n the s i m i l a r pre-Hispanic a c t i v i t i e s . In the same way Spain's r e c o g n i t i o n of the caciques as a p r i v i l e g e d minori t y i n Indian s o c i e t y was r e i n f o r c e d by the s i m i l a r i t y of the p r i v i l e g e s granted them by Spain t o those they enjoyed under Incaic r u l e .  By a l l o w i n g  the caciques t o have t r i b u t a r i e s work f o r them in,domestic tasks and to provide food f o r t h e i r animals and water f o r t h e i r houses, Spanish lav; confirmed the caciques' t r a d i t i o n a l Incaic r i g h t s t o Indian l a b o r . I t f u r t h e r enhanced the caciques* t r a d i t i o n a l claims on Indian resources by Ik  p e r m i t t i n g the caciques t o c o l l e c t a salary from the t r i b u t a r i e s . Caciques were a l l o t t e d more land by the Spanish than were the t r i b u t a r i e s , just as they had been under the f a l l e n regime.  They also enjoyed luxury  goods unavailable t o the Indian masses. These l u x u r i e s served as symbols 15  of s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e both i n pre-Hispanic and Hispanic times. The p r i v i l e g e d status of the Indian e l i t e rested e n t i r e l y upon t h e i r l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n as hidalgos or l e s s e r n o b i l i t y .  This d e f i n i t i o n i n t u r n  rested upon what the Spanish perceived to have been t h e i r superior and  22  h e r e d i t a r y s t a t u s under I n c a i c r u l e .  A c c o r d i n g t o one r o y a l o r d e r o f  1697, . . . hay distinci6n e n t r e l o s I n d i o s y M e s t i z o s , o como d e s c e n d i e n t e s de l o s I n d i o s p r i n c i p a l e s , que se llaman C a c i q u e s , o como p r o c e d i d o s de I n d i o s menos p r i n c i p a l e s , que son l o s T r i b u t a r i o s , y que en s u g e n t i l i d a d reconocieron v a s a l l a j e : se c o n s i d e r a que a l o s p r i m e r o s y sus d e s c e n d i e n t e s , se l e s deben todas l a s preeminencias y honores . . . que se acostumbra c o n f e r i r a l o s Nobles H i j o s d a l g o de C a s t i l l a , y pueden p a r t i c i p a r de c u a l q u i e r a comunidades que p o r E s t a t u t o p i d a n Nobleza; pues es constante, que e l l o s en s u g e n t i l i s m o e r a n Nobles, y a quienes s u s i n f e r i o r e s r e c o n o c i a n v a s a l l a j e , cuya e s p e c i e de n o b l e z a t o d a v i a se l e s conserva y c o n s i d e r a ; guardandol e s en l o p o s i b l e sus a n t i g u o s F u e r o s o P r i v i l e g i o s . l 6 P r e - H i s p a n i c n o b i l i t y was, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , both the b a s i s o f exemption from t r i b u t e and a p r e r e q u i s i t e  f o r holding caciqueships.  Sol6rzano, t h e  o f f i c i a l commentator on Spanish c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the s e v e n t e e n t h  c e n t u r y , e x p l a i n s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , s t a t i n g t h a t exemption  from t r i b u t e i s not based on o f f i c e , " g o v i e r n o 6 j u r i s d i c c i o n (porque e s o , ni  e l s e r uno Senor de V a s a l l o s , no b a s t a . . • ) , " but on n o b i l i t y , " a  t i t u l o de s e r n o b l e s , y p o r t a l e s t e n i d o s , reputados  e n t r e l o s suyos e l l o s  17 y s u s a s c e n d i e n t e s desde e l tiempo de su i n f i d e l i d a d . " prerequisite  Although  this  was d e s i g n e d t o p e r p e t u a t e the e x i s t i n g I n c a i c p r a c t i c e o f  h e r e d i t a r y c a c i q u e s h i p s , i n f a c t , such a p r a c t i c e had o n l y j u s t begun t o  l8  be adopted i n many a r e a s r e c e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the I n c a empire. I n t h e s e cases, r a t h e r than r e i n f o r c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f i n h e r i t e d  23  status,  Spain's insistence  on h e r e d i t a r y  caciqueships  actually  c r e a t i o n o f a new I n d i a n n o b i l i t y e n t i t l e d t o p r i v i l e g e s an o f t e n  spurious hereditary t r a d i t i o n .  R o d r i g o de L o a i s a , c l a i m e d t h a t  One o b s e r v e r ,  e v e n i n 1586  l e d to  the  o n the- b a s i s  the  of  Archbishop  t h e r e w e r e n o l o n g e r many  19 caciques  who h e l d o f f i c e  by l e g i t i m a t e  succession.  The dubious n a t u r e o f t h e h e r e d i t a r y t h e new I n d i a n e l i t e Spain took s p e c i f i c the e x i s t e n c e  i n c r e a s e d t h e i r dependence measures  demonstrate  to reinforce t h i s  of the h e r e d i t a r y  The C r o w n i s s u e d t i t l e s a deliberate  attempt  dependence  will.  and ensure  I n d i a n n o b i l i t y served Spanish  to strengthen  " . . .  on S p a n i s h good  of  that  interests.  confirming the n o b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l Indians  t h e i r dependence  f o l l o w i n g words:  c l a i m s t o n o b i l i t y o f many  their ties  on the Crown.  dieronseles  c a c i c a z g o s e n nombre de V . M . p o r l o s  to Spanish s o c i e t y  in  and  Toledo s t a t e s t h i s aim i n  a todos cuales  l o s Caciques  the  t i t u l o s de  sus  e n t i e n d e n que h a r i de e s t a r  y  20 estah pendientes  de V . M . y de v u e s t r o s  One s i g n i f i c a n t heritance  to place  ministros."  m o d i f i c a t i o n was made i n t h e I n c a i c p a t t e r n o f  still  further  emphasis on t h e n o b i l i t y ' s dependence  t h e i r a b i l i t y to serve Spanish i n t e r e s t s : en l a  " . . .  que n a n de s e r  on  preferidos  sucesi6n de l o s d i c h o s c a c i c a z g o s l o s que f u e r e n de m a y o r c r i s t i a n d a d 21  y v i r t u d , aunque no s e a n l o s h i j o s descend, the  in-  not n e c e s s a r i l y  caciques'  sons.  to the  mayores."  oldest,  but  C a c i q u e s h i p s were  to  t o t h e most C h r i s t i a n , o f  T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n was i n t e n d e d m e r e l y a s  a temporary  24  measure u n t i l the hispanization of the caciques and t h e i r sons made the observance of unmodified hereditary practices p o l i t i c a l l y advantageous to Spain:  " . . . hasta que se vayan acabando l o s viejos que hay y estan  endurecidos en su mala o p i n i 6 n e i d o l a t r i a y se hacen y son predicadores de e l l a , y que entren l o s mozos instruldos y doctrinados en nuestra f e y 22  criados en l o s colegios que quedaron ordenados." The result of Toledo's l e g i s l a t i o n was c l e a r l y intended to be the formation of a new Indian e l i t e , ostensibly based on pre-Hispanic t r a d i t i o n , but hispanized to the point where t h i s t r a d i t i o n was p o l i t i c a l l y and c u l turally insignificant.  The hispanization of the Indian e l i t e was under-  taken, not only by the modification of hereditary patterns, but also' by the p r o v i s i o n of an Hispanic education f o r the caciques and t h e i r sons as well as f o r the members of the higher Inca n o b i l i t y .  This education was  designed not only to reinforce the e l i t e ' s a l l i a n c e with Spain through the sharing of common values, but also to equip i t s members to act as agents of acculturation amongst the Indian masses:  " . . . porque tengo por muy  s i n duda que los que mas fruto han de tener y pueden hacer en l o s dichos indios son l o s caciques y curacas que tuvieren, cuyo ejemplo y pasos siguen y seguiran, mandS y ordenS que fundasen dos colegios . . . adonde se criasen 23  y ordenasen los h i j o s de los caciques." Toledo outlined the caciques* role as agents of hispanization i n the following l i n e s :  25  Porque l o s c a c i q u e s y p r i n c i p a l e s t i e n e n o b l i g a c i o n a dar buen ejemplo a s u s s u j e t o s : Mando que se l o d£n con su v i d a y costumbres, v i v i e n d o h o n e s t a y r e c o g i d a mente como c r i s t i a n o s , porque e l l o s como mierabros i m i t i r a n l o que v i e r e n h a c e r a sus cabezas. Y para que sus h i j o s aprendan d o c t r i n a y v i r t u d , p a r a e n s e n a r & l o s demas, cuando l l e g u e n a edad y estado de mandar, l o s pongan desde niiios con s a c e r d o t e s que l o s d o c t r i n e n , p a r a que s i r v a n y c o n s i g a n l o s u s o d i c h o , dandoles l o s alimentos n e c e s a r i o s , h a s t a que sean de edad de quince aflos p a r a arriba.24The  need f o r the c a c i q u e s t o a c t as examples o r agents o f H i s p a n i c c u l t u r e  was based on the assumption t h a t t h e t r i b u t a r i e s had o t h e r w i s e  very  limited  c o n t a c t w i t h S p a n i s h s o c i e t y , owing e i t h e r t o p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n o r cultural barriers.  Changes i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s would i n e v i t a b l y  r e s u l t i n the c a c i q u e s ' l o s i n g importance a s a c u l t u r a l i n t e r m e d i a r y .  Thus  the c a c i q u e s had a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s which s e t the t r i b u t a r y I n d i a n s a p a r t from S p a n i s h s o c i e t y .  Spain's  d e l i b e r a t e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f many p r e - H i s p a n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i r o f f i c e gave the c a c i q u e s a ready  means o f p r e s e r v i n g these d i f f e r e n c e s , and  w i t h them, t h e i r r o l e as p r i v i l e g e d i n t e r m e d i a r i e s . The  s i m i l a r i t y between t h e c a c i q u e s ' f u n c t i o n s and s t a t u s under  the I n c a i c and S p a n i s h regimes d i d serve a u s e f u l purpose by l e g i t i m i z i n g the a c t i o n s o f t h e new regime i n t h e minds o f t h e t r i b u t a r i e s and by m a i n t a i n i n g the c a c i q u e s ' a u t h o r i t y . tended  t o perpetuate  At t h e same time, however, i t a l s o  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s on which t h a t a u t h o r i t y  26  was based.  The preservation of the hereditary basis of caciqueships and  the insistence of Spain on hereditary n o b i l i t y rather than on o f f i c e as the basis f o r many p r i v i l e g e s provided another means by which the caciques could, and indeed i n t h e i r own interest were obliged to, preserve preHispanic s o c i a l patterns. characteristics  Thus the preservation of pre-Hispanic  of the o f f i c e of cacique proved to be d i r e c t l y  counter-  productive to the hispanization of the t r i b u t a r i e s , and the caciques* vested interest i n perpetuating pre-Hispanic s o c i a l patterns was quite at odds with their r o l e as agents of hispanization. The c o n f l i c t i n g c u l t u r a l demands made on the caciques were p a r a l l e l e d i n the economic sphere by equally c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s .  Spain*s f a i l u r e  to balance her l e g i t i m i z a t i o n of the caciques* t r a d i t i o n a l authority with a perpetuation of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l obligations towards the tended to increase the caciques' r e a l wealth and power.  tributaries  Under the Incaic  regime, the caciques were responsible f o r the a r b i t r a t i o n of disputes within the community, the maintenance of native r e l i g i o u s r i t e s and the 25 v/ell-being of the weaker, less prosperous members of the community. The caciques' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Spanish system of government gave them an authority unfettered by these obligations, yet the pre-Hispanic basis of the caciques' authority prevented the Spanish from bringing i t e f f e c t i v e l y within the checks and sanctions of Spanish society i t s e l f .  27  As a result the caciques enjoyed an unprecedented and arbitrary power which they used to consolidate their wealth and prestige. At the same time, the disappearance of their traditional obligations freed the considerable portion of their wealth previously committed to acts of reciprocity.  Many caciques used this new source of wealth together  with their increased powers to accumulate considerable fortunes.  For  instance, through their Incaic right to have personal retainers, combined with their Spanish function as purveyors of labor, they were able to rent out their subject Indians as laborers, often at considerable profit. Similarly some caciques used this profit to purchase supplies of labor on the Spanish pattern, effectively hispanizing the caciques' relationship with the tributaries.  Other caciques used their profits to reinforce  their traditional status by patronage or participation i n Inca religious rites.  These new fortunes, however accumulated, were passed to the  caciques' descendants throughout the colonial period and served to reinforce 26 their hereditary privileged status. The caciques' traditional authority over the Indians facilitated the former's participation in the widely accepted practice of using proprietary office for personal gain.  The caciques' unique position as interpreters  of Spanish demands and justice to the Indians together with the corruption rampant throughout the judicial system in Peru and the tributaries* i g norance of Hispanic practices apparently allowed the caciques to exceed  28  generally accepted l i m i t s i n p r o f i t i n g from t h e i r o f f i c e .  I n adopting  t h i s Spanish custom the caciques e f f e c t i v e l y a l i g n e d themselves with Spanish c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y ' s economic dependence on the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Indian resources. Because of the nature of Spanish economic a c t i v i t y i n Peru t h i s dependence l e d to a reduction i n the resources a v a i l a b l e t o Indian s o c i e t y f o r i t s own subsistence.  For instance, the Indian labor supply  was  severely depleted by dangerous working conditions i n the mines, and the land a v a i l a b l e to I n d i a n s o c i e t y was reduced both by the i m p o s i t i o n of Spanish patterns of land-holding and by the usurpation of Indian lands by Spanish c o l o n i s t s and caciques a l i k e . Montesclaros, Viceroy from 1608  According to the MarquSs de  t o l6l5, i t was a commonly accepted b e l i e f  that Spanish dependence on the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Indian resources was productive to the welfare of Indian society:  counter-  ". . . l a c o n s e r v a c i 6 n de  ambas republicas e s t a encontrada y que por medios que una crece viene a menos l a o t r a . " ^ I n view of t h i s basic economic antagonism between Spanish and Indian s o c i e t y , the caciques' r o l e as agents and b e n e f i c i a r i e s of Indian exp l o i t a t i o n was at odds with t h e i r r o l e as dependants and leaders of Indian s o c i e t y . While the caciques' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Spanish e x p l o i t a t i o n i n i t i a l l y increased t h e i r wealth and p r e s t i g e , i n the long run i t undermined  29  the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n upon which t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s r e s t e d .  On  one  hand the c a c i q u e s ' e x p l o i t a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e r o s i o n o f the human and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s caciques' continued  of I n d i a n s o c i e t y .  demands f o r l a b o r and t r i b u t e ,  c a c i q u e s were, u n l i k e most S p a n i a r d s s e r v a t i o n of I n d i a n r e s o u r c e s .  fill  the', other, hand, s i n c e the  e x i s t e n c e as a p r i v i l e g e d group depended p r i m a r i l y  on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l S p a n i s h  on the  On  and C r e o l e s , committed t o the con-  I n a d d i t i o n , the caciques were dependent  e x i s t e n c e of I n d i a n r e s o u r c e s i n excess  Spanish  demands t o f u r t h e r t h e i r own  W i t h i n the S p a n i s h  the  of those n e c e s s a r y  to  ful-  economic ascendancy.  c o l o n i a l framework t h e t e n s i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d from  the c a c i q u e s ' d u a l o b l i g a t i o n s and  i n t e r e s t s c o u l d be r e s o l v e d only by  c l e a r commitment t o e i t h e r S p a n i s h  or Indian i n t e r e s t s .  however, would e n t a i l the c a c i q u e s *  continued  Such a commitment,  s a c r i f i c e o f the b e n e f i t s they d e r i v e d  from t h e i r a l l i a n c e w i t h the o t h e r s o c i e t y . l o y a l t y t o t h e i r own  a  The  caciques' o v e r r i d i n g  p r e s e r v a t i o n as a p r i v i l e g e d group d i c t a t e d t h e i r  e f f o r t s t o m a i n t a i n an e q u i l i b r i u m , however e q u i v o c a l , between  the c o n f l i c t i n g economic, s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d  their dual status. P o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s had made the c a c i q u e s ' t o t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s not merely disadvantageous but p r a c t i c a l l y Not  with  impossible.  o n l y had the c a c i q u e s w i l l i n g l y exchanged the r e c i p r o c a l I n c a i c b a s i s  30  of t h e i r authority and p r i v i l e g e s f o r a l e g a l i s t i c Hispanic one, but they had i n many cases abused t h e i r pre-Hispanic a u t h o r i t y i n the name of t h e i r new-found Spanish l e g i t i m a c y . An a l l i a n c e w i t h purely Indian i n t e r e s t s would deprive them of t h i s l e g i t i m a c y and hence t h e i r only r e a l source of power.  Furthermore, i t would o b l i g e the caciques t o abandon not only  t h e i r r o l e as economic i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , but a l s o the b e n e f i t s they p e r s o n a l l y derived from t h i s r o l e .  These b e n e f i t s included not only l e g a l p r i v i l e g e s ,  but economic advantages over the t r i b u t a r i e s .  Most importantly, however,  a commitment t o Indian i n t e r e s t s would b r i n g the caciques i n t o open C o n f l i c t with t h e i r Spanish r u l e r s .  Such c o n f l i c t could only prove disastrous both  to the caciques themselves and t o the already weakened and fragmented Indian s o c i e t y upon whose depleted resources they would have t o r e l y . The caciques' t o t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Spanish i n t e r e s t s , while t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , was equally disadvantageous t o the 'caciques. main e f f e c t of many of the caciques' Spanish-granted  The  p r i v i l e g e s was simply  to give Spanish r a t i f i c a t i o n t o the superior s t a t u s of the caciques over the t r i b u t a r y Indians, and t o r e i n f o r c e the powers derived from t h i s superiority.  By a b d i c a t i n g t h e i r r o l e as leaders of Indian s o c i e t y , the  caciques would have rendered these p r i v i l e g e s useless.  I n exchange f o r  abandoning t h e i r e l i t e p o s i t i o n i n Indian s o c i e t y the caciques had only an i l l u s o r y hope of gaining an i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n Spanish s o c i e t y .  31  In s p i t e  of t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l  attempts t o a s s i m i l a t e  equality  t o S p a n i s h n o b i l i t y , the  themselves e f f e c t i v e l y t o the  were s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d both by p o p u l a r p r e j u d i c e and I t was  t h i s p r e j u d i c e and  legal discrimination,  o f f i c i a l assurance o f I n d i a n e q u a l i t y , relationship  between I n d i a n and  colonial legal  h i d a l g o s e n t i t l e d them.  nobility  r a t h e r t h a n the  Crown's  which e f f e c t i v e l y determined  Spanish s o c i e t y  in colonial  to w h i c h t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l  Both c a c i q u e s and  1  restrictions.  T o l e d o p l a c e d numerous s p e c i f i c r e s t r i c t i o n s on the e x e r c i s e of the p r i v i l e g e s  caciques  the  Peru.  Indian n o b i l i t y ' s  equality  to Spanish  n o b l e s were p r o h i b i t e d  from  29 traveling  to Spain without r o y a l  I n d i a n n o b l e s t o c u l t i v a t e the  s o c i a l and  p o l i s which formed a t l e a s t one Spanish c o l o n i a l Two  licence.  economic l i n k s w i t h the  o f the v i s i b l e measures of  only l i m i t e d  a g a i n s t the  metro-  status i n  c a c i q u e s ' economic  to  caciques  their legal  labor supply available  l a n d , by  t o the  a subordinate p o s i t i o n  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  T h i s s u b o r d i n a t i o n was  a c c e n t u a t e d by  as  equality.  c a c i q u e s ' h o l d i n g negro o r mulatto s l a v e s  a g a i n s t u s i n g I n d i a n l a b o r on t h e i r own l e a s t , the  the  c o n t r i b u t e d t o a v i s i b l e i m p r e s s i o n of the  i n f e r i o r to Spanish hidalgos i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n Prohibitions  for  society.  o t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s not  a c t i v i t i e s , but  T h i s made i t d i f f i c u l t  and  l i m i t i n g i n theory  at  c a c i q u e s , c l e a r l y p l a c e d them i n S p a n i s h and  creole  another p r o h i b i t i o n  engaging i n b u s i n e s s d e a l i n g s w i t h S p a n i a r d s w i t h o u t the  colonists.  against  caciques'  participation  of  32  the c o r r e g i d o r o f t h e i r p r o v i n c e ,  a measure o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d  t o prevent  the c a c i q u e s ' p r o f i t i n g from t h e abuse o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e o v e r the t r i b u t a r i e s .  The c o r r e g i d o r e s , however, soon t r a n s f o r m e d t h i s measure  i n t o a means by which they c o u l d c o n t r o l t h e c a c i q u e s ' tributaries  and a s s u r e  exploitation. caciques labor.  exploitation  of the  themselves t h e main s h a r e i n the p r o f i t s o f t h i s  The c o r r e g i d o r e s ' w i l l i n g c o l l u s i o n made i t easy f o r the  t o circumvent the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e i r use o f I n d i a n This collusion  a l s o made them e c o n o m i c a l l y  corregidores, a s i t u a t i o n  incompatible  dependent on the  with the caciques'  theoretical  nobility. A n o t h e r p r o v i s i o n o f T o l e d o ' s Ordenanzas c r e a t e d a s i m i l a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e caciques* caciques  access  t o t h e j u d i c i a l system.  dependency  While  were e x p r e s s l y g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o have t h e i r c a s e s h e a r d  before  the A u d i e n c i a r a t h e r t h a n the l o c a l c o r r e g i d o r , they were a t t h e same time 31 p r o h i b i t e d from g o i n g  t o the A u d i e n c i a  i n person.  T h i s o b l i g e d them t o  r e l y on t h e good w i l l o f t h e i r c o r r e g i d o r o r t h e o f f i c i a l I n d i a n t o ensure t h a t t h e i r judicial authorities.  protector  case was h e a r d f a v o r a b l y i f a t a l l by t h e h i g h e r T h i s dependence tended t o render t h e c a c i q u e s ' im-  munity from the c o r r e g i d o r e s ' l e g a l the c o r r e g i d o r c o u l d v e r y e a s i l y  j u r i s d i c t i o n quite p o i n t l e s s , since  i n f l u e n c e t h e evidence g i v e n and any  d e c i s i o n t a k e n by t h e l o c a l p r o t e c t o r , and, i f n e c e s s a r y , even by the  33  Audiencia.  The caciques, unable t o p a r t i c i p a t e personally at the proceed-  ings of the Audiencia, c l e a r l y had l i t t l e recourse against damaging testimony. I n t h i s way, s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s of Toledo's Ordenanzas not only undermined the Crown's expressed i n t e n t t o make the Indian e l i t e equal to Spanish hidalgos, but provided the means f o r the c o l o n i a l establishment to perpetuate the subservience and p r a c t i c a l i n f e r i o r i t y of the Indian e l i t e t o a l l l a y e r s of Spanish s o c i e t y . Under these c o n d i t i o n s , a s s i m i l a t i o n of the Indian n o b i l i t y t o Spanish s o c i e t y was but a chimera, an i l l u s o r y hope based on i d e a l i s t i c t h e o r i e s promulgated by the Crown and a small minority of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e l i g i o u s o f f i c i a l s , t h e o r i e s negated i n p r a c t i c e by the trend of c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and out of tune with economic and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . W i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of the separation which e x i s t e d between the 32 two " r e p u b l i c s , "  the Indian and Spanish, i n c o l o n i a l Peru, the Indian  n o b i l i t y attempted t o a s s i m i l a t e i t s r o l e i n Indian s o c i e t y as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o that of the Spanish n o b i l i t y i n Spanish s o c i e t y . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident  i n the case of the higher Indian n o b i l i t y r e s i d i n g  i n centres l i k e Cuzco and Lima.  Since many of these nobles d i d not  exercise caciqueships they were f r e e from the i n t e r e s t s which l e d the caciques t o perpetuate t h e i r I n c a i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Rather than p a t t e r n  t h e i r r o l e as nobles along t r a d i t i o n a l I n c a i c l i n e s , they created o f f i c e s  34  and i n s t i t u t i o n s which p a r a l l e l e d those of the Spanish n o b i l i t y . For example, the Indian cabildo of Lima emulated the Spanish c a b i l d o s i n a c t i v e l y safeguarding and seeking t o expand the p r i v i l e g e s , exemptions and i n f l u e n c e of the l o c a l n o b i l i t y .  At the same time i n d i v i d u a l Indian  nobles attempted t o pursue the m i l i t a r y and c l e r i c a l careers deemed s u i t a b l e to noble s t a t u s .  Spanish p r e j u d i c e , however, tended to prevent  them from entering the main stream of these careers.  Indian nobles formed  a separate b a t t a l i o n i n the l o c a l m i l i t i a i n order t o serve i n a m i l i t a r y capacity.  O f f i c i a l s of the Church i n Peru, having once been forced to  r e t r a c t a p o l i c y which held Indians to be incapable of f u l f i l l i n g responsible p o s i t i o n s i n the r e l i g i o u s h i e r a r c h y , continued t o p r a c t i c e u n o f f i c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which tended to r e s t r i c t Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n  33 to the lowest echelons of both the secular and regular h i e r a r c h i e s . The l i m i t a t i o n s placed e i t h e r by prejudice or l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Spanish s o c i e t y and Spanish patterns of economic a c t i v i t y a l i k e , r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r dependence on hereditary wealth or Indian society t o s u s t a i n t h e i r superior s t a t u s .  While hereditary f o r -  tunes s u f f e r e d r a p i d depletion as a r e s u l t of the expense of maintaining the appearance of superior s t a t u s , the caciques' share of the p r o f i t s from the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Indian resources offered not only an escape from t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g economic s i t u a t i o n , but an opportunity f o r f u r t h e r economic  35  gains.  More importantly i t offered this opportunity without the necessity  of sacrificing power or prestige i n Indian society for the subservient status v/hich was a l l that most Indians could aspire to as members of Spanish society.  Indeed, the caciques' role as intermediaries enabled  them to enjoy the best of both worlds as long as their dual allegiance did not become openly conflicting. Thus the caciques became dedicated to preserving the balance between the loyalties, obligations and interests they experienced as participants in both the dominant Spanish society and the subordinate Indian one.  On  the one hand the caciques* dual status enabled them to maintain or reinforce their position i n one society by virtue of their participation in the other, while on the other hand i t prevented their total commitment to either society.  Only their alliance with Spain guaranteed the caciques*  continued prestige i n Indian society, while their authority i n Indian society was a prerequisite to their alliance with Spain.  By the same  token the caciques' status as Indian nobles was the basis of both their economic ascendancy i n Indian society and their participation in Spanish economic patterns which at one and the same time contributed to the economic advancement of the caciques and undermined the resources on which the caciques inevitably depended for their survival as a privileged group.  36  The  inconsistencies  arose i n the duality the  are  and  course o f the  apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which  c a c i q u e s ' attempts t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r  merely r e f l e c t i o n s  o f the  intermediary status attributed  period.  Far  from b e i n g the  often attributed result  o f the  t o the  position,  and  dual i n t e r e s t s  t o the  the  in  the  d e c e p t i o n and  c a c i q u e s , these i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  caciques* d u a l i t y ,  are  b a s i s of t h e i r  of  colonial  duplicity  the  often irreconcilable sole  own  characteristic  caciques early  s i g n s of d e l i b e r a t e  c a c i q u e s ' need t o s e r v e two  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the  inevitably  inevitable masters. privileged  t h e i r o n l y means o f p r e s e r v i n g i t , posed a grave t h r e a t  t h e i r s u r v i v a l as the  c o l o n i a l p e r i o d progressed.  to  37  NOTES  CHAPTER I  Although many of their specific articles were not observed in detail, or f e l l into disuse as the colonial period progressed, Toledo's Qrdenanzas were generally accepted as a standard by which to elucidate the Crown's often contradictory orders. In the words of the Marques de Montesclaros who became Viceroy of Peru i n 1608, " a l f i n e l senor don Francisco de Toledo lo puso en debida forma, y en sus ordenanzas hallara V.E. todo lo que pudiere desear en este genero, pues de aquel maestro todos somos discipulos, yo a lo menos de voluntad confieso."  " R e l a c i 6 n del  estado en que se hallaba e l reino del peru, hecha por el Excmo. Senor don Juan de Mendoza y Luna, Marqu§s de Montesclaros, a l Excmo. SeSor Principe de Esquilache, su sucesor" i n Coleccion de las memorias £ reiaciones que escribieron los Virreyes del Peru acerca del estado en que dejaban las cosas generales del reino, ed. Ricardo Beltran y R6zpide (Madrid, 1921), I, 157.  See also Francisco de Toledo, Ordenanzas que e l  Senor Viso Rey Don Francisco de Toledo hizo para el buen gobierno 'de estos Reynos del Peru, ed. Sebastian Lorente (Lima and Madrid, I867); Juan de S o l 6 r z a n o , Politica indiana compuesta por e l senor don Juan de  38  Sol6rzano y_ Pereyra, Cavallero d e l orden de Santiago, d e l Consejo de su Magestad en l o s Supremos de C a s t i l l a _ e Indias corregida, e i l u s t r a d a con notas por e l Licenciado don F r a n c i s c o Ramiro de Valenzuela (Madrid,  1930),  l i b . 2, cap. 27, p t . 16; and Vargas, H i s t o r i a , I I , 270 and IV, 173.  2 S o l 6 r z a n o , l i b . 2, cap. 27,  p t . 1 and 2.  ^ R e c o p i l a c i 6 n de leyes de l o s Reynos de l a s I n d i a s , ed. Consejo de l a Hispanidad (Madrid,  1943),  ley 18; Ordenanzas, I , 186;  fa  - c . of Madrid  1791 ed., I I , l i b . 6, t i t . 5,  Sol6rzano, l i b . 2, cap. 20, p t . 40 and 4-1.  Some Indian groups enjoyed exemption from t r i b u t e f o r reasons other than their nobility. occupation.  A r t i s a n s , f o r instance, were exempt by v i r t u e of t h e i r  A s i m i l a r exemption was granted t o the yanaconas, Indians  generally attached as laborers or domestic servants t o Spanish haciendas or households.  Any Indian who served the Church i n i t s work of converting  the n a t i v e population enjoyed immunity from t r i b u t e .  I n a d d i t i o n t o the  few Indians who were ordained p r i e s t s or entered the r e g u l a r orders, t h i s c l a s s of exempt Indians included t r a n s l a t o r s and v i r t u a l l y any Indian employed t o do even the most menial task i n churches. Although these exempt Indians d i d a c t , i n varying degrees, as intermediaries between Spanish and Indian s o c i e t y , t h e i r l a c k of any r e a l power i n e i t h e r s o c i e t y l i m i t e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . Some few, by combining t r a d i t i o n a l n o b i l i t y w i t h t h e i r r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n s , d i d achieve a p o s i t i o n  39  of i n f l u e n c e that warrants i n c l u d i n g thera i n the Indian e l i t e .  I n general,  however, the members of these exempt groups were to form the basis of an hispanized urban I n d i a n class which emerged i n the eighteenth century. John Rowe, " I n c a Culture at the Time of the Spanish Conquest" i n ed. J u l i a n Steward,  Handbook of South American Indians (Washington, 1946),  I I , 260-265.  Sol6rzano, l i b . 2, cap. 20, p t . 4 l and 47. 6  Rowe i n "Movimiento," p. 5, states that the highest n o b i l i t y was e i t h e r replaced by one l o y a l t o Spain or reduced to cacique status soon a f t e r the conquest.  John Hemming i n The Conquest of the Incas (London  and Toronto, 1970), r e l a t e s the v i c i s s i t u d e s o f the Incaic n o b i l i t y a f t e r the conquest.  For a general view of Toledo's system of government see  Hemming, pp. 392-410 and P h i l i p Ainsworth Means, F a l l of the Inca Empire and the Spanish Rule i n Peru, 1530-1780 (New York, 1932), pp. 392-410. Waldemar Espinoza Soriano i n " E l a l c a l d e mayor indigena en e l v i r r e i n a t o del Peru," Estudios Americanos, 17 ( S e v i l l e , i 9 6 0 ) , 25, 33 and 36, shows how the p o s i t i o n of a l g u a c i l or a l c a l d e mayor, sought as e a r l y as the 1560»s by caciques as a means of improving t h e i r status, became even more i n f l u e n t i a l as a r e s u l t of Toledo's reduction i n the p r i v i l e g e s of the Indian n o b i l i t y .  The p o s i t i o n of alcalde mayor brought the p r i v i l e g e of  being obeyed and respected by other p r o v i n c i a l caciques.  7  R e c o p i l a c i 6 n , I I , l i b . v i , t i t . v, l e y xx,  the I n d i a n  alcalde.  Peru:  Example o f H u a r o c h i r i , " D i s s . B e r k e l e y ,  The  grants  exemption f o r  Karen Spalding, "Indian R u r a l Society 1967,  i n Colonial  p. 154-,  asserts  t h a t by l 6 l 8 only the a l c a l d e x^as f r e e from b o t h t r i b u t e and m i t a o b l i g a tions.  Other o f f i c i a l s were s u b j e c t  t o the m i t a but exempt from t r i b u t e ,  g Ordenanzas, I , 158,  159.  9 S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , " p. 154  f f . ; Guillermo  Lohmann V i l l e n a ,  E l c o r r e g i d o r de i n d i o s en e l P e r u bajo l o s A u s t r i a s (Madrid, 1957)« P.  330. 1  civil  Sol6rzano, l i b . 2,  0  j u r i s d i c t i o n was  27,  cap.  reduced and  notes t h a t the c a c i q u e s '  criminal  and  much of i t t r a n s f e r r e d t o the S p a n i s h  corregidores.  11 F o r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  on the changes made by  s t r u c t u r e of the I n c a i c r u l i n g h i e r a r c h y see: i n the C o l o n i a l World," i n J u l i a n Steward, ed., John Rowe, "The  S p a m i n the  George K u b l e r , "The  Quechua  Handbook, I I , 331-4-10;  I n c a s under S p a n i s h C o l o n i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , " H i s p a n i c  American H i s t o r i c a l Review, 37:2  (May  1957)» 155-199; Rowe, " I n c a C u l t u r e "  C a r l o s V a l d e z de l a T o r r e , Evoluci6n de l a s comunidades i n d i g e n a s  (Lima,  1921); and Nathan Wachtel, S o c i e d a d e i d o l o g i a , ensayos de h i s t o r i a y_ a n t r o p o l o g i a andinas (Lima, 1 9 7 3 ) .  12 Ordenanzas, pp.  184,  185,  Rowe, "Movimiento," p.  7.  192.  kl  Ik 1  Sol6rzano, l i b . 2, cap. 27, p t . 5.  ^ Spalding, " H u a r o c h i r i , " pp. 178-185.  16 Real CSdula of 12 March 1697» published i n 1766  and reproduced i n  Ruben Vargas Ugarte, Impresos peruanos publicados en e l e x t r a n j e r o , B i b l i o t e c a peruana VI (Lima, 194-9) * p.  127.  17 Sol6rzano, l i b . 2, cap. 20, p t . kl,  18 At the time of the conquest a h e r e d i t a r y n o b i l i t y was s t i l l being formed i n Peru.  I f l o c a l leaders were l o y a l , the Inca gave them the  hereditary p o s i t i o n of curaca.  I f not, however, the Inca appointed a  curaca whose son would i n h e r i t the p o s i t i o n . Rodrigo de L o a i s a , "Memorial de l a s cosas d e l Peru tocantes a l o s Indios," Colecci6n de documentos i n e d i t o s para l a h i s t o r i a de Espana (Madrid, 1 8 5 2 ) , XCIV, 558; Sol6rzano, l i b . 2, cap. 27, p t . 23.  20 Francisco de Toledo, "Memorial que D. Francisco de Toledo di6 a l rey nuestro senor, d e l estado en que dej6 l a s cosas d e l Peru, despuSs de haber s i d o en e l V i r r e y y Capitan General t r e c e anos, que comenzaron en  1569," i n 'Je^-3icard03'^tr^"j'.  Kozpide.j.. Colecci6n de Memorias (Madrid,  1921), I , 88. 21  Toledo, "Memorial," p.  88.  Toledo, "Memorial," p.  87.  ^ Toledo, "Memorial," p.  75.  pp 23  24 Ordenanzas, p.  190.  25  Karen Spalding, De i n d i o a campesino, cambios en l a estructura  s o c i a l d e l Peru c o l o n i a l (Lima, 197*0» p. 36.  26 This d i s c u s s i o n of the p o s i t i o n of the caciques i n the early c o l o n i a l period i s based p r i m a r i l y on the a n a l y s i s of c o l o n i a l Indian society presented by Karen Spalding i n De i n d i o a campesino, pp. '32-87. Wachtel, pp. 81-162, gives more s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s on the changing r e l a t i o n ships amongst the Indian t r i b u t a r i e s , caciques and Spanish administrators i n the s i x t e e n t h century. 27 L o a i s a , p. 587» describes the r e s u l t of the aggrandisement of the caciques' powers i n the f o l l o w i n g terms:  . . y son t a n miserables  l o s i n d i o s que no osan quejarse n i hablar p a l a b r a contra sus caciques . . . antes, con que l o s caciques l o s llamen, y l e s den de beber, se s a t i s f a c e n , y no se acuerdan de t r a b a j o , agravio n i i n j u r i a que l e s hay an hecho."  28 "Memorial," p. 156. 29  Recopilaci6n, I I , l i b . v i , t i t . v i i , l e y x v i i .  30  Ordenanzas, p. 190. 31  Recopilaci6n, I I , l i b . v i , t i t . v i i , l e y i and i i ; Ordenanzas,  p. 185. 32 y  Jos§ Antonio Maravall considers M o t o l i n i a t o have o r i g i n a t e d the  "two r e p u b l i c s " concept which became a common means of d e s c r i b i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Spanish and Indian s o c i e t y throughout the c o l o n i a l  period.  See "La Utopia p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o s a de l o s franciscanos en Nueva  Espana," Estudios Americanos, 1:2 (January 194-9), 205. 33 Rowe notes that the P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l of Lima forbade the o r d i n a t i o n of Indians i n 1567.  "The Incas," p. 187.  CHAPTER I I  The Subjection of the Indian E l i t e to Spanish E x p l o i t a t i o n i n the Eighteenth Century  Both the s t a b i l i t y of Indian society and the ascendancy of the caciques were threatened i n the eighteenth century by innovations i n the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Peru.  These innovations formed part of  the attempts of the Bourbon monarchy to r e v i v e Spain's n a t i o n a l strength and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , both of which had s u f f e r e d severe blows i n the seventeenth century.  The changes made i n the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  were designed to serve two s p e c i f i c ends:  that of maximizing Crown  revenue from American sources''" and that of c e n t r a l i z i n g and s i m p l i f y i n g the vast c o l o n i a l bureaucracy, a bureaucracy dedicated p r i m a r i l y to preserving the i n t e r e s t s of i t s own o f f i c i a l s and accustomed to e f f e c t i v e l y 2 evading Crown l e g i s l a t i o n . These ends were i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d i n the Peruvian context.  The  need f o r bureaucratic reform was subordinate to the prime goal of the Bourbon monarchs, the increase of Crown revenue.  Reformists i n the  eighteenth century v i r t u a l l y equated the Crown's economic p r o s p e r i t y to 3 " e l b i e n comun" i n terms such as these used by the creole V i c t o r i n o  45  Montero i n 174-7: " E l zelo que experimentamos en U.E. por e l bien p u b l i c o , honra y g l o r i a de l a Monarquia, e l empeno en promover l o s aumentos de l o s If Haberes Reales."  Spanish, and c r e o l e r e f o r m i s t s a l i k e agreed that the  t r a d i t i o n of autonomy on the part of c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s , together with a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of groups and i n d i v i d u a l s enjoying e f f e c t i v e exemption from the Crown's j u r i s d i c t i o n , were the main f a c t o r s i n l i m i t i n g the Crown's share of American revenue.  Montero described the autonomy of the Peruvian  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Viceroys, i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: . . . no fue e l Real animo de V. Mag. crecer e l despotismo de estos Governadores, ha'sta entender l a r e g a l i a , como una l i b r e voluntad de cada uno; porque para casos i r r e g u l a r e s , se l e s concedian l o s A r b i t r i o s de l a prudencia, y para l o s o r d i n a r i o s , no se havian de apartar d e l Alfabeto de l a s Leyes, como que l a s e s c r i t a s son l a conformidad en l a s d i s c o r d i a s . 5 and the economic e f f e c t s of t h i s s i t u a t i o n :  "...  l a s Rentas, que hoy  andan derramadas, y perdidas por todas l a s partes de e l , donde caminan tan l i b r e s l a s transgressiones."^ Jorge Juan y S a n t a c i l i a and Antonio de U l l o a , who i n v e s t i g a t e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the V i c e r o y a l t y of Peru between 1735 and 1745,  described the e f f e c t s of t h i s autonomy:  hechas . . .  "Todas estas extorsiones  con e l disimulado pretexto de ser celo por e l s e r v i c i o d e l  Rey y Real Hacienda, no son, en e f e c t o , o t r a cosa sino acrecentamiento  de  7  l a u t i l i d a d propia."  Montero expressed the f u t i l i t y of more laws and more  i n t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n of American resources without a thorough reform of the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n :  k6  . . . no c o n s i s t e n l o s aumentos de V. Mag. en tener mas Minas, n i en sacar mas P l a t a , sino en a r r e g l a r mejor l a obediencia de sus V a s s a l l o s , y d i s c u r r i r medios, y modos de que l a s Leyes e r i g i d a s , y por e r i g i r , tengan mas observancia; porque adonde f a l t a este concierto u n i v e r s a l de todos l o s Reynos, l o mismo es m u l t i p l i c a r Leyes, que ampliarles mas facultades a. V i r r e y e s , y Oidores, para que tengan mayor dependencia sobre unos desvalidos V a s s a l l o s : esto no es aumentar l o E r a r i o s , sino engrandecer mas a. unos M i n i s t r o s , que se d i l a t a n g en Soberania sobre l a Magestad de l a s riquezas. . . . These r e f o r m i s t s saw the American bureaucracy not only as a prime cause of Spain's l o s s of American revenue but as an e f f e c t i v e stumbling block to reform.  Juan and U l l o a wrote:  . . . s i hay algfln m i n i s t r o en aquellos palses que se declare por l a j u s t i c i a , hay otros i n d i f e r e n t e s a l a i n i q u i d a d , y aun muchos que se oponen a l a reforma. Estos niegan l o s a u x i l i o s necesarios cuando l l e g a l a ocasi6n y aquSllos l o dan con t a n t a t i b i e z a que infunden animo y confianza en l o s interesados para que hagan oposici6n a l o que no l e s tiene cuenta.9 The Spanish m i n i s t e r JosS de Campillo y Cosio  a l s o described the o p p o s i t i o n  which could be expected from the c o l o n i a l establishment i n the case of attempts to introduce broad reforms:  "A primera v i s t a parecera cercada  de i m p o s i b i l i d a d e s su p r a c t i c a , y creceran a q u e l l a s en l o s dictameries de 10  l o s que por sus propios i n t e r e s e s abominen de Ssta."  These vested i n t e r e s t s  no doubt played a r o l e i n preventing even the formulation of plans f o r the general reform of the Peruvian a d m i n i s t r a t i o n before 17^2, which Campillo y Cosio l a America.  the year i n  wrote h i s Nuevo sistema de govierno econ6mico para  Even a f t e r that date, Campillo's ideas remained mere theory  h?  until 1762 when i n the form of Bernardo Ward's Proyecto econ6mico they  12  formed the basis for the introduction of the intendant system in America. The Bourbon administration's attempts to solve Spain's internal 13 problems  as well as to bolster her beleaguered international position i n  the f i r s t half of the eighteenth century strained the limits of the nation's human and economic resources. Their f u l l commitment to the solution of these problems also contributed to the Bourbon regime's lack of interest in intensive reform i n America.  The measures which were taken tended to' be  those which produced immediate advantages without the expenditure of scarce  ih and valuable human or economic resources.  Some of these measures con-  f l i c t e d severely with the interests of Indian society as well as with the long-range interests of the Spanish Crown as i t was perceived by reformers like Campillo and Juan and Ulloa. An increase i n the yield from the Crown's three main revenue sources from Peru—mining, import-export taxes and Indian tribute, a l l of which 15 had declined sharply by the beginning of the eighteenth century  —was a  sure means of supplementing the Crown's dwindling resources. The most obvious means of increasing revenue from these sources, however, involved additional exactions on the Indian masses already overburdened as tributaries, mita laborers and—through the repartimiento—consumers of Spanish goods. Yet this was the one group the reformists insisted on sparing from any increased burdens.  Their opinion was that only by fostering the welfare  of the Indian population could Spain expect her American domains to prosper.  48  The Indians v/ere the key resource i n the American economy according to both Juan and Ulloa:  "...  todas cuantas riquezas producen l a s Indias, y aun  16 su misma subsistencia, se debe a l sudor de sus naturales" who described them as " e l gran tesoro de Espana.  and Campillo  E l l o s son l a mina mas  rica  17 del mundo, que se debe beneficiar con l a mas escrupulosa economla."  Juan  and U l l o a described the benefits that reform should bring to Indian society and the b e n e f i c i a l effect they would have f o r Spain: Con estas disposiciones bien observadas podrla mejorarse e l gobierno de aquellos paises, cuyas resultas s e r i a n muy favorables a todos. E l Monarca l o conoceria con e l acrecentamiento de l o s tributos reales y en e l adelantamiento de l a s alcabalas, porque a proporcidn que se poblasen mas aquellos paises s e r i a mayor e l consumo de gSneros y crecerian l o s derechos en l a s aduanas; l o s particulares l o s experimentarian en e l mayor numero de indios para trabajar l a s minas, para c u l t i v a r sus haciendas y para mantener sus manufacturas, y l o s indios mismos gozarian mas descanso con mejores conveniencias, y cualquiera p e n s i 6 n que se hiciese inevitable por l a urgencia de l o s tiempos, l e s s e r i a soportable y l a l l e v a r i a n con gusto.18 Campillo couched h i s view of the Indians* p o s i t i o n under a reformed ministration i n the broadest terms:  "...  ad-  l o s i n f e l i c e s Indios; con l a  execucion del Nuevo Sistema gozaran de todos l o s P r i v i l e g i o s que l e s conc e d i 6 l a naturaleza en su l i b e r t a d , y l e s ha quitado e l dominio de l o s ig hombres con su Imperio." This emphasis on the importance of preserving the Indian population was based on a keen awareness, among these and other observers, of the s o c i a l and economic c r i s i s i n Indian society i n the f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth century.  The Crown, i n choosing to pursue short-term ^©Onomic  49  gains wherever p o s s i b l e , not only overlooked t h i s c r i s i s , but the conditions which had given r i s e to i t .  aggravated  The Crown's measures to increase  revenue produced increased pressure on the resources of Indian society as a whole to the point of undermining that society's a b i l i t y to support i t s p r i v i l e g e d groups, and thereby contributing to the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Indian e l i t e with the Spanish administration. Far from expanding to meet any new demands, the resources of Indian society were rapidly being eroded by the combined demands of the Spanish Crown, Church and administrators.  The t o t a l burden of o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l  obligations placed on an i n d i v i d u a l Peruvian Indian t r i b u t a r y i n the eighteenth century generally exceeded h i s resources.  A t y p i c a l Indian could be  expected to have an annual income of between twenty-five and f o r t y - f i v e  20 pesos.  Of t h i s amount, at l e a s t twenty-one pesos were committed to f i x e d  contributions including the personal tribute p a i d to the Crown, the t i t h e s and other levies paid to the Church and the obligatory purchase of r e p a r t i -  21 miento merchandise from the corregidor. Whatever income remained a f t e r these obligations were f u l f i l l e d cons t i t u t e d f a i r game f o r u n o f f i c i a l and often i l l e g a l , yet nevertheless widely accepted exploitation by powerful Spaniards and the caciques who often served, however u n w i l l i n g l y , as t h e i r accomplices.  I t was accepted, indeed  expected practice f o r o f f i c i a l s at a l l l e v e l s i n the administrative hierarchy to exploit more or l e s s f r e e l y t h e i r o f f i c i a l functions f o r private p r o f i t .  The close contact with, and v i r t u a l l y uncontrolled authority  50  over the Indian t r i b u t a r i e s enjoyed by the l o c a l corregidores and Church o f f i c i a l s gave them ample opportunity to p r a c t i s e such e x p l o i t a t i o n to 22 advantage. Innumerable denunciations of the corregidores by other c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s and r e f o r m i s t s of various l o y a l t i e s i n d i c a t e that these "diptorigos 23 de jueces y mercaderes"  c a r r i e d t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n to lengths quite i n -  t o l e r a b l e even to the most hardened American bureaucrats.  The  also provide an ample record of the nature and extent of the  denunciations devious  p r a c t i c e s by which the corregidores' p r o f i t e d from t h e i r f u n c t i o n s as t r i b u t e 24 c o l l e c t o r s , labor purveyors and monopolistic merchants. Often i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h caciques the corregidores c o l l e c t e d t r i b u t e monies from the Indians i n advance or more f r e q u e n t l y than was authorized i n order to provide themselves w i t h working c a p i t a l . p r o f i t e d by c o l l e c t i n g t r i b u t e from exempt Indians.  The corregidores a l s o 25 O f f i c i a l l y tribute  was payable only by males between twenty and f i f t y years of age i n order to confine the head tax to the productive members of Indian s o c i e t y .  Since  Indians outside t h i s group had v i r t u a l l y no resources, assessments made on them were often t r a n s f e r r e d to r e l a t i v e s already i n the t r i b u t e - p a y i n g 26 sector of Indian s o c i e t y , i n c r e a s i n g the t r i b u t e o b l i g a t i o n s of t h i s group. Not only corregidores, but i n d i v i d u a l Spaniards and C r e o l e s as w e l l were able t o p r o f i t from t h e i r abuse of the mita system.  While t h i s  o b l i g a t o r y labor s e r v i c e was t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s such as mines, o f f i c i a l guide and post s e r v i c e , and other p u b l i c works, i n p r a c t i c e mitayos provided labor f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and t e x t i l e f a c t o r i e s as w e l l .  51 Juan and Ulloa described how landowners by various assessments quickly embezzled the mitayos' minimal wage and even l e f t them indebted so as to force the mitayos to continue as employees after the expiration of their 27 obligatory service.  The same authors detailed the practices by which the  owners of obrajes or textile factories "adquiere . . . un derecho injustamente 28  establecido de esclavizarlos, no s6lo a l i n d i o mitayo, mas a todos sus hijos." It was also accepted practice for corregidores and landowners who received Indians as mitayos to realize a profit by renting them out to other individuals 29 m  need of labor. The repartimiento, an o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned practice by which the  corregidores forcibly sold merchandise to Indians under their jurisdiction, provided considerable scope for profit at the expense of the Indian tributaries. Abuses i n the repartimiento system had become so prevalent by the middle of the eighteenth century that the Viceroy instituted legislation restricting the repartimiento to specific goods deemed necessary or useful to the Indians, regulating the price which could be charged for these goods, and restricting 30  the number of repartimientos which could be undertaken by a single corregxdor. In spite of these restrictions, the abuses which led the Spanish investigators Juan and Ulloa to c a l l the repartimiento "una tirania l a mas horrible que se pudiera inventar"^ apparently continued unabated until i t was 32 1  abolished in I78O.  finally  While even legal repartimientos placed a heavy burden  on the tributaries' resources, the inflated prices and repeated repartimientos imposed by some corregidores left the Indians debt-ridden.  52  The Indians' i n a b i l i t y t o pay f o r the repartimiento frequently r e s u l t e d i n the corregidores' f o r c i n g them i n t o debt s l a v e r y . The c l e v e r l y manipulated  corregidores  t h e i r a u t h o r i t y as t r i b u t e c o l l e c t o r s to ensure t h e i r  own p r o f i t s from the repartimiento as w e l l as t h e i r access to debt l a b o r e r s . By d i v e r t i n g sums which had been p a i d as t r i b u t e to s a t i s f y repartimiento debts, the corregidores kept the Indians indebted t o the Crown f o r t r i b u t e , c r e a t i n g f o r themselves an undeniable j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r continuing to c o n t r o l 33  the l a b o r and income of the t r i b u t a r i e s . While the combined e f f e c t s of abusive e x p l o i t a t i o n and o f f i c i a l  im-  p o s i t i o n s c l e a r l y made the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the average t r i b u t a r y quite untenable, a serious population d e c l i n e i n the f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth century exacerbated  the impoverishment of Indian s o c i e t y as a whole.  In  most p a r t s of Spanish America, the population d e c l i n e caused by the d r a s t i c p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l changes wrought by the Spanish c o l o n i a l i z a t i o n had begun to reverse by the eighteenth century.  I n Peru, however, a number of f a c t o r s  prevented t h i s recovery from o c c u r r i n g . By 1754 both the number of Indian persons and the number of Indian t r i b u t a r i e s i n the Audiencias of Lima and 34  Charcas were l e s s than h a l f t h e i r t o t a l s i n  1561.  The s i e r r a communities s u f f e r e d more than other areas from t h i s depopulation, both because they l o s t r e l a t i v e l y more of t h e i r population and because t h e i r r o l e as labor purveyors made them more s e n s i t i v e to the l o s s of human resources.  A plague i n 1720 claimed the l i v e s of more than two  t h i r d s of the s i e r r a Indians, a l o s s which was aggravated by voluntary  53  migration from the s i e r r a regions.  35  Voluntary migration which had served  as a means of escaping e x p l o i t a t i o n during both the I n c a i c and early Spanish 36  periods  once again became a common occurrence and one of grave concern both 37  to Spanish a u t h o r i t i e s and Indian leaders.  While some Indians simply f l e d  to r e l a t i v e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e areas, others must have moved to the more prosperous urban areas and the coastal and eastern Andean a g r i c u l t u r a l regions, a l l of which showed an increase i n population between 1628 and 175^  when the 38  majority of the Peruvian provinces showed considerable decreases. I t was on t h i s already depressed and depopulated I n d i a n society that the Spanish Crown placed f u r t h e r burdens i n i t s attempt to increase i t s revenue from Peru.  The s p e c i f i c measures applied f o r t h i s purpose not only weighed  h e a v i l y on the Indian masses, the sector of s o c i e t y which could least a f f o r d any a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s , but a l s o contributed to the gradual erosion of the a u t h o r i t y of both the Indian caciques and of the Spanish administration i t s e l f . One such measure, composici6n de t i e r r a s , used repeatedly i n the 39  seventeenth and eighteenth c e n t u r i e s as a means of r a i s i n g needed funds, c l e a r l y demonstrates the f a r - r e a c h i n g and perhaps l a r g e l y unanticipated e f f e c t s which the Crown's p u r s u i t of a p o l i c y of immediate f i n a n c i a l advantage had on the already overburdened resources of Indian s o c i e t y .  The  term "composicifin" was u s u a l l y used to describe a p r a c t i c e by which the Crown o f f e r e d to l e g a l i z e f o r a fee e x i s t i n g l a n d holdings.  In the case  of Peru, the Crown subjected to composici6n the Indian communities' land holdings i n excess of those necessary to provide each t r i b u t a r y with an  54  area c a l c u l a t e d t o support himself and h i s dependants.^"  This community  land, a carry-over from Incaic land-holding p a t t e r n s , was u s u a l l y rented or c u l t i v a t e d t o provide a d d i t i o n a l community income and remained a v a i l a b l e for d i s t r i b u t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n case of a population i n c r e a s e . The depressed s t a t e of Indian s o c i e t y i n the eighteenth century, however, placed composici6n beyond the means of many Indian communities.  I n these  cases the composiclones served as a means by which Spaniards and C r e o l e s could usurp community lands w i t h the Crown's approval.  The l a s t  compos'ici6n  i n the eighteenth century occurred a t the lowest point i n the Indian populat i o n curve, a time when Indian s o c i e t y was hard pressed t o meet even e x i s t i n g obligations.  At t h i s time the f a i l u r e of some communities t o o f f e r an adequate  fee f o r the composici6n of t h e i r land t i t l e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r lands being s o l d t o the highest bidder.  This s a l e of land had a t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a -  t i o n i n the Bourbon premise that vacant land automatically reverted to' Crown ownership.^ The l o s s of community lands through composici6n not only caused hardship by d e p r i v i n g the communities of the income produced by these lands but also contributed t o another problem, the existence of l a n d l e s s Indians. Communities with no excess land had no resources with which t o support any increase i n population and the e x i s t i n g resources had proven inadequate to support the Indian population even at i t s lowest ebb. This s i t u a t i o n , the prime cause of migration, not only continued t o discourage the r e t u r n of Indians who had temporarily l e f t t h e i r communities e i t h e r t o serve the mita or t o seek a more prosperous existence elsewhere, but a l s o contributed  55  to t h e c o n t i n u i n g m i g r a t i o n o f t h e excess p o p u l a t i o n .  S i n c e most m i g r a n t s  f l e d e i t h e r t o u n c o l o n i z e d r e g i o n s o r t o u r b a n a r e a s where they c o u l d e s cape t r i b u t e payment, t h i s c o n t i n u e d m i g r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d  a serious drain  on one o f the main s o u r c e s of Crown revenue. As a r e s u l t , when the; I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n d i d b e g i n t o i n c r e a s e , t h e Crown attempted t o remedy the problem o f l a n d l e s s I n d i a n s i n two ways. N e i t h e r o f these, however, f u r t h e r e d the r e f o r m i s t s ' i d e a l o f p r o v i d i n g t h e  45 I n d i a n s w i t h enough l a n d t o m a i n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s . "las  t i e r r a s se den en p r o p i e d a d  Campillo  advocated t h a t  a n u e s t r o s I n d i o s , y que p o r c o n s i g u i e n t e  44 se l e s de l a p l e n a y p a c l f i c a p o s e s i o n de todo e l f r u t o de s u t r a b a j o . " The Crown's p l a n t o p r o v i d e l a n d t o a l l I n d i a n s , however,  actually  reduced  the s i z e of i n d i v i d u a l a l l o t m e n t s by simply r e d i v i d i n g t h e e x i s t i n g l a n d  45 a v a i l a b l e t o the I n d i a n s amongst t h e i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n .  I n attempts  to make s t i l l more l a n d a v a i l a b l e t o the i n c r e a s i n g I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t h e Crown undertook t o r e d i s t r i b u t e l a n d s h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n s i n excess  46 of  their official  allotments.  J u s t as the f i r s t measure decreased t h e  l a n d a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l t r i b u t a r y , t h i s measure r e d u c e d  the h o l d i n g s  which members of t h e I n d i a n e l i t e had managed t o accumulate through c l e v e r manipulation  of t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s .  Only t h e I n d i a n n o b i l i t y who  held  47 l a n d s by s p e c i a l r o y a l c o n c e s s i o n s The a d v e r s e were f e l t boundaries those  remained untouched by t h i s measure.  e f f e c t s o f t h i s s h o r t - s i g h t e d p o l i c y of l a n d  by v i r t u a l l y  redistribution  every segment o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y , c u t t i n g a c r o s s t h e  that g e n e r a l l y separated  o f the I n d i a n masses.  the i n t e r e s t s o f the I n d i a n e l i t e  from  56  The  need t o i n c r e a s e Crov/n revenue from American s o u r c e s was  f a c t o r i n d e c i s i o n s t o continue  b o t h the m i t a and r e p a r t i m i e n t o  the a d v i c e of many c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s .  The  the  key  against  r o y a l t a x o r q u i n t a on mine  48 p r o d u c t i o n formed t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e source By 1700  of Crown revenue from P e r u .  m i n i n g p r o d u c t i o n had d e c l i n e d t o l e s s than h a l f i t s t o t a l at  beginning constant finally,  the  of the c e n t u r y and the improvement o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n remained a  49  concern t o r e f o r m i s t s throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y until at the end o f the c e n t u r y , a s c i e n t i f i c p l a n t o modernize the  50 Peruvian  mining i n d u s t r y was  V i c e r o y i n the  1730*s,  undertaken.  The  Marques de C a s t e l f u e r ' t e ,  d e s c r i b e d t h e mines as " e l p r i n c i p a l bianco  a t e n c i o n de este G o v i e r n o , y como e l centro de  donde han  de l a  de s a l i r l a s l i n e a s  51 de l a c o n s e r v a c i o n  de e s t e Reyno."  E a r l y e f f o r t s t o improve m i n i n g revenue g e n e r a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d  on  p r o v i s i o n o f i n c r e a s e d manpower, p a r t i c u l a r l y through changes i n the  the  ad-  52 m i n i s t r a t i o n of the m i t a system.  The m i t a had  always been j u s t i f i e d  as  the o n l y p o s s i b l e means of p r o v i d i n g l a b o r f o r t h e mines s i n c e v o l u n t a r y e r s v/ere s c a r c e and u n w i l l i n g t o work f o r meager wages i n the  labor-  debilitating  53 c o n d i t i o n s of the mines.  The  d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of the m i t a on  s o c i e t y l e d t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a b o l i s h i n g i t throughout the century. the s e v e r e  eighteenth  F e l i p e V d i d i n f a c t a b o l i s h the m i t a f o r H u a n c a v e l i c a e f f e c t s o f the 1720  Indian  owing t o  p l a g u e on the m i t a y o s but t h i s measure  was  54 never f u l l y implemented. but u l t i m a t e l y d e c i d e d  I n 1728  the A u d i e n c i a s e r i o u s l y contemplated  against a b o l i s h i n g the mita.  under a c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and i n 1732  The  q u e s t i o n remained  the C o u n c i l of the I n d i e s r e c o r d e d  a  57  majority vote,  vote i n favor  of a b o l i s h i n g the m i t a .  i n s i s t i n g on m a i n t a i n i n g the  The C r o w n o v e r r u l e d  mita subject—as ever—to  the  this  provisions  55 of the Ordenanzas  o f Toledo and t o  The r e p a r t i m i e n t o , opinions,  because of  eighteenth-century inferior  goods a t  justified  authorities  t h i r t e e n new  advantages i t  condemned t h e  inflated prices  ordenanzas.  in its  provided the  sale  through the  the continued existence  f r o m M a n s o de V e l a s c o ' s  of  l i k e t h e m i t a , was m a i n t a i n e d i n s p i t e  t h e economic  overwhelming i n t e r e s t  those  continuance.  "Memoria," are  contrary  Crown.  Most  of often unnecessary  repartimiento  of t h i s system  of  system,  on t h e b a s i s  and  yet  of the  The f o l l o w i n g a r g u m e n t s ,  Crown's taken  typical:  . . . c o n o c i e n d o que n i l a s p r o v i n c i a s p o d i a n s o s t e n e r s e s i n a l g u n r e p a r t i m i e n t o , n i h a b i a q u i e n a d m i n i s t r a s e j u s t i c i a en e l l a , s o l o p o r e l h o n o r y c o r t o s u e l d o que e s t a a s i g n a d o a l o s Corregidores, era indispensable o c u r r i r a l a s quejas y c o n d e n a r p o r d e l i n c u e n t e s e s t o s c o m e r c i o s , a l mismo t i e m p o que e r a n o t o r i o que t o d o s l o p r a c t i c a b a n , y que e s t a n e g o c i a c i o n e r a u n i c a m e n t e l a que l o s l l e v a b a a v i v i r e n t r e s i e r r a s a s p e r a s , temperamentos d e s p r e c i a b l e s y gente i n c u l t a , y h a c e r s e c a r g o de l a d i f i c i l r e c a u d a c i o n de t r i b u t o s y o t r o s R e a l e s derechos, cuyo cuidado l e s o b l i g a b a a e s t a r e n p e r p e t u o m o v i m i e n t o p o r l a s g r a n d e s d i s t a n c i a s que comprehende c a d a p r o v i n c i a , consumiendo e n e s t a s d i l i g e n c i a s mas de l o que i m p o r t a b a e l s a l a r i o .  56  The r e p a r t i m i e n t o n o t  o n l y e n a b l e d t h e S p a n i s h Crown t o p r o v i d e  local  57 governors  i n America at  Crovm w i t h a n e x t r a I t vras t h e  source  to  the o f f i c e  market f o r  ed f r o m t h e  sale  itself  of revenue  r i g h t to administer the  to purchase a captive  no c o s t  of  actually provided  through the  sale  repartimiento that  of c o r r e g i d o r .  the sale  but  Further,  the  corregimientos.  induced i n d i v i d u a l s  the r e p a r t i m i e n t o  Spanish products  through the i m p o s i t i o n of  of  the  and the  provided  Crown a l s o  a l c a b a l a on the  goods  profitsold.  58  This was apparently a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n the Viceroy Superunda's d e c i s i o n i n 1751 t o maintain the repartimiento despite the contrary opinion of many 58 ministers.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n of s a l e s at f i x e d p r i c e s i n t o the r e p a r t i -  miento system i n 1756, although apparently securing a c e r t a i n income f o r the Crown from the corregidores* s a l e s , did l i t t l e t o check the many abuses perpetrated on the Indians through the corregimiento system.  According t o  the Viceroy Amat y Junient, "Los Aranzeles formados s6lo s i r v e n para e l cargo de Alcabalas, pero de ningun modo para e l arreglo de sus procedimientos, pues cada Corregidor reparte l o que l e parece y a l o s p r e c i o s a que l e induce 59  su mal reglada autoridad y a r b i t r i o . " I n keeping w i t h i t s o v e r a l l p o l i c y of i n c r e a s i n g revenue, the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Peru implemented i n the f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth century various measures designed t o increase the Crown's t r i b u t e revenue.  As e a r l y  as the l680',s the i n c r e a s i n g percentage of the Indian population which was exempt from t r i b u t e by v i r t u e of holding p o s i t i o n s i n l o c a l Indian government had begun t o represent a considerable l i m i t a t i o n on t r i b u t e revenue. The Viceroy, Duque de l a P a l a t a attempted t o remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n e i t h e r by having minor o f f i c i a l s selected from those over t r i b u t e - p a y i n g age or by 60 having these o f f i c i a l s pay t r i b u t e e i t h e r p e r s o n a l l y or from community funds. By the end of the f i r s t quarter of the eighteenth century some t r i b u t e l i s t s 6l made no p r o v i s i o n f o r the exemption even of a l c a l d e s . L a t e r i n the century the V i s i t o r General Areche attempted t o apply a s i m i l a r p o l i c y t o a l l 62 Indian r e l i g i o u s o f f i c i a l s ,  thereby l i m i t i n g the classes of Indians  enjoying exemption by v i r t u e of o f f i c e t o the caciques and some a l c a l d e s .  59  T h i s gradual broadening of the t r i b u t e base added to the expense of supporting the Indian e l i t e , an expense which already weighed heavily on most Indian communities.  At the same time, by removing any  personal  economic reward f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l government, the i n c l u s i o n of Indian o f f i c i a l s as t r i b u t e payers destroyed not only the p r e s t i g e of o f f i c e 63 but a l s o the i n c e n t i v e f o r h o l d i n g o f f i c e .  I n spite of t h i s o v e r a l l trend  towards subjecting a greater percentage of the Indian population to t r i b u t e payment, the number of Indians who maintained t h e i r exemption from t r i b u t e by v i r t u e of t h e i r cacique status was s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t i n 1754, f o r out of 64 a t o t a l population of 612,780  Indians,  2,078 enjoyed such exemption.  Measures to increase t r i b u t e revenue a f f e c t e d not only the Indian e l i t e , but the Indian masses as w e l l .  Rather than a c t u a l l y c u r t a i l i n g the  i l l e g a l p r o f i t s of Spanish o f f i c i a l s , many of the steps taken to prevent  the  misappropriation of t r i b u t e funds merely t r a n s f e r r e d the burden of these p r o f i t s from the Crown's t r i b u t e revenue t o the resources of Indian s o c i e t y as a whole. I n the 1730's the Viceroy C a s t e l f u e r t e was p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n attempting to increase t r i b u t e revenue by e r a d i c a t i n g many of the fraudulent p r a c t i c e s by which l o c a l o f f i c i a l s embezzled t r i b u t e monies r i g h t l y due to the Crown.  A  p a r t i c u l a r l y common p r a c t i c e was f o r the corregidor to report the existence of an a r t i f i c i a l l y low^number of t r i b u t a r i e s and to pocket the monies c o l 65 l e c t e d from the r e a l t r i b u t a r i e s i n excess of t h i s number.  The devastating  e f f e c t s of the recent plague on the s i e r r a Indians f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c r a t i v e fraud.  C a s t e l f u e r t e t r i e d to c u r t a i l t h i s abuse by sending  out  60  s p e c i a l enumerators whose e f f o r t s , he claimed, produced an a d d i t i o n a l 35»868 Indian t r i b u t a r i e s . ^ These t r i b u t a r i e s were not, however, always l e g i t i m a t e additions t o the t r i b u t e r o l l s .  Since the enumerators were p a i d according t o t h e i r 67  success i n f i n d i n g new t r i b u t a r i e s ,  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that many  l e g i t i m a t e l y exempt Indians were threatened w i t h i n c l u s i o n , or i n f a c t i n cluded as t r i b u t a r i e s .  Bribery was apparently the only sure way t o maintain  68 one's exemption.  The i n c l u s i o n of Indians l e g a l l y exempted from t r i b u t e  payment by v i r t u e of t h e i r age, sex or i n f i r m i t i e s i n the t r i b u t e l i s t s i n creased the t r i b u t e burden on the productive members of Indian society who had t o r a i s e the t r i b u t e payments f o r these i n d i v i d u a l s .  I n t h i s way the  Crown's attempts t o increase t r i b u t e revenue contributed t o the i n c r e a s i n g impoverishment of Indian s o c i e t y . The administration's p o l i c y of i n c r e a s i n g t r i b u t e revenue, t h e r e f o r e , worked t o the serious disadvantage  of Indian s o c i e t y , adversely a f f e c t i n g  both members of the Indian e l i t e and of the t r i b u t a r y population. I t u l t i m a t e l y worked t o the disadvantage  of the Spanish Crown as w e l l since i t  antagonized not only members of the Indian e l i t e but also a large part of the mestizo population.  Under C a s t e l f u e r t e a l l mestizos were included as  69 t r i b u t a r i e s unless they could l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h t h e i r mestizo status. The d i f f i c u l t y and expense of doing t h i s forced many mestizos i n t o the s o c i a l l y degrading p o s i t i o n of t r i b u t a r i e s .  The mestizos who had h i t h e r t o 70  regarded t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with Spanish s o c i e t y as i n v i o l a b l e ,  now found  themselves outcasts, subject t o the same degrading e x p l o i t a t i o n as the  61  members of the subordinate Indian society.  The mestizos reacted with  growing suspicion against further attempts to equate them with the exp l o i t e d Indians.  At the same time the mestizos' new-found i d e n t i t y of  interest with the Indian t r i b u t a r i e s made the administration wary of offending them f u r t h e r . Manso de Velasco wrote at mid-century that any enumeration was a dangerous undertaking because of the mestizos' fear of the imposition of t r i b u t e and mita "que es un s e r v i c i o que miran como una 71 especie de esclavitud que los a l t e r a . " Since the caciques were exempt from t r i b u t e payment, i t might seem that the Spanish administration's tendency to include as many Indians and even mestizos as possible i n the tribute l i s t s enhanced the position of the caciques.  In fact the opposite was  the case.  The administration's p o l i c i e s  increased the impoverishment of the Indian masses and made them less able to support t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d groups, although the caciques were, to some extent, shielded from t h i s decline by t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the corregidores' p r o f i t s . However, a number of the reforms i n s t i t u t e d to prevent the corregidores from defrauding the Crown of tribute revenue had the additional and unanticipated effect of t o t a l l y undermining the s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n of the caciques. Reduced by the t r i b u t e system reforms to the status of personal dependants of the corregidores, the caciques found that t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d status had become purely i l l u s o r y i n p r a c t i c e . In order to thwart the most common means by which the corregidores defrauded  the Crown of tribute revenue, o f f i c i a l tribute l i s t s were i n t r o 72 duced, f i x i n g the income expected from each corregimiento. Whereas  62  f o r m e r l y t h e c o r r e g i d o r e s were a b l e t o d e c l a r e t o the Crown a s m a l l e r  number  of t r i b u t a r i e s t h a n i n f a c t e x i s t e d , they were now o b l i g e d t o present  tri-  bute f o r a f i x e d number o f I n d i a n s .  could  T h i s meant t h a t the c o r r e g i d o r e s  only p r o f i t by i l l e g a l l y i n c r e a s i n g the amount o f the t r i b u t e e x a c t i o n s o r by c o l l e c t i n g from exempt I n d i a n s .  The c o r r e g i d o r e s ' p r a c t i c e o f i n t r o d u c i n g  t h i r d o r even f o u r t h p a r t i e s — t h e caciques themselves o r t h e c o r r e g i d o r e s ' own s u b o r d i n a t e s ,  o f t e n mestizos o r m u l a t t o e s — i n t o  c o l l e c t i o n exacerbated  the p r o c e s s  this situation, necessitating s t i l l  e x p l o i t a t i o n t o provide the p r o f i t  f o r these  more i n t e n s i v e  individuals.  Lohmann d e s c r i b e s  the b e n e f i t s the Crown a n t i c i p a t e d from the use o f f i x e d t r i b u t e "Asl  se c o n s i d e r a b a  of t r i b u t e  lists:  que por e l p r o p i o i n t e r n s de l o s a r r e n d a t a r i o s no c a e r i a n  f a c i l m e n t e a l a s p r o p u e s t a s de colusi6n que l e s i n s i n u a s e n l o s c o r r e g i d o r e s o los  c u r a c a s para d e c l a r a r exentos o f u g i t i v o s a l mayor nuraero p o s i b l e de con-  73 tribuyentes."  These o f f i c i a l t r i b u t e l i s t s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e o f  s e l l i n g them, g e n e r a l l y t o c o r r e g i d o r e s , f o r a t l e a s t t h e amount o f income expected f o r t h a t c o r r e g i m i e n t o ,  r e s u l t e d i n a system o f t a x farming  b e n e f i t e d t h e Crown by making i t s t r i b u t e revenue t o t a l l y a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the t r i b u t e  which  independent o f t h e  collection.  These f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s were e q u a l l e d by t h e n e g a t i v e  r e s u l t s which  t h i s independence had on both t h e I n d i a n t r i b u t a r i e s and t h e c a c i q u e s .  The  B i s h o p o f Cuzco s u c c i n c t l y d e s c r i b e d the e x p l o i t a t i o n w h i c h ; r e s u l t e d from t h i s system o f t r i b u t e c o l l e c t i o n :  " . . . valiendose d e l especioso  titulo  74 de R e a l e s T r i b u t o s , no ay b i o l e n c i a que no executen."  As v/ell as l o s i n g  the main b a s i s f o r t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n — t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s t o the Crown  63  as intermediaries i n the t r i b u t e c o l l e c t i o n — t h e  caciques found themselves  relegated t o the s t a t u s of personal debt c o l l e c t o r s f o r the corregidores or t h e i r agents. The autonomy gained by the corregidores through these innovations i n the t r i b u t e c o l l e c t i o n process f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r f u r t h e r subjugation of the caciques.  The corregidores and t h e i r underlings viewed the amount of t r i b u t e  they had undertaken t o c o l l e c t as a debt f o r which the caciques as Indian leaders were p e r s o n a l l y responsible.  75  Caciques often paid out of thexr own  pockets the t r i b u t e of Indians from whom they could not c o l l e c t  76  and i t was  not unknown f o r caciques to be imprisoned f o r f a i l i n g t o pay t r i b u t e s they  77 had been unable t o c o l l e c t . By the same token the caciques were h e l d 78 responsible f o r the payment of the repartimiento, often d i s g u i s e d as t r i b u t e . The i n s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e l e f t t o the caciques i n the reformed t r i b u t e c o l l e c t i n g system meant that the Spanish government was no longer interested i n maintaining t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s .  The caciques, t h e r e f o r e , l a r g e l y  abandoned by the Crown, became h e l p l e s s v i c t i m s of the corregidores* power.  arbitrary  I n s p i t e of the fact that the caciqueship was by law a hereditary  o f f i c e , the corregidores were now able to go so f a r as t o depose caciques with impunity, simply by making the claim that they held o f f i c e i l l e g a l l y  79 due t o t h e i r f a i l u r e to obtain r o y a l confirmation. Many caciques were vulnerable on t h i s b a s i s since the considerable f i n a n c i a l outlay involved  80 i n o b t a i n i n g confirmation forced them to dispense with i t . The caciques' subjugation t o the corregidores e f f e c t i v e l y both the economic and s o c i a l advantages of o f f i c e .  destroyed  The corregidores'  6k  arbitrariness has not only impoverished the caciques but reduced them, i n reality, to the status of tribute payers by placing on them the obligations which the tributaries themselves were unable to meet. The exploitation i n which the caciques were forced to participate i n order to maintain the corregidores' protection had become so abusive as to damage the caciques' acceptance by the Indians as their legitimate leaders. At the same time the caciques* loss of access to the Crown impeded their ability to function as representatives of the Indian community and hence to reinforce their hereditary status through effective leadership. The protector Le6n y Escand6n summed up the caciques' position at the middle of the eighteenth century as "de peor condision que los pleveyos haviendo de hacerse cargo de una obligacion tan graboza que les fueran inuttiles los privilegios y 8l  exempciones que l a piedad de su Magd. les tiene concedidas." The caciques' subservient status made them indistinguishable i n Spanish eyes from the mass of Indians whose character was generally interpreted i n unflattering terms such as these used by the Viceroy Castelfuerte:  ". . . el  genio de esta nacion, en quien entregarse a l ocio es un vicio de naturaleza, y por aquella insensivilidad que con una f i l o s o f l a de vajeza no se dejan 82  penetrar del interes de l a ganancia."  Juan and Ulloa described the  attitudes of Spaniards to the children of caciques in the eighteenth century as follows: ". . . e l desprecio y odio con que los espanoles de su edad los tratarian en las escuelas de a l i a . . . basta que sean indios para que todos 0-2  tengan a desdoro e l ensefiarles, aun los misraos mestizos."  65  Many caciques were u n w i l l i n g t o accept without p r o t e s t t h i s l o s s of status and prestige and sought ways t o counteract the corregidores' power e i t h e r by s o l i c i t i n g the enforcement of e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n or by attempting t o occupy i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s outside t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e as  84 caciques.  As l a t e r chapters w i l l demonstrate, the caciques' e f f o r t s t o  r e e s t a b l i s h a balance between t h e i r by now openly c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n Spanish e x p l o i t a t i o n and the welfare of I n d i a n society were made p r i m a r i l y i  through e x i s t i n g l e g a l channels w i t h the assistance of the urban Indian e l i t e . The nature of these procedures and the Spanish c o l o n i a l t h e o r i e s on which they were founded proved t o be the o v e r r i d i n g i n f l u e n c e on the ideology of reform developed by the I n d i a n e l i t e i n the eighteenth century.  From i t s i n c e p t i o n  the goals and i d e a l s of the Indian reformist movement were both conceived and expressed w i t h i n the s t r i c t u r e s of Spanish c o l o n i a l i d e a l s .  66  NOTES  CHAPTER I I  For a general discussion of eighteenth-century reforms i n Spain's  1  c o l o n i a l possessions see:  David >Brading, Miners and Merchants i n Bourbon  1763-1810 (Cambridge, England, 1971); John Horace P a r r y , The Spanish  Mexico,  Seaborne Empire (New York, i n America (London, Aires.  1966); Clarence Henry Haring, The Spanish Empire  194-7); Guillermo Cespedes d e l C a s t i l l o , Lima y Buenos  Repuercusiones econSmicas y_ p o l i t i c a s de l a creac'i'6n d e l V i r r e i n a t o  del P l a t a ( S e v i l l e ,  194-7); and L i l l i a n E s t e l l e F i s h e r , The Intendant System,  i n the Spanish Americas (Berkeley,  1929).  2  Most s t u d i e s of reform i n the Spanish administration of Peru i n the eighteenth century dwell on the implementation of the intendant system i n 1784.  See John Robert F i s h e r , Government and Society i n C o l o n i a l Peru:  Intendant System,  The  1784-l8l4 (London, 1970). Leon G. Campbell, "The Army of  Peru and the Tupac Amaru Revolt, I78O-I783," Hispanic American H i s t o r i c a l Review,  56:1 (Feb. 1976), 31-57, has studied the m i l i t a r y reorganization i n  Peru a f t e r 176l.  The concentration of these s t u d i e s on the l a t t e r part of  the eighteenth century i s i n d i c a t i v e of the f a c t that e a r l i e r innovations d i d not represent a comprehensive  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , but r a t h e r i s o l a t e d e f f o r t s  designed p r i m a r i l y t o increase Crown revenue.  John TePaske, "La c r i s i s d e l  s i g l o XVIII en e l v i r r e i n a t o d e l Peru," i n ed. Bernardo Garcia'Martinez,  67  H i s t o r i a y_ sociedad en e l mundo de habla espanola (Mexico, 279»  1970),  pp.  263-  analyzes the extent of reforms made i n the f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth  century i n Peru.  These included i n s i s t e n c e on compliance w i t h e x i s t i n g laws,  the enforcement of r e s i d e n c i a s , measures designed to subordinate the Church to V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t y , and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s .  For a  general view of the extent of the autonomy of both l o c a l government and the c e n t r a l j u d i c i a r y i n eighteenth-century Peru see John Preston Moore, The Cabildo i n Peru under the Bourbons, "A Creole Establishment:  1700-1824  (Durham,  1966);  Leon G. Campbell,  Creole Domination of the Audiencia of Lima during the  Late Eighteenth Century," Hispanic American H i s t o r i c a l Review,  52:1  (Feb.  1972),  1-25; and Guillermo Lohmann V i l l e n a , Los m i n i s t r o s de l a Audiencia de Lima en e l reinado de l o s Borbones ( S e v i l l e ,  1974).  ^ W i l l i a m James Callahan, Honor, Commerce and Industry i n Eighteenthcentury Spain (Boston,  1972),  p.  12.  V i c t o r i n o Montero, Estado p o l i t i c o d e l reyno d e l Peru, govierno s i n leyes:  ministros relaxados:  s a b i d u r i a desestimada: j u s t i c i a s i n templo:  thesoros con pobreza:  m i l i c i a s i n honor: Hurtos por Comercios:  fertilidad sin cultivo:  ciudades s i n amor pat'ricio: l a Integridad t e n i d a por l o c u r a :  Rey, e l Mayor de Ricos Dominios, pobre de Thesoros (Madrid, c. "dedicatoria."  1747),  With the exception of w r i t i n g out i n f u l l abbreviations which  might prove d i f f i c u l t f o r the reader I have c o n s i s t e n t l y reproduced the orthography of the books and manuscripts from which quotations are t r a n s c r i b e d . Estado p o l i t i c o , p. 2 . ^ Estado p o l i t i c o , p. 1 5 .  68  J o r g e Juan y S a n t a c i l i a and Antonio de U l l o a , N o t i c i a s S e c r e t a s de America,  sobre e l e s t ado n a v a l , m i l i t a r £ p o l i t i c o de l o s Reinos d e l Peril  y_ P r o v i n c i a de Q u i t o , e s c r i t a s f i e l m e n t e segun l a s i n s t r u c c i o n e s d e l Excmo. Sr. Marqugs de l a Ensenada, P r i m e r S e c r e t a r i o de Estado y_ presentadas informe s e c r e t o a D. Fernando V I , sacadas a l u z p a r a e l verdadero  en  conocimiento  d e l g o b i e r n o de l o s espanbles en l a America M e r i d i o n a l p o r D. David B a r r y (London, 1826), r p t . B i b l i o t e c a Ayacucho 31» g Estado p o l i t i c o , p. 37.  32  (Madrid, 1918), I ,  250.  9 Noticias secretas, I, 1  0  305.  Joseph d e l C a m p i l l o y C o s i o , Nuevo s i s t e m a de g o b i e r n o ecori6mi'co  p a r a l a America:  Con l o s males y_ daiios que l e causa e l que hoy tiene,' "de  l o s que p a r t i c i p a copiosamente Espana: y remedios u n i v e r s a l e s p a r a que l a p r i m e r a tenga c o n s i d e r a b l e s v e n t a j a s , y l a segunda mayores i n t e r e s e s (Madrid, 1789), " e x o r d i o " p. 1  1  13.  TePaske d e s c r i b e s a number o f s p e c i f i c reforms b e g i n n i n g i n  designed t o reduce t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f v a r i o u s c o l o n i a l groups. of them attempted  t o s u b o r d i n a t e the Church t o the v i c e r e g a l  1713  While many authorities,  o t h e r s aimed t o l i m i t the p r e r o g a t i v e s of r o y a l o f f i c i a l s from V i c e r o y t o corregidores.  Some reforms undermined the p r i v i l e g e s o f l a r g e s e c t o r s o f  colonial society.  F o r example, Lima's commercial  by the a b o l i t i o n i n 172k  of the Consulado's  i n t e r e s t s were a f f e c t e d  p r i v i l e g e of c o l l e c t i n g v a r i o u s  t a x e s as w e l l as by the d e f i n i t i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 17^0 which s i g n i f i e d the end of Lima's t r a d e monopoly.  of r e g i s t r o s s u e l t o s  Mining i n t e r e s t s were  upset by the p o s s i b i l i t y of h a v i n g to use o n l y p a i d l a b o r when the  69  d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e m i t a system was A new  c o n s i d e r e d i n 1720-(pp. 271-275).  t a x on a l l goods e n t e r i n g u r b a n a r e a s , i n t r o d u c e d i n 1741  defence,  a l s o a f f e c t e d urban i n t e r e s t s .  to finance  J o s e Manso de V e l a s c o , Conde de  Superunda, "Relaci6n," i n ed. Manuel A t a n a s i o Fuentes,'  Memorias de l o s  V i r e y e s que nan gobernado e l P e r u durante e l tiempo d e l c o l o n i a j e esp'anol (Lima, 1859), I V ,  144.  12  Bernardo Ward, P r o y e c t o  econ6mico. En que se proponen v a r i a s p r o -  v i d e n c i a s , d i r i g i d a s k promover l o s i n t e r e s e s de Espafia, con l o s medios £ fondos n e c e s a r i o s p a r a su p l a n t i f i c a c i o n : D. B e r n a r d o Ward, d e l Consejo de S.M. Comercio y_ Moneda.  E s c r i t o en e l ano  C a m p i l l o was  de  C a m p i l l o ' s p l a n forms an i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e i n  S p a i n i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1743  Por  £ su M i n i s t r o de l a R e a l J u n t a  O b r a postuma ( M a d r i d , 1787).  p a r t I I , pp. 225-314 o f t h i s work.  de 1762  B e f o r e h i s death i n  he was Home S e c r e t a r y and f o r a s h o r t t i m e i n 1741  Prime M i n i s t e r .  M i g u e l A r t o l a , " C a m p i l l o y l a s r e f o r m a s de C a r l o s I I I , " R e v i s t a de I n d i a s , 12:50  (Oct.-Dec. 1952), 685-704, g i v e s an a c c o u n t o f the i n f l u e n c e o f  C a m p i l l o ' s i d e a s on economic r e f o r m i n the s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e century.  eighteenth  N e i t h e r C a m p i l l o ' s i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g t h e urgency o f r e f o r m i n  S p a i n ' s American c o l o n i e s , nor t h o s e o f Juan and U l l o a whose r e p o r t  \iras  a c t u a l l y commissioned by the MarquSs de l a Ensenada, S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the I n d i e s , were g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n t i l the 1760's.  Miguel A r t o l a ,  " A m e r i c a en e l pensamiento e s p a n o l d e l s i g l o X V I I I , " R e v i s t a de I n d i a s , 29:115 ( J a n . - D e c . 1969), 51-77» g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g account o f a number o f p r o p o s a l s made by S p a n i a r d s throughout  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r the  70  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of c o l o n i a l commerce and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 13 For information on reform i n eighteenth-century Spain see: Callahan; Richard Herr, The Eighteenth Century Revolution i n Spain ( P r i n c e t o n , 1958); Jose Antonio M a r a v a l l , "Las tendencias de reforma p o l i t i c a en e l s i g l o XVIII," R e v i s t a de Occidente, 18:52 53-82;  ( J u l y 1967),  Jaime Vicens V i v e s , An Economic H i s t o r y of Spain (Princeton, 1969);  L u i s Sanchez Agesta, E l pensamiento p o l i t i c o d e l despotismo i l u s t r a d o (Madrid, and Ricardo Krebs Wilckens, E l pensamiento h i s t 6 r i c o , p o l i t i c o £  1953);  econ6mico d e l Conde de Campomanes (Santiago, i 9 6 0 ) . 14 Campillo warned that the problems to be tackled i n reforming the American bureaucracy amounted to "un estrago tan monstruoso, que es menester l a mano poderosa de un Monarca como e l nuestro, para r e p a r a r l e " (Nuevo sistema, "exordio," p. 11) and Montero foresaw the need f o r armed i n t e r vention to impose reform i n the face of widespread o p p o s i t i o n (pp. 14 f f . ) . The f e a r s expressed by these authors were r e a l i z e d i n the 1760*s when the Viceroy Amat's attempts to c e n t r a l i z e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n met w i t h intense opposition on the p a r t of C r e o l e s and Spaniards a l i k e .  See Vicente Rodriguez  Casado and F l o r e n t i n o Perez Embid, "Estudio p r e l i m i n a r , " i n Manuel de Amat y J u n i e n t , Memoria de gobierno, ed. Rodriguez Casado and Perez Embid ( S e v i l l e , 1947), P. L T H .  Antonio de U l l o a experienced at f i r s t hand the o p p o s i t i o n  of vested i n t e r e s t s to reform when he attempted to enforce e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n as Governor of the Huancavelica mercury mine i n 1758. Dobyns and Paul L. Doughty, Peru: p.  121.  See Henry F.  A C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y (New York, 1976),  71 15 Carlos  Sempat Assadourian, "Integraci6n y desintegraci6n r e g i o n a l  en e l espacio c o l o n i a l , un enfoque hist6rico," R e v i s t a Latinoamericana de Estudios urbano r e g i o n a l e s ,  11:4  (March  1972),  11-24; Cespedes, p.  75; and  Jos§ de Armendariz, Marques de C a s t e l f u e r t e , "Relaci6n d e l estado de l o s reynos d e l Peru," i n • ed. Manuel Atanasio Fuentes, * Memorias (Lima, 1859), III,  199. 16 N o t i c i a s  secretas, I ,  288.  17 Nuevo sistema, p. 54.  18 N o t i c i a s secretas, I ,  287.  19  Nuevo sistema, "exordio," p. 21.  20 Spalding estimates that a h y p o t h e t i c a l Indian could be expected t o earn f i f t e e n to t h i r t y pesos i n vrages f o r working s i x months of the year "and another t e n to f i f t e e n pesos per year from the sale of y e a r l i n g s produced by his cattle.  " H u a r o c h i r i , " p. 59.  21 Spalding, " H u a r o c h i r i , " p.  58.  22 While corregidores were subject to an inspection at the end of t h e i r terms, the corruption of the o f f i c i a l s entrusted with administering i t negated i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 1744  The Bishop of Cuzco condemned the r e s i d e n c i a i n  as "una mera ceremonia."  Le Cuzco a l a f i n du X V I I  6  See l e t t e r t r a n s c r i b e d by Michel  et au debut du X V I I I  6  siecle (Paris,  Colin i n  1966),  p.  The f o l l o w i n g works i n d i c a t e that Church o f f i c i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Indian curates, engaged i n e x p l o i t a t i v e p r a c t i c e s s i m i l a r to those of the corregidores: Memoria, pp.  Nuevo sistema, p. 107;  188 f f . ;  N o t i c i a s secretas, I I , 9-30;  and Representaci6n verdadera  [1748]  Amat,  t r a n s c r i b e d by  216.  72  F r a n c i s c o A. Loayza i n F r a y C a l i x t o Tupak I n k a  (Lima,  F o r d e t a i l s o f t h i s document see Chapter V o f t h i s  1948),  pp.  9, 10, 13.  dissertation.  23 Amat, Memoria, p. 186.  24 Noticias secretas, I,  251-280;  Manso de V e l a s c o , "Relaci6n," p . 151;  190-197.  Means, F a l l of the I n c a Empire, pp.  25 Lohmann, E l c o r r e g i d o r , pp.  266-270.  N o t i c i a s s e c r e t a s , I , 256,  257.  N o t i c i a s s e c r e t a s , I , 290,  297.  26 27 28 Noticias secretas, I,  298-299.  29 One o f t h e most important d e s c r i b e d these abuses:  I n d i a n spokesmen i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h  century  " . . . p r o s i g u e n l o s duenos de l a s haciendas  en d a r ,  y p r e s t a r d i c h o s I n d i o s [de m i t a ] l l e v a n d o p a r a s i l o que a j u s t a n de cada uno." "Por l a ordenanza . . . se manda no se r e p a r t a n I n d i o s a l o s t r a b a j o s y o b r a j e s . . . y s i n embargo de e s t a y c o d i c i a , mandan a l o s C a c i q u e s , corresponda  prohibici6n . . . s i g u i e n d o s u ambicion,  que cada P u e b l o ,  que p o r s u cortedad no l e s  dicho r e p a r t i m i e n t o , l e s den en p l a t a e l importe  s i t u v i e s e b a s t a n t e v e c i n d a d se deba r e p a r t i r . "  de I n d i o s , que  V i c e n t e Morachimo, M a n i f i e s t o  de l o s a g r a v i o s , b e x a c i o n e s , y_ m o l e s t i a s , que padecen l o s i n d i o s d e l reyno d e l Peru.  Dedicado a l o s senores de e l r e a l , y_ supremo Consejo, y_ Camara de I n d i a s ,  por e l p r o c u r a d o r y_ diputado g e n e r a l de d i c h o s i n d i o s [ M a d r i d , c r i b e d by Fernando S i l v a S a n t i s t e b a n , "Morachimo, Cacique i n d i o s , " I d e a ( L i m a ) , Nos. Apr.-June  1956),  No.  27.  25, 26, 27  (July-Oct.  1955*  1732],  trans-  i n t e r c e s o r de l o s  Jan.-March  1956,  73  ^  A price l i s t  f o r each c o r r e g i r a i e n t o was  Lohraann, E l c o r r e g i d o r , p. 427; 31  Vargas Ugarte,  o f f i c i a l l y fixed i n  H i s t o r i a , IV,  1756.  238.  Noticias secretas, I, 2 6 l .  32 Lohmann, E l c o r r e g i d o r , p. 33  430.  S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , " p . 60; Lohraann, E l c o r r e g i d o r , p.  437.  34 K u b l e r g i v e s the number o f I n d i a n p e r s o n s as 1,490,137 i n 1 5 6 l 612,780 i n 1754, p. 334.  and  a s t i l l lower number i n 1796,  P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r 1754  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , not on a c t u a l  608,894.  "The  and  Quechua,"  are based on e s t i m a t e s made i n t h e  censuses.  35 T h i s was Bueno.  the estimate  o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  K u b l e r does not q u e s t i o n i t ,  but i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Cosme BUeno a t -  t r i b u t e d t o the p l a g u e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n d e c r e a s e s of s e v e r e  exploitation.  Kubler, p.  s c i e n t i s t Cosme  r e s u l t i n g from c o n d i t i o n s  336.  36 T h i s was  because b e f o r e 1732  only i n d i v i d u a l s r e s i d i n g i n the same  p r o v i n c e where they were born o r where t h e i r ascendants had j e c t t o f u l l t r i b u t e and m i t a payment. or d e c r e a s e  Thus u n t i l 1732  l i v e d were sub-  an I n d i a n c o u l d a v o i d  these o b l i g a t i o n s by l e a v i n g h i s n a t i v e p r o v i n c e .  " I n c a s , " p. 189;  K u b l e r , pp. 347,  377;  See Rowe,  Lohmann, E l c o r r e g i d o r , p.  437;  Manuel V i c e n t e V i l l a r a n , Apuntes sobre l a r e a l i d a d de l o s i n d i g e n t s d e l P e r u ante l a s l e y e s de I n d i a s (Lima,  1964), pp. 158-162; Rodrigo  de L o a i s a , p.  604.  37 K u b l e r , p. 339» noted t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n of C h u c u i t o p r o v i d e d mitayos f o r P o t o s i shrank by two  t h i r d s between 1628  Estado p o l i t i c o p r o p o s e d the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f b i s h o p r i c s and as a means of r e d u c i n g "de  p r o v i n c e which and 1754.  The  corregimie'ntos  l o s Montes, y D e s i e r t o s l a s g e n t e s a v i d a  mas  7k  urbana; y a l o menos, en Sacraraentos, y T r i b u t o s , havia mas e x a c t i t u d . " (p. 25).  Campillo echoed t h i s concern i n h i s Nuevo sistema, p. 9, as d i d  the N o t i c i a s secretas, p. 283. rather more d r a m a t i c a l l y :  Indian spokesmen expressed t h e i r concern  "...  no teneraos otro consuelo que e l d e s i e r t o  y desamparo en que nos vemos, que acogernos a l o s bosques de l o s d e s i e r t o s y montanas, a perecer en l a s tempestades de l a necesidad." i n C a l i x t o , p. 13.  Morachimo wrote "Tenientes generales . . .  Representaci6n alquilan  Indios a d i f e r e n t e s hacendados Espafioles, para que trabajen en sus haciendas, raz6n por que se despueblan muchos Pueblos, en grave p e r j u i c i o de e l Real E r a r i o , por f a l t a r l o que aquellos huidos c o n t r i b u i a n ; y muchos se pasan a l a s Montanas a h a b i t a r entre i n f i e l e s " and a l l e g e d that the extension of the term of a corregidor whose cacique had complained and been imprisoned served as "exemplar que ha causado e l r e t i r a r s e muchos Indios a l a s Montanas."  M a n i f i e s t o (Idea, No. 25, p. 65).  The MarquSs de C a s t e l f u e r t e  expressed h i s concern over the problem of voluntary migration as f o l l o w s : ". . . y es preciso a mas t r a s l a d a r l o s de l a s montanas donde son fie'ras a l o s lugares donde nan de ser hombres, no s e r i a imposible o b l i g a r l e s a mu'dar l a t r a s l a c i o n a o t r a qualesquiera parte, pues entonces no pueden tener i n c l i n a c i o n a una que a o t r a :  mas  he d i s c u r r i d o hasta aqui de l a despoblacion  que han sido y son habituales en e l Reyno. — P e r o haviSndose anadido a l de l o s o t r o s l a peste que imbadi6 sus p r o v i n c i a s en l o s ultimos afios precedentes a mi govierno, fuS p r e c i s o que consumiese mucha parte de sus naturales, y ( l o que fue peor para l a republica) que s i r v i e s e de pretexto para l a diminucion de mitas y t r i b u t o s . " "Relaci6n," p.  135.  75  Eleven of f i f t y - o n e provinces K u b l e r , p p . 337 and 3 3 9 .  period.  increased i n population during  this  F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e urban I n d i a n  p o p u l a t i o n see Vargas Ugarte, H i s t o r i a , IV, 2 5 4 ; S p a l d i n g , De i n d i o a campesino, pp. 1 7 7 - 1 8 0 .  39 S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , " p . 127.  Much o f the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f  the I n d i a n e l i t e ' s l o s s o f s t a t u s i n the e i g h t e e n t h s p e c i f i c data and t h e g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d This a n a l y s i s i s presented  century  by S p a l d i n g  i s based on b o t h i n "Huarochiri."  i n b r o a d e r terras i n De i n d i o a campesino, pp. 14-7-192.  4-0 V a l d e z de l a T o r r e , E v o l u c i 6 n , pp. 6 8 , 6 9 . x i i , p t . 1 2 , wrote:  S o l 6 r z a n o , l i b . v i , cap.  " . . . quando se mandare h a c e r e s t a e x h i b i c i o n de t i t u l o s  y nueva medida de l a s heredades, no se vaya con animo de d e s p o j a r de e l l a s a sus a n t i g u o s  poseedores y l a b r a d o r e s ,  y desposeer  s i n o de o b l i g a r l e s a s i r v a n  con a l g u n a honesta coraposicion."  4-1  4-?  S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , " p . 128. S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , " p . 127; Rowe, " I n c a s , "  pp. l 8 0 - l 8 2 .  4.3 Noticias secretas, I , 324.  44 Indians  Campillo's t o work.  i d e a was t h a t t h i s would p r o v i d e an i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e  Nuevo sistema,  p. 86.  45 S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , * p . 128. 1  46  T h i s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n s the 1 7 7 0 ' s . S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , " p . 134. ^  occurred i n  S p a l d i n g , " H u a r o c h i r i , " p . 134  48 49 C a s t e l f u e r t e , " R e l a c i 6 n , " p . 199; Sempat A s s a d o u r i a n , p. 2 1 . Parry, p. 2 8 4 .  Sempat A s s a d o u r i a n g i v e s the t r a d i t i o n a l  explanation  76  f o r t h i s decrease:  " . . . baja de l a l e y , con rendimientos decrecientes y  costes crecientes de explotaci6n, l a necesidad de nuevas inversiones para afrontar problemas tecnicos de l a producci6n, l a desacumulaci6n de c a p i t a l i n f l i g i d a a l a c o l o n i a por l a p o l i t i c a metropolitana,"  p. 17.  50 See Arthur Preston Whitaker, The Huancavelica Mercury Mine:  A  C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the H i s t o r y of the Bourbon Renaissance i n the Spanish Empire (Cambridge, U.S.A., 1941). 5 1  "RelaciSn," p. 145.  52 C a s t e l f u e r t e s "Relaci6n" o u t l i n e s the problems encountered i n 1  attempting t o use voluntary l a b o r , the d e c i s i o n t o r e i n s t i t u t e the mita, and the conditions necessary f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e operation.  C a s t e l f u e r t e undertook  a new enumeration of Indians subject t o the mita of Huancavelica and P o t o s i and claimed t o have e f f e c t e d an increase i n the number of mitayos a v a i l a b l e on a continuous b a s i s from 447 t o 550 (pp. 135» 152-153* 158). 53 The main deterrents t o voluntary l a b o r i n the mines were i n f a c t the poor s a l a r y and oppressive working conditions.  The customary j u s t i f i c a t i o n of  the mita d i d not, however, r e f l e c t these f a c t o r s :  "Es comun s e n t i r en todos  aquellos paises y particularraente en l o s de l a s i e r r a , e l que s i l o s i n d i o s no se h i c i e r a n mita s e r i a n perezosos."  N o t i c i a s secretas, I , 306. See also  C a s t e l f u e r t e , "Relaci6n," pp. 152-153; Manso, p. 89; and Estado p o l i t i c o , p. 30. For a graphic d e s c r i p t i o n of conditions i n the s i l v e r and mercury mines see Dobyns and Doughty, pp. 102-104, 121-122. 54 Sebastian Lorente, H i s t o r i a del Peru bajo l o s Borbones: (Mexico, 1949), pp. 31, 32, and C a s t e l f u e r t e , "Relaci6n," p. 152.  I7OO-I821  77  55  ^  Vargas, Historia, IV, 173.  56  "Relaci6n," p. 151.  See also Estado politico, pp. 22-23; Representa-  ci6n i n Calixto, p. 44; Lohmann, E l corregidor, pp. 434-437; and Vargas, Historia, IV, 236-238. 57  Juan and Ulloa advocated providing salaries drawn from increased tribute payments to compensate the corregidores.  Moticias secretas, I, 284.  The corregidor did receive a salary, but this salary was often less than the sum paid by the corregidor to purchase the office. 58  Vargas, Historia, IV, 239. 59 60  Amat, Memoria, p. 189. Spalding, Huarochirl," p. 168. M  6l  Spalding, "Huarochiri," p. 69.  62  Spalding, "Huarochiri," p. 169. ^ Spalding, "Huarochiri," p. 166. 64 Manso, "Relaci6n," Appendix, p. 15. 65 Castelfuerte, "Relaci6n," p. 135; letter of Castelfuerte to King, 1728, A r c h i v o • G e n e r a l de I n d i a s , h e r e a f t e r c i t e d , as. AGI  (Lima. 542); and Manso, p. 92.  66 67  Castelfuerte, "Relaci6n," pp. 145, 158, 351. Manso, p. 93.  68  Castelfuerte, "Relaci6n," p. 2 8 l . 6 9  Castelfuerte, "Relaci6n," p. 136; Manso, p. 79.  7 0  Vargas, Historia, IV, 167-170.  7 1  Manso, p. 79.  72 TePaske, p. 275 and Vargas, Historia, IV, 217.  78  73  Lohmann, E l corregidor, p. 274.  Juan  and U l l o a describe a v a r i a t i o n  of t h i s p r a c t i c e , introduced i n Quito a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l :  11  . . . l a cobranza  . . . se saca a preg6n y se remata en un t a n t o , a l que mas da, en cuyo caso es p r e f e r i d o e l corregidor s i l o quiere tomar en l a misma cantidad en que se ha rematado . . . no t i e n e mas o b l i g a c i 6 n e l corregidor sino entregar en l a s Cajas Reales l a cantidad en que tomo l a cobranza conforme se van cumpliendo l o s t e r c i o s , y queda exento de dar Cuentas."  N o t i c i a s secretas, p. 254.  74  C o l i n , Le Cuzco, p. 216. 75 r >  76  C o l i n , p. 77; Spalding, " H u a r o c h i r i , " p. 205. Morachimo, Manifiesto (Idea, No. 25, p. 5 ) .  77  For example, the cacique of Siete Huarangas i n Caxamarca remained prisoner from 1736 t o 1744 f o r f a i l i n g to make good on t r i b u t e he was unable to c o l l e c t .  Pedro de Le6n y Escand6n, P r o t e c t o r of the Indians f o r the  Audiencia of Lima and l a t e r a M i n i s t e r of the Council of the Indies, wrote a lengthy defense of t h i s cacique which can be seen i n AGI (Lima 540). 78  C o l i n , p. 216. Morachimo protested " e l modo que tienen estos de cobrar e l importe de l o s generos que r e p a r t i e r o n con v i o l e n c i a , y contra todas d i s posiciones de l o que enteran l o s Caciques de l o s Reales t r i b u t o s , dexando estos s i n s a t i s f a c e r , y su o b l i g a c i o n a l o l v i d o ; de l o que r e s u l t a , que l o s Caciques salen alcanzados, y sus haciendas suelen pagar l o que no deben." M a n i f i e s t o (Idea, No. 25, p. 5 ) . 79  The Bishop of Cuzco protested that corregidores "despojan a l o s caciques l e x i t i m o s , ponen en su l u g a r mosos de su f a c c i 6 n , para que estos  79  con mando absoluto cobren sus repartimientos."  (Colin, p. 216.)  Morachimo in Idea, No. 25, p. 5 and Calixto, p. 60.  See also  Later i n the century  the case of Tomas Catari i s widely known ( L i l l i a n Estelle Fisher, The Last Inca Revolt, pp. 53-79 and Lewin, pp. 347-378).-  8o Spalding, "Huarochiri," p. 203.  8l  L e 6 n y Escand6n.  82 Castelfuerte, "Relaci&n," p. 152;  Noticias secretas, p. 306;  ". , . son de su naturaleza flojos," Manso, p. 151;  . . es una Gente  entregada a l a ociosidad y embriaguez," "Descripci6n dialogada de todos los pueblos del Peru," anonymous [eighteenth century] in AGI (Indiferente general 1528), p. 6; Juan and Ulloa commented that few Indians were l e f t around Lima and lamented the impoverishment of two caciques reduced to teaching music in Lima.  These comments probably reflect the greater Hispanization of urban  Indians in relation to their rural counterparts.  They also seem to indicate  that the authors compared the urban caciques unfavorably with the rural caciques.  See Voyage historique de 1'Amerique meridionale, fait par or'dre du  roi d'Espagne (Amsterdam and Leipzig, 1752), p. 4-35. 83 Noticias secretas, I, 340. 84 Spalding, "Huarochiri," p. 166.  80  CHAPTER I I I  The O r i g i n s of I n d i a n R e f o r m i s t Thought, R a d i c a l R e l i g i o u s I d e a l s and the Spanish P r o t e c t o r a l System  The  f i r s t s t e p i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the r e f o r m i s t i d e o l o g y which  reached  i t s apogee i n the R e b e l l i o n of Tupac Amaru was  the I n d i a n e l i t e ' s a d o p t i o n of  a p r o t e c t o r a l r o l e towards the I n d i a n masses.  While t h i s s t e p can be e x p l a i n -  ed i n s o c i a l terms as a r e a c t i o n t o the i n c r e a s i n g m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n of the I n d i a n e l i t e i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Peru, i t s c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l are r o o t e d i n S p a n i s h covery i t s e l f .  The  origins  c o l o n i a l t h e o r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s d a t i n g from the  dis-  I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t i d e o l o g y can o n l y be f u l l y understood  terms o f b o t h the i d e a l s advocated  by s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m i s s i o n a r i e s and  p a t t e r n o f p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by them.  The  the  eighteenth-century  I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s p e r p e t u a t e d the d i a l e c t i c which, i n i t i a t e d by these  early  m i s s i o n a r i e s , s e r v e d t o shape the h i s t o r y o f S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i o n institutions.  T h i s d i a l e c t i c i s d e s c r i b e d by L e w i s Hanke i n the f o l l o w i n g  terms:  l a s tendencias abusivas y l o s p r i n c i p i o s r i g u r o s o s . . .  "...  d o c t r i n a l i b e r a l . , . .. ,. L a d u a l i d a d y l o s encuentros ;  a que  in  dio origen."  T h i s d i a l e c t i c , l i k e the i n s t i t u t i o n s which embodied i t ,  and  la 1  the P r o t e c t o r  of the I n d i a n s and the Crown's m i s s i o n a r y a g e n t s , had i t s o r i g i n s i n S p a i n ' s a d o p t i o n of a r e l i g i o u s b a s i s f o r h e r s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y i n America.  Spain  j u s t i f i e d h e r conquest  juris-  of America by a P a p a l d o n a t i o n which gave her  d i c t i o n over America i n r e t u r n f o r u n d e r t a k i n g the r e l i g i o u s c o n v e r s i o n of  81  the American I n d i a n s .  Although t h e nature  and extent o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n  a u t h o r i z e d by t h i s g r a n t was s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e debate, t h e Spanish Crown o f f i c i a l l y acknowledged on many o c c a s i o n s  that i t s r i g h t to r u l e i n  America was dependent on i t s f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i z i n g  2 the i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e newly d i s c o v e r e d  continent.  T h i s b e l i e f paved the way f o r the Church t o p l a y an i n f l u e n t i a l i n the Spanish  conquest o f America.  the m i l i t a n t s p i r i t aries.  The n a t u r e  role  o f that r o l e was shaped by  and r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s o f many o f the e a r l y m i s s i o n -  The l a s t y e a r s  o f Spain's reconquest were imbued w i t h a r e l i g i o u s  m i l i t a n c y e x e m p l i f i e d by Ximenez de C i s n e r o s ' uncompromising a t t i t u d e towards  3 the M o o r i s h i n h a b i t a n t s o f Granada.  The d i s c o v e r y o f America, c o i n c i d i n g as  i t d i d w i t h the c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e C h r i s t i a n reconquest o f S p a i n , p r o v i d e d a new f o c u s f o r t h i s m i l i t a n c y and appeared t o many t o be a s i g n o f d d i v i n e l y o r d e r e d p l a n f o r S p a i n t o extend h e r crusades t o America a s t h e l e a d e r o f a world-wide C h r i s t i a n empire. B i b l i c a l exegesis p o p u l a r  T h i s view was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a type o f  amongst many o f t h e Spaniards  involved i n early  expeditions t o America. T h i s exegesis  drew an analogy between e v e n t s o f the O l d Testament' and  C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y , an analogy which c o u l d be extended t o p r e d i c t the course of f u t u r e h i s t o r y by i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e O l d Testament as p r o p h e t i c .  The  o r i g i n a t o r o f t h i s analogy, Joachim o f F i o r e , h a d c a r r i e d i t through o n l y u n t i l 1260 which he p l a c e d as t h e end o f t h e second age o f man. p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e t h i r d and f i n a l age, l i k e t h e p r e c e d i n g i n i t i a t e d by an A n t i c h r i s t , traumas and p r e c u r s o r s .  He had  ages, would be  T h i s t h i r d age, however,  82  would embrace a l l mankind i n a s p i r i t u a l empire of which t h e monastery the p r o t o t y p e and under the l e a d e r s h i p of v i r i  was  s p i r i t u a l i o f whom monks were  5 the obvxous p r e c u r s o r s . his  Joachim's analogy was  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t h i r d age  of man,  incorporated, together with  i n t o orthodox B i b l i c a l  through N i c h o l a s o f L y r e ' s b i b l i c a l commentaries.  exegesis  Although w r i t t e n i n the  f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , N i c h o l a s o f L y r e ' s commentaries were c o n s i d e r e d a u t h o r i t a t i v e a t the end o f the f i f t e e n t h century and throughout  the s e v e n t e e n t h  century.  continued t o be  influential  They were i n c l u d e d i n numerous e a r l y  p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s o f the B i b l e , i n c l u d i n g the P o l y g l o t B i b l e p r e p a r e d under 7 the s u p e r v i s i o n o f Ximenez de C i s n e r o s . T h i s J o a c h i m i t e e x e g e s i s , w i t h i t s concept  of reform as a n e c e s s a r y  p r e l u d e t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e t h i r d age, was r e f o r m i s t t r e n d s w i t h i n the Church throughout periods.  One  an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n  t h e medieval  and  renaissance  such movement, l e d by Ximenez de C i s n e r o s , h i m s e l f a member of  the O b s e r v a n t i n e F r a n c i s c a n Order which had been e s t a b l i s h e d by some of the most f e r v e n t b e l i e v e r s i n Joachimism, the S p i r i t u a l F r a n c i s c a n s , c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f America.  As c o n f e s s o r and p r i n c i p a l a d v i s o r t o Queen  I s a b e l l a , and l a t e r as r e g e n t , C a r d i n a l Ximenez combined two influenced trends—reformism  and a n a l o g i s t i c B i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s — i n an approach  which g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d Spain's i d e a l s of Empire. w i t h i n h i s own  Joachimite-  Ximenez made reforms  r e l i g i o u s order and i n the s e c u l a r c l e r g y i n an attempt  both  to  b r i n g t h e i r p r a c t i c e s more i n t o l i n e w i t h the s p i r i t u a l i t y and s i m p l i c i t y the p r i m i t i v e Church. a g a i n s t A f r i c a and  At the same time Ximenez supported r e l i g i o u s wars  e x p e d i t i o n s t o America,  the f i r s t  steps i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  of  83  S p a i n as the head o f a s p i r i t u a l empire. perialism who  was  transferred  T h i s reformism  and r e l i g i o u s  t o A m e r i c a by C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus and the  accompanied the e a r l y e x p e d i t i o n s .  As members of the  im-  friars  Observantine  F r a n c i s c a n Order t h e y shared the r a d i c a l i d e a l s which had i n s p i r e d Ximenez  g and found  i n America a new  Columbus was  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e a l i z i n g them.  the f i r s t t o a p p l y the p r o p h e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the O l d  Testament t o the d i s c o v e r y of America, Promised  Land o f the O l d Testament.  e q u a t i n g America w i t h Jerusalem,  Similar  comparisons i n v o l v i n g the  the Spanish  Empire and the Jews o f the O l d Testament became common i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The most e l a b o r a t e examples of t h e s e a n a l o g i e s are found i n the w r i t i n g s of F r . Ger6nimo de M e n d i e t a . posure  Mendieta  i d e n t i f i e d the Indians before t h e i r  t o C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h the Jews i n the E g y p t i a n c a p t i v i t y .  Mendieta,  C o r t e s had  According to  l e d the I n d i a n s i n t o t h e C h r i s t i a n S p a n i s h Empire  as Moses had l e d the Jews i n t o t h e Promised Spanish s e c u l a r r u l e l e d Mendieta the B a b y l o n i a n c a p t i v i t y .  Land.  ex-  just  However, the c o r r u p t i o n of  t o compare the p l i g h t o f t h e I n d i a n s w i t h  A more moderate v e r s i o n of the analogy between  Spain's r o l e i n A m e r i c a and the events of the O l d Testament saw chosen p e o p l e , d e s t i n e d t o e s t a b l i s h the New  Jerusalem  J e r u s a l e m would be r u l e d by s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s who  Spain as  i n America.  This  the New  would r e p u d i a t e European  9 society  as the c o r r u p t kingdom p r o p h e s i e d by the B i b l i c a l B a b y l o n .  m i s s i o n a r y o r d e r s , s e e i n g themselves e n v i s i o n e d f o r themselves  as p r e c u r s o r s of t h e s e s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s ,  a r o l e i n America f a r exceeding t h a t  a s c r i b e d t o them as Spain's m i s s i o n a r y a g e n t s . merely  The  as one o f c o n v e r t i n g I n d i a n s , but a l s o  They saw  officially  t h e i r m i s s i o n not  o f r e f o r m i n g and s u b o r d i n a t i n g  84  secular s o c i e t y t o s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t i o n . The e s s e n t i a l l y medieval reformism of the missionary orders was r e i n f o r c e d by a renaissance i d e a l i s m which agreed with the former i n repudiating e x i s t i n g European s o c i e t y i n favor of the s i m p l i c i t y of a golden age, represented w i t h i n C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y by the p r i m i t i v e Church. The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s by Vasco de Quiroga, the Bishop of Michoacan renowned f o r h i s experiments i n the peaceful conversion of Indians, demonstrate the s i m i l a r i t y between medieval and renaissance i d e a l s i n the American context: . . . reformar y r e s t a u r a r y l e g i t i m a r , s i p o s i b l e fuese, l a d o c t r i n a y v i d a c r i s t i a n a , y su santa s i m p l i c i d a d , mansedumbre, humilidad, piedad y c a r i d a d en esta Renaciente I g l e s i a en e s t a edad dorada entre estos naturales, que en l a nuestra de h i e r r o l o repugna tanto nuestra c a s i n a t u r a l soberbia, c o d i c i a , ambici6n y m a l i c i a desenfrenadas.^ The Crown's designation of the mendicant orders as i t s agents i n the conversion of the American n a t i v e s assured these proponents of r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s an i n f l u e n t i a l voice i n shaping the Church's r o l e i n America. The o f f i c i a l i n v i t a t i o n to the mendicant orders t o send m i s s i o n a r i e s to America was l a r g e l y the work of a prominent Franciscan and member of the Council of the I n d i e s , F r . Juan B e r n a l Diaz de Luco.  The p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  i n v i t a t i o n i n 1533 together w i t h a manifesto by the f i r s t Bishop of Mexico, 11 F r . Zumarraga,  another Franciscan whose r e f o r m i s t i d e a l s brought him i n t o  c o n f l i c t with s e c u l a r i n t e r e s t s , must be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of Crown support f o r the r a d i c a l i d e a l s represented by t h e i r authors. The Crown supported both i n theory and.in p r a c t i c e the m i s s i o n a r i e s ' commitment to the s p i r i t of p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y exemplified by F r . Francisco de l o s Angeles' designation of twelve m i s s i o n a r i e s to evangelize  85  Mexico as symbolic I n d i a s suggested  o f the twelve  apostles.  As l a t e as  I568 the J u n t a de  t h a t even b i s h o p s i n America s h o u l d m a i n t a i n the p o v e r t y  of the mendicant o r d e r s i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e sense o f t h e p r i m i t i v e  12 Church.  U n t i l 1583  the Crown's p o l i c y of g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e t o members o f  the m i s s i o n a r y o r d e r s i n appointments t o b i s h o p r i c s a s s u r e d the c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e of t h i s i d e a l .  Of 1?8  bishops appointed i n Spain's  American  13 possessions m From 1546  the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , 123  on the Crown through  were members o f m i s s i o n a r y  orders.  the C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s undertook the expense  of s e n d i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s t o America, f u l l y h a l f of whom i n t h e s i x t e e n t h  Ik century were members of the F r a n c i s c a n o r d e r . The  r a d i c a l aims of these Crown-supported m i s s i o n a r i e s c o n f l i c t e d  the s e c u l a r i n t e r e s t s e s s e n t i a l t o Spain's c o l o n i a l e f f o r t .  By  with  attributing  t o the conquered s o c i e t y the o b l i g a t i o n of p r o v i d i n g the human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s necessary  t o support  of C h r i s t i a n i t y and  c i v i l i z a t i o n , Spain's c o l o n i a l t h e o r y j u s t i f i e d the  o f the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n by ed t h r o u g h Spaniards  t h e Spanish presence  i n d i v i d u a l Spaniards.  the encomienda system adopted i n 1503.  T h i s c o n t r o l was  control effect-  T h i s system gave i n d i v i d u a l  the r i g h t t o demand goods and s e r v i c e s from the I n d i a n s under t h e i r  j u r i s d i c t i o n and t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o oversee those  i n r e t u r n f o r the b e n e f i t s  t h e w e l f a r e and  c o n v e r s i o n of  Indians. D e s p i t e an a c t i v e and w e l l - p u b l i c i z e d campaign to c o n v i n c e the Crown  t h a t t h e encomienda p r e j u d i c e d the I n d i a n s ' c o n v e r s i o n , and t h e r e f o r e title  t o America, t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s never succeeded i n r e v e r s i n g t h i s  to s e c u l a r i n t e r e s t s .  N e i t h e r t h i s f a i l u r e n o r the f a i l u r e o f t h e i r  Spain's concession missionary  86  e x p e r i m e n t s , however, succeeded  i n u n d e r m i n i n g t h e Crown's o f f i c i a l commitment 15  t o t h e m i s s i o n a r y cause throughout t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . The prime c o n c e r n a s s i g n e d t o t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e I n d i e s , t h e h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y on t h e government o f t h e S p a n i s h c o l o n i e s , was: . . . l a c o n v e r s i 6 n y d o c t r i n a , y s o b r e todo se d e s v e l e n y ocupen c o n t o d a s s u s f u e r z a s y e n t e n d i m i e n t o en p r o v e e r y poner m i n i s t r o s s u f i c i e n t e s p a r a e l l o , y todos l o s o t r o s medios n e c e s a r i o s y c o n v e n i e n t e s p a r a que l o s i n d i o s y n a t u r a l e s s e c o n v i e r t a n y conserven e n e l c o n o c i m i e n t o de D i o s n u e s t r o Sefior, h o n r a y a l a b a n z a de s u s a n t o nombre, de forma que, cumpliendo Nos con e s t a p a r t e que t a n t o nos o b l i g a y a que t a n t o deseamos s a t i s f a c e r , l o s d e l d i c h o Consejo descarguen s u s c o n c i e n c i a s , pues con e l l o d e s cargamos l a n u e s t r a . 1 6 The a u t h o r i t a t i v e c o m p i l e r and commentator o f S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l  legislation,  Juan de S o l 6 r z a n o , d e s c r i b e d t h e t h e o r y b e h i n d t h e Crown's o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o tect the Indians: Y conociendo e s t a m i s e r i a de l o s I n d i o s , y l o que p o r r a z o n de e l l a n e c e s i t a n de s e r amparados, no se h a l l a r a c o s a que mas r e p i t a n , y encarguen i n f i n i t a s C e d u l a s , Ordenanzas, y P r o v i s i o n e s R e a l e s , que e n todos t i e m p o s p a r a e l l o se han despachado, dandoles t o d o s l o s nombres, 6 e p i t e t o s de d e s v e n t u r a que he r e f e r i d o , y ordenando, y mandando apretadamente, que se d e s v e l e n l o s V i r r e y e s , A u d i e n c i a s , Governadores, y P r e l a d o s e n s u d e f e n s a , y que e s t e s e a siempre s u p r i n c i p a l e s t u d i o , y c u i d a d o . S o l 6 r z a n o quoted a s t y p i c a l t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e Indies: . . . p r o v e a n l o que convenga p a r a l a c o n v e r s i o n , -,y buen t r a t a m i e n t o de l o s I n d i o s , de manera que en sus p e r s o n a s y h a c i e n d a s no se l e s h a g a mal t r a t a m i e n t o , n i daSo a l g u n o , a n t e s en t o d o sean t r a t a d o s . . . . y f a v o r e c i d o s como v a s a l l o s n u e s t r o s , c a s t i g a n d o con r i g o r a l o s que a l cont r a r i o h i c i e r e n , p a r a que con e s t o l o s d i c h o s I n d i o s e n t i e n d a n l a merced que l e s deseamos h a c e r , y conozcan, que h a v e r l o s puesto Nos debaxo de n u e s t r a p r o t e c c i o n , y  87  amparo, h a s i d o p o r b i e n suyo, y p a r a s a c a r l o s de l a t y r a n l a , y servidumbre, en que antiguaraente v i v i a n . ! ? While t h e c o n s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f the Crown's benevolent  i n t e n t towards  the I n d i a n s i n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o v i r t u a l l y a l l c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s and i n l e g i s l a t i o n designed t o c o n t r o l s p e c i f i c abuses may have r e l i e v e d t h e Monarch's c o n s c i e n c e , i t d i d l i t t l e t o r e s o l v e t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between the damaging e f f e c t s o f t h e c o l o n i a l system on I n d i a n s o c i e t y and t h e avowed p r o t e c t i v e i n t e n t o f t h a t system. On t h e c o n t r a r y , by a t t r i b u t i n g p r o t e c t o r a l f u n c t i o n s t o v i r t u a l l y a l l its colonial officials, i n s t i t u t i o n s designed  and i n c o r p o r a t i n g p r o t e c t o r a l measures i n t o t h e v e r y  t o f a c i l i t a t e c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , t h e Crown t r a n s f e r r e d  i t s own moral dilemma t o every l a y e r o f i t s c o l o n i a l b u r e a u c r a c y .  I n most  c a s e s , t h e o f f i c i a l s r e s o l v e d t h i s dilemma a c c o r d i n g t o the Crown's own example, s u b o r d i n a t i n g I n d i a n w e l f a r e t o t h e i r own p e r s o n a l economic advantage. The p a t e r n a l i s t i c i d e a s and p o l i c i e s espoused by the Crown c o u l d e a s i l y be a p p l i e d b o t h t o j u s t i f y and f a c i l i t a t e a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n t r o l over the I n d i a n s . From t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s ' p o i n t o f view t h e I n d i a n s ' c h i l d l i k e nature and l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r European v a l u e s made i t necessary  t o s h e l t e r them  from t h e damaging e f f e c t s which might r e s u l t from t h e i r ignorant, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Spanish-patterned  s o c i a l and l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  One o f t h e most r a d i c a l  F r a n c i s c a n s , M o t o l i n i a , c a r r i e d t h i s argument t o i t s l o g i c a l extreme t o a d vocate t h e I n d i a n s ' complete i s o l a t i o n from Roman lav/:  " . . . porque t o d a  e l l a es de l o s que non sunt s u i s e d a l i e n i j u r i s , y a s i no l e s pueden  cuadrar  n i c o n v e n i r l a s d i s p o s i c i o n e s d e l Derecho, e l c u a l h a b l a c o n l o s hombres que son capaces de e l , y l o saben entender  y pedir."  18  Consequently  the I n d i a n s  88  r e q u i r e d not o n l y p a t e r n a l p r o t e c t i o n , but p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y to t h e i r conversion b a j a que  to C h r i s t i a n i t y :  "...  por  facilitate  s e r e s t a gente t a n m i s e r a y  s i con e l l o s no se t i e n e t o d a a u t o r i d a d ,  no se t i e n e ninguna, y s i 19  no l o s t i e n e muy  debajo de l a mano y s u j e t o s , no hay raano p a r a con  These arguments, developed i n i t i a l l y  t o serve  the m i s s i o n a r y  ellos."  cause, were  g e n e r a l i z e d t o j u s t i f y a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n t r o l o v e r the I n d i a n s not o n l y by  the  20 c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but by i n d i v i d u a l S p a n i a r d s as w e l l . T h e r e d i d , however, e x i s t throughout the  entire c o l o n i a l period  i n s t i t u t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y designed t o prevent the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n benevolent paternalism  into tyrannical authoritarianism.  t e c t o r of the I n d i a n s was  assigned  The  one  of the  Crown's  o f f i c e of p r o -  the s o l e t a s k of p r e v e n t i n g  and  rectifying  21  abusxve treatment of The  Crown f i r s t  Indians. conferred  the t i t l e o f p r o t e c t o r o f the I n d i a n s  r e l i g i o u s o f f i c i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y bishops,  on  ostensibly to r e i n f o r c e with  s e c u l a r powers the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y they i n v o k e d i n t h e i r attempts t o p r e v e n t u n j u s t t r e a t m e n t of I n d i a n s . Protector  general  de  l o s indios, responsible  t y p i c a l o f these e a r l y appointments. paralyzed  Ximenez' appointment o f Las Casas as d i r e c t l y t o the Crown,  A l a c k of c l e a r l y d e f i n e d  the e f f o r t s o f these p r o t e c t o r s t o a c t w i t h i n the  secular administration.  Obliged  was  jurisdiction  framework of  t o r e s o r t t o t h e i r moral and  the  r e l i g i o u s suasion  t o c a r r y out t h e i r Crown-designated o b l i g a t i o n s , these e a r l y p r o t e c t o r s  re-  k i n d l e d the c o l o n i s t s ' resentment.of c l e r i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n what they considered  t o be p u r e l y s e c u l a r m a t t e r s .  Thus the d u a l a u t h o r i t y of  c l e r i c a l p r o t e c t o r s , rather than strengthening  the  t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , served  t o e x a c e r b a t e the antagonism between s e c u l a r and  only  r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s over  the  89  treatment o f the I n d i a n s .  The  Crown attempted t o reduce t h i s animosity  by  t r a n s f e r r i n g the o f f i c i a l p r o t e c t o r a l f u n c t i o n t o l a y o f f i c i a l s . T h i s measure was, t e c t o r s had  however, f a r from b e i n g  a l r e a d y been a p p o i n t e d  1  a b i l i t y to f u l f i l l  their  N a t u r a l l y t h e s e l a y p r o t e c t o r s became the o b j e c t s of  same h o s t i l i t y d i r e c t e d towards t h e i r c l e r i c a l s u p e r i o r s .  I589 the p o s i t i o n o f p r o t e c t o r o f t h e I n d i a n s was a f i x t u r e of the S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l As  Some l a y p r o -  i n order t o compensate f o r the l i m i t a t i o n s  t h a t time and d i s t a n c e imposed on the c l e r i c s responsibilities.  successful.  the  Nevertheless  by  d e f i n i t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d as  administration.  s p e c i f i e d i n the R e c o p i l a c i 6 n de I n d i a s the p r o t e c t o r s ' a c t i v i t i e s  i n v o l v e d the d i s c o v e r y , v e r i f i c a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the  appropriate  a u t h o r i t i e s of cases i n which the p o w e r f u l abused t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o i n f r i n g e upon the r i g h t s of the weak.  F o r minor o f f e n c e s the p r o t e c t o r s were empoivered  t o l e v y f i n e s or s h o r t p r i s o n s e n t e n c e s . since corregidores and  accusations  respectively.  T h i s was  and members o f A u d i e n c i a s  i n v o l v i n g them had  a very l i m i t e d power, however,  were exempt from t h i s  t o be p r e s e n t e d  t o the A u d i e n c i a  I n Order t o ensure the p r o t e c t o r s every o p p o r t u n i t y  j u s t i c e f o r the I n d i a n s ,  jurisdiction or of  Viceroy gaining  they were guaranteed a c c e s s to h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s  22 such as the A u d i e n c i a ,  C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s and  B o t h p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s and  the monarch h i m s e l f .  the s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s o f the Ordenanzas  of T o l e d o tended t o l i m i t the powers of the l o c a l / ; p r o t e c t o r s i n Peru, t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g two  d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of p r o t e c t o r s w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The  a c t i v i t i e s of the l o c a l o f f i c i a l s were b a s i c a l l y l i m i t e d t o s e t t l i n g minor c o m p l a i n t s and a u t h o r i z i n g b u s i n e s s  and l e g a l t r a n s a c t i o n s undertaken by  90  Indians while the p r o t e c t o r s attached t o the Audiencias handled  complaints  i n v o l v i n g abuses by S p a n i s h o f f i c i a l s as w e l l as claims t o v a l u a b l e or t i t l e s .  lands  The Ordenanzas made t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f the A u d i e n c i a , V i c e r o y  or C o u n c i l o f t h e I n d i e s an e f f e c t i v e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f  23 s o l u t i o n s d e t r i m e n t a l t o Spanish  or creole i n t e r e s t s ,  r e i n f o r c i n g the  l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s by t h e c o r r e g i d o r e s ' and o i d o r e s ' exemption from t h e i r  jurisdiction.  G i v e n t h e c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e which t h e c o r r e g i d o r e s had over a l l a s p e c t s o f I n d i a n e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h century, t h e Ordenanzas' d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e g i d o r as t h e f i r s t  o f f i c i a l t o whom t h e p r o t e c t o r  s h o u l d t u r n f o r t h e r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f abuses s e r i o u s l y i n h i b i t e d t h e a b i l i t y  24 of t h e l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s t o g a i n r e d r e s s without The  recourse t o the Audiencia.  Ordenanzas' d e s i g n a t i o n o f l o c a l o f f i c i a l s whose l a c k o f good w i l l  the I n d i a n s had been proven time and a g a i n , t o execute s e n t e n c e s  towards  i n favor of  the I n d i a n s compounded t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s t o achieve  25 j u s t i c e f o r Indian p l a i n t i f f s .  Since the higher courts recognized the  p r o t e c t o r a l system as t h e only means through which common I n d i a n s  could  l e g a l l y present appeals, the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i t s l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  26 provided a r e a l b a r r i e r t o the Indians' access t o the j u d i c i a l  system.  T h i s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s ' a b d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e as a d v o c a t e s o f I n d i a n w e l f a r e i n f a v o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l u c r a t i v e c o n s p i r a c y o f i n t e r e s t s dependent on I n d i a n  exploitation.  By t h e second h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century t h e l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s ' a b d i c a t i o n of t h e i r r o l e as I n d i a n advocates was w i d e l y acknowledged and a t t e s t e d t o by the V i c e r o y h i m s e l f .  Amat commented:  91  . . . l o s Y n d i o s no pueden s e g u i r sus demandas p o r l o s t r a m i t e s d e l derecho, p o r no t e n e r Abogados y P r o curadores que se hagan cargo de sus defensas a v i s t a de l a raiseria en que se h a l l a n c o n s t i t u i d o s , n i es f a c t i b l e ocurran doscientas or t r e s c i e n t a s leguas por v e i n t e y c i n c o o t r e i n t a pesos, p o r l o s que son bejados y o p r i m i d o s . . . The  i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s i n the e i g h t e e n t h  century  meant t h a t the p r o t e c t o r s a t t a c h e d t o the A u d i e n c i a , i n i t i a l l y i n s t i t u t e d r e c e i v e appeals and  to  r e s o l v e s e r i o u s cases, were l e f t as v i r t u a l l y s o l e  a r b i t e r s o f the Croxra's p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a tion.  T o l e d o had  e s t a b l i s h e d t h r e e separate  f u n c t i o n s at the A u d i e n c i a l e v e l .  One,  o f f i c i a l s t o c a r r y out p r o t e c t o r a l  the g e n e r a l p r o t e c t o r , was  responsible  f o r p r e p a r i n g cases f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the F i s c a l , a Crown a t t o r n e y , A u d i e n c i a and V i c e r o y .  The F i s c a l , who  i n p r a c t i c e e i t h e r doubled  as o r  s e r v e d as a s u p e r i o r t o the g e n e r a l p r o t e c t o r , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of lawyer,  c o n s i d e r e d the m e r i t s of the v a r i o u s c a s e s and i f n e c e s s a r y  them t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s f o r r e s o l u t i o n . however, had any protectors. Indians  1  None of these t h r e e  the  another  forwarded  officials,  j u d i c i a l powers beyond those l i m i t e d ones a t t r i b u t e d t o a l l  As a r e s u l t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e was  cases and making recommendations.  r e s t r i c t e d to presenting The  F i s c a l was  t o present  the the  p l e a s of I n d i a n s r e s i d i n g i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the A u d i e n c i a t o t h a t c o u r t 29 for resolution, present appeals judgment, and f i n a l l y  t o present  from l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s f o r the  Audiencia's  cases t o the V i c e r o y f o r r e s o l u t i o n o r  30 f u r t h e r a n c e t o the C o u n c i l of the I n d i e s .  The  A u d i e n c i a was,  therefore,  the d e c i s i v e judge o f I n d i a n c a s e s u n l e s s the V i c e r o y deemed them worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s .  92  The A u d i e n c i a ' s  judgment was  p r e j u d i c e d by i t s members* f a m i l i a l  and  economic a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l s i m p l i c a t e d i n I n d i a n e x p l o i t a t i o n . Although  anyone h a v i n g v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s i n c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y was  theoretically  e x c l u d e d from membership i n the A u d i e n c i a , i n p r a c t i c e the network of i n t e r e s t s which l i n k e d judges t o o t h e r c o l o n i a l groups was  w i d e l y acknov/ledged  as  main cause of c o r r u p t i o n i n the P e r u v i a n A u d i e n c i a s i n the e i g h t e e n t h The V i c e r o y Amat p r o t e s t e d t o the K i n g t h a t t h i s c o r r u p t i o n was s t a n d i n g and so f i r m l y entrenched judges by new  t h a t o n l y the replacement  century.  of such  of the  the  long  existing  ones chosen p r e c i s e l y f o r t h e i r l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n c o l o n i a l  31 s o c i e t y c o u l d hope t o r e e s t a b l i s h j u s t i c e .  The  author o f the Estado  politico  d e s c r i b e d the A u d i e n c i a as the apex of a pyramid of c o r r u p t o f f i c i a l s who, t h e i r own  for  p r o f i t , encouraged l e g a l d i s p u t e s which were i n e v i t a b l y r e s o l v e d to  the advantage of the p a r t y whose r e s o u r c e s r e a c h e d the h i g h e s t . The  c o r r e g i d o r e s took f u l l  advantage o f t h i s c o r r u p t i o n by  maintaining  permanent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s at the A u d i e n c i a t o ensure t h a t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e out-  32 weighed t h a t of t h e i r opponents, a p a r t i c u l a r l y easy achievement when t h e s e were, l i k e most I n d i a n p l a i n t i f f s , v i r t u a l l y i n d i g e n t . The A u d i e n c i a ' s c o n t r o l  33 over I n d i a n appeals was one  r e i n f o r c e d by i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n over r e p a r t i m i e n t o s ,  o f the main s o u r c e s of I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s i n the e i g h t e e n t h  century.  T h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the V i c e r p y or the p r o t e c t o r s t o p r o v i d e r e d r e s s a g a i n s t abuses i n the r e p a r t i m i e n t o system without Audiencia's The  the  approval.  s u b j e c t i o n o f I n d i a n c o m p l a i n t s t o t h e i n t e r e s t e d judgment o f  A u d i e n c i a r e s u l t e d i n j u s t i c e b e i n g beyond t h e r e a c h of i n d i v i d u a l  the  Indians  93 and e n a b l e d the V i c e r e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o thwart benevolent with impunity. post and  legislation  F o r example, the A u d i e n c i a of L i m a r e p e a t e d l y r e f u s e d t o  e n f o r c e a r o y a l order g u a r a n t e e i n g  t h e Indians* r i g h t t o j o i n  3k r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s and  be s e l e c t e d f o r p o s i t i o n s i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h i e r a r c h y .  S i m i l a r l y , the A u d i e n c i a a r b i t r a r i l y denied an I n d i a n a p p e a l , supported by  the  p r o t e c t o r and the o f f i c i a l i n charge o f the p r o v i s i o n of m i t a l a b o r e r s , a s k i n g t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l wage s c a l e f o r t h e s e l a b o r e r s be e n f o r c e d .  Not o n l y d i d  the c o u r t r e f u s e the Indians* r e q u e s t , but i t attempted t o f o r e s t a l l any  appeal  35 by o r d e r i n g them t o keep s i l e n t  on the  matter.  I n the f a c e o f the c o r r u p t judgments o f the A u d i e n c i a , the I n d i a n s t h e i r p r o t e c t o r s had  l i t t l e r e c o u r s e but t o undertake expensive  appeals t o the C o u n c i l of the I n d i e s .  apparent  than r e a l .  and time-consuming  Even t h e s e , however, c o u l d prove  s i n c e the C o u n c i l ' s benevolence towards I n d i a n c l a i m s was A l l too o f t e n t h a t c o u r t l e f t  and  futile,  f r e q u e n t l y more  the implementation  of i t s  d e c i s i o n s o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the exact n a t u r e of the r e d r e s s g r a n t e d t o  36  the d i s c r e t i o n of t h e A u d i e n c i a w i t h r e s u l t s t h a t were a l l t o o p r e d i c t a b l e . As Montero suggested: Que remedio puede darse en t a n inmensa d i s t a n c i a , que no b u e l v a , a. que informen de l o c i e r t o V i r r e y e s , y Audiencias? S i e s t o s son l o s r e o s , como embiaran l a c o n f e s s i o n de sus c u l p a s ? Quando l l e g u e e l caso, de que V. Mag. s e a tocado de D i v i n o i m p u l s o , y embie e l remedio, se quexaran l o s M i n i s t r o s , de que se l e s ha q u i t a d o e l Poder,37 I n t h i s way  even the d e c i s i o n s taken by t h e C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s ,  t h e o r e t i c a l l y the h i g h e s t c o u r t of appeal and second o n l y t o the monarch i n i t s a u t h o r i t y over I n d i a n m a t t e r s , were dependent i n p r a c t i c e on the ness o f t h e P e r u v i a n A u d i e n c i a s .  arbitrari-  I n the absence of c o r r e c t i v e measures such  a  9k  s i t u a t i o n c o u l d o n l y encourage f u r t h e r independence on the p a r t of c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , f u r t h e r e r o s i o n of Spain's l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y , and f u r t h e r t r a n s g r e s s i o n s of p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The  A u d i e n c i a ' s e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over even the C o u n c i l of the I n d i e s '  d e c i s i o n s on I n d i a n appeals must have d i s c o u r a g e d the making o f appeals a l l but the most i d e a l i s t i c and d e d i c a t e d advocates d e s c r i p t i o n which was  of I n d i a n w e l f a r e , a  f a r from b e i n g u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o P e r u v i a n  t e c t o r s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  by  I n the f i r s t h a l f o f t h a t century  pro-  the  p r o t e c t o r s a t t a c h e d t o the A u d i e n c i a o f Lima were e i t h e r c o n c u r r e n t l y o r s e q u e n t l y appointed  judges of t h e A u d i e n c i a  and, as such, were o b v i o u s l y  s u b j e c t t o the same economic and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s ivhich had c o r r u p t i o n of the A u d i e n c i a as a whole. d e s c r i b e d j u s t how  sub-  l e d t o the  I n Y7kk the c a c i q u e s o f H u a r o c h i r i  these pressures a f f e c t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s to gain redress  a g a i n s t abuses committed by t h e i r c o r r e g i d o r : . . . no emos alcanzado de l o s O i d o r e s , s i q u i e r a e l merecer ser oydos, l o s P r o c u r a d o r e s de l o s N a t u r a l e s .. sobornados d e l c o r r e g i d o r no han q u e r i d o f i r m a r n u e s t r o s e s c r i t o s . . . pues determinaron l o s o i d o r e s . . . contra e l p a r e c e r d e l F i s c a l B i l b a o se d e j a s e n n u e s t r o s c a p i t u l o s p a r a l a r e s i d e n c i a ; r e s o l u c i o n que e l l o s mismos abominan quando governaba e l de l a Moncloa, d i c i e n d o que e r a c o n t r a j u s t i c i a y orden de S. Mag. y viendonos s i n amparo n i p a t r o c i n i o de P r o t e c t o r F i s c a l porque Don Juan de P e r a l t a por e l p a r e n t e s c o t a n cercano que t i e n e con Don M i g u e l Nunez y s e r e s t e quien f a v o r e c e mas a l c o r r e g i d o r ha s i d o en c o n t r a de n u e s t r a j u s t i c i a , y e l que oy s i r v e l a p l a z a de P r o t e c t o r Don F r a n c i s c o de Rojas es su cunado.39 The p r o t e c t o r s ' a m b i t i o n f o r advancement w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l bureaucracy t h e i r e f f e c t i v e s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o the c o r r u p t A u d i e n c i a r e n d e r e d the p r o t e c t o r a l system ( a t b e s t ) p o w e r l e s s  and  official  t o e r a d i c a t e abuses p r a c t i s e d i n the  95  i n t e r e s t s of c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n . At w o r s t , the p r o t e c t o r a l system became merely one  more i n s t i t u t i o n which t h r i v e d on t h e very abuses i t was  designed  kO to  prevent. I n the context  theory,  of the d u a l s e c u l a r - r e l i g i o u s nature  the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the h i g h e s t e c h e l o n s  o f Spanish  colonial  of the p r o t e c t o r a l h i e r a r c h y  t o the A u d i e n c i a s marks the f i n a l s t e p i n the g r a d u a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f S p a i n ' s r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s t o temporal a m b i t i o n s . had  The  balance  and d u a l i t y which  Spain  s t r u g g l e d t o m a i n t a i n were i r r e v e r s i b l y s h a t t e r e d as t h e real).pov;er o f  the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n made a mockery o f the Crown's benevolent i n t e n t i o n s towards the I n d i a n s : que  l o s defiendan,  "...  aunque t i e n e n l o s I n d i o s , y V. Mag.  y F i s c a l e s , que  Protectores,  miren e l cumplimiento de l a s Leyes, s i e s t o s ,  y l o s Supremos Governadores son l o s i n t e r e s s a d o s en l a d e s s e r c i o n , y t i e n e n  kl u t i l i d a d en e l l a , q u i en a v i s a a. V. Mag. A r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n , but p a r t i a l answer: sera creido?  "Que  Que  one  de l a r u i n a d e l Reyno?"  t o which t h e author h i m s e l f p r o v i d e d  P a r t i c u l a r , desnudo de l a J u r i s d i c i o n , y  A p o s t o l i c o Obispo, y Missionero,  de l o s que  a  authoridad, han dado e l  k2 g r i t o , han  conseguido e l remedio?"  Some members of the  c l e r g y d i d make  c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s t o a d v i s e t h e monarch of the p l i g h t o f the Indians.  The  Peruvian  c l e r g y had a l e g a l as w e l l as a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o f o s t e r the  k$  w e l l - b e i n g of the I n d i a n s . I n meeting t h e s e o b l i g a t i o n s , however, the c l e r g y was hampered by two f a c t o r s — t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l a r g e number of i t s own  kk  members i n i l l e g a l  exploitation  t o view t h e Church's support authority.  (  and the s e c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s tendency  of Indian welfare  as a c h a l l e n g e t o i t s own  96  I n Peru resentment of c l e r i c a l s p o n s o r s h i p of I n d i a n not o n l y i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s but  a l s o i n the m i s s i o n a r i e s *  involving early c l e r i c a l  At the h e i g h t  of the  rooted  protectors,  a l l i a n c e w i t h the P e r u v i a n c a c i q u e s  t o d i s c r e d i t the encomienda system. perpetuity  r i g h t s was  in  order  debate over  the  of the encomienda system F r . Domingo de Santo Tomas, a c l o s e  col-  l a b o r a t o r of Las C a s a s , had p r e s e n t e d to the Crown an o f f e r from the P e r u v i a n caciques  of a sum  s u p e r i o r t o any  o f f e r e d by  would agree t o a b o l i s h the encomienda. and I n d i a n s not o n l y  the encomenderos i f the  King  T h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the  set a precedent f o r f u t u r e  clergy  politically-motivitated  a l l i a n c e s , but a l s o r e i n f o r c e d s e c u l a r s u s p i c i o n of the c l e r g y * s motives i n f o r m i n g such a l l i a n c e s .  This s u s p i c i o n continued  t o i n f l u e n c e the  administra-  t i o n ' s r e a c t i o n t o c l e r i c a l championship of r e f o r m i s t i d e a l s on b e h a l f I n d i a n s throughout the The i n theory  eighteenth  Church i n P e r u remained, throughout the t o p r o t e c t o r a l i d e a l s and  The  incorporated  colonial period,  committed  a number o f c l e r i c s d i d attempt t o  Church's o b l i g a t i o n t o censure u n j u s t i n t o the  and adopted both by the J e s u i t o r d e r .  the  century.  t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y t o e f f e c t changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of affairs.  of  r u l e s f o r confessors  use  Indian  treatment of I n d i a n s  was  drawn up by F r . J e r 6 n i m o de L o a y s a  the Second P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l of Lima h e l d i n 1 5 6 ? and  by  These r u l e s were i n c l u d e d i n t u r n i n F r . Alonso de l a PeSa  Montenegro's I t i n e r a r i o p a r a p a r r o c o s de i n d i o s , a v a i l a b l e i n s e v e r a l  eighteenth-  45 century  editions.  The  case of F r . Buenaventura de S a l i n a s y C6rdova demonstrates t h a t  i d e a l s o f the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s  continued  t o i n s p i r e the a c t i o n s of some  members o f the c l e r g y i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y  and t h a t t h e s e  actions  the  97  g e n e r a l l y had p o l i t i c a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s .  F r . Buenaventura made h i s sympathy  f o r t h e I n d i a n s p u b l i c a l l y known i n h i s Memorial de l a s h i s t o r i a s d e l Nuevo  46 Mundo P i r u . . .  i n 1630.  I n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s work, he drew on  o f f i c i a l a r c h i v a l s o u r c e s as w e l l as on memorials by a p r o t e c t o r o f t h e I n d i a n s , Domingo de Luna, by a n o t h e r e a r l y d e f e n d e r of t h e I n d i a n s , Juan O r t i z de C e r v a n t e s , and on the compendious Salinas  1  t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge  works o f S o l 6 r z a n o .  In short,  o f p r o t e c t o r a l i d e a l s was ample.  In h i s  Memorial F r . Buenaventura d e s c r i b e d the o p p r e s s i o n under which the I n d i a n s s u f f e r e d i n s p i t e o f voluminous l e g i s l a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o ensure t h e i r freedom. F r . Buenaventura went f a r t h e r t h a n the p r e d i c t a b l e condemnation of the adm i n i s t r a t i o n ' s f a i l u r e t o e n f o r c e t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n and p l a c e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f the I n d i a n s s q u a r e l y on t h e s h o u l d e r s o f the S p a n i s h monarch: . . . e l Rey, que duerme, 6 se echa a dormir descuydado con l o s que l e s a s s i s t e n , es sueno t a n malo, que l a muerte no l o q u i e r e p o r hermano, y l e n i e g a e l p a r e n t e s c o ; deudo t i e n e con l a p e r d i c i o n , y e l i n f i e r n o . R e i n a r es v e l a r . Quien duerme no R e i n a ( d i x o o t r a voz mas v a l i e n t e que l a m i a ) , y Rey que c i e r r a l o s o j o s , da l a guarda de..sus o v e j a s a l o s l o b o s . Y e l M i n i s t r o , que guarda e l sueno a su Rey, l o e n t i e r r a v i v o , no l e s i r v e , porque l o infama; no l e descansa, porque quando l e guarda e l sueno, l e p i e r d e l a h o n r a , y l a c o n c i e n c i a : y e s t a s dos cosas t r a e n a p r e s u r a d a s u p e n i t e n c i a , con l a r u i n a , y d e s o l a c i 6 n de l o s R e i n o s . ^ 7 I n 1635  S a l i n a s , f o l l o w i n g t h e p a t t e r n s e t by the e a r l y  missionaries,  attempted t o use h i s r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e t o remedy s p e c i f i c abuses which he c l a i m e d t o have o b s e r v e d .  I n a sermon, p r e a c h e d at Cuzco i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f  the c o r r e g i d o r and c u r a t e , he rebuked them f o r t h e i r treatment o f the I n d i a n s . I n a l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f these a c c u s a t i o n s , F r . Buenaventura c l e a r l y  revealed  98  h i s adherence  t o t h e i d e a l o f t h e Crown as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p r i m i t i v e  Christianity: . . . r e p r e h e n d i l o que a v i a v i s t o , afeando a q u e l l o s t r a t o s p o r c r u e l e s , t i r a n o s , y vedados en l o s C o r r e g i d o r e s , y en l o s C u r a s , no s o l o p o r l a Ley de Dios, sino por tantas, y t a n justas Cedulas, I n s t r u c i o n e s , y P r a g m a t i c a s , dadas p o r t a n t o s Reyes C a t o l i c o s , y un R e a l , y Supremo Consejo de l a s I n d i a s , que con e l mismo z e l o , que t u v i e r o n C h r i s t o , y l o s A p o s t o l e s , no c o n s e n t i a n , s i n o que p r o h i b i a n (como avemos d i c h o ) con s e v e r i s s i m a s penas que se v e n d i e s s e l a j u s t i c i a , y se t r a t a s s e , y c o n t r a t a s s e con l a Doctrina E v a n g e l i c a . ^ F r . Buenaventura's  outspoken  sermon was  a t t a c k e d by t h e Bishop o f  Cuzco.  I n a p r o t e s t t o the Crown, the B i s h o p a l l e g e d t h a t the sermon undermined the p r e s t i g e o f the Church and accused the Crown o f r u l i n g " t y r a n i c a m e n t e . "  The  B i s h o p ' s immediate concern, however, appeared t o be the e f f e c t s o f F r . Buenaventura's  a c c u s a t i o n s on t h e Church's  a b i l i t y to r a i s e funds.  of t h e B i s h o p ' s e a r l i e r p r a i s e f o r S a l i n a s ' Memorial  t h i s may  In  view  indeed have  been t h e main m o t i v a t i o n f o r h i s p r o t e s t . I n s p i t e of t h e B i s h o p ' s h o s t i l i t y F r . Buenaventura's h i s own  o r d e r was  enhanced by h i s uncompromising s t a n c e .  reputation within  He r e c e i v e d a promo-  t i o n w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e d h i s t r a v e l l i n g t o S p a i n and l a t e r t o Rome.  I n con-  j u n c t i o n w i t h these p r o j e c t e d t r i p s he v/as a p p o i n t e d by the c i t y of L i m a and the B i s h o p o f Lima t o r e p r e s e n t them i n d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r s . however, the Crown acceded t o the B i s h o p o f Cuzco's  At the same time,  appeals and o r d e r e d  S a l i n a s t o appear b e f o r e the C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s t o d e f e n d h i s a c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h F r . Buenaventura  won  t o be promoted u n t i l he was political rivals s t i l l  t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f i t s m i n i s t e r s and c o n t i n u e d  f i n a l l y made C o m i s a r i o g e n e r a l f o r New  attempted  Spain, h i s  t o use h i s censure of the c o r r e g i d o r  and  99  c u r a t e t o d i s c r e d i t him.  They were unable,  however, t o sway t h e o p i n i o n o f  the C o u n c i l which, by g r a n t i n g F r . Buenaventura the p e r m i s s i o n  necessary  f o r him t o go t o M e x i c o , once a g a i n a f f i r m e d i t s patronage o f the p r o t e c t o r a l cause. As r o y a l a p p o i n t e e s ,  bishops  enjoyed  a c c e s s t o both t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e  I n d i e s and t h e Crown and some t o o k advantage o f t h e i r r i g h t bodies t o p u b l i c i z e Indian grievances.  I n 1695 t h e B i s h o p  t o address  these  o f Cuzco p r o t e s t e d  p r e c i s e l y t h e c o n d i t i o n s which r e n d e r e d the o f f i c i a l p r o t e c t o r a l system i n accessible to r u r a l  Indians:  Tengo p o r i n e x c u s a b l e y de mucha i m p o r t a n c i a l a s v i s i t a s g e n e r a l e s de l a T i e r r a , porque muchos v a s a l l o s de V. Mag. que se h a l l a n r e t i r a d o s de l a s R e a l e s A u d i e n c i a s , y s o n pobres no pueden o c u r r i r p e d i r j u s t i c i a a V u e s t r o s V i r r e y e s , y Oydores, a s s i p o r l a d i f i c u l t a d que l e s o f r e c e n l a s d i s t a n c i a s , como p o r no t e n e r medios p a r a c o s t e a r a g e n t e s y otros; m i n i s t r o s de semejante e x e r c i c i o que no se mueven s i n i n t e r e s , y l e s sucede de o r d i n a r i o no t e n e r r e c u r s o en l o s c o r r e g i d o r e s , p r i n c i p a l m e n t e c o n t r a p e r s o n a s poderosas, a quienes e s t o s a t i e n d e n siempre o p o r u t i l i d a d , o p o r r e s p e t o , con que a e s t o s pobres l o s t i e n e condenados su m i s e r i a a no l o g r a r a l i v i o alguno en l a s o p r e s i o n e s que padecen p o r no p o d e r l a solicitar: y siendo l a R e a l V o l u n t a d de V. Mag. que sean d e s a g r a v i a d o s no podra c o n s e g u i r s e , s i n o en caso de s a l i r un M i n i s t r o de V u e s t r a R e a l A u d i e n c i a a b u s c a r l o s a s u s pueblos.50 A l a t e r Bishop  o f Cuzco p o i n t e d out t h i s same s i t u a t i o n i n 17kh and  s t r e s s e d t h a t the I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r e d c l e r i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n t h e only p o s s i b l e  51 means o f b r i n g i n g t h e i r p l i g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f benevolent In another  l e t t e r o f t h a t same y e a r , the B i s h o p  authorities.  r e i t e r a t e d t h e p o i n t , made  so many times by s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m i s s i o n a r i e s , t h a t t h e c l e r g y ' s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l s e c u l a r e x p l o i t a t i o n was d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e Indians:  100  . . . y aunque l o s c u r a s y yo q u i s i e r a m o s poner a l g u n remedio s o n t a n a b s o l u t o s que pasan l o s terminos d e l r e s p e t o y a t r o p e l l a n h a s t a l o mas sagrado; y v a l i e n d o s e d e l e s p a c i o s o t i t u l o de R e a l e s T r i b u t o s , no ay b i o l e n c i a que no executen; de que se o r i g i n a no poder l o s c u r a s sugetar s u s f i l i g r e s e s a l cumplimiento de l o s p r e c e p t o s D i v i n o s , porque l o s e s t a n ahuyentando, sabiendo que s i ban a l a y g l e s i a , o a l a e n t r a d a o a l a s a l i d a , l o s an de prender y castigar.52 In the eighteenth  century  encouraged t o some extent Bourbon a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s c l e r g y were a f f e c t e d .  t h e c l e r g y ' s advocacy o f I n d i a n r i g h t s was  by t h e antagonism c r e a t e d amongst t h e c l e r g y by the regalist policies.  B o t h t h e s e c u l a r and r e g u l a r  C a s t e l f u e r t e c a r r i e d out a p a r t i c u l a r l y v i g o r o u s and  b i t t e r campaign t o b r i n g the b i s h o p s under c l o s e r V i c e r e g a l c o n t r o l . administration's  consideration of a proposal  to replace the regular  The clergy  employed as p r i e s t s i n I n d i a n communities w i t h members o f t h e s e c u l a r gained t h e animosity Franciscans  i n 1731  administration.  o f the r e l i g i o u s orders. f u r t h e r inflamed  The p u b l i c e x e c u t i o n  clergy  o f two  the members o f t h a t o r d e r a g a i n s t t h e  T h i s antagonism and t h e mutual s u s p i c i o n i t engendered once  a g a i n made t h e c l e r i c a l advocacy o f I n d i a n p r o t e c t i o n a h i g h l y  political  issue.  F o r the c l e r g y , t h e defense o f I n d i a n r i g h t s c o u l d enhance t h e i r i n -  fluence  over the I n d i a n s as w e l l a s g a i n them t h e t h e o r e t i c a l support o f t h e  C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s  i n t h e i r struggles with the secular  For the c o l o n i a l administration, Indian  complaints p r o v i d e d  administration.  on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e c l e r g y ' s support o f  a b a s i s f o r accusing  i t s members o f s u b v e r s i o n and  c o n s t i t u t e d another argument f o r i n c r e a s i n g s e c u l a r c o n t r o l over t h e Church's activities.  101  An provides  i n c i d e n t d e s c r i b e d t o t h e K i n g by t h e Marques de C a s t e l f u e r t e a c l e a r example o f the p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the c l e r g y ' s  championship o f I n d i a n t o the V i c e r o y ' s  causes i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h  century.  The i n c i d e n t came  a t t e n t i o n as a r e s u l t o f a complaint by t h e c o r r e g i d o r o f  Andahuaylas, G r e g o r i o  O r t i z de L a n d a e t a .  The c u r a t e o f San Geronirno, Gaspar  de Prado y H a n z a n i l l a had, a l l e g e d O r t i z , encouraged the I n d i a n s t o r e b e l against  him i n p r o t e s t o f h i s imprisonment o f a c a c i q u e , Bernardo  f o r f a i l i n g t o comply w i t h the m i t a o f H u a n c a v e l i c a . t o t h e B i s h o p about t h e c u r a t e ' s  actions.  Otinaya,  The c o r r e g i d o r  complained  The B i s h o p , however, f a r from  taking  c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n , proceeded t o excommunicate t h e c o r r e g i d o r and, a c c o r d i n g t o O r t i z , t r i e d t o i n c i t e the I n d i a n s t o f u r t h e r h o s t i l i t i e s a g a i n s t him " c o n e l ofrezimiento  de que i b a a r e d i m i r l o s de l a o b l i g a z i o n de l o s T r i b u t o s  . . ."  As f u r t h e r evidence o f h i s s o l i d a r i t y w i t h t h e c u r a t e , t h e B i s h o p t h e n named  53 him h i s p e r s o n a l  secretary.  In the Viceroy e s s e n t i a l question  C a s t e l f u e r t e ' s consideration of t h i s i n c i d e n t , the  o f j u s t i c e and t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f b e n e v o l e n t  r a i s e d by t h e c a c i q u e ' s  legislation  imprisonment was submerged beneath t h e o v e r r i d i n g  s t r u g g l e f o r power between s e c u l a r and c l e r i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . the i n c i d e n t i s a l o n g w i t h o t h e r  Nevertheless  c l e r i c a l p r o t e s t s evidence o f t h e d e d i c a t i o n  of some members o f t h e c l e r g y t o t h e r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s which i n s p i r e d S p a i n ' s colonial  effort.  I n s p i t e o f t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e o f f i c i a l p r o t e c t o r a l system and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f much o f t h e c l e r g y w i t h s e c u l a r i n t e r e s t s , b o t h t h e o f f i c i a l p r o t e c t o r s and t h e c l e r i c s who championed I n d i a n welfare  managed t o keep a l i v e  102  the i d e a l s  of Las C a s a s and the e a r l y ; m i s s i o n a r i e s .  system p e r p e t u a t e d  the t h e o r e t i c a l  The  official  c o n n e c t i o n between the Crown's r i g h t  r u l e i n America, i t s r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n I n d i a n s as b e i n g f r e e y e t p r i v i l e g e d  i d e a l o f the Church as a u t h o r i t a t i v e  and laws p r e s e r v e d b o t h through  The  and p r o t e c t e d v a s s a l s .  arbiter  The  missionary relation-  ideals, theories  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s  of the  colonial  of d e d i c a t e d c l e r i c s formed a p r o t e c t -  o r a l t r a d i t i o n which p r o v i d e d a ready-made v e h i c l e c a c i q u e s c o u l d e x p r e s s t h e i r own  Indians'  of c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y ' s  complex o f benevolent  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and through the a g i t a t i o n  to  and i t s l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e  c l e r i c a l s u p p o r t e r s , on the o t h e r hand, p r e s e r v e d the r a d i c a l  ship with the-native population.  protectoral  through which m a r g i n a l i z e d  g r i e v a n c e s and those of t h e I n d i a n t r i b u t a r i e s .  103  NOTES  CHAPTER I I I  S i l v i o Z a v a l a , " I d e a r i o de Vasco Q u i r o g a " i n Recuerdo de Vasco Q u i r o g a  1965), p . 55.  (Mexico,  C o n s t a n t i n o B a y l e , E l p r o t e c t o r de i n d i o s ( S e v i l l e , 194-5), p. 11. Even a f t e r 1550 when t h e Pope's temporal a u t h o r i t y was d e n i e d by most a u t h o r i t i e s , rendering t h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i r r e l e v a n t , Spanish l e g i s l a t i o n continued t o r e i t e r a t e i t .  See Lewis Hanke, The Spanish S t r u g g l e f o r J u s t i c e  i n t h e Conquest o f America ( B o s t o n and T o r o n t o , 1965), pp. 26 and 152. main s o u r c e s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g argument  The  a r e w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e and i n o r d e r t o  a v o i d r e p e t i t i o u s f o o t n o t e s f o r f a c t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which a r e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e I r e f e r t h e r e a d e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g works f o r c o r r o b o r a tion:  Hanke, S p a n i s h S t r u g g l e f o r J u s t i c e and A r i s t o t l e and t h e American  I n d i a n s — A Study o f Race P r e j u d i c e i n the Modern World (London, 1959), and John Leddy Phelan, The M i l l e n i a l Kingdom o f t h e F r a n c i s c a n s i n t h e New World (Berkeley,  1956).  F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on Jim§nez b o t h as a r e f o r m i s t and as an i m p e r i a l i s t see:  R e g i n a l d Merton, C a r d i n a l Ximenes and t h e Making o f S p a i n (London,  1934),  A.G. D i c k e n s , The Counter R e f o r m a t i o n (London, 1968) and P i e r r e J a n e l l e , The C a t h o l i c Reformation (Milwaukee,  I963).  ^ See L u i s Weckmann, "The M i d d l e Ages i n t h e Conquest o f America," Speculum,  26 ( J a n . 1951), 130-141 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m e d i e v a l elements i n  104  the S p a n i s h  conquest.  5 H e n r i de L u b a c , Exegese m§dievale: III (Paris,  L e s quatre sens' de 1 * e c r i t u r e ,  1964), 344. See t h e C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a f o r a r t i c l e s on Joachim  o f F i o r e , N i c h o l a s o f L y r e , and Ximenez de C i s n e r o s . P o s t i l l a e perpetuae i n u n i v e r s a B i b l i a (Rome, 6  Nicholas of Lyre,  1471-1473).  Lubac, I I I , 355.  7 The P o s t i l l a e were i n c l u d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g e a r l y e d i t i o n s o f t h e Bible:  Nuremberg,  l48l; V e n i c e , 1485 and Lubeck, 1494, and i n l a t e r e d i t i o n s  such as Lyon, 1590; D o u a i , 1617; A n v e r s , 1634 and P a r i s , 1660. F o r e v i d e n c e o f N i c h o l a s o f L y r e ' s a c c e p t a b i l i t y as an o r t h o d o x commentator i n S p a i n see M a r c e l B a t a i l l o n , Erasmo y Espana (Mexico and Buenos A i r e s , 1950), I , 33, 39 and 460; I I , 41. g F r a n c i s B o r g i a Steck, " C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus and t h e F r a n c i s c a n s , " The Americas, 3 (1946-1947), 319-341, d e t a i l s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f F r a n c i s c a n s on Columbus' t h e o r i e s as w e l l as t h e F r a n c i s c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e a r l y e x p e d i t i o n s , (pp. 326, 327j 328, 332).  Weckman notes t r a c e s o f s p i r i t u a l F r a n c i s c a r i i s m i n  F r . Pedro de Gante ( p . 327). ^ Bishop  S t a f i l e o a t the C o u n c i l , o f R o t a i n 1528 drew a s i m i l a r a n a l o g y  between t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e Roman h u r c h and t h e B i b l i c a l B a b y l o n p. 4 7 ) . c  10  Quoted by S i l v i o Z a v a l a i n " L a U t o p i a de Tomas Moro en l a Nueva Espana"  i n Recuerdo de Vasco Quiroga, 1  1  (Janelle,  p . 34.  Z a v a l a , " I d e a r i o , " p . 125.  12 F r a n c i s c o Solano,  "Algunos aspectos  de l a p o l i t i c a d e l Consejo  sobre  l a o r g a n i z a c i 6 n de l a I g l e s i a i n d i a n a en e l s i g l o XVI" i n Demetrio Ramos e t a l ,  105  E l C o n s e j o de l a s I n d i a s en e l s i g l o XVI ( V a l l a d o l i d ,  1970), p. 177.  13 Solano, p . 178; Phelan,  p . 51.  14 Pedro B o r g e s , " E l Consejo de I n d i a s y e l paso de m i s i o n e r o s durante e l s i g l o XVI" i n E l C o n s e j o , pp. 182-185.  a America  Borges e s t i m a t e s the t o t a l  number o f m i s s i o n a r i e s sent t o America i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t 5)150 (p. 188) w h i l e S o l a n o ( p . 178) p l a c e s the number o f F r a n c i s c a n s a t 2,559. 15 B a y l e , pp. 23-80. the s i t u a t i o n  A r e a l c e d u l a o f 1660 forming a J u n t a t o c o n s i d e r  of t h e I n d i a n s i n P e r u i s but one example o f t h e Crown's l e g i s l a -  t i o n i n f a v o r of t h e I n d i a n s .  T h i s J u n t a was formed i n response t o a p r e s e n t a -  t i o n made by Juan de P a d i l l a , A l c a l d e de Crimen o f Lima, on the abuses s u f f e r e d by the I n d i a n s . agreed  Le6n P i n e l o a t t h e time p r o t e c t o r f o r t h e A u d i e n c i a o f Lima,  on the g e n e r a l sense of P a d i l l a ' s  p r e s e n t a t i o n , but i n s i s t e d t h a t the  laws were adequate and t h e i r enforcement a t f a u l t ,  ^he J u n t a continued t o  f u n c t i o n as an o v e r s e e r of the enforcement o f p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n .  See  Jorge Basadre, E l Conde de Lemos y_ s u tiempo (Lima, 1948), pp. 112-113; "Memorial de D. J u a n de P a d i l l a , " t r a n s c r i b e d by Vargas, H i s t o r i a , 16 R e c o p i l a c i 6 n , l i b . 2, t i t . 2, l e y 8. 17 S o l 6 r z a n o , l i b . 2, cap. 28, p t . 6 and 7. 18 Quoted by J o s e Antonio M a r a v a l l i n " L a u t o p i a , " p . 225. 19 Quoted by M a r a v a l l i n " L a u t o p i a , " p . 221. 20 Sol6rzano,  l i b . 2, cap. 28, p t . 4.  See a l s o E s t a d o p o l i t i c o , p . 30:  " E s t a s L e y e s f u e r o n Santas, y l o s o n , s i se cumplieran porque en quanto a l o primero,  I I I , 391-420.  como V. Mag. l a s ordena;  de o b l i g a r a l o s I n d i o s a que t r a b a j e n , es una  p r o v i d e n c i a P a t e r n a l . . . e l modo es p i a d o s i s s i m o , porque e s t a mandado, que sean b i e n t r a t a d o s . . . pero e l uso no es e s t o :  porque l o que se p r a c t i c a , en  106  agravio de l o s I n d i o s , y de l a J u s t i c i a n a t u r a l , es, todo l o c o n t r a r i o , que mandan l a s Leyes." 21 The d e t a i l s of the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the e a r l y p r o t e c t o r a l system are drawn from Constantino Bayle, E l p r o t e c t o r de i n d i o s . 22 Recopilaci6n, t i t . 5, l i b . 6.  See a l s o Bayle, pp. 67-70.  Ordenanzas, I , 260, 2 6 l , 241, 246. ^  Ordenanzas, I , 246.  25 Ordenanzas, I , 241. 26  Ordenanzas, I , 237.  27 No study of the a c t i v i t i e s of the p r o t e c t o r s of the Audiencia of Lima i n the eighteenth century e x i s t s . ^  e  Judging from the cases which I have seen i n  Archivo de I n d i a s , some p r o t e c t o r s , such as Le6n y Escand6n, appear t o have  been more active than others.  T h i s may, however, have been p a r t l y due t o the  persistence of caciques and c l e r i c s i n urging that appeals be forwarded t o the Council of the I n d i e s . One Indian source even t r e a t e d the furtherance of complaints to Spanish courts as evidence of bad f a i t h on the part of the prot e c t o r , quite i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the b e l i e f that i t represented a s i n c e r e "effort  "" r  to achieve j u s t i c e f o r the Indians: Don Juan de P e r a l t a , p r o t e c t o r f i s c a l de l o s Naturales con su acostumbrada impiedad no solo no nos p a t r o c i n i o [ s i c ] conforme a su o b l i g a c i o n sino que l e experimentamos contrario en todo hasta p e d i r que no fuesemos oidos en este reyno, determinando e l v i r r e y llevasemos nuestra causa a l Real Consejo, asegurado de que nuestra pobreza no podia costear l a saca d e l proceso n i e l e s p i r i t u apagado d e l Indio t e n d r i a v a l o r para l l e v a r l a contienda aun r e i n o tan apartado de este. (Quoted by M. C o l i n , p. 73)  P r o t e c t o r a l appointments at the Audiencia l e v e l were c e r t a i n l y subject to i r regularities.  I n 1720 a p r o t e c t o r , L6pez de Ceyza, was asked t o withdraw and  107  return h i s salary. p r o t e c t o r who  L a t e r Tomas B r u n , who  a  r e f u s e d t o act on the I n d i a n s ' b e h a l f , asked t o be p a i d h i s  p r o t e c t o r ' s s a l a r y i n Spain, but was to  f i g u r e s i n o t h e r documents as  t h i s evidence  refused^- (AGI, Lima 438).  In contrast  c o n f i r m i n g the l i m i t e d a c t i v i t i e s of A u d i e n c i a p r o t e c t o r s i n  defense o f the I n d i a n s , documents i n the A r c h i v o  de I n d i a s p r o v i d e  i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c t i v i t i e s o f l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s .  little  Since some I n d i a n documents  mention t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and t h e i r f a i l u r e t o f u l f i l l t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , i t seems l o g i c a l t o conclude t h a t they were s u b j e c t t o the same c o r r u p t i o n as o t h e r officials.  A study  of documents i n P e r u v i a n  more l i g h t on the n a t u r e  and e x t e n t  local  a r c h i v e s would undoubtedly shed  o f the o f f i c i a l p r o t e c t o r s ' a c t i v i t i e s  throughout the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d .  28 Amat, Memoria, p . 191;  N o t i c i a s s e c r e t a s , I , 317,  of v i r t u a l l y a l l I n d i a n complaints  330,  331.  The  gist  seen by the C o u n c i l o f t h e I n d i e s points'' to the  l o c a l p r o t e c t o r s ' a b d i c a t i o n of t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s .  29 Ordenanzas, I , 260-261.  30 Ordenanzas, I ,  263.  31 Manuel de Amat, " E l V i r r e y Amat da c u e n t a a l Rey  de l o s d e f e c t o s  v i c i o s de o r g a n i z a c i o n d e l V i r r e i n a t o d e l Peru—1762" i n R e v i s t a de l a B i b l i o t e c a n a c i o n a l (Buenos A i r e s ) ,  7 (1942), 346-347.  32 Estado p o l i t i c o , pp. 10,  l O v and  11.  33 Amat, Memoria, p.  303.  See p. 125  dissertation.  34 35  of t h i s  . . . y aviendose c o n t r o v e r t i d o con l o s dueRos de l a s haciendas, v i s t o s l o s a u t o s en l a A u d i e n c i a de Lima, y l o que sobre [ e l l o s ] d i x o e l v u e s t r o F i s c a l , P r o t e c t o r G e n e r a l , e Informe hecho por Don M a r t i n de Zamudio, a cuyo cargo e s t a b a e l r e p a r t i m i e n t o de l o s I n d i o s (que  y  108  todo fue t a n f a v o r a b l e , como a r r e g l a d o a j u s t i c i a ) se d e c l a r e , no a v e r l u g a r a l a p r e t e n s i o n de l o s I n d i o s , y se l e s impuso perpetuo s i l e n c i o en e s t a causa, mandando no se l e s a d m i t i e s e mas pedimento: E s t a d e t e r m i n a c i o n , Senor, no l a e s t r a f i a r o n l o s I n d i o s , a v i s t a de que a l gunos H i n i s t r o s , C o r r e g i d o r e s , y p a r i e n t e s de l o s unos, y l o s o t r o s son i n t e r e s a d o s en l a s M i t a s y R e p a r t i c i o n e s de I n d i o s p a r a l o s t r a b a j o s , en l a s h a c i e n d a s que t i e n e n , c o n t r a l o d i s p u e s t o p o r l e y e s , y Ordenanzas. (Morachimo, M a n i f i e s t o Qldea, No.  2?])  36 See p. 127  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .  37 Estado p o l i t i c o , p. See Lohmann, Los  30v.  ministros.  39 L e t t e r of caciques  of H u a r o c h i r i , t r a n s c r i b e d by C o l i n , p.  215.  4o The s a l e o f the o f f i c e o f p r o t e c t o r , i t s s m a l l s a l a r y and the s h o r t tenure o f the p o s i t i o n a l l l e f t i t open t o c o r r u p t i o n . B a y l e , pp. 105-108.  41 Estado p o l i t i c o , p.  30.  Estado p o l i t i c o , p.  30.  42 4-3 R e c o p i l a c i 6 n , l i b . 6,  tit.  6,  ley  14.  /[/;  L u i s Merino, Las N o t i c i a s s e c r e t a s de America;  E s t u d i o c r i t i c o de l a s  (1720-1765)  a c u s a s i o n e s de U l l o a sobre g e n e r a l r e l a j a c i S n d e l c l e r o c o l o n i a l (Washington, 1956), d e s c r i b e s the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the of c o r r u p t i o n amongst the c l e r g y i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y administration's this  accusations  P e r u , as w e l l as  the  attempts t o f o r c e the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h i e r a r c h y to remedy  corruption.  4-5 Alonso de l a Pena Montenegro, I t i n e r a r i o p a r a p a r r o c o s (Madrid,  1668).  Amberes,  I698, 1726,  P.  82.  Subsequent e d i t i o n s i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g :  1737 and 1754;  and M a d r i d ,  1771.  See  de i n d i o s  Lyon,  1678;  Hanke, A r i s t o t l e ,  109  46  Fr. Buenaventura de Salinas y C6rdova, Memorial de las historias  del Nuevo Mundo Piru:  Meritos, y_ excelencias de l a ciudad de Lima cabega  de sus ricos, y_ estendidos reynos, y_ e l estado presente en que se hallan. Para inclinar a...Ia magestad de su Catolico Monarca Don Felipe IV (Madrid, I 6 3 O ) . The following discussion of Salinas i s based on Warren Cook's "Fray Buenaventura de Salinas y C6rdova Su Vida y su Obra," Revista del Museo Nacional (Lima), 24 (1955), 19-48. 47 ' Quoted by Cook, p. 29. 48 Quoted by Cook, p. 31. 49 . . . otras palabras escandalosas y malsionantes y que pudieran conectar los animos de los oyentes en deservicio de Su Majestad, y en particular en tiempo que instado de necesidades en que se hallaba por l a defensa de l a religi6n cat6lica, esta pidiendo donativos de sus vasallos a los estados eclesiasticos y secular, a cuya ejecuci6n e l senor Conde de Chinch6n, virrey destos reinos, acude con e l cuidado que es notorio, y Su Sefioria Ilustrisima, de orden suya, actualmente lo esta p i d i endo a los cl§rigos deste obispado. (Quoted by Cook, p. 32.) ^° Letter of Bishop of Cuzco to King, transcribed by Colin, p. 214. 5 1  Letter i n AGI (Lima 526), 1744.  Cf. Colin,, pp. 76-78.  52 Letter transcribed by Colin, p. 516. 5 3  Letter of Castelfuerte to King, 11 Aug., 1727, AGI (Lima 425).  110  CHAPTER IV  The I n d i a n E l i t e as P r o t e c t o r s :  1708-1737  Documents i n t h e A r c h i v o G e n e r a l de I n d i a s a l l o w us t o t r a c e t h e development o f a coherent  and u n i f i e d l i n e o f p r o t e s t on t h e p a r t o f t h e  I n d i a n e l i t e from 1708 through  t h e 1730's.  I n i t i a l l y , t h i s protest consisted  o f a p p e a l s from t h e I n d i a n e l i t e o f Lima f o r measures t o f o r e s t a l l t h e l o s s of p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s which t h r e a t e n e d t o make t h e e l i t e from t h e mass o f u r b a n I n d i a n s .  indistinguishable  I n t h e 1720's, however, t h i s type o f a p p e a l  was combined w i t h t h e advocacy o f t h e w e l f a r e o f oppressed  rural  Indians.  Through t h e s e p r o t e s t s t h e I n d i a n e l i t e , by; 'voicing t h e resentment and f r u s t r a 1  t i o n o f b o t h urban and r u r a l I n d i a n s , aimed t o achieve reforms which would both improve t h e w e l f a r e o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y as a whole and r e e s t a b l i s h the e l i t e ' s p o s i t i o n as p r i v i l e g e d l e a d e r s .  By e x p r e s s i n g these aims through  Hispanic  l e g a l channels and w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h e e l i t e  ensured  t h e i r own p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any b e n e f i t s t o be reaped from t h e i r r e f o r m i s t agitation.  By i n v o k i n g H i s p a n i c s o u r c e s t o j u s t i f y t h e i r p r o p o s a l s  g r a d u a l l y c r e a t e d a coherent The  they  i d e o l o g y o f r e f o r m based on p r o t e c t o r a l  caciques and I n d i a n n o b l e s r e s i d i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y  of Lima  ideals. enjoyed  a r e l a t i v e l y advantageous s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i n comparison t o t h e oppressed d i t i o n of rural Indians.  Although  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s s t i l l  con-  our knowledge o f urban I n d i a n s o c i e t y i n  fragmentary,  t h e r e i s some evidence t o support  the view t h a t i t d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from i t s r u r a l counterpart.''"  A large  Ill  p r o p o r t i o n of the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f Lima was who,  by v i r t u e of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n ,  enjoyed  composed e i t h e r of a r t i s a n s  exemption from the t r i b u t e  and  m i t a e x a c t i o n s l e v i e d on r u r a l I n d i a n s or o f immigrants from o u t l y i n g a r e a s , who  were s u b j e c t o n l y t o reduced  exactions.  which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c a c i q u e s * Lima.  As a r e s u l t , the c o n d i t i o n s  i n f l u e n c e i n r u r a l a r e a s d i d not e x i s t i n  N e i t h e r , o f c o u r s e , d i d t h e c o n d i t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e d the c o r r e g i d o r e s *  s u b j u g a t i o n of both t h e t r i b u t a r i e s and c a c i q u e s i n r u r a l a r e a s . Lima had  e a s i e r a c c e s s t o j u d i c i a l channels  of redress.  I n d i a n s of  As r e s i d e n t s of  c a p i t a l they c o u l d e x e r c i s e t h e i r p r e r o g a t i v e s of appeal t o the without  The  the  Audiencia  the expense e n t a i l e d i n t r a v e l l i n g o r s e n d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s l o n g  distances.  S i m i l a r l y , l e g a l cases i n v o l v i n g I n d i a n s r e s i d e n t i n Lima were  d e a l t v/ith d i r e c t l y by the p r o t e c t o r , f o r e g o i n g the expense and f u t i l i t y i n i t i a t i n g l e g a l procedures  with l o c a l  authorities.  S t i l l more s i g n i f i c a n t , however, was Indian society.  The  the g r e a t e r H i s p a n i z a t i o n o f urban  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f Lima, centered m a i n l y  known as E l Cercado, had  constant  contact w i t h Spaniards,  i n an  largely  area  through  t h e i r employment i n t r a d e s and as vendors i n the p u b l i c p l a z a s of Lima. Cercado i t s e l f government.  had  an a c t i v e I n d i a n government p a t t e r n e d a f t e r Spanish  I n d i a n s o c c u p i e d not  business  and l e g a l c o n t r a c t s e n t e r e d i n t o by I n d i a n s .  n o b i l i t y formed i t s own Spanish  ceremonial  municipal  Indians The  Indian  m i l i t a r y regiment and p l a y e d an o s t e n t a t i o u s r o l e i n  occasions.  p a t t e r n e d g u i l d s , and  The  o n l y p o s t s i n t h i s c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but  a l s o p o s i t i o n s as n o t a r i e s working c l o s e l y w i t h the p r o t e c t o r of the i n approving  of  The  a r t i s a n p o p u l a t i o n was  t h e r e i s growing evidence  organized i n  Spanish-  t h a t urban I n d i a n s enjoyed  in  112  practice  a number of p r i v i l e g e s  and S p a n i a r d s .  theoretically  S l a v e s , h o r s e s , Spanish  r e s e r v e d f o r the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y  d r e s s , and l a n d h o l d i n g s beyond the  o f f i c i a l a l l o t m e n t s were common accoutrements o f the r e l a t i v e l y p r o s p e r o u s I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f Lima. The  I n d i a n e l i t e of Lima were i n a good p o s i t i o n  t i o n of t h e i r r u r a l counterparts.  The Cercado was  f o r r u r a l I n d i a n s h e a d i n g f o r t h e Spanish c i t y  t o a p p r e c i a t e the  an o b l i g a t o r y s t o p p i n g p o i n t  of Lima and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r  c a c i q u e s coming t o p r e s e n t t h e i r cases t o V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s . the p l i g h t  of r u r a l I n d i a n s was  situa-  Awareness of  i n t e n s i f i e d d u r i n g the 1720's and 30's  imprisonment of a number of c a c i q u e s i n Lima, as a r e s u l t  by  the  of t h e i r attempts t o  2 g a i n r e d r e s s agaxnst abusive c o r r e g i d o r e s , f l e e i n g from the d e p r e s s e d of the I n d i a n e l i t e channels,  and by an i n f l u x o f r u r a l  c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r n a t i v e a r e a s .  Indians  The H i s p a n i z a t i o n  o f Lima, combined w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y easy access t o  and awareness o f the widespread n a t u r e  them i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n  legal  of I n d i a n o p p r e s s i o n a l l p l a c e d  t o assume the l e a d e r s h i p of a reform movement i n  the interests'.'/of I n d i a n s o c i e t y as a whole. The  elite's interest  by t h e i r own  i n s p o n s o r i n g such a movement was  g r a d u a l l o s s of s t a t u s .  a status easily differentiated the a r t i s a n p o p u l a t i o n .  largely  determined  The u r b a n I n d i a n e l i t e no l o n g e r  as s u p e r i o r i n wealth  and p r i v i l e g e t o t h a t of  On the c o n t r a r y , the gap which s e p a r a t e d the  from t h e a r t i s a n p o p u l a t i o n was  narrowed as the l u x u r i e s t h e o r e t i c a l l y  f o r the n o b i l i t y became a v a i l a b l e  enjoyed  t o many members of urban I n d i a n  elite reserved  society.  T h i s development, a l s o p a r t i a l l y a r e s u l t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g impoverishment of the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y , t h r e a t e n e d  t o e f f e c t i v e l y submerge t h e l e g a l l y  privileged  113  elite  i n t o t h e growing ranks o f t h e urban I n d i a n masses. She a b i l i t y  o f t h e I n d i a n e l i t e t o m a i n t a i n a s u p e r i o r economic p o s i t i o n  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e I n d i a n masses was l i m i t e d i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y by t h e economic c r i s i s which a f f e c t e d P e r u v i a n s o c i e t y as a whole. When n e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c a c i q u e s and n o b l e s and I n d i a n t r i b u t a r i e s nor S p a n i s h - p a t t e r n e d  economic a c t i v i t y proved  adequate t o h a l t t h e  g r a d u a l e r o s i o n o f t h e urban e l i t e ' s p r e s t i g e , they began t o explore o t h e r means of r e a s s e r t i n g t h e i r ascendancy over t h e I n d i a n masses. r o l e i n t h e defense  By t a k i n g an a c t i v e  o f the i n t e r e s t s o f Indians of a l l ranks, the e l i t e  attempted  t o r e g a i n t h e i r p r e s t i g e w i t h i n I n d i a n s o c i e t y and t o w i n S p a n i s h support f o r t h e r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y p o s t u l a t e d by colonial  laws.  Between 1708 and 1727 a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - e i g h t  members o f t h e I n d i a n  elite  put t h e i r s i g n a t u r e s t o one o r more o f f o u r a p p e a l s d i r e c t e d e i t h e r t o t h e Crovm o r t o V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s . ^  F i v e o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s s i g n e d two o f  these a p p e a l s and one man, F r a n c i s c o Saba Capac Inga, s i g n e d t h r e e , i n d i c a t i n g some c o n t i n u i t y i n l e a d e r s h i p . j e c t i v e o f a l l these appeals:  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s supported by t h e common obt o r e e s t a b l i s h t h e p r e s t i g e o f the I n d i a n  elite  through  t h e implementation  o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s g r a n t e d t h e I n d i a n n o b i l i t y by  Spanish  lav/ and s e c u r e t h e enforcement o f measures designed t o b e n e f i t t h e  I n d i a n masses. I n 1708 nine I n d i a n s p e t i t i o n e d t h e Crovm i n t h e name o f "Los N a t u r a l e s  k de e s t e Eeyno," decree  demanding t h a t V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s be f o r c e d t o p u b l i s h a  o f 1697 i s s u e d i n f a v o r o f t h e I n d i a n n o b i l i t y .  T h i s decree s t r e s s e d  114  the e q u a l i t y o f t h e I n d i a n and S p a n i s h n o b i l i t y and e x p r e s s l y confirmed t h e Indian n o b i l i t y ' s r i g h t t o h o l d p o s i t i o n s reserved t o the n o b i l i t y . c a r d i n a l importance  The  o f the decree i n p r o v i d i n g a l e g a l b a s i s f o r the I n d i a n  e l i t e ' s c l a i m s w a r r a n t s i t s d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n here: . . . puedan ascender l o s I n d i o s a l o s puestos E c l e s i a s t i c o s , o S e c u l a r e s , G u b e r n a t i v o s , P o l i t i c o s y de Guerra, que todos p i d e n l i m p i e z a de sangre y p o r E s t a t u t o c a l i d a d de Nobles, hay d i s t i n c i 6 n entre l o s I n d i o s y M e s t i z o s , o como d e s c e n d i entes de l o s I n d i o s p r i n c i p a l e s , que se llaman C a c i q u e s , o como p r o c e d i d o s de I n d i o s menos p r i n c i p a l e s , que s o n l o s T r i b u t a r i e s , y que en s u g e n t i l i d a d r e c o n o c i e r o n v a s a l l a j e ; se c o n s i d e r a que a l o s p r i m e r o s y s u s d e s c e n d i e n t e s , se l e s deben t o d a s l a s preeminencias y honores, a s i en l o E c l e s i a s t i c o como en l o s e c u l a r , que se acostumbra c o n f e r i r a l o s Nobles H i j o s d a l g o de C a s t i l l a , y pueden p a r t i c i p a r de c u a l q u i e r a comunidades que p o r E s t a t u t o p i d a n Nobleza; pues es c o n s t a n t e , que e l l o s en s u g e n t i l i s m o e r a n Nobles, y a quienes s u s i n f e r i o r e s r e c o n o c l a n v a s a l l a j e , y t r i b u t a b a n , cuya e s p e c i e de n o b l e z a t o d a v i a se l e s conserva y c o n s i d e r a ; guardandoles en l o p o s i b l e sus a n t i g u o s Fueros o P r i v i l e g i o s . . . y s i como l o s I n d i o s menos p r i n c i p a l e s , o d e s c e n d i e n t e s de e l l o s , y en quienes c o n c u r r e p u r i d a d de sangre, como d e s c e n d i e n t e s de l a G e n t i l i d a d , s i n mezcla de i n f e c c i 6 n , u o t r a s e c t a reprobada: a e s t o s tambien se l e s debe c o n t r i b u i r con todas l a s p r e r r o g a t i v a s y D i g n i d a d e s y Honras, que gozan en EspaHa l o s l i m p i o s de sangre, que l l a m a n Estado g e n e r a l . 5 By p r o v i d i n g a common j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e I n d i a n n o b i l i t y and the f r e e s t a t u s o f t h e I n d i a n commoners t h i s decree gave t h e I n d i a n e l i t e a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r a s s o c i a t i n g t h e i r oxm i n t e r e s t s w i t h the d e f e n s e o f o p p r e s s e d I n d i a n s .  As a r e s u l t , demands f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h e c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s became c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e I n d i a n p r o t e s t movement. A t t h e same t i m e , the decree o f 1697 c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k between the I n d i a n s ' freedom and t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f S p a i n ' s endeavour t o a r e l i g i o u s g o a l :  colonial  115  • • • declarando de nuevo que atender§ y premiarS, siempre a l o s descendientes de Indios G e n t i l e s de unos y o t r o s Reinos de l a s Indias, consolandolos con mi Real amparo y p a t r o c i n i o por medio de l o s Prelados E c l e s i a s t i c o s y demas M i n i s t r o s d e l Santo Evangelio, V i r r e y e s , Audiencias y demas Gobernadores de todas l a s Ciudades, V i l l a s y Lugares de aquellos Reynos, para que l o s aconsejan, gobiernen y encaminen a l bien p r i n c i p a l d e l conocimiento de nuestra Santa Fe Cat6lica, su observancia y V i d a P o l i t i c a y a que se apliquen a emplearse en mi s e r v i c i o y gozar l a remuneraci6n que en § 1 correspondiere a l m l r i t o y c a l i d a d de cada uno, segun y como l o s demas v a s a l l o s mios, en mis d i l a t a d o s dominios de l a Europa, con quienes han de ser i g u a l e s en e l todo l o s de una y o t r a America. Thus the charter of p r i v i l e g e s presented the l e g a l r i g h t s of the Indian n o b i l i t y and the freedom of the t r i b u t a r i e s as marks of royal' p r o t e c t i o n of the Indians.  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n provided the t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the  Indian reformist ideology, c o n f i n i n g i t w i t h i n the boundaries of Spanish, p r o t e c t o r a l theory. The p e t i t i o n of "Los Naturales de este Reyno" of 1708 set a precedent f o r the p r o t e s t o r s ' use of c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c p r o t e c t o r a l concepts t o t h e i r ends.  own  For instance, by adopting the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the Indians as i n -  herently malleable and therefore e a s i l y abused as an argument f o r the implementation of p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n the Indian e l i t e followed the pattern of protest e s t a b l i s h e d by sixteenth-century r e f o r m i s t s . They blamed the miserable s t a t e of the Indians, not on t h e i r own d o c i l e character, but rather on the Spaniards' s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d abuse of that character: . . . l a s miserias que padecen por l a i n f e l i z i d a d de su estado a que l o s a. reduzido l a V i o l e n c i a y c o d i c i a de algunos que inconcideradamente atropellando l o s fueros dela racon abusan de l a mansedumbre, y rendimiento g e n i a l delos Yndios n a t u r a l e s de este Reyno.  116  The  s u b m i s s i o n o f t h i s p e t i t i o n t o t h e Crown by I n d i a n s c l e a r l y  this generalization.  invalidated  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they c o n t i n u e d t o use i t as the e a r l y  m i s s i o n a r i e s had, t o support t h e i r p r o p o s a l s f o r the Crown's benevolent i n t e r v e n t i o n t o c o n t r o l the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n d i a n and Spanish In  1711 t h i r t e e n c a c i q u e s headed by F r a n c i s c o Saba Capac Inga p e t i t i o n e d  the V i c e r o y both f o r t h e implementation  o f t h e c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s and f o r  g e n e r a l reforms i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f I n d i a n w e l f a r e . a p p e a l , t h e a u t h o r s c i t e d the Crown's temporal protectoral intent. elite  society.  I n support o f t h e i r  i n t e r e s t s a s w e l l as i t s  S t r e s s i n g t h e s e r v i c e s and l o y a l t y r e n d e r e d by t h e I n d i a n  t o t h e Crown, t h e p e t i t i o n asked t h a t t h e c h a r t e r be p r o c l a i m e d by p u b l i c  c r i e r i n o r d e r t o combat the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which kept t h e I n d i a n e l i t e o b t a i n i n g t h e j u s t reward f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s .  from  I n order t o b o l s t e r t h e  e f f e c t s o f t h i s proclamation, the Indians a l s o c a l l e d f o r the education o f the I n d i a n e l i t e as p r o v i d e d f o r i n the c h a r t e r .  The e d u c a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n  e l i t e , t h e p e t i t i o n argued, would s e r v e not o n l y t o make I n d i a n s e l i g i b l e f o r o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , a p r e r e q u i s i t e o f which was t h e a b i l i t y  t o speak S p a n i s h , but  a l s o t o combat t h e p o p u l a r S p a n i s h b e l i e f t h a t I n d i a n s were i n c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h European s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  concepts.  The  I n d i a n p e t i t i o n u r g e d t h a t t h e P e r u v i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n emulate t h e e x a m p l e o f ;  Mexico where they c l a i m e d t h a t many I n d i a n s had, through e d u c a t i o n , been a b l e to los  enter the clergy:  " . . s e experimentara mucha a c t i t u d e i d o n i e d a d en  Sugetos p a r a t o d o s cargos c o n c e d i e n d o s e l e s l o s e s t u d i o s . " In  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r advocacy o f t h e s e s p e c i f i c measures d e s i g n e d  t o b e n e f i t t h e I n d i a n e l i t e , t h e p e t i t i o n o f 1711 c a l l e d f o r t h e implementation  117  of t h e Crovm s benevolent 1  i n t e n t i o n s towards t h e t r i b u t a r y I n d i a n s .  On  b a s i s o f the l i n k e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s between the n o b i l i t y ' s p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s and l i k e n e d the s e r v i c e s rendered  the t r i b u t a r i e s ' freedom, the  the Indian  petition  t o the Crown by the I n d i a n masses t o  those  performed by the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the Crown's p r o t e c t i o n o f the t r i b u t a r i e s was  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  reward f o r these s e r v i c e s :  . . . igualmente c o n t r i b u y e n a Su M a j e s t a d en sus T r i b u t o s , y en sus tandas p e r s o n a l e s uno de l o s mas u t i l e s s e r v i c i o s a su corona, pues a. l a c o n t i n u a c i o n de su t r a b a j o y o b e d i e n c i a conque se actuan en sus m i t a s , se t r a b a j a n l a s Minas, se l a b r a n l o s t h e s o r o s que e s t e Reino f r u c t i f i c a , se c u l t i v a n l o s sembrados y son en todo p a r a todo l o que mas s i r v e n , r a z o n y t r a b a j o t a n atendido que no ay t a n r e p e t i d o encargo como e l d e l a l i b i o que l o s muchos y r e a l e s despachos m a n i f i e s t a n . The p e t i t i o n e r s were s w i f t , however, t o q u a l i f y t h i s a p p a r e n t l y w o r l d l y  con-  c e p t i o n o f the Crown's p r o t e c t o r a l r o l e as s i m p l y a f u n c t i o n o f economic u t i l i t y by s u b o r d i n a t i n g i t t o the o v e r r i d i n g r e l i g i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r e s s e d i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by F e l i p e IV i n 1628. r a d i c a l view t h a t l a c k of i n t e r e s t  T h i s l e t t e r echoed the  i n the w e l f a r e o f the I n d i a n s was  merely a f a i l u r e of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but a s i n a g a i n s t God Spain's  ex-  and  not  a threat to  r i g h t t o r u l e i n America: . . . l o tengo de r e m e d i a r , y mandaros hazer cargo de l a s mas l e b e s omiciones en e s t o ; p o r s e r c o n t r a D i o s , y c o n t r a mi, y en t o t a l d e s t r u c c i o n y r u i n a de e s s o s Reynos, cuyos N a t u r a l e s estimo y q u i e r o sean t r a t a d o s como l o merecen V a s s a l l o s que t a n t o s i r v e n a. l a „ Monarchla y t a n t o l a han engrandecido e i l u s t r a d o .  The  l e t t e r o f F e l i p e IV, l i k e the c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s , became a  touchstone  f o r I n d i a n p r o t e s t documents throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s e r v i n g t o f i x t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t movement f i r m l y i n S p a n i s h  118  p r o t e c t o r a l theory and r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s The  p e t i t i o n o f 1711  i s important  ideals. on a number of c o u n t s .  It provided  the b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n which a l l f u t u r e p r o t e s t s were t o f o l l o w s I t a l s o p r o v i d e d t h e o u t l i n e of a s p e c i f i c program of r e f o r m which l a t e r p r o t e s t s f o l l o w e d and  embellished.  The p e t i t i o n ' s concern f o r the w e l f a r e  of the I n d i a n masses r e a f f i r m e d t h e I n d i a n e l i t e ' s use of p r o t e s t i n t h e name o f t h e masses as a means o f e f f e c t i v e l y reassuming i t s t r a d i t i o n a l as l e a d e r s o f I n d i a n The  society.  f a v o r a b l e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p r o t e c t o r of the I n d i a n s rendered g  p e t i t i o n o f 1711  role  on  encouraged the I n d i a n s ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o seek reform  the p r o t e c t o r a l s y s t e m .  Although  a s s i g n e d r o l e as advocates  the p r o t e c t o r s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h  the  through  their  f o r t h e abused I n d i a n s , always s u p p o r t e d the  a p p e a l s on paper, s e t t i n g out t h e l e g a l p o i n t s on which they were based  Indian and  o f t e n a d d i n g f u r t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the I n d i a n s ' p o s i t i o n , t h i s support seldom r e s u l t e d i n e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n .  The recommendation of  the  p r o t e c t o r , I s i d r o de E c e i z a , t h a t the c h a r t e r of p r i v i l e g e s be p u b l i s h e d as the I n d i a n s had r e q u e s t e d , remained l i k e most p r o t e c t o r a l o p i n i o n s , a m a t t e r of r e c o r d and l i t t l e The  response  more.  o f the Crown i t s e l f t o the p e t i t i o n s f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r  p a t t e r n , m a i n t a i n i n g t h e I n d i a n s ' f a i t h i n t h e u l t i m a t e j u s t i c e of p r o t e c t o r a l system by responding the implementation  1722  i n response  to t h e i r p e t i t i o n s with dramatic  o f p r o t e c t o r a l measures.  One  such o r d e r was  Spain's orders f o r  issued i n 9  t o some f u r t h e r p e t i t i o n s o r g a n i z e d by Saba Capac.  These  p e t i t i o n s combined t h e i n t e r e s t s o f urban and r u r a l I n d i a n s , a s k i n g f o r  119  r e d r e s s a g a i n s t s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s such as a b u s i v e r e p a r t i m i e n t o s , i l l e g a l charges  l e v i e d on  t h e I n d i a n s who d i d b u s i n e s s i n the p l a z a o f Lima, and  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s f a i l u r e t o p a y I n d i a n s o l d i e r s The  fortheir  services.  Crovm ordered t h a t these c o m p l a i n t s be s e t t l e d t o the I n d i a n s ' advantage  and i n s i s t e d on t h e enforcement o f t h e many laws which had been e s t a b l i s h e d to prevent  such  grievances:  . . . p a r a embarazar e s t a s y l a s demas e x t o r s i o n e s que padecian a q u e l l o s m i s e r a b l e s I n d i o s , oprimidos p o r l o s Governadores y demas M i n i s t r o s a s s i E c l e s i a s t i c o s , como S e c u l a r e s se e s t a b l e s i e r o n d i f e r e n t e s Leyes, y ordenanzas, con e l f i n de e l buen t r a t a m i e n t o que se debe h a z e r a a q u e l l o s N a t u r a l e s d e j a n d o l o s en s u e n t e r a l i b e r t a d p r o h i b i e n d o l a o p r e s i o n de e l l o s , e imponiendo a l o s Governadores, y C o r r e g i d o r e s l a pena de p r i v a s i o n de o f i c i o , y o t r a s que p r e v i e n e n l a s L e y e s . . . . p a r a contener l a s V e j a c i o n e s que l e s p o d i a n o c a s i o n a r l o s Governadores, y C o r r e g i d o r e s , sucediendo l o mismo enquanto a l o s R e l i g i o s o s D o c t r i n e r o s . The  Crovm's o r d e r adopted a severe s t a n d i n r e s p e c t t o t h e abuse o f  I n d i a n s by c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s , o r d e r i n g the V i c e r o y and t h e p r o t e c t o r t o g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o the s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s ' s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e s over and above any other c o n s i d e r a t i o n . bility  Although  t h e o r d e r p l a c e d t h e main r e s p o n s i -  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s on t h e p r o t e c t o r i t charged  F i s c a l e s with f u l f i l l i n g the p r o t e c t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t h e two  i n case o f h i s f a i l u r e  or i n c a p a c i t y : . . . l a tomen a su cargo paraque s e s e q u a l q u i e r motivo de d i l a c i o n , como s i l i t e r a l m e n t e h a b l a s s e con e l l o s e s t e Despacho p r e v i n i e n d o a l o s unos, y a l o s o t r o s den quenta en todas l a s o c a s i o n e s que se o f r e z c a n de l o que se executare, y a d e l a n t a r e en e s t a s m a t e r i a s estando a d v e r t i d o s se queda muy a l a m i r a de e s t a C l a z e de dependencias p a r a tomar l a mas s e v e r a r e s o l u c i o n c o n t r a l o s que a g r a v i a r e n a. l o s I n d i o s , 6 no l e s guardaren J u s t i c i a en c o n formidad de l o d i s p u e s t o p o r l a s R e a l e s Leyes.  120  I n a d d i t i o n t o encouraging t h e I n d i a n s ' b e l i e f i n the Crown's benev o l e n c e as c o n t r a s t e d t o the e x p l o i t a t i v e a t t i t u d e of the c o l o n i a l  1  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h i s o r d e r and o t h e r s of a s i m i l a r k i n d enlarged''-^heViblp'dy of p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n upon which the I n d i a n s based t h e i r I n 1724  appeals.  F r a n c i s c o Saba Capac Inga and s i x t e e n o t h e r members of the  I n d i a n e l i t e a g a i n p e t i t i o n e d the V i c e r o y f o r t h e implementation of  1697.  10  of the  decree  The s i g n a t o r i e s o f t h i s appeal i n c l u d e d c a c i q u e s , mainly from  the  a r e a around Lima, one p r i n c i p a l from Cuzco, a number of o f f i c e r s of the I n d i a n regiment,  and f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s o f u n s p e c i f i e d s t a t u s .  It i s clear  t h a t t h e motive of the p e t i t i o n e r s i n a d v o c a t i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of the was  not so much one  decree  o f f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r s o c i a l ambitions as of c u r t a i l i n g  the  d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e i r p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s . The  appeal of 1724  was  submitted i n r e a c t i o n to a s p e c i f i c  incident,  which t h r e a t e n e d t h e I n d i a n s ' s t a t u s as f r e e v a s s a l s of the Spanish Crown: the p u b l i c a t i o n on 14 March 1724 wearing  of a V i c e r e g a l proclamation p r o h i b i t i n g  o f s i l k s and f r i n g e s by I n d i a n s , m e s t i z o s , negroes,  samboes.  mulattoes  and  The o b v i o u s adverse e f f e c t of t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n on the I n d i a n  a b i l i t y t o d r e s s l i k e Spaniards was  the  elite's  i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n comparison t o i t s o t h e r  r a m i f i c a t i o n s which f a r exceeded those of any mere sumptuary  legislation.  By a p p l y i n g t o I n d i a n s and m e s t i z o s r e g u l a t i o n s designed f o r the e n s l a v e d c a s t a s t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n s e t a precedent  f o r d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n s and  mestizos  not on the same b a s i s as f r e e S p a n i a r d s , but as members o f a s u b s e r v i e n t group b e r e f t of even the b a s i c human freedoms. precedent  were immediately  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s  r e c o g n i z e d and c h a l l e n g e d by the I n d i a n e l i t e .  121  I n the p e t i t i o n i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p o i n t e d d i r e c t l y to the p r i v i l e g e s as p r o o f o f t h e i r e q u a l i t y t o S p a n i a r d s  c h a r t e r of  as v a s s a l s of the  Spanish  Crovm, . . . s i n e s t e n d e r Su V a s s a l l a j e a l t r a t a m i e n t o de s i e r v o s , y e s c l a v o s , s i n o a r r e g l a n d o l o a l conque se goviernan y a t i e n d e n a l o s Espanoles en que s o l o l o s d i f e r e n c i a e l c o l o r , como l o mando e l Senor Rey Don C a r l o s Segundo . . . en l a R e a l C e d u l a despachada en Madrid en doze de Marzo de m i l s e i s c i e n t o s y noventa y s i e t e . The  I n d i a n e l i t e p e r c e i v e d the p r o c l a m a t i o n  d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e i r own  s t a t u s and wealth  of I n d i a n s o c i e t y as a whole i n t o a s e r v i l e  as evidence  of the  gradual  as w e l l as o f the ' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n class:  . . . aunque e l a g r a v i o del'itiempo con l a s c a l a m i dades comunes y estado m i s e r a b l e en que ha puesto l a pobreza a n u e s t r a N a c i o n , ha dejado s o l o e s t a r e a l memoria p a r a e l a g r a d e c i m i e n t o , y p a r a r e c u e r d o d e l d o l o r , pues l a s cadenas conque h o n r a con l a s R e a l e s Armas, muchas de l a s casas de l o s P r i n c i p a l e s I n d i o s se conservan en e l R e a l P r i v i l e g i o que guardan l o s i n t e r e z a d o s ; y f u e r a c o s a d i s o n a t e e l que p e r s o n a s t a n recomendables quedassen expuestas a l a t r o p e l l a m i e n t o de q u a l q u i e i n f e r i o r M i n i s t r o de J u s t i c i a , s o l o p o r su moderada d e s c e n c i a , aun no con e l l u s t r e c o r r e s p o n d i e n t e a sus o b l i g a c i o n e s y c a l i d a d e s , i g u a l a n d o l o s l a g e n e r a l i d a d con l o s s i e r v o s , y e s c l a v o s , o l o s l i b e r t i n o s d e s c e n d i e n t e s de e l l o s , debiendo s o l o s e r comprehendidos con l o s E s p a n o l e s , y l o s I n d i o s Nobles y C a v a l l e r o s , con l o s Espanoles C a v a l l e r o s y N o b l e s , por s e r e s t e e l R e a l animo como l o determina l a d i c h a R e a l Cedula en cuya Razon h a b l a n l o s T i t u l o s e n t e r o s de l a nueba R e c o p i l a c i o n d i s t i n t a s , y v a r i a s C e d u l a s R e a l e s , y todos l o s A u t o r e s Regnicolas. The  Indian e l i t e  c o n s i d e r e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s r e f u s a l t o observe  p r i v i l e g e s o f the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o a s p i r a l by which the i n c r e a s i n g s u b o r d i n a t i o n of I n d i a n s o c i e t y t o Spaniards I n d i a n s even more i n c a p a b l e of a s s e r t i n g t h e i r r i g h t s and  consequently  the  effect  rendered more  122  e a s i l y subject to f u r t h e r subjugation.  The only e f f e c t i v e means of stopping  t h i s s p i r a l was, i n the opinion of the Indian e l i t e , the intervention' of the most powerful c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  By gaining the support of the V i c e r o y ,  Council of the Indies and the Crown i t s e l f , the Indian reformers believed they could r e e s t a b l i s h Indian s o c i e t y as an equal and p a r a l l e l counterpart. to Spanish s o c i e t y i n Peru.  In keeping with t h i s b e l i e f , t h e i r pleas f o r  the r e t r a c t i o n of the proclamation of 1724 were aimed at i n t e r r u p t i n g the doivnward s p i r a l through the i n t e r v e n t i o n of V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Again the p r o t e c t o r and even the Viceroy gave t h e o r e t i c a l support to the e l i t e ' s demands.  11  The p r o t e c t o r recommended that the proclamation  be  r e t r a c t e d as f a r as i t applied to Indians, and that the c h a r t e r of p r i v i l e g e s be published.  On 9 May 1724 a V i c e r e g a l decree ordered that the proclamation  be a p p l i e d to Indians only i n so f a r as i t was to Spaniards and that the prov i s i o n s of the numerous decrees granted f o r the Indians' b e n e f i t be upheld. i  The f a i l u r e of t h i s decree to order the p u b l i c a t i o n of the charter served, however, to o f f s e t t h i s apparent v i c t o r y f o r the Indians' cause.  The  administration's f a i l u r e to implement the V i c e r e g a l decree f u r t h e r undermined t h i s v i c t o r y , and caused the Indian e l i t e to address the Viceroy again i n 1724. I n response t o t h i s second appeal, the Viceroy not only r e i t e r a t e d h i s order as to the proclamation's l i m i t a t i o n but adopted a proposal, made by the F i s c a l , to ensure t h a t the Indians could e f f e c t i v e l y exercise t h e i r r i g h t s 13 and p r i v i l e g e s .  Under t h i s proposal, the Viceroy would send information  as t o the Indians' r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s to the Indian Cabildos, or town c o u n c i l s , and request them to present an annual report on the state of Indian  123  s o c i e t y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the enforcement of p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a tion.  On  t h i s o c c a s i o n , the I n d i a n s *  ary "support  appeals  a c h i e v e d much more than the custom-  i n p r i n c i p l e from t h e . V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  from t h e Spanish  The  appeals  a measure which a c t u a l l y encouraged and f a c i l i t a t e d  elicited the  making o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s by a l l s e c t o r s o f Indian s o c i e t y . T h i s one,  slight  success gave some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the I n d i a n  p e r s i s t e n c e i n b e l i e v i n g , d e s p i t e a l l evidence a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f benevolence. f a i t h i n the u l t i m a t e j u s t i c e of t h e Spanish  t o the c o n t r a r y , i n the An unshakeable and  absolute  regime c h a r a c t e r i z e d the  r e f o r m i s t i d e o l o g y from i t s i n c e p t i o n u n t i l i t s death t h r o e s i n the of Tupac Amaru.  Indian  rebellion  I n the 1720's, such a f a i t h had perhaps more p l a u s i b i l i t y  than a t any other time s i n c e not o n l y d i d the p e t i t i o n s o f 1724 real albeit slight i t s own  elite's  secure  c o n c e s s i o n from the V i c e r o y , but the I n d i a n e l i t e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e at the S p a n i s h Court  and  one  acquired  c o u l d thus p e t i t i o n the C o u n c i l  of the I n d i e s and the Crown d i r e c t l y . The  name of t h i s p e r s i s t e n t and able r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was  Morachimo, " c a z i q u e y San E s t e v a n  Vicente  de l o s quatro Pueblos de I n d i o s , S a n t i a g o , Chocope,  d e l V a l l e de Chicama, j u r i s d i c i o n de l a C i u d a d  de  Cao,  Truxillo."  H i s c a r e e r as an advocate of I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s had begun some time b e f o r e L i k e t h e group of I n d i a n p e t i t i o n e r s headed by Saba Capac i n 1711, first  he  1715.  had  sought to g a i n r e d r e s s from the A u d i e n c i a of Lima f o r the u s u r p a t i o n of 14  I n d i a n l a n d s i n h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n by i n t r u d i n g S p a n i a r d s .  When the p r o t e c t o r  r e f u s e d t o present t h e case, Morachimo, a c t i n g as agent f o r the I n d i a n s  of  124  Chicama, then spent  seven y e a r s i n f u t i l e e f f o r t s t o wring  concessions  from  15 the A u d i e n c i a .  F i n a l l y , h a v i n g secured an appointment as p r o c u r a d o r  l o s n a t u r a l e s . from the V i c e r o y Santo Buono, Morachimo was S p a i n i n 1721  t o p r e s e n t the case t o the C o u r t  a b l e t o go t o  i n person. ^ 1  He must have been an a b l e and p e r s i s t e n t advocate, the I n d i e s took a f a v o r a b l e view of the s p e c i f i c i n 1722,  de  s i n c e the C o u n c i l o f  complaints he p r e s e n t e d  and,  ordered t h e A u d i e n c i a t o proceed t o t h e i r " d e s a g r a v i o , " s t a t i n g t h a t  " l a p r i m e r a d i l i g e n c i a a v i a d e s e r p o n e r l o s en p o s e s i o n de l a s t i e r r a s de que 17 se l e s hubiese despojado." R e p e t i t i o n s o f t h i s order i n 1724 and 1725  18  i n d i c a t e t h a t i t had brought  little  i n the way  o f e f f e c t i v e change, d e s p i t e  19 t h r e a t s t o take "una  s e v e r l s s i m a r e s o l u c i 6 n " a g a i n s t the p r o t e c t o r i n v o l v e d .  However, the v e r y f a c t t h a t the o r d e r was Morachimo was  r e p e a t e d i n d i c a t e s how  effective  i n g a i n i n g the ear of the C o u n c i l ,  Morachimo's importance  t r a n s c e n d e d h i s s u c c e s s i n h i s own  cases.  He  was  a l i v i n g example of and gave v a l i d i t y t o the c l a i m , made f r e q u e n t l y . o n paper, of the i d e n t i t y o f the i n t e r e s t s o f the I n d i a n e l i t e and t h e I n d i a n masses. I n the course of h i s advocacy of t h e r i g h t s o f the I n d i a n s under h i s j u r i s -  20 d i c t i o n Morachimo g a i n e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n i n P e r u as a l e a d e r , s e r v i n g as an example t o other c a c i q u e s and members of the Indian' e l i t e how  of  t h e y t o o , by t a k i n g an a c t i v e r o l e i n d e f e n s e o f the' I n d i a n masses, c o u l d  regain t h e i r prestige within Indian society. i n M a d r i d , where he l i v e d u n t i l 1737,  Morachimo's c o n t i n u e d r e s i d e n c e  p r o v i d e d t h e I n d i a n e l i t e ' w i t h an  agent  whose p r o v e n good w i l l and i n f l u e n c e s e r v e d t o f u r t h e r t h e i r cases b e f o r e the C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s .  125  In  December, 1 7 2 4 , f o r example, a group o f p e t i t i o n e r s , headed by  F r a n c i s c o Saba, e n l i s t e d Morachimo's s e r v i c e s i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t t o t h e 21  Crown t h e c o m p l a i n t s made t o V i c e r e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h a t same y e a r ; a s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d i a n s and negroes  The  i n the p r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 4 March, i l l e g a l  assessments made on I n d i a n merchants, and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s f a i l u r e t o p u b l i s h the charter of p r i v i l e g e s .  Among s e v e r a l documents s u p p o r t i n g t h e s e  c l a i m s Morachimo p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Crown the 1 7 0 8 p e t i t i o n o f " L o s N a t u r a l e s de e s t e Reyno" which, he c l a i m e d , had been w i t h h e l d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o whom i t had been e n t r u s t e d : . . . a v i e n d o h a l l a d o en e s t a C o r t e unos Memoriales f i r m a d o s de algunos I n d i o s P r i n c i p a l e s que a v i a n r e m i t i d o a VMgd, s o l i c i t a n d o que l a s honras con que l a c a t h o l i c a p i e d a d de t o d o s l o s Sefiores Reyes, y de VMgd. t e n g a n e l cumplimiento que se debe dar a l o cOnt e n i d o e n l a s Rs.Zedulas, que h a s t a a o r a se han arrimado a l o l v i d o , p o r s e r solamente en f a v o r de a q u e l l o s M i s e r a b l e s V a s a l l o s de VMgd.; Y t e n i e n d o e l sobre encargo de o t r S s Y n d i o s sobre e s t e p a r t i c u l a r , p r e s e n t a a. VMgd e l dho memorial que h a mas de 1 6 anos que ha e s t a d o guardado s i n q u e l a P e r s o n a que se encargo de p r e s s e n t a r l o l o a y a hecho en t a n t o tiempo.22 Morachimo's e f f o r t s reaped b e n e f i t s f o r the I n d i a n e l i t e decree d a t e d 2 8 J a n u a r y  i n the dispatch of a  1725 o r d e r i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n and implementation o f 23  the c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s .  24 In  a p r i n t e d memorial p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Crovm i n 1 7 2 4 ,  demonstrated society. of  Morachimo  h i s commitment t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f v a r i o u s groups w i t h i n I n d i a n  T h i s memorial i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e complaint t h e v a r i o u s s t r a n d s  I n d i a n p r o t e s t r e p r e s e n t e d i n I n d i a n a p p e a l s made up t o t h a t time.  By com-  b i n i n g c o m p l a i n t s o v e r the V i c e r e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s r e f u s a l t o s e t t l e t h e l a n d c l a i m s o f t h e I n d i a n s o f Chicama and o v e r t h e abusive m i t a demands i n t h e  126  province of Loxa w i t h demands f o r the implementation  of the p r i v i l e g e s of  the Indian n o b i l i t y and of the r i g h t s of the urban Indians, t h i s Memorial created a precedent f o r the Indian e l i t e ' s advocacy of the welfare of every sector of Indian s o c i e t y :  r u r a l or urban, noble or common.  Morachimo's p r i n t e d memorial of 1724 i s of equal importance f o r i t s d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of the p r o t e c t i o n of Indian r i g h t s w i t h i n the Spanish system.  Morachimo d e f i n i t i v e l y l i n k e d the question of Indian wel-  fare w i t h the r a d i c a l view of p r o t e c t o r a l i d e a l s .  He a l s o i d e n t i f i e d the pro-  t e c t o r a l system i t s e l f as the prime v e h i c l e through which the Indian r e f o r m i s t s should work to improve the c o n d i t i o n of Indian s o c i e t y . The f o l l o w i n g a s s e r t i o n by Morachimo could e a s i l y have come from the pen of any of the more r a d i c a l sixteenth-century m i s s i o n a r i e s :  "Es tan p e r j u d i c i a l a l o s pobres Indios l a  25 dicha vecindad de Espanoles."  Morachimo a t t r i b u t e d t h i s damage s p e c i f i c a l l y  to a l a c k of p r o t e c t o r s . He i d e n t i f i e d the i d e a l " p r o t e c t o r as a r e l i g i o u s o f f i c i a l with secular power to c o n t r o l the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Spaniards Indians, as exemplified by the J e s u i t curates.  and  This conception of the protector  was, of course, i d e n t i c a l to the one which had, p r i o r to the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of the o f f i c e of p r o t e c t o r , guided the a c t i v i t i e s of the e a r l i e s t r e l i g i o u s protectors. The fact that t h i s concept of the p r o t e c t o r as an o f f i c i a l endowed w i t h dual a u t h o r i t y had been abandoned because i t generated c o n f l i c t s which undermined the Crown's c o l o n i a l i n t e r e s t s apparently went unrecognized by the Indian e l i t e .  I n f a c t , Morachimo's d e s c r i p t i o n of the J e s u i t s , the only  contemporary p r a c t i t i o n e r s of t h i s otherwise obsolete dual a u t h o r i t y , i n d i c a t e s  127  t h a t , on the c o n t r a r y , the I n d i a n e l i t e p e r c e i v e d such d u a l a u t h o r i t y as b e i n g i n t h e Crovm's b e s t  interest:  . . . cada uno de a q u e l l o s curas a t i e n d e a l a c o n s e r v a c i o n de sus F i l i g r e s s e s , procurando en l o s enteros de M i t a s . . . que l o s I n d i o s , que van nuraerados, se entreguen con l a c o n d i c i o n , de que han de b o l v e r precisaraente con sus h i j o s , y mujer, dando s a t i s f a c c i o n e l Azoguero, y M i n e r o s i f a l l e c e algun I n d i o , . . . y f a l t a n d o e s t a c i r c u n s t a n c i a , no se l e s da. o t r o en l u g a r d e l que no b u e l v e a. su c a s a , y con e s t e buen regimen se h a l l a V. Mag. b i e n s e r v i d o , y e l P u e b l o mas a l i v i a d o , y s i n e l menoscabo de t r i b u t a r i e s . 26 The  emphasis p l a c e d by Morachimo on t h e p r o t e c t o r a l system was t o be a  d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e i n t h e d r a f t i n g o f the next the I n d i a n e l i t e t o t h e Crovm i n 1726. t o g e t h e r v/ith t h e d e c r e e s The  g e n e r a l a p p e a l p r e s e n t e d by  Morachimo's p r i n t e d memorial o f 1724,  o f 1725, had been forwarded t o t h e I n d i a n p e t i t i o n e r s .  p r o t e s t e r s i n turn presented  these documents t o t h e V i c e r o y b u t , i n  May, 1726, a d v i s e d Morachimo o f t h e i r f a i l u r e t o secure t h e implementation  of  27 the o r d e r s .  Talcing t h e i r cue from Morachimo's memorial o f 1724 t h e i r  letter  t o him p l a c e d a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e blame f o r t h i s f a i l u r e on t h e p r o t e c t o r ' s lack of interest: Don S a n t i a g o B a r r i e n t o s , a nada s a c a l a c a r a p o r mucho que d e l nos ernes V a l i d o S o l o s i r v e de responder en l a s V i s t a s y eso Con mucha T i b i e s a y contemplacion como l o h i s o e n l a Z e d u l a de honores esto es t e n i e n d o en supoder l a R l C e d u l a que h a b l a con e l enque s o l i s i t e e l d e s a g r a v i o de l o s I n d i o s . I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , i d e n t i f y i n g themselves as "Los I n d i o s Casiques y P r i n c i p a l e s d e l o s Contornos de e s t a Giudad de Lima C o r t e de l o s D i l a t a d o s Reynos d e l Peru,"  and w r i t i n g on b e h a l f o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y as a whole, " n u e s t r a  Pobre humilde y M i s e r a b l e Nacion,"  t h e I n d i a n e l i t e f o r m a l l y addressed t h e  128  Crown i n the p e t i t i o n of 1726 mentioned above.  Adopting a c o l l e c t i v e voice,  they i d e n t i f i e d the interests of a l l Indians with those most oppressed: . . . se hace Impossible, e l poder r e f e r i r los [agravibs] que padecemos corporal y espiritualmente padece e l Guerpo Sr, Las Continuas Tareas aque nos dedican, y s i es'tas' no Cumplimos como Deseamos somos Cprimidos con carseles y asbtes con Argollas y Cadenas enlos S b r a j e s y minas s i n D i s t i n t i b o de l a Noblesa y Plebe de l o s yhdios . . . y l o que mas siente e l Alma es l o poco que se Cuida de los medios para su Salbacion. Like Morachimo, these authors attributed the s o r r y p l i g h t of Indian society primarily to a lack of dedicated protectors:  "Contihuamente teraimos  Biendonqs s i n Protector n i persona que se Dedique como se deve y Vuestra 'Magd. l o tiene Mandado, y dispuesto para atencion de Nras Causas."  According to the  p e t i t i o n e r s , the ineffectiveness of the e x i s t i n g protectors had created a s i t u a t i o n i n which the Crown's benevolent l e g i s l a t i o n served primarily as a pretext for the oppression of Indian society: Siempre nos Vemos abatidos y Mantenidos e l estado que l a malicia, desde l o s primeros Descrubrimientos de l a s Yndias, Nos procuro C o n s t i t u i r , privandonos d e l a Educasion P o l i t i c a , y C i b i l , para Mantenernos en miserable servidumbre de esta, l a R l . munificensia de V. Mag. Accordingly, the Indian e l i t e perceived the Indians' current condition i n terms of the sixteenth-century polemic between r e l i g i o u s and secular interests over the treatment of the Indians.  T h e i r view of the state of Indian subjugation  i n the eighteenth century as f u l f i l l i n g the iirorst fears expressed by the early missionaries i s a common one i n Indian protest, often conveyed by the image of a world i n reverse, where everything serves a purpose opposite" to that which was intended.  129  The  I n d i a n p e t i t i o n e r s of the 1720's gave very h i g h p r i o r i t y t o the  e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g o f the o f f i c e of p r o t e c t o r s i n c e t h e y saw i v e n e s s as the key  i t s effect-  t o the r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y as a f r e e  equal p a r t n e r i n the tv/o " r e p u b l i c s " which c o n s t i t u t e d c o l o n i a l  1  and  Peru.  This  emphasis on the p r o t e c t o r a l o f f i c e l e d the I n d i a n e l i t e t o r e q u e s t i n t h e 1730's t h a t the o f f i c e of p r o t e c t o r be h e l d by I n d i a n s .  The  Indian p r o t e s t s  d i r e c t e d t o the Crown i n the 1720's a l l s t r e s s e d the f a i l u r e o f the' e x i s t i n g p r o t e c t o r s to f u l f i l l  t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s and Morachimo s advocacy of I n d i a n 1  w e l f a r e l e n t c r e d i b i l i t y t o p r o p o s a l s i n the 1 7 3 0 s t h a t I n d i a n s a c t as ,  protectors.  The  o b v i o u s grasp o f H i s p a n i c v a l u e s and l e g a l t h e o r y shown i n  the I n d i a n s ' p r o t e s t s negated what was o f f i c e of p r o t e c t o r t o S p a n i a r d s : pursue t h e i r own The  impact  c o n t i n u e d i n 1732  best  the main reason f o r r e s e r v i n g t h e  the I n d i a n s ' i n a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e  and  interests.  of Morachimo's advocacy of the w e l f a r e o f Indian, s o c i e t y , i n h i s M a n i f i e s t o de l o s agravios,' b e x a c i b n e s , y_ m o l e s t i a s 1  29 que padecen l o s i n d i o s d e l reyno d e l Peru, i n S p a i n of another Vargas,  was  strengthened  by the  arrival  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the P e r u v i a n I n d i a n s , Pedro N i e t o  a former A l c a l d e d e l Crimen o f the A u d i e n c i a of L i m a .  Although  de not  h i m s e l f an I n d i a n , N i e t o had s e r v e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of I n d i a n s i n L i m a 3 throughout  the 1720's, o f t e n f o r w a r d i n g t h e i r c a s e s to the Crovm v i a Morachimo.  I n S p a i n as "Diputado de l o s I n d i o s d e l Reyno d e l Peru" between 1732  and  1734  Pedro N i e t o wrote a memorial t o the Crovm d e s c r i b i n g w i t h the most c a l c u l a t e d understatement he  c o u l d manage the I n d i a n s ' f e a r t h a t the benevolent  decrees  i s s u e d a t Morachimo's behest had s u f f e r e d the same f a t e as e a r l i e r r o y a l o r d e r s :  130  . . . l e s d i c t a l a e x p e r i e n c i a un j u s t o r e z e l o de l a d u r a c i o n de s u s a g r a v i o s , p e l i g r a n d o e l R e a l j u s t i f i c a d o i n t e n t o de V. Mag. en t a n inmensas d i s t a n c i a s , de t a n t o p i e l a g o , que hacen m i t i g a r en l o s e x e c u t o r e s , e l a r d o r f e r v o r o s o de l a s Reales d e t e r m i n a c i o n e s de V. Mag. y a porque f o r z a n d o l a s l a n e c e s s i d a d a p a s s a r p o r t a n v a r i o s , y e s t r a n o s conductos p a r a s u execucion, p i e r d e n l a pureza de s u dichoso o r i g e n ; y a p o r padecer n a t u r a l mente l a s c o s a s no pequeno v i c i o , quando no es f a c i l acordar, y u n i r l a i n f l u e n c i a a l a p r o d u c c i o n . No es este nuevo pensamiento d e l S u p l i c a n t e , quando l o t i e n e e x e c u t o r i a d o e l tiempo, p o r medio de r e p e t i d a s  demostraciones.31  T h i s p o i n t , however, i s merely  the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o N i e t o ' s main argument:  the n e c e s s i t y o f I n d i a n s a c t i n g as t h e i r own p r o t e c t o r s .  N i e t o p o i n t e d out  t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had begun a p p o i n t i n g u n o f f i c i a l defenders from amongst  their  own r a n k s as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f Morachimo's s u c c e s s .  that  He f u r t h e r argued  the I n d i a n s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o occupy t h e o f f i c e o f p r o t e c t o r , coupled w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e a b i l i t i e s and e d u c a t i o n o f many n o b l e I n d i a n s , made the c o n t i n u e d employment o f S p a n i s h p r o t e c t o r s unnecessary: Oy, Senor, se h a l l a n a q u e l l o s N a t u r a l e s r e d u c i d o s a v i d a p o l i t i c a , y s o c i a b l e , cuyo d e f e c t o , p o r l a s y a d i c h a s Ordenanzas d e l ano passado de 1575 (tiempo en que aun duraban a q u e l l a s c o n q u i s t a s ) se l e s pudo haver negado e s t e consuelo; pues como personas rudas, y barbaras, d i f i c i l e s de r e d u c i r a l a s o c i e d a d de l a s gentes, t e n i a n l a i n e p t i t u d b a s t a n t e p a r a d a r l e s Curadores, y Defensores; cuya razon enteramente, f a l t a en l o s tiempo p r e s e n t e , en que de a q u e l l o s N a t u r a l e s ay sugetos a p l i c a d o s a l a J u r i s p r u d e n c i a , y demas f a c u l t a d e s , y c i e n c i a s , e i n s t r u i d o s en sus l e y e s m u n i c i p a l e s , costumbres, y p r a c t i c a s de a q u e l l o s Juzgados. N i e t o ' s arguments were r e f e r r e d f o r an o p i n i o n t o t h e F i s c a l o f t h e C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s who r e p o r t e d t h a t I n d i a n s were indeed e l i g i b l e f o r appointment as " d e f e n s o r e s p a r t i c u l a r e s de l a s ciudades, v i l l a s y l u g a r e s de aquel Reyno," but n o t as g e n e r a l p r o t e c t o r s a t t h e A u d i e n c i a l e v e l .  This  131  o p i n i o n was  e v i d e n t l y communicated i n some way  formed the b a s i s of at l e a s t one position  Indian's  t o the I n d i a n s  request  i n Peru, f o r i t  f o r appointment to  the  of p r o t e c t o r .  T h i s request  was  made i n a p e t i t i o n p r e s e n t e d  by Morachimo i n 1737  on  34 behalf  of H i l a r i o G a r c i a L l a g l l a .  f o r the way  The p e t i t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n which i t h i g h l i g h t s the I n d i a n  r o l e as a means of r e g a i n i n g the p r e s t i g e due claimed  G a r c i a L l a g l l a i n view o f the n o b i l i t y and out G a r c i a L l a g l l a ' s r i g h t  presented  Garcia,  who  The  the very l e a s t  p e t i t i o n made i t reward due  s e r v i c e s of h i s a n c e s t o r s .  t o a mayorazgo and a c a c i q u e s h i p ,  the g r a n t i n g of the p o s i t i o n  to By  the  first petition  of p r o t e c t o r as a minor c o n c e s s i o n  or  through which the Crown c o u l d demonstrate i t s g r a t i t u d e f o r s e r v i c e s  rendered.  G a r c i a L l a g l l a claimed  his ancestors spite  t o them as n o b l e s .  I n d i a n noble.  q u i t e c l e a r that the o f f i c e of p r o t e c t o r was  gesture  e l i t e ' s view o f the p r o t e c t o r a l  t o be a descendant of Thopa Inga Yupanqui and Huaynacapac, appears to  have been the epitome of the d i s p o s s e s s e d  setting  interesting  treatment by S p a n i a r d s had  t o abandon a mayorazgo granted  of t h i s m i s f o r t u n e  obtain a caciqueship The  that i l l  h i s f a m i l y , having  forced  t o them i n Cuzco by C h a r l e s V. f l e d to Chucuito,  had managed t o  which h i s f a t h e r e x e r c i s e d a t the time of the  p e t i t i o n c l e a r l y demonstrates, however, t h a t G a r c i a  petition.  Llaglla's  a s p i r a t i o n s t o the o f f i c e of p r o t e c t o r were determined, t o some extent by the s a l a r y i t c a r r i e d . was  "exerciendo  mas  galardon  The  tener a l o s Indios."  at  least,  p e t i t i o n boasted that G a r c i a L l a g l l a ' s ' f a t h e r  e l cargo de C a z i q u e Governador y A l c a l d e O r d i r i a r i o . . .  n i s a l a r i o que  su a p l i c a z i o n  Such a l t r u i s m may  por  In  sin  s o l o fomentar p a t r o c i n a r y rhan-  not, however, have been a l t o g e t h e r  132  voluntary post  and the p e t i t i o n , by r e q u e s t i n g  of "Protector  otros Protectores  de  los naturales  han  tenido,"  t h a t G a r c i a L l a g l l a be g i v e n  de d i c h a p r o v i h c i a con' e l ' s a l a r i o  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t he had  of f o l l o w i n g i n h i s f a t h e r ' s f o o t s t e p s i n t h i s  the que  no i n t e n t i o n  regard.  S i n c e t h i s p e t i t i o n c l e a r l y f e l l w i t h i n the bounds of the' F i s c a l ' s opinion sanctioning  the appointment of I n d i a n s as p r o t e c t o r s on a l o c a l  the C o u n c i l of the I n d i e s r e f e r r e d i t t o the A u d i e n c i a The  fact  Indian  of L i m a f o r r e s o l u t i o n .  t h a t most r e f e r r a l s of t h i s s o r t r e s u l t e d i n l i t t l e  appellants, together  with l a t e r Indian  level,  references  b e n e f i t to  t o the  the  Audiencia's  f a i l u r e t o implement the recommendation t h a t I n d i a n s be a p p o i n t e d p r o t e c t o r s , i n d i c a t e t h a t , not  o n l y was  G a r c i a L l a g l l a p r o b a b l y denied the o p p o r t u n i t y  s e r v i n g as p r o t e c t o r , but t h a t the F i s c a l ' s recommendation i n f a v o r of s e r v i n g as p r o t e c t o r s was however, p r o v i d e  proof  never put  into practice.  Garcia's  Indians  p e t i t i o n does,  t h a t at l e a s t some members of the I n d i a n  attempt t o improve t h e i r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g by  of  elite  did  s e r v i n g i n p o s i t i o n s such as  that  of p r o t e c t o r . N i e t o de V a r g a s ' memorial, q u i t e apart the I n d i a n s ' served  from the c o n t r i b u t i o n i t made to  attempts t o take a more a c t i v e p a r t  to strengthen  protection,  the I n d i a n r e f o r m movement's r e l i a n c e i n i t s a b s t r a c t  argument upon s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i t e r a t e d not only the  i n t h e i r own  protectoral theories.  e l i t e ' s dependence on the  Nieto's  arguments r e -  c h a r t e r of p r i v i l e g e s as  evidence of the Crown's benevolent i n t e n t toward the I n d i a n  n o b i l i t y but  also  t h e i r c l a i m t h a t the m i s a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d a prime cause of the  depressed s t a t e o f I n d i a n  society.  At  the  same time  Nieto  133  c a r r i e d the a s s o c i a t i o n between I n d i a n reform and r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s f u r t h e r t h a n any e a r l i e r appeal had  ideals  done.  N i e t o a t t r i b u t e d the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f the Crown's p r o t e c t o r a l t i o n t o the temporal  legisla-  i n t e r e s t s o f the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n so d o i n g he  s e t up a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the advocates and abusers o f p r o t e c t o r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , c o n t r a s t i n g the r e l i g i o u s i d e a l i s m of the former t o the s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f the  irreligious  latter:  . . . pues no ay c l a u s u l a en sus R e a l e s d e t e r m i n a c i o n e s , que no r e s p i r e amor, compassion, y p i e d a d , y que no l e s iraponga en nuevo v a s s a l l a g e , passando a e s c l a v i t u d s u r e c o n o c i m i e n t o ; pero l o s M i n i s t r o s , que son l o s conductos por donde se d i r i g e n l a s piedades de V. Mag. se c o n v i e r t e n en a r c a d u c e s , que v i c i a n sus Reales i n t e n t o s ; pues no ay Decreto que mire a l a c o n s e r v a c i o n de l o s N a t u r a l e s ; que no sea motivo p a r a su:,mayor r u i n a , c o n v i r t i e n d o l o sagrado en l o s a c r i l e g o de sus i n j u s t a s o p e r a c i o n e s : p r o v i n i e n d o e s t a i n j u r i a de l a l u z d e l oro, que deslumbra l a s i n t e n c i o n e s mas j u s t a s . 36 I n t h e s e l i n e s N i e t o suggests an a p o c a l y p t i c image of the w o r l d i n r e v e r s e which i s q u i t e i n tune w i t h the r a d i c a l r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f t h a t se'cular s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t e d the f u l f i l l m e n t o f the d i s a s t e r s p r o p h e s i e d t h r o u g h the B i b l i c a l Babylon. N i e t o emphasized t h a t S p a i n ' s m i s s i o n a r y r o l e p r o v i d e d the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the I n d i a n s ' v o l u n t a r y submission t o the Spanish Crown. t o h i s t o r y as w i t n e s s t o the f a c t  referred  t h a t Spain's r u l e i n Peru f e l l f a r s h o r t of  f u l f i l l i n g the o b l i g a t i o n s e n t r u s t e d t o the S p a n i s h Crown: Mag.  He  "...  hallara  V.  en sus C h r o n i c a s , que no t u v i e r o n l e v e motivo l a s Plumas e s t r a n g e r a s , p a r a  a f e a r en n u e s t r a N a c i o n una de l a s f a c c i o n e s mas  f l o r i o s a s , que aclama e l  37 u n i v e r s o e n t r e sus  .rdescubrimientos.'  1  Furthermore  of e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s and p r o t e c t o r a l advocates  he i n v o k e d the t e s t i m o n y  t o support t h i s a c c u s a t i o n :  134  . . merecio l a l a s t i m a de l o s mas doctos, s a b i o s , y p i a d o s o s E s c r i t o r e s , que t o c a r o n con l a misma e x p e r i e n c i a , y mas i n m e d i a c i o n l a s  expresadas  •zO  vexaciones, y agravios."  I n t h i s way N i e t o drew an analogy between t h e  s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o l e m i c over I n d i a n w e l f a r e and the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I n d i a n reform movement, an analogy which was supported not o n l y by a s i m i l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f the p r o t e c t o r a l system, but a l s o by i n c r e a s i n g l y  similar  t h e o r e t i c a l arguments. N i e t o argued  f o r reform i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s as a  necessary measure t o f u l f i l l S p a i n ' s d i v i n e l y appointed m i s s i o n i n America, d e s c r i b i n g t h a t m i s s i o n i n terms r e m i n i s c e n t o f the p r o p h e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of S p a i n as the chosen n a t i o n o f t h e New Testament: Y aun f u e n o t a b l e o b s e r v a c i o n de mas e r u d i t a Pluma, que l a g l o r i a de e s t a hazana* f u e p a r t i c u l a r cuidado de l a D i y i n a P r o v i d e n c i a , r e s e r v a r l a a l o s augustos p r e d e c e s s o r e s de V. Mag. y a l a Nacion Espanola; porque s i a q u e l d'esc u b r i m i e n t o l o emprendiera o t r a N a c i o n , estaba expuesto a p e l i g r o s a s , y mayores c o n t i n g e n c i a s ; b l a e x e c u t i o n , por l a r e m i s s i o n de l o s C o n q u i s t a d o r e s , 6 l a F e , p o r l o s e r r o r e s de s u s Sectas; y p a r a que e s t o se obrasse p o r Nacion igualmente v a l e r p s a , que C a t h o l i c a , e r a n e c e s s a r i o f u e s s e p o r l a Espanola, que en l a s s i n c e r i d a d e s l a de R e l i g i o n c o n s e r v a su p u r e z a . De l a s o t r a s Naciones, Unas por r e m i s s a s , y de menos a r d i m i e n t o , y o t r a s p o r menos puras en l a F e , se p u d i e r a temer e l e f e c t o , que D'ios p r e t e n d i a en e s t a c o n q u i s t a : Espana j u n t a b a e l v a l o r , y l a c o n s t a n c i a con l a p u r e z a de sus Dogmas; que mucho que f u e s s e l a escogida?39 N i e t o ' s a l l u s i o n s t o the p u r i t y o f S p a i n ' s r e l i g i o n b r i n g t o mind t h e r e f o r m i s t o r i e n t a t i o n o f the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s .  This association i s reinforced  by t h e w r i t e r ' s use o f the image o f Columbus s e e k i n g support f o r h i s s p i r i t u a l v i s i o n o f t h e New W o r l d and f i n d i n g i t only i n Spain: P a r a cuyo pensamiento, Senor, nos da. no se s i s u p e r i o r , o m y s t e r i o s o motivo l o s mismos i n t e n t o s d e l s u c c e s s o :  135  pues c o n s t a , que C h r i s t o v a l Colon anduvo peregrinando por t a n t a s , y t a n v a r i a s Naciones, y Reynos buscando quien l e ayudasse . • ••• y s o l a Espana! pudo cooperar a ella.40 By employing these a s s o c i a t i o n s t o support reform,  h i s arguments f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  N i e t o seems t o be a s s i g n i n g to Spain t h e d u a l r e l i g i o u s r o l e  f o r h e r by the r a d i c a l m i s s i o n a r i e s : and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  envisioned  the c o n v e r s i o n of t h e American n a t i v e s  o f a p r i s t i n e form of C h r i s t i a n i t y as the  ruling  p r i n c i p l e of c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y . The  various Indian p r o t e s t s presented  t o the Crown throughWie'ente  Morachimo and N i e t o de Vargas l a i d the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the development of the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t i d e o l o g y throughout the these  1740's.  The  dependence o f  e a r l y p r o t e s t s on the c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s as a b a s i s f o r both^the  freedom of the I n d i a n masses and  the p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s o f the I n d i a n  committed the I n d i a n p r o t e s t e r s t o a l o y a l i s t p o s i t i o n towards the Monarchy.  T h i s l o y a l i s m was  maintained  elite  Spanish  through the e l i t e ' s c o n t i n u i n g use  of  the p r o t e c t o r a l system as a means of e l i c i t i n g r e f o r m i s t measures. The  p r o t e c t o r a l system was,  e l i t e ' s sponsorship  however, a p a r a d o x i c a l v e h i c l e f o r the  of I n d i a n w e l f a r e .  S i n c e t h e i r very e f f o r t s t o  t h e i r f e l l o w I n d i a n s a g a i n s t abuses of power d i r e c t l y negated the  defend  legal  d e f i n i t i o n of I n d i a n s as minors, i n c a p a b l e of r e c o g n i z i n g and p u r s u i n g own  b e s t i n t e r e s t s , t h e e l i t e ' s advocacy of I n d i a n w e l f a r e s i g n a l l e d  obsolescence  their  the  of the whole'j.protectoral system based on t h i s d e f i n i t i o n .  e l i t e ' s d e d i c a t i o n t o working t h r o u g h the p r o t e c t o r a l system can only e x p l a i n e d as one  The be  o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . Through the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the  p r o t e c t o r a l system, t h e I n d i a n e l i t e c o u l d ensure the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f I n d i a n  136  s o c i e t y as separate  and p a r a l l e l t o Spanish  s o c i e t y i n P e r u and, w i t h i n  t h i s s e p a r a t e s o c i e t y , the p e r p e t u a t i o n of t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e r a t i f i e d by Spanish  law.  This structure assured  the e l i t e ' s monopoly o f  the' p r i v i l e g e s and i n f l u e n c e which c o u l d be d e r i v e d through t h e i r of the r o l e of i n t e r m e d i a r y between the two s o c i e t i e s . attempting  The e l i t e  t o r e e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f i n that r o l e d u r i n g the  by c l a i m i n g t o r e p r e s e n t and e x p r e s s whole.  1  occupation was  1720's and 1730's  the i n t e r e s t s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y as a  137  NOTES  CHAPTER TV  There i s no adequate study  o f urban I n d i a n s o c i e t y and the f o l l o w i n g  d e s c r i p t i o n i s based l a r g e l y on i n f e r e n c e s made from I n d i a n p r o t e s t documents and from t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d un estamento s o c i a l ignorado  by E m i l i o H a r t h - t e r r e i n Negros e_ i n d i o s —  d e l Peru c o l o n i a l  (Lima, 1973), as w e l l as on  the comments made by Karen S p a l d i n g i n De i n d i o a campesino (Lima:  Instituto  de E s t u d i o s peruanos, 1974), pp. 173-l83» and Vargas U g a r t e , " ' H i s t o r i a g e n e r a l del Peru,  IV, 253-256.  2 A c c o r d i n g t o a l e t t e r t o t h e V i c e r o y forwarded tb-. the Crown by N i e t o de Vargas, f i v e c a c i q u e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e author, s e l v e s imprisoned  i n Lima as a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g  excessive repartimientos. AGI  (Lima 495).  Ciudad,  J o s e Choquihuanca, found  them-  attempted t o g a i n r e d r e s s a g a i n s t  L e t t e r o f Jos§ Choquihuanca t o V i c e r o y , 6 S e p t . 1727,  " L o s Casiques P r i n c i p a l e s y Governadores d e l o s Terminos de e s t a  p o r s i y en Nombre d e l comun de I n d i o s e x i s t e n t e s en e l l a " noted " l a  f a c i l i d a d que se p r i e n d e n a. l o s y n d i o s que Vayan a p e d i r J u s t i c i a , de l o s a g r a v i o s y E x t o r c i o n e s que padecen de C o r r e x i d o r e s y de s u s T h e n i e n t e s ,  y estas  p r i c i o n e s se executan p o r medio de agentes y apoderados de dhos C o r r e g i d o r e s . " Signed  copy, dated 6 September 1727 ,/bf p e t i t i o n o r i g i n a l l y d i r e c t e d t o t h e  V i c e r o y on 23 December 1726, AGI (Lima  495).  ^ P e t i t i o n t o Crovm [1708], AGI (Lima 438).  Her'e'after c i t e d as p e t i t i o n  of 1708, the s i g n a t o r i e s o f t h i s p e t i t i o n were F r a n c i s c o E s t e b a n  Montero,  138  C r i s t o b a l Asmare, P a b l o de l a C r u z , Pedro V a l e n t i n , F r a n c i s c o Chuqui  paucar  A t a u c h i Ynga, F e l i p e Y s i d o r o C o l q u i r u n a , Juan B a u t i s t a Cinchigu'aman  [Lorenzo?]  Avendano,. Copy o f p e t i t i o n t o V i c e r o y [October, c i t e d as p e t i t i o n o f 1711,  1711]»  i t s s i g n a t o r i e s were:  AGI (Lima  495).  Hereafter  Domingo Chayguac,  Francisco  P a u l l i Chumbi Saba Capac Inga, L a z a r o Poma Inga, Juan C a r l o s A c a s i o , Bartholome R o d r i g u e z Apoalaya, F r a n c i s c o Chuqui paucar, S a l v a d o r Puycon, Juan Navarro, Joseph A n a s t a c i o Pacheco, Juan Poma Inga, N i c o l a s G a l i n d o , Juan Gonzales  Cargua  Paucar, A n t o n i o Gomes V i l c a Guaman. Copy o f p e t i t i o n t o V i c e r o y [between (Lima 495).  15  March and  H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as p e t i t i o n o f 1724,  Saba Capac Inga, J u a n Ucho Inga T i t o Yupanqui,  1  April  1724],  AGI  i t s s i g n a t o r i e s were F r a n c i s c o  Joseph de l a Cueva T i t o  Inga, V e n t u r a Songo C a s i G u a l p a , P a s q u a l Casaamusa y S a n t i l l a n , Pedro  Guascar  Panta  Chumbe, S e b a s t i a n de l o s Reyes, S a l v a d o r Puycon, Lorenzo de Abendafio, C a r l o s A c a s i o , Joseph de C a s t r o , J a z i n t o Chumbi, B i a s C a l d e r o n , R o d r i g o Gago, Alcmzo Condor Poma, Ramon de l a Rosa. P e t i t i o n t o Crown, 13 May 1726, p e t i t i o n o f 1726,  AGI (Lima 495).  H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as  i t was s i g n e d by Joseph T i b u r s i o P a r r a l Chimo Capac L i g u a  Geoquel, F r a n c i s c o A t u n Apo Cuismango Saba Capac Ynga, L o r e n z o de Avendano, Domingo Chayguac,  Andres d e l Peso C a r b a j a l Caxa P a i c a , S a l v a d o r P u i c o n .  ^ P e t i t i o n o f 1708. ^ I am q u o t i n g from the f i r s t  p r i n t e d e d i t i o n o f t h i s decree  (I766)  r e p r i n t e d i n Ruben V a r g a s U g a r t e , Impresos peruanos p u b l i c a d o s en e l e x t r a n j e r o , B i b l i o t e c a peruana, V I (Lima,  1949), 127.  139 The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n " R e a l C e d u l a que se c o n s i d e r e a l o s d e s c e n d i e n t e s de c a c i q u e s como n o b l e s en su r a z a , " Madrid, 26 ed. R i c h a r d  7  can be found i n  Konetzke, , C o l e c c i 6 n de document os p a r a l a h i s t o r i a de l a  (1493-1810)  f o r m a c i 6 n s o c i a l de Hispanoamerica 6  March 1697,  P e t i t i o n of  (Madrid,  1953),  III,  67.  1711.  Quoted i n p e t i t i o n of  1711.  g Copy of o p i n i o n o f p r o t e c t o r E z e i z a , r e n d e r e d i n Lima, 26 AGI  (Lima 9  October  1711,  4-95).  Copy of r e a l c e d u l a of 31  March 1722,  AGI  (Lima 495).  S i n c e I have  been u n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y p r e c i s e l y the appeals t o which t h i s decree r e f e r s , d e s c r i p t i o n of them i s based on the r e f e r e n c e s i n the decree I n P e t i t i o n of I  1724,  I  12  itself.  1724.  Copy o f o p i n i o n o f the p r o t e c t o r , B a r r i e n t o s , r e n d e r e d i n Lima 27  AGI  (Lima  my  April  495).  Copy o f memorial t o V i c e r o y , 27  June 1724,  AGI  (Lima  495).  13 Copy o f V i c e r e g a l decree, 17 rendered i n Lima 3 J u l y 1724,  AGI  J u l y 1724.  (Lima  Copy o f o p i n i o n o f F i s c a l  495).  14 V i c e n t e Morachimo, Seflor, Don V i c e n t e Morachimo, C a z i q u e de l o s quatro pueblos de I n d i o s , S a n t i a g o , Chocope, Cao, y_ San Estevan d e l V a l l e de Chicama, j u r i s d i c i o n de l a C i u d a d de T r u x i l l o , Reyno d e l Peru, por s i , y_ por l o s r e f e r i d o s quatro P u e b l o s , de que f u e nombrado Procurador p o r e l V i r r e y , a l o s R e a l e s p i e s de V. Mag,  dice:  puesto  Que v i e n e quatro m i l l e g u a s de a q u i , no  t a n t o p o r su p r o p r i o i n t e r e s , quanto por h a c e r p r e s e n t e a V. Mag,  e l desamparo  t o t a l de l o s m i s e r a b l e s I n d i o s , y_ l a t y r a n i a con que generalmente  son t r a t a d o s  de todos l o s M i n i s t r o s Espafloles, y_ en e s p e c i a l de l o s V i s i t a d o r e s [ M a d r i d ,  1722],  140  5pp., AGI (Lima 437), h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Morachimo, 1722. 15 J  Morachimo, 1722, p. 5.  l6 17  Morachimo, 1722, p. 1. Copy of i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the A u d i e n c i a o f Lima f o r t h e r e d r e s s o f  g r i e v a n c e s over t h e u s u r p a t i o n o f I n d i a n l a n d s , 1722, AGI (Lima 437). 18 I n s t r u c t i o n s " P a r a Despachar  un memorial  de Dn. V i z e n t e Morachimo"  [1724], AGI (Lima 4 3 8 ) . Copy o f r e a l c e d u l a i s s u e d 27 January 1725, AGI (Lima 495). 19 20  Copy of r e a l c e d u l a , 27 January 1725. F o r i n s t a n c e B i a s Caxiamarca Condor Guanca wrote  t o Morachimo on  7 March 1757, s a y i n g t h a t he had seen many l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Morachimo t o h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s i n Peru and had d e c i d e d t o take advantage i n f l u e n c e t o p r e s e n t h i s own c a s e .  L e t t e r i n AGI (Lima 4 9 5 ) .  numerous s i m i l a r l e t t e r s by I n d i a n s t o Morachimo i n t h i s  o f Morachimo's There a r e  location.  21 L e t t e r t o Morachimo, 12 May 1726, AGI (Lima 495), s i g n e d by F r a n c i s c o Atun Apo Saba Capac Ynga, Joseph T i b u r s i o Chimo Capac Geoquel, Lorenzo de Avendaflo, S a l v a d o r P u i c o n , [ i n d e c i p h e r a b l e ]  Guaraca.  22  23 24  L e t t e r from Morachimo t o Crovm, AGI (Lima 438).  [January 1725].  Copy o f r e a l c S d u l a i s s u e d 28 January 1725, AGI (Lima 495). V i c e n t e Morachimo, Senor, Don V i c e n t e Mora Chimo Capac, Cacique  p r i n c i p a l de l o s P u e b l o s de I n d i o s S a n t i a g o , San Pedro, y_ San Pablo de Chocope, Santa M a r i a Magdalena de Cao, y San Estevan, en e l V a l l e de Chicama, San Salvado de Manciche, y_ P u e r t o de Guanchaco, todos de l a J u r i s d i c i o n de l a Ciudad de T r u x i l l o , y_ P r o c u r a d o r G e n e r a l de s u s N a t u r a l e s , por nombramiento d e l G o v i e r n o s u p e r i o r d e l Reyno d e l Peru, usando de l a f a c u l t a d de e s t e t i t u l o , p o r s i , y_ en  141  nombre de dichos I n d i o s , se pone a l o s Reynos e l afLo de 1721, a pedir j u s t i c i a contra Don Pedro de Alsamora, V i s i t a d o r de T i e r r a s [Madrid, 1724], 6 pp., hereafter c i t e d as Morachimo, 1724, 2  ^ Morachimo, 1724, p, 4v.  26  Morachimo, 1724, p. 4v. 27  ' L e t t e r t o Morachimo, 12 May 1726, AGI (Lima 495). 2 8  P e t i t i o n of 1726.  29 Vicente Mora Chimo Capac, Manifiesto de l o s agravios, bexaciones y_ molestias que padecen l o s i n d i o s d e l reyno d e l Peru, dedicado a l o s seflores de e l r e a l , y_ supremo consejo y_ camara de I n d i a s .  Por e l procurador, y_ diputado  general de dichos i n d i o s [Madrid, 1752], 30 Morachimo, 1724, p. 1. ^  Pedro Nieto de Vargas, SeSor.  Don Pedro Nieto de Vargas, Diputado de  l o s I n d i o s d e l Reyno d e l Peru, en v i r t u d de sus Poderes Generales, felizmente exaltado baxo de l o s Reales p i e s de V. Mag, d i c e ;  Que por e l ago passado de  1732. expuso a l a docta, y_ j u s t i f i c a d a censura de l o s M i n i s t r o s de V. Mag, en su Real Consejo de l a s Indias, un breve resumen de l o s agravios, que padecian l o s I n d i o s de aquellas P r o v i n c i a s [Madrid, 1734], p. 1.  As i t s t i t l e i n d i c a t e s  t h i s document was p r i n t e d as a follov/-up t o the presentation made by Nieto de Vargas t o the Consejo de Indias i n 1732.  This f a c t , together with other i n t e r n a l  evidence, i n d i c a t e s that the p r i n t e d memorial contains the same arguments as Nieto made t o the Consejo i n 1732. J  Nieto, p. 4v.  ^  F i s c a l ' s opinion rendered i n Madrid, 3 November 1732, AGI (Lima 440).  ^  P e t i t i o n of H i l a r i o G a r c i a L l a g l l a , AGI (Lima 441).  142  35 ^  37 38 J  39  " R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n " i n C a l i x t o , p. 21; N i e t o , p.  2.  N i e t o , p. l v , N i e t o , p.  2v.  N i e t o , p. l v .  40 N i e t o , p. l v .  N i e t o , p.  1.  143  CHAPTER V  The Representaci6n verdadera  R a d i c a l Reform:  While the 1 7 3 0 ' s saw the development o f an I n d i a n p r o t e s t movement i n which t h e I n d i a n e l i t e took a l e a d i n g r o l e , p e t i t i o n i n g t h e Spanish Crown i n r e s t r a i n e d and s u p p l i c a n t t o n e s , t h e 1 7 4 0 ' s w i t n e s s e d a number o f new d e v e l o p ments i n t h e reform movement.  While i t r e t a i n e d the same g o a l s , i t developed  a more coherent p l a n f o r a c h i e v i n g i t s aims.  The movement adopted a more  r a d i c a l tone and language t o e x p r e s s i t s i n c r e a s i n g d i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e existing administration.  At t h e same time t h e movement g a i n e d a new l e a d e r ,  F r . C a l i x t o Tupac I n g a . F r , C a l i x t o was d e s t i n e d t o p l a y , i n t h e p r o t e s t movement o f t h e 1740»s, much t h e same r o l e as Morachimo had p l a y e d i n t h e 1720"s and 1730*s. F r . C a l i x t o claimed t o be a d i r e c t descendant  A mestizo,  o f Tupac I n g a Yupanqui and he was  a c c e p t e d as such by t h e c a c i q u e s as w e l l as by Spaniards and C r e o l e s .  He had  come t o Lima as e a r l y as 1727 when he was a d m i t t e d t o the F r a n c i s c a n Order i n the low rank o f a "donate." Peru a s a m i s s i o n a r y .  From 1736 onwards, he t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n  T h i s e x p e r i e n c e gave him ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o e v a l u a t e  at f i r s t hand the p l i g h t o f r u r a l I n d i a n s throughout P e r u .  1  He a l s o had  p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which prevented t h e I n d i a n e l i t e from e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r n o b l e p r e r o g a t i v e s . A l t h o u g h the c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t noble I n d i a n s s h o u l d be allovred t o e n t e r the c l e r g y and be o r d a i n e d as p r i e s t s , t h e F r a n c i s c a n Order r e f u s e d t o promote F r . C a l i x t o  beyond the rank of donate, a p o s i t i o n which p r o h i b i t e d him  from s e r v i n g as  2 a priest.  These circumstances  p l a c e d F r . C a l i x t o i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n  to r e p r e s e n t both the i n t e r e s t s o f the I n d i a n masses and t h o s e o f the e l i t e and h i s a c t i v i t i e s advocate o f Fr. I n 17^4  demonstrate that he was  dedicated  reform.  C a l i x t o s c a r e e r as an I n d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e began almost by  chance.  1  the F r a n c i s c a n Order i n P e r u s e l e c t e d him  Mufioz, Commissary o f the m i s s i o n s  r e b e l l i o n of Juan S a n t o s .  The  t o accompany F r . Jose G i l  o f Cerro de l a S a l , on h i s journey t o  i n order to plead f o r greater support  of these  an able and  Indian  f o r the m i s s i o n s t h r e a t e n e d by  I n d i a n C a b i l d o of Lima saw  Spain  the  i n the appointment  envoys the o p p o r t u n i t y t o have I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d  i n Spain  by i n d i v i d u a l s whose s t a t u s as m i s s i o n a r i e s guaranteed them a h e a r i n g by C o u n c i l of the I n d i e s . Fr.  The  I n d i a n C a b i l d o gave o f f i c i a l a u t h o r i t y t o  the  both  C a l i x t o and F r . J o s e G i l t o p r e s e n t on i t s b e h a l f y e t another p e t i t i o n f o r  If the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s . e r r o r i n n a v i g a t i o n and two  As i t happened an  unfortunate  the subsequent i l l h e a l t h of F r . J o s e G i l f o r c e d the  f r i a r s t o remain in'Guatemala and they never managed t o p r e s e n t the On h i s r e t u r n t o Peru, F r . C a l i x t o renewed h i s c o n t a c t w i t h the  C a b i l d o of Lima and  Indian  continued to maintain t h i s contact e i t h e r p e r s o n a l l y or,  when h i s work took him de San A n t o n i o . ^  petition.  away from Lima, through h i s f e l l o w F r a n c i s c a n , F r . Juan  F r . C a l i x t o was  i n Lima i n 1748  honor o f the c o r o n a t i o n of F e r d i n a n d V I .  The  d u r i n g the f e s t i v i t i e s  c o r o n a t i o n of a new  would i n e v i t a b l y b r i n g about t h o u g h t s of i n n o v a t i o n and r e f o r m  Monarch  and two  specific  events prompted the I n d i a n e l i t e o f Lima to g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o possibility  of renewing t h e i r a p p e a l s  to the Crown.  in  the  145  On one hand t h e I n d i a n s had p l a y e d a prominent  part i n the c e l e b r a t i o n s  i n L i m a o f the c o r o n a t i o n and t h e d i s p l a y which t h e I n d i a n n o b l e s had made i n the c e r e m o n i a l p r o c e s s i o n e v i d e n t l y renewed t h e i r p r i d e i n t h e i r dependence on t h e Crown: Serlor, e s t a l e a l t a d se prob6, segunda vez, en e l afio de 1748, en l a s p l a u s i b l e s f i e s t a s que en l a Ciudad de l o s Reyes, C o r t e d e l P e r u , h i c i e r o n v u e s t r o s i n d i o s , en l o s d i a s 21 y 22 de F e b r e r o . . . se l l e v a r o n e l p r i m e r l u g a r en l a p u b l i c a aclamaci6n no v u l g a r y p o p u l a r s6lo, s i n o muy c i e r t a , d i s c r e t a y c r i t i c a ; de que . . . f u e r o n l o s mas p l a u s i b l e s , l u c i d a s , a l e g r e s , grandes, majestuosas, augustas, r e a l e s , pomposas, h e r o i c a s suntuosas y magni f i c a s que se han v i s t o en e s t o s dos s i g l o s ; y que quedaron a t r a s a d a s no s6lo .las pasadas y p r e s e n t e que v u e s t r o s v a s a l l o s l o s espaiioles han hecho, y n i aun en l o s a n t i g u o s tiempos romanos, y de t o d a s l a s n a c i o n e s . 7 On t h e o t h e r hand an i n c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g j u s t f i f t e e n days a f t e r c e l e b r a t i o n s p r o v i d e d t h e I n d i a n e l i t e w i t h a poignant reminder  these  o f the i n -  j u s t i c e s t o which t h e y were s u b j e c t e d by t h e S p a n i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n complete disregard f o r their legal privileges: Pues, SeSor, no h a b l a n pasado quince d i a s d e l l e a l , r e a l r e n d i d o y g l o r i o s o o b s e q u i o , que en v u e s t r o a p l a u s o y a l b r i c i a s de v u e s t r a coronaci6n h a b i a n c e l e b r a d o v u e s t r o s i n d i o s , cuando y a t u v i e r o n l a s a l b r i c i a s que acostumbran l o s espaiioles r e p a r t i r a l o s i n d i o s ; porque un a l c a l d e espafiol, publicamente, p o r l a s c a l l e s y p l a z a s sac6 y puso a l a verguenza, p o r un motivo muy l e v e y r i d l c u l o , a una i n d i a p r i n c i p a l , y que h a b i a hecho uno d e . l o s p r i n c i p a l e s p a p e l e s en l a funci6n de l a f i e s t a de v u e s t r a  coronaci6n.  ( p . 20)  Thus t h e events s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s i n Lima p r o v i d e d the I n d i a n e l i t e w i t h b o t h a v i s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l n o b i l i t y and a s h a r p reminder  o f the disparagement  o f t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s by the S p a n i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  These c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e d t h e I n d i a n C a b i l d o and groups o f I n d i a n n o b l e s t o h o l d a s e r i e s o f d i s c u s s i o n s and meetings i n which they r e e v a l u a t e d t h e i r  146  position  within colonial society.  Some o f the n o b l e s r e v e a l e d themselves  be u t t e r l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the e x i s t i n g of a c h i e v i n g change by p e a c e f u l means. by o t h e r s who  i n s i s t e d on a t l e a s t  s i t u a t i o n and w i t h the  to  feasibility  These n o b l e s were e v i d e n t l y o v e r r u l e d  one more attempt  t o persuade  the Crown t o  implement reforms t h a t would upgrade the s t a t u s o f the I n d i a n e l i t e .  Fr.  8 C a l i x t o was The  a determined  advocate  of t h i s course of a c t i o n .  outcome o f these meetings r e f l e c t e d  the d i v i s i o n which e x i s t e d w i t h i n  the I n d i a n e l i t e as t o the most e f f i c a c i o u s way  o f b r i n g i n g about the changes  which they a l l agreed were n e c e s s a r y i n the S p a n i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P e r u . The C a b i l d o d e c i d e d on one hand t o make a n o t h e r e f f o r t t o have the p e t i t i o n o f 1744  r e g a r d i n g the c h a r t e r of p r i v i l e g e s p r e s e n t e d t o the Crown.  r e p r e s e n t e d the w i l l  o f the most c o n s e r v a t i v e elements w i t h i n the I n d i a n e l i t e .  On the o t h e r hand, the*; concerns o f the r a d i c a l elements  o f the I n d i a n  were t o be expressed i n another p e t i t i o n o f b r o a d e r scope. was  d r a f t e d f o r t h i s purpose  entire  This decision  elite  The p e t i t i o n which  i s p r o b a b l y the most important document o f the  I n d i a n p r o t e s t l i t e r a t u r e i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y P e r u , the Representaci6n  v e r d a d e r a y_ exclamaci6n r e n d i d a y_ lamentable  que  t o d a l a n a c i 6 n i n d i a n a hace a  l a M a j e s t a d d e l Sefior Rey de l a s Espafias y_ Emperador de l a s I n d i a s , e l Sefior don Fernando V I , p i d i e n d o l o s a t i e n d a y_ remedie,  sacandolos d e l a f r e n t o s o v i t u -  9 p e r i o y_ o p r o b i o en que  e s t a n mas  de d o s c i e n t o s anos.  The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n , as i t w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be c a l l e d , was and most developed  the c u l m i n a t i n g  e x p r e s s i o n o f the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t i d e o l o g y .  The  circum-  s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s document's c o m p o s i t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Crown, i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the i d e o l o g y o f the p r o t e s t movement, and i t s c o n t e n t s  147  t h e r e f o r e warrant d e t a i l e d examination. i n d i c a t e s , was  anonymous and p u r p o r t e d  I n d i a n n a t i o n , d e p i c t e d the S p a n i s h p o s s i b l e terms and for  T h i s document, which, as the t o speak i n the name o f the  c a l l e d on the Crovm to implement the I n d i a n e l i t e ' s  i n the R e p r e s e n t a c i f i n , although  of I n d i a n s i n t h e i r own  government.  by the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n was which they were e x p r e s s e d .  The  i n advocating  The  presented  in earlier  the  participation  d r a s t i c nature of the reforms demanded  document based i t s appeal  the I n d i a n s ' demands i n the dramatic  on the Crovm's avowed  convert the American n a t i v e s and tone and  presented  language o f the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r y  welfare.  a c t u a l l y wrote the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s  the evidence  available."^  The  p o i n t i s n o t , however, o f g r e a t  importance  s i n c e the document d i d i n c o r p o r a t e , i n a r a d i c a l form, the aims of the elite  as a whole,  ^he  I n d i a n C a b i l d o of Lima c e r t a i n l y had  the d r a f t i n g of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n . i n the immediate a f t e r m a t h illegally  of t h e Lima meetings o f e a r l y 1748  Indian  some hand i n e i t h e r  I t was  probably  written  and p r i n t e d  i n Lima, some time between August and November of t h a t same year.' '''" 1  I n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n expressed i d e a l s h e l d by a m a j o r i t y of the I n d i a n e l i t e , led  plan  r e i n f o r c e d by the v i v i d and uncompromising terms i n  r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t and  of  T h i s p l a n , as  based on the reforms suggested  I n d i a n p r o t e s t s , went much f u r t h e r than these  Who  entire  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n P e r u i n the b l a c k e s t  r e f o r m i n g the government of the Indians i n P e r u .  advocates of I n d i a n  title  the r e f o r m i s t  i t s a g g r e s s i v e tone e v i d e n t l y  the c o n s e r v a t i v e elements of the I n d i a n C a b i l d o t o h e s i t a t e i n a u t h o r i z i n g  i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Crovm.  F r . C a l i x t o , c o n t i n u i n g h i s e f f o r t s t o assuage  the most d i s s a t i s f i e d members o f the I n d i a n e l i t e , o f f e r e d i n the middle o f  148  1748 to go to Spain himself i n order to present both the p e t i t i o n f o r the publication of the charter of p r i v i l e g e s and the Representaci6n. however, refused to give him formal authority as i t s agent.  The Cabildo,  I t may be that  the f a i l u r e of F r . Calixto's previous mission to Spain on behalf of the  12 Cabildo made them wary of underwriting another journey f o r him.  Certainly  F r . C a l i x t o ' s p o s i t i o n as a Franciscan gave cause f o r the Cabildo to doubt that h i s superiors would grant him permission to go to Spain to present such an inflammatory  document as the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n .  On the other hand, F r .  Calixto's proposal may have been simply premature, made before the Cabildo had been w i l l i n g to commit i t s e l f to authorizing the presentation of the Representaci6n.  The Cabildo did ultimately choose as i t s agent an Indian called Francisco de Zeballos. The delegation of Zeballos demonstrates that the Indian Cabildo was f i n a l l y convinced to adopt s l i g h t l y more drastic measures than the routine p e t i t i o n i n g i t had hitherto authorized.  Hot only was Zeballos entrusted with  the Representaci6n, but he was sent without the viceregal permission necessary for an Indian to t r a v e l l e g a l l y to Spain. no attempt to gain such permission.  In f a c t , the Cabildo made absolutely  Unlike the Indian e l i t e i n the 1720's and  1730's who had depended on representatives l i k e Morachimo and Nieto de Vargas o f f i c i a l l y appointed or authorized by the Viceroy, to f u r t h e r their cause, the Indian e l i t e i n 1748 had despaired of obtaining any such authorization and pinned t h e i r hopes s o l e l y on the ultimate benevolence of the Monarch himself. Francisco de Zeballos did not, however, prove to be the enterprising man that the Cabildo had imagined him to be and, discouraged by the d i f f i c u l t i e s he encountered i n attempting to make h i s clandestine journey, he abandoned h i s  149  m i s s i o n i n Buenos A i r e s and r e t u r n e d t o Peru. I n view o f t h e f a i l u r e o f Z e b a l l o s t o go t o Spain t h e C a b i l d o evidentlyabandoned the p l a n t o present t h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n and  concentrated  through an I n d i a n  emissary  i t s immediate e f f o r t s on w i n n i n g the long-sought p u b l i c a t i o n  of the c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s . Madrid t o present  The C a b i l d o a p p o i n t e d  two a g e n t s a l r e a d y i n  t h e p e t i t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e decree o f 1697.  F r . P S r e z M a r t i n and Ladr6n de Guevara, however, pocketed  These  advocates,  t h e i r fee without  13 doing a n y t h i n g t o advance the I n d i a n s ' cause. Meanwhile, F r . C a l i x t o had l e f t Lima, p r o b a b l y was a p p o i n t e d t o go t o Spain.  s h o r t l y before Z e b a l l o s  The C a b i l d o , by g i v i n g the F r a n c i s c a n c o p i e s o f  both t h e p e t i t i o n r e g a r d i n g the c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s and t h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n ,  14 had i m p l i c i t l y encouraged him t o c o n t i n u e h i s advocacy o f t h e I n d i a n T h i s t a c i t support  c o u p l e d w i t h h i s apparent ignorance  cause.  o f Z e b a l l o s ' appointment  no doubt l e d F r . C a l i x t o t o hope t h a t he might y e t persuade t h e C a b i l d o t o  15 sponsor h i s journey  t o Spain.  I n any case, t a k i n g advantage o f h i s acknow-  l e d g e d , a l t h o u g h u n o f f i c i a l , s t a t u s as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e I n d i a n C a b i l d o of Lima, F r . C a l i x t o presented  the Representaci6n  t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f  Cuzco i n t h e hope t h a t i t s members might u n d e r w r i t e  h i s journey t o Spain:  . . . l o s f e r v o r o s o s deseos que siempre he t e n i d o de a l i v i a r a mis amados hermanos y p a r i e n t e s , como l o expres§ en v a r i a s o c a s i o n e s , y p r i n c i p a l m e n t e en todas l a s j u n t a s y c o n s u l t a s que tuvimos despues de l a s f i e s t a s r e a l e s de l a c o r o n a c i f i n de n u e s t r o Rey y Senor Don Fernando Sexto. . . . Con ese animo o empeiio pase a l v a l l e de J a u j a a mediados de Agosto d e l anb de 1748; y e l mismo ano, a p r i n c i p i o s de Noviembre, pase a l a gran c i u d a d d e l Cuzco, con e l m a n i f i e s t o o "Exclamaci:6h!*j p a r a m a n i f e s t a r l a a n u e s t r o s p a r i e n t e s , caciques y nobles de d i c h a C i u d a d y sus p r o v i n c i a s , a f i n de conmover s u s animos, p a r a que ayudasen a t a n importante obra con a l guna l i m o s n a ; mas f u e en vano todo mi t r a b a j o y a f a n , porque ninguno quiso c o n c u r r i r . ^  150  The  I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f Cuzco, however, beset by  f e a r of r e p r i s a l s from  a u t h o r i t i e s , d e c l i n e d t o support F r . C a l i x t o ' s p l a n t o p r e s e n t t o the Crown.  to  the document  T h i s r e f u s a l dashed F r . C a l i x t o ' s l a s t hope o f g a i n i n g  f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y from the P e r u v i a n I n d i a n e l i t e  Spanish  any  as a whole f o r h i s m i s s i o n  Spain. With undiminished  z e a l , F r . C a l i x t o next  a u t h o r i z a t i o n from the o f f i c i a l s o f h i s own the m a n i f e s t o approving  to the Crown.  attempted t o secure  and  o f the J e s u i t Order t o p r e s e n t  L i k e the I n d i a n C a b i l d o these  the i d e a s o f the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Crown.  formal  officials,  while  i n t h e o r y , r e f u s e d t o p l a y any  part  They d i d , however, u n w i t t i n g l y i n s p i r e F r .  C a l i x t o t o take the matter i n t o h i s own  hands by t h e i r d i s p a r a g i n g remarks  about t h e I n d i a n s ' c h a r a c t e r : . . . p e r s o n a s doctas . . . c o n v i n i e r o n en que e r a muy importante e l que l a d i c h a Exclamaci6n se p u s i e s e en l a s manos d e l Rey, n u e s t r o Senor, mas d i f i c u l t a b a n e l modo de que e s t o se e j e c u t a s e . Y d i j e r o n mas l o s cons u l t o r e s , e n c a r e c i e n d o grandemente, que s i e l l o s f u e s e n i n d i o s , h a b l a n de s a l t a r p o r sobre t e j a d o s , que aunque t u v i e r a n que v e n i r nadando sobre l a s aguas y comiendo y e r b a s , h a b l a n de v e n i r a dar a saber a Su Majestad de l o que p a d e c i a n ; pero que l o s i n d i o s no l o h a r l a n a s l , por no haber hombres e n t r e e l l o s , y sobre todo que e r a n t i m i d o s , y o t r a s i n f i n i t a s cosas d i j e r o n , a p o c a n d o n o s . 1 7 I t was  only n a t u r a l t h a t F r . C a l i x t o f o u n d  these remarks by  o f f i c i a l s not o n l y repugnant but p e r s o n a l l y i n s u l t i n g .  religious  Throughout i t s  development the I n d i a n reform movement had r e p u d i a t e d , as a mere p r e t e x t t o justify  the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f the I n d i a n s , the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of I n d i a n s  b e i n g weak and incompetent.  The  as  r e f o r m e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y o b j e c t e d t o the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t o the I n d i a n e l i t e .  Being anything  but  151  t i m i d and determined t o prove i t not only t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o s which 1 g m i s t r u s t e d him"" for  t o h i s r e l i g i o u s s u p e r i o r s as w e l l , F r . C a l i x t o s e t  S p a i n w i t h the s o l e support  y O r t e g a , who 174-9  but  and,  had  o f a f e l l o w F r a n c i s c a n , F r . I s i d o r o de  agreed t o accompany him.  t r a v e l l i n g by way  The  p a i r l e f t Cuzco on 25  of Buenos A i r e s , R i o de J a n e i r o and 19  a r r i v e d i n Madrid on 22 August  Cala  September  Lisbon,  1750.  A f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s and d e l a y s i n v o l v e d i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p e t i t i o n t o the K i n g , F r . C a l i x t o d e c i d e d these o f f i c i a l p r o c e d u r e s .  out  formal  t o circumvent  I n a f e a t of remarkable d a r i n g he approached  K i n g ' s h u n t i n g p a r t y , broke through the ranks o f s o l d i e r s g u a r d i n g c a r r i a g e and handed the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  the  the r o y a l  t o the Monarch i n p e r s o n :  . . . aunque nos h a b l a n ponderado mucho l a mucha d i f i c u l t a d que h a b l a en v e r a l Rey y p o d e r l e h a b l a r ; no o b s t a n t e , a c o s t a de r i e s g o s y p e l i g r o s , aun de l a p r o p i a v i d a , l e s a l i m o s a l encuentro, metiendonos por entre l a chusma de s o l d a d o s , y l e entregamos a Su Majestad.--Ces de advert.ir-que no par6 l a c a r r o z a de Su M a j e s t a d , s61o sac6 l a cabeza p o r dos v e c e s ) nuestro e s c r i t o , dicho d l a 23.20 The  document was  passed on t o the C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s where i t  the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n .  F r . I s i d o r o de C a l a appeared  was  twice 21  b e f o r e members of the C o u n c i l t o p r e s e n t h i s v e r s i o n of the I n d i a n s '  case.  The  and  Council recognized  the I n d i a n s ' r i g h t s t o e n t e r r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s  r e c e i v e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i g n i t i e s on the same b a s i s as S p a n i a r d s . c e s s i o n proved p e r s o n a l l y advantageous to F r . C a l i x t o who  was  T h i s con-  finally,  in 22  September 1751,  promoted t o the s t a t u s of l e g a t e i n the F r a n c i s c a n O r d e r .  A l l the o t h e r p r o p o s a l s made i n the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n and c o m p l e t e l y  r e j e c t e d as b e i n g u n j u s t i f i e d and  were, however, s y s t e m a t i c a l l y dangerous:  152  Siendo no a p r e c i a b l e s o t r a s i n s t a n c i a s , que se hacen, y que deven s e r r e p e l i d a s , como l a de que se q u i t e n l o s C o r r e g i d o r e s , y l a s m i t a s , y que se e x i j a un t r i b u n a l , que conozca de l a s causas de l o s I n d i o s p r i v a t i v a m e n t e . . . se deven r e p e l e r l a s t r e s r e f e r i d a s como i m p r a c t i c a b l e s , y que c o n t i e n e n novedad que p u d i e r a causar a l t e r a c i 6 n en e l govierno e s t a b l e c i d o , y o t r a s p e r n i c i o s a s consequencias.23 The Representaci6n was c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y s u b v e r s i v e f o r t h e C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s t o order t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n o f whatever c o p i e s o f t h e i l l e g a l l y p r i n t e d e d i t i o n a quiet i n v e s t i g a t i o n could uncover.  This order  y i e l d e d , however, o n l y the two c o p i e s t h a t F r . C a l i x t o and F r . I s i d o r o had  2k taken t o S p a i n . The  remaining  c o p i e s c i r c u l a t i n g i n Peru must have made s t i m u l a t i n g and  i n s t r u c t i v e r e a d i n g f o r Spaniards  and C r e o l e s as w e l l as f o r l i t e r a t e  Indians.  The Representaci6n, a s the c o l l e c t i v e v o i c e o f t h e I n d i a n s , p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p u b l i c as a f a i t accompli elite  the s o l i d a r i t y between the i n t e r e s t s o f the I n d i a n  and those o f t h e I n d i a n masses, an a l l i a n c e h i t h e r t o known only t o those  b u r e a u c r a t s who d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h e a r l i e r I n d i a n a p p e a l s .  At the same time  the s p e c i f i c demands o f the Representaci6n c o n s t i t u t e d a coherent through which the I n d i a n e l i t e to  program  c o u l d exercise the p r i v i l e g e s of t h e i r  nobility  the advantage o f a l l s e c t o r s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . The  Indian e l i t e  p e r c e i v e d i t s e l f as f u l f i l l i n g , t h r o u g h i t s r e f o r m i s t  a g i t a t i o n , the o b l i g a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the n o b l e  s t a t u s o f i t s members. F r .  C a l i x t o wrote t h a t h i s main m o t i v a t i o n i n u n d e r t a k i n g "empresa t a n grande"  25  was " h a b e r nacido c o n o b l i g a c i o n e s . " The I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f Lima d e s c r i b e d i t s c o l l e c t i v e duty i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: . . . p o r N o s o t r o s p r o p r i o s , y en nombre de Dichos C a v i l d o s . . . y de todo e l comun de Y n d i o s . . . como cabeza que es de t o d a s l a s demas comunidades  153  • • • y p r o v i n c i a s de e s t e E e i n o como l a C a p i t a l que es e s t a C i u d a d de, l o s Reyes y que p r e v a l e c e y hace Cabeza en t o d o s l o s d i s t r i t o s de e l . 2b" The  program f o r reform advocated i n the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n was  based on  and  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the s p e c i f i c r e f o r m s demanded by e a r l i e r I n d i a n a p p e a l s . E c h o i n g e a r l i e r p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the e q u a t i o n o f I n d i a n s w i t h the s e r v i l e c l a s s e s , the document compared the I n d i a n s ' s t a t u s t o t h a t o f s l a v e s : iHay mayor o p r o b i o que e l nuestro? £Que una g e n e r a c i 6 n adusta, e x t r a f i a y s e r v i l s e a de mejor c o n d i c i o n que l a de l o s I n d i o s ? iQue e l negro e s c l a v o se pueda l i b e r t a r , y quede l i b r e p a r a i r s e donde q u i s i e r e , y pueda p a s a r a Espana; y e l I n d i o , aun e l noble, s e a t r i b u t a r i o y mitayo de v u e s t r o s s i e r v o s , y no t e n g a a l b e d r i o p a r a l i b r e m e n t e v i v i r donde l e duere c o n v e n i e n t e , y no t e n g a modo de p a s a r a Espana a v e r a su Rey, y m o s t r a r l e sus heridas? I Que e l mulato y zambo, n a c i d o de l o s n e g r o s , s e a l i b r e y no pague t r i b u t o ; y e l i n d i o pagandolo siempre jamas.._se l i b e r t e de su a b a t i m i e n t o ; y m e s t i z o , h i j o d e l espafiol sea e n v i l e c i d o por l o que t i e n e de indio? ( p . 12) In order to r e c t i f y  t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n c a l l e d f o r the same  reforms as demanded i n e a r l i e r p r o t e s t s :  the implementation  o f the c h a r t e r  of p r i v i l e g e s , and the e d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s i n c o l e g i o s r e a l e s and s e m i n a r i e s as w e l l as i n s p e c i a l s c h o o l s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r I n d i a n s i n a l l towns and cities. To f a c i l i t a t e  the achievement of r e a l e q u a l i t y w i t h the Spanish  nobility,  the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n advocated g i v i n g the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y p e r m i s s i o n t o t r a v e l 27 f r e e l y between P e r u and S p a i n .  T h i s p r o p o s a l was  made i n the s p i r i t ,  by e a r l i e r p r o t e s t e r s , o f a b s o l u t e f a i t h i n t h e u l t i m a t e j u s t i c e of the Crown:  Y que l o s i n d i o s n o b l e s y p r i n c i p a l e s puedan l i b r e mente . . . p a s a r a v u e s t r a Corte y p r e s e n c i a r e a l , como l o s espaiioles l o hacen, cuando n e c e s i t a n p a s a r  shared Spanish  154  a E s p a f i a ; d e r o g a n d o l a s l e y e s que v e d a n n u e s t r o l i b r e t r a n s i t o a l o s R e i n o s de E s p a n a ; p u e s de e l l a s s e s i g u e e l u n i v e r s a l daiio que padecemos y e l no r e m e d i a r s e n a d a , no s a b i e n d o n u e s t r o s r e y e s , c l a r a y verbalmente l o s males n u e s t r o s . ( p . 26) T h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n p r o p o s e d more d r a s t i c m e a s u r e s t h a n a n y protest  earlier  t o curb t h e abuses of t h e m i t a and c o r r e g i m i e n t o s y s t e m s .  precisely  the r e a s o n i n g u s u a l l y i n v o k e d t o j u s t i f y the m i t a  necessity  of f o r c e d l a b o r because of the I n d i a n s ' d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to  1  Employing  system—the offer  v o l u n t a r y l a b o r — t h e Representaci6n argued f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f the m i t a since i t  affected  only Indians:  . . . pues habiendo en e l Reino t a n t a gente l i b r e y o c i o s a , como muchos que s e d i c e n s e r e s p a n o l e s , pero mal n a c i d o s y o c i o s o s , negros l i b r e s , mulatos y z a m b o s , de que s e compone t a n t a p a r t e d e l R e i n o ; n o e s r a z S n que s5lo e l I n d i o s e a f o r z a d o a s e r m i t a y o , y p o r e s o s6lo e s t e n i d o p o r b a j o , e s c l a v o y de c o n d i c i 6 n s e r v i l ; y l o s d e m a s , s i e n d o t a n p l e b e y o s y de condici6n t a n b a j a , s e a n r e p u t a d o s p o r de m e j o r c a l i d a d que l o s i n d i o s ; y d e b i e n d o s e r t e m i d o s l o s n e g r o s l i b r e s , m u l a t o s , zambos y demas g e n t e f e r o z y v o l u n t a r i a , l a t e m i d a s o l o e s l a g e n t e i n d i a , s i e n d o t a n mansa y h u m i l d e , t a n d e b i l e i n d e f e n s a ; s e r a q u i z a s , porque l a conocen t e n e r  raz6n.  ( p . 43)  The u s e b y t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s o f and  t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f I n d i a n s a s weak  d e f e n c e l e s s a s a n a r g u m e n t i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r r a d i c a l demands i n v o l v e d a n  u n d e r l y i n g p a r a d o x w h i c h i s a l s o a p p a r e n t i n t h e i r employment o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e m i t a as an argument f o r i t s w h i c h demanded t h e  s u b s t a n t i a l dismantling of  abolition.  Reformist  the t r a d i t i o n a l system of  were f o r m u l a t e d and e x p r e s s e d w i t h i n t h e t e r m s o f t h e v e r y p r o t e c t o r a l which had served to  j u s t i f y that  system.  ideals rule theories  155  T h i s same b a s i c paradox u n d e r l a y t h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n ' s  insistence, i n  apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e r e f o r m i s t s ' g o a l o f ending t h e I n d i a n s ' s t a t u s as minors, on t h e continuance  o f t h e p r o t e c t o r a l system:  l o s d e j e n poseer l i b r e m e n t e s u s b i e n e s , t r a t a r y comerciar  legal  " . . . que  con e l l o s , como e l  e s p a n o l maneja l o s s u y o s ; y a s i tambien sean e l l o s l o s que a d m i n i s t r e n l o s b i e n e s , h a c i e n d a s y c a s a s de s u s h o s p i t a l e s , c o f r a d i a s y comunidades." Any  ( p . hi)  l o g i c a l weakness o f t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n was, however, i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n  c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e v e r y r e a l advantages which t h e I n d i a n e l i t e c o u l d d e r i v e from t h e continuance  o f t h e p r o t e c t o r a l system i f i t v/ere r e f o r m e d i n a c c o r d -  ance w i t h N i e t o de V a r g a s ' p r o p o s a l , p r e s e n t e d appointed The  i n 1732,  t h a t I n d i a n s be  as p r o t e c t o r s . i n t e r m e d i a r y nature o f t h e o f f i c e o f p r o t e c t o r v/ould p l a c e i t s I n d i a n  incumbents i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n t o m o n i t o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n d i a n and S p a n i s h s o c i e t y , w h i l e t h e p r o t e c t o r s ' d i r e c t access t o and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e Spanish  j u d i c i a l system would enable them t o a c t as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s i n  the I n d i a n s ' u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h a t system.  S i n c e by Spanish  law only Indians of  noble s t a t u s c o u l d h o l d t h e o f f i c e o f p r o t e c t o r , t h i s o f f i c e c o u l d s e r v e as a means by w h i c h t h e I n d i a n e l i t e c o u l d demonstrate e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n o r d e r to r e i n f o r c e the h i e r a r c h i c a l nature of I n d i a n s o c i e t y which i n t u r n guaranteed the p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s o f t h e I n d i a n n o b i l i t y . As w i t h t h e S p a n i s h p r o t e c t o r a l system, so t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s adapted the S p a n i s h c o r r e g i m i e n t o system t o serve t h e i r own ends.  The Represent ac i 6 n  a t t r i b u t e d t h e w i d e l y acknowledged abuses o f t h e c o r r e g i m i e n t o system t o t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e S p a n i a r d s who h e l d t h e o f f i c e o f c o r r e g i d o r r a t h e r t h a n t o the s y s t e m i t s e l f :  156  . . . siendo l o s Corregidores espanoles l o s que mas dano nan hecho y hacen a l Reino, en e s p e c i a l a l o s Indios, con sus exorbitantes extorsiones y continuos agravios, con que por cerca de doscientos alios l o s tienen h o s t i l i z a d o s , consumidos y peores que esclavos, sean quitados absoluta y totalmente; y se pongan jueces o corregidores i n d i o s , para l o s i n d i o s , quienes l o s gobiernen como es raz6n, y esten l o s i n d i o s como v a s a l l o s de Su Majestad; sujetos s61o a l Rey y a l o s Virreyes en l o temporal, y a l o s Obispos en l o e s p i r i t u a l . (p. 45) T h i s proposal that Spanish corregidores be replaced by Indians i m p l i e d the continuation of the corregimiento as a means by which the Spanish Crown could continue t o c o n t r o l and p r o f i t from the e x p l o i t a t i o n of Indian resources. Indeed, the Representaci6n s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e d i c t e d an increase i n Crown revenue as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the more moderate demands which the Indian corregidores would make on Indian resources i n comparison t o the i n f l a t e d demands of Spanish officials: Daran l o s Indios para Su Majestad l o s t r i b u t o s muy puntuales, y ademas podra Su Majestad coger parte de l a s rentas que da a l o s corregidores espafioles; pues si§ndolo l o s Indios en sus propias t i e r r a s , y como mas moderados y menos vanos en sus gastos, no l e seran t a n costosos a Su Majestad, quien con esto a b r i r a e l camino, para que se puedan s a l v a r l o s corregidores, y para que todos l o s i n d i o s g e n t i l e s se conviertan, y salgan de l a i d o l a t r i a , en que l o s detiene e l horror y miedo que tienen a l o s corregidores. Con esto se salvaran todos, se aumentaran e l Reino y l o s v a s a l l o s ; y todos, a s i espanoles como i n d i o s , tendran paz, gobernando espanoles a l o s espafioles, i n d i o s a l o s i n d i o s . (p. 45) Thus the Representaci6n advocated, on both temporal and r e l i g i o u s grounds, reforms i n the corregimiento system. While the r e f o r m i s t s s p e l l e d out the b e n e f i t s t o be derived by the Crown and the Indian t r i b u t a r i e s from these reforms, the b e n e f i t s which would accrue  157  to the I n d i a n e l i t e were never d i r e c t l y mentioned and so must be The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  certainly l e f t  f i n a n c i a l l y from t h e i r o f f i c e .  room f o r the I n d i a n c o r r e g i d o r e s to p r o f i t  The  I n d i a n c o r r e g i d o r e s , l i k e the I n d i a n  p r o t e c t o r s , would enjoy the p r i v i l e g e s of an i n t e r m e d i a r y r o l e , through  inferred.  particularly  t h e i r e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o l l e c t i o n of t r i b u t e revenue.  I f the changes advocated  by the manifesto had  i n f a c t been implemented, the  newly i n t r o d u c e d I n d i a n o f f i c i a l s might have d e r i v e d o t h e r b e n e f i t s as w e l l . F o r i n s t a n c e , the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t which the removal of the Spanish c o r r e g i d o r es might have had on I n d i a n w e l f a r e might have redounded t o the c r e d i t o f the new  I n d i a n appointees,  l e g i t i m i z i n g not only t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  Spanish  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system, but a l s o t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of I n d i a n s o c i e t y . These s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s were p a r t of an o v e r a l l p l a n f o r reform i n the government of the P e r u v i a n I n d i a n s .  T h i s r e f o r m was  e n v i s i o n e d by the  r e s e n t a c i 6 n as a r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e p a r a l l e l I n d i a n and S p a n i s h a l l e g e d t o have e x i s t e d i n P e r u .  Rep-  societies  T h i s p a r a l l e l i s m , a c h i e v e d by the s e p a r a t i o n  of the government o f the two s o c i e t i e s , g i v i n g the members o f each r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r ovm  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , would accentuate  the importance of any  intermediary  roles. By  a d o p t i n g t h e Spanish c r i t e r i o n of n o b l e s t a t u s as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o  h o l d i n g o f f i c e s such as p r o t e c t o r and c o r r e g i d o r which d i d f u n c t i o n as  inter-  m e d i a r i e s between S p a n i s h and I n d i a n s o c i e t y , the I n d i a n e l i t e c o u l d a s s u r e i t s monopoly over t h e s e important  positions.  s h i p which the e l i t e c o u l d demonstrate through  I n t u r n , the e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r these p o s i t i o n s would s e r v e t o  enhance i t s p r e s t i g e i n both S p a n i s h and I n d i a n eyes.  T h i s p r e s t i g e would be  158  c o n s o l i d a t e d by the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f some members o f the I n d i a n e l i t e i n the h i g h e s t l e v e l s o f the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f o r the Representaci6n p r o posed t h a t the S p a n i s h and I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s be i n t e g r a t e d a t the of the A u d i e n c i a . judges:  level  I n d i a n s would s e r v e a l o n g s i d e Spaniards as bishops and  ". . . se l e s c o n f i e r a n l o s obispados y canongias, e l s e r c a l i f i c a -  dores, c o n s u l t o r e s y m i n i s t r o s d e l Santo T r i b u n a l y l a s garnachas en l a s audiencias."  (p. 4 3 )  By the l a t e 1 7 4 0 ' s , as the Representaci6n makes c l e a r , the Indian' e l i t e had f i n a l l y l o s t a l l f a i t h i n the l o c a l S p a n i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  identified  i t as the prime agent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s a b o t a g i n g the implementation o f reforms o r d e r e d by the Crovm i n response t o e a r l i e r I n d i a n a p p e a l s : . . . y con mandar que sean f a v o r e c i d o s , a l i v i a d o s y a t e n d i d o s , p o r t a l > c u a l q u e j a que e l l o s han hecho por mano y boca de algunos Reverendos Obispos o personas r e l i g i o s a s , y p o r t a l o c u a l i n d i o que, en mas de dos s i g l o s , ha pasado entre rail p e l i g r o s y r i e s g o s a Espana; pero no saben s i son obedecidos, y s i l o han s o l i c i t a d o , han s i d o enganados por sus M i n i s t r o s , quienes r e p r e s e n t a n , a l a s Majestades, i m p o s i b l e s en l a p r a c t i c a de sus Reales Cedulas; porque l a p r a c t i c a es c o n t r a r i a a sus l o g r o s y c o n v e n i e n c i a s temporales; y aunque penda l a fama, l a honra, l a v i d a , e l a l i v i o y  s a l v a c i 6 n d e l Indio de l a ejecuci6n de l a v o l u n t a d d e l Rey, e s t a no se hace en l e v a n t a r a l c a i d o i n d i o , s a n a r a l enfermo i n d i o , s a l v a r a l p e r d i d o i n d i o , s i e s t a de por medio e l dafio l e v e y temporal d e l e s p a S o l , cuya c o n v e n i e n c i a prepondera mas que l a v i d a , fama, honra y s a l v a c i 6 n del indio. (p. 5 0 ) The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n t h e r e f o r e proposed t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a new ent t r i b u n a l t o implement reforms i n f a v o r o f the I n d i a n s . resembled  I n d i a n s was  independ-  This proposal  i n many ways the m i s s i o n a r y p r o p o s a l s , made i n the e a r l y  p e r i o d , t h a t r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o l o v e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  and  colonial  Spaniards and  the o n l y remedy f o r the oppressed s t a t e of I n d i a n s o c i e t y .  159  Obviously,  the c r e a t i o n of such a t r i b u n a l would meet w i t h p r e c i s e l y the same  o p p o s i t i o n from the had  encountered.  s e c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r y  protectors  Such a t r i b u n a l ,  . . . e x c e p t o , i n h i b i d o y a b s o l u t o , que inmediatamente e s t u v i e s e s u j e t o a Su M a j e s t a d , que se compusiese de uno, dos, o mas obispos y o t r a s p e r s o n a s nobles que hay en e l R e i n o : e c l e s i a s t i c o s , s e c u l a r e s y r e l i g i o s o s , muy temerosos de % o s y muy s e r v i d o r e s de Su M a j e s t a d . . . ( p . 46) would imply absolute  the Crown's complete r e p u d i a t i o n of i t s own  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i t s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the i n t e r e s t s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y .  based t h e i r b e l i e f i n the e x i s t e n c e  Indian  elite  of t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the Crown's con-  t i n u i n g acknowledgement of i t s d e d i c a t i o n t o the m i s s i o n a r y Indian  The  cause and  to  welfare. T h i s b e l i e f , although quite incompatible  the I n d i a n r e f o r m e r s to present o r a l i d e a l s and t o support  w i t h p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y , d i d enable  t h e i r p l a n s i n the terms o f the Spanish p r o t e c t -  t h e i r arguments by  the p a t t e r n of thought d i s p l a y e d by  a p p e a l s to t r a d i t i o n .  the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s was  one  by o p p r e s s e d groups when f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r demands f o r change. act w i t h i n t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l s and  by a t t r i b u t i n g the h i g h e s t  By  Moreover,  commonly used c l a i m i n g to  i d e a l s to  the  Monarch, the r e f o r m e r s are a b l e t o c l o a k i n f l a t t e r y the most d a r i n g reprimands. The  Monarch, g i v e n h i s u n a s s a i l a b l e a u t h o r i t y and honorable i n t e n t i o n s , i s  never a c c u s e d of any  r e a l wrongdoing, but i s p o r t r a y e d as h i m s e l f b e i n g  and  deceived  The  Monarch i s g u i l t y only of i g n o r a n c e ,  abused  by the v e r y elements r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the abuse of the masses.  are a l l c o r r u p t and  have c o n s p i r e d  and  t h a t excusable,  since h i s  to'keep the t r u t h from him.  become a t r a d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e of r e f o r m movements i n Spain  advisers  T h i s premise  i t s e l f marked by  had  the  160  common r a l l y i n g c r y " V i v a e l r e y y muera e l mal gobierno." T h i s argument a l s o p r o v i d e s  the reforming  group w i t h  t h e means o f  r e c o n c i l i n g t h e i r a s s e r t i o n o f t h e Crown's b e n e v o l e n t i n t e n t i o n s w i t h "the failure  of t h e i r p r o t e s t s to achieve  oppression  beneficial results.  The e x i s t i n g  i s viewed as a c r e a t i o n o f the Crown's a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who d e l i b e r a t e -  l y d i s r e g a r d the Crown's h i g h i n t e n t i o n s and t r u e i n t e r e s t s and who govern only to promote t h e i r own c o r r u p t ends.  I n the words o f the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n :  . . . p r a c t i c a m e n t e l o que experimentamos es un gobierno v i o l e n t o , duro, c r u e l y t i r a n o que l o s m i n i s t r o s d e l Rey han i n v e n t a d o , d i s t i n t o de todo l o que se h a p r a c t i c a d o en todos l o s r e i n o s c a t f i l i c o s , y muy o t r o de l a sana i n t e n c i 6 n d e l Rey. ( p . 23) I n view o f the Monarch's benevolence and omnipotence a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o persuade him t o d i s m i s s h i s c o r r u p t  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s f o r him t o be e n l i g h t e n e d  about t h e t r u e c o n d i t i o n o f h i s oppressed s u b j e c t s .  Thus n e i t h e r t h e laws n o r  the Monarch a r e t o blame f o r h i s s u b j e c t s * o p p r e s s i o n . reestablishment  On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e  o f t h e Monarch*s e f f e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y over h i s c o r r u p t  administra-  t i o n and t h e implementation o f t h e Crown's b e n e v o l e n t l e g i s l a t i o n and i n t e n t a r e seen as t h e means by which the w e l f a r e  o f t h e oppressed s u b j e c t s can b e s t be  served. What made t h i s p a t t e r n o f thought p a r t i c u l a r l y apt as a v e h i c l e f o r  present-  i n g I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t demands was i t s s i m i l a r i t y both t o t h e approach o f t h e e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s f o r demanding reform  i n t h e American c o l o n i e s and t o the f o r m u l a  adopted by contemporary S p a n i a r d s t o urge r e f o r m The  o f the I m p e r i a l  system.  e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s i n whose works t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s found b o t h  i n s p i r a t i o n and t h e o r e t i c a l guidance had f i r s t  a p p l i e d t h i s p a t t e r n o f reform  t o A m e r i c a by e n v i s i o n i n g themselves as c a l l e d upon t o r e e s t a b l i s h t h e P r i m i t i v e  161  Church i n America. tended  Subsequent r e f o r m i s t thought  t o f o l l o w t h i s precedent  r e g a r d i n g Spanish America  by e x p r e s s i n g i d e a l s i n terms o f a r e t u r n t o  29 the p a s t .  S i m i l a r l y Spanish t h e o r i s t s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h century  attributed  t h e i r n a t i o n ' s decadent c o n d i t i o n t o i t s d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n s and i d e a l s which had formed the b a s i s o f i t s g o l d e n age and advocated  a return to  these t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s as a means o f r e g a i n i n g Spain's former g r e a t n e s s . a broader  In  context s t i l l , u n t i l t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n r e f o r m e r s i n v a r i a b l y p l a c e d  t h e i r i d e a l s o c i e t y i n the past r a t h e r than i n t h e f u t u r e , p r e s e n t i n g themselves as r e s t o r e r s o f a n c i e n t v i r t u e s and not as i n n o v a t o r s . T h i s tendency t o t h i n k i n the terms o f t h e past i s e x e m p l i f i e d , i n r e s p e c t to t h e r e f o r m o f t h e American c o l o n i e s , by t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e Spanish Campillo y Cossio. laws t o be eminently  reformer  L i k e the I n d i a n r e f o r m e r s , C a m p i l l o c o n s i d e r e d the e x i s t i n g wise and j u s t , needing o n l y t o be implemented i n o r d e r t o  b r i n g about a b e n e f i c i a l change i n the s t a t e o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y : L a i n o b s e r v a n c i a de a l g u n a s e x c e l e n t e s Leyes ha s i d o l a fuente de que dimanan l o s males, que a n i q u i l a r o n a a q u e l l o s N a t u r a l e s , o i n u t i l i z a r o n a Espana un mundo e n t e r o l l e n o de riquezas.30 C a m p i l l o and the R e p r e s e n t a c i f i n agree i n p o r t r a y i n g the e a r l i e r Spanish Monarchs as exemplars.  C a m p i l l o p a r t i c u l a r l y c a l l e d f o r measures t o support t h e laws o f  C h a r l e s V and P h i l i p I I while t h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  implored F e r d i n a n d VI t o  emulate h i s namesake F e r d i n a n d I so t h a t " e l c a t f i l i c o , e l p i a d o s o , e l deseado, v u e s t r o nombre se e s c u l p i r a en e l bronce de l a e t e r n i d a d , haciendo r e s t i t u c i 6 n que os suplicamos  esta justa  en l a generaci6n de l o s i n d i o s , declarando y  mandando l o que e s t a mandado p o r v u e s t r o s p r o g e n i t o r e s " ( p . 2 5 ) .  Similarly  both t h e S p a n i a r d , C a m p i l l o , and t h e anonymous author o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  162  c a l l e d f o r the r e i n s t i t u t i o n and r e v i s i o n of e x i s t i n g laws.  The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  asked "que se revuelvan y r e g i s t r e n todas l a s leyes . . . ref6rmense y haganse otras segun e l tiempo presente" (p. 30), while Campillo planned to " r e s t i t u i r . . , l a p o l l t i c a de su p r i m i t i v o i n s t i t u t o en l o s mas de l o s puntos, quitando l o s abusos, que ha introducido e l tiempo, y proporcionando nuestro sistema a l 31  estado presente de l a s cosas, segun e l tiempo en que vivimos." The s i m i l a r i t y i n ideas and conceptual approach between the Spanish reformist w r i t e r s and the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i s patent but t h i s s i m i l a r i t y i s minimal when compared to the profound debt that t h i s compelling appeal owes to the t h e o r i e s and language of the early..missionary w r i t e r s .  The view of Spain's  r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s i n America presented by the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n r e f l e c t e d the missionary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e l i g i o u s b a s i s of Spain's j u r i s d i c t i o n i n America:  ". . . l a Santa Madre I g l e s i a C a t 6 l i c a Romana . . . os ha encomendado  l a I g l e s i a Americana, y c o n s t i t u l d o su Padre y P a t r 6 n " (p. 31). Because of t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s b a s i s f o r Spain's j u r i s d i c t i o n i n America, the Representaci6n portrayed the Crown's secular and r e l i g i o u s r o l e s as inseparable:  "Siendo Vos, Sefior, Rey c r i s t i a n o y c a t 6 l i c o , o Monarca d e l  Mundo, imagen d e l P r i n c i p e de l a s a l t u r a s , C r i s t o ; y e l puso en sus hombros su principado y carg6 l a s iniquidades de todos, y vos tambien deb§is hacer l o mismo" (p. 11).  Consequently the Representaci6n i d e n t i f i e d two grounds on  which the Crown had a r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n to undertake reform:  to remove the  impediments which abusive a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had placed i n the way of the Indians' conversion and to remove the impediments placed i n the way of the Monarch's own s a l v a t i o n by h i s complicity w i t h t h i s abusive administration:  16?  Y a s l descargando v u e s t r a c o n c i e n c i a , descargando este p e s a d i s i m o e i n s o p o r t a b l e yugo que teneraos, no en s e r v u e s t r o s v a s a l l o s y s u b d i t o s , s i n o en no s e r t r a t a d o s como r a c i o n a l e s y hombres c r i s t i a n o s , s i n o como b r u t o s y f i e r a s de l a s s e l v a s . ( p . 11) The  Represent ac i6n  a t t r i b u t e d the r e f u s a l o f some I n d i a n s t o a c c e p t  C h r i s t i a n i t y d i r e c t l y t o the o p p r e s s i v e  p o l i c i e s o f the S p a n i s h c o l o n i s t s  by a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e I n d i a n s "jamas han p u e s t o embarazo a l a Ley C r i s t i a n a ; y se supone no e s t a l a c u l p a de su i d i o t i s m o , r u s t i c i d a d e i g n o r a n c i a , s i n o de l o s e s p a n o l e s que desde e l p r i n c i p i o l o s han t r a t a d o p e o r e s que a b u r r o s , abatidos  que l o s mismos p e r r o s "  ( p . 36).  y mas  I n support of t h i s argument t h e  R e p r e s e n t a c i S n c i t e d G a r c i l a s o de l a Vega's a s s e r t i o n t h a t an I n c a i c prophecy concerning  the coming o f a new and b e t t e r r e l i g i o n made t h e I n d i a n s h i g h l y  receptive to conversion  to C h r i s t i a n i t y :  . . . pues tambien es t r a d i c i 6 n que l o s I n d i o s e I n c a s s u p i e r o n t r e s c i e n t o s anos a n t e s , que v e n d r i a o t r a l e y mejor que l a que l e d i e r o n s u s Reyes, como l o a f i r m a G a r c i l a s o en l o s "Comentarios"; y a s i l a abrazaron con t a n t a f a c i l i d a d y s i n r e p u g n a n c i a , pues es c i e r t o que e l l o s jamas han p u e s t o embarazo a l a Ley C r i s t i a n a . ( p . 36) The  R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n not o n l y adopted t h i s view t h a t t h e I n d i a n s were  eager t o r e c e i v e S p a n i a r d s as m i s s i o n a r i e s , b u t a c t u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d u n c o n v e r t e d Indians with expressing  the m i s s i o n a r y  impose temporal a u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t  theory  which l i m i t e d Spain's r i g h t t o  the w i l l o f the Indians:  . . . p o r f i n se r e p i t e l o que e l Maestro Mel§ndez d i c e de l a g e n t i l i d a d de l a s montafias de e s t e Peru, que e s t a n l o s i n d i o s s i n c o n v e r t i r s e , aun conociendo s e r . s a n t a y n e c e s a r i a p a r a s a l v a r s e l a l e y de Nuestro Senor J e s u c r i s t o , y que un Rey de l a Montana l e d i j o a su Emperador: "Aseguranos l o h , Reyl de que l o s de e s t a Kaci6n ( e s t o es l o s e s p a n o l e s s o l d a d o s ) , de este P a d r e , no p a s a r a n a n o s o t r o s , que l o demas e s t a hecho, p o r mi v o t o y e l de todos." E s t o es que r e c i b i r l a n l a L e y C r i s t i a n a , con t a l que l o s espafioles no l o s a v a s a l l a s e n , para a f r e n t a r l o s , deshonrarlos, c a u t i v a r l o s y consumirlos. ( p . 35)  164  By p l a c i n g t h i s argument d e v i s e d by s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y S p a n i s h the mouths of a group of a d m i t t e d l y u n h i s p a n i z e d  Indians the  missionaries i n Representaci6n  c r e a t e s a l a p s e i n c r e d i b i l i t y which can o n l y be a t t r i b u t e d to i t s d e d i c a t i o n to m i s s i o n a r y for rhetorical  i d e a l s and i t s perhaps o v e r z e a l o u s  use of m i s s i o n a r y  arguments  effect.  A s i m i l a r l a p s e i n l o g i c i s the u n c r i t i c a l r e p e t i t i o n o f Las Casas' a s s e r t i o n t h a t the I n d i a n s p o s s e s s e d  v a s t amounts of h i d d e n  wealth,  the  location  of which, the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n a l l e g e d , the I n d i a n s might r e v e a l i f a s s u r e d of a f a i r share  of the t r e a s u r e :  . . . por e s t e gobierno d i s c o r d e se d e t i e n e e l desc u b r i m i e n t o de muchas e innumerables r i q u e z a s de grandes t e s o r o s , a s l de minas de oro y p l a t a , que e s t a n o c u l t a s por l o s a n t i g u o s , como de inmensas c a n t i d a d e s de oro, p l a t a y p i e d r a s p r e c i o s a s que t e n i a n sacadas, y l a s e s c o n d i e r o n ; y sus d e s c e n d i e n t e s pue'den s a b e r donde e s t a n , y se p i e r d e n , como l o a f i r m a e l I l u s t r i s i m o Obispo Casas ( f o l . 43), porque ven y conocen l o s I n d i o s que no l o han de l o g r a r , y que es p a r a mayor t r a b a j o y a f r e n t a de e l l o s e l d e s c u b r i r l o s , como l e s s u c e d i 6 en l a C o n q u i s t a , que mientras mas oro daban a l o s espaiioles, mas se desaforaban en m a t a r l o s y destruirlos. (p. 35) The  most p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r d r a g g i n g  i n t h i s reference to  Casas i s a d e s i r e t o invoke d i r e c t l y the a u t h o r i t y of the S p a n i s h w r i t e r s i n support  of the I n d i a n s ' cause.  Las  missionary  S u r e l y i f the prime i n t e n t i o n had  been t o appeal t o the Crown's c u p i d i t y the i n s i d e knowledge of the I n d i a n would have p r o v i d e d more c o n v i n c i n g evidence than a r h e t o r i c a l mention i n L a s Thus H i s p a n i c m i s s i o n a r y  of the e x i s t e n c e of hidden  elite  treasure  Casas.  i d e a l s i n f l u e n c e d not o n l y the d e f i n i t i o n  e x p r e s s i o n of the g o a l s pursued by the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s , but a l s o the c e p t u a l framework i n which these r e f o r m e r s  and  con-  thought and the r h e t o r i c i n which  165  they expressed t h e i r own championship  of Indian welfare.  The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  d e s c r i b e d the r o l e o f t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m movement not i n terms o f a t t a i n i n g a new and u n t r i e d i d e a l , but as t h e b e l a t e d f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e g o a l s s e t by the m i s s i o n a r i e s f o r S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l i s m i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y : Poned e s t e timbre nuevo mas en v u e s t r o s b l a s o n e s , y s e r a i s proclamado nuevo Conquistador y nuevo Monarca de l a s I n d i a s , a m p l i f i c a n d o a s i muchisimo mas v u e s t r o Imperio y e l de C r i s t o . Y se d i r a de v o s , g l o r i O s i s i m a mente, que h a b e i s acabado l a empresa, que d e j a r o n p r i n c i p i a d a ocho g l o r i o s o s Reyes de Espafia y de l a s I n d i a s , de quienes descenders. Y que v o s , Senor, s o i s nuevamente e l c a t 6 l i c o Don Fernando, en cuyo tiempo se d i 6 a v u e s t r a corona e s t e nuevo mundo. ( p . 32) The  d r a s t i c r e f o r m s advocated by the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n , i t s uncompromising  r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i t s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e benevolent Monarch and the s p i r i t America  and laws o f the e a r l y S p a n i s h regime i n  are a l l manifestations o f the r a d i c a l , Utopian s p i r i t  c h a r a c t e r i z e d the thought  which i n c r e a s i n g l y  o f t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m e r s i n the l a t e 1740's.  I n part a  product o f the I n d i a n e l i t e ' s worsening p o s i t i o n and o f t h e i r deepening  despair  over t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e i r p r o t e s t s t o a c h i e v e r e s u l t s , t h i s s p i r i t was a l s o a consequence o f t h e r e f o r m movement's c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the e a r l y missionaries.  Spanish  As t h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n bears w i t n e s s , the I n d i a n reformers used  arguments and language of I n d i a n w e l f a r e .  t h a t c l o s e l y echoed those used by t h e s e e a r l y  advocates  As a consequence the I n d i a n r e f o r m e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f the  world was shaped i n t h e image o f t h a t o f these m i s s i o n a r i e s . I n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r o p h e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the e v e n t s o f the O l d Testament, the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s expressed t h e i r r a d i c a l i d e a l s by means o f a n a l o g i e s between e p i s o d e s i n t h e B i b l e and i n c i d e n t s i n t h e d i s c o v e r y and conquest  o f America:  a n a l o g i e s between, f o r example, the I n d i a n s and t h e t e n  166  l o s t t r i b e s o f I s r a e l , between America and the Promised Land o f the O l d Testament, between the Spanish S t a t e i n America and the Jews o f the O l d Testament as the Chosen People, and between the o p p r e s s i o n o f the I n d i a n s  32 under S p a n i s h r u l e and the p l i g h t So deeply was  of the Jews i n c a p t i v i t y .  the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i n f l u e n c e d by the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s '  method of a r g u i n g by analogy from the O l d Testament t h a t i t s v e r y s t r u c t u r e i n c o r p o r a t e d the analogy between the o p p r e s s i o n of the P e r u v i a n I n d i a n s and the p l i g h t o f the Jews i n t h e i r B a b y l o n i a n c a p t i v i t y by means o f p r e s e n t i n g its  demands f o r r e f o r m i n the form o f a commentary on the Lamentations  Jeremiah.  Throughout  of  the g r e a t e r p a r t of the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n each s e c t i o n  forms an e l a b o r a t i o n on a s p e c i f i c v e r s e of Jeremiah as an analogy f o r the s i t u a t i o n o f the P e r u v i a n I n d i a n s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f the lament  o f Jeremiah t o the American  context had  o r i g i n a l l y been s u g g e s t e d by F r . Ger6nimo de Mendieta, t h a t most r a d i c a l o f early missionary w r i t e r s . i n America,  Mendieta  compared the f a l l of the C h r i s t i a n  caused by the c o r r u p t i o n o f s e c u l a r elements,  t o the f a l l  Church of  Jerusalem: . . . se v e n i a muy a p e l o asentarme con Jeremlas sobre n u e s t r a I n d i a n a I g l e s i a , y con l a g r i m a s , s o s p i r o s y voces que l l e g a r a n a l c i e l o (como e l h a c i a sobre l a d e s t r u i d a c i u d a d de J e r u s a l e m ) , l a m e n t a r l a y p l a n i r l a , recontando su m i s e r a b l e c a i d a y gran desventura, y aun p a r a e l l o s no poco me p u d i e r a a p r o v e c h a r de l a s p a l a b r a s y s e n t e n c i a s d e l mismo profeta.33 Indeed, as the phrase from i t s t i t l e i n d i c a t e s , Exclamaci6n de l o s i n d i o s americanos, usando p a r a e l l a de l a misma que h i z o e l p r o f e t a Jeremlas, t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n d i d : the f a l l  r e l a t e i n the v e r y words o f J e r e m i a h  o f the P e r u v i a n I n d i a n s from t h e i r g o l d e n age, i d e n t i f i e d by the  167  I n d i a n r e f o r m e r s not w i t h the I n c a p e r i o d but w i t h the u n f u l f i l l e d  Christian  u t o p i a proposed by the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s and thwarted by s e c u l a r i n t e r e s t s . The  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y document, l i k e the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r y w r i t i n g s ,  i d e n t i f i e d the p r a c t i c e s of the P r i m i t i v e Church the Church  i n America.  as models t o be f o l l o w e d by  The E e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i n v o k e d these p r a c t i c e s as  precedents  f o r the s p e c i f i c r e f o r m s advocated by the I n d i a n e l i t e : Haced, Senor, que se e j e c u t e en e l l a , l o que en e l p r i n c i p i o de l a I g l e s i a seraand6y practic6, que f u g : e l que e l hombre c r i s t i a n o , cat6lico, apto e id6neo para e l s a g r a d o i m i n i s t e r i o d e l obispado, sacerdocio, d i g n i d a d e c l e s i a s t i c a y de l a s r e l i g i o n e s , aunque f u e s e n nuevamente c o n v e r t i d o s d e l G e n t i l i s r a o ( s a l i e n d o de- l o s d i e z alios, que e l tiempo de s e r ne6fitos) f u e s e admitido a l a s Ordenes e c l e s i a s t i c a s y r e l i g i o s a s . (p. 3 D I n r e f e r r i n g d i r e c t l y t o the precedent  o f the P r i m i t i v e Church,  the  R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i d e o l o g y o f the I n d i a n p r o t e s t movement a r e l i g i o u s argument f o r a r e f o r m which they had advocated t o no a v a i l f o r f o r t y y e a r s .  By  on l e g a l grounds  a d o p t i n g t h i s analogy w i t h the P r i m i t i v e  Church  the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i m p l i c i t l y p l a c e d the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t aims i n a:new and broader  context.  These aims nov; had s i g n i f i c a n c e not o n l y as a means o f  b e t t e r i n g the c o n d i t i o n o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y , but a l s o as a means o f r e a l i z i n g a Christian utopia.  S i m i l a r l y , the document's use of b i b l i c a l analogy t o d e p i c t  the o p p r e s s i o n o f the I n d i a n s under Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n gave the I n d i a n s ' plight  a s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond t h a t which the s i m p l e r e c i t a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c  g r i e v a n c e s c o u l d p o s s i b l y have. terms the reformed  While the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n p o r t r a y e d i n U t o p i a n  s o c i e t y i t e n v i s i o n e d i t p o r t r a y e d the e x i s t i n g  i n a p o c a l y p t i c terms.  situation  168  The  very analogy  between t h e C h r i s t i a n S p a n i s h regime and the c o r r u p t  and e v e n t u a l l y doomed s o c i e t i e s by which the Jews were oppressed uncompromising condemnation of S p a n i s h r u l e i n America. t h i s analogy  was  The  i m p l i e d an  terms i n which  e l a b o r a t e d s e r v e d o n l y to make the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n s d e p i c t i o n ,  o f the S p a n i s h regime s t i l l b l a c k e r : Bebemos n u e s t r a agua, con e l d i n e r o ; compramos n u e s t r a l e i i a , con e l p r e c i o . Porque en l a s I n d i a s , SeSor, l o s i n d i o s v u e s t r o s v a s a l l o s y v u e s t r o s h i j o s , bebemos n u e s t r a s l a g r i m a s que son n u e s t r a agua c o n t i n u a , comp r a n d o l a con l a paga; pues pagamos p a r a que nos m a l t r a t e n , y p a r a que l l o r a r nos hagan. Compramos o l o s l e n o s en que nos c r u c i f i q u e n , o l a l e n a con que nos quemen y consuman. Pagamos n u e s t r a agua, pues pagamos a l o s curas y p a s t o r e s de n u e s t r a s almas, p a r a que nos a d m i n i s t r e n l a s aguas p u r a s de l a G r a c i a ; y l l e v a n d o s e c o p i o s i s i m a s c a n t i d a d e s de nuestro s u d o r , l a g r i m a s y t r a b a j o s , estamos a secas y s e d i e n t o s d e l Saber, e n t r e l o s c i e n o s y l o d a z a l e s inmundos de l a I g n o r a n c i a . Parece, Sefior . . . que nos dominan e g i p c i o s y no espaiioles; que nos s u j e t a n Faraones y no Reyes c a t 6 l i c o s ; Nabucos y no r e y e s c r i s t i a n o s ; pues aun el;.pan que debiamos comer . . . de nuestro sudor y t r a b a j o , s i l e comemos se nos v u e l v e i n p i e d r a s ponzonosas, que nos matan; y de nuestro t r a b a j o y sudor, sacando e l e s p a n o l g a n a n c i a y honra, l o que cogemos es h a r t u r a de o p r o b i o s y a f r e n t a s , que son n u e s t r o c o t i d i a n o pan. (p. 10)34 Yet  t h i s h a r s h condemnation o f Spanish r u l e i n America as one  a p o c a l y p t i c c o r r u p t i o n and c o n f u s i o n , extreme though i t may  seem, d e r i v e d a  c e r t a i n l e g i t i m a c y from b e i n g based on i n f l u e n t i a l m i s s i o n a r y  authorities.  Las C a s a s , f o r example, had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the o p p r e s s i o n s u f f e r e d by I n d i a n s i n America as f a r worse t h a n t h a t of the Jews i n Egypt: t i r a n i c a governaci6n,  mucho mas  i n j u s t a y mas  c r u e l que  of  the  "...  la  l a con que F a r a 6 n  35 o p r i m i 6 en E g i p t o a l o s j u d i o s . "  The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  e l a b o r a t e d on  this  comparison by s t a t i n g t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y i n America  "no  169  t i e n e comparaci6n  con c a u t i v e r i o alguno, que han padecido l a s gentes  yugadas p o r o t r a s n a c i o n e s , " ( p . kO)  s i n c e the I n d i a n s , w i l l i n g c o n v e r t s t o  C h r i s t i a n i t y , were b e i n g s u b j u g a t e d u n n e c e s s a r i l y , w i l l f u l l y l y i n the name o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . advocates  sub-  and  hypocritical-  S i m i l a r condemnations by the e a r l y I n d i a n  such as L a s Casas had been g i v e n r a t i f i c a t i o n by the Spanish Crown  through such c o n c e s s i o n s as the New  Laws o f 1542.  Indeed  i t was  precisely  t h i s r a t i f i c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n s a d o p t i o n o f the  fiction  >  of  the benevolent Monarch, t h a t enabled the I n d i a n e l i t e t o use t h i s  analogy t o v i l i f y Furthermore  the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h the e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s analogy  regime as b e i n g worse than any  impunity.  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the S p a n i s h  imposed on the Jews allowed the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s  to ponder the punishment which God  might deem s u i t a b l e t o such heinous  E a r l y m i s s i o n a r y s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d precedents f o r j u s t s p e c u l a t i o n s . for  biblical  tyranny.  Mendieta,  example, i d e n t i f i e d Spain's punishment w i t h the t r o u b l e s p r o p h e s i e d i n the 36  Apocalypse.  L a s Casas, on the o t h e r hand, c o n s i d e r e d the economic r e p e r -  c u s s i o n s on Spain o f the d i m i n u t i o n " o f the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n as a j u s t 37 punishment f o r S p a n i s h tyranny i n America. t h i s same view:  " i N o se e s t a v i e n d o , Senor,  The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  expressed  l a ' p o d e r o s a mano de D i o s  que  i n s e n s i b l e m e n t e c a s t i g a este d e l i t o ; pues cada d i a hay menos i n d i o s , s i n s e r e l monjio y l a f r a i l i a quienes l o s aminoran, s i n o e l sumo t r a b a j o y mal miento de l o s o b r a j e s , rainas y m i t a s que l o s consumen" ( p . Ik). RepresentaciSn expressed i n s t i l l was in  trata-  The  more g e n e r a l terms the b e l i e f t h a t  Spain  d e s t i n e d t o s u f f e r some even more d e v a s t a t i n g c a s t i g a t i o n f o r i t s t y r a n n y America:  1 7 0  Y c6mo tambien Dios, r e c t o y j u s t o j u e z , l o s c a s t i g a r a a q u i , f u e r a de laxpena que en l a o t r a v i d a , precisamente, l e s e s p e r a , p o r d e l i t o t a n a t r o z y crimen t a n inhumano; que es l a i n j u r i a t a n grave y t a n g e n e r a l a toda una naci6n, t a n l i m p i a , t a n noble, t a n d i l a t a d a , t a n numerosa, t a n humilde, t a n d e s i n t e r e s a d a , a n t i c u a d a p o r mas de d o s c i e n t o s anos. ( p . 39) I n d a r i n g terms t h e Representaci6n went on t o suggest t h i s punishment.  S i n c e Spanish  t h e nature o f  tyranny had l e d t o the d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e  peace and p r o s p e r i t y o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y t h e R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n suggested  that a  s i m i l a r f a t e would b e f a l l Spain a s a punishment b e f i t t i n g h e r crimes: Los v a s a l l o s son e l c i m i e n t o d e l R e i n o , estando f i r m e e l c i m i e n t o , l o e s t a e l e d i f i c i o , se asegura e l Reino y goza de paz y s o s i e g o . P o r eso se ha procurado p e r s u a d i r en e s t e p a p e l , e l asegurar l o s v a s a l l o s , cimentandolos en l a f i r m e z a de l a Paz, l a c u a l , s i n duda, se p e r p e t u a r a muy f u e r t e , s i se destruye l a d i s c o r d i a , que se entabl6 desde e l p r i n c i p i o e n t r e l o s espanoles e i n d i o s . Estos v i v e n s i n sosiego p o r l a c o n t i n u a persecuci6n y m a l t r a t o , que de l o s e s p a i i o l e s r e c i b e n . L o s espaiioles e s t a n , e n t r e s i mismos, s i n paz y en c o n t i n u a zozobra, que parece su c o n c i e n c i a a c u s a d o r a l e s d i c t a , aun cuando e s t a n mas seguros; porque conocen que cuanto con e l I n d i o hacen, es s i n raz6n; p o r e s t o no hay movimiento d e l I n d i o que no l e de cuidado, aun estando mas descuidado e l I n d i o , y s i n jamas pensar l o que e l espanol l e acumula. E l mismo espanol con su t i r a n i a p a r a con e l i n d i o , se pone„el espantajo que l e amedrenta. Podiase d e c i r a l e s p a n o l , l o que San P a b l o d i c e . . . " Q u i e r e s no temer? Obra b i e n " . P o r e s t o se proponen e s t o s e f i c a c e s remedios. ( p . hO) I n u s i n g these terms, the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n p r o v i d e d a precedent importance f o r the I n d i a n p r o t e s t movement.  o f great  The arguments o f the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  p r o v i d e d a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e b e l l i o n both on a s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s b a s i s , s u g g e s t i n g that r e b e l l i o n was not o n l y the i n e v i t a b l e and l e g i t i m a t e response to t y r a n n y , but was a l s o the d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d punishment most s u i t a b l e t o the crime  o f tyranny.  171  In providing a detailed j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e b e l l i o n against a t y r a n n i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n was r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s had  not b r e a k i n g new  ground.  Similar  not only been accepted by the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s but  were i n f a c t b e i n g a p p l i e d by r e f o r m e r s r e b e l l i o n s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  and m i s s i o n a r i e s a l i k e t o I n d i a n The F r a n c i s c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s a t t r i b u t e d  the r e b e l l i o n of Juan Santos l a r g e l y t o the imprudent and a b u s i v e a t t i t u d e of  38 s e c u l a r Spaniards  towards the newly converted  p o l i t i c o suggested  t h a t the u p r i s i n g s of 1730  of Juan V e l e z de C6rdova i n 1739, may  Indians.  S i m i l a r l y , the  i n Paraguay, l i k e the  Estado  conspiracy  and the R e b e l l i o n of Juan Santos i n the 1740's  i n d e e d have c o n s t i t u t e d d i v i n e s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t the t y r a n n i c a l S p a n i s h  regime: Todos e s t o s rumores, b i e n pueden s e r d i s p o s i c i o n e s de D i o s , q u i e n t r a n s f i e r e l o s Reynos de unas en o t r a s Naciones; pero s i quando l o hace, es quando g o v i e r n a l a t y r a n i a , y f a l t a l a J u s t i c i a , l o s M i n i s t r o s de V.M. son l o s t y r a n o s , rompen l o s e s t a t u t o s C a t h o l i c o s , y Reales; y s i V.M. no l o s s o s t i e n e , es e l R e a l C a t h o l i c o animo de V.M. e l i n n o c e n t e , que p a d e c e r a e l estrago.39 By t h i s same r e a s o n i n g the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n a s s i g n e d the c u l p a b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n r e b e l l i o n to the S p a n i a r d s  r a t h e r than the  Indians:  C i e r t o es, Senor, que en l a s u b l e v a c i S n que en e s t o s aiios h i z o un i n d i o o m e s t i z o . . . no conocido p o r n o s o t r o s , en l a s montaiias d e l C e r r o de l a S a l y Conversiones d e l Orden de San F r a n c i s c o , siendo quienes causaron e s t o s r u i d o s , l o s mismos espanoles c o r r e g i d o r e s y soldados, con sus e x o r b i t a n t e s m o l e s t i a s y f a l t a s de c a r i d a d d i s c r e t a , para p o r t a r s e con unos b a r b a r o s i n c u l t o s y reci'Sn c o n v e r t i d o s , con ponderada p r u d e n c i a . ( p . 17) Thus the Representaci6n p r e s e n t e d  a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e b e l l i o n which  a c c e p t a b l e not o n l y i n terms o f t r a d i t i o n a l H i s p a n i c r e l i g i o u s and i d e a l s but a l s o i n terms of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  reformist ideas.  was  political  172  On  one hand, the d r a s t i c n a t u r e of the reforms suggested  R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n made i t a p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o the desperate Indian society.  On  by  the  plight  of  the other hand, the d e t a i l s o f these r e f o r m s p r o t e c t e d  the p o s i t i o n which the I n d i a n e l i t e had e s t a b l i s h e d f o r i t s e l f as spokesman and c o o r d i n a t o r of the ambitions  and demands of a l l s e c t o r s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y .  The R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n ' s use of b i b l i c a l analogy  not only f a c i l i t a t e d  r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t demands by p l a c i n g them i n an  the otherworldly  c o n t e x t , but a l s o by p r o v i d i n g the b a s i s f o r a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the t y r a n n i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  T h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n enabled  the  Indian  reform movement t o c o n t i n u e t o r e p r e s e n t the most d i s i l l u s i o n e d members of the I n d i a n e l i t e as w e l l as the d i s s a t i s f i e d I n d i a n masses who  were i n c r e a s i n g l y  g i v i n g vent t o t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s i n spontaneous u p r i s i n g s .  As e a r l y as  1748  then t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m movement had p r o v i d e d a t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e b e l l i o n as a means of s e r v i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f both the Crown and I n d i a n s by removing t h e c o r r u p t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  the  173  NOTES  CHAPTER V  L e t t e r o f F r . C a l i x t o de San Jose Tupac I n c a t o t h e K i n g ( M a d r i d ,  1  n.d.); F r . I s i d o r o  de C a l a y O r t e g a ; C e r t i f i c a t e o f i d e n t i t y o f F r . C a l i x t o  de San J o s e (Madrid, 7 May 1751)5 and F r . Juan de San A n t o n i o , C e r t i f i c a t e of i d e n t i t y o f F r . C a l i x t o de San Jose ( C a d i z , 17 May 1751). the o r i g i n a l s of which are i n AGI (Lima 988) a r e t r a n s c r i b e d  These  documents,  i n F.A. L o a y z a ,  ed., C a l i x t o , pp. 66, 69 and 72-74. 2 L e t t e r o f F r . C a l i x t o de San Jose Tupac I n c a t o t h e K i n g  transcribed  i n C a l i x t o , p . 79. ^ F r . Juan de San A n t o n i o , C e r t i f i c a t e o f i d e n t i t y o f F r . C a l i x t o i n C a l i x t o , p . 69, and l e t t e r o f F r . Jose G i l Mufioz t o the K i n g (12 Sept.  1745),  o r i g i n a l i n AGI (Lima 5 4 l ) , quoted i n C a l i x t o , p . 75. "Nos L o s C a v i l d o s , J u s t i c i a s y Regimientos de l o s N a t u r a l e s de e s t a Ciudad, y d e l Pueblo de Santiago d e l Cercado," "poder" g i v e n t o F r . C a l i x t o de San Jos§ Tupac I n c a , Lima, 30 O c t . 1756, i n AGI (Lima 988).  T h i s document  r e f e r s t o the o r i g i n a l "poder" g i v e n t o F r . C a l i x t o and F r . J o s ! G i l i n 1744. L e t t e r o f F r . JosS G i l Mufioz t o the K i n g , quoted i n C a l i x t o , p . 73.  g  7  F r . Juan de San A n t o n i o , C e r t i f i c a t e i n C a l i x t o , p . 74.  R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n verdadera y_ exclamaci6n r e n d i d a y_ lamentable que t o d a la  naci6n i n d i a n a hace a l a M a j e s t a d d e l Sefior Rey de l a s Espahas y_ Emperador  de l a s I n d i a s , e l Sefior don Fernando V I , p i d i e n d o l o s atijenda y remedie.  174  sacandolos  d e l a f r e n t o s o v i t u p e r i o y_ oprobio en que estan mas de d o s c i e n t o s  anos, t r a n s c r i b e d i n C a l i x t o , p . 19.  Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s document  w i l l appear as page numbers f o l l o w i n g the r e l e v a n t c i t a t i o n .  The a u t h o r s h i p  of t h i s document i s c o n s i d e r e d i n note 10. g No d i r e c t evidence  e x i s t s as t o the n a t u r e o f these meetings o f t h e  I n d i a n C a b i l d o and e l i t e i n 1748,  The i n d i r e c t  c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the proceedings  evidence  o f f e r s two apparently-  o f these meetings.  The V i c e r o y  Superunda i n two l e t t e r s t o the K i n g , dated 24 September 1750 and 15 January  1757  denounced these meetings as h a v i n g i n i t i a t e d t h e p l a n n i n g f o r the a b o r t i v e Lima c o n s p i r a c y o f 1750 and the subsequent H u a r o c h i r i r e v o l t .  Superunda a l s o a l l e g e d  t h a t t h e I n d i a n s i n v o l v e d i n the meetings had a manifesto  of t h e i r  p u b l i s h e d and d e s i g n a t e d an I n d i a n t o p r e s e n t  grievances  i t t o the K i n g i n S p a i n .  These  l e t t e r s o f Superunda have both been p r i n t e d , t h e f i r s t as document 4 i n C a s t r o Arenas, L a r e b e l i 6 n , pp. x x i - x x i v , and the second i n C a l i x t o , pp.  84-91.  Letters  w r i t t e n by F r . C a l i x t o t o the K i n g and t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f Lima as w e l l as a d e p o s i t i o n p r e s e n t e d by F r . I s i d o r o de C a l a y Ortega t o t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e I n d i e s i n 1750 p r e s e n t a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  They i n d i c a t e t h a t  t h e r e were some members o f the I n d i a n e l i t e and C a b i l d o who advocated  outright  r e b e l l i o n , but t h a t these i n d i v i d u a l s were d i s s u a d e d t e m p o r a r i l y from t h i s course o f a c t i o n by F r . C a l i x t o and o t h e r s .  According t o Cala:  . .ha  l l e g a d o e l caso, que e l afio pasado de 48 p o r e l mes de marzo f u e t a n f u e r t e que  s i n o f u e r a por haverlos contenido l o s I n d i o s P r i n c i p a l e s , huvieran  subcedido,  muchas muertes y d e s g r a c i a s , p o r h a v e r l e s o f r e z i d o e s t o s , h a r i a n Informe h a z i e n d o l e p r e s e n t e a VM d e l a I n j u r i a s y a g r a v i o s que p a d e z i a n ; y como VM e s fuente de l a J u s t i c i a , y que l o p o d r a remediar."  F r . C a l i x t o ' s l e t t e r s are  175  t r a n s c r i b e d i n C a l i x t o , pp. 49-61 AGI  (Lima 5 4 l ) . The  assumption  and p. 65, w h i l e C a l a ' s d e p o s i t i o n i s i n t h a t t h e r e were w i t h i n the I n d i a n C a b i l d o and  e l i t e advocates o f r e b e l l i o n and o f p r o t e s t i s a>:logical e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n between Superunda's a c c u s a t i o n t h a t the Lima meetings of 1748  spawned the r e v o l t o f 1750  and F r . C a l i x t o and F r . I s i d o r o ' s a s s e r t i o n s  t h a t the advocates o f r e b e l l i o n were c o n v i n c e d t o wait a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e outcome o f one p e t i t i o n t o the new  Monarch had been determined.  Indeed the  failure  of t h i s p e t i t i o n c o u l d have l e d the advocates o f r e b e l l i o n t o a c t i n 1750 Superunda a l l e g e s . sertation.  T h i s i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d i n the  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the meetings o f 1748 t o the r e b e l l i o n o f  as  dis1750  i s considered i n Chapter VI. 9 As mentioned  i n the t e x t , the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n was p r i n t e d i l l i c i t l y i n  Lima, a c c o r d i n g t o T o r i b i o Medina some time between August ( I I I , p. 554).  and November  1748  I have u n f o r t u n a t e l y been u n a b l e t o c o n s u l t a copy of t h i s  i l l e g a l e d i t i o n , the d e t a i l s o f which can be found i n J o s e T o r i b i o Medina, L a imprenta en Lima (1584-1824) ( S a n t i a g o , 1904-07), I I I , 545 f f . The c i 6 n i s t r a n s c r i b e d i n Loayza, C a l i x t o , pp. 5-48 AGI  ( L i m a 988).  Representa-  from the manuscript copy i n  F o r the r e a d e r s convenience, the q u o t a t i o n s from the 1  R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i n the d i s s e r t a t i o n are taken from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n C a l i x t o . 1  0  J o s e T o r i b i o Medina ( L a imprenta en Lima, I I I , 554)  C a l i x t o t o be the a u t h o r o f the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n .  considered F r .  T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s based,  however, not on any d i r e c t e v i d e n c e , but on the r o l e which F r . C a l i x t o p l a y e d i n p r e s e n t i n g the document t o t h e Crown.  F.A.  Loayza apparently considered  F r . C a l i x t o t o have been one o f the " r e l i g i o s o s F r a n c i s c a n o s " who wrote R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n ( C a l i x t o , p. 4 ) .  the  Vargas Ugarte thought e i t h e r Garro o r C a l a  176  y O r t e g a c o u l d have w r i t t e n i t ( H i s t o r i a , IV, 244).  The  identification  of  Garro as the author o f the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i s based on a r e f e r e n c e made by Superunda t o Garro as " r e l i g i o s o s a c e r d o t e que  de s u Orden y a u t o r d e l m a n i f i e s t o  t a n t o influy6 en l a conmoci6n de l o s i n d i o s , l e h a b l a n severamente c o r -  r e g i d o siis p r e l a d o s , poniendole  en e s t r e c h a s r e c l u s i o n e s , p r i v a n d o l e de l a  comunicaci6n con i n d i o s , con p r e c e p t o de que no tomase pluma n i se l e d'ejase aparato  de e s c r i b i r . "  ( L e t t e r t o the K i n g , 15 January 1757,  i n C a l i x t o , p.  Garro d i d w r i t e a p r o t e s t on b e h a l f of the I n d i a n s to the Pope, however, the P l a n e t u s  Indeed i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e  r e f e r r e d to by Superunda.  places the w r i t i n g of the Planctus  a f t e r the u p r i s i n g  of H u a r o c h i r i t o which Superunda i s r e f e r r i n g (see note 3 3 ) . Superunda's r e f e r e n c e t o G a r r o ' s a u t h o r s h i p  Fr.  This protest,  indorum (see note 33 f o r a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n )  v/as i n L a t i n and t h e r e f o r e i s u n l i k e l y to be the one  to  88.)  the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i s supported  The  theory  that  o f an i n c e n d i a r y document a p p l i e s  by other i n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e .  A reference  to  A n t o n i o i n F r . C a l i x t o ' s l e t t e r t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f Lima ( i n C a l i x t o ,  p. 58)  as w e l l as a r e f e r e n c e t o the I n d i a n d e l e g a t e Z e b a l l o s i n the  (p. 42)  s u b s t a n t i a t e Superunda's a c c u s a t i o n s  w i t h the I n d i a n p r o t e s t movement.  t h a t Garro was  Planctus  closely involved  S i m i l a r i t i e s i n the t e x t s o f the  Planctus  and Representaci6n a r e so numerous as t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i f F r . Antonio de the a u t h o r of the P l a n c t u s , v/as not  Garro,  a l s o the a u t h o r of the Representaci6n, he  c e r t a i n l y p l a y e d a major r o l e i n d r a f t i n g i t . 11 The  R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n was  Lima i n August 1748 Fr.  but i t may  c e r t a i n l y composed b e f o r e F r . C a l i x t o l e f t not have been p u b l i s h e d u n t i l l a t e r t h a t  C a l i x t o ' s r e f e r e n c e s to the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n t e n d t o i n d i c a t e that i t  p r i n t e d some time between August and November o f 1748.  On  one  year. was  occasion F r .  177  C a l i x t o mentioned h a v i n g gone t o Cuzco w i t h the document ( l e t t e r to I n d i a n C a b i l d o , i n C a l i x t o , p. 4-9), having  w h i l e on another  he mentioned the C a b i l d o 66).  s e n t him a copy i n Cuzco ( l e t t e r to the K i n g , i n C a l i x t o , p. 12 Fr.  support  C a l i x t o h i m s e l f a t t r i b u t e d h i s f a i l u r e t o r e c e i v e the  Cabildo s 1  t o i t s unwarranted m i s t r u s t of h i s p r o m i s e s : . . . l o s mismos de n u e s t r a Naci6n, quienes han d i s c u r r i d o que yo l e s engafiaba, por cuyo motivo no han querido c o n c u r r i r c o n . d i n e r o alguno p a r a f a c i l i t a r n u e s t r a p r e t e n s i 6 n . Tambien v i v o muy quejoso de v u e s t r a s mercedes, por no haber q u e r i d o c r e e r l a p a l a b r a que l e s d i , de que en l a p r i m e r a o c a s i d n que p u d i e r a p a s a r a Espafia, l o h a b i a de e j e c u t a r ; mas v u e s t r a s mercedes no l o c r e y e r o n , y p o r eso no q u i s i e r o n enviarme sus poderes (muy c o n f i a d o s en Don F r a n c i s c o C e b a l l o s , mas D i o s vuelve p o r m i ) .  L e t t e r t o I n d i a n C a b i l d o t r a n s c r i b e d i n C a l i x t o , p.  54.  13 The V i c e r o y Superunda, i n h i s l e t t e r o f 15 January 1757  (Calixto,  p. 8 5 ) , F r . C a l i x t o h i m s e l f , i n h i s l e t t e r t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o of 14 1750  ( C a l i x t o , p. 5 4 )  a l l agreed  and F r . A n t o n i o Garro i n the P l a n e t u s indorum ( p .  t h a t Z e b a l l o s was  P r e c i s e l y when i n 174-9 C a l i x t o who M a d r i d , met,  November  appointed  to t a k e  the appointment was  i n l a t e September 174-9 at S a n t i a g o  the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n  made i s not c l e a r .  to  Spain.  Hoitrever, F r .  l e f t Cuzco f o r Buenos A i r e s on h i s way  de C o t a g a i t a i n s o u t h e r n B o l i v i a , Z e b a l l o s who  a l r e a d y r e t u r n i n g home from Buenos A i r e s .  to was  I n view of the d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d ,  i t f o l l o w s t h a t Z e b a l l o s must have been a p p o i n t e d b e f o r e September 1 7 4 9 , probably  k2)  not l a t e r than the middle of t h a t y e a r .  and  See l e t t e r of F r . C a l i x t o  t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o i n C a l i x t o , p. 5 7 f o r t h e d e t a i l s of P e r e z M a r t i n  and  Ladr6n de Guevara's appointment. 14 The I n d i a n C a b i l d o of L i m a i t s e l f r e c o g n i z e d i t s own of F r . C a l i x t o i n a "poder" of  1756:  encouragement  178  . . . proporcionandose ocasion e l ano passado de m i l l settecientos quarenta y nueve de que e l dicho f r a i Calixto de San Joseph hubiese emprendido nuevo viage a los dichos Reinos de Espana, l e volvimos a recomendar este negocio, entregandole a este senor l a dicha representacion [ p e t i t i o n f o r the implementation of the cSdula de honores] con mas otro manifiesto impreso [Representaci6n] de l o s agravios que padecen l o s Indios. See "poder" given to F r . Calixto Tupac Inca by the Indian Cabildo of Lima (30 October 1756)  i n AGI (Lima  988).  15 ^ I f , as deduced i n note 13, before the middle of 174-9  Francisco de Zeballos was not appointed  and i f , as appears l i k e l y , F r . C a l i x t o did not  return to Lima a f t e r leaving there i n August 174-8, i t i s quite reasonable to assume that he did not learn of Zeballos* o f f i c i a l appointment by the Indian Cabildo of Lima u n t i l he met with Zeballos at Santiago de Cotagaita i n l a t e 1749.  T h i s assumption would explain what otherwise would be the  duplication by F r . Calixto of the task assigned to Zeballos.  unnecessary  More importantly,  however, i t explains why F r . C a l i x t o appears to have retained hopes of securing an o f f i c i a l appointment from the Cabildo up to the time of h i s departure f o r Spain.  He did not l e a r n of the appointment of Perez Martin and Ladr6n de  Guevara u n t i l he was  actually i n Spain.  See l e t t e r of F r . Calixto to the  Indian Cabildo i n C a l i x t o , p. 57. Letter to Indian Cabildo i n Calixto, p. 49.  See also p. 59:  Senores, para dar cumplimiento de l o que yo l e s o f r e e l de ser su mensajero o embajador, en nombre de toda l a N a c i 6 n , d l p r i n c i p i o de mi viaje desde esa Ciudad ... con l a esperanza de que l o s caciques, y en p a r t i c u l a r los parientes del Cuzco me hablan, f a c i l i t a r con p l a t a ; mas no s u c e d i 6 a s l . Eso es f i a r s e de hombres, y mas de parientes. Fr. C a l i x t o , l e t t e r to Indian Cabildo i n Calixto, p.  60.  179  l8  F r . C a l i x t o d e s c r i b e d h i s m o t i v a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g terms:  fundaraento  que yo t u v e , p a r a l o s g a s t o s que  "El  se han hecho, es porque v u e s t r a s  mercedes no d i j e s e n de ml que p o r no t e n e r animo n i c r e d i t o , h a b i a dejado perder una o c a s i 6 n t a n buena."  L e t t e r to I n d i a n C a b i l d o i n C a l i x t o , p.  57.  19 F r . C a l i x t o ' s l e t t e r to the I n d i a n C a b i l d o d e t a i l e d the the p a i r encountered,  difficulties  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r need t o borrow money at every t u r n  i n o r d e r t o complete t h e i r voyage ( C a l i x t o , pp. 49-52). 20 L e t t e r to I n d i a n C a b i l d o i n C a l i x t o , p. 53. 21 "... Padre mi  l o s Sefiores C o n s e j e r o s h i c i e r o n l l a m a r a l d i c h o Reverendo  compaSero p a r a que d e c l a r a s e l o s a g r a v i o s que h a c l a n l o s espafioles  a l o s de n u e s t r a N a c i o n . " p. 54.)  F r . I s i d o r o ' s two d e c l a r a t i o n s , the one without  dated 9 January AGI  ( F r . C a l i x t o , l e t t e r to Indian Cabildo, C a l i x t o ,  (Lima 988)  1751i  are i n AGI  (Lima 5 4 l ) .  date and the  other  I n t h i s l o c a t i o n as w e l l as i n  are t o be found a number of l e t t e r s exchanged between F r a n c i s c a n  o f f i c i a l s and o f f i c i a l s o f the C o u n c i l o f t h e I n d i e s . from 23 September 1750  t o 11 May  1751)  are concerned  These l e t t e r s , which run w i t h the C o u n c i l ' s attempts  to t r a c k down the v a r i o u s p r o t e s t s p r e s e n t e d by F r . C a l i x t o and F r . I s i d o r e The C o u n c i l ' s d e l i b e r a t i o n s over the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n were most i n t e n s e i n May,  1751,  undoubtedly as a r e s u l t  i m p l i c a t i n g the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n Chapter  of Superunda's l e t t e r of 24 September  1750  i n the Lima c o n s p i r a c y of t h a t same y e a r .  See  VI f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s .  22 I n response  t o i n s t r u c t i o n s from the F i s c a l of t h e C o u n c i l o f the  I n d i e s , J o a q u i n J o s e p h Vazquez y Morales, t h a t F r . C a l i x t o ' s I n d i a n a n c e s t r y v/as no impediment t o h i s f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s , F r . M a t i a s de V e l a s c o , C o m i s a r i o  g e n e r a l de I n d i a s , complied  r e l u c t a n t l y w i t h the  order  180 i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: embargo de l a  "...  p a r a que,  en i n t e l l i g e n c i a de todo, y s i n  c o n s t i t u c i 6 n de mi orden, que l o p r o h i b e , pueda a d m i t i r a  e l l a , y a l a p r o f e s i o n de su i n s t i t u t o a l hermano C a l i x t o Tupac." l e t t e r t o Vazquez y Morales, 31  J u l y 1751,  AGI  (Lima 5 4 1 ) .  The  See  Ministro  G e n e r a l o f the F r a n c i s c a n Order f o r m a l l y o r d e r e d on 21 September 1751 Fr.  that  C a l i x t o be g i v e n the F r a n c i s c a n h a b i t and a l l o w e d t o t a k e vows ( l e t t e r  i n C a l i x t o , p. 2  75).  ^ O p i n i o n o f the F i s c a l o f the C o u n c i l o f the I n d i e s i n AGI  (Lima  54l).  24 The C o u n c i l a p p r e c i a t e d , as i t s F i s c a l noted when r e p o r t i n g on h i s s e a r c h f o r the p r i n t e d  copies of the Representaci6n,  . . . l o s i n c o n v e n i e n t e s , que p o d i a o c a s i o n a r , se d i v u l g a s e p o r medio de l a i m p r e s i o n , p r i n c i p a l m e n t e en l a America, su c o n t e x t o ; se me d i 6 domission v e r b a l , y r e s e r v a d a , p a r a que a v e r i g u a s e con mafia de l o s r e f e r i d o s , que numero de e l l o s t e n i a n , y l o s p r o c u r a s e s a c a r de su poder, y r e c o g e r todos con e l p r e t e x t o mas d i s i m u l a d o . . . y haviendome asegurado ambos, que se h a v i a dado a l a Estampa en I n d i a s , y s o l o se l e s h a v i a n entregado a l i a , p a r a s e g u i a q u i e s t a dependencia, e l exemplar p r e s e n t a d o , y o t r o m a l t r a t a d o vastantemente y con a l g o e s c r i t o de pluma a sus margenes, que h a v i a t r a i d o y r e t e n i a en s i e l o t r o Hermano y estaban p r o n t o s igualmente a e x h i b i r ; se me p r e v i n o que a s s i l o d e j a s e . Report  o f Vazquez y M o r a l e s . t o Marques de l a Ensenada, 10 May  (Lima  988). L e t t e r t o I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f Lima, C a l i x t o , p.  i n AGI  57.  2  ^  2  6  2  ^ A separate p e t i t i o n r e q u e s t i n g t h i s p e r m i s s i o n was  "Poder," 30 October  1751,  1756. p r e s e n t e d t o the  Crown through Juan de Bustamante C a r l o s I n c a , a member o f the I n d i a n n o b i l i t y who  r e s i d e d a t C o u r t i n the c a p a c i t y of "Gentilhombre  Fr.  C a l i x t o p r a i s e d Juan de Bustamante i n the l e t t e r t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o  ( C a l i x t o , p. 6 1 ) .  de boca"  t o the K i n g ,  However, a r o y a l decree i s s u e d on 19 J a n u a r y 1751  refused  181  to g r a n t t h i s p e r m i s s i o n a l t h o u g h i t i n s i s t e d t h a t the V i c e r o y s h o u l d a u t h o r i z e c a c i q u e s and I n d i a n n o b l e s t o t r a v e l t o S p a i n i f they c o u l d demonstrate " j u s t o motivo."  (Real c S d u l a i n C a l i x t o , p.  63.)  28  See Z a v a l a , Recuerdo de Vasco Quiroga, pp. 14, 3 4 and 61; P h e l a n , The M i l l e n i a l Kingdom; and M a r a v a l l , " L a u t o p i a , " p. 2 0 5 . ". . . e s t e es e l tiempo de l a s m i s e r i c o r d i a s , escondido como d i c e e l A p 6 s t o l , e venido oportuno p u e b l o s , i p o r que  L a s Casas wrote: en l o s s i g i o s pasados,  agora p a r a nuevo v i v i r de todos  estos  se c o n v i e r t e e s t e tiempo en tiempo de tribulaci6n,.-„. ,. .?"  and i n s i s t e d t h a t C h r i s t ' s ovm f o l l o w e d i n America:  "...  example o f p e a c e f u l c o n v e r s i o n should be  e s t a es l a p u e r t a de s a l i r l a d o c t r i n a de  Cristo  e su s a c r o E v a n g e l i o a c o n v e r t i r l o s extrafios de su f e y de su I g l e s i a . s i e s t a es l a p u e r t a senores,;y  e l camino de c o n v e r t i r e s t a s gentes que  a v u e s t r o cargo, <Lpor que en l u g a r de e n v i a r o v e j a s . . . See BartolomS de l a s Casas, " C a r t a a l Consejo Juan P e r e z de Tudela.Bueso, Opusculos,  Pues tenuis  e n v i a i s l o b o s . . . ?"  de I n d i a s ( 2 0 - 1 - 1 5 3 1 ) " i n 'ed.  c a r t a s y_ memoriales, Obras esco'gidas  de F r a y BartolomS de l a s Casas V, B i b l i o t e c a de autores espafioles desde l a f o r m a c i 6 n d e l l e n g u a j e h a s t a n u e s t r o s d i a s , V. 49.  See Joyce S t a t t o n , "The  on E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  1 1 0 (Madrid, 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 48  and  I n f l u e n c e of S i x t e e n t h - C e n t u r y M i s s i o n a r y Thought  Indian Reformists i n Peru," Harold Livermore,  ed.,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia H i s p a n i c S t u d i e s (London, 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 3 3 - 3 7 f o r an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n of the arguments developed 2  ^ ^  9  M a r a v a l l , " L a u t o p i a , " p. Nuevo s i s t e m a , p. 3 8 . Nuevo s i s t e m a , p. 4.  207.  i n the f o l l o w i n g pages.  182  See P h e l a n , pp. 21-31 and p . 69.  T h i s type o f analogy i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  f r e q u e n t i n L a s C a s a s , A p o l o g g t i c a h i s t o r i a sumaria cuanto a l a s c u a l i d a d e s ,  d i s p o s i c i 6 n , d e s c r i p c i 6 n , c i e l o y_ s u e l o d e s t a s t i e r r a s , y_ c o n d i c i o n e s n a t u r a l e s , p o l i c i a s , r e p u b l i c a s , maneras de v i v i r _ e costumbres  de l a s gentes d e s t a s I n d i a s  o c c i d e n t a l e s y_ m e r i d i o n a l e s , cuyo imperio soberano p e r t e n e c e a l o s r'eyes de C a s t i l l a , Obras e s c o g i d a s . I I I and IV, B i b l i o t e c a de a u t o r e s , V. 105 and 106. See f o r example I , 68; I I , 108. don f r a y Bartolome  See a l s o L a s Casas, " E n t r e l o s remedi'os que  de l a s Casas, o b i s p o de .la Ciudad R e a l de Chiapa,  p o r mandado d e l ^mperador r e y " i n e d . Juan P e r e z de T u d e l a Bueso, F r a y Bartolome  de l a s Casas, I I (Mexico and Buenos A i r e s , 1965).  refiri6  T r a t a d o s de Las Casas  draws an analogy between God's r e f u s a l t o g i v e t h e t r u e r e l i g i o n t o the Jews u n t i l t h e y had escaped the t y r a n n y o f Pharoah  and the i n a b i l i t y o f the I n d i a n s  to r e c e i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y u n t i l the tyranny o f t h e Spaniards i s removed: D i o l a , erapero, cuando c o n c u r r i e r o n ambas a dos d i s p o s i c i o n e s , pueblo e l i b e r t a d juntamente. Y e s t o nunca f u e h a s t a que D i o s , con mano v a l i d a y r i g u r o s a , l o s l i b e r t 6 y sac6 d e l p o d e r i o t i r a n i c o de Fara6n. . . . Sobre todas l a s l e y e s . . . nunca o t r a hobo n i h a b r a que a s ! r e q u i e r a l a s d i c h a s dos d i s p o s i c i o n e s como l a l e y e v a n g e l i c a de J e s u c r i s t o . (p. 665) S i m i l a r l y , he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e Spanish t y r a n n y i n America was worse t h a n any s u f f e r e d by t h e Jews because  i t d i d not a f f e c t "una gente s o l a , como  p e r s u a d i a Aman a l r e y Asuero, que matase e l p u e b l o de l o s j u d i o s ; pero de i n f i n i t o s r e i n o s , p u e b l o s y gentes" ( p . 841). See a l s o , L a s Casas, " E s t e es un t r a t a d o que e l o b i s p o de l a c i u d a d r e a l de Chiapa, don f r a y Bartolome de las  Casas o Casaus,  compuso, p o r  comisi6n d e l Consejo R e a l de l a s I n d i a s ,  sobre l a m a t e r i a de l o s i n d i o s que se han hecho en e l l a s e s c l a v o s " i n T r a t a d o s , I , 508-509.  The comparison between the Jews and the I n d i a n s must have been a  183  very common one f o r F r . Diego de Landa noted t h a t Spaniards justify  t h e i r abusive  treatment  o f the I n d i a n s :  o f t e n used t o  "Que l o s espafioles se d e s -  c u l p a n con d e z i r que siendo e l l o s pocos no p o d i a n sugetar t a n t a gente" s i n p o n e r l e s miedo con c a s t i g o s t e r r i b l e s , y t r a e n exemplos de h i s t o r i a s , y de l a p a s s a d a de l o s Hebreos a l a t i e r r a de p r o m i s s i o n con grandes por mandado de D i o s . "  crueldades  See " R e l a c i 6 n de l a s c o s a s de Yucatan sacada de l a  que e s c r i b i 6 e l Padre F r a y Diego de Landa," C o l e c c i 6 n de documentos i n e d i t o s r'elativos a l descubrimiento,  2nd s e r i e s , X I I I (Madrid, 1900), p . 304.  33 Ger6nimo de Mendieta, H i s t o r i a e c l e s i a s t i c a I n d i a n a (Mexico, I I , 122.  194-5),  Another a p p e a l , w r i t t e n i n L a t i n and d i r e c t e d t o t h e Pope, e n t i t l e d  P l a n c t u s ihdorum c h r i s t i a n o r u m i n America P e r u n t i n a :  SeuVae L a c r i m a b i l e ,  L a m e n t a b i l i s L u c t u s , atque u l u l a t u s , multus que P l o r a t u s abimo corde, used t h i s same analogy;  "Ad Matrem Suam Sanctam E c l e c i a m , f i c u s N a t i o Indorum  v e r b i s Jeremiae p l a n g e n t i s " ( p . 8). P l a n c t u s and the a u t h o r  Although n o t w r i t t e n by an I n d i a n , t h e  t o whom i t i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d a r e l i n k e d b o t h i n  theory and i n p r a c t i c e t o the I n d i a n reform movement. was p u b l i s h e d without  clamat  Although  the P l a n c t u s  an i n d i c a t i o n o f p l a c e o r date, i n t e r n a l evidence  i t s w r i t i n g some time i n 1750  ( p . 4-2). I t was a t t r i b u t e d i n the e a r l y  places nine-  t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o F r . Antonio G a r r o , a L e c t o r de idioma i n d i c o i n the Convento de J e s u s  i n Lima, an a t t r i b u t i o n which i s s u p p o r t e d both by Spanish and I n d i a n  sources.  F r . A n t o n i o was e v i d e n t l y i n c l o s e t o u c h with t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s  f o r F r . C a l i x t o mentioned i n h i s l e t t e r t o t h e I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f Lima h a v i n g -  forwarded  a copy o f a p e t i t i o n t o Garro  ( C a l i x t o , p. 58).  The P l a n c t u s  itself  r e l a t e d t h e r e t u r n o f the I n d i a n emmissary Z e b a l l o s from Buenos A i r e s ( p . 4 2 ) . The P l a n c t u s drew d i r e c t l y on many o f the m i s s i o n a r y authors whose t h e o r i e s  184  were e x p r e s s e d i n the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n , as w e l l as on the B i b l i c a l  commentaries  of N i c h o l a s of L y r e v/hich had formed the b a s i s o f the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s ' own p r o p h e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the events o f the O l d Testament and p a s s i m ) .  (pp. 40, 4 l , 86  F o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f the a u t h o r s h i p o f the P l a n c t u s see J o s e  T o r i b i o P o l o , "Un  l i b r o r a r o , " R e v i s t a Peruana, 1 ( l 8 ? 9 ) i  Ugarte, H i s t o r i a , IV, 244,  624-634, and Vargas  245.  34 C f , P l a n c t u s , p.  J  99:  S i c l i c e t habeant aquam suam, p r e t i o comparatam, non habent p e i o r i f o r t u n a , H e b r e i s c a p t i v i s a. Nabuco, nam tunc, t e s t e I e r e m i a , aquam suam p r e t i o b i b e b a n t , aquam nostram p r e t i o bibimus. Sed i n hac B a b i l o n i a , Americae I n d i N a t u r a l e s , & Domini, Isuae r e g i o n e s , nec aquam suam, b i b u n t sua p e c u n i a , nec l i g n a s u a comparant pretio.  35 Bartolome V,  de l a s Casas, "Memorial a l Consejo  de I n d i a s , " 'Obras e s c o g i d a s ,  537. 5  6  Phelan, p.  102.  37 " . . . e s t o s r e i n o s de Espana, de que V u e s t r a M a j e s t a d senor, e s t a n en muy  gran p e l i g r o de s e r p e r d i d o s , y d e s t r u i d o s , y  opresos y a s o l a d o s . . . . e s t a muy  es r e y n a t u r a l y  L a r a z 6 n desto es porque D i o s , que  robados,  es j u s t i s i m o  i n d i g n a d o , enojado y o f e n d i d o de grandes ofensas y pecados que  Espafia han  cometido y obrado en t o d a s l a s I n d i a s , a f l i g i e n d o y  ^8 ^ F r . Joseph  39  justicia  tantas y tales t i e r r a s . "  de San A n t o n i o , l e t t e r t o K i n g , 27 December 1752,  (Lima 5 4 l ) . Estado p o l i t i c o , p.  25v.  l o s de  oprimiendo,  t i r a n i z a n d o , y robando, y matando t a n t a s y t a l e s gentes s i n r a z 6 n y a l g u n a , y en t a n p o q u i t o s anos despoblando " E n t r e l o s Remedios," p. 8 l l . )  . . .  (Las  Casas,  i n AGI  185  CHAPTER VI  Repression  and R e b e l l i o n  1750-1780  On 21 June 1750, the S p a n i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i s c o v e r e d w i t h i n t h e Indian e l i t e of Lima a conspiracy tion.  aimed at o v e r t h r o w i n g t h e Spanish  An o f f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h i s c o n s p i r a c y  had p l a n n e d t o occupy t h e V i c e r e g a l P a l a c e  r e v e a l e d that i t s leaders  and t h e m u n i t i o n s depot, k i l l t h e  S p a n i s h m i n i s t e r s and e v e n t u a l l y i n s t a l l an I n d i a n as K i n g , win  t h e support  They planned t o  o f negro s l a v e s by l i b e r a t i n g them and t h a t o f r u r a l  by exempting them from m i t a and t r i b u t e payment. The  administra-  1  V i c e r o y Superunda d i d not take t h i s c o n s p i r a c y  t r a r y , eleven Indians  Indians  lightly.  On t h e con-  were apprehended and s i x executed on 22 J u l y 1750 f o r  t h e i r p a r t i n the p l o t .  The r e m a i n i n g f i v e were granted  they were r e l e a s e d , two o f them escaped.  a pardon, but b e f o r e  These two, Pedro Santos and F r a n c i s c o  G a r c i a Jimenez, a l s o known as F r a n c i s c o Inga, f l e d t o the p r o v i n c e where they i n s t i g a t e d an u p r i s i n g a g a i n s t t h e l o c a l Spanish  of H u a r o c h i r i  administration.  News o f t h i s r e v o l t reached Lima a t the end o f J u l y 1750, and l e d the V i c e r o y to keep t h e r e m a i n i n g c o n s p i r a t o r s o f Lima i n p r i s o n . sparse  Because o f the r e l a t i v e l y  S p a n i s h p o p u l a t i o n o f H u a r o c h i r i and t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  the r e b e l s r a p i d l y c o n s o l i d a t e d a h o l d on t h e r e g i o n . some o f t h e l e a d e r s o f which were I n d i a n n o b l e s , These t r o o p s with t h e support  d i f f i c u l t y o f access  The V i c e r o y sent  troops,  from Lima t o p a c i f y the r e v o l t .  o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f one l o y a l town, Langa,  186  turned  t h e t i d e a g a i n s t the r e b e l s .  Pedro Santos and F r a n c i s c o Inga were  both executed and a number o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the u p r i s i n g were e x i l e d t o the Juan Fernandez I s l a n d s . T h i s r e v o l t , l i k e the c o n s p i r a c y  o f Lima, o c c u r r i n g a t a time when the  R e b e l l i o n o f Juan Santos i n the montana r e g i o n s t i l l raged i n s p i t e o f t h e administration's  e f f o r t s t o s u p p r e s s i t , c o n f i r m e d the worst f e a r s o f many  c o l o n i a l s that widespread I n d i a n r e b e l l i o n c o u l d break out a t any time. S p a n i a r d s and Creoles a l i k e e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n t h a t o n l y a c a t a l y s t v/as n e c e s s a r y t o move t h e oppressed I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t o open c o n f r o n t a t i o n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Juan and U l l o a c o n s i d e r e d  with  t h a t t h i s a n x i e t y over t h e t h r e a t  of I n d i a n r e v o l t was a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f C r e o l e s and Spaniards to proposals  designed t o g i v e t h e I n d i a n s a l a r g e r r o l e i n t h e i r own a d m i n i s t r a -  tion: . . . p r e t e x t a r que con l a demasiada a u t o r i d a d que se l e s daba a con l a grande p r o t e c c i o n que t e n i a n l o s i n d i o s , s a l d r i a n de su encogimiento y se s u b l e v a r i a n , haciendo un r e y de su naci6n. E s t a es l a fantasma con que atemorizan.2 S i m i l a r l y , the E s t a d o p o l i t i c o r e v e a l e d a c o n c e r n t h a t a f o r e i g n n a t i o n e a s i l y induce the I n d i a n s  could  to r e b e l :  . . . quan a r r i e s g a d o t i e n e este Reyno . . . de f a l t a r e l cont'rapeso r e s u l t a e s t a r s i n f i e l l a balanza, y pr6ximo e l p e l i g r o de un Reyno d i s t a n t e . . ... porque estando en l o s mayores l a c u l p a , p u d i e r o n e s t o s , armando a l o s raenores, hacer d e l u l t i m o d e l i t o un b a l u a r t e , que l o s defendiesse d e l castigo.3 The V i c e r o y e v i d e n t l y shared t h e s e apprehensions as he i n d i c a t e d i n a' l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s which had l e d t o t h e r e v o l t o f H u a r o c h i r i : medio d e l humilde a b a t i m i e n t o  que parece l e s es c o n n a t u r a l  1 1  . . .en  a los indios, tienen  187  p r o n t a disposici6n  a d e j a r s e a r r e b a t a r , en habiendo m a l i g n i d a d  que l o s i h f l u y a . "  As a r e s u l t o f these f e a r s , Superunda i n v e s t i g a t e d whether t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s o f Lima might have been i n contact w i t h Juan Santos o r w i t h t h e I n d i a n s o f any other province.  A l t h o u g h he pronounced h i m s e l f s a t i s f i e d t h a t they had n o t ,  h i s f e a r o f I n d i a n r e v o l t was s t i l l  f a r from a l l a y e d .  He i n i t i a t e d  precautionary  5 measures t o thwart  t h e outbreak o f any f u r t h e r I n d i a n r e v o l t .  Superunda b e l i e v e d t h a t b o t h the Representaci6n i t s e l f  and the i n d i v i d u a l s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s d r a f t i n g and p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Crown were i m p l i c a t e d i n the c o n s p i r a c y o f L i m a .  He t r a c e d t h e p l a n n i n g o f the c o n s p i r a c y t o t h e meetings  i n Lima i n 1748 and a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e document d r a f t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h o s e meeti n g s i n s p i r e d the I n d i a n s t o r e v o l t . Chapter V, the Representaci6n. framework o f Spanish  T h i s document v/as, as we e s t a b l i s h e d i n  C e r t a i n l y by j u s t i f y i n g r e b e l l i o n w i t h i n t h e  c o l o n i a l t h e o r y the Representaci6n c o u l d have r e i n f o r c e d  the o p i n i o n a l r e a d y h e l d by some members o f t h e I n d i a n e l i t e t h a t r e v o l t v/as a p r a c t i c a l and l e g i t i m a t e s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r p l i g h t . the V i c e r o y ' s s u s p i c i o n o f the Representaci6n.  Thus t h e r e i s some b a s i s f o r  Although  t h e i n t e n t i o n o f the  R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n was, a s we have i n d i c a t e d , t o a c h i e v e broad  reforms which would  a m e l i o r a t e the c o n d i t i o n o f I n d i a n s o f a l l r a n k s , i t i s q u i t e f e a s i b l e t h a t i t s g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f I n d i a n o p p r e s s i o n d i d i n f a c t serve t o i n t e n s i f y  Indian  unrest. The  V i c e r o y c o n s i d e r e d F r . C a l i x t o , because o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n v/ith the  meetings o f 1748 and t h e Representaci6n, t o be a dangerous i n f l u e n c e on t h e Indians.  F r . C a l i x t o , however, had i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s s p o n s o r s h i p  of the  Representaci6n was determined p r e c i s e l y by h i s i n t e r e s t i n p r e v e n t i n g r e b e l l i o n . F r . I s i d o r o de C a l a y Ortega c o r r o b o r a t e d t h a t t h i s was i n d e e d F r . C a l i x t o ' s  188  main purpose.  A d e t a i l e d analysis of the sequence of events involved i n the  production of the Representaci6n, the appointment of Zeballos as the C a b i l d o s 1  agent, and the conspiracy i n Lima indicates that there was no concrete basis for Superunda's suspicion of F r . C a l i x t o . Zeballos, remember, and not F r . C a l i x t o , was o f f i c i a l l y delegated to take the Representaci6n to Spain.  Zeballos' return to Lima some time i n l a t e  174-9 without having completed h i s mission can only have deepened the Indians' despair over t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to gain even a hearing by the Crown.  Although the  Lima Indian e l i t e would probably have learned through Zeballos of F r . Calixto's attempt to go to Spain, t h i s information would do l i t t l e to mitigate t h e i r despair.  According to F r . Calixto the Indian Cabildo already had serious doubts  about h i s r e l i a b i l i t y ,  and Zeballos, i n view of h i s own f a i l u r e to reach Spain,  would no doubt have reinforced these doubts by painting a very black p i c t u r e of the f r i a r ' s chances of carrying out h i s plan.  Thus having every reason to  believe that the d e c i s i o n taken i n 1748 to present a new p e t i t i o n to the Crown had been founded on f a l s e hopes, the conspirators of Lima must have abandoned t h e i r commitment to that decision and i n i t i a t e d plans to use violence to overthrow the administration as they had advocated i n 1748. Since F r . C a l i x t o had l e f t Peru before the Indians of Lima became aware of the f a i l u r e of Zeballos' mission, he obviously could have played no part i n those plans.  His correspondence  with the Indian Cabildo? of Lima i n  November, 1750, f i v e months a f t e r the plot was revealed, gives no i n d i c a t i o n that he was even aware of i t s existence.  The g i s t of t h i s l e t t e r supports the  assumption that F r . Calixto, although conscious of the lack of f a i t h which some members of the Indian e l i t e had i n the e f f i c a c y of p e t i t i o n i n g the Croxm,  189  b e l i e v e d t h a t even these i n d i v i d u a l s remained committed t o the d e c i s i o n made i n 1748  t o foreswear  v i o l e n c e u n t i l the outcome o f the Representaci6n  was  known. Superunda's s u s p i c i o n of F r . C a l i x t o stemmed, then, not from any evidence,  but from the V i c e r o y ' s w e l l - f o u n d e d  break o f I n d i a n r e v o l t .  concrete  apprehensions r e g a r d i n g the  out-  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e Lima c o n s p i r a c y , Superunda  adopted a p o l i c y of k e e p i n g  a c l o s e watch on any  new  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of  Indian  discontent. It  was  to an atmosphere of f e a r and s u s p i c i o n c r e a t e d by  Superunda's  p r e c a u t i o n a r y measures towards I n d i a n p r o t e s t t h a t F r . C a l i x t o r e t u r n e d i n The  friar,  1753.  no doubt f l u s h w i t h the v i c t o r y of h i s promotion and of the r o y a l  p r o t e c t i o n he had been g i v e n f o r h i s r e t u r n j o u r n e y , was,anxious t o resume h i s championship o f I n d i a n w e l f a r e .  Although he had won  no c o n c e s s i o n s f o r I n d i a n  s o c i e t y as a whole w h i l e i n S p a i n , h i s p e r s o n a l successes for  a r g u i n g t h a t now,  i f he c o u l d win the I n d i a n C a b i l d o ' s a u t h o r i z a t i o n , he  c o u l d r e a l l y advance t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Fr.  C a l i x t o was  gave him a good b a s i s  As h i s e a r l i e r a c t i v i t i e s demonstrated,  b o t h a s t u t e and determined, and he f i n a l l y  C a b i l d o t o g i v e him  the o f f i c i a l  to p r e s e n t t h e i r case  convinced  a u t h o r i z a t i o n which he f e l t  e f f e c t i v e l y t o the Crown.  the  would enable  I n October 1756  the  as w e l l as o t h e r p e t i t i o n s at h i s own  him  Indian  C a b i l d o o f Lima a u t h o r i z e d F r . C a l i x t o t o p r e s e n t the p e t i t i o n o r i g i n a l l y t r u s t e d t o him i n 1744  Indian  en-  o r the C a b i l d o ' s  discretion.^ The  meetings v/hich F r . C a l i x t o h e l d w i t h I n d i a n n o b l e s and the  C a b i l d o a t t h i s time were b e t r a y e d by an I n d i a n o f f i c i a l  Indian  t o the c o r r e g i d o r of  q the C e r c a d o .  I n view of Superunda's p o l i c y o f n i p p i n g any  new  manifestations  190  of I n d i a n d i s c o n t e n t i n the bud,  he launched  the aims o f the s e c r e t meetings.  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n to determine  I n the c o n t e x t of Superunda's r e p r e s s i v e  p o l i c y s e c r e c y would be e s s e n t i a l i f , as F r . C a l i x t o had a s s e r t e d b e f o r e , h i s aim c o n t i n u e d to be  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of even the most r a d i c a l elements o f  I n d i a n s o c i e t y i n p r o t e s t s to t h e Crown. evidence  gathered  A d e t a i l e d examination  of the  by the i n v e s t i g a t i o n e n t r u s t e d t o a judge o f the  Audiencia  of L i m a r e v e a l s n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e t h a t F r . C a l i x t o o r h i s c o h o r t s were p l a n n i n g a n y t h i n g more d r a s t i c than f u r t h e r p e t i t i o n s t o the Crown. The  judge,  a s s i s t e d by F r . C a l i x t o ' s s u p e r i o r s , e n t e r e d h i s c e l l  took a l l the papers he  could f i n d .  According  up o n l y t h r e e documents of i n t e r e s t . C a l i x t o as t h e i r a g e n t .  The  One  second was  was  and  t o Superunda t h e s e papers t u r n e d the C a b i l d o ' s appointment o f F r .  the l e t t e r w r i t t e n by F r . C a l i x t o t o  the I n d i a n C a b i l d o when he v/as i n S p a i n , a l e t t e r which, i n Superunda's o p i n i o n , demonstrated " t o d a l a animosidad de e s t e s u j e t o . " to  f i t the V i c e r o y ' s p r e c o n c e i v e d  q u e s t i o n was to  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n was  image of F r . C a l i x t o .  w r i t t e n i n an attempt t o convince  I n f a c t the l e t t e r i n  the members of the I n d i a n C a b i l d o  a p p o i n t F r . C a l i x t o as t h e i r o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  the c i r c u m s t a n c e s  o f h i s journey  tailored  Although  t o Spain the o n l y a n i m o s i t y  i t detailed  i t revealed  was  d i r e c t e d towards the I n d i a n C a b i l d o f o r h a v i n g r e f u s e d t o a p p o i n t him i n t h e first  place. The  t h i r d document was  of L i m a by a P e r u v i a n  a l e t t e r w r i t t e n from Madrid t o the I n d i a n  Indian noble, F e l i p e T a c u r i Mena.  the tone o f t h i s l e t t e r as malevolent F e l i p e T a c u r i expressed  10  Superunda d e s c r i b e d  and t h e r e i s some b a s i s f o r t h i s  h i s b i t t e r disappointment  I n d i a n noble v/ho r e s i d e d i n Mexico, J u l i a n S i r i l o  Cabildo  at the f a i l u r e o f a  impression. Peruvian  y C a s t i l l a , t o v/in the  support  191  of the Crown and C o u n c i l of the I n d i e s f o r a p l a n t o e s t a b l i s h a s c h o o l f o r Indians,  ^ h i s s c h o o l was  i n t e n d e d t o be run s t r i c t l y by I n d i a n s .  T a c u r i p l a c e d the blame f o r the f a i l u r e of t h i s p l a n on of Lima i t s e l f .  He  s e n t i n g wide-ranging  accused  Felipe  the I n d i a n C a b i l d o  the I n d i a n C a b i l d o of only making enemies by  i n d i c t m e n t s of the Spanish  pre-  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o the Crown  and argued that i f o n l y the C a b i l d o would r e s t r i c t i t s p e t i t i o n s to s p e c i f i c  11 demands they might be met.  I f t h i s l e t t e r had  any e f f e c t  on the I n d i a n  of L i m a i t would p r o b a b l y have been as a moderating i n f l u e n c e .  I t may  elite  i n fact  have sirayed the C a b i l d o to a u t h o r i z e once a g a i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  peti-  t i o n r e g a r d i n g the c h a r t e r of p r i v i l e g e s s i n c e T a c u r i Mena s p e c i f i c a l l y  noted  12 t h a t he  expected  Although  f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s from j u s t s u c h a p e t i t i o n .  Superunda e x p l i c i t l y  s t a t e d t h a t none of the evidence  by the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the I n d i a n meetings o f 1756  produced  c o n s t i t u t e d proof of  any  s u b v e r s i v e p l a n s , he n e v e r t h e l e s s c l u n g to h i s p o l i c y of s e v e r e r e p r i s a l s a g a i n s t I n d i a n s i n v o l v e d i n any  s o r t of p r o t e s t .  F r . C a l i x t o , whom Superunda q u i t e  r i g h t l y i d e n t i f i e d as the i n s t i g a t o r o f the meetings, bore the brunt of reprisals. any  F r . C a l i x t o was  contact with Indians.  Spain where he was  imprisoned  i n h i s c e l l and p r o h i b i t e d from  I n November 1757  these having  the V i c e r o y o r d e r e d him e x i l e d  c o n f i n e d t o the F r a n c i s c a n monastery i n Adamuz and  to  strictly  p r o h i b i t e d from r e t u r n i n g t o America. "^ 1  Not  only d i d the e x i l e of F r . C a l i x t o put  an end t o h i s c a r e e r as  an  I n d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , but i t a l s o marked the end of the c u l m i n a t i n g phase of the I n d i a n reform movement.  While Superunda's r e p r e s s i v e p o l i c i e s towards  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f I n d i a n d i s c o n t e n t amongst the I n d i a n e l i t e  of Lima e f f e c t i v e -  l y s t i f l e d I n d i a n p r o t e s t s i n the s h o r t term, i t d i d so at g r e a t expense i n  192  the l o n g r u n . F r . C a l i x t o had p l a y e d an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n c o n c i l i a t i n g the advocates of violence  to a p o l i c y of peaceful  Indian e l i t e  by c h a n n e l i n g the d i s c o n t e n t  of Lima,  agitation.  S i m i l a r l y , the  of r u r a l  caciques  into  t h e I n d i a n r e f o r m m o v e m e n t , h a d p r o v i d e d t h e s e I n d i a n l e a d e r s w i t h some of a l l e v i a t i n g t h e i r oppressed c o n d i t i o n .  The f a i l u r e o f t h e Representa'ci6n  to b r i n g b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s destroyed the f a i t h of a l l but the-most Hispanophiles w i t h i n the Lima I n d i a n e l i t e i n continued p r o t e s t . Superunda's  effective  hope  suppression of the expression of I n d i a n  rabid  Viceroy  grievances  Ik through any channels but those loss of f a i t h .  In fact,  i n Lima u n t i l after  subject  Superunda's p o l i c y e f f e c t i v e l y  compounded  this  suppressed Indian protest  his reign.  Some t i m e i n t h e 1 7 6 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , yet  to Viceregal control  t h e L i m a C a b i l d o must have  presented  a n o t h e r a p p e a l f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s ' 'and i n I766  t h e d o c u m e n t v/as f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Lima."*'"' c o u l d now a t t e m p t careers  suitable  the Indian  t o t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l n o b i l i t y may e x p l a i n t o a l a r g e  elite  of the welfare  extent  of Indian society  as  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c h a r t e r o f p r i v i l e g e s w o u l d have opened up  a w h o l e new a v e n u e their  that  t o upgrade t h e i r s t a t u s t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a n d employment i n  why t h e L i m a C a b i l d o a b a n d o n e d i t s a d v o c a c y a whole.  The f a c t  interest  o f upward m o b i l i t y t o t h e u r b a n I n d i a n s a n d hence  i n the welfare  of their rural  reduced  compatriots.  B y t h i s t i m e t h e u n r e s t w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o many o b s e r v e r s  had been  seething  within Peruvian Indian society  f o r some t i m e w a s g a i n i n g e x p r e s s i o n i n a n i n -  c r e a s i n g number o f s p o n t a n e o u s  uprisings.  For instance,  i n the province of  S i c a s i c a t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s v e n t e d b y t h e I n d i a n s i n 1770 i n t h e m u r d e r o f a n official  involved i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the repartimiento erupted again i n  193 1771  i n a mutiny by t h r e e thousand I n d i a n s a g a i n s t  i n 1774  the c o r r e g i d o r .  t h e I n d i a n s o f P a t a z i m p r i s o n e d two c o r r e g i d o r e s  whom they  a f t e r b e i n g guaranteed a pardon by the i m p r i s o n e d o f f i c i a l s .  Similarly released  The A u d i e n c i a  of L a P l a t a conducted an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h a t u p r i s i n g and concluded t h a t abusive repartimientos moved t h e A u d i e n c i a  had been i t s main cause.  The g r a v i t y o f t h i s outbreak  t o a s s e r t t h a t i t dared n o t attempt t o apprehend i t s i n -  s t i g a t o r f o r f e a r o f grave c o n s e q u e n c e s . ^ 1  These u p r i s i n g s a l l had common f e a t u r e s . corregidores  They were d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t  and they were e i t h e r l e d by c a c i q u e s  the r i g h t s o f abused c a c i q u e s .  o r i n i t i a t e d i n support o f  T h i s l a t t e r f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r u r a l  caciques  were r e c o g n i z e d  caciques  were t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o d i r e c t t h e resentment o f r u r a l  against  by the t r i b u t a r i e s as l e a d e r s and spokesmen.  the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  These Indians  The i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o t e c t o r a l  system and the a b d i c a t i o n o f t h e L i m a I n d i a n  e l i t e o f t h e i r r o l e as advocates  of o p p r e s s e d r u r a l I n d i a n s l e f t v i o l e n c e as t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e means by which these I n d i a n s c o u l d hope t o put an end t o t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n by c o l o n i a l officials. The  Lima I n d i a n  e l i t e ' s a b d i c a t i o n o f i t s r o l e as a d v o c a t e s o f t h e w e l -  f a r e o f a l l groups o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y together Indian u p r i s i n g s i n the  1770's  provide  with the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of r u r a l  the background f o r us t o present  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e R e b e l l i o n o f Tupac Amaru i n the  1780's  an  consistent  both  w i t h J o s e G a b r i e l ' s d e c l a r e d r e f o r m i s t , l o y a l i s t p o s i t i o n and w i t h h i s a d o p t i o n o f r e b e l l i o n a s a means o f a c h i e v i n g r e f o r m i s t aims. Amaru's a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e  Both Tupac  and a f t e r he i n i t i a t e d r e b e l l i o n and the t h e o r i e s  presented i n h i s w r i t i n g s substantiate  our t h e o r y  t h a t Tupac Amaru adapted  19k  the Indian reformist ideology to the changed conditions of the 1770's. " J  Although a r u r a l cacique, JosS Gabriel Tupac Amaru was p r i v i l e g e d one.  f  a wealthy and  He had been educated i n the Jesuit college of San Francisco  de Borja i n Cuzco where he v/as made aware of the l e g a l and r e l i g i o u s basis of Spain's protectoral p o l i c y towards the Peruvian Indians. a c t i v i t i e s and writings reveal Jose Gabriel was  As h i s subsequent  under the i l l u s i o n that t h i s  policy could i n f a c t play a decisive r o l e i n the actions of the c o l o n i a l administration and the Crovm.  His repeated declarations of adhesion to the  Spanish Monarchy were but one r e f l e c t i o n of h i s b e l i e f i n the ultimate j u s t i c e of the Spanish regime. As early as 1770,  Tupac Amaru attempted, just as the Indian reformists  had done, to take f u l l advantage of the l e g a l p r i v i l e g e s to which he v/as ent i t l e d as an Indian noble. v/as about to begin. of Oropesa.  He t r a v e l l e d to Lima i n order to lay claim to the marquisate  Although h i s claim to t h i s t i t l e v/as tenuous, i t was approved i n  theory by the Audiencia. the o f f i c i a l  Kis education i n the r e a l i t y of the Spanish regime  Tupac Amaru's v i c t o r y , however, was  s h o r t - l i v e d , for  recognition of h i s claim v/as withheld from p u b l i c a t i o n .  Like  e a r l i e r reformists such as Morachimo and F r . Calixto whose achievement of support i n theory from the Council of the Indies had proven to bring no e f f e c t ive  a c t i o n on the part of the c o l o n i a l administration, JosS Gabriel must have  been somewhat d i s i l l u s i o n e d by the inconclusive outcome of h i s claims to the marquisate. In 1777  he v/as threatened with the p o s s i b i l i t y of l o s i n g h i s caciqueship  to a usurper, Diego F e l i p e Betancour.  This threat came not from the  conditions  which enabled i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l i n g to cooperate with corregidores to usurp  195  r i g h t f u l but impoverished c a c i q u e s , but r a t h e r from the w i d e l y acknowledged c o r r u p t i o n of the A u d i e n c i a of L i m a .  Betancour had i n i t i a t e d l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s  to prove h i s c l a i m t o the c a c i q u e s h i p h e l d by J o s e G a b r i e l .  The  inconclusive  r e s u l t s o f t h i s l i t i g a t i o n gave Tupac Amaru an e v e r g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l s t a k e i n the r e f o r m of the S p a n i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  While i n Lima t o rebut  Betancour s 1  c l a i m s , J o s e G a b r i e l adopted p r e c i s e l y the t a c t i c which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the attempts  o f the L i m a I n d i a n e l i t e t o win the implementation  privileges.  He attempted  of t h e i r  to r e i n f o r c e h i s t h e o r e t i c a l r i g h t  theoretical  t o the c a c i q u e s h i p  w i t h e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p o f the I n d i a n s of h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n .  Indeed he p r e -  sented a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t the m i t a o f P o t o s i not only on b e h a l f of the I n d i a n s of h i s own  j u r i s d i c t i o n , but a l s o on b e h a l f o f those of o t h e r c a c i q u e s h i p s .  A g a i n , however, h i s experience r e p e a t e d t h a t o f the I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t s o f Morachimo's time.  Jos§ G a b r i e l ' s p e t i t i o n was  T h i s disappointment must have l e d him a t l e a s t  rebuffed f o r lack of evidence. t o c o n s i d e r the c o n c l u s i o n  reached by some members of the Lima I n d i a n e l i t e by 1 7 4 8 — t h a t to attempt  i t was  futile  t o g a i n c o n c e s s i o n s f o r any segment o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y through the  existing colonial  bureaucracy.  There i s some evidence t o support the b e l i e f t h a t at t h i s time J o s e G a b r i e l attempted  t o p r e s e n t h i s case t o the S p a n i s h Crown through the  v e n t i o n o f an u n c l e , B i a s Tupac Amaru. evidence t h a t I n d i a n s throughout  18  By 1780,  however, t h e r e was  interample  the V i c e r o y a l t y were p r e p a r e d t o r e b e l a g a i n s t  19 their corregidores.  At the same time, the Crown's appointment  Jose A n t o n i o de Areche  t o i n i t i a t e reforms i n the P e r u v i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a  f o u n d a t i o n f o r the implementation  o f the i n t e n d a n t system  of the V i s i t o r  gave cause f o r Jose  G a b r i e l t o hope t h a t a t l a s t the Monarch had t a k e n d e f i n i t i v e a c t i o n t o r o u t  196  the c o r r u p t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Much as Areolae's a c t i o n s b e l i e d i t , h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s  were p r e d i c a t e d not o n l y on a d e s i r e t o modernize the c o l o n i a l economy and m i n i s t r a t i o n , but on a d e s i r e t o do so i n a way a m e l i o r a t e the c o n d i t i o n s of the I n d i a n s .  which would  I t was  effectively  the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n which  t h e o r i s t s such as C a m p i l l o on whose p l a n the proposed r e f o r m s were based f i e d as the Crown's g r e a t e s t t r e a s u r e s i n America. to i n t e g r a t e Indians  i t s s u b s t i t u t i o n by  identi-  A prime f a c t o r i n the p l a n  i n t o a p r o d u c t i v e c o l o n i a l economy was  o f f i c e of c o r r e g i d o r and  ad-  intendants.  the a b o l i t i o n o f the  I n view of t h i s p l a n ,  Tupac Amaru's d e c i s i o n to i n i t i a t e an I n d i a n r e v o l t by murdering a c o r r e g i d o r c o u l d be  i n t e r p r e t e d as an attempt t o demonstrate the c a c i q u e ' s aim of  hastening  20 reforms a l r e a d y approved by the Crown.  By  h a r n e s s i n g the I n d i a n r e v o l t s a l r e a d y  o c c u r r i n g i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of P e r u and d i r e c t i n g them t o s e r v e the aims o f the Crown, Jos§ G a b r i e l , l i k e F r . C a l i x t o e a r l i e r , may last-ditch effort the Crovm was i t had  t o preserve  indeed  i n f a c t have been making a  the Spanish Monarchy i n P e r u i n the b e l i e f t h a t  on the verge o f f i n a l l y implementing t h e p r o t e c t o r a l p o l i c i e s  so l o n g espoused.  The  w r i t i n g s of Tupac Amaru c o n f i r m t h i s  B o t h at the b e g i n n i n g and  theory.  the end o f h i s l e a d e r s h i p o f the I n d i a n  rebellion  Tupac Amaru d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f as a c o n t i n u e r of a l o n g t r a d i t i o n of p r o t e s t emanating from both I n d i a n and S p a n i s h  sources.  I n November 1780,  addressing  h i m s e l f t o the C r e o l e s , he a t t r i b u t e d h i s advocacy of the I n d i a n s ' cause t o the same motive which had  i n s p i r e d e a r l i e r appeals by members of the I n d i a n  an o b l i g a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s of the  nobility:  Como l o s r e p e t i d o s clamores de l o s n a t u r a l e s de e s t a s P r o v i n c i a s . . . aunque h a b i a n p r o d u c i d o v a r i a s J u s t a s quejas, a t o d o s l o s T r i b u n a l e s , no h a l l a b a n remedio oportuno p a r a c o n t e n e r l o s , y que pues yo como e l mas D i s t i n g u i d o d e b i a m i r a r l o s con a q u e l l a l a s t i m a que l a misma n a t u r a l e z a e x i g e , y mas con e s t o s i n f e l i c e s . ^ l  nobility—  197  In March 1 7 8 l , Tupac Amaru explained the failure of earlier appeals to achieve effective reform i n terms characteristic of the Indian protest movement—the Monarch's ignorance of the true plight of the Peruvian Indians: Publico y notorio es lo que contra ellos han informado a l Real Consejo los SS. Arzobispos, Obispos, Cabildos, Prelados y Religiones, Curas y otras personas constituldas en dignidad y letras, pidiendo remedio a favor de este Reyno: causa de ellos, como al presente ha sucedido y esta sucediendo, y ha sido tan grande nuestro infortunio para que no sean atendidos en los Reales Consejos: sera l a causa porque no han llegado a los reales oldos.^ Jos£ Gabriel Tupac Amaru held the Indian reformists' view that the Spanish Monarch's benevolence towards his Indian subjects was thv/arted by the deliberate and malevolent intervention of his own administrators.  Jos§ Gabriel defined the  Crown's legislation as an indication of the Monarch's real commitment to the protection of Indian welfare in terms similar to those of earlier Indian protests. Compare for example the following lines from the Representaci6n: . . . pues no hay otra cosa en los archivos y leyes y cedulas, con que nos han favorecido, tan inmensa y copiosamente, vuestros gloriosisimos progenitores . . . s i por lo que se experimenta practicado todo es en contra de lo que esta.raandado;por eso lloramos y gemimos. (p. 8) with these words of Tupac Amaru: No tengo voces para explicar su real grandeza, que como es nuestro amparo, protecci6n y escudo, es el pafio de lagrimas nuestras; que como es nuestro Padre y Sefior, es nuestro refugio y consuelo: no halla voces nuestro reconocimiento, amor y fidelidad, para del todo explicar y decir, que cosa es e l Rey mi Sefior: publiquen su real grandeza, expliquen l a fragua de su amor las Recopiladas de Indias, las ordenanzas y cedulas reales, las provisiones, encargos, ruegos y demas prevenciones, dirijidas a los SS. Vireyes, Presidentes . . . que juzgo en todo lo referido no hay punto, apice ni coma que no sea a favor de sus pobres indios ne6fitos . . . es pues de sentir que siendo tan excesivo e l favor y amor de nuestros soberanos, que nos amparan y protejen, sea mayor l a fragua de nuestro tormento y cautiverio.23  198 Tupac Amaru's d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l i g h t of Indian s o c i e t y as one of c a p t i v i t y i s reminiscent of the terms i n which the Representaci6n the Indians' despair over t h e i r subjugation. same analogy as the Representaci6n,  expressed  I n f a c t , Tupac Amaru used the  the comparison between the c a p t i v i t y of  the Jews and that of the C h r i s t i a n Indians.  More importantly, he used t h i s  analogy i n e s s e n t i a l l y the same way to depict the Indians' p l i g h t as f a r worse than that of the Jews i n c a p t i v i t y : Por providencia d i v i n a , l i b e r t a r o n a l i n f e l i z pueblo de I s r a e l d e l poder de G o l i a t y Fara6n: fue l a raz6n porque l a s lagrimas de estos pobres cautivos dieron t a l e s voces de compasi6n, pidiendo j u s t i c i a a l c i e l o , que en cortos anos s a l i e r o n de su m a r t i r i o y tormento para l a t i e r r a de promisi6n: mas lay! que a l f i n lograron su deseo, aunque con tanto l l a n t o y lagrimas. Mas nosotros, i n f e l i c e s i n d i o s , con mas suspiros y lagrimas que, e l l o s , en tantos s i g l o s no hemos podido conseguir ningun a l i v i o . ' ^ S i m i l a r l y , JosS G a b r i e l followed the p a t t e r n set by the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n i n a t t r i b u t i n g the tyranny s u f f e r e d by the Indians not to the Spanish Monarch but to the corrupt Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The c o l l e c t i v e nature of t h i s tyranny was expressed i n terms of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of Pharaohs.  Jos§ G a b r i e l  wrote " e l Fara6n que nos persigue, maltrata y h o s t i l i z a , no es uno s o l o , sino muchos, tan i n i c u o s y de corazones tan depravados"  J  and the  Representaci6n  stated parece que nos dominan e g i p c i o s y no espanoles; que nos sujetan Faraones y no Reyes c a t 6 l i c o s " (p. 10). Both Tupac Amaru and the Representaci6n  gave an i d e n t i c a l explanation  f o r the greater s e v e r i t y of the Indians' oppression i n r e l a t i o n to that of other s o c i e t i e s throughout h i s t o r y . Compare the Representaci6n's  "eran l o s egipcios  id61atras y c a t 6 l i c a s l o s j u d i o s ; pero aca. l o s espanoles son c r i s t i a n o s y c r i s t i a n o s son l o s i n d i o s . S i fueron cautivados por Nabuco Donosor, por Necao,  199  A l e j a n d r o , A n t i o c o y l o s Romanes, hubo l a d i s p a r i d a d de s e r unos i n f i e l e s , y f i e l e s l o s o t r o s " ( p . kO) w i t h Tupac Amaru's " l o s Nerones y A t i l a s , de l a h i s t o r i a r e f i e r e sus i n i q u i d a d e s , y de s61o l l o r a n l o s corazones.  En e s t o s hay  o i r se estremecen l o s cuerpos y '  :  d i s c u l p a porque a l f i n f u e r o n i n f i e l e s ;  pero l o s c o r r e j i d o r e s , siendo b a u t i z a d o s , d e s d i c e n d e l c r i s t i a n i s m o con obras, y mas  quienes  sus  parecen A t e i s t a s , C a l v i n i s t a s y L u t e r a n o s , porque son enemigos de  D i o s y de l o s hombres, i d 6 l a t r a s d e l oro y l a p l a t a . " I n keeping w i t h h i s a c c u s a t i o n t h a t the Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were i d o l a t e r s , Jose G a b r i e l invoked the m i s s i o n a r y argument t h a t such c o r r u p t o f f i c i a l s were d e s t i n e d f o r d i v i n e punishment f o r t h e i r o p p r e s s i o n of the I n d i a n s : "...  saben que hay D i o s , y no l o creen remunerador y j u s t i c i e r o , y sus' obras  nos l o m a n i f i e s t a n . . .  e l l o s nunca se c o n f i e s a n , porque e s t a n con e l robo  en  27 l a mano, y no h a l l a n sacerdote que  l o s absuelva."  J u s t as the R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n had used such a c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a b a s i s f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r e b e l l i o n would be a s u i t a b l e c a s t i g a t i o n f o r tyranny, Jos§ G a b r i e l Tupac Amaru accused the S p a n i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of i l l e g i t i m a c y b o t h  on  r e l i g i o u s grounds as " a p 6 s t a t a s de l a f e " and on s e c u l a r grounds as " t r a i d o r e s 28 a l Rey."  T h e r e f o r e , he concluded t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h i s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would be a g r e a t s e r v i c e t o the Crown: s e r d e s t r u i d o s a fuego y sangre  "...  tyrannical  luego e l l o s deben  en e l i n s t a n t e ; luego matando nosotros a l o s  c o r r e j i d o r e s y sus secuaces, hacemos grandes s e r v i c i o s a su Majestad, y somos dignos de preraio y  29  correspondencia."  J o s e G a b r i e l ' s adherence t o the b e l i e f t h a t by r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , he  c o u l d serve the j o i n t i n t e r e s t s ' of the I n d i a n s and o f the  Crown v/as based on the same unwarranted f a i t h i n the Crown's avowed d e v o t i o n  200  to p r o t e c t o r a l i d e a l s t h a t had permeated the I n d i a n reform movement from i t s inception.  T h i s f a i t h had been maintained  over  two  c e n t u r i e s by the  Crown's l i p - s e r v i c e t o p r o t e c t o r a l i d e a l s i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the p o l i c i e s pursued by i t s c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Spanish  exploitative  The d e s i g n a t i o n of a  specific  i n s t i t u t i o n , the p r o t e c t o r a l system, to execute the Crovm's benevolent t e n t i o n s had not o n l y p e r p e t u a t e d  the f i c t i o n o f i t s benevolence, but  p r o v i d e d a v e h i c l e through which I n d i a n s c o u l d formulate a g a i n s t the Spanish theory.  The  in-  their  complaints  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h i n the framework of Spanish  e x i s t e n c e of a ready-made e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the  also  colonial  cause of the  Indians'  o p p r e s s i o n as w e l l as a ready-made panacea f o r t h a t o p p r e s s i o n proved t o be  a  l i m i t i n g f a c t o r on the development of I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t thought i n e i g h t e e n t h century P e r u .  The  r a d i c a l missionary Spanish  r e f o r m i s t s ' a d o p t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n based on s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i d e a l s as a panacea f o r the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s which the  c o l o n i a l regime had had  on I n d i a n s o c i e t y prevented  a r e a l i s t i c awareness o f the complex s o c i a l and  ill  prepared  As a r e s u l t ,  the  t o meet the c h a l l e n g e of e f f e c t i n g a  p r a c t i c a l a l l i a n c e w i t h non-Indian groups such as the c l e r g y and the whose support  developing  economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  e x i s t e d amongst the v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y . I n d i a n r e f o r m i s t i d e o l o g y was  them from  Creoles  c o u l d have s p e l l e d the success o f the r e b e l l i o n of 1 ? 8 0 .  201  NOTES  CHAPTER VI  The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f the c o n s p i r a c y of L i m a i n 1 7 5 0 and t h e subsequent  u p r i s i n g i n H u a r o c h i r i i s based on d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the e v e n t s  g i v e n by the V i c e r o y , Superunda, i n l e t t e r s t o t h e K i n g .  The f i r s t of t h e s e  was v / r i t t e n on 2 4 September 1 7 5 0 and has been t r a n s c r i b e d by C a s t r o A r e n a s , pp. x x i - x x i v .  The second was d a t e d 1 5 J a n u a r y 1 7 5 7 and has been t r a n s c r i b e d  i n C a l i x t o , pp. 8 4 - 9 1 .  S i n c e t h e main c o n c e r n i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s the i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n of the e v e n t s d e s c r i b e d i n these l e t t e r s , I w i l l s i m p l y r e f e r t h e reader t o these sources f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n of the f a c t s .  A number of a d d i t i o n a l  d e t a i l s on the r e b e l l i o n i n H u a r o c h i r i , p r e s e n t e d i n V a r g a s , H i s t o r i a , I V , 253,  248-  a l s o s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r our d e s c r i p t i o n o f the e v e n t s o f 1 7 5 0 . 2  Noticias secretas, I , 3 3 1 . E s t a d o p o l i t i c o , p. 8. Superunda, 1 7 5 6 i n C a l i x t o , p.  86.  5 "He  tornado t o d a s l a s medidas, p a r a que e s t e v e c i n d a r i o no v i v a en des-  c u i d o e imprudente  c o n f i a n z a y e v i t e con l a p r e c a u c i 6 n e l p e l i g r o a que pueden  e x p o n s e r l o en e l despecho y l a b a r b a r i d a d de una n a c i 6 n siempre mal c o n t e n t a y f a c i l m e n t e m o v i b l e y que segun a c r e d i t a l a e x p e r i e n c i a de l o s tiempos no depone e l pensamiento C a s t r o A r e n a s , p.  xxiii.  de romper l a o b e d i e n c i a . "  pasados,  See Superunda, 1 7 5 1 i n  202  6  Q  I n h i s l e t t e r o f 1 7 5 0 °uperunda d e s c r i b e d t h e proponents R e p r e s e n t a c i 6 n as " r e l i g i o s o s de c o r t o s t a l e n t o s y que h a c i e n d o  of the c a p r i c h o su  p a t r o c i n i o no a d v i e r t e n l a s raalas consecuencias de a l e n t a r l e s unos pensaraientos tan  f u e r a de toda p r u d e n c i a de g o b i e r n o . "  ( I n C a s t r o Arenas,  p. x x i i . )  7 . . . l o s i raismos de n u e s t r a Naci6n . . . han d i s c u r r i d o que yo l e s engaSaba, p o r cuyo motivo no han q u e r i d o c o n c u r r i r con d i n e r o alguno p a r a f a c i l i t a r n u e s t r a p r e tensifin. Tambien v i v o muy quejoso de v u e s t r a s mercedes, por no haber querido c r e e r l a p a l a b r a que l e s d l , de que en l a p r i m e r a o c a s i 6 n que p u d i e r a p a s a r a Espafia, l o h a b l a de e j e c u t a r . See F r . C a l i x t o , l e t t e r t o I n d i a n C a b i l d o i n C a l i x t o , p . 5 4 . o "Poder" o f 3 0 October 1 7 5 6 . 9  1  0  See note 4 , Chapter V.  Superunda, 1 7 5 7 , i n C a l i x t o , p . 8 7 . L e t t e r o f F e l i p e T a c u r i Mena t o the I n d i a n C a b i l d o o f Lima ( M a d r i d ,  3 0 J u l y 1 7 5 5 ) t r a n s c r i b e d i n C a l i x t o , pp. 1  1  8O-83.  " . , . todos l o s Seriores e s t a n a mi f a v o r p o r d i r i g i r m e mi memorial  s 6 l o a mi p r e t e n s i 6 n , s i n dar q u e j a s de.nadie, porque e l d a r quejas de todos es l o que nos p i e r d e , y no hacemos adeptos." 12  See T a c u r i Mena i n C a l i x t o , p. 8 2 .  "Tengo p r e s e n t a d o un memorial a l C o n s e j o , en que p i d o se me de un d e c r e t o , en que mande a todas l a s R e l i g i o n e s generalmente  r e c i b a n a todos l o s  i n d i o s , c o n c u r r i e n d o en e l l o s l a s c o n d i c i o n e s n e c e s a r i a s . . . y . . . todos l o s Senores  e s t a n a mi f a v o r . "  See T a c u r i Mena i n C a l i x t o , p . 8 2 .  Superunda, 1 7 5 7 , i n C a l i x t o , p . 9 0 and F r a y A n t o n i o Juan de M o l i n a , C o m i s a r i o G e n e r a l , l e t t e r t o "Padre Guardian de n u e s t r o Convento de San F r a n c i s c o d e l Monte," (Madrid, 1 2 December I 7 6 O ) 93-94.  t r a n s c r i b e d i n C a l i x t o , pp.  203  14  . . . he hecho a d v e r t i r a l o s mas r a c i o n a l e s y menos sospechosos se abstengan de semejantes juntas y conc u r r e n c i a s s e c r e t a s , que l a s p u e r t a s d e l P a l a c i o e s t a n siempre a b i e r t a s p a r a o i r l e s en j u s t i c i a , que no se dejen l l e v a r de s u g e s t i o n e s i n t e r e s a d a s , y c u a l e s q u i e r a r e c u r s o s e i n s t a n c i a s que q u i e r a n h a c e r a V u e s t r a Majestad, l a s p r a c t i q u e n por medio de sus p r o t e c t o r e s y m i n i s t r o s que t i e n e n senalados p a r a que l o s f a v o r e z c a n .  Superunda, 1757» i n C a l i x t o , p.  90.  15 Reprinted l6  i n Vargas, Impresos peruanos, VI, 127 f f .  These u p r i s i n g s are d e s c r i b e d  i n Amat, Memoria, pp.  292-298.  17 Since the main i n t e r e s t i n the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of Tupac Amaru's a c t i v i t i e s i s i n p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h the •Indian r e f o r m i s t s , I r e f e r the r e a d e r t o the The  Last  Inca Revolt;  See Lewin, p. 337  1  9  20  climate  f o r evidence on  L. F i s h e r , pp.  a d i s c u s s i o n of A r e c h e ' s i n n o v a t i o n s  Last Inca Revolt,  Palacio Atard,  pp.  20,  and  the  this  53-79.  and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to  18-21; B. Lewin, L a r e b e l i 6 n , pp.  the  see  L.  307-313;  Areche Y G u i r i o r , O b s e r v a c i o n e s sobre e l f r a c a s o  de  una  J . F i s h e r , " L a r e b e l i 6 n de Tupac Amaru."  p r e c e d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n between the Crown's i n t e n t i o n o f a b o l i s h i n g  corregidores  Lewin,  o f the f a c t s .  Rowe, "Movimiento," p. 36  v i s i t a a l Peru ( S e v i l l e , 1946); and The  Fisher,  of d i s s e n t v/hich preceded the outbreak of the r e b e l l i o n of 1780  F i s h e r , The Vicente  and  a p p e a l to the Crown. See Lewin, pp. 132-196, 335-378 and For  s t a n d a r d a u t h o r i t i e s , L.  earlier  D a n i e l V a r c a r c e l , L a r e b e l i 6 n de Tupac Amaru and B.  L a r e b e l i 6 n de Tupac Amaru f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n l8  possible  a c t i v i t i e s of  the  Spanish Monarchy's t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t o r a l i d e a l s and  p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on Tupac Amaru's murder o f the c o r r e g i d o r  i s based on  their the  argument p r e s e n t e d by Juan P e r e z de T u d e l a y Bueso, " A c e r c a d e l s i g n i f i c a d o de  204  Tupac Amaru en l a h i s t o r i a p o l l t i c a de l a Monarquia I n d i a n a " i n Quinto congreso, pp. 454-455. Jose G a b r i e l Tupac Amaru, E d i c t o (1? November I78O), i n Lewin, p. 421. 22 JosS G a b r i e l Tupac Amaru, " C a r t a a J o s e Antonio Areche" i n Manuel de O d r i o z o l a , ed., Documentos h i s t 6 r i c o s d e l P e r u (Lima, 1863), I , 146. Hereafter 2  c i t e d as " C a r t a a Areche."  ^ " C a r t a a Areche," p. 146.  ?4 " C a r t a a Areche," p. 146. 2  ^ " C a r t a a Areche," p. 146. " C a r t a a Areche," p. 146.  2  7  " C a r t a a Areche," p. 150. " C a r t a a Areche," p . 151.  2  9  " C a r t a a Areche," p. 151.  205  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I ARCHIVAL SOURCES ARCHIVO GENERAL DE INDIAS  A.  P e t i t i o n s of I n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n Advocates L i s t e d  Chronologically  Senor, Don V i c e n t e Morachimo, C a z i q u e de l o s q u a t r o p u e b l o s de I n d i o s , S a n t i a g o , Chocope, Cao, v_ San Estevan d e l V a l l e de Chicama, j u r i s d i c i o n de l a Ciudad de T r u x i l l o , Reyno d e l P e r u , por s i , y_ p o r l o s r e f e r i d o s quatro P u e b l o s , de que f u e nombrado P r o c u r a d o r por e l V i r r e y , p u e s t o a l o s Reales p i e s de V. Mag, d i c e ; Que v i e n e quatro m i l leguas de a q u i , no t a n t o p o r s u p r o p i o i n t e r e s , quanto p o r hacer p r e s e n t e a V. Mag, e l desamparo t o t a l de l o s m i s e r a b l e s I n d i o s , y_ l a t y r a n i a con que g e n e r a l mente son t r a t a d o s de todos l o s M i n i s t r o s E s p a n o l e s , y_ en e s p e c i a l de de l o s V i s i t a d o r e s . [ M a d r i d , 1722] (Lima 437). Sehor, Don V i c e n t e Mora Chimo Capac, Cacique p r i n c i p a l de l o s Pueblos de I n d i o s S a n t i a g o , San Pedro, y_ San P a b l o de Chocope, S a n t a M a f i a Magdalena de Cao, y_ San E s t e v a n , en e l V a l l e de Chicama, San S a l v a d o r de Ma'nciche, y_ P u e r t o de Guanchaco, t o d o s de l a J u r i s d i c i o n de l a C i u d a d de T r u x i l l o , Z R^ocurador G e n e r a l de sus N a t u r a l e s , p o r nombramiento d e l Govierno s u p e r i o r d e l Reyno d e l P e r u , usando de l a f a c u l t a d de e s t e t i t u l o , por s i , y_ en nombre de d i c h o s I n d i o s , se pone a. l o s Re'ales p i e s de V. Mag. y_ dice: Que a v i e n d o passado a e s t o s Reynos e l ano de 1721, a p e d i r j u s t i c i a c o n t r a Don Pedro de Alsamora, V i s i t a d o r de T i e r r a s . [Madrid, 1724] (Lima 43o7. Morachimo, V i c e n t e de. Choquihuanca,  Jos§.  L e t t e r t o the K i n g .  January, 1725.  L e t t e r to Viceroy C a s t e l f u e r t e .  (Lima 438).  6 September 1727.  (Lima  495). Sefior.  Don Pedro N i e t o de V a r g a s , Diputado de l o s I n d i o s d e l Reyno d e l P e r u , en v i r t u d de sus Poderes G e n e r a l e s , f e l i z m e n t e e x a l t a d o baxo de l o s R e a l e s p i e s de V. Mag, d i c e ; Que por e l afio passado de 1732, expuso a l a docta, y_ j u s t i f i c a d a c e n s u r a de l o s M i n i s t r o s de V. Mag, en su R e a l Consejo de l a s I n d i a s , un breve resumen de l o s a g r a v i o s , que p a d e c i a n l o s I n d i o s de a q u e l l a s P r o v i n c i a l s ! [ M a d r i d , 1734] (Lima 440).  206  Garcia L l a g l l a , H i l a r i o .  P e t i t i o n t o t h e Crown.  C a x i a m a r c a Condor Guanca, B i a s .  [  1737  L e t t e r t o Morachimo.  ] (Lima 4 4 1 ) .  7 March 1737.  (Lima  495).  Le6n y Escand6n, Pedro de. Defense o f t h e C a c i q u e o f S i e t e Huarangas. ( L i m a 540).  [1744]  C a l a y O r t e g a , F r . I s i d o r o de. D e p o s i t i o n t o t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e I n d i e s . (Lima 5 4 l ) . 9 January 1751.  B.  N.d.  . Deposition t o the Council o f the Indies. (Lima 5 4 l ) .  Collective Indian Petitions Listed Chronologically  P e t i t i o n t o t h e Crown s i g n e d by F r a n c i s c o E s t e b a n Montero, C r i s t o b a l Asmare, P a b l o de l a C r u z , Pedro V a l e n t i n , F r a n c i s c o Chuqui p a u c a r A t a u c h i I n g a , F e l i p e I s i d o r o C o l q u i r u n a , J u a n B a u t i s t a Cinchiguaman, [ L o r e n z o ? ] Avendano. L i m a [1708] ( L i m a 438). Copy o f p e t i t i o n t o t h e V i c e r o y s i g n e d by Domingo.Chaiguac, F r a n c i s c o P a u l l i Chumbi Saba Capac I n g a , L a z a r o Poma I n g a , J u a n C a r l o s A c a s i o , Bartholome R o d r i g u e z A p o a l a y a , F r a n c i s c o Chuqui p a u c a r , S a l v a d o r Puycon, J u a n N a v a r r o , J o s e p h A n a s t a c i o Pacheco, J u a n Poma I n g a , N i c o l a s G a l i n d o , Juan G o n z a l e z Cargua P a u c a r , A n t o n i o Gomes V i l c a Guaman. [ O c t o b e r , 1711] ( L i m a 495). Copy o f p e t i t i o n t o t h e V i c e r o y s i g n e d by F r a n c i s c o Saba Capac I n g a , J u a n Ucho I n g a T i t o Y u p a n q u i , Joseph de l a Cueva T i t o Guascar I n g a , V e n t u r a Songo C u s i G u a l p a , P a s q u a l Cassamusa y S a n t i l l a n , Pedro P a n t a Chumbe, S e b a s t i a n de l o s Reyes, S a l v a d o r Puycon, Lorenzo de Abendano, C a r l o s A c a s i o , Joseph de C a s t r o , J a z i n t o Chumbi, B i a s C a l d e r o n , R o d r i g o Gago, A l o n z o Condor Poma, Ramon de l a Rosa. [Between 15 March and 1 A p r i l 1724] (Lima 495). Copy o f memorial t o t h e V i c e r o y .  27 June 1724.  (Lima 4 9 5 ) .  L e t t e r t o V i c e n t e de Morachimo s i g n e d by F r a n c i s c o Atun Apo Saba Capac T.nga, J o s e p h T i b u r s i o Chimo Capac Geoquel, L o r e n z o de Avendano, S a l v a d o r P u i c o n , [ i n d e c i p h e r a b l e ] Guaraca. 12 May 1726. ( L i m a 495). P e t i t i o n t o t h e Crown s i g n e d by J o s e p h T i b u r s i o P a r r a l Chimo Capac L i g u a Geoquel, F r a n c i s c o A t u n Apo Cuismango Saba Capac Ynga, Lorenzo de Avendano, Domingo Chayguac, Andres d e l Peso C a r b a j a l Caxa P a i c a , S a l v a d o r P u i c o n . 13 May 1726. (Lima 4 9 5 ) .  207  Signed copy o f p e t i t i o n o r i g i n a l l y d i r e c t e d t o the V i c e r o y on 23 December 1726. F r a n c i s c o Saba Capac Inga, J o s e p h Chimo Capac P a r r a l L i g u a , J a c i n t o Chumbi, Marcos Paucar C o p a c o n d o r i , Domingo Chaiguac, A l f o n z o Poma C o n d o r i Mango I n c a . 6 September 1727. (Lima 495). Sefior.  L o s C a c i q u e s y_ Comun de I n d i o s de P a y t a y_ C o l a n , R e p a r t i m i e n t o de l a C i u d a d de P i u r a , en e l Reyno d e l Peru de V. Mag, d i c e n ; Que s i e n d o t a n t a s y_ t a n r e p e t i d a s l a s v e x a c i o n e s que experiment an en l a e x a c c i o n de l o s T r i b u t o s , l e s han p u e s t o y_ ponen en l a mayor, y_ mas lamentable r u i n a de v e r s e p r e c i s a d o s a ausentarse de a q u e l P a i s , a l no darse p o r V. Mag, l a s p r o v i d e n c i a s que contenga, reformen,.. y r e f r e n e n l o s excessos y ambiciones c o n que se procede a l a e x a c c i o n , en e l modo, y_ en l a quota.  11736] (Lima  W).  Representaci6n v e r d a d e r a y_ exclamaci6n r e n d i d a y_ lamentable que toda l a n a c i 6 n i n d i a n a hace a l a Majestad d e l Senor Rey de l a s Espaflas y_ Emperador de l a s I n d i a s , e l Sefior don Fernando V I , p i d i e n d o l o s a t i e n d a y r erne d i e , s a c a n d o l o s d e l a f r e n t o s o v i t u p e r i o y o p r o b i o en que e s t a n mas de d o s c i e n t o s afios. [Copy made i n 174-9] (Lima 988). 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