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Time, tense and L’étranger : an approach through performance theory Arthurs, James 1976

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TIME, TENSE AND L'ETRANGER: AN APPROACH THROUGH PERFORMANCE THEORY by JAMES ARTHURS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Durham, 1956 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1968 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French) We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1976 (c) James Arthurs, 1976 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f T ' &l'T'W\ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 SUPERVISOR: PROFESSOR F.R. HAMLIN i i ABSTRACT A study of the considerable l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n around L'Etranger makes c l e a r that i t s wide range of approaches and methodologies r a i s e s i n t e r e s t i n g and important questions of a t h e o r e t i c a l nature. In the p a r t i c u l a r area of language-ori-ented s t u d i e s , the d i s p a r i t y of the models proposed or pre-supposed and, i n the case of very s i m i l a r models, the notable d i s p a r i t y of the conclusions drawn c a l l f o r f u r t h e r examina-t i o n of the theory behind them. Most such models are seen to r e v o l v e around the r o l e of the n a r r a t o r and h i s r e l a t i o n to events recounted i n the t e x t . U n l i k e most l i n g u i s t i c models, these are performance-o r i e n t e d - a f a c t that i s seen as c r u c i a l , r a i s i n g the ques-t i o n of the nature of a p u t a t i v e performance theory and i t s r e l a t i o n to models based on competence/lanpnqe. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of these questions e s t a b l i s h e s the need f o r e l a b o r a t i o n of the study of enon c i a t i o n (or " a l l o c u t i o n " ) and more p a r t i c u -l a r l y of the "aspect i n d i c i e l du langage" i n order to e l u c i -date time and tense i n r e l a t i o n to performance. The method adopted, i n v o l v i n g a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the p r e v a i l i n g models i n t h i s area (Benveniste and Weinrich), shows the b i n a r y elegance of t h e i r schemes to be misleading i i i and at variance with numerous examples of l i t e r a r y usage. The proposal i s made that the d l s o o u r s / r e c i t c o n t r a s t "be r e -garded'as belonging to the area of i l l o c u t i o n a r y f orces i n general and as such capable of being marked by various devices i n a d d i t i o n to tense-forms and " s h i f t e r s " . A p a r t i c u l a r set of devices, the p r e s e n t e n t i a l s , i s proposed: founded on the s y n t a c t i c n otion of the higher S, they mark both the f o r c e and the time of u t t e r a n c e s . A r e -l a t e d c l a s s , the i n t e r r u p t i o n sentences, i s examined and ex-panded and, along with a t h i r d c l a s s , the commentary^forms•? c o n s t i t u t e s an important a d d i t i o n to the markers of s u i - r e f e - rence . F i n a l l y , a d e t a i l e d i n s p e c t i o n of L'Etranger r e v e a l s the importance of these devices i n the t e x t and, i n connection with the o f t - d i s c u s s e d "moments de n a r r a t i o n " , gives r i s e to a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e based on a c l e a r e r understanding of the r e l a t i o n of " l e temps l i n g u i s t i q u e " and ''le temps chrono- l o g i q u e" i n the novel and a more p r e c i s e explanation of the r o l e of the reader. In the l i g h t of t h i s , various s u b s i d i a r y aspects are then explained i n r e l a t i o n to Camus*s i n t e n t i o n s and h i s a r t i s t i c achievement i n L'Etranger. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ,1 Notes . ..... 1^ 2 . Performance Theory 15 Notes • • • 5 3 3 . Time and Tense, I • 55 Notes • 85 4. Time and Tense. I I 89 Notes . .... 121 5 . Time and Tense. I l l 125 Notes .. . .. l 6 l 6 . L'Etranger 167 Notes 219 B i b l i o g r a p h y 226 L I S T OF F IGURES F i g u r e Page v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Of the many people who deserve my thanks, I wish most p a r t i c u l a r l y to express my g r a t i t u d e to the f o l l o w i n g : the Head and members of the French Dept. at UBC, f o r t h e i r encouragement and forbearance; the Head, A c t i n g Chairman and members of the L i n g u i s t i c s Dept. at UVIC, my colleagues, f o r t h e i r encouragement and support, as w e l l as countless d i s c u s s i o n s concerning my work; the members of my Committee, f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g a s s i s t a n c e ; my c h i l d r e n , f o r t h e i r remarkable - i f f r e q u e n t l y incom-prehending — t o l e r a n c e ; my wife Norah, f o r ever y t h i n g . CHAPTER ONE I n t r o d u c t i o n . 0. The f l o o d of s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g s centred around Camus's L'Etranger has not gone unabated, yet even today i t continues i n a steady stream. This l i t e r a t u r e i s an impressive pheno-menon, at once a s t o n i s h i n g , b e w i l d e r i n g and t a n t a l i s i n g - by i t s sheer magnitude, i t s range and i t s c o n c l u s i o n s . Therefore i t i s s u r e l y with a c e r t a i n t r e p i d a t i o n that one would propose s t i l l another study of the work: any a d d i t i o n r i s k s appearing at f i r s t g r a t u i t o u s . And yet, imposing though i t i s , t h i s l i t e r a t u r e seems somehow incomplete and i n some respects un-s a t i s f y i n g . 0.1 That such a s l i m volume should have provoked the r e -sponse i t has i s i n i t s e l f a s t o n i s h i n g . I t has s e i z e d the a t t e n t i o n of students of every type, the great and the unknown, the perceptive and the mundane, i n works ranging from the merest notes to e n t i r e volumes devoted to i t . 1 Not a l l of these by any means .are s p e c i a l i s t s i n l i t e r a t u r e ; they count i n t h e i r number p s y c h o l o g i s t s , philosophers, s o c i o l o g i s t s and l i n g u i s t s . The r e s u l t a n t set of a t t i t u d e s and stances adopted towards L'Etranger has made f o r a body of work of the utmost [Ch. 1] . 2 complexity, the source of our bewilderment. 0.2 I t i s a bewilderment that i s s c a r c e l y d i s s i p a t e d by one's growing f a m i l i a r i t y with the l i t e r a t u r e . Not only are the themes encountered and the p o i n t s of view expressed there-i n so many and d i v e r s e , as w e l l as s p e c i a l i s e d , that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to encompass them a l l , but even i n i n d i v i d u a l cases i t i s o f t e n hard to know why a c e r t a i n approach has been adop-ted or a c e r t a i n emphasis laid„or, conversely, not l a i d . In the face of d i f f i c u l t i e s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s of t h i s s o r t , i t comes as perhaps no s u r p r i s e to f e e l a r e l u c t a n c e to accept, because undemonstrated or inadequately founded, conclusions which yet seem i n t u i t i v e l y r i g h t . I t i s i n t h i s sense that the l i t e r a t u r e i s f r e q u e n t l y t a n t a l i s i n g . 1.0 Some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a l l u d e d to might oft e n be explained as the r e s u l t of too great a preoccupation with a p a r t i c u l a r set of i n t e r e s t s or a p a r t i c u l a r methodology. I t i s undoubtedly with something of the s o r t i n mind that C r u i c k -shank, twenty years .ago, s a i d : "And what i s more seriou s s t i l l , a tendency to t r e a t the novel as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the essay [Le Mythe de Sisyphe] has r e s u l t e d i n such emphasis on the content of L'Etranger that s e v e r a l of i t s f i n e s t t e c h n i c a l achievements have escaped n o t i c e . The absurdism i m p l i e d by Meursault's per-s o n a l i t y and behaviour has too f r e q u e n t l y been discussed without adequate a t t e n t i o n being p a i d to the form and me-dium of i t s expression. In other words, c r i t i c s have been slow to e x p l a i n what i t i s that makes L'Etranger a novel, a work of a r t , and not simply the statement of a p h i l o s o -p h i c a l a t t i t u d e " . (1956, p.241) [Ch. 1] 3 Some s i x years l a t e r , B a r r i e r (1962) c o u l d s t i l l c l a i m that there were "deux c a t e g o r i e s [ : ] c e l l e s qui examinent L'Etranger a t r a v e r s l e Mythe de Sisyphe et c e l l e s qui veulent ignorer l e Mythe de Sisyphe", both a t t i t u d e s being i n h i s view r a t h e r exaggerated (p . 2 ) . Very broadly s t a t e d , the d i s t i n c t i o n here i s between the " l i t t e r a t e u r " and the " l i n g u i s t " and i s based g e n e r a l l y on the degree of a t t e n t i o n each pays to the t e x t and the language of the work. To these one might add a t h i r d group, occupying a k i n d of middle ground between the others and being q u i t e the l a r g e s t : i t i s the group of those who concern themselves with the work as a whole and with i t s s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s , a group i n which B a r r i e r h imself might c l a i m membership. Yet even here the d i f f i c u l t i e s and a c e r -t a i n bewilderment e x i s t . M i t t e r a n d (1969) speaks with some f e e l i n g when he t e l l s us: "Je ne comprends pas pourquoi- c e r t a i n s c r i t i q u e s veulent absolument l a v e r A l b e r t Camus de tout soupcon d'etre un s t y l i s t e . L'un p a r l e , a propos de L'Etranger, ' d ' e c r i t u r e b l a n c he 1, l ' a u t r e de ' s t y l e g r i s a i l l e ' , un t r o i s i e m e d*un • s t y l e presque constamment e g a l ' . I I faut s'entendre, et sur L'Etranger, et sur l e sens du mot s t y l e " . (p.11) 1 I t i s c l e a r that i n Mitterand*s view, the c r i t i c s are not t r e a t i n g common ground, even where they profess to do so, because they are not speaking the same language. I I faut  s'entendre: M i t t e r a n d i s undoubtedly r i g h t and has touched u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y on a major question, which w i l l form the un d e r l y i n g theme of t h i s work - the question of the model. [Ch. 1] Every act of c r i t i c i s m or a n a l y s i s has as i t s b a s i s a model, which may be o v e r t l y expressed as part of the act or merely l e f t to i n f e r e n c e . Upon that model are founded not only the set of procedures used i n the act but a l s o the conclusions to which i t l e a d s . Thus the question that Mitterand r a i s e s i s not only c r u c i a l but a l s o extremely broad i n i t s scope of a p p l i c a t i o n . Therefore, i n t h i s work, I do not propose to a t t a c k i t on a l l f r o n t s : i n s t e a d I s h a l l examine those aspects of i t that a r i s e d i r e c t l y from a study of that part of the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with the language and, to a l e s s e r extent, the s t y l e of L'Etranger. I t i s t h i s area, i t seems to me, that the problem of the model i s most c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d . 2/0. There i s a general tendency t o regard language-oriented s t u d i e s as more t e c h n i c a l and, f o r that reason, more p r e c i s e , i n the sense that they are more e a s i l y d e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r methods or t h e i r scope. This assumption i s not always w e l l founded, as numerous examples a t t e s t . In the f o l l o w i n g pas-sage from Renaud (1957)> there i s no doubt as to the c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l 1 on which h i s remarks are based: M L a monotonie du rythme, surtout dans l e s cinquante pre-mieres pages du l i v r e , est encore soutenue par l e r e t o u r frequent de nombres, notamment de 'deux' qui s'y prete davantage a. cause des a r t i c l e s i n d e f i n i s q u i se trouvent naturellement dans l e t e x t e . L ' e f f e t est encore accentue par.Ca-mus qui vo'l:oritlers emploi.e 'un' ou line' au l i e u de 1 * a r t i c l e [ C h . l ] 5 d e f i n i . Dans u n e s c e n e o n v o i t ' d e u x 1 p e t i t s g a r c o n s e t d e r r i e r e eux u n e mere ' [ s i c ] ; p u i s v i e n t l e p e r e ' u n p e t i t homme' q u i a v a i t ' u n c a n o t i e r , u n n o e u d e t une c a n n e a. l a m a i n ' . C e l a s e d i t c o u r a m m e n t a i n s i , comme d a n s d ' a u t r e s e x e m p l e s que n o u s c i t e r o n s . N e a n m o i n s c e s e f f e t s s o n t a d r o i t e m e n t p r e p a r e s ; on ne s ' e n a p e r c o i t g u e r e s a u f e n a n a l y s a n t l e s t y l e . M a i s a l o r s o n e s t e t o n n e p a r l a f r e q u e n c e de c e p r o c e d e a. l a f o i s s i m p l e e t i n g e n i e u x . M e u r s a u l t p r e n d 1 ' a u t o b u s a d e u x h e u r e s , i l demande d e u x j o u r s de c o n g e , i l m a r c h e d e u x k i l o m e t r e s p o u r a r r i v e r a l ' a s i l e . Quand u n p e n s l o n n a i r e m e u r t ' l e s a u t r e s s o n t n e r -v e u x p e n d a n t d e u x ou t r o i s j o u r s ' (p .12) . I I e s t v r a i q u ' i l f a u t o r d i n a i r e m e n t d e u x c h e v a l e t s (p.13) p o u r s u p -p o r t e r u n e b i e r e , que l e s g e n s o n t d e u x b r a s (p.36), que l e s c u r e s s o n t a c c o m p a g n e s - de d e u x e n f a n t s de c h o e u r ( p . 24-) , m a i s Camus s a i s i t c e s o c c a s i o n s e t s e m b l e l e s m u l t i -p l i e r a f i n de m a i n t e n i r l e rytehme m o n o t o n e de 1 ' e x i s t e n c e : u n . . . d e u x , . . . u n . ..... d e u x . . . u n . . . d eux . . . t r o i s . L e s f r e l o n s b o u r d o n n e n t p a r d e u x (p.15); ."(p.292) Y e t , i n s p i t e o f t h e c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n t h e p a s s a g e m a n i f e s t s a n d i n s p i t e o f t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e p o i n t R e n a u d m a k e s , one may 2 be p e r m i t t e d t o wonde r wha t t o make o f t h e w h o l e o b s e r v a t i o n . I s i t v a l i d ? Does i t c o n s t i t u t e s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o t a l k a b o u t C a m u s ' s i n t e n t i o n s , t o a t t r i b u t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e a d m i t t e d l y o r d i n a r y n u m e r a l s t o a " p r e d i l e c t i o n " (p.293) o f Camus? C a n e v i d e n c e d r a w n f r o m h a l f a d o z e n p a g e s a b o v e a l l c o u n t a s e v i d e n c e f o r a r e g u l a r i t y a l l e g e d t o o c c u r o v e r some f i f t y p a g e s ? Does i t c o n s t i t u t e p r i m a f a c i e e v i d e n c e o f a " m o n o t o n i e du r y t h m e " o r d o e s t h e l a t t e r r e m a i n m e r e l y a n a s s e r t i o n o f R e n a u d ' s own m a k i n g ? I n s h o r t , i s t h e w h o l e p a s s a g e i n a c c o r d w i t h a n e s t a b l i s h e d m o d e l o f a n a l y s i s , o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e e x p l i c a t i o n de t e x t e ? One i s t e m p t e d t o t h i n k n o t . [Ch. 1] 6 2.1 Of a d i f f e r e n t order of i n t e r e s t , though l i k e w i s e focused on the language of the work, i s t h i s e x t r a c t from F i t c h (1970d): "Dans L'Etranger, l e rapport entre l e s deux niveaux de c a r a c t e r i s a t i o n est un rapport d'ecart, comme s'en est v i t e rendu compte l a c r i t i q u e . [....] S i chaque niveau du t e x t e donne l i e u a. 1 'evocation d'un p o r t r a i t p a r t i e l d'un,personnage, d'une part un ton de v o i x et de l ' a u t r e l e s images d'une existence m a t e r i e l l e , et q u ' i l s concer-nent tous deux l e meme personnage, c e l a ne d e v r a i t pas presenter de probleme: i l s devraient se r e v e l e r comple-mentaires et se fondre pour c o n s t i t u e r un personnage coherent j o u i s s a n t de l ' e p a i s s e u r romanesque necessaire pour convaincre l e l e c t e u r de son ex i s t e n c e . Or, non seulement i l s ne se fondent pas, mais i l s ne s ' e c l a i r e n t meme pas. En f a i t , i l s ne semblent pas correspondre du tout, comme s ' i l s ' a g i s s a i t de deux personnages d i f f e r e n t s . I I en r e s u l t e qu'au l i e u de se r e n f o r c e r comme moyens de c a r a c t e r i s a t i o n , l e s deux niveaux d'evocation r i v a l i s e n t l'un avec l ' a u t r e et une te n s i o n se cree entre l e s deux du f a i t que chacun se reclame du d r o i t de representer Meursault. L ' i d e n t i t e que l u i confere l a trame des images v i s u e l l e s et des paroles rapportees du passe p a r a i t c e r t e s plus concrete., et plus d e t a i l l e e , bien que toujours enig-matique, que c e l l e qu'on p o u r r a i t a t t r i b u e r a c e t t e v o i x en presence de l a q u e l l e l e l e c t e u r se trouve. Mais c e t t e v o i x qui n'en f i n i t pas de resonner dans l a t e t e du l e c -teur accompagne toujours 1 'evocation du protagoniste et par la. meme entame et mine serieusement 1 'existence de c e l u i - c i . " (p.223) Faced with t h i s passage, I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to know, with c e r t a i n t y , q u i t e what the author i s sayi.rjg. At the same time, I have the f e e l i n g t h a t , i f I have understood him c o r r e c t l y , I am i n t u i t i v e l y i n agreement. I i n f e r - or guess - that h i s remarks are based on Meursault's use of language ( t h i s i s sub-sequently confirmed by F i t c h (p.227)) but I am at a l o s s to see how he has deriv e d the remarks from the data. What are the t e x t u a l data that prompt him t o discuss h i s two l e v e l s ? [Ch. l ] 7 What does he mean by "un ton de v o i x M , "personnage", " i d e n t i t e " and "epaisseur romanesque"? Which are the elements of the text that give r i s e to these notions? Are his observations directed along the l i n e s of some d e f i n i t e model? In thi s case, one i s tempted to think so, despite the rather imaged language of the passage. 2.2 This uncertainty about the model i s by no means t y p i c a l of the studies that take the language as t h e i r point of depar-ture. Pariente (1968) leaves no doubt as to the model and pro-cedures he proposes to use: "Quand on s'interroge sur le cadre de reference chronolo-gique de L'Etranger, on constate que Camus l ' a construit avec beaucoup de soin grace a. l'emploi delibere des i n d i - cateurs temporels du francais." (p.56) He concludes his description of these indlcateurs by proposing that "en examinant les indlcateurs u t i l i s e s dans L'Etranger, i l sera done possible de dater l a redaction du texte par rapport aux evenements rapportes, et ce t r a v a i l , f a s t i -dieux a, premiere vue, va peu a. peu conduire au coeur de l a composition s i concertee de ce l i v r e " . ( i b i d . ) Equally e x p l i c i t and even more categorical i s Abbou (1969a). He states f i r s t of a l l , and i n unmistakable terms, the model that he refuses to use: "Nous ne saurions sous-estimer [ l e ] t r a v a i l de l ' e c r i v a i n en le l i v r a n t a. l'analyse quantitative des principaux tropes i l l u s t r e s dans l e texte et charries par une rheto-rique multiseculaire. A quoi sert de relever des traces de vocabulaire recherche, .des f a i t s de syntaxe archaique ou classique, .si e'est pour les i s o l e r , leur conferer une s i g n i f i c a t i o n s t y l i s t i q u e q u ' i l s n'ont peut-etre pas, et aboutir a des conclusions faussees parce que precipitees? [Ch. 1] 8 En outre, proceder a i n s i , n'est-ce pas m u t i l e r un person-nage en l u i r e t i r a n t l a coherence de son d i s c o u r s , l a -q u e l l e ne peut dependre a l o r s que de l ' e c r i v a i n ? I I faut e t r e b l e n n a i f cependant pour con s i d e r e r , en ce cas, q u ' i l y a s t y l e , car l e . s t y l e r e s t e l e choix, e f f e c t u e  par l e l o c u t e u r , de ses moyens d'expression a p a r t i r du c a p i t a l l i n g u i s t i q u e , l a langue." (p.38) He goes on, i n r a t h e r more temperate terms, to give an ex-tremely d e t a i l e d e x p o s i t i o n of h i s model (pp.39-^5)» of which the general tenor i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: "Prudemment, mais sans complexe, tentons une approche du roman. En tant que r e c i t , i l est c o n s t i t u e d'une h i s t o l r e qui renvoie a. une r ^ a l i t e sous forme d'evenements et: de personnages, et d'un discours du narrateur qui destine c e t t e r e l a t i o n a. un l e c t e u r . A notre niveau l i n g u i s t i q u e , ce ne sont pas l e s evenements rapportes qui important, mats l a facon dont l e narrateur l e s porte a. notre connalssance. Tout r e c i t est d'abord une mise en forme l i n g u i s t i q u e , une facon d'organiser l a substance du contenu. Avancer que l'oeuvre est d'abord un d i s c o u r s , c'est, bien entendu, l u i redonner sa nature de communication." (p.39) 2.2.1 While we can admire the c l e a r statement of p o s i t i o n by both P a r i e n t e and Abbou - t h e i r models are the same, apart from a d i f f e r e n c e of emphasis and range - we must at the same time bear i n mind that i t serves as a b a s i s f o r drawing con-c l u s i o n s , as always. In t h i s regard there i s great i n t e r e s t t o be found i n comparing t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s : we can do t h i s because, i n s p i t e of the p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r ob-j e c t i v e s , there i s one theme that r e c e i v e s t h e i r common a t t e n -t i o n . I t i s the question of the d a t i n g of the n a r r a t i o n by Meursault, as w e l l as i t s nature and m o t i v a t i o n . Abbou (p.4-9) i s admirably s u c c i n c t on the matter: "... l a r e l a t i o n commence un c e r t a i n jour avant c i n q mois [Ch. l ] 9 d'emprisonnement et se prolonge durant de 'longs .jours' [...J jusqu'au s e u i l de 1 'execution. E l l e nalt-d'une vo-l o n t e de r e c o n s t i t u t i o n et de comprehension des f a i t s passes: c'est une r e l a t i o n o r a l e destinee au l o c u t e u r lui-meme. n P a r i e n t e ' s p o s i t i o n i s more complex and must be summarised. At d i f f e r e n t moments, he says: "Meursault a e c r i t l e l i v r e en s i x ou sept episodes: c i n q ou s i x pour e c r i r e l e s quatre premiers c h a p i t r e s , plus un episode pour toute l a s u i t e . " (p .6l) " [ l e l i v r e ] a ete e c r i t en quelques seances dont l e nombre a dependu du mouvement meme de 1 'existence de Meursault, puis l e s pages obtenues ont ete r e p r i s e s et r e d i s t r i b u t e s conformement a. un decoupage non plus vecu et personnel, mais o f f i c i e l et anonyme. Meursault t e n a i t un j o u r n a l , ce que nous l i s o n s est un l i v r e , un 'roman'." (p.64) "... on aura l e d r o i t d ' a t t r i b u e r l e l i v r e t e l q u ' i l est, avec tous ses aspects, a. Meursault, s i l'on peut admettre q u ' i l est a u s s i l'auteur du decoupage o f f i c i e l , malgre son a v e r s i o n pour l a c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n . " (p.65) 2.3 "Et notre p e r p l e x l t e demeure". to use the words of Abbou (p .37)« How can one e x p l a i n or j u s t i f y the f a c t t h a t , s t a r t i n g from the same t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n (at l e a s t on the question of the dating) and a p p l y i n g themselves to the same data, two authors can produce such s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s ? To add to our bewilderment, how can Abbou (1971, p. 175) c a s t i g a t e Rossi (1969) f o r what he c a l l s " l 1 a s s i m i l a t i o n infohdee du discours de L'Etranger a un s o l i l o q u e ou a un monologue"? Does not Abbou c l a i m the same t h i n g , i n the same year? Does the f a c t that F i t c h a l s o adheres to the n o t i o n of an i n t e r n a l monologue suggest t h e r e f o r e that h i s model a l s o i s the same as Abbou's, a f t e r a l l ? ^ W i l l a d i f f e r e n c e of model [ C h . 1 ] 10 e x p l a i n f o r u s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n B a r r i e r ' s o p t i n g f o r a " r e c i t a u . jour l e . j o u r " ( w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s ) ( 1 9 6 2 , p . 2 8 ) a n d P a r i e n t e ' s i d e a o f a d l a r y - c u m - n o v e l ? B e -s i d e s t h e m o d e l , o t h e r f a c t o r s may come i n t o p l a y t o e x p l a i n t h e s e a n d o t h e r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s : p r o c e d u r e s u s e d a f t e r i n v o -k i n g t h e m o d e l may be i n a d e q u a t e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e ; t h e r e may be some e l e m e n t o f p a r t i - v p r i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d r a w i n g o f f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s . T h e s e a r e a s p e c t s t h a t n e e d t o be r e - e x a m i n e d . 0 N o t a l l m o d e l s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e k i n d o f a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f L ' E t r a n g e r seems t o c a l l f o r : A b b o u h a s made t h i s p o i n t s t r o n g l y ( 2 . 2 ) . I t i s a l s o b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y t o c o n d u c t a d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n o f t h em a l l . H o w e v e r , a - b r i e f s u r v e y o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t t h e m e s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e g i v e s , i n my v i e w , a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e m o d e l t h a t i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o a s t u d y o f t h e l a n g u a g e - m o r e p r e c i s e l y , t h e l i n g u i s t i c -a s p e c t s o f L ' E t r a n g e r . 1 The p r e d o m i n a n t t h e m e s , r e c u r r i n g i n one f o r m o r a n o t h e r i n n e a r l y a l l s t u d i e s , a r e t h o s e o f t e n s e ( t h e P a s s e Compose i n p a r t i c u l a r ) a n d t i m e ( t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f e v e n t s a n d o f t h e n a r r a t i o n ) . T e n s e i s s e e n a s i n v o l v i n g b o t h q u e s t i o n s o f g rammar a n d q u e s t i o n s o f e x p r e s s i v e f o r c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s [ C h . 1] 11 c o n t r a s t w i t h o t h e r t e n s e s ( t h e P a s s e S i m p l e a b o v e a l l ) . T i m e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s s e e n a s s e r v i n g a means t o a n e n d : l e s s i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s e l f , i t n e v e r t h l e s s a i d s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c e r t a i n t r u t h s a b o u t t h e w o r k w h i c h p e r m i t i n t u r n t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f p o i n t s o f v i e w c o n c e r n i n g t h e w o r k a s a w h o l e , b o t h i n i t s e l f a n d I n i t s r e l a t i o n t o C a m u s . T h i s a p p r o a c h t o q u e s t i o n s o f t i m e i n t h e w o r k i s s u b s u m e d u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f wha t v a r i o u s a u t h o r s , a f t e r F i t c h (1968d), c a l l t h e "moments de n a r r a t i o n " , i n t h e s t u d y o f w h i c h t h e s t u d y o f t h e t e n s e s p l a y s a f u n d a m e n t a l r o l e . A t h i r d t h e m e , a g a i n common t o m o s t o f t h e s t u d i e s , i s t h a t o f f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n , n e c e s s a r i l y c o n n e c t e d - i n t h e c a s e o f L ' E t r a n g e r a b o v e a l l - w i t h t h e u s e o f t h e P a s s e C o m p o s e . 3.2 What i s n o t a l w a y s c l e a r i s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s a r e a w a r e o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , f r o m a l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , o f t h e m o d e l t h e y h a v e , o r seem t o h a v e , a d o p t e d . ^ M a n y o f t h e m s p e a k o f " j e " n o t o n l y a s a m o r p h o l o g i c a l i t e m b u t a l s o a s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p e r s o n o f t h e s p e a k e r : i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , t h e r e i s n o t a l w a y s some c o r r e s p o n d i n g m e n t i o n a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o a t l e a s t one m o d e l , i s i m p l i c i t l y e v o k e d b y t h e m e n t i o n o f " j e " . A t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r i s g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n b u t o n l y a s a r e a d e r . I n C h a p t e r 6, I s h a l l d e a l i n d e t a i l w i t h some o f t h e s e c a s e s : I m e n t i o n t h e i r e x i s t e n c e a t p r e s e n t m e r e l y t o make t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e r e i s n o t a l w a y s [ C h . 1] 12 a s s u r a n c e on t h e p a r t o f a u t h o r s a s t o t h e i r own t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e . 3 A f u n d a m e n t a l t y p e o f u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t r e v e a l s i t s e l f i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l a n g u e a n d p a r o l e o r , mo re n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d , c o m p e t e n c e a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . To c o n s i d e r M e u r s a u l t a s a n a r r a t o r i s t o r e g a r d h i s l a n g u a g e a s p e r f o r m a n c e : c a n one s p e a k o f a m o d e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e ? A r e t h e r e a n y r u l e s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c t o l a n g u a g e a s p e r f o r m a n c e , i n f a c t ? I n C h a p t e r I I , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e e x a m i n e d a n d a n a n s w e r s u g g e s t e d . I n C h a p t e r I I I ? I u n d e r t a k e a c l o s e a n a l y s i s o f t h e m o d e l t h a t was e v o k e d i n C h a p t e r I I - a n d w h i c h c o r r e s -p o n d s t o t h a t m o s t f r e q u e n t l y i n v o k e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t o f B e n v e n i s t e - a n d , a g a i n s t t h a t b a c k g r o u n d , p r e s e n t t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t e n s e . My a t t e n t i o n i n C h a p t e r 4- i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t i m e a s i t i s m a r k e d b y t h e t e n s e s w i t h i n a c t u a l s p e e c h a n d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n t h a t r e g a r d a n d w h i c h c a l l f o r a r e v i s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l b a s i c t h e o r y . S u c h a r e v i s i o n i s p r o p o s e d a n d d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5» i n w h i c h I p r o p o s e a l s o a d d i t i o n s t o t h e a r e a r e f e r r e d t o b y B e n v e n i s t e a s t h e " a s p e c t i n d i c i e l du l a n g a g e " . 4- I n C h a p t e r 6, I r e t u r n t o t h e t heme o f L ' E t r a n g e r a n d t h e q u e s t i o n s o f t i m e a n d t e n s e a s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e w o r k , s e e n i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e r e v i s e d t h e o r y . I n t h i s c h a p t e r a l s o , I t a k e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n s i d e r v a r i o u s o f [Ch. 1] 13 the sub-themes that appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e and, for the f i r s t time, consider the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Camus to the work i n the l i g h t both of what I have claimed and what others have claimed previously. F i n a l l y , I consider the r o l e of the reader iri: his r e l a t i o n s h i p to the work and offer a new view of the phenomenological nature.of that r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s implications. [ C h . 1 ] 14 NOTES . 1. The v e r y t a s k o f s u r v e y i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s r e a c h e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , we a r e i n -d e b t e d t o c e r t a i n s c h o l a r s whose a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s a s p e c t ' o f t h e s t u d y o f L ' E t r a n g e r h a s p r o v e n t o be o f t h e g r e a -t e s t u t i l i t y t o o t h e r s . S p e c i a l m e n t i o n m u s t b e made o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f B r i a n T . F i t c h who, i n h i s r o l e o f e d i t o r o f t h e S e r i e A l b e r t Camus (e.g.1968a), h a s h e l p e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e p r e p a r a t o r y p h a s e o f my w o r k . H e r e a f t e r , a l l b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l m e n t i o n s r e f e r t o t h e e n t r i e s i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y f o l l o w i n g C h a p t e r 6, u n l e s s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t o t h e c o n t r a r y . C r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s t o p a r t s o f my t e x t a r e i n d i c a t e d b y s i m p l e u s e o f t h e p a r a -g r a p h n u m b e r s , u n l e s s t h e y r e f e r t o a d i f f e r e n t c h a p t e r , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e p a r a g r a p h numbe r s a r e p r e c e d e d b y a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r : e . g . (Ch.3:4.1) r e f e r s t o p a r a g r a p h 4.1 o f C h a p t e r 3« 2 . One m i g h t e v e n go s o f a r a s t o wonde r i f i t i s t o be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y : c f . i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h e r e m a r k s o f A b b o u , c i t e d h e r e a f t e r i n 2 . 2 . 3- S e e F i t c h (1968d). I s a y " a f t e r a l l " b e c a u s e a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g o f F i t c h d o e s n o t r e v e a l s u c h a s i m i l a r i t y : F i t c h d o e s n o t u s u a l l y s p e c i f y a m o d e l i n a n y t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g t h e way A b b o u d o e s . B y i n f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , t h e s i m i l a r i -t i e s do become a p p a r e n t . 4. O t h e r s u n d e r t a k e a s t u d y s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t e s t t h e i r m o d e l , e . g . C o q u e t (1969) S o m e t i m e s o t h e r s a g a i n a r e n o t e n t i r e l y s o u n d i n t h e i r u s e o f e v e n t h e w o r d " m o d e l " , e . g . Kamber (1971, p.394) CHAPTER TWO. P e r f o r m a n c e T h e o r y . L i n g u i s t s s i n c e t h e t i m e o f S a u s s u r e h a v e s o u g h t g e n e -r a l l y t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o wha t he d e f i n e d a s l a n g u e , a l l e l s e "be ing c l a s s e d a s . p a r o l e , a n d l i t t l e h a s b e e n done t o a l t e r t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n e x c e p t f o r r e c e n t a t t e m p t s b y t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar t o s p e c i f y i t mo re n a r r o w l y a s c o m p e t e n c e / p e r f o r m a n c e . The m a i n t h r u s t o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n h a s r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t : " . . . u t t e r a n c e s a r e i n s t a n c e s o f p a r o l e , w h i c h t h e l i n -g u i s t t a k e s a s e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g common s t r u c t u r e : t h e l a n g u e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e l a n g u e . t h e l a n g u a g e - s y s t e m , w h i c h t h e l i n g u i s t d e -s c r i b e s . £•••] a d i s t i n c t i o n mus t be made b e t w e e n ' u t t e -r a n c e s ' a n d ' s e n t e n c e s ' ; a n d [ • • • ] t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a ' l a n g u a g e ' i s , i n p r i n c i p l e , a t w o - s t a g e o p e r a t i o n . The u t t e r a n c e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r ' l a n g u a g e ' (wha t s p e a k e r s a c t u a l l y p r o d u c e , when we s a y t h a t t h e y ' a r e s p e a k i n g t h e l a n g u a g e ' ) c a n be d e s c r i b e d o n l y i n d i r e c t l y , a n d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e v e r y i n a d e q u a t e l y , o n t h e b a s i s o f a p r i o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e s o f t h e ' l a n g u a g e ' . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n u t t e r a n c e s a n d s e n t e n c e s i s f u n d a -m e n t a l i n mos t l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y . " ^ T h u s p e r f o r m a n c e , t h o u g h a l w a y s w i t h u s , c a n u s u a l l y be c o n -v e n i e n t l y i g n o r e d . A s a c o n c e p t , i t i s p a r t o f o u r c u r r e n t e x c h a n g e ; a s a c o n s t r u c t , i t h a s h a d a t b e s t a f r a g m e n t a r y e x i s t e n c e , s e r v i n g , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , o n l y a c o n t r a s t i v e p u r p o s e — t h a t o f d e f i n i n g i t s a n t o n y m c o m p e t e n c e . [ C h . 2] 16 0.1 Among F r e n c h l i n g u i s t s , a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n h a s o b -t a i n e d , t h o u g h f o r t h em t h e a d v e n t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l g r a m -mar s eemed more c l e a r l y a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e somewhat n e g -l e c t e d S a u s s u r i a n v e r s i o n o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i n q u e s t i o n , a s Ruwe t p o i n t s o u t : " . . . c e t t e d i s t i n c t i o n e s t t r e s p r o c h e de l a d i s t i n c t i o n s a u s s u r i e n n e c l a s s i q u e e n t r e l a l a n g u e e t l a p a r o l e : l a c o m p e t e n c e ( l a l a n g u e ) r e p r e s e n t e l e s a v o l r l i n g u i s t i q u e i m p l i c i t e d e s s u j e t s p a r l a n t s , l e * s y s t e m e g r a m m a t i c a l e x i s t a n t v i r t u e l l e m e n t d a n s c h a q u e c e r v e a u ' ( S a u s s u r e , 1916, p.30); l a p e r f o r m a n c e ( l a p a r o l e ) r e p r e s e n t e a u e o n t r a i r e l ' a c t u a l i s a t i o n ou l a m a n i f e s t a t i o n de c e s y s -t eme d a n s u n e m u l t i t u d e d ' a c t e s c o n c r e t s , c h a q u e f o i s d i f f e r e n t s . C ' e s t l a p e r f o r m a n c e q u i f o u r n i t l e s d o n n e e s d ' o b s e r v a t i o n — c o r p u s de t o u t e s s o r t e s , e c r i t s ou o r a u x ( c o n v e r s a t i o n s e n r e g i s t r e e s , i n t e r v i e w s , r e c l t s , a r t i c l e s de j o u r n a u x , t e x t e s l i t t e r a i r e s , e t c . ) — q u i p e r m e t t e n t d ' a b o r d e r 1 ' e t u d e de l a c o m p e t e n c e . " 2 0.2 So f a r , t h e n two p o i n t s emerge c l e a r l y , s h o w i n g p e r f o r -mance a s t h e " j u n i o r p a r t n e r " i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t s e e m s , f i r s t o f a l l , t o a c t a s t h e r o u g h o r e f r o m w h i c h t h e n u g g e t s o f c o m p e t e n c e may be e x t r a c t e d a n d , s e c o n d l y , i t i s h e l d t o be v i r t u a l l y u n a p p r o a c h a b l e o r u n t r e a t a b l e e x c e p t t h r o u g h c o m p e t e n c e . I f t h i s i s t r u e , a n d i f t h e m i n e r a l a n a l o g y i s n o t f a l s e , t h e n a p r o b l e m p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i m m e d i a t e l y : mos t e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s e s r e l y on a d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l o d e - b e a r i n g med i um, o f i t s n a t u r e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n , t o f a c i l i -t a t e e x t r a c t i o n o f t h e m i n e r a l a n d , f u r t h e r m o r e , t o e x p l a i n q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v a b l e i n . t h e e x t r a c t e d m i n e r a l i t s e l f . I n t h e l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e x t , h o w e v e r , no a n a l y s i s o f p e r f o r m a n c e i s p r o v i d e d o r e v e n a t t e m p t e d . T h i s l e a v e s o p e n [ C h . 2] 17 t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e d a t a when t h e y a r e b e i n g d e a l t w i t h a t t h e c o m p e t e n c e l e v e l . 1. 0 S u c h a q u e s t i o n c o u l d n o t be l e f t o p e n f o r l o n g , how-e v e r , a n d i t f e l l t o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l g rammar t o p r o p o s e a c o g e n t a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m , w i t h i t s c o n c e p t o f g r a m m a t i -c a l i t y . J u d g e m e n t s o f g r a m m a t i c a l i t y , made b y n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f t h e l a n g u a g e u n d e r s t u d y , a r e h e l d t o be d e c i s i v e i n q u e s -t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f d a t a . S u c h j u d g e m e n t s a r e made o n t h e b a s i s o f n a t i v e - s p e a k e r i n t u i t i o n a n d a r e t a k e n a s c o r r e c t . I n s p i t e o f t h e l i v e l y , s o m e t i m e s e x t r e m e l y b i t t e r c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t f l a r e d a r o u n d t h e n o t i o n o f g ramma-t i c a l i t y , 3 t h e c o n c e p t i s t o d a y h e l d t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d a n d a c c e p t e d f o r wha t i t i s : " . . . l e c o n c e p t de l a g r a m m a t i c a l i t e ne v i s e a. r i e n d ' a u t r e q u ' a c e r n e r a v e c p r e c i s i o n u n e n o t i o n a v e c l a -q u e l l e l e s l i n g u i s t e s o n t t o u j o u r s o p e r e i m p l i c i t e m e n t . I I p e r m e t d ' e v l t e r l e s c o n f u s i o n s q u i r e s u l t e n t de l ' e m -p l o i de n o t i o n s v a g u e s , comme c e l l e de ' p h r a s e s p o s s i b l e s * ( ou ' i m p o s s i b l e s ' ) , ' c o r r e c t e s ' ( o u • i n c o r r e c t e s ' ) , ' e x l s -t a n t e s * ( o u ' l n e x i s t a n t e s • ) ; i l p e r m e t a u s s l de r e s i s t e r a. l ' i l l u s i o n d ' o b j e c t i v i t e que donne l e r e c o u r s a u x c o n s i -d e r a t i o n s de p r o b a b i l i t y . " ^ 1.1 C h o m s k y , i n A s p e c t s ( p p . 10-15) i s c a r e f u l t o d i s c u s s t h e r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e c o m p e t e n c e a n d p e r f o r m a n c e a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e a n d h i s r e m a r k s t u r n a b o u t p r e c i s e l y t h e q u e s t i o n o f " g r a m m a t i c a l n e s s " a s o p p o s e d t o " a c c e p t a b i l i t y " . I t i s i n -s t r u c t i v e f o r o u r p u r p o s e s t o l o o k c l o s e l y a t h i s a n a l y s i s . [ C h . 2 ] 18 1 . 1 . 1 He c i t e s a s e t o f e x a m p l e s e n t e n c e s a n d c l a s s i f i e s t h e m a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l n e s s a n d / o r a c c e p t a b i l i t y , a t t h e same t i m e p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t e r m s t h e m s e l v e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t e c h n i c a l o n e : " A c c e p t a b i l i t y i s a c o n c e p t t h a t b e l o n g s t o t h e s t u d y o f p e r f o r m a n c e w h e r e a s g r a m m a t i c a l n e s s b e l o n g s t o t h e s t u d y o f c o m p e t e n c e . " ( p . 1 1 ) Thu s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s a y t h a t one s e t o f h i s e x a m p l e s i s " l o w on t h e s c a l e o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y b u t h i g h on t h e s c a l e o f g r a m m a t i c a l n e s s , i n t h e t e c h n i c a l s e n s e o f t h i s t e r m " . He i s r e f e r r i n g h e r e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s : A i ) I c a l l e d t h e man who w r o t e t h e b o o k t h a t y o u t o l d me a b o u t u p i l ) The man who t h e b o y who t h e s t u d e n t s r e c o g n i s e d p o i n t e d o u t i s a f r i e n d o f m i n e He o b s e r v e s , i n t e r m s w h i c h he c a r e f u l l y q u a l i f i e s a s " e q u a l l y v a g u e a n d o b s c u r e " ( n o t e 5» P«195)» t h a t t h e more a c c e p t a b l e s e n t e n c e s a r e " t h o s e t h a t a r e more l i k e l y t o be p r o d u c e d , more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d , l e s s c l u m s y , a n d i n some s e n s e more n a t u r a l " , w i t h t h e c o r o l l a r y t h a t " t h e u n a c c e p t a b l e s e n t e n c e s one w o u l d t e n d t o a v o i d a n d r e p l a c e b y more a c c e p t a b l e v a r i -a n t s , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , i n a c t u a l d i s c o u r s e " . . 1 . 1 . 2 Thus h i s s e n t e n c e s (A i ) , i i ) ) a r e t h e m s e l v e s g ramma-t i c a l s i n c e , a s he p u t s i t , " t h e g e n e r a t i v e r u l e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e a s s i g n a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o t h e m i n e x a c t l y t h e same way i n w h i c h t h e y a s s i g n a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o t h e somewhat more a c c e p t a b l e s e n t e n c e s " . A l o n g w i t h h i s i d e a t h a t t h e [Ch. 2 ] 19 sentences may "be "more" or " l e s s " a c c e p t a b l e , he c o n s i d e r s grammaticalness a l s o to be a matter of degree, adding however t h a t no necessary and s u f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n i s e i t h e r a v a i l a b l e or even l i k e l y f o r d e a l i n g with any i d e a of grammatical g r a d i e n c e . 1.1.3 In h i s view then the grammaticalness of a sentence has l i t t l e d i r e c t l y t o do with d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i t s a c c e p t a b i -l i t y i n d i s c o u r s e and "unacceptable" can not be taken to equate with "ungrammatical", though, one assumes, both terms c o u l d apply i n the circumstances of some p a r t i c u l a r c a se. 1.2 I t f o l l o w s from t h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t n ative-speaker i n t u -i t i o n has to be viewed as a concept of fundamental importance and at the same time a source of great c o n f u s i o n a t the empi-r i c a l l e v e l . The d e g r a d a t i o n of native-speaker i n t u i t i o n as a t o o l of r e s e a r c h i s g e n e r a l l y w e l l known to l i n g u i s t s , h aving as i t s source both the problem of grammatical gradience and the subsequent one of grammar by consensus, but i t i s per-haps as w e l l to r e a l i s e t h a t the c o n f u s i o n t h a t has a r i s e n i s b a s i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the problem of the d i f f e r e n c e between grammaticalness and a c c e p t a b i l i t y themselves. That i s to say, I t i s s u r e l y beyond q u e s t i o n t h a t the n o t i o n of n a t i v e - s p e a k e r i n t u i t i o n i s i t s e l f well-founded but t h a t , i n order to a p p l y i t o p e r a t i o n a l l y , i t i s f i r s t necessary to know what i s one's o p e r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e , namely what "grammatical" may be taken [ C h . 2] 20 t o mean i n a g i v e n i n s t a n c e a n d what " a c c e p t a b l e " may be t a k e n t o mean i n t h e same I n s t a n c e . 1.2.1 W h i l e n a t i v e - s p e a k e r I n t u i t i o n i s a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o o l i n t h e m a k i n g o f c e r t a i n l i n g u i s t i c j u d g e m e n t s , t h e r e i s n o n e -t h e l e s s some s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t y I n v o l v e d i n t h e u s i n g o f t h e t o o l . What seems t o h a v e gone u n n o t i c e d i s t h a t t h i s d i f f i -c u l t y i s t h e d i r e c t outcome o f t h e c o l l i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e n o t i o n o f i d i o l e c t a n d t h a t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g grammar ( o r gram-m a t i c a l i t y ) b y c o n s e n s u s . Now i t i s n o t a t a l l o b v i o u s t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f i d i o l e c t p r e c l u d e s n e c e s s a r i l y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g g r a m m a t i c a l ! t y by c o n s e n s u s . What i s c l e a r i s t h a t i t c o m p l i c a t e s t h e p r o c e s s s e v e r e l y . " C o n s e n s u s " p r e s u p p o s e s c o m m u n i t y , " i d i o l e c t " p r e s u p p o s e s i n d i v i d u a l i t y a n d , s i n c e " g r a m m a t i c a l ! t y " p r e s u p p o s e s c o m p e t e n c e , i t f u r -t h e r p r e s u p p o s e s t h e n o t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h u s , t o e s t a b l i s h t h e common g r o u n d b e t w e e n i d i o l e c t s i n a n a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e grammar o f a c o m p e t e n c e t y p e i s , q u i t e n e c e s s a -r i l y , a d i f f i c u l t a n d c o m p l e x p r o c e d u r e . A d d t o t h a t t h e a l m o s t n o r m a l c o n f u s i o n t h a t r e i g n s v i s - a - V i s o f t h e t e r m " a c c e p t a b i l i t y " a n d one h a s a w i t c h e s ' b r e w o f i m p r e s s i v e p r o p o r t i o n s . No b r i e f i s h e l d h e r e f o r t h e i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y o f t h e n o t i o n o f i d i o l e c t ; i t i s a l l t h e same i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t Chomsky c o n s i d e r s t h a t l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y i s " c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h a n i d e a l s p e a k e r - l i s t e n e r , i n a c o m p l e t e l y homogeneous s p e e c h - c o m m u n i t y , who knows i t s l a n g u a g e p e r f e c t l y a n d i s u n a f f e c t e d b y [...] p e r f o r m a n c e " . ( A s p e c t s , p.3) [ C h . 2 ] 21 S u c h a v i e w e x c l u d e s i d i o l e c t f r o m t h e d o m a i n o f t h e t h e o r y , l e a d i n g one t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i t b e l o n g s t o a n o t h e r a r e a , p r e -s u m a b l y p e r f o r m a n c e . H o w e v e r , i n t h e c o n s e n s u s s i t u a t i o n u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , i d i o l e c t i s p r e s u m e d t o c o i n c i d e t o some d e g r e e w i t h c o m p e t e n c e , o r e l s e i t w o u l d be f u t i l e t o e n g a g e i n s u c h n a t i v e - s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t s a t a l l . The c l a s h b e t w e e n t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s i s s i m p l y a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e f a c t t h a t , I n t h e c o n s e n s u s s i t u a t i o n , no one i s a n " i d e a l s p e a k e r - l i s t e n e r " s u c h a s Chomsky e n v i s i o n s : t h e c o n s e n s u s s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a n a t t e m p t t o d e r i v e s u c h a n i d e a l f r o m t h e i d i o l e c t a l s p e a k e r s p r e s e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , C h o m s k y i s n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e a n a l y t i c a l o r i n p u t s t a g e o f g r a m m a t i c a l r e s e a r c h w h e r e a s t h e c e n s u s - t a k e r s a r e . 1 . 2 . 2 The i d i o l e c t i s b a s i c a l l y one m a n ' s g r ammar , one m a n ' s m o d e l , w h i c h w i l l c o i n c i d e o n l y i m p e r f e c t l y w i t h t h a t o f a n o t h e r man o r o f o t h e r m e n . A n y g r a m m a t i c a l m o d e l o f t h e l a n g u a g e h a s t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h i s f a c t . A mos t i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s f o u n d i n B a r r i e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) : i t c o n s i s t s o f a s e n t e n c e f r o m L ' E t r a n g e r a n d h i s comment o n i t . He w r i t e s " ' J ' e t a i s u n p e u e t o u r d i p a r c e q u ' i l a f a l l u q ue j e mon te c h e z E m m a n u e l . ' I c i , on a t t e n d u n p l u s - q u e - p a r f a l t ou u n i m p a r f a i t , s e l o n l e s e n s . [ • • • ] i l s ' a g i t d ' u n e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n de l a s y n -t a x e d e s t e m p s , c a r a c t e r i s t l q u e de l a l a n g u e p a r l e e , q u i s e c o n t e n t e d ' a p p r o x i m a t i o n s " . ( p . 1 3 ) F o r B a r r i e r , i t i s c l e a r " s e l o n l e s e n s " t h a t h e r e i s a n e x a m p l e o f a d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e r u l e a s r e g a r d s t h e s e q u e n c e [ C h . 2] 22 o f t e n s e s . He a s c r i b e s t h e d e v i a t i o n t o t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e a n d i t s e a s y - g o i n g u s e o f t h e g r a m m a r . I n o t h e r w o r d s , he c o n s i d e r s t h e o c c u r r e n c e u n g r a m m a t i c a l a n d a s c r i b e s i t t o p e r -f o r m a n c e . The g r o u n d s on w h i c h h e d o e s s o a r e t h e e x i s t e n c e i n t h e g rammar o f F r e n c h o f a r u l e o f t h e s e q u e n c e o f t e n s e s , h i s a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s t r i n g he q u o t e s i s a n e n v i r o n m e n t r e q u i r i n g t h a t r u l e t o come i n t o p l a y a n d h i s b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s t r i n g i s wha t he i n f a c t t a k e s i t t o b e . I s h a l l c l a i m l a t e r t h a t b o t h o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e w r o n g b u t a t t h i s p o i n t I c l a i m s i m p l y t h a t he h a s c o m p l e t e l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e s e n t e n c e . F r e n c h g r amma r , a s B a r r i e r c o n -c e i v e s o f i t , c a n n o t a s s i g n a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o t h e s t r i n g i n q u e s t i o n , s o B a r r i e r o p t s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d f i n d s t h a t i t i s i n a c c o r d t h i s t i m e w i t h t h e g r a m m a r . A n d y e t , t h e s t r i n g a s i t s t a n d s i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e d o e s n o t o b v i o u s l y c o n t r a v e n e t h e r u l e s o f t h e g r a m m a r : i t d o e s s o , o r seems t o do s o , o n l y i f t h e s e m a n t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a p p l i e d t o i t r e q u i r e s t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e r u l e o f t h e s e q u e n c e o f t e n s e s . T h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h o w e v e r i s m o t i v a t e d o n B a r r i e r ' s p a r t b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t l i e q u i t e o u t s i d e t h e s e n t e n c e I t s e l f , a s I s h a l l d e m o n s t r a t e a t a l a t e r s t a g e . S u f f i c e f o r now t o s a y t h a t B a r r i e r ' s m i s r e a d i n g o f t h e s e n -t e n c e l e a d s q u i t e l o g i c a l l y t o h i s c l a s s i f y i n g i t a s u n g r a m -m a t i c a l , b e c a u s e h i s m o d e l o f t h e l a n g u a g e w i l l n o t p e r m i t h i m t o do o t h e r w i s e . T h a t he s h o u l d c o n s i g n t h e s e n t e n c e t h e r e f o r e [ C h . 2 ] 23 t o p e r f o r m a n c e i s q u i t e i n o r d e r b u t , i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o show t h a t t h e s t r i n g i s n o t a t a l l u n g r a m m a t i c a l , t h e n B a r -r i e r ' s j u d g e m e n t w i l l come t o be more i n f o r m a t i v e a b o u t h i s I d i o l e c t , p e r h a p s , t h a n a b o u t t h e s e n t e n c e I t s e l f . 1.2.3 I n t h i s e x a m p l e , t h e s t r i n g was u n g r a m m a t i c a l i n B a r -r i e r ' s j u d g e m e n t : i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o know w h e t h e r h e f i n d s i t a t t h e same t i m e a c c e p t a b l e . C l e a r l y , h o w e v e r , i t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o s omebody , n a m e l y t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e n o v e l , f o r whom i t may e v e n be g r a m -m a t i c a l . I n a n y e v e n t , B a r r i e r ' s m o d e l o f t h e g rammar was u n a b l e t o a s s i g n a n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o t h e s t r i n g a s i t s t a n d s a n d one may t h e r e f o r e s a y , l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s f r o m a g e n e r a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w t h i s t i m e , t h a t B a r r i e r ' s g rammar w o u l d n o t p r o -d u c e s u c h a s t r i n g . S u c h a s i t u a t i o n makes m a n i f e s t y e t a n -o t h e r f a c e t o f t h e p r o b l e m o f g r a m m a t i c a l ! t y a n d a c c e p t a b i l i t y , n a m e l y t h a t c e r t a i n i t e m s may b e f o u n d a c c e p t a b l e a n d y e t , i n a d d i t i o n t o d e p a r t i n g i n some s e n s e f r o m t h e b o u n d s o f g r a m -m a t i c a l i t y ( a t l e a s t a s t h e m o d e l h a s i t ) , may e v e n be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h a t m o d e l , a s i s t h e c a s e o f t h e Camus s e n t e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e B a r r i e r g r a m m a r . 1.3 The u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e h e r e t o u c h e s u p o n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f wha t i s i n v o l v e d i n n a t i v e - s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t s g e n e r a l l y a n d i s c r u c i a l t o a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l i t y a n d a c c e p t a b i -l i t y , a s w e l l a s t h e i r a t t e n d a n t i s s u e s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g [ C h . 2 ] 24 s e c t i o n , I w i s h t o e x p l o r e t h i s q u e s t i o n . 1.3.1 I n s e n t e n c e 1 ) , we a r e i n t e r e s t e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e w i t h w h i c h t h e s e n t e n c e b e g i n s : -5 1 ) * P o u r ne p a s que l e p i s t o n s e c o i n c e d a n s l e c y l l n d r e , on a . j o u t e . . . . P e r f e c t l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e , t h e e x a m p l e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s u n g r a m -m a t i c a l o r , a t b e s t , o f h i g h l y d o u b t f u l g r a m m a t i c a l ! t y . F o l -l o w i n g R u w e t ' s f o r m u l a t i o n o f th:e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l m o d e l f o r F r e n c h , we may r e p r e s e n t 1) a s f o l l o w s : F i g . 1: S NP VP V ^ N T ^ ~ ~ P r ^ a . j o u t e Pr^ep. NP p o u r ( q u e ) l e p i s t o n s e c o i n c e dan s l e c y l i n d r e I n m a r k i n g t h e " n e p a s " o f 1) a s NEG i n F i g . l . I i m p l y t h a t t h e r u l e f o r N E G - p l a c e m e n t h a s y e t t o b e a p p l i e d : i t I s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e e x a m p l e be comes i n t e r e s t i n g f o r o u r p u r -p o s e s . N o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r u l e w o u l d p l a c e " n e . . . p a s " a r o u n d t h e v e r b , y i e l d i n g a p e r f e c t l y g r a m m a t i c a l embedded s e n t e n c e i n t h e f o r m o f " . . . q ue l e p i s t o n ne s e c o i n c e p a s [ C h . 2] 25 d a n s l e c y l i n d r e " . L i k e w i s e , i n 2), g r a m m a t i c a l ! t y may be " r e s t o r e d " by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r u l e o f " f o r " - d e l e t i o n , t o y i e l d 2a): 2) * We w e r e h o p i n g f o r t h a t J o h n w o u l d r e t u r n . 2a) We w e r e h o p i n g t h a t J o h n w o u l d r e t u r n . I t w o u l d be t e m p t i n g t o c o n c l u d e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t b o t h 1) a n d 2) a r e s i m p l e e x a m p l e s o f a f a i l u r e t o a p p l y a r e l a t i v e l y l a t e r u l e . To s o c o n c l u d e , h o w e v e r , w o u l d be t o o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t 1) i s d e c i d e d l y more c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n 2) a n d f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . 1.3.2 I t may be n o t e d , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t I h a v e u s e d wha t I c a l l a " r e s t o r a t i v e " t e c h n i q u e w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n o f t h e l e a s t c o s t l y means o f r e s t o r i n g g r a m m a t i c a l ! t y t o t h e s e n t e n c e : s u c h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c a n be made e a s i l y w i t h t h e a i d o f n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . We n o t e ? f u r t h e r , t h a t 2) c a n a l s o b e amended b y t h e more o r l e s s c o s t l y u s e o f " f o r - t o " - c o m p l e -m e n t a t i o n w i t h o u t f e a r o f a l t e r i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o r m . I n t h e c a s e o f 1), o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e n e a t u s e o f N E G - p l a c e -men t t u r n s o u t n o t t o be t h e t e c h n i q u e c h o s e n b y n a t i v e s p e a k e r s who a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s s e n t e n c e . I c a n r e p o r t , m o r e o v e r , t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s , when f a c e d w i t h 1) i n t h e f o r m o f a n u t t e r a n c e ( a s o p p o s e d t o a s e n t e n c e p r o f f e r e d i n i s o l a -t i o n , a s i s s o o f t e n t h e c a s e i n t h e c o u r s e o f g r a m m a t i c a l s t u d i e s ) , f a i l e d a l m o s t t o a man t o n o t i c e o r r e g i s t e r t h e l a c k o f g r a m m a t i c a l i t y . T h e n , when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h 1) i n [ C h . 2] 26 i s o l a t i o n , a l l t h e i n f o r m a n t s g a v e a s t h e r e s t o r e d f o r m l a ) , r a t h e r t h a n l b ) w h i c h , a s n o t e d e a r l i e r , r e s u l t s f r o m NEG-p l a c e m e n t : l a ) P o u r ( e m P f c n e r ) que l e p i s t o n s e c o l n c e d a n s l e ( e v i t e r ) •a c  c y l i n d r e l b ) P o u r que l e p i s t o n ne s e c o l n c e p a s d a n s l e c y l i n d r e , i > « m T h i s makes c l e a r t h a t l b ) , t h o u g h g r a m m a t i c a l a n d u n c o s t l y a s a r e s t o r a t i o n , i s n o t c a l l e d f o r a n d , i n d e e d , i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s . The f a c t t h a t l a ) i s a mo re c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e — c o n t a i n i n g a d o u b l e e m b e d d i n g — i n d i c a t e s a d i f f e r e n t u n d e r l y i n g f o r m f r o m t h a t o f l b ) . Thus n o t o n l y do we h a v e two d i f f e r e n t s e n t e n c e s b u t we s e e t h a t one o f t h e m i s now c l e a r l y m a r k e d a s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l u n g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e 1), a f a c t w h i c h r e n d e r s I r r e l e v a n t a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t o f r e s t o r a t i o n a n d w h i c h i n d i -c a t e s t h e l a c k o f s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e s i t u a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o 2) a n d 2a), w h e r e two f o r m s o f r e s t o r a t i o n w e r e p o s s i b l e . O b v i o u s l y t h e n , 1) i s n o t a n e x a m p l e o f a me re n o n - a p p l i c a t i o n o f a l a t e r u l e a n d i t s n o n - g r a m m a t l c a l i t y n e e d s t o be e x p l a i n e d i n some o t h e r w a y . 1.3.3 The n o n - g r a m m a t l c a l i t y o f 1), I h a v e c l a i m e d , i s f u n d a -m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h a t o f 2). T h i s i s t r u e i n more t h a n one r e s p e c t . L e t u s c o n s i d e r , f i r s t o f a l l , wha t t h i s s e n t e n c e t e l l s u s a b o u t i t s own p h r a s e s t r u c -t u r e r u l e s . ^ I n F i g . 1 I h a v e shown NEG a s b e i n g one o f t h e [ C h . 2] 27 i t e m s d o m i n a t e d b y t h e node S : t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n p r e s u p p o s e s t h e r u l e P r e p . P h r . = > P r e p . + NP . I t s e l f i m p l y i n g NP =» S . T h e s e r u l e s a r e , o f c o u r s e , p a r t o f t h e s e t o f r u l e s t h a t w i l l g e n e r a t e g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s i n F r e n c h . P l a c i n g t h e n o n - t e r m i n a l node NEG t o t h e l e f t o f t h e o t h e r c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e S i n q u e s t i o n n o t o n l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f n e . . . p a s i n 1) b u t a l s o r e f l e c t s wha t Ruwe t c a l l s , i n a n o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n , • ' l ' i d e e t r a d i t i o n n e l l e que l a n e g a t i o n . . . ' p o r t e ' s u r 1 ' e n s e m b l e de l a p h r a s e c o m p l e x e " a n i d e a w h i c h , a s we s h a l l s e e , i s r e f l e c t e d I n t h e i n t u i t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s . The u s u a l c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s i d e a , i n t h e k i n d o f t r e e I h a v e s h o w n , i s N E G - p l a c e m e n t a s i n l b ) , whe r e t h e S i s s t i l l t h e o b j e c t o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a s t h e p h r a s e - s t r u c t u r e r u l e s p r e -d i c t . The same i s n o t t r u e o f l a ) , h o w e v e r : h e r e t h e S i s t h e o b j e c t o f a n i n f i n i t i v e , i t s e l f a n S i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e t r e e a n d s t a n d i n g a s t h e o b j e c t o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n . One mus t a s k wha t m o t i v a t e s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s s e c o n d S . The a n s w e r c l e a r l y mus t be l i n k e d t o t h e f i n a l a b s e n c e i n l a ) o f t h e n e . . . .pas e l e m e n t o f t h e o r i g i n a l 1). The f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no e l e m e n t n e . . . p a s i n l a ) means t h e r e i s p r e s u m a b l y no e l e -men t NEG e i t h e r . T h i s i n t u r n means o u r t r e e i s n o t c o r r e c t somehow a n d t h a t o u r p h r a s e - s t r u c t u r e r u l e s a s s t a t e d a r e somehow i r r e l e v a n t . 1.3.4 The c r u c i a l p o i n t h e r e seems t o be t h a t t h e p h r a s e -s t r u c t u r e r u l e s do n o t g o v e r n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f ne . . . . . pas , w h i c h [ C h . 2 ] 28 i s i n f a c t h a n d l e d b y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . T h a t i s t o s a y t h a t a r u l e s u c h a s NP => S makes no s t a t e m e n t a b o u t S w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s b e i n g n e g a t i v e o r n o t . The e l e m e n t N E G , - o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s h a n d l e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y : Ruwe t i n h i s a n a l y s i s c l a i m s t h a t " . . . a u l i e u que l a n e g a t i o n s o i t i n t r o d u i t e p a r u n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n g u l i e r e f a c u l t a t i v e , e l l e e s t [ . . . ] m a r q u e e p a r u n e l e m e n t (Neg ) i n t r o d u i t , f a c u l t a t i v e m e n t , p a r l e s r e g i e s s y n t a g m a t i q u e s . C e t e l e m e n t a p p a r t i e n t a l a b a s e de l a g r a m m a i r e , a u t r e m e n t d i t , i l f i g u r e d a n s c e r t a i n s i n d i c a t e u r s s y n t a g m a t i q u e s s o u s - j a c e n t s . . . . . L * i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e s p h r a s e s n e g a t i v e s o p e r e r a done u n i q u e m e n t s u r l e s s t r u c t u r e s p r o f o n d e s ( e n i n t e r o r e t a n t f  d a n s c e c a s , l e c o n s t i t u a n t Neg comme s i g n l f i a n t ' n e g a r  t i o n ' ) . [my e m p h a s i s ] e t l e r o l e d e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s [ n e -g a t i v e s ] s e b o r n e r a u n i q u e m e n t a. c o n v e r t i r , o b l i g a t o i r e -m e n t , d e s s t r u c t u r e s p r o f o n d e s p o s s e d a n t l e c o n s t i t u a n t Neg en s t r u c t u r e s s u p e r f i c i e l l e s p o s s e d a n t l e s e l e m e n t s ne e t p a s " . ° Ruwe t s a y s e s s e n t i a l l y two t h i n g s : NEG i s a s e m a n t i c c o n s t i -t u e n t o f t h e d e e p e r l e v e l s o f t h e g rammar a n d t h a t i t i s o b l i g a t o r i l y c o n v e r t e d b y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o n e . . . p a s a t t h e s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . I w i s h t o c l a i m t h a t e x a m p l e s 1 ) a n d l a ) t h e m s e l v e s make c l e a r t h a t t h e f i r s t o f R u w e t 1 s c l a i m s i s c o r r e c t a n d t h a t t h e s e c o n d i s n o t . I.3.5 NEG, b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s e m a n t i c c o m p o n e n t o f t h e g r ammar , i s n o t a c o m p o n e n t o r c o n s t i t u e n t o f S: i t i s i n s t e a d a m a r k e r o f S , a s Ruwe t a l s o p o i n t s o u t , a n d i t i s h e r e t h a t o u r t r e e , F i g . L . i s i n c o r r e c t . NEG s i g n i f i e s o n l y t h a t a n e g a t i o n i s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e . I f i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t 1) a n d l a ) a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e same d e e p s t r u c t u r e , a s t h e i n f o r -m a n t s ' r e s p o n s e s w o u l d i n d i c a t e , two t h i n g s seem t o f o l l o w : [ C h . 2 ] 29 o n e , t h a t t h e n e . . . p a s o f 1) i s i n f a c t a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f N E G . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n a l l o w s u s t o amend o u r t r e e a s s hown l n F i g . 2 , s o t h a t NEG, t h e m a r k e r o f S , i s o u t s i d e o f S ; T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s p e a k e r ' s e r r o r was t o a p p l y t h e o b l i g a t o r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f w h i c h Ruwe t s p e a k s b u t t o o s o o n , p r o d u c i n g a n i n t e r p r e t a b l e b u t u n g r a m m a t i c a l s u r f a c e s t r u c -t u r e , 1 ) . F r o m o u r a s s u m p t i o n t h a t l a ) , t h e amended v e r s i o n , s h a r e s t h e d e e p s t r u c t u r e o f 1 ) , i t f o l l o w s a l s o t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e m a n t i c c o n s t i t u e n t NEG h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t i n l a ) i n s u c h a way a s t o r e m o v e a n y o v e r t , s u p e r f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t o f n e g a t i o n . I n s t e a d we s e e a l e x i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n o f e q u i v a l e n t s e m a n t i c v a l u e . The f a c t t h a t R u -w e t ' s " o b l i g a t o r y " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d o e s n o t o c c u r i n l a ) d e n i e s t h a t i t i s o b l i g a t o r y . 9 [ C h . 2] 30 2.0 The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n h a d a s i t s o b j e c t i v e t o show t h a t t h e r e i s f r e q u e n t l y a s e r i o u s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f wha t i s i n v o l v e d i n n a t i v e - s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t s . S e v e r a l p o i n t s h a v e e m e r g e d f r o m i t . I t may be a s s u m e d , t o s t a r t w i t h , t h a t we h a v e a s k e d , i n t h e c u r r e n t m a n n e r , w h e t h e r 1) was " O . K . " , t h e a n s w e r b e i n g t h a t i t was n o t . I n t h i s c a s e , h o w e v e r , t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' r o l e d i d n o t s t o p t h e r e . H a v i n g met t h e s e n t e n c e a s a n u t t e r a n c e a n d h a v i n g f a i l e d t o r e g i s t e r a n y i n a b i l i t y t o c o m p r e h e n d i t a s a n u t t e r a n c e , t h e I n f o r m a n t s we r e a s k e d t o amend t h e s e n t e n c e , w h i c h t h e y d i d . 2.1 I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o n o t e a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e i n f o r -m a n t s w e r e d i s c u s s i n g , i n f a c t , a n u t t e r a n c e , n o t s i m p l y a s e n t e n c e , a n d w e r e t h u s a t t h e same t i m e p a r t y t o t h e c o n t e x t o f d i s c o u r s e o f t h e u t t e r a n c e . I n g i v i n g a n amended v e r s i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e , t h e y w e r e r e l y i n g on t h e i r own j u d g e m e n t a t w o r k i n s i t u i n a s i t u a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e y w e r e n o t a t t h a t t i m e p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f i n f o r m a n t , t h e y w e r e a c t u a l l y i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f i n t e r l o c u t o r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e n t e n c e i t s e l f . T h e i r r o l e was a l r e a d y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e -r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e i n f o r m a n t a s i t i s c ommon l y u n d e r s t o o d a n d i n w h i c h s e n t e n c e s , n o t u t t e r a n c e s , a r e t h e o b j e c t o f t h e i n q u i r y . 2.1.1 A r e q u e s t t o amend a n u t t e r a n c e i s e f f e c t i v e l y a n i n v i -t a t i o n t o a s s u m e t h e r o l e o f u t t e r e r . The f a c t t h a t , a s [ C h . 2 ] 31 i n t e r l o c u t o r , t h e i n f o r m a n t f i n d s t h e u t t e r a n c e i n t e r p r e t a b l e c o n f i r m s , one may c o n t e n d , t h a t he h a s g r a s p e d i n t u i t i v e l y t h e d e e p s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e n t e n c e . T h e r e i n l i e s t h e s o u r c e o f h i s a b i l i t y t o amend i t . One i s f a c e d n o t w i t h a q u e s t i o n o f d e g r e e o f g r a m m a t i c a l i t y a s s u c h b u t r a t h e r , a s we h a v e s e e n b e t w e e n l a ) a n d l b ) , a q u e s t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e o r p e r t i -n e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o two e q u a l l y g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s . S u c h a j u d g e m e n t b y a n a t i v e s p e a k e r i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a s was f o u n d i n c o m p a r i n g 1) w i t h 2 ) , w h e r e b o t h t h e n o n - g r a m -m a t i c a l i t y a n d t h e e m e n d a t i o n o f 2) w e r e f o u n d t o be t r i v i a l i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e c a s e o f 1 ) . What i s much more I m p o r -tant... i s t h a t , c w i t h o u t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u c h a n a t i v e -s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t , one w o u l d h a v e h a d no r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e t h a t l b ) was n o t a p e r f e c t l y s u i t a b l e amended f o r m o f 1 ) . I n s u c h a c a s e i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n q u i t e u n l i k e l y , i f n o t i m p o s -s i b l e t h a t we w o u l d h a v e r e a l i s e d R u w e t ' s e r r o r c o n c e r n i n g t h e o b l i g a t o r y n a t u r e o f n e g a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o r t h a t we w o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o a c c o u n t i n some d e g r e e a t l e a s t f o r t h e a p p a r e n t l a c k o f n e g a t i o n i n o u r amended v e r s i o n , a l o n g w i t h a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e m a n t i c s o f t h e s e n t e n c e . 2.1.2 T h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y o b j e c t i o n s t h a t m i g h t be made t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f a r , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t m i g h t seem t o be a c a s e o f t h e e n d j u s t i f y i n g t h e m e a n s . T h e r e may be t h o s e who f i n d o b j e c t i o n a b l e a l s o t h e u s e o f wha t I h a v e c a l l e d t h e r e s t o r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , s i n c e [ C h . 2 ] 32 i t i n v o l v e s c a l l i n g f o r some f o r m o f n o r m a t i v e j u d g e m e n t . My j u s t i f i c a t i o n mus t be t h a t i t i s q u i t e p r e c i s e l y on t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e r e o c c u r s t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g I am s p e a k i n g o f r e g a r -d i n g n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s , t h e f a i l u r e t o r e a l i s e t h a t c a l l i n g u p o n a n i n d i v i d u a l t o e x e r c i s e h i s c o m p e t e n c e i s t o do much more t h a n a p p e a l t o a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t . I t means a s k i n g h i m t o t a k e a s e n t e n c e , make - o r a t t e m p t - a r e a d i n g o f i t a n d t h e n t o p r o n o u n c e u p o n i t . I t g o e s a l l t o o o f t e n u n n o t i c e d t h a t w i t h o u t h i s m a k i n g a r e a d i n g o f t h e s e n t e n c e , t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s w o u l d b r e a k d o w n . Now, t h e o n l y way we c a n a s sume he i s c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g s u c h r e a d i n g s i s f u r t h e r t o a s s ume t h a t t o do s o i s p a r t o f h i s n o r m a l r o l e , a s i t i s , o f c o u r s e . B u t t h e f a c t t h a t mus t n o t be p a s s e d o v e r l i g h t l y i s t h a t t h i s n o r m a l r o l e b e l o n g s t o t h e d o m a i n o f l i n g u i s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e a n d no o t h e r . The c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s i s t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t i s b e i n g a s k e d t o d e a l w i t h a s e n t e n c e i n t h e way i n w h i c h he n o r m a l l y d e a l s w i t h u t t e r a n c e s , t h a t i s t o a c t a s i n t e r l o c u t o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e s e n t e n c e s , t o be t h e a d d r e s s e e w i t h i n a c o n t e x t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t o r e a c t a s u s u a l . I f t h i s i s t r u e , a s I c l a i m , t h e n we mus t a s k t h e q u e s t i o n : wha t d o e s " t o r e a c t a s u s u a l " c o n s t i t u t e ? What , i n f a c t , i s t h e r o l e o f a n i n t e r l o c u t o r ? I t I s o n l y a s h o r t s t e p t h e n t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f wha t i s t h e r o l e o f t h e svpeaker i n t h e a c t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Wha t , i n d e e d , do we know a b o u t p e r f o r m a n c e i n g e n e r a l ? 2.2 To s u m m a r i z e my d i s c u s s i o n a r o u n d s e n t e n c e 1 ) , I h a v e [ C h . 2 ] 33 t r i e d t o show t h a t a c o m p e t e n c e - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h w o u l d h a v e p r o d u c e d n o t o n l y a r a t h e r t r i v i a l comment on 1 ) b u t a l s o a n i r r e l e v a n t o n e , w h i l e a n a p p r o a c h t h a t t o o k i n t o a c c o u n t f a c -t o r s a r i s i n g f r o m a p e r f o r m a n c e - o r i e n t e d v i e w o f t h i n g s r e v e a l e d more i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s . I h a v e s u b s e q u e n t l y a r g u e d t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e o f r e s t o r a t i o n a n d d i s c u s s i o n , w h i l e n o t t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n , i s n o n e t h e l e s s j u s t i f i e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n a t i v e - s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o b o t h c o m p e t e n c e a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . F i n a l l y , I h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s n o t o n l y n e c e s s a r y b u t f r e q u e n t l y l a c k i n g a n d h a v e i m p l i e d t h a t w i t h o u t i t t h e l i n -g u i s t h a s l i t t l e h o p e o f d e a l i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h m a t t e r s o f s y n t a x . 2 . 2 . 1 One n e e d n o t go f a r t o f i n d e x a m p l e s t o s u p p o r t t h i s l a s t p o i n t . 3) a n d 4-) r e p r e s e n t a c l a s s o f s e n t e n c e f o r w h i c h I h a v e r a r e l y s e e n a n a t t e m p t e d a n a l y s i s , l e t a l o n e a s a t i s -f a c t o r y o n e : 3) N e v e r t h e l e s s , he c o u l d n ' t e s c a p e h i s f a t h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e . 4) A m a n ' s a man, f o r a l l t h a t . No c o m p e t e n c e m o d e l , a s p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d , c a n h a n d l e t h e a n a l y s i s o f s u c h s e n t e n c e s , w h i c h a r e q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y b o u n d t o t h e d o m a i n o f p e r f o r m a n c e . W i t h o u t a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t o f t h i s f a c t no a n a l y s i s c o u l d e v e r be p o s s i b l e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e s e n t e n c e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e i n no way [ C h . 2] 34 b i z a r r e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f n o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h i s t o s a y a s u t t e r a n c e s . I n d e e d , a s u t t e r a n c e s t h e y may be h e a r d , u n d e r s t o o d a n d r e s p o n d e d t o w i t h no p r e d i c t a b l e d i f f i c u l t y . How t h e n may i t be t h a t t h e y d e f y a n a l y s i s ? O n l y when t h e a n a l y s t f a i l s t o n o t i c e e i t h e r t h e i r l i n k w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e o r t o r e c o g n i s e t h e p a r t i c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s l i n k . 2.3 S i n c e I c l a i m t h e r e i s a s e t o f s e n t e n c e s w h i c h p r e s e n t modes o f a n a l y s i s a r e i n c a p a b l e o f t r e a t i n g , i t f o l l o w s t h a t I am a l s o c l a i m i n g t h a t mos t l i n g u i s t s a r e g u i l t y o f t h e t y p e o f f a i l u r e t h a t I h a v e d e s c r i b e d . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o s e e why t h i s w o u l d I n d e e d be t h e c a s e . L e t u s r e - e x a m i n e two p a s s a g e s q u o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r : L y o n s , d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n u t t e r a n c e s a n d s e n t e n c e s , a f f i r m e d t h a t " t h e u t t e r a n c e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r ' l a n g u a g e ' (wha t s p e a k e r s a c t u a l l y p r o d u c e , when we s a y t h a t t h e y ' a r e s p e a k i n g t h e l a n g u a g e ' ) c a n be d e s c r i b e d o n l y I n d i r e c t l y , a n d a t t h e  p r e s e n t t i m e v e r y i n a d e q u a t e l y , o n t h e b a s i s o f a p r i o r  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e s o f t h e ' l a n g u a g e ' . T h i s d i s ^ t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n u t t e r a n c e s a n d s e n t e n c e s i s f u n d a m e n t a l . i n mos t l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y " . , [my e m p h a s i s ] A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , p e r f o r m a n c e / p a r o l e i s a d e p e n d e n c y o f c o m p e t e n c e / l a n g u e a n d one o f w h i c h we a r e , f u r t h e r m o r e , r a t h e r i g n o r a n t . R u w e t , f o r h i s p a r t , a s s e r t s t h a t " c ' e s t l a p e r f o r m a n c e q u i f o u r n i t l e s d o n n e e s d * o b s e r v a -t i o n — c o r p u s de t o u t e s s o r t e s , e c r i t s ou o r a u x ( c o n v e r -s a t i o n s e n r e g i s t r e e s , i n t e r v i e w s , r e c i t s , a r t i c l e s de j o u r n a u x , t e x t e s l l t t e r a i r e s , e t c . ) — q u i p e r m e t t e n t  d ' a b o r d e r 1'e tude de l a c o m p e t e n c e " , [ t h i s e m p h a s i s m i n e ] T h i s v i e w h a s i t t h a t , w i t h o u t p e r f o r m a n c e a s t h e p o i n t o f [Ch. 2] 35 departure, competence studies can achieve nothing. If, i n a manual of t h e o r e t i c a l l i n g u i s t i c s and an introduction to transformational grammar, there i s to be found a contradic-t i o n as g l a r i n g as t h i s one seems to be, l i t t l e wonder per-haps i f there i s uncertainty or confusion on the part of other l i n g u i s t s as well. 2.3.1 This confusion, while compounded by v i r t u e of having sprung from seemingly impeccable antecedents, has fortunately not been u n i v e r s a l l y well established. Thus Lyons, abandoning explication for commentary, observes that "there are, of course, serious problems, both p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l , involved i n deciding what constitute extraneous or l i n g u i s t i c a l l y Irrelevant factors; and i t may well be that, i n practice, the ' i d e a l i z a t i o n 1 of the data advocated by Chomsky does tend to introduce some of the normative considerations that marred much of t r a d i -t i o n a l grammar".H Ruwet, as we have seen, envisages an important r o l e for per-formance as a source of invaluable data. But he goes further and i s one of the f i r s t to remind us that "nous ne devons pas perdre de vue qu'une grammaire - qui est, rappelons-le, une theorie de l a competence du sujet parlant - doit pouvoir s e r v i r de base a une theorie de l a performance, c'est-a-dire a une theorie de l a maniere dont les sujets emettent et/ou recolvent les enonces. En p a r t i c u l i e r , on peut esperer q u ' i l sera un jour possible de construire une theorie raisonnable de l a maniere dont les sujets pergolvent et comprennent les enonces entendus (une theorie du decodage); une theorie de ce genre devralt comprendre, comme un de ses elements essentiels, une grammaire generative-transformationnelle". ™ This paragraph, the v i c t i m of subsequent neglect, states unequivocally the concept of a theory of performance which w i l l [ C h . 2] 36 "be s e r v e d by c o m p e t e n c e t h e o r y . No l o n g e r t h e j u n i o r p a r t n e r , t h e t h e o r y o f p e r f o r m a n c e i s s e e n h e r e , i n i t s own r i g h t , a s a n o b j e c t i v e n o t a m e a n s . 2.4 The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a c o n c e p t i n a c o m p e t e n c e - o r i -e n t e d w o r k s u c h a s R u w e t ' s may a t f i r s t seem s u r p r i s i n g , t h o u g h t h i s s u r p r i s e i s o n l y s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e c o n f u s i o n I h a v e r e -f e r r e d t o . A f t e r a l l , i f we c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y C h o m s k y ' s p o s i t i o n , we s e e t h a t he t o o k a s h i s o b j e c t i v e t o c o n s t r u c t a m o d e l o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t t h a t was c o m p e t e n c e . To t h i s e n d , he e s c h e w e d p e r f o r m a n c e i t e m s a n d f a c t o r s , s i n c e f o r t h em t h e r e was no p l a c e w i t h i n h i s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e . T h a t i s t o s a y , h i s t h e o r y a n d m o d e l o f c o m p e t e n c e s o u g h t t o s a y n o t h i n g a b o u t p e r f o r m a n c e a s s u c h . ( The t h e o r y i t s e l f a s i d e , Chomsky p e r m i t t e d h i m s e l f v a r i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t p e r f o r m a n c e , i t s n a t u r e a n d r o l e a n d one may f e e l e q u a l l y f r e e t o d r a w c o n -c l u s i o n s a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e v a l u a b l e o r a p p o s i t e . ) R u w e t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s go b e y o n d C h o m s k y ' s i n t h a t t h e y e n v i s a g e t h e s t u d y o f t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n two f o r m e r l y s e p a r a t e d a r e a s . a n d a r e a t l e a s t s u g g e s t i v e o f a s cheme o f c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y b e t w e e n c o m p e t e n c e a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s l n i t s e l f r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v a n c e i n t h e v i e w o f many a n d i s t h e b r o a d b a s e f r o m w h i c h I s h a l l p r o c e e d I n t h i s s t u d y . [ C h . 2 ] 3 7 3 . 0 My o b j e c t i v e i s t o s t u d y a n a s p e c t o f l i n g u i s t i c p e r -f o r m a n c e . To do t h i s , I make c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e r e i s j u s t s u c h a r e l a t i o n o f c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y a s I h a v e o u t l i n e d : f r o m t h i s , two o t h e r s f o l l o w . I a s s u m e t h a t I may make u s e o f c e r t a i n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f c o m p e t e n c e s t u d i e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e - I h a v e i n m i n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e u s e o f p h r a s e - m a r k e r s a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s a s d e s -c r i p t i v e t o o l s , w i t h o u t d i r e c t c o n c e r n f o r q u e s t i o n s o f t h e i r e x p l a n a t o r y a d e q u a c y - a n d I f u r t h e r a s s ume t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s l a t t e r i s o f g r e a t I m p o r t a n c e , n o t o n l y b e c a u s e i t c o n c e r n s my s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i t I n v o l v e s c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v e r y u s e o f s u c h t e r m s a s " c o m p e t e n c e " a n d " p e r f o r m a n c e " . T h e s e t e r m s , I s t a t e d e a r l i e r , w e r e i n a s e n s e a n a r r o w e r d e -f i n i t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a s t p r e v i o u s l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e t e r m s " l a n g u e " a n d " p a r o l e " : I f e e l i t i s n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s p o i n t t o a d d a q u a l i f i c a t i o n . C h o m s k y ' s t e r m s r e l a t e w i t h i n h i s t h e o r y t o i n d i v i d u a l s o n l y , i . e . t h e r e i s a m u l t i t u d e o f c o m p e t e n c e s a n d o f p e r f o r m a n c e s . F o r S a u s s u r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e i s a m u l t i t u d e o f wha t he c a l l s p a r o l e b u t o n l y one l a n g u e : t h e l a t t e r i s a s o c i a l f a c t a n d p a r o l e t h e a f f a i r o f i n d i v i -d u a l s . The t e r m i n o l o g i e s a r e d i f f e r e n t i n a n o t h e r r e s p e c t : f o r S a u s s u r e , a t h i r d t e r m e x i s t s , t h a t o f l a n g a g e . I t i s t h e sum o f l a n g u e a n d p a r o l e , t o u c h i n g b o t h t h e s o c i a l a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s o f t h e l a n g u a g e w i t h i n t h e s p e e c h c o m m u n i t y . [Ch. 2] 38 It has no stated p a r a l l e l i n the theory that Chomsky proposes and, even i n the Saussurean theory, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know quite what i s i t s ro l e , since i t receives l i t t l e or no atten-t i o n i n most t h e o r e t i c a l studies. one Interesting attempt to define i t more c l e a r l y occurs i n Dineen ( I 9 6 7 ) , where the three terms are presented as follows: "When we consider the properties found i n these three aspects of language we can see that de Saussure, i n de-f i n i n g l a langue. studied language 'independent of i t s i n d i v i d u a l manifestation'. Because i t i s i n d i v i d u a l , active, and voluntary, l a parole i s not a s o c i a l f a c t ; l e  langage -iheludes both s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l aspects and i s not, therefore, a pure s o c i a l fact; l a langue i s the s o c i a l fact, being general throughout a community and exercising constraint over the i n d i v i d u a l speakers. Like Durkheim's c o l l e c t i v e consciousness, l a langue i s not found complete and perfect i n any i n d i v i d u a l . La parole includes anything a speaker might say; l e langage encom-passes anything a speaker might say as well as the con-s t r a i n t s that prevent him from saying anything ungramma-t i c a l ; l a langue contains the negative l i m i t s on what a speaker must say i f he i s to speak a p a r t i c u l a r language grammatically." ( p p . 1 9 7 - 8 ) As thus defined, le langage i s the domain of l i n g u i s t i c a c t i -v i t y i n which c o l l e c t i v e constraints come into play with re-spect to i n d i v i d u a l choice. Less obvious i s that i t i s also the middle ground between the model and the r e a l i t y , between generation and production, between what Saussure regarded as "abstraction" and execution". The b i - p o l a r i t y of competence and performance i s a r e s t r i c t e d scheme: i t allows for no con-side r a t i o n of the s o c i a l f a c t . It deals with sentences and disregards utterances and, while i t appeals to a concept of native-speaker i n t u i t i o n as an investigative t o o l , i t does so [ C h . 2] 39 o n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e n t e n c e s . . The b i - p o l a r i t y o f l a n g u e a n d p a r o l e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s c h e m e , p r e c i s e l y i n t h a t i t a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e s o c i a l f a c t a s a c e n t r a l t e n e t . I t m a k e s , t h o u g h b y i m p l i c a t i o n o n l y , t h e same s t r o n g a p p e a l t o i n t u i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t , a g a i n , t o s e n t e n c e s b u t m i t i g a t e s t h e b i - p o l a r l t y t h r o u g h i t s t h i r d t e r m , l e l a n g a g e . H e r e t h e s e n -t e n c e a n d t h e u t t e r a n c e a r e i n c o n j u n c t i o n , t h e s o c i a l a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t a r e c o - o c c u r r e n t a n d c o n s t r a i n t a n d f r e e d o m a r e c o i i n c i d e n t a l l y e f f e c t i v e . I t i s t h e d o m a i n o f c o m m u n i c a -t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e t r a n s m i t t e d u t t e r a n c e be comes o r f a i l s t o become s e n t e n c e , t h r o u g h t h e e x e r c i s i n g o f n a t i v e - s p e a k e r i n -t u i t i o n b y t h e r e c e i v e r , who a p p l i e s t h e c o l l e c t i v e c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e u t t e r a n c e he r e c e i v e s . 3*1 The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s a r e t o be c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . S a u s s u r e , we a r e t o l d , h e l d l a p a r o l e t o be t h a t w h i c h " d e s i g n e l ' a c t e de c o m m u n i c a t i o n dan s s a t o t a l i t e : l a p h r a s e e n o n c e e p a r l ' u n d e s , i n t e r l o c u t e u r s , e n t e n d u e e t i n t e r p r e t e d p a r l ' a u t r e " . T h i s i s a m o s t p u z z l i n g d e c l a r a t i o n : i t l e a v e s one w o n d e r i n g a t f i r s t w h e t h e r S a u s s u r e e q u a t e s l a p a r o l e w i t h l ' a c t e de  c o m m u n i c a t i o n o r w i t h l a p h r a s e e n o n c e e . I n one s e n s e t h e d e f i n i t i o n e m b r a c e s t h e w h o l e s p e e c h - s i t u a t i o n : t h e u t t e r i n g , t h e u t t e r e r , t h e t h i n g u t t e r e d , t h e h e a r e r , h i s h e a r i n g o f t h e u t t e r a n c e a n d h i s I n t e r p r e t i n g o f i t , a l o n g w i t h h i s p a r t i c u -l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t . I f t h i s i s i n d e e d t h e way S a u s s u r e w i s h e d t h e t e r m p a r o l e t o be t a k e n , t h e n l i t t l e wonde r i f h e [ C h . 2 ] 40 f e l t i t was u n m a n a g e a b l e b y s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s o f a n a l y s i s . T o d a y a s i n S a u s s u r e • s t i m e , t h e r e i s no s cheme o f a n a l y s i s o r d e s c r i p t i o n a d e q u a t e t o t r e a t s u c h a m u l t i f a c e t e d c o n c e p t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e v e r y u n w i e l d i n e s s o f s u c h a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n makes i t seem i n t u i t i v e l y v e r y i n a p p r o p r i a t e a s a c o u n t e r p a r t t o t h e c o n c e p t o f l a n g u e . A n e a t e r b a l a n c e i s a p p a r e n t , i f one t a k e s p a r o l e i n t h e s e n s e o f p h r a s e e n o n c e e o r t h e s e t o f a l l o f t h e s e . H o w e v e r , i n a p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l way , t h e t e r m p h r a s e  e n o n c e e i s somewha t c o n f u s i n g , s i n c e p h r a s e u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o t h e a r e a o f t h e l a n g u e a n d e n o n c e t o t h a t o f p a r o l e . ^ To b r i n g t h e two t o g e t h e r i s t o c r o s s b o u n d a r i e s o r e l s e t o p o s -t u l a t e q u i t e p r e c i s e l y some f o r m o f I n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n t h e t w o . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , i t i s my c o n t e n t i o n , one i s d e a l i n g r a t h e r w i t h l a n g a g e t h a n w i t h e i t h e r l a n g u e o r p a r o l e . 3.1.1 To m a r k s o m e t h i n g a s a p h r a s e i s t o d i v o r c e i t e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e r o l e o f e n o n c e a n d we h a v e s e e n t h a t t h i s i s a p r a c -t i c e o f l o n g s t a n d i n g a i m e d a t a v o i d i n g t h e p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f p a r o l e / p e r f o r m a n c e , w h i c h i s t h u s s u m m a r i l y c o n s i g n e d t h e r o l e o f p r o v i d i n g a c o r p u s o f d a t a . What i s n o t s o w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i s t h e i d e a t h a t u s i n g t h e e n o n c e s a s d a t a i s n o t s u c h a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d o p e r a t i o n a s h a s b e e n s u p p o s e d . I r o n i c a l l y e n o u g h , i t f e l l t o t h e p h i l o -s o p h e r n o t t h e l i n g u i s t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t "we v e r y o f t e n a l s o u s e u t t e r a n c e s i n ways b e y o n d t h e s c o p e a t l e a s t o f t r a d i t i o n a l g r a m m a r . I t h a s come t o be s e e n t h a t many s p e c i a l l y p e r p l e x i n g w o r d s embedded i n [ C h . 2 ] kl a p p a r e n t l y d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s do n o t s e r v e t o i n d i -c a t e some s p e c i a l l y o d d a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e i n t h e r e a l i t y r e p o r t e d , b u t t o i n d i c a t e - ' . " ( n o t t o r e p o r t ) t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e s t a t e m e n t i s made o r r e s e r v a t i o n s t o w h i c h i t i s s u b j e c t o r t h e way i n w h i c h i t i s t o be t a k e n a n d t h e l i k e " . 1 6 The i m p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e l i n g u i s t i s c l e a r : o u r d a t a ( e n o n c e s ) w i l l c o n t a i n o r may c o n t a i n i t e m s w h i c h d e r i v e s t r i c t l y f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t a n e n o n c e i s a n e n o n c e , i t e m s w h i c h mus t e i t h e r be a b s t r a c t e d f r o m t h e c o r p u s s o a s t o a l l o w t h e n c e f o r t h d i s -c u s s i o n i n t . t e r m s o f p h r a s e s o r w h i c h mus t somehow be i n c o r -p o r a t e d i n t o o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f p h r a s e s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , f o r a n e n o n c e t o become a p h r a s e , i t mus t - i n t e r m s o f i t s l i n -g u i s t i c f o r m u l a t i o n - be d i v e s t e d o f t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h m a r k i t a s a n e n o n c e . What t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a n d how t h e y a c t u a l l y ma r k a n e n o n c e a r e t h u s q u e s t i o n s c e n -t r a l t o a s t u d y o f wha t I s e e a s t h e a r e a o f l a n g a g e a n d t h e i r a n s w e r s may e n a b l e u s t o d e a l mo re s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h wha t A u s t i n c a l l s " s p e c i a l l y p e r p l e x i n g words 1 - ' . W i t h o u t t h e s e a n s w e r s , we a r e l i k e l y t o . p e r p e t u a t e o l d e r r o r s , j u s t l i k e t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s , a s A u s t i n p o i n t s o u t : " A l o n g t h e s e l i n e s i t h a s b y now b e e n shown p i e c e m e a l , o r a t l e a s t made t o l o o k l i k e l y , t h a t many t r a d i t i o n a l p h l -l o s p h i c a l p e r p l e x i t i e s h a v e a r i s e n t h r o u g h a m i s t a k e - t h e m i s t a k e o f t a k i n g a s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s t a t e m e n t s o f f a c t u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h a r e e i t h e r ( i n i n t e r e s t i n g n o n - g r a m m a -t i c a l w a y s ) n o n s e n s i c a l o r e l s e i n t e n d e d a s s o m e t h i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t " . 17 The c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t i f we do n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e d a t a , t h e n we r i s k f a l s i f y i n g t h e d a t a . I f we we a r e f u l l y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e n o n c e , t h e n wha t we mus t s t u d y [ C h . 2 ] 42 i s t h e f i e l d o f e n o n c i a t i o n . 3.2 T e r m i n o l o g i e s , a s i s w e l l k n own , may b e g q u e s t i o n s . E n o n c i a t i o n i s a s y e t a t e r m w i t h o u t a t e r m i n o l o g y : t h e v e r y a r e a t o w h i c h i t r e f e r s r e m a i n s t o be d e f i n e d . T h o u g h t o my own way o f t h i n k i n g a t p r e s e n t i t i s a p a r t o f l a n g a g e , i t r e m a i n s t o be s e e n w h e t h e r s u c h i s t h e c a s e . T h e r e f o r e 1 p r o -p o s e t o s e t a s i d e a l l q u e s t i o n s o f l a n g a g e . parole/perfor-mance , l a n g u e / o o m p e t e n c e a n d t h e i r l i n k s w i t h e n o n c i a t i o n . R a t h e r , I s h a l l move i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f e x a m i n i n g wha t we a l r e a d y know a b o u t e n o n c i a t i o n , e x t e n d i n g t h i s k n o w l e d g e w h e r e p o s s i b l e a n d i n d i c a t i n g t h o s e a r e a s w h e r e f u t u r e r e -s e a r c h seems i n d i s p e n s i b l e . I t a k e a s my p r e m i s e t h a t e n o n - c i a t i o n d o e s t a k e p l a c e a n d t h a t a s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i t , we a l r e a d y know a n d i n t u i t i v e l y u n d e r s t a n d a g o o d d e a l a b o u t i t , no m a t t e r how l i t t l e t h i s k n o w l e d g e may a l r e a d y h a v e b e e n e l u c i d a t e d i n a f o r m a l s e n s e . 3.2.1 The s t u d y o f e n o n c i a t i o n s t a r t s f r o m t h e p r e m i s e t h a t l a n g u a g e i s a t o o l . One c a n p r o c e e d f r o m t h e r e t o e x a m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t o o l , I t s u s e s , t h e u s e r s o f t h e t o o l a n d t h e i r p u r p o s e s i n u s i n g i t a n d , f i n a l l y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r k c a r r i e d o u t , s e e n e s p e c i a l l y a s a p r o d u c t o r o u t c o m e . S u c h , i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s , i s t h e r a n g e o f s t u d y e n c o m -p a s s e d by t h e t e r m e n o n c i a t i o n : i t s g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e i s e x p r e s s e d b y T o d o r o v a s f o l l o w s : " L ' e x e r c l c e de l a p a r o l e n ' e s t p a s u n e a c t i v i t e p u r e m e n t [Ch. 2] 43 i n d i v l d u e l l e et chaotique, done inconnaissable; i l , exist'© une part i r r e d u c t l b l e de 1'enonciation mais a cote d' e l l e i l en est d'autres qui se lais s e n t concevoir come repe-^ t i t l o n , jeu, convention. Notre objet sera done constitue par les regies de l'enonciation et les d i f f e r e n t s champs de leur a p p l i c a t i o n . " ^ It i s to be understood as the study of phenomena rather than forms. That i s to say, the formal apparatus of a language i s considered only i n terms of i t s functional r e l a t i o n to par-t i c u l a r phenomena rather than simply i n the terms of a par-t i c u l a r taxonomies. Benveniste i s at some pains to make thi s d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r : "L'emploi des formes, partie necessaire de toute descrip-tion, a donne l i e u a. un grand nombre de modeles, aussi varies que les types linguistiques dont i l s procedent. La di v e r s l t e des structures l i n g u i s t i q u e s , autant que nous savons les analyser, ne se l a i s s e pas reduire a. un p e t i t nombre de modeles qui comprendraient toujours et seulement les elements fondamentaux. Du moins disposons-nous a i n s i de certaines representations assez precises, construites au moyen d'une technique approuvee. Tout autre chose est l'emploi de l a langue. II s'agit i c i d'un mecanisme t o t a l et constant qui, d'une maniere ou d'une autre, affecte l a langue entiere. La d i f f i c u l t e est de s a i s i r ce grand phenomene, s i banal q u ' i l semble se confondre avec l a langue meme, s i mecessaire q u ' i l s'echappe a l a vue. L'enonciation est cette mise en fonctionnement de l a langue par un acte i n d i v l d u e l d ' u t i l i s a t i o n . Le discours, dira-t-on, qui est produit chaque f o i s qu'on parle, cette manifestation de 1'enonciation, n'est-ce pas simplement l a 'parole'? — II faut prendre garde a. l a condition specifique de 1'enonciation: e'est l'acte meme de produire un enonce et non le texte de 1'enonce qui est notre objet. Cet acte est l e f a i t du locuteur qui mobilise l a langue pour son compte. La r e l a t i o n du locuteur a. l a langue determine les caracteres linguistiques de 1'enon-c i a t i o n . On doit l'envisager comme l e f a i t du locuteur qui prend l a langue pour instrument, et dans les caracteres linguistiques qui marquent cette r e l a t i o n " . ^-9 [ C h . 2] 44 The e s s e n t i a l t a x o n o m i e s h e r e i s t h a t o f t h e phenomena , o f t h e " a c t s " w h i c h a r e e n g a g e d i n when t h e s p e a k e r makes h i s own u s e o f t h e l a n g u a g e . 3.2.2 A t t h e r o o t o f t h i s a n d r e l a t e d n o t i o n s i s t h e c o n c e p t o f l a n g u a g e a s a c t i o n , a c o n c e p t w h i c h , t h o u g h g o i n g b a c k t o a n t i q u i t y , f i r s t r e c e i v e d s c i e n t i f i c p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e w o r k o f B r o n i s l a w M a l i n o w s k l . H i s r e s e a r c h e s i n e t h n o l o g y l e d h i m t o t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t we mus t c o n s i d e r l a n g u a g e a s " a mode o f a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a c o u n t e r s i g n o f t h o u g h t " . F o r h i m , " i s o l a t e d w o r d s a r e i n f a c t o n l y a l i n g u i s t i c f i g m e n t , t h e p r o d u c t o f a d v a n c e d l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . The s e n t e n c e i s a t t i m e s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d l i n g u i s t i c u n i t , b u t n o t e v e n a s e n t e n c e c a n be r e g a r d e d a s a f u l l l i n g u i s t i c d a t u m . To u s , t h e r e a l l i n g u i s t i c f a c t i s t h e f u l l u t t e r a n c e w i t h i n i t s c o n t e x t o f s i t u a t i o n " . 2 0 F r o m t h i s i t was b u t a s h o r t s t e p t o h i s now f amous n o t i o n o f " p h a t i c c o m m u n i o n " a n d t h e n o n - r e f e r e n t i a l u s e o f l a n g u a g e , w h i c h was t a k e n u p l a t e r b y H a y a k a w a f o r whom e v e n " t h e p r e -v e n t i o n o f s i l e n c e i s i t s e l f a n i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f s p e e c h " . 2 1 3.2.3 F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e l i n g u i s t , h o w e v e r , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i s e t h a t t h e " p h a t i c " a c t a n d t h e b r e a k i n g o f s i l e n c e a r e s i m p l y two o f t h e a c t s t h a t may be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s p e a k i n g : t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e w o r d s u s e d i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e i r s e n s e i s m e r e l y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e two a c t s , r a t h e r t h a n a g e n e r a l i s e d f e a t u r e o f a l l s p e e c h a c t s . The l i n g u i s t , a c c o r d i n g t o M a l i n o w s k i , mus t c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h " t h e f u l l u t t e r a n c e w i t h i n i t s c o n t e x t o f s i t u a t i o n " : [Ch. 2] 45 without the context, the l i n g u i s t i c fact i s incapable of being defined; the context informs us about the utterance. 3 The important difference between Malinowskl's claim and the d i r e c t i o n taken by Benveniste i s that Malinowski c l e a r l y presupposes' that the context of which he speaks i s knowable and c l e a r . Benveniste, on the other.hand, stresses above a l l the re l a t i o n s h i p of the speaker to the language and the fact that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s marked l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , a view which permits and encourages the study of the utterance without necessarily having to hand a cle a r i n d i c a t i o n of the context i n Malinowski 1s sense. In fact, Benveniste i s t a l k i n g about a much more fundamental and generalised kind of context, not that i n which a p a r t i c u l a r utterance may have occurred but rather the context without which no utterance may ever occur. This, I submit, i s the basis of h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between enonciation and parole, while Malinowski's claim i s centred on instances of parole with no thought of any more fundamental characterisation of the notion of context. One may carry the point further and claim that Malinowski's notion i n fact presupposes that of Benveniste, somewhat i n the way that within the Saussurean scheme parole presupposes langage. But, as we have seen, Benveniste's notion concerns something which, presupposable or not, i s w s i necessaire q u ' i l s'echappe a, l a vue w (cf. 19), with the r e s u l t that i t has never been explicated. [ C h . 2] 46 3.3.I What I w i s h t o s u g g e s t h e r e i s t h a t e n o n o l a t i o n h a s a c e r t a i n p r i m a c y o v e r t h e s t u d y o f c o n t e x t a s M a l l n o w s k i h a s i t . T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e two a r e i n r e l a t i o n "but o r d e r e d . I s h a l l t r y t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s i d e a w i t h t h e e x a m p l e o f p h a t i c commu-n i o n . -If; the ' . . s tudy o f e n o n o l a t i o n c a n show t h a t a c e r t a i n u t t e r a n c e o r s e t o f u t t e r a n c e s c a r r i e s l i n g u i s t i c m a r k e r s d e n o t i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n a c t s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e u t t e r a n c e ( s ) , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a c t s o c c u r w i l l l e a d t h e a n a l y s t t o p r e d i c t o r s p e c i f y c e r t a i n n e c e s s a r y f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e u t t e r a n c e ( s ) . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s l o o k s a t w h o l e u t t e r a n c e s a s phenomena r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y a s a l i n e a r l y o r g a n i s e d m e s s a g e a n d a s s i g n s t h e phenomena t o a n a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e i n t h e t a x o n o m i e s o f p henomena , w i t h a n a c c o m p a n y i n g s e t o f p r e s c r i b e d c o n t e x t u a l f e a t u r e s . 3..3.1.1 A g o o d e x a m p l e m i g h t be B r i t i s h w e a t h e r - t a l k : t h e t e x t o f " A b e a u t i f u l m o r n i n g , i s n ' t i t ? " ; i s c o m p o s e d o f a ( t r u n -c a t e d )vma in d e c l a r a t i v e c l a u s e f o l l o w e d b y a t a g - q u e s t i o n , t h e l a t t e r s e r v i n g , " s y n t a c t i c a l l y * * a t l e a s t , a s a n i n v i t a t i o n t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e s p e a k e r , i f d e s i r e d . However.,-: t h e u t t e r i n g o f s u c h a s t r i n g e x c l u d e s t h e i d e a o f s u c h c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n d t h e i n v i t a t i o n , i n t h i s c a s e , d o e s n o t " c o u n t " a s a n i n v i t a t i o n , t o u s e A u s t i n ' s e x p r e s s i o n . I n d e e d , t h e u t t e r i n g o f s u c h a t e x t c o n s t i t u t e s a n a t t e m p t t o o p e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t o s e t u p a n i n t e r l o c u t o r , w i t h t h e t e x t s e r v i n g n o t a s a s i g n i n t h e S a u s s u r e a n s e n s e b u t r a t h e r a s a s i g n a l i n M a l i n o w s k i ' s p h a t i c [ C h . 2 ] 47 s e n s e . 3.3*2 S u c h a n a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y d o e s n o t r e l y e x c l u s i v e l y on l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n a n d , i t m i g h t "be a r g u e d , i s f o u n d e d on s o c i o l o g y a s much a s on l i n g u i s t i c s . I n d e e d , t h e s o c i o l o g i s t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c a r e a o f h i s f i e l d d e a l s w i t h p r e c i s e l y s u c h c a s e s a n d c l a i m s t h a t , i n u t t e r i n g c e r t a i n t e x t s , a s p e a k e r i s " d o i n g w o r k " o f a c e r t a i n k i n d , e . g . i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , o p e n i n g up a c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e k i n d o f l a b e l l i n g o f phenomena r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r a n d i s b a s e d on t h e s o c i o l o g i s t ' s k n o w l e d g e o f wha t u t t e r a n c e s i n a g i v e n s p e e c h - c o m m u n i t y c o u n t a s wha t p a r t i c u l a r phenomena o r " w o r k " . 3.3.2.1 H o w e v e r , t h e f a c t t h a t , s h o r n o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c t r a p p i n g s , s u c h phenomena c a n o c c u r a t a l l w i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y i s o f p r i m e i n t e r e s t t o t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o c i o l o g i s t , s i n c e i t i s n o t o b v i o u s t h a t a s p e c i a l d e v i c e f o r o p e n i n g u p c o n v e r s a t i o n s h o u l d e v e n be n e c e s s a r y i n a g i v e n c o m m u n i t y . I t i s t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f a c t o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h a d e v i c e t h a t l e a d s t o t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c f o r m s u s e d i n t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h a t d e v i c e . L i k e w i s e , t h e r u l e s o f e n o n c i a t i o n i n a g i v e n l a n g u a g e p e r m i t t h e s p e e c h - c o m m u n i t y u s i n g i t t o a d o p t s p e c i -f i c l i n g u i s t i c f o r m s f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f c e r t a i n a c t s . T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e l a n g u a g e i s s t r u c t u r e d i n s u c h a way a s t o [ C h . 2 ] 48 a c c o m o d a t e t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f phenomena t h r o u g h t h e s p e a k e r s ' u s e o f d e v i c e s a n d a s s i g n s a r a n g e o f l i n g u i s t i c means o f p r o -d u c i n g t h e m . 3*2.2 P u t t i n g i t l n a more f o r m u l a i c way , one m i g h t c l a i m t h a t e n o n c i a t i o n : p a r o l e ;: a n t h r o p o l o g y : s o c i o l o g y . T o d o r o v h a s made e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same p o i n t : " I I e s t e v i d e n t que l ' o n s e meut [ . . . . ] a l a f r o n t i e r e de l a l i n g u i s t i q u e e t de 1 * a n t h r o p o l o g i c : l e s a c t e s de p a r o l e r e l e v e n t de l a s e c o n d e e n t a n t q u ' a c t e s , de l a p r e m i e r e , en t a n t que ' d e p a r o l e ' . Ou, p o u r e v l t e r l a c o n f u s i o n ' i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a i r e * , on d e v r a l t d i r e : l i s r e l e v e n t d ' u n e l i n g u i s t i q u e a n t h r o p o l o g i q u e q u i r e s t e a c r e e r . " ^2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , n o t a l l v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n i s g o v e r n e d b y t h e r u l e s o f e n o n c i a t i o n . a s B e n v e n i s t e makes c l e a r : " D a n s l a j o u t e v e r b a l e p r a t i q u e e c h e z d i f f e r e n t s p e u p l e s e t d o n t u n e v a r i e t e t y p i q u e e s t l e h a i n - t e n y d e s M e r i n a s , i l ne s ' a g i t e n r e a l i t e n i de d i a l o g u e n i d ' e n o n c i a t i o n . A u c u n d e s ;deux p a r t e n a i r e s ne s * e n o n c e : t o u t c o n s i s t e e n p r o v e r b e s c i t e s e t e n c o n t r e - p r o v e r b e s c o n t r e - c i t e s . I I n ' y a p a s u n e s e u l e r e f e r e n c e e x p l i c i t e a. l ' o b j e t du d e b a t . C e l u i d e s d e u x j o u t e u r s q u i d i s p o s e du p l u s g r a n d s t o c k de p r o v e r b e s , ou q u i e n f a i t l ' u s a g e l e p l u s a d r o i t , l e p l u s m a l i c i e u x , l e m o i n s p r e v u met l ' a u t r e a q u i a e t i l e s t p r o c l a m e v a i n q u e u r . Ce j e u n ' a que l e s d e h o r s d ' u n d i a l o g u e . " ^ 3 S u c h v e r b a l i n t e r p l a y a s B e n v e n i s t e d e s c r i b e s i s o f u n d o u b t e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t b u t o f m i n i m a l i n t e r e s t f o r t h e l i n g u i s t . 4 I h a v e m e n t i o n e d t h a t s o c i o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s may be u s e -f u l i n e x a m i n i n g q u e s t i o n s o f e n o n c i a t i o n . T h i s i s a m a t t e r o f m e t h o d o l o g y : b y a k i n d o f r e v e r s e a n a l y s i s , t h e h i t h e r t o u n e x p l l c a t e d a r e a o f e n o n c i a t i o n may d e r i v e b e n e f i t f r o m t h e [ C h . 2] 49 o v e r t f i n d i n g s o f s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . I n t h e same way , p h i l o s o p h y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s t u d y i n a s m u c h a s a l o t o f t h e b a s i c w o r k d e r i v e s f r o m J . L . A u s t i n a n d t h o s e who h a v e f o l l o w e d i n h i s f o o t s t e p s . 3.4.1 The r a n g e o f t h e s e d i v e r s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a s w e l l a s t h a t o f t h e e n t i r e f i e l d o f e n o n o l a t i o n i s I n d i c a t e d b y T o d o r o v f o r whom t h r e e m a i n a v e n u e s h o l d o u t t h e g r e a t e s t p r o m i s e : " 1 ' e t u d e de l a f o r c e i l l o c u t i o n n a l r e , c e l l e de l ' a s p e c t i n d i -c i e l d u l a n g a g e , c e l l e e n f i n de l a c o l o r a t i o n q u e donne ? 4 1 ' e n o n c i a t i o n a u x d i f f e r e n t s e n o n c e s " . ^ The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s b a s e d on t h e w o r k p r i n c i p a l l y o f A u s t i n a n d B e n v e n i s t e a n d i s s e e n i n t u r n a s b e i n g c o m p o s e d o f t h r e e a r e a s o r p h a s e s o f s t u d y : a n i n i t i a l t a s k o f d r a w i n g u p a n i n v e n t o r y o f i l l o c u -t i o n a r y f o r c e s a n d , u l t i m a t e l y , s t u d y i n g t h e i r p l a c e I n a g e n e r a l s cheme o f s e m i o t i c s ; t h e n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e v a r i o u s f o r c e s , a s b e g u n n o t a b l y b y J . R . S e a r l e ; f i n a l l y , t h e c o n s t r u c t i n g o f a g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f i l l o -c u t i o n a r y f o r c e s , a p r o b l e m w h i c h h a s y e t t o r e c e i v e a n y s i g -n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t . 3.4.2 The s e c o n d m a i n a p p r o a c h , c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n d e x i c a l a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e , i n v o l v e s f o u r p r i n c i p a l t o p i c s : t h e i n t e r -l o c u t o r s , t h e ' t i m e o f t h e i r a l l o c u t i o n o r i n t e r a c t i o n , i t s p l a c e a n d i t s m o d a l i t e s , d e f i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y a s t h e r e l a t i o n t h a t h o l d s b e t w e e n t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r s a n d t h e u t t e r a n c e . The o b j e c t i v e h e r e i s s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d : " d e d i s t i n g u e r d a n s l a [ C h . 2] 50 l a n g u e e n t r e s e s e l e m e n t s s y m b o l l q u e s ( ou d e n o m i n a t i f s , , o u r e f e r e n t i e l s ) e t s e s e l e m e n t s I n d i c l e l s ( o u p r a g m a t i q u e s , ou s u b j e c t i f s ) " . ^ One o f t h e p i o n e e r s a n d p e r h a p s t h e mos t o u t s t a n d i n g f i g u r e i n t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h i s B e n v e n i s t e , whose w o r k w i l l f o r m t h e b a s i s o f much o f wha t i s t o b e p r o -p o s e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y . 3.4.3 F i n a l l y , t h e s t u d y o f e n o n c i a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e a r e a t h a t h a s become k n o w n , i n E u r o p e a b o v e a l l , a s t e x t g rammar o r t e x t l i n g u i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y a s i t p e r m i t s wha t T o d o r o v c a l l s " u n e t y p o l o g i e d e s d i s c o u r s " , o n t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t " 1 * e n o n c i a t i o n e s t t o u j o u r s p r e s e n t e , d ' u n e m a n i e r e ou d ' u n e a u t r e , a l ' i n t e r i e u r de 1 * e n o n c e " . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h r e e m a j o r t y p e s o f u t t e r a n c e i n c o r p o r a t i n g a f u n d a m e n t a l o p p o s i t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o u g h l y t o t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n m o n o l o g u e a n d d i a l o g u e . T h i s t y p e o f s t u d y i s g e n e r a l l y c o m -p a r a b l e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s i n r h e t o r i c . B e y o n d t h a t a n d o n a b r o a d e r s c a l e i s t h e a n l y s i s o f - l a r g e r t e x t u a l u n i t s s u c h a s t h e n o v e l , c e n t r e d on m a j o r o p p o s i t i o n s s u c h a s t h a t o f t h e two t i m e - l i n e s o f n a r r a t i o n , , " t e m p s du d i s c o u r s e t t e m p s de l ' h i s t o i r e " , : w h i c h w i l l be t h e m a i n f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s o f t h i s w o r k . 3.5 T h r o u g h o u t h i s m a s t e r l y t o u r d ' h o r i z o n . T o d o r o v l e a v e s no d o u b t a s t o h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t e n o n c i a t i o n i s a n a r e a o f s t u d y v i r t u a l l y u n e x p l o r e d a n d r e a d y f o r f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t . [ C h . 2] 51 The t h r e e m a i n s u b d i v i s i o n s o u t l i n e d a b o v e , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e f o r h i m " d i r e c t i o n s a. t r a v e r s l e s q u e l l e s s e d e s s i n e [.-..-] l e f u t u r v i s a g e de l a l i n g u i s t i q u e " . . B e n v e n i s t e , l i k e w i s e , s e e s t h e f i e l d a s r i p e w i t h p o s s i b i l i t i e s : "De l o n g u e s p e r s p e c t i v e s s ' o u v r e n t a 1 * a n a l y s e d e s f o r m e s c o m p l e x e s d u d i s c o u r s , a 2 6 p a r t i r du c a d r e f o r m e l e s q u i s s e i c i " . 3-5.1 A t t h e same t i m e , d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t t h a t a r e n o t l i g h t l y t o b e p a s s e d o v e r . A t p r e s e n t , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h em h a v e t o do w i t h m a t t e r s o f d e f i n i t i o n , b o t h o f t e r m i n o -l o g y a n d c o n c e p t s . A u s t i n ' s o f t - e v o k e d p e r l o c u t i o n a i r y f o r c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h i l e r e l a t e d t o i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e , i s now c l e a r l y s e e n t o be n o n - p e r t i n e n t t o e n o n c i a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , l i n e s h a v e t o b e d r a w n b e t w e e n t h o s e l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s t h a t a r e m e r e l y p a r t o f s y n t a x a n d t h o s e t h a t a r e p a r t o f e n o n c i a - t i o n ( s i g n e s s y n t a x i q u e s v s s i g n e s p r a g m a t i q u e s ) . S u c h m a t t e r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s " p r o b l e m e s l i m i t r o p h e s " , whose s t u d y may r e l a t e i n some ways t o e n o n c i a t i o n w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e o f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s may be m i s -l e a d i n g o r i r r e l e v a n t f o r e n o n c i a t i o n . One s u c h i m p o r t a n t a r e a d i s c u s s e d b y T o d o r o v i s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , w h i c h i s l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d t o e n o n c i a t i o n y e t i s , o f t e n a n i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o o l f o r e l u c i d a t i n g some o f i t s c r u c i a l f e a t u r e s . 3«5«2 T h e s e a n d o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e l i k e l y t o p r e s e n t s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s , b o t h s u b s t a n t i v e l y a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y . [Ch. 2] 52. When a f i e l d i s held to be "wide open" th i s i s i n e v i t a b l e ; i t i s further complicated by an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y nature. In the case of enonciation, the p r i n c i p a l objectives are l i n g u i s t i c , s p e c i f i c a l l y "les regies de 1 'enonciation" but, since "l'heure des manuels n'a pas sonne", the techniques and methodology of research remain to be developed and r e f i n e d . Furthermore, the relatedness of the findings of other f i e l d s and a r e a d i -ness to incorporate at least some of them i n a programme of l i n g u i s t i c research are i n serious c o n f l i c t with much of t r a d i t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c thinking. 5*3 However, as I have t r i e d to show i n t h i s and the pre-ceding chapter, the study of my topic has benefited r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e from a non-linguistic approach and i s not l i k e l y to benefit; much further from either t r a d i t i o n a l or more recent l i n g u i s t i c theory. Therefore, while much of what I s h a l l go on to discuss or propose must seem large l y hypothetical, the topic i s pursued on the p r i n c i p l e that, among hypotheses, there must be one that answers the greatest number of ques-tions . [Ch. 2] 53 NOTES 1. Lyons (1968), p.52 2. Ruwet (1967), p.18 3. See, for example, Postal (1966). 4. Ruwet, op.olt., p.4l 5. This example was noted i n the speech of a.native speaker, a man of above average education employed as Regional Ser-vice Manager for CitroSn of Canada, Ltd. The other i n -formants alluded to were also native speakers of above average education. 6. One might put th i s another way and say "... what the sen-tence t e l l s us about the speaker's knowledge (or lack of knowledge) of the phrase structure rules of his own sen-tence". Such an aspect being outside the range of this study, however, my int e r e s t i n i t here i s only to display c e r t a i n facts and indicate the general i n t e r e s t they hold for the l i n g u i s t , rather than to explain this p a r t i c u l a r occurrence of the f a c t s . 7. Ruwet, op.cit., p.296 8. Ibid., pp.342-3 9. It may be f a i r l y observed at t h i s point that Ruwet's treatment of negation i n French i s somewhat inadequate. He seems unaware that to put NEG outside S, as i n F i g . 2, captures the generalisation that i n such a configuration the preceding NP must be a nomlnalisation (not a noun) and that, according to the rules of the grammar, the nomlnali-sation may be either an S or a verb nominailsation ( I n f i -n i t i v e ) which i t s e l f may carry - as i n our example - an embedded S. Only i n the case of the S-nominalisation does does Ruwet's "obligatory" r u l e apply and i t has been seen that t h i s transformation was not even relevant i n the view of the informants, for whom the erroneous 1) evidently had a d i s t i n c t i v e d e r i v a t i o n a l history i n d i c a t i n g a deep structure d i f f e r e n t from that of l b ) . (As for the proce-dure whereby the deep structure NEG comes to be expressed without an overt negative, that i s a question suited more to the study of Generative Semantics than to the present study. ) It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that, i n French, there are [ C h . 2] 54 o c c u r r e n c e s o f a n e g a t i v e p l u s a n NP a t t h e s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r u l e s w i l l p e r m i t a v e r s i o n o f 1) s u c h a s I c ) : l c ) ? 0 n a . j o u t e q c , p o u r n o n p a s q u e . . . m a l s p o u r q u e . . . S u c h a s e n t e n c e w o u l d n o t o n l y be o f d o u b t f u l g r a m m a t i -c a l i t y f o r some p e o p l e b u t , c o n t a i n i n g n on p a s r a t h e r t h a n ne . . . p a s , w o u l d a l s o b e l o n g t o a c a t e g o r y q u i t e d i f f e -r e n t f r o m t h e e x a m p l e s we h a v e s t u d i e d . I t b e l o n g s s q u a r e l y t o t h e p e r f o r m a t i v e a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e a n d , a s I s h a l l s how , t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f e n o n c i a t i o n . 10. L y o n s (1970), p.38 11. I b i d . , p.39 12. o p . c i t . . p.260 13. e . g . L y o n s :(1968) 1 4 . G o d e l , (1957) 15. S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n Ruwe t , , o p . c l t . , p.368, n o t e 10. 16. A u s t i n (1965), p.3 17. I b i d . 1 8 . T o d o r o v (1970b), p.3 19. B e n v e n i s t e (1970), pp.12-13 20. M a l i n o w s k i (1935), v o l . I I , p.11 21. H a y a k a w a (1952), p.72 22. o p . c l t . , p.5 23. o p . c l t . . p.16 2 4 . o p . c l t . . p . 4 25. I b i d . , p.7 26. o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 55 CHAPTER THREE  T ime a n d T e n s e : I M e n t i o n was made l n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r {J.3.2.1) o f t h e i d e a t h a t c e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s may e x i s t i n a l a n g u a g e p r o -v i d i n g f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f c e r t a i n a c t s . I t was f u r t h e r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t n o t a l l s u c h p r o c e d u r e s w e r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e r e s o u r c e s o f a g i v e n s p e e c h - c o m m u n i t y . The i n f e r e n c e i s c l e a r t h a t some o f wha t I h a v e r e f e r r e d t o a s d e v i c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l : t o t h i s may be a d d e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t s u c h e s s e n t i a l i t e m s a r e l i k e l y n o t t o b e l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c . T h e s e i n d i s p e n s a b l e d e v i c e s may be more p r e c i s e l y c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e r u l e s o f e n o n c i a t i o n , w h i c h n o t o n l y p r o v i d e f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e c i f i c a c t s b u t i n d e e d g o v e r n t h e i r o c c u r -r e n c e . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I s h a l l e x a m i n e some o f t h e s e r u l e s i n t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c s e t t i n g i n a n a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y c e r t a i n pointsra 'n'd d e v e l o p t h em w h e r e p o s s i b l e . I s h a l l c o n c e n t r a t e o n wha t T o d o r o v c a l l s " l ' a s p e c t i n d i c i e l " , w h i c h r e c e i v e s f r o m B e n v e n i s t e t h e n a r r o w e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f " l ' a c t e meme, l e s s i t u a t i o n s ou i l s e r e a l i s e , l e s i n s t r u m e n t s de l 1 a c c o m -p l i s s e m e n t " . (1970, p . 1 4 ) 1 0 I n a n y e n o n c i a t i o n . 2 a s p e a k e r a p p r o p r i a t e s t h e l a n g u a g e [ C h . 3] 56 a n d s e t s i t t o w o r k f o r h i m ; t h i s s t a t e m e n t , o f s e e m i n g b a n a -l i t y , i s c r u c i a l i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , a s B e n v e n i s t e i n s i s t s : " L ' a c t e i n d i v i d u e l p a r l e q u e l on u t i l i s e l a l a n g u e i n t r o -d u i t l e l o c u t e u r comme p a r a m e t r e d a n s l e s c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a i r e s a 1 * e n o n c i a t i o n . A v a n t 1 ' e n o n c i a t i o n ^ l a l a n g u e n ' e s t que l a p o s s i b i l l t e de l a l a n g u e . A p r e s 1 ' e n o n c i a t i o n , l a l a n g u e e s t e f f e c t u e e e n u n e i n s t a n c e de d i s c o u r s , q u i emane d ' u n l o c u t e u r , f o r m e s o n o r e q u i a t t e i n t u n a u d i t e u r e t q u i s u s c i t e u n e a u t r e e n o n c i a t i o n e n r e t o u r . E n t a n t que r e a l i s a t i o n i n d i v i d u e l l e , 1 ' e n o n c i a t i o n p e u t s e d e f i n i r , p a r r a p p o r t a l a l a n g u e , comme u n p r o c e s d ' a p p r o p r i a t l o n . L e l o c u t e u r s ' a p p r o p r i e l ' a p p a r e i l f o r -m e l de l a l a n g u e e t 1 1 e n o n c e s a p o s i t i o n de l o c u t e u r p a r d e s i n d i c e s s p e c i f i q u e s , d ' u n e p a r t , e t a u moyen de p r o -c e d e s a c c e s s o i r e s , de l ' a u t r e . M a i s i m m e d i a t e m e n t , d e s q u ' i l s e d e c l a r e l o c u t e u r e t a s s u m e l a l a n g u e , i l i m p l a n t e l ' a u t r e e n f a c e d e l u i , q u e l q u e s o i t l e d e g r e de p r e s e n c e q u ' i l a t t r i b u e a c e t a u t r e . T o u t e e n o n c i a t i o n e s t , e x p l i c i t e ou i m p l l c i t e , u n e a l l o -c u t i o n , e l l e p o s t u l e u n a l l o c u t a i r e . E n f i n , d a n s 1 ' e n o n c i a t i o n , l a l a n g u e s e t r o u v e e m p l o y e e a 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n d ' u n c e r t a i n r a p p o r t a u m o n d e . L a c o n d i t i o n meme de c e t t e m o b i l i s a t i o n e t de c e t t e a p p r o p r i a t i o n de l a l a n g u e e s t , c h e z l e l o c u t e u r , l e b e s o i n de r e f e r e r p a r l e d i s c o u r s , e t , c h e z l ' a u t r e , l a p o s s i b i l l t e de c o - r e f e r e r i d e n t i q u e m e n t , d a n s l e c o n s e n s u s p r a g m a t i q u e q u i f a i t de c h a q u e l o c u t e u r u n c o - l o c u t e t i r . L a r e f e r e n c e e s t p a r t i e i n t e g r a n t e de 1 ' e n o n c i a t i o n . C e s c o n d i t i o n s i n i t i a l e s v o n t r e g l r t o u t l e m e c a n l s m e de l a r e f e r e n c e d a n s l e p r o c e d e d * e n o n c i a t i o n , en c r e a n t u n e s i t u a t i o n t r e s s i n g u l i e r e e t d o n t o n ne p r e n d g u e r e c o n s c i e n c e . • L ' a c t e i n d i v i d u e l d ' a p p r o p r i a t i o n de l a l a n g u e i n t r o d u i t c e l u i q u i p a r l e d a n s s a p a r o l e , C ' e s t l a u n e d o n n e e c o n s t i t u t i v e de 1 ' e n o n c i a t i o n . L a p r e s e n c e du l o c u t e u r a s o n e n o n c i a t i o n f a i t q u e c h a q u e i n s t a n c e de d i s c o u r s c o n s t ! t u e u n c e n t r e de r e f e r e n c e i n t e r n e . C e t t e s i t u a t i o n v a s e m a n i f e s t e r p a r u n j e u de f o r m e s s p e c i f i q u e s d o n t l a f o n c t i o n e s t de m e t t r e l e l o c u t e u r e n r e l a t i o n c o n s t a n t e e t n e c e s s a i r e a v e c s o n e n o n c i a t i o n . C e t t e d e s c r i p t i o n u n p e u a b s t r a i t e s ' a p p l i q u e a u n p h e n o -mene l i n g u i s t i q u e f a m i l i e r d a n s l ' u s a g e , m a l s d o n t [Ch. 3] 57 1'analyse theorique commence seulement. C'est d'abord 1'emergence des indices de personne (le rapport je-tu) qui ne se produit que dans et par 1 'enonciation: l e terme je denotant l ' i n d i v i d u qui p r o f e r e l " e n o n c i a t i o n , l e terme tu, l ' i n d i v i d u qui est present comme a l l o c u t a i r e . " (ibid.) Benveniste, i n r e f e r r i n g to the "terms" j e and tu, does not follow the t r a d i t i o n a l practice of simply c a l l i n g them "pro-nouns". To do so, would have been inappropriate i n a most s i g n i f i c a n t way, since the category "pronoun" i s simply a set of grammatical items capable of being substituted for nouns within the syntax of a language, with the c o r o l l a r y that the so-called "personal pronouns" are substitutes for the members of the set of "proper nouns". This point of view overlooks e n t i r e l y the nature and function of such pronouns and the fact that they are not, contrary to t r a d i t i o n a l descriptive cate-gories, a homogeneous set. The "terms" j e and tu were labeled above "indices de personne" and, i t was suggested parentheti-c a l l y , are i n a sp e c i a l "rapport". 1.1 The notion of person i n language receives a f u l l e x p l i -c ation i n Benveniste's pioneering study "La Nature des pronoms" (1966a, pp.251-266), i n which he shows that the notion i s v a l i d only with regard to j e and tu and completely lacking i n the case of 11. The basis of the d i s t i n c t i o n i s the question of systematic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : unlike any nominal category, defin-able i n a constant and "objective" sense, "je s i g n i f i e ' l a personne qui enonce l a presente instance de discours contenant j e * ". This fact i s c r u c i a l , since i t means that "je ne peut [ C h . 3] 58 e t r e i d e n t i f i e que p a r 1 * I n s t a n c e de d i s c o u r s q u i l e c o n t i e n t e t p a r l a s e u l e m e n t . I I ne v a u t q u e d a n s l ' i n s t a n c e ou i l e s t p r o d u i t . M a i s , p a r a l l e l e m e n t , c ' e s t a u s s i e n t a n t q u * i n -s t a n c e de f o r m e j e q u ' i l d o i t e t r e p r i s ; l a f o r m e j e n ' a d ' e x i s t e n c e l i n g u i s t i q u e que d a n s l ' a c t e de p a r o l e q u i l a p r o f e r e . " * (p.252) F u r t h e r m o r e , j u s t a s j e d o e s n o t e x i s t i n a v a c u u m , e q u a l l y i t d o e s n o t e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n . 1.2 I n "De l a s u b j e c t i v i t e d a n s l e l a n g a g e " , (1966a, p p . 258-266), t h i s t h eme i s d e v e l o p e d : " J e n ' e m p l o i e j e q u ' e n m ' a d r e s s a n t a q u e l q u ' u n , q u i s e r a d a n s mon a l l o c u t i o n u n t u . C ' e s t c e t t e c o n d i t i o n de d i a -l o g u e q u i e s t c o n s t i t u t i v e de l a p e r s o n n e . c a r e l l e i m -p l i q u e e n r e c i p r o c i t e que j e d e v i e n s t u d a n s l ' a l l o c u t i o n de c e l u i q u i a s o n t o u r s e d e s i g n e p a r j e . C ' e s t l a que n o u s v o y o n s u n p r i n c i p e d o n t l e s c o n s e q u e n c e s s o n t a d e -r o u l e r d a n s t o u t e s l e s d i r e c t i o n s . L e l a n g a g e n ' e s t p o s -s i b l e que p a r c e que c h a q u e l o c u t e u r s e p o s e comme s u j e t , e n r e n v o y a n t a l u i - m e m e comme j_e d a n s s o n d i s c o u r s . De c e f a i t , j e p o s e u n e a u t r e p e r s o n n e , c e l l e q u i , t o u t e x -t e r i e u r e q u ' e l l e e s t a • m o l ' , d e v i e n t mon e c ho a u q u e l j e d i s t u e t q u i me d i t t u . " (p.260) T h i s , i n t u r n , p e r m i t s " u n e d e f i n i t i o n s y m e t r i q u e p o u r t u , comme 1' ' l n d i v i d u ' - a l l o c u t e d a n s l a p r e s e n t e i n s t a n c e de d i s -c o u r s c o n t e n a n t l ' i n s t a n c e l i n g u i s t i q u e tu» " . I n no s e n s e t h e r e f o r e c a n i t be c l a i m e d t h a t j e - t u r e f e r t o l e x i c a l i t e m s n o r e v e n t o c o n c e p t s o r " r e a l " i n d i v i d u a l s : " I I n ' y a p a s de c o n c e p t ' j e ' e n g l o b a n t t o u s l e s j e q u i s ' e n o n c e n t a t o u t i n s t a n t d a n s l e s b o u c h e s de t o u s l e s l o c u t e u r s , a u s e n s ou i l y a u n c o n c e p t * a r b r e ' a u q u e l s e r a m e n e n t . t o u s l e s e m p l o i s i n d i v i d u e l s de a r b r e . L e ' j e ' ne denomme done a u c u n e e n t i t e l e x i c a l e . P e u t - o n d i r e a l o r s q u e j e s e r e f e r e a. u n i n d i v i d u p a r t i c u l i e r ? S i c e l a e t a l t , c e s e r a i t u n e c o n t r a d i c t i o n p e r m a n e n t e a d m i s e d a n s l e l a n g a g e , e t l ' a n a r c h i e d a n s l a p r a t i q u e : comment [ C h . 3] 59 l e meme t e r m e p o u r r a l t - i l s e r a p p o r t e r i n d i f f e r e m m e n t a. n ' i m p o r t e q u e l i n d i v i d u e t en meme t emps l 1 i d e n t i f i e r d a n s s a p a r t i c u l a r i t y ? On e s t en p r e s e n c e d ' u n e c l a s s e de m o t s , l e s ' p r o n o m s p e r s o n n e l s ' , q u i e c h a p p e n t a u s t a -t u t de t o u s l e s a u t r e s s i g n e s du l a n g a g e . " (p .26l) .3 A s f o r i l . , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s t h e p r o p e r o f t h i s p r o n o u n t o h a v e a r e f e r e n t t h a t i s n o t p r e s e n t a n d t h u s a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e a l l o c u t l o n a r y s i t u a t i o n a n d , m o s t e s p e c i a l l y , i n wha t B e n v e n i s t e c a l l s t h e " c o r r e l a t i o n de p e r -s o n n e " : " L a ' t r o i s i e m e p e r s o n n e ' r e p r e s e n t e e n f a i t l e membre n o n ma rque de l a c o r r e l a t i o n de p e r s o n n e . C ' e s t p o u r q u o i i l n ' y a pa s t r u i s m e a, a f f i r m e r q u e l a n o n - p e r s o n n e e s t l e s e u l mode d ' e n o n c i a t i o n p o s s i b l e p o u r l e s i n s t a n c e s de d i s c o u r s q u i ne d o i v e n t p a s r e n v o y e r a. e l l e - m e m e s , m a i s q u i p r e d i q u e n t l e p r o c e s d e n ' i m p o r t e q u i o u n ' i m p o r t e q u o i h o r m i s l ' i n s t a n c e meme, c e n ' i m p o r t e q u i ou n ' i m p o r t e q u o i p o u v a n t t o u j o u r s e t r e m u n i d ' u n e r e f e r e n c e o b j e c t i v e . " (pp.255-6) Thu s t h e t h i r d p e r s o n p r o n o u n i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r c l a s s e s o f s u b s t i t u t e , i n c l u d i n g e v e n v e r b s s u c h a s f a i r e . - T h e same a u t h o r s u m m a r i s e s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e : " L e s f o r m e s a p p e l e e s t r a d i t i o n n e l l e m e n t ' p r o n o m s p e r s o n -n e l s * n o u s a p p a r a i s s e n t m a i n t e n a n t comme u n e c l a s s e d* ' - i n d i v i d u s l i n g u i s t i q u e s * , de f o r m e s q u i r e n v o i e n t t o u -j o u r s e t s e u l e m e n t a. d e s ' i n d i v i d u s ' , q u ' i l s ' a g i s s e de p e r s o n n e s , de momen t s , de l i e u x , p a r o p p o s i t i o n a u x t e r m e s n o m i n a u x q u i r e n v o i e n t t o u j o u r s e t s e u l e m e n t a. d e s c o n c e p t s . Or l e s t a t u t d e c e s ' i n d i v i d u s l i n g u i s t i q u e s * t i e n t > a u f a i t q u ' i l s n a i s s e n t d ' u n e e n o n c i a t i o n , q u ' i l s s o n t p r o d u i t s p a r c e t e v e n e m e n t i n d i v i d u e l e t , s i II*e-n p e u t d i r e , • s e m e l - n a t i f ' . l i s s o n t e n g e n d r e s a. n o u v e a u c h a q u e f o i s q u ' u n e e n o n c i a t i o n e s t p r o f e r e e , e t c h a q u e f o l s i l s d e s i g n e n t a n e u f . " (1970, pp.14-15) 3 .4 I n e s s e n c e , t h e n , t h e r e a r e o n l y two p e r s o n s i n [ C h . 3] 60 l a n g u a g e . T h i s r e a s o n i n g i s f o u n d e d o n the> c o n c e p t o f s u b j e c t i v i t y , w h i c h B e n v e n i s t e d e f i n e s t h u s : M L a ' s u b j e c t i v i t e ' d o n t n o u s t r a i t o n s i c l e s t l a c a p a c i t e du l o c u t e u r a. s e p o s e r comme ' s u j e t ' . E l l e s e d e f i n i t , n o n p a r l e s e n t i m e n t que c h a c u n e p r o u v e d ' e t r e l u i - m e m e ( c e s e n t i m e n t , d a n s l a m e s u r e ou l ' o n p e u t e n f a i r e e t a t , n ' e s t q u ' u n r e f l e t ) , m a i s comme l ' u n i t e - p s y c h i q u e q u i t r a n s c e n d e l a t o t a l i t e d e s e x p e r i e n c e s v e c u e s q u ' e l l e a s s e m b l e , e t q u i a s s u r e l a p e r m a n e n c e de l a c o n s c i e n c e . Or nou s t e n o n s que c e t t e ' s u b j e c t i v i t e ' , q u ' o n l a p o s e e n p h e n o m e n o l o g i e ou e n p s y e h o l o g i e , comme on v o u d r a , n ' e s t que 1 ' e m e r g e n c e d a n s l ' e t r e d ' u n e p r o p r i e t e f o n d a m e n t a l e du l a n g a g e . E s t ' e g o ' q u i d i t ' e g o ' . Nous t r o u v o n s l a l e f o n d e m e n t de l a ' s u b j e c t i v i t e ' , q u i s e d e t e r m i n e p a r l e s t a t u t l i n g u i s t i q u e de l a i . p e r s o n n e ' . " (1966a, p p . 259-60) I n a n y a l l o c u t i o n , t h e s p e a k e r p o s i t s h i m s e l f a s s u b j e c t a n d t h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y i s d i s p l a y e d i n t u r n b y t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r o n h i s a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e o f j e . H e n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s a y , w L a p o l a r i t e d e s p e r s o n n e s , t e l l e e s t d a n s l e l a n g a g e l a c o n d i t i o n f o n d a m e n t a l e , d o n t l e p r o c e s de c o m m u n i c a t i o n . . . n ' e s t q u ' u n e c o n s e q u e n c e t o u t e p r a g m a t i q u e " . ( i b i d . . , p.260) 4-.1 T h i s " d i a l e c t i q u e s i n g u l i e r e " i s t h e v e r y c o n d i t i o n o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , f r o m w h i c h a l l e l s e f o l l o w s . I t i s t h e c o n -s t a n t , t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e o f e v e r y a l l o c u t i o n a n d s e t s i n m o t i o n a w h o l e p l a y o f f a c t o r s whose f a m i l i a r i t y m a s k s t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . 5 E a c h a l l o c u t i o n o f j e i s a s e p a r a t e a c t . A s we h a v e s e e n , t h e t e r m " s e m e l - n a t i f w h a s b e e n p r o f f e r e d t o s y m b o l i s e t h i s c r u c i a l f a c t , b u t e l s e w h e r e we f i n d i t more c o g e n t l y [ C h . 3] 61 e x p r e s s e d : " O r c e t a c t e de d i s c o u r s , q u i e n o n c e j e . a p p a r a i t r a , c h a q u e f o i s q u ' i l e s t r e p r o d u i t , comme l e meme a c t e p o u r c e l u i q u i l ' e n t e n d , m a i s p o u r c e l u i q u i 1 ' e n o n c e , c ' e s t c h a q u e f o i s u n a c t e n o u v e a u , f u t - i l m i l l e f o i s r e p e t e , c a r i l  r e a l i s e c h a q u e f o i s l ' l n s e r t i o n du l o c u t e u r d a n s u n mo- ment n o u v e a u du t emps e t d a n s u n e t e x t u r e d i f f e r e n t e de c i r c o n s t a n c e s e t de d i s c o u r s . " ( 1 9 6 6 b , pp .3-4) [my empha -s i s ] E v e r y o c c u r r e n c e o f j e c a r r i e s a s e t o f i m p l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r -n i n g t h e t i m e a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e a c t i t s e l f . What t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e a n d how l a n g u a g e p r o v i d e s f o r t h em a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t mus t now be e x a m i n e d . 2 . 0 The f i r s t a n d f u n d a m e n t a l f a c t a b o u t t i m e i n l a n g u a g e i s t h a t i t i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o t e n s e : t h e i n n u m e r a b l e s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s on t h e v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h i s l i n k a r e w e l l k n o w n . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e c e n t r e d on m a t t e r s p r i n c i p a l l y o f t h e f o r m s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e n s e s , w h e t h e r d i a c h r o n i c a l l y o r s y n c h r o n i c a l l y , w i t h i n a l a n g u a g e o r among l a n g u a g e s . H o w e v e r , a p e r u s a l o f s u c h s t u d i e s w i l l s u p p o r t a s t a r t l i n g c o n c l u s i o n : f e w i n d e e d seem t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t i m e . A w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n i n l i n * g u i s t i c s h a s i t t h a t m a t t e r s o f t i m e a r e e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c : t h e y may b e l o n g t o p h i l o s o p h y o r , w i t h i n l i n g u i s t i c s , t o s e m a n t i c s b u t a r e n o t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e l i n g u i s t i c s t u d y o f v e r b s a n d t h e i r f o r m s . [ C h . 3] 62 1 The t r u l y r e m a r k a b l e s i d e o f t h i s l i n g u i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o t i m e a n d t e n s e i s t h a t t h e o n l y b a s i s t h a t p e r m i t s t h e c o m -p a r i s o n o f t e n s e - s y s t e m s i s t h a t t h e y d e a l w i t h t h e same t h i n g - t i m e , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g i t i n i t s own f a s h i o n . A n y a t t e m p t t o c o m p a r e s y s t e m s a s s u m e s t h i s f a c t a s f u n d a m e n t a l a n d d e p e n d s u p o n i t . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n , i n ? t h e e v e n t , i s a l m o s t a l w a y s i m p l i c i t , e v e n i n t u i t i v e , a n d y e t i s o f a m a g n i t u d e t h a t i s , u p o n r e f l e c t i o n , s t a g g e r i n g . I t i m p l i e s two t h i n g s a b o v e a l l : f i r s t , t h a t we know a l r e a d y wha t t h e r e i s t o know a b o u t t i m e a n d , s e c o n d l y , t h a t t i m e - w h a t e v e r i t may be s a i d t o b e - i s t h e same f o r b o t h l a n g u a g e s i n q u e s t i o n , w i t h t h e f u r t h e r l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t mus t be t h e same f o r a l l l a n g u a g e s , s i n c e t h e y a r e a l l c o n s i d e r e d c a p a b l e o f b e i n g c o m -p a r e d o r c o n t r a s t e d . T i m e i s t a k e n f o r t h e s t a n d a r d o f a l l t e n s e - c o m p a r i s o n . ^ T h i s f a c t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , d i s c u s s i o n o f t i m e i s g e n e r a l l y n e g l e c t e d , b e i n g l e f t f o r t h e mos t p a r t t o t h e p h i l o s o p h e r , t h e p o e t o r t h e m y s t i c . ^ 1 W i t h h i s n o t i o n o f s u b j e c t i v i t y , B e n v e n i s t e p r o v i d e s t h e means o f r e l a t i n g t i m e t o t e n s e . ^ D i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , he s e t s u p a p r i n c i p a l o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n l e t emps c h r o n l q u e a n d l e t emps l i n g u i s t i q u e . The f o r m e r h a s a s i t s p o i n t s c d f r e f e r e n c e e v e n t s , i n c l u d i n g n a t u -r a l p henomena , a n d e m b r a c e s c a l e n d a r t i m e , w h i c h i s c o n s t r u c t e d a s a c o n t i n u u m a n c h o r e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r a x i s - e v e n t a s i t s m a i n r e f e r e n c e p o i n t ( e . g . t h e b i r t h o f C h r i s t , e t c . ) , p e r m i t t i n g [ C h . 3] 63 t h e r e b y a d i r e c t i o n a l v i e w o f e v e n t s ( i . e . b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e a x i s ) c o u n t e d i n u n i t s o f v a r y i n g t y p e s ( m o n t h , week , e t c . ) . T h i s v i e w o f t i m e a l l o w s a n i n d i v i d u a l t o l o c a t e h i m s e l f a n d o t h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a x i s o r t o p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s i n t h e c o n t i n u u m . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t a r e t h e m s e l v e s " i n t e m p o r e l s " , a s B e n v e n i s t e p u t s i t , h a v i n g t h e same f u n c t i o n a n d n a t u r e a s n u m b e r s . C a p a b l e o f b e i n g d i s -t i n g u i s h e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r , t h e y o f f e r , o f t h e m s e l v e s , no means o f b e i n g r e l a t e d t o wha t he c a l l s " l e t emps vec:u" o f human e x p e r i e n c e : " O r comme u n j o u r e s t i d e n t i q u e a. u n a u t r e j o u r , r i e n ne d i t d e t e l j o u r du c a l e n d r i e r , p r i s e n l u i - m e m e , s ' i l e s t p r e s e n t , p a s s e ou f u t u r . I I ne p e u t e t r e r a n g e s o u s l ' u n e de c e s t r o i s c a t e g o r i e s que p o u r c e l u i q u i v i t l e t e m p s . •13 f e v r i e r 164-11 e s t u n e d a t e e x p l i c i t e e t c o m p l e t e e n v e r t u du s y s t e m e m a i s q u i ne n o u s l a i s s e p a s s a v o i r en q u e l t emps e l l e e s t e n o n c e e ; o n p e u t done l a p r e n d r e a u s s i b i e n comme p r o s p e c t i v e , p a r e x e m p l e d a n s u n e c l a u s e g u a -r a n t i s s a n t l a v a l i d i t e d ' u n t r a i t e c o n c l u u n s i e c l e p l u s t o t ou comme r e t r o s p e c t i v e e t e v o q u e e d e u x s l e c l e s p l u s t a r d . " (1966b, p.8) 2.2.1 The p r o b l e m c l e a r l y d e r i v e s f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e a x i s t h a t g o v e r n s a l l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n l e t emps c h r o n i q u e . To a d d t o wha t B e n v e n i s t e s a y s , i t i s t h e a t e m p o r a l i t y o r " a n o n y m i t y " o f t h e u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t t h a t r e q u i r e s a r e f e r e n c e a x i s f o r t h e s y s t e m , b u t t h e a x i s i t s e l f i s a m a t t e r o f a r b i t r a r y c h o i c e . T h i s f a c t a l o n e e x p l a i n s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n c o m p a -t i b i l i t y o f c a l e n d a r s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s : s e e n a t t h i s l e v e l , t h e c h o i c e o f a x i s i s v i r t u a l l y r a n d o m . A n d y e t , I t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t t i m e - r e f e r e n c e a c r o s s c u l t u r e s i s i m p o s s i b l e : t h e [ C h . 3] Sh o n l y n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n i s n o t a n u n d e r s t a n -d i n g o f t h e o t h e r ' s c u l t u r e b u t r a t h e r o f h i s l a n g u a g e . 2.2 L e t emps l i n g u i s t i q u e i s f o u n d e d a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m l e t emps c h r o n i q u e ; i t s a x i s i s c o n s t a n t a n d u n m i s t a k -a b l e : " L a l a n g u e d o i t p a r n e c e s s i t e o r d b n n e r l e t emps a. p a r t i r d ' u n a x e , e t c e l u i - c i e s t t o u j o u r s e t s e u l e m e n t I ' i n s t a n c e de d i s c o u r s . I I s e r a i t i m p o s s i b l e de d e p l a c e r c e t a x e r e f e r e n t i e l p o u r l e p o s e r d a n s l e p a s s e ou d a n s l ' a v e n i r ; on ne p e u t meme i m a g i n e r c e que d e v i e n d r a i t u n e l a n g u e ou l e p o i n t de d e p a r t de l ' o r d o n n a n c e du t emps ne c o l n c i d e -r a i t p a s a v e c l e p r e s e n t l i n g u i s t i q u e e t ou l ' a x e t e m p o r e l s e r a i t l u i - m e m e u n e v a r i a b l e de l a tempora l i te .*» (1960b, p.9 ) The r e f e r e n c e a x i s i s a l w a y s " . i e " u t t e r e d b y a s p e a k e r who p o s i t s h i m s e l f a s s u b j e c t . 2.3 F r o m t h i s f a c t a l o n e i s i t p o s s i b l e t o o r g a n i s e t h e l i n g u i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t i m e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b i - d i r e c t i o n a l v i e w o f e v e n t s , - v i z . t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p a s t a n d f u t u r e t e n s e f o r m s , w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t p o i n t i n t i m e . I n d e e d , B e n v e n i s t e s e e s t h e m a s b e i n g o f a s e c o n d a r y o r d e r , s u c h t h a t " c e s d e u x r e f e r e n c e s ne; r e p o r t e n t p a s a u t e m p s , m a i s a. d e s v u e s s u r l e t e m p s , p r o j e t e e s en a r r i e r e e t en a v a n t a. p a r t i r du p o i n t p r e s e n t " , a n d t h i s b e c a u s e " o n a r r i v e a. c e t t e c o n s t a t a t i o n - s u r p r e n a n t e a p r e m i e r e v u e , m a i s p r o f o n d e m e n t a c c o r d e e a. l a n a t u r e r e e l l e du l a n g a g e - que l e s e u l t emps i n h e r e n t a l a l a n g u e e s t l e p r e s e n t a x i a l du d i s c o u r s , e t que c e p r e s e n t e s t i m p l l - o i t e " . ( I d e m . : my e m p h a s i s ) [ C h . 3] 65 2.3 The m a i n t h r u s t o f t h i s may be p a r a p h r a s e d a s " Q u i d i t .je d i t m a i n t e n a n t " : i t i s n o t e s s e n t i a l t o e x p r e s s t h e " p r e -s e n t a x i a l du d i s c o u r s " b y means o f t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r e s e n t t e n s e . T h i s c a n be t a k e n t o mean t h e r e f o r e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e p r e s e n t i n a l a n g u a g e w i t h no p r e s e n t t e n s e f o r m : t h i s i s i n d e e d t h e c a s e a s nume rou s l a n g u a g e s r e a d i l y p r o v e , e . g . R u s s i a n E t o dom = T h a t ( i s ) a h o u s e . B u t t h e more e s s e n t i a l i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t may be e x p r e s s e d b y more t h a n s i m p l y a v e r b f o r m . The p a r a p h r a s e " Q u i d i t j e d i t m a i n t e n a n t " i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o b e e p i g r a m m a t i c : i t i s t o be r e a d l i t e r a l l y , a s a s i m p l e a x i o m d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f l a n g u a g e . I t n e e d s t o be e x t e n d e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f l e i a n d t u , s i n c e n o t o n l y t h e t i m e o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n i s p o s i t e d b y j e b u t a l s o i t s p l a c e a n d i n t e r l o -c u t o r (more p r e c i s e l y , t h e a l l o c u t e ) . 2.3.1 T hu s when I s a y " j e " , I make m y s e l f s u b j e c t a n d my_ t i m e t h e t i m e a n d , n e c e s s a r i l y t h e r e f o r e , y o u r t i m e . B e n v e n i s t e d e s c r i b e s t h e phenomenon t h i s w a y : " Q u e l q u e c h o s e de s i n g u l i e r , de t r e s s i m p l e e t d ' i n f i n i -ment i m p o r t a n t s e p r o d u i t [ . . . . ] : l a t e m p o r a l i t e q u i e s t , m i e n n e q u a n d e l l e o r d o n n e mon d i s c o u r s e s t d ' e m b l e e a c c e p -t e e comme s i e n n e p a r mon i n t e r l o c u t e u r . Mon . . ' au j o u r d ' h u i • s e c o n v e r t i t e n s o n ' a u j o u r d ' h u i ' , q u o i q u ' i l ne l ' a i t p a s l u i - m e m e i n s t a u r e d a n s s o n p r o p r e d i s c o u r s , e t mon ' h i e r ' e n s o n ' h i e r ' . R e c i p r o q u e m e n t , q u a n d i l p a r l e r a e n r e p o n s e , j e c o n v e r t i r a i , d e v e n u r e c e p t e u r , s a t e m p o r a l i t e e n l a m i e n n e . . . . L ' u n e t - l ' a u t r e s e t r o u v e n t a i n s i a c -c o r d e s s u r l a meme l o n g u e u r d ' o n d e . L e t emps du d i s c o u r s n ' e s t n i r amene a u x d i v i s i o n s du t emps c h r o n i q u e n i e n -f e r m e d a n s u n e s u b j e c t i v i t e s o l l p s i s t e . " ( i b i d . , p .1 1 ) [ C h . 3] 6.6 2.3.2 To s a y t h a t t h e p l a c e o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n i s p o s i t e d (2.3), i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e m p o r a l i t y , i s s i m p l y t o s a y t h a t i c i e m b r a c e s t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r s a n d t h e i r s i t u a t i o n o f d i s -c o u r s e , w h a t e v e r i t may b e . T h i s t r i p a r t i t e s y s t e m o f r e f e -r e n c e , . j e - i c l - m a i n t e n t a n t , i s t h e l i n g u i s t i c means o f e s t a b -l i s h i n g a n d c o n s t a n t l y r e a f f i r m i n g t h e " p r e s e n t a x i a l du d i s -c o u r s " . F r o m t h e s e t h r e e s t e m s a s e r i e s o f s i m i l a r m a r k e r s - en c e moment , a. p r e s e n t , d e m a l n , h i e r , a v a n t - h i e r , c e c i , e t c . - whose m e a n i n g d e r i v e s d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e a l l o c u t i o n . L i k e w i s e , a s e p a r a t e s e r i e s - a l o r s , a, c e m o m e n t - l a , a l ' e - p o q u e , l e . jour s u i v a n t , l a v e i l l e , e t c . - i s u n d e r s t o o d b y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s a m e . p o i n t . 2.3.3 E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , h o w e v e r , i s t h e f a c t t h a t e a c h o f t h e s e i t e m s m a r k s , b y i t s o c c u r r e n c e , t h e p r e s e n t o f a l l o c u -t i o n , w h e t h e r t h e l a t t e r h a s b e e n f o r m a l l y s p e c i f i e d o r n o t b y some p r e v i o u s i t e m i n t h e u t t e r a n c e . T h u s , l a may be d e s c r i b e d a s h a v i n g no o t h e r m e a n i n g t h a n " n o t i c i " ; h i e r means o n l y " n o t ( a n d b e f o r e ) a u . i o u r d ' h u i " ; d e m a i n means o n l y " n o t ( a n d a f t e r ) a u . i o u r d ' h u i " . T he p a r t i c u l a r r e t r o s p e c t i v e a n d p r o s p e c t i v e f e a t u r e s a t t a c h e d t o h i e r a n d d e m a i n r e s p e c -t i v e l y a r e n o t r e f l e c t e d i n a l l s u c h i t e m s a n d e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e l e . jour meme o r l a s e m a i n e s u i v a n t e a r e u s e d i n d i f f e -r e n t l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o " p a s t " o r " f u t u r e " m e a n i n g . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e r e a f f i r m s t h e " p r e s e n t a x i a l du d i s c o u r s " b y t h e same r e v e r s e p r o c e s s . T h e s e i t e m s a n d [ C h . 3] 67 t h o s e l i k e t h e m c o n s t i t u t e t h e b a s i s o f t h e a s p e c t i n d i c i e l o f l a n g u a g e , w h i c h i n t u r n i s b o t h d e p e n d e n t on a n d c o n s t i t u -t i v e o f l e t emps l i n g u i s t i q u e , a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r one c o n s i -d e r s t h e s p e a k e r ' s o r t h e h e a r e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w i n t h e a l l o -c u t i o n . 4 W i t h i n s u c h a f r a m e w o r k , t h e q u e s t i o n o f t e n s e i s , s i m p l y p u t , a m a t t e r o f t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c t i m e b y means o f v e r b a l f o r m s . I t w o u l d be m i s -l e a d i n g , h o w e v e r , t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s o f t e n s e i s i t s e l f a n u n c o m p l i c a t e d m a t t e r . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , I s h a l l l o o k b r i e f l y a t two t r e a t m e n t s o f t e n s e i n F r e n c h - t h o s e o f B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h - a n d r e l a t e t h e m t o a more g e n e r a l , i f l i m i t e d , t r e a t m e n t b y R e i c h e n b a c h . 0 B e n v e n i s t e , b a s i n g h i m s e l f o n t h e c o n c e p t s o f p e r s o n a n d s u b j e c t i v i t y , d i s t i n g u i s h e s two g r o u p s o f t e n s e s i n F r e n c h . The f i r s t , "Ire s y s t e m e l i n g u i s t i q u e du d i s c o u r s " (1966a, p.244), c o m p r i s e s a l l t e n s e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f wha t he c a l l s " * l ' a o r i s t e ( s i m p l e e t c o m p o s e ) " , t h e l a t t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o wha t i s o t h e r w i s e known a s t h e p a s s e s i m p l e a n d i t s c ompound f o r m , e . g . j e d o n n a i a n d j ' e u s d o n n e . The o t h e r , t h e s y s t e m o f t h e " r e c l t h i s t o r i q u e " o r " l ' e n o n c i a t i o n h i s t o r i q u e ' . ' c o n -s i s t s o f " l ' a o r i s t e , l ' i m p a r f a i t , l e p l u s - q u e - p a r f a i t e t l e [ C h . 3] 68 p r o s p e c t i f * * ( e . g . ..je d e v a i s p a r t i r , a p e r i p h r a s t i c s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e f u t u r e ) (p.24-5), t h u s e x c l u d i n g t h e p r e s e n t , t h e p e r -f e c t ( o r p a s s e c o m p o s e ) a n d t h e f u t u r e ( s i m p l e a n d c o m p o u n d ) . 1 The r e c i t h i s t o r i q u e u s e s t h o s e t e n s e s w h i c h t r a d i t i o -n a l l y a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s " p a s t " a n d a d o p t s t h e " a o r i s t e " a s t h e k e y t e n s e , t o i n d i c a t e t h a t " i l s ' a g i t de l a p r e s e n t a t i o n d e s f a i t s s u r v e n u s a. u n c e r t a i n moment du t e m p s , s a n s a u c u n e i n t e r v e n t i o n du l o c u t e u r d a n s l e r e c i t " . A d o p t i n g t h i s p o s i -t i o n , B e n v e n i s t e t h e r e f o r e d e f i n e s t h e r e c i t h i s t o r i q u e a s " l e mode d i ' . e n o n c i a t i o n q u i e x c l u t t o u t e f o r m e l i n g u i s t i q u e • a u t o b i o g r a p h i q u e ' " (p.239), a d d i n g t h a t " i l f a u t e t i l s u f f i t que l ' a u t e u r r e s t e f l d e l e a s o n p r o p o s d ' h i s t o r i e n e t q u ' i l p r o s c r i v e t o u t c e q u i e s t e t r a n g e r a u r e c i t d e s e v e n e m e n t s ( d i s c o u r s , r e f l e x i o n s , c o m p a r a i s o n s ) . . A v r a i d i r e , i l n'y-amSme p l u s a l o r s de n a r r a t e u r . . . . . P e r s o n n e ne p a r l e i c i ; l e s e v e n e m e n t s s e m b l e n t s e r a c o n t e r e u x - m e m e s ' ' . (p .24-1) T h i s d e p e r s o n a l i s a t i o n o f t h e r e c i t h i s t o r i q u e h a s , f o r B e n -v e n i s t e , t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n s e q u e n c e o f e x c l u d i n g a l l f o r m s o f t h e v e r b - p a r a d i g m e x c e p t t h o s e o f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n : " L e d i s c o u r s e x c l u r a l ' a o r i s t e , m a i s l e r e c i t h i s t o r i q u e , q u i jL»emploie c o n s t a m m e n t , n ' e n r e t i e n d r a que l e s f o r m e s de 3 p e r s o n n e . L a c o n s e q u e n c e e s t que n o u s a r r l v a m e s e t s u r t o u t v o u s a r r l v a t e s ne s e r e n c o n t r e n t n i d a n s l e r e c i t h i s t o r i q u e , p a r c e que f o r m e s p e r s o n n e l l e s , n i d an s l e * d i s -c o u r s , p a r c e que f o r m e s d ' a o r i s t e . E n r e v a n c h e , i l a r r i v a , i l s a r r i v e r e n t s e p r e s e n t e r o n t a c h a q u e i n s t a n t s o u s l a p l u m e de l * h i s t o r i e n , e t n ' o n t p a s de s u b s t i t u t s p o s s i b l e s , ( p . 2 4 4 - 5 ) 1 . 1 He i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e c i t h i s -t o r i q u e i s a l w a y s a w r i t t e n f o r m , t h e c o n v e r s e d o e s n o t h o l d [ C h . 3] 69 t r u e f o r d i s c o u r s , w h i c h may be w r i t t e n a s w e l l a s s p o k e n , w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n c e t h a t " c h a q u e f o i s q u ' a u s e i h d ' u n r e c i t h i s t o r i q u e a p p a r a i t u n d i s c o u r s , q u a n d l ' h i s t o r i e n p a r e x e m p l e r e p r o d u i t l e s p a r o l e s d ' u n p e r s o n n a g e ou q u ' i l i n t e r v i e n t l u i - m e m e p o u r j u g e r l e s e v e n e m e n t s r a p p o r t e s , on p a s s e a. u n a u t r e s y s -t eme t e m p o r e l , c e l u i du d i s c o u r s . L e p r o p r e du l a n g a g e e s t de p e r m e t t r e c e s t r a n s f e r t s i n s t a n t a n e s " . (p .242) [my e m p h a s i s ] T h e s e s h i f t s a r e m a r k e d b y c h a n g e s i n t e n s e - f o r m s , b y a m o v i n g f r o m one s y s t e m t o t h e o t h e r a n d , o f c o u r s e , f r o m one t,.ype o f a l l o c u t i o n t o t h e o t h e r . 3.2 The r i g i d i t y o f s u c h a p o s i t i o n , c r i t i c i s e d a s we s h a l l s e e b y w e i n r l c h , d o e s n o t go e n t i r e l y u n n o t i c e d b y B e n v e n i s t e h i m s e l f . U p o n s a y i n g t h a t o n l y t h i r d - p e r s o n f o r m s a r e a v a i -l a b l e t o t h e " a o r i s t e " , he a d d s i n a n o t e t h a t "11 f a u d r a i t n u a n c e r c e t t e a f f i r m a t i o n " ( p .244). B u t h e a t t e n u a t e s h i s c l a i m o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t o f c i t i n g a s a c o u n t e r - e x a m p l e L e  G r a n d M e a u l n e s , w h i c h h e seems t o d i s c o u n t a s b e i n g t h e w o r k o f a " r o m a n c i e r " n o t a h i s t o r i a n . I w i s h t o l o o k b r i e f l y a t wha t he means h e r e . He i s c l a i m i n g t h a t je_ + " a o r i s t e " i s i n c o n g r u o u s t o t h e p o i n t o f b e i n g u n a c c e p t a b l e . I n L e G r a n d  M e a u l n e s , we s e e e x a m p l e s s u c h a s t h i s : " M a i s l o r s q u e l ' h e u r e f u t v e n u e de p a r t i r e t que j e me l e v a i p o u r f a l r e s i g n e a u g r a n d M e a u l n e s , i l ne m ' a p e r -gu t p a s d ' a b o r d . A d o s s e a. l a p o r t e e t l a t e t e p e n c h e e , i l s e m b l a i t p r o f o n d e m e n t a b s o r b e p a r c e q u i v e n a i t d ' e t r e d i t . E n l e v o y a n t a i n s i , p e r d u d a n s s e s r e f l e x i o n s , r e g a r d a n t , comme a t r a v e r s d e s l i e u e s de b r o u i l l a r d , c e s g e n s p a i s i b l e s q u i t r a v a i l l a i e n t , j e p e n s a i s o u d a i n a c e t t e i m a g e de R o b i n s o n C r u s o e , ou l ' o n v o l t l ' a d o l e s c e n t a n g l a i s , a v a n t s o n g r a n d d e p a r t , ' f r e q u e n t a n t l a b o u t i q u e [ C h . 3] 70 d ' u n v a n n i e r * . . . E t j ' y a i s o u v e n t p e n s e d e p u i s . " ( A l a i n - F o u r n i e r (1968), p.17) H e r e o c c u r s t h e u s e n o t o n l y o f je_ + " a o r i s t e " b u t a l s o o f je^ + P a s s e C o m p o s e : f o r B e n v e n i s t e , t h e i n c o n g r u o u s n e s s r e s i d e s i n t h e c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e " a o r i s t e " a n d t h e f i r s t p e r s o n . What he l e a v e s u n m e n t i o n e d i s t h e p r e s u m a b l y g r e a t e r i n c o n -g r u o u s n e s s o f t h e u s e o f b o t h t e n s e s w i t h je_: c e r t a i n l y , s u c h a d u a l t e m p o r a l i t y i s i n e v e n g r e a t e r c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s scheme a s p r e s e n t e d . 3 I n f a c t , L e G r a n d M e a u l n e s c o n s t i t u t e s a s e r i o u s c o u n t e r - e x a m p l e t o B e n v e n i s t e ' s p r o p o s a l a n d p o i n t s t o a w e a k -n e s s o f h i s s c h e m e . I t w i l l b e r e c a l l e d t h a t , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f s u b j e c t i v i t y , h e d e v e l o p e d t h e n o t i o n o f p e r s o n i n t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n a n d i t s a t t e n d a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s o - c a l l e d "3rd p e r s o n " o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v e r b * p a r a -d i g m ( c f . 1.1.2). He i n s i s t s s t r o n g l y o n t h i s c o n s t r u c t o f p e r s o n , d r a w i n g o n d a t a f r o m a l a r g e r a n g e o f l a n g u a g e s (1966a, pp.225-236). The r e s u l t a n t n o n - p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f i l . t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s e v e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l r e -s t r i c t i o n s a p p l y i n g t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e ( " a o r i s t e " ) i n m o d e r n F r e n c h , l e a d s h i m t o p r o s c r i b e t h e c o -o c c u r r e n c e o f " p e r s o n a l " f o r m s w i t h t h a t t e n s e . 3-1 I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t w e i g h t o f h i s p r o s c r i p -t i o n f a l l s o n n o u s a n d , m o s t e s p e c i a l l y , o n v o u s . w i t h j e . [ C h . 3] 71 b e i n g d i s c u s s e d l n t h e s e n s e o f i t s p e c u l i a r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r u s e w i t h t h e P a s s e Compose r a t h e r t h a n i t s u n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r u s e w i t h t h e " a o r i s t e " . The n o n - p e r s o n a l i jL f i t s e m i n e n t l y w e l l w i t h t h e " a o r i s t e 1 * f u n c t i o n o f " l a r e l a t i o n o b j e c t i v e d e s e v e n e m e n t s " (1966a, p . 2 4 4 ) , o n t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t " u n e v e n e m e n t , p o u r Stre p o s e comme t e l d a n s 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n t e m p o r e l l e , d o i t a v o i r c e s s e d ' e t r e p r e s e n t , i l d o i t ne p o u v o i r p l u s e t r e e n o n c e comme p r e s e n t " ( p.245), t o w h i c h i s a d d e d t h e c o r o l l a r y t h a t " l * h i s t o r i e n ne p e u t s ' h i s t o r l s e r s a n s d e m e n t i r s o n d e s s e l n " . [ e m p h a s i s m i n e ] He e x p l a i n s t h a t t o do s o w o u l d be t o i n j e c t t h e p r e s e n t o f t h e " h i s t o r i e n " i n t o h i s " h l s t o i r e " , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s i n h i s t e r m s p l a i n l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d i m p o s s i b l e . 3.3*2 I t i s w o r t h n o t l n g j ) n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t e v e n i n one o f t h e p a s s a g e s he q u o t e s a s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e " h i s t o i r e " ( p . 2 4 l ) , t h e r e o c c u r s p r e c i s e l y t h i s t y p e o f p h e n o m e n o n : B a l z a c o f f e r s a s e r i e s o f " a o r i s t e s " i n a s e n t e n c e e n d i n g a s f o l l o w s : e t j e t a u n r e g a r d s u r s o n c o s t u m e , u n p e u p l u s r i o h e  que ne l e p e r m e t t e n t en F r a n c e l e s l o i s du g o u t ( s e c o n d e m p h a s i s m i n e ) B e n v e n i s t e * s n o t e on t h i s r e a d s m e r e l y " R e f l e x i o n de l ' a u t e u r q u i e c h a p p e a u p l a n du r e c i t " , . C l e a r l y , i t mus t be t h e c a s e t h a t t h e a u t h o r h e r e " d e m e n t i t s o n d e s s e i n " b y i n t r o d u c i n g h i s p r e s e n t . S u c h a n i n c u r s i o n o f " d i s c o u r s " w i t h i n " h i s t o i r e " c o n s t i t u t e s , a s B e n v e n i s t e d o e s p o i n t o u t , a " t r a n s f e r t " b u t t h e a p p a r e n t a n o m a l y t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s i s n o t d i s c u s s e d b y h i m . To c a l l t h e phenomenon a " t r a n s f e r t " i s m e r e l y t o [ C h . 3] 72 d e s i g n a t e i t , h o w e v e r : i n no s e n s e d o e s l t e x p l a i n i t o r mo-t i v a t e i t . T he q u e s t i o n o f how t o do s o r e m a i n s o p e n a n d I s h a l l r e t u r n t o i t i n due c o u r s e . F o r t h e moment , l t s e r v e s t o show B e n v e n i s t e ' s o v e r - i n s i s t e n c e on t h e c o n s t r u c t o f p e r s o n . .4 T h i s i n s i s t e n c e h a s l e d h i m e m p i r i c a l l y t o c o n f u s e t h e i d e a o f p e r s o n w i t h t h a t o f s u b j e c t i v i t y . T h o u g h he n o -w h e r e s a y s s o , he c l e a r l y i n t e n d s t o c o n t r a s t s u b j e c t i v i t y w i t h o b j e o t l v i s a t i o n o f e v e n t s , a s i n h l s t o l r e . a n d c o n c l u d e s , a s I h a v e t r i e d t o make c l e a r , t h a t p e r s o n c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c r i t e r i o n o f t h i s c o n t r a s t a n d t h a t t h e ^ a o r i s t e " a n d i l a r e c o n c e p t u a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e a s t h e m a r k e r o f t h e o b j e c t i v e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e t h a t i s h i s t o l r e . What i s w r o n g w i t h t h i s a r g u -men t i s p r e f i g u r e d i n h i s own w o r d s when he s a y s " L ' h i s t o r i e n ne p e u t s ' h i s t o r i s e r s a n s d e m e n t i r s o n d e s s e i n " . T h i s u s e o f t h e w o r d " d e s s e i n " , w i t h i t s c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b o t h I n t e n t a n d a c t , i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t i t s e e s t h e " h i s t o r i e n " a s e n g a -g i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f " w o r k " - i n t h e s o c i o l o g i s t ' s s e n s e . I f he w i s h e s t h a t w o r k t o b e t h e u t t e r i n g o f " h i s t o i r e " t h e n - i n m o d e r n F r e n c h a t l e a s t - he c a n a c c o m p l i s h h i s i n -t e n t i o n t o p e r f o r m t h a t a c t b y t h e u s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r t e n s e , t h e " a o r i s t e " . I s h a l l a r g u e l a t e r t h a t i t i s i n no way c l e a r t h a t he i s a l s o r e q u i r e d t o r e s p e c t c e r t a i n r u l e s o f c o l l o c a -t i o n o f p r o n o u n s w i t h t h e f o r m s o f t h a t t e n s e : t h e e v i d e n c e i s v. t o be f o u n d i n L e G r a n d M e a u l n e s , a s w e l l a s t h e w o r k s o f [ C h . 3] 73 P r o u s t a n d M a u p a s s a n t , t o show t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f j e . + " a o r i s t d * . 4.1 B e n v e n i s t e ' s s t a n c e on p e r s o n w i l l n o t a l l o w h i m t o c o n s i d e r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f j e + " a o r i s t e " , s i n c e t h i s i s . t h e v e r y f o r m he h a s b e e n o b l i g e d t o p r o s c r i b e , e v e n w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g i t s o c c u r r e n c e . H i s o n l y r e m a r k on t h e q u e s t i o n i s i n a n o t e (p.244) i n w h i c h he o b s e r v e s , w i t h f i n a l i t y , " M a i s i l e n v a a u t r e m e n t de l ' h i s t o r i e n " ( i . e . a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e " r o m a n c l e r " ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s may b e t a k e n t o be t h a t t h e " r o m a n c i e r " o b s e r v e s a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f r u l e s o r i s a b l e t o d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e r u l e s p a r t i a l l y o r c o m p l e t e l y . I t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t a n y s u c h i m p l i c a t i o n i s n o t d e v e l o p e d , s i n c e i t d e a l s w i t h a c r u c i a l p o i n t , n a m e l y i n wha t way t h e " r o m a n c i e r " i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e " h i s t o r i e n " a n d i n wha t way e i t h e r may be d i f f e r e n t f r o m a n y o t h e r a l l o c u t e u r . ^ 4.2 I f one t a k e s t h e p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , t h a t t h e " h i s t o r i e n " i s e n g a g i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r " w o r k " , t h e n t h e " a o -r i s t e " may be t a k e n a s t h e d e v i c e h e e m p l o y s t o m a r k h i s a c t i -v i t y . I f h i s - a c t i v i t y i s t h e " o b j e c t i v i s a t i o n d e s e v e n e m e n t s " t h e n p e r h a p s i t i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n t h a t he ma rk i t b y t h e " a o r i s t e " . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n becomes wha t i s t h e e f f e c t o f u s i n g ;J_e w i t h t h e m a r k e r o f h i s t o i r e ? Does i t h a v e a n y e f f e c t t h a t c a n be d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n t h e s cheme o f t e m p o r a l i t y o f m o d e r n F r e n c h ? I n B e n v e n i s t e ' s t e r m s , c a n t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f je_ be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e [ C h . 3] 74; n o n - s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e " a o r i s t e " ? 4.0 T h i s t heme i s t a k e n u p , i n a d i f f e r e n t way a n d f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w , b y W e i n r i c h (1968). 1 0 H i s t r e a t -ment o f t h e t e n s e s . h a s many p o i n t s o f s i m i l a r i t y w i t h B e n -v e n i s t e ' s b u t a v o i d s t h e k i n d o f p r o b l e m I h a v e j u s t d i s c u s s e d . I t s g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , a s w e l l a s t h e m a j o r i t y o f i t s e x a m p l e s , i s mo re l i t e r a r y t h a n l i n g u i s t i c i n i t s f o c u s b u t l e n d s i t s e l f r e a d i l y t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h e m e s I w i s h t o t r e a t . 4.1 W e i n r i c h s e e k s t o d i v o r c e t h e d i s c u s s i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f t e n s e f r o m a l l d i s c u s s i o n o f t i m e , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e t r a -d i t i o n a l c o n f u s i o n o f t h e two n o t i o n s ha s b e e n t h e m a i n s t u m -b l i n g - b l o c k t o a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t e n s e . He c i t e s t h e u s e o f t h e P r e t e r i t e i n O r w e l l ' s 1984 t o r e f e r t o a t i m e w h i c h h a s n o t y e t o c c u r r e d a n d G i d e ' s u s e o f t h e P r e s e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s f r o m h i s d i a r y : " J e v a i s v o i r V a l e r y h i e r . " (p.31) " L u n d i m a t i n , j e v a i s r e t r o u v e r a u S a l o n M . , G h e o n e t J e a n ; G e r a r d a v o u l u e t r e d e s n o t r e s . de s o r t e que n o t r e j o i e e s t g a c h e e . Nous nou s t r a i n o n s a c i n q de s a l l e en s a l l e . " (p.32) T h r o u g h t h e s e e x a m p l e s , he a r g u e s t h a t t h e t e n s e u s e d i s no g u i d e a t a l l t o t h e t i m e a l l u d e d t o : e . g . i n t h e G l d e e x a m p l e s , [ C h . 3] 75 b o t h t h e ^ r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o a t i m e a n t e r i o r t o t h e a l l o c u t i o n . ~L± He d e c l i n e s t o a c q u i e s c e i n t h e a p p r o a c h t a k e n b y v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r g e n r e s o f l i t e r a t u r e h a v e t h e i r own " t e n s e - l o g i c " t h a t mus t be r e s p e c t e d , p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o s a y , " l a s p a r a d o j a s de l o s t i e m p o s v e r b a l e s d e j a n de s e r l o en c u a n t o l a l i n g u ' i s t i c a t o m a e n c u e n t o l o s t e x t o s de l a l i t e r a t u r a j u n t a m e n t e c o n l a s c o n d i c i o n e s que i m p o n e n s u s g e n e r o s y , y a a p a r t l r de l o s g r a d o s m&s e l e m e n t a l e s de  l a g r a m 5 t i o a , d e f i n e c a d a u n o de l o s t i e m p o s de f o r m a que no q u e d e n c o n t r a d l c h o s p o r g e n e r o s l l t e r a r i o s e n t e r o s . Y v i e e v e r s a : l a c i e n c l a de l a l i t e r a t u r a t a m p o c o debe d e f l -n i r s u s c o n c e p t o s f u n d a m e n t a l e s c o n t r a l a s l e y e s e s t r u c -t u r a l e s d e l l e n g u a j e n i c o n o c e r s 6 1 o l o s g r a d o s mfis e l e - m e n t a l e s de l a g r a m S t l c a " . (pp .3 2 -33) 4.2 I n s h o r t , h e s e e k s a " l i n g u f s t i c a de l o s t i e m p o s " a n d s t a r t s f r o m t h e n o t i o n o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n , w i t h i t s " y o " a n d " t u " a n d a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t " e l " , a l o n g t h e same l i n e s a s B e n v e n i s t e . F r o m B e n v e n i s t e a l s o he a d o p t s d i r e c t l y t h e c o n c e p t o f two t e m p o r a l g r o u p s b u t w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e . He o p t s f o r a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r r e g a r d i n g t h e c l a i m t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f a l l o c u t i o n c a l l f o r c e r t a i n d e v i c e s ( c f . 3.k.2). He r e s t r i c t s h i s c o n c e p t i o n t o t h e u s e o f t e n s e - f o r m s s p e c i f i c a l l y , p o s t u l a t i n g t h a t f o r F r e n c h " l a v e r d a d es q u e , f i j a n d o n o s c o n c r e t a m e n t e en g r u p o s de t i e m p o s , y no v a g a m e n t e e n t o d o s l o s t i e m p o s , a p a r e c e n d e t e r m i n a d a s a f i n i d a d e s e n t r e ambos g r u p o s y c i e r t a s s i t u -a c i o n e s c o m u n i c a t i v a s . C o n s i d e r a d a como s i t u a c i 6 n c o m u -n i c a t i v a e s c r l t a , u n a n o v e l a m u e s t r a i n e q u l v o c a i n c l i n a -c i 6 n p o r l o s t i e m p o s d e l g r u p o I I , ^ m i e n t r a s que e s t e l i b r o » [Ch. 3] 76 s i e l l e c t o r q u i e r e c o n s l d e r a r l o p o r u n momento como e s p e c i m e n de u n a e x p o s l c i 6 n c i e n t f f i c a , m u e s t r a u n a p r e -f e r e n c i a p o r l o s t i e m p o s d e l g r u p o . I " , (pp.62-63) E a c h o f h i s g r o u p s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , i t s e l f r e l a t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r " v i e w " o f t h e w o r l d . G r o u p I c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h wha t he c a l l s t h e "mundo c o m e n t a d o " a n d G r o u p I I w i t h t h e ?':mundo n a r r a d o " ( b e s p r o c h e n e W e l t a n d e r -z a h l t e W e l t r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t h e o r i g i n a l w o r k ) , t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c a c t i v i t y o r " w o r k " i n e a c h c a s e b e i n g n a r r a t i n g ( G r o u p I I ) a n d " c o m m e n t a r y " o r n o n - n a r r a t i n g ( G r o u p I ) . 4 . 2 . 1 H i s m e t h o d o f c h a r a c t e r i s i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s a s ±na r r a -t i n g i s c u r i o u s a n d , f i n a l l y , v e r y i m p o r t a n t : I g i v e h e r e i n f u l l h i s e x p o s i t i o n . - o f h i s r e a s o n s f o r i t : " E l n a r r a r es u n c o m p o r t a m i e n t o c a r a c t e r ^ S s t i c o d e l h o m b r e . Podemos c o m p o r t a r n o s f r e n t e a l mundo n a r r S n d o l o . N a r r f i n -d o l o emp leamos a q u e l l a p a r t e d e l l e n g u a j e que e s t a " p r e -v i s t a p a r a n a r r a r . Emp l eamos en p a r t i c u l a r l o s t i e m p o s d e l r e l a t e S u f u n c i S n e n e l l e n g u a j e c o n s i s t e e n i n f o r m a r a l que e s c u c h a u n a c o m u n l c a c l 6 n que e s t a e o m u n i c a c i 6 n es u n r e l a t e Y a que a b s o l u t a m e n t e t o d o , e l mundo e n t e r o , v e r d a d e r o o no v e r d a d e r o , p u e d e s e r o b j e t o de u n r e l a t o , vamos a l l a m a r a l o s t i e m p o s d e l g r u p o I I t i e m p o s d e l  mundo n a r r a d o o , a b r e v i a d a m e n t e , t i e m p o s de l a n a r r a c i 6 n . ' M u n d o ' no s i g n i f i c a a q u l o t r a c o s a que p o s i b l e c o n t e n i d o de u n a c o m u n i c a c i 6 n l i n g u l s t i c a . A s l p u e s , h a y que e n t e n -d e r l o s t i e m p o s d e l mundo r e l a t a d o como s e i a a l e s l i n g u f s -t i c a s s e g f i n l a s c u a l e s e l c o n t e n i d o de l a c o m u n i c a c i 6 n l i n g u l s t i c a que l l e v a c o n s i g o h a de s e r e n t e n d i d o como r e l a t o . E n t a n t o e n c u a n t o f o r m e n p a r t e d e l g r u p o t e m -p o r a l I I de l a l e n g u a f r a n c e s a t i e n e n s 6 1 o e s t a y n i n g u n a o t r a f u n c i f i n . E n o t r a s s i t u a c i o n e s c o m u n i c a t i v a s e m p l e a -mos o t r o s t i e m p o s , a s a b e r , l o s t i e m p o s d e l g r u p o t e m p o -r a l I . Como j u n t o a e s t o s do s g r u p o s no h a y u n t e r c e r o , t e n d r d q u e h a b e r u n a n o t a comf in p a r a c a d a u n a de l a s s i t u -a c i o n e s c o m u n i c a t i v a s en l a s que emp leamos l o s t i e m p o s d e l g r u p o I - L a . ' v i a n e g a t i v a ' e s l a p r i m e r a que s e n o s o f r e c e . Lo que t i e n e n de corn-fin l a s s i t u a c i o n e s c o m u n i c a t i v a s en que d o m i n a e s e g r u p o de t i e m p o s es que e l mundo ( e h e l [ C h . 3] 77 s e n t i d o y a i n d i c a d o ) no es r e l a t a d o . Mas ^ c6mo h a b l a m o s c u a n d o no r e l a t a m o s ? A h o r a no s e t r a t a t a n t o de h a l l a r u n t e r m i n o a d e c u a d o p a r a e l c a s e , s l n o de d e s c r i b i r q ue d i f e r e n c i a e l t i p o de e s t a s s i t u a c i o n e s c o m u n i c a t i v a s d e l t i p o de l a s s i t u a c i o n e s c o m u n i c a t i v a s n a r r a t i v a s . " (p.67) 4.2.2 C l e a r l y , t h e t a s k o f f i n d i n g a t e r m f o r " n o n - n a r r a t i o n " i s a n e m b a r r a s s i n g one a n d h e p r e f e r s i n s t e a d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e t h e two s i t u a t i o n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . He h o l d s t h e n a r r a t i v e one t o be m a r k e d b y " u n a a c t i t u d r e l a j a d a " , i n t e r m s o f w h i c h t h e e v e n t s n a r r a t e d " q u e d a n como p a s a d o s p o r e l f i l t r o d e l r e l a t o p e r d i e n d o mucho de s u d r a m a t i s m o " (p .69). w h i l e t h e n o n - n a r r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n m a n i f e s t s " u n a a c t i t u d t e n s a " i n w h i c h " e l h a b l a n t e es ta " en tensi6n y s u d i s c u r s o es d r a m f i t i c o p o r q u e s e t r a t a de c o s a s q u e l e a f e c t a n d i r e c t a m e n t e . . . . e s t f i c o m p r o m e t i d o ; t i e n e que move r y t i e n e que r e a c -c i o n a r y s u d i s c u r s o es u n f r a g m e n t o de acci6n que m o d i -f i c a e l mundo en u n S p i c e y q u e , a s u v e z , empena a l h a b l a n t e t a m b i e n en u n fipice". (p.69) 4.3 W e i n r i c h ^ s v i e w , i n s p i t e o f t h e h i g h l y m e t a p h o r i c a l t e r m s i n w h i c h he f e e l s c o m p e l l e d t o p r e s e n t i i t , i s b a s i c a l l y t h a t t h e r e a r e two f u n d a m e n t a l t y p e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t s t a n d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o e a c h o t h e r a n d , o f t h i s p a i r , he seems t o l o o k u p o n n a r r a t i o n a s t h e m a r k e d member . Nowhe r e d oe s he c l e a r l y o p p o s e , f o r m a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e t e r m s " r e l a t o " a n d " d i s c u r s o " b u t , a s t h e two p a s s a g e s j u s t q u o t e d w o u l d seem t o b e a r o u t , t h e r e i s a t l e a s t a n i m p l i c i t c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e m . H o w e v e r , i n h i s s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s , he seems t o l a y e m p h a s i s o n n a r r a t i o n ( a n d t h u s h i s G r o u p I I o f t e n s e s ) , e s p e c i a l l y a s t h i s e n a b l e s h i m t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e , w i t h i n a [ C h . 3 ] 78 G r o u p I c o n t e x t , o f t h e I m p e r f e c t a n d P l u p e r f e c t w h i c h a r e b o t h f r o m G r o u p I I . 4 . 3 . 1 B e n v e n i s t e , f o r h i s p a r t , i s more c o n c e r n e d i n t h e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , l a y i n g g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s o n t h e t e n s e s o f d i s c o u r s . H i s o p p o s i t i o n r e c i t / d l s c o u r s i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same a s W e i n r i c h ' s ? r e l a t o / d i s c u r s o " ( o r n a r r a r / c o m e n t a r ) b u t i s o r i e n t e d , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f s u b j e c t i v i t e , mo re t o w a r d " l e p r e s e n t du d i s c o u r s " . He d o e s n o t a d d r e s s h i m s e l f t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e I m p e r f e c t a s W e i n r i c h d o e s a n d i t may w e l l b e t h a t t h e l a t t e r ' s s cheme i s one way r i c h e r , i n t h a t he i n t r o d u c e s t h e c o n c e p t o f r e l i e v e t o m o t i v a t e t h e t r a n s m i g r a t i o n o f t h e I m p e r f e c t a n d t h e P l u p e r f e c t b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s . 4 . 3 . 2 W e i n r i c h , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d o e s n o t l o o k u p o n t h e P r e s e n t a s a p o i n t de r e p e r e : i t i s f o r h i m t h e " t i e m p o de n i v e l c e r o " o f G r o u p I , w i t h a c o u n t e r p a r t i n G r o u p I I i n t h e f o r m o f t h e " t i e m p o s c e r o " ( P a s s e S i m p l e a n d I m p e r f e c t ) . T h e s e t h r e e t e n s e s h a v e a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t i m e : " E s t a denominaci6n [ " t i e m p o de n i v e l c e r o " ] q u i e r e s i g n i -f i c a r que c o n e s t o s t i e m p o s mentamos s o l a m e n t e e l mundo c o m e n t a d o o e l mundo n a r r a d o y n a d a m f i s . " (p .9 8 ) T h u s , t h e P r e s e n t d o e s n o t s i g n i f y p r e s e n t t i m e , n o r t h e o t h e r two p a s t t i m e . W i t h i n each, g r o u p , h o w e v e r , W e i n r i c h p o s t u l a t e s a " p e r s p e c t i v a c o m u n i c a t i v a " f u n c t i o n i n g " r e l a t i v a m e n t e en c u a n t o a l p u n t o c e r o de l o s g r u p o s t e m p o r a l e s c o r r e s p o n d i e n t e s " a n d " q u e podemos l l a m a r r e t r o s p e c t i v a s y p r e s p e c t i v a s " ( p . 9 9 ) . [ C h . 3 ] 79 T h e s e phenomena o f " r e t r o s p e c c i 6 n n a n d " p r e s p e c c i 6 n " are l i k e w i s e n o t e x p r e s s i v e o f t i m e , a l t h o u g h , a s . W e i n r i c h p u t s i t , t h e y " p r e s u p p o s e * 1 t i m e . k.k A t t h i s p o i n t h i s p r o p o s a l be comes f r a n k l y much more p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h a n l i n g u i s t i c . I t i s n o t e a s y t o d e n y t h a t , i n t u i t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , he h a s a p o i n t t o make when he g o e s on t o d e v e l o p t h i s t h e m e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s i n c e he seems t o be c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o f t i m e j u s t a l l u d e d t o i s t h e o n l y t e m p o r a l i t y t h a t a t t a c h e s t o " r e t r o s p e c c i 6 n " o r t o " p r e s p e c c i 6 n " , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how he w o u l d w i s h t o m o t i v a t e t h e u s e , l n G r o u p I I f o r i n s t a n c e , o f t h e P l u p e r f e c t o r t h e C o n d i t i o n a l P e r f e c t w h i l e i g n o r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e q u e n t i a l i t y o f e v e n t s . What I am a l l u d i n g t o h e r e i s a n u n d e r l y i n g q u e s t i o n , n a m e l y w h e t h e r i t may b e f a i r l y c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s e q u e n t i a l i t y o f e v e n t s c o n s t i t u t e s a p a r t o f wha t a s p e a k e r w i s h e s t o c o m m u n i c a t e b y o r i n a n u t t e r a n c e . W e i n -r i c h seems t o h a v e o v e r l o o k e d t h e q u e s t i o n o r t o h a v e a v o i d e d i t : i n s t e a d , h e p r e f e r s t o l o o k a t t h e p a s t f r o m s u c h p o i n t s o f v i e w a s t r u t h v s . f i c t i o n , c o m p r o m i s e v s . l i b e r t y (pp.100 -103). I s u b m i t t h a t h e r e a g a i n , a s w i t h B e n v e n i s t e e a r l i e r , i s a n i n s t a n c e o f t h e a u t h o r ' s b e i n g l e d a s t r a y b y h i s p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h a s i n g l e t h e m e , i n t h i s c a s e t h a t o f t h e " a c t i t u d c o m u n i c a t i v a " - n a r r a t i o n o r n o n - n a r r a t i o n . J-.4.1 B e n v e n i s t e d o e s d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e q u e n t i a l i t y , [ C h . 3] 80 u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f " a n t e r i o r i t e " . He t i e s t h i s c o n c e p t s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e c ompound f o r m s o f t h e t e n s e s , w h i l e a l s o r e j e c t i n g t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y e x p r e s s t i m e : " [ L ' a n t e r i o r i t e ] c r e e u n r a p p o r t l o g i q u e e t i n t r a - l i n g u l s -t i q u e , e l l e ne r e f l e t e p a s u n r a p p o r t c h r o n o l o g i q u e q u i s e r a i t p o s e d a n s l a r e a l i t e o b j e c t i v e . C a r 1 ' a n t e r i o r ! t e i n t r a - l i n g u i s t i q u e m a i n t i e n t l e p r o c e s d a n s l e meme t emps q u i e s t e x p r i m e p a r l a f o r m e c o r r e l a t i v e s i m p l e . " (1966a, P.247) Two i n d i c e s m a r k t h i s p r o p e r t y o f t h e c ompound t e n s e s : t h e y c a n o c c u r o n l y a s b o u n d f o r m s ( i . e . i n s o - c a l l e d t e m p o r a l a n d t h u s , b y d e f i n t i o n , s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s ) a n d t h e y c a n o c c u r o n l y i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i m p l e f o r m . T h e y a r e t h u s m a r k e d b y b o t h a s e m a n t i c a n d a s y n t a c t i c d e p e n -d e n c y : " L a p r e u v e que l a f o r m e d ' a n t e r i o r i t e ne p o r t e p a r e l l e -meme a u c u n e r e f e r e n c e a u t e m p s e s t q u ' e l l e d o i t s ' a p p u y e r s y n t a x l q u e m e n t s u r u n e f o r m e t e m p o r e l l e l i b r e d o n t e l l e a d o p t e r a l a s t r u c t u r e f o r m e l l e p o u r s ' e t a b l i r a u meme n i v e a u t e m p o r e l e t r e m p l i r a i n s i s a f o n c t i o n p r o p r e . C ' e s t p o u r q u o i o n ne p e u t a d m e t t r e : t q u a n d 11 a e c r i t . . . . ,  11 e n v o y a . " (p.2 4 7 ) The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f o r m s o f a n t e r i o r i t y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t e n s e - g r o u p i n g s demanded b y t h e r e c l t / d i s c o u r s c o n t r a s t : " L e p r l n c i p e de l a d i s t i n c t i o n e s t l e meme: , ! q u a n d 11 a  f i n i s o n t r a v a i l , 11 r e n t r e c h e z l u l • e s t du d i s c o u r s , a c a u s e du p r e s e n t , e t , a u s s i b i e n , de l ' a n t e r i e u r de p r e -s e n t ; — ' q u a n d 11 e u t f i n i 11 r e n t r a 1 e s t u n e n o n c e h i s t o r i q u e , a c a u s e de l ' a o r l s t e , e t de l ' a n t e r i e u r d ' a o -r i s t e . " (p .247) T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t i s e c h o e d more o r l e s s b y W e i n -r i c h b u t a n y n o t i o n o f b o u n d f o r m s i s f o r e i g n t o h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e c l a u s e : " C u a n d o s e h a l l a p r e s e n t e u n a c o n j u n c i f i n o u n a p a l a b r a [ C h . 3 ] 8 1 f u n c i o n a l de t i p o s e m e j a n t e , l a d e t e r m i n a c i o n s e m f i n t i c a g a n a en f i j e z a . E s t o es t o d o . L a s e m f i n t i c a ma's que l a s i n t a x i s h a de i n t e r e s a r s e p o r e l l o . De a q u i q u e no p u e d a d e d u c i r s e u n a e s t r i c t a d i f e r e n c i a e n t r e o r a c i C n p r i n c i p a l y o r a c l S n s u b o r d i n a d a . " (p.2 7 9 ) 5 I h a v e t r i e d t o show t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a p p r o a -c h e s o f B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h t o t h e q u e s t i o n s o f t i m e a n d t e n s e i n F r e n c h , a s w e l l a s some o f t h e w e a k e r p o i n t s i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a s i d e , t h e two p r o p o -s a l s c l e a r l y c o i n c i d e t o a v e r y g r e a t d e g r e e a n d e v e n m o r e , I t h i n k , t h a n W e i n r i c h h a s a c k n o w l e d g e d ( c f . h i s p . 5 7 ) » T h e y b o t h p o s t u l a t e a n o p p o s i t i o n o f g r o u p s o f t e n s e s , e a c h m a r k i n g a n y a l l o c u t i o n a s b e i n g e i t h e r r e c i t o r d i s c o u r s a n d i n v o l v i n g a n o t i o n o f i n t r a l i n g u i s t i c t e m p o r a l i t y f o u n d e d o n t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s f r a m e o f r e f e -r e n c e , W e i n r i c h h a s l a i d g r e a t e r s t r e s s on t h e n a r r a t i v e a c t i v i t y a n d B e n v e n i s t e on t h e d i s c o u r s a n d i n e a c h c a s e t h e s t r e s s h a s b e e n r e f l e c t e d b y t h e t y p e s o f e x a m p l e d i s c u s s e d . 0 R e i c h e n b a c h , i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f e x p o s e , h a s s h o w n , b y i m p l i c a t i o n a t l e a s t , a s i m i l a r s t a n c e w h i l e d i r e c -t i n g h i m s e l f t o w a r d a d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e . H i s c o n c e r n i s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e " t i m e i n d i c a t i o n g i v e n b y t h e t e n s e s " ( p . 2 8 8 ) He d o e s n o t d i s c u s s t h e c o n c e p t o f t i m e w h i c h h e i s u s i n g b u t p o s t u l a t e s a l l v a l u e s o f t i m e i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p o i n t o f [ C h . 3] 82 s p e e c h ( S ) . .1 T h i s a l l o w s t h r e e i m m e d i a t e i n d i c a t i o n s - " b e f o r e t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h , s i m u l t a n e o u s w i t h t h e . p o i n t o f s p e e c h a n d a f t e r t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h " - b u t d o e s n o t s a t i s f y " t h e r a t h e r c o m p l e x s t r u c t u r e " o f t e n s e s . He p o s t u l a t e s two f u r t h e r p o i n t s , p o i n t o f t h e e v e n t ( E ) a n d p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e ( R ) , whose p o s i t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o S . T hu s i n h i s e x a m p l e P e t e r h a d g o n e , " t h e p o i n t o f t h e e v e n t i s t h e t i m e when P e t e r w e n t ; t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e i s a t i m e b e t w e e n t h i s p o i n t a n d t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h " ( p . 2 8 8 ) . U s i n g h i s n o t a -t i o n a l s y s t e m - w i t h t i m e shown a s a l i n e t r a c e d f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t - t h i s w o u l d be s y m b o l i s e d a s : g g I n t h i s way , he c a n c o n t r a s t - f o r E n g l i s h — t h e S i m p l e P a s t a n d t h e P r e s e n t P e r f e c t s o t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h em i s s e e n i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e ( R ) : e . g . I saw J o h n > v s . I h a v e s e e n J o h n , R , E S E S , R , i n w h i c h i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P r e s e n t P e r f e c t " t h e e v e n t i s a l s o b e f o r e t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h b u t i t i s r e -f e r r e d t o a p o i n t s i m u l t a n e o u s w i t h t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h , i . e . t h e p o i n t s o f s p e e c h a n d r e f e r e n c e c o i n c i d e " (p.292). .2 R e i c h e n b a c h d i s c u s s e s - t h e m a t t e r o f t h e s e q u e n c e o f t e n s e s a n d i n t r o d u c e s a p r i n c i p l e t o e x p l a i n i t , u s i n g t h i s e x a m p l e (p.293): " The t e n s e s o f t h e s e n t e n c e , • B h a d m a i l e d t h e l e t t e r when [ C h . 3] 83 J o h n came a n d t o l d me t h e n e w s ' , may "be d i a g r a m m e d a s f o l l o w s 1st c l a u s e : E^ _ _ R l _ _ S 2nd c l a u s e : R 2 , E 2 _ _ s 3rd c l a u s e : R3.E3 S H e r e t h e t h r e e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s c o i n c i d e . I t w o u l d be i n c o r r e c t t o s a y , ' I h a d m a i l e d t h e t l e t t e r when J o h n h a s c o m e ' ; i n s u c h a c o m b i n a t i o n t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n c h a n g e d . " What i s s hown h e r e i s t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e e v e n t s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e s e p a r a t e c l a u s e s , t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e r e m a i n s u n c h a n g e d . 5.3 T h i s p r i n c i p l e o f t h e p e r m a n e n c e o f t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t o f f e r s i n d e p e n d e n t m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e c o n c e p t o f o p p o -s i n g t e n s e - g r o u p s a s v a r i o u s l y e x p o u n d e d b y B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h . S e t t i n g a s i d e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e i r f o r m u -l a t i o n s o f t h e g r o u p s ( i . e . t h e e x c l u s i o n b y W e i n r i c h o f t h e I m p e r f e c t a n d P l u p e r f e c t f r o m G r o u p I w h e r e a s B e n v e n i s t e h a s t h e m common t o b o t h r e c l t a n d d i s c o u r s ) , i t i s c l e a r t h a t one g r o u p i n b o t h c a s e s ( d i s c o u r s / G r o u p I ) h a s a s i t s p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e t h e p r e s e n t ( p o i n t o f s p e e c h ) a n d t h e o t h e r ha s i t s p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e p r i o r t o t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h a n d m a r k e d b y t h e P a s s e S i m p l e . A s B e n v e n i s t e p u t s i t , "Comme l e p r e s e n t , l e p a r f a i t a p p a r t i e n t a u s y s t e m e l i n -g u i s t i q u e du d i s c o u r s , c a r l e r e p e r e t e m p o r e l du p a r f a i t e s t l e moment du d i s c o u r s , a l o r s que l e r e p e r e de 1 ' ao-r i s t e e s t l e moment de> 1' e v e n e m e n t " . (1966a, p . 2 4 4 ) T h i s a l l o w s h i m t o s a y t h e r e f o r e o f t h e P e r f e c t , " C ' e s t l e t emps de c e l u i q u i r e l a t e l e s f a i t s en t e m o i n , [Ch. 3] 84-en p a r t i c i p a n t ; c'est done a u s s i l e temps que c h o i s i r a quiconque veut f a i r e r e t e n t i r jusqu'a. nous l'evenement rapporte et l e r a t t a c h e r a notre present", (idem.) 5«4 The coincidence of> point of reference and point of speech i s the mark of Benveniste's concept of s u b j e c t i v i t e i n the a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n with i t s present a x i a l du dis-^ oours: as we see,"the Passe Compose a l s o d i r e c t l y i m p l i e s t h i s same present. Weinrich*s "tiempos de comentario" ("Be-spechung") can be marked i n the same way according t o Reichen-bach's n o t a t i o n , g a i n i n g i n the process a more p r e c i s e and p o s s i b l y more s a t i s f a c t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of Group I than Weinrich's own terms "comentario" or "non-narration". [ C h . 3] 85 NOTES I o f f e r t h i s s p e c i f i c a t i o n h a v i n g i n m i n d t h a t i t i s p r i n -c i p a l l y r e l a t e d t o s y n t a x . O t h e r a s p e c t s s u c h a s r e f e r e n c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l t h u s n o t be d e a l t w i t h i n g r e a t d e t a i l , a l t h o u g h t h e i r s t u d y i s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f e n o n c i a t i o n , a s w i l l be s e e n i n t h e n e x t q u o t a t i o n f r o m B e n v e n i s t e . The t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y o f e n o n c i a t i o n i s p r e s e n t l y i n d e t e r m i n a t e , i n E n g l i s h a t l e a s t . I n F r e n c h , t h e s i t u -a t i o n i s somewhat b e t t e r ; c e r t a i n l y , i t h a s r e c e i v e d c l o s e r s c r u t i n y f r o m F r e n c h s c h o l a r s , ( c f . T e s n i e r e (1965), p p . 116-117). E v e n s o , T o d o r o v f e e l s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a d o p t i n g a p o s i t i o n o n t h e q u e s t i o n , a s f o l l o w s : " L e s j a r g o n s a y a n t t e n d a n c e a s e m u l t i p l i e r a c e s t a d e d e s r e c h e r c h e s , f i x o n s d e s a p r e s e n t l e s e n s de q u e l q u e s t e r m e s s i m p l e s e t e s s e n t l e l s : a l l o c u t i o n s e n o n c i a t i o n d ' u n d i s c o u r s a d r e s s e a q u e l q u ' u n ; l o c u t e u r = c e l u i q u i e n o n c e ; a l l o c u t a i r e = c e l u i a q u i s ' a d r e s s e l e d i s c o u r s ; I n t e r l o c u t e u r = l ' u n d e s p a r t i c i p a n t s d ' u n e a l l o c u t i o n ( i n d i f f e r e m m e n t l e q u e l ) . Q u e l q u e s a u t r e s t e r m e s v i e n -d r o n t s e j o i n d r e a c e t t e l i s t e a u c o u r s de l ' a n a l y s e . " (1970b, p.4) The p o i n t o f p e r h a p s g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t h e r e i s t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m a l l o c u t i o n a s a n e q u i v a l e n t t o e n o n c i a t i o n . A l -t h o u g h t h i s h a s n o t y e t become g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e , i t o f f e r s wha t I s h o u l d t e r m t h e b e s t p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t f b r / e r i o n c l a t i o n , v i z . " a l l o c u t i o n " . E n o n c i a - t i o n : " e n u n c i a t i o n " a n d a l l o c u t l o n : " a l l o c u t l o n " a r e c o g n a t e p a i r s : t h e f o r m e r d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a n e q u i v a l e n c e ( e x -c e p t p o s s i b l y i n t h e c a s e o f e n u n c i a t e a p r i n c i p l e a n d t h e l i k e ) a n d d o e s n o t o f f e r u s a u s e f u l b a s i s f o r a t r a n s l a -t i o n . " A l l o c u t i o n " , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h i l e e x i s t i n g i n E n g l i s h , h a s l i m i t e d f r e q u e n c y i n i t s a c c e p t e d m e a n i n g , v i z . " a f o r m a l a d d r e s s , e s p . one w a r n i n g o r a d v i s i n g w i t h a u t h o r i t y " ( W e b s t e r ' s . 1970, p .37K T h i s l i m i t e d f r e q u e n c y i s n o t l i k e l y , i n my v i e w , t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h my p r o p o s a l t o u s e t h e w o r d a s a s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n g u i s t i c t e r m , one w h i c h , f u r t h e r m o r e , more o r l e s s r e s u r r e c t s a n e a r l i e r m e a n i n g g r o w n o u t o f g e n e r a l u s e , e . g . " A l l o c u t i o n : . . . 3. a s p e a k i n g - t o , a d d r e s s i n g o r a c c o s t i n g . O b s . " ( O . E . P . . 1884, p.236). B e s i d e s , t h e t e r m i s s e f f e c t i v e l y p r e s u p -p o s e d l n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d u s e o f t h e t e r m " a l l o c u t l o n a r y " I t h a s t h e a d d e d a d v a n t a g e o f l a c k i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c e o n -n o t a t i o n s o f a t e r m s u c h a s " d i s c o u r s e " . I t c a n t h u s [Ch. 3] 86 a d e q u a t e l y r e s p o n d t o t h e n e e d t o t r a n s l a t e b o t h m e a n i n g s o f e n o n c i a t i o n a s t h e y o c c u r i n t h i s w o r k , i . e . t h e f i e l d o f s t u d y a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t , a s w e l l a s i n a more g e n e -r a l c o n t e x t . I p r o p o s e t o u s e t h e t e r m h e r e a f t e r i n p l a c e o f e n o n c i a t i o n . I h a v e r e f e r r e d t o B e n v e n i s t e a s a p i o n e e r : T o d o r o v (1970"b, p.7) c a l l s h i m a " v e r i t a b l e d e f r i c h e u r " . The r e m a r k a b l e f a c t i s t h a t B e n v e n i s t e h a s w o r k e d p e r s i s t e n t l y a n d a l m o s t a l o n e a t t h e theme o f e n o n c i a t i o n o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f s u m m a r i s i n g h i s i d e a s d e -r i v e s l a r g e l y f r o m t h i s f a c t . H i s w o r k , s c a t t e r e d m o s t l y i n t h e f o r m o f a r t i c l e s (now i n c o l l e c t e d f o r m i n ! , h i s 1966a), i s o f t e n r e p e t i t i v e . Y e t , o f c o u r s e , no one p i e c e i s a mere r e s t a t e m e n t : r a t h e r , e a c h i s w r i t t e n w i t h o t h e r s i n m i n d w i t h - f o r t h e r e a d e r - a r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t o f t e l e s o o -p a g e w h e r e b y a; f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f one o f t h em d e p e n d s o n a k n o w l e d g e o f one o r more p r e d e c e s s o r s . A t t h e same t i m e , h i s t e r m i n o l o g y h a s v a r i e d s o t h a t , t o f o l l o w h i m , one i s f o r c e d o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t o a s t e a d y r o u t i n e o f c r o s s - c h e c k i n g t o be c e r t a i n w h e t h e r h i s . p o s i t i o n on a p o i n t may h a v e c h a n g e d . O v e r a l l , h i s p o s i t i o n h a s n o t a l t e r e d : i t h a s m e r e l y become more p r e c i s e a t e a c h s t a g e . R e g a r d i n g h i s t e r m i n o l o g y , h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m l a n g a g e i n "De l a s u b j e c t i v i t e d a n s l e l a n g a g e " (1966a, pp . 2 5 8-266), t h o u g h n o t d i s c u s s e d a s a s p e c i f i c t e r m , seems t o come c l o s e s t t o my c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e t e r m a s I h a v e p r e s e n t e d i t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e S a u s s u r e a n s c h e m e . S e e B e n v e n i s t e ' s s t u d y o f t h i s n o t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a v a r i e t y o f - l anguages i n " S t r u c t u r e d e s r e l a t i o n s de p e r -s o n n e d a n s l e v e r b e " (1966a, pp.227-236) The o n l y a r e a whe r e t i m e tends t o be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t e n s e seems t o me t o be t h a t o f t r a n s l a t i o n , w h e r e a f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e w o r k i n g s o f t i m e - a s o p p o s e d s i m p l y t o t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t e n s e - s t r u c t u r e s - i s c r u c i a l i n i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s . T r a n s l a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s h e l d t o be a p p l i e d l i n g u i s t i c s o n l y . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n i r o n y i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . The l i n g u i s t who ha s t a k e n t i m e a s a t heme h a s t e n d e d t o r e m a i n s o m e t h i n g o f a n o u t s i d e r t o h i s f e l l o w s . A s t r i k i n g e x a m p l e i s G u i l l a u m e , whose s y s t e m o f o h r o n o g e n e s e h a s f o u n d f a v o u r w i t h a me re h a n d f u l o f s c h o l a r s . H i s f i n e l y -w r o u g h t s cheme o f " e p o q u e s e t n i v e a u x t e m p o r e l s " i s a n a t t e m p t t o q u a n t i f y a n d o r d e r t h e p h a s e s o f e m e r g e n t r e a -l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e v e n t s . He d e a l s n o t o n l y w i t h t e n s e b u t a l l v e r b a l [ C h . 3] 8? c a t e g o r i e s , a s s i g n i n g t h em a p l a c e i n h i s c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e -w o r k o f i n c i d e n c e a n d d e c a d e n c e . F o r m o s t l i n g u i s t s , how-e v e r , h i s c a t e g o r i e s h a v e l e f t a n i m p r e s s i o n o f u n r e a l i t y . W i t h r e g a r d t o t e n s e s , h i s m a i n i n t e r e s t f o r u s i s t h a t h i s s y s t e m r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e P r e s e n t , a l t h o u g h h e d o e s n o t a t t e m p t t o m o t i v a t e t h i s c e n t r a l r o l e f r o m t h e same p o i n t o f v i e w a s p r e s e n t e d h e r e . 7. 1966b, p.5 f f . 8. I n a n y c a s e , a n y s u c h i m p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e s no s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n , s i n c e B e n v e n i s t e moves on t o a n a l y s e d i s c o u r s . 9 . One w o n d e r s w h e t h e r B e n v e n i s t e h i m s e l f i s q u i t e c l e a r on t h i s p o i n t : t h e o n l y c l u e t o a n i n t e n d e d d i f f e r e n c e i s s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : "On p e u t m e t t r e e n f a i t q ue q u i c o n q u e s a i t e c r i r e e t e n t r e p r e n d l e r e c i t d * e v e n e m e n t s . p a s s e s e m p l o i e s p o n -t a n e m e n t 1 ' a o r i s t e comme t emps f o n d a m e n t a l , q u ' i l e v o q u e c e s e v e n e m e n t s en h l s t o r i e n ou q u ' i l l e s c r e e en r o m a n c i e r . " (1966a, p . 2 4 3 ) Here> e v o q u e r i s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h c r e e r : t o wha t e x t e n t s u c h a c o n t r a s t w i l l e l u c i d a t e t h e q u e s t i o n a t h a n d i s s t i l l u n c l e a r , h o w e v e r . 10. I h a v e made u s e o f t h e S p a n i s h v e r s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l Ge rman e d i t i o n : T e m p u s . B e s p r o c h e n e u n d E r z & h l t e W e l t . ( S t u t t g a r t : W. Koh l h amme r V e r l a g , 1 9 6 4 ) . F e d e r i c o L a -t o r r e ' s w o r k c o r r e s p o n d s o n a l m o s t a l l p o i n t s t o t h e o r i g i n a l a n d i t i s b y v i r t u e o n l y o f a s m a l l number o f r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t i t s t a n d s a s a v e r s i o n r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y a t r a n s l a t i o n . I n a l a t e s t a g e o f t h i s w o r k , I o b t a i n e d t h e F r e n c h t r a n s -l a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l , w i t h M i c h e l e L a c o s t e a s t h e t r a n s -l a t o r ( i . e . W e i n r i c h (1973)). I t p r o v e d t o be i m p o s s i b l e t o u t i l i s e t h i s t o r e p l a c e t h e S p a n i s h v e r s i o n f o r t h e q u o t a t i o n s I h a v e u s e d . The r e a s o n f o r t h a t i s t h e a s t o n i s h i n g n a t u r e o f L a c o s t e ' s w o r k : a l b e i t a t r a n s l a t i o n i n name, i t i s i n f a c t a new e d i t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l , w i t h a d d i t i o n s a n d d e l e t i o n s i n r e m a r k a b l e number a n d a v a s t l y a l t e r e d p h y s i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . S o c h a n g e d i s i t f r o m t h e S p a n i s h v e r s i o n t h a t i t i s a m a j o r t a s k t o t r y t o l o c a t e p a s s a g e s i n i t i a l l y d e r i v e d f r o m e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r t w o . T h e r e i s , a l s o , no c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e p a s s a g e s i n q u e s t i o n a r e s t i l l t o be f o u n d . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t was d e c i d e d n o t t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e p l a n n e d s u b s t i t u t i o n . The L a c o s t e " v e r s i o n " , w h i c h r e a d s w e l l a n d seems t o be a [Chv 3] 88 f u l l e r v e r s i o n o f wha t W e i n r i c h ha s t o s a y ( i n s p i t e o f t h e d e l e t i o n s ) , w i l l no d o u b t be t h e means o f W e i n r i c h * s a c q u i r i n g i n F r a n c e a p u b l i c l o n g d e n i e d t o h i m . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , one w o u l d h o p e t h a t i t w i l l n o t l o n g go u n d e r t h e g u i s e o f a t r a n s l a t i o n : o t h e r w i s e t h e r e w i l l be t h e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n o f how much o f i t i s W e i n r i c h a n d how much L a -c o s t e . The w o r k i n d e e d h a s a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a new e d i t i o n a n d i t seems r e a s o n a b l e a s w e l l a s o r t h o d o x t o e x p e c t i t t o be p r e s e n t e d a s s u c h . T h i s i s t o d a y a c o m m o n p l a c e , i n w o r k s o f s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y , a n d i s w e l l known i n a d i f f e r e n t f o r m i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n who u s e t h e I m p e r -f e c t i n t h e c h o o s i n g o f r o l e s f o r games o f m a k e - b e l i e v e , e . g . " M o i , .1' e t a i s l e b u o h e r o n " . -W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e G i d e q u o t a t i o n s , I h a v e r e p r o d u c e d t h e m i n f u l l a n d w i t h t h e e m p h a s i s l a i d b y W e i n r i c h , b e -c a u s e i t i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r t h a t he h a s q u i t e u n d e r s t o o d t h e F r e n c h i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . He c o m m e n t s , on t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g v e i n : " J e v a i s v o i r es u n a f o r m a que en l a g r a m S t i c a f r a n c e s a v a l e p o r f u t u r e - . J u n t o a e l l a e s t f i e l a d v e r b i o t e m p o -r a l • a y e r *." ^ se cond e m p h a s i s m i n e ) On t h e s e c o n d q u o t a t i o n , h e r e f e r s t o i t s " g r a n a p a r a t o de t i e m p o s " . H i s c ommen t , a s w e l l a s h i s e m p h a s e s , r e f l e c t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e f o r m J e v a i s v o i r , f o r e x a m p l e , h a s t o be a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f u t u r e , j u s t a s i t w o u l d be w i t h d e m a i n i n s t e a d o f h i e r . The f a c t t h a t i t t h u s makes no s e n s e , b y a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , seems t o e s c a p e h i m , a s d o e s t h e i d e a t h a t , s i n c e t h e s e n t e n c e i s a d i a r y e n t r y - a s he i s w e l l a w a r e - t h e e m p h a s i s , f o r b o t h q u o t a t i o n s , i s mo re a p p r o p r i a t e l y " J e v a i s v o i r " , e t c . ( T h e s e e x a m p l e s do n o t a p p e a r i n t h e L a c o s t e v e r s i o n . ) 8 9 CHAPTER FOUR  T i m e a n d T e n s e : I I I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o i n d i c a t e i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r t h e n a t u r e a n d s c o p e o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h t h a t w i l l s e r v e a s t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r a l l t h a t I w i s h t o d i s c u s s i n t h i s a n d s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s . I t be comes a p p r o p r i a t e now t o l o o k a t t h a t t h e o r y more c l o s e l y , t o d e t e r m i n e i t s m e r i t s a n d d e f i c i e n c i e s a n d p r o p o s e s u i t a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s . My o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e i s t o e x a m i n e t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n s y n t a x a n d a l l o c u t i o n : i n t h e p r o c e s s I s h a l l t o u c h on q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o p r a g m a t i c s , c o n v e n t i o n , r e c e n t s y n t a c t i c t h e o r y a n d s o c i o -l o g i c a l v i e w s o f l a n g u a g e , i n a s m u c h a s t h e y a l l seem t o c o n -t r i b u t e t o a c o n c e p t i o n o f wha t I h a v e t e r m e d l a n g a g e . 0 I t was o b s e r v e d e a r l i e r t h a t W e i n r i c h ' s f r a m e w o r k em-p h a s i s e s t h e n a r r a t i v e a c t i v i t y a n d h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m " n o n -n a r r a t i o n " ( " N i c h t - E r z a h l e n " ) s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w . A p a r t f r o m t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f f i n d i n g a t e r m f o r t h e n o n - n a r r a t i v e a c t i -v i t y ( p . 6 7 ) , h e s u g g e s t s i t i s e a s i e r a n d mo re d e p e n d a b l e t o u s e n a r r a t i o n a s t h e po i n t c o . f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e two a c t i v i t i e s . T h u s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s c u s s i o n , he t e n d s t o d e - e m p h a s i s e wha t B e n v e n i s t e s t r e s s e s - t h e s u b j e c -t i v i t e - a n d , s e e i n g t h e t e n s e s a s b e i n g m a r k e d s i m p l y a s t n a r r a t l o n , h i s c l a i m i s t h a t " n o e x i s t e o t r o s i g n o i d e n t i f i c a b l e [ C h . 4] 90 i n e q u i v o c o e n e l c o m e n t a d o r que e l s e r a l g u i e n t o t a l m e n t e d i s -t i n t o d e l n a r r a d o r " (p.70). No p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m a r k s e i t h e r t h e " c o m e n t a r i o " o r t h e " c o m e n t a d o r " o t h e r t h a n wha t he c a l l s t h e " a c t i t u d t e n s a " o f t h e l a t t e r . 1 1.1 The w e a k n e s s o f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e l i g h t o f R e i c h e n b a c h ' s p r o p o s a l , w h e r e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c t i v i t i e s i s s e e n t o be a m a t t e r o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p o i n t s o f e v e n t a n d r e f e r e n c e I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d c o m m e n t a r y t e n s e s do i n d e e d h a v e a common f e a t u r e , s i n c e i n e a c h c a s e t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h . C l e a r l y , W e i n r i c h h a s u n d e r p l a y e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p o i n t o f s p e e c h a s t h e c r u x o f t h e t e n s e - s y s t e m . Mo re t h a n t h a t , h e may e v e n h a v e f a i l e d f u l l y t o r e a l i s e i t s i m p o r t a n c e . 1.2 T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s m o s t s t r o n g l y e v i n c e d i n h i s d i s -c u s s i o n o f t h e s u p p l a n t i n g i n m o d e r n F r e n c h o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e b y t h e P a s s e Compose , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n t h e f r a m e -w o r k o f t h e F r e n c h p r e s s . T h i s i s a n o c c u r r e n c e w h i c h , he c l a i m s (pp.324-329), i s a t l e a s t ; l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a l i s a t i o n o f t h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a n g u a g e . He p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t n e w s p a p e r s c l a i m e d t o b r i n g t h e l a t e s t news - t h e news o f t h e d a y - b u t t h a t t h i s c l a i m was r e a l i s e d more l d e a l i t e r t h a n r e a l l t e r ( p . 326). I n t h i s l i g h t , he e x a m i n e s t h e J o u r n a l de P a r i s o f [ C h . 4 ] 9 1 1813 a n d f i n d s wha t h e c o n s i d e r s a b i z a r r e s i t u a t i o n , n a m e l y t h a t t h e news o f t h e d a y , e x p r e s s e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n t h e P a s s e Compose , r e l a t e s e v e n t s e x t e n d i n g a s f a r b a c k a s November o r O c t o b e r o f 1812. He o b s e r v e s , " S a l t a a l a v i s t a , s i n e m b a r g o , que l a s n o t i c i a s de l o s c o r r e s p o n s a l e s , q u e , n a t u r a l m e n t e , s o n de f e c h a mfis a n -t i g u a , e s t f i n muchas v e c e s r e d a c t a d a s en u n a f o r m a que h a c e r e s u l t a r l a i m p r e s i 6 n de n o v e d a d " (p . 3 2 7 ) . [my em-p h a s i s ] I h a v e d r a w n a t t e n t i o n h e r e t o t h e w o r d s c o r r e s p o n s a l e s a n d f e c h a , b e c a u s e , i n a l l t h e i n s t a n c e s w h i c h W e i n r i c h g i v e s , i t i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d e n t a n d a p r e c i s e d a t e , a s i n t h i s e x a m p l e : " E n e l n f imero d e l 2 de e n e r o de 1813 e n c o n t r a m o s , p o r e j e m p l o , u n a n o t i c i a de P r a n c f o r t , f e c h a d a e l 2 8 - X I I - 1 8 1 2 , que d i c e : I I a e t e AUJOURD 'HUI j u s q u ' a 12 d e g r e s de R e a u -m u r . " ( p . 3 2 7 l • 1 . 2 . 1 I n s t r e s s i n g " a u j o u r d ' h u i " , W e i n r i c h w i s h e s t o make t h e p o i n t t h a t l t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n r e f e r e n c e t o a n e v e n t o f f i v e d a y s e a r l i e r . He c l a i m s f u r t h e r t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e P a s s e Compose i s a l s o i n a p p r o p r i a t e , s i n c e , a t l e a s t i n t h o s e d a y s (1813 a n d b e f o r e ) , t h e u s e o f t h i s t e n s e was s u b j e c t t o t h e 2 4 - h o u r r u l e . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , he c o n s i d e r s s u r p r i s i n g t h e n e x t two e x a m p l e s , i n w h i c h t h e P a s s e Compose " s e e n c u e n t r a a u n q u e l a n o t i c i a s e i d e n t i f i q u e p o r u n a f e c h a c o r r e s p o n d i e n t e a l d i a a n t e r i o r : S . M . I ' E m p e r e u r  A PASSE H I E R en r e v u e , d a n s l e s c o u r s d u p a l a i s d e s T u i -l e r i e s , d i v e r s c o r p s de l a g a r d e i m p e r i a l e e t d ' a u t r e s  t r o u p e s de l a g a r n l s o n de P a r i s ( 8 - I I - 1 8 1 3 ) . De l a m i sma m a n e r a s e e n c u e n t r a en l a s n o t i c i a s que v e r d a d e r a -men t e s o n d e l d i a , como en l a de u n c o r r e s p o n s a l de V a r -s o v i a d a t a d a e l 1 9 - X I I - 1 8 1 2 , i m p r e s a e n e l p e r l 6 d l c o d e l [ C h . .4] 92 1 - I I - 1 8 1 3 y que d i c e : L e due de B a s s a n o EST PART I CE MATIN  d ' i c l p o u r s e r e n d r e a ° B e r l i n ; 1 1 A PASSE c i n q . j ou r s d an s  c e t t e v l l l e . . . . y a que t o d a s e s t a s n o t l c i a s , que en s i p u e d e n s e r t a m b i e n c o n s i d e r a d a s como r e l a t o , s e e n c u e n t r a n e n e s t e l u g a r como n o t i c i a s d e l d l a y p e r t e n e c e n , p o r h a l l a r s e en p e r i 6 d i c o , a l a e s f e r a d e l p a s a d o mfis r e c i e n t e . Se t r a t a , p u e s , de u n a p r o l o n g a c i 6 n d e l l a p s o de v e l n t i -c u a t r o h o r a s , p e r o de p r o l o n g a c i f i n que c a e d e n t r o de l a i d e a de d i a r i o . " ( p . 3 2 8 ) 2 . 2 W e i n r i c h , c o n c e d i n g t h a t g i v e n t h e n o r m a l d i f f i -c u l t i e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t t h a t t i m e no p a p e r c o u l d be t r u l y u p t o t h e m i n u t e a n d c o u l d a t b e s t p r e s e n t y e s t e r d a y ' s e v e n t s a s t o d a y ' s n ews , i s q u i t e p r e p a r e d t o g i v e t h e n e w s p a p e r s a n i n c h on t h e m a t t e r o f t h e 2 4 - h o u r r u l e b u t c o m p l a i n s t h a t t h e y t o o k , i n t u r n , a v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l m i l e . H o w e v e r , I c o n t e n d t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e r e v e a l s a f u n d a m e n t a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n h e i s d i s c u s s i n g . 3 P u t i n i t s s i m p l e s t f o r m , W e i n r i c h ' s o b j e c t i o n i s t h a t y o u c a n n o t s a y y e s t e r d a y i f y o u do n o t mean, " t h e day. b e f o r e t o d a y " ; i n t h i s f o r m , t h e o b j e c t i o n i s i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e . H e n c e he s e e s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i e r r e f e r r i n g t o " t w o d a y s b e f o r e t o d a y " a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e P a s s e C o m p o s e . A n i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n , w h i c h W e i n r i c h u n -f o r t u n a t e l y d o e s n o t r a i s e , i s how t h e p r e s s was a b l e o r a l -l o w e d t o p e r p e t r a t e s u c h a n a p p a r e n t t r a v e s t y o f t h e l a n g u a g e : t h e a n s w e r s u r e l y i s t h a t t h e r e was i n f a c t no t r a v e s t y a t a l l . R a t h e r , t h e p r o b l e m i s f a l s e l y p o s e d a n d t h e d i s c u s s i o n c o n d u c t e d i n t e r m s w h i c h a r e , t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l l y i r r e l e -v a n t . [Ch. 4] 93 1.3.1 For the objection to have any v a l i d i t y , i t would be necessary to presuppose something about how "today" i s de-fined or s p e c i f i e d and also something about the u t t e r i n g of the information i n question. In Weinrich's case, the f i r s t presupposition i s that "today" i s defined by reference to the reader of the newspaper and s p e c i f i e d by the date c a r r i e d by that edition of the paper. On t h i s basis, any use by the newspaper of the term "today" - and i t s counterparts "yester-day" and "tomorrow" - i s determined by these coordinates, the one " e x i s t e n t i a l " and the other "documentary", so to speak. The second presupposition i s that the utterer of the i n f o r -mation i s the newspaper, with the reader f i l l i n g the r o l e of a l l o c u t e . Thus, when the paper "says" the term "today", the reader understands the term to re f e r to the newspaper's act of uttering; i n other words, the point of speech i s defined with the newspaper as allocuteur. However, as Weinrich t e l l s us, a p a r t i c u l a r information (or a r t i c l e ) c a r r i e s i t s own date at i t s head, along with the by-line (stated or implied) of an i n d i v i d u a l correspondent who has a (stated or implied) geographical l o c a t i o n . Therefore these indications e n t a i l that i t i s i n fact the correspondent who plays the r o l e of allocuteur. the allocute being s t i l l the reader (or, possibly, the newspaper editor, who then r e t a i l s the item). This i s because, where such indications are carried, they assume pre-cedence over those c a r r i e d by the paper i t s e l f and the language [ C h . 4] 94 u s e d makes t h i s m a n i f e s t . I n s u c h a c a s e t h e n e w s p a p e r i s w i t h o u t a r o l e i n t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n : a t b e s t i t c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e med ium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e a i r o n w h i c h a n o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s c a r r i e d . 1 . 3 . 2 A s W e i n r i c h ' s e x a m p l e s show, t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s a r e r e -i t e r a t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e r e p o r t e r b y h i s u s e o f d e i c -t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , b o t h t e m p o r a l a n d l o c a t i o n a l - h i e r . i c i . c e t t e v l l l e , c e m a t i n - a l o n g w i t h t h e u s e o f t h e P a s s e C o m p o s e . I t i s u n n e c e s s a r y t h e r e a f t e r f o r t h e u t t e r e r t o u s e t h e f o r m je_: i t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p o s t u l a t e d b y t h e l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r j u s t r e f e r r e d t o . I n o t h e r w o r d s , r e o r d e r i n g t h e e x p r e s s i o n e m p l o y e d e a r l i e r , " Q u i d i t i o l e t m a l n t e n a n t d i t j e " . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , W e i n r i c h ' s o b j e c t i o n v i s - a - v i s o f t h e 2 4 - h o u r r u l e d o e s n o t s t a n d , s i n c e t h e p e r s o n now i d e n -t i f i e d a s t h e s p e a k e r h a s i n d e e d r e s p e c t e d t h e r u l e . 1 . 4 The m o s t I m p o r t a n t f a c t a b o u t t h e f a l l a c y o f W e i n r i c h ' s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t i t s t e m s f r o m t h e i n a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f h i s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . I n t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e , t h e t i m e i s d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e a d e r a n d s p e c i f i e d b y t h e d a t e o f t h e p a p e r . H o w e v e r , t o be a r e a d e r i s t o be t u , n o t je_: r e a d e r s do n o t u t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y r e c e i v e i t . " Q u i d i t je_ d i t i c i e t m a l n t e n a n t " c a n n o t be t r a n s p o s e d t o " Q u i e s t ' t u d i t i c i e t m a l n t e n a n t " . p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e i t i s t h e a c t o f u t t e r -i n g w h i c h i s c r u c i a l . Now w h i l e b y t h e i n t e r v e r s i o n o f r o l e s [ C h . 4] 95 t u becomes je_ i n h i s t u r n , a t e v e r y moment h e i s m a r k e d a s one o r t h e o t h e r a n d o n l y a s j e d o e s h e h a v e t h e p r i v i l e g e o f p o s i t i n g t h e c o n t e x t . W e i n r i c h ' s s e c o n d p r e s u p p o s i t i o n , c o n -c e r n i n g t h e n e w s p a p e r a s u t t e r e r , i s i n a d m i s s i b l e f o r t h e r e a s o n s a l r e a d y g i v e n . 1.4.1 J e i s t h e p r i v i l e g e d p o l e o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y a x i s , a n d i t i s s i m p l y i n e x a c t t o c l a i m f o r t h e r e a d e r / l i s t e n e r t h a t i s t u a n y mode o f p o s i t i n g t h e c o n t e x t o f u t t e r a n c e . W h i l e t h i s n o t i o n i s p e r h a p s a me r e c o r o l l a r y o f t h a t c o n -c e r n i n g j_e, i t h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t seem n o n e t h e l e s s t o h a v e gone g e n e r a l l y u n n o t i c e d . 1.5 F u r t h e r i n s p e c t i o n o f W e i n r i c h ' s p o s i t i o n makes t h i s c l e a r . H i s o b j e c t i o n t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c f o r m u l a e t h a t o c c u r i s t h a t t h e y do n o t o r i e n t t h e m s e l v e s a r o u n d t h e d a t e o f t h e e d i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r . What he f a i l s t o r e a l i s e i s t h a t t h e d a t e s t o w h i c h h e a l l u d e s i n s u c h d e t a i l a r e q u i t e e x t r a n e o u s t o t h e b a s i c d i s c u s s i o n . T h e y a r e i n no s e n s e d e -t e r m i n a n t s - - o f l i n g u i s t i c t i m e a s i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e u t t e r a n c e : on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y m e r e l y p e r m i t W e i n r i c h h i m -s e l f , s p e a k i n g t h i s t i m e a s j e ( i . e . p o s i t i n g h i m s e l f a s s u j e t ) , t o c o r r e l a t e i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e n s e t h e o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h some o t h e r p e r s o n s p o k e a s j e t o W e i n r i c h ' s t u . 1.-5.1 Some e x p l a n a t i o n i s i n o r d e r . W e i n r i c h , when c o n f r o n -t e d i n , l e t u s s a y , 1964 by t h e t e x t o f t h e Warsaw r e p o r t a g e [ C h . 4] 96 q u o t e d e a r l i e r , f i n d s h i m s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h a t o f a r r e a d e r o f 1 8 1 3 f a c i n g t h e same t e x t , i n t h a t t h e d a t e o f t h e r e a d l n g i s i n e i t h e r c a s e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e t i m e e x p r e s s e d i n t h e u t t e r a n c e t h a t f o r m s t h e r e p o r t a g e a n d t h e r e f o r e i r r e l e v a n t a l s o t o t h e t e n s e s u s e d i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t t i m e . A l l o f t h i s d e r i v e s s i m p l y f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t W e i n r i c h a n d h i s n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o u n t e r p a r t a r e , a s r e a -d e r s , m a r k e d a s t u a n d t h u s m u s t a l i g n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n w h e r e b y a n y s p e a k e r i s p r e s u m e d a n d empowered t o a s s e r t , "My now i s t h e o n l y now w i t h m e a n i n g i n my p r e s e n t u t t e r i n g " . To t h e t u o f t h a t u t t e r i n g , t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h a t now i s w i t h o u t i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t d u r i n g t h e u t t e r i n g . To j u d g e o f t h e c o i n c i d e n c e o f d a t e s , a s W e i n r i c h d o e s , i s t o make h i m s e l f t h e je_ a n d h i s now t h e c r u x o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n : w h i l e t o do s o c a n be p e r f e c t l y v a l i d , i t mus t be n o t e d t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e s a n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e t o t a l a b andonmen t o f t h e now o f t h e 2$. t h a t w a s . 2.0 L i n g u i s t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e c a n n e v e r be more t h a n one j .e a n d t h u s n e v e r more t h a n one now: a s . t u , I m u s t a b a n -d o n my now i n f a v o u r o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s , a s we h a v e s e e n B e n -v e n i s t e e x p l a i n . T h i s i s a x i o m a t i c a n d w i l l h o l d t r u e i n a l l [ C h . .4] 97 c i r c u m s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r u n u s u a l o r p a r a d o x i c a l t h e y s e e m . L e t u s c o n s i d e r s u c h a s e e m i n g l y p a r a d o x i c a l c a s e , ( 5 ) . (5) I ' m s t a n d i n g on t h e c o r n e r a n d t h i s man comes u p . H e r e we h a v e a j e a n d a P r e s e n t t e n s e , w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n t i m p l i c a t i o n o f a now . The s e n t e n c e i s a l m o s t o r d i n a r y i n i t s f o r m a n d seems t o o f f e r n o t h i n g u n u s u a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r o l e o f t h e t u o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n . H o w e v e r , we may o b s e r v e t h a t t h i s s e n t e n c e c a n be u t t e r e d q u i t e r e a d i l y b y a J e s i t u -a t e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f a f i e l d o r o c e a n . P r a g m a t i c a l l y s p e a -k i n g , i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h e now ( o r t h e h e r e a n d now) c o u l d n o t , i n s u c h a c a s e , be t h a t o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n i t s e l f .-^  One w o u l d s e em , t h e r e f o r e , t o be f a c e d w i t h a c o l l i s i o n o f two d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f n ow . I s h a l l c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s no c o l l i s i o n a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e m e r e l y two s e p a r a t e s p e c i f i -c a t i o n s o f now . 2 .1 L e t u s n o t e , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t no c o l l i s i o n o c c u r s i f t h e s e n t e n c e i n q u e s t i o n i s p r e c e d e d b y a n u t t e r a n c e b y j e a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f " L e t u s i m a g i n e t h a t . . . " I n s u c h a c a s e , (5) i s m a r k e d a s n o t r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n t e x t o f u t t e -r a n c e a n d t h e r e f o r e i t s P r e s e n t t e n s e i s no l o n g e r s e e n a s t h e " p r e s e n t a x i a l du d i s c o u r s " . T he s y n t a x h e r e makes c l e a r t h a t (5) c o n s t i t u t e s n o t a n u t t e r a n c e b u t - p a r t o f one a n d t h a t , a s t h e o b j e c t o f a h i g h e r S , i t i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e v e r y p a r t w h i c h m a r k s t h e u t t e r a n c e a s a l l o c u t i o n . F r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f a l l o c u t i o n , t h e p a r t i c u l a r s y n t a c t i c f o r m o f (5) i s [ C h . 4 ] 9 8 i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m a s i m p l e NP s u c h a s a n a p p l e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h e r e no s u c h p r e c e d i n g u t t e r a n c e o c c u r s i n t h e f o r m o f a h i g h e r S , t h e s y n t a c t i c f o r m o f (5) w i l l s u p p o r t a r e a d i n g o f t h e s t r i n g a s a n u t t e r a n c e on t h e p a r t o f je_. 2 . 2 A n a n a l y s i s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e s e t e r m s s t r a d d l e s t h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n c o d e a n d c o n v e n t i o n i n l a n g u a g e , b e t w e e n t h e l a n g u e on t h e one h a n d a n d on t h e o t h e r i t s u s e i n t h e c o m -m u n i t y i n t h e f o r m o f i n s t a n c e s d u d i s c o u r s . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e f o r m o f ( 5 ) , a s w e l l a s i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h a p u t a t i v e h i g h e r S , we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s y n t a x o f t h e f o r m s a s s e n -t e n c e s o f t h e l a n g u e . a p o i n t o f v i e w w h i c h e x c l u d e s c o n s i d e -r a t i o n o f .1e/tu a s e l e m e n t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s . C o n v e r s e l y , o n s p e a k i n g o f . j e / t u , we c a r r y t h e a n a l y s i s i n t o t h e a r e a o f d i s - c o u r s a n d r e l a t e i t t o t h e a c t o f a l l o c u t i o n i t s e l f . B u t t h i s i s n o t i n a n y s e n s e t o s a y t h a t we h a v e t h u s r e s t r i c t e d t h e a n a l y s i s t o t h e l i m i t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e d u d i s c o u r s . n o r t h a t t h e d a t a o f t h e s t r i n g v i e w e d a s a s e n t e n c e h a v e become i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e a n a l y s i s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s on t h e b a s i s o f o b s e r v i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e n t e n c e t h a t we c o n s t r u c t o u r a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s t h a t g o v e r n t h e u t t e r a n c e a s p a r t o f d i s c o u r s o r , a s I p r e f e r t o c a l l i t , l a n g a g e . 2 . 2 . 1 Our e x a m p l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . I f (5) i s r e g a r -d e d s y n t a c t i c a l l y a s t h e o b j e c t o f a h i g h e r S , i t c a n n o t [Ch. 4] 99 i t s e l f count as a complete utterance and thus can neither betoken an act of a l l o c u t i o n by j_e nor be considered to r e f e r to or to a r i s e from the allocutionary s i u t a t i o n of which j e i s a part. It follows that i t can not specify that a l l o c u -tionary s i t u a t i o n , even by i t s use of d e i c t i c categories, since that function i s performed by the higher S alone. On the other hand, i f (5) Is regarded as having no higher S, then i t has the form of a sentence sanctioned by the langue. It can therefore count as a complete utterance betokening an e x p l i c i t a l l o c u t i o n by j e and both r e f e r r i n g to and a r i s i n g from the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n of which j e i s a part. Tu shares with j e the context of utterance presupposed i n any a l l o c u t i o n , so that (5) - considered as an a l l o c u t i o n by .je -must be taken as positing both' j e and tu and t h e i r common context of utterance. 2.2.2 Now i n such a case, where tu i s unable pragmatically to r e l a t e the form of the a l l o c u t i o n to that context, he can conclude only that the act of a l l o c u t i o n i t s e l f constitutes a f a l s e or i n v a l i d declaration or else that (5) does not count as a complete a l l o c u t i o n . This i s to say that the a l l o c u t i o n i s to be characterised on the basis of the data proffered i n the utterance. There i s no evidence to suggest that, of the two characterisations indicated here, the conventionally l i k e l y one i s that of the f a l s e declaration. Indeed, i t i s only with the strongest motivation that tu w i l l ever conclude [ C h . 4 ] 100 t h a t _je I s I n e r r o r o r l y i n g i n h i s a l l o c u t i o n a n d I know o f no s y n t a c t i c g r o u n d s o n w h i c h s u c h a c o n c l u s i o n m i g h t e v e r be b a s e d . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e i s a m p l e m o t i v a t i o n f o r der-s c r i b i n g a s e n t e n c e a s a n i n c o m p l e t e u t t e r a n c e , n a m e l y b y a p p e a l i n g t o t h e n o t i o n o f a d e l e t e d h i g h e r S . 2.2.3 I f bu t a k e s (5) a s c o u n t i n g a s a n i n c o m p l e t e u t t e r a n c e , he w i l l , b y c o n v e n t i o n , p r e s u p p o s e t h e d e l e t e d S t o h a v e p o s i t e d t h a t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n f o l l o w i n g i t , h e r e (5), d o e s n o t r e f e r t o o r a r i s e f r o m t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n o f w h i c h . j e / t u a r e p a r t . G i v e n t h i s , t u w i l l t h e n s i m p l y a c c e d e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , t o t h e s p e c i f i -c a t i o n o f now a s made b y i n h i s u t t e r a n c e , (5)« T h i s now i s n o t t h e now o f t h e d e l e t e d S b u t a s e p a r a t e now, l i n k e d t o t h e o t h e r o n l y b y , i n i t i a l l y , t h e common f e a t u r e je_ a n d , s u b -s e q u e n t l y , b y t u when he h a s a c c e d e d t o t h e new p o s t u l a t i o n . T h i s i s t o s u g g e s t q u i t e s i m p l y t h a t t h e now o f (5) i s s u b o r -d i n a t e d t o t h e now o f t h e d e l e t e d S i n e x a c t l y t h e same way t h a t (5) i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e d e l e t e d S s y n t a c t i c a l l y . 2.3 The g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e e m b o d i e d i n my a r g u m e n t f r o m t h e d e l e t e d S may be s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : t h e now o f a s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e d o e s n o t ma r k t h e a l l o c u t i o n o f w h i c h t h e c l a u s e i s a s y n t a c t i c e l e m e n t . I t i s a p r i n c i p l e w i t h a v e r y p r e c i s e r a n g e o f a p p l i c a t i o n a n d d o e s n o t a p p l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y t o a l l s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s , s i n c e n o t a l l c l a u s e s s p e c i f y a now . [ C h . 4-] 1 0 1 I n (6), f o r e x a m p l e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p e r c e i v e now: (6) T h e y m i g h t c l a i m h i s l y i n g was a b a r t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . H e r e n o t h i n g i n d i c a t e s a n y now, l e t a l o n e t h e now o f t h e a c t o f a l l o c u t i o n . I n d e e d , s u c h s e n t e n c e s do n o t a l l o w u s t o s p e c i f y e v e n t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e , s i n c e t h e u n d e r l i n e d c l a u s e c o u l d r e f e r e q u a l l y w e l l t o a f u t u r e e v e n t , a p a s t one o r p e r h a p s e v e n t o a p r e s e n t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e c l a u s e s s u c h a s t h a t a r e m e r e l y one t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d e e p s t r u c t u r e t h a t m i g h t o p t i o n a l l y u n d e r g o a d i f f e r e n t t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n s o a s t o y i e l d , f o r e x a m p l e , ( 7 ) : ( 7 ) T h e y m i g h t c l a l m h i s l y i n g t o be a b a r t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f a now c a n n o t e v e n a r i s e h e r e , s i n c e t h e f i n i t e f o r m o f t h e v e r b h a s d i s a p p e a r e d a n d w i t h i t a l l p o s s i b i l i t y o f t e n s e - r e f e r e n c e . I n F r e n c h , a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n o b t a i n s , w i t h t h e s u b j u n c t i v e e x p r e s s i n g t h e a t e m p o r a l i t y o f t h e same t y p e o f c l a u s e , a s i n ( 8 ) : ( 8 ) On p o u r r a i t a v a n o e r que s e s men songe s s o i e n t u n o b - s T a c i e a t o u t e p o s s i D i i i t e ae r e a a a p t a t i o n - . 2.3.1 The o n l y t y p e o f c l a u s e t o w h i c h t h e a b o v e p r i n c i p l e a p p l i e s i s t h a t i n w h i c h one o r more e l e m e n t s o f t h e a l l o c u -t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n o c c u r , s i n c e i t i s o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f s u c h a n o c c u r r e n c e t h a t one i s e v e n e n t i t l e d t o t a l k o f p e r -s o n n e a n d s u b j e c t i v i t e . t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t u n d e r l i e t h e w h o l e n o t i o n o f a l l o c u t i o n . The e l e m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s a r e j e / t u . t h e d e i c t i c c a t e g o r i e s m a r k i n g i o i a n d t h e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t ma r k [ C h . 4] 102 m a l n t e n a n t . I f one r e s t r i c t s o n e ' s a t t e n t i o n t o m a i n t e n a n t . a s i s my a i m h e r e , t h e n t h e c a t e g o r i e s a r e : d e i c t i c s a n d v e r b s i n t e n s e - f o r m , t h e p a r t i c u l a r t e n s e b e i n g t h e P r s e n t , •*-• t emps a x i a l d u d i s c o u r s " . 2.3*2 U s i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e I h a v e i n t r o d u c e d , I s h a l l p r o c e e d . t o d i s c u s s t h e P r e s e n t t e n s e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e f o r m m o s t o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e H i s t o r i c P r e s e n t , - w h i c h B e n v e n i s t e r e g a r d s a s m e r e l y " u n a r t i f i c e de s t y l e " (1966a, p.245) - t o show t h a t t h i s t e n s e p r e s e n t s s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h . 2.3.2.1 F i r s t o f a l l , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e t e r m i t s e l f , " H i s t o r i c " P r e s e n t , i s one whose u s e i s m o s t o f t e n s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e a m b i g u i t y , a n a m b i g u i t y w h i c h r a r e l y r e c e i v e s t h e a t t e n t i o n i t w a r r a n t s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e t e r m i s i n many c o n t e x t s a m i s n o m e r . F o r B e n v e n i s t e , " h i s t o r i q u e " means " p a s t " : " L ' e n o n c i a t i o n h i s t o r i q u e , a u j o u r d ' h u i r e s e r v e e a l a l a n g u e e c r i t e , c a r a c t e r i s e l e ? * r e c i t d e s e v e n e m e n t s p a s s e s " (1966a, p.238). [ s e c o n d e m p h a s i s m i n e ] Now, w h i l e i t i s q u i t e t r u e t h a t w r i t e r s o f t e n make u s e o f t h e H i s t o r i c P r e s e n t t o r e f e r t o e v e n t s i n t h e p a s t , i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t " p a s t n e s s " i s t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f s u c h u s e . I n -d e e d , i t may be t h a t s u c h a v i e w i s a b u s i v e o f t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f t h e t e n s e . I s u b m i t i n s t e a d t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e P r e s e n t i n r e f e r e n c e t o p a s t e v e n t s i s m e r e l y one a p p l i c a t i o n [ C h . 4] 103 o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i n a s m u c h a s t h e now o f t h e P r e s e n t t e n s e i s p o s i t e d a s b e i n g o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s a l l o c u t i o n . A n y s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e i s t o s p e c i f i c a l l y p a s t e v e n t s mus t d e p e n d on o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s s p e c i f i e d d a t e s , f o r e x a m p l e , o f w h i c h t u i s i n f o r m e d by some u t t e r a n c e o t h e r t h a n t h e c l a u s e o r s e n t e n c e i n w h i c h t h e P r e s e n t t e n s e i s i n t r o d u c e d . C l e a r l y , i n a n o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e H i s t o r i c P r e s e n t , i t i s n o t t h e mere u s e o f t h e t e n s e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s p a s t n e s s o f e v e n t s b u t r a t h e r t h e u s e o f s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l c o o r d i n a t e s : t h e o c c u r e n c e o f t h e t e n s e w i l l i t s e l f i n d i c a t e no more t h a n some o t h e r now . 2.4 R e j e c t i n g t h e i d e a o f t h e H i s t o r i c P r e s e n t a s t h e m a r -k e r o f p a s t e v e n t s , we may c o n s i d e r i t a s b e i n g " h i s t o r i c " s i m p l y i n t h e s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g t o n a r r a t i o n , a s o p p o s e d t o d l s c o u r s / o o m e n t a r l o . T a k e n i n t h i s s e n s e , a n o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e t e n s e c o n s t i t u t e s a d e v i c e m a r k i n g t h e a c t i v i t y b e i n g e n g a g e d i n by t h e s p e a k e r , g i v i n g r i s e t o a n o t h e r , l e s s c o m -mon d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e t e n s e a s N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t . I f we a d o p t t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e n we a s sume t h a t t h e H i s t o r i c ( = n a r r a t i v e ) P r e s e n t b e l o n g s t o t h e o t h e r o f t h e t e n s e - g r o u p s p o s t u l a t e d b y B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h , v i z . r e c i t / n a r r a c i o n . 2.4.1 H o w e v e r , t o do s o i s t o n e g l e c t t h e s a l i e n t f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no s u c h t h i n g a s t h e H i s t o r i c P r e s e n t t e n s e . T h e r e i s o n l y t h e P r e s e n t t e n s e a n d wha t we a r e d i s c u s s i n g i s n o t a [ C h . 4 ] 104 t e n s e b u t a u s e o f a t e n s e - f o r m . The d i f f e r e n c e i s c r u c i a l : t h e P r e s e n t a s a t e n s e i s p o s t u l a t e d a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e t e n s e s w h i c h ma rk d i s c o u r s ; t o p o s i t a t t h e same t i m e t h a t i t f u n c t i o n s a s a m a r k e r o f n a r r a t i v e i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i m p o s -s i b l e . 2 . 4 . 2 The c o n f l i c t p r e s e n t e d h e r e i s n o t r e s o l v e d b y i n v o -k i n g , a s W e i n r i c h d o e s , a t e r m l i k e " t e m p o r a l m e t a p h o r " t o ' e x p l a i n s u c h s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n o m a l o u s o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e P r e -s e n t . The u s e o f t h e t e r m , a f f e c t i v e l y p o w e r f u l t h o u g h i t b e , i s mo re s u i t e d t o a s t y l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f s u c h o c c u r r e n c e s t h a n t o a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e m e c h a n i s m t h a t b r i n g s t h em a b o u t . I f t h e s e o c c u r r e n c e s a r e t o be r e g a r d e d a s t h e o u t p u t o f a m e c h a n i s m , r a t h e r t h a n me re a n o m a l i e s , t h e n t h e y a r e t o be e x p l a i n e d a s r u l e - g o v e r n e d b e h a v i o u r . The r u l e i n q u e s t i o n mus t e x p l a i n how a t e n s e - f o r m whose u s e b y a s p e a k e r c o u n t s a s s i a p a r t i c u l a r d e v i c e may come t o c o u n t a s a d i f f e r e n t d e v i c e a n d u n d e r wha t c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h i s may h a p p e n . 2 . 4 . 3 The r u l e I p r o p o s e i s a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e d i c u s s i o n o f (5) a n d i s s t a t e d i n f o r m a l l y a s f o l l o w s : w h e r e a n o c c u r r e n c e o f a P r e s e n t t e n s e m a r k s a now o t h e r t h a n t h e now o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n , t h a t o c c u r r e n c e c o u n t s a s a d e v i c e m a r k i n g t h e a c t i v i t y o f n a r r a t i o n . The r u l e d e p e n d s , c l e a r l y , o n t h e k n o w l e d g e on t h e p a r t o f t u t h a t t h e e v e n t s r e f e r r e d t o a r e n o n - p r e s e n t a n d on t h e c o n -v e n t i o n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r w h e r e b y t h i s k n o w l e d g e i s c o n v e y e d [Ch. 4] 105 either by non-syntactic means (coordinates) or s y n t a c t i c a l l y (by deletion of a higher S). It i s thus not a rule of gram-mar but a r u l e of grammar-in-use and therefore of langage. The convention on which i t depends i s likewise a device func-tioning within the speech-community rather than as part of the model that i s the langue. Such conventions are estab-l i s h e d among the members of the speech-community and are the basis of what the s o c i o l o g i s t c a l l s "members' practices" or "i n t e r p r e t i v e procedures", held to be necessary "for making surface structures (the i n t e r a c t i o n scene) coherent or s o c i -a l l y meaningful" (Cicourel, 1973, P-77). 6 2.5 In arguing that the Narrative Present, as I s h a l l r e f e r to i t henceforth, i s a rule-governed phenomenon, I have sought to show that, even as a device betokening narration, i t i s properly understandable only i n i t s reflation to the a l l o c u t i o n of which i t i s a part. Furthermore, I have made the i m p l i c i t claim that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r narrative device i s regulated by the concepts of personne and s u b j e c t l v i t e . by the very fact that i t i s part of a l l o c u t i o n . This i s an important claim, i n that i t stands i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the p o s i t i o n adop-ted by Benveniste and Weinrich with regard to the matter of r e c i t/narracIon. 2.5-1 These authors' view of the narrative tenses excludes both the use of .je/tu and the context of a l l o c u t i o n . Benveniste [ C h . 4] 106 i s f i r m on t h i s : " I I f a u t e t i l s u f f i t q ue l ' a u t e u r r e s t e f i d e l e a. s o n p r o p o s d ' h i s t o r l e n e t q u ' i l p r o s c r i v e t o u t c e q u i e s t e t r a n g e r a u r e c i t d e s e v e n e m e n t s ( d i s c o u r s , r e f l e x i o n s , c o m p a r a i s o n s ) . A v r a i d i r e , 11 n ' y a meme p l u s a l o r s de n a r r a t e u r . " (1966a, p.24-1) W e i n r i c h (pp.306-8) t a k e s t h e same s t a n c e . F o r b o t h o f t h e m , t h e r e i s no p e r s o n t o a d o p t t h e r o l e o f j e , a s B e n v e n i s t e makes i t u n e q u i v o c a l l y c l e a r : " P e r s o n n e ne p a r l e l e i ; l e s e v e n e m e n t s s e m b l e n t s e r a c o n t e r e u x - m e m e s . L e t emps f o n d a m e n t a l e s t l ' a o r i s t e , q u i e s t l e t emps de l ' e v e n e m e n t h o r s de l a p e r s o n n e d ' u n n a r r a t e u r . " (1966a, p.24l) [ e m p h a s i s m i n e ] One m i g h t s a y t h a t i t i s l e f t m e r e l y a s a p r a g m a t i c f a c t t h a t a n u t t e r e r mus t e x i s t f o r t h e w o r d s t o be d e l i v e r e d . The same i d e a i s e x p r e s s e d b y W e i n r i c h ' s c o n c e p t Of r e l a j a c i o n . w h i c h may h e r e be t a k e n t o mean s o m e t h i n g a k i n t o " n o n - i n v o l -v e m e n t " i n t h e n a r r a t i o n . T h a t i s t o s a y , a s I u n d e r s t a n d i t , t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r t a k e s no " p e r s o n a l " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e v e n t s r e c o u n t e d , g i v e n t h e d i s t a n c e a t :wh i ch t h e e v e n t s s t a n d i n r e l a t i o n t o h i m p e r s o n a l l y . H e n c e t h e o n l y r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y he may t a k e i s , p r e s u m a b l y , f o r t h e s t y l i s t i c f e a -t u r e s o f t h e r e c o u n t i n g . ? H e n c e , a l s o , t h e n o n - o c c u r r e n c e o f j e i n t h e t e x t o f t h e n a r r a t i o n . 2.5.2 T he o c c u r r e n c e o f j e i n (5) mus t a p p e a r t o b e a d i s -r u p t i o n o f o r a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h i s t h e o r y , s i n c e i t s p e c i f i c c a l l y i n d i c a t e s a p e r s o n , i n t h e r o l e o f j e , w i t h c o n s e q u e n t i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e x t o f a l l o c u t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t [ C h . 4] 107 i m p l i e s some d e g r e e o r k i n d o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , on t h e p a r t o f t h a t p e r s o n , f o r wha t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a n a r r a t i o n . 0 I t i s t e m p t i n g t o c o n s i d e r (5) a c o u n t e r - e x a m p l e t o t h e a r g u m e n t s o f B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h . H o w e v e r , s u c h i s n o t t h e c a s e . What (5) d o e s i s r e v e a l t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e i r c l a i m , n a m e l y a m i s p l a c e d e m p h a s i s . B o t h a u t h o r s , e a c h i n h i s own way , o b v i o u s l y r e g a r d a s c r u c i a l t h e i r a s s i g n i n g o f t h e P r e s e n t t e n s e t o t h e d i s c o u r s / c o m e n t a r i o g r o u p , w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g t o r e l a t e t h e a c t i v i t y o f n a r r a t i n g t o t h e p e r s o n s o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n . T h i s e m p h a s i s l e a d s t hem t o f a i l e v e n t o c o n s i d e r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f je_ w i t h t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t a n d t h u s t o f a i l t o a c c o u n t f o r i t . T h e y a r e d r a w n t o t h i s p o s i -t i o n l a r g e l y b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r d a t a : d r a w i n g a s t h e y do on e s s e n t i a l l y l i t e r a r y d a t a , t h e y u n d e r t a k e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a r r a t i v e t e n s e s b u t s e e t h e m i n t h e i r l i t e r a r y p e r s s p e c t i v e . T hu s W e i n r i c h , f o r e x a m p l e , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t (pp . l 6 l - 4 ) , i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d r a m a t i c o r s t y l i s t i c e f f e c t s o f i t s u s e w i t h i n a n a r r a t i v e mode t h a n w i t h a n . i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f e i t h e r g rammar o r a l l o c u t i o n . ® T h e y b o t h l e a v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t n a r r a t i n g i s t h e w o r k o f a u t h o r s . 1 The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t t h a t i t i s [ C h . 4 ] 108 p o s s i b l e f o r n a r r a t i n g t o o c c u r i n a n y s i t u a t i o n , e v e n t h o s e w h o l l y . l a c k i n g l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r o r o v e r t o n e s . (9) i s t h e t e x t t a k e n 1 f r o m a humo rou s d r a w i n g i n a n e w s p a p e r ( d e p i c t i n g two w i s t f u l m i d d l e - m a n a g e m e n t t y p e s u n w i n d i n g o v e r a c o c k t a i l a n d o f whom one i s s p e a k i n g t h u s r e m i n i s c e n t l y ) : ^ (9) I t w a s n ' t p e r f e c t b u t I ' l l t a k e 1968 a n y d a y . Y o u r  D o w ' s p u s h i n g a t h o u s a n d , t h e a d game i s p r i n t i n g  money . I h a v e n ' t met my f i r s t w i f e . . . " H e r e t h e t h r e e u n d e r l i n e d s e n t e n c e s c o n s t i t u t e n a r r a t i o n : i n t h e f i r s t t w o , t h e d e v i c e i s t h e u s e o f t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t a n d i n t h e t h i r d i t i s t h e u s e o f t h e P r e s e n t P e r f e c t . T h i s l a t t e r t e n s e , w h i l e b e l o n g i n g t o t h e d i s c o u r s / c o m e n t a r i o g r o u p , f i n d s i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n h e r e i n t h e p r i o r u s e o f t h e P r e s e n t w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e P e r f e c t . I n a d d i t i o n , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e j e / t u o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n . I n t h e s e w a y s , t h e s e n t e n c e s a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o (5)« °n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y d i f f e r i n t h a t t h e y c o u n t a s n a r r a t i v e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e , i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e n t e n c e , o f t h e t e m p o r a l c o o r d i n a t e 1968 r a t h e r t h a n on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a h i g h e r S . (10) i s a n e x a m p l e e n c o u n t e r e d i n a r a d i o b r o a d -c a s t . ^ i t c o n s i s t s o f a n a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e u t t e r a n c e o f t h e s p e a k e r m e e t s w i t h i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e h e a r e r : t h i s p r o v o k e s a n e x p l a n a t o r y u t t e r a n c e b y t h e s p e a k e r a n d a - r e p e t i t i o n - o f t h e o r i g i n a l u t t e r a n c e : : (10) I n t e r v i e w e r : A n d a l l t h a t ' s b e e n r e v e r s e d now . I n t e r v i e w e e : ( i n d i c a t e s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n ) I n t e r v i e w e r : I ' m s o r r y : I ' m now b a c k i n 1970. A l l t h a t ' s b e e n r e v e r s e d now . [ C h . 4-] 109 H e r e a s i n (5) i s a n i n s t a n c e o f a g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e t h a t c a n c o u n t a s a n u t t e r a n c e . I t s p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e i s o s t e n -s i b l y i n d i c a t e d a s t h e moment o f s p e e c h , t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e P r e s e n t P e r f e c t , b u t t a k e n t h i s way t h e u t t e r a n c e makes no s e n s e t o t h e t u o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n . O n l y b y s p e c i f y i n g t h e i n t e n d e d r e f e r e n c e o f t h e d e i c t i c now c a n t h e s p e a k e r v a l i d a t e h i s u t t e r a n c e f o r t h e h e a r e r , who t h u s u n d e r s t a n d s t h e r e i s a d e v i c e d e n o t i n g n a r r a t i o n , n a m e l y t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t . 3-2 The f a i l u r e o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s u t t e r a n c e t o a c h i e v e t h e i n t e n d e d e f f e c t i s t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y t h e r u l e s t h a t g o v e r n t h e s i t u a t i o n when i t b e comes h i s t u r n t o s p e a k : on a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e o f je_, i t was h i s now t h a t was p r e s u p p o s e d b y t h e r u l e s . On t h a t p a r -t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n , h o w e v e r , he h a d t h e i n t e n t i o n o f c a r r y i n g on i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e p r e v i o u s j_e (now t h e h e a r e r ) , who h a d b e e n n a r r a t i n g . B e i n g u n m a r k e d i n t h e u t t e r a n c e , t h i s i n t e n -t i o n was i m p e r c e p t i b l e t o t h e h e a r e r who t h e r e f o r e t o o k t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e P r e s e n t P e r f e c t a t f a c e v a l u e , a s m a r k i n g a n i n s t a n c e o f d i s c o u r s i n t h e f o r m t h i s t i m e o f a d e c l a r a -t i v e a c t . The f a c t t h a t t u i n d i c a t e d i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n shows he a s s u m e s n e i t h e r t h a t t h e s p e a k e r i s l y i n g n o r t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h e r S ( c f . 2.2.2) b u t r a t h e r t h a t he i s f a c e d w i t h a n i n v a l i d d e c l a r a t i o n . [ C h . 4 ] 110 . 2 . 1 T h i s a s s u m p t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t u i s w h o l l y i n a c c o r -d a n c e w i t h t h e r u l e s , w h i l e t h e u t t e r a n c e b y je_ i s n o t . I n a n y a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n , t u i s o b l i g e d t o a b i d e b y t h e r u l e s i n 1 ' h i s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e s a n d mus t p r e s u p p o s e a l w a y s t h a t J_e w i l l do l i k e w i s e . I n t h i s s e n s e , t u i s a t t h e m e r c y o f Je_, s o t o s p e a k , s o t h a t a n y u n o r t h o d o x y o r i r r e g u -l a r i t y i n t h e v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r o f J e i n u t t e r i n g may r e s u l t i n t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t u o f k n o w i n g w h a t t h e u t t e r a n c e c o u n t s a s , a t l e a s t i n t h e i n t e n t i o n o f j e . T u , h a v i n g o n l y t h e r u l e s t o h e l p h i m , i s a l w a y s v u l n e r a b l e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t he may be r e a d i l y m i s l e d . I n t h e c a s e o f ( 1 0 ) , two s p e c i a l f a c t o r s r e n d e r h i m p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e : t h e u t t e r a n c e i s i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n ( t h e n o n - p e r s o n n e o f B e n v e n i s t e ) a n d t h e s o c i a l s e t t i n g o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n p r e d i s p o s e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o w a r d s d i s c o u r s r a t h e r t h a n n a r r a t i n g . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e , t h i r d p e r s o n i s i n d e t e r m i n a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i s c o u r s / r e c l t c o n t r a s t , s o t h a t t u i s o b l i g e d t o d e p e n d u p o n t h e f o r m o f t h e v e r b a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e d e i c t i c t o d e t e r m i n e wha t d e v i c e i s b e i n g u s e d . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e c o n d , i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t t h e s p e a k e r ' s e x p l a n a t o r y u t t e r a n c e u s e s t h e j e - p r o n o u n , m a r k i n g d i s c o u r s . a n d t h u s r e -i n f o r c e s t h e h e a r e r ' s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . •3 The f o c u s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n h a s b e e n on t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t a n d t h e u s e o f t h e j e / t u f o r m s o r , i n t h e c a s e o f ( 1 0 ) , t h e i r o m i s s i o n . I n b o t h c a s e s , a s i n [ C h . 4] 111 (5)» n o t o n l y I s t h e c o n t e x t n o n - l i t e r a r y b u t i t i s a l s o c l e a r l y c o n v e r s a t i o n a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , n a r r a t i n g c a n a n d d o e s o c c u r w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t . None o f t h e e x a m p l e s p r e s e n t e d b y B e n v e n i s t e makes c l e a r t h a t t h i s c a n h a p p e n a n d W e i n r i c h , w h i l e h e d o e s d i s c u s s t h e i d e a (p.331-336), d o e s s o i n s u c h a way a s t o b e g t h e q u e s t i o n a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y . ^ 3-3-1 B o t h a u t h o r s r e g a r d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f d i s c o u r s a n d r e c i t a s a p o l a r o p p p o s i t i o n , w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e a c t i v i t y o f n a r r a t i n g . T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e y a c c o r d t o n a r r a t i n g a k i n d o f p r i m a c y i n t h e i r s cheme o f t h i n g s : we h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n ( c f . 1.0) t h a t W e i n r i c h p o s i t s t h e c o n t r a s t i n t e r m s o f n a r r a t i o n v s . n o n - n a r r a t i o n , w h i l e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f B e n v e n i s t e ' s e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e i d e a o f r e c i t . 3.4 I t i s c l e a r t h a t o n c e a f u n d a m e n t a l , p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n h a s b e e n s e t u p b e t w e e n d i s c o u r s a n d r e c i t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s s cheme i n t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e a n d , t h u s , t o a c h i e v e a c e r t a i n e l e g a n c e i n t h e t h e o r y , w i t h e a c h p o l e h a v i n g a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e t o f t e n s e s , d e i c t i c s a n d r u l e s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r t h i s b i n a r y e l e g a n c e c o n s t i t u t e s a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e u n d e r -l y i n g t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n o r w h e t h e r i t i s b a s i c a l l y m i s -l e a d i n g . I f t h e l a t t e r i s t h e c a s e , a s I c o n t e n d , t h e n t h e u n d e r l y i n g p o s i t i o n c a n n o t s t a n d a s s t a t e d , n o t e v e n when r e s t r i c t e d t o F r e n c h . [ C h . .4] 112 3.5 I n t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t , I h a v e s o u g h t t o show t h a t a n a d e q u a t e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d e v i c e mus t a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t a n a r r a t i v e o c c u r s w i t h " . j e " a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e P r e s e n t o c c u r s a s a n a r r a t i v e f o r m a n d I h a v e p r o p o s e d a way t o do t h i s . A t t h e same t i m e , I h a v e t r i e d t o show t h a t n a r r a t i n g i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f n o n - l i t e -r a r y a l l o c u t i o n a n d m u s t be r e c o g n i s e d a s s u c h . A s cheme w h i c h p u t s d i s c o u r s a n d r e c i t i n p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n i s n o t f i t -t e d t o r e c o g n i s e t h i s f a c t a n d a l l t h e more s o i f i t emphar-s i s e s r e c i t . W h i l e i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o d e n y t h a t t h e r e a r e t h e two a c t i v i t i e s , d i s c o u r s a n d r e c i t . i t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t n e i t h e r B e n v e n i s t e n o r W e i n r i c h s p e a k s o f a n y o t h e r a c t i v i t y t h a t m i g h t s t a n d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f a l l o c u t i o n . No m e n t i o n i s made o f p r o m i s i n g , d e n y i n g , e t c . , o n l y n a r r a t i n g a n d w h a t e v e r i s n o t n a r r a t i n g . Y e t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how n a r r a t i n g m i g h t be d e f i n e d o t h e r t h a n a s u t t e r i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e a n d t h u s on a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e s e o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . 1 1 I f we t a k e t h i s t o be t h e c a s e , t h e n n a r r a t i n g i s t o be s e e n a s one o f t h e k i n d s o f w o r k t h a t may be e n g a g e d i n w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e a l l o -c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n , i . e . one o f t h e o p t i o n s t o t h e wo r k - d i s c o u r s - w h i c h , w i t h i n t h a t f r a m e w o r k , i s e n t i r e l y p r e -d i c t a b l e o r n o r m a l . The two a r e s t i l l s e e n a s b e i n g i n c o n -t r a s t , w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e t h a t r e c i t i s c l e a r l y t h e m a r k e d member o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s no l o n g e r p o l a r b u t m u l t i p l e . [ C h . 4] 113 T h i s i s t o s a y t h a t d i s c o u r s i n c l u d e s r e o i t , a s w e l l a s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , a n d h a s p r i m a c y i n t h e s cheme o f t h i n g s , so t h a t we t h e n h a v e a b a s i c e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on t h e a l l o c u t l o n a r y s i t u a t i o n a n d i t s c o m p o n e n t s . The m i s p l a c e d e m p h a s i s w h i c h I c l a i m e d B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h h a d made i s t h u s r e c t i f i e d . 3.5.1 Once t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s m o d i f i e d i n t h i s way , t h e p r e -v i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s no l o n g e r a r i s e . I t be comes p o s s i b l e a l s o t o r e v i s e o u r v i e w o f t h e r o l e o f t h e t e n s e s , s i n c e , b y a b a n -d o n i n g t h e p o l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p , we a r e no l o n g e r b o u n d by t h e t w o - g r o u p t h e o r y o f t h e t e n s e s . 4.0 A d o p t i n g a s a p o i n t o f p r i n c i p l e t h a t i n a g i v e n a l l o -c u t i o n t h e s p e a k e r i s e n g a g e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , we s a y t h a t h i s u t t e r a n c e c a r r i e s a p a r t i c u l a r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e . The c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r w h i c h t h i s f o r c e may be s a i d t o o c c u r , A u s t i n ' s " h a p p i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s " , a r e s t a t e d b y A u s t i n , d e v e l o p e d a t l e n g t h b y S e a r l e (1969) a n d n e e d n o t be gone I n t o h e r e . Of more p e r t i n e n t i n t e r e s t i s A u s t i n ' s n o t i o n o f t h e " s e c u r i n g o f u p t a k e " , i . e . t h e s p e a k e r ' s " b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e a n i n g a n d o f t h e i l l o c u t i o -n a r y f o r c e " o f t h e u t t e r a n c e ( p . l l 6 ) , a n d t h e means o f a c h i e -v i n g i t . T h i s r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how je_ m a r k s f o r t u wha t t h e u t t e r a n c e i s t o c o u n t a s : A u s t i n c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e [ C h . 4 ] 114 p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b a s t h e mos t e x p l i c i t g r a m m a t i c a l d e v i c e a v a i l a b l e t o j e . ,1 A u s t i n ' s r e m a r k s , w h i c h c o n c e r n E n g l i s h s p e c i f i c a l l y , a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l t o F r e n c h . F r e n c h g r ammar , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a s b e e n v i e w e d a s o f f e r i n g y e t a n o t h e r e x p l i c i t d e v i c e i n t h e f o r m o f i t s t e n s e - s y s t e m , one w h i c h m a r k s t h e s p e c i a l i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f n a r r a t i o n : t h i s i s t h e c l a i m t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e - e x a m i n e t h i s c l a i m , b r i e f l y , t o d e t e r m i n e c l e a r l y how t h e t e n s e - s y s t e m i s e x p r e s s i v e o f i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e i n F r e n c h . I h a v e a r g u e d t h a t t h e P r e s e n t t e n s e may ma rk n a r r a t i o n a n d t h a t n a r r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , may c o - o c c u r w i t h j_e: t h i s r u n s c o u n t e r t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h . H o w e v e r , t h e i r p r o p o s a l a l s o i n c l u d e s a c l a i m c o n -c e r n i n g t h e P a s s e S i m p l e : a g a i n s t t h i s , I a r g u e o n l y t h a t i t i s d e f e c t i v e on one p o i n t , n a m e l y a l l e g e d i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h j e . N o t o n l y d o e s t h i s f o l l o w f r o m my p r e v i o u s a r g u m e n t b u t a l s o f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r p r o p o s a l c a n n o t e x p l a i n o r j u s t i f y u s a g e a s f o u n d i n many l i t e r a r y e x a m p l e s . To m a i n t a i n t h e n a r r a t i v e f o r c e o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e a n d a t t h e same t i m e s a n c t i o n i t s o c c u r r e n c e w i t h j e w i l l a l l o w a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f j u s t s u c h d a t a . 1 . 1 The p o i n t i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . I n M a u p a s s a n t ' s s h o r t s t o r y , A u p r e s d ' u n m o r t . 1 2 o c c u r s t h e [ C h . 4 ] 115 f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t : " A l o r s mon c o m p a g n o n , a y a n t p r i s l ' a u t r e "boug i e , s e p e n c h a . P u i s i l me t o u c h a l e b r a s s a n s d i r e u n m o t . J e s u i v i s s o n r e g a r d , e t j ' a p e r c u s a t e r r e , s o u s l e f a u t e u i l a c o t e du l i t , t o u t b l a n c s u r l e s o m b r e t a p i s , o u v e r t comme p o u r m o r d r e , l e r a t e l i e r de S c h o p e n h a u e r . L e t r a v a i l de l a d e c o m p o s i t i o n , d e s s e r r a n t l e s m a c h b i r e s , l ' a v a i t f a i t j a i l l i r de l a b o u c h e . J ' a i eu v r a i m e n t p e u r . c e . j o u r - l a . m o n s i e u r . " H e r e t h e P a s s e S i m p l e o c c u r s w i t h a n d t h i s f a c t a l o n e c o n -t r a d i c t s t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e two a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e i n a n y c a t e -g o r i c a l s e n s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e q u o t a t i o n l i e s i n t h e u n d e r l i n e d s e n t e n c e , i n w h i c h j e . c o - o c c u r s w i t h t h e P a s s e Compose t o ma rk d i s c o u r s . t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g u s t o n o t e t h a t n a r r a t i o n h a s c e a s e d . T h i s o f f e r s c l e a r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e d e r i v e s q u i t e s i m p l y f r o m i t s a l t e r n a t i o n w i t h t h e P a s s e Compose i n t h e s p e -c i f i c e n v i r o n m e n t o f . j e . T h i s s i m p l e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l s t a t e -men t i s o v e r l o o k e d c o m p l e t e l y i n a n y a t t e m p t t o s t r e s s t h e p e c u l i a r c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e a n d i l : s u c h a t t e m p t s m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e c o n s i d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t f r o m a n e x -p l a n a t o r y p o i n t o f v i e w o r l o o k e d u p o n a s n o t h i n g more t h a n o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a p u r e l y s t a t i s t i c a l o r d e r . The f o r e g o i n g e x a m p l e e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e m a r k i n g o f n a r r a t i o n i n F r e n c h mus t p r o c e e d f r o m t h e p r e m i s e o f i t s r e l a t e d n e s s t o je_ a n d t h u s t o t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n a n d l e n d s s u p p o r t t o my e a r l i e r [ C h . 4] 116 c o n t e n t i o n o n t h i s p o i n t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t ( c f . 2.5-2). O t h e r e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e i n a d i f f e r e n t b u t e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t w a y . T u r n i n g a g a i n t o M a u p a s s a n t (p.112), we f i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t : " V o i c i c e que c o n t e n a i t c e c a h i e r . J u s q u ' a l ' a g e de t r e n t e - d e u x a n s , j e v e c u s t r a n q u i l l e , s a n s a m o u r . L a v i e m ' a p p a r a i s s a l t t r e s s i m p l e , t r e s b o n n e e t t r e s f a c i l e . J ' e t a i s r i c h e . J ' a v a i s d u g o u t p o u r t a n t d e c h o s e s que j e ne p o u v a i s e p r o u v e r de p a s s i o n p o u r r i e n . C ' e s t b o n de v i v r e l J e me r e v e i l l a i s h e u r e u x , c h a q u e j o u r , p o u r f a i r e d e s c h o s e s q u i me p l a i s a i e n t , e t j e me c o u c h a i s s a t i s f a i t , a v e c l ' e s p e r a n c e p a i s i b l e du l e n d e m a i n e t de l ' a v e n i r s a n s s o u c i . J ' a v a i s e u q u e l q u e s m a i t r e s s e s s a n s a v o i r j a m a i s s e n t i mon c o e u r a f f o l e p a r l e d e s i r ou mon ame m e u r t r i e d ' a m o u r a p r e s l a p o s s e s s i o n . C ' e s t b o n de v i v r e a i n s i . C ' e s t m e i l l e u r d ' a i m e r m a i s t e r r i b l e . E n c o r e , c e u x q u i a i m e n t comme t o u t l e monde d o i v e n t - i l s e p r o u v e r u n a r d e n t b o n -h e u r , m o i n d r e que l e m i e n p e u t - e t r e , c a r 1 ' amour e s t v e n u me t r o u v e r d ' u n e i n c r o y a b l e m a n i e r e . " 4.2.1 I n t h i s e x a m p l e , t h e P a s s e Compose d o e s n o t o c c u r u n t i l t h e l a s t c l a u s e a n d n o t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h j e . The P a s s e S i m p l e d o e s o c c u r , w i t h j e . , e a r l y i n t h e p a s s a g e : a l t e r -n a t i n g w i t h t h e I m p e r f e c t , i t m a r k s n a r r a t i o n . A s i n t h e p r e -v i o u s e x a m p l e , t h e n a r r a t i o n i s s t o p p e d b u t t h i s t i m e b y t h e s e n t e n c e I h a v e u n d e r l i n e d a n d w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e P r e s e n t . J e d o e s n o t o c c u r i n t h e s e n t e n c e b u t i s d i r e c t l y i m p l i e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n , o n t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t q u i d i t m a i n t e n a n t d i t j e . The o c c u r r e n c e o f s u c h a s e n t e n c e c l e a r l y m a r k s a s w i t c h t o d i s c o u r s a n d t h e f a c t t h a t one i s i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a: s p e a k e r , a p e r s o n n e . n o t o f a n t a u t h o r . The [ C h . 4] 117 same phenomenon o c c u r s i n t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h : i n t h i s c a s e tthe w o r k o f n a r r a t i n g h a s c e a s e d c o m p l e t e l y a f t e r t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e , a f a c t w h i c h i s e s t a b l i s h e d b o t h b y t h e r e p e a t e d u s e o f t h e P r e s e n t a n d t h e u s e o f t h e P a s s e Compose , w h i c h c o n t r a s t s i n i s f u n c t i o n ( e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d a s e v e n e m e n t i e l ) w i t h t h e P a s s e S i m p l e o f t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h , t h e e v e n e m e n t i e l o f t h e n a r r a t i v e mode . ^ 5-0 I n t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , I h a v e p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e u s e o f p a r t i c u l a r t e n s e - f o r m s d o e s ma rk t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f u t t e r a n c e s i f due a c c o u n t i s t a k e n o f t h e a l l o c u t l o -n a r y s i t u a t i o n . I h a v e a r g u e d , ' h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i f we r e j e c t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t P a s s e S i m p l e a n d j e . a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e i n t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e a n d my e x a m p l e s w e r e c h o s e n t o show t h a t , i n f a c t , t h e y do c o - o c c u r . Now, one o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s l i n e o f a r g u m e n t m i g h t be t h a t t h i s i s u s i n g d a t a t h a t a r e n o t v a l i d : I w o u l d s i m p l y d e n y s u c h a c l a i m . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , w h i l e u s i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e d a t a t o make my p o i n t c o n -c e r n i n g t h e t o t a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , I s h o u l d n o t w i s h t o d e n y t h a t o c c u r r e n c e s o f P a s s e S i m p l e + j e . a r e r a r e , e v e n a t y p i c a l . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , I s h o u l d o b s e r v e t h a t t h e mo re c o g e n t p o i n t s u r e l y i s t h a t t h e P a s s e S i m p l e i t s e l f i s r a r e i n m o d e r n F r e n c h : w h e r e i t o c c u r s , i t may o c c u r w i t h j e . b u t w h e r e i t d o e s n o t o c c u r , t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t o a c c o u n t [ C h . 4 ] 118 f o r i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e s t i l l r e m a i n s . T h a t i s t o s a y , wha t h a p p e n s t o my d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c l a i m c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n P a s s e S i m p l e a n d P a s s e Compose i n t h e s p e c i f i c e n v i -r o n m e n t o f j e . , i f we a s sume t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f one t e r m o f t h e c o n t r a s t ? .1 L e t u s n o t e f i r s t o f a l l t h a t t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e f r o m c o n v e n t i o n a l s p e e c h i n F r e n c h doe s n o t i m p l y t h e l o s s o f t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r m . I t i m p l i e s o n l y t h a t t h e m a r k i n g o f t h a t f o r c e mus t be done b y o t h e r m e a n s . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e - e v e n e m e n -t i e l o r a o r i s t e a s B e n v e n i s t e h a s i t - h a s b e e n a s s u m e d , i n s p o k e n F r e n c h , b y t h e P a s s e C o m p o s e . B e n v e n i s t e d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s u l t i n t h i s w a y : " M a i s q u a n d j ' a i f a i t , f o r m e c o m p o s e e , d e v i e n t 1* " a o -r i s t e du. d i s c o u r s " , 11 p r e n d l a f o n c t i o n de f o r m e s i m p l e , de s o r t e que . j ' a i f a i t s e t r o u v e e t r e t a n t o t p a r f a i t , t emps c o m p o s e , t a n t o t a o r i s t e , t emps s i m p l e . " (1966a, p . 2 4 9 ) What he d o e s n o t d e s c r i b e i s t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o d i f f e r e n -t i a t e b e t w e e n t h e two f u n c t i o n s i n a g i v e n o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e f o r m . .1.1 W e i n r i c h ' s p o s i t i o n i s c l o s e t o m i n e i n t e r m s o f t h e p r o b l e m i t s e l f , w h i c h h e p o s e s a s f o l l o w s : " L e P a s s e S i m p l e e t a n t c o n c u comme t emps du r e c i t , s ' i l d i s p a r a i t de l a l a n g u e p a r l e e , i l r e s t a. s a v o i r comment l ' o n r a c o n t e a u j o u r d ' h u i . " (1973, p.301) On t h e o t h e r h a n d , h i s r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o b l e m d o e s n o t s t e m f r o m t h e i d e a t h a t t h e P a s s e Compose h a s a s s u m e d a d o u b l e [ C h . 4] 119 f u n c t i o n : f o r h i m , t h e r o l e o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e i s f i l l e d by-two t e n s e s , P a s s e Compose a n d P r e s e n t . Of t h e s e , he c l a i m s , i t i s mo re o f t e n t h e P r e s e n t w h i c h i s s u b s t i t u t e d , l e a v i n g f o r t h e P a s s e Compose a n o c c a s i o n a l u s e i n wha t he t e r m s l/j> f r a g m e n t a r y n a r r a t i o n . 1.2 To t h e b e s t o f my u n d e r s t a n d i n g , b a s e d on t h e e x a m p l e s h e d i s c u s s e s , wha t W e i n r i c h means h e r e i s t h a t t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t o c c u r s i n l i e u o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e . T h i s i s p e r f e c t l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s n o t i o n o f t h e t e n s e - g r o u p s i n a s m u c h a s b o t h o f t h e s e t e n s e s a r e r e g a r d e d a s " t i e m p o s de n i v e l c e r o " i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s , i . e . n e i t h e r r e t r o s p e c t i v e n o r p r o s p e c t i v e , s o t h a t t h e P r e s e n t i s s u i t a b l e a s a s u b s t i t u t e w h e r e a s t h e P a s s e Compose , a r e t r o s p e c t i v e f o r m i n i t s g r o u p , i s n o t . 1.3 The p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s p r o p o s a l i s t h a t i t o v e r l o o k s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e " a o r i s t e " c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e a s B e n v e n i s t e s e e s i t , a n d a s I s e e i t , a n d t h e r e f o r e d o e s n o t a n d c a n n o t e x p l a i n how t h e " p a s t n e s s " o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e c a n be m a r k e d b y t h e P r e s e n t , e v e n i n a n a r r a t i v e u s e . A s I h a v e a r g u e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t i s t i m e l e s s . To s a y t h e n t h a t t h e n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e d e f u n c t P a s s e S i m p l e i s s u p p l i e d b y t h e P r e s e n t c h a n g e s n o t h i n g : one c a n o n l y a g r e e . B u t t o e x p l a i n t h e means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e " p a s t n e s s " , one mus t s u r e l y a g r e e w i t h B e n v e n i s t e t h a t i t i s [Ch. 4-] 120 supplied by the Passe Compose. Thus the c r u c i a l question i s s t i l l how to distinguish between the two functions of the Passe Compose, between the two i l l o c u t i o n a r y forces of a single form. ^ [ C h . 4] 121 NOTES 1. A l t h o u g h n o w h e r e d o e s W e i n r i c h s a y s o , t h i s i d e a o f t h e " c h a r a c t e r " o f t h e two a c t i v i t i e s , c o m m e n t a r y a n d n a r r a -t i o n , a n d t h e way he p r e s e n t s i t a r e i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s c l o s e t o B e n v e n i s t e ' s c o n c e p t s o f s u b j e c t i v i t e a n d p e r -s o n n e : t h e y h a v e a n u n d e r l y i n g n o t i o n o f i n v o l v e m e n t ( " a c t i t u d t e n s a " ) o r n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t ( " a c t i t u d r e l a j a d a " ) w i t h t h e "mundo " i n q u e s t i o n . H o w e v e r , t o go f r o m t h i s n o t i o n o f " c h a r a c t e r " t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c m a r k e r s o f s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s a l o n g s t e p a n d one w h i c h W e i n r i c h d o e s n o t t a k e . He r e m a i n s c o n t e n t t o r e l y on t h e h i g h l y - i m a g e d l a n g u a g e o f t h e " a c t i t u d e s " . H i s p o s i t i o n o n t h i s a l l o w s h i m t o p r o c e e d t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e m e t a f o r a t e m p o r a l , w h e r e b y h e a c c o u n t s i n h i s t e r m s f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e i n b o t h o f h i s g r o u p s o f t h e I m p e r f e c t a n d P l u p e r f e c t . H e r e a g a i n , t h o u g h , t h e e x p l a n a t i o n d e p e n d s f u l l y o n t h e p r i o r m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e s e t e n s e s i n t h e n a r r a t i v e g r o u p . 2. c f . p.234 3. S u c h s e n t e n c e s a s t h i s a n d t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d b y some G e n e r a t i v e S e m a n t i c i s t s u n d e r a g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f " w o r l d s " a n d " w o r l d - c r e a t i n g s e n t e n c e s " . The m a i n t h r u s t o f s u c h s t u d i e s , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e " b e t w e e n w o r l d s " , r a t h e r t h a n o n t e m p o r a l q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s I am d i s c u s s i n g . 4. S e e a l s o W e i n r i c h .(p.163) f o r e x a m p l e s f r o m l i t e r a t u r e , e . g . p o n i t e a n t e o o u l o s , e t c . 5. W e i n r i c h (p.76) d o e s n o t s h a r e t h i s v i e w . I n some r e -s p e c t s , h i s p o s i t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h I h a v e a d o p -t e d h e r e , t h o u g h i t s t o p s s h o r t o f wha t I w i s h t o p r o p o s e . 6. I s u g g e s t t h a t a r u l e s u c h a s p r o p o s e d h e r e , w h i c h seems t o me t o b e l o n g t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f " i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e -d u r e s " o f w h i c h C i c o u r e l s p e a k s , m i g h t be c h a r a c t e r i s e d a s t h e c o u n t e r p a r t i n l a n g a g e o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n g r a m -m a r . T h o u g h I h a v e n o t s e e n i t t h u s d e f i n e d , i t seems p l a u s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o be a f i l t e r t h r o u g h w h i c h a d e e p s t r u c t u r e mus t p a s s t o a t t a i n wha t m i g h t be t e r m e d a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y s a n c t i o n e d f o r m a l a p p a -r a t u s ( o p t i o n a l o r o b l i g a t o r y ) f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e c o m p o -n e n t s o f t h e d e e p s t r u c t u r e . A s c o n v e n t i o n s c h a n g e i n t h e s p e e c h - c o m m u n i t y , s o w i l l [ C h . 4] 122 t h e s a n c t i o n i n g o f f o r m s , g i v i n g r i s e - a t l e a s t i n p a r t -t o s o - c a l l e d d i a c h r o n i c c h a n g e , w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s a s t o w h i c h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s may a p p l y o r w h i c h one s w i l l c h a n g e w i t h r e g a r d t o o p t i o n a l i t y , e t c . I n t h e same way , r u l e s o f l a n g a g e w i l l c h a n g e a s t h e c o n v e n t i o n s on w h i c h t h e y d e p e n d a r e a l t e r e d o r r e p l a c e d . A g o o d e x a m p l e o f t h i s w i l l be s e e n when t h e P a s s e Compose i s d i s c u s s e d . 7. c f . t h e como o f a poem, a s d i s c u s s e d b y G o e t h e . a n d S c h i l l e r ( s e e W e i n r i c h , p.101). The i d e a o f r e s p o n s i b i -l i t y , i s a p p e a l e d t o b y W e i n r i c h a l s o (p.127, p . l45), t h o u g h w i t h o u t e l a b o r a t i o n . (On t h i s , c f . a l s o E b e l i n g (1973), pp.168 f f . ) 8. I t i s n o t e n t i r e l y t r u e o r e n t i r e l y f a i r t o s a y t h a t W e i n r i c h d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r t h e n a r r a t o r t o be a p e r s o n : h i s c o n c e p t o f r e l a . j a c i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o r e f e r t o t h e s t a t e o f m i n d a n d s p i r i t o f t h e n a r r a t o r a s w e l l a s t o t h a t o f t h e h e a r e r ( c f . pp.76-81). H o w e v e r , h e d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n t h e more p r o p e r l y l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n . 9. (9) i s f r o m t h e A u g u s t 17, 1974 e d i t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r  S u n ( V a n c o u v e r , B . C . ) , p . 4 6 . (10) was b r o a d c a s t f r o m CBU-AM , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . , M a r c h 1 4 , 1975. 10. He s a y s t h a t t h e P r e s e n t c a n b e , i n o r a l r e c o u n t i n g , a n a r r a t i v e t e n s e b u t " b a j o d e t e r m i n a d a s c i r c u n s t a n c i a s " (p« 3 3 3 ) . T h u s h e a p p e a l s , a s I d o , t o t h e n o t i o n o f a r u l e - g o v e r n e d phenomenon b u t he t h e n s p e c i f i e s t h e c i r -c u m s t a n c e s a s b e i n g t h o s e o f t h e " s i s t e m a m e t a f o r i c o . t e m p o r a l " , m e a n i n g " l a p r e s e n c i a , a n t e t o d o , de u n c o n -t e x t o que no d e j a l u g a r a d u d a s de que e l p r e s e n t e no h a c e de t i e m p o de c o m e n t a r i o " . Two t h i n g s emerge f r o m t h i s : f i r s t o f a l l , he b e g s t h e q u e s t i o n b y s a y i n g i n e f f e c t t h a t t h e P r e s e n t i s i d e n t i -f i e d a s n a r r a t i v e w h e n e v e r i t c a n n o t be I d e n t i f i e d a s n o n - n a r r a t i v e , w h i l e f a i l i n g t o s u g g e s t a n y mean s , r u l e g o v e r n e d o r o t h e r , o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . C o n t e x t i s m e n t i o n e d i n o n l y a v a g u e way a n d i s a p p a r e n t l y p r e s u m e d t o be u n m i s t a k a b l e . F o r my p a r t , I h a v e t r i e d t o show t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f a h i g h e r S o f f e r s a l i n g u i s t i c m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t . The s e c o n d t h i n g t o emerge i s t h a t h e r e i s one o f t h e r a r e o c c a s i o n s when W e i n r i c h c l e a r l y r e v e r s e s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f h i s t h i n k i n g i n a s m u c h a s h e h e r e t a k e s c o m e n t a r i o a s h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t r a t h e r t h a n n a r r a c i o n . T h u s , i f o n l y t e m -p o r a r i l y , h e c o r r e c t s t h e m i s p l a c e a e m p h a s i s o f w h i c h i s p e a k . [ C h . 4] 123 11. The q u e s t i o n o f r e c l t a s s e e n f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e i s s t i l l a n o p e n one a n d i t s d i m e n -s i o n s a r e t o o g r e a t t o p e r m i t a t r e a t m e n t i n t h i s s t u d y . I t seems c l e a r , t h o u g h , t h a t e v e n a n i n i t i a l a t t e m p t t o s t u d y i t w i l l r e v e a l how c o m p l e x a r e t h e t e r m s r e c i t a n d d i s c o u r s . R e c i t . f o r e x a m p l e , t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t a -t i v e o r d e s c r i p t i v e , seems r e l a t e d t o a t l e a s t some o f t h e members o f t h e c l a s s t h a t A u s t i n c a l l s e x p o s i t l v e s . D i s c o u r s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , seems t o i n c l u d e mos t i f n o t a l l o f A u s t i n * s c l a s s e s , o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e y may a l l be e x p r e s s e d b y e x p l i c i t p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b s . The two t e r m s a r e i n f a c t s o g l o b a l i n n a t u r e t h a t t o p o s i t a p o l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m i s a s i m p l i s t i c c o n s t r u c t . 12. M a u p a s s a n t (1957), p.187 13. The a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o a l s o b y t h e V o i c i o f t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e . S u c h i t e m s a s v o i c i f a l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f m a r k e r s o f d i s c o u r s t o be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y . 14. T h i s i s , n e c e s s a r i l y , a v e r y s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f W e i n -r i c h ' s p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y h i s 1973 p o s i t i o n , w h i c h i s a much e x p a n d e d v e r s i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s n o t a d i s t o r t i o n : i n t h e 1973 v e r s i o n , h i s e x t r a a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o a c l a s s o f a d v e r b s - p r i n c i p a l l y p u i s a n d a l o r s - w h i c h he c l a s s i f i e s a s b e i n g , i n o r a l F r e n c h , " l e s a d v e r b e s de l a c o n s e c u t i o n n a r r a t i v e " a n d whose f u n c t i o n i s " j e t e r u n p o n t e n t r e l e s d i v e r s e s f o r m e s * i s o -l a n t e s ' du P a s s e Compose (p.308). He g o e s s o f a r a s t o a t t r i b u t e t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s e f o r m s w i t h t h e P a s s e Compose t h e s t a t u s o f wha t h e c a l l s a v i r t u a l " t e m p s s y n -t h e t i q u e ' . ' . H o w e v e r , a s s o o f t e n , he a c c o m p a n i e s h i s c l a i m w i t h a d i s c l a i m e r , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t he w o u l d n o t w i s h t h i s t o be t a k e n a s a g e n e r a l i s a t i o n a n d e l s e w h e r e (p.307) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r wha t he i s a b o u t t o d i s c u s s - t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a d v e r b s t o t e n s e s h i f t s - i s l a c k i n g . T h u s , w h i l e my c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f h i s f i n d i n g s i s n o t f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i t o m i t s f r o m i t s s c o p e o n l y t h a t p a r t o f h i s w o r k t h a t i s p u r e s p e c u l a t i o n . 15- W e i n r i c h ' s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a t t r i b u t e a d u a l f u n c t i o n t o t h e P a s s e Compose s t e m s d i r e c t l y f r o m h i s c l a i m t h a t t h e P a s s e S i m p l e i s n o t a t e n s e a t a l l . H i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e emp ty s l o t i n t h e t e m p o r a l s y s t e m i s t a k e n o v e r b y t h e P r e s e n t a n d t h e P a s s e Compose i s l a r g e l y a s t a t i s t i c a l one a n d i s n o w h e r e c o g e n t l y a r g u e d f r o m t h e b a s i s o f a t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l . T h e r e a r e g o o d g r o u n d s f o r c l a i m i n g [ C h . 4 ] 124 t h a t t h i s n o n - A o r i s t v i e w o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e i s t h e w e a k e s t p a r t o f h i s w h o l e p o s i t i o n : i t p r e v e n t s h i m f r o m c o m i n g t o g r i p s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e P a s s e Compose i n m o d e r n o r a l F r e n c h , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t m o s t o f h i s C h a p t e r X (1968) d e a l s w i t h t h e P a s s e S i m p l e a n d t h e P a s s e Compose f r o m o n l y a n h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w . 125 CHAPTER F I V E T ime a n d T e n s e : I I I 0. I p r o p o s e i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o p u r s u e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e two f u n c t i o n s o f t h e P a s s e C o m p o s e . My e f f o r t s i n t h i s a r e m o t i v a t e d "by a n i n a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t a mere d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n s t y l e s - t h e o r a l / w r i t t e n c o n t r a s t - a s t h e b a s i s f o r a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e n s e s o f F r e n c h , s i n c e i t s t e m s f r o m p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a r e , t o s a y t h e l e a s t , s u s p e c t . T o p o s i t t h a t n a r r a t i o n , w i t h i t s f o r m a l d e v i c e s , , i s . p r i v i l e g e d t o o c c u r i n t h e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e i s i m p l i c i t l y t o d e n y t h a t i t o c c u r s i n t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e , a s w e l l a s e n c o u r a g i n g t h e p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t i t d o e s n o t o c c u r w i t h j_e. S u c h e n t a i l m e n t s , a s I h a v e shown , , ' a r e n o t o n l y c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e b u t a l s o c o n -t r a r y t o f a c t . T h e r e f o r e s c h e m e s s u c h a s d i s c o u r s / r e c i t o r c o m e n t a r i o / n a r r a c i o n a r e t o be r e g a r d e d o v e r a l l a s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o f a c e r t a i n , e s s e n t i a l l y h i s t o r i c a l , v a l i d i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y do o f f e r f o r my p u r p o s e s a n a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g p r e m i s e o f a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e s a n d t h e d e v i c e s o f f e r e d b y t h e l a n g u a g e t o m a r k t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P a s s e Compose i n p a r t i c u l a r . [ C h . 5] 126 1 W h i l e B e n v e n i s t e d o e s n o t d i s c u s s how t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s t o be made , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s t o h i m t h a t we m u s t l o o k f o r t h e b a s i s o f a n a n s w e r . I s u b m i t t h a t h i s c o n c e p t o f s u b . j e c t i v l t e g i v e s u s t h i s b a s i s , l n t h e f o r m o f i t e m s whose f u n c t i o n i s t o be s u i - r e f e r e n t i e l (1966a, p.263) a n d o f w h i c h he s a y s , " L e l a n g a g e p r o p o s e e n q u e l q u e s o r t e d e s f o r m e s ' v i d e s * que c h a q u e l o c u t e u r e n e x e r c i c e de d i s c o u r s s ' a p p r o p r i e e t q u ' i l r a p p o r t e a. s a ' p e r s o n n e ' , d e f i n i s s a n t e n meme t emps l u i - m e m e comme je_ e t u n p a r t e n a i r e comme t u . L ' i n -s t a n c e de d i s c o u r s e s t a i n s i c o n s t i t u t i v e de t o u t e s l e s c o o r d o n n e e s q u i d e f i n l s s e n t l e s u j e t . . . . " . 1.1 R i c o e u r (1973) t a k e s t h i s i d e a f u r t h e r , l i n k i n g i t t o t h e n o t i o n o f i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e : " C ' e s t en e f f e t l e p r o p r e de l ' i n s t a n c e de d i s c o u r s , a l a d i f f e r e n c e d e s u n i t e s de l a n g u e , de d e s i g n e r s o n p r o p r e l o c u t e u r . E l l e l e f a i t p a r l a v e r t u d e s i n d i c a t e u r s de s u b j e c t i v i t e que l a g r a m m a i r e d i s t i n g u e d e s noms d ' o b j e t s ( c h o s e s ou a c t i o n s ) e t q u ' e l l e r e s e r v e a 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n d e s a c t e s r e f l e x i f s p a r l e s q u e l s l e s u j e t s e de s . i g n e l u i - m e m e e n d i s a n t q u e l q u e c h o s e s u r q u e l q u e c h o s e . I I n o u s e s t done p o s s i b l e d ' a f f i r m e r que c e meme c a r a c t e r e s u i - r e f e -r e n t i e l d u d i s c o u r s f a i t a c c e d e r l ' i n t e n t i o n du l o c u t e u r , e n meme t e m p s que l a f o r c e du d i s c o u r s , dans l e champ de c o m m u n i c a b i l i t e o u v e r t p a r l e s e n s e t l a r e f e r e n c e . De c e t t e f a c o n l e l o c u t e u r s e commun ique - ou commun i que q u e l q u e c h o s e de l u i - m e m e - en c o m m u n i q u a n t l e s e n s , l a r e f e r e n c e e t l a f o r c e de s o n d i s c o u r s . " (pp.43-44) L a t e r i n t h e same w o r k , he l e a v e s no d o u b t a s t o t h e i m p o r -t a n c e o f t h i s n o t i o n t o a t h e o r y o f p e r f o r m a n c e : " C ' e s t c e p o i n t d ' i m p l i c a t i o n du l o c u t e u r d a n s s o n d i s -c o u r s q u i me p a r a i t f a i r e p a r t i e d ' u n e t h e o r i e du d i s c o u r s comme t e l . L e d i s c o u r s e s t a u t o - i m p l i c a t i f . T o u t e s l e s l a n g u e s que r .nous c o n n a i s s o n s s o n t a i n s i f a i t e s q u ' e l l e s c o n t i e n n e n t d e s e l e m e n t s d ' a u t o - i m p l i c a t i o n . J e l e s a i a p p e l e s . . . d e s m a r q u e s de l ' a u t o - i m p l i c a t i o n . E l l e s s e r o n t g r a m m a t i c a l e s , e l l e s s e r o n t l e x i c a l e s , 11 y a m i l l e [Ch. 5] 127 v a r i e t e s . §a, c'est l e semiologique, lequel se r e a l i s e par des moyens divers. Mais ce qui est important, c'est l a fonction d'auto-implication. Je c r o i s que c'est 5a l a grande decouverte d'Austin."(p.413) 1.0 These elements exist i n language i n addition to the tense-system of the verb: we have already discussed some of them i n the form of the temporal adverbs and adverb phrases as well as the more pragmatic category of the spatio-temporal coordinates. 1 Ricoeur speaks of "mille varietes"; for my part, I propose that the whole class of such elements may be subdivided into at least two d i s t i n c t groups: those, l i k e the types just mentioned, which, r e f e r r i n g to and reaffirming the spatio-temporal aspects of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n , are constrained i n t h e i r use by the tense of the verb above a l l and those which are not thus constrained. Benveniste puts the d i s t i n c t i o n t h i s way: ""Outre les formes qu'elle commande, 1 'enonciation donne les conditions necessaires aux grandes fonctions syntaxiques" (1970, p . l 5 ) » c i t i n g i n the second group interrogation, intimation, even assertion and the par-t i c l e s oui and non. Each of these i s characterised as imoly- ing "un rapport vivant et immediat de 1 'enonclateur a l'autre dans une reference necessalre au temps de 1 'enonciation". [my emphasis] About the f i r s t group, he points out that " a i n s i 1 'enonciation est dlrectement responsable de certains classes de signes qu'elle promeut litteralement a. 1 'existence" . These are forms occurring within the sentence and subject to the [ C h . 5] 128 grammar o f t h e s e n t e n c e . The s e c o n d g r o u p , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s c o m p o s e d o f u n i t s w h i c h a r e t h e m s e l v e s s e n t e n c e s , t h e i r i n t e r n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n b e i n g s e c o n d a r y t o t h e i r s e n t e n t i a l  f u n c t i o n a n d e a c h one c h a r a c t e r i s e d a s a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f a l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t o r e v e n t . 1.1 The f i r s t g r o u p , t h e s e t o f f o r m s , o f f e r s t h e means o f e x p l i c i t s u i - r £ f e r e n c e o r a u t o - i m p l i c a t i o n . I t a l s o o f f e r s t h e means o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e s o f a s i n g l e f o r m , on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e s e f o r c e s w i l l be m a r k e d b y a v a r y i n g d e g r e e o f s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l i t y . T o d o r o v (1970t>, p . 8 ) s p e a k s o f " l e d i s c o u r s p a u v r e en i n d i c a t i o n s s u r s o n e n o n c i a t i o n [ q . u i ] s ' o p p o s e a. c e l u i q u i s * y r e f e r e c o n s t a m -m e n t " , n o t i n g t h a t " B e n v e n i s t e l e s a e t u d i e s s o u s l e nom p d ' h i s t o i r e e t de d i s c o u r s " . S u c h a p r i n c i p l e c l e a r l y u n d e r -l i e s t h i s f i r s t g r o u p a n d n e e d s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n o r f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , i t mus t be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n i t s mode o f a p p l i c a t i o n t h e p r i n c i p l e d o e s n o t o f f e r a c o n s i s t e n t l y a d e q u a t e means o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e . T h e r e i s f r e q u e n t l y a n i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f t e n s e s w i t h a p p a r e n t l y u n -s u i t a b l e m a r k e r s : W e i n r i c h d i s c u s s e s t h i s i n p a r t i c u l a r r e f e -r e n c e t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g e n r e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c a s e o f t h e r e s u m e (1973» P-265), w i t h e x a m p l e s s u c h a s " E l l e e c r i t u n e l e t t r e q u ' e l l e l u i demande de ne l i r e que L E LENDEMAIN, p u i s s e met a u l i t " . The u s e o f t h e n a r r a t i v e m a r k e r , i n u p p e r c a s e , w i t h t h e P r e s e n t w h i c h m a r k s d i s c o u r s i s a n [ C h . 5] 129 e x p l i c i t c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e . What t h i s means i s t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e s a t i s f y t h e p r i n c i p l e i n a s y s t e m a t i c s e n s e b u t l a n g u a g e d a t a do n o t a l w a y s r e s p e c t i t . H o w e v e r t h e o b v e r s e r o T t h e c a s e d i s c u s s e d b y W e i n r i c h d o e s n o t o c c u r a n d i t r e m a i n s t r u e t h a t t h e f o r m s o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p , when t h e y o c c u r , c o n s t i t u t e e x p l i c i t i n s t a n c e s o f s u i - r e f e r e -r e n t i a l i t y . 2 The s e c o n d g r o u p , t h e " g r a n d e s f o n c t i o n s s y n t a x i q u e s " , d o e s n o t p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m o f t h i s s o r t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h i s g r o u p a r e u n c o n s t r a i n e d b y t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t e n s e - f o r m s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t s u b j e c t t o s e n t e n c e - g r a m m a r , i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e s e c o n t e x t - f r e e f o r m s c a n n o t o c c u r e x c e p t a s p a r t o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n : t h i s means t h a t when a n u t t e r a n c e c a n be c h a r a c -t e r i s e d a s , f o r e x a m p l e , one o f t h e t y p e s t h a t B e n v e n i s t e h a s m i n d t h e n i t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t i t u t e s a r e f e r e n c e , t h i s t i m e i m p l i c i t , t o t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n . I t a l s o mean s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f a n u t t e r a n c e i s a m a r k e r o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n . 3 0 T h i s g e n e r a l n o t i o n h a s b e e n t a k e n u p b y g r a m m a r i a n s i n r e c e n t t i m e s i n a f i r s t a t t e m p t on t h e i r p a r t t o r e c o g n i s e a n d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e a s p e c t s o f some o f t h e [Ch. 5] 130 data. Ross (1970) proposes that "declarative sentences ... must also be analysed as being i m p l i c i t performatives, and must be derived from deep structures containing an e x p l i c i t l y represented performa-t i v e main verb", (p.223.). Thus the sentence Prices slumped, with the following phrase-marker, S prices V slumped must be represented as having i n deep structure a higher S of which the o r i g i n a l example sentence now figures as the object, as shown here: [ C h . 5] 131 T h i s R o s s c a l l s t h e p e r f o r m a t i v e a n a l y s i s ( p . 2 2 4 ) : i t c o n s i s t s o f m a k i n g s y n t a c t i c a l l y e x p l i c i t t h e m a i n v e r b , w h i c h l a t e r h a s t o be d e l e t e d a l o n g w i t h a l l b u t t h e one NP s o a s t o p r o -d u c e t h e s u r f a c e f o r m . 1 A s a p a r a l l e l t o t h i s , h e a l s o o f f e r s wha t h e c a l l s t h e p r a g m a t i c a n a l y s i s , i n w h i c h " i t w o u l d h a v e t o b e a s s u m e d n o t o n l y t h a t t h e r e was a v e r b o f s a y i n g a n d a n NP y o u ' i n t h e a i r ' b u t a l s o t h a t t h e y o u f u n c t i o n e d a s t h e I n d i r e c t o b j e c t o f t h i s v e r b . . . . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e I t h a t i s ' i n t h e a i r ' w o u l d h a v e t o f u n c t i o n a s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s v e r b . . . . Thus t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t w o u l d h a v e t o a s s u m e d t o be ' i n t h e a i r ' u n d e r t h e p r a g m a t i c a n a l y s i s do n o t m e r e l y f o r m a n . u n -s t r u c t u r e d s e t . R a t h e r , t h e y mus t be a s s u m e d t o be h i e -r a r c h i c a l l y ' g r o u p e d t o f o r m a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s e x a c t l y t h e same a s t h a t o f a n o r m a l c l a u s e i n d e e p s t r u c t u r e . " (p.255) A t t h i s p o i n t , w i t h h i s n o t i o n o f h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g , R o s s ' s t h i n k i n g t a k e s t h e d i r e c t i o n a l r e a d y e x p l o r e d b y B e n v e -n i s t e u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f e n o n c i a t i o n . 1.1 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t one o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s R o s s s e e s w i t h s u c h a p u t a t i v e t h e o r y a r i s e s f r o m t h e s t r i c -t u r e s h e p l a c e s on t h e t h e o r y . He a r g u e s t h i s way : " A p r e c i s e t h e o r y [of l a n g u a g e u s e ] w o u l d h a v e t o s p e c i f y f o r m a l l y wha t f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n f i n i t e s e t o f p o s s i b l e c o n t e x t s c a n be o f l i n g u i s t i c r e l e v a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e f e a t u r e s w o u l d h a v e t o be d e s c r i b e d w i t h t h e same  p r i m e s w h i c h a r e u s e d f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o r s y n t a c t i c " e l e m e n t s , s o t h a t t h e r u l e s w h i c h r a n g e o v e r s y n t a c t i c  e l e m e n t s w i l l a l s o r ange - o v e r t h e m . " p p . 2 5 7 ) |_my e m p h a s i s ] I n o t h e r w o r d s , h e i n s i s t s t h a t t h e t h e o r y be a s y n t a c t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t h e o r y " w i t h t h e same p r i m e s " a s t h e s t a n d a r d t h e o r y [Ch. 5] 132 of grammar. He t r i e s to c r y s t a l l i s e the issue i n a discussion of sentences beginning with the phrase As for myself, e.g. As  for myself, I grant you your freedom. He sees th i s example as ungrammatical with the d i f f i c u l t y r e s i d i n g i n the prefatory phrase: how to generate the form "myself"? Setting aside the fact that I do not f i n d the sentence ungrammatical, I contend that his question i s i r r e l e v a n t and unanswerable. Further-more, i t Is unanswerable because i t i s i r r e l e v a n t , and that because the sentence i s simply not a sentence i n terms of the standard grammar. The example consists i n fact of two sen-tences, i n these terms, and thus one need not ask Ross's question since i t i s predicated on the existence of a single sentence. 2.2 Phrases of the type As for myself, especially - though not exclusively - i n presentential position, are usually c l a s s i f i e d as adverbs and receive a number of designations such as Sentence Adverbials, Connectives, Intersentential Connectives, Presentential Adverbs, with the function of modi-fying the following sentence. Now what has never been ex-plained grammatically i s just how such "adverbials" can be f i t t e d into a syntactic framework such that they can indeed modify the sentence. This i s another way of saying that the terms imply a unit which i s composed of the adverbial plus the sentence, thus allowing a syntagmatic r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. Standard grammar does not propose such a unit and so [ C h . 5] 133 n o t i o n s l i k e " c o n n e c t i v e " , a s u s e d h e r e , a r e o f c o u r s e b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s o f t h e g r a m m a r . 2.2.1 S e m a n t i c a l l y , t h e s e p h r a s e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s p a r e n t . T h e y i n d i c a t e t h e way i n w h i c h t h e s e n t e n c e i s t o be t a k e n . I n t h e c a s e o f A s f o r m y s e l f , a r e s t r i c t i o n i s p l a c e d on t h e i n t e n d e d r a n g e o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e s e n t e n c e . S i m i l a r c a s e s a r e t h o s e o f P e r s o n a l l y , F o r my p a r t , A s f a r a s I am c o n c e r n e d , e t c . I s h a l l r e t u r n t o t h i s t y p e o f p r e s e n t e n t i a l , w h i c h I c a l l G r o u p 1. A d i f f e r e n t t y p e , G r o u p 2, i n v o l v e s t h e u s e o f a n o s t e n s i b l e a d v e r b , s u c h a s S c i e n t i f i c a l l y . P o l i t i c a l l y , A c t u a r i a l l y , S e m a n t i c a l l y . e t c . , t o i n d i c a t e t h e i n t e n d e d c o n t e x t o f r e f e r e n c e . T h i s t y p e makes a s p e c i f i c a l l y l e x i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n . A t h i r d t y p e , G r o u p 3» i s P o s s i b l y . P r o b a b l y , a n d , a r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h a b o v e a l l , H o p e f u l l y : t h e s e s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e a n a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e s e n t e n c e . 2.2.2 A c u r s o r y i n s p e c t i o n o f t h i s l a s t t y p e makes c l e a r why I h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s e p h r a s e s a r e r e a l l y s e n t e n c e s ( c f . 2.1.2). E a c h o f t h em s i g n i f i e s , a t l e a s t b y e q u i v a l e n c e , a h i g h e r S . T hu s P r o b a b l y = I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t P o s s i b l y = I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t H o p e f u l l y = I t i s t o be h o p e d t h a t . . . . I n t o t h i s s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n c a n be embedded t h e p r o p o -s i t i o n i n q u e s t i o n : t h u s H o p e f u l l y . p_ = I t I s t o be h o p e d  t h a t p_. The r e s u l t i s a s i n g l e c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e , o f a t y p e [Ch. 5 ] 1 3 4 sanctioned by the grammar and which frequently occurs. I used above the expression "by equivalence": a more precise statement would be that the use of the phrase has the force of an actual higher S. However, even th i s does not explain how, s y n t a c t i c a l l y , the higher S i s transformed to the form of a phrase. Furthermore, even the suggested procedure of embedding i s innappropriate to explain, s y n t a c t i c a l l y , the r e l a t i o n of the sentence ..(= p_) to some putative form of higher S from which a phrase of the f i r s t or second type might be derived: what for example would be the higher S with which to equate As for myself? Without precise formulation of the higher S, a syntactic explanation i s just impossible. 2.2.3 At the same time, that i s not to say that no higher S can be postulated for such phrases: i t i s merely to say, quite precisely, that we have no way to derive these phrases syn-t a c t i c a l l y from the higher S. 5 N o w the important point here i s that, even i f we can formulate the higher S, we s t i l l have the problem of derivation, namely how to transform a sentence into an adverbial modifier. In r e a l i t y , t h i s i s a non-problem, a r i s i n g from the practice of applying axioms where they do not belong: the axioms of a theory of language are inappropriate to a theory of language use. 2.3 The phrases under discussion are properly to be treated as performance items and as such to be c l a s s i f i e d as devices [Ch. 5] 135 marking i l l o c u t i o n a r y force. In this l i g h t , I propose that i t i s axiomatic that elements ranking s y n t a c t i c a l l y i n the category of higher S w i l l or may be replaced by elements that i n utterance rank as devices. 2.3.1 Perret (1971) discusses the granting of the f l o o r i n public meetings. She notes that i n addition to the e x p l i c i t form of granting, consisting of the performative Je donne l a parole a, ..., the act may also be implied by other l i n g u i s t i c forms such as "Tu as l a parole" or even "Le camarade a l'imper [ s i c ] blanch". About these non-explicit forms she says: "Le caractere i m p l i c i t e de 1'enonce entendu est en outre pour l u i [ i . e . tu] une confirmation que l'acte suppose est l e bon: s i l e locuteur s'exprime de facon i m p l i c i t e , c'est q u ' i l effectue bien l'acte auquel i l s a i t que l ' a l l o c u t a i r e s'attend." (p.49) Given the appropriate conditions, namely those associated with the e x p l i c i t speech act - i t s "happiness conditions" -i t i s axiomatic that the act may be performed by other, im-p l i c i t forms of utterance. Without such an axiom, not only would the act not be r e a l i s e d but also i t i s doubtful i f any successful communication would take place at a l l . 2.3.2 For example, requesting the f l o o r i s often accomplished by a question such as "Tu permets?". Taken alone, i t s meaning as a s t r i n g would be -Inappropriate : taken i n conjunction with the axiom, as well^as with the s o c i a l r o l e of the speaker i n the circumstances, i t counts as the accomplishing of what [Ch. 5] 136 Perret c a l l s "un acte c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e " . We must note that i t i s not simply the context that permits this kind of phenomenon: i t i s the axiom which, i n the context, i s responsible. Were i t only the context, then one ought to be able to assert that v i r t u a l l y any form of utterance would s u f f i c e , e.g. a question of the form "Est-ce l e bon moment?". Clearly, such an utte-rance - i f intended as a request for the fl o o r - would f a i l . ^ 2 . 4 The kinds of i m p l i c i t speech act that Perret discusses are devices appropriate to a highly structured type of s i t u -a t i o n a l context, strongly constrained by s o c i o l o g i c a l and even anthropological factors. They constitute a set of members' practices and enjoy, within t h e i r context, an established currency. Naturally, they are of a very s p e c i a l type inas-much as th.ey are designed to govern actual behaviour and thus have a perlocutionary force a l s o . Nevertheless, being l i n -g u i s t i c i n character, they serve to show the axiom of substi-tution at work and i l l u s t r a t e c l e a r l y that the axiom i s not predicated on any kind of standard, grammatical, syntactic derivation but rather on the concept of preservation of a speech act's i l l o c u t i o n a r y force by means of conventionally sanctioned forms of utterance operable i n a given situation.'' 1' In t h i s case, a highly l o c a l i s e d s i t u a t i o n r e a d i l y permits us to state the e x p l i c i t form of utterance for which s u b s t i t u t i o n i s made and thus the precise force that i s to be preserved, since the e x p l i c i t utterance i s here a performative. ^ [Ch. 5] 137 3.0 In contrast with the items just discussed, the pre-sentential phrases are to be viewed as devices of a highly-generalised kind, unconstrained by l o c a l i s e d s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . They are, i n a n o n - t r i v i a l sense, cli c h e s of language use. The consequent banality a t t r i b u t e d to them must not, however, mask the fact that they have generally remained an enigma from the point of view of l i n g u i s t i c a nalysis. Con-cerning them, I have claimed that they are devices and as such the output of the application of an axiom. I have also asser-ted the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of explaining s y n t a c t i c a l l y the d e r i -vation of the phrase from the higher S, even when the higher S can be stated, while claiming at the same time that the force of the higher S i s preserved i n the subs t i t u t i o n . The problem arises of how to substantiate t h i s claim. 3.1 It i s a vexed question, which belongs to the general area of the study of i l l o c u t i o n a r y forces but deals with an aspect of the area that has never received much attention. As a rule, most studies concern themselves with the i l l o c u t i o n a r y force of grammatically complete sentences. Austin himself was concerned also with other types of utterance but i n the spe c i a l sense that each was to be i d e n t i f i e d with an under-l y i n g s p e c i f i c performative i n a sentence framework (1965, p. 6l). I s h a l l apply this same approach to the question of the presentential phrases but, f i r s t of a l l , i t i s necessary to look at the strong c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d at i t by Benveniste (1966a). [Ch.- 5] 138 3.1.1 At issue i s Austin's claim that "meme l e mot fehien'- a l u i seul peut parfois ... t e n i r l i e u de performatif e x p l i c i t e et formel: on effectue par ce p e t i t mot l e meme acte que par 1'enonce 'je vous avertis que l e chien va vous attaquer' ou Men par 'Messieurs les etrangers sont ave r t i s q u ' i l existe par i c i un chien mechant'". 9 Benveniste takes the pos i t i o n that t h i s i s not so and that Austin i s working under a cer t a i n misapprehension. His comment i s well taken: "L'ecriteau est un simple s i g n a l : a vous d'en t i r e r l a conclusion que vous voudrez quant a. votre comportement. Seule l a formule ' je vous aver t i s que ....' (suppose pro-duite par l ' a u t o r i t e ) est performative d'avertlssement. II ne faut pas prendre l ' i m p l i c a t i o n extra-linguistique comme equivalent de l'accomplissement l i n g u i s t i q u e ; ces especes relevent de deux categories entierement d i f f e -rentes. Dans l e signal, c'est nous qui suppleons l a fone-t i o n d'avertissement." (p.275) [ c f . note 7» t h i s chapter] The e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c implications of a notice or sign are thus a matter of pragmatics, of knowledge of the world rather than of the language. The l i n g u i s t i c item i n the sign i s merely~a l i n g u i s t i c gesture, whose int e r p r e t a t i o n involves questions of semiotics rather than l i n g u i s t i c s . 1 0 The fact of being able to at t r i b u t e to a given utterance a p a r t i c u l a r i l l o c u t i o -nary force does not j u s t i f y the claim that the same utterance i n any way presupposes l i n g u i s t i c a l l y a performative verb. 3.1.2 Benveniste's c r i t i c i s m of Austin's confusion on thi s point i s t e l l i n g . At the same time, i t must not be allowed to detract from the underlying value of Austin's i n t u i t i o n , for i f we leave aside the purely pragmatic aspects, t h i s i n t u i t i o n [Ch. 5] 139 i s e s s e n t i a l l y correct. I mean by thi s that there are c e r t a i n utterances whose inter p r e t a t i o n depends e n t i r e l y on knowledge of the language and i s unconstrained by the pragmatics of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n . The presentential phrases are of th i s kind. Applied to them, a modified version of Austin's claim would have i t that they presuppose l i n g u i s t i c a l l y a performative verb. I f i t can be demonstrated that such i s the case, then that w i l l constitute a substantiation of my claim that the force of the higher S i s preserved by the substitu-t i o n of a presentential phrase. 3.1.3 The main p r i n c i p l e underlying t h i s claim i s not disputed by Benveniste: with regard to sentences of the type M. X est nomine ministre plenipotentiaire. he says, "... i l faut reconnaltre comme authentiques et admettre comme performatifs les enonces qui l e sont de maniere i n -apparente, paree qu• .jobs ne sont qu'implicitement mis au compte de l ' a u t o r i t e h a b i l i t e e a les produire". (p.272) Such sentences, with the i l l o c u t i o n a r y force of a decree are to be understood to imply a performative verb: thus Benveniste t a c i t l y agrees with the p r i n c i p l e of deletion and recoverabi-l i t y of the performative. However, here again the deletion concerns the complete performative higher S, with no sub s t i -t u t i o n as such involved. Only i n his analysis of a sp e c i a l a l t e r n a t i v e form does his discussion of performatives touch on any kind of substitution: "Ou encore l e prononce'du dictum est rapporte impersonnelle-ment et a l a troisieme personne: II est decide que ... — [ C h . 5 ] 140 L e P r e s i d e n t de l a R e p u b l i q u e d e c r e t e que . . . . L e c h a n g e -men t c o n s i s t . e en u n e s i m p l e t r a n s p o s i t i o n . L * e n o n c e a. l a t r o i s i e m e p e r s o n n e p e u t t o u j o u r s e t r e r e c o n v e r t ! e n une p r e m i e r e p e r s o n n e e t r e p r e n d r e s a f o r m e t y p i q u e . " (p .272) C l e a r l y , h e a g r e e s w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f s u b s t i t u t i o n : a t t h e same t i m e , t h e e x p l a n a t i o n h e o f f e r s i s m e r e l y a t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n a l d e r i v a t i o n , o f t h e t y p e I h a v e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e c a s e o f p r e s e n t e n t i a l H o p e f u l l y . •.-. ( c f . 2.2.2) a n d w h i c h , I s u g g e s t e d , was i n a d e q u a t e t o e x p l a i n i n s t a n c e s o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f p r e s e n t e n t i a l s o r t h e s e c o n d . H i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h u s o f v e r y l i m i t e d u s e h e r e . 1 . 4 I n d e e d t h e r e i s s e r i o u s d o u b t a s t o w h e t h e r my a n a l y s i s o f H o p e f u l l y , . . . i s i t s e l f o f r e a l v a l u e t o a n ; ; h y p o t h e s i s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a p e r f o r m a t i v e h i g h e r S a n d w h i c h t h e r e f o r e c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h s p e e c h a c t s . A n a n a l y s i s t h a t s t a t e s H o p e f u l l y . . . . = I t i s t o be h o p e d t h a t . . . i s w h o l l y u n i n f o r m a t i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a c t t h a t t h e h i g h e r S c o n s t i -t u t e s , u n l e s s we s i m p l y r e g a r d i t a s a c o n s t a t i v e a c t . I n t h a t c a s e , t h e a r g u m e n t f o r a p e r f o r m a t i v e f a i l s , s i n c e t h e p e r f o r m a t i v e a n d t h e c o n s t a t i v e a c t s a r e i n c o n t r a s t . B u t i n t h a t c a s e a l s o t h e c o r o l l a r y w o u l d be t h a t H o p e f u l l y , . . . h a s c o n s t a t i v e f o r c e , a n a r g u m e n t t h a t i s a t l e a s t c o u n t e r - i n t u -i t i v e . 2 I s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e p r e s e n t e n t i a l s i n d i c a t e t h e way i n w h i c h t h e s e n t e n c e i s t o be t a k e n . M a i n t a i n i n g t h i s [ C h . 5 ] 1 4 1 p o i n t o f v i e w , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e t h a t H o p e f u l l y , .... i s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f h o p e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e , e . g . - (11): (11) H o p e f u l l y , i t w i l l n o t r a i n t o m o r r o w . As t h i s e x a m p l e makes c l e a r , t h e r e i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n -t e n c e no f o r m w h i c h c a n s t a n d a s t h e s u b j e c t o f a n y f o r m o f t h e v e r b h o p e s o a s t o f o r m a s y n t a c t i c a l l y t r a n s p a r e n t e x -p r e s s i o n o f h o p e . The s u b j e c t l i e s e l s e w h e r e a n d , a s a l l s p e a k e r s o f t h e l a n g u a g e r e a l i s e , t h a t s u b j e c t i s - i n some s e n s e - t h e s p e a k e r o f t h e - . . u t t e r a n c e . I u s e t h e e x p r e s s i o n " i n some s e n s e " b e c a u s e I do n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s a n u n d e r -l y i n g s e n t e n c e o f t h e f o r m I h o p e t h a t . . . . w h i c h w o u l d o f c o u r s e be c o n s t a t i v e . I mean t o i m p l y m e r e l y t h a t t h e e x ? p r e s s i o n o f h o p e o r i g i n a t e s w i t h t h e s p e a k e r s p e c i f i c a l l y a n d t h a t i n t h i s s e n s e t h e p r o p o s i t i o n i t w i l l n o t r a i n t o m o r r o w i s p l a c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s own a l l o c u t i o n . A s a r e s u l t , i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o s e e t h a t G r o u p 1 o f t h e p r e s e n t e n t i a l s j A s f o r m y s e l f , e t c . ) a n d G r o u p 3 ( H o p e f u l l y , . . . , e t c . ) s h a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t i s n o t o v e r t I n t h e l a t t e r , n a m e l y t h a t t h e y b o t h c o n s t i t u t e a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s p e a k e r . 3.2.1 A s f o r t h e f o r c e o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s u t t e r a n c e , two p o s s i b l e a n a l y s e s s u g g e s t t h e m s e l v e s . F i r s t , a n u n d e r l y i n g p e r f o r m a t i v e o f t h e f o r m I s a y h o p e f u l l y . . . , w h i c h w o u l d b e a d e c l a r a t i v e a c t s u p p o r t i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t H o p e f u l l y , . . .  = I s a y h o p e f u l l y ..... . T h i s a n a l y s i s r a i s e s two p r o b l e m s . [ C h . 5 ] 142 I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , i t p o s t u l a t e s t h a t H o p e f u l l y , . . . h a s d e -c l a r a t i v e f o r c e a n d , s e c o n d l y , i t p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a t t h e s e - m a n t i c l e v e l t h e s p e a k e r i s t h e s u b j e c t o f h o p e . On t h e m e r i t s i d e , i t i s a v e r y s i m p l e a n d c o n v e n i e n t a n a l y s i s . The o t h e r p o s s i b l e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s a d o u b l e e m b e d d i n g a n d makes u s e o f t h e s e n t e n c e d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , I t i s t o be h o p e d t h a t . . . . . I t t a k e s t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m : ( 1 2 ) I a s s e r t t h a t l t i s t o be h o p e d t h a t i t w i l l n o t r a i n  t o m o r r o w . I n t h i s c a s e i t f o l l o w s t h a t H o p e f u l l y , . . . = I a s s e r t t h a t I t  i s t o be h o p e d t h a t . . . . A l t h o u g h t h e g r a m m a t i c a l s u b j e c t o f h o p e i s n o t s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e r e a r e g o o d g r o u n d s f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e a s s e r t i v e f o r c e o f t h e u t t e r a n c e c a u s e s i t t o b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o je_ b u t i n c l u d e s a t l e a s t t u . Some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s i s t r u e c a n be s e e n i n t h e f a c t t h a t ( 1 1 ) seems t o t r a n s l a t e b e t t e r i n t o F r e n c h a s ( 1 4 ) r a t h e r t h a n (13):. (13) J ' e s p e r e q u ' i l ne v a p a s p l e u v o l r d e m a i n . ( 1 4 ) I I f a u t e s p e r e r q u ' i l ne v a pas p l e u v o i r d e m a i n . 3«3 The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e two a n a l y s e s o f ( 1 1 ) c o n c e r n s t h e p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i s a t 1 o n o f t h e p e r f o r m a t i v e : i n t h e one c a s e , t h e f o r m p o s i t e d i s d e c l a r a t i v e a n d i n t h e o t h e r i t i s a s s e r t i v e . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a t p r e s e n t one o f t h e m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f p e r f o r m a t i v e s , a s w e l l a s o f s u c h i t e m s a s p r e s e n t e n t i a l p h r a s e s : t h e r e seems t o be [Ch. 5] 143 as yet no c l e a r l y established method of distinguishing between the various possible forces, except i n those cases where the surface form contains an e x p l i c i t performative, such as pro-mise, etc., and which have been those on which most analysts have so far concentrated t h e i r attention. It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n the other groups of the presententials that to l e x i -c a l i s e the underlying performative i s the core problem. 1 1 3.3.1 It i s possible, nevertheless, to give those groups an analysis which s a t i s f i e s my purpose here. Group 2 consists of items which, even s u p e r f i c i a l l y , may contain an extra element which c l a r i f i e s things somewhat. In the case of P o l i t i c a l l y , .... for example, i t i s understood that a verbal form such as speaking has been deleted and that t h i s i s always an optional transformation. Thus, P o l i t i c a l l y . ... = P o l i t i - c a l l y speaking, ... . Normally, t h i s i s followed d i r e c t l y by a proposition, e.g. (15) (15) P o l i t i c a l l y (speaking), i t would be unwise. If the±presentential phrase i s reordered, thus Speaking p o l i - t i c a l l y , .•., an i n t e r e s t i n g fact emerges, namely that the grammar requires now a main verb and an expressed grammatical subject. Transforming (15) i n t h i s way, we f i n d (16) i n which the l o g i c a l subject i n f e r r e d i n (15) i s now s p e c i f i e d : (16) Speaking p o l i t i c a l l y , I ... i t would be unwise. The omission i n (16) indicates the place of the main verb, which i n t h i s case would be a performative of one type or [Ch. 5 ] 1 44 another, e.g. contend, submit, observ e, conclude, etc. Here again, the precise l e x i c a l form i s open to question, depending l a r g e l y on the "happiness conditions" that apply to each act and the p o s s i b i l i t y of i d e n t i f y i n g these i n the context of the a l l o c u t i o n . Leaving aside t h i s question, i t i s s t i l l possible to state that, thanks to the implication of .je, Group 2 of the presententials, l i k e Group 1 and Group 3, i s s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l . 3.4. Thus a l l three groups mark or r e f e r to t h e i r own a l l o -cution. The same thing i s true of yet a fourth group, the commonest of a l l yet least often discussed and perhaps least understood. This Group 4 comprises However, Nevertheless (or Nonetheless), Moreover, Yet, S t i l l , Notwithstanding, But, etc., as well as phrases such as On the other hand. At the same and that previously c i t e d i n (4) (Ch.2: 2.2.1), For a l l that. Group 4 i s d i f f e r e n t i n that i t s members seem for the most part to o f f e r no sign at a l l of syntactic r e l a t i o n to t h e i r environment and do not by t h e i r form suggest membership i n any grammatical c l a s s . They have no "meaning" as l e x i c a l units and receive i n the dictionary only an i n d i c a t i o n of how and where they occur, accompanied i n some instances by an i n d i c a t i o n of the h i s t o r y of the form i n question. But, by implication at least, they are a l l shown to have sp e c i a l i l l o -cutionary force. I 2 [Ch. 5] 145 3.4.1 The observation that Group 4 i s perhaps least under-stood needs q u a l i f i c a t i o n , since experience shows that the items of the group are adequately understood by speakers. Rather, i t i s the grammarian who has d i f f i c u l t y placing them as components of a l i n g u i s t i c model. Austin (p.75) c a l l s them " p a r t i c l e s " , according them,a c e r t a i n standing as a clas s , but s p e c i f i e s that they are "connective p a r t i c l e s " and, as such, "a special verbal device". They do not form a grammati-c a l c l a s s , however, since they connect not sentences but utterances s p e c i f i c a l l y . Thus an instance such as Moreover, p, occurring i n i s o l a t i o n , has no v a l i d i t y . This i s true regard-less of how well-formed p_ may be, e.g. (17): (17) Moreover, the Romans were not cowardly men. Here the proposition the Romans were not cowardly men i s both grammatical and semantically transparent as a sentence but as an utterance taken i n i s o l a t i o n , i t must be set aside as being unsuccessful. It i s a case i n which there can be no "securing of uptake" on the part of tu, since the conditions for a suc-c e s s f u l use of moreover - as for the other items of Group 4 -have not been met-and the utterance must be discounted. As a "connective", moreover requires a preceding utterance as a point of reference ^ . thus, i n the context of a preceding utterance (p-^), moreover and i t s congeners validate as an utterance any grammatical sentence (£g)• Such a context - or utterance-configuration - i s esse n t i a l and thus part of the [ C h . 5 ] 146 "happiness conditions" for the use of items from Group 4 . L ^ 3 . 4 . 2 I have said (3-4) that these items have no "meaning" as l e x i c a l u n i t s . At the same time, I do not wish to suggest that they are therefore devoid of meaning i n some sense,, nor that they have only a functional or s t r u c t u r a l meaning. It i s not the case, for example, that moreover i s equivalent to for a l l that: each i s somehow "understood" d i f f e r e n t l y . The difference l i e s i n t h e i r i l l o c u t i o n a r y meaning or force. Like the other presententials, they indicated how an utterance i s to be taken: the question i s what these d i f f e r e n t ways are. 3 . 4 . 3 When Austin (p.73) speaks of "the force of the locu£ ti o n " , he r e f e r s by "locution" to a given utterance of which he says i t s force i s such that i t might, be s p e c i f i e d by an e x p l i c i t performative verb. Returning to the case of More-over, p (uttered under appropriate conditions), "locution" i s taken to r e f e r to p_: p_ i s said to have a c e r t a i n force. How-ever, since p_ may take the form of a simple proposition - as i n a successful use of (17) - i t would be d i f f i c u l t to say that p_ had of i t s e l f a force other than that of statement, i . e . with a putative higher S i n the form of I say, just as any other declarative utterance. It i s doubtful, however, that this would account s a t i s f a c t o r i l y for the i l l o c u t i o n a r y meaning of £ i n (17), where a more l i k e l y higher S would be I add, as exemplified i n ( 1 8 ) and (19): [ C h . 5] 147 (18) ( t o p x ) I a d d p 2 (19) To t h a t . I a d d t h a t t h e Romans w e r e n o t c o w a r d l y m e n . 3.4.4 Now I t I s u n u s u a l , t h o u g h c l e a r l y n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o f i n d s p e a k e r s f o r m u l a t i n g u t t e r a n c e s l i k e (19): i t i s mo re u s u a l t o f i n d (17)- I t i s common a l s o t o f i n d u t t e r a n c e s l i k e (20): (20) N e v e r t h e l e s s , I I n s i s t t h a t y o u a r e w r o n g . I n t h i s c a s e , a s i n (19), t h e p e r f o r m a t i v e i s b o t h e x p l i c i t a n d d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e " u n i v e r s a l " I s a y . I n (21), t h e e x -p l i c i t p e r f o r m a t i v e i s l a c k i n g , w h i l e i n (22) t h e p r e s e n t e n -t i a l f o r m i s l a c k i n g : (21) N e v e r t h e l e s s , y o u a r e w r o n g . (22) I I n s i s t y o u a r e w r o n g . H o w e v e r , b o t h (21) a n d (22) a r e endowed w i t h t h e same f o r c e . I w i s h t o c l a i m t h a t i n (21) t h e r e i s no p u t a t i v e h i g h e r S w h i c h i s m e r e l y " i n t h e a i r " b u t r a t h e r a d e l e t e d h i g h e r S i n t h e f o r m o f a n e x p l i c i t p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b a n d t h a t i t s d e l e -t i o n i s f o r m a l l y m a r k e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f n e v e r t h e l e s s : i n o t h e r w o r d s , a n i t e m l i k e n e v e r t h e l e s s i s t h e " r e l i c " o f a d e l e t e d h i g h e r S . T h a t i s t o s a y t h a t i t d e n o t e s a s p e e c h a c t , e v e n t h o u g h i t d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e one i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e e x p l i c i t p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b i s s a i d t o do s o . 3-5 S u c h a c l a i m p r e s e n t s a n i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y , t h a t o f s t a t i n g t h e e x p l i c i t p e r f o r m a t i v e f o r m w h i c h i s d e l e t e d . I t [ C h . 5 ] 148 i s t h e same d i f f i c u l t y e n c o u n t e r e d e a r l i e r , t h a t o f s p e c i f y -i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l l s a t i o n o f t h e d e l e t e d f o r m ( c f . n o t e 1 1 ) . I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f (20)-(22), I s p e c i f i e d t h e f o r m I I n s i s t , t h u s i m p l y i n g t h a t i t i s t h e f o r m p e c u l i a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n o c c u r r e n c e o f n e v e r t h e l e s s . H o w e v e r , i t w o u l d "be d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n t h i s i n t h e f a c e o f e x a m p l e s l i k e (23): (23) N e v e r t h e l e s s . I f i n d f o r t h e d e f e n d a n t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , my c l a i m (3'4.4) d e s e r v e s t o be m o d i f i e d t o r e a d " . . . i n t h e f o r m o f some e x p l i c i t p e r f o r m a t i v e v e r b " , s o a s n o t t o e x c l u d e e x a m p l e s l i k e (23). T h i s w e a k e n e d c l a i m r e m a i n s a d e q u a t e f o r my p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s a n d i t s r a n g e o f o p e r a t i o n w i l l c o r r e s p o n d t y p i c a l l y t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i - . b u t i o n : P r e s e n t e n t i a l E x p l i c i t P e r f o r m a t i v e Y e t S t i l l N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g N e v e r t h e l e s s I i n s i s t t h a t p_ H o w e v e r F o r a l l t h a t A t t h e same t i m e I c l a i m s u b m i t m a i n t a i n t h a t p_ On t h e o t h e r h a n d B u t Y e t I c o n t r a s t £ M o r e o v e r F u r t h e r m o r e I n a d d i t i o n B e s i d e s I a d d a s s e r t t h a t £ T h e r e f o r e I c o n c l u d e £ [Ch. 5] 149 It i s to be understood according to th i s d i s t r i b u t i o n that where a presentential occurs without an e x p l i c i t performative verb, e.g. (21), the verbs l i s t e d here w i l l t y p i c a l l y furnish the deleted form. Where the performative does co-occur with the presentential, i t w i l l constitute either a non-deletion, e.g. (20), or a substitution, e.g. (23) ^ 5.1 In summary, to "understand" an occurrence of a pre-sentential of t h i s group i s to i n f e r or recover the appropri-ate l e x i c a l i s a t i o n of the deleted performative. This i s done by convention, as indicated, and when done i n the context of an appropriate utterance-configuration brings about the "securing of uptake" whereby the hearer knows what the utte-rance counts as. The important thing to bear i n mind i s that, however the utterance counts, i t does so here i n r e l a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y to to a preceding utterance. Thus the speech-act - formally deleted or not - constitutes an intervention by the speaker i n his own text. It therefore marks both the person of the speaker and the a l l o c u t i o n and, since the formal marking i s done, textually, by the presentential, we can say that Group 4, l i k e the other three groups, i s s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l . 0 My purpose i n examining the four groups of presenten- , t i a l s was to show, through an analysis focusing on the function [Ch. 5 ] 150 of such items, that they a l l r e f e r to t h e i r own a l l o c u t i o n . Seen from t h i s point of view of t h e i r function within an uuterance-configuration, they form a l i n k between syntax and rhetoric and, as such, are to be considered as devices ranking with the other devices discussed i n - t h i s study. Thus they form an Important extension of the "aspect i n d i c i e l du lan-gage" . 4 . 1 Their c r u c i a l importance, as markers of an i l l o c u t i o -nary force expressible by some e x p l i c i t performative verb, i s that regardless of the context i n which they occur they always and necessarily mark je_ and discours. Invulnerable to i n t e r -ference from juxtaposed markers of any other "work", t h e i r occurrence within even a context of r e c l t , for example, counts as commentary. The comparison may be drawn with the use of stage-directions i n a play (the "sophisticated device", as Austin puts i t (p . 7 4 ) ) ; they are the utterances of j e - here the author - and consist of instructions concerning his text, which i t s e l f constitutes r e c i t and into which je_ otherwise r a r e l y intrudes. 4 . 2 "Boule de Suif" (Maupassant, 1957) provides an example of t h i s phenomenon. In th i s story of some 60 pages, tenses used above a l l are those of narration, Imperfect and Passe Simple. The f i r s t seven pages are e n t i r e l y narrative but quite suddenly there occurs a series of interventions by je. [Ch. 5] 151 I n i t i a l l y these are commentaries of an apostrophic type during which the narration i s simply suspended, e.g.. (24-). (24) "Et l a temerlte n'est plus un defaut des bourgeois  de Rouen, comme au temps des defenses herol'ques ou  s ' l l l u s t r a leur c i t e . " (p.8) In (25), the narration i s merely interrupted b r i e f l y : (25) On se d i s a i t enfin. ralson supreme t l r e e de l'urba- nite francaise, q u ' i l demeuralt bien permls d'etre  p o l l . . . . (p.9) No device i s evident i n (25) to indicate j_e other than the force of the apposition i t s e l f , comparable to Austin's class of v e r d l c t i v e s (cf. also Ch .6: 2.3.3). .2.1 Thereafter, the instances of s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l i t y consist of presententials: du reste, cependant, cependant (p«9); car. done (p.10); cependant (p.11); cependant (p.20); cependant (p. 33); neanmoins ( p . 4 l ) ; mals (p.42)1'''; cependant, cependant (p.47); mais (49). One observes two f a c t s : f i r s t , these occurrences are infrequent o v e r a l l and, second, that they occur occasionally i n c l u s t e r s , e.g. pp.9-11, 40-42. The force, given the frequency of cependant. i s mainly contrastive and the occurrences constitute a sort of punctuation by je concerning the orientation of his narrative at p a r t i c u l a r and presumably important points. In a l l cases, the verb-form of the following proposition, being of the narrative group as de-fined by Weinrich, serves to emphasise the brevity of the commentary but at the same time to set i t into, r e l i e f as an incursion by .je. Thus, i n spite of the predominance of the [Ch. 5] 152 narrative forms, i t i s not possible to say that here " i l n*y a ... plus alors de narrateur" (Benveniste, 1966a, p.24l): more appropriate i s Todorov's formulation of a "discours -1 o pauvre en indications sur son enonciation". 4.3 I have dwelt at some length on the^presententials as markers of i l l o c u t i o n a r y force and thus of sub.jectivite, which I claimed at the outset was the basis of a d i s t i n c t i o n between the functions of an ambivalent Passe Compose. It i s appropriate now to return to a direct inspection of the Passe Compose, considering i t from t h i s point of view of i l l o c u t i o -nary force. The question of thi s tense i s comparable to that discussed e a r l i e r i n r e l a t i o n to the Narrative Present, where i t became c l e a r that the p r i n c i p l e of "Qui d i t je_ d i t i c i et malntenant" did not apply since another now was involved. In the case of a co-occurrence of j e + Passe Compose, thi s p r i n -c i p l e w i l l also normally apply but where the form of the Passe Compose i s i n fact a substitution for the Passe Simple i n the s p e c i f i c environment of .je (cf. Ch .4: 4.1.1), then the pr i n c i p l e w i l l not apply since, here again, a di f f e r e n t time-reference i s involved, namely then instead of now. ^ 4.3.1 Benveniste uses the term evenementiel (or aoriste) to characterise t h i s type of occurrence of je_ + Passe Compose ( i . e . < Passe Simple) but contrasts i t merely with the term P a r f a i t (or accompli ) by which he refers to j_e + Passe Compose [ C h . 5 ] 153 ( i . e . 4- P a s s e S i m p l e ) , i m p l y i n g a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e f o r m s t i l l p e r f o r m s i t s o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n o f m a r k i n g d i s c o u r s . H o w e v e r , a s we h a v e a l s o s e e n , he c a l l s t h e P a s s e S i m p l e a s w e l l " l e t emps de l ' e v e n e m e n t " (whence " e v e n e m e n t i e l " ) : t h u s he h a s t r a n s f e r r e d t h i s t e r m i n o l o g y t o t h e P a s s e Compose w h e r e i t o c c u r s w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o r c e o f r e c i t . He d o e s n o t o f f e r a c o r r e s p o n d i n g t e r m t o d e n o t e t h e f o r c e o f t h e P a s s e Compose i n i t s c o n t i n u i n g . r o l e a s a m a r k e r o f d i s c o u r s . I p r o p o s e t h e t e r m a c t u e l f o r t h i s f o r c e , s o t h a t we may s p e a k o f a c o n t r a s t "between ev e l e m e n t i e l / a c t u e l . 4 v 3 * 2 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m a r k t h i s c o n t r a s t p r e c i s e l y , a s i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o a n o t h e r c o n t r a s t , c o n c e r n i n g je_ f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s u b j e c t i v i t e . Where je_ o c c u r s w i t h a n i n s t a n c e o f t h e P a s s e Compose e v e n e m e n t i e l (< P a s s e S i m p l e ) , i . e . s t r i p p e d o f i t s c u s t o m a r y s u b j e c t i v i t e . t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a s t o wha t becomes t h e n o f t h e p e r s o n n e o f j_e, s i n c e j_e no l o n g e r r e l a t e s t o i o i - m a i n t e n a n t b u t t o l a - a l o r s . I p r o p o s e f o r t h i s s i t u a -t i o n t h e t e r m o f j e - p e r s o n n a g e t o c o n t r a s t w i t h j e - p e r s o n n e o f t h e a c t u e l . The p r e c i s e r e f e r e n c e o f t h i s c o n t r a s t i s t o t h e t i m e - d i s t i n c t i o n ( m a i n t e n a n t / a l o r s ) a n d , w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e , 2 0 t h e s p a t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n ( l c l / l a ) . H e r e a g a i n , t h e r e i s a p a r a l l e l t o be d r a w n w i t h t h e P r e s e n t a n d N a r r a t i v e P r e s e n t : t h e P r e s e n t ( a c t u e l ) c o - o c c u r s w i t h j e - p e r s o n n e a n d t h e N a r -r a t i v e P r e s e n t ( e v e n e m e n t i e l ) w i t h j e - p e r s o n n a g e . [Ch. 5] 154 4 The personne/personnage contrast that I propose i s neither gratuitous nor motivated merely by the need to d i s -tinguish the forces of the two uses of a given tense. Rather, the need to distinguish these forces i s i t s e l f motivated by the existence of the contrast i n question, which antedates the disappearance of the Passe Simple i n French. To i l l u s t -rate t h i s , I s h a l l r e f e r to the Maupassant extract quoted e a r l i e r (Ch .4: 4.1.1) and which, for convenience, I reproduce here; "Alors mon compagnon, ayant p r i s l'autre bougie, se pen-cha. Puis i l me toucha l e bras sans dire un mot. Je s u i v i s son regard, et j'apergus a, terre, sous l e f a u t e u i l a cote du l i t , tout blanc ,sur l e sombre tapis, ouvert comme pour mordre, l e r a t e l i e r de Schopenhauer. Le t r a v a i l de l a decomposition, desserrant les machoires, l ' a v a i t f a i t j a i l l i r de l a bouche. J-'al eu vraiment peur, ce .jour-la, monsieur." (my emphasis) In t h i s extract^ the evenementiel i s rendered by the Passe Simple forms and the aetuel by the Passe Compose i n the under-l i n e d sentence. In the utterance with the actuel, .je denotes the utterer, as a personne of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n , whereas the evenementiel does not denote the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n and j e i s thus seen as a personnage standing i n r e l a t i o n to the events recounted. Here, c l e a r l y , the formal difference of the tense-forms renders e x p l i c i t the d i s t i n c t i o n between .je-personne and .je-personnage. [ C h . 5] 155 5„0 The l o s s i n m o d e r n F r e n c h o f t h e f o r m a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e v e n e m e n t i e l a n d t h e a c t u e l , b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e t o a l l i n t e n t s a n d p u r p o s e s o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e d o e s n o t e n t a i l t h e l o s s o f t h e p e r s o n n e / p e r s o n n a g e c o n t r a s t : i t m e r e l y means t h a t m a r k i n g o f t h e c o n t r a s t m u s t b e s o u g h t e l s e w h e r e . T h a t i s t o s a y , c l e a r l y , t h a t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h f o r m a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , one m u s t h a v e r e c o u r s e t o a n a n a l y s i s o f c o l l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f o r c e o f a n o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e P a s s e C o m p o s e . T h e s e c o l l o c a t i o n a l f a c -t o r s ; a r e wha t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d a s " W a s p e c t i n d i c i e l du l a n g a g e " , i n c l u d i n g now t h e p r e s e n t e n t i a l s . The P a s s e Compose a s a f o r m i s now l i k e t h e P r e s e n t , a m b i v a l e n t t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a m b i g u o u s a s a n o c c u r r e n c e . T h i s a m b i v a l e n c e a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g a m b i v a l e n c e o f t h e f o r m " j e " ( a s o p p o s e d t o j e , t h e p e r s o n o f a l l o c u t i o n ) h e i g h t e n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l c o o r d i n a t e s a n d t h e f o r m s t h a t ma r k t h e m ( c f . C h . 6 : 3«0)« T h e y , r - a t h e r t h a n i m e r e l y t h e t e n s e s , become t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e t i m e - r e f e r e n c e o f a n u t t e r a n c e a n d t h u s o f w h e t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e P a s s e Compose i s e v e -P i n e m e n t i e l o r a c t u e l . J-5-1 Two i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s s t e m f r o m t h i s f a c t . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e r i g i d d i v i s i o n o f t e n s e s i n t o two g r o u p s a s p r o p o s e d b y B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h r e s p e c t i v e l y h a s b e c o m e , i f n o t i n v a l i d a t e d e n t i r e l y , a t l e a s t o v e r t a k e n b y e v e n t s . A s I h a v e s o u g h t t o show , b o t h t h e P r e s e n t a n d t h e LEAF 156 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. •[Ch. 5] 157 Passe Compose have become ambivalent forms and thus the schemes that these authors have formulated are to be regarded as dislocated, with respect to the tenses that mark discours/  comentario, and defective, with respect to the group marking reoit/narracion, since t h i s group's fundamental tense - Passe Simple - i s no longer a v a i l a b l e . In the second place, the importance of time-reference as a means of combating the am-bivalence of the tenses coincides with the model proposed by Reichenbach, i n which the tenses are postulated as a system of time-reference. While i t i s true that Reichenbach does not mention concepts such as s u b j e c t i v i t e and personne, there i s evidence to suggest they are not be regarded as unrelated to his proposal. On p.289» he comments on a quotation from Keats, as follows: " 'Much have I t r a v e l l e d i n the realms of gold, And many goodly states and kingdoms seen; Round many western islands have I been Which bards i n f e a l t y to Apollo hold.' [•••] we notice that here obviously the past events are seen, not from a reference point situated also i n the past, but from a point of reference which coincides with the point of speech. This Is the reason that the words  of Keats are not of a narrative type but af f e c t us with  the immediacy of a di r e c t report to the reader." [my em-phasis ] Although he does not develop t h i s aspect of the question, since i t i s not his theme, the inference i s c l e a r l y that the time-reference a l t e r s the force of the utterance. We conclude fr-om his comments that for him the je_ of the Keats extract i s a personne. not a personnage. [ C h . 5] 158 5.2 The a m b i v a l e n c e o f t h e P a s s e Compose i s d i f f e r e n t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way f r o m t h a t o f t h e P r e s e n t . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e P r e s e n t , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made i s b e t w e e n d i s c o u r s a n d r e c i t a s t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e s p e a k e r i n a g i v e n i n s t a n c e : i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i t i s p a r a l l e l e d b y t h e c a s e o f t h e P a s s e Com-p o s e . H o w e v e r , t h e a m b i v a l e n c e o f t h e l a t t e r i s p l a c e d b y B e n v e n i s t e s q u a r e l y i n t h e d o m a i n o f d i s c o u r s a n d b y W e i n r i c h i n t h a t o f " l a l a n g u e p a r l e e " , a s we h a v e s e e n , a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e l o s s o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e . The two p h a s e s o f t h e h i s -t o r i c a l c h a n g e t h e y h a v e i n m i n d m i g h t t h u s be e x e m p l i f i e d a s i n (26) a n d (27): (26) J ' a i c o n n u b e a u c o u p de p a y s . J e f u s d ' a b o r d en E s -p a g n e p e n d a n t l a g u e r r e e t p u i s j e p a s s a i l a f r o n -t i e r e p o u r c h e r c h e r l ' a s i l e e n F r a n c e . . . . (27) J ' a i c o n n u b e a u c o u p de p a y s . J ' a i e t e d ' a b o r d en E s p a g n e p e n d a n t i a g u e r r e e t p u i s j ' a i p a s s e l a f r o n t i e r e p o u r c h e r c h e r l ' a s i l e en F r a n c e . . . . I n (26) t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n P a s s e Compose a n d P a s s e S i m p l e m a r k s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n d i s c o u r s a n d r e c i t . The P a s s e Compose h e r e i s , i n B e n v e n i s t e ' s t e r m s , t h e P a r f a i t du d i s -c o u r s : t h e Je_ o f j ' a i c o n n u i s t h e p e r s o n n e . t h e o t h e r s b e i n g 22 j e - p e r s o n n a g e . A f t e r t h e l o s s o f t h e P a s s e S i m p l e i n t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e , t h e r e s u l t a n t v e r s i o n o f (26) w o u l d be (27), i n w h i c h o n l y t h e p r e s e n c e o f s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l c o o r d i n a t e s ( u n d e r l i n e d ) p e r m i t s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f o r m s o f t h e r e c i t a n d i n w h i c h j ' a i c o n n u i s now a m b i g u o u s a s t o t h e c o n t r a s t p e r s o n n e / p e r s o n n a g e . { C h . 5] 159 .2.1 A t t h e same t i m e , b o t h a u t h o r s s t i l l r e g a r d t h e l i t e - r a r y l a n g u a g e a s e s s e n t i a l l y u n a f f e c t e d b y t h e h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e , s o t h a t f o r t hem t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p i n g s o f t h e t e n s e s s t i l l h o l d g o o d . A s a r e s u l t t h e y h a v e n o t t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s w h e r e e v e n t h e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e a b a n d o n s t h e P a s s e S i m p l e - s u c h a s L ' E t r a n - g e r - t h e o r a l / w r i t t e n d i s t i n c t i o n i s l o s t a n d t h e t e n s e - s y s -t em f o l l o w s t h e m o d e l o f t h e o r a l l a n g u a g e , a s e x e m p l i f i e d i n (27). 2 3 . 3 The c h a n g e w h i c h h a s o v e r t a k e n t h e l a n g u a g e i n t h i s r e g a r d i s , i n t e r m s o f t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e , d i a c h r o n i c a l l y v a s t a n d s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o c l o u d t h e i s s u e when s y n -c h r o n i c f a c t o r s a r e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , c o n s i d e -r a t i o n s b a s e d on a s o c i o . l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s u c h a s t h e o r a l / w r i t t e n c o n t r a s t mus t be s e t a s i d e when t h a t f a c t o r i s s o c i o -l i n g u i s t i c a l l y no l o n g e r d o m i n a n t . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h e p r i n c i p l e s e v i n c e d b y B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n r i c h a r e w h o l l y i r -r e l e v a n t f r o m a s y n c h r o n i c p o i n t o f v i e w . I t d o e s mean t h a t t h e s e t o f m a r k e r s t h a t t h e y p o s t u l a t e i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s h a s n e e d e d t o be r e a n a l y s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f c u r r e n t d a t a . . 4 I h a v e t r i e d t o show t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e b y d i s c u s -s i n g t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e t h e o r i e s o f B e n v e n i s t e a n d W e i n -r i c h a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o show w h e r e a d i f f e r e n t e m p h a s i s mus t [ C h . 5] 160 be p l a c e d . B y f o c u s i n g on t h e a m b i v a l e n c e o f t h e P r e s e n t a n d t h e P a s s e Compose , w i t h i n t h e s p e c i f i c e n v i r o n m e n t o f je_, I h a v e e m p h a s i s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l c o - o r -d i n a t e s a n d t h e i r m a r k e r s a s t h e means o f d i s a m b i g u a t i n g t h e t e n s e - f o r m s w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . T h i s d i s a m b i g u a t i o n i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P a s s e Compose a i m s a t i d e n t i f y i n g o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e t e n s e a s b e i n g e v e n e m e n t i e l ( < P a s s e S i m p l e ) o r a c t u e l ( it P a s s e S i m p l e ) , t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g j e , t o be c l a s s e d , i n t h e e v e n t , a s p e r s o n n e - w h e r e P a s s e Compose i s P a s s e S i m p l e ) -o r p e r s o n n a g e - w h e r e P a s s e Compose i s ( < P a s s e S i m p l e ) . A p p e a l i n g t o t h e n o t i o n o f f o r c e , I h a v e p r o p o s e d a n a d d i t i o n t o t h e " a s p e c t i n d i c i e l : d u l a n g a g e " , i n t h e f o r m o f t h e p r e -s e n t e n t i a l s . T h e s e d e v i c e s , b a s e d on t h e s y n t a c t i c n o t i o n o f t h e h i g h e r S , p e r m i t a g r e a t e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e o f s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l i t y o f a n u t t e r a n c e , a s e n v i s a g e d i n t h e o v e r -a l l s t u d y o f a l l o c u t i o n . 5 I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , I s h a l l a p p l y my f i n d i n g s i n a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e a l l o c u t i o n a r y f a c t o r s t o be f o u n d i n L ' E t r a n ^ g e r . A t t h e same t i m e , I s h a l l p r e s e n t a n d d e v e l o p t h e f i n -d i n g s o f o t h e r s c h o l a r s whose w o r k , b y i t s r e l e v a n c e t o m i n e , seems t o s t r e n g t h e n b o t h my p r o p o s a l s a n d my c o n c l u s i o n s . [Ch. 5] 161 NOTES There i s on t h i s question of pragmatics a marked contrast between the attitude of the l i n g u i s t and that of the philosopher and the s o c i o l o g i s t or s o c i o l i n g u i s t . The l i n g u i s t , generally, i s m i s t r u s t f u l of the notion, regar-ding it„ as an area not susceptible to proof by demonstra-t i o n . However, i t seems to me that t h i s attitude i s not e n t i r e l y well-founded. Certain facts about language, espe c i a l l y language i n use, are not amenable to a stan-dard syntactic analysis: one,..mentioned by Benveniste with a d i f f e r e n t intention, i s the negative p a r t i c l e "non". No syntactic analysis can account for t h i s item for, as Benveniste points out, i t i s not the same thing a s ne ... pas, which i s c e r t a i n l y syntactic: instead, as he puts i t (1970, p . l6 ) , " l a p a r t i c u l e assertive non, substitut d'une proposition, se classe comme l a p a r t i -cule QUI. dont e l l e partage l e statut, dans les formes qui relevent de 1•enonciation". A d i f f e r e n t example i s a c e r t a i n type of r e f l e x i v e of great frequency i n French, e.g. La porte se ferme: i t i s pointless looking for a s a t i s f a c t o r y syntactic analysis of such a sentence. S y n t a c t i c a l l y , i t i s of the same class as Je me lave, for example, but i s c l e a r l y a d i f f e r e n t type nonetheless because, i f taken as the same type, i t i s simply nonsense, while Je me lave i s not. The use of such forms i s merely an example of "members1 practices within a speech-community, one whereby a se-mantically i n v a l i d syntactic formula i s sanctioned to carry, consistently, a d i f f e r e n t and s p e c i f i c semantic load. The pragmatic i m p o s s i b i l i t y of La porte se ferme has created a semantically empty s l o t within the resour-ces of the langue and t h i s s l o t has been given a conven-t i o n a l i s e d semantic load permitting the continued use of the form within the established syntactic norms. This convention i s , i n my terms, a r u l e of langage, as i s the use of non and oui, although unlike these i t does not • a r i s e from the enonciation i t s e l f . These are facts about our use of language and as such are given: they do not r e a l l y require explanations and most es p e c i a l l y not the usual characterisation of them as "avoidance of the Passive". They derive more from common sense with respect to language use and i t i s for this reason that to r e j e c t them i s i l l - a d v i s e d . Unlike Benveniste, however, he states that t h i s contrast [Ch. 5] 162 "ne compare pas des qualites pures mais des predominances quantitatives". This i s an important q u a l i f i c a t i o n be-cause, as Weinrich points out, the s t a t i s t i c a l data that would permit a more absolute statement do not yet exist and the subtleties of usage are such that the sampling process assumes enormous proportions (1973, Ch. 9 » 2 ) . In such a case, one i s forced regrettably to have recourse to the notion of a tendency, namely that the utterance with the force of discours w i l l tend to be more e x p l i -c i t l y s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l . 3. This remark i s an extrapolations.form what Benveniste says, since he does not discuss "force" as such, of course. It i s l e f t to Todorov to l i n k the notion of force with the f i e l d of enonciation (1970b, p . 5 )« Never-theless, Benveniste i s s i n g u l a r l y perceptive about c e r t a i n aspects of the question of force even when, as we s h a l l see (3-1.1), he seems to be speaking only about perfor-matives. In the present instance, what he means by "les grandes fonctions syntaxiques" i s only minimally d i f f e -rent from what Austin means by "force". 4-. Ross himself does not pursue t h i s further but he does state that to do so would e n t a i l the elaboration of "an extended theory of language or a rela t e d theory of lan-guage use" which would exclude his own "use of c o l o r f u l terms l i k e ' i n the a i r ' " (p.257). He even raises but does not attempt to answer the question of "whether the theory of language can be distinguished from a theory of language use" (p.258). 5. I must stress at th i s point that t h i s conclusion does not apply at a l l to the discussion of the higher S i n r e l a t i o n to the Narrative Present. In that case, i t w i l l be re-c a l l e d , a deletion of the higher S was spe c i f i e d , leaving the object-clause to become the main sentence of the utterance: t h i s presents no syntactic d i f f i c u l t i e s what-soever. Furthermore, the fact that the deletion i s spe-c i f i e d removes the need for a discussion of the precise form of the higher S, the only relevant point being that, l i k e the adverbials under discussion, i t constitutes an ind i c a t i o n of how the surface utterance i s to be taken, thus j u s t i f y i n g the use of the Present. 6. The reasons for i t s f a i l u r e are i n t e r e s t i n g i n themselves. While they cannot be gone into here, they have to do with what Perret c a l l s the li m i t e d number of roles available i n a context and also with the question of presuppositions involved i n the semantic description of verbs: on t h i s , c f . Fillmore (1970) [Ch. 5] 163 7. I have not discussed other"forms of i m p l i c i t act brought up by Perret, v i z . appellatory i n t e r j e c t i o n s and noises, such as "Hep" and " P s i t t " , or bodily gestures. They are non-linguistic and of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t other than as an even more extreme i l l u s t r a t i o n of the non-syntactic nature of substitutions. 8. There i s one point that should be c l a r i f i e d concerning my analysis of Perret's examples. Since the e x p l i c i t utte-rance undergoing substitution here i s a performative, the examples may seem to run counter to the axiom as ex-pressed, i f t h i s performative i s taken as not acting as a higher S. However, t h i s i s incorrect: the expression, for example, Je donne l a parole a, X consists of a performative governing a nominalised S ( l a parole a X), so that the higher S i s i n fact present. What i s misleading about the example i s the pa r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i s a t i o n of the performa-t i v e . The English equivalent, I grant the f l o o r to X, does not present t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y : at the same time, i t does involve a simi l a r phenomenon with regard to the f l o o r , which i s a very p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i s a t i o n of the nomina-l i s e d S. 9. Quoted by Benveniste from La philosophie analytique (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1962, p.269) 10. It i s obvious, for example, that si m i l a r signs such as "singe", "loup", "elephant", etc. would not normally count as warnings, whether i n or out of the zoo. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must also be considered variable, es-p e c i a l l y from the c u l t u r a l point of view, since semiotic systems are frequently c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c . This i s most evident i n matters of tr a n s l a t i o n between languages of apparent c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y , ( c f . Vinay/Darbelnet, i960) 11. Probably the most urgent problem i n t h i s area i s to draw up an inventory of i l l o c u t i o n a r y forces ( c f . Todorov 1970b). Without t h i s , the task of specifying a force l e x i c a l l y by means of a performative i s necessarily not only d e l i c a t e but uncertain, (cf. 3-5) 12. The words "the dictionary" are used here generically, although I have i n mind the Compact Oxford English Dic- tionary (1971): while not sta t i n g that the items I c i t e are a group, i t rather assumes i t and, for i t s purposes, offers many of them as an explanation by analogy of "but" (vol . 1 , p.304: BUT. C I I I ) . The item "but" i s seen to encompass the forces of a i l the others, to the extent that i t i s i t s e l f v i r t u a l l y impossible to characterise i n terms [Ch. 5] 164 of a pa r t i c u l a r force.except by inspection of every i n -stance s i n g l y . In addition, i t i s subject to a spe c i a l usage, very frequent i n L'Etranger. whereby i t becomes l i t t l e more than a marker of continuity within an a l l o -cution, ( c f . les adverbes de l a consecution narrative i n Weinrich (1973), p-304ff) Grouping of these items also occurs, somewhat loosely, i n Grevisse (1969) where they are characterised as mar-kers of opposition or r e s t r i c t i o n (p.994) 13. By "point of reference" I do not mean the same thing as referent, as i n the case of anaphoric reference. I mean rather an utterance which serves as a point of departure for a subsequent act. Likewise, the term utterance-configuration i s not to be confused with context of utterance or context of s i t u a - t i o n : i t i s intended to r e f e r to the configuration of the utterances occurring about a given point i n a discourse and constitutes an observation about the utterances as texts or enonces. 14. It should be noted that while there may seem to be a cer-t a i n s i m i l a r i t y between the notion of "happiness condi-tions" and that of "co-occurrence r e s t r i c t i o n s " i n trans^ formational grammar the two are fundamentally d i f f e r e n t . The former might be said, i n transformational terms, to belong to a much deeper, syntactico-semantic l e v e l of rep-resentation. 15. It i s hard to see, i n the present state of our knowledge of these matters, how to be more categorical about th i s kind of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l statement ( c f . note 11). One possible test i s that mentioned by Austin (cf. his Lecture Ten) whereby a report i s formulated concerning an utte-rance, e.g. In saying Nevertheless, p, he i n s i s t e d that... However, t h i s does not always' work, since there are cer-t a i n forms, e.g. I re t o r t , I expostulate, I complain, etc., which usually do not occur i n speech (at least as performatives) even though they may be stated i n report. In t h i s case, i t means that the i l l o c u t i o n a r y force can be reported but not s p e c i f i e d i n the form of an e x p l i c i t performative (except i n highly s t y l i s e d - r h e t o r i c a l -forms of speech: c f . Ch.6:3-0). The only way to be more cat e g o r i c a l might be to add to the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l statement a constraint whereby, i n given, s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c a l l y l o c a l i s e d situations, c e r t a i n e x p l i c i t performative verbs w i l l be s p e c i f i e d as substitutes, [Ch. 5] 165 e.g. i n (23), the j u r i d i c a l s e t t i n g would c a l l for I f i n d . 16. I say "ra r e l y " having i n mind other types of int r u s i o n such as that mentioned e a r l i e r i n connection with Benve-niste, whereby the speaker or author inserts a remark of a general nature a r i s i n g from his narration but separate from i t . Such instances occur i n the next example and are mainly i r o n i c i n nature. 17. There are frequent occurrences of mais, as might be ex-pected, but I have c i t e d only those which seem to be pre-se n t e n t i a l i n the sense which I have defined, rather than merely "adverbes de l a consecution narrative", mentioned i n note 12. 18. c f . note 2 19. Indeed one might equally claim that the Narrative Present involves a then, rather than "another now", since the alter e d time-reference - be i t Future or Past - c a l l s for then. 20. The proposed terms are comparable with what i s found i n German as "ErzShlendes Ich/Erlebendes Ich" or i n English as "narrating 1 /experiencing I": c f . Lehtonen (1973), i n which the author points out also that " l a terminologie francaise ne semble pas avoir ete fix e e " (p.390). How-ever, my terms have not quite the same import, as w i l l become clea r i n the next chapter. 21. This idea i s similar to Weinrich's ( c f . note 1 4 , Ch. 4 ) except that I postulate the necessity of specifying i n each case which pole of the contrast i s involved, whereas Weinrich sees only the necessity to specify narration, whence his idea of a "temps synthetique". 22. Neither Benveniste nor Weinrich uses an example l i k e (26), •which I have formulated expressly for the^ point under d i s -cussion; indeed, they nowhere acknowledge the existence of a usage b u i l t on such a model, even though i t i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r analysis of the French tenses. Weinrich, i n his discussion of "trans i t i o n s temporelles (heterogenes)" (1973, pp.203-205), touches on the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a model, but considers i t rare. I t i s perhaps not so ra r e . I have given examples of i t from Alain-Fournier and Maupassant and i t i s to be found even today i n , for example, some of the a r t i c l e s of Paris- Match, from which I have taken the following extract which was given there i n the form of dir e c t quotation: [ C h . 5] 166 " E n 1965, j e s u i s t ombe m a l a d e . J ' a i p e r d u 14 k i l o s , j e ne p e s a i s p l u s que 54- k i l o s ( a u j o u r d ' h u i 68). J e n ' a v a i s p l u s u n s o u . J e s u i s a l o r s r e p a r t i p o u r C a y e n n e . De 1966 a. 1970, j e s u i s de n o u v e a u d e v e n u c h e f de s c i e r i e , p u i s j e me s u i s o c c u p e de t r a n s p o r t s de m a t e r i a u x p o u r l a c o n s t r u c t i o n d e s c a n a l i s a t i o n s d ' a d d u c t i o n d ' e a u a C a y e n n e . J ' a v a i s b e s o i n d ' a r g e n t p o u r m o n t e r mon p r o p r e c h a n t i e r d ' o r . J e v o u l a i s l ' i n s t a l l e r a. M a r a u d e u r . J ' a v a i s b i e n p r o s p e c t e l a r e g i o n e t c ' e s t l a . o u , me s e m b l a i t - i l , j ' a u r a i s l e p l u s de c h a n c e d ' a v o i r u n b o n r e n d e m e n t . J e f i s l a demande d ' u n p e r m i s de p r o s p e c t i o n que j ' o b t i n s e t , c e t t e f o i s , j e m ' i n s t a l l a i c o m p l e t e m e n t . I I f a l l a i t a p p o r t e r t o u t l e m a t e r i e l p a r p i r o g u e e t e n s u i t e l e p o r t e r a. d o s d 'homme j u s q u ' a u v i l l a g e , p u i s j u s q u ' a u c h a n t i e r . Nous a v o n s c o n s t r u i t d ' a b o r d 14- c a r b e t s d a n s l e v i l l a g e p o u r l e s o u v r i e r s e t m o i - m e m e . E n -s u i t e i l f a l l a i t o u v r i r l e c h a n t i e r . Nous d e c i d a m e s de l e c r e e r a 5 ton 4u v i l l a g e : l a f o r § t r e c o u v r a n t t o u t , i l f a l l u t d ' a b o r d d e f r i c h e r . Nous i n s t a l l a m e s l e s mo topompes a p r e s a v o i r c r e u s e d a n s l a r o c h e . P o u r f a i r . e f o n c t i o n n e r l e s m o t e u r s , i l n o u s f a l l a i t 50 l i t r e s de f u e l p a r j o u r . T o u t c e l a , n o u s a l l i o n s l e c h e r c h e r a M a r i p a - S o u l a , ou a S a i n t - L a u r e n t - d u - M a r o n i . A h ! q u * e s t - c e que nou s a v o n s t r a v a i l l e . " ( P a r i s - M a t c h . 28 f e v . 1976, p..56) The e x t r a c t c o n s t i t u t e s a n u n u s u a l a s s e m b l a g e o f t e n s e s a n d , w h i l e 1 w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o f f e r i t a s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e b e s t o f u s a g e , i t i s t h e r e n e v e r t h e l e s s a n d a t l e a s t p r o v e s t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e m o d e l i n q u e s t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . W e i n r i c h ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e n s e s o f L ' E t r a n g e r i s m o s t i n f o r m a t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d , s i n c e i t i s s t i l l d o m i n a t e d b y h i s c o n c e p t o f G r o u p I I t e n s e s . 167 CHAPTER SIX  L'Etranger 0. The tense-forms of L'Etranger, considered above a l l as a lin e a r phenomenon, o f f e r a very special order of i n t e r e s t . It i s an intere s t which goes beyond the much discussed use of the Passe Compose i t s e l f to touch p r i n c i p a l l y on what have been c a l l e d the "moments de narration", studied notably by Barrier (1962), F i t c h (1968d), Pariente (1968) and Fletcher (1971). As I pointed out i n Chapter L, to ta l k of the "moments de narration" i s to focus on the question of the r e l a t i o n between time and tense and the allocutionary s i t u -a t i o n . 1.0 I propose i n t h i s chapter to study the occurrences of tense-forms i n L'Etranger, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and accompanying occurrences of the various forms grouped under the heading of "l'aspect i n d i c i e l du langage". Following that, I s h a l l con-sider these occurrences from the point of view of th e i r i l l o -cutionary force and the perception of such force by tu. By th i s means, i t w i l l be possible to consider the r o l e of both je and t_u i n the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n of which the text i s the manifestation and thence to consider what can be said of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f . In a f i n a l section, I s h a l l examine b r i e f l y what might be referr e d to as the [Ch. 6 ] 168 perlocutionary force of the whole work, thus bringing into consideration for the f i r s t time Camus as author. 1 L'Etranger opens ( 1 : 1 ) with a paragraph containing a series of tenses: Passe Compose (equally possibly Present + pa r t i c i p e passe), Present, Passe Compose, Present, Imparfait. In t h i s series, the Present predominates and i s found also i n the opening of the second paragraph, i n which, following a series of three forms i n the Futur, there occurs a sequence of forms - Passe Compose and Imparfait - i n which the Passe Compose predominates. The paragraph closes with a sequence comprising Futur, Present, Imparfait, Futur and Futur Compose 1 . 1 A Passe Compose and an Imparfait open the next para-graph and predominate thereafter through/the entire chapter. A number of points are to be noted. F i r s t , there are no more occurrences of the Futursin the chapter nor indeed i n the remainder of Part I, other than i n direct quotations. Second, there are several instances of the discours i n d i r e c t l i b r e . i n which various forms occur, e.g. Conditionnel and Condi-ti o n n e l Compose: since these forms are predictable within such a framework, they need not detain us here. Thirdly, throughout the rest of the chapter there are occurrences, more or less i s o l a t e d i n each case, of the Present: they are interspersed, therefore, among the forms of the Passe Compose and the Imparfait. This i s a phenomenon to which I s h a l l [ C h . 6 ] 1 6 9 r e t u r n i n due c o u r s e : f o r t h e moment , I s h a l l s i m p l y c i t e t h e i n s t a n c e s i n q u e s t i o n : p . 8 : 1. I I a p e r d u s o n o n c l e 11 y a q u e l q u e s m o i s . i i . C ' e s t a, c a u s e de t o u t c e l a s a n s d o u t e , . . . .^ p . 9 : i .. L ' a s i l e e s t a . d e u x k i l o m e t r e s " du . v i l l a g e . i i . C ' e s t u n p e t i t v i . e u x , "avec ....... p.13: J e ne s a i s p a s q u e l g e s t e j ' a i f a i t , . . . . . p.15: Comme j ' a i m e M e n l e c a f e a u l a i t , j ' a i a c c e p t e . . . . p.16: J e c r o i s que j ' a i s o m n o l e u n p e u . p.17: i . Jje l e s v o y a i s comme j e n ' a i j a m a i s v u p e r s o n n e i i . J e c r o i s p l u t o t q u ' i l s me s a l u a i e n t . p.19: i . M a i s j e c r o i s m a i n t e n a n t que c ' e t a i t u n e i m p r e s s i o n f a u s s e . i i . E n s u i t e , j e ne s a i s p l u s , i i i . J e me s o u v i e n s q u * a.un moment ....... p.25: J e ne s a i s p a s p o u r q u o i n ou s a v o n s a t t e n d u . . . p . 2 8 : . . . que j e ne me s o u v i e n s p l u s de r i e n . F u r t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f t h e P r e s e n t , o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n , a r e i g n o r e d h e r e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s one c l e a r i n s t a n c e o f a P a s s e Compose w h i c h I n o t e h e r e f o r d i s c u s s i o n l a t e r ; i t c a n be c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e f o r m o c c u r r i n g i n p . 1 7 : i a b o v e : p . 2 8 : J ' a i e n c o r e g a r d e q u e l q u e s i m a g e s de c e t t e j o u r n e e . 1.2 1:2 i s a s h o r t c h a p t e r o p e n i n g on s i m i l a r l i n e s t o 1:1: a s e r i e s o f P a s s e C o m p o s e , P r e s e n t , P l u s q u e p a r f a i t , P a s s e Co mpose , I m p a r f a i t , P r e s e n t , P a s s e Compose , P r e s e n t . F r o m t h e s t a r t o f t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h t o t h e e nd o f t h e [ C h . 6] 170 c h a p t e r , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t t e n s e s a r e a g a i n t h e P a s s e Compose a n d t h e I m p a r f a i t ( s e t t i n g a s i d e a s "be fo re t e n s e - f o r m s i m p o s e d b y r u l e s o f q u o t a t i o n , e t c . ) . Once a g a i n , we f i n d i n t e r s s p e r s e d o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e P r e s e n t : p .31: E l l e a u s s i , j e c r o i s . p.32: De t o u t e f a c o n , o n e s t t o u j o u r s u n p e u f a u t i f . p.33: i . J e n ' a i m e p a s l e d l m a n c h e . i i . . . . l i s m ' a u r a i e n t p o s e d e s q u e s t i o n s e t j e n ' a i m e p a s c e l a . i i i . M a l n t e n a n t i l e s t t r o p g r a n d p o u r mo i . . . . . i v . J e ne v i s p l u s que d a n s c e t t e p i e c e , . . . l a g l a c e e s t j a u n i e . . . . . v . L e r e s t e e s t a 1 ' a b a n d o n . p.3^: i . . . . ou j e m e t s l e s c h o s e s q u i m ' a m u s e n t d an s l e s j o u r n a u x . i i . Ma c h a m b r e donne s u r l a r u e p r i n c i p a l e . . . i i i . . . . u n p e t i t homme a s s e z f r e l e que j e c o n n a i s de v u e . p.35: L e s s p e c t a c l e s e t a i e n t p a r t o u t c ommence s , j e c r o i s . 1.1.3 1:3, a l s o r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , i s m a r k e d t h r o u g h o u t b y a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f P a s s e Compose a n d I m p a r f a i t f o r m s . H o w e v e r , i t i s a l s o v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m 1:1,1:2 i n t h a t i t c o n t a i n s a number o f r e l a t i v e l y p r o t r a c t e d p a s s a g e s m a r k e d b y t h e P r e s e n t . T h e s e p a s s a g e s a r e s a n d w i c h e d b e t w e e n t h e m a i n t e n s e - f o r m s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d a n d a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : p .39: A m i d i , j ' a i m e b i e n c e momen t . L e s o i r , j ' y t r o u v e m o i n s de p l a i s i r p a r c e que l a s e r v i e t t e r o u l a n t e q u ' o n u t i l i s e e s t t o u t a f a i t h u m i d e : e l l e a s e r v i t o u t e l a j o u r n e e . p . 4 l : I I y a h u i t a n s q u ' o n l e s v o i t e n s e m b l e . L ' e p a g n e u l a u n e m a l a d i e de p e a u , l e r o u g e , j e c r o i s , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Ch. 6] 171 s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , personne ne peut savoir. p.4-3: Dans l e quartier, on d i t q u ' i l v i t des f emmes . II est toujours h a b i l l e tres correctement. p.44: Lui aussi n*a qu'une chambre ...... .............................cliches de f emmes nues . The question w i l l a r i s e l a t e r whether such instances are com-parable with those cases occurring i n i s o l a t i o n that have been c i t e d for the e a r l i e r chapters. 1.1.4 1:4 consists e n t i r e l y of instances of Passe Compose and Imparfait, with the exception of three sentences employing the Present. These are: p.53: ... Emmanuel qui ne comprend pas toujours ce qui se passe sur l'ecran. II faut alors l u i donner des explications. p . 6 l : Je ne sais pas pourquoi j ' a i pense a maman. 1.1.5 In I ; 5 » the tense.s follow the same pattern of d i s t r i -bution as i n the preceding chapter. The three instances of an interspersed Present are: p.62: ... parce que je sais que l e patron n'aime pas qu'on nous telephone de l a v i l l e . p. 70: i . Mais selon l u i , sa vraie maladie, c ' e t a i t l a v i e i l l e s s e , et l a v i e i l l e s s e ne se guerit pas. i i . J ' a i repondu, je ne sais pas encore pourquoi, que j'ignorais jusqu'ici ..... 1.1.6 Apart from a sequence of two sentences i n the Present, 1:6 i s composed e n t i r e l y of Passe Compose and Imparfait. The exceptions are these: p.79: Je ne sais pas pourquoi c e l a a f a i t r i r e Marie. [ C h . 6] 1?1 J e c r o i s q u ' e l l e a v a i t u n p e u t r o p b u . 1.7 T h i s b r i e f i n s p e c t i o n o f P a r t I makes c l e a r t h e m a j o r p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t e n s e s a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e d e c r e a s i n g number o f i n t e r s p e r s e d - , f o r m s o f t h e P r e s e n t . A t t h i s s t a g e , I do n o t p r o p o s e t o a t t r i b u t e a n y s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n ; i n s t e a d , I s h a l l p r o c e e d t o t h e i n s p e c -t i o n o f P a r t I I . 2 11:1 i s a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g c h a p t e r e m p l o y i n g t h e P a s s e Compose a n d t h e I m p a r f a i t , w i t h o n l y one I n s t a n c e o f t h e P r e -s e n t . T h i s o c c u r s i n t h e l a s t p a g e : p.105: . . . j e p e u x d i r e q ue j e m ' e t o n n a i s p r e s q u e . . . 2.1 11:2, o f r o u g h l y s i m i l a r l e n g t h , shows t h e same d i s t -r i b u t i o n , t h i s t i m e w i t h f i v e i n t e r s p e r s e d P r e s e n t f o r m s : p . 106: I I y a d e s c h o s e s . d o n t j e n ' a i j a m a i s a i m e p a r l e r . p . I l l : J e ne s a i s p a s c o m b i e n de t emps a p a s s e . p.117: J e p e u x d i r e q u e , d a n s l e s d e r n i e r s m o i s , . . . . . p.119: . . . c ' e t a i t l ' h e u r e d o n t j e ne v e u x p a s p a r l e r • • • • p.120: . . . p e r s o n n e ne p e u t i m a g l n e r c e que s o n t l e s s o i r s d a n s l e s p r i s o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e o c c u r s a n i n s t a n c e o f t h e P a s s e Compose w h i c h , l i k e t h a t i n t h e s e n t e n c e c i t e d a b o v e f o r p.106 ( c f a l s o i n p . 1 7 : i ) , i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r s i n t h e c h a p t e r : p.112: . . . l e s c h o s e s d o n t j e n ' a i j a m a i s a i m e p a r l e r [ C h . 6] 172 1.2.2 11:3, I n w h i c h t h e P a s s e Compose a n d I m p a r f a i t a g a i n p r e d o m i n a t e , c o n t a i n s s i x i n s t a n c e s o f t h e P r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : p.121: J e p e u x d i r e q u ' a u f o n d l ' e t e a t r e s v i t e r e m -p l a c e l ' e t e . p.123: i . M a i s j e ne p e u x p a s d i r e c e q u i l e s d i s t i n g u a i t l e s u n s d e s a u t r e s . i i . J e s a i s - b l e n q u e c ' e t a i t u n e i d e e n i a i s e . . . . i i i . C e p e n d a n t , l a d i f f e r e n c e n ' e s t p a s g r a n d e e t c ' e s t e n t o u t c a s I ' i d e . e q u i m ' e s t v e n u e , i v . M a i s j e c r o i s q u ' i l n ' a v a i t p a s pu m e t t r e s o n c o l . . . . v . J e c r o i s b i e n que d ' a b o r d . . . . 1.2.3 11:4 p r e s e n t s t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n a s 11:3, w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x i n s t a n c e s o f t h e P r e s e n t : p . 1 4 4 : i . . . . i l e s t t o u j o u r s i n t e r e s s a n t d ' e n t e n d r e p a r l e r de s o i . i i . . . . j e p e u x d i r e q u ' o n a b e a u c o u p p a r l e de mo i p.14-5: D ' a i l l e u r s , j e d o i s r e c o n n a l t r e que l ' i n t e r e t q u ' o n t r o u v e a o c c u p e r l e s g e n s ne d u r e p a s l o n g t e m p s . p.152: M a i s j e c r o i s que j ' e t a i s d e j a t r e s l o i n de c e t t e s a l l e d ' a u d i e n c e . p.153: A l a f i n , j e me s o u v i e n s s e u l e m e n t que . . . . p.157: J e c r o i s b i e n que c ' e t a i t de l a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 1.2.4 I n 11:5, t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e same b a s i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e n s e s i s f o u n d b u t i n m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s : t h e r e a r e some t h i r t y - o n e i n s t a n c e s o f t h e P r e s e n t i n t e r -s p e r s e d among t h e P a s s e Compose a n d I m p a r f a i t f o r m s . R a t h e r t h a n c i t e a l l o f t h e m , I s h a l l d i s t i n g u i s h b e tween - t h e m , g i v i n g e x a m p l e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s . [Ch. 6] 173 1.-3 The f i r s t category may be compared to generalities such as the proverb or the universal truth: p.159: On ne sa l t jamais ce qui peut a r r i v e r . p.163: On se f a i t toujours des idees exagerees de ce qu'on ne connalt pas. This type does not involve the use of " j e " (cf_. also p.144 :1). 1.4 In the second type, " j e " does occur but the sentence i t s e l f i s not quite the same as the "interspersed" type pre-viously re f e r r e d to: rather, i t i s one of a clu s t e r of sen-tences c o n s t i t u t i n g a series with a di f f e r e n t force from that of the interspersed form. An example of thi s type opens the chapter; i t s force w i l l become apparent i n l a t e r discussion: p.158: Pour l a troisieme f o l s , j ' a i refuse de rece-vo i r l'aumonier. Je n'ai r i e n a l u i dire, je n'ai pas envie de parler, .... The sentences of th i s category are to be compared with the e a r l i e r examples from 1:3, since they also r a i s e the question of t h e i r relatedness to the interspersed type of Present. 1.5 The t h i r d type i s the now fa m i l i a r interspersed sen-tence, with the following occurrences: p.158: Je ne sais combien de f o i s je me suis demande s • i l y avait .... p.159: i * Dans un sens, je c r o i s que ce l a m'aurait s u f f i . i i . Mais c e l a ne parle pas a, 1 'imagination. p . l 6 l : J'avais t o r t , je c r o i s , de penser a cette pos-s i b i l l t e . p .l62: Je dis que c'est l e cote defectueux. Cela est v r a i , dans un sens. [Ch. 6] 174-p.163: i . J'ai cru longtemps - et je ne sais pas pour-quoi - que .... i i . Je cr o i s que je veux dire a cause de .... p.165: Je peux dire, d ' a i l l e u r s , que .... p.166: Je cr o i s que j ' a i t i r e l e meilleur p a r t i de cette idee. p . l75 : Alors, je ne sais pas pourquoi, .... 1.6 There are also Infrequent occurrences of other tense forms:- one example of the Futur, various instances of the Conditionnel and Conditionnel Compose. There are also f i v e instances of a form that has. evoked comment i n previous studies; thus, Weinrich 1973:309) says, echoing Barrier, "Camus a eu quelque peine a se g l i s s e r dans ce r o l e volon-tairement efface du narrateur. On a deja. remarque que l e Passe Simple l u i a echappe a. cinq reprises, malgre sa ferme intention d'eviter ce temps ' l i t t e r a i r e ' . [••••] Certains Imparfaits du subjonctif, au moins aussi l i t t e -r a i r e s et pedants, se sont m£me g l i s s e s , quelquefois, dans l e texte. II n'est visiblement pas s i simple, lorsqu'on entreprend un r e c i t e c r i t , de renoncer a. un temps qui est justement prevu a cet e f f e t . " ^ The f i v e instances of th i s subjunctive form to which I have referred are a l l contained i n utterances by Meursault, rather than i n the words of any other speaker. The in t e r e s t i n g fact that emerges from th i s i s that they occur within i n d i r e c t discourse (including discours Indirect l l b r e ) and only there, as i n th i s example: p . l77 : Qu'importait que Raymond fut mon copain autant que Celeste qui v a l a i t mieux que l u i ? Qu'im-port a i t que Marie donrrat aujourd'hui sa bouche a un nouveau Meursault? Furthermore, when occurring i n a di f f e r e n t environment, the [ C h . 6] 175 f o r m e m e r g e s a s t h e P r e s e n t du s u b j o n c t i f , a s i n t h i s e x a m p l e : p.154: T o u t c e que j e f a i s a i s d ' i n u t l l e en c e l i e u m ' e s t a l o r s r e m o n t e a l a g o r g e e t j e n ' a i eu q u ' u n e h a t e , c ' e s t q u ' o n e n f i n i s s e e t que j e r e t r o u v e ma c e l l u l e a v e c l e s o m m e l l . W i t h one e x c e p t i o n , t h e many s u c h e x a m p l e s i n t h e w o r k p e r m i t u s t o s a y t h a t M e u r s a u l t ' s g rammar h a s a c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e r u l e c o n s t r a i n i n g h i s o t h e r w i s e c o n v e n t i o n a l g e n e r a l a b andonmen t o f t h i s I m p a r f a i t f o r m . The e x c e p t i o n , o n p . 1 0 4 , i s t h e one c i t e d b y B a r r i e r ( 1 9 6 2 : 1 0 ) i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t s u c h o c c u r r e n c e s a r e e r r o r s . One s u c h c a s e m i g h t w e l l be a n o v e r s i g h t b u t t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e m a j o r i t y w o u l d seem t o g i v e t h e l i e t o t h e c l a i m o f a g e n e r a l l a p s e o n t h e p a r t o f C a m u s . S i n c e t h e o c c u r r e n c e s seem t o be i d i o l e c t a l r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y c o n v e n -t i o n a l o r p e d a n t i c , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a t t r i b u t e t h em t o t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f M e u r s a u l t r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f Camus # * * * * • « • * * * # • « • 2 . 0 T u r n i n g t o t h e " a s p e c t i n d i c i e l " i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f L ' E t r a n g e r , I do n o t p r o p o s e t o e n u m e r a t e a l l t h e o c c u r r e n c e s . B a r r i e r (p.107 s e q . ) h a s a l r e a d y done t h i s f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , o b s e r v i n g t h a t " l e s i n d i c a t i o n s t e m p o r e l l e s s o n t e x t r e m e m e n t f r e q u e n t e s , e t s o u v e n t t r e s p r e c i s e s * * , a l t h o u g h h i s c o n c l u -s i o n s on t h i s p o i n t show, a s W e i n r i c h (.1968:339) p o i n t s o u t , t h a t h e h a s n o t g r a s p e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e o c c u r r e n c e s n o r [Ch. 6] 176 of t h e i r frequency. This turns out to be a serious mistake and, added to the fact that Barrier's count concerns only Part I, prevents him from f u l l y appreciating the differences i n temporality that are to be perceived. 1 For Abbou (1969a:51). these differences concern p r i n -c i p a l l y w l e temps l i n g u i s t i q u e " and " l e temps chronique", along with t h e i r respective markers. He points out that "les marques du temps li n g u i s t i q u e , mode de representation propre a. l a communication orale, predominant. A i n s i l a premiere partie jusqu'au chapitre IV ne dispose que de t e l l e s marques, 'Au.1ourd1 hul'. ' enterrement demain'. 'apres-demaln'. 'au.iourd'hui*. 'c'est au.iourd'hui samedi '. 'depuls h i e r ' . [.......•.•....•..................•..........•.•........... •••• 3 Ce n'est qu'a p a r t i r de l a seconde partie, et cela peut etre considere comme signe d'evolution, que les operateurs effectuent l e tra n f e r t du temps l i n g u i s t i q u e en temps chronique: 'hult .1 ours -APRES11, 'ce .lour-LA', 'en ces : . heures-LA'. 'onze mois', 'quelques .jours APRES'. 'AU BOUT  de quelques semalnes', etc.* 1. o 1.1 Once t h i s s h i f t to l e temps chronique has taken place, what becomes all-Important, i n Abbou's view, i s the events being recounted and esp e c i a l l y the sequentiality of these events: the language i s that of "then" and "next". Thus i n 11:1 already we f i n d t h i s series of ind i c a t o r s : "La premiere  f o l s ... w. "Hult .lours apres ...". "Puis ...". "Au debut . . .". "Apres .,..". "Le lendemaln "Peu de temps apres "Par l a suite ...", "Et au bout des onze mols ...". The same kind of series i s found i n the following chapters, though with s t e a d i l y decreasing frequency. [Ch. 6] 177 2.1.2 It would be wrong, however, to leave as Abbou does here the-impression that the frequency of the markers of l e temps  chronique, which he takes as the mark of "narration historique", draws the l i n e between a narrative second part of the work and a non-narrative f i r s t part. These same indicators exist i n the f i r s t part also; what;.is d i f f e r e n t i s merely t h e i r frequency of d i s t r i b u t i o n . In 1:1, ignoring for ino'w the f i r s t two paragraphs, no chronological indications are given at a l l , other than "a deux heures". 1:2 opens with the i n d i -cation that "c'est aujourd'hui samedi" (cf. note 6), followed by a discussion of "samedi" and "dimanehe" and the further indications " c ' e t a i t vraiment dlmanche ..." and " c ' e t a i t tou- :.1,ours un dlmanche de t i r e " . No such s p e c i f i c a t i o n occurs at a l l i n 1:3 (although the c l e a r contextual inference i s that i t i s Monday) and 1:4- has the sole i n d i c a t i o n "Hier. c ' e t a i t  samedi". while in.1:5 no-specification i s given. The opening words of 1:6 i d e n t i f y "Le dimanche" but the chapter has only one subsequent occurrence, " l a v e l l l e " . 2.1.3 Somewhat more frequent i n Part I are the markers of s e q u e n t i a l i t y . Puis, encore, puis, ensulte. puis, a l o r s . puis. ensuite, puis, ensuite, puis, ensulte. puis, puis, ensulte a l l occur i n 1:1, although they are r e l a t i v e l y infrequent consi-dering t h i s series occurs over twenty-nine pages. 1:2 i n p a r t i c u l a r shows a s t a r t l i n g lack of t h i s type of marker, while i n 1:3,4,5 the frequency r i s e s again, to drop markedly [Ch. 6] 178 i n 1:6. 2.1.4 The t h i r d group of markers to be noted i n t h i s connec-t i o n has the function of i n d i c a t i n g not sequentiality but rather the point within a sequence at which an event occurs. Thus: a, un moment, peu apres, a ce moment, etc. This group occurs frequently and, as Weinrich (1968:339) has noted, serves to mark the accompanying tense-forms as part of narra-t i o n , i . e . Passe Compose (<Passe Simple). 2.2 The effe c t of a l l of these markers i s , e-learlyj to i n d i -cate the narrative character of much of the language of L'Etranger, even i n Part I. However, there are other i n d i c a -tors to consider. 2.2.1 As Abbou has pointed out with his examples, there are those items which i d e n t i f y the forms of l e temps li n g u i s t i q u e and thus of discours, i . e . by marking the spatio-temporal co-ordinates of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n . However, taken as forms, these "shifters'* (c_f. Todorov: 1967a) are deceptive i n ce r t a i n instances, as I have shown i n the discussion of the Narrative Present. In L'Etranger we f i n d such instances, a l l c l e a r l y showing the reference to another now: p.16'1: Maintenant je comprenais, c ' e t a i t s i naturel. p . l71: J ' a i repondu que je l'aborderals exactement comme je l'abordais en ce moment. Carrying t h i s further, we f i n d examples such as the following, [Ch. 6] 179 displaying a remarkable cooccurrence of tense-forms: p.70: ... sa vraie maladie, c ' e t a i t l a v i e i l l e s s e , et l a v i e i l l e s s e ne se guerit pas. p.123: Je sais bien que c ' e t a i t une idee niaise puis-que i c i ce n'etait pas l e r i d i c u l e q u ' i l s cher-chaient .... p .l66: Dans l e fond, je n'ignorais pas que mourir a trente ans ou a soixante ans importe peu puis-que, naturellement, dans les deux cas, d'autres hommes et d'autres femmes vivront. Rien n'etait plus c l a i r e , en somme. C'etait toujours moi qui mourrais, que ce s o i t malntenant ou dans vingt ans. p.167: Du moment qu'on meurt, comment et quand, c e l a n'importe pas, c ' e t a i t evident. p . l73 : Peut-etre, i l y a bien longtemps, y avals-je cherche un visage. p.177: ••• Que m'importaient son Dieu, les vies qu'on c h o i s i t , les destins qu'on e l i t .... 3 Obviously, i t i s not to examples l i k e these that one must look for indications of l e temps l i n g u i s t i q u e : from the point of view of systematic d i s t i n c t i o n between discours and r e c i t , such examples are anomalous. At the same time, t h e i r form can not be c a l l e d i n any sense erroneous, since t h e i r use by speakers of the language i s well established. It i s remark-able that the occurrence of these instances i n L'Etranger has been generally overlooked, in. spite of the fact that i t raises questions of great inter e s t for the work as a whole. 3.1 Setting the "shifters".aside for now, I wish to examine the presence i n the text of two other types of marker. The f i r s t of these i s the presententials, described e a r l i e r as [ C h . 6 ] 180 I n d i c a t o r s o f a d e l e t e d s p e e c h - a c t a n d t h u s o f t h e a l l o c u - . t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n . T h i s g r o u p i s n o t o f h i g h f r e q u e n c y i n t h e w o r k , o c c u r r i n g some t w e n t y - f i v e t i m e s a l t o g e t h e r , "but f o u n d p r i n c i p a l l y i n P a r t I I . ' ' The p a r t i c u l a r f o r m s a r e p o u r t a n t , c e p e n d a n t , d ' a i l l e u r s , du r e s t e , a u c o n t r a l r e a n d s e u l e m e n t , t h e f i r s t t h r e e b e i n g t h e m o s t common. T h e i r number i s g i v e n a s a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n b e c a u s e i t d e p e n d s i n f a c t on o n e ' s v i e w o f wha t may be c o u n t e d a p r e s e n t e n t i a l . The f i g u r e g i v e n i s f o r t h e f o r m s c i t e d b u t t h e r e a r e nume-r o u s o t h e r f o r m s whose i n c l u s i o n m e r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e y a r e a s f o l l o w s : s a n s d o u t e a. b i e n r e f l e c h l r e n s o m e e n y r e f l e c h i s s a n t b i e n somme t o u t e j u s t e r n e n t l a . e n c o r e d a n s u n s e n s e n r e a l i t e e n q u e l q u e s o r t e a v r a i d i r e r e f l e x i o n f a i t e en t o u t c a s du m o i n s s u r t o u t n a t u r e l l e m e n t e v l d e m m e n t p e u t - e t r e s e u l e m e n t t o u t b i e n c o n s i d e r e t o u t de meme 2 . 3 - 2 A t p r e s e n t , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e s e f o r m s c a n be c o u n t e d a s p r e s e n t e n t i a l s a d m i t s o f no r e a d y a n s w e r , a b o v e a l l f r o m a s y n t a c t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , b u t t h e r e i s a t l e a s t s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e m a t t e r i s j u s -t i f i e d . C e r t a i n o f t h e f o r m s w o u l d seem t o h a v e t h e f o r c e o f a p e r f o r m a t i v e , a s t h e s e e x a m p l e s s how: p.104-: S e u l e m e n t , j ' e t a i s a c c o m p a g n e de mon a v o c a t . . . . ( S e u l e m e n t = " j e v o u s p r i e , de n o t e r que . . . " ) p . $7' S u r t o u t , j e v o y a i s que j e l e m e t t a i s m a l a l ' a i s e . [Ch. 6] 181 (Surtout = n j e souligne (le f a i t ) que ...) Others are less easy to equate with a performative. They have, nonetheless, l i k e the presententials, the force of an intervention by the speaker i n his own text, a form of commen-tary on his own utterance: p.103: Evidemment, j ' a i d i t non une fois. de plus. (Evldemment = "vous ne serez pas etonne d'ap--prendre que ...") p.106: En r e a l i t e , je n'etais pas reellement en prison, les premiers jours. (En r e a l i t e -= "je vous assure que ...") It goes without saying that the equivalences shown here are at best tentative and that one i s faced with the same problem of l e x i c a l i s a t i o n as i n the case of the presententials. Such commentar>y-forms. as I s h a l l c a l l them, are f a i r l y evenly d i s -t r i b uted throughout the work and p a r a l l e l c l o s e l y c e r t a i n elements which, for Abbou (1969a:55)f "donnent a. l a communica-t i o n une a l l u r e de message-objet et de metalangage". Thus I would claim that, when compared with the presententials, they o are equally, though perhaps d i f f e r e n t l y , s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l . 2.3*3 The second major type of marker I s h a l l consider i s one whose status as a marker i s not widely established: i n -deed, i t has received very l i t t l e attention at a l l so far (cf . Levenston, 1974:410). Nevertheless, i t merits i n c l u s i o n here because of both i t s general importance as a phenomenon and i t s frequency i n L'Etranger. The type i n question i s the "interruption sentence" (or "parenthetic sentence"), of which [Ch. 6] 182 Kruisinga (quoted by Levenston, p . 4 l l ) has thi s to say: "I t sometimes happens that a.speaker interrupts himself, whether i n the course of a sentence, or of a series of sentences, to make a statement or an observation that may serve to make the sit u a t i o n , whether with regard to the subject or to the predicate of the sentence, clearer, or to add a comment that the speaker neglected to make be-forehand, or wishes to make before he has completed his sentence. Such sentences have the structure of a simple or compound sentence (often a shortened one), but are spoken with a di f f e r e n t intonation from the rest; i n print they are denoted by^parentheses, whence the i r name paren- th e t i c sentences". Within t h i s general category, two d i s t i n c t types can be estab-l i s h e d : one continues, l n one way or another, the grammar of the Interrupted sentence whereas the other i s grammatically independent and receives the name "interruption sentence", to distinguish i t from the f i r s t type, c a l l e d "clause modifier" by Eyestone (see Levenston, pp.4-12-13). An example of such an inter r u p t i o n sentence i s found i n t h i s sentence from L'Etranger: "Malgre l a chaleur ( j ' e t a i s en manche de chemise), i l avait un costume sombre, un c o l casse ...." (p.95) Throughout the work, t h i s type of sentence occurs some eleven times, more or less evenly distributed-over both parts.^ 2.4 Levenston's study does not claim to be exhaustive; on the contrary, the author hopes i t w i l l encourage others to pursue the examination of "t h i s fascinating and l i t t l e studied aspect of narrative technique" (p .4l4). Carrying his analysis further, I have encountered another type of interruption sen-tence, very common i n L'Etranger. which corresponds to the [Ch. 6] 183 same general function as outlined but with some formal d i f f e -rences . 4.1 F i r s t of a l l , i t does not occur within any kind of typo-^ graphic parenthesis::it i s a completely independent sentence or even, on occasion, more than one, e.g. p.19, p.165. Secondly, i n the majority of instances i n L'Etranger, i t con-tains some i n d i c a t i o n or other of the present, i . e . speaker present. Thirdly, i t constitutes a comment or some supple-mentary Information on the whole s i t u a t i o n being mentioned at a p a r t i c u l a r moment, rather than on a "subject" or "predicate as Kruislnga saw i t . . Fourthly, i t inv a r i a b l y occurs "within a series of sentences", one of the contexts mentioned by Kruislnga though, oddly, overlooked by Levenston i n his other wise i n t e r e s t i n g paper. 4.2 Some examples from L'Etranger w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s phenomenon; i n a l l cases, the interruption sentence i s under-l i n e d : p.. 8: J'etais un peu etourdi parce q u ' i l a f a l l u que je monte chez Emmanuel pour l u l emprunter une cravate noire et un brassard. II a perdu son  oncle, 11 y a quelques mols. p.,9: Pendant tout ce temps, l e concierge m'a parle et ensuite, j ' a i vu l e dlrecteur: i l m'a regu dans son bureau. C'est un p e t i t vleux, avec l a  Legion d'honneur. II m'a regarde de ses yeux c l a i r s . p.11: i . l i s se t a i s a i e n t quand nous passions. Et der-r l e r e nous, les conversations reprenaient. On  auralt d i t d'un jacassement assourdl de per;-ruches. [Ch. 6 ] 1 84 i i . "Un dernier mot: votre mere a, p a r a i t - i l , ex-prime souvent a. ses compagnons l e desir d ' e t r e enterree religieusement. J ' a i pr i s sur moi de f a i r e l e necessaire. Mais je voulais vous en informer." Je l ' a i remercie. Maman, sans etre  athee. n'avalt jamais pense de son vlvant a l a r e l i g i o n . p. 19: i . J'avais meme l'impression que cette morte, couchee au milieu d'eux, ne s i g n i f i a i t r i e n a. leurs yeux. Mais je c r o i s maintenant que  c' e t a i t une impression fausse. i i . Nous avons tous p r i s du cafe, servi par l e concierge. Ensuite, je ne sais plus. La nuit a passe. Je me souviens seulement qu'a un mo-ment j ' a i ouvert les yeux et j ' a i vu .... Sentences of thi s type, though predominant i n Part I, occur quite frequently throughout the entire work. 1 0 * * * * * * . * * * * * 3.0 In my analysis of the "aspect i n d l c i e l " , I l e f t the " s h i f t e r s " aside i n order to concentrate on the presententials. the commentary-forms and both types of Interruption sentence. My reason for doing so i s that these four phenomena, In spite of t h e i r formal differences, form an o v e r a l l category of mar-ker of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n , each marking an interven-t i o n by the speaker i n his own text. This intervention i s att r i b u t a b l e only to Je_ and only at the moment of a l l o c u t i o n . That i s to say, i t marks je-personne i n an unambiguous way and t h i s regardless of whether i t s narrative context i s f i r s t -person or third-person. However, i n the case of f i r s t - p e r s o n narration, t h i s fact i s of c r u c i a l Importance, pre c i s e l y be-cause the " s h i f t e r s " themselves, given the constraints placed [Ch. 6] 185 upon t h e i r co-occurrenoe with the Narrative Present, are not r e l i a b l e markers. The four markers under discussion — for which I propose the term "intervention-forms" — have as th e i r common p e c u l i a r i t y that they mark the present du discours i n such a way that they are not placed under any constraints, even by the Narrative Present, e.g. (30). (30) C'est sa premiere f o i s a Madrid et 11 tombe malade le premier jour. II y en a qui n'ont pas de chancel-II dolt garder sa chambre pendant une semaine, apres quoi i l ne l u i reste que quatre jours de vacances. Furthermore, as devices marking the "work" i n which _!§. en-gages, they are indispensable to the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n , which lacks the provision available to the t h i r d person nar-rator,- 'for example, of-characterising by the use of report the "work" betokened"by the utterance of a speaker. This i s , i n fact, a r u l e of performance and i s r e f l e c t e d i n the fact that i n the language there are ce r t a i n l e x i c a l Items that _!§_ can not use, although they are f r e e l y available to the speaker i n the t h i r d person narrative mode. Certain items do not exist as performatives, while they are commonly used to re-port the verbal acts of a speaker. For example, Je_ may expos-tulate but he may not do so by saying, "I expostulate", though his act may be characterised by the report "He expostulated". Likewise, i n French, _!§_ may not r e t o r t by saying "Je retorque" but may say, narratively, " J ' a i retorque (que . . . ) " . (This i s an', area that has received very l i t t l e attention, l n spite of i t s p r a c t i c a l importance l n such spheres as l e g a l language.) [Ch. 6] 186 1 In a l l cases except that of the performative and cer-t a i n highly s t y l i s e d forms of a l l o c u t i o n such as oratory or poetry, je-does'not specify or characterise "by l e x i c a l means, at the moment of al l o c u t i o n , the force of his own utterance. Thus, though Salamano i n s u l t s his dog, he does not say, "Je t ' l n s u l t e : Salaudl Charognel". Meursault, on the other hand, does say, adopting the t h i r d person narrative mode, "Salamano  e t a l t en t r a i n d'insulter son chien. II l u i disait:"Salaudt Charogne! *"< (p.4-3). Only by the force of the devices i t con-tains can an utterance by j e be characterised and the c o r o l -l a r y of this i s that i t can be characterised only by other than j e . 1 1 The Intervention-forms not only constitute, as markers of .je-personne, an extension of the "aspect i n d i c i e l du langage" but also play a p a r t i c u l a r l y important r o l e , In the text of L'Etranger most especially, i n elucidating for tu the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n . ,1.1 It i s a mistaken practice, no matter how common, to assume that tu i s , to use the term proposed by Prince (1973: 178), a "narrataire, c'est a dire quelqu'un a qui le narra-teur s'adresse^. Equally mistaken i s the assumption that tu Is, s p e c i f i c a l l y , a "lecteur". These terms, though re l a t e d to the study of enonolation, nevertheless clash with a fun-damental perspective of that f i e l d inasmuch as they are o r i -ented exclusively about the notion of r e c i t as opposed to discours, even though l t i s of the l a t t e r s p e c i f i c a l l y that tu [Ch. 6 ] 187 i s an element. More properly, tu Is the destlnatalre or, even more precisely, the a l l o c u t a l r e . L i n g u i s t i c performance i s contingent upon this, fact and the resources of the language systematically founded upon i t . The medium of transmission i s i n i t i a l l y of s t y l i s t i c rather than l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r e s t . 3.1.2 In my analysis of the forms encountered i n L'Etranger, I took no account of t_u, concentrating Instead on the r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence of the various forms. Tu, not being an analyst, i s interested more i n the occurrence of these forms within an utterance-configuration and i n the force of the utterances marked by them. What i s important for tu i s the syntagmatlc rather than the paradigmatic consideration of the markers and nowhere is. t h i s more important than with re-gard to the question of time. 3.2 Bearing i n mind that any marker of je-personne i s necessarily a marker of the a l l o c u t i o n , we may posit It also as a marker of what I s h a l l r e f e r to as r e a l time. Real time, the same thing as l e temps li n g u i s t i q u e , stands i n contrast to what I c a l l event-time, a term intended to cover a l l tem-poral s p e c i f i c a t i o n s within a purely narrative mode. Event- time, therefore, w i l l share the markers of je-personnage.-^ While, c l e a r l y , both terms thus cover a good deal of ground, they offer the consequent advantage of simplifying discussion. Betweenfethem, there Is one very important difference: r e a l  time implies tu., event-time does not. [Ch. 6] 188 3.2.1 To consider time and i t s markers i n L'Etranger, we must, l i k e tu, begin at the beginning. As Fletcher (1971:126) has pointed out i n his analysis of the tenses, "we have a strong impression of present time which continues throughout the f i r s t two paragraphs". This impression i s i n fact very strongly marked, by the " s h i f t e r s " and a combination of tense forms as well as " j e " : aujourd'hul, est (morte), je ne sals  pas, veut, est, prendral, a r r i v e r a l . pourrai, r e n t r e r a l , demain s o l r , fera, apres-demaln, verra, pour 1B moment, c'est, sera, aura rev^tu. In addition, we note the presence of i n t e r -vention-forms such as peut-etre, en somme, sans doute, au con-t r a l r e as well as i n the form of interruption sentences: Ou  peut-etre hier. je ne sals pas; Cela ne veut r l e n dire;  C'etait peut-etre h i e r . Thus the series of utterances addressed to tu i s marked as s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l to a high degree and i n d i -cative, therefore, of r e a l time 3.2.2 At the same time, one can point to two possible counter-indications to t h i s . F i r s t , i n C'etait peut-etre hier. an e l l i p t i c a l sentence with the deleted secondary clause "qu'elle est morte", i t might seem more usual to say, within r e a l time. "C'est peut-etre hier ... " rather than "C' e t a 11 which i s perhaps more in d i c a t i v e of event-time and the "distance narrative" associated with i t (cf. Lehtonen 1973:390). In the second place, there i s the curious case of the opening sen-tence i t s e l f : Aujourd'hul, maman est morte. I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e [Ch. 6] 189 to consider how i t should be translated into English. There are three p o s s i b i l i t i e s : Today. Mother Is dead/ has died/died. In French, the combination of Aujourd'hul + Passe Compose, usually i n d i c a t i v e of r e a l time, suggests a t r a n s l a t i o n with either has died or, perhaps, Is dead. However, the syntax of the next sentence, Ou peut-etre hier. je ne sals pas, may be taken only as containing a deleted secondary clause, with the complete sentence reading, therefore,. Ou peut-£tre ( e s t - e l l e  morte) hier (or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , Ou peut-Stre (est-ce) hier  (qu'elle est morte)). In t h i s case, i t i s cl e a r that the e l l i p s i s i s predicated on the syntax of the opening sentence i t s e l f . So t h i s fact suggests that the opening sentence must be glossed as Today, Mother died and that the temporal i n d i -cation of the verb form i s event-time (Passe Compose < Passe Simple), as i n the case of C ' e t a l t . The question of how to explain or j u s t i f y the co-occurrence of aujourd 1hul and a narrative tense i s r e a d i l y answered I f we r e c a l l the p r i n c i p l e of an other now, which here would apply to the other markers whose presence has been noted. Reference has been made already to the unreliable nature of the " s h i f t e r s " : here we have a prime example. What i s ostensibly marked as r e a l time i s just as l i k e l y to be event-time, i n the form of what we may c a l l pseudo-real time 3.3 The term pseudo-real time i s offered as d i s t i n c t from the notion of the narrative present, since the l a t t e r Is based [Ch. 6] 190 on tu's pragmatic observation that the spatio-temporal coor-dinates of the text have become those of an other now. In the case under discussion, t_u l i t e r a l l y can not make, at the time of a l l o c u t i o n , such an observation: the grounds for i t are simply lacking, since tu has only the textual markers on which to r e l y . In these circumstances, tu i s a l l the more heavily dependent on not only the markers themselves but above a l l on the sequence of the markers, i . e . the syntagmatlc re l a t i o n s mentioned e a r l i e r , for any recognition of a change of temporal reference. The removal of the pragmatic aspect brings i n i t s t r a i n the need to reconsider the r e l a t i o n s h i p between time and tense. It becomes p l a i n that Weinrich's contention that they are unrelated Is e s s e n t i a l l y a statement about l e temps chronologique and i s of l i t t l e help l n consi-dering a s i t u a t i o n such as the opening of L,'Etranger i n which the questions r a i s e d by the text revolve around le temps l i n - guistique and the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n . Tu's dependence on tense-forms and t h e i r accompanying markers i s what has to be considered. When these elements mark a time (real time) which only subsequently i s seen not to be r e a l time, i t i s not enough to t a l k about a use of the Narrative Present, since t h i s name presupposes an awareness by tu of i t s narrative force. C l e a r l y , tu i s not aware of such a force l n the case i n question. Furthermore, the presence of the lntervention- forms raises questions here, since, i n a l l normal circum- stances, they are unambiguously s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l , while here, [Ch. 6] 191 under these circumstances, as l a t e r becomes clear, they are not unambiguous. 3.1 Thus tu faces a dilemma, whether he r e a l i s e s i t or not at th i s point. The question of tu's awareness of such matters has been taken up by Barrier and Fletcher above a l l . They are of e s s e n t i a l l y one mind, f e e l i n g that, as Barrier puts i t , wQuant aux deplacements, parfois i l l o g i q u e s , des moments de narration, i l s ne sont pas perceptibles aucours d'une lecture normale" (p.28). Fletcher, for whom there i s nothing at a l l i l l o g i c a l about the s h i f t s , i s rather less c a t e g o r i c a l and content to say "the reader Is not immediately aware" (p.126) of such a " v i r t u a l l y unnoticed s h i f t " (p.127). The s h i f t which Fletcher has i n mind here and which he c a l l s "one of the major time-breaks of the novel" i s the introduction of the Passe Compose at the opening of the t h i r d paragraph, J ' a i p r i s  1'autobus a, deux heures. As I have shown i n my analysis of the tense d i s t r i b u t i o n , the tenses that predominate from th i s point on are the Passe Compose and the Imparfait.which, along with the " s h i f t e r s " , mark event-time. - It i s the f e e l i n g of both Barrier and Fletcher that t h i s s h i f t goes " v i r t u a l l y un-noticed" because of the temporal ambiguity of the Passe Com-pose. However, t h e i r view must surely count as an overstate-ment, since, as we have seen, there can be no such temporal ambiguity where the usual narrative " s h i f t e r s " are concerned, [Ch. 6] 192 as for example when VMeursault - says, p. 9: Pendant tout ce temps, l e concierge a parle et ensulte, j ' a i vu l e directeur. or. even e a r l i e r , p. 8: J ' a i dorml pendant presque tout l e t r a j e t . Thus, unless one makes the quite u n j u s t i f i e d assumption that tu i s i n s e n s i t i v e to such signals, tu must be aware of the s h i f t to event-time and the narrative force of the utterances. In the same way, once the narrative force has been established as the general mode used by je_, then tu presumably i s capable of being aware of any subsequent s h i f t away from i t , as i n those cases noted already of the Present and-the other markers of discours interspersed throughout the narrative. Tu i s not engaged i n a game of chance with regard to the utterances of je: the rules of a l l o c u t i o n are the governing factor. Thus,. when Fletcher says, "the reader [ i s ] i n doubt as to when the story was composed. The f i r s t two paragraphs are fraught with ambiguity and, indeed, deceit on this l a s t point"(p.127), he i n v i t e s c r i t i c i s m on two points. F i r s t , he assumes again that the reader (tu) a c t u a l l y wonders about the matter (other-wise, his point i s ir r e l e v a n t ) and on t h i s i t can be said at best that, i f he wonders about i t at a l l , he may indeed f i n d 1 c ambiguity butt that he need not so wonder. Secondly, he im-putes deceit to the utterer but i t i s not clear whether he has i n mind here Meursault or Camus: i f the l a t t e r , then his remark might pass but, i f the former, then i t requires some [Ch. 6] 193 s o l i d j u s t i f i c a t i o n , which i t does not r e a l l y receive. 3.4 I have termed.^the po s i t i o n of Barrier and Fletcher an overstatement but, l n spite of my c r i t i c i s m s , I do not con-sider i t e s s e n t i a l l y i n c o r r e c t . Rather, I take the view that tu i s aware of these s h i f t s but undisturbed by them, i n con-t r a s t to the c r i t i c a l analyst of the text whose involvement with the form of the utterances has an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t b a s i s . 1 ^ This, of course, puts the matter i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t and needs to be j u s t i f i e d from the evidence of the text. 3.4.1 With the opening of the t h i r d paragraph, J ' a i p r l s 1'autobus a deux heures, tu recognises both the force of nar-r a t i o n and the consequent fact that the Present of the e a r l i e r utterances i s not r e a l time but pseudo-real time. Some seven paragraphs l a t e r , tu r e a l i s e s c l e a r l y that the speaker i s making a r e a l -time utterance: p.13: Je ne sais pas quel geste j ' a i f a i t , mais i l est reste, debout derriere mol. For Fletcher (p.12?), "several pages must pass before the true perspective [ i . e . r e a l time] i s hinted at", namely on p. 19-In fact, even before that page, there are four more such "hints": p.15: Comme j'aime beaucoup l e cafe au l a i t , j ' a i ac-cepte .... p.16: Je cr o i s que j ' a i somnole un peu. * p . l ? : i . Je les voyais comme je n'ai jamais vu personne [ C h . 6 ] 194 i i * J e o r o l s p l u t o t q u ' i l s me s a l u a i e n t . A f t e r t h i s a n d i n a d d i t i o n t o F l e t c h e r ' s e x a m p l e s , we f i n d : p.19: E n s u i t e , j e ne s a i s p l u s . p.25: J e ne s a i s p a s p o u r q u o i n ou s a v o n s a t t e n d u . . . . p . 2 8 : 1. . . . que j e ne me s o u v i e n s p l u s de r l e n . * i i . J ' a i e n c o r e g a r d e q u e l q u e s i m a g e s de c e t t e j o u r n e e . A t l e a s t t e n t i m e s i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r a l o n e , t u i s made a w a r e o f r e a l t i m e , t h r o u g h u t t e r a n c e s i n c o r p o r a t i n g je_, P r e -s e n t a n d t h e f o r c e o f c o m m e n t a r y b y je_ o n h i s own t e x t . (The two s e n t e n c e s m a r k e d b y a n a s t e r i s k a r e two e x a m p l e s , r a r e i n t h i s b o o k , o f t h e P a r f a i t ( P a s s e Compose ft P a s s e S i m p l e ) . ) To t h e s e may b e a d d e d t h e p r e s e n c e i n t h e same c h a p t e r o f a t l e a s t e i g h t o t h e r 1ntervent ion- fo rms« a s n o t e d e a r l i e r . Tu b y now h a s n o t e d a n d a c q u i e s c e d i n a p a t t e r n o f e v e n t - t i m e a l t e r -n a t i n g w i t h r e a l t i m e . O n l y t w i c e d o e s p s e u d o - r e a l t i m e r e -c u r i n t h e c h a p t e r . One, v e r y e a r l y , i s o n p . 8 : I I a p e r d u  s o n o n c l e . i l y a q u e l q u e s m o l s . The o t h e r i s t h e u n u s u a l e x a m p l e o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n d i s c o u r s i n d i r e c t l l b r e ( s e e n o t e 2). 3.4.2 The same b a s i c p a t t e r n i s f o u n d i n 1:2. C ' e s t a u j o u r -d ' h u l (p.30) i s r e v e a l e d t o be p s e u d o - r e a l t i m e b y t h e o c c u r -r e n c e o f L e s o l r . M a r i e a v a l t t o u t o u b l l e (p.32) i n w h i c h , a s s e v e r a l a u t h o r s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t , t h e u s e o f t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e ( r a t h e r t h a n " C e s o l r " ) I m m e d i a t e l y p l a c e s t h e u t t e -r a n c e s c o n c e r n i n g " s a m e d i " i n t o e v e n t - t i m e . T h e n a s h i f t t o r e a l t i m e o c c u r s w i t h E l l e a u s s i , j e c r o i s (p .31) . 1:3 o p en s [Ch. 6] 195 with Au.iourd'hui (p.39). and recounts the day's events but, once again, Le so l r (p.41) establishes event^tlme and thereby the pseudo-real time of the opening. There are three further instances of pseudo-real time within the narration (pp. 4 1 - 4 3 , 4 3 - 4 4 , 4 4 ) . On p.39V an eight l i n e passage i n the Present (Meursault discussing the pleasures of a dry towel) raises the question of whether i t i s r e a l time or pseudo-real time. I f the passage i s taken as a protracted "interruption", i t can be claimed to mark j_e and thus r e a l time. ° A ce r t a i n ambigu-i t y hovers over the opening of 1:4, J ' a i bien t r a v a l l l e toute  l a semalne. For Barrier (1962:17, note 2), i t contains "un des rares exemples" of the P a r f a i t ; Fletcher (1971:127), on the other hand, translates i t as "I had a busy time i n the o f f i c e throughout the week". Certainly, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see why Barrier reads i t as he does p o r the re s t of the chapter, event-time i s established, though not without some anomalies. F i r s t of a l l , an event-time utterance, Je suis  a l l e au cinema deux f o l s avec Emmanuel, i s completed by a r e l a t i v e clause i n the Present, qui ne comprend pas tou.lours  ce qui se passe sur l'eoran and thi s i n turn i s amplified by a new sentence, also i n the Present, II faut alors l u l donner  des explications, to be followed, i n the next sentence, by event-time again (p . 53 )« I wish to suggest that these utte-rances i n the Present are to be compared with the passage from p.39, discussed above, inasmuch as they do not co n s t i -tute narration and have, indeed, the force of commentary on [Ch. 6] 196 the part of je..*^ As such, they indicate r e a l time and are matched i n the chapter by only one other instance, Je ne sais pas •pourquoi j ' a i pense a. maman. at the end of the chapter (p. 61). 3.4-.3 The second anomaly involves the use of the ^ s h i f t e r s " and, since i t r a i s e s some important and i n t e r e s t i n g questions, I propose to examine i t i n some depth. Although Hier. c ' e t a i t  samedi (p.53) indicates that Ce matin (p.5^) i s Sunday, Meur-sault, a f t e r recounting that day's events, says, "Mais i l f a l l a i t que je me leve tot l e lendemaln"(p . 6 l). Barrier (p. 23) and Pariente (1968:58) are prompted by th i s to claim that 1:4 i s the product of two separate redactions. Their reaction i s thus to seek to explain the "recul temporel", as Barrier has i t , which l e lendemaln seems to them to impose. This re-action stems d i r e c t l y fr.om t h e i r ready acceptance of Hier .and Ce matin as l i t e r a l l y precise temporal markers. However, i n the i r reaction they are driven to give an explanation which posits something very fundamental about the allocutionary s i t u -ation not only of the utterances i n question but also of the entire work (cf. note 12). For thi s reason, I consider t h e i r explanation u n j u s t i f i e d and s h a l l argue that both i t and th e i r reaction are quite unnecessary inasmuch as the text has already shown very c l e a r l y Meursault's s p e c i a l use of the " s h i f t e r s " . I s h a l l argue here from a p a r t i c u l a r instance i n 1:2 involving almost the same forms as those under discussion. [Ch. 6] 197 3.4.3.1 The three utterances involved are: p..30: 1. C'est au.iourd'hui samedi i i . J ' a i eu de l a peine a me lever parce que j'etais fatigue de ma journee d'hler p.32: Le s o i r . Marie avait tout oublie. Here, Le so i r makes clear that event-time i s indicated and therefore that within the narration au.iourd'hui i s pseudo-real  time. It follows from t h i s that hier i s also pseudo-real time, not l i t e r a l l y " h i e r " "but rather a transformation of " l a v e i l l e " and occurring here merely as an entailment of the use of au-.iourd'hui ; i t i s t h i s l a t t e r use that needs to be explained. Now, the chapter opens with three sentences i n d i c a t i n g event- tlme but including the Present quoted here. The other half of the paragraph has mainly the Present. For the sake of conveni-ence, I give the paragraph here: "En me r e v e i l l a n t , j ' a i compris pourquoi mon patron avait l ' a i r mecontent quand je l u i a i demande mes deux jours de conge: c'est aujourd'hui samedi. Je l t a v a i s pour a i n s i dire oublie, mais en me levant, cette idee m'est venue. Mon patron, tout naturellement, a pense que j'au-r a i s a i n s i quatre jours de>vacances avec mon dimanche et cela ne pouvait pas l u i f a i r e p l a l s i r . Mais d'une part, ce n'est pas de ma faute s i on a enterre maman hier au l i e u d'aujourd'hui et d'autre part, j'aurais eu mon samedi et mon dimanche de toute facon. Bien entendu, c e l a ne m'em-peche pas de comprendre tout de meme mon patron." The next paragraph opens with the second of the sentences quoted above and throughout i s Indicative of event-time (with the exception of one intervention-form. E l l e aussl. je c r o i s ) . The question i s how to explain the appearance of C'est au.iour-d'hui samedi i n the midst of the narrative tenses. Consider-ing t h i s question i n the l i g h t of the next sentence i n the [Ch. 6 ] 198 paragraph, Je l'avals pour a i n s i dire oublie, mais en me  levant, cette idee m'est venue, I suggest that the Present i n question and the other Present forms i n the second half of the paragraph form an utterance-configuration that corresponds very c l o s e l y to a stream-of-consciousness technique ( i . e . i n pseudo-real time) triggered ln.this case by the words cette  idee. Within such a context, the sentence Ce n'est pas de ma  faute s i on a enterre maman hier au l i e u d'au.jburd'hui f i t s p e r f e c t l y well and serves as the motivation for the transfor-mation ( l a v e i l l e •==» hi er) mentioned e a r l i e r (cf. p . 3 0 : 1 1 ) . This causes no di s o r i e n t a t i o n of tu for whom the force of the utterances i n the Present i s i n d i c a t i v e of an other now. 3.4.3.2 This i s not, of course, to suggest that the notion of stream-of-consciousness i s to be generalised as the explanation of a l l such instances of an other now. (.Indeed, i t i s r a r e l y encountered i n L'Etranger where, i n most cases, the nearest approach to i t i s marked by the use of discours i n d i r e c t l i b r e : of. note 2.) Rather, I wish to say that tu acquiesces i n the spurious use of the r e a l time markers i n the form of the " s h i f t e r s " . Putting i t d i f f e r e n t l y , one might say he reacts just as i f the orthographical representation of such utteran-ces were as follows: C'est .^aujourd'hui" samedi. .... j ' e t a l s fatigue de ma journee d' "hier" Le s o i r . Marie avait tout oublie. [Ch. 6 ] 199 Here, the use of the quotation-marks i s intended to make clea r the n o n - l i t e r a l use of the " s h i f t e r " i n question, while t h e i r absence around Le so i r confirms that the "attitude locution-n e l l e " i s narrative. In other words, tu. accepts these " s h i f -t e r s " for what they are, markers not of l e temps lin g u i s t i q u e but i n fact of l e temps chronique (cf. note 6 ) . 3 . 4 . 4 To take the " s h i f t e r s " l i t e r a l l y i s thus not only to misread the text but also quite unnecessary. Furthermore, i t commits the commentator to either. one of two kinds of explanation. One i s to construct a "cadre de reference chronologique" of an inordinately complicated nature, fraught with serious i m p l i -cations for the-allocutionary s i t u a t i o n : t h i s i s the solution adopted by Pariente (1968:57) and which forces him into a decidedly c i r c u l a r argument. The other, chosen by Barrier (1962:27) a f t e r the example of Viggiani, consists of imputing 21 "des lnadvertances de l a part de Camus". 3 . 4 . 5 The solution I have proposed avoids these problems and has the added merit of establishing a generalised view of Meursault's use of the " s h i f t e r s " without, as yet, having r e -course to explanations involving the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n . Thus, to return now to the question of 1 :4 , one might repre-sent as follows the utterances that gave r i s e to thi s discus-sion: "Hi er". c 1 e t a l t samedi. "Ce matin", Marie est restee .... [Ch. 6] 200 Mais i l f a l l a i t que .je me leve tot le lendemaln. Now since the same phenomenon has been encountered i n 1:1: "Aujourd'hul". maman est morte. Ou peut-etre "hier". .je ne sals pas, and i n 1:3: "Aujourd'hui". .j'ai beaucoup t r a v a l l l e au bureau, by-the time i t recurs', i n 1:4 l t i s an established device i n what Fletcher (1971) appropriately c a l l s Meursault's " r h e t o r i c " . We have already seen him use i t with "Maintenant" but, while such a use i s of very general occurrence among French speakers, Meursault's use of "au.1 ourd'hul"/"hier" i s rather less so. (He applies i t occasionally to even the s p a t i a l " s h i f t e r s " , e.g. i n 1:6, Rester " i c i " ou p a r t i r . c e l a revenalt au meme.) The effec t of the device i s to establish a frame of temporal r e f e -rence i n pseudo-real time such that, once i t has been esta-blished, i t continues to serve as the frame of reference for those utterances which have an overtly narrative force, i . e . the t h i r d i n each of the series treated i n thi s discussion. 3-4.5.1 In 1:5 and 1:6, a modified version of the device i s used: no mention of "aujourd'hui" i s made but the use of the narrative markers makes clear that the frame of temporal reference i s i n each case a p a r t i c u l a r day, which remains unspecified. Thus i n 1:5, Meursault refers to Le so l r (of a day that i s not indicated) and i n 1:6, while he situates the events on a pa r t i c u l a r day, Le dlmanche. r e f e r r i n g also to [Ch. 6] 201 l a v e i l l e . no i n d i c a t i o n i s given of which Sunday i t i s . It i s as i f tu were already supposed to know of which days Meur-sault i s speaking, just as he knew i n the e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s . 2 2 3.5 This pattern of pseudo-real time superseded by event-time, i t s e l f dominated by r e a l time, constitutes a s t y l i s t i c technique applied consistently throughout most of the f i r s t part of the book: i f we include the modified form just d i s -cussed, then we may say throughout the entire f i r s t p a r t . 2 ^ In the second part, t h i s technique i s abandoned almost en-t i r e l y : the use of pseudo-real\time i s r e s t r i c t e d to the f i n a l chapter, 11:5, leaving event-time- prevalent, as seen i n my e a r l i e r analysis-. Instead, a .dif ferentr pattern i s i n i t i -ated through an increased use of 1ntervent1on-forms and the Present. By means of these s u i - r e f e r e n t i a l forms there occurs a constant cycle of reversion to r e a l time whereby narration i s set aside and i t i s je-personne that figures i n the language at these moments. In 11:2, 3, 4 , the opening i s r e a l time p a r a l l e l i n g the pseudo-real time openings found i n Part I but contrasting with them by the lack of any use of the " s h i f t e r s " . This dominance of r e a l time over event-time i s very marked, going even beyond the kind of formal conside-r a t i o n offered here. Thus Fletcher (1971:131) i s able to say, "Meursault, rangingto and fro over the months i n gaol, gene-r a l i s e s about the experience rather than transcribes i t i n sequence as he had done i n Part I". In the f i n a l chapter, [Ch. 6] 202 "both of these patterns are joined: the opening i s phrased i n tense-forms that include Passe Compose, Present, Putur and these are accompanied by one "shifter**, en ce moment. As before, tu seems to be faced with r e a l time utterances, an impression supported not only by the number of occurences of the Present i t s e l f but also by the Passe Compose forms, which here can be construed only as P a r f a i t . Then the s h i f t to event-time occurs, i n a narration comprised mainly of the Imparfait Interspersed with r e a l time utterances. This pattern goes on for some time before there occurs a reprise of the opening sentence, which makes clear that the opening was only pseudo-real time: p.167: "C'est a un semblable moment que j ' a i refuse une f o i s de plus de recevoir l'aumonier". From th i s point on, the pattern i s that of constant s h i f t i n g between event-time and r e a l time, coming to an end i n event-time. 4.0 Despite the differences between the two parts, there i s a fundamental unity that I have t r i e d to show by my analysis of time i n the work: throughout, there i s the dominance of r e a l time over event-time, of je-personne over je-personnage. 4.1 The enormous proportion of narrative markers i n the text i s a s t a t i s t i c a l fact that, nevertheless, does nothing to a l t e r the perception that tu has of Je_ and his r o l e i n the [Ch. 6] 203 allocutionary s i t u a t i o n . The narrative force of such markers i s c l e a r l y seen to be only one of various forces occurring i n the a l l o c u t i o n : at a l l times i t i s c l e a r l y je, who i s speaking. It i s not possible to say here as we have seen Benveniste say, "Personne ne parle i c i ; les evenements semblent se raconter eux-memes". The real-time utterances are a constant reminder of who i s speaking. 4 . 1 . 1 Equally c r u c i a l i n t h i s respect i s the r o l e of pseudo- r e a l time. The p r i n c i p l e of an other now, I have argued, i s founded on the pragmatic observation by tu that the spatio-temporal coordinates of a given utterance — as marked by the " s h i f t e r s " and the Present tense — do not a r i s e out of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n i n which tu and je_ are p a r t i c i p a n t s . Pseudo-real time, posited as a convention of l i n g u i s t i c per-formance, constitutes therefore a reaffirmation of the a l l o -cutionary s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f , since, without the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n , pseudo-real time can have neither sense nor func-t i o n . Even i n a third-person narrative, tu's a b i l i t y to comprehend the Narrative Present i s founded on t h i s same pr i n c i p l e , however "anonymous" the narrator seems otherwise to be. It i s well and good to consider the Narrative Present as a s t y l i s t i c device, a means of heightening dramatic ef f e c t ; the syntactico-semantic mechanics of the device are neverthe-less t i e d to the p r i n c i p l e of an-.other now, i t s e l f based on r e a l time. [Ch. 6 ] 4.2 The entire array of the formal properties: of the lan-guage of L'Etranger attests to the dominance of r e a l time and the concepts of s u b j e c t i v i t e and personne as enunciated by Benveniste, showing Je_ and tu to be, i n accordance with f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s , partners i n an allocutionary s i t u a t i o n of c l a s s i c s i m p l i c i t y , displaying the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the most ordinary kind of a l l o c u t i o n , that of conversation. L'Etranger i s the text of a conversation. I o f f e r t h i s less as a claim than a conclusion, based on the e a r l i e r claim that tu i s undisturbed by the time-shifts observable i n the language of Meursault. In conversation, such time-shifts — e s p e c i a l l y those i n t r o -ducing pseudo-real time — are observed d i r e c t l y as devices marking a change of i l l o c u t i o n a r y force within an utterance-configuration and, as such, merely commensurate with devices i n d i c a t i v e of other types of force within other utterances. 4.3 The conversational attributes of Meursault's language have often been commented on, though always from a point of view of s t y l e . Thus, for example, Fletcher (1971:126) speaks of "informal address" and "conversational immediacy", while Barrier (1962:27) c i t e s forms whose function i s "ajouter un element d'authenticite". Such observations r e f e r to what i s commonly known^ a's the tone of a c e r t a i n sample of language and, almost invariably, are author-oriented. They do not carry the implication that the sample i n question i s , i n fact, an ex-t r a c t from the text of a conversation. For them to do so [Ch.6] 205 would be to posit c e r t a i n aspects of the allocutionary s i t u -ation which would be contrary to the basic assumptions the writers have already made with regard to that s i t u a t i o n . My claim, on the other hand, i s e x p l i c i t l y that L'Etranger i s a conversation between Meursault and tu, a one-to-one communi-cation, with a l l the l i n g u i s t i c attributes and mechanisms that such an allocutionary s i t u a t i o n requires. Having d i s -cussed at length the l i n g u i s t i c features that have brought me to t h i s conclusion, I wish to address myself b r i e f l y to the question of how j u s t i f i e d i t seems from the point of view of the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n , i n the l i g h t , e specially, of some of i t s l i t e r a r y implications. 0 My deliberations i n this, f i n a l section w i l l be guided by one p r i n c i p l e above a l l : i n any conversation, each partner brings to i t what he i s and what he knows. This i s , i n i t s simplest form, the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n of a l l conversa-t i o n : the world of je. and the world of tu come together and t h i s juxtaposition forms the point of departure for the sequen-t i a l phenomenon that i s conversation. 1 Generally speaking,, studies on L'Etranger show agree-ment on one general point, namely that i t i s a communication on the part of- M e u r s a u l t W i t h whom, where, when and even why there i s t h i s communication are questions that have [Ch. 6] 206 received a va r i e t y of answers. Some are quite c a t e g o r i c a l : for Pariente (1968), i t i s cle a r that Meursault i s writing a diary, while for Mitterand (1969) the work i s c l e a r l y a s o l i -loquy or monologue. On the other hand, i t i s only i n the i r denial of such suggestions that some scholars seem categorical, as for example Rey (19?0) for whom, according to the report of F i t c h (1971o:240), "ni l'hypothese d'un 'Journal' ni c e l l e d'un 'monologue' n'est acceptable". Rey's own approach to the question i s not clear ( c f . p. 29) and tends to consider Camus more than Meursault. F i t c h himself (1968d) i s more ex-p l i c i t and reasoned than Mitterand> i n concluding that i t i s a "monologue i n t e r i e u r " rather than a .journal but his solution, as Q u i l l i o t (1969b:l87) t e l l i n g l y observes, only raises f u r -ther problems: "II est bien v r a i qu'on v o i t mal pourquoi Meur-sault aurait e c r i t son journal Mais est-11 naturel, etant ce q u ' i l est, q u ' i l [...] revive [son passe] au present?" This concern of Q u i l l i o t for v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i s reminiscent of Girard's contention (1968:37) that "Meursault ne l i t pas et n'ecrit pas. On ne 1*imagine pas en t r a i n de soumettre un manuscrit a un editeur, ou en t r a i n de corriger des epreuves" and casts doubt, therefore, on the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of any propo-s a l that Meursault i s engaged i n some kind of redaction. In yet other cases, the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n i s re f e r r e d to only i n passing and somewhat obliquely: Renaud (1957=295) looks upon Meursault's text as a "retour dans l e passe" i n which " l e narrateur est en t r a i n de retracer une periode de sa [Ch. 6] 207 v i e " , though observing elsewhere (p.290) that, with regard to time, "ce sera l e present seul qui comptera", leaving unre-solved the pot e n t i a l contradiction between these ideas. Cruickshank's charactersiation of Meursault as "a character within the novel's own world speaking d i r e c t l y , and i n his own person, to the reader" (1956:243) seems t a n t a l i s i n g l y precise i n i t s formulation yet, lacking any kind of develop-ment, leaves one to wonder i n fact how metaphorical i s his use of terms. It i s f a i r to say that a l l of these studies, with possible exception of Fletcher's and Cruickshank&s, are concerned more with Meursault-.je than with tu and more with questions of temps chronologique than those of temps l i n g u i s - tique . A l l are dominated, furthermore, by a recognition of the pragmatic fact that L'Etranger i s a book yet do not dwell on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of reader to text. As Ong (1975), Weiss (1974), Poulet (1969) and Prince (1971, 1973) have pointed out, the reader plays a c r u c i a l phenomenological r o l e i n any written work and that t h i s r o l e varies from one kind of text t:o another. In the case of L'Etranger, i t offers a spec i a l order of i n t e r e s t . 5-2 Pariente (1968;53) makes the following observation: "Dans l a v i e courante, [...._] 11 n'arrive guere qu'on parle sans s'adresser a un ou plusieurs interlocuteurs d e f i n i s , qui ne sont peut-etre pas presents en chair et en os, mais avec qui du moins on partage un c e r t a i n nombre de cir c o n -stances et parfois meme toute une h i s t o i r e , des i n t e r l o c u -teurs done qui peuvent apparaitre comme des complices aux-quels i l n'est pas besoin de tout dire pour se f a l r e  entendre, i n i t i e s q u ' i l s sont par s i t u a t i o n a certains [Ch . . 6] 208 a s p e c t s de c e q u ' o n s o u h a i t e e x p r i m e r . " [my e m p h a s i s ] T h a t i s t o s a y je_ comes t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n e x p e c -t a t i o n s , c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t h e t a k e s f o r g r a n t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s a l l o c u t i o n a r y o b l i g a t i o n s t o w a r d s t u . The a s s u m p t i o n s he makes i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e r e f l e c t e d i n h i s l i n g u i s t i c b e h a -v i o u r a n d i n h i s t e x t . 5 . 2 .1 M e u r s a u l t s a y s " A u j o u r d ' h u i " : he d o e s n o t d e f i n e i t o r l o c a t e i t b u t m e r e l y . says i t , b e c a u s e he a s s u m e s q u i t e c o n -v e n t i o n a l l y t h a t t u i s a w a r e wha t " a u j o u r d ' h u i " means i n t h e u t t e r a n c e e v e n when , a s we h a v e s e e n , i t d o e s n o t r e f e r t o r e a l t i m e . He s a y s "maman" a n d " 1 ' a s i l e " , a g a i n w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o a n y k i n d o f r e f e r e n t i a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n : t u I s a s s u m e d t o know who "maman" i s - t h a t i s , t o know t h e p e r s o n whom M e u r s a u l t c a l l s "maman" - a n d , i n t h e same way , t o know o f t h e " a s i l e " w h i c h i s r e f e r r e d t o . 2 ^ L i k e w i s e , je_ d o e s n o t i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f , t h e name " M e u r s a u l t " o c c u r r i n g o n l y l a t e r i n t h e t e x t a n d i n t h e f o r m o f r e p o r t e d s p e e c h . B a r r i e r : ( L 9 6 2 : 2 2 ) , n o t i n g t h e l a c k o f e x p o s i t o r y d e t a i l s i n L ' E t r a n g e r , o b s e r v e s " C e p e n d a n t , comme l a p l u p a r t d e s r o m a n c i e r s , a. p a r t i r d e s a n n e e s 30, e v i t e n t c e g e n r e de p r e p a r a t i o n , n o u s ne nous y a r r e t e r o n s p a s " . F o r h i m , t h i s a b s e n c e i s a m a t t e r o f l i t e -r a r y f a s h i o n . H o w e v e r , h i s comment i s o n c e a g a i n a n o b s e r -v a t i o n on t h e w o r k o f Camus a n d m i s s e s t h e f a c t t h a t , Camus n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , M e u r s a u l t ' s l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r i s g o v e r n e d by s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l i s e d k i n d . Tu [Ch. 6 ] 209 here receives no elucidation or exposition because he needs none, as je_ i s well aware. Thus, while L'Etranger has an opening, i t has no beginning: i t opens i n medlas res, with the allocutionary s i t u a t i o n already established. Tu i s part of the world of je_ and i n his conversational r o l e has no d i f f i -c u l t y i n perceiving and comprehending the tense-shifts we have observed. A l l of thi s i s presupposed i n the utterances of Meursault. 3 Nevertheless, L'Etranger i s incontrovertibly a book and "book" en t a i l s "reader". For the reader, the book i s a material object i n his world, an object which he possesses. Yet, as Poulet (1969 -.55) ..points out, "As soon as I replace my di r e c t perception of r e a l i t y by the words of a book, I del i v e r myself, bound hand and foot to the omnipotence of f i c t i o n . I say farewell to what i s , i n order to feign b e l i e f i n what i s not. I surround myself with f i c t i t i o u s beings; I become the prey of language. There i s no escaping t h i s takeover. Language surrounds me with i t s u n r e a l i t y " . Poulet's explanation of the consequences of t h i s phenomenon i s as follows: "Everything happens [•••] as though, from the moment I become a prey to what I read, I begin to share the use of my consciousness with t h i s being [....] who i s the conscious subject esc oneed at the heart of the work. He and I, we start having a common consciousness. Doubtless, within t h i s community of f e e l i n g , the parts played by each of us are not of equal importance. The consciousness inherent i n the work i s active and potent; i t occupies the fore-ground; i t i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to i t s own world, to objects which are Its objects. In oppposition, I myself, although conscious of whatever i t may be conscious of, I play a much more humble r o l e , content to record passively a l l that i s going i n me. [....] Thus I often have the [Ch. 6 ] 2 1 0 impression, while reading, of simply witnessing an action which at the same time concerns and yet does not concern me. This provokes a c e r t a i n f e e l i n g of surprise within me. I am a consciousness astonished by an existence which  i s not mine, but which I experience as though i t were  mine."(pp.59-60) [second emphasis mine] From the pragmatic fact of the reader's attachment to his own world and his own r e a l i t y comes the "astonishment" at his incorporation into the world of the book, an astonishment which, as Poulet goes on to say, i s the source of the reader's c r i t i c a l f a c u l t y i n r e l a t i o n to the book. But i t i s the i n -corporation into the world of the book that i s of inte r e s t here and i t i s language that brings i t about. In L'Etranger, the reader i s Immediately incorporated into the r o l e of tu within the world of Meursault; the whole play of the language both posits t h i s allocutionary r o l e and, of course, stems from i t . 5.4 To i d e n t i f y tu with the reader i s to introduce into our consideration of the work a new dimension, namely the author. Camus i s responsible for casting the allocutionary roles of Meursault and tu and thus for the phenomenological consequences of the incorporation of tu. While the reader as tu "accepts-an existence w-which i s not his and the presup-positions on which, l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , i t i s founded, he brings to t h i s experience none of the knowledge and f a m i l i a r i t y with which, as tu, he i s conventionally endowed. Instead, he brings only the knowledge born of his experience i n his own world. Thus, t i e d by s o c i o l i n g u i s t l c conventions to his [Ch. 6] 211 allocutionary r o l e , he i s at the same time disoriented i n th i s r o l e by his ignorance of the facts of a world not h i s . This i s Camus's doing: he uses