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Huck and Jim : romantic fools Kean, Wayne 1977

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HUCK AND JIM: ROMANTIC FOOLS by WAYNE KEAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF ' THE REQUIEEMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1977 Cc) Wayne Kean, 1977 MASTER OF ARTS i n In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1WS D a t e CL ,t4ll ABSTRACT The thesis of t h i s paper i s that Huck, i n Adventures  of Huckleberry Finn, i s not the romantic outcast that he was in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, and that both he and Jim would rather belong to shore society than fle e from i t . Thus, the disappointment that readers f e e l i n the Phelps 1 farm ending stems from t h e i r own sentimental responses to Huck and Jim, rather than from any flaw i n the structure of the novel i t s e l f . A close look at Jim and his relationships with other negroes and with Huck shows him to be "monstrous proud," insincere and duplicitous. He l i e s to Huck, for example, about Pap Finn's d e a t h — t o protect himself more than Huck. He seldom knows what to do next to at t a i n his freedom; he spends most of the r i v e r journey either bound, hand and foot or painted a d u l l blue, looking l i k e a "sick Arab." When Huck joins Tom Sawyer's gang, he i s symbolic i c a l l y coming to terms with society. He agrees to be res-pectable and i s allowed to enjoy the fellowship of the gangs. He makes a sim i l a r transaction at the widow's and at the Grangerford's, where he wears good clothes and uses good manners and i n return enjoys the comforts of having a home. One of the most c r u c i a l decisions he makes i s to betray the two outcasts, the king and the duke,(whom he admires and c a l l s "our gang"), and save the innocent Wilks g i r l s . Partly because he i s so attracted by society, Huck i s reluctant to help Jim at t a i n freedom. The f i r s t part of the r i v e r journey i s just an adventure f o r Huck, as i s made clear by his behaviour on the Walter Scott. His decisions at Cairo and at the end of the r i v e r journey to help Jim are prompted primarily by s e l f i s h motives. Freeing Jim w i l l cure his loneliness and assuage his g u i l t . Besides, sending that l e t t e r to Miss Watson would reveal that Huck was s t i l l a l i v e — a n d he would wind up i n pap's clutches again. At the Phelps' farm, Huck makes his f i n a l c r u c i a l decision: he decides .to abandon Jim and Tom on the r a f t and stay home, so as not to grieve AuntoSally any more. In the end he discovers that both Jim and Tom have been l y i n g to him, and i t i s them he wishes to be free of, not Aunt Sa l l y . We must beware being taken i n by his l a s t pretes.tn against c i v i l i z a t i o n . Although there are parts of the r i v e r journey that are indeed "lovely," and that represent freedom for most readers, a r e a l i s t i c view of the whole novel indicates that i t i s a story of return to society rather than escape from i t . - i v -T A B L E OF CONTENTS P a g e I . I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 A. S e n t i m e n t a l r e s p o n s e s t o A d v e n t u r e s o f H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n 2 B. M a r k T w a i n a n d t h e r i v e r - s h o r e d i c h o t o m y 8 I I . THE F O O L I S H N E S S OF N I G G E R J I M . . 1 3 I I I . HUCK'S I N V O L V E M E N T WITH S O C I E T Y . . 2 3 I V . HUCK'S I N V O L V E M E N T WITH J I M . . . . 44 V. THE GOINGS-ON AT THE P H E L P S F A R M . 54 V I . C O N C L U S I O N 6 3 F o o t n o t e s 65 S e l e c t e d L i s t o f R e f e r e n c e s . . . 69 HUCK AND JIM: ROMANTIC FOOLS I. INTRODUCTION For most re a d e r s , c r i t i c s or not, Adventures of  Huckleberry F i n n i s the heartwarming s t o r y o f a boy and a runaway s l a v e who f l o a t down the M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r on a r a f t , seeking freedom from the v i c e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the shore. The boy, Huck F i n n , i s a b a r e f o o t e d , sharp-eyed, good-hearted outlaw, who grows i n s t a t u r e as he re c o g n i z e s the d i g n i t y and humanity of h i s noble f r i e n d , Jim. The major c o n f l i c t or t e n s i o n i n the book i s between freedom, symbolized by Huck and Jim on the raft,, and .slavery;,, r e p r e s e n t e d by the i g -norant, s e n t i m e n t a l , f e a r f u l and c r u e l "sapheads" (to use Huck 1s word) who l i v e i n the towns along the shore. Leo Marx, f o r example, w r i t e s , "The t r u l y profound meanings of the novel are generated by the impingement of the a c t u a l world of s l a v e r y , feuds, l y n c h i n g , murder, and a sp u r i o u s C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y upon the i d e a l of the r a f t i " " * " Henry Nash Smith suggests t h a t "hap-p i n e s s , peace, freedom are to be found, i f a t a l l , o n l y on the 2 R i v e r , on the r a f t . " And, of course, as Huck puts i t , "other p l a c e s do seem so cramped up and smothery, but a r a f t don't. 3 You f e e l mighty f r e e and easy and comfortable on a r a f t . " In g e n e r a l , the book i s remembered as an e x p r e s s i o n o f r e v o l t a g a i n s t s o c i e t y . However, Twain's s a t i r e i s aimed not only a t s o c i e t y , but a l s o a t i n d i v i d u a l attempts to escape from s o c i e t y , -1-2 s p e c i f i c a l l y , a t Huck and Jim. Huck and Jim are as f o o l i s h as the people who l i v e along the shore. They are a l t e r n a t e l y v a i n , s e n t i m e n t a l , cowardly, and c r u e l . In s h o r t , they are human: much more human than most readers l i k e to admit. In t h i s paper I would l i k e to f i r s t o u t l i n e the s e n t i m e n t a l r e -sponses to Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n , examine Twain's a t t i t u d e towards r i v e r and shore, and then take a c l o s e look at Huck and Jim and t h e i r share of s o c i e t y ' s v i c e s . I hope to show t h a t Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n proves t h a t w h i l e l a s t i n g peace and s e c u r i t y are not easy to f i n d on the shore, they are i m p o s s i b l e to f i n d on the r i v e r ; t h a t man, i n h i s attempts to f i n d happiness o u t s i d e s o c i e t y , must e v e n t u a l l y , l i k e Ishmael, "lower, or a t l e a s t s h i f t , h i s c o n c e i t of a t -4 t a i n a b l e f e l i c i t y 5 " F i n a l l y , I hope to show t h a t the end-i n g of the book i s not the f a i l u r e t h a t c r i t i c s l i k e Leo Marx t h i n k i t i s . A. Sentimental responses to Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n The s e n t i m e n t a l response to Huckleberry F i n n u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g i d e a s . F i r s t , he i s p r i m i t i v e : he loves bare f e e t , o l d c l o t h e s , hogsheads and t a b l e s c r a p s . Second, he i s a r e a l i s t : he t e s t s Miss Watson's n o t i o n s about prayer and Tom Sawyer's n o t i o n s about magic lamps. T h i r d , he i s humane: he responds from the h e a r t to Jim's predicament, and gains an impressive v i c t o r y over the v o i c e of s o c i e t y t h a t t e l l s him to t u r n Jim i n . He i s remembered p r e t t y much as he i s d e s c r i b e d i n The Adventures of Tom Sawyer: 3 S h o r t l y Tom came upon the j u v e n i l e p a r i a h of the v i l l a g e , Huckleberry F i n n , son of the town drunkard. Huckleberry was c o r d i a l l y hated and dreaded by a l l the mothers o f the town, because he was i d l e , and l a w l e s s , and v u l g a r , and b a d — a n d because a l l t h e i r c h i l d r e n admired him so, and d e l i g h t e d i n h i s f o r -bidden s o c i e t y and wished they dared to be l i k e him. Tom was l i k e the r e s t of the r e s p e c t a b l e boys, i n t h a t he envied Huckleberry h i s gaudy o u t c a s t c o n d i -t i o n . . . Huckleberry came and went at h i s own f r e e w i l l . He s l e p t on door-steps i n f i n e weather, and i n empty hogsheads i n wet; he d i d not have to go to s c h o o l or to church, or c a l l any b eing master, o r obey any-body^, he c o u l d go f i s h i n g or swimming when and where he chose, and stay as long as i t s u i t e d him; nobody forbade him to f i g h t ; he c o u l d s i t up as l a t e as he p l e a s e d ; he was always the f i r s t boy t h a t went bare-f o o t i n the s p r i n g and the l a s t to resume l e a t h e r i n the f a l l ; he never had to wash, nor put on c l e a n c l o t h e s ; he c o u l d swear w o n d e r f u l l y . In a word, e v e r y t h i n g t h a t goes to make l i f e p r e c i o u s , t h a t boy had. So thought every harassed, hampered, r e s p e c t a b l e boy i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g . Tom h a i l e d the romantic o u t c a s t . ^ A l b e r t Bigelow Paine was moved to say of Adventures of Huckle-b e r r y Finn, "One may p e t t i l y p i c k a flaw here and there 'in the t a l e ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n i f so minded, but the moral c h a r a c t e r of Huck h i m s e l f i s not open to c r i t i c i s m . " ^ Van Wyck Brooks saw Huck as a g e n e r a l l y outrageous l i t t l e r e b e l : Huck's i l l i t e r a c y , Huck's d i s r e p u t a b l e n e s s and g e n e r a l outrageousness are so many s h i e l d s behind which Mark Twain can l e t a l l the c a t s out of the bag with impunity . . . Mark Twain h i m s e l f was f r e e a t l a s t l — T h a t r a f t and r i v e r to him were something more than mere m a t e r i a l f a c t s . His whole unconscious l i f e , the pent-up r i v e r of h i s own s o u l , had b u r s t i t s bonds and rushed f o r t h , a joyous t o r r e n t ! Do we need any o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of the abandon, the beauty, the e t e r n a l freshness of Huckleberry Finn? Perhaps we can say t h a t a l i f e t i m e of moral s l a v e r y and r e p r e s s i o n was not too much to pay f o r i t . . . .we have to thank i t , a f t e r a l l , f o r the v e n g e f u l s o l a c e we f i n d i n the promiscuous and g e n e r a l r e v o l t of Huckleberry Finn.''7 This q u i t e p a s s i o n a t e response to Huck F i n n i n s p i r e d an e q u a l l y p a s s i o n a t e response from Bernard DeVoto: 4 Yet the f a b r i c on which a l l t h i s r i c h n e s s i s embroi-dered i s the journey of Huck and Jim down the M i s s i s - ' ,..'sippi on the June r i s e . There, f i n a l l y , the book's glamour r e s i d e s . To d i s c u s s t h a t glamour would be f u t i l e . In a sense, Huck speaks to the n a t i o n a l shrewdness, f a c i n g adequately what he meets, succeeding by/ means of n a t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e whose r o o t s are o u r s — a n d ours o n l y . In a sense, he e x i s t s f o r a d e l i g h t or wonder i n s e p a r -able from the American r a c e . T h i s passage down the f l o o d e d r i v e r , through pageantry and s p e c t a c l e , amidst an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of l i f e , something of s u r p r i s e or g r a t i f i c a t i o n s u r e l y to be met with each new i n c i d e n t — i t i s the h e r i t a g e of a n a t i o n not u n j u s t l y symbolized by the r i v e r ' s flow.8 The debate between Brooks and DeVoto i m p r i n t e d f i r m l y i n the minds of c r i t i c s f o r decades to f o l l o w two very important i d e a s : t h a t Huck F i n n i s engaged i n "promiscuous and g e n e r a l r e v o l t , " and t h a t to c r i t i c i z e him i s to c r i t i c i z e the American race. Edgar Branch hypothesises two a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r Huck: " s e l f - c e n t e r e d , c o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l i t y and humanitarian i d e a l -ism . . . Thus the theme becomes the c o n f l i c t between the d r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l freedom and the r e s t r a i n t s imposed by convention and f o r c e ; o r , w i t h i n Huck's consciousness, the c o n f l i c t between h i s i n t u i t i v e m o r a l i t y and h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l conscience. . . . The r i c h , f u l l - b o d i e d content, e s p e c i a l l y the r i v e r t r i p i n i t s b r i l l i a n t p a r t i c u l a r i t y , p r o v i d e s the i n d i s p e n s a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r Huck's moral s t r u g g l e and v i c -t o r y : the triumph of f r e e human development over i n f l e x i b l e r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the n a t u r a l , s u p e r n a t u r a l , and s o c i a l worlds." Perhaps no two c r i t i c s have p r a i s e d Huck F i n n and h i s s t o r y as have L i o n e l T r i l l i n g and T. S. E l i o t . T r i l l i n g l a b e l l e d the book "one of the world's g r e a t books and one of 5 the c e n t r a l documents of American c u l t u r e " and i t s c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s , Huck and Jim, "a f a m i l y , a p r i m i t i v e community— and i t i s a community of s a i n t s . . . because they do not have an ounce of p r i d e between them.""^ T. S. E l i o t suggests t h a t Huck Fin n ' s e x i s t e n c e "questions the values of America as much as the valu e s o f Europe; he i s as much an a f f r o n t to the 'pioneer s p i r i t ' as he i s to the 'business e n t e r p r i s e 1 ; he i s i n a s t a t e o f nature as detached as the s t a t e of the saint.""'""'" Leo Marx responded v o c i f e r o u s l y to T r i l l i n g and E l i o t , c l a i m i n g t h a t the book had s e r i o u s f l a w s , y e t he too saw Huck i n a romantic l i g h t : "From the e l e c t r i f y i n g moment when Huck comes back to Jackson's I s l a n d and rouses Jim wi t h the news t h a t a search p a r t y i s on the way, we are meant t o b e l i e v e 12 t h a t Huck i s e n l i s t e d i n the cause of freedom." Henry Nash Smith sees Huck and h i s moral s t r u g g l e i n simple terms: Huck's conscience i s simply the a t t i t u d e s he has taken over from h i s environment. What i s s t i l l sound i n him i s an impulse from the deepest l e v e l of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t the o v e r l a y of pre -j u d i c e and f a l s e v a l u a t i o n imposed on a l l members of the s o c i e t y i n the name of r e l i g i o n , m o r a l i t y , law, and refinement . . . The c o n f l i c t i n which Huck i s i n v o l v e d i s not t h a t of a lower a g a i n s t an upper c l a s s or of an a l i e n a t e d f r i n g e of o u t c a s t s a g a i n s t a c u l t i v a t e d e l i t e . . . but of f i d e l i t y to the uncoerced s e l f versus the b l u r r i n g of a t t i t u d e s caused by s o c i a l conformity.13 W i l l i a m Van O'Connor, l i k e Leo Marx, s e t s out to show T r i l l i n g and E l i o t t h a t there were g l a r i n g flaws i n the n o v e l , but he s t i l l adheres to the g e n e r a l i z e d and glowing view of Huck. 6 Huckleberry F i n n i s i n v o l v e d w i t h the mystique o f America. The c h i e f symbols are The Boy and The R i v e r . Huck i s the break not merely with Europe but w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n , the westward push. S e l f s u f f i c i e n t and y e t dependable, he i s the proper k i n d of i n d i v i d u a l i s t . He i s a l s o youth, a rugged P e t e r Pan who l i v e s e t e r n a l l y . Huck belongs a l s o with Cooper's L e a t h e r s t o c k i n g and Faulkner's Ike Mc C a s l i n , symbolic f i g u r e s who r e j e c t the e v i l s of c i v i l i z a t i o n . (A weakness i n a l l of them i s t h a t they do not acknowledge the v i r t u e s of c i v i l i -z a t i o n or t r y to l i v e , as one must, i n s i d e i t . ) I r o n i c a l l y , . . 0'Connor concludes that.."Huck is., f i n a l l y , a sen t i m e n t a l f i g u r e , not i n h i m s e l f o f course, s i n c e he i s a boy, but i n the minds of those who unduly admire h i s de-pa r t u r e f o r the t e r r i t o r y . " G i l b e r t Rubenstein contends " t h a t Huckleberry F i n n should be approached simply, d i r e c t l y , r e a l i s t i c a l l y — p r e -c i s e l y as Mark Twain wrote i t . " He d e s c r i b e s Huck as "no d r i f t e r but a plucky, l o v a b l e boy who, a f t e r p a i n f u l s e l f -examination, achieves an i r o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o h e l p h i s f r i e n d Jim reach f r e e t e r r i t o r y . " He goes on to say t h a t any o r d i n a r y reader, "not given t o s u p e r s u b t l e s p e c u l a t i o n s and d i s t o r t i o n s , but possessed o n l y o f common sense and a r e s p o n s i v e h e a r t , " c o u l d not f a i l to understand and a p p r e c i a t e what Huckleberry  F i n n i s a l l about: t h a t human love between human beings every-where triumphs over human c r u e l t y , and t h a t "human beings are s u p e r i o r t o one another o n l y i n the goodness of t h e i r h e a r t s 15 and i n t h e i r love f o r other people." Even Twain h i m s e l f s a i d some p r e t t y s i l l y t h i n g s about. Huck i f my r e a d i n g of the novel i s v a l i d . In h i s autobiography> he s a i d : 7 In Huckleberry F i n n I have drawn Tom Blankenship e x a c t l y as he was. He was i g n o r a n t , unwashed, i n s u f -f i c i e n t l y f e d ; but he had as good a h e a r t as ever any ; boy had. His l i b e r t i e s were t o t a l l y u n r e s t r i c t e d . He was the only r e a l l y independent p e r s o n — b o y or man--irir-the community, and by consequence he was t r a n q u i l l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y happy, and was envied by a l l of the r e s t of us. We l i k e d him; we enjoyed h i s s o c i e t y . And as h i s s o c i e t y was f o r b i d d e n us by our p a r e n t s , the p r o h i b i t i o n t r e b l e d and quadrupled i t s v a l u e , and t h e r e f o r e we sought and got more of h i s s o c i e t y than of any o t h e r boy's.16 Now, o f course, Twain d i d not draw Tom Blankenship e x a c t l y as he was. But when Twain wrote t h i s i n d i r e c t des-c r i p t i o n of Huck, he was o n l y f o u r years away from h i s death. We can f o r g i v e an o l d man f o r r e m i n i s c i n g about a time t h a t could o n l y e x i s t i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , a time when a boy enjoyed " t o t a l l y u n r e s t r i c t e d " l i b e r t y and was " t r a n q u i l l y and c o n t i n -uously happy." But we cannot be so generous wi t h c r i t i c s who i n s i s t on s e e i n g Huck o n l y i n glowing terms. Granted, Huck i s l o v a b l e , and we admire him. L i k e the boys i n St. P e t e r s b u r g , we a l l admire Huck 1s "gaudy o u t c a s t c o n d i t i o n , " h i s apparent freedom to do and say what he p l e a s e s . We admire.his dogged r e a l i s m , h i s a b i l i t y to see through Tom Sawyer's "A-rabs" and e l e p h a n t s . We admire h i s response to Jim; by the end of the r i v e r journey, Huck genuinely loves Jim. But a c l o s e look at Huck F i n n r e v e a l s t h a t he i s more a t t r a c t e d by s o c i e t y than r e p e l l e d by i t , t h a t h i s r e a l i s m i s o n l y p a r t i a l , and t h a t h i s involvement i n Jim's attempts to keep out of bondage i s f o r the most p a r t , h e s i t a n t and r a t i o n a l i z e d by thought processes t h a t are s e n t i m e n t a l and v a i n . To ignore the f u l l range of Huck's humanity i s to ignore Mark Twain's c r e a t i v e power--and 8 to miss the p o i n t of Huck's s t o r y . B. Mark Twain and the r i v e r - s h o r e dichotomy Of course, a g r e a t p a r t of the s e n t i m e n t a l response to H uckleberry F i n n can be t i e d t o the reverence f o r the popular n o t i o n t h a t Mark Twain was a romantic o u t c a s t too. I would l i k e to examine b r i e f l y how c r i t i c s l i k e Van Wyck Brooks were l e d to b e l i e v e from b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence t h a t Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n was Twain's p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n of r e v o l t a g a i n s t American s o c i e t y . Then I would l i k e to show t h a t a more r e a l i s t i c look a t Twain's l i f e and work r e v e a l s t h a t he was not a romantic o u t c a s t , any more than Huckleberry F i n n was. Twain's e a r l y l i f e seemed to p l a c e him a p a r t from s o c i e t y . A r i v e r b o a t p i l o t was, a c c o r d i n g to Twain, "the only u n f e t t e r e d and e n t i r e l y independent human being t h a t l i v e d i n 17 the e a r t h . " His l a t e r employment as r e p o r t e r , l e c t u r e r and w r i t e r made him more o f t e n an observer than a p a r t i c i p a n t i n mankind's i n t e r a c t i o n s . His separateness seemed to become even more obvious when he was, l i k e Huck F i n n , t h r u s t suddenly i n t o wealth and h i g h s o c i e t y . Huck found s i x thousand d o l l a r s and went t o l i v e w i t h the Widow Douglas. Mark Twain p u b l i s h e d Innocents Abroad and became engaged to O l i v i a Langdon. F i v e years l a t e r , he was l i v i n g i n the handsomest mansion i n Hart-f o r d , C o n n e c t i c u t . The s o c i a l c i r c l e i n H a r t f o r d looked askance a t the " w i l d humorist from the P a c i f i c Slope." Mrs. A l d r i c h d e s c r i b e d 9 him as "too w e l l acquainted with a l l the c o a r s e r types of 18 human nature . . . a man u n t r a i n e d and u n p o l i s h e d . " Twain h i m s e l f admitted he had been "a mighty rough]?. rcoarse? ,unr-19 promising s u b j e c t when L i v y took charge." J e r v i s Langdon once forbade Twain to c o u r t L i v y a t a l l . F u r t h e r , l i v i n g i n H a r t f o r d p r o v i d e d many d i s t r a c t i o n s t h a t Twain o f t e n wished to escape. When he had f i r s t become engaged i n 1869, he had looked forward to a home t h a t would p r o v i d e "peace and q u i e t - -r e s t , and s e c l u s i o n - -from the rush and r o a r and d i s c o r d of the 20 world." However, I x f e a t H a r t f o r d i n c l u d e d o v e r - n i g h t guests, salesmen, c e l e b r i t y hunters, and i n t e r v i e w e r s — a n end-l e s s l i n e of people demanding to see Mark Twain. Enormous p i l e s of l e t t e r s asked f o r autographs, l i t e r a r y advice and money. There was the Monday Evening Club, the F r i d a y n i g h t b i l l i a r d games, and the Saturday Night Club. There were c i v i c o b l i g a t i o n s and heavy business o b l i g a t i o n s as w e l l . A l l of t h i s f r u s t r a t e d Twain's d e s i r e to work and made him want to get away. Huck F i n n had s a i d a t the end of Tom Sawyer, "being r i c h a i n ' t what i t ' s cracked up to be. I t ' s j u s t worry and worry, and sweat and sweat, and a-wishing you was dead a l l the time. . . . I wouldn't ever got i n t o t h i s t r o u b l e i f i t hadn't 21 'a' been f o r t h a t money." In 1876, the year Tom Sawyer was p u b l i s h e d , Twain wrote to Mrs. F a i r b a n k s , c o n g r a t u l a t i n g her b r i e f l y t h a t her son Charles was happy and then s a i d , L e t him go i t now when he's young! Never mind about t h a t g r i s l y f u t u r e season when he s h a l l have made a d a z z l i n g success and s h a l l s i t with f o l d e d hands i n w e l l -earned ease and look around upon h i s corpses and mine, 10 and contemplate h i s daughters and mine i n the same house, and h i s sons and mine gone to•the d e v i l . 2 2 That same summer Twain escaped to Quarry Farm and began work on Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n . Quarry Farm a f f o r d e d marvellous r e l i e f from the har-rassments of H a r t f o r d . Twain was able to work un d i s t u r b e d f o r as long as e i g h t or nine hours a day; and as Adventures  of Huckleberry F i n n took form, Twain began t o i d e r i t i f y - i w i t h the escapism of the book's c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r . The c i v i l i z i n g f o r c e s t h a t t o r t u r e Huck i n the i n i t i a l chapters, of the book p a r a l l e l some of Twain's experiences a t H a r t f o r d . Huck's l a y i n g o f f , smoking and f i s h i n g i n the woods, h i s Edenic experiences on Jackson's I s l a n d , and h i s days and n i g h t s on the r a f t , s l i d i n g along so q u i e t l y ,and l o v e l y , p a r a l l e l Twain's escape to the peace and q u i e t of Quarry Farm. Seven more years would go by before Twain would f i n i s h h i s n ovel and those seven years would be marked by many attempts to get away from the c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l burdens t h a t weighed so h e a v i l y on him. In a d d i t i o n to f u r t h e r t r i p s to Quarry Farm, Twain went to Bermuda wi t h Joe T w i c h e l l i n 1 8 7 7 , to Europe w i t h h i s f a m i l y from A p r i l 187 8 to September 1 8 7 9 , and down the M i s s i s s i p p i i n 1 8 8 2 . Thus, Van Wyck Brooks concluded t h a t Twain was s t i f l e d by h i s involvement with s o c i e t y , and t h a t "through the c h a r a c t e r of Huck, t h a t d i s r e p u t a b l e , i l -23 l i t e r a t e l i t t l e boy . . . he was l i c e n s e d to l e t h i m s e l f go." However, we must remember t h a t the g r e a t e r p a r t of Twain longed to be accepted by s o c i e t y . H i s c o u r t i n g of O l i v i a Langdon and h i s l o c a t i n g i n Nook Farm were p a r t l y i n -s p i r e d by h i s s t r o n g d e s i r e to belong to r e s p e c t a b l e s o c i e t y . The mansion i t s e l f was intended t o be a token not o n l y o f opulence but a l s o of good t a s t e — a n d i t was admired as i t s 24 owners hoped i t would be. In f a c t , Twain had begun h i s r e f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e he met L i v y . Walter B l a i r suggests t h a t Twain's self-improvement was a c c e l e r a t e d when he met Mrs. Abel W. Fairbanks on the Holy Land c r u i s e : "In a p e r i o d when (as i n some other periods) 'good women' enjoyed reforming misguided 25 young men, she immediately s p o t t e d Clemens and,pounced." And Twain, u n l i k e Huck i n the hands of the widow, l o v e d every minute of i t . Mrs. F a i r b a n k s ' i n f l u e n c e was p e r v a s i v e and long l a s t i n g and r e s u l t e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l refinement o f Twain's w r i t i n g and h i s manners. L i v y , too, encouraged refinement i n Twain, but she was never the r a g i n g .tyrant r o a r i n g her husband i n t o s e r v i l e obedience t h a t e a r l i e r b i o g r a p h i e s of t h i s century would have her. N e i t h e r L i v y ' s g e n t l e domestic l o b b y i n g nor Howells' e d i t i n g were ever p r e s s u r e s t h a t Twain wished to.escape. F i g u r a t i v e l y speaking, Twain had l e f t the r i v e r and decided to l i v e i n the towns along the shore years before he began work on Adventures of Huckdeberry F i n n . In "Old Times on the M i s s i s s i p p i , " i n which he had proclaimed the freedom of the r-iverboat p i l o t , he had a l s o made c l e a r how much the p i l o t depended on s o c i e t y f o r the a d u l a t i o n t h a t made h i s l i f e s o s p e c i a l . He had a l s o made c l e a r h i s t e r r i b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : m a i n t a i n i n g a knowledge 12 o f a t r e a c h e r o u s r i v e r t h a t was a l w a y s c h a n g i n g . _ I n t r u t h , t h e p a s s e n g e r who c o u l d n o t r e a d t h i s book [ t h e r i v e ^ saw n o t h i n g b u t a l l manner o f p r e t t y p i c t u r e s i n i t , p a i n t e d by t h e sun and s h a d e d by t h e c l o u d s , whereas t o t h e t r a i n e d eye t h e s e were n o t p i c t u r e s a t a l l , b u t t h e g r i m m e s t and most d e a d - e a r n e s t r - 6 f r e a d i n g m a t t e r . Now when I m a s t e r e d t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h i s w a t e r , and I had come t o know e v e r y t r i f l i n g f e a t u r e t h a t b o r d e r e d t h e g r e a t r i v e r as f a m i l i a r l y as I knew t h e l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t , I had made a v a l u a b l e a c q u i s i t i o n . B u t I had l o s t s o m e t h i n g , t o o . I had l o s t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c o u l d n e v e r be r e s t o r e d t o me w h i l e I l i v e d . A l l t h e g r a c e , t h e b e a u t y , t h e p o e t r y , had gone o u t o f t h e m a j e s t i c r i v e r ! 2 D F o r T w a i n , t h e romance and b e a u t y had gone f r o m t h e r i v e r l o n g ago. I n 1862, he had w r i t t e n h i s s i s t e r f r o m C a l i f o r n i a , " I n e v e r once t h o u g h t o f r e t u r n i n g home t o go on t h e r i v e r a g a i n , and I n e v e r e x p e c t t o do any more p i l o t i n g a t any ,,27 p r i c e . I f we l o o k b r i e f l y a t b ooks Twain w r o t e b e f o r e and a f t e r A d v e n t u r e s o f H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n , we f i n d f u r t h e r p l a i n e v i -dence t h a t T w a i n ' s s t a n c e t o w a r d s h o r e s o c i e t y , was n o t p r i -m a r i l y r e b e l l i o u s o r c y n i c a l . I n b o t h The I n n o c e n t s A b r o a d and A C o n n e c t i c u t Yankee i n K i n g A r t h u r ' s C o u r t , T w a i n c e l e b r a t e s t h e v i r t u e s o f an A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y t h a t p r o v i d e s , more so t h a n any o t h e r c i v i l i z a t i o n on e a r t h , an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r human c o m f o r t and f u l f i l l m e n t . The I n n o c e n t s A b r o a d i s t h e c h r o n i c l e o f an e s c a p e f r o m A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , an e x c u r -s i o n a c r o s s t h e o c e a n t o "many a s t r a n g e c l i m e and i n many a 2 8 l a n d renowned i n h i s t o r y . " However, t h e l a n d s o f renown p a l e by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h A m e r i c a , and Twain i s more moved by t h e p o v e r t y and w r e t c h e d n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e t h a n by t h e works 13 of a r t and b u i l d i n g s t h a t he sees. In Chapter XXVI he expresses what a Roman might say of America: "I saw common men and common women who c o u l d read; I even saw s m a l l c h i l d r e n of common country people r e a d i n g from books . . . I saw r e a l g l a s s windows i n the houses of even the commonest people. . . . There are hundreds and thousands of s c h o o l s , and anybody may go and l e a r n to be wise, l i k e a p r i e s t . In t h a t s i n -g u l a r country, i f a r i c h man d i e s a s i n n e r , he i s damned; he cannot buy s a l v a t i o n with money f o r masses. There i s r e a l l y not much use i n being r i c h , t h e r e . . . . I saw common men. there--men who were n e i t h e r p r i e s t s nor princes--who y e t a b s o l u t e l y owned the l a n d they t i l l e d . I t was not rented from the church, nor from the nobles . ... . a t t h i s very day, i n t h a t c u r i o u s country, a Jew i s allowed to vote, h o l d o f f i c e , yea, get up on a rostrum i n the p u b l i c s t r e e t and express h i s o p i n i o n of the government i f the government don't s u i t him! Ah, i t i s wonderful. The common people there know a g r e a t d e a l ; they even have the e f f r o n t e r y to complain i f they are not p r o p e r l y governed, and to take h o l d and h e l p conduct the government them-s e l v e s . . . 1 , 2 9 A C o n n e c t i c u t Yankee i n King A r t h u r ' s Court might w e l l be named a hymn p r a i s i n g n i n e t e e n t h century America. Hank Morgan b r i n g s American know-how to medieval England and improves the human c o n d i t i o n a hundredfold. Thus, when we t u r n to Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n , we should not be s u r p r i s e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t Twain n e i t h e r g l o r i f i e s i n d i v i -d u a l attempts to escape from s o c i e t y nor condemns American s o c i e t y i t s e l f . I I . THE FOOLISHNESS OF NIGGER JIM In t a k i n g a r e a l i s t i c approach to Huck and Jim and t h e i r journey down the r i v e r , I would l i k e to d e a l with Jim f i r s t , s i n c e i t i s h i s presence i n the novel t h a t c r e a t e s much of the c e n t r a l c o n f l i c t . Jim i s b e s t remembered f o r h i s 14 rebuke of Huck, a f t e r they had been separated i n the f o g . When Jim r e a l i z e s t h a t Huck has been f o o l i n g him, he says t h a t o n l y " t r a s h " would do what Huck had d o n e — l i e t o him. 30 T h i s scene has i n s p i r e d many s e n t i m e n t a l responses t o Jim. But some people i n Huck 1s world l i v e c o n s i s t e n t l y from the h e a r t . These persons are g u i l e l e s s , t r u s t i n g , spontaneous i n t h e i r a f f e c t i o n s . They r e s p e c t human l i f e . Although they are l i k e l y t o be v i c t i m s of organized ignorance or f r a u d , they are not r e v e n g e f u l or s e l f -s eeking. Jim, of course, i s foremost i n s e l f l e s s n e s s and magnanimity. Because he i s in c a p a b l e of d e c e i t , h i s innocence, whether comic or p a t h e t i c , i s haloed w i t h grandeur. His search f o r freedom i s c a r r i e d f o r t h i n h u m i l i t y and s a n c t i f i e d by elemental j u s t i c e . 3 1 Dixon Wecter s t a t e s t h a t Jim's "unshakable l o y a l t y , generous h e a r t , and unconscious d i g n i t y — e v e n when Huck makes game of h i s c r e d u l i t y — r a i s e him to the rank of Mark Twain's 32 n o b l e s t c r e a t i o n . " Kenneth Lynn went so f a r as to c l a i m t h a t Jim was a "mythical f i g u r e . . . a f i g u r e out of a dream, p a s s i o n a t e , l o y a l , immensely d i g n i f i e d — a Black C h r i s t , i n 33 sum;, but with a very human sense of humour." W e l l , Jim i s not without v i r t u e , but to e l e v a t e him to C h r i s t h o o d or to c l a i m t h a t he i s s e l f l e s s or i n c a p a b l e of d e c e i t i s to ignore most of the th i n g s he says or does. I do not deny t h a t Jim commands r e s p e c t i n the fog scene, but I w i l l argue t h a t t h a t scene i s the onl y scene i n the book i n which Jim enjoys such freedom of e x p r e s s i o n and partakes i n t h a t freedom wi t h such d i g n i t y . That Jim i s a genuine saphead with a l l the flaws of the s h o r e - d w e l l i n g s o c i e t y i s made c l e a r much e a r l i e r i n the book. In the second chapter, when Tom and Huck are sneaking out one n i g h t , 15 Jim hears them and i n v e s t i g a t e s , but e v e n t u a l l y f a l l s a s l e e p . While he i s s l e e p i n g , Tom leaves a f i v e - c e n t p i e c e on the k i t -chen t a b l e i n payment f o r three candles t h a t he has taken, and then s t e a l s Jim's hat and hangs i t i n a t r e e . L a t e r , what Jim makes of the n i c k e l and the hat e s t a b l i s h e s Jim as one of the n o b l e s t windbags Twain ever c r e a t e d . Jim decides t h a t witches had r i d d e n him a l l over the s t a t e ; then he e n l a r g e s upon h i s s t o r y u n t i l they had r i d d e n him a l l over the world, "and t i r e d him most to death, and h i s back was a l l over saddle b o i l s " (p. 10) '. Jim was monstrous proud about i t , and he got so he wouldn't h a r d l y n o t i c e the other n i g g e r s . Niggers would come mi l e s to hear Jim t e l l about i t , and he was more looked up to than any nigger i n t h a t country . . . Jim always kept t h a t f i v e - c e n t e r p i e c e around h i s neck with a s t r i n g and s a i d i t was a charm the d e v i l g i v e to him with h i s own hands and t o l d him he c o u l d cure anybody with i t and f e t c h witches whenever he wanted to , j u s t by s a y i n g something to i t ; but he never t o l d what i t was he s a i d to i t . . . . Jim was most r u i n e d , f o r a s e r v a n t , because he got so stuck up on account of having seen the d e v i l and been rode by witches, (p.10-11) -We can admire Jim's i m a g i n a t i o n — b u t we should be c a r e f u l about what we expect from someone with such a g i f t f o r r o m a n t i c i z i n g t r i v i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . A l s o , we should not be l e d to b e l i e v e , as L i o n e l T r i l l i n g was, t h a t Huck and Jim 34 "do not have an ounce of p r i d e between them." The next time we see Jim we see how much g u i l e i s i n the man. Huck comes to Jim to ask advice about h i s f a t h e r . Jim p u l l s out h i s h a i r b a l l , . which he claims has a s p i r i t i n i t t h a t "knowed e v e r y t h i n g , " and drops i t on the f l o o r t hree times. Then he claims t h a t sometimes the h a i r b a l l won't t a l k without money. Huck. g i v e s Jim a c o u n t e r f e i t q u a r t e r ; Jim then comments t h a t he would " s p l i t open a raw I r i s h potato . and s t i c k the q u a r t e r i n between and keep i t there a l l n i g h t , and next morning . . . anybody i n town would take i t i n a minute" (p.19). F i n a l l y , with the a i d of the h a i r -b a l l , Jim t e l l s Huck h i s f o r t u n e , and, to put i t s u c c i n c t l y , Huck gets h i s money's worth. The f a c t t h a t Jim passes c o u n t e r f e i t money and t e l l s bogus f o r t u n e s does not e s t a b l i s h him as a heinous c r i m i n a l , but i t does shed l i g h t on h i s c a p a c i t y f o r honesty. These e a r l y chapters show Jim to be a romantic f o o l and a con a r t i s t . When he decides to run away, we see t h a t he i s a l s o s t u p i d , and a poor candidate f o r freedom. His i n i t i a l dash f o r freedom i s p r e c i p i t o u s and t o t a l l y unplanned. One n i g h t , when he overhears Miss Watson t e l l her s i s t e r t h a t she wants to s e l l Jim because she can't r e s i s t the e i g h t hun-dred d o l l a r s she c o u l d get f o r him, Jim gets scared and runs away. He admits to Huck l a t e r t h a t the widow was t r y i n g to dissuade Miss Watson (and without doubt, the widow would have convinced her s i s t e r not to s e l l J im), but Jim "never waited to hear de r e s " (p.39). Jim gets as f a r as the cooper's shop and h i d e s , then spends the n i g h t and the next day there w a i t -i n g f o r a good chance to escape unseen. T h i s g i v e s him time to t h i n k ; he decides a t l a s t to c a t c h a r a f t and r i d e i t down r i v e r about t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s and then take to the woods on the I l l i n o i s s i d e . However, the men on the r a f t he catches 17 move around too much and, f e a r i n g capture, Jim gets o f f a t Jackson's I s l a n d . Jackson's I s l a n d i s as f a r as he can go. Suddenly h i s predicament i s c l e a r . He doesn't want to be s o l d down r i v e r , but t r y i n g to f i n d h i s way to the f r e e s t a t e s i s too r i s k y , so he stays on Jackson's I s l a n d , not knowing what to do. Perhaps he would have s t a r v e d to death t h e r e , i f Huck hadn't come alo n g . I f Jim d i d have any notion s o f ever going f a r t h e r than Jackson's I s l a n d , they evaporate when Huck a r r i v e s . They go e x p l o r i n g and d i s c o v e r a l a r g e cavern. Jim immediately suggests they make a permanent home t h e r e . Jim was f o r p u t t i n g our t r a p s i n t h e r e , r i g h t away, but I s a i d we d i d n ' t want t o be c l i m b i n g up and down there a l l the time. Jim s a i d i f we had the canoe h i d i n a good p l a c e , and had a l l the t r a p s i n the cavern, we c o u l d rush t h e r e i f anybody was to come to the i s l a n d , and they would never f i n d us without dogs. (p. 4 3) .-Jim was q u i t e s a t i s f i e d to remain on Jackson's I s l a n d . S u r e l y i t i s c l e a r t h a t Jim i s not f i e r c e l y d e d i c a t e d to seeking permanent freedom. To the lengthen i n g l i s t of Jimi's human f o i b l e s I would l i k e to add d u p l i c i t y and i n s i n c e r i t y . I r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the l i e he t e l l s Huck about the i d e n t i t y o f the man i n the f l o a t i n g house and to the f l a t t e r y he uses on Huck to manipulate him. When Jim f i n d s Pap F i n n dead i n the f l o a t i n g house, he q u i c k l y throws some o l d rags over him and warns Huck not to look a t h i s f a c e . We assume immediately t h a t Jim i s p r o t e c t i n g Huck from something h o r r i b l e ; the dead man not only looks g h a s t l y , but a l s o i s Huck's f a t h e r . We l e a r n 18 l a t e r , however, t h a t J i m i s r e a l l y p r o t e c t i n g h i m s e l f . Back a t t h e c a v e , when Huck wants t o t a l k a b o u t t h e d e a d man, J i m r e f u s e s t o , c l a i m i n g t h a t t a l k i n g a b o u t him w o u l d b r i n g b a d l u c k — a n d o f c o u r s e i t w o u l d , f o r J i m . J i m knows t h a t pap i s Huck's r e a s o n f o r r u n n i n g away; Huck " t o l d h i m t h e w h o l e t h i n g " (p. 38) a b o u t what went on i n p ap's c a b i n . He a l s o must r e a l i z e t h a t i f Huck knew t h a t pap was dead, he w o u l d go b a c k t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g , r a t h e r t h a n s t a y on J a c k s o n ' s I s l a n d w i t h J i m . J i m k e e p s pap's d e a t h a s e c r e t u n t i l i t i s s a f e t o r e v e a l i t - - w h e n he h i m s e l f i s f r e e , and i t i s no l o n g e r "bad l u c k " t o t a l k a b o u t t h e d e a d man. J i m ' s d e c e i t t a k e s a n o t h e r f o r m ; when he i s u n s u r e o f Huck's l o y a l t y , he f l a t t e r s him. B e f o r e J i m e x t r a c t s a p r o -m i s e f r o m Huck n o t t o t e l l on him, he t e l l s h i m t h a t e v e n Tom Sawyer c o u l d n o t have p l a n n e d h i s own murder as w e l l as Huck d i d . B u t a f t e r he h a s Huck's. p r o m i s e n o t t o t e l l , a l l f l a t t e r y s t o p s u n t i l t h e y a r e down by C a i r o . J i m g e t s v e r y e x c i t e d a b o u t b e i n g so c l o s e t o f r e e d o m , and Huck b e g i n s t o f e e l "mean and m i s e r a b l e " a b o u t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e runaway n e g r o . Huck d e c i d e s t o t e l l on J i m , and when t h e y f i n a l l y s p o t a l i g h t , Huck s u g g e s t s he go and see i f i t i s C a i r o ; he i n t e n d s t o t a k e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e l l . S u d d e n l y J i m s t a r t s t o b e h a v e l i k e a s e r v a n t . He l a y s h i s c o a t on t h e b o t t o m o f t h e canoe f o r Huck t o s i t on and as Huck s h o v e s o f f , he s a y s / P o o t y s o o n I ' l l be a s h o u t ' n f o r j o y , en I ' l l s a y , i t ' s a l l on a c c o u n t s 'o' Huck; I ' s a f r e e man, en I c o u l d n ' t ever been f r e e e f i t hadn 1 been f o r Huck; Huck done i t . Jim won't ever f o r g i t you, Huck; you's de bes' f r e n ' Jim's ever had; en you's de only f r e n ' o l e Jim's got now. (p.74) . To t h i s p o i n t , Jim has probably j u s t been f e e l i n g g r a t e f u l to Huck f o r h e l p i n g him get t h i s f a r , although he may have sensed from Huck's f i d g e t i n g up and down the r a f t t h a t Huck has m i s g i v i n g s about what he i s doing. But when Jim says Huck i s the o n l y f r i e n d Jim has now, Huck suddenly stops p a d d l i n g hard (Huck had been " a l l i n a sweat" to t e l l on Jim) and goes along s l o w l y , not knowing what to do. Jim watches him paddle along slowly i n u n c e r t a i n t y and then y e l l s , "Dah you goes, de o l e t r u e Huck; de on'y white genlman dat ever kep 1 h i s promise to o l e Jim" (p. 74). Jim senses t h a t some-t h i n g must be wrong and decides he'd b e t t e r remind. Huck of h i s promise not to t e l l on him, and throws i n the h i g h l y i n -a p p r o p r i a t e t i t l e , "white genlman" as w e l l . Again, I would l i k e to say t h a t I am not t r y i n g to prove t h a t Jim i s a d e s p i c a b l e c r e a t u r e ; he i s n ' t . I'm o n l y t r y i n g to show t h a t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Huck i s n ' t always an honest one. Jim had s a i d e a r l i e r t h a t i f they missed C a i r o he'd "be i n s l a v e country again and jfhavej no more show f o r f r e e -dom" (p. 72). When Jim r e a l i z e s t h a t they have indeed passed by Cairo., and when t h e i r canoe disappears as w e l l , he seems to g i v e up on ever g e t t i n g t o the f r e e s t a t e s . Although Jim and Huck t a l k about buying a canoe to go back i n , they never do. And, when three days a f t e r t h e i r escape from the Granger-ford-Shepherdson feud, they f i n d a canoe, Jim doesn't suggest 20 they head back up r i v e r . Huck paddles up a creek to p i c k b e r r i e s — a n d b r i n g s the k i n g and the duke aboard. C r i t i c s have noted t h a t Twain i n t r o d u c e s the k i n g and the duke so t h a t he can continue the r i v e r journey and expose the f o l l y o f the townspeople who l i v e along the shore. But the k i n g and the duke help to expose the f o l l y of Huck and Jim, too. I have mentioned b e f o r e t h a t Jim had achieved a c e r t a i n d i g n i t y when he rebuked Huck f o r p l a y i n g w i t h h i s f e e l i n g s . But when the k i n g and the duke come aboard we see how s p e c i a l those circumstances were t h a t allowed Jim such freedom w i t h Huck, and how l i m i t e d i s h i s d i g n i t y . Jim, l i k e Huck, r e c o g n i z e s the k i n g and the duke f o r what they are. Very soon a f t e r they come aboard, Jim i s a s k i n g the k i n g to t a l k French, to see i f he r e a l l y can (p. 109). Jim knows they are j u s t " r e g ' l a r r a p s c a l l i o n s , " and-he t e l l s Huck so (p. 12 3). Yet Jim gets down on one knee to them, serves them, l e t s them s l e e p i n h i s bed, and c a l l s them "your Grace," and "your Majesty." A f t e r o n l y two days w i t h the k i n g and the duke, Jim f i n d s h i m s e l f bound hand and f o o t w i t h ropes, " l y i n g t i e d a,couple o f years everyday, and tr e m b l i n g a l l over every time there was a sound" (p. 126). Jim e v e n t u a l l y does p r o t e s t m i l d l y ; he expresses the hope t h a t the duke and the k i n g and Huck wouldn't be gone a l l day s i n c e i t was "mighty heavy and tiresome" (p. 12 5) to spend a whole day i n the wigwam t i e d up. The duke soon d e v i s e s a s o l u t i o n t h a t g i v e s Jim g r e a t e r f r e e -dom; but i t i s a s o l u t i o n t h a t i s p a i d f o r i n human d i g n i t y . 21 He dressed Jim up i n King Lear's o u t f i t — i t was a long c u r t a i n - c a l i c o gown, and a white h o r s e - h a i r wig and whiskers; and then he took h i s t h e a t r e p a i n t and p a i n t e d Jim's face and hands and ears and neck a l l over a dead d u l l s o l i d b l u e , l i k e a man t h a t ' s been drownded nine days. Blamed i f he warn't the h o r r i b l e s . t l o o k i n g outrage I ever see. Then the duke took and wrote out a s i g n on a s h i n g l e s o — S i c k Arab but harmless when not  out of h i s head. . . . Jim was s a t i s f i e d . . . . Why, he d i d n ' t only look l i k e he was dead, he looked c o n s i d e r a b l e more than that, (p. 125-126). Jim spends the remainder of the r i v e r journey l o o k i n g l i k e a s i c k Arab; y e t c r i t i c s are d i s a p p o i n t e d when he g i v e s i n to Tom's games a t the Phelps' farm. Chadwick Hansen, f o r example, claims t h a t a t the Phelps' farm, "Jim i s not the c h a r a c t e r Twain had so c a r e f u l l y developed, moving him from the lowest of r o l e s to the h i g h e s t . T h i s Jim has l o s t a l l d i g n i t y and become a sub-human c r e a t u r e who f e e l s no p a i n and bleeds f r e s h i n k . T h i s Jim i s a f l a t , cheap type, and t h i s Jim i s a measure of the f a i l u r e of the ending of Huckleberry 35 F i n n . " I suggest, however, t h a t we should not be the l e a s t s u r p r i s e d when Jim decides to do e v e r y t h i n g e x a c t l y as "Mars Tom" says. Jim allows t h a t Tom and Huck are "white f o l k s and knowed b e t t e r than him" (p. 19 3). We have known a l l along t h a t Jim b e l i e v e s i n the s u p e r i o r i t y of whites; we need only remember when Huck asked him what he would do i f someone s a i d " P o l l y - v o o - f r a n z y " to him. Jim had r e p l i e d , "I'd take en bust him over de head. Dat i s i f he warn't white. I wouldn't 'low no nigger to c a l l me dat" (p. 66). In the company of whites, even i f those whites are only "Mars Tom" or the k i n g 3 6 and the duke, Jim i s a s l a v e . 22 C r i t i c s have i s o l a t e d one scene l a t e i n the book as being a f i n a l demonstration of Jim's goodness. The n i g h t t h a t Jim escapes from the Phelps', he g i v e s up h i s chance f o r freedom by h e l p i n g the doctor t r e a t Tom's wounded l e g . Henry Nash Smith comments, "Jim a t t a i n s an impressive d i g n i t y when he r e f u s e s to escape a t the c o s t of d e s e r t i n g 37 the wounded Tom." Thomas Ar t h u r G.ul.lason r a t e s Jim's 3 8 d e c i s i o n t o stay behind as overwhelming n o b i l i t y . But what, we need to ask, i s Jim s a c r i f i c i n g ? He has a l r e a d y shown t h a t he can't make h i s own way to freedom, and now he i s e l e v e n hundred m i l e s south of S t . P e t e r s b u r g . Ever s i n c e the n i g h t he a r r i v e d on Jackson's I s l a n d , he hasn't known what to do next. Now, a t the Phelps' farm, he e x p l a i n s h i s d e c i s i o n to stay with Tom as being the k i n d of d e c i s i o n t h a t Tom would make. : But what runaway negro with an ounce of d e t e r m i n a t i o n to be f r e e would g i v e up h i s chance f o r f r e e -dom to h e l p nurse a boy l i k e Tom Sawyer, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r a l l Tom Sawyer has put Jim through? What runaway negro would have allowed h i m s e l f to get so f a r south and wind up on a r a f t w i t h Tom Sawyer i n the f i r s t p l a ce? Jim's d e c i s i o n to s t i c k by Tom because i t i s the honorable t h i n g to do, what Tom h i m s e l f would do, i s the f i n a l measure of the f o o l i s h n e s s o f Nigger Jim. Jim i s no hero, he i s not s e r i o u s l y devoted to a quest f o r freedom, and he i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y v i r t u o u s . He i s given to f a l s e p r i d e , d u p l i c i t y , cowardice and s i l l y s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . 23 I I I . HUCK'S INVOLVEMENT WITH SOCIETY Most c r i t i c s admit t h a t Huck i s i n v o l v e d with s o c i e t y , i n the sense t h a t he i s concerned about the w e l f a r e of o t h e r s . L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , f o r example, p o i n t s out t h a t "Huck's i n t e n s e and even complex moral q u a l i t y may p o s s i b l y not appear on a f i r s t r e a d i n g , f o r one may be caught and convinced by h i s own estimate of h i m s e l f , by h i s brags about h i s l a z y hedonism, h i s avowed p r e f e r e n c e f o r being alone, h i s d i s l i k e o f c i v i l -i z a t i o n . The f a c t i s , of course, t h a t he i s i n v o l v e d i n c i v i l i z a t i o n up to h i s e a r s . . . . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the very essence of h i s c h a r a c t e r . . . he i s always ' i n a sweat 1 over 39 the predicament of someone e l s e . " I would l i k e to take what T r i l l i n g has to say about Huck's m o r a l i t y a step f u r t h e r and suggest t h a t both h i s avowed d i s l i k e of c i v i l i z a t i o n and h i s obvious concern f o r humanity s p r i n g from the same source: a deep sense of h i s own unworthiness. I t i s too easy to f o r -get t h a t Huck has been c a s t out of s o c i e t y : the c h i l d r e n o f St. P e tersburg have been f o r b i d d e n by t h e i r mothers to even speak to Huck. He has no bed to s l e e p i n , l i k e o ther c h i l d -ren, and he has to beg or s t e a l food and c l o t h i n g . Although h i s o u t c a s t c o n d i t i o n may appear to be "gaudy," i n r e a l i t y , Huck's l i f e has been mean and d e p r i v e d . He cannot r e c a l l ever having heard the word, "welcome." The words t h a t Huck uses most o f t e n to d e s c r i b e h i m s e l f are, "low down" "mean" and "ornery." U n t i l he f i n d s the s i x thousand d o l l a r s and i s adopted by the Widow Douglas, Huck i s l i k e F r a n k e n s t e i n ' s m o n s t e r , l i v i n g o u t s i d e o f s o c i e t y , s t a y i n g o u t o f s i g h t , d o i n g good deeds whenever he c a n , and as I hope t o show, w i s h i n g d e s p e r a t e l y t o b e l o n g t o t h e s o c i e t y t h a t r e j e c t s him. When t h e widow a d o p t s him, Huck's f i r s t r e s p o n s e i s p a i n f u l e m b a r r a s s m e n t : "The widow . . . h e a p e d so many c o m p l i m e n t s and so much g r a t i t u d e upon Huck, t h a t he a l m o s t f o r g o t t h e n e a r l y i n t o l e r a b l e d i s c o m f o r t o f h i s new c l o t h e s i n t h e e n t i r e l y i n t o l e r a b l e d i s c o m f o r t o f b e i n g s e t up as a 40 t a r g e t f o r e v e r y b o d y ' s g a z e and e v e r y b o d y ' s l a u d a t i o n s . " B e f o r e l o n g , Huck i s " c o u r t e d , a d m i r e d , s t a r e d a t , " and h i s 41 s a y i n g s a r e " t r e a s u r e d and r e p e a t e d . " T h e r e i s l i t t l e Huck ca n do a b o u t h i s new s t a t u s ; a f t e r t h r e e weeks o f c l e a n l i v i n g , he r u n s away, b u t t h i s one r e b e l l i o n l a s t s o n l y t h r e e d a y s . A l l Tom has t o do i s p o i n t o u t t o Huck, "we c a n ' t l e t y o u i n t o 42 t h e Gang i f y o u a i n ' t r e s p e c t a b l e , y o u know." Huck swears t o go b a c k and s t i c k t o t h e widow u n t i l he r o t s , and t h e s t a g e i s s e t f o r A d v e n t u r e s o f H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n . The p a t t e r n of A d v e n t u r e s o f H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n i s a n n o u nced on t h e f i r s t p a ge: The Widow D o u g l a s , she t o o k me f o r h e r s o n , and a l l o w e d she w o u l d c i v i l i z e me; b u t i t was r o u g h l i v i n g i n t h e house a l l t h e t i m e , c o n s i d e r i n g how d i s m a l r e g -u l a r and d e c e n t t h e widow was i n a l l h e r ways; and so when I c o u l d n ' t s t a n d i t no l o n g e r , I l i t o u t . I g o t i n t o my o l d r a g s , and my s u g a r - h o g s h e a d a g a i n , and was f r e e and s a t i s f i e d . B u t Tom Sawyer, he h u n t e d me up and s a i d he was g o i n g t o s t a r t a band o f r o b b e r s , and I m i g h t j o i n i f I w o u l d go b a c k t o t h e widow and be r e s -p e c t a b l e . So I went b a c k . ( p . 7, i t a l i c s m i n e ) . A d v e n t u r e s o f H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n i s n o t a b o u t e s c a p e , i t i s about escape and r e t u r n . From beginning to end, Huck moves f u r t h e r i n t o s o c i e t y , not out of i t , and by the end of 4 3 the s t o r y Huck i s a c i v i l i z e d , well-mannered young man. At f i r s t , Huck t o l e r a t e s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n order to belong to Tom's gang. Huck i s desperate to j o i n t h i s m i n i -s o c i e t y and i s ready to c r y when Ben Rogers q u e s t i o n s Huck's l e g i t i m a c y as a member, on the b a s i s t h a t he has no.family to k i l l i f he t e l l s the gang's s e c r e t s . Huck, of course, o f f e r s them Miss Watson to k i l l , and he i s accepted by the gang. Even a t t h i s comic l e v e l , the theme of the s t o r y i s c l e a r : to enjoy the f e l l o w s h i p o f s o c i e t y , one must be r e s -p e c t a b l e . Tom Sawyer's gang breaks up a f t e r a month, but Huck F i n n never goes back t o h i s hogsheads ag a i n . Huck has begun to a p p r e c i a t e something e l s e that'_makes r e s p e c t a b i l i t y worth s u f f e r i n g : the widow's kindness t o him. The widow makes Miss Watson "ease up." She doesn't s c o l d him when he r e t u r n s a l l grease and c l a y from h i s n i g h t s out with Tom Sawyer, but j u s t looks "so s o r r y " t h a t Huck t h i n k s he w i l l behave f o r awhile i f he can. Huck admits "a poor chap would stand con-s i d e r a b l e show wi t h the widow's providence" (p.15). The widow p r a i s e s Huck and says t h a t she i s not ashamed of him. When he turns over the s a l t c e l l a r , Miss Watson s c o l d s , but the widow puts i n a good word f o r Huck. A f t e r three or four months pass by, Huck admits t h a t although he l i k e d the o l d ways b e s t , he was g e t t i n g to l i k e the new ones, too, "a l i t t l e b i t . " 26 L i v i n g i n a h o u s e , and s l e e p i n g i n a b e d , p u l l e d on me p r e t t y t i g h t , m o s t l y , b u t b e f o r e t h e c o l d w e a t h e r I u s e d t o s l i d e o u t and s l e e p i n t h e woods, som e t i m e s , so t h a t was a r e s t t o me (p. 18, i t a l i c s m i n e ) . Though c r i t i c s w o u l d have i t o t h e r w i s e , Huck e v e n seems t o be e n j o y i n g s c h o o l . Huck u n d e r s t a t e s t h e c a s e : "I g o t so I c o u l d s t a n d i t . " I n f a c t , h i s a t t e n d a n c e has b e e n e x c e l l e n t , and he has a l r e a d y l e a r n e d t o s p e l l , and r e a d , and w r i t e , " j u s t a l i t t l e . " The e f f e c t t h a t t h e widow has h a d on Huck becomes o b v i o u s when Pap F i n n r e t u r n s . Huck must f e e l v e r y s a f e u n d e r t h e widow's r o o f , b e c a u s e as h i s f a t h e r mumbles and g r o w l s a r o u n d i n Huck's bedroom, k n o c k i n g books a b o u t and t e a r i n g up p i c t u r e s , Huck i s u n u s u a l l y i m p e r t i n e n t : B y"andjby he s a y s : " S t a r c h y c l o t h e s - - v e r y . You t h i n k y o u ' r e a good d e a l o f a b i g bug d o n ' t y o u ? " "Maybe I am, maybe I a i n ' t , " I s a y s . "Don't y o u g i v e me none o' y o u r l i p , " s a y s he. "You've p u t on c o n s i d e r a b l e many f r i l l s s i n c e I b e e n away. I ' l l t a k e y o u down a peg b e f o r e I g e t done w i t h y o u . Y o u ' r e e d u c a t e d , t o o , t h e y s a y ; c a n r e a d a n d w r i t e . You t h i n k y o u ' r e b e t t e r ' n y o u r f a t h e r , now, d o n ' t y o u , b e c a u s e he c a n ' t ? I ' l l t a k e i t o u t o f y o u . Who t o l d y o u y o u m i g h t meddle w i t h s u c h h i f a l u t i n 1 f o o l i s h n e s s , h e y ? — w h o t o l d y o u y o u c o u l d ? " "The widow. She t o l d me." "The widow, h e y ? — a n d who t o l d t h e widow she c o u l d p u t i n h e r s h o v e l a b o u t a t h i n g t h a t a i n ' t none o f h e r b u s i n e s s ? " "Nobody n e v e r t o l d h e r .-".(p. 20-21) Ev e n t h o u g h a new j u d g e d e n i e s t h e widow's p e t i t i o n f o r g u a r d i a n s h i p o f Huck, Huck s t a y s on a t t h e widow's, and c o n t i n -ues t o go t o s c h o o l , " t o s p i t e pap." I n f a c t , Huck s t a y s on f o r s e v e n o r e i g h t months, f r o m summer u n t i l "one day i n t h e 27 s p r i n g " when pap k i d n a p s him. I n a l l t h a t t i m e t h e o a t h t h a t he made on t h e l a s t page o f The A d v e n t u r e s o f Tom Sawyer, " I ' l l s t i c k t o t h e w i d d e r t i l l I r o t , " r e m a i n s u n b r o k e n . T r u e , once Huck has b e e n away i n t h e woods w i t h pap f o r two months, he c l a i m s he d o e s n ' t u n d e r s t a n d how h e ' d g o t t e n t o l i k e i t so w e l l a t t h e widow's (p. 2 4 ) . He a l s o c l a i m s t o be s h a k e n up c o n s i d e r a b l y when pap t e l l s h i m t h a t th e widow w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y w i n i n h e r e f f o r t s t o become h i s g u a r d i a n . Huck s t a t e s p l a i n l y , " I ^ d i d n ' t want t o go b a c k t o t h e widow's any more and be so cramped up and c i v i l i a e i d , =ias t h e y c a l l e d i t " (p. 2 5 ) . F i n a l l y , when he makes h i s p l a n s t o r u n away, he s a y s he wants t o " g e t so f a r away t h a t t h e o l d man n o r t h e widow" c o u l d f i n d him. (Twain i n t e r p r e t e d t h e s t o r y s i m i l a r l y : he s a i d Huck. was r u n n i n g f r o m " h i s p e r s e -44 c u t i n g f a t h e r , and f r o m a p e r s e c u t i n g good widow." However, Tw a i n was p r o b a b l y c o n f u s i n g t h e widow w i t h M i s s Watson; he went on t o s a y , "and w i t h him a s l a v e o f t h e widow's has a l s o e s c a p e d . " ) However, we know t h a t Huck ha d d e c i d e d l o n g ago t o s t a y a t t h e widow's. I s u g g e s t t h a t when he s a y s he d o e s n ' t want t o go b a c k t o t h e widow's "no more," he means t h a t he had w anted t o go b a c k a t f i r s t , b u t d o e s n ' t any more. The r e a s o n why he d o e s n ' t want t o go b a c k "no more" i s c l e a r : The widow she f o u n d o u t where I was b y - a n d - b y , and she s e n t a man o v e r t o t r y and g e t h o l d o f me, b u t pap d r o v e him o f f w i t h t h e gun, and i t w a r n ' t l o n g a f t e r t h a t t i l l I was u s e d t o b e i n g where I w a s . ( p . 24) I s u g g e s t t h a t Huck was h o p i n g t h a t somehow t h e widow 28 would rescue him, and t h a t when pap f o i l s her e f f o r t s , he simply r e s i g n s h i m s e l f , s t d i c t h a t he i s , to being the son of the town drunk, the " j u v e n i l e p a r i a h " once more. There j u s t i s n ' t any p o i n t i n t r y i n g to(See h i m s e l f as the son of the most h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d lady i n the v i l l a g e as long as pap i s s t i l l a l i v e . His p r o t e s t s about h i s treatment a t the widow's are j u s t sour grapes. Whether he can admit i t a t t h i s p o i n t or not, the widow has had a deep and l a s t i n g e f f e c t on Huck. He.: mentions the widow time and again as the novel p r o g r e s s e s . The f i r s t day t h a t he i s on Jackson's I s l a n d , he catches a l o a f of "baker's bread—what ..the,, q u a l i t y eat--none of your low-down corn-pone"(p. 34) . He s i t s munching on t h i s bread f o r awhile and then i t occurs to him t h a t the widow had probably prayed t h a t t h a t bread would f i n d him, and i t had. T h i s proves to him t h a t prayer does work, a t l e a s t , "there's something i n i t when a body l i k e the widow or the parson prays" (p. 34). L a t e r , when Huck and Jim are s u r v i v i n g by l i f t i n g chickens t h a t weren't " r o o s t i n g comfortable," and "borrowing" watermelons and pumpkins, Huck remembers t h a t "pap always s a i d i t warn't no harm to borrow t h i n g s , i f you was meaning to pay them back, sometime; but the widow s a i d i t warn't anything but a s o f t name f o r s t e a l i n g " (p. 55 ) . He i s concerned enough about what the widow had s a i d to decide to c u r t a i l , h i s t h i e v i n g , even i f i t i s only crabapples and persimmons t h a t he decides to leave alone. He a l s o claims t h a t h i s concern f o r the robbers on the wrecked steamboat i s 29 motivated p a r t l y by what the widow would t h i n k of him: But take i t a l l around, I was f e e l i n g r u t h e r comfort-able on accounts of t a k i n g a l l t h i s t r o u b l e f o r t h a t gang, f o r not many would a done i t . I wished the widow knowed about i t . I judged she would be proud of me f o r h e l p i n g these r a p s c a l l i o n s , because r a p s c a l l i o n s and dead beats i s the k i n d the widow and the good people takes the most i n t e r e s t i n . .(p. 63) -In h i s debates with Jim he quotes the widow as an a u t h o r i t y who should be r e s p e c t e d : "he jj3olomon3 was the w i s e s t man, anyway; because the widow she t o l d me so, her own s e l f " (p.65). When Huck meets the Grangerfords he i s impressed by the C o l o n e l because he was " w e l l born." Again, he quotes the widow as an a u t h o r i t y on these t h i n g s : He was w e l l born, as the s a y i n g i s , and t h a t ' s worth as much i n a man as i t i s i n a horse, so the Widow Douglas s a i d , and nobody ever denied t h a t she was the f i r s t a r i s -t o c r a c y i n our town; and pap he always s a i d i t , too, though he warn't no more q u a l i t y than a mudcat, h i m s e l f , (p. 86) A l l these r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the widow g i v e us a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between her and Huck and the k i n d of c i v i l i z i n g e f f e c t she has had on him. He has come to h a l f -b e l i e v e i n the e f f i c a c y of p r a y e r . He has become concerned about h i s s t e a l i n g . He has t r i e d to do what the widow s a i d he must do: to "help other people, and do e v e r y t h i n g I c o u l d f o r o ther people, and look out f o r them a l l the time" (p. 14). The widow has made the B i b l e s t o r i e s come to l i f e f o r Huck. At f i r s t , Huck had been unable to understand why anyone would be concerned about dead people l i k e Moses. But l a t e r , h i s argue-ment with Jim about Solomon i n d i c a t e s t h a t he has developed a genuine and deep i n t e r e s t i n the B i b l e and the meaning of i t s 3 0 s t o r i e s . F i n a l l y , Huck has become more c l a s s c o n s c i o u s . His comments about the widow and the " q u a l i t y " i n d i c a t e t h a t he has come to a s s o c i a t e some good t h i n g s with the a r i s t o c r a c y . He has a l s o become more p a i n f u l l y aware of h i s own s t a t u s s i n c e pap s t o l e him away from the widow. As Huck gets f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r away from S t . Petersburg, more and more he laments the wickedness which was i n h i s " l i n e , " which he was "brung up t o " by a man who had no more q u a l i t y than a mudcat'. Huck 1s a p p r e c i a t i o n of c i v i l i z e d l i f e becomes even more c l e a r when he i s adopted by the Grangerfords. The Grangerfords-are g e n e r a l l y regarded as examples of the worst k i n d of s e n t i -m e n t a l i t y , the k i n d t h a t r o m a n t i c i z e s death and values honour above human l i f e . But to Huck, they are a dream come t r u e . Ever s i n c e he l e f t S t . Petersburg, Huck has been i n v e n t i n g f a m i l i e s f o r h i m s e l f . He t e l l s J u d i t h L o f t u s t h a t he i s Sarah W i l l i a m s , a g i r l on her way to get help from her uncle f o r her s i c k mother (p. 48). He t e l l s the c a p t a i n of the f e r r y boat t h a t h i s f a m i l y i n c l u d e s "pap, and mam, and s i s " (p. 61). He t e l l s the s l a v e hunters t h a t "pap and mam and Mary Ann" are on the r a f t . At the Grangerford's, he has time to e m b e l l i s h the s t o r y a l i t t l e and e x p l a i n s t h a t he i s George Jackson from the bottom of Arkansas, whose s i s t e r Mary Ann eloped, whose b r o t h e r ' B i l l went to hunt f o r her and was never heard of again and whose f a t h e r and b r o t h e r s Tom and Mort a l l d i e d . A l l these t r a g i c s t o r i e s t h a t Huck f a b r i c a t e s i l l u s t r a t e h i s acute sense of being an orphan and help us understand h i s l o v e f o r the Grangerfords. 31 When he f i r s t e n t e r s t h e d o o r a t t h e G r a n g e r f o r d 1 s , Huck i s q u i t e s u r e t h a t t h e y mean t o s h o o t him. Huck i s u s e d t o b e i n g t r e a t e d b a d l y , and has e x p e c t e d h o s t i l i t y a t e v e r y t u r n s i n c e he l e f t J a c k s o n ' s I s l a n d . Huck i s s u r p r i s e d when he i s t r e a t e d so k i n d l y by t h e G r a n g e r f o r d s . The C o l o n e l t e l l s h i m t o make h i m s e l f a t home. S e r v a n t s b u s y t h e m s e l v e s t o g e t him s o m e t h i n g t o e a t , Buck g i v e s him f r e s h d r y c l o t h e s , t h e w h o l e f a m i l y s i t s up t o h e a r h i s s t o r y , and he i s i m m e d i a t e l y a d o p t e d . Huck's a c c o u n t o f what he s e e s and does a t t h e G r a n g e r -f o r d ' s r e v e a l s a marked change i n h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and c l a s s . I t a l s o r e v e a l s how l i m i t e d i s h i s r e a l ^ i s m , h i s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e and d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e f a k e and t h e g e n u i n e . F i r s t l e t us remember t h a t Huck has d e c l a r e d e a r l y i n t h e book a d i s d a i n f o r b e i n g "cramped up and c i v i l i z e d . " He has a l s o e x p r e s s e d i m p a t i e n c e w i t h t h e f o r m a l i t i e s o f c i v i l -i z e d d i n i n g : The widow r u n g a b e l l f o r s u p p e r , and y o u had t o come t o t i m e . When y o u g o t t o t h e t a b l e y o u c o u l d n ' t go r i g h t t o e a t i n g , b u t y o u had t o w a i t f o r t h e widow t o t u c k down h e r h e a d and grumble a l i t t l e o v e r t h e v i c t u a l s , t h o u g h t h e r e w a r n ' t r e a l l y a n y t h i n g t h e m a t t e r w i t h them. T h a t i s , n o t h i n g o n l y e v e r y t h i n g was c o o k e d by i t s e l f . I n a b a r r e l o f odds and ends i t i s d i f f e r e n t , t h i n g s g e t m i x e d up, and t h e j u i c e k i n d o f swaps a r o u n d , and t h e t h i n g s go b e t t e r . ( p . 7 ) . When Huck a r r i v e s a t t h e G r a n g e r f o r d 1 s , t h e f i r s t t h i n g t h a t Buck announces i s t h a t h i s m other makes him "comb up, Sundays, and a l l t h a t k i n d o f f o o l i s h n e s s '-':' (p;. ~ 81 J-'. b u t Huck n e v e r once c o n s i d e r s r e f u s i n g t o wear t h e t i g h t c l o t h e s he i s g i v e n , o r r u n n i n g away t o t h e n e a r e s t h o g s h e a d . I n f a c t , 32 when Huck does go to church with the Grangerfords, i t i s the preaching he complains about, not the "combing up." L a t e r , when he i s back on the r a f t with Jim, Huck comments, "we was always naked, day and n i g h t , whenever the mosquitoes would  l e t u s — t h e new c l o t h e s Buck's f o l k s made f o r me was too good to be comfortable, and b e s i d e s I d i d n ' t go much on c l o t h e s , no how"(p. 97, i t a l i c s mine). His p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t c l o t h i n g have toned down c o n s i d e r a b l y , and he i s c o n f e s s i n g here t h a t he does wear h i s good c l o t h e s , i f o n l y because they are more comfortable than being b i t t e n a l l over by mosquitoes. Huck*s t a s t e i n food and t a b l e manners has changed con-s i d e r a b l y , too. He p r a i s e s the good cooking and speaks w i t h p r i d e of the dinner r i t u a l s a t the Grangerford's: And warn't the cooking good, and j u s t bushels of i t too! (p. 86) -When him and the o l d lady come down i n the morning, a l l the f a m i l y got up out of t h e i r c h a i r s and g i v e them good-day, and d i d n ' t s e t down again t i l l they had s e t down. Then Tom and Bob went to the s i d e b o a r d where the decanters was, and mixed a g l a s s of b i t t e r s and handed i t to him, and he h e l d i t i n h i s hand and waited t i l l Tom's and Bob's was mixed, and then they bowed and s a i d "Our duty to you, s i r , and madam;" and they bowed the l e a s t b i t i n the world and s a i d thank you, and so they drank, a l l t h r e e , and Bob and Tom poured a s p o o n f u l of water on the sugar and the mite of whiskey or apple brandy i n the bottom of t h e i r tumblers, and g i v e i t to me and Buck, and we drank to the o l d people too. (p. 87) . Huck i s a l s o deeply impressed by the " q u a l i t y " of t h i s f a m i l y . Of course, a t one l e v e l , e v e r y t h i n g Huck says about the a r i s t o c r a t i c Grangerfords i s meant by Twain to be h a r d - h i t t i n g s a t i r e . But from Huck's p o i n t of view, the Grangerford f a m i l y i s the b e s t t h i n g he has ever seen. He d e s c r i b e s the C o l o n e l i n minute d e t a i l : he i s a "gentleman" who i s " w e l l born," he wears a c l e a n s h i r t "every day of h i s l i f e , " and a f u l l s u i t "made out o f l i n e n so white i t h u r t your eyes t o look a t i t , " and "everybody was always good mannered where he was" (pp. 86-87). Most important f o r Huck, the Colonel' 1 was as k i n d as he c o u l d b e — y o u c o u l d f e e l t h a t , you know, and so you had c o n f i d e n c e " (p. 86, i t a l i c s mine). For a l l t h e i r f a u l t s , the Grangerfords are genuinely k i n d , and they seem to have no u l t e r i o r motives f o r t a k i n g Huck i n (when the feud breaks out, no one wakes Huck to ask him to h e l p ) . A l l the kindnesses the Grangerfords show him i n -s p i r e Huck, and he i s able to admit t h a t he has confidence i n h i m s e l f and h i s a b i l i t y to f i t i n a t the Grangerfords. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a dramatic change f o r the boy who has so o f t e n seen h i m s e l f as low-down, mean, and ornery. Huck d e s c r i b e s the r e s t of the f a m i l y and t h e i r house and r e l a t i v e s i n glowing terms. Rachel Grangerford i s "the sweetest o l d gray-headed lady" (p. 80), Bob and Tom are " t a l l , b e a u t i f u l men with very broad shoulders and brown f a c e s , and long b l a c k h a i r and b l a c k eyes" (p. 87). Miss C h a r l o t t e was " t a l l and proud and grand, but as good as she c o u l d be . . . b e a u t i f u l " (p. 87), and Miss Sophia i s b e a u t i f u l , too, o n l y "gentle and sweet, l i k e a dove" (p. 87). Huck notes t h a t the house has a r e a l brass door knob, no beds i n the p a r l o u r , a c l e a n b r i c k f i r e p l a c e w i t h brass dog-irons, and an impressive c o l l e c t i o n o f c r o c k e r y , books and p i c t u r e s . Huck d e s c r i b e s the f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s of the f a m i l y who stay f o r f i v e or s i x days a t a time and have "such j u n k e t i n g s round about and on t h e r i v e r , a n d d a n c e s a n d p i c n i c s i n t h e woods, d a y - t i m e s , and b a l l s a t t h e h o u s e , n i g h t s , " a s a "handsome l o t o f q u a l i t y " (p. 87). Huck i s e v e n i m p r e s s e d by t h e m o r b i d . E m m e l i n e . A g a i n , a l t h o u g h we l a u g h a t H u c k 1 s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f E m m e l i n e ' s p a i n t -i n g s a n d p o e t r y , Huck h i m s e l f i s d e a d l y s e r i o u s . He i s t a k e n w i t h h e r i n an a m b i g u o u s way; t h o u g h h e r p i c t u r e s g i v e h i m t h e " f a n t o d s " s o m e t i m e s when he i s d e p r e s s e d , he i s s t r a n g e l y f a s c i n a t e d b y h e r . When h e r p i c t u r e s " a g g r a v a t e " h i m , he g o e s up t o h e r room and r e a d s i n h e r s c r a p b o o k i n a n a t t e m p t t o l i k e h e r . He s a y s " I l i k e d a l l t h a t f a m i l y , d e a d o n e s and a l l , a n d w a r n ' t g o i n g t o l e t a n y t h i n g come b e t w e e n u s . " Huck f e e l s t h a t he i s s u p p o s e d t o r e v e r e E m m e l i n e , and w o r k s h a r d t o d e v e l o p a f e e l i n g o f r e v e r e n c e t o w a r d s h e r . He e v e n t r i e s t o t a k e E m m e l i n e ' s p l a c e : " i t d i d n ' t seem r i g h t t h a t t h e r e w a r n ' t nobody t o make some £poetryJ a b o u t h e r , now she was gone; s o I t r i e d t o s w e a t o u t a v e r s e o r two m y s e l f , b u t I c o u l d n ' t seem t o make i t g o , somehow" (p. 85). Huck i s d r a w n t o E m m e l i n e p e r h a p s b e c a u s e h e r o b s e s -s i o n w i t h d e a t h s t r i k e s a c h o r d somewhere i n h i m , b u t w h a t i s more i m p o r t a n t h e r e i s H u c k 1 s c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e t o t r u s t h i s own j u d g e m e n t . The s h a r p - e y e d r e a l i s m t h a t he h a s b e e n a d m i r e d f o r , d e s e r t s h i m c o m p l e t e l y . A t t h e G r a n g e r f o r d ' s , Huck i s d e t e r m i n e d t o f i t i n and d o e s . H i s s o j o u r n w i t h them d e m o n s t r a t e s how w i l l i n g Huck i s t o a d o p t t h e m anners a n d c u s t o m s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e s m a l l s a c r i f i c e o f w e a r i n g t i g h t c l o t h e s a n d o b s e r v i n g 35 s o c i a l r i t u a l s gains him e n t r y i n t o an a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y l i k e the Grangerfords, where he even has h i s own s e r v a n t . His v i s i t there a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s how e a s i l y Huck i s taken i n by the r i c h appearance of s o c i e t y , and how q u i c k l y he can c a s t o f f the "sour grapes" p e r s p e c t i v e of the homeless o u t c a s t . Huck's stay with the Grangerfords ends i n h o r r i f y i n g v i o l e n c e . Huck sees t h i n g s t h a t he can't even t a l k . a b o u t , t h a t make him s i c k , t h a t he has nightmares about. Huck's chance to belong to the f a m i l y of h i s dreams i s gone f o r e v e r . T y p i c a l l y , Huck r e v e r t s to the k i n d of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n t h a t had helped him when he had been s t o l e n away from the widow. As soon as he and Jim are out i n the middle of the M i s s i s s i p p i and he judges he i s " f r e e and s a f e once more," he comments, We s a i d there warn't no home l i k e a r a f t , a f t e r a l l . Other p l a c e s do seem so cramped up and smothery, but a r a f t don't. You f e e l mighty f r e e and easy and comfortable on a r a f t . ( p . 9 5 ) , T h i s comment by Huck i s regarded by many as the epitome of the c o n t r a s t of r i v e r and shore. Yet, Huck's comparison of the r a f t with "other p l a c e s " i s a gross o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . The r a f t i s a dangerous home, too: a steamboat almost k i l l e d them before Huck a r r i v e d a t the Grangerford's. F u r t h e r , the "other p l a c e s " have t h e i r redeeming q u a l i t i e s . The Granger-f o r d s were k i n d and good-humoured, and a t l e a s t one member of each of the warring f a c t i o n s managed to transcend the b i t t e r -ness between the two f a m i l i e s and f a l l i n l o v e . We are not meant to b e l i e v e t h a t Huck p r e f e r s l i v i n g w i t h Jim on a r a f t to l i v i n g with the Grangerfords. 36 Three days a f t e r t h e i r escape from the feud, Huck b r i n g s the bogus k i n g and duke aboard. I have mentioned before t h a t the two frauds serve i n the novel p a r t l y to expose the f o l l y of Huck and Jim. Huck 1s r e l a t i o n s h i p with them f u r t h e r exposes Huck's weakness f o r " s t y l e . " Even though Huck claims to see through them, he i s s t i l l q u i t e taken i n by the k i n g and the duke. He i s unable to r e c o g n i z e , f o r example, t h a t t h e i r a c t i n g i s a complete f r a u d : The way they l a i d on,and- pranced around the r a f t was grand to see . . . (p. 109) j u s t knocked the spots out of any a c t i n g ever I see before . . . (p. 110) he (]the king]]' c o u l d do i t [Hamlet's soliloquy"] f i r s t r a t e . . . i t was p e r f e c t l y l o v e l y the way he would r i p and t e a r , (p. H I ) There i s no h i n t of d i s g u s t i n Huck's d e s c r i p t i o n of the king's a n t i c s a t the P o k e v i l l e camp-meeting, and he d e s c r i b e s the duke as " p r e t t y smart" f o r h i s day's work a t the p r i n t i n g shop. A f t e r the Nonesuch performance, Huck says, Them r a p s c a l l i o n s took i n f o u r hundred and s i x t y -f i v e d o l l a r s i n t h a t three n i g h t s . I never see money hauled i n by the wagon-load l i k e t h a t , b e f o r e . ( p . 122) c I t i s p l a i n Huck admires the duke and the k i n g for their a b i l i t y to rake i n the money. F u r t h e r , he has a l o t o f fun with them. He gets t o have a r i d e on a steamboat, he gets t o atten d a c i r c u s , and, i n g e n e r a l , has a p r e t t y e x c i t i n g time i n the v i l l a g e s along the shore. In a way, he adopts them. When they are w e l l enough rehearsed to put on t h e i r "Shakes-perean R e v i v a l , " Huck says, " a l l o f us but Jim took the canoe and went down there to see i f there was any chance i n th a t p l a c e f o r our show" (p. I l l , i t a l i c s mine). When the 37 Royal Nonesuch i s going on, Huck says, "we s o l d t h i s crowd the same way" (p. 12 2, i t a l i c s mine). L a t e r , Huck r e f e r s to the k i n g and duke as "our t r i b e " once (p. 142), and as "our gang" three times (pp. 145 and 155). A c t u a l l y , being with the k i n g and the duke i s l i k e being a member of Tom Sawyer's gang again, o n l y now the gang i s s u c c e s s f u l . P a r a l l e l s between Tom and the two frauds abound. V i r g i n i a Wexman c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e s s i m i l a r i t i e s between Tom's scheme and the scheme of the duke and k i n g i n v o l v i n g the Wilks g i r l s : In both the Wilks and the Phelps sequences we see two imposters attempting to put an e l a b o r a t e d e c e p t i o n over on warm-hearted, t r u s t i n g f a m i l i e s . L a t e r , both s e t s of dissemblers are s e t upon by l o c a l townsfolk. Even more s t r i k i n g l y , Tom h i m s e l f r e c a l l s our image of the " a r i s t o c r a t i c " duke and k i n g through h i s i n -s i s t e n c e t h a t Jim be rescued i n the manner of the n o b i l i t y he has read about i n books. 4 4 The p a r a l l e l s between Tom and the two f r a u d s , however, are much more s p e c i f i c than t h i s . Tom, l i k e the duke and the k i n g , i s engaged i n a double pretense of being someone e l s e . Tom is„pretending to be S i d .Sawyer-pretending t o c. be a stranger., from H i c k s v i l l e , " Ohio. ,-.„ The two f r a u d s , l i k e -wise, are p r e t e n d i n g to be a k i n g and a duke p r e t e n d i n g to be a parson and h i s b r o t h e r . When Tom d i s c o v e r s Jim's where-abouts " d e t e c t i v e - f a s h i o n , " Huck i s amazed a t Tom's i n t e l -l i g e n c e : "What a head f o r j u s t a boy to have. I f I had Tom Sawyer's head, I wouldn't trade i t o f f to be a duke" (p. 181). Huck was s i m i l a r l y impressed w i t h the duke's i n t e l l i g e n c e when he thought up a way of keeping Jim f r e e : "he was v;-38 uncommon b r i g h t , the duke was" (p. 125). In f a c t , Tom's words, "now you work your mind and study out a p l a n to s t e a l Jim, and I w i l l study out one, too" (p. 181), echo the duke's^ "leave me alone to c i p h e r out a way . . . I ' l l t h i n k the t h i n g o v e r — I ' l l i n v e n t a p l a n t h a t ' l l f i x i t " (p. 102). Tom's plans to f r e e Jim change; the duke's plans a l s o change. The duke's f i r s t p l a n to keep Jim t i e d up a l l day, i s as p h y s i c a l l y d i s c o m f o r t i n g f o r Jim as Tom's p l a n s , which i n -clude s l e e p i n g w i t h a gr i n d - s t o n e and a s s o r t e d animals. F u r t h e r , the duke d i s g u i s e s Jim i n one of h i s [the du k e 1 s j own costumes, the "King Lear o u t f i t . " Tom a l s o d i s g u i s e s Jim i n h i s [Tom's^J costume, a dress he has s t o l e n from Aunt S a l l y . Tom's o v e r r i d i n g concern f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y i n h i s e l a b o r a t e scheme--"It don't make no d i f f e r e n c e how f o o l i s h i t i s , i t ' s the r i g h t way—and i t ' s the r e g u l a r way" (p. 190)— r e m i n d s us of the duke's s i m i l a r concern f o r authen-t i c i t y : "Handcuffs and chains would look s t i l l b e t t e r on Jim, but i t wouldn't go w e l l w i t h the s t o r y of us b e i n g so poor. Too much l i k e j e w e l r y . Ropes are the c o r r e c t t h i n g — w e must preserve the u n i t i e s , as we say on the boards" (p. 108). Tom's d i s d a i n f o r the Phelpses--"They're so c o n f i d i n g and mullet-headed they don't take n o t i c e of nothing a t a l l " (p. 207), echoes the duke's d i s d a i n f o r townsfolk t h a t he g u l l s : "Greenhorns, f l a t h e a d s ! I_ knew the f i r s t house would keep mum and l e t the r e s t of the town get roped i n " (p. 122). Tom's memory of coats of arms i s as confused as the duke's memory of Shakespeare. The "mournful" i n s c r i p t i o n s t h a t Tom 39 composes f o r Jim: 1. Here a c a p t i v e h e a r t busted. 2. Here a poor p r i s o n e r , forsook by the world and f r i e n d s , f r e t t e d out h i s s o r r o w f u l l i f e . 3 . Here a l o n e l y h e a r t broke, and a worn s p i r i t went to i t s r e s t , a f t e r t h i r t y - s e v e n years o f s o l i t a r y c a p t i v i t y . 4. Here, homeless and f r i e n d l e s s , a f t e r t h i r t y - s e v e n years of b i t t e r c a p t i v i t y , p e r i s h e d a noble s t r a n g e r , n a t u r a l son of Louis XIV.(p. 201) , reminds us of the duke: . . . here am I, f o r l o r n , t o r n from my high e s t a t e , hunted of men, d e s p i s e d by the c o l d world, ragged, worn, heart-broken, and degraded to the companionship of f e l o n s on a r a f t ! (p. 100) and the k i n g : . -. . . t r o u b l e has brung these gray h a i r s and t h i s premature b a l d i t u d e . Yes, gentlemen, you see bef o r e you, i n blu e jeans and misery, the wanderin 1, e x i l e d , trampled-on and s u f f e r i n 1 r i g h t f u l King o f France. (p. 101) And, of course, Tom's v o i c e trembles as he reads these "mourn-f u l " i n s c r i p t i o n s and he almost breaks down, not u n l i k e the two f r a u d s , who are not u n f a m i l i a r with " t e a r s and f l a p d o o d l e . " F i n a l l y , Tom's posing as a " c u t t h r o a t " who has got r e l i g i o n and wants to warn the Phelpses, not wishing any reward but to know he has done the r i g h t t h i n g , reminds us of the k i n g , posing as a p i r a t e who gets r e l i g i o n and wants to save a l l the p i r a t e s i n the Indian Ocean and gi v e a l l the c r e d i t to the dear people i n P o k e v i l l e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of a l l these p a r a l l e l s between Tom and the two frauds i s to be found i n Huck's responses to them. When Tom i n d u l g e s i n s e l f r o m a n t i c i z i n g , Huck sees through i t and ques t i o n s i t . When Tom i s busy being an a c t o r , 40 Huck t i r e s of i t , and complains of i t . Huck, f o r example, s t r o n g l y r e s i s t s a l l the pretense necessary, a c c o r d i n g t o Tom, to d e l i v e r the "nonnamous l e t t e r s . " But when the k i n g and the duke are a c t i n g , Huck f e e l s l i t t l e e l s e b e s i d e s a d m i r a t i o n . Only when the k i n g and the duke masquerade as the long l o s t b r o t h e r s of Peter Wilks does Huck begin to o b j e c t to t h e i r behaviour. And even then, Huck i s s t i l l f u l l of compliments f o r the a c t i n g a b i l i t y of the k i n g and the duke. When the r e a l b r o t h e r s show up, Huck comments, . . . nary a p a l e d i d they t u r n . The duke he never l e t on he s u s p i c i o n e d what was up . . . and as f o r the k i n g , he j u s t gazed and gazed down s o r r o w f u l on them newcomers l i k e i t g i v e him the stomach-ache i n h i s very h e a r t t o t h i n k there c o u l d be such frauds and r a s c a l s i n the world. Oh, he done i t a d m i r a b l e . . . . . . see, s t r a i g h t o f f , he pronounced l i k e an Englishman, not the kin g ' s way, though the king's was p r e t t y good, f o r an i m i t a t i o n , (p. 154) , Another r e a l i t y e n t i r e l y cuts through Huck's percep-t i o n o f the k i n g and the duke and h i s own s i t u a t i o n when Huck h i m s e l f i s put on the witness stand. Huck c o r r o b o r a t e s the kin g ' s s t o r y t h a t the servants have made o f f wit h the g o l d . The doctor asks Huck i f he i s E n g l i s h too. Huck answers yes, and the doctor and "some o t h e r s " laugh a t him (p. 156). L a t e r , when Huck t e l l s about S h e f f i e l d and the E n g l i s h Wilkses, the doct o r b u r s t s out laug h i n g and L e v i B e l l says, "Set down, my boy, I wouldn't s t r a i n myself, i f I was you. I reckon you a i n ' t used t o l y i n g , i t don't seem to come handy; what you want i s p r a c t i c e . You do i t p r e t t y awkward" (p. 156). Huck i s i n s u l t e d . He says, "I d i d n ' t care nothing f o r the compliment, but I was g l a d to be l e t off anyway" '(p. 156)".. 4 1 T h i s scene reminds us of the scene i n which Huck t a l k s w i t h Joanna, the h a r e - l i p . Huck i s t r y i n g to convince Joanna t h a t he i s a genuine " v a l l e y " (not a common servant) from S h e f f i e l d (not London) where Uncle Harvey shares the p u l p i t w ith s i x t e e n other preachers. Joanna e a s i l y catches Huck i n one l i e a f t e r another u n t i l he i s f i n a l l y rescued by Mary Jane. In these scenes, Twain i s u s i n g Huck as a f o i l f o r people who dwell on the shore who are not o n l y v i r t u o u s , but q u i c k e r to p e r c e i v e a fake or a l i e than Huck i s . The k i n g and the duke serve another purpose, too. T h e i r q u i t e d i s g u s t i n g d e c e p t i o n of the Wilks g i r l s f i n a l l y i n s p i r e s Huck to betray them and t e l l the t r u t h to Mary Jane.' Up to t h i s p o i n t , Huck 1s sympathy has been p r e t t y much wit h o u t c a s t s l i k e h i m s e l f . Jim, of course, won h i s sympathy, as d i d the robbers on the Walter S c o t t . His encounter w i t h the robbers on the Walter S c o t t prompts Huck to observe, "There a i n ' t no t e l l i n g but I might come to be a.murderer myself, y e t " (p. 60). While we may f i n d t h a t hard to b e l i e v e , i t i s t r u e t h a t Huck sees h i m s e l f most of the time as a c r i m i n a l . He s u r v i v e s by l y i n g and s t e a l i n g , and he c o u l d grow up to be j u s t l i k e the duke. In f a c t , most of h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r the duke and the k i n g i s i n s p i r e d by t h e i r t a l e n t for d e c e p t i o n . Thus, i t i s q u i t e a turnaround f o r Huck, who has s t e a d f a s t l y allowed the duke and the k i n g to have t h e i r own way, to decide to b e t r a y t h e i r i d e n t i t y to Mary Jane. I suggest t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n r e p r e s e n t s a major step towards more c i v i l i z e d behaviour, and i t opens Huck's eyes to y e t another 42 good t h i n g a b o u t t h e s h o r e s o c i e t y : r o m a n t i c l o v e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t Huck i s i n f a t u a t e d w i t h Mary J a n e , and i n a way, she becomes t h e Be c k y T h a t c h e r o f H u c k 1 s book. Of c o u r s e Mary J a n e i s k i n d and h o s p i t a b l e t o Huck, and we know Huck r e s p o n d s q u i c k l y t o k i n d n e s s . B u t Huck seems r e a d y t o l o v e Mary J a n e W i l k s f r o m t h e moment he h e a r s h e r name. B e f o r e he meets h e r , he knows t h r e e t h i n g s a b o u t h e r : she has been r e c e n t l y o r p h a n e d , she i s n i n e t e e n and she has r e d h a i r . When he f i r s t s e e s h e r , he p i c k s h e r o u t o f t h e crowd and s a y s , "Mary J a n e was r e d - h e a d e d , b u t t h a t d o n ' t make no d i f f e r e n c e , she was most a w f u l b e a u t i f u l , and h e r f a c e and h e r e y e s was a l l l i t . up l i k e g l o r y " (p. 1 3 0 ) . E v e r y o n e a r o u n d h e r i s a " s a p h e a d " t o be t a k e n i n by t h e duke and t h e k i n g , b u t e v e n when Mary J a n e i s h a n d i n g o v e r t h e b a g o f g o l d t o them, she i s "handsome" i n H u c k 1 s e y e s ' ' (p. 1 3 5 ) . When Huck c a n n o t b e a r t o see Mary J a n e s o r r o w i n g o v e r t h e s a l e o f t h e n e g r o e s , he b l u r t s o u t t h a t t h e mother and two sons w i l l be r e u n i t e d a g a i n . The e x p e r i e n c e i s a n o v e l one f o r Huck and he t a k e s a m i n u t e t o " s t u d y i t o u t : " . . . I s a y s t o m y s e l f , I r e c k o n a body t h a t ups and t e l l s t h e t r u t h when he i s i n a t i g h t p l a c e , i s t a k i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e many r i s k s , t h o u g h I a i n ' t h a d no e x p e r -i e n c e , and c a n ' t s a y f o r c e r t a i n ; b u t i t l o o k s so t o me, anyway; and y e t h e r e ' s a c a s e where I'm b l e s t i f i t d o n ' t l o o k t o me l i k e t h e t r u t h i s b e t t e r , and a c t u a l l y s a f e r , t h a n a l i e . I must l a y i t by i n my mind, and t h i n k i t o v e r some t i m e o r o t h e r , i t ' s so k i n d o f s t r a n g e and u n r e g u l a r . I n e v e r see n o t h i n g l i k e i t . W e l l , I s a y s t o m y s e l f a t l a s t , I'm a g o i n g t o ch a n c e i t ; I'11 up and t e l l t h e t r u t h t h i s t i m e , t h o u g h i t does seem most l i k e s e t t i n g down on a k a g o f powder and t o u c h i n g i t o f f j u s t t o see where y o u ' l l go to., (p. 147). 43 And what happens to Huck when he s i t s on h i s "kag of powder" and touches i t o f f ? Huck w i l l never f o r g e t the scene t h a t f o l l o w s . He and Mary Jane agree to a p l a n t h a t w i l l get the two frauds j a i l e d and get Huck and Jim f r e e . (Neither Mary Jane nor the reader ever get to know the whole plan.) T h e i r p a r t i n g moves both of them to t e a r s and Huck concludes: . She had..the:'-grit to. pray, f o r Judas . . . there: .: weren't no backdown to her:,. . . She had more sand i n her than any g i r l I ever see . . . . And when i t comes to beauty--and goodness t o o — s h e l a y s over them a l l . . . . I h a i n ' t ever seen her s i n c e , but I reckon I've thought of her a many and a many a m i l l i o n times, and of her s a y i n g she would pray f o r me., (p.. 151) " -T e l l i n g the t r u t h i s n ' t so bad a f t e r a l l . L a t e r , as Huck f l e e s the graveyard and races p a s t the Wilks house, he says, V. . . when I begun to get towards our ( i t a l i c s mine) house I aimed my eye and s e t i t . No l i g h t t h e r e; the house a l l d a r k — w h i c h made me f e e l s o r r y and d i s a p p o i n t e d , I d i d n ' t know why. But a t l a s t , j u s t as I was s a i l i n g by, f l a s h comes the l i g h t i n Mary Jane's window! and my h e a r t s w e l l e d up sudden, l i k e to bust; and the same second the house and a l l was behind me i n the dark, and wasn't ever going to be b e f o r e me no more i n t h i s world. She was the b e s t g i r l I ever see, and had the most sand, (p. 160), One might p o i n t out t h a t Huck's response to Mary Jane i s y e t another example of h i s i n a b i l i t y t o be the sharp-eyed r e a l i s t . In t r u t h , h i s attachment to her i s q u i t e s e n t i m e n t a l , and a more p e r c e p t i v e Huck might have been l e s s b l i n d e d by Mary Jane:1.s good.'looks. A more p e r c e p t i v e Huck might have a p p r e c i a t e d the v i r t u e s of someone l i k e Joanna, f o r example. However, what I t h i n k i s more important here i s the s h i f t t h a t occurs i n Huck's sympathy as a r e s u l t of h i s attachment to Mary Jane. He has betrayed two outlaws t h a t he a d m i r e s and has r i s k e d h i s own neck t o s a v e t h r e e i n n o c e n t members o f s o c i e t y . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e t e r e v e r s a l f o r t h e boy who b a c k i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g had b e l o n g e d t o a gang o f o u t l a w s and had r a i d e d i n n o c e n t women and c h i l d r e n . A f t e r t h e W i l k s e p i s o d e , Huck i s much c l o s e r t o b e c o m i n g a c i v i l i z e d y oung man. IV. HUCK'S INVOLVEMENT WITH J I M B e f o r e I d i s c u s s t h e " e n d i n g " o f t h e n o v e l , I w o u l d l i k e t o examine more c l o s e l y Huck's r e s p o n s e t o J i m . More t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , i t i s Huck's i n v o l v e m e n t i n J i m ' s " q u e s t 45 f o r f r e e d o m " t h a t he xs most l o v e d and a d m i r e d f o r . Most c r i t i c s seem t o t h i n k t h a t Huck, m o t i v a t e d by h i s l o v e f o r J i m , i s an e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e " q u e s t . " I have a l r e a d y t r i e d t o show how h a l f - h e a r t e d J i m ' s e f f o r t s t o g e t f r e e a r e ; I w o u l d l i k e t o now d e m o n s t r a t e how r e l u c t a n t Huck i s t o h e l p J i m . , F i r s t , Huck becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h J i m w i t h o u t r e a l l y k n o wing what he i s g e t t i n g i n t o . When he a s k s J i m what he i s d o i n g on J a c k s o n ' s I s l a n d , J i m g e t s Huck t o swear n o t t o t e l l h i s s e c r e t b e f o r e Huck knows what t h a t s e c r e t i s . ". . . y o u w o u l d n ' t t e l l on me i f I 'uz t o t e l l y o u , w o u l d y o u , Huck?" "Blamed i f I w o u l d , J i m . " " W e l l , I b ' l i e v e y o u , Huck. I - I r u n o f f . " " J i m ! " "But m i nd, y o u s a i d y o u w o u l d n ' t t e l l — y o u know y o u s a i d y o u w o u l d n ' t t e l l , Huck." " W e l l , I d i d . I s a i d I w o u l d n ' t , and I ' l l s t i c k t o i t . H o n e s t i n j u n I w i l l . P e o p l e w o u l d c a l l me a low down A b o l i t i o n i s t and d e s p i s e me f o r k e e p i n g mum—but 45 t h a t d o n ' t make no d i f f e r e n c e . I a i n ' t a g o i n g t o t e l l , and I a i n ' t a g o i n g back t h e r e anyways... (pp. 3 8 - 3 9 ) . I t h i n k i t i s c l e a r t h a t Huck i s s h o c k e d by J i m ' s announcement t h a t he has r u n away. Huck i m m e d i a t e l y t h i n k s o u t l o u d what p e o p l e a r e g o i n g t o t h i n k o f him, b u t t h e n i t o c c u r s t o him t h a t e v e r y b o d y t h i n k s he's dead, and no one w i l l e v e r know what he has sworn t o do, anyway. The t i m e Huck and J i m s p e n d on J a c k s o n ' s I s l a n d t o -g e t h e r may seem E d e n i c a t f i r s t g l a n c e , as t h e y p a d d l e a r o u n d i n t h e c o o l and shady deep woods, p e t t i n g r a b b i t s . B u t Huck g e t s b o r e d v e r y q u i c k l y . Even p l a y i n g t r i c k s on J i m and n e a r l y g e t t i n g h i m k i l l e d d o e s n ' t p r o v i d e enough e x c i t e m e n t , and b e f o r e l o n g , Huck wants t o go b a c k t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g : N e x t m o r n i n g I s a i d i t was g e t t i n g s l o w and d u l l , and I w a n t e d t o g e t a s t i r r i n g up, someway. I s a i d I r e c k o n e d I w o u l d s l i p o v e r t h e r i v e r and f i n d o u t what was g o i n g on. (p. 47) 5 Huck wants t o f i n d o u t what p e o p l e t h i n k o f h i s h a v i n g been m u r d e r e d . T h i s becomes c l e a r i n h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h J u d i t h L o f t u s . Huck b e g i n s t o t h i n k he has made a m i s t a k e coming t o h e r f o r news u n t i l she b e g i n s t o t a l k a b o u t "pap and t h e murder" (p. 4 8 ) . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n Huck a s k s h e r i s , "Who done i t ? We've h e a r d c o n s i d e r a b l e a b o u t t h e s e g o i n g s on, down i n H o o k e r v i l l e , b u t we d o n ' t know who 'twas t h a t k i l l e d Huck F i n n " (p. 4 8 ) . Of c o u r s e , Huck has b e e n t h r o u g h t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g b e f o r e . When he and Tom Sawyer and J o e H a r p e r h a d r u n away i n The A d v e n t u r e s o f Tom Sawyer, t h e y a l l r e t u r n e d t o a t t e n d t h e i r own f u n e r a l s t o see what k i n d o f r e a c t i o n t h e town has h a d t o t h e i r d e a t h s . 46 B u t t h i s t i m e h i s c o n c e r n i s more s p e c i f i c ; he wants t o know who i s s u p p o s e d t o have k i l l e d him. He i s n o t s u r p r i s e d when he d i s c o v e r s Pap F i n n i s s u s p e c t e d , and he becomes v e r y un-e a s y when he f i n d s o u t t h a t J i m i s a l s o s u s p e c t e d and t h a t Mr. L o f t u s and a n o t h e r man a r e on t h e i r way t o J a c k s o n ' s I s l a n d t o l o o k f o r him. W i t h t h i s k n o w l e d g e , he r u s h e s b a c k t o t h e i s l a n d , l _ t e l l s J i m t o hump h i m s e l f b e c a u s e someone i s a f t e r them. The two o f them t a k e t o t h e r a f t , and t h e r i v e r j o u r n e y has begun. T h i s i s t h e moment t h a t Leo Marx, f o r example, t h i n k s i s so s p e c i a l : " T h e r e a i n ' t a m i n u t e t o l o s e . T h e y ' r e a f t e r u s ! " What p a r t i c u l a r l y c o u n t s h e r e i s t h e u s . No one i s a f t e r Huck; no one b u t J i m knows he i s a l i v e . I n t h a t s m a l l word Clemens c o m p r e s s e s t h e e x h i l a r a t i n g power o f Huck's i n s t i n c t i v e h u m a n i t y . H i s u n p r e m e d i t a t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h J i m ' s f l i g h t f r o m s l a v e r y i s an u n f o r g e t t a b l e moment i n A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e , and i t may be s a i d a t once t h a t any c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e j o u r n e y w h i c h d e t r a c t s f r o m t h e u r g e n c y and d i g n i t y w i t h w h i c h :.v. i t b e g i n s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 4 6 Marx i s , however, o v e r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r i v e r j o u r n e y . I t i s u r g e n t , b u t i t i s n o t d i g n i f i e d , n o r i s i t an e n c o m p a s s i n g o f t h e " e x h i l a r a t i n g power o f Huck's i n -s t i n c t i v e h u m a n i t y . " I n f a c t , Huck d e s c r i b e s what he i s d o i n g as "low-down," and l a t e r he w i l l s a y , "I h a d as good as h e l p e d J i m t o r u n away" (p. 73, i t a l i c s m i n e ) . G r a n t e d , Huck p r o -b a b l y d o e s n ' t want t o see J i m c a p t u r e d and s o l d down t h e r i v e r . B u t he d o e s n ' t have much c h o i c e anyway. I n Huck's mind, t h e r e i s someone a f t e r him: pap. I f Huck wants t o k e ep h i s e x i s -t e n c e a s e c r e t , he has t o r u n w i t h J i m . He c a n n o t d e s e r t J i m b e c a u s e i f J i m i s f o u n d , he w i l l t e l l e v e r y o n e t h a t Huck i s a l i v e ( i f he i s u n a b l e t o c o n v i n c e h i s c a p t o r s t h a t Huck i s a l i v e , he w i l l be hung f o r Huck's m u r d e r ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f Huck has t o be on t h e r u n , he m i g h t as w e l l h a v e J i m ' s company. Huck h a s n ' t y e t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t J i m has f e e l i n g s l i k e white, f o l k s , b u t he has r e c o g n i z e d t h a t J i m i s handy t o have a r o u n d : J i m knows " s i g n s " and k e e p s Huck i n o u t o f t h e r a i n . F i n a l l y , Huck has g i v e n h i s word t o J i m . He h a s n ' t sworn t o h e l p h i m g e t f r e e , b u t he has sworn n o t t o L t e l l — a n d t h a t o a t h has c r e a t e d a bond o f h o n o u r t h a t Huck r e s p e c t s . We h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n how i m p o r t a n t o a t h s a r e t o Huck. He i s i n o r d i n a t e l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e o a t h t h a t b i n d s Tom Sawyer's gang, f o r example, e v e n t h o u g h l i t t l e Tommy B a r n e s t h r e a t e n s t o b r e a k i t by t h e end o f t h e e v e n i n g . F o r Huck, o a t h s a r e a bond o f f r i e n d s h i p . F o r Huck, who i s so w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h l o n e l i n e s s , a n y t h i n g t h a t b i n d s him and o t h e r members o f a g r o u p t o be l o y a l t o e a c h o t h e r i s p r e c i o u s . I t i s b e c a u s e Huck f e e l s so s t r o n g l y a b o u t " k e e p i n g y o u r word" t h a t J i m i s a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e h i s f e e l i n g s so s u c c e s s f u l l y down by C a i r o . T h a t Huck i s n o t s e r i o u s a b o u t J i m ' s q u e s t f o r f r e e -dom becomes p l a i n when t h e y d r i f t down o n t o t h e W a l t e r S c o t t . Huck's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o b o a r d t h e wreck i n d i c a t e s t h a t now t h a t he i s f r e e o f t h e d a n g e r o f b e i n g r e c a p t u r e d by Pap F i n n , t h e r i v e r j o u r n e y i s j u s t a b o y ' s l a r k . S i d n e y K r a u s e comments t h a t Huck a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e s t o r y i s s t i l l , l i k e Tom Sawyer, e a g e r t o t u r n r e a l i t y i n t o " a d v e n t u r e s . " He p o i n t s o u t t h a t 48 "Huck's s t o r y i s one of a dev e l o p i n g s e n s i t i v i t y to human v a l u e s . The Walter S c o t t episode g i v e s us an i d e a of the 47 moral d i s t a n c e he had to t r a v e l i n t h a t development." F i r s t , i n s p i t e o f Jim's warning to " l e t blame' w e l l a l o ne," Huck i s determined to board the wreck and " s l i n k around" (p. 56), simply because he " f e l t j u s t the way any other boy would a f e l t " (p. 56, i t a l i c s mine) and because Tom Sawyer wouldn't go by t h a t wreck " f o r p i e " (p. 5 7). Next, when Huck d i s c o v e r s men on the wreck he again , with no thought f o r Jim's s a f e t y , does what he t h i n k s Tom Sawyer would do: he i n v e s t i -gates, endangering both h i s own l i f e and Jim's. He and Jim are almost trapped on the boat, but manage to escape i n the robbers' s k i f f . Next, he begins to worry about the three robbers trapped on the steamboat, and decides to go ashore a t the f i r s t l i g h t and " f i x up some k i n d of a yarn, and get somebody to go f o r t h a t gang and get them out of t h e i r scrape, so they can be hung when t h e i r time comes" (p. 60). Then, without t h i n k i n g what the three robbers might do to the innocent f e r r y boatman, Huck t r i c k s him i n t o going out to the wreck to t r y and save them. F o r t u n a t e l y f o r the f e r r y boatman, the wreck breaks loose b e f o r e he can get to i t and the three men.are drowned. Huck i s q u i t e nonchalant about haying j u s t caused the deaths of the three men. He comments, "I f e l t a l i t t l e b i t heavy-hearted about the gang, but not much, f o r I reckoned i f they c o u l d stand i t , I c o u l d " (p. 63). C l e a r l y , Huck i s not con-cerned about Jim's "quest," l e t alone h i s s a f e t y , and h i s behaviour i n t h i s scene suggests t h a t , m o r a l l y , Huck has not 49 l e f t Tom Sawyer's gang y e t . He i s p l a y i n g Tom Sawyer games not only w i t h h i s own l i f e , but with other peoples' l i v e s as w e l l . Huck f i n a l l y does begin to take Jim's quest s e r i o u s l y down by C a i r o . As they get c l o s e r t o C a i r o , Jim gets more and more e x c i t e d about being c l o s e r to freedom and suddenly Huck r e a l i z e s what he i s doing. I begun to get i t through my head t h a t he was most f r e e — a n d who was to blame f o r i t ? Why, me. I c o u l d n ' t get t h a t out of my conscience, no how nor no way. I t got to t r o u b l i n g me so I c o u l d n ' t r e s t ; I c o u l d n ' t stay s t i l l i n one p l a c e . I t hadn't ever come home to me b e f o r e , what t h i s t h i n g was t h a t I was doing. But now i t d i d ; and i t s t a i d with me, and scorched me more and more. (p. 7.3) . When Jim says he may even get an a b o l i t i o n i s t t o s t e a l h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n out of s l a v e r y , Huck says, " I t most f r o z e me to hear such t a l k " (p. 7 3 ) . T h i s i s the boy who had s a i d , back a t Jackson's I s l a n d , "People would c a l l me a low-down A b o l i t i o n i s t and d e s p i s e me f o r keeping mum— but t h a t don't make no d i f f e r e n c e " (p. 3 9 ) . Huck's r a t h e r sudden r e l u c t a n c e to h e l p Jim here i n d i c a t e s a number of t h i n g s about the r i v e r journey so f a r . I suggest t h a t Huck has been d r i f t i n g along with Jim, r e -l i e v e d to be out of pap's c l u t c h e s , and e n j o y i n g what i s to him an adventure. He has accepted keeping company with a runaway s l a v e , but u n t i l he approaches C a i r o , he hasn't had to d e a l with the f a c t t h a t he i s an accomplice i n h e l p i n g a s l a v e to get f r e e . F u r t h e r , there i s something t e r r i b l y f i n a l about l e a v i n g the M i s s o u r i R i v e r and going up the Ohio. Huck does not want to t o t a l l y d e s t r o y any chance t h a t he may 50 have of ever r e t u r n i n g to S t . Petersburg, and going up the Ohio would accomplish j u s t t h a t . T h i s i s why, when he de-c i d e s to t e l l on Jim, he says, " i t a i n ' t too l a t e , y e t " (p. 7 4 ) . As Kenneth Lynn p o i n t s out, "once Huck committed the ' s i n ' of h e l p i n g Jim to freedom he would p l a c e h i m s e l f f o r e v e r beyond the p a l e of heavenly S t . Petersburg; he would be c a r r y i n g h i s i r r e s o l u t e r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the Happy V a l l e y to the p o i n t of no r e t u r n ; he would be e l e c t i n g to become an o u t c a s t and a renegade. Huck paddles o f f , " a l l i n a sweat to t e l l , " when Jim reminds him of " h i s promise to o l e Jim," and c a l l s him a "white genlman." T h i s f i n a l appeal to Huck's i n t e g r i t y makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r Huck to t e l l on Jim: i t i s Jim he has given h i s word t o , i t i s Jim he must face, and i t i s Jim he decides to p r o t e c t . Huck's s o l u t i o n to h i s ddlemma a t C a i r o e s t a b l i s h e s the r e a l meaning of the r i v e r journey. The r i v e r journey i s not a "quest f o r freedom;" i t i s a temporary es-cape from s l a v e r y . Huck i s w i l l i n g to l i e to keep Jim out of the hands of s l a v e hunters, but he i s not w i l l i n g to go up the Ohio with him. Huck's r e l u c t a n c e to help Jim get f r e e shows through c l e a r l y r i g h t up to the end of the r i v e r journey. At the end of h i s stay a t the Grangerford's, Huck's se r v a n t takes him to see Jim. Huck i s q u i t e upset when he sees Jim a g a i n . E v e r y t h i n g had turned out so w e l l f o r him a t the Grangerford's, and suddenly he i s again faced with the o l d problem of what to do about Jim. When he asks him why he d i d n ' t get Jack to f e t c h him sooner, Huck means "Why d i d n ' t you get i n touch with me be f o r e I was adopted here? I t ' s too l a t e — y o u can't expect me t o help you now." Huck i s n ' t very e n t h u s i a s t i c when he says, "You mean to say our o l d r a f t warn 11 smashed a l l to f l i n d e r s ? " (p. 92). T h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n ends wi t h Huck's admission of h i s awareness of what a nasty business he i s i n v o l v e d i n . He agrees t h a t Jack was p r e t t y smart: "He a i n ' t ever t o l d me you was here; t o l d me to come, and he'd show me a l o t of water-moccasins. I f anything happens, he a i n ' t mixed up i n i t . He can.say he never seen'us together, and i t ' l l be the t r u t h " (p. 92). A f t e r they leave the Grangerford's, Huck e f f e c t i v e l y squashes any chance Jim has of ever going up the Ohio when he b r i n g s the k i n g and the duke aboard the canoe t h a t was supposed to take Jim to freedom. A f t e r Huck and Jim had r e a l i z e d t h a t they had missed C a i r o , they had planned to go back up r i v e r i n t h e i r canoe. However, while they were s l e e p i n g d u r i n g the 49 day, t h e i r canoe had mysterxously disappeared. They had continued f l o a t i n g down the r i v e r , supposedly l o o k i n g f o r a chance to buy another canoe. When Providence f i n a l l y d i d pro v i d e a canoe, however, n e i t h e r Huck nor Jim even t a l k e d about going back up r i v e r . Huck took the canoe and went b e r r y - p i c k i n g , as I have mentioned. We can only wonder what Huck i s t h i n k i n g o f when he l e t s the k i n g and-the duke come i n t o the canoe. His f i r s t impulse i s to f l e e , but he i s a f r a i d t h a t the two men are too c l o s e and w i l l c atch him. F u r t h e r , they beg him to save t h e i r l i v e s , and Huck sympathizes with these two men who are f u g i t i v e s l i k e h i m s e l f . Even so, he convinces them to "crowd through the brush and get up the c r i c k a l i t t l e ways" (p. 98), supposedly to throw the dogs o f f the s c e n t . As the k i n g and duke move o f f through the brush, away from Huck, Huck has a chance to escape, but he chooses not t o . Can he be wondering what w i l l happen to Jim's chances f o r f i n d i n g freedom i f he b r i n g s the two f u g i t i v e s on board? Whether he r e a l i z e s i t a t the time or not, when he decides to l e t the k i n g and duke i n the canoe, the f l i g h t from s l a v e r y , such as i t has been, i s ended. For most o f the remainder of the r i v e r journey, Huck i s content to go along with the two f r a u d s , having adventures on the shore, and l e a v i n g Jim alone on the r a f t , e i t h e r t i e d up a l l day or dressed l i k e a s i c k Arab, moaning about how h e ' l l never see h i s w i f e and f a m i l y again. Granted, when Huck f i n a l l y does t r y to get away from the duke and the k i n g , he plans h i s escape with Jim's pro-t e c t i o n i n mind. He e x p l a i n s to Mary Jane, " i f you was to blow on them t h i s town would get me out of t h e i r claws, and I'd be a l l r i g h t , but t h e r e ' d be another person t h a t you don't know about who'd be i n b i g t r o u b l e . W e l l , we got to save him, h a i n ' t we? Of course" (p. 148). Yet, Huck has been i g n o r i n g Jim f o r so long, t h a t he f o r g e t s completely Jim's b i z a r r e d i s g u i s e . When he j o i n s Jim on the r a f t and Jim comes toward him with arms open wide, Huck i s so s c a r e d he f a l l s overboard: 53 . . . when I glimpsed him i n the l i g h t n i n g , my h e a r t shot up i n my mouth, and I went overboard backwards; f o r I f o r g o t he was o l d King Lear and a drowned A-rab a l l i n one, and i t most scared the l i v e r s and l i g h t s out of me..(p. 161). T h i s time, Huck can't t e l l a fake Arab when he sees one. The r i v e r journey f i n a l l y comes to an end when the k i n g s e l l s Jim to S i l a s Phelps f o r f o r t y d o l l a r s . Much has been s a i d about Huck's s t r u g g l e with h i s conscience and h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n to t e a r up h i s l e t t e r to Miss Watson r e v e a l i n g Jim's whereabouts and "go to h e l l . " A l l readers agree t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n i s a r e a l v i c t o r y over the p r e v a i l i n g m o r a l i t y . But i n f a c t , i t i s not a v i c t o r y a t a l l . Huck s t i l l does not condemn or even q u e s t i o n the p r e v a i l i n g m o r a l i t y ; he s t i l l b e l i e v e s t h a t there i s nothing wrong with s l a v e r y . His d e c i s i o n to t e a r up the f a t e f u l l e t t e r i s prompted by p u r e l y s e l f i s h motives. We should n o t i c e f i r s t t h a t more than h a l f . o f the passage l e a d i n g to h i s d e c i s i o n i s r e a l l y a f u l l and f i n a l e x p r e s s i o n of h i s r e l u c t a n c e to help Jim. He f e e l s deeply ashamed of having a s s o c i a t e d with Jim: And then t h i n k of me! I t would get a l l around, t h a t Huck F i n n helped a n i g g e r to get h i s freedom; and i f I was to ever see anybody from t h a t town agai n , I'd be ready to get down and l i c k h i s boots f o r shame. That's j u s t the way: a person does a low-down t h i n g , and then he don't want to take no consequences of i t . (p. 166) ; He i s genuinely f e a r f u l of the "consequences" of h e l p i n g Jim; he says, "'people t h a t a c t s as I'd been a c t i n g about t h a t n i g g e r goes to e v e r l a s t i n g f i r e . ' I t made me s h i v e r " (p. 167). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t when he does w r i t e 54 the l e t t e r , he makes no mention of h i s c o m p l i c i t y i n Jim's f l i g h t down r i v e r : Miss Watson your runaway ni g g e r Jim i s down here two m i l e below P i k e s v i l l e and Mr. Phelps has got him and he w i l l g i v e him up f o r the reward i f you send. HUCK FINN (p. 167) What then, motivates Huck to t e a r up t h i s l e t t e r t h a t has made him f e e l so "washed c l e a n of s i n ? " Huck r a t i o n a l i z e s i t t h i s way: f i r s t , he can't remember anything to "harden" h i m s e l f a g a i n s t Jim. In glowing terms, he remembers only the " t a l k i n g , and s i n g i n g , and l a u g h i n g , " and "how good he always was" (p. 167). Second, he remembers sav i n g Jim from the s l a v e hunters a t C a i r o , and how Jim had been so g r a t e f u l , and had s a i d Huck was "the b e s t f r i e n d o l d Jim ever had i n the world, and the o n l y one he's got now" (p. 167). O s t e n s i b l y , Huck t e a r s up the l e t t e r because Jim i s a good man and Huck had g i v e n h i s word not to t e l l on Jim. At t h i s l e v e l , the d e c i s i o n i s based on sentiment and codes of honour. But there are, of course, much s t r o n g e r motives prompting Huck t h a t he does not put i n t o words. When he d i s c o v e r s t h a t Jim i s gone, Huck f e e l s deep f e a r and l o n e l i -ness . Jim was gone! I s e t up a s h o u t — a n d then a n o t h e r — a n then another one; and run t h i s way and t h a t i n the woods whooping and s c r e e c h i n g ; but i t warn't no u s e - - o l d Jim was gone. Then I s e t down and c r i e d ; I c o u l d n ' t h e l p i t . ( p . 165), Nowhere e l s e i n the book does Huck so completely l o s e h i s composure. Second, he f e e l s g u i l t y about Jim's r e c a p t u r e . 55 A f t e r a l l , i t was Huck who brought the k i n g and duke aboard, and he i s s h a t t e r e d by what they have done to Jim: A f t e r a l l t h i s long journey, and a f t e r a l l we'd done f o r them sc o u n d r e l s , here was i t a l l come to nothing, e v e r y t h i n g a l l busted up and r u i n e d , because they c o u l d have the h e a r t to serve Jim such a t r i c k as t h a t , and make him a s l a v e again a l l h i s l i f e , and amongst s t r a n g e r s , too, f o r f o r t y d i r t y d o l l a r s , (p. 166). Thus, working to f r e e Jim w i l l cure h i s l o n e l i n e s s and assuage h i s g u i l t — e m o t i o n s t h a t he f e e l s more s t r o n g l y than the shame connected with h e l p i n g to f r e e a s l a v e . F i n a l l y , Huck cannot send the l e t t e r t o Miss Watson because doing so would r e v e a l t h a t he was s t i l l a l i v e . (Huck does not y e t know what a "nonnamous l e t t e r " i s . ) W r i t i n g the l e t t e r would a l e r t pap of Huck's whereabouts and Huck would soon be back i n pap's c a b i n a g a i n . A f t e r a l l , Huck ran away o r i g i n a l l y to escape what he f e a r s more than anything e l s e -pap's b r u t a l i t y . Thus, Huck's d e c i s i o n to s t e a l Jim i s not r e a l l y h e r o i c a t a l l . He has no i n t e n t i o n of going back up r i v e r to the f r e e s t a t e s to seek permanent freedom. As he e x p l a i n s to Tom l a t e r , he p l a n s to "shove o f f down the r i v e r on the r a f t , w i t h Jim, h i d i n g daytimes and running n i g h t s , the way £hej and Jim used to do b e f o r e " (p. 181). V. THE GOINGS-ON AT THE PHELPS FARM C r i t i c s have been extremely d i s a p p o i n t e d with the ending of Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n . Leo Marx expressed the c r i t i c a l o b j e c t i o n s to the ending most f o r c i b l y : I b e l i e v e t h a t the ending of Huckleberry F i n n makes 56 so many readers uneasy because they r i g h t l y sense t h a t i t j e o p a r d i z e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the e n t i r e n o v e l . . . . The most s e r i o u s motive i n the n o v e l , Jim's y e a r n i n g f o r freedom, i s made the o b j e c t of nonsense. . . . Huck knows how he f e e l s about Jim, but he a l s o knows what he i s expected to do about Jim. This d i v -i s i o n w i t h i n h i s mind corresponds to the d i v i s i o n o f the novel's moral t e r r a i n i n t o the areas r e p r e s e n t e d by the r a f t on the one hand and s o c i e t y on the o t h e r . His v i c t o r y over h i s " y a l l e r dog" conscience t h e r e f o r e assumes h e r i o c s i z e : i t i s a v i c t o r y over the p r e v a i l i n g m o r a l i t y . But the l a s t f i f t h of the novel has the e f f e c t of d i m i n i s h i n g the importance and uniqueness of Huck's v i c t o r y . 5 ' Marx wrote h i s o b j e c t i o n s to the ending of Huck F i n n i n 1953. Many attempts to j u s t i f y the ending have been made s i n c e , but n e a r l y twenty years l a t e r , c r i t i c s l i k e Maxwell Geismar were s t i l l convinced t h a t the r e a l ending of the n o v e l comes when Huck decides to "go to h e l l " and s t e a l Jim out o f s l a v e r y . " ^ As I have t r i e d t o show, however, c r i t i c s who are d i s s a t i s f i e d with the ending of Adventures of Huckle-b e r r y F i n n have j u s t taken the r i v e r journey too s e r i o u s l y , and f a i l e d t o see the e s s e n t i a l f o o l i s h n e s s of Huck and Jim. Once we admit t h a t there i s a Tom Sawyer i n both Huck and Jim, we can see the ending i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . At the Phelps' farm, a l l romantic n o t i o n s about e s c a p i n g from the shore s o c i e t y are d i s p e l l e d . Huck r e c e i v e s h i s f i r s t shock when Tom Sawyer agrees to h e lp him s t e a l Jim. Huck shows up a t the Phelps' farm f i l l e d w ith a l e f t - h a n d e d k i n d of s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s : he i s determined to s t e a l Jim out of s l a v e r y and "anything worse" t h a t he can t h i n k up. He has convinced h i m s e l f t h a t he i s wicked, and i s g l o r y i n g i n i t : "as l ong as I was i n , and i n 57/ f o r good, I might as w e l l go the whole hog" (p. 168). When he t e l l s Tom t h a t he plans t o s t e a l Jim, he dramatizes h i m s e l f : I know what y o u ' l l say. Y o u ' l l say i t ' s d i r t y , low-down b u s i n e s s ; but what i f i t is?--I'm low-down; and I'm agoing to s t e a l him, and I want you to keep mum and not l e t on. (p. 176), When Tom agrees to h e l p Huck, Huck i s a s t o n i s h e d : W e l l , I l e t go a l l h o l t s then, l i k e I was shot. I t was the most a s t o n i s h i n g speech I ever h e a r d — a n d I'm bound to say Tom Sawyer f e l l , c o n s i d e r a b l e , i n my e s t i -mation. Only I c o u l d n ' t believe.'-it. Tom Sawyer a n i g g e r s t e a l e r . ( p . 176), Late i n the evening on the same day, Huck s t i l l can't b e l i e v e i t . Tom re a s s u r e s him and Huck i s f i n a l l y convinced, but he i s s t i l l stunned by the r e v e l a t i o n : W e l l , one t h i n g was dead sure; and t h a t was, t h a t Tom Sawyer was i n e a r n e s t and was a c t u a l l y going t o h e l p s t e a l t h a t nigger out of s l a v e r y . That was the t h i n g t h a t was too many f o r me. Here was a boy t h a t was r e s p e c t a b l e , and w e l l brung up; and had a c h a r a c t e r to l o s e ; and f o l k s a t home t h a t had c h a r a c t e r s ; and he was b r i g h t and not leather-headed; and knowing and not i g n o r a n t ; and not mean, but k i n d ; and y e t here he was, without any more p r i d e , or r i g h t n e s s , or f e e l i n g , than to stoop to t h i s b u s i n e s s , and make h i m s e l f a shame, and h i s f a m i l y a shame, be f o r e everybody. I c o u l d n ' t understand i t , no way a t a l l . I t was outrageous.(p. 182), We should not underestimate the tremendous impact Tom's d e c i s i o n has on Huck. I t has taken a summer-long elev e n hundred m i l e journey f o r Huck to e v e n t u a l l y make up h i s mind what to do about Jim. Much of the d i f f i c u l t y i n making the d e c i s i o n to s t e a l Jim stemmed from Huck's knowledge of what Tom Sawyer would have done: we know how o f t e n Huck asks him-s e l f what Tom Sawyer would do i n one s i t u a t i o n or another. Yet, here at l a s t i s Tom Sawyer, the epitome of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , 58 r e a c h i n g the same d e c i s i o n i n f i f t e e n seconds! The s e r i o u s -ness of Huck's moral s t r u g g l e i s badly undercut, and from t h i s p o i n t on, Huck i s very confused about what i s happening around him. Huck's c o n f u s i o n grows when he n o t i c e s how Jim i s behaving. Huck has developed a c e r t a i n r e s p e c t f o r Jim; a f t e r a l l , Jim had p o i n t e d out to Huck long ago t h a t people who p l a y t r i c k s on t h e i r f r i e n d s are j u s t t r a s h . Thus, when Tom begins to f a b r i c a t e n o n s e n s i c a l t h i n g s to do i n order to add g l o r y and honour to Jim's escape, Huck begins to p r o t e s t . "Good l a n d ! " I says; "why, there a i n ' t no n e c e s s i t y f o r i t . . . Why, Tom Sawyer, how you t a l k . (p. 187)^ J o u r n a l your granny--Jim can't write, (p. 188) .:. Confound i t , i t ' s f o o l i s h , Tom. (p. 189) , I don't give a dead r a t what the a u t h o r i t i e s t h i n k s about i t . . . -. (,p. 192) Huck's p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t sawed-off l e g s , rope l a d d e r s , j o u r n a l s , and case-knives reaches a climax the f i r s t n i g h t the three of them are together i n the c a b i n . Tom e x p l a i n s to Jim a l l the s i l l y t h i n g s he plans to do, i n c l u d i n g smuggling t h i n g s i n t o the c a b i n by Uncle S i l a s and Aunt S a l l y . Huck says, "Don't do not h i n g of the k i n d ; i t ' s one of the most j a c k a s s ideas I ever s t r u c k " (p. 193). But Jim i g n o r e s Huck's pro-t e s t s on h i s b e h a l f : Jim he c o u l d n ' t see no sense i n the most of i t , but he allowed we was white f o l k s and knowed b e t t e r than him; so he was s a t i s f i e d , and s a i d he would do i t a l l j u s t as Tom s a i d . ( p . 193) The negro t h a t Huck had humbled h i m s e l f to and sworn to go to h e l l f o r has l o s t h i s d i g n i t y and i s w i l l i n g to be the b u t t of a l l manner of pranks. Although Huck does not say t h a t he i s s u r p r i s e d or d i s a p p o i n t e d i n Jim's behaviour, a f t e r t h i s s e r v i l e d i s p l a y by Jim, he begins to j o i n i n the fun. The next morning, w h i l e Huck d i s t r a c t s Nat, Tom shoves a p i e c e of c a n d l e s t i c k i n t o the middle o f a corn-pone i n Jim's pan. Huck says, "we went along with Nat to see how i t would work, and i t j u s t worked noble; when Jim b i t i n t o i t i t most mashed a l l h i s t e e t h out; and there warn't ever anything c o u l d a worked b e t t e r . Tom s a i d so h i m s e l f " (p. 194). Although Huck doesn't r e a l l y understand what i s going on, he i s probably r e l i e v e d .to have Tom be i n charge o f s t e a l i n g Jim out of s l a v e r y . He r e p e a t e d l y a s s e r t s t h a t t h i n g s are a l l r i g h t , because Tom s a i d so. And although he grows t i r e d o f Tom's det e r m i n a t i o n to do e v e r y t h i n g a c c o r d i n g to some a u t h o r i t y t h a t Huck hasn't heard about, Huck s t i l l goes along with e v e r y t h i n g and even seems to enjoy h i m s e l f . The day of the "grand bulge," Huck seems q u i t e p l e a s e d w i t h the way t h i n g s are working out: We was f e e l i n g p r e t t y good, a f t e r b r e a k f a s t , and took my canoe and went over the r i v e r a f i s h i n g , w i t h a lunch, and had a good time, and had a look a t the r a f t and found her a l l r i g h t , and got home l a t e to supper, and found them i n such a sweat and worry they d i d n ' t know which end they was s t a n d i n g on, and made us go r i g h t o f f to bed the minute we was done supper . . . and as soon as we was h a l f u p s t a i r s and her back was turned, we s l i d f o r the c e l l a r cupboard and loaded up a good lunch.(p. 20 9) . The way Huck i s t a l k i n g here, he may as w e l l be on a p i c n i c . But suddenly;/ r e a l i t y crashes through; i n the p a r l o u r are f i f t e e n farmers, and every one of them has a gun. The events t h a t f o l l o w are h o r r i f y i n g f o r Huck. When Huck sees the farmers, he i s "most powerful s i c k ; " he r e a l i z e s t h a t "60 they have "overdone :.this t h i n g , " and gotten i n t o a "thundering hornet's nest" (p. 210). When Aunt S a l l y q u e s t i o n s him he says, "here was aunty pegging away a t the q u e s t i o n s , and me a shaking a l l over and ready to si n k down i n my t r a c k s I was t h a t s c a r e d " (p. 211). When he does r e j o i n Tom and Jim i n the c a b i n , the scene i s ni g h t m a r i s h , l i k e something from one of pap's d e l i r i u m tremens: But then we heard the tramp of men, coming to the door, and heard them begin to fumble with the padlock; and heard a man say, . . . "Here, I ' l l l o c k some of you i n t o the c a b i n and you l a y f o r 'em i n the dark and k i l l 'em when they come . . . " So i n they come, but co u l d n ' t see us i n the dark, and most t r o d on us w h i l s t we was h u s t l i n g to get under the bed. But we got under a l l r i g h t , and out through the h o l e , s w i f t and s o f t . . . Now we was i n the l e a n - t o , and heard trampings c l o s e by o u t s i d e . So we c r e p t to the door, . . . but co u l d n ' t make out noth^: i n g , i t was so dark . . . and the steps a s c r a p i n g around, out t h e r e , a l l the time; and a t l a s t he nudged us, and we s l i d out, and stooped down, not b r e a t h i n g , and not making the l e a s t n o i s e , and s l i p p e d s t e a l t h y towards the fence . . . Tom's b r i t c h e s catched f a s t . . . and made a noise . . . somebody s i n g s out . . . we d i d n ' t answer; we j u s t u n f u r l e d out h e e l s and shoved. Then there was a rush, and a bang, bang, bang! and the b u l l e t s f a i r l y whizzed around us! (pp. 211-213) The next day, while Tom l i e s on the r a f t out of h i s head wi t h f e v e r , Huck has to s i t around and l i s t e n t o Aunt S a l l y and her neighbours d i s c u s s the events df the n i g h t b e f o r e . He hears y e t another o p i n i o n o f Jim, and i n d i r e c t l y , of h i m s e l f and Tom. S i s t e r H o tchkiss t h i n k s t h a t Jim must have been c r a z y : "he's c r a z y , s ' l ; e v e r y t h i n g shows i t , s ' l . Look at t h a t - a i r g r i n d s t o n e , s ' l ; want to t e l l me't any c r e t u r 'ts i n h i s r i g h t mind's agoin' to s c r a b b l e a l l them c r a z y t h i n g s onto a g r i n d s t o n e , s ' l . . . n a t c h e r l son o'Louis somebody, 'n' s i c h e v e r l a s t ' n rubbage. He's plumb crazy . . ... (p. 215) Huck i s a l s o made aware of another r e a l i t y , the mental anguish t h a t Aunt S a l l y has been going through. Huck seems to have been e n j o y i n g her d i s t r e s s to t h i s p o i n t , but now he r e a l i z e s t h a t Aunt S a l l y was as w o r r i e d f o r her "two poor boys" as much as f o r h e r s e l f . She says: " F r a i d to l i v e 1—why I was t h a t s c a r e d I dasn't h a r d l y go to bed, or get up, or l a y down, or s e t down, S i s t e r Ridgeway. Why, they'd s t e a l the very—why, goodness sakes, you can guess what k i n d of a f l u s t e r I was i n by the time midnight come, l a s t n i g h t . I hope to g r a c i o u s i f I warn't a f r a i d they'd s t e a l some 'o' the f a m i l y ! (p. 217) Aunt S a l l y tucks him i n t o bed and mothers him "so good I he f e l t mean . . . and c o u l d n ' t look her i n the f a c e " (p. 218). She s e t down on the bed and t a l k e d with.me a long time, and s a i d what a s p l e n d i d boy S i d was, and d i d n ' t seem to want to ever stop t a l k i n g about him; and kept ask i n g me every now and then, i f I reckoned he c o u l d a got l o s t , or h u r t , or maybe drownded, and might be l a y i n g a t t h i s minute, somewheres, s u f f e r i n g or dead, and she not by him to help him, and so the t e a r s would d r i p down, s i l e n t , and I would t e l l her t h a t S i d was a l l r i g h t . . . and when she was going away, she looked down i n my eyes, so steady and g e n t l e , and says: "The door a i n ' t going to be l o c k e d , Tom; and t h e r e ' s the window and the rod; but y o u ' l l be good, won't you? And you won't go? For my sake? (p. 218) Once again, Huck must decide between two t h i n g s . He makes h i s mind up very q u i c k l y : Laws knows I wanted to go, bad enough, to see about Tom, and was a l l i n t e n d i n g to go; but a f t e r tha:t, I wouldn't a went, not f o r kingdoms.(p. 218) sorrow of Aunt S a l l y prove to be too much f o r Huck. He has F i n a l l y , t h a t n i g h t , Huck abandons Jim's cause. The h o r r i f y i n g events of the n i g h t b e f o r e and the d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t r y i n g to s t e a l a negro can get you k i l l e d , and he has a l s o r e a l i z e d how much p a i n Aunt S a l l y i s i n . When he sees her s i t t i n g up a l l n i g h t w i t h her "eyes towards the road and the t e a r s i n them," he concludes, "I wished I c o u l d do something f o r her, but I c o u l d n ' t o n l y to swear t h a t I wouldn't do nothing to g r i e v e her any more" (p. 218). E r i c Solomon comments t h a t Uncle S i l a s and Aunt S a l l y become the f a m i l y Huck has been l o o k i n g f o r through the n o v e l . We know t h a t the Phelps' farm i s p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the farm of John . . 52 Quarles, which Twain c a l l e d "a heavenly p l a c e f o r a boy." What more i n e v i t a b l e climax f o r a novel o f search f o r f a m i l y than t h i s r e c r e a t i o n of the p l a c e Twain r e c a l l e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the l y r i c joy of h i s g l o r i o u s c h i l d h o o d summers? To be sure, Huck spends one-fourth of M s adventure a t Phelps Farm. Rather than an a r t i s t i c flaw, the farm i s the proper o b j e c -t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e f o r the happy f a m i l y of Huck's dreams.5 3 One l a s t word needs to be s a i d about the way Huck ends h i s s t o r y : I reckon I got to l i g h t out f o r the T e r r i t o r y ahead of the r e s t , because Aunt S a l l y she's going to adopt me and c i v i l i z e me and I can't stand i t . I been there before, (p. 226) We must r e s i s t here being taken i n by Huck's l a s t brag. R e a l l y , i t i s Tom and Jim t h a t he i s d i s a p p o i n t e d i n . He has j u s t d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s two b e s t f r i e n d s have been l y i n g to him and p l a y i n g him f o r a f o o l a l l along. Tom has kept Jim's 54 freedom a s e c r e t , and Jim has kept pap's death a s e c r e t . We know, too, t h a t i f Huck l i g h t s out f o r the T e r r i t o r y , i t would " g r i e v e " Aunt S a l l y , and Huck has a l r e a d y sworn not t o g r i e v e her any more. Besides, Huck a l r e a d y is_ c i v i l i z e d , so he should 63 have an easy time of i t , now. And s i n c e there i s n ' t a Pap F i n n around anymore to snatch him away, I t h i n k Huck w i l l d e cide to sta y , i f only f o r Aunt S a l l y ' s good cooking. A f t e r a l l , Huck began h i s s t o r y w i t h the warning, "I never seen anybody but l i e d , one time or another." VI. CONCLUSION In my attempt to view Huck and Jim r e a l i s t i c a l l y , I have v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d the very s h o r t but very s p e c i a l time t h a t Huck and Jim spend alone together on the r a f t . The p a r t s of the r i v e r journey t h a t i n c l u d e Jim's rebuke of Huck and the two or three days and n i g h t s t h a t "swum by" a f t e r the Granger-ford-Shepherdson feud are indeed, " l o v e l y . " Jim and Huck do g a i n t h e i r freedom, however b r i e f l y ; f o r a s h o r t time, they say and do what they want. T h e i r experiences on the r a f t — s l i p p i n g away from v i o l e n c e and sham., i n t o darkness, s i l e n c e and communion—represent an i d e a l t h a t I am sure a l l North Americans who read the book wish to a t t a i n . However, Mark Twain does not allow Huck and J i m — o r the r e a d e r — t o stay on the r a f t , and h e r e i n l i e s the d i s ? appointment t h a t readers f e e l when Tom Sawyer makes h i s appearance a t the Phelps' farm. (They should begin to f e e l i t when the k i n g and the duke come aboard.) Indeed, i t i s the beauty of the r a f t passages t h a t makes t h i s d i s a p p o i n t -ment so wrenching. However, as I have suggested, Mark Twain was w r i t i n g a book not about escape from s o c i e t y , but about r e t u r n to 64 s o c i e t y . Huck's experiences are c i v i l i z i n g ones; a t the end of t h i s s t o r y he i s no longer the "romantic o u t c a s t " t h a t he was i n The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. And i f we do see Huck's d e c i s i o n to go to h e l l f o r Jim as h e r o i c or h i g h l y moral, we must confess too t h a t t h i s i d e a l s t a t e o f m o r a l i t y i s impo s s i b l e to m a i n t a i n . As Mi c h a e l J . Hoffman p o i n t s out, Huck's f a l l i n g o f f from t h i s step o f almost t r a n s -cendent goodness i s not Twain's f a i l u r e o f v i s i o n , but h i s f u r t h e r f e e l i n g t h a t the f o r c e s of s o c i e t y are stro n g e r than the i n d i v i d u a l ' s w i l l or a b i l i t y to maintain a constant naked c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the world. . . . i t i s important t h a t Twain both begins the novel w i t h i n s o c i e t y and ends by r e t u r n i n g to i t . The middle s e c t i o n i s the most a t t r a c t i v e because, at l e a s t i n p a r t , i t i s the most s e d u c t i v e . In i t , Twain can p o i n t out a l l the i l l s of s o c i e t y i n a s e r i e s of episodes and can show how a t t r a c t i v e l i f e i s when l i v e d o u t s i d e i t . And y e t , he knows t h a t escape i s only temporary, t h a t sooner or 'l a t e r one must r e t u r n and make h i s peace with the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r . 5 5 65 FOOTNOTES "'"Leo Marx, "Mr. E l i o t , Mr. T r i l l i n g , and Huckle-Berry F i n n , " American S c h o l a r , XXII (Autumn, 1953), p. 431. 2 Henry Nash Smith, "Mark Twain's Images of H a n n i b a l : From S t . Petersburg to E s e l d o r f , " Texas S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , XXXVII (1958), p. 15. 3 Samuel Clemens, Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1961), p. 95. A l l subsequent page r e f e r e n c e s t o Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n my t e x t . 4 Herman M e l v i l l e , Moby Dick ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : The Bobbs-M e r r i l l Company, 1964), p. 533. 5 Samuel Clemens, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1906), pp. 70-71 ( i t a l i c s mine). A l b e r t Bigelow Paine, Mark Twain, A Biography (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1912), V o l . I I , p. 798. 7 Van Wyck Brooks, The Ordeal of Mark Twain (New York: E. P. Dutton and Co. Inc., 1920), pp. 195-196. g Bernard De Voto, Mark Twain's America (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1932), p. 320. 9 Edgar Branch, L i t e r a r y A p p r e n t i c e s h i p of Mark Twain (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1950), pp. 200, 205-206. 1 0 L i o n e l T r i l l i n g , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " The Adventures  of Huckleberry' F i n n - (New York: H o l t ,__Rinehart and WinstonyxA S 1948)-.,, pp. v i , i x , x i . «T--?? 1 1 T . S. E l i o t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " The Adventures of  Huckleberry F i n n (London: The C r e s s e t Press, 19 50), p. xv. 12 Marx, p. 425,, 13 Henry Nash Smith, Mark Twain: The Development of a  W r i t e r (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962), pp. 122-123., 66 14 W i l l i a m Van O'Connor, "Why Huckleberry F i n n i s Not the Great American Novel," C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , XVII (October 1955), p. 8. 15 G i l b e r t Rubenstein, "The Moral S t r u c t u r e of Huckle- b e r r y F i n n , " C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , XVIII (Nov. 1956), pp. 72, 74, 76. l ft Samuel Clemens, Mark Twain's Autobiography (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1924), V o l . I I , p. 174. 17 Samuel Clemens, L i f e on the M i s s i s s i p p i (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1906), p. 119. 1 8 Q u o t e d i n Walter B l a i r , Mark Twain and HUCK FINN (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1962), p. 25. 1 9 Quoted i n B l a i r , p. 24. 20 Quoted i n B l a i r , p. 83. 21 Clemens, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, p. 324. 2 2 . Quoted i n B l a i r , p. 89. 2 3 B r o o k s , p. 194. ^ B l a i r , p. 29. 2 5 B l a i r , pp. 29-30. 2 6 Clemens, L i f e on the M i s s i s s i p p i , p. 83. 2 7 Quoted i n B l a i r , p. 38. 2 8 Samuel Clemens, The Innocents Abroad (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1906), V o l . I, p. 45. 29 Clemens, The Innocents Abroad, V o l . I, pp. 340, 341. 343. 67 30 C r i t i c s have been p a r t l y m i s l e d too, by Twain's d e s c r i p t i o n of Jim. In h i s autobiography he claimed t h a t "Uncle Dan'l" was a model f o r Jim and d e s c r i b e d "Uncle Dan'l" as "a f a i t h f u l and a f f e c t i o n a t e good f r i e n d , a l l y , and a d v i s e r . . . whose head was the b e s t one i n the negro q u a r t e r , whose sympathies were wide and warm, and whose h e a r t was honest and simple and knew no g u i l e . " — f r o m Mark Twain's Autobiography, VoJ. I, p. 100. 31 Branch, p. 20 5. 32 Dixon Wecter, Sam Clemens of Hannibal (Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n , 1952), p. 106. 33 Kenneth Lynn, Mark Twain and Southwestern Humour (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1959), p. 242. 34 T r i l l i n g , p. x i . 35 Chadwick. Hansen, "The Character of Jim and the Ending o f , H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n , " Massachusetts Review, V (Aut., ±y63), pp] 59-60. 3 6 A c t u a l l y Jim r e s i s t s Tom somewhat. He t e l l s him t h a t i f he b r i n g s a r a t t l e s n a k e i n t o the c a b i n f o r him to tame, h e ' l l leave f o r sure (p. 203). A l s o , he "found so much f a u l t . . . w i t h the work and bother" of being a p r i s o n e r , t h a t Tom "most l o s t a l l p a t i e n c e w i t h him," 37 Smith, Mark Twain: The Development of a W r i t e r , p. 123. 3 8 Thomas Ar t h u r G u l l a s o n , "The ' F a t a l ' Ending of Huckleberry F i n n , " American L i t e r a t u r e , XXIX (March, 1957), p. 91. 39 T r i l l i n g , p. i x . 40 Clemens, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, p. 318. I b e l i e v e I am j u s t i f i e d i n q u o t i n g h e a v i l y from Tom Sawyer. Huck begins h i s own s t o r y with the statement, "You don't know about me, without you have read a book by the name of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" (p. 7). 41 Clemens, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, p. 320. 68 42 Clemens, The-Adventures of Tom Sawyer, p. 325. 43 There are two groups of c h a r a c t e r s i n the s t o r y , those who l i v e w i t h i n s o c i e t y , and those who l i v e w i thout. In a s t o r y t h a t i s supposedly an e x p r e s s i o n of g e n e r a l r e v o l t a g a i n s t s o c i e t y , we might expect a more k i n d l y t r e a t -ment of those i n the second group. But the r e v e r s e i s t r u e . A l l the o u t c a s t s and outlaws meet v i o l e n t ends: Pap F i n n and Boggs are shot t o death; the t h i e v e s on the Walter S c o t t drown; and the k i n g and the duke are t a r r e d and f e a t h e r e d and r i d d e n out of town on a r a i l . < 44 Clemens, L i f e on the M i s s i s s i p p i , p. 31. 45 These are Leo Marx's words. 46 Leo Marx, p. 42 6. 4 7 Sydney J . Krause, "Twain and S c o t t : Experience v e r -sus Adventures," Modern P h i l o l o g y , LXII (February 1965), p. 236 4 8 Kenneth Lynn, p. 218. 49 One wonders i f Huck was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s -appearance of the canoe. I t c o u l d o n l y have disappeared because someone hadn't p r o p e r l y secured i t to the r a f t . 5 0 L e o Marx, pp. 425, 428, and 436. 51 . . Maxwell Geismar, Mark Twain: An American Prophet (Boston: Houghton M i f f l e n Co., 1970), p. 102. 52 Clemens, Autobiography, V o l . 1 , p. 96. 5 3 E r i c Solomon, "Huckleberry F i n n Once More," C o l l e g e  E n g l i s h , XXII (December, 1960), p. 176. 54 Tom and Jim make q u i t e a p a i r . Tom runs around showing o f f h i s b u l l e t which he c a r r i e s around h i s neck on a watch-guard. Jim, o f course, c a r r i e s the f i v e - c e n t p i e c e around h i s neck which the " d e v i l " h i m s e l f gave to him. 55 M i c h a e l J . Hoffman, "Huck's I r o n i c C i r c l e , " Georgia  Review,XXIII ( F a l l , 1969), pp. 316, 321. 69 SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES Adams, Ri c h a r d P. "The Uni t y and Coherence of Huckleberry  F i n n . " T-ulane S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , VI (1956), pp. 87-103. Baldanza, Frank. "The S t r u c t u r e of Huckleberry F i n n . " "American L i t e r a t u r e , XXVII (November 19 55), pp. 347-355. Bellamy, Gladys Carmen. 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